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Full text of "International aspects of oceanography; oceanographic data and provisions for oceanographic research"

Given in Loving Mennory of 

Raymond BraisUn Montgomery 

Scientist, R/V Atlantis maiden voyage 
2 July - 26 August, 1931 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

Physical Oceanographer 

1940-1949 

Non-Resident Statf 

1950-1960 

Visiting Committee 

1962-1963 

Corporation Member 

1970-1980 

Faculty, New York University 

1940-1944 

Faculty, Brown University 

1949-1954 

Faculty, Johns Hopkins University 

1954-1961 

Professor of Oceanography, 

Johns Hopkins University 

1961-1975 



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Data Library & Archive 
Woods Hoie Oceanographic Institution 



Atlas Collection 






INTERNATIONAL 

ASPECTS OF 
OCEANOGRAPHY 

OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA 

and 

PROVISIONS FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 

By 

THOMAS WAYLAND VAUGHAN 

AND 

OTHERS 



NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Washington, D. C. 

1937 



Data Library & Archive 
Woods Koie Ocean n graphic »n3titutfon 

Atlas Collection 



TO THE MEMORY OF 

WICLIFFE ROSE 

IN RECOGNITION OF HIS INTEREST IN OCEANOGRAPHY 
AND HIS INFLUENCE IN ITS ADVANCEMENT 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Preface vii 

Acknowledgments xi 

Introduction xiii 

Serial sections of temperature and salinity in the dififerent ocean basins 1 

General discussion 3 

Atlantic Ocean and connecting seas 7 

Oceanographic data, vertical sections of temperature and salinity for the Norwegian Sea, 

the Polar Sea, and adjacent areas. By Harald U. Sverdrup and B. Helland-Hansen . . 7 

Sources of data, the Norwegian Sea 9 

Sources of data, the Sea east of Spitsbergen, Murman Sea, Barents Sea, et cetera 10 

Sources of data, the Kara Sea, the Siberian Sea, et cetera 11 

Sources of data, the Arctic area in general 11 

Sources of data, Baltic Sea 11 

Atlantic Ocean: Horizontal distribution of temperature, salinity, and density at standard 

depths. By Georg Wiist 12 

The source material 12 

Temperature 13 

Salinity and density 14 

List of sources of data 15 

Serial sections of temperature and saUnity in the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas 19 

Mediterranean Sea 19 

Sources of data 19 

Adriatic Sea 20 

Sources of data 20 

Literature especially on the periodic cruises by the Austrians on the Najade and 

the ItaUans on the Ciclope 20 

Serial sections of temperature and salinity in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea 21 

Pacific Ocean 22 

Serial sections of temperature and saUnity 22 

Sources of data for the north Pacific Ocean. Listed by A. Defant 23 

Sources of data for the south Pacific Ocean. Listed by A. Defant 24 

Supplemental sources of data on the Pacific Ocean 25 

Red Sea and Indian Ocean 27 

Red Sea, serial sections of temperature and sahnity 27 

Sources of data 27 

Indian Ocean, serial sections of temperature and salinity 27 

Sources of data for the Indian Ocean. After A. Defant 28 

Supplemental sources of data for the Indian Ocean 29 

Charting the Bottom of the Oceans 31 

Sounded and unsounded areas 33 

Marine bottom deposits 35 

Submarine earthquake epicenters, magnetic observations at sea, tidal records 39 

The structure of the ocean basins as indicated by seismological data and earthquake epicenters. 

By Beno Gutenberg 41 

The structure of oceanic basins as indicated by seismological data 41 

Earthquake epicenters in oceanic regions and along continental borders 44 

iii 



iv CONTENTS 

List of the seismological stations of the world. By N. H. Heck 46 

Magnetic survey of the oceans. By John A. Fleming 50 

Tides. By H. A. Maimer 57 

Results of maritime gravity research, 1923-1932. By F. A. Vening Meinesz 59 

General statement 61 

The gravity results in the Netherlands East Indies and adjoining areas 62 

The gravity results in the West Indies and adjoining regions 65 

Supplemental statement 67 

Catalogue of institutions engaged in oceanographic work 71 

General discussion 73 

Previous catalogues 73 

Methods of procuring information and dates of its validity 73 

Oceanographic research outside oceanographic institutions 74 

Activities by countries 74 

Funds available for oceanographic research 76 

Analysis of the activities of the institutions according to subject 77 

Seismology 77 

Hydrographic surveys 77 

Tidal records and research 77 

Records of temperature and salinity 77 

Physics 77 

Chemistry 77 

Dynamical oceanography 77 

Sediments 77 

Meteorology 77 

Gravity at sea 77 

Terrestrial magnetism 78 

Fisheries 78 

Marine biology 78 

Instruction in oceanography 78 

List of institutions engaged in oceanographic work and their activities 80 

International institutions 89 

Institutions, east side of the Atlantic and connecting seas 104 

Algeria to France, inclusive 104 

Germany to Monaco, inclusive 124 

Netherlands to Yugoslavia, inclusive 137 

U.S.S.R., western part 155 

Institutions, west .side of the Atlantic Ocean 164 

British dominions 164 

United States 168 

Eastern South America 188 

Institutions, east side of the Pacific Ocean 191 

Canada 191 

United States 192 

Chile, Ecuador, Peru 199 

Institutions, west side of the Pacific Ocean 201 

Australia to Japan, inclusive 201 

Java to Straits Settlements, inclusive 214 

Institutions on the Red Sea and in India 219 

Egypt 219 

India 221 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATES 

PLATE PAGE 

1. Norwegian Sea, observation of temperature and salinity at 500 meters 11 

2. Norwegian Sea, observations of temperature and salinity at 1000 meters 11 

3. Norwegian Sea, observations of temperature and salinity at 2000 meters 11 

4. Atlantic Ocean, temperature, salinity, and density at standard depths, depths 200-1000 meters. . . 

5. Atlantic Ocean, temperature, salinity, and density at standard depths, depths 1250-2000 meters. . 

6. Atlantic Ocean, temperature, salinity, and density at standard depths, depths 2500-4000 meters. . . 18 

7. Atlantic Ocean, temperature, salinity, and density at standard depths, depths 4500-5000 meters. . . 

8. Stations occupied by Discovery II in the South Atlantic and South Pacific, 1933-1935 

9. Mediterranean Sea, serial sections of temperature and salinity 20 

10. Adriatic Sea, serial sections of temperature and salinity 20 

1 1 . Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, serial sections of temperature and salinity 21 

12. Pacific Ocean, general chart, serial sections of temperature and salinity 26 

13. Japanese Islands to East Indies, serial sections of temperature and salinity 26 

14. A. Oceanic areas adjacent to the Aleutian Islands, serial sections of temperature and salinity. ... 26 
B. Gulf of Alaska to San Francisco, serial sections of temperature and salinitj^ 26 

15. Off coast of southern California, serial sections of temperature and salinity 26 

16. Off coasts of Costa Rica, Panama, and northern South America, serial sections of temperature 

and salinity 26 

17. Red Sea. serial sections of temperature and salinity 27 

18. Indian Ocean, general chart, serial sections of temperature and salinity 28 

19. Atlantic Ocean, northern part, sounded and unsounded areas 34 

20. Atlantic Ocean, southern part, sounded and unsounded areas 34 

21. Pacific Ocean, northern part, sounded and unsounded areas 34 

22. Pacific Ocean, southern part, sounded and unsounded areas 34 

23. Indian Ocean, sounded and unsounded areas 34 

24. Atlantic Ocean, earthquake epicenters 44 

25. Pacific Ocean, earthquake epicenters 44 

26. Indian Ocean, earthquake epicenters 44 

27. Seismological stations of the world 48 

28. Tracks of chief vessels on which magnetic observations were made in the Atlantic Ocean, 1839- 

1916 56 

29. Tracks of chief vessels on which magnetic observations were made in the Pacific Ocean, 1839- 

1916 56 

30. World magnetic and electric survey. Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution 

of Washington, 1905-1937 56 

31. Tidal stations, Atlantic and Indian oceans and connecting waters 58 

32. Tidal stations, Pacific Ocean and connecting waters 58 

33. Gravimetric map of the East Indian Archipelago 66 

34. A. Gravimetric survey of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea on U. S. Naval submarines 

S-21 and S-48 66 

B. Route around the world of the Dutch submarine K-XIII and the gravimetric stations oc- 
cupied 66 

35. Gravity surveys by the Japanese Geodetic Commission since 1932 70 

36. The gravity-expedition of Hr. Ms. .submarine 016 in the north Atlantic, January 11-March 16, 

1937 70 



vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

TEXT-FIGURES 

FIGURE 

1. Key chart to show the positions of five special charts, plates 13, 14A, 14B, 15, 16, of areas in the 

Pacific 25 

2. Distribution of larger deep-focus earthquakes in recent years 43 

3. Tracks of chief vessels on which magnetic observations were made in the Indian Ocean, 1839- 

1916 51 

4. Longitudinal distribution of proportion of amiual change (AH/H) of horizontal intensity 52 

5. Latitudinal distribution of proportion of annual change {AH/H) of horizontal intensity 52 

6. Variation with longitude of AH/H (animal change averaged without regard to sign), of the dis- 

tribution of the proportion of land and water areas, and of secular-change activity approxi- 
mately determined by the density of the distribution of isoporic lines 53 

7. Distribution of foci of rapid annual change of the magnetic declination, inclination, and horizontal 

intensity, approximate epoch 1920-1925 54 

8. Showing oceanic areas (shaded) between parallels of 60° north and south latitude for which secular 

variation of magnetic elements could not be controlled by land stations on continents and 

islands 55 

9. Navy-Geophysical Union Gravity Expedition 1936-37 67 

10. Chart showing the gravimetric stations occupied by the Italian submarine Vettor Pisani 68 



PREFACE 

On April 27, 1927, the National Academy of Sciences adopted a resolution which 
read as follows: 

THAT, "The President of the Academy be requested to appoint a Com- 
mittee on Oceanography from the sections of the Academy concerned to 
consider the share of the United States of America in a world wide program 
of oceanographic research and report to the Academy." 

The President of the Academy, at that time Prof. A. A. Michelsen, accordingly 
appointed Messrs. Wm. Bowie, E. G. Conklin, B. M. Duggar, John C. Merriam, T. Way- 
land Vaughan, and Frank R. Lilhe (Chairman), as members of the Committee. Dr. 
Henry B. Bigelow, Curator of Oceanography in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University, was engaged as Secretary. Subsequently the Committee's member- 
ship was augmented by the appointment of Messrs. Bigelow and Arthur L. Day. When 
Doctor LUlie became President of the Academy on July 1, 1935, Doctor Bigelow suc- 
ceeded him as Chairman of the Committee. 

Working in conjunction with the members of the Committee and after conferences 
with numerous persons and visits to oceanographic institutions, Doctor Bigelow prepared 
a report entitled "Oceanography, its scope, problems, and economic importance," which 
was pubhshed in 1931. 

As a result of the efforts of the Committee the Rockefeller Foundation provided 
funds for the establishment of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Associated 
with the establishment of that Institution an effort was made to expand and stabilize the 
Bermuda Biological Station for Research. To this project the Rockefeller Foundation 
contributed £50,000, on the understanding that the Bermuda Government would con- 
tribute £5,500 and other benefits and in the expectation that the Bermuda Station would 
serve as an oceanic station of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Further 
information on this station is given in the last section of this report "Catalogue of institu- 
tions engaged in oceanographic work." 

Besides the funds for oceanographic research above mentioned, the Rockefeller 
Foundation made a liberal contribution to the University of Washington for the erection 
of a laboratory buUding for oceanographic research and for the operation or purchase of 
an oceanographic research boat. This led to the establishment of the oceanographic 
laboratories of the University of Washington. Further information on these laboratories 
is given in the catalogue of oceanographic institutions. 

In addition to the contributions above indicated, the Rockefeller Foundation allotted 
$40,000 to assist in the erection of a second laboratory building, named Ritter Hall, on 
the grounds of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Cahfornia, La 
Jolla, California. It was expected that further development would be taken care of by 
the University of California in conjunction with the Scripps family. The execution of 
the plan was interrupted by the great depression, but subsequently it has been put into 



viii PREFACE 

effect. A brief history of the Scripps Institution is given in the catalogue of oceanographic 
institutions. 

Although the development of the Bingham Oceanographic Foundation at Yale was 
independent of the activities of the National Academy Committee on Oceanography, 
it should be mentioned in this connection because of the extensive cooperation between 
it and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The Atlantis of the Woods Hole 
Institution has served as the research vessel for both the Woods Hole Institution and the 
Bingham Oceanographic Foundation. A succinct account of the Bingham Oceanographic 
Foundation is included in the catalogue of oceanographic institutions. 

In the hope that the United States Navy might find it feasible to extend its activities 
in oceanographic investigations, the members of the National Academy Committee on 
Oceanography called on the Secretary of the Navy, at that time the Honorable Charles 
Francis Adams. The conference led to the appointment of a Naval Committee on Ocean- 
ography under the chairmanship of Rear Admiral Frank H. Schofield, now retired. This 
Committee made several recommendations, one of which was that Naval vessels equipped 
with sonic-sounding apparatus should, when feasible, follow routes which would carry 
them over oceanic areas for which information on oceanic depths was inadequate. This 
recommendation was adopted and it has led to probably the most extensive systematic 
program of sounding for bottom configuration undertaken by any country. Since about 
1928 most of the north Pacific north of a line from the California coast to the Hawaiian 
Islands and thence to the Philippines has been covered by a series of closely spaced lines 
from east to west and these lines have been crossed by other lines, north to south between 
the Aleutian and the Hawaiian Islands and toward the northeast from the Hawaiian 
Islands to Puget Sound. United States Naval vessels have also run many other lines of 
soundings. In addition to the soundings, the Navy Department has endeavored to 
assist investigations in many other fields, so that it has now become one of the world's 
major agencies in oceanographic research. Serial sections for subsurface temperatures 
and salinities, the plotting of sea surface temperatures and surface drift, and the utiliza- 
tion of submarines for the determination of gravity at sea are noteworthy. 

The Committee also took up oceanographic investigations with the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey and the United States Coast Guard. Information on these 
and other governmental institutions will be found in the catalogue of oceanographic 
institutions to which reference has already been made. 

Notwithstanding the activities above enumerated, it seemed to the members of the 
Committee that the purpose of the original resolution of the Committee "to consider the 
share of the United States of America in a world wide program of oceanographic research," 
had not been completely covered. Oceanography is necessarily a subject of world wide 
extent. The oceans form about seventy per cent of the surface of the earth and their 
margins are touched by most of the countries of the world. Rising from the ocean floors 
there are multitudes of islands, some of them large, tens or even hundreds of thousands of 
square miles in area, and they are under the jurisdiction of many nations. It is obvious 
that any comprehensive systematic investigation of the oceans must be in large measure 
an international enterprise. Recognizing these facts the Committee decided to attempt 
the preparation of a digest of the oceanographic data available for the different ocean 
basins and to compile a catalogue of the various institutions in the world engaged in anv 
kind of oceanographic work. 



PREFACE ix 

The scope and general arrangement of the present report was decided upon at various 
meetings of the Committee on Oceanography. As regards oceanographic information 
on the different ocean basins, the purpose was to present in succinct form the degree of 
exploration of as nearly all the areas of the oceans as is possible. The topics covered by 
the report need not be listed here, but as an illustration of what was intended the chart 
showing the available data on subsurface salinities and temperatures in the Indian Ocean 
may be taken. It is immediately obvious that there are no records in an area between 
10° and 30° south latitude and between 70° and 90° east longitude. That is, there is here 
an area twenty degrees of latitude on one side and twenty degrees of longitude on the other 
side for which there is not a single vertical section for subsurface temperatures and salini- 
ties. There are in the Indian Ocean other areas ten degrees of latitude and ten degrees 
of longitude on a side within which no observations have been made. The report was 
intended to bring out in this way those areas in the different oceans on which there is no 
information. It should, therefore, serve as a guide for oceanographic research on many 
important oceanographic problems, especially those that deal with the geophysical aspects 
of oceanography. 

The catalogue of oceanographic institutions was intended to show for each country 
the provisions in it for oceanographic research and the scope of its oceanographic activi- 
ties. In this way just what was being done in each country would be made obvious, and 
those countries, in which the provisions are inadequate, should they desire to do so, may 
utilize the information for placing their programs in oceanography on a plane similar to 
that of other countries. 

The Committee commissioned Thomas Wayland Vaughan to prepare a report of 
the kind indicated. On the first of September in 1932 he started on a trip around the 
world to visit various oceanographic institutions and to consult with the oceanographers 
in as many different countries as possible. After leaving the United States he went first 
to England, thence to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, France, 
Spain, Monaco, Italy, Egypt, Siam, French Indo China, China, the Philippines, Japan, 
and the Hawaiian Islands. On previous trips Mr. Vaughan had been in New Zealand, 
Australia, the East Indies, and the Malay Peninsula, largely for the purpose of getting 
information on oceanographic activities. Subsequent to his journey around the world 
he visited oceanographic institutions along the Pacific coast of Canada and the United 
States, the two marine laboratories in Scotland, and he either conferred with the directors 
of or visited other oceanographic institutions in eastern Canada and the United States. 

By the spring of 1934 the report had far advanced toward completion but in June, 
1934, Mr. Vaughan was taken ill and was unable to resume work on the report until after 
he retired from the Directorship of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the end 
of August, 1936. During September he attended the meeting of the International Asso- 
ciation of Physical Oceanography in Edinburgh and inspected marine laboratories in 
Scotland. After his return to the United States, from the first part of November, 1936, 
he gave the completion of the report his uninterrupted attention until it was ready 
for press. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

A report such as this is necessarily a cooperative enterprise. Information is taken 
not only from various publications but a great deal of it, perhaps most of it, has been 
contributed by persons sympathetic with the purpose of the work. On the trip around the 
world and on other visits to oceanographic institutions, everywhere the attitude was that 
of sympathetic helpfulness. The governmental officials, the chiefs and the other members 
of the staffs of oceanographic institutions, and the members of the faculties of the various 
universities did everything possible to supply desired information. An imperfect list 
of those from whom assistance was received on the journey around the world contains the 
names of fully one hundred persons. These are thanked without listing individual names 
but the names of those who have contributed to the report, either sections or manuscript 
data, will be recorded. 

Prof. Harald U. Sverdrup, formerly of the Michelsen Institute in Bergen, Norway, 
and now the Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at La JoUa, California, 
and Prof. B. Helland-Hansen, Director of the Geophysical Institute in Bergen, Norway, 
have prepared the section of the report entitled "Oceanographic Data, Vertical Sections 
of Temperature and Salinity for the Norwegian Sea, the Polar Sea, and Adjacent Areas." 
Much help was received from Prof. A. Defant, Director, and Prof. Georg Wlist, both of 
the Institut flir Meereskunde, Berlin, Germany. Professor Defant gave permission to 
use as base charts the charts published by him in his paper entitled "Systematische 
Erforschung des Weltmeeres," and he also gave permission to use the text and charts to 
illustrate the section of this report by Professor Wiist on "Horizontal Distribution of 
Temperature, Salinity, and Density at Standard Depths in the Atlantic Ocean." Pro- 
fessor Wiist consented to the use of this material and to the translation of the pages of 
text that accompany the four charts. Messrs. C. O. Iselin and A. E. Parr compiled on a 
chart the oceanographic stations occupied in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico 
by the Mabel Taylor and Atlantis. Manuscript information was supplied by Dr. 
Stanley Kemp and Dr. N. A. Mackintosh on the stations occupied by Discovery II and 
Wm. Scoresby. Sir Douglas Mawson supplied information on the stations occupied by 
the Discovery I. Messrs. Hakon Mosby and J. K. Eggvin of the Geophysical Insti- 
tute, Bergen, Norway, contributed a list of the stations occupied around Antarctica by the 
Norwegian ship Norwegia. Mrs. Johannes Schmidt and Mr. Helge Thomsen gave in- 
formation on the stations occupied by the Dana during its circumnavigation of the globe 
in 1928-29. Dr. T. G. Thompson supplied lists of stations occupied in the north Pacific 
by the Catalyst. Many manuscript records were received from the United States 
Hydrographic Office and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Colonel R. B. 
Seymour Sewell supplied information on the stations occupied by the Mabahiss in the 
Indian Ocean and Dr. C. Crossland prepared a long manuscript list of stations occupied 
by the same vessel in the Red Sea. 

Dr. C. S. Piggot of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

ganisms and the water. Available data on vertical sections of temperature and salinity 
for the different ocean basins, the basic data for the treatment of the dynamics of the 
movements of the water masses, are presented in the section of this report following this 
Introduction. There is also, on subsequent pages, a short statement on available tidal 
records. The only information on biological data is contained in the catalogue of institu- 
tions. It would have been desirable to catalogue the available data on oxygen content, 
the minimum oxygen layer, and the COj-content of seawater, chemical relations largely 
controlled by organic activity in conjunction with circulation, but to do so was im- 
practicable. 

2. The study of the interaction of the sea and the atmosphere; solar radiation and its 
penetration into seawater. Except to indicate data on temperature and salinity and to 
catalogue institutions engaged on researches in marine meteorology, this complex of 
subjects is not specially considered in this volume. Here may be noted only some geo- 
physical and biological commonplaces. It is generally known that the engine that drives 
the atmospheric and oceanic circulations is the Sun, and the engine that actuates life on 
the earth, through its making photosynthesis possible, is the Sun. On the circulation of 
the atmosphere and of the waters in the oceans, the rotation of the earth on its axis has a 
directing influence. Any changes in density of seawater take place only at the sea surface 
by heating or cooling, by precipitation or evaporation. Below the surface, the changes 
are by the mixing of water masses of different densities. Winds blowing over the surface 
of the sea produce surface currents which may uphold an abnormal distribution of density. 
The characteristics of the contact zone between the atmosphere and the sea surface are of 
great importance. Any change in the velocity of the wind over the surface results in a 
change in the velocity of the surface currents. Since water possesses great heat capacity, 
ocean currents cause the transfer of large quantities of heat. A change in the velocity of 
an ocean current, due to a change in atmospheric circulation, may later influence meteoro- 
logical conditions in a remote region. This concept may be of value in long range weather 
forecasting, for one of the principles utilized in such forecasts is that of the time lag 
between changes in oceanic phenomena and the corresponding change in atmospheric 
conditions. Correlations of the kind indicated have been established in some parts of the 
earth, as in western Norway. The depth of penetration of light into sea water controls 
the depth to which plants may thrive in the sea. 

It would be desirable to present synopsis of information available on these topics, 
but that could not be done for this report. 

3. The study of the ocean-bottom — its configuration, the material on its surface, 
and the material that lies below it. The present state of knowledge of the configuration 
of the sea-floor is indicated by five charts; notes are made on the latest studies of marine 
bottom deposits; the results of studies of gravity at sea are contained in a chapter on that 
subject; a summary of present knowledge of submarine earthquake epicenters is given on 
three charts, there is a map showing the positions of the seismological stations of the world, 
and there is a brief discussion of the structure of the ocean basin as indicated by seismo- 
logical data, accompanied by a map of deep-focus earthquake epicenters; and finally there 
is a chapter on the magnetic survey of the oceans. The summary discussions of these 
aspects of the oceans are comprehensive and indicate how far knowledge of them has 
advanced. 



INTRODUCTION xv 

A statement should now be made regarding those topics that are not discussed in 
detail in this report, except in so far as they have already been mentioned and in so far 
as they are considered in the catalogue of institutions engaged in oceanographic work. 
They are the biological aspects of oceanography, including fisheries, the interaction 
between the atmosphere and the ocean, and the penetration of solar radiation into the 
sea. The emphasis of the report is on the geophysical aspects of oceanography, but with 
only subordinate consideration of marine meteorology and solar radiation, two very 
important subjects. 

It has already been said more than once that the purpose of this volume is to present 
synopses of information available for the study of several aspects of the oceans. Only a 
few interpretations of data are here attempted, but the ultimate object is interpretation 
toward which the cataloging of data is only a step, while the catalogue of institutions 
merely shows the agencies concerned with collecting and interpreting data. Although 
there are no interpretations of most of the data, it is pertinent to include some references 
to literature in addition to those in the lists of sources of data. 

Two publications on oceanographic expeditions by Rafael de Buen, the second a 
revised edition of the first, are as follows : 

de Buen, Rafael, Lista cronologica de las campanas y navegaciones a las que 
se deben observaciones cientificas de caracter oceanografico : Consejo 
Oceanog. Ibero-Amer., Mem., no. 5, pp. 62, 1930. 
de Buen, Rafael, Liste chronologique des croisieres oceanographiques : Com. 
internat. Expl. Sci. Mer Medit., Man. Observ. oceanog. a la Mer, 
vol. l,pp. 73, 1934. 

Gerhard Schott in his "Georgraphie des Atlantischen Ozeans" (1926) gives a history 
of the voyages of discovery in the Atlantic Ocean (pp. 1-20) and an account of investiga- 
tions of the Atlantic up to the end of 1925 (pp. 21-39). Since 1926 there has been a great 
deal of additional research on the Atlantic. The names of the principal expeditions are 
given in the lists of sources of the data plotted on the charts of stations occupied for 
vertical sections of temperature and salinity, and there are references to the latest most 
important literature on the dynamical oceanography of the Atlantic. 

Schott in his volume "Geographie des Indischen und Stillen Ozeans" (1935) has given, 
in the same way as in his volume on the Atlantic, an account of the voyages of exploration 
in the Pacific (pp. 1-15), and of the researches prosecuted on those tw^o oceans (pp. 16-31). 

In each of the volumes by Schott there are extensive lists of publications, making it 
possible for the reader to go to the sources from which he took his data. 

Another publication worthy of mention is the volume, "Oceanography," published 
as volume five of the "Physics of the Earth" by the United States National Research 
Council in 1932. The contents of this volume are as follows: 

Introduction : 

* Introduction: The domain of oceanography. N. H. Heck. 
Bottom of the Ocean : 

* Configuration of the oceanic basin.s. G. W. Littlehales. 
Deep-sea deposits. Leon W. Collet. 

Properties of Sea Water : 

* Physical properties of sea water. Thomas G. Thompson. 

* Chemistry of the sea. Thomas G. Thompson and Rex J. Robinson. 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

Movements of Sea Water : 

* The waves of the sea. R. S. Patton and H. A. Marmer. 

* Tides and tidal currents. H. A. Marmer. 

* A summary of basic principles underlying modern methods of dynamical oceanography. 

George F. McEwen. 

* A survey of present knowledge of oceanic circulation based upon modern physical and chemical 

observations. Arnold Schumacher. 

* Ice in the sea. Edward H. Smith. 
Oceanographic Instruments : 

* Oceanographic instruments and methods. Floyd M. Soule. 
Additional oceanographic instruments. W. E. Parker. 
Deep sea bottom samplers. C. O. Isehn. 

Relations of Oceanography to Other Sciences: 

* Oceanography and meteorology. Charles F. Brooks. 
Relation of biology to oceanography. A. G. Huntsman. 

* The periodicity of oceanic spreading, mountain-marking, and paleography. Charles Schuchert. 
Index. 

The chapters that contain bibUographies are marked with asterisks. Some of the 
bibliographies are extensive, containing references to the most important literature up 
to the end of 1931. 

Other references to literature will be found in the reports now appearing on many 
expeditions, such as those of the Meteor, Discovery II and William Scoresby, Dis- 
covery I, WiLLEBRORD Snellius, Atlantis, Carnegie, Mabahiss, ct Cetera. To give 
lists of the parts of all these reports would require too much space. For those who wish 
to do so, by combining the references contained in the publications above listed or indi- 
cated, with the hundreds of citations on later pages of this volume, a fairly comprehensive 
bibliography of oceanographic Uterature can be compiled. 

Abstracts and lists of current oceanographic literature are contained in the Journal 
du Conseil permanent international pour I'Exploration de la Mer, published in Copenhagen, 
and in the Hydrographic Review, published by the International Hydrographic Bureau 
in Monaco. Complete lists of Japanese publications on oceanography are given in Rec- 
ords of Oceanographic Works in Japan, published by the National Research Council of 
Japan, Tokyo. The Italian delegation of the Commission pour I'Exploration Scientifique 
de la M^diterranee has published since 1928 a series entitled Bibliographia Oceanographica, 
in which most current oceanographic literature is listed. 

Many periodicals, such as the Geographical Review, published by the American 
Geographical Society, and the Geographical Journal, published by the Royal Geographical 
Society, contain reviews, and there are many notices in the Annalen der Hydrographic 
und maritimen Meteorologie, published by the Deutsche Seewarte. Records of much of 
the oceanographic activities in the United States are to be found in the Transactions of 
the American Geophysical Union, Section of Oceanography, published by the United 
States National Research Council. The triennial report of the International Committee 
on the Oceanography of the Pacific, under the auspices of the Pacific Science Association, 
gave summaries of oceanographic activities in the Pacific for the periods 1926-1929' 

' Vaughan, T. Wayland, Reports of the International Committees on the Oceanography and the Coral Reefs of the 
Pacific: Fourth Pacific Sci. Cong., Java, 1929, Proc, vol. 1, pp. 136, Batavia, 1930. 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

and 1929-1933.^ For the seven years covered by the reports they give a comprehensive 
account of oceanographic activities in the Pacific. It was hoped that the work of that 
Committee as a stimulating and coordinating agency for oceanographic research in the 
Pacific would continue, but the future of the Pacific Science Association is doubtful. 
The functioning of that Committee as an independent organization deserves consideration. 
In the catalogue of institutions engaged in oceanographic research the provisions for 
the publication of scientific results are given at the end of the account of each institution 
whenever the desired information could be procured. By utilizing these suggestions, it 
is possible to obtain references to most of the current literature on oceanograohic subjects. 

^ Vaughan,T. Wayland, International Committee on the Oceanography of the Pacific — Report of the Chairman: Fifth 
Pacific Sci. Cong., Victoria and Vancouver, 1933, Proc. vol. 1. pp. 245-384, 1934. 



SERIAL SECTIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY IN 
THE DIFFERENT OCEAN BASINS 



GENERAL DISCUSSION 



Just when the concept of the unity of all oceans 
originated is not easy to ascertain. As soon as it 
was recognized that the cold water in the depths of 
the oceans had to come from Polar regions and that 
the renewal of the supply of water in those regions 
had to come from other latitudes, the idea of a world 
ocean was born, and research was directed toward 
both the circulation within and the exchange of 
water between the different ocean basins. Appar- 
ently the first one to undertake comprehensive 
investigations in a systematic way was Alfred Merz, 
who as long ago as 1922 initiated a card catalogue 
of all hydrographic observations in all three oceans.' 
These compilations were utilized in the preparation 
of several articles by Wiist on both the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans and one entitled "Meridionale 
Schichtung und Tiefenzirkulation in den Westhalften 
der drei Ozeane,"^ and another by Lotte Moller 
on the Indian Ocean. Defant in a paper, "Die 
systematische Erforschung des Weltmeeres,"^ pub- 
lished four charts, two for the Atlantic, one for the 
Pacific, and one for the Indian Ocean, on which 
were shown the positions of the stations at which 
vertical sections of temperature and salinity were 
made in depths of 1,000 meters and in depths of 
3,000 and more meters, according to records avail- 
able at the Institut fur Meereskunde up to February 
1, 1928, and he pubhshed lists of the sources of the 
data. This chapter of the present volumes may be 
regarded as an extension of the work initiated by 
Merz, but several areas not covered by the charts 
published by Defant have been added, viz., the 
Norwegian, the Polar, and adjacent seas, the Medi- 
terranean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean 
Sea, and the Red Sea. For various reasons it was 
decided to omit the Bosporus and the Dardanelles 
and the Black Sea. 

Regarding the Bosporus and Dardanelles, it will 
be said that the Institut fur Meereskunde in Berhn 
pubhshed in April 1928 "Alfred Merz Hydro- 

1 See article b y G. Wtist, this volume, p. 12. 

'i Conseil internat. Explor. Mer, Jour., vol. 5, pp. 7-21, 
1930. The bibliography contains references to pertinent 
literature. 

' Gesellsch. Erdkunde Berlin, Jubilaums-Sonderband, 
1928, pp. 459-505, 1928. 



graphische Untersuchungen in Bospoms und Dar- 
danellen," bearbeitet von Lotte Moller; Inst. 
Meeresk. Veroffentl. Neue Folg., A., Geogr. natur- 
wiss. Rhe., Heft 18. There are 284 pages of text 
and a foho atlas of sixteen hthographed plates. 
Merz made two expeditions himself, 1917 and 1918, 
and he utilized the observations of others. Before 
his death he had done much toward putting the 
results into form for publication, but he did not 
complete his manuscript. Profes.sor Moller finished 
the report, and it was presented to the Gesellschaft 
fur Erdkunde of Berlin on the One Hundredth 
Anniversary of its founding "im Andenken an ihrem 
unvergesslichen Vorstandsmitglied Alfred Merz, 
gewddmet vom Institut fiir Meereskunde." 

During recent years the Russians have conducted 
extensive investigations in the Black Sea. Ref- 
erences to some papers on the work have been 
found but they are very fragmentary. No complete 
account of the work nor any synopsis or summary 
of results has been available. To give references to 
the few publications examined seems inadvisable. 

Some notes will be made on the utilization of 
temperature and salinity in determining oceanic 
circulation. The methods of modern djoiamical 
oceanography rest primarily on the researches of 
V. Bjerknes and V. W. Ek:nan, but the develop- 
ments and elaborations by Helland-Hansen, Sand- 
strom, Hesselberg and Sverdrup, and others, have 
been invaluable in building up not only the princi- 
ples but also the technique of practically applying 
the principles. Two summaries of modern methods 
will be mentioned. They are Albert Defant's 
"Dynamische Ozeanographie"« and G. F. McEwen's 
"A summary of baisic principles underlying modern 
methods of dynamical oceanography."' 

Concurrently with increase in knowledge of the 
physics of the sea and of the methods of utilizing 
the physical facts derived from the sea in solving 
problems of circulation, better plans for work at sea 
have been formulated and there has been improve- 

* Einfiihrung in die Geophysik III, Berlin, verlag von 
Julius Springer, 1929, pp. 222. 

«• Physics of the Earth, vol. 5, U. S. National Res. Council 
Bull. 85, pp. 310-357, 1932. There are three pages of 
bibliography. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



ment in oceanographic instniments. It is now 
generally recognized that oceanographic stations 
should be closely spaced in nets, so as to make it 
possible to construct sections in almost any direc- 
tion, and the observations and collections should 
extend to the bottom. The instruments used in 
recording temperatures and determining the depths 
at which observations and collections are made must 
be of a high order of precision. The bottles for 
collecting water samples must be efficient — they must 
not leak. The titrations for chlorine must be made 
with the greatest attainable accuracy, for on them 
depends the calculations of sahnity and density. 
The object is to make accurate physical measure- 
ments for use by mathematical methods, or by 
graphical methods which require as great precision 
as the mathematical treatment. 

Nearly all modern oceanographic work, both at 
sea and in the laboratory, whether on shipboard or 
on land, meets the requirements of accuracy, but 
many older observations and determinations, some 
of rather recent date, are faulty. Since Professor 
Wiist in the article by him translated for this volume 
has adequately discussed methods of testing the 
accuracy of observations and determinations, noth- 
ing more will be said on the subject in this place. 

For this volume the compilation for the Nor- 
wegian, North Polar, and adjacent seas was made 
by Dr. H. U. Sverdrup and Prof. B. Helland-Hansen ; 
that for the Atlantic Ocean by Professor Wiist ; and 
most of that for the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean 
Sea by Dr. A. E. Parr and Mr. C. Iselin. For 
other ocean areas, except to use data already pub- 
hshed by Professor Defant, the data have been 
assembled by the compiler of this volume. As 
has been stated, most modern records, such as 
those on the Arihauer Hansen, the Dana, the 
Discovery Expeditions, the Mabahiss, and a 
number of other vessels are acceptable. For the 
Pacific Ocean a card catalogue of stations at which 
hydrographic observations were made, similar to 
the catalogue initiated by Merz, was started. Many 
hundreds of cards were prepared and T-S curves 
of the usual kind were drawn for each of the stations 
represented by a card. Two facts quickly became 
obvious. The first was that most of the older 
records were too inaccurate to be serviceable in the 
study of the dynamics of the water masses, and, 
except those stations plotted on Defant's charts, 
most of them were discarded. The .second fact 
was that to prepare cards for all stations in the 
Pacific and to draw T-S curves would require 



more time than was available for the preparation 
of this report. The cards and T-S curves that 
had been prepared were used as checks, in so far as 
possible. Those who may use this report will 
have to be guided by the names of the vessels and 
the dates of the observations in passing on the 
trustworthiness of the records. 

There are a few warnings that can not be too 
strongly emphasized. The finst is that sufficiently 
accurate subsurface temperatures cannot be deter- 
mined by the old style reversing thermometers that 
were not equipped with auxiliary thermometers. 
The auxiliary thermometers are essential. With 
proper thermometric equipment the limit of error 
of the temperature records should not exceed 
±.01°C., and it is possible to attain even greater 
precision, limit of error about ±.003°C. The 
safinities should be determined by or checked by 
chlorine titration and the hmit of error should not 
exceed ±.01 °/oo. The most recent memoir on 
the determination of the constants of sea water is 
that by Willy Bein, Heinz-Giinther Hirsekorn, and 
Lotte Moller, entitled "Konstantenbestimmungen 
des Meerwassers imd Ergebnisse iiber Wasserkor- 
per."' Four methods for determining the density 
of sea water are given: (1) Optical methods, by the 
measurement of refraction; (2) electrical conduc- 
tivity; (3) chlorine titration; (4) direct determina- 
tion of den.sity. This publication should be studied 
by all who are working on the physics of seawater 
and dynamical oceanography. 

In addition to the warnings already given, there 
is another. It is the necessity of precision in the 
determination of the depths at which temperature 
records and collections of samples are made. Depths 
intermediate between the surface and the bottom 
should be determined by means of improtected 
reversing thermometers. Because of errors in the 
determination of depths, probably due to too great 
ware-angle, some temperature records that seem 
to be accurate enough have had to be discarded. 

When the expense of conducting oceanographic 
operation at sea is so great, no pains should be 
spared to procure and use properly the best obtain- 
able instruments. Unless the precautions above 
indicated are heeded, observations made at great cost 
may possess little, even no value. 

Surface temperatures and temperatures at shallow- 
depths are considered not at all or only casually in 
this compilation. Whenever a station is occupied 

« Institut fur Meere-skunde, Veroffent, N. F., Heft 28, 
pp. Ill, 240, 14 pis., 1935. 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



for vertical sections of temperature and salinity, it 
is customary to make a record of the surface tem- 
peratures and to collect a sample of the water at the 
surface for the determination of the salinity. 
Schott has published compilations for both the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and there are numerous 
other publications. The Australian Meteorological 
Service is preparing and distributing quarterly charts 
of surface temperatures for the area bounded by 
longitude 90° and 165°E. and by latitude 0° to 45°S. ; 
the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Service has 
recently issued a large two volume folio atlas of 
charts for the China Sea; the Marine Observatory 
at Kobe is publishing records of sea-surface tempera- 
tures made by Japanese vessels; the Kydrographic 
Office of the United States Navy has pul)lishcd 
monthly charts of sea-surface temperature by one- 
degree quadrangles for the north Pacific and it ha.s 
other compilations in progress. Other organiza- 
tions, such as the Marine Division of the Royal 
British Meteorological Service, are also studying 
sea-surface temperatures. Sea-surface tempera- 
tures, as well as surface currents, are significant for 
the study of various meteorological problems. A 
note has already been made on the possible value of 
such information in attempts at long-range weather 
forecasting. The value for navigational purposes 
is obvious. 

It is clear from what has been said that the 
emphasis in the present section of this volume is 
mostly on the temperature and salinity of the 
water at depths of 1000 meters and more. Not so 
much attention is given to shallow depths, but the 
subject should not be passed over without some 
consideration. Defant in his paper already referred 
to, "Systematische Erforschung des Weltmeeres," 
proposed to divide ocean waters between the Polar 
fronts into three layers (a) a surface layer of agita- 
tion and nearly uniform temperature; (b) a lower 
layer in which the temperature decreases rapidly, 
the layer of the thcrmocline; and (c) a still lower 
layer in which the temperature range is slight, only 
a few degrees Centigrade. The upper two layers 
(a and b) are designated the troposphere; while the 
lower layer (c) is called the stratosphere. The 
papers by Wiist already cited contain discussions 
of the tropospheric and stratospheric circulations 
in the three oceans. Defant in his memoir, "Die 
Troposphare"' gives an elaborate account of the 

' Defant, A., Schichtung und Zirkulation des Atlan- 
tischen Ozeans, dritte Lieferung, Die Troposphare: Wis- 
sensch. Ergeb. Meteor Exped. 1925-1927, vol. 6, pt. 1, 
pp. 289-411, text-figs. 26-76, pis. 36-54a, 1936. 



various features of the Atlantic troposphere and its 
circulation. The sources of the data are also given. 
Defant follows Wiist in considering the minimum 
oxygen layer as the base of the troposphere. Fur- 
ther consideration of the southwestern north Atlan- 
tic is contained in the two papers by Giinter Dietrich 
cited below.' The interpretations of the tropo- 
spheric and part of the stratospheric circulation of 
the oceans advocated by Wiist, Defant, and Dietrich 
are not accepted by all oceanographers, as has been 
expressed by Iselin.' 

Iselin calls attention to two views regarding the 
depth of the lower boundary of the major ocean 
currents. According to the older view the velocity 
gradually decreases with depth but there is some 
flow parallel to the surface movements down to at 
least 2,000 meters. According to the newer \'iew 
the layer of water with the minimum oxygen content 
is nearly motionless and marks the lower limit of 
surface currents. The axis of the minimum oxygen 
layer varies from depths of 300 to 400 meters near 
the equator to 800 meters in higher latitudes. The 
results of calculations of the volume and the velocity 
of ocean currents are conditioned by which of the 
above theories the particular investigator favors. 
Very divergent results are obtained according to the 
interpretation adopted. The relative merits of the 
proposed interpretations will not be discussed in the 
present volume. Only the differences of opinion 
will be pointed out and it will be said that additional 
careful, critical investigation is needed. 

The data on serial sections of temperature and 
salinity besides being of value in studies of problems 
of oceanographic circulation are indispensable for 
computing oceanic depths from the time interval 
in deep-sea sounding by means of echo methods. 

Since the positions of the .stations that have been 
occupied for serial sections of temperature and 
salinity are shown on the charts of the different 
oceans, it does not seem necessary to discuss in 
detail in the text of this volume those areas on 
which information is deficient. But it will be 
remarked, that there are still enormous areas in the 
Pacific Ocean on which there are no data that can be 

* Dietrich, Giinter, Die Lage der Meeresoberflache im 
Druckfeld von Ozean und Atmosphare, mit besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung des westlichen nord atlantischen Ozeans 
und des Golfes von Mexiko: Inst. Meereskunde Berlin, 
Veroffentl. N. F., Geogr.-naturwiss. Reihe, Heft 33, pp. 
1-52, Jan. 1937. 

Dietrich, Giinter, Ueber Bewegung und Herkuft des 
Golfstromwassers: Ibid., pp. .53-91. 

' Iselin, Columbus, How deep do ocean currents flow: 
Abstract of paper presented before National Academy of 
Sciences, April 26, 1937, Science, vol. 85, p. 439, May 7, 1937. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



used for the study of the physical and chemical 
properties and the movements of the water masses — 
for example, west of the Galapagos Islands, between 
the equator and 10° of north latitude, to 140° west 
longitude, there is no information except at one 
station on the equator which was occupied for sub- 
surface temperature. There are no data on the 
area between 10° and 20° north latitude and 100° 
and 130° west longitude. In the south Pacific there 
are large areas within which there are no available 
observations. In the west Pacific west of 170° 
west longitude over to the area of operation of the 
Japanese there are very few observations. 

In the Indian Ocean, between the areas recently 
worked by the Mabahiss and the Dana in its 
northern part, and the areas investigated by Dis- 
covery I and Discovery II and Norwegia around 
Antarctica, and between lines from Antarctica to 
the Cape of Good Hope and from Antarctica to 
southern Australia, there are very few observations. 
There are many areas 10 degrees of latitude and 10 
degrees of longitude on a .side for which there is not 
a single observation. 

Until more oceanographic observations have been 
made in these areas it will not be possible to solve 



numerous important oceanographic problems. For 
example, for the strip, between 10°S and 20°N 
latitude, across the Pacific Ocean that includes 
the North Equatorial Current, the Equatorial 
Counter Current, and the South Equatorial Current 
there are very few observations. The Carnegie 
in its cruises in the Pacific crossed this belt along 
three lines and a few observations were made by the 
Dana. Otherwise, except records of temperature 
and one fine of serial sections of temperature and 
salinity, reliable data are confined to the east and 
west ends of the belt. 

To make more extended comments seems un- 
necessary. 

Professors Sverdrup, Helland-Hansen, and Wiist 
have put on the charts prepared by them the num- 
bers for the different stations, as well as abbrevi- 
ations. It would have been preferable to have done 
this for the other stations instead of merely put- 
ting down the abbreviations for the names of the 
vessels from which the observations and collections 
were made, but with the references to sources of 
data additional information on the stations can be 
procured by those who desire it. 



ATLANTIC OCEAN AND CONNECTING SEAS 

OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA, VERTICAL SECTIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY FOR 
THE NORWEGIAN SEA, THE POLAR SEA, AND ADJACENT AREAS 

By Prof. HARALD U. SVERDRUP 
Director, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California 

AND 

Prof. B. HELLAND-HANSEN 

Director, Geophysical Institute, Bergen, Norway 

Pl-ites 1, 2, 3 



Following the plan agreed upon during confer- 
ences in Bergen I have completed the compilation 
of the oceanographic data from the Norwegian Sea, 
the Polar Sea, and adjacent areas. 

I had special charts of the Norwegian Sea made 
and on these the available observations of tempera- 
ture and salinity at the depths 500, 1000, and 2000 
meters have been entered. I included the 500 
meter level in order to give a more comprehensive 
view of the greater amount of material which is 
available from the upper layers. In the charts the 
1000 meter isobath has been shown. It will be 
noted that some stations with observations below 
1000 meters fall inside the line. The reason is that 
the depth curve has been taken from Helland- 
Hansen and Nansen's bathymetric chart of the 
Norwegian Sea of 1909 and has not been corrected 
according to results of later soundings. The chart, 
however, can not be much in error. 

I include here lists giving: 

1. Abbreviations used in the charts. 

2. List of publications containing observations 

from the Norwegian Sea. 

3. List of publications containing observations 

from the sea east of Spitsbergen, Murman 
Sea, Barentz Sea, etc. 

4. List of publications containing observations 

from the Kara Sea, the Siberian Sea, the 
Polar Sea, etc. 
■ 5. List of publications containing observations 
from the Baltic. 
No special list of publications containing observa- 
tions from the North Sea has been prepared, since 
practically all data are contained in the Bulletins 
of the Conseil International. 

I beg to note that a great number of observations 



in the Faeroe-Scotland channel have not been 
entered in the charts, because they would become 
overfilled. 

I hope that the lists are complete, but our library 
and the other libraries to which we have access 
may not contain all existing publications. 

Since the paper prepared by Professor Sverdrup 
could not be promptly published after it was sub- 
mitted, additional oceanographic observations 
needed to be incorporated. This supplement was 
kindly undertaken by Prof. B. Helland-Hansen, the 
Director of the Geophysical Institute at Bergen, 
who makes the following comments: 

The published observations are to be found in the 
Bulletins Hydrographiques. The stations are marked 
and distinguished after the same principles as have been 
used by Sverdrup. Data from the Bulletins are indicated 
thus: Bull. 1932 C17, 1933 C18, 1934 C'19, and 1935 C20. 
For 1933 I have also entered some stations marked CIS''. 
The observations are to be found in an appendix for that 
year, accompanying the Bulletin for 1934. All of them 
are made by the Norwegian sealer Heimland I. The 
areas neglected by Sverdrup and mentioned in his text, 
have been neglected here too. 

Beside the stations from which observations have been 
published in detail, I have also marked on the charts all the 
stations occupied by the Armauer Hansen in the southern 
part of the Norwegian Sea 1935 and 1936. These stations 
are not distinguished by any letters; the numbers for each 
year are indicated in such a way that the number of every 
station can be found out. It will be some time before the 
observations can be printed. They will be published in con- 
nection with all our meteorological observations and the re- 
sults of dynamic calculations. I think that it may be of in- 
terest to see the grouping of these stations. It may be 
added that our observations in The Norwegian Sea from 
1935 and 1936 only rarely embrace 500 meters. We had in 
1935 observations at 400 and 600 meters wherever the depth 
to the bottom was large enough. Most of these stations are 
indicated in the chart for 1,000 meters. In 1936 we also had 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



stations between those indicated in the chart for 1,000 
meters, but there the observations were made only down to 
400 meters. Thus, for 400 meters, we had in 1936 many 
more stations than shown in the charts. 

Abbreviations used on the charts 

# Temperature. 

O Salinity. 

O Temperature and salinity. 

—2 The publication gives 2 observations at one position. 

A Nansen, F. : Northern waters. Videnskabs-Selska- 

bets Skrifter 106. I. Mat.-Naturv. Klasse, No. 3. 
(Christiana 1906.) 

AH Armauer Hansen. 

B Blafjeld. 

Bl Bulletin (Trimestriel) des Resultats acquis pendant 
les croisieres periodiques. Conseil International. 
(Copenhagen 1903-08.) 
Ann6e 1902-03. 

B2 1903-04. 

B3 1904-05. 

B4 1905-06. 

B5 1906-07. 

B6 1907-08. 

BR Braarud, Trygve, and Ruud, Johan T.: The 0ST 
Expedition to the Denmark Strait 1929. I. Hy- 
drography. HvalrSdets Skrifter Nr. 4. (Oslo 
1932.) 

CI Bulletin Hydrographique. Conseil International. 
(Copenhagen 1910-.) 
Ann fee 1908-09. 

C2 1909-10. 

C3 1910-11. 

C4 1911-12. 

C5 1912-13. 

C6 1913-14. 

C7 1920-21-22-23. 

C8 1924. 

C9 1923-24. Append. I and II. 

CIO 1925. 

Cll 1926. 

C12 1927. 

C13 1928. 

C14 1929. 

C15 1930. 

C16 1931. 

Da Danish observations. 

Eg Scottish observations. 

F Akerblom, Filip: Recherches oceanographiques. 

Uppsala Univers. Arskrift 1903. Mat. and 
naturv. II. (Uppsala 1904.) 

Fa Farm and Blomstersael. 

G Great Britain observations. 

H Helland-Hansen, Bi0rn: Physical Oceanography and 

Meteorology. Part II; repr. from Rep. of the 
Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North 
Atlant. Deep Sea Exped. 1910. Vol. I. (Ber- 
gen 1930.) 



Ha 



Hj 
HO 



IK 



M-I.4 



M-17 



M-19 



MS 



MS-01 
MS-02 

N 



Pg 
RA 



S7 



Sc 
T 
W 



Hamberg, Axel: Hydrographische Arbeiten der von 
A. G. Nathorst geleiteten schwedischen Polarex- 
pedition 1898. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskaps- 
Akademiens Handlingar, vol. XLI, No. 1. (Stock- 
holm 1906.) 

Johan Hjort. 

Due d'Orleans: Croisiere Oceanographique accom- 
plie a bord de la Belgica dans la Mer du Gr0nland 
1905. Oceanographieet Biologic. Journal dea 
stations. (Bruxelles 1909.) 

Helland-Hansen, Bj0rn and Nansen, Fridtjof: 
The sea west of Spitsbergen. Skrifter utgitt av 
Videnskapsselskapet i Kristiania Mat.-Naturv. 
Klasse, 2 bind. (Kristiania 1913.) 

Knudsen, Martin: Hydrography. The Danish 
Ingolf-Expedition, Vol. I, Part I, No. 2. (Copen- 
hagen 1899.) 

Nielsen, J. N.: Hydrography of the Waters by the 
Faroe Islands and Iceland during the Cruises of 
the Danish Research Steamer Thor in the summer 
1903. Medd. fra Komm. for Havunders0gelser 
Serie: Hydrografi, Bind I, No. 4. (K0benhavn 
1904.) 

Nielsen, J. N.: Contribution to the Hydrography of 
the Waters North of Iceland. Medd. fra Komm 
for Havunders. Serie: Hydrogr. Bind I, No. 7. 
(K0benhavn 1905.) 

Nielsen, J. N.: Contribution to the Hydrography of 
the Northeastern Part of the Atlantic Ocean. 
Medd. fra Komm. for Havunders. Serie: Hy- 
drografi, Bind I, No. 9. (K0benhavn 1907.) 

Helland-Hansen, B. and Nansen, F.: The Nor- 
wegian Sea. Rep. on Norwegian Fishery and 
Marine Investigations, Vol. II, No. 2. (Ber- 
gen 1909.) 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Nansen, Fridtjof: Spitsbergen Waters. Videnskabs- 
Selskabets Skrifter 1915. I. Mat.-Naturv. Klasse, 
No. 2. (Christiania 1915.) 

Page. 

Martens, Erik: Hydrographical Investigations dur- 
ing the Michael Sars Expedition 1924. Rapports 
et Proces-Verbaux des Reunion, Vol. LVI. (Co- 
penhague 1929.) 

Sj0strand, Johannes: De hydrografiska forhM- 
landena i Norra Ishafvet mellan norska kusten 
och Spetsbergen etc. ir 1920. Ur Svenska Hy- 
drografisk-Biologiska Kommissionens Skrifter. 
VII. (G0teborg 1922.) 

Scottish observations. 

ToviK. 

Sverdrup, H. U.: The Wilkins-EUsworth Arctic 
Expedition, Scientif. Results, Part I; II Oceanog- 
raphy. Papers in Physical Oceanography and 
Meteorology, Vol. II, No. 1. Publ. by Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution. 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



Sources of Data, The Norwegian Sea 
(Iceland, East-Greenland, Spitsbergen, and Norwegian Waters) 

A 

PCBL1CAT10N8 

Bulletin (Trimestriel) dcs Resultats acquis pendant les croisifires periodiques. 
Conseil International. Copenhagen 1903-08: 
Annee 1902-03. (Da(nish), N(or\vegian) and Sc(ottish) observations) 
Annee 1903-04. (Da., N., Sc. observations) 
Annfee 1904-05. (Da., Sc. observations) 
Ann6e 1905-06. (Da., So. observations) 
Ann6e 1906-07. (Sc. observations) 
Ann^e 1907-08. (Sc. observations) 
Bulletin Hydrographique. Conseil International. Copenhagen 1910- : 
Annee 1908-09. (Sc. observations) 
Annee 1909-10. (Da., Sc. observations) 
Annee 1910-11. (N., Sc. observations) 
Ann^e 1911-12. (Sc. observations) 
Annee 1912-13. (N. observations) 
Ann6e 1913-14. (Sc. observations) 
Annfee 1920-21-22-23. (Sc. observations) 
Annee 1924. (Da., N., Sc. observations) 
Annee 1923-24 Append. I and II. (N. observations ^yith Joh.\n Hjorth, 

Blafjeld, Armauer-Han.sen, ToviK, Farm, and Blomster.sael) 
Annee 1925. (Da., N., Sc. observations) 
Annee 1926. (N. observations) 
Annee 1927. (N., Sc. observations) 
Annee 1928. (N. observations) 
Annee 1929. (N., Sc, observations) 

Ann^e 1930. (N. observations) D. at East-Greenland below oOO m. 
Ann^e 1931. (N. observations) 
NB: Ca. 80 observations at 1000 m. in the area between 60°-62° N. Lat. and 
0°-10° W. Long, are not inserted on the chart. The observations are 
publisWd in the following "Bulletins": B3, B5, B6, CI, C2, C3, C4, C6, 
C7, C8, CIO, C12, C14 
A large number of observations in the area between 60°-64'' N. Lat. and 
0°-10° W. Long, are not inserted on the 500 m. Chart 
Report (Northern Area) on fishery and hydrographical investigations in the Below 500 ni. 
North Sea. (London 1904- .) In these publications are given supple- 
mentary statements to the Scottish observations printed in the "Bulle- 
tin Hydrographique" 
Braardd, Trygve, and Klem, Alf: Hydrographical and Chemical Investiga- BR 
tions in the Coastal Waters off M0re and in the Romsdalsfjord. Hval- 
radets Skrifter Nr. 1. (Oslo 1931) 
Due D'Orleans: Croisiere Oceanographique accomplie a bord de la Belgica dans HO 
la Mer du Gr0nland 1905. Oceanographie et Biologie. Journal des 
stations. (Bruxelles 1909) 
Hamberg, Axel. Hydrographische Arbeiten der von A. G. Nathorst geleiteten 
schwedischen Polar-expedition 1898. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskaps- 
Akademiens Handlingar, vol. XLI, No. 1. (Stockholm 1906) 
Helland-Hansen, B. and Nansen, F.: The Norwegian Sea, Norwegian Re- 
searches 1900-04 with Michael Sars. Report on Norwegian Fishery 
and Marine Investigations, Vol. II, No. 2. (Bergen 1909) 
Knudsen, Martin: Hydrography. In The Danish Ingolf-Expedition. Vol. I, 
Part I, No. 2. (Copenhagen 1899) 

The temperatures are stated only to tenths of a Centigrade. 
Makaroff, S.: Yermak wo Ijedakh (In the ice) (St. Petersburg 1901) 
Martens, ErUc: Hydrographical Investigations during the Michael Sars Ex- RA 
pedition 1924 

and 
Martens, Erik: Hydrographical Investigations in the Norwegian Sea off M0re 
1925-28. In Rapports et Proces-Verbaux des Reunion, Vol. LVI 



IBREVIA- 


OBSERVATIONS AT 


T10N3 




DEPTH OF 


B 


2000, 


1000, 500 meters 


B2 


2000, 


1000, 500 m. 


B3 


1000, 


500 m. 


B4 


1000, 


500 m. 


B5 


1000, 


500 m. 


B6 


1000, 


500 m. 


01 


1000, 


500 m. 


02 


1000, 


500 m. 


03 


1000, 


500 m. 


04 


1000, 


500 m. 


05 


500 m. 


06 


1000, 


500 m. 


07 


1000, 


500 m. 


C8 


1000, 


500 m. 


C9 


1000, 


500 m. 


CIO 


1000, 


500 m. 


Oil 


500 m. 


012 


500, 


1000 m. 


013 


1000, 


500 m. 


014 


1000, 


500 m. 


015 


1000, 


500 m. 


C16 


500 m. 



500, 1000 m. 



2000, 1000, 500 m. 



H 


1000, 


500 m. 


MS 


2000, 


1000, 500 m. 


MS-01 






MS-02 






IK 


2000, 


1000, 500 m. 



1000, 500 m. 



500 m. 



10 INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



AEBREVIA- OBSERVATIONS AT 

DEPTH OF 



PUBLICATIONS TI0N8 

Nansen, F. : Northern Waters. (Capt. Roald Amundsen's oceanogr. observa- A 2000, 1000, 500 m. 

tions in the Arctic Seas (1901). Videnskabs-Selskabets Skrifter 1906. 

I. Mat.-Naturvidensk. Klasse, No. 3. (Christiania 1906) 
Nansen, Fridtjof: Spitsbergen Waters. Oceanogr. observations during the N 1000,500 m. 

cruise of the Veslem^y to Spitsbergen in 1912. Vidensk.-Selskapets 

Skrifter 1915. I. Mat.-Naturvidenskapelig Klasse, No. 2. (Chris- 
tiania 1915) 
Nielsen, J. N. : Contributions to the Hydrography of the North-Eastern Part of M-19 500 m. 

the Atlantic Ocean. Meddelelser fra Kommisionen for Havunders0gel- 

ser. Serie: Hydrografi. Bind I. No. 9. (K0benhavn 1907) 
Nielsen, J. N.: Contribution to the Hydrography of the Waters North of Ice- M-17 500 m. 

land. Medd. fra Komm. for Havunders0gelser. Serie: Hydrografi, 

Bind I. No. 7. (K0benhavn 1905) 
Nielsen, J. N.: Hydrography of the Waters by the Faroe Islands and Iceland M-14 1000, 500 m. 

during the cruises of the Danish research steamer Thor in the summer 

1903. Medd. fra Komm. for Havunders0gelser. Serie: Hydrografi, 

Bind I. No. 4. (K0benhavn 1904) 
Sj0stkand, Johannes. De hydrografiska forhSUandena i Norra Ishafvet mellan S7 500 m. 

norska kusten och Spetsbergen etc. &r 1920. Ur Svenska Hydrografisk- 

Biologiska Kommissionens Skrifter. VII. (G0teborg 1922) 
SvERDRUP, H. U.: The Wilkins-EUsworth Arctic Expedition, Scientific Results, W 2000, 1000, 500 m. 

Part I; II Oceanography. Papers in Physical Oceanography and 

Meteorology, Vol. II, No. 1. Published by Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Trolle, Alf: Hydrographical Observations from the Denmark E.\pedition. T 2000,1000,500 m. 

Danmark-Ekspeditionen Til Gr0nlands Nord0stkyst 1906-08. Bind I. 

Nr. 2. Reprinted from "Meddelelser om Gr0nland.'' Bind XLI. 

(K0benhavn 1913) 
Akerblom, Filip: Recherches oceanographiques. Expedition de M. A. G. F 2000,1000,500 m. 

Nathorst en 1899. Uppsala univers. Arskrift 1903. Mat. & naturv. II. 

(Uppsala 1904) 

The following publication is not included in the list, the temperatures being 
stated only in tenths of a centigrade, and the salinities being useless: 

Ryder, C: Den 0stgr0nlandske Expedition 1891-1892. Part I. V. Hydro- 1000,500 m. 

graphy. Meddelelser om Gr0nland, Bind XVII. (Kj0benhavn 1895) 

Sources of Data, The Sea East of Spitsbergen, Knipowitsch, N.: GrundzUge der Hydrologie im europais- 

MURMAN Sea, Barents Sea, ET cetera <^hem Eismeer (1906). (Mentions all publications of 

interest in these waters up to 1906.) (St. Petersburg). 

Bulletin Trimestriel des Resultats acquis pendant les Malinina, W. S.: Zur Hydrographie des Barentsmeeres 

croisieres p6riodiques. Conseil International . . . , Berichte des Wissenschaftlichen Meeresinstitutes, IV, 

Copenhagen. Annee 1903-04, 04-05, 05-06, 06-07. Lfg 2. (Moscow 1929) 

(Russian observations.) (Copenhagen 1903-07) Nansen, Fridthjof: The Norwegian North Polar Expedi- 

Bulletin Hydrographique etc. Conseil International . . . , tion 1893-96— Scientific results. Vol. III. (Chris- 
Copenhagen. (Continuation of the above series), tiania 1902) 

1912-13 (German obs.), 1923-24 Appendices (Norwe- Rossolimo, J.: On the Hydrography of the Sea of Barents, 

gian obs.), 1929 (Norwegian obs.). (Copenhagen) Berichte des Wiss. Meeresinstitutes. Band III. Lfg. 

Breitfuss, L. L. : Expedition fuer wissenschaftlich-prak- j (Moskau 1928) 

tische Untersuchungen a. d. Murman-Ktiste. Bericht Rpppi^, e.: Die Hydrographie des Barentsmeeres im Som- 

iiber die Tatigkeit pro 1902. (St. Petersburg 1903) ^^^ jgjg Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 

Breitpuss, L. L.: Expedition fuer etc. Bericht iiber die Helgoland XIII, 1919. (Kiel 1919) 

Tatigkeit pro 1903. (St. Petersburg 1906) o r> t, ■ -u^ -u^i- -o ■ w 11, i n 

_ ^ ^ '^-. _ .\. , , n • Li 1- J- Schulz, Bruno: Bericht uber die Reise von Wilhelm Bren- 

Breitfuss, L. L.: Expedition fuer etc. Bericht uber die , , t, . t^ ^ trvoo a 

Tatigkeit pro 1904. (St. Petersburg 1908) "^'=''^ '" ^as Barentsmeer im Fruhsommer 1923. Anna- 

Breitfuss, L. L.: Expedition fiir etc. Bericht uber die 'e" der Hydrographie und Maritimen Meteorologie. 

Tatigkeit pro 1905. (St. Petersburg 1912) LV. Jahrgang, Heft VI. (Berlin 1927) 

Knipowitsch, N.: Expedition fiir wissenschaftlich-prak- Schulz, Bruno and Wolff, Alfred: Hydrographische und 

tische Untersuchungen an der Murman-Kuste. Band planktologische Ergebnisse der Fahrt des Fischereis- 

I. (St. Petersburg 1902) chutzbootes Zieten in das Barentsmeer 1926. Berichte 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 1 




--i. 



^0 2MOlTAV«3aaO 
Oe TA «:» YTIMUA3 QMA ! 



*i»«3,W^«3.**ji^ 



f 



i] IL 



fr, 



>J&1 



\ 




p 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 2 




lOE. 



NoRWRoiAN Sea, Obsekva hons of TEMPHUATrRE wi) Salimitt at 1000 Meters 



''-i'^Ai?0^>^ L^ ".'■^; 



■.•-■0-T-;ViPjTV 



02 



-0^ 






r _■- i.-iM^s^r- 



'"0 J.y*Oi 



Od 






,{S^ 



^.V-J^ 



■■> ■ 



'■■' .,,15- 



fOrM 



'K: 



\ 



V 



'- ; !. J ... " ■ 



ooof TA (O) yr; 



-.X^JJ T.i YTT",-V! T.. -• (!'/,■ T,S ) t'Afi'? 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 3 



OBSERVATIONS OF TEMPERATURE (•) 
AND SALINITY (O) AT 2000 METERS 




Norwegian Sea, Observations of Temperature and Salinity at 2000 Meters 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



11 



der deutschen Wiss. Komm. fiir Meeresforschung. 
Neue Folge, B. Ill, H. 3. (Berlin 1927) 

ScHULz, Bruno and Wolff, Alfred; Hydrographie und 
Oberfliichenplankton des westlichen Barentsmeeres im 
Sommer 1927. Berichte der deutschen Wiss. Komm. 
fijr Meeresforschung. Neue Folge, B. IV, H. 5. (Ber- 
lin 1929) 

SouvoROw, E. : An Expedition to the Cheskaya Bay in the 
Year 1926 and its Hydrographical Works. Transac- 
tions North. Scientific and Economic Expd. No. 43, 
(U.S.S.R. Sei. Techn. Dept. No. 278). Moscow 1929) 

TiMONOFF, V. V. : Zur Frage tiber das hydrologische Regime 
der Strasse zwischen dem Weissen und dem Barents- 
meere, in Institute Hydrologique de Russie. Explora- 
tion des mers russes. Fasc. 1. (Leningrad 1925) 

Wasnetzov, W. a.: Hydrographische Beschreibung der 
Tschesskaja Bai nach den Materialen der lOten Expedi- 
tion des Wiss. Meeresinstitutes. Berichte des Wiss. 
Meeresinstitutes IV, Lfg. 2. (Moscow 1929) 

WiESE, W.: Scientific Results of the Expedition with 
Malyguin in Barentssea 1928. Transactions of the 
Institute for Exploration of the North. No. 45. 
(Moscow 1929) 

WiESE, W.: Scientific Results of the Expedition to Franz 
Josephs Land in the Summer 1929. (Wiese and Lak- 
tionoff: Tiefseebeobachtungen) Transactions of the 
Institute for Scientific Exploration of the North. 
No. 49. (Moscow 1931) 

Zdbow, N. N.: Hydrological Investigations in the South- 
western Part of the Barents Sea during the Summer 
1928. Transactions of the Oceanogr. Institute, Vol. 
II, No. 4. (Moscow 1932) 

Sources of Data, The Kara Sea, Siberian 
Sea, et cetera 

Nansen, Fridthjof: The Norwegian North Polar Expedi- 
tion 1893-96. Scientific Results. Vol. III. (Chris- 
tiania 1902) 

SvERDRUP, H. U.: The Waters on the North-Siberian Shelf. 
The Norwegian North Polar Expedition with the Maud 
1918-1925. Scientific Results, Vol. IV, No. 2. (Ber- 
gen 1929) 

Vega-expeditionens Vetenskapliga Jakttagelser. Bd. 2 
(Stockholm 1883) 

Wasnetzov, W. A.: On the Hydrology of the Kara Sea. 
Transactions of the Oceanogr. Institute, Vol. I, No. 
2-3. (Moscow 1931) 

WiESE, W. J. : Etude hydrologique des mers: des Laptevs et 
de la Siberia orientale. (Giving complete list of litera- 
ture up to 1926) Materiaux de la Comm. pour I'dtude 
de la Republique ASS lakoute, Livr. 5. (Leningrad 
1926) 

Sources of Data, The Arctic Area in 
General 

Breitfus-s, L.: Das Nordpolargebiet (1913-31); Geogr. 
Jahrbuch XLVII. (Giving list of literature 1913-31). 
(Berlin 1932) 



Sources of Data, Baltic Sea 

Bulletin Trimestriel des R6sultats acquis pendant les 
croisieres periodiques. Public par Conseil Interna- 
tional. Copenh. Annee 1902-03, 03-04, etc.-1908 
(Danish, Finnish, German, and Swedish observations). 
(Copenhagen 1903-08) 

Bulletin Hydrographique. Publi6 par Conseil Interna- 
tional (as continuation of the above series) Copenhagen. 
Ann6e 1908-09, 1909 etc. 1914. 1920-21-22-23, 1925 etc. 
1931. (Danish, Esthonian, Finnish, German, Polish 
(below 100 meters), Russian and Swedish observations. 
The Finnish observations later than 1928 incl. may also 
be found in Havforskningsinstituttets Skrift No. 66, 
70 etc.) (Copenhagen 1910- ) 

Havforskningsinstituttets Skrift. No. 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 16, 
20, 21, 26, 27, 30, 32, 34, 38, 39, 45, 46, 49, 51, 58, 65, 66, 
70, 75, 78, 81, 82. (Helsingfors 1920- ) 
No. 1: Hydrographische Untersuchungen im Nordlichen 

Teile der Ostsee etc. 1898-1904. (Helsingfors 1907) 
No. 7: Rolf Witting: Zusammenfassende Ubersicht der 
Hydrographie des Bottnischen und Finnischen Meer- 
busen etc. nach den Untersuchungen bis Ende 1910. 
(Helsingfors 1912) 
No. 8: Rolf Witting: Beobachtungen von Temperatur und 
Salzgehalt an festen Stationen in 1900-10. (Helsing- 
fors 1912) 
No. 10: Rolf Witting: Jahrbuch 1911 enthaltend hydrogr. 
Beobachtungen in den Finland umgebenden Meeren. 
(Helsingfors 1912) 
No. 12: Rolf Witting: Jahrbuch 1912 enthaltend et cetera. 

(Helsingfors 1913) 
No. 13: Rolf Witting: Jahrbuch 1913 enthaltend et cetera. 
(Helsingfors 1914) 

Lebendinzeff, a. a.: Hydrologische und hydrochem. 
Untersuchungen d. Ostsee Aug. -Sept. 1908. (St. 
Petersburg 1910) 

PuTNiNs, R.: Die hydrographischen Ergebnisse der let- 
tischen Terminfahrt 

and 

Putnins, R.: Observations de profondeur du Bateau de 
I'Etat Hidrografs Folia Zoologica et Hydrobio- 
logica. Vol. I, 1929. (Riga) 

RuppiN, Ernst: Die Belt- und die Ostsee im November 
1912. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen 
Meteorology, Heft 6, 1913. (Berlin 1913) 

ScHULZ, Bruno: Hydrographische Untersuchungen beson- 
ders ueber den Durchluftungszustand in der Ostsee im 
Jahre 1922 (Forschungsschiffe Nautilus und Ska- 
gerak). Aus dem Archiv der deutschen Seewarte) 
XLI, No. 1. (Hamburg 1923) 

SoHULZ, Bruno: Hydrographische Beobachtungen ins- 
besondere ueber die Kohlensaure in der Nord- und 
Ostsee im Sommer 1921 (Forschungsschiffe Poseidon 
und Skagerak). Aus dem Archiv der deutschen 
Seewarte, XL, No. 2. (Hamburg 1922) 



12 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



ATLANTIC OCEAN: HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE, SALINITY AND 

DENSITY, AT STANDARD DEPTHS' 

By GEORG WtJST 

Inslilul fur Meereskunde, Berlin, Germany 

Plates 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 



1. The Source Material 

In an endeavor to indicate the thermohaline 
constitution of the oceans in relation to the deep 
circulation of the water masses, the procedure is 
not by presenting the data in horizontal and vertical 
sections but by presenting them as curved surfaces 
which correspond to the contours of the core layers 
(Kernschichten) of the stratospheric water bodies. 
After having first achieved in this way a representa- 
tion in space of the extension and the mixing of the 
core water masses, we are prepared for a complete 
understanding of the horizontal distribution of 
temperature, salinity, and density at standard 
depths. Therefore, the construction of the charts, 
with which the work originally began, is placed at 
the end of our investigation. The first fundamental 
preparation for this goes back to A. Merz himself, 
who, before the expedition, had planned (after 1922) 
a card catalogue of all hydrographic observations 
in the three oceans after the dates of the Challen- 
ger and Gazelle expeditions; and for the Atlantic 
Ocean had completed it for the condition of research 
up to the beginning of the Meteor expedition. 
A. Merz- has reported in detail in another place on 
the initiation of the card catalogue, with the 
preparation of which at that time Doctor H. H. F. 
Meyer was especially entrusted, and on the point of 
view, which fixed the method for obtaining values 
at standard depths. After the end of the expedition 
the author has carried forward along the lines 
laid down by Merz the card catalogue for the 
Atlantic ocean, concerning which more detailed 
information is given in volume 4 of this work, pp. 7 
et seq. Work on the exhaustive collection of all 
available, uniformly reduced, and prepared observa- 
tional material took, as a result of the greatly 
increased number of deep-sea investigations since 
the Meteor Expedition, so extensive a scope that 
it could be handled only by a series of cooperators, 

' Translated by T. VVayland Vaughan from "Schichtung 
und Zirkulation des Atlantischen Ozeans," Zweite Liefer- 
ung "die Stratosphiire." VVissensch. Ergeb. der Deutsehen 
Atlantischen Expedition auf dem Forsehungs und Ver- 
messungssehiff Meteor 1925-1927, Vol. 6, 1st Ft., pp. 224- 
233, 248-251, Beilagen 32-35, 1935. 

^Preus. Akad. Wissensch. Phys.-Math. KI., Ber., 1925, 
vol. 31, p. 58. 



of whom special mention should here be made of 
Doctor G. Bohnecke, Doctor G. Dietrich, Doctor 
H. H. F. Meyer, and the technical as.sistants. Misses 
M. A.sche, J. Peter, and J. Zietz. The number of 
the stations recorded in the card catalogue soon 
exceeded 10,000. In order not to jeopardize the 
execution of the Merz plan to represent the constitu- 
tion of the oceans on charts of oceanographic factors, 
the author next eliminated all of the shelf regions 
and adjacent seas except the Caribbean Sea, and 
devoted attention only to stations exceeding 200 
meters in depth in the open Atlantic Ocean. For 
the open Atlantic Ocean the northern limit was 
taken as the 65th degree of latitude at the Faroe- 
Shetland Swell ; the limit for the Pacific Ocean was 
fLxed at the 70th meridian of west longitude; and 
that for the Indian Ocean at the 35th meridian of 
ea.st longitude. 

After the exclusion of the stations for which there 
are only bottom observations, the results obtained 
from a study of those that exceed 4,000 meters in 
depth are presented elsewhere,' and after the elimi- 
nation of all defective series, there remain a total 
of 3,440 stations with serial measurement of tem- 
perature and about 3,100 with simultaneous serial 
measurements of salinity, executed by about 70 
research vessels in the years between 1873 and 1934. 
For each station large scale vertical curves of tem- 
perature and salinity were constructed. When 
necessary the results of the different expeditions 
were uniformly reduced to depths in meters, tem- 
peratures to degrees centigrade, and, salinities were 
reported in conformity to Knudsen's hydrographic 
tables. The values for salinity were, when it 
appeared necessary, recalculated^ and tested by the 
correlation Temperature and Salinity in order to 
recognize those of defective values, and to calculate 
the corresponding salinity for the intermediate 
depths in which there were only temperature data. 
The vertical curves were, in so far as possible, laid 
out in geographical order so that in working up the 
series comparisons could be made between neigh- 

' This volume, 1st Lieferung. 

* For example for the Challenger and other series 
compare: L. Moller: Zur Kritik und Aufbereitung der 
Dichte- und Salzgehaltswerte iilterer Expeditionen: Veroff. 
Inst. f. Meereskde., Reihe A, H. 15, Berlin 1926. 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



13 



boring stations. While the plotting of the observa- 
tion points was mostly assigned to technical as- 
sistants, the vertical curves were constructed with 
the greatest possible care by scientific workers. 
From these curves the temperatures and salinities 
were taken with estimates to parts per hundred for 
the standard depths, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 
1,250, 1,500, 1,750, 2,000, 2,500, 3,000, 3,500, 4,000, 
4,500, and 5,000 meters. For the older temperature- 
series Professor Merz, himself, had completed the 
work. These values together with the abbrevia- 
tions of the names of the expeditions and of the 
months of the observations, with the appropriate 
isobaths, were plotted on surface-true charts on a 
scale of 1:20 million; for the regions in which there 
are more numerous observations such as the South 
Antilles Sea, Newfoundland, and the west European 
continental slope, special charts on a larger scale 
were constructed. On the basis of the interpolated 
values of temperature and salinity, the density 
values were calculated, which because of the general 
greater con.stancy at deep levels made possible 
another test of the data. In the case of strongly 
discrepant values it was possible in most instances to 
decide whether the error lay in the measurement 
of the temperature or in the determination of the 
salinity, or whether in the construction of the 
vertical curves insufficient attention was paid to the 
correlation of Temperature-Salinity and whether a 
.subsequent equalization of the curves for both 
factors was necessary. It results from this graphical 
investigation of the values at standard depths and 
from the construction of horizontal charts, tempera- 
ture, salinity, and density, that the curves may 
not be constructed one independently of the other, 
but that because of the essential relation between 
the three factors every bulge in a salinity curve 
necessarily requires a definite course of the tem- 
perature curve, and that the density in depth should 
show no irregularities. So far as it is attainable by 
present state of the investigation, the charts of the 
three factors must be drawn so that one is com- 
parable with the other. Naturally it is not possible 
to exclude all errors in working up so heterogeneous 
material. Many bulges and peculiarities in the 
isotherms, isohalines, and isopycnics apparently are 
attributable to such sources of error. Among the 
sources of error, above all other uncertainties that 
manifest themselves, are those which result from 
interpolation from observations with relatively 
wide vertical observational intervals. These uncer- 
tainties, especially in the temperature, exceed in 



most ca.ses all other sources of error in the measure- 
ments; they are uncontrollable in amount if inter- 
mediate maxima or minima occur between the 
points at which measurements are made. 

A. TEMPERATURE 

In this presentation of facts it seems superfluous 
to give a critical review of the methods of measuring 
temperatures on the different ships, as has been 
done for the measurement of bottom temperatures.* 
Also for the present purpose the deep sea thermome- 
ters used since 1873 may in general be regarded as 
.sufficiently precise. With the old observations by 
means of maximum-minimum thermometers, the 
errors in measurement are mostly due to the subse- 
quent displacement of the index. Systematic 
deviations even in the depth of the intermediate 
temperature maxima, where such deviations are to 
be expected on account of the principle of measure- 
ments on which the extreme thermometers are 
based, are so in.significant that they play no role 
on the horizontal charts. Rather is it necessary 
to reckon with systematic errors in the measure- 
ments with reversing thermometers of the old 
construction in the years 1885 to 1905. Then in 
most cases, because of the absence of an auxiliary 
thermometer, the subsequent expansion of the 
broken quicksilver mass was not eliminated from 
the thermometric reading. The temperatures re- 
ported by such research vessels as the Albatross, 
Belgica, Princess Alice, and probably also in 
part those of the Gauss and Pourquoi Pas, are 
notably too high, particularly in the great depths 
of the tropics and the subtropics. With the excep- 
tion of the Meteor, Atlantis, and in part the 
Deutchland, which controlled the depth of the 
reversal by thermometric measurement, we must 
consider in all serial measurements systematic 
errors which result from the failure to take into 
account the wire angle produced by the drifting of 
the vessel. Because of the strong vertical gradients 
there, errors due to this cause occur in numerous 
serial measurements in the upper water layers of the 
tropics. The strikingly high values which occur in 
numerous series of the National, occasionally also 
in those of the Berlin, Discovery, Margrethe, 
and Valdivia can be attributed to too great wire 
angle. Finally there remains to be considered that 
the measurements were made in different months 
and years since 1873, and that even the deeper layers 

' Compare, this volume, 1st Lieferung, pp. 12 et seq. 



14 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



obviously are not free from marked periodic and 
secular changes of oceanographic factors which on 
the horizontal charts are expressed as local devia- 
tions. In the higher latitudes, where such secular 
changes are especially marked, the stations occupied 
during the summer half of the year are strongly 
predominant. But, as has been said, in addition 
to all of these errors and disturbing factors, comes 
the uncertainty contingent upon interpolation from 
inadequate vertical observational intervals, and this 
source of error is many times the most important. 
All strongly discrepant values were placed in paren- 
theses on the horizontal charts, as soon as they could 
be attributed with some probability to one of the 
designated sources of error, and in the construction 
of the isotherms they were considered either not 
at all or only with caution. The following table 38 
gives a statistical summary of the number of sta- 
tions with the serial measurement of temperatures, 
made since 1873 by research vessels and cable 
ships in the open Atlantic Ocean and available at the 
Institut fiir Meereskunde at the beginning of 1934.' 
Four layers, 200-1000 m., 1250-2000 m., 1250-2000 
m., 2500-4000 m., and 4000-5000 m., are recognized. 
The catalogue of sources is given in the Appendix. 
The detailed station li.st and the four charts (supple- 
ments XXXII-XXXVI) of the source material 
make clear the status of the investigation of the 
open Atlantic Ocean in the four principal layers 
below 200 meters. Both of the uppermost layers 
(200-1000, 1250-2000), considering the great extent 
of the ocean, can be regarded as relatively well 
investigated (although in the second layer there 
are less than one half as many serial measurements 
as in the uppermost layer). But for the deeper 
layers, greater than 2000 meters, the only relatively 
well explored regions are the regions investigated by 
the Meteor, and the South Antilles Sea, the prin- 
cipal region of work of the Discovery E.xpedition. 
Of the 743 serial measurements which have yielded 
the material for the layer between 1250 and 2000 
meters the Meteor has supplied 275 series (includ- 
ing the Greenland voyage), and the three ships of 
the Discovery Expedition have supplied 254 series, 
which are predominantly in the South Antilles Sea. 
Then follows the Atlantis with 173 series of closely 

' For this opportunity I express the thanks of the Institut 
fur Meereskunde to Professor H. Bigelow and Dr. Seiwell 
for making available manuscript material of the Atlantis 
Expeditions, to Professor Fleming and Professor H. U. 
Sverdrup for similar material of the Carnegie Expedition, 
and to Professor Helland-Hansen, Professor H. U. Sver- 
drup, and Doctor H. Mosby for such material from the 
expedition of the Nobvegia. 



spaced stations, along lines of special profiles in the 
northwest Atlantic. As the charts show, the 
Meteor in its investigation has placed great weight 
on the investigation of the deepest levels (> 4000 
meters), which as a rule have been neglected. Of 
the 126 series which have supplied values for the 
horizontal charts (4000 and 5000 meters), the 
Meteor has contributed 77. 

B. SALINITY AND DENSITY 

In the source material of the salinities we have 
recognized two fundamentally different groups: 
(1) Those in which the salinities were determined 
by physical methods — hydrometer, electrical con- 
ductivity (salinity-tester) — which show great un- 
certainties; and (2) Those which depend upon the 
chemical method of chlorine titration and which 
because of the standardization of the method 
(normal water) are mostly comparable. The series 
of salinities obtained by the use of hydrometers, 
which constitute only about three per cent of those 
for the uppermost layers and a still smaller propor- 
tion for the lower layers, notwithstanding modern 
methods of handling data, are eliminated from the 
observational material above considered. After the 
elimination of entirely defective values through the 
correlation — salinity, such data are utilized only as 
auxiliary points in regions that are poor in observa- 
tions. The method of electrical conductivity (salin- 
ity-tester), used on the vessels of the Ice Patrol 
and on the Carnegie' apparently because of ther- 
mal disturbances, is also not sufficiently accu- 
rate to recognize the finer differences in salinity in 
the greater depths. In depths of more than 2000 
meters we have therefore placed in parentheses 
those values obtained in this way. Our salinity 
charts therefore represent only the distribution of 
the chlorine content which has been transformed 
into salinity according to the recognized relation of 
chlorine to salinity.* As already noted, the salinity 

' According to a communication in a letter from Pro- 
fessor Sverdrup the limit of error of the electrical method 
in comparison with that of titration for chlorine reaches 
about 0.04 Voo in salinity. On our salinity charts for 
1.500-4500 meters in depth the Carnegie salinity in the open 
Atlantic Ocean shows on the average around 0.03-0.04 Voo 
too low, as does also a comparative consideration of the 
curves S-f (t) of the Carnegie stations with the neighboring 
stations of other expeditions. (In some places the devia- 
tion of the Carnegie salinites varies between —0.10 and 

+0.02 Voo)- , , , 

» Since doubt has recently been expressed as to whether 
the composition of sea water is sufficiently constant for such 
a calculation, it has been proposed by Carter, Moberg, 
Skogsberg, and Thompson, that it would be more precise to 
abandon this transformation and in its place present charts 
of chlorine-content. The author cannot agree to this step 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



15 



values were tested by the construction of the curves 
showing the relation of salinity to temperature, and 
defective measurements were recognized in this way 
and discarded; for the intermediate depths in which 
only temperature data were available, tiepoints 
were found for the construction of the salinity 
vertical curves. Faulty determinations were ex- 
cluded through this procedure and comparability 
with temperature made sure. But the uncertainties 
of interpolation which are due to the many times 
too great vertical intervals between observations 
could not be eliminated, and to such sources of 
error are attributable many irregularities in the 
isohalines and isopycnics. 

Table 39 gives the statistical summary of the 
number of salinity series which constitute the 
source material for the horizontal charts of salinity 
and density in the four layers. In the uppermost 
layer (200-1000 m.) lie the impressive number of 
3047 stations with serial salinities, which are only 
slightly less than the corresponding number of 
serial temperatures. The great progress which is 
shown in the investigation of the salinity of the 
deeper layers since 1921 is obvious when one calls 
to mind that W. Brennecke' could base his first 
incomplete attempt to construct charts of the 
salinity distribution for six deep horizons in 200- 
1000 m., on only about 100-150 stations, and in 
some parts of the ocean, because of the absence of 
observations, had to leave out entirely the drawing 
of isohalines. Highly noteworthy is the number of 
serial salinities, 1226, in the next layer (1250- 
2000 m.). Only 622 stations have supplied material 
for the layer 2500-4000 m. When one considers 
the corresponding station chart, he recognizes that 
up to now, work has been done in a systematic way 
only by the Meteor, 238 series, in its two regions 

because we must take into account conclusions based on the 
usage for many years of the determined salinity values. It 
may be recommended, however, that in the future for these 
determinations the symbol Sqi be used. 

' Deutsche Seewarte, Archiv., 1921, p. 165 and plates 
13 and 14. 



of work in the south and north Atlantic; and 
by the Discovery, 154 series, in the South Antilles 
Sea; while the Atlantis has worked along profiles 
the important number of 100 series. For the two 
lowest horizons (4600 and 5000 m.) the Meteor 
has contributed 72 series, that is two thirds of the 
total material. The charts show with clearness 
the gaps in the thermo-haline investigation of the 
Atlantic Ocean: North of 15° north and also in the 
South Polar Sea there is a series of 5°-fields from 
which there are no serial measurements of tempera- 
ture and salinity at depths of 2500 meters and more ; 
and as regards its greatest depths, the water of the 
north Atlantic Ocean north of 20° is almost un- 
explored. 

The results from the working up of all available 
source material are presented on 45 charts'" of 
which 15 are devoted to temperature, salinity, and 
density. 

The foregoing account of the horizontal distribu- 
tion of temperature, salinity, and density at standard 
depths in the Atlantic Ocean by Professor Wiist 
should be supplemented by mention of "A Study 
of the circulation of the Western North Atlantic," 
by C. O'D. Iselin.'' This memoir makes important 
additions to knowledge of the oceanography of the 
part of the Atlantic with which it deals. The 
bibliography accompanying it contains references 
to several papers published subsequent to the com- 
pletion of Wiist 's manuscript. 

Another paper of importance in this connection 
is one by C. G. Rossby entitled "Dynamics of steady 
ocean currents in the light of experimental fluids 
mechanics."'- This publication deals rather with a 
possible interpretation than with the presentation 
of data. 

'" Atlas to this volume. 

" Papers in Physical Oceanography and Meteorology, 
published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, vol. 4, 
No. 4, pp. 101, August, 1936. 

'- Pap. in Phys. Oceanog., Mass. Inst. Technology and 
Woods Hole Oceanogr. Institution, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 43, 1936. 



ABREVI- 

ATION 



Ab 



Lists of Sources of Data 

Abbremations of the Ships' Names and Indications of the Sources 



SHIP 

"Acadia' 



"Albatross" 



TEAB OF OBSERVATION SOURCE AND REMARKS 

1915 P. Bjerkan, Results of the hydrographical observations 

made by Dr. J. Hjort in the Canadian Atlantic waters. 
Ottawa 1919. 

1884-85 C. H. Townsend, U. S. Fish Coram. Report for 1900, Wash- 
ington 1910. 

1919-20 Report U. S. Comm. of Fisheries for 1920. App. Ill, Wash- 
ington 1921. 



16 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



ABBEVI- 
NO. ATION 



17 



Ah 



Al 



Da 



18 


Di 


19 


Di' 


20 


Eo 


21 


Ex 


22 


F 



BHIF 

"Armauer Hansen" 



"Albacora" 



5 


An 


"Antarctic" 


6 


At 


"Atlantis" 


7 


Ba 


"Bache" 


8 


Be 


"Belgica" 


9 


BI 


"Berlin" 


10 


Bu ' 


"Buccaneer" 


11 


Cdo 


"Cinco de Outubro' 


12 


Cg 


"Carnegie" 


13 


Ch 


"Challenger" 


14 


Cha 


"Challenger" 


15 


. On 


"Chance" 


16 


D 


"Deutschland" 



'Dana" 



"Discovery" 
"Discovery 11" 
"Eduardo Dato' 
"Explorer" 
"Frithjof" 



TEAR OF OBSEBV ATION SOURCES AND REMARKS 

1913-14 Bj Helland-Hansen u. F. Nansen, The eastern North Atlan- 
tic. Geofysiske Publikasjoner. Vol. IV, Nr. 2. Oslo 
1926. 

Ebenda. 

Rapports et proces-verbaux (Conseil permanent interna- 
tional pour I'exploration de la mer). Bd. 40 u. 44. 
Kopenhagen 1926 u. 27. 

Ebenda. Rapport Atlantique (Cons. perm, intern.). Bd. 
55 u. 70. 1927-29. Kopenhagen 1929, 1931. 

O. Nordenskjold, Die ozeanographischen Ergebnisse. 
Wiss. Erg. d. Schwed. Siidpolar-Expedition. Bd. I, 2. 
Stockholm 1917. 

Bulletin hydrographique 1932 nebst Appendice pour 1931 
(Conseil perm, internat.). Kopenhagen 1933. 

Report U. S. Comm. of Fisheries for 1915. App. V, Wash- 
ington 1917. 

Res. du voyage du S. Y. "Belgica" 1897/99. Oceanog- 
raphie. Antwerpen 1908. 

Handschrift der Beobachtungen des Kreuzers "Berlin" im 
Institut f. Meereskunde Berlin. 

J. Y. Buchanan, The exploration of the Gulf of Guinea. 
The Scottish Geogr. Magazine 1888 (abgedruckt in: J. Y. 
Buchanan, Scientific papers, Cambridge 1913). 

Rapports et proces verbaux. (Cons. perm, internat.) Bd. 
35. Kopenhagen 1925. 

Handschriftliches Material der Carnegie Institution (Prof- 
Fleming). 

Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H. M. S. 
Challenger, Physics and chemistry. Vol. I, London 1884. 

Bulletin hydrographique 1932. (Cons. perm, internat.) 
Kopenhagen 1933. 

C. Iselin, A report on the coastal waters of Labrador. Pro- 
ceedings Americ. Ac. of Arts and Sciences. Vol. 66, 
Nr. 1. 1930. 

W. Brennecke, Die ozeanographischen Arbeiten der Deuts- 
chen Antarktischen Expedition 1911-12. Aus dem Archiv 
d. Dt. Seewarte, Hamburg 1921. 

The Danish Expedition 1920-22. Oceanogr. Reports Nr. 1, 
Introduction by J. Schmidt. Kopenhagen 1929. 

J. P. Jacobsen, Contribution to the hydrography of the 
North-Atlantic. The Dana Exp. 1921-22. Copenhagen 
1929, S. 54. 

Bulletin hydrographique 1931. (Cons. perm, internat.) 
Kopenhagen 1932. 

Bulletin hydrographique 1932. (Cons. perm, internat.) 
Kopenhagen 1933. 

Discovery Reports Vol. I. Station List 1925-1927. Cam- 
bridge 1929. 

Discovery Reports. Vol. IV. Station List 1929-1931. 
Cambridge 1932. 

Rapports et proces verbaux. Rapport Atlantique (Cons, 
perm, internat.) Bd. 55. Kopenhagen 1929. 

Bulletin hydrographique 1929 u. 1931. (Cons. perm, in- 
ternat.) 

Kopenhagen 1930 u. 1932. F. Nansen, The waters of the 
north eastern North Atlantic (Internat. Rev. d. ges. 
Hydrobiol. u. Hydrogr. Hydrogr. Suppl. 2. Serie). 
Leipzig 1913. 



1922 
1925-26 



1927-29 



1901-02 



1931-32 



1914 



1898 



1924 



1886 



1923 



1928 



1873-76 



1932 



1926 



1911-12 



1921-22 



1925 



1931 



1932 



1926-27 



1930-31 



1927-28 



1929-31 



1910 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



17 





ABREVI- 




NO. 


ATION 


SHIP 


23 


Fk 


"Falken" 


24 


n 


"Flinders" 


25 


G 


"Gazelle" 


26 


Ga 


"GauC" 


27 


GGr 


"General Greene 


28 


Gh 


"Godthaab" 


29 


Go 


"Goldfinch" 


30 


Gr 


"Grampus" 


31 


Gs 


"Goldseeker" 



YEAR OF OBSERVATION 



SOURCES AND REMARKS 



32 



41 



HI 



37 Mo 



38 Mo 



39 Mr 



40 Ms 



Mt 



"Helga" 



33 


Hx 


"Huxley" 


34 


J 


"Ingolf" 


35 


M 


"Moltke" 


36 


Ma 


"Margrethe' 



"Modoc' 



"Mo we' 



'Muirchu" 



"Michael Sars" 



'Meteor" 



1912 

1928 

1874-76 

1901-03 
1931-32 

1928 

1902-03 

1914-16 

1906-07 

1909 
1910-11 
1905-13 

1909 

1895-96 

1882 
1913-14 



1925-26 

1911-12 

1925-30 

1932 

1900-02 

1902 

1910 

1924 
1925-27 



Bulletin hydrographique 1911-12 (Cons. perm, internal. ) 
Kopenhagen 1913. 

Bulletin hydrographique 1928. (Cons. perm, internat.) 
Kopenhagen 1929. 

Die Forschungsreise S. M. S. "Gazelle" 1874/76. Hrsg. v. 
d. Hydrographischen Amt der Admiralitat. Bd. II, 
Berlin 1888. 

E. V. Drygalski, Ozean und Antarktis. Deutsche Siidpolar- 
Expedition. Bd. VIII. Berlin 1925. 

International Ice Observation and Ice Patrol Service 
1931/32 (U. S. Treasury Department, Coast Guard Bull. 
21). Washington 1932/33. 

Bulletin hydrographique 1928. (Cons. perm, internat.) 
Kopenhagen 1929. 

List of oceanic depths for 1903. Hydrogr. Department of 
the Admiralty. London 1904. 

H. B. Bigelow, Doc. 969. Bureau of Fisheries. Washing- 
ton 1927. 

Bulletin des resultats Annee 1906-07. (Cons. perm, in- 
ternat.) Kopenhagen 1908. 

Ebenda. Annee 1909/10. Kopenhagen 1910. 

Ebenda. Annge 1910/11. Kopenhagen 1912. 

Bulletin des r6sultats. (Teil B) bzw. Bulletin hydro- 
graphique. AnnSe 1904-05, 1906-07, 1908-09, 1909-10, 
1910-12, 1912-13. (Cons. perm, internat.) Kopen- 
hagen 1906-1914. 

Bulletin des resultats. Annfee 1908-09. (Cons. perm, 
internat.) Kopenhagen 1909. 

M. Knudsen, Hydrography. The Danish "Ingolf" Expedi- 
tion. Vol. I, Nr. 2. Kopenhagen 1899. 

Annalen der Hydrographie usw. 1882, S. 741. 

Bulletin hydrographique. Ann6e 1913-14. (Cons. perm, 
internat.). Kopenhagen 1915. J. P. Jacobsen, Contri- 
bution to th* hydrography of the Atlantic. Medd elelser 
f. Komm. f. Havunders0gelser, Hydrografi, Bd. II, Nr. 5, 
Kopenhagen 1916. 

International ice observations and ice patrol service 1925, 
1926 (U. S. Treasury Department Coast Guard, Bull. 
13, 15). Washington 1926, 1927. 

G. Schott u. B. Schulz, Die Forschungsreise S. M. S. 
"Mowe." Aus dem Archiv der Deutschen Seewarte. 
1914. H. 1. Hamburg 1914. 

Rapports et proces verbaux (Cons. perm, internat.). Bd. 
40, 55, 70, 76. Rapport Atlantique 1925, 1927. Kopen- 
hagen 1926, 1929, 1931. 

Bulletin hydrographique 1932. (Cons. perm, internat.) 
Kopenhagen 1933. 

Bj. Helland-Hansen und F. Nansen, The Norwegian Sea. 
Kristiania 1909. 

Bull, des resultats. (Cons. perm, internat.) Kopen- 
hagen 1903. 

Bj. Helland-Hansen, Physical oceanography and meterol- 
ogy. Results of the "Michael Sars"-North Atlantic deep 
sea expedition 1910. Vol. I. Bergen 1930. 

Rapports et proces verbaux. (Cons. perm, internat.) 
Bd. 56. Kopenhagen 1929. 

G. Wiist u. a., Das ozeanographische Beobachtungsmaterial 
(Serienmessungen). Wiss. Ergebn. d. Deutschen At- 
lantischen Expedition auf dem Forschungs- und Ver- 
messungsschiff "Meteor" 1925-27. Bd. IV, Zweiter Teil. 
Berlin 1932. 



18 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



ABBEVI- 
NO. ATION 



TEAR OF OBSERVATION 



80UHCES AND REMARKS 



42 


Mv 


43 


N 


44 


Nr 


45 


Pb 


46 


PI 


47 


Pn 


48 


Pol 


49 


Pp 



50 



55 



58 



Pr 



Sc 



56 St 

57 T 



Ta 



"Marques de la Victoria" 

"National" 

"Norvegia" 

Portugiesische Bewach- 
ungsschiffe 

"Planet" 

"Proserpina" 

"Polaris" 

"Pourquois pas?" 



"Princesse Alice" 



51 


R 


"Romanche" 


1883 


52 


Ra 


"Rambler" 


1895 


53 


Re 


"Research" 


1900 


54 


Ry 


"Rosemary" 


1929-30 



'Scotia'' 



"Stephan" 
"Thor" 



"Tanche" 



H. Wattenberg, Das chemische Beobachtungsmaterial und 
seine Gewinnung. Ebenda Bd. VIII, Berlin 1933. 
1929-30 Handschrift der Beobachtungen der Gronlandfahrten 
1929/30, im Institut fur Meereskunde Berlin. 

1925 Rapports et proces verbaux (Cons. perm, internat.). Bd. 

40. Kopenhagen 1926. 
1889 O. Kriimmel, Geophysikalische Beobachtungen. Ergeb- 

nisse der Plankton-Expedition. Kiel 1893. 
1927-31 Handschriftliches Material des Geofysiske Institut in 

Bergen. 
1910-11 O. Pettersson, Einige Bemerkungen zu G. Schotts Geog- 

raphie des Atlantischen Ozeans. (Internat. Revue d. 

ges. Hydrobiol. u. Hydrogr.) Leipzig 1913. 
1906 W. Brennecke, Ozeanographie. Forschungsreise S. M. S. 

"Planet" 1906/07. Bd. III. Berlin 1909. 

1926 Rapports et proces-verbaux (Cons. perm, internat.). Bd. 

44, Kopenhagen 1927. 
1932 Bulletin hydrographique 1932. (Cons. perm, internat.) 

Kopenhagen 1933. 
1909 J. Rouch, Oceanographie physique. Deuxieme expedition 

antarctique fran^aise. Paris 1913. 
1912-13 J. Charcot, Temperatures et salinit6s recueillis dans I'At- 
lantique, le Golf de Gascogne et la Manche occidentale. 
Annales hydrographiques 1921. 
1921-22 Rapports et proces-verbaux (Cons. perm, internat.). Bd. 
29 u. 31. Rapport Atlantique 1921. Kopenhagen 1923. 
1902-03 J. Thoulet, Memoires oc6anographiques. I. Serie. Resul- 
tats des Campagnes Scientifiques, accomplies sur son 
Yacht par Albert ler. Fasc. 29. Monaco 1905. 
1904 G. H. Allemandet, Analyse des echantillons d'eau de mer 

recueillis pendant la campagne du yacht "Princesse 
Alice" en 1904. Bull, de Musee oceanographique de 
Monaco Nr. 43. 1905. 
M. Martial, Sur les sondages effectues par le Romanche. 

Annales hydrographiques. Paris 1884. 
List of oceanic depths 1895. Hydrographic Department 

Admiralty. London 1896. 
List of oceanic depths 1900 usvv. London 1901. 
Bulletin hydrographique 1929 u. 1930. (Cons. perm, 
internat.) Kopenhagen 1930 u. 1931. 
1903-04 W. S. Bruce, The temperatures, specific gravities and salin- 
ities of the Weddell Sea and of the North and South At- 
lantic Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society. 
Edinburgh Bd. 51, Teil I, Nr. 4. 1906. 
1913 Report on the work carried out by the S. S. Scotia 1913. 

London 1914. 
1911 Handschriftliches Material der Kabeldampferreise von 

Prof. A. Merz. Im Institut fiir Meereskunde Berlin. 
1903 Bulletin des resultats. Annee 1903-1904. Teil B (Cons, 

perm, internat.). Kopenhagen 1904. 
1904-05 J. N. Nielsen, Contribution to the hydrography of the 
north-eastern part of the Atlantic. Meddelelser fra 
Komm. f. Havunders0gelser, Serie Hydrografi. Bd. I, 
Nr. 9, Kopenhagen 1927. 
1906-10 Jobs. Schmidt, Report on the Danish Oceanographical Ex- 
peditions 1908-1910 to the Mediterranean and adjacent 
seas. Vol. I. Kopenhagen 1912. 
1908 Bulletin des Resultats. Annee 1907-08, Teil B (Cons. 

perm, internat.). Kopenhagen 1908. 
1923 Rapports et proces-verbaux. Bd. 35 (Cons. perm, inter- 

nat.). Kopenhagen 1925. 




< _5 



INTERNATIONAL' ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 8 15 




Symbols 
Temperature Salinity Depth (Meiers) 
» D 500-1000 

• O 1000-3000 

■ a OVER 3000 



Stations Occupied by DISCOVERY II in the South Atlantic and the South Pacific, 1933-1935 



/ 



\ 




\ 



^c. 



'X: 



rriMIJoS 3ltU7Ail3<)M3T 



\ % 



•*> 



ctiil oSi-'I ,t;ig;:j/.H uiuoa asT aWA ditzajtA Hraoa anr lu il i.fia..UJc5iU. yu -laiija.O BViujiA'i''!'. 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



19 



HO. 

59 
60 


ABREVI- 
ATION 

Td 
Tp 


SHIP 

"Tadorne" 
"Tampa" 


61 


V 


"Vitiaz" 


62 


Va 


"Valdivia' 



63 Vi 



"Viking" 



1925-29 

1886-89 
1898 

1913 



64 


Vk 


"Vikingen" 


1929-30 
1930 


65 


Wa 


"Waterwitch" 


1894-95 


66 


WS 


"William Scoresby" 


1926-27 
1928-29 
1929-31 


67 


X 


"Xauen" 


1930 
1932 


68 


0. N. 


Ohne Namensangabe 


1927 



TEAR OF OBSERVATION SOURCES AND REUARKS 

1925 Ebenda Bd. 40. Kopenhagen 1926. 

International ice observation and ice patrol service. 1925 
ff. (U. S. Treasury Department Coast Guard.) Washing- 
ton 1926 ff. 

Makaroff, Le Vitiaz et I'ocean pacifique. St. Petersburg 
1894. 

G. Sehott, Ozeanographie und maritime Meteorologie. 
Wiss. Ergebn. der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition auf dem 
Dampfer "Valdivia." Jena 1902. 

Th. P. Funder, Hydrographic investigations from the 
Danish school ship Viking in the South Atlantic and 
Pacific. Meddelelser fra Komm. f. Havunders0ge!ser. 
Bd. II, Nr. 6. Kopenhagen 1916. 

Journal du Conseil (Cons. perm, internat.) Vol. V, Nr. 3. 
Kopenhagen 1930. 

Hvalr&dets Skrifter. Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi 
Oslo Nr. 2. Oslo 1932. 

List of oceanic depths 1894, 1895. Hydrographic Depart- 
ment Admiralty London 1895, 1896. 

Discovery Reports Vol. I, Station List 1925-1927. Cam- 
bridge 1929. 

Discovery Reports Vol. Ill, Station List 1928-1929. Cam- 
bridge 1930. 

Discovery Reports Vol. IV, Station List 1929-1931. Cam- 
bridge 1932. 

Notas y resumas. Serie II. Nr. 39, 50, 51. Madrid 1930, 
1931. 

Bulletin hydrographiquc 1932 (Cons. perm, internat.). 
Kopenhagen 1933. 

Bulletin hydrographiquc 1927 (Cons. perm, internat). 
Kopenhagen 1928 (schottisches Beobachtungsschiff). 



SERIAL SECTIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY IN THE 
MEDITERRANEAN AND ADRIATIC SEAS 



Mediterranean Sea 
Pl.^te 9 

On the chart for the Mediterranean Sea a few- 
stations are shown in the Adriatic but the work 
done by the Austrians and the Italians cooperatively 
between 1911 and 1914 was of such outstanding 
importance that a special chart of the Adriatic has 
been prepared on which the positions of those sta- 
tions that were worked to depths of one hundred or 
more meters are shown. A list of the publications 
giving the results of these cruises is also hereto 
attached. In order to make the bibliography com- 
prehensive a reference to a paper by Merz on 
hydrographic investigations in the Gulf of Trieste 
has been included. 

Because of its dealing with the oceanographic 
features of the Mediterranean in general, mention is 
made of the paper by Prof. Gerhard Sehott entitled 
"Die Gewasser des Mittelmeeres. Vorzugsweise 
nach den Arbeiten des danischen Forschungs- 



dampfers, Thor, 1918-1910."" As a few records 
were taken from this article, it is also cited in the list 
of sources of data. 

Sources of Data 

The sources of the data for the Mediterranean 
Sea plotted on the chart are as follows : (The letters 
after the ships' names are the abbreviations used 
on the chart.) 

Admirante Lobo (AL) : de Buen, Od6n, Croisi^re oceanog- 
raphique du transport Admirante Lobo: Cons. Inter- 
nat. E.xpl. Mer, Rapports, vol. 37, pp. 33-57, 1925. 

Armauer-Hansen (AH): Helland-Hansen, Bj0rn, Avdeling 
A. Hydrografi: Det geofysiske Institutt, Saertrykk av 
Bergens Mus. Arsberetning, pp. 2-11, 1930-31. 

Dana (D): Dana Expedition. List of Stations, Dana 
Report No. 1, pp. 17-78, seven plates, 1934. Stations 
3520-3530, pp. 19, 20; stations 4026-4071, pp. 64-71. 
(The Carlsberg Foundation's Oceanographical Expedi- 
tion Round the World 1928-1930, and previous Dana 

" Ann. d. Hydr. usw. 1915. Heft 1, pp. 1-79, 8 plates. 



20 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Expeditions, under the leadership of Prof. Johannes 
Schmidt.) 

Eider and St^no (ES): Richard, J., and Sirvant, L., List 
des operations faites dans les parages de Monaco 4 bord 
d I'EiDER et du Steno pendant annees 1907, 1908, 1909: 
Musee Oc6anogr. Monaco, Bull. 160, pp. 1-153, 1910. 

GiRALDA (G): de Buen, Oden. Croisiere de la Gibalda 
(1920-21); Musee Oceanogr. Monaco, Bull. 445, pp. 
4-15, 1924. 

Hebtha (HE): Luksch, Josef, und Wolf, Julius, Berichte 
der Commission flir Erforschung des oestlichen Mittel- 
meeres: Akad. Wissensch. Wien, Denksehr., vol. 59, 
pp. 17-82, 1892. 

Najade (N): Schott, Gerhard, Die Gewasser des Mittel- 
meerea: Hydrogr. und Marit. Meteorol. Annalen 
(1915), pp. 1-79, 1915. 

NcSez de Balboa (NB) : de Buen, Oden, El Institute 
Espanol de Oceanografia y sus primeras campaiias por 
Oden de Buen: Trabajos de Oceanogr. y Biologia 
Marina, Mem. no. 1, pp. 6-24, 1916. 

Pola: Luksch, Josef, and Wolf, Julius, Berichte der Com- 
mission fiir Erforschung des oestliclien Mittelmeeres: 
Ak. Wissensch. Wien, Denksehr., Bd. 59, pp. 22-49, 
1892; Bd. 60, pp. 91-108, 1893; Bd. 61, pp. 72-91, 1894. 

Thoe (T): Schmidt, Johannes, Danish oceanographical 
expeditions 1908-1910 to the Mediterranean and adja- 
cent seas: Report, vol. 1, 1912. 

Xauen (X): de Buen, Rafael, Resultados obtenidos en las 
campaiias del Xauen por el Estrecho de Gibraltar 
en 1929: Inst. Espanol Oceanogr., Notas y Resumenes, 
Serie 2, no. 39, pp. 1-27, 1930. 

Adriatic Sea 

Plate 10 

Sources of Data 

CiCLOPE (CI): See Italian publications in attached list. 
Najade (NA): See Austrian publications in attached list. 

Literature Especially on the Periodic Cruises by the 

Austrians on the Najade and by the 

Italians on the Ciclope 

Verein zur Forderung der naturwissenschafilichen Erforsch- 
ung der Adria in Wien. 

Die erste Kreuzungsfahrt S. M. S. Najade in der Hochsee 
der Adria, 25. Februar bis 7. Marz 1911. Vor- 
liiufiger Bericht im Auftrage des Vereines zur Forder- 
ung der naturwissenschaftliohen Erforschung der 
Adria in Wien, erstattet von Prof. Dr. Ed. Briickner. 
K. k. Geograph. Gesellsch. in Wien 1911, Heft 4, 
35 pp. — 

Bericht iiber zvveite Kreuzungsfahrt S. M. S. Najade in 
der Hochsee der Adria, 16. Mai bis 4. Juni 1911. Im 
Auftrage etc., erstattet von Fregattenkapitiin W. V. 
Kesslitz, Prof. Dr. A. Grund, Prof. Dr. C. I. Cori, 
idem, 1911, Heft 9, 19 pp. 

Die dritte Terminfahrt S. M. S. Najade in der Hochsee 
der Adria, 16. August bis 5. September 1911, etc., 
erstattet von Prof. Dr. Ed. Briickner, idem, Wien, 
1912, Heft 1 u. 2, 37 pp. 

Die vierte Terminfahrt S. M. S. Najade in der Hochsee 



der Adria, 16. November bis 8. Dezember 1911, etc. 
erstattet von Prof. Dr. Alfred Grund, idem, 1912, 
Heft 4, 6 pp. 

Die fiinfte Terminfahrt S. M. S. Najade in der Hochsee 
der Adria, 16. Februar bis 11. Marz 1912, etc., erstat- 
tet von Prof. Dr. Alfred Brund, idem, 1912, Heft 9 u. 
10, S. 503-511. 

Die sechste Terminfahrt S. M. S. Najade in der Hochsee 
der Adria, 17. Mai bis 13. Juni 1912, etc., erstattet 
von Prof. Dr. Alfred Grund, idem, 1912, Heft 11 u. 
12, S. 639-349. 

Die siebente Terminfahrt S. M. S. Najade in der Hochsee 
der Adria, 16. August bis 11. September 1912, etc., 
erstattet von Prof. Dr. Alfred Grund, idem, 1913, 
Heft 3, S. 164-176. 

Die achte Terminfahrt S. M. S. Najade in der Hochsee 
der Adria, vom 16. Marz bis 1. April 1913, Idem 1913, 
Heft 9 u. 10, S. 471-487. 

Die neunte Terminfahrt S. M. S. Najade in der Hochsee 
der Adria, vom 16. Mai bis 1. Juni 1913, Vorlaufiger 
Bericht iiber die Fahrt und die hydrographischen 
P>gebnisse derselben im Auftrage des Vereines zur 
Forderung der naturwissenschaftlichen Erforschung 
der Adria in Wien, erstattet von Prof. Dr. Alfred 
Grund, Idem 1913, Heft 11 u. 12, S. 652-663. 

Die zehnte, elfte und zwolfte Terminfahrt S. M. S. Najade 
in der Hochsee der Adria, in der Zeit vom 16. August 
1913 bis 9. Marz 1914, Vorlaufiger Bericht liber die 
Fahrten und die hydrographischen etc., erstattet 
von Prof. Dr. Alfred Grund, Idem 1914, Heft 5 u. 6, 
16 pp. 
Hydrographische Untersuchungen im Golfe von Triest, 
von Dr. Alfred Merz. 11 Taf. 1. Karte, Kaiserl. 
Akad. Wissensch. Math.-Naturw. Kl., Band 87, 107 
pp. Wien, 1911. 
Permanenle Internationale Komission fiir die Erforschung 
der Adria. 

Berichte iiber die Terminfahrten. Osterreichischer Teil, 
herausgegeben vom Verein zur Forderung der 
Naturwissenschaftlichen Erforschung der Adria in 
Wien, redigiert von Prof. Dr. Ed. Briickner, No. 1-4, 
Beobachtungen auf den Terminfahrten S. M. S. 
Najade im Jahre 1911. 1. Terminfahrt: 25. Feb- 
ruar bis 7. Marz 1911, S. 1; 2. Terminfahrt: 16. Mai 
bis 4. Juni 1911, S. 19; 3. Terminfahrt 16. August bis 
5. September 1911, S. 47; 4. Terminfahrt: 16. Novem- 
ber bis 8. Dezember 1911, S. 83-119. 1912. Tafell^. 

Berichte iiber die Terminfahrten. Osterreichischer Teil, 
etc., . . . No. 5-7, Beobachtungen auf den Terminfahr- 
ten S. M. S. Najade im Jahre 1912. 5. Terminfahrt: 

16. Februar bis 11. Marz 1912, S. 1; 6. Terminfahrt: 

17. Mai bis 13. Juni 1912, S. 39; 7. Terminfahrt: 16. 
August bis 11. September 1912, S. 77-114. 1913. 
Tafel 1-3. 

Berichte iibder die Terminfahrten. Osterreichischer 
Teil, etc. No. 8-12, Beobachtungen etc. in den Jah- 
ren 1913 und 1914. 8. Terminfahrt: 16. Marz bis 1. 
April 1913, S. 1; 9. Terminfahrt: 16. Mai bis 1. Juni 
1913, S. 21; 10. Terminfahrt: 16. August bis 1. Septem- 
ber 1913, S. 41; 11. Terminfahrt: 16. November bis 6. 
Dezember 1913, S. 59; 12. Terminfahrt: 16. Februar 
bis 9. Miirz 1914, S. 81-102, 1915. Tafel 1-4. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 




Meditebrakban Sea, Serial Sections of TEMPEaATUBB and Salinity 



0001 




OCOf 




OOd 


■ 


HTAeoai 


B3T3M OOOt 



JJJifliO 



A08JAS 30 



/ 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 10 



TEMPERATURE SALINITY DEPTH (METEI S) 

. Ci 100 - 500 

• D 500 - 1000 

. O 1000 - 3000 



NA NAJAOE (1911-1914) 

CI CICLOPE (I9II-I9I4) 



1000-METER ISOBATH 




46° 



Adriatic Sea, Serial Sections op TEMPERATtJRE"'AND^SAiiiNiTy 



i i 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 




Gulf of Mexico and Cabibbban Sba, Sebial Sections of Tempebatcbe and Salinity 



YHIAflOOHAaOO 10 3T 



ITAyp. : 



I 


1 



••* \ 



-»S r.l9 



TA® 




I \ 



i 'v 



y 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



21 



R. Comilato Talassografico Ilaliano. 

Risultati fisico-chimioi delle prime cinque crociere 
Adriatiche (Agosto 1909-Febbraio 1911). Luigi di 
Marchi. Memoria III, Tab. pp. 83, 1-30, Tavole 
1-11, 1911. 

Risultati di esperienze con Galleggianti, per lo studio 
delle correnti del Mare Adriatico negli anni 1910- 
1914. Di G. Feruglio. Appendice. Le correnti 
dell'Adriatico secondo la distribuzione superficiale 
della salsedine e della temperatura. Di G. Feruglio 
e L. de Marchi (con 25 tavole ed 1 fotografia). 
Memoria LV, pp. v-xv, 1-129. 10 charts. 1920. 



Commissione inlernazionale permanenl per lo studio dell'- 
Adriatico. Boll, delle Crociere Periodiche. 

Ricerche Italiane esequite dal R. Comitato Talasso- 
grafico, Fasc. 1, Osservazioni fatte durante le 3 
crociere della R. N. Ciclope, 1. a (25 Febbraio-14 
Marzo).— 2. a (16 Maggio-11 Giugno)— 3. a (17 
Agosto-6 Settembre 1911) 53 pp., 1912. 

Fasc. 2. Same title, 4. a (15-21 Agosto)— 5. a (17 Novem- 
br(^16 Dicembre 1912). 41 pp., 1913. 

Fasc. 3. Osservazioni fatte durante le 5 crociere della 
R. N. Ciclope, 6a (26 Febbraio-9 Marzo 1913) 
7a (14 Maggio-4 Giugno 1913) ; 8a (16-31 Agosto 1913) 
9a (16-24 Novembre 1913); 10a (16 Febbraio-1 Marzo 
19 Marzo-30 April 1914). 93 pp., 1914. 



SERIAL SECTIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY IN THE 
GULF OF MEXICO AND CARIBBEAN SEA 
Plate 11 



The stations in the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Caribbean Sea for serial sections of temperature and 
salinity shown on the accompanying chart were 
derived from three sources. First, Messrs. A. E. 
Parr and C. Iselin II, compiled on a chart the posi- 
tions of all stations occupied by the Mabel Taylor 
and the Atlantis for the determinations of sub- 
surface temperatures and salinities. Reference is 
made to the two papers by Doctor Parr cited below.'* 

The next source of information is the United 
States Hydrographic Office and the Scripps Institu- 
tion of Oceanography. The Hydrographic Office 
supplied information on the positions of the stations 
occupied by the U. S. S. Hannibal. Some of the 
chemical work on the water samples collected at the 
Hannibal stations in the Caribbean Sea was done 
at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and from 
it some of the information incorporated on the chart 
was received. 

The third source of information is the Dana 

" Parr, A. E., Report on hydrographic observations in 
the Gulf of Mexico and the adjacent straits made during 
the Yale Oceanographic Expedition of the Mabel Taylor 
in 1932: Bingham Oceanographic Collection Bull., vol. 5, 
Art. 1, September, 1935. 

Parr, A. E., A contribution to the hydrography of the 
Caribbean and the Cayman Seas. (Based upon the obser- 
vations made by the Research Ship Atlantis, 1933-34.) 
Bingham Oceanographic Collections Bull., vol. 5, Art. 4, 
January, 1937. 



Expedition in 1928. The title of the publication 
in which information on the stations is given is 
contained in the footnote below. '^ 

On the chart the abbreviations for the different 
vessels are as follows: 



Atlantis 


(AT) 


Dana 


(D) 


Hannibal 


(H) 


Mabel Taylor 


(MT) 



Some consideration was given as to whether 
stations occupied a number of years ago by the 
U. S. S. Blake should be included but it was decided 
that it was preferable to omit them. Although the 
Blake's temperature records appear trustworthy, 
as they were taken with Miller-Casella maximum- 
minimum thermometers, the depths records are 
not so accurate as those reported more recently by 
vessels that use unprotected thermometers for the 
determination of depths at which observations and 
collections arc made. The older determinations of 
salinity by the use of hydrometers, in general, are 
not accurate enough for modern oceanographic work. 

" Dana Expedition. List of Stations, Dana Report 
No. 1, pp. 17-78, seven plates, 1934. Stations 3804-3809, 
3812-3973, pp. 45-60. (The Carlsberg Foundation's Oceano- 
graphical Expedition Round the World 1928-1930, and pre- 
vious Dana Expeditions, under the leadership of Pro- 
fessor Johannes Schmidt.) 



PACIFIC OCEAN 

SERIAL SECTIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 

Plate 12, 13, 14A, 14B, 15, 16, 17 



For the compilation here presented the chart 
entitled "Hydrographische Reihenmessungen seit 
1870 im Stillen Ozean mit Beobachtungen von mehr 
als 1000 m. bzw. 3000 m.," published by Defant' 
is used as a base. The data indicated on Defant's 
chart have been used by Wiist^ in his article cited in 
the footnote. Defant plotted on the chart pub- 
lished by him the data available in the Institut fiir 
Meereskunde up to February 1, 1928. 

Subsequent to the date of publication, 1929, of the 
paper by Wiist, cited above, other important con- 
tributions to the knowledge of the oceanography 
of the Pacific Ocean have been published. Some 
of these are listed opposite the names of vessels that 
have conducted oceanographic expeditions in the 
Pacific during the past few years but a few others 
should be mentioned. 

Attention will first be called to the monumental 
work of Gerhard Schott' entitled "Geographic des 
Indischen und Stillen Ozeans," published in Ham- 
burg in 1935. This work, besides describing the 
general oceanographic features of the Pacific and 
presenting many excellently executed charts, con- 
tains numerous references to literature, and there 
are two chapters devoted to the history of explora- 
tion and research in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Another paper is entitled "A Report on Oceano- 
graphical Investigations in the Peru Coastal Cur- 
rent," by E. R. Gunther,^ and a third is "The 
Hydrology of the Southern Ocean," by G. E. R. 
Deacon.^ 

Although an endeavor has been made to ]:)lot 
on the charts of the Pacific as many as possible 

' Defant, A., Die systeraatische Erforschung des Welt- 
meeres: Gesellsch. fiir Erdk. Berlin. Zeitseh., Jubilaums- 
Sonderband, 1928, pp. 4.59-505, pi. 32, figs. 18-31. 

- Wiist, Georg, Schichtung und Tiefenzirkulation des 
Pazifischen Ozeans: Institut fiir Meereskunde, Berlin, N. F., 
A. Geograph.-Naturwissensch. Reihe, Heft 20, pp. 1-64, 
4 pis., 14 figs., 1929. 

• ' Pp. xix, 413, 114 text figs., 37 pis.. Section on bottom 
deposits by W. Schott, and a chapter on life in the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans by E. Hentschel. 

* Discovert Reports, vol. 13, pp. 107-276, pis. 14, 16, 
1936. 

' Discovert Reports, vol. 15, pp. 1-124, pis. 1^4, 1937. 



of the stations occupied for the subsurface deter- 
mination of temperature and salinity, it is known 
that there are at least two deficiencies. More sta- 
tions have been worked by the Japanese than have 
been put down on the charts. In addition to the 
stations which had already been plotted by Defant, 
there have been plotted stations occupied by the 
Mansyu in its operations between April, 1925, and 
March, 1928, as recorded in the list of sources from 
which information was taken. The report on the 
result of the operations of the Mansyu was pub- 
lished in 1933. There have also been added the sta- 
tions occupied in the Japan Sea by the fisheries 
steamer Soyo Maru in 1932. The Japanese, how- 
ever, have done much more oceanographic work 
than is shown by these stations. For references 
to the Japanese literature "The Records of Oceano- 
graphic Works in Japan," should be examined. 
In this series there are classified lists of papers and 
reports on oceanographic subjects published in 
Japan. The publications are classified under the 
captions "Physical and Chemical Oceanography," 
"Fundamental Marine Biology," and "Fisheries 
and Fisheries Technology." During recent years 
the Japanese have become very active in oceano- 
graphic research and their later work meets in its 
precision the requirements of modern oceanographic 
research. 

Although the Russians have been active in 
oceanographic work in the northern part of the Sea 
of Japan, the Okhotsch Sea, and in the northwest 
Pacific east of Kamtchatka, records of the stations 
occupied have not been available for use in the prep- 
aration of this report except those for two vessels 
the Krasny Vimpel and the Vorovsky. The 
names of both of these vessels are entered in the 
list of the sources of data and references are given 
to the U. S. S. R. Hydrometeorological Observations 
of Hydrographic Expeditions. 

Except the deficiencies above enumerated it is 
hoped that the records of the sources of data are 
practically complete. 



22 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



23 



Comment should be made on the data taken from 
the manuscript records of several of the vessels. 
The final reports on the operations of the Carnegie 
in the Pacific are now in press as publications of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Not only the 
details of the observations made at the stations 
will soon become available in print but also the 
scientific interpretations. Dr. Harald U. Sverdrup 
has had charge of the preparation of the reports 
on the physical oceanography. 

The hydrological results of Discovery I under 
the direction of Sir Douglas Mawson will also soon 
be in print. The interpretation of the hydrological 
data has been undertaken by Doctor Sverdrup who 
has prepared that section of the report. The report 
on the results of Discovery I will deal with the 
southwest corner of the Pacific and will extend 
entirely across the southern Indian Ocean. 

The records of stations occupied by Discovery II 
and the William Scoresby were sent to me in the 
form of a manuscript chart by Dr. Stanley Kemp, 
without distinction between the stations occupied 
by each vessel. The chart did not indicate the 
depth to which scientific observations and collec- 
tions were made,, and I have not yet seen any pul:)- 



lished lists of those stations, but I have seen copies 
of the station lists for the south Atlantic Ocean. 
Therefore on the chart of the Pacific and also on 
that of the Indian Ocean for the stations occupied 
by the Discovery II and the William Scoresby 
a triangle, without indication of depth, has been 
used to indicate the positions of the stations, 
instead of other symbols that give definite depths. 
Dr. Stanley Kemp also sent me manuscript charts 
showing the positions of the stations occupied by the 
William Scoresby off the west coast of South 
America. For some of the stations the depth to 
which observations and collections were made were 
indicated but not for quite all of them. Therefore 
for those stations for which information is not com- 
plete the same kind of a triangle has been used as 
that used for the stations of the Discovery II 
and the William Scoresby around the Antarctica 
for which information on depths was not available. 
It may be confidently expected that the station lists 
for the Discovery II and the William Scoresby 
will, before a great while, become available in print. 
The two papers by Messrs. Gunther and Deacon, 
cited above, used information derived from the work 
of the Discovery II and the William Scoresby 
in the south Pacific. 



Sources of Data for the North Pacific Ocean 



NAME OF SHIP 
TUSCARORA 



Challenger 



Gazelle 



Elisabeth 



Rambler 



TIME OF WORK 



1873 

January/April 1874 
June 1874 
July/Augu.st 1874 



October/Nov. 1874 & \ 
January 1875 J 

February 1875 
March 1875 
April, June, July 1875 
August 1875 
June/July 1875 



February 1878 



June/July 1890 



Listed by A. Defant 

POSITION OF STATION 

34-54°N, 121-130°W 
20-29°N, 144°W-160°E 
41-44°N, 145-150°E 
51-54''N, lo3°VV-168°E 



0-17°N, 117-126°E 

4-6°N, 124-130°E 
2-19°N, 141-146°E 
22-38°N, 137°E-160''W 
20°N, 157°W 
0-2 °N, 134-147 °E 



27°N, 140°W 



2-20°N, 1 15-125 °E 



SOUnCES OF DATA 

Makaroff, Le Vitiaz et rOc6an pacifique, 
Petersburg 1894. Note: The original 
source, G. E. Belknap, Deep sea sound- 
ings in the North Pacific Ocean, ob- 
tained by U. S. S. TuscARORA, Wash- 
ington 1874, U. S. Hydrographic Office 
Nr. 54 could not be examined nor could 
the manuscript of the serial temperature 
on the voyage Hawaii-Phoenix Islands, 
Fiji Islands 1875-76. 

The Report of the Scientific Results of 
the voyage H. M. S. Challenger dur- 
ing the years 1873-1876, vol. 1, Physics 
and C'hemistry, London 1884, pis. 123, 
124, 126-129, 132, 134, 148, 150, 180. 

Forschungsreise S. INI. S. Gazelle, hrsg. 
vom Reichsmarineamt, Physik und 
Chemie, Bd. 2, Berlin 1888/89, p. 40. 

Kapitan z. S. Wickede, Tiefseebeobach- 
tungen S. M. S. Ellsabeth, Annalen 
der Hydrographie 1878, p. 319. 
Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 
List of Oceanic Depths 1890, London 
1891, pp. 10, 11. 



24 

NAME OF SHIP 

Albatross 



Penguin 



Albatross 



Penguin 



Egeria 
Waterwitch 
Alexander 
Aoassiz 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



TIME OF WORK 



Mansytj 



Challenger 



Gazelle 



Egeria 



Myrmidon 

Rambler 

Albatross 



Penguin 



Waterwitch 



Penguin 



February/April 1891 



November/Deo. 1891 
April/May 1892 

August 1893 
August 1895 

May/September 1897 



June 1899 
July 1901 

June/August 1911 and 
February 1913 



POSITION OF STATION 

0-10°N, 78-96°W 



0-19°N, 115-126°E 



54-56°N, 172-175°W 
54-55°N, 167-172°W 

0-18°N, 152-166°W 



42-46°N, 128-132°W 
15°N, 118°E 
32-33°N, 117-120°W 



October/Nov. 1927 



25-34°N, 128-146°E 
1(>-30°N, 122-137°E 



SOURCES OF DATA 

C. H. Townsend, Report of the U. S. Fish 
Commission for 1900, Washington 1901, 
p. 495. 

Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 
List of Oceanic Depths 1891, London 
1892, pp. 10, 11. 

C. H. Townsend, Report of the U. S. Fish 
Commission for 1900, Washington 1901, 
pp. 498-500. 

Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 
List of Oceanic Depths 1897, London 
1898, pp. 44-45. 

Ibid 1899, London 1900, pp. 16-17. 

Ibid. 1902, London 1903, pp. 16-17. 

E. L. Michael and G. F. McEwen, Hydro- 
graphic, plankton and dredging record 
of the Scripps Institution for biological 
Research of the University of California 
1901-1912, University of Cal. Publica- 
tions, Zoology 1915-1916, vol. 15, 
Berkeley 1916 und Continuation 1913- 
1915, Ibid., vol. 15, No. 2. 
Hydrogr. Department Tokyo, Hydrogr. 
Bulletin Tokyo, from 1925. 



Sources of Data for the South Pacific Ocean 



June 1874 
July 1874 
August 1874 
September 1874 
February/March 1875 
September 1875 
October 1875 
November/Dec. 1875 
May/ June 1875 
Oct. 1875/Nov. 1875 
December 1875 
January 1876 
December 1887 
June/August 1888 
Nov. 1888-June 1890 



November/Dec 

June 1890 

26 March 1891 



1888 



August/Sept. 1894 
February-August 1895 

May /December 1895 
May /June 1896 

July 1896 
November 1896 
December 1896 
May 1897 
September 1897 
November 1897 



Listed by A. Defant 

34-39°S, 154-166°E 
25-40°S, 177°E-172°W 
12-19°S, 146-178°E 
5-6°S, 130-134°E 
0-2°S, 138-147°E 
0-17°S, 149-15rW 
23-40°S, 112-149°W 
33-45°S, 73-105°W 
2-7°S, 125-130°E 
19-34''S, 156-179''E 
14-18°S, 168-178°W 
22-5rS, 80-165°W 
37-39°S, 133-138°E 
22-34°S, 175°W-178°E 
12-29°S, 173°W-176°E 

5-8°S, 129-131°E 
0-3°S, 126-131°E 
0°20'S, 85°8'W 



12-2rS, 155-161°E 
10-35°S, 153°E-174°W 

11-39°S, 154°E-176°W 
21-33°S, 153-170°E 

8°S, 179°E 

26°S, 177°E 

40°S, 160°E 

1-13°S, 168°W-176°E 

1-11°S, 163-173°W 

21°S, 150-179°E 



Report of the scientific Results of the 
voyage H. M. S. Challenger during 
the years 1873 to 1876, vol. 1, Physics 
and Chemistry, London 1884, pis. 103, 
105, 106, 108, 109, 111-113, 116, 119, 121, 
122, 137-139, 190, 197, 201, 206, 209-213, 
215, 216, 218, 219, 221, 222. 

Die Forschungsreife S. M. S. Gazelle, 

hrsg. vom Reichsmarineamt, Physik 

und Chemie, vol. 2, Berlin 1888/89, 

pp. 40, 42. 
Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 

List of Oceanic Depths, 1888, pp. 2-5; 

1889, pp. 14, 15; 1890, pp. 10, 11, London 

1889, 1890, 1891. 
Ibid. 1888, London 1889, pp. 4, 5. 
Ibid., 1890, London 1891, pp. 10, 11. 
C. H. Townsend: Report of the U. S. 

Fish Commission for 1900, Washington 

1901, p. 495. 
Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 

List of Oceanic Depths 1894, pp. 10, 11; 

1895, pp. 16, 17, London 1895/96. 
Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 

List of Oceanic Depths 1895, pp. 20-21; 

1896, pp. 16, 17, London 1896/97. 
Ibid., 1896, pp. 16, 17; 1897, pp. 42, 43; 

1898, pp. 14, 15: 1899, pp. 18, 19; 1900, 
pp. 30, 31; 1903, pp. 20, 21; London, 
1897 to 1901, 1904. 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



25 



NAME Oy SHIP 


TIME OF WOBK 


POSITION OF STATION 




December 1898 


22-33°S, 157-175°W 




January 1900 


43-44°S, 143-144°E 




April 1902 


31-34°S, 154-177°E 


Egekia 


Sept./Oct. 1897 


17-24 °S, 72-74°W 


Belgica 


19 February 1899 


70°30'S, 94°12'W 



SOURCES OF DATA 



Discovery 



Albatross 



8 January 1902 



Nov. 1904/Febr. 1905 



Tones, 173''22'E 



4-22''S, 79-133°W 



Planet 



Planet 



October 1906 



June/September 1908 



3°S, ISl'E 
1-14°S, 147-156°E 



Supplemental Sources of Data on the 
Pacific Ocean 

The positions of the stations plotted by Defant 
are without abbreviations. There were plotted with 



Ibid., 1897, London 1898, pp. 48, 49. 

H. Arctowski und H. R. Mill, Oceanog- 
raphie, Rfilations thermiques, Expedi- 
tion Antarctique Beige. Resultats du 
voyage du S. Y. Belgica 1897-99, 
Antwerpen 1908, p. 35. 

Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 
List of Oceanic Depths 1904, London 
1905, pp. 17-25. 

A. Agassiz, General Report of the Expedi- 
tion to the Eastern Tropical Pacific. 
Report on the scientific Results, Vol. 5, 
Memoir of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard College, Cam- 
bridge 1906, p. 24. 

Die Forschungsreise S. M. S. Planet, 
hrsg. vom Reichsmarineamt, vol. 3, 
Berlin 1909, p. 61. 

Salzgehaltsbestimmungen aus dem sud- 
westlichen Stillen Ozean, Annalen der 
Hydrographie 1909, 491. (Compiled by 
Hans H. F. Meyer.) 

tailed charts of certain areas, the positions of sta- 
tions, of dates mostly subsequent to February 1, 
1928. A list of the sources of data for the stations 
that were added is as follows: (The letters follow- 
ing the names are the abbreviations used on the 



abbreviations on Defant 's chart and on more de- charts.) 




Fig. 1. Key Chart to Show the Positions of Five Special Charts 
Plates 13, 14A, 14B, 15, 16, of Areas in the Pacific 



26 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Albacobe (A): Bigelow, Henry B., and Leslie, Maurine, 
Reconnaissance of the waters and plankton of Monterey 
Bay, July, 1928: Mus. Com. Zool., Harvard Coll., vol. 
70, No. 5, pp. 430-581, 1930. 

Albatross (F) : Manuscript at Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography. 

BusHNELL (B): Manuscript records from U. S. N. Hydrogr. 
Off. and Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

Carnegie (C): Manuscript from Dr. John A. Fleming, 
Dept. Torres. Mag., Carnegie Inst, of Washington. 
(Reports in press.) 

Catalyst (CT): Manuscript from Dr. T. G. Thompson, 
Oceanographic Laboratories, University of Wash- 
ington. 

Chelan (CH) : Zeusler, F. A., Thompson, T. G., and others, 
Report of Oceanographic Cruise, U. S. Coast Guard 
Cutter Chelan, Bering Sea and Bering Strait, 1934: 
U. S. Coast Guard special mimeographed publication 
June, 1936, pp. 72, many plates and tables. 

Dana (D): Schmidt, Johannes. Manuscript from Dr. 
Helge Thomson. Subsequently published. List of 
Stations, Dana Report No. 1, pp. 17-78, seven plates, 
1934. Stations 3548-3803, pp. 21-45; stations 3810- 
3811, p. 45. (The Carlsberg Foundation's Oceano- 
graphical Expedition Round the World 1928-1930, and 
previous Dana Expeditions, under the leadership of 
Prof. Johannes Schmidt.) 

Discovery I (DI): Manuscript from Sir Douglas Mawson. 
Reports in press. 

Discovery II and William Scoresby (DS): Around Ant- 
arctica and off the west coast of South America. Manu- 
script from Dr. Stanley Kemp. 

Discovery II: Manuscript from Dr. N. A. Mackintosh. 
Across the south Atlantic and south Pacific, and western 
Indian Oceans, 1933-35. Special chart. No abbrevia- 
tion for name. 

Gannett (G): Manuscript records from LT. S. N. Hydrogr. 
Off. 

Guide (GU): Manuscript, data from U. S. C. and G. S. at 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

Hannibal (H): Manuscript U. S. S. Hannibal data 1932- 
1936, through U. S. Hydrographic Office and Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography. Part of data published. 
Dynamic Oceanographic Data for the central eastern 
Pacific Ocean, Collected by U. S. S. Hannibal and the 
yacht Velero III. U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office 
publication H. O. 212, pp. V, 1-41, 1934. 

International Fisheries Commission (IF): McEwen, George 
F., Thompson, Thomas G. and Van Cleve, Richard. 
Hydrographic sections and calculated currents in the 
Gulf of Alaska 1927-1928: Internat. Fish. Comm. Re- 
port No. 4, pp. 5-36, 1930. Manuscript, data from 
Internat. Fish Comm. Subsequently published. 



Thompson, T. G., McEwen, G. F., and Van Cleve, R. 
Hydrographic Sections and Calculated Currents of the 
Gulf of Alaska, 1929. Internat. Fish. Comm. Report, 
No. 10, pp. 32, 1936. 

Krasny Vimpel (KV): U. S. S. R. Hydrometeorological 
Observations of Hydrographic Expeditions, 1926, Issue 
No. 6, pp. 46-48. 

Louisville (L) : Manuscript records from U. S. N. Hydrogr. 
Off. and Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

Mansyu and other Japanese vessels (J): The report of 
oceanic survey in western part of the North Pacific 
Ocean carried out by H. J. M. S. Mansyd from April 
1925 to March 1928: Hydrogr. Dept., Imperial Jap. 
Navy Bull. vol. 6, text pp. 496, 1933, Charts, vol. 6, 
pis. 135, 1933. 

NoRWBGiA (N): Manuscript from H&kon Mosby and J. K. 
Eggvin through Prof. H. U. Sverdrup. Records of a 
considerable number of stations are contained in 
Mosby, HSkon, The waters of the Atlantic Antarctic 
Ocean: Norwegian Antarctic Expedition, 1927-28 et 
seq., instituted and financed by Consul Lars Christen- 
sen, Scient. Results, No. 11, Det Norske Videnskaps- 
Akademi i Oslo, Oslo 1934; Rustad, A., Antarctic 
Enphausiids from the Norwegia Expeditions, 1929- 
30, 1930-31, Norw. Antarct. Exped. Scien. Results, 
no. 12. 

Oglala (OG): Manuscript records from U. S. N. Hydrogr. 
Off. 

Pioneer (PI): Manuscript data U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

Scripps (SC): Michael, Ellis L., and McEwen, George F., 
Hydrographic, plankton, and dredging Records: 
University of California Publication in Zoology, vol. 
15, no. 1, pp. 1-206, July 15, 1915; and vol. 15, no. 2, 
Nov. 29, 1916, pp. 207-254. Manuscript data at Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography. 

Skogsberg (SK): Manuscript data from Dr. T. Skogsberg. 

SoYO Maru (JF): Uda, M., Hydrographical studies based 
on simultaneous oceanographical surveys made in the 
Japan Sea and in its adjacent waters during May and 
June, 1932. Records of Oceanographic Works in Japan, 
vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 19-107, March, 1934. 

VoBovsKY (VA): U. S. S. R. Hj'drometeorological observa- 
tions of hydrographic expeditions, 1926, Issue no. 6, 
pp. 45-46. 

Willebrord Snellius (SN): van Everdingen, E. The 
Snellids Expedition. Conseil International pour 
I'ExpIoration de la Mer, Journal vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 320- 
328, 1930. van Riel, P. M. "Derde Bulletin van de 
Willebrord Snellius Expeditie, pp. 1-12, Indisch 
Comite voor Wetenschappelijke Onderzoekingen. 

William Scoresby (S): Manuscript data from Dr. Stanley 
Kemp. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



X 


no- 


180° 


130 


" 140° 150° 160° 


100° 1 
—J 1 


.0° 140" 


120° 

1 rw^ik^_- 


110° 100° 

-J^-c Ir 


90° 60° 

— t i^T. 


70° 

Ir . 


>^ 




^y X. 


%^^ 


-e- 


f — \_^, .V_ 


-?f'^X'-^ \ ""^^ --''•^-- \' 




/ 5ov,^[^\/ y^ y/ 


K/<: 


^^^^ 


i^ 


i><>^V-Sk 




/ X X ^^ / ^^ / 


/ //J - 


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vxS 




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\ ^ ©^sV*" FRANCISCO \ \ ^JVC''''^ \ \ ^ 






B. / ®B / 

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/ ®£ 


1 ®'\ 
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/ / ^^^^ ij^^^"^^^^ • / .• 

/ // /^u^^4^^ 


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r So 

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/ hit^^^Orki / s /■■■ B« / 

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oV 

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mo \osAf • 

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s 


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1 J ' /^^T^^f / 
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~—4~~^Jr?' / / ®7 W / 

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/ V /~~^~7^ / W/ / 


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20° / 


\ \ \\ \ .---V — \^^°^^^uIibx 




/ — ~t- 

i / ® ® / 

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20 130° 110° 160° 180° 160° ia0° 120° 100° 90° 60° 70° 



Pacifiu Ocean, General Chart 
Serial Sectioim of TeinpiTatiirc and Salinity. Stations without Abbreviations, after A. Defant, up to February I, 1928. .Stations with Abbreviations, subsequent to that date 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 13 




Japanese Islands to East Indies, Serial Sections of Temperature and Salinity' 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 14 




=^^ 



=^ 



TEMPERATURE 


SALINITY DEPTH (METERS) 


.' 


D 500 - 1000. ■ 


,•■■ • 


O 1000 - 3000\ 


• 


D OVER 3000 


CH 


CHELAN CI934) 


OG 


OGLALA (1935) 


G 


GANNET (1933- 

1000 METER ISOBATH 



ft"'--.. 














■.^•^ 



A. Oceanic Areas Adjacent to the Aleutian Islands, Serial Sections op Temperature and .Salinity 




B. Gulf op Alaska to San Francisco, Serial Sections of Temperature and Salinity 



H 3TAJ1 




I li: - y: 




•ninia/.o tfHA aacTT/ 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 15 



118° 



36« 




TEMPERATURE 


SALINITY 


DEPTH (METERS) 


» 


Cl 


100 - 500 


» 


D 


500 - 1000 


• 


O 


1000 . 3000 


■ 


D 


OVEH 3000 






METER ISOBATH 

E 


A 


ALBACOF 


C 


CABNEGIE 


F 


ALBATROSS 


GU 


GUIDE 




PI 


PIONEER 




sc 


SCRIPPS 




SK 


SKOGseERG 




FSAN 
OIEGO 



120° 



Off Coast of Southern California, Serial Sections op Temperature and Salinity 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 16 




Off Coasts of Costa Rica, Panama, and Northern South America, Sebial Sections of Temperature and Salinity 

The triangular symbol signifies, depths not available 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 17 



4S" 




xf 



*s» 



TEMPERATURE SALINITY DEPTH (METERS! 

. Q 100 - 500 

• D SOO 1000 

• O 1000 ■ 3000 

1000 METER ISOBATH 

M MAGNAGHI 

P POLA 

SN SNELLIUS 

MA MABAHISS 



25" 



20' 



20° 



15' 



PORT SODANO 



Red Sea, Serial Sections of Temperature and Salinity 



RED SEA AND INDIAN OCEAN 

RED SEA, SERIAL SECTIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 

Plate 17 



The sources of the data for the Red Sea plotted 
on the chart are as follows: (The letters after the 
ships' names are the abbreviations used on the 
chart.) 

Sources of Data 

Mabahiss (MA) : Station list pp. 3-29, 1 chart. John Mur- 
ray Expedition to the Indian Ocean 1933-34. Under 
the leadership of Lt. Col. R. B. SejTnour Sewell, CLE., 
F.R.S. Stations A, 1-11, 203-209, M. B. I. in the Red 
Sea. Manuscript list from Dr. C. Crossland for sta- 
tions occupied in 1934 and 1935. 



Magnaghi (M): Picotti, Mario, Ricerche de Oceanografia 
Chimica, Part I— Tabelle generali della analisi clo- 
rometriche e dei di temperatura, salinity e density : 
Inst. Idrograf. della Reg. Marina., Ann. Idrograf., 
vol. 11 Bis, no. 3048, pp. 1-47, 1927. 

PoLA (P): Koss, Karl, Expedition S. M. Schifl Pola in das 
Rothe Meer: Berichte der Commission fur Oceano- 
graphische Forschungen, 6 Reihe 1895-1896, pp. 1-572, 
1898, and 7 Reihe, pp. 1^85, 1897-1898, 1901. 

WiLLEBRORD Snellius (SN): Van Riel, P. M., Einige 
ozeanographische Beobachtungen im Roten Meer, Golf 
von Aden, und Indischen Ozean: Ann. Hydrogr. und 
marit. Meteorol., 60 Jahrg. (1932), Heft 10, pp. 401- 
407, 1932. 



INDIAN OCEAN, SERIAL SECTIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 

Plate 18 



As the base chart of this compilation there was 
used Defant's chart entitled, "Hydrographische 
Reihenmessungen seit 1870 im Indischen Ozean. "^ 
The indicated data have been used by Lotte M5ller 
in her paper cited in the footnote.^ After the data 
obtained by the Dana were in condition for use 
Helge Thomsen published the paper cited below,' 
and it was followed by a discussion by Lotte Moller.'' 
Because of the additional data procured by the 
Dana, Thomsen thought Moller's interpretation 
of the deep-water circulation of the Indian Ocean 
required modification. He questioned the existence 
of a southward moving current between depths of 
2,000 and 3,000 meters. In 1932 Lt. Col. R. B. 
Seymour Sewell's "Geographic and oceanographic 

' Defant, A., Die systematische Erforschung des Welt- 
meeres: Zeitsch. der Gesellsch. fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin, 
Jubilaums-Sonderband, 1928. 

'Moller, Lotte, Die zirkulation der Indischen Ozeans: 
Inst. Meeresk. Berlin, Veroffentl. N. F., A. Geograph.- 
naturwissensch. Reihe, Heft 21, pp. 1-48, 24 Abbild. im 
Text, April, 1929. 

' Thomsen, Helge, The circulation in the depths of the 
Indian Ocean: Cons. Internat. Expl. Mer., Jour., vol. 8, 
pp. 73-39, 1933. 

* Moller, Lotte, Zur Frage der Tiefenzirkulation im 
Indischen Ozean: Ann. d. Hydr. usw. 1933, Heft 7-9, pp. 
233-236, pis. 29, 29a. 



research in Indian waters"* was published. It 
marked a distinct advance in knowledge of the 
oceanography of the northern part of the Indian 
Ocean, and served as a ba.sis of a discussion by G. 
Wiist^ of the origin of the bottom water of the Indian 
Ocean as inferred from potential temperatures. 

In 1933-34 there was an important expedition to 
the Indian Ocean on His Egyptian Majesty's ship 
Mabahiss under the leadership of Lt. Col. R. B. 
Seymour Sewell. This was the first expedition the 
expenses of which were defrayed from a fund set 
aside from the estate of the late Sir John Murray. 
Therefore the expedition is called the John Murray 
Expedition to the Indian Ocean. The reports 
giving the results of the expedition are now being 
published by the British Museum (Natural History). 
The station list of the expedition has just ap- 
peared in print. 

Professor Defant plotted on the chart published 
by him the data available in the Institut fiir Meeres- 
kunde up to February 1, 1928. The sources of his 
data for the Indian Ocean are as follows: 

' Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, Mem., vol. 9, 1932. 

' Wiist, G., Anzeichen von Beziehungen zwischen Boden- 
strom und Relief in der Tiefsee des Indischen Ozeans: Die 
Naturwissensch. 1934, Jahrg. 22, Hft. 16, pp. 241-244, 1934. 



27 



28 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Sources of Data for the Indian Ocean 



NAME OF SHIP 

Challenger 



Gazelle 



Elisabeth 



Investigator 



Penguin 
Investigator 

Waterwitch 

Stork 

Valdivia 



Gauss 



Sealark 



Planet 



Sealark 



MowE 



Merlin 



Ammiraglio 
Magnaghi 



Ormonde 



TIME OF WORK 

December 1873 

March 1874 



March 1875 
April 1875 
May 1875 
9, January 1877 



October 1887 



April 1891 

April 1892 
October 1892 & 1893 
January 1895 
April/May 1897 
January 1898 
December 1898 
January 1899 
February 1899 
March/ April 1899 
Dec. 1901-May 1903 



29, September 1905 



April 1906 
May 1906 
June 1906 
April-May 1909 



January/February 1913 



November 1920 



April 1924 



April/Mai 1927 



After A. Defant 

POSITION OF STATIONS 

45-46°S, 34-48°E 
42-50°S, 123-134°E 



22-36°S, 58-72°E 
28-36°S, 76-122''E 
8-16°S, 117-124''E 
39°S, 26°E 



6-10°N, 90-91°E 



22-27°S, 110-111°E 
9-15°N, 74-81°E 
12''N, 70-73°E 
39°S, 23-27°E 
2-6°N, 55-56°E 
34°34'S, 25°54'E 
56-62°S, 14-59°E 
36-15°S, 78-96°E 
7°N-rS, 76-96°E 
9°N-5°S, 43-53°E 
Siidwestindischer Ozean, 

Subantarktisches 
Gebiet 



10°S, 51°E 



49°31'S, 29''16'N 



5-6°N, 80-82°E 



Route: Kapstadt, Dur- 
ban, Beira, Lindi 

4°N, 85-93°E 



11°55'N, 45°50'E 



12-13°N, 44-47°E 



SOURCE OF DATA 



Report on the scientific Results of the 
voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during 
the years 1873-1876, Physics and Chem- 
istry, vol. 1, London 1884, pis. 93-95, 
98-100. 

Forschungsreise S. M. S. Gazelle, Hrsg. 
vom Reichsmarineamt. Physik und 
Chemie, vol. 2, Berlin 1888/89, p. 40. 

Kapitan z. S. Wickede, Tiefseebeobach- 
tungen S. M. S. Elisabeth, Annalen 
der Hydrographie, 1878, p. 319. 

Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 
List of Oceanic Depths, 1888, London 
1889, pp. 8, 9. 

Ibid., 1891, London 1892, p. 10, 11. 

Ibid., 1892, London 1893, pp. 10, 11 und 
1893, London 1894, pp. 10, 11. 

Ibid., 1895, London 1896, p. 20. 

Ibid., 1897, London 1898, pp. 50, 51. 

G. Schott, Ozeanographie und maritime 
Meteorologie. Wiss. Ergebnisse der 
Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition 1898/99, 
vol. 1, Jena 1902, Text figs., pis., 18, 
20-22, 24-26. 

E. V. Drygalski, Ozean und Antarktis, 
Meereskundliche Forschungen und Er- 
gebnisse der Deutschen Siidpolar-Ex- 
pedition 1901-1903, vol. 7, Berlin 1925, 
pp. 476-483. 

Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 
List of Oceanic Depths 1905, London 
1906, pp. 30, 31. 

Die Forschungsreise S. M. S. Planet, 
hrsg. vom Reichsmarineamt, voL 3, 
Berlin 1909, pp. 57-59. 

Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 
List of Oceanic Depths 1909, London 
1910, p. 24. 

Ozeanogr. Arbeiten S. M. S. Mowe im 
westlichen Indischen Ozean 1913, An- 
nalen der Hydrographie 1915, p. 341. 

Hydrogr. Department of the Admiralty, 
List of Oceanic Depths 1920, London 
1921, p. 23. 

Campagna idrografica nel Mar Rosso della 
R. N. Ammiraglio Magnaghi 1923/24, 
Ricierche di oceanografia fisica. Part 4, 
Annali Idrografici 1926. 

D. J. Matthews, Temperature and Salin- 
ity Observations in the Gulf of Aden, 
Nature 1927, London 1927, p. 512. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 18 




Symbols 
Temperature Salinity Depth (Meters) 
» D 500-1000 

• O 1000-3000 

■ a >3000 

a a not. available 

Indian Ocean, General Chart 
Serial Sections of Temperature and Salinity. Stations without abbreviations taken from Defant, prior to February 1, 1928; 
stations with abbreviations added to Defant's charts, mostly subsequent to February 1, 1928. 



TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 



29 



Supplemental Sources of Data for the 
Indian Ocean 

The positions of the stations plotted by Defant 
are without abbreviations. There are added with 
abbreviations the positions of other stations, mostly 
of dates subsequent to February 1, 1928. A list of 
the sources of the data is as follows: (The letters 
after the ships' names are the abbreviations used 
on the chart.) 

Dana (D): List of Stations, Dana Report No. 1, pp. 17-78, 
seven plates, 1934. Stations 3804-3809, 3812-3973, pp. 
45-60. (The Carlsberg Foundation's Oceanographical 
Expedition Round the World 1928-1930, and previous 
Dana Expeditions, under the leadership of Prof. 
Johannes Schmidt.) 



Discovery I (DI): Manuscript data from Sir Douglas 
Mawson. Reports in press. 

Discovery II and William Scoresby (DS): Manuscript 
data from Dr. Stanley Kamp. 

Mabahiss (MA) : Station list pp. 3-29, 1 chart: John Murray 
Expedition to the Indian Ocean 1933-34. Under the 
leadership of Lt. Col. R. B. Seymour Sewell, CLE., 
F.R.S. Stations 12-202 in the Indian Ocean. 

Egeria, Investigator, Planet, Valdivia, and Vitiaz 
(E) (I) (PL) (VA) (V): Sewell, R. B. Seymour, Geo- 
graphic and Oceanographic Research in Indian Waters: 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Memoirs, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 
357-424, 1932. 

WiLLEBRORD Snelliu.s (SN): van Riel, P. M., Einige 
Ozeanographische Beobachtungen im Roten Meer, 
Golf von Aden, und Indischen Ozean: Ann. Hydrog. u. 
marit. Meteorol., vol. 60, Jahrg. 1932, Heft 10, pp. 401- 
407, 1932. 



CHARTING THE BOTTOM OF THE OCEANS 



SOUNDED AND UNSOUNDED AREAS 



Plates 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 



The accompanying charts showing the sounded 
and unsounded areas of sea bottom are based upon 
charts prepared by the United States Hydrographic 
Office. Several years ago that office published five 
charts, one each for the north and south Atlantic, 
one each for the north and south Pacific, and one 
for the Indian Ocean, on which were shown the 
sounded and unsounded areas in the three oceans. 
These charts were intended to guide United States 
Naval vessels, equipped with sonic-sounding ap- 
paratus, in compljdng with instructions that when 
practicable their courses be laid across unsounded 
areas, so as gradually to complete surveys of the 
ocean bottom for bottom configuration. The sup- 
plemental information, much of it not yet published, 
that had been assembled in connection with this 
report has been added to the charts already drawn. 
It is hoped that these charts represent with fair 
accuracy what has been done in ascertaining the 
configuration of the sea bottom, and that they may 
serve to guide ves.sels of other countries, as well as 
those of the United States, to these areas on which 
there is inadequate information. 

It is pertinent here to refer to the article. "The 
bathymetric soundings of the oceans," by Lt. Com. 
H. Bencker, published by the International Hydro- 
graphic Bureau, June 1930, and presented at the 
meeting in Stockholm of the Section of Physical 
Oceanography, International Union of Geodesy and 
Geophysics, August 1930. This paper, in addition 
to a general account of the growth of knowledge 
of the bathymetry of the oceans, contains five 
appendices, one of which is "Chronological list of 
oceanic explorations from the year 1800," and 
another is "List arranged by oceans, of principal 
oceanic deeps." 

Mention may be made of converting the sound 
intervals of echo soundings into true depths. Data 
on subsurface temperatures and salinities in the 
oceans are now becoming so extensive that the time 
is ripe for a revised edition of the British Admiralty's 
"Tables of the velocity of sound in pure water and 
sea water for use in echo-sounding and sound-rang- 
ing," published in 1927. Tho.se institutions that 



have acquired pertinent data would render meri- 
torious service to oceanography by cooperating with 
the British Admiralty in perfecting that valuable 
publication. It should be practicable to deduce 
almost instantaneously the true depth from the 
echo time-interval. 

A glance at the accompanying charts shows that 
for the more general features the north Atlantic and 
the north Pacific have been mostly, but not entirely, 
covered. Recently, largely because of the activities 
of the Meteor and Discovery II, knowledge 
of the south Atlantic has been greatly increased, but 
the lines of soundings north of latitude 50°S. are 
still so far apart that only the outlines of the grosser 
features may be surely recognized. Exploration of 
Antarctic waters has been intensely prosecuted 
since 1925 by the Discovery II and William 
ScoRESBY, and, beginning somewhat later, by Dis- 
covery I and NoRWEGiA. So many additional lines 
have been run that it should now be possible to 
construct a new bathymetric chart for the seas 
around Antarctica, south of about 50°S. latitude. 
There are also lines from Antarctica to southern 
Africa, .southern Australia, New Zealand, and 
southern South America. The Mabahiss has 
recently, 1933, greatly added to knowledge of the 
northwestern Indian Ocean, as shown in an article 
by Wiseman and Sewell.' Other important recent 
work on the bathymetry of the Pacific comprises 
new bathymetric charts of the South China Sea by 
the Institut Oceanographique de ITndochine, of the 
seas adjacent to Japan by the Hydrographic De- 
partment of Imperial Japanese Navy, of Philippine 
waters by the Philippine Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
and of the Netherlands East Indies by the Snellius 
Expedition. The last mentioned charts constitute 
one of the finest publications on bottom topography 
ever is.sued.'- Plate 1, composed of two sheets, is a 
colored bathymetric chart of the eastern part of the 

' Wiseman, J. H. D., and Sewell, R. B. S., The floor of the 
Arabian Sea: Geolog. Mag., vol, 74, pp. 219-230, pi. 11, 
May, 1937. 

2 van Riel, P. M., Bottom configuration in relation to the 
flow of the bottom water: Snellius Expedition, vol. 2, 
Oceanographic Results, part 2, chapter 2, pp. 63, 6 pis., 16 
detailed charts, 1934. 



33 



34 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



East Indian Archipelago on a scale of 1:2,500,000. 
Plate 2 is a colored bathymetric chart of the East 
Indian Archipelago on a scale of 1 : 5,000,000. It is 
also gratifying to record that the International 
Hydrographic Bureau is publi-shing a revised edition 
of the Carte bathym^trique gen^rale des Oceans. 

The foregoing few notes on recent progress in the 
study of sea-bottom configuration are gratifjdng, 
but there are still two enormous areas of sea bottom 
on which only a little information is available. 
These are most of the Pacific Ocean, except near its 
shores, between the Equator and 50°S. latitude, 
and, except adjacent to Antarctica, most of the 
Indian Ocean east of longitude 70°E. and south of 
latitude 10°S. There are other areas on which 
information is inadequate, such as that between 
the Hawaiian Islands and the American coast, but 
the two above indicated are the most outstanding 
large areas on which there is little or no inform- 
ation. 

The remarks so far made apply to the larger fea- 
tures of bottom configuration, but before leaving the 
subject some consideration should be given to the 
more minute features of relief. It would require 
considerable searching of literature to discover who 



was the first to recognize that there are on the ocean 
floor earth-forms that are trench-like, others that are 
precipitous and simulate fault-scarps, et cetera, but 
we do know that the invention of radio-acoustic 
position-finding and the invention of echo-sounding 
devices has made possible the recognition of minutiae 
of sea-bottom configuration that was entirely im- 
possible only a few years ago. While in sight of 
land, by making closely spaced line-soundings it is 
possible to develop the side walls and floor of a 
trench, as Shepard has done,' but when farther out 
at sea other methods of successive place-finding are 
essential. It has now been convincingly shown that 
the continental shelf off the east coast of the United 
States is incised by numerous trenches which can be 
traced to depths of 1,800 meters or more.'' The 
origin of these features is one of the great enigmas 
of geology and oceanography. They are mentioned 
here in the hope that research on them may be 
extended to other parts of the world. 

' Shepard, F. P., Continued exploration of California 
submarine canyons: Amer. Geophys. Union, meeting 1936, 
Trans, pp. 221-223, 1936. 

* Smith, Paul A., Submarine valleys: U. S. Coast and 
Geodetic Surv. Field Engineers Bull. No. 10, pp. 150-158, 
Dec. 1936. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN 

INDEX CHART OF UNSOUNDED AREAS 




Alantic Ocean, Northern Part, Sounded and Unsodnded Areas 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN 

1M)K\ (-HART OF UNSOUNDEP AREAS 




INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN 

INDEX CHARTOF UNSOUNDED AKEAS 




INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN 

INDEX CHART OF UNSOUNDED AREAS 




INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



INDIAN OCEAN 

INDKXC'IIAinOFlTNSOIINDED AREAi5 




MARINE BOTTOM DEPOSITS 



No general review of the subject of marine bottom 
deposits will be attempted here but a sufficient 
number of references to literature will be given to 
show the present status of mapping the material 
on the sea-floor. Nearly all, if not all, modern 
research expeditions have systematically collected 
samples of the sea bottom, and reports on the ma- 
terial obtained have either been written or are in 
preparation. Since the later reports utilize the 
information contained in the earlier publications, 
it is necessary to mention only recent reports. 
Although the material collected by modern expedi- 
tions has been or is being utilized, it must be recog- 
nized with regret that there are enormous collections 
of marine bottom samples procured by earlier ex- 
peditions that have not been critically studied — 
for example, there are thousands of such samples in 
the United States National Museum awaiting study. 
There have been far too few students of marine 
bottom deposits. The only large museum that has 
on its staff a member whose major duty is to study 
marine bottom samples is the British Museum of 
Natural History. Several of the oceanographic 
institutions have specialists on the subject attached 
to their staffs, but the researches of most of the 
investigators are incidental to other activities. 

For the Atlantic Ocean the most comprehensive 
reports are those on the results of the Meteor 
Expedition. Two of them, by Correns and his 
associates' have been pubhshed. The study of the 
samples obtained in the south Atlantic was en- 
trusted to 0. Pratje, who has published one Lieferung 
on his results,- and it is understood that another 
part will follow. Until now no chart presenting the 
results for the entire Atlantic has appeared. 

Three reports on collections made by the Dis- 

> Correns, Carl W., A. Die Verfahren der Gewinnung 
und Untersuchung der Sedimente: Die Sedimente des 
aquatorialen Atlantischen Ozeans, Wissench. Ergeb. 
Meteor, vol. 3, 3d pt., 1st Lief., pp. 42, 193.5. 

Schott, W. 15., Die Foraminiferen in dem aquatorialen 
Teil des Atlantischen Ozeans: Ibid., 1st Lief., pp. 43-134, 
3 Beilagen, pis. 1, 2, 1935. 

Correns, Carl W., C. Zusammenstellung der Untersuch- 
ungs Ergebnisse nach Stationen geordnet; D. Auswertung 
der Ergebnisse, mit Beitriigen von V. Leinz und O. K. 
Radczewski: Ibid., 2 d Lief., pp. XH, 135-298, pis. 3, 4, 1937. 

^ Pratje, O., Gewinnung und Bearbeitung der Boden- 
proben: Die Sedimente des Siidatlantischen Ozeans, 
Wissensch. Ergeb. Meteor, vol. 3, pt. 2, 1 Lief., 1935. 



covERY II and William Scoresby have appeared.' 
Two papers by Thorp are cited in a footnote.* 
The second paper by Thorp is concerned with only 
shallow-water deposits of the kind indicated in the 
title. It contains references to all important litera- 
ture on the subject, for both the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans. 

For the Pacific and Indian Oceans, W. Schott^ 
has given a comprehensive review, accompanied by 
a bibhography, of the subject up to the end of 1934. 
Thorp, in the short paper cited below,^ describes the 
shallow-water calcium-carbonate deposits of another 
area in the Pacific. Of the Discovery Reports 
already published only the one Neaverson, already 
noted, deals with Pacific sediments. An extensive 
report by Roger Revelle on the bottom samples 
collected in the Pacific by the Carnegie is now in 
press as a publication of the Department of Terres- 
trial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington. P. H. Kuenen has in preparation a 
report on the marine bottom samples collected by 
the WiLLEBRORD Snellius in the Netherlands 
East Indies. The specimens collected by the 
Mabahiss are being studied by J. D. H. Wiseman, 
who has published an interesting article on volcanic 
rock dredged from the bottom off Providence Is- 
land' and the paper by him and R. B. S. Sewell, 
"The floor of the Arabian Sea," already cited, con- 

' Matthews, L. Harrison, The marine deposits of the 
Patagonian continental shelf: Discovery Reports, vol. 9, 
pp. 175-206, pis. 2-14, 1934. 

Moore, Hilary B., Faecal pellets from marine deposits: 
Discovery Reports, vol. 7, pp. 17-26, 1 text-fig., 1933. 

Neaverson, E., Sea-floor deposits, L General characters 
and distribution: Discovery Reports, vol. 9, pp. 295-350, 
pis. 17-22, 1934. 

' Thorp, E. M., Descriptions of deep-sea bottom samples 
from the western north Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea: 
Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Tech. Bull., vol. 3, pp. 1-31, 5 
text-figs., 1 chart, 1931. 

Thorp, E. M., Calcareous shallow-water marine deposits 
of Florida and the Bahamas: Carnegie Inst. Washington 
Pub. no. 452, pp. 37-143, 14 text-figs., 5 pis., Dec. 1935. 

* Schott, W., Die Bodenbedeckung des Indischen und 
Stillen Ozeans: in G. Schott's Geographic des Indischen 
und Stillen Ozeans, pp. 109-122, pi. 5, 1935. 

' Thorp, E. M., The sediments of the Pearl and Hermes 
Reed (Midway Islands): Jour. Sed. Petrol., vol. 6, pp. 109- 
118, 1 fig., 1936. 

' Wiseman, J. D. H., The petrography and significance 
of a rock dredged from a depth of 744 fathoms, near to 
Providence Reef, Indian Ocean. Linn. Soc. Zool. Trans, 
ser. 2, vol. 19, pp. 437-443, 3 text-figs., 1936. 



35 



36 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



tains information on material on the bottom of the 
Indian Ocean. Basaltic lava, dredged at two places, 
is noteworthy because of its low radium-content. 

The relative exploration of the sea-bottom for 
material composing it is only approximately indi- 
cated by the distribution of stations for serial sec- 
tions of temperature and salinity, for numerous 
bottom samples have been collected at places for 
which information on the physical features of the 
water is lacking or inaccurate. There are large 
areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, the same 
areas for which other information is deficient, from 
which few or no collections of bottom material have 
been made. 

During recent years there have been great changes 
in the methods of studying marine sediments due to 
the application of the principles of physical chemis- 
try to numerous problems of the .sediments them- 
selves and to problems of the seawater associated 
with the sediments and due to the utilization of 
X-ray analysis. It is not necessary to discuss the 
methods of this later work for they are described 
in connection with the reports on the samples col- 
lected by the Meteor, Carnegie, and other re- 
search vessels, and in other papers on marine 
sediments. It is pertinent to call attention here to a 
volume "Symposium on Recent Sediments" now 
in preparation by the Committee on Sedimentation 
of the United States National Research Council, 
under the editorship of Parker D. Trask. Many 
specialists are cooperating in the work. 

Another development of significance is the im- 
provement of the older, and the invention of new 
devices for obtaining cores of the sea bottom. 
There have been numerous modifications of Ekman's 
bottom sampler, which depends upon a weight to 
drive a tube into the bottom. One helpful modifi- 
cation is that of Trask.' A comm.endable feature of 
Trask's design is its cheapness, the cost need not 
exceed about five dollars. Another valuable device 
is that of Kuenen.' 

The most noteworthy advance in the design of 
coring devices is that of Piggot.'" The power to 

* Trask, Parker D., Oceanography and oil deposits: 
Amer. Geophys. Union, Trans., Nat. Res. Council Bull, 
no. 61, pp. 235-242, 1927. 

Trask, Parker D., Origin and environment of source 
sediments of petroleum: Gulf Pub. Co., Houston, Tex., 
1932. See p. 12, fig. 1, C. 

' Kuenen, Ph. H., Die Viermeter-Lotrohre der Snellius 
Expedition: Ann. d. Hydrogr. u. marit. Meteorologie, 
March, 1932. 

'" Piggot, C. S., Apparatus to secure core samples from 
the ocean bottom: Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 47, pp. 675- 
684, 3 pis., 1 fig., 1936. 



drive the tube into the bottom is derived from an 
explosive, that is the upper part of the apparatus 
is a gun. The numerous cores, up to ten feet 
long that have been taken, retain the stratification 
of the material sampled and make possible a study 
of the stratigraphy of the bottom material. It 
may be confidently expected that the Piggot gun 
will come into general use for sampling sea-bottom 
material, and that those samplers that take material 
only from the surface of the bottom will be replaced. 
Provisions for operating the Piggot gun have been 
made on the research vessels of both the Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography. It is probable that 
similar arrangements will be made on other vessels. 

The incentive that led Doctor Piggot to invent 
his gun was to procure core-samples for the study 
of the radium-content of marine bottom-deposits. 
He determined the amounts of radium in a series of 
samples collected by the Carnegie by means of a 
snapper-type of sampler. The results were not 
altogether satisfying — cores were needed. He has 
kindly prepared the following summary statement 
for this report. 

Radium Content of Marine Bottom Deposits, by 
C. S. Piggot, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington. 

Though many determinations have been made 
of the radium content of various rocks from many 
localities on the continental surfaces of the earth, 
very few .such measurements have been made on the 
materials comprising the ocean-bottom sediments. 
The reasons for this are obvious, but when the vast 
area covered by these sediments is considered, and 
especially their high radium content, it is apparent 
that they may have a geophysical significance of 
very great importance. 

The meagerness of the available data is empha- 
sized Vvhen it is pointed out that only some sixty- 
eight determinations have been published, of which 
Joly published twelve in 1908, '^ Hans Pettersson 
twenty-eight in 1930,'- and Piggot twenty-eight in 
1932", and these represent a material covering nearly 
three-fourths of the surface of the earth. Further- 
more, these sediments are of unknown thickness, and 
as there is little likelihood that direct measurements 
of the thickness will ever be made, a knowledge of 

" Joly, J., Phil. Mag., vol. 16, p. 190, 1908. 

'- Pettersson, Hans, Teneur en radium des depots de mer 
profonde: Resultats de Campagnes Scientifiques par Albert 
I<" Prince Souverain de Monaco, fascicule 81, 1930. 

" Piggot, C. S., Radium content of ocean-bottom sedi- 
ments: Amer. Jour, of Sci., vol. 25, pp. 229-238, March, 1933. 



MARINE BOTTOM DEPOSITS 



37 



this factor can be got only by a study of the rate 
of deposition. The most promising method for ac- 
complishing this is one based upon radioactive 
considerations. Therefore, a study of ocean bottom 
sediments from this point of view is of the greatest 
importance in securing fundamental information 
about these vast deposits. 

The radium content of the granitic rocks of the 
earth varies from about 1-3 X lO"'- grams of radium 
per gram of rock ; and of the basaltic rocks about 1 
on the same scale. The sedimentary rocks average 
less than the basalts, whereas the ocean bottom 
sediments are found to contain several times as 
much as even the granites. The average for Joly's 
twelve determinations is 17.8 X 10""'- grams Ra 
per gram of sample, which is considered to be 
rather high. Pettersson's twenty-eight determina- 
tions average 10.96 X 10~'- grams/gram, with a 
maximum of 49.5 X 10~'^ grams/gram. Piggot's 
re.sults average 6.52 X 10~'- grams/gram with 
21.40 X 10~" grams /gram as the greatest. 

These high concentrations of radium are the more 
remarkable when one considers that the uranium 
represented by this radium must come originally 
from the igneous rocks. Apparently it did not 
concentrate to any great extent in the sedimentary 
rocks at the time of their formation presumably in 
shallow seas but has concentrated to a considerable 
extent in those sediments which are now accumulat- 
ing slowly in the deeper and more remote portions 
of the ocean. 

Usually the red clays contain a higher concentra- 
tion of radium than do the other deposits. Of the 
samples examined by Petters.son and Piggot whose 
characters are definitely known, 27 red clays average 
12.1 X 10~'- grams Ra per gram, and 13 Globigerina 
oozes average 4.1 X 10~'- grams Ra per gram of 
sample. 

Joly suggested that the minute organisms of the 
sea abstract uranium, more or less selectively, from 
the water and when they die their skeletons carry 
it to the bottom with them. However, the higher 



radium concentrations are not found associated with 
any of the various skeletal deposits. 

Pettersson found high radium concentration 
as-sociated with evidences of volcanic activity and he 
suggests that the unusual concentrations are brought 
about by submarine volcanism. Pettersson's ex- 
planation seems rather specialized to be of general 
application. 

Piggot points out that the oxides of uranium like 
those of iron and manganese are among the least 
soluble of its compounds and that it is in those 
portions of the ocean bottom, in general, where the 
oxides of manganese and iron are separated, as re- 
vealed by the nodules of these elements, that the 
uranium concentration as revealed by the radium 
content is the higher. This accords with the 
observations of the oxygen content with depth made 
by the Carnegie, which revealed that though the 
oxygen content fell off very rapidly down to about 
1000 fathoms, it increa.sed from then on and soon 
attained a magnitude about two-thirds of that at 
the surface. Therefore the deep, undisturbed 
areas, far from land and detrital debris, furnish an 
oxidizing environment where the uranium separates 
out, and appears in the highest concentrations at 
those places of slowest sedimentation. 

The geophysical significance of this highly radio- 
active material depends upon its thickness and its 
history subsequent to being formed. If it be of 
great thickness or have served to take such concen- 
trations of radium into the structure of the earth's 
crust, its influence must be considerable, either as 
insulating the flow of heat into the ocean, as re- 
quired by Joly's thermal cycles, or as providing 
sources of intense energy for any part of the earth's 
crust within which it may become incorporated. 

Obviously the elucidation of such questions awaits 
considerable further research and more particularly 
the development of some device which will provide 
core samples, from a study of which some knowledge 
of the character and rate of deposition may be 
obtained. 



SUBMARINE EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS, MAGNETIC 
OBSERVATIONS AT SEA, TIDAL RECORDS 



THE STRUCTURE OF THE OCEAN BASINS AS 

INDICATED BY SEISMOLOGICAL DATA AND 

EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS 

By B. GUTENBERG 

Batch Graduate School of Geological Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., U.S.A. 

Contribution No. Z26 



THE STRUCTURE OF THE OCEAN BASINS AS INDICATED BY SEISMOLOGICAL DATA 



When an earthquake occurs, two different kinds 
of waves are generated : waves which travel through 
the interior of the earth (space waves), and waves 
whose energy is propagated chiefly along surfaces 
(surface waves). The records of both kinds of 
waves can be used to study certain physical proper- 
ties of the several layers of the earth, especially of 
the earth's crust. 

According to theory and to observations there 
are two different types of space waves : longitudinal 
waves, caused by the propagation of changes in 
volume (either compression or rarefaction, there 
being no difference in propagation between these 
cases), and shear waves (transversal waves), due to 
the propagation of a shear. The velocities of the 
longitudinal waves {V) and of the transversal waves 
(v) are connected with the bulk modulus k, the 
coefficient of rigidity ji, and the density d of the 
material in which the wave is propagated, by 
the following formulae: 



y2 



fc + lM 



V = 



From the seLsmograms we find the times of arrival 
of the different phases. Further, in very many 
cases we are able to calculate the position and depth 
of the focus, and the time of origin. In such cases 
we can find the travel time (time between occurrence 
of the shock and the arrival of a certain phase at the 
station), and plotting these travel times against the 
distances, we get the "travel-time curves" which 
allow us to find the velocities of the several kinds of 
waves as a function of the depth. 

Unfortunately it is very difficult to get travel 
times of near shocks whose waves run only through 



the material at the bottom of the ocean. To get 
true velocities, the instrument must be in contact 
with the material of the earth's crust beneath the 
ocean. It is very difficult to state how far this is 
true in the case of instruments installed on islands. 
The only observations which may fulfill such condi- 
tions to a certain degree, have been published by 
Angenheister' using seismograms near shocks regis- 
tered at Apia (Samoa). They show that both kinds 
of forerunners arrive earlier than in other regions 
considered so far, and they were the first indication 
of the fact that there are large inequalities in the 
earth's crust. 

Another way to find data on the differences in the 
earth's crust has been suggested by B. Gutenberg 
and C. F. Richter.^ The amplitudes of waves 
reflected from the surface of the earth depend on 
the velocities at the point of reflection, in addition 
to other quantities. The observations show that 
waves reflected at the bottom in the Pacific basin, 
with the exception of a few limited areas, and in the 
Polar basin show usually much smaller amplitudes 
than waves reflected under otherwise equal condi- 
tions in the continents, the Atlantic or Indian Ocean. 
The maximum difference occurs for epicentral dis- 
tances of about 5000 km. ; at distances of this order 
Pacific reflections, on an average, have only about 
J of the amplitudes of continental reflections, indi- 
cating a higher velocity of waves in the surface 
layers of the Pacific. 

The observations of surface waves, that is waves 

" Angenheister, G., Beobachtungen an pazifischen Beben. 
Gottinger Naehrichten, 1921. 

2 B. Gutenberg and C. F. Richter, On Seismic Waves 
(Second Paper). Gerlands Beitr. zur Geophysik, vol. 45 
(1935) pp. 280-360. 



41 



42 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



which are propagated along the surface of the 
earth, also can be used to find the velocities of waves 
in different regions. In a medium which is not 
homogeneous, the velocity of surface waves depends 
upon the period. Short waves are propagated only 
in a thin layer, whereas the energy of long waves is 
propagated in a thick layer. In general, a con- 
siderable amount of the energy of these waves is 
propagated in that part of the earth's crust with a 
thickness several times as great as the wave-length. 
With increasing depth the energy propagated by 
elastic surface waves diminishes exponentially. If, 
for example, we have two layers, the upper one with 
a thickness of ten kilometers and a velocity of three 
kilometers per second for transversal waves, the 
lower, with a velocity of four kilometers per second, 
surface shear waves with a period of one second 
(wave-length of the order of three kilometers), 
will be propagated with a velocity of three kilo- 
meters per second; if the wave has a period of ten 
seconds, the wave-length will be greater than the 
thickness of the layer, so a noticeable part of the 
energy will be propagated in the deeper layer, and 
the velocity of the wave will be between three and 
four kilometers per second. If, finally, we consider 
a wave with a period of 60 seconds, the wave-length 
(nearly 240 kilometers) will be large as compared 
with the thickness of the layer, nearly all the energy 
will be propagated in the deeper layer and the 
velocity of this wave will be nearly four kilometers 
per second. As the whole matter is somewhat 
complicated, we will not go into detail. 

If instead of two layers with constant velocity in 
each we have a material in which the velocity in- 
creases with depth, the effect will be similar; in this 
case, too, the velocity of the waves will increase 
with the period. In using this method B. Guten- 
berg found in 1923 the difference in structure be- 
tween the Pacific basin and all other regions of the 
earth.' 

Combining the most recent data found from the 
various investigations mentioned so far, Gutenberg 
and Richter* arrived at the following conclusions: 
The crust of the earth is divided in most regions 
into several layers, the uppermost is the layer of 
sedimentary rocks, with velocities of longitudinal 
waves from about 1 km./sec. in very unconsolidated 

' B. Gutenberg, Dispersion und Extinction von seismis- 
chen Oberflachenwellen und der Aufbau der obersten Erd- 
schichten. Physikal. Zeitschr. vol. 25 (1924) pp. 377-381. 

* B. GutenJDerg and C. F. Richter, On Seismic Waves 
(Third Paper). Gerlands Beitrage zur Geophysik, vol. 47 
(1936) pp. 73-131. 



recent material to at least 6 km./sec. in very old, 
consolidated sediments. The thickness of the sedi- 
mentary layer varies locally withui very wide limits; 
it may be totally absent, or may extend to depths 
of over 12 km. (Depths of this order have been 
found in the Los Angeles Basin by the use of applied 
seismic methods.) Beneath these sedimentary rocks 
is a layer which in many cases is known to consist 
of granitic rock, in which the velocity of longitudinal 
waves is about 5.5 km./sec. In some regions the 
sediments are directly underlain by basaltic rock; 
where data are available, usually one or two deeper 
layers have been recognized within the crust. 

The base of the granitic layer has been found, 
in the continental regions where it has been studied, 
at depths between 15 and 20 km. In these same 
regions the total thickness of the crust (depth of the 
first major discontinuity) has been found to be from 
30 to 50 km. Relatively small values for this 
thickness have been found for the southwestern 
United States, western Europe, and northeastern 
Japan; about average thicknesses occur in central 
and western North America, and in South America. 
The largest values found thus far are in the region 
of the Alps. In the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, 
the total thickness of the crust is only a fraction 
of that on the continents; the seismological data 
offer no evidence as to the nature of the rocks 
composing the crust in these areas, but in both 
oceans there still is a well-marked discontinuity 
between the crustal rocks and the mantle. There 
is no evident vertical discontinuity between these 
oceans and the adjacent continents. 

In the region of the Pacific basui no marked dis- 
continuity between crust and mantle exists; except 
for local accumulations of erupted basaltic material, 
it does not appear that the elastic constants near the 
rock surface differ significantly from those in the 
mantle. Data for the north polar basin definitely 
indicate the existence of a considerable area with 
properties similar to those of the Pacific basin. 

All available evidence indicates that a continental 
type of structure exists in certain outlying areas of 
the Pacific Ocean. This is the case in the Poly- 
nesian region, including the area west of the Bonin, 
Marianne, and Caroline Islands. Besides, there is 
evidence for continental structure in a limited area 
in the southeastern Pacific, at considerable distance 
from the coast of South America. 

The problem, of what materials the various layers 
consist has not been solved completely yet. In 
crystalline rocks, velocities of 4^-6 km./sec. have 



STRUCTURE OF OCEAN BASINS 



43 



been found for longitudinal waves, in basalt 5-5f 
km. /sec. It is very probable that the values found 
for the upper layer beneath the continental areas 
correspond to granite under somewhat higher pres- 
sure. No waves through more basic rocks have been 
investigated by means of explosions. It seems to be 
very probable that the continental layers consist of 
granite at the top, and rocks with increasing basicity 
at greater depths, that the bottom of the Atlantic 
Ocean is formed by the same types of rocks, the 
layers being noticeably thinner, and that the 
entire bottom of the Pacific Ocean and all regions 
of the earth at dei;)ths of more than 50 kilometers 
consist of a very much more basic material than is 
characteristic of the uppermost part of the con- 
tinents. 

There are other observations confirming these 
results. Surface waves undergo a certain amount of 
extinction when propagated. For very long waves, 
this seems to be the same everywhere. Indeed, the 
energy of these waves is propagated almost com- 
pletely at considerable depths, the wave-length 
being a few hundreds of kilometers, and the structure 
at that depth apparently is the same in every region 
of the earth. But if we use short waves we find a 
very definite dependence of extinction upon the 
region. The least values are to be found at the 
bottom of the Atlantic Ocean and on the continents. 
The values for the bottom of the Pacific Ocean are 
somewhat scanty, as in this case epicenter and sta- 
tion must be situated in the ocean (Honolulu, Apia). 
They do not differ much from those just mentioned; 
however, noticeably larger loss of energy is found 
for waves which have traversed the boundary of the 
Pacific Ocean, even if the station is situated very 
close to the ocean. In particular, the values found 
from paths along the coast (Japan-Manila, Japan- 
Batavia) are very high, indicating that it is not a 
high absorption of the energy at the bottom of the 
Pacific Ocean that is the cause of the large values 
there, but the fact of the crossing of the coasts. 
No corresponding effects have been found from 
waves passing the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. 
In this case, no surfaces between layers of different 
material must be crossed, but as we found before, 
and as is stated by the investigation of the extinction 
of surface waves, the physical coast of the Pacific 
Ocean (Japan-Philippines-New Guinea) is the 
boundary, between two completely different kinds 
of material. The large losses of energy of the 
surface waves crossing this vertical surface between 
the material at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean 




44 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



and the very much less basic material in the upper 
layer of the continents, are caused by reflection 
and refraction of the energy which arrives there. 
The vertical extent of these vertical surfaces cannot 
be more than a few tens of kilometers, as the very 
long waves seem to show no effect of the kind men- 
tioned. 

Nevertheless these vertical discontinuities may 
affect the conditions down to a few hundreds of 
kilometers. Inv^estigations on the depths of foci 
of earthquakes^ have shown that everywhere in the 
earth depths of foci of not more than 40-50 km. 
prevail. In many earthquake regions there are 
found, in addition, foci at depths down to 100 km. 
Still greater depths occur in some earthquake regions 
as in the Hindu Kush (200-250 km.), in the south 
Atlantic (about 150 km.), Central America (about 
130 km.), eastern Mediterranean region (150-200 
km.), and many regions surrounding the Pacific 
Ocean. Earthquakes originating at depths of 
three hundred km. and more, however, are found 
only in a relatively narrow belt around the Pacific 
Ocean. They have been located thus far in Man- 
churia, Sea of Okhotsk, south of Japan (near 30°N., 
140°E.), in the Central East Indies about Celebes, 
in the Solomon Islands, the Fiji-Kermadec area, 
and western South America, but not North America. 
(See figure.) The greate.st depths, of between 600- 
720 km. thus far have been found in almost all these 
regions, but especially in the Fiji-Kermadec area 
and in western South Anierica. In general the 
distances from the Pacific Ocean increases with 
increasing depth. In South America, for example, 
the normal shocks are close to the coast, shocks 
with depths between 100-250 km. are beneath the 
Andes and a third group of shocks with depths 
between 600-700 km. have been located east of the 
Andes. It has been found, besides, that in general 
the type of movement is the same regardless of 



depth. That means that if we have a movement 
towards the north on one side of a fault near the 
surface, the movement is also in general in a north- 
erly direction on the same side at larger depths 
The data available so far are rather scanty in some 
areas; however, they leave no doubt about the fact 
that the Pacific Ocean basin bears a unique relation 
to the occurrence of deep shocks. No similar phe- 
nomena have been observed around other ocean 
basins nor at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. 

If we summarize our results we find that the 
region comprised within the limits of the Pacific 
Ocean as given above has one kind of structure and 
all other regions of the earth, perhaps excluding a 
part of the Arctic basin, another. In these latter 
parts of the earth (non-Pacific area) there is a 
continental layer which consists of several shells. 
Its thickness is about 40-50 km. under the conti- 
nents but decreases towards the Atlantic and 
probably the Indian Ocean, where its thickness is 
of the order of 20 km. There is no indication that 
the continents have broken during any geological 
time and drifted apart ; however, our findings would 
be in agreement with the assumption that in early 
geological times the thickness of the continental 
crust was different in many localities from what it is 
today and that plastic flow in the continental crust 
may have changed the distribution of land and sea 
in the area including all continents and the Atlantic 
and Indian Ocean. 

The basin of the Pacific Ocean proper is a unique 
element of the earth's crust and its boundaries 
affect the layers down to many hundreds of km. 
As it is not evident how the continental crust could 
have been removed in a gradual way from the Pacific 
Ocean the conclusion seems to be probable that the 
Pacific Ocean either never has had such a crust or 
that it has been removed by a cosmic event. 



EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS IN OCEANIC REGIONS AND ALONG 
CONTINENTAL BORDERS 

Plates 24, 25, 26 



The accompanying charts are intended to give a 
general idea about earthquake epicenters rather 
than to present a map of specific shocks. The 
following symbols are used: 

' B. Gutenberg and C. F. Richter, Depth and Geo- 
graphical Distribution of Deep-focus Earthquakes. Paper, 
presented at a joint session of the Geological Soc. of Amer- 
ica, Cordill. Sect, and the Seismological Society of America 
at Berkeley, April 10, 1937. 



O Strong shocks frequent in that region. In most cases 
one symbol stands for a few or even many shocks! 

# Occasionally strong shocks in that region. 

O Occasionally medium size shocks (about like the 
Long Beach shock), but strong shocks rare. 

-|- Occasional shocks, but no recent strong shocks. 

As in many cases the epicenters are not known 
to a higher degree of accuracy each symbol refers 
to a region with a radius of a few hundred km. An 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 24 



140° 130° 120° 110° 90° 60° 3dW 0° 20°E 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 




00° 80° 60° 30'W 0° 20t 40° 60° 70° 60° 



Atlantic Ocean, Earthquake Epicenters 
(Base chart, after G. Wiist) 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 




IN MOST CASES ONE SYMBOL STANDS 
fOR A FEW OR EVEN MANY SHOCKS 
® STRONG SHOCKS 
FREQUENT IN THAT REGION 
• OCCASIONALLY STRONG 
SHOCKS IN THAT REGION 

O OCCASIONALLY MEDIUM 
SIZE SHOCKS ABOUT LIKE 
THE LONG BEACH SHOCK BUT 

STRONG SHOCKS LESS FREQUENT 
+ OCCASIONALLY 
SHOCKS BUT NO 
RECENT STRONG 
SHOCKS 



Pacific Ocean, Earthquake Epicenters 
(Base chart, after A. Defant.) 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 26 




Indian Ocean, Earthquake Epicenters 
(Base chart, after A. Defant.) 



saaTAJs 



:: i ... 



e ; >"■ 



'«!s ia.ua> Jii I jji 



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1 



STRUCTURE OF OCEAN BASINS 



45 



endeavor has been made to eliminate the effect of 
the different density in distribution of the earth- 
quake observatories but it may not have been 
entirely successful. For example, the Atlantic- 
Arctic region, on which there have been a few 
detailed investigations made, may be less active 
than the map indicates. In the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, on the other hand, as there have been only a 
very few investigation.?, many earthquakes of 
moderate size may have escaped attention. But 
it is my belief that the difference between the 



bottom of the Pacific Ocean and the surrounding 
regions is not exaggerated. Our records for recent 
years have confirmed the indicated relations, the 
regions with the most epicenters are more distant 
from us than the quiet regions. 

The following is a list of the charts of the different 
oceans showing the position of earthquake epicen- 
ters on the sea floor and on the continental margins: 

1. Chart of the Atlantic Ocean. 

2. Chart of the Pacific Ocean. 

3. Chart of the Indian Ocean. 



LIST OF SEISMOLOGICAL STATIONS OF THE 

WORLD 



By N. H. heck 
Captain, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 

Plate 27 



NO. 


STATION 


LOCATION 


NO. 


STATION 


LOCATION 


1 


Aachen 


Germany 


48 


Cambridge 


USA 


2 


Abisko 


Sweden 


49 


Cape of Good Hope 


South Africa 


3 


Adelaide 


South Australia 


50 


Cardiff 


Wales 


4 


Accra 


West Africa 


51 


Carloforte 


Italy 


5 


Agra 


India 


52 


Cartuja 


Spain 


6 


Aidu 


Japan 


53 


Cernauti 


Roumania 


7 


Akita 


Japan 


64 


Charlottesville 


USA 


8 


Albany 


USA 


55 


Chatham Islands 


South Pacific 


9 


Alger-BouzarSah 


Algeria 


56 


Cheltenham 


USA 


10 


Alicante 


Spain 


57 


Chiavari 


Italy 


11 


Alipore (Calcutta) 


India 


58 


Chicago (Loyola) 


USA 


12 


Alma-Ata 


USSR 


59 


Chicago 


USA 


13 


Almeria 


Spain 


60 


Chihuahua 


Mexico 


14 


Amboina 


Dutch East Indies 


61 


Christchurch 


New Zealand 


15 


Ambulong 


Philippine Is. 


62 


Chur 


Switzerland 


16 


Andalgala 


Argentina 


63 


Chiufeng 


China 


17 


Andijan 


USSR 


64 


Cincinnati 


USA 


18 


Angra do Heroismo 


Azores 


65 


Clausthal 


Germany 


19 


Ann Arbor 


USA 


66 


Clermont-Ferrand 


France 


20 


Apia 


Western Samoa 


67 


Cleveland 


USA 


21 


Arapuni 


New Zealand 


68 


Coimbra 


Portugal 


22 


Asahigawa 


Japan 


69 


Coire 


Switzerland 


23 


Ascension 


Is. of Ascension 


70 


Colaba (Bombay) 


India 


24 


Athens 


Greece 


71 


Colombo 


Ceylon 


25 


Awomori 


Japan 


72 


Columbia 


USA 


26 


Bagneres-de-Bigorre 


France 


73 


Copenhagen 


Denmark 


27 


Baguio 


Philippine Is. 


74 


Copiap6 


Chile 


28 


Baku 


USSR 


75 


Dairen 


Japan 


29 


Balboa 


Central America 


76 


Dakar 


West Africa 


30 


Barcelona 


Spain 


77 


Dannevirke 


New Zealand 


31 


Basle (Bale) 


Switzerland 


78 


De Bilt 


Netherlands 


32 


Batavia 


Java 


79 


Dehra Dun 


India 


33 


Beirut 


Syria 


80 


Denton 


USA 


34 


Belgrade 


Yugoslavia 


81 


Denver 


USA 


35 


Benevento 


Italy 


82 


Des Moines 


USA 


36 


Bergen 


Norway 


83 


Dubrovnik 


Yugoslavia 


37 


Berkeley 


USA 


84 


Ebro 


Spain 


38 


Besan?on 


France 


85 


Edinburgh 


Scotland 


39 


Bidston (Liverpool) 


England 


86 


Eger 


Czechoslovakia 


40 


Bochum 


Germany 


87 


Eskdalemuir 


Scotland 


41 


Bogota 


Colombia 


88 


Florence Xim. 


Italy 


42 


Bozeman 


USA 


89 


Florence 


Italy 


43 


Budapest 


Hungary 


90 


Florissant 


USA 


44 


Buffalo 


USA 


91 


Foggia 


Italy 


45 


Bunneythorpe 


New Zealand 


92 


Fordham 


USA 


46 


Burlington 


USA 


93 


Fort de France 


Martinique 


47 


Butuan 


Philippine Is. 


94 


Frunse 


USSR 



46 



LIST OF SEISMOLOGICAL STATIONS OF WORLD 



47 



NO. 


STATION 


95 


Fukui 


96 


Georgetown 


97 


Gifu 


98 


Glenmuick 


99 


Gottingen 


100 


Gorje 


101 


Graz 


102 


Grennoble 


103 


Greymouth 


104 


Guadalajara 


105 


Guam 


106 


Haboro 


107 


Haiwee 


108 


Hakodate 


109 


Halifax 


110 


Haraada 


111 


Hamamatsu 


112 


Hamburg 


113 


Harvard 


114 


Hastings 


115 


Hatidyozima 


116 


Havana 


117 


Heerland 


118 


Heidelberg 


119 


Heijo 


120 


Helgoland 


121 


Helsingfors 


122 


Helwan 


123 


Hikone 


124 


Hilo 


125 


Hiroshima 


126 


Hof 


127 


Hohenheim 


128 


Hoko 


129 


Hong Kong 


130 


Honolulu 


131 


Huancayo 


132 


Hukuoka 


133 


Husan 


134 


Husiki 


135 


Hyderabad 


136 


Idzuhara 


137 


lidia 


138 


Imola 


139 


Innsbruck 


140 


Irkutsk 


141 


Ishigakijima 


142 


Ishinomaki 


143 


Ithaca 


144 


Ivigtut 


145 


Jena 


146 


Jinsen 


147 


Johannesburg 


148 


Kabansk 


149 


Kagoshima 


150 


Kakioka 


151 


Kalocsa 


152 


Kamakura 


153 


Kanazawa 


154 


Karenko 


155 


Karlsruhe 



LOCATION 

Japan 

USA 

Japan 

New Zealand 

Germany 

Yugoslavia 

Austria 

France 

New Zealand 

Mexico 

Mariana Is. 

Japan 

USA 

Japan 

Canada 

Japan 

Japan 

Germany 

USA 

New Zealand 

Japan 

Cuba 

Netherlands 

Germany 

Korea 

Germany 

Finland 

Egypt 

Japan 

Hawaii 

Japan 

Germany 

Germany 

Formosa 

China 

Hawaii 

Peru 
Japan 
Korea 
Japan 

India 
Japan 
Japan 

Italy 

Austria 

Siberia 

Japan 

Japan 

USA 

Greenland 

Germany 

Korea 

South Africa 

Siberia 

Japan 

Japan 

Hungary 

Japan 

Japan 

Formosa 

Germany 



NO. 


STATION 


LOCATION 


156 


Keeling Islands 


Cocos Island 


157 


Keijo 


Korea 


158 


Kew 


England 


159 


Kingston 


Br. West Indies 


160 


Kiyosumi 


Japan 


161 


Kobe 


Japan 


162 


Kochi 


Japan 


163 


Kodaikanal 


India 


164 


Kodiak 


Alaska 


165 


Kofu 


Japan 


166 


Kona 


Hawaii 


167 


Konigsberg 


Germany 


168 


Kosyum 


Formosa 


169 


Ksara 


Syria 


170 


Kucino 


USSR 


171 


Kumagaya 


Japan 


172 


Kumamoto 


Japan 


173 


Kure 


Japan 


174 


Kushiro 


Japan 


175 


Kyoto 


Japan 


176 


Kysuyu 


Japan 


177 


La Jolla 


USA 


178 


La Paz 


Bolivia 


179 


La Plata 


Argentina 


180 


Lawrence 


USA 


181 


Leipzig 


Germany 


182 


Le Mans 


France 


183 


Lemberg 


Poland 


184 


Leningrad 


USSR 


185 


Lima 


Peru 


186 


Lisbon 


Portugal 


187 


Little Rock 


USA 


188 


Livorno 


Italy 


189 


Ljubljana 


Yugoslavia 


190 


Lund 


Sweden 


191 


Madison 


USA 


192 


Madrid 


Spain 


193 


Maebashi 


Japan 


194 


Makeevka 


USSR 


195 


Malabar 


Java 


196 


Malaga 


Spain 


197 


Manila 


Philippine Is. 


198 


Manzanillo 


Mexico 


199 


Maron 


Java 


200 


Marseilles 


France 


201 


Matsumoto 


Japan 


202 


Matsuyama 


Japan 


203 


Mauritius 


Mauritius 


204 


Mazatlan 


Mexico 


205 


Medan 


Dutch E. Indies 


206 


Melbourne 


Australia 


207 


Mera 


Japan 


208 


Merida 


Mexico 


209 


Meszstetten-Ebingen 


Germany 


210 


Milwaukee 


USA 


211 


IMineo 


Italv 


212 


Mineral 


USA 


213 


Misaki 


Japan 


214 


Misima 


Japan 


215 


Mitaka 


Japan 


216 


Mito 


Japan 



48 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



NO. 


STATION 


LOCATION 


NO, 


STATION 


LOCATION 


217 


Miyako 


Japan 


278 


Pulkovo 


USSR 


218 


Miyatsu 


Japan 


279 


Quito 


Ecuador 


219 


Miyazaki 


Japan 


280 


Ravensburg 


Germany 


220 


Mizusawa 


Japan 


281 


Reno 


USA 


221 


Mobile 


USA 


282 


Reykjavik 


Iceland 


222 


Moncalieri 


Italy 


283 


Rio de Janeiro 


Brazil 


223 


Montecassino 


Italy 


284 


Riverside 


USA 


224 


Montezuma 


Chile 


285 


Riverview 


Australia 


225 


Morioka 


Japan 


286 


Rocca di Papa 


Italy 


226 


Mostar 


Yugoslavia 


287 


Rome 


Italy 


227 


Mt. Hamilton 


USA 


288 


Saga 


Japan 


228 


Mount Wilson 


USA 


289 


St. Boniface 


Canada 


229 


Munich 


Germany 


290 


St. Helena Island 


Is. of St. Helena 


230 


Muroran 


Japan 


291 


St. Louis 


USA 


231 


Muroto 


Japan 


292 


Sakai 


Japan 


232 


Nagano 


Japan 


293 


Samarkand 


USSR 


233 


Nagasaki 


Japan 


294 


San Fernando (Cadiz) 


Spain 


234 


Nagoya 


Japan 


295 


San Juan 


Porto Rico 


235 


Naples 


Italy 


296 


Santa Barbara 


USA 


236 


Nase 


Japan 


297 


Santa Clara 


USA 


237 


Nemuro 


Japan 


298 


Santiago 


Chile 


238 


Neuchatel 


Switzerland 


299 


Sapporo 


Japan 


239 


New Haven 


USA 


300 


Sarajevo 


Yugoslavia 


240 


New Orleans 


USA 


301 


Sasebo 


Japan 


241 


New Plymouth 


New Zealand 


302 


Saskatoon 


Canada 


242 


Niigata 


Japan 


303 


Scoresby-Sund 


Greenland 


243 


Niihama 


Japan 


304 


Seatoon 


New Zealand 


244 


Nordlingen 


Germany 


305 


Seattle 


USA 


245 


Numazu 


Japan 


306 


Sebastopol 


USSR 


246 


Oaxaca 


Mexico 


307 


Sendai 


Japan 


247 


Obihiro 


Japan 


308 


Seven Falls 


Canada 


248 


Oiwake 


Japan 


309 


Shimonoseki 


Japan 


249 


Okayama 


Japan 


310 


Shionomisaki 


Japan 


250 


Okinawa 


Japan 


311 


Sibenik 


Yugoslavia 


251 


Omahama 


Japan 


312 


Sikka 


Japan 


252 


Ooita 


Japan 


313 


Simferopol 


USSR 


253 


Ootomari 


Japan 


314 


Simizu 


Japan 


254 


Osaka 


Japan 


315 


Sion 


Switzerland 


255 


Ottawa 


Canada 


316 


Sitka 


Alaska 


256 


Oxford 


England 


317 


Sofia 


Bulgaria 


257 


Padova 


Italy 


318 


Spokane 


USA 


258 


Palo Alto 


USA 


319 


State College, Pa. 


USA 


259 


Pare Saint-Maur 


France 


320 


Stockton 


USA 


260 


Pasadena 


USA 


321 


Stonyhurst 


England 


261 


Pavia 


Italy 


322 


Strasbourg 


France 


262 


Perth 


Western Australia 


323 


Stuttgart 


Germany 


263 


Piacenza 


Italy 


324 


Subiaco 


Italy 


264 


Piatigorsk 


USSR 


325 


Sucre 


Bolivia 


265 


Pic du Midi 


France 


326 


Sumoto 


Japan 


266 


Pittsburgh 


USA 


327 


Suttu 


Japan 


267 


Philadelphia 


USA 


328 


Suva 


Fiji Islands 


268 


Plauen 


Germany 


329 


Sverdlovsk 


USSR 


269 


Plymouth 


England 


330 


Swarthmore 


USA 


270 


Point Loma 


USA 


331 


Sydney 


Australia 


271 


Ponta Delgada 


Azores 


332 


Tachkent 


USSR 


272 


Port-au-Prince 


Haiti 


333 


Tacubaya 


Mexico 


273 


Potsdam 


Germany 


334 


Tadotu 


Japan 


274 


Poughkeepsie 


USA 


335 


Taihoku 


Formosa 


275 


Prague 


Czechoslovakia 


336 


Taiku 


Korea 


276 


Prato 


Italy 


337 


Tainan 


Formosa 


277 


Puebla 


Mexico 


338 


Taito 


Formosa 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 




YlilAHSOt-' 



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■ I 



'■'••jh j«jo«'" 



LIST OF SEISMOLOGICAL STATIONS OF WORLD 



49 



NO. 


STATION 


339 


Taitytl 


340 


Takaka 


341 


Takata 


342 


Takayama 


343 


Tananarive 


344 


Tarente 


345 


Taunus 


346 


Technology 


347 


Theodosia 


348 


Tiflis 


349 


Tinemaha 


350 


Titibu 


351 


Togane 


352 


Tokushima 


353 


Tokyo 


354 


Tokyo 


355 


Toledo 


356 


Toronto 


357 


Toyooka 


358 


Travnik 


359 


Trenta 


360 


Treviso 


361 


Trieste 


362 


Tsingtao 


363 


Tsitsishima 


364 


Tsu 


365 


Tsukuba-san 


366 


Tuai 


367 


Tukuba 


368 


Tucson 


369 


Tunis 


370 


Tyosi 


371 


Uccle 


372 


Ukiah 


373 


Unzen-dake 


374 


Upsala 


375 


Utsunomiya 


376 


Uwazima 


377 


Uwekahuna 


378 


Uzhorod 


379 


Valle di Pompei 



LOCATION 

Formosa 

New Zealand 

Japan 

Japan 

Madagascar 

Italy 

Germany 

USA 

USSR 

USSR 

USA 

Japan 

Japan 

Japan 

Japan 

Japan 

Spain 

Canada 

Japan 

Yugoslavia 

Italy 

Italy 

Italy 

China 

Japan 

Japan 

Japan 

New Zealand 

Japan 

USA 

Africa 

Japan 

Belgium 

USA 

Japan 

Sweden 

Japan 

Japan 

Hawaii 

Czechslovakia 

Italy 



NO. 


STATION 


LOCATION 


380 


Venice 


Italy 


381 


Vera Cruz 


Mexico 


382 


Victoria 


Canada 


383 


Vienna 


Austria 


384 


Vladivostok 


USSR 


385 


Volcano House 


Hawaii 


386 


Wakayama 


Japan 


387 


Wellington 


New Zealand 


388 


Worcester 


USA 


389 


Yagi 


Japan 


390 


Yalta 


Crimea 


391 


Yamagata 


Japan 


392 


Yokohama 


Japan 


393 


Yokosuka 


Japan 


394 


Zagreb 


Yugoslavia 


395 


Zi-kawei 


China 


396 


Zinsen 


Korea 


397 


Zurich 


Switzerland 




Additions 


398 


Phu Lien 


China 


399 


Rathfarnham 


Ireland 


400 


West Bromwich 


England 


401 


Woodstock 


USA 


402 


Fairbanks 


Alaska 


403 


Salt Lake City 


USA 


404 


Weston 


USA 


405 


Butte 


USA 


406 


Ferndale 


USA 


407 


Fresno 


USA 


408 


Kaitaia 


New Zealand 


409 


Monowai 


New Zealand 


410 


Rotorua 


New Zealand 


411 


San Francisco 


USA 


412 


Williamstown 


USA 



The numbers in the foregoing table appear on the ac- 
companying map (Plate 27) showing the positions of the 
seismological stations of the world, but because of the im- 
practicability of publishing the map on a larger scale, [they 
can be read only with a reading glass. 



MAGNETIC SURVEY OF THE OCEANS 



By J. A. FLEMING' 



Plates 28, 29, 30 



The large portion of the Earth's surface covered 
by the oceans makes the determination of accurate 
values of the magnetic elements at sea a major ob- 
jective of the world-wide magnetic and electric 
survey. It was not until 1905 that full realization 
of this objective had its beginning through the 
systematic oceanic magnetic survey then sponsored 
by the Carnegie Institution of Washington through 
its Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

The first attempt to accomplish a magnetic survey 
at sea was the expedition of Halley between 1698 
and 1700. He was placed in command of the 
Paramour Pink and was told by King William III 
to proceed with her "on an expedition to improve the 
longitude and the variations of the compass." 
Halley made several voyages in the North and 
South Atlantic oceans determining magnetic declina- 
tion only — instruments for measuring magnetic 
inclination and magnetic intensity at sea had not 
then been devised. The results were embodied in 
Halley's chart "Lines of equal magnetic variation" 
of the Atlantic for the year 1700— the first isomag- 
netic chart. The next really important imdertaking 
was the expedition under the general direction of 
Sabine of the Erebus, the Terror, and the Pagoda 
during 1840^5, chiefly in southern waters. On 
these all three magnetic elements were observed, 
the Fox dip-circle for measuring the magnetic 
inclinations and intensity at sea having been just 
devised. The Austrian frigate Novara measured 
magnetic declination while circumnavigating the 
globe in 1857-60. During the notable cruises of the 
Challenger in 1872-76, and of the Gazelle, a 
German vessel, in 1874-76, observations of the three 
magnetic elements were made over various oceans. 
Magnetic observations at sea were also made more 
recently by the naval services of various countries 
and by later Antarctic expeditions, notably the 
Discovery and the Gauss. The accompanying 
plates 28 and 29 and fig. 3 show the tracks of chief 

> Director, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Car- 
negie Institution of Washington. 



vessels on which magnetic observations were made 
during 1839-1916. 

All these observations were of varying degrees of 
accuracy set by available instruments and by the 
disturbing factors originating in the magnetic 
character of the vessels, while their distribution, 
both as regards position and epoch, was not such 
as to yield coordinated charts applying to definite 
periods. Therefore, when planning in 1904 for the 
magnetic and electric survey of the Earth the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, gave careful considera- 
tion to the oceanic survey. 

The Institution's earliest work at .sea was done 
with the chartered vessel Galilee during 1905-08. 
The experience gained during her three cruises 
proved conclusively that oceanic observations of the 
magnetic elements sufficient for practical and scien- 
tific needs could be assured only by a vessel designed 
specially for such work. The Carnegie was 
designed in 1908 primarily for magnetic and electric 
surveys and investigations and her construction and 
equipment were completed in 1909. The first of the 
seven cruises of this unique vessel during 1909-29 
in all oceans was begun in 1909. The theoretical 
and practical values of the knowledge acquired and 
of the resulting discussions of the Earth's magnetic 
and electrical fields are attested by many expressions 
of appreciation made by the leading hydrographical 
establishments and by investigators of geophysics 
in all countries. 

The observational work accomplished before the 
destruction of the Carnegie by explosion and fire 
at Apia, Western Samoa, November 29, 1929, was 
obtained during the seven cruises which aggregated 
297,579 nautical miles. The data obtained during 
these cruises and the three previously made by the 
Galilee, include declination at 3844 points, in- 
clination and horizontal intensity at 2321 and 2322 
points, respectively, and atmospheric-electric ele- 
ments on 1913 days. The extent of the Institution's 
survey on land and sea is shown by plate 30. 



50 



MAGNETIC SURVEY OF THE OCEANS 



51 



While more information on secular-variation 
changes in the Earth's magnetism is required for 
navigation, yet future magnetic and electric data 
over the oceans are far more necessary to advance 



continue the work of the Carnegie because further 
surveys of like accuracy will enhance the theoretical 
value of the work already done. As an example, 
attention may be called to the apparent diminution 




Tracks of Chief Vessels on Which Magnetic Observations Were Made in the Indian Ocean. 1839-1916 



r.mcgtc, 1911-1916 -^ 
Novara, 1857-1860 • 



C.u«. 1902-1903 



Erebus and Terror 1839-1843 ■ 

Challenger, 1872-1876 

Dijcovery. 1902-1904 



Pagoda. 1845 

Gazelle. 1874-1876"— ^— 



Fig. 3 



theoretical studies. The full value of magnetic of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field dis- 

results of the few earlier expeditions under various covered by the Department's investigations of the 

governments has never been attained because of the data thus far obtained, this dimunition being marked 

shortness of the cruises. It is of first importance to over oceanic areas, especially in the Southern 



52 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Hemisphere. The interpretation of such data 
doubtless will be important in geophysical and 
geological research to advance understanding and 
interpretation of Earth phenomena. 

For example, from observed earthquake-wave 
velocities and reflections for different regions and 
depths the crustal layer, which under most of the 



tribution of magnetic secular-variation agrees with , 
that of land-areas (see figs. 4 and 5, after Fisk, 
based upon data from 75° north to 65° south^) — 
as witness the moderate rates of annual change 
over the Pacific as compared with those over the 
Atlantic and adjoining continental areas. Further 
data bearing on correlation thus indicated between 




Fig. 4. Longitudinal Distribution of Proportion op Annual Change (AH/H) of Horizontal Intensity 




Fig. 5. L.\titudinal Distribution of Proportion of Annual Change {AH/H) op Horizontal Intensity 



continental and water-covered continental struc- 
tures is about 25 km. thick, is indicated as either 
lacking or quite thin under the Pacific Ocean includ- 
ing possibly the Arctic region. Under the Atlantic 
and Indian oceans this layer is of appreciable depth. 
Thus under the Pacific Ocean the basic surface of 
the Earth's mantle is practically exposed. There 
then we may expect different geological and geo- 
graphical properties from those found elsewhere. 
Thus the observed longitudinal and latitudinal dis- 



the surface-distribution of the secular-change ac- 
tivity promise conclusions concerning secular-varia- 
tion processes localized in the crustal layer and 

^ In these graphs showing distribution of annual change 
(AH/H) of magnetic horizontal intensity the lower curves 
represent the average positive values of AH/H in each lune 
between the meridians (upper figure) and between its paral- 
lels at 20-degree intervals while the upper curves represent 
the numerical magnitude of the average negative values. 
Thus the shaded areas between the curves are measures 
of the excess of the negative over the positive annual 
change. 



MAGNETIC SURVEY OF THE OCEANS 



53 



only where this layer is present. Thus continued 
secular-variation surveys at sea should bring to- 
gether seismic and magnetic methods of approach 
to crustal adjustments and possibly gravimetric 
work. 

On the side of practical application the increasing 
use of the oceans in the commerce of nations by sea 
and air makes the continuation of the survey a 
matter of international concern and benefit. 

Those theoretical investigations demanding con- 
tinuation of the oceanic survey in terrestrial mag- 
netism include, among others, the following: 

(a) Determination of secular-variation of progressive 
changes of the Earth's magnetic field involving particularly 
their accelerations which the data accumulated so far indi- 
cate can not be extrapolated reliably over periods as long 
as five years. A definite control is necessary for a number 
of epochs to facilitate the investigation of causes producing 



during the cruises of the Carnegie is desirable in 
several directions. Among these are the following: 

(a) Additional determinations to establish changes in the 
values of the atmospheric-electric elements with geographic 
position. Such distribution-data are necessary for the 
further investigations of the origin and maintenance of the 
Earth's electric charge and of the relations to its magnetic 
condition. 

(b) More and widely distributed determinations of the 
diurnal variations in atmospheric electricity particularly 
to confirm the discovery that such variations in the potential 
gradient progress with universal time — a deduction first 
indicated from results obtained on the Carnegie. Condi- 
tions at sea for such work are superior to those on land 
where variable meteorological disturbances and topography 
mask the true characteristics of the phenomena. 

(c) Determinations and investigations of earth-currents — 
a field not yet touched at sea. Two outstanding character- 
istics of the water-area of the globe are (1) its extent and (2) 
its far greater homogeneity as compared to the land-area. 




Fig. 6. Variation with Longitude of t^H/H (annual change averaged without regard to sign), of the Distribdtionof 

THE Proportion of Land and Water Areas, and of Secular-Change Activity Approximately Determined 

BY the Density of the Distribution of Isoporic Lines 



and governing these progressive changes which, it appears, 
would be favored by accurate knowledge of their accelera- 
tions and distribution. The importance of the determina- 
tion of secular-variation over the oceans may be readily 
seen by a study of figure 6. Figure 7 showing world dis- 
tribution of foci of rapid annual change of magnetic 
declination also emphasizes the continued need for secular- 
variation data at sea. 

(b) The study of regions of local disturbance and particu- 
larly of those indicated by the work of the Carnegie over 
"deep-sea" areas including accompanying determinationjof 
oceanic depths by sonic-sounding devices and of gravity. 

(c) The determination of additional distribution-data in 
a few large areas not already covered. 

As regards the domain of terrestrial electricity 
continuation of the survey of the oceans initiated 



The question arises whether the theoretical 
requirements might not be met in a less expensive 
way than through construction and maintenance of 
vessels similar to the Carnegie. A careful study 
was made by the Department after the loss of the 
Carnegie to determine what might be done in an 
attempt to control magnetic secular-variation data 
through observations on land only over the oceans 
between 60° north and 60° south latitude. [In 
any case requisite additional data on land- and 
ocean-areas in the polar regions beyond the parallels 
of 60° — less than one-seventh of the surface of the 
globe — can be secured only, as in the past, through 
or in cooperation with special expeditions by land or 



54 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



air.] The maximum control so effected would 
result from 150 secular-variation stations along the 
coasts of the continents and on islands; about 90 
of these have been occupied by the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington one or more times during 1905 
to 1937, but the remainder include the more inac- 
cessible islands of the oceans and are subject, gen- 
erally, to magnetic local disturbance. Such dis- 
turbance introduces uncertainties both in the 
effects upon secular-variation changes and in the 
relation between the normal and the island value, 
even though the inaccessibility of stations insures 
possibility of exact reoccupations. The reduction 
to common epoch would be more difficult because of 
the length of intervals between reoccupations and 



by 900 miles in the southeast Indian to the south 
of Australia. [Local disturbances existing at many 
of the possible stations on islands, which doubtless 
would make data from a majority of them unsuitable 
for discussion actually make these areas greater than 
indicated in Figure 7.] The need of continued work 
at sea is emphasized because these areas involve 
portions of the Earth's surface where there are at 
present the greatest irregularities in the progressive 
character of the secular variation, namely in the 
central and south Atlantic, Indian, north Pacific, 
east central Pacific, and south Pacific oceans. 

Failure to provide a vessel suited for magnetic 
and electric observations also would mean that 
future data for the distribution of the absolute values 




Fig. 7. Distribution of Foci of Rapid Annual Change of the Magnetic Declination, Inclination, and 

Horizontal Intensity, Approximate Epoch 1920-1925 



of the lack of the better distribution of data which 
would result from observations at sea. The study 
shows that the regions for which the necessary data 
for the continued theoretical investigations would be 
lacking are very large even if the complete scheme 
for control by observations on land could be carried 
out as based on the assumption that the distribution 
of secular-variation stations need not be greater 
than one every 800 miles. These areas (see fig. 8) 
approximate 3400 by 800 miles in the north Pacific, 
3600 by 1500 miles in the east central Pacific, 3600 
by 1800 miles in the south Pacific, 600 by 600 miles 
in the north Atlantic, 2400 by 800 miles in the 
middle north Atlantic, 1900 by 900 miles in the west 
south Atlantic, 1500 by 700 miles in the east Indian, 
3600 by 750 miles in the central Indian, and 2400 



of the atmospheric-electric elements would be lim- 
ited to relatively few stations obtained at relatively 
great expense since, to eliminate, for short series of 
observations, the topographic and meteorological 
conditions at stations on land, only selected points 
in wide bays or estuaries could be used where it 
would be possible to observe on floats. Atmos- 
pheric-electric observations could be obtained on 
board ordinary vessels and doubtless some of the 
maritime companies would be ready to permit in- 
stallation of the special equipment at reasonable 
cost, but it is not feasible to obtain on such vessels 
the caliljration-observations required for the de- 
termination of the necessary reduction-factors nor, 
despite earnest desire to cooperate, is it possible to 
control the deck-space and eliminate vitiating 



JVIAGNETIC SURVEY OF THE OCEANS 



55 



effects of smoke and exhaust gases. Furthermore, 
it would be necessary to repeat such work and 
control of such conditions on many vessels in order 
to accomplish the requisite distribution of observa- 
tions over the oceans. Despite the considerable 
expense that would be incurred, the accumulated 
data would be subject to many uncertainties and 
would involve an expenditure of time for reductions 
in the office out of all proportion to that required 
were there a survey-vessel available. 

Because of the great desirability of continuing the 
operation conducted for a quarter-century by the 
vessels of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 



in certain regions been determined. One of the first 
tasks, therefore, of the Research will be the repeti- 
tion of the observations of the Carnegie in these 
regions to determine the secular change so that 
the isogonic charts may be corrected to date and 
prepared for succeeding epochs. This vessel is to 
be of the same beam as the Carnegie and .slightly 
greater overall length. The proposed instrumental 
equipment will parallel closely that used on the 
Carnegie as it has not appeared advisable to depart 
from designs gradually evolved from the experience 
of many years of observational work at sea. 

With the completion of the Research and its 




Fig. 8. Showing Oceanic Areas (Shaded) between Parallels of 60° North and South Latitude for Which Secular 
Variation op Magnetic Elements Could Not be Controlled by Land Stations 

ON Continents and Islands 



it is gratifying that, in view of the Institution's 
decision not to replace the Carnegie by a similar 
vessel, the British Admiralty has designed and in 
September 1936 placed a contract to build a non- 
magnetic vessel, to be named Research. The 
chief reason for this action on the part of Great 
Britain was found in her world-wide maritime in- 
terests. Magnetic charts published for the last 
two decades by the American, British, French, 
German, and other governments for use at sea have 
been based in an increasingly large degree upon data 
obtained by the Carnegie. There are now serious 
gaps in the present data which would have been 
filled had the Carnegie completed her last cruise 
and had the rapid change in the secular variation 



continuation of the oceanic survey we may look 
forward to further advance of geophysical research. 
Not only will the resulting additional observations 
increase the opportunities of geophysical investiga- 
tions but they will enhance the value of the earlier 
data. 

The task of the geophysical survey of the oceans 
is so great that other hydrographic services of mari- 
time nations should be stimulated by the action 
of the British Admiralty to provide similar vessels 
wath equipment and personnel to take their appro- 
priate share in the execution and in the coordination 
of such service. Resolutions adopted after thor- 
ough discussions by the Commission of Terrestrial 
Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity of the Inter- 



56 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



national Meteorological Organization at Warsaw, 
Poland, in September 1935, and by the Association 
of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity of the 
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 
at its triennial assembly at Edinburgh in September 
1936, urge and recommend that other maritime 
nations should consider the construction of such 



non-magnetic vessels. It is to be hoped that our 
own United States may assume its share in obtaining 
additional oceanic data to the further enrichment 
of our knowledge of the Earth's science. 

Deparlment of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 28 



100* M 




Tracks of Oiief Vewels on Which Magnetic Observations Were Made in the Atlantic Ocean, 1839-1916 



G«M«. 1908 (Pacific) - 



Carnegie. !%<» 1915" 



-»- Cluclt. 1914 



Erebus and Terror, 1839-1843 Challenger, 1872 1876 Pagoda. 1845 — • — " • * — •" 

Novara. 1857-1860 Discovery, 19(12-1904 Gaielle. 187+-I876 • 77'^" 

Causs 1902-1O03 Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1903-1915 •• 



r> 






'-^ 



■i^DiT 



{■ 



\V. (- 



n-r 



«»w 



f^ 



J 



.iniiitD 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 29 



■y '?• 'W IM* iW 170' laf 170' IM' 150' 140r 13o' 120" 110* m' SO' 80* Jo" 



ly^ 




120 150" HO 150 



lOT* ITif 180* ITO' no' ISO' mf 



Tracks of Chief Vessels on Which Magnetic Observations Were Made in the Pacific Ocean. 1839-1916 



Galilee. 1905-1908 



arnegie. I9II-I9I6 ■*" 



Guett. 1914 (Atlantic) 



Erebus and Tenor. 1839-1843 Novara, 1857-1860 ChaUenger. 1872-1876 ^.^r,^, 

Gazelle. 1874-1876 »—♦ — ♦ Discovery. 1902-1904 Coast and GeodeUc Survey. I90J-I9I5'^- 



^ 



t .iy>iu. 



TIDES 



By H. a. MARMER 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 

Plates 31, 32 



With regard to systematic tidal investigations at 
the present time, it may be said that with but few 
exceptions they are being carried on by govern- 
mental agencies and not by educational or research 
institutions. Furthermore, the governmental agen- 
cies engaged in tidal work are carrying on this work 
primarily as a necessary adjunct to other work. 
For example, in the United States the tidal work is 
centered almost exclusively in the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey which carries on this work pri- 
marily in connection with its hydrographic and 
geodetic surveying operations. The three major 
oceanographic research institutions in the United 
States do not include tidal investigations in their 
programs of study, although each of these cooperates 
with the Coast and Geodetic Survey in maintaining 
a tide station at its institution. 

This almost complete indifference on the part of 
educational and research institutions to tides has 
naturally acted to limit drastically the number of 
students of tidal phenomena. Furthermore, the 
governmental agencies engaged in tidal work are 
necessarily interested in its technical rather than 
in its scientific aspects. As a consequence, tidal 
investigations in recent years have been largely 
concerned with technical problems rather than 
with scientific research. 

The status of tidal investigation at the present 
time, so far as the observations are concerned, is 
well pictured in the two maps shown here which 
are generalized from a manuscript chart showing 
the locations of tide stations given in Special Publi- 
cation No. 31 of the International Hydrographic 
Bureau, now in press. The red dots indicate tide 
stations in operation in 1935, the blue dots the loca- 
tion of tide stations at which observations have been 
made previously. Because of the small scale of the 
chart, red lines are used to indicate a number 
of stations in operation along the particular coast, 
while blue lines indicate the location of a number of 
stations which were in operation in previous years. 



These maps do not attempt to show all places 
where tide observations have been made, but rather 
the places where systematic observations have been 
carried on. Since the tide varies from day to day, 
month to month, and year to year, it is obvious 
that scattered observations of a few days or even 
more can give nothing but quaUtative information 
relating to the tide. Such scattered observations 
on the range and time of the tide are not shown 
on these maps as they do not furnish sufficiently 
precise data and do not lend themselves readily to 
the harmonic analysis, the results of which are of 
primary importance in tidal research. In passing, 
too, it may be noted that no attempt has been made 
to indicate the locations in the Arctic and Antarctic 
where tide observations have been made. 

A glance at these maps brings out immediately 
two important facts. First, that along large 
stretches of the coast there are no tidal observa- 
tions available. And secondly, out in the open sea 
observations are wholly wanting except for a few 
islands. 

With regard to the continental coast, it may 
reasonably be expected that such observations will 
become available over the greater part of the world 
in the not distant future in connection with the 
hydrographic surveys and with the securing of tidal 
data for tide tables. 

In the open sea the problem of securing tide 
observations is a difficult one. While pressure gages 
have been used in shallow depths, they do not lend 
themselves for observations at considerable depths. 
But advantage might be taken of the islands scat- 
tered through the oceans. The cost of a tide gage 
is relatively little and its operation is extremely 
simple. After installation it can be maintained 
in operation by a local resident. 

Tide observations in the tropical regions are 
especially needed not only to bring out the local 
tidal features and their relations to the tidal phe- 
nomenon as a whole, but also in connection with the 



57 



58 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



question of changes in sea level which is of basic 
importance in connection with the coral reef 
problem. 

Quite apart from the purely tidal problems for 
which tide observations are necessary, such ob- 
servations furnish the basic data for problems of a 
wider scope. One of these may be mentioned here, 
namely, that relating to sea level. From long 
continued tide observations it can be determined 
whether the relative elevations of land to sea at 
any given place are changing. This problem is 
obxaously of importance in various practical and 
theoretical fields. 

Two tidal bibliographical undertakings which 
are now being carried out on a comprehensive 



scale should be mentioned in this connection. The 
first, by the Committee on Tides of the Association 
Internationale d'Oceanographie Physique. This 
bibliography lists in a concise form all the publica- 
tions issued during a period of years under definite 
groupings which are of especial value to research 
students of the subject. The second is the List of 
Harmonic Constants issued from time to time by 
the International Hydrographic Bureau, which 
covers the whole world. Mention should also be 
made of a publication on Sea Level and Its Varia- 
tions which will give the monthly and annual values 
of sea level at various tide stations throughout the 
world and which is now in press, being published by 
the above-named Committee on Tides. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 




TIDE STATION PREVIOUSLY OPERATED 
. TIDE STATIONS PREVIOUSLY OPERATED 



• TIDE STATION IN OPERATION 
TIDE STATIONS IN OPERATION 



Tidal Stations, Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Connecting Waters 



INTERNATiONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 




TIDE STATION PREVIOUSLY OPERATED 
•TIDE STATIONS PREVIOUSLY OPERATED 



, TIDE STATION IN OPERATION 
TIDE STATIONS IN OPERATION 



Tidal Stations, Pacific Ocean and Connecting Waters 



RESULTS OF MARITIME GRAVITY RESEARCH, 1923-32 



RESULTS OF MARITIME GRAVITY RESEARCH, 

1923-32 



Bt Dr. F. a. VENING MEINESZ 
Professor of Geodesy, University of Utrecht 

Plates 33, 34, 35, 36 

GENERAL STATEMENT 



This report has been made at the request of Prof. 
W. Vaiighan, for inchi.sion in his report on the status 
of oceanographic research. 

The following expeditions have been made by the 
writer for determining gravity at sea : 

1923, from Holland via Suez to Java o/b Hr. Ms. Subm. 
K II 

1925, from Holland to Alexandria, o/b Hr. Ms. Subm. 
KXI 

1926, from Holland to Java via Panama, o/b Hr. Ms. 
Subm. K XIII 

1928, from Washington to the West Indies, o/b U. S. 

Subm. S 21 
1929/30, three expeditions in the East Indies, o/b Hr. 

Ms. Subm. K XIII 

1931, research in the North Sea o/b Hr. Ms. O 13 

1932, e.xpedition in the West Indies o/b U. S. Subm. 
S48 

1932, expedition in the Atlantic o/b Hr. Ms. Subm. O 13 

The expeditions o/b Dutch submarines have been 
made for the Netherlands Geodetic Commi.ssion, 
the expedition o/b the U. S. Subm. S 21, where the 
writer was cooperating with Dr. Fred E. Wright 
and Elmer B. Collins, for the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington and that o/b the U. S. Subm. S 48, 
during which the writer was assi.sted by Dr. Harry 
Hess and by Mr. Townsend T. Brown, for the 
International Expedition to the Bahamas under the 
Directorship of Dr. Richard M. Field. 

The observations have been made by means of the 
multiple pendulum method, which is described and 
discussed at length in "Theory and Practice of 
Pendulum Observations at Sea," by the writer 
(published by the Netherlands Geodetic Commi.s- 
sion, Waltman, Delft) and which is likewise treated 
of in the publication of the U. S. Naval Ob.servatory 
of the Expedition of the U. S. S. S-21. 

In 1931 the Italian Navy has organized an expedi- 
tion in the Western part of the Mediterranean; 



Prof. Gino Cassinis took the direction of the 
gravimetric research. The results of this expedition 
are not yet available. 

Most of the results of these expeditions are 
represented on the three accompanying maps, one 
map giving the results of the expeditions of 1923, 
1925, and 1926 between Holland and the Indies, 
another containing the gravity data found in the 
Netherlands East Indies and adjoining parts and 
the third representing the results for the West 
Indies found in 1926, 1928, and 1932 supplemented 
by a great many values on land determined by the 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

The maps contain the gravity anomalies in 
milligal, i.e., the observed values after isostatic 
reduction according to the system of Hayford- 
Bowie,' minus the value for normal gravity as it is 
given by the formula of Cassinis : 
= 978.049 (1 + 0.0052884 sin=<^- 0.0000059 sin^ 2<t>) 
The study of these results reveals two remarkable 
rules that appear to be fairly generally valid. These 
rules are: 

1°. The positive anomalies seem inclined to occur 

in fields, while the negative anomalies are 

mostly occurring in strips; the positive 

fields coincide often with deep basins: 

2°. The anomaly shows a tendency to increase, in 

a positive sense, when going from shallow 

water towards deep water; this seems to 

occur as well for continental coasts as for 

island coasts. 

Instances of the second rule are found at the 

Atlantic end of the English Channel, near the 

Azores, near the southeast coast of Spain, near Suez, 

near Sokotra, near the Maldive Islands, near the 

south coast of Ceylon, at the Atlantic side of the 

'The isostatic reduction of the results has been made at 
the Bureau of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



61 



62 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Bahamas, in the gravity profile West of Cuba, 
at the West coast of America between Panama and 
San Francisco, and in many places in the Nether- 
lands East Indies. The basins in the Bahamas 
are an exception to this rule. 

Instances of the first rule are found in the Nether- 
lands East Indies, where a narrow strip of strong 
negative anomalies is found, bordered on both 
sides by fields of positive anomalies and where 
other strips of slighter negative anomalies can 
likewise be detected. The same disposition is found 
in the West Indies, where the Gulf of Mexico, the 



Caribbean and the sea West of Cuba show positive 
fields while negative strips are found North of 
Porto Rico and Haiti, West of N. W. Cuba, near Gr. 
Cayman Island, near Jamaica and in the inland 
seas of the Bahamas. A third instance has been 
stated in the investigated part of the Atlantic, 
where an extensive field of positive anomalies was 
found, interrupted by strips of lesser anomahes near 
the Azores and in a few other places. 

We shall consider these rules again at the end of 
this report. 



THE GRAVITY RESULTS IN THE NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES AND 

ADJOINING REGIONS 



Because of the world-crisis the results have not 
yet been supplemented by gravity research on the 
islands but the field is already complete enough 
for drawing conclusions and these conclusions are 
important for many problems of the Earth's crust. 

The results show strong deviations from isostasy 
of which the main feature was mentioned above: 
a strip of great negative anomalies (maximum — 
204 mgal; mean about — 100 mgal) of a width of 
only 50-100 miles, running through the whole 
archipelago and bordered on both sides by fields of 
positive anomalies (maximum -|- 166 mgal, mean 
about -f 45 mgal). Considered as a whole, the 
region is nearer to isostatic equilibrium; the mean 
of all the anomalies is -|- 20 mgal. 

The correlation of the strip with the distribution 
of earthquake-centers confirms the obvious supposi- 
tion that it is connected with the tectonic action 
in the crust. Taking this for granted, it gives a 
valuable indication of the course of the geosyiicline, 
that is considered responsible for this action. 
It proves that the Alpine-Himalayan geosyncline, 
which is knowii to continue through Malacca and 
Sumatra, does not go on through New Guinea, but 
that it bends Northwards in the Eastern part of the 
Archipelago and that it continues in the Pacific 
geosyncline running along the east coast of Asia. 
It proves likewise that the Australian continent does 
not play the prominent part in the tectonics of this 
region that the supporters of the Wegener hypothe- 
sis of migrating continents think; instead of the 
anomalies being more intense, where the strip is 
bordering on this continent, as it ought to be 
expected in the light of this theory, they are just 
as pronounced where the strip is bordering on the 
Indian or the Pacific Oceans. If we follow the 



geologists in considering this geosyncline as a region 
of strong lateral compression of the Earth's crust, 
we may draw the important conclusion that the 
crust under these parts of the oceans offers the same 
resistance to the compressional stresses as the Aus- 
trahan continent. 

The strip shows only in a slight degree some 
dependence on the topography and this dependence 
corresponds to the second rule, the strip is mostly 
coinciding with a submarine ridge, while the 
positive fields coincide with the deeper parts. The 
strip shows often a correlation with the deeps but 
it is besides them, as it is for instance the case for the 
Java Deep and the Weber Deep. The fact that the 
anomalies for those parts of the strip that are near 
deeps are not stronger than for other parts, clearly 
indicates that deeps are not independent features, 
but that they are accompanying features of much 
greater phenomena. Gravity surveys of deeps will, 
therefore, have to encompass wider areas than the 
deeps themselves. 

The fact that the strip is not coinciding with the 
deeps but mostly with submarine ridges, prevents 
explaining it by incomplete compensation of surface 
features. It is neither acceptable to explain them 
by assuming recent surface movements that are not 
yet compensated ; the course of the strip makes this 
assumption unlikely as it would assume the down- 
ward pressing of the ridges. So the only explana- 
tion that is left is to assume abnormal light masses 
in the upper layers of the Earth. 

It will, however, hardly be feasible to locate this 
whole mass-defect in the sialic layer, because we 
should then have to assume densities that are 
too small for being acceptable. For a great part 
at least we shall have to ascribe it to a protuberance 



RESULTS OF MARITIME GRAVITY RESEARCH 



63 



at the lower boundary of the crust of the lighter 
sialic layer in the denser simatic layer. In case we 
assume a second density-discontinuity in the crust 
itself, a part of the mass-defect will occur in the 
same way at this latter boundary. 

This explanation leads to the hypothesis that 
the crust of the Earth of a thickness of some 25 
km is buckling inwards along the axis of the strip 
and that only a relatively shallow upper layer is 
folding and overthrusting outwards and causing the 
irregular topography of the Archipelago. This 
hypothesis is in agreement with the Airy view of the 
isostatic balance of mountain-chains, which assumes 
great roots of lighter surface-material below the 
mountains. That these roots are only coming into 
existence along one axis in the present period, seems 
mechanically sound, as it would be difficult to 
understand that the crust should give way simul- 
taneously along several lines of weakness, one behind 
the other. 

Accepting this hypothesis, we have to realize 
that the crust is bulging downwards in regions where 
the temperature is higher. So we may safely 
assume that its plasticity will gradually increase 
and we have to expect that, at least partially, the 
protuberance will flow away laterally along the 
lower boundary of the crust. The melting and the 
corresponding expansion of these masses will prob- 
ably bring about a rising of the mountain area and 
this agrees with the geomorphological facts: many 
mountain-chains have shown rising in the period 
following on the folding. 

The melting and flowing away of part of the 
downward protuberance will also bring about a 
decrease of the negative anomalies and a widening 
of the strip. Besides this cause, there is another 
reason for a decrease of the deviations of isostasy in 
the later stages of the phenomenon, viz. the fact 
that the lateral movement of the crust towards the 
strip will automatically bring about a concentration 
of the surface formations over it; this tends likewise 
towards a reestablishment of isostasy. 

So we cannot expect older ranges to have concen- 
trated roots of the same kind as in the Netherlands 
East Indies and showing the same narrow strip 
of negative anomalies. We may, however, expect 
that isostasy has not been quite reestablished and 
that there will still be left a remnant of these anoma- 
lies. This appears to be the case; we find, after 
isostatic reduction, an area of negative anomalies 
below the Alps and a similar thing is found in the 
United States under the old range of the Appalachi- 



ans and in other instances. In these last cases it is, 
however, possible that the anomaly may be explained 
by deviations of density in the crust itself. 

The Indian Archipelago shows likewise an instance 
of a strip of smaller negative anomalies that is likely 
to be the remnant of an older folding phenomenon, 
i.e., a strip running over the arc of les.ser Sunda 
Islands and continuing over the inner Banda Arc. 
It is possible that there are more of these strips in 
the western half of the Archipelago, but the lack 
of gravity values on the islands prevents any cer- 
tainty on this point. 

The geologist.s- have, however, found a strip of 
another kind in the Archipelago which merits 
special mention in this connection. This is a strip 
of strong sedimentation in recent times, which 
discloses some evidence of folding but no efifects of 
strong lateral compression, as is found on the 
islands in the strip of strong negative anomalies 
(Timor, Key Islands, Ceram). This other strip 
is found in east Sumatra, in north Java, in S. W. 
Celebes and in east Borneo; it is not continuous but 
it is interrupted in some places. Where gravity 
has been determined above this strip, it shows small 
negative anomalies or at least smaller positive ones 
than those in the neighborhood. I think we may 
safely interpret this strip as a down-bending of the 
crust, without buckling, and a filling up of this 
trough with sediments. The negative anomalies 
may be explained by the smaller density of these 
sediments without its being necessary to assume 
mass-defects at the lower boundary of the crust by 
the replacement of denser subcrustal material by 
lighter crustal material. We may thus consider 
this as an instance of a strip of small negative 
anomalies, that has another meaning than a remnant 
of an older folding phenomenon. We may conclude 
that we have to be careful in interpreting these 
strips of smaller negative anomalies; they may 
point to old folding but they may likewise be ex- 
plained by a thick layer of sediments which has 
formed in a sunken strip of the crust. 

Getting back to the main feature of the gravity 
field, the strip of strong negative anomalies, I may 
mention that the root at the lower boundary of the 
crust must have dimensions of some 25 x 50 km 
in order to explain the magnitude of the anomalies. 
Assuming that the crust has a thickness of 25 km, 
the root must have a width of at least 50 km, 

2 "Het Neogeen in den Indischen Archipel," by Prof. 
Dr. J. H. F. Umbgrove;Tydschr. Ned. Aardryksk. Genoots- 
chap, 1932, no. 6. 



64 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



according to the buckling hypothesis, and we get a 
shortening of the crust of about 50 km. This 
figure is confirmed by other considerations. 

This confirmation has to do with the gravity 
anomahes found west of Sumatra and east of the 
Philippines. Here the strip has no longer the same 
symmetric character that it has in the middle part 
of its course through the Archipelago; the negative 
anomalies are smaller and the transition to the 
positive values on the ocean side is less sudden. 
Taking into account the character of these gravity 
profiles and the fact that in these parts the direction 
of the strip is nearly parallel to the most probable 
direction of the stress, S. S. E., the most likely 
interpretation of the phenomenon seems here to be 
that Sumatra and the Philippines are sliding along 
the line of the stri;) combined with a shght over- 
riding of the ocean-floor. This would mean that 
the movement is nearly parallel to the strip with 
only a small component perpendicular to it. The 
downward bending of the ocean-floor would bring 
about a gravity profile of the character that is 
mentioned above. 

South of the Philippines, near the Talaud Islands, 
and .south of Java, the direction of the strip changes 
and makes a greater angle with the direction of the 
stress; the gravity profile assumes at once another 
character that points to a buckling of the crust in 
the way we have discussed it. We found a figure 
for the shortening of the crust, corresponding to this 
buckling, of about 50 km. Now it is a remarkable 
coincidence that the geologists are inclined to think 
that Java has moved southward with regard to 
Sumatra and that the amount of this movement is 
estimated at about 40 km. It is likewise remarkable 
that the bathymetric curves south of the Philippines 
show a similar bulging towards the east of the same 
amount; this topography is now known in detail 
thanks to the expedition of the Snellius under the 
leadership of Van Riel which has made more than 
30,000 soundings in the Eastern part of the Archi- 
pelago. 

These facts provide us with a welcome confirma- 
tion of the buckling hypothesis; they point at least 
towards a connection of the gravity field with 
horizontal movements of the crust. Another still 
stronger confirmation is given by the fact that 
the only islands where great overthrusting has been 
stated since the beginning of the Tertiary period^, 
are those islands that are located over the .strip: 
Timor, Tenimber Islands, Key Islands, Ceram, 
Buru, and the eastern part of Celebes; the other 
islands over the strip are not yet known sufficiently. 



These overthrustings date from the earliest part 
of the Miocene, which puts them about 8,000,000 
years back. 

It is a remarkable fact that these islands have not 
experienced great deformations in the more recent 
periods. Still it seems probable that the great 
tectonic phenomenon is continuing in the present 
period, because the earthquakes are violent and 
frequent and the localization of their centers indi- 
cates that it is still the same strip that is active. 
These facts suggest the continuation of the lateral 
compression of the crust without the taking part 
of the surface layer. It makes the impression as if 
the crust is pushing together under the islands and 
disappearing downwards, while the islands have 
been elevated above the region of compression, so 
that they are not partaking of the great deformation 
save some block-faulting movements that have been 
going on on some of these islands; this block-faulting 
proves that the apparent quiescence is not real 
and that greater phenomena are going on in deeper 
layers. A comparison of this hypothesis with 
what is known about the tectonic history of the 
Alps gives promising outlooks for the understanding 
of the mechanism of mountain-formation; I may 
refer here to another paper about this subject.' 

Lastly I wish to mention a remarkable correlation 
of the course of the strip of strong negative anomalies 
with the distribution of volcanoes in the Archipelago. 
Nearly every curve of the strip is accompanied on 
the inner side by a parallel row of volcanoes at a 
distance of a few hundred kilometers. This corre- 
lation appears to be in harmony with the buckling 
hypothesis, which makes it understandable that the 
crust, when moving towards the strip from the inner 
side of a curved part, is subject to tensile stresses 
in a sense parallel to the strip. That this circum- 
stance will facilitate the formation of volcanoes, 
seems acceptable. 

Examining the fields of positive anomalies in the 
Archipelago, we see that there are three fields of 
especially strong anomalies and these fields coincide 
with three deep basins, the Celebes Sea, the N. W. 
Banda Sea, south of the Sula Islands, and the Banda 
Sea, west of the inner Banda Arc. With the 
exception of the typical throughs, all other parts of 
the seas in the Archipelago are less deep. These 
basins show all the same morphological type, a 
smooth and even bottom and steep sides. 

Taking the evidence together, we get the im- 

^ The Mechanism of Mountain-Formation in Geosyn- 
clinal Belts, by F. A. Vening Meinesz, Proc. Amsterdam 
Acad. Sc. Vol. XXXVI, No. 4, 1933. 



RESULTS OF MARITIME GRAVITY RESEARCH 



65 



pression that we have to do here with three areas, 
where the Earth's crust has been subject to an 
increase of density and that this is the cause of the 
positive gravity anomaUes as well as of their sinking 
away. Apparently this sinking has not continued 
so far that the isostatic equilibrium has been com- 
pletely reestablished. This view is hypothetical 



and the cause of the supposed density increase is 
still more so. It is obvious to bring it in connection 
with the great lateral stresses that have been as- 
sumed in the Archipelago, but whether we can ex- 
plain it exclusively by elastic compression of the crust 
or whether we have to assume also changes of state 
or temperature, seems as yet impossible to decide. 



THE GRAVITY RESULTS IN THE WEST INDIES AND ADJOINING REGIONS 



Geologically speaking, the West Indies are 
similar to the East Indies. They are likewise 
tectonically active and the morphological properties 
of both regions show much resemblance: island rows 
of mountainous character, separated by deep basins, 
and great volcanic activity. The tectonical char- 
acter is in both cases of the geosyncline type. 

We need not be surprised, therefore, that the 
gravity results of the West Indies show many 
points of resemblance to the results of the East 
Indies. The Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and 
the sea west of Cuba show positive anomalies in 
the same way as the deep basins of the East Indies. 
The same remarks may be made concerning them. 

North of Porto Rico, north of Haiti and near 
Windward Passage a similar strip of strong negative 
anomalies was found as that which has been dis- 
cussed for the East Indies. The continuation of 
this strip to the westward is still imccrtain. It is 
possible that the negative values obtained in the 
Bahamas, although less intense and not concen- 
trated in a narrow strip, may be considered as such, 
but the most probable interpretation of the data 
seems to be that the critical zone continues along 
the Bartlctt Deep and that, for this part of the 
strip, the relative movement of the two parts of the 
crust Is nearly parallel to it. In this way there 
would be no compression perpendicular to the 
direction of the trough and it might even be that 
there is a small component of the relative movement 
of both crustal parts away from each other. This 
would explain the deep as a rift-formation in con- 
trast to mo.st other deeps, which, from the point of 
view of the buckling hypothesis, have to be con- 
sidered as compressional features, revealing the 
downward movement of the crust in the buckling 
zone. This explanation of the Bartlett Deep is in 
harmony with the irregular submarine topography, 
suggesting sunken blocks.^ It is likewise in agree- 
ment with the gravity field, which shows irregular 

' This agrees with the views of Taber expressed in several 
of his publications. 



and not very intensive anomalies over the Bartlett 
Deep. There is no clear evidence of a narrow strip 
of negative anomalies, as has been found near all the 
East Indian deeps and over the Nares Deep north 
of Porto Rico. 

The gravity profile over the strip north of Porto 
Rico is nearly identical with the profiles over the 
strip south of Java; the horizontal dimensions as 
well as the difference between the negative anomalies 
in the axis of the strip and the positive anoma- 
lies beside it are about the same. This suggests a 
similarity of both phenomena. 

This suggestion is further confirmed by the fact 
that the more westward profile, the gravity profile 
over Windward Passage, shows much resemblance 
to the profiles west of Sumatra, i.e., the negative 
anomalies in the strip are less and the transition to 
the positive anomalies on the Atlantic side is more 
gradual than north of Porto Rico. In the same 
way as for the strip west of Sumatra we have here 
that the most {irobable direction of the relative 
movement, E. N. E., is nearly parallel to the strip 
and this suggests the same explanation of this 
changed gravity jirofile: no buckling but an over- 
riding of the northern block by the southern block 
because of a small component of the relative move- 
ment perpendicular to the strip. If the above 
explanation of the Bartlett Deep is right, this 
component gets zero and changes sign where, still 
further westward, the strip gets again another 
direction. 

The gravity field in the Bahamas merits a short 
discussion. The whole area shows negative anoma- 
lies but the deep basins are stronger negative than 
the islands. In this regard this region is one of the 
few exceptions to the second rule; the anomaly 
does not increase, in a positive sense, when going 
from shallow water to deep water but we find the 
reverse. The most probable interpretation seems 
to be that we have to do here with a stiff crustal 
block that has been sinking away and on which the 
islands have been elevated by the coral-reef-builders; 



66 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



according to this view the islands are surface loads 
on the crust, that are not in local isostatic compen- 
sation and so the gravity on the islands is greater 
than over the neighboring basins. 

For further details of the gravity results in the 
West Indies I may refer to the publications of the 
two expeditions of the U. S. Navy, that have been 
mentioned in the introduction. 

The four gravity profiles that have been made, 
perpendicular to the coast, between Panama and 
San Francisco all show rather strong positive 
anomalies over the foot of the shelf and about nor- 
mal gravity over its top. In two instances this 
profile can be continued in the continent, in Mexico 
and near San Francisco. In Mexico this continua- 
tion shows fairly strong negative anomalies in a 
strip parallel to the coast and so we get the im- 
pression that we have here another instance of the 
same feature : a strip of negative anomalies bordered 
on both sides by positive anomalies. The profiles 
perpendicular to the coast look as if they are the 
outer parts of profiles over this strip. The correla- 
tion with the earthquake activity appears to con- 
firm this view. More research will be necessary 
before we can be sure about it and before we know 
if this strip is the continuation of the critical zone 
in the West Indies, which appears to continue 
through the Bartlett Trough. 

The second profile, over San Francisco, confirms 
our supposition up to a certain degree, but the strip 
is less intense than those in the East and West 
Indies. The greatest negative value, found outside 
the coast, is only —57 mgal. Another deviation 
of this gravity profile from the normal profile in the 
Indies is, that the anomaly remains slightly negative 
in the U. S. up to a great distance from the coast, 
instead of showing the positive values found else- 
where besides the strips. 

After this more detailed discussion of two regions, 
we may shortly consider again the two general rules 
mentioned in the beginning. We found both 
rules vahd in the East and West Indies and we have 
discussed a hypothesis about what is going on in 
these parts. If this hypothesis is true we have to do 
with a buckling towards the inside of the Earth's 
crust along a curved line and this buckUng brings 



about a thickening of the crust along this line. 
This is accompanied with strong negative anomalies 
because of the accumulation of fight crustal ma- 
terial and in most parts with a submarine ridge 
because of the outward bulging of the surface layer. 
We find thus both rules realized by this phenome- 
non: the coming into existence of strips of negative 
anomalies and a tendency of the anomaly to in- 
crease, in a positive sense, when going from smaller 
to greater depths. 

We have further found that the deep basins in the 
East and West Indies show positive anomalies and 
this is also in harmony with the two rules. A well- 
founded explanation of these positive anomalies is 
still lacking, but there seems to be little doubt 
that there is some connection with the tectonic 
phenomena in these regions. 

We are now confronted with the important ques- 
tion whether the other instances, where these rules 
have been found valid, can also be explained in the 
same way, or, in other words, whether all these 
instances can be considered to be related to the same 
tectonic phenomena, active or extinct, that are going 
on the East and West Indies. Or are there other 
phenomena, bringing about similar results for the 
gravity field? 

This important question cannot yet be answered; 
future research will have to provide the data for 
attacking this problem. As far as the gravity 
research is concerned, the following program seems 
indicated. First the further investigation of tec- 
tonically active areas for the elucidation of the great 
geophysical problems of these regions. Secondly 
the investigation of the distribution over the Earth's 
surface of the fields of positive anomalies, that 
occur in some regions, e.g., in the Atlantic and, 
though less intense, in the Pacific, in order to see if 
they are of the same kind as the fields of positive 
anomalies in the deep basins of the East and West 
Indies. Thirdly, the investigation of the gravity 
transition for all steep submarine slopes, e.g. near 
continental shelves and near island coasts. This 
further research may provide us with important 
possibilities for the investigation of the Ea/th's 
crust under the oceans. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



I F I C OCEAN 



« « » OHAVIMETHIC STATIONS 
AND ROUTES OF THE 
DUTCH SUBMARINE K-XIII 



AXIS OF THE BAND OF 
NEGATIVE ANOMALIES- 




/ N D 



I A N 



GRAVIMETRIC MAP OF THE EAST INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 







90" 80' 70= 


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A. GRAVIMETRIC SURVEY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND THE CARIBBEAN SEA ON U.S. NAVAL SUBMARINES S-21 AND 5-48. 




IJ 








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B- ROUTE AROUND THE WORLD OF THE DUTCH SUBMARINE K-Xlll AND THE GRAVIMETRIC STATIONS OCCUPIED. 



RESULTS OF MARITIME GRAVITY RESEARCH 



67 



SUPPLEMENTAL STATEMENT 



Plates 35, 36 



Since the foregoing paper by Professor Vening 
Meinesz could not be promptly published after he 
submitted his manuscript, a supplement is needed. 
The notes that follow do not claim to be exhaustive 
but they indicate the activity in gravity deter- 
minations at sea by five different countries. The 
fundamental significance of such research is force- 
fully presented by Vening Meinesz in the first 
jjublication by him cited below. 

After his manuscript was prepared Vening Meinesz 
himself made a voyage in 1935 on a submarine 



Vening Meinesz, F. A., with collaboration of Urab- 
grove, J. H. F., and Kuenen, Ph.H., Report of the 
gravity expedition in the Atlantic of 1932, and the 
interpretation of the results: Gravity Expeditions 
at Sea, 1923-1932, vol. 2, pp. 208, 4 pis., text figs., 
1934. (Publication of Netherl. Geod. Com.) 

Vening Meinesz, F. A., Interpretation of the anomalies 
of gravity: Hydrogr. Review, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 
107-108, May, 1937. (Translated from the French, 
reproduced from an article published in Bulletin 
G6od6sique, no. 46, Paris, 1935.) 

Vening Meinesz, F. A., The gravity expedition of Hr. 
Ms. Submarine O 16 in the north Atlantic, January 



® 



NAVY-GEOPHYSICAL UNION 

GRAVITY EXPEDITION 

1936-7 




Fio. 9 



from the Netherlands across the Atlantic to Rio de 
Janeiro and thence by the Cape of Good Hope and 
Australia to the East Indies, and in the early 
months of 1937 he made another voyage across the 
Atlantic, from the Netherlands by way of the Azores 
to Chesapeake Bay, and he returned by a more 
northerly route. Except the indicated itinerary 
other information on these voyages is not yet 
available. 

Three publications by Vening Meinesz, one in 
collaboration with Umbgrove and Kuenen are as 
follows : 



11-March 16, 1937: Konink. Akad. VVetensch. Am- 
sterdam, Proc. vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 382-388, 1 chart, 
1937. 

The chart illustrating the route is reproduced as 
plate 36. 

It would be interesting to insert here the inter- 
pretations of the results procured by Professor 
Vening Meinesz and his associates but that is not 
now practicable. 

During the winter of 1936-37 there was an expedi- 
tion on the U. S. Naval Submarine Baracuda to 
the West Indies. A note on this expedition is 



68 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



contained in the following paper by Capt. H. E. 
Kays: 



expedition to the West Indies. ' ' The route and the 
stations occupied are illustrated by fig. 5, here 
reproduced as fig. 9 of this work.) 
Kays, H. E., The oceanographic work of the Hydro- 
graphic Office and the United States Navy from At the same meeting of the American Geophysical 




CHART SHOWING THE GRAVIMETRIC STATIONS OCCUPIED 
BY THE ITALIAN SUBMARINE VETTOR PISANI. 
Fig. 10 



April, 1936, to April, 1937: Amer. Geophys. Union, Union the following papers which will be published 
17th Ann. Meeting 1937, Trans., pp. 194-201. (One in the Transactions of the meeting, were also 
section of this report is entitled "Gravimetric presented: 



RESULTS OF MARITIME GRAVITY RESEARCH 



69 



Ewing, Maurice, Gravity measurements on the U. S. S. 

Baracdda. 
Hess, Harry H., Geological interpretation of results of 

the cruise of the U. S. S. Baracuda — a preliminary 

report. 

The Italians have been active in studies of gravity 
at sea. References to their work are as follows: 

L. T. (L. Tonta), Short note on the measurement of the 
acceleration of gravity at sea and on an Italian 
gravimetric cruise in the Tyrrhenian Sea: Hy- 
drogr. Review, vol. 8, pp. 243-248, 1931. 

Cassinis, G., An Italian gravimetric cruise in the 
Mediterranean: Hydrogr. Review, vol. 9, pp. 148- 
149, 1 fig., 1932. 

Cassinis, G., I resultati della crociera gravimetrica del 
R. Soramergibile Vettor Pisani e la gravita in 
Italia: Soc. Ital. Progr. Scienze, 22 Riun., Bari, 
Oct. 1933, Atti, vol. 2, 1933. Abstr., Hydrogr. 
Review, vol. 11, pp. 185-186, 1934. 

Figure 10 shows the route of the vessel and the 
positions of the stations occupied. 

The French have also done some work in the 
Mediterranean. A note on their expeditions is 
contained in the following article : 

Cot, D., L'Etude de la pesanteur sur la mer: Assoc. 



interuat. d'Oceanogr. phys.. Gen. Assemb., Edin- 
burgh, Sept. 1936, Proc.-Verb., no. 2, pp. 163-164, 
1937. (Note on cruises of the French Navy in the 
Mediterranean in 1933 and 1936.) 

The Japanese for several years have been active 
in the study of gravity at sea over the Nippon 
Trench and adjacent areas. References to three 
publications are as follows : 

Matuyama, M., Measurements of gravity over the 
Nippon Trench on board the I. J. Submarine RO- 
57, preliminary report: Imper. Acad. Proc, vol. 
10, pp. 626-628, 1934. 

Matuyama, M., Distribution of gravity over the Nippon 
Trench and related areas: Ibid., vol. 12, pp. 93-95, 
1 fig., 1936. 

Matuyama, M., Gravity survey by the Japanese Geo- 
detic Commission since 1932 : Internal. Union Geod. 
and Geophys., Si.\th Gen. Assemb., Edinburgh, 
1936, Japan Nat. Com. Geod. and Geophys. Rept. 
no. 2, pp. 8, 1 fig., 1936. 

Plate 35 is a reproduction of the chart presented 
in the third paper by Professor Matuyama. This 
chart is interesting in that it shows a distribution 
of gravity anomalies similar to those that have been 
discovered in both the East and the West Indies 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



PLATE 35 




Gravity Surveys by the Japanese Geodetic Commission Since 1932 



: I A..inT»'i; 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 

F. A. VENING MEINESZ: The Gravity-Expedition of Hr. Ms. Submarine 016 in the North Atlantic, Januari ii— March 16, 1937. 






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Proceedings Royal Acad. Amsterdam, Vol. XL, 1937. 

The liouTE of H. .M. Submarine Olfl in the North Atlantic is Indicated bt a Fdll Line. The Routes of Former Expeditions H. M. K. XIIL O. XIH, and K. XVIII bv Dotted Lines. The Few Stations Near Europe 
Obtained with H. M. K, II and K. XI aveH Been Added. The Stations by Three Expeditions of the United States Navy in the West Indies and Adjoining Waters by U. S. S. S-21, S^8, and the Baracuda 

Have Also Been Put on the Chart 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN 
OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK 



GENERAL DISCUSSION 

PREVIOUS CATALOGUES 



In 1910 Charles Atwood Kofoid published a 
volume entitled "The Biological Stations of 
Europe,"' in which accounts are given of both 
the marine and fresh water biological laboratories 
and also the stations for fish culture in Europe. A 
number of the institutions, of which Kofoid gives 
accounts, are included in the present volume but in 
the twenty-seven years that have elapsed since 
Kofoid's book was published there have been many 
changes. Some of the stations have undergone 
great development, while others have been aban- 
doned. Although it might be interesting to compare 
conditions in 1910 with those at present it does not 
seem necessary to do so. A succinct history is 
given in the present catalogue of each station for 
which information could be procured. Those who 
wish to do so may make the comparison. One 
feature of Kofoid's book is an extensive bibliography 
of earUer publications dealing with the European 
.stations. 



In 1927 Prof. G. Magrini published a catalogue 
entitled "Instituts et Laboratoires s'occupant de 
1 ^tude de la mer." (Edition provisoire.)- This 
catalogue is preceded by another entitled "Liste 
des oceanographes des pays adherants a I'Union." 
(2e Edition) 5 Another catalogue is that of the 
marine stations of the Pacific* Accounts of several 
important oceanographic institutions are included 
in the two volumes Forschungsinstute; ihre Ges- 
chichte, Organisation, und Ziele edited by Brauer, 
Ludolph, and others.^ Numerous magazines carry 
accounts of institutions. One of them is the 
Collecting Net, published by Ware Cattell, during 
the summer months at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 
The Year Book issued by the International Hydro- 
graphic Bureau at Monte Carlo gives an up-to-date 
list for each year of the hydrographic services for all 
countries and constitutes a valuable book of ref- 
erence. 



METHOD OF PROCURING INFORMATION AND DATES OF ITS VALIDITY 



The journey that the author of this volume made 
around the world has been mentioned in the preface. 
Wiile on the journey, conferences were held in each 
country with those who were believed to be the be.st 
informed regarding oceanographic institutions in 
that country. With the help of these advisers lists 
were made for each country of the institutions on 
which information was desired. Some information 
was obtained on the ground by visits to many insti- 
tutions but the chief dependence was put upon the 
replies to questions that were sent to each institu- 
tion. It has already been stated that the responses 
to requests for information were most gratifying. 
The accounts as given can for nearly all institutions 
be credited to the chief officer of the institution. 
For such countries thanks are here expressed to all 
who helped assemble information. For some coim- 
tries, as has already been stated, an individual 
undertook to obtain the A'arious accounts for his 



' United States Bureau of Education, Bull, whole number 
440, pp. XIII, 360, 55 pis., 48 text figures, Washington 
Government Printing Office, 1910. 



country. A list of those who rendered such as- 
sistance has already been given. 

The information as first assembled was of the date 
of about January 1, 1934, but, as has been stated, the 
manuscript of the report could not be completed at 
the expected time. Therefore it was necessary to 
get the information as nearly as possible as of the 
date of January, 1937. In the catalogue of the 
institutions, after the name of the institution, the 
date of the information has been given, usually as 
'34 or '37. It will be seen that answers were 
received from nearly all requests for revisions. 
Only a few of those to whom inquiries were ad- 

' Cons. Internat. Rech., Union G6od4s. et G^ophys. 
Internat., Sect. d'Oceanogr., Bull. no. 7, pp. 115, 1927. 

' Ibid., Bull. no. 6a (1 re livraison) (Afrique du Sud, 
Alg^rie, Australie, Bahamas, Birmanie, Canada, Egypte, 
Espagne, France) pp. 33, 1925; Bull. no. 6b (2 ieme livraison) 
(Etats Unis, Grande Bretagne, Italic), pp. 67, 1927. 

* Vaughan, T. W., Catalogue of marine stations of the 
Pacific, in International Committee on the Oceanogaphy 
of the Pacific — report of the Chairman: Fifth Pacific Sci. 
Congr. Proc, vol. 1, pp. 361-380, 1934. 

' Hamburg, 1930. 



73 



74 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



dressed failed to respond, and these may be excused 
on the probabiUty of the requests not having 
reached them or because no revisions of statements 
already submitted were needed. A very few of the 
records are taken from the list of Professor Magrtni 
('27) cited above. Regarding the institutions in 
Spain, it should be said that Prof. Rafael de Buen 



helped to get accurate records of the Spanish insti- 
tutions for about the summer of 1934 — they were 
probably accurate to the end of 1934. Because of 
the distressing civil war in Spain the records have 
been left as they were submitted by Professor de 
Buen. It is not possible to forecast what the 
conditions will be after the war is ended. 



OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH OUTSIDE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTIONS 



Although the account of oceanographic institu- 
tions is mtended to give a picture of the researches 
conducted by them it does not cover all the im- 
portant oceanographic work, for example, Prof. V. 
Bjerknes, the father of modern dynamical oceanog- 
raphy, is connected with the Department of 
Physics at the University of Oslo and is now not a 
member of the staff of any oceanographic institu- 
tion, although he was at one time connected with 
the Geophysical Institute at Bergen, Norway. 
Prof. Johan Hjort and his assistants are preparing 
reports on oceanographic collections in the biological 
laboratory of the University of Oslo. Prof. H. H. 
Gran is the head of the botanical institute in the 
same university. Prof. V. W. Ekman, another 
leader in dynamical oceanography, is professor of 
hydrodynamics at the University of Lund. The 
names of others might be mentioned. 

It was desirable to include in this report a cata- 
logue of oceanographers, but that was not practi- 
cable. The list of oceanographers prepared by 
Professor Magrmi has been mentioned. For those 
who care to do so an extensive but incomplete list 
of the research workers in oceanography can be 
compiled by taking from this report the names of 
those who are members of the staffs of the different 



institutions and the names of others who are men- 
tioned in the discussion of various topics. 

Much valuable oceanographic research is done at 
institutions in which such investigations are only 
incidental to other activities. An instance of this 
is the investigation of the various aspects of marine 
bottom deposits at the United States Geological 
Survey. An investigation now under way at it is 
the study of the bottom cores obtained in the 
northern Atlantic by the use of the Piggot gun 
mentioned at another place in this report. Many 
museums conduct, on collections, sent them, re- 
searches that are of great value to oceanography. 
In general these museums are not listed in this 
catalogue, but a few will be mentioned here. The 
British Museum of Natural History conducts 
investigations on collections obtained by oceano- 
graphic expeditions and it is not restricting its 
researches to biological material. Recently Dr. 
J. D. H. Wiseman has been appointed a member 
of the staff of the Mineralogy Department and he 
will work on marine bottom deposits. Another 
museum at which valuable work is done is the one 
at Hamburg. Nearly all of the large museums, 
that serve as depo.sitories of oceanographic collec- 
tions, make by the researches of the members of 
their staffs valuable contributions to oceanography. 



ACTIVITIES BY COUNTRIES 



The catalogue here presented contains the names 
of 245 institutions, after eliminating the Pourquoi 
Pas? which was destroyed in September, 1936. It 
is probable the names of a few inactive or abandoned 
institutions, names taken from Magrini, 1927, 
are included, and it is also probable that there have 
been some omissions, but it is believed that a fair 
picture is given of the provisions for work on the 
various aspects of the oceans in the different coun- 
tries. The distribution of the institutions by 
countries is indicated by the following table, but it 



does not necessarily follow that the oceanographic 
output of a country can be inferred from the number 
of institutions or marine stations in it. In some 
countries the work is concentrated. In Germany, 
for example, instead of there being a number of 
marine biological stations, as in France, the United 
States, and Japan, there is one large excellently 
equipped station on Helgoland. A large number 
of small stations helps the students of many uni- 
versities to get access to the sea and its inhabitants. 
France has large stations as at Roscoff and Arago 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— GENERAL DISCUSSION 



75 



Distribution hij Countries of Institutions Engaged 
in Oceanographic Work 

COUNTRY NUMBER 

International 9 

Algeria 2 

Belgium 2 

Czechoslovakia 2 

Denmark 3 

Egypt 3 

England 10 

Estonia 1 

Finland 4 

France 17 

Germany 8 

Greece 2 

Hungary 1 

Iceland 1 

Ireland 1 

Italy 15 

Latvia 2 

Lithuania 1 

Monaco 1 

Netherlands 3 

Norway 8 

Poland 1 

Portugal 2 

Rumania 2 

Scotland 3 

Spain 9 

Sweden 7 

Tunis 1 

Turkey 1 

Union of South Africa 4 

Yugoslavia 2 

U. S. S. R. (west part) 13 

(Siberia) _2^ 15 

Bermuda 1 

Canada (east) 5 

(west) _2 7 

Newfoundland 1 

United States (east) 20 

(west) 12 32 

Argentina 2 

Brazil 2 

Uruguay 2 

Chile 2 

Ecuador 1 

Peru 4 

Australia 5 

China 5 

French Indo-China 1 

Hong Kong 1 

Japan 18 

Neth. East Indies 2 

New Zealand 1 

Philippine Islands 5 

Siam 1 

Straits Settlements 1 

India 8 



de Banyiil sur Mer, as well as small stations. Sev- 
eral countries that have relatively few institutions, 
as Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, are 
among the leaders of the world in oceanographic 
research. 

Attention should be called to the jmucity of 
oceanographic stations south of the Equator. In 
South Africa there is one and there soon will be two, 
in Java one, in Australia one, in New Zealand one, 
and on the east coast of South America perhaps two 
of three fishery stations. With reference to the 
tropics, including the stations both north and south 
of the Equator, there are the stations in India 
which are mostly for fishery research, one in Java, 
one in the Philippines at Puerto Galera, one in 
French Indo-China, the Palao station of the Japa- 
nese, and the station at Wakaiki, Oahu, Hawaiian 
Islands. The station at Tortugas, Florida, of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, falls just 
outside the northern limit of the tropics, while the 
Bermuda station is still farther north but semi- 
tro]iical. The station at Ghardaqa in the Red Sea 
is also semi-tropical, although it is considerably 
north of the Tropic of Cancer. The number of 
accessible, well equipped stations is very small and at 
present they are all principally for marme biology — 
other aspects of oceanography receive either no or 
only secondary attention. An endeavor should be 
made to establish on some island within the high 
tropics a research station both for marine biology 
and other aspects of oceanography. Several of the 
.stations are well situated except for accessibility. 
This is true of the station at Puerto Galera in the 
Philippines and that of the Japanese in the Palao 
Islands. Information has been obtained on the 
suitability of a number of places in the Pacific. The 
sites that seem to merit most consideration are the 
Island of Tahiti, and some island of the Samoan 
or Fiji group. All of these islands are on major 
trans-Pacific steamship routes and offer opportunity 
for the study of a wide range of oceanographic 
problems. There should also be a station on some 
island in the West Indies. The station at Bermuda 
is outside the tropics; the one at Tortugas, Florida, 
is more tropical but it is not easily accessible and 
it is in operation only a part of the year. There 
arc good sites in the Virgm Islands, on the Island of 
Jamaica, and probablj' on other islands that are 
regidarly visited by passenger vessels. 



76 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



FUNDS AVAILABLE FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 



One of the questions on the requests for informa- 
tion was "Income — Source — Amount," for the 
purpose of ascertaining how much was being ex- 
pended in each country on oceanographic work. 
For many institutions the desired data were given, 
but for others the question was not answered. Since 
the data are inadequate for a satisfactory statistical 
study of the matter, only a few comments will 
be made. 

A discouraging fact is that some important 
institutions are in financial difficulties. This is 
true of the Institut Oceanographique, including the 



Musfe Oceanographique, founded by H. S. H. 
Prince Albert I of Monaco, and of the Stazione 
Zoologiche of Naples. It is probable that the 
achievements in Spain have been nullified by the 
devastating civil war in that unhappy country. 
In some countries, particularly Japan and the 
United States, there has been great progress within 
the past ten years. In each of them oceanographic 
research was backward, but they are now among 
the leaders. Much interesting information is con- 
tained in the records here given, but it is not suited 
to statistical treatment. 



ANALYSIS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE INSTI- 
TUTIONS ACCORDING TO SUBJECT 



The activities of the institutions engaged in 
oceanographic work have been tabulated according 
to fourteen topical headings. Only short notes 
will be made on each of the topics, except "instruc- 
tion" of which there will be succinct but fuller 
discussion. 

Seismology. Although seismological research is 
not prosecuted at any of the institutions here con- 
sidered, except the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, many stations have seismographs installed 
on their premises and they cooperate with seismo- 
logical specialists. The vital importance of seismol- 
ogy for oceanography is shown by the article con- 
tributed to this volume by Professor Gutenberg. 

Hydrographic s^irveys. Each important country 
has a hydrographic service usually attached to its 
navy. The United States divides its hydrographic 
work between two organizations, the Navy, for 
foreign waters and the high seas, and the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, for home waters. The hydro- 
graphic services of several countries are among the 
foremost contributors to oceanographic knowledge. 
Tidal records and research. The note on Tides 
by Mr. H. A. Marnier in this report gives a picture 
of tidal research. Automatically recording tide 
gages are installed at many marine stations, but 
tidal research is prosecuted at very few. Among 
those that are active are the Liverpool Observatory 
and Tidal Institute, England, the Institut fiir 
Meereskunde, Berlin, Germany, the Geophysical 
Institute at Bergen, Norway, the Borno Station, 
Sweden, and the Thalassological Institute of Fin- 
land. Tidal experts are connected with most of 
the larger hydrographic services, and some of them 
conduct researches on problems of tidal theory. 

Records of temperature and salinity. Records of 
temperature are kept at many, probably nearly all, 
marine stations for at least a part of the year, and 
at some for the entire year. The determination of 
the salinity of the water Ls not so general. The 
fully equipped oceanographic institutions conduct 
systematic studies of temperature and salinity over 
the entire field of their operations. It is probable 
that more work is indicated in the table than is 
actually done, biit accuracy was not practicable. 



Physics. Mo.st of the work on the physical prop- 
erties of sea water is of a very simple kind, such 
as the depth of the visibility of a Secchi disc, but 
at some institutions the researches are of excellent 
quality. Among the subjects investigated are the 
depth of penetration of radiant energy, evaporation, 
convection, heat conduction and diffusion, and the 
content of radioactive substances — a subject that 
is both physics and chemistry. 

Chemistry. Because of the biological significance 
of many chemical features of seawater, routine 
chemical determinations and some actual research 
are conducted at many stations. Much of the chem- 
ical work has appHcations to other aspects of 
oceanography, for example, to .studies of circulation 
and to geological problems. 

Dynamical oceanography. Although water move- 
ments are observed and recorded more or less 
qualitatively at many places and although numerous 
institutions are building up bodies of data necessary 
for the study of the dynamics of water masses, 
researches on the principles and the application of 
the principles of modern dynamical oceanography 
are prosecuted at relatively few institutions. The 
training of a larger number of young people in 
dynamical oceanography is one of the needs of the 
science. 

Sediments. Marine bottom samples are collected 
by a number of institutions and several others serve 
as depositories, but actual research is conducted at 
only a few places. This subject is further discussed 
on page 35 of this report. 

Meteorology. Observations are recorded at many 
places, and a number of institutions are repositories 
of data, which are compiled, averaged, and plotted, 
but there is far too little fundamental research. 
Investigations in marine meteorology involve re- 
searches in physics, also included under that caption. 

Gravity at sea. Since the determination of gravity 
at sea depends upon having submarines available 
for the requisite cruises, such work is necessarily in 
conjunction with the Navy departments of inter- 
ested countries. The leader in this work is the 
Netherlands. Other countries that have been 
active are France, Italy, Japan, and the United 



77 



78 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



States. (See article by Prof. F. A. Veiling Meinesz, 
this report page 59.) 

Terrestrial magnetism. Observations to aid navi- 
gation are made by most hydrographic services, but 
research has been very restricted. (See article by 
Dr. J. A. Fleming, this report, page 50.) 

Fisheries. Except general marine biology, the 
provisions for fishery investigations e.xceed those 
for any other kind of oceanographic work. Nearly 
every country of importance has either a .separate 
fishery service, or fishery research is assigned as a 
function to an institution of broader oceanographic 
scope, for example, the Institvit oc^anographique 
de rindochine. In some countries, such as the 
United States, subordinate political subdivisions 
support special services, for example, the State of 
California. It is probable that some of the sub- 
ordinate fishery services have not been included in 
this catalogue. 

Marine biology. There is in this volume no special 
discussion of marine biology. The amount of 
attention paid the subject is shown in the table of 
institutions engaged in oceanographic work. More 
attention is given marine biology than to any other 
aspect of the sea. The investigation of the marine 



environments has lagged behind the study of the 
organisms that live in those enviromnents. Refer- 
ences are given in the footnote below' to two 
symposia, of which most of the papers are here 
pertinent. The purport of the one by the compiler 
of this volume is obvious from its title. The article 
is based on a study of the programs of the leading 
marine biological stations of the world. 

1 Ecolog. Mon., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 421-554, 1934. 
Conditions of Existence of Aquatic Animals, Symposium 
at the Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago, Illinois, 
.Tune 22, 1933: 

Conditions of life in the ocean, August Krogh. 
Conditions of life at great depths in the ocean, August 

Krogh. 
Particulate and dissolved organic matter in inland 

lakes, E. A. Birge and C. Juday. 
Ecology of lake fishes, A. S. Pearse. 
The biochemistry of the invertebrates of the sea, Paul 

S. Galtsoff. 
Faith in the results of controlled laboratory experi- 
ments as applied in nature, V. E. Shelford. 
Oceanography, Symposium, Boston, Massachusetts, 
December 30, 1933: 

Present trends in the investigation of the relations of 
marine organisms to their environment, T. Way- 
land Vaughan. 
The distribution and conditions of existence of bacteria 

in the sea, Selman A. VVakman. 
Factors affecting the vertical distribution of copepods, 

George L. Clarke. 
Concerning the organization of marine communities, 
W. C. Allee. 



INSTRUCTION IN OCEANOGRAPHY 



This catalogue of institutions was intended to 
make records of those institutions engaged in 
oceanographic activities other than in.struction, but 
as instruction is a part of the programs of many, 
it has been indicated both in the statements regard- 
ing the institutions and in the table. Leaving out 
those institutions that are concerned only with 
biological subjects, a list of the institutions in the 
table that give instruction in oceanography, its 
physical and chemical aspects, with variable em- 
phasis on its biological aspects are as follows : 

Czechoslovakia: Prague, Geographical Institute, 
Charles University. 

England: Hull, Department of Zoology and Oceanog- 
raphy, University College, Hull. Liverpool, De- 
partment of Oceanography, University of Liver- 
pool. 

France: Paris, Institut Oceanographique. 

Germany: Berlin, Institut fUr Meereskunde. 

Kiel, Universitiit, Meereschemisches Laboratorium 
and Meeresgeologische Forschungsstelle. 

Italy: Naples, Gabinetto di Oceanografia e Meteoro- 
logia. University, di Napoli. 

Norway: Bergen, Det Geofysiske Institutt. 

Sweden: Goteborg, Oceanografiska Institutionen vid 
Goteborgs Hogskola. 



United States: Cambridge, Mass., Department of 
Oceanography, M. C. Z., Harvard University. 

La Jolla, Calif., Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 
University of California. 

Pacific Grove, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford 
University. 

Seattle, Wash., Oceanographic Laboratories, Univer- 
sity of Washington. 
Japan: Kyoto, Institute of Physical Oceanography, 
Imperial University of Kyoto. 

Tokyo, Imperial Fisheries Institute. 

Special instruction in hydrographic surveying 
and allied subjects is given to naval officers by 
several of the hydrographic services of important 
countries. 

The foregoing tabulation and note do not repre- 
sent all available instruction in oceanography. 
Supplements are as follows: 

Norway: Oslo, Institute of Geography, University of 
Oslo, Professor Werner Werenskiold conducts the 
course. A volume by him is mentioned below.' 

Prof. V. Bjerknes at Oslo gives no courses but is avail- 
able for conferences. 

2 Werenskiold, Werner, Fysisk Geografi, I. Geofysik, 
Meteorologi, Oceanografi: H. Aschehoug and Co., Oslo, 
1925, Oceanografi, pp. 244-340. 



ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITIES OF INSTITUTIONS 



79 



Germany: Hamburg, Universitat. Excellent and com- 
prehensive instruction in "Physik and Chemie des 
Meerwassers" is given by Prof. B. Schulz and 
associates. 

Netherlands: Utrecht, University, a course in physical 
oceanography every other year by Prof. E. van 
Everdingen, Jr., and some lectures by Prof. K. 
Oestreich, the head of Geographical Institute. At 
Amsterdam lectures are given by Prof. W. van 
Bemmelen. 

Sweden: Lund, University. Prof. V. W. Ekman gives 
no courses in oceanography but he is available for 
conferences. 

United States: Cambridge, Mass., Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. Instruction in physical 
oceanography is offered by Prof. C-G. Rossby and 
Mr. C. O. Iselin II. 
New York, Columbia University provides extension 
courses in oceanography by Mr. V. P. de Smitt as a 
part of the geographical program. 

Japan: Tokyo, College of Agriculture and Forestrj', 
Tokyo Imperial University, instruction by Dr. 
Juta Hara. 



Sapporo, Fishery Institute, Hokkaido Imperial 
University, some instruction in connection with 
the courses on fisheries subjects. 

,\lthough the foregoing list is almost certainly 
incomplete, it is nearly enough complete to show 
that the provisions for instruction in the funda- 
mental principles of oceanography are far from 
sufficient. One of the desiderata of English speak- 
ing students is an adequate text in English on the 
principles of dynamical oceanography. It has been 
suggested that either Dcfant's "Dynamische Ozean- 
ographie" be translated or that McEwen's "A 
summary of basic principles underlying modern 
methods of dynamical oceanography" be expanded 
into a volume. (Both of the.se publications have 
already been mentioned.) The adoption of either 
suggestion would be helpful, but a new text, up 
to date in all respects with such elaborations as 
students need, would probably be more satisfactory. 



80 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 



International 

International 

International 

International 

International 

International 
International 
International 

International 

Algeria 

Algeria 

Belgium 

Belgium 

Czechoslovakia 



Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Denmark 

Denmark 
Egypt 

Egypt 

England 
England 
England 

England 

England 

England 
England 

England 
England 
England 

Estonia 



IXSTITCTION 



Assoc. Internat. d'Oceanographie 

Physique 
Commis. Internat. pour I'Explor. 

Scien. Mer Medit. 
Conseil Permanent International 

pour I'Exploration de la Mer 
Consejo Oceanogrdfico Ibero- 

Americano 
Internat. Com. on Oceanography 

of the Pacific 
Internat. Fisheries Commis. 
Internat. Hydrog. Bureau 
Internat. Service of Ice Observ. 

& Ice Patrol in the North At- 
lantic 
No. American Council on Fishery 

Investigations 
Station Zoologique Maritime sur 

la Jet6e Nord 
Station d'Aquiculture et de 

Peche de Castiglione 
Royaume de Belgique, Service 

de THydrographie 
Institut Maritime de Belgique 

at Ostend 
Geographical Institute of the 

Charles Univ. In Prague. (Geo- 

graficky ustav Karlovy univer- 
sity, Praga) 
Biological Station at Rab 
Dansk Biologisk Station 
Koraissionen for Danmarks 

Fiskeri- og Havunders0gelser 
Kongelige Sokort-Arkiv 
Laboratoire des Recherches sur 

les Pecheries 
Mawani P'anarat (Port & Light- 
house Administration) 
Fisheries Experiment Station 
Dove Marine Laboratory 
Dept. Zoology & Oceanography, 

University College 
Dept. of Oceanography, Univ. 

of Liverpool 
Liverpool Observatory and Tidal 

Institute 
Hydrography Dept., Admiralty 
Meterological Office (Marine 

Div.) Air Ministry 
Fisheries Laboratory 
Plymouth Marine Laboratory 
Port Erin Marine Biological 

Station 
Kaitsevagede Staabi Topo- 

Hiidrograafia Osakond 



LOCATION 



Indefinite 

Indefinite 

Copenhagen 

Madrid, Spain 

Indefinite 

Seattle, Wash. 
Monte Carlo 
Washington, 
D. C. 

Indefinite 

Algiers 

Castiglione 

Brussels 

Ostend 

Prague 



Rab, Dalmatia 

Copenhagen 

Copenhagen 

Copenhagen 
Alexandria 

Alexandria 

Conway 

Cullercoats 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

London 
London 

Lowestoft 
Plymouth 
Port Erin Bay 

Tallinn 



X 



X 



X 



z 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITIES OF INSTITUTIONS 



81 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

— Continued 



Finland 

Finland 

Finland 

Finland 

France 

France 
France 

France 
France 



France 
France 

France 

France 
France 
France 

France 

France 
France 
France 
France 

France 



France 
Germany 

Germany 



Germany 

Germany 

Germany 
Germany 

Germany 

Germany 



INSTITCTION 



Bureau for Fishery Investiga- 
tions 

Laboratory for Hydrobiological 
Investigations 

Merenkulliuhallitus Merikart- 
talaitos (Hydrographic Off.) 

Thalassological Institute 

Le Laboratoire Arago de Banyuls 

sur Mer 
Station Biologique d'Arcachon 
Laboratoire de Luc-Sur-Mer de 
la Faculte des Sciences de Caen 
Laboratoire de Zoologie et de 
Physiologie Maritimes du Col- 
lege de France 
Laboratoire Maritime du Mu- 
seum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle 
Laboratoire de Guethary 
Institut Oceanographique du 

Havre 
Laboratoire de Biologic Marine 

de "Le Croisic" 
Laboratoire Marion de Marseille 
r Institut Oceanographique 
Office Scientifique et Technique 

des Peches Maritimes 
The boat POURQUOI-PAS 

Service Central Hydrographique 
Station Biologique de Roscoff 
Station Biologique de Sete 
Station Biologique de Tamaris 

sur Mer 
Station Zoologique de I'Univer- 

site de Paris h Villefranche sur 

Mer 
Station Zoologique de Wimereux 
Deutsche wissenschaftliche Ko- 

mission fur Meeresforschung 
Fischerei-biologische Abtheilung 

im Deutschen Seefischerei- 

Verein 
Institut und Museum fiir Meeres- 

kunde 
Nautische Abteilung, Oberbe- 

fehlshaber der Kriegsmarine 
Deutsche Seewarte 
Biologische Anstalt auf Helgo- 
land 
Meereschemisches Laboratorium 

der Universitat in Kiel 
Meeresgeologische Forschungs- 

stelle der Universitat Kiel 



LOCATION 



Helsinki 

Helsinki 

Helsinki 

(Helsinki) 

Helsingfors 
Arago de Banyuls 

Arcachon 
Calvados (Luc- 

sur-Mer) 
Concarneau 

Dinard 



Guethary 
Havre 

Le Croisic 

Marseille 

Paris 

Paris 

Destroyed, Sept., 

1936 
Paris 
Roscoff 
Sete, Herault 
Tamaris sur Mer 

Villefranche sur 
Mer, Alpes 
Maritimes 

Wimereux 

Berlin 

Berlin 



Berlin 
Berlin 



Hamburg 
Helgoland 



Kieler Forde, 
Ostsee 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



82 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

— Continued 



COUNTRY 


INSTITUTIOS 


LOCATION 


o 
o 

o 
s 


CU 




s z 


>• 

0. 


2 

s 

El] 

n 

u 


n 
< 

.3 K 

< O 

S8 


OQ 

z 
u 

Q 

a 


o 
o 

o 

K 
O 
(A 
H 


>• 

< 
a 
o 




a 


o 

1 

n 


2 

c 

B 

g 

i 


Greece 


Hydrographic Offine of the Navy 

Phaleron Biological Station 

Hungarian Oceanographic Insti- 
tution 

Vitamdiastjorn (Lighthouse Ad- 
min.) 

Dept of Agriculture, Fisheries 
Branch 

Istituto di Zoologia della R. Uni- 
versita di Catania 

R. Osservatorio di Pesca marit- 
tima di Ganzirri 

Istituto Idrografico della R. 
Marina 

Marine Laboratory of the Isti- 
tuto di Zoologia della R. Uni- 
versita di Genova 

Istituto Centrale di Biologia 
Marine in Messina 

Gabinetto di Oceanografia e 
Meteorologia 

Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 

Istituto di Ricerche Biologiche 
in Rodi 

R. Comitate Talassografico 
Italiano 

Ispettorato Generale della Pesca 
e Divisione Amministrativa 
per la Pesca 

R. Laboratorio Centrale di Idro- 
biologia 

Istituto Italo-Germanico di Bi- 
ologia Marina di Rovigno 
d'Istria 

Istituto Demaniale di Biologia 
Marina di Taranto 

Istituto Geofisico di Trieste 

Ufficio Idrografico del Magis- 
trate alle Acque a Venezia 

Hidrografiska Dala, Jurniecibas 
Departments, Finansu Minis- 
trija 

Hydrobiological Station of the 
University of Latvia 

Susisiekimo Ministerija, Uosto 
Valdyba (Ministry of Com- 
munication, Harbor Office) 

Musfie OcSanographique de 
Monaco 

Koninklijk Nederlandsch Me- 
teorologisch Instituut 

Zoologisch Station der Neder- 
landsche Dierkundige Vere- 
eniging 


Athens 

Old Phaleron 

Budapest 

Reykjavik 

Dublin 

Catania 

Ganzirri 

Genoa 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Naples 
Rodi 

Rome 

Rome 

Rome 

Rovigno d'Istria 

Taranto 

Trieste 
Venezia 

Riga 

Riga 
Klaipeda 

Monaco-Ville 
De Bilt 
Den Helder 




X 


























Greece 


X 


X 




X 












X 


X 




Hungary 
Iceland 
















X 


























Ireland 




X 
















X 
X 
X 






Italy 
Italy 
Italy 






















X 


V 




























X 


X 


X 


X 




X 






X 


X 






Italy 
Italy 




X 

X 


V 
























X 




Italy 








X 


X 


X 












V 


Italy 




















X 

X 

X 
X 

X 
X 

X 




Italy 










X 
X 


X 
X 












X 




Italy 


X 




X 


X 


X 




X 








Italy 

Italy 
Italy 






X 

X 
X 

X 














X 




































Italy 

Italy 
Italy 

Latvia 








X 
X 


X 

X 
X 


X 

X 
X 














X 


X 


X 
X 


X 




X 
X 




























Latvia 






















X 


y 


Lithuania 




X 
























Monaco 




X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 












X 


X 




Netherlands 








X 




X 








Netherlands 














X 


V 































ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITIES OF INSTITUTIONS 



83 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

— Continued 



COUNTBT 


INSTITUTION 


LOCATION 


>• 
o 

s 

o 
a 
2 
a 


s 

g 

ii 




a. o 
S z 

H < 


EC 

u 

OD 

>* 

£ 


s 

s 
n 


g 

< o 


s 

z 
w 
s 
H 
a 
m 


>- 
o 
o 
.J 
o 

B 

o 
a 

E- 


< 

K 



ii 

a o 

c: < 




>• 

o 
o 
.J 

o 

m 


o 


OS 
H 

« 


Netherlands 


Department van Defensie, Af- 

deeling's Hydrografie 
Fiskeridirektoratet, Avdeling for 

Havundersokelser 
Det Geofysiske Institutt 
Statens Fiskeriforsoksstasjon 
Universitets Biologiske Stasjon 
Bergens Museums Biologiske 

Stasjon 
Sjokartverket (Nautical Charts 

Office) 
Troms0 Museum 
Trondheims Biologiske Station 
Biuro Hydrograficzne Marynarki 

Wojennej 
Aqudrio Vasco da Gama-Esta^ao 

de Biologia Maritima 
Direc^ao de Hidrografia, Nave- 

gagao e Meteorologia Nautica 
Serviciul Hidrografic al Marinei 

de Razboi 
State Maritima, Regele Ferdi- 
nand I 
The Torry Research Station 
Marine Laboratory of the Fishery 

Board for Scotland 
Scottish Marine Biological Asso- 
ciation 
Laboratorio Oceanografico de 

Canarias 
Instituto Espanol de Oceano- 

grafia 
Laboratorio de Mdlaga 
Laboratorio de Palma de Mal- 

lorca 
Servicio Hidrografico 
Instituto y Observatorio de 

Marina de San Fernando 
Sociedad de Oceanografia de 

Guipuzcoa 
Laboratorio de Santander 
Laboratorio de Vigo 
Borno Research Station 
Klubbans Biological Station 
Kristinebergs Zoologiska Station 
Oceanografiska Institutionen vid 

Goteborgs, Hogskola 
Svenska Hydrografisk-Biologiska 

Komissionen 
Havsfiskelaboratoriet 
Kungliga Sjokarteverket (Hydro- 
graphic Service) 
Oceanographic Station of Sa- 

lambo 


Gravenhage 

Bergen 

Bergen 
Bergen 
Dr0bak 
Herdla 

Oslo 

Troms0 

Trondheim 

Warsaw 

Dafundo 

Lisbon 

Constantza 

Agigea, Prov. 

Constantza 
Aberdeen 
Aberdeen 

Millport 

Las Palmas, Ca- 
nary Islands 
Madrid 

Mdlaga 

Palma de Mal- 

lorca 
San Fernando 
San Fernando 

San Sebastian 

Santander 

Vigo 

Borno 

Fiskebackskil 

Fiskebackskil 

Goteborg 

Goteborg 

GuUmar-fjord 
Stockholm 

Salammbo 




X 
















X 








Norway 




X 
X 














X 
X 






Norway 
Norway 
Norway 
Norway 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 


X 
X 


X 
























V 


























V 


Norway 




X 
























Norway 




X 
X 




X 
X 














X 
X 




Norway 






















Poland 




X 


















Portugal 
Portugal 




X 


X 


X 


X 










X 


X 






X 
X 






X 








Rumania 
























Rumania 




















X 

X 
X 

X 


X 

X 
X 

X 

X 

X 

X 
X 




Scotland 


























Scotland 








X 

X 

X 

X 

X 
X 


X 


X 
X 


X 












Scotland 
















Y 


Spain 

Spain 

Spain 
Spain 


























X 


X 

X 
X 


X 


X 

X 
X 








X 
X 
















V 














V 


Spain 




X 
X 


X 
X 












Spain 












X 




X 








Spain 














X 
X 




Spain 


























V 


Spain 




























Sweden 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
















Sweden 
















X 
X 


V 


Sweden 


























V 


Sweden 








X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 












Y 


Sweden 






X 










X 
X 






Sweden 












Sweden 




X 
















X 




Tunis 








X 










X 

































84 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

— Continued 



Turkey 



Union of South 

Africa 
Union of South 

Africa 

Union of South 

Africa 
Union of South 

Africa 

Yugoslavia 

Yugoslavia 

U. S. S. R. 

U. S. S. R. 
U. S. S. R. 

U. S. S. R. 

U. S. S. R. 

U. S. S. R. 

U. S. S. R. 

U. S. S. R. 
U. S. S. R. 

U. S. S. R. 

U. S. §. R. 

U. S. S. R. 

U. S. S. R. 
Bermuda 

Canada 
Canada 
Canada 

Canada 
Canada 



INSTITUTION 



Harta Genel Direktorltigii Hidro- 
grafi Subesi (Hydrographic 
Sect. Cartograph. Serv. of 
Army) 

Fisheries Survey Division 

Marine Biological Station & 
Headquarters of Division of 
Fisheries 

Marine Biological Station of Div. 
of Fisheries Survey 

Department van Verdediging, 
Hydrographic Survey Section 

Hidrografski ured Kraljevske 
Mornarice 

Oceanografski Institut Kral- 
jevine Jugoslavije 

The Azerbaidjan Fisheries Sta- 
tion 

Fisheries Station of Georgia 

Manguistau Branch of the Uralo- 
Caspian Scientific Fisheries 
Station 

The Uralo-Caspian Fisheries 
Station 

Asov-Black Sea Scientific Re- 
search Institute 

The Turkmenistan Fisheries 
Station 

Gidrograficheskij Otdel (Hydro- 
graphic Department) 

Daguestan Fisheries Station 

The All-Union Scientific Re- 
search Institution of Marine 
Fisheries & Oceanography 

Polar Scientific Research Insti- 
tute of Marine Fisheries and 
Oceanography 

Novorossiisk Arnoldi Biological 
Station 

Ukrainian Odessa Fisheries Sta- 
tion 

Sevastopol Biological Station 

Bermuda Biological Station for 
Research 

Canadian Hydrographic Service 

Atlantic Biological Station 

Prince Edward Island Marine 
Station 

Meteorological Service of Can. 

Station Biologique du Saint- 
Laurent 



LOCATION 



Ankara 



Capetown 
Capetown 

St. James Bay 

Pretoria 

Split 

Split 

Baku 

Batoum 
Bautino 

Gouriev 

Kertch 

Krasnovodsk 

Leningrad 

Makhach-Kala 
Moscow 

Murmansk 

Novorossiisk 

Odessa 

Sevastopol 

St. George's West 

Ottawa 

St. Andrews 

Ellerslie 

Toronto 
Trois-Pistoles 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



<3 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITIES OF INSTITUTIONS 



85 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

— Continued 



Newfoundland 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 
United States 
United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 

Argentina 
Argentina 
Brazil 

Brazil 

Uruguay 
Uruguay 

Canada 
Canada 



INSTITUTION 



Fishery Research Lab. of the 
Newfoundland Fishery Re- 
search Commission 

Bingham Oceanographic Founda- 
tion 

Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
Carnegie Inst, of Washington 

Coast & Geodetic Survey 

U. S. Coast Guard 
Bureau of Fisheries 
Hydrographic Office, U. S. Navy 
U. S. National Museum 

Johnson-Smithsonian Deep-Sea 

Expedition 
Marine Division, U. S. Weather 

Bureau 
Tortugas Laboratory 
Univ. of Maine Laboratory 
Mt. Desert Island Biological 

Laboratory 
Chesapeake Biological Lab. 

Dept. of Oceanography, Museum 
of Comparative Zoology 

North Atlantic Fishery Investi- 
gations, U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti- 
tution 

Isles of Shoals Marine Zoological 
Station 

Dept. of Tropical Research, New 
York Zoological Society 

U. S. Fisheries Biological Labora 
tory 

Marine Biological Laboratory 
of R. I. State College 

Servicio Hidrografico 

Divisi6n de Pesca 

Directoria de Navegagao Etats- 
Unis du Bresil 

Servigo de Caga e Pesca 

Instituto de Pesca 

Servicio Hidrografico de la 
Marina 

Pacific Biological Station 

Pacific Fisheries Experimental 
Station 



LOCATION 



Bay Bulls 



New Haven, 

Conn. 
Washington, 

D. C. 
Washington, 

D. C. 
Washington, 

D. C. 
Washington, 

D. C. 
Washington, 

D. C. 
Washington, 

D. C. 
Washington, 

D. C. 
Washington, 

D. C. 
Dry Tortugas 
Lamoine, Maine 
Mt. Desert Is., 

Maine 
Solomons Island, 

Maryland 
Cambridge, Mass 

Cambridge, Mass 



Woods Hole, 

Mass. 
Isles of Shoals, 

New Hampshire 
New York, N. Y. 



Beaufort, N. C. 

Ft. Kearney, 

R. I. 
Buenos Aires 
Buenos Aires 
Rio de Janeiro 

Rio de Janeiro 

Montevideo 

Montevideo 

Nanairao, B. C. 
Prince Rupert, 
B. C. 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 
X 



X 



X 



86 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

— Continued 



COUNTRY 


INSTITUTION 


LOCATION 


o 
o 
.J 
o 
s 
2 

OD 




a 


Ed » 
Ck Q 


m 


>< 

i 

i 
» 


< 

< a 
" o 

ll 


a 

s 


>• 
o 

s 

o 
s 


< 


« o 
a < 


2 


>• 

o 
o 

o 
n 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


Ha 
o 

E 

p 

a 

'A 


Tlnit.pH States 


KerckhofF Marine Laboratory 

Pomona College Marine Labora- 
tory 

Scripps Institution of Ocean- 
ography 

Marine Biological Station, Univ. 
of Southern Calif. 

Hopkins Marine Station of Stan- 
ford University 

California State Fisheries 
Laboratory 

Coos Bay Marine Station 

U. S. Fisheries Biological Station 

Washington State Dept. of 
Fisheries, Div. of Biological 
Research 

Biological Dept., Dept. of Game, 
State of Washington 

Oceanographic Laboratories, 
University of Washington 

Marine Biological Laboratory 

Servicio Meteorol6gico 
Departamento de Navegacion 
Servicio Hidrografico de la 

Armada 
Servicio Hidrografico y Faros 
Escuela Naval 
Compafiia Administradora del 

Guano 
Servicio Meteorologico 
Low Island Queensland 
Australian Hydrographie Service 
Marine Meteorological Section, 

Commonwealth Meteorological 

Bureau 
Fishery Department 
Marine Laboratory of the Uni- 
versity of Sydney 
Summer Survey of the Marine 

Biological Association of China 
Hj'drographic Department of the 

Chinese Navy 
Tinghai Marine Station 
Tsingtao Aquarium 

Dept. (if Oceanography Tsingtao 

Observatory 
Institut Oceanographique de 

I'lndochine 
Royal Observatory 


Corona del Mar, 

Calif. 
Laguna Beach, 

Calif. 
La Jolla, Calif. 

Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
Pacific Grove, 

Calif. 
Terminal Island, 

Calif. 
Coos Bay, Ore. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Seattle, Wash. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Honolulu, Ha- 
waiian Islands 
Santiago 
Valparaiso 
Guayaquil 

Callao 
La Punta 
Lima 

Lima 

Low Island 
Melbourne 
Melbourne 

Sydney 
Sydney 

Amoy 

Shanghai 

Tinghai 
Beach Park, 

Tsingtao 
Observatory Hill, 

Tsingtao 
Nhatrang, Annara 

Kowloon 




















V 




























V 


TTnit.pH Stat.ps 


X 




X 


X 
X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 








V 










V 


TlnitpH StatpR 










X 












X 
X 


V 






















TTnifpH Stqtps 








X 


X 


X 












X 

X 
X 


Y 


TTnitpH Stntps 


















X 
X 

X 




TInitpH St.at.ps 




















































TTnitpd Stntps 








X 


X 


X 


X 




X 






V 


T'nitpH States 














y 


Chile 


















X 










Chile 




X 
X 

X 


















































Peru 


























Peru 




X 
X 

X 










X 
X 

X 












Peru 






















X 




Peru 






















































X 






























X 

X 
X 










X 
































X 














X 


X 












X 
X 


y 






















y 


China 




X 


X 






















China 


X 




X 














X 
X 

X 

X 




China 




















y 








X 
X 


X 
X 




X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 










French Indo- 


X 
X 








X 




China 
Hong Kong 


X 




X 

























ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITIES OF INSTITUTIONS 



87 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

— Continued 



COUNTRY 


INSTITUTION 


LOCATION 


o 
o 

o 

s 

w 

CO 


a 
n 


s 

Q 

5 


ft. a 
a z 


n 


2 

s 


Ed 

< 

HO 


z 

3 

H 
u 


i- 
o 
o 

s 

o 

H 

s 


> 

< 

a 
o 


5a 

u 

a z 

K O 
K < 


ts 


(- 
o 
o 

o 
m 

X 

X 

X 

X 
X 


o 

s 

Pi 


Japan 


Akkeshi Marine Biological Sta- 
tion 

Amakusa Marine Biological 
Laboratory 

Marine Biological Station of 
Asamushi 

Imperial Marine Observatory 

Kominato Marine Biological 
Laborator}' 

Institute of Physical Ocean- 
ography 

Misaki Marine Biological Station 

Miyako Meteorological Observa- 
tory 

Inst. Algological Research 

Palao Tropical Biol. Station 

Seto Marine Biological Labora- 
tory 

Shimoda Marine Biological Sta- 
tion 

Mitsui Marine Biological Station 

Imperial Fisheries Experimental 
Station 

Imperial Fisheries Institute 

Hydrographic Department of the 
Imperial Japanese Navy 

Central Meteorological Observa- 
tory of Japan 

Government Fishery Experi- 
mental Station of Chosen 

Kominklijk Magnetisch en 
Meteotologisch Observator- 
ium te Batavia 

Laboratorium voor het Onder- 
zoek der Zee 

Porto Bello Marine Fisheries 
Investigation Station 

Bureau of Science, P. I. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey 

Fish & Game Administration 

Manila Observatory 

Puerto Galera Marine Biological 
Lab., Univ. of Philippines 

Krom Uthoksat (Hydrographic 
Serv., Royal Siamese Navy) 

Kamchatka Fisheries Station 

Pacific Institute of Fisheries and 
Oceanography 


Akkeshi Gulf 

Tomioka, Ama- 
kusa 
Asamushi 

Kobe 
Kominato 

Kyoto 

Misaki 
Miyako 

Muroran, Hok- 
kaido 

Korror Id., Palao 
Group 

Seto-Kanayama 

Shimoda, Kana- 
zawa Prefecture 

Susaki, near Shi- 
moda 

Tokyo 

Tokyo 
Tokyo 

Tokyo 

Fusan, Korea 

Batavia 

Batavia 

Dunedin 

Manila 
Manila 

Manila 
Manila 
Puerto Galera 

Bangkok 

Petropavlovak 
Vladivostok 


























X 
X 

V 


Japan 
Japan 
















X 


X 














X 

X 
X 

X 

X 
X 














Japan 






X 


X 
X 

X 


X 
X 


X 

X 

X 




X 










Japan 










X 




Japan 






X 










V 


Japan 


X 














X 


V 


Japan 








X 






X 










Japan 


















X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 




Japan 








X 


X 


X 




X 












Japan 
















V 


Japan 








X 


X 


X 




X 


X 




X 




V 


Japan 


X 








Japan 






X 

X 
X 

X 


X 

X 
X 

X 


X 

X 
X 

X 


X 










X 
X 

X 




Japan 
















V 


Japan 
Japan 
Japan 


X. 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 

X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


Netherlands 


X 






X 










X 








East Indies 
Netherland 














X 
X 
X 


X 
X 




East In ies 
New Zealand 








X 


















Philippine Is. 
























Philippine Is. 




X 


X 




















Philippine Is. 


















X 






Philippine Is. 


X 
















X 




X 






Philippine Is. 


















X 


V 


Siam 




X 


X 












X 










Siberia 


X 
X 




X 
X 










X 
X 


X 
X 




Siberia 









































88 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS ENGAGED IN OCEANOGRAPHIC WORK AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

— Concluded 



CODNTBV 


INSTITUTION 


LOCATION 


>• 
o 

s 

o 

i 

u 


g 

i 
si 


a 

Q 
H 


« t 

K < 

ft. a 
E z 


CO 

g 


s 
n 


< o 

o O 


s 

'A 

a 
a 
a 
u 
m 


s 

o 

K 
O 

u 

i 


> 
< 

a 


<1 


a 


>* 
o 
o 

2 
n 

X 


o 

i 

2 


Strts. Settlmts. 


Department of Fisheries 

Marine Biological Station of the 

University of Egypt 
Marine Survey Office, British 

India 
Zoological Survey of India 
Ennur Biological Station 
Krusadai Biological Station 
Madras Aquarium 
Madras Fisheries Department 
Meterological Department Gov- 
ernment of India 
West Hill Biological Station 


Singapore 

Ghardaqa 

Bombay 

Calcutta 

Ennur 

Krusadai Island 

Madras 

Madras 

Poona 

West Hill, Cali- 
cut, Malabar 
Coast 




& Fed. Malay 

States 
Egypt 

India 








X 




X 












V 




X 


















India 






















X 
X 

X 




India 
























X 

X 


V 


India 








X 


















India 










X 














India 








X 














X 




India 
















X 








India 








X 














X 































INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



Association Internationale d'Oceanographie 
Physique ('37) 

History or origin: Successor to the Section d'Oceano- 
graphie of the International Union of Geodesy 
and Geophysics. This Union was founded in 
1919 and had for one of its original constituents 
the "Section d'Oceanographie Physique." The 
first General Assembly of the Section was held 
at Paris in 1921 and its scientific scope was 
summarized as follows: 

"Morphology of the sea bottom, 
Morphology of the surface of the oceans and seas, 
Movements of water masses, and 
Physical and chemical studies of sea water." 

A General Assembly of the Section was held at 
Rome in 1922 on the occasion of the first General 
Assembly of the Union. At this Assembly it was 
decided to invite the cooperation of biologists and 
the Section was subsequently styled "Section 
d'Oceanographie." 

A General Assembly of the Union was held at 
Stockholm in 1930, the last under the original 
Statutes. New statutes of the Union were drawn 
up and the Sections were replaced by Associations. 
It was decided that the "Section d'Oceanographie" 
should be replaced by the "Association d'Oceano- 
graphie Physique," and at the General Assembly 
at Lisbon in 1933, statutes of the Association 
were drawn n\). 

Location: No permanent headquarters. 

Organization to which attached: Union Geod6sique et 
Geophysique Internationale. 

Purposes: (1) To promote the study of problems 
which concern physical oceanography. 

(2) To stimulate and coordinate those researches 
that need the cooperation of several countries 
and to assure their scientific discussion as well 
as their publication. 

(3) To assist special researches, such as a com- 
parison of instruments used in different countries. 

Scope of activities: The section of oceanography in 
which mathematics, physics, and chemistry are 
utilized for the scientific study of the sea. 

Equipment: None. 



Staff: Officers and Executive Committee for the 
period commencing December 24, 1936. 

President, Professor B. Helland-Hansen, Det 

Geofysiske Institutt, Bergen, Norway. 
Vice President, Monsieur E. Fichot, 47 Avenue 

de Neuilly, Neuilly dur Seine. 
General Secretary, Professor J. Proudman, 

The University, Liverpool, 3. 
Members of the E.xecutive Committee, to 
retire in 1939: Mr. D. J. Matthews, Professor 
T. G. Thompson, Professor R. Witting. 
Members of the Executive Committee, to 
retire in 1942: Professor M. Knudsen, Dr. T. 
Okada, Dr. A. Ramalho, Dr. P. M. van Riel. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 
Income: Sources: Subscriptions from adhering coun- 
tries received through the Union Geodesique et 
Geophysique Internationale. 
Amount: Variable. 
Provision for publication of i-esults: Two series of 
special publications: "Publications Scientifiques," 
and "Proces-Verbaux." 

Commission Internationale pour I'Exploration 
Scientifique de la Mer Mediterranee (37) 

History or origin: The organization' meeting of this 
Commission was held in Madrid on November 17 
to 20, 1919, at the invitation of the Spanish 
Government. The King of Spain presided at the 
first meeting of the conference. The subsequent 
meetings were presided over by His Serene 
Highness, the Prince of Monaco. The following 
governments were represented by delegates: 
Egypt, Spain, France, Greece, Italy, Monaco, 
Tunis, and Turkey. 

Location: The Commission meets at different places 
as determined by the Central Bureau. 

Independent organization composed of delegates of 

' Commission internationale pour I'Exploration scien- 
tifique de la Mer Mediterranee Conference de Madrid, Bull. 
Comm. internat. I'Explor. sci. Mer Mediterranee, no. 1, 
pp. 1-24, January 15, 1920. 

Commission internationale pour I'Exploration scien- 
tifique de la Mer Mediterranee, Bull. Comm. internat. 
I'Explor. sci. Mer Mediterranee, no. 2, pp. 1-23, February 
29, 1920. 



90 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



the different contracting states and administered 
by a Central Bureau appointed for a period of 
five years. The Commission meets every two 
years and fixes the place and date of the following 
meeting. The Central Bureau is composed of a 
president, a secretary-general, one member repre- 
senting each adhering state, and associate secre- 
taries, who are the secretaries of the different 
national commissions of the adhering states. 

Purpose: The purpose is to afford means for achiev- 
mg coordinated investigations of the oceanog- 
raphy and the fisheries of those countries whose 
shores border the Mediterranean Sea. 

Scope of activities: Each country that adheres to the 
Commission has its own national commission, 
the secretary of which must keep the Secretary- 
General, and through him the Central Bureau, 
informed of the activities of the country of whose 
national commission he is a member. 

Besides the national commissions, there are 
special committees on hydrologic and biologic 
subjects. 

Under hydrology, five sub-committees were 
originally designated: (1) tides, (2) currents, (3) 
chemistry of sea water and the properties of 
normal water, (4) marine meteorology, (5) meth- 
ods and instruments to be used in the collection 
of marine organisms. There are also instructions 
for the operations to be conducted at different 
oceanographic stations and the instruments to 
be used. 

The biological work is divided into general 
biology and applied biology. Special instructions 
are given for cruises, the making of biological 
observations, particularly with reference to fishes 
of economic value, and for the distribution of 
material to specialists on different biological 
groups. 

Under work at the different laboratories, each 
laboratory is instructed to prepare a bathymetric 

chart, on a scale of _. „_„, and a lithologic chart 
5U,0UU 

of the sea bottom of the region in which it is 
situated. Each laboratory will also make hydro- 
logic studies and biologic studies, especially of the 
useful animals and plants. The operations on 
cruises for biologic purposes are to be made 
according to a program decided upon by the 
Commission. 

At the meeting of the Commission in Bucarest 
(Roumania), in September, 1935, the reporters 
appointed for different subjects were as follows: 



Oceanographic physique et hydrologie marine, 
M. G. Belloc and R. de Buen. 

Chimie gfe^rale, M. Picotti. 

Methodes acoustiques, P. Marti. 

Chimie marine et industrielle, M. Boury. 

G4ophysique, G. Galbis. 

Marees et niveau moyen, F. Vercelh. 

Biologic gfeerale, U. d'.lncona. 

Plancton, R. Issel. 

Biologic industrielle des delphinides, G. Brunelli. 

Thon rouge et sa peche, H. Heldt. 

Clupeides et leur peche, F. de Buen. 

Crustaces (Biologic), Mme. H. Heldt. 

Sponges et coraux, MM. M. Sella. 

Botaniques (plantes marines), J. Politis. 

Protistologie, J. Georgevitch. 

Statistique des p^ches, D. Remy. 

Faunistique des iles de la Mediterran^e occi- 
dentale, L. Germain. 

Etudes generales sur la Mediterran^e orientale, 
G. Antipa. 

Relations entre la Mediterranee et la mer Rouge, 
H. Faouzi. 

Geologic sous-marine, G. Georgalas. 

Hygiene et salubrite des coquillages, M. Teis- 
sonniere. 
Equipment: The equipment, shore laboratories and 

vessels, belongs to the different adhering counrties. 
Officers of the Central Bureau: 

President, Admiral Thaon di Revel. 

Vice-Presidents, Professor Odon de Buen, Pro- 
fessor G. Antipa. 

Secretary-General, Dr. Edouard le Danois. 

Honorary President, Professor Vito Volterra. 

Honorary Secretary-General, Dr. J. Richard. 

One member representing each adhering state, 
Cyprus, Egypt, Spain, France, Greece, Monaco, 
Zone espagnole du Protectorat du Maroc, 
Palestine, Roumanie, Tunisie, Turkey, and 
Yugoslavia. 

Associate secretaries, one from each country. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Visitors can be 

accommodated at the shore laboratories, and they 

may at times participate in cruises. 
Income: Each adhering state pays annually a sum 

of at least 5,000 francs. 
Provision for the publication of results: Ten numbers 

of the Bulletin of the Commission were published 

in Monaco between January 15, 1920, and De- 
cember, 1924. The format of the regular publi- 
cation of the Commission was changed beginning 

with the meeting of the Central Bureau, in Paris 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— INTERNATIONAL 



91 



in February, 1925. In addition to the Bulletins 
the results of the different national commissions 
are to be published, according to rules established 
by the Central Bureau, by the countries adhering 
to the Commission. The publications may be in 
English, Spanish, French, Greek, or Italian. 

The preparation and publication of bathymetric 
charts and of the lithologic charts of the sea 
bottom have already been mentioned. The 
combination of the different partial charts into a 
complete chart for the Mediterranean has been 
considered. It was also ■ proposed to undertake 
the publication of separate photographs of an 
atlas to illustrate the fauna and flora of the 
Mediterranean, of which twenty jiarts had been 
issued prior to December, 1934, and to publish 
a manual of oceanography and an encyclopedia 
of physical oceanography. 

The Italian Delegation of the International 
Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the 
Mediterranean Sea has published since 1908 
Bibliographia Oceanographica, and it also pub- 
lished Monografia della Laguna Venezia and 
Manualetti di Oceanografia. 

Consejo Oceanografico Ibero-Americano ('34) 

History or origin: The Consejo Oceanogrdfico Ibero- 
Americano was organized in Madrid on March 1, 
1929, by diplomatic agreement signed by repre- 
sentatives of the Argentine, Costa Rican, Ecua- 
dorian, Salvadorian, Spanish, Guatemalan, Mexi- 
can, Panamanan, Peruvian, Dominican, and 
Uruguayan republics. The member countries, in 
September, 1932, were Argentina, Costa Rica, 
Ecuador, Salvador, Spain, Guatemala, Mexico, 
Panama, Peru, Republica Dominicana, and Uru- 
guay. The organization was originally intended 
to be composed of tho.se countries in the Iberian 
Peninsula and America in which the language 
was either Spanish or Portuguese. The duration 
of the Council was to be for a term of eight years, 
which could be automatically renewed. The 
Council is expected to meet every three years. 
Subsequent to the organization meeting it has 
been proposed to admit to membership in the 
Council other American and European countries 
that have pcssessions in iVmerica. The extended 
membership would include the United States of 
America, Canada, Newfoundland, France, Eng- 
land, Holland, and Denmark. The.se countries 
have accordingly been invited to send delegates 
to the next meeting of the Council which was to 



have taken place in Madrid in June, 1933, but 
because of adverse circumstances, the meeting 
was postponed until April, 1935. 

Location: Madrid. 

Organization to which attached: Independent organi- 
zation supported by the participating govern- 
ments. 

Purposes and scope of activities: To promote, coordi- 
nate, and standardize oceanographic, fisheries, 
hydrographic, and limnologic investigations within 
those countries that belong to the Council. In 
order to accomplish this purpose, each member 
state will form a national committee. The 
different national committees may act either alone 
or in connection with other national committees. 
They may submit to the Council for consideration 
and discussion any pertinent question. The 
Council will also publish the results of scientific 
works which are of interest to the member states 
and it will accumulate a library, including charts, 
on various oceanographic, fisheries, hydrographic, 
and limnologic subjects. The Council will also 
serve as a medium for exchanging information 
between the different member countries and 
between the institutions in countries that do not 
adhere to it. 

Equipment: Administrative offices and a library. 

Staff: Executive Committee, Prof. Odon de Buen, 
President; Admiral Ernesto Caballero y Lastres, 
Vice-President; Prof. Rafael de Buen, Secretary- 
General. 

Provisions for visiting investigators. 

Income: Source: Contributions from the different 
adhering countries. 

Amount: There is an assessment unit of 300 
pesos gold, which can be changed by the Finance 
Committee of the Conference according to cir- 
cumstances. 

The annual contribution of each country and 
the number of votes is as follows: 

NUMBER 
NUMBER OF 

POPULATION OF THE COUNTRY OF ASSESSMENT 

VOTES UNITS 

TO BE CON- 
TRIBUTED 

Less than one million inhabitants 1 2 

Between one million and three million.. . 2 2 

Between three and five million 3 3 

Between five and ten million 4 5 

Between ten and fifteen million 5 7 

Between fifteen and twenty million 6 10 

More than twenty million 7 13 

Provisions for the publication of results: "Memorias," 
of which Nos. 1-16, 1930-1934 have been issued. 



92 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



"Revista," of which vols. 1 
have been published. 



-6, 1930-May, 1935 



Conseil Permanent International pour I'Exploration 
de la Mer ('37) 

History or origin:- The first International Con- 
ference on the exploration of the sea took place in 
Stockholm on the 15th of June, 1899, in response 
to an invitation from His Majesty, King Oscar II 
of Sweden. This invitation was extended by the 
Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the govern- 
ments of Germany, Denmark, Great Britain, and 
Ireland, as well as to the Norwegian, Netherlands, 
and Russian governments, and transmitted a 
program indicating the purpose of the Conference, 
which was to undertake in the interests of fisher- 
ies, the exploration of the Arctic Ocean, the North 
Sea, and the Baltic by means of international 
endeavor. Translations of extracts from the 
program proposed by His Majesty, Iving Oscar, 
to the Conference are as follows: 

I 

"Periodic and simultaneous scientific observations, 
four times a year, on the salinity of sea water, its tem- 
perature, its content of different gases, the quality and 
quantity of the plankton at places indicated by previous 
researches as being the most important. 

"1. The system of currents of the North Atlantic and 
the changes which take place there during the different 
seasons, for upon them depends the variation in the 
plankton, or the food of fishes which is suspended in 
the water, as well as the appearance and disappearance 
of migrant fishes, in the above mentioned marine areas; 
"2. The temperature of, and the quantity of heat 
which is found in the water layers at different seasons 
and on which depend the climate and the weather in the 
countries bordering the North Sea as well as in all of 
northern Europe, especially in the winter and in the 
spring. 

In order to answer these questions the Conference 
should be charged: 

a. To organize a complete network of observations 
and to divide them according to territory to be studied 
between the contracting parties according to the prin- 
ciple that each country should make scientific re- 
searches in that part of the sea which is nearest its 
own coast; 

* The account here given of the establishment of the 
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea is 
based upon an article entitled "La fondation du Conseil 
International pour I'Exploration de la Mer par les Con- 
ferences de Stockholm (1899), de Christiana (1901), et de 
Copenhague (1902)," in Rapport Jubilaire (1902-1927): 
Cons. Perm, internat. pour I'Explor. de la Mer, Rap. et 
Proc.-Verb. des Reun., vol. 47, pt. I, pp. 3-29, 1928. A 
number of the passages in this article have been translated 
into English, other parts are briefly summarized or merely 
mentioned. 



b. To fix the periods of the simultaneous observa- 
tions that are to be made; 

c. To determine the methods to be used in making 
soundings on board ships and in the analytical work in 
laboratories. It will be necessary, for example, to 
take measures to ascertain the exact relations between 
the salinity of the waters of the sea, its specific gravity, 
and its temperature, and to ascertain the best methods 
for determining these constants, as well as to test 
methods for the qualitative and quantitative estima- 
tion of plankton (under which is included the floating 
eggs and the larvae of fishes) ; 

d. To indicate the general bases for the coordination 
of the results obtained and their publication. 

II 

"1. By means of fishery experiments, undertaken at 
the same time as the scientific investigations on the 
hydrographic and biological features, under the direction 
of qualified scientific specialists on board ships equipped 
for this purpose. As examples of this kind, there may be 
cited the investigations of Hensen and of Apstein in the 
North Sea in 1895 and those of the Fishery Board along 
the coast of Scotland during several summers, and of 
the Danish Biological Station in the Cattegat. 

"2. By sending aboard ordinary fishing vessels (trawl- 
ers, drifters, and vessels engaged in the capture of whales 
and seals) assistants, who simultaneously with fishing, 
would make hydrographic and biological observations 
on the food content for fishes of the water and of the sea 
bottom, as well as on the eggs and larvae, and they would 
observe the quantity, the size and the stage of develop- 
ment of the fish taken on the fishing grounds with dif- 
ferent gear. 

Ill 

"1. An agreement between different maritime stations 
of the North Sea for the division of work and the study of 
certain questions important for the fisheries. For 
example, 

a. The conditions of existence of oj'sters and lobsters, 

their propagation and growth; 

b. The racial characters, morphologic and physiologic 

of the edible fishes, such as the herring, plaice, 

cod, mackerel, et cetera. 
The Conference should endeavor to organize the 
scientific work in common and to make a division of the 
work between all those stations, which today work in 
isolation, and to give them every possible support by 
international cooperation." 

At the first Conference, which was opened on 
the 15th of June, 1899, the following countries 
were represented: Germany, Denmark, Great 
Britain and Ireland, Norway, the Netherlands, 
Russia, and Sweden. The following is a transla- 
tion of the resolutions which were unanimously 
adopted : 

"Considering that a rational exploitation of the sea 
should be based in so far as possible on scientific research, 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— INTERNATIONAL 



93 



and considering that international cooperation is the best 
means for obtaining satisfactory results in this direction, 
especially if during the investigations it is kept in view 
that their principal end is the promotion and improve- 
ment of fisheries by the aid of international agreement, 
this international assembly has resolved to recommend 
to the states in question the following plan of research 
which should be put into execution for a period of at 
least five years. 

"After each delegate had communicated the instruc- 
tions received from his government the work was divided 
into sections of which the first (A) should elaborate the 
program of hydrographic work and the second (B) that 
of the biological work. At last a common program was 
prepared for the organization and the administration 
of the international cooperation." 

Program for the hydrographic and biological work 
on the northern areas of the Atlantic Ocean, 
in the North Sea, the Baltic, and adjacent seas: 

The principal line.s of this program inckided: 

The establi.shment of an International Council 
for the Exploration of the Sea, composed of two 
delegates from each country who were to elect a 
president, vice-president, a secretary-general, 
and substitutes, and establish the statutes and 
the order of work of the institution ; 

Statistics on fisheries which woud be prepared 
for the participating countries according to 
principles adopted in common; 

The establishment of a central laboratory for 
physical and chemical researches which are related 
to the exploration of the sea; 

The synoptic study of the sea during all seasons 
by means of periodic voyages within the areas 
to be investigated. 

These general resolutions are followed by three 
sections, (A) Hydrographic work, (B) Biological 
work, (C) Organization of the central bureau. 

A. Hydrographic work 

I 

"The hydrographic researches should have for their 
object: The distinction between the different layers of 
water according to their geographical distribution, their 
depth, their temperature, their salinity, their content of 
gas, plankton, currents, in order to ascertain the funda- 
mental principles not only for the determination of the 
external environment of the useful marine animals, but 
also for meteorological predictions for extended periods 
in the interest of agriculture. 

II 

"As the hydrographic conditions are subject to sea- 
sonal changes and as these influence seriously the dis- 
tribution and the condition of life of useful marine 
animals and the condition of the weather and other 



meteorological conditions in general, it is desirable that 
the observations be made in so far as possible simul- 
taneously during the four typical months, February, 
May, August, and November, at certain definite points 
along the same determined lines." 

Following the two foregoing paragraphs there 
are eight other paragraphs giving instructions 
regarding the hydrographic work. These are on 
pages 12 to 15 of the article here cited. They 
give an interesting account of the details of the 
plan for the hydrographic work but it is scarcely 
necessary to translate them for this statement. 

B. Biological work 
I 

"(a) Determination of the geographic and bathymetric 
distribution of the eggs and larvae of commercially 
valuable marine fishes, for example, according to such 
quantitative methods as those of Hensen, and with spe- 
cial references to the most important fishes, as plaice, 
cod and haddock, herring, etc. 

"(b) Continuous investigation of the life history and 
the conditions of life of young fishes of economic species 
in the post larval stages and up to maturity, paying 
particular attention to their local distribution. 

"(c) Systematic observations of marketable fishes in 
the mature state with reference to local varieties and 
migrations, their conditions of life, food (for example 
by examining stomach contents), and their natural 
enemies, that is to say observations on the presence and 
nature of the food of fishes on the bottom of the sea, 
on the surface, and in the intermediate waters to a 
depth of at least 600 meters. 

"(d) Determination of the periodic variations in the 
presence, abundance, and mean size of useful fishes, 
and their causes. 

II 

"(a) Experimental fishing on known fishing grounds 
during the time of fishing as well as outside those areas 
and at other times. 

"(b) Preparation of uniform statistics of the result of 
these catches, indicating in detail the number of species, 
the size and weight, and the condition of the fish: for 
example, as the 'Scottish Fishery Board' has done on 
board the Garland. 

"(c) The uniform use of gear appropriate to the experi- 
mental capture of fishes of different species and different 
sizes. 

"(d) The experimental marking and liberation of fish, 
for example, of the plaice in as large quantities as possible 
and in extensive areas, as has been done, for example, 
by Dr. C. G. Joh. Petersen and Dr. T. W. Fulton (Re- 
ports of the biological station of Denmark and the 
'Scottish Fishery Board'), and others. 

Ill 

"(a) It is desirable to collect uniform statistics on the 
number, the weight, and the value of the fish caught, on 



94 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



the means employed for the fishery, and on the people 
engaged in it, as for example, in the General reports of 
the 'Scottish Fishery Board.' 

"(b) It is necessary to collect material for the prepara- 
tion of charts indicating the fishing grounds and the kind 
of fishery which is prosecuted there." 

From the account which has been given of the 
e.stablishment of the International Council for the 
Exploration of the Sea, it is obvious that the 
Council was founded to aid the fishery industry 
in the northeast Atlantic and its connecting 
waters. 

Location: Copenhagen was selected as the seat of the 
Central Office of the Council, which in 1936 was 
transferred to Charlottenlund Slot, eight kilo- 
meters north of the center of Copenhagen. 

Organization and scope of activities: The present 
organization of the International Council may be 
taken from the account of the recent reunion in 
Copenhagen in June, 1936. There is at the top 
the Bureau of the Council, which at present is 
composed of five members and of which Mr. H. G. 
Maurice is the president. Besides the Bureau 
there are members of the Council and experts. 
Each of the following countries has two members, 
of the Council and as many experts as it may 
desire: Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, 
Finland, France, Great Britain, Irish Free State, 
Latvia, Norway, the Netherlands, Poland, Portu- 
gal, and Sweden. Under the Council there are 
seventeen committees as follows: 

Consultative Committee, composed of sixteen members, 
of which Professor J. Hjort is chairman. 

North Western Area Committee, composed of six mem- 
bers, of which Dr. A. Vedel Tuning is chairman. 

North Eastern Area Committee, composed of nine mem- 
bers, of which Professor J. Hjort is chairman. 

Atlantic Slope Committee, composed of ten members, 
of which Dr. Edouard le Danois is the chairman. 

Atlantic Committee, composed of members of the At- 
lantic Slope Committee and of the North Western Area 
Committee, of which Dr. Edouard le Danois is chair- 
man. 

Combined North Sea and Eastern Channel Committee, 
of which Professor G. Gilson is the chairman. 

Northern North Sea Committee, composed of eight 
members, of which Dr. R. S. Clark is the chairman. 

Southern North Sea Committee, composed of nine mem- 
bers, of which Dr. A. Biickmann is chairman. 

Transition Area Committee, composed of five members, 
of which Dr. H. Blegvad is chairman. 

Baltic Area Committee, composed of seven members, 
of which Dr. K. A. Andersson is chairman. 

Hydrographic Committee, composed of twenty-five 
members, of which Professor Martin Knudsen is 
chairman. 



Plankton Committee, composed of twenty members, of 

which Professor H. H. Gran is chairman. 
Statistical Committee, composed of fifteen members, of 

which Sir D'Arcy W. Thompson is chairman. 
Salmon and Trout Committee, composed of thirteen 

members, of which Professor M. Siedlecki is chairman. 
Whaling Committee, composed of eight members, of 

which Professor J. Hjort is chairman. 
Editorial Committee, composed of ten members of which 

Professor O. Pettersson is chairman. 
Finance Committee, composed of six members, of which 

the President of the Bureau of the Council is chairman. 

The various committees consider investigations 
which logically fall within the scope of their 
activities and make recommendations to the 
Council. As a result of the consideration given 
various problems, it is possible to decide upon 
specific programs which may be carried out by 
those especially concerned. As the members of 
the Council have official connections, they are 
able to direct the efforts of the organization with 
which they are connected to the end that the 
decisions of the officials of the Council may be 
made effective. The reports of the committees 
are published in the series "Rapports et Proems 
Verbaux des Reunions." 

The headquarters of the Council are situated 
in the Charlottenlund Castle, Denmark where 
the International Council's office work is managed 
by an Administrative Secretary, Captain W. 
Nellemose, who is assisted by a Hydrographer, 
Dr. J. P. Jacobsen, and a permanent staff of 8 
assistants. 

Income: The funds for the operation of the Council 
are derived from contributions from the govern- 
ments that adhere to it. The estimate of these 
contributions for the year 1936-1937 is 155,000 
Danish Kroner. 

Provisions for -publication: The International Council 
issues several series of reports, as follows: 

Les Rapports et Proces Verbaux, of which one hundred 
and one volume have been issued, to date, 

Les Bulletins hydrographiques, of which volumes have 
been issued yearly from 1908 to 1936 inclusive, 

Les Bulletins Statistiques, of which twenty-four volumes 
have been issued to date, 

Le Journal du Conseil, of which eleven volumes have 
been issued to date, and 

Les Publications de Circonstance which have been dis- 
continued. 

La Faune Ichthyologique, of which sixteen covers with 
24 sheets each have been issued (two or three further 
covers to finish this publication). 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— INTERNATIONAL 



95 



Concluding remarks: Although the International 
Council was established primarily for the purpose 
of aiding the fisheries industry, many researches 
of significance to general oceanography have been 
prosecuted under its auspices. The Jubilee 
report for the meeting in 1927, twenty-five years 
after the establishment of the Council, contains a 
number of articles on what had been accomplished 
in the different countries. Besides the work on 
fishes, this report contains accounts of investiga- 
tion.s in dynamical and chemical oceanography 
and a variety of biological investigations such 
as a paper on micro-biology by F. Liebert of the 
Netherlands, plankton investigations by C. H. 
Ostenfeld, and the conditions of life for plankton 
in the coastal waters of northern Europe by H. H. 
Gran. 

As a further indication of the kind of investiga- 
tions cultivated under the auspices of the Inter- 
national Council, the report of the proceedings 
of a special meeting on "General marine physiol- 
ogy, conditions of growth of phytoplankton," 
held on March 27, 1931, at Copenhagen, may be 
cited. Besides the preface by Dr. John Hjort, 
this number of the Rapports et Proces ^'erbaux 
des Reunions, volume 75, contains the following 
articles : 

"Dissolved substances as food of aquatic organisms," 

by August Krogh, 
"On the conditions for the production of plankton in the 

sea," by H. H. Gran, 
"Biochemical and biological investigations of the varia- 
tions in the productivity of the west Norwegian oyster 

pools," by T. Gaarder and R. Spiirck, 
"Eine biologisch chemische Studie in Hafenwasser von 

Helsingfors," by Kurt Buch, 
"Beziehungen zwischen Kalkgehalt des Meerwassers und 

Plankton," by H. Wattenberg, and 
"On the rate of photosynthesis by diatoms," by H. W. 

Harvey. 

Two of the more recent volumes of the Rapports 
et Proces-Verbau.x des Reunions will be men- 
tioned. One is Volume 95, March 1936, the 
contents of which are as follows: 

A review of some aspects of Zooplankton research, 
by F. S. Russell, Plymouth. 

Further investigations upon the photosynthesis of 
phytoplankton bj- constant illumination, by H. Hoglund 
and S. Landberg, Born0. 

The continuous plankton recorder: a new method of 
survey, by A. C. Hardy, Hull. 

Die Ergebnisse der internationalen hydrographischen 
Beobachtungen im Kattegat im August 1931, by B. 
Schulz, Hamburg. 



The second part of voume 101, July 1936, is 
devoted to a series of papers entitled "The 
measurement of submarine light and its relation 
to biological phenomena." This mmiber contains 
six articles, two by biologists and four by 
physicists. 

International Committee on the Oceanography 
of the Pacific ('37) 

History or origin:^ At the final general meeting 
of the Second Pan-Pacfic Science Congress held 
in Sydney, Australia, in September, 1923, an 
International Committee was established to 
collect data on the temperatures, chemical fea- 
tures, and currents of the Pacific Ocean, the 
committee to be composed of at least one repre- 
sentative of each country represented at the 
Third Pan-Pacific Congress and in which investi- 
gations of the kind indicated were being actively 
prosecuted. 

At the Third Pan-Pacific Science Congress, 
it was decided to discharge the Committee on 
the Physical and Chemical Oceanography of the 
Pacific and to replace it by a Committee on the 
Oceanograph}' of the Pacific which would be more 
broadly representative of the science. Accord- 
ingly the following four resolutions were adopted : 

RESOLVED: 

I. That the President or Administrative Council of the 
Pacific Science Association appoint the Chairman of the 
Committee on Oceanography of the Pacific and that 
the appropriate scientific body in each country repre- 
sented in the As.sociation appoint for the International 
Committee a member who shall be the Chairman of a 
National Committee for his country. 

II. That at least three subcommittees be formed on 
(a) Physical and Chemical Oceanography; (b) Funda- 
mental Marine Biology; (c) Fisheries Technology. 

III. That the closest possible relations be cultivated 
between the different National Committees and between 
the members of the special Subcommittees for the dif- 
ferent countries; that they submit their respective 
programs one to another, seek suggestions and advice 
regarding the different features of their work, and 



2 Committee on the Chemical and Physical Oceanography 
of the Pacific, report of the Chairman, T. Wayland Vaughan. 
Third Pan.-Pac. Sci. Cong., Tokyo, 1926, Proc, vol. 1, 
pp. 141-167, 1929. (Preprint, 1927.) 

Reports of the International Committee on the 
Oceanography and the Coral Reefs of the Pacific, T. Way- 
land Vaughan, Chairman. Fourth Pac. Sci. Cong., Java, 
1929, Proc, vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 1-136, 1930. 

International Committee on the Oceanography of the 
Pacific, Report of the Chairman, T. Wayland Vaughan. 
Fifth Pac. Sci. Cong., Canada, 1933, Prof., App. 1, pp. 
245-384, 1934. 



96 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



endeavor to bring about the greatest degree of standardi- 
zation and coordination; and that the proceedings of the 
different National Committees and Subcommittees be 
reported to the International Chairman, who shall sub- 
mit a general report to the Pacific Science Association. 
IV. That the work of the Committee be conducted with 
the intent of establishing for the Pacific an institution 
similar to the North Atlantic International Council for 
the Exploration of the Sea. 

Location: The Committee has no permanent central 
office. The chairman is appointed at the end of 
each Pacific Science Congress and serves until his 
successor is designated. The Committee meets 
in connection with the Pacific Science Congresses. 
Organization to u'hich attached: Pacific Science Asso- 
ciation, of which it is a standing Committee. 
Purposes: To stimulate oceanographic research in 
the Pacific, to enable the different countries whose 
shores border the Pacific or which have possessions 
in the Pacific to coordinate their researches, and 
to standardize the methods and appliances used 
in oceanographic research. 
Scope of activities: Each national committee was em- 
powered by the Fifth Pacific Science Congress 
to establish five subcommittees as follows: 
physical and chemical oceanography, marine 
biology, corals and coral reefs, fisheries, and 
fishery technologJ^ 
Equipment: None. 

Staff: The composition of the International Com- 
mittee on the Oceanography of the Pacific in 
February, 1936, was as follows: 
Australia, Mr. E. C. Andrews, formerly Govern- 
ment Geologist, New South Wales, Sydney, 
Australia. 
Canada, Prof. C. McLean Eraser, University of 

British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C. 
China, Mr. P. Z. Tsiang, Tsingtao Observatory, 

Tsingtao. 
France. 

French Indo-China, Dr. P. Chevey, active direc- 
tor, Institut Oc^anographique de I'lndochine. 
Great Britain, Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham, 

Cambridge University. 
Japan, Prof. H. Yabe, Tohoku Imperial Univer- 
sity, Sendai. 
Netherlands, Prof. Dr. E. van Everdingen, Jr., 
Director, Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 
De Bilt, Netherlands. 
Netherlands East Indies, Prof. Dr. J. Boerema, 
Director, Royal Magnetic and Meteorological 
Observatory, Batavia. 



New Zealand, Dr. Patrick Marshall, New Zea- 
land Institute, Wellington. 

Philippine Islands, Dr. Manuel L. Roxas, Chair- 
man, Committee Physical-chemical Oceanog- 
raphy, National Research Council, University 
of the Philippines, Manila. 

Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, Prof. 
J. M. Schokalsky, Academy of Science, Lenin- 
grad. 

United States of America, Prof. T. G. Thompson, 
Director, Oceanographic Laboratories, Univer- 
sity of Washington, Seattle, Washington, Chair- 
man. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 
Income: No special funds are allotted. 
Provisions for publication: The reports on the work 

of the Committee are published in the Proceedings 

of the different Pacific Science Congresses. 

International Fisheries Commission ('37) 

History or origin: Established by a treaty ratified 
on October 21, 1924, between Canada and the 
United States for preservation of the halibut 
fishery of the northern Pacific Ocean including 
the Bering Sea. 

The treaty provided for an entire cessation of 
halibut fishing for three months of each year and 
for the appointment of an International Fisheries 
Commission, to consist of two commissioners 
from each country. The duties of the Commis- 
sion were to make a thorough investigation into 
the life history of the halibut, to report the 
results of the same to the two governments, and 
to make recommendations regarding any desirable 
changes in the closed season and as to other 
regulation of the fishery for its preservation and 
development. 

As a result of its biological and statistical 
studies of the species and its fishery, the Com- 
mission became con\'inced that the stocks of 
halibut could not stand the intensity of fishing 
to which they were being subjected, and that 
additional regulation was necessary for the 
preservation of the fishery. 

Early in 1928, the Commission reported its 
findings to the two governments and recom- 
mended: the limitation of the catch in the dif- 
ferent sections of the coast, according to their 
indi\adual needs and the annual reduction of the 
limits until the declme which was taking place 
in each section should cease; the extension of the 
closed season with provision for its adjustment 



CATALOGUIO OF INSTITUTIONS— INTERNATIONAL 



97 



should this prove advisable; the prohibition of 
fishing gear deemed unduly destructive of small 
unmarketable fish; the licensing of fishing vessels 
for purposes of treaty, including the collection of 
compulsory statistical returns; and the closure 
to halibut fishing of areas, proved to be populated 
by small immature haliljut. 

A new treaty between the United States and 
Canada, for the preservation of the halibut fishery 
of the northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, 
was ratified on May 9, 1931. In this, power was 
given the Commission to make all the proposed 
regulations effective. 

Location: Offices and laboratories in Fisheries Hall 
No. 2, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash- 
ington, near the canal connecting Lake Wash- 
ington with Puget Sound. 

Organization to which attached: International, gov- 
ernments of Canada and the United States. 

Purposes: Regulation of the halibut fisheries of the 
northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea to per- 
petuate the fisheries. 

Scop of activities: Regulation of the fisheries by 
limitation of catch. Collection and analysis of 
biological statistics of abundance of the halibut 
from Bering Sea to California, to determine the 
effects of regulation. Investigation of the early 
life history, growth, migrations, reproduction, 
mortality, etc., as a basis for and a check on 
regulation. This involves study of the distribu- 
tion aiid abundance of the eggs and larval stages 
and their drift vnth the ocean currents, to which 
study the Commission devoted a certain amount 
of time each year. 

Equipment: Laboratory and storage space sufficient 
for a staff of fourteen at Fisheries Hall No. 2. 
A library which has been recently begun and now 
contains approximately 1,000 volumes. This 
library is of a higlJy specialized nature, concerning 
itself mainly with fisheries literature pertinent to 
the various phases of the investigations of the 
Commission, since the nearby University of 
Washington library is well equipi)ed for general 
fishery work. Wlaenever necessary for field work, 
a vessel suitable for operations in the open sea is 
chartered. 

Stajf: Commissioners: Chairman, George J. Alexan- 
der, A. J. AVhitmore, Edward W. Allen, Frank 
T. Bell. 
Scientists: Director of Investigations, William F. 
Thompson; Ass't. Director, age, growth, etc., 
Harry A. Dunlop; Biological statistics, market 



mea.surements, etc., F. Howard Bell; Early 
life history, abundance and distribution of 
eggs and larvae, Richard Van Cleve; Migra- 
tions, mortality, etc., John L. Kask. 
Others: 2 scientific a.ssistants, 2 clerical assistants, 
3 statistical assistants, 1 librarian. 
Provision for visiting invcstigatms: There are no 

provisions for \asiting investigators. 
Income: By annual appropriations. United States 
and Canadian. This has varied from .?30,000 to 
$60,000 according to the amount of field work 
which must be done. Normally between 40 and 
50 per cent of the appropriation is for vessel 
charter. 
Provision for publication of results: Besides progress 
reports published by the fisheries .ser\dces of 
United States and Canada, the Commission has 
published (1) scientific reports of which numbers 
1-11 have already been issued, and (2) circulars 
with popular digests and statements, of which 
numbers 1-4 have been issued. 

International Hydrographic Bureau ('37) 

History or origin: The International Hydrographic 
Bureau was created in 1921 and established its 
seat at Monaco. The objects of its work may be 
summarized in the words: — "to make navigation 
easier and safer in all the seas of the world." 

The following 21 maritime states became mem- 
bers: Argentine, Belgium, Brazil, British Empire: 
Great Britain and Australia, Chile, China, Den- 
mark, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, 
Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Portugal, 
Siam, Spain, Sweden, United States of America. 

The Governments of Belgium, Germany, Italy, 
Netherlands, and Peru have since withdrawn and 
Greece is no longer a member, but Ecuador, Po- 
land, and Uruguay have become members and 
thus the Bureau is now supported by the govern- 
ments of 19 maritime States. 

The Principality of Monaco was selected as the 
seat of the Bureau largely because of its position 
on the sea, its central location, its excellent com- 
munications with the rest of the world and also 
because of the interest taken by the late Prince 
Albert I. of Monaco in all questions connected 
\%dth the sea. 

The Govermnent of Monaco offered in 1927 to 
erect a building specially for the Bureau, vrith. 
the sole proviso that the Bureau would remain 
therein for not less than 25 years. This very 
gracious offer was accepted by the States mem- 



98 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



bers, and in April, 1929, the cornerstone of the 
building was laid by Prince Louis, with appro- 
priate ceremony, in the presence of the delegates 
to the First Supplementary International Hydro- 
graphic Conference then in session. 

On the 14th of January, 1931, the International 
Hydrographic Bureau was installed, with appro- 
priate ceremony, in the handsome and convenient 
building on the Quai de Plaisance of the harbour 
of Monaco, by H. S. H. Prince Louis II. of 
Monaco, accompanied by the Hereditary Prin- 
cess, the Minister of State, and most of the 
officials, both native and foreign, in the Prin- 
cipality. 

The Bureau is supported by yearly contribu- 
tions from the States members, based on each 
State's total combined naval and mercantile 
tonnage. Each State member has one vote on 
technical and administrative questions, but for 
the election of the directors and secretary-general 
the number of votes allotted to each State is 
based on the same tonnage figure as that which 
determines its contribution. 

The Bureau having been established after the 
Treaty of Versailles (the majority of the mem- 
bers being members of the League of Nations), 
it was necessary, as well as desirable, for the 
Bureau to be affiliated with the League, but it is 
completely and entirely autonomous. 

Under the statutes of the Bureau its work is 
conducted by a Directing Committee, chosen by 
the vote of the members, consisting of three 
Directors elected for a period of five years, and 
by a Secretary-General also elected for a term of 
five years assisted by a staff of technical and 
administrative assistants. The first Directing 
Committee and Secretary-General were: 
Directing Committee: President, Admiral Sir 
John F. Parry, K. C. B. (Great Britain) ; Mem- 
bers, Rear-Admiral J. M. Phaff, (Netherlands) 
and Captain S. H. Miillcr (Norway). 
Secretary-General: Commander G. B. Spicer- 
Simson, D. S. O. 

Had it not been for the unfortunate death of 
Monsieur Renaud, who was a renowned French 
hydrographer and who originated the idea of the 
creation of the Bureau, he would undoubtedly 
have been selected as a member of the first 
Directing Committee. The President is the 
director who receives the highest number of votes. 
A Hydrographic Conference is held at Monaco 
every fi^'e years at which all questions connected 



with hydrography are discussed and the report of 
the work carried out by the Bureau since the 
previous conference is considered as also is the 
financial statement. At the end of the conference 
voting takes place for electing the three Directors 
and the Secretary-General for the next five years. 

Location: Monte Carlo, Principality of Monaco. 

Organization to which attached: International, 19 
adhering countries. 

Purposes and scope of activities: The statutes pre- 
scribe that the principal work to be undertaken 
by the Bureau is the following: 

The study of documents published by hydrographic 

offices; 
The drawing up and publication of various lists, such as 

of geographical positions, abbreviations and conven- 
tional signs used on charts, etc.; 
The study of methods of hydrographic surveying; 
The study of methods employed for the production of the 

results of surveys for publication; 
The study of the construction and use of hydrographic 

instruments and appliances; 
The study of the methods of recruiting and training 

personnel for surveying vessels and hydrographic 

offices; 
The making of researches on any other subjects which 

affect hydrography; 
Reports on the results of such studies and research, 

which appear to be of general interest, are published 

in French and English. 

In general it may be stated that the Interna- 
tional Hydrographic Bureau not only links the 
various hydrographic offices of the different 
States, but it is a sort of "clearing house" for all 
hydrographic information. 

The Bureau satisfies, as far as possible, all 
requests for information or advice in connection 
with hydrography addressed to it by a member, 
and gives considered opinions on all questions 
dealing with its work which are referred to it by 
conferences or by scientific institutions. 

Among the most interesting phases of the work 
recently undertaken by the Bureau is the collation 
and plotting of all deep sea soundings obtained. 
This is being done in order to keep the General 
Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans up-to-date. 

The Bathymetric Chart was originally drawn 
up, at the suggestion of the Seventh International 
Geographical Congress held at Berlm (Germany) 
in 1899, by H. S. H. the Prince of Monaco. The 
first edition of the chart was communicated to the 
Eighth Congress at New York on September 13, 
1904. Before drawing it up, however. Prince 
Albert I. had taken the advice of a committee 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— INTERNATIONAL 



99 



set lip by the Se\'enth Congress to elaborate a 
terminology to be employed in describing the 
forms of the relief of the ocean bottom. This 
committee consisted of Baron von Richthofen, 
Chairman, Professors Kriimmel, Pettersson, Su- 
pan, Thoulet, Doctors Hugh Robert Mill and 
Nansen, and Admiral Makaroff; and it met at 
Wiesbaden (Germany) in April, 1903. It was 
at this meeting that Prince Albert offered to 
draw the chart and meet all the expenses con- 
nected therewith. In 1912 a second and up-to- 
date edition was commenced, but it was not until 
1930 that this was completed. Meanwhile, un- 
fortunately. Prince Albert died and, though he 
had made provision for the completion of the 
second edition, no funds existed to carry on the 
valuable work. However, in April, 1929, the 
First Supplementary International Hydrographic 
Conference decided that this should be done by 
the International Hydrographic Bureau. 

The use of original charts, instead of reprints 
by foreign nations, has long been held advisable, 
and one of the purposes of the Bureau is to help 
realize this ami. Naturally, this could not be 
attempted unless the signs, symbols, and abbrevia- 
tions on all charts all over the world were stand- 
ardized. This question has been discussed in 
detail at all the International Hydrographic 
Conferences, and gradually more and more of the 
.symbols in common use have been standardized 
by the various hydrographic offices. In order to 
facilitate this, the Bureau has prepared a synoptic 
table showing the various symbols and abbrevia- 
tions in use by the different countries. In spite 
of the desire of practically all hydrographic 
offices to conform to a standard set of signs and 
symbols, the realization of this aim still lies in the 
distant future owing to the excessive cost of 
making changes on existing charts. The be.st 
which can be hoped, under these conditions, is 
that, with the issue of new charts, the symbols 
adopted at the conferences will gradually be sub- 
stituted for the old symbols. 

The International Hydrographic Bureau has 
prepared also a synoptic table showing the signs, 
symbols, and abbreviations in use by the various 
hydrographic offices which publish charts for 
aerial navigation. This table was then turned 
over to the International Committee on Aerial 
Navigation, where it was made the basis of a 
study by the delegates to a conference on aerial 
navigation. Fortunately, as but few hydro- 



graphic offices had started the publication of 
charts for coastal aerial navigation, there is great 
hope of early standardization, which will obviate 
the confusion which prevailed owing to the multi- 
plicity of symbols formerly in use on marine 
charts. 

From the above it will be seen that the Inter- 
national Hydrographic Bureau, although created 
with the principal object of coordinating the 
work of the hydrographic services of its members 
and to establish a close and permanent association 
between them, has as its main object the improve- 
ment of navigation and thus should appeal to all 
tho.se who "go down to the sea in ships." 

Equipment: Offices and library, especially a large 
collection of charts. 

Staff: Directing Committee: President, Vice- Ad- 
miral J. D. Nares, D.S.C. (Retired) (Great 
Britain) ; Members, Rear-Admiral W. S. Crosley, 
U. S. Navy (Retired), Ing^nieur Hydrographe 
G^n^ral de r&erve P. de Vanssay de Blavous 
(France); Secretary-General, Vacant. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Members may 
temporarily attach an official to the Bureau for 
study or obtaining information. 

Income: 169,600 gold francs (about $56,500) at the 

. moment. 

Provision for publication of results: The following are 
the regular publications of the Bureau: 
Annual Report 

This contains a general report on the adminis- 
tration and work of Bureau. 
Special Publications 

These publications are issued at irregular inter- 
vals and contain information which is likely to be 
of more than passing interest. Some of them 
contain tables which are of permanent interest. 
Hydrographic Review 

The first number was issued in March 1923, but 
in 1924 and thereafter this publication has been 
issued twice annually, in May and November, 
except in 1926 when one number only was issued 
(in July). Each volume consists of two numbers, 
which are themselves fair-sized books, containing 
from 200 to 300 pages. The contents are very 
varied and include articles by authorities of many 
nations, dealing with nearly every aspect of 
hydrography and with many allied sciences in so 
far as they affect hydrography. It is an organ 
for free discussion and exchange of views between 
hydrographic surveyors and it contains a bibliog- 
raphy of hydrographic publications. 



100 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Inlernational Hydrographic Bulletin 

This publication has been issued each month 
commencing in January, 1928, until January, 
1934, since when it has been issued every two 
months. It contains information which may be 
important but is of ephemeral interest only. 
Year Book 

This is published annually, commencing in 
January, 1928. It gives the titles, addresses, etc., 
of hydrographers, information as to hydrographic 
offices, a list of survejang vessels with their 
tonnage, etc., for the whole world, so far as such 
information has been communicated to the 
Bureau, besides other information of interest 
to seamen. In addition to the above, the Bureau 
has published: — 

Reports of Proceedings of the International Hy- 
drographic Conferences : 

1st Conference, London, 1919. 

2nd Conference, Monaco, 1926. 

1st Supplementary Conference, Monaco, 1929. 

3rd Conference, Monaco, 1932. 
The Statutes of the International Hydrographic 
Bureau, 1926. 

By these means the International Hydrographic 
Bureau disseminates information on subjects 
pertaining to hydrography and navigation. The 
International Hydrographic Bulletin contains 
information of immediate interest and importance. 
It includes also a list of all recent hydrographic 
documents and publications received from the 
various hydrographic offices of the world, and 
directs attention to matters of urgent importance. 
The semi-annual Hydrographic Re\dew, pub- 
lished in both French and English, contains 
monographs of general interest to hydrographers 
and navigators, important articles tran.slated 
from foreign publications and descriptions of new 
methods and instruments in use in the various 
countries. In this manner each hydrographic 
office is enabled to keep in touch with the methods 
in use and work being done by the other hydro- 
graphic offices; this should tend to lead gradually 
to an improvement in the methods in use, besides 
helping to bring about uniformity in hydrographic 
documents and publications. 

In general it has been found, at the Interna- 
tional Hydrographic Conferences, that all coun- 
tries are anxious to bring about that uniformity 
in hydrographic documents and publications 
which is so greatly to be desired. Possibly the 
greatest hindrance to the realization of this 



ideal is the ever present question of cost and, 
while it may be relatively easy to obtain agree- 
ment regarding some questions, in others the cost 
of making the changes involved is almost pro- 
hibitive. 

The International Hydrographic Bureau has 
to its credit a long list of accomplishments which 
will certainl}'^ do much to make navigation easier 
and safer. Amongst these may be noted: the 
universal adoption of compass graduation from 
0° to 360°, the .standardization of numerous signs 
and symbols in use on marine charts, the estab- 
lishment of central offices at various ports for the 
exhibition of notices to mariners, as well as the 
publication of numerous Special Publications on 
technical subjects, which include: 4 on echo 
sounding, 2 on visibility of lights, 3 on uniformity 
of buoyage, 2 on data on uniformity m storm 
warning signals, and one on each of the following: 

International Low Water. 

Data on Wind Force and the Beaufort Scale. 

Investigation of Harmonic Constants; prediction of 

tides and currents and their description by means of 

these constants. 
Tide predicting machines. 

Data on coastal signals, with proposals for their unifi- 
cation. 
Data on port signals. 
List of life-saving stations. 
Ocean currents in relation to oceanography, marine 

biology, meteorology, and hydrography. 
Summary of data on safety of life at sea. 
General list, arranged by oceans, and historical cards of 

shoals of doubtful existence and of shoals the positions 

of which are doubtful or approximate. 
Table of Meridional parts. 
Manual of symbols and abbreviations. 
Limits of oceans and seas. 
Oceanographical positions. 
Catalogue of original charts (in two parts). 
List of nautical documents issued by hydrographic 

offices. 
Planisphere. 

List of tidal harmonic constants. 
Reproduction of Mercator's chart, 1569. 
Vocabulary concerning tides. 
Vocabulary concerning fog signals. 

All publications of the Bureau, including the 
Bath>anctric Chart, are on sale to the public. 

International Service of Ice Observation and Ice 
Patrol in the North Atlantic Ocean ('37) 

History or origin: At the International Conference 
on the Safety of Life at Sea, which was convened 
in London on November 12, 1913, the subject 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— INTERNATIONAL 



101 



of patrolling the ice regions in the vicinity of the 
Grand Banks of Newfoundland along the trans- 
Atlantic steamship lanes, where in the spring and 
early summer icebergs form a menace to naviga- 
tion, was thoroughly discussed, and the conven- 
tion signed on January 20, 1914, by the repre- 
sentatives of the various maritime powers of the 
world provided for the inauguration of an inter- 
national service of ice observation and ice patrol 
in the North Atlantic Ocean. The Government 
of the United States was invited to undertake the 
management of this service, the expense to be 
defrayed by the powers interested in transatlantic 
navigation in a fbced proportion, which was 
definitely agreed upon, subject to ratification by 
the law-making bodies of the governments con- 
cerned. 

As the convention when ratified would not go 
into effect until July 1, 1915, the Government of 
Great Britain, on behalf of the several powers 
interested, made inquiry on January 31, 1914, 
as to whether the United States would be disposed 
to undertake at once this international service 
under the same mutual conditions and obliga- 
tions as provided in the convention. The propo- 
sition was favorably considered by the President, 
and on February 7, 1914, he directed that the 
Coast Guard begin as early as possible in that 
month the international service of ice observation 
and ice patrol. Each year since then, with the 
exception of the World War years 1917 and 1918, 
ice observation studies, oceanographic investiga- 
tions, and a sei-vice of ice patrol has been carried 
on by the United States Coast Guard. It is a 
matter of national pride that smce this duty was 
assumed by the Coast Guard there has not been 
a life lost in the area being patrolled. 

The International Conference on Safety of Life 
at Sea, signed at London on May 31, 1929, made 
provision for the continuance of this international 
service along the same general lines as provided 
for in the Convention of January 20, 1914. The 
Congress of the United States, by Act approved 
June 25, 1936, foUowmg the ratification of the 
International Convention by the United States, 
provided by law for the conduct of this Interna- 
tional Ice Observation and Ice Patrol Service by 
the United States Coast Guard. 
Location: North Atlantic Ocean and Davis Strait. 
Organization to ichich attached: United States Coast 

Guard. 
Purposes: Safety of life at sea, and furtherance of 



knowledge of ice conditions and oceanography 
in the North Atlantic and Davis Strait region. 
Scope of actimties: Briefly stated, the duties of the 
Coast Guard in conducting the Ice Patrol consist 
in finding and keeping in touch day by day with 
icebergs and field ice, determining their set and 
drift, reporting their presence and location to the 
Hydrographic Office of the Navy, and broadcast- 
ing the information by radio for the protection of 
shipping. The Coast Guard cutters while on this 
work also perform such incidental ser\'ice, not to 
interfere, however, with the paramount duty of 
the patrol, as rendering assistance to vessels in 
distress, gix'ing medical aid to crews of passing 
vessels, removing obstructions to navigation, and 
extending such other assistance to the mariner as 
may be practicable. 

Scientific observations are made of the ocean 
currents, their direction and rate of flow; salinity 
content of the water; bathymetry; and upper air 
currents; and .such other observations and experi- 
ments for the aid and furtherance of oceanographic 
knowledge, particularly with relation to ice 
conditions in the North Atlantic Ocean, as might 
be deemed advisable and feasible. 

Equipment: Normally three vessels are detailed 
from the regular Coast Guard organization for 
the duty of ice observation and ice patrol during 
the ice menace season. During the balance of the 
year scientific cruises are planned and conducted 
by one vessel when the need for such observations 
are necessary or advisable. 

Staff: One commissioned officer and one senior 
physical oceanographer specialize in the scientific 
work associated with the International Service of 
Ice Observation and Ice Patrol. This duty is 
carried on as a part of the prescribed work of the 
United States Coast Guard, and the administra- 
tive and operating forces of the Coast Guard are 
utilized to such extent as may be necessary for 
the proper and efficient conduct of this interna- 
tional service. 

Scientific (permanent members) 

Mr. Floyd M. Soule, Senior Physical 
Oceanographer. 
The commissioned officer assigned as ice obser- 
vation officer serves on such detail for usually 
about three years when he is relieved by another 
commissioned officer of the Coast Guard. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 

Income: Provision for the conduct of the Interna- 
tional Service of Ice Observation and Ice Patrol 



102 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



is made by appropriations by the Congress of the 
United States. No specific appropriation is 
made, the appropriations made for the conduct 
of the United States Coast Guard being utilized 
as may be necessary and when available. Reim- 
bursement is made to the United States Govern- 
ment for the expense of maintaining and operating 
the International Service of Ice Observation and 
Ice Patrol by the interested governments, signa- 
tory to the International Convention for the 
Safety of Life at Sea, and in the proportionate 
amounts specified in the International Con- 
vention. 
Provision for -publication of results: Each year the 
Coast Guard publishes a Bulletin giving a full 
report of the operations of the International Serv- 
ice of Ice Observation and Ice Patrol during 
each ice season, and containing a comprehensive 
and detailed account of scientific observations 
made. Occasionally, bulletins are issued dealing 
with scientific subjects bearing upon observa- 
tions and investigations of the International 
Service of Ice Observation and Ice Patrol. 

North American Council on Fishery 
Investigations ('37) 

History or origin: In the spring of 1920, the Canadian 
Government took up with the governments of the 
United States and NcwfouncOand, the matter of 
the establishment of some cooperative arrange- 
ment between the coimtries of the western North 
Atlantic for the investigation of those fisheries 
problems of interest to the countries concerned. 
The governments of both the United States and 
of Newfoundland concurred with the Canadian 
Government in the view that cooperative action 
was desirable and on September 2.3, 1920, fishery 
experts representing the three governments men- 
tioned met at Ottawa on the invitation of the 
Canadian Government. This conference unani- 
mously adopted the following resolution which 
was subsequently approved by the respective 
governments.'' 

"BE IT RESOLVED, that it is the sense of this meeting 
that, on the nomination of the fishery services of the 
countries represented, each of the respective Govern- 
ments should forthwith designate three persons to con- 
stitute an International committee on marine fishery 
investigations, this committee to determine what meas- 
ure of International cooperation is desirable, what 

* North American Council on Fishery Investigations, 
Proc. 1921-1930, no. 1, 1932. 



general investigations should be undertaken, consider 
definite problems that may be awaiting study, submit 
recommendations to their respective Governments, 
and coordinate and correlate the results of the work. 
It is the expectation that the respective Governments 
will undertake to provide the necessary ways and means 
for conducting such independent and cooperative inves- 
tigations as may be adjudged desirable by the Interna- 
tional Committee. 

It is recommended that the International Committee 
establish contact with the Permanent International 
Council for the Exploration of the Sea." 

In 1922 France, because of her important 
fisheries in the western North Atlantic and her 
pursuit of scientific investigations relating to 
them, requested representation on the committee 
and her request was approved. 

Location: The Council has no specific place of 
meeting but selects a place in accordance with 
the desires of its members. 

Independent organization composed of representa- 
tives nominated by the fisheries services of the 
four countries concerned. 

Purposes: The principal objectives accomplished by 
cooperative effort in coordinating the work of the 
several Governments have been: (1,) to provide 
more complete fishery .statistics of the oiTshore 
fisheries; (2) to correlate and encourage investiga- 
tions of the fisheries resources in which the 
member nations have a common interest; and (3) 
to accumulate data on the oceanographic condi- 
tions and their relationship to fish life, including 
drift-bottle experiments, records of water tem- 
peratures, etc. These phases of the work of the 
council are developed in greater detail hereafter. 
The council has given incidental consideration 
to many other problems which have arisen from 
time to time but has centered its activities on the 
subjects mentioned. The council has approved 
the establishment of informal contacts between 
it and the International Council for the Ex- 
ploration of the Sea and the International Geo- 
detic and Geophysical Union, for the purpose of 
exchanging information. 

Scope of activities: In the copy of the first number 
of the published Proceedings of the Council, the 
work of the United States is reported under cap- 
tions as follows: Fishery statistics. Cod investiga- 
tions, Mackerel investigations. Haddock investi- 
gations, and Hydrological investigations. 

The work of Canada is reported under the 
captions: Fishery statistics. Cod fishery. Haddock 
fishery, Mackerel fishery. Water circulation, 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— INTERNATIONAL 



103 



Water temperatures, and Passamaquoddy power 
project. 

The work of Newfoundland is reported under 
the following captions: Fishery statistics, Cod 
fishery, Water circulation, and Water tempera- 
tures. 

The work of France is reported under the 
captions: History of the investigations made at 
Newfoundland, Hydrological system of the New- 
foundland region. Relation between the hydrologi- 
cal phenomena off Greenland and those of the 
Newfoundland region. Remarks on the fauna 
of the Newfoundland Banks, Bottom fauna, and 
Mapping. 

In the second number of the published pro- 
ceedings of the Council the general captions for 
the combined work of the Council are as follows: 
Cooperation with the International Council for 
the Exploration of the Sea, International Pas- 
samaquoddy Investigations, Fishery Statistics, 
and Hydrography. 

There is a report for each of the adhering 
countries with captions as follows: 

United States: Mackerel investigations. Had- 
dock investigations, Cod investigations. Fishery 
statistics, Hydrological investigations, and Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution, which reports 
on hydrography, drift bottles, plankton, mackerel, 
and haddock. 

Canada: Cod investigations. Haddock investi- 
gations, Salmon investigations. Herring investiga- 
tions. Fishery statistics. Bait investigations, 



Water temperature, Hydrological investigations, 
and Plankton investigations. 

Newfoundland : Hydrological investigations. 
Surface drift bottles. Plankton investigations, 
Bait-fishes and squid, Salmon investigations. Cod 
investigations, and Haddock investigations. 

French investigations at Newfoundland and 
Greenland in 1931, 1932, and 1933: Observations 
made in 1931 in Greenland, Investigations carried 
on in 1932, Investigations carried on in 1933. 

Equipment: None. 

Officers: The Council is composed of representatives 
nominated by the fisheries services of Canada, 
France, Newfoundland, and the United States. 
The Council selects its own chairman from 
among its members. The present members of the 
Council are as follows : 

Canada: W. A. Found, J. P. McMurrich, A. G. 
Huntsman, Secretary. 

France: Edouard LeDanois. 
Newfoundland : 

United States: F. H. Bell, Elmer Higgins, H. B. 
Bigelow, Chairman. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 

IncoTne: No special appropriation for the work 
of the Council. 

Provision for publication of results: The results of the 
investigations conducted under the advice of the 
Council are published by the respective govern- 
ments but two reports entitled "North American 
Council on Fishery Investigations," Proc. 1921- 
1930, No. 1, and 1931-33, No. 2, have been pub- 
lished by the Canadian Government. 



INSTITUTIONS, EAST SIDE OF THE ATLANTIC 
AND CONNECTING SEAS 



ALGERIA TO FRANCE, INCLUSIVE 



Algeria 



Station Zoologique Maritime sur la Jetee Nord 

(Alger) ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in 1888 by Dr. Camille 
Viguier (March 16, 1890, to February 17, 1930.) 

Location: City of Algiers. 

Organization to which attached: Faculty of Sciences 
of the University of Algiers, to the laboratory of 
General Zoology. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Research in marine 
biology. Licenciate students (with certificates 
of higher studies in general zoology) come for 
practical work and to initiate themselves in the 
study of marine animals. 

Equipment: Working laboratory. 

Staff: Director, L. G. Seurat; Professor, M. Rose; 
Chief of Works, H. Gauthier; Preparator, Dr. R. 
Dieuzeide. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Foreign investi- 
gators after correspondence with the director may 
have the facilities of the laboratory extended to 
them. 

Provision for the publication of results: 

Station d'Aquiculture et de Peche de 
Castiglione ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1921 by Professor 
Bounhiol. The building was erected behind the 
boundary of the maritime public domain. 

Location: At Castiglione, 47 kilometers west of 
Algiers. Area, 1 hectare. 

Organization to which attached: The General Govern- 
ment of Algeria. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Laboratory of marine 
biology applied to fishes. Investigation of mi- 
gratory fishes, the exploration of the sea, plank- 
ton, and marine faunas; fishery investigations, 
fishing gear, the capture of fishes, tuna fishery, 
preservation, and the study of fishery products. 

Equipment: Laboratories, 2 aquaria, room for glass 
working, fishing gear, refrigeration installation to 



— 30° for the study of freezing fish. A water 
tower 19 meters high enables the delivery under 
pressure of both fresh and salt water. In addi- 
tion, in the park of the establishment there are 
several basins of fresh water for the cultivation of 
several species of fishes useful in the fight against 
mosquitoes. Library. 

Staff: Director, Professor L. G. Seurat; Head of the 
Station, Dr. R. Dieuzeide. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Foreign workers 
are admitted for researches in marine biology at 
the Station after agreement with the director. 
A special laboratory is at their disposal and there 
are guest rooms. 

Provisio7i for the publication of results: Since 1926 
two fascicles are published annually of "Bulletin 
des Travaux de la Station Experimentale d'Aqui- 
culture et de Peche de Castiglione." Fourteen 
fascicles have been issued. 

Belgium 

Royaume de Belgique, Service de 
I'Hydrographie ('37) 

Location: 90, rue de la Loi, Brussels. 

Staff: Head of Scheldt Hydrographic Office (Acting), 
Ingenieur Principal des Ponts et Chaussees J. J. 
Blockmans; Head of Coast Hydrographic OSice, 
Hydrographe-Acljoint Principal J. A. P. Lauwers. 

Equipment: 

BURVEYINa VESSEL DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

ViCTOiRE 242 2 6 

BODILLON 100 1 6 

Institut Maritime de Belgique at Ostend ('37) 

History or origin: Established about 1900 in quite a 
rudimentary condition. Reorganized in 1935. 
Buildings under construction. 

Location: Ostend, on the Belgian sea-front, at the 
entrance of Ostend Harbor. 



104 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— ALGERIA, BELGIUM, CZECHOSLOVAKIA 



105 



Organization to which attached: Autonomous institu- 
tion under supervision of the government. 
Subventions obtained from various ministries. 
Declared Institution of Public Utility. Con- 
nected with the Musee Royal d'HLstoire naturelle 
of Brussels. 

Purposes: To make an intensive biological survey 
of the waters adjacent to the Belgian coast and 
the Mer Flamande. Investigations on fisheries 
in the southern part of that sea. 

Scope of activities: Exploration of the sea bottom, 
observations on temperature, salinity, etc., in- 
vestigations on fishes, plankton, organisms of the 
coastal zone; trawling; dredging. 

Equipment: Small laboratory; study aquaria with 
sea-water circulation; biological library. The 
new building will be provided with general and 
private working rooms. A public aquarium is 
contemplated. Vessels provided by the Mini- 
stere des Transports, AdminLstration de la Marine. 

Staff: Director, Professor G. Gilson of the University 
of Louvain. (Internal organization not yet 
arranged.) 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Working places 
in the laboratory and materials provided as far as 
possible. No lodgings. 

Income: Not yet fixed. 

Provision for the publication of results: Annales de 
I'Institut Maritime de Bclgique. Three memoirs 
have been published. 

CzECHOSLOVAKL\ 

Geographical Institute of the Charles University in 
Prague (Geograficky ustav Karlovy university, 

Praha, Ceskoslovensko ; L'Institut de GcDgraphie 
de rUniversite Charles IV, Prague) ('36) 

History or origin: The Charles University is the 
oldest University of Central Europe, founded in 
1348. Oceanographic research has been carried 
on for five years, lectures on physical and an- 
thropological oceanography have always been 
included in the program. 

Location: Prague II, Albertov 6, Czechoslovakia 
(Praha II, Albertov 6, Ceskoslovensko; Prague 
II, Albertov 6, Tch^coslovaquie). 

Organization to which attached: Charles University, 
of which the Institute is a department. 

Purposes: In.struction in oceanography as part of the 
general instruction in geography. Research. 

Scope of activities: Researches in physical oceanog- 
raphy with lectures in physical and human 



oceanography. Biological oceanography is car- 
ried on separately in the departments of plant 
and aninial physiology. Marine bottom deposits 
are studied in the geological, mineralogical, 
petrographical, and paleontological departments. 
Equipment: The Institute occupies the second floor 
of the Science Building with a floor-space of 1750 
square meters, and has 750 and 114 square meters 
of laboratories under the roof, altogether the 
Institute occupies 2614 sq. meters. The Library 
of the Institute has more than 25,000 volumes, 
including a rich collection of oceanographic 
books. The collection for the Polar Seas is one 
of the richest in Europe. Well equipped is the 
collection of Admiralty Charts of various states. 
The Institute owns equipment for small oceano- 
graphic and limnological researches. 
Staff: Prof. V. Svambera, Director, lecturer on 
Polar Seas and physical oceanography. 
Prof. B. Salamon, lecturer on the geophysics of 

the ocean. 
Prof. V. Dedina, lecturer on the geomorphology 

of the recent and former ocean basins and their 

coasts. 
Prof. F. Stula, lecturer on oceanography in 

general with special regard to economic geog- 
raphy. 
Dr. V. J. Novlk, lecturer on the geophysics of the 

ocean. 
Dr. J. Kunsky, research and lecturer on the 

special geomorphology of the ocean basins and 

their coasts. 
Dr. J. Moschelesova (Miss), lecturer on human 

oceanography. 
Dr. K. Kuchaf, cartographer and lecturer on 

cartography. 
Dr. J. A. Zukriegel, research in physical 

oceanography and chemistry, sea-ice researches. 
5 clerical assistants. 
2 maintenance and operation workers. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: The Institute 
and Library are open to all students of geography 
of Charles University, at present about 200. 
Income: State In.stitute with paid staff and a regular 
annual income from the State of 40,000 Kc for 
books, charts, and instruments. 
Provision for publication of results: The Institute is 
publishing a series entitled "Travaux g^o- 
graphiques tcheques." The members of the staff 
also publish papers in various scientific periodicals 
at home and abroad. 



106 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Biological Station at Rab, Isle Rab, Dalmatia, 
Yugoslavia ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in 1930 by "Rab," 
Czechoslovak Society of Marine Biological Station. 

Location: Rab, Isle Rab, Dalmatie, Yugoslavie. 
Building "Komensky." 

Organization to which attached: The above-named 
Society, which is composed from the staff of 
several Czechoslovak universities and other high 
schools. 

Purposes: Czechoslovakia has no sea, it is thus 
necessary to profit from the hospitality of Yugo- 
slavia. General purpose: to enable Czechoslovak 
biologists to work in sea biology. 

Scope of activities: Description of local fauna and 
flora, cataloging its seasonal occurrence. His- 
tological, cytological, physico-chemical research. 
Installation of local biological museum. 

Equipment: Elementary equipment for microscopy, 
elementary general laboratory equipment, sensi- 
tive galvanometer. For the present no gas, 
no electric current. 2-3 working places, 1 room. 
Special apparatus and chemicals should be 
provided by the visitors. 

Staff: No permanent staff. Administration of the 
Station is in the hands of the Society: President, 
Prof. B. NSmec, Prague; Secretary, Prof. J. 
Belehrddek, Brno. 

Only advanced workers are admitted and only 
members of the Society, except introduced guests. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Gratuitous 
bedroom and food for 2 members of the Society. 
Otherwise 10% reduction in local hotels Praha 
and Bristol (proprietor A. MachS,r, member of the 
Society). 

Income: Source : From private sources, sale of speci- 
mens, annual memberships. Equipment main- 
tained and enlarged chiefly by donations from 
Czechoslovak university laboratories and labora- 
tory utensil houses. 

Amount: Small, irregular. 

Provision for publication of results: Workers are 
obliged to furnish to the Society reprints of 
papers published in various periodicals. First 
volume of "Travaux" for 1930-32 to be sent for 
exchange in the autumn 1933 from the secretary. 

Denmark 

Dansk Biologisk Station (The Danish Biological 

Station) ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1889. C. G. Joh. 

Petersen was the first Director, succeeded by 



A. C. Johansen 1926 and by H. Blegvad 1932. 
In 1936 the Laboratory was transferred to the 
old castle "Charlottenlund Slot," facing the 
Sound and about 8 kms. north of the center of 
Copenhagen. 

Location: Charlottenlund Slot, Copenhagen, and 
Nyborg (at the bottom of a small Danish Fjord). 

Organization to which attached: Ministeriet for Land- 
brug og Fiskeri (Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries). 

Purposes: Marine and fresh water investigations 
with special regard to fisheries. 

Scope of activities: Researches in biology of marine 
and fresh water organisms, especially fishes; 
chemical and physical investigations of sea and 
freshwater; valuation of sea bottom; transplanta- 
tion of fish; output of artificially reared fry; 
marking experiments. 

Equipment: A main Laboratory in Charlottenlund 
Slot. A floating laboratory at Nyborg with 
service buildings and accommodations for aquaria. 
A freshwater laboratory at Frederiksdal, Lyngby. 
A research steamer Biologen, 143 tons, for 
investigations in Danish home waters. 

Staff: Scientific: Director, Dr. Phil. H. Blegvad, 1 
permanent assistant, Dr. Phil. Erik M. Poulsen, 
2 research assistants, Mag. Sc. C. V. Otterstr0m, 
Cand. S. W. Fogh. Clerical and operation: 1 
clerk, 1 librarian, 8 research steamer crew. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 2 or 3 work 
places either at the laboratories or on board the 
research steamer. 

Income: Source: From the Danish Government. 
Amount: about 110,000 Kroner for 1936-37. 

ProvisioJi for publication of results: Report of the 
Danish Biological Station I-XXXVII, 1890-1931. 

Komissionen for Danmarks Fiskeri- og Havunders0- 
gelser (The Danish Committee for Fisheries 
Investigations and the Study of the Sea) ('37) 

History or origin: In Denmark the "Komi.ssionen for 
Havunders0gelser" (The Commission for Investi- 
gations of the Sea) was created in 1902; its 
purpose was to secure the execution of Denmark's 
part of the investigations planned by the Inter- 
national Council for the Exploration of the Sea. 
Chairman of the Commission was Dr. C. G. Jobs. 
Petersen, the Director of the Danish Biological 
Station; the other members were Capt. C. F. 
Drechsel, Doctor C. H. Ostenfeld, and Dr. 
Martin Knudsen. 

In the year 1909 Doctor Petersen withdrew 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— CZECHOSLOVAKIA, DENMARK, EGYPT 



107 



from the Commission and Dr. Johannes Schmidt, 
Dr. A. C. Johansen, and Inspector of Fisheries 
F. V. Mortensen, became members; Capt. C. F. 
Drechsel was chairman. In 1925 C. F. Drechsel 
withdrew and F. V. Mortensen, Director of Fish- 
eries, became chairman. The Commission was 
reestabUshed in 1926, and the name was altered to 
"Kommi.ssionen for Danmarks Fiskeri- og Havun- 
ders0gelser" ; two representatives elected by the 
Fishermen's organization entered the Commission : 
M. C. Jensen, M.P., and Axel Henriksen; Pro- 
fessor C. H. Ostenfeld was succeeded by Professor 
Ove Paulsen in 1931; Dr. A. C. Johansen in 1931 
by Dr. H. Blegvad; and Professor Jobs. Schmidt 
by Dr. A. Vedel Tuning in 1933. In 1935 
Director of Fisheries F. V. Mortensen resigned 
as chairman of the Committee and Director of 
Fisheries C. Trolle-Thomsen became chairman. 
Location: Charlottenlund Slot, an old castle facing 
the Sound and about 8 kms. north of the center of 
Copenhagen. 
Organization to which attached: Ministeriet for 
Landbrug og Fiskeri (Ministry of Agriculture 
and Fisheries). 
Purposes: Fisheries investigations and general marine 

biological and hydrographical investigations. 
Scope of activities: Researches on the biology of 
fishes, especially with reference to commercial 
fisheries; phyto- and zooplankton; marine benthos 
and bottom deposits ; physics and chemistry of sea 
water; general researches in oceanography. 
Equipment: Laboratory building, 4 floors; annexed 
buildings for collections, public exhibition, stock 
of publications, etc. Research vessel Dana III, 
launched January 9, 1937, for the North Sea and 
Atlantic in%-estigations; about 400 tons, diesel 
motor ship. 
Staff: Chairman of the Committee: Director of 

Fisheries C. Trolle-Thomsen. 
Hydrographical Laboratory: Prof. Dr. Martin 

Knudsen, Director; Dr. J. P. Jacobsen, Magister 

Helge Thomsen; 2 technical assistants. 
Plankton Laboratory: Prof. Dr. Ove Paulsen, 

Director; Dr. P. Jespersen, Dr. E. Steemann 

Nielsen. 
Fisheries Laboratory for the investigations in the 

Danish waters: Dr. H. Blegvad, Director; Dr. 

Age J. C. Jensen; 1 clerical and 2 technical 

assistants. 
Marine Biological Laboratory for the investigation 

in the North Sea, Faroese and Icelandic waters: 

Dr. A. Vedel T&ning, Director; 3 clerical and 



technical assistants. With the Laboratory for 
the investigations in the North Sea, Faroese 
and Icelandic waters is connected "Carlsberg- 
fondets Dana Ekspeditioner" consisting of the 
oceanic collections from the Dana Expeditions. 
The Carl.sberg Foundation defrays the expenses 
of this department and publishes a report on 
the results. Dr. A. Vedel Taning, Director; 
Dr. V. Ege, Dr. A. F. Bruun; 7 clerical and 
technical assistants. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Work places 
for foreign investigators can be provided in the 
laboratory and on the research vessel. 
Income: About 168,400 Danish Kroner from the 
Danish State for the financial year 1936-37; 
25,000 Danish Kroner from the Carlsberg Foun- 
dation for the oceanic collections "Carlsberg- 
fondets Dana Ekspeditioner." 
Provision for publication of results: "Meddelelser 
f ra Komissionen for Danmarks Fiskeri- og Havun- 
ders0gelser." "Skrifter fra Komissionen for Dan- 
marks Fiskeri- og Havunders0gelser." "Dana- 
Report" of the "Carlsberg Foundation's oceano- 
graphical Expedition round the world 1928-30 
and previous DANA-Expeditions." 

Kongelige Sokort-Arkiv (Royal Nautical 
Chart Archives) ('37) 
Location: Toldbodvej 19, Copenhagen. 
Staff: Hydrographer, Kommandor Kaptajn P. C. S. 
Jensen. 
Head of 1st Section (Surveys) Kaptajnlojtnant 

C. H. A. Madsen. 
Head of 2nd Section (Notices to Mariners and 
Sailing Directions), Kaptajn C. C. Zieler (ret'd). 
Head of 3rd Section (Instruments, calculations, 

etc.). Orlogskaptajn 0. Pade, R.N.R. 
Head of 4th Section (Surveys, Danish waters) 
Kaptajnlojtnant E. J. Saabye. 
Equipment: 

8DRVEVING VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

Mahstrand 172 3-4 24 

Heimdal 900 9 38 

Egypt 

Laboratoire des Recherches sur les Pecheries ('34) 

History or origin: Recent, building fanished in 1931. 

(See: Memoire sur I'Organization des Recherches 

des Pecheries, Ministere des Finances, Direction 

des Recherches des Pecheries, Notes et Memoires, 

no. 1, 1933.) 

Location: Kaj'cd Bay within the City of Alexandria 



108 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



upon the probable site of the ancient Ptolemaic 
Pharos. 
Organization to which attached: Under the adminis- 
tration of the Coast Guard and Fisheries, Minis- 
try of Finance. 
Purpose and scope of activities: All researches needed 
in the study of the marine and fresh water fishes 
of Egypt. Taxonomy, classification, life histories, 
physiology and ecology of fishes, plankton, 
benthos, and hydrography (the physical and 
chemical properties of the water) . Oceanographic 
cruises are contemplated. 
Equipment: 4 small workrooms, a large common 
room, all provided with fresh and salt water and 
gas. The laboratory possesses instruments and 
material for biological and chemical work. It is 
always advisable for a visitor to give advance 
information regarding the things that he will 
need for his work. 
A small library and a small museum are being 

formed. 
1 ketch for collecting along the shore. 
1 research boat 45 m long, the Mabahiss, was 
loaned by the Egyptian Government for the 
John Murray Expedition in the Indian 
Ocean, and for subsequent use in the Red Sea. 
Staff: Director, Dr. Hussein Faouzi; 2 assistants. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Visitors can be 
received: the region to be investigated is very 
large, 2 seas, 5 large lagoons, Suez Canal with its 
series of large lakes, and the Nile. 
Income: The laboratory budget is a part of the State 

budget. 
Provision for the publication of results: Annual Re- 
ports on Fisheries and a series. Notes and Memoirs, 
of which two have already appeared and five 
are in press. 

Note: Data on the Marine Biological Station at 
Ghardaqa are given under the Red Sea 
and in India. See page 219. 

Mawani Fanarat (Ports and Lighthouses 
Administration) ('37) 

Location: Alexandria. 

Staff: Director General, H. E. el Lewa, G. A. Wells; 

Deputy Director General, El Lewa M. Hamdy 

el Deeb Pacha. 

England 

Fisheries Experiment Station, Castle 

Bank, Conway ('37) 

History or origin: Started in 1915 to deal with 

problems connected with shellfish pollution. 



In 1931 was reorganized, with some augmentation 
of staff, under present title of "Shellfish Services." 

Location: Laboratory and offices: "Castle Bank," 
Conway, Caernarvonshire, North Wales 

Purification and experimental tanks, and branch 
laboratory: Benarth Road, Conway, Caernarvon- 
shire, North Wales. 

Organization to which attached: Ministry of Agricul- 
ture and Fisheries, London. 

Purposes: The study of shellfish in general, with 
special reference to public health and economic 
problems. 

Scope of activities: 1. In collaboration with the 
Ministry of Health, London, to combat the 
dangers arising from the pollution of shellfish. 

2. The establishment at the chief shellfish- 
producing centers of shellfish purification plants 
similar to that in operation, during the last 
eighteen years, at Conway. 

3. The carrying out of bacteriological surveys of 
polluted shellfish beds. 

4. Experimental work designed to facilitate the 
establishment of an international standard method 
of bacteriological examination of shellfish. 

5. Research into oyster breeding problems. 
Equipment: 1 building containing bacteriological, 

biological, and chemical laboratories, offices, 
etc., 3 floors and basement. 

The shellfish purification installations at Conway 
and Lympstone each consisting of storage and 
chlorinating tanks (capacity of each 90,000 
gallons), and two treatment tanks (capacity of 
each 40,000 gallons) . These tanks can be used 
in the summer season for shellfish research, 
notably large-scale oyster breeding experiments. 

2 oyster breeding tanks (capacity of each 19,000 
gallons). 

2 uncovered, and 2 covered and heated, tanks 
(capacity of each 2,600 gallons) for research 
into the conditions necessary to achieve 
purification in oysters. 
Staff: R. W. Dodgson, O.B.E., M.D. (London), 
M.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. Director of Shellfish 
Services. 

Mr. H. P. Sherwood, M.C., B.S., assistant to the 
director (Naturalist). 

Mr. H. A. Cole, M.Sc. (assistant naturalist). 

Mr. J. P. Harding, B.Sc, M.A., Ph.D. (assistant 
naturalist). 

Mr. E. M. Cartmel-Robinson, principal technical 
assistant. 

Miss D. H. Campbell, technical assistant. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— EGYPT, ENGLAND 



109 



Mr. F. G. Phipps, laboratory assistant. 

Mr. H. Lees, tank superintendent, Lympstone, 

Devon. 
Mr. H. Brown, tank superintendent, Conway, 

North Wales. 
1 shorthand-typist. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Provision is 
made, by arrangement, for visiting investigators. 

Income: From State. Maintenance expenses, ap- 
proximately £750; salaries £3,430. 

(N.B. There is a set-off against the expenses 
of the station of about £650 per annum in respect 
of fees paid for cleansing mussels for the market.) 

Provision for publication of results: Contributions 
are made to the Ministry's Fisheries Investiga- 
tions, Series II, Sea Fisheries, and pamphlets 
are issued from time to time dealing with shellfish 
matters. 

Dove Marine Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1897. The present 
building was constructed in 1908. 

Location: On the sea front at Cullercoats, Northum- 
berland, England. 

Organization to which attached: Armstrong College, 
University of Durham. The Laboratory is a 
department of the College and is under the 
direction of the Professor of Zoology. 

Purposes: Major purpose, research. Instruction in 
marine biology is also given to students of Arm- 
strong College and of other Universities. Special 
instruction in different fields of biology may also 
be given. 

(Scope of activities: Research is carried out on local 
fishery problems, with special reference to herring 
and salmon; faunistic work; general biology and 
comparative physiology of fi.sh and marine in- 
vertebrates; river pollution. The Laboratory is 
also visited by school children. Teachers are 
advised as to the conduct of clas.ses in marine 
biology, and Easter classes are held at the Labora- 
tory. The staff also gives lectures to various 
societies in the district. 

Equipment: One laboratory building, 64 x 29 feet. 
The ground floor is given up to the aquarium 
with eleven large and thirty-eight small tanks 
for the supply of which fresh sea-water is pumped 
into storage tanks daily. On the first floor Ls a 
general laboratory divided into cubicles suitable 
for work which does not require much apparatus, 
a large room which has been recently fitted up 
specially for experimental work and is also 



suitable for teaching and other purposes, a small 

chemical laboratory, and the library (two rooms). 
One small, sound-proof hut for the study of 

problems of animals' behavior. 

The Laboratory is equipped with apparatus 

for the conduct of research in most forms of 

research in general zoology, and comparative 

physiology. 

The most important publications in marine 

biology are available either in the library of the 

.station or in that of Armstrong College. 
Staff: Director, A. D. Hobson, M.A. (Cantab.), 

F.R.S.E.; Naturalist, B. Storrow, M.Sc, A.L.S.; 

Biologist, H. 0. Bull, B.Sc, Ph.D.; Librarian, 

Mrs. Cowan. 
Provision for visiting investigators: About ten in 

addition to the staff of the .station could be 

accommodated. 
Income: Source: Grants from H. M. Development 

Commissioners, Armstrong College and various 

local sources, admission of public to aquarium and 

sale of specimens. 

Amount for year ending March 31st, 1937, 

about £2,250. 
Provision for publication of results: Dove Marine 

Laboratory Reports and scientific periodicals. 

Department of Zoology and Oceanography, 
University College, Hull ('37) 

History or origin: The Department of Zoology came 
into existence at the opening of the College in 
October, 1928, and in 1931 it was enlarged to a 
Department of Zoology and Oceanography. The 
new oceanographical laboratories were opened in 
December, 1931. 

Location: At the University College of Hull, on the 
northern outskirts of the city. 

Organization to which attached: University College of 
Hull. 

Purposes: (Of oceanographic section of the Depart- 
ment.) Research, particularly in biological 
oceanography in relation to fisheries. A year's 
post-graduate course is offered in biological 
oceanography, intended particularly for students 
taking up work in relation to fisheries. 

Scope of activities: At present (1936) the activities 
of the Department are being concentrated upon a 
survey of the changing plankton of the North 
Sea from month to month in relation to the 
fisheries by means of continuous plankton re- 
corders worked on four diiTerent steamship lines 
across the North Sea and also by means of 



no 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



smaller instruments — plankton indicators — used 
on commercial fishing craft. In addition re- 
searches into the biology of fishes and marine 
organisms in general are undertaken by post- 
graduate research workers. 

Equipment: 6 research laboratories, preparation 
room, and office. 
Small museum. 

Library forming section of general College library. 
Photographic dark room. 

At present no research ship is employed, all the 
work at sea being carried out with special equip- 
ment on steamship lines and fishing craft. 

Staff: Director, Professor A. C. Hardy, M.A. Re- 
search Biologists, G. T. D. Henderson, B.Sc, 
Ph.D. ; C. E. Lucas, B.Sc. ; K. M. Rae, B.Sc. Two 
maintenance workers. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Hull, while a 
great center of the fishing industry, is situated 
on the Humber and not on the sea coast proper, 
so that the department which is twelve miles 
from the sea does not offer facilities for the study 
of the coastal fauna and flora, which in the 
immediate vicinity are poor. The Department 
is concerned with the wider oceanographic prob- 
lems of the North Sea and the Arctic Seas in 
relation to the fishing industry. Post-graduate 
research workers wishing to take part in such 
investigations are welcomed, and in addition the 
zoological laboratories, which are provided with 
marine aquaria, are equipped for all ordinary 
zoological research. 

Income: In 1936-37 approximately £2,000. 

Provisions for publication of results: For the present 
the Department issues no journal of its own. 
The results of researches are published in different 
journals already existing. 

Department of Oceanography of the University 
of Liverpool ('37) 

History: The Department was established by the 
University in 1919, when the late Sir W. A. 
Herdman endowed a professorship of Oceanog- 
raphy. The Liverpool Marine Biological Com- 
mittee was then dissolved and its property 
transferred to the new Department. This prop- 
erty included the Port Erin Marine Biological 
Station. The Professors of Oceanography have 
been as follows: W. A. Herdman, 1919-1920; 
J. Johnstone, 1920-1932; J. Proudman, 1933 to 
present. 



Location: The headquarters, laboratories, and mu- 
seum are situated in Liverpool, 3. 

Organization to which attached: The University of 
Liverpool. 

Purposes: (i) To prosecute research, (ii) To train 
graduate-students in the methods of research, 
(iii) To serve as a bureau of information, (iv) 
To teach the elements of oceanography to under- 
graduate students. 

Scope of activities: All branches of oceanography, 
physical and biological, including fisheries. 

Equipment: Chemical and fisheries laboratories; 
museum of fisheries, relating principally to the 
Irish Sea; motor drifter with auxiliary sail. 

Staif: Scientific, Prof. J. Proudman; Lecturer, R. J. 
Daniel; Technical and clerical. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Visiting investi- 
gators are subject to the general regulations of 
the University. 

Income: General funds of the University. Amount: 
about £3,200 per annum, apart from the sum 
spent on the maintenance of the buildings. 

Provision for publication of results: The Department 
administers a publications fund, which is expended 
in subsidizing the "Proceedings and Transactions 
of the Liverpool Biological Society." 

The Liverpool Observatory and Tidal Institute ('37) 

Histonj or origin: The Institution was formed in 
1929 by the union of the Liverpool Observatory 
and the Tidal Institute of the University of 
Liverpool. The Observatory was founded in 
1845 and since 1858 has been maintained by the 
Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. The Tidal 
Institute was founded in 1919 with funds provided 
by Sir Alfred A. Booth, Bart., and Mr. Charles 
Booth. 

Location: The Observatory is situated at Bidston 
on the Birkenhead side of the Mersey, but the 
Director and one assistant are normally stationed 
at the University in Liverpool. 

Organization to which attached: The Institution is 
governed by a Committee appointed partly by 
the University of Liverpool and partly by the 
Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. 

Purposes and scope of activities: The continuous 
prosecution of scientific research into all aspects 
of knowledge of the tides and of kindred geophysi- 
cal subjects. The analysis of tidal observations 
and the preparation of tide-tables. The taking 
of meteorological and seismological observations, 
together with the supplying of information on 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— ENGLAND 



111 



these subjects. The maintenance and firing of 
the Time-gun. The testing of chronometers and 
navigational instruments. 

Equipment: Two tide predicting machines, one built 
for the Tidal Institute by Kelvin, Bottomley, 
and Baird; and one by Leg^, built for the late 
Mr. Edward Roberts. A number of instruments 
for meteorological observation. Two Milne- 
Shaw seismographs, one sometimes used as an 
earth-tilt meter. A number of standard clocks, 
calculating machines, and wireless installations. 
Arrangements for testing sextants and chrono- 
meters. 

Staff: Scientific: Director, J. Proudman; Associate 
Director, A. T. Doodson; Chief Assistant, H. J. 
Bigelstone; Assistant, R. H. Corkan. Technical 
and clerical: 6. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Special arrange- 
ments are made to suit each individual case. 

Income: Source : Large grant from the Mersey Docks 
and Harbour Board. 

Small grant from the University of Liverpool. 
Interest on investments. 
Earnings, amounting to about one-half of the 

total. 

Amount: About £3,300 per annum, beyond the 
sum spent on the maintenance of buildings, rates, 
and taxes. 

Provision for 'publication of 7'esults: The results of 
research are published in journals and .societies' 
proceedings, references being given in the small 
Annual Report issued by the institution. 

The Hydrographic Department, Admiralty ('37) 

History or origin: The Hydrographic Office of the 
Admiralty was established in 1795 in order to 
overcome the great inconvenience, especially 
when ordered abroad, felt by officers commanding 
His Majesty's Ships respecting the navigation, 
and to prevent the difficulty and danger to which 
His Majesty's Fleet must be exposed from defects 
on this head. 

The first Hydrographer to be appointed was 
Mr. Alexander Dalrymple, F.R.S., who for many 
years was in the service of the East India Com- 
pany; he was succeeded in 1808 by Captain 
Thomas Hurd, R.N., since which time the office 
of Hydrographer has been held by Naval Officers 
of captain's rank and above. 

At its inception the cost of the Hydrographic 
Department was £470 per annum and the staff 
consisted of about four persons. At the present 



day the estimates run into some £136,200 and the 
total number of persons employed by the De- 
partment is 330. 

Location: Admiralty, Whitehall, London, with 
branches at Cornwall House, Waterloo Road, 
London, and at Cricklewood, London. 

Organization to which attached: Admiralty. 

Purposes: Hydrographic surveys, oceanography, 
compUation, engraving and printing of admiralty 
charts, sailing directions, light lists, tide tables, 
wireless time signals, notices to mariners, etc. 

Scope of activities: British Empire, at home and 
abroad, and other work in the open seas which is 
of a world-wide nature. 

Equipment: Eight surveying ships are employed — 
four abroad and four in home waters. The 
Department is fully equipped for all kinds of 
hydrographic and cartographic work. W'ith the 
exception of two of the larger vessels, the whole 
of the surveying ships are being replaced by new 
construction and it is anticipated that an addi- 
tional vessel will be available for service abroad 
making nine in all. 

SURVEYING VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

Beaufort 800 8 79 

Challenger 1,140 11 90 

Endeavor 1,280 11 129 

FiTZROY 800 8 79 

Flinders 800 8 79 

Herald 1,650 11 121 

Iroquois 1,760 10 121 

Kellett 800 8 79 

Ormonde 1,180 11 128 

The names of the surveying vessels in the 
above list have been taken from the year book 
of the International Hydrographic Bureau for 
1937. 

The Royal Research ship Research is under 
construction at Dartmouth and when completed 
will undertake magnetic work at sea and the 
study of atmospheric electricity, oceanographj', 
etc. 
Staff: Hydrographer, Rcar-Admiral J. A. Edgell, 

C.B., O.B.E. 
Assistant Hydrographer, Captain E. F. B. Law, 

R.N. 
Director of Navigation, Captain W. G. Bcnn, 

R.N. 
Chief Civil Assistant, Mr. W. Ewart Llewellyn, 

O.B.E. 
Superintendent of Charts, Commander A. Day, 

R.N. 



112 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Assistant Superintendent of Charts, Mr. G. B. 

Stigant. 
Superintendent of Sailing Directions, Captain 

F. A. Reyne, R.N. (retired). 
Superintendent of Tidal Work, Commander 

Harold D. Warburg, R.N. (retired). 
Superintendent of Light Lists, Captain S. A. G. 

Hill, D.S.O., R.N. (retired). 
Superintendent, Chart Production and Supplies 
Branch, Cricklewood, Mr. C. Jowsey. 
Provision for visiting investigators: Naval officers, 
scientists, engineers, surveyors, and others, are, 
as a rule, shown over the Department provided 
arrangements are made beforehand. 
Income: Derived from the sale of charts, etc., but is 
returned to the Treasury in accordance with the 
usual custom for Government offices. 
Provision for publication of results: Charts are pub- 
lished by the Department and books by H. M. 
Stationery Office, as and when required. 

Meteorological Office (Marine Division) Air 
Ministry, London ('37) 

History or origin: The Meteorological Department 
of the Board of Trade was established in 1855 
for marine meteorological work. 

In 1865 the Meteorological Office was estab- 
lished as a separate department and the Meteoro- 
logical Department of the Board of Trade became 
the Marine Division of the Meteorological Office. 
In 1919 the Meteorological Office, with all its 
Divisions, was made a Department of the Air 
Ministry. 
Location: Kingsway, London. 
Organization to which attached: See above. 
Purposes: To collect from British ships information 
on winds, weather, currents, and ice of the 
oceans with the object of improving ocean naviga- 
tion and making it safer. 
(Scope of activities: The Marine Division arranges 
for and supervises the voluntary observations 
made by the officers of 350 British ships which 
make regular observations and of a number of 
ships which make occasional ob.servations. 

Of the 350 ships which make regular obser- 
vations : 

(a) Thirty ships take observations at the end 
of each watch and record them in the 
Meteorological Log; these ships are engaged 
mainly in the North Sea, the north and 
south Pacific Ocean, and the Arctic and 
Antarctic. 



(b) The remaining 320 ships take observations 
at one or more of the international hours 
for synoptic observations at sea, namely 
0000 hr., 0600 hr., 1200 hr., and 1800 hr. 
G.M.T. and record them on Form 911 
which is called the Meteorological Record 
to distinguish it from the Meteorological 
Log referred to in (a) above. 

(c) Of the 350 ships referred to in (a) and (b) 
281 are "Selected Ships" and transmit 
their observations at scheduled times by 
W/T for the information of other ships 
and of national meteorological services. 

The meteorological logs and records from the.se 
ships are examined in the Marine Division and the 
necessary data extracted for discussion and 
publication. Special attention is being given at 
present to the data of ocean currents and a series 
of current charts of the oceans is being prepared 
and published. 

In addition to the 350 regular observing ships 
arrangements are made with a number of British 
ships to make observations and to report them 
by W/T when they are in regions where there 
are no selected ships. The list of these ships is 
at present small but it is being added to as oppor- 
tunity offers. 
Equipment: All British Observing ships, whose 
names appear in the fleet list in the "Marine 
Observer," carry a reliable mercurial barometer. 

The Meteorological Office lends to meteorologi- 
cal log-keeping ships a complete set of meteoro- 
logical instruments, consisting of a Kew Pattern 
Marine Mercurial Barometer, Thermometers with 
screen, and Hydrometers. 

"A" Selected Ships, that is Selected Ships 
which have long range wireless telegraphy, are 
also equipped with thermometers with screen and 
a barograph. Some "B" Selected Ships which 
have not satisfactory instruments of their own 
are also provided with thermometers and screens 
by the Office. 

The Marine Division itself has the usual office 
equipment; has access to the technical and 
scientific library of the Meteorological Office, 
and has the advantage of the use of the Air 
Ministry Hollerith Electrical Sorting lithographic 
and printing pres.ses. 
Staff: Headquarters: Marine Superintendent, 1 
nautical a.ssLstant, 1 meteorological assistant, 
9 technical a.ssistants, 13 clerical assistants. 
London Docks: 1 nautical assistant, 1 clerk. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— ENGLAND 



113 



Liverpool Docks: 1 nautical assistant, 1 clerk. 
Eight agents (master mariners resident at the 
ports). 

Provision for visiting investigators: As occasion arises. 

Income: Source: By Parliamentary vote. 

Provision for publication of results: His ]Majesty's 
Stationery Office publish books, charts, and at- 
lases, compiled in the Marine Division, as neces- 
sary. 

Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft ('37) 

History or origin: Staff of Marine Biological As.so- 
ciation of the United Kingdom previously sta- 
tioned at Lowestoft and engaged in International 
Investigations taken over by Ministry of Agri- 
culture and Fisheries and transferred to London 
in 1910. 

Present organization and location date from 
1920, when the staff was greatly augmented. 

Location: Lowestoft, Suffolk, England. On sea 
front between harbour and Claremont Pier. 

Organization to which attached: Ministry of Agricul- 
ture and Fisheries, London. 

Purposes: Study of fishery problems, both national 
and international, the latter in cooperation with 
the Conseil International pour I'Exploration de 
la Mer, Copenhagen. 

Scope of activities: Problems connected with the 
life history of fishes and other forms of marine 
life, special attention being paid to those problems 
connected with over-fishing and the prediction of 
yield. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory building, containing rooms 
for staff, library (about 5,000 volumes), lecture 
room and the usual equipment for research, 4 
floors and basement, about 70 by 50 feet. 

1 fisheries .store — 1 building three floors, 60 by 
20 feet and 1 building 2 floors, 25 by 20 feet. 

2 research vessels as follows: 

George Bligh, steam trawler of "Lord Mersey" 
type. Length 138^ feet; breadth 231 feet; depth 
12| feet (in hold). Average draft aft 15 feet. 
Gross tonnage 324.27; register tonnage 13L.53; 
H.P. Nominal 68.9; H. P. indicated 600.0. Cruising 
radius of about 5,000 miles. 

Onaway, motor drifter, Scottish type. Length 
53.2 feet; breadth 16.3 feet; depth 6.85 feet. Ton- 
nage 26.73; engine: Norris, Henty, and Gardner, 
serai-diesel, B.H.P. 48, R.P.M. 4.50. 

Staff: The Director of Fishery Investigations, Dr. 
E. S. Russell, is stationed in London. 
Resident staff: 



Mr. F. M. Davis (in charge), principal naturalist 
(biologist) . 

Mr. H. J. Buchanan-Wollaston, principal 
naturalist (biologist). 

Mr. R. E. Savage, naturalist (biologist). 

Dr. J. N. Carruthers, naturalist (hydrographer). 

Mr. G. M. Graham, naturalist (biologist). 

Dr. W. C. Hodg.son, naturalist (biologist). 

Mr. J. R. Lumby, assistant naturalist (hy- 
drographer). 

Miss D. E. Thursby-Pelham, assistant natu- 
ralist (biologist). 

Commander W. H. Stewart, assistant naturalist 
(Master of the George Bligh). 

Mr. F. S. Wright, a.ssistant naturalist (biolo- 
gist). 

Mr. H. H. Goodchild, a.s.sistant naturalist 
(biologist). 

Mr. C. F. Hickling, a.ssistant naturalist (biolo- 
gist). 

Mr. R. S. Wimpenny, assistant naturalist 
(biologist). 

Mr. B. G. Clarke, chief laboratory assistant. 

Mr. H. Stokes, 1st class laboratory assistant. 

4 laboratory assistants. 

Mr. E. A. Bennett, higher grade clerk (officer in 
charge). 

Mr. W. H. New.some, higher grade clerk (in 
charge of statistical and clerical staff). 

11 clerical officers (Statistical Branch). 

2 .shorthand-typist. 

3 fish-measurers. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Provision is 
made for visiting inveistigators by special arrange- 
ment. 

Income: From State, for maintenance of station 
and ships approximately £9,000, for staff .£15,480. 

Provision for publication of results: The Ministry 
publishes the following series: "Fishery Investiga- 
tions, Series II, Sea Fisheries." Provision is also 
made for occasional publication of Fishery No- 
tices, which usually consist of pamphlets on 
special subjects for general public consumption. 

Plymouth Marine Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: Established by the Marine Bio- 
logical Association of the United Kingdom of 
which Professor Huxley was the first president 
and Sir Ray Lankester was the originator and 
first secretary. It was opened on June 30, 1888. 
The buildings and fittings had at that time 
co.st £12,000. Between that time and 1933 a 



114 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



sum exceeding £16,000 was spent on additional 
buildings. A general description of the buildings 
was published by Doctor E. J. Allen in Marine 
Biological Association Journal, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 
735-828, November, 1928. Subsequent to 1928 
the buildings were enlarged by the addition of 
several rooms. On the ground floor, a library 
room, two work rooms, photographic room, and a 
physiological laboratory were added. On the 
first floor a balance room, two small laboratories, 
and a large chemical laboratory were added. 
The description published by Dr. Allen needs to 
be supplemented by the additional buildings 
mentioned in the foregoing sentences. 

Location: Plymouth on the sea front of Citadel Hill. 

Organization to which attached: The Marine Biological 
Association of the United Kingdom. 

Purposes: All kinds of biological research, with 
special attention to several fisheries problems, 
the study of hydrographic conditions in the 
adjacent waters of the English Channel, the 
provision of facilities for visiting investigators, 
and the conduct of Easter and Autumn classes 
for students. 

Scope of activities: Since the Marine Biological 
Laboratory in Plymouth has been in continuous 
operation since 1888, it would reasonably be 
expected that there might be some change in the 
program and the emphasis which has been placed 
on difTerent kinds of problems during the forty- 
five years of the existence of the Laboratory. 
The scope of the investigations at the Institution 
is indicated by the designations after the names 
of the members of the staff as given below. A 
wide variety of the problems of the physiology 
of marine organisms and the interrelation between 
the organisms and the marine environment are 
being investigated. Several of the investigators 
are concerned with the life histories of marine 
organisms, others are studying special fisheries 
problems. The Laboratory also pays particular 
attention to hydrography and to the chemistry 
of sea-water as related to marine organisms and 
other phenomena. It supplies specimens of 
marine animals and plants for biological research 
and teaching purposes. 

Equipment: The original building contained a gen- 
eral laboratory with cubicles and a series of small 
aquaria for the use of the staff or visiting investi- 
gators; and the aquarium on the ground floor 
which is opened to the public; an extensive 
library of biological publications which includes 



the leading biological and biochemical journals; 
a residence for the director; four or five small 
laboratories; and an office and living quarters for 
the engineer-caretaker. Subsequently an addi- 
tional building known as the Allen building, 24 
feet by 24 feet in dimension, divided into two 
laboratories by a temporary partition was added. 
Later a second story was added to this building 
and the whole was converted into a library. At a 
still later date there was added a new wing in 
which there is a well-equipped chemical laboratory 
and a large and varied stock of chemicals, and 
well-equipped physiological and fisheries labora- 
tories. On the ground floor there is an aquarium 
or tank room which measures 70 feet by 24^ feet. 
There is a detached building for the vacation 
courses with accommodation for twenty students. 
The Laboratory owns a wooden steam drifter, 
the Salpa, which is 88 feet long, 19.9 foot beam 
and draws 10.5 feet aft and 5 feet forward, and is 
capable of a speed of QJ knots. She is equipped 
with a winch for trawling and a small deck-house 
laboratory. The Laboratory also owns the 
motor boat Gammarus which is 25 feet long, 
eight-foot beam, a draught of 2 feet 9 inches. 

The library contains a valuable collection of 
scientific books, periodicals, and reports of all 
countries relating to fish and fisheries, the collec- 
tion in this respect being one of the most complete 
in the country. The more important zoological 
journals are well represented, as well as the 
reports of the various oceanographical expeditions, 
and there are a large number of separate papers on 
general marine biology. A collection of modern 
books and journals dealing with general physiology 
has also been added. Members of the Association 
have access to the library. 
Staff: Director, Stanley Kemp, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Assistant Director and Fishery Naturalist, E. 

Ford, A.R.C.Sc. 
Head of Department, General Physiology, W. R. 

G. Atkins, O.B.E., Sc.D., F.I.C., F.Inst.P., 

F.R.S. 
Naturalist, Miss M. V. Lebour, D.Sc, Plankton 

and larval stages of bottom fauna. 
Hydrographer, H. W. Harvey, M.A. 
Naturalist, F. S. Russell, D.S.C., D.F.C., B.A., 

Plankton and young fishes. 
Physiologist, A. Sand, Ph.D. 
Naturalist, D. P. Wilson, M.Sc, Polychaete larvae 

and shore fauna. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS-ENGLAND 



115 



Director's research assistant. Mrs. E. W. Sexton, 

F.L.S., Mendelian heredity. 
As-sistant Naturalists: G. A. Steven, B.Sc, 
F.R.S.E., fishes and the commercial fisheries. 
G. M. Spooner, M.A., Behavior of fishes. 
Assistant Chemist, L. H. N. Cooper, Ph.D., F.I.C. 
Research Assistants: W. J. Rees, M.Sc, Hydroids 
and medusae; P. G. Corbin, Mackerel. 
Provision for investigators: The accommodation 
provided for visitors includes cubicles, separate 
rooms, or bench space with adequate fittings for 
biochemical and physiological work, the use of all 
ordinary glassware, chemicals, and apparatus of a 
general nature. The Association undertake.s, as 
far as possible, to supply the animals or plants or 
water samples required for any investigator, or 
such facilities for obtaining them as may be at the 
command of the Laboratory. 

Microscopes are not usually provided. Intend- 
ing visitors are advised to write to the Director, 
stating the nature of the investigation which they 
propose to carry out and the apparatus which 
they will require. Every effort is made to provide 
any special apparatus which is needed, and to 
collect the animals wanted for research. 

The Laboratory is open for research durmg the 
entire year, including holidays, and workers are 
provided with a key so that they may work at 
night when they desire to do so. 

The facilities are primarily mtended for visitors 
who are engaged in their own research or wish to 
collaborate with members of the staff who are 
investigating some particular problem of bio- 
logical science. 

About thirty investigators can be accommo- 
dated in addition to the regular staff of the 
Laboratory. 
Income: Source. A grant from the Government, 
private donations, the dues of the members of the 
Marine Biological Association, entrance fees to 
the aquarium, and sales of specimens. 
Amount. About £16,000 aniuially. 
Provision for publication of results: The Journal of 
the Marine Biological Association of the United 
Kingdom and various scientific periodicals. "The 
Plymouth Marine Fauna", published by the 
Association in 1931 contains a list of the local 
species and notes on their distribution. 

Port Erin Marine Biological Station ('37) 

History or origin: The Liverpool Biological Com- 
mittee was founded at a Public Meeting in 1885 



which was called by Sir William Herdman and 
held in the Zoological Laboratory at University 
College, Liverpool. It was resolved to investigate 
the Marine Biology of Liverpool Bay. 

1892 Original Station at Port Erin erected. 
1902 Present Station at Port Erin erected with 
cooperation of Isle of Man Government. 
1910 A new wing added to main building. 
1932 New laboratory added to main building. 
Location: On the south side of Port Erin Bay, 
southwest coast of Isle of Man, situated in Irish 
Sea. 
Organization to which attached: The Liverpool Marine 
Biological Committee in December, 1919, trans- 
ferred the Station to the University of Liverpool 
(Department of Oceanography). 
Purposes: Main building in three parts. An aquar- 
ium for the public, a .sea fish hatchery, and a 
biological station proper. The latter provides 
laboratories and working accommodation for 
students. These classes attend with members 
of the staff of their own particular university. 
No instruction at present carried on by resident 
.staff which is engaged in research. 
Scope of activities: Fishery research in connection 
with the Manx Herring Fisheries. Investigations 
upon the rearing of oyster larvae (Ostrea edulis). 
Equipment: Main building, 90 feet by 40 feet, 2 
stories. DetaUs as follows: 

Center block, aquarium 30 feet by 30 feet, 

with gallery. 9 main tanks and subsidiary ones. 

Wing, fish hatchery, 30 feet by 26 feet. Ground 

floor: Nine fleets of hatching boxes. First floor: 

Biochemical laboratory. 

Wing, biological, 30 feet by 26 feet. Ground 
floor: Six separate research rooms and library. 
First floor: Combined laboratory and lecture 
room. 

To the foregoing there have been added, as 
follows : 

New wing 1910: 44 feet by 18 feet, 2 stories. 
Ground floor: Store room, dark room, 2 class 
rooms for 8-10 students, and room containing 
sorting tables (for sorting collected material). 
First floor: 8 separate research rooms. 

New laboratory 1932, single story and built to 
take a second story if necessary. Accommoda- 
tion for 25 students. 

Tanks, two outside tanks for storing sea water 
and used as spawning ponds in connection with 
hatchery. Capacity of each about 16.000 gallons. 



116 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



An upper tank built into the cliff face. Capacity 
11,000 gallons. 
Staff: Honorary Director, R. J. Daniel, D.Sc, 
Lecturer in Oceanography, University of Liv- 
erpool. 
Naturalist and Biochemist, J. R. Bruce, M.Sc. 
Algologist, M. W. Parke, Ph.D. 
Curator, Mr. W. C. Smith. 
Assistant Curator, Mr. T. N. Cregeen. 
Fisherman Naturalist, Mr. W. Christian. 
Assistant, Mr. K. Woodworth. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: During Easter 
vacation because so many students use the 
station, no visitors can be accommodated, but 
for the rest of the year it can house nine investiga- 
tors with a cubicle each. If more than nine are 
accommodated, cubicles have to be shared or work 
done in the big laboratories. 
Income: Sources: University of Liverpool; Isle of 
Man Government ; British Government (Develop- 
ment Commission) ; Aquarium receipts. 
Amount: About £2,450 per annum. 
Provision for publication of results: The Annual 
Report of station includes Faunistic and Algal 
Notes. The staff publish in recognized British 
Journals. Fishery work is publi.shed in Proceed- 
ing and Transactions of Liverpool Biological 
Society. 

Estonia 

Kaitsevagede Staabi Topo-Hiidrograafia Osakond 

(Topographical and Hydrographic Section of the 

General Staff of the Army) ('37) 

Location: Toomkooli, 9, Tallinn. 

Staff: Head of the Section, Kolonel-Leitnant 
Eduard Ahman; Head of the Hydrographic Sub- 
Section, Vanemleitnant J. Weizenberg. 

Finland 
The Bureau for Fishery Investigations ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1924. 

Location: Helsinki. 

Organization to which attached: Board of Agriculture. 

Purposes and scope of activities: To carry out in- 
vestigations relating to economics of fisheries, 
both in the sea and in lakes. Until now prin- 
cipally salmon and coregonid fishing has been 
studied. 

Staff: Two scientific workers: Chief: Prof. T. H. 
Jarvi. Biologist, Vidjo Jaaskelainen. 



Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 
Incoyne: In the budget of the Government. 
Provision for publication of results: Suomen Kalata- 

lous, Finlands fisherier. Acta Zoologica fennica, 

and Annales Acad. sc. fennicae. 

Laboratory for Hydro-biological Investigations ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1919. (Earlier 

organization from 1899.) 
Location: Helsinki (Helsingfors). 
Organization to which attached: Finnish Society of 

Sciences. 
Purposes and scope of activities: The study of the 

lower plant and animal life of the sea and inland 

waters of Finland. 
Equipment: Laboratory for microscopical works. 
Staff: 1 permanent worker, two others who take 

part in the work. Director: Prof. K. M. Levan- 

der. Assistant Zoologist : Mag. phil. Sven Seger- 

strale. Assistant Botanist: Dr. Ernst Hayren. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: No regular. 
Item in the budget of the Finnish Society of Sciences. 
Provision for publication of results: In the series 

Commentationcs biologicae Societatis Scientiarum 

Fennicae. 

Merenkulkuhallitus Merikarttalaitos (Board of 
Navigation, Hydrographic Office) ('37) 

Location: Helzinki. 

Staff: Director General of Board of Navigation, 
Captain I. A. Jokinen. 
Head of Hydrographic Office, Kapteeniluutnantti 

U. Suomela. 
Assistants, Captains L. Parrio and G. Kolckmann. 
Head of Chart Section, Kapteeni L. Parrio. 
Head of Section for Notices to Mariners, Kapteeni 

G. Kolckmann. 
Heads of Sur\'eying and Sweeping Expeditions, 
Captains J. Hyrsky, E. Elo, and A. Hakri, 
Kapteeniiluutnantti T. Fabritius, Merivaen- 
luutnantti E. Kerttula. 
Equipment: 









DISPLACE- 






SUnVEY 


INQ VESSELS 


MENT 


OFFICERS 


CREU 


Sextant, . . 






.. 195 


9 


31 


YSTAVA. . . . 








3 


17 


Aland 






65 


1 




Klas Horn 






.. 420 


10 
9 


31 


Nautilus. . 






.. 140 


15 


Kaiku 1 












" 2 


Ech 

■> . 
ing 


sound- 








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launches 








" 4 













CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— ENGLAND, ESTONIA, FINLAND, FRANCE 



117 



Thalassological Institute, Finland' ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1918. (Earlier 
organization from 1899.) 

Location: Helsinki (Helsingfors). 

Organization to ivhich attached: Governmental Scien- 
tific Institution and the Ministry of Commerce. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Scientific studies 
around Finland: general conditions, the physical 
and chemical properties of the sea water, the 
variations of the water level, the currents and the 
ice, as well as other related questions. Regular 
ice reports for navigational purposes issued during 
winter. The Institute represents Finland in 
international oceanographic work. 

Equipment: Laboratory for work on the physical 
and chemical aspects of oceanography; wireless 
station; 17 water-stage registering stations, 21 
tide-pole stations; more than 100 stations for 
ice-ob.servation; routine oceanographic observa- 
tions made at 26 coastal stations and 8 light 
vessels; s.s. Natulius placed at the disposal of 
the institution for the work in summer. 

Staff: Scientific: 

Director: vacant. Acting Director: Mag. G. 

Granqvist. 
Consulting members: Prof. Hj. Tallqvist; Prof. 

K. M. Levander. 
Thala!3sologists: Dr. S. E. Stenij, Chief of Section 
for the study of Water-Level; Dr. E. Palm^n, 
Chief of Thalassological Section; Mag. G. 
Granqvist, Chief of Section for Ice. 
Scientific assistants: Mag. Risto Jurva; Dr. 

Stina Gripenberg; Two vacant. 
Technical and clerical: 5; 1 wireless operator. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: No regular. 

Income: Item in the budget of the Government. 

Provision for the publication of results: Finliindische 
Hydrographisch - Biologische Untersuchungen, 
quarto, nos. 1-10, and 12 and 13 published 
between 1907 and 1914. No. 11 has not been 
published (not continued). 

Present series of publications: Merentutkimus- 
laitoksen Julkaisu (Finnish), Havsforskningsin- 
.stitutets Skrift (Swedish), octavo, nos. 1-108 

' Witting, Rolf, Orgartization des Instituts fiir Meeres- 
forschung in Finnland, III Hydrologische Konferenz der 
Baltischen Staaten, Warezawa, Mai 1930. 

Witting, Rolf, and Granqvist, Gunnar, Thalassological 
work in Finland. Appendix 9, pp. 52-58: Association 
d'Ocfeanographie Physique, Veme, Assemblee Generals 
r6unie k Lisbonne 1933, Proces-Verbaux No. 1, Appendix 9, 
pp. 52-58, Helsingfors 1934. 

Annual Reports for the years 1919-1935, published in the 
series mentioned below. 



published between 1920 and 1936. The publica- 
tions are i-ssued either in Finnish and Swedish 
(separately or bilingual) or in English, German, or 
French. 

France 
Le Laboratoire Arago de Banyuls sur Mer ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1881 by Henri de 
Lacaze-Duthiers. 

Location: Banyuls sur Mer. 

Organization to which attached: Part of the Faculty 
des Sciences dc Paris. (As also Lab. de Roscoff.) 

Purposes: Zoology and botany. 

(Scope of activities: Marine biological and oceano- 
graphic conferences and practical work for the 
students of the University. 

Equipment: 22 individual work-rooms, more than 40 
work places in common rooms ; 28 sleeping rooms, 
5 of them double. Public aquarium, besides an 
aquarium set aside with work benches. 1 
gasoline boat St. Vincent; 3 .small boats (canot); 
Important library. 

Staff: Director, Professor O. Duboscq; Chef de 
travaux. Mile. 0. Tuset; Assistant, M. LeCalves; 
1 chief mechanician, M. Becque; 1 assistant; 
1 chauffeur; 4 sailors; 1 laboratory assistant. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The prices of the 
work places is fixed at 200 francs per month. 
There is no charge to investigators from those 
countries who have rented a table by the year 
(4,000 francs). 

Income: Source: Work tables and the sale of ani- 
mals, 10,000 francs; budget from the University, 
150,000 francs; Amount, 160,000 francs. 

Provisions for publication of results: Generally in the 
Archives de Zoologie Experimentale. 

Station Biologique d'Arcachon ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1863. 

Location: Arcachon (Girondc). 

Organization to which attached: Private, belonging 
to La Soci6t6 scicntifique d'Arcachon. 

Purposes: Marine biology. 

Equipment: 10 laboratories, 1 for physiological stud- 
ies, all possessing fresh and sea water, gas and 
electricity. Motor boat ; important library; rooms 
for workers. 

Staff: Scientific : 

Director, Dr. R. Sigalas, Professor of Faculty 
of Medicine, Bordeaux. 
Librarian-keeper of collections, Com. Metzger. 



118 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Maintenance and operation: 

2 sailors, in charge of fisheries and laboratories. 
1 porter. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: On request to 
the director, he puts at the disposal of workers 
its laboratories, material, and library. Furnishes 
animals and plants at cost to French and foreign 
laboratories. Boat at disposal. Finds accommo- 
dations for workers on larger fisheries boats. 
Rooms at disposal of visitors for a small sum for 
.service. 

Income: From La Socidte scientifique d'Arcachon. 

Provision for -publication of results: Bulletin of Station 
Biologique d'Arcachon. 

Laboratoire de Luc-sur-Mer de la Faculte des 
Sciences de Caen ('37) 

History or origin: Established 1880. 

Location: Luc-sur-Mer (Calvados). 

Organization to which attached: Small university of 

Caen. State Institution. 
Equipment: Working library, fishing boat, aquaria 

for marine animals. 
Staff: Director, M. Mercier, Professor, faculty; 

Sub-Director, M. Audige, Professor, faculty; 

Chief of Laboratory, Me. Le Roux; Assistant, 

M. Guibe. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Rooms at the 

disposition of workers. 

Laboratoire de Zoologie et de Physiologie Maritimes 
du College de France ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1859 by Coste. 

Location: Concarneau (Finistere). On the sea- 
front, between the pier and the fish market. 
Annex on the Cigogne (archipel des Glenans). 

Orga7iization to which attached: College de France. 
State institution. 

Purposes: Orientation: questions of pure and applied 
marine biology. 

(Scope of activities: Marine zoology and physiology, 
chemistry. 

Equipment: Laboratory building, 3 floors, 33 x 9 
meters. Rooms and apparatus for chemistry, 
physiology, histology, fishing. Aquarium of sea 
water and sea-tanks. Collecting apparatus (ap- 
pareils d'elevage). Motor-, sail-, row-boats. Li- 
brary and collections. 

Staff: M. Faral, administrator of the College de 
France. MM. Duclaux, Faur^-Fremiet, Jolly, 
Mayer, Nageotte, Nattan-Larrier, Pi6ron (Pro- 
fessors at College de France). Sub-Director, R. 



Legendre. Preparator, H. Bouxin. 2 operation 

workers. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Between 20 

and 25. 
Income: Source: State. 

Amount : About 80,000 francs. 
Provision for publication of results: Travaux du 

Laboratoire (suspended since the war). 

Laboratoire Maritime (Aquarium et Musee de la 

Mer) du Museum national d'Histoire 

naturelle ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1924 at Saint 
Servan, transferred in 1935 to a new locality at 
Dinard opposite the preceding on the left bank 
of the Rancc. 

Location: Situated at Dinard (Ille et Vilaine), 17 
Grande Rue, at the mouth of the Ranee. 

Organization to which attached: The Museum of 
Natural History, Paris. 

Purposes: Researches in oceanography and marine 
zoology; zoology, botany (algae), geology, physi- 
ology, etc. 

Scope of activities: All marine biological sciences 
and fresh water in general. 

Equipment: Four rooms for one or two workers; 
one room for five workers; one laboratory for 
physiological chemistry for three workers; one 
large room for four workers: In all seven rooms 
with a library of current literature. One large 
library containmg periodicals and various treatises, 
about 3,000 volumes. One sail boat with a 
motor twenty-six tons, 24 hp. motor; one "scout" 
and one "you-you," each with a 10 hp. motor, 
and small boats. 

Staff: Director, M. A. Gruvel, Professor at the 
Museum; Sub-Director, M. H. Bertrand, D.Sc; 
Four employees and boatmen. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The workers are 
lodged in a beautiful villa adjacent to the labora- 
tory and situated in a large garden. The villa 
contains 15 rooms, each for one or two persons. 

Income: Derived from the entrance fees to the 
aquarium and a subvention from the government. 

Provision for the publication of results: Bulletin du 
Laboratoire maritime de Dinard which appears 
irregularly in fascicules contains resumes of the 
results of persons who work at the laboratory. 

Laboratoire de Guethary ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1893. 
Location: Guethary (Basses-Pyr^n^es). 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— FRANCE 



119 



Organisation to which attached: Annexed to the 
Station Biologique d'Arcachon. Private insti- 
tute. Personal laboratory of M. C. Sauvageau, 
Professor on the Faculty of Sciences at Bordeaux. 

Purposes: Marine biology. 

Scope of activities: Fauna and flora, algology. 

Staff: Director, M. C. Sauvageau, Honorary pro- 
fessor of the Faculty of Sciences at Bordeaux. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: At the disposition 
of workers who apply to the Director of the 
Station Biologique d'Arcachon. 

Income: From the Society scientifique d'Arcachon. 

Provision for publication of results: Bulletin de la 
Station Biologique d'Arcachon. 

Institut Oceanographique du Havre ('27, Magrini) 

History or origin: Established 1918 and endowed by 
a budget from the Municipality of Havre; is 
aided morally and financially by the Society 
des Amis de I'lnstitut Oceanographique du Havre. 

Location: Havre. 

Organization to which attached: 

Scope of activities: Laboratory of marine biology, 
aquarium of fresh water (Museum du Havre); 
observations on board the steamers of Ponts et 
Chauss^es (towing, fueling) and fishing barks. 

Equipment: Laboratory, work-shop. 

Staff: Director, Dr. Adrien Loir; Laboratory chief: 
M. Henri Legangneux, pharmacist; Chief, bio- 
logical works: M. fitienne Peau. 

Provision for publication of results: In Bulletin de la 
Soci^te des Amis de I'lnstitut Oceanographique 
du Havre. 

Laboratoire de Biologie Marine de "Le Croisic" ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1920, reattached 
in 1922 to the School of the Practice of Medicine 
and Pharmacy at Nantes (ficole de plein Exercice 
de M^decine et de Pharmacie de Nantes). 

Location: Le Croisic on the Loire Inferieure, France. 

Organization to which attached: ficole de plein Exercice 
de M^decine et de Pharmacie de Nantes. 

Purposes: Marine biology, oceanography, oyster- 
culture, fauna and flora of salt marshes. Open 
in July, August, September. 

Equipment: Working library; 1 laboratory building, 
1 floor; 1 research boat Cytos; .several service 
buUdings. 

Staff: Director, Prof. Alphon.se Labbe, ficole de 
m^decine de Nantes. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Seven or eight 
can be accommodated. 



Income: Source: Municipalite de Nantes. 
Amount: 500 francs annually. 

Laboratoire Marion de Marseille (Endoume) ('37) 

History or origin: Created by F. Marion in 1834. 
Location: On the sea shore at Marseille (Endoume), 

France. 
Organization to which attached: Faculty of Sciences 

of Marseille. 
Purposes and scope of activities: Instruction and 

research in marine zoology. 
Equipment: Aquarium; 4 research laboratories; 

laboratory of physiological zoology; the library 

is that of the Faculty of Sciences at Marseille. 
Staff: Director, M. Kollmann, professor in the 

Faculty of Sciences; chief in charge, M. M. 

Van Gaver; in charge of work, Timon David. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Nine or ten 

workers can be accommodated. 
Income: Source: Budget of the Faculty of Sciences 
and the Chair of Zoology. 

Amount: About 20,000 francs. 
Provision for the publication of residts: In Travaux 

du Laboratoire de Zoologie et du Laboratoire 

Marion (Extraits des Annales de la Faculte des 

Sciences de Marseille); et Annales du Muse6 

de Marseille. 

Institut Oceanographique ('37) 

History or origin: Created and endowed in 1906 by 
S. A. S. Albert the First, Prince of Monaco, and 
recognized by the French Government as a public 
utility on May 16, 1906. 

Location: 195 Rue St. Jacques, Paris. 

Organization to which attached: Independent institu- 
tion. 

Purposes: The institution is for research and ad- 
vanced and popular instruction in oceanography. 

(Scope of activities: All kinds of oceanographic 
researches and the physiology of marine animals. 
The work at sea is conducted in the coastal labora- 
tories (laboratories of the Oceanographic Mu.seum 
of Monaco and laboratories of National Educa- 
tion). 

Equipment: Laboratories of three services especially 
equipped for researches in oceanography and 
phy.siology. Special library of oceanography to 
which is attached the library of the Zoological 
Society of France. 

Staff: Assistant Secretary, M. Richet. 

Professors: L. Fage, biological oceanography, 
Francis Bernard, assistant. Physical oceanog- 
raphy, this year replaced by conferences 



120 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



conducted by various scientists. Paul Portier, 
physiology of marine organisms, M. Fontaine, 
assistant. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: The laboratories 
are open to French and foreign investigators 
accepted by the professors. 
Income: Endowment made in 1922 by S. A. S. Albert 
ler. Prince de Monaco, and the receipts from the 
Musee Oceanographique de Monaco. 
Provision for publication of results: Annales de I'lnsti- 
tut Oceanographique which con.stitute annually a 
volume of about 400 quarto pages. 

Office Scientifique et Technique des Peches 
Maritimes ('37) 

History or origin: By law of December 31, 1918. 
Location: 3, Avenue Octave Gr^ard, Paris. 
Organization to which attached: Ministfere de la Marine 

Marchande. 
Purposes: Scientific and technical researches con- 
cerning marine fisheries. 
/Scope of activities: Chemical and biological researches 
concerning fish. Technical research concerning 
fishing gear, nets, oils, preservation, sanitary 
control of oyster culture, and studies on the 
wholesomeness of shell-fish. 
Equipment: Laboratories (See attached note) and 
research vessel. Scientific laboratory at the office 
in Paris. Chemical laboratory at the office in 
Paris. Technological and Low Temperature Lab- 
oratory in Paris. Laboratory of Ostrea culture 
in Paris. Biological laboratory at Boulogne-sur- 
Mer. Biological Laboratory at Lorient. Bio- 
logical Laboratory at La Rochelle. Biological 
Laboratory at Biarritz. Laboratory of Sanitary 
Control at Auray. Laboratory of Sanitary Con- 
trol at St. Servan. Laboratory of Sanitary 
Control at La Rochelle. Laboratory of Sanitary 
Control at La Tremblade. Laboratory of Sani- 
tary Control at Arcachon. 
Staff: Director, M. Edouard le Danois, Dr. Sc. 
Administrative Personnel: Administrative Secre- 
tary, M. D. Remy, Lie. es. 1, 8 collaborators. 
Scientific Personnel: 5 chiefs of laboratories; 6 

preparators. 
Personnel of Sanitary Control: Inspector general, 
M. L. Lambert, Dr. Pha. ; 7 regional inspectors; 
4 laboratory assistants; 10 attendants; 1 
employee. 
In command of the research vessel: M. L. Beaug^, 
Capitaine de Frigate de R&erve, Commandant, 
le navire dont le port d'attache est h, Lorient. 



Provisions for visiting investigators: Foreign scientists 
can be received in the different laboratories after 
an understanding with the director of each 
establishment. 

Income: Amount: The total annual budget of the 
office is about 3,000,000 Frs. 
Source: Derived from taxes levied on the fishing 
vessels, owners of fishing establishments, fish 
packers. To these are added the products of 
sales of the publications of Sanitary Control. 

Provision for the publication of results: Notes and 
M6moires and Revue des Travaux. The Memoirs 
of which a list is on the backs of the new volumes 
published since 1928 from la Revue des Travaux 
de rOSice des Peches Maritimes. 

The personnel of the different laboratories is 
as follows: 

Laboratoire de Boulogne-sur-Mer — 17, Boulevard de 
Chatillon: M. Le Gall, Agr6g6 d'Universit6, Chief 
of the Laboratory ; M. Furnestin, Preparator; 1 labora- 
tory boy; 1 laboratory aide. 

Laboratoire de Lorient — Port de Peche de Lorient 
K^roman; M. Desbrosses, Lie. es sc, Chief of the 
Laboratory; M. Priol, Preparator; 1 laboratory boy; 
1 woman servant. 

Laboratoire de La Rochelle — 74, AUees du Mail: M. 
Belloc, Lie. es so., Chief of the Laboratory; M. 
Cadenat. Lee. es. se., Preparator; 1 laboratory boy; 
1 housekeeper. 

Laboratoire de Biarritz — Palais de la Mer k Biarritz: 
M. Arne, Lie. es. sc.;M. X. . . . Preparator. 

Laboratoires de Chimie — d'essais technique et frigori- 
fiques — et de biologie ostreicole, 3, Avenue Octave 
Gr^ard a Paris: M. Boury, Agricultural Engineer, 
Chief of the Chemistry Laboratory; M. Bonfils, 
Preparator, in charge of low temperature studies; 
M. L. Borde, Preparator, in charge of oyster culture. 

Sanitary Control: Inspector General, M. Lambert, Dr. 
Pha., 1 employee. Regional Inspector of Le Havre: 
M. Chevallier. Regional Inspector of St. Servan: 
M. Jardin, M. , Laboratory Assistant. Re- 
gional Inspector of Brest: M. Lesquin. Regional 
Inspectorof d'Auray:M. Herman ;M. Mercier, Labora- 
tory Assistant; M. le Goff, Assistant; M. Ligeour, 
Assistant; M. Vaugrenard, Assistant. Regional In- 
spector of LaRochelle: M. Dupain; M. Chemin, 
Laboratory Assistant; M. Adrien, Assistant. Re- 
gional Inspector of La Tremblade-Marennes: M. 
Chaux-Thevenin, Lie. es sc; M. Baron, Preparator 
Aide; Mme. Baron, Laboratory Assistant; Mm. 
Bordin, Charles, fiveque, Fayard, Le Baron, Assist- 
ants. Regional Inspector of d'Arcachon: M. Ladouce, 
Dr. Pha.; Mme. Lanau, Laboratory aide; M. Raby, 
Assistant; M. Deyzi, Assistant; M. Clemenceau, 
Assistant. 

The boat Pourquoi-Pas (Laboratory of marine re- 
search of I'Ecole Pratiques des Hautes fitudes 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— FRANCE 



121 



attached to the Museum national d'Histoire 
naturelle) 

This vessel and M. Charcot were lost on the 

west coast of Iceland on September 16, 1936, but 

subsequent publications may contain accounts of 

scientific results. 

History or origin: Established in 1911. 

Location: Usually at St. Servan (Ille-et Villaine), 
but may change ports. 

Organization to which attached: State. 

Purposes: Any scientific investigations in connection 
with the sea. 

Scope of activities: All regions including polar. 

Equipment: The Pourquoi-Pas was a 3-mast boat, 
500 tons, steam engine of 500 hp. Sounding, 
dredging apparatus, etc. Laboratories, and could 
accommodate a major scientific establishment of 
4 to 7 persons. Cruises were available from the 
military Marine for tliree months of the year. 

Library: 1,000 volumes, physical, biological 
oceanography; general science; literature. 

Staff: Director, Dr. J. B. Charcot; Technical and 
clerical (variable) : Generally 4 to 7. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 

Income: Source: State, Military Marine and In- 
struction Department combined. 
Amount: About 100,000 francs a year. Depended 
on cruises and necessary repairs. 

Provision for publication of results: Rapport annuel 
dans le Bulletin du Service hydrographique. 

Service Central Hydrographique (de la Marine) ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1817. 

Location: 13 Rue de I'Universite, Paris. 

Organization to which attached: Ministry of the 
Military Marine. 

Purposes: Setting up and publication of marine 
charts, nautical works, tide tables for navigators; 
instruction for (a) young hydrographic engineers 
and foreign officers, (b) for marine officers candi- 
dates for deputy hydrographers. 

(Scope of activities: Improvement of marine charts 
and nautical works; study of coastal processes in 
collaboration with the Department of Public 
Works; improvement of chronometers, sextants, 
sounding instruments, etc.; perfection of me- 
teorological observations on board ships. Inci- 
dentally, support of oceanographic studies. 

Equipment: 1 building. Service Hydrographique a 
Paris, 85 m X 25 m, offices, studios for design, 
engraving, photography printing. 



Library, 60,000 volumes, store-room. 

DISPLACE- 
SURVETING VESSELS MENT OFFICERS CREW 

Ypres 654 7 104 

La Perouse 793 10 105 

Utile 323 4 67 

G.vsTON RiviER 320 2 55 

ESTAFETTE 320 3 31 

Sentinelle 320 3 31 

Octant 320 3 31 

Astrolabe 320 3 31 

DuBOURDiEu 460 2 64 

Crabe 370 17 

tourteau 360 17 

Seminole 800 2 51 

Cap-Verd 333 30 

Staff: Hydrographer, Ing6nieur Hydrographe G6- 

n^ral Cot. 
Assistant Hydrographer, Ing^nieur Hydrographe 

en Chef de l'^ Classe Courtier. 
Head of 1st Section (General Hydrography), 

Ing^nieur Hydrographe en Chef de 2"°' Class 

P61issier. 
Head of 2nd Section (Coasts of France), Ing6nieur 

Hydrographe en Chef de 1" Classe Volmat. 
Head of 3rd Section (Charts and Archives), 

Ing^nieur Hydrographe en Chef de V Classe 

Ricard. 
Head of 4th Section (Sailing Directions), Capi- 

taine de Frigate Saillant. 
Head of 5th Section (Scientific Instruments), 

Ing^nieur Hydrographe en Chef de 2^ Classe 

Villain. 
Head of 6th Section (Tides), Ingenieur Hy- 
drographe en Chef de 2" Classe Villain. 
Head of 7th Section (Maritime Meteorology), 

Capitaine de Vaisseau Ladonne. 
1 technical counsellor for oceanography. 
20 engineers, officers in Paris. 
20 officers on board ship. 
20 deputy hydrographers. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Up to the 
present the Service has entertained only 3 engi- 
neers or foreign officers per year. 
Income: Budget for 1932, 7,000,000 francs; 1933, 

5,600,000 francs. 
Provision for publication of results: Annales hy- 
drographiques; Recherches hydrographiques sur 
le Regime des Cotes; Annuaire des Maries des 
Cotes de France; Tables des Maries des Colonies 
frangaises de I'Atlantique, de I'Ocean Indien, 
des mers de Chine. 



122 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Station Biologique de Roscoff (Laboratoire Lacaze 

Duthiers) ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1871 by H. Lacaze- 
Dutliiers and enlarged by his successor Yves 
Delage in 1909. More recently, in 1930, new 
additions to grounds and real estate have doubled 
the area of the station which is now about 60 ares. 

Location: Roscoff (Finistere). 

Organization to which attached: Attached adminis- 
tratively to the Faculty of Sciences of the Uni- 
versity of Paris. With the Laboratoire Arago 
de Banyuls sur Mer it constitutes the National 
Institute of Marine Biology of the University of 
Paris. Each of these laboratories is autonomous 
and has its own director and its own budget. 

Purposes: All researches relative to marine biology 
in the most general sense; also instruction of 
students. 

Scope of activities: Laboratories fitted for researches 
in zoology, parasitology, botany, algology, his- 
tology, embryology, physiology, bacteriology, 
physics, and biological chemistry; also laboratories 
for instruction. 

Equipment: 25 large stalls for investigators; 10 
small stalls for beginners in research; laboratory 
of physiology; stalls for physics and chemistry; 
dark-rooms for photography; sea water, fresh 
water, gas, and electric current everywhere; 
vacuum in the rooms for physiology, physics, 
and chemistry; aquarium room with 2 large basins 
and 47 stalls assigned to investigators; library, 
2,000 volumes, 5,000 brochures and reprints, 70 
periodicals, altogether about 10,000 volumes; 
lodging, 40 rooms in which 50 people can be 
accommodated. Boats: Dxjndee with a motor, 
18 tons, 10.5 m long, power 30 c.v.; gasoline boat, 
4 m; small boats. Automobile, 1 omnibus, 14 
c.v., 17 seats and 1 conveyance, 16 c.v., 7 seats, 
with an effective range of 100 kil. around Roscoff; 
blacksmith shop, mechanical shop, locksmith 
shop, carpenter shop. 

Staff: Director, Charles Perez, Professor of Zoology 
at the Faculty of Sciences of Paris, Member of the 
Academy of Sciences. Sub-director, Georges 
Teissier, Chief of Investigations at the Faculty of 
Sciences of Paris. Assistant, Marcel H^rubel. 
Assistant prcparator, Pierre Manigault. Sub- 
ordinate personnel : 5 marines (seamen, fishermen) ; 
1 porter. 

Provisiofis for visiting investigators: Tables may be 
rented by governments, academies, universities, 
or other oSicial foreign organizations or institu- 



tions. Requests should be addressed to the 
Director, M. Charles Perez, 1, Rue Victor Cousin, 
Paris 5. 
Income: Sources: Budget from the Faculty of 

Sciences of the University of Paris, rent for 

tables, special donations. 
Amount: About 250,000 francs per annum. 
Provision for publication of results: Travaux de la 
Station Biologique de RoscoiT; Memoirs or mono- 
graphs published singly, since 1923. "Les Presses 
Universitaires de France," Paris. The investiga- 
tors are free to publish their results in periodicals 
of their own choosing. 

Station Biologique de Sete ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1896. Founded 
by the University of Montpellier by means of 
state and regional contributions. 

Location: Sete, Herault (the spelling "Sete" is the 
new official spelling for Cette). 

Organization to which attached: The Institute of 
Zoology and of General Biology of the University 
of Montpellier and Ecole pratique des Hautes 
Etudes, Paris. 

Purposes: Biological investigations, as stated below. 

Scope of activities: The biological study of the fauna 
and flora of the shore, the sea, the salt lakes, the 
salt marshes, and the fresh waters of Bas-Langue- 
doc; experimental researches; the site of the 
Laboratory of the Biology of the Protista of the 
Ecole des Hautes Etudes, Paris. 

Equipment: 2 buildings. Of these the principal one 
contains research laboratories, 10 rooms, of which 
8 are individual and 2 for groups; 1 room for 
practical instruction; 1 room for collections; a 
library; 2 rooms for a public aquarium; local 
quarters for investigators. 

The second building is an annex in which there 
are a workshop, experimental aquaria, machines, 
hangar, garage, special experimental equipment 
for the culture of microorganisms and small 
metazoa. 

A landing for a power boat 8 meters long 
Fishing gear. 

Marine material is supplied by the important 
fishing fleet of Sete. 

Staff: Director, Professor E. Chatton of the Univer- 
sity of Montpellier. Assistants: M"" B. Biecheler, 
Dr. Meyrueis, M"" Brachon. Technical and 
clerical: 1. Maintenance and operation: 2. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Workers are 
lodged at the station, fed at their own expense by 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— FRANCE 



123 



the "concierge," if desired. All the resources of 
the station, boat and fishermen, are at the dis- 
posal of workers. 

Income: Sources: University of Montpellier, the 
State, City of Sete, etc. 

Amount: About 35,000 francs annually. The 
personnel is paid separately. 

Provision for the publication of results: Travaux de 
la Station de Sete, of which 19 volumes have 
appeared since 1896; they are being continued. 

Station Biologique de Tamaris sur Mer ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1901. 

Location: Tamaris sur Mer (Var.) near Toulon. 

Organization to which attached: University of Lyon 
at Ecole des Hautes Etudes. 

Purposes: Experimental researches on marine or- 
ganisms; studies of the Toulonnais littoral fauna 
and flora. 

Scope of activities: Special researches in biochemistry 
and the electro-physiology of invertebrates. 

Equipment: Laboratory of biochemistry, 1 room 
6 m. X 6 m., 2 rooms 3 m. by 3 m. ; electro-physiol- 
ogy, 1 room 6 m. X 6 m., 1 room 3 m. by 3 m.; 
museum, the collections are devoted to the 
fauna and flora of the road-stead of Toulon. 
Gasoline boat, 6 m. long, for fishing and dredging 
on the bottom from 2 to 25 meters in depth 
and for collecting plankton; one boat 6 m. long, 
with a glass bottom for making biological observa- 
tions; and one canoe. 6 bed-chambers for 
workers. 

Staf: Director, Doctor H. Cardot, Professor of 
Physiology of the Faculty of Sciences of Lyon. 
Sub-director, Doctor A. Bonnet, in charge of the 
courses in zoology, of the Faculty of Sciences 
at Lyon. Assistant, Doctor A. Jullien. 1 fi.sher- 
man-caretaker. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The station can 
admit about 10 investigators, nothing is demanded 
of them except reimbursement for room service 
and from those who take lodgings. 

Income: Sources: Regular grant from the Ministry 
of Public Instruction, 25,000 fr. Regular grant 
from I'Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes, 5,000 
fr. Various subventions from scientific funds. 
Ministry of Marine, Director of Hygiene, etc. 

Provisions for publication of results: None. The 
station sends each year a series of separates of the 
work published during the course of the year for 
purposes of exchange. 160 notes were published 
from 1927 to 1936 



Station Zoologique de I'Universite de Paris a 
Villefranche sur Mer ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1886 by Professor 
A. Korstneff; functioned until 1914 as a private 
laboratory. In 1914 it was transferred to the 
Russian Government and was attached to the 
Russian Ministry of Public Instruction. Since 
1931 the station has been attached to the Univer- 
sity of Paris. 

Location: Villefranche sur Mer, Alpes MaritLmes, 
France. 

Organization to which attached: The University of 
Paris and functions as regards administration 
as an annex of the Laboratoire Arago a Banyuls 
sur Mer but with an autonomous budget. 

Pxirposes: Study of pelagic fauna, macro- and micro- 
plankton, which is particularly rich in the Bay of 
Villefranche sur Mer and its immediate vicinity. 
Researches by specialists on different problems 
of marine biology, zoology, botany, bacteriology. 
Practical and theoretical instruction in zoology 
Is given for students of the universities and the 
upper schools. 

Scope of activities: Investigations on the plankton 
and its distribution (foraminifera, radiolaria); 
studies of vertical and horizontal submarine 
currents. 

Equipment: Room for practical work for 30 students; 
laboratories for 10 separate workers; 10 large 
aquaria, installations for 24 research aquaria; 
museum of local fauna; library of 12,000 volumes; 
motor boat of 4 tons for collecting pelagic or- 
ganisms and handling small dredges, boat with 
oars and sail; 8 bedrooms for 16 workers. 

Staff: Director in common with the station and 
laboratory at Arago a Banyuls sur Mer, 0. 
Duboscq, Professor at the Sorbonne. Sub- 
director, G. Tregouboff, radiolaria and parasitic 
protista. Assistant, Mr. le Docteur Roger, 
Etude des MoUusques. 1 mechanic, 1 fisherman, 
1 woman housekeeper, 1 concierge. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The station can 
receive at one time, 30 workers of which 16 can 
be given lodgings. The workers of all countries 
are admitted on the payment of the subscription 
of 200 fr. per month. Workers registered in the 
French universities and the subjects of countries 
that rent work tables in the station (4000 fr. 
per year) are exempt from the payment of fees. 

Income: Annual grant from the Ministry of Public 
Instructions, 120,000 fr. ; in addition to which 



124 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



is the amount derived from the hire of work 
tables by visiting foreigners. 
Provision for publication of results: Travaux de la 
Station Zoologique de Villefranche sur Mer, in 
which are assembled the memoirs and the notes 
published in the different scientific publications 
based upon researches conducted by scientific 
investigators at the station. 

Station Zoologique de Wimereux 
(Pas de Calais) ('37) 
History or origin: Founded in 1874 by Alfred Giard. 
Location: On the sea-shore, 2 km. north of the village 

of Wimereux (station Bains de Mer), 7 km. north 

of Boulogne-sur Mer, 260 km. from Paris. 
Organization to which attached: Faculty of Science, 

University of Paris. 
Purposes: Research and instruction in zoology and 

botany. 



(Scope of activities: Study of marine and littoral flora 
and fauna; all questions of biological and related 
subjects. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory (12 places), annex for 
physiology; aquarium (sea water circulation); 
museum; library; 1 gasoline boat; 1 row boat; 11 
sleeping rooms for workers. 

Staff: Director, Prof. M. Caullery; Assistant, L. 
Callien; 1 keeper; 1 mariner during the season. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Lodging and 
table for workers. About 15 can be accommo- 
dated. 

Income: Regular resources, about 40,000 francs. 

Provision for publication of results: Travaux de la 
Station Zoologique de Wimereux, quarto, 11 
volumes published, (the twelfth in course of 
publication). 



GERMANY TO MONACO, INCLUSIVE 



Germany 

Deutsche wissenschaftliche Komissioii fiir 
Meeresforschung ('37) 

History or origin: The Commission was established 
in 1901 under the name the Deutsche Komission 
fiir die Internationale Komission fiir Erforschung 
der Nordeuropiiischen Meere. 

Location: Office of administrative head, Berlin W. 9, 
Pot.sdamerstrasse 10-11. 

Organization to which attached: Reichs-und Preus- 
sisches Ministerium fiir Ernahrung und Land- 
wirtschaft, (at Berlin W. 8, Wilhelmstr. 72). 

Purposes: The principal purpose is the scientific 
investigation of fisheries problems and those 
physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the 
sea which influence fisheries. 

Scope of activities: 1. To understand so fully the 
interrelations of life processes in the sea that 
important questions of sea fisheries can be com- 
pletely answered at any time. The work of the 
D. W. K. deals with (a) concrete specific problems 
and (b) the fundamental biological problems of 
fishes. 

2. To obtain knowledge of the general relations 
of the sea, its physical conditions, its chemical 
compo.sition, and its currents, especially those 
which may transport fish eggs and larvae, the 
exchange of water between the different seas and 
between the different parts of the same sea. The 
work of the Komission therefore is based on 



results obtained through hydrographic and 
oceanographic investigations. 

3. The more restricted investigations of fisher- 
ies-biology include (a) specific parts of the sea or 
specific fishes, (b) special important fundamental 
problems. To the latter class belong the in- 
vestigations of Brandt on the nitrogen relations 
in the sea and of von Buddenbrock on the action 
of different .salt concentrations on life in the sea. 
In its international cooperative work two prob- 
lems, the investigation of the races of fishes and 
the fluctuations in abundance, stand foremost. 
The work in fisheries-biology in its narrower sense 
is divided into that for the North Sea and that 
for the Baltic. 

4. Another .section of the work deals with 
fisheries statistics. 

5. The D. W. K., from the beginning of the 
International Council for the Exploration of the 
Sea, till 1915, and then again since 1926, has been 
a member of this Council, its representatives on 
it being: Staatssekretiir i. R. Dr. Heinrici and 
Professor Dr. Hagmeier. 

Equipment: The Deutsche wissenschaftliche Komis- 
sion utilizes in its researches other institutions 
which have extensive equipment. They are the 
Biological Station on Helgoland, the Zoological 
Institute at Hamburg, the Deutscher Seefischerei- 
Verein at Berlin, and the Deutsche Seewarte at 
Hamburg, and has relations with the Institut fiir 
Meereskunde in Berlin. The Deutsche wissen- 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— FRANCE, GERMANY 



125 



schaftliche Komission has at its disposal the 
research vessel Poseidon. 
Staff: Members of the Commission: 
Vorsitzender: Dr. jur. C. Heinrici, Staatssekretar 

i. R. 
Stellvertretender Vorsitzender: Profe.ssor Dr. 

Hagmeier, Helgoland. 
Ehrenmitglieder: Geheimrat Professor Dr. Hen- 
king, Berlin, Professor Schott, Hamburg. 
Ordentliche Mitglieder : Professor v. Buddenbrock, 
Halle a/S; Doctor Erich Fischer, Berlin; 
Profe.ssor Hentschel, Hamburg; Professor Dr. B. 
Schulz, Hamburg; Studiendirektor Dr. Strodt- 
mann, Hamburg; Professor Dr. Schnakenbeck, 
Hamburg; Director R. Ahlf, We.sermiinde. 
Ausserordentliche Mitglieder: Doctor Hertling, 
Helgoland; Professor Dr. Witter, Berlin; Pro- 
fessor Dr. Wulff, Helgoland; Dr. Biickmann, 
Helgoland, also Secretary of the Commission. 
Promsiojis for visiting investigators: 
Income: For 1926, 100 000 RM; for 1927-1930, 
each year 500 000 RM; for 1931-1932 about 
100 000 RM each year. These amounts do not 
include the expense of the operation of the 
vessel Poseidon. 
Provision for publication of results: Berichte der 
Deutschen wLs,senschaftlichen Komission fiir 
Meeresforschung, Neue Folge. (Im Verlage der 
E. Schweizerbart'schen Verlagsbuchhandlung 
(Erwin Nagele) G.m.b.H., Stuttgart-W., Jo- 
hannes.str. 3 a). In addition to the series men- 
tioned, the Reich.sministerium fiir Ernahrung und 
Landwirtischaft publishes yearly a report entitled 
"Jahresbericht iiber die Deutsche Fischerei." 

Fischerei-biologische Abtheilung im Deutschen 
Seefischerei-Verein ('37) 

History or origin: Established in the year 1885. 

Location: Berlin S.W. 11, Hedemannstras.se. 33. 

Organization to which attached: Deutscher See- 
fischerei-Verein. 

Purposes: 1. Investigations in fishery biology as 
part of the work of the International Council 
for the Exploration of the Sea. 

2. Special investigations for particular fisheries. 

Scope of activities: The North Sea, the Baltic, and 
the North Atlantic. 

Equipment: A research ship Poseidon and chartered 
fishery boats. 

Staff: Dr. Erich Fischer; Dr. P. F. Meyer; Dr. 
Altnoder. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 



hicome: Source : Reichsernahrungsministerium. 
Amount: 10,000-12,000 RM. 

Provision for the publication of results: Abhandlungen 
des Deutschen Seefischerei Vereins, Berichte der 
Deutschen wissenschaftlichen Komission fiir 
Meeresforschung, Zeitschrift fiir Fischerei und 
deren Hilfswissen.schaften und Die deutsche 
Fischwirtschaft. 
Institut und Museum fiir Meereskunde ('37) 

History or origin: E.stablished in 1900 as the result 
of the efforts of Freiherr von Richthofen and 
others attached to the University of Berlin to 
establish an institute which would have for its 
scope the entire field of oceanography. Three 
published accounts of the history of the Institut 
are referred to in the footnote below. ^ 

Location: Berlin N. W. 7, Georgenstrasse 34-36. 

Organization to which attached: Friedrich Wilhelms 
Universitat. 

Purposes: Research and instruction. 

Scope of activities: (a) Oceanographic section, physi- 
cal, dynamical, and chemical oceanography, 
marine meteorology, continental hydrography 
limnology, biology, cartography. 

(b) Economic geography in its widest sense, 
general and theoretical economic geography and 
economic geography of particular parts of the 
land; world economics, navigation, and harbors. 

Equipment: (a) 2 buildings of three stories in Berlin. 
On the ground floor and the first story is a 
museum which contains a section for ship and 
machine building, navigation, features of coasts 
and harbors, life-saving, sea fisheries, biology, 
oceanography, collection of models and instru- 
ments, history of battleships. 

On the second story are the work rooms of the 
scientific officers, laboratory, library with 20,000 
books and periodicals, 15,000 separates, collection 
of photographs with about 12,000 negatives, 
collection of 6,000 cards, and instrumentarium, 1 
small and 1 large lecture hall. 

(b) A small one-story building on Sakrower 
Sea near Berlin with instruments for limnological 
work, 1 motor boat and 1 row boat. 

Staff: Director, Prof. Dr. Albert Defant, o. Profe.ssor 
der Ozeanographie an der Universitat Berlin. 

' Denkschrift iiber die Begriindung und Ausgestaltung 
des Instituts und Museums fiir Meereskunde zu Berlin, 
Juli, 1901. 

Das Institut und Museum fiir Meereskunde an der konigl. 
Friedrich Wilhelms-Universitjit in Berlin. (Lenz, Ges- 
chichte der Universitat Berlin, Bd. III.) 

Das Institut und Museum fiir Meereskunde an der 
Friedrich Wilhelms-Universitiit in Berlin, Marz, 1929. 



126 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



5 Section chiefs and custodians: Biology, Pro- 
fessor Dr. Thilo I&umbach. Professor of 
economic geography, Professor Doctor Carl 
Troll, o. Professor der Wirtschaftsgeographie 
an der Universitat Berlin. Oceanography, 
Professor Dr. Georg Wiist, a.o. Professor an 
der Universitat Berlin. Hydrography and 
limnology. Dr. Lotte Moller, a.o. Professor 
an der Universitat Berlin. Navigation and 
Cartography, Dr. Th. Stock. 
3 Assistants: Oceanography, Dr. Gtinther Die- 
trich; Cartography, Cand. Phil. Bittelmeyer; 
Economic geography, Dr. R. Schottenloher. 
Draughtsmen and computers; building superin- 
tendent; 4 office as.sistants; a few museum 
guards. 
Provision for visiting investigators: Work places in 

the laboratory and in the library. 
Income: At present about 40,000 R.M. without 
the salaries of the officers. In normal times 
considerably more. 
Provision for publication of results: Wissenschaftliche 
Veroffentlichungen : Veroffentlichungen des Ins- 
tituts fiir Meereskunde, Alte Folge 15 Hefte; 
Neue Folge: (A) Geographischnaturwis.senschaft- 
liche Reihe, bisher 33 Hefte; (B) Historisch- 
Volkswirtschaftliche Reihe, bisher 11 Hefte. 
Volkstiimliche Reihen: (a) Meereskunde, Samml- 
ung volkstiimlicher Vortrage, 205 Hefte; (b) 
Das Meer in volkstiimlichen Darstellungen, 5 
Bande. 
Mit dem Institut fur Meereskunde verhunden: (a) 
Archiv und Ge.schiiftsstelle der Deutschen At- 
lantischen Expedition (METEOR-Expedition). (b) 
Herausgabe der Wissensschaftlichen Ergebnisse 
der Deutschen Atlanti-schen Expedition, bisher 14 
Bande und 9 Lieferungen. 

Nautische Abteilung, Oberbefehlshaber der 

Kriegsmarine (Hydrographic Department 

of the Navy) ('37) 

Location: Tirpitzufer 72/76 Berlin, W. 35. 
Staff: Director, Kapitan zur See Kurze. 

Head of 1st Section (Books and Manuals of 
Maritime Sciences, Notices to Mariners, Wire- 
less Notices), Oberregierungsrat Schellong. 

Head of 2nd Section (Cartography and Surveys), 
Korvettenkapitan Hain. 

Head of 3rd Section (General Affairs connected 
with Navigation), Korvettenkapitan Fallier. 

Head of 4th Section (Physics and Nautical In- 
struments) Regierungsrat Dr. Gabler. 



Head of 5th Section (Oceanography and Nautical 
Education), Konteradmiral a. D. Dr. Conrad. 

Equipment: 

DIRPLACE- 
8UHVETING VESSELS MENT OFFICERS CREW 

Meteor 1,200 6 108 

Peilboot II 90 1 13 

Peilboot V 90 1 13 

Deutsche Seewarte ('37) 

History or origin: The Deutsche Seewarte was 
established in the year 1868 as the Norddeutsche 
Seewarte, and in the year 1875 it was taken over 
by the German Government as the Deutsche 
Seewarte. 
Location: Hamburg 3, Alfred Wegener- Weg 1. 
Organization to which attached: Independent, imme- 
diately .subordinate to the Reichs Ministry of 
Communication. 
Purposes: Investigations in the fields of navigation, 
in.struments, oceanography and tides, meteorol- 
ogy, and astronomy for the promotion of maritime 
commerce and the economy of the sea. 
Scope of activities: The work of the Seewarte is 
divided into two sections, the Nautical-Hydro- 
graphic and the Meteorological. 

The work of the Nautical-Hydrographic section 

comprises as follows: 
The collection and evaluation of observations 
made on ships, the testing and further devel- 
opment of nautical instruments and methods; 
The magnetism of the earth and of ships, 

astronomy and time-service; 
This section has charge of the library and 

publishes the periodicals mentioned below. 
The Meteorological section has charge of a 
synoptical weather service for navigation and 
agriculture, as well as for aerial flights over the 
sea; maritime meteorology and the meteorology 
and climatology of foreign countries; the testing 
and development of meteorological instruments. 
Staff: President of the Deutsche Seewarte, Konter- 
admiral a. D. Dr. Spiess. Other members of the 
staff are as follows: 

Oberregierungsrat: Prof. Dr. Kleinschmidt (Ab- 
teilungsleiter Wetterdienst) ; Dr. von Schubert 
(Abteilung.sleiter Nautik u. Hydrographie) ; 
Prof. Dr. Castens; R. Karbiner; Prof. Dr. E. 
Kuhlbrodt; Prof. Dr. B. Schulz; Dr. A. 
Repsold; Prof. Dr. H. Seilkopf. 
Regierungsrat: Dr. Burath; Dr. Georgi; Dr. Lohr; 
Dr. Markgraf ; Dr. Pummercr; Dr. Schumacher; 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— GERMANY 



127 



Dr. Semmelhack; Dr. Soltau; Ullrich; Liick; 

Oellrich; Lay. 

There are also a considerable number of scien- 
tific and nautical helpers, as well as the personnel 
for the administration. 
Provision for visiting investigators: For visitors 
engaged in scientific research a small number 
of work places can be provided. 
Provisions for publication of results: Periodicals 
published : 

1. Annalen der Hydrographie und maritimen 

Meteorologie (1937 erscheint der 65 Band). 

2. Aus dem Archiv der Deut.schen Seewarte 

(1937 erscheint der 57 Band). 

3. Der Seewart. 

In addition to the regularly appearing periodi- 
cals there are numerous other publication.s of 
which a list is given on the inside of the covers 
of the individual parts of the Ann. d. Hydr. and 
also in the Jahresbericht der Deutschen Seewarte. 

Biologische Anstalt auf Helgoland ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1892. For its 
principal purposes: (1) Researches in pure marine 
biology by means of general biology, physical 
chemistry, (2) zoological and botanical investiga- 
tions in the North Sea, and (3) applied biology, 
through investigations in the service of fisheries. 
In the biology of fishes the following were the 
principal tasks: Investigation of the fishing 
grounds (the configuration of the bottom, the 
fauna, and the production of edible fish), experi- 
ments in fish culture, researches for the purpose of 
ascertaining the proper limits of closed seasons for 
edible fish, monographic descriptions of the most 
important commercial fishes, and the investiga- 
tion of the plankton as the basic source of food in 
the sea.' 

• For the history of the Biological Station on Helgoland, 
see article by Prof. W. Mielck entitled "Die Biologische 
Anstalt auf Helgoland und die Seefischereiforschung": 
Cons. Internat. Expl. Mer, Rapports et Proces-Verbaux 
des R6unions, vol. 47, part 3, pp. 17 to 33, 1928. 

Other pertinent articles are as follows: 
Mielck, Wilhelm, Die Preussische Biologische Anstalt auf 
Helgoland: In Brauer, Lud'olph (et al.), Forschungsins- 
titute, vol. 2, pp. 175-199, 6 plates, 2 figures each. 1930. 
Hagmeier, A., Aufgaben und Bedeutung der Preussischen 
Biologischen Anstalt auf Helgoland: Der Biologe, Heft 
7, 3 Jahrgang, Juli, 1934, pp. 161-166, figs. 1-4. 
Hertling, H., Die Biologische Anstalt auf Helgoland als 
Meeresstation und Lehrinstitut: Ibid., pp. 167-173, 
figs. 5-10. 
Hagmeier, A., Okologische Untersuehungen der Biologi- 
schen Anstalt. (a) Bodenfauna: Ibid., pp. 173-174. 
WulfiF, A., Okologische Untersuehungen der Biologischen 
Anstalt. (b) Plankton: Ibid., pp. 175-177. 



Location: On the Island of Helgoland in the North 
Sea, 67 kilometers northwest from the coastal 
city of Cuxhaven. 

Organization to which attached: Independent, but 
immediately subordinate to the MinLsterium fiir 
Wissenschaft, Erziehung, und Volksbildung. 

Purposes and scope of activities: I. In the field of 
marine biology and oceanography: 

1. Scientific investigations especially in the 
North Sea and northern waters; 

2. Scientific and practical work in applied 
oceanography (for the use of high-seas fisheries, 
coastal fisheries, and land reclamation) ; 

3. Zoological and botanical marine station 
with work places and the supply of living and 
preserved material for research. 

II. In the field of ornithology: 

4. Ornithological station (investigation of bird 
migration, bird banding, protection of nature). 

III. For the completion of the instruction in the 

universities and the advancement of teach- 
ing of natural sciences: 

5. Provisions for instruction in marine biology 
and ornithology for students and teachers; 

6. Supply of living and preserved material for 
instruction, and supply of North Sea animals, 
sea water, and algae for aquaria. 

Connected with the Biologische Anstalt there are 

on Helgoland : An exhibition aquarium. North Sea 

mu.seum, seismological station, and a work place for 

the representative the Deutsche wissenschaftliche 

Komission fiir Meeresforschung. 

In Wesermiinde : Work places for the fisheries 

investigation of the Biological In.stitute in 

Helgoland and of the Institute of Sea Fisheries 

in Wesermiinde. 

Special subjects: Plankton, bacteriology, biology 

of useful fishes, oysters, lobsters, biology and 

physiology of other marine animals and algae, 

especially in their economic relations, marine 

fauna, fisheries biology, hydrography, marine 

bottom deposits, investigation of bird migra- 



Schreiber, E., Forschungen an Meeresalgen: Ibid., pp. 

177-178. 
Buckmann, A., Die angewandte Meeresforschung an der 

Biolog. Anstalt. (a) Fischereiforschung: Ibid., pp. 

178-180. 
Erdrnann, W., Die Angewandte Meeresforschung an der 

Biolog. Anstalt. (b) Ziichtung von Meerestieren : 

Ibid., pp. 180-182, fig. 11. 
Wohlenberg, E., Die Angewandte Meeresforschung an der 

Biolog. Anstalt. (c) liiologische Landgewinnungs- 

arbeiten im Wattenmeer: Ibid., pp. 182-183, figs. 12-13. 
Drost, R., Die Vogelwarte Helgoland: Ibid., pp. 184-186, 

figs. 14-15. 



128 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



tion and related problems, meteorology, regLs- 

tration of seismic activities. 
Equipment: A principal building on the open sea 
with laboratories, collecting rooms, sorting rooms, 
administrative rooms, and public aquarium (seven 
large and fifty small tanks), 6 stories, 960 sq.m. 
Laboratory on the harbor 3 stories, 382 sq.m. 
Ornithological station 3 stories, 336 sq.m. Trap- 
ping grounds of the ornithological station 2600 
sq.m. The Museum, the North Sea Museum, 
and Bird Migration Museum, 2 stories, 180 sq.m. 
Library, more than 13,000 bound volumes and 
more than 13,000 unbound volumes. Research 
ship Makrele, 34 m. long, 420 p.s. Diesel motor, 
speed 10 knots per hour (for longer voyages, the 
institution has at its service the Governmental 
research ship Poseidon, 46 m. long). 2 motor 
boats. Several small row and sail boats. Several 
houses. Shed for fishing gear, boats, gasoline 
storage, etc. Seismological room, 1st order, 
142 sq.m. 5 servants houses. Studentenheim 
"Wilh. Mielck Haus," 27 beds. Work place 
for the Deutsche Wiss. Komm. fiir Meeresforsch- 
ung. Branch Laboratory in List, on the Island 
of Sylt, in the service of the Listitute's investiga- 
tion of tide lands and oysters. Im Wesermiinde: 
work place Fischereiforschung. 

The Biological Institute on Helgoland also 
cooperates with the Hansische Universitat Ham- 
burg (Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fak- 
ultat), Institut fiir Seefischerei in Wesermiinde, 
Forschungsstellen Westkiiste in Biisum and 
Husum, Geologische Forschungsanstalt Sencken- 
berg, Wilhelmshaven. 
Staff: Director: Professor Dr. A. Hagmeier. The 
Director is the head of the administration (Kassa 
and Biiro, 1 inspector, 1 secretary, and three 
assistants), the research work, the conduct of the 
station, the branch laboratory at List, and the 
public arrangements of the aquarium and mu- 
seum. He was also the editor of the Wissen- 
schaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, Abteilung Hel- 
goland (now discontinued). 

The heads of the sections in the Institute, and 
their assistants are as follows: 

Ecology: Director Prof. A. Hagmeier. Scien- 
tific assistants: Dr. H. Schack, Dr. B. Werner, 
Dr. Ahinke (Wilhelmshaven). 

Plankton: Kustos Prof. A. Wulff. Sclent. 
Assistant: Dr. C. Kiinne, D.W.K. 

Zoology; Kustos Dr. H. Hertling. Oberassistent 



Dr. Meunier. Research Assistant: Dr. L. 
Jacobi. 
Botany: (Kustos Prof. E. Schreiber, on leave), 

Substitute: Dr. P. Kornmann. 
Applied Marine Research: Sekretar der D.W.K. 
Dr. A. Biickmann. Scientific Assistants: 
D.W.K. Dr. Lundbeck (Wesermiinde). Dr. 
Schmidt, Dr. Risch (Wesermiinde). 
Ornithological Station: Kustos Prof. R. Drost. 

Scientific Assistant, Dr. Schildmacher. 

Technical staff: 16 assistants for scientific work 

and aquarium. 9 technical staff and ap)- 

pointees for scientific fishery experiments; 

10 officers and as.sistants for the office and 

library; 2 machinists; 6 members of the 

house personnel. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: For foreign 

investigators there are 50 work places besides 30 

places available for those who are taking courses. 

Provision for publication of results: (a) Wissenschaft- 

liche Meeresuntersuchungen, N.F., Abteilung 

Helgoland. Or. 4°. (zitiert: Wiss. Meeresunters. 

Abt. Helgoland, BD. XIX, Nr. 1.) Discontinued. 

Fortisetzung: Helgolander Wissenschaftliche 

Meeresuntersuchungen. 

(b) Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Vogel- 

zugsforschung, Gr. 4°. 

(c) Der Vogelzug. (In Gemeinschaft mit 

der Vogelwarte Rossitten der Kaiser- 
Wilhelm-Gesellschaft und der Deutschen 
Ornithologischen Gesellschaft herausge- 
gebene Zeitschrift.) 

(d) Many scientific contributions of the Insti- 

tute appear in other Zeitschriften espe- 
cially in the Berichte der Deutschen 
wissenschaftlichen Komission fiir Meeres- 
forschung (Ber. d. D.W.K.) and in the 
publications of the International Council 
for the Exploration of the Sea. 

Meereschemisches Laboratorium der 
Universitat Kiel ('37) 

Location: University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany. 

Organization to which attached: University of Kiel. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Study of the chem- 
istry of sea water. 

Equipment: One physical and one chemical labora- 
tory. 

Staff: Chief, Dr. H. Wattenberg; Assistant, Fraulein 
Dr. H. Meyer. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— GERMANY, GREECE, HUNGARY 



129 



Meeresgeologische Forschungsstelle der 
Universitat Kiel ('37) 

History or origin: Founded January 4, 1936. 

Location: Eastern shore of Kiclcr Forde, Baltic Sea. 

Organization to which attached: University of Kiel. 

Purposes: The investigation of coasts and of the 
sediments of the North and Baltic Seas, and 
other seas. 

(Scope of activities: When called for, work is done for 
state institutions, otherwise investigation is not 
restricted. 

Equipment: Two small vessels, larger are planned; 
marinegeological-bottom mechanical laboratory; 
optical apparatus; under water photographic 
outfit; under water boring apparatus; collection 
of marine bottom samples from all seas. 

Staff: Chief, Prof. Dr. Erich Wasmund; Assistant 
for geology and geotcchnics, Dr. P. Gro.schopf; 
Assistant for mineralogy, Dr. K. Lamcke; Help- 
ers, a diener, laboratory assistants, shared with 
the laboratory for sea-water chemistry. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Sufficient work 
rooms for visitors. 

Income: From the State, partly private donations. 

Provision for publication of results: Two new periodi- 
cals: 

1. Kieler Meeresforschungen, Bd. 1, Kiel 1936. 

2. Geologic der Meere und Binnengewasser, Bd. 1, 

Berlin 1937. 

Greece 

Hydrographic Office of the Navy, Navy 
Department ('37) 

Location: Athens. 

Staff: Director, Capitaine de Vaisseau Hydrographe 
Alexandre Cryssanthis. 

Assistant-Director, Capitaine de Vaisseau Hy- 
drographe Denis Rasikotsicas. 
Head of Section of Navigation, Lieutenant Spyros 

Maratos. 
Head of Surveys and Research, Lieutenant Hy- 
drographe D. Valtinos. 
Head of Technical Section, Capitaine de Corvette, 
Fran^oLs Paxinos. 
Equipment: 



aURVBTINO VESSEL 

Nautilus 



DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CHEW 



404 



38 



Marine Biological Station of Phaleron ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1914 by the Hellenic 
Ministry of National Economy, Athens. 



Location: 2 Apollonos Street, Old Phaleron, Greece. 
Organization to which attached: A state institution 
under the Hellenic Ministry of National Economy, 
Athens. 
Purposes and scope: Investigation of the animals 
and plants, the study of currents, tides and 
temperatures, and the analysis of sea-water. 
Equipment: Laboratory, library, and small museum. 
Staff: The station is actively conducted by Mr. 
Nicholas Sperantsas. The members of the station 
are the following: 

President: The Minister of National Economy. 
12 others: 1. The Director of the Hydrographic 
Service of the Navy. 

2. Another officer of the Royal Navy, ap- 

pointed by the Minister of Marine. 

3. The Director of Fisheries, Mr. D. Bitzanis. 

4. The Inspector of Fisheries, Mr. G. An- 

thanassopoulos. 

5. The Director of the Marine Biological 

Station, Mr. Nicholas Sperantsas. 

6. The Superintendent of the Geological 

Service. 

7. The Director of the Athens Observatory. 

8. The Professor of Zoology of the University 

of Athens. 

9. The Professor of Botany of the University 

of Athens. 

10. The Professor of Inorganic Chemistry 

of the University of Athens. 

11. The Professor of Organic Chemistry of the 

University of Athens. 

12. The Professor of Physics of the University 

of Athens. 
2 elected members. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Visiting in- 
vestigators are permitted to make use of all the 
facilities offered by the station, including the 
laboratory, the library, and the museum. 

Income: The station is dependent financiallj' on the 
Ministry of National Economy. 

Provisions for publication of results: Bulletin de la 
Commission Thalassographiquc Hellenique. This 
Bulletin is not published regularly, but only as 
occasion demands and funds permit. 

HiTNGAEY 

The Hungarian Oceanographic Institution 
(Magyar Tengerkutato Intezet) ('37) 

This institution is not functioning at present 
for the reason that the country has lost its only 



130 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



seaport through the Treaty of Trianon, taking 
with it the "SMS Najade," which was given to 
Yugoslavia. The instruments used in explora- 
tions were in the Austro-Hungarian Naval 
Academy in Fiume, but these were lost during 
the fight for the port of Fiume. 

There is at present a Committee working within 
the Magyar Adria Egyesulet (Hungarian Adriatic 
Association). Dr. Geza Entz is president and 
Dr. Julius Leidenfrost acting vice president. 
The latter is also the Director of the Committee. 
The Committee is located at Budapest, VIII, 
Baross utca 13. It has a library of 5,000 volumes 
and has a small collection of Dalmatian fishing 
products and sea animals. 

The Committee is now working up the objects 
collected during the course of the 1913 and 1914 
expeditions. In this work Krunoslav Babic of 
Zagreb and Ferdinand Pax of Breslau also take 
part. 

Iceland 

Vitamalastjorn (Lighthouse Administration) ('37) 

Location: Reykjavik. 

Staff: Head of Lighthouse Office, Th. Krabbe; 

Assistant Lighthouse Engineer, B. Jonasson; 

Hydrographer, Skipherra F. V. Olafsson. 
Eguipmrnl: 



BURVEYING VESSEL 

Hermoddb. . . . 



DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

...113 3 6 



Ireland 
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries Branch ('37) 

History or origin: Scientific investigations by the 
Department dealing with fisheries have been 
carried on uninterruptedly since the Marine 
Laboratory of the Royal Dublin Society was 
taken over by the newly formed Department of 
Agriculture and Technical Instruction, Fisheries 
Branch, in 1901. 

Location: Dublin. 

Organization to ivhich attached: Oceanographic re- 
search in relation to fisheries is not carried on by a 
separate organization but is part of the duties 
allotted to the Inspectors of Fisheries. 

Pwposes: To elucidate technical and scientific 
questions which arise in the course of the ad- 
ministrative work of the Department, and to 
carry out original investigations on matters 
affecting Irish Free State fisheries. 



(Scope of activities: (a) Hydrography of the waters 
around Ireland; biology of sea fishes; zooplankton; 
biological investigation of fishing ground. 

(b) Freshwater investigations on similar lines. 

Equipment: Limited laboratory accommodation 
in the offices of the Department in Dublin. 
The use of the Department's Fishery Protection 
Cruiser, which is equipped for scientific research, 
is available from time to time. A fisheries library, 
including fishery biology, is maintained by the 
Department. 

Staff: Biologists, Mr. G. P. Farran, chief; Mr. A. E. J. 
Went; Miss W. E. Frost. 1 laboratory a.s.sistant. 
Assistance is periodically received from the 
officer of the Fishery Cruiser. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: No permanent 
provision. 

Incoine: Included in the annual vote for the Depart- 
ment. 

Provision for publication of results: The members 
of the staff publish papers in various scientific 
periodicals. 

Italy 

Istituto di Zoologia della R. Universita di 
Catania ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1870. 

Location: Catania. 

Organization to which attached: The State, local 
authorities in charge. 

Purposes: Fish in the Gulf of Catania; researches on 
Protozoa, Copepods, Isopods, Cirripeds, Echi- 
nodermata, etc. 

Scope of activities: One of the two university cus- 
todians is assigned to the collection of marine 
animals. There are also local fishermen who are 
paid according to the work done. 

Equipment: Technical library. 

Staff: Director, Prof. Russo Achille; Aid, Prof. 
Filippo Dulzetto; Assistant, Dott. Luigi Patane. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 

Income: Sources, R. L^niversity. Amount 8,000 lire. 

Provision for publication of results: On subjects 
mentioned under purposes. 

R. Osservatorio di Pesca marittima di 
Ganzirri ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1928. 
Location: Ganzirri (Mes.sina). 

Organization to. which attached: Istituto di Zoologia 
della R. U. Messina. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— HUNGARY, ICELAND, IRELAND, ITALY 



131 



Purposes: Studies on biology applied to Fisheries. 
(Scope of activities: Experimental researches. 
Staff: Director, Prof. Giuseppe Mazzarelli; Assist- 
ant, C. Scordia. 
Income: Sources: Ministero Agricoltura e Foreste. 

Istituto Idrografico della R. Marina ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1872. 

Location: Genova, Passo all'Osservatorio 4. 

Organization to which attached: State institution, 
Royal Italian Navy. 

Purposes: Physical oceanography with respect to 
its practical applications to navigation. 

Scope of activities: Marine cartography and hydro- 
graphic information; terrestrial magnetism; re- 
searches in dynamical oceanography. 

Equipment: 



SURVEYING VESSELS 


DISPLACEMENT 


OPFICER.S 


CREW 


Ammiraglio Magnaghi 


. . 2,400 


16 


163 


OsTIA 


708 


6 

2 


94 


Cariddi 


33.3 


-11 



A magnetic observatory in a separate building. 
Staff: Director, De Pisa, Capitano di Fregata. 
As.st. Director, M. Gra.ssi, Capitano di Corvetta. 
Technical Secretary, G. Ghiglieri, Tenente di 

Vascello. 
Head of Division of Chart Construction and Cor- 
rection, L. Montella, Capitano di Vascello. 
Head of Division of Instruments and in charge of 
Instrument Workshop, G. Perdomini, Capitano 
R.T.M. 
Head of Division of Hydrography and Nautical 
Documents, A. Lazzarini, Capitano di Corvetta. 
Head of Division of Compasses and of Magnetic 
Laboratory, A. Lazzarini, Capitano di Corvetta. 
Head of Division of Geophysics, Professore M. 

Tenani. 
Head of Division of Geodesy, Professore G. Forni. 
Head of Division of Photo-Engraving, G. Ghigli- 
eri, Tenente di Vascello. 
30 technical and clerical a.ssistant.s. 
Provision for publication of results: Hydrographic 
charts, nautical instructions for Italy and de- 
pendencies; Annali Idrografici, Bollettino Idro- 
grafico, Ephemerides, Nautical Tables, Tide 
Tables, Publ. de Circonstance. 

Marine Laboratory of the Istituto di Zoologia 
della R. Universita di Genova ('37) 

History or origin: Established 1772 (mu.seum), 1910 
(laboratory), renovated 1932-1933. 



Location: Via Lungomarc Lombardo 18, Genova. 

Organization to which attached: State Institution, 
University of Genoa. 

Purposes: Zoology, especially marine zoology. 

Scope of activities: Research on Mediterranean 
plankton and abyssal fauna, etc. 

Equipment: 3,000 volumes; small motor boat, 
private. 

Staff: Director, Professor Ettore Remotti; Aid, 
Doctor Alessandro Brian, private docent; Volun- 
teer a.ssi.stant, Dr. Elisa Fischetti; Technical, 1; 
Servant, 1. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 

Income: Source: Public and private income. 
Amount: About 7,000 lire. 

Provision for publication of results: Bollettino dei 
Musei di Zoologia e di Anatomia Comparata 
della R. Universita di Genova (in collaboration 
with the Institute of Comparative Anatomy). 
2 series, June, 1926. 

Istituto Centrale di Biologia Marina in 
Messina^ ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1916. 

Location: Me.ssina. 

Organization to which attached: R. Comitato Talasso- 
grafico Italiano. 

Purposes: Researches in marine biology, with em- 
phasis on biochemical, biophysical, and physiologi- 
cal problems, and the experimental investigation 
of the life histories of local organisms. 

Equipment: Fishing boats and a motor boat, labora- 
tories for microscopic, chemical, chemico-physical, 
and physiological researches. Favorable location 
for material for laboratory cultures. 
Important library. 

Staff: Director, L. Sanzo, Professor, Anatomy, 
Physiology. Assistants: Dr. A. Sparta; Dr. D. 
De Gaetani. Conservator, Dr. G. Cipria. 
Draughtsman and photographer, Mazza Filiberto. 
Preparator, Arena Giuseppe. Mechanic, and 
others for personal service. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The R. Comitato 
Talassografico Italiano offers to Italian and 
foreign Governments and Institutions, ten study 
places in the Istituto Centrale di Biologia Marina 
di Me.ssina, each of them for a period of not less 
than one year on the payment annually of 1500 
lire in gold for foreigners and 3000 lire paper for 
Italians. Study places may also be granted to 

* Istituto Centrale di Biologia Marina in Messina, Ex- 
planatory Notice, Officine Grafiiche Carlo Ferrari, 1932. 



132 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



private persons for their own use and upon simple 
request, for periods not less than six months. 
The amount to be paid in advance is 800 lire gold 
for foreigners and 1600 lire paper for Italians. 
For each month in addition to .six months, the 
monthly rate is respectively 130 lire gold and 260 
lire paper. ^ 

Income: R. Comitato Talassografico Italiano. 

Provision for publications of results: Memorie; Bollet- 
tino; Monografie del R. Comitato Talassografico 
Italiano. 

Gabinetto di Oceanografia e Meteorologia 

(Napoli) ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in compliance with a 
Royal Decree dated May 1920, n. 1157. 

Location: R. Istituto Superiore Navale, Napoli. 

Organization to which attached: R. Istituto Superiore 
Navale, Napoli. 

Purposes: Teaching oceanography and nautical 
meteorology to prospective officers in the Mer- 
chant Marine, and to future teachers in the 
nautical schools. 

/Scope of activities: Scientific and experimental 
researches. 

Equipment: The usual apparatus for oceanographic 
work, such as that for chlorine titration, reversing 
thermometers, etc. 

Staff: Professor Eredia, Professor of Oceanography. 
Scientific: Assistant N.N. Technical: 1. Main- 
tenance and operation: 2. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Rooms attached 
to the laboratory will be available. 

Income: Sources, R. Istituto Superiore Navale, 
Napoli. Amount, variable every year. 

Provision for publication of results: The Istituto 
publishes Annuario del R. Istituto Superiore 
Navale, and the Annali del R. Istituto Superiore 
Navale, of which volumes 1 and 2 have been 
published. 

Stazione Zoologica di Napoli' ('37) 

History or origin: The Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 
was founded in 1872 by Anton Dohrn, a pupil 

'To be purchased; Interesting faunistic materials from 
the Strait of Messina for scientific research work of mu- 
seums. 

« Kofoid, C. A. The Biological Stations of Europe, U. S. 
Bureau of Education Bulletin, whole number 440, pp. 9-32, 
1910, gives a full account of the establishment of this station 
and a description of the buildings and their equipment up 
to 1909. Most of what is said in this publication is still 
valid and it has been utilized in preparing the statement 
here given, which has been checked by Prof. Reinhard 
Dohrn. 



and colleague of Ernst Haeckel and docent at the 
University of Jena. In 1868 Dohrn made a 
journey to Sicily and established at Messina a 
small temporary laboratory for his own researches. 
He contemplated founding a laboratory and 
aquarium at that place but changed his intentions 
and decided to utilize Naples as the site of the 
station. In 1870 he procured from the City of 
Naples a site in the Villa Nazionale on the water 
front of the Bay of Naples, on the condition 
that he would erect a station which would remain 
the private property of himself and his immediate 
heirs for ninety years and then revert to the 
municipality, but which would still be used 
for its original purpose. The first building was 
begun in 1872 and completed in 1874. Toward 
the erection of the first building Dohrn con- 
tributed out of his private fortune 300,000 francs, 
the balance of the total cost of 400,000 francs 
was met by outside contribution.?. The German 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs first granted an 
annual subvention of 30,000 M., which was 
increased in 1888 to 40,000 M., and later at 
Dohrn's request reduced to 20,000 M. Because 
of the increased demands upon the station in 1886 
its facilities were enlarged by the construction 
of the western block of the building, toward the 
cost of which the Italian and Provincial Govern- 
ments contributed about 100,000 lire. 

In 1903 in order to meet the needs for additional 
facilities for researches in comparative phy.siology 
and physiological chemistry, a new section of the 
building devoted in large part to those purposes 
was erected. The German Emperor encouraged 
the .subscription to a fund of 300,000 M. for this 
purpose. 

An account of the history of the Stazione imme- 
diately after the World War is given by Miss 
Margaret Boveri in an article entitled "Die 
Zoologische Station zu Neapel."' The third 
section of the article "Gegenwart und Zukunft," 
gives the essence of the struggle of Doctor Rein- 
hard Dohrn, son and successor of Doctor Anton 
Dhorn, to regain the directorship of the station 
after the war and to get it into operation. The 
present arrangement for the operation of the 
station is indicated in this statement, under the 
caption, "Organization to which attached." 
Location: In the Villa Nazionale of Naples. 

' In L. Brauer, A. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, and A. 
Meyer: Forschungsinstitute, ihre Geschichte, Organisation 
und Ziele, Vol. 2, pp. 578-598, 1930. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— ITALY 



133 



Organization to xohich attached: Ente Morale, Board 
consisting of seven members: President, the 
Mayor of Naples. 

One member designated by the Naples Munici- 
pality. 

One member designated by the Comitato Talas- 
sografico Italiano. 

Three members designated by the Minister of 
National Education. (Three of these mem- 
bers are University Professors.) 

Permanent member and director, Professor 
Reinhard Dohrn. 
Purposes: Purely research, except that the Stazione 
maintains a supply department from which uni- 
versities and investigators may get material 
for both instruction and research. 
Scope of activities: Any kind of biological work for 
which material, both zoological and botanical, 
can be procured in the vicinity of Naples. This 
includes systematic biology, morphology, em- 
bryology, ecology, physiology, and physiological 
chemistry. In addition to the biological re- 
searches the station has also served as a base 
from which important investigations on marine 
bottom deposits and other subjects of geological 
significance have been prosecuted. 
Equipment: The laboratory building is situated near 
the center of the Villa Nazionale. It stands 75 
meters north of the sea wall and the first floor 
is about four meters above mean tide level. The 
material of which it is constructed is tufa masonry 
with stucco trimmings and the style is modern 
Italian Renaissance. 

There is a basement which is about one meter 
above sea level, and above it ri.se four stories. 
The total dimensions of the entire building are 
25 by 100 meters, and it reaches a height above 
ground of 16 meters. Its longer axis is along an 
east-west line, parallel to the shoreline. The 
building is compo.sed of five sections, three of 
which are for laboratory purposes and two are 
intermediate connecting structures, but with 
some laboratory rooms in the eastern connecting 
structure. Chronologically the structure first 
erected is the middle one which is 25 meters wide 
by 33.5 meters long. It was completed in 1874. 
The next structure to be erected is at the west 
end. It was erected in 1886, and occupied an 
area 25 by 18 meters in dimensions. Between 
the middle section and this second section there 
is an open court; the area of which is 25 by 18 
meters. It is enclosed on the ground level by 



railings and on the level of the second floor it is 
spanned by a bridge, and is bordered on three 
sides and a part of the fourth by promenades. 
The easternmost section, the one for comparative 
physiology and physiological chemistry, was 
erected in 1903. The area of the ba.se of this 
building is 25 by 33.5 meters. Between the 
structure erected in 1874 and the one erected in 
1903 is a central court 25 by 17 meters in area, 
opening to the .sky and reached on both sides at 
ground level by open archways. Above the 
arcades formed by these arches there are struc- 
tures which are continuous on each side with 
the rest of the building, and there are two stories 
of laboratory rooms. 

The total area of the floor space on the five 
floors is 12,725 square meters, and the total 
number of rooms, including passages, stairs, and 
attic compartments, is 259. The aquarium on 
the first floor of the building was completed in 
1874. Kofoid, in his description of the Stazione 
Zoologica, has given much detail about the 
arrangement of the rooms, the salt water supply, 
and other features. It is suggested that his 
account of the station be consulted. 

Visiting investigators are supplied with much 
equipment and many articles that must be pur- 
chased are furnished at cost. Living biological 
material is promjjtly provided, weather and season 
permitting. In general investigators are sup- 
posed to provide their own microscopes and 
certain other apparatus. Doctor Reinhard Dohrn 
has been able to make with the customs authorities 
at Naples an arrangement to import free of duty 
apparatus to be used at the station, but which 
will be exported within a year. Permits are 
issued for three months and they may not aggre- 
gate more than twelve months. 

A large and very valuable library. There are 
over 25,000 boiuid volumes and about 40,000 
reprints, numbers of which have been bound in 
volumes of related subjects. 
Staff: Scientific: Prof. Reinhard Dohrn, Director; 
Prof. Silvio Ranzi, Head of the Zoological De- 
partment; Prof. E. Caroli, Zoological As.sistant 
and Librarian; Prof. F. P. Massa, Department of 
Chemistry; Dr. G. Kramer, Department of 
Physiology. 

Technical and Clerical: Secretary; Cashier; Ac- 
countant; Commercial agent. 
Maintenance and Operation: 22 servants, fisher- 
men, mechanicians, workmen, etc. 



134 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Provisions for visiting investigators: The research 
tables at the Stazione Zoologica are leased at a 
cost of $500.00 for a full year or the privilege 
of the use of a table may be obtained by appoint- 
ment to some table under the control of a lessee. 
Numbers of the tables are at the disposal of 
various institutions that contribute to the support 
of the Stazione. Up to seventy people, including 
the staff, may be accommodated. Anyone desir- 
ing the privilege of working at the Stazione should 
correspond ^A^th its Director, Doctor Reinhard 
Dohrn, who will supply information not only 
on the facilities available for work at the Institu- 
tion but also on li\nng conditions in the city of 
Naples. 

Income: About 800,000 Lire to 1,000,000 Lire a year, 
depending on the general economic situation, 
especially on account of the fluctuations of the 
tourist traffic (Aquarium) and the exchange rates. 
Source: Aquarium; sale of preserved material; 
sale of publications; table rents; contribu- 
tions. 

Provision for the publication of results: (a) "Pubbli- 
cazioni della Stazione Zoologica." Contents: 
Papers on research work done in the Zoological 
Station. Number of volumes published, 12. 
Continuation of the Mitheilungen aus der 
Zoologischen Station zu Neapel, volumes 22. 

(b) "Fauna e Flora del Golfo di Napoli." 
Monographs of animals and plants in the Gulf of 
Naples. Number of volumes published, 39. 

Istituto di Ricerche Biologiche in Rodi ('37) 

History or origin: Established by a Convention of 
1935. 

Location: Rodi (Egeo). 

Purposes: Offers possibility of undertaking field 
researches in oceanogra];)hical, biological, and 
chemical sciences, as well as agricultural studies 
with special regard to marine biology in relation 
to fisheries. 

Equipment: Laboratory equipped for biological, 
chemical, and physical researches. An aquarium 
comprising the local fauna. A library in for- 
mation. 

Staff: Dott. C. Maldura. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Three rooms 
attached to the Laboratory. 

Income: Sources: Ministero Agricoltura e Foreste, 
U Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, il R. 
Comitate Talassografico Italiano, il Governo 
delle Isole Italiane dell'Egeo. 



R. Comitate Talassografico Italiano ('37) 

History or origin: Established by a special law in 
1910. 

Location: Rome. 

Organization to which attached: National Research 
Council. (Viale delle Scienze Roma.) 

Purposes and scope of activities: To this organization 
is entrusted the physical and chemical studies of 
Italian seas. It has pursued many oceanographic 
expeditions, among them. Exploration of the Sea 
of Levant, (with Austria) the Adriatic (14 
cruises). Strait of Messina, Red Sea. It has 
created an oceanographic commission. The fol- 
lowing institutions are subordinate to the R. 
Comitate Talassografico : 

Istituto Centrale di Biologia Marina in Messina. 
Istituto Geofisico di Trieste. 
Istituto Italo-Germanico di Biologia Marina di 
Rovigno dTstria, together with Kaiser Wil- 
helm Gesellschaft of Berlin. 

Equipment: Each Institute has its own library. 

Staff: Chairman: . Vice 

Chairman: Prof. Gustavo Brunelli. 

Other officers are listed separately under the 
indi\adual institutes which make up the R. 
Comitate Talassografico Italiano. 

Income: Ministero dell'Educazione Nazionale and 
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. 

Provision for publication of results: Bollettino bimes- 
trale; Memoirs (214 published); Monographs, 
Results of the cruises, periodically. 



Ispettorato Generale della Pesca e Divisione 
Amministrativa per la Pesca ('37) 

History or origin: Institute founded by the Law of 
Fishing of March 24, 1921. 

Location: Roma. 

Organization to which attached: Ministry of Agricul- 
ture and Forests. 

Purposes: The regulation of the fisheries, the 
execution of the laws relating to fisheries, and the 
prosecution of scientific research for the improve- 
ment of the fisheries. 

Staff: Ispettorato Generale della Pesca: General 
Inspector, Prof. Gustavo Brunelli. 1 clerk. 
Divisione amministrativa per la Pesca: Chef of 
Bureau, Comm. Dott. Emilio Ciuffa. 4 secre- 
taries; 3 clerks. 

Provincial organizations in dependence (Labora- 
torio Centrale e R. Stabilimenti ittiogenici). 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— ITALY 



135 



R. Laboratorio Centrale di Idrobiologia ('37) 

History or origin: Established 1924. 

Location: Roma, Piazza Borghese 91. 

Organization to which attached: Fisheries Office of 
Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. 

Purposes: Sections of chemistry, systematics, 
morphology, physiology of salt- and fresh-water 
organisms. Is in cooperation with observers, 
limnological and marine, and with the Experi- 
mental Squadron of Fisheries. 

Scope of activities: Study of fresh- and salt-waters. 

Equipment: Library continually growing, and ap- 
paratus for chemistry, physics, and biology. 

Staff: Director, Professor Gustavo Brunelli; Assist- 
ant, Doctor Carlo Maldura; Assistant, Dr. 
Lina Rizzo; Assistant, Dr. Gabriella Cannicci. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: One place for 
re.search. 

Income: Source, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. 

Provision for publication of results: BoUettino di 
Pesca, di Piscicoltura, e di Idrobiologia. 

Istituto Italo-Germanico di Biologia Marina di 
Rovigno d'Istria ('37) 

History or origin: Founded by Dr. O. Hermes in 
1891. Under the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft z. 
Forderung d. Wissenschaften (Berlin) from 1910 
to 1918. Under the R. Comitate Talassografico 
It. from 1918 to 1931. Since 1931 transformed 
into Istituto Italo-Germanico di Biologia marina. 

Location: Rovigno d'Istria (Italy). 

Organization to which attached: R. Comitato Talasso- 
grafico (Italy) and K. W. Gesellschaft zur Forder- 
ung dfer Wissenschaften (Germany). 

Purposes: Scientific, furnisher of material. 

(Scope of activities: Marine biology (morphology, 
ecology, physiology), fauna and flora. 

Equipment: Laboratories, aquarium, library 12,000 
volumes; two motor boats. 

Staff: Directors: Prof. M. Sella, Prof. A. Steuer. 
Assistants: Doctor A. Vatova, Doctor G. Kramer. 
Technical and clerical: 5. Maintenance and oper- 
ation : 4. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 18 places, 
granted gratuitously. 

Income: Sources, Italian and German Governments; 
Amount, 300,000 lire yearly. 

Provisions for publication of results: Two series of 
publications, Thalassia, and Note dell 'Istituto 
Italo-germanico di Rovigno. 



Istituto Demaniale di Biologia Marina di 
Taranto'* ('37) 

History or origin: Formerly Laboratorio di Biologia 
Marina del R. Ispettorato Tecnico del Mar 
Piccolo, established in 1915 at Taranto. The 
name was changed as indicated above in Alay, 
1930. The construction of the new building was 
completed on February 10, 1931. 

Location: Taranto, via Roma 3. 

Organization to which attached: Under the State 
Ministry of Finance. 

Purposes: Control of culture of oysters and Mytilus 
on lands belonging to the State in Mar Piccolo 
di Taranto. 

Scope of activities: Biology of oysters and Mytilus, 
general marine biology, including bacteriology 
and parasitology; oceanography, including physics 
and chemistry of sea water. 

Equipment: A large building with a basement, 
ground floor, and two higher floors. Complete 
laboratory equipment for the kinds of researches 
listed under scope of activities. 

2 motor boats: Enrico Giglioli, 7 m. long, 
1.9 m. wide, 8 hp., speed 5 knots per hour; and 
Galeso, 10 m. long, 2.5 m. wide, 30 hp., speed 10 
knots per hour. Also 2 sail-boats. 
Aquarium and 5 large tanks. 
The Institute possesses for the culture of 
molluscs an experimental tract of 52,000 sq. 
meters in area in the first Seno del Mar Piccolo. 
A growing library. 

Staff: Director, Prof. Attilio Cerruti; Assistant, 
Dr. Emilio Vardaro; Custodian, attendant mari- 
ner, chauffeur-mechanic, and 10-12 workers on 
the experimental grounds for culture of molluscs 
in Mar Piccolo. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Besides various 
other rooms, there are 4 large rooms specially 
set aside for students and guests. It is intended 
that any special research will be conducted in 
the laboratory designed for that particular kind 
of investigation. 

Income: Funds from the Ministry of Finances for 
the maintenances of boats, for the .supply of 
water, gas, electricity, etc., and, moreover, 
18,000 L per year. 

*.For the history of the Istituto see, Cerruti, A., L'lsti- 
tuto Demaniale di Biologia marina di Taranto, Ministero 
delle Finanze Direzione Generate del Demanio Pubblico 
e delle Aziende Patrimoniali, Taranto, 1932; L' Istituto 
Demaniale di Biologia marina di Taranto, Riv. Biol. vol. 
15, fasc. 3-4, Nov., 1933; and, L'Istituto di Biologia marina 
di Taranto, Intern. Revue Hydrobiol. Hydrograph., Bd. 29, 
Heft 3/4, 1933. 



136 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Provision for publication of results: Results of workers 
appear in Reviews, frequently under the name, 
"Contributions of R. Laboratorio di Biologia 
marina di Taranto." 

Istituto Geofisico di Trieste ('37) 

History or origiii: Founded in 1920, taking the 
place of the "Sezione Geofisica" dell'ex-Osserva- 
torio Marittimo. 

Location: Trieste, Viale R. Gessi 2 (150 meters 
from the sea). 

Organization to which attached: R. Comitato Talasso- 
grafico Italiano (Roma) c/o il Consiglio Nazionale 
delle Richerche. Viale delle Scienze, of which 
the Istituto is the active laboratory for physical 
and chemical researches. 

Purposes: Research, cruises. Additional duties: 
meteorological and seismological observations. 

Scope of activities: Dynamical and physical 
oceanography, chemistry of sea water. 

Equipment: Chemical laboratory, physical labora- 
tory, seismologic station, meteorologic observa- 
tory, library. Research boats are occasionally 
furnished by the Royal Navy. 

Staff: Director, Prof. F. Vercelli, physics; Prof. M. 
Picotti, Chemist, chemistry; Dr. P. Caloi, Geo- 
physics, seismology; Dr. S. PoUi, assistant, 
physics; 2 technical and clerical; 2 maintenance 
and operation. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Only occasionally 
(1 to 2). 

Income: Grants from the R. Comitato Talassografico. 
The staff is directly paid from the same institution. 
In addition contributions from the National 
Research Council for instrumental equipment. 

Provision for publication of results: The members 
of the staff publish papers in various scientific 
periodicals: Memorie del R. Comitato Talasso- 
grafico; etc. The results of the cruises are 
published in Annali Idrografici, Genova; Mono- 
grafia della Commissione Int. del Mediterraneo 
(two volumes). 

Ufficio Idrografico del Magistrate alia Acque 
a Venezia ('37) 

History or origin: Established 1908. 

Location: Venezia. 

Organization to which attached: Independent state 
institution. 

Purposes: Research, mareographic and lagoonal, 
is provided in: Chemico-physical laboratory, 
Maritime Section, at S. Nicolo di Lido (Venezia). 



The Office actually collects and elaborates the 
mareographs installed in the lagoons and along 
the Venetian shore; it also takes note of the rise 
and fall of water in the lagoons. 

Scope of activities: Hydrography, meteorology, 
assistance in public works. 

Equipment: Important library. 

Staff: A director. Chairman Luigi Miliani, several 
civil engineers, a chemist. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Only occasionally. 

Income: 1 million lire. 

Provision for publication of results: BoUettino Idro- 
grafico: part 1, monthly; collections of materials 
of observations; part 2, annual: first elaboration 
of collected data; eventual publication of mareo- 
graphs and studies on lagoons. 

Latvia 

Hidrografiska Dala, Jurniecibas Departaments, 
Finansu Ministrija (Hydrographic Section, Ma- 
rine Department, Ministry of Finance) ('37) 

Location: Valdemara iela Nr. 1-a, Riga. 

Staff: Head of the Hydrographic Section, K. Purns. 

Equipment: 

StJRVEYINQ VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICEB8 CBBW 

HiDOGBAFS 450 2 13 

Hydrobiological Station of the University of 
Latvia ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1924. 

Location: In the center of the city of Riga. 

Organization to which attached: University of Latvia, 
of which the Station is an institute, connected 
with the Institute of Systematic Zoology, under 
one Director, Professor Dr. Embrik Strand. 

Purposes: Major, research; instruction in oceanog- 
raphy. 

Scope of activities: Researches in hydrography, on 
samples collected in the Gulf of Riga and in the 
Baltic {cfr. Folia Zoologica et Hydrobiologica, I, 
p. 53 and 149, III, p. 250, IV, p. 58 and 271, V, 
p. 38 (1929-1933), VII, p. 30 (1934), VIII, p. 288 
(1935), IX, p. 84 (1936)); biology and distribution 
of marine animals, zoo- and phytoplankton. 
(Also limnological researches.) 

Staff: Scientific: Director, Professor Dr. Embrik 
Strand; Adjunkt, Cand. rer. nat. Viktor Ozolins; 
Laboratory assistant, N. Lisova. Maintenance 
and operation: 1. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Seven, in addition 
to the Institution's staff, can be accommodated. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— ITALY, LATVIA, LITHUANIA, MONACO, NETHERLANDS 137 



Income: Contributions from the faculty of science of 
the University. 

Provision for publication of results: Professor Dr. 
Embrik Strand has founded and publishes the 
series "Folia Zoologica et Hydrobiologica" of 
which eight volumes have been issued. The 
ninth will be completed in 1937. Moreover, 
papers have been published in various scientific 
periodicals. 

Lithuania 

Susisiekimo Ministerija, Uosto Valdyba (Ministry 
of Communication, Harbor Oflace) ('37) 

Location: Malku gatv^ Nr. 32, Klaija^da. 

Staff: Director of the Harbour Office, Inzinierius 
Balys Slizys. Chief of the Technical Service, 
Inzinierius Vosylius Rimdzius. First assistant 
engineer, Inzinierius Nikalojus Stonis. 

Equi-pment: 

BURVEYINQ VESSELa DISPLACEMENT OFPICEBS CREW 

Perktjnas 194 2 10 

Monaco 
Musee Oceanographique de Monaco ('37) 

History or origin: Created and endowed in 1906 by 
S. A. S. Albert the First, Prince of Monaco, and 
recognized by the French Government as a public 
utility on May 16, 1906. 

Location: Principality of Monaco, Monaco-Ville. 

Organization to which attached: Branch of I'Institut 
Oceanographique, central office of which is in 
Paris. 

Purposes: Research and oceanographic exhibition. 

Scope of activities: Researches in physical and 
biological oceanography (aquarium). 

Equipment: 3 exhibition halls: (a) zoological 
oceanography; (b) physical oceanography; (c) 
applied oceanography. Large marine aquarium 



(warm water animals). Laboratories and study 
aquaria. A small steamer, L'Eider, length 18 
meters, contains 8 beds, 4 forward, 4 aft. 

Staff: Director, M. Jules Richard; Laboratory sub- 
director, MM. L. Sirvent and Dr. M. Oxner; 
Preparator, M. Giauffret (goes out with boat) ; Li- 
brarian, M. E. Comet; Skipper, M. Le Berrigand; 
Engineer, M. C. Calleri. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The Museum 
is open every day without exception to the public 
from 10-12, 2-5, from February 1 to October 31; 
2-4 from November 1 to January 1. An entrance 
fee of 8 francs gives the privilege of visiting exhi- 
bition halls and aquaria. Use of the laboratories 
is granted to scientific men and investigators of 
all nationalities, permission for which is obtained 
upon written request to the director, indicating 
the nature and purpose of the work contemplated. 
Scholarships have been established by the 
founder and the Council of Administration to 
permit workers to spend definite periods (usually 
one month) at the Museum. These are granted 
by the Council of Administration and the Com- 
mittee of Perfectionnement, on approval of the 
director. Workers are permitted to make ex- 
peditions on L'Eider on certain days and hours 
fixed by the director. 

Income: Sources: Derived mostly from admission 
fees. The funds left by S. A. S. Albert were 
affected adversely by the dechne in the franc. 
Budget is a part of that of I'Institut Oceano- 
graphique. 

Amount: For 1931 the amount was about 
860,000 francs. 

Provision for publication of results: Bulletin de 
I'Institut Oceanographique, Carte Generale 
Bathjmi^trique des Oceans, second edition. Les 
Resultats des Campagnes Scientifiques de S. A. S. 
Prince Albert ler de Monaco. 



NETHERLANDS TO YUGOSLAVIA, INCLUSIVE 



Netherlands 

Koninklijk Nederlandsch Meteorologisch Instituut, 

Section of Oceanography and Maritime 

Meteorology ('37) 

History or origin: January 31, 1854. 

Location: De Bilt. 

Organization to which attached: Ministry of Public 
Works (Waterstaat). 

Purposes and scops of activities: Research in me- 
teorology, oceanography, and geophysics, and 



application of the results in the .special interest 
of agriculture, oceanic and aerial navigation, 
industry and commerce. 

The recent expedition of the Willebrord 
Snellius to the Netherlands East Indies was 
organized by two scientific societies, but under 
the leadership of Commander van Riel, then 
director of the section of oceanography and 
maritime meteorology. 
Equipment: Full equipment for meteorological and 
geophysical research at De Bilt, for meteorology 



138 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



also at four other observatories. Some oceano- 
graphical instruments available. Instruments for 
research in meteorology on the oceans are owned 
by the ships' companies. 

Staff: Director in chief of Institute, Prof. E. van 
Everdingen, Jr. Section of Oceanography, Direc- 
tor Coram. H. Keyser; Dir. Adj. Lr. Coram. J. A. 
van Duynen Montijn. Technical and clerical, 7. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Reading room 
and library assistance available. 

Income: Sources: From State funds. 

Amount: Budget of whole Institute fl. 187,148.-. 

Provision for publication of results: 

Large publications 

K.N.M.I. No. 104. Oceanographische en me- 
teorologische waarnemingen in den Indischen 
Oceaan; Tabellen, Kaarten, Supplementen. 

K.N.M.I. No. 110. Oceanographische en me- 
teorologische waarnemingen in den Atlantischen 
Oceaan; Tabellen en Kaarten. 

K.N.M.I. No. 115. Oceanographische en me- 
teorologische waarnemingen in de Chineesche 
Zeeen en in het westelijk gedeelte van den 
Noord Stillen Oceaan; Kaarten. 
Yearly publications (provisionally suspended) 
K.N.M.I. No. 107, 107% 107''. Monthly Meteoro- 
logical Data for 10° squares in the Oceans. 

Miscellaneous 

K.N.M.I. No. 102. Mededeelingen en Verhan- 

delingen. 

(Results of some oceanographic observations 
made by the Fishery Service in the North Sea 
are published in the Bulletin Hydrographique 
of the Int. Council for the Exploration of the 
Sea, Copenhagen.) 

Zoologisch Station der Nederlandsche Dierkundige 
Vereeniging ('37) 

History or origin: The original Station of the Nether- 
land Zoological Society, dating from 1876, was 
a small wooden building. It was used during 
summer only and was erected every year at an- 
other place on the Dutch coast. It was thus in 
operation from 1876 until 1889 and much work, 
famous then, was done in it, e.g. the oyster- 
investigations in the river Schelde. 

In 1890 a brick building was erected at Den 
Helder, at the principal out- and inlet to the 
Zuiderzee. The building was the private prop- 
erty of the Zoological Society, but the main- 



tenance of the Station was made possible through 
governmental support only. The Government 
namely hired most of the rooms for its new 
Rijksinstituut voor Biologisch Visscherijonderzoek 
(Government Institution for biological Fisheries 
Research). Dr. P. P. C. Hoek, well known as a 
fisheries expert, a carcinologist, and for his work 
as a secretary to the International Council for 
the Exploration of the Sea, became director of 
both Fisheries Research Institution and Zoological 
Station. 

In 1902 was given to the Fisheries Research 
Institution the execution of the Dutch part of the 
program of the International Council and from 
that year onward a staff of investigators worked 
at Den Helder for a number of years: Dr. J. 
Boeke, Dr. P. J. van Breemen, Dr. H. C. Delsman, 
Dr. A. C. J. van Goor, Ir. F. Liebert, Dr. W. E. 
Ringer, and Dr. J. J. Tesch, while Dr. H. C. 
Redeke was in charge of the work. But from 
about 1912 onward and especially during and 
after the war the fine organization was gradually 
broken down, the work became more and more 
decentralized and most of the marine biological 
part of it came to an end. From 1926-1928 the 
investigations on fresh water fisheries only 
remained at Den Helder. 

In 1928 this last part of the Institution too, 
still with Dr. Redeke as director, was taken 
away from Den Helder and the Zoological Station 
became free. The Netherland Zoological Society 
now obtained governmental support for the 
reorganization of the Station. From 1931 onward 
it became a Marine Biological Laboratory for 
purely scientific work under the Ministry of 
Education, Arts, and Sciences, with Dr. J. Verwey 
as director. Stress was laid on close cooperation 
with the Dutch Universities. 

The building was modified, a small but good 
aquarium installed, a ship built, and now the 
laboratory provides good possibilities for scientific 
research. From 1937 lodgings for investigators 
is provided. 

Location: Den Helder, Holland, at the mouth of the 
Zuiderzee. 

Organization to which attached: The Station, boat, 
library, are all the property of the Netherlands 
Zoological Society, but the Government (Minis- 
try of Education, Arts, and Sciences) provides 
most of its support. 

Purposes: Marine biological investigations in the 
widest sense. The Station at the same time 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— NETHERLANDS, NORWAY 



139 



represents the marine laboratory for students as 
University Extension. 

Scope of activities: Marine biological, ecological, 
physiological investigations in the southern North 
Sea, especially the neighborhood of Den Helder. 
Den Helder is a naval base and advantages are 
derived from the presence of the Navy. The 
investigations from 1931 onward have specially 
dealt with a number of physiological investiga- 
tions, with bio-ecological problems of some 
invertebrates and algae, and with investigations 
on growth, maturity, and migrations of some 
cephalopods and fishes. 

Equipment: Laboratory building with chemical 
laboratory, library, aquarium, rooms for investi- 
gators, etc. Research vessel Max Weber, a 
small cutter of 13 meters length. 

Staff: Scientific: Director, Dr. J. Verwey. Students 
and lecturers from the four Dutch universities 
work at the Laboratory especially from May to 
October, but a few practically all the year round. 
Technical and clerical assistants: 3. 
Maintenance and operation : 2, including skipper 
of boat. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: From 1937 on- 
ward lodgings for 9 persons can be provided. 
Laboratory can accommodate fifteen investiga- 
tors, except during a few weeks in summer when 
courses for students are being held, when ten 
can be accommodated. 

Income: 12,700 Dutch florins, chiefly from the 
Ministry of Education, Arts and Sciences, and 
further from some more or less private sources. 

Provision for publication of results: Archives N^er- 
landaises de Zoologie (the journal of the Dutch 
Zoological Society). In it papers from other 
institutions also appear. 

Department van Defensie Afdeeling Hydrografie 

(Department of Defense, Hydrographic 

Section) ('37) 

Location: 147, Badhuisweg, 's Gravenhage. 

Staff: Hydrographer, Schout bij nacht J. C. F. 

Hooykaas; Assistant Hydrographer, Kapitein 

luit. ter zee R. van Tijen. 
Equiptnent: 

BURTBTINQ VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

Tydeman 1,160 8 96 

WiLLEBRORD Snellitts 930 8 76 

ElLERTS DE Ha.^n 312 3 13 

Hydrograaf 260 3 13 

Ebidantts 996 8 80 



Norway 

Fiskeridirektoratet, Avdeling for Havundersokelser 
(Marine Research Branch) ('37) 

History or origin: Established 1900. 

Location: Fosswinckelsgate 6 & 8 (Marine Biological 
Laboratory), and Fosswinckelsgate 11 (Oceano- 
graphical Laboratory), Bergen. 

Organization to which attached: Fisheries Directorate, 
under the Ministry of Commerce. 

Purposes: Marine research. 

Scope of activities: Indicated under the staff, after 
names of advisors and assistants. 

Equipment: 2 research vessels: 

The JoHAN Hjort, a motor cutter of 70 tons 
gross, length 78 feet, engine (semi-Diesel, 2 cyl. 
2 str.), 120 hp., speed 9 knots, crew 7, including 
skipper and cook, staff generally 3^, maximum 5, 
in commission 10 months. 

The Virgo, a motor launch of 35 feet, engine 
30 hp., speed 8 knots, crew 2, staff 2, (for fjord 
work), in commission 2-3 months during several 
shorter periods. 

Staff: 3 advisors: Mr. Paul Bjerkan, biology of 
sprat, plaice etc.; Dr. Sven Runnstrom, herring 
biology; Mr. Oscar Sund, biology of cod and 
other gadoids. 2 biological assistants: Mr. Gmi- 
nar RoUefsen (biology of the cod); Mr. Einar 
Koefoed (fish larvae, etc.). 1 oceanographical 
assistant, Mr. Jens Eggvin. 2 technical assist- 
ants: Mr. Thv. Rasmussen (draughtsman and 
herring age determination, etc.); Mr. Kr. Wil- 
helmsen (salinity determination etc.). 3 clerical 
assistants. 2 technical assistants. 

Provisions for visiting iiwestigators: Only improvised. 

Income: Source: From the government. Amount: 
About kr. 85,000. From funds, about kr. 70,000. 

Provision for publications of results: Publication: 
Report on Norwegian Fishery and Marine In- 
vestigations. (Fiskeridirektoratets Skrifter, Ser. 
Havundersokelsen. ) 

Det geofysiske Institutt ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1917. A building 

was erected in 1926-28 by contributions chiefl}'- 

from States Minister Mowinckel. 
Location: City of Bergen, near Puddefjord. 
Organization to which attached: Bergens Museum, of 

which the institution is a department. 
Purposes: Research on geophysical problems and 

instruction in various branches of geophysics. 
Scope of activities: Researches in physical and dy- 



140 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



namical oceanography, meteorology, terrestrial 
magnetism, and related subjects. 

Equipment: 1 large building 210 feet by 44 feet. 2 
stories and basement throughout. 3 stories over 
central part with a large pent-house on top. A 
tunnel, 360 feet long and 16 feet wide in the 
rock 50 feet below the basement. 

1 research vessel: Armatjer Hansen, 57 tons 
gross, 76 feet long, 19 feet beam, motor 2 cyl. 
2 str., 80 hp, speed 8 knots, complete outfit for 
sailing. 

1 motor launch (Arnulf). 

Staff: Scientific: Director, Prof. Dr. B. Helland- 
Hansen (oceanography) ; Prof. Dr. J. A. B. 
Bjerknes (meteorology); Prof. Dr. B. Trumpy 
(terrestrial magnetism and cosmical physics); 
Dr. J. E. Fjeldstad (mathematics); Dr. H. Mosby 
(physics); Mr. K. F. Wasserfall (terrestrial mag- 
netism). Maintenance and operation: 6. Cleri- 
cal and technical assistants: 9. 

Provision for visiting investigators: 10 can be ac- 
commodated. 

Income: Sources: From the State and other sources. 
Amount: Financial year 1935-36, Kr. 120,000. 

Provision for puhlication of results: Bergens Mu- 
seum's publications and Geofysiske Pubhkasjoner. 

Statens Fiskeriforsoksstasjon. (Official Norwegian 
Fisheries Research Station) ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1891. Attached to 
Fisheries Directorate in 1899. 

Location: Thormohlensgt. 66, Bergen. 

Organization to which attached: Fisheries Directorate. 

Purposes: Investigations concerning the fishing 
industry. Improvement of known processes and 
development of new. Scientific research and 
application of science to practice. 

Scope of activities: The fisheries and all products and 
problems cormected with these. Also cold storage 
of Norwegian fruit. 

Equipment: Rather overcrowded old, wooden build- 
ing. Chemical laboratories with ordinary, good 
equipment, as balances, microscopes, autoclaves, 
refractometers, Hilger vitameter, tintometers, 
precision viscosimeter, centrifuges, divers other 
equipment. Experiniental cold store with 10 
chambers, temperatures down to — 20°C. Library 
with most modern literature concerning the scope 
of activities of the station, 30-40 technical and 
scientific periodicals. 



Staff: Permanent staff: Director: Chemical engineer 
Olav Notevarp. Konsulent: Chemical engi- 
neer Harald Weedon. Assistant: Sverre 
Hjorth-Hansen. Assistant: Technical chemist 
Alfred Monssen. Laboratory assistant: 
Temporary staff: 4 chemical engineers, 1 me- 
chanical engineer, 1 civil engineer, 4 technical 
chemists, 6 other assistants. (Note: All "engi- 
neers" are technical university graduates.) 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Poor, as building 

is very crowded. 
Income: Permanent budget; Temporary budget. 

Source: Norwegian Government. 
Provision for publication of results: Arsveretning 
vedkommende Norges Fiskerier, Fiskeridirek- 
toratets skrifter, serie Teknologiske undersokelser. 
(Report on Technological Research concerning 
Norwegian Fish Industry.) 

Universitetets biologiske stasjon, Dr0bak ('37) 

History or origin: Established 1894. 

Location: On the Oslo-fjord in the village of Dr0bak, 

about 30 km south of the city of Oslo. 
Organization to which attached: University of Oslo, 

of which the station is a special department. 
Purposes: Instruction : General instruction in marine 

zoology and botany, and in elementary micro- 
anatomical research methods. 

General purpose: Marine research in every 

direction as well as biological laboratory work. 
Scope of activities: Biology: plankton, fishes, bottom 

fauna and flora, microscopic anatomy, ecology. 
Equipment: One building, 3 floors, crossbuilt, area 

100 sq. m. 1 research motor boat, 30 feet, 

equipped to work to a depth 100-150 fathoms 

m the neighborhood of the station. 
Staff: Scientific: Director, Prof. Dr. Hjalmar Broch. 

Teaching committee: The Director and Prof. 

Dr. Kristine Bonnevie; Prof. Dr. H. H. Gran; 

Prof. Dr. Johan Hjort; Prof. Dr. Otto Lous Mohr. 

Maintenance and operation: 1. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: 3 tables. 
Income: Source: Yearly income from the Norwegian 

State. 

Amount: Kr. 2,200. 
Provision for publication of results: No special 

publications. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— NORWAY 



141 



Bergens Museums biologiske stasjon (Marine 

Biological Station of the Bergen 

Museum)^ ('37) 

History or origin: Erected in 1920-22 to take the 
place of a small station on Puddefjord in Bergen. 
The latter station was erected in 1891 but, because 
of the contamination of the water around Bergen, 
it was found necessary either to abandon the 
station or to find a site for a new one. 

Location: On the Island of Herdla on Herlo Fjord, 
27 kilometers north of Bergen. As the water 
here does not freeze during the winter, investiga- 
tions may be prosecuted throughout the year. 

Organization to which attached: Bergen Museum, 
zoological department. 

Purposes: Instruction and research in Marine 
Biology. 

Scope of activities: As far as possible to carry through 
all-sided marine research by facilitating the 
research possibilities of visiting scientists. The 
institution in itself has no special tasks, the 
members of the staff working with their personal 
problems. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory building. The ground floor 
contains 3 double and 2 single laboratories and a 
big room for courses of instruction. When no 
courses are going on this room is arranged so as 
to give accommodations for 5 research workers. 
The upper floor contains the library and 9 bed- 
rooms, 8 double and 1 single, for visitors. The 
basement contains tanks for keeping somewhat 
large organisms, an engine room, etc. This main 
part of the building is 12.3 meters broad and 19.3 
meters long. At one end of the building a smaller 
section has been added, the ground plan of which 
is 8.2 meters by 9.3 meters in dimensions. It 
contains a mess-room for the scientists and an 
apartment for the keeper of the station. 

There is an excellent salt-water system and 
also a fresh-water reservoir, which provide for a 
variety of investigations. Among the rooms 
aside from those of more general purposes, the 
laboratory for physiology and hydrography and 
the room for balances and chemical supplies 
should be mentioned. 

There is also a research vessel, the Herman 
Friele, which is about 23 tons gross, 4.27 meters 

' For full information on the Biological Marine Station 
of the Bergen Museum, see August Brinkmann, "Die neue 
biologische Meeresstation des Museums zu Bergen," 
Bergens Museums Aarbok 1921-22, Naturvidenskabelig 
Raekke, Nr. 1. 



beam and 14.5 meters long. The height of the 
side above the water is 2.13 meters. The station 
possesses a motor launch and several row boats. 

Staff: Director, Professor Dr. August Brinkmann, 
the chief of the Zoological Department of the 
Bergen Museum. Amanuensis, cand. real. Ditlef 
Rustad. 2 technical assistants. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: During the 
summer when no classes are being given, ten 
visitors can be accommodated. In the winter 
there are provisions for five. The work places 
are free to all competent visitors, but Norwegians 
have preferential rights. With a table, there is 
supplied the necessary material, aquaria and 
ordinary laboratory equipment, together with a 
small quantity of the most common chemicals 
and dyes. The cost of consumption above this 
must be met by the visitor him.self; although 
certain chemicals — upon agreement — can be ob- 
tained at cost from the laboratory's supplies. 
Visitors must bring their own optical and dissect- 
ing instruments, as well as all special apparatus, 
and must likewise provide themselves with glass- 
ware for the preservation of material which they 
take with them from the Station (the laboratory's 
glassware can not be taken). 

Income: Source: From the State. Amount: About 
kr. 25,000 per year. 

Provisions for publication of results: The usual me- 
dium of publication is in the reports of the Bergen 
Museum (Bergens Museums Arbok; B. M. 
Skrifter). 

Papers published elsewhere after agreement 
with the Director must give plain indication, 
either in the title or in the uitroduction, that 
the work has been made at the Station, and 
separate copies must be sent to the Station. 

Sjokartverket (Nautical Charts Office) ('37) 

Location: Oslo. 

Staff: Director, VPL. Premier Loitnant Rolf Kjaer. 
Head of 1st Section (provisional) (Calculation, 
construction, draftmg, etc., of new charts, 
editions) VPL Kaptein J. Z. Lundqui-st, R.N. 
(retired) . 
Head of 2nd Section (Keeping up to date of plates 
and charts, coloring of light sectors) Kom- 
mandorkaptein A. Boehmer, R.N. 
Head of 3rd Section (Notices to Mariners, Sailing 
Directions, Library) VPL Kaptein S. Bjerk- 
naes, R.N. (retired). 



142 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



In charge of Vessels, Archives of originals and 

plane-tables, Kaptein H. A. Buhre, R.N. 

(retired). 
Magnetic work. Instruments, Tides and Currents, 

Loitnant F. Vogt, R.N.R. 
In charge of special work, Loitnant R. Kjaer, 

R.N.R. 
Equipment: 

SURVEYING VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

Hydbograf 98 1 5 

WiLHELM HtJTH 98 1 5 

RosT 1 4 

7 accommodation vessels, 9 motor boats. 

Troms0 Museum ('37) 

History or origin: Founded 1872. 

Location: Troms0. 

Organization to which attached: Independent. 

Purposes: Biological and archeological investigations 
and museum. Hydrographical laboratory and 
investigations in connection with the biological 
researches. Regular hydrographical investiga- 
tions of the Troms0 area. 

Equipment: 1 boat Sparre Schneider, 38 feet, 
with necessary equipment. Laboratory for chem- 
ical and colorimetric determinations. 

Staff: Director, Mr. Soot Ryen. Scientific: 2. 
Technical and clerical: 2. Maintenance and 
operation: 1. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 

Income: Sources: State and other receipts. 
Amount: Kr. 26,000. 

Provision for publication of results: Troms0 Museums 
Skrifter. 

Trondheims Biologiske Station ('37) 

History or origin: Foimded in 1900. 

Location: Trondheim. 

Organization to which attached: Private, subsidized 
and controlled by the State. 

Purposes: Hydrographical and biological investiga- 
tions in the fjords and coasts. 

(Scope of activities: Coastal water and adjacent ocean. 
Hatching of plaice. 

Equipment: 1 boat, Gunnerus, motorship. 

Staff: Director, Mr. C. F. Dons; Technical and 
clerical, and maintenance and operation 3. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Accommodation 
for four students. 

Income: Sources: Private, Municipal and State 
subvention. 

Amount: Kr. 28,000. 



Provision for publication of results: "Meddelelser' 
(Published by Det Kgl. Norske Vidensk. selskab, 
Trondheim). 

Poland 

Biuro Hydrograficzne Marynarki Wojennej 
(Hydrographic Office of the Navy) ('37) 

Location: u. Chalubinskiego, 3, Warsaw. 
Staff: Hydrographer, Komandor podporucznik Ar- 
thur Reyman. 
Head of Surveys and Researches, Kapitan Mary- 
narki Ignacy Pogorzelski. 
Head of Supply Service for Navigation, Porucznik 
Marynarki Tadensz Borysiewicz. 
Equipment: 

SCRVEYINQ VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CEBW 

PoMORZANiN (ex- Mbwa) 200 3 37 

Portugal 

Aquario Vasco da Gama-Estaflo de Biologia 
Maritima ('37) 

History or origin: Built in 1898 as a public Aquarium 
for the series of ceremonies in commemoration of 
the fourth centenary of the voyage of Vasco da 
Gama to India. After the ceremonies, the 
building was delivered to the State (Ministry of 
Marine, to whom is assigned the administration 
of Navigation and Fisheries). Later on, about 
1908, the "Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciencias 
Naturals," whose aim is the promotion of research 
in scientific natural history, took charge of the 
building in order to establish in it a marine bio- 
logical station. After many difficulties, owing to 
shortage of funds and to the Great War, the 
Ministry of Marine again took charge of the sta- 
tion and it was officially organized (May, 1919) 
as an independent scientific institution for the 
study of the sea, mainly connected with fisheries. 

Location: Dafundo, near Lisbon, about 10 km 
from the mouth, on the right margin of the 
River Tagus. 

Organization to ivhich attached: Connected with the 
Fisheries Administration of the Ministry of 
Marine. Autonomous administration by a board 
formed by an officer of the Navy, as President, 
appointed by the Ministry, the Director and 
Naturalist of the Station, and a secretary. 

Purposes: General research on the sea near Portugal 
(biology and oceanography). 

Scope of activities: Researches in oceanography near 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— NORWAY, POLAND, PORTUGAL, RUMANIA 



143 



Portugal, eventually carried to a distance, as for 
instance near Madera, the Straits of Gibraltar, 
and the Morocco Coast. Biology of useful fishes 
(sardine, tunnies, hake) and of plankton. 

Equip7nent: 1 laboratory building (same as the public 
aquarium), 1 floor with eight rooms used as 
individual laboratories. 

Library. The resources of the University of 
Lisbon and the libraries of its different institutes 
arc more or less available for the workers, as a 
supplement to the limited facilities at the aquar- 
ium. Tank rooms for fresh and brackish water 
animals. 

Staff: Director, Dr. Alfredo Ramalho. Naturalists, 
R. Boto, B. Gongalves, and H. Vilela. 2 clerical 
and technical assistants. 2 maintenance and 
operation workers. For aquarium: 2 engineers; 
5 fishermen; 1 guard. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: There is room 
for 2 or 3. 

Income: For 1936 the total receipts amounted to 
about 240,000 Escudos (one Escudo equivalent, 
at the present rate of exchange, to about 5 U. S. A. 
cents). 200,000 from the State and the remaining 
from the entrance fees in the aquarium (40,000 
visitors, not taking account of the pupils of 
schools). 

Provisions for the publications of results: The papers 
are generally published in different journals, only 
exceptionally printed by the Station. All arc 
distributed in exchange to similar scientific 
institutions as "Travaux de la Station de Biologic 
Maritime de Lisbonne." 

Research Ship Albacora: A ship of the same 
type and dimensions of Armauer Hansen of the 
Geophysical Institute of Bergen; displacement 
about 135 tons, with sails and 60 H.P. motor; 
winches for work to a depth of about 3,000 meters; 
small laboratory. Built in 1924, in Norway, 
under the scientific supervision of Professor B. 
Helland-Hansen, of the Geophysical Institute in 
Bergen. The ship belongs to the Portuguese 
Navy. 

Direccao de Hidrografia, Navegagao e Meteorologia 

Nautica (Office of Hydrography, Navigation 

and Nautical Meteorology) ('37) 

Location: Navy Department, Lisbon. 

Staff: Director, Capitao de Mar e Guerra Augusto 

Fernandes Lopes. 
Head of 1st Division, Capitao de Fragata Manuel 

da Cunha Rego Chaves. 



Head of 1st Section, Capitao de Corveta Amadeu 

Julio de Sousa Correia. 
Assistant of the 2nd Section, Primeiro tenente 

Manuel Zagalo da Silva. 
Assistant, 3rd Section, Capitao do Fragata Artur 

Jose da Conceigao Santos. 
Head of 2nd Division (Nautical Meteorology) 

Capitao de Fragata Joao Antonio Correia 

Pereira. 
Heads of Sections, Meteorologists Primeiro te- 
nente Joaquim da Costa and Primeiro tenente 

Jos6 Mendes da Rocha Zagalo. 
Equipment: 

SURVEYINQ VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERa CREW 

5 D'OoTtJBRO 1,365 10 89 

Albacora 135 1 14 

BfiRRio 498 5 48 

Beira 405 5 27 

Rumania 

Romania, Serviciul Hidrografic al Marinei de Razboi 
(Hydrographic Service of the Navy) ('37) 

Location: Constantza. 

Staff: Chief of the Hydrographic Service, Capitan 
Alexandra Stoianovici. 

Statia Zoologica Maritima "Regele Ferdinand I" 

(Maritime Zoological Station "King 

Ferdinand I") ('37) 

History: Founded by Prof. I. Borcea of the Faculty 
of Science at lasi on March 1, 1926, with the 
assistance of the Ministers of Public Instruction, 
Dr. C. Angclescu and Dr. N. Lupu, and 
through the efforts of Prof. A. P. Baznosanu of 
the Faculty of Science in Bucharest. 

Location: Village of Agigea, Province of Constantza, 
between the railroad station "General M. lonescu" 
and Eforia baths. 

Organization to which attached: Ministry of National 
Education, Zoological Laboratory of the Univer- 
sity of lasi. 

Purposes: In particular the knowledge of the fauna 
of the Black Sea and of the neighboring lakes. 
The completion of students' zoological education. 

Equipment: Two principal buildings, one for the 
Director and one for the investigators; two 
smaller buildings, one for the administration and 
one for students (laboratory); and a small elec- 
trical plant. There are about 22 hectares of 
land. The equipment otherwise is very limited, 
a few mud dredges and a motor boat. 



144 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Staff: Scientific: Director, C. Motas, Professor of 
Zoology, University of lasi. 
Chief of Laboratory, Mrs. Dr. Lucia Borcea. 
Assistant: Mr. Sergiu Carausu. 
Administrative: An Administrator, a laboratory 
worker, two servants. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Two work 
tables, free lodging, food to be bought at the 
Station's restaurant which operates from June 
1 to October L 
Income: None. 

Results of investigations are published in the review, 
Annales scientifiques de I'Universit^ d'lassy 
(authors receive 50 copies free). 

Scotland 

Marine Laboratory of the Fishery Board 
for Scotland ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1882. 

Location: Aberdeen, Scottish east coast — principal 
trawl and great line-fishing port in Scotland. 

Organization to ivhich attached: Fishery Board for 
Scotland. 

Purposes: Fishery biological research. 

Scope of activities: The study of the stocks of market- 
able fishes and crustaceans in general, of the 
haddock, herring, and plaice species in particular 
and of all factors biological and physical affecting 
such stocks. Operations are carried out con- 
sistently over the whole continental plateau to 
the north of approximately Lat. 55°30' N. 
Occasional trawling, planktonic, and hydro- 
graphic surveys also being made to Faroe and 
Iceland waters. 

Equipment: One laboratory building. Wood Street, 
Terry, Aberdeen, "H" shaped, single floor, 
mcludes museum of marine fauna and large 
library of relevant literature. 

One aquarium building. Bay of Nigg, Aberdeen, 
with out-buildings (pimiping machinery, store 
rooms, etc.), tidal pond, two large concrete sea- 
water storage tanks. 

One deep-sea research vessel Explorer, Mersey 
class trawler, length 138 feet, breadth 21 feet, 
gross tonnage 324 tons, fitted with modern trawl- 
ing gear, echo sounder, and necessary oceano- 
graphic research equipment. 

Staff: Scientific: Superintendent, R. S. Clark, M.A., 
D.Sc, F.R.S.E. Naturalists, Senior Grade: H. 
Wood, M.A., Ph.D.; J. B. Tait, B.Sc, Ph.D., 
F.R.S.E. Naturalists, Junior Grade: S. G. Gib- 



bons, B.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S.E.; D. S. Raitt, B.Sc, 
Ph.D., F.L.S., F.R.S.E.; A. Ritchie, B.Sc, Ph.D.; 
B. B. Rae, B.Sc; J. H. Eraser, M.Sc (proba- 
tioner naturalist). 

There are nine technical assistants and five 
non-technical helpers. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: No special 
provision exists for visiting investigators. 

Income: Finances entirely by H. M. Government. 

Provision for publication of results: A survey of each 
year's work with the general application of results 
is published amiually in the Board's report. 
More detailed reports of particular researches are 
issued separately in a series referred to as "Fish- 
eries Scotland, Sci. Invest." All pubhcations 
issued by the Board are printed and published by 
H. M. Stationery Oflace, 120 George Street, 
Edinburgh. On account of Scotland's participa- 
tion in the work of the International Council 
for the Exploration of the Sea reports and data 
relating to Scottish work also appear in the 
publications of that body. 

The Terry Research Station ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1929. 

Location: Aberdeen, Scotland. 

Organization to which attached: The Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research. The Torry 
Research Station is under the aegis of the Food 
Investigation Board of the Department. Head- 
c}uarters, 16 Old Queen Street, Westminister, 
London SW 1. 

Purposes and scope: Investigations of methods of 
handling, stowage, transport, storage and, in 
general, the preservation of fish and food. Re- 
searches into the associated basal physiological 
and biochemical problems. 

The Station's work is largely coordinated with 
researches connected with food at other organiza- 
tions under the Department of Scientific and 
Industrial Research. Cooperation in similar Em- 
pire researches is maintained. 

Equipment: A two story brick building, in Abbey 
Road, Torry, Aberdeen, containing offices and 
laboratories. A two story building of shed 
construction close by, containing experimental 
plant (cold stores, smoke curing kilns, oil extract- 
ing apparatus), further laboratories, workshops. 
A research vessel — City of Edinburgh — a 
steam drifter adapted for trawling and for certain 
laboratory operations, 84 ft. long, 18 ft. beam, 88 
gross tonnage. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— RUMANIA, SCOTLAND, SPAIN 



145 



Staff: Superintendent, Adrian Lumley. Senior Sci- 
entific Officers: George A. Reay, M.A., B.Sc, 
Ph.D.; J. A. Lovern, B.Sc, Pli.D. Junior Scien- 
tific Officers: J. Shewan, B.Sc, Pii.D.; A. Banks, 
B.Sc, Ph.D. 7 Technical and Laboratory as- 
sistants; 16 Industrial staff. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: No special 
provision. 

Income: Financed entirely by H. M. Government. 

Provision for publication of results: Survey of each 
year's work appears in the Annual Report of the 
Food Investigation Board. Occasionally special 
reports (on particular researches) and leaflets (for 
information of the fish industry) are jjublished. 

These above are printed and published through 
H. M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Ivings- 
way, London, W.C. 2. 

Scientific papers are published under authors' 
names in various scientific and technical journals, 
e.g. "Biochemical Journal," "Analyst," "Journal 
of the Society of Chemical Industry," "Ice and 
Cold Storage." 

Marine Biological Station, Keppel Pier, 
Millport ('37) 

History or origin: The original laboratory was a 
barge the Ark brought from the Forth by Sir 
John Murray in 1885, and drawn up on the shore 
near the present site. The Ark, replaced by a 
stone building in 1897, was destroyed by a storm 
in 1900. 

Location: Near Keppel Pier, on the south east 
corner of Cumbrae Island in the Firth of Clyde; 
about 1 mile from the town of ]\Iillport. 

Organization to which attached: Scottish Marine 
Biological Association. 

Purposes: Investigation of the fauna and flora of the 
Clyde Sea area and provisions of facilities for 
research and study for students and others inter- 
ested in such work. 

Scope of activities: Plankton investigations, growth 
of the diatom crop in relation to Calanus; growth, 
distribution, etc. of Calanus in relation to physico- 
chemical factors; growth, food and distribution of 
young herring, leading to the elucidation of the 
food chain on which the herring fishery depends. 
Quantitative studies of bivalves and Crustacea 
in sandy bays in relation to the food supply of 
inshore fishes. 

Equipment: Laboratory buUding, two floors, 30 
feet by 75 feet with 30 foot wing. Fresh sea 
water, gas, electric light and power. The labora- 



tory contains a Public Museum and Aquarium. 
Library appro.\imately 1500 volumes and 2000 
pamphlets. 

A motor boat M. B. Nautilus, 40 feet long, 
12 tons, 30 h.p. engine, equipped for trawling, 
sounding, townctting, etc. At the Station is an 
18 foot boat with 3J horse outboard motor. 

Staff: Scientific: Director, Richard Elmhirst; Bio- 
chemist, A. P. Orr, M.A., D.Sc, A.I.C.; Natu- 
ralist, Miss S. M. Marshall, D.Sc; Assistant 
Naturalist, Aubrey G. Nicholls, Ph.D. Mainte- 
nance and operation: Foreman, J. Peden; Labora- 
tory Assistant, E. Latham; Skipper and boatman, 
R. Kerr; Museum attendant, J. Shields; Boatman 
and cleaner, D. Burnie. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 1 research room, 
3 small cubicles, and the class room when not 
otherwise in u.se (the class room seats 36), give 
provision for about five workers. 

Plans for a new wing have now matured and 
it is hoped to start building in February, 1937, an 
extension parallel to the original building giving 
provision for the staff and five new work rooms 
as well as increased laboratory space. 

Income: Derived from subscriptions by members, 
subscriptions from various public bodies, dona- 
tions, sale of specimens, admissions to the museum 
and aquarium and a maintenance grant from the 
Development Commission. 

Provisions for publication of results: Summary in 
Annual Report and otherwise, chiefly in Journal 
Marine Biological A.ssociation as well as other 
journals. 

Spain 
Laboratorio Oceanografico de Canarias ('34) 

History or origin: E.stablished on November 8, 1928. 
A permanent laboratory has not yet been erected 
but one is contemplated for the relatively near 
future.'" 

Location: Las Palmas, Leon y Castillo 264, Canary 
Islands. 

Organization to which attached: Instituto Espanol 
de Oceanografia. 

Purposes and scope of activities: For the systematic 
investigations of the oceanographic and biological 
conditions in the vicinity of the Canary Islands. 

Equipment: At present the quarters are only tem- 
porary. 

'" Primeros trabajos del Laboratorio Oceanogrdfieo de 
Canarias por Luis Bell6n y Emma Barddn Mateu. Insti- 
tuto Espan. Oceanogr. Notas y Resumenes, ser. 2, no. 48, 
pp. 79, 29 figs., 193L 



146 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Staff: Luis Bellon Uriarte, Lie. Nat. Sci., Director; 
Emma Barddn Mateu, Lie. Nat. Sci. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Consult the 
director of the Institute Espanol de Oceanografia, 
Alcala 31, Madrid. 

Income: Contribution for the Government. 

Provision for publication of results: In the publica- 
tions of the Institute Espanol de Oceanograffa. 

Institute Espanol de Oceanografia ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1914.'^ 

Location: Madrid, Alcald 31. 

Organization to which attached: Subsecretaria de la 
Marina Civil, under the INIinisterio de Marina. 

Purposes: To study the physical, chemical, and 
biological conditions of the seas surrounding the 
Spanish Peninsula and apply the results obtained 
to the problems of the marine fisheries. 

Scope of activities: 1. General oceanography with 
special reference to fisheries and also the study 
of the physics, marine sediments, and the dynam- 
ics of the Spanish seas. 

2. Oceanographical chemistry (analysis of wa- 
ters and their elements), and industrial chemistry 
and its practical application to fish culture and 
to the preservation of fishes and their products. 

3. Marine biology, mainly its application to 
fi.sheries. 

4. Fishery economics and technology. 
Equipment: At the central offices in Madrid there 

are four laboratories, one each for oceanography, 
chemistry, general biology (prmcipally of economic 
value), and ichthyology. There is also a depart- 
ment for commerce and technology of fisheries. 
There are five coa.stal laboratories, at Santander, 
Palma de Mallorca, Malaga, Las Palmas (Canary 
Lslands), and Vigo. The latter has ju.st been 
established and is now in process of organization. 
For expeditions in waters adjacent to the Spanish 
Peninsula and Spanish protectorate and dominion 
zones, the naval coast guard vessel Xauen is 
used. Some boats provided with a motor are 
used by the laboratories. 
Staff: Director, Professor Odon de Buen; Sub- 
director, Professor Rafael de Buen. 
Oceanographical department: Chief, Professor 
Rafael de Buen. Assistant, vacant. Assistant 
preparator, Jaime Magaz, Lie. Nat. Sci. 

" Orgaiiizaci6n y labor efectuada por el Institute Es- 
panol de Oceanografia. Institute Espanol de Oceano- 
grafia, Notas y Resiimenes, series 2, no. 62, pp. 1-122, 11 
pis., November, 1932. 



Chemistry department: Chief, Professor Jose 
Cerezo. Director, Frutos A. Gila, Lie. Ch. 
Assistant, Olimpio Gomez Ibafiez, Lie. Ch. 
Assistant preparator, Antonio Rodriguez de las 
Heras, Lie. Ch. 
Biological Department: Chief, Dr. Fernando de 
Buen. Director, Dr. Victoriano Rivera. As- 
sistant, vacant. Assistant preparator, Maria 
de las Mercedes Garcia Lopez, Lie. Nat. Sci. 
Commerce and technology of fisheries: Chief, 
Cap. de Navio, Jos6 Maria Rolddn. Assistant, 
Jimena Quiros, Lie. Nat. Sci. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: See the account 

of the coastal laboratories. 
Income: Sources: From the budget of the State, 
tickets for aquarium and museum, sale of publica- 
tions, renting of work rooms at the laboratories, 
aided by fishery organizations. 
Provisions for puhlication of results: Memorias, 
Resultados de Campanas y Trabajos, Notas y 
Resiimenes, Boletin de Pesca, now Boletin de 
Oceanografia y Pesca. 

Laboratorio de Malaga ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1914 in conjunction 
with the Laboratorio de Palma de Mallorca to 
offer opportunity for study of the interesting 
oceanographic and biological conditions in the 
vicinity of the Strait of Gibraltar. The building 
is temporary. A large laboratory is to be con- 
structed near the present site. 

Location: Mdlaga, south coast, near the extreme 
west of the Mediterranean. 

Organization to which attached: Instituto Esi)aiiol 
de Oceanografia. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Marine biology and 
oceanography. Oceanographical conditions of 
the region that have been studied during various 
years. Many species of fish have been collected. 
There are now enough bottom samples to make 
possible the preparation and publication of a 
chart of the lithology of the sea bottom in the 
area adjacent to Miilaga. 

Equipment: Laboratories for oceanography, chem- 
istry, and biology. A museum, a photographic 
room, a boat Principe Alberto de Monaco, 
with an auxiliary motor of 35 hp., and 16 tons 
displacement. 

Staff: Director, Alvaro de Miranda, Lie. Cienc. Nat.; 
Assistant, Angel Alconada, Lie. Cienc. Nat. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The laboratory 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— SPAIN 



147 



has been visited by many Spanish and foreign 
professors and students of the universities of 
Madrid and Granada and other centers of learn- 
ing. Courses have been organized for the study 
of the different aspects of the sea. 
Provision for publication of results: In the pubUca- 
tions of the Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia. 

Laboratorio de Palma de Mallorca ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1906 by the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History. 

Location: Palma, Island of Mallorca, Belearic Is- 
lands, in the Mediterranean. 

Organization to which attached: Instituto Espanol 
de Oceanografia. (Since 1919.) 

Purposes and scope of activities: To send live marine 
animals to the universities and other institutions 
of learning, to acquaint the students with the 
problems of marine biology, to conduct oceano- 
graphic investigations and experiments in the 
culture of marine animals, and to give needed help 
to foreign and Spanish naturalists who desire to 
work there. The temperature and salinity of the 
adjacent waters have been studied, expeditions 
have been made on the gim boat Vasco Nunez 
DE Balboa to study hydrographic conditions to 
the greater depths, and a chart of the bottom 
deposits of the bay has been published. 

Equipment: Chemical, biological, and oceanographic 
laboratories; photographic rooms; store rooms for 
instruments, et cetera; rooms for the preparation 
of samples, collections, et cetera; aquarium; 
museum; library. Modern installations for in- 
vestigations include work rooms with fresh and 
salt water. The laboratory has its owm harbor 
where it keeps its vessels, all provided with motors. 

Staff: Director, Francisco de P. Navarro, Lie. Nat. 
Sci.; Assistant, Miguel Massutf, Lie. Nat. Sci. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: A large number 
of foreign and Spanish professors and specialists 
visit the laboratory. Frequent excursions are 
arranged for the students of the universities of 
Barcelona and Madrid and of foreign centers. 
Work rooms are rented permanently by important 
German scientific institutions. It is one of the 
best known scientific centers in Europe with 
regard to oceanography and biology. 

Income: Variable (Budget of State). 

Provision for publication of results: In the publica- 
tions of the Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia. 



Instituto y Observatorio de Marina de 
San Fernando ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1754. 

Location: San Fernando (Cadiz). 

Organization to which attached: Government institu- 
tion. 

Purposes and scope of activities: One of its three 
sections is concerned with marine meteorology, 
magnetism, nautical instruments, and tides. 

Equipment: Important library. 

Staff: Director, D. Leon Herrero, Contralmirante 
in the Navy; Subdirector, D. Wenceslao Benitez, 
Capitdn de Navio. 

Provision for publication of results: Almanaque 
Nautico, Anales Meteorologicos, Magneticos, y 
Sismicos, Catalogo Astrofotografico zona —3° a 
— 9°, Carta fotografica del Cielo, Cartas nauticas, 
Derroteros, Codigo de seiiales, Avisos a los 
navegantes, Cuadernos de Faros. 

Servicio Hydrografico ('36) 

Location: San Fernando, Cadiz. 
Organization to which attached: 4a Section of Ob- 
servatorio de Marina de San Fernando. 
Staff: Director, Director del Observatorio, Con- 
tralmirante Hidrografo D. Leon Herrero. 

Sub-Director, Subdirector del Observatorio, 
Capitan de Navio Hidrografo D. Wenceslao 
Benitez. 

Head of the 4th Section of the Observatory, 
Capitan de Navio Hidrografo J. Jos6 P^rez. 

Charts, Capitan de Corbeta D. Rafael Sanchez. 

Sailing Directions, Teniente de Navio Hi- 
drografo D. Diego Gomez. 

Light lists, Capitan de Corbeta D. Rafael 
Sanchez. 

Notices to Mariners, Capitdn de Corbeta D. 
Rafael Sanchez. 

Tides, Capitdn de Corbeta Hidrografo D. 
Francisco Fernandez de la Puente. 

Hydrographic Commission, Capitdn de Fragata 
Hidrografo D. Federico Aznar. 
Equipment: 

SURVEYING VESSELa DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

Castor 60 12 

Pollux 60 12 

ToFiNO 1,220 9 79 

Malespina 



148 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Sociedad de Oceanografia de Guipuzcoa 
('27, Magrini) 

Location: San Sebastian (Rue Aldemar). 
Organization to which attached: Private institution. 
Purposes and scope of activities: The popularization 

of the problems of oceanography and fisheries. 

It renders valuable service in oceanographic 

investigations in Spain. 
Equipment: Laboratories for oceanography and 

marine biology. Fisheries school. Library. 
Provision for publication of results: Bulletin. 

Laboratorio de Santander ('34) 

History or origin: Through the efforts of D. Augusto 
Gonzales Linares, this station was established 
in May, 1886, under the name of Estacion 
maritima de Zoologia y Botanica experimentales. 
It became a part of the Instituto Espanol de 
Oceanografia when the latter was established in 
1914. 

Location: Santander, on the Gulf of Biscay. 

Organization to which attached: Instituto Espanol 
de Oceanografia. 

Purposes and scope of activities: The study of the 
flora and the fauna of the coastal regions. For- 
mation and increase of the scientific collections 
of museums and institutions of learning and 
the application of scientific studies to the develop- 
ment of maritime industries. Teaching of marine 
zoology and botany to students of the University 
of Madrid and to serve as a place of research for 
Spanish and foreign naturalists and biologists. 

Equipment: Aquarium, various chemical and bio- 
logical laboratories, store house for oceanographic 
instruments and fishing gear, and a complete 
museum of local marine organisms, library, collec- 
tions for study, various work rooms, et cetera, 
some boats, two of them provided with motors. 

Staff: Director, Dr. Luis Alaejos; Assistant, Dr. 
Juan Cuesta. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Investigators 
both national and foreign are received, also 
pupils, principally for summer school. 

Income: From the State and from the corporations 
of the locality. 

Provision for publication of results: In the publica- 
tions of the Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia. 

Laboratorio de Vigo ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1934. (In process 
of organization.) 



Locatio7i: Vigo. 

Organization to which attached: Instituto Espanol 
de Oceanografia. 

Sweden 

Borno Research Station ('37) 

History or origin: Built in 1901 by 0. Pettersson 
and G. Ekman, passed into state ownership in 
1932. 

Location: Half way up the Gullmar-fjord, the 
largest and deepest of Swedish fjords. 

Organization to which attached: Svenska Hydro- 
grafisk-Biologiska Komissionen. 

Purposes: Center for carrying out the hydrographical 
part of the Komissionen's program. 

Scope of activities: Base of the hydrographic expedi- 
tions with the Skagerak. Running observa- 
tions of internal water-movements, daily hydro- 
graphic soundijigs since 1909. 

Equipment: A stock of instruments, partly of special 
construction, for the study of internal waves, 
currents, light penetration, et cetera, and an 
observation pier ailording 34 meters depth, 2 
motorboats mainly used for traffic. 

Staff: Director, Professor Hans Pettersson (not 
salaried); 1st Assistant, Licentiat B. Kullenberg; 
2nd Assistant, Licentiat N. Y. Gustafsson; Me- 
chanic, A. Fries. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Guests are occa- 
sionally received for carrying out special in- 
vestigations. 

Income: Part of the state grant for the Komissionen 
is allotted to Borno, about 16,000 Kr. 

Provision for publication of results: Svenska Hydro- 
grafisk-Biologiska Komissionens Shrifter, Serie 
Hydrografi, also occasional publications in Med- 
delanden fr§, Goteborgs Hogskola Oceanografishe 
In.stitution. 

Klubbans Biological Station ('37) 

History or origin: Founded by Professor A. Appellof, 

Upp.sala, 1915. 
Location: In the fishing village of Fiskebackskil 

on the west coast of Sweden. Post address, 

Fiskebackskil. 
Organization to which attached: University of Uppsala. 
Purposes: The principal purpose is instruction of 

students of the University in the marine fauna. 

Wlien the finances are sufficient, independent 

researches are also prosecuted. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— SPAIN, SWEDEN 



149 



Scope of activities: The Swedish coastal tidal flats 
of the Province of Bohuslan. 

Equipment: The usual equipment for making zoologi- 
cal and ichthyological collections as well as 
apparatus for making quantitative investigations 
of soft bottoms and a motor boat. 

Staff: Director, Sven Ekman, Professor in the 
Zoological Museum, University of Uppsala. 2 
subordinate officers. 

Provision for visiting investigators: The Station has 
not yet been outfitted to care for scientific guests 
and it can be used only during the summer. 

Income: Source: State appropriation. 
Amount: 5,000 Swedish Kroner yearly. 

Provisions for publication of results: None. 

Kristinebergs Zoologiska Station ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1877. 

Location: On the west coast of Sweden, near the 
mouth of the Gullmarfjord, at Fiskebackskil. 

Organization to which attached: Royal Swedish 
Academy of Science. 

Purposes: Research and some instruction. 

Scope of activities: A course in marine zoology is 
given every year in June for Swedish University 
students. 

Equipment: Two laboratories with modern equip- 
ment for investigations. Library with 10,000 
volumes and reprints. Motor boat Sven LoviiN, 
42 feet long, 16 foot beam, with a 30 horse-power 
petrol motor. 2 small motor boats. A tower for 
sea water, capacity 70 cu. m. Boarding house. 
3 official residences. 

Staff: Director, Professor Dr. Einar Lonnberg, 
Stockholm. Manager, Fil. Dr. Gunnar Gustaf- 
son, Fiskebackskil. Maintenance and opera- 
tion: 4. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The station is 
open all the year. Research material, reagents 
and instruments are free for use, without any 
cost. The visitors are permitted to stay in the 
boarding house and have only to pay the cost for 
meals. Foreign investigators are welcome and 
have the same privileges. There are 20 work 
places. 

Income: The yearly budget is 24,500 Swedish Kronor 
paid by the Royal Academy of Science. 

Provision for the publication of results: The Station 
has no series of its own. The result of work done 
at the Station is published in the publications of 
the Swedish Royal Academy of Science. 



Oceanografiska Institutionen vid Goteborgs 
Hogskola ('37) 

History or origin: Founded as docentur — experi- 
mental grant and allotment of three rooms — 
by a private donor. Doctor Gustaf Ekman, in 
1914. The chair in oceanography was founded in 
1930 by Mr. Knut Mark, as professor. 

Location: Goteborg, in the building of the Hogskola, 
now comprising three rooms and lecture room. 

Organization to which attached: Belongs to Goteborgs 
Hogskola, a university (incomplete), founded by 
private donors and subsidized by the city of 
Goteborg. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Teaching of students 
for graduate and postgraduate courses as a 
complement to the course in geography. Also 
research in oceanography and geophysics. 

Equipment: A stock of oceanographic, physical, 
and chemical apparatus acquired from annual 
grant. 

Staff: Scientific: Director, Dr. Hans Pettersson. 
A docent, at present vacant. The assistants of 
Svenska Hydrografisk-Biologiska Komissionen 
make use of the institution for their research. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: No provisions 
for regular visitors; occasionally guests have 
worked in the institution. 

Income: Source: Income from donations made by 
Dr. Gu.staf Ekman and Mr. Knut Mark. 

Amount: (Of donations from which income is 
derived) 100,000 Kronor — Dr. Gustaf Ekman, 
for experimental grant (inclusive of salary for 
docent). 300,000 Kronor— Mr. Knut Mark, for 
salary to professor in oceanograjjhy. 

Provision for publication of results: The results from 
the scientific investigations of the director, who 
is also director of hydrographical work for the 
Svenska Hydrografisk-Biologiska Komissionen, 
with which body the institution is in close co- 
operation, arc published in a series "Meddelanden 
frS,n Oceanografiska Institutionen vid Goteborgs 
Hogskola" included in "Kungliga Vetenskaps- och 
Vitterhetssamhallcts Handlingar Goteborg." The 
series which was started in 1931 has at present 12 
numbers in large 8 quartos. 

Note: Thanks to the munificence of "Knut and 
Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse," the same private donor 
who had proxided the Svenska H. B. Komissionen 
with its two Stations at Borno and Lysekil, a new 
Oceanographic Institute will soon be erected in 
Goteborg, building operations to commence in the 



150 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



autumn of 1937. The sum allotted for building and 
equipment is 370,000 kr. This new institute will 
belong to the Royal Society of Goteborg, i.e., 
Goteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets 
Samhalle. The Oceanografiska Institutionen of 
Goteborgs Hogskola will be housed in the institute 
and its chief will be the holder of the chair in 
oceanography. Beside the present income from 
Gustaf Ekman's donation, a contribution from Ivnut 
and Alice Wallenbergs foundation of 10,000 kr. 
annually has been granted for a period of 10 years 
starting from 1938. In the board of directors, the 
Svenska Hydrografisk-Biologiska Komissionen will 
be represented through its chairman and Sjofarts- 
museet in Goteborg and representatives of Goteborgs 
Hogskola. The new institute will thus work in 
close cooperation with the said institutes. Its 
scope of activities will be partly the same as those 
of Komissionen, partly instruction. It wdll afford 
facilities for work also to a limited number of resident 
visitors. Publications : Medd. Oceanograf Institutet 
included in the Forhandlingar of Goteborgs Kungl. 
Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets Samhalle. 

Svenska Hydrografisk-Biologiska 
Komissionen ('37) 

History or origin: Arose from Svenska Hydrografiska 
Komissionen which was formed in the middle of 
the nineties by Otto Pettersson, Gustaf Ekman, 
and August Wijkander for the scientific study of 
the sea off the Swedish coasts. It was recon- 
stituted about 1900 by the inclusion of members 
for biology of which P. T. Cleve and Filip Trybom 
were among the first. 

Location: Goteborg. 

Organization to which attached: The Komission is 
rmdcr the Department of Agriculture in Stock- 
holm, its grant coming under that department. 
Two members. Doctor Andersson and Prof. Nils 
ZeUon, are Swedish delegates to the International 
Council for the Exploration of the Sea. One of 
the purposes of the Komission is to carry out 
Sweden's part of the international investigations. 

Purposes and scope of activities: The purpose of the 
Komission's work is to carry out and publish 
investigations, oceanographic and biologic, within 
the sea around the Swedish coasts and especially 
to carry out Sweden's part in the international 
investigations. Also to supervise and edit ob- 
servations from lightships. 

Equipment: The Komission has jurisdiction over the 
newly built research motorship the Skagerak 



which is fully equipped for all kinds of work in 
fishery and oceanography. It has two research 
stations, Borno, half way up the Gullmar-fjord, 
built in 1901; and Havsfiskelaboratoriet at the 
mouth of the same fjord, built in 1929. For 
each of these stations, see the appropriate special 
statement. 
Staff: The members of the Komission serve gratui- 
tously. 
President of the Komission, the Governor of 

Goteborg. 
For Hydrography, Prof. Hans Pettersson, Gote- 
borg; Prof. N. Zeilon, Lund. 
For Fishery and Biology, Dr. K. Anderson of 
Lantbrukastyrelsen, Stockholm; Dr. N. Rosen. 
Fisheries Inspector of the Western District and 
Secretary Lansa.ssessor, A. Thofelt. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: No special 
provisions for visiting investigators exist although 
at Borno guests are occasionally received for 
carrying out special investigations. 
Income: Source: Government grant. Varies from 
year to year. 
Amount: About 20,000 Kr., plus about 90,000 Kr. 
for running the ship Skagerak. 
Provision for publication of i-csults: The Svenska 
Hydrografisk-Biologiska Komissionens Skrifter 
appear irregularly in two series, "Hydrography" 
and "Biology." New series in quarto. Until 
now, thirteen numbers of the hydrographic and 
five of the biologic have appeared. The lightship 
publications are issued annually, one volume in 
quarto, since 1923. 

Havsfiskelaboratoriet ('37) 

History or origin: Built in 1929. 

Location: At the mouth of the Gullmar-fjord. 

Organization to which attached: Svenska Hydro- 
grafisk-Biologiska Komissionen. 

Purposes and scope of activities: The biological 
(fishery and plankton) part of the Svenska H. B. 
Komissionen's work and also technical chemical 
investigations on the preservation of fish and other 
problems of the fishery industry. 

Equipment: Mainly equipped for microscopic and 
plankton work but has aquariums with running 
sea-water. The chemical technical department 
is equipped for chemical and biochemical work. 

Staff: 1st Assistant, Dr. A. Molander, Fishery and 
biologj\ 2nd Assistant, Licentiat H. Hoglund, 
plankton. Extra assistant, Fil. Kandidat G. 
Stordal, plankton counts. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— SWEDEN, TUNIS, TURKEY, UNION OP SOUTH AFRICA 



151 



Chemical-technical Department: Laborator, Dr. 
M. Lundborg; Bitrade, Dr. Lucie Ahlstrom. 
For both departments : Clerk, Miss Ingrid Ekdalil ; 
Mechanic, C. Karlsson. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 

Income: Part of the grant allotted to Svenska 
Hydrografisk-Biologiska Kommissionen. 

Provisions for publication of results: Svenska Hy- 
drografisk-Biologiska Komissionens Shrifter, Serie 
Biologi. 

Kungliga Sjokarteverket (Hydrographic 
Service) ('37) 

Location: Stockholm. 

Staff: Hydrographer, Kommendorkapten E. 
Bouveng. 

Head of Division of Hydrography and Instru- 
ments, Kapten E. Farn.strom. 

Head of Division of Charts, H. Odelsio, B.A. 

Head of Section of Notices to Mariners, Kom- 
mendor (Res.) A. Hagg. 

Head of Section of Sailing Directions, Kom- 
mendorkapten (Res.) C. B. Erikson. 

Head of Geodetic Section, S. Hilding, B.A. 

Cartographer, P. Collinder, Ph.D. 

Head of Section for control of compasses and 
ships' lights, E. 0. Edelstam, M.A. 

Head of Section of Magnetic Research, G. S. 
Ljungdahl, Ph.D. 
Equipment: 

SURVEYING VESSELS DISPLACBUENTS OFPICEEIS CREW 

johan nordenanckar 260 5 33 

Peter Gedda 140 3 23 

Ran 200 4 29 

SvALAN 125 3 24 

Falken 160 3 32 

Ejdebn 95 2 16 

Tunis 

Oceanographic Station of Salammbo ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1924." 

Location: Salammbo near Carthage. 

Orgariization to which attached: Direction G^n^rale 

des Travaux Publics. 
Purposes: To investigate the marine organisms, 

especially fishes and Crustacea of economic 

significance, along the coast of Tunis. 
/Scope of activities: General biological investigation 

of edible fish and Crustacea (including fishery 

" See Heldt, H., Rapport sur I'Organisation,]' Activite 
et les Travaux de la Station Oceanographique de Salaramb6 
depuis sa creation (1924-1931), Station Oceanographique 
de Salammbo, Bull. no. 24, November, 1931. 



statistics), ecology of the intertidal and other 
coastal areas, faunistic studies, marine algae, 
physiology of marine organisms, chemistry of 
local waters. 

Equipment: ]\Iuseum which exhibits various marme 
organisms, fishing gear, and some types of boats; 
an aquarium; laboratories for scientific research. 
In the laboratory there are 3 rooms for biology, 
a chemical laboratory, and a special laboratory 
for work in physical chemistry. The different 
laboratories are supplied with both fresh and salt 
water. There are also photographic rooms. 
The library contains several thousand volumes 
(6200 in 1933) on general zoology, biology, em- 
bryology, histology, oceanography, expeditions, 
and fisheries. 

Staff: Director Monsieur H. Heldt; Assistant, Mme. 
Heldt. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Several visitors 
can be accommodated and are welcome, some 
assistance is given to those who come from 
various French educational and scientific in- 
stitutions. 

Income: From revenues derived by the State from 
the exploitation of fishing in Lac de Tunis. 
Annual budget about 500,000 francs. 

Provision for publication: Notes, 27 published; 
Bulletin, 30 published; Annales, 8 published; also 
Tables de pH, Illustrated Catalogue of the Mu- 
seum and Aquarium, and an Illustrated Guide 
for the Museum and Aquarium. 

Turkey 

Harta Genel Direktorliigii Hidrografi Subesi 

(Hydrographic Section of the Cartographical 

Service of the Army) ('37) 

Location: Ankara. 

Staff: Hydrographer, Albay Ahmet Rasim Barkinay. 

Equipment: 



8DRVEYINQ VESSELS 

Atdin-Reiz 



DISPLACEMENTS OFFICERS CREW 



610 



28 



Union of South Africa 

Fisheries Survey Division ('37) 

History or origin: The present Fisheries was estab- 
lished in the year 1920." 
Location: Capetown, Union of South Africa. 

" Union of South Africa Fisheries and Marine Biological 
Survey, Report No. 1 for the year 1920 by J. D. F. Gil- 
christ, M.A., D.Sc, Capetown, 1921. 



152 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Organization to which attached: Department of 
Commerce and Industries. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Research work is 
carried out at sea to determine the biological 
aspects and the distribution of the commoner 
types of marine fishes, crustaceans, and other 
marine organisms of economic significance. 
Oceanographical work is also carried out and the 
usual chemical and physical analyses are made. 

Equipment: A specially constructed vessel, R. S. 
Africana, with all modern equipment necessary 
for marine survey work; laboratory Marine Bio- 
logical Station at Sea Point, Cape Town. 

Staff: Director, Dr. C. von Bonde. 

Provisions for irlsiting investigators: See statement on 
the laboratory at St. James. 

Income: Governmental appropriation. 

Provisio7is for publication of results: The Reports of 
the Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey. In- 
vestigational Reports and Fisheries Bulletins are 
issued from time to time. 

Marine Biological Station and Headquarters of the 
Division of Fisheries ('37) 

(After the construction of the building mentioned 
below the station at St. James in False 
Bay loill be abandoned). 

History or origin: Under construction at cost of 
$100,000.00. 

Location: Sea Point, near Cape Town. 

Organization to which attached: Division of Fisheries 
of the Department of Commerce and Industries. 

Purposes and scope of activities: The new buildings 
will house the administrative and research offices 
and laboratories of the Division and will replace 
the St. James Marine Biological Station which 
will be handed over to the Marine Biological 
Society of South Africa. Research will be 
conducted in connection with the Fishery Indus- 
try of South Africa in all its phases. 

Equipment: Library with numerous catalogued 
reprints and text books dealing with fisheries 
research and marine biology. Fish Hatchery 
and six laboratories. Fully equipped for all 
aspects of marine biological research. Aquarium 
of modern construction with 43 tanks. This 
aquarium will be a public institution and will be 
directly controlled by the Division of Fisheries. 

Staff: Scientific and technical: Dr. C. von Bonde, 
Director of Fisheries and Honorary Director of 
the Aquarium. Mr. J. M. Marchand, M.Sc, 
Technical Assistant. A further technical assist- 



ant is being appointed and there will be a number 
of aquarium assistants under a .superintendent. 
Maintenance r Caretakers and technicians. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Accommodation 
for ten research workers. 

Income: Maintained for the Division of Fisheries 
by the Government of the Union of South Africa. 
The income from the Aquarium will be handed 
over to the Cape Town Municipality who must 
pay for the maintenance of the Aquarium. 

Provision for publication of results: The Division of 
Fisheries publishes an annual report and also 
Investigational Reports and Fisheries Bulletins 
from time to time. 

Marine Biological Station of the Division of 
Fisheries Survey, Department of Com- 
merce and Industries ('37) 

History or origin: Built in 1895. 

Location: At St. James on False Bay, 18 miles from 
Cape Town. (After the construction of the new 
building at Sea Point, near Cape Town, the 
station at St. James in False Bay, will be vacated 
and handed over to the Marine Biological Society 
of South Africa.) 

Organization to which attached: Fisheries Survey 
Division of the Department of Commerce and 
Industries. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Research into life 
histories and so forth of the marine fauna of 
South Africa. Oceanographical researches. 

Equipment: Library with numerous catalogued 
reprints and text books dealing with marine 
biological research. All the more important 
publications of various marine stations are 
received on exchange basis. 

Laboratory capable of accommodating 6 work- 
ers. Fully equipped for most aspects of marine 
research. 

Aquarium with 3 large tanks, 6 medium and 6 
small tanks for experimental research work. 

Staff: Scientific and technical: Dr. C. von Bonde, 
Director of the Fisheries and Marine Biological 
Survey. Mr. J. M. Marchand, M.Sc, Technical 
assistant to the Director. Maintenance: One 
caretaker and general handyman. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Accommodation 
for 4 research workers. 

Income: Maintained for the Division of Fisheries 
Survey by the Government of the Union of 
South Africa. 

Provision for publication of results: The Division of 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA, YUGOSLAVIA 



153 



Fishery Survey publishes an annual report in 
which papers emanating from the laboratory 
appear. 

Department van Verdediging (Hydrographic Survey 

Section of the South African Naval 

Service) ('37) 

Location: Department of Defence, Pretoria. 
Staff: Officer in charge of Hydrographic Survey, 

Lieut. -Commr. James Dalgleish, S.A.N.S. 
Equipment: 



SURVEYING VESSELS 

Apricana 



DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

313 4 19 



Yugoslavia 

Hidrografski ured Kraljevske Mornarice (Hydro- 
graphic OflSice of the Royal Navy), 
Kraljevina Jugoslavija ('37) 

Location: Split. 

Staff: Director, Kapetan bojnog broda, August J. 
Kuster. 
Head of Charts Department, Porucnik boj . broda 

a. kl. Anton A. Zupan. 
Head of Section of Navigation, Porucnik boj. 
broda 2. kl. Predrag D. Lapcevic. 
■ Head of Reproduction Department, Dragutin L. 
Poljanec. 
Head of Meteorological Section, Mihajlo P. 
Spasov. 

Oceanografski Institut Kraljevine Jugoslavije 

(Oceanographic Institution of the Kingdom 

of Yugoslavia) ('37) 

History or origin: After the Great War and the 
creation of the new State of Yugoslavia, upon 
the proposal of the Yugoslavian Academy of 
Sciences and Arts at Zagreb in 1919 to the Royal 
Serbian Academy of Belgrade, there was consti- 
tuted within the two academies a committee 
which had for its purpose the establishment of an 
institute of marine biology. In compliance with 
the desires of the academies, the State has made 
during a series of years in its annual budgets an 
important appropriation intended for the con- 
struction of the institution. In the year 1930 a 
provisional station was established in rented 
quarters, but during the past year 1933, the first 
building intended to lodge the officers of the 
institution was erected. Leaving the rented 
quarters, the station has provisionally occupied 



the ground floor of the newly erected building 
where it is now installed. At the same time, 
work was begun on the large building which will 
also contain an aquarium and of which the roof 
is already in place. The interior work on the 
building will soon be undertaken and it is expected 
that it will be entirely complete within three 
years. 
Location: Split, Yugoslavia, the center of the east 
coast of the Adriatic on the tip of the Marjan 
Peninsula, 5 kilometers from the center of the 
city of Split. 
Organization to which attached: The Yugoslavian 
Academy of Sciences and Arts at Zagreb and the 
Royal Serbian Academy of Sciences at Belgrade, 
under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public 
Instruction. The trustees are as follows: 

Dr. Zivojin Cjorgjevi^, professor of zoology 

at the University of Belgrade, President. 
Dr. V. Vouk, professor of botany at the Univer- 
sity of Zagreb, member of the Executive 

Committee. 
Other members of the Committee: 

Dr. A. Gavazzi, professor of geography at the 

University of Zagreb. 
Dr. J. Gjaja, professor of physiology at the 

University of Belgrade. 
Dr. J. Had^i, professor of zoology at the 

University of Ljubljana. 
Dr. B. Zarnik, professor of biology at the 

University of Zagreb. 
Purposes and scope of activities: The institution is 
divided into three sections: (1) biology, (2) 
hydrography, and (3) applied biology (fisheries). 
Biological and hydrological researches especially 
along the Yugoslavian coast of the Adriatic. 
Giving expert advice concerning the exploitation 
of the sea. Organization of courses in marine 
biology for university students. Provisions for 
scientific work on the sea and supplying research 
material for investigators and for the laboratories 
of the University. 
Equipment: The station now has at its disposition 
10 rooms, laboratories for the officers, laboratory 
for personal research, hydrographic laboratory, 
experimental aquarium. The large building will 
contain an aquarium, 2 large rooms for instruc- 
tion, 8 rooms intended for personal research, 
different sections such as applied biology (fisher- 
ies), biology, botany, chemistry, physiology, and 
hydrographic sections and finally the library. 
The station has the necessary apparatus for 



154 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



marine biology and hydrograpiiic work, as well 
as the motor boat Bios and 2 skiffs. 
Staff: Director, Dr. V. Vouk, professor at the 
University of Zagreb, algae. Assistant director. 
Dr. A. Ercebovic, algae, phytoplankton, hy- 
drography. Mr. T. Gamulin, zoology, Copepoda. 
Dr. A. Kotthaus, zoology, fisheries. Operation 
and Maintenance : 4. 



Provisions for visiting investigators: In addition to 
the staff, five or six work places. The large 
institution will have about 20 work places. 

Income: Regular annual appropriation from the 
State, about 100,000 Dinars. 

Provision for the 'publication of results: "Acta Adri- 
atica." (Issued 9 vol. at present.) 



U.S.S.R., WESTERN PART 



The Azerbaidjan Fisheries Station (formerly the 
Baku Ichthyological Laboratory) ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in 1913 by the former 
Department of Agriculture. 

Location: Baku, Street of the 28th April, No. 8. 

Organization to which attached: All-Union Scientific 
Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and 
Oceanography in Moscow. 

Purposes: Investigation of food fishes, hydrobiology, 
hydrology, technique of fishing and curing and 
manufacture of fish products, pisciculture, and 
melioration of rivers and lakes for the fishery. 

Scope of activities: The Azerbaidjan fisheries region, 
extending along the southwestern coast of the 
Caspian Sea from the Samura river to the Persian 
boundary. They likewise include the principal 
river systems, chiefly the river Kura. 

Equipment: Its own premises will be completed by 
the middle of 1934. The work of the station Ls 
divided into four sections, ichthyological, piscicul- 
ture and melioration (with a small hydrochemical 
laboratory), fishing technique (a special laboratory 
is being organized for testing net fabrics and net 
preservation), handling fish and manufacture of 
fish products with a technological and chemical 
laboratory. A special oceanographic station with 
hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological 
laboratories is being organized in the current 
year, — 1934. Hitherto corresponding research 
work had been conducted by the Ichthyological 
Section. Two research ve.s.sels, the motor ship 
Delphix, and the motor boat, Ivnirm. Investi- 
gations are likewise conducted on board ships of 
the fishing fleet. The station is well supplied 
with apparatus. A special scientific library of 
about 12,000 volumes. 

Staff: Director of the Institution: M. K. Gerassimov. 

Ichthyologists: V. N. Bcliaiev, chief; L. V. 

Arnoldi, M. P. Borsenko, G. N. Goldentracht, 

K. F. Voevodko. 

Specialist in Pisciculture and melioration: A. N. 

Derjavin. 
Specialist in fish handling and manufacturing: 

S. P. Levanidov. 
Specialist in fishing technique: S. S. Sanov. 



22 Assistants: Shah Abdoulaiev, Mrs. E. R. 
Fortunatova, A. Makhmoudbekov, J. S. Gins- 
burg, A. S. Mamedov, T. T. Liagunov, Mrs. 
M. S. MaiBorodina, A. Gadjibababekov, Miss 
E. N. Kudelina, Miss E. B. Kulikova, N. J. 
Babuskin, N. J. Belou.ssov, N. G. Afanassiev, 
A. L. Amirdjanov, G. A. Tunikov, Miss M. S. 
Fedorova, Miss A. S. Cinkova, T. S. Malian, 
T. Djavadian, Miss L. Degtiarieva, Miss S. I. 
Peissakhova, A. A. Nadiradze. 
Technical and administrative personnel: 74 
persons. 
Provision for visiting investigators: No special ac- 
commodations, but the station rarely refuses place 
and instruments to persons desiring temporarily 
to conduct investigations at the station. 
Income: Sources, State Budget and money received 
from industrial organizations for contracts con- 
cluded by the station for inve.stigations of special 
scientific questions. The budget for 1934 is 
estimated at Rbls 463,000. 
Provisions for publication of results: The following 
publications have appeared: "Reports of the 
Baku Ichthyological Laboratory," vol. 1, 2 
(issues 1, 2); "Journal of the Azerbaidjan Scien- 
tific Station of Fisheries," vol. 3, issues 1, 2, 3. 
Papers of members of the station have likewise 
been published in other publications, as Bulletin 
of the Caspian Scientific Fisheries Expedition 
(Baku 1932-33), in all 6 issues; Economic News 
of Azerbaidjan; Journal of USSR Fisheries and 
others. Over 800 pages are ready for print to be 
published in 1934. 

Fisheries Station of Georgia ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in July, 1931, by the 
People's Commissariat of Supplies of the Soviet 
Socialist Republic of Georgia. 

Location: Batoum (Autonomous Soviet Socialist 
Republic of Adjaristan), on the shore of the 
Black Sea. 

Organization to which attached: Affiliated with the 
All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Marine 
Fisheries and Oceanography in Moscow. 

Purposes: The chief object of the station is the 



155 



156 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



general study of the biology of the marine and 
fresh-water areas of Georgia and of the neighbor- 
ing regions to reveal their natural resources. 
The principal objects in respect of marine areas 
are the study of the distribution, amount, and 
migrations of food fishes and useful animals, 
study of the productivity of the sea and of the 
balance of organic matter, investigations by 
field observations and laboratory experiments of 
the relations between environment and living 
organisms, general oceanographic survey of the 
southeastern part of the Black Sea, study and 
application of new fishing gear and the improve- 
ment and mechanization of existing fishing tech- 
nique, investigation of new food fishes and 
animals. 

Concerning the fresh-water areas of Georgia 
the principal objects of investigation are the 
study of rivers and lakes suitable for the fish 
industry and their melioration and rational ex- 
ploitation, the investigation of questions of 
pisciculture and the study of the utilization of 
various hydrotechnical constructions for pisci- 
culture. 

/Scope of activities: The whole territory of SSR of 
Georgia and the southeast part of the Black Sea. 

Equipment: The station is at present in temporary 
premises, but it is building a special building 
on the shore of the Black Sea, which will have 20 
special rooms for laboratories, aquarium, library, 
museum, etc. A sail- and motor-research schooner 
Abkhazetz of 50 tons, equipped for oceanographic 
survey work. No adequate equipment in ap- 
paratus and instruments as yet. 

Staff: Director, S. M. Maliatski. 

Hydrobiologi-sts : Prof. V. N. Nikitin, chief; 

Miss N. S. Tchohuri. 
Hydrologist: S. S. Liatti. 

Ichthyologists : V. G. Marti, Miss A. A. Maiorova. 
Specialist in marine mammals: S. E. Heinenberg. 
Specialist in pisciculture: L. A. Kutchin. 
Specialist in fishing technique: N. N. Danilevski. 
Economist: K. P. Gabounia. 
Technical staff — 27 persons. 

Provision for visiting investigators: There will be 
places in the new building for visitors. 

Income: The station is financed by the State Budget 
and by contracts with industrial organizations. 
The Budget of the Station amounted in 1933 
to Rbls. 221,211 (exclusive of building fund). 

Provision for publication of results: The first volume 
of the Memoirs of the Biological Station of Georgia 
is to appear in the first part of 1934. 



Manguistau Branch of the Uralo-Caspian Scientific 
Fisheries Station ('34) 

History or origin: Founded September 10, 1933, 
when Andrianov, director of the Chief Fisheries 
Department, visited the Manguistau district in 
connection with the organization there of the 
"Caspian Fish and Seal Trust," for the exploita- 
tion of the marine resources of this part of the 
Caspian Sea. 

Location: The town Fort-Alexandrovsky (Post- 
office, village Bautino), situated on the north 
point of the promontory that separates the Tiub- 
Karagansky bay from the sea. 

Organization to which attached: Through the Uralo- 
Caspian Fisheries Station affiliated with the 
Scientific Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography. 

Purposes: (1) Biology of fishes and marine animals 
of these waters. (Migration routes of the fishes, 
character of the migrations, degree and period of 
shoaling; fish-feeding areas and productivity, 
character of food; collection of statistical data of 
fish landings, according to varieties and age; 
rate of growth; breeding capacities; investigations 
of the method for determining the age of the 
Caspian seal; study of the theory of calculating 
the number of fishes in the stock.) 

(2) Hydrology (hydrological regime of the 
marine industrial zone and its influence on the 
biology of the fishes and on the fishing industries). 

(3) Fish industry (technique and organization 
of up-to-date fishing industries; strength and size 
of the fishing gear, fishing fleet and their suit- 
ability for this district ; the study of the necessary 
measures for the development of the technical 
side of the industries; the economic profitableness 
of the fishing gear employed in the district; 
technical indices for the different gear used, e.g., 
quantity of labor, size of catch ; duration of fishing 
season; organization of collective farms, "kolhoz," 
in the district; technical education of personnel. 

(Scope of activities: From cape Buruntchuk (Busatchi 
peninsula) to cape Sue. 

Equipment: A rented house for the station and 7 
apartments for the staff. A set of hydrological 
and meteorological instruments. Considerable 
scientific equipment is expected this year. The 
Chief Fisheries Department is allotting this 
simimer a marine motor drifter for research work. 

iSta^: Director, A. N. Roganov (specialist in marine 
mammals). Economist, M. F. Kossov. Assist- 
ants, B. I. Badamshin, F. A. Aliev. Technical 
staff: 8 per-sons. The scientific staff is to be 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— U. S. S. R. 



157 



increased in summer 1934 by one assistant in 
ichthyology. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: No places. 

Income: Source, contracts with industrial organiza- 
tions, "Fish Industry Trust," and State Budget. 
From the Fish Industry Trust, Rbls. 50,000, 
State Budget, Rbls. 16,500. Building Fund, 
Rbls. 7,000. 

Provision for publication of results: Two papers are 
being prepared, (a) a description of the present 
state of the fishing industries of the Manguistau 
district, (b) the seal industries of the Caspian Sea; 
but in view of the recent organization of this 
branch it has as yet no publications. 

The Uralo-Caspian Fisheries Station ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in August, 1931, by the 
Central Scientific Institution of Fishery Investiga- 
tions, Moscow, on the initiative of the head local 
organizations of Kazakstan. 

Location: In the town Gouriev of West-Kazakstan 
Province, on the Ural River 20 kilometers from 
the Caspian Sea. 

Organization to which attached: The All-Union 
Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries 
and Oceanography of the Chief Fisheries Depart- 
ment of the USSR People's Commissariat of 
Supplies. 

Purposes: Survey of the natural resources of the 
Uralo-Caspian fish industry region with the object 
of their rational exploitation and propagation. 

Scope of activities: The eastern part of the North 
Caspian Sea, namely, the whole coast from the 
straight line passing through the village Ganiush- 
kino on the Manguistau River as its west boundary 
to the boundaries of Turkmenistan in the east. 
Besides the sea this station also studies the rivers 
Denguiza, Ural, and Emba, Lake Tcherkal, and 
two large series of lakes, the Kamysh-Samarskaja 
and KzUkuginskaia. 

Equipment: Premises of 400 sq. meters. A special 
hydrochemical laboratory, 2 wooden motor re- 
search fishing boats. The scientific equipment 
amounts to Rbls. 28,500. 

Staff: Director, K. P. Mulikovski. 

Ichthyologists: Golovanov, Koshevnikov, Raz- 

gonov, Nikitina, Saenkova. 
Assistants: Kargina, Doroshkov, Aidanaliev, 

Manessy. 
Specialists in pisciculture: Diakonov, Gurieva. 
Specialists in economic: Miroshkin, Rutz, Kossov. 
Specialists in hydrotechnique: Shchelkov. 



The total allotted scientific staff is 26, but the 

actual number is 16. 
Auxiliary technical .staff: 21 persons. 

Provision for visiting investigators: No special places, 
but college students are always accommodated 
in the vacant places. 

Income: From the State Budget, Rbls. 2500; Rbls. 
255,000 was received from the Uralo-Caspian 
State Fish Industry Trust in accordance with 
contracts. Income from the realization of the 
fish catch from experimental fi.^ihing. The total 
yearly budget in 1933 amounted to Rbls. 273,000, 
excluding Rbls. 20,000 for the acquisition of 
scientific and other equipment and Rbls. 20,000 
fund for building and ship-repairing. 

Provision for publication of results: No publications 
planned in 1933, as that year was exclusively 
allotted to the collection of scientific materials. 

Asov-Black Sea Scientific Research Institute ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in 1933 by the order 
of the People's Commissariat of Supplies of 
U. S. S. R. (reorganization of the Asov-Black Sea 
Fisheries Station founded in 1920). 

Location: Kertdi, Oulitza Pervoi Domni, No. 24, 
on the Kertch Bay in the Kertch Straits. 

Organization to which attached: All-Union Scientific 
Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and 
Oceanography in Moscow, — the Chief Fisheries 
Department of the Commissariat of Supplies. 

Purposes: Scientific investigations of fisheries and 
oceanography. 

Scope of activities: Asov-Sea and the Black Sea. 

Equipment: Hydrochemical, hydrobiological, ich- 
thyologioal laboratories, two research vessels, a 
sail and motor schooner and a motor launch; 
microscopes, cathometers, thermometers, ap- 
paratus for determining currents, chemical 
apparatus, special fishing gear, and special field 
hydrobiological equipment. 

Staff: Director, V. N. Tikhonov. 
Chief hydrologist, A. V. Elkinbard. 
Chief hydrobiologist, V. L. Pauly. 
Hydrobiologist, V. P. Vorobiev. 
5 assistant ichthyologists: V. V. Abramov, N. V. 
Lebediev, V. N. Maiski, A. N. Smirnov, R. 
Kostiutchenko. 
3 assistant hydrobiologists : Miss Dolgopolskaia, 

Miss L. S. Vorobieva, S. N. Stark. 
Chief specialist of fishing technique, A. V. Barshev. 
Specialist of fishing technique, V. P. Freiberg. 



158 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



SpecialLst of fishing technique and fishing gear, 
P. K. Gudimovitch. 

SpeciaHst of mechanization of fishing, N. G. 
Borissov. 

2 economists, S. T. Mudzalevski, A. S. Petaiev. 

Assistant economist, Miss V. S. Rojanskaia. 

Technical staff — 13 persons. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: No place. 
Income: Funds supplied by commercial fisheries 

organizations according to special contracts. 

Budget in 1933 amounted to Rbls. 315,000. 
Provision for publication of results: "Memoirs" 

(Trudy) of the Asov-Black Sea Fisheries Station. 

Ten issues of about 1000 pages. First two were 

published in Kertch, the rest in Rostov-on- 

the-Don. 

The Turkmenistan Fisheries Station ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in 1929 by act of Soviet 
of People's Commissars of the Turkmen Soviet 
Socialist Republic. 

Location: Is situated on the east coast of the Caspian 
Sea in the northern part of Krasnovodsk Bay 
in the Muraviev Gulf in the western suburbs of 
the town Krasnovodsk on the sea shore. 

Organization to which attached: Affiliated with the 
All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Marine 
Fisheries and Oceanography in Moscow. 

Purposes: Study of the biology of food fishes and 
other marine useful animals; control of the 
effects of the fishing industries on fish and sea 
animals; study of the natural resources of the 
areas exploited; fish shoals in different seasons of 
the year; study of existing fishing gear and 
investigation for devising new gear. The prin- 
cipal objects of investigation are the Caspian 
herring, Caspian sardines, sea-perch, sea-roach, 
and crayfishes. The chief gear studied — active 
fishing gear, drift nets, purse nets, ring-nets, 
and allomans (turkmen-nets). 

Scope of activities: The southeastern part of the 
Caspian Sea, from Cape Beg Tash in the north 
to the Persian boundar}' in the south (exclusively 
territorial waters of the TSSR). 

Equipment: Its own house of 4 rooms; a separate 
building for technical and chemical laboratories, 
a small museum (now being enlarged); a store- 
house; 2 living houses with lodgings for scientific 
staff (9 one-room and 3 two-room lodgings); a 
research motor sailing vessel Sokol of 60 tons, 
chiefly used as a drifter, but can also be used for 
trawling. Set of fishing gear, zoological and 



hydrobiological instruments, set of cathometers, 
thermometers, etc., for ordinary hydrobiological 
investigations, microscopes, binoculars, apparatus 
for weighing and measuring. Special library of 
2,200 volumes, but with an almost complete lack 
of foreign editions. 

Staff: Director, V. I. Meissner (ichthyologist). 
Ichthyologists: Miss E. V. Pojaluieva, Miss A. A. 
Michailovskaia, Miss A. Karatchevskaia, Miss 
Z. P. Tereschtenko. 
Specialist in economics of fisheries: A. F. Nevraiev. 
Assistants: B. V. Bukharin, B. I. Prikhodko. 
Administrative and technical staff: 19 persons. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Two persons can 
be accommodated. Students are taken in for 
field work (at shore observing stations and 
on board the boat, not more than four students 
at a time). 

Income: The station is financed by the State Budget 
and by contracts concluded with industrial 
organizations (The Turkmen Fisheries Trust). 
The sale of the fish catch also brings in a certain 
income. The year's budget in 1933 amounted to 
Rbls. 110,000, for 1934 it is estimated at Rbls. 
167,000. 

Provisions for publication of results: As yet only the 
first volume (170 pages) of the "Memoirs of the 
Turkmen Scientific Institution of Fisheries" has 
appeared. Four or 5 issues (about 300 pages) 
of the second volume are to be published in 1934. 
Separate papers of the station have been published 
in the Bulletins of the Central Asiatic University 
(Tashkent) and in the Bulletin of the Caspian 
Expedition (Baku). 

Gidrograficheskij Otdel (Hydrographic 
Department) ('37) 

Location: Rochal Quay, 2, Leningrad. 

Staff: Head of the Department, Inzhener flagman 3 

ranga, V. V. Vasiljev. 
Assistant-Head of Department, Inzhener flagman 

3 ranga, N. J. Gorbunov. 
Head of Cartographic Section, Inzhener flagman 

3 ranga, P. V. Messer. 
Head of Instruments Section, Voennyj inzhener 1 

ranga K. S. Ukhov. 
Head of Buoyage Section, Voennyj inzhener 2 

ranga P. A. Krasilnikov. 
Head of Hydro-meteorological Section, Voennyj 

inzhener 1 ranga L. V. Kudovic. 
Head of Planning Section, Voennyj inzhener 1 

ranga A. A. Vasiljev. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— U. S. S. R. 



159 



Head of Distribution Section, Voennyj inzhener 1 

ranga, A. N. Rozhdestvenskij. 
Head of Compass Section, N. S. Rezvjakov. 
Head of the Section of Navigation, K. S. Uchov 

Equipment: 

SURVEYING VESSELS DISPLACEMENT 

astronom 1,050 

Bazis 220 

Bakan 75 

horizont 420 

POLJUS 110 

Bbglickij 452 

Tajmtr 1,330 

Peleng 60 

Primorje 2,200 

Chukeh A 4,500 

Sexstan 1,490 

Mgla 500 

Majak 1,100 

MiGALKA 440 

Menzula 740 

Hydrograph 1,820 

Priboj 180 

MoRoz 240 

MOLNIJ a 50 

Stvor 140 

SiRENA 350 

Mjatel 767 

AziMUT 390 

Daguestan Fisheries Station ('34) 

History or origin: In 1924 the speciaUst S. A. 
Mitropolski organized a small ichthyological 
laboratory on the wharf of the Daguestan Fish 
Trust with the object of studying the fisheries 
of the Republic. In 1925 this merged into the 
Daguestan Central Scientific and Industrial 
Laboratory of the Daguestan Central Soviet of 
People's Economy as its Ichthyological Section. 
In 1928 the Ichthyological Laboratory of the 
Daguestan People's Commissariat of Agriculture 
was organized by the specialist N. A. Dmitriev. 
In 1929 these two institutions merged under the 
name of Daguestan Scientific Fisheries Station 
with N. A. Dmitriev as director. In 1933 the 
station was renamed "The Daguestan Branch of 
the Caspian Scientific Fisheries Institution," 
and in 1934 under the All-Union Scientific Re- 
search Institution of Marine Fisheries and 
Oceanography it became the Daguestan Fisheries 
Station. 

Location: Makhach-Kala (formerly Petrovsk Port), 
Batareini pereoulok No. 1, in Daguestan Au- 
tonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (North Cau- 
casus). The town is situated on the west coast 



of the Caspian Sea and ha.s a port. The Institu- 
tion is located 250 meters from the shore in the 
town. 

Organization to which attached: All-Union Scientific 
Research Institution of Marine Fisheries and 
Oceanography. 

Purposes: Principal objects of research are the 
marine resources, the biology of marine fishes and 
other marine useful animals, the physics and 
chemistry of the sea. 

Scope of activities: The Caspian Sea coast from the 
north boundary of the Republic (river Samur) 
to the south boundary (river Kunia) and 35^0 
miles seawartl (the limit for the research motor 
boat) and inland mountain rivers and fresh-water 
lakes (Eisenam Lake, the lower course of the 
rivers Terek, Sulak, and Samur). 

Equipment: The station has its own house with two 
laboratories, ichthyological and hydrological, and 
two museum rooms. The remaining five rooms 
are used as living rooms by the director and 
scientific personnel. Two research vessels. Boat 
No. 2, a flat-bottomed, steel, sail and motor boat 
of 300 tons with 2 45-h.p. Deitz engines, and 
OcTioBRENOK, a woodcn sail and motor boat of 
the Japanese Kav.'asaki-type, with one 12-h.p. 
"Vosrojdenie" engine, for work along the coast. 
The scientific equipment of the station is quite 
satisfactory. A fully equipped hydrochemical 
laboratory, a library of 3345 volumes. 

Staff: Director, A. P. Korniev. 

Ichthyologists: T. S. Glebov, chief; D. A. Sanu- 

shevitch, E. M. Mankevitch. 
HydrologLst: D. S. Diemin. 
Economist: Miss A. S. Medvedieva. 
Assistants — 9 persons. 
Technical staff — 22 persons. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: There are places 
for visitors. 

Income: Source: State Budget and sums received 
by contract from fishery organizations (chiefly, 
the Daguestan Fishery Trust). The 1933 budget 
amounted to Rbls. 144,000. The 1934 budget is 
estimated at Rbls. 141,000. 

Provision for publication of results: The Daguestan 
Ichthyological Laboratory published one issue of 
"Reports of the Daguestan Ichthyological Lab- 
oratory," 1930. The Daguestan Scientific In- 
stitution of Fisheries and Oceanography has no 
publication of its own. Its papers are published 
in the "Bulletins of Fisheries," "Planned Economy 
of Daguestan," "Russian Biological Journal," 



160 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



"Bulletin of the Pan-Caspian Fisheries Stations," 
etc. Over 400 pages of printed matter have 
appeared. 

The AU-Union Scientific Research Institution of 
Marine Fisheries and Oceanography ('34) 

History or origin: Organized in October, 1933, by the 
fusion of two scientific institutions, the All-Union 
Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries 
and the State Oceanographical Institute. 

Location: Moskow, Piatnitskaia 33. 

Organization to which attached: Chief Fisheries De- 
partment of the U. S. S. R. CommLssariat of 
Supplies. 

Purposes: Survey of the seas of U. S. S. R. in respect 
of the needs of national economy and, in particu- 
lar, of the fishery and marine animal industries, 
likewise the study of the existing technique of 
these industries and of its rationalization. 

Scope of activities: Barents, Karsk, Bering, Okhotsk, 
Japan, Black, Caspian, and Aral seas: Lakes 
Balkhash and Khanka. 

Equipment: Affiliated institutions (Asterisk* indi- 
cates a separate report). 

* The Polar Institute of Fisheries and Ocean- 

ography, Murmansk. 

* The Pacific In.stitute of Fisheries and Ocean- 

ography, Vladivostok. 

* The Asov-Black Sea Institute of Fisheries and 

Oceanography, Kertch. 
The Volga-Caspian Fisheries Station, Astrakhan. 
The North Area Fisheries Station, Archangelsk. 

(Note: No specific information received.) 
The Karelian Fisheries Station, Kandalaksha. 
The Ob-Tasovsk Fisheries Station, Tobolsk. 

* The Kamchatka Fisheries Station, Petropav- 

lovsk , 
The Sakhalin Fisheries Station, Alexandrovsk 

(Sakhalin). 
The North Caucasus Fisheries Station, Rostov 

on the Don. 

* The Georgian Fisheries Station, Batoum. 

* The Ukrainian Fisheries Station, Odessa. 

* The Uralo-Caspian Fisheries Station, Gouriev 

(a branch at Fort-Alexandrovsky). 

* The Azerbaidjan Fisheries Station, Baku. 

* The Daguestan Fisheries Station, Makhach- 

Kala. 

* The Turkmenistan Fisheries Station, Kras- 

novodsk. 
The Crimea Hydrophysical Station, Katzivelli. 
(Note: No specific information received.) 



The Aral Marine Fisheries Station, Aralsk. 

The Balkhash Fisheries Station, Balkhash Lake. 

The Central In.stitution, located at Moskow, 
at present occupies temporary premises, but is 
erecting a special large building. It possesses 
the following laboratories: physical, chemical, 
geological, biological (plankton, benthos, bac- 
teriology), mechanization of the industries section, 
economical section. All the floating craft belongs 
to the affiliated institutions. 
Staff: Director, K. A. Mekhonoshiu; Vice-director, 

M. T. Chesnokov; Scientific secretary, A. D. 

Starostin. 

(a) Section of Physics and Chemistry of the Sea. 

Director, V. V. Shuleikin, professor, corre- 
spond, member of the Academy (physics). 
Chemists: S. V. Bruevich, professor; B. A. 
Scopinzev, T. Trofimov. Hydrologists : V. 
A. Vasnezov, Sazev, Stockman, Lednev, 
Boshich, assistants. 

(b) Section of Geology of the Sea. Director, 

M. V. Klenova. Geologists: T. T. Gorsh- 
kova, Kalianov, Batalina, assistants. 

(c) Section of Biology of the Sea. Director, A. A. 

Shorygin. Bacteriologists: V. S. Butke- 
vich, professor; Dianova, Voroshilova, as- 
sistants. Botanists: K. T. Meier, professor; 
Persidsky, Kizeeva, as.sistants. Plankton: 
A. T. Jashnov, professor; Ussachev, Bogo- 
rov, Chajanova, assistants. Benthos: V. 
A. Brozkaya; Briskina, Virstein, assistants. 

(d) Section of Ichthyology. Director, B. S. IljLn; 

N. M. Knipovich, professor; G. N. Monas- 
tyrsky, E. V. Messiazeva, T. S. Rass, 
Samakhaev, Dmitriev, Berdichevsky, Pa- 
khomov, Perzeva, assistants. 

(e) Section of Fish-Culture. Director, A. T. 

Beresovsky. L. V. Piatakov, Amelina, 
Nasariev, Evstafiev, Kusnezova. 

(f) Section of Marine Mammals. Director, S. J. 

Freiman. Dorofeev, Barabash, Zalkin, 
Kluraov, Nicolsky, assistants. 

(g) Section of Fisheries Technique. Director, 

A. A. Jaschenko. Specialists: Polonsky, 

Jampolsky, Uspensky, Liman, Mironov, 

Skvorzov, Kanin. 
(h) Section of Fisheries Economics. Director, A. 

Shitkovsky. Economists: Ivanov, Ras- 

kina, Konkina. 
Staff of the Institution: Chief specialists, 12; 

Scientific staff, 113; Technical assistants, 

28; Administrative personnel, 67. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— U. S. S. R. 



161 



Provision for visiting investigators: Only on the 
completion of the new premises will the Institution 
be able to accommodate visiting scientists. 

Income: The yearly budget of the Institution totals 
Rbls. 1,460,300, and consists of funds allotted 
from the State Budget and received from various 
industrial organizations. 

Provision for publication of results: The scientific 
papers of the Institution are published in the 
"Memoirs" of the All-Union Scientific Research 
Institution of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography. 

Polar Scientific Research Institute of Marine 
Fisheries and Oceanography ('34) 

History or origin: The Murman Biological Station 
has existed since 1930 as the Murman Branch of 
the State Oceanographic Institution. This last 
was reorganized at the close of 1930 into the 
independent Polar Scientific Research Institute 
of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography. 

Location: Temporarily located in the building of the 
Marine Technicum, Murmansk. 

Organization to which attached: All-Union Research 
Institution of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography. 

Purposes: (1) Oceanographic survey of the Barents 
Sea: hydrology and chemistry, study of the cur- 
rents and general dynamics; qualitative and 
quantitative distribution of the flora and fauna, 
ecology of marine organisms; distribution and 
origin of the sediments covering the sea bottom. 
(2) Scientific study of fi.sh industries: study of 
coastal fishing, open-sea fishing, and deep-sea 
fishing; study of the herring industry, especially 
active methods of fishing. It is expected to 
organize two stations in the near future at 
Portchnikha on the East-Muram coast and in the 
Ura inlet of the Motovsky Bay, for experimental 
work on the biology and physiology of marine 
organisms in local waters. 

Scope of activities: Barents Sea. 

Equipment: Property of the Murman Biological 
Station has been transferred and is being used for 
the organization of the.se laboratories. Two re- 
search ships, Perseus, a steamship of 450 tons 
and 360 h.p., and the Nikolai ICnipovitch, a 
motor vessel of 200 h.p. 

iSto;^.' Director, G. I. Khlinovski. Vice-Director of 
the scientific branch, M. P. Somov. Chief spe- 
cialists, 14; Scientific staff, 21; Technical assist- 
ants, 35; Administrative and technical personnel, 
61. 
(a) Section of Oceanography. Director, M. P. 



Ossadchikh; Vice-director, M. P. Somov. 
Hydrologist: Tanzura. Geologist: Senko- 
vitch. Biologists: Manteifel, Boldovsky. 

(b) Section of Fisheries. Director, N. A. Maslov. 

Ichthyologists: Aleev, V. F. Schmit, 
Brynzcv. 

(c) Section of Fish-Industry. Director, J. T. 

Mentov. Specialists: N. P. Sherstoboev, 
Senenov. Economists: Kannibolotsky, 
Shishov. 
Provision for visiting investigators: Ten visiting 

scientists can be accommodated. 
Income: The yearly budget totals Rbls. 1,770,000 
and consists of funds allotted from the State 
budget and received from various industrial 
organizations. 

The foregoing statement should be supplemented 
by a short article that has recently appeared in 
Science.' It is as follows: 

It is stated in Nature that a new biological station 
is being built by the Academy of Sciences of the 
U. S. S. R. at Murmansk on the Barents Sea. It is 
intended for extensive research in morphology, 
anatomy, embryology, physiology, biochemistry, 
and ecology of sea organisms. 

Owing to the penetration of the warm waters of 
the Atlantic into the Barents Sea, the fauna of the 
latter is extremely rich and diverse. Of importance 
is the fact that at Dalnye-Zelenets Bay the water is 
transparent to a depth of 10 meters and that large 
stretches of the sea bottom are visible from the 
surface. The scientific workers at the station will 
make a detailed study of the problems of evolution- 
ary physiology, embryology, and the relationship 
of the fauna with changed hydrological conditions 
effected by the Gulf Stream. 

The Murmansk biological station will supply 
biological material to the various research institutes 
and higher educational institutions of the U. S. S. R. 
Superintending the building is a special commission 
consisting of S. A. Zernov (director of the station), 
L. A. Orbeli, V. I. Vernadsky and N. M. Knipovich, 
Professor K. M. Deryugin, of the University of 
Leningrad, Professor L. N. Fedorov, director of the 
All Union Institute of Experimental Medicine, and 
Professor I. M. Kreps. 

The cost of building the Murmansk Station is 
estimated at 2>\ million roubles, excluding equipment. 
A scientific library, the zoological, botanical, mi- 

' The biological station at Barents Sea: Science, vol. 85, 
p. 536, June 4, 1937. 



162 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



crobiological, and hydrochemical laboratories and 
the libraries of other departments will be housed 
in the main building of the station. An aquarium 
designed for scientific work will be installed on the 
first floor of this building, whUe several other 
aquaria, open to the public, will be erected in the 
basement of the building. Premises containing 
students' laboratories will be situated near the 
central building and will also be equipped with large 
aquaria. Special interest is attached to an open-air 
concrete reservoir intended to accommodate large 
sea animals, including seals. 

The spawn of crabs will be brought from the Far 
East for acclimatization and breeding in the Barents 
Sea. A special vessel, 30 meters long, built for 
scientific work in the open sea, will maintain unin- 
terrupted communications between the station and 
the city of Murmansk. 

At the beginning of this year, the Academy of 
Sciences of the U. S. S. R. commenced extensive 
work in the Dalnye-Zelenets Bay, east of the Kola 
Bay (Teriberka district, situated in the Northern 
Province), for the construction of this biological 
station, which will be the finest in the Soviet Union. 
The Soviet architect N. V. Ryiunin and his assistants 
have designed all the buildings. 

Novorossiisk Arnoldi Biological Station ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in 1921 by the Scientific 
Research Institution of the Kuban-Black Sea 
Region, dedicated to the late Prof. V. M. Arnoldi. 

Location: In Novorossiisk on the west coast of 
Tsemess Bay, 200-250 meters from the shore. 
Address: Novorossiisk, Stanitchka, Sleptsov- 
skaia I. 

Organization to which attached: Science Branch of 
the Department of Universities and Scientific 
Research Institutions of the People's Commis- 
sariat of Education of R. S. F. S. R. 

Purposes: The principal objects of the Black Sea: 
investigation of practical problems, e.g., en- 
crustations on submarine constructions by algae 
and mollusks; marine sanitation questions; study 
of the fisheries. 

Scope of activities: Activities embrace the northeast 
part of the Black Sea, the Kertch Straits, and the 
district from Anape to Adler. 

Equipment: A building of 257 sq. meters, of which 
136 sq. meters are occupied by laboratories and 
research rooms. A biological laboratory with 
zoological and algological sections. Hydrochemi- 
cal and bacteriological laboratories. The labora- 



tories are well equipped with instruments and 

apparatus. The library has over 4,000 volumes 

of special literature. Two small .sail and motor 

research boats. 
Staff: Director, V. A. Vodianitski (zoologist). 

Vice-director, E. A. Poteriaicv (hydrochemist). 

Chief zoologist, S. G. Krishanovski. 

Hydrologist, S. P. Rotar. 

Hydrochemist, E. L. Rabushkin. 

Botanist, Miss S. N. Mlkhailovskaya. 

Zoologist, Miss E. G. Ko.ssiakina. 

Zoologist, Miss S. M. Pchelina. 

Technical staff — 6 persons. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: In the summer 

time, one or two places can be temporarily 

allotted for visiting investigators. 
Income: The Station exists on the Budget of the 

People's Commissariat of Education. It also 

receives small sums from contracts for special 

research work. The budget in 1933 was 66,200 

Rbls., including 8,000 Rbls. for scientific equipment. 
Provision for the publication of results: The Station 

publishes its "Memoirs" (Trudy). Five issues 

have appeared, 50-180 pages each. 

Ukrainian Odessa Fisheries Station ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in 1921 by the Ukrainian 
People's Commissariat of Supplies. 

Location: Odessa, Kolodesni pereoulok No. 9. 

Organization to which attached: Branch of the Asov- 
Black Sea Scientific Research Institute of Fisheries 
and Oceanography, affiliated with the All-Union 
Scientific Research Institute of Marme Fisheries 
and Oceanography in Moscow. 

Purposes: Survey of the natural resources of the 
Black Sea and the recon.struction of the fishing 
technique. The work of the Station is divided 
into 4 sections: Ichthyological; Physics and 
chemistry of the sea; Hydrobiology ; Fishing 
technique. 

(Scope of activities: The U. S. S. R. part of the Black 
Sea, chiefly the northwest part, from the Crimea 
to the Roumanian boundary. 

Equipment: The Station does not possess its own 
buildings. It has ichthyological, hydrobiological, 
hydrological laboratories, and a research vessel 
Telman of 18 reg. tons. 

Staff: Director, S. J. Sirovatsky (ichthyologist). 
Assistant, Mrs. N. I. Sirovatskaia (ichthyologist). 
Specialist of fishing technique, N. N. Vinogradov. 
Ichthyologist, F. F. Egerman. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— U. S. S. R. 



163 



IchthyologLsts, V. D. Kuvshinnikov, E. D. Veli- 

kokhatko. . 
3 assistant ichthyologists, A. S. Stoianov, Miss 

E. A. Nevinskaia, I. I. Ivanov. 
Chief hydrobiologist, A. K. Makarov. 
Hydrobiologist, N. A. Zagorovski; assistant, 

A. M. Borisenko. 
Assistant hydrochemists, Miss L. G. Vutte, 

S. E. Kaliberdin. 
Assistant biologist, Miss N. E. Piliavskaia. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Visiting scientists, 
post-graduate students, and students are admitted 
to the scientific studies of the Station. 

Income: In 1933 the budget was Rbls. 153,000, 
whereof Rbls. 105,000 was received from Fishing 
Industries Trusts, according to contracts con- 
cluded. The remaining Rbls. 48,000 was the 
surplus left over from the 1932 budget received 
from the Chief Fisheries Department (Glavryba). 

Provision for publication of results: The Ukrainian 
Branch has published 24 bulletins and 6 volumes 
of its "Memoirs" (Trudy). 

Sevastopol Biological Station ('34) 

History or origin: Founded in 1872 by the Novoros- 

siLsk Society for Natural Sciences. 
Location: Sevastopol, Primorski boulvar, Sevastopol 

Bay, on the seashore. 
Organization to which attached: Academy of Sciences 

of the USSR. 



Purposes: Oceanographical and hydrobiological ob- 
servations, study of the fauna and flora of the 
Black and Asov Seas. 

(Scope of activities: Black and Asov Seas. 

Equipment: Building, 6,000 cub. meters. Biological, 
chemical, and microbiological laboratories. Mu- 
seum. Aquarium. Scientific library of 20,000 
volumes (hydrobiology and oceanography). 20- 
ton research vessel. Hydrological, hydrobiologi- 
cal, and optical apparatus. 

Staff: Director, S. A. Zernov (member of the 
Academy). 
Vice Director, V. A. Vodianitsky (chief zoologist). 
Chief hydrologist, N. I. Tchigirin. 
Zoologist, M. A. Galadjiev. 
Zoologist, L. I. Jakubova. 
Botanist, N. V. Morosova-Vodianitskaia. 
Microbiologist, P. I. Kopp. 
Chemist, MLss N. A. Dobrjanskaia. 
Technical personnel — 19 persons. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 15 places for 
visiting investigators. 

Income: State budget, 90,000 rbls. in 1933; special 
funds, 45,000 rbls. 

Provision for the publication of results: 13 issues in 
cooperation with the special Zoological Laboratory 
of the Academy of Science and 3 volumes of 160- 
200 pages of the Memoirs (Trudy) of the Sevasto- 
pol Biological Station. 



INSTITUTIONS, WEST SIDE OF THE ATLANTIC 

OCEAN 



BRITISH DOMINIONS 

Bermuda 

Bermuda Biological Station for Research ('37) 

History or origin:^ Originally established in 1903, 
with Professor E. L. Mark of Harvard as director, 
at Flatts in connection with a contemplated 
public aquarium by agreement between Harvard 
University, New York University, and the 
Bermuda Natural History Society. In 1907 
Agar's Island was leased by the Bermuda Natural 
History Society and a public aquarium was 
established in association with the station under 
the direction of Professor Mark. From 1907 to 
1918 there were regular summer sessions. Dr. 
W. J. Crozier was resident naturalist from 1915 
to 1918. In 1917 to 1918 Agar's Island was 
requisitioned for military purposes and the station 
was transferred to Dyer's Island but was after- 
ward retransferred. In 1926 the station was 
incorporated under the laws of the State of New 
York. The Biological Station Act of 1927 
passed by the Government of Bermuda granted 
the Corporation (1) the privilege of holding real 
estate in the Islands, (2) the conveyance of the 
"Hunter property" to the Trustee when £50,000 
endowonent had been raised, (3) exemption from 
customs duty on all supplies and equipment of 
the Station, (4) an annual grant of £200 for a 
period of ten years. In 1929 the Rockefeller 
Foundation appropriated £50,000 to meet the 
conditions imposed by the Biological Station Act. 
In 1930 the Hunter property was reconveyed 
to the Bermuda Government and its purchase 

1 Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Incorporated 
1926, Announcement, Thirty-first Year— 1933. 

The Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Incor- 
porated 1926, Reports of OfScers for the Years 1926 to 1932, 
1933. 

Conklin, E. G., The New Bermuda Biological Station for 
Research, Incorporated 1926, Announcement of the First 
Session at "Shore Hills," St. George's West, Bermuda, June 
15 to August 10, 1931 (Twenty-ninth year of the original 
Bermuda Biological Station.) 

Conklin, E. G., The Bermuda Biological Station for 
Research, Inc., Report of the President for the Year 1936. 
Manuscript dated December 26, 1936. 



price was transferred toward the conversion of 
Shore Hills into a biological station. In 1931 the 
Shore Hills property was purchased and the 
conversion of it into a biological station was 
begun. In 1932 the station was officially opened 
by His Excellency, the Governor of Bermuda. 

In 1936 a proposal was made for cooperative 
work on the Gulf Stream System by the Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Bermuda 
Biological Station, on condition of adequate 
support of this work being secured on the part 
of the Bermuda Station. An appeal was made to 
the British friends of the Station, and as a result 
of their activity a Bermuda Oceanographic 
Committee, consisting of twelve leading ocean- 
ographers and biologists of Britain, was organized 
by the Royal Society of London. This Com- 
mittee approved the plan and recommended to 
the British Development Commission a grant of 
£5,100 for the construction and equipment of an 
oceanographic research boat and £3,500 annually 
for the scientific and technical support of the 
Bermuda Station's part of this work. This 
recommendation has now been approved by the 
Development Commission; the project has been 
endorsed by the Trustees and Corporation of the 
Bermuda Biological Station; Columbus Iselin, 
of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 
has been elected President of the Bermuda Sta- 
tion. This significant international cooperation 
in the study of the Gulf Stream System will be 
put into operation as rapidly as possible. 

Location: On a property known as Shore Hills on 
Ferry Reach, St. George's West, Bermuda. 
Dr. J. F. G. Wheeler of the "Discovery" Office, 
London, was installed as Director. 

Organization to which attached: An independent 
organization under the control of an International 
Board of Trustees on which are represented 
England, Scotland, Canada, Bermuda, and the 
United States. 

Purpose and scope of activities: To offer facilities for 
research in biology and in oceanography in the 
region of the Bermuda Islands. 



164 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— BERMUDA, CANADA 165 

Equipment: The Shore Hills property consists of Income: From fees, investments, and contributions, 

more than 14 acres of land fronting on Ferry Provision for the ■publication of results: None. 
Reach, a main building of stone and concrete 

which is used as laboratory and residence, 5 L^anada 

cottages, boat and bathing houses, engine house, Canadian Hydrographic Service, Department 

wharf, etc., all completely furni.shed. The build- of Marine ('37) 

ings have been repaired and remodeled for the ideation: Ottawa, 

uses of the station. g^^^. Hydrographer, Captain Frederick Anderson; 

The general laboratory accommodates 12 work- Assistant-Director R J Fraser 

ers and there are several small private labora- Division of Hydrography: Atlantic Coast and 

tones. There is a chemistry laboratory and in ^reat Lakes Di.strict,-vacant; Pacific Coast 

the basement of the building there have been District, Engineer-in-charge, H. D. Parizeau; 

mstalled a physiological laboratory with accom- ^hart Construction Division, Chief of Division, 

modations for 5 or 6 workers, an aquarium room, q ^ Crichton; Chart Distribution Division, 

a dark room, a cold room, and a chemistry store Engineer-in-charge, P. E. Parent, 

room. Where needed, there are fresh water, Division of Tides and Currents: Atlantic Coast, 

running sea water, electricity (110 volts A.C.), Engineer-in-charge, H. W. Jones; Pacific Coast, 

and gas (Philgas). Engineer-in-charge, S. C. Hayden. 

On the sea water well beside the station jetty, Division of Precise Water Levels: Engineer-in- 

there is an automatic tide recording machine of charee C A Price 

the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Eauivment- 
The station posses.ses a 24 foot launch and a 

small dory. Also the usual apparatus for collec- «''«^'="'«' "^^^"^ msPLACEMEST officebs chew 

., 1 . -11 1 • J • 4-u Acadia 1,067 11 35 

tion. A larger boat will be acquired in the near ^, oe< « o, 

^ ' C ARTIER 864 9 31 

future. LiLLOOET 772 9 32 

In the library there are standard works on W. J. Stewart 1,525 13 51 

biology, zoologj', and marine research, series of 

contributions from various laboratories and uni- Atlantic Biological Station ('37) 

versities, and a good collection of reprints. History or origin: At first (1899) a small movable 

Staff: Director, J. F. G. Wheeler, D.Sc; 1 Secretary laboratory, located successively at St. Andrews, 

and librarian; 3 for maintenance and operation. N. B., Canso, N. S., Malpeque, P. E. I., Gaspe, 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Although visiting Que., and Seven Islands (now Clarke City), Que. 

investigators may be received without charge. Established by the Government of Canada under 

' many colleges, universities, and institutions are a scientific board for the purpose of providing 

contributing to the upkeep of the Station by facilities for Canadian scientists to investigate 

subscribing for the support of a table or research marine problems with a view to the ultimate 

room, such subscription entitling them to the use benefit of the fisheries. After trial of the localities 

of all the general f aciUties of the Station by an mentioned and after examination of other portions 

approved investigator or research student. of the Canadian Atlantic Coast, a permanent site 

Regular fees for research rooms and tables are was chosen near the first place m.entioned. 

as follows: For one year, $400.00; for three Location: On the shore of the deep (30 meters) 

months, $100.00; for two weeks or less, $25.00. tidal estuary of the St. Croix river, two miles 

The Station is prepared to accommodate north of the town of St. Andrews, province of 

approved investigators and research students at New Brunswick. Though far inland, the suc- 

an inclusive fee of $15.00 per week when there cessive bodies of water leading to the open 

are more than six persons in residence; $16.00 Atlantic being (1) St. Croix river, (2) Passama- 

per week otherwise. quoddy Bay, (3) Bay of Fundy, and (4) Gulf of 

Applications for laboratory and living accommo- Maine, the water has a salinity of over 30% and 

dation must be made on the official form to the provides suitable conditions for a variety of open 

director at the Station, Dr. J. F. G. Wheeler, St. water forms such as cod, haddock, halibut, 

George's, Bermuda, some time before the appli- herring, and rosefish (Sehastes), this owing to the 

cant purposes to take up residence. heavy tides. The bodies of water are graded in 



166 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



size, present quite varied conditions, and, being 
largely enclosed, can be investigated in practically 
all weathers. 
Organization to which attached: Biological Board of 

Canada. 
Purposes: The provision of facilities for fundamental 
investigation of the problems presented by both 
fresh and salt water. The investigation of the 
waters in and near the eastern part of Canada, in 
particular, of the so-called Maritime provinces, 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward 
Island, with a view to providing a proper basis 
for the conduct of the fisheries. 
(Scope of activities: Physical and chemical investiga- 
tions of the sea and other waters; general bio- 
logical investigations; special fishery investiga- 
tions. 
Equipment: Laboratories, etc. — Main laboratory, 
destroyed by fire in 1932, being rebuilt as fire- 
proof structure for year round use; part for offices, 
individual and general laboratories accommodat- 
ing 16 investigators, storerooms, and experimental 
aquaria, tanks and constant temperature units, 
erected in 1932. Fish-handling building, with 
freezing and cold storage facilities, equipment for 
rough handling of native material and carpenter 
shop. Two other buildings with simple labora- 
tory accommodation for summer use. Experi- 
mental concrete and earth ponds. Inlet or cove 
with dam near mouth, and provided with pools 
for experiments in control of tidal interchange 
and freshwater inflow. Pools for trout rearing. 

Vessels and boats. Zoarches, 90 feet long, 
Diesel crude oil engine of 75 H.P., .speed 8 knots, 
cruising radius 1000 miles; with power winch, 
otter trawl, deck laboratory, and large hold 
amidships for experimental work. 

Delphine, 28 feet long, high-speed gasoline 
engine, 12 H.P., speed 10| knots. 

Sagitta, 24 feet long, low speed gasoline engine, 
6 H.P., .speed 6 knots. 

Gear for hydrography, plankton collecting, 
dredging, and fishing. 

Main residence, bedrooms for 34 persons, dining 
room for 44 persons. 

Double cottage, each half with living room, 
bathroom, and bedrooms for four persons. 

Double cottage, each half equipped with bed- 
rooms, bathroom, living room, kitchen and 
dining room for a family of six. 
Staff: Director, A. H. Leim. A.ssistant Pathologist, 
R. H. M'Gonigle. Assistant Hydrographer, H. B. 



Hachey. Assistant Zoologist, R. A. McKenzie. 
Scientific Assistant, A. A. Blair. Clerical: 2. 
Maintenance and operation: 4. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Insofar as ac- 
commodation may be available, properly qualified 
and accredited investigators are welcomed, irre- 
spective of the problems upon which they may be 
engaged, and given available facilities insofar as 
no expense to the biological Board is involved. 
Reports on work done are expected of all investiga- 
tors by the end of the year as evidence of bona- 
fides. 
Income: The Government of Canada furnishes the 
funds for the operation, the amount for the fiscal 
year April, 1936 to March, 1937, being $44,400.00. 
Provision for publication of results: The Biological 
Board of Canada has the following publications, 
in which the results of work done at the Atlantic 
Biological Station appear. 

Annual Report. 

Journal, a volume of about 500 pages usually 
appearing each year, containing accounts of con- 
tributions to knowledge. 

Bulletins of the Biological Board of Canada, 
for the comprehensive presentation of knowl- 
edge on particular subjects under investigation 
and in somewhat non-technical form. 

Canadian Atlantic Fauna. Succinct descrip- 
tions of the species, with keys for ready identifica- 
tion and with figures illustrating diagnostic 
features. 

Progress Reports of the Atlantic Stations, sim- 
ple accounts of discoveries likely to appeal to the 
general reader interested in fisheries. 

With the approval of the Board investigators 
may publish articles in outside journals. 

Prince Edward Island Marine Station ('37) 

(A sub-station of the Atlantic Biological Station, 

St. Andrews, N. B.) 

History or origin: Established in 1929. Present 

building constructed in 1930. 
Location: Ellerslie, P. E. I. The station is on a 

.shallow inlet tributary to Malpeque Bay, P. E. I. 
Organization to which attached: Biological Board of 

Canada. 
Purposes: Chiefly for scientific investigations bearing 

on oyster culture. Also for general oceanographic 

and fisheries investigations of the Biological 

Board. 
Scope of activities: Research only. (See Purposes). 
Equipment: Space for six scientific investigators. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— CANADA 



167 



Running fresh and salt water. Electricity and 
gas. Two small gasoline boats. 

Staff: Scientific: Dr. A. W. H. Needier, Zoologist in 
charge. Technical and clerical: None. Main- 
tenance and operation: 1. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Investigators 
accepted as volunteers by the Biological Board 
are given facihties for work. Accommodation 
arranged individually with local residents. 

Income: Included in amount for Atlantic Biological 
Station. 

Provision for publication of results: As for Atlantic 
Biological Station. 

Meteorological Service of Canada ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1872 primarily 
for the purpose of giving storm warnings for 
shipping on the Great Lakes and in the Maritime 
Provinces. It has developed until it now includes 
all the activities associated with Meteorological 
Services. In 1920 it began the investigation of 
the surface-water temperatures in the Pacific. 

There was a fairly prevalent theory that the 
water temperatures on the Pacific had a definite 
bearing on the weather on the North American 
continent, especially during the winter, and to 
test this out, observations in connection with 
the same were undertaken in 1920. For the first 
two years various types of instruments were 
tried out, and as result it was decided to use 
thermographs of the mercury-in-steel type, in- 
stalled in the intake of the condenser on the ship, 
as it was found these gave accurate sea-water 
temperatures and that at the depth of the intake 
the temperature did not differ appreciably from 
that at the surface. Thermographs were in- 
stalled on the ships plying from Vancouver to 
Hong Kong in 1922 and there are now fourteen 
years of records on the sea-water temperatures 
on the ship lanes in the North Pacific. In 1928 a 
thermograph was installed on one of the ships 
running from Vancouver to New Zealand and 
Australia. In 1930 a number of the ships of the 
Canadian Pacific Steamship Co. took the route 
from Vancouver to Yokohama via Plonolulu, 
and as a consequence, observations have also 
been obtained over this route during this period. 

Location: Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

Organization to which attached: Department of Trans- 
port — Dominion Government. 

Purposes and scope of activities: This particular 
division of the Meteorological Service investigates 



sea-water temperatures and their relation to the 

climate and weather of Canada. 
Equipynent: Fully equipped Meteorological Service 

at Toronto; Branch Office, Victoria; Office, 

^'ancouver — for ocean temperature observations. 
Staff: J. Patterson, M.A., F.R.S.C, Director; 

W. A. Thorn, M.A., in charge, Victoria; E. B. 

Shearman, in charge, Vancouver. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 
Income: Received from Dominion Government. 
Provision for publication of results: Publications of 

the Meteorological Service and various scientific 

periodicals. 

Station Biologique du Saint-Laurent ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in spring of 1931 by 

Laval University, Quebec, P. Q., as a section of 

the Institute of Marine Biology of that University. 

Location: Trois-Pistoles, P. Q., 160 miles down the 

river from Quebec City, on the Saint Lawrence. 

Organization to which attached: Laval University, 

Quebec City. 

Purposes: To study the chemical and physical 

conditions as well as the fauna and flora of the 

Saint Lawrence estuary. 

Scope of activities: The Station is open during the 

summer months only, from the middle of June 

until September, as the work is done mostly by 

men of the University of Laval (Quebec) or of 

Montreal. 

Equipment: A small laboratory for biological and 

chemical work, a fine boat equipped with all 

necessary apparatus for dredging, collecting of 

water samples with the reversing bottle, collecting 

of plankton with microplankton and macroplank- 

ton meter nets such as are used by the United 

States Bureau of Fisheries. The equipment is 

quite adequate for the work to be done. 

Staff: Director, Rev. Prof. Alexandre Vachon, Laval 

University. 

Biologists: Dr. J. L. Tremblay, Prof, of Marine 

Biology, Laval University; Dr. Georges Pre- 

fontaine. University of Montreal; Mr. L.-P. 

Dugal, Montreal University; Dr. V. D. Valdy- 

kov. Biological Board of Canada, Halifax; 

Dr. A. R. Potvin, Professor of Biology, Laval 

University; Rev. R. Dolbec, Laval University; 

Rev. A. Gagnon, Laval University; Rev. L. 

Larouche, Chicoutimi, P. Q. ; Mr. L.-P. Pigeon, 

Quebec; Mr. P. Demers, Montreal; Mr. R. 

Deschenes, Trois-Pistoles, P. Q. 

Chemists: Dr. Lucien Gravel, Laval University; 



m 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



grft E(r/'J'6fcph Risi, Laval University; Mr. Richard 
Bernard, Quebec; Mr. L.-P. Bouthillier, Mon- 

''^''''t'feal University; Mr. Malcolm Vachon, Laval 

''fftjniversity; Mr. Aristide Nadeau, Laval Uni- 

■ versity; Mr. Roger Gaudry, Laval University. 

Captain of boat : Mr. P.-E. Cloutier. Engineer : 

Mr. P. Fillion. Mate: Mr. J. Dumas. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Provisions may 
be made for a few workers if application is made 
to the Director early in the spring; all necessary 
information will be given. 

Income: The Station is supported by Laval Univer- 
sity. The amount granted by the University 
varies; it may average $10,000 a year. 

Provision for the publication of results: Results are 
published by the University as reports come in; 
they are sometimes published in "Le Naturaliste 
Canadien," a review of the University, and special 
reports are afterwards printed and sent a couple 
of times a year. 

Newfoundland 

Fishery Research Laboratory of Department of 
Natiiral Resources 

(Date of infortnatio7i, April 19, 1937. Changes in 
the staff are contemplated for the near future) 

History or origin: Following upon a survey by Dr. 
Harold Thomp.son of the Newfoundland fishery 
situation in 1930, the British Empire Marketing 
Board and the Government of Newfoundland 
entered into an agreement providing for a five 
year period of fishery research in Newfoundland. 
At first the laboratory was estabhshed under a 
Fishery Research Commission, but later was 
taken over by the Dept. of Natural Resources. 
The original five year agreement was extended for 
one year and it will be continued for a further 
period, probably of five years. 

Locatioji: At Bay Bulls, a settlement 18 miles by 
road from St. John's. 

Organization to which attached: The Department of 
Natural Resources, St. John's, Newfoundland. 

Purposes: No scientific investigation of the fisheries 
of Newfoundland, the main industry of the Island, 
had been made up to 1931. The purpose of the 
Research Station was to rectify this want. 

Scope of activities: Investigation of the fife history, 
fluctuation and movements of the principal fi-shes 
of Newfoundland, and the improvement of exist- 
ing methods, and the development of further 



methods of processing fish products also receive 
attention. 

Equipment: Part of the unused factory of Messrs. 
Harvey & Co., fish merchants, was at first rented. 
These premises were later bought by the Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources. They were originally 
erected with the object of carrying on a complete 
fishery business in conjunction with the deep sea 
fishing fleet, and contain freezing, smoking, dry- 
ing, and cod liver oil plant, and a small canning 
plant and other additions have been installed. 
The Laboratory contains six laboratories, library, 
work shop well equipped, dark room, balance 
room, store rooms, and a small aquarium. The 
latter has pure sea water circulation. A research 
vessel is available. Originally a trawler with 
full commercial size trawhng gear with usual 
scientific installments was run on regular spring 
and autumn surveys of the Newfoundland fishing 
area, but this has now been replaced by a diesel- 
engined refrigerated vessel. All heating is by 
electricity and steam, gas is not available. 

Staff: Scientific : Director, vacant. Acting Director, 
Norman L. Macpherson, Ph.D., M.A. Anna M. 
Wilson, M.Sc. Nancy Frost, M.A. Allan R. 
Johnstone, B.Sc. Technical and clerical, 23. 
Maintenance and operation, 3. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The local hotel 
is suitable for summer residence. 

Income: At first $43,000 per annum, 50% from the 
E. M. B. and 50% from the Government of 
Newfoundland. Local scholarships have been 
provided for college students for part time work. 
Recently available funds were cut by some 
$10,000 as cost is now borne entirely by the New- 
foundland Government. 

Provision for publication of results: Annual and Spe- 
cial Reports financed out of general expenditure. 
At first Reports of the Newfoundland Fishery 
Research Commission, now Department of Natu- 
ral Resources, Division of Fishery Research 
Reports. 

UNITED STATES 

Connecticut 

Bingham Oceanographic Foundation ('37) 

History or origin: The Bingham Oceanographic 
Collection was started privately in New York 
at the initiative of Harry Payne Bingham, who 
undertook three deepsea expeditions on his yacht 
Pawnee during the years 1925-1927. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— CANADA, NEWFOUNDLAND, CONNECTICUT 



169 



Location: New Haven, Connecticut. 

Organization to which attached: Yale University, of 

which the Foundation with its collections and 

laboratories is a separate unit. 
Purposes and scope of activities: The first expedition 

(1925) visited West Indian waters, the second 

(1926) explored the Gulf of California, and the 
third (1927) the waters around the Bahama 
Islands. The chief purpose of these expeditions 
was the collecting of marine life. During the 
first two expeditions, mainly shallow-water fishes 
and invertebrates were obtained, with numerous 
new species discovered. During the third ex- 
pedition, the main emphasis was placed upon 
bathypelagic trawlings for which the yacht 
carried all the necessary equipment. In 1928 the 
collections were moved to Peabody Museum of 
Yale University, and in 1930 the Bingham 
Oceanographic Foundation was endowed by 
Harry Pajoie Bingham for the care and further 
increase of the collections, and to maintain the 
Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory for further 
oceanographic and marine biological research. 
After the last privately conducted expedition in 
1927, the Bingham Oceanographic Foundation 
has cooperated with the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries in the investigation of the shallow-water 
biology of the middle Atlantic coast since 1929, 
this cooperation still continuing today. In this 
work the Bingham Laboratory has particularly 
undertaken to investigate the youngfish biology. 
Vessel and crew for the collecting has been fur- 
nished by the Bureau of Fisheries. In 1932 Yale 
University, through the Bingham Foundation, 
sent out an expedition to study the hydrography 
of the Gulf of Mexico on the schooner Mabel 
Taylor. Subsequently, this arrangement was 
superseded by a cooperative arrangement with 
the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for 
the further hydrographic exploration of the 
Central American seas, with joint expeditions to 
the Caribbean region on the Atlantis in 1933, 
1934, 1936. 

Equipment: The Bingham Oceanographic Labora- 
tory is provided with all standard equipment for 
laboratory work on marine collections and also 
has the necessary apparatus for the standard 
chemical determinations of sea water. In regard 
to field equipment, the Foundation is completely 
provided with everything except a boat. Nets, 
seines, trawls, deepsea towing cables, electric 
winches, a hydrographic winch, and similar 



equipment is maintained in readiness for installa- 
tion on any available vessel. 

<Sta^.- Curator, A. E. Parr; Assistant Curator, 
Martin D. Burkenroad; Assistant, Yngve H. 
Olsen. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Although the 
space for the time being is rather limited, a 
table and the necessary equipment can always be 
provided for a visiting investigator. 

Income: The total income derived from the Bingham 
Oceanographic Foundation, by annual contribu- 
tions from Harry Payne Bingham and by a 
general oceanographic budget granted by Yale 
University, now amounts to $10,800 per year. 

Provision for the puhlication of results: Funds are 
provided for the printing and distribution of 
around two hundred pages of scientific reports 
each year. Two series of publications are main- 
tained, the Bulletin and the Occasional Papers 
of the Bingham Oceanographic Collections. 

Supplement: After this report had gone to press, 
under date of July 22, 1937, the following in- 
formation was received from Dr. A. E. Parr of 
Yale University: 

There has just been established at Yale the 
Sears Foundation for Marine Research, the 
income of which will be from an endowment 
intended to yield $4,000.00 annually. This 
Foundation will be permanently associated with 
the Bingham Oceanographic Foundation at Yale. 
The chief purpose will be to support two series of 
publications, as follows: 

First, a quarto memoir series, in which will be 
published the results of the investigations con- 
ducted under the auspices of both the Sears and 
the Bingham Foundations. 

Second, an octavo periodical journal, which 
will afford means for the pubhcation of results 
from any kind of marine research, including such 
diverse subjects as marine meteorology, deep- 
.sea biology, and the chemistry of sea-water. It 
is intended to publish three numbers, with a total 
of about 200 pages annually. Only papers of an 
interpretative or a theoretical nature will be 
accepted. Articles that are merely descriptive 
and reviews of literature will not be published. 
A charge will be made for subscription to the 
journal, but funds derived from that source will be 
used to improve and augment the size of the 
magazine. 



170 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



District of Columbia 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington ('37) 

History or origin: The Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism was founded through the initiative of 
Dr. Louis A. Bauer, who submitted in 1902 to 
the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington a plan for an international magnetic bureau. 
This plan was supported by leading investigators 
in terrestrial magnetism and terrestrial electricity 
at home and abroad. The purpose of the pro- 
posed bureau was "to investigate such problems 
of worldwide interest as relate to the magnetic 
and electric conditions of the Earth and its 
atmosphere, not specifically the subject of inquiry 
of any one country, but of international concern 
and benefit." The Department was formally 
established under the auspices of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington in general accordance 
with this plan April 1, 1904. 

One of the chief problems undertaken was the 
magnetic survey of the oceans as a part of the 
problem of the world-wide survey. The magnetic 
survey of the oceans was begun in the Pacific 
Ocean and was continued during August 1905 to 
May 1908 with the chartered brigantine Galilee, 
which had been adapted for the purpose of mag- 
netic observations at sea. The success of these 
cruises and the importance of disclosing errors in 
magnetic charts led the Institution to authorize 
the construction of a non-magnetic ship, the 
Carnegie. This vessel was launched June 12, 
1909, and carried on work in all oceans between 
latitudes 80° north and 61° south until November 
29, 1929, when she was destroyed by an explosion 
while in the harbor at Apia, Samoa. The com- 
bined aggregate of the three cruises of the 
Galilee and of the seven cruises of the Carnegie 
was 361,413 nautical miles. 

When the Carnegie was overhauled prepara- 
tory to her seventh cruise (May 1928 to November 
1929), laboratories were built and equipment was 
added so that in addition to continued magnetic 
and electric work an intensive program of physical 
and chemical oceanography and marine biology 
might be executed. The results included physical 
and chemical observations at 162 stations (in 
general from .surface to bottom), 1,014 biological 
samples, 1,500 .sonic depths, and 87 bottom- 
samples. The cruise covered the northern and 
southwestern portions of the North Atlantic, and 



the eastern portion of the South Pacific Ocean 
and the North Pacific Ocean. 

The central laboratory, offices, and shop of the 
Department were located in rented quarters in 
Washington from 1904 to February 1914, when 
site and laboratory-building were provided five 
miles northwest of the business section of Wash- 
ington, D. C. A special non-magnetic standardiz- 
ing observatory was built in 1914 and a special 
non-magnetic laboratory in 1918, to which was 
added in 1933 a large extension, designed particu- 
larly for research in nuclear physics. Dr. Louis 
A. Bauer was Director through 1929 and there- 
after Director Emeritus until his death April 12, 
1932. Dr. John A. Fleming, Assistant Director 
from 1922, Acting Director from 1930, became 
Director January 1, 1935. The annual grant of 
the Institution for maintaining the Department 
increased from about $20,000 in 1904 to about 
$189,000 in 1937, with a peak of about $265,000 
in 1929, at the end of which year the Carnegie 
was lost. 

Location: The Department occupies a site of nine 
acres about five miles northwest of the center of 
Washington, D. C. 

Organization to xohich attached: Carnegie Institution 
of Washington, of which the Department is a unit. 

Purposes: Major, research in terrestrial magnetism 
and terrestrial electricity; oceanographical ob- 
servations and research with particular reference 
to the continuous changes taking place in the 
Earth's magnetic and electric fields, particularly 
over oceanic areas; oceanographical research in 
connection with magnetic surveys at sea; the- 
oretical and experimental investigations in nuclear 
physics in connection with their bearings on 
terrestrial magnetism and electricity; continuous 
observations of the magnetic and electric elements 
and of ionization of the upper atmosphere (iono- 
sphere) at stations in Peru and Western Australia. 

Scope of activities: Researches in terrestrial mag- 
netism and electricity and cosmical relations; 
magnetic surveys over oceans and on land; con- 
tinuous recording of magnetic and electric phe- 
nomena; researches on the physics and chemistry 
of sea-water samples and data, on the biological 
collections, on the meteorological results, and on 
marine bottom-samples, obtained during Cruise 
VII of the Carnegie. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory building, 4 floors, 52 x 102 
feet, with deck 29 x 79 feet, and underground 
constant-temperature rooms. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



171 



1 non-magnetic laboratory building for 
standardization of magnetic instruments, 1 floor, 
26 X 58 feet. 

1 experiment building, 28 x 53 feet, with 
extension 34 x 47 feet, and basement 34 x 47 feet. 
Library, more than 8,000 volumes and 15,000 
reprints. 

Several service buildings and foundry (tem- 
porary structures). 

9-acre site at Washington, D. C. 
Magnetic, electric, seismological, radiotele- 
graphic, spectrohehoscopic, and auxiliary build- 
ings and living quarters for observatory, operated 
from 1921, and located on 25-acre site acquired 
late in 1919 near Huancayo, Peru, 125 miles 
east of Lima. 

Magnetic, electric, radiotelegraphic, spectro- 
hehoscopic, and auxiliary buildings and living 
quarters for observatory, operated from 1919, 
and located on 220-acre site acquired in 1917 near 
Watheroo, Western Australia, about 120 miles 
north-northeast of Perth. 

During 1909 to 1929 non-magnetic ves.sel 
Carnegie with special equipment, an auxiliary 
brigantine of 568 tons displacement, of 33-foot 
beam, and 155 feet long over all. 
Staff: Dr. J. A. Fleming, Director (terrestrial mag- 
netism and electricity, oceanography, field and 
obiservatory operations). 
O. H. Gish, Physicist and Assistant Director 

(terrestrial electricity) . 
W. J. Peters, Research Associate (compass- 
deviations, magnetic disturbances). 
Dr. S. Chapman, Re.search Associate (magnetic 

and electric theory). 
Dr. J. Bartels, Research Associate (magnetic 

activity and correlations). 
Dr. H. U. Sverdrup, Research Associate (oceano- 

graphical re.search). 
Dr. G. Breit (nuclear physics theory). 
Dr. G. Gamow (nuclear physics). 
H. F. Johnston, Physicist (magnetic variations). 
Dr. M. A. Tuve, Physicist (nuclear physics). 
L. V. Beckner, Physicist (ionospheric research). 
Dr. G. R. Wait, Physicist (atmospheric elec- 
tricity). 
Dr. L. R. Hafstad, Physicist (nuclear physics). 
W. J. Rooncy, Physicist (earth-currents). 
Dr. N. P. Heydenburg, Associate Physicist (nu- 
clear physics). 
W. C. Parkinson, Magnetician (terrestrial mag- 
netism). 



W. F. Wallis, Magnetician (terrestrial magnetism). 

J. W. Green, Magnetician (magnetic secular- 
variations and land-survey). 

A. G. McNish, Magnetician (magnetic and electric 
theory). 

E. A. Johnson, Mathematical Physicist (electro- 
magnetic design and theory). 

C. R. Duvall, Expert Computer (secular variation 

and harmonic analysis). 
C. C. Ennis, Computer (oceanographical and 

magnetic research). 

F. T. Davies, Computer (observatory work). 

C. W. Torreson, Observer (atmospheric elec- 
tricity). 

P. G. Ledig, Observer (observatory and land 
magnetic survey). 

W. E. Scott, Observer (observatory work). 

S. L. Seaton, Observer (observatory ionospheric 
research). 

S. E. Forbush, Observer (magnetic and electric 
theory). 

H. W. Wells, Observer (ionospheric research). 

W. W. Culmsee, Observer (observatory work). 

K. L. Sherman, Assistant Physicist (atmospheric 
electricity). 

R. C. Meyer, Assistant Physicist and Instrument- 
maker (nuclear physics and instrumental de- 
signer). 

H. W. Graham, Biologist and Chemist (research 
on biological collections of Carnegie). 

W. F. Steiner, Chief Instrument-maker (instru- 
mental designer). 

Two junior observers and one hand, in addition 
to Observer-in-Charge and his two staff- 
assistants, at Watheroo Magnetic Observatory 
(observatory operation). 

One observer, two clerical assistants, and four 
general assistants and hands, in addition to 
Observer-in-Charge and his one staff-assistant, 
at the Huancayo Magnetic Observatory (ob- 
servatory operation). 
Provision for visiting investigators: In addition to 

the Institution's staff, there are occasional visiting 

investigators at the laboratory in Washington. 

Accommodations for such visiting investigators 

are somewhat limited, although as many as four 

or five visiting investigators can be accommodated 

at one time. 
Income: The annual grant of the Department for 

1937 from the Carnegie Institution of Washington 

is about $189,000. This amount varies somewhat 

from year to year. In adchtion, private con- 



172 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



tributions for special purposes are received from 
time to time; these are, in general, for small 
amounts. 
Provisions for publication of resiilts: The Carnegie 
Institution of Washington through its Division 
of Publications publishes a series entitled "Re- 
searches of the Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism," of which six quarto volumes have been 
issued. Material for an additional volume has 
been made ready for publication, and manuscripts 
for the first volume of oceanographic data — 
physical, chemical, and biological — obtained on 
Cruise VII of the Carnegie are ready. The 
members of the staff publish papers in various 
American and foreign scientific periodicals; the 
total number of such papers since 1904 is nearly 
1,500. The Department publishes each year 
lists of all its publications, and all publications 
are supplied free of charge so far as the limited 
editions permit. 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey ('37) 

History or origin: (a) In 1807, during the adminis- 
tration of President Thomas Jefferson, Congress 
authorized the establishment of a national Coast 
Survey as a bureau under the Secretary of the 
Treasury. The plan adopted for its execution 
was that submitted by Ferdinand R. Hassler. 
Because of the external relations of the country 
it was impracticable to take any steps toward 
putting the plan into operation until 1811, when 
Hassler was directed to proceed to Europe to 
arrange for the construction of the necessary 
instruments and standards, some of the most 
important of these being made after his own 
design. The outbreak of the War of 1812 seri- 
ously interfered with his commissions, their 
completion being thereby delayed until the close 
of 1815, and in consequence actual field work 
was not possible until 1816. The work was 
suspended in 1818 and resumed in 1832. 

For the purpose of furnishing geographic posi- 
tions and other data to State surveys the scope 
of the bureau was enlarged in 1871, and in 1878 
its designation became the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. 

On the organization of the Department of 
Commerce and Labor in 1903 the bureau was 
transferred to it from the Treasury Department 
and in 1913 to the Department of Commerce. 
The plan upon which it is at present organized 
is based on the broad scientific foundation pro- 



posed by Hassler and approved by Jefferson; 
and its present methods are the perfected results 
of experience gained in the field and office during 
more than a century of its existence. 

Under the direction of a director there are two 
main divisions of its work — the field and the office. 
In accordance with the plan of reorganization of 
1843, the work on shore was divided between 
civilian assistants and officers of the Army, and 
the hydrographic work was placed almost entirely 
in charge of officers of the Navy. 

In 1861 the officers of the Army and Navy 
were detached, and since that date no officers of 
the Army have been assigned to duty on the 
survey. After the Civil War the assignments of 
officers of the Navy gradually increased in num- 
ber, so that the hydrographic work was about 
equally divided between them and the civil 
a.ssistants during the period which extended to 
1898, when the officers of the Navy, becau.se of 
conditions created by the outbreak of the war 
with Spain, were finally relieved, and in 1900 
Congress authorized the establishment of the 
survey on a purely civil basis. 

(b) Of the oceanographic accomplishments of 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey, these may be 
mentioned : 

1. Study and investigation of the Gulf 
Stream, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean 
Sea. The work of the Survey ship Blake, 
under the command of Sigsbee and Bartlett, is 
particularly well known through the two volumes 
of Agassiz i.ssued under the title "Three Crui.ses 
of the Blake," and by Pill.sbury's classical in- 
vestigation of the Gulf Stream. 

2. The development and use of acoustic meth- 
ods of determining both depth and position 
of soundings. Equipped with these methods, 
the Bureau is now able to delineate accurately 
the ocean bottom over any section of the conti- 
nental shelves. The work that has been accom- 
plished as a result of this development reveals the 
inadequacy of the data on which oceanographers 
in the past have based studies depending on a 
knowledge of the configuration of the bottom in 
areas out of sight of land. Inasmuch as the use 
of the new methods requires a thorough knowl- 
edge of the temperature and salinity of the 
water, a large amount of information of this 
nature is being accumulated. Excellent examples 
of the contributions to oceanography resulting 
from the new methods are the results obtained 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



173 



on the recent survey of Georges Bank, the 
approaches to New York Harbor, and the ap- 
proaches to Chesapeake Bay. 

In the subject of tides, three notable achieve- 
ments may be mentioned. First is the design of 
the construction of a direct-reading tide predictor 
by means of which tide predictions are made more 
expeditiously and more accurately than before. 
Second, the development of methods for deter- 
mining with precision tidal datum planes from 
short series of observations. Third, the develop- 
ment of the stationary-wave theory of the tide, 
which permits a better understanding of the 
various features of the tide found in the seven seas. 

Location: Washington, D. C. 

Organization to which attached: Bureau of Department 
of Commerce. 

Purposes and scope of activities: The results of coastal 
surveys are published, for the guidance of naviga- 
tion and the protection of life and property at 
sea, on about 750 different charts which constitute 
the basic product of the Bureau. The greater 
part of the information shown on the charts is 
obtained by extensive hydrographic and topo- 
graphic surveys and the accuracy and adequacy 
of such surveys in any region are, therefore, an 
index of the condition of the charts of that 
region. 

There is also a considerable amount of informa- 
tion required by mariners that can not be shown 
conveniently on charts. This includes sailing 
directions and data relative to port facilities, 
weather conditions, radio service, and similar 
subjects. To supply this information the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey publishes 12 Pilot volumes 
for the coasts under the jurisdiction of the 
United States and 3 Inside Route Pilots for our 
inland waterways. 

The geodetic work of the Bureau has for its 
principal object the establishment of a great 
number of points, distributed along our coasts 
and throughout the interior, to provide a founda- 
tion or framework for practically all charting and 
mapping operations. These are divided into two 
general classes — triangulation stations, the posi- 
tions of which, with relation to each other and 
on the surface of the earth, are determined; and 
bench marks, the elevations of which are accu- 
rately known. 

The bureau's tidal investigations serve two 
purposes with respect to chart production; first, 
they provide data for the establishment of the 



reference plane and for the reduction of all sound- 
ings to that plane; second, they enable the bureau 
to compile annual tables of predicted tides and 
currents, by means of which the mariner can 
time the movements of his ship to take advantage 
of the tide or, by using the tables in conjunction 
with his chart, can ascertain the actual depths 
at any time. 

With the increase in size of ships and the grow- 
ing importance of economy in their operation, 
it has been necessary in late years for the bureau 
to extend the scope of its current investigations 
which are carried on in connection with tidal 
observations. Outside the bureau the results 
of these operations are of great value in harbor- 
improvement work, sewage disposal, and similar 
projects. 

The magnetic surveys of the Bureau are 
carried on for the primary purpose of providing 
the data relative to magnetic variation that are 
shown on all charts and airway maps and are 
essential to the accurate use of the magnetic 
compass. The results are equally necessary for 
land surveying and for many branches of scientific 
research. 

The activities mentioned above are all essential 
branches of chart and map production work, 
however, the Bureau is engaged in two other 
activities. One of these is airway mapping. In 
addition to being directly in line with other 
charting operations, the assignment of this 
duty to the Bureau is simply a case of utilizing 
trained personnel and a modern map-making 
plant to turn out additional work with no great 
increase in overhead expenses. 

The other activity is seismology, or earthquake 
investigation. This was delegated to the bureau 
for the reason that the work required is admirably 
adapted, both in the field and office, for pro.secu- 
tion in conjunction with magnetic surveys and, 
hke airway mapping, can be carried on with only 
a moderate increase in operating expenses. 

The Coast and Geodetic Survey helps other 
institutions by collecting samples of marine 
plankton and bottom sediments. 
Equipment: The Survey owns and operates ten sea- 
going vessels, four of which are employed on the 
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, six on the Pacific and 
Alaskan Coasts, and one in the Philippine Islands. 
The last is owned by the Philippine Government. 
In addition, it operates a number of smaller motor 
vessels and wire drag launches for work imme- 



174 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



diately adjacent to the coast and a large number 
of trucks for work in the interior of the country. 
The various survejdng units are each equipped 
with the most modern surveying instruments and 
appliances for undertaking the work assigned to 
them. The Washington office, located in the new 
Department of Commerce building, is adequately 
equipped to handle the material received from 
the field and to convert it into the various products 
of the Bureau. 

SURVEYING VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

oceanographer 1,400 12 59 

Surveyor 1,150 11 59 

Discoverer 1,180 12 57 

Guide 1,180 12 57 

Pioneer 1,180 12 57 

Pathfinder 875 9 71 

Lydonia 585 7 49 

Fathomer 550 7 41 

Explorer 450 7 45 

Hydrographer 987 10 51 

Gilbert 90 3 12 

Westdahl 90 3 12 

Also 13 enclosed power launches of from 25 to 
45 tons displacements, 2 to 4 officers, 5 to 10 
crew. 
Staff: Director, Hydrographic & Geodetic Engineer, 

Rear Admiral R. S. Patton. 
Assistant-Director, Hydrographic & Geodetic 

Engineer, Commander J. H. Hawley. 
Head of Division of Hydrography and Topog- 
raphy, Hydrographic & Geodetic Engineer, 

Captain G. T. Rude. 
Head of Division of Geodesy, Hydrographic & 

Geodetic Engineer, Captain C. L. Garner. 
Head of the Division of Charts, Hydrographic & 

Geodetic Engineer, Commander L. O. Colbert. 
Head of Division of Terrestrial Magnetism and 

Seismology, Hydrographic & Geodetic Engi- 
neer, Captain N. H. Heck. 
Head of the Division of Tides and Currents, 

Hydrographic & Geodetic Engineer, Captain 

P. C. Whitney. 
Head of the Division of Instruments, D. L. 

Parkhurst. 
Accountant, J. M. Griffin. 
Chief Clerk, C. H. Dieck. 

Field force composed of 171 hydrographic and 
geodetic engineers, junior hydrographic and 
geodetic engineers, and aides, 10 magnetic ob- 
servers, 30 tide observers, 41 mates, engineers, 
surgeons, deck officers, etc., appro.ximately 500 
enlisted men, and an average of 160 additional 



employees who are necessary to insure the effec- 
tive work of shore parties, besides a number of 
laborers hired for brief periods when needed. 

Office force, composed of mathematicians, 
cartographers, draftsmen engravers, instmment 
makers, printers, accountants, clerks, etc., num- 
bering 208. 

There is a field station at Manila, and the officer 
in charge, representing the director, has authority 
to arrange for the conduct of insular field and 
office operations, and to prepare and publish 
charts and sailing directions for the Philippine 
Islands. There are field stations also at Boston, 
New York, New Orleans, San Francisco, Seattle, 
and Honolulu. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: It would be of 
particular value if scientific workers outside of 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey could have the 
opportunity to utilize the large amount of scien- 
tific data now in its archives. It is probable 
that scientific men working at universities or in 
private research laboratories might be desirous of 
attacking certain problems by the use of the data 
of this Bureau. The studies might be of such a 
nature that the institution or laboratory could 
not or would not finance the investigations. If 
Congress would authorize having studies made 
at the Washington office by outside scientific 
men and, while they were being made, would 
pay salaries that would be .sufficient to cover at 
least the living expenses of the workers, men 
from educational institutions might work here 
during their Sabbatical years or during the 
usual summer vacation. The cost of such in- 
vestigations would be quite small but the product 
might be of marked value. 

Income: Source: Federal appropriation. 

Amount: Approximately $3,000,000 per annum. 

Provision for ■publication of results: Publishes its own 
nautical charts, and Department of Commerce 
Aeronautical charts. Receives allotment from 
Department of Commerce for standard publica- 
tions such as Coast Pilots, Tide and Current 
publications, triangulation, leveling, and magnetic 
and seismological data. Papers are also published 
in various scientific journals. 

United States Coast Guard ('37) 

Location: Washington, D. C. 

Organization to which attached: United States Treas- 
ury Department. 

The following is a statement prepared by Rear 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



175 



Admiral R. R. Waesche, the Commandant of the 
Coast Guard, in addition to that on the Inter- 
national Ice Patrol on a preceding page: 

Each year the United States Coast Guard 
details a force of vessels to the Bering Sea in the 
performance of the duties of the Coast Guard 
in those waters during the season of marine 
activities. These duties involve the cruising 
of the vessels throughout all sections of the 
Bering Sea, affording opportunities, at times, for 
oceanographic observations, and thus contribut- 
ing to the meager knowledge now available bearing 
upon currents, bathymetry, water temperatures, 
and other oceanographic data applicable to that 
region. 

During the season of 1934 the Coast Guard 
cutter Chelan, under the command of Com- 
mander F. A. Zeusler, U. S. C. G., in collaboration 
with the Oceanographic Laboratory of the 
University of Washington, conducted a survey 
of the physical and chemical conditions of the 
surface waters from the Strait of Juan de Fuca 
to Dutch Harbor, Alaska, during the regular 
passage of the cutter from Seattle en route to 
Bering Sea Patrol duty. From July 26 to August 
24, 1934, the oceanographic party aboard the 
Chelan made a study of the chemistry of the 
Bering Sea ocean floor, of the ocean water, and 
of the various organisms and plants, and of the 
water circulation, water temperatures, etc. 
throughout a major portion of the Bering Sea 
area. The results and discussion of the data 
obtained during this cruise have been published 
in a Coast Guard bulletin, dated June 1, 1936, 
entitled "Report of Oceanographic Cruise, United 
States Coast Guard cutter Chelan, Bering Sea 
and Bering Strait, 1934." 

During the season of 1935 and 1936, the Coast 
Guard cutter Chelan, in command of Commander 
L. V. Kiclhorn, U. S. C. G., in furtherance of the 
studies carried on during 1934, conducted an 
oceanographic survey of the waters in the general 
region of Bowers Bank, Bering Sea (in 1935), 
and of the waters to the westward and southward 
of Attn Island (in 1936). These ob.servations 
developed the presence of a submarine plateau, 
previously uncharted, in Western Bering Sea, 
and indicated that, contrary to the general belief 
formerly entertained, shoal water existed between 
the Kormandorkis and the Aleutian Chain, and 
that deep water existed in the Aleutian Trough. 
The soundings data obtained during the Chelan's 



cruises of 1935 and 1936 are recorded on charts 
published in the above-mentioned bulletin. 

Recognizing the value and importance of 
oceanographic observations in the Bering Sea 
and North Pacific Ocean region, the Coast Guard 
plans to continue such work as opportunity offers 
in the course of the regular cruising activities of 
its vesisels in that area. 

United States Bureau of Fisheries ('37) 

History or origin: The Bureau of Fisheries, the sole 
Federal Agency concerned with the conservation 
and utilization of the nation's aquatic resources, 
owed its inception to the widely entertained 
opinion that the fisheries in general were diminish- 
ing in value and importance on account of the 
intensity and methods with which they were 
prosecuted, a view which investigation has shown 
to be justified with regard to many fishes and 
other valuable aquatic animals. The American 
Fish Culturists Association (now the American 
Fisheries Society) took a leading part in advocat- 
ing investigation of the subject, and largely 
through its influence and the representations of 
State fisheries officers. Congress passed a joint 
resolution, approved February 9, 1871, which 
provided for the appointment of a Commissioner 
of Fish and Fisheries who was directed to conduct 
investigations concerning the facts and the causes 
of the alleged diminution and the feasibility of 
remedial measures. Until July 1, 1903, the 
establishment was independent, reporting directly 
to Congress, and was known as the U. S. Com- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries, but on the organiza- 
tion of the Department of Commerce, it was 
included by law in the new department, and the 
name was changed to its present designation. 

Location: The central office is in the Department of 
Commerce Building, Washington, D. C. Per- 
manent biological laboratories, experimental sta- 
tions, and fish cultural stations are located in 39 
states and Alaska. Temporary field headquarters 
for various investigations are maintained in many 
of the leading universities. 

Organization to which attached: United States De- 
partment of Commerce. 

Purposes: The original conception of the Bureau 
was a body for scientific and statistical investiga- 
tion of the fisheries and that phase of its work 
always has been prominent, but it was soon found 
that to secure the practical end which effected its 
formation it should be clothed with the power 



176 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



that would make its own findings effective. This 
was in part acoompUshed by the Act approved 
June 10, 1872, which gave authority for the propa- 
gation of food fisiies, a branch of the service which 
has grown until at present it constitutes an 
important part of the bureau's activities. 
Scope of activities: As now constituted, the Bureau is 
concerned with the wise husbandry of our fishery 
resources. Its work includes the collection of 
biological and statistical data to reveal the 
condition and trend of our important fisheries, 
the development of the science of aquiculture, the 
propagation and distribution of food and game 
fishes to replenish the natural supply, the conduct 
of economic and technological studies to assure 
maximum utilization of fishery products and 
by-products, the protection of the sponge fishery 
off the coast of Florida, the protection and 
conservation of the salmon and other fisheries 
of Alaska, the administration of the fur seal herd 
on the Pribilof Islands, and enforcement of the 
Act of July 2, 1930, regulating the interstate 
transportation of black bass. Acting in an 
advisory capacity, the Bureau has been able to 
exert a powerful influence on the fishery legisla- 
tion of the States. Local authorities and interests 
hold its work in high regard and, appreciating 
that its advice is authoritative and disinterested, 
frequently seek it. The Bureau is also repre- 
sented on Commissions having to do with inter- 
national fisheries questions of con.serving the 
supply of aquatic animal life. 

The scientific work of the Bureau is conducted 
by the staff of the Division of Scientific Inquiry, 
and the information presented below refers pri- 
marily to that Division. The research program 
is divided into three major branches: (1) Com- 
mercial fishery investigations, relating to varia- 
tions in the supply of important food fishes and 
the causes of such variations, such as may be 
found in the life history of the various species, 
their ecological relationships, including the effects 
of commercial fishing and changes in their en- 
vironment which involves a limited program of 
oceanographic research ; (2) Shellfishery Investiga- 
tions, including studies on the physiology and 
ecology of oysters and other shellfish and the 
practical problems of oyster farming; and (3) 
Aquicultural Investigations, including the feed- 
ing, breeding, and rearing of food and game 
fishes; the survey and improvement of streams, 
and the development of an effective policy of 



stocking interior waters and overcoming the 
effects of pollution of streams. 
Equipment: Fisheries Biological Laboratory and 
Hatchery, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Labora- 
tory and hatchery building, three floors, contain- 
ing marine fish hatchery, public aquarium and 
exhibit room, offices, general laboratory with 
alcoves, private research rooms, chemical labora- 
tories, stock room, dark room, and library. 
Residence building, three floors; power house 
and storage building. Dock, breakwater, boat 
harbor, etc. Running salt water supply. One 
diesel driven research boat, 45 feet long, with 
live well and hoisting equipment; two 26 foot 
launches; row boats. 

Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Beaufort, N. C. 
Laboratory building, two floors, containing main 
laboratory with alcoves, private research rooms, 
chemical laboratory, exhibit room, offices, library, 
dark room, stock rooms, etc., and 12 dormitory 
rooms. Mess hall; power house; boat house; 
carpenter shop; residence; dock; 46 foot motor 
cruiser, 35 and 26 foot launches; numerous row 
boats. Circulating salt water supply. 

Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Fairport, Iowa 
(temporarily cIo.sed). Laboratory building, three 
floors, including offices, exhibit room, private 
research rooms, chemical laboratories, dormitories, 
library, and dining rooms. Tank house, power 
house, carpenter shop, boat house, 5 residence 
buildings, and 2 river launches. Approximately 
15 acres of earthen and concrete ponds supplied 
with river and well water. 

Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Seattle, Wash- 
ington. Laboratory building, three floors, con- 
taining offices, private research rooms, chemical 
laboratories and stock room, photographic rooms, 
and library. 40 foot motor launch. 

Experimental Fish Cultural Station, Pittsford, 
Vermont. Hatchery building, small laboratory 
building, residence and accessory buildings, ponds 
and raceways for experimental trout cidture. 

Experimental Fish Cultural Station, Leetown, 
West Virginia. Large hatchery and laboratory 
building, including offices, library, dark room, 
research rooms, and biological laboratory. Shop 
and storage building, residences, numerous ponds 
and raceways for experimental trout culture and 
ponds for culture of bass and other warm water 
fishes (approximately 60 acres when completed). 

Laboratories and offices well equipped for 
experimental and statistical biological research 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



177 



are cooperatively maintained at Harvard Univer- 
sity, Yale University, Cornell University, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, University of Missouri, and 
Stanford University. 
Staff: Washington Office: 

Elmer Higgins, Chief Division of Scientific 

Inquiry. 
E. W. Bailey, Junior Administrative Assistant. 
Dr. S. F. Hildebrand, Senior Ichthyologist. 
Isaac Ginsburg, Assistant Aquatic Biologist. 
3 clerical assistants. 
Office of Experimental Fish Culture: Dr. H. S. 

Davis, Pathologist, in charge. 
Office of Shellfishery Investigations: Dr. P. S. 

Galtsoff, Aquatic Biologist, in charge. 
Field Organization: 
Commercial Fishery Investigations: 

North and Middle Atlantic Fishery Investiga- 
tions, Cambridge and Woods Hole, Mass.: 
0. E. Sette, in charge; W. C. Herrington, 
Aquatic Biologist; R. A. Nesbit, Assistant 
Aquatic Biologist; J. R. Webster, Junior 
Aquatic Biologist; 4 clerical and technical 
assistants. 
South Atlantic and Gulf Shrimp Investiga- 
tions, New Orleans, La.: M. J. Lindner, in 
charge; Dr. Lionel A. Walford, Associate 
Aquatic Biologist; J. C. Pearson, Assistant 
Aquatic Biologist; W. W. Anderson, Junior 
Aquatic Biologist (Brunswick, Ga.). 
Great Lakes Fishery Investigations, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan: Dr. John Van Oosten, 
in charge; Dr. Ralph Hile, Assistant 
Aquatic Biologist; Dr. H. J. Deason, 
Assistant Aquatic Biologist; 1 clerk. 
Pacific Coast and Alaska Fishery Investiga- 
tions, Seattle, Wash.: Dr. F. A. Davidson, 
in charge; J. A. Craig, Associate Aquatic 
Biologist; H. B. Holmes, Associate Aquatic 
Biologist; Dr. G. A. Rounsefell, Junior 
Aquatic Biologist; E. H. Dahlgren, Jun- 
ior Aquatic Biologist; A. J. Suomela, 
Junior Aquatic Biologist; Frank Jobes, 
Junior Aquatic Biologist; 2 temporary and 
2 permanent clerical and maintenance 
assistants. 
Shellfishery Investigations: New England Oys- 
ter Studies, Milford, Conn.: Dr. V. L. 
Loosanoff, Assistant Aquatic Biologist. 
South Atlantic Oyster Studies, Beaufort, 
N. C: Dr. H. F. Prytherch, Director; 
4 clerical and maintenance assistants. Gulf 



Oyster Studies, Apalachicola, Florida: Dr. 
A. E. Hopkins, Senior Aquatic Biologist; 
R. O. Smith, Assistant Aquatic Biologist. 
Fish Cultural Investigations: Experimental 
Hatchery, Pittsford, Vermont: R. F. Lord, 
Junior Aquatic Biologi.st; 2 Fish Culturists. 
Experimental Hatchery at Leetown, West 
Virginia: E. W. Surber, Assistant Aquatic 
Biologist; Dr. J. S. Gutsell, Associate 
Aquatic Biologist ; 3 Fish Culturists. Pond 
Cultural Experiments at Marion, Alabama: 
0. L. Meehean, Jimior Aquatic Biologist. 
California Trout Investigations, Stanford 
University, Calif.: Dr. P. R. Needham, 
Associate Aquatic Biologist; A. C. Taft, 
Associate Aquatic Biologi.st; 12 temporary 
assistants. Pathological Laboratory, Seat- 
tle, Washington: Dr. F. F. Fish, Associate 
Pathologist. Investigations in the Interior 
Waters, Columbia, Missouri, and Fort 
Worth, Texas: Dr. M. M. Ellis (tem- 
porary), in charge; T. K. Chamberlain, 
Associate Aquatic Biologist; 6 temporary 
assistants. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Formerly facilities 
for research in aquatic biology have been pro- 
vided free of charge to competent investigators 
at the Bureau's laboratories at Woods Hole, 
Mass., Beaufort, N. C, and Fairport, Iowa. 
During the current year, owing to reduced 
appropriations, facilities are available only at 
Beaufort, N. C. 
Income: The Bureau receives regular annual appro- 
priations from Congress. In 1932, $2,905,540 
was appropriated for the Bureau, of which $300,- 
340 was for the Division of Scientific Inquiry. 
During 1934 upwards of $1,000,000 has been 
received from various emergency and Public 
Works organizations. For the fiscal year 1937, 
the Bureau's appropriation is $1,565,920, of which 
$164,700 is for the Division of Scientific Inquiry. 
Provision for the publication of results: Publications 
of the Bureau of Fisheries include the following: 
Administrative Reports, containing the annual 
report of the Commissioner and the four Divisions; 
Investigational Reports, including the results of 
research m applied science in the fields of biology, 
technology, economics, and statistics of the 
fi.sheries; Bulletin, including scientific contribu- 
tions on biological subjects; Fishery Circulars, 
consisting of brief accounts of investigations 
having economic importance or general interest 



178 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



and including information of timely significance 
not requiring more extensive treatment ; Statistical 
Bulletins (multigraphed), consisting of statistical 
and trade information regarding the commercial 
fisheries and the marketing and distribution of 
fishery products. In 1932, $27,000 was available 
for publications; during the current year $14,000 
was available. 

Hydrographic Office, United States Navy ('37) 

History or origin: On December 6, 1830, following a 
recommendation by Lieutenant L. M. Gold.s- 
borough. United States Navy, to the Board of 
Navy Commissioners, a "Depot of charts and 
instruments" was established at the seat of 
Government. This depot took charge of such 
nautical charts and instruments as had been 
collected at the various navy yards and assumed 
the care and issue of charts and instruments 
furnished United States vessels. The object of 
the depot was to do away with the difficulties 
and dangers to which our national vessels had 
been previously exposed from want of an orderly 
and sufficient supply of information on all parts 
of the world to which their services might be 
directed. 

The difficulties that were experienced in main- 
taining an adequate supply of charts, all of which 
were purchased from civilian firms, early led to a 
recommendation from the Board of Navy Com- 
missioners to the Secretary of the Navy that 
means for providing charts should be installed 
at the depot. The introduction of a lithographic 
press in May, 1835, constituted the initial attempt 
at chart production. 

In 1842 the Board of Navy Commissioners that 
had governed the Navy for twenty-seven years 
was dissolved and the present bureau system was 
established in its place. The depot of charts and 
instruments was placed under the Bureau of 
Ordnance and Hydrography. The institution was 
officially known from 1830 to 1844 as the "Depot 
of Charts and Instruments," but during the next 
ten years the names "Naval Observatory," 
"National Observatory," "Hydrographic Office," 
• and others were used indiscriminately. By order 
of the Secretary of the Navy, in December 1854, 
it was thenceforth called the United States Naval 
Observatory and Hydrographical Office. As such 
it was known until the statutory establishment of 
the Hydrographic Office as a separate institution 
in 1866. During the years 1842-1861 in which 



Lieutenant M. F. Maury, United States Navy, was 
in charge of the instruments, his talents and in- 
clinations being essentially those of a meteorologist 
and oceanographer, he became recognized as taking 
account of scientific matters in general relating 
to the ocean. His investigations and writings 
on the winds which blew over the surface of the 
water and their agencies in minimizing the dura- 
tion of the passage of ships; the configuration of 
the ocean bed from the sea level down to the 
greatest depth; the temperature, circulation, and 
physical and chemical properties of sea water; 
the currents; the tides; the waves; the com- 
position and distribution of marine deposits; the 
nature and distribution of marine organisms; the 
relation of man to the ocean in the development 
of fisheries; commerce, civilization; navigation; 
hydrography; and marine meteorology were all 
subjects within the purview of this naval scientist. 
In 1866 Congress passed an act to establish a 
Hydrographic Office, thereby severing the con- 
nection between that office and the Naval Ob- 
servatory. This act reads in part as follows: 

"There shall be a Hydrographic Office attached to 
the Bureau of Navigation in the Navy Department, 
for the improvement of the means for navigating safely 
the vessels of the Navy and of the mercantile marine, 
by providing, under the authority of the Secretary of 
the Navy, accurate and cheap nautical charts, sailing 
directions, navigators, and manuals of instructions 
for the use of all vessels of the United States, and for 
the benefit and use of navigators generally. (U. S. 
Code, Titles, sec. 457.) 

The Secretary of the Navy is authorized to cause to 
be prepared, at the Hydrographic Office attached to the 
Bureau of Navigation in the Navy Department, maps, 
charts, and nautical books relating to and required in 
navigation, and to publish and furnish them to naviga- 
tors at the cost of printing and paper, and to purchase 
the plates and copyrights of such existing maps, charts, 
navigators, sailing directions, and instructions, as he 
may consider necessary, and when he may deem it 
expedient to do so, and under such regulations and 
instructions as he may prescribe. (U. S. Code, Title 
5, sec. 458.)" 

In 1866 the Hydrographic Office was moved 
to what is known as the "Octagon House," at 
Eighteenth Street and New York Avenue. Com- 
mander Thomas S. Fillebrown, United States 
Navy, was detached from the Naval Observatory 
and appointed Hydrographer. In the summer of 
1879 the Hydrographic Office was removed from 
the Octagon House to the same building in which 
the Navy Department was located, and it has 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



179 



since been quartered along with the rest of the 
department. By act of Congress in 1898 it was 
transferred from the Bureau of Navigation to the 
Bureau of Equipment; and on July 1, 1910, it 
was transferred back to the Bureau of Navigation. 
The Hydrographic Office is supplemented by 
twenty fully equipped Branch Offices located 
at the most important points on the Atlantic, 
Pacific, and Gulf seaboards and on the shores of 
the Great Lakes, and at Honolulu, T. H. The 
Hydrographic Office is under the immediate 
direction of the Hydrographer, a naval officer 
of high rank. The present Hydrographer, Cap- 
tain Lamar R. Leahy, United States Navy, 
assumed his duties on May 31, 1935. 

Location: In the Navy Building, ISth Street and 
Constitution Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Organization to which attached: The United States 
Navy Department, of which the Hydrographic 
Office is a major sub-division of the Bureau of 
Navigation. 

Purposes: To place within reach of mariners, at 
small expense to them, such useful information 
as can not be collected profitably by a private 
individual, but which the Government can 
readily gather, without additional cost, through 
agencies already established, to collect, digest, 
and issue timely information calculated to afford 
the maximum possible safety and facility of navi- 
gation to ships on the seas and to aircraft operating 
over the sea routes. 

Scope of activities: Under statutory obligations to: 

(1) Produce epitomes and manuals for the guid- 
ance of navigators in conducting their observa- 
tions and keeping their reckoning on the seven 
seas; 

(2) supply the United States Navy with charts 
required by it; 

(3) supply the Merchant Marine, United States 
and foreign, and the navigators and aviators 
generally, with Hydrographic Office charts and 
other publications "at the cost of printing and 
paper" (there are always on the shelves of the 
Hydrographic Office some 300,000 charts and 
100,000 journals and books ready for is.sue); 

(4) maintain the flow of the latest information 
about surface and aerial navigation with some 
7,000 mariners and aviators of all nationalities 
who keep up a constant flow of information 
respecting the sea and the air of the world in 
addition to information from the vessels of the 
Navy, American consuls, scientffic organizations, 



and foreign governments; provide a free exchange 
of information and publications between the 
Hydrographic Office and the Hydrographic Offices 
of the other navies of the world ; 

(5) prepare, issue and keep up-to-date the 
numerous standard publications that the Hydro- 
graphic Office issues, such as sailing directions 
and light lists of foreign waters, flying directions 
and other aids to navigation, and all other navi- 
gational publications and charts; 

(6) study oceanic circulation dynamically and 
otherwise ; 

(7) prepare special and strategic charts required 
by the Navy for its operation and maintain a 
.sufficient supply of charts, navigational tables, 
and manuals necessary to enable the Navy to 
operate in accordance with approved war plans; 

(8) supervise the operation of the branch offices, 
whereby the personal contact with merchant 
mariners is secured and maintained, for the pur- 
pose of collecting and dis.seminating information; 

(9) conducting actual direction of the United 
States Naval surveying parties on the high seas, 
laying out detailed plans for such .surveys, and 
working up the data secured into finished charts, 
and; 

(10) maintain interchange of information and 
publications with scientific institutions, foreign 
hydrographic offices, and the International Hy- 
drographic Bureau of Monaco. 

Equipment: Comparable to any large well organized 
concern which not only manufactures and dis- 
tributes its own products but in addition does 
its own scientific research work. 

BCRVETINQ VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CBEW 

Hannibal 4,000 14 240 

NoKOMis 1,265 11 118 

Y. P.-^l 

Y. V.~^ 

Y. P.— 56 210 From NoKOMis 

Staff: Sixteen officers and 176 civilians in the main 
office at Washington, D. C, with twenty officers 
and twenty-four civilians in the branch offices. 
The civilians are mostly nautical, hydrographic, 
and cartographic engineers; nautical scientists; 
computers, engravers; photographers and litho- 
graphers. 

Officers in charge of Divisions, March 1937: 
Hydrographer, Captain L. R. Leahy, U.S.N. 
Assistant Hydrographer and Head of Division of 

Administration, Captain H. E. Kays, U.S.N. 



180 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Head of Division of Maritime Security, Com- 
mander F. P. Traynor, U.S.N. 
Head of Division of Chart Con.struction, Com- 
mander W. G. B. Hatch, U.S.N. 
Head of Division of Distribution, Commander 

H. J. Nelson, U.S.N. 
Head of Division of Air Navigation, Lieut. -Com- 
mander W. Sinton, U.S.N. 
Head of Division of Research, Lieut. -Commander 
J. E. Gingrich, U.S.N. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: No special 
provisions have been made for any definite num- 
ber, but desk room is available for a few persons 
at a time. 
Income: Appropriations by Congress vary from time 
to time. The 1937 appropriation was for the 
amount of $701,600.00 alloted as follows: Salaries 
Hydrographic Office, .S400,000.00; maintenance 
and operation, including Branch Hydrographic 
Offices, $136,600.00; printing, .$95,000.00; Ocean 
and Lake Survey, $70,000.00. 
Provisions for publication of results: The Hydro- 
graphic Office publishes fifty-six volumes of 
Sailing Directions, six volumes of Lists of Lights 
(foreign waters), two Naval Air Pilots, fourteen 
Manuals of Tables, and numerous miscellaneous 
books, among which arc the two volumes of the 
International Code of Signals; about 2,900 navi- 
gational charts covering nearly every part of the 
world; 64 aviation charts; Pilot Charts of the 
surface of all oceans; Pilot Charts of the Upper 
Air of the North Atlantic and North Pacific 
Oceans and many other special charts, such as 
Great Circle Sailing, Star, Track and Distance, 
Time Zone Charts of the World; and Magnetic 
Declination Charts of the World. Papers are 
also prepared by the members of the staff for 
various scientific conventions and for publication 
in scientific periodicals. 

United States National Museum 

History or origin: Began in 1846 with founding of 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Location: Washington, D. C. 

Organization to ivhich attached: Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. 

Purposes: Preservation and exhibition of the 
National Collections in natural history, arts and 
industries, history, and kindred subjects. 

(Scope of activities: Systematic research on collections 
which include extensive series representing the 
life of the sea. 



Equipment: Museum building, laboratories, and 
storage .space for collections; laboratory equip- 
ment required in systematic work. 
Sta,ff: Staff concerned principally with life from the 

sea includes the following: 
Division of Fishes: L. P. Schultz, Assistant 

Curator in Charge. 
Division of Marine Invertebrates: Waldo L. 

Schmitt, Curator in Charge; C. R. Shoemaker, 

Assistant Curator; J. 0. Maloney, Aid. 
Division of Mollusks: Paul Bartsch, Curator in 

Charge; Harold A. Rehder, Assistant Curator; 

J. P. E. Morrison, Aid. 
Division of Echinoderns: Austin H. Clark, Curator 

in Charge. 

Maintenance is covered under general main- 
tenances for other museum activities. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Accredited visit- 
ing investigators are given access to the collections 
in which they are interested under whatever 
supervision may be required and are afforded 
facilities for work. No scholarships, fellowships, 
or tables are maintained. 
Income: Income is from governmental appropria- 
tions for United States National Museum, with 
assistance in research from the private funds 
of the Smithsonian Institution, supplemented in 
some instances by gifts from private individuals 
for specific purposes. 
Provision for the publication of results: Publication 
offered in Bulletin and Proceedings series of 
United States National Museum, and in Mis- 
cellaneous Collections of Smithsonian Institution. 

Johnson-Smithsonian Deep-Sea Expedition 

History or origin: Mr. Eldridge R. Johnson in 
October, 1932, placed his palatial yacht Caroline 
at the disposition of the Smithsonian Institution 
and offered to finance the necessary equipment 
for the yacht to render her suitable for marine 
exploration. The direction of this work was 
placed in the hands of Dr. Paul Bartsch who 
outlined a program of exploration of the Atlantic 
deeps, beginning with the Puerto Rican Deep. 

To this end the yacht was provided with a 
sonic sounding apparatus, a hydrographic winch 
in a general way corresponding with that on the 
Atl.^ntis, carrying 5,563 feet of Special f inch, 
6 X 19 Monitor Strand, hemp center, wire rope. 
Suitable other equipment for physical, chemical, 
and biological investigations was also installed. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



181 



The first Johnson-Smithsonian Deep-Sea Ex- 
pedition resulted in a series of soundings and 
dredging stations. In addition to the soundings, 
it should be stated that with every dredging 
station soundings were made at very short inter- 
vals, gaining a complete contour of the ground 
covered during each haul. These have been 
plotted and will be published in the final report. 
In addition to the physical and chemical data, 
we obtained some 2,000 tubes, jars, and tanks 
full of specmiens, which haxe been distributed 
to the various specialists for report. 

Plans have been made for the creation of a new 
winch constructed on entirely new lines, which 
will carry 15 miles of stranded wire cable, three 
spools of 5 miles each, J, §, and f inch. This 
winch contains specially controlled devices which 
should prove useful when the instrument used 
becomes snagged on the bottom. 

The first effort is to be followed by others, of 
which the next one is scheduled to be in the Puerto 
Rican Deep, completing that research. This 
began January, 1935. 
Location: The shore work was conducted at the 
Smithsonian Institution and its branches. The 
yacht's home port is Brooklyn, New York. 
Organization to which attached: Smithsonian In- 
stitution. 
Purposes: Physics, chemistry, and biology of the sea. 
Scope of activities: Systematic research on collec- 
tions which include extensive series representing 
the life of the sea. 
Equipment: The yacht and the shore facilities of the 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Staff on the First Cruise: 

Scientists: Director, Paul Bartsch; Parasitologist, 
E. W. Price; Physicist, Townsend Brown; 
Manager of equipment, E. R. Fenimore John- 
son ; Assistant Zoologist, Charles Weber. 
Technical and clerical: Artist, Elie Cheverlange; 
Photographer, G. R. Goergens; Dredging Mas- 
ter, John Mills; Winch Master, W. J. Kennedy; 
Secretary, Anthony Wilding. 
Guests: Mr. and Mrs. Leon Douglass; Miss Ena 
Douglass; Miss Florence Douglass; Dr. George 
Derby. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Good. 
Income: Expedition financed personally by Mr. 

Eldridge R. Johnson. 
Provision for the publication of results: Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous collections. 



Marine Division, United States Weather 
Bureau ('37) 

History or origin: Origin, as a Government project, 
goes back to Lieutenant M. F. Maury's justly 
famous researches and collections of data, be- 
ginning 1850, under the United States Navy. 
The work of collecting and compiling marine 
meteorological data was kept up by the U. S. 
Signal Service from 1871 until 1887, when it was 
transferred to the Hydrographic Office of the 
Navy, where it remained until 1904. The 
Marine Division of the Weather Bureau was 
established to handle the work in 1904, in coopera- 
tion with the Hydrographic Office. The Act 
of June 16, 1910, clarified the field of cooperation 
between these two offices, in mamtaining a pro- 
gram of Government activity in the field of marine 
meteorology. In 1913 the Marine Division was 
discontinued, and the work became an adjunct 
of the Climatological Service until 1920, when 
the Marine Division was restored. Separate 
status has since been maintained, until now 
(1936) there are ten employees on the staff of the 
Marine Division in Washington, and a variable 
number of field station employees giving full or 
part-time to the marine meteorological project. 

Location: At the Weather Bureau Central Office, 
24th and M Streets, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Organization to ivhich attached: Weather Bureau, 
United States Department of Agriculture. 

Purposes: To foster accurate, uniform and coordi- 
nated observation of the weather over the oceans ; 
and to collect, organize, and as far as possible 
digest the results from such a program of marine 
meteorological work, for the benefit of commerce, 
navigation, and science. 

Scope of activities: Ships of all nationalities are 
enlisted for co6perati\'e reporting of their weather 
observations; methods of observation and in- 
strumental equipment are as far as possible 
supervised, with the object of attaining good 
standards of accuracy in the results of observa- 
tion; printed information as to good method, 
and also carrying summaries of results of the 
ocean weather program, prepared and dissemi- 
nated; records are gathered promptly and fully 
organized and are filed in permanent archives; 
material from ships' observations is combined 
with land stations' reports to prepare a continuuig 
series of daily .synoptic weatlier charts for the 
northern hemisphere which is of the greatest 



182 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



practical value as a record of atmospheric events 
affecting commerce and navigation, and also 
of great value to meteorological science; investiga- 
tions are conducted in the field of marine me- 
teorology, and results of investigation by other 
scientific workers are coordinated. 

Equipment: Adequate office quarters and storage 
space in Government-owned buildings at Wash- 
ington, D. C, and at suitable Weather Bureau 
field stations in the major ports of the United 
States and its possessions. 

Staff: Senior Meteorologist, Chief of Division, I. R. 
Tannehill; Associate Meteorologist, Asst. Chief 
of Division, W. E. Hurd; Associate Meteorologist, 
Gardner Emmons; 2 senior scientific aids; 1 
scientific aid; 2 assistant scientific aids; 1 senior 
clerk; 1 assistant clerk. 

(Personnel at field stations not specifically 
assigned to the Marine Division, but cooperating 
on a flexible basis.) 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Good provision 
for individual visiting investigators, but space 
not available to accommodate \isiting workers 
in groups of more than two or three. 

Income: Costs covered as a part of Congressional 
appropriations for the Weather Bureau ; no direct 
income. 

Provision for publication of results: Monthly sum- 
maries of weather conditions over North Atlantic 
and North Pacific oceans published regularly, and 
special articles occasionally, in the Monthly 
Weather Review. Compilations of averages, and 
special articles and summaries published in the 
Pilot Charts and in Sailing Directions and Naval 
Air Pilots of the United States Hydrographic 
Office. 

Florida 

Tortugas Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: This laboratory was built upon 
Loggerhead Key, Tortugas, in June, 1904, the 
site being occupied under a revocable license from 
the U. S. Department of Commerce which main- 
tains a lighthouse station on the Key. Work 
was inaugurated and conducted under the direc- 
torship of Doctor Alfred G. Mayor, who died in 
June, 1922. Since then the Laboratory has been 
open each summer, with Doctor W. H. Longley in 
administrative charge, until his death March 10, 
1937. Doctor D. H. Tennent is now in charge. 
Many studies have been undertaken in continua- 



tion of previous work, or in direct relation to 
investigations otherwise supported by the Car- 
negie Institution of Washington. The site was 
chosen on account of the purity of the ocean water 
which surrounds this group of seven small sandy 
islands, the proximity of the Gulf Stream with 
its abundant life, the presence of the richest coral 
reefs of Florida, and the absence of local fisheries. 
The Laboratory is equipped to afford excellent 
facilities to competent investigators for the study 
of many problems of the tropical ocean and its 
life. Special expeditions have been undertaken 
to Australia, Samoa, Fiji, Jamaica, Bermuda, 
Porto Rico, Tobago, and the Bahamas. From 
1917 until 1920, four expeditions to study the 
reefs of Tutuila, American Samoa, were con- 
ducted, comprising the first thorough study of any 
high island of the Pacific in relation to its coral 
reefs. 
Location: On Loggerhead Key, The Dry Tortugas, 

68 miles west of Key West, Florida. 
Organization to which attached: Carnegie Institution 

of Washington, Washington, D. C. 
Purposes: Research only. 

Scope of activities: Systematic zoology and botany; 
experimental studies in ecology, heredity, re- 
generation and growth ; intensive study of geology, 
botany, zoology, and physiography of coral reefs; 
chemistry and physics of the tropical ocean with 
relation to life. 
Equipment: 1 laboratory building; 1 laboratory 
building, with annex (serving as aquarium); 
1 yacht Anton Dohrn, 71 ft. long, twin-screw, 
100 h.p., equipped to work to a depth of 600 
fathoms; 2 launches, Velella and Darwin, 
28 ft. long; service buildings, including kitchen, 
dining-room and machine shop. 
Staff: Officer in charge. Dr. D. H. Tennent, Bryn 

Mawr, Pennsylvania. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Limited number 
of investigators chosen for special .studies during 
summer season. 
Income: Grant of approximately $14,000 for main- 
tenance and expenses for each season. 
Provision for publication of results: Twenty-eight 
volumes of "Papers from the Tortugas Laboratory 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington" have 
so far been published, including 178 papers. The 
Institution has also published a few special mono- 
graphs and investigators have issued many reports 
of their work in appropriate journals. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, FLORIDA, MAINE, MARYLAND 183 



Maine 
University of Maine Marine Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: Started by the Department of 
Zoology at the University of Maine in 1931. 

Location: Site of Old Federal Coaling Station, 
Lamoine, Maine. 

Organization to which attached: Uni\'ersity of Maine. 

Pur-pose: The Laboratory opened with the .specific 
purpo.se of offering good instructional work in 
Marine Zoology and particularly in Marine In- 
vertebrates. 

Scope of activities: Offering courses in Marine In- 
vertebrate Zoology. 

Equipment: 65 acres of ground with two residence 
buildings, a laboratory building which could 
accommodate 48 students, equipped with electric 
lights and running fresh and salt water, row boats, 
motor boat, and a pier extending 300 feet into 
the water and with a 400 foot frontage. 

Staff: Prof. J. W. Murray, other members of the 
University staff, and visiting instructors. 

Income: Student tuition, room rental, sale of ma- 
terials, and appropriation by University of Maine. 

The Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: In 1898 a laboratory was estab- 
lished at South Harpswell, Maine, by J. S. 
Kingsley of Tufts College. Reorganization of 
the Laboratory as a scientific corporation under 
the laws of the State of Maine with a board of ten 
trustees and J. S. Kingsley as a director, took 
place in 1913. In 1921 the Laboratory was 
removed to Salsbury Cove on Mount Desert 
Island, Maine, and designated the AVcir Mitchell 
Station of the Harpswell Laboratory. In 1923, 
the Corporation name was changed to Mount 
Desert Island Biological Laboratory. 

Location: Salsbury Cove on Mount Desert Island, 
Maine. 

Organization to which attached: A private corporation 
(see above). 

Purposes: "The purposes of said Corporation," as 
provided in its certificate of organization, "are 
to establish and maintain a laboratory or labora- 
tories for biological study and investigation in 
the State of Maine and to carry on other opera- 
tions essential to and in furtherance of such aims 
and purpo.ses, in accordance with the provisions 
of Sections 1, 2, and 3, of Chapter 57 of the 
Revised Statutes 1903 of the State of Maine." 



Scope of activities: Research on marine biology and 
on tis.sue culture of normal and cancerous cells. 

Equipment: Ample equipment for ordinary labora- 
tory work in marine biology, minimum equip- 
ment for marine physiology and for biochemistry. 

Staff: Director, William H. Cole, Rutgers Univer- 
sity, New Brunswick, N. J. Technical and cleri- 
cal: 1. Maintenance and operation: 1. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Qualified in- 
vestigators may work in the laboratory upon 
payment of $100 fee for the summer season or $40 
per month. In special cases the fees may be 
reduced or waived upon application. 

Income: Sources: Corporation membership dues and 
assessments. Annual gifts by non-members. No 
endowment. 

Amount: $12,000 in 1930; $10,000 in 1931; 
$6,500 in 1932; $4,200 in 1933; $4,500 in 1934; 
.$2,900 in 1935; $4,200 in 1936. 

Provision for publication of results: Abstracts of 
researches accomplished are published in the 
Annual Bulletin (January) which is widely 
distributed to laboratories and biologists, and 
which is available on request. 

Maryland 
Chesapeake Biological Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: Developed from work of a staff 
member of Department of Zoology, University of 
Maryland, started in 1920. Broadened out to 
accommodate a few workers and students in 1927 
in temporary building. Present permanent brick 
structure built in 1930. 

Location: Solomons Island, Maryland, at the 
confluence of the Patu.xent River and Chesapeake 
Bay. 

Organization to which attached: State of Maryland, 
and governed by: Goucher College, Johns Hop- 
kins University, University of Maryland, Wash- 
ington College, Western Maryland College, Car- 
negie Institution of Washington, and the 
Maryland Conservation Commission. 

Purposes: Statement from act creating the Labora- 
tory: "To afford a research and study center 
where facts tending toward a fuller appreciation 
of nature may be gathered and disseminated." 

(Scope of activities: (a) Hydrography of the Chesa- 
peake Bay region; (b) Problems in experimental 
biology; (c) Biological survey of the Chesapeake 
region; (d) Practical problems dealing with 
conservation of the more economic forms. 



184 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Equipment: Standard laboratory equipment, in- 
cluding boats, collecting devices, samplers (bot- 
tom, plankton, water, etc.), chemical equipment 
for four specialists, running water both fresh and 
ocean, constant temperature baths, diving equip- 
ment (hood and bentharium), photographic 
facilities, pier, Weather Bureau station, micro- 
scopes, etc. 
Staff: Director: Dr. R. V. Truitt, University of 
Maryland. 
Marine Ecologist: Dr. C. L. Newcombe, Univer- 
sity of Maryland. 
Ichthyologist: Dr. Vadim D. Vladykov (Perma- 
nent member of staff). 
Chemist : Mr. William Home (Permanent member 

of staff). 
Diatomist: Mr. Paul S. Conger, Carnegie Insti- 
tution of Washington. 
Physiologist: Dr. Norman E. Phillips, University 

of Maryland. 
Secretary: Miss Erma Dixon. 
Captain of Craft: Harvey Mister. 
On the Executive Committee of the Laboratory 

are: 
Dr. David Robert.son, President, Goucher College. 
Dr. H. C. Byrd, President, University of Mary- 
land. 
Dr. Gilbert W. Mead, President, Washington 

College. 
Dr. Fred Holloway, President, Western Maryland 

College. 
Dr. R. V. Truitt, Director {Ex officio). 
Provision for visiting investigators: Space available 

for six or eight investigators. 
Income: State supported in.stitution with funds 
that vary from time to time according to problems 
presented. $8,500 is appropriated annually for 
maintenance of Laboratory proper, while cooperat- 
ing institutions support personnel. 
Provision for 'publication of results: As yet, no pro- 
vision has been made for publication of results 
though prospects for funds with which to accom- 
plish this end are good. 

Massachusetts 

Department of Oceanography at the Museum of 

Comparative Zoology ('37) 

History or origin: The department was organized 

because of Alexander Agassiz's interest in the sea. 

Location: Cambridge, Mass. 

Organization to which attached: Harvard University. 
Purposes: The care and study of marine collections, 
instruction in oceanographic research. 



Scope of activities: The main limitation is the fact 

that no running salt water is available in the 

laboratory. 
Equipment: The very exceptional library of the 

Museum is the most noteworthy aid to research. 
Staff: Scientific: Dr. Henry B. Bigelow; C. Iselin. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: There is limited 

space for properly qualified investigators and 

students. 
Income: The Alexander Agassiz Fellowship in 

Oceanography and other endowment. 
Provision for publication of results: The Bulletin of 

the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

North Atlantic Fishery Investigations, Section of the 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries ('37) 

{Including the U. S. Fisheries Biological Station, 
Woods Hole, Mass.) 

History or origin: The North Atlantic Fishery 
Investigations section was established within 
the Division of Inquiry Respecting Foods Fishes 
of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries in 1929. The 
U. S. Fisheries Biological Station at Woods Hole 
was established by the U. S. Commission of Fish 
and Fisheries in 1881. 

Location: The investigating staff has laboratory 
facilities at the Biological Laboratories of Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass., and at the U. S. 
Fisheries Biological Station, Woods Hole, Mass. 

Organization to which attached: U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries. 

Purposes: To determine the nature and causes of the 
fluctuations in abundance of the marine food 
fishes of the region and to formulate and recom- 
mend measures for the perpetuation of the 
fishery resources. 

Scope of activities: Marine fisheries research related 
to the purposes set forth above on the Atlantic 
coast from Maine to Virginia, and confined mainly 
to the waters lying within the continental slope. 
It includes such related subjects as the physics and 
chemistry of sea water, ocean circulation, pro- 
duction and abundance of plankton, life histories 
of fish, their migrations, et cetera. 

Equipment: The Fisheries Biological Station at 
Woods Hole has a 40 foot motorship for inshore 
work and a gasoline launch. The laboratory is 
provided with running sea water, gas, electricity, 
compressed air, ordinary chemical equipment, 
aquaria, tanks, and outside enclosures for holding 
live fish. 

Staff: Scientific: Oscar E. Sette, In charge, North 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— MARYLAND, MASSACHUSETTS 



185 



Atlantic Fishery Investigations and Director, 
U. S. Fisheries Biological Station. 
William C. Herrington, Biologist, in charge of 

haddock investigations. 
Robert A. Ne.sbit, Assistant Biologist, in charge 

of shorefish investigations. 
John R. Webster, Jr. Biologist, assisting in had- 
dock investigations. 
William C. Neville, Sr. Biological Aid, assisting 

in shorefish investigations. 
F. E. Firth, Assistant Biological Aid, assisting in 

mackerel investigations. 
Technical and clerical: 2. 

Maintenance and operation (provided by the 
hatchery staff at Woods Hole). 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Laboratory 
space and facilities are customarily provided for 
approximately twenty visiting investigators during 
the summer season at the Fisheries Biological 
Station. Since the summer of 1931 such pro- 
visions have not been made due to shortage of 
funds. 
Income: Source: U. S. Governmental appropriations. 
Amount (exclusive of maintenance of biological 
station and operation and mauitcnance of 
vessels): Fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, 
$58,450; fiscal year ending June 30, 1937, 
$27,530. 
Provision for publication of results: Results are pub- 
lished in Bulletins of the Bureau of Fisheries and 
Reports of the Bureau of Fisheries. 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution- ('37) 

History or origin: The Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution, founded in 1930, is a research estab- 
lishment supported by endowment made by the 
Rockefeller Foundation, on recommendation of 
the National Academy. While it is wholly 
independent in organization, close association 
with universities and other educational bodies is 
assured through the personnel of its Board of 
Trustees. 

Location: Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 

OrgaTiization to which attached: Independent. 

Purposes: To encourage and carry on the study of 
oceanography in all its branches. 

Scope of activities: (1) Investigations in thermal 
interchange between the sea surface and the 
overlying air; (2) hydrology and dynamical 
oceanography of the western North Atlantic and 
adjacent waters; (3) chemistry of sea water; (4) 

' Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Annual An- 
nouncement, fourth year, 1934-35. 



marine bacteriology; (5) zooplankton and phyto- 
plankton; (6) problems in physiology such as 
those of zooplankton and of respiration; (7) 
marine sediments. There is active cooperation 
with United States Coast Guard, United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, United States 
Hydrographic Office, and various universities. 
Equipment: 1 laboratory building, 4 floors, 136 x 50 
feet. 

Through the courtesy of the Marine Biological 
Laboratory the staff and visitors to the Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution enjoy the full 
facilities of the former's library, which makes 
it unnecessary for the Institution to maintain 
one of its own. 

Research ship Atlantis is a steel ketch with 
280 H.P. Diesel engine designed for a speed under 
power alone of about eight knots and with a suffi- 
cient spread of canvas to sail well. The cruising 
radius under power alone is about 3,000 miles. 
Her dimensions are 142 ft. length over all, 29 ft. 
beam, 17^ ft. extreme draft, about 380 tons 
displacement. 

Gasoline launch Asterias, 40| ft. long, 12| 
ft. broad, draft of 4 ft.; speed, nine knots; living 
quarters for four men for short cruises. 
Row boats are available. 

The laboratory has its own dock with ample 
depth of water for Atlantis and a large float 
for small boats. 

An automatic tide-gage was installed in 1932 
by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Staff: The staff consists of permanent scientific 
members and of research associates appointed 
for definite terms. The present personnel (1936) 
is as follows: 

Director, Henry B. Bigelow, Professor of 

Zoology, Harvard University. 
Junior Biologist, George L. Clarke, Tutor and 

Instructor, Harvard University. 
Research Associate in Physical Oceanography, 
C. 0. Iselin, II, Assistant Curator of Oceano- 
graphy, Museum of Comparative Zoology. 
Research Associate in Oceanography, A. E. 
Parr, Curator of the Bingham Oceanographic 
Collection, Yale University. 
Research Associate in Physical Chemistry, 
Norris W. Rakestraw, Associate Professor 
of Chemistry, Brown LTniversity. 
Senior Biologist, Alfred C. Redfield, Professor 

of Physiology, Harvard University. 
Junior Marine Bacteriologist, C. E. Renn, 
Harvard University. 



186 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Oceanographer, C. G. Rossby, Professor of 
Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 
Investigator in Oceanography, H. R. Seiwell. 
Research Associate in Oceanography, Floyd M. 
Soule, Senior Physical Oceanographer, United 
States Coast Guard. 
Research Associate in Submarine Geology, 
Henry G. Stetson, Assistant Curator of 
Paleontology, Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy. 
Marine Bacteriologist, Selman A. Waksman, 
Microbiologist, New Jersey Agricultural Ex- 
perimental Station. 
Research Associate in Physical Oceanography, 
E. E. Watson, Lecturer in Physics, Queen's 
University. 
Honorary Research Associate in Oceanography, 

Captain Sir Hubert Wilkins. 
Business Manager, William C. Schroeder. 
Secretary and Administrative Assistant, Miss 

Virginia B. Walker. 
Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, 
William Schroeder. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: A limited number 
of visiting investigators, who desire either to 
collaborate with members of the staff in the 
regular station program or who are engaged in 
their own researches in some branch of oceano- 
graphic science, can be accommodated. 

In special cases facilities are available for 
visitors to carry out investigations at sea, from 
Atlantis. 

No formal course of instruction is offered at the 
Institution. 
Income: About $102,000 annually. 
Provision for the publication of results: The serial 
"Papers in Phy.sical Oceanography and Me- 
teorology" supported jointly by the Institution 
and by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
provides a medium for prompt publication of 
contributions in these fields. Arrangements are 
made for publication of investigations in Oceanic 
Biology and Chemistry in whatever journal may 
seem most appropriate in each particular instance. 

New Hampshire 

Isles of Shoals Marine Zoological 
Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin : Established liy the Department of 
Zoology of the University of New Hampshire in 
the summer of 1928. 



Location: Isles of Shoals, located about 10 miles 
off Portsmouth. Laboratory proper Ls situated 
on Appledore Island. 

Organization to which attached: University of New 
Hampshire, Durham, N. H. 

Purposes: To offer facilities for minor biological 
investigations to pre-medical students and under- 
graduate zoology majors; to offer more advanced 
work in the field of oceanography and marine 
ecology to a few select students working for a 
Master's degree. 

(Scope of activities: Chiefly along the following lines : 
General invertebrate and vertebrate taxonomy 
including minor problems and assigned topics for 
investigation. Comparative anatomy, adapted 
chiefly for pre-medical students with minor 
problems assigned to more advanced students. 
Research work in oceanography and marine 
ecology. 

Equipment: Approximately twenty-five acres includ- 
ing practically all of Appledore Island; 5 well-built 
houses formerly connected with the Appledore 
Hotel ; dining hall fully equipped and operated by 
the University of New Hampshire; 1 30-foot 
cabin cruiser; 1 28-foot speed boat; 4 dories; 
nets, dredges, and other necessary equipment. 

Staff: Scientific: Director, Dean C. F. Jackson; 
Director of Instruction, Dr. Norman K. Arnold; 
Dr. C. D. Williams, Biological Education; Mr. 
Robert Eadie, Anatomy; Miss Eleanor Sheehan, 
Invertebrates; Miss Ruth E. Thompson; Addi- 
tional laboratory assistants; Technical and cleri- 
cal, 3; Maintenance and operation, 4. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: No special 
provisions. Visitors are welcome at all times 
and will be provided with such facilities as are 
available. 

Income: Sources: Regular appropriations from the 
University of New Hampshire. 

Amount: (Difficult to determine since this is 
an integral part of the Zoology Department of 
the University of New Hampshire.) For operat- 
ing expenses, $3,000. 

Provision for publication of results: No special pro- 
vision. Since the primary purpose is to instill 
the spirit of research into undergraduates and 
first year graduate students, no special avenue 
for the publication of results has as yet been 
provided. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS-MASS., NEW HAMPSHIRE, NEW YORK, NORTH CAROLINA 187 



New Yohk 

Department of Tropical Research of the New York 
Zoological Society ('37) 

History or origin: The department developed as an 
outgrowth of the scientific work of the Depart- 
ment of Ornithology of the New York Zoological 
Society under the direction of Doctor William 
Beebe. It was established under its present 
name in January, 1916. Oceanographic work 
has been stressed since 1925. 
Location: Permanent Home Laboratory, New York 
Zoological Park, New York City. 
Permanent Field Laboratory, New Nonsuch, 

St. Georges, Bermuda. 
Field Residence, Bermuda Biological Station, 
to which researches are accredited jointly with 
the N. Y. Z. S. 
Field Stations and Vessels: Arcturus Oceano- 
graphic Expedition, 1925 (S. Y. Arcturus); 
Hudison Gorge Expeditions, 1928 (S. T. Light 
Horse); Nonsuch Lsland, Bermuda, 1929, 
1930, 1931 (S. T. Gladisfen); Bermuda Bio- 
logical Station, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935 (S. T. 
Freedom, S. T. Powerful, S. T. Gladisfen); 
Templeton Crocker Expedition, Lower Cali- 
fornia, 1936 (Y. Zaca). 
Organization to which attached: New York Zoological 

Society. 
Purposes: The purpose of the Department is to 
provide means for investigating the animal life 
of the deep sea. Li this respect it Ls the policy 
of the Department to confine its activities in the 
main to a limited section of the ocean, in.stead of 
undertaking lengthy expeditions with wide- 
spread stations. Thus for seven years all work 
has been confined to the animal life of a circle of 
ocean eight miles in diameter, situated five miles 
south of Bermuda. 
Scope of activities: The scope of activities Ls confined 
mainly to the ecological aspects of the oceanic 
fauna, and particularly the life-hLstories of deep- 
sea fish. Observations upon the living organism 
is especially stressed, and this has given rise to 
the use of the Diving Helmet and the Bathy.sphere 
as means of investigating the life of deep-sea 
anunals. Little attention has been paid to the 
physical side of oceanography, owing to the 
intensive work in this field of other institutions. 
Equipment: The home laboratory is completely 
equipped with a large library and necessary 
instruments for the accomplishment of biological 
research. A considerable amount of this material 



is transferred to the field laboratory when it is 

in operation, and additional field equipment is 

available for soimding and for dredging, trawling, 

and tow-netting to depths of three miles. The 

Bathysphere and its machinery is also used for 

observations to depths of one half mOe. 

Sta.jf: Scientific: Dr. William Beebe, Director; 

Mr. John Tee-Van, General Associate; Dr. 

William K. Gregory, Scientific A.ssociate; Miss 

Gloria Hollister, Re.search Associate; Miss 

Jocelyn Crane, Laboratory Associate. 

Technical and clerical: Varies considerably with 

each expedition; all clerical details are taken 

care of by the clerical offices of the New York 

Zoological Society. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Varies according 

to expedition. 
Income: Source: Donations from private individuals 
and from the Board of Directors of the Zoologi- 
cal Society. 
Amount: Has varied in the past from $3,000.00 
to $20,000.00, annually, not including the 
salaries of the staff. 
Provision for publication of results: All technical 
publications are published in "Zoologica," the 
Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoologi- 
cal Society. Less technical matter finds its place 
in the Bulletin of the Society, as well as many 
other publications, and in book form. 

North Carolina 
United States Fisheries Biological Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: The United States Bureau of 
Fisheries found its origin in a joint resolution 
passed by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives in 1871. Beaufort, N. C, was found to be a 
place especially well suited for the study of the 
marine fauna and flora. In 1899 the first fisheries 
laboratory became established in a rented build- 
ing. In 1900 Congress authorized the erection 
of a biological station which was completed and 
opened to investigators for the first time in 1902. 

Location: Piver's Island, Beaufort, North Carolina. 

Organization to which attached: Department of 
Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries, Division of 
Scientific Inquiry. 

Purposes: Investigations of marine biology, espe- 
cially in relation to species of fish and shellfish 
of commercial importance. 

Scope of activities: Chief investigations at present 
dealing with the biology and culture of the oyster 
and diamond-back terrapin. 



188 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Equipment: Scientific equipment, boats both motor 

and rowboats, laboratory, library, mess hall, and 

dormitory. 
Staff: Scientific: Director, Dr. Herbert F. Prytherch. 

Technical and clerical: 1. Maintenance and 

operation: 5. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Dormitory rooms 

and laboratory facilities. 
Income: Source: United States Government. 

Amount: $13,000. 
Provision for publication of results: United State.s 

Government Printing Office. 

Rhode Island 

Marine Biological Laboratory of Rhode Island 
State College ('37) 

History or origin: Made possible by an appropriation 
of $8,000.00 in December, 1936, for the construc- 
tion and equipping of a laboratory for the study 
of Narragansett Bay and adjacent waters. 
Location: At Fort Kearney (Old South Ferry). 
The War Department has granted the use of land 
and a dock. 
Organization to which attached: It will function as a 
division of the Department of Zoology of Rhode 
Island State College. 
Purposes: Scientific investigation of marine problems 

in Rhode Island waters. 
Scope of activities: There will be no restriction in the 
scope of the work which can be carried on, so 
long as it is marine in nature. 

At the present time two programs are being 

carried on: (a) A study of the biology of the 

zooplankton population, (b) A continuation 

of an investigation on the biology of the 

starfi.sh in Narragansett Bay — carried on 

during the past year under the auspices of 

the Federal Bureau of Fisheries and the State 

Department of Fish and Game. 

Equipment: The laboratory will be fully equipped 

for oceanographic work in coastal waters. The 

present appropriation provides $1,300.00 for field 

gear and $810.00 for laboratory equipment. 

$850.00 is available for vessel hire (three months). 

Staff: The staff will consist of a director (Charles J. 

Fish) and an investigator who will receive a salary. 

In addition an assistant will be appointed at a 

salary of $80.00 per month during the summer 

period. This staff will be supplemented from 

time to time by voluntary investigators. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The laboratory 



will have three private rooms and space for 
twelve investigators in the central room. Visiting 
investigators will be welcome to utihze available 
facilities but must provide any special equipment 
needed. 

Income: The work will be maintained by annual 
state appropriation by the state to the college. 
An appropriation of $5,000.00 for the coming fiscal 
year is expected. 

Provision for publication of results: As yet no provi- 
sion has been made for publication of results. 

EASTERN SOUTH AMERICA 

Various attempts to procure information on insti- 
tutions engaged in oceanographic work in the Latin 
American countries met with very little success. 
A reply was received only from the Brazilian Servigo 
de Caga e Pesca and from Mexico. Therefore, for 
other countries, dependence had to be placed on the 
Year-Book for 1937 of the International Hydro- 
graphic Bureau and such notes as could be found in 
publications. Apparently there are hydrographic 
services under the Ministries of War and Marine in 
Colombia, Cuba, and Venezuela, but, except ad- 
dresses in the Year-Book above mentioned, no in- 
formation is available on them. 

The article referred to below' discusses the pro- 
visions for fisheries investigations in the Americas 
and emphasizes the paucity of such investigations in 
Latin America. Only three countries are mentioned 
in this connection, Brazil, Uraguay, and Mexico. A 
statement on Brazil of later date than Professor 
Beltran's article is given on a subsequent page of 
this catalogue and there is also a note on Argentina. 
Two paragraphs (p. 12) read as follows: 

"En el Uruguay existe establecido un Instituto de 
Pesca que, dedicado fundamentalmente a investiga- 
ciones cientlficas, se ocupa tambifen de actividades 
industriales y comerciales, tales como la fabricaci6n de 
hielo (para establecimientos del Gobierno y venta a 
particulares) y el arrendamiento de cdmaras frigorificas. 

"En Mfexico, el autor de este artlculo logr6 estableoer, 
dependiente de la Secretarid de Agricultura y Fomento 
(Direcci6n de Estudios Biol6gicos), la Estaci6n de 
Biologia Marina del Golfo que, bajo su direcci6n, fun- 
cion6 en el puerto de Veracruz en los ailos de 1926-27, 
siendo descontinuada despufis por nece.sidades de cardc- 
ter econ6mico, cuando prometia los mds halagadorea 
frutos de sus actividades." 



' Beltrdn, Enrique, Estudios de biologia marina y pesca 
en las Americas: Uni6n Panamer., ser. Fin., Indust., y 
Comer., Bol. No. 73, pp. 12, Marzo, 1933. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS-NORTH CAROLINA, RHODE ISLAND, ARGENTINE, BRAZIL 189 



Argentine 

Servicio Hidrografico ('37) 

Location: Calle Paraguay, 2137, Buenos-Aires. 
Staff: Hydrographer, Capitan Raul G. Aliaga. 
Head of Hydrographic Section, Ingeniero Hi- 

drografo Miguel Rodriguez. 
Head of Section of Lights, Teniente de Navio (R) 

Angel Acevedo. 
Head of Naval Observatory, Teniente de Navio 

(R) Carlos Braida. 
Head of Navigation Section, Teniente de Navio 

(R) Enrique Monti. 
Chief of Technical Division, Teniente de Fragata 
(R) Enrique Monti. 
Equipment: 

SDRVETINO TESSEIfi DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

San Lufs 640 11 53 

San Juan 640 2 17 

Alferez Mackinlay 800 8 55 

Division de Pesca ('34) 

Location: Continuacion de la Calle Brasil, Buenos 

Aires. 
Organization to which attached: Ministerio de Agri- 

cultura. 
Staff: Director, Dr. Raul Sorcaburu. 

Brazil 
Directoria de Navegagao, fitats-Unis du Bresil ('37) 

Location: Ilha Fiscal, Rio de Janeiro. 

Staff: Director General of Navigation, Vice-Al- 

mirante Raiil Tavares. 
Head of Division of Administration, Capitao de 

Fragata Marcelino Jos4 Jorge. 
Head of Division of Hydrography, Capitao 

Tenente Ary dos Santos Rongel. 
Head of Division of Lights, Capitao de Corveta 

Carlos Penna Botto. 
Head of 1st Section of Division of Hydrography, 

Capitao Tenente Fernando Saldanho da Gama 

Frota. 
Head of 2nd and 3rd Sections of Division of Hy- 
drography, Capitao Tenente Mario Camara 

Hoffmann. 
Head of 4th Section of Division of Hydrography, 

Capitao Tenente Paulo Antonio Telles Bardy. 
Equipmcftt: 

BURVEYINQ TEBSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CHEW 

Rio Branco 750 7 79 

Tenente Lahmeter 320 2 35 

Jose Bonifacio 2,080 8 120 



Servifo de Cafa e Pesca (Service of Hunting 
and Fishing)^ ('35) 

History: In 1912 an attempt was made to establish 
a Directorate of Hunting and Fishing, in the 
Ministry of Agriculture but the endeavor was 
not successful. In 1923 the service was placed 
under the Ministry of the Marine and made sub- 
ordinate to the Directorate of the Merchant 
Marine. This arrangement for various and 
obvious reasons was unsatisfactory. As a result 
of further consideration of the subject, by a 
decree of March 8, 1933, a Servigo de Caga e 
Pesca was established under the National De- 
partment of Animal Production of the Ministry 
of Agriculture. 

Location: Rio de Janeiro. 

Organization to which attached: As stated above, 
Ministry of Agriculture, National Department 
of Animal Production. There is a Conselho de 
Caga e Pesca (Council of Hunting and Fishing) 
composed as follows: One representative of 
Servigo de Caga e Pesca, one representative of 
fishermen, one representative of hunters, one 
representative of vessels engaged in transporting 
fish, one representative of the Navy, one repre- 
sentative of the National Museum, four members 
representing special subjects. 

Purposes and scope of activities: There are under the 
Service three sections: 

1. Secgao de Criagao (Section of Propagation). 
This section has charge of pisciculture, of rearing 
molluscs, and of parks for game refuges. 

2. Secgao de Investigagoes (Section of Investi- 
gations). The functions of this section are to 
study the biology of forest animals, hydrobiology, 
biochemistry, plankton including micro-plankton, 
the nutrition of fishes; to promote studies of the 
technology of fishes and of their preservation and 
of their subproducts. It has charge of zoological 
parks and aquaria, and of public instruction, 
particularly of hunters and fi.shermen. 

3. Secgao de Industrias (Section of Industries). 
Besides superintending the enforcement of the 
laws governing hunting and fishing and studying 
various economic problems, it has as its duties the 
study and application of modern processes of 

* The statement regarding this service is based upon two 
publications as follows: 

Codigo de CaQa e Pesca (approvado pelo decreto No. 23, 
672, de 2 de Janeiro de 1934), Min. da Agricult., De- 
part. Nac. da Prod. Anim., Serv. de Caija e Pesca, Rio 
de Janeiro, 1934. 

Actividades do Service de Caga e Pesca de Margo de 
1933 a Margo de 1934., Ibid., 1934. 



190 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



preserving fish, and the study and appHcation of 
processes for utilizing fish products, such as oil, 
meal, condiments, cakes, etc. 

The Service has a museum, and it offers in- 
struction in several subjects, including navigation. 
For the preparation of bathymetric charts and 
oceanographic studies, the Service has an arrange- 
ment with the Ministry of Marine. 

Equipment: There is an aquarium and laboratories 
but no information on them is available. 

Stajf: Director: Dr. Joao Moreira da Rocha; Ascanio 
Faria; Genneville Hermsdorff. Full information 
on the staff is not available. 

Income: From the State. Amount not known. 

Provisions for publication of results: Besides special 
publications, such as those cited at the beginning 
of this statement, the Service publishes papers 
in the Revisto do Departamento Nacional da 
Produ^ao Animal. 

Uruguay 
Institute de Pesca'^ ('32) 

Location: Uruguay 868, Montevideo. 

' Carlevaro, R6mulo, El Institute de Pesca del Uraguay, 
sus orientaciones, su actividad, su.s perspectivas, Consejo 
Oceanographieo Ibero-Americano Revista, Ano 3, No. 1, 
pp. 39-43, Feb.; 1932; Ibid., No. 2 pp. 88-89. 



Equipment: A fisheries station within the city limits 

of Montevideo. 
Staff: Director, Dr. Romulo Carlevaro. 

Servicio Hidrografico de la Marina (Hydrographic 
Office of the Navy) ('37) 

Location: Sarandi 122, Montevideo. 
Staff: Head of Service and Inspector of Navigation, 
Capitan de Fragata Agrimensor Hector Luisi. 

Head of Section A: Secretariat, Detail and Ad- 
ministration, Capitan de Corbeta Julio A. 
Cigliutti. 

Head of Section B: Astronomy and Navigation, 
Capitan de Corbeta Bervano Bianchi. 

Head of Section C: Hydrography, Capitan de 
Fragata Julio F. Lamarthee. 

Equipment: 



8URVET1NO VESSELS 

Capitan Miranda. 



DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CHEW 



527 



10 



38 



INSTITUTIONS, EAST SIDE OF THE PACIFIC 

OCEAN 



CANADA 
Pacific Biological Station ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1908. 

Location: Nanaimo, east coast of Vancouver Island, 

British Columbia. 
Organization to which attached: Biological Board of 

Canada. 
Purposes: Research. 
Scope of activities: Scientific investigation of marine 

and fresh-water resources. 
Equipment: 2 laboratories, biological and chemical, 
with general equipment; 1 library; 1 60-foot 
motor boat equipped for oceanographical investi- 
gations; several smaller boats. 
Staff: Scientific: Dr. W. A. Clemens, Director. 
Dr. R. E. Foerster, Chief Biologist, in charge of 

sockeye salmon propagation investigations. 
Dr. J. L. Hart, Associate biologist for pilchard- 
herring investigations. 
Dr. A. L. Pritchard, Assistant biologist for salmon 

investigations. 
Dr. C. R. Elsey, Assistant biologist for shellfish 

investigations. 
Dr. C. M. Mottley, Scientific assistant for trout 

investigations. 
Dr. A. L. Tester, Scientific assistant in herring 

investigations. 
Dr. W. E. Ricker, Scientific assistant in salmon 

investigations. 
Mr. J. P. Tully, Scientific assistant for oceano- 
graphical and general chemical investigations. 
Sea.sonal: 5 to 6 appointments. 
Technical and clerical: 3 appointments. 
Maintenance and operation : 8 appointments. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Accommodation 
provided during the summer for 10 to 15 members 
of the staff and post-graduate students of Ca- 
nadian Universities. 
Incoine: Source: Grant from the Government of the 
Dominion of Canada. 
Amount: Approximately $50,000. 
Provision for the publication of results: (a) Journal 
of the Biological Board of Canada; (b) Bulletins — 
Biological Board of Canada. 



Pacific Fisheries Experimental Station ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1926. 
Location: Prince Rupert, British Columbia. 
Organization to which attached: Biological Board of 

Canada. 
Purposes: Research and source of information on 
marine products for fishing and allied industries. 
Scope of activities: Scientific investigation of the 
handling, curing, manufacture, and utilization 
of marine products and by-products. 
Equipment: 2 buildings containing chemical, bio- 
chemical, bacteriological, and low-temperature 
research laboratories, all well-equipped ; 2 libraries. 
Staff: Director, Dr. N. M. Carter. 

Dr. H. N. Brocklesby, Associate chemist for fish 

oil investigations. 
Mr. R. H. Bedford, Associate bacteriologist. 
Mr. 0. F. Denstedt, Assistant chemist (on leave 

of absence 1936-37). 
Dr. L. I. Pugslej', Assistant biochemist in vitamin 

investigations (temporary). 
Dr. W. A. Riddell, Assistant chemist in investiga- 
tion of fishery products. 
Mr. 0. C. Young, Assistant research engineer for 

refrigeration investigations. 
Mr. B. E. Bailc}', Scientific assistant in biochemi- 
cal investigations (on leave of absence, 1937). 
Seasonal: 1 to 2 appointments. 
Technical and clerical: 4 appointments. 
Maintenance and operation: 2 appointments. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Accommodation 
for one or two temporary assistants under special 
circumstances. 
hicome: Source: Grant from the Go\^ernment of the 
Dominion of Canada. 
Amount: $30,000 to $35,000 per annum. 
Provision for the publication of results: 
Journal of the Biological Board of Canada (scien- 
tific). 
Bulletins of the Biological Board of Canada 

(semi-technical). 
Progress Reports of Pacific Stations of Biological 

Board of Canada (popular). 
Cooperative facihties for publication in Canadian 
Journal of Research. 



191 



192 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



UNITED STATES 

California 

Kerckhofif Marine Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: Purchased in 1931 with funds 
furnished by Mr. WilUam G. Kerckhoff. Offi- 
cially opened in September, 1932. 

Location: Near the entrance, on the east side of 
Newport Bay, CaHfornia. Postoffice address: 
Corona Del Mar, California. 

Organization to which attached: California Institute 
of Technology, Pasadena, California, under the 
Department of Biological Sciences. 

Purposes: Research, mainly to supplement that 
done at the Institute. 

(Scope of activities: Experimental embryology, physi- 
ology, marine ecology, biophysics, chemistry. A 
few of the more advanced undergraduate students 
and graduate students who are able to work more 
or less independently. 

Equipment: Two-story, concrete, Spanish type 
building. Three large main laboratories, five 
small laboratory rooms, dark room, boat room, 
and shop. Salt water system and aquaria. 
24-ft. motor boat with dredging equipment. 

Staff: Dr. T. H. Morgan, Head of the Department 
of Biology; G. E. MacGinitie, Asst. Professor of 
Biology, Director; Members of the staff, California 
Institute of Technology. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Some investiga- 
tors can be accommodated. 

Income: Provided from the general research funds 
of the Department of Biology. 

Provision for the publication of results: The results of 
researches are published in appropriate scientific 
periodicals. 

Pomona College Marine Laboratory and 
Summer School ('37) 

History or origin: Summer courses under C. F. 
Baker, 1911-1913. Building erected 1913 and 
work under W. A. Hilton, 1913 to present. 

Location: Laguna Beach, Orange County, California, 
on the Coast Boulevard. 

Organization to which attached: Pomona College. 

Purposes: Summer school for undergraduates and a 
few graduates, usually six weeks. 

Scope of activities: Teaching undergraduates; ex- 
ploration of littoral fauna; work with a few 
graduates along biological lines. 

Equipment: 1 frame building, with several private 
rooms and three general laboratories. Equipment 
for limited field work and for laboratory work. 



Staff: Director, Prof. W. A. Hilton; different teach- 
ers from other institutions. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Private rooms 
for visitors. 

Income: The only income is from tuition or rental 
of research rooms. From $1,000 to $2,000, most 
of which goes for salaries. 

Provision for the publication of results: Journal of 
Entomology and Zoology and other journals. 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography ('37) 

History or origin: The Scripps Institution grew out 
of an endeavor begun in 1891 by Dr. Wilham E. 
Ritter to find a suitable place for the establish- 
ment of a marine biological station in connection 
with the Department of Zoology of the University 
of California. These efforts resulted in the 
erection of a marine biological station about 21 
miles north of the village of La Jolla through 
funds contributed by Miss Ellen B. Scripps and 
Mr. E. W. Scripps. The first building, the 
"George H. Scripps Memorial Marine Biological 
Laboratory," was erected in 1909, and funds for a 
boat, the Alexander Agassiz, and its equipment 
were donated by Miss Scripps and Mr. Scripps. 
In 1912 the laboratory was taken over by the 
University of California under the name of the 
"Scripps Institution for Biological Research." 
In 1916 the museum-library building and the 
Institution's pier were erected. Before Doctor 
Ritter retired from the directorship of the Insti- 
tution, it was decided bj' the administrative 
officers of the University of California and 
members of the Scripps family to convert the 
"Scripps Institution for Biological Research" 
into one for oceanographic research. Dr. T. 
Wayland Vaughan assumed the directorship on 
the first of February, 1924, and the name of the 
Institution was changed to "Scripps Institution 
of Oceanography," in October, 1925. The In- 
stitution acquired the boat Scripps, which on 
November 13, 1936, was destroyed by explosion 
and fire. An additional and larger laboratory, 
"Ritter Hall," was erected in 1931, and extensive 
improvements were made in the first laboratory 
building, in the library, and on the grounds. 
In the spring of 1937, Mr. R. P. Scripps purchased 
a larger vessel for the Institution (see "Equip- 
ment" below). The regular income of the 
Institution was increased from about $44,000 
per year in 1924 to about $90,000 in 1936. On 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— CALIFORNIA 



193 



September 1, 1936, Doctor Vaughan was suc- 
ceeded as Director by Dr. H. U. Svcrdrup. 
Location: On the sea front, about 2\ miles north 
of the center of the village of La Jolla, and about 
16 miles north of the city of San Diego. 
Organization to which attached: University of Cali- 
fornia, of which the Institution is a department. 
Purposes: Major, research; also, general instruction 
in oceanography, and special instruction in 
different fields. 
Scope of activities: Research and instruction in 
dynamical oceanography and marine meteorology; 
chemistry of sea water; biology, under which 
bacteriology, phyto- and zooplankton, foramini- 
fera, biology of fishes, and physiology of marine 
organisms with reference to their environment, 
are included; marine bottom deposits. 
Equipment: The laboratory facDities provide for 
researches of all kinds indicated by the "scope of 
activities" and the specialties of the members of 
the staff. In Ritter Hall there are three constant 
temperature rooms. 

1 laboratory building (Geo. H. Scripps Labora- 
tory), 2 floors, 75 x 48 ft. 
1 laboratory building (Ritter Hall), 3 floors, 

100 X 46 ft. 
1 museum-library building, 2 floors and about a 

I basement, 60 x 60 ft. 
Library, more than 14,500 volumes, 30,000 

reprints. 
1 wooden aquarium building, 24 x 48 ft., 18 

tanks. 
1 re-enforced concrete pier, 1,000 ft. long, 20 
ft. wide (permanent tidal, hydrographic, 
and meteorological station). 
1 re-enforced concrete .salt-water storage tank, 

capacity 60,000 gallons. 
24 wooden cottage residences. 
Several service buUdings and garages (tem- 
porary structures). 
Automatic tide-gage installed at the end of the 
Institution's pier by U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. 
Anderson- Wood seismograph installed in the 
basement of the Museum-Library building 
by the Carnegie Institution's Committee on 
Seismology. 
1 research vessel, M. F. Maury, recently pur- 
cha.sed through the generosity of Mr. R. P. 
Scripps, a schooner 104 feet long, length on 
the water line 86 feet, beam 20.5 feet, equipped 



with a Winton diesel engine of 175 h.p., and 
under power has a speed of nine knots per hour. 
The boat is equipped for any of the usual 
kinds of oceanographic work and can make 
voyages of any desired length. 
Besides utilizing its own facilities for research 
the Institution receives assistance from the 
United States Navy, the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, the United States 
Bureau of Lighthouses, the California FLsh 
and Game Commission, a number of com- 
mercial shipping companies, and other or- 
ganizations. 
Staff: Dr. Harald U. Sverdrup, Director (physical 
oceanography, meteorology). 
Dr. F. B. Sumner (biology of fishes). 
Dr. G. F. McEwen (physical oceanography, 

meteorology). 
Prof. W. E. Allen (phytoplankton). 
Dr. E. G. Moberg (chemical oceanography). 
Dr. D. L. Fox (physiology of marine organisms). 
Dr. M. W. Johnson (zooplankton). 
Dr. C. E. ZoBell (marine microbiology). 
Dr. R. H. Fleming (physical and chemical 

oceanography). 
Dr. Roger Revelle (physical oceanography and 

marine bottom deposits). 
Dr. E. E. Cupp (phytoplankton). 
Mr. P. S. Barnhart (fishes), Curator of biological 

collections. 
Mr. S. W. Chambers, Associate in physical 

oceanography. 
Research assistants, number variable. 

5 technical and clerical assistants. 

6 maintenance and operation workers. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Between 20 and ' 

25, in addition to the Institution's staff, can be 
accommodated. 

l7ico7ne: Regular annual, nearly $95,000, about one- 
half from the State of California and one-half 
from the Scripps family. In addition, special 
contributions of variable amount. 

Provisions for publication: The University of Cali- 
fornia publishes a series entitled, "Bulletin of 
the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the 
L^niversity of California, Technical Series," of 
which three volumes have been published, and 
for which a number of other papers have been 
submitted. The members of the staff also publish 
papers in various scientific periodicals. 



194 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Marine Biological Station, University of Southern 
California ('37) 

Location: Since the burning of the Marine Station 
building in 1921, the station has been located at 
University Park, and since 1928 when a new 
Science Building was completed has been housed 
in especially prepared rooms on the fourth floor 
of that building. This is some twelve miles from 
the sea-coast, and located just off the Exposition 
Park area. 

Organization to tohich attached: The Marine Station 
and its facilities are maintained as an integral 
part of the Department of Biology at the Uni- 
versity of Southern California. 

Purposes: Major purpose — research. 

Courses are offered on the graduate level 
in marine plant biology, marine survey, animal 
biology, and marine research. These courses 
assume major work in the fields of either Zoology 
or Botany. 

/Scope of activities: Since its establishment in 1911 
trawling and dredging work has been carried on 
almost continuously with emphasis upon ecological 
relationships of marine forms in the southern 
California waters. Some investigations have 
been on the classification of fishes, the study of 
plankton, foraminifera, and physiological rela- 
tionships of marine organisms. Certain phases of 
oceanography have been in progress in later years 
with an attempt to gather some data on the tem- 
perature fluctuations and variations in the 
physico-chemical composition of the sea water. 

Equipment: Laboratory facilities on the fourth floor 
of the new Science Hall include: Office space for 
the permanent members of the staff; small re- 
search rooms for independent investigation, 
together with several cubicles for graduate 
students under supervision; a small library; 
desks equipped with gas, electricity, compressed 
air; a closed system of sea water aquaria of about 
500 gallons capacity; a large preparation room for 
pre.serving and taking care of marine collections; 
ample space and locker material for filing materials 
in proper phylogenetic order. 

Staff: Director, Dr. Francis M. Baldwin. 

Full-time members of the teaching staff. Depart- 
ments of Botany and Zoology, University of 
Southern California, who contribute to investi- 
gation and direction of research work as time 
permits. 
Part-time: skipper of the launch, first mate. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Not more than 



10 at a time, limited to trained investigators 
working on their own problems, or under the 
guidance of resident members of the staff. 

Income: Funds from the University of California. 

Provisiojis for tlie publication of results: None re- 
ported. 

Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University ('37) 

History or origin: Four names are inseparably 
associated with the founding of the Hopkins 
Seaside Laboratory in 1892: Timothy Hopkins, 
David Starr Jordan, Charles Henry Gilbert, 
Oliver Peebles Jenkins. Back of the obvious 
desirability of a marine biological laboratory in 
connection with a new university of great promise 
was the example of Anton Dohrn's Naples labora- 
tory which had greatly impressed Mr. Hopkins, 
and the Penikese experiment of Louis Agassiz 
in which Dr. Jordan played a part at a formative 
stage of his career. 

After a careful examination of various sites 
along the coast. Pacific Grove, upon the southern 
side of Monterey Bay, was selected as combining 
the most desirable features. Through the gener- 
ous cooperation of Mr. Timothy Hopkins and the 
Pacific Improvement Company a suitable site 
and a sum of money sufficient to erect the first 
building were donated. A plain two-story frame 
structure, twenty-five by sixty feet in ground 
dimensions, was erected on Point Anion, a low- 
rocky headland, and the first session of the new 
laboratory was held during the simamer of 1892. 
In recognition of the active interest and generosity 
of Mr. Hopkins, the station was named the Hop- 
kins Seaside Laboratory. Funds for the purchase 
of books and equipment were furnished by Mr. 
Hopkins from time to time, and in 1893 he erected 
a second building to provide more adequately for 
the needs of the growing institution. 

During the first twenty-five years of its existence 
the laboratory, while nominally a part of the 
University, and freely using its library and 
apparatus, was dependent for its upkeep and 
extension chiefly upon student fees and private 
gifts, the latter mainly through the constant 
sympathetic interest of Mr. Hopkins. Despite 
these limitations it offered its facilities to many 
investigators and yearly to many students, and 
contributed materially to the solution of biological 
problems on the Pacific Coast. 

With the passing years it became increasingly 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— CALIFORNIA 



195 



evident that the site upon Point Anion was inade- 
quate to the needs of the laboratories. 

In 1916 an exchange was effected with the 
Pacific Improvement Company through which a 
new location was secured, nearly five acres in 
extent and consisting of the main portion of 
Cabrillo Point, situated a half-mile eastward of 
the old site. To this, two and one-half acres 
were added by purchase in 1921, and about three 
and one-half acres in 1923. The new situation 
insures complete control of the coast line of the 
point, including a sheltered landing-place and 
harbor for boats of considerable size, and provides 
room for future expansion. Upon this site the 
first building of the new Station was erected 
during 1917. 

In recognition of the aid rendered by Mr. 
Hopkins during the whole life of the laboratory, 
the Board of Trustees of the University changed 
the name, October 26, 1917, to the Hopkins 
Marine Station of Stanford University. 

The construction of a second unit of the Sta- 
tion, known as the Jacques Loeb Laboratory, 
was completed in July, 1928. 

After the construction of the Jacques Loeb 
Laboratory, devoted to experimental biology, it 
became necessary to designate the original build- 
ing. Accordingly, in January 1929, the Board 
of Trustees of the University named it the 
Alexander Agassiz Laboratory, in honor of 
America's leading oceanographer.' 

Location: On southern shore of Monterey Bay, 
California (within corporate limits of town of 
Pacific Grove). 

Organization to which attached: Stanford University, 
of which the Institution is a department. 

Purposes: Research in biology and oceanography. 
Instruction: undergraduate courses and graduate 
work in comparative zoology, comparative em- 
bryology, comparative physiology, microbiology, 
experimental biology, physico-chemical biology, 
physiology of marine plants, morphology of 
marine plants, oceanography, shore ecology. 

Scope of activities: Researches in dynamical oceanog- 
raphy, chemistry of sea water; oceanic biology 
(ecology); shore ecology; comparative marine 
zoology (including invertebrates and fishes); 
embryology of marine organisms; experimental 
embryology; protoplasm; microbiology; physiol- 

' The foregoing information has been abstracted from 
"General Statement" regarding the Hopkins Marine Sta- 
tion published by Stanford University. 



ogy of marine organisms; physico-chemical prob- 
lems in marine biology (restricted fields); marine 

algae. 
Equipment: 1 laboratory building (Alexander Agassiz 

Laboratory) of three floors, 40 x 80 feet. 

1 laboratory building (Jacques Loeb Labora- 
tory) consisting of a two-story central portion 

with two flanking wings of one story, enclosing 

three sides of a court, the over-all dimensions, 

95 X 152 feet. 

1 marine shop and boiler hou.se; one janitor's 

cottage. 

In cooperation with the California State Fish 

and Game Commission, the use of one of three 

different sea-going boats for oceanographic work. 
Small library and loan service on Stanford 

Library. 
Staff: Director, Dr. W. K. Fisher, Zoologist. 

Associate Director, Dr. C. V. Taylor, Biologist. 

Prof. L. R. Blinks, Plant Physiologist. 

Prof. G. M. Smith, Botanist. 

Prof. C. B. van Niel, Microbiologist. 

Prof. Tage Skogsberg, Marine Biologist, Oceanog- 
rapher. 

Prof. D. M. Whitaker, Biologist. 

Prof. F. W. Weymouth, Physiologist. 

Dr. R. L. Bolin, Ichthyologist, Ecologist. 

.Prof. A. R. Moore, Lecturer, Physiologist. 

Dr. Austin Phelps, Microbiologist, Oceanographer. 

1 research assistant (varies 1-3). 

Clerical and technical assistants: 4. 

Visiting members from Stanford and one from 
University of Oregon: 3-4. 
Provision for visiting investigators: About 10 can be 

accommodated in addition to visiting members 

of the staff, the number depending on the nature 

of the research. 
Income: Regular for year 1936-37, $26,500.00. 
Provisions for the publication of results: None. 

California State Fisheries Laboratory ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1917. 

Location: On Terminal Island, near San Pedro, Los 
Angeles County, Calif. 

Organization to which attached: Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, Division of Fish and Game of Cali- 
fornia, Department of Natural Resources. 

Purposes: Research for the Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries. 

Scope of activities: Research in the abundance and 
changes in the supply of fishes used commercially 
and the marine fishes caught by sportsmen; 



196 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



condition of the fisheries; life histories of the 
species; catch statistics for both commercial and 
marine sport species with other compOations of 
fish and game data for the State; effects of legis- 
lation and proposal of needed protective measures; 
various cooperative enterprises with Stanford 
University, University of California, and other 
agencies. 

Equipment: Two laboratory buildings, each of two 
stories; library. Half-time use of two patrol 
boats, 85 and 60 feet in length. 

Staff: W. L. Scofield, Supervisor. 

Frances N. Clark, Senior Fisheries Researcher. 
G. Houghton Clark, Senior Fisheries Researcher. 
Geraldine Conner, Fisheries Statistician. 
Richard S. Croker, Senior Fisheries Researcher. 
Donald H. Fry, Jr., Senior Fisheries Researcher. 
Harry C. Godsil, Senior Fisheries Researcher. 
S. Ross Hatton, Junior Fisheries Researcher. 
John F. Janssen, Jr., Junior Fisheries Researcher. 
Julius B. Phillips, Senior Fisheries Researcher. 
Phil M. Roedel, Junior Fisheries Researcher. 
Richard B. Tibby, Junior Fisheries Researcher. 
10 clerical. 

Part time use of patrol officers, varying from 6 
to 20. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Accommodation 
for 3. 

Income: Expenditures of laboratory alone are about 
$40,000.00, exclusive of patrol boat maintenance, 
statistical and printing costs, and other expendi- 
tures cared for by administrative and patrol 
branches of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 
The Division of Fish and Game is self-supporting, 
financed from fisheries privilege tax, licenses and 
fees. 

Provision for the publication of results: Two publica- 
tions of the California Division of Fish and 
Game: (1) a series of "Fish Bulletins", and (2) 
a quarterly magazine, "California Fish and 
Game"; and occasional articles in other journals. 

Oregon 
Coos Bay Marine Station ('37) 
{In process of organization) 
Location: Located on a projecting promontory at 
the mouth of Coos Bay inlet on the land assigned 
to the University of Oregon as a location for such 
station by a special act of Congress setting aside a 
certain portion, about eighty acres, of a military 
reserve held by the government for a number of 
years. The site is adjacent to the open sea on 



one side and the still water of Coos Bay on the 
other. Along the ocean side of the promontory 
are extensive reefs replete with marine life and 
other material for the study of scientific aspects 
of the subject. 

Organization to which attached: The station will be 
attached to the University of Oregon, the Univer- 
sity of Oregon Medical School, and the Oregon 
State Agricultural College. It will be under the 
direct supervision of a joint board of the Oregon 
State System of Higher Education. 

Purposes: The major purpose will be to facilitate 
research on all scientific aspects of marine phe- 
nomena. With the function of research, however, 
will be combined instruction in various sciences, 
especially during summer session. 

(Scope of activities: The activities will extend to all 
phases of scientific investigations which concern 
themselves with marine biology either in the field 
of plant life or animal life. Opportunities will be 
given for research in geology and geography, 
shore life, paleobotany, and the study of marine 
organisms with reference especially to an under- 
standing of the type of marine life in the Central 
Oregon coast region. 

Equipment: It is impossible to describe the equip- 
ment at the present time since only tentative 
plans have been made for the projected plan. 
The present plan contemplates a construction of a 
central laboratory building and adjacent resi- 
dences, heating plant, and other structures 
necessary for carrying on the work. 

Staff: Since the work of the marine station has 
not been organized, it is impossible to describe 
the staff which will be used in connection with 
the operation of the plant and the residence 
research work which is intended for the station. 

Provisions for visiting investigations: Provision will 
be made for a limited number of scientific in- 
vestigators in all the fields of scientific study 
represented, special preference being given to the 
colleges of Oregon, to research workers connected 
with the Medical School, and the University of 
Oregon staff. 

Income: It is impossible to say at present what the 
income for the station will be. An attempt will 
be made to combine appropriation from state 
revenues together with some contributions for the 
maintenance and operation of the plant. The 
budget of the State System of Higher Education 
will contain an item, it is assumed, adequate for 
the maintenance and operation. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— CALIFORNIA, OREGON, WASHINGTON 



197 



Washington 

United States Fisheries Biological Station, 
Seattle, Washington ('37) 

History or origin: The first work was carried on in 
1925 in Fisheries Hall No. 4, University of Wash- 
ington. In May, 1931, the present building 
was finished and the work was transferred there. 
Three divisions of the Bureau of Fisheries have 
quarters there: (1) Division of Scientific Inquiry; 
(2) Division of Fisheries Industry; and (3) Divi- 
sion of Fish Culture. 

Location: 2725 Montlake Blvd., in the City of 
Seattle on the shore of Lake Union, about one-half 
mile from the University of Washington campus. 

Organization to which attached: United States De- 
partment of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries. 

Purpose: Research, and administration of the west- 
ern states by the Division of Fish Culture. 

/Scope of activities: Research on life history, fluctua- 
tions in abundance and general biology of fishes; 
all of the above studies being directed toward the 
end of discovering facts of importance in the 
conservation of the fisheries of the Pacific Coast; 
also chemical and bacteriological research con- 
nected with the packing and preserving of fish, 
the use of fish oils, fishery by-products, and 
the improvement and preservation of fishing gear. 

Equipment: One laboratory building, 3 floors, 128 
X 50 feet; Library opened October 1, 1931, with 
about 350 volumes and 600 reprints. 

Staff: Division of Scientific Inquiry, Dr. F. A. 
Davidson, in charge; 7 in charge of principal in- 
vestigations, 6 assistants. 

Division of Fisheries Industry, Roger Harri- 
son, in charge, staff of two. 

Division of Fish Culture, Fred. J. Foster in 
charge. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: None except 
through special permission of the Commissioner 
of Fisheries. 

Income: Division of Scientific Inquiry, $58,065; 
Division of Fisheries Industry, $10,000; Division 
of Fish Culture, cooperating with Fisheries 
Industry on fish diseases and with the University 
of Washington. 

Provision for the publication of results: Report and 
appendixes of the Commissioner of Fisheries; 
Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries; Investiga- 
tional Report of Bureau of Fisheries; Fishery 
Circulars; and Progressive Fish Culturist. 



Washington State Department of Fisheries, 
Division of Biological Research ('37) 

History or origin: June 1, 1935, due to Washington 
State Planning Council securing funds. 

Location: Fisheries Hall No. 2, University of Wash- 
ington, Seattle, Washington. 

Purpose: Research for regulation. 

Scope: Research on all food and shell fish, habits, 
statistics, supply. 

Staff: Loyd Royal in charge ; 6 in charge of separate 
problems; 1 assistant. 

Income: $25,000. 

Provision for the publication of results: Biological 
Reports, 1935. 

Biological Department, of Department of Game, 
State of Washington ('37) 

History or origin: Made a department in April, 1936. 

Location: University of Washington, Fisheries Hall 
No. 2, Seattle, Washington. 

Purpose: Research on hatchery diseases and foods 
of trout, etc., biological surveys; stream pollu- 
tion; fish ways; irrigation by-passes. 

Staff: Two. 

Income: Salaries, $5,000. 

Provision for publication of results: Publication on 
biological work, title "Washington Hatcheryman" 
will appear in April of this year. 

Oceanographic Laboratories, University of 
Washington ('37) 

History or origin: Upon recommendation of Dr. M. 
Lyle Spencer who was then president of the 
University, the Laboratories were created by the 
Board of Regents in March, 1930. The Labora- 
tories are composed of three integral parts, (a) 
the main laboratories on the campus of the 
University in Seattle, located on the shore of 
Lake Union; (b) the research ship Catalyst; 
(c) the field laboratories in the San Juan Islands. 
The field laboratories were founded as a biologi- 
cal station in 1904 by Professor Trevor Kincaid, 
professor of zoology at the LTniversity of Wash- 
ington. The present site of the field laboratories 
was deeded to the University by Act of Congress 
in 1920, and much of the present physical plant 
was constructed under the supervision of Pro- 
fessor T. C. Frye, professor of botany and director 
of the Biological Station. Since these laboratories 
became part of the Oceanographic Laboratories, 
many additions and improvements have been 



198 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



made and the scientific equipment considerably- 
augmented. 

Location: (a) University of Washington campus; 
on shore of Lake Union; ready access to the sea 
via Lake Washington ship canal. 

(b) On the sea shore at Friday Harbor, San 
Juan Archipelago, about 80 miles north of Seattle. 

OrganizatioTi to which attached: University of Wash- 
ington. 

Purposes: Major purpose, research. Listruction 
is given in different phases of oceanography as 
affecting the several departments of science. 

(Scope of activities: Physical oceanography, oceano- 
graphical chemistry, phytoplankton, zooplankton, 
marine plant physiology, embryology, and marine 
invertebrates, marine bacteriology, bio-chemistry, 
and meteorology. 

Regions studied, — coastal waters of Wash- 
ington north of the Columbia River, Puget 
Sound, Gulf of Alaska, together with the many 
estuaries and passages of Alaska, the waters of the 
North Pacific, and Bering Sea. 

The staff of the Oceanographic Laboratories is 
composed of members from the departments of 
physics, chemistry, bacteriology, botany, and 
zoology. Candidates for graduate degrees qualify 
as majors in one of the five fundamental sciences, 
— thesis and research work being in some phase 
of their science as affecting oceanography. 

Equipment: (a) One laboratory building, three floors, 
134 X 61 feet. University of Washington. Build- 
ing equipped with circulating sea water system 
and provided with most up-to-date laboratory 
furniture and equipment. 

(b) At Friday Harbor, one chemistry laboratory, 
one floor, 66 x 30 feet; two zoology laboratories, 
each one floor, 24 x 56 feet ; one physics laboratory, 
one floor, 73 x 30 feet; one botany laboratory, one 
floor, 67 X 24 feet; one bacteriology and bio- 
chemistry laboratory, one floor, 56 x 24 feet; 
one stock room, one floor, 56 x 24 feet; one ob- 
servation platform for securing data throughout 
the year; one dock with floats amply supplied 
with live boxes. Buildings of hollow tile and 
stucco construction equipped with running fresh 
water and sea water and electricity. Four of the 
buildings are equipped with gas. 

(c) Research boat Catalyst was put into 
commission on June 11, 1932. The dimensions 
are: Length, 75 feet and beam 18 feet, with a 
draft of 9 feet and gross tonnage of 92 tons. The 
hull is of heavy construction and designed to 



eliminate motor vibration. The keel is of Douglas 
fir, the frame of oak and double planking of Alaska 
yellow cedar. On the keel and for two feet at the 
water level, the boat is sheathed with ironbark. 
The boat is ch'iven by a Diesel engine of 120 
horsepower and has a cruising radius of 3500 
mUes. Beside the usual pilot house equipment, 
the Catalyst is equipped with a sonic depth 
finder and a photoelectric pilot. It is equipped 
with 4500 meters of j^-inch stainless steel cable 
for taking plankton and water .samples and 600 
meters of §-inch galvanized cable used in bottom 
dredging. Throughout the boat, there are sleep- 
ing accommodations for sixteen persons. 

The laboratory which is on the main deck, is 
19 feet long and 10 feet wide, and has working 
space for seven people. Each of the seven sections 
is equipped with 110 A.C., and D.C. and one 
variable voltage outlet, one outlet for Flamo gas, 
and one duriron drain. The laboratory is also 
equipped with compressed air outlets and a fume 
hood with forced ventilation. 
Staff: Director, Dr. Thomas G. Thompson. 

Botany: Dr. George R. Rigg, plant physiology; 

Dr. Lyman D. Phifer, Phytoplankton. 
Chemistry: Dr. Thomas G. Thompson; Dr. 

Rex J. Robinson. 
Physis: Dr. C. L. Utterback. 
Zoolocy: Dr. John E. Guberlet; Dr. Robert C. 

Migller. 
Bacteriology: Dr. B. S. Henry. 
Bio-chemistry: Dr. Earl R. Norris. 
1 curator, 1 librarian, 1 secretary; 4 maintenance 

and operation; 6 teaching fellows; 2 stock- 
keepers. 
Research Associates: Dr. Dora P. Henry, zoology; 

Dr. Belle A. Stevens, zoology. 

Besides the regular members of the staff, various 
members of the science faculties are interested 
in certain phases of oceanographic research, and 
the facilities of the laboratories are placed at 
their disposal. 

Commander F. A. Zeu.sler and Commander 
Edward H. Smith of the Coast Guard are affiliated 
with the Laboratories as Lecturers in Ocean- 
ography. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: The Seattle 
laboratories will accommodate approximately 
75 students and investigators. The equipment 
and facilities of the laboratories are available for 
visiting investigators. 

The Friday Harbor laboratories will accommo- 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— WASHINGTON, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, CHILE, ECUADOR 199 



date about 175 persons, including students, staff 
members, and visiting investigators. 

Income: For the initial cost of the research boat 
Catalyst and the Seattle laboratories and their 
scientific equipment, the Rockefeller Foundation 
contributed $45,000 for the former together with 
an additional $20,000 for the operation of the boat, 
and $200,000 for the latter. The State of Wash- 
ington appropriated $50,000 for the construction 
and equipment of the laboratories. The entire 
plant is now operated and maintained by the 
University of Washington. The University ap- 
propriated $10,000 for the enrichment of the main 
library for literature pertaining to oceanography. 

Provision for the publication of results: Investigators 
of the laboratories are encouraged to publish 
their material in national journals. Reprints 
of these articles are purchased to be included in 
the Supplementary Series in Oceanography, 
maintained by the University. In addition to 
this, the University maintains the Publications 
in Oceanography. 

Hawaiian Islands 
Marine Biological Laboratory at Honolulu ('34) 

Location: On the shore in the Waikiki district, 
about 4 mUes from the center of Honolulu, about 
an equal distance from the main campus of 
the University of Hawaii. 

Organization to which attached: University of Hawaii. 

Purposes: In.struction and research. Instruction: 
in marine ecology given to the students of the 
University; research: advanced and graduate 
students have the privileges of the laboratory. 
There is also room for a limited number of special 
investigators who wish to carry on independent 
research. 

Scope of activities: In addition to instruction, re- 
searches in ecology including growth and develop- 
ment of marme organisms; quantitative studies of 
zooplankton ; taxonomy of marine animals. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory building, 1 floor, 35 x 80 
feet, with running fresh and sea water, electricity, 
gas, etc. 

Laboratory adjacent to Honolulu aquarium 
which can be utilized for purpo.ses of research. 

Staf: Director, Prof. C. H. Edmondson; AssLstant, 
Mr. J. M. Ostergaard. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Room available 
for 1 or 2 throughout the year, and 3 or 4 from 
June to September. 



Income: Maintenance through the budget of the 
University of Hawaii. No special income or 
contributions. 

CHILE, ECUADOR, PERU 

Very little information could be obtained on 
oceanographic activities in the countries on the west 
side of South America, except Peru. For some time 
records of sea-surface temperatures have been kept 
at the Peruvian Escuela Naval at La Punta and the 
Compaiila Administradora del Guano has kept 
records of several kinds and has assisted in the 
prosecution of research on oceanic phenomena. It 
is planned to extend the oceanographic work of both 
the Hydrographic and Meteorologic services, but 
detailed information on them is not available. The 
outlook is good for significant contributions from 
those sources. 

Chile 

Servicio Meteorologico 

Location: Santiago, Quinta Normal, Casilla 717. 
Detailed information not available. 

Departamento de Navegacion, Republica 
de Chile ('37) 

Location: Valparaiso. 

Staff: Hydrographer, Capitdn de Navio Enrique 
Cordovez Madariaga. 
Assistant Director and Inspector of Navigation, 

Capitan de Fragata, Alfredo Novion Valck. 
Head of Section of Nautical Information, Teniente 

1° en Retiro, Rodolfo Garcia Bouquet. 
Cartographer, Horacio Justiniano Marutana. 
Head of Section of Instruments, Teniente 2° 

en Retiro CrLstian, Wiegand Ognio. 
Head of Section of Cartography and Engraving, 
Dibujante 2°, Octavio Quinoncs Morales. 
Eciuipmcnt: 



SURVEYING VESSELS 

Aguila 

Leucoton 



DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CBEW 



600 
550 



100 
50 



Ecuador 

Servicio Hidrografico de la Armada ('37) 

Location: Guayaciuil. 

Staff: Hydrographer, Capitan de Fragata Luis E. 
Jarrin G. 
Chief of Hydrographic Section, Teniente de 

Fragata Miguel Zea. 
Chief of Section for Calculations, Calculador 1° 
Angel Valdez. 



200 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Chief of Section for Tides, Calculador 2° Hector 

Chiriboga. 
Chief of Topographical Section, Calculador 2° 

C^sar Crespo. 
Equipment: 

BTTRVETINa VESSELS 



DISPLACEMENT OFFJCBBS CBBW 



COTOPAXI 

CONTRAMAESTRA SuAREZ. 



300 

27 



50 

8 



Peru 

Servicio Hidrografico y Faros (Hydrogrpahic and 
Lighthouses Office) ('37) 

Location: Calle Estados Unidos No. 4, Chucito, 

Callao. 
Staff: Head of Service, Capitdn de Fragata A. P. 
Victor S. Barrios. 
Head of Section of Lights, Capitdn de Corbeta 

Ingeniero A. P. Alfredo Rivarola. 
Head of Section of Navigation, Tenete 1° A. P. 
Julio A. Raygada. 

Escuela Naval ('34) 

Location: La Punta. 

Activities: Keeps records of sea-surface temperatures. 

Compafiia Administradora del Guano ('37) 

History or origin: Originated as a semi-official 
corporation about 1909. (First "Memoria" pub- 
lished in 1909.) 

Location: Lima, Peru (Casilla 2147). 



Organization to which attached: Independent. 

Purposes: Administration of the Guano Islands. 
Increase of the Guano supply; excavation, and 
distribution of Guano. 

(Scope of activities: Everything pertaining to above, 
including work in applied science, and in pure 
science on occasion. 

Equipment: Extensive fleet of craft. Laboratories 
on the islands. A main laboratory at Lima of the 
"Seccion Tecnica," and numerous testing and 
demonstration projects. 

Staff: SehoT Francisco Ballen ("Gerente"). Numer- 
ous associates and assistants, including trained 
"agricultural engineers." 

Provision for visiting investigators: The Compania 
is hospitable to visiting investigators. 

Provision for the publication of results: A monthly 
"Boletin," one number of which is the "Memoria" 
or annual report. Agricultural, meteorological, 
zoological, and oceanographic reports and ab- 
stracts. 

Service Meteorologico del Peru ('36) 

Location: Lima, apartado 1308. 

Activities: An effort is being made to establish 
stations for observing surface water-temperatures 
and collecting water samples at numerous places 
along the Peruvian Coast, notably at ten of the 
principal ports and on all the Guano Islands. 

Staff: Director, G. A. Wagner. 



INSTITUTIONS, WEST SIDE OF THE PACIFIC 

OCEAN 



AUSTRALIA TO JAPAN, INCLUSIVE 

Australia 
Low Island, Queensland ('37) 

History or origin: A small marine station was estab- 
lished in 1928 by the Great Barrier Reef Com- 
mittee of Australia as a base of operations for 
the British-Australian Great Barrier Reef Ex- 
pedition of 1928-29. The building was destroyed 
by a cyclone so that now there is on the island 
only a hut. 

Location: Eight and one-fourth miles east from Port 
Douglas and thirty-six and one-half miles N.N.E. 
of Cairns; lat. 16°23' south; long. 145°35' east. 
Area of island three and one-half acres; sLx feet 
above high-water; rough coral gravel and sandy 
ground; lighthouse in center of island (65 ft. high). 

Organization to which attached: The Queensland 
Government and the Great Barrier Reef Com- 
mittee of Australia. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Now there is no one 
at Low Island. Therefore there is no program. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: The above men- 
tioned hut could be used for visiting scientists. 

The Australian Hydrographic Service ('37) 

History or origin: Until 1920 hydrographic surveys 
in the vicinity of Australia were undertaken by 
the British Admiralty using ships of the Royal 
Navy when responsibility for this work was taken 
over by the Australian Government. 

In 1920 the Australian Hydrographic Branch 
was established as part of the Royal Australian 
Navy and H.M.A.S. Geranium was commissioned 
as the first surveying ship and was employed in 
surveying various harbors and harbor approaches; 
also many parts of ocean routes. The Geranium 
was paid off in 1927. H.M.A.S. Moresby was 
commissioned in 1925 and until 1930 was em- 
ployed surveying the waters of the Great Barrier 
Reef — occasionally also carrying out surveys 
elsewhere. 

Location: Melbourne, Australia. 

Organization to which attached: Naval Board, De- 
partment of Defense. 



Purposes and scope of activities: Collates data ob- 
tained by hydrographic surveyors, prepares and 
publishes local charts and arranges for the pro- 
mulgation, in the form of Notices to Mariners, 
etc., of hydrographical information received. 
The Moresby in 1933 resumed the survey of the 
Great Barrier Reef. In (1934) she commenced 
a survey of the waters off the northwest coast of 
Australia. 

Equipment: 



BURVEYINQ VESSEL 

Moresby. . . . 



DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

.. 1,650 12 129 



Staff: Director, Hydrographic Branch. 

Provision for publication of results: All Fair Charts 
and other surveying data obtained by the Aus- 
tralian Hydrographic Surveying Service are 
transmitted to the British Hydrographer for the 
production of British Admiralty Charts. In 
many cases, however, temporary charts are 
produced in Australia for sale and use, pending 
the issue of Admiralty Charts, which usually 
are not available until some two years later. 

Marine Meteorological Section, Commonwealth 
Meteorological Bureau ('34) 

History or origin: In 1908, the Commonwealth 
Meteorological Bureau was formed by the Federal 
Government taking over the meteorological serv- 
ices of the various States. 

Soon afterwards a few marine observers were 
enrolled to keep meteorological logs for this 
office, and later, upon the development of radio- 
telegraphy, W/T reports were obtained from a 
few liners and Australian coasting ships. These 
radio-telegraphic reports, however, ceased in 
wartime. 

In 1922 the marine meteorological service was re- 
organized and there was established a regular 
service of both radio-telegraphed and log reports 
from selected ships. The volume of such reports 
has since been considerably increased, and pro- 
cedure has been brought into accordance with 
international practice. Recently the supply of 
log reports was augmented by the loan of British 



201 



202 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



ships' registers of observations recorded in this 
part of the world. 

Location: At the Commonwealth Meteorological 
Bureau, Central Office, Victoria Street, Mel- 
bourne. 

Organization to which attached: Meteorological Bu- 
reau, Commonwealth Department of the Interior. 

Purposes: To collect marine meteorological data 
relating to that part of the Southern Hemisphere 
between 80° East longitude, and 150° West 
longitude. 

The Marine Section arranges for the enrollment, 
instruction, and, as far as funds permit, for the 
equipment of marine observers on Australian 
ships. 

Log reports from ships of other countries also 
are arranged for from time to time, but only 
when such observers' reports are not required 
by the Meteorological service of the country in 
which the ships are registered. 

(Scope of activities: As far as possible : 

(a) The completion of a daily isobaric chart 
of the area indicated under "Purposes" and 
combining reports of ships and of land stations 
in the area; 

(b) Calculating of monthly normals (for each 5° 
square) of the meteorological elements included 
in the ships' reports; and 

(c) Collection and investigation of reports of 
tropical cyclones, and of miscellaneous phenomena 
reported by ships. 

Equipment: A few of the ships enrolled as marine 
observers of the Central Meteorological Bureau 
are equipped with official mercurial barometers, 
and with sea water thermometers. The number 
of ships thus equipped will gradually be increased 
as funds become available. 

In the case of most of this Bureau's observers, 
however, the readings of the ships' barometers 
are used, barometers being checked and index 
error corrections supplied as required. 

For particulars regarding the equipment of 
ships, the data of which are borrowed from the 
British Meteorological Office, it is desired to refer 
to the relevant section of the statement supplied 
by the British Meteorological Office. 
Staff: Headquarters: 1 meteorologist; 1 meteorologi- 
cal assistant. 
Agencies: 5 agents, the Divisional Meteorologists 
of Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and 
Hobart. 
Provision for visiting investigators: As occasion arises. 



Income: By parliamentary vote as part of the appro- 
priation for the Department. 

Provision for publication of results: Results may 
eventually be published by the Government 
printer if funds can be obtained for the purpose. 

Fisheries Department of the Commonwealth 
of Australia ('37) 

History or origin: In the year 1935 the Common- 
wealth Government definitely established a Fish- 
eries Department under the care of the Council 
for Scientific and Industrial Research, a govern- 
mental body responsible for industrial branches 
of research. 

Location: Sydney, Australia. 

Organization to which attached: Council for Scientific 
and Industrial Research of the Commonwealth 
Government of Australia. 

Purpose and scope of activities: Fisheries research. 
It is planned to make a special investigation of the 
possibilities of pelagic fisheries. 

Equipment: Besides facilities for laboratory work a 
research vessel about 83 feet long of the purse 
seiner type, with a diesel engine, is under con- 
struction and will soon be commissioned. 

Staff: Scientific Adviser, W. J. Dakin, Professor of 
Zoology, University of Sydney; Officer in charge. 
Dr. H. Thompson. 

Marine Laboratory of the University of Sydney ('37) 

History or origin: The Laboratory was set up at 
the instigation of Professor W. J. Dakin, Professor 
of Zoology, the University of Sydney. The 
money available for the initial effort was part of a 
fund collected many years ago for the foundation 
of a Sydney Biological Station. 

Location: At the entrance to Sydney Harbour, coast 
of N. S. W., in closest approximation to the open 
ocean. 

Organization to which attached: Uni^-ersity of Sydney, 
Department of Zoology. 

Purposes: Chiefly research, marine biology, and 
oceanography. Also instruction for senior classes. 

(Scope of activities: Investigations in plankton; 
hydrographic conditions to a distance of about 
five miles off-shore east of Sydney; physiological 
studies of certain marine organisms; physical, 
chemical oceanography. 

Equipynent: 1 small temporary laboratory, single 
floor 36 ft. by 12 ft. but closely associated (only 
half hour journey) with University laboratories 
and libraries. Separate aquarium room with few 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— AUSTRALIA, CHINA 



203 



small tanks and 1,000 gallon tank with pump. 

Auxiliary yacht of 13 tons, with oceanographic 

apparatus. 
Staff: Director, Professor W. J. Dakin, Department 

of Zoology, University of Sydney; Doctor E. A. 

Briggs; A. N. Colefax, B.Sc; 4 clerical and 

technical assistants. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: One or two 

research investigators would be welcomed, but 

would mainly work in University buildings using 

station as essential accessory. 
Income: About £180 per annum. 

Source: University of Sydney, Commonwealth 

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 

Australian Research CouncU, Private. 
Protnsioji for publication of results: Papers published 

in scientific periodicals (chiefly Proceedings Lin- 

nean Soc. of New South Wales). 

China 

Summer Survey of the Marine Biological 
Association of China ('36) 

Location: The Maruie Biological Station, University 
of Amoy, Amoy, Fukien. 

Organization to which attached: Marine Biological 
Association of China. 

Purposes: Research in the summer season every year. 

(Scope of activities: A continuation of the systematic 
survey of certain specified groups of the fauna 
and flora of Amoy, including studies in the 
morphology, ecology, life history, and food value 
of these specified groups only. 

Equipment: The providing for laboratory and library 
facilities, housing accommodations are all con- 
tributed by the University of Amoy. 

Staff: Director, Dr. T. Y. Chen; 12 senior investiga- 
tors and 6 junior investigators invited by the 
Executive Committee of the Association from 
among those biologists of professorial rank in the 
different institutions in China who are prepared 
and willing to work on one of the specified topics. 
The University of Amoy also contributes the 
service of its staff. 

Provisions for visiting i?ivestigators: Specialists in 
other groups of animals and plants are to be 
cordially invited to cooperate with the Association 
in helping to work up the material of the respec- 
tive groups collected during the session. 

Income: The China Foundation and the Rockefeller 
Foundation give grants of $5,000 each for carrying 
on the summer survey. 



Hydrographic Department of the Chinese Navy ('37) 

History or origin: This department has been estab- 
lished since 1922, under the authority of Ministry 
of Navy. 

Location: 140 Municipality Road, Shanghai. 

Organization to which attached: Ministry of Navy. 

Purposes: Hydrographic survey. 

(Scope of activities: Coast and river surveys. 

Equipment: 

SURVETINQ VESSELS DISPLACEMENT OFFICERS CREW 

Kanlu 1,398 12 116 

Chiao Jih 500 9 85 

Chingtien 279 4 55 

KingHsin 140 4 35 

Kdng Sheng 280 10 35 

Cheng Sheng 276 10 35 

Staff: Du-ector, Captain T. P. Liu. 

Asst. Director and Chief of Technical Staff, Mr. 

S. V. Mills. 
Chief of Administrative Section, Commander 

V. H. Koo. 
Chief of Section of Surveying, Captain K. Y. 

Chen. 
Chief of Section of Cartography, Captain T. 

Chen. 
Chief of Section of Calculations, Commander 

S. Y. Lee. 
Chief of Section of Tides, Commander K. S. Yeh. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 

Tinghai Marine Station ('36) 

History or origin: 1936. 

Location: Sen-Kia-Men, Chu.san Islands, Chekiang 

(30°N. 120°20'E.) 
Organization to which attached: National Research 

In-stitute of Biology, Academia Sinica. 
Purposes: Biological and oceanographic research. 
Scope of activities: As a center of oceanographic and 

marine biological researches of the Chinese coast. 
Equipment: In preparation. 
Staff: Dr. Chin-Chih Jao and others. 

Tsingtao Aquarium ('36) 

Location: Beach Park, Tsingtao. 

Organization to which attached: Chinese Institute of 

Oceanography. 
Purposes: Research and exhibition. 
(Scope of activities: To advance the aquatic knowledge 

in popular education and to provide the facilities 

for special research in marine biology. 
Equipment: 1 building, 3 stories with basement 

including 2 specimen show rooms; 18 glass- 



204 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



fronted exhibition tanks; 2 ground pools; 1 
laboratory for chemical and biological researches; 
1 distributing tower; 1 sea-water reservoir; 

1 pump house. 

Staff: Director, Mr. P. Z. Tsiang; 1 in charge of 
general affairs; 2 research and technical assistants; 

2 clerical a.ssistants; 1 collector. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Maximum 5, in 
addition to the aquarium's staff, can be accom- 
modated. 

Income: Partly subsidized by the local government 
and partly by the subscriptions from various 
scientific institutes. 

The aquarium is in cooperation with the staff 
of the oceanographic department of Tsingtao 
Observatory and receives help in its researches 
from the professors of the Tsingtao University 
and visitors from other institutions. 

Department of Oceanography, Tsingtao 
Observatory ('36) 

Location: Observatory Hill, Tsingtao. 

Organization to which attached: Tsingtao Observatory 
of which it is a department. 

Purposes: Mainly for research. 

Scope of activities: Research in dynamical ocean- 
ography, marine meteorology, chemistry of sea 
water, marine biology, and sea bottom deposits. 

Equipment: 1 service building (part of the Observa- 
tory); 1 hydrographic and meteorological station 
at the Great Harbor, equipped with a self- 
registering tidal gauge and a complete set of 
meteorological instruments; 1 library, more than 
4,000 volumes of scientific books; 1 research 
boat, borrowed from the Bureau of Safety, 
Tsingtao, equipped with a complete set of instru- 
ments for hydrographic investigations; 1 chemical 
laboratory in preparation. 

Staff: In charge, Mr. P. Z. Tsiang; 2 investigators; 
2 clerical and technical assistants; 2 collectors and 
observers. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 

Income: Regular for the year 1931-32, $10,000. 

French Indo-China 

Institut Oceanographique de I'Indochine ('36) 

History or origin: Established in 1922 by the General 
Government of Indo-China under the name of 
Service Oceanographique des Peches de I'Indo- 
chine; converted into a publicly supported 
institution with a civil personnel in 1930 under the 
name of Institut Oc^anographiquede I'Indochine. 



Location: On the seashore, 6 kilometers south of the 
city of Nhatrang (Annam), 450 kilometers north 
of Saigon, the capitol of Cochinchina. 
Organization to which attached: Placed under the 
scientific control of a commission composed of 13 
members of the Academy of Sciences of Paris. 
Purposes: Scientific and technical researches and the 

establishment of a museum. 
(Scope of activities: Physical and biological ocean- 
ography, limnology, potamology; inventory of the 
aquatic fauna, biology of fishes, invertebrates, 
and plankton; and the study of the sea bottom. 
Industrial utilization of marine products. 
Equipynent: A principal building of two stories, 
35 X 15 meters, containing a ground floor and a 
gallery for collections. On the first floor a 
veranda for aquaria and three laboratories. On 
the second floor, three laboratories. 

1 annex, a building with two stories 15 x 7.80 
meters, containing gas producing apparatus and 
drafting room. 

Aquarium. 

An experimental factory for the semi-industrial 
study of products prepared in the laboratory (fish 
meal and salt fish). 

Library. 

A hangar for fishing nets. 

A jetty 90 milometers long. 

Self-registering tidal gauge. 

Tunnel of 130 meters long, excavated in rhyolite, 
intended to house a seismograph. 

5 dwelling houses for the personnel, 1 building 
containing garages for automobiles and lodging 
for the chauffeur. 

1 research vessel, the De Lanessan of 750 
tons displacement, length 45 meters, beam 63 
meters, draught 4.45 meters; equipped for sound- 
ing to a depth of 5,000 meters; provided with a 
scientific laboratory, aquaria supplied with run- 
ning fresh water and sea water, and a technical 
laboratory; cruising radius 1,000 miles. 
Staff: Director, Dr. P. Chevey; Assistant biologist, 
R. Serene, Lie. Sci. ; Economist, J. Durand; 
Captain of the vessel, M. Dauguet; 1 mechanic; 
preparators, draughtsmen, photographers, et 
cetera (Annamites). 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Four or five 
investigators can eventually be received at the 
laboratory and one or two on board the De 
Lanessan. 
Income: In 1932, $175,000, in 1933 $87,500 (the 
unit of the funds is the piastre). This is an 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— CHINA, FRENCH INDO-CHINA, HONG KONG, JAPAN 



205 



appropriation from the general budget of Indo- 
China. This amount will be still further reduced 
in 1934. The Institution, occupying a civilian 
status, has the right to receive gifts from different 
sources, but up to the present it has been obliged 
to content itself with subsidies from the General 
Government. 
Provision for the publication of results: Two series 
"Notes," of which 122 have been issued; and 
"Memoirs," of which three have been issued. 

Hong Kong 
Royal Observatory, Hong Kong ('34) 

Location: Kowloon. 

Organization to which attached: Government of 
Hong Kong. 

Purposes: Primarily meteorological but this includes 
studies of marine meteorology. 

Scope of activities: Meteorology, terrestrial mag- 
netism, and seismology. 

Equipmejit: Offices, instruments, arrangements for 
reports of observations. 

Staff: Director, Mr. C. W. Jeffries; Assistant Direc- 
tor, Mr. B. D. Evans; Professional Assistant, 
Mr. G. S. P. Heywood. 

Provision for the. publication of results: The Observa- 
tory has published an atlas entitled, "Maps 
Showing the Mean Atmospheric Pressure and 
Wind Direction and Force over the China Sea 
for Each Month of the Year," 1925; "Meteorologi- 
cal Records," 1884-1928, Appendix to Hong Kong 
Observations 1928, 1929; "Climate of Hong 
Kong," by T. ¥. Claxton, Appendix to Hong Kong 
Observations, 1931; "Weather Observations from 
Ships," Appendix to Hong Kong Observations, 
1931. According to an arrangement adopted by 
the Directors of the Far Eastern Weather Ser\'ices 
made at a conference held at Hong Kong in 1930, 
the records of observations received from ships 
by wireless telegraphy are published in rotation 
by the different Far Eastern Weather Services 
represented at the conference. 

Japan 
Akkeshi Marine Biological Station ('37) 

Location: On the sea front of the gulf Akkeshi, 
about 70 km. east of Kushiro and 150 km. west 
of Nemuro. 

Organization to which attached: The Faculty of 
Science, Hokkaido Imperial University. 

Purposes: Research, instruction for students. 



Scope of activities: Research in biology and oceano- 
graphy. 

Equipment: 1 concrete building, 788 sq. m., 3 floors 
including 1 student laboratory; 1 laboratory for 
investigators; 5 staff laboratories; 1 aquarium 
room of 10 tanks; 1 library; 1 public room; 1 
office; 1 motor room; 1 motor boat Misago, 8 
meters, 5 tons; 2 wooden residences. 

Staif: Director; 4 associates (1 temporary); 4 
research assistants (1 temporary); 2 part-time 
collectors. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Six to ten per- 
sons can be accommodated. 

Income: Yen 6,000 for 1932, from the Faculty of 
Science. 

Amakusa Marine Biological Laboratory 
(Amakusa Rinkai Jikken-sho) ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1928. For a 
fuller description, see article mentioned in the 
foot-note.' 

Location: Tomioka, Amakusa, Kumamoto ken, 
Japan, about 31 km. southeast of Nagasaki. 

Organization to which attached: Kyushu Imperial 
University. 

Purposes: Researches by investigators associated 
with the laboratories and institutes of zoology, 
botany, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, path- 
ology, geology, meteorology, et cetera, of the 
University, and of other imiversities and colleges. 

Scope of activities: Chiefly the survey of the marine 
fauna and flora around Tomioka and its vicinity. 
Casual visitors may take up any field of research 
in marine biology, oceanography, and other 
related branches of science. 

Equipment: 1 wooden laboratory building, 2 stories, 
floor area of 100 sq. m.; 1 janitor's house and 
kitchen, 1 story, 66 sq. m.; 1 dormitory, 1 story, 
wooden, 100 sq. m.; land, area about 62,000 sq. m. 

Staff: Director (professor in Kyushu Imperial 
University) ; 2 members of council (professors in 
Kyushu Imperial University); 1 administrator; 
1 assistant; 1 artist; 1 janitor; part-time collectors 
and helpers. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: For about 5 or 6 
persons only. 

Income: Very irregular in amount, paid whenever 
required by the University. 

' Ohshima, Hiroshima, The Amakusa Biological Labora- 
tory: Records of Oceanog. Works in Japan, vol. 1, no. 2, 
pp. 78-89, pis. 22, 23, 2 charts, 1928. 



206 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Marine Biological Station of Asamushi ('37) 

Origin: The following is quoted from the article 
cited below.^ 

The Asamushi Marine Biological Station was 
founded in July, 1924, as an extension of the 
Institute of Biology, Tohoku Imperial University, 
Sendai, Japan. During the years, 1921-1922 
one of the authors (S. Hatai) and his colleagues 
at the Biological Institute made a thorough in- 
vestigation of the entire coast of Northeastern 
Japan to select the most suitable site for a marine 
iDioIogical station. Although the coast of Miyagi 
Prefecture was naturally most thoroughly searched 
the present location in Aomori Prefecture was 
selected, after careful consideration, as the most 
suitable for our purpose. By act of the 46th. 
Diet, in session in 1923, the Imperial Japanese 
Government granted 150,000 yen for establishing 
the Station, and 50,000 yen was given by the 
Aomori Prefectural Government. Thus the erec- 
tion of the buildings could be commenced in May, 
1923, and was completed one year later, entailing 
a total expense of 200,000 yen. The Station 
was formally opened on July 5th, 1924. 

During the four years since its establishment, 
various improvements have been made, and the 
station is now fast becoming one of the centers 
for the promotion of Biological Science in Japan. 
Location: Asamushi, Aomori-ken, on the sea front, 
about 1.6 km. northeast of the village of Asamuchi. 
about 16 km. northeast of city of Aomori, and 
about 17 hours by train from Tokyo. 
Organization to which attached: The Faculty of 

Science, Tohoku Imperial University. 
Purposes: Major purpose, research; instruction in 

zoology, physiology, and planktology. 
Scope of activities: Research in physiology, zoology, 
physiological chemistry, planktology, and oceano- 
graphy. 
Equipment: 1 laboratory building, 2 floors, 386 sq. m., 
of 14 rooms: 8 research rooms for faculty, 
student laboratory, physiological laboratory, 
library, dark room, reception room, janitor's 
room; all furnished with gas, electricity, run- 
ning sea and fresh water. 
1 undersea laboratory, designed for study of 
experimental evolution, physiology, and ecol- 
ogy, re-enforced concrete, 15 sq. m., one-half 
submerged in the sea at the shore line. 

- Hatai, Sinkishi, and Kokubo, Seiji, The marine biologi- 
cal station of Asamushi: Its history, equipment, and activi- 
ties: Records of Oceanog. Works in Japan, vol. 1, no. 1, 
pp. 26-38, pis. 6-12, 1928. 



1 aquarium house, re-enforced concrete, 238 sq. m., 
business room, aquarium, museum. 24 tanks 
of various sizes, in which both fresh and sea 
water fishes are on display to the public. 

1 boat house, 70 sq. m., for conservation of motor 
boats during the winter. 

2 motor boats; one, 8 meters, 20 h.p. gasoline 
engine, furnished with fish tank for transporting 
live fishes; one 7 meters, 8 h.p. engine. 

2 small fishing boats, portable motors. 

1 dormitory, 2 story frame building, capable of 
accommodating 50 persons, area 636 sq. m. 

4 official residences, 116 sq. m. each, of 3 to 5 
rooms in addition to veranda, kitchen, bath, 
furniture, running water, electricity. 
Staff: Director, Doctor Hatai; Curator, Dr. S. 

Kokubo; 3 assistants; 1 technical assistant. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Between 20 and 

30 can be accommodated besides the staff. 
Income: The regular income is Yen 21,000 per year 

including salaries, besides a special income of 

Yen 6,000 derived from the aquarium. 
Provision for the publication of results: Scientific 

reports of Tohoku Imperial University. 

Imperial Marine Observatory, Kobe ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1919. 

Location: Nakayamate-dori 7 tyome, Kobe. 

Organization to which attached: Department of 
Education. 

Purposes: Marine meteorology and oceanographic 
investigations. 

Equipment: Besides the laboratory and office build- 
ing in Kobe, the Observatory operates the M. S. 
Syunpu-Maru, a steel yacht of 125 tonnage, 
specially intended for oceanographical surveys, 
built in 1927. Principal dimensions: length over 
all 90 feet, breadth 18 feet, depth 9.6 feet, mean 
draft 7 feet, displacement of 125 tons; equipped 
with a six cylinder Diesel engine of 150 horse- 
power; speed 9 knots in calm weather; carries 13 
tons of crude oil in three oil tanks; cruising 
radius of about 2,500 miles at a mean speed of 8 
knots. 

Personnel, a captain and a crew of 16 in all. 
Oceanographical observations are conducted by 
the experts of the Observatory assisted by the 
crew. Four sounding instruments of the Lucas 
and Wurzel types are fitted on board. Tem- 
perature, density, salinity, acidity, etc., at various 
depths are observed in usual ways, and the 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— JAPAN 



207 



direction and speed of ocean currents are observed 

with current meters of the Ekman pattern. 
Staff: Director, Dr. T. Okada; Meteorologist, Y. 

Horiguti; Meteorologist, K. Tsukuda; Oceanog- 

rapher, K. Hidaka; Oceanographer, K. Koenuma; 

Instruments, G. Okada; Marine chemist, Y. 

Matudaira; Marine Biologist, T. Yanagisawa. 
Income: Yen 160,000 (annual). 
Provisio7i for publication of results: Annual Report; 

Memoirs of the Imperial Marine Observatory; 

Daily Weather Charts of the North Pacific; 

Journal of Oceanography; Tidal Observations. 

Kominato Marine Biological Laboratory ('37) 

Location: On the sea shore of Kominato Bay, about 
1.6 km. south of Awa-Kominato Railway Station, 
Chiba Prefecture, and about 121 km. from Tokyo 
via the Boso Railway Line. 

Organization to which attached: Imperial Fisheries 
Institute, Tokyo. 

Purposes: Research and instruction in marine 
biology. 

(Scope of activities: Researches in biology, under 
which planktology, biology of fishes are included; 
chemistry and physics of sea water; dynamical 
oceanography. 

Equipment: Total site 5,000 sq. m.; 1 re-enforced 
concrete laboratory building, including aquarium, 
2 floors, 165 sq. m. First floor aquarium with 11 
tanks; second floor laboratory; 1 wooden dormi- 
tory, 2 floors, 121 sq. m. ; 1 wooden bath house, 
building area 9.9 sq. m.; 2 wooden cottage 
residences; 2 engine houses; 1 fish pond, about 
40 X 20 X 8 ft.; sea water tank, about 24,000 
gallons capacity, re-enforced concrete structure; 
boat house; 1 re-enforced concrete pier, about 20 
ft. X 5 ft.; 1 research boat; Library, about 200 
volumes, 100 reprints. 

Staff: 6 in charge of different lines of investigation. 
Director; 3 associates; 1 resident naturalist; 
1 collector. 

The investigations also receive help in research 
from members of the Fish Culture Department 
of the Imperial Fisheries Institute and visitors 
from other institutions. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: About 20, in 
addition to .staff. 

Income: One year's expenses, about Yen 500 regu- 
larly. In addition there is a special contribution 
from Kominato Town. 



Institute of Physical Oceanography ('34) 

History or origin: Established in 1921. 

Location: Kyoto, Japan. 

Organization to which attached: Osaki Tidal Station. 

Purposes: Instruction and research. 

Scope of activities: Physical oceanography in general. 

Equipment: Ordinary equipment for research in 
physics. 

Staff: Takaharu Nomit.su; Yoshikazu Toyohara; 
Tohichiso Takegami. 

Incoine: Source: From the Government. 
Amount: Yen 3,000 annually for research. 

Provision for publication of results: In "Memoirs 
of the College of Science," Kyoto Imperial Uni- 
versity, Series A. 

Misaki Marine Biological Station (Misaki 
Rinkai Jikkenjo) ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1886. 

Location: About 60 km. south of Tokyo, 3 km. 
north of the village of MLsaki, Kanagawa Pre- 
fecture ; one hour by train and 50 minutes by bus. 

Organization to which attached: Imperial University 
of Tokyo. 

Purposes: Research by investigators associated with 
the laboratories and institutes of zoology, botany, 
fisheries, and medical sciences of the University, 
and visiting investigators; laboratory for college 
student.s of zoology; summer courses. 

Scope of activities: Marine biology, oceanography, 
and allied sciences. Aquarium and museum are 
open to the public; summer courses in marine 
zoology for public and high school teachers; 
oceanographic observations; seLsmological ob- 
servations; research facilities extended to visiting 
investigators. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory building, reinforced con- 
crete, 59 X 13.5 m., with floor space 1,000 sq. m. 
including chemical, physiological, and oceano- 
graphical rooms besides general laboratory; 1 
office and laboratory, wood, 12 x 9 m.; 1 aquarium- 
museum building, reinforced concrete, 2 stories, 
29.7 x 7.2 m., with floor space 363 sq. m.; 1 
.seismograph room; 3 dormitory buildings, in- 
cluding residence for overseas investigators; 
1 wooden cottage for staff; 1 motor boat; 3 row 
boats. 

Staff: Director, Prof. Naohide Yatsu; 1 assistant 
professor; 1 research associate; 1 assistant; 1 
general manager; 1 technician; 4 collectors; 2 
janitors. 



208 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Provisions for visiting investigators: Five or six can 
be accommodated. 

hicome: Annual budget about Yen 12,000 including 
salaries (from Science Faculty and Agricultural 
Faculty), and about Yen 4,500 from admittance 
tickets of the aquarium and museum, and from 
table fees. 

Provision for publication of results: Journal of Faculty 
of Science, Section IV, Tokyo Imperial University. 

Miyako Meteorological Observatory ('37) 

History or origin: New observatory completed at the 
end of 1936. The principal object of this ob- 
servatory is to observe the temperature of sea 
water off the east coast of N. Japan every day 
when the weather permits. 

Location: Miyako. 39°38' N., 141°59' E. 

Organization to which attached: The Central Meteoro- 
logical Observatory, Tokyo. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Meteorological and 
oceanographic observations. 

Equipment: Besides a small laboratory for marine 
chemical work, the observatory operates a motor 
yacht Kuroshiwo-Maru, 30 tons, and 9 knots 
in speed. 

Staff: Director, Y. Tudi. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 

Income: Yen 10,000 (annual). 

Publication: The results of observations made at this 
observatory are published in the publications of 
the Central Observatory, Tokyo. 

The Institute of Algological Research (Kaiso 
Kenkyusho) ('37) 

History or origin: Established in May, 1933. A 
new laboratory was completed in April, 1937. 

Location: Hunami-cho, Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan. 

Organization to which attached: The Hokkaido Im- 
perial University. 

Purposes: Research works on the marine algae. 

Scope of activities: Systematic, cultural, physiologi- 
cal, and ecological studies on marine algae. 

Equipments: In the laboratory, one large and two 
small rooms for research, three rooms for culture 
studies; two small boats; a lodging for visitors. 

Staff: Scientific: Y. Yamada, Professor of Botany, 
Hokkaido, Imperial University; T. Kanda, As- 
sistant. Technical and clerical, 1. Maintenance 
and operation, 2. 

Provisions for visititig investigators: No special 
provision. 



Income: Sources : The Hokkaido Imperial University. 
Amount: Not fixed. 

Palao Tropical Biological Station ('37) 

History or origin: Established in compliance with a 
recommendation of the Committee of the Biologi- 
cal Section of the Japan Society for the Promo- 
tion of Scientific Research, organized m 1932. 
After the approval of this recommendation by the 
trustees of the Society a subcommittee was formed 
and it was decided to establish a biological station 
in the tropical islands under Japanese mandate. 
Prof. S. Hatai who was chosen to carry out this 
proposal, after visiting numerous islands, selected 
as the site of the station the Island of Korror, 
which is near the main island of Palao. The 
buildmgs were completed in 1935. For a fuller 
description see article cited below.' 

Location: On Korror Island, situated close to the 
main island of Palao, the South Sea Islands of 
Japanese mandated territory. 

Organization to which attached: The Japan Society 
for the Promotion of Scientific Research, Tokyo. 

Purposes: Major purpose, research in biology of 
coral reefs. 

(Scope of activities: Researches in ecology of coral 
polyps and of reef formation, in physiology of 
growth, development, and reproduction in each 
coral species, in physics and chemistry of coral 
skeleton; and general biological and oceano- 
graphical survey necessary for investigation of 
the above mentioned fields. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory building, one storied frame 
building, about 7 x 11 meters, of a single large 
laboratory and a small dark room for photographic 
work. 

1 store room, about 5.5 x 3.6 meters; under the 
same roof is the motor room. 

1 small exhibition house of coral specimens. 

2 collecting boats: one, equipped with a kero- 
sene oil engine of 3 h.p., and another, a small 
row boat with sailing gear. 

For long distance trips the government Fisheries 
Experimental Station at Palao has generously 
placed its large craft at disposal of the 
station. 

1 salt water tank, capacity 3 tons. 

2 fresh water tanks, capacity 3 tons each. 
2 residences, about 6x8 meters each. 

' Hatai, Sinkishi, The Palao Tropical Biological Station: 
Palao Tropical Biological Studies, no. 1, pp. 1-1.5, 6 figs., 
1937. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— JAPAN 



209 



Staff: Director, Prof. S. Hatai; 3 commissioners 

(2 in Palao, 1 in Sendai) ; 2 janitors. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Four can be 

accommodated, including the staff and research 

members sent by the Society. 
Income: Annual budget for 1937: 12,200 yen. 
Provision for the publication of results: The Palao 

Tropical Biological Studies, issued by the Japan 

Society for the Promotion of Scientific Research, 

Tokyo. 

Seto Marine Biological Laboratory (Seto 
Rinkai Kenkyusho) ('37) 

History: An account of the establishment of the 
Seto station is given in the article cited beloW* 
and from it the following is quoted : 

The Department of Biology (now the Depart- 
ments of Zoology and Botany) of the Kyoto 
Imperial University was established in 1917, and 
four years later, in 1921, the Government granted 
150,000 yen toward the erection of a marine 
biological laboratory to be attached to the 
department. This sum was spent largely for the 
louilding and equipment of the Seto Marine 
Biological Laboratory. It was supplemented 
by a contribution of 50,000 yen from Wakayama 
Prefecture, while a lot of nine acres and a half 
was donated by the village of Seto-Kanayama. 
The whole building was completed in the spring 
of 1922, and the activities began in the summer 
of the same year. One thing to be deeply re- 
gretted in connection with the establishment of 
the Laboratory, was the death of its founder, 
Prof. Iwaji Ikeda, which happened just before 
the completion of the building. 

Location: Seto-Kanayama, Wakayama ken, on the 
west coast of Kii Peninsula, about 128 km. south 
of Osaka: 4 hours by train, 1 hour by bus, and 20 
minutes on boat; or 8 hours by steamer. 

Organization to which attached: Faculty of Science, 
Kyoto Imperial University. 

Purposes: Research work on marine biology; 
instruction to students of Kyoto Imperial Uni- 
versity. 

Scope of activities: Researches in marine biology, 
including .systematics, morphology, embryology, 
ecology, physiology, planktonology, et cetera; 
lectures, laboratory courses in marine biology for 

* Komai, Taku, and Ikari, Jiro, The Seto Marine Bio- 
logical Laboratory, its equipment, and activities, with 
remarks on the fauna and flora of the environs: Records of 
Oceanog. Works in Japan, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 113-129, pis. 
27-35, 1929. 



University students; special courses in marine 
biology for teachers of middle and primary schools, 
usually attended by about 30 persons; exhibit of 
marine life for public. 
Equipment: Buildings are all wooden and one storied; 

1 students' laboratory, 220 sq. m.; 1 research 
laboratory, 264 sq. m.; 1 library-museum, 13 
sq. m. ; 1 aquarium building, 186 sq. m. ; 1 dormi- 
tory, 395 sq. m. ; 1 residence for resident members, 
61 sq. m.; 1 collecting boat Nyusin Maru, 14.4 x 
3.9 m., 19 tons, semidiesel engine; 1 small boat; 

2 row boats. 

Staff: Acting Director, Prof. Y. Okada; Assistant 

Prof. K. Akatsuka; 1 assistant; 1 technical 

assistant; janitor and cook. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: 10 at most; 

usually about 5. 
Income: Sources : University of Kyoto. 

Amount : Fluctuates from year to year, about Yen 

3,000, excluding the salaries of the staff from 

Kyoto Imperial University. 
Provision for publication of results: Mostly in Mem. 

Coll. of Science, University of Kyoto, also in 

other journals. 

Mitsui Institute of Marine Biology ('37) 

History or origin: Established and opened in 1933 
by Mr. Takanaga Mitsui. 

Location: Susaki near Simoda, Kamo-gun, Siduoka- 
prefecture. 

Organization to which attached: Independent insti- 
tution. 

Purposes: Research in marine biology. 

Scope of activities: Researches in marine biology in 
general, planktology, algalogy, physiology, and 
oceanography; biological survey of the neighbor- 
ing waters, especially of deep-.sea fauna of Suruga 
Bay. 

Fellowships are awarded annually by the 
committee of the Institute to the research workers 
who desire to investigate marine material in the 
Institute. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory building, reinforced con- 
crete, 2 floors, 297 tubo (1 tubo = 6x6 ft.), of 
25 rooms: 9 research rooms, 2 libraries, 3 store 
rooms, 2 constant temperature rooms, 2 seismo- 
logical observatories, office pubHc hall, museum, 
engine room, aquarium room, boat house, janitor's 
room; all furnished with running sea and fresh 
water; 1 small motor boat and a few row boats 
for collection and occanographical observation. 

Staff: Scientific: Director (changeable by 3 years' 



210 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



term) Prof. Ikusaku Amemiya, Tokuo Im- 
perial University (1936- ). Permanent staff: 
Otohiko Tanaka (oceanography and plank- 
tology); Sokiti Segawa (algalogy). Naturalist: 
Kojiro Kato (zoology). 

Technical and clerical: Clerk, Daisaku Sakata. 

Maintenance and operation: 2 collectors and 2 
attendants. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: At least 3 can be 

accommodated. 
Income: Sources: Provided from a grant by Mr. 
Takanaga Mitsui. 

Amount: About 20,000 yen annually. 

Shimoda Marine Biological Station ('37) 

History or origin: The cornerstone was laid on June 
6, 1931, and completed on August 11, 1933. 

Location: Shimoda-machi, Shizuoka-ken, Japan. 

Organization to which attached: Tokyo University of 
Literature and Science. 

Purposes: Research; instruction in zoology, botany, 
oceanography, geography, et cetera, and science 
education on the marine subjects. 

(Scope of activities: Investigations on systematics, 
physiology, biochemistry, ecology, experimental 
studies of animals and plants, meteorology, 
oceanography, geography, geology, terrestrial 
magnetism, earth current, atmospheric electricity, 
and others. 

Equipment: Sea-water and fresh-water are supplied 
for every laboratory. Two gasoline motor-boats 
(16 and 5 h.p.) and four collecting boats. An 
aquarium is attached. 

Staff: Scientific: T. Fukui (Director); E. Sawano 
(Administrator); J. Shimoizumi, T. Sakai, K. 
Toyomasu; S. Endo, K. Nishizawa, N. Obara. 
Technical and clerical: 5 persons. 
Maintenance and operation: 4 persons. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Ten laboratory 
rooms and a dormitory with ten rooms are 
provided for the visiting investigators. 

Income: Sources: Tokyo University of Literature 
and Science. 
Amount: About 3,500 yen. 

Imperial Fisheries Experimental Station (The 
Suisan Sikendyo) ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1929. 
Location: Tukisima, Kyobasi Ku, Tokyo. 
Organization to which attached: Ministry of Agricul- 
ture and Forestry. 



Purposes: Investigations, researches and experiments 

on fisheries and their utihzation. 
(Scope of activities: Physical and biological oceanog- 
raphy, catching fish, fish culture, preservation of 
fish, utihzation of fish as well as other marine prod- 
ucts and development of fishing boats, et cetera. 
Equipment: Laboratories and experimental stations : 
Head office of main station, Tokyo: 3 laboratory 
buildings ; 1 experimental water tank for fishing 
boat; 2 factories for experiments; 1 freezing 
room for experiment. 
Branch stations: (1) Kisaki station, Nagano 
Prefecture, for raising trout. (2) Toyohasi 
station, Aiti Prefecture, for raising freshwater 
fish. (3) Otyo station, Hirosima Prefecture, 
for raising saltwater fish. (4) Kasaoka station, 
Okayama Prefecture, for raising saltwater fish. 
Staff: Director, Dr. N. Ka.suga. 
Fishing, S. Kameda. 
Fish technology, Kintaro Kimura, S. Yamamoto, 

D.Sc, and Dr. H. Hirano. 
Pisci-culture, S. Nakano and S. Fujimori. 
Physics, Dr. H. Hosino. 
Chemistry, M. Migita, D.Sc. 
Biological oceanography, H. Marukawa, Dr. 

Kimosuke Kimura, and Dr. H. Aikawa. 
Physical oceanography. Dr. M. Uda. 
In charge of fishing boat. Dr. N. Sato. 
In charge of machinery. Dr. I. Gensyo. 
Biology, T. Kamiya. 

Branch stations: Y. Matsui, D.Sc. (Toyohasi); 
H. Seki (Otyo); M. Kawajiri (ffisaki); N. 
Oshima (Kasaoka). 
Captain of M. S. Soyo Maru, K. Imamura. 
Expenditure: Annual expense about 250,000 yen. 
Provision for publication of results: Journal of the 
Imperial Fisheries Experimental Station ; Fisheries 
Investigation (Supplementary report); Semi-an- 
nual Report of Oceanographical Investigation; 
Monthly Oceanographical Chart (in sheet). 

Imperial Fisheries Institute (The Suisan 
Kosyuzyo) ('37) 

History or origin: The Imperial Fisheries Institute 
is the successor of the educational enterprises 
undertaken by the Dai-Nippon Suisan-Kwai 
(the Fisheries Society of Japan). Its predecessor, 
the Fisheries Training School, was established in 
1889 by the above-mentioned society at Kobi- 
kityo, Kyobasi, Tokyo. In July of the same 
year it removed to Hakozakityo, Nihonbasi, 
T6ky6, and then afterwards to Mita-Sikokutyo, 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— JAPAN 



211 



Siba, Tokyo. The Imperial Japanese Govern- 
ment has donated 6,500 yen a year since 1893 to 
train young men for organizing and managing 
the fishery industries of Japan, but at the time 
of its transfer from the society to the Government, 
in 1897, the investigating and the experimental 
works pertaining to the fishery industries were 
added to its original scope, and the organization 
of the present Institute was founded on the 22nd 
of March. In 1902 new buildings were erected at 
Ettyiizima, Hukagawa, near the mouth of Sumida 
River, and the Institute removed there in Sep- 
tember. The Institute was formerly composed 
of the three departments, i.e., educational, 
experimental, and marine investigation, but was 
changed into an educational organ pure and simple 
at the time of reorganization in 1929. 

Location: 8 Ettyflzima, Hukagawa, Tokyo. 

Organization to which attached: The Institute is 
under the supervision of Minister of Agriculture 
and Forestry. 

Purposes: The educational object of the Institute 
is to give lessons in science and art of the fisheries 
and to study the profound theories on them, along 
with formation of character. 

Scope of activities: Fishing, technology of fisheries, 
pisci-culture, physics and chemistry, mechanics, 
oceanography, zoology and botany, and bac- 
teriology, economics and laws. 

Equipment: 2 main buildings, including 51 class- 
rooms, 42 laboratories, a large auditorium, and 
40 other rooms. 

Laboratory for iodine chemistry. 
Laboratory for motor machinery. 
Several service buildings. 
Unyo-Maru, 444 tons, a former training boat. 

1. The steam-ship Hakuyo-Maru, 1,327.78 tons, 

and a wooden boat Seityo Maru, 55 tons, 
are used for the purpose of training fishing 
students. 

2. Temporary Training Station at Tateyama Bay, 

Tiba Prefecture, is used for training and 
experimental purposes of fishing students. 

3. Marine Laboratory, with an aquarium, at 

Kominato Bay, Tiba Prefecture, is a bio- 
logical laboratory used by the pisci-culture 
students. 

4. The Oyster Experimental Station at Kanazawa, 

Kanagawa Prefecture, is chiefly used for the 
biological study of oysters and other marine 
life. 

5. The Training Station at Yosida, Siduoka Pre- 



fecture, is used for the research on raising 
warm-water fish. 

6. The Training Station at Oidumi, Yamanasi 

Prefecture, is used for the research on raising 
cold-water fish. 

7. Training Station at Numazu, Siduoka Pre- 

fecture, is a research and training station 
for students of technology. 
Staff: Director, Yasukichi Sugiura. 
Fishing Laboratory: 

Professors: T. Nagamune, K. Tanaka, J. Ihara. 
Assistant professors: T. Sasayama, Dr. J. 
Takagi, S. Takayama, Dr. H. Kusama. 
Technological Laboratory : 

Professors: Y. Miyama, Dr. Y. Shimizu, T. 

Kawaguchi. 
Assistant professors: S. Iwamoto, K. Kotani, 
K. Saruya. 
Piscicultural Laboratory: 

Professors: Dr. N. Nakai, Dr. K. Oda. 
Assistant Professor: Dr. T. Tomiyama. 
Physical Laboratory: 

Professors: M. Tauchi, D.Sc, Dr. M. Okada. 
Assistant Professor: K. Miyoshi. 
Instructors: Dr. S. Kamiya, Dr. Y. Takenouchi, 
Dr. H. Okuno. 
Chemical Laboratory: 

Professors: M. Yamakawa, D.Agr., T. Oya, 
D.Agr.; Y. Matsuike, D.Sc, Dr. I. Okada. 
Assistant Professor : Dr. T. Tamura. 
Mechanical Laboratory: 

Professor: Dr. K. Tomimasu. 
Assistant Professor: Dr. H. Niino. 
Oceanographical Laboratory: 

Assistant Professor: Dr. H. Niino. 
Zoological Laboratory: 

Professors: A. Terao, D.Sc, J. Hori. 
Assistant Professors: K. Ebina, Dr. T. Mimura, 
Dr. D. Inaba, K. Matsubara. 
Botanical Laboratory: 

Professors: D. Higashi, Dr. S. Ueda. 
Instructor: Dr. K. Onda. 
Bacteriological Laboratory: 

Assistant Professor: M. Kimata. 
Instructor: Y. Toyama, D.Agr. 
Economical Laboratory: 

Professors: Dr. M. Habara, S. Azimi, T. 
Miura, Dr. A. Kuragami, Dr. S. Katayanagi, 
Dr. S. Tanahashi, F. Katayama, Y. Koishi. 
Assistant professor: Dr. S. Ckamoto. 
Instructor: Y. Honiden, Dr. Eco. 
Experts: J. Nakagawa, Y. Ito, M. Shibato. 



212 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Pelagic Fishery: 

Professor: T. Tajinia. 

Several other educational associates and main- 
tenance and operation workers. 

Provision for visiting investigators: None. 

Income: Temporary annual about 400,000 yen, 
from the Government. 

Provisions for publication of results: Journal of the 
Imperial Fisheries Institute, (both in Japanese, 
"Suisan Kosyiizyo Kemkyu Hokoku," and in 
European languages). 

Hydrographic Department of the Imperial 
Japanese Navy ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1871, first under the 
War Department as the Naval Hydrographic 
Bureau, transferred in 1872 to the Navy Depart- 
ment which was established during that year. 

Location: Tokyo. 

Organization to which attached: The Imperial Japa- 
nese Navy. 

Purposes: The Hydrographic Department conducts 
the preparation and issue of hydrographic and 
aeronautical publications, undertakes the survey 
of coasts and seas, makes recommendations and 
issues notices regarding safety of navigation, 
and educates hydrographic experts and their 
assistants. It also conducts for the Navy 
observations, researches, and study of marine- 
meteorological and oceanographical phenomena. 

Scope of activities: The Department is divided into 

six sections, namely, the First, the Second, the 

Third, the Fourth, the Fifth, and the Accounts. 

The First Division conducts business connected 

with the following: 

1. Planning the preparation of hydrographic and 

aeronautical charts and books. 

2. Planning hydrographic surveys, meteorological 

and oceanographical observations. 

3. Compilation of hydrographic and aeronautical 

publications with the exception of those 
concerning magnetism, astronomy, tides, 
meteorology, and oceanography. 

4. Notices to Mariners and Notices to Aviators 

(for correction and supplementing aero- 
nautical documents). 
The Second Division conducts business con- 
nected with the following : 

1. Actual conduct of hydrographic surveys. 

2. Preparation of original charts and hydro- 

graphic accounts. 



3. Compilation of publications bearing on ter- 

restrial magnetism. 

4. Technical education of the hydrographic ex- 

perts and assistants engaged in surve3ang 
work. 
The Third Division conducts business con- 
nected with the following: 

1. Compilation of hydrographic and aeronautical 

charts. 

2. Drawing of charts, preparation of plates, and 

printing. 

3. Technical education of personnel engaged in 

the foregoing works. 

4. Correction and supplementing of original 

plates and of publications in the custody of 
the Section. 

5. Provision, supply, exchange, distribution, and 

contribution, lending custody, and taking 
in and out of publications. 

6. Sale of publications. 

The Fourth Division conducts business con- 
nected with the following : 

1. Compilation of pubhcations bearing on nautical 

astronomy and tides. 

2. The technical education of the personnel 

engaged in astronomical and tidal calcula- 
tion. 
The Fifth Division conducts business coimected 
with the following: 

1. Actual conduct of marine meteorological and 

oceanographical observations. 

2. Researches and study of marine-meteorological 

and oceanographical phenomena. 

3. Compilation of pubhcations bearing on the 

foregoing phenomena. 

4. Technical education of the personnel engaged 

in the foregoing observations. 
The Accounts Section conducts business con- 
nected with the following: 

1. Revenue and expenditure. 

2. Purchase and sale of office supplies. 

3. Receipt, custody, and delivery of office sup- 

plies. 

4. Correspondence and transportation. 
Equipment: 

OFTICERS 

SURVEYING VESSELS DISPLACEMENT AND CREW 

KoMAHAsi 1,688 128 

K6sYU 2,270 102 

YoDO 1,450 182 

Staff: Chief Hydrographer, Kaigun Syosyo (Rear- 
Admiral) Tomisaburo Otagaki. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— JAPAN 



213 



Head of 1st Section (General Affairs; investiga- 
tion; projection and compilation) Kaigun 
Taisa (Captain) Sadakiti Sitabo. 
Head of 2nd Section (Surveys) Kaigun Taisa 

(Captain) Kanzo Matubara. 
Head of 3rd Section (Cartography and Publica- 
tions) Kaigun Taisa (Captain) Kiyosi Ku- 
sakawa. 
Head of 4th Section (Astronomical Calculations, 
research and prediction of Tide), Kaigun Taisa 
(Captain) Tosio Akiyosi, B.Sc. 
Head of 5th Section (Marine Meteorology and 
Oceanography) Kaigun Taisa (Captain) Sohei 
Tasiro. 
Head of Section of Accounts Kaigun Syukei- 
Tyflsa (Paymaster Commander) Gonzo Tokida. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: No special 

accommodations for visitors. 
Income: Estimated expenditures in 1936: Yen 

1,113,000. 
Provision for publication of results: Notices to Mari- 
ners, Translation of Foreign Sailing Directions, 
Sailing Directions for Japan, The Russian Mari- 
time Provinces, and the China Pilot. These 
together with those for Bengal, Philippine Islands, 
Borneo, the western and eastern sides of the China 
Sea, and most parts of Eastern Archipelago and 
Hawaii, 55 volumes; Ocean Passages, 1 vol.. 
Coastal Passages, 1 vol. ; the Light Lists for Japan 
and other parts of the Orient, 2 vols. ; separate 
volumes of saiHng directions for various maritime 
regulations. Tide-tables, Nautical Almanac, As- 
tronomical Navigation Tables, Distance Tables, 
List of Japanese Place Names, Hydrographic 
Bulletin (Suiro-Yoho), Bulletin of the Hydro- 
graphic Department Imperial Japanese Navy of 
which eight volumes have been issued (being 
irregular reports of studies and investigations). 

Central Meteorological Observatory of Japan ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1875. 

Location: Takehira-tyo 2, Kozimatiku, Tokyo. 

Organizatio7i to which attached: Department of 
Education. 

Purposes: General meteorological investigations 
including allied researches in oceanography, 
seismology, and terrestrial magnetism. 

Scope of activities: (1) Forecasting weather and 
printing weather charts. (2) Radio reception 
and sending of weather reports. (3') Work shops 
where instruments are made. (4) Repairing 
chronometers. (5) Solar radiation and its in- 



fluence on plankton. (6) Tidal investigations. 
(7) Seismology. (8) Terrestrial magnetic ob- 
servations. 

Equipment: M. S. Ryohu-Maru, a steel boat of 
1,200 tonnage, specially intended for the marine 
meteorological and oceanographical observations, 
is in course of construction, and will be completed 
in June, 1937. Principal dimensions: length 225 
feet, breadth 35 feet, depth 24 feet. Twin 
screws. Speed: 15 knots. 

Staff: Director Prof. T. Okada; Chief of the Fore- 
cast Division, Dr. S. Fujiwhara; Chief of the 
Tides and Radiation, Dr. R. Sekiguti. 

Income: Yen 750,000 (annual) . 

Provision for publication of results: Monthly and 
annual reports of Meteorological Observations in 
Japan; Monthly Weather Review; Geophysical 
Magazine; Bulletin; Actinometric Bulletin; Solar 
Radiation; Tide tables — Short Report of results 
of observations on solar radiation made in Japan. 
Report of Magnetic Observations; Report of 
Agricultural Meteorology; Report of Aerological 
Meteorology. 

The Fisheries Experiment Station of the 
Government-General of Chosen ('37) 

History or origin: Established on May 6, 1921. 

Location: Fusan, Chosen. 

Organization to which attached: The Government- 
General of Chosen. 

Purposes: Scientific researches on aquatic products 
for the promotion of the Fisheries. 

Scope of activities: Chosen and its adjacent waters. 

Equipment: Main building in Fusan consists of 
laboratories for (a) fishing research and the study 
of suitable fishing boats, (b) chemical and physio- 
logical researches, (c) biological and aquicultural 
researches and (d) oceanographical researches. 

Research ves.sels: (a) Misago-Maru, a steel 
motor boat of 153 tons for oceanographical ob- 
servation, (b) Otori-Maku, a wooden motor boat 
of 40 tons and (c) Hayabusa-Maru, a wooden 
motor boat of 31 tons, both for fishing researches. 
Branch Station at Chinkai for fish culture has 
(a) biological laboratory and (b) ponds for fresh 
water fish culture. 

Branch Station at Seishin for manufacturing 
industry of Sardine has (a) chemical laboratory 
and (b) factories. 

Staff: Head of the fishery department. 
Head of the chemical and physiological depart- 
ment. 



214 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Head of the biological and aquicultural depart- 
ment. 
Head of the oceanographical department. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: No provision. 

Income: 6,000 yen. 

Provision for publication of results: Bulletin of the 
Fishery Experiment Station of the Government- 
General of Chosen, and other journals. 

JAVA TO STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, 
INCLUSIVE 

East Indies 

Koninklijk Magnetisch en Meteorologisch 
Observatorium te Batavia ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1866. 

Location: Batavia, Java. 

Organization to which attached: Netherlands East 
Indian Government. 

Purposes and scope of activities: General meteorologi- 
cal and geophysical work. Also studies of sea 
water temperatures and other physical aspects of 
the sea. 

Equipment: An excellent laboratory in Batavia in 
which there is all of the necessary apparatus for 
the conduct of the work within the scope of the 
observatory. 

Staff: Director, Dr. J. Boerema; Dr. H. P. Berlage, 
Jr. Technical and clerical : 40. Maintenance and 
operation: 5. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Investigators can 
be accommodated. 

Income: Sources: State. 
Amount: f. 150,000 ('33). 

Provision for publication of results: Koninklijk 
Magnetisch en Meteorologisch Observatorium te 
Batavia, Verhandelingen. Yearbook, Seismol. 
Bulletin, Rainfall Observations. 

Laboratorium voor het Onderzoek der Zee (Labo- 
ratory for Marine Investigations) ('37) 

History or origin: Continuation of the former 
Fishery Station which was established in 1906 
with the intention of carrying out investigations 
relating to sea-fishery problems. At present 
there is a separate fishery station and the new 
laboratory is intended for purely scientific sea- 
exploration and marine studies. 

Location: Pasar ikan (fish-market), Batavia. 

Organization to which attached: Belongs to 's Lands 
Plantentuin (Botanical Gardens), Buitenzorg. 

Purposes: Scientific marine investigations. 



Scope of activities: The former director. Dr. H. C. 
Delsman, worked mainly on pelagic fish eggs and 
larvae, and later on the plankton of the Java Sea; 
coral-reef studies have been made by Dr. Verwey; 
Doctor Hardenberg has been occupied with the 
fish fauna of river mouths. 

Equipment: A laboratory, a small public aquarium, 
both situated in a small botanical garden ; possesses 
a motor-boat; an auxiliary aquarium on Isle of 
Onrust in Bay of Batavia; cruises in the Java 
Sea made on board a government steamer. 

Staff: Acting Director Dr. J. D. F. Hardenberg, 
biologist. European waiter and servants at- 
tached to the laboratory. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: One room in the 
laboratory, with about 5 working-places, is 
reserved for visiting investigators. These places 
are free. 

Income: AH costs are paid by the government. The 
available sum has been greatly reduced. 

Provision for publication of results: Results are pub- 
lished in "Treubia" the zoological periodical of 
the Botanical Gardens. 

New Zealand 

Porto Bello Marine Fisheries Investigation 
Station ('34) 

History or origin: Establishment of the station was 
first undertaken by the Otago Institute and was 
effected by means of funds raised by scientific 
societies and the New Zealand Government. It 
was formally opened in 1904. 

Location: Near Dunedin on Otago Harbor. 

Organization to which attached: Associated with the 
marine fisheries investigation of the Marine 
Department of New Zealand. 

Purposes: To study the problems of significance to 
New Zealand fisheries. 

(Scope of activities: Biological investigations, es- 
pecially those of economic significance, of con- 
siderable range, and local hydrographic work, 
especially water temperatures and local currents. 

Equipment: Indoor aquarium and large outside 
ponds; laboratory and library; fishing launch and 
gear; residences for staff. 

Staff: Chairman of the Board, Prof. W. B. Benham. 
There is at present no residential biologist. The 
Station is under the care of Mr. W. Adams. 

The Station is under the control of a Board 
appointed by the Government. The members 
are: Prof. W. B. Benham; Dr. Church; Mr. L. D. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— JAPAN, EAST INDIES, NEW ZEALAND, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 215 



Coombs; Mr. A. E. Hefford; Prof. J. Malcolm; 
Mr. J. McG. Wilkie; Mr. C. A. Wilson; Mr. W. 
George Howes, in charge of Station and its 
activities. Also acting as Honorary Secretary 
and Treasurer. Technical and clerical: 1. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Some investiga- 
tors can be accommodated, subject to arrange- 
ments made through the Hon. Secretary. 

Income: Sources: There is a grant from the Marine 
Department of New Zealand, New Zealand 
Government. 

Amount: £300 per annum. 

Provision for 'publication of results: Various scientific 
publications, especially New Zealand. 

Philippine Islands 
Bureau of Science, Philippine Islands ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1901. 

Location: Manila. 

Organization to which attached: The Department of 
Agriculture and Natural Resources. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Routine work in 
making chemical analyses, tests, and estimations 
of several different kinds; the identification of 
plants, animals, and minerals; manufacture of 
vaccines and serums; and several kinds of re- 
search. The fields of research include medical 
biology, botany, organic chemistry, inorganic 
chemistry, soils and fertilizers, geology and mines, 
food preservation, malaria and mosquito studies, 
and participation in the United States Army 
Medical Department Research Board. There 
is under the Bureau of Science a section of fisher- 
ies, and in the past, several members of the stail, 
including the paleontologist and those connected 
with the fishery section, were active in certain 
kinds of oceanographic work. 

Equipment: Offices and well-equipped laboratories 
for work of the kinds listed above. 

Staff: Director, Angel S. Arguelles. A staff with 
specialists for each kind of work. 

Income: From the Philippine Government. 

Provision for the publication of results: The Philip- 
pine Journal of Science (monthly), Monographs 
(occasional), Popular Bulletin (Occasional), Min- 
eral Resources, Annual Report. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey ('37) 

History or origin: Established in 1901. 

Location: Central office in Manila. 

Organization to which attached: Philippine Govern- 



ment and the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. 

Purposes and scope of activities: Hydrographic and 
topographic surveys and the preparation of 
nautical charts and air-way maps in the Philip- 
pine Islands, and the study of tides, currents, and 
oceanographic conditions in Philippine waters. 

Equipment: Offices and surveying vessels. An 
office and printing presses are maintained in 
Manila. In 1936 the vessel Fathometer was 
in active service. 

Staff: Officers of the Coast and Geodetic Survey are 
assigned by the director of the organization in 
Washington, D. C, for work in the Philippines. 
The Director of the Coast and Geodetic Survey 
for the Philippine Islands in 1936 was Captain 
T. J. Maher, U.S.C. and G.S. 

Income: Source: From the Government of the 
United States and the Government of the Phihp- 
pine Islands. 

Amount: For the year 1932 the total amount 
was 736,996 Filipino pesos. 

Provisions for the publication of results: The charts of 
the Philippines are published by the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey in Manila, and the Coast Pilot 
of the Philippine Islands is published in the 
United States. A revised bathymetric chart of 
the Philippines is published in Publ. Manila 
Observatory, vol. 3, illustrating art. no. 8, 1931. 

Fish and Game Administration ('37) 

History or origin: Originally this was merely a 
section in the Biological Laboratory of the 
PhiUppine Bureau of Science and continued to be 
so until 1920 when it became the Division of 
Fisheries. The present institution was created 
February 1, 1933, independent of the Bureau of 
Science by virtue of Memorandum Order No. 6 
of the Department of Agriculture and Commerce 
from the consolidation of the activities of the 
Divisions of Fisheries and Zoology of the Bureau 
of Science and the Division of Forest Fauna and 
Grazing of the Bureau of Forestry. 

Location: Bureau of Science Building, Manila, P. I. 

Organization to which attached: Department of Agri- 
culture and Commerce, Government of the 
Philippine Islands. 

Purposes: For scientific and economic research work 
relative to the fishes, sponges, and other aquatic 
resources of the Philippine Islands; for the diffu- 
sion of knowledge among the fishermen of the 
Philippine Islands; for the study, improvement, 



216 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



propagation of the fishes and aquatic resources 
most suitable for Philippine waters; for the es- 
tablishment, maintenance, and operation of ex- 
perimental stations, farms, aquariums, and fish 
culture laboratories; for giving practical instruc- 
tion in the culture of fishes and other aquatic 
resources, in the most economic and efficient 
manner of fishing, in the preservation of fish and 
other aquatic products, in the management of 
fisheries and canneries; and for all other pur- 
poses the object of which shall be to foster, 
propagate, and protect fishes, shells, sponges, 
and other aquatic resources of the Philippine 
Islands. 

Scope of activities: Dissemination, through corre- 
spondence and interviews, of information per- 
taining to fish culture, fish preservation and 
fishing methods; preparation of indorsements, 
regulatory measures and other important matters 
of the kind; care of the collections of fishes, rep- 
tiles, batrachians, birds, crustaceans, mollusks, 
and insects; systematic studies in the laboratory 
based upon the above collections; recording and 
identification of specimens in the above collec- 
tions; operation of the propagation ponds in the 
Bureau of Science grounds; maintenance of the 
experimental fish farm at Hinigaran, Occidental 
Negros; management of the aquarium; prepara- 
tion and maintenance of exhibits in all classes 
of zoology pertaining to work ; field investigations 
on fishery resources and industries, on the mi- 
gratory, spawning, and feeding habits of fishes 
and other aquatic animals, and on their distribu- 
tion and abundance; oceanographic work as time 
and facilities permit; preparation of papers for 
publication on research work conducted in the 
field and in the laboratory; issuance of hunting 
and fishing licenses; gathering of statistical data 
relative to commercial fisheries; enforcement of 
laws and regulations for the protection of fish 
and game. 

Equipjnent: Working collections of fishes, reptiles, 
batrachians, birds, crustaceans, mollusks, and 
insects. Motor launch Science I, about 30 tons 
gross, is used for survey and extension work. 
Laboratory facilities. 
Bureau of Science Library. 

Staff: Scientific: Hilario A. Roxas, Chief, Fish and 
Game Administration; Deogracias V. Villadolid; 
Heraclio R. Montalban; Florencio Talavera; 
Canute A. Manuel; Jose R. Montilla; Claro 
Martin; Guillermo Ablan; Agustin Umali. Tech- 



nical and clerical: 30. Maintenance and Opera- 
tion: 21. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Accommodation 
and facilities in the laboratory, access to the 
collections, use of the hbrary, company of mem- 
bers of the scientific staff in field investigations. 

Income: Fees authorized to be collected under 
insular fisheries of Fisheries Act No. 4003, and 
under Act No. 4005. 
About P100,000.00. 

Provision for publication of results: Scientific and 
technical papers are published in the Philippine 
Journal of Science. 

Manila Observatory ('37) 

History or origin: Founded in 1865 as Meteorological 
Observatory. 

Location: Manila. 

Organization to which attached: Philippine Jesuit 
Mission. Cooperation with Department of Agri- 
culture and Natural Resources of the Philippine 
Islands. 

Purposes: Meteorology, astronomy, seismology, and 
magnetism. 

Scope of activities: Observation and research. The 
Manila Observatory is not an oceanographic 
institution and has no means nor equipment to 
conduct any oceanographic research. It does, 
however, cooperate with other scientific institu- 
tions of the Philippines in the compilation of 
observations that may prove of value to pro- 
fessional oceanographers. 

Equipment: Meteorological, seismic, astronomical, 
and magnetic instruments. 

Staff: Scientific: Rev. Miguel Selga, S. J., Director; 
Rev. Charles E. Deppermaim, S. J. ; Rev. William 
C. Repetti, S. J.; Rev. Francis J. Heyden, S. J.; 
Rev. Bernard F. Doucette, S. J. Technical: 5. 
Maintenance and operation: 4. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: None. 

Income: Sources: Government appropriation. 
Amount: Variable as per annual budget. 

Provision for publication of results: "Publications 
of the Manila Observatory," of which volume 3 
is devoted to a series of oceanographic papers, 
consisting of 10 numbers, published in 1931, a 
report of the Philippine "Weather Bureau, Manila 
Central Observatory," is entitled, "Weather 
Observations from Ships for the year 1930" 
published in 1932. This report is published in 
compliance with an arrangement entered into by 
the directors of the Far Eastern Weather Service. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, SIAM 



217 



Puerto Galera Marine Biological Laboratory of the 
University of the Philippines ('37) 

History or origin: Through the request of Dr. Law- 
rence D. Griffin, President of the University, Dr. 
Murray Bartlett, entered into an agreement with 
Dr. R. P. Strong of the Bureau of Science to send 
a joint expedition to undertake a marine bio- 
logical survey of the Philippine waters. The 
first place visited was Puerto Galera, Mindoro, 
and a temporary station was established at this 
place in 1912. In 1924, the Board of Regents 
granted the Departments of Zoology and Botany 
authority to conduct yearly si.x weeks of field work 
for the purpose of giving summer courses. 

Location: Municipality of Puerto Galera, extreme 
northern point of Island of Mindoro (long. 120° 58' 
E., lat. 13° 31' N.), about 89 nautical miles from 
Manila, 16 nautical miles from Batangas, 17 nauti- 
cal miles from Bauan, Batangas, and 18 nautical 
miles from Calapan, the capitol of the province 
of Mindoro. The station is best accessible from 
Bauan or Batangas where motor- and sail-boats 
can easily be chartered. The University usually 
makes special arrangements with the several 
inter-island steamship companies of Manila to 
take its equipment, supplies, and personnel yearly 
direct from Manila to Puerto Galera. 

Organization to which attached: The University of 
the Philippines. 

Purposes: To provide biologists of the Philippines 
and other countries place and equipment for 
carrying out investigations on marine animals 
and plants. 

(Scope of activities: Investigations of purely biological 
problems on general physiology, embryology, 
animal behavior, ecology, experimental biology 
and systematics, and to study other problems of 
direct economic importance; to gather more data 
on the habitats, life-histories, natural enemies, 
food, et cetera, of the known edible animals. 

Equipment: The laboratory building is equipped 
with laboratory tables, light, tanks for fresh and 
sea water, chemicals, and books, as well as other 
necessary apparatus. During summer session 
(April and May) the visitors may take their 
meals in the mess ($30.00 a month) and rent a 
small hut ($5.00 a month) (Philippine pesos). 
During other months, investigators have to bring 
their own provisions and rent a small house. 
An investigator is provided by the station with 
microscope, chemicals, and other facihties com- 



mon to scientific undertakings. However, any 
visiting investigator may bring his own apparatus 
necessary for the performance of his particular 
line of research. 

Staff: Scientific: Hilario A. Roxas, Director; Leo- 
poldo S. Clemente; Felix V. Santos; Amado T. 
Feliciano; Jose S. Domantay; Miss Lucia A. 
Manikis; Miss Angela de la Paz; Jose V. Pay- 
Chiongco. Technical and clerical: 4. Main- 
tenance and operation: 5. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Every visiting 
investigator is welcome in this laboratory station. 
The visitor to Puerto Galera may take the train 
from Manila to Batangas and may take a boat 
from Batangas to Puerto Galera. The trip from 
Manila to the place of the station may take ten 
hours. 

Income: The station has no fixed appropriation, but 
obtains its necessary running expenses both from 
the College of Liberal Arts and the Summer 
School. 

Provision for publication of results: Results of work 
done in this station may be published either in 
the U. P. Natural and Applied Sciences or in the 
Philippine Journal of Science. 

SlAM 

Krom Uthoksat (Hydrographic Service of the Royal 
Siamese Navy) ('37) 

History or origin: The present Hydrographic Service 
was formerly a mere Depot of Charts and In- 
struments intended for the Navy. The difficulties 
that were experienced in maintaining an adequate 
supply of charts, all of which were purchased 
from foreign countries, early led to a recommenda- 
tion from the Naval General Staff that means for 
providing charts should be installed at the depot. 
It also became apparent that charts should be 
constructed by the Siamese in their own country. 
The survey work in Siamese waters was begun 
in the year 1856 by Master John Richards, R.B.N., 
with the assistance of Mr. G. H. Inskip and Mr. 
J. W. Reed, R.B.N., on board H.B.M.S. Saracen. 
After that time there were many foreign surveying 
parties in different parts of the Siamese waters. 
The hydrographic work in the Siamese Navy was 
initiated in 1908, and in 1913 a Hydrographic Office 
was created under the administration of the Naval 
Science Department. Up to 1912 Danish Naval 
officers were the instructors and chiefs of survey- 
ing. In 1914 two survey divisions were formed 



218 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



and directed by Danish officers. In 1915 both 
survey divisions were directed by Siamese naval 
officers, but until 1926 the work was under the 
general supervision of a Danish officer. Although 
the survey of Siamese waters has been carried 
on for more than 50 years, it was not until the 
present century that it became necessary to 
concentrate the work under the management of a 
special authority. 

After the Siamese Navy undertook the surveys 
in the Siamese waters, it was the practice to send 
the working charts to Copenhagen for final 
draughting and reproduction. The first sheet 
was published in 1914. In 1915 two Siamese 
officers were sent to Denmark, where they were 
attached to the survey work of the Hydrographic 
Department (Sokart Arkevet, Copenhagen) to 
study drawing and the construction of charts. 
Upon their return to Siam in 1917 a school to 
instruct students in the art of chart drawing and 
chart reproduction was established at the Hydro- 
graphic Office. In 1921 the first chart was 
printed in Siam. Now the Hydrographic Service 
has charge of all construction and publication of 
charts. 

In 1929 the Siamese Navy sent two of its 
officers to the United States to study hydrography 
and such allied subjects as geodesy, tide harmonic 
analysis, oceanography, meteorology, modern 
information, and instruments of this branch in 
U. S. Navy, and they visited the International 
Hydrographic Bureau. In 1932 the officers came 
back and with their chief set to work to remodel 
the organization of the office so as to cope, 
technically and financially, with the awkward 
situation caused by the general depression. 

Location: Bangkok. 

Organization to which attached: Siamese Navy. 

Purposes: To collect, digest, and issue timely 
information calculated to afford the maximum 
possible navigational safety and facility to the 
ships on the seas or to mariners on the whole. 

Scope of activities: There are sections as follows : 
Administration, Marine survey and chart con- 
struction. Lights and beacons. Maritime se- 
curity, Oceanography, and Meteorology. 

Equipment: 



Staff: Director, Nai Nava Ek (Captain-Capitaine de 

Vaisseau) Luang Samruat Vithin Smudh. 
Asst. Director, Nai Nava Tho (Comm'-Capitaine 

de Fregate) Luang Joldhan Brudhikrai. 
Chief of Section of Marine Survey and Chart 

Construction, Nai Nava Tri (Lt. Comm"'- 

Capitaine de Corvette) Luang Subhi Utakdhan. 
Chief of Section of Lights and Beacons, Nai Nava 

Tri (Lt. Comm''-Cap. de Corvette) Luang 

CholasiicLseni. 
Chief of Section of Maritime Security, Nai Nava 

Tri (Lt. Comm'-Cap. de Corvette) Luang 

Pichywari. 
Chief of Section of Oceanography, Nai Nava Tri 

(Lt. Comm'-Cap. de Corvette) Luang Thien 

Cholapratheep. 
Chief of Section of Meteorology, Nai Rua Ek. 

(Lt.-Lt. de Vaisseau) Charoon Bunnag. 
Provisions for visiting investigators: Nothing special. 
Income: The budgets of the Hydrographic Service 
from the years of 1921 were as follows: 



rBABS 


AMOUNT 


YEARS 


AMOUNT 




Ticals 




Ticals 


1921 


203,342 


1930 


176,180 


1922 


253,790 


1931 


199,400 


1923 


248,424 


1932 


146,432 


1924 


257,399 


1933 


146,202 


1925 


244,224 


1934 


177,833 


1926 


194,045 


1935 


235,920 


1927 


194,019 


1936 


219,103 


1928 


178,666 


1937 


Data are not 


1929 


190,289 




available 



SURVEYING VESSEI^ 



DISLACEMENT OFFICEHS CREW 



Pal. 

Gut. 



597 
597 



56 
56 



Provisions for publication of results: Charts, "Siamese 
Notice to Mariners" (since 1920 in both Siamese 
and English). "List of Lights in Siamese Waters", 
"Bangkok Bar Tide Tables", "Catalogue of Siamese 
Charts", "Distance Table in Siamese Waters" and 
"Year Books". 

Siberia 
The Kamchatka Fisheries Station ('35) 

Location: Petropavlovsk, Avatcha Bay, Kamchatka. 

Organization to which attached: The AU-Union Scien- 
tific Research Institution of Marine Fisheries 
and Oceanography. 

Purposes: To study comprehensively and in detail 
the waters adjacent to the Kamchatka Pen- 
insula. 

(Scope of activities: The site of the station is very 
advantageous for making stationary observations 
in great depths in the open ocean. Within a few 
tens of miles from Avatcha Bay, the depths of 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— SIAM, SIBERIA, STRAITS SETTLEMENT AND 219 

FEDERATED MALAY STATES, EGYPT 



the open ocean exceeds 4000 meters. The sea 
remains in this region, free of ice during the entire 
winter. Preliminary explorations made in 1932 
near the station have revealed a large benthonic 
fauna. As soon as the new vessel now under 
construction, has been put into commission, it 
will make a regular passage four times a year on 
the latitude of Avatcha Bay. This station since 
1932 has conducted oceanographic and biological 
researches jointly with the Kamchatka section 
of the Pacific Scientific Institute of Fisheries. 
The latter institute is especially occupied with 
the study of the supply of commercial fishes 
of the Kamchatka region. 

Equipment: The station owns a motor boat of the 
Japanese type (Kawasaki) equipped for work to 
a depth of 300 meters. The construction of a 
motor vessel of 166 tons displacement, to work 
to a depth of 4000 meters is underway. The 
station also uses fishery trawlers. 

Staff: Director, P. Ushakov; Senior Specialist Hy- 
drologist, K. Vinogradov; Junior Hydrologist, 
M. Beckman; Chemist, 0. Fishman; Hydrologist, 
Streeshin. 

The Pacific Institute of Fisheries and Oceanog- 
raphy ('35) 

History or origin: August, 1925, established under 
the direction of Prof. K. M. Derjugin, owing to 
decline of Far East salmon fisheries. 

Location: Six km. from Vladivostok, near Ussuri 
Bay (which is free from ice during winter). 

Organization to which attached: The All-Union Scien- 
tific Research Institution of Marine Fisheries 
and Oceanography. 

Purposes: Research in hydrology, hydrobiology of 
Japan, Okhotsk, Bering Seas, and rivers; study 
of fishes of those basins ; investigation of Russian 
Far Eastern fisheries, propagation of fishes, 
especially salmon. 

Scope of activities: Fishery division, hydrobiological 
division, fish culture. 

Equipment: 1 large building which contains lab- 
oratories, mu.seum, aquarium, library, rooms for 
specialists; 2 hatcheries at the disposal of the 
Station; 17 temporary field stations, research 
station; 1 motor boat. 

Staff: 45 persons, scientific, technical, adminis- 
trative. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: Laboratory and 



aquarium are free to all interested in marine 
biological and oceanographical research. 
Provision for the publication of results: Hope to 
publish in near future (1926). 

Straits Settlement and Federated Malay 

States 

Department of Fisheries, Straits Settlements and 

Federated Malay States ('36) 

History or origin: For an account of the organization 
for the year 1931 see publication cited below.* 
Since then there have been further developments, 
but detailed information on them is not available. 
It was intended to establish a laboratory and 
aquarium and to acquire a vessel for work at sea. 

Location: Singapore. 

Organization to which attached: The Governments of 
the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay 
States. 

Purpose: Fisheries research. 

Scope of activities: Statistics, imports and exports, 
fishery development (including preservation and 
marketing of fish), studies of the various economi- 
cally valuable fish, shell-fish, and turtles. Ocean- 
ographic work as related to fisheries is planned. 

Equipment: As stated above a laboratory, aquarium, 
and fishery-research vessel are planned. 

Staff: Officer in charge, W. Birtwistle; Several 
fishery officers; Chief clerk and other clerks. 

Income: For 1931, 60,029.31 Straits dollars, divided 
between the Straits Settlements and the Federated 
Malay States. 

Provisions for publication: Annual reports, other- 
wise none. 

INSTITUTIONS ON THE RED SEA AND 
IN INDIA 

Egypt 

The Marine Biological Station of the University of 
Egypt ('37) 

History or origin: Established in December, 1930. 

Location: The name is given as "Hurghada" on 
maps. This is incorrect but better known to 
Europeans. On the edge of the shore reef 5 
kilometers (3 miles) north of the camp of the Anglo 
Egyptian Oilfields, six miles from steamer piers. 
Ghardaqa is in Lat. 27° 16' N., south of the 
entrance to the Gulf of Suez, on the African side. 

' Birtwistle, W., Annual Report on the Fisheries Depart- 
ment, Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States for 
the year 1931, pp. 37, Singapore, 1932. 



220 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Organization to which attached: The University of 

Egypt, subsidized by the State. 
Purposes: (1) Research, biological in the wide sense 
including physiology and chemistry, coral reef 
problems, and oceanography. 

(2) Instruction. It is proposed to give general 
instruction to senior students of the University 
and possibly to secondary school teachers. 
Scope of activities: Physical, chemical, and bio- 
logical oceanography of the Red Sea. As the 
Red Sea is still so imperfectly known biological 
exploration and the formation of a reference 
collection are likely to take a considerable amount 
of time in the next few years. For instance, to 
mention only the groups with which I have some 
acquaintance, new spp. of Polychaeta and a 
striking new coral have already appeared, though 
collecting has only just begun. Examination of 
living specimens of, e.g., the soft corals is likely to 
reform the systematics of several groups. The 
occurrence of Syllis remosa Mc.I. in shallow 
water in the Red Sea is another indication of the 
necessity for this preliminary survey. 
Equipment: All buildings in wood and asbestos, 
single story. One laboratory of four rooms total, 
area 19 m x 5 m, and one sorting room, 6 m x 6 m, 
on reef edge, connected with shore by dry stone 
pier 150 m long and one additional store 6 m x 
5 m on pier. 

Office Building, 25 m x 5 m, containing 2 office 
rooms, director's workroom and large preparation 
room. 

Three rest houses for research workers. 

Bungalows for director, clerk, and engineer. 
Another has been added this year (1936) for a 
scientific assistant. 

5 huts for sailors, drivers, etc. 

2 garages, general store, 2 fuel stores, 1 net 
and boat store, workshop, and engine-house. 

1 launch, open 35 ft. x 8 ft. 6 in., 32 hp. paraffin 
engine, with winch for nets, winch for water 
bottles, Lucas sounder, to work up to 500 fathoms. 
1 sailing boat, 30 feet long, 2 dinghies, and 2 
canoes. 

There is no aquarium and nothing in the way 
of a public exhibition, the .station being intended 
purely for research. An outside tank, 10 m x 2 m 
is set up on the seaward side of the laboratory 
and a windmill and pump will be added to it next 
spring. On failure of wind the electrically driven 
pump supplying the laboratory will also supply 
this tank. 



Library. The library has now all the Red Sea 
and Indian Ocean expedition reports, monographs 
on Red Sea fauna, etc., and a large number of 
separate papers. A library building, museum, 
etc., are to be built next summer, offices also to 
be moved onto reef and the present office building 
used for work on the Mabahith results. The 
new buildings will contain laboratories for Director 
and as.sistants, leaving the four original rooms en- 
tirely for visitors. The chemical laboratory will 
probably be moved to the shore building thus 
making five rooms for visitors. 

Staff: Consists at present of Director Cyril Cross- 
land, A. H. Gohar, Assistant, A. H. Nast second 
Assistant (temporary), clerk, storekeeper, me- 
chanic, sailors, and drivers. A scientific assistant 
will soon be appointed, and a chemist of the 
Faculty of Science will undertake water analyses. 
An engineer is to be appointed soon. On com- 
pletion of the station other scientific staff may be 
appointed, permanently or temporarily. 

Provisions for visiting investigators: 4 visitors can 
be accommodated, or 6 with a little crowding. 

Income: The station is on the budget of the Uni- 
versity. 

Provision for the publication of results: Publication 
of the results by the Government has been 
approved by the Finance, and details will be 
settled shortly. 

Supplementary note: 

A. The Red Sea affords the most northerly 
extension of the Indo-Pacific fauna. This station 
is, therefore, the most accessible point at which 
the coral and other faunas of the tropics of the 
old world can be studied. It is hoped that this 
will enable the University of Egypt to produce 
notable contributions to tropical ecology, et 
cetera, and coral reef problems, and also that 
European and American Universities will be able 
to assist in the wide field thus opened up. 

B. The fauna in the immediate neighborhood 
of the station is extremely rich. There are three 
lines of coral reef between us and the open sea, 
separated by water of average depths of three, ten, 
and twenty fathoms. Outside is a large area 40 
to 50 fathoms deep, the hundred fathom line 
being about 6 miles from the station. Reefs two 
or three hundred yards from the laboratory are as 
rich in corals as any I have seen elsewhere. 

C. Having clear water right at the end of the 
jetty simplifies and cheapens the installation very 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— EGYPT, INDIA 



221 



greatly. There is no need for the usual storage 
tanks and elaborate filters, so pure water can be 
supplied direct in unlimited quantities from the 
sea via a small delivery tank. 

In order to have a pure water supply in the 
laboratory, and avoid the introduction of unknown 
quantities in experiments, the water will come 
into contact with no metal. The pump (elec- 
trically driven) is lined with stoneware, all pipes 
are of celluloid and the tank of concrete. Com- 
pressed air is also supplied. Gas for ovens, et 
cetera, is installed from Bubagas cylinders. 

D. Each room is intended to be complete in 
itself, the storage of live specimens to be under 
the control of each worker; large specimens can 
be kept in the tank outside or in cages afloat in 
the harbor. 

E. The station has the inestimable advantage 
of its own boat harbor in which apparatus, ex- 
perimental or for storage of live stock, can be left 
secure from interference. This allows us to dis- 
pense with much of the tank and circulating 
water apparatus usually necessary, and makes 
possible experiments which cannot be undertaken 
in a public harbor. 

F. The buildings are all of inexpensive con- 
struction, but visitors will find them perfectly 
comfortable at any time of the year. In a mari- 
time climate insulation, however desirable, is 
entirely subordinate to movement of the air, and 
all buildings have been so placed that the wind 
can be admitted, to the extent desired, at all 
times. Further we are some hundred miles from 
the area of low pressure and high humidity which 
has given the Red Sea its reputation for unbear- 
able heat in summer. I can testify to the differ- 
ence from my own experience. 

(Signed) C. Crossland 

INDIA 
Marine Survey OflBce, British India ('37) 

Location: Bombay. 

Staff: Surveyor in charge, Commander L. Sander- 
son, R. I. N. 

Assistant surveyors, Lieut. Commander J. 
Ryland; Lieut. Comm. J. W. Jefford, R. I. N. 

Equipment: 



SURVEYING VESSEL 

Investigator 



DI-gPLACEMENT OFKrcEItS CREW 

.. 1,985 G 108 



The Zoological Survey of India ('37) 

History of origin: Established in 1916. 

Location: The Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Organization to which attached: Government in- 
stitute. 

Purposes: The function of the Zoological Survey of 
India is to investigate the fauna of India and 
Indian Seas. 

Scope of activities: Care and maintenance of the 
zoological and anthropological collections of the 
Government of India. The identification of 
specimens and the investigations of the ecology 
and bionomics of the Indian fauna. The main- 
tenance of the zoological and anthropological 
galleries, open to the public, in the Indian 
Museum. 

Equipment: The Investigator, on the retirement 
of Maj. R. W. G., Hing.ston, I.M.S., from the 
post of Surgeon-Naturalist in 1926, ceased to 
carry out oceanographic work and marine investi- 
gations. The post of Surgeon-Naturalist, that 
had always been an Indian Medical Service ap- 
pointment, was abolished and in its place the post 
of Naturalist to the Marine Survey of India was 
created and was embodied in the Zoological 
Survey of India, but owing to financial stringency 
this post has never been filled. 

Staff: Dr. Baini Prashad, F.R.S.E., is the Director; 
4 As.sistant Superintendents (zoological) ; 1 Assist- 
ant Superintendent (anthropological); Naturalist 
to the Marine Survey of India (vacant). 

Provision for publication of results: Records of the 
Indian Museum, Memoirs of the Indian Museum. 
Prior to its conversion into the Zoological Survey 
of India in 1916 this department formed the 
zoological and anthropological section of the 
Indian Museum and the trustees of the Indian 
Museum published a large number of compre- 
hensive monographs dealing especially with the 
collections of the Marine Survey of India. 

The following statement on the marine work of the 
Zoological Survey of India was made by Dr. Sunder 
Lai Hora: 

The curators of the Museum of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, for example McClelland and 
Blyth, were mainly interested in the study of 
the freshwater and terrestrial fauna of India. 
With the establishment of the Indian Museum, 
and more especially after the creation of the 
post of the Surgeon-Naturalist, more and more 



222 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



interest was taken in the study of the marine 
fauna of India, as well as in the real oceano- 
graphical work. The large number of mono- 
graphs and reports published from the Indian 
Museum on the marine animals shows the extent 
of the faunistic work accomplished by the suc- 
cessive Surgeon-Naturalists; while Lt. Col. R. B. S. 
Sewell's oceanographic monographs in the 
Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal reveal 
extensive data collected over a number of years. 
Though a certain amount of faunistic work has 
been done by other individuals and institutions, 
the real oceanographical work has been done by 
the Surgeon-Naturalists on board the Investi- 
gator. 

Since the establishment of the Zoological 
Survey of India in 1916 attention, apart from the 
work of successive Surgeon-Naturalists, has been 
paid mainly to the freshwater and terrestrial 
fauna of India. Dr. S. W. Kemp, however, made 
large collections of marine animals in the 
Andamans, and at Goa, Kilakarai, Madras, and 
Vizagapatam in India. Other members of the 
Survey have also made collections at Karachi, 
Puri, Vizagapatam, Tuticorin, Krusadai, and the 
Andamans. The results of these investigations 
are embodied in a number of papers by several 
authors. 

The late Dr. N. Annandale and Dr. S. W. Kemp 
started observations on the peculiar fauna that 
is found in the estuarinc and brackish waters 
of India. As early as 1907, Annandale began to 
describe the fauna of the brackish pools at Port 
Canning. Kemp's account of the fauna of the 
Matlah River is of special interest in this con- 
nection. Both Annandale and Kemp made a 
comprehen.sive survey of the Chilka Lake, a large 
stretch of brackish water, and showed the adapta- 
bility of animals to withstand a great variation 
in the range of salinity. To compare his results 
with other similar lakes in Asia, Annandale made 
a tour of the Far East and studied the fauna and 
the conditions governing animal life in Tale Sap, 
Siam, Lake Biwa in Japan, and Lake Tai Hu in 
China. Other members of the Zoological Survey 
of India have .studied the fauna of the Salt Lakes, 
Calcutta, and of the Cochin Backwaters with in- 
teresting results. Most of the work of the Survey 
is of a systematic nature, but extensive biological 
and ecological observations were made in all cases, 
though in no case were up-to-date limnological 



investigations carried out. Mention may also be 
made of the valuable collections from the Sand- 
heads received from the Pilot Service. 

Recently, valuable Trochus and Turbo beds 
were found in the Andamans, and to establish 
the fisheries on a proper scientific basis an officer 
of the Zoological Survey has been put in charge of 
these fisheries. Besides his usual work in con- 
nection with the fisheries this officer and his 
assistant make collections of the marine animals. 
The results obtained so far have been extremely 
valuable. 

For a number of years the Zoological Survey has 
been feeling very keenly the necessity of a marine 
biological station in Indian waters. Proposals 
were submitted to the Government for establish- 
ing a station at Port Blair in the Andamans, but 
without any success. Later a station at Karachi 
was suggested with a view to train young men from 
the universities as well as to look after the coastal 
fisheries, but the scheme is held up for financial 
reasons. There is, however, a small marine 
laboratory of the Madras Fisheries Department 
at Krusadai and at present efforts are being made 
to have a marine biological station at Bombay. 

Ennur Biological Station ('37) 

History or origin: Opened in 1921 by the Madras 
Fisheries Department for the supply of biological 
specimens to schools and colleges. 

Location: On the sea-front close to a back-water 
about 18 miles north of Madras on the Madras 
and Southern Maharatta Railway. 

Organization to lohich attached: Madras Fisheries 
Department. 

Purpose: Supply of biological specimens to mu- 
seums, colleges and schools, and aiding research 
workers by procuring collections for them. 

Scope of activities: Preparation of museum exhibits, 
collection tours. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory; 1 boat; edible oyster beds 
in the Ennur back-water, in the Puhcat lake, 
and at Gokulapalle. 

Staff: Technical: Mr. S. Ramaswami Ayyangar, 
Research Assistant; Mr. B. Eraser, Laboratory 
assistant. Maintenance: 1 fieldman. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Three seats. 

Income: Source: Sale of zoological specimens. 
Amount: About Rs 2,000 annually. 

Provision for publication of results: In the publica- 
tions of the Madras Fisheries Department. 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— INDIA 



223 



Krusadai Biological Station ('37) 

History or origin: Krusadai Island was acquired in 
1916 from the Rajah of Ramnad by the Govern- 
ment to serve as a Biological Station. 

Location: Krusadai Island in the Gulf of Mannar, 
close to Pamban Railway Station on the Indo- 
Ceylon Railway. 

Organization to which attached: Madras Fisheries 
Department. 

Purpose: Fishery research with special reference to 
Pearl and Chank Fisheries. 

Scope of activities: Collection and analysis of plank- 
ton, collection of data regarding various economic 
fisheries of the neighborhood, collection and iden- 
tification of various food fish, the maintenance of 
a daily record of hydrographical observations 
including the collection of surface samples of sea 
water, studies of live fish and other marine or- 
ganisms, pearl fishery research, studies of chanos 
culture. 

Equipment: Laboratory, aquarium tanks, two fish 
ponds for cultivating Gambusia (Barbadoes Mil- 
lions), a mosquito larvecidal fish; 1 boat; 1 
canoe. 

Stajf: Assistant Biologist, Dr. D. W. Devanesan, 
M.A., Ph.D., D.I.C.; Research Assistant, S. T. 
Varadarajan, M.A. ; 1 laboratory attendant; 2 
boatmen. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Six places. 

The Madras Aquarium ('37) 

History or origin: Opened on October 21, 1909. 
Location: Sandy sea beach (Marina Beach), near 

the Presidency College, Madras. 
Organization to which attached: Madras Fisheries 

Department. 
Purpose: To provide amusement to the public; 

to study the habits of live sea-fish. 
Scope of activities: Exhibiting live-fish in Aquaria; 
exhibiting delicate marine organisms such as her- 
mit crabs, sea crabs, and sea-anemones; analysis 
of samples of .sea-water. 
Equipment: Aquaria for marine fishes supplied with 
sea-water from overhead tanks; a turtle pond; a 
gold fish pond; laboratory; restaurant. 
Staff: Scientific: Director of Fisheries, Dr. B. 
Sundara Raj, M.A., Ph.D.; Assistant biologist; 
Dr. D. W. Devanesan, M.A., Ph.D., D.I.C.; 
Personal assistant to the director, Dr. M. 
Ramaswami Naidu, B.A., Ph.D. 



Technical: Mr. M. K. Giriappa, laboratory assist- 
ant. 
Maintenance: 3 keepers and one peon. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Three seats. 

Income. Source : Aquarium gate collections. 
Amount: About Rs 7,000 per annum. 

Provision for publication of results: In the publica- 
tions of the Madras Fisheries Department. 

Madras Fisheries Department 

History or origin: In April, 1907, the Government 
accepted the proposal of Sir F. A. Nicholson for the 
initiation of a small Bureau of Fisheries for Madras. 

Location: Madras Presidency (with Headquarters 
at Madras). 

Organization to which attached: The Government of 
Madras. 

Purposes: To introduce improved methods of fish- 
ing ; to improve methods of manufacture in existing 
fishing industries, and to introduce new industries; 
and to work for the socio-economic betterment of 
the fishing population. 

Scope of activities: Oceanographical research so far 
as it relates to the Department and administration 
of the Fisheries of the Madras Presidency. 

Equipjnent: (1) Krusadai Fishery Research Station, 
Gulf of Manner. (2) West Hill Fishery Research 
Station, South Malabar. (3) Ennur Fisheries 
Station (near Madras) for supply of biological 
specimens. (4) Marine Aquarium (Madras) with 
a small Fishery Laboratory attached to it. (5) 
Library of Fishery Literature. 

Vessels: 
Lady Nicholson — motor schooner; built in 1913 at 
Calcutta; original cost Rs 115,000; gross tonnage 86 
tons; 131 horse-power; speed 8.14 knots;length 107 feet, 
breadth 24 feet. Employed for the inspection of pearl- 
banks. 

Sea Scout — motor launch; built in 1923 in England; 
original cost Rs 37,000; gross tonnage 20 tons; 40 
horse-power, speed 8.66 knots; length 48 feet 6 inches, 
breadth 9 feet. Employed for towing pearl and chank 
fishing boats. 

Leverett — motor launch; built in 1917 at Cochin; 
original cost Rs 7,000; gross tonnage 10 tons; 26-30 
horse-power; speed 10 knots; length 28 feet 7 inches, 
breadth 8 feet. Employed for towing pearl and chank 
fishing boats. 

Pearl — motor launch; built in 1909 by Dan Motor and 
Co., Ipswich; original cost Rs 3,847; gross tonnage 5 
tons; 7 horse-power; speed 4.5 knots; length 25 feet 3 
inches, breadth 7 feet 2 inches. Emploj'ed for towing 
pearl and chank fishing boats but at present disabled. 



224 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Staff: Director, Dr. B. Sundara Raj, M.A., Ph.D., 
Oceanography. 
Assistant Biologist, Dr. D. W. Devanesan, M.A., 

Ph.D., D.I.C., Marine Zoology. 
Personal Assistant to the Director of Fisheries, 
Dr. M. Ramaswamy Naidu, B.A., Ph.D., 
Oceanography. 
Provision for visiting investigators: Three to six work- 
ers can be accommodated in each of the labora- 
tories mentioned under Equipment. 
Income: Sources: Fish curing yards, fishery rentals, 
pearl and chank fisheries, aquarium gate collec- 
tions and zoological specimen supply, tanur 
productions, oyster supply, Nilgiri Fisheries, 
fishing license. 
Amount: Rs. 380,500. 
Provision for 'publication of results: Fish Statistics, 
Madras Fisheries Bulletin, Trawler's Reports, 
Bulletin on Marketable Fish, Bulletin on Pearl 
Fisheries, other publications relating to Madras 
Fisheries. 

Meteorological Department, Government of 
India ('34) 

Location: Central Office, Poona near Bombay. 
Organization to which attached: Government of India. 
Staff: Director-General of Observatories, Dr. C. W. 
B. Normand. 

In the Indian Ocean the meteorological phe- 
nomena are of so great influence on the ocean that 
a memorandum entitled, "Brief Notes on Marine 
Meteorological Work undertaken by the Indian 
Meteorological Department" prepared by Doctor 
Normand is quoted in full. It is as follows: 
Storm Warning for Ports and Shipping: 

Whenever a storm or a disturbance exists in the 
Indian seas, suitable visual warning signals are 
hoisted at such ports on the coasts as are likely to 
be affected by the disturbance. The Meteorologi- 
cal Department keeps Port Officers supplied with 
the latest information with respect to all disturban- 
ces, and ships in port apply to them for information 
to supplement the storm signals. In addition to 
the regular ports on the west coast and on the 
Bay of Bengal there are some river ports and River 
Police Stations and a number of District Police 
Stations which have to be warned in connection 
with disturbed weather at the head of the Bay of 
Bengal. Of the ports on the Bay of Bengal some 
are provided with additional "locality signals" 
which indicate the particular areas in which weather 



is disturbed. The details of these arrangements 
are described in this department's publication 
entitled, "Code of Storm Warning Signals for use 
at Indian Ports." 

Shipping at sea is also supplied with the latest 
weather information bymeans of wireless bulletins, 
which briefly describe the position, development in 
intensity, probable movement of storms whenever 
any exist, or describe the general weather situation 
in the sea areas. The issues, which are ordinarily 
twice daily, are increased in disturbed or stormy 
weather to three or six times a day. When neces- 
sary, further messages are broadcasted at interven- 
ing times also. The radio stations at Bombay, 
Karachi, and Aden serve the Arabian Sea area, and 
those at Calcutta, Rangoon, and Madras serve the 
Bay of Bengal area; the wireless station at Matara 
serves both areas. The details of the arrange- 
ments for broadcasting meteorological bulletins to 
ships at sea and for ships to transmit by wireless 
their weather messages to the coastal radio stations 
are fully explained in this department's publica- 
tion named, "Indian Ship's Weather Code." 

The warnings to ports and shipping in the 
Arabian Sea against the approach of cyclonic 
storms, or of bad weather is done from the head- 
quarters office at Poona, while similar warnings for 
disturbances in the Bay of Bengal are issued by 
the Meteorological Office at Alipore, Calcutta. 
Collection of Marine Meteorological data: 

Coded wireless weather messages from ships at 
sea constitute the chief source of marine data 
available for all purposes and, in supplement to the 
telegraphic observations from coast stations, they 
are essential in the maintenance of the warning 
system for ports and shipping at sea. 

Another important source of marine meteorolog- 
ical data is the extracts from steamer's weather logs 
collected by the marine clerks of this department 
in Calcutta and Bombay, and sent from some 
steamers direct. Two log forms are in use — one 
for use during ordinary weather and the other, the 
pink form, for use during disturbed weather — and 
are designed to secure the collection of full marine 
meterological data for purposes of later study. 
The port authorities at Rangoon also help in the 
collection of these extracts by allowing the ob- 
servers of the Time Ball and Tidal Observatory 
of the Port Commissioners to copy or collect ship's 
weather logs. Occasionally, in special cases, logs 
of steamers with experience of disturbed weather 
are collected at Madras; and the Colombo Port 



CATALOGUE OF INSTITUTIONS— INDIA 



225 



authorities also help this department similarly, 
when requested. The data thus obtained are en- 
tered on weather charts, and are used for reference 
in the storm-warning work of the department, in 
the preparation of accounts of the storms of the 
year for publication in the India Weather Review 
(Annual Summary), in the special studies of indi- 
vidual storms — their causes of development, move- 
ment, recurvature and dissipation — and for gen- 
eral climatological study of the Indian Sea areas. 
This work is being aided, slowly but steadily, by 
lending meteorological instruments to ships and by 
obtaining from the steamers meteorological logs 
and the readings of the instrument lent. 

Other non-recurring duties: 

In addition to the duties mentioned above, the 
department seeks generally to maintain contact 
with mercantile shipping interests. It has ren- 
dered all possible help in the marine meteorological 
training of thecadetsof the I.M.M.T.S. Dufferin 
by examining the meteorological essays written by 
the cadets in meteorological subjects and by giving 
a meteorological prize annually to the best candi- 
date, by preparing for the cadets weather chart exer- 
cises for Indian areas, and by occasional lectures on 
board the training ship on meteorological subjects. 
Meteorological data for Indian Sea areas are sup- 
plied whenever required to the International 
Meteorological Committee for their occasional In- 
ternational publications on marine meteorology 
and for preparing charts, et cetera, by them. 

Publications: 

From time to time the department has published 
atlases and books useful to those interested in 
marine meteorology, such as Eliot's "Handbook 
of Cyclonic Storms in the Bay of Bengal" and 
the "Cyclone Memoirs," pts. 1-5, and Dallas' 
"Meteorological Atlas of the Indian Seas." Some 
of the publications issued in recent years are : 

1. Atlas of Storm Tracks in the Bay of Bengal— C. W. B. 

Normand. 

2. Atlas of Storm Tracks in the Arabian Sea — C. W. B. 

Normand. 

3. A brochure on Winds, Weather, and Currents on the 

coasts of India and the Laws of Storms — S. Basa. 



Results of recent investigations on storms of the 
Indian seas have appeared in the following scientific 
articles: 

Structure and Movement of Cyclones in the Indian Seas. 
S. C. Roy and A. K. Roy (Beitrage Zur Physik der 
Freien Atmosphare pp. 224-234, Vol. XVI, 1930). 

Scientific Notes. Vol. Ill, No. 18. The structure of the 
Madras Storm of January 1929. K. R. Ramanathan 
and A. A. Narayana Aiyar. 

Scientific Notes. Vol. Ill, No. 22. The Structure 
and Movement of a Storm in the Bay of Bengal during 
the period 13th to 19th November 1928. K. R. 
Ramanathan. 

Scientific Notes. Vol. Ill, No. 29. The Bengal Cyclone 
of 1919. V. Doraiswamy Iyer. 

Scientific Notes. Vol. IV, No. 34. A study of Two 
Premonsoon Storms in the Bay of Bengal and a Com- 
parison of their structure with that of the Bay Storms 
in the Winter Months. K. R. Ramanathan and H. C. 
Banerji. 

Scientific Notes. Vol. IV, No. 39. A study of the 
Structure of the Bay Storm of November 1926. Sob- 
hag Mai and B. N. Desai. 

Recent Investigations and Movement of Tropical 
Storms in Indian Seas — C. W. B. Normand. Gerlands 
Beitrage zur Geophysik, vol. 34, 1931, pp. 223-243. 

West HUl Biological Station ('37) 

History or origin: Opened in 1921 for marine fisheries 
research by the Madras Fisheries Department. 

Location: Calicut, Malabar Coast. 

Organization to which attached: Madras Fisheries De- 
partment. 

Purpose: Fishery research and compilation of fishery 
statistics. 

Scope of activities: Plankton investigation, sardine 
and other fishery investigations, hydrographical 
investigations. 

Equipment: 1 laboratory; 1 canoe. 

Staff: Scientific: Assistant Biologist, Dr. D. W. 
Devanesan, M.A., Ph.D., D.I.C. 
Technical: Research Assistant, Mr. V. John, B.A. 
Maintenance and operation: 1 peon, 1 watchman, 
2 boatmen, 1 laboratory attendant. 

Provision for visiting investigators: Three seats. 

Income: Nil. 

Provision for publication of results: In the publica- 
tions of the Madras Fisheries Department.