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u SbcUFFE COLLEGE UBRAIffi 



VOMAN'S ARCHIVES 

Gift of 

Or. Julia Braon-Togeliteln 

Scliletii<9«r Lilwary 



VOL. I. 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 
OF WOMEN OF 1899 



Edited by 
THE COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN 

l^resident 



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International 
Council of Women 

REPORT OF TRANSACTIONS 

OF 

XCbe Second (Ultuinquennial Aeetina 

HELD IN 

LONDON, JUL V 1899 



^ 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN 

Retiring President 



i 



LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN 
PATERNOSTER SQUARE. 1900 



I 



CONTENTS 



iNTBODCcmoN by The Oocktjess of Aberdeen, Retiring President 
List of Officebs and Official Delegates . 



Time Table 



List of Congress Committees and Sub-Committees 



Mektino of the Executive Committee 



PoBUc MEErnNG OF Welcome 



Pbbsidential Address 



GBXKnNOS FROM OFFICERS AND DELEGATES . 



PAGE 
1 

11 

14 
18 
27 
44 
45 
53 



FIRST BUSINESS SESSION OF THE QUINQUEN- 
NIAL MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
COUNCIL. 

Report : Quinquennial Report ..... 85 



JUparta: Mrs Fannie Humphrets Gakfney (United States) 
„ Mrs Willoughbt Cummings {Canada) 
Fran Marie Stritt {Germany) 
Fru Anna Hibrta-Retzius {Sweden) 
Lady Battebsra {Great Britain) 



»♦ 



*i 



tf 



93 

96 

101 

105 

108 



IX 



CONTENTS 



SECOND BUSINESS SESSION OF THE QUINQUENNIAL 
MEETING OF THE INTEKNATIONAL COUNCIL. 



Reports: Mra D. E. Aruitaoe {New South Wales) 
Fru Chablotte Norrie (Denmark) 
Miss Martina O. Kramers {Holland) 
Mrs Sidney Webb {Nexo Zealand) 
Ta>smania ..... 
Baroness Alexandra Gripbnbero {Finland) 
Mile. Marie Popelin {Belgium) 
Mile. Camille Vidart {Svntzerland) 
Mrs Orawshat {Italy) 
Dr KosAKBViTCH Stephanofskaia {Russia) . 
Frau Hainisoh {Austria) 

Mme. BoGELOT and Mile. Sara Monod {France) 
Froken Gin a Krog {Nortcay) 
Mrs Flora Annie Steel {India) 

Victoria, South Australia, West Australia and Queetisland 
Mrs Stewart {South Africa) 
Mrs Nixon {Cape Tovm) 
Doctor Cecilia Grierson {Arge^itine Republic) 
Mrs Mountford {Palestine) . 
Madame Shbn {China) 
Mrs Sewall {Persia) 



PAGB 

116 
118 
121 
125 
127 
128 
128 
128 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
132 
132 
133 
137 
141 
146 
146 
147 



Report of Committee on Nominations 



Afternoon Meeting op Council 



Private Meeting of Council 



147 
151 
165 



THIRD BUSINESS SESSION OF THE QUINQUENNIAL 
MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL CON- 
GRESS OF WOMEN 

Election of International Officers, and other Businks.s 



166 
173 



CONTENTS XI 

PAGE 

FOURTH AND FINAL BUSINESS SESSION OF THE 
QUINQUENNIAL MEETING OF THE INTER- 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN . .174 

Ahkndmrmts to Constitution, Resolutions and other Business 175 



Farbwkll Luncheon at Cassiobubt Park . .195 

Mebtino of the Executive Committee .... 199 
Meeting of the Executive Committee .204 

PUBLIC MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL ARBITRA- 
TION 213 



CONFERENCE HELD BY THP: INTERNATIONAL 

COUNCIL OF WOMEN. 

Remarks by The Countess of Aberdeen .... 245 

Okqanisation as a Factor in the Dkvelopmknt of Modern 

Social Life, by Mrs May Wright Skwall . 246 

Greetings from Italy by Dr Maria Montkssori . . 255 

The Housing of Educated Working Women, by Mr Gilbert 

Parker ....... 258 



Financial Report of the International Congress op Women, 

by Mrs Bedford Fenwick .... 274 

Report on the Hospitality Arrangements for the International 

Council and Congress, by Mrs Mackenzie Davidson . 283 

The Entertainments of the Congress, by Mrs Arthur Scaife . 286 

Report on the Work of the Stewards, by 'MIbb Bairdsmith, Lady 

Edmund Talbot and Miss Fortescur . 292 



Xll 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Special Rxligious Sxbvices held dubiko the Congress 296 

Devotional MEanNos .317 

List of Eleoted Offioxbs of Intbenational Cocnoil for Quin- 
quennial Term, beginning July 1899 . 320 

List of Federated National Councils and their Officers 320 

List of Honorary Vice-Presidents of the International 

Council ....... 323 



Constitution of the International Council 325 



Standing Orders for the Use of the Exeoutivb 328 



Standing Orders for the Use of Council 331 



General Information about Congress Arrangements 338 



INDEX ........ 343 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Group of Officers, Delegates and Honorary Vice-Presidents 
OF THE International Council of Women {Photo, taken by 

Frontispiece 



Cole Watford), 

Countess of Aberdeen, President, . 

Mrs May Wright Sewali., Vice-President, . 

Baroness Alexandra Gripbnberg, Treasurer, 

Madame Maria Martin, Recording Secretary^ 

Miss Teresa F. Wilson, Corresponding Secretary, 

Madame Shen, Vice-President for China, 

Madame Bogelot, Vice-President for France, . 

Mrs Willoughby Cummings, Acting Recording 
Secretary, 

Mrs F. Humphreys Gaffney, President NX.W, 
of United StcUes, 

Miss Susan B. Anthony, Official Delegate N. C. fV, 
of United States, 



facingpage 



»» 



Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, 

Mrs Boomer, Acting President N, C IV, of Canada, . 

Mrs Frank Gibbs, Oficial Delegate N.C.IV, of 
Canada, ...... 

Frau Anna Simson, Acting President N.CIV. of 
Gertnamy, ...... 

Frau BlEBER-BOBHM, Official Delegate of Germany, . 

Frau Marie Stritt, 



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44 
53 
67 
58 
60 
70 
73 

82 

93 

94 
94 
96 

96 

101 
101 
101 



xui 



XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fru Hierta-Retzius, President of N.C.IV, of Sweden ^ facing page 104 

Froken Ellen Whitlock, Official Delegate N.CW, 

of Sweden^ ...... ,, 106 

Froken Grrtrud Adelborg, ,, „ ,, 106 

Mrs Alfred Booth, President N.C.W. of Great 

Britain and Ireland, , , 108 

Lady Battersea, Acting President N. C. l^. of Great 

Britain and Ireland, ,, 108 

Mrs Creighton, Official Delegate ,, ,, 110 

Lady Laura Ridding, „ ,, ,, 112 

Mrs D. E. Armitage, Acting President for N. C. W, 

of New South fVales, ,, 115 

Mrs Dixson, Official Delegate for N.C.W, of New 

South fVales, ..... „ 115 

Froken Henrie Forchammbr, Acting President for 

NC. IV. of Denmark, ,, 118 

Froken Wilhelmina Rerup, Official Delegate for 

N.C.W. of Denmark . . . ,, 118 

Fru CHARLorrE Norrie, „ „ . „ 118 

Madame Klerck van Hogendorp, President N.C.W. 

of Holland, ...... ,, 121 

Mrs M. W. H. Rutgers-Hoitsema, Official Delegate 

N.C.W. of Holland, .... ,,122 

Miss Martina G. Kramers „ „ ,, 122 

Mrs Sidney Webb, Official Delegate N.C.W. of New 

Zealand^ ...... ,, 125 

Mrs M*CosH Clarke, „ „ ,, 125 

Mrs Pember Reeves, Acting President for N C. W. 

of New Zealand, ..... ,, 127 

Lady Hamilton, Acting President for N. C. W. of 

Tasmania, . . ,, 127 

H. E. Mme. Anne DE Philosofoff, Hon. Vice-Presi- 
dent for Russia . . . ,, 129 

Dr KosAKEViTCH Stephanofskaia, Acting Vice- 
President for Russia, , . ,, 129 

Frau Marianne Hainisch, Hon. Vice- Preside nf for 

Austria^ . . ,, ISO 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS XV 

Mme. V. FiNKELSTEiN MOUNTFORD, Hon, Vice- 
President for Palestine^ .... facing pt^e 180 

Miss Marie Bhor, Hon, Representative for India^ ,, 182 

Mrs Stewart of Lovedale, Hon, Vice-President for 

South Africa^ , , , ,, 133 

Froken Gin a YissyG^ Hon, Vice-President for Norway, ,, 186 

Mile. Maris Popelin, Hon, Vice-President for 

Belgium, , , . , , , ,, 136 

Mrs WiTTENOOM, Hon, Representative for West 

AustralicL, ...... ,, 140 

Mrs Gawler, Hon, Representative for South Australia^ ,, 140 

Mrs MONTBFIORE, Representative of Mme, Martin, Re- 
cording Secretary , . . . ,, 161 

Lady Roberts-Austen, Convener of Hospitality 

Sectioned Committee , , , , ,, 151 

Mile. Camille Vidart, Hon, Vice-President for 

Switzerland and newly elected Recording Secretary, „ 166 



HER MAJESTY, QUEEN VICTORIA, . „ 174 



Mrs COBDEN Unwin, Representative of Mrs May 

Wright Sewall on Committee of Arrangements ,, 178 

Miss L* M. Faithfull, Convener of Educational 

Sectional Committee^ , ,, 194 

Miss Maynard, Convener of Educational Sectional 

Committee, , , . . ,, 194 

Mrs Broadley Rbid, Convener of Literature Sectional 

Committee, , . . . . ,, 198 

Mrs T. R. Macdonald, Convener of Legislcttive and 

Industrial Sectional Committee, , . ,, 198 

Hon. Mrs Alfred Lyttelton, Cotwener of Political 
Sectional Committee till April 1899, and newly elected 
President of N, C, W, of Great BHtain „ 212 

Miss E. S. LiDGETT, Convefter of Political Sectional 

Committee from May 1899 . . ., 212 

Mrs Benson, Convener of the Social Sectional 

Committee, , , . . . ,, 244 



XVI LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 

Mrs Ellen Johnson, Late Superinttndtfit State Prison 

for Wonien^ Afass.^ ..... facing page 244 

Mrs Bedford Fenwick, Treasurer for Jntemationai 
Congress Fund and Convener of Professional Sectional 
Committee^ . . . . ,i 274 

Mrs Mackenzie Davidson, Hon. Secretary of Hospi- 
tality Committee and Convener of Stafford House 
Cotntntttee * . ,, 283 

Duchess of Sutherland, Hostess at Opening Re- 
ception^ . . . . . . ,, 286 

Mrs Leopold de Rothschild, Hostess at Gunner sbury^ „ 288 

Lady Rothschild, Hostess at Gunnersburyy . ,, 288 



Note. — Many of the portraits in this volume appeared in *The Gentle- 
women's Album of Who's Who at the International Congress,' and 
have been kindly lent by the Editor of that paper. Acknowledg- 
ments for similar kindness in lending plates of protraits are also 
made to *The Englishwoman,* *The Nursing Record,' 'Woman- 
hood,' 'The Lady's Pictorial' and *The Lady's Realm.' The 
remaining illustrations have been especially prepared for this volume 
by Messrs Carl Hentschel, Limited. The name of the photographer 
has been added whenever it has been known, and the Editor regrets 
that this has not been possible in all cases. 



International Council of Women 



INTRODUCTION 

In sending out the official record of the Transactions of the 
Second Quinquennial Meeting of the International Council of 
Women, I feel it my duty, as the presiding officer of that meet- 
ing, to add a few words by way of introduction and explanation. 

Our Federated National Councils and Honorary Vice-Presi- 
dents may have been surprised in not receiving a memorandum 
from me, summing up the results of our meeting and pointing out 
the special duties it has imposed on the bodies federated with it. 

I have, however, thought it best to delay making any such 
communication until I could, at the same time, present to the 
Councils the official Transactions of both the Council Meeting 
and of the International Congress connected with it, of which 
Transactions I have had the honour to be appointed Editor. 

And I find that now that these volumes are published and in 
the hands of the Council, very little remains for me to say. 

The Report of the Council Meetings is taken from the steno- Reports of 
graphic notes of the official reporter appointed by the Committee Council Meet- 
of Arrangements, and no change has been made in his reudering ^S^' 
of the proceedings, save in those few cases where, in matters 
of detail, it did not seem quite to agree with the Minutes. 

In these cases the Minutes, as approved by the Council, have 
been taken as the proper authority. 

By arrangement with Mrs May Wright Sewall, I have added 
the Report of the first Executive under her presidency, by 
arrangement with her, since that meeting dealt with the 
Standing Orders, and finally adopted them according to the 
authority specially given to the Executive at the final meeting of 
the Council at Cassiobury. These Standing Orders, as adopted, 

VOL. I. A 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMRN 



Lists of 
Oommittees. 



Financial 
Report. 



Expenses of 

Arbitration 

Meeting. 



Presidents' 
thanks to 
Fellow- 
workers for 
the Congress. 



will be found at the end of the Ck>uncil volume, but it will be 
remembered that a Committee has been appointed to re-arrange 
them under headings which will make them more convenient 
for general use. In the meantime, a number of separate copies 
of these Standing Orders will be forwarded to each National 
Council and Honorary Vice-President, according to the arrange- 
ments made by Mrs May Wright Sewall and myself. 

I have also added to the Council volume a list of the present 
officers of all the National Councils federated with us, and lists of 
the various Committees concerned with the arrangements of the 
recent Congress, as well as of the stewards, to whose efficiency 
during our meetings both the CouncQ and the Congress owe so 
much. 

The Financial Report, so ably drawn up by Mrs Bedford 
Fen wick, Treasurer of the Congress Fund, and Acting Treasurer 
on behalf of Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg for the Committee 
of Arrangements, will give great satisfaction to all our members 
of Council, and especially to those who were anxiously concerned 
to see so large an undertaking, entirely officered by women, carry 
out its business in a business-like way. 

Appended to the General Financial Report, an extra Balance- 
Sheet, giving an account of the receipts and expenditure in con- 
nection with the big evening meeting at the Q aeon's Hall, on 
behalf of International Arbitration, will also be found. 

It is needless to say that we close these accounts with feelings 
of very sincere gratitude to those contributors who showed faith 
in us at the outset of our enterprise, and who thus enabled us to 
carry it f qrward to a successful issue. 

I cannot pass on from these brief allusions to the work of 
organisation for the Council and Congress meetings without 
recording my own deep appreciation of the able and hearty 
co-operation that I have met with from my feUow- workers; and, 
in particular, I would desire again officially to tender my heart- 
felt thanks to my fellow-officers, to the members of the Sub- 
Committee of Arrangements, to the Conveners of the Sectional 
Committees, and to the three ladies who represented our absent 
officers on the Committee of Arrangements, namely, Mrs Cobden 
Unwin, representing Mrs May Wright Sewall ; Mrs Montefiore, 
representing Madame Martin; and Mrs Bedford Fenwick, 
representing the Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, 

Of Miss Teresa F. Wilson's arduous but successful work for 
the Council and Congress I need not again speak, as its worth 
has been amply proven by its results. Whilst arranging for the 



INTRODUCTION 6 

Ck>Dgress, she was supported by a band of willing and able 
helpers in her office, whom she would wish me here to recognise. 

The feelings of our guests towards the many kind hosts and Hospitality 
hostesses who entertained them will be found recorded in an ArrangementB. 
official letter of thanks in this volume. Those who organised 
the Congress realise that they are under a deep debt of gratitude 
towards those whose personal hospitality so largely contributed 
to its success, and to the sense of satisfaction with which our 
guests left our shores. Mrs Mackenzie Davidson, the indefatig- 
able Honorary Secretary of the Hospitality Committee, has, at 
my request, written a Report of the Hospitality Arrangements, 
and I have thought that our members of Congress would like to 
see included in this record the portraits of those ladies who enter- 
tained us in so royal a manner at our large official entertain- 
ments. These are therefore added, as well as a brief description 
of these special occasions by Mrs Scaife. 

I have, moreover, taken it upon myself to give our members Portrait of the 
of Congress a reproduction of a recent photograph of Her Queen. 
Majesty Queen Victoria, whose gracious entertainment of our 
visiting delegates will ever be cherished by them and by every 
member of our CounciL 

I cannot leave the subject of hospitality without alluding to 
the great help rendered us in our arrangements for the Congress 
by Mrs Charles Hancock, who lent her house and organised a 
meeting in the spring to awaken interest in our plans, and who 
in many practical ways stood by us. In her house, too, the 
stewards met to organise themselves, and, again, the Girls' Section 
were glad to avail themselves of her hospitality for their first 
meeting. 

We cannot help regretting that no more complete record qitIb' Section 
exists of the Girls' Section than the very brief Report written for 
us by the Hon. Mrs Russell, its Convener. We regard it as one 
of the best of omens that we were able to associate with us the 
representatives of the coining generation of women workers, and 
we greatly rejoice that their special meetings under their own 
charge were so largely attended and proved so inspiring. 

I would fain linger over the remembrance of the helpful 
kindness shown us in many quarters during those anxious weeks 
of preparation, but space forbids, and I would merely, in passing, 
acknowledge the service rendered us by the Pioneer Club and by 
the Women's Institute by their holding meetings for the ex- 
planation of the Congress ; by Miss Bairdsmith for organising the 
stewards ; by Lady Edmund Talbot and Miss Fortescue for obtain- Stewards. 



i INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

t 

ing for us the co-operation of the Catholic Social Union, with 
the full sanction of His Eminence Cardinal Yaughan, and by 
the Honorary Secretaries of the various Sectional Committees. 

A list of the private entertainments and gatherings arranged 
for various sections of our Congress members is given as it 
appeared in our handbook, although this cannot be regarded as 
complete. 
Reliffious ^^^ readers will be glad to find a notice of the principal 

Services. religious services held in connection with the Congress, including 

the impressive special service kindly arranged for us by the Dean 
of Westminster at Westminster Abbey, at the instance of the 
National Council of Women of Great Britain and Ireland, with 
some report of the sermon preached by the Bishop of South- 
ampton. 
Press/ ^^ ^^^ these records, the notices which appeared in the Press 

have been of great assistance, and the thanks of the Council 
are hereby tendered to the many newspapers and periodicals who 
dealt generously with us during our gatherings and the weeks 
preceding them. 
Result of the My next duty would naturally be to gather up the tangible 
Quinquennial results of this Second Quinquennial Meeting of the International 
Meeting. Council, but I feel that we are still too near it to be able to form 

a correct judgment regarding it. It is self-evident that it has 
been the means of focussing the advance made in the position 
and work of women all over the world during recent years. It 
has also brought the women workers of different countries into 
definite relations with one another, in a way which has never 
been done before. 

These results must have far-reaching effects, but what these 
effects will be will largely depend on the reality and thorough- 
ness of our individual National Councils, and of their loyalty 
to the spirit of our constitution. 
Importance of My last word as President to the Federated National Councils 
National would be respectfully to entreat them constantly to see that the 

Councils being foundations of their Council work are secure, and that the build- 
representa ve. ^^^ ^j^^^ ^^ laying on those foundations is thorough. The great 
aim of the International Council must be to aid National Councils, 
by every means in its power, to be as representative as possible, 
and to remember the wise provision of the founders, which 
guards against their being led away by the natural disposition 
to identify themselves with some movements at the expense of 
otherS) instead of concentrating their main energy on being, first 
and foremost, centres round which cUl women workers of all 



INTRODUCTION 

sections of society, of <dl religious denominations, and all political 
parties, can gather in a spirit of unity and understanding of one 
another. And let us remember that, in order to attain to this 
position, we must in every country be able to include in our 
Councils the women of conservative views and those who are 
termed old-fashioned workers, as well as those who belong to 
the more progressive party. We need both if we are to be 
able to do the work which we have set before us. 

The same remarks apply to those countries wbere National 
Councils are now in process of formation. We would beg our 
Honorary Yice-Presidents to see to it that the Council idea is 
thoroughly understood before the Council is actually formed, and 
that the beginnings of every National Council should be so 
thorough and so representative as to give good promise of per- 
manence. 

I think it will be for the convenience of Councils if I here Official Re- 
remind them of the special resolutions adopted by the Inter- solutions 
national Council from those sent in for their consideration by ?<*op*«l 1^7 *^e 
the Executive and by the National Councils, copies of which Oooncil. 
have previously been submitted to each National Council, in 
order that these might instruct their delegates how to vote, if 
they so desired ; — 

" 1. That a Headquarters Office be appointed for the Inter- Headquarters 
national Council, and that said office be in the country Offioe. 
in which the President lives. 
*' 2. That an International Bureau of Information concerning Internationa 
women's work and women's position and progress in Bureau of 
all countries would be useful to the work of the Inter- Inform^^^io"- 
national Council ; and that for the next quinquennial 
period the Information Bureau of the Women's Institute 
be used as such by the National Councils ; but the Inter- 
national Council specially desires that on all questions 
relating to the work of the National Councils, Councils 
should correspond direct with other National Councils. 
" 3. That every National Council be recommended to form a National 
Standing Committee of Information, with a Bureau of Councils' 
Information if possible, where statistics regarding the Biu^aux of 
women of the country shall be collected and kept up to °""* ^°"" 
date. The business of this Committee or Bureau shall 
be to gather together and to give accurate information 
regarding the position, employment, education, pursuits, 
etc., of the women of the country, and to collect any 
further information required. 



INTERNATIONAL COUKCIL OF WOMEN 



of future 
IntemfttkNud 



IntenatioiuJ 
ArfaitntioD. 



Intemfttional 
means of Com- 
mnnicatioa 
betweeu 



GooBcUa 
through the 



KnquiTy into 
the Laws oon- 
oemii^ 
IXkmestic 
Relations. 

Xext Qoin- 

quennUl 

Metrtuur. 



EnqaiiT into 
the Hoisin^r 
of Educated 
Working 
Womvn IB 
Lar^ CitiesL 



<'4. That the International Cknmcil of W<Nnen do not in 
fntnre undertake the responsibility of organising Inter- 
national Congresses of Women, but that it do adhere to 
the arrangement for its own Quinquennial Meetings as 
set forth in its ConstitutioD, leaving the organisation of 
International Congresses in the hands of National 
Councils who may desire to convene them. The Inter- 
national Council further recommends the National 
Council of the country where the Quinquennial Meeting 
is convened to organise an International Congress 
which shall not conflict with the meetings of the Inter- 
national Council. 
" 5. That the International Council of Women do take steps 
in every country to further and advance by every 
means in its power the movement towards Inter- 
national Arbitration. 
'* 6. That some efficient method of communication by means 
of the Press be adopted by the National Council and 
between the different National Councils; that a list 
of suitable newspapers and journals throughout the 
world be drawn up, and that the editors be approached, 
with a view to inserting items of Intemationai Council 
news in their papers. 
'' 7. That the NationaJ Councils of all countries be asked to 
consider the nature of the laws concerned with the 
domestic relations which exist in all civilised countries. 
" 8. That the next Quinquennial Meeting of the Intemationai 

Council be held in Berlin.** 
I will add to these a resolution which was passed at the Con- 
ference organised by the Intemationai Council, and at which, 
after the reading of an able paper by Mr Gilbert Parker, it was 
resolved: — 

'' That this Conference, convened by the Intemationai Council, 

do recommend all National Councils to inquire into the 

present conditions surrounding the housing of educated 

working women in their large cities, and to consider 

what can be done to place them on a better footing." 

Our National Councils and our Honorarv Vice-Presidents 

will recognise that in the above resolutions the policy of the 

Intemationai Council for the next five years is indicated, and 

that the responsibility rests on each Nat'onal Council to carry 

into effect this p^^iicy and the work recommended. The re- 

maimler of the work done at this Quinquennial Meeting is 



INTRODUCTION 7 

embodied in the amended Constitution and Standing Orders, 
now fully adopted by the Council, and to which allusion has 
already been made. 

I cannot altogether pass over in silence one decision of the Participation 
Council contained in the amendments made to the Constitution of Honorary 
and Standing Orders, which personally I regard with great regret. T^^^ I* 
I refer to the rule which has been laid down whereby both the ordinary 
Honorary Vice-Presidents and the ordinary members of the Inter- Members of 
national Council (that is, members of any National Council Council in 
federated with the International) are debarred from taking ^^^^"^ . 
part in the debates of our business sessions, except by special Council, 
invitation. 

I believe we are thereby depriving ourselves of much valuable 
assistance, and that the votes which have to be recorded by our 
official delegates would be based on fuller knowledge if ample 
opportunity were given to all members of Council to express 
their views and to give us the benefit of their experience. 

It may also happen that the official delegates may at times 
be the representatives only of a majority of their own Council, 
and that the minority may thus be unrepresented altogether. 
In such cases the possibility of being able at least to express 
the views of the minority would be very desirable, and would 
give the whole body of the Council a juster conception of the 
opinions of the women of the country in question. It must also 
be remembered that greater interest would be taken in the 
Councirs affairs if all ordinary members could take part in its 
proceedings. 

In the case of Honorary Vice-Presidents, this regulation 
appears to be a still greater mistake in the interests of the 
Council. Most of these ladies act as our pioneers, and represent 
a movement in their own country which is likely in course of 
time to develop under their fostering care into a Council. It 
would seem, therefore, of the utmost importance that we should 
have the benefit of their counsel on points which may make a 
great difference to the women of those countries, and on which 
the very formation of their Councils may depend. 

Having myself experienced the great value of representatives 
of countries not yet federated taking part in our International 
Executive Meetings during the past few years, and having also 
had the opportunity of seeing the benefit gained by the Canadian 
National Council by its ordinary Council members being per- 
mitted to contribute to its business discussions, I feel it my duty, 
as retiring President, to express my earnest hope that this regula- 



8 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



Transactions 
of the Inter- 
national Con- 
gress of 
Women. 



Parting 
Words. 



tion may be reconsidered and modified at our next Quinquennial 
Meeting. I believe it to be of far greater moment to the future 
of the International Council than may at first appear to be 
the case. 

As to the six volumes which contain the Transactions of the 
International Congress, they will speak for themselves. 

I must claim the indulgence of those who did me the honour 
of appointing me Editor, for I have found unexpected and un- 
usual difficulties in carrying through the work entrusted to me. 

Much of the material handed over to my care was necessarily 
in a very imperfect state, and the writers of the papers being 
scattered all over the world, it was manifestly unwise to incur 
delay in conmiunicating to them. Some gaps will therefore be 
found, which I greatly deplore, and it is with deep regret that I 
have found myself forced to curtail many papers which I should 
have wished to give in full, owing to the inexorable demands of 
space and money. The £300 set aside by the Committee of 
Arrangements for the printing of the Transactions has not 
proved in any way adequate to the cost of publication of these 
volumes. I have every hope, however, that there will be so large 
a sale amongst those interested in the Congress, that the risk 
that has been taken in producing them will be reduced to a 
minimum. 

A number of those who joined in the Guarantee Fund for the 
Congress, but whose guarantee subscriptions were not called up, 
hearing of the position, have been good enough to add to the 
Printing Fund a sum of about £i5, A full account of how the 
Printing Fund has been expended will be furnished to the Exe- 
cutive, and should there unfortunately be any deficit, no responsi- 
bility for such deficit will rest on the International Council. 

I trust that all our National Councils will use their best 
endeavours to circulate this publication, and that they will urge 
the acquisition of a full set of these volumes by the various Societies 
federated with them, and by the chief Public Libraries of each 
country. 

Let me sigain acknowledge with sincerest gratitude the very 
able literary help that I have received in the editing of these 
volumes, without which it would have been impossible for me to 
have accomplished the task that I had undertaken. Our best 
thanks are also due to our publisher, Mr T. Fisher Unwin, for 
the interest and the consideration which he has manifested in 
all that concerned the bringing out of this work. 

In conclusion, let me express my heartfelt appreciation of the 



INTRODUCTION V 

loyal support and confidence which I have experienced during my 
whole term of office as President of the International Council of 
Women, as well as in my capacity of President of the Inter- 
national Congress, of which the Council was the Convener. 

I realise to the full the high honour that was done me when 
I was elected to fill this honourable position, and also my own inex- 
perience for the post. It is, then, with deep thankfulness that, 
owing to the co-operation I have received from many faithful 
workers, our Qoinquennial Report can record a very definite 
advance and development of the Council idea during my Presi- 
dency, in so many countries, and that our Quinquennial Meeting 
should have been marked by so many tokens of public respect 
and confidence, and be finally crowned by the gracious reception 
accorded to us by the Queen. 

I now hand on my duties as President to one who has not 
only had ample experience in Council work, but who holds the 
proud position of being one of the mothers of our Confederation. 
May our cause prosper in her hands ! 

To hold such an office must be for the holder a rich experience, 
and I owe to it the formation of many friendships in many lands, 
which cannot pass away, because they are based on foundations 
which are enduring. 

It is a great inspiration to be bound together in the pursuance 
of high ideals ; it is also a grave responsibility — and during our 
recent Council meeting both these thoughts have been made very 
real to us. I pray God that they may abide within the hearts 
of all who in every country are the guardians of the honour of 
our Council, so that it may prove true to the lofty profession it 
has made. 

IsHBEL Aberdeen, 

Retiring President. 

Haddo House, 
Aberdeen, December 1899. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND OFFICIAL 

DELEGATES 



FOB THB 



Quinquennial Meeting of the International 
Council of Women, July 1899. 

INTERNATIONAL OFFICERS. 

* The Countess of Abebdben, Haddo House, Aberdeen, Scot- 

land, President. 
♦Mrs May Wright Sewall, Indianopolis, United States, Vice- 
President. 

* Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg,Helsingfors, Finland, Treasurer. 

* Miss Teresa F. Wilson, Members' Mansions, 254 lisgar Street, 

Ottawa, Canada, Corresponding Secretary, 

* Mme. Maria Martin, France, Recording Secretary^ represented 

by Mme. Oddo Deflou. 



DELEGATES. 

(a) Accredited Delegates from Federated National Councils. 

United States. — *Mrs Fannie Humphreys Gafl&iey, Presi- 
dent; Miss Susan B. Anthony, Delegare; Rev. Anna Howard 
Shaw, Delegate. 

Canada. — *Mrs Boomer, to represent the President; Mrs 
Willoughby Cummings, DelegcUe ; Mrs Gibbs, Delegate, 

11 



12 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Germany. — * Frau Anna Simson, to represent the President ; 
Frau Bieber Boehm, JDelegcUe ; Frau Marie Stritt, Delegate, 

Sweden. — * Fru Hierta-Retzius, President ; Froken Gertrud 
Adelborg, Delegate ; Froken Ellen Whitlock, Delegaie, 

Great Britain and Ireland. — The Lady Battersea, to re- 
present the President; Lady Laura Ridding, Delegate; Mrs 
Creighton, Delegate, 

New South Wales. — * The Vicountess Hampden, President ; 
Mrs D. E. Armitage, Delegate ; Mrs Dixson, Delegate, 

Denmark. — * Froken Henrie Forchammer, to represent the 
President ; Fru Charlotte Norrie, Delegate ; Froken Wilhelmina 
Rerup, Delegate, 

Holland. — * Mme. Kierck van Hogendorp, President ; Mme. 
Rutgers-Hoitsema^ Delegate ; Miss Martina Kramers, Delegate, 

New Zealand. — * Mrs Pember Reeves, to represent the Presi- 
dent; Mrs Sidney Webb, Delegate ; Mrs M'Cosh Clarke, Delegate. 

Tasmania. — Lady Hamilton, to represent the President ; 
Mrs Dobson, Delegate, 



(h) Patrons who may he present vnthout a vote, 

Mr James Neilson Hamilton, American Consul for Persia; 
Mrs Eliza D. Hendricks, United States. 

(c) Hon, Vice-Presidents and Hon, Representatives from Countries 
where there are no National Councils {present unthout a vote), 

France. — Mme. Bogelot, Hon, Vice-President ; Mile. Sarah 
Monod, Hon, Representative. 

Switzerland. — Mile. Camille Vidart, Hon, Vice-President. 

Belgium. — Mile. Marie Popelin, Dr en Droit, Hon, Vice- 
President, 

Italy. — Mrs Orawshay, to represent the President ; Signora 
Lodi, Hon, Representative. 

Russia. — H. E. Mme. Anne de Philosofoff, Hon. Vice-Presi- 
dent^ represented by Dr Kosakevitch-Stephanofskaia ; Mme. 
Boubnoff, Hon, Representative. 

Austria. — Frau Marianne Hainisch, Hon. Vice-President; 
Baroness Dr Gabrielle von Possanner, Hon, Representative. 

* Those whose names are marked with an asterisk are members of the 
Executive Committee. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND OFFICIAL DELEGATES 13 

Norway. — Froken Gina Krog, Hon. Vice-PresiderU. 

Iceland. — Froken Siefansson, Hon, RepresentCLtive, 

Victoria. — Janet, Lady Clarke, Hon, Vice-President, 

South Australia. — Mrs Coekburn, Hon. Vice-President; 
Mrs Gawler, Hon. Representative, 

West Australia. — Mrs Wittenoom, Hon. Vice-President. 

Queensland. — Mrs Fisher, Hon. Representative. 

Cape Colony. — Mrs Stewart of Lovedale, Cape Colony, Hon. 
Vice-President; Mrs Nixon, Hon, Representative. 

India. — Mrs Flora Annie Steel, Acting Vice-President; Miss 
Mary Bhor, Hon. Representative. 

Persia. — Mrs Neilson Hamilton, Hon. Vice-President. 

Argentine Republic. — Dr Cecilia Grierson, Hon. Vice-Presi- 
dent. 

China, — Mme. Shen, Hon. Vice-President, 

Palestine. — Mme. v. Finkelstein Mountford, Hon. Vice- 
President 

{d) Fraiemal Represenfatives from Societies internationally 
organised (present loithout a vote). 

Bureau International Permanent de la Paix — Miss Ellen Robin- 
son, Fraternal Representative. 
F^eration Abolitionniste Gen^rale — Mme. de Tschamer de 

Watteville, Fraternal Representative. 
General Federation of Women's Clubs — Mrs William B. Lowe, 

FraiemaZ Representative. 
Union Internationale des Amis des Jeunes Filles — Miss Maiming, 

Fraternal Representative. 
World's Women's Christian Temperance Union — Miss Agnes 

Slack, Fraternal Representative. 
World's Young Women's Christian Association — Hon. Mrs 

Tritton, Fra,temal Representative. 
International Union of Press Clubs — Mrs Cynthia Westover 

Alden, Fraternal Represe^itative. 
International Order of King's Daughters — 



u 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



TIME TABLE. 



MoNDAT, 26th Junis. 


Tuesday, 27th June. 


Wednesday, 28th June. 


10.80 a.m. to 1 p.m. 


10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. 


10.80 a.m. to 1 p.m. 


CouNoiL Chaubeb, 

Westminster Town 

Uall. 

Meeting of the Execu- 
tive (>)Tninittoe of the 
IntemAtioikal Council 
of Women. 


Large Hall, Westmin- 
ster Town Hall. 

The Child : Life and 
Training. 

Council Chamber, 

Westminster Town 

Hall. 

Profesaions open to 
Women. 

Great Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Parliamentary Enfran- 
chisement of Women. 

Small Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Special Labour Legi.s- 
lation for Women. 

Convocation Hall of 
Church House. 

Prisons and Beforma- 
tories. 


Large Hall, Westmin- 
ster Town Hall. 

SchooL 

Westminster Council 
Chamber. 

Business Session of the 
International Council. 

Small Hall, Westmin- 
ster Town Hall. 

Women Inspectors. 

Great Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Literature. 

Small Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Special Labour liCgisla- 
tion for Children. 

Convocation Hall of 
Church House. 

Rescue Work. 


2.80 to 4.80 p.m. 


2.80 to 4.80 p.m. 


2.80 to 4.80 p.m. 


Large Hall, West- 
minster Town Hall. 

PubUc Meeting of Wel- 
come to the Delegates 
of the International 
Council of Women. 


Large Hall, Westmin- 
ster Town Hall. 

The Child: Life and 
Training. 

Council Chamber, 

Westminster Town 

Hall. 

Medical Women. 


Large Hall, Westmin- 
ster Town Hall. 

School. 

Great Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Scientific Treatment of 
Domestic Service. 



TIME TABLE 



15 



2.30 to 4.30 p.m. 


2.30 to 4.30 p.m. 


2.30 to 4.30 p.m. 


Large Hall, Wsst- 
• MIN8TKB Town Hall. 

Public Meeting of Wel- 
oome — corUifwed. 

{ MemJbertqfConortsgarewr- 
diaUy inviUd to attend. 

1 
t 


Great Hall, St Mae- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Special Labour Legisla- 
tion for Women. 

Small Hall, St Mae- 
tin*8 Town Hall. 

Art. 

Convocation Hall of 
Church House. 

Preventive Work. j 


Small Hall, St Mab- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Responsibilities and 

Duties of Women in 

PubUc Life. 

Convocation Hall of 
Chubch House. 

Treatment of Destitute 
Glasses. 

125 Qukbn's Gate. 
Girls' Meeting. 


\ 

9 p.m. 


8 p.m. 


9.80 to 12. p.m. 


Staffobd House. 

Official Reception to 
meet the Delegates 
and Tnvited Speakers. 


Queen's Hall. 

Public Meeting. Inter- 
national Arbitration. 


Subbet House. 

The Lady Battersea's 
Keoeption to Delegates 
and Invited Speakers. 


Thubsdat, 29th June. 


Fbidat, 30th June. 


SaTUBDAT, IST JULT. 


10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. 


10.30 a.m. to 1. p.m. 


10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. 


Laboe Hall, West- 
MIK8TBB Town Uall. 

Uniyenities. 

CouKoiL Chambeb, 

Webtminsteb Town 

Hat.Th 

Business Session of 
International Coimcil. 

Small Hall, West- 
hu«8TBB Town Hall. 

Science. 


Large Hall, West- 
minster Town Hall. 

Technical Education. 

Council Chamber, 

Westminsteb Town 

Hall. 

Nursing. 

Gbeat Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Administrative Work. 


Labge Hall, WesT- 
MiNSTEB Town Hall. 

Go-education. 

Council Chambeb, 
Westminster Town i 
Hall. | 

Music. 

Small Hai.i., West- 
minsteb lowN Hall. 

Clerical Workers. 



16 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 



Thursdat, 29th June. 



10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. 



Great Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Women's Status in 
Local Government. 



Small Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Civil Disabilities of 
Women. 

Convocation Hall of 
Church House. 

Clubs. 



Friday, 30th June. 



10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. 



Small Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Trade Unionism. 

Convocation Hall op 
Church House. 

Social Necessity for an 
Equal Moral Standard 
for Men and Women. 



Saturday, 1st July. 



10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. 



Great Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

International Conference 
— Organisation as a 
Factor in Social De- 
velopment, etc. 

Small Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Co-operation. 



Convocation Hall of 
Church House. 

Provident Schemes. 



2.30 to 4. 30 p m. 



Large Hall, West- 
minster Town Hall. 

Modem Educational 
Experiments. 

Great Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

The Drama. 

Small Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

The Home as Work- 
shop. 

Convocation Hall of 
Church House. 

Social Settlements. 



2.30 to 4.80 p.m. 



Labqe Hall, West- 
minster Town Hall. 

Women as Educators. 

Council Chamber, 

Westminster Town 

Hall. 

Nursing. 

Great Hall, St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Administrative Work. 



Small Hali^ St Mar- 
tin's Town Hall. 

Journalism. 

Convocation Hall of 
Church House. 

Amusements. 



4.30 to 7 p.m. 



Fulham Palace. 

Garden Party by the in- 
vitation of the Lord 
Bishop of London and 
Mrs Creighton. 



TIME TABUS 



17 



8 p.m. 


8 p.m. 




Qukin's Hall. 

Public Meeting on 
Women's Suffrage. 

{Under the autpiees of 
the National Union 
of Wofnen*t Storage 
Societies.) 


Labob Hall, Wxst- 
MiNBTBB Town Hall. 

Ethics of Wage 
Earning. 

Great Hall, St Mas- 
tin's Town Hall. 

.Temperance. 


MoKDAT, 8BD July. 


Tubsdat, 4th July. 


Wbdnxsdat, 5th July, 


10. SO a. m. to 1 p.m. 


10.80 a.m. to 1 p.m. 


11 a.m to 2 p.m. 


Labgx Hall, Webt- 
lOKBTBB Town Hall. 

Training of Teachers. 

Ck>UHOiL Chambeb, 

WxsTMiNSTBB Town 

Hall. 

AgncuHure. 

Small Hall, Wbst- 
MIN8TBB Town Hall. 

Protection of Young 
Travellers. 

GoNvooAnoN Hall of 
Chuboh Housi. 

Emigration. 


Labob Hall, Wbst- 
minbtbb Town Hall, 

Business Session of In- 
ternational Council. 

• 

Ck>UNOiL OhaiIbbb, 

Wbbtminstbb Town 

Uall. 

Handicrafts. 

Small Hall, Wbbt- 
minstbb To^ Hall. 

Women Librarians. 


Carbiobubt Pabk. 

Final Session of the In- 
ternational Council of 
Women, after which 
the International Dele- 
gates will be enter- 
tained at luncheon by 
the retiring President 
at Cassiobury Park, 
Watford, by kind per- 
mission of the Right 
Hon. Sir Matthew 
White Ridley. 


2 to 8.30 p.m. 


4.80 p.m. 


Labob Hall, Wbst- 
MiNBrxB Town Hall. 

EjEaminations and Ex- 


GUNNBBSBUBT PaBK. 

Garden Party by the 
invitation of the Lady 
BothschUd and Mrs 
Leopold de Roths- 
child. 



VOL. I. 



B 



18 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMBN 



2.80 to 4.30 p.m. 



CouNoiL Ohambkb, 

Westsiinsteb Town 

Hall. 

Horticulture. 



6 to 7.30 p.m. 



OoNvooATioN Hall of 
Chuboh House. 

Protection of Bird and 
Animal Life. 



9 p.m. 



Farewell Social Gather- 
ing, given by the 
Gounteesof Aberdeen, 
the retiring President 
of the International 
Council, at th^ Royal 
Institution of Painters 
in Water Colours, 
Piccadilly. 



1 



SUBCOMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE 
INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS. 

Countess of Aberdeen, Haddo House, Aberdeen, President ; 
Mrs May Wright Sewall, Vice-President, represented by Mrs 
Gobden Unwin ; Mrs Stanton Blatch, The Mount, Basingstoke ; 
Baroness A. Gripenberg, Treasurer^ represented by Mrs Bedford 
Fen wick ; Mrs Bedford Fenwick, 20 Upper Wimpole Street, W. ; 
Miss Teresa F. Wilson, Corresponding Secretanry ; Mme. Maria 
Martin, 31 Rue Francoeur, Paris, Recording Secretcury, repre- 
sented by Mrs Montefiore ; Mrs Montefiore, 63 Philbcach Gardens, 
EarFs Court, S. W. ; Mrs Alfred Booth, 46 UUet Road, Liverpool ; 
The Lady Battersea, Surrey House, Marble Arch, W. ; Mrs Percy 
Bunting, 1 1 Endsleigh Gardens, N. W. ; Mrs Creighton, Fulbam 
Palace, S. W. ; Mrs Rawlinson, Ballindune, Camberley ; The Lady 
Laura Ridding, Thurgarton Priory, Southwell, Notts ; Miss May- 
nard, Westfield College, Hampstead, N.W. ; Miss lidgett, 40 
Gordon Square, W.O. ; Mrs J. R. Macdonald, 3 Lincoln's Inn 



MEMBERS OF SUB-COMMITTEES 19 

Fields, W.C. ; Mrs Benson, Treemaines, Hosted Keynes, Sussex ; 
Lady Roberts-Austen, The Royal Mint, Tower Hill, E. ; Miss M. 
Bateson, 4 Vernon Chambers, Theobald's Road, W.C. ; Miss 
Janes, 31 Tanza Road, Hampstead, N.W. ; Mrs Broadley Reid, 
70 West Cromwell Road, S.W. ; Mrs Mackenzie Davidson, 
76 Portland Place, W. 



SECTIONAL SUB-COMMITTEES 

(op which the OFFICERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL WERE 

MEMBERS EX-OFFICIO). 

Finance. — Mrs Booth, 46 UUet Road, Sefton Park, liver- 
pool. Convener; Miss M. Breay, 46 York Street, W., Hon, 
Secretary ; Mrs Bedford Fenwick, Hon. Treaav/rer, IntemcUional 
Confess Fwnd ; Mrs George Cadbury, The Manor House, 
Northfield ; Mrs Charles M*Laren, 43 Belgrave Square, W. ; 
Lady Montagu, 12 Kensington Palace Gardens, W. ; Lady 
lloberts-Austen, The Royal Mint, Tower Hill, E. ; Lady Wesi^ 
bury, 134 Cromwell Road, S.W. 

Hospitality. — Lady Roberts-Austen, The Royal Mint, 
Tower Hill, E., Convener ; Mrs Mackenzie-Davidson, 76 Port- 
land Place, W., Hon. Secretary ; Lady Ashton, Alford House, 
Princes Gate, S.W. ; Mrs Ashton Jonson (Sesame Club), 
3b Morpeth Terrace, Victoria Street, S.E. ; Mrs Bridges Adams, 
Haghenden, Coleraine Road, Westcombe Park, S.E. j Lady 
Battersea, Surrey House, Marble Arch, W. ; Miss Bairdsmith, 
81 Lexham Gardens, S.W. ; Miss Denny (Y.W.C.A.), Kings- 
holme, Redhill ; Miss Florence Eves, 90 Shepherdess Walk, City 
Road, N. ; Miss Fortescue, St Antonys, 17 Great Prescot 
Street, E. ; Lady Hamilton (Pioneer Club), 6 Grafton Street, 
W. ; Mrs Charles Hancock, 125 Queen's Gate, S.W. ; Miss 
Howard (Grey Ladies), Blackheath Hill, S.E. ; Mrs Huntington, 
The Clock House, 8 Chelsea Embankment; Miss Janes 
(N.U.W.W.), 59 Bemers Street, Oxford Street^ W. ; Miss 
Johnston (New Victorian Club), 30a Sackville Street, W. ; Lady 
Joicey, 58 Oadogan Square ; Mrs Lough, 29 Hyde Park Gate, 
S.W. ; Miss E. Kerr (Somervillo Club), 19a Hanover Square, 
W.; Lady Knightley of Fawsley (G.F.S.), Fawsley Park, 
Daventry; Mrs Martindale, Church House, Lancaster Road, 
Brighton ; Mrs Massingham, 34 Grosvenor Road, S.W. ; Mrs C. 
Mitchell, 4:1 Upper Addison Gardens, Kensington, W. ; Miss C. 
Rivington (W. University Club), 44 Connaught Square, Hyde 



20 INTBRKATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Park, W. ; Miss P. Routledge (Writers' Club), 22 St Thomas's 
Mansions, Westminster Bridge, S.E. ; Mrs Charles Schwann, 
4 Princes Oardens, S.W. ; Miss Emmeline Sieveking (Oros. 
Cres. Club), 17 Manchester Square, W. ; Mrs Horace Steymour, 
The Royal Mint, Tower Hill, E. ; Miss Simmons, Bermondsey 
Settlement, S.E. ; Lady Stevenson, 5 Ennismore Gardens, S.W. ; 
Mrs Stevenson, 5 Ennismore Oajrdens, S.W. ; Mrs James Stuart, 
24 Orosvenor Gardens, S.W. ; Miss Spicer, Montclair, Woodford 
Green, Essex ; Duchess of Sutherland, StaJfford House ; Miss E. 
M. Townend, Alverley, Park Hill Rise, Croydon, S.W. ; Mrs 
Alec Tweedie, 30 York Terrace, Harley Street, W. ; The Lady 
Edmund Talbot, St Cecilia's House, Albert Square, Commercial 
Road. 

Press. — Miss M. Bateson, 4 Vernon Chambers, Theobald's 
Road, W.C, Convener; Miss G. Ireland Blackbume (Alexandra 
Club), Grosvenor Street, Hon. Secretary ; Miss Lynette Mitchell, 
28 Cornwall Gardens, S.W., AaaisUmt Secretary; Mrs Belloc 
Lowndes, 11 Great College Street, Westminster, S.W. ; Miss 
BiUington, 17 Doughty Street, Russell Square, W.C. ; Miss 
Helen Blackburn, 18 Greycoat Gardens, Westminster, S.W. ; 
Miss Amy Bulley, Ma/ticheater Giiardiany 26 Charing Cross, 
S.W. ; Miss Susan Carpenter, 3 Dorset Street^ Portman Square, 
W. ; Miss Alice Corkran, 45 Mecklenburg Square, W.C. ; Miss 
C. Drew (W. Press Ass.), 35 Hastings House, Norfolk Street, 
Strand ; Miss Marianne Famingham, Office of Christian Worlds 
13 and 14 Fleet Street, E.C. ; Mrs Bedford Fenwick, Nwrsing 
Record^ 20 Upper Wimpole Street, W. ; Mrs Fenwick Miller, 
St Leonard's, Chart Road, Reigate ; Miss Friedrichs, Westminster 
Bitdgety Tudor Street, Blackfnars, E.C. ; Mrs Bakewell Green, 
22 Ridway Place, Wimbledon; Mrs Greenwood, 37 Philbeach 
Gardens, Earl's Court, S.W. ; Mrs Will Hawksley, Church 
Lodge, Portsmouth ; Mrs Humphrey, 42 Blomfield Road, Maida 
Vale; Miss Jastrow, 31 Tanza Road, Hampstead, N.W. ; Mrs 
Jack Johnson, Pomfret House, Sunbury-on-Thames ; Mrs J. R. 
Macdonald, 3 Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. ; Miss Maguire, 
7 Harcourt Terrace, Dublin ; Miss March Phillipps, 6 Stafford 
Mansions, Albert Bridge Road, S.W. ; Miss Maule (Hospital) 
Altair, Ealing ; Miss Ida Mellor, 6 Upper Cheyne Row, Chelsea, 
S.W. ; Miss Mitford, 52 Lower Sloane Street^ S.W. ; Miss 
Honnor Morten, Ivy Hall, Richmond, Surrey; Mrs Naylor, 
Daily Chronicle CMBce, 12 Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, B. 
Miss Small wood (Writers' Club), 10 Norfolk Street, Strand 
Miss Jane Stoddart, British Weekly, 27 Paternoster Row, E.C. 



MEMBERS OF SUB-COMMITTEES 21 

Mias Alice Stronach (Writers' Club), 10 Norfolk Street, Strand, 
W.C. ; Miss Strutt-Cavell, GenUetooman Office, Arundel Street, 
W.O. ; Mrs Alex Tweedie, 30 York Terrace, Harley Street, W. ; 
Mrs Whitley, 173 Sumatra Road, W. Hampstead, KW. ; Mrs 
Williamson, Daily Mail Office, 32 Carmelite Street, Temple, 
E.C. 

Literature. — Mrs Broadley Reid, 70 West Cromwell Road, 
S.W., Convener; Miss Isabel Marshall, 25 Duppas Hill Terrace, 
Croydon, Hon. Secretary ; Mrs Booth, 46 TJllet Road, Liverpool ; 
Mrs F. G. Hogg, 60 Bedford Gardens, W. ; Miss Jones, 59 
Bemers Street, W. ; Mrs Arthur Scaife, 5 Trevanion Road, 
West Kensington j Mrs Wynford Phillipps, 5 South Eaton 
Place, S.W. 

Education. — Miss Maynard, Westfield College, Hampstead, 
N.W., Convener; Miss C. S. Bremner, 16 MUton Chambers, 
Cheyne Walk, S., Hon. Secretary; Mme. Bergman-Osterberg, 
Elingsfield, Dartford Heath, Kent; Mrs Bryant, D.Sc, N. 
London Collegiate School, Sandall Road, Camden Road, N.W. ; 
Mrs Burgwin, 21 Claylands Road, Clapham Common, S.W. ; Miss 
J". L. Calder, 49 Canning Street, Liverpool ; Miss A. G. Cooper, 
Teachers' Guild, 74 Gower Street, W.C; Miss A. J. Cooper, 
23 Woodstock Road, Ojtford ; Miss M. A. Eve, 107 Lansdowne 
Road, Notting Hill, W. ; Lady Evans, Nash MiUs, Hemel 
Hampstead ; Miss Mary Gnmey, 69 Ennismore Gardens, S.W. ; 
Miss Jones, Notting Hill High School, Norland Square, W. ; 
Miss Maitland, Somerville College, Oxon; Miss Penrose, Royal 
Holloway College, Egham, Surrey; Miss Ella Pycroft, 51 Cam- 
den Hm Square, W. ; Mrs Walter Ward, 39 Ladbroke Grove, 
Kensington Park Road, N.W. ; Miss Wordsworth, Lady 
Margaret Hall, Oxford. 

Professional. — Mrs Bedford Fenwick, 20 Upper Wimpole 
Street, W., Convener ; Miss Breay, 46 York Street, W., Hon. 
Secretary; Mrs Ayrton, 41 Kensington Park Gardens, W. ; 
Mrs Beerbohm Tree, 77 Sloane Street, S.W. ; Mme. Canziani, 
3 Kensington Palace Green, Kensington, W. ; Mrs Dickenson 
Berry, 60 Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square, W. ; Mrs Green- 
wood, 37 Philbeach Gardens, EarFs Court, S.W. ; Miss Barbara 
Hamley, 17 Chester Terrace, S.W. ; Miss Hurlbatt, Bedford 
College, Baker Street, W. ; Miss Huxley, matron, Sir Patrick 
Dun's Hospital, Dublin; Mrs Kendal, 12 Portland Place, W. ; 
Mrs Fenwick MOler, St Leonard's, Chart Road, Reigate ; Mrs 
M'KiUop, 25 Primrose Mansions, Battersea Park, S.W. ; Miss 
O'Conor Eccles (Writers' Club), 10 Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C. ; 



22 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Mrs Phillimore, Cobden Hall, RacQeth, Herts; Mrs Scharlieb, 
M.D., B.S., 149 Harley Street, W. ; Miss Louisa Stevenson, 
13 Randolph Crescent, Edinburgh; Miss Isla Stewart, St 
Bartholomew's Hospital, S.W. ; Mme. Antoinette Sterling, 
25 Ashley Gardens, Victoria Street, S.W. ; Mrs Alec Tweedie, 
30 York Terrace, Harley Street, W. ; Miss Genevieve Ward, 
22 Avenue Road, N.W. ; Miss Wilkinson, 6 Grower Street, 
W.C. ; Miss Alice Woods, 3 North Mansions, Burton Road, 
Kilbum, N.W. 

Legislative and Industrial. — Mrs J. R. Macdonald, 
3 Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C, Convener; Mrs B. Walter- 
Boxall, 13 Argyle Square, W.C., Hon, Secretary// Miss Rosa 
Barrett, 6 De Vesci Terrace, Kingstown, Co. Dublin; Miss 
Clementina Black, 19 South End, Croydon, S.W. ; Mrs Stanton 
Blatch, The Mount, Basingstoke ; Mrs H. P. Boulnois, 44 Camp- 
den House Road, W. ; Miss Jane Hume Clapperton, 35 Drum- 
mond Place, Edinburgh; Mrs Deans, 26 Chestnut Road, 
Plumstead, S.E. ; Miss J. M. Gray, 6 Becherton Street, Islington, 
N. ; Mrs Amie Hicks, 3 Wilmot Place, Camden Town, N.W. ; 
Mrs F. G. Hogg, 60 Bedford Gardens, W. ; Miss Irwin, 
Industrial Council, Glasgow; Mrs Charles M'ljaren, 45 Har- 
rington Gardens, W. ; Mrs Reeves, 41 Campden House Road, 
Kensington, W. ; Miss Dorothea Roberts, Berry Hill Hall, 
Mansfield, Notts ; Mrs James Stuart, 24 Grosvenor Road, West- 
minster Embankment; Mrs Sidney Webb, 41 Grosvenor Road, 
Westminster Embankment. 

Political. — Miss Iddgett, 40 Gordon Square, W.C, Con- 
vener; Miss Violet Brooke-Hunt, 45 Albert Gate, S.W., ffon. 
Secretary; Mrs Sydney Buxton, 15 Eaton Place, S.W. ; Mrs 
Eva McLaren, 66 Ashley Gardens, S.W. ; Mrs Morgan-Browne, 
9 Blakeslay Avenue, Ealing ; Mrs R. Phillimore, Cobden Hill, 
Radlett, Herts; Mrs A. S. H. Richardson, 61 Palace Chambers, 
Bridge Street, Westminster; Mrs Reeves, 41 Campden House 
Road, Kensington, W. ; Lady Roberts-Austen, The Royal Mint, 
Tower Hill, E. ; Hon. Mrs Bertrand Russell, The Millhanger, 
Femhurst, Haslemere; Mrs Sheldon Amos, 14 Grosvenor R^ui, 
S.W. ; Lady Trevelyan, Cambo, Northumberland ; Lady West- 
bury, 134 Cromwell Road, S.W. 

Social. — Mrs Benson, 5 Barten Street, Westminster, Con- 
vener; Miss Janes, 59 Bemers Street, Oxford Street, W., ITon, 
Secretary ; Lady Battersea, Surrey House, Marble Arch, W. ; 
Adeline, Duchess of Bedford, 26 Hertford Street, W. ; Mrs 
Bunting, 11 Endsleigh Gardens, N.W. ; Mrs Creighton, Fulham 



STEWARDS FOB WESTMINSTER TOWN HALL 23 

Palace, S.W. ; Miss lidgett, 40 (Gordon Square, W.C. ; Hon. 
Sarah Lyttelton, The Chantry, Ross, Herefordshire; Mrs 
Rawlinson, Ballindune, Camherley. 

International Arbitration. — The Countess of Aberdeen, 
Convener ; Miss Constance Hargrove, 169 Queen's Gate, Hon, 
Secretary; Mrs Bradlaugh Bonner, 23 Strathboume Road, 
Upper Tooting, S.W. ; Miss Bunney, W.L.F., 23 Queen Anne's 
Gkite, S.W, ; Miss Julia Cameron, 7 Kensington Studios, 
Stamford Road, S.W. ; Mr W. R. Cremer, International Arbitra- 
tion League, 11 Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. ; Miss L. M. Cooke, 
24 Allfarthing Lane, Wandsworth, S.W. ; Dr W. Evans Darby, 
Peace Society, 47 New Broad Street, E.C. ; J. Frederick Green, 
Esq., 40 Outer Temple, Strand, W.C. ; Mrs Corrie Grant, 26 The 
Avenue, Bedford Park, Chiswick ; Mr William Hill, care of 
WeUminster Gazette Office, Tudor Street; Miss M. Mills, 
7 Beacon Hill, N. ; Mr G. H. Perris, Lucien Road, Tooting, 
S.W. j Miss R. Richardson, Westfield College, Hampstead; 
The Countess Schack, 20 Greenhill Road, Harlesden, N.W. ; 
Miss Stead, 43 Rosella Road, Balham, S.W. ; The Dowager Lady 
Westbury, 134 Cromwell Road, S.W. 

Stewabds for Westminster Town Hall. 

Miss Bairdsmith, 81 Ijexham Gardens, S.W., Chief Steward ; 
Miss Maud Abbot, 98 Oakley Street, Chelsea, S.W. ; Miss Eva 
Bagram, 47 Holland Park, W. ; Miss Alice Bellin, 17 Regent's 
Park Road, N.W. ; Miss Lucy Browne (New County Club), 21 
Hanover Square, W. ; Miss Louie Blakeney, 78 West Cromwell 
Road, S.W, j Miss Daisy Bradish, 12 Queensborough Terrace, W. ; 
Mrs CoUis, 17 Hamlet Gardens, Ravenscourt Park, W. ; Miss 
Cowie, 33 Holland Park Road ; Miss Alice Cowan, 34 Walpole 
Street, Chelsea, S.W. ; Miss Constance Cowan, 34 Walpole Street, 
Chelsea, S.W. ; Miss lily Cowan, 34 Walpole Street, Chelsea, 
S.W. ; Mrs Colenso, 91 Cromwell Road, S.W. ; Miss E. Chick, 
University College, W.C. ; Miss H. Clarke, University College, 
W.C. ; Miss d' Almeida, Watch Bell House, Rye ; Miss Duning- 
ton, University College, W.C, ; Miss Emerson, 36 Nevem 
Square, S.W. ; Miss Fergusson, 6 Campden House Road, W. ; 
Miss Glyn, 1 Inkerman Terrace, Kensington, W. ; Mrs Golby, 7 
Playfair Mansions, Queen's Club Gardens, W. Kensington, W. ; 
Miss Harrison, 6 Radnor Place, Hyde Park, W. ; Miss Elsie 
Hooper, 52 Clapton Common, N. ; Miss Eva Hooper, 52 Clapton 
Common, N. ; Miss Hardcastle, 11 Clyde Street, S.W.; Miss 



24 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Hutchinson, Beaufort House, Duppas Hill, Croydon ; Miss Sybjl 
Innes, 9 Lexham Gardens, W. ; Miss Lilian Jones, 5 Ladbroke 
Terrace, Netting Hill, W. ; Miss Keir, 16 Evelyn Gardens, 
S.W. ; Miss Kelly, University College, W.C. ; Miss M. A. 
Lewenz, University College, W.C. ; Miss Mallet, 3 Eaton Terrace, 
Regent's Park, N. W. ; Miss G. Mallet, 3 Eaton Terrace, Regent's 
Park, N.W. ; Miss Helen Fenwick Miller, St Leonard's, Chart 
Road, Reigate ; Miss Irene Fenwick Miller, St Leonard's, Chart 
Road, Reigate ; Miss Morse, 18 Carlyle Mansions, Chelsea, S.W. ; 
Miss H. Morse, 18 Carlyle Mansions, Chelsea, S.W. ; Mrs Roscoe 
Mullins, 24 Greville Road, N.W. ; Miss Mullins, 13 Adamson 
Road, Swiss Cottage, N.W. ; Mrs Gregory-Nicholson, 60 Lin- 
thorpe Road, Stamford Hill, N.W. ; Miss Violet Oakley, The 
Orphanage, Bany Road, Peckham, S.E. ; Miss M. Lindsay Oliver, 
6 Sinclair Mansions, Uxbridge Road, W. ; Miss Lilian Parkes, 
10 Berkeley Gardens, Campden Hill, W. ; Miss Roberts, 
Vernon House, 25 Wharton Street, W.C; Miss C. B. Rich- 
ardson, 9 Cranboume Court, Battersea Park, S.W. ; Miss 
Bertha Sedgwick, 18 Coleheme Road, S.W. ; Miss Alice 
Sedgwick, 18 Coleheme Road, S.W. ; Miss Alice Shand, Park- 
holme, Ehn Park Gardens, S.W. ; Miss Stuart, 98 Oakley Street, 
Chelsea, S.W. ; Miss Schulhof, 76 Palace Gardens Terrace, W. ; 
Miss Edith Schulhof, 76 Palace Gardens Terrace, W. ; Mrs 
Schwann, Merton Cottage, Merton, Surrey ; Miss Glady Salis- 
Schwabe, Royal Hospital, Chelsea, S.W. ; Miss Seeley, 25 Palace 
Gardens Terrace, W. ; Miss Anna Teodora, 37 S. Luke's 
Road, W. ; Mrs Vincent, 9 Stanhope Terrace, Hyde Park, W. ; 
Miss Winthrop, 82 Cromwell Road, S.W. ; Mrs Ward Young, 
60 Linthorpe Road, Stamford Hill, N. ; Miss Marion Russell, 
Artillery Mansions, Westminster, S.W. ; Miss E. G. Harris, 
Artillery Mansions, Westminster, S.W. ; Miss E. Bairdsmith, 81 
Lexham Gardens, Kensington, W. ; Mrs Andrew, Cathcart 
House, Cathcart Road, S.W. ; Mrs Galton, 36 Thurloe Square, 
South Kensington ; Miss Harrison, 24 Redcliffe Gardens, S.W. ; 
Mrs Stanhope-Jones, 8 Palace Mansions, Buckingham Gate ; Mrs 
Randolph, 13 South Street, Thurloe Square; Miss Fryer-Smith, 
St Cecilia's, 10 Albert Square, Stepney. 

Stewards for Convocation House. 

Miss Fortescue, St Antony's, 17 Great Prescot ^treet^ Read 
Steuwrd; Miss Davies-Cooke, 64 Princes Gate; Miss G. Browne, 
St Antony's, 17 Great Prescot Street, E. ; Miss G. Burke, 18 



8TEWABD8 FOR ST MARTIN'S TOWK HALL 25 

ColviUe Square, Bayswater ; Mrs Bomer, 17a Bayswater Terrace, 
W. ; Miss Broder, 9 John Street, May! air ; Miss T. Bagshawe, 
249 Cromwell Eoad, S.W. ; Miss U. Bagshawe, St CeciHa's, 10 
Albert Square, Stepney ; Mrs Collier, 6 Chester Square, S. W. ; 
Miss Clifford, 17 Lowndes Street, S.W.; Mrs Craigie, 56 
Lancaster Gate; Miss Donelan, 9 Queen Anne Terrace, Cam- 
bridge; Miss Evans, 122 Kennington Road; Miss M. Elliot, 
11 St George's Place; Miss Eyre, 9 John Street, Mayfair; 
Miss Faith, 10 Fitzroy Square, W. ; Mrs Gumey ; Miss de 
Gkina,. 20 Marloes Road, Kensington; Mrs Claude Hay, 77 
Cadogan Place; Miss Howard, St Cecilia's, 10 Albert Square, 
Stepney ; Miss E. Hall, St CecUia's, 10 Albert Square, Stepney ; 
Mrs Huth, 29 Alfred Place, West Thurloe Square ; Miss Hughes, 
29 Alfred Place, West Thurloe Square ; Miss O'C. Hayes, 37 St 
Lawrence Road, North Kensington ; Miss E. Hobson, 28 Rosary 
Ckudens, South Kensington; Miss Nora Logan, 6 Richmond 
Terrace, Whitehall; Miss C. Langdale, 6 Ovington Gardens, 
S. W. ; Miss Martindale, 64 Princes Gate ; Mrs Madden, 92 Mount 
Street ; Miss B. O'Reilly, 8 Adelphi Street, Strand ; Miss Maude 
Petze, 12 Camden Grove, Kensington; Miss Pownall, 130 Kens- 
ington Park Road, Bayswater; Miss Ray, 24 Princes Square, 
Bayswater; Miss Sutherland, 122 Kennington Road; Miss 
Streeter, 26 Onslow Square, S.W. ; Miss Laura Sheridan, 1 
Templeton Place, S.W. ; Miss Mary Stourton, 26 Onslow Square, 
S.W. ; Miss Tuke, St Cecilia's, 10 Albert Square, Stepney; Miss 
Ulcoq, 22 Pembridge Crescent, Bayswater; Miss Vasquez, 16 
Gordon Place, Kensington ; Mrs Watson, 1 Kingsley Mansions, 
West Kensington; Miss Watson, 1 Kingsley Mansions, West 
Kensington ; Miss Walker ; Miss M. H. Walker. 



Stewabds for St Mabtik's Town Hall. 

Miss Ayrton and Miss Ritter, Head Steuxvrda ; Mrs Arkwright 
Sutton, Scarsdale, Chesterfield ; Miss Kirwan, 26 Onslow Square, 
South Kensingon; Miss Mackenna, 3 Alexander Square, South 
Kensington ; Miss Maud Murphy, 3 Coleheme Road, S.W. ; Miss 
Gertrude Murphy, 3 Coleheme Road, S.W. ; Mrs Bailey ; Miss 
Baines; Miss Curtright; Miss Mabel Chaplin; Miss Phyllis 
Chaplin ; Mrs Cranstoun Charles ; Mrs Collier ; Miss Fell Smith ; 
Miss Festing ; Miss Foster ; Miss Gowa ; Miss Hervey ; Miss Hyam ; 
Miss Jacob; Miss Jaffins; Miss Keeling; Miss Mennell; Miss 
Morland ; Miss O'Brien ; Miss Owen ; Miss Peard ; Miss Preston ; 



26 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Miss Ransome Schonberg; Miss Shute; Miss Thies; Miss 
Tildesby ; Miss Toynbee ; Miss Woon ; Miss Vine. 

Staff of Clbkks employed in the Office of the Committee 
OF Arrangements under the superintendence of the 
Corresponding Secretary. 

Miss Pulley, Head Clerk ; Miss Temple ; Miss Miller ; Miss 
Hayland ; Miss Hadley ; Miss Powell ; Miss Dugdale. 

Superintendent of Inquiry Office under Miss Wilson during 
THE Congress — Miss Dale. 



MEETING OP THE EXECUTIVE 
COMMITTEE OP THE INTER- 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OP 
WOMEN. 



COUNCIL CHAMBER, WESTMINSTER TOWN HALL. 

MONDAY, JUNE 26, MORNING. 

The Countess of Aberdeen took the Chair as President, and 
there were present — Mrs May Wright Sewall, Vice-PreaiderU- 
aJb-Large ; Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, Treasurer; Mme. 
Oddo Deflou, representing the Recording Secretary (Mme. 
Martin) ; Miss Teresa F. Wilson, Corresponding Secretary ; Mrs 
Fanny Humphreys GafiEney, President of United States Council ; 
Mrs Boomer, representing the President of Canadian Council; 
Frau Annie Simson, representing the President of German 
Council; Fru Hierta-Retzius, President of Swedish Council; 
Lady Battersea, representing the President of British Council 
(Mrs Booth) ; Mrs D. E. Armitage, representing the President 
of New South Wales Council (Lady Hampden) ; Froken Forch- 
ammer, representing the President of Danish Council; Mme. 
EJerck van Hogendorp, President of Dutch Council ; Mrs Sidney 
Webb, representing the President of New Zealand Council (Mrs 
Sheppard) ; also the accredited Delegates from National Councils 
and the Honorary Vice-Presidents and Honorary Representatives 
of countries without a Council (present without a vote). 

The Precddent, in opening the proceedings, said she would not 
take up the time of the meeting further than to say how pleased 
she was to meet the delegates, and what an honour and privilege 
she felt it to occupy the chair. She was sure they would feel 
with her that the position had many difficulties, and that she 

27 



28 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

must depend both on their support and their indulgence. She 
would at once ask that the minutes of the last meeting might be 
read, unless the delegates of the different Ck>uncils present 
thought they might be taken as read, as the report of the last 
meeting had been sent to all the Councils. 

Mme. Elerck (Holland) moved that the minutes be taken as 
read. 

Bev. Anna Shaw ^Delegate, United States) suggested that 
the Conmiittee accept the minutes as correct. 

It was accordingly moved and seconded that the minutes be 
taken as read. 

Fran Sinuson (Qermany) wished to bring before the meeting 
a protest from the Qerman Council as to the length of notice 
given for the last Executive Meeting. They did not consider five 
weeks a sufficient notice. They also protested against Vice- 
Presidents having been appointed at that meeting. 

The President pointed out that the only officers appointed in 
March were Honorary Vice-Presidents ; regularly elected officers 
were only nominated. As to the notice of meeting, the meeting 
had been convened under the first Standing Order : — 

" I. The Meetings of the Executive Conunittee thall he convened hy 
the President or acting President <U such time and place as may seem 
to her desirable for the efficient conduct of the work of the Gowncil, 
Not less than four months' notice shall be given to each member^ wdess 
most urgent business compels the Committee being called together at 
shorter notice,'* 

She had called that meeting together, as she considered there was 
a good deal of urgent business, especially the federation of new 
Councils, which could not otherwise have taken place. 

If no other business arose out of the minutes, she must men- 
tion two resolutions of which she had given notice — one regarding 
the Executive, the other a matter of order. 

The first of these resolutions referred to the Headquarters of 
the National Council, the second to the future Congresses. 

Fran Simson (Germany) said that Miss Wilson had intimated 
that it was not definitely settled where the next meeting be held, 
as she thought it might be a mistake to hold the next Congress at 
Berlin, as so many subjects were not permitted to be discussed by 
women in Germany. She desired to ask what subjects would not 
be permitted ? At two meetings of the Executive, Berlin had been 
accepted as the centre for the next Congress. Why did the third 
meeting not accept that centre also ? 

MiBS Wilson (Corresponding Secretary) did not think that her 



MBETINO OF THE EXECUTIYE COMMITTEE 29 

remarks should be taken as more than an expression of opinion. 
Her views were based upon her experience of the Congress held 
at Berlin a few years ago, when she understood that there were 
police present at every meeting to prevent any discussion on 
matters of State, and one informal meeting was stopped. She 
was not present at that meeting herself, but thought others would 
bear out what she said. 

Fran Bieber Boehm (Delegate, Germany) considered Miss 
Wilson was qidte mistaken. She could have no knowledge of 
anything of the kind, and it would be preposterous to avoid 
Berlin for that reason. The police had nothing to do with such 
things. 

'Hie Prefiident, on being asked, gave her opinion that at this 
meeting members of the Executive only were asked to speak, 
and delegates were merely invited to attend. 

Hiss Susan B. Anthony (United States) read part of Article V . 
from the ^ncral Constitution of the Council, where it stated that 
'* the President and two delegates from every federated National 
Council, together with the general officers, shall alone have the 
right to vote." "Honorary Vice-Presidents and Presidents of 
Council which have not yet federated shall be invited to attend 
and take part in the Committee of Arrangements, but shall have 
no vote." 

The Prefiident was sorry if there was a mistake. The 
Executive consisted of members of National Councils only, and 
she read the clause from Article III. of the Constitution, which 
stated that : — 

'* The 5 general offieeri, with the vice-presidents, that is the pre- 
eidents of federateil National Councils, ihall constitute an Executive 
Committee, of which two-thirds of the whole number shall make 
a quorum, to control and provide for the general interests of the 
International UouneU. 

** In all countries where a National Council is not already 
organised or federated with the International Councilf some woman 
thall he elected to represent her country as honorary vice-president of 
thai, eount/ry in the International Council, untU such times as 
a National Council ihaU be fuUy organised and digiUe for member- 
thip in the International Council, All such honorary vice-presidents 
shall be invited to attend and take part in the meetings of the 
Executive, but sliall have no vote." 

Mrs May Wright SewaU (Vice-President) felt that the 
Article in the Constitution stating who constituted the Execu- 
tive Committee had been differently interpreted by different 
countries. Personally she had understood from Lady Aberdeen 



30 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

that this meeting was not a meeting of the Quinquennial Council^ • 
for the Quinquennial Council did not open formally until the 
afternoon, but that this was a purely formal meeting of the 
Executive to put the business into the hands of the whole work- 
ing Council for the subsequent business meetings. They were 
merely differing on a question of interpretation. In the United 
States they had always thought that the Executive Committee 
had charge of the affairs of the Council during the interim of the 
meetings. The whole matter turned upon whether this was the 
last meeting of the Executive in the interim of the quinquennial 
meetings, or the first meeting of the Executive for the quin- 
quennial. If for the quinquennial, then surely delegates should 
have the same rights as general officers; if for the interim, 
merely for the purpose of putting business into shape to hand 
over to the Council for the quinquennial, then it should be 
limited to officers, in accordance with the Article in the Con- 
stitution read by the President. 

The President considered that Mrs May Wright Sewall had 
put the point correctly. This was a meeting of the Executive in 
the interim — the last meeting — at which they hoped all business 
would be put into order and arranged. She had thought it right 
to ask Miss Wilson, when calling the meetiug, to enclose a notice 
asking delegates and vice-presidents to be present, as a matter 
of courtesy. It was now in the hands of the Executive to invite 
delegates and hon. vice-presidents to take part in the proceed- 
ings; equally, the Executive had the power to request the 
delegates to withdraw and hold a private meeting. 

Mrs Oreighton (Great Britain) asked why the delegates had 
had an agenda sent to them 1 

The Precddent said that this had been done at her request. 
The last Committee of Arrangements had come to the conclusion 
that hon. vice-presidents and fraternal delegates should not take 
part in the discussions ; she had therefore assumed, on the same 
principle, that the Executive only would take part in the 
discussion at the present meeting. 

Miss Wilson (Corresponding Secretary) stated that she had 
put in her letter that delegates might take part in the discussion. 
They had done so very largely at the last meeting, and had 
greatly influenced the feeling of the meetings. She had acted on 
the practice of the last five years. 

The President asked the meeting to decide whether or not 
they wished delegates and vice-presidents to take part in the 
discussions. 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 31 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) felt that the meet- 
ing would be very glad to have the advice of delegates ; if they 
were excluded from the meetings of the Quinquennial Executive 
it was simply because it was not thought possible that they could 
be present. 

She therefore moved : — 

" That ddegcUet of all National CouneiU present this morning be 
invited to take part in the discussion of this meeting should they so 
detire" 

This resolution was duly seconded and carried. 

Fran Simsan (Germany) asked when the list of nominations 
for the Council was to be laid before the Executive. 

The President explained that, according to the rules, the 
Nomination Ck)inmittee, consisting of one delegate from each 
Council, would be appointed that morning. This committee 
would consider all nominations that came in, and would report 
to the Council. 

CorrespondeDoe and Corresponding Secretary's Beport. 

Miss Wilson stated that she had a considerable amount of 
correspondence, but it mostly referred to business that would 
come on later. She read the report of what had been done since 
the last Executive. 

" I have pleasure in reporting that since our last meeting, on 
March 23, we have added still further to our numbers. The 
National Council of New Zealand has definitely applied for 
federation, which, according to instructions, I was empowered to 
accept, without waiting for their final proposal to be laid before 
the committee. Last week we received an intimation that the 
women of Tasmania had formed a National Council and desired 
to federate. I shall lay the story of their movement before you 
presently. This will make ten federated National Councils, all 
of which have their full representation here for the Quinquennial 
Sessions of 1899, and the very latest information to hand is that 
the women of Switzerland have now decided to form a National 
Council, but not in time for this quinquennial. In accordance 
with the powers granted at the last Executive to our President 
and myself to secure the representation of countries in which 
National Councils are not yet formed, I have to report a number 
of interesting particulars. We have been fortunate enough to 
secure the presence of Madame Bogelot, one of the ablest and 



32 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

most repreeentative women of France, appointed Chevalier de la 
Legion d'Honneur after her mission on the part of the Gk>vem- 
ment of France to Chicago in 1893, with Mile. Sarah Monod 
as delegate, who is head of a large section of women workers in 
France, and who will, we hope, carry back to her fellow-country- 
women fuller knowledge of the Council movement. In many 
cases it has seemed imperative for the spread of the Council and 
for its future interests that there should be appointed a delegate 
as well as an hon. vice-president for certain countries, and 
especially when there is the prospect of a not very remote move 
towards the formation of a National Council. We felt it 
possible to arrange for this, inasmuch as the position carried 
with it no voting power, but only the right to hear and learn all 
that can be got out of this great gathering. The Committee of 
Italy, for the formation of a Council, have desired Mrs Crawshay, 
who is so well known and beloved by them all, to represent 
Countess Tavema, and we are glad to have with us also Signora 
Lodi, from Rome. The Russian Committee did not appoint 
a second delegate, but we have with us the secretary of that 
committee, Madame Boubnoff, as well as Dr Kosakevitch- 
Stephanof^kaia, who represents the President. From Hungary 
comes Frau Engel, as delegate. At our last Executive we elected 
Mrs Bear-Crawford as vice-president for Victoria, as we knew 
the splendid work she was doing in Melbourne. At her earnest 
request, Janet, Lady Clarke, was invited to join as her fellow- 
representative, and she remains now as sole representative for 
her colony, as Mrs Bear-Crawford was a few weeks ago carried 
away by a sharp and sudden illness. I trust that this Executive 
will realise what a serious loss this is, not only to her fellow-workers 
in Melbourne, but also in all that concerns the International 
Council. Twenty-seven societies, in 16 different towns of Norway, 
have written to appoint Miss Gina Krog as their representative 
at these meetings, and we have invited her to accept the position 
of hon. vice-president. The Agents-General of South Australia, 
West Australia and Queensland have kindly helped us to find 
hon. vice-presidents for these respective colonies, so that we are 
honoured in having with us to-day, as hon. vice-presidents, Mrs 
Cockbum and Mrs Wittenoom, wives of the Agents-General for 
South Australia and West Australia respectively, as well as Mrs 
Gawler, who has spent most of her life in Australia, and Mrs 
Fisher, to whom Sir Horace Tozer has kindly given us an intro- 
duction as hon. vice-president for Queensland. Cape Colony has 
responded nobly to the appeal made to her. A committee was 



MBBTINO OF THB EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 33 

summoned of all the societies, both of Cape Town and the 
country districts, and they have officially sent to this gathering 
two ladies duly appointed to represent the town and country 
interests, namely, Mrs Stewart, of Lovedale, and Mrs Nixon, at 
present in London. I must add that there is a considerable 
contingent of members of this committee present in London, and . 
that the greatest interest is taken in ;the Council movement. 
The same story may be told of the Argentine Republic, where, 
at a gathering of the 9 societies of Buenos Ayres and district, 
Dr Cecilia Grierson was duly elected to attend these quin- 
quennial meetings. She also has been appointed hon. vice- 
president. India still remains a problem. We have Mrs Flora 
Annie Steele with us, who has kindly consented to act in a semi- 
official position to-day, and Miss Mary Bhor as second represen- 
tative. I have also to report that some 10 Indian ladies at 
present in London have been invited, at Miss Manning's request, 
to be present at our gathering this afternoon, as silent represen- 
tatives of the great numbers of their countrywomen. From 
Persia we welcome Mrs James Neilson Hamilton, wife of the 
American Consul there, who was elected vice-president last July. 
The Chinese Ambassador to England has carried out the pro- 
mise made by Sir Henry Chesney that a Chinese lady delegate 
should be appointed ; and we will have with us a lady of dis- 
tinguished family, Madame Shen, who will be present this after- 
noon, as hon. vice-president, with an interpreter. At the earnest 
request of Iceland we have invited Froken Sief ansson to represent 
her country. The ratification of these appointments for the 
present session is asked for from this Executive, pending the 
election of hon. vice-presidents for the next quinquennial period. 

"The following International Societies have undertaken to 
send fraternal delegates : — 

Bureau International Permanent de la Paix — Miss Ellen 

Robinson. 
Federation Abolitionniste G^nerale — ^Mlle. Camille Vidart. 
General Federation of Women's Clubs — Mrs William B. 

Lowe. 
Union Internationale des Amies de la Jeune Fille — 

Mme. de Tschamer de Watteville. 
World's Women's Christian Temperance Union — Miss Agnes 

Slack. 
World's Young Women's Christian Association — Mrs 

Tritton. 

VOL. I. c 



34 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

International League of Press Clubs — Mrs Cynthia West- 
over Alden. 

" At the Committee of Arrangements which met on Thursday 
last, it was decided that these fraternal delegates be permitted to 
attend the open sessions of the Council as listeners only, and 
without vote, with the exception, of course, of the public meeting 
this afternoon. It was also agreed that members of Council—^ 
i.e., members of federated National Councils — should not be 
permitted to join in discussion at the business sessions of the 
Council, except by express permission of the Council. The first 
meeting of the International Finance Committee was held on 
Saturday, June 24th, when various questions were discussed and 
the names of patrons proposed." 

The adoption of Miss Wilson's report was moved by Fru 
Betzius (Sweden), seconded by Fru Norrie (Denmark), and 
carried. 

Frau Sinuson (Germany) pointed out that there were so many 
different delegates that some misunderstanding had arisen, and in 
Germany they did not consider it quite right to use the word 
delegate on all occasions. 

The President explained that the names of accredited official 
delegates only were printed in the front page of the hand-book, 
and they were the only ones recognised as delegates. 

Bev. Anna Shaw thought the difficulty arose because it had 
been arranged that there were to be honorary delegates as well 
as ordinary delegates. Several ladies had come to her in the hall 
that morning, and asserted that they were delegates, and she 
found from their papers that they were really only honorary 
delegates. 

Miss Wilson (Corresponding Secretary) said that this difficulty 
had occurred again and again. Printed slips had been sent out 
stating that no society could send a delegate, but it seemed 
impossible to make people understand. 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) wished to move a 
resolution that would clear the matter up. She knew the 
difficulty and sympathised with Miss Wilson, but thought it a 
great mistake for the word "Delegate" to have been printed 
in connection with the representatives of societies. In many 
cases representatives were not elected to come at all ; they were 
invited as speakers, through the courtesy of the International 
Executive, and it would clear the matter up if this mistake could 
be corrected in all subsequent printed matter. Many people from 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 35 

her own country would never have been considered as delegates 
at all, and she did not wish them, on their return to America, to 
have one scrap of paper that could in any way give a false impres- 
sion as to who were the accredited delegates to the International 
Council. 

After discussion it was decided to use the word honorary 
" Representative " instead of " Delegate," and Mrs May Wright 
Sewall accordingly moved : — 

'* That in all tubsequerU printing rdaiing to this Quinquennial, the 
name * accredited' shall be applied only to delegates duly elected by 
Affiliated National Councils. That ladies invited to represent countries 
where National Cowneils are not yet formed shall be called * Honorary 
Vice-Presidents* and * Honorary jRepresentatives,' That ladies in- 
vited to represent iTUemational Societies shall be called *Fralemal 
JRepresentativcs, * " 

Pm Betzius (Sweden) seconded this resolution, which was 
carried. 

Fran Bieber Boehm (Germany) hoped it would be possible to 
have a very clear understanding put in the newspapers on this 
subject. 

The President also thought this advisable, and then, asked 
whether the committee desired to have the Report of the Inter- 
national Council submitted to them ? 

Lady Battersea (Great Britain) moved, and Mrs Gaffiiey 
(United States) seconded — 

'* That the Quinquennial Report of the International Council of 
Women be taken as read" 

But Mrs Creighton (Great Britain) thought that the Report 
of the International should be heard, and Lady Battersea accord- 
ingly withdrew her resolution. 

Miss Wilson then read the Report, the adoption of which, 
for submission to the Council, was moved by Ite May Wright 
Sewall, seconded by Mrs Armitage, and carried. 

Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg (Treasurer) then read the 
Treasurer's Report for the term ending June 1899. 

Rbceipts — 

British National Council, 

Canadian, tf >» ... 

New South Wales, „ 

Grenuan, mi* ... 

Carryforward, £80 



£20 








20 








20 








20 









36 



INTBRNATIONAX COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



Broug^ht forward, 



n 



»♦ 



£80 
20 12 6 



4 

2 

20 

20 

2 



















 i 


148 12 


Jj 


£20 










22 


2 


5 




50 


9 


9 




2 


8 


7 




6 


6 


3 




1 


11 


6 




1 


4 


3 




17 


2 




2 


2 







41 


10 


7 




148 


12 


6 



Swedish, „ 
Daniah, „ 
Dutch, M 

United States, „ 

Mrs J. Nielflon Hamilton, 
Mrs Walter Barrett, 



EXPKNDITUBI for year ending June 1899 — 
Office Bent, 

Salaries for Secretarial Work, 
Printing and Stationery, 
Typewriting, 

Postages, letters and Telegrams, 
Messenger Call Box, etc. — 

Telegraphic Address, 
Travelling Expenses, 
Sundry Expenses, 
DurranVs Press Gutting Agency, 
Balance in Hand, 



I have examined the above accounts with the vouchers, and found them 
correct. (Signed) M. S. Clugston, Accountant. 

Mrs Gaffiiey (United States) moved, and Fran Sinuson 
(Grennany) seconded the adoption of this Report. 

The fresident stated that only 3 National Councils had 
appointed memhers to the Finance Committee — the United 
States, Canada and Great Britain. The first meeting of the 
Finance Committ^ had taken place on Saturday last, when 
the proceedings were of an informal character, and it was 
hoped that at the end of the International Congress another 
meeting of this committee might be held to consider the 
financial arrangements of the Council. She reminded delegates 
that each country would be requested to appoint a member to 
the Finance Conmiittee. 

The next business on the agenda was the application for 
federation from the National Council of Tasmania. Mrs Dobeon 
had brought the request from the Tasmanian Council; would 
she state the grounds on which the application was made ? 

Mrs Bobson (Tasmania) stated that, after receiving Miss 
Wilson's letter, every Society of Women was communicated 
with, and a meeting held in Hobart. At that National Council 



MEETING OF THE EXECXTTIYE COMMITTEE 37 

meeting Lady Gk)rman8ton was appointed President, Lady Hamil- 
ton and Mrs Dobson, delegates, and in that capacity she was 
immediately sent to England to express the strong desire of the 
Tasmanian Women for affiliation to the International Council. 

The President was sure that the committee would appreciate 
the energy of Mrs Dobeon in starting at 24 hours' notice. 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) asked how many 
societies were represented in the Tasmanian National Council ? 

Mrs Dohfion (Tasmania) replied that there were about 10 
Northern societies, and about the same number of Southern ones. 

(Hiss Wilson read the names of the societies). 

Iiady Hamilton (Tasmania) stated that great progress had 
been made in women's work in Tasmania. If sympathy were 
wanted they need only go to that country, though it was ''at 
the far ends of the earth." 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) moved, Lady 
Battersea seconded, and it was carried : — 

** TTiot the application far membership of the Tagmanian Nationai 
Cowncil to the IrUemational Cowncil he accepted.'* 

The President assumed the willingness of Tasmania to pay 
the federation fee. 

Mrs Dobson said that was quite understood. 

The President begged Mrs Dobson to convey the hearty 
welcome of the International Council of Women to the women 
of Tasmania. At the last meeting of the Executive it had been 
decided to empower the International Council to accept the 
application of New Zealand to affiliate on certain conditions. 
She would like the correspondence placed before the Executive 
to be read. 

Miss Wilson (Corresponding Secretary) quoted extracts from 
the New Zealand letter. ... "It was resolved, on April 15th, 
that the National Council of the Women of New Zealand should 
affiliate . . . with an entrance fee of £10, and that £2 only 
be sent to London, with £1 further for stationery. ... It 
was decided to ask Mrs Reeves, Mrs Sidney Webb, and Mrs 
M<]lo6h Clarke to act as delegates ; if these ladies were unable 
to do so, it was resolved to ask Miss Wilson to appoint a suitable 
delegate or delegates." 

Fran Simson (Germany) begged the Council to take into 
consideration the fact that the acceptance of reduced fees might 
be dangerous.. Councils paying reduced fees received equal rights 
and had not equal duties. 



38 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) said the President 
had requested her to explain what had happened at the meeting 
of the Finance Committee. They approved of the action of the 
Executive, held in March, in accepting these Councils at a fifth of 
the stipulated quinquennial fee; inasmuch sls the full fee for 
five years was J&20, so many Councils had come in within the last 
year that if they paid J&4 each the Finance Committee found it 
wise to approve of that action, and to recommend that it be 
endorsed by the Council. At the same time there was a very 
strong expression of opinion, and in the end a unanimous agree- 
ment, that all Councils should be held to the payment of the full 
quinquennial fee — i.e.f £20 for the 5 years. The recommenda- 
tion in the Constitution was that this fee might hereafter be paid 
in annual instalments of £4 a year, but it also recommended the 
Finance Committee that no abatement be made with reference to 
the size of the Council. Her ground for speaking thus was simply 
the logical ground that the quinquennial term was approaching 
its end, and while the quinquennial session was the climax of the 
quinquennial period, and gave great pleasure and profit, at the 
same time it could not be considered as equivalent for the training 
that the Councils had received in working through the term. 
These new Councils did not abate their fees one bit, because in 
the next quinquennial term they would be expected to pay the 
full fee ; they simply paid a fifth part for entering at this time. 

Mrs Dizson (New South Wales) remonstrated that New 
South Wales had only entered last year but had yet paid the 
whole sum of £20. She did not see why, because they came in 
last year, they should pay the full £20 and other societies 
coining in this year only a reduced fee. 

Mre May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) had much sym- 
pathy with that view. In the beginning she had not voted 
for the abatement of the fee at any time, because she was so 
much in sympathy with the movement that she thought any 
Council should consider it a privilege to federate with the 
International Council ; but it might be borne in mind that for 
a good many years the United States had borne the entire 
expenses of keeping this idea alive, and those expenses had 
amounted to considerably more than $500 a year; therefore 
she hoped that no Council that had paid its fee in full would 
feel aggrieved, but realised that it had had the pleasure of doing 
its full duty. 

Mrs Creighton (Great Britain) said that Great Britain had 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 39 

only joined last year, but they had offered no complaint as to the 
payment of the full fee. 

Hiss Wilson (Corresponding Secretary) explained that the 
matter had been brought up at the Executive Meeting last July, 
when it was decided that only a Council applying for a reduction 
of fee should have the matter considered. If Councils sent in no 
application for reduction, it was felt that they must pay the 
whole amount. 

This decision was printed after the meeting and circulated 
to all countries and Councils. Every Council had the right to 
apply for a reduction. This was pointed out in the course of 
correspondence with Mrs Armitage, therefore, when no notice 
came, they concluded that the New South Wales Council would 
be generous enough to send the whole fee, which they did. 

After some little discussion it was found that Mrs Armitage, 
in a letter to Miss Wilson, had stated that it was on the 27th 
of February 1898 that the New South Wales Council had 
decided on the payment of the whole fee. 

Mrs Dixson (New South Wales) asked whether, having paid 
the whole foe of £20 so lately, they would be required to pay an 
equal amount for the next quinquennial term. 

The President replied that this would be so. 

Bev. Anna Shaw (United States) pointed out that the resolu- 
tion passed by the Executive Committee as to the reduction of fee 
was contrary to the Constitution, which stated that the foe should 
be £20. No resolution passed by the Executive on this subject 
was valid, but at the same time it seemed reasonable to her that 
this reduction should be considered, and she should certainly be 
in favour of it, but not in favour of the Executive passing the 
resolution. She had been approached on the subject many times 
when delegates had been admitted to Quinquennial Meeting with 
fuU powers of voting, and the only way she could see out of the 
difficulty was that they were not now legislating for past con- 
ditions, and that in future all Councils would be held strictly 
responsible for the same amount of money and would have 
to obey the laws of the Council. 

The President mentioned that at the last two Executive 
meetings, in 1897 and 1898, a number of amendments to the 
Standing Orders had been proposed. It had been agreed to act 
on these amendments, though, of course, they had not been formally 
accepted, and to try how they worked. 

Mrs May Wri^t Sewall (Vice-President) explained that no 



40 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

provision had been made in many instances, as they had no Bye-laws 
and no Standing Orders on several points. It had therefore seemed 
to the Executive that a plan should be arranged by which 
preparations for the Quinquennial might be continued, and that 
by sending out these propositions to the different Councils, the 
Executive would be enabled to move forward on the lines 
indicated by the proposed amendments, trusting that their work 
for the preparation of the Quinquennial would be accepted by the 
Council. 

Mrs Gaffney (United States) agreed with Rev. Anna Shaw in 
considering the action of the Executive Committee invalid. They 
could not go against the Constitution. At the same time she 
had great sympathy with the Executive, and would move to have 
their action endorsed, but she wished to point out that it was a 
most dangerous precedent to establish. There were a number of 
Councils organising, and as the international quinquennial term 
drew near, they naturally became infused with ardour, and with 
a wish to share in the meetings and other advantages. During 
the other four years they did not think so much about it, and it 
seemed wrong that a Council should be taken in and given full 
responsibility at the last moment. Of course she believed in the 
honest intention of those who joined, but the instalment system 
left open the possibility of a Council joining just before the 
quinquennial sessions and not continuing the subscription. 

The President did not think that could be done. The matter 
would come before the Council on the report of the Finance 
Committee. Would delegates now appoint members of Councils 
for the Nominating Committee ? 

The following appointments were made : — United States, Miss 
Susan B. Anthony ; Great Britain, Lady Laura Ridding ; Canada, 
Mrs Willoughby Cummings; Germany, Frau Bieber Boehm; 
Sweden, Froken Gertrud Adclborg; New South Wales, Mrs 
Dixson ; Denmark, Fru Charlotte Norrie ; Holland, Miss Kra- 
mers ; Tasmania, Lady Hamilton, and 2 ladies from New Zealand 
to be nominated later. 

Mrs 6afl&iey moved and Mrs Boomer seconded the appoint- 
ment of the Nominating Committee. 

Rev. Anna Shaw (United States) wished to ask a question with 
regard to the duties of the Nominating Committee. Were they 
to select from the names sent in persons whom they would recom- 
mend being elected to serve as officers of the International Council, 
or had they the power of accepting or rejecting names 1 If so, 



MKETIXG OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 41 

they would practically be the electing body of the whole 
International Council. 

The President understood that the names ,o£ all candidates 
were to be submitted to the Nominating Committee, the com- 
mittee adding their own recommendation as to which candidates 
they considered best able to servo on the International Council. 
Discussion of respective qualifications of candidates was best 
conducted in private, and for this purpose the Nominating 
Committee was appointed. 

Fran Bieber Boehm (Germany) had an amendment to pro- 
pose with regard to the Constitution and the election of officers, 
but the President explained that no amendment could be 
accepted now; it would have to be given notice of for the 
next meeting. 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) asked into whose 
hands the corresponding secretaries were to entrust the report 
from their respective National Councils ? 

The President thought it would be the universal wish of the 
Executive that Miss Susan B. Anthony should undertake to be 
the convener and chairman of this Committee, as she represented 
the oldest Council. 

Miss Susan B. Anthony (United States) was greatly honoured 
and accepted the nomination. 

Fran Simson (Germany) asked whether it was understood 
that the international officers must all be members of the 
National Councils of those countries where there were affiliated 
National Councils. She thought this was understood, but it had 
not been definitely expressed and the order should be amended. 

Baroness Alexandra Oripenbeig (Treasurer) quite agreed 
with Frau Simson. She quite understood that at the beginning 
of the movement, when there were very few Councils, it was 
necessary to appoint international officers from countries where 
there were no affiliated Councils, but now the movement had 
grown so much that it would be much better to appoint officers 
only from the countries where National Councils were affiliated. 

The President pointed out that no notice of motion had been 
brought forward on this question. There was no rule to that 
effect now. Notice of motion could be given. 

She asked the Executive Committee to appoint the maimer in 
which the election of officers should be conducted — by a show of 
hands or by ballot. 

Bev. Anna Shaw (United States) did not think the Executive 



42 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

ought to assume the authority of the Convention. The question of 
how the voting should be done should be brought before the body 
that had to vote, not before the committee, which had no power. 

Mrs Creighton (Great Britain) suggested that the Executive 
should decide to have the election by ballot ; the ballot papers 
would then be got ready, and if the larger body decided on a 
show of hands there would then be no cause for delay. 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) moved, Mrs 
OaflQiey seconded, and it was carried : — 

" That it it the reeommefidation of the Executive that the election 
be by haUat.*' 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) stated that she 
had two nominations for international patrons from the National 
Council of the United States. It gave her much pleasure to 
bring before the Executive the names of Mrs Alison Bybee 
and of Mrs MacLeine, both of whom were patrons of the 
National Council of the United States. 

The President stated that any person whose name was 
accepted by the committee might become a patron on the pay- 
ment of £20. 

Mrs Boomer (Canada) nominated Mrs Sanford of Hamilton, 
Canada, president of the Local Council of Hamilton, as an 
international patron. 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) moved the 
acceptance of these 3 ladies. 

The President said she knew that there was a desire felt by 
many members of Council to be able to invite women who had 
done good work for women in different countries to occupy an 
honorary position on the Council. There was a difference of 
opinion as to the method in which this should be done, but she 
would give notice that she would submit to the Council, in case 
the proposal was carried to elect councillors, the names of Mrs 
Julia Howe, Miss Susan B. Anthony, Miss Clara Barton, Miss 
Florence Nightingale and Miss Frances Power Cobbe as 
councillors. 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) said that should 
the motion to invite councillors be carried, she would like to 
propose Miss Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 

A delegate proposed Miss Octavia HiU. 

Speakers were then appointed to move the different resolutions 
on the agenda. 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 43 

Miss Wilson (Oorresponding Secretary) asked the permission of 
the Committee to have the resolution with regard to the inter- 
national means of communication, through the Press, brought 
before the meeting of journalists on Friday afternoon, as she 
felt it was a very fit resolution for that meeting. 

Permission was granted. 

The President announced that it had been arranged at the 
Council meeting that the amendments of Constitution and the 
proposed Standing Orders should be taken at one of the later 
meetings, when it had been seen how the provisional standing 
orders had acted. 

Bev. Anna Shaw (United States) understood that nothing 
could be brought before the Council which had not been sub- 
mitted to the Executive. She felt that the Constitution, as it at 
present stood, was an undignified Constitution and ought not to 
go out as representing so important a body. Could not a com- 
mittee be appointed whose duty it should be to revise that 
Constitution and separate it into its component parts ? 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) wished the Con- 
stitution could be revised. She was in sympathy with the 
general view, but thought they need not wait five years before 
this revision was made. It seemed possible to at once pass a 
resolution, to appoint a committee to take the Constitution and 
the Standing Rules in order, to make a separation and correct 
arrangements as suggested by Rev. Anna Shaw. This was very 
desirable, because one of the difficulties arose from things not 
being in their logical order. It was not anyone's fault; the 
Constitution was an old one, but they had had it as a basis to 
work on. She would now move : — 

*' That from the voting officers of the CowieU at this Qavwpunnial 
Sestion, a committee shall be formed to whom the Constitution and 
Standing Rules shall be referred^ after the amendments have been acted 
upon^ with instnietions to arrange the same in proper order under the 
three heads — the Constitution, Bye-laws and Standing Bides, That 
these, €is thus arranged by the committee, shall be printed and the 
information sent out from the Council during the next Quinquennial 
period, and that this Committee shall be instructed to consider and 
recommend such other amendm,enis of ConstittUion, Bye-laws and 
Standing Rules as may seem to them desirable to be acted upon at the 
next QMinquennial Session,** 

Mrs Oailney (United States) seconded the resolution, which 
was carried, and the adjournment of the meeting was then moved 
by her. 



PUBLIC MEETING OP 

CONVOCATION HALL OF CHURCH HOUSE, 
DEAN^S YARD, WESTMINSTER. 



MONDAY, JUNE 26, AFTERNOON. 

The countess OF ABERDEEN in the Chair. 

The International Council of Women opened its Quinquennial 
Meeting of 1899 by a public meeting of welcome to the delegates. 
The Westminster Town Hall, which had first been engaged for 
this gathering, having proved far too small to accommodate the 
applicants for tickets, the Convocation Hall of the Church 
House was secured, and it was announced that only holders of 
the International Congress tickets would be admitted. There 
was an overflowing attendance in every part of the large hall, 
and many members of Congress, unfortunately, found it impos- 
sible to gain an entrance. 

The platform was beautifully decorated with palms and roses, 
and the stately hall presented a brilliant scene of brightness and 
colour. 

The Countess of Aberdeen, President of the International 
Council of Women and of the International Congress convened 
by that Council, occupied the Chair, and around her on the plat- 
form were grouped the International Officers, the official Delegates 
of the ten Federated National Councils of Women ; the honorary 
Vice-Presidents and honorary representatives of the countries 
where no Councils have yet been formed; and the fraternal 
representatives of societies internationally organised. One side 
of the hall was reserved for the members of the various Congress 
committees and for the invited speakers, and the other side and 
the galleries were open to all members of Congress. 

44 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS ' 45 

On taking the Chair, the President was presented with a mag- 
nificent bouquet of roses by Miss Marjorie Mackenzie Davidson, 
the little daughter of Mrs Mackenzie Davidson, the Secretary of 
the Hospitality Oommittee. 

Some letters of apology having been read by Miss Teresa F. 
Wilson, Corresponding Secretary, the Countess of Aberdeen pro- 
ceeded to the delivery of her 



Presidential Address. 

Members of the International Council of Women, I welcome you 
in the name of the holy bond that unites us, and I pray Gk)d that 
He may direct us in the discharge of our high duties. 

I have never before had the opportunity of personally thank- 
ing the members of the International Council for the honour they 
did me in electing me their President in 1893. That position 
was unsought by me, and in accepting it I little knew what it 
involved, and had no conception of the work it entailed. All 
was new, and I know that I have made many mistakes. I can 
only crave forgiveness for these mistakes, and at the same time 
thajik my colleagues for all their many kindnesses and for- 
bearance. 

My friends and sisters, on behalf of the International Council, 
I convey to you heartfelt thanks for all that you have done on 
behalf of the Coimcil in your own countries, and for the effort 
you have made to be present with us to-day, many of you coming 
from great distances at much personal expense and inconvenience. 
There is not time to offer you each a personal welcome, but I 
beg you to believe in the genuineness of our greeting, and in our 
desire to make you each and all feel at home. 

For 1 1 years our Council has been evolving itself, until to-day 
we can greet the delegates of 9 organised and federated National 
Councils formed successively in the 

United States of America, 

Canada, 

Grermany, 

Sweden, 

Great Britain and Ireland, 

New South Wales, 



46 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Denmark, 

Holland, 

New Zealand, 

Tasmania^ 
and the representatives of 6 other countries or colonies where the 
women are preparing to join us, and where committees have been 
formed to work in co-operation with us, — 

Italy, 

Austria, 

Russia, 

Switzerland, 

Norway, 

Cape Colony, 

Victoria. 
And besides these, we have the pleasure of seeing with us Vice 
Presidents from— 

France, 

Belgium, 

China, 

Persia, 

India, 

The Argentine Republic, 

Iceland, 

Palestine. 
It is well that before we enter on our labours we should be 
given an opportunity to meet one another face to face, as we 
do this afternoon, and as we shall do this evening at Stafford 
House, and as we take one another by the hand, to pledge our- 
selves to be true to our common allegiance, and to endeavour 
to live and act and speak throughout this Congress in the spirit 
of that unity after which we strive. 

In each of the countries represented the movement is probably 
taking shape differently, according to the genius and spirit of 
each people, and this is, above all, what we desire, so that our 
National Councils may in very truth be national in character. 

But this difference must involve different modes of thought 
and expression on the various subjects to be considered, and I 
venture to claim special indulgence from our members of Congress 
for all our delegates and visitors on this score, so that care should 
be taken rightly to understand and duly weigh points of view 
which may be new to us, and therefore apt to be misapprehended. 
And that same indulgence I beg to ask now for myself while I 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 47 

attempt to open this Congress with a few general remarks on the 
objects which have brought us together, but which I cannot hope 
will appeal to all alike. 

It may not be out of place to consider for a moment the 
character of the allegiance to which we, the members of this 
International Council, have committed ourselves. 

"The International Council." 

Let me remind members of Congress who it is we include 
under that designation — that the " International Council " con- 
sists of National Councils established in the various countries 
already mentioned, and that these National Councils consist in 
their turn of National Societies and of Local Councils or Unions, 
which again are federations of the local societies, institutions 
and organisations, the manifold operations of which are so familiar 
to us. 

It will be asked. How in the world can such a conglomeration 
of associations existing in so many different countries, and formed 
for so many various objects, some actually opposed to one an- 
other, and comprising hundreds of thousands of women of different 
religions, different races and upbringing, have an intelligible pur- 
pose and work together for a practical end ? 

And yet we claim that in the very variety of opinions and 
ideas and methods of work which exist amongst us lies our 
raison cPStre, the centre and kernel of our being. For the unity 
which it is our aim to seek after does not lie in identity of organisa- 
tion or identity of dogma, but in a common consecration to the 
service of humanity in the spirit of that love which we hail as the 
greatest thing in the world. 

Adhesion to the golden rule, and an undertaking to further 
its application, as far as possible, to all relations of life, is the 
one passport required for admission to our Council. " Do unto 
others as ye would they would do unto you " — that is our rule, 
and we freely grant to all the same liberty of interpretation that 
we claim for ourselves as to how that law should be applied. 

This may appear to some pure idealism, and idealism of a 
nature unlikely to be of any practical value. This is not^ how- 
ever, our view or experience. True, it precludes us from organ- 
ising ourselves in favour of any one propaganda at the cost of 
another. The founders of the Council who formulated our Con- 
stitution wisely foresaw that if we identified ourselves with any 



48 INTEBKATIOXAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

movement of a controversial character, that we should sacrifice 
forthwith the very essence of the Council idea which is to provide 
a common centre for women workers of every race, faith, class 
and party, who are associating themselves together in the en- 
deavour to leave the world better and more beautiful than they 
have found it. 

How, then, do we propose to make this heterogeneous union 
effectual for good ? 

I think that many of us in this hall will be able to answer 
that question with more conviction at the close of these Council 
and Congress meetings than at their commencement. That at 
least was the experience of those who attended the Women's 
Congress at Chicago ; and our Council hopes that the gathering 
they have convened of women experienced in work of various 
kinds in various parts of the world will result not only in an 
enlargement of our minds, but in an understanding of one 
another, in an appreciation of one another's work, and a realisa- 
tion of one another's difficulties, which will so strengthen the 
bonds of love and faith which unite us as to make the Inter- 
national Council a very living reality for good. 

We may know much about one another through books and 
reports, but to look upon one another's faces and to discuss ques- 
tions of deep moment from our various standpoints must place us 
on an entirely different relationship for ever after. 

Thus, knowing and trusting one another, we shall be in a 
position to act together when called upon in one of those emer- 
gencies where all can co-operate for the good of our common 
humanity. Such an emergency calls to us at the present moment, 
and illustrates how practical action can be taken by the Council 
when occasion arises. More than two years ago two of our 
National Councils gave notice of a resolution which would pledge 
us to further the movement for International Arbitration. This 
resolution has been submitted to all our National Councils, and I 
understand that all are unanimous in their opinion that this is a 
question which we may regard as having passed the controversial 
stage, and which the International Council should place in the 
foremost place on its programme. If, then, this resolution is passed 
at the meeting convened at the Queen's Hall to-morrow nighty 
which we hope you will all attend, it will become our duty and our 
privilege to join hands with the noble band of men and women 
who have been labouring for this blessed cause for years, some of 
whom we have the honour now to see around us, and with them 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 49 

welcome the dawn of that golden age when war shall be no 
more. 

I have mentioned this great movement, which it will be in our 
power to advance in all the different countries represented here, 
only as an illustration of how the constitution of our Council 
puts us in a position to unite scattered forces for effective work 
when the moment comes for such action. 

Let me now turn for a moment to internal organisation, and 
show how we have it in our power to take a very practical step 
for the benefit of women workers the world over during these 
Council meetings, if we accept a resolution which has been sub- 
mitted to us, for the establishment of an International Bureau of 
Information regarding all that affects women, their education, 
work, position, opportunities, in all countries, and to which all 
women and associations of women can have access on the payment 
of a small fee. 

But this needs some money, and I must not anticipate the 
decision of the Council, nor must I dwell on the Congress itself, and 
on the rich provision which has been made, as may be seen from 
our programmes, for gathering a harvest of knowledge and ex- 
perience from the exchange of views which we have invited. 

I wish, however, to lay stress on one particular feature of our 
Congress which is not sufficiently recognised. This is a Women's 
International Congress ; but it will be noticed that we have 
secured the assistance of a number of gentlemen on our platforms ; 
that we gratefully accept gentlemen patrons ; and that many of 
the associations which are represented here through the National 
Councils with which they are federated are organisations com- 
posed of men and women working together. And I think that 
the great majority of us feel that this is as it should be. 

The present age has with much reason been called the 
Woman's Age, and truly the last 50 years have produced a 
revolution in the position, responsibilities and opportunities of 
women, and the whole face of social life and philanthropy has 
been changed thereby. 

It was inevitable that one of the outcomes of this revolution 
should be the formation of associations and unions of women of 
all kinds and varieties for mutual help and work, for self -education 
and training, and for the attainment of objects of all sorts and 
conditions which are conceived to be for the welfare of the 
feminine sex or of the world in general. And this phase has 
been a necessary one. When woman found her life expanding 

VOL. I T) 



50 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

80 fast in every direction, she had to endeavour to fit herself for 
the new conditions, and an apprenticeship to the new work had 
to be gone through. 

And younger women who have been bom into this new age 
can scarcely realise what the weight of responsibility has meant 
to those who have gone before. 

The pioneer women who first broke down the barriers which 
had been closed so firmly against the participation of our mothers 
in higher education, or in any public duties whatsoever, had but 
barely finished their task, and the road was as yet rough and 
new, but yet the call seemed an imperative one to go forward and 
take up duties which appeared to us sacred and pressing, and at 
the same time to show that this could be done without sacrifice 
of our womanliness. 

Remember, scarce a university, if any, had opened its doors 
to us, our teachers had been of the old school, we were untutored 
and untrained, and all we could do was to go forward and " do 
the next thynge.*' 

What wonder if we quickly learnt to find shelter for our 
inexperience and our want of training in one another's support, 
and if by thus learning and working together we found the truth 
of the old maxim that in ^* union is strength ? " 

These associations which have now grown to such vast 
dimensions, and which wield so real a power, have been and are 
full of usefulness. 

They have taught the women of our day lessons of co-opera- 
tion and fellowship which they could scarcely have learnt other- 
wise. They have instilled in us some understanding of how to 
act together in constitutional fashion, bowing to the majority but 
respecting the rights of the minority, and perhaps, through some- 
what trying experiences, we have learnt to value the contrast 
between despotic and democratic government. 

But there are many of us who, whilst rejoicing in the ma.ny 
new opportunities which have year by year been thus won for 
women, and in the increased sense of responsibility regarding 
public and social life amongst women, which must effect so much 
for the country, yet have always felt that the banding together 
of ourselves apart from men for various objects must be regarded 
in most cases as a temporary expedient to meet a temporary 
need, and that it must not be allowed to crystallise into a 
permanent element in social life. 

Man was not meant to live eAone-'—btU still less was woman. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 51 

Are not all these societies confined to one sex or the other, 
dividing the life of the race in a way not intended by nature or 
by God? 

In bygone days the education and upbringing of women has 
not fitted them to work with men in the more public duties of 
life, nor to take their part in solving its deeper problems, and 
we cannot flatter ourselves that a very warm welcome to those 
public duties awaits us even now that conditions are largely 
changed. 

But are we women now not unconsciously emphasising this 
practice of separate work, by arrogating to ourselves, in many 
cases, the duties of alone alleviating and curing all the sorrow 
and miseries and failings of the day by our own unaided efforts ? 

It may be well to have unions of mothers, but do the fathers 
count for so little in the home that their counsel is not needed ? 

It may be well and desirable at the present time to have our 
women's clubs and councils, and let us put our best effort into 
them to make them produce their best fruit, but let us also 
remember that they are but a means to an end, and tliat the 
redemption of the race can only be compassed by men and women 
joining hands and making common cause in every department of 
life — ^not both necessarily doing the same work, but combining to 
do each their own part of the whole together. 

It is well that wo should keep this future in view as we 
gather for our Congress. It is well also that it should be under- 
stood that we as a Council by no means desire to glorify the 
multiplication of associations and organisations, but rather that 
we believe that the tendency of National Councils of Women 
will be to diminish the necessity for the formation of many 
societies for specific ends as by bringing representatives of 
existing organisations more closely in touch it will enable these 
often to deal with some special need which may become evident 
without starting new machineiy. 

This is a not unimportant point. There are many earnest 
workers in the present day who are watching with anxiety the 
effect on the home life of the country of the numberless societies 
which have grown up of late years, and which, though admirable 
in themselves, create so many manifold interests that they may 
tend to separate husbands and wives, parents and children 
brothers and sisters, from the natural influences which each 
ought to exercise over one another and thus neutralise home-life. 

Literary societies, classes, mothers' unions, clubs, young 



52 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

people's societies, guilds for self-improvement or for recreation 
and sport, and the preparation for all these all seem to take ap 
much of the leisure at our disposal for family life and to take the 
various members of the home circle in different directions. I am 
glad to think that this matter will be dealt with from many 
points of view during the Congress in considering the effects of 
education in all its stages, — of the professional life, of industrial 
competition, of political duties, and of social work on the family. 
No subject can have a stronger claim on the consideration of 
an International Congress of Women, for if any mission is right- 
fully ours, it is that which exalts the home, and which will help 
men and women to rise to the full conception of what home life 
may mean. 

It is often taken for granted that a Congress of Women will 
occupy itself in devising plans whereby women may be emanci- 
pated from the cares and duties of home. I think I may assert 
without fear of contradiction that this is not the ideal of this 
Congress, that we hold fast to the belief that woman's first 
mission must be her home, and that by it she will ever be judged, 
and that by its home life every country also which is represented 
here to-day will stand or faU. 

The passion of patriotism appeals to women with a special 
force ; we here, whilst gathered together to honour and strengthen 
the tie which binds together our common humanity, yet each 
give to our own country our heart's first and truest devotion. 

And yet do we not all dream of even a better countiy — 
a better country, which means, in other words, a land of better, 
happier, truer, holier homes ? 

Where to none shall be denied their birthright of health of 
body and mind ; where environments will prevent none from 
living a true, pure life; where skill and invention shall have 
lightened household toil ; where education shall bring to all alike 
** self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control"; where, in perfect 
equality of opportunity, rights shall be forgotten in duties, and 
the burdens of parentage in its joys — there we shall know that 
the better homes will be found which will make that better 
country. 

And the children of those days to come will grow up to be 
better parents, better citizens, better men and women. 

As PARENTS, — Of wiser understanding, more loving 
patience. As CITIZENS, — Of higher ideals of patriotism, of 
wider charity, and deeper personal responsibility. As MEN 



OPENING MEETINQ 53 

AND WOMEN, — More enthusiastic for the service of humanity, 
more grateful for the beauty and joy of life, more resolute to 
face its trials and sorrows, of deeper reverence and more steadfast 
faith in those things which are eternal. 

That is the futiire for which we are met here to work. 

May God be with us. 

The President. — It will now be my pleasant and honourable 
duty and privilege to present personally to the members of the 
International Council and Congress their officers and delegates, 
and first I turn to my Vice-President, one who needs no intro- 
duction to the International Council, towards which she occupies 
a maternal relationship. She was amongst that little group of 
women who conceived the idea of this Council in 1888, and she 
has never since lost sight of it, whether in this country or in 
whatever country she found herself. The Council owes her a 
deep debt of gratitude in many ways, and I desire also, personally, 
to express my sense of indebtedness to her for the counsel, the co- 
operation and the support which she has so generously put at my 
command during my Presidency. Let me then introduce to you 
our honoured Vice-President, Mrs May Wright Sewall. 

-Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) said : Lady Aber- 
deen, Officers, Delegates, Friends of the International Council of 
Women, Ladies and Gentlemen, — "In those days their young 
men shall see visions and their young women shall dream dreams." 
Some of the days referred to in this prophecy fell in the year 
1888, others in 1893. Many of the visions seen and the dreams 
dreamed in 1888 had become realities in 1893, when the Inter- 
national Council of Women met in Chicago. The impulse given 
by that meeting to the dreamers may be seen in the larger 
horizons of those who see visions in 1899. That meeting included 
the first Quinquennial Session of the International Council, which 
then consisted of only two National Councils — Councils belonging 
to those sister Republics, the United States of the New World 
and France of the Old. However, around the representatives of 
those two Councils were grouped 32 nationalities in the presence 
of their accredited representatives, many of whom had been 
accredited by their respective Governments, two of whom had the 
expressed sanction of their respective Kings. However, when the 
day for the election of officers of the International Council arrived, 
it was difficult to find the woman who would take up what seemed 
to all but the incorrigible optimists a forlorn hope. The woman 



54 INTEBNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

found was absent from the meeting ; had she been present, per- 
haps she, too, would have been reluctant to assume the task. 
But what was a forlorn hope in 1893 is presented to the world in 
1899 as a triumphant success. It has been a high privilege to 
be associated during the past 6 years with the honoured Presi- 
dent of the International Council, Lady Aberdeen, who, with 
all her associate officers, may be congratulated to-day upon the 
auspices under which the second Quinquennial opens its session. 

Of all people in the world, men and women of the Press 
should be best informed. During the few days that I have been in 
London it has been my privilege to meet and to be interviewed 
by many representatives of the Press. Of them all, only one has 
not commenced the interview by remarking, " I understand that 
the International Council is an American idea." I do not stand 
here to repudiate my country, but I do repudiate the suggestion 
that the International Council is an "American idea" in any 
sense which would limit the beneficent influences of the Council 
to America. America is, indeed, the birthplace of the Council 
idea; America should be the birthplace of international ideas, 
since its people is conglomerate, including literally all the 
nations of the earth. The only possible way by which the 
United States of America, which has been peopled by contribu- 
tions from all the nations of the world, can repay its debt to older 
civilisations is in the form of international ideas, the natural 
fruit of what may be termed an international population. The 
Councils that are drawn together in the International Council do 
not constitute a collection of fragments, but a solid, unified whole, 
which cannot fail to prove a blessing where v^er a nation is suffi- 
ciently advanced to comprehend the international idea. 

It is not my desire to obtrade myself to-day upon the atten- 
tion of this audience. I join with you in wishing to hear the 
voices in their dififerent tongues and their varying suggestive 
accents of the representatives of the 27 countries gathered here 
under the inspiration of the international idea, with the hope of 
being led to the accomplishment of international beneficent 
results under the protection, thank Heaven (I say it reverently), 
of an international God. It is blessed to be able to believe that 
Gkxl has no " chosen people " in the exclusive sense of the phrase ; 
the only proof which a people may possess that it is " chosen of 
God " is in its ability to bless all other peoples. Each has in 
turn been chosen to initiate some special policy of blessing for 
the race. There was a time when the fragments of the world 



OPENING MEETING 55 

stood apart, isolated, separated each from all the rest by ranges 
of mountains, by stretches of desert, by boundless seas, by un- 
bridged rivers, over and through which no pathway had been 
made. The skill, the ingenuity, the enterprise, the invention 
and the industry of man have bridged all the chasms which once 
separated the fragments of the world, and now, by tunnel, by 
bridge, by railway, by trans-oceanic ship, by electric cable, all of 
the geographical fragments have been brought together into a 
physical unity. To what end should the several countries of the 
world be joined if not to the sole end that their physical union 
should make the spiritual union of their people possible ? It is the 
spiritual union of the peoples of the world which is at the heart 
of what we have come to call the Council idea. It is for the 
spiritual unity of all the nations of the earth that the Interna- 
tional Ck)uncil stands. In happy phrases our President has told 
us what magnanimity we need on this occasion. Each of us must 
endeavour to get the other nation's point of view. To my mind, 
we who come from countries under representative Governments, 
who boast of our liberality, are most emphatically called upon to 
prove ourselves genuine exponents of the fundamental principles 
of representative Government. And we who are accustomed to 
that phrase and to all that it implies, are more bound to make a 
steady effort to get the other nations' point of view than are the 
representatives of those countries whose peoples are under the 
absolute rule of unlimited monarchies. During the next few 
days I hope that our conscientious effort and our facility in shift- 
ing our point of view may be illustrated in the meetings of the 
Congress; but pre-eminently in all of the meetings, whether 
private or public, of the International Council. This effort to be 
generous to one another, and to be just to one another, is im- 
plied in our having entered into the International Bond. We 
of the Republic across the sea have found that there are two 
readings of democracy. We may have started out in our career 
as a nation with the first reading ever uppermost in the national 
mind, viz., '< I am just as good as anyone." In the process of 
our evolution as a nation we have come to a better reading, and 
in this better reading the doctrine of democracy runs thus : 
" Everyone is just as good as I." We wish the representatives of 
Monarchies to be just to the representatives of Republics ; more 
necessary, however, is it that the representatives of Republics 
shall be generous to the representatives of Monarchies. Recently, 
in my own country, we have learned how difficult it is for the 



56 INTEBNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

men and women of a Republic to be generous, or even just, in 
the interpretation of a monarch's motives. But no one can 
claim to be truly a representative of a true Republic until he is 
consciously called to be generous even to a Czar. This difficult 
lesson we have been set to study during the last few weeks. It 
is involved in a question which will be discussed amply at the 
Arbitration Meeting to-morrow night. 

Only one other point do I wish to make in this brief address. 
I wiah to emphasise the fact that the Ck)uncil idea does not stand 
for the separation of women from men, but rather for the 
reunion of women with men in the consideration of great general 
principles and large public interests. I say reunion instead of 
union, since I think all of us who study the ancient poets and 
prophets know that in their minds men and women were united 
in the promotion of the common welfare, and in the conserva- 
tion of the public weal. Although it is not my province to-day 
to speak for the Council of the United States, the President of 
that Council, who will shortly speak for it, responds to her title 
as President in the proud consciousness that within its member- 
ship of 1,250,000 souls there are about 125,000 men. This fact 
alone should make the few men present to-day feel themselves 
quite ^^at home.^' The Council idea leads us all to recognise the 
truth of words with which we have been long familiar, but the 
significance of which we are coming day by day more fully to 
realise. We are all used to being told that man was created in 
the image of Gkxl. What is it to be made in the Divine image ? 
— the life, the heart, the mind, the work of a woman as well as 
the life, the heart, the mind and the work of a man must reflect 
the attributes of the Divine Father, and those attributes we have 
all as children learned are knowledge, wisdom, mercy, justice, 
love. All the nations of the earth are made of one blood and 
made in this image, and it is the function of the Council idea to 
compel us to bear ourselves one toward another, not merely one 
individual toward another individual, but one nation toward 
another nation, as if conscious of the fact that when we look 
into a brother's face we see the image of our own. We stand 
here at the close of the nineteenth century. Across the crest of 
the hill beyond which the twentieth century dawns we may see 
successive meetings of the International Council — meetings 
which shall be convened not with the assent of their formal 
representatives in only 10 countries with the fraternal presence 
of 17 countries more ; but in that dawn I see, and as a part of it 



;ANDHA CRIPENBERG. 



OPENING MEETING 57 

I aee, the International Council composed of men and women 
sitting as a permanent parliament, not for the adjudicature of 
differences and for the calming of dissensions, but for the pro- 
motion of consciously common interests, and approved by a 
united world. 

The President. — Let me next present to you Baroness Alex- 
andra Gripenberg, our Treasurer, who has had an anxious post to 
fill, seeing the funds at the command of the International Council 
are extremely limited. Although Baroness Gripenberg and I 
meet for the first time personally at this Congress, yet I feel her 
to be an old and tried friend, and I can assure you that she has 
served the Council faithfully since the day she was elected at 
Chicago. In all her journeys she has endeavoured to advance 
the Council idea, and from her knowledge of languages she has 
been able to bring it before the women of several continental 
countries, and to obtain much reliable information as to the 
position and prospect of the movement. In her own country — 
Finland — she is at the head of a splendid organisation — The 
Finnish Women's Union — ^which might well claim to be The 
National Council of Women of Finland, as, we trust, it will do 
some day. 

Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg has been most efficiently re- 
presented at our Committee of Arrangements by Mrs Bedford 
Fen wick, but we are all glad to welcome our Treasurer here 
herself. 

Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg (Treasurer) said: Madam 
President, Ladies and Gentlemen, — I must ask for your kind con- 
sideration for my bad Enghsh. Finland has no National Council 
of Women ; but this is due to local and formal difficulties rather 
than to want of interest — difficulties on which I must not dwell 
here among the representatives of the nations that rule the world, 
and who would scarcely understand what it means to belong to the 
nations that must submit to the stronger. Still, I think that I 
may say that the women of Finland fully appreciate the idea of 
putting into practice the golden rule, " Do unto others as ye would 
that they should do unto you." The women of Finland, who are 
suffering bitterly from the absence of Christianity in politics, who 
have seen pledged oaths broken and illegal regulations enforced, 
only because the golden rule is not the leading principle of the world 
— should not they appreciate the idea of making it a living force 
and not a dead letter as hitherto ? I think that I may say that 
the women of Finland hail with enthusiasm the thought that 



58 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

humanity will not eternally abide on the principle of enduring 
with admirable patience other people's sufferings. And we hope 
that every injustice committed by the stronger against the weaker, 
be they individuals or nations, may remind of the keynote of our 
great Council idea, " Do unto others as ye would that they should 
do unto you." 

The President. — It is a source of great regret to me, a regret 
that will be shared by all the Council, that I cannot to-day 
introduce to you our Recording Secretary, Mme. Maria 
Martin, of France, who has taken such a warm interest in the 
affairs of the Council, but she is demonstrating at this moment the 
fact that Council women put home duties first, that they train 
their families to expect this of them. For the reason of Mme. 
Martin's detention lies in the fact that two of her daughters 
have chosen this very time for their weddings, and in spite of 
our own loss, I know that wo shall all desire to unite in offering 
Mme. Martin our warm congratulations. Mme. Martin has 
been represented at our Committee of Arrangements very 
ably by Mrs Montefiore, and now at our Council meeting she 
deputes a French lady of much experience in women's work to 
represent her. Let me introduce to you Mme. Oddo Deflo\i, 
acting Recording Secretary. 

Trfrne. Oddo Deflou, who appeared for Mme. Maria Martin 
(France), replied in French, expressing her regret that the 
recording secretary (Mme. Martin) was not able to fulfil her 
engagement) and her sense of appreciation in being chosen to fill 
so honourable a place. 

J'apporte a votre Congr^s les voeux des femmes de mon pays. 
Je les exprime au nom et a la place de Mme. Maria Martin, 
retenue a son foyer par d'importants devoirs de famille. 

Bien mieux qualifi^ que moi etait Mme. Maria Martin pour 
vous parler aujourd'hui. Les services rendus par elle k la cause 
qui nous est ch^re ne se comptent plus; elle est, dans notre 
arm^, une vet^rante; je suis, relativement, une nouvelle 
recrue. 

Je ne combats pas avec moins d'ardeur, et je trouve un 
puissant encouragemant dans les progr^ accomplis depuis vingt 
ans parmi nous. En France, en effet, il y a vingt ans, ce que 
nous appelons aujourd'hui le mouvement fiministe pour ainsi dire 
n'existait pas. Personne ou presque personne ne s'^tait avise 
de rdclamer des ameliorations k la condition des femmes ; elle 
^tait restee telle que la fit, il y a cent ans, le Code Napol^n. 



MADAME MARIA MARTIN. 
"l«-'Sw. 



OPENING MEETING 69 

Si quelques voix, comme celle de Pillustre Maria Deraismes, 
avaient ose s'^lever en notre faveur, elles n'avaient trouve que 
pen d'^ho. La presse ne s'occupait pas de nous, et lorsque par 
hasard elle daignait condescendre k discuter nos pretentions, 
c'^tait pour s'efforcer d'y imprimer le stigmate de Todieux ou du 
ridicule. 

Cest dans ces conditions, c'est sur ce sol ingrat que nos 
premieres ^mancipatrices travaill^rent. Sans argent, sans aucun 
des mojens d'action que donne un rang social elev^, mais par la 
seale puissance de leurs talents et de leur foi, elles d^fricb^rent 
ce terrain rebelle, convert de ronces et d'^pines. Gloire k ces 
vaillantes ! D'elles on peu^ dire avec v^rite qu'elles surent faire 
quelque chose de rien. 

Ce n'est pas que notre situation soit, meme a present, com 
parable k celle des femmes de rAm^rique ou de TAngleterre. 
Loin de pouvoir, comme elles, reclamer avec quelque cbance de 
succ^ no6 droits politiques, nous en sommes encore a lutter 
peniblement pour la plupart de nos droits civils. Neanmoins, 
depuis vingt ans, des reformes nombreuses dans nos lois ont rendu 
notre sort plus tolerable, et nous estimons que, plus ces reformes 
ont 6t6 lentes et difficiles a obtenir, plus elles sont solidement 
etablies. 

Mais le changement le plus considerable est celui qui s'est 
op^re dans Topinion. Les femmes, jusqu'alors indiff^rentes, se 
sont r^veill^s. De nombreuses associations se sont formees. 
Toute une presse f^ministe s'est er^e. Les questions touchant 
nos int^rSts et notre dignite sont chaque jour agitees, passion^- 
ment discut^ ; les solutions qu'elles reQoivent nous sont de plus 
en plus favorables. 

Nous avons done mille raisons d*envisager Tavenir avec 
confiance. D'ailleurs nous comprenons tr^ bien que, novices 
encore dans la pratique de la vie publique, nous avons besoin des 
encouragements, des le9ons et de Texample de celles dont les 
Bucc^ ont de beaucoup depass^ les ndtr^s. Nous venons les 
chercher ici, esperant d'autre part que le tableau de nos efforts et 
des r^ultats que nous avons deja obtenus ne sera pas, pour nos 
Boeurs plus avancees et plus heureuses, indifferent. Ainsi de notre 
commun travail resultera un commun profit. 

II est une conviction profond^ment enracinee dans mon 
esprit et que je voudrais, en terminant, faire p^n^trer dans tous 
les v6tres : c'est que notre sort est entre nos mains. Si le mot 
impossible n'est pas frangais, il est encore moins feminin. Qui, 



60 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

ce que nous voulons, nous le pouvons. II n'est pas admissible 
qu'un courage infatigable, q'une perseverance plus longue que 
tous les revers ne triomphent pas des plus grands obstacles. 
Soyons-en interieurement persuad<^e8 et croyons, suivant Tex- 
pression d'une illustre Am^ricaine qui a beaucoup contribu^ a 
r^mancipation de ses compatriotes, que le monde appartient a 
ceux qui savent le prendre. 

The President. — The last officer whom I have to present is, 
though last, not least. Miss Teresa F. Wilson was appointed 
corresponding secretary when the health of the able secretary 
appointed at Chicago, Mrs Eva McLaren, obliged her to resign 
her post, to our great regret. Miss Wilson had already paid 
visits to several of our Councils on my behalf, and had gathered 
together much information concerning the work. She was, 
therefore, no stranger to the Councils when, on Mrs McLaren's 
nomination, she was appointed the latter's successor by the 
Executive. 

It would be difficult for me to begin to describe all that Miss 
Wilson has done for this Council and Congress — it would be 
difficult for me to tell you what she has not done. Those 
who have had occasion to see something of the inner working of 
the Council office during the past year alone realise, and they 
but faintly, what the organisation of this Congress has meant 
to our corresponding secretary. But the appearance of this hall 
to-day, and the signs of success which are visible on every side, 
are her best reward, and we shall unite in offering her our 
thanks and congratulations. 

Miss T. F. Wilson, in response, acknowledged the kind words 
of the President, and said : I must frankly admit that of all 
the work that has fallen to my share in connection with this 
Congress, that of appearing on this platform is the most arduous. 
My work has been simply that of a machine in endeavouring to 
collect and prepare for the members of this great Congress, and 
I am afraid you will note many defects in the machine. To all 
I desire to express my heartfelt thanks and greetings, but 
especially to those new friends whom I have made during these 
last few months through the medium of letters, but whom I now 
see face to face. Let me assure you that I will do my utmost to 
forward the comfort and conveniences of the Council and 
Congress during its meeting. 

The President said she would now have much pleasure in 
presenting to the meeting the Presidents of the various Councils. 



MISS TEKE5A F. 


WILSON. 


,ry ^f ,hr Intcrnnlion. 


■/ TfliwiV of II 



62 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

woman and a reformer. As for myself, I am simply a hewer of 
wood and a drawer of water ; but nobody was ever so proud of 
drawing water and hewing wood as I was when I got up a 
meeting for Elizabeth Cady Stanton. There were, besides, two 
other women pioneers who were in London fifty years ago. 
They decided to get up a Women's Rights Convention. They 
advocated an equality for women similar to that which had been 
got for men. I refer to two representative Bright women — Mrs 
Maclaren and Mrs Bright Lucas. At their meeting was passed 
the first resolution, out of which had grown the wonderful 
meeting of to-day. Resolutions were passed in favour of women 
coming together in a great International Council, and they had 
thought about it year by year. Forty years ago, when we looked 
around, there was nothing done for women, there was not even a 
women's temperance union. We now venture to very modestly 
assume that the Women's Suffrage Association of the United 
States is the mother of all the different associations in all the 
different countries. Fifty-seven national organisations of the 
United States sent delegates to the meeting held at Washing- 
ton to initiate, at the instance of Mrs Sewall, the movement for 
something material, permanent and growing. From the be- 
ginning then resolved upon, the International Council was now 
a thoroughly mature organisation. Great Britain had the honour 
of supplying its first President in the person of Mrs Fawcett ; 
and now Lewiy Aberdeen is its head, so that 6rreat Britain 
might be said to be in the forefront of the movement. Now 
we are organised, we must simply go forward until we get 
every nationality on the face of the globe organised into a 
National Council and affiliated with the International Council. 
That is the work which lies before us in the week which is to 
come. We must try to educate every woman and every man 
too — for we do not despair of men quite altogether — into the know- 
ledge that hitherto women who thought alike on every subject^ 
or on one subject, have organised themselves together in the best 
way they were capable of; but now the time has come for 
women who think very differently indeed to come together to 
take lessons of each other, and learn to think a great deal less of 
the "I" and a great deal more of the "you," and to do their 
best to each other. What we need most of all in our mutual 
relations is that we should understand and recognise the good 

! work done by others. 

! The President. — The Rev. Anna Howard Shaw is the second 

i 



OPENING MEETING 63 

delegate for the United States, and as one who has acted as vice- 
president for the U.S.A. Council, and who has advanced its cause 
by her eloquent advocacy in all parts of the States, we could not 
welcome a co-worker more fitted to help the International Council 
with counsel and advice. 

Miss Shaw responded to the introduction and bowed to the 
audience. 

The President. — The next lady whom I have the honour to 
present to you is my dear friend, Mrs Boomer, who has done me 
the favour of representing me in my capacity of President of the 
National Council of Women of Canada. Mrs Boomer is a true 
daughter of the British Empire, which she has ever served faith- 
fully, whether living in England or in the early days of colonial 
settlement, whether in the Great West of Canada or in the wilds 
of South Africa. Her name is a name to conjure with amongst our 
Councils in Canada, and I know that before this International 
Council brings its meetings to an end that her value as a co- 
worker will be well established. 

Mrs Boomer, as substitute for Lady Aberdeen, President of 
the Canadian National Council of Women, said, in acknowledging 
the greetings extended to the Canadian branch of the Inter- 
national Council of Women, that she was proud of the honoured 
position it held as second only upon the list of National Councils, 
that very position being a token that the women of Canada had 
been quick to recognise the power for good which must naturally 
result from organised and united effort, " The union of all for 
the good of all, and God over all," a motto which best conveyed 
the true meaning of what is called the Council idea. 

The previous speaker had said she represented the women of 
America, giving statistics to prove their almost overwhelming 
numbers, but she had added, as if it were only an afterthought, 
that in those numbers she included the women of Canada. 
**Now," said Mrs Boomer, "whilst we women of Canada are 
glad to fall into line with our sisters of the United States, to 
follow as best we can their usually most excellent example, and 
to recognise in them their many admirable qualities, individually 
and nationally, still Canada is Canada^ and not a mere pro- 
montory jutting out from the United States, nor are the women 
of Canada likely to rest content with a mere post scriptum men- 
tion as being amongst 'the women of America.' I am sure,'' 
she added, " that this little explanation will be taken in good 
part and my motive in making it not misunderstood." 



64 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Mrs Boomer said that the secretary's report would in due 
course give details of the success which had crowned many of 
the efforts of the Canadian National Council, so she would not 
occupy precious moments, now fast slipping away, in more than 
the barest allusion to a very few of them. 

The Canadian National Council had, by appeals to its Pro- 
vincial and Dominion Parliaments, and to its several local muni- 
cipal authorities, obtained many concessions which must bear 
valuable fruit now and hereafter. It had obtained the intro- 
duction of manual training in many centres where it had not 
been hitherto included in the school curriculum; and in th^ 
same way the appointment of women school trustees; it had 
wrought desirable changes in arrangements for women prisoners ; 
it had organised boards of associated charities, established hos- 
pitals in some of the smaller localities, checked the flow of im- 
pure literature and promoted the circulation of pure and healthy 
reading matter ; it had inaugurated home reading unions, taken 
steps for the protection of women and children, instituted in- 
quiries into the conditions of working women, had obtained the 
appointment of women factory inspectors with a view to the 
remedy of existing evils, is co-operating with medical authorities 
in spreading valuable knowledge on the subject of the treatment 
of consumption, and has, amongst other educational ejQfbrts, pro- 
moted systematic instruction in art design adaptable to industries 
and manufactures which could open up any field for the self- 
supporting occupation of women. Above and beyond this, the 
formation of the National Council of Women in Canada had, to 
use the words of its President, ** tended to increase unity and 
mutual understanding, to bring together and blend in common 
work the most earnest women of every place, irrespective of creed, 
class, political party or race,'' and in so doing had happily not 
only been enabled to live down nearly all the misconceptions 
formed of its aims and objects when it first was founded, but it had 
won the hearty support and actual co-operation of some of the 
most intelligent and influential men in Canada. " But,'' asked 
the speaker, "for how much of the realisation of our hopes and 
the reward which has crowned our efforts are we not indebted 
not only to our beloved President, Lady Aberdeen, but also to 
Lord Aberdeen, so lately the honoured Governor-General of 
Canada ? They were, both by example and precept, the very life 
and soul of the National Council of Women of Canada. Lady 
Aberdeen, as President of the International Council, welcomes 



OPENING HEETINQ 65 

**her own" to England. She is still "our President/' and in 
thanking her for her greeting on behalf of her fellow-workers 
and her own, I would say, that the seed she planted in our hearts 
being a righteous seed, a seed blessed by many prayers, we 
may surely rest assured that the harvest field of Canada, with its 
women sowers and reapers, will yet bear golden fruit to her re- 
joicing, and to Gkxi's- honour and glory.'* 

The President. — Our Canadian delegates are : — 

1. Mrs WiUoughby Cmmnings, who has b^n Corresponding 
Secretary since the formation of the Canadian Council, and who 
is largely responsible for the formation of that Council ; and 

2. Mrs Frank Gibbs, also one of the first to move for a 
Canadian Council, and who is one of our most popular and 
earnest speakers and workers. 

The President. — It is evident that time will not permit me to 
make the separate introduction which I should like to offer to all 
our delegates and vice-presidents who have gathered together 
from so many lands today. But the clock is inexorable; we 
have to remember that we have another engagement to-night. I 
think, therefore, I shall best consult the convenience of this 
meeting if I call on the Presidents of Councils to give us a few 
words of greeting and simply a^k the delegates to step forward 
and bow, so that you may tlien commence your acquaintance with 
them. And then we shall hope for a few words from our honor- 
ary Yice-Presidents, who are forwarding our interests in countries 
where there are no Councils as yet, and from our fraternal 
representatives. Let me then present to you, as the delegates 
from Germany,— 

Fran Anna Simson, who was one of the first German women 
to take up the Council, who represents the President Fraulein 
Augusta Schmidt, whom we greatly regret not to see amongst us. 

Fran Bieber Boehm, the Secretary of the Council, who was 
deputed to convey the greetings of the German Council, 
offered to the Congress the best greetings of the women of the 
country. "Let us all," she added, "join in promoting the 
application of the golden rule to society, custom and law, and 
so make our Council a true success." 

Fran Marie Stritt, one of the vice-presidents of the German 
Council, was presented as the second official delegate. 

The President. — I have now the great pleasure of introducing 
to you Fru Retzius, the able President of the Swedish National 
Council. 

VOL. I. E 



66 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMBK 

Era Anna Hierta-Betsdus (Sweden). 

Ladt Aberdeen, Ladies and Gentlemen, — As President of 
the Swedish National Council of Women I have the honour 
to bring you the greetings of the women of Sweden, and to 
assure you that the women of our country feel a deep interest 
in the important questions and problems which are occupying the 
attention of the International Council of Women. 

These problems are not new in our country. We can trace 
them back to remote times, to the beginning of history, as our 
Vikings sailed around the European coasts, as they visited and 
settled in the islands of Great Britain. 

We trace them more clearly still in the time of our King 
Magnus Ladulas, and of Birger Jarl, the founder of our capital, 
Stockholm. 

In the homo and social life the Swedish woman in those 
remote times already occupied a high position. While the hus- 
bands and sons were fighting abroad in the ''hamadstag" and 
the long wars the women took care of the land, the agriculture, 
the economy, and sometimes even administered the law. 

Thus we know that in the thirteenth century the holy 
Birgitta, whose husband was Chief Justice, helped him in the 
administration of the law, which she is said to have known as 
well as himself. 

Birgitta married at the age of 14, and had already, as a 
young wife, to manage 500 dependents. 

And Christina Gyllenstjema, the cousin of our greatest king, 
Gustavus I. Yasa, has, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
shown how a woman can, like a Jeanne d'Arc, with energy and 
talent, lead the defence of a whole country against foreign 
intruders. 

Already, in early times in Sweden, the sister had the right 
to inherit the half in proportion to the brother, and in one 
Swedish province — Varend — equally with the brother. 

It is true that we had to wait for centuries until this latter 
principle became the ruling in our country, but since the year 
1845 it is law. 

The progress of the emancipation of woman has, in our 
century, advanced wth great steps. 

Since the Swedish authoress, Fredrika Bremer, wrote her 
renowned novels, a remarkable change has taken place in public 
opinion concerning the duties and rights of women. 



OPENING MBBTINO 67 

I may saj, to the honour of the Swedish men, that this pro- 
gress has been won without great opposition or struggle. Emi- 
nent Members of Parliament, among others Mr P. A. Siljestrom, 
my father, Lars Hierta, Baron Oskar Stackelberg, Baron A. 
Fock, the Minister, Gunnar Wennerberg, Mr F. Borg, Mr Adolf 
Hedin, Count Hugo Hamilton, etc., have fought successfully for 
the rights of women. In 1870 women were admitted to our 
universities, and in 1873 they were allowed to take the same 
degrees in medicine and in arts as male students. Now they are 
also admitted to many other professions. 

Notwithstanding this progress, there are yet several rights 
that the Swedish women are deprived of, and wish to work for, 
and several wrongs that ought to be abolished. As, for instance, 
concerning the property of married women, we are not so advanced 
as the women of £bigland. 

There are several questions pertaining to social and political 
life which will be treated at this Congress, such as Education, 
the Ethics of Wage-earning, the Political and Local Rights of 
Women, problems which it is of great importance to solve, in 
order to ameliorate the future of humanity. 

Eveiy new era gives rise to new questions and problems. 
Con«;resses of this kind are of great value in dealing with them. 

I therefore beg, on behalf of my countrywomen, to present 
their sincere congratulations at the opening of this Conference. 

We have come here to become personally acquainted with the 
large-hearted and gifted women from other countries who are 
united on this great occasion. 

We have, above all, come to acquire knowledge, experience 
and wisdom from this country of Great Britain, where the social 
and political position of woman is more advanced than in most 
civilised countries. 

Frdken Geartmd Adelborg and Froken EUen Whitlock, 
Secretary of the Swedish Council, were introduced as the two 
official delegates for the National Council of Women of Sweden. 

Mrs Alrred Booth, the President of the Council for Great 
Britain and Ireland, was unable to be present, so her place was 
filled by Lady Battersea. She asked the Congress to allow her, 
in the lamented absence of Mrs Booth, to address a very warm 
word of welcome to the members of the Congress. It was, 
indeed, a matter of regret, both to herself and the members of 
the Council, that their beloved President was unable to be 
present with them that day. She always took a keen interest 



68 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

in the work of the Council, and had looked forward keenly to 
meeting so many women of other lands who were working for 
the good of their people. She had always rejoiced in the thought 
of an interchange of opinion with so many kindred spirits. 
Representing Mrs Booth as she did, she (Lady Battersea) ex- 
tended the right hand of fellowship to those members of the 
Congress who had responded in such numbers, and she wished 
all success to the Congress. She wondered if any of the ladies 
had remarked on the strange coincidence that on the very day 
on which they were opening their Congress the Imperial Parlia- 
ment were going to discuss another branch of the women 
question. 

Mrs Creighton, wife of the Bishop of London, and Lady 
Laura Bidding, wife of the Bishop of Southwell, were introduced 
as the two official delegates for the National Council of Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

Mrs D. P. E. Aimitage (New South Wales) said : I very much 
regret that our President is unable to be with us to-day. New 
South Wales, I need hardly remind you, is a country which is 
situated very nearly at the other end of the earth. It is 12,000 
miles from Great Britain. But though we are far away in 
distance, we are near in heart, loyalty and feeling with the 
mother country. After New South Wales the next idea which 
comes is naturally relative to the great question of Federation. 
You all know by recent telegrams that the Federal Bill has 
been passed by the New South Wales Parliament. I do not 
want to glory in the idea, but I am very proud that it has been 
given to New South Wales to lead the way with the Federal 
idea — an idea which is embodied with the Federal Council of 
Women, and likewise the International Council of Women. I 
have very much pleasure in greeting all those who are attending 
the Congress. 

Mrs Dizson was presented as the second official delegate from 
New South Wales. 

Fraken Henrie Forchammer (Denmark), representing Froken 
Ida Falbe Hansen (President), said : Ladies and Gentlemen of the 
Congress, I have very much to be grateful for to-day. As the repre- 
sentative of the President of the National Council of Women of 
one of the smallest countries of the world, I should like to take 
this opportunity to point out the fact that this Council is one of 
the few places, if not the only place, where smaller nations are 
on an equality with the greater countries, and where their vote 



OPENING MESnNG 69 

is as important. We of the smaller National Councils cannot 
help showing how deep is our appreciation of the work. Gladly 
do we join heart and soul in the work. I offer the best wishes, 
in the name of our Council, and in the name of our President, to 
this Congress. 

Fru Charlotte Norrie, Corresponding Secretary of the Danish 
Council, and Froken Wilhelmina Bemp were introduced as the 
two official delegates from Denmark. 

Mma Kleirck van Hogendorp, President of the National 
Council of Women of Holland, made a few remarks. "In my 
country we are not quick to grasp a new idea, but having once 
got hold of one, we are slow to relinqush it. Interchange of 
thought and welcome is bound to do good, and to bring out all 
that was good. We feel deeply indebted to Lady Aberdeen, and 
to the other ladies of England, for the hearty welcome extended 
to us. On behalf of Holland I express heartfelt thanks for the 
efforts made to better the conditions of women in all countries." 

ILrs M. W. H. Entgers Hoitsema and Miss Martina G. 
Kramers were presented as the two official delegates from 
Holland. 

Lady Hamilton, representing Lady Gormanstown, President, 
as delegate of the newly-formed Council of Tasmania, also 
addressed the meeting, and said that the six years she worked 
with the women in Tasmania she met with the greatest co- 
operation and sjonpathy. Of all places in the world none were 
more worthy than Tasmania of being represented at the Congress. 

Mrs Dobson, from Tasmania, said that though Holland was 
only a baby branch, the one she represented was younger still, 
for it was only bom the very day before she left Tasmania. 

Mrs Beeves, wife of the Agent-General for New Zealand, who 
was to have presented the greetings of the New Zealand National 
Council, was unfortunately prevented from being present by 
indisposition. 

Mrs Sidney Webb and Mrs M'Cosh Clarke were called on as 
the two official delegates appointed by the New Zealand National 
Council. 

The President. — We now hope to hear a few words of greet- 
ing from our honorary Vice-Presidents and Honorary Repre- 
sentatives, on whom we largely depend for the future develop- 
ment of our work, and 1 think our Vice-Presidents of the countries 
of this continent would like me to call on the ladies who represent 
the far-away countries to speak first. As the sense of the meet- 



70 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

ing evidently points in that direction, I will ask our honorary Vice- 
President for China, Madame Shen, who was appointed through 
the medium of the Chinese Ambassador in England, and who 
herself is a member of a very distinguished family, to give us a 
message from the women of China. 

Mme. Shen, the Hon. Vice-President for China, who came 
in the costume of a Chinese lady of high rank, and who was 
accompanied by her husband, spoke through the medium of her 
interpreter, Mr Yen : I found, on coming to London, that the 
idea is very prevalent among Europeans that women in China do 
not count for anything. And this refers not to the conduct of 
the national afiBsdrs only but to that of their own households; 
it seems to be thought that they have no voice in the education 
of their own children. 

Now this impression is entirely erroneous, and seems to be 
founded on the equally erroneous idea that Chinese women are 
of less importance than the women of other countries. 

It would be easy to point to numberless instances in which 
Chinese women have rendered notable services to their country, 
but I would refer to only one, and that a case that occurred in 
my own family. My father-in-law, Shen Pao Chen, late Viceroy 
of Nanking, was beholden in no small degree to his wife for 
the high position in the State to which he attained. 

During the Taiping Rebellion, whilst yet a mandarin of 
comparatively insignificant position, he had to leave the city, of 
which he was the governor, in order to raise soldiers to defend it 
against any attack. 

During his absence on this mission a sudden descent was 
made on the city by the rebels, and everyone thought its capture 
was a matter of hours. At this moment the wife of the governor 
appeared on the scene and encouraged the feeble garrison to 
hold out ; at the same time she wrote to a general stationed at 
some distance, urging him to come to her assistance with the 
forces under his command. The letter, which still exists, was 
a masterpiece of composition and a model of style to be imitated. 
Every argument likely to work on the feelings of the general and 
arouse him to action was employed, and in proof of the urgency 
of the situation, in place of ink it was written with her own 
blood. Her eloquent and touching appeal was effective, the 
general hastened to her assistance with his troops, and the city 
was saved. 

This is only one of thousands of instances in which Chinese 



ru.-ry.->id.M/-Li- 



OPBNINQ MEBTINQ 71 

women have contributed to the advancements of their husbands, 
and rendered important service to the State, and showed that 
Chinese women, far from being the feeble, shiftless creatures 
they are supposed to be, are, in fact, as brave, devoted and 
full of resource as the women of other lands. like other women 
they rule their own households, attend to the education of their 
children, whose characters are formed by the precepts placed 
before them j they participate in the troubles and trials which not 
unfrequently come to their husbands, encouraging and support- 
ing them in the divers conflicts out of which they hope one day 
to rise to a position of power and importance. 

I hope that these remarks may be the means of removing 
some of the false impressions as to the condition of women in 
China, which I find to be so common in this country. 

The President then called on Mrs F. A. Steel to speak for 
the women of India, who were represented on the platform by 
Miss Marie Bhor, a Parsee lady now studying at Oxford, and 
several other Indian ladies in native dress, who had been 
l»rought together for the occasion by the kind assistance of Miss 
Manning. 

Mrs Flora Annie Steel, representing India, said : Any 
small elation which I might have felt to-day on haVing been 
chosen, even as an honorary vice-president, to represent our vast 
Indian Empire, fades before my knowledge of my utter un- 
worthiness for the post assigned to me. What right have I, 
one small woman, to represent 300,000,000 of my fellow- 
creatures ? It is a task beyond even a woman's tongue. And 
yet if love, if admiration, if pity and sympathy of the women 
amongst whom it has been my privilege to pass the greater 
number of the years of my life count for anything, I do not 
stand here to-day upon this platform utterly unaccredited. I 
know that while I face the accumulated wisdom of the West I 
have behind me the hoarded wisdom of the East — of a civilisa- 
tion which has lasted far longer than ours. The greatest master 
of the English tongue has told us of a quality that blesses both 
him that gives and him that takes. It is out of that quality of 
mercy reaching out to the uttermost ends of the earth, yet sitting 
down at the hearthstone of the home, which it is the privilege 
and the power of this Congress to promote. And so, without the 
slightest fear, J, representing all those women of the East — the 
women who live in the land of the rising sun — ^reach out my 
hands to the women of the setting sun, knowing that by doing 



72 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

80 I shall consolidate that vast Indian Empire which every 
English man and English woman hopes and prays may last, and 
hopes and prays that upon it the great sun of righteousness and 
truth and mercy may never set. 

Mrs Keilson Hamilton said it gave her the greatest pleasure 
to represent Persia at the International Council of Women, and 
that she would do her best to tell the women of Persia about the 
Council. 

Dr Cecilia Orierson, of the Argentine Republic, said it gave 
her great pleasure in meeting representatives of all the world 
who had come together with the object of contributing to the 
welfare of humanity. She admired England for its liberal 
institutions, which gave such scope to women. She also ca^e 
from a country where liberty existed. Their land, their riches 
and their institutions were open to the whole world ; everybody 
could follow his or her own religion or principles with complete 
independence. Owing mainly to that liberty, their people spoke 
two or three languages, and were more broad-minded than many 
peoples. They assimilated all that was good, without asking 
from what comer of the world it came. In Argentina the 
women were ever to the front in every charitable and benevolent 
movement. She presented her congratulations to the Congress, 
especially those members who were specially known since the 
last meeting of Congress by their words and works. 

Mme. von Finkelstein Moimtford (Palestine) said that it 
gave her great pleasure to represent Palestine at that Congress. 
She was standing there before them representing the most 
ancient country on the face of the earth, and she brought them 
greeting from the city of Jerusalem, where she had the privilege 
of being bom and entirely brought up. Perhaps they would 
pardon her for being very patriotic. She was patriotic for all 
nations, because she was herself an international. She stood 
there as a cosmopolitan of the globe. By blood she wa*s a 
Russian, by birth she was a Turk, bom in a Mohammedan land, 
and having for foster-mother a Mohammedan Arab woman ; by 
adoption she was an American, and by marriage she became an 
Englishwoman. So she represented there, as she ought, having 
been bom and brought up in the city of Jerusalem, all the 
nations on the face of the earth. It was from that city in 
which she was bom that she brought them greeting. With Sir 
Walter Scott she would say, — 



MADAME ISABELLE BOGELOT. 
(Chevalier de la Leg 



OPENIKG MEETING 73 

'* Breathes there a man with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself has said. 
This is my own, my native land." 

As Palestine was the most ancient country of the world, so 
Jerusalem, the cradle of our religion, was the mother of them all. 
Though Jerusalem had for ages sat in sackcloth and in ashes, yet 
her spirit was not dead, and soon. Phoenix-like, she would again 
rise from her ashes and be again a lasting joy unto the whole 
world. In Jerusalem to-day they spoke thirty-six languages, and 
at the next Congress they would, without doubt, have as many as 
thirty-six representatives from Jerusalem. They were, as it were, 
an epitome of the whole world. The three prominent religions 
in their city were the Jewish, the Mohammedan and the Chris- 
tian, and in those three great religions they must remember that 
they were cradled in the last. The Christian religion was bom 
in Jerusalem, and therefore they had a claim upon the Holy City 
in every shape and form. Then their gracious Queen ruled over 
a greater number of Mohammedans than the Sultan of Turkey 
did to-day. It was interesting to remember the proverb which 
said, ** The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world," and that 
no nation could rise above the spirit of its women. Palestine 
to-day was, as it were, a land of bondage, not because her women 
are not capable of greater things, but for the simple reason that they 
were not vouchsafed an opportunity for action ; they were simply 
ornaments, and consequently there was in their land an existing 
state of bondage. During the last ten months which she had 
passed there she had b^n endeavouring to infuse into the 
women the meaning and the scope of the Congress, and as soon 
as the message has reached the Far East they would be able to 
exclaim with Micah, "The kingdom shall come again to the 
daughters of women." They had not met together to discuss 
religious questions and religious dogmas, but their relati<mship 
with each other. There was one thing which joined them 
together, there was one touch of nature which made the whole 
world kin, and that was the relationship of the mother and the 
child. And the child was the father to the man. 

Mme. Bogelot, Honorary Vice-President for France, and 
Chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur, was heartily welcomed by 
the President, and said : Mme. Pr^ident, Ladies and Gentle- 
men, please excuse me. I cannot address you my thanks and com- 
pliments in English, so, if you will permit it, I will speak in French. 



74 INTERKATIOyAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Mesdames, Messieurs, — Depuis le jour od ma bonne ^toile m'a 
conduite en Am^rique, en 18S8, que d'etapes ont ^t^ franchies 
dans le chemin qui conduira la femme k la r^elle connaissance de 
ses droits, et de ses devoirs ; envers elle-m6me, sa famille et la 
soci^te en general. Lcs succes remport^ pas k pas et chaque 
jour d^veloppent de plus en plus, en elle, le sentiment de la 
responsabilit^ de ses actes. 

EUe a compris que pour donner la mesure complete de sa 
valeur intellectuelle et morale, il lui fallait une liberty oonsciente 
qui ne s'acquiert que par le d^veloppement de la Tolont^ ct un 
travail personnel et pers^v^rant. 

En 1S88, quand je me rendis a Washington, j'^tais un simple 
soldat de la cause; et aujourd'hui gr&ce a votre estime, k vos 
encouragements et k la grande confiance que j'ai cue en vous 
toutes, je puis parler dans cette assemble au nom de mes com- 
patriotes, les Fran9aises. Je suis m^me une Vice-Pr^sidente 
honoraire de votre congr^ puisque vous m'avez gracieusement 
offert ce titre dont je suis tres touch^ et tr^ fi^re. II existe 
encore, h^las, dans tous les pays des personnes r^fractaires k nos 
desirs de revendications. 

Elles sont effiray^es des choses que nous demandons. 

Plaignons-les, mais ne les bl&mons pas. 

Nous sonmies tous plus ou moins ignorants de beaucoup de 
choses et ce n'est que I'^tude approfondie des questions et la per- 
severance dans le travail qui ^lairent les esprits et font poss^der 
des convictions sinceres et durables. 

Instruisons-nous done mutuellement et qui sait si notre 
exemple ne convertira pas meme nos plus terribles adversaires, 
qui pourront peut^tre devenir a leur tour, nos plus z^l& coUa- 
borateurs. 

Quoique la loi du progr^s exige que nous regardions toujours 
en avant il est impossible k mon &ge de ne pas jeter un regard 
en arriere. 

Mon pass^ est si long dej4 ! Que d'amis disparus durant les 
dix derniSres annees Coulees. 

Que de deuils peuvent assombrir nos coeurs et faire couler nos 
larmes ! 

Que de noms se pressent en foule sur mes l^vres i 

Je n'en nommerai pourtant aucun. Cos noms aim^s vous les 
entendrez. lis seront prononc^s dans les travaux pr^ent^ en 
sections. 

Ce serait une erreur de croire que ces amis sont perdus pour 



OPENING MEETING 75 

nous. Nous vivons avec euz par le souTenir et la reconnaissance. 
Et nous restons toujours sous Timpression de leur bienfaisante 
influence. 

Au nom de mes collogues et en mon nom personnel j'adresse 
un bommage bion sincere aux amies ^loign^s retenues dans 
leurs foyers par T&ge, la maladio ou des devoirs qui s'imposent a 
elles. 

Je serre la main, par la pens^ k vous toutes, mesdames les 
travailleuses de tous les pays. 

Aux jeunes femmes qui nous entourent et nous ^content nous 
venons confier la cause si belle pour laquelle nous luttons depuis 
de longuee ann^. 

Les oavri^res de la premiere henre ont defricb^ le terrain. 
Elles ont trac^ la route dans laquelle nous marchons k leur saite. 

A nous de les imiter, d'avoir leur foi pour assurer le succ^ 
final 

Achevons I'oenvre si bien commence. Que Thomme et la 
femme marchent d^sormais ensemble, dans la vie en s'aidant. 

Qu'ils aient tous les deux le m^me id^ de morale et de 
justice. 

Le bonheur de Phumanit^ r^de dans cette harmonie que 
nous cherchons a r^aliser par le grand travail que nous faisons 
dans ce Ck>ngr^, en union d 'esprit et de coeur. 

Mile. Gamille Vidart, Hon. Yice-President for Switzerland, 
conveyed a cordial greeting from the women of Switzerland, and 
told how the Swiss women were organising a National (Council 
which they hoped would be in a position to federate with the 
International Council before very long. The account that she 
would be able to take back of this great gathering would greatly 
help them. 

Mile. Marie Fopelin, Hon. Vice-President of Belgium, said she 
was anxious to manifest the sympathy felt by her country-women 
with women of all nations, and especially with all branches 
of the movement in aid of women's sufi&age. When she under- 
took to represent her country, Belgium, she hardly realised what 
a splendid sight this gathering of women would be. It was a 
most gratifying spectacle to see so many women workers in 
various spheres, all engaged in advancing the common cause of 
women's rights. Those who had organised this Congress with such 
order might certainly be proud of their success. These great days 
of the London Congress would mark a glorious epoch in the 
history of the women's rights question. In her own name, then. 



76 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

as well as in that of the women of Belgium, she congratulated the 
movers in this noble cause. 

Mrs OrawBhay, representing the Hon. Vice-President for 
Italy, the Countess Tavema, said that she came before them with 
some diffidence, seeing that there were present three Italian 
ladies who were far abler than she of voicing the cause of Italy's 
women to them. She came to them simply with a message of 
congratulation from the half-formed Council in Rome— a message 
which she now delivered to them with all the Italian warmth of 
which she was mistress. 

Br Eosakeivitch-Stephanofskaia, Delegate for Russia, repre- 
sentative of Mme. Anne de Philosofofi^ Hon. Vice-President, 
said that Russian women welcomed with enthusiasm the bonds 
of unity between women of all nations which had been exhibited 
by this gathering. Russian women wished to join women of 
other nations in seeking for possibilities of wide culture in order 
that they might help to achieve economic and social reform. 
Russia hoped that success would crown the efforts made at this 
International Congress, and that women would unite for the 
good, not only of their own sex, but of humanity at large. 

Fran Marianne HainiHch, Hon. Vice-President for Austria, 
expressed the hope that the women of Austria would follow the 
good example set by the prime movers of this Congress. 

Proken Oina ]&og, Hon. Vice-President for Norway, said she 
had the honour of conveying to the Congress the friendly greet- 
ings from the women of Norway. As soon as they had know- 
ledge enough of the International Council, and of the blessings it 
would bring to any nation, she was sure they would embrace the 
idea with all their hearts. 

Mme. F^resse Deraismes, a veteran worker, asked per- 
mission to read an address of greeting from the women composing 
the Soci^t^ pour PAm^lioration du Sort de la Femme. 

Nous soussign^s, Membres du Conseil d'administration de la 
Society pour TAm^lioration du Sort de la Femme et la 
Revendication de ses Droits, dont le si^ge social est a Paris, 
rue Cardinet, No. 72. 

D^clarons que, selon le Proems- Verbal de la Reunion du 
Conseil de la Soci^t^, sur la proposition k elle faite par sa Pre- 
sidente en vue de la representation de la Soci^t^ au Congr^s 
de Londres projet^ pour le mois de Juin 1899, la Societe a 



OPENING MEETING 77 

vot^ avec acclamation et applaudissements les deux propositions 
suivantes : 

1. La Soci^t^ consults adhere au Congr^ de Londres 
propose, selon les programmes et r^glements public ; 

2. II d^l^gue, avec pleins pouvoirs pour la repr^enter, sa 
Pr^dente, Mme. F^resse - Deraismes, k laquelle se pourront 
joindre les diff(^rents Membres du Conseil qui voudront bien 
Taccompagner de leur plein gr^. 

Pour PExtrait du Proc^ Verbal dont il s'agit, 
Et pour la Soci^te, 

Les Membres du Bureau Soussign^ 

Olga Petti. 
YvB F^bsse-Deraishes. 

LiNA LiNDSON. 

Louise Barberousse. 

Mrs Gawler, representing South Australia, said the women 
of the Colony would be glad to federate in the International 
Council, as they had worked for federation in Australia. They 
had the credit of carrying federation in the Colony by their votes, 
for they had woman's suffirage. 

Mrs Wittenoom, representing West Australia, said she felt 
sure members of the various women's organisations in the Colony 
would freely endorse the wish of the Council in their efforts to 
do good. She would take steps to let them know of the work, 
and she hoped before long to have a National Council in 
Australia. 

Mrs Fisher, representing Queensland, said: I don't know 
what to think of this marvellous movement. All I can say is 
I will take it back to my people. 

Mrs Stewart (Cape Colony) said a great advance had been 
made during the past thirty years in the work of education, and 
in various provinces of Christian and missionary work. The 
time had come for these various agencies to be thoroughly well 
organised, and become effective and efficient branches of the 
great union. 

Miss Agnes Slack, Fraternal Eepresentative of the World's 
Women's Christian Temperance Union, said it gave her 
great pleasure to bring to the great audience of representative 
women from all parts of the world the greetings of an inter- 
national society as the World's Women's Christian Temperance 
Union is, representing an organisation of women from Iceland to 



78 IirrERKATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

• 

New Zealand, and from India to the eastern and western shores 
of America. That afternoon she had been reminded again and 
again of the founder of the institution to which she belonged. 
She referred to the woman, many of whom present regarded as 
the very queen of the womanhood of the world, as Frances 
Willard. Many of them were proud to look up to her as an 
American woman, and as the great queen of the womanhood of 
the world. She (Miss Slack) had been asked by women of every 
quarter of the world to represent them at the Congress owing to 
the fact that their President, as Lady Henry Somerset is, could 
not come. They regarded it as the highest luxury to be able to 
live in affectionate intercourse one with another, and they had 
learnt in the World's Union the great value of international 
communion. She should like to say how very much her organ- 
isation appreciated the great work being done for women by the 
International Council of Women. They felt that if one organ- 
isation lifted up women it helped all others, and in that sense the 
World's Union had been greatly helped. Before she resumed 
her seat she should like to express her personal indebtedness to 
Lady Aberdeen for the great assistance she had given her 
when in America. All the members of the organisation 
which she (the speaker) represented were proud of Lady 
Aberdeen. 

Miss Ellen Bobinson, Fraternal Representative of the 
Bureau International Permanent de la Paix, said she was com- 
missioned by her Bureau to bring fraternal greetings to the 
Council. She trusted that the Council would continue day by 
day to dissipate the prejudice which often existed between nation 
and nation, and led to those wars against which her society were 
continually struggling. They were also glad to send greetings to 
a Council of women, because it was to the women of the world 
that her Bureau looked forward to help in their work. Those 
who had committed to their care and charge the nurture of life, 
surely they would be false to their trust if they did not unite in 
furthering the cause of peace and friendship and justice amongst 
the nations, rather than supporting what was called the " glory 
of war." Before sitting down she should like to say that her 
Bureau did exactly what the Council of Women were trying to 
do for the councils of Europe. It is a Bureau established in the 
town of Berne, where they had a library containing all the works 
in connection with the Peace Movement. There they had an 
International Committee, which met once or twice a year to 



OPENING MEETING 79 

discuss the different questions, and to form a link between the 
various societies throughout Europe. 

Mme. de Tschamer de Watteville (Fraternal Eepresentative 
of the Union Internationale des Amies de la Jeune Fille) said 
she fully realised the great honour which was hers in being called 
upon to address that important Congress. How often was it not 
the case that when some mischief had been done, where the news 
of some sad occurrence was brought to their ears, they heard the 
remark, " Cherchez la femme.*' She fervently trusted that one of 
the immediate results of that Congress would be the radical 
changing of one of the most frequently uttered remarks of the 
world, that a new dictum would take the place of that observa- 
tion, and that wherever some good work, some pure deed of love 
had been done, people would say, ^* Surely some woman has been at 
work here." 

Mrs OyntbiaWeBtoverAlden (Fraternal Representative of the 
International League of Press Clubs) said that she brought them 
the best and heartiest wishes of the International Press Union and 
organisations, not of women only ; she was before them as the dele- 
gate of the Ptess Clubs of both men and women writers. If they 
wished to know what the Press did, they had only to cast their 
eyes on the table in that hall set apart for the newspaper repre- 
sentatives. Judging from the number of journalists present, she 
would imagine that the proceedings that day would be found 
reported on the morrow, and she would suggest that they pur- 
chased every publication issued in London. 

The proceedings then closed. 



FIRST BUSINESS SESSION OP THE 
QUINQUENNIAL MEETING OP 
THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 



COUNCIL CHAMBER, WESTMINSTER TOWN HALL. 

WEDNESDA Y, JVNS 28, MORNING. 



The countess OF ABERDEEN in the Chair. 

The President, the Countess of Aberdeen, after calling the 
meeting to order, said that, as the agenda of business was a very 
long one, she would not take up the time of the meeting by any 
opening remarks, but would call upon Miss Wilson, the Correspond- 
ing Secretary, to call the roll, when the following members of 
Council answered their names : — 

The Countess of Aberdeen, President; Mrs May Wright 
Sewall, Vice-President-at-Large ; Baroness AJexandra Gripenberg, 
Treasurer ; Miss T. F. Wilson, Corresponding Secretary, 

NATIONAL COUNCILS. 

United States — Mrs Fannie Humphreys Gafi&iey (President), 
Miss Susan B. Anthony, Miss Shaw. Canada — Mrs Boomer 
(representing the President, the Countess of Aberdeen), Mrs 
Willoughby Cummings, Mrs Gibbs. Germany — Frau Anna 
Simson (representing the President, Fraulein Auguste Schmidt), 
Frau Bieber Boehm, Frau Marie Stritt. Sweden — Fru Hierta 
Betzius (President), Froken Gertrud Adelborg, Froken Ellen 

80 



FIRST BUSINESS SESSION 81 

Whitlock. Great Britain — Lady Battersea (representing the 
President, Mrs Alfred Booth), Lady Laura Ridding, Mrs Creigh- 
ton. New South Wales — Mrs Armitage (representing the 
President, the Viscountess Hampden), Mrs Dixson. Denmark — 
Froken Henrie Forchammer, Fru Charlotte Norrie, Froken 
Wilhelmina Rerup. Holland — Mme. Klerck van Hogendorp 
(President), Mme. Rutgers-Hoitsema, Miss Martina Kramers. 
New Zealand — Mrs M*Cosh Clarke, Mrs Sidney Webb, Mrs 
Pember Reeves (representing the President of the New Zealand 
Council, Mrs Sheppard, was prevented from attending all Council 
meetings through illness). Tasmania — Lady Hamilton (repre- 
senting the President, Lady Gormanstown), Mrs Dobeon. 

HON. VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Finland — Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg. Belgium — Mile. 
Marie Popelin. Switzerland — Mile. Camille Vidart. Italy — 
Mrs Crawshay. Russia — Dr Kosakevitch-Stephanofskaia. 
Austria — Frau Marianne Hainisch. Norway — Froken Gina 
Krog. France — Mme. Bogelot, Mile. Sarah Monod {Ron, Repre- 
sentative). Victoria — Janet, Lady Olarke. South Australia 
— Mrs Gawler. West Australia — Mrs Wittenoom. Queens- 
land — Mrs Fisher. Cape Colony — Mrs Stewart, Mrs Nixon 
{Hon. Bepresentative), India — Mrs Flora Annie Steele. Persia 
— Mrs Neilson Hamilton. Argentine Republic — Dr Cecilia 
Grierson. China — Mrs Shen. Palestine — Mme. v. Finkelstein 
Mountford. 

A number of letters, telegrams of greeting, and some apologies 
for absence were read by the Corresponding Secretary. 

MINUTES OF LAST MEETING. 

The President asked what were the wishes of the Council 
regarding the reading of the minutes. The record of the last 
meeting of Council at Chicago was a report rather than minutes. 

The Vice-President, who had presided over the last Quinquennial 
said no official report of the proceedings at Chicago were printed. 
Type-written copies, however, had been sent to Lady Aberdeen 
to her own office, and also to the French Council, those two 
Councils being the only ones then in existence. Those minutes 
were in some respects incorrect, and they were very lengthy, so 
she proposed that the reading of those minutes should be omitted. 
vol. I. p 



82 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

She would like to have that followed up hf another resolu'tion to 
the effect that in connection! with the proceedings of the Oonference 
the report of the fikist Quinquennial Meeting should be printed, 
and sent olit under separate cover, and that a committee should 
be formed that should be entirely composed of women present at 
that meeting to go through all the records of it^ and make a com- 
plete record of the meeting, to be printed as a permanent source 
of information for the Council. 

Miss Shaw pointed out the fact that the resolution covered 
two separate propositions, and therefore moved, seconded by Mrs 
Grdghton :^^ 

*' That the minutes be not read.** 

Miss Wilson moved in amendment, seconded by Fru Hierta- 
BetziuB : — 

"That the roBolutions in the minutes be read.*' 

This was put from the Chair, and carried. 

Miss Wilson was requested to look through the minutes and 
to mark the resolutions to be afterwards read. 

Miss Anthony moved, seconded by Mme. Elerk van Hogen- 
dorp: — 

"That the minutes to be compiled by the committee be printed.*' 

Mrs Greighton pointed out that by the Standing Orders all 
I'esolutions proposed must be put in writing. 

MIbb Shaw rose to a point of order and drew the attention 
of the meeting to the fact that no Recording Secretary was 
present, and proposed that the President appoint some(me to act 
in the Secretary's absence. 

The President asked Miss Shaw if she would act as Record- 
ing Secretary, but Miss Shaw declined. 

She then appointed Mrs Willoughby Cummings, saying that 
that lady had had great experience both as Recording and as 
Corresponding Secretary in Canada. 

Mrs Willoughby Gummingg accepted the duty. 

Mrs Greighton asked if the minutes aforesaid when printed 
would be considered to be binding upon the Council as directing 
its policy. 

The President said that it might cause con^derable difficulty 
if the actions of the First Quinquennial Council Meeting were 
not considered binding. 

Mrs Sewall (Vice-President) said that some changes were 



VILLOUGHBY CUMMINGS 
•iareWj m Ivhalf of Madame Oddf Dr/Jem 
Pholo by Cochrane. HamLlK 



FIRST BUSINESS SESSION 83 

made in the Constitution at the meeting of 1893, a record of which 
should be in the hands of the Council. So far as the resolutions 
bore on the Constitution and the shaping of their work, they must 
be considered as binding, but that was not what she had in mind. 

The President said that as the record alluded to was the only 
document handed to her concerning the actions of the last Quin- 
quennial, and as she had had no option but to act on them as if they 
were binding, that she must ask that this record be printed forth- 
with and placed in the hands of the Council before she resigned 
her presidency. 

Mrs Dixson asked if this matter which referred to thd past 
had anything to do with the business of this present meeting, 
and urged that the agenda be proceeded with. 

The President said that the discussion had reference to 
records which it was important should be in the possession of the 
members. 

Miss Anthony then read her resolution, which had been put 
into writing, as follows : — 

" That a oommittee oooaisting only of official memben present 
at the last Quinquennial Meeting be formed to h&ye the minutes 
printed as permanent record of the proceedings of the first meeting 
of the International CounciL This record to be signed by the then 
officers of the International Council who were present." 

The President said that this was a different resolution from 
that proposed at first by the mover. 

Miss Anthony said this covered what was in her mind. 

Miss Shaw asked if any Standing Orders had been adopted 
by the Council. 

The President said that Standing Orders had been adopted by 
the Executive Committee, but the Council was not bound by 
them until they had been formally adopted. 

Miss Shaw moved that the Standing Orders and Amended Con- 
stitution be the rule of the proceedings of this meeting until 
such time as they are formally discussed and adopted or rejected. 

Mrs Etowall thought this resolution was not sufficiently 
inclusive, and suggested that it should cover the whole time of 
this Quinquennial Session. 

Miss Shaw then moved the following resolution, after a 
short discussion on what had been done in die matter at the last 
meeting of the Executive i--^ 

" That the proposed Standing Rules of Order and the proposed 



84 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Amendiueots of the GonBtitution shall be our rule of proceeding 
during this Quinquennial, in so far as they do not conflict with the 
present Constitution." 

Lady Battersea seconded this resolution, which was then put 
from the Chair, and carried. 

Miss Anthony's resolution (referring to the minutes of the 
meeting of 1893) wa«s read again, and Ifme. Klerck van 
Hogendorp seconded it. 

Mrs Oafihey said that after these minutes which were in 
Lady Aberdeen's hands were printed no correction could be 
made. 

The President said that she could not sec how she could sign 
the minutes when printed, when she had not seen the material 
from which they were compiled, and was not present at the meet- 
ing in question. 

Mrs Sewall sympathised with the feelings of the President, 
and proposed that she be authorised to have the minutes which 
had been put into her hands during her first year of office printed 
unsigned, and that the committee prepare from them, and from 
other documents, an official record of the early history of the 
Council. 

Miss Wilson asked if it was not essential that the President 
should sign some minutes as official. 

Mrs Sewall said that as she had acted as Chairman of that 
meeting at the request of the President, Miss Clara Barton, she 
would be in a position to sign the minutes. 

Lady Laura Bidding suggested the following rider to Miss 
Anthony's resolution : — 

**That Lady Aberdeen be authorised meanwhile to have printed 
for distribution among the Council the copy of minutes forwarded to 
her on which she has acted during the period of her presidency." 

This Miss Anthony accepted as part of her resolution, which, 
ha^dng been put from the Chair, was carried in its complete form 
and WM carried unanimoualy. 

The President asked if the matter in the minutes which she 
had received and acted upon during the last five years be 
changed by other information, how would this e£fect the Council, 
and what action should be taken ? 

Lady Laura Bidding said that the minutes compiled by the 
committee should be considered simply as a record. 



QUINQUENNIAL REPORT 85 

Mrs Dobson asked if a record would not be as binding as 
minutes. 

The President said it would not, and that she woald take 
it as understood that the Council agreed in the opinion expressed 
by Lady Laura. 



Quinquennial Report. 

Presented by the Corresponding Secretary, Jnly 1899. 

Mme. President, and Fellow Officers and Members of the 
International Council, — I have the honour to submit to you, 
on behalf of the Executive, a brief report oi the work of the Inter- 
national Council since the last Quinquennial Meeting in 1893. 

After the close of that groat and wonderful gathering at 
Chicago, the International Council consisted of 2 federated 
National Councils, 5 elected Officers, and 28 Vice-Presidents, 
pledged to carry on the work and spread the ideals of the Inter- 
national Council throughout the world. 

That is now 6 years ago, an additional year having been 
added to the present quinquennial period owing to the delay in 
forming a National Council in this country. 

I am happy to be able to report a very marked growth during 
this period, not only in the tangible and visible body of federated 
National Councils, but also in the understanding and appreciation 
of our methods and aims, in spite of certain vagueness about 
both our methods and aims, which I may say is at once our 
stumbling-block and our pride— our stumbling-block because of 
the difficulty we experience in explaining precisely by rule and 
measure what we are and what we want, and our pride because 
this very vagueness enables us to be all-embracing, and to set be- 
fore us a high ideal towards which the best of us have made but 
little progress as yet, which may not for many years be fully 
realised, but which we believe to be of priceless moment to the 
human race. 

But to come to facts. 

Of the two Councils federated in 1893, the elder sister of the 
confederation of Councils, bom in 1888, across the Atlantic, has 
duly appointed representatives here amongst us to-day, who will 



86 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

be far better able than I to give a worthy account of her work 
and progress. We shall welcome what they have to tell us of 
their history of the past 6 years. 

The next member of our Federation, which made such a 
flourishing start in 1892, has, I regret to say, no longer a definite 
existence. The Council idea is of slow growth, and needs careful 
and patient building up. It may be that the new movement in 
France was not fortunate in this respect. It certainly did lack 
the aid and superintendence of a master builder, for this new 
Council decided to have neither president nor vice-president, 
and though these posts are often ornamental ones, in this case the 
result seems to have been that the secretary became such a very 
autocratic ruler that she declined to summon any meetings whatso- 
ever, and so the body corporate, formed with such care, ceased to 
show any activity. The groups composing it carried out each its 
own work, and the National Council dropped out of sight, to our 
very sincere regret. We trust that before long the women of 
France will taie their proper place in our ranks, and mean- 
while we are honoured with tiie presence of Mme. Bogelot, 
and Mile. Sarah Monod, as delegates to the International 
Council, and there are others here to-day who will, we hope, 
carry back to France a pledge to forward the Council movement 
by every means in their power. 

Of the International Officers elected in 1893, all except one 
have served their full term. I am the only new-comer, and yet 
I think I, too, can claim to have been closely connected with the 
work from the time that our President took up her staff of office. 
Mrs Eva Maclaren, whose health obliged her to resign in January 
1896, set herself quickly and resolutely, after the Chicago meeting, 
to gather up the threads of her work, and she has left a sub- 
stantial and lasting record behind her, for the beginnings of the 
Australasian Councils were evolved under her fostering care, and 
she made many efforts to capture those shadowy and elusive per- 
sonages nominated in 1893, and known to us all as Vice-Presi- 
dents for countries where no National Council exists. In spite 
of every effort, many of them have resolutely refused the position 
offered to them ; tluree only have taken an active part in further- 
ing the formation of National Councils, and their efforts have 
been crowned with success. 

Immediately after her election, our President set herself with 
a whole heart to aid in the formation of a National Council in 
Canada. This may have been thought an easy task in a young 



QUINQUENNIAL &BPORT 87 

ooun^ without deeply-rooted methods of work. It has not been 
80. Ilere, aa elsewhere, the preliminary work has been attended 
with grave difficulties, and much tact and forbearance on the part 
of all has been required. Canada has its eleavaiges ; the French- 
speaking and English-speaking Canadian women had little in 
common; the different Provinces have each their own special 
interest ; the prairie has its own problems to solve, and two huge 
mountain ranges divide British Columbia from the rest of the 
DominioiL In spite of these drawbacks, the work of consolida- 
tion has been carried out^ and we are proud to-day of what the 
Canadian women have been able to accomplish. They are, how- 
ever, here to-day to speak for themselves, and I must no longer 
trespass on their domain. The formation of their National 
Council took place in 1893, and they were federated in 1896. 

In order of birth the German Council comes next, having 
been formed in 1894 and federated in 1896. Here also the 
work has been arduous and uphill. We are all aware of the 
difficulties attending any initiative taken by German women, and 
of the earnestness with which German women have striven to 
gain a better legal position for themselves. The movement is 
spreading throughout the country, and I implicitly believe in the 
capacity of this Council to overcome prejudice and to open its 
doors to every woman worker, no matter what her social position, 
her opinion, or her methods of work may be. This is the task 
which every National Council has to set itself to carry out. We 
regret the absence to-day of the veteran President of this Council, 
Fr&ulein Augusta Schmidt. 

The Swedish Council comes next in order of formation. It 
started in January 1896, with nine affiliated societies, and it 
federated that same year. It has lately sustained a serious loss 
in the death of its President, Fru Ankersvard. Under the 
earnest work and influence of Fru Hierta-Retzius, who has been 
appointed in her place, our work in Sweden is sure to spread 
and deepen. 

■'. It is well known that British women are in the vanguard of 
all kinds of practical work. Their zeal and energy are unbounded, 
and probably just because of these very qualities they are not apt 
to be enthusiastic over what they consider vague aspirations and 
ideals. There was therefore a considerable delay in the formation 
of a Council here. For 10 years an organised body of women 
workers had been holding admirable Conferences on various 
phases, of women's work, and had been forming Local Unions of 



88 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

women. The officers of the International Council felt that it 
would be most valuable if this body could develop into a 
National Council of Great Britain and Ireland, and they ap- 
proached them with this object in view. The committee of this 
organisation decided in 1896 that it was impossible for them to 
accept this invitation. In 1897 they offered to federate on terms 
which tlie Executive of the International Council did not approve 
of. The Executive, which met in July 1897, therefore decided, 
in view of the approaching Quinquennial Meeting in London, that 
they must themselves take steps to organise a National Council, 
which could act in cooperation with the International Council 
on the occasion of the forthcoming sessions already alluded to. 
A Conference was at once convened and held, by kind per- 
mission of Mrs Wynford Philipps, at the Women's Institute. 
At this meeting members of the National Union of Women 
Workers made fresh propositions, and a provisional committee 
was appointed to confer with them. The result of these confer- 
ences was that certain amendments to their Constitution were 
agreed to, and, at their annual meeting in October 1897, the 
National Union of Women Workers formally constituted their 
governing body the National Council of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and their application for federation was accepted by 
our Executive in 1898. To the regret of all, the able and 
beloved President of this Council, Mrs Alfred Booth, is 
debarred by her medical advisers from taking part in our pro- 
ceedings. 

In 1896 and 1897 our President delegated me to report to 
her on the position of the Council movement in the different 
countries of Europe. I visited the centres of women's activity 
in France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, Holland, Nor- 
way, Sweden and Finland. At many places meetings were held 
and opportunities courteously offered to me of explaining the 
objects of the International Council, and of making the acquaint- 
ance of many earnest women workers. I rejoice today in being 
able to meet once more many of these workers here as delegates 
from National Councils, or from committees appointed for the 
formation of the same, and we may congratulate them heartily 
on the work they have succeeded in accomplishing. The forma- 
tion of these committees has been an interesting and promising 
feature of our later endeavours. They are now at work in 
Switzerland, Italy, Bussia, Austria and Norway, and we hope 
for great things from them. Even in brave little Finland an 



r • 



QUINQUENNIAL REPORT 89 

effort would have been made had it not been for the present 
all-absorbing troubles. 

There has also been a decided advance in the formation of 
new Councils. 

The Council of Denmark, which is due greatly to the influ- 
ence of Miss Kirstin Fredriksen, known to many here because 
of her presence at Chicago, was formed and federated in March 
of this year, and has sent a large contingent of speakers and 
onlookers to be with us to-day. 

The Council of Holland, whose formation has been of deep 
interest to us, has been wisely and carefully developed, and 
promises to be a very representative and ideal Council, under 
the able presidency and leadership of Mme. Klerck van 
Hogendorp. 

In Belgium alone, of all the countries of Northern Europe, 
no move has been made as yet. 

I must also go further afield, and report the formation of 
vigorous National Councils in New Zealand and New South 
Wales, formed in 1896 and 1897, and federated this spring. Tas- 
mania has also just sent an application for federation by the means 
of a delegate, who started for London at 24 hours' notice. Prelimin- 
ary committees have been formed in Victoria, Cape Colony, and 
the Argentine Republic, and even in China strenuous efforts are 
being made to send delegates to the Council meetings. We shall 
have India represented by Mrs Flora Annie Steele and Miss 
Mary Bohr. 

Nine federated National Councils and 8 preliminary com- 
mittees, formed to promote the Council idea, with at least 28 
countries, personally, if I may use the term, represented here 
to-day, is the record of the last 6 years' growth. 

It is a matter for very real thankfulness to us that we have 
been fortunate enough to secure delegates from all these different 
countries, and we earnestly desire that they should carry back 
with them a realisation of the work we desire to see done, and a 
deeper sense of the brotherhood of the world. 

I must add a few words before closing on internal detail. 
We have held in these last 6 years three meetings of Executive. 
The first met in London on July 1897, and decided to postpone 
the Quinquennial Session for 1 year. Much thought was given 
to certain alterations in the Constitution and Standing Orders pre- 
sented for approval of the Council. These have all been provision- 
ally acted upon. Several important resolutions to be dealt with 



90 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

at the Qainquennial Sessions were also accepted from National 
Councils. In July 1898 the Executive met once more in London, 
under the able presidency of our Yice-President-at-Large, Mrs 
May Wright Sewall. This meeting carried through a variety of 
arrangements for the Quinquennial Meeting, and felt itself com- 
pelled to reconsider the decision of the previous Ex^utive as to 
opening the meetings of the International Council with silent 
prayer. It agreed to place on the agenda the amended 
Constitution sent up by the newly-federated British Council, 
but only with a very strongly-worded protest against the pro- 
visions made therein, which seemed to them to nullify both the 
ideals and functions of the International Council. I need not 
dwell on the agenda drawn up at this meeting, as it is now 
before you in detail. 

Our last Executive, held in March of this year, had the 
joyful task of accepting the federation of 5 new Councils, 
bringing the total number up to 9. They also considered 
gravely the policy of the Inteniational Council, both present and 
future, and their deliberations are now laid before this gathering 
for approval or the reverse. 

I cannot close this report without some reference to the 
International Congress, convened by the International Council, 
and taking place at the same time as our Quinquennial Meetings. 
Our most strenuous endeavours have been to make this Congress 
a success, and we have been most generously aided by many 
British women, who have given their means and their time and 
their experience to bring about a real international gathering, 
with what results this week will show. There are those among 
us who think that this has been done at the expense of the 
Council gatherings, which have receded into the bfikckground in 
the pubHo mind, but even if this be so, I am sure we shall not 
regret having caJled together our sisters from so many different 
countries to confer together, to learn from each other, and to 
strengthen the bond of sisterhood between us in the fulfilment of 
our high ideal — " The union of all for the good of all." 

All of which respectfully is submitted by 

Tebrsa F. Wilson, 

Corresponding Secretary. 

The Quinquennial Report was adopted with acclamation on 
the motion of Fru-Hierta Setzius (Sweden), seconded by Mme. 
Elerck van Hogendorp (Holland). 



QUIl^QUENNIAL BEPOBT 



91 



The Treasurer, in submitting the balance-sheet, said that 
when appointed she wrote to the previous Treasurer for the funds, 
and was told there were none. She also wrote to the Secretary, 
and received the same answer. At last she found out the secret 
that from 1893 to 1898 all the expenses were paid by Lady 
Aberdeen. She reminded the members of these facts, because 
she wanted a spirit of appreciation as well as a spirit of criticism 
to be present at their meetings. She thought they would all 
agree with her that they would find it humiliating to be so 
much indebted to Lady Aberdeen if they did not honour and 
love her so much. 

The balance-sheet was as follows : — 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN. 



Rbceiptb. 






EXPENDITUBK. 




{For Quinquennial Term,) 




(For 1898-99.) 




British NationiJ Council, 


£20 





Office Rent, . .£20 





Canadian „ „ 


20 





Salaries for Secretarial 




New South Wales „ 


20 





Work, . 22 2 


5 


German National Oounoil, 


20 





Printing and Stationery, 50 9 


9 


Swedish „ „ 


20 12 


6 


Typewriting, . .28 


7 


Danish „ „ 


4 





Postages, Cables, and Tele- 




Dutch „ „ 


2 





grams^ . .66 


3 


Mr J. Neilson Hamilton 






Messenger Call Box and 




(Patron), . ... 


20 





Telegraphic Address, . 1 11 


6 


Mr Walter Barrett, 


2 





Travelling Expenses, 1 4 


3 


United States National 






Sundry „ . . 17 


2 


Council, . 


20 





Durrant's Press Cutting 

Agency. . .22 
Balance m hand, . 41 10 




7 


£148 12 


j6 


£148 12 


6 



I have examined the above Accounts, with the Vouchers, and found them 
correct. M. S. Cluoston, Accountant. 

June 24M, 1899. 

The balance-sheet was adopted on the motion of Miss 
Anthony, seconded by Mrs Armitage. 

The Key. Anna Shaw said they appreciated and were deeply 
grateful for the splendid service which Lady Aberdeen had 
rendered the International Council by her large donation of 
money, which had enabled it to arrive at its present splendid 
position. She moved a vote of thanks to Lady Aberdeen. 



92 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

The following vote of thanks to the President was moved by 
Miss Shaw, seconded by Fm Hierta-SetziuB : — 

*' Resolved — 'That we extend to the Ckrantess of Aberdeen our 
heartfelt appreciation and profound gratitude for the great personal 
devotion and service, and also for the magnificent financial aid which 
she has rendered the International Council of Women. We feel that 
its splendid development and success is due in great part to her 
efiforts, and we therefore tender her our sincere and earnest thanks." 

The motion was put to the meeting by Mrs Sewall, and 
carried. 

The President, in reply, said it had been a great pleasure for 
her to do what she felt was really necessary for the Council, and 
she had rather expected a vote of censure for taking action 
which was not authorised. 

The President then called on the representatives of the 
federated National Councils to present their reports. 

Note. — The Editor has received the following letter from 
Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, — 

Finland, Helsinofobs, October 9th, 1899. 

DsAB Ladt Abbrdesn, — Will you allow me to use this opportunity, and 
ask you to express to Mrs Bedford Fenwick my sincerest appreciation of the 
excellent way in which she has, on my behalf, carried on the duties of the 
Treasurer of the International Council of Women. I have felt it, and said it 
many times before, but I feel it perhaps most keenly now, when I send you 
the last manuscripts for the tiansactions of the Congress, and thus feel as if I 
had done with it. I can only say that I congratulate the Council that Finland 
was so far away, as my absence gave it the advantage of Mrs Bedford 
Fenwick's treasurership. — I remain, dear Madam, yours truly, 

Alexandra Gripenbbbo. 



MRS. F. HUMl'HREYS GAFFNEV, 



REPORTS OP NATIONAL COUNCILS- 



United States (1893-1899). 

Presented by Mrs Fannie Humphreys Oaffhey, President. 

Our last Qainquennial was held at Chicago during the 
World's Fair or Columbian Exposition held in that city, when 
we were only about 5 years old. 

At this time the National Council of the United States held a 
Department Congress in the World's Congress of Representative 
Women and entertained foreign delegates. Seven thousand names 
were registered as visitors on our books at the Council headquarters. 
This Congress greatly assisted the cause of women by attracting 
attention to the fact that organisation was steadily advancing 
among women, and that increased pleasure, profit and protection 
were the result. Two triennial meetings have since been held by 
our National Council, one in 1895 and one in 1899. 

At the 1895 Triennial 27 sessions were held, which included 
the usual topics — religion, temperance, education, philanthropy, 
patriotism and organisation. 

One session was devoted to that important question — " Equal 
Pay for Equal Work," irrespective of sex. 

Another session was given to industries, and was occupied by 
delegates from our National Association of Women Stenographers. 

Politics was given two or three sessions to demonstrate " How 
the Moral Element could be supplied to Politics," and how 
the question of the woman and the tiger could be settled in 
a certain locality which keeps a well-fed tiger as the pet of one 
class of citizens and the terror of the others. 

We abo had a paper on Woman's Relation to Hygiene in 
the Past, Present and Future, and settled the question hygienically. 

Our committee on dress was then, as now, mindful of its 

93 



94 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

duty, both by precept and example, and the idea of dress was 
discussed from every standpoint, from hygiene to art. 

Our motto — -"Lead Kindly light" — ^has led us on, and is 
shedding new light on us year by year. 

From 7 organisations the Council, in its second triennial, had 
grown to be 17, and now in .1899 we have grown to 20 national 
and 51 local councils. 

Our work is largely done through committees standing for 
some high purpose. 

Conferences of our National Council were held at Atlanta 
daring the Exposition in 1895. 

On November 12th, 1895^ there was given in New York 
City, under the auspices of the Council, a celebration in honour 
of the eightieth birthday of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in recogni- 
tion of her half century of pioneer work in the causo of women. 

Near the close of 1896 the President, Mrs Dickinson, being 
prostrated by serious illness, tendered her resignation. 

The vice-presidentj the Rev. Anna H. Shaw, did noble 
service, and held the Council until Mrs May Wright Sewall was 
duly appointed to fill ihe unexpired term. 

Our Council has adopted the colours of the peace flag — 
purple, white and yellow — as a fitting emblem of the brother- 
hood of man, and a worthy flag for co-operative work at home or 
abroad. 

The organisations constituting the National Council of Women 
of the United States consist of 17 National Organisations, 1 
State Council and 6 Local Councils. They are as follows : — 

National American Women's Suffrage Association. Miss 
Susan B. Anthony, President, Rochester, N.Y. 

National Women's Christian Temperance Union. Mrs LiHan 
M. N. Stevens, President, Stroudwater, Maine. 

National Free Baptist Women's Missionary Society. Mrs 
Mary A. Davis, President^ Arlington, R. I. 

National Women's Relief Society. Mrs Zina D. H. Young, 
President, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Wimodaughsis. Mrs Ada G. Dickerson, President, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Young Ladies' National Mutual Improvement Association. 
Mrs Elmuia S. Taylor, President, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

National Christian League for the Promotion of Social 
Purity. Mrs Elizabeth B. Grannis, President, New York 
City, N.Y. 



REV. ANNA HOWARD S 



RBP0RT8 OP NATIONAL COUNCILS— UNITED STATES 95 

Universal Peace Union. Rev. Amanda Deyo, Representative, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Women's Republican Association of the United States. Mrs 
J. EUen Foster, President, Washington, D.C. 

National Association of Loyal Women of American Liberty. 
Mrs I. C. Manchester, President, Providence, R.L 

Women's Relief Corps, Auxiliary to the Grand Army of the 
Republic. Mrs Flo. Jameson Miller, National President, 
Monticello, HI. 

National Association of Women Stenographers. Miss^ 
Gertrude Beeks, President, Chicago, 111. 

National Council of Jewish Women. Mrs Hannali G. 
Solomon, President, Chicago, 111. 

American Anti- Vivisection Society. Mrs Caroline Earle 
White, Representative, Philadelphia, Pa. 

National Florence Crittenton Mission. Mrs Elate Waller 
Barrett, Representative, Washington, D.C. 

Supreme Hive Ladies of the Maccabees. Mrs Lilian M. 
Hollister, President, Detroit, Mich. 

Rathbone Sisters of the World. Mrs Jennette B. S. Neubert, 
President, Kansas City, Kan. 

State Council of Rhode Island. Rev. Anna Garlin Spencer, 
President, Providence, R.L 

Local Council of Women of Rochester, New Tork. Mrs 
Joseph O'Connor, President. 

Local Council of Women of Bloomington, Indiana. Mrs L. 
M. Beck, President. 

Local Council of Women of Indianapolis, Indiana. Mrs 
Flora Sullivan Wulschner, President. 

Local Council of Women of Minneapolis, Minn. Mrs Anna 
M. Higbee, President. 

Local Council of Women of Portland, Maine. Mrs J. Henry 
Crockett, Acting President. Mrs Margaret T. W. Merrill, 
Honorary President. 

Local Council of Women of Quincy, Illinois. Mrs Anna 
L. Parker, President. 

At our last Triennial, held in February of this year, the 
Council decided upon such change in Constitution as should make 
retiring presidents honorary presidents, with vote in the 
Executive. 

For our present action we have much in hand. First, with a 
view to generalising work, the various organisations throughout 



96 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

the United States, either within or without the Council, are to be 
grouped or titled under comprehensive heads, as — Education, 
Politics, Economics, etc. Then, having classified organisation, 
we can appoint a Cabinet head to look after these special lines 
of work within the Council. 

It is also under consideration that a committee shall be 
formed to inquire into the social and general life of women in 
Cuba, Porto Rico and Hawaii, and that a commission shall be 
appointed from within the Council to visit and inspect these 
islands with a view of cooperation and sympathy with the women 
in these dependencies. 

We as a Council are strong in hope to do, and in faith 
and will to do it. In the years to come, as in years past, our 
Council will follow the light which leads onward and upward 
toward that hierarchy of renown reserved for all noble and dis- 
interested effort. 



Canada (i 893-1 899). 

FreBented by Mrs WiUonghby OmmmngB, Secretary. 

The history of the National Council of Women of Canada should 
date from the close of the Congress of Women convened by the 
National Council of Women of the United States, in Chicago, at 
the time of the World's Fair. 

At a meeting of the foreign delegates to that Congress, held 
in the Palmer House on May 22nd, 1893, Mrs May Wright 
Sewall, President of the National Council of Women of the 
United States, and Yice-President-at-Large of the International 
Council of Women, took the chair, and in an address to those 
present clearly and ably outUned the Council idea, and after- 
wards provisional Vice-Presidents and Secretaries were ap- 
pointed, who undertook the work of trying to bring about the 
organisation of National Councils in their respective countries on 
their return home. 

Sixteen Canadian women were present at that meeting, of 
whom ten were from Toronto, one from Winnipeg, one from the 



MRS. BOOMER. 
AcllKg I'niiilail for Ik'- CouHttu oj A/ienirri, l'ris:dcKt eflh, Na. 



J 



\ 



REPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — CANADA 97 

provinco of Quebec, two from Hamilton, one from London, and 
one from Port Arthur. The two officers appointed provisionally 
for Canada were Mrs Bichard McDonnell, Vice-President, and 
Mrs Willoughby Oummings, Hon. Secretary. 

In the following September some of the ladies met again 
in Toronto in consultation as to the first steps that should be 
taken towards the inauguration of the Council movement in 
Canada. Mrs Hoodless was appointed provisional Treasurer, 
and it was decided to call a public meeting of women workers 
in Toronto, and to specially invite those whose names were 
prominent in the various organisations of women in all parts of 
the Dominion. 

With her usual kindness, the Countess of Aberdeen, who had 
but just arrived in Canada as the wife of the Governor-General, 
assented to the wishes of this committee, and agreed to take the 
chair at the meeting, and also promised to speak on behalf of the 
proposed organisation. 

The meeting was held on the 26th of October 1893, and was 
veiy representative, and largely attended. A resolution to form 
a National Council of Women of Canada was adopted unani- 
mously, the Countess of Aberdeen graciously consenting to be 
the President, and the provisional officers were confirmed in their 
appointments. 

The Constitution for National Councils, as had been set forth 
by the framers, was amended slightly to suit local conditions, and 
the organisation of Local Councils began at once — that of 
Toronto being formed on 3rd November, Hamilton on 17th 
November, Montreal on 30th November, and others shortly 
afterwards. 

At the time of the first annual meeting, which was held in 
Ottawa in the month of April following, there were eight local 
councils and three nationally organised societies federate in the 
National Council of Canada. Now the number of Local Councils 
is 21, and these form a chain across the Dominion of Canada, 
from the Atlantic Ocean on the east to the Pacific Ocean on the 
west. The number of nationally organised societies in the 
Council is now 6, their aims and objects being widely different. 
They are the Women's Art Association of Canada, the Girls' 
Friendly Society, the Dominion Women's Enfranchisement 
Association, the Dominion Order of the King's Daughters, the 
Aberdeen Association, the Victorian Order of Nurses. 

The Council meets yearly in the various cities by invitation, 

VOL I G 



98 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

and at these annual meetings, which last a week, the afternoons 
are devoted to conference on different aspects of women's work, 
papers being read and discussed, and verbatim reports being 
afterwards printed of the same for sale. Sectional conferences 
are also held by the Nationally Organised Societies during the 
annual meetings, the opportunity being an excellent one for that 
purpose. 

The work undertaken by the several Local Councils naturally 
varies a great deal, owing to the fact that some of them are 
formed in large cities and others are in small, distant towns, 
and only a brief general outline can now be given of what has 
been accomplished by them individually, and by the National 
Council as a whole. 

1. The Council, through its Local Councils, obtained an amend- 
ment in the Education Act, to provide for the introduction of 
manual training and instruction in domestic science in the public 
schools of the province of Ontario, and the training of teachers, 
so that they may be able to give instruction in these arts. It 
has also given an emphasis to the same movement in other 
pro'^nces. 

2. It has obtained the appointment of Women Factory 
Inspectors for factories and workshops where women are 
employed in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. 

3. It has obtained the extension of the provisions of the 
Factory Act to the Shop Act in Ontario as regards the super- 
vision of women workers. 

4. It has obtained the appointment of women on the Boards 
of School Trustees in New Brunswick, and the amendment 
of the School Act, so that they may be elected in British 
Columbia. 

5. It has brought about very desirable changes in the 
arrangements for women prisoners in various places, notably 
in the City of Quebec, where matrons are now in charge of the 
women, and young girls are now sent to a separate institution. 

6. It has organised in various centres Boards of Associated 
Charities or other systems of co-operation in the relief of 
distress, and is still working in this direction wherever it has 
opportunity so to do, and is this year circulating a valuable 
paper or study on the problem of the unemployed. 

7. It has established hospitals in some of its smaller centres. 

8. It originated the Victorian Order of Nurses, and has 
taken a leading part in its establishment in different centres. 



REPORTS OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — CANADA 99 

9. It has organised cooking schools, cooking classes, and at 
Quebec is helping in the formation of a Training School for 
Domestic Servants. 

10. It has spread sanitary knowledge, especially by means of 
Health Talks for Mothers, given by physicians ; this has been a 
valuable success in Montreal. This has been specially successful 
both amongst the French and English mothers. 

11. It has held an inquiry all over the country into the 
circulation of impure literature, and has been able to do some- 
thing to lessen it already, as well as to warn parents and teachers 
as to the veiy great danger that exists in this direction. It 
hopes to be able to do more both by legislation and by the cir- 
culation of healthy and interesting literature. It also inaugurated 
the Home Reading Union, to promote habits of good and 
systematic reading. 

12. It instituted inquiries into the conditions surrounding 
working women in various centres, and urges on its members 
various methods whereby they may work for their amelioration. 

13. It conducted an inquiry into the laws for the protecting 
of women and children, and has laid certain recommendations 
before the Minister of Justice, which it earnestly hopes he will 
adopt when amending the Criminal Law. 

14. It is at the present moment earnestly concerning itself in 
the care and treatment of the aged poor. 

16. It is now calling on all its members to unite in efforts for 
the protection of animal and bird life from useless destruction 
in the interests of fsishion. 

16. Through one of its affiliated societies it is endeavouring 
to plan for the better care and wiser distribution of women 
immigrants than has hitherto been possible. 

17. It is pledged to co-operate with the medical authorities 
in urging immediate measures to be taken to check the ever- 
increasing ravages of consumptive diseases in this country, to 
spread ^owledge on the subject and press responsibility 
home on individuals. 

Perhaps not the least important work that has been accom- 
plished by the Council has been that it has bound together in 
sympathy and united effort the women of the various provinces, 
of different opinions, politics and beliefs, drawing them together 
in closer citizenship — the benefit of which to the national life 
who can fully estimate or understand 1 

Besides the great help which the Council has received from 



100 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

the untiring zeal and the wonderful executive ability of its 
President, the Countess of Aberdeen, the cordial approval and 
ever-willing assistance of the Earl of Aberdeen, throughout his 
term of office as Grovemor-General of the Dominion, has been 
much valued and appreciated by its members. Grateful acknow- 
ledgment should also be made of the many encouragements 
received by the Council from Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Prime Minister, 
Sir John Thompson, and other ministers and ex-ministers of the 
Crown, as well as from the most prominent men in official life, 
both lay and clerical. 

Special mention should also be made of the great help and 
assistance given to the Council by Sir John Bourinot in drawing 
up the Standing Orders and in helpful advice given to the officers 
from time to time. 

Since the departure of the President from Canada, Lady 
Edgar, the wife of the Speaker of the House of Commons, has 
been Acting President. Miss Teresa F. Wilson, who was 
appointed Corresponding Secretary last October, will probably 
begin her new work in Canada in a few weeks* time. 

The members of the Canadian Council have lately had a most 
gratifying request made to them by the Government of the 
Dominion, who have asked the Council to undertake the com- 
pilation of a volume containing a record of the aims, position 
and work of the women of Canada, past and present, in regard 
to the religion, education, art, philanthropy, literature, industries, 
economics, moral and social reform, professions and the like. 
The Government intends to publish a large edition of this 
volume for distribution at the coming Paris Exposition, and they 
will defray all the expenses in connection with the compilation 
of the same. 

This work is now being undertaken by the members of the 
Council with much spirit and energy, and in the determination to 
spare no time nor effort, so that the result may be satisfactory to 
the Government that has shown its confidence in the Council by 
committing such an important matter into the hands of its 
members. 

The Canadian Council has adopted as its badge a lover's knot 
of dark and light blue enamel, on which are the words of the 
" Golden Rule," and this badge is worn by its members. 

A grateful note of appreciation of the help and encouragement 
which this Council has received from the kind visits of Mrs May 
Wright Sewall, Mrs Foster Avery, and other members of the 



FRAU ANNA SlMtON. 



KIL^O M,\KHC STRITT. 






REPORTS OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — GERMANY 101 

United States Oouncil at the annual meetings from time to time, 
must close this report. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 



Germany (i 894-1 899), 

Presented l^ Fran Marie Stritt, Second Vice-President. 

I HAVE the honour to give you, in the name of the Executive 
of the Bund Deutscher Frauen Vereine, a short report of its tasks, 
aims and activity hitherto. Allow me to precede this report by 
a few words concerning its foundation, which took place in March 
1894, and had its origin in the inspiration which some German 
women received at the International Congress of Women in 
Chicago, 1893, by coining into contact with the National Council 
of Women of the United States. Therefore, the aims and ends, 
the leading ideas and inner construction of this model organisa- 
tion, have served our Bund in its general outlines as a pattern 
from its beginning, though, of course, we have taken into con- 
sideration the widely different economic, social and political 
circumstances of Germany in stenevfilj and specially the different 
conditionB in the German and Americkn women's movement, and 
had, therefore, often to choose other ways in pursuing our aims. 
But the establishing of an inner connection between all women's 
unions, which place their work in the service of the welfare of 
the people and of family life, were also considered and laid down 
as a fundamental principle by the first originators of the Bund, 
and by those women who united with them for that purpose. 
Thus the ground was prepared for the programme, and the lead- 
ing points were given once for ever for the united working of 
associations of the most different tendencies and colouring. 
What the Bund Deutscher Frauen Vereine aims at representing 
is not that which separates us, but that which unites us ; not the 
extremes in the woman's movement, not even the modem woman's 
movement as siich, but the social work of women in all its 
branches. As in this motion all propagandist activity for raising 
the condition of women in general is included, it was only 
natural that, above all, our progressive women's unions affiliated 
to the young Bund. They hoped, in working together with the 
moderate and even backward elements, to interest these in the 



102 INTERNATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

proper modem aspirations of women, and to cultivate in them 
understanding for enlarged social women's work, and, above all, 
to arouse the id^ias in them of the economic, social and moral 
, emancipation of our sex, and — in correspondence with the 
enlarged horizon — to widen the sphere of their common work 
gradually in such a way that in the end all departments of the 
modem woman's movement may find room there. How far these 
hopes have been realised during these 5 years, how far we have 
kept step with the spirit of the times, and how far we have 
altogether done justice to our great tasks, will be clear to you 
after a survey of the development and activity of the Bund up 
to the present day. 

Even to the most advanced leaders it was perfectly clear that, 
in its earliest stages of growth, we had to restrict ourselves to 
perfectly neutral ground, for, in agreement with the principles 
of the American women, the united work of the Bund had only 
to be that upon which we all can heartily agree. Thus, at the 
first initial meeting in Berlin, in March 1894, to which 34 unions 
from all parts of Germany had sent delegates — Firstly, it was 
decided to induce all larger communities throughout the country 
to establish kinderorte, that is to say, homes for children, in 
which they can be received, and where they are well taken care 
of out of school hours, whilst their mothers are at work ; secondly, 
a movement was set on foot to provide women inspectors in all 
German States. As regards the first point, I am sorry to say, 
nothing has been accomplished yet, and up till now the munici- 
palities have shewn themselves indifferent, and thus this important 
social work is mostly left to the voluntary activity of private 
societies. 

I shall return later to the question of women inspectors. 

At the above-mentioned meeting, the Constitution and Bye- 
laws of the Bund were discussed and decided upon, an Executive 
Committee was elected, consisting of 9 members. The esteemed 
pioneer in our German movement, Fraulein Augusta Schmidt, 
was unanimously voted for as President, as treasurer and secre- 
taries, the founders of the Bund, Frau Simson, Frau Bieber Boehm 
and Fraulein Forster. At the Convention which took place, in 
1895, in Munich, already 65 associations had joined the Bund. 
There was further a most gratifying and significant progress to 
record, as the Bund had taken up into its programme the most 
important women's questions — the question of legal conditions of 
women, the questions of temperance and prostitution. Further, 



REPORTS OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — GERMANY 103 

the formation of special Commissions for the working in these 
departments had become necessary. This work consisted partly 
in the distribution of enlightening pamphlets to mothers, teachers 
and educators, partly in sending in petitions to the respective 
legislative and administrative corporations of all German States 
concerning reforms and regulations in education and legislation. 
These agitations met with general attention, and partly also with 
great approval by Press and public opinion. The bi-annual meet- 
ing, which took place, 1896, in Cassel, rendered, in more than one 
point of view, the gratifying proof that the idea of the Bund had 
firmly taken root in the diSerent Unions. The common danger 
threatening in the New Civil Code had undoubtedly brought the 
adherents of different parties closer together, and had aroused 
that feeling of solidarity which had so long been lacking, which 
expressed itself in all discussions and resolutions in this well- 
attended meeting by a general unanimity in work. Besides this 
moral success, the organisation of the Bund, which included now 
76 unions, had become inwardly and outwardly strengthened. 
A good deal of positive work was accomplished, and more was in 
preparation for the next 2 years. To the commission which 
existed, already 2 new ones were added — 1 for education, and 1 
for inquiring into the social and industrial condition of shop- 
girls. The chief activity of the Bund, however, concentrated itself 
at that time in renewed and enforced agitation against different 
clauses in the New Civil Code, by which the legal disabihty of 
the married woman was confirmed again for ages to come. New 
resolutions were taken, and petitions were sent to Parliament, 
and meetings of protest were resolved upon by the Bund and 
carried out by the different Unions at the last moment, before the 
adoption of the New Code. This demonstration of women, 
hitherto unheard of in Germany, showed clearly how, during a 
short period of two years, even the most timid Unions had 
absorbed the idea of the women's movement, and how, by united 
working in a few departments, the recognition of the inner con- 
nection of cUl women, interests and aspirations were awakened and 
carried on. The two following years of work, especially the last 
bi-«uinual meeting in Hamburg in the autumn of 1898, confirmed 
this still more. The number of the unions of the Bund had 
increased to 105. The very large participation and the n\imer- 
ous motions of the Unions proved the great interest in the work 
of the Bund. These motions showed partly very clearly and dis- 
tinctly that our Oerman leaders not only foresee the ultimate 



104 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

results of the woman's movement, but also that they acknowledge 
the end they have in view. It is of the greatest significance 
that just these motions met with most sympathy. In adopting 
unanimously the motions proposed by Danzig, that the Bund 
should stand up, firstly, for full freedom for associations and 
pubKc meetings; secondly, for the co-operation of women in 
Municipal and Poor Law work, the Bund has taken the first 
official step upon the until now strictly avoided political ground ; 
and with the also unanimously carried resolution of adopting in 
its programme the question of arbitration, we have acknowledged 
the ultimate consequences of the realisations of our aspirations. 

The work of the Bund is divided at present amongst 7 Oom- 
missions — for labour legislation, for legal questions, for equal 
moral standard, for temperance, for education, for opening up 
industrial employment for women, and for protection of children. 
It is self-evident that our activity consists, for the present^ chiefly 
in propagandist work — the enlightenment of women and of public 
opinion, and the awakening of public conscience, the distribution 
of pamphlets, communications, resolutions, petitions, etc., as long 
as other means of obtaining recognition and of converting our 
principles into action are denied to us. 

However, we have also to report visible, practical results, 
especially in the departments of labour legislation and civil 
rights. To the activity of the first-mentioned Commission may 
chiefly be ascribed the fact that in some German States, as 
Bavaria and Hessen, women inspector assistants are already 
appointed, and in others, as Baden, Wiirtemburg and Reuss — and 
it is to be hoped also in Prussia — these appointments are to be 
expected. And it is owing only to the energetic agitation in the 
legal question that we have to record, amongst other not unessential 
improvements in the New Code, the great acquisition that in 
future the married as well as the unmarried woman will be 
admitted to the right of guardianship, and appointed thereto 
under the same conditions as men. 

But much higher than all practical results we value the ideal 
ones we owe to our young Bund. The German women's move- 
ment has united through it and in it into a great national whole. 
It has become a factor with which public opinion. Press and 
legislators have to reckon, and do reckon, llie progress which 
has been made in this respect during the last 5 years in Germany 
surpasses our own boldest expectations. We say to-day, quietly, 
and as a matter of course, what a short time ago we scarcely 



FRU HIKKTA RETZIL'S. 



REPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — SWEDEN 105 

ventured to think. What, however, has most value for us is, 
that the Bund has cultivated not only the understanding of the 
modem woman's duties and tasks, and aroused in us a social 
conscience, and promoted amongst us the recognition of solidarity, 
but it has also taught us to extend our aims continually, and, 
on the ground of our new duties, to demand new rights for our 
sex. 



Sweden (1896-1899). 

Presented by Fni Anna Hierta-EetziuB, President. 

The National Council of Women of Sweden was originated in 
January 1896, being initiated by Miss Ellen Fries, Doctor of 
Philosophy, on purpose to become a Federated National Council, 
incorporated with that of the International Council, founded in 
Washington in 1888. Its aim is to bring the various associa- 
tions in Sweden, under whose guidance women can enter, into 
closer relationship by means of an organised union; but no 
society entering our National Council sacrifices thereby its 
individuality in aim and method of procedure. 

A full and comprehensive set of rules have been compiled and 
adopted. 

The officers constituting the actual Executive are : — President, 
Mrs Anna Hierta-Retzius ; Vice-President, Dr Ellen Fries; 
Recording Secretary, Miss Hanna Anderson; Corresponding 
Secretary, Miss Ellen Whitlock; and Treasurer, Miss Hulda 
Lundin. 

There are at present 12 societies federated to the Swedish 
National Council, representing very diverse purposes and interests. 
The number of individuals which these federated bodies repre- 
sent amounts to more than 10,000, which, considering that there 
are still several large " societies for women " not yet affiliated, 
covers no small sphere of action. 

The federated societies are the following : — Beginning with 
our greatest actual woman's society. The Fredrika Bremer 
Society, founded in 1885, in memory of our great Swedish 
authoress, Miss Fredrika Bremer, by several of her friends, but, 
above all, by Baroness Sophia Aldersparre. Among the problems 
which this society has sought to solve, I may here name — procur- 
ing and allotting endowments to women ; the bettering of the 



106 INTERKATIOKAL COUl^CIL OF WOMEN 

salaries paid to women ; extension of interest in women's com- 
munal life; training and improvement of nurses adopted for 
country places, etc., etc. The society issues its own special 
review, and has a bureau in Stockholm, with branches in the 
country districts ; there information is left affecting all questions 
of importance for educated women. 

Two large institutions for philanthropy have federated, 
namely. The Charity Organisation Society of Stockholm, which, 
founded upon the model and plans of the C.O.S. in London, 
organises different kinds of charity and aims to diffuse sound and 
rational principles of philanthropy. The Grand Governor of 
Stockholm, Baron G. Tamn, is president, Mrs Agda Montelius, 
who represents this society in our National Council, is vice- 
president. 

The other affiliated philanthropic institution is called 
** Arbetsstugor for bam,'' work-cottages for children, founded in 
1886, the Central Committee of which has its headquarters in 
Stockholm. It has for its aim the giving to poor children of 
tender years (7-14 years of age) a practical manual training, and 
thus prevent them becoming beggars, by teaching them various 
kinds of useful work, and, above all, the love of work ; schools of 
this kind have been successful in saving thousands of children. 
I am going to read at this Congress a special paper, dealing with 
this institution, on the 30th of June. 

The Friends of Art Handiwork is a society founded for the 
purpose of promoting and reviving our own peculiar Swedish 
national home textile industry which exists among our rural 
population, and dates from the most remote heathen times ; to 
revive and to. apply to modern use old national designs found in 
peasant weaving and national costumes, still in use in many 
provinces in Sweden ; to give an artistic character to industrial 
art work ; to procure patterns and materials for the workers in 
distant parts of the country ; and to sell their handiwork. 

Three women's clubs are federated to our National Council, 
namely : — 

One literary, art and social club, Nya Idun, the aim of which 
is to bring together, by means of monthly social gatherings, 
women moving in different spheres of action. 

The next is the Women's Club, which, besides possessing the 
objects mentioned in connection with Nya Idun, has permanent 
club-rooms and is of a more democratic character. Miss Hanna 
Anderson, our recording secretary, is the President of this club. 



FKOKEN i;[.r,EN WHITLOCK. 



FROKEX CERTKL'D AIJKI.UOKG. 



\T0/acr t. to6. 



REPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — SWEDEN 107 

The third society of this kind is the Stockholm Gymnastic 
Club for Women. It is a union of the numerous ladies who are 
engaged in gymnastic work. 

The Swedish Women's Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals, the purposes of which embrace great literaiy and 
practical activity, has also federated. Its President is the 
Countess Anna Buuth, who is a member of the National Council 
Committee. 

The Women's Peace Association, represented in our Council 
by its founder and President, Mrs Emilie Broome, strives to work 
for the growing of the ideas of peace. 

A large society of 4500 members, which latterly has become 
associated with the National Council, is the Swedish Women's 
Society for the Defence of our Country, founded in 1884, which 
has since tried to kindle and sustain a warm, self-sacrificing love 
for the Fatherland. Its President is the wife of our Minister for 
War, Baroness Anna Rappe, also a member of the committee of 
our Council. 

A federated society devoted to education is The Union of the 
Girls' Schools for Secondary Education in Gothenburg. 

The Circulating Library Society of Stockholm, founded in 
1866 by several ladies in order to furnish reading-rooms and a 
good library for women, has also joined in with our National 
Council. Its representative there is Dr Ellen Fries. 

The Executive of the Swedish National Council has, not- 
withstanding its being actively engaged in the organisation and 
federation of sundry other societies, also taken up and discussed 
several problems in regard to the " women question," having for 
its object the amelioration of the condition and position of the 
working women. 

The Swedish National Council has arranged a subscription in 
aid of the wounded at the Greco-Turkish War, and worked for 
the sending there of some Swedish nurses, operating in conjunc- 
tion with the Grecian Women's National League. 

Our National Council's most weighty undertaking has been, 
nevertheless, the Women's Conference in Stockholm on the 23rd 
September 1897, in connection with the last Industrial Exhibition 
of Stockholm. The Conference w&a attended by a number of 
Sweden's more prominent women of diverse factions, and also 
taking part did women of note from Denmark, Norway, Finland 
and Germany, about 300 being present in all. 

Meetings were held under the direction of the President, Mrs 



108 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Ellen Anckarsvard. There discourses were held by Swedish 
speakers upon the Charity Organisation's plans and means, upon 
the Swedish woman^s proper position, and other topics ; " Under 
which Suppositions can Women's Movements become of Real 
Significance for Culture and Advancement " 1 on " Protection 
of Animals as a Stage in the Development of Culture." A 
Norwegian, Miss Gina Krog, spoke on matters concerning 
" Women in Norway " ; and a Finnish lady, Miss Louisa Hagman, 
on " Go-Education.'* A Danish lady, Mrs Elizabeth Selmer, gave 
a discourse on " Women's Work for Temperance and Morality," 
which called forth a long and interesting discussion. Finally, 
the various societies which are federated in the National Council 
gave accounts of their activity in working. 

The meeting's discourses and discussions met with hearty 
approbation, and the Conference contributed to the spreading in 
wide circles of interest concerning the questions that were treated 
there. 



Great Britain. 

Presented by the Lady Battersea on behalf of Mrs Alfred 

Booth, President. 

Bbport of the past five years' work of the National Union of 
Women Workers of Great Britain and Ireland, federated 
in 1897 to the International Council of Women through 
its Council, which thus became the National Council of 
Women of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The National Union of Women Workers of Great Britain and 
Ireland, which has existed for 10 years, has done much during 
the past 5 years to consolidate and to develop its work. 

It has formed a Constitution and Bye-Laws, started sub- 
committees, and done much other work, mention of which is 
made in the second edition of its Handbook, price 3d., which 
may be obtained at the Hall of the National Union of Women 
Workers, in the Bookroom at the Church House, and to which 
we would refer those who desire to trace our past history. The 
body of representative women formerly termed the General Com- 
mittee of the National Union of Women Workers became, in 
1897, on our federation ^vith the International Council, the 



MRS. ALFRED BOOTH. 

. '99S-M, ""■^ Ci-nw->- -/ Fi-aKC Srtlicmil CcmmiU 
/or tht IMCTnalUmal Cnertu. 



REPORTS OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — GREAT BRITAIN 109 

National Council of Women of Great Britain and Ireland. This 
body elects the Executive of the Union, considers resolutions 
of which due notice has been given, is alone capable of altering 
the Constitution of the Union, and is the final court of appeal for 
any society desiring to enter the Council, should it have been 
refused that privilege by the Executive. The Council delegates 
much of its authority to the Executive, which mtLSt meet quarterly, 
and may meet as often as is necessaiy for urgent business. The 
Executive, again, appoints sub-committees for special branches of 
work, and the formation of these sub-committees has been of 
great value to the Union. They are composed of experts on the 
subjects with which they deal, together with two members of the 
Executive Committee, and they report quarterly to the Executive 
and annually to the National Council. 

No one can be added as a member of a sub-committee without 
the consent of the Executive, but each elects its own convener 
and secretary. Eight sub-committees were formed in 1896, two 
in 1897, three in 1898, and one will be formed in July 1899. 

The sub-committees already at work are — 

The Legislation Sub-Committee. 

The Industrial Sub-Committee. 

The Literature Sub-Committee. 

The Rescue and Preventive Sub-Committee. 

The Indian and Colonial Sub-Committee. 

The Men and Boys* Sub-Committee. 

The Girls' Club Sub-Committee. 

A Children's Sub-Committee will be formed in July 1899. 
Tet another, the Educational Sub-Committee, is in abeyance. 
The Executive lays much stress on the value of the patient, 
detailed work of these Sub-Committees as authoritative centres 
of information and of help. For example, the Legislation Sub- 
committee, which keeps careful watch of all measures brought 
before Parliament affecting the interests of women and children, 
is a model of conscientious work, and is doing much to bring these 
matters before the branches of the Union. 

The Employment Sub-Committee was dissolved in 1898 in 
consequence of the formation of the Central Employment Bureau, 
60 Chancery Lane, of which Mrs Creighton was the first Presi- 
dent. The Bureau has separate funds, but it reports its work to 
us. So also do the Joint Committee for Lectures on Charitable 



110 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

and Social Work and the Associated Registries' Guild. Both 
have funds of their own and distinct organisation. 

It is probable that Sub-Ck)mmittees will largely increase 
as women group themselves more definitely, professionally and 
otherwise. The Domestic Science Sub-Committee has formed an 
Association of Teachers of Domestic Science, which held its 
annual Conference last Saturday, and the Ladies' Associations 
for the -Care of Girls, which will hold their annual meeting on 
July 4th, are very closely connected with the National Union of 
Women Workers and its Council. It was the impetus given to 
women's work for women by Miss Ellice Hopkins, the fou[nder of 
Ladies' Associations for the Care of Girls, which formed the 
foundation for the whole of the work of our National Council 
in its earlier stages. 

The branches of the National Union of Women Workers (its 
Local Councils) have grown in numbers, and we have now 26 of 
these influentisLl bodies in very close connection with us. 

Those of " the new model " — for example, those in Liverpool, 
Birmingham and Manchester — are as wide in their aims as the 
central body, which they preceded in point of time. "The 
Federation of Local Unions of Workers," as they were formerly 
called, was an important step in the formation of the National 
Union. 

We have always encouraged the adhesion of societies and of 
individuals in places where no branch of the Union exists, in the 
hope that they would form the nucleus for a future branch. 

The great majority of women's societies in Great Britain have 
joined our Union. 

The Union published an Annual Report, which include the 
papers read at its Conferences. The Reports for 1894, 1895, 
1896, 1897 and 1898 may be obtained at our bookstall, at a 
reduced price, by those desirous of completing their setSj or of 
seeing of what stuff our Conferences have been made. As books 
of reference they are in considerable request, as are the brief 
i-eports of those Conferences of rescue workers, which are also 
included in our annual gathering. 

We also publish as our organ a quarterly occasional paper, 
and tracts of a useful kind. Those published, so far, are of special 
value to district visitors and other friends of the poor. They 
ar&— (1) On Out-Relief; (2) On Sanitation; (3) On the Legal 
Difficulties of the Poor ; (4) Children's Country Holidays ; (5) 
The Administration of Charitable Relief ; (6) Girls' Clubs ; (7) 



Ml 


RS. CRF.1CHTON. 




from NaU 


■OH^I Council of »%,,„. 
iKlvrna lioHil Cm mil 


■no/Cre^t Brilain c 
'amiCo«grciiofn-oi, 
■y.la^,Juhi>l. ■B99. 




iR-p,oA-W, 


1 from-WomanhoD. 



REPORTS OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — GREAT BRITAIN 111 

Approved Methods of Thrift ; and (8) A few Hints for the Man- 
agement of Committee Work. An edition of " Legal Difficulties, 
adapted to the Law of Scotland," was published at the request of 
the Edinburgh Branch of the Union. 

The Council passed resolutions — (1) at its meetings at Not- 
tingham, in 1895, on the Criminal Law; (2) at London, in 1896, 
on the Truck Act; (3) at Manchester, in 1896, on the formation 
of a Children's Department under the Local Government Board ; 
(4) at Manchester, 1896, on the Registration of Mid wives ; (5) 
another, at the same meeting, on the Armenian Atrocities ; and 
(6) one at Croydon, in 1897, on the Recent Legislation dealing 
with the Health of the Army in India. Resolutions so passed by * 
the Council alone dictate a policy to the Executive, and are 
pressed by it upon the branches. 

The office of the Union at 59 Bemers Street, where visitors 
are gladly welcomed, is used for conmiittee meetings, for inter- 
views, for the transaction of a large correspondence, and as 
our publishing office and store-rooms. Postage expenses in 1897 
amounted to JB56, 2s. 4d., which represents an average of over £1 
a week for the despatch of letters and papers. The staff is at 
present quite inadequate to properly carry on a work with so many 
ramifications and covering so wide an area, which grows, and is 
likely to grow, into a complete organisation of importance in the 
life of the nation. Meantime the work cannot stand still, and 
the committee confidently hopes for such a growth in the member- 
ship of the Union as will enable it to cope with the increasing 
demands upon its resources. 

There is a Finance Sub-Committee. The honorary treasurer is 
Mrs GJeorge Cadbuiy, Northfield Manor, Birmingham. 

Mrs Goodeve, our first honorary treasurer, retired from the pres- ' 
sure of other work in 1898, much to our regret. 

Mrs Creighton was President of the National Union of 
Women Workers in 1895, 1896 and 1897. Mrs Alfred Booth 
in 1898 and 1899. To both these ladies the Union is deeply 
indebted for wise counsels, sustained work and half-sacrificing 
zeal in our cause. Mrs Booth is, we regret to say, unequal to 
the fatigue of these meetings ; but we have Mrs Creighton with 
us as one of the delegates of the National Council. Our other 
delegate. Lady Laura Ridding, President of the Conference Com- 
mittee at Nottingham in 1 895, is the able convener of theLegislation 
Committee to which reference has been already made. We feel that 
the interests of the National Council are safe in their hands. 



112 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

There is nothing of a sensational character to present to you 
in a report of our last 5 years' work. We believe that in a 
measure we are fulfilling our objects : — 

1. To promote sympathy of thought and purpose among the 

women of Great Britain and Ireland ; 

2. To promote the social, civil, moral and religious welfare 

of women ; 

3. To focus and redistribute information likely to be of 

service to women workers ; 

4. To federate women's organisations, and to encourage and 

assist the formation of local councils and unions of 

women. 
And we believe that our National Council has the prospect 
of extended usefulness if the women workers of Great Britain 
will strengthen our hands for the work. 

Baroness Gripenberg obtained leave, as a matter of urgency, 
to introduce the following resolution : — 

"That this meeting suspends the rule, or the standing order, 
which defines the time at which nominations for international offices 
must be sent in, and that the new Councils formed since the nomin- 
ation papers were sent out be allowed to make such nominations." 

She did so, she said, in the interests of the five small nations 
which had lately joined. 

Mme. Klerck van Hogendorp (Holland) seconded. 

Mrs Sewall (Vice-President), while expressing sympathy for 
the small nations represented in the International Council, said 
she thought it could hardly be asked that a standing order should 
be suspended to allow a Council, which might have been formed 
only 24 hours before its delegates were sent to the meeting, the 
power suggested. 

After some discussion, Laay Aberdeen ruled the resolution 
out of order on the ground that nominations of ofiicers had to be 
made by the Councils themselves by Article III. of the Standing 
Orders, and that the delegates would have no right to nominate 
without special instructions from the Council. 

At the request of Miss Anthony, the President* announced 
that an informal meeting of the Nominating Committee would 
be held at the close of the meeting. 



LADV LAURA RIDDING. 
■ial Dilis'li/tm yalioHal CoKKll s/G'!al Hi-ilai- an^ Ir. 
(Pbolo by ElUolI I 



SECOND BUSINESS SESSION OP THE 
QUINQUENNIAL MEETING OP 
THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 



COUNCIL CHAMBER, WESTMINSTER TOWN HALL. 

THURSDA r, JUNE 29, MORNING. 



The COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN in the Chair. 

Thb Gountees of Aberdeen, in opening the meeting, said that 
on arriving that morning they were met by very sad tidings. 
One of the most valued members of the Congress, Mrs Ellen 
Johnson, soon after reading the paper which attracted so much 
interest on Tuesday, was taken ill, and had passed away. Mrs 
Creighton had a letter which gave further details, and she would 
ask her to read it. 

Mrs Creighton said the letter was from Mrs Talbot, wife of 
the Bishop of Rochester. She stated that Mrs Johnson, after 
being quite especially bright and well at breakfast, was taken ill, 
and her heart failing, she died at 11 o'clock. Mrs Creighton 
moved a vote of sympathy to Mrs Johnson's friends, and of 
admiration of her noble work, which was seconded by Lady 
Battersea. 

Miss Anthony supported the motion. 

Mrs Sewall, in supporting the motion, qpoke in terms of high 
appreciation of Mrs Johnson's character and work, and said the 
Council would be interested to know that the Governor of 
Massachusetts, in a letter which he wrote giving leave of absence, 

VOL. I. H 



114 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

said that he felt that Massachusetts was less safe in Mrs Johnson's 
absence than in that of any other officer of the commonwealth. 
The resolution ran as follows : — 

"That the Council deeires to express its deep Bense of the loM 
BOBtained by the sudden death of Mrs Johnson, and its heartfelt 
sympathy with Mrs Johnson's friends, as well as its warm admira- 
tion of her noble life's work," 

and was put and carried, all rising to their feet as a token of 
respect. 

The minutes of the previous session were then read, and some 
corrections made, after which they were duly signed by the 
President. 

Mrs Armitage (New South Wales) asked why she had re- 
ceived no notice of the meeting of the Nominating Committee the 
previous day. 

A similar question was put by the representatives of New 
Zealand and of Tasmania. 

Miss Anthony, as Convener, explained that she had not the 
addresses of the members of committee, but that notice had 
been given at a preliminary meeting which had been held at the 
close of the Council Meeting, as announced from the Chair ; and 
personal application was made to everybody who could be found. 
There were 7 present out of 9 or 10 who were qualified, the 3 
absent being New Zealand, Tasmania and New South Wales. 
She greatly regretted that it was not possible to reach all of 
them. 

The President said she stated that Miss Anthony would 
like the committee to meet her afterwards in the comer of the 
room. It was there, she thought, that the meeting was arranged. 
If they were an incorporated body, it would not be then a legal 
meeting. She did not know whether Miss Ajithony would agree 
to have a meeting called again. 

Miss Anthony said she would be glad to have the meeting 
over again, and have the secretary to read the business through, 
and see if the three absentees agreed to what was done. 

By permission of the meeting the Nomination Committee then 
withdrew. 

In reply to a question the President announced that the 
election of officers would take place on Tuesday, July 4th. 

Mrs Sewall drew attention to the fact that the agenda for 
Wednesday 28th included the election of officers, and the agenda 



MRS. D. E. ARMITAGE. 
hchal/e/ nKO-nUis llauifdci. I'raiAril Kf ike 



REPORTS OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — NEW SOUTH WALES 115 

for Thursday the 29th was simply the unfinished business from 
Wednesday. 

Mrs Creighton said the order of business was to be deter- 
mined by the Council. She moved, seconded by Miss Shaw, — 

"That the elections take plaoe on Tuesday morning, and that 
the result be announced on Wednesday. 
Carried. 

Reports from the following National Councils were read : — 



New South Wales (i 895-1 899). 

Presented by Mrs D. E. Armitage, Hon. Secretary. 

On 7 th November 1895 a preliminary meeting was called by 
Mrs Margaret Windeyer, in Sydney, to discuss the desirability of 
forming a National Council for New South Wales. This lady had 
represented the Colony at the Chicago Exhibition in 1893, and had 
been appointed Vice-President. The meeting was well attended 
by many representative women. After three other preliminary 
meetings for consideration of the constitution and of the best 
course to adopt, a large public meeting was held at the Town 
Hall, Sydney, on 26th June, which was attended by between 200 
and 300 persons. Yiscountess Hampden occupied the chair, 
and speeches in favour of the movement were made by Miss 
Windeyer, Miss Macdonald, M.A., myself and others. It was 
unanimously resolved to form a Council, and several societies 
promised to join. Viscountess Hampden was elected President. 

The first meeting of the Council was held on 26th August 
1896, from which time dates the formation of the National 
Council of Women of New South Wales. Lady Renwick, who 
has always taken the greatest interest in the work, and who is 
our valued Vice-President, read a paper on the value of such a 
federation of organisations. A favourite saying of hers is that 
the women of New South Wales have shown the men what 
federation means by the formation of this society, and from the 
reports in the papers of recent events in Sydney, by which we 
learn that the Federal Enabling Bill has been passed by a large 
majority, we may, if we like, flatter ourselves that our good 
example has been followed. Australia will soon be no longer a 
group of colonies, but on the way to become a great nation by 



116 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

the adoption of Federation. At the meeting on 26th August I 
was elected Treasurer, having previously represented the Short- 
hand Writers' and Typists' Society. It was decided to have two 
meetings every year, in May and November, and an executive 
meeting whenever necessary. 

At the second meeting, in November 1896, Miss Windeyer 
was appointed as delegate to represent us on the Committee of 
Arrangements of the International Council of Women to be 
held in London in 1897, as she was leaving for Europe almost 
immediately. 

On 26th May 1897, at the third meeting at which Lady 
Hampden presided, an interesting paper on domestic education 
for girls was read by Miss Montefiore, and after an animated 
discussion the following resolution was passed : — 

"That this meeting of the National Connoil of Women desires 
to express its opinion that domestio economy should take a more 
important place in the education of girls than at present, and that a 
sub-committee be appointed to draw up a report on the subject for 
presentation at the next meeting.*' 

This sub-committee accordingly made inquiries, and found 
that in 1896 only 1302 girls had attended the cookery classes 
held at the public schools, and that at the Technical College a 
very small number attended the classes for cookery and ironing. 
The Press of Sydney took the matter up very warmly, recom- 
mending that more cookery should be taught to girls, and several 
ladies held drawing-room meetings to obtain an expression of 
opinion from the women in their particular district, and all agreed 
that more instruction was needed to the class that seemed to 
require it most. At an executive meeting held on 2l8t October 
1896, I see that a letter was read from Lady Aberdeen, in which 
she said that Miss Windeyer's presence at the International 
Executive Meeting had been a great help. The honorary secre- 
tary reported having visited New Zealand, where she had made 
acquaintance with representatives of the National Council. 

At the fourth meeting of the Council reports were read from 
each of the affiliated societies, which were afterwards condensed 
and printed in pamphlet form. Miss Macdonald, M.A., pre- 
sented the complete report on Domestic Education, giving the 
centres for instruction, etc. The majority of the sub-committee 
thought that the teaching of cookery should be enforced. At a 
meeting of the Executive in March 1898, Miss Rose Scott men- 
tioned that since the Council took this matter in hand one school 



REPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — NEW SOUTH WALES 117 

of cookery had been re-opened and two others started, and again, 
another has been opened at Singleton lately, I understand. A 
deputation to the Minister for Public Instruction on this matter 
was held on the 17th October, which was introduced by Mr See, 
M.L.A., and attended by Lady Ren wick, Vice-President, the 
hononuy secretary and representatives from all the societies 
affiliated with the National Council, as well as by representa- 
tives from the Housewife's Guild, which had lately been formed. 
The honorary secretary gave a report of what information had 
been obtained, showing that only one girl in 100 attending the 
public schools was able to learn cookery, and the deputation asked 
that the department would increase the number of centres. The 
minister gave the deputation a very cordial reception, and said 
that he would take the matter into his consideration and see what 
could be done with a view of increasing the number of children 
receiving instruction in cookery. 

The fifth meeting was held on 27th May 1889, at which Miss 
Rose Scott read an interesting paper on " Arbitration as opposed 
to War," after which she moved " That the National Council of 
Women deplores the spirit of war abroad at present on the earth, 
and advocates the principles of peace and arbitration." This 
was carried unanimously, and so you will see that even this 
great question, which has since that time made such leaps and 
bounds, has been considered by the Council of New South Wales. 

In November 1898 the hon. secretary attended on behalf of 
the Council a deputation to the Colonial Secretary, asking that 
female attendants might be provided to look after the women at 
lock-ups. Action was immediately taken by the Gk>vemment, 
and several women have been appointed. 

On November 18 the sixth half-yearly meeting was held. 
Miss Manning attended on behalf of the Housewife's Guild, and 
gave an outline of the plan which the guild had drawn up to 
present to the^minister. Mrs Dane read a paper on kinder- 
garten work, and Miss Buckeye reported as to what had been 
done in Sydney amongst the poor. The secretary read some 
notes on Domestic Education and Agriculture for Women, with 
the idea of bringing the matter before the Department of Agri- 
culture. Miss Rose Scott read a paper on early closing, and a 
motion was passed: — 

"That the National Gocmcil of Women pledgee itself to support 
with all its influence every effort made to support early closing for 
the shopwomen and shopmen in New South Wales." 



118 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

At this meeting it was also decided to affiliate with the 
International Council, and a Finance Sub-Committee was 
appointed. 

The Council at present consists of nine societies, which cover 
a large field of work. They are : — 

1. Women's Christian Temperance Union. 

2. The Society for the Education of the Deaf, Dumb and 

BHnd. 

3. Womanhood Suffi*age League of New South Wales. 

4. Working and Factory Girls* Club. 

5. Ministering Children's Fresh Air League. 

6. Sydney University Women's Association. 

7. llie Women's Hospital and Dispensary. 

8. Women's Silk Growing and Industrial Association. 

9. Early Closing Association. 

Though our Council is a saiall one, for it must be remembered 
that the whole population of New South Wales is only some 
1,348,000 people, and that of Sydney about 4,000,000 souls, though 
the area of land which it covers is 310,700 square miles, an extent of 
territory five or six times the size of England and Wales put 
together, we feel we have done some good work since we 
started our career, and fully justify our existence. May we 
grow and grow as the years go by, and may the influence of the 
Council for good be felt farther and wider as time goes on. 

This report I beg to submit on behalf of New South Wales. 



Denmark. 

Presented by Fru Charlotte Norrie, Corresponding Secretary. 

The Danish National Council of Women is quite a young 
baby; it is not yet 3 months old. It made its entrance into 
the world on the 5th March at 2*30 p.m., and its first weight 
showed 8 destitute homes, 8 associations. Seven to 8 pounds is 
reckoned a good weight for a normal, new-bom boy, and 
more for a girl, and though the baby is not yet 3 months old, it 



FKOKliN HKNRIE KOHCHAMMEH 

(Pholo by Dana, Coppnhjgt 



I'ROKEN WILHKI.MIN'A RKKUP. VHU CHARLOTTE N0RR11;. 






REPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCIUB — DENMARK 119 

has noarly doubled its weight; now 15 associations have 
affiliated. 

The mothers of the baby had decided that we should pass 
the spring and summer in seeking information about the manage- 
ment of other National Councils of Women, and for this purpose as 
many of us who have been able to do so have come here to London. 

Our wish to pass 6 months quietly in the nursery was how- 
ever disturbed. Nobody may live in peace when his neighbour 
does not approve of it ; and Frau Selenka decided to disturb our 
peace in asking the women of the whole world to arrange peac< 
meetings. 

A member of one of the affiliated associations got a letter 
from Dr A. A. asking her to act as centre for the peace 
movement in Denmark, and this lady, Mrs Mienstadt, went 
immediately to the Danish National Council of Women. It was 
on the 12th of April — the baby was about 5 weeks old. 

On the 19th the Council met. We gave an account of the 
question and asked : " Are Danish women to be conspicuous by 
their absence in this World's Women's Peace Choir?" The 
unanimous answer was : " No, the Danish women wish to join 
their voice in the choir.*' The next question was : " Which 
association will join to arrange a meeting at Copenhagen?" 
And again the answer came with unanimity : " Wo will all join 
in this first question put before the Council ; the Danish National 
Council of Women shall arrange the meeting at Copenhagen, and 
ask Women's ABSociations in the rest of the kingdom to arrange 
meetings too." 

Though the committee was and is still of opinion that the 
National Councils of Women are organised in the service of no 
one propaganda, we deemed it most loyal to obey the unanimous 
wish of the Council. 

Unanimity, you know, is not likely to happen every day, so 
there is not much reason to oppose it. The members of the 
committee did not vote that day. 

The conmiittee was reinforced for the preparations of the 
meeting ; we met twice or thrice and decided to arrange a decent 
little quiet meeting, becoming to the young baby. 

But one day an idea arose in the mind of one of the ladies 
we had asked to speak at the meeting. 

Bjomshjeme Bjorsoson, the Norwegian poet, had written an 
oratory — " Peace." Edward Grieg was to compose the music for 
it, but he had not. 



120 INTEBNATIOHAli COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Would it be possible to have some music composed for this 
occasion ? 

Off went this lady to Miss Shekla Griebel, who seized the 
idea most eagerly, and 12 hours later the music for a fragment 
of the oratory was ready ; the copying began at once, and the 
committee was summoned to meet and talk over how we might 
have it sung. We had hired a little hall for the meeting ; but if 
we were going to have some singing, we had to arrange it on 
a larger scale. So we advertised on 3rd May in the daily 
papers that the Danish National Council of Women asked 
singing ladies to meet and sing an oratory at the Peace Meeting 
on the 15th of May under the direction of Miss Fanny Goetje. 

The ladies came, and it was so lucky that there were many 
splendid sopranos amongst the voices, for the music requires 
them. And then we hired the largest concert hall of Copen- 
hagen, the large hall of the concert palace, a fine hall in 
white painting with gold, and provided with splendid electric 
light. 

On the platform about 80 young ladies, dressed in white, were 
assembled to sing ; the pulpit was ornamented with flowers, and 
the whole arrangement had a real festival character. One of 
our papers said the meeting had almost the character of a 
religious service. Nearly every place was taken, and with the 
greatest interest the compliments exchanged between the women 
of the whole world read by Miss Marie Luplan were heard. 

Telegrams from 18 persons in Denmark arrived. 

Then came the first part of the oratory. Mrs F. M. 
and Mrs N. spoke about the great question of peace on 
earth, and then the Danish women's addles to the Peace Con- 
ference at the Hague was put before the meeting and carried 
with acclamation, while all present rose to their feet. 

The second part of the oratory was sung and received most 
enthusiasticaUy, the composer was called forward, and it had to 
be repeated. 

And as the Danish Council of Women has most happily 
achieved its (MnU, and till this moment this has been its only 
task. 

In September the Council will meet, the proposed laws will 
be treated, and the plans for the education of the infant will be 
laid. 

We think we have begun well, and well begun is half 
finished we say in Denmark. 



MADAME Li DOUAIRltRE KLERCK. 

Kjg dc Hoecndorp 
idlil •■/ the Xalionai Cnutfil of U'emcn o/ llillami. 

(fliolo by LarJ^li. The Haeue.) 



REPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — HOLLAND 121 



Holland. 

Presented by Miss Martina G. Kramers, Corresponding 

Secretary. 

As there is as yet nothing to report about the doings of our 
National Council formed in three meetings, the last of which 
took place on May 24th, I deem it my duty to try and satisfy 
your sympathetic curiosity by a short sketch of what has been 
done in my country during the last half of this century for the 
enfranchisement of women from the bonds in which custom and 
law have so long held them. Any person who ever studied 
sociology will understand how difficult, or impossible, it is to 
show in chronologic succession all the links of the* chain of 
events that have led up to the present stage of women's move- 
ment, and so I shall only venture to point out to you some of the 
most conspicuous names and facts that float on the surface of the 
mighty rushing stream. 

In the year of misery 1847, when the scarcity of potatoes 
made pauperism a menacing demon to many famUies, Countess 
van Hogendorp, our President's mother, assisted by some ladies 
of high rank in the Hague, founded a philanthropic association 
for befriending the poor, whose object was not only to give help 
to the destitute, but also to visit and to console them. In the 
same period more and more women began to choose education 
for their profession, and to pass State examinations to that 
effect. This gave rise to demands for better training of gover- 
nesses, and Mrs van Calcar succeeded by untiring efforts in 
awakening an interest for infant schools and kindergarten 
teaching. The first normal school for governesses was 
established in Amheim in 1871, and the first secondary school, 
where girls from 12 to 18 are taught the same sciences as boys 
of their age, was opened in the Haarlem in 1867. These 
institutions were the outcome of many discussions in meetings 
and papers inaugurated by Mrs Storm's article about Cooper's 
Institute, which she had visited in New York. She was also one 
of the first women in Holland that appeared on the platform in 
public meetings, and the first that was elected member of a 
literary society mostly consisting of university men. Her 
example was soon followed by other women, who demanded access 



122 INTERNATIONAL. COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

to different professions for women, among whom was Miss E. A. 
Haighton. 

But the best known pioneers in the years 1870-1872 were 
Mina Krusemann and Betsy Perk, who founded the first women's 
paper entitled Our A^rationSj the former's beauty and talents 
as speaker and actress, and the latter's devotion to the cause and 
energy, did not fail to make impression on the public. However, 
they had much to suffer from the taunts of those who could not 
hear women's emancipation mentioned without scornful sneers ; 
and in our country as well as in others many women were 
among their enemies. But Miss Perk was not easily discouraged, 
and in 1870 she succeeded in forming an association of women, 
which is still existing and has for object to provide a market for 
work done at hoipe by needy but educated women, besides 
widening their opportunities for intellectual culture. Queen 
Sophia consented to become patroness of this institution, and 
nowadays she is one of the members of our National Council. 
Two years after a society with similar objects was formed, which 
has lately enlarged its scope by the institution of intelligence 
offices. Since 1865 industrial schools for young women are 
being established, where dressmaking, fine ironing and book- 
keeping are taught. They are all founded by subscriptions 
of persons who feel how much they are needed, and get small 
subventions from State and Municipal Treasury. Nor is the 
professional education of boys sufficiently provided for in the 
Netherlands. In 1871 Aletta Jacobs was inscribed as the first 
female student of medicine at the University of Groningen, where 
she graduated in 1879, and now our four universities have such a 
considerable number of female students in different branches of 
science. In the first year of her exercise of the medical pro- 
fession in Amsterdam, ^t Aletta Jacobs asked that her name 
should be put on the list of electors, which presumption was 
punished by the introduction into Article 80 of the State Constitu- 
tion of 1887 of the word male before " voters " in the qualification 
of those who are entitled to have their wisdom consulted in the 
governing of the couatry. 

Whilst the number of professions in which women can gain 
their livelihood is constantly growing, and we see them now as 
telegraphers, apothecaries, etc., whilst the female candidates for 
the teachers' examinations are beginning to outnumber the men, 
we have still very few years of public activity of women to look 
back upon. The first women's association that ventured to hold 



'. H. RUTGERS-HOITSEHA. 



MISS MARTINA G. KRAMERS. 

(Photo by U vin de Winkel, RolteHam.) 
■jo/f J f/ the XaliMal Cim«til ■•/ II -tmn ef Htlland. 



BEP0BT8 OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — HOLLAND 123 

public meetings and had the courage to discuss abuses, which 
were to be suffered but never to be named by women according 
to the general opinions, was Mrs Klerck van Hogendorp's Society 
for Elevating the Moral Standard. Its main object is the 
abolishment of regulation of vice, and the spreading of conviction 
that there is but one moral both for men and women. Founded 
in 1884 at Josephine Butler's suggestion, this society undertook 
in 1885 and in 1890 to send monster petitions to the Government, 
and as religion is its strongest support, it does not despair of 
success in the end. Some years after more political and social 
objects were taken in hand by new women's associations. In 1889 
Miss Drucker with four others formed the Free Women's League, 
which never ceases to advocate equality between the sexes, and 
no society of pioneers was ever more ridiculed and attacked 
from all sides. Miss Drucker and Mrs Schook-Haver then began 
to edit their paper EvolxUion^ in which they gave a complete 
review of all that affects women in the laws and literature of our 
country. Since we got three or four more women's papers, one of 
which, Beleny en Becht, is the organ of three societies, whilst 
another, De Vrouw, edited by Mrs van Kol, treats the ethical 
side of women's emancipation, being devoted to the mutual 
education of mothers. In 1894 three important associations 
were formed. The first was the National Women's Suffrage 
Association, which has grown so rapidly that it now possesses 
12 branch societies; then came a committee of four ladies and 
four gentlemen, two of whom were professors at Dutch universities 
and one a member of our Parliament, which has in view the 
amelioration of woman's position in society and law, and pur- 
sues this aim by sending petitions to Government and articles to 
the principal reviews. The third was the Women's League in 
Groningen, which uses its influence on behalf of better education 
and more freedom for women in every respect. As the National 
Women's Suf&age Association has suffiitige for its only object, 
other associations had to be formed when women wanted to carry 
out other social reforms together. So in Rotterdam we founded 
the Society for Women's Welfare, which has contributed to the 
establishment of the Rotterdam Neighbourhood Guild and of two 
women's trades unions. Many more societies of women have 
been formed for widely different aims, and a great many existing 
associations have admitted women as members or as officers ; so, 
for instance, some women are members of electoral societies, and 
have, as such, a right to vote for candidates, although by law 



124 INTBRNATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

they may not vote for members of Parliament or of Town 
Councils. Altogether it is no longer such a very unusual thing 
to hear a woman speak from the platform. 

I cannot attempt to describe in such a short report as this the 
different aims to which the women of Holland are devoting their 
energy, and, moreover, as harmony is better in keeping with the 
spirit of this Council than difference, I will now tell you what 
has more than ever drawn our efforts together and united all our 
labour : that was last year's Exhibition of Women's Work at the 
Hague. All sorts and conditions of women have contributed, 
after the measure of their talents, to make it the success that it 
was, at least for those who know it was meant not so much to 
show what beautiful things women could achieve as to make 
people feel what they aspire at, and what more careful education 
and better opportunities might help them to attain. Indeed, 
Mrs Goekoop, the president of the Exhibition, and her pre- 
decessor, Mrs Pekelharing, have induced all women workers to 
unite, and even before the opening of the exhibition 10 societies 
of women had agreed to send together a delegate to London to 
the meeting of the Executive of the International Council. Not 
long after the Exhibition a meeting, where 67 societies of women 
were represented, resolved that a National Council should be 
formed, and named a committee for drawing up a constitution. 
This was adopted on the 15th March, and affiliation to the 
Trades Congress requested, and now, on the 24th May, our 
Standing Orders have been adopted, and officers and delegates 
elected. So at this moment our National Council, which 
embraces 25 women's associations, stands ready to begin its 
action, and we hope to be encouraged by seeing what the existing 
National Councils have done ; and although we fully realise that 
the task that lies before us is not a light one, we feel that the 
Exhibition with its Congresses has greatly advanced the woman's 
cause and given a new turn to the public opinion. This, how- 
ever, is partly to be attributed to Mrs Goekoop's novel, Hilda 
van Suylenburg, which has had unrivalled success, and in which 
the author treats all the different aspects of the women's question, 
showing, as clear as daylight, her right to independence and 
individuality. This book has stirred up a legion of buzzing, 
humming and grumbling leaflets, pamphlets and open letters to 
the author, and obliged everybody to express or profess an 
opinion on woman's emancipation, and shaken indifference by 
the ears. The weightiest and most authoritative opposition came 



MRS. SIDNEY WliBB. 



Omci-I DiUgaUi f.om 



BBP0RT8 OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — ^NBW ZEALAND 125 

from learned professors of neurology and ethnology, who had 
discovered that the organisation of a woman made her fit for all 
suffering, and that independence given to women would make 
them r^use to play the part in the family which custom and 
law have hitherto allotted to her. Besides this storm in our 
literature, another attack has been directed against " feminism, '' 
as the opponents call the demand for women's rights, by the 
socialists, who hold that the enfranchisement of one-half of 
humanity should not go before that of the three-fourths that 
comprises the proletarians. However, as nobody has ever yet had 
to choose between the two terms of this dilemma, there is hope 
that this antagonism may not prove very serious, and the women 
of the Netherlands, now in possession of their National Council, 
may look at the future confidently. 



New Zealand (i 896-1 899). 

Presented by Mrs Sidney Webb, Delegate for Kew Zealand. 

It is generally admitted that the enfranchisement of our women 
has forced into prominence social and humanitarian questions. 
These are receiving more serious attention from our Houses of 
Legislature than has hitherto been the case. If, then, there 
appears in our reports a tendency to appeal to Parliament, it is 
because we believe that the fulfilment of our desires for the 
general good is within the range of practical politics. The 
policy of our Executive has been to deal with the various subjects 
as part of a great whole. The papers treating of Panrental 
Responsibility have emphasised the importance of pre-natal con- 
ditions, and the consequent need of the broadest and fullest 
education for motherhood. 

Education, — ^This paper has been considered as next in 
.sequence, and the points upheld in the papers read before our 
Council have been as follows : — (1) Free State kindergartens for 
children ranging from 2 to 7 years. (2) For specialisation, free 
art, agricultural and mining schools. (3) Free university 
instruction. (4) Classification of our neglected children into 
reformatory and industrial scholars. Reformatory and industrial 
schools to be made self-supporting as far as possible by farms and 
and fruit gardens connected with the schools. Teachers to be 
men and women of culture. 



126 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Marriobge and Divorce. — Our Council has always upheld the 
same standard of morality for men and women, and our Legis- 
lature has recently passed a law in accordance with that standard. 

Economic Independence of Married Women, — Our Council 
believes that the economic question is of vital importance to the 
raising of the status of women in marriage. The economic 
equality (and consequent responsibility) of the wife with the 
husband has been upheld by our Council. 

The following reasons have been urged in support : — 

(1) Because it is just. 

(2) Because society has a right to protect the individual. 

(3) Because it would improve the status of women. 

(4) Because it makes for women's freedom and therefore for 

the freedom of the race. 

The Unemployed, — Our Council has urged the establishment 
of State industrial co-operative settlements, which should be 
made as far as possible reproductive, and in which labour should 
be graded according to efficiency. 

The Reform, of the Criminal. — In considering this question, 
our Council has passed resolutions urging that punishment should 
be remedial. We consider that the present system has utterly 
failed in this respect. 

Inebriate Homes. — In years past our Council has recommended 
the establishment of inebriate homes, and the Government has, 
during the last session of Parliament, passed a measure for the 
establishment of such homes. 

Old Age Pensions. — The Council considered that the only 
conditions attached to these pensions should be that the 
recipients be 65 years of age, and that they should have resided 
in the colony 25 years. The measure just passed by our Legis- 
lature imposes other conditions which exclude many aged persons 
from the benefit of this law. 

The Age of Protection for Women. — Our Council has urged 
that the age of protection, which is now 16, should be raised to 21. 
'-: Sale of Alcoholic Liquors. — A resolution was passed at the 
last meeting of Council as follows : — 

"That whereas che liquor traffic is declared, on undisputed 
authority, to be the cause of much misery, vice and crime, therefore 
this National Council of Women pledges itself, on humanitarian 
grrounds, to do all in its power to discontinue and discountenance the 
importation, manufacture and sale of alcoholic liquors. Scientific 
temperance teaching in public schools was also urged." 



MRS. PEMBER REEVt^S. 



BBP0BT8 OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — TASMANIA 127 

Repeal of the CorUagiotis Diseases Act, — Our Council has 
urged the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Act, which it looks 
upon as a disgrace to our statute books. 

Local Government Reform. — The Council has urged that the 
local franchise should be on the same basis as the Parliamentary 
franchise. During the past session the suffrage has been 
extended, and the first step towards the economic equality of 
husband and wife has been taken. While the franchise is still 
confined to ratepayers, yet property owned by either husband or 
wife entitle both to a vote. 

Peo/ce and Arbitration, — The Council has in years past 
recommended the settling of international disputes by arbitra- 
tion, and a general and proportional disarmament. 

Party Government, — Our Council has expressed its opinion at 
each successive meeting that " the system of party government 
in New Zealand has many evils connected with it, and is entirely 
unsuited to the circumstances of the colony. '' It urged as a 
remedy that the House of Representatives should elect the 
Members of the Cabinet, who shall thus be made individually 
responsible to and removable by the House. Further, that each 
Member of the House should be free to act according to the 
wishes of its constituents and the dictates of his conscience, and 
not be the mere slave of party. 

Removal qfcUl Women^a DisabUitiea, — The following resolution 
was unanimously carried at the last Council meeting : — 

*' That in the opinion of this Council the time baa come when 
all disabilities which at present hinder women from sitting as 
members in either of the Houses of Legislature, or from being 
elected or appointed to any public office or position in the colony, 
should be removed, and that with regard to all powers, rights and 
duties of citizens, absolute equality should be the law of the land.*' 

We wish it to be clearly understood that the above opinions 
do not necessarily represent the unanimous vote of our Council 
members, but the majority vote. 

Mrs Sheppard, President. 

Mrs SiBVWBiGHT, Secretary, 

Tasmania. 

The Tasmanian representatives felt that they had nothing to 
add to the report given the day before of the societies of work in 
Tasmania, when they applied for federation. 



128 INTBBNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



Finland. 

BaranfiBS Alexandra Gripenberg (Honorary Vice-Preddent) 
described in a few words the work and position of the Finland 
Women's Union, and showed how much in sympathy its aims 
were with those of the International (Council. She hoped that 
some day it would be able to federate as a National Council 



Belgium. 



Hlle. liarie Popelin (Honorary Vice-President) spoke of the 
women's movement in Belgium, of the difficulties that stand in 
the way of the representatives of different sections of society 
uniting to form a National Council of Women. She hoped, how- 
ever, that before another Quinquennial Meeting of the Council 
came round that there would be a National Council of Women 
of Belgium. 



Switzerland. 

Hlle. Camille Vidart (Honorary Vice-President) gave an in- 
teresting account of the societies of women workers in Switzer- 
land who were associating themselves together with the purpose 
of organising a National Council. 



Italy. 



Mrs Crawshay, Representative of the Vice-President for Italy 
(the Countess Tavema), said she had no formal report to give, 
but would make a short statement. The organising secretary 
visited Rome early in the spring of 1 897, and gave a very lucid 
statement which greatly interested the representative Roman 
ladies. They took up the idea very warmly, but it flagged a little 
afterwards, and nothing happened for a year. On the 2nd of 
May 1898, however, another meeting was held, and 34 representa- 
tives of feminine activities gave in their promise to federate once 



BEP0BT8 OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — RUSSIA 129 

the National Council was reaUy formed. The Countess Tavema 
accepted the Presidency, undertook that the Council should 
really be organised, and a good report given at the next Quin- 
quennial Meeting. A great many of the societies rather thought 
f hf^v wnm nftMMNfci— >» a donation for their private work from 

ailed upon to pay a fee. 



Ddhalf of Mme. Anna de 
omen's enfranchisement, 
of our century, developed 
•ractical results. Within 
> taken place in science, 
ivity. This increasing of 
a numerous associations, 
n for mutual aid, and its 
of its members during 3 
necessity and want of a 

en were informed of an 
le held in London, which 
members of the formerly 

president, Mme. Anna 
'ganising a committee in 
the participation to the 
inated president of that 
•k the difficult business of 
S'ational Council, we could 
ngs of the International 

proposition of the Inter- 
eral women's associations 
ides, the committee was 
press. 

>mmittee, Madame Anna 
International Council of 
for Russia. She was pre- 
)sakevitch-Stephanofskaia 
ipittee, and by 14 joined 

VOL. I. I 



DR. KOZAKEVITCH STKF. 



H. K. M.\[\\^r[■, ANNF, Dti I'HII.OSOI-O 
ll,m. Vwc-rniycT-.l /<•>• Ku.im. 

(Pholo by r.riclli, S 



RBPOBTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — RUSSIA 129 

the National Council was reaUy formed. The Countess Tavema 
accepted the Presidency, undertook that the Council should 
really be organised, and a good report given at the next Quin- 
quennial Meeting. A great many of the societies rather thought 
itiey were going to receive a donation for their private work from 
a great fund in London, rather than be called upon to pay a fee. 



Russia. 

Dr EoBakevitch-Stephanofskaia, on behalf of Mme. Anna de 
PhilosofofP, said : The movement for women's enfranchisement, 
which began at the end of the first half of our century, developed 
itself gradually, and gave already many practical results. Within 
the last 30 years Russian women have taken place in science, 
literature, art, and other branches of activity. This increasing of 
women's work gave the impulse to form numerous associations. 
Lately was formed a women's association for mutual aid, and its 
success was so great that the number of its members during 3 
years reached to 2000. This shows the necessity and want of a 
wider union between Russian women. 

Last year, in October, Russian women were informed of an 
L[itemational Congress of Women to be held in London, which 
promoted a great interest among the members of the formerly 
mentioned association. Its honorary president, Mme. Anna 
de Philosof off, undertook the task of organising a committee in 
order to secure for the Russian women the participation to the 
Congress. She was unanimously nominated president of that 
committee, and Mme. Boubnoff undertook the difficult business of 
the corresponding secretary. Having no National Council, we could 
not participate officially in the proceedings of the International 
Congress. We received in February a proposition of the Inter- 
national Council of Women to join several women's associations 
in order to appoint a delegate. Besides, the committee was 
empowered to send speakers to the Congress. 

Meanwhile, the president of that committee, Madame Anna 
de PhilosofofP, was nominated by the International Council of 
Women as its Honorary Vice-President for Russia. She was pre- 
vented from coming herself, and Dr Kosakevitch-Stephanofskaia 
was unanimously appointed by the com^iittee, and by 14 joined 

VOL. I. I 



130 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

associations, as delegate from Russia, as well as representative of 
the Honorary Vice-President. 

Our great association of women for mutual aid has among its 
members a certain number of presidents of other associations, 
who, we suppose, shall be able to further the idea of organising a 
union between different Russian women's associations. We hope, 
therefore, that our actual women's association for mutual aid can 
be considered as the nucleus of our future Russian National 
Council. 



Austria, 

Frau Haimfich (Hon. Yice-Presideut) reported as follows : — 
Lady Aberdeen and Ladies, I have little to say. Five months 
ago, when the Austrian unions received the invitation for the 
Council and the Congress, but few of them knew of the exist- 
ence of the IntemcUianal CauncU, The papers which were 
kindly sent to Austria at first confused the minds ; the Council 
and the Congress were confounded. This was brought to evidence 
at the first meeting of the Viennese unions. On this account I 
undertook to write a paper in Grerman to clear up the matter. 
This paper was sent to all German unions in my country. At the 
second meeting I was asked by 15 unions from Vienna, and by 1 
of Prague, to represent them in London. Some of them had re- 
solved to join a National Council, others wanted only to be repre- 
sented at the International Council to get better acquainted with 
its aims and proceedings. 

I lay down the elaborate programmes and accounts of those 
unions, recommending them to your attention. 

The " Wiener Frauen Erwerb Verein " is a prominent school 
union, and the eldest of alL The '' Verein der Schriftstellerinnen 
und Kunstlerinnen " embraces the whole empire ; the best known 
writers and artists from Austria belong to it. The " Verein fiir 
erweiterte Frauenbildung '' has founded the first " gymnasium " for 
girls, and has effectuated that one faculty of the university was 
thrown open to women. The ^' AUgemeine oesterreichische Frauen- 
verein " maintains the propaganda for the suffrage. " The Verein 
der Lehrerinnen und Erzieherinnen " is a large union of teachers. 
The '' Vereinigung fiir sociale Hilfsthatigkeif concerns several 
institutions for charity. The " Verein Kunstschule fiir Frauen 



MME. VON FINKKLSTEIN MOUNTFORD. 
lion. Vktl'rrtldiHtfer PahtUnc. 



FRAU MARIANNE HAINISCH, 



REPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — FRANCE 131 

und Madchen " keeps an excellent school for painting and sculpture. 
The " Yerein Frauenfortschritt," in Prague, supports schools and 
promotes the aims of womeni The " Lese und Redeclub " trains 
women to be orators. 

I can boldly maintain that these unions represent the intelli- 
gence of womanhood in my country. They have accepted the 
hand offered by you, but it will take time till the organisation 
gets perfect^ because the political situation is against them. The 
antagonism between the various nations forming the Austrian 
Empire must be appeased before the women belonging to them 
can join in a National Council. 

I therefore propose that you put in view three sections for 
the Austrian Council. Hungaiy is a kingdom that is governed 
separately, so there can be no difficulty about our Hungarian 
section. In regard to the '^ Im Reichsrathe vertretenen Konig- 
reiche und Lander — a runabout way of two sections — one German 
and one Bohemian seems to me indispensable. 

There would be still much work left, the Austrian women 
not being accustomed to agitation work, and this the more as the 
laws in Austria are benevolent to them. Even the suffirage is 
not entirely withheld from them ; they vote for some bodies in 
most of "the provinces." This makes the work hard. But, 
nevertheless, there is a number of women who require full rights, 
and who are conscious that united power and solidarity are means 
to elevate the condition of women, and who desire to join with 

They had had so much to do in their own country, she was 
sorry to say they had not thought much about the International 
Council. She thought, however, it was now being recognised 
that to join the International Council would promote all these 
associations in their own countiy. She hoped that at the next 
Quinquennial Meeting they would have a National Council joined 
to the International. 



France. 

Mme. Bogelot and Mile. Sara Monod said they would not 
at that time add to what they had said of the movement in 
France at the opening . meeting of the Congress. 



132 INTERNATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOM£N 



Norway. 



Froken Oina Erog (Hon. Vice-President for Norway) said 
there was much life among women in the country, and much 
interest in women's questions. They had no associations till 
1884, when a Norwegian Association for the Promotion of 
Women's Inter^fits was formed, and had a very wide scope, taking 
up anything to promote the interests of women. In 1885 there 
was formed a woman's suffirage question, and now they had a 
nationally-organised Woman's Sufirage Association beside these 
others. In eight different towns they had these associations for 
the promotion of women's interests, which were doing much of 
the same work as the National Council. At the same time there 
was a wish to have a still wider organisation. 

India. 

Mn Flora Aimie Steel said she had no report to give. She 
would respectfully suggest to the International Council if anything 
were to be done it should be done on somewhat different lines 
from any other parts of the world They should get someone of 
position in the country, such as the Guakwar of Baroda, to head 
the movement, and they must keep it as free as possible from 
outside influences. Lady Hobhouse had asked her to mention 
the urgent need there was of female lawyers for India. She did 
not think anyone knew how isolated the women of India were at 
present They were debarred from speaking in the courts, and 
she did not see how they could have justice done them unless 
there were female lawyers who could come and see them in their 
homes. The International Council could do no better work for 
the women of India than to advance the appointment of women 
lawyers. 

Victoria, South Australia, West Australia 

and Queensland. 

The representatives of these Colonies all expressed themselves 
as unable to give any report of a Coundl movement in the 



MISS MARIE BHOR. 
//«.. RifT-nnilalhK/sr l«dh 
(Reproduced 



REPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — SOUTH AFRICA 133 

Colonies they represented, and said they had come to watch and 
learn with a view of furthering the formation of National 
Councils later on. 



South Africa. 

Mrs Stewart, of Lovedale (Hon. Vice-President), reported as 
follows :-^I have the honour to appear before this meeting as a 
representative of various associations of women in South Afirica. 
I am glad to do so, and will endeavour to give some account of 
work throughout the colony. 

I need not dwell upon the different agencies at work in Cape 
Town, seeing those will be fully brought before you by Mrs 
Nixon. There is the great and successful work carried on at the 
Huguenot Girls' School at Wellington, begun 20 years ago by 
the Rev. Andrew Murray, who got ladies from Mount Holyoke, 
in America. The women's rescue work of the Salvation Army 
in several of the larger towns ought specially to be mentioned. 
Also the Women's Christian Temperance Union, whose 9th 
annual convention was held at Grahamstown in July of last 
year. As a missionary, however, I feel I ought to make special 
reference to work among the native races. 

Africa affords a great area of work where women need help 
and guidance. This vast continent, which is 5000 miles long by 
5000 wide, awaits all the efforts that British women can put 
forth, more especially upon its ignorant and degraded native 
population. 

We have the nineteenth century civilisation with all its good 
and, what is very serious, all its evil sweeping in upon us. This 
civilisation has a good side and a bad side ; the latter tends to 
corrupt as much as the good side tends to elevate. This 
specially applies to our less fortunate sisters belonging to the 
native tribes. 

It is mostly through the various mission agencies that any- 
thing is being done to raise the native women and fit them to 
take their place in their new conditions of life alongside of this 
large white population that is now filling their land. 

We all realise what Christianity, civilisation and education 
have done for women in this and other countries. 

One of the most remarkable features of the last 30 years is 



134 INTEBNATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

the change in the position of women, even in civilised countries. 
It might even be called the period of the emancipation of women. 
The great number of positions they now occupy, and variety of 
occupations they have shown themselves well qualified to fill, and 
the way they perform these duties, as well as the existence of 
this great Congress itself, is sufficient proof of this. 

It is also a fact that this position has not been given to our 
sex as a free gift, since we have had to struggle for it all the way 
through. 

Missionaiy effort to raise the women of Africa is carried on 
in schools or institutions where the training is thoroughly 
practical, and the one object of all is to turn out useful, active 
Christian women. Every endeavour is made to train head, hand 
and heart. 

The Girls' Institution at Lovedale is just a sample of what 
is done elsewhere. It was begun 32 years ago by Dr Jane 
Waterson, now of Cape Town, who accompanied Dr Stewart and 
myself out in 1866. It was the day of small things, but with 
her insight into human character she soon found out what was 
the best method of training for those raw native girls. For they 
are a proud, conservative race, who think for themselves, and 
adhere to the ways of their heathen forefathers. These girls are 
trained in the general management of a house, learning cooking, 
cleaning, scrubbing and housework. Outdoor work is given 
as well, such as keeping the grounds and walks about the insti- 
tution in order. They also assist in time of reaping to gather in 
the crops. They receive a school education which embraces the 
usual standard work. From that, some pass into the normal 
department and study for three years longer, till they gain the 
teacher's certificate. A few have passed the matriculation 
examination of the University of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Alongside the purely educational part, there is the work 
department, where washing, ironing, sewing, cutting-out and 
simple dressmaking are specially taught. Most of the young 
women who enter this department have passed the 4th standard. 
They bind themselves for three years, and at the end obtain 
certificates, and take positions afterwards as sewing teachers in 
native schools. These normal and industrial classes train 
women, who, whether certificated teachers or not, when they 
return to their own homes help to raise their own people. 
A large number of these young women may now be found at this 
work of teaching in the village schools throughout South Africa, 



REP0BT8 OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — SOUTH AFRICA 135 

doing humble but true useful service. Even though all is not 
attained that we could wish, there is no doubt but that progress 
is being made, and that the habits formed while at school are 
carried into practice in many of those distant villages. Along 
with this school and industrial work there are other influences, 
such as temperance unions, Scripture unions, white cross meet- 
ings, literary societies. 

Branches of these associations are formed throughout the 
country by these women teachers. To measure the progress 
already made with the condition of things when missionaries first 
went out, it is sufficient to say that payment was frequently 
demanded by the parents for allowing their children to attend 
schools. They considered their children were working for the 
missionaries. By degrees they began to understand the advan- 
tages of education. They were willing then to take it without 
payment. In 1871, at Lovedale, we were the first to propose 
that the natives should pay a little towards their own improve- 
ment. This was done under the view that people value most 
what they pay for. The first year brought in £200. That was 
for their board and education. Last year, 1898, £3000 was got 
in this way. This includes the Boys', however, as well as Girls' 
Institution. We have about 800 under training. Of that num- 
ber about 2'50 only are girls and young women. 

Of such Girls' Training Institutions, I would like to mention, 
along with Lovedale, Blythswood in the Transkei, 150 miles 
distant, and belonging idso to the Free Church of Scotland. 
Emgwali, belonging to the United Presbyterian, 70 miles from 
Lovedale; St Matthews English Church Mission, 30 miles. 
There are also Healdtown, Clarkbury and Butterworth. These 
last three belong to the Wesleyan Mission. 

There are a few other smaller schools of this class, and then 
we come to the kraal or hamlet schools in connection with every 
mission throughout the country. Those schools are nearly all 
conducted by men and women who have been trained at the 
institutions I have mentioned. I am sorry I cannot give you the 
correct number of those schools, but there cannot be less than 400 
in the Cape Colony and native territories lying between the Cape 
Colony and Natal. 

We have just opened a hospital at Lovedale, where we hope 
in time to train girls as nurses, another most useful branch of 
necessary work, seeing that the natives know nothing about 
nursing or the care of the sick. 



136 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Many different aspects of work among those African women 
might be mentioned had time permitted. One urgent matter, 
however, that has been on my mind for years, is that of dealing 
with native women-servants. It may surprise this Congress to 
hear that) with very few exceptions, the native women-flervants, 
in the towns at leasts do not sleep in the houses of their 
mistresses. They go to what are called native locations, and 
return in the morning. The majority of these are young wOmen, 
and they are left nearly entirely without guidance or control 
during that interval. It does not need any statement surely to 
show that this cannot but have a most injurious effect on their 
moral welfare and character. This unwholesome custom has 
arisen from two causes : — First, the absence of proper accommo- 
dation in many colonial houses in the shape of a servant's bed- 
room or bedrooms; and^ second, the desire for freedom for 
a portion of the day, or at least the night, by these native young 
women themselves. I think I am correct in saying that much 
mischief almost inevitably follows from this custom, by which 
young men and young women, set free from the labours of the 
day, thus meet constantly together without the control of their 
parents or their employers. What is wanted is a thorough 
change in the domestic arrangements of the employers of native 
women-servants, by providing additional accommodation, and 
refusing to engage servants who will not sleep in the households 
where they work. That which would secure such a change 
would be real personal interest on the part of all mistresses in 
the moral welfare of their native servants. 

In the colony of Natal for a long time there were no native 
women-servants. All household work was done — even to that of 
nursing the children and taking them out — by men. This was 
due to the refusal of the Natal natives to allow their women to 
come into towns for service. I do not know whether of late 
years there may not have been some change ; but what I have 
mentioned was the rule some short time ago. 

Another drawback is the fact that women-servants are en- 
gaged without any reference to character or recommendation from 
previous employers. This, again, is due to the difficulty of obtain 
ing a sufficient supply of servants. Ladies are glad to take any 
help they can get. 

In conclusion, I hope that the action of the different agencies 
aiming at the improvement in the condition of women, both 
black and white, in South Africa, will be greatly strengthened 



!I.LE. MARlIi POPELIN. LL.IJ. 



REPORTS — women's ACTIVITIES IN CAPE TOWN 137 

by connection or affiliation with this great Congress, representing 
a general movement towards that object through a large portion 
of the work. 

I would ask the favour of a communication to be sent to 
some of these associations in Cape Town. It would encourage 
them and help to give more precision to their aims, perhaps sug- 
gest new methods of work, and extend the already wide influence 
of this Congress. 



Women's Activities in Cape Town. 

Mrs Kizon (Hon. Representative) said : — I have the honour to 
read a brief report of the activities undertaken by women in Cape 
Town, South Africa, and I should like to point out^ by way of 
preface, how extremely difficult it is, owing to the great scarcity 
of efficient domestic servants, to carry on pursuits or labours out- 
side the boundaiy of the homestead. 

Every woman nearly in South Africa with a home to look 
after, whatever may be her means, her rank or her position, has 
to superintend very largely in her kitchen, be her own head- 
nurse and head housemaid, dressmaker and milliner. These 
duties often leave but a small margin of strength or time. 

However, I have a list from Cape Town giving 22 district 
activities, all of them conducted in, or close round, the city, and 
this list includes no scholastic work. 

I will briefly speak of those of which I have reports or per- 
sonal knowledge. 

In a house built by Judge Oliphant (and called, from its fabric, 
"Granite House") are sheltered 40 orphan girls. St George's 
Home, as it is called, was started by an English lady, in the time 
of Bishop Gray, for the orphans of those parents who could show 
marriage certificates and produce baptismal registries. 

Miss Arthur (a gifted and highly-cultivated woman) contri- 
buted in great measure herself to the funds of the home in its 
early days by giving music lessons ; but for many years before 
her long illness and lamented death it had earned the most 
cordial interest and support of all in the peninsula, and con- 
tinues to be one of the favourite institutions of Cape Town. The 
ages of the children vary from 8 to 18, and they are trained as 
domestic servants and school teachers. There is a mission' school 



138 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

attached for 200 children of every shade of colour, and in that 
portion of the work specially labours an ebony-coloured, good, 
capable woman, Anne Daoxna, who was found by Bishop Mac- 
kenzie, a forsaken child of 4 years old, on the banks of the Zam- 
besi. Anne Daoma has earned a noble place in the ranks of 
women workers, and owes it, under Providence, to the training of 
Miss Arthur and her most worthy successor. Miss Battyo. 

ISt MichaePs Home is also an orphanage, but on rather differ- 
ent lines. Here a small band of devoted women belonging to 
the All Saints Sisterhood take any orphan boy or girl brought to 
them, or left at their door — by no means an unusual occurrence. 
The ages are from a year old to such time as the girls are fit for 
service and the boys to enter the different trades for which they 
are carefully prepared. From a very small beginning (in a house 
situated in the quaint, unsavoury, old Dutch '^keerom streets," 
or, as we should call it, "blind alley") they established their 
ever-increasing family about five years ago in a large, airy build- 
ing constructed for the purpose on the lower slopes of Table 
Mountain. There are carpenters' and bootmakers' shops for the 
boys, and the girls are taught cooking, housework and sewing, 
besides the usual school instruction. 

Under the same roof and management is an excellent middle- 
class day-school for girls, where the Sisters have the aid of cer- 
tificated teachers from England, while in the town, in a high and 
pleasant position, other Sisters of the community conduct a most 
efficient high-class boarding-school for 70 girls, with classes for 
day scholars. The girls are prepared for the annual Oxford and 
Cambridge examinations of both grades, and have all the recrea- 
tions — tennis, dancing, etc. — that a girl's heart can desire. 

Others will take up the scholastic enterprises of South Africa, 
so I will pass on to the Girls' Friendly Society. This has grave 
difficulties amongst such mixed colour and race as are found in 
Cape Town, but important work is being done by the little lodge 
in receiving commended girls as they land, and helping them to 
employment. There is the sleeping accommodation, which is gladly 
used, when available, by Girls' Friendly Society girls employed 
in the shops. During the winter there are monthly recreation 
evenings, when different ladies give their help by singing, playing 
games, etc. 

The Young Women's Christian Association is also a most 
useful institution. It has a nice, roomy establishment, in a good, 
central position, where 218 young women of various classes have 



REPORTS — women's ACTIVITIES IN CAPE TOWN 139 

found safe and pleasant lodging at different times during the 
last year, and does valuable work as a branch of the Travellers' 
Aid Society. Instruction classes are held here for cookery and 
dressmaking, and during the winter lectures are given on various 
subjects. 

For reserve work there is, alas ! but inadequate provision, and 
those who labour in it earnestly long for more help of every kind. 

The House of Mercy at Leliebloem, just outside the town, 
under Diocesan supervision and worked by the All Saints Sisters, 
was opened in 1886, and is at present the only establishment in 
the colony where poor, straying women are taken in and kept 
from 3 to 4 years, so as to give them a sufficiently long period to 
make a real break with the old habits of life. The inmates, 
generally about 30 in number, do laundry-work under the super- 
vision of the matron and sisters, and in the evenings they have 
night-schools, recreation and choir practice. The funds at their 
disposal have not enabled the Committee, much to their regret, 
to add a building for maternity cases. Women and girls are 
sent to the House of Mercy from all parts of the colony, and 
when possible, parents pay a small charge for their maintenance. 

The anxiety and strain of this form of work is beyond the 
conception of those who have no experience of the Moham- 
medan Malays, and of the small amount of moral sense in savage 
races, which influences both white and coloured womankind in 
South Africa. The Young Women's Christian Association has 
a small reserve home on different lines at Woodstock, where 
maternity cases are taken, and the Salvation Army has another, 
where the women are kept for 6 months. 

The Benevolent Ladies' Society has been carried on with 
patience and success since 1822, having for its main objects the 
visiting and relieving of the aged sick and poor in the city. It 
is supported by voluntary subscribers, and has an average of 100 
aged pensioners yearly. 

Of the Indigent Ladies' Home in Hope Street, and the Dorcas 
Home in Bree Street, I regret that I have but scant informa- 
tion. The former gives a comfortable home of rest to 14 old 
ladies, and a rich legacy from the late J. C. Hofmeye enables 
their committee to contemplate adding accommodation for as 
many more. In the Dorcas Home the inmates pay a small sum, 
and take in needlework when able to do so. 

The Women's Diocesan Association was established in 1890, 
a year of depression and distress in the colony, for the purpose of 



140 I17TERNATI0NAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

collecting, by small sums in the different town and country 
parishes, a fund to assist the small stipends of the clergy in poor 
country districts, and to give aid^ when possible, to the aged and 
sick clergy, or their widows and orphans. 

In the suburb of Woodstock a juvenile industrial society has 
quite recently been started to give instruction to poor children 
in the usual subjects, and especially in needlework. 

Our Cape ladies have not forgotten the suffering dumb crea- 
tion, and their committee of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals has enrolled 106 schools, with some 5000 members, in 
the Band of Mercy Association. 

I come now to the medical and nursing departments. The 
Ladies' Committee of the Cape Town Free Dispensary, with Dr 
Jane Waterstow as its ever helpful, skilful friend and doctor 
president, has conducted its excellent work during 1 1 years. 

With a very small income, sometimes less than J&200 a year, 
a very efficient nurse is maintained for attending the poorer 
women in their confinements, a small fee being paid by them. 
Food and other help is given when necessary and possible, and 
for a long period this little Society struggled almost single- 
handed in the cause of the women of the lower claases in their 
" sorrowful hour." 

There is now another lady doctor working amongst them in 
St Philip's Mission in Cape Town. 

On the occasion of our gracious Majesty's Diamond Jubilee, 
a great effort was made by the ladies of the Cape Peninsula to 
raise funds to establish a comfortable house and convenient centre 
for the many certificated nurses in the city. It was the wish of 
these ladies, encouraged by the medical profession, that this house 
should be under the superintendence of a lady matron, herself a 
trained and certificated nurse, who should watch over the com- 
forts and well-being of the nurses in residence, and be on the 
spot to receive all applications for the services of such made by 
the doctors or by private individuals. The need for such an 
institution was most pressing, and their efforts met with such 
success that the Committee of Ladies, with their enthusiastic 
president and secretary, having begun their labours in the early 
months of 1897, bought, ' equipped and opened the house in 
October of the same year. The Colonial Government generously 
met private efforts by a donation on the £f for £ principle, and 
thus enabled the Committee to purchase a suitable and pleasant 
house and garden in the higher parts of the town, where 22 



MRS. WITTENOOM." 

(Pholo by Ritssi^ll 



RBPORTS OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — ^ABGENTINE REPUBLIC 141 

nurses can be acoommodated, including a district nurse, and one 
whose field of action is among the wives and children of the 
soldiers of the garrison, whose expenses and salary are paid by 
the War Office. 

The youngest philanthropic venture is the founding of a 
cr^he in the city. This is still in process of formation, but will 
doubtless soon be in working order. 

There are other benevolent associations on my list, but as I 
have no reports of their work I am unable to specify them. 



Argentine Republic. 

Doctor Cecilia Orierson, M.D.M.S. (Hon. Vice-President), 
said : — Kindly invited by the Countess of Aberdeen to speak 
at this International Council of Women, I have, as fraternal 
delegate from the Argentine Republic, or Argentina, as we call 
our country, the greatest pleasure in meeting the representative 
women of all the world who come together here with the object 
of contributing to the welfare of humanity. 

Excuse me for not expressing myself correctly, as I have not 
the habit of speaking in public, and my native tongue is Spanish. 
StiU, I conceive the greatest admiration for my British ancestors^ 
energetic language, and its countries' liberal institutions, that 
allow women ample scope for their activity. 

I come from a country that, though sometimes geographically 
unknown, is a country of liberty, blessed by Nature, having all 
that is lovely of every climate, and adaptable to all people. 

Argentina is a new cosmopolitan country, where no prejudices 
exist ; our land, our riches, our institutions are open to the whole 
world, who can profit them by work and perseverance. Every- 
one can follow their customs, their religion, their ideas, with 
complete independence. On account of this mutual intercourse 
with people from all parts of the world, everyone speaks two or 
three languages; people are broad-minded in their views and 
warm-hearted in their sentiments. We assimilate all that is 
useful, good and beautiful without analysing from what comer 
of the world it comes from. 

Argentina, in its 90 years of independence, has made fine 
cities, splendid buildings, especially for its work of science and 
philanthropy. 



142 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Our capital, Buenos Ayres, has outgrown all calculations in 
the last few years, its actual population being 800,000 inhabit- 
ants; we have commerce with most European countries, and 
English and North- American capital is invested in large sujbs, 
and it has been the first country that has carried out to the 
greatest extent practical international arbitration. 

In Argentina women have an active part in all the works they 
desire to take part in. According to their social position, they 
do different classes of work. In the country or camp, our native 
type, or half-Indian women, have, as the men, few wants on 
account of the beautiful climate, and do not work except to 
satisfy their material wants. They live in huts, prepare their 
food, take care of their children, which they keep, the same as 
themselves, very clean in their person and clothes, which, though 
scanty, is adorned with the most elaborate hand-work and native 
lace, which require time and patience, besides the work of hand- 
weaving, which is done of goat hair, llama and sheep wool, and 
dyed with colours taken from plants in our different provinces. 
Our native women very seldom do hard work, but have been 
seen to replace their brothers, husbands and sons in case of need. 
Only foreign women are seen doing hard work in the fields or 
otherwise, each country bringing and conserving its native cus- 
toms and way of treating women. 

In Argentina women's work is principally their household 
duties, and helping their families by washing, serving, or the 
products of their primitive dairy, bakery, confectionery, weaving 
or embroidery, which is used at home or sold privately to neigh- 
bours, or at stations, stores, or small towns, and after passing 
through several hands, arrive at Buenos Ayres, and there sold at 
high prices. Each province having its own peculiar and different 
kind of work, according to its climate, customs, situation and 
commerce. 

Argentina women, especially descendants from Spaniards, prefer 
any work they can do hidden at home, on account of there still 
existing in all classes that false pride in which they consider 
work as a degradation, and many prefer to suffer poverty at home, 
or receive charity, than to show they require to earn a livelihood 
or be allowed to help the men of their families in outdoor work. 
So they prefer toilsome work, such as common sewing, em- 
broidery, and even washing and ironing, which is done to high 
perfection and patronised by all classes of people, but with little 
profit for the workers on account of the competition. These 



RKP0RT8 OF NATIONAL COUNCILS — ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 143 

same women could gain an easy livelihood by artistic dressmak- 
ing, corset and glove-making, bonnet-making, for which there 
is great demand and very good pay for all work that is stylish 
and fashionable, were it not that it obliges them to be in the 
hands of intelligent foreigners, especially French milliners, hair- 
dressers, etc. This same prejudice makes even foreigners prefer 
our new factory work, which gives women more independence 
and liberty than domestic service, and it is very difficult to find 
women, not to say with technical preparation in their work, as 
cooks, chambermaids, waitresses, etc., but even women with 
medium qualifications for these posts, which are well paid, though 
I must confess not always well treated by their employers. 
These same considerations make ladies prefer teaching in schools 
or privately to be governesses or trained nurses. Foreign women 
are in many commercial works and have posts of great responsi- 
bility in commercial houses ; they also do work as typewriters, 
copyists, carvers, etc. ; are in telegraphic and nearly all telephonic 
offices, etc., and do all imaginable light work, occupying posts 
according to their abilities. 

Woman's work in Argentina to remedy misery and suffering 
is great and good ; philanthropy and charity is completely in her 
hands ; our most illustrious, beautiful and wealthy women gener- 
ously administrate for our Goverment one of the largest branches of 
hospital work and other charities, besides contriving to find means 
of getting voluntary contributions or arranging charitable fites 
with the same object. The *' Sociedad de Beneficencia de la 
Capital " is the oldest society formed by ladies in our country, 
shortly after the declaration of our independence on the 9th 
of July 1816. This society was founded by one of our most 
progressive ministers — Rivadavia — ^in the year 1823, giving this 
ladies' society full charge of the hospitals for women and children, 
orphanages, schools, and every public establishment in Buenos 
Ayres, to further women's progress. Since then this society has 
been administered by the most select women of our city, who 
have courageously supported their institutions during tyranny 
and scarcity. In 1875 they had to give up to the Board of 
Education, recently formed, the management of the public schools, 
but have continued to enlarge their sphere of action in the pro- 
motion of charitable institutions, such as hospitals, orphanages, 
etc., and in which itis only required to have the nurses and other 
employees, technically trained to be up to the advancements of 
our century. 



144 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Every one of our 14 provinces and territories, especiaJly in 
their capitals and even in small towns, have innumerable charit- 
able and religious societies, formed by ladies, principally with 
the object of founding and supporting hospitals and charities of 
all kinds. Some are sufficiently advanced to protect the in- 
tellectual workers, helping in the provinces the girl students who 
follow studies in the teachers' schools, which the national govern- 
ment supports, and constitutes the Ufe and activity of the far- 
away provinces by the subvention that is passed to the most 
advanced pupils, who, once received as teachers, are employed in 
the schools, and by this means can support their families, who 
are very united in our country. 

Though our country is principally of a Roman Catholic creed, 
supported by the State, and the native societies are under its 
basis, still there are innumerable societies of all nationalities and 
creeds, some for the benefit of persons of their own colony or 
religion, and others having a wider scope, founded on a more 
liberal principle. When a National Council of Women is formed 
in our country, women's work will come forward and will be 
strengthened by the energies of the workers of this International 
Congress, and it will be known that in Argentina woman is the 
mainstay of our national religion, the vanguard of social purity, 
refined customs, elegance, style, and home happiness, besides her 
active part in beneficence. 

In Argentina every woman of medium position and talents is 
a teacher, whether she uses it as a profession or solely to prepare 
herself for home duties. The primary and elementary schools 
are mostly in the hands of women, who are prepared and gain 
equal wages with men. Also in the normal or teachers' schools 
there are as many women as men professors, and in a great 
many of these schools co^ucation exists, the same as in all the 
university schools in which women wish to take part. 

Special schools for drawing, painting and music exist in abund- 
ance, and in Buenos Ayres there is a flourishing academy of 
fine arts, in which one-third of the students are girls, who follow 
a course of 3 or 4 years in drawing, painting or sculpture, to 
perfect themselves or use their knowledge as a profession in 
private teaching, in schools or small academies. 

Music is cultivated to a high degree, and no one ever plays 
or sings in public except they possess a high perfection. In 
Buenos Ayres there are several music conservatories, where not 
only the best teachers are found, but they have produced several 



REPORTS OP NATIONAL COUNCILS — ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 145 

notable songstresses and women devoted to drama and other 
theatrical pursuits. Taste for music is so greatly developed, that 
the most famed artistes of the world have been attracted to our 
theatres by large remunerations and applause, and, as one has 
said, they receive diamonds along with the flowers at their 
ovation. • 

Literature and declamation is generally the result of natural 
talent, and now and then there has been a medium novelist or 
educational writer, and any woman who has inclination and 
facility for writing, finds always, perhaps too easily, papers or 
reviews who will publish them with pleasure. A great many 
reviews, not only in Buenos Ayres, but in the provinces, that 
treat about fashionable, religious, literary and educational sub- 
jects, are edited and directed by women, who seem to succeed 
in publishing them, though the love of reading is not much 
developed amongst us. 

Scientific studies have only been taken up by women these 
last 15 years, since the commencement of co-education on 
equal terms with the men in their studies, examinations and 
working out of the profession. The only obstacle up to the 
present for women has been in getting professorships in the 
Faculties, in the direction or management of hospitals, high posts 
on the Board of Education, etc., where men are generally named 
by political influence and through Government. But only a break 
in these antiquated routines is required, and already a technical 
lady inspector in education has been named and works with great 
applause of the Board. 

In Argentina I have the satisfaction of being the first lady 
who passed the examination in the Faculty and practised medicine 
in Buenos Ayres, being followed by two others, who were also 
normal professors and had the preparatory studies required. 
Then came a lapse of 10 years, and there are ten ladies who have 
passed their secondary studies and are following now the classes of 
medicine. Also a few have studied pharmacy and dentistry in 
the Medical Faculty. 

I founded the first school for trained nurses, who work in 
private families with great profit to themselves and approbation 
of their employers, though I would require to have the direction 
of an hospital to give them a model training and show how they 
should be treated in these establishments. Also this school has 
a superior class for nurses, who study for masseuse and are em- 
ployed successfully by the Central Register of Nurses, whose 

VOL. I. K 



146 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

bureau and fund I founded with the school. A great many 
women work as midwives, studying at the Medical Faculty and 
passing an examination after 3 years' study, and then work under 
the supervision of the Hygienic Department ; but many of these 
women have not a good moral character, and for this reason they 
are not so well thought of in society as the nurses who have to 
give proofs of their conduct while they study. 

Several normal teachers who on account of their preparatory 
studies were in condition to enter the university went into the 
Faculty of Arts and Science, and many obtain every year the 
highest classification in their examination. Only one has entered 
the Faculty of Law, but her premature death ended her career. 

Several women who are not attracted by the frivolities of 
fashion and society, and prefer a quiet life, have with sufficient 
preparation dedicated themselves to scientific pursuits or study 
of literature and fine arts. I know some ladies who are good 
writers, painters, geologists, botanists, etc., though their names 
and talents are only recognised by a small circle of their friends. 

In Argentina women have complete facilities to dedicate 
themselves to any pursuit they are inclined to. From this land 
of liberty and generosity I bring across the ocean a congratu- 
latory salute to the Congress from all our working women, and 
especially to those members already well-known to us since the 
first International Congress in Chicago by their works, their 
words, and even by their photographs, which make them quite 
familiar to us, and with whom we have already sympathised. 



Palestine. 



Mrs MoTintford (Hon. Vice-President) had no further report to 
give. 



China. 

Madame Shen said through her interpreter that she did not wish 
to add anything to what she had said the previous day. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS 147 



Persia. 

In the absence of Mrs Neilson Hamilton (Hon. Vice-President), 
Mrs Bewail (Persia) mentioned that in Persia much coiild be 
done by the aid of Mrs Neilson Hamilton, the Hon. Vice-Presi- 
dent, to spread a knowledge of the existence of the International 
Congress in that country, and some of the largest and most 
widely circulated newspapers had published the Constitution, the 
Standing Bules, parts of Lady Aberdeen's address, and parts of 
addresses of our International Officers, through Mrs HaJnilton's 
agency. 



Report of Committee on Nominations. 

MicMS Anthony said the Committee of Nominations for Inter- 
temational Officers had a sitting the previous afternoon, when 7 
of the 10 members were present^ and again that morning they 
held a meeting at which all were present, and the Secretary 
would give the report. The business of the committee, the 
delegates would remember, was simply to inspect the reports 
from the different National Councils as to their nominations for 
the chief officers, which nominations could only be received untU 
February 15th. They had endeavoured to keep themselves 
strictly to that line. 

The Becording Secretary read the report as follows : — 

Mme. President,-^— The Committee on Nominations have ex- 
amined the various nominations sent in, and desire to make the 
following recommendations : — For President — Mrs May Wright 
Sewall ; Vice-President — ^The Countess of Aberdeen. 

They make no recommendations for Corresponding Secretary 
or Treasurer. As the lady nominated for Recording Secretary was 
not a member of any National Council, the Nomination Committee 
referred the nomination for that office to the Executive. 

By permission of the other members of the said committee 
the delegates of the Canadian and Swedish Councils added a 
statement as to why it seemed advisable to recommend that the 
present officers be reelected in the present formative state of 
the Council. 



148 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

The President said they coidd adopt the report, though they 
did not formally adopt its nominations. The names would be 
placed on the ballot papers, which would be supplied under the 
Standing Orders to the members of the Council on Thursday, 
July 4tb. 

Mrs Oafihey moved the reconsideration of the date of election 
on the ground that when it was arrived at several members were 
absent with leave on committee business. 

The President said she was afraid the vote could not be 
rescinded. Besides, it would have no result, as they were faced 
by the impossibility of having the ballot papers ready. 

Mrs Gaffiiey said reconsideration would not commit the 
Council to any cause. It would only bring the matter before the 
Council so that all might have a voice. 

Lady Aberdeen said a motion or amendment might be with- 
drawn with the unanimous consent of all. She thought, perhaps, 
they might apply the rule to this case. The consent must be 
given unanimously. She asked whether the Council would agree 
to the introduction of Mrs Gaffhey's amendment. (Several 
members, "No.'') 

The Bev. Anna Shaw pointed out that if the election was 
taken on Tuesday, and the result not declared till Wednesday, 
there would be no election at all in the case of ties. If the result 
were declared at once there might be another election in such a 
case. 

Miss Anthony called attention to the fact that there was no 
nomination for Recording Secretary. 

The President said the Executive might fill up the vacancy 
immediately after the Council. 

Mrs Sewall said it seemed a great misfortune that a candidate 
for that post could not be nominated while the representatives of 
National Councils were all present, rather than leave it to the 
Executive Committee to act as if one had been elected, and had 
died or resigned in the interval of the quinquennial. 

Mrs Creighton said she could not see how any officer could 
be nominated at present under the rules. 

Mrs Sewall said the vacancy occurred from the simple cause 
of one nominee sent by the Executive to the International, and 
endorsed by at least three of the National Councils, was now 
found impossible, and it was considered that her name should 
not appear in the ballot paper. She did not think a strict inter- 
pretation of the Constitution applied here would place it in the 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS 149 

hands of the Executive. It seemed much better to follow a 
course which would secure the largest representation of aU the 
Councils present. 

The President said she thought it clear that the point put by 
Mrs Creighton was a right one. They would go against the Con- 
stitution if they nominated an officer at that stage. They might 
as well call the Executive together and make fresh nominations. 

Mrs Sewall thought that course would be the best one. 

Miss Anthony said it would cause great confusion if the 
Council adjourned without a Secretary, and if the Executive did 
not at once make a nomination she did not see how they were 
going to get a Recording Secretary at all. If they had not 
Constitution enough to elect a Recording Secretary in the Council, 
she did not think they would have enough to make one after it 
closed. 

The President said the Executive had been summoned to 
meet inmiediately after the Council. 

Miss Anthony asked if it was not possible to summon one 
before the close of the Council. 

The President. — Yes, but it is doubtful whether we can make 
nominations. 

Miss Anthony. — Well, the laws of the Modes and Persians 
are awkward, 

Mrs Creighton said she did not know why it had been 
assumed that the persons nominated were ineligible. There was 
no qualification for International Officers mentioned in the 
Constitution. 

The Becording Secretary said they were given to understand 
that those who were not members of National Councils were 
ineligible as International Officers. 

Tlie President. — We have no such rule. 

Mrs Gafihey asked what sort of a body it would become if 
they were to take persons from outside and make them Inter- 
national Officers. 

Mrs Creighton said she would move that the names be 
restored and voted upon. 

The President. — The whole must go back, because the same 
applies to other officers. 

Mrs Oaffiiey protested in the name of the Council of America 
against such a course. She thought it would be fatal to elect 
outsiders when they had so many National Councils to select 
from. 



150 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

MicMS Anthony said if they were going back on those nomina- 
tions she would have to say that the English Council had pre- 
sented no written report of nominations, and they had simply the 
paper of recommendations which was sent to the Secretary for 
the purpose of finding ont whether people would accept nomina- 
tion or not. Then they had a verbal report that some would 
accept and some would not, and it seemed to her they would get 
into immense complication if they attempted to go back on the 
report already made by the committee. Sweden had no official 
report of nominations. Canada had an extract from a letter 
with regard to what she did. Germany and the United States 
were the only two Councils which had made official reports on 
the nominations. There were ten nations affiliated with the 
Council, and if in those nationalities they had not a woman who 
could be Recording Secretary, they had better throw up the whole 
business. She wished to amend the motion by saying that no 
woman should be eligible to an office in the International Council 
unless she belonged to a National Council affiliated with the 
International. 

Mrs Gaffiiey seconded. 

Mrs Greighton asked if it was possible in that way to make 
an amendment to the Constitution. 

The President ruled the amendment out of order, remarking 
that she herself had been elected when she was not a member of 
any National Council. 

At this point it was agreed to adjourn, and to continue the 
business in the afternoon. 



MRS. MONTEFIORE. 






LADY ROBERTS-AUSTEN. 
.■r o/lh.- Jlu.f^Uli/y .Wci:.mal tcmmilUc. 

[T^/aaf. I. 



MEETING OP COUNCIL. 



C!OUNCIL CHAMBER, WESTMINSTER TOWN HALL, 

THUSSDA r, JUNE 29, AFTERNOON. 



rn 



The countess OF ABERDEEN in the Chair. 

The Council Meeting was resumed at 2.30 p.m. in the Council 
Chamber of the Westminster Town Hall — The Countess of 
Aberdeen presiding. 

Discussion on the Eeport of the Nominations Committee was 
resumed. 

Mrs Creighton said she would move, by agreement with the 
American delegates : — 

" That the Report of the Nominfttion Committee be referred 
bock to that Ck)mmittee, and that their attention be called to the 
fact that hitherto it has not been the custom of the Council to choose 
their officers only from National Councils, and that therefore they 
are free to accept names of persons outside National Councils. At the 
same time the Council strongly recommend that in the future, after 
this Quinquennial Meeting of the Council, no persons be nominated 
for office who are not members of National Councils." 

The Bev. Anna Shaw seconded, and Miss Anthony said she 
would accept the motion. 

Mrs Oaffiiey said the motion left it open to the Council to have 
officers during the next five years who did not belong to National 
Councils, and she could not accept it. 

Mrs Sewall said she thought that the motion should be 
passed in such a way that if any officer should die or resign in 

151 



152 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

the next five years the vacancy could only be fiUed up by a 
woman belonging to the Council. 

Mrs Creighton said she thought this would be made clear by 
the terms of the resolution. 

The PreBldeQt said it would relieve Baroness Gripenberg and 
herself to feel that they had not been filling their positions 
illegally for these years. 

The motion was then put and carried. 

The Bev. Anna Shaw gave notice " That she, or someone else 
in her place, would move at the proper time that contributions 
be so amended that no person shall be eligible to hold office in 
the International Council who is not a member of a National 
Council.'' She wanted not only a recommendation made, but 
the Constitution so altered as to make such a choice impossible. 

MicMS Anthony called a meeting of her Nominating Committee, 
and in the meanwhile the business of the Council being pro- 
ceeded with, the Bev. Anna Shaw and Mile. Vidart were 
appointed tellers in case of divisions on the motion of Mrs 
Greightoii, seconded by Lady Battersea. 

MicMS Anthony then presented the report of her committee. 
In accordance with the vote of the Council, she said they had 
replaced the name of Mile. Sarah Monod as nominee for the 
Vice-Presidency and the name of Mile. Vidart for the office of 
Recording Secretary. The rest of the report remained as 
before. 

The report was accepted on the motion of Mrs Greightoii, 
seconded by Lady Battenea. 

The question having been raised as to whether the Returning 
Officers should be appointed from among the voting members of 
the Council, it was moved by Lady Laura Bidding, seconded 
by Fru BetziuB, 

"That the Returning Officers be not voting members of the 
Council." 

Carried. 

Moved by Mrs Creighton, seconded by Mrs Willonghby 
Cuimnings. Resolved : 

'* That Mrs Purdy Peck and Mrs Sanfurd be appointed Return- 
ing Officers." 

Carried. 

It was agreed to defer the appointment of Auditors until 
after the Treasurer was appointed. 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 153 

The Bev. Anna Shaw said she thought the Auditor should be 
an elected officer equal to the said officers. She agreed, however, 
that the Auditor should be a woman from the same country as the 
Treasurer. 

Miss Anthony mentioned again the difficulty in connection 
with the declaration of the voting on Wednesday, and the 
President said the only thing would be to ask the members of 
the Council to vote as they came into the hall, instead of as they 
came out. That could be arranged if agreeable to the Council. 
As members came in then they would find the polling booth 
ready, and the Returning Officers there with the ballot papers. 
That should be the first business of the meeting, and the Return- 
ing Officers should report the result at the end of the meeting. 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION. 

The President moved the following amendment to the pre- 
amble of Constitution which stood in her name : — 

" Thai the words ' committed to the overthrow of all forms of 
ignorance and injustice, and to ' be omitted, and that the words ' to 
further' be inserted, so that that part of the Preamble do read, *do 
band themselves together in a confederation of workers to further 
the application of the Golden Rule to society, custom and law,' and 
that the Golden Rule be printed in full as a parenthesis after the 
Preamble." 

The motion was seconded by Mrs Bewail, and carried without 
discussion. 

Mrs Creighton, on behalf of the National Council of Great 
Britain and Ireland, moved the following as an amended 
constitution : — 

" That after * name ' shall be added, * Objects of the Interna- 
tional Council of Women,' 

''(a) To provide a means of communication between women's 
organisations m all countries. 

" (6) To provide opportunities for women to meet together from 
all parts of the world to confer upon questions relating to the welfare 
of the commonwealth and the family." 

Fm Betzins seconded. 

Mrs Willonghby Cmmnings asked whether the change would 
affect the question whether they were to have Conferences in 



154 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

connection with the Quinquennial Council or not She thought 
it implied that there mttst be Conferences. 

The President said that the amendment did not lay down 
when and where Conferences were to be held. 

Mrs Greighton. — Nor how authorised. 

Miss Anthony said she thought it rather vague to talk of the 
family and the commonwealth, because half of the commonwealth 
were not included in many of the Governments. They might as 
well beat the air as go on talking about the commonwealth when 
they had no voice in it. 

Mrs Sewall said she disagreed entirely with this. Although 
a disfranchised citizen, she was surely a citizen of the country in 
which she was bom, and was part of the commonwealth. While 
she herself did not undervalue the vote, she would be reluctant 
to join any organisation which should put it on record that the 
vote was the only instrument by which they allied themselves to 
the commonwealth. Women were surely as much half of the 
commonwealth as they were of the family. They should be as 
free to discuss all questions relating to the commonwealth as well 
as in their households. 

The Bev. Anna Shaw said, as a spinster, she would like to add 
the words, "and the individual." There were many questions 
which had to do with the individual but not with the family. 

Baroness Alexandra Giipenberg questioned whether the 
amendment was necessary. 

Mrs Sewall said all individuals were members of the nation 
and of the commonwealth, and being a spinster did not make one 
less a member of a family. 

Lady Laura Bidding said it would be a little egotistical to 
call women from all parts of the world to discuss the one 
individual. 

The Bev. Anna Shaw said she thought the addition would be 
a good thing, but she would withdraw it. 

Mrs Sewall. — When it is necessary to call a Conference to 
discuss Miss Shaw, we shall not be hindered by our Constitution. 

The motion was then put and carried. 

Mrs Creighton moved the following amendments to the con- 
stitution on behalf of the National Council of Great Britain and 
Ireland : — 

" That Article III. shall consist of the following paragraphs : — 
'* ' The officers shall be a President and an Honorary Secretary. 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 155 

Each President of a National Council shall be ex officio Vice-President 
of the International Council. 

" * The oflScers, with the Vice-Presidents, that is, Presidents of 
Federated National Councils, shall constitute an Executive Com- 
mittee, of which 7 members shall make a quorum, to control and 
provide for the general interests of the International Council/ 

** That the following paragraphs be substituted for the present 
Article IV, : — 

" * Any National Council formed of Local Councils or Unions, or 
of representative societies or institutions, may become a member pro 
tern, of the International Council, with the approval of the President 
and Secretary. 

" * All National Councils shall, on application for federation, send 
a copy of their Constitution and rules, and a copy of the resolution 
by which the application for federation was passed by the Council. 
And if at any time the said constitution and rules are altered, a copy 
of the alteration shall be sent to the Secretary.' 

" That the following paragraphs take the place of paragraphs 2, 
3, 4 and 5 in Article V. : — 

" * 1. The International Council shall hold Quinquennial Meetings. 

** * 2. These meetings shall be arranged by the National Councils 
or Unions in rotation. The Secretary of the Council whose turn 
it is to hold the International Conference shall issue invitations 
to the other Councils to send representatives, with all particulars as 
to the time of the meetings, subjects to be discussed, etc., at least six 
months before the date of the meeting. 

" * 3. At the time of the meeting of the International Confer- 
ence one or more meetings relating to the afifairs of the International 
Council shall bo held. At this meeting the officers for the ensuing 
five years shall be elected, the place for the next International Con- 
ference shall be settled, and any changes desired in the Constitution 
of the International Council shall be made. The officers, with the 
President of, and the two delegates from, every Federated National 
Council shall alone have the power to vote at these meetingH. 

" ' 4. No change can be made in the Constitution of the In- 
ternational Council except by a majority of two-thirds of those 
present. 

" ' 5. It shall be the business of the Honorary Secretary to keep 
a list of all National Councils or Unions in federation with the 
International Council. 

** ' 6. The President and Honorary Secretary shall have power to 
admit pro tern, any newly-organised National Council or Union to 
federation with the International, subject to the approval of the 
Executive of the International at its Quinquennial Meeting. If the 
President and Secretary refuse the application of any National 
Council, such Council shall have the right of appeal to the Executive 
of the International at the next Quinquennial Meeting. 

" ' 7. Each federated Council shidl pay the Secretary a subscrip- 
tion of £1 annually for her postage and stationery expenses.' " 

She said she thought she had, perhaps, undertaken an un- 
grateful, if not an impossible, task in endeavouring to convince 



156 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

the Council of the advantages of the amended Constitution the 
National Council of Great Britain and Ireland had the honour to 
lay before them. That Council, she might remind them, had been 
organised for some years, and it came before the International 
Council with the advantage of experience. That practical experi- 
ence had led them to foresee many of the difficulties in the great 
International movement, and she doubted whether even the most 
hopeful and enthusiastic of those present would dare to say that 
the difficulties were not very many. Their sessions in that room 
had proved it only too sadly ; and she did not feel any the less in 
love with their amended Constitution because she had had the 
privilege of sitting under the existing Constitution during two 
mornings. They valued very much the part of the international 
management which ought to bring women of all countries into 
closer relationship to one another, and which tended to enable 
workers in one country to profit by the experience of workers in 
another country. However, they felt that, under the present 
rules, until they were provided with means 'of communication 
which would enable a committee meeting in Australia on a given 
morning to be attended by ladies from all parts of the globe, 
International committees became an impossibility. She did not 
think the system of proxies entirely satisfactory. She knew the 
Vice-President was a strong believer in proxies. She told her last 
year she hoped, by a great deal of correspondence with her proxy 
in England, to feel that she was really possessed of a voice on the 
committee. She did not know whether it was necessary to 
disclose the secrets of the prison house, but the fact was there 
came a crisis, there was a difference, and Mrs SewalPs proxy did 
not express Mrs SewalFs opinion, and she vanished, so that for 
some meetings they were deprived of Mrs SewalPs presence among 
them, even by proxy. Another disadvantage of the proxy system 
was that ladies in other countries did not know how any lady 
appointed as proxy would work with those who were doing the 
work in the country from which she was absent. But she did 
not want to take up the time of the Council with criticisms of the 
way in which the proxy arrangement worked. She thought they 
had all had experience of its difficulties and, at the same 
time, they had had experience of the great pleasure and profit of 
meeting together and knowing something of one another, and 
they did not wish to make it impossible in the future. The sug- 
gestion was that they should still have an International President 
— a woman chosen by all representatives of different opinions. 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 157 

and one who would feel it her business to be in touch with all — 
but they only wanted honorary officers, and they did not wish for 
an elaborate organisation which would need money. The Execu- 
tive Meeting would practically cease to exist, and the President 
and Secretary would become the Executive during the quinquen- 
nial period, and be able to admit any National Council pro tern. 
The Quinquennial Meetings would be as at present, except that 
the meetings would be arranged by the National Councils in 
rotation. They contemplated no expenses except postage and 
stationery. They were told that these proposals conti'adicted 
the International idea, but if so, she would like to be told in what 
way. It gave opportunities of knowing what is going on in other 
countries ; and there would be opportunities of meeting in the 
way happily entertained by the other National Councils, and 
getting valuable knowledge of the conditions in other countries. 

Ls^y Battersea seconded. 

Mrs Sewall, in the name of the Executive, called attention to 
their statement on the Agenda paper. 

The Executive agreed to place this amended Constitution on 
the Agenda, followed by a resolution in their own name to the 
effect — 

"That this Executive does not recommend the adoption of the 
amended Constitution proposed hy the National Council of Great 
Britain and Ireland, as they consider that it is contrary to the ideals, 
and that it abroifates the functions of the International Council as 
expressed in its present Constitution. They accept only those clauses 
stating the objects of the International Council. 

She said it was her view that the chief officers of the Inter- 
national Council should, during the 5 years of their service, 
be international in spirit and in service. She thought they 
should have no sense whatever of being related any more to one 
National Council than they were to the other National Councils. 
Indeed, it would be proposed by herself, if by no one else, that it 
should be impossible for the President of any National Council to 
be regarded as a candidate for the International Council unless 
she resigned the Presidency of her National Council. She thought 
the pr6posal that the officers should consist of a President and an 
honorary Secretary only would absolutely cripple the Executive. 
They needed not only a President who should be international in 
spirit and purpose, but also a staff of four officers belonging to 
different countries, upon whom she might rely to hold the inter- 



158 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

national aspect of the movement constantly before the oountries 
in which they live and whatever portion of the world they might 
come in contact with. Now, with regard to the proxies, she was 
glad that everyone thought that she had nominated a good woman 
as her proxy. She still thought so, and none the less because 
there came a point where her proxy could not represent her. She 
had no regret in connection with her having named Mrs Cobden 
Unwin as her proxy. She was grateful for the service Mrs 
Cobden Unwin rendered while representing her; but she had 
learnt a lesson which would pave the way to another amendment 
for the next quinquennial, which would be that no proxy should 
be permitted to serve anyone on the Executive of the Inter- 
national Council, except she were a member of a National 
Council of the same country as the person whom she serves. She 
thought it would be a vast misfortune to call upon the Inter- 
national Council to attempt to carry on the International move- 
ment without both a treasurer and a treasury. She did not 
think that the treasury of the International Council should be 
drawn upon unnecessarily for congresses which were convened 
without its sanction, but for its own work there must be a well- 
supported treasury to make it possible for an international 
movement to be carried forward. Then it would be observed that 
a quorum of 7 members was fixed, and she wished to ask if any of 
the women who sat as representatives of their respective National 
Councils, or any woman who had been called, or might be called, 
to the post of chief oflScer felt that a quorum of 7 was sufficient 
to carry forward a work of an International Council in which 10 
National Councils already sat ? 

Mrs Greighton. — I am willing to make it two-thirds. 

Mrs Bewail, continuing, said there were some very strong 
objections against admitting National Councils to a 'pro tern. 
relationship to the International. No National Council's appli- 
cation for fellowship should be regarded, which did not come 
in good faith intending to join the International Council, not 
for the time being but to the end of time. Moreover, the 
proposal put into the hands of two women a responsibility which 
she, for one, would never be willing to take, and she thought 
that no woman with a sufficient sense of fairness to make it 
reasonable for her name to be considered as an International 
Officer would be willing to entertain the thought that she 
should decide what National Councils should come in pro tern. 
Only the present International Council had the right to consider 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 159 

a question of such magnitude. It would be possible for two 
women, whose intentions she was not questioning, to be largely 
mistaken as to the character of the National O^uncil in some 
distant country. They must at least have the opinion of the 
entire Executive to admit to membership in the International 
Council any National Council. Then did anyone present think 
it desirable that a National Council should arrange the quin- 
quennial meetings of an International Council? The National 
Council might well arrange the Congress to be held at the 
same time, which was quite a different thing. They knew 
how the women of the Council of Great Britain and Ireland 
had helped in arranging for the International Congress under 
the auspices of the International Council, and they might, to 
her mind, make a law that if an International Congress was 
held at the end of each quinquennial period, it should be ar- 
ranged for by the National Council in which the International 
Council should convene its Quinquennial. She thought that 
reasonable and wise, but she thought it neither reasonable nor 
wise, nor even possible, to commit to any National Council the 
province of arranging the meetings of the Quinquennial Council. 

Mrs Creighton said the difficulty arose simply from a mis- 
understanding as to terms. The arrangements she meant were 
simply the outside mechanical part of organisation. 

l&s Sewall said there was much outside mechanical work 
to be done, but there was also much inside spiritual work to 
be done, in arranging the meeting of the International Council, 
and that must be left to the International Council. Again, the 
secretary was to keep a list of all National Councils or Unions 
in federation with the International Council ; but if they were 
to have a secretary who would only do that, how would the 
International work be forwarded during that time? It must 
be the Corresponding Secretary's business to keep the chief 
officers in touch with the National Councils, wherever they 
existed, affiliated with the International, and with the initiative 
movements "which were going forward in other countries where 
there were no National Councils. The proposals seemed also to 
imply that there should be only quinquennial meetings of the 
Executive. During the term now closing there had been numer- 
ous, one might almost say. Executive meetings, and it seemed to 
her there must be annual meetings of the Executive. As to the 
subscription of JCI annually to the secretary for her postage and 
stationery, Mrs Creighton would pardon her if she said she 



160 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

found it impossible not to be amused by the suggestion. She 
had had experience of suggestions parallel to it. When the 
World's Congress Auxiliary of the Chicago Exposition placed 
in the hands of the chief officer of the National Council of 
Women of the United States the task of convening in Chicago, 
in 1893, an International Congress of Women, the first letter 
received from the President of the World's Congress Auxiliary 
assured her the Government would pay all expenses of corre- 
spondence, postage, telegrams, etc. When application was made 
at the office for the appropriation — she begge^i the pardon of the 
Council for an irrepressible smile — two dollars were placed in her 
hands. She did not know what money had been expended in 
saving the life and promoting the growth of the International 
Council, but for 18 months correspondence was going forward 
both from her own office and from the National Council, and for 
many and many a day the daily postage ranged from 10 dollars 
to 25 dollars, and on one day reached 150 dollars. 

Mrs Creighton said she had made the fee a quarter of what 
was now received. She had taken the meetings as a quarter of 
those at present, and the expenditure might be expected to be 
a quarter. 

Mrs SewaU said the proportion was magnanimity itself com- 
pared with the proportion from the World's Congress Auxiliary. 
It would, however, be impossible to carry on the work of the 
International Council with that provision. 

Mrs Creighton said she thought it would be a great pity 
to take up the time of the meeting in discussing how small 
points might be amended, and she would not answer in detail 
to what Mrs Sewall had so ably urged. She would only like to 
know what the Recording Secretary had done until it came to 
the arrangement of the Quinquennial. They had had a Record- 
ing Secretary whose name had been visible on paper, but she had 
never seen her or been conscious of her work. She was going 
to propose that Lady Aberdeen should kindly put it to the vote 
of the meeting whether they would wish the amendment to be 
discussed or not. If they had made up their minds not in any 
shape or form to accept the amendment, they might vote it out 
and let the Council go on with its business. If there were those 
who yet thought it might be accepted as a basis of amendment 
they could further discuss it. 

Mrs Sewall said, with regard to the Recording Secretary, it 
had been because the Recording Secretary had been only nominal 



AMEKDME17T8 TO CONSTITUTION 161 

that they felt the need of an acting Recording Secretary, and the 
fact that they had found that one woman elected could not per- 
form the duties of the office was no reason for abolishing the 
office. It was only a reason for getting the consent of the woman 
to be elected and holding her to her word. 

Mrs Sewall moved that the amended Constitution as proposed 
by Mrs Greighton in the name of the Council of Great Britain 
and Ireland be no further considered. 

Mrs Ottflbiey seconded. 

On the motion being put division was claimed, and the motion 
was carried by 16 votes to 9. 

Fran Anna Simson then moved the following amendment to 
the Constitution on behalf of the National Council of Germany : — 

Amendments to Article III. proposed by the Council of Ger- 
many was moved by Frau Simson, seconded by Mrs Sewall. 

"That between paragraph 1 and 2 a new paras^raph be inserted to 
the effect that 'These officers shall be elected at the Quinquennial 
Meeting, and no Officer shall occupy the office of President for two 
consecutive terms.' " 

Fran Marie Stritt seconded. 

Mrs Sewall said she thought no President of the International 
Council should succeed herself, lest one line only should be taken 
out of the many which the Council should pursue. She thought 
the preservation of the International character of the Council was 
only to be secured by this resolution. 

Mrs Creighton said Mrs Sewall seemed to contradict herself 
in urging that there should be a special International head, and 
then suggesting that the International idea would be affected if 
one woman held office for two quinquennial periods. She thought 
it too early to make such a change as was suggested. 

Mrs Sewall said one woman should not be Internationalised 
for more than 5 years. 

Mrs Willongnby Cnmnmigs said a person's experience counted 
for a great deal in efficiency. She herself fancied that, except for 
a person of very exceptional ability and attainments, it would 
take a considerable part of the 5 years to get to know the work 
thoroughly well, and be efficient in it. It seemed to her that if 
at the end of 5 years a President had proved herself efficient, it 
would be running a serious risk to deprive oneself of her services. 

Fran Bieber Boehm said the German Council attached great 
importance to this proposition. She did not think it was possible 
to remain in the International if it was not carried. 

VOL. I. L 



162 INTBBKATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Mrs Sewall said she had a resolution to introduce for future 
amendment of the Constitution 5 years hence. She wished to 
keep the experience of the Presidents upon the Executive, and 
would move a Resolution " that a President of the International 
Council having held the office for the full term should be made, 
upon retiring, Honorary President of the Council, with all power 
and privilege, including that of a vote upon the Executive 
Committee." 

Mrs Boomer opposed the amendment to Article III., re- 
marking that she thought it would be a wonder if a woman 
mastered all the work in 5 years. Mrs Sewall seemed to want 
something of the Liebig principle introduced, keeping all the 
concentrated essence of Presidents and not letting go of them. 

Miss Anthony said it was not to be supposed that any woman 
totally ignorant of the Council and its work would be nominated 
and elected to take charge of the International Council. 

On a division the motion was carried by 11 votes to 10. 

The President said both Mrs Sewall and herself had made 
conditions about the terms on which they would accept the 
offices to which they were asked. She thought. Mrs Sewall 
would like an opportunity of explaining the condition made 
last year at the Executive as recorded in the minutes, so that 
the members might know her position before they voted. 

Mrs Sewall said her position was that if it was expected 
that the President of the International Council should pay all 
expenses of the International Council, she should not take office. 
She by no means said she did not expect, if she took the office, to 
render what service she could, whether financial or otherwise. 
She quoted from Lady Aberdeen's memorandum of the preceding 
year, in which the entire Executive present united, to express the 
opinion that it was most disastrous for an international body to 
expect an individual to carry it on financially. If any individual 
carried on an International Association financially it ceased to 
be International, because it put such an obligation upon all the 
members of the Executive belonging to it, and all the other 
chief officers, that it would be hardly possible for it to have 
liberty of action. For that reason Lady Aberdeen herself, in 
her memorandum of 1887, said that from 1898 to the end 
of her term she would cease to pay the expenses, in order to 
make it impossible to have it considered a precedent, and in 
order to relieve subsequent Presidents from the thought that 
by their election that burden was fastened upon them. When 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 163 

her nomination came up she very frankly told the members that,' 
not being a woman of fortune, she could not undertake to carry 
all the expenses of the Council. She might say that, from the 
time the International Council was organised up to the present, 
she had paid very large expenses in its wor^ but she joined 
entirely in the feeling of Lady Aberdeen that it was an un- 
dignified position for an International Council to be in that it 
should direct work which was to be done at the expense of the 
President. If called to the office she expected to give whatever 
she could, in means or influence or ability or devotion in any 
direction, to the service of the Council for the next 5 years. 
She wished to say that she had not discussed the matter of the 
election with anyone but with Lady Aberdeen, not even with the 
Council of the United States. They voted to endorse the nomi- 
nation of the Executive in a way very gratifying to her, but she 
had not lifted her pen or spoken a word to influence any woman 
belonging to that body to vote for her. She did not expect the 
Council to vote her expensive journeys at their expense, but 
she did not expect them to say, " Tou must do this," and give 
her no appropriation for the work. She felt it absolutely 
necessary for the dignity of the Council, and just as necessary 
whether Lady Aberdeen was President or herself. In no other 
way could they be democratic in this world, and it was absolutely 
impossible to carry forward an international movement, except 
on the basis of the soundest democracy. There must be a feeling 
that in that work they met, not as dependants upon one special 
leader, with exhaustless power and purse. She thanked Lady 
Aberdeen for what she thought one of the most gracious of her 
many gracious acts — ^for making, in her memorandum of 1887, a 
definite utterance on that subject, and make it possible for her 
successor to be elected without special reference to her successor's 
wealth. 

The President said that at the Executive in March 1899 she 
endeavoured to explain to the Executive that she wished to 
decline the nomination of the Vice-Presidency or any other 
office on the Council simply for private reasons. For some 
years she had had a great deal of public work to do, and now 
she felt it her duty to free herself from such work as far as 
possible for the next 2 or 3 years at anyrate. The Executive 
were good enough to press the nomination upon her, and she 
then Qxplained that if the Council decided to accept her resolu- 
tion about the headquarters and International Bureau, and if the 



164 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

International Bureau were to be in London, she felt she might 
perhaps be of some service to the International Council without 
contracting ties she could not fulfil, and that therefore she would 
allow her name to go forward. But she felt it very likely that 
many of the members of the Council would like to elect one for 
the Vice-Presidency whom they could depend upon with certainty, 
and she wished to say explicitly that they could not depend upon 
her with such certainty as they might desire. Unless that resolu- 
tion were passed, which would mean work she could do very easily, 
she felt she would not be of any use to the Council, as she could 
not undertake to travel to the meetings of the Executive in other 
countries, and this might reasonably be expected of the Vice- 
President, more especially with a President on the other side of 
the world. 

The Bev. Anna Shaw. — ^Tou are not refusing nomination ? 

The President. — I want it to be clear that some other candi- 
dates for the Vice-Presidency would be able to do your work 
better than I could, because I cannot undertake to give much 
time to it. 

The meeting then adjourned till Tuesday, July 4th. 



PRIVATE MEETING OP COUNCIL. 



COUNCIL CHAMBER, WESTMINSTER TOWN HALL. 

TUESDAY, JULY ^, MORNING, 



The COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN in the Chair. 

The Freflideiit called the meeting to order at 10.15, and explained 
to the Council that she had received a letter signed by the 
Presidents or acting Presidents of 6 National CouncUs requesting 
that the Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg might be allowed to 
withdraw her resignation for nomination, and that her name be 
placed on the ballot papers as a nominee for the office of 
President, as, in their opinion, it is advisable to have more than 
one name to be balloted for each office. It was only with great 
difficulty that they had obtained Baroness Gripenberg's assent 
to this request being made, as she was most reluctant to be a 
candidate. As this was a matter which affected the question 
of voting, the President felt that an expression of opinion from 
the Council should be invited before the election took place. 

After some discussion, in which Mrs Creighton, MiBS 
Anthony, Miss Shaw, Mrs Boomer, Fm Betzius and Lady 
Laura fedding took part, it was decided that it was inadvisable 
at so late a stage to re-open the question, 

MiBB Anthony moved, seconded by Frau Marie Stritt : — 

'* Besolved that the last report of the Nomination Committee be 
sustained." 

Carried. 

Mrs Sewall then addressed the Council. 

166 



THIRD BUSINESS SESSION OP THE 
QUINQUENNIAL MEETING OP 
THE INTERNATIONAL CON- 
GRESS OP WOMEN. 



COUNCIL CHAMBER, WESTMINSTER TOWN HALL. 

TUESDAY, JULY 4, MORNING, 



The countess OF ABERDEEN in the Chair. 

The first business of the morning was the election of the 
five international officers by ballot for the next quinquennial 
period. 

MiBS Anthony asked if one name could be put on the ballot 
paper for more than one office, as Frau Simson was nominated 
both as Corresponding Secretary and as Treasurer. 

In answer to a question, Frau Simson said she was willing to 
allow her name to stand for both offices. 

The votes of the officers and delegates were then recorded by 
ballot in the polling booth provided for the purpose, and handed to 
the returning officers, the President only declining the privilege 
of voting. 

When this was completed, the minutes of the last meeting 
were read, and after two alterations were confirmed and signed. 

The consideration of the amendments to the Constitution was 
proceeded with. 

Article III. (2) Proposed by the President: — 

"That in the second paragraph (paragraph 3 of the amended 
Constitution) after the word 'Vioe- Presidents,' be added the words 
* that is, Presidents of Federated National Councils.' " 

166 



MLLE. CAMILLE VIDM 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 167 

Miss Shaw moved in amendment that the words "vice- 
presidents, that is " be struck out, so that the clause will read : — 

"The five General Offioers with the Presidents of Federated 
National Councils." 

The President accepted the amendment, and Miss Shaw 
having seconded the motion, it was carried. 

Miss Anthony gave notice of motion that at the next Quin> 
quennial Meeting she will move an amendment to Clause 3, 
Article III., adding the words " between quinquennial meetings,'' 
thus limiting the power of the Executive to the interim between 
quinquennial meetings. 

Moved by Frau Bieber Boehm, seconded by Miss Anthony : — 

"Resolved that the words * seven members' in paragraph 2 
(paragraph 8 in amended Constitution) be replaced by * two-thirds of 
the whole number.' " 

Carried. 

Moved by Fran Marie Stritt, seconded by Lady Laura 
bidding: — 

"That in paragraph 3 (paragraph 4 of amended Constitution) 
the word * honorary ' be prefixed to the term Vice-President." 

Carried. 

The President proposed, seconded by the Vice-President : — 

" That the following sentence be added to the end of paragraph 3 
(paragraph 4 of amend^ Constitution) : — * All such Honorary Vice- 
Presidents shall be invited to attend and take part in the meetings 
of the Executive, but shall have no vote.' 

Mrs Gaffiiey thought that too much power was given to the 
Executive in proposing that they should have power to invite 
members to come and take part in the work. This was extending 
the honour too far. 

The President, in answering this objection, said that great 
difficulty had been experienced by those desiring to organise 
Councils in their own countries, and that the power of inviting 
those responsible for this organisation to be present at 
the Executive had proved of great value to the International 
Council. 

Fm Betzins seconded. 

Mrs Greighton, Frau Bieber Boehm and Miss Anthony 
spoke against the words " and take part in the meetings." 



168 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



Miss Anthony moved, seconded by Frau Bieber Boehm, 
*'that they be omitted." Carried. 

Mrs Oaffiiey mov^, seconded by Mrs Creighton : — 

" Resolved that the words * may be invited ' be substituted for 
the words ' shall be invited ' in the same paragraph." 

Carried. 

This was carried, the amended paragraph now reading : — 

** All such Honorary Vice-Presidents may be invited to attend 
but shall have no vote/' 

Miss Wilson, Corresponding Secretary, proposed that the 
following paragraph be added : — 

"Distinguished women of any country, whose influence and 
support would be valuable to the International Council, may be 
invited by the President and Executive to join the Council as 
individual members. Such women shall be called CoonsellorB, and 
shall have a seat on the Executive, but may not vote." 

She moved this in order that honour should be done to those 
women who had rendered world-wide service to the cause. 

Mrs Creighton would allow such women to come in as Vice- 
Presidents, but would not let them take part in the meeting. 

The President said that such women need not necessarily 
have done work on the International Council, but they must 
have worked eminently in the women's cause, and their work 
must not only have benefited their own country but others. 
Such women as Miss Florence Nightingale, Mrs Julia Howe 
and Miss Clara Bajrton, etc., would thus fall in the category 
indicated. In the truest sense of the word such women might 
be willing to give counsel to the International Council, and 
the latter body would only honour itself by including such 
names on its roll, and that without requiring them to pay a fee. 

Mrs Cnmmings said that such women could be honoured in 
other ways than by practically making them members. 

Miss Anthony said that the best way of honouring them 
would be for their individual admirers to put their hands in 
their pockets and pay their subscriptions for them. To select 
members in the way suggested would be invidious to the Patrons. 

Mrs Sewall thought that the President and Executive of the 
International Council should invite no woman to sit on the 
Executive before her country had endorsed the selection. To 
the names that had been suggested she took no exception, but 



AMENDMBNT8 TO CONSTITUTION 169 

American women would agree with her in saying that they 
found some of their countrywomen in high esteem in Eng- 
land whom they had practically never heard of in the States. 
And of the names of women whom they expected to find potent 
factors they rarely heard. If they were to work for the building 
up of the Council ideal, they must in no way ignore the National 
Councils and elevate the Council as opposed to the individual. 

The proposition was not seconded, and thus fell through. 

The President proposed : — 

"That after the words 'National Counoil' the following be 
inserted : — * Formed of Local Councils or UnionB, or of representa- 
tive societies or institutions, provided that their Constitution be in 
harmony with the basis of the Constitution of the International 
Council ' be omitted, and * with the approval of the Executive ' be 
inserted." 

Lady Laura Bidding seconded. 

Miss Anthony said it seemed to her that a National Council 
in its true sense should not be formed of Local Councils, but of 
National Organisations. She did not know what was meant by 
Local Unions. 

The President. — " The Councils in some countries are called 
Unions." 

Miss Anthony said that as to representative institutions they 
had discussed in the United States the question of welcoming 
institutions to be represented, but they felt it would be disastrous 
to a National Council, and it would be vastly more so in an 
International Council. They should confine themselves entirely 
to representative bodies arranged after the fashion of the Council, 
and not take institutions and associations of all kinds. 

Mrs Bewail moved in amendment, seconded by Mrs Gum- 
mings: — 

''That the words 'National Societies' be inserted after the 
words 'formed of,' and that the second and third 'or' be changed to 
'and,' and that the word 'representative societies and institutions' 
be left out.' 

Lady Laura Bidding said this amendment would limit the 
Council in too decided a manner. No society could become a 
National Society until it had weathered a good many years, and 
it was the object of the Council to further and develop work on 
the lines that was wanted. In England the National Council 
helped and encouraged the work among the feeble-minded. 



170 INTEBNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

That could not be called a national institution. It was in its 
first youth, but was being gradually developed. She would wish 
*' representative " or some word of the kind retained for this 
reason. 

Mrs Creighton said the amendment did not say that such 
societies could not join the National Council. It said the 
National Council must have National Societies belonging to it. 

Lady Laura Ridding said she was satisfied if it was not 
intended to exclude such societies as she had mentioned. 

The President said the amendment would read as follows : — 

" Any National Council formed of National Societiee and Local 
Oonncil or Unions, and of Representative Societies and Institntions,' 
etc." 

Mrs WiUoughby Cnmmings said she could not second that. 

Mrs Creighton said it seemed a mistake to put the National 
Societies before the Local Councils, which were the most 
important units. 

Mrs Bewail agreed to accept this as part of her motion, and 
Mrs Cummings not agreeing, Miss Shaw seconded the amend- 
ment in her stead. Carried. 

The President moved : — 

" That instead of the phrase ' not later than three months prior to 
its quinquennial meetings' shall be inserted *in yearly instalments.* 
Also, the following: — *The Executive shall have power to reduce 
the fee of any National Council, if necessary.'" 

The first part of the amendment was seconded and carried. 

As to the second part of the amendment, Miss Anthony said 
it seemed ridiculous to suggest that a National Council could not 
raise 100 dollars in 5 years. If they reduced the fee in some 
cases they would get up an invidious distinction, and any society 
which came in under the reduced fee would feel poor indeed. If 
she were going to make a motion on the subject she would have 
the fee 500 dollars. 

Froken Forchammer asked what would be the efiect in the 
case of a Council joining in the last year of a quinquennial. 

Mrs Sewall said a sum was to be paid in annual instalments. 
If such a Council paid 20 dollars during the year, it had paid its 
full share. 

Mrs Oaffhey said the amendment seemed to be unnecessary if 
the remarks of the Vice-President were correct. 

The amendment was withdrawn. 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 171 

The Frefltdent moved that a second section be added to 
Article IV. to the following effect: — 

*'A11 XatioDal Councils shftll, on application for federation, 
send a copy of their Constitution and rules, and a copy of the 
resolution oy which the application for federation was passed by the 
Council. And if, at any time, such Constitution and rules are 
altered, a copy of the alteration shall be sent to the Corresponding 
Secretary.*' 

Mrs Greighton seconded, and the motion was carried. 
Mrs Sewall moved, seconded by MiBS Shaw, that the follow- 
ing paragraph be added to Article lY. : — 

*' Any person, whose name is accepted by the Executive Com- 
mittee, may become a patron of this Council upon the payment of 
£20 (100 dollars)." 

As she sent this in originally, she said the amount was £40, 
and it certainly seemed to her that it was undignified that 
Patrons should come into the International Council at less than 
into the National. She would like to introduce an amendment 
restoring the original sum. 

The President ruled this out of order. 

Mrs Sewall said she would give notice of this amendment to 
be acted on 5 years hence. Meanwhile they would get as many 
Patrons at 100 dollars as possible. 

Mrs Greighton moved the addition after " committee " of the 
words, " and approved by their owli National Councils." 

Fm Betzins seconded. 

Frdken Forchammer asked if this would prevent any person 
who was in a country where there was no National Council 
becoming a Patron. 

Mrs Creightoii consented to add the further words "where 
one exists," and the amendment as amended was carried. 

The President moved that to the existing paragraph be 
added: — 

''The Honorary Vice-Presidents of countries where National 
Councils have not yet been formed, and a special assisting com- 
mittee of five, appointed by the National Council of the country 
where the next QuinquennijU Meeting is to be held." 

Mrs Greighton moved to omit the words " the Honorary Vice- 
Presidents of countries where National Councils have not yet 
been formed." 



172 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL TO WOMEN 

The Eev. Anna Shaw seconded, and the amendment was 
carried. 

The Bev. Anna Shaw said she wished the assisting committee 
of five to have no votes, or they would give the countries in 
which the meeting was to be held absolute controL 

Lady Laura Kidding said the committee would have nothing 
to do with the meeting ; only with making arrangements for it. 

The Bev. Anna Shaw said if it meant only the external 
arrangements and not the programme or the conduct of the meet- 
ing, it might be well enough, but if it meant the programme and 
the form of conducting the meeting, that ought not to be left in 
the hands of a single Council, but should rest with the Inter- 
national body itself. 

Mrs Creighton said the difficulty was that they did not know 
what was covered by the words " Quinquennial Meetinga" The 
discussion of certain subjects in certain countries might be pre- 
judicial to the country in which they met in a way that outsiders 
could not understand. 

Mrs Sewall said she thought that the arrangement of Con- 
gresses might be left largely to the countries in which they met, 
but that the meetings of the Council itself must keep their 
international aspect distinct, and that to give one country a pre- 
ponderating power over the programme because the Quinquennial 
Meeting was to be held there, might injure it in many ways. 
She moved that the Committee of five should be without power of 
voting. 

The President said it seemed to her that this was one of 
those cases on which notice should have been given. She there- 
fore ruled the amendment out of order. 

Mrs Creighton said the only thing to do would be to move 
that there should be no assisting Committee of five. 

The President. — ^You can vote against it as it stands. 

The proposed amendment was then put and rejected. 

Fran Simson moved that the following sentence be added; — 

*'The Hon. Vice-Presidents and the Preudents of Council 
which have not yet federated shall be invited to attend the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements, but shall have no vote." 

Mrs Creighton said that owing to the rejection of the last 
amendment some verbal alteration would be necessary. 

Miss Anthony said this was part of the amendment which 
had been voted down, and should be voted down too. 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 173 

No one seconded the motion, which therefore fell to the 
ground. 

The election of International Officers was declared as follows : — 
President, Mrs May Wright Sewall ; Vice-President, The Countess 
of Aberdeen; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Teresa F. Wilson; 
Recording Secretary, Mile. Camille Vidart; Treasurer, Frau 
Schwerin. 

Frau Simson said Frau Schwerin was not nominated with the 
knowledge of the National Council of Germany. She asked if 
it were possible for persons to be elected in that way without the 
consent of the National Council of their own country. It would 
only, she said, lead to discord. 

Frau Stritt. — I think it very wrong. 

Mrs Creighton said there was unfortunately nothing in the 
Constitution which made it wrong. At present it was consti- 
tutional. 

Frau Simson. — Must we abide by the Constitution if it was 
unreasonable and unfair ? 

The Fresident. — You can give notice of an amendment to be 
brought up at the next Quinquennial. 

Miss Anthony said Frau Schwerin was asked if she would 
accept office, and there was a letter from her saying she would. 
She was nominated by the National Council of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and accepted the nomination. The Nomination Com- 
mittee had, therefore, no alternative but to report her name. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



FOURTH AND PINAL BUSINESS 
SESSION OP THE QUINQUEN- 
NIAL MEETING OP THE INTER- 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN. 



CASSIOBURY PARK, WATFORD. 
JULY 6, 1899. 

The delegates were conveyed to Cassiobury by special train 
from Euston to Watford, where carriages met the train. 

The final meeting of the International Council was held on 
July 5th at Cassiobury Park, Watford, Lady Aberdeen presiding. 

The President opened the proceedings by bidding the delegates 
a hearty welcome to Cassiobury, which had been lent to her by 
her brother-in-law, Right Hon. Sir M. W. Ridley, for this occa- 
sion, hoping that this might be a pleasant termination to their 
business. She had much pleasure in announcing that Her 
Majesty the Queen had very graciously responded to her request 
that an opportunity might be provided for the visiting delegates 
to see Her Majesty. Colonial, American and foreign delegates 
would be admitted to the quadrangle of Windsor Castle on the 
following Friday before the Queen went out for her afternoon 
drive, and Her Majesty would drive slowly past them and 
desired that her guests should afterwards be entertained to tea 
and shown over the castle. Tickets for inclusion in this party 
could be had at Lord and Lady Aberdeen's London house, and 
Lord Aberdeen was making arrangements with the railway com- 
pany for the running of a special train for the delegates. This 
intimation was received with great delight, and all united in 

174 



HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA, 

B'Ao graciouily niehed the Foreign, Cotaniat. and Amtrican Jklcgalcs aai 

Members 0/ Ihe Inlernalional Cvngres! of Women at Wiadiur Caslle, 

Friday, July jt/i, 1899. 

(Ph"io by Chancellor, DiiL>l 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 175 

requesting Lady Aberdeen to convey a message of respectful 
thanks to Her Majesty. 

Lady Battersea mentioned that a telegram was received the 
previous day at the garden-party at Gunnersbury from the 
Princess of Wales : — " I am very sorry not to have been able to 
come to the garden-party, but I wish it every success." 

The minutes were then read and signed. 

Mrs CreJgliton moved that the thanks of the Council be given 
to Mrs Willoughby Cummings for filling the arduous post of 
Recording Secretary at a moment's notice, and for performing 
the duties admirably. 

The motion was seconded by Fru Betzius and carried. 

Mrs Willoughby Cmmniiigs, in reply, said she was very much 
obliged. She was only glad to do anything for the Council. 



AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION. 
The President moved to add to Section 5 : — 

*'8. The President and two delegates from eveiy federated 
National Conncil, together with the General Officers, shall alone have 
the right to vote at the meetings of the International Council. These 
officers and delegates, when unable to be present, may vote by proxy, 
under arrangements to be further specified in the Standing Orders.'' 

Miss Shaw moved that the words after " proxy " be struck out 
and the following added, seconded by Mrs Dizson : — 

** 9uch proxy being a member of the National Council which 
she represents." 

Objection was raised that this would not only apply to Inter- 
national Officers, and Mrs Sewall said if an International Officer 
appointed a proxy that proxy must be a member of some National 
Council, but she thought an International Officer should be at 
liberty to select a proxy from any country. 

Eventually the amendment was put in the following form, 
moved by Mrs Creighton and seconded by Mrs Sewall : — 

",Such proxy of a General Officer must be a member of a National 
Council, which shall approve of the appointment." 



Carried. 



176 INTBBKATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Mi88 Shaw moyed to add, seconded by Mrs IMzson : — 

** The proxy for a President or Delegate from a National Feder- 
ated Council must be a member of the Council which appointed the 
representative." 

Fm Betzius asked if it was necessary to make so many re- 
strictions. Sometimes it was very difficult to get a proxy. 

Mrs Dobeon (Tasmania) and Miss Anthony also objected on 
behalf of distant Councils, especially for the countries which 
were very far away. 

Mrs Creighton asked if the difficulty did not arise from the 
Council not being strong enough to be so fully represented. 
Some day a meeting might be held in the Colonies, and then the 
British representatives would be in a difficulty. FuU representa- 
tion would be given to the Colonies, and if they could not avail 
themselves of it, it was not so unfair as it seemed. 

After some discussion a delegate asked if this rule, if carried, 
would apply to meetings of the Executive as well as to meetings 
of the Council. 

Lady Aberdeen from the Chair ruled that it would. 

On motion of Mrs Graffiiey, the question was put by the Chair, 
and carried. 

The whole paragraph as amended was proposed by Lady 
Aberdeen, seconded by Mrs Bobson, as follows : — 

'* The President and two delegates from eveiy federated National 
Council, together with the Genend Officers, shall alone have the right 
to vote at the meetings of the International Council. These officers 
and delegates when unable to be present may vote by proxy. The 
proxy of a Greneral Officer must be a member of a National Council 
which shall have approved of her appointment. The proxy of a 
President or a delegate from a federated National Council must be 
a member of the Council which she is appointed to represent" 

Carried. 

The President moved, seconded by Miss Bhaw, Clause 4 of 
Article V., amended Constitution : — 

"All members of Council, that is, all ordinary members of 
federated National Councils, may attend the meetings of Council, 
but may not vote." 

Moved in amendment by Mrs Creighton, seconded by Mrs 
Bizson: — 

**That the words after 'may' be struck' out, and the following 
be substituted, ' be invited to attend the meetings, but may not take 
part in the proceedings without special invitation.' '* 



AHBKDMENTO TO CONSTITUTIOH 177 

Frau Simson objected to the amendment. 

Mrs Sewall was in favour of it. 

Mrs Ctunmings said that such members were often in the 
position to give useful information, and why should they be 
debarred therefrom. 

Fm Betziufl. — Can they applaud? 

The President. — No ; I think that would be <* taking part." 

Mrs Sewall felt it was desirable to let the members feel that 
they could make communications if the President thought fit. 

Frau Bieber Boehm thought it was very necessary for the 
members to be in a position of being able to give advice. 

Mrs Boomer said that in Canada much benefit had grown 
out of this privilege being accorded to outside members. 

Miss Anthony felt tibat by putting up such an iron-plank 
rule they might shut out many good suggestions. As only care- 
ful women would spend money to travel thousands of miles to 
attend these meetings, it was not likely they would indulge in 
trivial or unworthy remarks. 

Mrs SewaU, in sharing Mrs Boomer's view, desired to see 
provision made for the careful nomination of Patrons who should 
be able to take part but not vote. 

Finally, at the instance of Mrs Crei^^iton, seconded by Mrs 
BizBon, and with the permission of the Council, the first amend- 
ment was withdrawn, and the following substituted : — 

*'AI1 members of Coimcils, that is, all ordinary memben of 
federated National OoancUs, may attend the meetings of Ooonml, 
but may not take part in the proceedings exoept on the special 
invitation of the General Officers.*' 

Mrs Sewall gave notice of motion that at the next meeting 
she would propose that '* Patrons of the International Council 
may be present at all meetings of the Council, and may take 
part in the proceedings but may not vote.'' 

She also drew attention to the fact that some provision 
should be made for the nomination of Patrons. 

The President then proposed the following amendment to 
paragraph 6 of Article V. : — 

** All business to be brought before the Council must first be 
submitted to the Kxecutive as a notice of motion." 

Mrs Sewall gave notice of motion for annual meetings of the 
Executive and special meetings of Council to be called by the 

VOL. I. M 



178 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Executive officers. She felt that the Executive must always 
feel itself the servant of the Council. fi^^l:i \ 

Mrs Dizflon said that in the interest of the distant Councils 
provision should be made for due notice to be given to those 
Councils if yearly meetings were decided on. It would be advis- 
able to have a date by which business must be sent in. 

Mrs Sewall agreed with this view. 

Mrs Oafihey was opposed to limiting the time of bringing 
forward notice of any business before the Council 

The amendment was then put and carried, and the Council 
then proceeded to the consideration of the resolutions. 



RESOLUTIONS SENT IN BY THE EXECUTIVE AND 

BY NATIONAL COUNCILS. 

I. — Headquabters Office fob the International 

Council. 

The President said that the three first resolutions which 
stood in her name required little explanations at her hands. 
Her reasons for proposing them were set forth in a memorandum 
already in the hands of the members, and she now proceeded to 
move them seriatim. It was self-evident that it was almost 
essential to have a place where records could be kept and which 
in general should be convenient as a meeting place, and which 
could be regarded as such. The Executive could still consider 
the advisability of meeting elsewhere. She moved, seconded by 
Mrs Creighton : — 

'* That a headquarters office be appointed for the Intematioiial 
Council, where the meetiDgB of the Executive shall in general be 
held, except on those occasions when the Executive shidl arrange 
otherwise, or when the President or Vice-President shall deem it 
necessary as a matter of urgency to convene a meeting elsewhere.'* 

Mrs Cummings asked if the headquarters were to remain 
permanently in the same country. 

The President said that of course the place of headquarters 
could be changed at each Quinquennial Meeting. She merely 
desired to establish the precedent of the Council having a head- 
quarters. 



;, COHDKN L*N 



RESOLUTIONS 179 

Hme. Elerck van Hogendorp said the headquarters should 
be in the country of the President for the time being. 

Replying to Mrs Creighton, the President urged the im- 
portance of each Council doing its part in bearing the financial 
burden. 

Mrs Dizflon did not think that it would be practicable to 
change the office every five years, and it would be sufficient for 
each Council to maintain its own offices, and when the Inter- 
national Meeting was held in any country it would be the duty 
of the Council of that country to entertain it as royally as the 
English Council had done on this occasion. 

Mrs Sewall felt that there ought to be a clear conception of 
what an International Council implied. The headquarters of 
the Council should always be identical with the residence of the 
President for the time being. In this case there need be no 
expense for rent — the only outlay being for clerical labour. 
For her own part, she had a large house in which she had plenty 
of room where work could be carried on. As President she felt 
that the offices of the Council must be in her own city, and 
while they might rent offices in the city, she did not think 
the same useful direct management of the work could be main- 
tained as in the case of the offices being at the President's own 
house. In Canada, wherever Lady Aberdeen was, there were 
the headquarters, and had she been under a tent the headquarters 
would have been there too. But the financial burden should not 
fall on the President ; an appropriation should be set apart by 
the Council for office expenses. 

It was moved by Mme. Elerck, seconded by Mrs Cum- 
muigs: — 

"Resolred that the headquarters office of the International 
Council be in the country in which the President lives, and that the 
words in the former motion after International Council be struck 
out, and these latter be added." 

Carried. 

The motion as amended was put from the Chair as follows : — 

"That a headquarters office be appointed for the Interna- 
tional Council, and that said office be in the country in which the 
President lives.*' 

Carried. 



180 international council of women 

II.-^Intbbnational Bureau of Information. 
The President moved : — 



Ul 



Thftt an Intenuktional Bureau of Information ooncemmg 
women's work, women's position and progress in all ooantoriee be 
formed nnder the auspioes of the International OoanoiL This 
bureau shall be under the management of a secretaryi whose duty it 
shall be to keep in touoh with women's movement throughout the 
world. Membership of this bureau to be open both to societies 
and to individuals on the payment of a fee, whioh shall entitle them 
to receive answers to inquiries. Countries organising International 
Congresses and Conferences shall be allowed access to the informa- 
tion obtainable at this bureau, and to the services of the secretary, 
with the consent of the Executive, on payment of a fixed fee and the 
expenses of the secretary." 

WiSB Kramers (Holland) seconded, and in doing so said they 
certainly desired a Bureau to which they could write and get an 
answer to their questions. There existed such an information 
bureau, and she would call the attention of the members of the 
Council to the Women's Institute of Mrs Wynford Philipps. 
That Institute had existed for two years, and she had sometimes 
put questions to it, and everyone who had asked her to do so 
were satisfied with the answers. She believed they had secretaries 
and referees in all countries, even where there were no National 
Councils, so that if they wanted to know something about 
women's movements all over the world, they could always 
address their questions to Mrs Philipps. She proposed tha^ 
they establish an International Bureau in the Women's Institute 
established by Mrs Philipps. 

The President said Mrs Wynford Philipps had sent a letter 
which she had desired her to read to the Council : — 



Copy 0/ Letter sent to the Countess of Aberdeen, 

June 26thf 1899. 

Dear Ladt Abebdeen, — On hearing, in the course of your 
presidential address to-day, that one of the aims of the Inter- 
national Council of Women is to establish an International 
Bureau of Information, several of my colleagues on the Executive 
Conmiittee of the Women's Institute conferred with me, and 
asked me to give you full information about the General Infor- 
mation Bureau of the Women's Institute, which has been suc- 
cessfully established, and which has correspondents in almost all 



RE80LUTI0KS 181 

parts of the world. It is under the direction of a gifted secretary 
^"-^ graduate of Girton College^^^nd she has the assistance of a 
number of secretaries who are being trained in our secretarial 
school. We are being helped in our work by hon. referees, 
distinguished men and women in art, science, literature, and 
other departments of work, who generously help us to make our 
bureau effectiye. We have a library, numbering already nearly 
3000 volumes, including a number of books of reference on 
women's work, and we propose to constantly increase the 
number till our library is as complete as we can make it on this 
subject. As we have established an organisation for the purpose 
of giving information, we feel that the Council wiU wish to be 
made acqiuinted with our work before deciding to organise a 
separate information bureau for the use of women, and that 
they will wish to consider whether our bureau could be utilised 
for their great aim, in view of the fact that it is of international 
character, has a special department for research into women's 
employments, and has achieved definite and successful results 
during the last two years. I may add that we shall be glad to 
give the fullest particulars of our method of work, and would 
offer facilities to all National Councils of Women to obtain infor- 
mation from us. 

May I ask you, as President of the International Congress of 
Women, to bring this matter before the Council when the subject 
is discussed? We have been most careful in the Women's 
Institute, as far as possible, to avoid overlapping with the 
excellent work done by other societies. We feel that this 
course is in harmony with the aims and methods of the Inter- 
national Council, and that co-operation, wherever it is possible, 
is most important, since it prevents a needless waste of energy, 
and enables the greatest amount of work to be achieved. — ^Yours 
very truly, Noba Wynfobd Philipps. 

The President thought the Council would desire to know 
more closely what was suggested as to the management of the 
bureau, as if the International Council wished to form a bureau 
they would wish to have the control of the same. She had that 
morning received the following further letter: — 

6 South Eaton Plagb, 
London, S.W., July 4(A, 1899. 

Dbar Ladt Abbrdben,*-^You kindly ask me to state in 
what way we could develop the International Information 



182 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Bureau of the Women's Institute, so as to work it in direct 
connection with the International Council, if the Council 
should consider our Institute Bureau a fitting centre as we 
hope. 

Our Institute is governed by an Executive Committee of 
eleven appointed by the Council (of which you, Mrs Alfred 
Booth, and other members of the National Council belong, and 
of which I enclose a full list). 

All the work of the Institute comes before the Executive, but 
several of the special departments have their own special com- 
mitteeSy consisting in part of experts in each special subject. 
Thus the lecture department has a special committee (with the 
heads of women's colleges on it). The musical department has 
well-known musicians on the committee, and we would propose 
that the General Information Bureau should be formed partly of 
members of the International Council, who, we hope, would join 
the Institute to help in this work. We would hope that you 
would honour us by being the Chairman of the Information 
Bureau Committee, and that you would be a member of our 
Executive Committee. 

We would hope that the International Council would appoint 
a number of ladies to serve on the committee. The members of 
our Executive have the right to attend the departmental com- 
mittees, and we try to arrange that at least two members of the 
Executive do so, in order that the whole Institute should work 
in harmony, developing each department under the guidance of 
experts, yet keeping each part in harmony with the central idea. 

If you would act as the guiding spirit of the Information 
Bureau and link it with the general work, this would be the 
greatest and best help. 

We would propose that the Committee, when formed, should 
have power to co-opt a certain number of other members (but 
not necessarily members of the Institute), and this would enable 
us to invite presidents and officers of National Councils to give 
us the benefit of their help and advice when in England. 

We should hope that all international officers would consent 
to join the committee. 

The immense increase of work would make it necessary to 
increase the number of secretaries, who would need to be good 
linguists. We should propose, therefore, to have a special fund, 
to which all interested in the work might contribute, and the 
department could have its finances kept apart from the general 



RESOLUTIONS 183 

work, arranging a suitable adjustment for mutual convenience 
between the central body and the department. 

This has been done with great success in our secretarial 
department, which has a separate account financially. 

Our Executive Committee would do all in their power to meet 
the wishes of the International Council in the way in which the 
work was carried out. Believe me, dear Lady Aberdeen, yours 
very truly, Nora Philipps. 

THE WOMEN'S INSTITUTE, 15 Grosvbnor Crksoent, Hydb 
Park Corner, London, S.W. (Founded on strictly Non- 
party lines.) June 1899. 

Council. 

The Countess of Aberdeen, Mrs Hirst Alexander, Lady 
Charles Beresford, Miss Helen Blackburn, Mrs Alfred 
Booth (Pres. Nat. Union of Women Workers), Miss Jessie 
Boucherett, Mrs H. Percy Boulnois (Liverpool), Miss Edith 
Bradley, Miss Burstall (Manchester High School), Mme. Louisa 
Starr Canziani, Miss Cons, Miss Davies (Training School of 
Cookery, Univ. Coll., Cardiff), Miss Ella Hepworth Dixson, Miss 
Faithfull (King's College, London), the Hon. Lady Grey- 
Egerton, Lady Qrove, Miss Grove (Prin. of Coll. Hall of 
Residence for Women, University Coll., London), Lady Hamil- 
ton (Tasmania), Mrs Hays Hammond, Viscountess Harberton, 
Miss Hitchcock (Kensington High School for Girls), Miss E. P, 
Hughes, Mrs Alfred Hunt, Miss Hurlbatt (Bedford College. 
London), Mrs Brynmor Jones, Mrs Viriamu Jones, Mrs Joplmg 
Rowe, the Hon. Mrs Alfred Lyttelton, Miss Maitland (Somer- 
ville Coll., Oxford), Mrs Charles McLaren, Mrs Eva McLaren 
(Hampstead), Miss Maynard (Westfield College), Miss Moberly 
(St Hugh's Hall, Oxford), Miss Mondy (Sec. of Nat. Home- 
Reading Union), Lady Montagu, Miss Morison (Univ. Coll., 
Lond.), the Hon. Mrs Mure, Miss Rosalind Paget (Midwives' 
Institute), Mrs Peile (Christ's College Lodge, Cambridge), Lady 
Philipps, Mrs Wynford Philipps, Mrs Alfred Pollard, (Pres. of 
Ass. of Assistant Mistresses and Hon. Sec. C.A.B. Mem. Fund), 
The Countess of Radnor, the Hon. Mrs Bertrand Russell (Hon. 
Gen. Sec. Y. W. Branch, B.W.T.A.), Mrs Russell-Cooke, Mrs 
Scharlieb, M.D., M.S., Mrs Shurmer Sibthorp, Mrs Sidgwick 
(Newnham College), Mrs Bamford Slack (Cambridge), Lady 
Henry Somerset, Mrs Stopes (Author of " British Freewomen "), 



184 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Mrs Swynneston, Mrs D. A. Thomas, Miss Janet Tuckej, Mrs 
Verrall (Associate of Newnham College, Cambridge), Miss Welsh 
(Girton College), the Dowager Lady Westbury, Miss Words- 
worth (Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford). 

EzEctJTiVE Committee. 

Miss Helen Blackburn, Mrs Cobden Sanderson, Miss Barbara 
Hamley, Mrs Hays Hammond, Miss Hewat, Mrs Wynford 
Philipps, Mrs Alfred Pollard, Mrs Bamford Slack, Mrs D. A. 
Thomas, Miss Janet Tuckey. 

The Women* 8 Institute was founded in 1897 to supply the 
demand which is being made for a centre of information and 
meeting-place for the convenience of those who are engaged in 
various departments of public, professional and philanthropic 
work, in science, literature and art. It is no part of the aim of 
the Institute itself to take up any department of work in com- 
petition with existing societies, much less to interfere in any way 
with their management. Its object is rather to make the work 
of existing societies better known, through its Information 
Bureau, through the circulation of literature, and through meet- 
ings and conferences held within its walls. 

The Institute is founded on strictly non-party lines. It 
comprises several departments, which, as the demand arises, are 
being further multiplied and developed. Its chief departments 
at present are : — 

1. A Reference Library, which now consists of about 2500 

volumes, and is continually being increased by loan, 
gift and purchase. It is intended, within a short time, 
to organise a circulating library for the convenience of 
members. 

2. A Lecture D^pa/rtment, which performs the double task 

of arranging the lectures and debates held in the 
Institute, and of directing a staff of qualified lecturers, 
who can be sent to any part of the country where their 
services are required. 

3. A General Information Bureau, which gives information 

on women's work and general subjects. Members are 
entitled to send in 12 inquiries yearly free of charge. 
Non- members pay a fee of Is. 6d. per question. 
Questions are answered either by members of the 
staff by means of the reference library and of tabulated 



RESOLUTIONS 185 

information kept in the Institute, or by honorary 
referees who kindly undertake to furnish replies on 
special subjects. 

4. A Secretarial Department. 

5. A MttsiccU Society. 

6. A Eecreation a/nd Games Department 

7. An Art Society. 

8. An Agency for Members* Requirements. 

9. A General Agency. 

10. Associated Societies and Register of Helpers. 

1 1 . PiUdiccUion of Importa/rU Papers. 

Membership. 

Men as well aa women are eligible for membership. 

The Institute aims at being a link between workers, not only 
in London, but in various parts of the world. As foreign, country 
and colonial members can comparatively rarely avail themselves 
of the Institute lectures and meetings, the following additional 
advantages are offered to them : 

1. Membership without entrance fee. 

2. The right to receive all publications of the Women's 

Institute, free of charge. 

3. Four transferable tickets for lectures or debates. 

Conditions of Membership. 

Agreement to abide by and be subject to the rules and bye- 
laws of the Institute for the time being in force. 

Terms for General Members (Men and Women). 

£ s. d. 

Town — Annual subscription .110 

Entrance fee .110 

Country — Annual subscription .110 

No entrance fee. 

Terms for Women who are Professionally Engaged, or who hold 
a position by Government Appointment, or by PvMic Electuni. 

8. d. 

Town — Annual subscription 10 6 

Entrance fee . 10 6 

Country — Annual subscription 10 6 

No entrance fee. 



186 INTEBNATIOXAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Terms for Americcmy Colonial and Foreign Members 

(Men and Women). 

8. d 
Annual subscription 10 6 

No entrance fee. 
The Institute is open daily from 10 to 7 except on Saturdays, 
when the hours are from 10 to 5, and on Sundays, when the 
library and reading room are open from 3 to 6. 

The Institute will be closed on bank holidays, and for one 
month at the end of the summer. 

Fran Bieber Boehm asked if it was necessary to have 
a Bureau of Information when one already existed. They might 
recommend all the National Councils to use this bureau. 

The Fresideiit said the ofiPer was a generous one, as there was no 
suggestion that there should be any direct contribution from the 
Council to the bureau, though, of course, members joining would 
be supposed to do their best for it. It was for the consideration 
of the Council whether they would accept the offer made by the 
Women's Institute, and that the Information Bureau of the 
Women's- Institute should become the International Bureau of 
Information under the auspices of the IntemationcJ Council. 

With the permission of the Council the following resolution 
was substituted for the original one, and moved by Mrs 
Greighton, seconded by Mrs Gafifoey : — 

"That an International Bureau of Infonnation concerning 
women's work, and women's principles and progress in all countries, 
would be useful to the work of the International Council ; and that 
for the next quinquennial period the Information Bureau of the 
Women's Institute be used as such by the National Councils on 
terms to be arranged between the separate National Councils and the 
Women's Institute." 

Mrs Sewall said that Mrs Philipps told her that in her 
opinion the adoption of the Bureau by the International Council 
would necessitate one or two secretaries, and that she would 
expect the International Council to maintain what additional 
secretarial service was necessary. She suggested that there 
should be a separate fund maintained by the subscriptions of 
those who took interest in the subject, so that nothing need be 
paid out of the general treasury of the IntemationcJ Executive 
at all. To her mind this Bui'eau meant the aggregation of 
a library relating to women, and the collection of statistics not 



RESOLUTIONS 187 

only from the Councils, but also from the statistical bureau of 
governments aU over the world, and from all women's organisa- 
tions everywhere. She hoped it might be done, and that for the 
next five years the foundation started by Mrs Wynford Philipps 
might be used, and that Lady Aberdeen might be induced to 
take a position on the Bureau in some way as suggested by Mrs 
Wynford Philipps, but if so the financial considerations involved 
must be met. She did not want to contribute to that discussion 
at all, but this must be considered. 

Mrs Gieighton said if her resolution was adopted there need 
be no discussion on finance. 

Miss Anthony said all the Council could do for the next 
five years was to refer people to the Bureau, and for them to 
make their own terms. 

Mrs Greighton said the resolution did not preclude the 
International Council in the next five years starting its own 
Bureau, or making terms with Mrs Wynford Philipps. She had 
every respect for Mrs Wynford Philipps' bureau, and thought it 
had proved more successful than they might have expected, but 
still it was a private venture, and she did not think the Council 
should adopt a private venture. If they adopted it as an 
International Bureau, they would be almost making it the 
International Council in the eyes of foreigners. 

Mrs Sewall said she thought that Mrs Creighton's resolution 
covered all they at present could safely do, but she would like to 
have the IntemationcJ Council in some way formally related to 
the work, so far at least as to request Lady Aberdeen to accede 
to the invitation of Mrs Wynford Philipps that she should take 
her place as Chairman of the Bureau of Information. 

Mrs Greighton said the resolution put them in a different 
position from that suggested by Mrs Wynford Philipps. She 
had suggested the new committee with the idea that the Bureau 
should become the International Bureau. She asked permission 
to put her resolution somewhat differently, and to add a rider to 
it. She moved to strike out all the words after " Council," and 
add— 

*'And that for the next qainquenuiftl period the Council 
recommends that the Information Bureau of the Women's Institute 
be used as such by the National Coundls, but the International 
Council specially desires that on all questions relating to, or connected 
with, the work of National Councils, Councils should correspond direct 
with other National Councils.*' 



188 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF VOMEN 

Mrs G-affiiQy, as seconder, accepted the alteration, and the re- 
solution was put as amended and adopted. 



III. — ^National Bureaux of Information. 
Mrs WQIoughby CmnmingB moved : — 

" That every National Council be recommended to form a Stand- 
ing Committee of Information, with the Bureau of Information if 
possible, where statistics regarding the women of the country shall 
be collected and kept up to date. The business of this committee or 
Biureau shall be to gather together and to g^ve accurate information 
regarding the position, employment, education, pursuits, etc., of the 
women of the country, and to collect any further information required. 



*» 



She said they felt in the Canadian Council that this was go- 
ing to be of great importance. They felt also that it was a good 
time to bring the matter before the several National Councils, as 
they hoped they would be called by their respective Governments, 
as they had been by their Government in Canada, to arrange 
such information to be presented at the Paris Exhibition. This 
had given a great impetus to the idea of having a National 
Bureau in Canada, because the work they were doing was 
exactly the same they would have to do to bring such a Bureau 
into being. 

'Mis Gaffhey seconded. 

Froken Adelborg mentioned that they had such a Bureau in 
Sweden in connection with the Frederika Bermen Association. 

Mrs Annitage (New South Wales) said it would be for each 
nation to make its own arrangements. 

Froken Adelborg said she understood that just as the English 
women recommended the Women's Institute, so they in Sweden 
could adopt theirs. 

The motion was put and carried. 

IV. — Organisation op International Congresses. 
The President moved : — 

" That the International Council of Women do not in future 
undertake the responsibility of organising International Congresses 
of Women, but that it do adhere to the arrangements for the manage- 
ment of its own Quinquennial Meetings as set forth in its Constitu- 
tion, leaving the organisation of International Congresses in the 
hands of National Councils who may desire to convene them." 



RESOLUTIONS 189 

She said she wished to press this resolution very earnestly on 
the Council. She felt that the International Couneil had in- 
curred a very great danger in trying to arrange the (Congress and 
its own quinquennial business at the same time. The business 
and arrangements for the Quinquennial Meeting were in all con- 
science enough for the officers and Committee of Arrangements 
to provide for. She had ventured to press this view on the Exe- 
cutive which met in 1898, but they had decided to place the 
responsibility of the Congress on the Council, and she was thankful 
to think that the Congress had passed off as well as it had done, 
owing to the great help and kindness they had received from so 
many quarters. At the same time she had thought there was 
a danger and a risk, both to the Congress and to the Inter- 
national Council, and she ventured to hope that the resolution 
would be accepted. 

Mrs Greignton seconded, and said the difficulty arose from 
the want of distinction between the meetings of the Council and 
the meetings of the International Congress. She thought such 
a Congress would be infinitely better organised by a National 
Council and not by an International Council, but that the meet- 
ings of the International Council should be organised by the 
International Council and that the two might be kept very 
distinct. The view taken by Lady Aberdeen had always been 
held by herself. 

Mrs Sewall said she thought it would be better if the Council 
meetings could have begun and ended before the Congress began. 
The past Congress would be with them as an inspiration and a 
joy, and also as a warning that whenever the International 
Council and the Congress were convened at the same time the 
meetings of the Council should be entirely ended before the 
meetings of the Congress began. The Council had cut many of 
them off from meetings which they would have crossed the seas 
to attend. For herself, whose general interest was in education, 
she had not been able to go into a single educational meeting of 
the Congress, having either active duty or some other conference 
of the International Council to attend. 

Hme. Klerck Tan Hogendorp pointed out that it reduced 
the expense for the Congress and the Council to go on at the 
same time. 

Fran Bieber Boehm suggested that the afternoons should be 
used for Council meetings, and the mornings and evenings for 
the Congress. 



190 IirrBRNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Miss Anthony said if a National Council made all the arrange- 
ments for a Congress it would inevitably be an inexperienced 
conunittee, because they would move from one country to 
another, with the result that the thing would be an experiment 
with the Council of each nationality who got up a meeting. 
Moreover, if anything happened in the Congress contrary to the 
wish and goodwill and judgment of the IntemationcJ OjQ&cers, 
the latter would still be held responsible. They could not shirk 
the responsibility. The Council would bear the responsibility 
with the public mind, for the public mind would never dis- 
criminate between the Council and the Congress. 

Miss Anthony suggested that at future Congresses the work 
of the Council should be more prominently brought forward in 
public meetings. 

The resolution was put to the meeting and carried. 

Mrs Sewall moved as a rider : — 

'* The International Council recommendB the National Council 
of the country where the Quinquennial Meeting is convened to 
organise an International Congress which shall not conflict with the 
meetings of the International Council." 

Fran Stritt seconded. 

Mrs Gkiffliey said it had been her impression throughout the 
entire meeting that by the importance of the Congress they had 
diverted attention from the Council. People could not separate 
the Congress from the Council, and she thought it essential for 
the vitality and strength of the Council that they should keep 
the Council idea before the public more pre-eminently than the 
Congress. Their idea at present seemed to be to lay stress on 
the Congress, and the public knew nothing of the CounciL 

The rider was put and carried. 

Mrs GafiEhey, Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw desired, on 
behalf of the Council of the United States, to be placed on 
record as having objected to this resolution. 

y. — International Abbitration. 

The fifth resolution on International Arbitration was pro- 
posed by the National Council of Women of Canada and by the 
NationaJ Council of Women of the United States. It ran : — 

" That the International Council of Women do take steps in 
every country to further and advance by every means in their power 
the movement towards International Arbitration." 



RESOLUTIONS 191 

Mrs Oibbs, in moving this resolution on behalf of the Canadian 
Council, said nothing touched a woman's heart so much as this, 
and after the meeting the other evening it could be put down as 
a question on which all women were agreed. 

This was seconded by Mrs GafiEhey, and carried. 

The delegates from Sweden intimated they could not vote on 
this resolution as they were not free to discuss political questions. 

VI. — International Means of Communication between 

National Councils. 

The CorrespondiDg Secretary moved : — 

"That some efficient method of oommunication by means of 
the Press be adopted by the International Council and between the 
different National Councils ; that a list of suitable newspapers aud 
journals throughout the world be drawn up ; and that the editors 
be approached with a view to inserting items of International Council 
news in their papers." 

In proposing this Itiss Wilson said she spoke rather in the 
name of a former Corresponding Secretary, Mrs Avery, than in 
her own. She had herself found difficulty in securing a means 
of communication owing to the absence of any newspaper devot- 
ing its columns to the Congress. The matter had been brought 
up at the end of the meeting of the journalistic section, but 
really too late to be of any service. 

Mrs Cmmnings, in seconding, said that women's newspapers 
were generally ready to insert such notes if the matter was 
properly written and not too long. 

Uiss Anthony impressed upon them the necessity of a good 
Press Committee, who should know how to secure the insertion 
of items in the leading papers from which the smaller and more 
special ones would gladly copy. Their international work would 
be brought before the. world by newspaper women who had 
influence with the daily Press. 

Mrs Sewall pointed out that the resolution did not specify, 
but only said " some efficient means.'' She was in favour of an 
International Press Committee, with one presswoman from every 
National Council. 

Mrs Boomer, while acknowledging the work done by the 
Press, was more anxious as to the quality of the Press Sub-Com- 
mittee than of the numerical strength of its members. 

The resolution was then put and carried. 



192 INTERKATIONAL COUNOIL OF WOMEN 

Mrs Sewall then proposed that the International Council 
authorise the Executive to organise a Press Committee, composed 
of presswomen from each of the ten countries, each woman having 
the endorsement for this post from the National Council of her 
country. She added that in the United States a woman had 
already been appointed. 

The motion was seconded by Frau Bieber Boehm and carried. 

VII. — Laws Cokcernino the Domestic Relations. 
Fran Stritt moved : — 

" That the National Councils of aU countries be asked to con- 
sider the nature of the laws concerned with the domestic relations 
which exist in aU civilised countries." 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

YIII. — Place of Next Quinquennial Meeting. 

Fran Bieber Boehm moved that the next Quinquennial Meet- 
ing be held in Germany. 

Uiss Anthony seconded. 

Mrs Sewall, while strongly in favour of accepting the invita- 
tion, said five years was a long time to look ahead. There might 
be international complications, seeing that arbitration was not 
yet accepted. She thought it would be better to have the 
question referred to the Executive. 

The Bev. Anna Shaw supported the suggestion, but on a vote 
it was decided to accept the invitation of Grermany uncondition- 
ally. 

IX. — Federation of Societies Internationally Organised. 

The ninth and last resolution related to societies of women in- 
ternationally organised, and was proposed by the Executive. It 
was as follows : — 

"That Societies of women internationally organised, desirous 
of joining the International Council, may become members of the 
International Council, with the approval of the Executive." 

This was proposed by the President. 

Miss Kramers (Holland) seconded. 

Fran Bieber Boehm thought that the proposition would open 
the door to some abuse and lay the Coimcil open to a charge 
of invidiousness. 



RESOLUTIONS 193 

MiBS Anthony took a similar view. 

Replying to Mrs Armitage, the President said that only 
associations which were in truth internationally organised, such 
as the Young Women's Christian Association and the World's 
Women's Temperance Association, which had branches in many 
countries, would be eligible. It might be a condition that 
branches should exist in four or five countries. 

Mrs Sewall said similar things existed in every country. It 
was essential to maintain the dignity of their own societies. 

Miss Kramers (Holland) said after what she had heard she 
would withdraw her seconding. 

Miss Shaw said she would second the resolution, which was 
then put and lost. 

'Sirs Oawler proposed, and Mile. Monod seconded, a cordial 
vote of thanks to the English Council for their hospitality on 
the occasion of this Congress. 

Mrs Sewall, in supporting Mrs Gawler's motion, wished that 
those who gave the entertainments marked in the Handbook as 
the Official Entertainments be awarded a special vote of thanks. 
She especially referred to the President, the Duchess of Suther- 
land, Lady Battersea, Mrs Creighton, Lady Rothschild and Mrs 
Leopold de Rothschild. Carried. 

It was decided by the Council that the minutes of this meet- 
ing be presented to the final meeting of the Executive for 
confirmation and adoption. 

A letter, which was afterwards signed by the officers and 
Delegates, was read by Mrs Gawler of South Australia as a 
resolution, conveying the thanks of the visitors to their ejiter- 
tainers. 

The work of the various committees, the Corresponding 
Secretary, the Stewards and others having been spoken of in 
cordial terms, it was moved by Mrs SewaJl, seconded by Mrs 
Boomer : — 

" Resolved that Lady Aberdeen be asked to present the thanks 
of the Council to all to whom we are indebted for the success of this 
splendid meeting of the Council." 

Carried. 

It was moved by Miss Shaw, seconded by Mrs Dixson : — 

" That at the dose of the meeting any unfinished business be 
referred to the Executive Committee for them to deal with." 

Carried. 

VOL. I, N 



194 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Moved by Mrs Sewall, and seconded by Lady Battersea : — 

" That Lady Aberdeen be appointed Editor, and that she have 
printed the Transactions of this Oongress and Council, and also vrrite 
the Introduction to the same, with the understanding that the £300 
voted by the Committee of Arrangements which had organised the 
Congnress be used for thiB purpose.' 

The newly-elected President gave an invitation to all dele- 
gates to meet her on Thursday afternoon at St Ermin's Hotel. 

Lady Aberdeen, on behalf of the Canadian delegates, ex- 
plained that they would be unable to be present or accept on 
account of an Executive Meeting of the Canadian Council. 

Lady Aberdeen pointed out that no arrangements had been 
made to provide the means for the clerical work needed by the 
President. 

Mrs Dizson moved, seconded by Mrs Boomer : — 

" That the matter of providing for the clerical woric needed by 
the President be left in the hands of the Executive.' 

Carried. 

Miss Shaw moved, seconded by Fru Betzius : — 

" That the President be empowered to send a cordial vote of 
thanks of this Council to each of our many entertainers." 

Carried. 

A special vote of thanks to Miss Wilson for her arduous work 
in connection with the Council and Congress. 

The meeting adjourned for luncheon, at which the delegates 
were entertained by the Earl and Countess of Aberdeen, and 
which proved a pleasant opportunity for exchanging farewell 
greetings and good wishes. Many of the delegates expressed 
their feelings in impromptu after-dinner speeches in a manner 
which will not easily be forgotten by those who were present. 

After luncheon, Fran Simson moved, seconded by Mme. 
Hogendorp : — 

"Resolved that the consideration of the Standing Orders be 
referred to the Executive Committee." 

The meeting concurred in this motion, which was carried, and 
the Second Quinquennial Meeting of the IntemationcJ Council 
of Women was declared closed by its President. 



MISS L. U. i 

;ji,caliiimJ Srcliomtl Commiller, JVoMJM* 
Afril. 1899. 

(Pholo bi KM, 



FAREWELL LUNCHEON AT CASSIOBURT PARK 195 



Farewell Luncheon at Cassiobury Park. 

A sketch contributed by a delegate who toas present^ and 

printed by reqvsst. 

One of the most precious memories from the Congress that 
the delegates will bring home is the last gathering at Cassiobury 
Park. By the kind and generous courtesy shown to the dele- 
gates throughout the whole Congress by Lord and Lady Aberdeen, 
the officers of the Council, the delegates and honorary vice- 
presidents were invited to luncheon after the last meeting at 
Cassiobury Park. It was a lovely summer day, and the charm- 
ing grounds looked at their best. Round the prettily-decorated 
luncheon tables there was a gay and animated conversation. In 
eloquent words the new ftesident of the Council, Mrs May 
Wright Sewall, moved a vote of thanks for the beautiful hospi- 
tality shown by Lady Aberdeen, which vote was seconded by 
Baroness Alezaiidra uripenberg. When Lady Aberdeen, in her 
own graceful way, had responded to Mrs Sewall's words, followed 
by Lord Aberdeen, Miss Anthony rose and said : " Qirls — yes, I 
call you girls, as you are all girls compared with me — ^you have 
expressed your joy and your thankfulness that you have had an 
opportunity to be present at this Congress. What do you think 
I feel, I, who remember the time when the woman's cause had no 
friends outside a little group of pioneers? What do you 
think I feel when I, during this Congress, have experienced, that 
there is now a generation of women able to lead the work when 
the old pioneers will be away ? " 

When the cheers which followed this speech were over. 
Mile. Sarah Monod from France responded, saying : *^ On behalf 
of the ' girls,' I, although 60 years, beg to thank Miss Anthony 
for what she has done to the upraising of humanhood and woman- 
hood. Many of us here present are aiready grey-haired, but still 
we confess ourselves inexperienced 'girls,' who receive with 
thankfulness the inheritance she has given us." 

On behalf of Sweden and Finland, Baroness Gripenberg said : 
We have come to this gathering with a heavy heart. We 
have to-day to say farewell to our devoted, honoiured President, 
Lady Aberdeen, and we know that this is a moment of most 
serious importance for our Council. We agree in believing that 



196 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

organisation is one of the best means to promote freedom and 
development. But organisation, like many other good things, is 
a two-edged sword, which can be turned against ourselves. We 
may have grand organisations with thousands of members, an 
excellent knowledge of all formal matters, clever speeches from 
the platform, and yet we may have failed utterly to obtain our 
aim if there is no earnest work behind our words, and if the 
spirit of love, truth, honesty, mutual understanding does not 
inspire us in our work. Our organised work must be carried on 
on the same moral principles as those we try to follow in our 
daily lives, or else it will lower, not raise us. 

Lady Aberdeen, you have understood this ; you have kept our 
work up to a high moral standard, and for this we feel the deepest 
gratitude to you. Nowadays much humbug is arraying itself 
under the cloak of organisation, and much selfishness is nourished 
under the name of self-development. We felt that this danger 
was far off when you conducted our work. Life deals seriously 
with us people up in the north. That makes us rather severe, as 
well against ourselves as against the ideals we want to realise. 
We felt ourselves guilty, my Swedish sisters and myself, when 
one of your members of Parliament recently said that women 
were unpractical because they were never satisfied with the 
good, they always aimed at perfection. Still, we felt that on 
this point you were on our side. You were also "unpractical." 
Lady Aberdeen, when we thank you for the six years you have 
been leading the way for us, we thank you especially for this, 
because we believe that " only under that banner we shall win 
the victory," only thus we shall be able to help to realise Christ's 
words, " Do unto others as ye would that they should do unto you." 

France, Switzerland, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Russia, 
Holland, New Zealand, New South Wales, South Australia, 
West Australia, Palestine, all had enthusiastic words of thanks, 
of regret to the retiring President. At last, Mrs Boomer, the 
representative of Canada, rose and said : "I know it is late, and 
many speakers have been asked to reduce their speeches to the 
least possible; but you cannot expect that Canada should sit 
silent when Lady Aberdeen is praised. Lady Aberdeen belongs 
to Canada, and Canada belongs to Lady Aberdeen. This privi- 
lege we never give up, although she has left us. We cannot 
thank her as we should like to do, and as we feel ; but we will 
try to follow the way she has shown us. May that be our 
thanks to Ishbel Aberdeen." 



A MESSAGE OF THANKS 197 

Lady Aberdeen, in her fareweU speech, spoke warmly and 
heartily to the delegates, reminding them of the difficulties and 
duties of their work, but also of the noble aim of the Council. 
After luncheon was over, the Council meeting was continued ; 
but when the transactions were ended, aU gathered on the terrace, 
where coffee was served, and a photographer took a picture of the 
group. All were gay and sad at the same time, and so were the 
many '* farewells " that were said. That to Lady Aberdeen was 
the heaviest, especially for those from the more distant countries, 
who could not expect to meet her soon again, who had come to 
the Congress hoping for much, and who left it assured that the 
Council idea will prosper as long as women of noble ideals are 
among its leading spirits. 



A MESSAGE OP THANKS. 

5th July 1899. 

The President, Vice-Presidents and Delegates of the Inter- 
national Council of Women feel that they cannot disperse to 
their various homes and countries without expressing their 
warmest thanks to the ladies who have contributed so heartily 
and generously to the pleasure of their visit. They have felt 
the benefit of the relaxation from work which the beautifully- 
arranged entertainments and hospitality have afforded them, of 
which they will always have a charming memory. 

They also desire to express their appreciation and their 
thanks to the Hon. Secretary and Committee of Hospitality for 
the trouble they have taken, and for carrying to a successful 
issue their different duties. 

We, the undersigned, most heartily concur in the above 
expression of gratitude to all our kind friends. 

United States, . . Fannie Humphbets Gappney, President. 

G^ermany, .... Frau Anna Simson, acting for President. 

Sweden, .... Anna Hierta-Retzius, President. 

New South Wales, . Dora E. Armitage, Proxy for President. 

Denmark, .... Henbie Forchammer, Proxy for President. 

Holland, .... Dowager Klergk Hooendorp, President. 

Tasmania, , . . . E. Dobson, for President. 

New Zealand, . . Kate M*Cosh Clarke, for President. 

Queensland, . . . Lala Fisher, Hon. Vice-President. 



198 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 



West Australia, . L. Wittenoom, Hon. Vice-President. 
Canada, . . . . H. A. Boomer, acting for President. 
Argentine Republic, Cecilia Grierson, Hon. Vice-President. 



Cape Colony, 
Austria, . . . 
South Australia, 
Holland, . . . 
United States, . 
Denmark, . . . 
Switzerland, . . 
New South Wales, 
Norway, . . . 

Sweden, . , . 



Mrs Stewart, Hon. Vice-President. 

Marianne Hainisch, Hon. Vice-President. 

Caroline A. Gawler, Delegate. 

m. w. w. rutgers-hoitsema. 

Susan B. Anthony. 

Charlotte Norrie. 

Camille Vidart. 

Emma E. Dixson, Delegate. 



GiNA Krog, Hon. Vice-President. 

( Gertrud Adelborg, Delegate. 

I Ellen Whitlock, Delegate. 
IsHBEL Aberdeen, President. 
May Wright Sewall, Vice-President. 



MRS, J. R. MACDONALD. 



MEETING OP THE EXECUTIVE 

COMMITTEE. 



ST BRMIJfPS HOTEL, JULY 8, 1899. 

The new President, Mrs May Wright Sewall, called the meet- 
ing to order at 10 o'clock, and after expressing her pleasure at 
meeting the members present, called upon the Corresponding 
Secretary to read any letters to be brought before the meeting. 

Miss Wilson read a letter from Madame F^resse Deraismes. 

Lady Aberdeen moved, seconded by Mrs Furdy Feck : — 

" That the thanks of this meeiing be oonveyed to Madame Foresee 
Deraismes for her letter." 

Carried. 

The Roll was called, when the following members answered 
to their names : — 

President, Mrs May Wright Sewall; Vice-President, Lady 
Aberdeen ; Corresponding Secretary, Miss T. F. Wilson ; Record- 
ing Secretary, Proxy for Mile. Vidarti ^rs Willoughby Cummings ; 
Treasurer, Proxy for Frau Schwerin, Frau Bieber Boehm. 

Vice-Presidents, Executive Officers. — United States — Proxy 
for Mrs Gaflfiiey, Mrs Peck ; Canada — Proxy for Lady Aberdeen, 
Mrs Boomer; Germany — Frau Simson: Sweden — Proxy, Miss 
Adelborg ; Denmark — Proxy, Miss Forchammer ; Holland — 
Miss Kramers. 

Hon. Vice-Presidents. — Italy — Mrs Crawshay ; Austria — 
Frau Hainisch ; South Australia — Mrs Gawler ; Cape Colony — 
Mrs Stewart ; India — Mrs Steele ; Persia — Mrs Hamilton ; 
Argentine Republic — Dr Grierson ; Palestine — Mme. Mountford. 

Neither the Corresponding Secretary nor the Treasurer had 
further reports to make. 

199 



200 IXTBRNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

The President stated that she thought it would be necessary 
to have a further meeting of the Executive to receive the report 
of the Finance Committee. 

There were no further reports from National Councils. 

The Hon. Vice-Presidents present stated informally the 
prospects there seemed to be of forming National Councils in 
their respective countries. 

Frau Hajniflch asked that all papers and other communica- 
tions for either of the three sections of the kingdom be sent to 
her, as she would direct them to the proper persons. 

A discussion as to whether Austria and Hungary should 
organise as separate National Councils or as one followed. 

The Presiaent regretted that there was not time to continue 
the discussion, and said that what had been stated was valuable, 
as suggesting lines for investigation in the future as to the for- 
mation of a National Council of Austria, consisting of three 
sections — Austria, Hungary and Bohemia. 

Lady Aberdeen hoped that before the next Quinquennial 
Meeting the National Council of Great Britain and Ireland 
might have sections for Scotland and Ireland. 

The President said that each of these sections should be 
regarded as parts of one National Council. She said, in reply to 
Frau Hainisch's request, that the Hon. Vice-President in each 
country where one hlas been appointed should be the person with 
whom all conmiunication is made, and that she in turn should 
send a list to the Corresponding Secretary of the names of those 
to whom she has distributed the papers sent to her, in order 
to avoid confusion. 

Mrs Oawler, who is removing from South Australia, sug- 
gested Lady Tennyson as Vice-President for that Colony. 

Mrs Stewart, in speaking of the probabilities of a National 
Council being formed in South Africa in the near future, said 
that Natal should have a separate National Council, and sug- 
gested the names of some ladies who might help forward the 
movement there. 

The President asked whether the Hon. Vice-Presidents who 
were willing to serve for another term should not be confirmed in 
the office by this Executive 1 

Lady Aberdeen thought they should be elected by the Exe- 
cutive according to Article III. of the Constitution. 

Mrs Oawler asked if an Hon. Vice-President should be a 
resident in the country she represented ? 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 201 

Lady Aberdeen thought it was certainly best to have a 
resident. 

Moved by Mrs Fnrdy Peck, seconded by Lady Aberdeen : — 

"That the Hon. Vice-Presidents appointed for the Quin- 
quennial term just olosed shall be confirmed in their office by this 
Executive, and shall be continued where they retain residence in 
the countries they represent and are willing to act until such times 
as National Ckrancils can be fonneJ." 

Carried. 

It was agreed that Mme. Bogelot continue Hon. Vice- 
President for .Prance, Mile. Vidart for Switzerland, where 
a Council has almost been formed by her, Mile. Marie 
Popelin for Belgium, the Countess Tavema for Italy, Madame 
Anne de Philosofoff for Russia, Fr5ken Krog for Norway, Lady 
Clarke for Victoria. Lady Tennyson's name was recommended 
for South Australia, and that of Lady Onslow for West Australia. 

The President said it must be understood that the new names 
were not confirmed, only suggested. 

It was decided that Lady Aberdeen be empowered to secure 
an Hon. Vice-President for Queensland. 

Mrs Stewart of Lovedale was reappointed for Cape Colony. 

The President requested that any person who had names to 
suggest for the Hon. Vice-President for India should communi- 
cate with her. 

Mrs Hamilton was reappointed for Persia ; and Mme. Shen 
was to be communicated with about China. 

As Mrs Mountford will not be resident permanently in Pales- 
tine, it was decided that it would be advisable to appoint someone 
whose home was there. 

The Baroness Grripenberg was reappointed for Finland. 

Lady Aberdeen conveyed the regrets of a lady from Siam and 
one from Japan, who had hoped to have been able to represent 
their countries at the Congress. 

Mrs Grawshay explained the many difficulties that existed in 
Italy which affected the formation of a Council there, and said 
that an outsider residing there could best help on the formation 
of a Council. 

The name of the Countess di Brazza was suggested as one 
likely to be successful. 

The Corresponding Secretary spoke of efforts that had been 
made to interest the women of Greece, Spain and Portugal, and 



202 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Dr Grierson hoped that councils for Chili and the other South 
American countries might be organised. 

Mrs Boomer (of Canada) rose to a question of privilege, and 
begged leave to move, seconded by Wrs Peck (of the United 
States), and supported by representatives of the Councils of 
Germany, Sweden, New South Wales, Denmark, Holland, New 
Zealand and Tasmania, and the Hon. Vice-Presidents of 
France, Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, Russia, Austria, Norway, 
Victoria, South Australia, West Australia, Queensland, Cape 
Colony, India, Persia, Argentine Republic, Palestine and 
Finland: — 

"Resolved that the C!ounte88 of Aberdeen be requested to convey 
to Her Majesty the Queen the grateful thanks of this Council for the 
gracious reception and hospitality shown to the Foreign, Colonial and 
American Delegates.'' 

Carried. 

« 

Moved by the President, seconded by Fran Simson : — 

" That the grateful appreciation of all who enjoyed the pleasure 
griven on Friday be extended to Lady Aberdeen, and an acknowledg- 
ment of their sense that it was to her generosity and care that it was 
due." 

Carried. 

This was also supported by the representatives of all the 
National Councils. 

Lady Aberdeen thanked the Executive for the resolution, and 
said it would be a great pleasure to convey the thanks expressed 
to the Queen. 



UNFINISHED BUSINESS. 

The minutes of the last meeting of the Council were read and 
confirmed. 

It was decided that papers and corrections for the printer 
must be sent to Lady Aberdeen by July 30th, and it was urged 
that the representatives try to secure orders for the Transac- 
tions in their various countries, probable cost, 2s. 6d. a volume, 
or 12s. 6d. for the set of six. 

Before the business was resumed. Lady Aberdeen proposed 
that the name of the Baroness Gripenberg be accepted as a 
Patron of the International Council. 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 203 

Moved by Miss Adelborg, seconded by Mrs Cmmiiiiigs : — 

"That the name of the Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg be 
accepted as a patron of the International Council." 

Carried. 

As Mrs Purdy Peck was obliged to withdraw, she appointed 
Miss Anthony as proxy. 

It was decided to hold an adjourned meeting of the Executive 
on Monday morning at 1 1 a.m. in the same place, on a motion of 
Froken Forchammer, seconded by Frau SimsoiL 

The amendments to the Standing Orders for the use of the 
Executive were next considered after the Corresponding Secretary 
had read a minute from a meeting of the Executive in 1897 show- 
ing that the Standing Orders aforesaid had been adopted by that 
body. 

Moved by Lady Aberdeen, seconded by Miss Adelborg — 
Article I., No. 1, latter part : — 

** That the words * by the President or Acting- President * be inserted 
after the word * together.* The rule to read, • Not less than four mooths' 
notice be given to each member, unless most urgent business compels 
the Committee being called together by the President or Acting- 
President at shorter notice.' " 

After some discussion it was moved in amendment to the 
amendment by Mrs Ciunmings, seconded by the Gorrespondiog 
Secretary : — 

** That for the words * At shortest notice ' be substituted the 
words, ' At such notice as will allow communication with each National 
CouncU.' " 

Carried. 

The amendment to the motion was put and carried, and the 
whole paragraph as amended was put to the meeting as follows : — 

** Not less than four months' notice shall be given to each member 
unless some urgent business compels the Committee being called 
together by the President or Acting-President at such notice as 
will allow communication with each National Council." 

Carried. 

Moved by Frau Bieber Boehm, seconded by Miss Adelborg : — 

"That where the word 'Council ' is used it be further specified, 
so that it be dear whether the Internationa] Council or a Federated 
National Council is meant. " 

Carried. 



204 IKTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Moved by Frau Bieber Boehm " That paragraph 2 be omitted " 
was not seconded, and was declared lost by the Chair. 

Frau Simson gave notice of motion, that at the nez.t meeting 
she will move that paragraph 2, Article I., be amended so as 
to increase the number of members of the Executive, at whose 
request the President must call a special meeting. 

Moved by Frau Bieber Boebm, seconded by the Bev. Anna 
Shaw: — 



" That the words * sUent prayer* in paragraph 4 be replaced by 
the words * opening remarks by the President.* " 

Carried, Canada only dissenting. 

Moved by Frau Simson, seconded by Mrs Gmnmings, that the 
following be added to paragraph 16 : — 

"The minutes of the meeting shaU be read, corrected and 
approved at the end of each session." 

After some discussion as to the advisability and practicability 
of this motion, it was put to the meeting and carried. 

Mrs Gummings moved, seconded by Frau Simson, that the 
meeting stand adjourned until 1 1 o'clock on Monday morning. 



MONDAY, JULY 10, 11 a.m. 

The President asked what was to be done, as by Standing 
Orders adopted it was necessary to have two-thirds present — that 
would be 10, and there was now only 9. 

Miss Anthony proposed, Lady Aberdeen agreed, that the 
business be proceeded with, as another might come in, and, if 
necessary, any matters of importance might be voted on again. 

Lady Battersea having come in, the quorum was completed. 

The minutes were read and, after some corrections, were 
adopted on motion of Mrs Gribbs, seconded by Froken Fore- 
hammer. 

Consideration of the Standing Orders recommended for use of 
the International Council of Women was next taken up. 

The President stated that as but few amendments had been sent 
in by the National Councils, it seemed advisable that any further 
amendment suggested by this meeting be sent out as recommenda- 
tions only. 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 205 

Abticlb I. 

Clauses 1 and 2 were read and approved. 

Fr&ulein Hoffinann, proxy on behalf of the Treasurer, 
moved, on behalf of Germany, seconded by Miss Anthony, that 
Clause 3 be omitted. 

Lady Aberdeen suggested that notice of motion be made that 
Clause 3 be amended so as to agree with a similar clause in the 
Standing Orders for the Executive : — 

*'That Clause 8 be amended by substituting * two-fifths' 
for 'five,' and that the following words be added to the para- 
graph : — ' Four months* notice must be g^ven in such cases, and 
the place of meeting be left to the option of the President. The 
names of the members of the Executive requesting the meeting shall 
be mentioned in the notice summoning the meeting.* " 

With these notices of motion the mover and seconder agreed 
to adopt Clause 3. 

The President said that as these amendments were endorsed 
by the Executive, they would be sent out to the National Councils 
with the notice that they will be acted upon during the next 
quinquennial period. 

Clause 4. Amendment, moved by Fr&ulein Hoffinann, 
seconded by Lady Battersea : — 

" That in paragraph 4 the words ' or at any other time' be omitted. ' ' 

After some discussion the mover and seconder decided to with- 
draw the amendment, and the original paragraph was adopted. 

Clause 5 was adopted. 

Clause 6. Amendment, moved by Franlein Hoffioiann, 
seconded by Miss Anthony: — 

"That the words * silent prayer* be replaced by * Opening 
remarks of the President.**' 

Mrs Gribbs desired that the National Council of Canada be 
placed on record as protesting against the omission of the words 
" silent prayer." 

Miss Anthony thought that the omission of the words would 
not preclude anyone who wished to do so from making a prayer. 

Lady Battersea wished to know if it would be possible to 
amend again after the meeting in Germany, where it is not the 
custom to begin the meeting with prayer. 



206 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

The amendment was carried by a standing vote — 5 for, 3 
against. 

Lady Aberdeen gave notice of motion that she will move an 
amendment that in this clause the word *^ silence " be placed 
before "opening remarks by the President.'* 

The President read the whole clause. With the addition of the 
words " Election of Officers," which had been omitted by mistake, 
the whole clause was adopted. 

It was understood that the Committee and Sub-Committee to 
be appointed would put the various sub-sections in proper order. 

Clause 7 read and agreed to. 

Clause 8 read and agreed to, Miss Anthony giving notice that 
she will move the omission of the words : — 

" A full month before the QuinquenniAl Meetings." 

Clause 9 read and agreed to, the note to form part of clause. 

Clause 10 read, and decided to omit, as contrary to the 
Amended Constitution. 

Clause 11 read by the President, with the amendment pro- 
posed by Germany, moved by Fraulein Hoffmann : — 

" That, in paragraph 11 / six months * be substitnted for * one year,' 
* two months ' for * six months,' and * two months ' for * three months,' 
and to add, * Federated National Councils not sending in any acknow- 
ledgment are supposed to agree.' 



» M 



The President thought there ought to be some way of bring- 
ing in new business for the agenda that had not been thought of 
one year before. 

Lady Aberdeen thought that such could be dealt with in the 
Conferences, and said the value of the work of the Council was 
the fact that every matter voted upon had been considered and 
acted upon by all the National Councils. 

Fraulein HofExnann thought the Executive should have power 
in the matter to introduce urgent business. 

The Corresponding Secretary moved in amendment to the 
amendment that the words '* and Conference '' be struck out, and 
that " ten months " be substituted for " one year," and " five " for 
" six months." 

Fraulein Hoflrnann having accepted Miss Wilson's motion, 
instead of that standing in the name of the German Council, 
became the seconder. 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 207 

The clause was therefore read as follows : — 

'*A preliminary agenda for the Qoinquennial Ootincil shall be 
sent out to each National Council ten months before the Quinquennial 
Meeting, and shall be laid before each such body for discussion, in 
order that notice of amendment, alteration or withdrawal, if desired, 
may be sent back to the Executive four months after its receipt. The 
final agenda, with all amendments, shall be received by each Feder- 
ated National Council three months before the Quinquennial Meeting." 

As there was no seconder to the second clause of German 
amendment, it was struck out. 

Clause 12 read and agreed to, with the addition of the words, 
^* Resolutions for the Quinquennial Meetings of the Council and 
suggestions for Conferences." 

Clause 13. In discussing this clause, Mrs Sewall gave a 
notice of motion that at the proper time she would move that 
each National Council shall be represented at the Council meet- 
ings by one person for each of the subdivisions of the work of 
the International Council. 

The amendments sent by the German Council to clause 
13 not being moved, they were withdrawn. 

Clause 13 was agreed upon as it stands. 

Lady Aberdeen gave notice of motion of an addition to 
Clause 14 — 

"That suggestions for Conference may be sent in to the Corre- 
spondinff Secretary at such time before the International Meetings 
as may be fixed by the Executive." 

Clause 14 read and agreed to. 

Clause 15 read and agreed to. 

Clause 16 read and agreed to. 
' Clause 1 7 read and agreed to. 

A discussion followed upon the language to be considered 
ofiBcial by the International Council. It was understood that 
ofiBcial documents shall be translated by each National Council 
into the language of their various countries. 

Articlk II. 

Clause 18 read and agreed to. 
Clause 19 read and agreed to. 



208 INTKRNATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Clause 20, amendment proposed by Fr&ulein Hoffinann, 
seconded by Lady Aberdeen: — 

" That the words * President of a Federated Council ' be eubeti- 
tuted for * National Vice-President.' " 

Agreed to. 

Clause 21 read and agreed to. 

Clause 22 read and agreed to. 

Clause 23 read and agreed to. 

Clause 24. Amendment moved by Franlein Hoffinann, 
seconded by Miss Anthony, that the word " written " be inserted 
before " instructing.'* Agreed to. 

Lady Aberdeen gave notice to amend, by the addition of a 
Standing Order, which will make the clause agree with the spirit 
of the vote under No. 9, as follows : — 

*' Officers are at liberty to g^ve their proxies freedom to vote ac- 
cording to their own convictions on any matter on which the actual 
officer considers that she has not sufficient information to give 
definite instructions. In such cases the proxy is expected to vote 
in accordance with the opinion of the officer they represent as far as 
they can judge of the same." 

Clause 25 and Note read. Amendment proposed on behalf 
of the German Council by Fraulein HoflFmann, seconded by 
Froken Forchammer : — 

"That in paragraph 25 the words * given through a public 
meeting of the same, or through its Executive, if especially em- 
powered in this regard/ be omitted." 

Lady Aberdeen and Miss Anthony spoke against the amend- 
ment. 

Mover and seconder agreed to drop the amendment of the 
German Council. 

The clause as in the original agreed to, with note included. 

Clause 26 read. Agreed that the whole clause be omitted. 

Clause 27. Amend clause by leaving out all words after 
"ballot," and also the words "if the election is to be by ballot," 
in Clause 28, and the remainder of Clause 28 to be added, so as 
to make one clause of the whole. Agreed to. 

Clause 29 read and agreed to. 

Article IV. 

Clause 30 read and agreed to. 

Clause 31. Whole clause to be omitted. 



MEETING OF THE EXBOUTIVE COMMITTEE 209 

Clause 32 read and agreed to. 

Clause 33 read and agreed to. 

Clause 34 read and agreed to. 

Clause 35 read and agreed to. 

Clause 36 read and agreed to. 

Clause 37 read and agreed to. 

Clause 38 read and agreed to. 

Clause 39 read and agreed to. 

Clause 40 read and agreed to. 

Clause 41 read and agreed to. 

Clause 42 read and agreed to. 

Clause 43 read and i^greed to. 

Clause 44 read and agreed to. 

Clause 45 read and agreed to. 

Clause 46 read and agreed to. 

Clause 47 read and agreed to. 

Clause 48 read, and, with the omission of the words " when 
the motion has been placed on the paper and instructions have 
been given to the delegate how to vote," was agreed to. 

Clause 49 read and agreed to. 

Clause 50 read, and after the words, "On all questions 
regarding which they have .received definite instructions from 
their respective Councils," had been added to the clause, it was 
agreed to. 

Clause 51 read, and changed to "The business meetings of 
the Council shall be open only to its official reporters," and to 
the end was added, " and also to each Hon. Vice-President." 
It was then agreed to. 

Clause 52 read and agreed to. 

A new clause, 53, was added, on the motion of Lady 
Aberdeen, seconded by Miss Anthony : — 

"The International Offioen shall be ex-qffieio members of all 
oommittees." 

This clause to be acted on at once. 

Lady Aberdeen moved, seconded by Miss Anthony : — 

**That the Standing Orders for the International Council, as 
amended and agreed to, l^ recommended for adoption." 

Carried. 
VOL. I. o 



210 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Lady Aberdeen moved, Miss Antbony seconded : — 

" That the Committee appointed to re-arrange the OonBtitation 
and Standing Orders be the Officers, with pennisiuon to add to their 
number." 

Carried. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Press Committee. — The President stated that she understood 
that this Committee was to be appointed, each National Council 
to nominate one member, and these names to be sent to the 
Executive Committee for approval. 

In answer to a question, the President stated that in countries 
where no Council is formed the Hon. Yice-Presidents should nomi- 
nate someone to the Committee for her country. 

In reply to another question, it was suggested that all Council 
news should be sent from one member of Press Committee to 
another for insertion in leading newspapers, and that no effort 
be made at present to get a Council organ. 

Miss Anthony suggested that the chairman of the Press 
Committee be the member for the United States, and nominated 
Miss Harper for the office. 

Mrs Cmmnings thought that while a chairman is a necessity, 
still each national member should be responsible for the work in 
her own country. 

International Arbitration. — The ' President thought 
there should be a Standing Committee on this subject, each 
National Council to appoint one member, and that Lady Aber- 
deen be chairman of this Committee. 

Mrs Gibbs moved, and Miss Anthony seconded : — 

" That Lady Aberdeen be appointed as Chairman of the Stand- 
ing Committee on International Arbitration." 

Carried. 

It was suggested that Baroness Bertha von Suttner be Secretary 
of this Committee. Carried. 

Laws conoernino the Domestic Relations. — One member 
to be appointed by each National Council. 

The Chairman to be the nominee of the German Council. 
The President stated that invitations had been received from 
French women that the Council should be represented in the 
Congresses held during the Paris Exposition. 



MEETING OF THE BXECnTIVE COMMITTEE 211 

The President stated that it seemed to be the desire of the 
delegates that headquarters for the Council should be arranged for 
in Paris during the Exposition. Some discussion took place as 
to the way this could be done, and it was pointed out that it 
would be necessary to find out if the financial condition of the 
Council would admit of any action being taken. 

Moved by Miss Anthony, seconded by Frinlem Hofltaiann : — 

"That it is reoommended by the Ezecatiye Committee that 
theie shall be a representation of the International Gounoil in Paris 
durinff the Exposition of 1900, and that the arrangement for the 
same be left to the General Officers.' 

Carried. 

Expenses of Clerical Services for the President's 
Office, Stationert, Etc. — The President stated she thought 
the sum should be, if possible, JBIOO annually (500 dollars). 

The Corresponding Secretary said that expenses of her 
work two years ago for postage, stationery, etc., was about £20, 
but that, as more Councils now existed, the expenses would be 
more at present. 

Moved by Mrs Cmnmings, seconded by Miss Anthony, sup- 
ported by Lady Aberdeen : — 

" That the matter of the expenses of the President and Secre- 
taries' offices be left to the meeting of the Executive Committee, to 
be held next jear, bot that for this present year the Treasurer be 
directed to pay the expenses of the Corresponding Secretary, Presi- 
dent and Treasurer for printing, postage and stationery, after the 
bills were initialled by the President, and that a further minimum 
sum of $300 be provided for by the Finance Committee for the clerical 
work in the President's office.*' 

Carried. 

The President asked if any other business should be attended 
to. 

Moved by Lady Aberdeen, seconded by Miss Anthony : — 

"That all unfinished business be committed to the general 
officers, with the understanding that in all important matters the 
will of the Exeoutiye be ascertained through correspondence." 

Carried. 

The minutes were read. 

The President stated that she must communicate three things 
to the Executive. 



212 INTERKATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

1st. That a resolution had been passed by a body of women 
representing France, Qermanj, Sweden, United States, Denmark, 
Holland, stating their intention to form an International Com- 
mittee, to promote the following three objects :--» 

For promoting equality of economic conditions, political 
equality, and legal equality in each country. 

A letter was read from Mrs Crawshay regarding the work of 
organising a Council in Italy. 

Lady Aberdeen gave an invitation from the Duchess of 
Sutherland for a tea in the afternoon. 

Lady Aberdeen also moved a vote of thanks to the President 
for having presided. 

The President thanked the members, and said, also, that a 
message of sympathy had been sent to Frau Simson, who was Ul. 



MISS K, s. lidi;i;tt. 
«,->,■ (*■■ r..!:ih«l s..„,mal <.„„.„,ui,.: M«,-)«ly, i*,,. 

(Photo by KussrII & Sons.) 



PUBLIC MEETING ON INTER- 
NATIONAL ARBITRATION. 



QUEEN'S HALL. 

TUESDAY, JUNE 27, EVENING, 



The organisation of this meeting was entrusted by the Committee 
of Arrangements to the Countess of Aberdeen, who reoeived most 
able assistance from Miss Constcuice Hargrove as honorary 
secretary, and from an Advising Committee of members of 
various peace societies, and others whose names will be found with 
the list of the other committees. 

The authorities of the Boys' Brigade in London kindly offered 
the services of a number of officers and boys of the brigade as 
stewards. 

Mr Henry Bird, organist of St Mary Abbot's, Kensington, 
undertook the direction of the musical part of the progranmie, 
and presided at the organ, giving a selection of national airs 
before the commencement of the meeting. 

Miss Esther Palliser, the Misses Muriel and Hilda Foster, 
Miss Ella Walker, and the Choir of St Mary Abbot's, Kensington, 
conducted by the choirmaster, Mr StagoU Higham, kindly 
volunteered their services for the occasion. 

An immense concourse of people, a large proportion of which 
were women, assembled in the great hall, filling it in every part 
to show their sympathy with the International Council of Women 
in its advocacy of International Arbitration. 

The Countess of Aberdeen, as President of the International 
Council, took the Chair, and was supported by all the leading 
delegates of the Council, and by a number of friends of the Peace 
Movement amongst the clergy and House of Commons. 

218 



214 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

The following programme was arranged for the evening, 
though towards the end of the proceedings some items were 
reluctantly omitted, owing to lack of time : — 

Sacred Song " Send down Thy Truth " E. E. SiU. 

Tune, "Venice." 

Led by the Choir, 

The Audience are invited to join, 

Send down th j truth, O Gk)d I Send down Th j love, Thy life, 

Too long the shadowy frown, Our leeser lives to crown. 

Too long the darkened way we've And deanae them of their hate and 

trod : strife : 

Thy troth, O Lord, send down ! Thy living love send down ! 

Send down thy peace, O Lord ! 

ESarth's bitter voices drown 
In one deep ocean of accord : 

Thy peace, O God, send down I 

Chairman's Opening Remarks. 

Correspondence and Greetings. 

Duet " O Lovely Peace " Eandel 

(From " Judas Maccabeus ") 

Miss Hilda and Miss Muriel Foster. 

O lovely Peace, with plenty crown'd. 

Come spread thy blessings all around. 

Let fleecy flocks the hills adorn, 

And valleys smile with ¥ravy corn. 

Let the shrill trumpet cease, nor other sound 

But Nature's songsters wake the cheerful morn. 

Resolution : — 

"That the International Goimcil of Women do take steps in 
eveiy country to further and advance, by every means in their power, 
the movement towards International Arbitration.'* 

Moved by Baroness Bertha von Suttner (Austria). 

Song . " The Everlasting Day B. S. Welhhowme. 

Music^by P, Bevan. 

Miss Ella Walker. 

I stood on a lofty mountain I thought of God's mighty secrets, 

And gazed over land and sea, And how His Myst'ries blend, 

And thought of life's wondrous foun- The past without beginning, 

tain, A future without end. 
Its source, and Eternity. 



PUBLIC MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 215 

I look'd on the bonndlem splendour The dream was a revelation, 

Till its marvels dimm*d mj sight, A vision of vanquished strife, 

Then slept in a calm amasement, A sweet imagination 

And (fream'd with a strange de- Of a pure and hallowed life ; 

light ; A vision of Gkxi's mat bounty, 

I dream'd of a Heav'nly City When sin shall have passed away, 

Where soul with soul will blend. Of souls from sleep awaking 

Where time has no beginning, To everlasting day. 

Where bliss will never en£ 

Resolution seconded by Mme. Selenka (Germany). 
Resolution supported by Mrs Mat Wright Sewall (U.S.A.). 

Song 

Miss Esther Palliser. 

Resolution supported by — 

Mme. Chelioa (France). 

Mme. Dk Waszklewitz von Schilfgaarde (Holland). 

Miss Ellen Robinson (England). 

Sacred Song " O Gkxi, the Darkness roll Away " Wm, Gaskell. 

Tune "Bedford." 
Led by the Choir. 

The Audience are invited to join. 

O God 1 the darkness roll away How long shall glory still be found 
Which clouds the human soul, In scenes of cruel strife, 

And let Thy bright and holy day Where misery walks, a giant crowned, 
Speed onward to its goal ! Crushing the flowers of life ? 

Let every hateful passion die O hush, great Grod, the sounds of war. 

Which makes of brethren foes, And make thy children feel 

And war no longer raise its cry That he, with Thee, is nobler far 

To mar the world's repose. Who toils for human weal ; — 

Let faith, and hope, and charity, 

Go forth through all the earth ; 
And man in holy friendship be 

True to his heavenly birth. 

Chorus " How Lovely are the Messengers " Mendelssohn. 

(" St Paul •*) 

The Choib. 

" How lovely are the messeogers that preach us the gospel of peace ! To 
all the nations is gone forth the sound of their words, throughout aJl the lands 
their glad tidings." 



216 IirrBfiNATIOVAL OOUKCIL OF WOMSN 

Short Addrefis The Abghbibhop of St Paul (U.S. A.). 

Song " So shall the Lute and Harp " ffofndel. 

(From ** JndM MmoMmbob") 

Miss Esther Palliseb. 

Vote of Tha^tkb to Spsakebs asd Abtuttes. 

Proposed by the Earl of Aberdeen. 
Seconded by the Rev. H. R. Hawbis, M.A. 

Sacred Song " The Age of Qold " M. J. Socage. 

Tune—** The Church's one Foundation." 

Led by the Choir. 
The Audience are invited to join. 

The God that to the fathers 'Twss but far off, in vision, 

Revealed His holy will The fathers' eyes oould see 

Has not the world forsaken ; The gloiy of the kingdom, — 

He's with the children stilL The better time to be. 

Then envy not the twilight To-day we see fulfilling 

That glimmered on their way ; The dreams they dreamt of old ; 

Look up^ and see the dawning While nearer, ever nearer, 

That broadens into day. Rolls on the age of gold 1 

With trust in God's free spirit, — 

The ever broadening ray 
Of troth that shines to guide us 

Along our forward way, — 
Let us to-day be faithful, 

As were the brave of old, 
Till we, their work completing. 

Bring in the age of gold ! 

In opening the proceedings, the President said : To-night the 
International Council of Women is invited to enter on a new 
phase in its existence, and it appears to be one which obtains the 
hearty consent of all its members. . 

Up to now it has never been identified with any one move- 
ment, for by its Constitution it cannot further one propaganda at 
the expense of another. 

But two years ago the National Council of Women of Canada, 
closely followed by the National Council of Women of the United 
States, sent in a resolution which, if passed to-night, will pledge 
our Council to further the movement for International Arbitra- 
tion in all countries by all means in its power. That resolution 
has been submitted to each of our federated National Councils, 



PUBLIC MEETINQ ON IXTEBNATIONAL ABBITBATION 217 

and, as I understand, comes now before us with their unanimous 
consent^ this great movement having in their opinion passed 
beyond the stage of controversy. 

And surely, if any section of humanity has cause to be inter- 
ested in the prevention of war, . that section is womenkind. 
When we speak of the terrors of war, our thoughts may first 
travel to the battlefield, and to its ghastly array of dead and 
wounded ; but it is not there, after all, where the greatest sufiEer- 
ing is inflicted by war. It is in the wider field of devastated 
homes and maimed lives, and it is the women who have had to 
bear the brunt of this sufiering. 

In bygone days women have been the first to urge husbands 
and brothers and sons to give themselves for their country, 
counting such sacrifice the truest heroism. They could do 
nothing to avert the scourge of war — ^they could but stay at 
home, and pray and watch and provide comforts for the sick and 
wounded. 

But it is not so now. A brighter day has dawned for us. 
We women of this day are learning a new kind of patriotism — 
we are learning to covet for our countries that they shall emulate 
one another as to which can do the most for the good of the 
world, and as to which can do the most to maintain the peace of 
the world. Our ambition for our soldier sons is that their 
existence and their efficiency should effectually maintain this 
peace until ultimately the need for their presence may have 
disappeared. 

The voice of women from all over the world has made itself 
heard in welcoming and supporting the Peace Conference now 
sitting at the Hague; and I am glad to think that we shall 
have the opportunity of hearing to-night some of the ladies who 
organised that great petition sent in by the women. 

And may we not confidently believe that the active participsr 
tion of this International Council of Women with the movement 
for International Arbitration will largely quicken the good 
work? 

We know how much has been accomplished by sundry Con- 
gresses and Conventions amongst learned and scientific and 
philanthropic men and women on either side of the water, and 
how these have served to promote that understanding of one 
another which lies at the basis of all good fellowship ; and now 
that an organised movement is to exist amongst all civilised 
nations amongst its women workers, which will bring their 



218 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

representatives face to face from time to time, must we not con- 
fidently believe that they will join hands to use all their influence 
to stop the mere possibility of the scientific massacres which 
must now be the consequence of international hostilities. 

Women have done much to keep alive the spirit of war in the 
past by urging on a narrow patriotism, by exalting their own 
country at the expense of others, and by inciting their children 
to make good that patriotism by force of arms. 

Now bound together in national and international ties by the 
" Golden Rule," we shall glory in a newer and fuller and more 
beautiful patriotism, which lacks nothing of the force and the 
individuality of the old, but which transforms it, and throws a 
halo of divinity around it, whilst giving it at the same time a 
world-wide field for the exercise of its new-found power. 

The President then read several letters of greeting which had 
been received. The first, which follows, was from the women of 
Italy, forwarding a copy of a resolution in favour of International 
Arbitration : — 

Milan, 12th Juin 1899. 

CniiRE Madame, — La grande manifestation qui aura lieu a 
Londres pour la Paix et VArhiVragey trouve aussi une r^ponse 
tr^ vive chez les femmes Italiennes. Le " Congr^ International 
des Femmes '' qui a le m^rite d'avoir appele dans la capitale de 
TAngleterre les femmes les plus distingu^s, a couronn^ son 
oeuvre en fixant un " meeting *' pour la Paix et TArbitrage. 
Que Tid^e puisse etre bien comprise par toutes les femmes en tous 
les pays et un grand pas sur la voie de la civilisation serait fait. 

J'ai rhonneur de vous transmettre la " r^olutioti " et Tadresse 
de sympathie envoy^s par les femmes Italiennes a la Haye et 
notre Comity Central renouvelle ces voeux en vous priant de les 
communiquer 4 I'honorable Pr^sidence du " meeting.*' 

Agr4e ch^re madarae, nos cordiales salutations. 

Di Pauline Schiff. 
Tema Melany Scodnik. 

COMTESSE SaVINA CaSANOVA. 

Duchesse Litta Visconti Arese. 

Annetta Banfi Marrucohelli. 

Elisa Moretti Comtesse de Spoleinberoe. 

GlANNINA XJgATTI RoY. 
GlUSEPPINA MeRRADRI. 

Annina Osio. 



PUBLIC MEETING ON INTEfiNATIONAL ARBITRATION 219 

A Tadresse de llionorable Prudence du meeting pour la Paix 
et TArbitrage. 

Hisoluzioni formulate dal Ck>mitato Centrale Italiano da 
mandarsi alia Conferenza Intemazional^ per il Disarmo 
e la Page che avr4 luoga all'Aja il 18 maggio 1899 : — 

Riconosoendo sempre piii che Tenergia della dif esa non debba 
estrinsecarsi nella modema societa col primitivo mezzo della 
uccisione del simile, noi, donne italiane, fedeli agli umani 
principt di Alberigo Glentili, del Filangeri, del Bomagnosi e del 
Beccaria, confermiamo essere VArhitrato e il principio della Pace 
il mezzo dettato della ragione, dal sentimento e dall' utilita sociale 
per comporre gli inevitabili dissidi nascenti dalPattrito degli 
interessi. 

Considerando altre^ che la dignity e il valore dell'elemento 
femminile potdl emergere soltanto in condizioni basate sul 
progredito sviluppo della razionalit4 e dell'armonia afifettiva 
sociale. 

Esprimiamo un veto di solidarieta coUe donne delle altre 
nazioni, riunendoci a loro in questa manifestazione intemazionale 
simultanea e universale per la Pace e V Arbitral, alFoccasione 
della Conferenza Intemazionale alPAja. 

Testo del telegramma che sara spedito all'indirizzo Vredescomite 
Hagtie. 

" D'accord avec la Ligiie des /emmes pour le Ddsarmement 
International de Paris, nous vous transmettons les voeux exprim^s 
par les repr^ntants de toutes les classes de la Society en faveur 
du D^sarmement et de la Paix universelle, que nous vous prions 
de soummettre 4 la Conference de la Haye." 

Il Comitato Centrale, Milano. 

Ds8A. Paolina Schipp — Irma Melany Scodnik, Milano. 

CoNTESSA Savina Casanova, Milano. 

DucHESSA LiTTA ViscoNTi Arese nata Perry, Milano. 

Annetta Banpi Mazzucohelli, Milano. 

Elisa Moretti Contessa di Spilimbergo, Milano. 

GiANNiNA XJgatti Roy, Milauo. 

GiusEPPiNA Mezzadri, Milano. 

Amina Osio, Milano. 

Comitato delle Sionore per la Pace e l'Arbitrato, 
Palermo. 



220 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

SOCIETA PER LA PaCE * SeZIONE FEMMINILB - EMILIA 

Maeiani Tommabina Guidi, Torino. 

SOTTO-COMITATO PER LA PaCE, Roma. 

CoNTESSA Antonina Puttb Carcano, Firenze. 

C0NTB88A Antonina Putte Caroano, Napoli. 

Camilla Bellisomi Manzoni, Yenezia. 

Profssa. Linita Beretta, Genova. 

Argentina Bonetti Altobelli, Bologna. 

Stephania Omboni, Padova. 

Virginia Olper Monis, Padova. 

Camilla Pbcile Kechler, Udine. 

RiNA PiERANGELi Faocio, Portocibitanova (Marche). 

Sotto-Comitato Linda Mahsatis, Pavia. 

Guglielmina Ronconi, Vercelli. 

Ida Gottardi, Treviso. 

Carolina Mor Paloschi, Abbiategrasso. 

Maria Venco, Montebello. 

Profsa. Laura Pezzi, Direttrice delle Scuole Fem- 

minile, Fano (Marche). 
Elisa Padoa Padoa, Sondrio. 
Sotto-Comitato — Elisa Marabina, Imola. 
Ida Lombard, Pisa. 
Gruppo di Signore, reppresentato da Paolina 

Andreuzzi — RossiFU Antonio, Navarons (FriuK). 
Borgatb sub, Lago Maggiore. 

The Women's Liberal Federation also sent greetings, Mrs 
Broadley Reid briefly stating that at a recent meeting of the 
Council representing the Liberal Women of England it was 
decided to send to the Peace Conference at the Hague a message 
identical with that sent by other bodies. 

FrM6rick Passy, the veteran peace leader of France, also 
wrote, the following being an extract from his letter : — 



EXTRAIT D»UNE LETTRE DE FR^DlfeRIC PASSY A 
UN CHER COLLi:GUE ET AMI. 

Je ne r^p^terai point combien est sacr^ k mes yeux cette 
cause de la paix, k laquelle se rattachent tous les progr^ de 



PUBLIC MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 221 

bien^tre, de science, de liberty et de morality, comme k la guerre 
de qui ils d^ulent, se rattaohent tous les vices, toutes les bar-, 
baries, toutes les mis^res et toutes les tyrannies : — Guerre, peste 
et famine, trinity maudite, comme le dit bien Pinscription qui se 
lit sur la £a9ade du b&timent appel^ la Maison du Boi, en face 
I'Hdtel de VHle k BruzeUes. 

II 7 a plus d'un demi-siMe que, pour la premiere fois, j'ai 
commence k indiquer mes sentiments k cet iggrd. H y a pres de 
45 ans que j'ai montr^ que la plupart des maux qui affligent 
llLumanit^ sont des maux artiiiciels; et que, si nous voulions 
bien ne plus nous blesser et nous ruiner nous-mdmes, et employer 
k combattre les maux naturels une partie au moins des forces que 
nous employons k nous accabler de calamity factices, la terre 
serait pour nous un paradis, au lieu d'dtre Fenfer qu'elle est 
encore. 

II y a plus de 30 ans-^c'^tait au printemps de 1867 — ^lorsqu'^ 
ma voix et k celle de deux ou trois autres, s'est fait le r^veil 
d'opinion qui a arrdt^ la guerre prite k delator, que la principale 
tAche de ma vie est la propagation de ces idees ; que par la plume 
et par la parole, dans les milieux populaires et dans les milieux 
officiels, je pr^he Fanath^me k la guerre ; et que quelques uns, 
comme vous, mon cher ami, comme Hodgson-Pratt, comme 
Duoommun, Moncta, le general Tiirr et la baronne von Suttner, 
veulent bien me consid^rer comme Pun des plus vaillants, ou tout 
au moins des plus d^vou^ champions de la sainte croisade. 

Tout cela est connu de ceux qui sont au oourant de notre 
grande lutte peunfique et pacificatrice. Et, sans ^tre hors de 
propos dans la belle manifestation de mardi, n'a avec elle qu'une 
relation indirecte. Ce qui s'y rapporte davantage, et ce que, si 
j'avais pu y prendre part, j'aurais demand^ la permission de 
rappeler, c'est que, d'une part, lorsque j'ai redig^ en 1867, les 
premiers statuts de La ligue Internationale et permanente de 
la Paix, j'ai eu soin, comme le remarquait Pun de mes plus 
g^n^reux collaborateurs et soutiens, Arl^ Dufour, d'en ouvrir, 
par une disposition hardie k cette ^poque, la porte aux femmes, 
sur un pied d'^galit^ complete avec les hommee ; c'est, d'autre part, 
que je n'ai jamais cess^ dans mes discours et dans mes ^rits, 
de faire particuli^rement appel aux femmes, de m'attrister, de 
m'indigner parfois, de leur sUence, de leur r^gnation, de leur 
h^itation k nous suivre, a nous encourager, k nous exciter ou a 
nous devancer. Cest que j'ai toujours dit, avec mon illustre 
mattre Jules Simon, que la guerre k la guerre 6tait, avant tout. 



222 INTERKATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

rafi&dre des femmes et que c'^tait par des mains f^minines que 
devaient §tre d^sann^ les mains masculines. 

<< Femmes, pourquoi vous taisez-vous quand il s'agit de paix ou 
de guerre ? C'est 1^ proprement voire domaine. M^res ! d^fendez 
le sang de vos fils ! " 

Combien de fois j'ai r^p^t^ ce cri admirable de Jules Simon, 
dans son memorable article sur le septennal de la paix ; et com- 
bien de fois j'ai g^mi de ne le voir entendu que par un trop petit 
nombre de celles qui auraient d^ y r^pondre, qui, pour mieux 
dire, auraient dii nous ^viter la peine de la pousser ! 

Mais, Dieu merci ! les choses ont chang^ et le temps a march^. 
Les fenmies se sont lev^ a la fin, et dans tons les pays, dans 
toutes les langues et sous tous les regimes, elles ont fait entendre 
leurs reclamations. Elles se sont rappel^ qu'elles sont, comme 
IWait remarqu^ Aristote, la moiti^ du genre humain, et, comme 
elles I'apprennent tous les jours k leurs d^pens, que ce sont elles 
qui font les hommes, et qu'elles ont bien le droit de d^fendre 
centre le canon cette chair de leurs fils, qui est leur propre 
chair. 

Et voila pourquoi, mon cher ami, nous devons esp^rer, et^ sans 
nous payer encore d'illusions, consid^rer notre victoire comme 
moins douteuse et moins lointaine. 

Les souverains, qui ne devaient jamais, disaiton, entendre les 
appels que nous adressions k leur sagesse et k leur prudence, non 
seulement les ont entendus, mais les r^p^tent et se font honneur 
de s'inspirerde nos sentiments. Les femmes, qui, victimes 
r^sign^es, ne devaient jamais faire entendre une plainte et tenter 
un effort pour soustraire k la boucherie humaine le troupeau sans 
cesse renouveie au prix de leur sang et de leurs larmes, se Invent, 
et, d'un elan unanime signifient au monstre qu'il a trop long- 
temps prolong^ son r^gne abominable et que la civilisation a 
mieux k faire avec du fer et des hommes, que des canons et des 
cadavres. 

Rejouissons-nous doncl Et^ si nous sommes trop vieux 
(quelques uns comme moi du moins) pour voir le jour b^ni oii le 
monde ne sera plus qu'un grand atelier, un grand marche et une 
grande famille : oii, suivant la parole d'un de vos pontes, tout 
homme, sur la surface de la terre, sera pour tout honmie un fr^re, 
disons-nous, pour nous consoler de ce que nous avons vu et ne 
pas trop envier ce que nous ne verrons pas, que les temps sont 
proches ; que les signes qui les annoncent se multiplient. Et, de 
ce qui reste encore de lumi^re k nos yeux fatigues, regardons 



PUBLIC MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 223 

vers Taarore, oii commencent a poindre quelques lueurs de Faube 
blanchissante, qui bientdt sera la pleine lumiere ! 

'* Le jour monte, ^rivait, il y a trente ans, un de nos plus 
vaillants et ^minents auxiliaires, un pr^tre vraiment chi^tien, le 
P^re Gratry, dans ses admirables MidittUions sur la paix, le jour 
monte ; il n'y aura bient6t plus assez d'ombre pour les tyrans." 

Qui, le jour monte. Qui, grice k Tiinplacable publicity de la 
presse et de la tribune, rien ne peut plus Stre cach^. Les 
horreurs du champ de bataille, les douleurs de I'hdpital et de 
I'ambulance, les mis^res des families priv^ de leurs soutiens, les 
atrocit^s des guerres coloniales, et les hontes de cette morale de 
convention que nous nous sommes faites k regard des races que 
nous appelons sauvages, Faffaiblissement et la demoralisation 
de nos races dites sup^rieures par les saign^ qu'elles s'imposent 
et par les habitudes de barbarie auxquelles elles se condamnent : 
tout cela, aujourd'hui, est visible k tous les yeux, compris de 
toutes les intelligences, senti de tous les coeurs capables de sentir 
quelque chose. Les hommes dou^ de quelque humanity et de 
quelque pr^voyance d^noncent le danger. lies femmes se soul^ 
vent contre le crime dont elles refusent de faire plus longtemps 
les frais. Les peuples, unis, m^me malgr^ euz, par Fimpi^rieuse 
necessity qui les fait les oblig^ et les serviteurs les uns des autres, 
se m^lent et se lient par les mailles de plus en plus serr^ d'un 
inextricable r^seau. Ou la guerre sera d^vou^ at vaincue ; ou 
nous sombrerons dans un dernier cataclysme, avec tou^ ce qui 
f aisait notre orgueil et notre espoir ! 

Gr&ce k Dieu, gr&ce a la lev^e en masse des forces f^minines, 
c'est la Concorde, c'est la Paix, c'est FAmour qui aurait le dernier 
mot! 

Cardinal Vaughan wrote : — 

AUCHBISHOP'S HOUSB, 

Westminster, S.W., June 20eft, 1899. 

Dear Lady Aberdeen, — I am unable to attend your meeting 
on the 27th inst., but to show how sincerely your movement has 
the sympathy of the Catholic Church in England, Ireland and 
the United States, I send you the following appeal signed by the 
three American, Irish and English Cardinals. 

Though issued three years ago, it is perfectly relevant to the 
present occasion, and I give it to you as such. — Yours faithfully, 

Herbert Cardinal Vaughan. 



224 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

A Tribunal of Arbitration. 

We, the undersigned Cardinals, representatives of the Prince of 
Peace, and of the Catholic Church in our respective countries, 
invite aU who hear our voice to co-operate in the formation of a 
public opinion which shall demand the establishment of a perma- 
nent Tribunal of Arbitration, as a rational substitute among the 
English-speaking races for a resort to the bloody arbitrament 
of war. 

We are well aware that such a project is beset with practical 
difficulties. We believe that they will not prove to be insuperable 
if the desire to overcome them be genuine and general Such a 
court existed for centuries, when the nations of Christendom were 
united in one faith. And have we not seen nations appeal to 
that same court for its judgment in our own day ? 

The establishment of a permanent tribunal, composed, may be, 
of trusted representatives of each Sovereign nation, with power to 
nominate judges and umpires according to the nature of the 
differences that arise, and a common acceptance of general 
principles defining and limiting the jurisdiction and subject 
matter of such a tribunal, would create new guarantees for 
peace that could not fail to influence the whole of Christendom. 
Such an International Court of Arbitration would form a second 
line of defence, to be called into requisition only after the 
ordinary resources of diplomacy had be^ exhausted. It would 
at least postpone the outbreak of hostilities until reason and 
common sense had formally pronounced their last word. 

This is a matter of which the constitution and procedure must 
be settled by Qovemments. But as Governments are becoming 
more identified with the aspirations, and moxdded by the desires 
of the people, an appeal in the first instance must be addressed 
to the people. 

We do not hesitate, on our part, to lift up our united voice, 
and to proclaim to all who are accustomed to hearken to our 
counsels that it is a sign of divine influence at work in their 
midst, when ** Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, 
neither shaU they be exercised any more in war " (Isaiah ii. 9), 
for it was written of a future time, " Come ye and behold the 
work of the Lord, what wonders He hath done upon the earth, 
making wars to cease even to the end of the earth " (Ps. xlv. 9). 

Others may base their appeal upon motives whicn touch your 
worldly interests, your prosperity, your world-wide influence and 



PUBLIC mbbuno on international arbitration 225 

authority in the affidrs of men. The Catholic Church recognises 
the legitimate force of such motives in the natural order, and 
blesses whatever tends to the real progress and elevation of the 
race. But our main ground of apposd rests upon the known 
character and will of the Prince of Peace, the living founder, the 
Divine Head of Christendom. It was He who declared that love 
of the brotherhood is a second commandment, like unto the first. 
It was He who announced to the people the praise and reward of 
those who seek after peace and pursue it. " Blessed," said He, 
"are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of 
God" (Matt. V. 9). We therefore earnestly invite all to unite 
with us in pressing their convictions and desires upon their 
respective Governments by means of petitions and such other 
measures as are Constitutional. 

J. Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore. 

Michael Cardinal Looue, Archbishop of Armagh, 
Primate of aU Ireland. 

Herbert Cardinal Vaughan, Archbishop of 
Westminster. 

Archbishop Ireland of St Paul (United States), whose engage* 
ments prevented him from remaining the whole evening, then 
addressed the meeting. He said it was worthy of women to work 
for such a noble purpose. In such a cause woman could and 
would do more than man. Men had to engage themselves in the 
hard things of life. They had not time, and may be they had not 
the tenderness of mind and heart which would induce them 
to work for religion and morality with those inspiring efforts 
which women brought into such movements. It seemed difficult 
to put an end to war, since war had had such influence in all 
past history. But let them work on public opinion in all 
countries, and they would, with God's blessing, succeed. War 
was, to say the best of it, a killing of man; war before the 
battle was a massing together of all the forces of a nation to 
prepare engines of power to kill men, applying science and 
art to the killing of men. During the battle, war was the 
aiming of death-blows upon man, the ground drinking up 
human blood. And after the battle, what was warl It was 
the maimed and the wounded -^ a real shock of grief that 
nothing could diminish sent throughout a thousand homes. 
The newspapers would cry out "Victory" — "An easy victory." 
They would perhaps sing out "Only one killed," but some poor 

VOL. I. p 



226 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

mother beneath some poor roof would say, ^*Ah, but that was 
my son." Fortunately the time had gone by when some man 
in power, seated upon a throne, could launch his whole people 
into the battlefield simply to satisfy some whim or ambition 
of his own. Nowadays, the destinies of nations were held in 
the hands of the people, and the people would hesitate long 
before they demanded war. It was hard for humanity that, 
2000 years after the angels had come announcing "Peace on 
eaith," there should still be wars and nation rising against 
nation. What for? To kill men, as if they were deciding 
justice. Let meetings be held in every land beneath the sun, 
let men speak out and say that they are the patriots of the 
patriots whose aim is to seek justice and to spare the lives 
of their countrymen. They wanted justice. They held justice 
higher than the battlefield, and it was because they sought 
justice that they sought some other means than war to decide 
what justice was. Let then their efforts be persevering. Let 
them be strong. They prayed that the example given in that 
great city of London might go forth over the whole world, 
and find imitators. They prayed that such meetings might 
be held until the people of aU nations would be so aroused 
that a tribunal of arbitration woxdd be established that would 
speak in the name of justice, no longer in the name of brute 
force, and that would honour each nation and would bring 
upon the whole world that reign of peace of the establishment 
of which the Son of God came down from the skies upon earth. 

The President at this point said she very much regretted 
to tell the meeting that the lady whom so many present 
had come specially to see and hear had been prevented from 
coming by illness. The Baroness Bertha von Suttner had 
been very unweU during the last few days. She hoped to 
the very last hour to be able to attend, but her medical 
advisers were so imperative that she should not undertake 
the journey that at last she was compelled to give up her 
engagement, much to her regret. She had sent a message by 
M. Felix Moscheles, President of the Society of Peace and 
Arbitration, which she would ask him to deliver, and Mrs 
Byles had been kind enough to undertake to read part of the 
address which the baroness was prepared to make in moving 
the resolution. 

M. Felix Moficheles said that great and noble worker in the 
cause of the people, Baroness von Suttner, as they had heard from 
the lips of Lady Aberdeen, could not come to England. He had 



PUBLIC MBBTINO ON INTERXATIONAL ARBITRATION 227 

been in daily communication with her on the subject, and he 
regretted to say that the hopes entertained up to the last had 
been deceived. She desired him to express her deep sense of 
regret and of grievous disappointment at not being able to appear 
on the platform. Nothing short of the peremptory orders of her 
doctor, he need not assure them, had prevented her from being 
present. He had been with her for about a month at the Hague, 
and his impression was that overwork and constant attention of 
mind had brought about the feverish attack from which she was 
suffering. If her pulse beat higher than it should, and the doctor 
said so, it would be beating higher, though he trusted not injuri- 
ously so, at that hour when her thoughts reverted to that great 
gathering and she felt in warm sympathy with the friends and 
colleagues who had come from all parts of the globe. Of one 
thing they could all be sure— as long as the pulses of Baroness 
von Suttner throbbed she would work for the realisation of her 
ideals ; she would work for that good cause, the triumph of which 
it was her glorious ambition to secure. 

The President. — May I send, in your name, a message of 
regret and concern to Baroness von Suttner? "Applause." 

Mtb Byles then read Baroness von Suttner's address as 
follows : — 

Mt Lady President, while in this Congress of the Inter- 
national Council of Women the name " Arbitration '' has been 
chosen as the opening subject of its meetings, another Congress 
is sitting, as you well know, which has been summoned by a 
powerful monarch, and where aU governments are represented, 
a Congress whose task it is to conduct this same question — ^not 
only as has been done hitherto, and as we might do here, towards 
a theoretical, but towards a practical solution. 

I have come from the place where that Conference is being 
held. You will perceive, therefore, that I prefer, instead of 
general considerations, to begin with a few statements aa to what 
is actually being done at the Hague at this momentous juncture. 

But let me first make a remark, which is suggested to me by 
the double fact that I am standing on English soil and addressing 
a meeting of women. Many people say (I heard it repeated only 
yesterday) " Women ought not to mix in politics ; the problem of 
peace and war is beyond the sphere of feminine comprehension." 
Well, I have just left a country which is governed by a woman, 
and have come into another country also governed by a woman. 
The one— who is the youngest amongst European sovereigns — is 



228 INTEBKATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

privileged to begin her reign with an event which, for political 
importance, surpasses all preceding historical events; and the 
other — the first lady of this land and the senior of the monarchs 
in Europe— is possibly destined to have the honour of crowning 
her long and wise reign by putting her royal seal to a document 
(drawn up at the Hague) which is to open the era of international 
Justice. I think this speaks volumes for the right of our sex to 
be interested in political questions. 

Amongst the schemes for arbitration that have been presented 
at the Hague, the most far-reaching one was, as most of us know, 
the plan which Sir Julian Pauncefote, the plenipotentiary of Her 
Majesty's Government, has laid on the table. Other plans have 
been brought forward by the Russians and by the Americans, and 
the section for arbitration is endeavouring to bring the different 
proposals into harmony. The present position of affairs at the 
conference is doubly important, because the representatives of 
some powers have nuuntained a position of complete reserve, not 
to say antagonism, concerning the arbitration question, and the 
final resolutions will depend on the instructions to be given by 
the different Governments to their delegates. During the next 
two weeks which precede the last full session the question will be 
settled — not so much in the debates of the commissions as in the 
minds and hearts of the potentates-^the question whether the 
magnanimous wishes of the Russian Emperor and the trembling 
hopes of mankind shall be fulfilled or fnistrated. The intrinsic 
value of arbitration, the philosophical arguments in favour or 
against the institution of a tribunal will not be primary considera- 
tions, what is going to be decided will depend on personal 
inclinations and political considerations, on the opinions and the 
moods of the leading persons. Therefore, it would appear to be 
the urgent duty of the adherents of the peace cause and of those 
who possess some influence, to exerdse that influence in order to 
help, within the fifteen days remaining, to bring about a happy solu- 
tion of the vital questions under discussion. 

During my stay at the Hague, I have heard a series of lectures, 
which opened to me and to many others a new horizon. They 
showed the war of the future as it must of necessity develop. 
The lecturer, Jean de Bloch, besides being a wealthy banker, is a 
thorough scientist. His great book, from which the data of his 
lectures were taken, is the result of eight years' conscientious study. 

He maintains that the changes which have taken place in the 
mechanism of war, and in all oUier departments of social life, will 



PUBLIC MBETIKG OK IZniERKATIONAL AKBITRATION 229 

also produce so complete a change in the character of the next 
universal war, that it is quite impossible to form any judgment 
about it by inferences drawn from the experiences of former 
struggles. 

Ten years ago, when I published an appeal with a view to 
creating the Austrian Peace Society, I wrote : " Through the new 
instruments of destruction, through the growth of the armed 
forces, war has been changed into a thing that ought to be 
described by another name, because through the ever-growing 
competition in warlike preparations, it has completely changed 
since the time when we last had any experience of it " If, to 
illustrate my meaning, you keep on warming a bath until the 
water boils, so that the person who steps, or rather falls into the 
tub is scalded to death, would you still call this a ^'bath''? 
But of what use are such reflections and prophecies ? People do 
not listen to the first and laugh at the second. But now, Bloch's 
action has brought a similar idea to light ; the god of war, who 
has silently grown into a race-devouring Moloch, has been brought 
before the tribunal of the awakened conscience of the world ; he 
is simmioned to defend himself, or, if he fails to do so, to accept 
the death-warrant which sooner or later must be his lot. 

I must skip the chapters in Bloch's work, " Continental War " 
and "Naval War." Let me only mention that^ owing to the 
tremendous force of the new weapons, and the ways adopted to 
use them, all officers of the land army will inevitably be killed, 
and that, according to the calculation of the French General 
Langlois, and the Prussian General Miiller, the future battie 
between the Double and the Triple Alliance would lead, if all the 
guns were put into action, to the destruction of 41 millions of 
men, that is to the slaughter of eight times as many troops as 
could cover the battlefield. As to the naval combats, Bloch 
demonstrates how impossible it would be to decide which of the 
belligerents had gained the victory. 

Let us consider the economical aspect of the question as 
shown by Bloch. 

On tiie very first day when the order for mobilisation was 
issued, and with the first beginning of hostilities, the nations 
engaged would .drift to economic destruction. The suspension of 
all industrial life, of aU work and business, the ruin of aU capital, 
universal famine ; such are the mathematically certain results of 
the coming " great war." 

Under such circumstances, it is war and no longer peace 



230 INTERNATIONAL C50UNCIL OP WOMEN 

which deserves the name " Utopia." The President of the Con- 
ference at the Hague, Monsieur de Staal, in speaking to me of 
M. de Bloch, endorsed the opinion of this ''most interesting man," 
as he expressed himself. He is right, he added, '' War is gradu- 
ally becoming a Utopia." 

Utopia means ''impossible dream." Well, thank Grod, the 
methods of wholesale destruction leading to universal disaster are 
gradually becoming impossibilities ; while the old dreams be, it 
cannot bring forth complete and perfect solutions of the great 
problems before the delegates. Institutions that are many 
thousand years old cannot be changed by the work possible in a 
session of eight weeks. For the community of peace- workers enough 
work will remain. The women who, from all parts of the world, 
have come to this Congress, will, I feel sure, zealously and unani- 
mously join in the work for peace, for they are the courageous 
representatives of right, freedom and ethical progress. But I 
wish that the words which are spoken in this hall may reach 
our sisters outside, and that all mothers and wives — be they 
feminists or not^ be they members of peace societies or not — ^may 
be roused to the duty of the present time. 

It is a solemn time. It is not only the transition of one 
century to another, it is the transition of one conception of the 
world, of one civilisation, to another. It is the moment when 
the old order, weighed down under the growth of its inherited 
errors and crimes, has been brought to the verge of destruction ; 
but when, through the awakening self-consciousness of human 
society, salvation may be achieved and the impending danger 
averted. It is a work of salvation to which the delegates at the 
Hague have been called. To make this work a success, ten or 
fifteen days are still left to them. But not only to them — to all 
peoples the near future of the reign of right, of human happiness 
and human dignity are slowly becoming true. 

Arbitration and disarmament ? It is superfluous to discuss the 
practicability, the benefits and the difficulties of these measures. 
It is enough to have demonstrated the impossibility of war as a 
means of settling national disputes — a double suicide can settle 
nothing at all — for finally other means must be established, a 
judicial system will grow up and the fever of armaments 
will, without further doctoring, fall from its present heat of 80 
to zero. 

"But," they say, "Bloch is no soldier, no expert; his con- 
clusions are based on fallacies." With such phrases the friends 



PUBLIC MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL ABBITRATION 231 

of militarism console themselves. '* Only sophisms," said Professor 
Zom to me the other day, talking of Bloch's lectures. " Military 
men affirm that future wars will be much less bloody than the 
wars of the past "... ^* But the new weapons," I remonstrated, 
*' forty times more murderous than the old onesT* **0h, only 
very few shots hit the mark." 

Sophisms ! Such can be made with abstractions and argu- 
ments, but not with figures and with physical laws. What Bloch 
says is not a compound of simple speculation and rhetoric which 
might be refuted by opposing speculation and rhetorics ; it is a 
bundle of facts that can be verified ; it is a collection of conclu- 
sions which experts of high rank — ^the Generals Von der Gk>ltz, 
Htoeler, Janaen-have laid down in their writings where they 
have been overlooked by the public. Bloch does not say, "You 
otight not to make war." He says, "You cannot make war;" 
for the immeasurable disturbance of aU economic conditions will 
surely produce catastrophes in industry and in the means of 
intercourse, will loosen all ties of order, and will bring forth 
untold misery not only to the armed men in the field, but also to 
the women, children and old men left at home. Home? The 
sweet and holy word will lose all its meaning when the next fierce 
war breaks out. Abodes of despair are no longer "homes." 

No State up till now has considered it a duty to put before 
us what must follow on an explosion of war in the future. It 
has not been done, because the Governments are well aware that 
untold misery and famines would follow, and that a sober descrip- 
tion, based on figures and on dry statistics, would show war as a 
mad Utopia — as a gigantic crime. 
' Well, and this is the task of the moment to which the 

energies of every philanthropist should be directed. Stbch statistics 
must be demanded. The facts and Qgures must be faced. The 
peace movement can add a new form to its work and its propa- 
ganda. The demand must be peremptorily raised that the 
scientific truth on the war question should be brought to the 
knowledge of the public — that regular studies and investigations 
should be made. 

The result of such study, which, of course, would mostly fall 
to the task of military men, must be that amongst aU open- 
minded soldiers the conviction would be roused that war has 
become a kind of double suicide, and that some other means must 
be devised for settling international conflicts ; and then the principle 
in the name of which we are assembled to-night in Queen's Hall 



^ 



232 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

would find its most earnest defenders among the members of the 
general staff. 

Whatever the issue of the Conference at the Hague may be, 
it will impose the great duty of rescuing the world from the 
horrors of the unchecked war system. And this near future 
must be filled with energetic, active, practical labour. 

When lately somebody said to Czar Nicholas, " With your 
noble manifesto your Majesty will have given the world at least 
a beautiful hope," the young Emperor, with an impatient shrug 
of the shoulders, answered, " Hope, hope . . . poor humanity has 
long enough been deceived with this word ; this is the time for 
realisation." So let us say, *' Enough of theories and wishes; 
this is the time for action." 

Mtb Byles, on behalf of Baroness von Suttner, then moved the 
following resolution : — 

" That the International Council of Women do take Btepe in 
eveiy country to further and advance, by every means in their power, 
the movement towards International Arbitration." 

Fran Selenka (Germany) said she seconded the resolution 
with the deep conviction that if it is accepted and carried out 
resolutely, immense good will come out of it for the sacred cause 
which it is to support. I am, perhaps, the person in this whole 
audience best authorised to prophesy this, because I have had 
the privilege and the joy of having passed through my hands the 
testimonies. of a great international demonstration of women for 
the Peace Conference just now, and have been witness of the 
strong impression which they have produced on the members of 
the Conference. 

It haS| in fact, been the first truly international public act 
among women, and their first resolute entering into the domain 
of international politics. 

At the same time it has given a striking proof of the force 
and energy of women's international organisation, as weU as of 
individual activity and devotion in the service of a great idea of 
Progress, 

Full particulars in detail will, of course, be found in the 
records of the proceedings at the Hague and elsewhere, and a 
detailed report is coining out in print. But I may say here that the 
total number of simultaneous meetings held in eighteen countries 
on almost one and the same day — the 15th of May — amounts to 
56ii. The number of women standing up personally for Peace in 



PUBLIO MBBTXNO ON INTERNATIONAL ABBITBATION 233 

virtually one and the same hour round the world is at least 
200,000 ; and the number of women represented by these will 
very nearly reach 3 millions. This result is the more remarkable 
as the whole movement^ though outlined and aimed at as early as 
September last year, was carried out in the course of only about 
seven weeks, and with the most simple means, not even a printed 
sheet having been sent out. 

I can report 260 meetings in England, 74 meetings in 21 
States in America, 20 meetings in Italy, 20 in Sweden, whilst 
successful gatherings have been held in Germany, Russia, 
Austria, Spain, Servia, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, and last, 
not least, a meeting in Tokio, Japan, of over 2000 women, under 
the presidency of a princess of the Imperial House. 

All these meetings had exchanged letters of sympathy ex- 
pressing the unanimous determination of women to maintain 
peace. They have passed resolutions in which unanimously the 
principle of arbitration has stood in front as fundamental to 
every progress that can be attained in those problems with which 
the Conference at the Hague has to deal. 

The documents containing these resolutions, together with 
hundreds of telegrams stating their acceptance at the meetings in 
aU parts of the world, forming an imposing coUection, I had the 
privilege to deliver to the President of the Conference, Baron de 
Staal, in a private audience of half an hour, in which His 
Excellency expressed his confidence that the women would help 
to carry the cause. 

I have to state that this is the only message to the Conference 
that had been thus officially sent to and accepted by the Con- 
ference through the medium of the President himself. 

We have received a direct acknowledgment in the name of 
the Conference from the President himself, as the following letter 
shows : — 

La Hate, le 19 Juin. 

Madame, — J'ai eu ThonDeur de recevoir d'entre vos mains 
une addresse de la part des femmes de tons les pays civilis^ 
dans laquelle elles expriment leur profond d^vouement a la 
cause sacr^ de la Paix. 

C'est au nom de la Conference Internationale de la Paix, que 
je vous prie, madame, d'acoepter ses sinc^res remerdments de qes 
nombreux t^moignages de sympathie pour son oeuvre, parmi 



234 IKTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

lesquels entre autres lea beaux vers de la gracieuse Po^te Royale 
Carmen Sylva ont 6t6 sp^ialement remarqu^. 

A Madame M. E. Sblenka, 
de Munich. 

Le Pr^ident de la Conference 
Internationale de la Paix. 

It has been proved now that woman's voice can be made to 
resound with emphasis and strength all around the world, and to 
be heard with regard. It is a sign that it must not be silenced 
again. 

May this first international political act of women be of good 
augur for the future of women's influence in national and 
international politics. 

May they always, as they are to-day, be the champions for 
those causes which are fraught with truer ethics and with true 
progress ; may they embody, in their approaching political life, 
the consciences of the nations. 

I have the honour to second the resolution. 

Editor's Note. — For /nMer details regarding this remarkable 
movement toe would refer our readers to the detailed report^ 
which can he obtained from Frau Selenka of Leopoldstrassej 
Munich^ Germany, 

Mrs May Wright Sewall (Vice-President) said: Lady 
Aberdeen, Ladies and Gentlemen, — It is not surprising that 
I should support with enthusiasm the resolution that 
has been proposed here to-night. In one or another form 
the work for social peace and international arbitration has been 
a part of council work in the United States since the organisa- 
tion of our Council in 1888. The International Peace ITnion, 
having its headquarters and its largest membership in the United 
States, was fourth of the eighteen National Organisations of 
Women now included within our Council to join the Council and 
to subscribe to the Council idea. The records of the National 
Council of the United States show that from the first resolutions 
favouring peace and arbitration have been passed annually at its 
Executive Sessions. It was not, however, until the Annual 
Executive of 1896, which met at Boston, that a resolution was 
entered on our minutes to the effect that from that moment the 
National Council of Women should be committed to peace pro- 



PUBLIC MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 235 

paganda throughout the country. Moreover, the National 
Council sent up a resolution to the International Council asking 
the executive of that body to endorse the resolution of the 
American Council. As Lady Aberdeen has told you, a similar 
resolution had already been brought before the International 
Council Executive by the Canadian Council. To my mind it is 
a beautiful coincidence that the two National Councils of the New 
World should have united in this matter without collusion or 
without any knowledge on the part of either of what the other 
was doing. This shows that the spirit which moves across the 
North American continent is a spirit which makes for righteous- 
ness, albeit now and again it is met by a sudden command to 
halt. Encouraged by the approval of the Executive of the 
International, the Council of the United States assembled in 
Annual Executive Session in Nashville, in October of 1897, 
resolved to inscribe the name and the s3rmbol of the National 
Council of the United States upon the peace banner and to order 
that this banner should be always hung with the American flag 
at council meetings. Should the resolution which you have heard 
meet with the unanimous approval of the International Council, 
it is hoped that the peace banner will become ultimately the 
recognised international banner under which all natfons of the 
world shall assemble, feeling that they have never come under 
the best inspiration of their own respective flags, until, with 
their own colours, the banner of peace is unfurled. Just after 
the Executive Meeting of 1897 the war cloud settled down upon 
our country. Letters and telegrams arrived from all parts with 
such questions as — '' What will be the attitude of the National 
Council of the United States towards peace and arbitration 
now ) " The Press did not suppress their jeers, but the Council 
felt that the declaration of war was to them a command to renew 
their efforts in behalf of peace. They realised that they had not 
moved soon enough. This generation of Americans had been 
cradled in the thought that war coiUd not be declared by any 
country against them, and would not be declared by them against 
any other country. The Council Executive were humiliated by 
the discovery that their nation could be plunged in war, but its 
only effect was to incite them to new endeavours. Just before 
the declaration of war an appeal was made in the name of the 
National Council of Women of the United States to President 
M'Kinley, protesting, in the name of the Council, against a war 
then only threatening. I am proudly grateful to add that 



236 INTKBNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

President M^Kinley dictated a letter to the President of the 
National Council, in which he expressed his profound gratitude 
for the appeal sent from the Council, and the hope that whether 
war should come or not the Council should go forward in its 
work. Too late the women of the Council learned that occasions 
might arise in which nations would feel themselves not only 
justified in war but compelled to it. Undoubtedly the leaders of 
our Government felt themselves compelled to the course pursued 
by them, and the National Council did not consider its action an 
impeachment of our Gk>vemment; it was simply such an ex> 
pression of aspiration as it would be helpful to all Governments 
to receive from their women. At the last Executive Session 
held at Omaha, in October 1898, the country having then suffered 
six months' experience of victorious war, the Council confirmed 
the action that had been taken by the preceding Executive, and 
when, last February, the Council convened at Washington in 
triennial session, its members felt that there had come an 
occasion in which they could make a practical movement in 
behalf of the doctrine of international peace. Already there 
had come from the most unexpected source the appeal to all the 
nations of the earth, through their respective Governments, to 
meet in conference to consider international arbitration. The 
women of our Council thought it proper to express their appreci- 
ation of a divine thought, no matter in what heart that divine 
thought had sprung. Therefore it was decided by a unanimous 
vote that a letter of gratitude and greeting should be sent to the 
Czar from the National Council, and a pledge that they would 
help in the formation of a public opinion in their coimtry which 
should compel their Government (if such compulsion were 
necessary) to send commissioners to the Hague, commissioners 
who should go there with the intention of serving the cause in 
the name of which they had then convened. Again there floated 
in upon us cynical jeeirs, sceptical criticisms, and reproaches 
from the non-sympathetic that this action was unpatriotic and 
unrepubhcan. We were asked : ** Could we, republican daughters 
of a free land, join with a Czar in any aspiration ? " We replied 
then, as we declare to-night, that it becomes the daughters of a 
free land — daughters of a Republic — to believe that God may 
breathe into any man, or into any nation, the breath of an 
inunortal aspiration ; that He may give any man and any nation 
power to crystaUise immortal aspirations into customs, precedents, 
laws, which in their turn shall aid in the redemption of humanity. 



PUBLIC MBBTINO ON INTBBNATIOKAL ARBITRATION 237 

When public feeling was in this state there came a call from 
across the sea asking that a universal demonstration of women in 
behalf of peace shoiUd be held throughout our country on May 
15th. The invitation to act as chairman of the American 
Committee for this demonstration reached me on April 16th, and 
on May 15th, only 29 days after the first announcements were 
given to the Press, there were held in 21 States and Territories 
of the Union 74 meetings of women, in which over 75,000 women 
joined in voting resolutions thanking the Czar for his initiative, 
and others pledging to the commissioners from the United States 
sitting in the Hague Conference the support and sympathy of 
American women. Of the 75,000 American women thus con- 
vened, a sufficient number were present in a delegate capacity to 
increase the entire number represented in the meetings to above 
1 75,000. As another result of the work that could be crowded 
into 29 short days, from more than 1500 pulpits sermons were 
preached in behalf of the cause in which the women's meetings had 
been convened. Does not this witness to a depth of earnestness 
hidden in quiet home-keeping hearts? Does it not witness to 
a universal impulse throughout the country ? Women do learn, 
through the calamities of war, to desire peace, and to set upon it 
new value. Mothers whose sons had been buried in distant 
islands did not love their country less than before, but their love 
had taken a new direction. By the desolation of their own 
hearths- they were reminded of the divine principles on which 
the great Republic of the West was founded. They were roused 
to a new sense of what might be implied in the increase of a 
standing army, in the possession of a magnificent navy, in an 
Imperiahstic movement, and in no uncertain tone they declared 
their unwillingness to see the institutions of militarism planted 
upon the free soil of the Republic. 

We have been told that of all the questions on our programme 
this is the one which women are least fitted to discuss— one con- 
cerning which they should be most modest in the expression of 
their views ; indeed, it has been intimated in high quarters that 
this is a subject in which " women practicaUy have no interest.'' 
It will, however, be difficult to divest the minds of women of any 
interest in the question of peace, so long as wars may be main- 
tained only by feeding the greedy cannon of contenaing armies 
with the fruit of their own lives. Therefore, Mme. President, 
I feel justified in BAjiag that in the name of the National Council 
of Women of the United States, and in behalf of the homes of 



238 INTBBNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

the Old World as well as of the New, I have much pleasure in 
supporting the resolution. 

Mme. Gb61]ga (France), supporting the resolution, said: 
Je ne repr^ente pas la France, ni aucun pays en particulier, mais 
la Ligue dea Femme8 pov/r le D^sarmement InterncUioncdf oeuvre 
de Talliance entre les fenunes de tous les pays. 

Cette oeuvre consacre tous ses efforts au bon combat par 
rinfluence morale et par la propagande incessante centre la haine 
fratricide qui am^ne ce r^iUtat funeste : la guerre. 

La Ligue, qui a son Bureau Central k Paris, preside par une 
femme de bien, la Princesse Wiszniewska, compte actuellement 
six cent onze mille adh^rentes. 

Cependant tous les jours de nouvelles adh^ons nous viennent, 
car la femme de notre 6poque a compris enfin, qu'au lieu de pleurer 
et de souffnr en silence, il faut agir afin de vaincre le mal. 

Ce que nous voulons, c'est avoir dans chaque foyer familial 
une voix douce et persuasive, afin qu'eUe disc souvent k son en- 
tourage, que notre devoir humain est, non de s'entr* ^gorger, et 
d'entreprendre la conquSte du sol au prix du sang et des larmes, 
mais de nous assister r^iproquement, de verser sur nos anciennes 
blessures le baume du pardon et de Tamour. 

La force qui n'est pas au service du bon vouloir, est m^pris- 
able. 

Nous femmes, nous avons beaucoup souffert de la force brutale 
dont la forme la plus intense est la guerre. 

Done, c'est k nous de protester toujours et partout centre 
I'apoth^se de la victoire, assur^ par I'oppression du faible, par le 
pillage et le meurtre. 

Le r61e de la fenmie dans la propagande pacifique de ces der- 
ni^res ann^ du si^le est vraiment digne d'etre signal^ cL ceux 
qui invent ITiistoire. 

H y avait, certes, un mouvement pacifique depuis de longues 
ann^ et les noms des promoteurs de cette id6e magnifique de 
TArbitrage International m^ritent d'etre inscrits dans le Livre 
d'Or de Fhumanit^. Mais, et c'est un fait qui peut etre v^rifi^ 
par les archives de notre bureau central, ce n'est que depuis la 
cr^tion de la Ligue des Femmes pour le D^rmement Liter- 
national, que les adh^ons k la propagande active de Tid^ paci- 
fique, se comptent par centaines de mille. 

Je repute cela avec bonheur et fiert^, car j'ai vu naitre cette 
oeuvre, jeune encore, elle n'a que deux ans d'existence, j'ai assists 
k son d^veloppement, k ses efforts, et aux difficult^s, aux person- 



PUBUC MBBTIKO ON INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 239 

tions mdme, qui n'ont pas pourtant le moins du monde emp^h^ 
le travail, aujourd'hui ai fructueux. 

Yoici le bilan exact des travaux de la Ligue : quatorze foyers 
de propagande ei;! France, qui repr^sentent 68,573 voix pacifiques. 
Des Comity auxiliaires k Pdtranger dont la yice-pr^idence fut 
confix i des femmes capables de diriger le mouvement de propa- 
gande pacifique dans leurs pays respectifs et qui remplissent 
admirablement leur rdle dans Taction solidaire, notamment cinq 
en Allemagne, & Berlin, Breslau, Bremen, Dresde et Hambourg, 
ayant recueilli 86 mille quatre cent onze voix pacifiques. Sept 
vice-pr^sidentes en Angleterre, et il m'est particuU^rement agr^ 
able de citer au nulieu de cette brillante assemble, devant les 
hdtes qui nous ont fait un accueil aussi gracieux, que la premiere 
alliance feminine intemationale en vue de la guerre centre la 
guerre, fut faite entre les femmes Anglaises et leurs soeurs Fran- 
Qaises le 28 Avril 1898. Get acte important est sign6 par vingt 
pr^identes des plus importantes soci6t6s anglaises, dont je ne cite 
pas les noms de peur d'abuser du temps qui me fut accord^ pour 
ce petit discours, et qui d'ailleurs se trouvent sur tous nos im- 
primis, mais que je remercie ai; nom de la Idgue le plus cordiale- 
ment. 

Nous avons des Comites auxiliaires en Belgique, en Chili, en 
Califomie, en Egypte, aus £tats-Ums d'Am^rique, en Qalicie 
autrichienne, en Italie, k Madagascar, en Moravie, en Norv^ge, 
en Roumanie, en Suisse, en Sukle, total 545,109 voix k 
r^tranger, et puisque chaque jour nos rangs augmentent, nous 
esp^rons pour I'ann^ prochaine a notre premier Congr^ ^tre au 
moins un million de femmes militantes centre la guerre. 

Lorsque M. Stead pendant son s^jour k Paris, a d^lar^ le 
beau projet de la croisade pour la paix impossible, notre Ligue fut 
fort peinee, mais avec la perseverance qui caract^rise la propa- 
gande feminine, nous avons realise en partie ce que les hommes 
ont jug^ irr^alisable ; c'est k dire que, sur Finitiative de la ligue 
communiquee k toutes nos vice-pr^sidentes a la suite d'une de- 
cision votee par notre Bureau Central le 2 Septembre 1898, dans 
presque toutes les capitales du monde, des conferences populaires 
ont ete organisees, une foule de teiegrammes adresses k M. de 
Beaufort, President d'honneur de la Conference de la Haye, 
exprim^rent le voeu ardent des representants de toutes les classes 
de la societe en favour de la paix et de la concorde entre toutes 
les nations. Et malgre le trouble dont Paris est la proie, nous 
avons ose organiser deux grands meetings, un au centre de la 



240 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMBN 

ville, Tautre dana un quartier popukdre, oA un public trte nom- 
breux affirma par une vote unanime sa sympaihie pour la paix 
ujiiyerselle. 

Notre ligue tAche surtout de faire oomprendre aux amis de 
la paix, que la paix arm^ c'est le menace perp^tuel, et quHl faut 
par tous les moyens obtenir que la guerre soit non seulement 
rel^gu^y mais supprim^ eBa/c6e du programme social, comme 
une iniquity et une monstruosit^. 

En remerciant Mme. la PrMdente, et Passembl^ de 
m'avoir accord^ leur bienveillante attention, je r^p^te notre cri de 
ralliement : Femmes de tous les pays, unissez-vous en ^ucatrioes 
de Tenfance, dlevez la g^n^ration future et le fleau de la guerre 
disparaitra pour f aire place a la fraternity universelle I 

XJn mot encore, pour vous annoncer que Tann^ prochaine la 
ligue organise un Goi^gr^ International k Paris, pendant I'Ex- 
position, et que tous les amis de la paix qui partagent nos id^es, 
seront les bienvenus k ce Congres. 

The resolution was put to the meeting, and carried with 
acclamation. 

Mme. de WaszUewitB yon Schilfgaarde, Holland, moved 
that a telegram from this meeting be sent to the Peace Conference 
at the Hague, and said : — Allow me, in the first place, to utter a 
word of thanks to the honourable President for having placed 
Arbitration on the pn^^ramme of the International Council of 
Women. Never could she have been better inspired. Of all 
social and political work, none is so much adapted to woman's 
nature and woman's sphere of action as working in the grand 
cause of peace, which involves the brotherhood of man, the 
solidarity of the human race. Moreover, the principle of con- 
servation being the fundamental principle of woman's nature, 
every fibre in her cries out against the great destroyer, War. 

But only unpractical idealists, wild Utopians, can hope to do 
away with war without first the principle of right having 
triumphed, and having been enthroned as sovereign supreme. 

The more this principle progresses and penetrates into the 
society of nations, the more arbitration shows itself to be bound 
up with the very structure of that society. An intense, profound 
movement carries the nations onward towards arbitration, and 
constitutes an enlightened manifestation of the juridical con- 
science of the people in our days. 

Civilisation victoriously pursues in space and time its pro- 
gressive evolution. Along the whole line of the nineteenth 



PUBLIC MBETINO ON INTERNATIONAL ABBITRATION 241 

century we witness with joy a movement more and more accentu- 
ated in favour of the pacific solution of international conflicts, 
and the pressure of public opinion has been for much in this 
onward and upward movement. 

Humanity in its progressive evolution tends every day more 
and more to establish the respect of equity as the oasis of its 
constitution; the empire of right is daily gaining in strength, 
causing in the meantime the retrocession of the reign of brutal 
force. 

The development in international society of positive institu- 
tions corresponding to this ascensional movement of right \a a 
normal and necessary processus. Thus the formation of a juri- 
dical stfkte between the nations, by the organisation and extension 
of international arbitration, presents itself not as a Utopia, but as 
the consequence of an evolution begun by history, and progressing 
under our very eyes. 

This being the case, it seems to me to be our duty to help on 
this evolution by freely making use of the potent instrument of 
association, which better than individual effort can act on public 
opinion. 

All these considerations, joined to the fact that in Holland 
hardly anything was being done to make the people, and especially 
the women, partake in this evolutionary work, ripened the resolu- 
tion to try what I could do in that Hne. An apparently futile 
circumstance made me join, about a year ago, the Paris Women's 
Disarmament League, and try to form a Dutch branch. I pub- 
lished a few articles, but found it rather slow, uphill work, and 
so, in order to kindle some enthusiasm in my countrywomen, I 
resolved to deliver a lecture — a great enterprise for me, who, 
until that day, had upheld that the last place a woman had to be 
seen in was on the platform. But there was no help for it. I 
had to speak, and sj^eak I did. On that day, the 26th of August, 
our League was bom, and from that moment I felt I would be 
able to make a women's league live and thrive. 

When, two days later, the papers brought the Czar's rescript, 
my spirit seemed all at once to be illumined. I then knew some- 
thing had been behind the futile circumstance which made me 
join the Paris League. I knew I would have to act in order to 
rouse the people to the true understanding of the grand, new era 
the Czar's rescript opened for down - trodden, overburdened 
humanity. I knew at once some sort of mission was mine, and 
that in the first place the women had to respond to the Czar's 

VOL. I. Q 



242 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

appeal. I therefore prepared a memorial, in which the women 
all over the world could join, couched in these terms : " Les 
femmes du monde entier ne peuvent qu'applaudir avec une pro- 
fonde joie k Tinitiative qu'a prise votre majeste dans la grande 
question de la paix et des inter^ts les plus graves de Thumanite. 
Au nom de nos soeurs nous prions Y. M. de daigner agr^r Phom- 
mage de notre gratitude la plus vive." 

This memorial obtained, in the afternoon of the 3 1st of August, 
399 signatures, and in the evening I sent the text to some 25 
workers for peace, with a circular which, besides the request to 
cause the memorial to be signed by their respective country- 
women, contained these words : " Ce que je r^ve ce serait une 
demonstration monstre pour que quand les d^legu^ des gouveme- 
ments convoqu^s par le Czar d'assembleront, ils sentent derri^re 
eux la pression de leurs peuples tout entiers d^serant la paix." 
In several places my request was complied with ; notably in Den- 
mark, Sweden and Norway this memorial obtained thousands of 
signatures. 

But at the headquarters of the League in Paris, the fact that 
an international step had been taken by anyone but them caused 
great indignation, and after a little while it seemed advisable for 
us to constitute a Dutch Women's League, which should work 
hand in hand with all other friends of peace without being 
subordinate to anyone. This was done on November 8th. From 
that day our League entered on a flourishing period. On 
January Ist we counted 250 members ; now the number has risen 
to 1250. 

Besides the ordinary League's work, I tried hard at getting up 
some demonstration, either international or national, and when 
I heard of Mr Stead's crusade plan I resolved to do all I could 
to make Holland partake in this. In order to reach all layers of 
society, a committee was formed of men and women of diiSerent 
political, social and religious shades. We issued a manifesto to 
the Duteh people, explaining the importance of the rescript, 
laying stress on their duty to ask for right as well as peace, and 
urging them on to sign the memorials, somewhat differently 
word^. A propaganda meeting was held in Amsterdam, at 
which about 5000 persons were present. I lectured in several 
places, and the result of the manifestation was that the memorials 
obtained 225,000 signatures. These memorials, accompanied by 
a beautifully caligraphed address, were forwarded to the Czar by 
the intermediary of our Foreign Office. After this, Mme. Selenka 



PUBLIC MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION 243 

requested me to make the Dutch women join in her grand inter- 
national demonstration. So much having been done ahready, we 
could not get up a movement on a large scale. So I composed a 
resolution in favour of arbitration, and sent this to nearly all 
women's associations in the country. Twenty-one small meetings 
were held, in which the resolution was passed. 

We also exchanged letters of sympathy with twenty different 
countries. This letter, by which I now wish to convey, to all 
women here assembled, the greetings of my countrywomen, runs 
thus : — 

Fully convinced that in the hands of us women lies the fate 
of the world in the ages to come, that it is ours to wield it either 
for weal or for woe, we welcome with joy every effort that is 
made to unite and bring together the women all over the world. 
The rescript of the Czar, opening a prospect of peace and comfort 
to the overburdened nations, fills our hearts witli a new hope and 
a new joy, and if ever, now the moment has come in which all 
women ought to join hands and hearts and say, of one accord : 
Seas may separate us or mountains divide us, but our souls know 
no barriers ; we will be one in the sacred war against war, in 
our battling for peace and right." 

We will cultivate a feeling of sisterhood among the women 
all over the world. We will impress on our children the grand 
ideal of the brotherhood of man. We will educate our daughters 
to be the mothers of a new race of lovers of peace and warriors 
for equity and right. 

Sisters from everywhere, we greet you and give you the 
assurance of our hearty feelings of sympathy. 

Mifls Ellen Bofamson, fraternal delegate from the Bureau 
International de la Paix, seconded the resolution, which was put 
to the meeting and carried, the President undertaking to despatch 
the telegram. 

The last speaker was Miss Krog (Norway), whose speech was 
as follows : — 

I wish to say that I fully appreciate all that has been said in 
favour of this great movement for peace, and at the same time 
avail myself of this opportunity to state that an international 
congress for peace and arbitration is to be held in Christianict, 
the Norwegian capital, early in August. It is one of the inter- 
parliamentary congresses that are now being regularly held. 
The Norwegian Parliament, as you may know, is the pioneer in 
the peace movement, but I claim no particular credit for our 



244 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

country on that account; it is only natural that the smaller 
nations are the most interested in this great movement. What 
I wished to impress on this large audience here to-night was, 
that whenever the great question, which we have had before us 
on this occasion, comes on for discussion and settlement, the 
smaller nations will not be forgotten, and to remind you that 
the smaller nations understand the word pecxe in its deepest and 
truest meaning — ^including that of justice and freedom. 

In sajring this, I am not, at this moment, thinking of my 
own country. There is another small country which all the 
peoples of the Northern countries have learnt to love and respect 
— I mean Finland, We have the highest esteem for it on 
account of its wonderful development and great civilisation, and 
for the moral strength of the character of the Finnish people. 

I have no intention to say anything about the present state 
of affairs in that country or of moving any amendment in con- 
nection with what I have said, but I did not like to let this 
opportunity pass without having mentioned Finland to you — 
to the many men and women who are gathered here to-night in 
the cause of humanity. 

The resolution was agreed to, put and carried. A com- 
prehensive vote of thanks to the speakers, choir and vocalists, 
was proposed by the Earl of Aberdeen and seconded by the 
Bev. H. E. Haweis. 

Lord Aberdeen in his remarks, which were most cordially 
endorsed by the audience, conveyed the hearty thanks of the 
meeting, and expressed the gratitude of those responsible for the 
arrangements, to the officers and members of the peace societies 
who had so warmly supported the holding of this large demon- 
stration and who bad contributed so much to its success by 
their ungrudging personal contributions of time and work; to 
the Boys* Brigade, which had so ably performed the duties 
of stewards during the evening; to the Choir of St Mary 
Abbot's; and to Mr Henry Bird, who, as organist and choir- 
master, had given such generous help ; and lastly, to the artistes 
whose singing had been so highly appreciated, congratulating 
Miss Ella Walker, a Canadian singer, whose d^biU this was, upon 
appearing for the first time in London under such auspices, and 
upon the splendid reception she had obtained. 

This terminated the proceedings. 



MRS. ELLEN JOHNSON. 

Hdinl «/ .Mauackvt/lli Slalt Prlan and Ri/sn 



MRS. BEN SOX. 



OONPERENOE HELD BY THE INTER- 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN. 



GREAT HALL, ST MARTIN'S TOWN HALL 

SATURDAY, JULY 1, MORNING, 



The COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN in the Chair. 

In opening the proceedings the President said : " There is no sub- 
ject more fitting than organisation to be considered at the close of 
the Congress which, from every point of view, I think we may thank- 
fully regard as a very great success. This has certainly been attained 
by organisation. This is not the work of weeks or months, but of 
years. The Council has received congratulations from all quarters. 
Some of us are but too conscious that there have been mistakes, 
but we will endeavour to profit by those mistakes, and meanwhile 
we are deeply grateful to the many helpers who have made this 
Congress what it is; but if one person more than another is 
deserving of thanks it is Miss Wilson, our corresponding secre- 
tary, who, during the absence of the President from the country, 
has had the brunt of the work of organisation thrown upon her 
shoulders. To all our workers — and their name is legion — the 
heartfelt thanks of the Council are due for enabling us to prove 
once more that women have the power of organisation, and 
that they know its secret, which lies in a combination of central- 
isation and devolution. I must not, however, begin to trench on 
the subject which we know will be so ably treated by our special 
speaker this morning — our Vice-President, Mrs May Wright 
Sewall. 

245 



246 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Organisation as a Factor in the Develop- 
ment of Modern Social Life. 

Mrs May Wright SewalL 

Organisation as a social force has developed along about the 
same lines in all our modern countries. Hence, if I discuss it in 
its development in my own country I shall have suggested its 
trend in modem Europe. 

Natural affinity as a principle of organisation, or rather as an 
element of it, is less obstructed in a new than in an old country. 
All of the conditions that tend to crystallisation in isolated 
circles, classes, etc., or in individualities, being absent — society 
being in what may be called a fluid state — ^its various members 
find little difficulty in forming nuclei suitable to their various 
characters, motives and purposes. Pioneer conditions are friendly 
to organisation, since organisation is a confession of individual 
weakness. The individual, finding himself incapable of accom- 
plishing his desire by his own unaided efforts, seeks to kindle the 
same desire in other minds, and by the union of his own efforts 
with those of others to accomplish the purpose thus made 
common. 

The earUest expression of the tendency toward organisation 
in pioneer life came in the shape of societies for mutual advantage 
in pioneer labours — for example, in the clearing up of lands, in 
the erection of dwellings, and, later, in the construction of roads, 
schoolhouses and churches. English people will never be able to 
understand social organisation in the United States until they 
realise that the people who first undertook organisation for the 
amelioration of social conditions belong to the same class as the 
individuals who, in England, undertook the amelioration of the 
social conditions of their respective parishes, townships and 
counties. By this I mean to indicate that the people who in 
England would be classed as nobles and gentry, but who, under 
republican institutions, lose the distinctive title while retaining 
the distinctive character, were the movers in social organisation. 

The pioneer could not often alone, for example, endow the 
school or build the church ; but he could do what was infinitely 
better for his community — he could inspire his neighbours with 
his own desire to improve their common condition. He could 



ORGANISATION AS A FACTOR 247 

nnite with him those whose assistance would sufficiently augment 
his own resources to enable them to accomplish the purpose for 
the common good. 

Exactly the same principles and influences which were active 
in producing efforts for material advantage were active in creating 
organisations for the common spiritual good. 

No part of American history, or rather no feature of early 
American life, is more interesting than this tendency to correct 
by organisation the weakness of the individual transplanted into 
a new country. However, it is only one branch of this large and 
fascinating subject that I can discuss. Organisations among 
women in my country may be said, in general, to have three 
types, and the evolutionary process may be easily traced in the 
developments of these types. 

The first organisations of women were, in every instance, for 
the benefit of some suffering class, and were utterly unselfish. 
They had no bearing on the condition of women themselves, but 
regarded entirely either the physical or spiritual welfare of 
others. For example, the first National society of women in the 
United States was an Anti-Slavery Society, formed with the 
ultimate purpose of delivering the coloured race in our country 
from bondage, through the inculcation of the doctrine of human 
liberty, and through building up public opinion on the one side, 
and aiding the escape of fugitives on the other. This society 
assumed a national name and form as early as 1836. 

The most important organisations among women, immediately 
following it, were missionary and temperance societies — the names 
of both implying their objects — the one carrying religious influ- 
ences into the western territories of our own country or into 
other lands, and the other seeking to deliver men from the bond- 
age of the drink habit. It will be seen that these were all 
altruistic endeavours, and, curiously enough, the first egoistic 
organisations among women were the fruit of their failures to 
accomplish their altruistic purposes in their philanthropic organisa- 
tions. It was through working in these philanthropic societies 
that women found the limitations of their power. For example, 
they needed more knowledge, larger information in order to meet 
their opponents in argument, and to overcome antagonisms. 
They needed more money and more freedom in the use of money 
in order to expend for the causes nearest their hearts. It was in 
the endeavour to secure civil liberty for the one class of men, and 
moral emancipation for another, that women discovered the limi* 



248 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

tations on their own civil freedom. More than this, it was 
through this benevolent and philanthropic public-spirited activity 
that they first experienced the need for political recognition. 

The famous Convention at Seneca Falls in 1848, so frequently 
referred to, was the first formal expression on the part of women 
of their discovery of the limitations of their educational liberty, 
their industrial freedom, their pecuniary resources and their civil 
privileges. To my mind, also, this Convention was the first 
expression on the part of American women that the limitations 
above named accounted for the limitations set upon their social 
influence. After this Convention there was a decade in which our 
social history shows that women were in various parts of our 
country organising for what might be called their own advantage ; 
always, however, with an ultimate altruistic purpose. They had 
simply found that they might not work effectively for others 
unto they had done somewhat to improve the conditions of their 
own lives. 

Then came the Civil War, and out of the exigencies of those 
fateful years was bom a new sense of ability ; a new comprehen- 
sion of their resources, on the one hand, and of their obligations 
on the other. It was during this crisis in our national life that 
American women were taken outside their homes into non- 
domestic occupations. 

Ko one can study intelligently the conditions of either domestic 
or social life in the United States without finding the source of 
many of their characteristics in that national convulsion which 
turned a nation of civilians out of their ordinary occupations 
into military life, and replaced them in all possible occupations 
by the mothers, wives and sisters of the households. It was in 
this crisis that American women discovered that they were 
neither physically feeble, mentally incapable, nor necessarily 
pecuniarily dependent. 

One cannot stop to trace this change step by step, and to tell 
the exact date upon which some new occupation, hitherto thought 
by men and women alike to be utterly improper for women to 
follow, was entered successfully by some women. But one may 
say that the change made was so great that, from seven non- 
domestic industries open to women in 1848, the date of the 
Seneca Falls Convention, in 1885, when the International Cotton 
Exposition was held at New Orleans, the census of occupations 
taken showed that women were working successfuUy in over 400 
non-domestic lines. 



OROANI8ATT0N AS A FACTOR 249 

Upon this subject I can speak with some authority, for the 
€k>yemor of the State of Indiana appointed me to the difficult 
but interesting task of writing a monograph upon the industrial 
position of women in Indiana. Undoubtedly, to my audience, 
Indiana seems a State of the extreme west, but, in reality, it is 
an eastern middle State of our great union. Its population is not 
dense, being about 2| millions. In such a State conditions of 
life for the masses are much easier than in a denser population ; 
and, generally speaking, the more arduous, the more exposed and 
the more difficult employments are entered upon by women only 
in dense populations. But, as far back as 1885, in my own State 
of Indiana, there was no occupation pursued by a man that was 
not also followed by a woman. At that time there was in the 
State of Indiana two women lawyers, and there were also two 
women blacksmiths. But when I confess that in my own State 
there were two women blacksmiths, it must not be considered 
that I am making an argument to show that there is any natural 
affinity between a woman's hand and a horse's hoof. I am only 
stating an interesting fact. The fact, simply expressed, is this, 
that where matters are left to settle themselves, women, like men, 
will work when work is the condition of support ; they will enter 
the occupation which, under all the circumstances, taking into 
account individual conditions and personal environment, is best, 
easiest and most remunerative for them. 

The same crisis in our national history which brought a few 
women into most exceptional, and, one may say, perhaps, most 
unsuitable labours, also brought them in large numbers into 
important and congenial posts. Prior to the Civil War, the 
majority of teachers throughout the United States were men. 
During the Civil War, when many men where taken from the 
teacher's desk to militaiy service, and many others left teaching 
for more remunerative posts, which were vacated by their enlisted 
brothers, the schoolrooms fell, one may almost say, into the hands 
of women. This was true to such an extent at least, that in the 
State of Indiana the number of women following this profession 
increased from a few hundred in 1860 to many thousands in 
1886. 

It is easy to be seen that on the conclusion of the war in 
1866 it was quite impossible that women should retire suddenly 
from the occupations in which they had been engaged, and go 
back into unremunerative domestic life. Moreover, society had 
discovered that domestic life, so far from being destroyed by the 



250 INTEBNATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

fact that women were engaged in productive labours, was, on the 
whole, improved by it. 

During this period — I speak of the period of the war — all the 
organisations affected by women were again altruistic. They 
organised a patriotic league for the support of the institutions of 
their country ; a Freedman's Bureau, in the first instance, for the 
protection of refugees, and in the last instance, for the protection 
and education of a legally manumitted race into a self-supporting 
citizenship. They organised a sanitary conunission which proved 
itself a valuable auxiliary in the conduct of the war. They had 
also, in their respective committees, assumed quite unconsciously 
the obligations which had previously belonged to the men of those 
conmiunities, in the organised social life of village and town. 
From 1867 one may date a new character in the organised life of 
American women. Without falling away from the support of 
altruistic societies, they multiplied organisations for their own 
improvement and advantage. What may be termed the egoistic 
organisations of women may be divided into three classes — ^intel- 
lectual, industrial and political. From this year one may date 
the movement so potent in its effect upon the social life of the 
United States, known as the club movement. 

Here one must stop to remind you that the women's club in 
the United States is quite different from the women's clubs of 
London. So far as I know, our women's club has no counterpart 
in any European country. It was bom out of the discovery that 
woman possessed powers which, in her life, had no arena, and 
also out of the discovery that to secure an arena these powers 
themselves must be augmented by wider culture. The earlier 
women's clubs, therefore, were, in almost all instances, mutual 
improvement societies, established to supplement the inadequate 
education which women had received during the period properly 
belonging to school life. The programmes of these clubs would 
show that many of them were essentially classes in literature, 
history, the history of art, etc., where at all times the members 
were learners, and where, in succession, each member became a 
teacher. The history of the club movement has been written by 
one of its originators. It is a movement the history of whi<^ 
must be understood by anyone who would read intelligently the 
social life of the United States at this time. 

It was not until the club movement was fairly well organised, 
not until its influence was rather widely spread, that another form 
of organisation sprang up which has tended largely to augment 



ORGANISATION AS A FACTOR 261 

the influence of women through the augmentation of their powers. 
If I may ask this patient audience to refer to the beginning of 
this address, you will bear in mind that in the earliest organisa- 
tions of women, only women of the same social group came 
together for the accomplishment of a public purpose which 
appealed to the same social or religious group. The club in the 
United States was the very first social agency which undertook 
to bridge the chasms that had only deepened between unlike 
groups. For example, in the prosecution of missionary work, 
only women of the same denomination united together. In the 
prosecution of the anti-slavery work, the women who united had, 
for the most part, been able to do so only by breaking away from 
their respective religious denominations, and uniting in a philan- 
thropic effort, which, to their minds, imposed obligations tran- 
scending the obligation of formal religion. As they had grown 
in industrial freedom, women belonging to the same industry, or 
rather women belonging to the same profession, had got used to 
meeting together, though it cannot be said that before 1880 
women had organised along professional and industrial lines. A 
club in a neighbourhood brought together the women who loved 
literature, history or art, for mutual improvement in these studies, 
quite independent of their denominational affiliations. And so 
the club became the first bridge over sectarian and social chasms. 

It may be said that we have had thirty years of this kind of 
organisation in the United States, and the educational life of our 
country cannot be studied by one who ignores this important 
auxiliary of the formal educational system. The club has been 
the feeder of the chatauquas, the summer assemblies and the 
university extension centres in our cou^^try ; and the intellectual 
life of our whole nation has been elevated and unified by it. 

It would be most interesting to diverge here for the continu- 
ous discussion of the women's club as known in the United States, 
and its influence as a social factor, but I am, this morning, 
endeavouring to treat the subject in general, and may not indulge 
myself in details. 

I would remind you that, at the outset, I asserted that organi- 
sations among women had three types, and that the first had 
been altruistic, of which I gave as examples the anti-slavery, 
the missionary, and temperance societies. 

The second type, I said, was egoistic, and the best example of 
this is the women's club. But there is that in the nature of 
women that makes any purely egoistic work unsufficing, and one 



252 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

may fairly say that our women were diverted into egoistic organi- 
sations only to increase their power for larger altruistic service. 
That larger altruistic service is finding its expressions in organisa- 
tions that have, for the most part, sprung up since 1880. These 
include patriotic orders, social economic societies, municipal 
improvement clubs, peace and arbitration societies, and what to 
my mind is the climax of organisation, namely, that form of 
organisation which seeks to unify into larger bodies the groups 
that seem to be severed from one another by their distinct and 
sometimes antagonistic purposes. You know I refer to the 
Council movement. 

I must refer now to another date before I can discuss intelli- 
gently this latest form of organisation. Many of you will know I 
refer to the date 1888, when the National American Women's 
Suffrage Society of the United States invited all other organisa- 
tions of women to attend a Council in celebration of its own 
fortieth an^iiversary. I think that, until then, women had not 
themselves realised the degree to which they had separated them- 
selves from others with different standards of culture, different 
philanthropic purposes, different religious affiliations, by the 
closeness of the bond they had formed with those of the same 
political and religious affiliations, the same philanthropic purposes 
and the same standards of culture. 

The correspondence involved in inviting all other national 
organisations of women to assist at the f%te of the suffragists, 
revealed lines of cleavage in the social structure of whose depth 
and breadth probably no one had been conscious. 

Hitherto it was found that Conservatives had regarded 
Radicals with horror, while Radicals had looked upon Conserva- 
tives with contempt. Generally speaking, the religious bodies 
had thought suffragists to be infidels ; while suffragists, although 
including every possible phase of religious opinion in their 
membership, had, as a whole, regarded the organisations of 
women formed along denominational lines as narrow and dogmatic. 
It was discovered that the basis of all these uncharitable and, 
relatively speaking, false opinions was what the basis of all 
uncharity must always be, a prejudice whose only explanation 
was ignorance. 

It was out of this discoverv that what we have come to call 
the Council idea was bom. Women of all views reproached 
themselves for their misunderstanding of each other, and every 
group is gradually coming to realise that the reason it has been 



OBOANISATION AS A FACTOR 253 

misunderstood by other groups is because it has held aloof from 
them ; and gradually all are coming to realise that the Council is 
the only possible neutral platform upon which all may meet with- 
out surrendering any conviction necessary to the accomplishment 
of their own distinct purpose, and with a chance of increasing the 
adherents of their own convictions and the advocates of their own 
purpose from groups who have previously had no true knowledge 
of either their convictions or their purposes. 

The impulse given to organisation by the first Council of 1888 
was the strongest impulse toward unification which American 
society has ever received. It goes without saying that the large 
principles underlying the Council idea appeal only to broad and 
generous minds; but every possible organisation has among its 
leaders some broad and generous mind. It is upon this fact 
that we may base a rational hope that the Council will ultimately 
include all organisations. 

In every organisation in our country there is the practical, 
and, perhaps, what may be called the sentimental side. We are, 
undoubtedly, as a nation, richly endowed with sentiment. We 
delight in general principles. 

A large part of organised effort is for the inculcation of 
principles of ideas, but along with this inculcation of what may 
be called sentiment for certain ideas there is practical work. For 
example, we believe in equality, and, in spite of all existing 
inequalities in culture and character as well as in estate, we 
believe that, in ultimate human society, there must be equality 
of opportunity, equality of privilege, equality of liberty. On the 
side of sentiment all our social organisations illustrate and propa- 
gate this national belief, but on the practical side every organisa- 
tion has its distinct work. At the present time, for example, the 
organisations of women in the different professions have further 
practical work ; either the founding of new institutions where 
women may study the professions, or the opening of old institu- 
tions to women ; or the enactment of laws by the different State 
legislatures which will prevent the abridgment of the privileges 
belonging to any profession on account of sex. 

So, likewise, the Association of Collegiate Alumnie has its 
practical work in getting scholarships and fellowships in women's 
colleges and in our co-educational universities established for 
women. Also such societies work for the improvement of 
secondary education, for the elevation of the entrance reqiure- 
ments of our different colleges and universities, and for securing 



254 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

donations to increase the facilities for the higher education of 
women. So, too, our women's clubs are founding libraries, secur- 
ing township libraries, and improving all l^islation bearing upon 
libraries and schools. 

One charge often brought against so much organised life 
among women is a just one, viz., that it tends to separate women 
from men, to make for them a separate intellectual existence, and 
to divide social life. 

To my mind one sees in the history of organisations of women 
the evolutionary process of society. Women with inferior educa- 
tional opportunity, with inadequate pecuniary resources, with the 
consciousness of subordination and dependence inseparable from 
such conditions, had and could have neither freedom of speech 
nor of action in organisation where men and women were both 
admitted. Their separate organised life has been an education to 
them, through which they have gotten the use of their powers, and 
are being trained to work on a plane of recognised equality with 
men in all walks of life. 

It is a serious limitation on the social life of my own country 
that men and women are so much separated, not by their respec- 
tive pursidts, but in them. But, at the present time, there is a 
distinct tendency for men and women to come together in organised 
life. Women's clubs, as I have described them, were but Uie pre- 
cursor of such clubs as the Nineteenth Century of New York, the 
Twentieth Century of Chicago, and the Contemporary of Phila- 
delphia and Indianapolis. 

The separate work of women in their church societies has 
trained them into an ability to work with men in the administra- 
tion of Church affairs, and this ability prompts the desire, and the 
desire has manifested itself in appeals to the conferences and 
assemblies of many of our denominations in only the most liberal 
of which women are now admitted on the same terms as men. 

It has been more difficult to teach working women in the 
United States the strength of organisation than it has been to 
teach the women of the so-called leisured classes. Of course, in 
the United States, there is no leisured class of men. Here and 
there in every community Lb a man of fortune who does not seek 
to augment it. Occasionally such a man is a blessing to the 
community in which he resides, but, generally speaking, he is the 
most miserable and the most useless member of it. There is in 
every American community a large number of women accustomed 
to comfort, to luxury, without toil in the ordinary sense of the 



ORGANISATION AS A FACTTOR 255 

term. There are among this class numbers of helpless and 
relatively useless beings, but, generally speaking, the members of 
this so-called leisured class of Ainerican women are the busiest and 
most beneficent members of their respective communities. They 
maintain and direct the charities ; they organise the social life ; 
they improve the taste, and they demand a conformity to improved 
taste. They have time to give to their own culture, and they 
join others with them in their efforts to get some expression of 
culture in the public social life. 

Working girls' clubs have now been formed. They are, so 
far as I have been able to observe the corresponding clubs in 
England, organised on quite a different basis from clubs of the 
same name over here. Working women themselves are not only 
the members, but the officers of these clubs, and through them 
get a training; in the formation and expression of opinions, and in 
the management of their affairs, which must fit them, after a 
time, to enter upon terms of equality with working men in all 
organisations of labour. 

Thus it will be seen that my own view is that the organisa- 
tions of women tell the story of the apprenticeship of women in 
getting a knowledge of the use of their own powers and resources. 
In the higher development of society, women will necessarily pass 
from this apprenticeship into united, organised effort with men for 
the improvement of the common life of men and women, in 
economic conditions, in the possession and the expression of 
culture, in a religious life in which men will be as active as 
women, and in a political life in which the rights of women will 
be as universally recognised as those of men. 



No discussion followed. Miss Cochrane, however, announcing 
that a combination of women interested in country workers had 
been formed the previous day. It was intended to meet twice or 
three times a year for the purpose of discussion, and it was ex- 
pected that light would be thrown on subjects concerning which 
many of them were at present quite ignorant. 

Dr Maria Montefisori, a delegate from Italy, was then intro- 
duced in cordial terms by the President, and presented the 
greetings of Italian women in her native tongue. The greeting, 
drawn up by Countess Tavema, Princess di Venosa and the 
Minister of Public Instruction, was as follows : — 

Illustrious Ladies, who meet here to-day in this centre of 



256 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

civilisation to unite all the progress made by humanity for the 
cause of woman, I bring you the greetings of the women of 
Italy, with their best wishes, and also those of an illustrous 
citizen of Rome, Guido Baccelli, for the sixth time Minister of 
Public Instruction for Italy. 

The fact that a high representative of the Government should 
wish officially to encourage the social work of justice for which 
we plead will tell you how much could be done for the cause in 
Italy if women themselves would only work earnestly for it, and 
how fruitful would be your co-operation if you would lend your 
aid to the work of women in the sunny nation favoured by 
nature. 

Although there is not yet a very strong " feminist " party in 
Italy, still it is noticeable that the activity of woman carried into 
the field of economy and natural talents is regularly awakened. 

Both industrial and agricultural wages are relatively low in 
Italy. There is hardly any branch of fatiguing work in which 
woman does not partake largely. Physiologically she certainly 
cannot be said to fatigue less than man, whilst at the same time 
there are no Factory and Workshop Acts for the protection of 
women. 

Now the activity of women is explained in many ways. We 
have employees in telegraph and telephone offices, in libraries, 
women directors of many imporant houses of business ; popular 
education is almost two-thirds in the hands of women, who, especi- 
ally in the last ten years, raise themselves in large numbers in 
the literary and scientific studies of the university. 

In 1896 the statistics report thirty women as taking degrees ; 
in 1898 the number was doubled; to-day there is no university 
course which is not attended by women. 

They have contributed in a way that cannot be ignored to 
scientific publications, in reward of which they were elevated to 
the rank of professor at the university, and some have the 
honour of Chair in the highest academies in Italy, as, for example, 
that of the lincei. 

Italian women have for some time been celebrated in the 
fine arts, but now a special progress has arisen in l^e literary 
movement, and the greater part of the best Italian literature of 
to-day is due to women. 

Also in the field of sculpture and of painting there is a 
noticeable progress ; and, lastly, in theatrical work also women 
have recently given good proof of their talent. I will notice in 



0BGANI8ATI0K AS ▲ FACTOR 257 

passmg Anima, by Amelia Rosselli, and a musical work, the 
Drama of Life^ by Yirginia Mariani 

But however much Italian women may shine in work and in 
talent, they are still oppressed by the prejudice that feminine virtue 
consists only in never stepping outside the family circle, and we 
see a strange fact — of illustrious women lying still in the modest 
submission consecrated by the centuries, and preoccupied only 
of their own welfare. Social studies and collective ideals are 
grounds almost untrodden \ss the foot of woman. She does not 
guard even her own rights. Take, for example, female barristers, 
who might have causes of their own to defend, and have remained 
inactive, while this year the free practice of female barristers was 
defended with so much success at the House of Commons that 
the proposal was refused by a majority of only sixteen votes. 

The liberal professions still offer grave obstacles to women. 
For example, a lady doctor cannot practise unless she is called 
in by the husband ; and so she has a good practice in the South 
of Italy, where the jealousy of the men seeks her as a Turk 
does for his harem \ while in Middle Italy women who have free 
choice call in men to doctor them, c» ih&y ahoays have been accus- 
tomed to do^ and confine their attention to critidsing the private 
life of the professional lady, driving her back to the numerous 
band of the intellectual proletariat. 

It might justly be said that in Italy it is not so much mam and 
the laws that are against the progress of woman as woman herself 1 

In fact, there are laws favourable to woman which she does 
not take advantage of. For example, she might be a member of 
the great administrations of charity ; but the ladies limit them- 
selves to collect money at some great charitable festival, leaving 
the administrations to men. 

She could be witness in civil acts, but it is only an excep- 
tional case when a woman profits by it. 

Hence in Italy, however much economic conditions and 
natural talent may urge woman forward in social activity, she 
is not yet educated up to coUective life, and lies still under the 
weight of the prejudice of centuries. And may action be prepared 
for union and definite study of the condition of Italian women 
who have to work for their living, under conditions often the 
saddest that feeling of humanity can alleviate. 

The Association for Women in Italy has precisely this object 
— ^to study the condition of Italian women, and to promote a 
serious and efficacious action on the basis of real &ct8. 

VOL. I. R 



258 IKTEXSfATlOJfAL COUNCIL OF WOMSN 

The Housing of Educated Working 

Women. 

The Prendent. — ^The second half of the meeting is to be 
devoted to the consideration of a subject of deep moment to 
many women. I deeply regret that Mr Gilbert Parker is unable 
tlirongh indisposition to r^ the paper he has promised ns, but 
he has kindly deputed a friend to read it on his behalf. 

Mr Oflbert Parker. 

Ik considering the position of the educated working woman, we 
cannot escape from the fact that where and how and at what 
price she works, and where and how and at what price she lives, 
affects her physical health, her mental ability, her contribution to 
the civic and social welfare, and her part in the wholesome 
development of the race. And, since time is short, I may not 
consider where and how and under what conditions she does her 
work, for they at the worst are infinitely better than the way she 
lives, according to the price she gets for that work. Now, where 
does she live 1 In what sort of rooms 1 What kind of food bas 
she? How does she spend her leisure] Generally, are the con- 
ditions in which she lives out of business hours the most advan- 
tageous for producing the best effort in them, so that she may 
take her right place in the great scheme of national economy, 
which is to get — as it has b^n put — " the best work out of the 
best brains the nation produces, whether those brains are in male 
or female heads." 

But, apart from this last view (which, after all, is altruistic 
and philanthropic, and on a very high ground of national service^, 
is the manner in which she lives at the present time on her small 
salary suitable to the woman herself, to the human life involun- 
tarily placed in a disadvantageous position, bound to preserve 
itself from extinction by a ceaseless struggle, and so often with- 
out the hope which is given to the poorest man in the most 
disastrous circumstances 1 

In the brains and veins of man there is the long line of 
ancestral tendency, the old predisposition to struggle ; he is bom 
with the instinct of labour and fighting. But, more than all, 
were his will as weak as water and were he without predispoai- 



THE HOUSING OF EDUCATED WORKING WOMEN 259 

tion, there would still remain for him the incentive to ambition, 
for many parts of the earth are calling to him, many ways are 
open, many heights have beaoon-lights to cheer him on. But for 
the woman of the class with which I am dealing to-day there are 
few prospects which allure, there are few heights of success to 
climb. 

She only asks permission to labour, to earn bread sufficient, 
and — with the fireside instincts of her sex — a place which has 
some resemblance, as to comfort, quiet and companionship, to 
that home which, until the time of her adventure into the hard 
fields of wage-earning, was her lot and portion. 

I venture to set down here the proposition, qidte apart from 
the question of wage-earning — which is a subject for considera- 
tion elsewhere — that housing in London is becoming a serious 
problem to face for all who have not assured incomes to keep 
them beyond anxiety. It is bitterly hard on the labouring 
classes, whose homes are daily being pulled down to make way 
for newer, better, higher-rented buildings ; it is not easy for the 
class with incomes of £200 a year and over ; but undoubtedly it 
is hardest of all upon the educated woman living by her own 
exertions upon a pittance which it takes her best energies to 
adjust to her needs. It is hardest, I think, on her, because not 
only are the conditions of women's labour still unsatisfactory ; 
because the very nature of her work — be it as clerk or secretary, 
or teacher or typist — involves a close indoor atmosphere, an un- 
broken concentration of thought, irregular hours, and more or 
less mental strain all the time she is working ; but also because 
in most cases the professional women referred to are, as Miss 
Frances Low has put it lately, those '^ whose birth or breeding 
have been such as to make a certain standard of comfort and 
refinement a necessity of life, and who cannot sink to the level 
of the daughter of the artisan, or even of the small tradesman, 
without undergoing real hardships and suffering of mind and 
body." 

The aggregate number of women now engaged professionally 
it is impossible to state, as the figures available are those of the 
last census, taken in 1891 ; but, starting from that, and taking into 
account the fact that women's work has been advancing by leaps 
and bounds since then, it cannot fall short of at least half a million, 
and of this number by far the larger proportion falls to London. 
This is exclusive of those engaged in commercial and industrial 
life. 



260 IirrBRNATIOVAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

The whole question of wages I cannot go into here, but I 
shall take for a basis now that the majority of educated women 
workers are earning incomes varying from £50 to £140 a year, 
or in most cases from 25s. to 308. a week. A far lower standard 
than this is set, not by private employers and private establish- 
ments, but by the Grovemment itself. At Wliitehall and the 
War Office well-educated ladies are expected to do satis&ictory 
work at from 158. to IGs. a week, with annual rises of Is. to 
Is. 6d. The Local Government Board pays 14s. a week, with an 
annual rise of Is. 6d. That is, after eight years of hard work — 
much of it unpaid overtime— your educated woman earns the exact 
salary of the parish scavenger. Better for to take to dog-clip- 
ping at half a guinea a poodle, or to walking dogs in the park 
at halfna-crown apiece. I believe, however, the demand is 
limited, for poodles, though beautiful, are not a real necessity in 
the life of a fashionable woman. 

Of course I do not include in this class, earning 25s. to 308. 
a week, those women and girls of good parentage and education 
who, doing their work in the world, live in their own homes. I 
do not include the pretty opportunist who occasionally works, 
not because she needs to work, but because she wants to buy a new 
bicycle or display a new hat at Lord's, while at the same time she 
takes bread out of the mouths of those who go hungry. I do not 
include those gifted amateurs who, bitten by that pleasant virus 
of woman's advancement, independence, and — go-as-you-please, 
shall I say ? — swagger it like Rosialind in East End offices, that 
they may put on airs with their bewildered brothers at home. 
I do not include the young person who knows she can turn to 
her friends in an emergency when her weekly accounts do not 
taUy. 

But the class of women I have most in my mind to-day are 
those who have in this great city no home to which to return 
when their day's work is done ; those who have no private in- 
come — no matter how small — ^which takes the sting from the 
strain of life, which gives that mental confidence so delightful to 
the brain of the worker. I mean the girl or woman who has no 
brother to turn to in any emergency — ^the woman whom every 
sunset does not bring a oay's march nearer home. I mean the 
woman who has had a piece of bread and tea for breakfast, 
with, maybe, a doubtful egg, to whom the bun-shop or dairy has 
dispensed its luxuries for 2d. at noon, and who goes home at 
night to a sordid boarding-house — if she can afiEbrd a boarding- 



THE H0U8IN0 OF BDUCATSD WORKING WOMEN 261 

house — ^too tired to eat the unappetising food put before her ; 
too indifferent, through weariness, to mend her clothes or dean 
them. I mean the woman who goes home to a room under the 
roof, where going in faoo-f oremost ahnost necessitates backing out, 
for it has not space enough to sling a cat — ^let alone a woman — ^in ; 
and sitting on her trunk, with her feet under the washstand, or 
on the side of the bed, she eats her leatheiy chop and her cold 
potato^ and drinks the glass of stale water, with that natural 
gratitude so deep in her mind for permission to live in a world 
where she was set down without choice, and certainly with no 
guarantee for even 25s. a week. 

I think it a considerable achievement for a woman bom in 
a comfortable state of lif& to pay lOs. a week out of 25s. for a 
garret, and to provide herself with food and clothes and all the 
amusements of life on the other 15s. She needs food — and good 
food — ^if she is to do a man's work with a man's brain. She needs 
clothes — I fancy there is no real objection to that; and the 
wear and tear of the clothes of a working woman slogging in a 
dirty office all day and paddling home through dirty streets, un- 
protected by the costly penny 'bus, is not a little. I am satisfied 
also that she needs amusements other than those which a Lord 
Mayor's Show or a Hyde Park demonstration on Sunday affords ; 
though of course she may have some opinion as to the delirious 
enjoyment of a Park demonstration or a Salvation Army band. 

For myself, I pity the ragged poor. One can still hear " the 
cry of the children " — the children playing in the slimis almost 
unconscious of their misery, and snatching scraps from the food 
little better than ofihl which their parents eat. But the bitter 
sUenee of the educated working woman, who must keep up an 
appearance in the professional world, getting in the actual com- 
fort of life little more than Elizabeth Barrett Browning's ragged 
child, is more painful stilL 

Let me make a quotation from the words of one such woman 
who knows. This is not from any picturesque article in a picture- 
loving daily, weekly or monthly paper. It is a human document. 
« What is daily life for the woman who gets 25s. a week t Well, 
from the time she gets up in the morning, to snatch a hasty 
breakfast from a tray in her bedroom, ere rushing off to catch 
the train or 'bus covering the miles between her and her work, 
she has to endure a long day's unceasing toil under strain, often at 
uninteresting and mechanical work in close air and unhealthy 
surroundings. Lucky if not expected to stay and overtake any 



I 



262 UTTERNATIONAL OOUSdL OF WOMEN 

extra arrears, she does the homeward journey over again at 6 
o'clock, and returns fagged, headachy and depressed to the 7 
by 9 room where she has to stand up to let anyone pass. In 
addition to the physical and mental degradation that poverty 
brings, she has the galling sense of giving her best energies and 
the results of an expensive schooling for a pittance which is half 
what is paid a junior clerk of no education beyond the three R's. 
She knows, too, that the quality of her work hasn't a chance 
beside the fact that she is a woman, and women's labour is cheap, 
and if she doesn't take it a hundred others will step into her 
shoes. The present monotony of her life leaves her nothing to 
look forward to, and no hope, through frugality, of saving out 
of a bare living wage. She has the knowledge, too, that each 
year will make it harder for her to continue in keen competition 
with the younger, better-trained women, owing to the demoralisa- 
tion of her mind from sordid and meagre surroundings, scanty 
and badly-cooked food, and an utter absence of recreation." 

Let me offer three typical cases among such women, and how 
they work to live. In these the salaries received are respectively 
258., 28s., and 30s. 

(a) '* Miss Smith," a clergyman's daughter, assists a man who 
gives lectures to a large number of pupils, makes appointments, 
keeps the books, does all shorthand and typewriting, conducts 
hi^ correspondence, etc. She tried various cheap boarding-houses ; 
but, finding none where cleanliness could be had at t£e figure 
she could afford to pay, now lives in a room in the S.W. district, 
for which she pays 10s. out of her weekly 25s. Breakfast and 
dinner cost her 7s. 7d. a week, 'bus fares 6d. a day, which brings 
her outlay up to 208. 7d. ; and out of the remaining 48. 5d. she 
has to find a midday meal, baths, washing, clothes, a fire on 
winter evenings — for which she is charged half-a-crown a week — 
and numberless small items in the way of boot-cleaning, hot 
water fetching, etc. 

(h) '* Miss Jones," the daughter of a professional man who 
lost his money, having had a better literary education than usual, 
does research work at the British Museum for an author who pays 
her 2 Ss. a week. After a long day in that heavy atmosphere, poring 
over old French and German historical works, she makes the 
three-quarters-of-hour journey back to a tiny bedroom in Chelsea, 
where two people make an obstruction ; and after a hasty meal, 
taken off a tray on the bed, she spends the evening in translating 
and typewriting the results of the day's labour. For this room 



THE HOUSING OF EDUCATED WORKING WOMEN 263 

8s. Gd. is charged, breakfast and dinner being supplied at 6d. and 
8d. each. Another daily sixpence for a bath brings the week's bill 
up to £1, Os. 2d. ; coals and the mysterious item *' kitchen firing" 
are Is. 6d., light is 6d., shoe-brushing 6d., and after a weekly 3s. 
for 'bus fares she is left with exactly 2s. 4d., out of which to pay 
for her lunch and tea, washing, dress, newspapers, stamps, and 
recreation of any sort. 

(c) "Miss Robinson,'' the possessor of 30s. a week, is the 
daughter of a distinguished admiral, whose sudden death left his 
family practically penniless. After she had learnt typewriting, 
friends found a post for her with a well-known charitable or- 
ganisation, where most of the routine of the office falls to her to 
do. She tried in vain for admission at the best homes for women 
she could hear of, such as Brabason House and Sloane Gardens 
House, but there was no single vacancy, and there were long 
lists of names waiting their turn. Being comparatively new to 
the struggle of life, and with her store of vitality as yet un- 
diminished, she at last boldly plunged with a friend, and took a 
small unfurnished flat in a central part of London, where she has 
to pay half of the £60 rent out of her £80 a year ; but then, as 
she sajrs, once inside you can sit down and starve comfortably, 
and you can call your soul your own ; which makes up for the 
sparseness of furniture, and for having to scrub the floors and do 
all the work yourself, to save a charwoman. 

Now, I do not say that all women who earn 25s. or 308. a 
week live in a room that you cannot turn round in, and that all 
have such hard conditions ; but I do say that all evidence shows 
that the majority live in this painful fashion. I do say that it 
is most difficult to get a room in any possible part of London for 
less than about 9s. a week — though in a central neighbourhood 
12s. or 15s. is asked — and it is difficult to get this sort of room 
at all, for there is still a prejudice in favour of the male among 
landladies old enough to know better. I remember a landlady 
saying to me once : " Now, I always likes the gentlemen ; they 
ain't pertic'lar. They's always out and they don't give no 
trouble. And such werry nice manners some of 'em, that I 
always does their mending." This prejudice on the part of 
landladies for my sex exists, though I need not be expected to 
share it. I am aware that if Mrs 'Opkins agrees to waive her 
prejudice in favour of male lodgers only, attention is most grudg- 
ingly given. From such a landlady and in such a house it is 
often found impossible to get breakfast at an early hour or a 



264 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Bmall supply of hot water when wanted, while anything in the 
shape of a visitor is fiercely resented. Extras, too, have a way 
of mounting up to a point beyond control, and mysterious items 
of " kitchen finng," *^ use of cruets," etc., are given to swell the 
weekly bill after a time. I am told that in reply to an advertise- 
ment for such a room, with the special proviso that the price 
must be moderate, over fifty answers may be received, of which 
only a couple may ofifer to let at a smaller sum than 8s., and 
these are probably at Wandsworth or Pimlico. The former 
would be impossible for all women the nature of whose work re- 
quires them to live within a reasonable distance of it, while the 
cheaper attractions of Pimlico are too often dearly paid for by 
annoyances of which one need not speak — ^f or every working 
woman understands them. To the eight-and-sixpenny room, 
then, has to be added an average sum of 10s. for food, with 
about 28. a week for lunch taken outside — ^not to be done much 
under 4d. ; light and coal, on an average the year round, about 
Is. 6d. ; and such extras as a daily bath — often charged at 6d., 
but got sometimes by contract for Is. 6d. a week. These items, 
with boot-cleaninff; washing, and the necessary daily 6d. allow- 
anoe for 'bus or t^ fare^ easUy bring the weekly expenditure 
up to 27s. or 28s. What is left for the purchase of clothes, a 
daily newspaper, books to read, postage stamps, recreation of any 
sort, or the expense of going out on a Sunday, in cases where her 
time is free for the day ? It may be necessary once in a way to 
see a dentist or doctor, but where can these items find a place ? 

Of course it will be said that there are other ways of living 
rather than in a single bed-sitting-room in lodgings. 

There is, as has been pointed out^ the cheap boarding-house 
where you can live for a guinea a week. There are chambers, 
furnished and unfurnished ; but they are out of the reach of the 
class to which I refer ; and there are various homes or houses, 
of which I shall presently speak, because they are the approaches 
to the proposal which I have to make. 

To these may be added the cheerful inducement of boarding 
in a family. One cannot feel that this particular form of resid- 
ence is very sidtable for the serious worker who cannot always 
have what is called exact office hours, and who, after passing the 
period of extreme youth, certainly wishes for the independence of 
her own grate and cruet. 

Then, again, there is the lodging in the suburbs — the single 
lonely room. Living in any circumstances is tolerably cheap in 



THE HOUSING OF BDUCATBD WORKING WOMBN 265 

the suburbfl, but the arguments against it for the woman worker 
far outweigh its advantages. In the first place, it is bad enough 
for the business man to be inconvenienced by the many accidents 
due to catching trains in all weathers : it is impossible for her. 
Apart from other details, the exposure to cold in winter, the un- 
certainty of weather throughout the day and its effect on her 
wearing apparel, have to be taken into account ; and above all 
comes die wear and tear on her nervous system from getting to 
stations through the midst of a London crowd, knowing that a 
missed train means an irate landlady, and at the least, mental dis- 
comfort. It has been suggested thisit for a woman to live in the 
suburbs and bicycle to her work and back again is the ideal state 
of things. It U ideal ; for it implies not only the necessary 
capital for buying a bicycle and paying for its keep, but service 
under an employer considerate enough to provide housing for the 
machine during the day, nerves strong enough to ride through 
the busiest City traffic, and, more than all, a climate working in sym- 
pathy with the daily cyclist. I fancy, too, the general opinion 
amongst women is that the deadly monotony of a single room in 
suburban surroundings, once she gets back to it at night with the 
sense of having dropped away from all centres of interest in a busy 
humanity, adds to her moral depression. It seems to me, then, 
that living at a distance from the scene of work is poor economy, 
and that other solutions must be found. 

There is still another way of living, and it has been tried by 
some adventurous women workers. It is the occupation of flats 
in dwellings intended for the artizan class, at a rental of any- 
thing from 7s. 6d. to 1 ds. a week for two or three tiny rooms and a 
scullery, with various conveniences in the way of dust shoots and 
penny-in-the^ot gas arrangements. This plan, however, is gener- 
ally soon found impossible, apart from the unfairness of occupy- 
ing a building intended for another class. There is also the 
perpetual noise, the clamorous babies blocking the stairs, the dirty 
staircase, the British workman carolling coarsely from the house- 
tops, Gt giving occasion for your foolish intervention by throwing 
his wife downstairs of a Saturday evening. Above sdl, there is 
that turbulent and untaxed population that,defying bolts and bars, 
come out in the honest English night from dishonest and rotten 
English walls to prey, while you have neither slumber nor sleep. 

Lastly, there are the homes, houses, communities, mansions, 
settlements or chambers for women workers alone, projected, 
planned, for the convenience of this class. 



266 INTEBNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

I have before me now the addresses of various houses in 
Chelsea, Kensington, EarPs Court, Sloane Street, Bloomsbury, 
Welbeck Street, Mortimer Street (and other points off Oxford 
Street), Westboume Park, Hollowaj, Pimlico, etc., where it is 
possible for women to live for an inclusive amount of 12s. 6d., 
13s., 14s., or other reasonable sum up to 22s., while the pro- 
prietor makes a very fair profit on her business. But these 
houses are all full, even though the degree of comfort offered is 
very limited, and sometimes the surroundings painfully sordid. 

Here are particulars, taken at random, of a few of the better 
ones: — 

At A , by taking a cubicle at 4s. 6d., and living on the 

simplest fare provided, it is possible to exist on 15s. Id., includ- 
ing a daily bath at Id. and boot cleaning at ^d. per pair. Re- 
sidents have besides to supply themselves with all household and 
table Hnen. But here there has been no vacancy for many 
years. This building pays 5 per cent. 

At B , cubicles may be had at 4s. and 5s. a week, with 

board at 10s. 6d., making the weekly sum 14s. 6d., without any 
extras such as boot cleaning, baths, etc. But there has been no 
vacancy for years. It is much overcrowded, the two small 
houses accommodating about fifty, while half that number have 
rooms in adjoining houses and go in for meals. Residents pro- 
vide their own soap, towels and toilet-covers. This house is 
worked at a profit, though not a large one, as would be the case 
with larger numbers. It is that founded by Lady Meath of 
which I have spoken. At this house now many inquirers are 
turned away daily. 

At C y by sharing a room with three other women, living 

may be had at 13s. a week ; if a room occupied by two people, 
board and lodging may be had for 14s. and 16s., according to 
the room. There is no bathroom here, lights are turned out at 
ten, and there are such rules as the forbidding butter and jam 
being taken together on one piece of bread ; yet the house always 
has more than its full number, and applicants are turned away 
at the rate of four and five daily. In this house the best class 
of women never stay long, owing to the entire want of privacy. 

There are also a good many Students' Homes for those study- 
ing art, music, medicine, etc., but they are all too expensive for 
the average woman worker, the common charge being about 30s. 

It will be seen that there is a great want to be met. No one 
will hesitate to admit that there ought to be no portion of the 



THE HOUSING OF EDUCATED WORKING WOMEN 267 

community working under bitterly disadvantageous conditions. 
A radical change ought to be made on many grounds. For the 
poor so much has been done that we seem to be a Soci^t^ 
Universelle for making the world comfortable. I venture to say 
that if most gentlewoman could, without prejudice, have the 
opportunity for the same comforts extended to them as are 
granted to the artisan, they would gladly avail themselves of 
them. Shall less be done for them than for those who are bom 
into poverty; persons of ho temperament, satisfied with little, 
too often ungrateful for attempted improvement? Those who 
know the conditions of life for professional women, the way in 
which they spend their days, and especially the non-working 
hours, know also that they are of the class who endure their 
miseries in silence. Throughout London, where a demand makes 
itself felt, as a rule, the supply springs up to meet it — as witness 
those familiar institutions, the A. B.C., Lockhart's, or Salmon 
& Gluckstein's, rising like mushrooms wherever people are 
wanting to eat and to smoke. But in this important matter of 
living accommodation for a class growing larger, almost doubling, 
year by year, very little has been done. 

For the poor much has been done, and much more is likely to 
be done. We have had the Peabody Trust to show what can be 
achieved financially by careful management in undertakings 
worked on a large scale. The original sum of £500,000 left by 
Mr Greorge Peabody to provide good and cheap dwellings for the 
artisan classes, has, in the thirty-three years which have passed, 
swollen to no less than one million two hundred and twenty odd 
thousand pounds, showing a profit of over £720,000. In some 
cases quite half the rents is clear profit — which is perhaps not 
quite according to the intention of the testator — ^but the work 
is spreading, and the profits are being applied greatly to the 
increase of habitation. Then we have the County Council's 
houses, which are yet within the bounds of experiment only. 

And, lastly, we have the Bowton Houses, where men may 
sleep and live very weU for lOs. a week. Cubicles are 6d. a 
night, and their occupants buy what they want, being allowed 
to cook anything, as well as wash anything they like, free of 
charge. 

Iliat the housing of people on a large scale can be made to 
pay, and at the same time satisfy a great need, is, I think, proved 
by this well-known work of Lord Rowton's. When he resolved 
to risk an initial £30,000 on improved cheap lodgings for men. 



268 nrrsRyATioNAL council of women 

he was warned on all hands that he would lose his money. In 
face of all opposition, however, he persevered, with the result 
that the half-dozen years' experiment ia producing something a 
good deal above 5 per cent. ; that four estaUiahments accommo- 
dating up to six and eight hundred men are now in existence, and 
that two more sites are in contemplation. That Lord Bowton 
has made a great success even John Bums admits. Rowton 
Houses have been going on since 1892, and it is no small element 
in the matter that they pay a handsome dividend. 

I am strongly of the belief that a building of a better class, 
with living of a better class, of course, to accommodate four 
hundred educated women, should be made to pay welL 

In the general moralisation of our civic life, in the advancing 
feeling of responsibility possessing the whole scheme of modem 
existence, it is important that the educated working woman 
should not become demoralised by haphazard care for what 
concerns her character, her mind, and the housing of her body. 
Upon that high ground it is surely our duty as citizens to give 
all our moral influence and our practical sympathy to any wise 
scheme that makes for a good standard of comfort in private life. 

Now, I have a plan to propose. But let me first say that 
my position is that of an inqtiirer facing hard facts, only con- 
cerned to show the need upon the one hand, and the necessity 
for supplying that need upon the other — at a financial profit. I 
want to make it clear that no shadow of charity darkens this 
scheme ; it includes no suggestion of free sites or voluntary con- 
tributions. I am convinced that anything of that kind would at 
once estrange the class whose interests we are considering. It is 
essential that ordinary business principles be applied to the 
exploitation and conduct of a scheme which belongs to the busi- 
ness of life, which is intended to be part of the civic plan. It is 
important that profit may accrue ; that dividends may cheer the 
heart of the practical altruist. The strength of the edifice and 
the permanency of the institution I would establish depend on 
its standing on a sound commercial basis, and in appealing to the 
financier one must be able to show a satisfactory return on 
capital. There is no other way. But in this case it would not 
be merely romantic to promise a return of at least 5 per cent, on 
one only of the sevenJ mansions which should be erected to 
meet the increasing demand of this considerable portion of our 
population. 

As I have suggested, the first house to be built would be of 



THE HOUSING OF BDUCATBD WORKING WOMEN 269 

a size to accommodate four hundred professionally employed 
women. To succeed it must be on a large scala The principles 
on which it should be run would be practically those of a large 
private hotel for permanent ffuests paying a weekly sum for 
board and lodging. I shoula propose to eliminate from the 
scheme the restaurant idea. It has never worked to satisfieustion. 
I may as well say here, too, that the ideal aim would be to 
secure for the individual woman freedom and independence, with 
only those fitting and natural restraints customary in well* 
regulated institutions which provide professional hospitality; 
but there should be no vexatious rules and humiliating re- 
strictions. While reasonable regulations are necessary, it is 
absurd to suppose that those who may have been living for years 
in self-respecting freedom — either in single rooms, small solitary 
flats, or other isolated circumstances — will bear with equanimity 
any attempt at enforced personal "management." But at the 
same time it should be the duty of every resident to assist, as in 
a club, in the maintenance of standard and decorum, according 
to the suggestions of the management. 

Roughly and broadly, these are the principles which animate 
my scheme. Now let us take the arithmetical and architectural 
view, as it were. 

As to sites. The mansions, or whatever they may be called, 
should be situated in a central part of London — such as West- 
minster or Bloomsbury (the neighbourhood of Yictoria Street 
being an especially desirable point), but not, at an outside limit, 
further than a twopenny fare from the chief business districts. 
I am well aware of the difficulty of obtaining sites in so central 
a part as Westminster, but they are to be had. The nature of 
the soil, as well as the site, of course, aES&ct» the price of building, 
sandy, gravelly soil being not only more healthy, but more 
economical than any other, as the materical excavated in that 
case is used for concrete, etc., instead of being carted away at 
considerable expense. The buildings would, <^ course, have to 
be arranged architectually in each case to suit the sites acquired 
— a quadrangular form being preferable, the inner square lined 
with white glazed bricks for the reflection of light, lliey should 
be plain and simple in design, though of what the architect 
wocdd call a " pleasing elevation " ; and the finishings generally 
should be of a durable character, so as to leave as Uttle as pos- 
sible in the way of repair or decoration, except washing down or 
disteQ4)ering every few years. The sanitary amusements would 



270 IITTEBNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

be perfected on the latest known principles, and the building 
would be warmed by means of boilers in the basement, 
and hot-water pipes and radiators throughout. Lighting would 
be by electricity, in the interests of health, cleanliness and 
saving of labour. There should be eight or ten bathrooms on 
each of the floors, with ample lavatory accommodation on the 
ground floor for a hasty wash before meals. The baths would 
be arranged side by side on the Public Baths system, with 
matchwood partitions between, and open at the top. The 
residential part of the house diould consist of 400 bedrooms. 
There would be 280 small single rooms, 70 of a larger size, and 
50 double bedrooms, with one large dining-hall, two or three 
drawing-rooms, a reading-room, and half a dozen or more small 
sitting-rooms. Each bedroom would have a recess made in the 
wall for a hanging cupboard, and shelving to as great an extent 
as possible, for I am told that "having nowhere to put her 
things " is one of the real discomforts endured in ordinary cir- 
cumstances by a woman living in lodgings. The floor would 
be either of blocks of oak, stained boards, or plain deal covered 
with the light and economical cork carpet. A few bookshelves, 
the necessary small sofa-bed, combined dressing-table and chest 
of drawers, washstand and chairs would be provided. It would 
be at the option of the tenant to add rugs or such small luxuries 
at her own expense, and to turn her little sleeping apartment 
into a sanctum after the pattern of Newnham or Girton. 

All wall-papers and paint should be kept as light as possible, 
and the cheering efiPects of yellow obtained wherever practicable ; 
no efiPort being spared to secure tasteful and attractive surround- 
ings with due moral efifect. 

The building should have a house for storing bicycles at a 
small charge, where they could be cleaned as required at a con- 
tract price. Boxes also could be stored at a nominal charge. 

Many small details, such as the extinction or otherwise of 
lights, provision of bells in bedrooms, etc., must be left for 
definite arrangements later; but it should be understood that 
all reasonable convenience for the tenants would exist. 

In the same way the matter of closing doors should be so 
arranged that the tenant would have freedom with license, the 
house being conducted in this respect as are any reputable 
West End chambers, where, after certain hours, the tenant, on 
ringing the bell, is admitted by the night porter. 

In the matter of payment, probably the fairest arrangement 



THB HOUSING OF EDUCATED WORKING WOMEN 271 

would be that the rents of rooms should be payable monthly in 
advance, whilst the charge for food, etc., should be settled 
weekly. 

As the mansions are intended solely for the benefit of women 
workers, no one living entirely on private means shall be eligible 
for admission. While 25s. and 30s. are here mentioned as average 
salaries, it is not meant that those earning twice as much may 
not also claim accommodation ; the possessor of £3 or £4 a week 
often has more demands on her income than the less well paid. 
All applications should be accompanied by good references, and 
the manager, in whose hands would lie the power of refusing 
unsuitable applicants, would personally interview intending 
residents. 

This brings me to the point of saying that the manager, as 
will be plain to all, must be the right woman in the right place. 
It is not easy to secure in one person all the qualities alike of 
head and heart which go to make the ideal manager for this 
difficult post ; but she exists and good work is waiting for her. 
Success for the first undertaking would to a very great extent 
rest with her, and from her careful observation and intelligent 
reports the future development of the system would be made 
easy. 

A housekeeper, who should also be a lady of much experience, 
would take charge of the practical part of management as to 
catering, etc. 

Now as to rents and the expense of living. 
The building, as has been stated, should be divided into 450 
rooms, including 70 double bedrooms for the use of sisters or 
f riendJs who prefer sharing ; 50 single bedrooms of a fairly good 
size; and 280 small bedrooms; also one large dining-hall, 2 
or 3 drawing-rooms and some half a dozen sitting-rooms, which 
could be hired temporarily by anyone wishing to entertain 
visitors. The remaining rooms would be occupied by the 
management, with linen rooms, store rooms, etc. 

Now, the 70 double bedrooms should be rented at 8s. per 
week, the 50 at 7s. 6d., and the smaller rooms at 5s. apiece, 
with the free use of the dining and drawing-rooms ; and, accord- 
ing to application, the small sitting-rooms for receiving private 
friends at a charge, say, of Is. or Is. 6d. a time. 

It will be seen th&c the rent of the small single rooms — 
which are a vast majority — is 5s. a week. I have calculated the 
living expenses outside as that of 10s. a week ; that is, a tenant 



4 10 
6 


7 


H 


2 


74 



272 IKTEBKATIONAL CX>UNCIL OF WOMEN 

earning a salary of 258. would; ontside of her board and lodging, 
have 10s. a week wherewith to pay any outside charges, to clothe 
herself, and provide numberless enjoyments, and so on. My 
analysis of that 10s. for board is, roughly, upon this basis : — 

s. d. 

Seven breakfasts ftt 3id. . 2 0^ 

Six dinners at 8d. and one (Sunday) *t lOd., with tea or 

coffee to follow, ..... 

Extra meal on Snndaj, ..... 

Leaving, for use of baths, linen, lights, heating and 
general service, ..... 

10 

Now, of course, this scheme resolves itself into a boarding- 
house system, but a boarding-house system with a difference. 
Of course, the objection is raised that in the boarding system a 
lady may at times require to pay for meals which she does not 
eat, but I would point out that the scale of charges here has 
becNQ arranged with a view to such occasional absences. In any 
case, the charge of 10s. is low, and levied all round on 400 
people, a greater general degree of comfort is obtained for aU. 
In this way, too, idl temptation to economise by dining outode 
on a bun and a cup of tea is removed, and the general health 
of workers improved by nourishing food. In order also to 
study as much as possible the convenience of those whose hours 
of work are irregular and who find it impossible to get home in 
time for the 7 o'clock dinner, it could be arranged that late* 
comers might have some light and quickly-cooked dish made 
ready for them at any time up to 8.30 or 9 o'clock, as might be 
fixed. 

Lunch, or afternoon tea, would, of course, be supplied at a 
moderate charge for any left in the house during the day, who 
are but a small percentage, and glasses of milk or other small 
items provided to meet any demand, but there is no reason why 
any tenant should not maJce her own lunch or tea in her room 
with a spirit stove, washing her own cup or plate. 

It is not necessary to say that there are many other matters 
which could with no difficulty be arranged for tiie convenience 
and comfort of the tenant^ such, for instance, as keeping a 
professional mender or two, or three working dressmakers, aa 



THE HOUSING OF EDUCATED WORKING WOMEN 273 

might be required, on the premises, as I understand most pro- 
fessional women would gladly pay so much an hour to anyone 
for repairing and mending, that they might have more of their 
scanty leisure to give to correspondence or reading. With such 
a large number, too, it might be thought advisable to have a 
trained nurse living on the premises. 

While the first object in sight in planning for a large com- 
munity is certainly based on principles of financial success, it 
seems to me that direct benefit to the educated working woman 
and her class would be large. Aside from the esprit de corps, 
the general standard of knowledge regarding woman's work 
would be raised, and the attrition of ideas would only result in 
larger views. But before everything there would be a place of 
residence where freedom and comfort together could be had at a 
price within the means of all. 

One striking thing remains to say : the managers of small 
houses already existing for educated working women, so far 
from resepting, court competition. Having had their own houses 
full to the door for years past, and refusing fresh applicants 
every day, they realise, as no outsider can, that " there is cloth 
-at the market for all." The secretary of the largest existing 
house said personally to me the other day that on starting they 
were assured on all hands that it was impossible to carry out 
the scheme on even self-supporting lines ; but they have been 
paying a dividend of 5 per cent, for the last seven or eight years. 
Having shown that it can be done, they are only too willing 
that others should benefit by their mistakes and be encouraged 
by their success. 

At the close of the paper the President expressed the 
thanks of the Council to Mr Parker for his valuable paper, 
and announced that a large number of speakers had sent in 
their names for the discussion, but as the time allotted for 
the meeting had already elapsed she feared it would be impossible 
to ask them to address the meeting. She would therefore suggest 
two resolutions, one recommending National Councils to make 
inquiry concerning the matter in the cities of their respective 
countries, and another requesting her to convene another meeting 
at a later date, when Mr Parker could be present, and when 
there wotdd be time really to discuss the subject. Both sug- 
gestions were acted upon, and the resolutions were carried 
unanimously, after which the meeting closed. 

VOL. I. s 



274 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



Financial Report of the International 
Congress of Women. 

One of the first questions with which the Sub-Committee of 
Arrangements — deputed by the International Executive to carry 
out the details of the organisation of the International Congress 
of Women — ^had to deal, was that of Finance. The Quinquennial 
Fees paid by the National Councils are required for the routine 
business of the International Council. 

The Sub-Committee, in October 1898, appointed a Finance 
Committee, on which the following ladies consented to serve : — 
Mrs Alfred Booth, Convener; Dowager Lady Westbury, Lady 
Montague, Lady Roberts-Austen, Mrs G^eorge Cadbury, Mrs 
Charles McLaren, Mrs Bedford Fenwick, who was subsequently 
elected Honorary Treasurer of the International Congress Fund, 
and Miss Margaret Breay as Honorary Secretary. 

The International Congress Fund.. 

It was decided to raise a special Fund to defray the expenses 
of the Congress; it being expected that 2000 persons might 
attend the Congress, and the expenses on this basis were esti- 
mated by the Treasurer at about £1000. 

As time went on, however, it was found that the original 
estimates had not been sufficiently sanguine; for the great 
interest which was exhibited in the Congress, both at home 
and abroad, made it evident that much larger numbers than 
had been expected would be present at the meetings. So 
arrangements were made for the attendance of at least 3000 
persons. In every direction, therefore, an increased expendi- 
ture became necessary. Finally, however, upwards of 5000 
persons attended the Congress, 1715 tickets having been sold 
at 7s. 6d. ; 716 at 5s. ; and 2176 at Is. Besides these. Compli- 
mentary and Platform Tickets were given to all members of 
Sub-Committees, to the Lady Stewards, and to eminent experts 



FINANCIAL REPORT OF INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF WOMEN 275 

in various branches of work, whose attendance was of great 
value to the Congress. 

And it was also found that a much larger number of shilling 
tickets could have been disposed of, because the meetings were 
almost invariably so crowded that it was necessary to limit the 
admittance of the public, for the safety and comfort of the 
Members of Congress. 

Donations, 

One hundred and ninety-two donations were received, making 
a total of £670, 88. 6d. The total sum of £200 was guaranteed 
by thirty-one ladies. Two hundred and eight persons, in all, 
thus gave, or were prepared to give their valuable financial 
support to the Congress, and by their generosity made it possible 
to organise and carry through the Congress to its most successful 
termination. 



Office Expenses. 

The International Congress Fund shared the office of the 
International Council of Women from 1st December 1898 to 
the 22nd July 1899, during which time the office expenditure, 
including clerical work, amounted to £255, 15s. 7d. — a fact 
which seems to deserve notice and commendation. But this 
result was only attained because the work of all the Sub- 
Committees and Honorary Secretaries was performed gratuit- 
ously, and often at considerable personal expense to those ladies, 
to whom the Congress was deeply indebted. 

l^e hire of halls to seat upwards of 3000 persons was 
naturally a large item of expenditure. 

At Westminster Town Hall, the headquarters of the Con- 
gress, three public halls provided seats for 1000. Here also were 
arranged rest, writing, and cloak-rooms ; the International Office ; 
an Enquiry Office ; and press, post and book-rooms. 

At St Martin's Town Hall, two halls seated 900. There 
were also provided rest, press and book-rooms. 

At The Church House, the large hall provided seats for 1300. 
A combined book and press-room was arranged, in addition to 
these, for the ordinary meetings. 

llie large Queen's Hall was hired for the Public Arbitration 
Meeting, and the Passmore Edwards' Hall for the Qirls' Meeting. 



276 INTEBKATIONAL COUITCIL OF WOMEN 

PRn?nNG. 

The large sum of £643, 7s. 8d. spent on printing must be 
divided into the preliminary expenses of organising the Congress, 
which cost £343, 7s. 8d., and the cost of printing and publishing 
the papers and tractions of the Congress — the Sub-Committee of 
Arrangements having voted and set aside an inclusive grant of 
£300 for the latter purpose. 

As to the sum of £343, 78. 8d., it must be realised that the 
international nature of the Congress necessarily increased ex- 
penditure under this heading to a very large extent. Many 
thousands of items of printed matter were sent all over tiiie 
world, notifying to the National Councils of Women affiliated 
to the International Council the details and scope of the Con- 
gress, and also to the women of numerous other countries where 
Councils do not yet exist. 

The fact that the following nations and colonies were officially 
represented at the Congress proves the wide distribution of the 
official literature of the Congress: — Great Britain and Ireland, 
The United States, Canada, New South Wales, Victoria, South 
Australia, West Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Cape Colony, 
India, (Germany, France, Russia, Austria, Italy, Sweden, Norway, 
Denmark, Finland, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, China, Persia, 
Palestine, and the Argentine Republic. 

This item also includes the expense of issuing the compre- 
hensive handbook of the Congress, the pamphlet of places of 
interest to visitors, and the present. financial report. 



POSTAOB. 

Again, the international nature of the Congress necessitated 
a large expenditure in postage, telegrams and cables. 



Advertising. 

Advertising was chiefly effected by direct methods, such as 
the distribution of large numbers of pamphlets and programmes, 
etc., through the Women's Societies, so that the sum of £73, ISs. 
represents the amount spent in advertising the date and arrange- 
ments of the Congress in English and Foreign Press. 



FINANCIAL REPORT OF INTEBKATIONAL CONGRESS OF WOMEN 277 



SUB-Ck)MMITTEES' EZPEN8B8, 

The five Sectional Committees, and four Sub-Committees, were 
each staffed by an Honorary Convener and Honorary Secretary, 
and to these Committees was deputed the detailed organisation of 
the various departments of the Congress. When it is remembered 
that the onerous duties of these Committees extended over more 
than six months, the modest sums charged to the Congress for 
summoning meetings, correspondence, providing books, etc., prove 
that most of the large expense necessarily incurred was defrayed 
by members of these Committees. Indeed, it should here be pointed 
out that the honorary work done, and the personal expenditure 
paid by the Conveners, Honorary Secretaries^ and members of 
the Sub-Committees, must be taken into consideration in estimat- 
ing the actual cost of the Congress, and cannot be assessed at 
less than £200. 



Hospitality. 

It must also be understood that owing to the energy of those 
ladies who composed the Hospitality Committee, not only was a 
large sum of money contributed towards the fund, but the most 
generous hospitality was offered to all the foreign guests who 
cared to avail themselves of it, while the splendid entertainments 
given during the Congress week were all arranged irrespective of 
the Congress Fund. 

Compared with the large numbers attending the Congress, 
the many meetings held, and the amount of work accomplished, 
the facts which have been mentioned appear to be noteworthy, 
not only in order to explain the comparatively smaU expenditure 
shown in the audited accounts, but also as a matter of justice to 
those ladies who have given such invaluable aid in making the 
Congress so successful. 



Surplus Funds. 

It is a matter for sincere congratulation that the audited 
balance sheet shows a surplus of more than £100, and this 



278 



INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 



without ccdling up the Guarantee Fund, and that the Sub- 
committee of Arrangements is therefore enabled to hand over 
this sum as a gift to the Treasury of the International Council 
of Women, under whose authority the Congress was convened. 

IsHBEL Aberdeen, 

PretiderU. 

Ethel (tordon Fenwick, 

Honorary Treasurer, 
InUmational Congress Fund, 

LIST OF GUARANTORS. 

Adeline, Duchess of Bedford, The Lady Battersea, Lady Grey, 
Lady Burdon-Sanderson, Lady Roberts- Austen, Mrs Boden, Mrs 
Jacob Bright, Miss Wilbanke Childers, Mrs George Darwin, Mrs 
Elizabeth Garrett, Miss Edith Gittins, Mrs R. E. Haslam, Mrs 
Hazzledine, Miss E. S. Lidgett, Manchester and Salford Branch, 
National Union of Women Workers, Mrs Thomas Lowe, Miss 
Isabel Marshall, Mrs Martindale, Mrs Peard, Miss P. K Pirie, 
Mrs Rawlinson, Mrs Arthur Scaife, Mrs Siemens, Mrs F. S. 
Stevenson, Miss Anna Swanwick, Mrs Anstruther Thompson, 
Mrs Tubbs, Mrs Walter Ward, Hon. Mrs Wilkinson, Miss F. R. 
Wilkinson, Mrs J. Wilson. 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 



Aberdeen, The Countess of 
Acland, Right Hon. A. 

H. D. 
Andrews, Mrs L. . 
Arbuthnot, Mrs Foster 
Austen, Lady Roberts- 
Bailey, Mrs Hannah 
Barrett, Mrs Layland 
Bateson, Mrs 
Bateson, Mrs Anna 
Bateson, Miss Margaret 
Battersea, The Lady 
Baynes, Lady 
Beeby, Mrs Eleanor 
Beeby, Mrs J. H. . 
Beer, Mrs Frederick 
Bell, Mrs Hugh . 
Beneke, Mrs . 



£10 



1 
1 
8 
25 
10 
2 
3 
5 
1 
5 



1 
1 
2 
1 



1 

1 



2 
8 

1 




10 
5 




1 
2 
1 






















Carry forward. 



£72 7 



Brought forward, . £72 7 

Benson, Mrs . 5 
Berry, Dr May Dickenson 2 2 

Blatch, Mrs Stanton 2 2 

Boddy, Miss aarinda . 110 

Bolton, Mrs Annie H. . 5 

Booth, Mrs Alfred . 20 

Boulnois, Mrs H. Percy 110 

BoxaU, Mrs B. W. 5 

Boys, Mrs 110 

Breay, Miss Margaret . 110 

Bright, Mrs Jacob . 2 

Bright, Mrs Samuel 110 

Brooke, Mrs . 10 

Brunner, Lady 9 12 6 

Bryce, Mrs James . 110 

Bunting, Mrs Percy 2 2 

Busk, Miss . 10 



Cariy forward, . £128 16 6 



FINANCIAL REPORT OF INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF WOMEN 279 



Brought forward, . £128 16 
Buxton, The Lady Viotoria 2 2 
Cadbury, Mrs George . 10 
Canziazu, Mme. Louisa 

Starr 
Catchpool, MiBS As^ea . 
Clapperton, Miss «iane H. 



i» 



}> I) 

Cockran, Miss 

Goit, Mrs Stanton 
Cooke, Mrs Russell 
Coomaraswany, Lady 
Cooper, MJse A. T. 
Corbett, Mrs Marie 
Craven, Mrs Conybeare 
Crawfurd, Miss Pearoe 
Creighton, Mrs 
Dale, Lady . 
Darwin, Mrs George 
Davidson, Mn Mackenzie 
D'lvanoff, Her Excell- 
ency Z^n^ide . 
Dixon, Mrs . 
Donelan, Miss 
Eve, Miss M. A. . 
Farquharson, Mrs, of 

Haughton . 
Farrer, Lady 
Fenwick, Dr and Mrs 

Bedford 
Ford, Miss Isabella 
Fordyce, Mrs Dingwall 
Franldin, Mrs 
Franklin, Mrs E. L. 
Fraser, Miss A. 
"Friend, A" 
»*F. M. G." . 
Garrett, Mrs . 
Gittins, Miss M. C. 
Gladstone, Dr E. H. 
Gordon, Mrs Robert 
Gossage, Mrs F. H. 
Greenlees, Mrs 
Grey, Lady . 
Groesmith, Mrs George 
Gumey, Miss Mary 
Hamley, Miss Barbara 
Hancock, Mrs Charles 
Hart, Mrs D'Arcy 
Haslam, Mrs W. . 



5 

1 

1 
5 
5 




1 
5 
1 
1 
5 


1 

1 

2 

5 

26 
1 
1 
1 
1 




6 

10 
1 
6 
1 

5 

10 

10 

15 

12 

1 



1 





10 


10 








1 
1 
5 



10 10 
10 



1 
1 

5 
5 

10 
1 
8 
1 
1 
2 

10 

2 



1 
1 
5 
6 

1 

1 



10 




6 




6 








6 






6 

6 





























Brought forward, . £268 
Haslem, Mrs R. E. 10 

Henderson, The Misses 
Hoare, Miss Beatrice 
Hobhouse, Lady . 
Hogg, Mrs E. 
Horton, Miss Rodber 
Houldsworth, Miss 
Huntingdon, Mrs . 
Huxley, Miss Margaret 
Jebb, Mrs 
Joioey, Lady . 
Jones, Mrs Brynmor 
Jones, Miss H. M. 
Kay, Mrs, and Drummond, 

Miss . 
King, The Misses . 
King, Miss Mead . 
Law, Mrs Louisa . 
Lees, Mrs C. 
Leicester Branch, National 

Union of Women 

Workers. . 
Lidderdale, Mrs William 
Lidgett, Miss E. S. 
Lough, Mrs . 
Lowe, Mrs Thomas 
Macdonald, Mr and "Mn 

V • Htm • • • 

MDougall, Mrs John 
McLaren, Mrs Charles 
M*Laren, Mrs Prisoilla 

Bright 
McLaren, Mrs Walter 
Mair, Mrs 
Mallet, Mrs . 
Marks, Mrs Alfred 
Marshall, Miss Louisa 
Martlndale, Mrs . 
Methven, Mrs Jessie C 
Meyer, Mrs Carl . 
Mond, Mrs Ludwig 
Montague, Lady . 
Morgan, Mrs Vaughan 
Mountford, Mrs von 

Finkelstein 
Muspratt, Mrs K K. 
Newgass, Mn 
Oblein, Mrs . . 
I Olroyd, Mn Mark 



16 6 




1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
6 
5 
1 

30 
1 



1 
1 

1 
5 



2 
2 
2 
1 
1 

2 
10 
20 

5 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

4 
5 
5 
2 

1 
5 
1 
2 
1 





2 
1 
1 

5 

1 

1 
3 



2 
2 
2 
1 
1 



5 
1 


1 

1 
5 
5 

5 


1 

1 
2 
1 








8 









15 

1 

10 















2 



























Carry forward, . £268 16 6 



Carry forward, . £419 14 9 



280 



INTEBNATIOyAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



Brought forward, . 


£419 


14 


9 


Osterberg, Mme. Berg- 








m«ii . . . . 


10 10 





Overton, Mrs A. M. 


1 


1 





Palmer, Mra . 


5 








Peard, Mrs . 


1 


1 





Pease, Mrs Helen M. . 


8 








Perugini, Mrs 


1 


10 





Pioneer Club, Nos. 164 








and 165 . 





5 


6 


Pochin, Mrs Agnes 


20 








Presoott, Mr H. W. 


10 








Presoott, Miss Oliveria 


2 








Purdie, Mrs . 


3 








Purdie, Mrs, University 








St Andrews, Fife 


1 








Patnam, Mrs C. R. 


1 


1 





Rawlinson, Mrs 


6 








Reid, MiHR Elizabeth 


3 


10 





Reid, Miss Bmily . 


1 


10 





Rendel, Lady 


5 








Ridding, The Lady Laun 


% 20 








Rivington, Miss Christint 


B 






M 





7 


6 


RobertB,The LadyOecilii 


i 


10 





Roberts, Mins Dorothea 


k 


7 


6 


Rntson, Mrs A. 


1 








RylandiB, Mrs 


10 








Samuel, Mrs Beatrice 


2 








Schwann, Mrs 


5 








Scott, Miss Amelia 


1 


1 





Seligman, Mrs 


2 


2 





Shaw, Mrs Bernard 


3 


3 





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2 


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5 





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1 


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3 


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Spioer, Mrs Alfred 


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Stevenson, Lady . 


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Stirling, Mrs H. A. 110 

Stuart, Mrs . . 10 10 

Stuart, Mrs Laura. 2 2 

Sturge, Miss E. . 12 6 

Swan, Mrs G. W. . 3 3 

Swaniok, Miss Anna 5 5 

Swanick, Miss a W. . 5 

Taylor, Mis Cook . 10 

Thompson, Mrs Anstruther 110 

Tinker, Mrs James 10 

Trevelyan, Lady . . 10 

Tubbs, Mrs F. Cecilia . 10 

Tweedie, Mrs Alec 110 
Unwin, Mrs Cobden 

Fisher 110 

IJnwin, Mrs George 2 2 

Ward, Mr R^inald 5 

Webb, Mrs Sidney 10 

Wedderbum, Sir William 4 12 6 

Westbury, Dowager Lady 5 

Wilkinson, Miss F. R. . 5 5 

Wilson, Mrs Cams 10 

Wilson, Miss Edith A. . 10 

Wilson, Mrs E. . 2 2 
Wilson, Mr and Mrs 

Henry J. . 5 

Winkworth, Mrs . 10 

Winthorpe, Mrs . 10 
Women's Co-operative 

Guild . 110 

Woods, Miss Alice 10 
Wrightson, M.P., Mr 

Thomas 3 3 
Yorke, Hon. Mrs Eliot . 12 6 
Collection at Westmin- 
ster Abbey, per Miss 
Emily Janes 5 19 6 
Surplus Stafford House 
Fund, per Mrs Mac- 
kenzie Davidson . 1 12 3 



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INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



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MRS. MACKENZIE DAVIDSON. 

. , eflht llosfiUlily XKIioftal Commillrr, and Coitet<ur 

Stafford H«HK S^.C0mmUUr. 

(ReproduCHl from thi: "EngLLshwo 



(7-«/art>. 583. 



REPORT ON THE HOSPITALITY ARRANGKMBNT8 283 

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS TO THE QUEEN'S HALL 

ARBITRATION MEETING. 

(1) Mn Alfred lUingwortfa, Daisy Bank, Bradford, 

Yorks, £10 

(2) Peace Society {See,, Dr Evans-Darby, 47 New Broad 

Street, London, E.C.)f 6 17 

(3) Samuel Cooke, Esq., City Liberal Club, Walbrook, 

E.0 5 6 

(4) Croydon Peace Union {Sec, Mrs Eolah, Suntrays, 

Croydon), 5 

(5) Mrs Keightley, Wildwood, Hampstead, N.W., 3 

(6) Mrs Knight, 54 Stanhope Gardens, S. W., . 2 

Total, . . £82 2 



Report on the Hospitality Arrangements 
for the International Council and 
Congress. 

Mrs Mackenzie Davidson, Hon. Secretary of the Hospitality 

Committee. 

A RECORD of the International Congress of Women would be in- 
complete without a word being said about the hospitality so 
generously offered to the members of Congress, and more especially 
to the foreign delegates. The Hospitality Sub-Committee had 
many meetings and much deliberation as to the very best way of 
giving comfort and pleasure to those coming from distant lands, 
and a spirit of enthusiasm entered into the work which was well 
sustained by the inspiring presence of Lady Aberdeen at most of 
the meetings. 

To secure hospitahty for some hundreds of delegates of 
various nationalities seemed formidable at the first outlook, but a 
plan was adopted by the committee which had excellent results 
in obtaining the necessary invitations. 

Members of the various committees were asked to make lists 
of ladies whom they knew, or whom they knew of as being in a 
position to be possible hostesses, and to send these lists either to 
Lady Roberts- Austen, 'President, or Mrs Mackende Davidson, 



284 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Honorary Secretary of the Hospitality Sab-Committee. Formal 
application was then made to every lady whose name had been 
given in, asking if she would be willing to extend hospitality to oneor 
more delegates during the Congress, and inquiring if there was any 
preference as to nationality, etc. The kind response to this appeal 
enabled the committee to offer an invitation to some private 
house in London to each individual delegate to the Congress. 
It is pleasant to know that this generous spirit of hospitality was 
not confined to any one section of society. But this was by no 
means all that had to be arranged. 

There were large and small entertainments to be thought of, 
and although those giving private ones as a rule undertook to 
send out their own invitations, there was the deciding as to 
time, date, etc. 

The Hospitality Committee had also to arrange for the 
Opening Meeting of the Congress, and as many besides members 
of Congress wished to hear the Presidential Address, and as the 
sale of Congress tickets was, at that date, even far greater than 
all one's pre-conceived ideas, it was with some difficulty that 
enough room was provided for the audience. 

A special Reception Committee was formed from members of 
the Hospitality Sub-Committee to carry out all the arrangements 
for the reception at Stafford House, including the sending out of 
invitations and arrangements for refrediments, cloak-rooms, etc. 
It was a great satisfaction to this Committee that the sum 
realised by the sale of the 600 admission cards sold at 5s. each 
met the expenses involved. The Duke and Duchess of Sutherland 
not only lent their beautiful house, but contributed all flowers, 
decorations, music, and the expenses of waiters. 

Lady Battersea's reception at Surrey House on June 28th gave 
particular pleasure to the delegates because, by the kind thought 
of their hostess, they met many noted people with whose names 
they were familiar. 

It would take too long to say all that one might about the 
many entertainments so generously given — they are enumerated 
in the Handbook, pages 28 to 33. There were Garden Parties 
at Fulham Palace by the Bishop of London and Mrs Creighton, 
and at Gunnersbury Park by Lady Rothschild and Mrs Leopold 
de Rothschild (said to be the finest ever given in England); 
Luncheon at Cassiobury Park by the Countess of Aberdeen ; 
Tea and Dinner on the Terrace of the House of Commons by 
Mr Carew, M.P., and Mr Lough, M.P., and others ; Tea at St 



REPORT ON THE HOSPITALITY ARRANGEMENTS 285 

Bartholomew's Hospital; At Homes on the terrace of the 
National Liberal Club and at 125 Queen's Qate bj Mr and Mrs 
Charles Hancock; At Home by Mrs Frederick Beer to 
Journalists; Reception by Mrs Yerburgh, 25 Kensington 
Gardens. Several London Clubs were At Home to the 
delegates, and there were many small parties among the various 
coteries — artistic, socialistic, literary, political, as the case might 
be — to which the delegate were individually attracted. The 
Norland Institute received a number of guests, and the National 
School of Cookery provided excellent luncheons and teas for 
20 of the visitors during the Congress. 

Sir Richard Temple invited two house parties of ladies at a 
time to his beautiful country place, " The Nash," near Worcester. 
Mr Arnold Hills invited members of the Congress to an excursion 
on the river. 

Everything seemed to go happily — ^from the opening reception 
at Stafford House, where the Duchess of Sutherland and our 
President, the Countess of Aberdeen, welcomed the guests, amidst 
surroundings worthy of the inauguration of a Congress which 
had throughout a tone so elevating and helpful, to the last re- 
ception grven by Lady Aberdeen, when hearts had been knit 
closer and many warm and lasting friendships had been made by- 
those who might never have met but for the Congress. 

There was then only one thing wanting that could add to the 
gratification of the foreign delegates. They had met at the 
different entertainments those of our leading men and women 
whose names were well known to them, but what would they not 
give to see our Queen, whose name was a household one in their 
countries for all that was womanly and true. It was a happy 
moment for our President, Lady Aberdeen, when she was able 
to announce that Her Majesty had graciously agreed to receive 
the foreign delegates at Windsor on July 5th. Few who were 
privileged to be present that afternoon will forget the sight, and 
the impression left on the hearts of our guests will last for ever. 

In closing this short statement re the Hospitality^ Committee 
I should like to say that there were many things that could be 
done better another time; indeed, perhaps one of the greatest 
benefits of the Congress has been the added experience it has 
given for future organisation. 



286 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



The Entertainments of the Congress. 

By Mrs Arthur Scaife. 

Much might be written of the hospitality extended to the 
International Congress of Women, but members of Congress who 
attended those brilliant receptions and gay garden parties, thoee 
delightful luncheons and teas, and the many other forms of 
entertainment so hospitably provided by a large number of 
hostesses for their amusement and relaxation, will scarcely 
need to be reminded of the details which, for want of space, can 
be but lightly touched upon in this short sketch. These memories 
will be inspiring as weU as pleasant. 

The official entertainments were inaugurated on Monday 
evening, June 26, by a Reception, by the International Council, 
at Stafford House, by the kindness of the Duke and Duchess of 
Sutheriand. 

The Duchess of Sutherland and the Countess of Aberdeen 
received the guests at the foot of the grand staircase. The 
Countess of Warwick was also present. After presentation to 
their hostesses, the guests, who numbered over a thousand, 
ranged themselves in the galleries overlooking the staircase 
and in the lobby at the side to watch the progress of the 
reception, and thus lent additional effect of colour and move- 
ment to a very charming and animated scene. 

The evening was thoroughly enjoyable, for in addition to the 
interest of watching the gay throng, of inspecting the beautiful 
house, the wonderful pictures, of listening to the music of the 
Blue Hungarian Band, there was the joy of meeting old friends 
and the pleasure of making new ones. 

This inaugural reception did much to strengthen the bond 
between people of all ranks and nationalities, whether actual 
workers in the great movement or merely interested as lookers-on. 

On Wednesday evening, June 28, Lady Battersea gave an 
evening reception to the delegates and invited speakers at Surrey 
House, Marble Arch, when the delegates had yet another oppor- 
tunity of visiting a beautiful London home. The reception-rooms 
were thrown open, so that the guests could wander through 
them at will, into the corridors hung with renowned maater- 
pieces by Rubens, Tintoretto, Van Heere and others. Oa 



THE DUCHESS OF SUTHERLAND. 



THE ENTERTAINMENTS OF THE CONGRESS 287 

the top of the staircase, where Lord and Lady Battersea received 
their guests, hangs Sir Edward Bume-Jones's celebrated picture, 
"Golden Stairs/' which was specially cklmired. The Chinese 
delegate to the Women's Congress, Mme. Shen, was a charming 
little lady, always a centre of attraction and interest. Lady 
Battersea extended a cordial welcome to her guests, asking all 
their names as she received them. Many well-known people had 
been invited to meet the delegates. 

The Lord Bishop of London and Mrs Creighton gave a 
garden party to all members of Congress on Saturday, July 1, at 
Fulham Palace. The weather, which had been very threatening 
all the morning, cleared before 4 o'clock, and nothing intervened 
to spoil a very enjoyable afternoon. It made a suitable ending 
to the busy week, and not a few members of Congress found it a 
relief to interchange ideas on the meetings they had attended 
with other friends while strolling about the pleasant lawns and 
listening to the band. 

On Tuesday afternoon, July 4, a garden party, on a magnifi- 
cent scale, was given to members of Congress by lady Rothschild 
and Mrs Leopold de Rothschild at Gunnersbury Park. No pains 
had been spared by these kind hostesses to provide amusement 
and entertainment for their guests. Special trains conveyed the 
latter to their destination, and brakes were waiting at the station 
to drive them to the house. The gardens looked lovely in their 
summer richness of colouring, and tents for tea, fruit, ices and 
all sorts of refreshments were to be found everywhere in the 
grounds ; while for amusement, a programme had been arranged 
which included most of the special attractions at the Empire 
Theatre. The guests included many distinguished people. 

The garden party was followed that evening by the Countess 
of Aberdeen's farewell reception at the Royal Institute of 
Painters in Water Colour, Piccadilly, to the delegates, invited 
speakers, members of committees and sub-committees of the 
International Council, and to members of Congress, and the 
rooms proved all too small for the numbers that crowded into 
them. The hostess was supported by the Earl of Aberdeen and 
her daughter. Lady Marjorie Gk)rdon. 

At the close of the evening a unanimous feeling of gratitude 
to Lady Aberdeen for her great and unstinted labours in 
organising and conducting the Congress found expression in a 
vote of thanks proposed in a speech of mingled feeling and 
humour by Miss Susan B. Anthony, who, in thanking Lady 



288 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

Aberdeen, thanked likewise all those who had acted as her coad- 
jutors, and the many hospitable persons who had entertained the 
strangers. The Bishop of Rochester dwelt on Cadj Aberdeen's 
tact and sympathy, and the strength and beauty of her character. 
Then there were cheers, and afterwards Lord Aberdeen replied 
that if Lady Aberdeen gave full meed of sympathy to others she 
also appreciated it when rendered to her, and she thanked all 
those who had co-operated with her in making the Congress so 
great a success, and not only that, but in marking an important 
advance in the progress of those good causes in which the 
members were interested. Lord Aberdeen did not conclude 
without offering to the young ladies who acted as stewards at 
the meetings a well-deserved acknowledgment. 

On July 5 the official delegates to the International Council 
held a business meeting at Cassiobury Park, and afterwards 
lunched with Lord and Lady Aberdeen. There were again 
votes of thanks, especially for hospitality, to which Mrs Creighton 
and Lady Battersea, two of the chief hostesses of Congress week, 
responded, and Lady Aberdeen read a letter from Sir Arthur 
Bigge, intimating that, in response to the wish of foreign, 
American and colonial delegates to see the Queen, Her Majesty 
would receive them in the quadrangle of Windsor Castle on 
Friday afternoon. 

On Thursday another meeting was held at Cassiobury Park — 
this time for the members of the Executive of the Canadian 
National Council of Women, and long will this meeting and its 
interesting surroundings remain in the memory of those who 
attended it. A special train had been arranged to take the 30 
or 40 guests to Watford, and from there they were met and driven 
up to the interesting old house, which belongs to Lord Essex. 
Here they were received by Lord and Lady Aberdeen. 

The Executive Meeting was held cU fresco under beautiful 
cedar trees, on a lawn of velvet, and resumed after lunch. Tea 
and farewell came all too soon. 

A final seal was set upon the complete success of the Inter- 
national Congress of Women by the gracious welcome accorded 
to its members by the Queen at Windsor on Friday, July 7. 
Added to its earnest deliberations and the splendid succession of 
fdtes and entertainments, it has enjoyed the crowning triumph of 
the approval of Her Majesty! This was the dominant feeling 
among all who were privileged to be present on this memorable 
occasion, and the Royal recognition of the aim and purpose of 



I.KOl-OI.D [)i; ROTHSCIIILO. 

(Phoio by Miss HiiKhi-. 



THE ENTBBTAINMBNT8 OF THE CX)NGBBSS 289 

the Congress, in its efforts to find, by mutual comparison and 
discussion, the best methods of carrying out work for the good 
of humanity, has given immense satisfaction in all directions. 

A special train conveyed the delegates — about 300 in all — 
from Paddington to Windsor, where they arrived about half-past 
four. The majority walked up to the Castle, and waited in the 
shadow of the Round Tower until the time Her Majesty was 
to start on her afternoon drive. Then the gates into the 
quadrangle — on which the private apartments face — ^were opened, 
and the delegates were asked to stand in a double line along 
the drive, leading from the private entrance to Greorge lY.'s 
Gateway, and on into the long walk. 

At half-past five Her Majesty entered her carriage, accom- 
panied by Princess Henry of £attenberg and the Dowager Lady 
Southampton in attendance. 

The carriage drove out of the entrance porch very slowly, 
and stopped where Lady Aberdeen was standing. The Queen 
motioned to her to come forward, and through her welcomed 
the delegates to Windsor. 

Mrs Sanford of Canada, who had been at Windsor at the 
time of the death of Sir John Thompson, was presented to Her 
Majesty, who spoke kindly words of remembrance to her. 

Before a group of Hindoo and Parsee ladies, dressed in their 
native costumes, the Queen stopped again, and seemed pleased 
that there were so many delegates from that part of her Empire. 

As the carriage passed slowly along, a verse of the National 
Anthem was heartily sung, and all were charmed by the 
Queen's obvious goodwill and demeanour of kind and genial 
interest. 

Lord Edward Pelham Clinton announced that tea was in 
readiness for the Queen's guests in St George's Hall, to which, 
conducted by himself and Sir Arthur Bigge, the company went, 
and who shall gainsay the truth of a remark that was overheard 
that " never had there been such a good cup of tea as that drunk 
out of the Queen's Sevres china." 

Far and wide into distant Australia and Lidian bazaars, into 
far Argentina and British Columbia will be taken the happy 
recollections of the royal reception. 

The official entertainments were only a few of the many 
proo& of hospitality that were shown to our foreign and colonial 
sisters during that interesting fortnight, and of which for want 
of space only the briefest mention can be made* 

VOL, I. T 



290 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

There was the lunch on June 27, given at the Criterion 
Restaurant by the Women's Industrial Council to the speakers 
and delegates of the Industrial Section, and that given on July 
3 by the Society of American Women in London, at the Hotel 
Cecil, followed by an afternoon reception. 

A dinner was given by the Matrons' Council of Great Britain 
and Ireland at the Criterion Restaurant, to which all nurses 
from other countries received invitations. A dinner at the Club 
Hous^, Royal Botanic Gardens, was given by the medical staff of 
the New Hospital for Women to the medical women members 
of the Congress. 

At Homes were given by Mrs Beer, The Pioneer Club, 
The Somerville Club, Mrs Yerburgh, An afternoon reception 
was given by Mrs Wynf ord Philipps to members of the Inter- 
national Congress at the Grosvenor Crescent Club. 

Mme. Bergman Osterberg's At Home to 100 members of 
the Educational Section at the Physical Training College, Dart- 
ford Heath, Kent. 

Garden parties were given by the Sesame Club at the Sesame 
House for Home-life Training; Mrs Styer, The Haven, 12 
Wedderbum Road, Fitzjohn's Avenue; and the Committee of 
the Bedford College Students Associations at the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Regent's Park. 

Tea parties were provided for members of Congress by Mr 
and Mrs Charles Hancock on the Terrace of the National 
Liberal Club, also by Mr Carew, M.P., and Mr Lough, M.P., on 
the Terrace of the House of Commons, and the Indian and 
Colonial Committee of the National Union of Women Workers 
at 59 Bemers Street invited the Colonial delegates. 

The National Training School of Cookery, Buckingham Palace 
Road, undertook to provide free luncheon and tea for 20 members 
of Congress throughout the session. 

The National Association for promoting the Welfare of the 
Feeble Minded invited members of Congress interested in the 
training of the mentally deficient to St Saviour's Home, Hendon. 
Tea was provided. 

Mrs Franklin gave an At Home to the members of the 
Educational Section to meet the Committee of the Parents' Edu- 
cational (Jnion. 

Miss Isla Stewart, matron of St Bartholomew's Hospital, 
invited the members of the nursing sub-section to tea at St 
Bartholomew's Hospital. 



THE ENTBBTAINMBNTS OF THE CONGRESS 291 

The Hon. Sydney Holland (Chairman of the London Hospital), 
invited the nurses attending Congress to visit the London Hospital. 
Tea and coffee were served in the garden. 

The Association of Head Mistresses invited members of the 
Educational Section to the Grey-Coat School for Girls, West- 
minster. Tea was provided. 

Miss Mason, the Local Government Board's senior inspector 
of boarding out, received any ladies who were interested in the 
boarding out of Poor Law children at her flat, and provided tea. 

Mrs S. O. Bamett and some of the Presidents of Toynbee 
Hall invited members of Congress to tea at Toynbee, White- 
chapel Boad. 

The governing body of the Horticultural College, Swanley, 
invited members of Congress to inspect the college, grounds and 
house of residence for women students. 

The Countess of Warwick gave an At Home at the Women's 
Hostel for Agricultural Students, Reading. 

Mr Arnold F. Hills (President of the Vegetarian Federal 
Union), invited members of Congress to an excursion on the 
river. 

The Cavendish Preventive Training Home, Pond Street, 
Hampstead, gave tea. 

An At Home given by Mansfield House, 89 Barking 
Road, E., and Women's Settlement, 46 Barking Road. Invita- 
tions were issued by several people interested in the Congress to 
delegates and invited speakers to be their guests in the country 
from Saturday tUl Monday. 

Lord and Lady Tweedmouth entertained the members of the 
Canadian National Council to tea at Brook House, Park Lane, 
on July 1st, being Dominion Day. 

Sir Richard Temple invited two parties of members of Con- 
gress to visit him at his country place. The Nash, near Worcester, 
from Thursday to Saturday and from Saturday to Monday. 

The Hon. Mrs Bertrand Russell entertained the girls 
attending the meeting at the Fassmore Edwards Settlement 
after the conclusion of their meeting. 

The Children's Home and Orphanage, Bonnar Road, London, 
N.E., was open to the inspection of members of the International 
Congress. Refreshments were provided, and a special musical 
and gymnastic entertainment. 

Kindly hospitality by the following clubs was given to the 
members of different sections of the Congress: — Ilie Writer's 



292 DTTEBNATIOKAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Club, The Sesame Club, The Groevenor Crescent Club, The 
Camelot Club, The Albemarle Club, The Women's University 
Club, The Pioneer Club. 

And all this is but a tithe of the hospitality shown by private 
friends in countless thoughtful ways ! 

Was there ever a Congress so f Sted and so cared for ? 

But let those who thus warmed the hearts of many earnest 
workers rest assured that their generous kindness will be 
cherished by their guests with very genuine feelings of grati- 
tude and appreciation. 



Report on the Work of the Stewards. 

The Editor of these Transactions of the International Congress, 
feeling that the report of the proceedings would not be complete 
without some report from the Stewards, to whose organisation, 
thoughtf ulness, energy and care so much of the comfort of the meet- 
ings were due, has prevailed on Miss Bairdsmith, Chief Steward 
and convener of the Stewards* Conmiittee, to write the following 
brief account of their labours, to which is appended a report by 
Lady Edmund Talbot and Miss Clare Fortescue, Head Stewards at 
the Church House, as to their organisation of the Stewards pro- 
vided by the Catholic Social Union for service to the Congress. 



The Stewards of the International 
Congress of Women. 

Mian Bairdsmith. 

Early in May it was intimated to me that I could give help in 
the work of organising one of the various departments of Congress 
work by undertaking to arrange the Stewards' branch. With a 
plentiful lack of experience I came to my work, which was given 
an official status by electing me to the Hospitality Sub-Committee, 
so that we worked in connection with that particular conmiittee, 
receiving our grant for funds, and having our proceedings ratified 
and confirmed by the votes of the conmiittee. 



STEWARDfi OF THS INTERNATIONAL 00N0RE8S OF WOMEN 293 

Owing to the fact that the Congress had three plaoes of meet- 
ing, my first care was to make each, place of meeting entirely 
independent, and to find efficient head stewards to he responsible 
for the two halls, at which it was impossible for me to be present. 
Two head stewards for each hall were appointed — ^f or Westminster 
Town Hall, Miss fiairdsmith and Miss Marion Russell; for St 
Martin's Town Hall, Miss Edith Ayrton and Miss Rilter ; and at 
the Church House, Lady Edmund Talbot and Miss Ckure Fort- 
escue. We all met at stated intervals to arrange and considt, 
but, subject to the approval of the Hospitality Committee, each 
hall was allowed a very free hand in the arranging of details. 
The general scheme being the same, I do not fancy that any very 
great variety occurred in the detail work. At anyrate, I have 
every reason to know that the work was most efficiently and 
satisfactorily done, but, of course, I can only speak with authority 
and knowledge of how things were done at the haU for which 
I persoimUy wm responsible. I was most fortunate in gathering 
together a large number of able and willmg young women. My 
"army" consisted of close on 100 members. Three attendances 
qualified for the possession of a free member of Congress ticket ; 
and the Stewards received invitations for several of the enter- 
tainments, in gracious acknowledgment of the services which 
each and all assured me, both at the time and often afterwards, 
were a most pleasing addition to their experiences. Having 
recruited my army, nearly all as inexperienced in such matters as 
myself, I arranged them all according to their promises of attend- 
ance, and so on, to be present in relays each morning and after- 
noon. From 25 to 35 were present for each meeting, drafted 
into the Large Hall, Council Chambers and Small HaU ; and here 
I may say that Miss Gladys Salis-Schwale undertook the Head- 
ship of the Council Chambers, whenever a meeting was held there, 
and did the work needed there so well that the entire responsi- 
bility was lifted from my shoulders. The stewards each wore a 
pretty badge of pompons, white and amber, with a small bow, 
and this little signal came to be well known, and hailed by 
members of Congress in any difficulty, as they were sure of get- 
ting help and attention from the wearers. For instruction in our 
duties we were much indebted to Miss Isabel Marshall of Croy- 
don, who, from her own great experience in such matters, was 
able to give us great help ; and each day we found the work grew 
more interesting, and we learned to sum up the qualifications 
needed by a Steward under the three headings of Punctuality, 



294 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Pleasantness and Patience. The actual duties, beyond looking at 
the tickets, showing members to their places, and being ready to 
run any number of errands, from platform to hall and hall to 
platform, from one hall to another, were very difficult to define, 
and we just had to be ready to do whatever turned up to the 
best of our powers. The Stewards were a most willing and 
zealous band, and, through all the ten days of the Congress, 
worked cheerily and earnestly. I can hardly close this sketch 
of our small share in the great success of 1899, the International 
Congress of Women, without acknowledging the kindness of Mrs 
Charles Hancock, who placed her rooms so frequently at our 
disposal for the numerous meetings that we needed during the 
course of the time that we were arranging our work, and I carry 
away from the Congress many, many pleasant memories of kind- 
ness received, help given, and experience gained. 



The Stewards provided by the Catholic 

Social Union Workers, 

Lady Edmund Talbot and Miss Fortescne. 

As representatives of Catholic womens' work in England, we 
were offered places upon a 8ub<x>mmittee deputed to arrange the 
Congress, and were asked to mmi with stewards one of the three 
halls during the week of the session. We called a preliminary 
meeting together of the head workers of the ten CatJiolic Social 
Union Clubs and Settlements, and explained to them the funda- 
mental rules agreed upon for the organisation of stewards. 

They each undertook to bring a certain number of friends or 
fellow-workers willing to act as Stewards on this occasion, and 
a large meeting of all the Catholic Social Union workers in Lon> 
. don was convoked at Norfolk House, when His Eminence Cardinal 
Vaughan presided. Before he addressed them, we explained that 
we had been called together, not merely, as at other times, to 
discuss the work and needs of our organisation, but to arrange 
how best to answer the invitation offer^ to us by the promotors 
of the International Congress of Women to take a definite part 
in the work of this Congress. 



8TEWABDS PROVIDED BT CATHOLIC SOCIAL UNION WOBKEBS 295 

It was the first time that Catholic work had received public 
recognition in England in recent times, and we wished to answer 
the invitation cordially and well. 

The Cardinal, after an able address upon the work, needs and 
motives of the Catholic workers of London, expressed his satisfac- 
tion that they had received this recognition, and his approval of 
our acceptance of the post offered. 

He fiJso spoke of the Congress, and said how ready all workers 
should be to hear different sides discussed of the questions that 
interested them, and hoped that we should all come away from 
the meetings with a fresh store of ideas tending to strengthen our 
efforts for bettering the condition of the poor, etc., etc. 

After His Eminence had left, those workers able to promise 
the three requisite days, morning or afternoon, during the week 
of Congress, came forward and gave in their names and the dates 
most convenient to them. Thus supplied with a body of sixty, 
we agreed to meet once more at my house, where the last definite 
arrangements should be made. 

At this final meeting each Steward was supplied with a card, 
on which she inscribed, as it was read out, not only the hours 
definitely fixed for her, but the particular work to be done on 
each occasion. The one acting as platform steward during the 
morning would be placed in the nave or at the door during the 
afternoon, no one having the same duty twice, and those whose work 
kept them away from the speeches, such as the book-room, ticket 
table, etc., were replaced each hour,, that they might lose as little 
of the subject-matter of the Congress as possible. We found that 
this arrangement acted perfectly, and everyone seemed satisfied 
with their branch of labour, and worked assiduously and well. 
Indeed, there was no hitch, and the Stewards themselves enjoyed 
the subjects under discussion very much. The only occasion on 
which we should not have wished our Stewards to be in the 
hall, we were helped by the Chairwoman, who, from the platform, 
requested all the girls to leave the room. 

If I have not dwelt upon the meeting, which, by the great 
kindness of Mrs Charles Hancock, was held at her house, at the 
beginning of the arrangements, it is that we have been asked to 
give our notes of our own working of Stewards, and that this 
meeting embraced the workers of the three halls, who were 
addressed by Miss Marshall upon the general idea of a Steward's 
duties, and shown the various tickets to pass and divisions of 
labour. 



296 IirrERNATIOVAL COUVCIL OF WOMEN 

Special Religious Services held during 

the Congress. 

SPECIAL SERVICE IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 

Through the kind intervention of the National Council of 
Women of Great Britain and Ireland, the Dean of Westminster 
undertook to arrange a special service for the members of the 
International Council and Congress of Women, on Monday after- 
noon, July drd, at 3.30. The service was greatly appreciated and 
largely attended. The Rev. Hon. Arthur Lyttelton, Bishop of 
Southampton, was the special preacher. He took as his tezt^ 
— "No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking 
back, is fit for the Kingdom of Qod." This, he said, was one of 
many passages in which our Lord laid strong and striking 
emphasis on the duty of single-mindedness in the work of God. 
After dwelling upon this point the Bishop proceeded (as reported 
in the GiMrdicm) : — 

" And it is as workers that you are here to-day ; you have 
heard the call, and have put your hand to the plough, and have 
determined to build, and are resolved to wage your warfare, 
and have set your faces towards the goal. In one form or 
another, what you are about is God's work, to extend His 
kingdom, to order this or that portion of the world according 
to His will, to pour His light into this or that dark place, to 
help some of His children in keeping His law. If this be so, 
then, as workers for God, as followers of Christy you have to 
purge out the taint of self — self-interest^ self-absorption, self- 
consciousness — ^in whatever form self is present in your work 
it is a hindrance and a defect; it makes you 4ook back,' it 
distracts and clouds the eye which should be clear to see God's 
purpose only. And self has subtler forms than the bare devo- 
tion to personal interests, or the morbid, childish consciousness 
of one's own personality, which we all learn more or less to 
disguise and to modify. It comes to us in the shape of the 
interests and the consciousness of a society, a trade, a class, and 
we are learning to recognise it under these forms, and to shun 
class selfishness no less than personal selfishness. But to you it 
comes in a still more plausible disguise, not as selfishness at all. 



SPECIAL BELIGIOUS SBRVICES HELD DURING THE CONOBES8 297 

bat as self-oonscionsness and self-assertion, and not of a mere 
class or trade or section, bat as the self-conscioosness of a whole 
sex, and self-assertion of one-half of the human race. The 
danger which, for the present at least, is most to be feared in the 
interests of women's work is that it should be regarded primarily 
as women's and only secondarily as work. There is, of course, 
ample justification in the history of women for the tendency to 
think more of the workek^ than of the work, to consider your- 
selves not as labourers in God's vineyard in common with all 
' His servants,' but as a class apart with your own interests to 
serve. If women are apt to regard themselves as a separate 
class it is because men have treated them as a separate class, 
under different laws and with different interests from those 
which govern the masculine half of humanity. That those laws 
have been framed for women by men, and that those interests 
have been made subservient to the interests of men, does not 
in any degree diminish the separateness, or take from women, 
now that they are coming more and more to think for them- 
selves, .the tendency to self - consciousness and self-assertion. 
But, though it readily explains this tendency, it does not 
justify it. For the only justification of any impulse, or thought, 
or act, is its effect on the fulfilment of God's purpose, its power 
to further the work which God has given us to do. And no 
true work can be done, or, at leasts it can only be done very 
imperfectly, when the worker's mind is confused by the thought 
of himself ; his eye distracted by the sight of others with whom 
he compares himself ; his will diverted from its true object by 
the desire to assert himself. No less dangerous is it to regard 
your work as a means and not as an end, to take it up with the 
object, or even the underljing sense, of farthering your own 
interests, or those of your class, or even of your sex. The work 
of God is too great a thing to be made an instrument for accom- 
plishing other purposes. You must even beware of allowing 
yoursefi to be distracted from the true object of your work by 
the consciousness that it is a novel thing for women to do it, or 
by a feeling of self-satisfaction, of triumph in the accomplish- 
ment of an unwonted task. There is a joy in well-wrought 
work, as all true workers know ; but it is a joy which is deep 
and pure in proportion to its unselfishness. It is a snare and a 
hindrance to be comparing yourself with others, to be dwelling 
on the manner in which you are doing your work, even to be 
thinking of its effect on the position of your class or of your 



298 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

sex; in a word, to look back, or around, or away, from the 
object of all your energies, the accomplishment of that which 
God has called you to do. * No man having put his hand 
to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of 
God.' 

" It is, of course, inevitable that, at the present stage in the 
movement, as it is called, there shoidd be this element of self- 
consciousness, of comparison, of self-^issertion, in those who, 
almost for the first time in history, are emerging from the 
former narrow and quiet limits to which custom ha<^ confined 
women's Uves and activities. It has been so in all great move- 
ments of classes and races in the world, and we need not 
exaggerate it or blame it overmuch. But it must be recognised 
as a hindrance, and not a necessary accompaniment to women's 
work. The new position of women, the fresh activities which 
are theirs, the wider opportunities of usefulness, ought to be 
and may be natural, simple, unostentatious. There is no real 
need why women should be habitually compared with men any 
more than the men of one race are habitually compared 
with others. It is only incidentally, and as a matter of 
quite secondary importance, that we regard the nationality 
of men who are engaged in some great work, deep and wide 
though the differences of national character are. So it should 
be with women's work. It is not because we do not recognise 
the far deeper and wider differences between men and women 
that we deprecate the constant comparisons which are drawn, 
the surprise which is still expressed at women's work, or 
the unnatural praise which is often accorded to it. The great 
thing is that the work should be done, whoever does it. The 
reason why we hail the advent of women workers is not 
mainly that they are women, but that there is work to be done 
which they alone or best can do. It is precisely because we 
believe in the immense differences between men and women in 
gifts and characters and faculties that we believe in the value 
to mankind of their co-operation. If there were but one sort of 
task to accomplish in the world, doubtless one sort of human 
being could accomplish it ; but the needs of mankind are infin- 
itely various, the purposes of God are manifold, and the tasks 
which He has intrusted to us require the co-operation of every 
faculty of our diversely-endowed nature, every kind of character, 
every different instinct, every varied power and aptitude of 
the different classes, and races, and sexes of humanity. And 



8PECIAL RELIGIOUS SERVICES HELD DURING THE CONGRESS 299 

in this process of co-ordinating and adapting human faculties 
to the accomplishment of the manifold work of Gk)d there is no 
need that we should pronounce beforehand that this or that 
sphere of work is closed to this or that class or race or sex. It 
is only experience that can decide what men and what women 
can do. We all know the characteristic moral and intellectual, 
as well as physical, differences between the sexes ; but we do 
not know how these characteristics will act when applied to the 
infinitely various and ever-changing needs of mankind, how 
they will influence events, and be themselves influenced and 
modified. The one thing we know is that 'male and female 
created He them,' and that> therefore, He has His own work for 
both to do^ His own use for the diverse natures that He has 
made. ' There are diversities of operations, but it is the same 
God which worketh all in all.' 

" Doubtless the process of learning this experience, of adjust- 
ing the new relations of women in the social order, will be 
difficult and may even be dangerous. But so it has been at 
other times. As each new class has, by the inevitable progress 
of mankind, moved into its new place and power in Uie com- 
munity, the world has been disturbed till the process of adjust- 
ment has been completed. We have hardly come to the end of 
the reorganisation made necessary by the entry of the working 
classes into the duties and the rights of full citizenship when 
this far more complex, more disturbing adjustment is forced 
upon us. It will not be completed in our generation, perhaps 
not for many generations ; and none of us can say how it will 
finally come to pass, in what way women's place in the social 
organism will be ultimately ordered. But come it will, if, as we 
believe, it is part of God's design for the human race ; and we 
can be content to wait and to work for it, leaving it to Him to 
reject or to perfect our feeble efforts. 

" What, then, should be the temper and attitude of women 
in face of the great change which is passing over society ? how 
are they to prepare themselves for the new and wider IHe that 
lies before Uiem 7 how are they to answer to the call when it 
comes ? Surely by realising that it is a call, and a call to work 
for G<xi. * Whom shall I send, and who will go for Us 1 Then 
said I, Here am J, send me.' There was only the profoundest 
humility in the prophet's absolute readiness to do the Divine 
bidding; and all true workers, in whatever station or sphere, 
eminent or obscure, the call may come to them, must hear 



300 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

it as he heard it, with utter self-distrust, indeed, but with 
the complete obedience of humility, and take the task, and 
do the work because it is from God. If this be your temper 
and spirit, you will realise the true meaning and purpose of 
what is spoken of as the liberation of women, the increased soft 
freedom of their lives. You will not fall into the common 
blunder of thinking that freedom means mere deliverance from 
control, a bare license to do what you choose, for you will know 
that first comes the work which God would have you do, and 
that therefore freedom means a further power to use your 
faculties in His service. *Ye have been called unto liberty; 
only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love 
serve one another.' As it was with the first Christian converts, 
delivered from the bondage of the law or the yet more cruel 
slavery of heathen superstition, so it is with you; the liberty 
to which you are called must be no occasion or opportunity for 
wilfulness or selfish indifference, but the^ means of serving God 
by serving His children in love. There is a tremendous respon- 
sibility laid upon those who are called unto liberty. It is given 
to them that thereby they may more fully develop their powers 
and train their characters and discipline their wills ; that they 
may have the opportunity of learning, in the one great school of 
experience, the methods and the laws of God ; and that they may 
discover among all the manifold forms of human duty that way 
of service which is for them the most perfect freedom. Such is 
the responsibility which is' laid upon you, and upon all women 
who, in this modem civilisation of ours, are hearing the call 
and feeling the impulse to liberty. We may be sure that it is 
God's call, and yet, like all other great stages of human progress, 
it is beset with dangers, * occasions to the flesh,' temptations to 
selfish wilfulness, means and opportunities of license, arrogant 
contempt for plain duties, ostentatious display, senseless innova- 
tion. Against these you have to guard by setting before your- 
selves the thought of that work to do which God is giving you 
your freedom, that service of each other by love which demands 
the fulness of all your faculties, the discipline of your whole 
nature." 

In conclusion the Bishop pressed upon his hearers to make 
clear to themselves their motive. They might, indeed, be 
thankful that many who could not yet feel love for Christ as 
their living Lord and Saviour were being moved to help, as best 
they could, the brethren for whom He died ; but the truest and 



SPECIAL RELIQIOUS SERVICES HELD DURING THE CONGRESS 301 

most faithful work for God must spring from a heart which 
had felt His abiding Presence and had been touched by His 
love. 

Several other special sermons were preached, bearing on the 
work of the Congress, on Sunday, March 2, amongst which may 
be noted one by 

THE REV. CANON SCOTT HOLLAND. 

The Rev. Canon Scott Holland preached, at St James's 
Church, Piccadilly, the following sermon: — "Mary Magdalene 
told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that He had 
spoken these things unto her." Only a woman's whisper ! That 
was all that signalised the change. Everything else was out- 
wardly the same as it had ever been. The crowds jostled as of 
old along the narrow streets. The temple court was thronged. 
And the oxen stood there lowing wearily, and the huddled sheep, 
and the doves. And the coins tinkled on the tables of the 
money-changers. And children gazed and wondered; and the 
priests plied their task ; and the incense smoke crept upwards ; 
and the scribes swept to and fro in long robes. And friends met 
and talked, and smiled, and parted. And everywhere there was 
chatter, and noise, and laughter. They ate and drank and 
were merry, for it was the feast in Jerusalem. The great flow of 
human life rolled on with its ten thousand cares, and hopes, and 
fears, and joys. On it rolled as in many a happy year before. 
Old sights, old sounds, familiar as household words to loyal Jews, 
repeated themselves anew; and the eyes of the aged looked 
out upon the scene recalling vanished years, and praying that 
long after they were laid to rest in quiet graves their children 
and their children's children might still see what they saw that 
day, and might still go "round about Jerusalem and tell her 
towers and mark well her bulwarks " as they go up " into the 
courts of the Lord's House with the multitudes that keep 
holiday." 

And above it all the great sun moved in silence, and the 
brooding hiUs ringed it round as they had done since the world 
was made, steadfast in the possession of their everlasting secret ; 
and the waters of Shiloh moved softly down their channels ; and 
the birds sang, and the dew fell, and the pascal moon rose at her 
appointed hour, serene and calm. All things continued as they 
were from the beginning. The big world had forgotten already. 



302 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

you would think, the swift passion that had swept Pilate's 
Judgment Hall with the shout of *< Crucify ! Crucify ! Not this 
man for us, but Barabbas ; " and the savage decision which had 
wiped out, it would seem, for ever the name and the memory of 
one more poor Enthusiast for the Hope of Israel, who had gone 
down under the iron heel of Rome. Once, indeed, those holiday 
crowds had really dreamed that this might be He who should 
redeem His people. So pure and simple He seemed ! With 
such goodness of heart ! With such stainless innocence ! But 
He got unsteady, so men said. He threw His chance away. 
His sayings got stranger and more perilous. Every one gave 
Him up at last. He spoke wild words against the Holy Temple. 
He broke into threats. There was no help for it. An end had 
to be made, the inevitable end that overtakes those who lose 
their self-control and are betrayed into deceiving the people. 
Hard and horrid is the process. Alas ! Rome makes short work 
and sharp of these matters. Thank God it is over before the 
Feast, so that every one can go up to the Altar of God with 
a free heart, unalarmed, only anxious to forget as soon as may 
be a wasted hope, a miserable disaster. Mercifully the bodies 
have all been taken away, and the crosses are gone, so there is 
nothing to shock. Men can walk over the little dry hill, bare as 
a naked skull, and not know that anything had happened there. 
So quick these things pass ; and the best thing is to let them go 
and be rid of them. It is useless to regret irrevocable blunders, 
and to think of what might have been if only things had been 
different. Anyhow, it is done and over. No one can help it 
now. And in the meantime here is the Feast ; and the hymns 
are ringing in their ears that they have always sung ; and the 
alleluias break from their lips; and the trumpets are blown 
uplifted ; and the murmur of happy multitudes fills all the air 
with gladness. 

So it all goes forward. Not a sign troubles the heavens. 
Not a quiver passes over the earth. There is no signal of any 
change. And no one stops to notice that in one dark room, 
hidden and barred for fear of the Jews, where a few blurred 
figures crouch with covered heads in the gloom, speechless with 
sorrow, a sudden gleam has shot in through a swiftly opened 
door, and a woman has bent over the weeping men and 
whispered in their ears, " He is risen, I have seen Him ! " 

Only a woman's whisper: yet it was no frail flutter of 
a passionate heart, no unsteady fantasy thrown off from 



speciaI reliqious services held during the congress 303 

a feverish brain. Rather its note is peace. All excitement, all 
unnatural heat died out of her from the first moment in which 
her ears caught the call of "Mary," and her lips formed the 
answer, "RabbonL" 

We are apt to imagine that miracles force conviction by their 
startling strangeness — ^by their violent defiance of all natural 
conditions and normal experiences. But this supreme miracle 
of the Resurrection convinces by its absolute and harmonious 
calm. It slides in without an effort — without a rupture — with- 
out a shock. Its presence has that about it which dismisses 
every form of surprise. Before it had happened it would have 
appeared to the Magdalene, as much as to us, an incredible 
impossibility. But in happening it had explained, it interpreted, 
it justified itself. It took its place amid the typical and normal 
scenery of her life. Earth and sky and sun were all aware of 
what she saw ; they waited round as friends conscious, co-operat- 
ing. No jar, no violence was done them. They simply moved 
on in their primeval solidarity to this anticipated completion. 
It was as natural, as quietly, as sanely natural as the grass that 
grew at her feet, that He who had been dead should be saying, 
" Mary," and that she should be answering, " Rabboni." 

Could anything, therefore, be more free from wonder, or from 
excitement, than the record of her words and ways? "Mary 
Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the 
Lord and that He had spoken these words unto her." Just 
that ! No more ! 

The wild weeping has ceased — that unnatural extravagance 
of grief in which she had roamed about like a mother robbed of 
her child, so possessed of that one relentless thought which she 
repeated over and over again, " They have taken away my Lord, 
and I know not where they have laid Him " — that she had been 
blinded to the very Master who stood before her, and thought it 
had been the gardener. Grief had then denaturalised her 
faculties. But now her senses, her mind, her speech — all have 
recovered control. Reason, judgment, experience, work once 
more in orderly fashion, temperate and serene. So plain it all is 
now ! So obvious ! life is rationalised, harmonised. It is con- 
sistent again, even as when she walked about in it as a little 
child, and was confident in its solid integrity, in its smooth 
response. Note how when she had first missed the body she 
had, in her impulsive excitement, run headlong to tell Simon 
Peter and the other disciple whom Jesus loved — "They have 



304 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OV WOMKN 

taken away the Lord ; " and they, at that sorrowful news, had 
risen and run, run with all their might, so that the younger man 
could not even wait for his slower companion. But now there is 
no more mention of running. No flutter of haste in the nar- 
rative. No! She would just walk home and tell them what 
had happened — **Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples 
that she had seen the Lord." 

And the same calm falls upon the troubled band of men as 
soon as the new experience is made their own. Frightened and 
startled while they fancy it a spirit, let it but approve itself to 
their senses, and at once the peace which it breathes over them 
possesses them. They, too, like the Magdalene, gain composure. 
How quiet, how sane the description sounds ! — " Then were the 
disciples glad when they had seen the Lord." 

A woman's whisper ! Yet no passing breath sent loosely 
down the wind to startle, to kindle, and then amid the harsh 
pressure of facts, under the rough discipline of common sense, to 
break and scatter and fail and die. Nay ! A whisper which 
with the slow and gathered weight which is the surest test of 
undoubted verity, grew louder and louder until it filled the earth 
as with the shout of ten thousand times ten thousand. That low 
whisper pitted itself against the solid environments of facts, 
which to the outward eyes appeared to ignore it or to deny it, 
until it mastered and overthrew them. It was a whisper that 
put out power; it reversed the order of history. It removed 
empires; it emptied the temple courts of all their crowds and 
displaced its enormous stones ; it has ever since been the prime 
factor in creating the story of man. It was a whisper stronger 
than the Roman rule : it is still stronger than any other force to 
shape the course of civilisation. That quietness which was its 
characteristic is not only the mark of its confidence in the 
natural fact which it recorded, but also of the Power that lay 
behind the fact — ^the Power of certain mastery, the Power that 
could lay hold on the world, and subdue and transfigure it — ^the 
Power that is its own evidence beyond dispute and denial, 
making its own way, asserting its own will, verifying its own 
inherent energy; ordaining, ^hioning, controlling, construct- 
ing; compelling recognition by the continuity of its calculable 
and constant effects; producing its characteristic results 
in laws and in society, in literature, in art, in buildings 
and in states, and above all in the souls of men whom it 
converts from darkness into light; whom it frees; whom it 



SPECIAL RELIGIOUS SERVICES HELD DURING THE CONGRESS 305 

fertilises; in whom it actually begets a new creature, a new 
humanity. 

Ah ! No frail and dying whisper this ! But the primal entry 
upon the scene of man's practical activities, in all their rough 
and tumble reality, of a force more active than them all — a force 
that can bind the fiercest passions and can cleanse the foulest 
hearts and can beat down the toughest obstructions, and can 
prove itself to be the one steady and indisputable experience 
which shall stand like a rock when all else of the solid earth 
shall dissolve away, swept into space like a shadowy dream. 
Yet so quiet it was — that first disclosure of the new secret which 
the Magdalene whispered to the mourning men. 

And, my brethren, whenever Grod takes a novel stage in 
creation this same quiet security is the note of the change. 
The new type takes its place in the general order and fabric 
without the slightest shock or surprise. Nature, the existent 
nature, appears to expect it ; it opens out to its admittance with 
candid ease. Far from feeling that a miraculous breach has 
been driven into its established methods, or that its consistency 
is impugned, or its authority weakened, or its laws challenged, 
or its evidence cancelled, the very opposite impression is con- 
veyed. The new appearance, unique, unparalleled, unaccounted 
for as it is — a totaUy strange arrival, which no combination 
of existent causes could assist to produce— is nevertheless no 
stranger. Now that it has come, it finds itself perfectly at 
home. It corroborates what is already there; it confirms its 
validity in that it carries it further to another stage. A fresh 
harmony discloses itself, which spreads downward over the lower 
areas of existence, drawing everything together into a firmer 
solidity, completing, fulfilling, constructing. 

Let us attempt to recall two such epochs which may invite 
comparison with the Resurrection. For instance, it must cer- 
tainly have been so on that unique day — a day far back behind 
all the centuries that we dare number, yet a day which our present 
experience entitles us to reproduce in imagination — when for the 
first time in the slow unrolling of the creative work of Grod there 
appeared in amidst the layers of unorganic matter, governed as 
these had been ever since the first hour by the rigid monotony 
of mechanical law and chemical combination, the primary germ 
of living substance, a tiny protoplasmic cell 1 A moment before 
it was not there. A moment after and there it is. There it is ; 
and it is alive ! Nothing like it had been seen or known. It 
VOL. I. u 



306 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

holds in it a secret for which the laws of mechanism or of chemical 
precipitation offer no solution. Instead of submitting to these 
laws, hitherto paramount, it sets itself to utilise them, to subordi- 
nate them to purposes of its own. It manipulates them so as to 
counteract them, and to rise out of them: It is life — that is, it 
does not merely submit to motion ; it exerts a counter motion 
of its own. From that moment an epoch has struck. An entirely 
new story has begun. The Drama of Creation is shifted ; it has 
found a novel centre. Its development transfers itself from the 
lower planes of material existence, and turns wholly round this 
fresh arrival. A gulf has been overleapt. An immense revolu- 
tion has taken place, signalised by that living germ, which it 
will take centuries to work out to its fulfilment. All this is 
secreted in that tiny cell. Yet how smoothly normal, and easy, 
and natural the transition has been ! It must have passed in, 
according to what science now reveals to us, without a quiver of 
disturbance. Rather it would seem that Nature had been 
waiting for this unparalleled appearance. Those mechanical and 
chemical methods, under which the whole round earth had been 
bound so long, acquiesce in a moment in that which is so pro- 
foundly unlike them ; they close up round it — they sort and 
distribute themselves for its service. Far from being interrupt^ 
or confounded, they move more freely, they interpret themselves 
more easily, now that they have life as their key, than when they 
were bounded by their own limitations. Organic life, the miracle, 
enters as a friend, with the quiet ease of one long known and 
expected. All surprise disappears. Everything is obvious. What 
else could have happened but just this? 

Take the other typical instance. Once again, after the slow 
centuries have evolved, under the pressure of selection, the in- 
numerable variations of which the germinal life is capable, a date 
is struck ; a gulf is spanned ; a new plane is opened. There, in 
the deepest heart of the older process — there, amid the teeming 
swarm of animal existence, by a breath — at a stroke — it has 
happened. The word of the Lord has spoken, and lo ! life has 
become conscious; a spirit has entered into possession of his 
body; a new thing has come to pass. Man has been created. 
How? When? Who saw him come? Science ransacks the 
recesses of Nature, but there is no shock discoverable, no violence 
in this transition. Everything moves on according to its ancient 
rhythm. Sun and stars roll in their courses : the steady earth 
turns as of old ; not a sign of disturbance or of unevenness. The 



SPECIAL RELIGIOUS SEBVICB8 HELD DUBINO THE C0N6BE8S 307 

new finds its place, its assured, natural place amid the old : the 
old responds to the supremacy of the Hew ; it falls under its 
novel manipulation, its government, as under its own true law. 
Yet the new thing is wholly distinct, unique, original. Anticipa- 
tions there were of it in the earlier levels of life, but no precedent, 
no paraUel. At its entry the whole future story of development 
takes a totally new departure, revolves round a new centre. 
Nature has now to admit it within itself, the career, the story of 
Man, with his Speech, his Laws and his Society, his Literature 
and his Art, his Ethics and his Religion. Such incomparable 
wonders ! Yet all these slid in, slipped in, on that quiet day, 
when not a whisper even stole round to report that God had 
breathed into man's nostrils, and ho had become a living soul. 

At each miraculous moment, then, it is the same. Not a 
ruffle, not a shock, as Nature opens to admit organic life ! Not 
a ruffle, not a shock, as again it opens to admit the mind of man ! 
From below, on the lower planes, each arrival would appear so 
incredible, so revolutionary, so absurd, so abnormal. But each 
as it happens disposes of all surprise. In announcing itself, it 
reveals itself as the normal, the anticipated, coming to a home 
that has been long prepared for it. Quietly it houses itself in 
our midst, and everything understands it, acquiesces, corresponds. 
And so it was, once more, on the day when the dawn of the 
Resurrection broke. There it was. The new date had struck ; 
the new level was touched : a new career for man had opened. 
Amazing vistas lay disclosed of all that would now become 
possible. Yet could anything be more natural ? 

Mary Magdalene went quietly home and told the disciples 
that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things 
unto her. 

Only a woman's whisper ! 

My brothers, it was a woman's spiritual insight that first 
received the news of the Easter Day. It was a woman to whom 
it was given to perceive that a change had passed over the face 
of the earth. The men had despaired. Their sorrow had blinded 
them to the new secret. They lay bound and shut up within the 
night of their grief, though the Easter sun had risen, until Mary 
Magdalene came and told them she had seen the Lord. This 
is a thing to be remembered at this present time, when those 
women who are on the watch for the new day have gathered 
together out of all the peoples of two continents to confer here 
in London on what it is that they have seen. These are they 



308 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

who should be the first to catch sight of that which is to be. 
To them the vision of the change should be given. It should 
be theirs to give the signal, to discover the call, to convey the 
reproof. They, if they are true to their task, should have eyes 
to see what God is doing and ears to hear His message. Herein 
lies their pri\'ilege, sealed to them by Mary Magdalene. 

Let them not fail mankind in this hour, when questions so 
decisive, so many and so urgent are pressing for solution. Let 
them remember the Mary of old. 

(1) She only won peculiar honour because she was so patiently 
faithful to the Lord whom she loved ; because she was found so 
early by His tomb ; because she could not bear to be far from 
all that was left to her of His dear presence ; because she clung 
so fast and so desperately to the one thing left for her to do by 
which to prove her unfailing faith in Him — ^the embalming of 
His dear body, the tending of His grave. If there be any of 
those gathering to this International Conference who are lost in 
a dark cloud of spiritual perplexity, and who as piteously as she 
complain that men have stolen away their Ohrist and they know 
not where He is laid, let them still keep near as the Magdalene 
did to the spot where he ought to be found. Let them cling to 
the hope that once was theirs. Let them seek and search and 
never surrender. Then to them, too, the Christ who seemed to 
them dead and buried and stolen will suddenly be found, they 
know not how, at their side, calling them by name, even as when 
He said of old to her who desperately wept, " Mary," and she 
answered, "Rabboni." 

And (2) let these women in conference force us men to 
remember how vast are the changes which might actually come 
to pass here on earth in this our social civilisation as we know it. 

There are so many things evil and base and cruel which are 
so ancient and habitual that it seems to us simply incredible that 
they should ever cease to be what they are now. We men can- 
not hope, cannot believe. What is the use of talking as if war, 
for instance, might actually cease, at least between Christian 
nations ? Or as if the miseries of the poor might be blotted out 
of this terrible London of ours ? Or as if the horrors of public 
harlotry might be wiped out of existence in Piccadilly ? These 
are visions, dreams that only darken our despair. We know 
quite well that, whatever we do or say, the same old curses will 
reproduce themselves. Always they have been what they are, 
and they will remain so to the bitter end. Let us have no 



SPECIAL RELIGIOUS SERVICES HELD DURING THE CONGRESS 309 

illusions. We may work to alleviate, to palliate, to save things 
from going worse. Relief, rescue : this will be possible, and this 
is something. But still the slums will reek ; still the streets will 
swarm with sin ; still the armies will clash, and blood will flow, 
and the wounded will wail, and the fires will flame. So we men 
murmur and mutter to ourselves in our darkened chamber, even 
while we grimly go about the business of succour and service. 

Yet so to work is not to believe that Christ is risen — that 
Christ is King. Never in that dark spirit of despair will the 
true work for mankind be done. He is living King of all the 
earth, and He claims it all for His own. And it is the complete- 
ness of His claim that alone can nerve us for the work of undoing 
the weight of wrong. Whatever defies the claim need not be : it 
might be cast out. There is force enough in Christ to expunge it. 
In this faith alone can we go forward and make head. We must 
catch sight of the vision. We must follow the gleam. If we had 
but a little faith — as a grain of mustard seed — we might say to 
those awful mountains of wickedness, " Let them be removed," 
and it would be done. 

Have faith in God, for Christ is King ! And it is the women 
to whom we look to save this faith, that it may never die out of 
us in our darkest hours. It is they who must whisper to us what 
they have seen. They must recall the good news. They must 
rouse us from our lethargy of grief. They must open the door of 
our darkened chamber and let in the light. They must waken 
the high hope when it sinks. They must rebuke us by their own 
imperishable conviction, even as she who came and told the men 
that Christ was alive and had spoken to her. Ah ! and then, 
when the great change happens which we men had despaired 
of — when a new spiritual impulse has taken eff*ect — when the old 
weary evils have been expelled — will it not seem so wholly 
natural, so right, so habitual, so inevitable that we shall be 
unable to conceive how we ever can have doubted its possibility ? 
Will it not take its place in our normal, ordinary life, just as if it 
was bound to be there — ^just as if nobody could expect anything 
elsel So easy, so simple, so obvious the thing that we men 
fancied incredible ! Believe me, there must be so much round 
about us to-day which will seem to our children as impossible, as 
intolerable as mediseval tortures do to us now. " How did they 
ever tolerate those awful slums T' they will ask ; " those hideous 
vices of the street; those barbarous instruments of war?" So 
they will say ! And there will be, in those days which shall be 



310 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

hereafter, beauty and brightness and gladness in their cities, 
which would stagger us as miraculous, as wild visionary dreams, 
but which they will find familiar as the air they breathe. There 
• will be no more surprise at them than there was to Mary when 
she knew it was her Lord. The Old shall vanish away All 
things shaU become New. 

Let the women sustain our faith in the Kew Day that shall 
dawn I Let them whisper in our ears the Good News ! Let the 
men rise and work and pray for the joy that yet shall be the 
heritage and portion of the humanity that now toils and suffers ! 
All is still possible. For Christ is risen. For Christ is King. 
He is in us. He is with us. We may speak with Him and He 
will call us by our name. And He has overcome the world. 

CANON WILBERFORCE. 

Canon Wilberforce, in addressing the congregation at St 
John's, Westminster, from the three texts, " Launch out into the 
deep," " Sanctify the Lord God in your hearts," " Let him refrain 
his tongue from evil," inquired, with reference to the last division 
of his subject, why it was that so much stress was, in Holy 
Scripture, Laid upon sins of the tongue 1 But St Peter showed 
that there were times when a proper and even a properly aggres- 
sive use should be made of the tongue, a use which lifting curses 
from the earth should beneficently purify. Referring then to 
those who, having made such beneficent use of speech as to draw 
down upon them, as reformers, the curse of the aggregate, the 
preacher declared that the thoughts which he had adduced applied 
cogently to the International Congress of Women Workers at 
present assembled in London. It was a significant sign of the 
times this Congress, these confederations of women. Well might 
the strongholds of vice tremble when woman, with her gloriously 
illogical sincerity, her powers of intuition, her unrivalled per- 
suasiveness, thus came to the front in reform. And he bade 
those women go forth to win new victories. They should go forth 
with an enthusiasm that no misgiving could paralyse. But they 
should in so going beware lest they fished in shallow waters. It 
was impossible to lift humanity by fighting symptoms. True re- 
formers must reform on the lines laid down by Christ, not by 
restraint from without, but by evolution from within. Woman 
had for so long laboured under disabilities that danger existed 
lest her ideas should, now that she stepped forth in freedom. 



SPECIAL BELIOIOUS SERVICES HELD DURING THE CONGRESS 311 

become narrow. But not thus could national wrongs be righted. 
The evolution of a principle of interior vitality, which, as it grew, 
protected itself by enactments in its statute books, would still be 
impotent unless unfolded from within. 



CANON ARMITAGE ROBINSON. 

Before commencing his sermon at St Margaret's, Westminster, 
Canon Armitage Robinson said: I desire to offer a word of 
earnest welcome and Godspeed to the delegates of the Inter- 
national Council of Women who are at present holding their 
meetings in Westminster, Their endeavour is to focus the efforts 
of those women who in many countries have founded national 
unions for promoting high ideals of woman's work of all kinds. 
The very fact of such associated effort is a new thing in the 
world, and a new message of hope to all who are in any way 
working for the larger life of our corporate humanity. Such 
work as this must needs be dear to the heart of the Divine Son 
of Man. 

THE REV. F. B. MEYER. 

In preaching a sermon addressed entirely to women, the Rev. 
F. B. Meyer, of Christ Church, Westminster Bridge Road, took 
as his text the words, '' This that this woman hath done." In 
the course of his remarks, Mr Meyer pointed out the remarkable 
fact that Our Lord desired to associate woman with the procla- 
mation of the Gk»spel throughout the centuries, to undo one of 
the results of the early sentence, and reinstate woman as the 
helper and fellow of man ; to redeem her from the degradation 
into which non-Christian religions had consigned her, as the toy 
or slave of man ; and to indicate that she would find her true 
sphere in following the guiding star of His Gospel. He welcomed 
the members of the Women's Congress who might be present, 
assuring them that there was no jealousy or niggardliness of con- 
cession of their just rights in his heart. Adam could view with 
equanimity the spectacle of Eve attempting and accomplishing 
work in the garden which he once thought was his special pre- 
rogative, if only she would do it in loving co-operation with 
himself. Women's work, he remarked, was characterised, as the 
incident before them indicated, by delicacy of insight, and by 
faithfulness to the ideals of the unseen and eternal qualities of 



312 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

the soul, such as ministry^ self-sacrifice and religion. He 
entreated his sisters not to allow themselves to be dominated by 
the love of money for its own sake, or by the desire for publicity. 
Let them live in fellowship with their ideals, as incarnated in 
Christ, and come to the valleys in which so much of human life 
was spent to hallow, quicken and refine. Be sure, he added, to 
compel us to treat you purely. Have lofty aims, and lift ours. 
Inspire us with your faith in these dark and doubting days. 

At the two French Protestant Churches special sermons were 
likewise preached ; at TEglise Reformee Evangelique Fran9aise, 
at Bayswater, by Pasteur du Pontet de la Harpe, and at TEglise 
Protestante Frangaise, Soho Square, by Pasteur Egremont. The 
latter gentleman took as his subject *^ The Gk)lden Rule.'' 

THE REV. H. R. HAWEIS. 

Mr Haweis preached from the words in the 27th chapter of 
St Matthew : — " And many women were there." Wherever, he 
said, the interests of humanity were concerned, we should find 
that many women were there. This last week had witnessed in 
the International Congress of Women a spectacle unique in the 
history of the world. It marked an epoch in the evolution of 
woman's influence. They had met to consult on the interests of 
their sex, but also on something wider — the welfare of humanity. 
Noble women had spoken and acted of old, but never before had 
there been such co-operation, such organisation, such unanimity 
among women for great and eternal interests which touched the 
earth but reached to heaven. When he looked through the 
programme of the Congress he was amazed at the variety of 
topics. Even politics were there. The day had passed when the 
shallow sneer at women who took interest in politics was heard. 
Everything that was for the good of man or the glory of God had 
to do with politics, and, therefore, must be connected with the 
interests and influence of women. People might talk about fit 
subjects for them, but the only persons to lay down the law on 
that point were women themselves. No subject discussed at the 
Congress could be more appropriate than that of peace and war. 
They raised a great protest in the Queen's Hall against the 
apathy of the clergy and the churches with regard to war. 
If he took up the newspapers, and especially those extraordinary 
journals called religious newspapers, which were most unlike 
religious things, what did he read? Something like this, that 



SPECIAL RELIGIOUS SERVICES HELD DURING THE CONGRESS 313 

the clergy were wasting their time about the garments they 
ought to wear and were consuming their ingenuity in trying to 
make out a connection between transubstantiation and the 
Lord's Supper. One would have expected them to go solid for 
the great Peace Congress at the Hague. Incense and copes and 
chasubles might give rise to many open questions from a legal 
point of view, but whether masses of men should be hurled on 
their fellow-creatures to cut their throats ought not to be an 
open question. He hailed with joy this great protest on the part 
of women, and he desired the truth to be proclaimed aloud 
everywhere until it reached the deaf ears of statesmen, that war 
was an organisation of uncivilised instincts, and that peace alone 
brought industrial and humanitarian and Christian progress. 
The influence of women had to find expression. That was the 
first great lesson they must learn. That influence found eloquent 
expression at the Queen's Hall. In this Congress women had 
shown themselves capable not only of expression but of self- 
organisation. He ventured to point out the enormous value of 
initiative — ^how multitudes perished, how many were forlorn, 
how progress was retarded because no one took the initiative that 
would lead to better things. We wanted the thoughts which 
breathed to find the words that burned. In the fourth century 
the initiative of the monk Telemachus put an end to gladiatorial 
combats at Rome. In our own time the initiative of Mme. 
Mistral, wife of the poet, caused all the women to quit the arena 
at Aries when a bull-fight was taking place. In all that was 
good and noble God had given the great power of initiation 
to women. The least men could do was to side with it. 
When he thought of the meanness and pusillanimity of people 
who saw things which they ought to disapprove, but against 
which they seldom raised the voice of disapproval, he sympathised 
with those who had the courage of their opinions. As a rule, 
women were far more courageous than men in speaking for 
religion, for decency, for human life, for humanity. So much 
for expression. Wliat was left? Organisation. It was the 
second great lesson which women must study. Half the generous 
movements in the world had failed for want of it. Prince 
Malcolm Khan once pointed out to him that the only reason 
why the East did not progress was because it had not the power 
of organisation. It had constantly been charged against women 
that they lacked that power. Such might have been the case in 
the past, but they had found that the men who sneered at them 



314 imrERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

when they ceased to be confined to what the critics called the 
domestic sphere organised against them, and so women had 
themselves taken to organisation. There was nothing unwomanly 
in combining for the interests of the sex and the welfare of 
society in general. At no distant date women would work 
through the franchise. All the talk about them being unable to 
sit on councils and so on was very shallow and rotten, and the 
House of Lords was only making a last, dying spurt in trying to 
prevent what the House of Commons permitted. Women had gifts 
which existed only in a lesser degree among men. What capacity 
they had as peacemakers, as the saviours of society standing 
between the oppressed and the oppressor! They were the 
leaders of forlorn hopes. Theirs was the faith which removed 
mountains. Not only were their great qualities recognised, they 
were claimed for the good of the human race in the name of the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. After pointing out that 
the Queen had always been averse to war, he declared that all 
good women were the same, their plea, "Spare our husbands, 
our brothers, our sons." After war, women's gift was the 
anodyne, administered in the hospital and the sickroom. " God 
bless all good women," said Oliver Wendell Holmes, "for to their 
kind hearts and tender hands we must come at last." 

THE REY. ANNA HOWARD SHAW AT WEST- 

MINSTER CHAPEL. 

BE STRONG. 

The Rev. Anna Howard Shaw preached in Westminster 
Congregational Chapel. It is a spacious and handsome build- 
ing, accommodating 3000 persons, and was built for the ministry 
of the late Rev. Samuel Martin, the church, however, as an 
organisation, dating from 1841. The present minister is the 
Rev. Richard Westrope, who came here in 1896. In the after- 
noon Mr Westrope had also thrown open the church to a woman 
speaker, and Miss Susan B. Anthony had addressed a meeting 
of men, the subject working out to woman suffrage. Both the 
afternoon and the evening gatherings were described as special 
services in connection with the International Congress of Women, 
members of which were admitted to both services. 

In the evening the doors were opened early, and the time of 
waiting was beguiled by suitable music discoursed by a strong 



SPECIAL RELIGIOUS SERVICES HELD DURING THE CONGRESS 315 

band. A large number of members of the Congress were present, 
the best seats in front of the centre being given up to them. 
Mr Westrope conducted the first part of the service, with the 
exception of the reading of the Scriptures, which duty was per- 
formed by the Rev. Miss Shaw herself. 

Miss Shaw announced her text from the chapter she had 
read — the first chapter of Joshua, "Be strong and of good 
courage ; neither be thou dismayed." It was written, she said, 
over one of the great arches of the World's Fair at Chicago that 
the greatest product of the world since the discovery of America 
was toleration in religion, and from the hearts of those who read 
the message arose a grateful Amen. But the world was not 
now so much agitated by the old theological problems as by the 
simpler problems of everyday living. There was the question. 
What was it to be a Christian ? What was the difference be- 
tween Christians and others ? The disciples of Christ were to be 
living epistles, known and read of all men. We are answering, 
she said, not so much by our words, as by our deeds. Persons 
might be bom in a Christian land, might be members of a 
Christian church, might believe the Creeds — the very strictest 
creed of orthodoxy — and yet not be a Christian. The Christian 
life wa« more than a creed, more than believing, more even than 
action. A Christian must believe, must feel, and he must act. 
There must be a combination of all permeating his hfe and his 
home. He must be a living embodiment of the spirit of the 
Gospel, even though he may never have heard the name of the 
Teacher who gave it to the world. Speaking then more par- 
ticularly to women — though she was careful to explain that when 
she said men she meant both men and women, and lamented 
there was no word in the language to include both — she said it 
was of little use to come together in great convocations unless 
they carried back a larger spirit and a broader humanity than 
they brought with them. They ought to take her text home 
with them. There had been too much weakness preached to 
women. But when they caught the idea that there were but 
two classes, the strong-minded and the weak-minded, they pre- 
ferred the former. The text meant strength of character. "Diat 
was the lesson. Character she defined &s — What we are. She 
believed in heredity, but also in the power of infinite goodness, 
and she found there a source of strength which would enable 
them to rise above heredity and environment. Goodness was 
always stronger than evil. Strength of character meant moral 



316 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

ooorage, which was the rarest thing in the world. The old idea 
of patriotism led a man to lay down his life for his country. 
Now they had a higher conception. It was to live his life for 
hia country, wholly, unselfishly j to dare to stand by some 
unpalatable truth and to be faithful to righteousness. It was 
easy to spring into a chasm to save the nation, but it was hard 
to follow the great Teacher up to the cross. But strength of 
character meant also faith in Grod, in an over-ruling Providence, 
and faith in the right. Further, it meant uncompromising 
obedience to the truth. Under this head, she said, did they not 
all know a poet with a heart so divinely attuned that Grod had 
asked of him a song, a song which would find the hungry heart 
and give it cheer, and tea«h the sinful heart thefe was 
redemption, and yet he sunk his gift in the dust of his own lust, 
and the world mourned a lost song. She prayed that the men 
and women who were to be the reformers of the world and bring 
changed conditions of human life and the means of earning 
honourable bread would be of strong character. 

DO NOT LOWER YOUR STANDARDS. 

You may say the standards lifted by the women in the last 
week have been too high, that the world cannot grasp them. 
But how, asked Miss Shaw, is the world to be educated higher if 
the standards were lowered? God's missionaries, God's fore- 
runners, God's reformers, could have no authority to lower the 
standards. A young standard-bearer in the Civil War had 
carried his flag too far, and the colonel called him back. " No," 
he replied. " Bring your men up to the standard." She believed 
in the future children would be well bom and well reared, and 
men would recognise fully the rights of their brother men. In 
conclusion she bade her sisters in every land to work for their 
homes and their country, until by-and-by they entered the 
better country. In the course of a concluding prayer she besought 
the blessing of Gkxi the Father, God the Mother, and Grod the 
Great Teacher. 

THE CHIEF RABBI AT ST JOHN'S WOOD 

SYNAGOGUE. 

Saturday, July I. 

The Chief Rabbi, preaching on Saturday, July 1st, at the St 
John's Wood Synagogue, on the aim and ideals of the Women's 



DEVOTIONAL MEETINGS 317 

Congress, took his text from the lesson of the day (Numbers 
xxvii. V. 7), ** The daughters of Zelophehad speak right : thou 
shalt surely give them a possession of an inheritance among their 
fathers' brethren, and thou shalt cause the inheritance of their 
fathers to pass unto them." He said that the position of those who 
considered the aims of the Congress unnecessary and mischievous 
was absolutely untenable in England, a country which, under 
the sway of a female sovereign, had attained a greatness and a 
prosperity superior to that of any empire in the world's history. 
Such argument could not be held by the denizen of a realm ruled 
by a woman, who, amid the crushing cares and responsibilities of 
government, had built up a home which elicited the admiration 
and reverence of civilised mankind. Women of sense and sensi- 
bility would no longer permit themselves to be condemned to 

" A sort of a cage-bird life, bom in a cage, 
Accounting that to leap from perch to perch 
Was act and joy enough for any bird." 

They asked, as did the Hebrew daughters, "Give unto us a 
possession among the brethren of our father." They pleaded that, 
both in this country and on the Continent, they suffered from 
restrictions and disabilities. With respect to many of their 
pleas, such as the inequality of the wage standard, exclusion 
from certain professions, from guardianships of children and of 
the poor, from a wider participation in local administration, the 
Scriptural words might be applied : " The daughters of Zelophehad 
speak aright." But a lesson might be learnt from the maidens 
of old, who laboured not merely for their own well-being and the 
credit of their family, but for the honour, welfare and happiness of 
their sex, that not by noisy declamation, nor by extravagant de- 
mands, could they hope to gain their point, but by pleading their 
cause with gentle firmness and sweet reasonableness, and never dis- 
carding that dignified modesty and deep sense of piety which con- 
stituted woman's charm and strength. 

Devotional Meetings. 

A SHORT devotional meeting was held each day at each of the 3 
halls, St Martin's, Westminster, and the Church Hall, in a room 
set apart for the purpose, at 10 a. m., before the Congress opened. 
The meetings were conducted by different members of Congress 
belonging to different Churches. 



318 IITTEKNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEK 

In addition to these daily meetings arranged on behalf of the 
International Council by the President, a special devotional meet- 
ing was held on Thursday afternoon, June 29th, for the del^ates, 
by the Committee of the World's Young Women's Christian 
Association. The following is a brief report of the gathering : — 

FOR DELEGATES TO THE INTERNATIONAL 

CONGRESS. 

The Committee of the World's Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation, and a representative committee of ladies, among whom 
were Lady Victoria Buxton, Mrs Bannister, Mrs C. Hogg, Lady 
Loch, Mrs Pennefather and Miss Soulsby, feeling a desire to give 
an English Christian welcome to the delegates attending the In- 
ternational Congress of Women in London, June 26th — July 4th, 
invited them to a devotional meeting at Morley HaU on the 
Thursday in the middle of the Congress. The other religious 
meetings of the Congress were a service arranged by the 
National Union of Women Workers, and special sermons and 
daily prayer meetings in each hall before each session. 

Mile. Monod (Paris) led in prayer in her own language. 

Lady Portsmouth, who presided, then explained the object of 
the meeting as follows : — 

The real conveners of this meeting, to whose initiative it is 
duo that one more has been added to the many gatherings of 
this busy week, are certain members of the Committee of Invita- 
tion, who could not bear that the one subject which all who have 
it at heart in any of its forms feel to be the most vitally im- 
portant of all, should be the only one without a place on the pro- 
gramme of the great Congress in which women from the ends of 
the earth were to discuss innumerable aspects of social life. 
Since then devotional meetings in more immediate connection 
with the Congress have, I believe, been arranged, but this one 
being of a somewhat different character, and at an hour possibly 
more convenient to some, and affording an opportunity of intro- 
ducing visitors to the headquarters of the great association which 
had offered it hospitality, it was not thought desirable to abandon 
it. The result shows, I think, that those responsible had gauged 
rightly the desire on the part of many delegates for such an 
opportunity of spiritual intercourse and refreshment. 

On such an occasion one would willingly keep self in the 
l)ackgix>und, but I must say a word of personal explanation. 



DEVOTIONAL MEETINGS 319 

When the Committee asked me to join them, and to preside 
this afternoon over a cosmopolitan gathering, it may have been 
in some of their minds that my husband's name is well known as 
one of those whose dearest object is the defence and preservation of 
the Protestant character of our National Church, an object in which 
he has my fullest sympathy, but I think they also regarded me 
as representing what I may call Cosmopolitan Christianity, 
Bom and bred a member of the Society of Friends (a membership 
which I still retain and value), I was accustomed in childhood to 
attend, during our frequent absences from home, the services of 
the Scotch Presbyterians and of the Reformed Churches of the 
Continent, while latterly I have usually attended those of the 
Church of England. It was with extreme diffidence, I may 
almost say reluctance, that I accepted the invitation to preside 
this afternoon, but I felt that my peculiar religious associations 
and antecedents did perhaps constitute a call that it would be 
wrong to resist. 

Miss Clifford was called upon. She called attention to the 
fact that God the Giver was the foundation fact about God, and 
that one needed to live much in the thought of God ; our first 
attitude must be therefore to receive from Him. 

There are three ways in which He gives and three responses 
on our part. 

1. God has made giving one of the chief laws of the world, 
and she illustrated this from some facts about the Indian soil and 
climate which yields three harvests in the year, yet the land is 
not dressed as in England ; scientists say that the atmosphere of 
India is for ever giving. The air gives to the soil, the soil gives 
to the plants, the plants in their turn give to the people, and the 
people give to the world. Finally the varied gifts return to the 
air. 

2. God gives that we may become givers. It pauperises 
people only to receive ; it never enervates if we receive to give. 

3. God chooses to give through us ; we who feel so cold and 
helpless are yet to become the medium through which God gives. 

Our response to the gifts of God are (1) The conviction of the 
extreme value and worth of the lives we are called to save. (2) 
The respK)nse of sympathy. (3) The spirit of intercession. 

Adeline, Buchess of Bedford, was next called upon, and she 
began by saying that the object of the meeting seemed to her to 
be, in the midst of discussing various important subjects, to give one 
another, in language of olden times, " a token '' that should be 



320 IXTEBNATIOXAL CfOUNCIL OP WOMEN 

of permanent value when they separated. Two facts she said had 
been brought prominently forward during these busy days — ^the 
kinship of nations and the thirst for knowledge, and she dwelt 
beautifully on the verse that had been ringing in her mind as 
she thought of this acquisition of knowledge, " The light of the 
knowledge of the glory of Ckxi in the face of Jesus Chnst.'* She 
closed the address with a call to silent prayer. 

The Bishop of Sierra Leone then followed with words which 
went to the root of the matter, and showed how God as Giver 
was pre-eminently seen in giving Himself in Christy reconciling 
us to Himself through the perfect Atonement wrought by Him 
on the Cross. It was the precious Blood of Christ having paid 
our penalty, and met our need, which enabled us to give our Hves 
for others. Receivitig from Him must precede our giving. His 
first call to us is Come unto Me." 

The meeting closed with the Benediction. 



International Council of Women. 

INTERNATIONAL OFFICERS. 

Mrs May Wright Sewall, 633 North Pennsylvania Street, 
Indianopolis, Indiana, U.S.A., President; the Countess of 
Aberdeen, Haddo House, Aberdeen, Scotland, Vice-PresidetU ; 
Fraulein Helene Lange, Steglitzerstr 48, Berlin, Germany, 
Treasurer ; Miss Teresa F. Wilson, 254 Lisgar Street, Ottawa, 
Canada, Corresponding Secretary ; Mile. Camille Vidart, 1 Place 
du Port, Geneva, Switzerland, Recording Secretary, 

Note. — T?ie above General Officers, together unth the Presidents of 
all National Councils, form the Executive Committee, 

Miss Harris Smith, Auditor of the International Council^ 
Public Accountant, 13 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

LIST OF FEDERATED NATIONAL COUNCII^ OF 
WOMEN, WITH THEIR OFFICERS. 

United States op America, formed March 1888, 

federated July 1897. 

Honorary Presidents, — Mrs Mary Lowe Dickinson, 230 West 
59th Street, New York, U.S. A; Mrs May Wright Sewall, 



LIST OF FEDERATED NATIONAL COUNCILS OF WOMEN 321 

633 North Pennsylvania Street, Indianopolis, Ind. Prendent, 
— Mrs Fannie Humphreys Qafi&iey, 41 Riverside Drive, New 
York. Vice-Freaident, — Mrs Maria Purdy Peck, Davenport^ Iowa, 
U.S.A. Correaponding Secretary, — Mrs Kate WaUer Barrett, 
218 3rd Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. Recording Secretaries. 
— Rev. Anna Garlin Spencer, 1536 Westminster Street, Pro- 
vidence, R.I. ; Mrs Emmeline B. Wells, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Trea,8urer, — Mrs Hannah G. Solomon, 4406 Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Canada, formed October 1893, federated July 1897. 

FresiderU, — Lady Taylor, 49 Madison Avenue, Toronto. 
Advisory FresiderU. — The Countess of Aberdeen. Honorary 
Vice-Fresidents. — The Wives of lieutenant-Gbvemors of 
Provinces. Fleeted Vice-Fresidents, — Lady Laurier, Lady Thom- 
son. Vice-Fresidents for the Fromnces <md for the North- West 
Territories. — Nova Scotia — Mrs R. L. Borden, Halifax; New 
Brunswick — Lady Tilley, St John ; Quebec — Mme. Thibandeau, 
Montreal; Ontario — Mrs Boomer, London; Manitoba — Mrs 
M'Ewen, Brandon; Assiniboia — Mrs Davin, Regina; Alberta 
— Mrs Lougheed, Calgary ; British Columbia — Miss Perrin, 
Victoria. Correspotiding Secretary. — Miss T. F. Wilson, 254 
lisgar Street, Ottawa. Recording Secretary. — Mrs WiUoughby 
Cummings, 44 Dewson Street, Toronto. Treasurer. — Mrs 
Hoodless, East Court, Hamilton. 

Gekmany, formed in 1894, federated July 1897. 

President. — Fraulein Augusta Schmidt, Grassistrasse 33, 
Leipzig. Vice-Fresidents. — Frau Anna Simson, Schweidnitzer 
Stadtgraben 16a, Breslau. Frau Marie Stritt, Seidnitzerplatz 1, 
Dresden. Treasurer. — Frau Betty Naue, Promenadenplatz 6, 
Miinchen. Secretaries. — Frau Hanna Bieber Boehm, Kaiser 
Wilhelmstrasse 39, Berlin; Fraulein Ika Frendenberg, Gisela- 
strasse 18, Miinchen; Fraulein Helene Y. Forster, Egydienplatz 
35, Numberg ; Fraulein Ottilie Hoffinan, Dobben 28a, Bremen ; 
Frau Schwerin, An der Schleuse 13, Berlin; Fraulein Auguste 
Forster, Weinbergstr. 12, CasseU; Fraulein Helene Lange, 
Steglitzerstr. 48, Berlin. 

Sweden, formed January 1896, federated July 1898. 

President. — Fru A. Hierta-Retzius, 110 Drottninggatan, 
Stockholm. Vice-President. — Froken Ellen Fries, Ph.D., 

VOL. I. X 



322 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Malmskilnadsgatan 39, Stockholm. Recording Secretary, — 
Froken H. Andersson, Pipersgatan 20, Stockholm. Corre- 
sponding Secretary, — Froken Ellen Whitlock, 4 Lill Jans Plan, 
Stockholm, Sweden. Treasurer, — Froken Hilda Lundin, 
Tegnerlunden 12, Stockholm. 

Great Britain and Ireland, formed October 1897, 

federated July 1898. 

President, — Hon. Mrs A. T. Lyttelton, Castle House, Peters- 
field. Vice-Presidents, — The Countess of Aberdeen, Haddo House, 
Aberdeen ; Mrs S. A. Bamett, Warden's Lodge, Toynbee Hall, 
Whitechapel, E. ; the Lady Battersea, Surrey House, 7 Marble 
Arch, W. ; Adeline, Duchess of Bedford, Chenies, Kickmans- 
worth ; Mrs Benson, Tremans, Horsted Keynes, Sussex ; Mrs 
Alfred Booth, 46 Ullet Road, Sefton Park, liverpool ; the Lady 
Frederick Cavendish, 21 Carlton House Terrace, S.W. ; Miss 
Clifford, 2 Hill Side, Redland Green, Bristol; Miss Fanny L. 
Calder, 49 Canning Street, Liverpool ; Mrs Creighton, The PaJace, 
Fulham, S.W. ; Mrs Henry Fawcett, 2 Gower Street, W.C. ; Head 
Deaconess Gilmore, The Sisters, Noriih Side, Clapham Common, 
S.W. ; Mrs E. Groodeve, Drinagh, Stoke Bishop, Bristol ; Hon. 
Emily Kinnaird, 116 Mount Street, W. ; the Lady Knightley, 
of Fawsley, Fawsley Park, Daventry; the Countess of Meath, 
Lancaster Gate, W. ; Mrs Mirrlees, Badlands, Kelvinside, Glas- 
gow ; Mother Emma, St Andrews Home, Portsmouth ; the Lady 
Laura Ridding, Thurgarton Priory, Southwell, Notts ; Mrs 
Henry Sidgwick, Newnham College, Cambridge. Secretary, — 
Miss Janes — ^Office, 59 Bemers Street, Oxford Street, W. 
Treasurer, — Mrs George Cadbury, Northfield Manor, near 
Birmingham. 

Denmark, formed March 1899, federated March 1899. 

President, — Froken Ida Falbe Hansen, 1 Studiestrade, Copen- 
hagen. Treasurer, — Fni Professor Axellinc Lund, Copenhagen. 
Recording Secretary. — Froken Eline Hansen, Copenhagen. 
Corresponding Secretary, — Fru Norrie, Congensgade 49, Copen- 
hagen. 

New South Wales, formed July 1896, federated March 1899, 

President, — Viscountess Hampden, 3 Belgrave Place, London, 
S.W. Vice-President, — Lady Renwick, Sydney. Treasurer, — 
Miss Rose Scott, Lynton, Point Piper Road, Sydney. Cor- 



LIST OF FEDERATED NATIONAL COUNCILS OF WOMEN 323 

responding Secretary. — Mrs Dora E. Armitage, 114 Pitt Street, 
Sydney. 

Holland, formed March 1899, federated March 1899. 

President, — Mme. Ellerck van Hogendorp, 11 Alexanderstraat, 
The Hague. Vice-President. — Mme. Rutgers-Hoitsema, 52 Har- 
ingvlet, Rotterdam. Treasurer. — Mile. Drucker, Sarphatipark 61, 
Amsterdam. Corresponding Secretary. — MUe. Martina Kramers, 
16 Kortenaerstraat, Rotterdam. Recording Secretary. — MUe 
Kuenen. 

New Zealand, formed April 1896, federated May 1899. 

President. — Mrs Daldy, Hepburn Street, Auckland. Vice- 
President. — Mrs Shepherd, Box 209, Post OflSce, Christchurch. 
Trectsurer. — Mrs Williamson, Wanganui. Recording Secre- 
tary. — Miss Garstin. Corresponding Secretary. — Mrs Sievwright, 
Gisbome. 

Tasmania, formed May 1899, federated June 1899. 

President. — Lady Gormanstown. Vice - Presidents. — Mrs 
Dodds, Lady Braddon. Secretary. — Mrs M*Gregor. Treasurer. 
— Mrs Morton. 

HONORARY VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Finland, appointed at Chicago, 1893. 
Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, Helsingfors, Finland. 

Belgium, appointed at Chicago, 1893. 
Mile. Marie Popelin, LL.D., 12 Place des Barricades, Brussels. 

Switzerland, appointed July 1897. 
MUe. Camille Vidart, 8 Rue de THotel de Ville, Geneva. 

Italy, appointed July 1898. 
Countessa Tavema, Tomo Lago di Como, Rome. 

Russia, appointed March 1899. 
H. E. Mme. Anne de PhilosofoflF, Fontanka 28, St Petersburg. 



324 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Austria, appointed March 1899. 
Frau Marianne Hainisch, 111 Marokkanergasse, Vienna. 

France, appointed May 1899. 

Mme. Bogelot, 4 Rue Perrault, Paris ; Mile. Sarah Monod 
(^''//nw^ii/crfitv), 95 Rue Reuilly, Paris. 

Norway, appointed May 1899. 
Froken Gina Krog, 31 Ed. Stonnsgade, Christiana. 

Victoria, appointed May 1889. 
Janet, Lady Clarke. 

South Australia, appointed May 1899. 

Mrs Cockbum, 2 Sunderland Terrace, Westboume Gardens, 
London, N.W. 

West Australia. 

Mrs Wittenoom, 7 Cumberland House, High Street, Ken- 
sington, London, S.W. 

Queensland. 



Cape Colony, appointed June 1899. 
Mrs Stewart of Lovedale, Mrs Nixon (RepreaenUUive). 

Argentine Republic, appointed May 1899. 
Dr Cecilia Grierson, Patagones 672, Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 

Palestine, appointed March 1899. 



China, appointed June 1899. 
Mme. Shen, Chinese Legation, 49 Portland Place, London, W 

Persia. 
Mrs James Nielson Hamilton, U.S.A. Consulate, Persia. 



CONSTITUTION OP THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 325 

PATRONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 

Mr James Nielson Hamilton, U.S.A. ; Mrs Sanford, Canada ; 
Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, Finland; Mrs Allison Bybee, 
U.S.A. ; Mr MacLeine, U.S.A. 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE INTERNATIONAL 

COMMITTER 

(Consisting of the five General Officers, and of one represen- 
tative from each federated National Council.) 

I. — Fincmce Committee, 

II. — IntemcUiancU Arbitration, — Chavnmom, — Countess of 
Aberdeen ; Secretary, — Baroness Suttner. 

III. — Press Committee, — ^To devise methods of communi- 
cation by the International Council and between National 
Councils ; to draw up a list of suitable journals throughout the 
world ; to approach editors with a view of securing introduction 
of International Council news in their papers. 

IV. — On Laws affecting the Domestic Relations. — Chairman 
to be nominated by German Council. 



CONSTITUTION 

OP THE 

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN. 

PREAMBLE. 

We, women of all Nations, sincerely believing that the best 
good of humanity will be advanced by greater unity of thought, 
sympathy and purpose, and that an organised movement of 
women will best conserve the highest good of the family and of 
the State, do hereby band ourselves in a confederation of workers 
to further the application of the Golden Rule to society, custom 
and law. 

[The Golden Rule. — Do unto others as ye would that they 
should do unto you,] 



326 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

That we may more successfully prosecute the work, we adopt 
the following 

CONSTITUTION. 
Article I. 

Name, 

1. The federation shall be called the International Council of 
Women. 

Objects of the International Council, 

(a) To provide a means of communication between women's 
organisations in all countries. 

(6) To provide opportunities for women to meet together from 
all parts of the world to confer upon questions relating to the 
welfare of the commonwealth and the family. 

Article II. 

General Policy. 

1. This International Council is organised in the interests of 
no one propaganda, and has no power over its members beyond 
that of suggestion and sympathy ; therefore, no National Council 
voting to become a member of the International Council shall 
render itself liable to be interfered with in respect to its complete 
organic unity, independence or methods of work, or shall be 
committed to any principle or method of any other Council, or to 
any utterance or act of this International Council, beyond com- 
pliance with the terms of this Constitution. 

Article III. 

Ojfficers, 

1. The Officers shall be a President, a Vice-Presidentnat- 
Large, Corresponding Secretary, Recording Secretary, and 
Treasurer. Each President of a National Council shall be an ex- 
qfficio Vice-President of the International Council. 

2. These Officers shall be elected at the Quinquennial Meeting, 
and no officer shall occupy the office of President for two con- 
secutive terms. 

3. The five general officers, with the Presidents of Federated 
National Councils, shall constitute an Executive Committee, of 



CONSTITUTION. OP THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 327 

which two-thirds of the whole number shall make a quorum, to 
control and provide for the general interests of the International 
Council. 

4. In all countries where a National Council is not already 
organised or federated with the International Council, some 
woman shall be elected to represent her country as honorary 
Vice-President of that country in the International Council 
until such time as a National Council shall be fully organised 
and eligible for membership in the International Council. All 
such Honorary Vice-Presidents may be invited to attend the 
meetings of the Executive, but shall have no vote. 

Article IV. 

Membera, 

Any National Council formed of National Societies, of Local 
Councils, and Unions of representative Societies and Institutions, 
provided that their constitution be in harmony with the basis of 
the constitution of the International Council, may become a 
member of the International Council with the approval of the 
Executive, and by the payment of J&20 (100 dollars) every five 
years. This sum shall be paid into the Treasury of the Inter- 
national Council in yearly instalments. 

All National CouncUs shall, on application for federation, 
send a copy of their constitution and rules, and a copy of the 
resolution by which the application for federation was passed by 
the Council. And if, at any time, said constitution and rules are 
altered, a copy of the alteration shall be sent to the Correspond- 
ing Secretary. 

Any person whose name is accepted by the Executive Com- 
mittee, and approved by the Council of her own nation, where 
one exists, may become a Patron of this Council upon the pay- 
ment of £20 (100 dollars). 

Article V. 

Meetings, 

1. The International Council shall hold quinquennial meet- 
ings. 

2. The Committee of Arrangements shall be formed of the 
Executive Committee of the International Council, and one 
Delegate from each federated National Council. 



328 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

3. The President and two Delegates from every federated 
National Council, together with the General Officers, shall alone 
have the right to vote at the meetings of the International 
Council. These Officers and Delegates, when unable to be 
present, may vote by proxy. The proxy of a General Officer 
must be a member of a federated National Council which shall 
have approved of her appointment. The proxy of a President or 
Delegate must be a member of the Council which she is a{>pointed 
to represent. 

4. All members of Council, that is, all ordinary members of 
federated National Councils, may be invited to attend the meet- 
ings of Council, but may not ti^e part in the proceedings with- 
out special invitation. 

5. All business to be brought before the International 
Council must first be submitted to the Executive Committee as a 
notice of motion. 

Article VI. 

This Constitution may be altered or amended by a majority 
vote of the Council at any quinquennial meeting, printed notice 
thereof having been sent to each member of the Executive Com- 
mittee at least three months prior to such meeting. 



STANDING ORDERS 

FOB THE USE OF 

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

(Adapted at the Meeting of ExectUivej 9<A July 1897, and 
Amended at the Meeting of Executive^ Jxdy 1899.) 

I. Meetings. 

1. The Meetings of the Executive Committee shall be con- 
vened by the President, or Acting President^ at such time and 
place as may seem to her desirable for the efficient conduct of the 
work of the Council. Not less than foar months' notice shall be 
given to each member unless most urgent business compels the 
Committee being called together by the President, or Acting 



STANDING ORDERS FOR USE OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 329 

President, at such notice as will allow of communication with 
each National Council. 

2.. Special Meetings may be called by any three members of 
the Executive, requesting the President in writing to convene a 
Meeting. Four months' notice must be given in such cases, and 
the place of meeting left to the option of the President. The 
names of the three members requesting the meeting shall be 
mentioned in the notice summoning the meeting. 

3. The notice calling the Executive shall contain as full a 
statement of the agenda as possible, and also the terms of any 
resolution of which notice has been given in sufficient time so to 
do. 

4. At the ordinary meeting of the Executive Committee the 
order of business shall be — 

Reading, correction and approval of the minutes of 

last meeting. 
Correspondence. 
Roll Call, 

Remarks by the President. 
Report of Corresponding Secretary. 
Report of Treasurer. 
Reports from Sub-Committees (if any). 
Reports from National Councils (if desired). 
Any business carried over from last meeting. 
New business. 

5. If, on account of the members of the Executive residing 
at such wide distances apart, and being therefore unable to meet 
except occasionally, it be deemed desirable by the President 
to take the votes of the Executive Committee in writing, such a 
vote shall be valid. In such cases, the Corresponding Secretary 
shall, on the instructions of the President, send out a memoran- 
dum to each member of the Executive, marked, *^ For the use of 
the Executive only," giving the resolution or other communication 
to be voted on, and any reasons that may have been stated on 
either side for or against. If the communication refers to a 
matter on which the National Councils should be consulted, or 
should take action, the opinion of the members of the Executive 
shall first be obtained as to what steps to take, or as to the best 
way of taking action, before the subject is brought before the 
National Councils. 

6. If a two-thirds majority of the International Executive 



330 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OP WOMEN 

deem any resolution sent up by the National Councils unsuitable 
or inadvisable for presentation to the Council, it shall not be 
placed on the agenda. 

7. When the President of any National Council is unable to 
attend a meeting of the Executive, it shall be competent to the 
Executive Committee of such National Council to appoint a 
substitute to attend in her place, or to empower their President 
to appoint a substitute, provided that such substitute be a 
member of a National Council. 

II. Rules of Order. 

8. The President, or person occupying the Chair, shall have 
a casting vote in case of a tie, but shall not otherwise vote as a 
member. 

9. Every member of the Executive Committee when speaking 
shall address the Chair only. 

10. Every notice of motion for the agenda shall be in writing, 
and shall be signed either by a member of the Executive, or by 
the Secretary of the National Council sending it in. 

11. All correspondence received since last meeting shall be 
upon the table, filed according to subject and date. Such general 
correspondence as the Executive desire to hear shall be read by 
the Corresponding Secretary, before each subject comes on for 
discussion, and any communication relating thereto, which may 
be considered important, shall be read to the meeting. Any 
member shall be entitled to call for the reading of other com- 
munications. 

12. Any part of the regular business of a meeting may be 
taken up out of its regular order, or any special business may be 
taken without notice, only when a motion of urgency has been 
passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members 
present. 

13. All motions, or amendments other than mere fonnal ones, 
shall be reduced to writing. 

14. Motions to rescind resolutions passed within twelve 
months, and motions to the same effect as motions negatived 
within the previous twelve months must be passed by a majority 
of two-thirds of the members present. 

15. An attendance book shall be kept and signed by each 
member present at any Executive Committee or Sub-Committee 
Meeting ; also a memorandum of notes sent by absent members 



STANDING ORDEBS FOR USE OF INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 331 

and a summary of attendances shall be kept by the Recording 
Secretary. 

16. The Recording Secretary shall prepare a summary of the 
minutes, or a copy of the minutes themselves to be sent to each 
absent member. The minutes shall be read, corrected and 
approved at the close of each session. 

17. The Standing Orders shall not be suspended unless by a 
unanimous vote. 

18. All correspondence received by the Corresponding Secre- 
tary, or copies thereof, shaU be submitted to the President, and a 
letter book containing copies of all letters sent out by the Secre- 
tary shall be kept and produced, if desired, by the Executive. 

19. The federation of National Councils shall be accepted on 
the following terms : — 

(1.) Receipt of formal letter enclosing copy of resolution 
passed at meeting federating National Council. 

(2.^ A copy of the Constitution adopted. 

(3.) Proof that the Council applying for federation has a 
right to call itself National in a representative sense. 

(4.) Approval of the Executive Committee expressed by 
resolution. 

(5.) Payment of Federation Fee in annual instalments. On 
receipt of the minutes containing the resolution whereby 
the National Council record their desire to federate 
with the International Council, and of the Constitution 
or Rules of the National Council, the resolution can be 
passed accepting the federation, and the Treasurer shall 
then apply for the Federation Fee, and, at a subsequent 
meeting, report its receipt to the Executive. 

20. The above Standing Orders shall be observed by Sub- 
committees so far as they are applicable. 



STANDING ORDERS 

FOR THE USE OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN. 

I. Meetings. 

1. The Quinquennial Meeting of the International Council 
shall be held at such time and place as the International Executive 



332 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

may select, subject to the decision of the preyiotts Quinquennial 
Meeting. 

2. The Quinquennial Session of the International Council 
shall sit for three days, or longer, as may be required. 

3. Special meetings of the International Council for urgent 
business may be convened by the President at her own discretion, 
or at the urgent request, in writing, of two-fifths of the Interna- 
tional Executive. Such notice shall be given as will allow of 
communication with each National Council. 

4. Conferences, in connection with the Qmnquennial Meeting, 
or at any other time, may be held as may seem advisable to the 
Executive. 

5. At the meetings of the International Council the Minute 
Book of the International Executive Committee shall be on the 
Council table for inspection by the members of the International 
Council. 

6. The order of business at the meetings of the International 
Council shall be as follows : — 

(1.) Minutes of previous meeting. 

(2.) Correspondence. 

(3.^ Roll Call. 

(4.) Opening Remarks by the President. 

(5.) Appointment of members of the International Council 
as Returning Officers and Tellers for the Ballot Voting. 

(6.) Election of Officers. 

Greetings from Fraternal Delegates. 
Quinquennial Report and Financial Statement. 
Reports from Federated National Councils. 
Appointment of Auditors. 

Amendments to Rules and Standing Orders (if any). 
(12.) Motions of which due notice has been given to the In- 
ternational Executive Committee, and by them to each 
federated National Council, and Amendments relevant 
to the motions before the meeting. 
(13.) Other business. 

7. Delegates shall occupy seats allotted, by previous arrange- 
ment or ballot of the International Executive Comjnittee, to the 
representatives of Federated National Councils. Each seat shall 
be numbered to correspond with the number on the ticket of the 
delegate to whom it is allotted. 

8. Secretaries of Federated National Councils are required to 
send a copy of the minute of Committee or Council appointing 




STANDING ORDERS FOR USE OF INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 333 

delegates, or their substitutes in the event of their inability to 
attend, to the Corresponding Secretary a full month before the 
Quinquennial Council Meeting, and also to provide each delegate 
or substitute with a letter of introduction. 

9. The responsibility for the appointment and instruction of 
delegates rests solely with the bodies appointing, and delegates 
are required to act in strict accordance with the instructions of 
the Federated National Councils which they represent, and on 
points which may incidentally arise, as far as they can judge, in 
accordance with the spirit of that organisation, and not as 
individuals. 

Federated National Councils shall be free to give liberty to 
their delegates to vote according to their own convictions on any 
matter on which the National Councils consider that they have 
not sufficient information, and where they feel that discussion 
might materially alter the point of view. 

10. A preliminary agenda for the Quinquennial Council shall 
be sent out to each Federated National Council ten months before 
the Quinquennial Meeting, and shall be laid before each such 
body for discussion in order that notice of amendment, alteration 
or withdrawal, if desired, may be sent back to the Inter- 
national Executive four months after its receipt. The final 
agenda, with all amendments, shall be received by each 
Federated National Council three months before the Quinquennial 
Meeting. 

11. Resolutions for the Quinquennial Meeting of the Interna- 
tional Council and suggestions for Conferences can be submitted 
to the International Executive for inclusion on the preliminary 
agenda by Federated National Councils, by the Executive, and 
by the Officers of the same, but not by individual members. 

12. Besolutions from Federated National Councils must be 
received by the Corresponding Secretary fourteen months before 
the Quinquennial Meeting, or at such time as may be fixed by the 
President for the convenience of the work of the International 
Council, in order that they may be placed on the preliminary 
agenda and be sent out for the consideration and amendment of 
the Federated National Councils. 

13. Amendments to the resolutions can be sent in by the 
same parties who can send in resolutions, when the preliminary 
agenda is returned. No resolutions can be proposed except 
purely verbal ones during the actual meeting of the International 
Council. 



334 INTERNATIONAL CX)UNCIL OF WOMEN 

14. Amendments must be relevant to the subject matter of 
the original motion. 

15. If a two-thirds majority of the International Executive 
deem any resolution or amenchnent sent up by the Federated 
National Councils unsuitable or inadvisable for presentation to 
the International Council, it shall not be placed on the agenda. 

16. All invitations from Federated National Councils to the 
International Council to hold the Quinquennial Meeting in their 
respective countries shall be received by the Corresponding Secre- 
tary three months previous to the Quinquennial Meeting preceding 
that for which the invitation is extended, in order that the Interna- 
tional Executive Committee may consider the matter and decide 
upon a recommendation which shall he laid before the Inter- 
national Council, and voted upon. 

II. Duties of Officers. 

17. The President, or, in her absence, the elected Vice- 
President, shall preside at all meetings of the International 
Council and its Executive. She shall take a general supervision 
of all its work, and keep in touch with the work of the National 
Councils throughout the world, and shall do all in her power to 
promote the formation of new National Councils. 

18. The elected Vice-President of the International Council 
shall act in the absence of the President, or the Executive shall 
appoint an acting President. 

19. The President of a Federated National Council, in the 
absence of the President, or of the elected Vice-President of the 
International Council, shall preside at any Special Meetings of 
the Council held in her country, and shall promote the work of 
the International Council so far as possible. 

20. The Corresponding Secretary shall conduct all correspond- 
ence of the International Council, shall present a report at the 
Quinquennial Meeting, shall keep a complete roll of all Federated 
National Councils, and shall prepare an agenda of business for 
all meetings of the International Council and its Executive. 

21. The Recording Secretary shall keep careful minutes of 
the proceedings of meetings of the International Council and 
of the Executive Committee of the same. 

22. The Treasurer shall receive all fees from Federated 
National Councils, and all subscriptions and donations from 
Patrons and others. She shall pay all accounts after they are 



STANDING 0RDEB8 FOR USE OF INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 335 

duly initialled by the President, and shall have her books audited 
by an Auditor appointed by the International Council, before 
presenting her Quinquennial Report. All Subscriptions and fees 
shall be acknowledged by official receipt, signed by the Treasurer. 

23. Officers may record their votes by proxy at the meetings 
of the International Council, if unable to be present, and if they 
have given full written instructions to the person representing 
them as to the votes to be given. 

III. — Election of Officers. 

24. Nomination papers for the officers of the International 
Council shall be sent out by the International Executive to each 
Federated National Council twelve months before the Quin- 
quennial Meeting, and shall be returned by them to the Corre- 
sponding Secretary, by a date which she will indicate, filled in, 
in accordance with the instructions of each Federated National 
Council, given through a Public Meeting of the same, or through 
its Executive, if especially empowered in this regard. All nomina- 
tions must be made with the consent of those nominated. 
Nominations for the Officers of the International Council shall be 
made by Federated National Councils, and by the Executive 
Committee of the International Council, but not by individual 
members of the same. 

25. The election of Officers shall be by ballot. Tlie ballot 
papers will be supplied to each member of the International 
Council at a polling booth within the precincts of the haU, and 
under the charge of the returning officers. The voters shall be 
required to mark their papers, when they receive them, inside the 
polling booth, and to deposit them at once in one of the sealed 
ballot boxes that shall be provided for that purpose. No member 
of the International Council shall receive a second ballot paper, 
except from the returning officers in exchange for the one 
previously given. 

26. In the case of the resignation or death of an officer 
during her term of office, a successor shall be elected by the 
International Executive to serve during the remainder of such 
term. 

IV. — Rules of Order. 

27. Every person when speaking shall stand and shall address 
the Chair. 



336 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

28. Every motion shall be proposed, or, in other words, read 
by the presiding officer before it is open to debate or amendment. 
Only two amendments shall be proposed at one time to a motion 
or question. In other words, there shall be only three questions 
at one time before the International Council ; the main motion, 
an amendment, and an amendment thereto. But when an 
amendment to the amendment is disposed of, another amendment 
can be proposed, provided it ia not one similar to that already 
voted on. But a motion for the adjournment of the Inter- 
national Council or of the debate is always in order under such 
circumstances. 

29. Motions and amendments shall be voted on in the reverse 
order to that in which they are submitted, the last amendment 
being thus voted on first. 

30. All special motions shall be in writing, and shall be 
seconded before being put from the Chair, but motions for 
adjournment of Council or of debate, or for the previous question 
or mere routine business, need not be written. 

31. A motion that is not seconded may not be proposed from 
the Chair, and no entry thereof shall be made in the minutes. 

32. A motion or an amendment may be withdrawn with the 
consent of the whole International Council present, or, in other 
words, without a negative voice. 

33. No question or motion can be regularly offered if it is 
substantially the same as one on which the judgment of the 
International Council has already been expressed during that 
meeting of the Council. 

34. Any member may require the question under discussion 
to be read at any time of the debate, but not so as to interrupt 
a speaker. 

35. A motion to adjourn is edways in order, and shall be 
voted on without debate, when there is a question under con- 
sideration ; when there is no such question under discussion, and 
the motion for adjournment is a substantive or main motion, 
a debate thereon is permissible, but it must be confined to the 
question of adjournment. A motion to adjourn cannot be 
amended, and must be simply : — " That the International Council 
be now adjourned,*' or " That the debate be now adjourned." A 
motion *^ That the International Council do adjourn to a particular 
day or hour," or "That a debate be adjourned to a particular day 
or hour," is always amendable with respect to day or hour. 

36. The President may at any time take the opinion of the 



STANDING ORDERS FOR USE OF INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 337 

International Council as to the length of time to be allowed for 
the discussion of any motion, and shall then, at her own dis- 
cretion, limit the time for each speaker. 

37. The President of the International Council may, at the 
close of any speech, propose without debate, " That the question 
be now put '' ; and if the motion be seconded and carried by a 
majority, the original resolution as amended shall be at once put 
without debate. 

38. When a debate on a question is concluded, the Presiding 
Officer shall proceed to put the question. If the question has 
not been heard she shall read it again to the meeting. Having 
read the question on which the decision of the meeting is to be 
first given, she shall take the sense of the members by saying : 
" Those who are in favour of the question or amendment shall 
say aye." " Those who are of the contrary opinion shall say no." 
When the supporters or opponents of the question have given 
their voices for and against the same, the Presiding Officer shall 
say, " I think the ayes have it," or " I think the noes have it," or 
" I cannot decide." Any member of the International Council 
feeling a doubt as to the correctness of the decision may call for 
a division. 

39. The Secretary or Recording Officer shall make no entry of 
a motion or proposed resolution except it is stated from the 
Chair. 

40. The Presiding Officer shall decide all questions of order, 
subject to an appeal to the International Council, and in explain 
ing a point of order or procedure, she shall state the rule or 
authority applicable to the case. 

41. No member shall speak twice to a motion or question, 
except in explanation of a material part of her speech in which 
she may have been misconceived, but then she shall not introduce 
new matter. A member who has spoken to a motion may speak 
again when a new question or an amendment is proposed to the 
motion. A reply shall be allowed only to the mover of a main 
or substantive motion. 

42. When two or more members rise to speak, the Presiding 
Officer shall call upon the member who, in her opinion, first rose 
in her place ; and should more than one member rise at once, the 
Presiding Officer shall determine who is entitled to the floor. 

43. No member shall speak to any question after the same 
has been fully put by the Presiding Officer. 

44. On the general business of the International Council, the 

VOL. I. Y 



338 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMBN 

sense of the delegates shall be taken in the usual Parliamentary 
method of asking for ayes and noes ; in cases where a division is 
called for, the vote shall be taken by calling over the roll of 
affiliated bodies, when the vote of each such body shall be given 
by the delegate or delegates present. 

45. The President, or person occupying the Chair, shall have 
a casting vote when there is a tie, but shall not otherwise vote as 
a member of the International Council. 

46. In the event of the full number of delegates from any 
National Council not being able to attend, the full number of 
votes to which each such body is entitled shall be given by such 
delegate or delegates as are present on aU questions regarding 
which they have received definite instructions from their respec- 
tive National Councils. 

47. The Business Meetings of the International Council shall 
be open only to its official reporters, and an official report of the 
proceedings shall be made by the authority of the International 
Executive Committee, and forwarded to the General Officers, to 
the Secretary of each Federated National Council, and also to 
each Honorary Vice-President. 

48. The International Executive shall be authorised to appoint 
its officers as a Sub-Executive to conduct routine business, and in 
the case of emergency, the President shall be authorised to decide 
matters of urgency on behalf of the International Council. 



GENERAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE MEET- 
INGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 
WOMEN. 

Editor's Note. — We think it may he of interest^ and possibly of 
some us€y to those organising future Congresses, to reprint these 
items of general information precisely as they appeared on the 
Handbook, 

Tickets, — Members' tickets, admitting to all Sectional Meet- 
ings (price 7/6), are ou sale during the Congress, on and after 
Monday afternoon, June 26th, at the Inquiry Room, West- 
minster Town Hall. 

Tickets for members of National Councils (price 5s.) will be 
issued at the Council Office up to 1 p.m. on Monday, June 26th. 



GENERAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THB MEETINGS 339 

The public will be admitted to the Sectional Meetings, if 
there is room, on the payment of Is. each at the door. 

Places will be reserved for members of Congress up to five 
minutes before the hour of meeting, after which the steward)? 
are instructed to fill up vacant seats. 

Admission to the evening meetings on temperance and on 
the ethics of wage earning will be free. A certaii^ number of 
reserved seats will be retained for the international delegates and 
invited speakers. 

Special tickets may be applied for by members of societies 
affiliated to National Councils, admitting them to the meetings of 
the International Council. These may be procured at the 
Inquiry Room, at the Westminster Town Hall. 

Application for press tickets should be made through editors, 
or through members of the Press Committee. 

Registration of Members of Congress, — A register of all mem- 
bers of Congress who have applied for tickets before the Ist of 
June, with their London addresses, is found in the Handbook. 
A supplementary Hst containing later applications will be issued 
during the Congress. 

Headquarters, — The headquarters of the International Council 
during the Congress week are at the Westminster Town Hall. 
Sectional meetings also are held at St Martin's Town Hall, about 
ten minutes' walk distant, and at the Convocation Hall of Church 
House, Dean's Yard, Westminster. 

Book Rooms are provided at each place of meeting, where litera- 
ture bearing on the subjects discussed at the Congress will be 
sold or given away. 

Educational Section at Westminster Town Hall. 

Legislative and Industrial and Political Sections at St 
Martin's Town Hall. 

Social Section at Church House. 

None but official literature may be distributed at the doors or 
in the Halls. 

Handbooks are on sale at tables provided at the entrance of 
each place of meeting (price 6d). Here will also be sold a 
" Portrait Album of Who's Who at the International Congress 
of Women," giving some short biographical account of most of 
those connected with the Congress. This is published by The 
GerUlewoman^ Arundel Street, Strand (price 6d). 

The Inquiry Office is on the ground floor of the Westminster 
Town Hall, where all official information connected with the 



340 UrTBRNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Congress can be obtained; tickets procured (invitation and 
Congress) ; interpreters to be found, etc. 

IrUematioTuil Council Office. — A room has been set apart at 
the Westminster Town Hall for the use of the International 
Council. 

Some of the International Officers, and others fully acquaint-ed 
with the working and aims of the Council, will endeavour to be 
in the office as much as possible to answer inquiries and give 
information about the Council to officers and delegates from 
National Councils. 

Post Office, — An official from the Post Office will be in attend- 
ance at the post office in the ground floor from 9.30 to 6 every 
day to distribute letters arriving for members of Congress, to 
sell stamps, etc. Messenger boys can be rung up at the sender's 
expense for telegrams. The South- Western District Office is 
within a few minutes' walk. 

Best Booms are provided at the Westminster and St Martin's 
Town Hall for members of Congress. 

A Writing Boom is provided for the convenience of members 
of Congress at the Westminster Town Hall. It is particularly 
requested that silence may be maintained in this room. Room 
No. 13 is available as a meeting place, with the exception of 
certain days and hours, which will be notified by a ticket on the 
door. 

Press Booms are provided at each place of meeting for the use 
of journalists reporting the meetings. 

Devotional Meetings, — Short devotional meetings are held 
before the commencement of each day's proceedings, for those who 
wish to attend them, at the Convocation Hall of Oiurch House ; 
in the small hall, No. 13 at the Westminster Town Hall, and in 
the rest room at St Maitiu's Town Hall. These meetings will 
be held at 10 a.m. each morning, and will be conducted by 
different members of Cougresti 

Stetoards. — There will be two head stewards at each place of 
meeting, and a large number of otner stewards who will be known 
by the yellow and white pompons which they wear. Officers, 
members of council and members of committee, also wear dis- 
tinguishing badges. 

Rules to bk observed at all Meetings of Congress. 

1. That the Standing Orders of the International Council, as 
far as they apply, shall be in force during the Congress. 

2. That Chairmen and mvitnd speakers, whether readers of 



GENERAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE MEETINGS 341 

papers or leaders of discussion, adhere strictly to the time allotted 
to them. 

3. That at a time stipulated on the programme the meeting 
shall be open to free discussion. 

4. That members of Congress desirous of speaking shall send 
up their name in writing, stating definitely the subject they 
desire to speak on,, by one of the stewards in attendance, and 
await the call of the Chairman. 

5. That in the discussion the time allowed to each speaker 
shall be about five minutes, more or less, according to the dis- 
cretion of the Chairman. 

6. That speakers desiring to take part in the free discussion 
shall address the meeting from the platform only. Questions 
may be asked and corrections made from the body of the hall. 

7. All speakers shall address the Chair ordy^ confine them- 
selves strictly to the subject under discussion, and cease when 
the time is called. 

8. That the Chairman's bell shall give warning one minute 
before the allotted time, and will sound again at the conclusion. 

9. That the decision of the Chair shall be final. 

10. That no resolutions be passed at any Sectional Meeting 
unless they have first been submitted to the International 
Council or Executive. 

Note. — Copies of the Hcmdhook in eircukUion during the 
sittings of Congress can stiU be hady by those toishing to have 
a few copies^ on application to the Countess of Aberdeen^ Haddo 
House, Aberdeen, with stamps for posta>ge. 



INDEX 



Abbrdkkk, Countess of, in the Chair, 
Conference of the International 
Council of Women, 245. 

Business Sessions, 80, 113, 

166, 174. 

Meeting of Executive Coun- 



cil, opening remarks, 27. 
Private Meeting of Execu- 
tive Council, opening remarks, 
165. 

Public Meeting on Inter- 
national Arbitration, 813, opening 
remarks, 216. 

Public Meeting of Wel- 
come, 44, 61, 62, 63, Presidential 
Address, 45. 

— acknowledging vote of grateful 
thanks to H.M. the Queen, 202. 

- of thanks to herself, 197, 



202. 

— amendment as to Admission of 
members of Federated National 
Councils to Council Meetings, 176, 
177. 

— amendments to Constitution, 
153, 166, 167 ; as to invitations to 
Hon. Vioe-Piesidents, 167, 168; 
in regard to Local Councils, 169, 
170 ; regarding fees from National 
Council)^ 170 ; regarding applica- 
tions for federation from National 
Councils, 171 ; regarding notice of 
Committees, 208. 

regarding notice to Execu- 
tive of busineas for Council, 177, 
178. 

— to Mrs Sewall's amend- 
ment regarding Committees for 
Quinquennial meetings, 171, 172. 



Aberdeen, Countess of, amendment 
regarding those entitled to vote at 
International Council, and as to 
proxies, 175. 

announcing absence of Baroness 

von Suttner, 226, proposing vote 
of regret and concern be sent her, 
227. 

informal meeting of Nomi- 



nating Committee, 112. 

— conveying regrets at inability to 
attend Congress from ladies frova. 
Siam and Japan, 201. 

— defining the Executive Com- 
mittee Meeting as an Interim 
Meeting, 20. 

defining International Societies 



coming under resolution regarding 
Federation, 193. 
— elected Vice-President, 173. 
farewell and thanks to delegates, 



197. 



— financial support accorded by to 
International (Council of Women, 
91, vote of thanks to, 92, and 
acknowledgment, ib. 

— in discussion on the Report 
of Nominating Committee, 148- 
151. 

- on Art. I., Standing Orders, 

- on CL 1, Art. II., Standing 
Orders, 206. 

on amendment to CL 25, 

Art II., 208. 

— Moving adoption of amendment 
to Standing Orders, 209, 210: 

addition of CI. 58 to Art. 



205. 



IL, Standing Orders, 209. 



348 



344 



INDBX 



Aberdeen, Cotrntess of, moving vote of 
thanks to Mme. Foresee Denusmea, 
199. 

Mm Sewall for Preei- 

dentUl work, 212. 

notioe of Motion regarding 



amendment to CL 6, Art. I., Stand' 
ing Orders, 205. 

of addition to CI. 14, 

Art. I., Standing Orders, 207. 

to amend Gl. 24, Art. II., 



Standing Orders, 208. 

proposing Baroness Gripenberg 



as a Fatron of the Intemationtd 
Council, 202. 

— in reply to Frau Simeon's pro- 
test, Executive Meeting, 28. 

resolution to appoint as Chair- 



man of Standing Committee on 
International Arbitration, 210. 

— resolution concerning composi- 
tion of Committee to re-arrange 
the Constitution and Standing 
Orders, ib. 

— proposed by, regarding 

Federation of Societies internation- 
ally organised, 192, lost, 193. 
on Housing of Edu- 
cated Working Women, 278. 

moved by, on the Organi- 
sation of International Congresses, 
188-9. 

moved by, regarding un- 



finished business, 211. 

ruling amendment to her own 



amendment regarding Hon. Vice- 
Presidents and Committees for 
Quinquennial Meetings out of 
order, 172. 

reffarding nominations by 

new Councils out of order, 112. 
seconding FrL Hoffmann's 



amendment to CL 20, Art. II., 208. 
Mrs Purdy Peck's amend- 



ment regarding Hon. Vice-Presi- 
dents, 201. 

supporting amendment regard- 



ing expenses of Clerical Services 
for President's Office, 211. 

on re-election of Hon. Vice- 



Presidents, 200, and on the same 
as residents in the countries repre- 
sented by them, 200, 201. 



Aberdeen, Countess of, on the bind* 
ing chwacter of the actions of the 
First Quinquennial Meeting, 82-3. 

on amending the Constitotioiit 

and proposed Standing Orders, 43. 
on arrangements for Clerical 



work, 194. 

on conditions made by herself, 

and by Mrs Sewall, before accept- 
ing appointment, 162. 

on the word 'Delegate,' 34, 

and its definition, 35. 

on difficulty connected with 

declaration of results of voting, 
153. 

(and others) on elections unen- 



dorsed by National Councils of the 
elected person's country, 173. 

— on the federation of the National 
Council of Tasmania, 36-7. 

— on the Finance Committee, 36. 
on the manner of conducting 



the election of Officers, 41. 

on the nomination of Miss 



Anthony to be Convener and Chair- 
man of the Report Section, 41. 
on Nomination Committee, rules 



and composition thereof, 31, 41. 

— inviting appointments for. 



42. 



40. 

notice of Meeting of, 114. 
on nomination of Councillors, 

on Quorum, agreement oonoem- 
ing, 204. 

— on reasons for declining nomina- 
tion to office on Council, 163. 

on Sectional National Councils 



for Scotland and Ireland, 200. 
on signing Minutes of the last 



Quinquennial Meeting, 84. 

on speakers at Executive Meet* 



ings, 29, 30. 

on Standing Orders, 88, and 



the amendments proposed to, at 
last two Executive Meetings, 39. 
— on utilising the Women's Insti- 
tute, London, as International 



Bureau of Information, 186 (tee 
also Presidential Speech). 

on Miss Wilson's amendment to 



her own amendment regarding 
Hon. Vice-President^ 168. 



INDEX 



345 



Aberdeen, Countees of, and Mrs Bed- 
ford Fenwick (joint authora), Finan- 
cial Report of the International 
Congress, 274. 

Aberdeen, Earl of, proposing vote of 
thanks to Speakers, Chair and 
Vocalists, International Arbitration 
Meeting, 244. 

Adelborg, Froken Gertrud, intro- 
duced as Swedish delegate, 67. 

in discussion on National Bureau 

of Information, 188. 

moving resolution to accept 

Baroness Gripenberg as a Patron 
of the International Council, 
203. 

seconding Lady Aberdeen's 



amendment regarding Notices of 
Committees, ib, 

Frau Bieber-Boehm's re- 
solution concerning definition of 
the word ' Council,' ib. 

Adjournment of Council Meeting, 
resolution regarding, 204. 

Alden, Mrs Cynthia Westover (U.a), 
Fraternal Representative Interna- 
tional League of Prens Clubs, at 
Public Meeting of Welcome, 79. 

Amend meats to Constitution, 153, 
166 et 8eq.j 176 et teq, 

— to Standing Orders, 203, 204 et 

8€q. 

Anthony, Miss Susan B. (U.S.), 112; 
at the Public Meeting of Welcome, 
61. 

appointed Convener and Chair- 
man of Reports Committee, 41. 

appointed Chairman of Nomina- 
tion Committee, 40. 

calls meeting of Nomination 

Committee and presents its report, 
152. 

nominated to the Chair for Press 



Committee, 210. 

in discussion on Lady Aberdeen's 



amendment to Constitution regard- 
ing composition of National Coun- 
cils, 169. 

on Mrs Creighton's first 



amendment to Constitution, 154. 

resolution regarding 

qualifications of International Offi- 
cers, 151. 



Anthony, Miss Susan B. (U.S.), in 
discussion on Federation of Societies 
internationally organised, 198. 

on Hon. Vice-Presidents, 

167. 



on Miss Wilson's proposed 

amendment to Lady Aberdeen's 
amendment regarding Hon. Vice- 
Presidents, 168. 

on organisation of Inter- 



national Councils, objecting to re- 
solution regarding, 190. 

on proxies, 176. 

on Mrs Se wall's amend- 



ment to Constitution, 162-168. 
on Frau Simson's amend- 
ment to Constitution, 172. 

on 01. 25, Art II., Stand- 



ing Orders, 208. 

enquiry regarding Nominations, 



166. 



moves adoption of Balance 



Sheet, 91. 



— last Report of Nomina- 
tion Committee, 165. 

amendment to Lady Aber- 
deen's amendment regarding Hon. 
Vice-Presidents, 168. 

— moves Resolution that the 



Minutes of the last Quinquennial 
Meeting be printed, 82. 

of the present, 84. 

concerning printing the 



Minutes of the last Quinquennial 
Meeting, 83. 

oonoeming representation 

of the International Council at the 

Paris Exposition, 1900., 211. 

— Notice of amendment to be 



brought up at next Quinquennial 
Meeting, 167. 

to CI. 8., Art. L, Stand- 
ing Orders, 296. 

— proposal re Quorum, 204. 

— seconds Lady Aberdeen's re- 
solution regarding addition of 01. 
53, to Art. II., Standing Orders, 
209. 

adoption of Revised Stand- 
ing Orders, 209. 

composition of Committee 



to re-arrange the Constitution and 
Standing Orders, 210. 



346 



INDEX 



Anthony, Miss Susan B. (U.S.)t 
seconds Lady Aberdeen's motion re- 
garding unfinished business, 211. 

Fran Bieber-Boehm's re- 
solution, 167. 

that the next Quin- 
quennial Meeting be held in 
Germany, 192. 

concerning expenses of 

President's Office, 211. 

Mrs Gibb's resolution to 

appoint Lady Aberdeen to the 
Chair of the Stand inc^ Committee 
for Liternational Arbitration, 210. 

Frl. Hoffman's amendment 

to CI. 3, Art. I., Standing Orders, 
205. 

to CI. 6, Art. L, 



Standing Orders, ib. 

to CI. 24, Art. IL, 208. 



— supports vote of sympathy with 
the friends of Mrs Johnson, de- 
ceased, 113. 

on Lady Aberdeen's amendment 



to the Constitution regarding Fees, 
170. 

— on Mrs Creighton's amendment 
to Lady Aberdeen's amendment to 
regulate the admission of ordinary 
members of federated National 
Councils to Council Meetings, 177. 
on the adoption of the Women's 



Institute, London, as International 
Bureau of Information, 187. 

— on difficulty connected with the 
declaration of Votes, 1 53. 

— on the election of Frau Schwerin, 



173. 

— on the need of a Press CommitN 
tee, 191. 

on notice of meeting of Nomi- 



nation Committee, 114. 
— on pleasure of being present at 
Congress, 195. 

on the Reports of the Commit- 



tee on Nominations, 147, 148-50. 

on Speakers at Executive Meet- 
ings, 29. 

Arbitration, International, Public 
Meeting on. Countess of Aberdeen 
in the Chair, 213. 

Balance Sheet, 282. 

List of Subscriptions to, 283. 



Argentine BepnbUo, Dr Cecilia 
Grierson, M.D., Hon. V.-P., on 
Women's activity in, 141. 

Armitage, Mrs Dora P. R., Official 
Delegate, New South Wales, at 
Pubhc Meeting of Welcome, 68. 

(and others) enquires concerning 

lack of notice of Meeting of Nomi- 
nations Committee, 114. 

(Hon. Sec.) presents Report of 

the National Council of New South 
Wales, 115. 

seconds adoption of Balance 

Sheet, 91. 

adoption of Quinquennial 



Report, 35. 

Auditor, appointment of, deferred, 
152, Miss Shaw (U.S. ) on, 153; 320. 

Austriklla^ no Report from the four 
Colonies, 132. 

Austria, discussion on National Coun- 
cils for, 200. 

Frau Hainisch, Hon. V.-P., on 

Women's Societies in, and on the 
prospect of forming a National 
Council for, 131. 

Baibdbmith, Miss (G.B.), Report on 
the Work of the Stewards of the 
International Congress, 292. 

Balance Sheet of Arbitration Meeting 
of International Council of Women, 
282. 

of the International Congress, 

281. 

Balloting decided on for elections of 
Officers, 42. 

Battersea, Lady (G.B.), proxy for 
Mrs Alfred Booth, President of the 
Council for Great Britain and 
Ireland, at Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 67. 

in discussion on Frl. Hoffmann's 

amendment to CL 6, Art. L, 
Standing Orders, 205. 

presents Report of the National 



Council of Great Britain and Ire< 
land on behalf of Mrs Alfred 
Booth, President, 108. 
— reads telegram of regret at in- 
ability to attend the Gunnersbury 
garden party from H.R.H. the 
Princess of Wales, 175. 



INDEX 



347 



Battersea, Lady (G.B.)i resolution 
proposed by, that the Quinquennial 
Report be taken as read, 85. 

seconds adoption of the Nomi- 
nation Committee's amended Re- 
port, 152. 

Mrs Creighton's amend- 



ments to the Constitution, 157. 
Frl. Hofifmann's amend- 
ment to CI. 4, Art. I., Standing 
Orders (withdrawn), 205. 

resolution regarding Edit- 



orship of the Transactions of the 
Congress, 194. 

Miss Shave's resolution re- 



garding Standing Orders, 84. 

Bedford, Adeline, Duchess of, at 
World's Young Women's Christian 
Association Devotional Meeting, 
319. 

Belgium, prospect of forming a 
National Council for, Mile. Marie 
Popelin, Hon. V.-P., on, 128. 

Berlin as meeting - place for next 
International Congress, Frau 
Bieber-Boehm (Germany) on, 29, 
enquiry concerning, Fran Simson 
(Germany), 28, Miss Wilson, Corr. 
Sec., on, 28. 

Bhor, Miss Mane, and others, repre- 
senting the Women of India, at 
Public Meeting of Welcome, 71. 
•Bird, Mr Henry (G.B.), director of 
the Musical Programme at Public 
Meeting on International Arbitra- 
tion, 2] 3. 

Birgitta of Sweden, 66. 

Boehm, Frau Bieber- (Germany), 
Secretary of National Council, 41, 
at Public Meeting of Welcome, 
65. 

amendment to Constitution de- 
ferred, 41, moved, 167. 

regarding definition of the 



word/ Council,' 203. 

- to Par. 4, Standing Orders, 



204. 



— in discussion on consecutive 
appointment of Presidents, 161. 

Mrs Creigh ton's amend- 



ment to Lady Aberdeen's amend- 
ment regarding the admission of 
ordinary members of federated 



National Councils to Council 
Meetings, 177. 

—  Federation of Societies In- 
ternationally Organised, 192. 

- Honorary Vice-Presidents, 



167. 

Org^isation of Inter- 
national Congresses, 189. 

— moves resolution regarding Par. 
4, Art I., lost, 204. 

— seconds amendment to Lady 



Aberdeen's amendment regarding 
Honorary Vice-Presidents, 168. 

— on Berlin as a place for the next 
Congress, 29. 

— oif the definition of the word 



' Delegates ' in newspapers, 35. 
on the Women's Institute, Lon- 



don, as an International Informa- 
tion Bureau, 186. 

Bogelot, Mme., Hon. Vice-President, 
France, Oompagnon de la Legion 
d'Honneur, at Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 73, no formal report on 
France presented by, 131. 

Boomer, Mrs (Canada), at Public 
Meeting of Welcome, 63. 

in discussion on Mrs Creighton's 

amendment to Lady Aberdeen's 
amendment regarding admission of 
ordinary members of federated 
National Councils to Council 
Meetings, 177. 

on behalf of representatives of 



many. Councils, moving resolution 
of grateful thanks to H.M. the 
Queen for reception, 202. 

opposing Mrs Sewall's amend- 



ment to Art. III., 162. 
— seconding resolution providing 
for Clerical work, 194. 

appointment of Nominat- 



ing Committee, 40. 

Mrs Sewall's vote of 

thanks to Committees, Secretaries, 
Stewards, etc., of Congress, 193. 
->— on Canada's appreciation of 
Lady Aberdeen, 196. 
— on the Press Sub-Committee, 



191. 

Booth, Mrs Alfred, President Coun- 
cil of Great Britain and Ireland, 
absent from Public Meeting of 



348 



INDBX 



Weloome {tee Lady Battenea), 

67. 
Borg, Herr, and other Swedish men, 

aiding Women's progress in 

Sweden, 67. 
Bimd Deutcher Frauen Vereine, its 

objects, 101. 
Biulnefls Senioiis-- 

First Quinqaennial Meeting of the 
International Council, Countess 
of Aberdeen in the Chair, 80, 
Members present, 80-1. 

Second Quinquennial Meeting of 
the International Council, Coun- 
tees of Aberdeen in the Chair, 
opening remarks on the death of 
Mrs Johnson, 118. 

Third Quinquennial Meeting of the 
International Council, Countess 
of Aberdeen in the Chair, 166. 

Fourth (Final) Quinquennial Meet- 
ing of the International Council 
at Cassiobury Park, Countess of 
Aberdeen in the Chair, opening 
remarks, 174. 
Byles, Mrs (G.B.), reading Address 

to Public Meeting of International 

Arbitration, by Baroness Bertha 

von Snttner, 227. 
resolution moved by, on behalf 

of the above, 282. 

Caloab, Mrs van (Holland), work of, 
in secunni; early education for 
children, 121. 

Canada^ National Council of Women 
of, Resolution on International 
Arbitration, 190. 

Report of, presented by 

Mrs Willoughby Cummings, Secre- 
tary, 96. 

Cape Town {see aUo South Africa), 
Women's activities in, Mrs Nixon, 
Hon. Representative, 187. 

Cassiobury Park, Fourth and Final 
Business Meeting of International 
Council at, 174, FareweU Luncheon 
at, 195. 

Ch^liga, Mme. (France), supporting 
the first resolution at Public 
Meeting on International Arbitra- 
tion, 288. 

Chief Rabbi, sermon by, at Special 



Service, St John's Wood Syna- 
gogue, 316. 

China {tee Mme. Shen), no further 
Report, 146. 

Christina Gjllenstyema of Sweden, 
66. 

Clarke, Mrs M^Cosh, introduced as 
Delegate from National Council of 
New Zealand, Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 69. 

Clerical Staff, 26. 

Work, resolutions providing 

for, carried, 194. 

Clifford, Miss (G.B.), at World's 
Young Women's Christian Associ- 
ation Devotional Meeting, 319. 

Crawshay, Mrs (G.B.), representing 
the Hon. Vice-President for Italy 
(Conteesa Tavema) at PuUio 
Meeting of Welcome, 76. 

on difficulties hindering the 

formation of a National Counoil 
for Italy, 201. 

letter from, on the above, 212. 



Cochrane, Miss (G.B.), on recently- 
formed combination of country 
workers, 255. 

Committee, Executive, for Quinquen- 
nial Meetings, amendment to Lady 
Aberdeen's amendment concern- 
ing, 171-2. 

Committees, notices of, resolutions 
concerning, 208. 

Conference held by the International 
Council of Women, Countess of 
Aberdeen in the Chair, 245. 

Constitution {tee Standing Orders), 
resolutions concerning. 

revision of, speeches and re- 
solutions concerning, 48, 325 et teq. 

Convocation House, Stewards for, 24. 

Correspondence and Corresponding 
Secretary's Report, 81. 

Corresponding Secretaiy {tee Mias 
Wilson), 18. 

Counoil business to be submitted to 
the Executive as notice of motion. 
Lady Aberdeen's amendment 
regarding, 177. 

* Council,' resolution regarding 
definition of the word, 208. 

special meetings of, Mrs 

Sewall's notice of motion for, 177. 



INDEX 



349 



Councillors, proposed, 42. 

Creighton, Mrs (G.B.)i introduced as 
Official Delegate for Great Britain 
and Ireland, Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 68. 

amendment to Lady Aberdeen's 

amendment regarding admission of 
ordinary members of federated 
Councils to Council meetings, 
176-7. 

^ Hon. Vice-Presidents 

and Committees for Quinquennial 
Meetings, 171. 

proxies, 176. 

to Constitution, 158-4, 

further amendment, 154-5, 157, 
lost, 161. 

to Mrs Se wall's amend- 
ment regarding Patrons, 171. 
desiring that the Quinquennial 



Report be read, 85. 
— enquiry on the binding nature 
of the Minutes of the Quinquennial 
Meetings, 82. 

as to omission of Agenda 

sent to Delegates, 80. 

in discussion on Headquarters 



for the International Council, 179. 
the nomination of 



on 



Baroness Gripenberg as President, 
unreported^ 165. 

on resolution regarding 

Honorary Vice-Presidents, 167. 

on Proxies, 176. 

Nominating Commit- 



on 



tee*8 Report, 148-50. 

on Mrs Sewall's amend- 



ment to Lady Aberdeen's amend- 
ment regarding the composition of 
National Councils, 170. 

Frau Simson's amend- 



on 



ment, 172. 

— moving adoption of amended 
Report of Nomination Committee, 
162. 

that the Report of the 

Nomination Committee be re- 
ferred back thereto, 151. 

appointment of Returning 



Officers, 152. 

resolution regarding the 

adoption of the Women's Institute, 
London, as an International Bureau 



of Information, 186, rider thereto, 
187, carried, 188. 

Creighton, Mrs (G.B.), moving adop- 
tion of resolution regarding date 
for Elections, 115. 

vote of thanks to Mrs 

Willoughby Cummings as Acting 
Recording Secretary, 175. 

seconding Lady Aberdeen's 

amendment to Constitution regard- 
ing National Councils applying for 
federation, 171. 

resolution regarding Head- 
quarters for the International 
Council, 178. 

the organisation of 

International Congresses, 189. 

Mrs Gaffney's amendment 



to Lady Aberdeen's amendment 
regarding Honorary Vice-Presi- 
dents, 168. 

Miss Shaw's resolution that 

Minutes be not read, 82. 

on the death of Mrs Johnson, 



moving vote of sympathy with the 
friends of, 113. 
- on the election of Frau Schwerin, 



173. 



— on the election of Officers by 
ballot, 42. 

— on federation fees, 38-9. 
on the meaning of the words 



* Quinquennial Meetings,' 172. 
on Local Councils, 170. 



Cummings, Mrs Willoughby, intro- 
duced as Canadian Delegate at 
Public Meeting of Welcome, 65. 

acknowledging vote of thanks to, 

as Proxy Recording Secretary, 175. 

amendment to Lady Aberdeen's 

amendment regarding notices of 
Committees, 203. 

appointed Acting Recording 

Secretary, 82. 

in discussion on Lady Aber- 



deen's amendment regarding Hon 
orary Vice-Presidents, 168. 
on amendments to Consti- 
tution, 158-4. 

on consecutive appoint- 
ments of Presidents, 161. 

on Headquarters for the 

International Council, 178. 



350 



INDEX 



Cummings, Mrs Willoughby, in dis- 
cussion on international means of 
intercommunication between Coun- 
cils, 191. 

on Press Committee, 210. 

seconding the presentation of 

the Report of the National Coun- 
cil of Canada, 96. 

moving resolution regarding 



expenses of Presidential Office, 211. 

further adjournment 

of Council Meeting, 204. 
National Bureaux of 



Information, 188. 

— seconding Mrs Creij?hton's 
motion as to Returning Officers, 
152. 

Mme. Klerck van Hogen- 

dorp's motion as to Headquarters 

for the International Council, 179. 

— >■ resolution to accept 



Baroness Gripenberg as a Patron 
of the International Council, 203. 
Mrs flewall's amendment 



to Lady Aberdeen's amendment to 
Constitution regarding composition 
of National Councils, 169, with- 
drawn, 170. 

Frau Simson's amendment 

to Par. 16, Standing Orders, 204. 

Davidson, Mrs Mackenzie (G.B.), 
Report on the Hospitality Arrange- 
ments for the International Council 
and Congress, 283. 

Deflou, Mme. Oddo (France), proxy 
for Mme. Maria Martin at Public 
Meeting of Weloome, 58. 

Delegates, 11, 12, status of, defined, 
34. 

Denmark, Report of National Council 
of, presented by Frau Charlotte 
Norrie, Corresponding Secretary, 
118. 

Deraismes, Mme. Fere&se (France), 
letter (extract from) read and 
acknowledged by a vote of thanks, 
199. 

reading an address of greeting 

from La Soci^t^ pour I'Ameliora- 
tion du Sort de la Femme, Paris, 
at Public Meeting of Welcome, 
76. 



Devotional Meetings held during 

Congress, 317 et aeq. 
Dixson, Mrs, Official Delegate from 

New South Wales, introduced at 

PubHc Meeting of Welcome, 68. 
in discussion of Headquarters of 

the International Council, 179. 
moving resolution regarding 



provision for Clerical Work, 194. 

— seconding Mrs Creighton'a 
amendment to Lady Aberdeen's 
amendment regarding the admis- 
sion of ordinary members of fede- 
rated Councils to Council Meet- 
ings, 177, and also the final form 
of Lady Aberdeen's amendment 
thereon, ib. 

— Miss Shaw's proposed 

alteration of Lady Aberdeen's 
amendment regarding votes and 
proxies at International Council 
Meetings, 175. 
resolution regarding 



disposal of unfinished business, 9. 

— on the Minutes of the last Quin- 
quennial Meeting, 83. 

— on notices to Councils regarding 
Meetings, 178. 

on reduced fees, 38-9. 



Dohson, Mrs, Tasmania, in the 
newly formed National Council of 
that country, at Public Meeting of 
Weloome, 69. 

seconding Lady Aberdeen's 

' amended amendment on those en- 
titled to vote at International 
Meetings, and on Proxies, 176. 

Editob of Transactions, etc., resolution 

regarding appointment of, 194. 
Education Sub-Committee, Members 

of, 21. 
Election of International Officers {see 

International Officers). 
English National Council, vote of 

thanks accorded to, for hospitality, 

193. 
Entertainers of International Council, 

vote of thanks accorded to each, 

194. 
Entertainments of the Congress, Mrs 

Arthur Scaife (Canada), 286. 
Executive Committee, Meeting of. 



INDEX 



351 



GountesB of Aberdeen in the Chair, 
opening remarks, 27, Minutes of 
previous Executive Meetings taken 
as read, 28. 

Mrs May Wright Sewall 

in the Chair, 199. 

notice of motion by Mrs Sewall 

for annual meetings of, 177. 

resolution as to date for ad- 
journed meeting of, 203. 

resolutions sent in by, 178 et 



9eq. 
Expenses of Clerical Services for the 
President's Office, Stationery, etc., 
diBcuasion and resolution con- 
cerning, "211. 

Farewell Luncheon at Cassiobury 
Park, sketch of, 195. 

Federated National Councils with 
Officers, 320. 

Federation of Societies Internationally 
Organised, resolutions and dis- 
cussion oonceming, 192. 

Fees, Lady Aberdeen's amendment 
to amendments concerning, with- 
drawn, 170. 

Fen wick, Mrs Bedford (G.B.), joint- 
author, Financial Report of In- 
ternational Congteas of Women, 
274. 

letter acknowledging her services 

as Deputy - Treasurer, Baroness 
Gripenberg, 92. 

Finance Committee, Lady Aberdeen 
and others on, 36. 

Sub-Committee, Members of, 

19. 

Financial Report of the International 
Congress Fund, 274. 

of Women, Countess of 

Aberdeen and Mrs Bedford Fen- 
wick, 274. 

Advertising Expenses, 276. 

Balance Sheet of Interna- 
tional Congress, 281. 

Donations to the Interna- 
tional Congress Fund, 275, list of, 
278-80. 

Hospitality Expenses, 277. 

Office Expenses, 275. 

Postage Expenses, 276. 

Printing Expenses, ib. 



Financial Report of the Intemational 
Congress, Advertitiing Sub-Com- 
mittee Expenses, 277. 

Surplus Funds, 277-8. 

of Intemational Arbitration 

Meeting of Intemational Council 
of Women, Balance Sheet of, 282. 

Finland, Position of the Finland 
Women's Union, Baroness Alex- 
andra Gripenberg on, 128. 

tribute to^ by Froken Gina 

Krog, 244. 

Fisher, Mrs, representing Queensland 
at Public Meeting of Welcome, 77. 

Forchammer, Froken H., proxy for 
Froken Ida Falbe-Hansen, Pre- 
sident of the Danish National 
Council, at Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 68. 

enquiry in discussion on Lady 

Aberdeen's amendment regarding 
Fees, 170. 

enquiry concerning amendment 



regarding Patrons, 171. 

moving resolution for adjourn- 
ing Executive Meeting, 203. 

seconding the adoption of the 

Minutes, 204. 

amendment to CI. 25., 

Art, II., 208. 

Ftanoe, Mme. Bogelot and Mile. 
Sara Monod, no formal report 
from, 131. 

Fraternal Delegates sent by Inter- 
national Societies, 33. 

Representatives, 13. 

French Protestant Churches in 
London, sermons at special ser- 
vices, during the Congress, unre- 
ported, 312. 

Gaffnet, Mrs Fannie Humphreys, 
President of the National Council 
of the United States, 93, 178 ; at 
Public Meeting of Welcome, 61. 

in discussion on Lady Aber- 
deen's amendment regarding Fees, 
170. 

on the Report of the 

Nominations Committee, 148-51. 

moving adoption of the 

Treasurer's Report, 36. 

amendment to Lady Aber- 



352 



IKDEZ 



deen'g amendment regarding 
Honorary Vice-Presidents, 168. 

Gaffney, Mrs Fannie Huiiiphre3r8, 
moving appointment of Nomina- 
tions Committee, 40. 

seconding resolution on Com- 
mittee for revision of the Con- 
stitution, etc., 43. 

- Mrs Creighton's resolution 



regarding adoption of the Women's 
Institute, London, as International 
Bureau of Information, 187, 188. 

Mrs WiDoughby Cum- 

ming's resolution regarding 
National Bureaux, 188. 
resolution for Election of 



Officers by Ballot, 42. 
— regarding Inter- 
national Arbitration, 191. 

that the Quinquennial 



Report be taken as read, 35. 
Mrs Sewall's motion for 



the rejection of Mrs Creighton's 
amendments to Constitution, 161. 

on invalidity of Executive 

Committee's resolution regarding 
reduced Fees, 

on the organisation of Inter- 
national Congresses, 190. 

on printing the Minutes, 84. 



Qawler, Mrs, representing South 
Australia, at Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 77. 

inquiry regarding Residence of 

Honorary Vice-Presidents, 200. 

from the Officials and Delegates 

of South Australia thanking the 
Entertainers of the Congress read 
by, 193. 

proposing vote of thanks for 

hospitality to the English Council, ib, 

suggesting a Vice-President for 

South Australia, 200. 

Germany, invitation to next Quin- 
quennial Meeting accepted, 192. 

Report of National Council of, 

presented by Frau Maria Stritt, 
V.-P., 101. 

Gibbs, Mrs Frank, Canadian Dele- 
gate, introduced at Public Meeting 
of Welcome, 65. 

moving adoption of Minutes, 

204. 



Gibbs, Mrs Frank, Canadian Dele- 
gate, moving resolution to appoint 
Lady Aberdeen Chairman of the 
Standing Committee on Interna- 
tional Arbitration, 210. 

regarding Inter- 
national Arbitration on behalf of 
the Canadian Council of Women, 
191. 

requesting that the protest of 



Canada against amendment to 

CI. 6, Art. I., be recorded, 205. 
Great Britain and Ireland, Report of 

National Council, presented by 

Lady Battersea (G.B.) on behalf 

of Mrs Alfred Booth, President, 

108. 
Grierson, Dr Cecilia, representing 

Argentina at Public Meeting of 

Welcome, 72. 
on the prospect of forming 

National Councils for Chili, etc., 

202. 

on Women's activities in the 



Argentine Republic, 141. 
Gripenberg, Baroness Alexandra 

(Finland), Hon.Treasurer,at Public 

Meeting of Welcome, 67. 
residing Treasurer's Report, 

86-6. 

in discussion on Mrs Creighton's 



first amendment to Constitution, 
154. 

— letter of appreciation of the 
work of Mrs Bedford Fen wick as 
Acting Treasurer, 92. 

on the position of Finland's 



Women's Union, 128. 

the work of Lady Aber- 



on 



deen in forwarding the Congress, 
196-7. 

- — on International Officers, 41. 
— proposed as a Patron of the 
International Council, 202-3. 
resolution proposed by 



on 



nominations by New Councils, 
112. 

withdrawal of resignation of 



nomination for President, 165. 
Guarantors of the International 
Congress, 278. 

Hague, Peace Conference, letter from 



IVD^X 



.153 



the President) on Women's Work 
in aid of International Arbitration, 
232. 

Hainisoh, Fran Marianne, Hon. Vioe- 
President, Austria, at Puhlio 
Meeting of Welcome, 76. 

request concerning forwarding 

papers to her, eta, 200. 

on Women's Societies in 

Austria, and prospects of forming 
a National Council, 131. 

Hamilton, Lady, representing Lady 
Germans, President National 
Council of Tasmania, at Public 
Meeting of Welcome, 69. 

Mrs Neikon (U.S.), Hon. Vice- 
President, representing Persia, at 
Public Meeting of Welcome, 72. 
(absent) her work referred to, 



147. 

Hansen, Frdken IdaFalbe-, President 
Danish National Council {tee For- 
chammer). 

Haweis, Rev. B. H., seconding Earl 
of Aberdeen's vote of thanks to 
Speakers, Singers and Choir, Public 
Meeting on International Arbitra- 
tion, 244. 

special sermon to Members of 

Congress, 312. 

Headquarters Office for International 
Council, Lady Aberdeen's resolu- 
tion concerning, 178-9. 

Hoffman, Frl. (Germany), amend- 
ment to Art I., CIb. S, and 4, 205. 

CI. 6, 206-6. 

01. 11, 206-7. 

Art. IL, CL 20, 208. 

CI. 24, 208. 

01. 25, i6. 

in discussion on CI. 11, Art. 

n.,206. 

seconding Miss Anthony's 



resolution regarding representa- 
tion of International Council at 
the Paris Exposition Conference, 
21L 

Miss Wikon^s amend- 
ment to her own Amendment to 
CI. 11, Art. II., 206-7. 

llogendorp, Mme. Klerck van, Pre- 
sident National Council of Holland, 
at Public Meeting of Welcome, 69. 
VOL. I. 



Hogendorp, Mme. Klerck van, in 
discussion on Headquarters for 
International Council, 179. 

On organisation of Inter- 
national Congresses, 189. 

moving resolution on Head- 



quarters for International Coimcil, 
179. 

that Minutes be taken as 

read, 28. 

seconding adoption of Quin- 



quennial Report, 90. 
— resolution 



ooncermng 
Standing Orders, 194. 

th:it Minutes of last 



Quinquenniid Meeting be printed, 
82,84. 

concerning 



nomina- 
tions by New Councils, 112. 

Hoitsema, Mrs M. W. H. Rutgers, 
introduced as Official Delegate for 
Holland, Public Meeting of Women, 
69. 

Holland, Report of National Council, 
presented by Miss Martina G. 
Kramers, Corr. Sec., 121. 

Canon Scott, sermon preached 

by, at special service, St James's, 
Piccadilly, to Members of Con- 
gress, 801. 

Honorary Vice-Presidents and Hon- 
orary Representatives, 12, 323. 

confirmed, suggested and re- 
appointed, 201. 

duties, election, residence, etc.. 



of, discussed, 101, resolution con- 
cerning, 201. 

duties of, regarding nominating 



to Press Committee, 210. 

regarding Secretaries and 

Inter-communication, 200. 

present at the First Business 



Session, Quinquennial Meeting, 
82. 

on prospects of forming National 



Councils, 200. 
resolutions regarding, 166-8, 

171-2, 201. 
Hospitality Sub-Coiumittee,Members 

of, 19. 
Housing of Educated Working 

Women, Gilbert Parker (G.B.), 

258. 



554 



INDEX 



India (no formal represeutative, tee 
Bhor), suggested methods of work 
in, and need of Female Lawyers, 
Mrs Flora Annie Steel on, 
132. 

International Arbitration Com- 
mittee, 210. 

Sub-Committee, Members of, 

28. 

Public Meeting on, Countess of 

Aberdeen in the Chair, 213. 

resolution regarding, by the 

National Counoils of Canada and 
the United States, 190-1. 

International Bureau of Information 
[tee Women's Institute, London), 
Lady Aberdeen's resolution 
seconded by Miss Kramers 
(Holland), 180. 

Council of Women, Conference 

held by. Lady Aberdeen in the 
Chair, opening remarks, 245. 

Constitution, 325, Stand- 



ing Orders, 328. 
Honorary Vice-Presidents, 

12, 328. 

International Officers, 320. 

List of Federated National 

Councils with their Officers, ib, et 



8eq. 



Patrons, 825. 
Returning Officers, 



re- 



solutions concerning, 152. 

— Standing Committees of, 



ib. 

see Private Meeting of. 

what it includes, 47. 

— Means of communication be- 
tween National Councils, resolu- 
tion moved by Miss Wilson, Corr. 
Sec., 19. 

— Officers, 11, 820, election of, 
166, result of Ballot, 173. 

Executive Officers members 

of all Committees, 209. 

qualifications of, definition 

desired, 41, discussion on, 149-50, 
resolution regarding, 151-2. 

Press Committee, desirability of. 



191. 

Internationalising Chief Officers of 
Council, Mrs Sewall (U.S.A.) on, 
161-62. 



Jreland (see Great Britain and Ire- 
land). 

Archbishop (U.S.), speech 

of, at Public Meeting on Inter- 
national Arbitration, 225. 

Italy, Mrs Crawshay (G.B.), repre- 
senting Countess Tavema, Vice- 
President for Italy, statement on 
the Italian National Council, 128-9. 

letter of greeting to Public 

Meeting on International Arbitra- 
tion, from the Women of, and 
resolution thereon, 218-19. 

Jacobs, Dr Aletta, First Woman 
Medical Student in Holland, 132. 

Johnson, Mrs Ellen (U.S. ), death of, 
lis, and vote of sympathy with 
friends of, 114. 

Kbauebs, Miss Martina G., Corr. 
Sec, Holland, introduced as 
Official Delegate for that country, 
at Public Meeting of WeUx)me, 69. 

presenting Report of National 

Council of that country, 121. 

, seconding Lady Aberdeen's 

resolution regarding International 
Bureau of Information, 180. 

seconding Lady Aberdeen's 

resolution regarding Federated 
Societies Internationally Organised, 
192-3. 

Krog, Froken Gina, Hon. V.-P. (Nor- 
way), at Public Meeting of Wel- 
come, 76. 

on a 0>nference on Peace and 

Arbitration, about to be held in 
Chnstiania, 243. 

on Women's Associations in 

Norway, 132. 

Laws concerning the Domestic Rela- 
tions, resolutions concerning, moved 
by Frau Marie Stritt (Germany), 
192. 

Standing Committee for, 210. 

Legislative and Industrial Sub-Com- 
mittee, Members of, 22. 

Lists of Officers and Delegates, etc., 
11, 

Literature Sub-Committee, Members 
of, 21. 



INDEX 



355 



Local Councils, discuBttion on, amend- 
ment to Ck>nstitution concerning, 
169-70. 

Lyttelton, Hon. and Rev. Bishop of 
Southampton, sermon preached by 
at special service for Members of 
Congress at Westminster Abbey, 
296. 

Mabtin, Mme. Maria (France), Re- 
cording Secretary, reason for her 
absence, 58. 

Message of thanks from the Presi- 
dents, etc., of the International 
Council to Hostesses, 197. 

of sympathy to Frau Simson 

(Germany) in her illness, 212. 

Meyer, Rev. F. B., sermon preached 
by, at a special service to Members 
of Congress, at Christ Church, 
Westminster Bridge Road, 311. 

Minutes of Fourth and Final Busi- 
ness Meeting, decision concerning, 
193. 

of last Qainquennial Meeting, 

discussion and resolutions regard- 
ing, 81-2. 

of present Quinquennial Meet- 
ing, discussion and resolutions re- 
garding, 84-5. 

resolution regarding time of 

reading, 204. 

Monod, Mile. Sara (France), no 
formal Report presented by, on 
France, 131. 

seconding vote of thanks for 

hospitality, to the English Council, 
193. 

thanking Miss Anthony for her 

pioneer work, 195. 

at World's Young Women's 

Christian Association's Devotional 
Meeting, 318. 

Montessori, Dr Maria, Delegate from 
Italy, presenting greeting from 
Italian Women at Pablic Meeting 
of Welcome, 255. 

Moscheles, M. Felix, President of the 
Society of Peace and Arbitration, 
on the illness and consequent 
absence of Baroness von Suttner, 
226-7. 

Mountford, Mme. von Finkelstein, 



representing Palestine, at Public 
Meeting of Welcome, 72, present- 
ing no formal report from that 
country, 146. 

National Bureaux of Information, 
resolution regarding, 188. 

Councils, composition of, resolu- 
tion concerning, 169-71. 

Members of, present at 



First Business Session, 81. 

resolutions sent in by, 78 

et seq. 

New SOQfll Wales, and the question 
of Federation Fees, Mrs Dixson 
(N.S.W.), on, 88-9. 

Report of National Council pre- 
sented by Mrs D. £. Armitage, 
Hon. Sec,, 115. 

New Zealand, National Council apply- 
ing for affiliation, 37. 

Report of, presented by 

Mrs Sidney Webb (G. B. ), Delegate, 
125. 

Nixon, Mrs, Honorary Representa- 
tive (Cape Town), Women's 
activities in Cape Town, 137. 

Nominations {see Gripenberg). 

Nominating Committee, appointments 
to, 40. 

informal meeting of, announced, 

112. 



notice of, inquiries and replies 

regarding, 114. 

Report of, on Nominations, 147, 

discussion on, 147-53, resolution 
to adopt carried, 165. 

Norrie, Frau Charlotte, Corr. Sec., 
Danish National Council, intro- 
duced as OflScial Delegate, Public 
Meeting of Welcome, 69. 

presenting Report of the above 

Council, 118. 

Norway, Women's Associations in, 
Froken Gina Krog, Hon. V.-P. 
(Norway), on, 132. 

Oroanibation as a Factor in the 
Development of Modem Social 
Life, Mrs May Wright Sewall 
(U.S.), 246. 

of International Congresses, 



356 



IKDBX 



reflolation and rider oonoeming, 
188.90. 



Palestine {tee Mme. Monntford), no 

formal report from, 146. 
PalliBer, Miss Esther (U.S.), and 

others, musical aid given by, to the 

Public Meeting on International 

Arbitration, 213. 
Paris Exhibition, inritation for the 

International Council to be repre- 
sented in Congresses to be held at, 

210. 
Parker, Mr GUbert, (6.B.), the 

Housing of Educated Working 

Women, 258. 
Passy, M Fr^^rio, veteran peace 

leader of France, extract of letter 

from, 220. 
Patrons, 12, 825, composition fees 

of, amendment concerning, 171. 
International, from the United 

States, nominated by Mrs Sewall, 

42. 

qualifications of, ib. 

Mrs Sewall's notice of motion 



regarding, 177. 
Peace Conference (see each speaker 

at Public Meeting on International 

Arbitration). 
Peck, Mrs Purdy (U.S.), moving 

resolution regarding confirming 

Honorary Vice-presidents, 201. 

seconding resolution of grateful 

thanks to H.M. the Queen for re- 
ception, 202. 

Persia {see Mrs Neilson Hamilton), 
openings for work in, Mrs Sewall 
on, 147. 

Philippe, Mrs Wynfoid (G.B.), letters 
sent to Lady Aberdeen on utilising 
the Women s Institute, London, as 
International Bureau of Informa- 
tion, 180. 

Philosofoff, Mme. Anna, Hon. Presi- 
dent Russian National Council {see 
Stefanofskaia). 

Place for next Congress, Fran Simson 
(Germany) and others on, 28-9. 

for next Quinquennial Meeting 

(see Berlin), resolution concerning, 
192 



Political Sub-Committee, Members 
of, 22. 

Popelin, MUe. Marie, Hon. Vioe- 
Preaident (Belgium), at Public 
Meeting of Welcome, 7. 

on prospects of forming a 

Belgian National ConncQ, 128. 

Portsmouth, Countess of, at De- 
votional Meeting of the World's 
Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, 818. 

Position after printing of Minutes of 
last Quinquennial Meeting, discus- 
sion of, 84-5. 

President, 11, 18, 178, 198, 320. 

Presidential Address, at Public Meet- 
ing of Welcome, Countess of Aber- 
deen, 45. 

Presidents, retiring, resolution regard- 
ing, by Mrs Sewall, 162. 

and Vice-Presidents, amendment 

regarding, 166-7. 

Press Committee, Mrs Sewall on, 210. 

Sub- Committee, Members of, 

20 ; 825. 

Private Meeting of Intematian&l 
Council, Countess of Aberdeen in 
the Chair, opening remarks, 1^5. 

Professional Sub-Committees, Mem- 
bers of, 21 . 

Proxies, 157-8, amendment moved 
by Lady Aberdeen oonoeming, 175, 
further do., 176. 

Public Meeting on Inteinatioaal 
Arbitration, 213, Programme for, 
214, Countess of Abenleen in the 
Chair, opening romarks, 216. 

of Welcome, Countess of Aber- 
deen in the Chair, 44, presenting 
delegates, passim, PreddentiiJ 
Address, 45. 

Queen, H.M. the, reception of 
Colonial, American and Foreign 
Delegates announced, 174, de- 
scribed, 285, 288-9, vote of 
grateful thanks to, for the same, 
202. 

QneeiiBland, an Honorary Vice-Presi- 
dent for, to be secured, 201, no 
Report from, 182. 

Quinquennial Meetings, discussion on, 
171-2. 



INDBX 



357 



Qainqaennuil Report* 1899., Miss 
Wilson, Oorr. Sec., 85, adop- 
tion of, 90, roaolations oonoeming, 
85. 

Quoram, difficolty regarding, 204. 

RiOEFTiON by H.M. the Qaeen, of 
Colonial, Amerioan and Foreign 
Delegates, 174, 285, 288-9, vote 
of Grateful Thanks for, proposed by 
Mrs Boomer (Canada) on behalf of 
National Coancil, 202. 

Recording Secretary {tee Mme. 
Martin), 18, 173, 820, discussion 
oonoeming, 160^1. 

for First Business Session ap- 
pointed, 82, vote of thanks to, 
175. 

Reduced fees for Federations, 87 et 
teq. 

Reeves, Hon. W. P., Agent-General 
of New Zealand, absent Public 
Meeting of Welcome, 69. 

Reid, Mrs BroadleyJG.B.), present- 
ing message of Women's Liberal 
F^eration of England to the 
Public Meeting of Welcome, 220. 

Report on Hospitality Arrangements 
for International Congress, Mrs 
Mackenzie Davidson (G.B.), 288. 

of last Quinquennial Meeting, 

Miss Wilson, Oorr. Sec., 85, 90, 
discussion concerning, 85. 

Reports Committee, 41. 

of National Councils, 93 et teq. 

Representatives of National Councils 
thanking retiring President, 196. 

Rerup, Fr6ken Wilhelmina, intro- 
duced as Official Delegate for Den- 
mark, at Public Meeting of Wel- 
come, 69. 

Rttolutions, {tee under names of 
movers and proposers). 

sent in by French, German and 

other Women regarding an Inter- 
national Committee for specified 
objects, 212. 

by the Executive, and by 

National Councils, 178 et teq. 

Retiring Presidents, Mrs Sewall's 
resolution r^mrding, 162. 

Returning Officers, resolution con- 
cerning, 152. 



Retzius, Fru Anna Hierta-, 
dent of the Swedish National 
Council, at Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 66. 

on the difficulty of getting 

proxies, 176. 

inquiry concerning admission of 

ordinary Members of Federated 
National Councils to Council Meet- 
ings, 177. 

movingadoption of Quinquennial 

Report, 90. 

presenting Report of Swedish 



National Council, 105. 

seconding Lady Aberdeen's 

amendment regarding invitation to 
Honorary VicexPresidents, 167* 

Mrs Creiffhton's first 

amendment to Constitution, 158. 

amendment to Mrs 

Sewall's amendment couceming 
Patrons, 171. 

■: resolution defining * Dele- 
gates,' 35. 

resolution regarding read- 
ing resolutions in Mmutes of last 
Quinquennial Meeting, 82. 

Lady Laura Bidding's 

resolution regarding Returning 
Officers, 152. 

vote of thanks from 

Council to each Entertainer, 194. 

to Mrs Willoughby 

Cummings as Acting Recording 
Secretary, 175. 

to the President for 

her financial aid to the International 
Council of Women, 92. 

Ridding, Lady Laura (G.B.), intro- 
duced as Official Delegate for Great 
Britain and Ireland at Public Meet- 
ing of Welcome, 78. 

in discussion on Committee for 

Quinquennial Meetings, 172. 

on Mrs Creighton's first 

amendment to Constitution, 152. 
resolution regarding Returning 



Officers, 152. 

rider to Miss Anthony's resolu- 
tion concerning printing of Minutes, 
84. 

seconding Frau Stritt's amend- 
ment to Constitution, 167. 



358 



INDEX 



Ridding, Lady Laura (G.B.)t on 
Mn Sewall's amendment to Lady 
Aberdeen's amendment regarding 
the composition of National Coun- 
cils, 169. 

Robinson, Canon Armitage, sermon 
preached by, at special service for 
Members of Congress at St Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, 811. 

Miss Ellen, Fraternal Repre- 
sentative of the Bureau Liter- 
national Permanent de la Pais, at 
Public Meeting of Welcome, 78. 

seconding resolution to send a 

telegram to the Peace Conference 
at the Hague, 243. 

Ruosia, Report of National Council 
presented by Dr Kosakevitch 
Stefanofskaia on behalf of Mme. 
Anna de Philosofoff, Hon. Presi- 
dent, 129. 



St Mabtin's Hall, Stewards for, 25. 
Scaife, Mrs Arthur (Canada), the 

Entertainments of the Congress, 

286. 
Schwerin, Frau (Germany), election 

of, discussion on, 178. 
Sectional Sub-Committees, Members 

of, 19. 
Selenka, Frau (Germany), seconding 

resolution by Baroness von Suttner 

on Arbitration, 232. 
Seneca Falls (U.S.), Convention at, 

248 
Sewali Mrs May Wright (U.S.), 

Vice-President, 178. 
at Public Meeting of Welcome, 

58. 

at first Business Session, 80. 

— — elected President in succession 

to Countess of Aberdeen, 173, 198. 

320, takes the Chair in that 

capacity at Meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee, 199. 
amendment to Lady Aberdeen's 

amendment regarding composition 

of National Councils, 169. 

Constitution regarding fees 



paid by Patrons, 171. 

regarding Presidents, 162. 

— enquiry concerning application 



for Federation of the Tasmanian 
National Council, 87. 

SewaU, Mrs May Wright (U.S.), en- 
quiry concerning Reports Com- 
mittee, 41. 

in discussion on Lady Aberdeen's 

amendment as amended by Mrs 
Creighton regarding admission uf 
ordinary Members of Federated 
Councils to Council Meeting, 177. 
regarding fees, 170. 
Conunittee for Quin- 



quennial Meeting, 172. 
Mrs Creighton's 



first 



amendment to Constitution, 154. 

Headquarters of Interna- 
tional Council and the financial 
si'le of the question, 179. 

Place of next Quinquennial 

Meeting, 192. 

qualifications of Interna- 
tional Officers, 151. 

the Report of Nominating 

Committee, 148-9. 

— — Private Meeting of 

Council, wMrep<»rUS;, 165. 

moves adoption of Quinquennial 



Report, 35. 

rejection of Mrs Creighton's 

amendment to Constitution, 161. 

vote of general thanks to 

Committees, Secretaries, Stewards, 
etc., of International Congress, 193. 

thanks to Countess of 

Aberdeen, 202. 

for hospitality, to the 

same, 195. 

special vote of Thanks to 

special Hostesses, 193. 
— resolution on Committee for 



revision of Constitution, etc., 43. 

concerning Editorship of 

Transactions, 194. 

on election of Officers by 



Ballot, 42. 

on Press Committee with 

International Members, 191-2. 
— rider moved by, to resolution 
regarding the re-organisation of 
International Congresses, 193. 
nominates Lady Aberdeen as 



Chairwoman of Standing Commit- 
teeon International Arbitration, 210. 



IKDEX 



359 



Sewall, Mrs May Wright (U.S.), 
notice of amendment to CI. 13, 
Art. I., 207. 

motion regarding Patron^s 

177. 

for Annual Meetings of 

the Executive and Special Meet- 
ings of Council, i6. 

Organisation as a Factor in 



Modem Social Life, 246. 
— seconding Lady Aberdeen's 
amendment to Constitution, 163. 
Mrs Creighton's amend- 



ment to Lady Aberdeen's amend- 
ment regarding proxies, 175. 

— supporting first resolution at 
Public Meeting on International 
Arbitration, 234. 

vote of sympathy with the 

friends of Mrs Johnson (deceased), 
113-4. 

vote of thanks to Executive 

Committee and to particular 
Hostesses, 193. 

— on the action of the Finance 
Committee in reference to Reduced 
Fees, 38. 

— on adopting the Women's In- 
stitute, London, as International 
Bureau of Information, 186. 

— on Agenda for the 28th 



and 
29th of June, 114-5. 

— on confirming Hon. Vice-Pre- 
sidents willing to serve a further 
term, 200. 

— on the definition of the word 
'Delegates,' 84, and resolution 
concerning, 85. 

on the difficulty regarding a 



Quorum, 204. 
on invitations to Council to be 

represented at Conferences of the 

forthcoming Paris Exhibition, 

210-11. 
on lacuns in the Bye-laws and 

Standing Orders, 39-40. 
on the need of an additional 

Executive Meeting, 200. 

on nominations of Councillors, 52. 

on openings for work in Persia, 



147. 



on organisation of International 



Congresses, 189. 



Sewall, Mrs May Wright (U.S.), 
on Presidential expenditure in 
relation to acceptance of office, 
162-3. 

on resolution of the Executive 

i-egarding amending the Constitu- 
tion, 157. 

regarding nominations by 



New Councils, 112. 
— on the Kecord or 



Minutes of 
last Quinquennial Meeting, 81. 

— on signing the above, 84. 

— on Sectional Councils in relation 
to National Councils, 200. 

— on selection of Women for the 



Executive, 165-9. 

— on speakers at Executive Meet- 
ings, 2930. 

— Standing Committee for Inter- 
national Arbitration, 210. 

— Standing Orders, 88. 
- amendments thereto, 204, 



295. 

Shen, Mme., Hon. Vice-President, 
China, at Public Meeting of Wel- 
come, 70, no further remarks, 
146 ; elected Hon. Vice-President 
for next Quinquennial Period, 201, 
324. 

Shaw, Rev. Miss Anna Howard 
(U.S.), at PubUc Meeting of Wei- 
come, 63. 

amendment to Lady Aberdeen's 

amendment, 167, further do. re- 
garding proxies, 176. 

inquiry on the duties of the 



Nominating Committee, 40-1. 

on the Standing Orders and 

motion thereon, 83. 
— in discussion on Lady Aberdeen's 
amendment on those entitled to 
vote and regarding proxies at 
International Council, 175. 
amendments to Constitu- 
tion as to appointment of Pre- 
sidents, 164. 

Mrs Creighton's first 



amendment to Constitution, 154. 
resolution regarding or- 
ganisation of International Con- 

190. 

place of next Quinquennial 
Meeting, 192. 



360 



tNDEt 



Shftw, Rev. Miss Aniub Howard 
(U.S.), in diflcussioD on Report of 
Nominating Committee, 148. 

moving that Minutes be not 

read, 82. 

vote of thankjB from Coun- 
cil to each Entertainer, 194. 

to President for her 

financial aid to the International 
Council, 91-2. 

reeolution regarding Unfinished 

Buaineaa, 198. 

seconding motion that Minutes 

be taken as read, 28. 

Lady Aberdeen's amend- 
ment regarding admission of ordin- 
ary Members of Federated Coun- 
cils to Council Meetings, 176. 

regarding Federation 

of Societies Internationally Organ- 
ised, 193. 

Frau Bieber - Boehm's 

amendment to Par. 4, Standing 
Orders, 204. 

Mrs 



Creighton's motion 
regarding elections of Officers, 115. 
amendment to Lady 



Aberdeen's amendment regarding 
Honorary Vice - Presidents and 
Committees for Quinquennial 
Meetings, 172. 

resolution on the 



qualifications of International 
Officers, 151, notice of future 
amendment, 152. 

Mrs Sewall's amendment 

to Lady Aberdeen's amendment to 
Constitution regarding National 
Councils, 176. 

— seconding Mrs Sewall's amend- 
ment regarding Patrons, 171. 
sermon preached by, to Mem- 



bers of Congress at special service 
at Westminster Chapel, 814. 

— — on lack of a Recording Secretary, 
82. 

— — on appointment of Auditor, 
153. 

on Committee to revise Consti- 
tution, 43. 

on definition of the ¥rord * Dele- 
gates,* 84. 

on invalidity of resolution of 



the Executive regarding Reduced 
Fees, 89. 

Shaw, Rev. Bifiss Anna Howard 
(U.S.), on the manner of conducting 
Elections of Officers, 41-2. 

Sierra Leone, Bishop of, at World'a 
Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion Devotional Meeting, 820. 

Simson, Frau Anna (Germany), intro- 
duced as Proxy Delegate for Frau 
Augusta Schmidt, Public Meeting 
of Welcome, 65. 

— — amendment regarding Minutes, 
Par. 16, 204. 

enquiry regarding place for next 



Meeting of Congress, 28. 

message of sympathy sent to, 



when ill, 212. 
— moving addition to amendment 
regarding Hon. Vice - Presidents 
and Presidents of unfederated 
Coundls, 172-8. 

amendment to Constitu- 
tion, 161. 

resolution r^farding ocm- 

sideration of Standing Orders, 
194. 



— notice of resolution regarding 
amendment of Par. 2, Art. I., 204. 

— objecting to Mrs Creightcm's 
amendment to Lady Aberdeen's 
amendment regarding admission of 
ordinary members of federated 
Councils to Council Meetings, 177. 

protesting oonoeming length of 



notice for last Executive Meeting, 
and against appointment of Vice- 
Presidents, etc., 28. 

— on the definition of the word 
* Delegates,' 84. 

— on the elec^pn of Frau Schwerin, 
173. 

- — on reduced Fees, 87. 

— on Status of International 



Officers, 41. 

— seconding adoption of Treasurer's 

Report, 36. 

resolution for adjourned 



Meeting of the Executive, 208. 

Mrs Sewall's vote of thanks 

to Lady Aberdeen, 202. 

willmg to aocept nomination for 



two offices, 166. 



INDEX 



361 



Slack, Miss Agnes, Fratenud Repre- 
sentative of the World's Women's 
Chnrch Temperance Union, at 
Public Meeting of Welcome, 77. 

Social Sab-Committee, Members of, 
22. . 

Bontb Afirica, probability of forma- 
tion of a National Council for, 200. 

Mrs Stewart, Hon. Vice-Presi- 

dent, on Women's Associations in, 
133. 

South Aostralia, no report from, 133. 

Speakers in discussion on re-nomina- 
tion of Baroness Gripenberg, unre- 
portedj 165. 

at Executive Meetings, Lady 

Aberdeen on, 29, Miss Anthony 
(U.S.A.) on, lb. 

Special Religious Services held during 
the Congress, 296. 

Staal, Baron de. President of the 
Peace Congress, letter from, on 
Women's work in International 
Arbitration, received, 233. 

Standing Committees, 210. 

Orders, resolutions concerning, 

proposed by Miss Shaw, 83, 
seconded by Lady Battersea, 84. 

resolution concerning 

carried, 194. 

Art. I., proposed amend- 



ments to, 203, 204, 205. 

Art. II., proposed amend- 



ments to, 207, 208. 

Art. IV., proposed amend- 
ments to, 208. 

as revised, for the use of 

the Executive Committee, 328 et 
seq. 

Steel, Mrs Flora Annie, representing 
India, at Public Meeting of Wel- 
come, 71. 

on need of f^ale lawyers in 

India, and suggestions regarding 
mode of work among women in, 
132. 

Stefanofskaio, Dr Kosakevitch, repre- 
senting Mme. Anne de Philosofoff, 
Hon. Vice-President for Ru&<<ia, at 
Public Meeting, 76. 

presenting Report of National 

Council of Russia, 129. 

Stewards of International Congress, 

VOL. I. 



Report on the Work of. Miss 

Bairdsmith (G.B.), 292. 
Stewards for Convocation House, 24. 

for St Martin's Hall, 25. 

for Westminster Hall, 23. 

Stewart, Mrs, Hon. Vice-President, 

Cape Colony, at Public Meeting of 

Welcome, 77. 
on a separate National Council 

for Natal, 200. 

on Women's Associations in 

South Africa, 133. 

Storm, Mrs, pioneer in Women's 
education in Holland, 121. 

Stritt, Frau Marie, Vice-President 
German National Council, intro- 
duced as Delegate, Public Meeting 
of Welcome, 65. 

presenting Report of that body, 

101. 

amendment to Constitution, 

167. 

moves resolution on Laws con- 
cerning the Domestic Relations, 
192. 

seconding adoption of last (re- 
vised) Report of Nomination (Com- 
mittee, 165. 

Mrs Sewall's rider to 

resolution regarding organisation 
of International Congresses, 190. 

Frau Simson's amendment 

to Constitution, 161. 

Superintendent of Inquiry Office, 26. 

Sutherland, Duchess of, invitation to 
afternoon tea, 212. 

Suttner, Baroness Bertha von, absence 
of from Public Meetins: on Inter- 
national Arbitration, 226. 

Address by, read to the above 

Meeting, 227. 

appointed secretary to Standing 



(Committee on International Arbi- 
tration, 210. 

vote of regret and concern at 



her absence sent to, 227. 
Sweden, Report of the National 

Council presented by Fru Anna 

Hierta-Retzius, President, 105. 
Swltxerland, National Council for, in 

formation, 75. 
Societies of Women workers 

in, and prospects of organising a 

2a 



362 



IKDBX 



Council, Mile. Oamille Vidart, 
Hon. Vice-President, on, 128. 

Tasmania, National Council formed, 
31, application for federation ac- 
cepted, 37. 

Lady Aberdeen on, 36, 37. 

Mrs Dobfion on, ib. 

no report from, 127. 

Taverna, Countess, Vice-President 
for Italy, her work in organising 
Italian National Council, 128-9. 

Time Table, 14. 

Transactions, arrangements for, 202. 

Treasurer, 18, 173, 320. 

Treasurer's Report, presented and 
read by Baroness Alexandra Gripen- 
berg (Finland), 35-6, on submit- 
ting Balance Sheet, 91. 

Unfinishrd Council Business, dis- 
poealof, 193,202,211. 

Ui^ted States, National Council's 
resolution regarding International 
Arbitration, 190. 

organisations in {see Sewall). 

Report of National Council, 

presented by Mrs Fannie Hum- 
phreys Gaffney, President, 92. 

Women's Clubs in, 250, 254. 

Vauohan, H. E. Cardinal, letter to 
Public Meeting on International 
Arbitration, 223, with appended 
letter pleading for a Tribunal of 
Arbitration from three Roman 
Catholic Bishops, 224. 

Vice-Presidents, 18, 320. 

Victoria (Australia), no report from, 
132. 

Vidart, Mile. Camille, Hon. Vice- 
President, Switzerland, at Public 
Meeting of Welcome, 75. 

elected Recording Secretary, 173. 

on Women Workers' Societies 

in that country, and on the pros- 
pects of forming a National 
Council, 128. 

Vote of regret and concern sent to 
Baroness Suttner, 227. 

sympathy with friends of Mrs 

Ellen Johnson, sent to, 113-4. 



Vote of thanks to the Countees of 
Aberdeen, 202. 

Acting Recording Secre- 
tary, 175. 

- Mme. F^resse Deraismes, 



189. 

from Council to each 

Entertainer, 194. 

proposed by the E^l of 



Aberdeen to Speakers, Choir and 
Vocalists at the Public Meeting on 
International Arbitration, 244. 

to English Council for 

hospitality, 193. 
■General thanks to all Committees 



and Workers connected with the 
International Congress, 183. 
— Grateful thanks for Reception 
by H.M. the Queen, 202. 

thanks to special Hostesses, 193. 



Votes, those entitled to, at Inter- 
national Councils, and their proxies, 
amendment concerning, mo?ed by 
Lady Aberdeen, 175. 

Voting, difficulty connected with. 
Lady Aberdeen on, 15. 

Miss Anthony (U.S.), 

on, ib. 

Walks, H.RH. the Prinoess of, 
telegram regretting inability to 
attend the Gunnersbury garden- 
party, 175. 

Waszklewitz, Mme. von Schilfgaarde 
(Holland), proposing that a tele- 
gram be sent to the Peace Con- 
ference at the Hague, and on 
Women's work for International 
Arbitration in Holland, 240. 

Watteville, Mme. de Tschamer, 
Fraternal Representative of Union 
Internationale des Amies de la 
Jeune Fille, at Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 79.* 

Webb, Mrs Sidney (G.B.). intro- 
duced as Official Delegate for New 
ZeaUnd, Public Meeting of Wel- 
come, 69. 

presenting report for that 

country, 125. 

Western Australia, no report from, 
132. 

Westminster Abbey, special religious 



INDEX 



363 



services held at, for Members 
of Congress, sermon preached at, 
by the Bishop of Sonthampton, 296. 
Hall, Stewards for, 23. 



WhiUock, Froken EUen, Secretary, 
Swedish National Council, intro- 
duced as Delegate, Public Meeting 
of Welcome, 67. 

Wilberforoe, Canon, sermon at 
special service for Members of 
Congress, St John's, Westminster, 
810. 

Wilson, Miss Theresa, Corresponding 
Secretary, 199, at Public Meeting 
of Welcome, 60, re-elected to the 
same office, 173. 

Treasurer for next Quinquennial 

period, 320. 

amendment proposed by, to 

Lady Aberdeen's amendment re- 
garding Hon. Vice - Presidents, 
168. 

amendment moved by, that 

Resolution contained in Minutes 
be read, 82. 

moving resolution concerning 

international means of inter-oom- 
munication between National Coun- 
cils, 191. 

presenting Corresponding Secre- 
tary's Report, 31. ^ 
Quinquennial Report, ^6. 

in discussion on expenses of 

Clerical Services for President's 



Office, 211. 

— seconding Mrs Willoughby 
Cnrnmings's amendment to Lady 
Aberdeen's amendment regarding 
Notices of Committees, 203. 
amendment to Frl. Hoff- 
mann's amendment to CI. 11, 
Art. IL, 206. 

— on the definition of the word 



* Delegates,' 84. ' 

— on efforts to interest the Women 
of Greece, Spain and Portugal, 201. 



Wilson, MIbs Theresa, Corresponding 
Secretary, on New South Wales 
and the Federation Fee, 39. 

on resolution regarding inter- 
communication through the Press, 
42. 

on the place for the next Con- 

28. 
on the President's signature to 
Minutes, 84. 

quoting New Zealand's appli- 
cation for Federation at reduced 
fees, 37. 

on Speakers at Executive Meet- 
ings, 30. 

Wittenoom, Mrs, representing West 
Australia, at Public Meeting of 
Welcome, 77. 

Women lawyers, need of in India, 
Mrs Flora Annie Steel on, 132. 

Women's activities in Cape Town, 
Mrs Nixon, Hon. Representative, 
137. 

Associations in Sotith Africa, 

Mrs Stewart, Hon. Vice-President, 
on, 133. 

Clubs in the United States, 250, 



254. 



— Institute, London, as Inter- 
national Bureau of Information, 
letters to Countess of Aberdeen 
from Mrs Wynford Philipps 
(G.B.), 180-1. 

Miss Kramers (Holland) 



on, 180. 



Prospectus of, 183 et seq. 
resolution regarding, 



moved by Mrs Creigkton, 186, 
rider, 187-8. 

Liberal Federation, greeting of. 



to Public Meeting on International 
Arbitration, 220. 
World's Young Women's Christian 
Association Committee's Devo- 
tional Meeting for Delegates to 
Congress, reported, 318. 



END OF VOL. I. 



CoistoH A* Coy. Lifnited, Frinttrs^ Edinburgh 




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