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Publications of the 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 

New York 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 

VOLUME NINE 
1942-1945 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 

A COLLECTION OF THE TEXTS OF 

MULTIPARTITE INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS 

OF GENERAL INTEREST 



EDITED BY 

MANLEY 0. HUDSON 

BEMIS PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 
HARVARD LAW SCHOOL 



WITH THE COLLABORATION OF 

LOUIS B. SOHN 

HARVARD LAW SCHOOL 



VOLUME IX / 1942-1945 
NUMBERS 611-670 



NEW YORK 

CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE 

405 WEST llTm STREET 

1950 



COPYRIGHT 1950 

BY THE 
CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
AT THE RUliFORD PRESS, CONCORD, N. H. 



PREFACE TO VOLUME IX 

This volume continues a serial collection of texts of multipartite inter- 
national instruments of general interest, published under the title of Inter- 
national Legislation. 

Volumes I to IV of the collection, covering the period from 1919 to July 
1929, were published in 1931; Volume V, for the years 1929 to 1931, was 
published in 1936; Volume VI, for the years 1932 to 1934, was published in 
1937; Volume VII, for the years 1935 to 1937, was published in 1941; and 
Volume VIII, for the years 1938 to 1941, was published in 1949. 

This ninth volume of the collection covers the four-year period from 
1942 to 1945, inclusive. It reproduces the texts of, or lists, sixty prin- 
cipal instruments and about forty subsidiary instruments. Some of them 
have not been brought into force, and some became abortive after their 
entry into force. As one of the objects of this collection is to trace the 
continuous development of the legislative process, it has seemed to the 
editor that some of the abortive instruments should be included here; on 
the other hand, a few of the less significant instruments of the period have 
been excluded. 

During the greater part of the period covered by this volume, most of the 
states of the world were engaged in waging war and their energies could not 
be diverted to legislative activity. Beginning in 1944, however, the United 
Nations began the post-war planning which resulted in a great broadening 
of international organization ; and some of the basic instruments are repro- 
duced in this volume. Prospect now exists for an extension of international 
legislation into many new fields. 

The collaboration of Mr. Louis B. Sohn in the preparation of this volume 
has been invaluable. The editor would also express his gratitude to the 
many officials of governments and organizations to whom he has turned for 
aid in procuring texts and information with respect to them. Miss Ruth E. 
Stanton has bestowed her genius on editing the manuscript. 

MANLEY O. HUDSON 
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 
July i, 1949 



vii 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE . . ... vii 

NUMERICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS xii 

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS xxii 

SUBJECT LIST OF INSTRUMENTS xxvi 

TEXTS OF INSTRUMENTS i 

SUBJECT INDEX 941 



LISTS OF INSTRUMENTS 
IN VOLUME IX 



NUMERICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

194* 

No. FACE 

611. Declaration by United Nations. Opened for signature at Washington, Janu- 

ary I, 1942 I 

6na. Atlantic Charter. Published August 14, 1941 3 

612. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a Commission on Forests and 

Timber. Signed at Berlin, January 23, 1942 5 

613. Treaty of Alliance. Signed at Tehran, January 29, 1942 7 

614. Memorandum of Agreement on the Production and Marketing of Wheat. 

Initialed at Washington, April 22, 1942 II 

615. Agreement concerning the Division of the Property of the "Former" Yugoslav 

State. Signed at Berlin, July 22, 1942 23 

6 1 6. Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Production and 

Marketing of Sugar. Opened for signature at London, July 22, 1942 24 

6i6a. Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Production 
and Marketing of Sugar. Opened for signature at London, August 31, 
1944 25 

617. Treaty concerning the Reorganization of the Danube-Sava-Adriatic Railway 

Company. Signed at Brioni, August 10, 1942 27 

618. Agreement concerning the Star Insurance Company at Prague. Signed at 

Berlin, August 12, 1942 28 

619. Convention on Education in Central America. Signed at San Jos, September 

5. 1942 28 

620. Convention on the Practice of Liberal Professions. Signed at San Jose", 

September 5, 1942 33 

621. Agreement for the International Control of the Production and Export of Tin. 

Signed at London, September 9, 1942 35 

62 1 a. Protocol of Signature of the International Tin Control Agreement. 

Signed at London, September 9, 1942 42 

622. Agreement concerning a European Postal and Telecommunications Union. 

Signed at Vienna, October 19, 1942 43 

International Military Traffic on the 

at San Salvador, December 15, 1942 49 



623. Agreement concerning the Regulation of International Military Traffic on the 
Emergency Military Highway. Signed 



1943 

624. Inter-Allied Declaration against Acts of Dispossession Committed in Territories 

under Enemy Occupation or Control. Approved at London, January 5, 1943 49 

625. Conditions of an Armistice with Italy. Signed at Fairfield Camp, Sicily, 

September 3, 1943 50 

62 5a. Instrument of Surrender of Italy. Signed at Malta, September 29, 1943 52 

6?5b. Protocol Amending the Instrument of Surrender of Italy. Signed at 

Brindisi, November 9, 1943 60 

xii 



Xiv NUMERICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

No. PAGE 

626. Convention on the Inter- American University. Signed at Panama, October 4, 

1943 6l 

6a6a. Statute of the Inter-American University. Adopted at Panama, 

October 4, 1943 66 

627. Monetary Convention. Signed at London, October 21, 1943 75 

628. Declaration on General Security. Signed at Moscow, October 30, 1943 82 

629. Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

Signed at Washington, November 9, 1943 84 

630. Convention on the Regulation of Inter- American Automotive Traffic. Opened 

for signature at Washington, December 15, 1943 91 

1944 

631. Convention on the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Opened 

for signature at Washington, January 15, 1944 101 

632. Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. Signed at London, February 7, 1944 in 

632a. Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. Opened for signature at 

London, November 26, 1945 114 

632b. Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Signed at Washington, 

December 2, 1946 117 

633. Declaration concerning the Aims and Purposes of the International Labor 

Organization. Adopted at Philadelphia, May 10, 1944 124 

634. Agreement on the Continuance of Co-ordinated Control of Merchant Shipping. 

Signed at London, August 5, 1944 129 

634a. Agreement for the Establishment of a Provisional Maritime Consultative 

Council. Adopted at Washington, October 30, 1946 133 

635. Convention concerning a Regime of Customs Union. Signed at London, 

September 5, 1944 135 

635a. Protocol concerning a Regime of Customs Union. Signed at The 

Hague, March 14, 1947 135 

636. Armistice Agreement with Rumania. Signed at Moscow, September 12, 1944 139 

636a. Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Rumania. Signed at Moscow, 

September 12, 1944 143 

637. Armistice Agreement with Finland. Signed at Moscow, September 19, 1944 144 

6378. Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Finland. Signed at Moscow, 

September 19, 1944 151 

637b. Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Finland. Signed at Moscow, 

October 8, 1944 . .. 152 

638. Armistice Agreement with Bulgaria. Signed at Moscow, October 28, 1944. . . 153 

6383. Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Bulgaria. Signed at Moscow, 

October 28, 1944 X 5 6 

639. Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation. Opened for signature at 

Chicago, December 7, 1944 157 

640. Convention on International Civil Aviation. Opened for signature at Chicago, 

December 7, 1944 168 



LISTE NUMfeRIQUE DBS INSTRUMENTS XV 

No. PAGE 

626. Convenci6n sobre la Universidad Interamericana. Firmada en Panama, 4 de 

octubre de 1943 61 

626a. Estatuto de la Universidad Interamericana. Aprobado en Panama, 4 de 

octubre de 1943 66 

627. Convention mon6taire. Signee a Londres, 21 octobre 1943 75 

628. Declaration sur s6curit6 generate. Signee a Moscou, 30 octobre 1943 82 

629. Accord sur I'Administration des Nations Unies pour les Secours et la Recon- 

struction. Signe a Washington, 9 novembre 1943 84 

630. Convenci6n sobre la reglamentacion del trafico automotor interamericano. 

Abierta a la firma en Washington, 15 de diciembre de 1943 91 

1944 

631. Convenci6n sobre el Institute Interamericano de Ciencias Agrfcolas. Abierta 

a la firma en Washington, 15 de enero de 1944 IOI 

632. Protocole sur la reglementation de la chasse a la baleine. Sign6 a Londres, 

7 feVrier 1944 .... Ill 

6323. Protocole sur la reglementation de la chasse a la baleine. Ouvert a la 

signature a Londres, 26 novembre 1945. . . ,. ... 114 

632b. Convention pour la reglementation de la chasse a la baleine. Signee a 

Washington, 2 decembre 1946. . . . .... H7 

633. Declaration concernant les buts et les objectifs de 1'Organisation internationale 

du Travail. Adoptde a Philadelphia, 10 mai 1944 124 

634. Accord sur la continuation de la contrdle coordonnee de la marine marchande. 

Sign6 a Londres, 5 aoflt 1944. ... . 129 

6343. Accord relatif a la creation d'un Conseil consultatif provisoire de la 

navigation maritime. Adopte a Washington, 30 octobre 1946 133 

635. Convention concernant un r6gime de communaut douaniere. Signer a 

Londres, 5 septembre 1944 135 

6353. Protocole concernant un r6gime de communaut6 douaniere. Sign& a 

La Haye, 14 mars 1947 135 

636. Accord concernant 1'armistice avec la Roumanie. Sign6 a Moscou, 12 sep- 

tembre 1944 .... 139 

6363. Protocole a 1' Accord concernant ('armistice avec la Roumanie. Sign a 

Moscou, 12 septembre 1944 143 

637. Accord concernant 1'armistice avec la Finlande. Sign& a Moscou, 19 septembre 

1944 144 

6373. Protocole a 1'Accord concernant 1'armistice avec la Finlande. Signe" a 

Moscou, 19 septembre 1944 151 

637b. Protocole a I 1 Accord concernant 1'armistice avec la Finlande. Signe* a 

Moscou, 8 octobre 1944 152 

638. Accord concernant rarmistice avec la Bulgarie. Sign6 a Moscou, 28 octobre 1944 153 

6383. Protocole a PAccord concernant rarmistice avec la Bulgarie. Sign a 

Moscou, 28 octobre 1944 '56 

639. Accord provisionnel sur aviation civile internationale. Ouvert a la signature 

a Chicago, 7 decembre 1944 157 

640. Convention relative a 1'aviation civile internationale. Ouverte a la signature a 
Chicago, 7 decembre 1944 168 



Xvi NUMERICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

No. PAGE 

64oa. Protocol relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International 

Civil Aviation. Signed at iv.ontreal, IWay 27, 1947 21 1 

64Ob. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Ch il Avia- 
tion Organization. Signed at Lake Success, September 30, 1946 214 

641 . International Air Services Transit Agreement. Opened for signature at Chicago, 

December 7, 1944 228 

642. International Air Transport Agreement. Opened for signature at Chicago, 

December 7, 1944 232 

643. International Sanitary Convention. Opened for signature at Washington, 

December 15, 1944 236 

6433. Protocol to Prolong the Duration of the International Sanitary Conven- 
tion of 1944. Opened for signature at Washington, April 23, 1946. . . 251 

644. International Sanitary Convention for Aerial Navigation. Opened for signa- 

ture at Washington, December 15, 1944 254 

644a. Protocol to Prolong the Duration of the International Sanitary Conven- 
tion for Aerial Navigation of 1944. Opened for signature at Washing- 
ton, April 23, 1946 272 

1945 

645. Armistice Agreement with Hungary. Signed at Moscow, January 20, 1945. . . 276 

645a. Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Hungary. Signed at Moscow, 

January 20, 1945 281 

646. Agreement regarding Japan. Signed at Yalta, February 11, 1945 282 

647. Act of Chapultepec. Signed at Mexico City, March 8, 1945 283 

648. Arrangements concerning the Reorganization, Consolidation, and Strengthening 

of the Inter-American System. Signed at Mexico City, March 8, 1945. . . . 290 

649. Agreement for Economic Consultation. Signed at Paris, March 20, 1945 .... 297 

650. Pact of the Arab League. Signed at Cairo, March 22, 1945 300 

6503. Cultural Treaty between Arab States. Approved at Cairo, November 20, 

1946 310 

651. Act of Military Surrender of Germany. Signed at Berlin, May 8, 1945 312 

652. Declaration regarding the Assumption of Supreme Authority with respect to 

Germany. Signed at Berlin, June 5, 1945 3*4 

652a. Agreement on Certain Additional Requirements to be Imposed on 

Germany. Adopted at Berlin, September 20, 1945 319 

653. Charter of the United Nations. Signed at San Francisco, June 26, 1945 327 

653a. Interim Arrangements of the United Nations. Signed at San Francisco, 

June 26, 1945 366 

653b. Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly. Adopted at Flushing 

Meadows, November 17, 1947 369 

653C. Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council. Adopted at 

London, January 17, 1946 400 

653d. Rules of Procedure of the Economic and Social Council. Adopted at 

Lake Success, March i8 v 1949 411 



LISTE NUMRIQUE DES INSTRUMENTS xvii 

No. PACE 

640a. Protocole concernant un amendement a la Convention relative a 1'aviation 

civile internationale. Signe a Montr6al, 27 mai 1947 211 

6400. Accord entre lea Nations Unies et ('Organisation de 1'aviation civile 

internationale. Sign a Lake Success, 30 septembre 1946 214 

641. Accord concernant le transit des services aeriens international^. Ouvert a 

la signature a Chicago, 7 decembre 1944 228 

642. Accord concernant le transport aeVien international. Ouvert a la signature a 

Chicago, 7 decembre 1944 232 

643. Convention sanitaire internationale. Ouverte a la signature a Washington, 15 

decembre 1944 236 

6433. Protocole prorogeant la duree de la Convention sanitaire de 1944. 

Ouvert a la signature a Washington, 23 avril 1946 251 

644. Convention sanitaire internationale pour la navigation arienne. Ouverte a 

la signature a Washington, 15 decembre 1944 254 

. Protocole prorogeant la dure de la Convention sanitaire pour la naviga- 
tion anenne de 1944. Ouvert a la signature a Washington, 23 avril 
1946 272 

1945 

645. Accord concernant 1'armistice avec la Hongrie. Sign6 a Moscou, 20 Janvier 

1945 276 

645a. Protocole a 1'Accord concernant 1'armistice avec la Hongrie. Signe" a 

Moscou, 20 Janvier 1945 281 

646. Accord concernant le Japon. Sign a Yalta, II tevrier 1945 282 

647. Acta de Chapul tepee. Firmada en la Ciudad de Mexico, 8 de marzo de 1945 283 

648. Convenios relativos a la reorganizaci6n, consolidaci6n y fortalecimiento del 

sistema interamericano. Firmados en la Ciudad de Mexico, 8 de marzo de 
1945 290 

649. Accord de consultation 6conomique. Sign6 a Paris, 20 mars 1945 297 

650. Pacte de la Ligue des Etats Arabes. Sign au Caire, 22 mars 1945 300 

65oa. Traite 1 culturel entre les Etats Arabes. ApprouvS au Caire, 20 novembre 

1946 310 

651. Acte de reddition militaire de FAllemagne. Sign6 a Berlin, 8 mai 1945 312 

652. Declaration concernant la prise de l'autorit& supreme a I'&gard de 1'Allemagne. 

Signee a Berlin, 5 juin 1945 314 

652a. Accord sur certaines conditions additionnelles a imposer sur 1'Allemagne. 

Adopt& a Berlin, 20 septembre 1945 319 

653. Charte des Nations Unies. Signee a San Francisco, 26 juin 1945 327 

6533. Arrangements provisoires des Nations Unies. Signes a San Francisco, 

26 juin 1945 366 

653b. R&lement intlrieur de I'Assembl^e G^n^rale. Adoptd a Flushing 

Meadows, 17 novembre 1947 369 

653C. R^glement int6rieur provisoire du Conseil de S6curit. Adopt6 a 

Londres, 17 Janvier 1946 400 

653d. Rtelement inteneur du Conseil 6conomique et sociale. Adopt6 a Lake 

Success, 18 man 1949 411 



XV111 NUMERICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

No. PAGE 

6536. Rules of Procedure of the Trusteeship Council. Adopted at Lake Suc- 
cess, April 23, 1947 4*8 

653f. Regulations concerning Registration and Publication of Treaties. 

Adopted at Flushing Meadows, December 14, 1946 44 

&53K* Provisional Financial Regulations of the United Nations. Adopted at 

Flushing Meadows, November 20, 1947 455 

653h. Staff Rules of the United Nations. Codified May 13, 1948 464 

653!. Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. 

Adopted at London, February 13, 1946 499 

654. Statute of the International Court of Justice. Annexed to the Charter of the 

United Nations, signed at San Francisco, June 26, 1945 510 

6543. Rules of the International Court of Justice. Adopted at The Hague, 

May 6, 1946 5*9 

655. Agreement on Control Machinery in Austria. Signed at London, July 4, 1945 558 

655a. Agreement on Zones of Occupation in Austria. Signed at London, 

July 9, 1945 . 564 

655b. Agreement on the Machinery of Control in Austria. Signed at Vienna, 

June 28, 1946 . 567 

656. Agreement for the Establishment of the Council of Foreign Ministers. Adopted 

at Berlin, August I, 1945 577 

657. Agreement on the Treatment of Germany. Adopted at Berlin, August I, 1945 580 

658. Agreement on German Reparations. Adopted at Berlin, August i, 1945. . 583 

6583. Agreement on Reparation from Germany. Opened for signature at 

Paris, January 14, 1946 . . 585 

658b. Agreement on Allocation of a Reparation Share to Non-repatriable 

Victims of German Action. Signed at Paris, June 14, 1946 608 

6580. Accord on Treatment of German-owned Patents. Opened for signature 

at London, July 27, 1946. .. . 614 

6580(1') Protocol amending the Accord on German-owned Patents. 

Signed at London, July 17, 1947 618 

6s8d. Agreement on Conflicting Claims to German Enemy Assets. Opened for 

signature at Brussels, December 5, 1947 .... 620 

659. Agreement for the Establishment of an International Military Tribunal. 

Signed at London, August 8, 1945 632 

659a. Charter of the International Military Tribunal. Annexed to the Agree- 
ment signed at London, August 8, 1945 637 

659b. Rules of Procedure of the International Military Tribunal. Adopted at 

Nuremberg, October 29, 1945 647 

660. Agreement for the Re-establishment of the International Administration of 

Tangier. Signed at Paris, August 31, 1945 653 

661. Instrument of Surrender by Japan. Signed at Tokyo Bay, September 2, 1945 661 

66ia. Agreement for the Establishment of the Far Eastern Commission and of 

the Allied Council for Japan. Adopted at Moscow, December 27, 1945 663 

662. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a European Central Inland Trans- 

port Organization. Signed at London, September 27, 1945 666 



LISTS NUM&RIQUE DBS INSTRUMENTS xix 

No. PAGE 

6536. Reglement interieur du Conseil de tutclle. Adopt* a Lake Success, 23 

avril 1947 428 

653f. Reglement concernant renregistrement et publication des traites. 

Adopt6 Flushing Meadows, 14 decembre 1946 448 

&53ff. Reglement financier provisoire de 1'Organisation des Nations Unies. 

Adopte a Flushing Meadows, 20 novembre 1947 455 

653h. Reglement du personnel des Nations Unies. Coding 13 mai 1948 464 

6531. Convention sur les privileges et immunit&s des Nations Unies. Ap- 

prouvee & Londres, 13 fevrier 1946 499 

654. Statut de la Cour Internationale de Justice. Annexe 1 a la Charte des Nations 

Unies, signee a San Francisco, 26 juin 1945 510 

6543. Reglement de la Cour Internationale de Justice. Adopt a La Haye, 

6 mai 1946 529 

655. Accord sur les organismes de contrdle en Autriche. Sign a Londres, 4 juillet 

1945 558 

655a. Accord sur les zones d'occupation en Autriche. Sign6 a Londres, 9 

juillet 1945 564 

655b. Accord sur le mecanisme de contrdle en Autriche. Signe* a Vienne, 28 

juin 1946 567 

656. Accord sur la creation du Conseil des Ministres des Affaires Etrangeres. Adopt& 

a Berlin, I aoflt 1945 577 

657. Accord sur le traitement de PAllemagne. Adopt& a Berlin, i aoflt 1945 580 

658. Accord sur les reparations allemandes. Adopte* a Berlin, I aoflt 1945 583 

6583. Accord concernant les reparations a recevoir de rAllemagne. Ouvert a 

la signature a Paris, 14 Janvier 1946 585 

6s8b. Accord sur 1'allocation d'une part de reparations aux yictimes non- 

rapatriables de Taction allemande. Sign6 a Paris, 14 juin 1946 608 

6s8c. Accord concernant le traitement r6serve" aux brevets d'invention ayant 
appartenu a des Allemands. Ouvert a la signature a Londres, 27 juillet 
1946 614 

6580(1') Protocole modifiant 1'Accord sur les brevets allemands. Sign6 

a Londres, 17 juillet 1947 618 

658d. Accord relatif a la solution des conflits de juridiction portant sur les avoir 
allemands a 1 Stranger. Ouvert a la signature a Bruxelles, 5 d6cembre 
1947 620 

659. Accord sur la creation d'un Tribunal Militaire International. Signe* a Londres, 

8 aout 1945 632 

6593. Statut du Tribunal Militaire International. Annex6 a TAccord sign6 a 

Londres, 8 aoflt 1945 637 

659b. Regies de procedure du Tribunal Militaire International. Adoptees 4 

Nuremberg, 29 octobre 1945 647 

660. Accord en vue du r6tablissement a Tanger de radministration Internationale. 

Signe a Paris, 31 aoflt 1945 653 

661. Acte de la capitulation du Japon. Sign6 a la Baie du Tokyo, 2 septembre 1945 661 

66 1 a. Accord sur I'^tablissement de la Commission d'Extr&ne-Orient et du 

Conseil alli^ pour le Japon. Adopte* a Moscou, 27 decembre 1945 . . . 663 

662. Accord portent creation d'un Office Central des Transports Interieurs Euro- 

peens. Sign6 a Londres, 27 septembre 1945 666 



XX NUMERICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

No. PAGE 

662a. Protocol relating to Traffic on Inland Waterways. Signed at London, 

September 27, 1945 687 

663. Inter-American Telecommunications Convention. Signed at Rio de Janeiro, 

September 27, 1945 690 

664. Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 

Opened for signature at Quebec, October 16, 1945 7*3 

664a. Agreement between the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture 

Organization. Initialed at New York, June 10, 1946 730 

665. Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International Labor 

Organization. Adopted at Paris, November 5, 1945 743 

6653. Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International 

Labor Organization. Adopted at Montreal, October 9, 1946 749 

66sb. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Labor 

Organization. Signed at New York, IV. ay 30, 1946 771 

666. Declaration on Atomic Energy. Signed at Washington, November 15, 1945. . 783 

667. Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization. Opened for signature at London, November 16, 1945 786 

667a. Agreement between the United Nations and the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Signed at New York, 
June 4, 1946 801 

668. Agreement concerning Telecommunications. Signed at Bermuda, December 4, 

1945 815 

669. Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund. Opened for signa- 

ture at Washington, December 27, 1945 820 

6693. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Monetary 

Fund. Adopted at New York, August 15, 1947 882 

670. Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- 

opment. Opened for signature at Washington, December 27, 1945 889 

6/oa. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development. Adopted at New York, August 15, 
1947 933 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

[This list includes all of the instruments reproduced in Volume IX, and three subsidiary 
instruments reproduced or listed in Volume VIII.] 

IQ4Z PAGE 

Aug. 14 Atlantic Charter ........ ..................... 3 



Jan. I Declaration by United Nations. Washington ................ i 

Jan. 23 Agreement concerning the Establishment of a Commission on Forests 

and Timber. Berlin ............... ......... 5 

Jan. 29 Treaty of Alliance. Tehran .......................... 7 

April 22 Memorandum of Agreement on the Production and Marketing of 

Wheat. Washington ... ................... 1 1 

July 22 Agreement concerning the Division of the Property of the "Former" 

Yugoslav State. Berlin ................................ 23 

July 22 Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Produc- 

tion and Marketing of Sugar. London ......................... 24 

Aug. 10 Treaty concerning the Reorganization of the Danube-Sava-Adriatic 

Railway Company. Brioni ....................... 27 

Aug. 12 Agreement concerning the Star Insurance Company at Prague. Berlin 28 
Sept. 5 Convention on Education in Central America. San Jos6 ........ 28 

Sept. 5 Convention on the Practice of Liberal Professions. San Jose ...... 33 

Sept. 9 Agreement for the International Control of the Production and Export 

of Tin. London .' .................................... 35 

Sept. 9 Protocol of Signature of the International Tin Control Agreement. 

London ...................................... 42 

Oct. 19 Agreement concerning a European Postal and Telecommunications 

Union. Vienna .... ...... ........ 43 

Dec. 15 Agreement concerning the Regulation of International Military Traffic 

on the Emergency Military Highway. San Salvador ..... .... 49 

1943 

Jan. 5 Inter- Allied Declaration against Acts of Dispossession Committed in 

Territories under Enemy Occupation or Control. London ........ 49 

Sept. 3 Conditions of an Armistice with Italy. Fairfield Camp, Sicily. . . . 50 

Sept. 29 Instrument of Surrender of Italy. Malta .................... 52 

Oct. 4 Convention on the Inter- American University. Panama ............ 61 

Oct. 4 Statute of the Inter- American University. Panama ................ 66 

Oct. 21 Monetary Convention. London ............................. 75 

Oct. 30 Declaration on General Security. Moscow ...................... 82 

Nov. 9 Protocol Amending the Instrument of Surrender of Italy. Brindisi. . . 60 

Nov. 9 Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 

tion. Washington ........................................... 84 

xxii 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 



XXlll 

PAGE 



Dec. 15 Convention on the Regulation of Inter- American Automotive Traffic. 

Washington . . 91 

1944 

Jan. 15 Convention on the Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences. 

Washington . 101 

Feb. 7 Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. London in 

May 10 Declaration concerning the Aims and Purposes of the International 

Labor Organization. Philadelphia 124 

Aug. 5 Agreement on the Continuance of Co-ordinated Control of Merchant 

Shipping. London . 129 

Aug. 31 Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Produc- 
tion and Marketing of Sugar. London 25 

Sept. 5 Convention concerning a Regime of Customs Union. London ... . 135 

Sept. 12 Armistice Agreement with Rumania. Moscow . . 139 

Sept. 12 Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Rumania. Moscow 143 

Sept. 19 Armistice Agreement with Finland. Moscow . 144 

Sept. 19 Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Finland. Moscow. 151 

Oct. 8 Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Finland. Moscow 152 

Oct. 28 Armistice Agreement with Bulgaria. Moscow ... 153 

Oct. 28 Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Bulgaria. Moscow 156 

Dec. 7 Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation. Chicago 157 

Dec. 7 Convention on International Civil Aviation. Chicago. ... . . 168 

Dec. 7 International Air Services Transit Agreement. Chicago 228 

Dec. 7 International Air Transport Agreement. Chicago . . . 232 

Dec. 15 International Sanitary Convention. Washington . 236 

Dec. 15 International Sanitary Convention for Aerial Navigation. Washington 254 

1945 

Jan. 20 Armistice Agreement with Hungary. Moscow ... . . 276 

Jan. 20 Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Hungary. Moscow. . 281 

Feb. n Agreement regarding Japan. Yalta.... . .... 282 

March 8 Act of Chapultepec. Mexico City . . ..283 

March 8 Arrangements concerning the Reorganization, Consolidation, and 

Strengthening of the Inter- American System. Mexico City 290 

March 20 Agreement for Economic Consultation. Paris .... . ... 297 

March 22 Pact of the Arab League. Cairo . 300 

May 8 Act of Military Surrender of Germany. Berlin .312 

June 5 Declaration regarding the Assumption of Supreme Authority with 

Respect to Germany. Berlin 314 

June 26 Charter of the United Nations. San Francisco ... . 327 

June 26 Interim Arrangements of the United Nations. San Francisco 366 

June 26 Statute of the International Court of Justice. San Francisco 510 

July 4 Agreement on Control Machinery in Austria. London 558 

July 9 Agreement on Zones of Occupation in Austria. London 564 



XXiv CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

1945 PAGE 

Aug. I Agreement for the Establishment of the Council of Foreign Ministers. 

Berlin 577 

Aug. I Agreement on the Treatment of Germany. Berlin 580 

Aug. I Agreement on German Reparations. Berlin 5^3 

Aug. 8 Agreement for the Establishment of an International Military Tribunal. 

London 632 

Aug. 8 Charter of the International Military Tribunal. London 637 

Aug. 31 Agreement for the Re -establishment of the International Administration 

of Tangier. Paris 653 

Sept. i Protocol Extending the Inter-American Coffee Agreement. Washing- 
ton. (See Volume VIII, p. 613.) 

Sept. 2 Instrument of Surrender by Japan. Tokyo Bay 661 

Sept. 20 Agreement on Certain Additional Requirements to be Imposed on 

Germany. Berlin 319 

Sept. 27 Agreement concerning the Establishment of a European Central Inland 

Transport Organization. London 666 

Sept. 27 Protocol relating to Traffic on Inland Waterways. London 687 

Sept. 27 Inter- American Telecommunications Convention. Rio de Janeiro. . . . 690 

Oct. 1 6 Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 

Nations. Quebec 713 

Oct. 29 Rules of Procedure of the International Military Tribunal. Nuremberg 647 

Nov. 5 Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International 

Labor Organization. Paris 743 

Nov. 15 Declaration on Atomic Energy. Washington 783 

Nov. 16 Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization. London 786 

Nov. 26 Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. London 1 14 

Dec. 4 Agreement concerning Telecommunications. Bermuda 815 

Dec. 27 Agreement for the Establishment of the Far Eastern Commission and of 

the Allied Council for Japan. Moscow 663 

Dec. 27 Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund. Washing- 
ton 820 

Dec. 27 Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction 

and Development. Washington 889 

1946 

Jan. 14 Agreement on Reparation from Germany. Paris 585 

Jan. 17 Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council. London. . . . 400 

Feb. 13 Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. 

London 499 

April 23 Protocol to Prolong the Duration of the International Sanitary Con- 
vention of 1944. Washington 251 

April 23 Protocol to Prolong the Duration of the International Sanitary Con- 
vention for Aerial Navigation of 1944. Washington 272 

May 6 Rules of the International Court of Justice. The Hague 5*9 

May 30 Agreement between the United Nations and the International Labor 

Organization. New York 771 

June 4 Agreement between the United Nations and the United Nations Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Ntw York 801 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 



XXV 



PAGE 

June 10 Agreement between the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture 

Organization. New York 730 

June 14 Agreement on Allocation of a Reparation Share to Non-repatriable 

Victims of German Action. Paris 608 

June 28 Agreement on the Machinery of Control in Austria. Vienna 567 

July 27 Accord on Treatment of German-owned Patents. London 614 

Sept. 3 Protocol Extending the Inter- American Coffee Agreement. Wash- 
ington. (See Volume VIII, p. 616.) 

Sept. 30 Agreement between the United Nations and the International Civil 

Aviation Organization. Lake Success 214 

Oct. 9 Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the Inter- 
national Labor Organization. Montreal 749 

Oct. 30 Agreement for the Establishment of a Provisional Maritime Con- 
sultative Council. Washington 133 

Nov. 20 Cultural Treaty between Arab States. Cairo 310 

Dec. 2 Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Washington 117 

Dec. 14 Regulations concerning Registration and Publication of Treaties. 

Flushing Meadows 448 

X947 

March 14 Protocol concerning a Regime of Customs Union. The Hague 135 

April 23 Rules of Procedure of the Trusteeship Council. Lake Success 428 

May 27 Protocol relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International 

Civil Aviation. Montreal 211 

July 17 Protocol amending the Accord on German-owned Patents. London ... 618 

Aug. 15 Agreement between the United Nations and the International Mone- 
tary Fund. New York 882 

Aug. 15 Agreement between the United Nations and the International Bank for 

Reconstruction and Development. New York 933 

Sept. II Protocol Extending the Inter- American Coffee Agreement. Washing- 
ton. (See Volume VIII, p. 616.) 

Nov. 17 Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly. Flushing Meadows. . . . 369 

Nov. 20 Provisional Financial Regulations of the United Nations. Flushing 

Meadows 455 

Dec. 5 Agreement on Conflicting Claims to German Enemy Assets. Brussels 620 

1948 

May 13 Staff Rules of the United Nations 464 



1949 

March 18 



Rules of Procedure of the Economic and Social Council. Lake Success 411 



SUBJECT LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

NO. PAGE 

Agriculture 

614. Memorandum of Agreement on the Production and Marketing of Wheat. 

Washington, April 22, 1942 II 

6 1 6. Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Production 

and Marketing of Sugar. London, July 22, 1942 24 

6i6a. Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Production 

and Marketing of Sugar. London, August 31, 1944 . 25 

631. Convention on the Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences. 

Washington, January 15, 1944 .. . 101 

664. Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 

Nations. Quebec, October 16, 1945 . 713 

664a. Agreement between the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture 

Organization. New York, June 10, 1946 . 730 

Arab States 

650. Pact of the Arab League. Cairo, March 22, 1945 . . 300 
6soa. Cultural Treaty between Arab States. Cairo, November 20, 1946 . .310 

Armistices 

625. Conditions of an Armistice with Italy. Fairfield Camp, Sicily, September 

3,1943 50 

62 5a. Instrument of Surrender of Italy. Malta, September 29, 1943 52 

625b. Protocol Amending the Instrument of Surrender of Italy. Brindisi, 

November 9, 1943 . . 60 

636. Armistice Agreement with Rumania. Moscow, September 12, 1944 . . 139 

637. Armistice Agreement with Finland. Moscow, September 19, 1944 . . . 144 

637b. Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Finland. Moscow, October 8, 

1944 . . .... . . 152 

638. Armistice Agreement with Bulgaria. Moscow, October 28, 1944 153 
645. Armistice Agreement with Hungary. Moscow, January 20, 1945 276 

651. Act of Military Surrender of Germany. Berlin, May 8, 1945. 312 
661. Instrument of Surrender by Japan. Tokyo Bay, September 2, 1945 66 1 

Atomic Energy 

666. Declaration on Atomic Energy. Washington, November 15, 1945 783 

Austria 

655. Agreement on Control Machinery in Austria. London, July 4, 1945 . . . 558 

655a. Agreement on Zones of Occupation in Austria. London, July 9, 1945 . . . 564 

655b. Agreement on the Machinery of Control in Austria. Vienna, June 28, 1946 567 

Automotive Traffic 

623. Agreement concerning the Regulation of International Military Traffic on 

the Emergency Military Highway. San Salvador, December 15, 1942 49 

630. Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic. 

Washington, December 15, 1943 . 91 

xx vi 



SUBJECT LIST OF INSTRUMENTS XXvii 

No. PAGE 

Aviation 

639. Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation. Chicago, December 

7, 1944 157 

640. Convention on International Civil Aviation. Chicago, December 7, 1944 168 

64oa. Protocol relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International 

Civil Aviation. Montreal, May 27, 1947 211 

64ob. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Civil 

Aviation Organization. Lake Success, September 30, 1946 214 

641. International Air Services Transit Agreement. Chicago, December 7, 1944 228 

642. International Air Transport Agreement. Chicago, December 7, 1944 . . . 232 

644. International Sanitary Convention for Aerial Navigation. Washington, 

December 15, 1944. . ..... 254 

6443. Protocol to Prolong the Duration of the International Sanitary Convention 

for Aerial Navigation of 1944. Washington, April 23, 1946 272 

Banking 

670. Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development. Washington, December 27, 1945 889 

67oa. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Bank for 

Reconstruction and Development. New York, August 15, 1947. . . . 933 

Central America 

619. Convention on Education in Central America. San Jos, September 5, 

1942 . .28 

620. Convention on the Practice of Liberal Professions. San Jose, September 5, 

1942 . 33 

623. Agreement concerning the Regulation of International Military Traffic 

on the Emergency Military Highway. San Salvador, December 15, 1942 49 

Commercial Relations (See also Banking, Monetary Questions) 

635. Convention concerning a Regime of Customs Union. London, September 

5, I944- - . . . 135 

635a. Protocol concerning a Regime of Customs Union. The Hague, March 14, 

1947 .-. 135 

649. Agreement for Economic Consultation. Paris, March 20, 1945 297 

Commodities 

612. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a Commission on Forests and 

Timber. Berlin, January 23, 1942 5 

614. Memorandum of Agreement on the Production and Marketing of Wheat. 

Washington, April 22, 1942 n 

616. Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Production 

and Marketing of Sugar. London, July 22, 1942 24 

6i6a. Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Production 

and Marketing of Sugar. London, August 31, 1944 25 

621. Agreement for the International Control of the Production and Export of 

Tin. London, September 9, 1942 35 

Communications and Transit (See also Aviation, Telecommunications) 

617. Treaty concerning the Reorganization of the Danube-Sava- Adriatic Rail- 

way Company. Brioni, August 10, 1942 27 

623. Agreement concerning the Regulation of International Military Traffic on 

the Emergency Military Highway. San Salvador, December 15, 1942 49 



XXviii SUBJECT LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

No. PACE 

Communications and Transit Continued 

630. Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic. 

Washington, December 15, 1943 91 

634. Agreement on the Continuance of Co-ordinated Control of Merchant Ship- 

ping. London, August 5, 1944 129 

6343. Agreement for the Establishment of a Provisional Maritime Consultative 

Council. Washington, October 30, 1946 133 

662. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a European Central Inland 

Transport Organization. London, September 27, 1945 666 

6623. Protocol relating to Traffic on Inland Waterways. London, September 27, 

1945 687 

Courts 

654. Statute of the International Court of Justice. San Francisco, June 26, 

1945 5io 

6543. Rules of the International Court of Justice. The Hague, May 6, 1946 . . 529 

659. Agreement for the Establishment of an International Military Tribunal. 

London, August 8, 1945 632 

659a. Charter of the International Military Tribunal. London, August 8, 1945 637 

659b. Rules of Procedure of the International Military Tribunal. Nuremberg, 

October 29, 1945 647 

Cultural Relations 

619. Convention on Education in Central America. San Jos6, September 5, 

1942 28 

620. Convention on the Practice of Liberal Professions. San Jose, September 5, 

1942 33 

626. Convention on the Inter-American University. Panama, October 4, 1943 61 
626a. Statute of the Inter- American University. Panama, October 4, 1943 ... 66 
6soa. Cultural Treaty between Arab States. Cairo, November 20, 1946 310 

667. Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization. London, November 16, 1945 786 

6673. Agreement between the United Nations and the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization. New York, June 4, 1946 801 

Customs Unions 

635. Convention concerning a Regime of Customs Union. London, September 

5, 1944 135 

6353. Protocol concerning a Regime of Customs Union. The Hague, March 14, 

1947 135 

Education 

619. Convention on Education in Central America. San Jose, September 5, 

1942 28 

626. Convention on the Inter-American University. Panama, October 4, 1943 61 
626a. Statute of the Inter-American University. Panama, October 4, 1943 66 

667. Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization. London, November 16, 1945 786 

667a. Agreement between the United Nations and the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization. New York, June 4, 1946 801 



SUBJECT UST OF INSTRUMENTS Xxix 

No. PAOB 

Europe 

622. Agreement concerning a European Postal and Telecommunications Union. 

Vienna, October 19, 1942 43 

662. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a European Central Inland 

Transport Organization. London, September 27, 1945 666 

Far Bast 

646. Agreement regarding Japan. Yalta, February 1 1, 1945 282 

66ia. Agreement for the Establishment of the Far Eastern Commission and of 

the Allied Council for Japan. Moscow, December 27, 1945 663 

Fisheries 

632. Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. London, February 7, 1944 in 

6323. Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. London, November 26, 1945 "4 

632b. Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Washington, December 2, 

1946 117 

Germany 

651. Act of Military Surrender of Germany. Berlin, May 8, 1945 3** 

652. Declaration regarding the Assumption of Supreme Authority with Respect 

to Germany. Berlin, June 5, 1945 314 

652a. Agreement on Certain Additional Requirements to be Imposed on Ger- 
many. Berlin, September 20, 1945 319 

657. Agreement on the Treatment of Germany. Berlin, August I, 1945 580 

658. Agreement on German Reparations. Berlin, August i, 1945 583 

6s8a. Agreement on Reparation from Germany. Paris, January 14, 1946 585 

658b. Agreement on Allocation of a Reparation Share to Non-repatriable Victims 

of German Action. Paris, June 14, 1946 608 

6580. Accord on Treatment of German-owned Patents. London, July 27, 1946 614 

658c(i) Protocol amending the Accord on German-owned Patents. London, July 

17, 1947 618 

65 8d. Agreement on Conflicting Claims to German Enemy Assets. Brussels, 

December 5, 1947 620 

Health 

643. International Sanitary Convention. Washington, December 15, 1944. . . 236 

6433. Protocol to Prolong the Duration of the International Sanitary Convention 

of 1944. Washington, April 23, 1946 251 

644. International Sanitary Convention for Aerial Navigation. Washington, 

December 15, 1944 254 

644a. Protocol to Prolong the Duration of the International Sanitary Convention 

for Aerial Navigation of 1944. Washington, April 23, 1946 272 

Highway Traffic 

623. Agreement concerning the Regulation of International Military Traffic on 

the Emergency Military Highway. San Salvador, December 15, 1942 49 

630. Convention on the Regulation of Inter- American Automotive Traffic. 

Washington, December 15, 1943 91 

Inland Transport 

662. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a European Central Inland 

Transport Organization. London, September 27, 1945 666 



SUBJECT LIST OP INSTRUMENTS 

No. PAGE 

Inland Transport Continued 

66aa. Protocol relating to Traffic on Inland Waterways. London, September 27, 

1945 687 

Insurance 

6 1 8. Agreement concerning the Star Insurance Company at Prague. Berlin, 

August 12, 1942 28 

Inter-American Agreements 

626. Convention on the Inter-American University. Panama, October 4, 1943 61 
626a. Statute of the Inter-American University. Panama, October 4, 1943 ... 66 

630. Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic. 

Washington, December 15, 1943 91 

631. Convention on the Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences. 

Washington, January 15, 1944 101 

647. Act of Chapultepec. Mexico City, March 8, 1945 283 

648. Arrangements concerning the Reorganization, Consolidation, and Strength- 

ening of the Inter- American System. Mexico City, March 8, 1945 .... 290 

663. Inter-American Telecommunications Convention. Rio de Janeiro, 

September 27, 1945 690 

International Organizations 

612. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a Commission on Forests and 

Timber. Berlin, January 23, 1942 5 

614. Memorandum of Agreement on the Production and Marketing of Wheat. 

Washington, April 22, 1942 n 

621. Agreement for the International Control of the Production and Export of 

Tin. London, September 9, 1942 35 

622. Agreement concerning a European Postal and Telecommunications Union. 

Vienna, October 19, 1942 43 

626. Convention on the Inter-American University. Panama, October 4, 1943 61 
626a. Statute of the Inter- American University. Panama, October 4, 1943 ... 66 

629. Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

Washington, November 9, 1943 84 

631. Convention on the Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences. 

Washington, January 15, 1944 IOI 

633. Declaration concerning the Aims and Purposes of the International Labor 

Organization. Philadelphia, May 10, 1944 124 

634. Agreement on the Continuance of Co-ordinated Control of Merchant Ship- 

ping. London, August 5, 1944 129 

6343. Agreement for the Establishment of a Provisional Maritime Consultative 

Council. Washington, October 30, 1946 133 

639. Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation. Chicago, December 

7,1944 157 

640. Convention on International Civil Aviation. Chicago, December 7, 1944 168 

6403. Protocol relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International 

Civil Aviation. Montreal, May 27, 1947 211 

640b. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Civil 

Aviation Organization. Lake Success, September 30, 1946 214 

648. Arrangements concerning the Reorganization, Consolidation, and Strength- 

ening of the Inter- American System. Mexico City, March 8, 1945 .... 290 

649. Agreement for Economic Consultation. Paris, March 20, 1945 297 



SUBJECT LIST OP INSTRUMENTS 

No. PAGE 

650. Pact of the Arab League. Cairo, March 22, 1945 300 

65Oa. Cultural Treaty between Arab States. Cairo, November 20, 1946 310 

653. Charter of the United Nations. San Francisco, June 26, 1945 327 

653a. Interim Arrangements of the United Nations. San Francisco, June 26, 

1945 366 

653b. Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly. Flushing Meadows, Novem- 
ber 17, 1 947 369 

653C. Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council. London, January 

17,1946 400 

653d. Rules of Procedure of the Economic and Social Council. Lake Success, 

March 18, 1949 41 1 

6530. Rules of Procedure of the Trusteeship Council. Lake Success, April 23, 

1947 428 

653f. Regulations concerning Registration and Publication of Treaties. Flush- 
ing Meadows, December 14, 1946 ... 448 

653g. Provisional Financial Regulations of the United Nations. Flushing 

Meadows, November 20, 1947 ... . .... . 455 

653h. Staff Rules of the United Nations. May 13, 1948 464 

6531. Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. 

London, February 13, 1946 499 

654. Statute of the International Court of Justice. San Francisco, June 26, 

1945.. 510 

654a. Rules of the International Court of Justice. The Hague, May 6, 1946. . . 529 

656. Agreement for the Establishment of the Council of Foreign Ministers. 

Berlin, August i, 1945 . 577 

66 1 a. Agreement for the Establishment of the Far Eastern Commission and of 

the Allied Council for Japan. Moscow, December 27, 1945 663 

662. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a European Central Inland 

Transport Organization. London, September 27, 1945 666 

663. Inter- American Telecommunications Convention. Rio de Janeiro, 

September 27, 1945 690 

664. Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 

Nations. Quebec, October 16, 1945 713 

6643. Agreement between the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture 

Organ iza don. New York, June 10, 1946 730 

665. Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International 

Labor Organization. Paris, November 5, 1945 743 

6653. Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International 

Labor Organization. Montreal, October 9, 1946 749 

665b. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Labor 

Organization. New York, May 30, 1946 .... 771 

666. Declaration on Atomic Energy. Washington, November 15, 1945 783 

667. Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization. London, November 16, 1945 786 

667a. Agreement between the United Nations and the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization. New York, June 4, 1946. 80 1 

669. Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund. Washington, 

December 27, 1945 820 

660*. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Monetary 

Fund. New York, August 15, 1947 882 



XXXli SUBJECT LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 

No. PAGE 

International Organizations Continued 

670. Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development. Washington, December 27, 1945 889 

6joa Agreement between the United Nations and the International Bank for 

Reconstruction and Development. New York, August 15, 1947 933 

Japan 

646. Agreement regarding Japan. Yalta, February n, 1945 282 

66 1. Instrument of Surrender by Japan. Tokyo Bay, September 2, 1945 661 

66ia. Agreement for the Establishment of the Far Eastern Commission and of 

the Allied Council for Japan. Moscow, December 27, 1945 663 

Labor 

633. Declaration concerning the Aims and Purposes of the International Labor 

Organization. Philadelphia, May 10, 1944 "4 

665. Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International 

Labor Organization. Paris, November 5, 1945 743 

6653. Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International 

Labor Organization. Montreal, October 9, 1946 749 

665b. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Labor 

Organization. New York, May 30, 1946 771 

Legal Questions (Special) 

615. Agreement concerning the Division of the Property of the "Former" 

Yugoslav State. Berlin, July 22, 1942 23 

617. Treaty concerning the Reorganization of the Danube-Sava- Adriatic 

Railway Company. Brioni, August 10, 1942 27 

618. Agreement concerning the Star Insurance Company at Prague. Berlin, 

August 12, 1942 28 

624. Inter-Allied Declaration against Acts of Dispossession Committed in Terri- 
tories under Enemy Occupation or Control. London, January 5, 1943 49 

653f. Regulations concerning Registration and Publication of Treaties. Flush- 
ing Meadows, December 14, 1946 448 

6531. Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. 

London, February 13, 1946 499 

658c. Accord on Treatment of German-owned Patents. London, July 27, 1946 614 

658c(i). Protocol amending the Accord on German-owned Patents. London, July 

17, 1947 618 

Liberal Professions 

620. Convention on the Practice of Liberal Professions. San Jos, September 

5,194^ 33 

Maritime Law 

632. Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. London, February 7, 1944 1 1 1 

632a. Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. London, November 26, 1945 ... 114 

632b. Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Washington, December 2, 

1946 "7 

634. Agreement on the Continuance of Co-ordinated Control of Merchant Ship- 

ping. London, August 5, 1944 129 

6348. Agreement for the Establishment of a Provisional Maritime Consultative 

Council. Washington, October 30, 1946 133 



SUBJECT LIST OF INSTRUMENTS XXXiii 

No. PAGB 

Monetary Questions 

627. Monetary Convention. London, October 21, 1943 75 

669. Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, Washington, 

December 27, 1945 820 

6693. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Monetary 

Fund. New York, August 15, 1947 882 

Patents 

658c. Accord on Treatment of German-owned Patents. London, July 27, 1946 614 

658c(i). Protocol amending the Accord on German-owned Patents. London, July 

17, 1947 .618 

Political Relations 

6n. Declaration by United Nations. Washington, January i, 1942 . . . i 

6na. Atlantic Charter. August 14, 1941 3 

613. Treaty of Alliance. Tehran, January 29, 19^2 7 

628. Declaration on General Security. Moscow, October 30, 1943 82 

646. Agreement regarding Japan. Yalta, February n, 1945 .. . 282 

647. Act of Chapullepec. Mexico City, March 8, 1945 283 

648. Arrangements concerning the Reorganization, Consolidation, and Strength- 

ening of the Inter- American System. Mexico City, March 8, 1945. . 290 

650. Pact of the Arab League. Cairo, March 22, 1945 300 

652. Declaration regarding the Assumption of Supreme Authority with respect 

to Germany. Berlin, June 5, 1945 314 

6523. Agreement on Certain Additional Requirements to be Imposed on Ger- 
many. Berlin, September 20, 1945 319 

653. Charter of the United Nations. San Francisco, June 26, 1945 327 

655. Agreement on Control Machinery in Austria. London, July 4, 1945. . 558 
6 55a. Agreement on Zones of Occupation in Austria. London, July 9, 1945. . . 564 
655b. Agreement on the Machinery of Control in Austria. Vienna, June 28, 1946 567 

656. Agreement for the Establishment of the Council of Foreign Ministers. 

Berlin, August i, 1945 577 

657. Agreement on the Treatment of Germany. Berlin, August i, 1945 580 

Posts 

622. Agreement concerning a European Postal and Telecommunications Union. 

Vienna, October 19, 1942 43 

Property 

615. Agreement concerning the Division of the Property of the "Former" 

Yugoslav State. Berlin, July 22, 1942 23 

624. Inter-Allied Declaration against Acts of Dispossession Committed in Ter- 
ritories under Enemy Occupation or Control. London, January 5, 1943 49 

6s8d. Agreement on Conflicting Claims to German Enemy Assets. Brussels, 

December 5, 1947 620 

Railways 

617. Treaty concerning the Reorganization of the Danube-Sava-Adriatic Rail- 
way Company. Brioni, August 10, 1942 27 



XXXIV 



SUBJECT UST OF INSTRUMENTS 



No. 
Reconstruction 

629. Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 
Washington, November 9, 1943 

670. Articles of Agreement on the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development. Washington, December 27, 1945 



670a. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Bank for 



Reconstruction and Development. New York, August 15, 1947 



Relief 



629. Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 
Washington, November 9, 1943 

Reparations 

658. Agreement on German Reparations. Berlin, August I, 1945 

6583. Agreement on Reparation from Germany. Paris, January 14, 1946. . 

658b. Agreement on Allocation of a Reparation Share to Non-repatriable Victims 
of German Action. Paris, June 14, 1946 ... 



PAGE 

84 
889 
933 

84 

583 
585 

608 



6s8c. Accord on Treatment of German-owned Patents. London, July 27, 1946 614 
6s8c(i). Protocol amending the Accord on German-owned Patents. London, July 



17, 1947 .... 

6s8d. Agreement on Conflicting Claims to German Enemy Assets. Brussels, 
December 5, 1947 

Rivers 

662a. Protocol relating to Traffic on Inland Waterways. London, September 



27, 1945 



Shipping 

634. Agreement on the Continuance of Co-ordinated Control of Merchant 
Shipping. London, August 5, 1944 .... . . 

6343. Agreement for the Establishment of a Provisional Maritime Consultative 



Council. Washington, October 30, 1946 



618 



620 



687 



129 



133 



Sugar 



616. Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Production 
and Marketing of Sugar. London, July 22, 1942 . . 

6i6a. Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Production 
and Marketing of Sugar. London, August 31, 1944 



Tangier 
660. 



Agreement for the Re-establishment of the International Administration of 
Tangier. Paris, August 31, 1945 .... 



Telecommunications 

622. Agreement concerning a European Postal and Telecommunications Union. 
Vienna, October 19, 1942 . ... 

663. Inter-American Telecommunications Convention. Rio de Janeiro, Sep- 
tember 27, 1945. . . . ... .... 



Timber 



653 



43 

690 
668. Agreement concerning Telecommunications. Bermuda, December 4, 1945 815 



612. Agreement concerning the Establishment of a Commission on Forests and 

Timber. Berlin, January 23, 1942 5 



SUBJECT LIST OF INSTRUMENTS XXXV 

No. PAGE 

Tin 

621. Agreement for the International Control of the Production and Export of 

Tin. London, September 9, 1942 35 

United Nations 

611. Declaration by United Nations. Washington, January I, 1942 i 

629. Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

Washington, November 9, 1943 84 

640. Convention on International Civil Aviation. Chicago, December 7, 1944 168 

6403. Protocol relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International 

Civil Aviation. Montreal, May 27, 1947 21 1 

64ob. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization. Lake Success, September 30, 1946 214 

653. Charter of the United Nations. San Francisco, June 26, 1945 . . . 327 
6533. Interim Arrangements of the United Nations. San Francisco, June 26, 

1945 . 366 

653b. Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly. Flushing Meadows, Novem- 
ber 17, 1947 369 

653C. Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council. London, January 

17, 1946 . 400 

653d. Rules of Procedure of the Economic and Social Council. Lake Success, 

March 18, 1949 411 

6536. Rules of Procedure of the Trusteeship Council. Lake Success, April 23, 

1947 . 428 

653f. Regulations concerning Registration and Publication of Treaties. Flush- 
ing Meadows, December 14, 1946 . . . 448 

653g. Provisional Financial Regulations of the United Nations. Flushing 

Meadows, November 20, 1947 . .... 455 

653h. Staff Rules of the United Nations. May 13, 1948. . 464 

653i- Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. 

London, February 13, 1946 . ... . 499 

654. Statute of the International Court of Justice. San Francisco, June 26, 

1945 . - . ..510 

6543. Rules of the International Court of Justice. The Hague, May 6, 1946. . 529 

664. Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 

Nations. Quebec, October 16, 1945 . ... . .713 

6643. Agreement between the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture 

Organization. New York, June 10, 1946 .... . 730 

665. Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International 

Labor Organization. Paris, November 5, 1945 743 

665a. Instrument for the Amendment of the Constitution of the International 

Labor Organization. Montreal, October 9, 1946 . . . ... 749 

66sb. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Labor 

Organization. New York, May 30, 1946 ... . . . . . . 771 

666. Declaration on Atomic Energy. Washington, November 15, 1945 . . 783 

667. Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization. London, November 16, 1945 786 

6673. Agreement between the United Nations and the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization. New York, June 4, 1946 801 

669. Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund. Washington, 

December 27, 1945 820 



XXXVI 



SUBJECT LIST OF INSTRUMENTS 



No. PAGE 

United Nations Continued 

669a. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Monetary 

Fund. New York, August 15, 1947 882 

670. Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development. Washington, December 27, 1945 889 

670a. Agreement between the United Nations and the International Bank for 

Reconstruction and Development. New York, August 15, 1947 933 

War Crimes 

659. Agreement for the Establishment of an International Military Tribunal. 

London, August 8, 1945 632 

659a. Charter of the International Military Tribunal. London, August 8, 1945 637 

659b. Rules of Procedure of the International Military Tribunal. Nuremberg, 

October 29, 1945 647 

Whaling 

632. Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. London, February 7, 1944 in 

632a. Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. London, November 26, 1945. . . 114 
632b. Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Washington, December 2, 

J946 "7 

Wheat 

614. Memorandum of Agreement on the Production and Marketing of Wheat. 

Washington, April 22, 1942 1 1 



No. 611 

DECLARATION by United Nations. Opened for signature at Wash- 
ington, January i, 1942. 

DECLARATION des Nations Unies. Ouverte & la signature & Wash- 
ington, i Janvier 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Declaration established a basis for cooperation between the na- 
tions united against the Axis states in World War II. A resolution on mutual assistance 
had been adopted at the Inter-Allied Meeting at London, June 12, 1941. Br. Parl. Papers, 
Misc. No. i (1941), Cmd. 6285, p. 15. For the text of the Atlantic Charter of August 14, 

1941, referred to in the preamble to this Declaration, see No. 6na, post; for the text of the 
Tripartite Pact of September 27, 1940, see No. 591, ante. The Charter of the United Na- 
tions was adopted at San Francisco, June 26, 1945 (No. 653, post). 

ACCESSIONS. On May i, 1945, this Declaration had been acceded to and signed by 
Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, 
Liberia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Uruguay, and 
Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Declaration is also published in U.S. Executive Agree- 
ment Series, No. 236; British Treaty Series, No. 5 (1942), Cmd. 6388; Canada, Treaty Series, 

1942, No. i; 36 Am. Jour. Int. Law (Supp., 1942), p. 191; i Soviet Foreign Policy During 
the Patriotic War: Documents and Materials, p. 1 14; 1 1 Zeitschrift fur auslandisches offentliches 
Recht und Volkerrecht (1943), p. 547. For a Spanish translation, see Panama, Memoria del 
Mimsterio de Relaciones Exteriores, 1943, p. 652; 2 Revista peruana de derecho internacwnal 
(1942), P- 559- 

A. A. Berle, Jr., " United Nations and United Peoples," 6 U.S. Department of State Bulletin 

(1942), pp. 203-5; H. Bonnet, The United Nations (Chicago, 1942), 100 pp.; , United 

Nations on the Way (Chicago, 1942), 170 pp.; G. B. Huszar, "The United Nations in War 
and Peace," 106 World Affairs (1943), pp. 98-104; C. Savage, "The Concept of the United 
Nations," 12 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1945), pp. 504-6; R. E. Sherwood, Roosevelt 
and Hopkins (New York, 1948), pp. 446-53; P. S. Wild, Jr., "Machinery of Collaboration 
between the United Nations," 18 Foreign Policy Reports (1942), pp. 94-108. 

Entered into force January i, 1942.' 
Text and translation from 204 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 381. 

[Trad uct ion] 
The Governments signatory hereto, Les gouvernements signataires de 

la prsente Declaration, 

Having subscribed to a common Ayant souscrit & un programme 
programme of purposes and princi- commun de buts et de principes 
pies embodied in the Joint Declara- nonc dans la Declaration conjointe 
tion of the President of the United du President des Etats-Unis d'Am6- 
States of America and the Prime rique et du Premier Ministre du 
Minister of the United Kingdom of Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne 
1 Registered with the Secretariat of the League of Nations, No. 4817, October 29, 1942. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 611 



Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
dated August I4th, 1941, known as 
the Atlantic Charter, 

Being convinced that complete 
victory over their enemies is essen- 
tial to defend life, liberty, independ- 
ence and religious freedom, and to 
preserve human rights and justice in 
their own lands as well as in other 
lands, and that they are now en- 
gaged in a common struggle against 
savage and brutal forces seeking to 
subjugate the world, declare: 



(1) Each Government pledges it- 
self to employ its full resources, mili- 
tary or economic, against those mem- 
bers of the Tripartite Pact and its 
adherents with which such Govern- 
ment is at war. 

(2) Each Government pledges it- 
self to co-operate with the Govern- 
ments signatory hereto and not to 
make a separate armistice or peace 
with the enemies. 

The foregoing declaration may be 
adhered to by other nations which 
are, or which may be, rendering ma- 
terial assistance and contributions in 
the struggle for victory over Hitler- 
ism. 

DONE at Washington, the 1st 
January, 1942. 



et d'Irlande du Nord, en date du 14 
aoflt 1941, connue sous le nom de 
"Charte de 1'Atlantique", 

Convaincus qu'une victoire com- 
pile sur leurs ennemis est essentielle 
pour d6fendre la vie, la Iibert6, 1'in- 
dpendance et la Iibert6 de con- 
science et pour preserver les droits 
humains et la justice dans leurs 
propres territoires, ainsi que dans les 
autres, et qu'ils sont actuellement 
engages dans une lutte commune 
contre des forces sauvages et bru- 
tales qui cherchent & subjuguer le 
monde, d6clarent: 

1) Chaque gouvernement s'engage 
& utiliser toutes ses ressources, mili- 
taires ou 6conomiques, contre les 
membres du Pacte tripartite et ses 
adherents avec lesquels ce gouverne- 
ment est en guerre. 

2) Chaque gouvernement s'engage 
& cooprer avec les gouvernements 
signataires de la prsente Dclara- 
tion et & ne pas conclure d'armistice 
ou de paix spars avec les ennemis. 

La Declaration qui prcde est 
ouverte & Tadh6sion des autres na- 
tions qui fournissent ou peuvent 
fournir une assistance et des con- 
tributions matrielles dans la lutte 
pour la victoire sur I'hitterisme. 

FAIT Washington, le i or Janvier 
1942. 



[Signed:] The United States of America, by FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT; 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, by WINSTON S. 
CHURCHILL; on behalf of the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, MAXIM LITVINOV, Ambassador; National Government of the 
Republic of China, TsE-yuNG SOONG, Minister for Foreign Affairs; the 
Commonwealth of Australia, by R. G. CASEY; the Kingdom of Belgium, by 
Cte. R. v. STRATEN; Canada, by LEIGHTON MCCARTHY; the Republic of 
Costa Rica, by Luis FERNANDEZ; the Republic of Cuba, by AURELIO F. 
CONCHESO; Czecho-Slovak Republic, by V. S. HURBAN; the Dominican 
Republic, by J. M. TRONCOSO; the Republic of El Salvador, by C. A. ALFARO; 
the Kingdom of Greece, by CIMON G. DIAMANTOPOULOS; the Republic of 
Guatemala, by ENRIQUE LOPEZ-HERRARTE; La Republique d'Haiti, par 
FERNAND DENNIS; the Republic of Honduras, by JULIAN R. CACERES; 
India, by GIRJA SHANKAR BAJPAI; the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg, by 
HUGUES LE GALLAIS; the Kingdom of the Netherlands, by A. LOUDON; 
signed on behalf of the Government of the Dominion of New Zealand, by 
FRANK LANGSTONE; the Republic of Nicaragua, by L6oN DE BAYLE; the 
Kingdom of Norway, by W. MUNTHE MORGENSTIERNE; the Republic of 



Aug. 14, 1941 ATLANTIC CHARTER 3 

Panamd, by JAN GUARDIA ; the Republic of Poland, by JAN CIECHANOWSKI ; 
the Union of South Africa, by RALPH W. CLOSE ; the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 

by CONSTANTIN A. FOTITCH. 



No. 611a 

Atlantic Charter. Published August 14, 1941. 
Charte de I'Atiantique. Rendue publique le 14 aofit 1941. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This instrument, drawn up by the President of the United States and 
the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on August 12, 1941, on board U.S.S. Augusta, 
was published on August 14, 1941. It was adhered to by ten governments represented at 
an Inter- Allied Conference in London on September 24, 1941. Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. 
No. 3 (1941), Cmd. 6315, pp. 6-16. A resolution approving the Atlantic Charter was 
adopted at the Third Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics 
at Rio de Janeiro, January 28, 1942. Pan American Union, Congress and Conference Series, 
No. 36, p. 58. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of the Atlantic Charter is also published in Br. Parl. Papers, 
United States No. 3 (1941), Cmd. 6321; 5 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1941), p. 125. 
For a Spanish translation, see 145 Peru, Boletin del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (1941), 
p. 269. 

E. de Althaus, "Apuntes sobre la Carta del Atlantico," 2 Revista peruana de derecho 
international (1942), pp. 497-514; W. Arnold-Forster, Charters of Peace A Commentary 
on the Atlantic Charter and the Declarations of Moscow, Cairo, and Teheran (London, 1944), 

138 pp.; "The Atlantic Charter," 13 Political Quarterly (1942), pp. 144-59; J. F. 

Dulles, Long Range Peace Objectives Including an Analysis of the Roosevelt-Churchill Eight 
Point Declaration (New York, 1941), 29 pp.; C. Eagleton, "The Atlantic Charter," 7 New 
Commonwealth Quarterly (1941), pp. 172-82; A. Giannini, "La cabala degli otto punti," 9 
Rivista di studi politici internazionali (1942), pp. 149-78; J. E. Johnsen, Eight Points of Post- 
War Reorganization (New York, 1942), 126 pp.; V. Kybal, "The Atlantic Charter," 12 World 
Affairs Interpreter (1942), pp. 367-81; E. Reves, "Atlantic Charter and Beyond," 6 Public 
Affairs (1943), pp. 125-32; H. L. Samuel, "Thoughts on the Atlantic Charter," 161 Con- 
temporary Review (1942), pp. 1-8; B. E. Schmitt, "Roosevelt-Churchill Declaration and the 
Terms of a Future Peace," 6 Social Education (1942), pp. 58-65; R. E. Sherwood, Roosevelt 
and Hopkins (New York, 1948), pp. 359-63; W. Stephan, " Atlantik-Charta und Beveridge- 
Plan," 10 Auswartige Politik (1943), pp. 376-80; I. Stoepel, "Die Atlantik-Charta eine 
Garantie fur die Baltischen Staaten," idem, pp. 451-55; J. Stone, The Atlantic Charter 
(Sydney, 1943), 245 pp.; 2d ed. (Sydney, 1945)* 9$ PP-; J- Sulkowski, "The Atlantic Charter 
and the Principle of Self -Determination," 2 New Europe (1942), pp. 262-68; G. Turbay, 
"Atlantic Charter," 76 Bulletin of the Pan American Union (1942), pp. 324-27; U.S. Library 
of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, The Atlantic Charter Symbol of United Democracy 
(Washington, 1942), 30 pp.; S. Welles, Where Are We Heading (New York, 1946), pp. 4-18. 

Entered into force August 14, 194Z. 1 

Text and translation from 204 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 384. 

[Traduction] 

The President of the United States Le President des Etats-Unis d' 

of America and the Prime Minister, Am6rique et le Premier Ministre, 

1 Registered with the Secretariat of the League of Nations, under No. 481 7, October 29, 1942. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6na 



Mr. Churchill, representing His Maj- 
esty's Government in the United 
Kingdom, being met together, deem 
it right to make known certain com- 
mon principles in the national poli- 
cies of their respective countries on 
which they base their hopes for a 
better future for the world. 

First, their countries seek no ag- 
grandizement, territorial or other; 

Second, they desire to see no terri- 
torial changes that do not accord 
with the freely expressed wishes of 
the peoples concerned ; 

Third, they respect the right of all 
peoples to choose the form of govern- 
ment under which they will live; and 
they wish to see sovereign rights and 
self-government restored to those 
who have been forcibly deprived of 
them; 

Fourth, they will endeavour, with 
due respect for their existing obliga- 
tions, to further the enjoyment by 
all States, great or small, victor or 
vanquished, of access, on equal 
terms, to the trade and to the raw 
materials of the world which are 
needed for their economic prosperity; 

Fifth, they desire to bring about 
the fullest collaboration between all 
nations in the economic field with the 
object of securing, for all, improved 
labour standards, economic advance- 
ment, and social security; 

Sixth, after the final destruction of 
the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see 
established a peace which will af- 
ford to all nations the means of 
dwelling in safety within their own 
boundaries, and which will afford 
assurance that all the men in all the 
lands may live out their lives in 
freedom from fear and want; 

Seventh, such a peace should ena- 
ble all men to traverse the high seas 
and oceans without hindrance; 

Eighth, they believe that all of the 
nations of the world, for realistic as 



M. Churchill, repr6sentant le Gou- 
vernement de Si MajestS dans le 
Royaume-Uni, s'tant r6unis, esti- 
ment devoir faire connattre certains 
principes communs & la politique 
nationale de leurs pays respectifs et 
sur lesquels ils fondent leurs espoirs 
d'un avenir meilleur pour le monde. 

Premi&rement, leurs pays ne re- 
cherchent aucun agrandissement, 
territorial ou autre; 

Deuxtemement, ils d6sirent ne voir 
aucun changement territorial qui ne 
soit pas conforme aux voeux libre- 
ment exprims des peuples interests; 

Troisi&mement, ils respectent b 
droit de tous les peuples de choisir 
la forme de gouvernement sous la- 
quelle ils veulent vivre; et ils de- 
sirent voir restaurer les droits sou- 
verains et 1'autonomie ceux qui 
en ont t prives par la force; 

Quatri&mement, ils s'efforceront, 
tout en respectant leurs obligations 
existantes, de favoriscr pour tous les 
Etats, grands ou petits, vainqueurs 
ou vaincus, l'accs, sur un pied 
dYgalit6, au commerce et aux mati- 
6res premieres du monde qui sont 
ncessaires leur prosp6rite 6cono- 
mique; 

Cinquimement, ils dsirent rali- 
ser la collaboration la plus complete 
entre toutes les nations dans le do- 
maine 6conomique en vue d'assurer, 
pour toutes, une amelioration des 
conditions de travail, le progr&s 
6conomique, et la s6curite sociale; 

Sixi&mement, apr6s la destruction 
definitive de la tyrannic nazie, ils 
esp&rent voir s'tablir une paix qui 
fournira toutes les nations les 
moyens de demeurer en sflret6 dans 
leurs propres frontteres, et qui don- 
nera 1'assurance que tous les hommes, 
dans tous les pays, pourront vivre 
Iib6r6s de la crainte et du besoin; 

Septtemement, une telle paix de- 
vrait permettre tous les hommes de 
traverser sans entraves les mers et les 
oceans; 

Huittemement, ilscroient que, pour 
des raisons pratiques aussi bien que 



Jan. 23, 1942 COMMISSION ON FORESTS AND TIMBER 5 

well as spiritual reasons, must come spirituelles, toutes les nations du 
to the abandonment of the use of monde doivent en arriver & renoncer 
force. Since no future peace can be 1'emploi de la force. Etant donn6 
maintained if land, sea or air arma- qu'aucune paix future ne pourra 
ments continue to be employed by tre maintenue si les armements 
nations which threaten, or may terrestres, navals ou a6riens con- 
threaten, aggression outside of their tinuent tre utilises par des nations 
frontiers, they believe, pending the qui menacent, ou peuvent menacer, 
establishment of a wider and perma- d'agression en dehors de leurs fron- 
nent system of general security, that ti&res, ils croient que, en attendant 
the disarmament of such nations is I'^tablissement d'un systme de s6- 
essential. They will likewise aid curit gn6rale plus large et perma- 
and encourage all other practicable nent, le disarmament de ces nations 
measures which will lighten for peace- est essentiel. Ils favoriseront et en- 
loving peoples the crushing burden courageront 6galement toutes les 
of armaments. autres mesures praticables qui all- 

geront, pour les peuples pacifiques, 
l'crasant fardeau des armements. 



No. 612 

AGREEMENT concerning the Establishment of a Commission on 
Forests and Timber. Signed at Berlin, January 23, 1942. 

ACCORD concernant restitution d'une Commission sur les ques- 
tions forestieres et du bois. Signe & Berlin, 23 Janvier 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. The problems of forestry and timber were dealt with by unofficial and 
official conferences at Bratislava in 1923, at Lyons in 1924, at Rome in 1926, at Bratislava 
in 1929, at Paris and Warsaw in 1931, at Vienna and Nancy in 1932, at Berlin in 1933, at 
Vienna in 1934, at Paris and Copenhagen in 1935, at London and Budapest in 1936, at Paris 
and Stockholm in 1937, at Brussels in 1938. A meeting of timber experts was held at 
Geneva, April 25-27, 1932, under the auspices of the League of Nations. League of Nations 
Document, C.493.M. 239.1932.11.6.6. See also the report on timber statistics of the League 
of Nations Committee of Statistical Experts of 1938. Idem, C.226.M. 128.1938.11^.15. 
An International Timber Committee (Comit6 international du Bois), established by the 
Vienna Conference of 1932, took an active part in the preparation of the later conferences. 
On March 22, 1938, the International Institute of Agriculture established a Centre inter- 
national de Sylviculture at Berlin; for the statute and regulations of the Center, see Institut 
international d' Agriculture, Comit6 permanent, Proccs-verbaux, 1938, pp. 34-38, 185-92. 
An International Timber Conference was held at Marianske Lazne, April 28-May 10, 1947, 
under the auspices of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. A European 
Forestry Office of the Food and Agriculture Organization was established at Geneva in 
November 1947. 

RATIFICATIONS. On January i, 1945, ratifications of or accessions to this Agreement 
had been deposited at Berlin by Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, 
Italy, Rumania, Slovakia, and Sweden. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is also published in 39 Martens, N.R.G. (3d 
ser.), p. 717. 

G. Golay, "Les origines, les buts et les formes de la collaboration Internationale en raatiere 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 612 



forestiere," 2 Intersylva (1942), pp. 376-87. On the background of this Agreement, see 
Anon., "The International Organization of the Timber Market," 6 World Trade (1934). 
No. 8, p. 5; Anon., "Organizing the World Timber Market," 7 idem (1935), No. I, p. 6; 
Anon., "European Timber Export Convention," 8 idem (1936), No. 2, p. 2; F. Arcoleo, 
"The Organization of the International Timber Market," 27 International Review of Agri- 
culture (1936), pp. 41-49; E. Glesinger, Le bois en Europe (Paris, 1932), pp. 55-240; H. R. G. 
Greaves, Raw Materials and International Control (London, 1936), pp. 93-98; W. Parch- 
mann, "Europaische Forstwirtschaft als Vorbild kontinentaler Marktregelung," Jahrbuch 
der Gesettschaft fur europdische Wirtschaftsplannung (Dresden, 1941), pp. 25-30; E. Staley, 
Raw Materials in Peace and War (New York, 1937), pp. 315-16. 

Entered into force April 9, 1942. 

Text from German Reichsgesetzblatt, 1942, Part II, p. 220. 



Die Koniglich Danische Regie- 
rung, die Deutsche Regierung, die 
Finnische Regierung und die Konig- 
lich Schwedische Regierung, von 
dem Wunsche geleitet, gemeinsam 
liber forst- und holzwirtschaf tliche und 
-wissenschaftliche Fragen zu beraten 
und die Voraussetzungen fur den 
geordneten Austausch der Holz- 
(iberschusse zu untersuchen, haben 
sich geeinigt, ein Abkommen iiber die 
Einsetzung einer gemeinsamen Forst- 
und Holzkommission zu treffen, und 
haben zu diesem Zweck zu ihren 
Bevollmachtigten ernannt: l 

Die Koniglich Danische Regie- 
rung: Otto Carl Mohr; 

Die Deutsche Regierung: Emil 
Wiehl und Willi Parchmann; 

Die Finnische Regierung: Toivo 
Mikael Kivimaki; 

Die Koniglich Schwedische Regie- 
rung: Arvid Richert. 

Die Bevollmachtigten haben nach 
Vorlage ihrer in guter und gehoriger 
Form befundenen Vollmachten 
Nachstehendes vereinbart: 

Artikel i. Zur gemeinsamen Be- 
ratung iiber forst- und holzwirt- 
schaftliche und -wissenschaftliche 
Fragen und zur Untersuchung der 
Voraussetzungen fur den geordneten 
Austausch der Holziiberschiisse wird 
eine Kommission eingesetzt, in welche 
jede der vertragschlieBenden Re- 
gierungen einen Vertreter als Mit- 
glied entsendet. 



Die Vertreter konnen zu ihrer 
Untersttitzung Sachverstandige hin- 
zuziehen. 

Art. 2. Die Kommission tagt 
nach Bedarf in den von Fall zu Fall 
zu bestimmenden Landern, deren 
Regierungen diesem Abkommen an- 
gehoren. 

Die Geschaftsstelle der Kommis- 
sion befindet sich in Berlin. 

Die Kosten fur die Entsendung der 
Mitglieder und der Sachverstandigen 
tragt jede Regierung selbst. 

Die Kommission erlaBt eine Ge- 
schaftsordnung. 

Art. 3. Wenn die Kommission 
Vorschlage zu machen hat, so wird 
sie diese den von den einzelnen 
Landern fur die Durchfiihrung der 
zweiseitigcn Wirtschaftsabkommen 
eingesetzten Regierungsausschussen 
unterbreiten. Die Ausschiisse ent- 
scheiden ubcr die Durchfiihrung 
solcher Vorschlage. 

Art. 4. Es besteht Einverstandnis 
dariiber, daB ein gemeinsames In- 
teresse besteht, den geordneten Aus- 
tausch der Holzuberschiisse auf 
moglichst breiter Grundlage durch- 
zufuhren. Es ist daher erwOnscht, 
daB andere europaische Staaten die- 
sem Abkommen beitreten. 

Der Beitritt wird auf diplomati- 
schem Wege der Deutschen Regierung 
mitgeteilt und wird alsbald nach Nie- 
derlegung der Beitrittsurkunden bei 
der Deutschen Regierung wirksam. 



1 The titles of plenipotentiaries are omitted. ED. 



Jan. 29, 1942 



IRAN: TREATY OF ALLIANCE 



Die Deutsche Regierung teilt den 
Beitritt den Regierungen der an- 
deren Vertragsstaaten mit. 

Art. 5. Ein Vertragsstaat, der 
dieses Abkommen kiindigen will, 
mufl dies der Deutschen Regierung 
mitteilen; diese benachrichtigt un- 
verztiglich die anderen Vertragsstaa- 
ten unter Mitteilung des Tages, an 
welchem sie die Kiindigung erhalten 
hat. 

Die Kiindigung wird fur den kiin- 
digenden Staat erst ein Jahr, nach- 
dem das Kiindigungsschreiben bei 
der Deutschen Regierung eingegan- 
gen ist, wirksam. 

Art. 6. Dieses Abkommen soil so- 
bald als moglich ratifiziert werden 



und tritt in Kraft, sobald samtliche 
Ratifikationsurkunden im Auswarti- 
gen Amt in Berlin niedergelegt wor- 
den sind. 

Art. 7. Das Abkommen wird nur 
in einer Urschrift unterzeichnet, die 
im Archiv des Ausw^rtigen Amts in 
Berlin niedergelegt werden wird. 
Die Deutsche Regierung wird jeder 
der anderen beteiligten Regierungen 
eine beglaubigte Abschrift des Ab- 
kommens auf diplomatischem Wege 
zugehen lassen. 

Zu URKUND DESSEN haben die 
Bevollmachtigten dieses Abkommen 
unterzeichnet. 

Geschehen zu Berlin am 23. Jan- 
uar 1942. 



[Unterzeichnet:] Fur die Koniglich Danische Regierung: O. C. MOHR; 
fur die Deutsche Regierung: WIEHL, PARCHMANN; fur die Finnische Regie- 
rung: T. M. KIVIMAKI; fur die Koniglich Schwedische Regierung: ARVID 
RICHERT. 



No. 613 

TREATY of Alliance. Signed at Tehran, January 29, 1942. 
TRAITfi d'alliance. Signe a Teheran, 29 Janvier 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. On August 25, 1941, British and Soviet troops entered Iran, and on 
September 9, 1941, the Iranian Government accepted the terms put forward by the British 
and Soviet Governments. The Shah abdicated on September 16, 1941, and was succeeded 
by the Crown Prince Muhammed Riza Pahlevi. A draft of this Treaty was approved by 
the Iranian Parliament on January 26, 1942. A convention regarding the zones of influence 
in Persia was concluded by Great Britain and Russia on August 18/31, 1907. 100 Br. and 
For. St. Papers, p. 555. A treaty of friendship was concluded by the Soviet Union and Iran 
on February 26, 1921 (9 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 384), and a treaty of guarantee 
and neutrality was concluded by them on October I, 1927 (112 idem, p. 292). Cf. also the 
declaration regarding Iran issued by the Tehran Conference on December 6, 1943, 9 C7.5. 
Department of State Bulletin (1943), p. 409. In January and March 1946, the Iranian Gov- 
ernment brought to the attention of the Security Council of the United Nations certain 
alleged breaches of the 1942 Treaty by the Soviet Union. Yearbook of the United Nations, 
1946-1947, pp. 327-36. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Treaty is also published in 6 U.S. Department of State 
Bulletin (1942), p. 249; i Soviet Foreign Policy During the Patriotic War: Documents and 
Materials, p. 127; 36 Am. Jour. Int. Law (Supp., 1942), p. 175. For the background of the 
Treaty, see 13 C. U. Aitchison, A Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sanaa's relating 
to India and Neighbouring Countries (Calcutta, 1933), pp. iii-clxix, 1-201. 

G. M. Coombs, "The Background of the Russo- Persian Dispute/' 169 Contemporary 



8 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 613 



Review (1946), pp. 152-55; W. S. Haas, Iran (New York, 1946), 273 pp.; A. H. Hamzavi, 
"Iran and the Tehran Conference," 20 International A/airs (1944), pp. 192-203; --- , 
"Iran's Future Some Lessons from the Past," 31 Royal Central Asian Journal (1944), pp. 
273-80; -- , Persia and the Powers An Account of Diplomatic Relations, 



(London, 1946), 125 pp.; A. K. S. Lambton, "Some of the Problems Facing Persia," 22 
International Affairs (1946), pp. 254-72; W. J. Thompson, "Iran, 1939-1944," 32 Royal 
Central Asian Journal (1945), pp. 34~43 

Entered into force January 29, 1942. 

Text from Br. Parl. Papers, Persia No. I (1942), Cmd. 6335. 



His Majesty The King of Great 
Britain, Ireland and the British Do- 
minions beyond the Seas, Emperor of 
India, and the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics, on the one hand, 
and His Imperial Majesty The Shah- 
inshah of Iran, on the other; 

Having in view the principles of 
the Atlantic Charter jointly agreed 
upon and announced to the world by 
the President of the United States of 
America and the Prime Minister of 
the United Kingdom on the I4th 
August, 1941, and endorsed by the 
Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics on the 24th Sep- 
tember, 1941, with which His Im- 
perial Majesty The Shahinshah de- 
clares his complete agreement and 
from which he wishes to benefit on 
an equal basis with other nations of 
the world ; and 

Being anxious to strengthen the 
bonds of friendship and mutual un- 
derstanding between them; and 

Considering that these objects will 
best be achieved by the conclusion of 
a Treaty of Alliance; 

Have agreed to conclude a treaty 
for this purpose and have appointed 
as their plenipotentiaries; l 

His Majesty The King of Great 
Britain, Ireland and the British Do- 
minions beyond the Seas, Emperor of 
India, 

For the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland, Sir 
Reader William Bullard. 

The Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, Andre Andreewich Smirnov. 



His Imperial Majesty The Shahin- 
shah of Iran, Ali Soheily. 

Who, having communicated their 
full powers, found in good and due 
form, have agreed as follows: 

Article i. His Majesty The King 
of Great Britain, Ireland and the 
British Dominions beyond the Seas, 
Emperor of India, and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics (herein- 
after referred to as the Allied Pow- 
ers) jointly and severally undertake 
to respect the territorial integrity, 
sovereignty and political independ- 
ence of Iran. 

Art. 2. An alliance is established 
between the Allied Powers on the 
one hand and His Imperial Majesty 
The Shahinshah of Iran on the other. 

Art. 3. (i) The Allied Powers 
jointly and severally undertake to 
defend Iran by all means at their 
command from all aggression on 
the part of Germany or any other 
Power. 

(ii) His Imperial Majesty The 
Shahinshah undertakes 

(a) to co-operate with the Allied 
Powers with all the means at his 
command and in every way possible, 
in order that they may be able to 
fulfil the above undertaking. The 
assistance of the Iranian forces shall, 
however, be limited to the mainte- 
nance of internal security on Iranian 
territory; 

(6) to secure to the Allied Powers, 
for the passage of troops or supplies 
from one Allied Power to the other 
or for other similar purposes, the 



1 The titles of plenipotentiaries are omitted. ED. 



Jan. 29, 1942 



IRAN: TREATY OF ALLIANCE 



unrestricted right to use, maintain, 
guard and, in case of military neces- 
sity, control in any way that they 
may require all means of communica- 
tion throughout Iran, including rail- 
ways, roads, rivers, aerodromes, 
ports, pipelines and telephone, tele- 
graph and wireless installations; 

(c) to furnish all possible assist- 
ance and facilities in obtaining ma- 
terial and recruiting labour for the 
purpose of the maintenance and im- 
provement of the means of commu- 
nication referred to in paragraph 

<; 

(d) to establish and maintain, in 
collaboration with the Allied Powers, 
such measures of censorship control 
as they may require for all the means 
of communication referred to in 
paragraph (b). 

(iii) It is clearly understood that 
in the application of paragraph (ii) 
(b) (c) and (d) of the present article 
the Allied Powers will give full con- 
sideration to the essential needs of 
Iran. 

Art. 4. (i) The Allied Powers 
may maintain in Iranian territory 
land, sea and air forces in such num- 
ber as they consider necessary. The 
location of such forces shall be de- 
cided in agreement with the Iranian 
Government so long as the strategic 
situation allows. All questions con- 
cerning the relations between the 
forces of the Allied Powers and the 
Iranian authorities shall be settled 
so far as possible in co-operation with 
the Iranian authorities in such a way 
as to safeguard the security of the 
said forces. It is understood that 
the presence of these forces on Ira- 
nian territory does not constitute a 
military occupation and will disturb 
as little as possible the administra- 
tion and the security forces of Iran, 
the economic life of the country, 
the normal movements of the popula- 
tion and the application of Iranian 
laws and regulations. 

(ii) A separate agreement or agree- 
ments shall be concluded as soon as 



possible after the entry into force of 
the present Treaty regarding any 
financial obligations to be borne by 
the Allied Powers under the provi- 
sions of the present article and of 
paragraphs (ii) (6), (c) and (d) of 
Article 3 above in such matters as 
local purchases, the hiring of build- 
ings and plant, the employment of 
labour, transport charges, &c. A 
special agreement shall be concluded 
between the Allied Governments and 
the Iranian Government defining 
the conditions for any transfers to 
the Iranian Government after the 
war of buildings and other improve- 
ments effected by the Allied Powers 
on Iranian territory. These agree- 
ments shall also settle the immuni- 
ties to be enjoyed by the forces of 
the Allied Powers in Iran. 

Art. 5. The forces of the Allied 
Powers shall be withdrawn from 
Iranian territory not later than six 
months after all hostilities between 
the Allied Powers and Germany and 
her associates have been suspended 
by the conclusion of an armistice or 
armistices, or on the conclusion of 
peace between them, whichever date 
is the earlier. The expression "as- 
sociates" of Germany means all 
other Powers which have engaged or 
may in the future engage in hostili- 
ties against either of the Allied 
Powers. 

Art. 6. (i) The Allied Powers un- 
dertake in their relations with for- 
eign countries not to adopt an atti- 
tude which is prejudicial to the terri- 
torial integrity, sovereignty or po- 
litical independence of Iran, nor to 
conclude treaties inconsistent with 
the provisions of the present Treaty. 
They undertake to consult the Gov- 
ernment of His Imperial Majesty The 
Shahinshah in all matters affecting 
the direct interests of Iran. 

(ii) His Imperial Majesty The 
Shahinshah undertakes not to adopt 
in his relations with foreign countries 
an attitude which is inconsistent 
with the alliance, nor to conclude 



IO 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 613 



treaties inconsistent with the provi- 
sions of the present Treaty. 

Art. 7. The Allied Powers jointly 
undertake to use their best endeav- 
ours to safeguard the economic ex- 
istence of the Iranian people against 
the privations and difficulties arising 
as a result of the present war. On 
the entry into force of the present 
Treaty, discussions shall be opened 
between the Government of Iran 
and the Governments of the Allied 
Powers as to the best possible meth- 
ods of carrying out the above under- 
taking. 

Art. 8. The provisions of the 
present Treaty are equally binding 
as bilateral obligations between His 



Imperial Majesty The Shahinshah 
and each of the two other High 
Contracting Parties. 

Art. 9. The present Treaty shall 
come into force on signature and 
shall remain in force until the date 
fixed for the withdrawal of the forces 
of the Allied Powers from Iranian 
territory in accordance with Article 
5- 1 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the above- 
named plenipotentiaries have signed 
the present Treaty and have affixed 
thereto their seals. 

Done at Tehran in triplicate in 
English, Russian and Persian, all be- 
ing equally authentic, on the 2Qth 
day of January, 1942. 



R. W. BULLARD A. A. SMIRNOV ALI SOHEILY 



ANNEX 1 

Identic Notes addressed to the Iranian Min- 
ister for Foreign Affairs by His Majesty's 
Minister and the Soviet Ambassador. 

With reference to Article 6, paragraph 
(i), of the Treaty of Alliance signed to- 
day, I have the honour, on behalf of His 
Majesty's Government in the United 
Kingdom/the Government of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, to assure 
Your Excellency that my Government 
interpret the provisions of this clause as 
being applicable to any peace conference 
or conferences held at the conclusion of 
the present war, or other general inter- 
national conferences. Consequently they 
consider themselves bound not to approve 
anything at any such conference which is 
prejudicial to the territorial integrity, 
sovereignty or political independence of 
Iran, and not to discuss at any such con- 
ference anything affecting the direct inter- 
ests of Iran without consultation with the 
Government of Iran. 

His Majesty's Government/the Gov- 
ernment of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics will further do their best to 
secure that Iran will be represented on a 
footing of equality in any peace negotia- 
tions directly affecting her interests. 



ANNEX 2 

Identic Notes addressed to His Majesty's 
Minister and the Soviet Ambassador by 
the Iranian Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

With reference to Article 6, paragraph 
(ii), of the Treaty of Alliance signed this 
day, I have the honour, on behalf of the 
Iranian Government, to assure Your Ex- 
cellency that the Iranian Government 
would consider it contrary to their obliga- 
tions under this clause to maintain diplo- 
matic relations vyith any State which is in 
diplomatic relations with neither of the 
Allied Powers. 



ANNEX 3 

Identic Notes addressed to the Iranian 
Minister for Foreign Affairs by His 
Majesty's Minister and the Soviet Am- 
bassador. 

I have the honour, on behalf of His 
Majesty's Government in the United 
Kingdom/the Government of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, to convey to 
Your Excellency the following assurances: 

(i) With reference to Article 3 (ii) (a) 
of the Treaty of Alliance which has been 
signed to-day, the Allied Powers will not 



1 The date was fixed as March 2, 1946. ED. 



April 22, 1942 PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF WHEAT II 

require of Iran the participation of her of any works which the Allied Powers carry 

armed forces in any war or military opera- out for their own military ends and which 

tions against any Foreign Power or are not necessary for the needs of Iran. 
Powers. (3) It is understood that Annex I will 

(2) With reference to Article 4 (ii), it remain in force even if the Treaty ceases 

is understood that there is no provision to be valid, in accordance with the provi- 

in the Treaty which requires that the sions of Article 9, before peace has been 

Iranian Government shall bear the cost concluded. 



No. 614 

MEMORANDUM of Agreement on the Production and Marketing 
of Wheat. Initialed at Washington, April 22, 1942. 

MEMORANDUM de Convenio sobre la production y venta del trigo. 
Inicialado en Washington, 22 de abril de 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. An agreement between four wheat exporting countries, concluded at 
London on June 30, 1933, was followed by an agreement between exporting and importing 
countries, concluded at London on August 25, 1933 (No. 344, ante), which set up a Wheat 
Advisory Committee. The International Wheat Council, established under this Memoran- 
dum, held its first meeting at Washington in August 1942. An amendment, effected June 3, 
1946, deleted paragraphs 5-8 of the Memorandum, and substituted a new paragraph 5 pro- 
viding that the Council should remain in being pending the conclusions of the conference 
referred to in paragraph 3 or until otherwise determined. 7 U.N. Treaty Series, p. 331. 
The conference, which was held at London, March i8-April 23, 1947, reached no conclusive 
results. A new wheat agreement, signed at Washington on March 6, 1948, was not brought 
into force; an agreement signed at Washington on March 23, 1949, was brought into force 
on July I, 1949. Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. No. 6 (1949), Cmd. 7680. 

RATIFICATIONS. All of the contracting governments notified their approval of the 
Memorandum of Agreement by June 27, 1942. In 1946, representatives of Belgium, Brazil. 
China, Denmark, France, India, Italy, and the Netherlands became members of the Inter- 
national Wheat Council. In 1947, twenty-eight other states were invited to be represented 
on the Council. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Memorandum of Agreement is also published in 8 U.N. 
Treaty Series, p. 237. See also Br. Parl. Papers, United States No. 2 (1942), Cmd. 6371; 
Canada, Treaty Series, 1942, No. n; International Labour Office, Intergovernmental Com- 
modity Control Agreements (Montreal, 1943), pp. 10-25; 37 Am. Jour. Int. Law (Supp., 
1943), PP. 24-41. 

Anon., "The International Wheat Agreement and Post-war Relief," 46 Int. Labour Rev. 
(1942), pp. 443-45; G. P. Boals, '"New World' Wheat Agreement," 2 Agriculture in the 
Americas (1942), pp. 148-50; A. Cairns, "International Wheat Agreement," 145 Economist 
(i943) P- 202; E. G. Cale, "International Wheat Conference," 16 U.S. Department of State 

Bulletin (1947), pp. 1053-56; , "Comments on the International Wheat Agreement," 

18 idem (1948), pp. 395-401; , "The International Wheat Agreement of 1949," 20 

idem (1949), pp. 507-1 1; J- S. Davis, "New International Wheat Agreements," 19 Wheat 

Studies of the Food Research Institute (1942), pp. 25-83; , Wheat under International 

Agreement (American Enterprise Association, National Economic Problems, No. 410: New 
York, 1945), 19 pp.; P. de Hevesy, World Wheat Planning and Economic Planning in General 
(London, 1940), 912 pp.; F. A. Linville, "Draft Memorandum of Agreement Prepared for 
International Wheat Conference," 16 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1947), pp. 47*-73; 



12 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 614 



E. S. Mason, Controlling World Trade (New York, 1946), pp. 213-36; U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, The International Wheat Agreement 
(Washington, 1942), 24 pp.; P. L. Yates, Commodity Control (London, 1943), pp. 18-47. 

Entered into force June 27, 1942.* 
Text from U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 384. 



1. Officials of Argentina, Austra- 
lia, Canada and the United States, 
wheat exporting countries, and of the 
United Kingdom, a wheat importing 
country, met in Washington on July 
10, 1041 to resume the wheat discus- 
sions which were interrupted in Lon- 
don by the outbreak of war in Septem- 
ber 1939 and to consider what steps 
might be taken toward a solution of 
the international wheat problem. 

2. The discussions at Washington, 
which extended over a period of 
many months, have made it clear 
that a satisfactory solution of the 
problem requires an international 
wheat agreement and that such an 
agreement requires a conference of 
the nations willing to participate 
which have a substantial interest in 
international trade in wheat. It was 
also recognized that pending the 
holding of such a conference the 
situation should not be allowed to 
deteriorate. The Washington Wheat 
Meeting has recorded the results of 
its deliberations in the attached 
Draft Convention in order to facili- 
tate further international considera- 
tion of the subject at such time as 
may be possible and to provide a 
basis for such interim measures as 
may be found necessary. 

3. The Washington Wheat Meet- 
ing has recognized that it is im- 
practicable to convene at the present 
time the international wheat con- 
ference referred to above. Accord- 
ingly, the five countries present at 
that Meeting have agreed that the 
United States, so soon as after con- 
sultation with other countries it 
deems the time propitious, should 
convene a wheat conference of the 



nations having a substantial interest 
in international trade in wheat which 
are willing to participate, and that 
the Draft Convention above men- 
tioned should be submitted to that 
conference for consideration. 

4. In the meantime there should 
be no delay in the provision of wheat 
for relief in war-stricken and other 
necessitous areas so soon as in the 
view of the five countries circum- 
stances permit. Likewise it is im- 
perative that the absence of control 
measures over the accumulation of 
stocks in the four countries now pro- 
ducing large quantities of wheat for 
markets no longer available should 
not create insoluble problems for a 
future conference. Accordingly, the 
five countries have agreed to regard 
as in effect among themselves, pend- 
ing the conclusions of the conference 
referred to above, those arrange- 
ments described in the attached 
Draft Convention which are neces- 
sary to the administration and dis- 
tribution of the relief pool of wheat 
and to the control of production of 
wheat other than those involving the 
control of exports. 

5. If the conference contemplated 
above shall have met and concluded 
an agreement prior to the cessation 
of hostilities, no further action will 
be needed by the countries repre- 
sented at the Washington Meeting. 
However, if this is not the case, it 
will be necessary, in order to prevent 
disorganization and confusion in in- 
ternational trade in wheat, to insti- 
tute temporary controls pending the 
conclusions of the conference. Ac- 
cordingly the five countries agree 
that in the period following the 



1 Filed with the Secretariat of the United Nations, No. 44, Septembtr 19, 1947. 



April 22, 1942 PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF WHEAT 



cessation of hostilities and pending 
the conclusion of a wheat agreement 
at the conference referred to the ar- 
rangements described in the at- 
tached Draft Convention which re- 
late to the control of production, 
stocks and exports of wheat and to 
the administration thereof will be 
brought into effect among them- 
selves. Those arrangements will 
come into effect on such date as may 
be unanimously agreed. Announce- 
ment of that date will be made 
within six months after the cessation 
of hostilities. 

6. Pending the conclusions of the 
conference contemplated above, the 
five countries, on the cessation of 
hostilities or such earlier date as 
they may agree, will regard as in 
effect among themselves the ar- 
rangements described in the attached 
Draft Convention for the control of 
the prices of wheat. The determina- 
tion of prices required to be made in 
accordance with those arrangements 
will be made by unanimous consent. 
If no determination of prices has 
been made on the cessation of hos- 
tilities, the five countries will, pend- 



ing such determination but for a 
period not exceeding six months, 
maintain as the export price of wheat 
the last price negotiated by the 
United Kingdom for a bulk purchase 
of wheat from the principal country 
of supply: equivalent f.o.b. prices 
will be calculated for wheats of the 
other exporting countries and will 
be adjusted from time to time to 
meet substantial changes in freight 
and exchange rates. 

7. In taking any decisions under 
this Memorandum and the arrange- 
ments of the Draft Convention 
which it brings into operation each 
of the five countries will have one 
vote and a two-thirds majority will 
be required for decision except as 
otherwise provided herein. 

8. The provisions of this Memo- 
randum will be superseded by any 
agreement reached at the proposed 
wheat conference or by any arrange- 
ments which the five countries and 
other interested countries may make 
to deal with the period pending such 
a conference. In any event they 
are to terminate two years from the 
cessation of hostilities. 



[Initialed:] A. M. V., for Argentina; E. McC, for Australia; C. F. W., for 
Canada; H. F. C., for the United Kingdom; L. A. W., for the United States. 
WASHINGTON, April 22, 1942. 



[ANNEX I] 
Draft Convention 



PREAMBLE 



1. The prospects with regard to the 
production and marketing of wheat are 
such that accumulation of wheat surpluses 
threatens to result in grave post-war diffi- 
culties for the economies of the producing 
countries and hence, because of the inter- 
dependence of nations, for the economies 
of all countries. It is also to be expected 
that, unless appropriate action is taken, 
such accumulation will recur. 

2. A solution of the problem thus pre- 
sented must be regarded as an essential 
part of any program of world economic 



reconstruction and will call for coopera- 
tive action by all countries concerned in 
international trade in wheat. It will 
involve national and international meas- 
ures for the regulation of wheat produc- 
tion in both exporting and importing 
countries, for the orderly distribution of 
wheat and flour in domestic and interna- 
tional trade at such prices as are fair to 
consumers and provide a reasonable re- 
muneration to producers and for the 
maintenance of world supplies which shall 
be at all times ample for the needs of 
consumers without being so excessive as 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 614 



to create a world burden of unwanted 
surpluses. 

3. Cooperative action is also necessary 
to meet the need for relief in the war- 
stricken areas of the world by the supply 
and distribution of gifts of wheat. 

4. The benefits of abundant world sup- 
plies of wheat cannot be assured to con- 
sumers unless there is a substantial de- 
crease in uneconomic incentives to high- 
cost production, a lowering of barriers to 
world trade and the charging of prices to 
consumers not substantially higher than 
the price of wheat in international trade. 

. In many countries the standard of 
living would be improved by increasing 
the consumption of wheat through a 
lowering of prices. In all countries the 
standard of living would be improved by 
stimulating the consumption of foods rich 
in vitamins, proteins and minerals. The 
increased production of such foods would 
offer a more valuable use for land which 
has at times been used uneconomically for 
high-cost production of wheat. 

6. Producers of an international com- 
modity such as wheat are directly affected 
by standards of living throughout the 
world, by international purchasing power 
and by prevailing policies and practices 
affecting international trade generally. 
There can be no basic solution of the 
problem of export surpluses without a 
general reduction of import barriers and 
no measure should be taken or maintained 
which has the effect of retarding such 
reduction or of preventing in any way the 
fullest possible development of interna- 
tional trade. 

Accordingly the contracting Govern- 
ments have agreed as follows: 

ARTICLE I. Expansion of Trade 

I. The contracting Governments agree 
that an essential element of a solution of 
the world wheat problem is that con- 
sumers should have the opportunity and 
means of increasing their purchases of 
wheat from areas which are equipped to 
produce it economically. They agree 
that such opportunity and means depend 
not only on the lowering of barriers to the 
importation of wheat but also on making 
available to wheat importing countries 
increased outlets for the exportation of 
goods which they in turn are equipped to 



produce economically. They agree that 
this requires the adoption and pursuit of 
national and international policies aimed 
at a fuller and more efficient use among 
nations of human and natural resources 
and thereby a world -wide expansion of 
purchasing power. 

2. Recognizing therefore that much 
that is called for transcends the scope of 
a wheat agreement and requires action on 
a broad international basis, but that much 
also can be accomplished by national 
measures and by agreements with each 
other and with other countries, the con- 
tracting Governments undertake to fur- 
ther in every way possible the attainment 
of the foregoing objectives. 

3. The Council shall from time to time 
submit to the contracting Governments a 
review of international trade in wheat and 
invite them to consider, in the light of the 
foregoing, what measures may be adopted 
for the expansion of such trade. 

ARTICLE II. Production Control* 

1. The Governments of Argentina, 
Australia, Canada and the United States 
of America shall adopt suitable measures 
to ensure that the production of wheat in 
their territories does not exceed the quan- 
tity needed for domestic requirements and 
the basic export quotas and maximum 
reserve stocks for which provision is here- 
inafter made. 

2. Should nevertheless production in 
any country be found to have exceeded 
in any crop-year the quantity above pre- 
scribed, the Government of that country 
shall before the end of that crop-year take 
such action as will result in the disap- 
pearance of the excess production within 
its territories before the end of the follow- 
ing crop-year or shall otherwise deal with 
such excess production as the Council 
may direct, except that if any part of the 
excess production is shown to the satis- 
faction of the Council to be due to a yield 
above the average of the preceding 20 
years the Government of the country con- 
cerned may carry that part as provided 
in paragraph 3 (a) of Article III or deal 
with it in such other manner as may be 
agreed with the Council. 

3. Pending the coming into force of 
paragraphs I and 2 of this Article, the 
Governments of Argentina, Australia, 



* NOTE: This Article to be expanded, when further international consideration of the subject is 
possible, to include provisions for production control in other exporting countries and in importing 
countries. 



April 22, 1942 PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF WHEAT 



Canada and the United States of America 
shall adopt or maintain positive measures 
to control production with the object of 
minimizing the accumulation of excessive 
stocks. 

ARTICLE III. Stocks 

1. The Governments of Argentina, 
Australia, Canada and the United States 
of America shall, subject to the provisions 
of paragraphs 2, 3, 4 and 5 of this Article, 
ensure that stocks of old wheat held at 
the end of their respective crop years are 
not less than 35, 25, 80 and 150 million 
bushels respectively, and not more than 
130, 80, 275 and 400 million bushels re- 
spectively. Any stocks not in excess of the 
specified maximum are hereinafter called 
"reserve stocks". 

2. Stocks of old wheat in any country 
may be permitted to fall below the speci- 
fied minimum (a) if the new crop together 
with the carry-over from the previous 
crop-year is insufficient to meet domestic 
requirements and leave at the end of that 
crop-year the minimum reserve stocks 
specified, in which case those stocks may 
be reduced by the amount necessary fully 
to meet domestic requirements, and (b) in 
so far as the Council decides that exports 
from the minimum reserve stocks of that 
country are required fully to meet the 
world demand for imported wheat. 

3. Stocks of old wheat may exceed the 
maximum by (a) the quantity of per- 
mitted excess stocks ascertained under 
paragraph 4 of this Article and (b) the 
quantity of permitted surplus stocks as- 
certained under paragraph 5 of this Arti- 
cle. 

4. Such part of excess production in the 
first crop-year in which it occurs following 
the crop-year in which Article IV comes 
into force as may be shown under para- 
graph 2 of Article II to be due to above 
average yields shall be permitted excess 
stocks at the end of that crop-year. The 
permitted excess stocks at the end of each 
succeeding crop-year shall be ascertained 
by the Council by deducting from the 
permitted excess stocks, if any, at the end 
of the preceding crop-year any quantity 
by which production in the crop-year then 
ending was less than the maximum pre- 
scribed in paragraph I of Article II or by 
adding thereto such part of any excess 
production in that crop-year as may be 
shown under paragraph 2 of Article II to 
be due to above average yields. 



5. Stocks in excess of the maximum, as 
ascertained by the Council, at the end of 
the crop-year in which announcement is 
made of the date on which the provisions 
of Articles II, III and IV will come into 
effect shall be permitted surplus stocks, 
unless that announcement is made less 
than 45 days prior to the beginning of the 
seeding period for the next harvest in 
which case stocks in excess of the maxi- 
mum at the end of the succeeding crop- 
year shall be permitted surplus stocks. 
Permitted surplus stocks at the end of 
each succeeding crop-year shall be ascer- 
tained by the Council by deducting from 
the permitted surplus stocks at the end 
of the preceding crop-year (a) any sec- 
ondary or supplementary export quotas 
allocated in the crop-year then ending and 
(b) any quantity by which production in 
that crop-year plus the permitted excess 
stocks at the end of the preceding crop- 
year was less than the maximum produc- 
tion prescribed in paragraph i of Article 
II. 

6. Should it be shown to the satisfac- 
tion of the Council that, owing to insuffi- 
cient or defective storage facilities, any 
part of the permitted surplus stocks in any 
country has been destroyed or has been 
disposed of by governmental measures in 
a manner clearly constituting extraordi- 
nary use such part shall nevertheless be 
counted as permitted surplus stocks for 
the purposes of paragraphs 3 and 4 of 
Article IV so long as any other permitted 
surplus stocks remain in that country. 

7. The Council shall (a) at its regular 
August meeting ascertain the permitted 
surplus stocks in Canada and the United 
States of America at the end of their 
preceding crop-years and estimate such 
stocks in Argentina and Australia at the 
end of their current crop-years, and (b) at 
its regular January meeting ascertain the 
permitted surplus stocks in Argentina and 
Australia at the end of their preceding 
crop-years and estimate such stocks in 
Canada and the United States of America 
at the end of their current crop-years. 

ARTICLE IV. Export Control 
I . The contracting Government of each 
exporting country shall adopt the meas- 
ures necessary to ensure that net exports 
of wheat, including flour expressed in 
terms of its wheat equivalent, from its 
territories in each quota-year shall not, 
subject to the provisions of paragraph n 



16 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 614 



of this Article, exceed the basic, secondary 
and supplementary export quotas for 
which provision is hereinafter made. It 
is recogni/ed in principle that, within the 
framework of this Agreement, wheat from 
each exporting country should continue to 
find its way into its normal markets. 

2. The basic export quotas for Argen- 
tina, Australia, Canada and the United 
States of America shall, subject to the 
provisions of paragraph 3 of this Article, 
be 25, 19, 40 and 16 percent respectively 
of the Council's latest published estimate 
of the total volume of international trade 
in wheat and flour in each quota-year less 
(a) such basic export quotas for other ex- 
porting countries as mav be agreed under 
Article XIV and (b) reasonable allow- 
ances, having due regard to exports in 
past years, for net exports from the terri- 
tories of Governments not parties to the 
Agreement. 

3. Should the residual quantity ascer- 
tained under paragraph 2 of this Article 
exceed 500 million bushels in any quota- 
year, the excess shall be allocated to Ar- 
gentina, Australia, Canada and the 
United States of America as secondary 
export quotas. Allocations made in the 
first half of the quota-year shall be in 
proportion to permitted surplus stocks as 
determined under paragraph 7 (a) of 
Article III and allocations made in the 
second half of the quota-year shall be in 
proportion to permitted surplus stocks as 
determined under paragraph 7 (b) of 
Article III. Should there be no per- 
mitted surplus stocks in any of those four 
countries the excess shall be allocated to 
those countries as secondary export 
quotas in proportion to their basic export 
quotas. 

4. If the Council is satisfied that any 
part of any country's export quota or of 
the allowance made for its exports for any 
quota-year will not be exported by that 
country in that quota-year, it shall, sub- 
ject to the provisions of paragraph 6 of 
this Article, re-allocate that part as sup- 
plementary export quotas to the other 
exporting countries in accordance with 
the procedure prescribed in paragraph 3 
of this Article for the allocation of second- 
ary export quotas. Should there be no 
permitted surplus stocks in any of those 
countries that part shall, unless the Coun- 
cil otherwise decides, be re-allocated as 
supplementary export quotas to those of 
the other exporting countries which have 



percentage export quotas in proportion 
to those quotas. 

5. No decisions taken by the Council 
pursuant to paragraph 4 of this Article 
shall prejudice the right of any country to 
export its full export quota within the 
quota-year to which it relates. 

6. Should it be shown to the satisfac- 
tion of the Council that the failure of any 
country to ship any part of its export 
quota during the first quota-year is due 
to shortage of shipping, the amount of the 
supplementary export quotas allocated to 
other countries in respect of such part 
shall be deducted from the basic export 
quotas of those countries for the second 
quota-year and added to the aforemen- 
tioned country's basic export quota for 
the second quota-year. 

7. No export quota or part thereof 
shall be exported in any quota-year other 
than that to which it relates, except 
as otherwise provided in this Article. 
Should it nevertheless be shown to the 
satisfaction of the Council that, owing to 
unavoidable delay in the arrival or de- 
parture of ships, part of an export quota 
had not been shipped at the end of the 
quota-vear that part may be shipped in 
the following quota-year but shall be 
deemed to have been shipped in the 
quota-vear to which it relates. 

8. No export quota or part thereof 
shall be ceded, transferred or loaned by 
any country except as provided in this 
Article or with the unanimous approval 
of the contracting Governments of export- 
ing countries. 

9. When it appears that any country is 
approaching the limit of its export quota, 
the Chairman of the Council on the rec- 
ommendation of the Executive Commit- 
tee shall request the Government of that 
country to control loadings for export 
during the remainder of the quota-year 
and to telegraph each week to the Council 
the gross exports and gross imports of 
wheat and of wheat flour from and into 
its territories during the preceding week. 

10. When the Chairman of the Council 
after consultation with the Executive 
Committee finds that any country has 
exported its export quota for any quota- 
year he shall immediately make a declara- 
tion to that effect. The contracting Gov- 
ernment of the exporting country con- 
cerned shall thereupon announce that the 
exportation of wheat or flour from its 
territories will not be permitted after 



April 22, 1942 PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF WHEAT 



seven days from the date of the Chair- 
man's declaration and the contracting 
Government of each importing country 
shall not permit the importation into its 
territories of wheat or flour shipped from 
that exporting country during the current 
quota-year more than seven days after 
the date of the Chairman's declaration. 

n. Should it be found that, owing to 
practical difficulties of closely controlling 
shipments, exports from any country have 
exceeded its export quota, that country 
shall not be deemed to have infringed the 
provisions of paragraph I of this Article 
so long as the excess is not more than 5 
percent of the quota, but the amount of 
that excess up to 3 percent of the quota 
and three times the amount of that excess 
above 3 percent of the quota shall be 
deducted from that country's export 
quota for the following quota-year. 

12. The contracting Governments rec- 
ognize that international trade in wheat 
should be distributed on a fair and equita- 
ble basis among all countries which export 
wheat and they agree that the effective 
operation of the Agreement should not be 
impaired by abnormal exports from coun- 
tries that have not acceded to it. Ac- 
cordingly the contracting Governments 
shall cooperate in taking, on the advice of 
the Council, such practicable measures as 
may be necessary to attain this end. 

ARTICLE V. - Price Control 

1. The Council shall fix and publish 
prior to the coming into force of Article 
IV and thereafter at each regular August 
meeting a basic minimum price and a 
basic maximum price of wheat, c.i.f. 
United Kingdom ports, and schedules of 
prices, c.i.f. and/or f.o.b., equivalent 
thereto for the various wheats sold in 
world markets. These prices shall take 
effect on such date as may be determined 
by the Council and shall remain in force 
until the effective date of the prices fixed 
by the Council at its next regular August 
meeting but shall be subject to such ad- 
justments as the Council may find neces- 
sary to meet substantial changes in freight 
or exchange rates or as may be made in 
accordance with the provisions of para- 
graph 3 of this Article. 

2. The prices fixed under paragraph i 
of this Article shall be such as will in the 
opinion of the Council (a) return reason- 
ably remunerative prices to producers in 
exporting countries, (&) be fair to con- 



sumers in importing countries, (c) be in 
reasonable relationship to prices of other 
commodities and (d) make appropriate 
allowance for exchange rates and trans- 
portation costs. 

3. Should the Council so decide the 
basic minimum and maximum prices of 
wheat and the schedules of prices equiva- 
lent thereto shall be adjusted at monthly 
or other intervals to allow for carrying 
charges. 

4. The Governments of Argentina, 
Australia, Canada and the United States 
of America shall not, after the coming 
into force of paragraph I of this Article, 
sell or permit the sale of wheat for export, 
or to millers for producing flour for export, 
at prices below the minimum equivalents 
fixed by the Council under paragraph I or 
3 of this Article. 

5. The Governments of Argentina, 
Australia, Canada and the United States 
of America shall ensure that wheat for 
export is at all times on sale at f.o.b. 
prices not in excess of the maximum 
equivalents fixed by the Council under 
paragraph I or 3 of this Article. 

ARTICLE VI. Relief Pool 

1. The Governments of Argentina, 
Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom 
and the United States of America shall 
establish a pool of wheat which will be 
available for intergovernmental relief in 
war-stricken countries and other neces- 
sitous areas of the world, where circum- 
stances in the view of those Governments 
make such relief practicable. 

2. The Governments of Canada, the 
United Kingdom and the United States of 
America shall give to the pool, as and 
when required bv the Council, 25, 25 and 
50 million bushels respectively of wheat, 
or its equivalent in whole or part in flour, 
f.o.b. seaboard port in the country of 
origin. 

3. The Governments of Argentina, 
Australia, Canada and the United States 
of America shall, as and when required by 
the Council, give to the pool in addition 
to the contributions prescribed in para- 
graph 2 of this Article a quantity of wheat 
or its equivalent in whole or part in flour, 
f.o.b. seaboard port, to be determined by 
them in consultation with the Council and 
on such basis as may be agreed among 
them. 

4. The Council shall be responsible for 
the administration of the relief pool and 



18 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 614 



shall, wherever possible, arrange for the 
distribution of relief wheat through such 
intergovernmental relief body as may be 
set up and given general responsibility for 
the distribution of relief. Should the 
Council decide to make relief wheat or 
flour available to any necessitous area in 
which the intergovernmental relief body 
has not the organization necessary for the 
distribution of such wheat or flour the 
Council shall arrange with the appropriate 
authorities to distribute such wheat or 
flour in that area. Any arrangements for 
the distribution of relief wheat shall be 
such as to minimize, so far as the provision 
of sufficient relief permits, the reduction 
of the effective demand for wheat on sale. 

5. The United Kingdom Government 
may, if so agreed by the Council after 
consultation with the intergovernmental 
relief body, contribute transportation of 
relief wheat or flour in lieu of part or all 
of its contribution under paragraph 2 of 
this Article. 

6. Any contributing Government shall, 
if the Council after consultation with the 
intergovernmental relief body so requests 
and upon such terms of replacement as 
may be agreed with the Council, make, 
pending the arrival of contributions by 
other Governments, advances of such 
wheat or flour as that Government may 
consider practicable to release for im- 
mediate relief. 

7. Should the Council consider or be 
advised by the intergovernmental relief 
body that the quantity of relief wheat 
contributed under paragraphs 2, 3 and 5 
of this Article appears likely to prove in- 
sufficient, the Council shall make recom- 
mendations to the contracting Govern- 
ments regarding additional contributions. 

8. The Council shall instruct the Exec- 
utive Committee (a) to facilitate the 
transfer of relief wheat and flour from the 
national wheat-handling organizations of 
the contributing Governments to the in- 
tergovernmental relief body, (b) to main- 
tain effective liaison between the national 
wheat-handling and shipping organiza- 
tions of the contributing Governments 
and international shipping and transport 
controls and (c) generally to consult with 
the intergovernmental relief body regard- 
ing all transactions relating to the relief 
pool. 

9. Should the Council receive, at any 



time after the completion of the relief to 
which the provisions of paragraphs I to 
8 of this Article relate, an appeal for relief 
wheat or flour from any Government to 
relieve famine in any area within the 
jurisdiction of that Government, the 
Council shall investigate the possibilities 
of meeting such an appeal and report to 
the contracting Governments its findings 
together with its recommendations. 

ARTICLE VII. The Council * 

1. This Agreement shall be adminis- 
tered by an International Wheat Council 
consisting of one or more delegates of each 
contracting Government. 

2. The Council shall have the powers 
specifically assigned to it under the Agree- 
ment and such other powers as are neces- 
sary for the effective operation of the 
Agreement and for the carrying out of its 
provisions. 

3. The Council may, by unanimity of 
the votes cast, delegate the exercise of any 
of its powers or functions to such persons 
or bodies as it thinks fit. 

4. The Council shall elect, for such 
periods and upon such conditions as it 
may determine, a Chairman and a Vice 
Chairman, who need not be delegates of 
contracting Governments. 

5. The Council shall appoint a Secre- 
tary and such other employees as it con- 
siders necessary and determine their 
powers, duties, compensation and dura- 
tion of employment. 

6. The seat of the Council shall be in 
London unless the Council should other- 
wise determine. 

7. The Council shall meet in January 
and August of each year and at such other 
times as it may determine. The Chair- 
man shall convene a meeting of the Coun- 
cil if so requested (a) by the Executive 
Committee or (b) by the delegates of five 
contracting Governments or (c) by the 
delegates of contracting Governments 
with a total of not less than votes. 

8. Notices of all meetings shall be dis- 
patched so as to ensure receipt by delega- 
tions of contracting Governments at least 
fourteen days in advance of the date fixed 
for the meeting. 

9. Any contracting Government may 
designate the delegation of any other con- 
tracting Government to represent it and 
to vote on its behalf at any meeting of the 



* NOTE: This Article to be expanded, when further international consideration of the subject is 
possible, to include provisions for voting. 



April 22, 1942 PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF WHEAT 



Council or on any particular question. 
The terms of any such delegation of au- 
thority shall be communicated in writing 
by the delegating Government to the 
Chairman of the Council. 

10. The Council may take decisions, 
without holding a meeting, by corre- 
spondence between the Chairman and the 
delegations of the contracting Govern- 
ments, unless any delegation objects. 
Any decisions so taken shall be communi- 
cated forthwith to all the delegations and 
shall be recorded in the Minutes of the 
next meeting of the Council. 

11. The Council shall make at the 
earliest practicable date all possible ar- 
rangements with international shipping 
controls to facilitate the exportation of 
wheat. 

12. The Council shall instruct the 
Executive Committee (a) to cooperate 
with bodies engaged in the task of im- 
proving human nutrition, (b) to investi- 
gate the possibilities of increasing wheat 
consumption and (c) to examine and re- 
port upon any proposals made to the 
Council by any contracting Government 
designed to facilitate the attainment of 
the objectives of the Agreement. 

13. The Council shall ascertain and 
make public the carry-over of wheat in 
Argentina, Australia, Canada and the 
United States of America at the end of 
each of their respective crop-years. 

14. The Council shall, upon the request 
of any contracting Government of an ex- 
porting country, investigate the possibil- 
ity of meeting the needs of that country 
for wheat storage facilities to maintain in 
a good state of preservation such stocks of 
wheat as may accumulate prior to the 
coming into force of Article IV. The 
Council shall report to the contracting 
Governments its findings together with 
its recommendations. 

15. The Council shall at its regular 
August meeting make and publish, with 
such detail as it considers desirable, an 
estimate of the total volume of interna- 
tional trade in wheat and flour in the cur- 
rent quota-year and shall from time to 
time review that estimate and publish 
such revised estimates as it may make. 

1 6. The Council shall publish an an- 
nual report on the operation of the Agree- 
ment which shall include a summary of 
relevant statistics and such other material 
as the Council may determine. The 
Council may authorize the publication of 



such other reports as it considers appro- 
priate. Reports shall be published in 
English and in any other languages that 
the Council may determine. 

17. Pending the establishment of the 
Executive Committee under Article VIII, 
the Council shall itself perform the func- 
tions assigned by the Agreement to that 
Committee. 

1 8. The Council may arrange to take 
over the assets and liabilities of the Wheat 
Advisory Committee upon the dissolution 
of that body on such terms as may be 
agreed with it. 

ARTICLE VIII. The Executive Committee 

1. The Council shall, when it considers 
it desirable to do so, establish an Execu- 
tive Committee which shall work under 
its general direction. 

2. The Chairman of the Executive 
Committee shall be appointed by the 
Council for such period and upon such 
conditions as it may determine. He need 
not be a delegate of a contracting Govern- 
ment to the Council or a member of the 
Committee. 

3. The Secretary of the Council shall be 
the Secretary of the Executive Commit- 
tee. 

4. In addition to the specific duties for 
which provision is made in this Agree- 
ment, the Executive Committee shall be 
charged with the general duty of keeping 
under review the working of the Agree- 
ment and of reporting to the Council from 
time to time on the manner in which the 
provisions of the Agreement are being 
carried out. 

5. The Executive Committee may be 
convened at any time by its Chairman. 

6. The decisions of the Executive Com- 
mittee shall be taken by a simple majority 
of the total votes held by its members. 

ARTICLE IX. Reports to the Council 

1. Each contracting Government shall 
make to the Council such reports as the 
Council may from time to time request 
on the action which that Government has 
taken to carry out the provisions of this 
Agreement. 

2. Each contracting Government shall 
upon request telegraph each month to the 
Council the gross exports and gross im- 
ports of wheat and of wheat flour from 
and into its territories in the preceding 
month, and shall supply such other in- 
formation as the Council may from time 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 614 



to time request for the purposes of the 
Agreement. 

ARTICLE X. Finance 

1. The contracting Governments shall 
share proportionally to the votes which 
they hold in the Council any expenses in- 
curred by the Council in administering 
this Agreement. 

2. The Council shall at its first meeting 
approve its budget for the period prior to 
the first day of the month of August after 
its first regular January meeting and 
assess the contribution to be paid by 
each contracting Government for that 
period. 

3. The Council shall at each regular 
January meeting approve its budget for 
the following August-July period and 
assess the contribution to be paid by each 
contracting Government for that period. 

4. The initial contribution of any Gov- 
ernment acceding to the Agreement after 
the first meeting of the Council shall be 
assessed proportionally to the number of 
its votes in the Council and to the num- 
ber of full months between its accession 
and the beginning of the first August- 
July period for which it is assessed under 
the provisions of paragraph 3 of this 
Article, but the assessments already made 
upon other Governments shall remain 
unaltered. 

5. The Council shall publish an audited 
statement of all moneys received and paid 
out during the period referred to in para- 
graph 2 of this Article and during each 
August-July period thereafter. 

6. Consideration shall be given by each 
contracting Government to the possibility 
of according to the funds of the Council 
and to the salaries paid by the Council to 
its employees who are nationals of other 
countries treatment in respect of taxation 
and of foreign exchange control no less 
favourable than that accorded by such 
Government to the funds of any other 
Government and to salaries paid by any 
other Government to any of its accredited 
representatives who are its nationals. 

7. The Council shall determine the 
disposal, on the termination of the Agree- 
ment, of any funds which remain after 
meeting its obligations. 

ARTICLE XI. Date Upon Which the 
Agreement Comes Into Force * 



ARTICLE XII. Duration of the Agreement 

This Agreement shall remain in force 
for four years after the last day of the 
month of July following the date upon 
which it comes into force. The Council 
shall inquire of the contracting Govern- 
ments at least six months before the 
Agreement is due to expire whether they 
desire to continue it and shall report to 
the contracting Governments the results 
of such inquiry together with its recom- 
mendations. 

ARTICLE XIII. Relation to Other 
Agreements 

1. So long as this Agreement remains 
in force it shall prevail over any provisions 
inconsistent therewith which may be con- 
tained in any other agreement previously 
concluded between any of the contracting 
Governments. 

2. Should any contracting Government 
be party to an agreement with a non- 
contracting Government containing any 
provision inconsistent with this Agree- 
ment, that contracting Government shall 
take all reasonable steps to procure the 
necessary amendment of such agreement 
at the earliest date which it deems practi- 
cable. 

ARTICLE XIV. Accessions 

This Agreement shall at any time be 
open to accession by the Government of 
any country on the terms contained 
therein so far as they are applicable to 
that Government and on such other terms 
not inconsistent therewith as may be 
agreed with the Council. It shall accede 
as the Government either of an exporting 
country or of an importing country as 
may be agreed with the Council and if it 
accedes as the Government of an export- 
ing country it shall have such basic export 
quota as may be agreed with the Council. 

ARTICLE XV. Withdrawals 

I. The contracting Government of any 
country which considers its national se- 
curity endangered as a result of hostilities 
may apply to the Council for the suspen- 
sion of any of its obligations under Arti- 
cles II, III, IV and V of this Agreement. 
If the application is not granted within 
30 days after the date thereof, such Gov- 
ernment may within 15 days after the end 



* NOTE: The text of thia Article to be determined when further international consideration of 
the subject ia poasiblt. 



April 22, 1942 PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF WHEAT 



21 



of that period withdraw from the Agree- 
ment on written notice to the Council. 

2. If it is shown to the satisfaction of 
the Council that the Government of Ar- 
gentina, of Australia, of Canada or of the 
United States of America has failed to 
carry out its obligations under paragraph 
i of Article IV or paragraph 4 of Article 
V, the contracting Government of any 
exporting country may within 90 days 
withdraw from the Agreement on 30 
days' written notice to the Council. 

3. If the Government of Argentina, of 
Australia, of Canada or of the United 
States of America withdraws from the 
Agreement, the Agreement shall there- 
upon terminate, unless the Council, by 
three-fourths of the total votes held in the 
Council, decides to maintain the Agree- 
ment with whatever modifications it may 
deem necessary. 

ARTICLE XVI. Territories 

1 . The rights and obligations under this 
Agreement of the Government of Argen- 
tina apply to the Customs territory there- 
of; those of the Government of Australia 
to Australia and her territories; those of 
the Government of Canada to the Cus- 
toms territory thereof; those of the Gov- 
ernment of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland to Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland; and those 
of the Government of the United States of 
America to the Customs territory thereof. 

2. In the event of the Government of 
any other country acceding to the Agree- 
ment under Article XIV, the Council 
shall agree with the said acceding Govern- 
ment as to the territories to which the 
rights and obligations of the said acceding 
Government under the Agreement shall 
apply. 

ARTICLE XVII. Definitions 
For the purposes of this Agreement: 

1. " Bushel " means sixty pounds avoir- 
dupois. 

2. "Carrying charges" means the costs 
incurred for storage, interest and insur- 
ance in holding wheat. 

3. "Carry-over" means the aggregate 
of the stocks in any country, as ascer- 
tained by the Council under paragraph 13 
of Article VII, of old wheat at the end of 
the crop-year held (a) in all elevators, 
warehouses and mills, (b) in transit or at 
railroad sidings and (c) on farms, except 



that in the case of Canada "carry-over" 
means in addition the stocks of wheat of 
Canadian origin held in bond in the 
United States of America. 

4. "Council" means the International 
Wheat Council for which provision is 
made in Article VII. 

5. "Crop-vear" means in respect of 
Argentina and Australia, the period from 
December i to November 30; in respect 
of Canada, the period from August i to 
July 31: and in respect of the United 
States of America, the period July i to 
June 30. 

6. " Domestic requirements" means all 
use of wheat and flour during anv crop- 
year within the territories of each con- 
tracting Government for human and 
animal consumption, for industrial pur- 
poses, and for seed, and waste. 

7. "Equivalent", with reference to the 
measurement of flour in terms of wheat, 
means a quantity calculated in the ratio 
of such number of pounds of flour to 100 
pounds of wheat as the Council shall 
determine. 

8. "Executive Committee" means the 
Executive Committee established by the 
International Wheat Council under Arti- 
cle VI 1 1. 

9. "Exporting countrv" means Argen- 
tina, Australia, Canada, the United 
States of America or any country that 
mav accede as such to the Agreement 
under Article XIV. 

10. "Export quota" means basic ex- 
port quota together with any secondary 
or supplementary export quota allocated 
under Article IV. 

11. "Extraordinary use" means use 
which the Council is satisfied would not 
have taken place but for the governmental 
measures referred to in paragraph 6 of 
Article III. 

12. "Gross exports" means the total 
quantitv of wheat, including flour ex- 
pressed in terms of its wheat equivalent, 
shipped from the territories of any Gov- 
ernment, except that in the case of Can- 
ada "gross exports" means the overseas 
clearances of Canadian wheat from sea- 
board ports in Canada and the United 
States of America, plus imports of wheat 
from Canada into the United States of 
America for consumption and for milling 
in bond, plus flour expressed in terms of 
its wheat equivalent shipped from Cana- 
dian territories. 

13. "Gross imports" means the total 



22 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 614 



quantity of wheat, including flour ex- 
pressed in terms of its wheat equivalent, 
imported into the territories of any Gov- 
ernment. 

14. " Importing country" means the 
United Kingdom or any country that may 
accede as such to the Agreement under 
Article XIV. 

15. "Net exports " means gross exports 
minus gross imports. 

16. "Net imports" means gross im- 
ports minus gross exports. 

17. "New crop" means wheat har- 
vested not more than two months prior to 
the beginning of the current crop-year. 

18. "Old wheat" means wheat har- 
vested more than two months prior to the 
beginning of the current crop-year. 

IQ. "Quota- year" means the period 
ending July 31 following the date upon 
which the Agreement comes into force and 
thereafter the period from August I to 

July 31- 

20. "Seaboard port" means any sea or 
river port at which a sea-going ship of 
6000 tons gross can load. 



21. "Shipped" means transported in 
any manner. 

22. "Territories" means territory, or 
group of territories, to which the rights 
and obligations of the Agreement apply in 
accordance with the provisions of Article 
XVI. 

23. "The beginning of the seeding 
period for the next harvest" means in 
respect of Argentina, May I ; in respect of 
Australia and Canada, April i; and in 
respect of the United States of America, 
September I. 

24. "Total volume of international 
trade in wheat and flour" means the ag- 
gregate of the net export from each coun- 
try of the world. 

25. "Wheat Advisory Committee" 
means the Committee established under 
the Final Act of the Conference of Wheat 
Exporting and Importing Countries held 
in London at the Offices of the High Com- 
missioner for Canada, from August 21 to 

25 J 933- 

26. " Yield " means quantity of produc- 
tion per unit of sown area. 



[ANNEX II] 
Minutes of the Final Session of the Washington Wheat Meeting 



The officials of the five countries par- 
ticipating in the Washington Wheat 
Meeting record as follows their under- 
standing regarding certain provisions of 
the Memorandum of Agreement entered 
into pursuant to that Meeting: 

1. The arrangements referred to in 
paragraph 4 of the Memorandum, relating 
to the relief pool of wheat and to the con- 
trol of production, mean the following 
provisions of the Draft Convention at- 
tached thereto: paragraph 3 of Article II 
(Production Control), Articles VI (Relief 
Pool), VII (The Council) except para- 
graph 6, X (Finance), XVII (Definitions) 
and, should the Council at any time so 
decide, Article VIII (The Executive Com- 
mittee). 

2. The arrangements referred to in 
paragraph 5 of the Memorandum, relating 
to the control of production, stocks and 
exports and to the administration thereof, 
mean the following provisions of the 
Draft Convention, in addition to Articles 
VII (except paragraph 6), VIII, X and 
XVII referred to above: paragraphs I and 
2 of Article II (Production Control), 



Article III (Stocks), Article IV (Export 
Control) except the provisions of para- 
graphs 10 and 12 relating to the obliga- 
tions of importing countries since those 
provisions are not regarded as essential 
to the interim measures contemplated in 
the Memorandum, Article IX (Reports 
To The Council) and Article XVI (Ter- 
ritories). 

3. The words "cessation of hostilities" 
in the Memorandum mean the earliest 
date at which none of the five countries is 
engaged in substantial belligerent opera- 
tions. 

4. The words "arrangements described 
in the attached Draft Convention" in 
paragraph 6 of the Memorandum mean 
the provisions of Article V of the Draft 
Convention. 

5. The words " equivalent f .o.b. prices " 
which will be calculated for wheats of the 
other exporting countries under para- 
graph 6 of the Memorandum mean the 
prices of Argentine, Australian and 
United States wheats which will be ascer- 
tained by the unanimous vote of the 
Council as equivalent to the last price 



July 22, 1942 PROPERTY OF "FORMER" YUGOSLAV STATE 23 

negotiated by the United Kingdom for a Wheeler, officials of Argentina, Australia, 

bulk purchase of wheat from Canada. Canada, the United Kingdom and the 

6. The seat of the Council will be in United States respectively, as competent 
Washington during the period in which experts in a position to reflect the views 
the Memorandum of Agreement is in of their respective Governments. The 
force, unless the Council should otherwise Memorandum, the Draft Convention and 
determine. the present Minutes will be transmitted in 

7. The Minutes of the Washington English and Spanish by the Government 
Wheat Meeting, together with the Re- of the United States to the other four 
ports of its Committees, will be available Governments for their approval. So 
for the information of the Council during soon as the approval of the five Govern- 
the period in which the Memorandum of ments has been notified to each of them 
Agreement is in force. the provisions of the Memorandum of 

8. The English texts of the Memoran- Agreement will be deemed to come into 
dum of Agreement and of the present effect and the Memorandum of Agree- 
Minutes have been initialled by Anselmo ment together with the Draft Convention 
M. Viacava, Edwin McCarthy, Charles attached thereto and the present Minutes 
F. Wilson, Harold F. Carlill, and Leslie A. will be made public. 

[Initials and date identical with those affixed to the Memorandum of Agreement.] 



No. 615 

AGREEMENT concerning the Division of the Property of the 
"Former" Yugoslav State. Signed at Berlin, July 22, 1942. 

ACCORD concernant la division de la propriete de "1'ancien" etat 
yougoslave. Signe & Berlin, 22 juillet 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement between Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, and 
Italy regulated property questions resulting from the abortive transfers of Yugoslav territory 
to these states. It was accompanied by two protocols concerning the Yugoslav National 
Bank. Italy, Gazzetta ufficiale, 1943, No. 55, pp. 864, 865. It was followed by three instru- 
ments of September 2, 1943 an agreement and a protocol on social insurance funds, and a 
protocol concerning other Yugoslav banks. Official Journal of Bulgaria (Drzhaven Vertmk), 
February 24, 1944, No. 43, pp. 2, 16; 4 Croatia, Zbornik Zakona (1944), Nos. 7-9, p. 216. 
Under Article 75 of the treaty of peace with Italy of February 10, 1947, Italy agreed to return 
property removed from the territory of any of the United Nations, and, in accordance with 
Annex XIV to that treaty, the successor states received Italian "State and para-statal 
property" within territories ceded to them; see also Article 22 of the treaty of peace with 
Bulgaria and Article 24 of the treaty of peace with Hungary. U.S. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series, Nos. 1648, 1650, and 1651. 

RATIFICATIONS. On April 21, 1943, ratifications of this Agreement had been deposited 
by the signatory states. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is published in German Reichsgesetzblatt, 
1943, Part II, pp. 154-65; Italian Raccolta ufficiale delle leggi e dei decreti, 1942, Vol. V, pp. 

3921-45. 

Anon., " Patrimoine de 1'ex-Etat yougoslave," 19 Revue des lois, decrets et traitSs de com- 
merce (1943), pp. 323-24. 

Entered into force April 21, 1943. 

[Text not reproduced.] 



24 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 6l6 

No. 616 

PROTOCOL concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of 
Production and Marketing of Sugar. Opened for signature at 
London, July 22, 1942. 

PROTOCOLE concernant r Accord de 1937 pour la rgglementation 
de la production et de Pecoulement du sucre sur le march. 
Ouvert & la signature ft Londres, 22 juillet 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Protocol continued in force the London agreement on sugar of 
May 6, 1937 (No. 479, ante), which had entered into force provisionally on September I, 
1937. The extension had been recommended by the International Sugar Council. The 
duration of the 1937 agreement was further extended by protocols of August 31, 1944, 
August 31, 1945, August 30, 1946, August 29, 1947, and August 31, 1948. Agreements 
concerning sugar had previously been concluded at Paris in 1864, at Brussels in 1875, at 
London in 1888, and at Brussels in 1902, 1907, and 1912. 54 Br. and For St. Papers, p. 29; 
66 idem, p. 1070; 79 idem, p. 250; 95 idem, p. 6; 100 idem, p. 482; 105 idem, p. 392. 

SIGNATURES. Most of the signatures to this Protocol were affixed on July 22, 1942. 
Brazil and Portugal signed it on August 28, 1942. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in Br. Par/. Papers, Misc. 
No. I (1942), Cmd. 6395; 7 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1942), p. 679; International 
Labor Office, Intergovernmental Commodity Control Agreements (Montreal, 1943), p. 45. 
The text and a French translation are published in 112 Moniteur beige (1942), pp. 430-32. 

M. H. El-Gamal, Le probleme international du sucre (Paris, 1941), 402 pp.; H. E. Fried- 
laender, Los conv^nios azucareros de Bruselas de 1931 y de Londres de 1937 (Habana, 1941), 
68 pp.; V. Gutierrez Vallad6n, Estudios sobre problemas azucareros (Habana, 1944), 173 pp.; 
E. Hexner, International Cartels (Chapel Hill, 1945), pp. 189-95; J. Mulliken, "International 
Cooperation in Sugar," 16 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1947), pp. 43-46, 78; K. Wilk, 
"The International Sugar R6gime," 33 Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. (1939), pp. 860-78; U.S. Depart- 
ment of State, International Agencies in Which the United States Participates (Washington, 
1946; Publ. 2699), pp. 84-90; P. L. Yates, Commodity Control (London, 1945), pp. 48-66. 

Entered into force July 22, 1942. 

Text from 17.5. Treaty Series, No. 990. 

Whereas an Agreement regarding of all the signatories have not been 

the Regulation of Production and deposited, the Governments which 

Marketing of Sugar (hereafter re- have ratified the Agreement may 

ferred to as the Agreement) was decide to put it into force among 

signed in London on the 6th May, themselves"; and 



w Ar*vi* * si f +K A Whereas the ratifications of all 

Whereas Article 48 of the Agree- the signatories were not deposited 

ment provides as follows: by th( f Igt September, 193? ; and 

41 (a) The present Agreement shall Whereas the Agreement has been 

come into force on the ist Septem- ratified by the Governments of the 

ber, 1937, if at that date it has been following countries: 

ratified by all the signatory Gov- Union of South Africa, Common- 

ernments; wealth of Australia, Brazil, Belgium, 

"(*) If by the above-mentioned United Kingdom of Great Britain 

date the instruments of ratification and Northern Ireland, Cuba, Czecho- 



Aug. 3I y 1944 PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF SUGAR 25 

Slovakia, Dominican Republic, Ger- for a period of two years from that 

many, Haiti, Hungary, India, Neth- date. 

erlands, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Art. 3. The present Protocol 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, shall bear this day's date and shall 

United States of America; and remain open for signature until the 

Whereas it seems desirable that 3ist August, 1942. It shall take 

the said Agreement should be put effect in respect of each signatory 

in force between those Governments Government on the date of signa- 

which have ratified it, ture. 

Now therefore, the undersigned IN ^TNESS WHEREOF the under- 
being duly authorised by their re- s ; d being duly authorised thereto 
spective Governments have agreed b * their r * spective Governments, 
as loiiows. have signed the present Protocol. 

Article i. The Agreement shall Done in London on the 22nd day 
be regarded as having come into o f July, 1942 Jn a single copy which 
force in respect of the Governments s hal] be deposited in the archives of 
signatories of the present Protocol, the Government of the United King- 
on the ist September, 1937. dom of Great Britain and Northern 

Art. 2. After the aist August, Ireland, and of which certified copies 

1942, the Agreement shall continue shall be furnished to the signatory 

in force among the said Governments Governments. 

[Signed:] For the Government of the Union of South Africa: SIDNEY F. 
WATERSON; for the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia: S. M. 
BRUCE; for the Government of Brazil: J. C. DE ALENCAR NETTO; for the 
Government of Belgium: P. KRUNACKER; for the Government of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: ANTHONY EDEN; 
for the Government of the Republic of Cuba: G. DE BLANCK; for the Gov- 
ernment of Czechoslovakia: V. JANSA ; for the Government of the Dominican 
Republic: R. PREZ-ALFONSECA ; for the Government of Haiti: JOHN G. 
WINANT; for the Government of the Netherlands: E. MICHIELS v. VER- 
DUYNEN; for the Government of Peru: E. LETTS S.; for the Government of 
Portugal: ARMTNDO MONTEIRO; for the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics: J. MAISKY; for the Government of the United States of 
America: JOHN G. WINANT; (In respect of the Commonwealth of the 
Philippines): JOHN G. WINANT. 



No. 616a 

Protocol concerning the 1937 Agreement on the Regulation of Pro- 
duction and Marketing of Sugar. Opened for signature at 
London, August 31, 1944. 

Protocole concernant P Accord de 1937 P our la reglementation de la 
production et de 1'ecoulement du sucre sur le marche. Ouvert 
& la signature & Londres, 31 aoftt 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Protocol continued in force the London agreement of May 6, 1937 
(No. 479, ante), as prolonged by the protocol of July 22, 1942 (No 616, ante). The duration 
of the agreement was further extended for one-year periods by similar protocols of August 



26 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6i6a 



3* '945, August 30, 1946, August 29, 1947, and August 31, 1948. U.S. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series, Nos. 1523, 1614, and 1755; British Treaty Series, No. 73 (i94^) 
Cmd. 7542. 

RATIFICATIONS. Only the United States signed this Protocol subject to ratification; its 
ratification of March 9, 1945, was deposited with effect as from August 31, 1944. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in British Treaty Series, No. 
45 (1946), Cmd. 6949, p. 2. 

Entered into force August 31, 1944. 

Text from U.S. Treaty Series, No. 990. 



Whereas an International Agree- 
ment regarding the Regulation of the 
Production and Marketing of Sugar 
(hereinafter referred to as "the 
Agreement") was signed in London 
on the 6th May, 1937; 

And whereas by a Protocol signed 
in London on the 22nd July, 1942, the 
Agreement was regarded as having 
come into force on the ist September, 
I937 in respect of the Governments 
signatory of the Protocol; 

And whereas it was provided in 
the said Protocol that the Agreement 
should continue in force between the 
said Governments for a period of two 
years after the 3ist August, 1942; 

Now, therefore, the Governments 
signatory of the present Protocol, 
considering that it is expedient that 
the Agreement should be prolonged 
for a further term as between them- 
selves, subject, in view of the present 
emergency, to the conditions stated 
below, have agreed as follows: 

Article z. Subject to the provi- 
sions of Article 2 hereof, the Agree- 
ment shall continue in force between 
the Governments signatory of this 
Protocol for a period of one year 
after the 3ist August, 1944. 

Art. 2. During the period speci- 
fied in Article I above the provisions 
of Chapters III, iy and V of the 
Agreement shall be inoperative. 

Art. 3. i. The Governments sig- 
natory of the present Protocol 
recognise that revision of the Agree- 



ment is necessary and should be 
undertaken as soon as the time ap- 
pears opportune. Discussion of any 
such revision should take the exist- 
ing Agreement as the starting point. 

2. For the purposes of such revi- 
sion due account shall be taken of 
any general principles of commodity 
policy embodied in any agreements 
which may be concluded under the 
auspices of the United Nations. 

Art. 4. Before the conclusion of 
the period of one year specified in 
Article I the contracting Govern- 
ments, if the steps contemplated in 
Article 3 have not been taken, will 
discuss the question of a further re- 
newal of the Agreement. 

Art. 5. The present Protocol shall 
bear the date the 3ist August, 1944, 
and shall remain open for signature 
until the 3Oth September, 1944; pro- 
vided however that any signatures 
appended after the 3ist August, 
1944, shall be deemed to have effect 
as from that date. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the under- 
signed being duly authorised thereto 
by their respective Governments 
have signed the present Protocol. 

Done in London on the 3ist day 
of August, 1944, in a single copy 
which shall be deposited in the 
archives of the Government of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland, and of which 
certified copies shall be furnished to 
the signatory Governments. 



[Signed:] For the Government of the Union of South Africa: DENEYS 
REITZ: for the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia: S. M. 



Aug. IO, 1942 DANUBE-SAVA-ADRIATIC RAILWAY COMPANY 27 

BRUCE; for the Government of Belgium: VTE DE LANTSHEERE; for the Gov- 
ernment of Brazil: MONIZ DE ARAGXO; for the Government of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: ANTHONY EDEN; for the 
Government of the Republic of Cuba: G. DE BLANCK; for the Government 
of Czechoslovakia: DR. V. JANSA; for the Government of the Dominican 
Republic: R. PREZ-ALFONSECA; for the Government of Haiti: JOHN G. 
WINANT; for the Government of the Netherlands: E. TEIXEIRA DE MATTOS; 
for the Government of Peru: F. BERCKEMEYER; for the Government of 
Portugal: PALMELLA; for the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics: F. GOUSEV; for the Government of the United States of America: 
JOHN G. WINANT, subject to ratification; (In respect of the Commonwealth 
of the Philippines): JOHN G. WINANT; for the Government of Poland: 
Z. MERDINGER. 



No. 617 

TREATY concerning the Reorganization of the Danube-Sava- 
Adriatic Railway Company. Signed at Brioni, August 10, 1942. 

TRAITfi concernant la reorganisation de la Compagnie des Chemins 
de Fer Danube-Save-Adriatique. Signe & Brioni, 10 aoftt 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Treaty between Croatia, Germany, Italy, and Hungary, and the 
accompanying agreement between these states and the Danube-Sava-Adriatic Railway 
Company were intended to supersede the agreement signed at Rome, March 29, 1923, which 
reorganized the Railway Company. 23 League of Nations Treaty Series, pp. 255-375. The 
conclusion of agreements on this subject was foreseen in Article 320 of the treaty of peace 
with Austria signed at St. Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919, and in Article 304 of the 
treaty of peace with Hungary, signed at Trianon, June 4, 1920. In the treaties of peace of 
February 10, 1947, with Hungary (Article 26, 10) and Italy (Annex XIV, 15), the Hun- 
garian and Italian governments recognized that the Brioni Agreement of 1942 was "null 
and void," and undertook "to participate with the other signatories of the Rome Agreement 
of May 29, 1923, in any negotiations having the purpose of introducing into its provisions 
the modifications necessary to ensure the equitable settlement of the annuities which it 
provides." V.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1648, p. 228, and No. 
1651, p. 60. 

RATIFICATIONS. On April 22, 1943, ratifications had been deposited by the four signatory 
states. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The texts of this Treaty, the accompanying agreement, the statute of 
the Company, and five related protocols are published in German Rcichsgesetzblatt, 1943, 
Part II, pp. 206-41 ; Italian Raccolta ufficiale deUe leggi e dei decreti, 1942, Vol. V, pp. 3897- 
3918. 

Anon., "Accord de Brioni du 10 aoflt 1942 entre les gouvernements allemand, italien, 
croate, hongrois, et la Compagnie des Chemins de Fer Danube-Save-Adriatique," 52 
Bulletin des transports internationaux par chemins defer (1944), pp. 41-48. 

Entered into force April 22, 1943.* 

[Text not reproduced.] 
1 Retroactive to January i, 1942. 



28 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 619 

No. 618 

AGREEMENT concerning the Star Insurance Company at Prague. 
Signed at Berlin, August 12, 1942. 

ACCORD concernant la Compagnie d'Assurances "Star" & Prague. 
Signe a Berlin, 12 aoftt 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement between Germany, Hungary, and Slovakia was con- 
cluded in consequence of the partition of the territory of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1938 
and 1939. Agreements concerning the settlement of social insurance obligations were con- 
cluded by Germany with the Government of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on 
March 14, 1940, with Hungary on June 24, 1940 and March 27, 1941, and with Slovakia on 
April 13, 1940 and December 6, 1940. German Reichsgesetzblatt, 1940, Part II p. 108; 
idem, 1941, Part II, p. 333; idem, 1942, Part II, p 118; idem, 1943, Part II, p. 253. Article 
25 of the treaty of peace with Hungary of February 10, 1947, provides that the annulment 
of the Vienna Award of November 2, 1938 (No. 536, ante) "shall entail the annulment of 
the agreements, as well as the legal consequences ensuing therefrom, relating to matters of 
finance and public and private insurance, concluded between or on behalf of the two States 
concerned." U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1651, p. 56. 

RATIFICATIONS. Ratifications of this Agreement were exchanged at Berlin on June 17, 

1943- 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is published in German Reichsgesetzblatt, 
1943, Part II, pp. 364-78. 

Entered into force June 17, 1943. 

[Text not reproduced.] 



No. 619 

CONVENTION on Education in Central America. Signed at San 
Jose, September 5, 1942. 

CONVENCION sobre educacidn en Centre America. Finnada en 
San Jose, 5 de septiembre de 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention was concluded at the First Conference of the Minis- 
ters of Public Education of the States of Central America and Panama held at San Jos, 
Costa Rica, August 31 -September 5, 1942. That conference adopted also a convention on 
the exercise of liberal professions (No. 620, post). The San Jose" conference was preceded 
by a preliminary conference held at Managua, August 21-28, 1942, at which the annexes to 
this Convention were formulated. Conventions for the establishment of a Central Amer- 
ican Pedagogical Institute were concluded at San Jos on September 24, 1906, at Washing- 
ton, December 20, 1907, and at San Salvador, February 2, 1910. Descamps & Renault, 
Recueil international des traites du XXe siecle, 1906, p. 759; 3 Tejada, Coleccidn de tratados 
de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1919), pp. 428, 436. A Central American convention on the unifi- 
cation of primary and secondary education was signed at Guatemala City, January 12, 1911. 
Idem, p. 449. A convention to establish an Inter-American University was signed at 
Panama, October 4, 1943 (No. 626, post). 



Sept. 5, 1942 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 



RATIFICATIONS. On January I, 1949, this Convention had been ratified by Costa Rica, 
1 Salvador, Honduras, and Panama. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Convention is also published in Costa Rica, Colcc- 
cidn de leyes, 1942, II, p. 324; Honduras, Decretos del Congreso National, 1942-1943, pp. 
31-40; 4 Panama, Leyes (1943), pp. 285-305; 135 El Salvador, Diario oficial (1943), No. 
245, pp. 3179-80. Cf. El Salvador, Memoria de relaciones exteriores y justicia t 1942, pp. 
47-50. 

Anon., "International Agreements on Education between the Central American Re- 
publics/' 47 Int. Labour Rev. (1943), p. 223; F. Men&ndez Pacas, "Sobre la unificaci6n de 
estudios en Centre America," 10 El Salvador, La Republica, Suplemento del Diario oficial 
(1942), No. 2848, pp. 2-3. 

Entered into force December 9, 1943. 

Text supplied by the Pan American Union. 



Los Gobiernos dc las Reptiblicas 
de Guatemala, El Salvador, Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua, Panama y Costa 
Rica, considerando que los seis pafses 
constituyen una unidad geografica 
en el coraz6n del Continente de la 
Democracia y aspiran a formar una 
sola nacionalidad ; que la Escuela, 
como una de las bases de la cultura, 
es el vehiculo mas eficaz y mas 
poderoso para la preparation del 
ambiente necesario a la realizaci6n 
de ese ideal de unidad, para lo cual 
debe adaptar su organizaci6n y sus 
actividades a la realidad viva de 
nuestros pueblos; y que la diversidad 
de sistemas y de planes de ensenanza 
de los seis pafses del Istmo dificulta 
el intercambio de estudiantes, tan 
beneficioso para fortalecer los vfn- 
culos de fraternidad y ampliar su 
conocimiento mutuo, ban convenido 
en celebrar una Convenci6n al efecto, 
y con ese prop6sito ban designado 
como Delegados Plenipotenciarios: l 

El de Guatemala, Alfonso Her- 
nandez Polanco, en representaci6n 
del Jos6 Antonio Villacorta; 

El de El Salvador, Jos6 Andres 
Orantes; 

El de Honduras, Angel G. Her- 
nandez; 

El de Nicaragua, Ger6nimo Ra- 
mfrez Brown; 

El de Panama, Victor Florencio 
Goytfa; 



Y el de Costa Rica, Luis Demetrio 
Tinoco Castro; 

Quienes, reunidos en Conferencia 
de Ministros de Educaci6n de Centro 
America, y despu6s de comunicarse 
sus respectivos plenos poderes, que 
fueron hallados en buena y debida 
forma, han convenido en llevar a 
efecto el prop6sito indicado, for- 
mulando las declaraciones y cele- 
brando los convenios siguientes: 

I. La Educaci6n en Centro Am6- 
rica sera democratica en su esen- 
cia y en su orientaci6n general, en 
todos sus aspectos y etapas, y, por 
tanto, adoptara en cuanto ello sea 
posible, como base de su organiza- 
ci6n y funcionamiento, los principios 
y las prdcticas de la Nueva Educa- 
ci6n. 

Como corolario de este principio 
fundamental, la Escuela Centro- 
americana tendra por objetivo ca- 
pacitar a los ciudadanos para el 
ejercicio de los derechos y el cumpli- 
miento de los deberes cfvicos dentro 
del espfritu de fraternidad que debe 
ligar a estos pueblos hermanos, 
formando su caracter y preparan- 
dolos para la vida, tanto ffsica como 
espiritual, artfstica y vocacional- 
mente. 

II. Dentro de las normas demo- 
craticas y los principios pedag6gicos 
de la Nueva Educaci6n, la Escuela 
Centroamericana adoptara aquellas 



1 The titles of plenipotentiaries are omitted. ED. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 619 



modalidades y caracteristicas que 
requieran las necesidades peculiares 
de cada pafs, regidn o comunidad, 
teniendo presente que la educaci6n 
del pueblo es un derecho del cual 
deben disfrutar todos los ciudadanos 
y que los Estados Centroamericanos 
deben procurar ofrecer a todos sus 
habitantes lo que el mejor padre de 
familia desea para su hijo en materia 
de educaci6n. 

III. En relaci6n con los factores 
principales del proceso educativo, 
la Escuela Centroamericana tendrA 
siempre presente: 

A) Que la educaci6n es un proceso 
activo de crecimiento y de expresi6n 
y no pasivo de simple asimilaci6n. 

B) Que el educando es el centro 
del proceso educativo y, por tanto, 
la educaci6n debe inspirarse en sus 
capacidades, tendencias e intereses 
con el fin de obtener su eficiencia 
social; y considerar en todo caso que 
la escuela debe ser para el educando 
y no el educando para la escuela. 

C) Que la Escuela Democr&tica 
Centroamericana debe ser el centro 
social de la colectividad y su influen- 
cia no debe confinarse dentro de las 
paredes escolares, sino trascender a 
la comunidad en general ; y que, para 
ser eficaz, ha de fundamentarse en 
los principios de correlaci6n y con- 
tinuidad, y, ademAs, ha de tener 
programas flexibles que dosifiquen 
los conocimientos. 

D) Que el maestro es un agente 
civilizador, no tan solo un mero 
ensefiador, pues su misi6n es la de 
dirigir el aprendizaje y las experien- 
cias de los educandos, de acuerdo 
con las capacidades de 6stos y las 
cambiantes posibilidades de cada 
regi6n o comunidad, inspirindose 
en la disciplina de la libertad y en los 
mtodos activos. 

IV. La Educaci6n Primaria se 
a jus tar A a las siguientes bases fun- 
damentales en los seis pafses Centro- 
americanos: 

i. El mfnimo de edad para el 
ingreso a la escuela seri de siete anos. 



2. El periodo escolar de educaci6n 
primaria serd de seis anos. 

3. Las actividades fundamentals 
de la escuela primaria ser&n las 
siguientes: 

Educaci6n Moral y Cfvica. 
Educaci6n Agrfcola e Industrial. 
Educaci6n Ffsica y Artfstica. 
Idioma Nacional. 
Matem&ticas. 
Geograffa e Historia. 
Estudio de la Naturaleza. 

4. La distribuci6n de materias por 
grados y horas serd determinada por 
cada pals en vista de las diferentes 
costumbres y climas, asf como de 
las necesidades particulares de cada 
uno. 

5. Las actividades no compren- 
didas en la enumeraci6n anterior, 
quedan al arbitrio de cada pals lo 
mismo que su distribuci6n por 
grados y horas. 

6. Los sistemas de calificaci6n y 
promoci6n serin determinados por 
cada pafs. 

7. El minimum de conocimientos 
y requisites necesarios para la obten- 
ci6n del certificado de conclus56n de 
estudios primarios serd el siguiente: 

a) Saber leer corrientemente y 
darse cuenta de lo lefdo; saber ex- 
presar con relativa correcci6n lo que 
se conoce de cualquier asunto, y 
saber redactar y escribir cartas y 
documentos sencillos. 

V) Dominar las cuatro operaciones 
fundamentales con mimeros enteros 
y con fracciones decimales, hasta 
donde sea necesario para resolver los 
problemas que ofrecen las activi- 
dades de la vida diaria. Saber 
aplicar los conocimientos adquiridos 
a problemas sencillos de interns, de 
descuento y repartimientos propor- 
cionales. Conocer y saber aplicar 
las f6rmulas que determinan las 
superficies de tri&ngulos y cuadrild- 
teros, del circulo y de los polfgonos 
regulares, asi como los volfimenes 
del cubo, del prisma y del cilindro. 

c) Poseer nociones elementales su- 
ficientes de los seis pafses centro- 



Sept. 5, 1942 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 



americanos: territorio, actividades 
agrfcolas e industrials, comunica- 
ciones, colocaci6n de las seis re- 
ptiblicas en el Continente Americano 
y de 6ste en el mundo, y relaciones 
de estos pafses con los restantes. 

d) Conocer la actuaci6n de los 
grandes hombres de las seis Re- 
pfiblicas y los hechos culminantes de 
su historia, asf como el significado de 
los sfmbolos nacionales, y de las 
fiestas patrias de todas ellas. 

e) Tener nociones del cuerpo hu- 
mano, conocer los animales y las 
plantas mas comunes en los pafses 
del Istmo, asf como las industrias que 
de ellos se derivan. 

/) Conocer los deberes y derechos 
del ciudadano y las funciones de los 
principales organismos y autoridades 
del pafs. 

g) Poseer habitos morales y cono- 
cer y practicar las reglas de higiene y 
urbanidad indispensables. 

V. La Educaci6n Secundaria se 
considcra como continuadora y am- 
pliatoria de la Primaria, y en tal 
concepto tiene como fines completar 
la formaci6n individual y social del 
educando, y perfeccionar su aptitud 
mental para el conocimiento de las 
ciencias, las letras y las artes, pro- 
porcionandole las nociones funda- 
mentales de la cultura humana. 

Por consiguiente, con el objeto de 
establecer la mayor uniformidad en 
los estudios de esta naturaleza, re- 
servando a la vez a cada pals la 
posibilidad de adaptarlos a sus 
necesidades y modalidades, la Edu- 
caci6n Secundaria se ajustard en 
cada uno de ellos a las siguientes 
bases fundamen tales: 

1. El plan de estudios compren- 
dera un mfnimum de 150 cr&iitos, 
entendtendose por cr6dito el estudio 
realizado durante una hora por 
semana en un ano lectivo. 

2. En ese mimero total de cr6ditos, 
las siguientes materias figuraran 
con el mimero mfnimo que se indica 
a continuaci6n, distribufdo en la 
forma que cada pafs establezca: 



Castellano (Gram&tica, Com- 
posici6n, Literatura,Precep- 
tiva, Historia de la Litera- 
tura) 20 cr&litos 

Matematicas (AritmStica, Al- 
gebra, Geometrla, Trigo- 
nometrfa) 20 " 

Ingles 15 " 

Frances 10 " 

Ciencias (Ffsica, Qufmica, 
Anatomfa, Fisiologfa, Bota- 
nica y Zoologfa) 25 " 

Geograffa (del pafs, Centro^ 
americana, Americana, Uni- 
versal) 10 " 

Historia (idem) 10 " 

Psicologfa y Logica 4 " 

Total 114 erudites 

3. Los sistemas de promoci6n y 
exdmenes de curso asf como la con- 
veniencia de establecer p no los de 
grado quedan al arbitrio de cada 
pafs. Sin embargo se recomienda 
que la promoci6n sea por asignaturas 
y que los examenes o pruebas se 
realicen en forma que aseguren una 
cuidadosa selecci6n de los alumnos 
que han de pasar a los centros uni- 
versitarios. 

4. Al terminar su educaci6n secun- 
daria, los alumnos recibiran en las 
condiciones y dentro de las normas 
que cada pafs establezca, un certifi- 
cado, diploma o tftulo que asf lo 
acredite, el cual sera considerado 
por las demas naciones concurrentes 
con valor igual a los certificados o 
diplomas de esa naturaleza que ex- 
tiendan sus institucipnes oficiales 
de educaci6n secundaria. 

5. Todos los pafses representados 
en esta Conferencia reconoceran la 
validez de los estudios parciales o 
completos realizados en las institu- 
ciones de educaci6n secundaria re- 
conocidas oficialmente por cual- 
quiera de ellos, previa autenticaci6n 
de los documentos que acreditan 
dichos estudios y comprobaci6n de 
la identidad del interesado. 

Las certificaciones que se expidan 
con el objeto de facilitar dicho 
reconocimiento comprenderan los 
siguientes extremos: 

a) Materias fundamentals y mi- 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 619 



meros de crfeditos obtenidos en su 
estudio que, con arreglo a la legisla- 
ci6n del pais de origen, se consideren 
aprobadas por el alumno. 

b) Materias no comprendidas en 
este convenio y ntimero de crditos 
obtenidos en su estudio, de acuerdo 
con la Iegislaci6n del pais de origen. 

Es entendido que para la equiva- 
lencia a que se refiere este artfculo en 
cuanto a estudios completes, se 
tomaran en cuenta las materias es- 
tudiadas por el alumno en los estab- 
lecimientos de segunda ensenanza, 
cualquiera que ellas sean, para com- 
pletar el mfnimo de 150 cr6ditos a 
que se ha hecho referencia siempre 
que las materias fundamentals indi- 
cadas comprendan el mfnimo estable- 
cido por cada una de ellas. 

VI. Para la distribuci6n de las 
materias o actividades por grados y 
su respectiva programaci6n, tan to 
en lo referente a la Ensenanza 
Primaria como a la Secundaria, cada 
pafs designard dos o tres tecnicos en 
Primaria y dos tecnicos en Secun- 
daria, quienes se reuniran con ese 
exclusivo objeto en el lugar que se 
elija oportunamente. 

De la misma manera y a fin de 
mantener la escuela al unisono con 
el progreso cientifico, comisiones in- 
tegradas en igual forma, se reuniran 
peri6dicamente para revisar y mejorar 
cliches programas y planes de estudio. 

VII. La educaci6n en las Escue- 
las Normales o de Pedagogia debe 
comprender, ademas de las materias 
fundamentals que se exigen en los 
establecimientos de educaci6n secun- 
daria, con excepci6n del Frances, un 
minimum de 30 crditos en estudios 
especializados de las Ciencias Peda- 
g6gicas. 

VIII. En cuanto a la educaci6n 
universitaria o profesional, se adop- 
tan las siguientes normas: 

i. Se acogen con recomendaci6n 
de que sean puestos en vigencia por 
los paises que no tengan dificultades 
fundamentals en hacerlo, los planes 
de estudios formulados por la Con- 



ferencia Preliminar de Managua que 
figuran como anexos A, B, C, D y E 
de esta convenci6n. 

2. En cuanto a los pafses que no 
pudieren adoptar dichos planes, se 
conviene en que las respectivas 
Secretarias de Educaci6n comuni- 
quen a los organismos similares de 
los otros paises las dificultades que se 
presenten y las modificaciones que 
consideren necesario introducir a los 
planes recomendados para su adop- 
ci6n. 

3. De la misma manera, y en aten- 
ci6n a la marcha progresiva de las 
ciencias, se conviene en adoptar el 
procedimiento de consulta entre las 
Secretarias de Educaci6n de los 
paises representados, para modificar 
los planes de estudio referidos. 

4. Una vez realizada la unificaci6n 
de los planes de estudio profesion- 
ales, se convocard a un Congreso de 
T6cnicos en Ensenanza Universitaria 
para que formule los programas de 
la ensenanza profesional. 

5. Igualmente se conviene en cele- 
brar congresos de tecnicos en en- 
senanza Universitaria que estudien 
y revisen peri6dicamente los planes 
y programas de las diferentes ramas 
de la educaci6n universitaria. 

IX. Para facilitar la permanen- 
cia y el perfeccionamiento de la pbra 
de unificaci6n a que este Convenio se 
refiere, se establecera en San Jos6 
de Costa Rica una Oficina Centro- 
americana de Educaci6n, que tendra 
por misi6n recoger, conservar y dis- 
tribuir toda clase de informaciones 
sobre planes de estudio, programas y 
textos de educaci6n de los paises 
representados, para darlos a conocer 
a las Secretarias de Educaci6n de los 
mismos. 

X. El canje de las ratificaciones 
de la presente Convenci6n se har4 
por medio de comunicaciones que 
dirigirdn los Gobiernos representados 
al Gobierno de Costa Rica, para que 
gste lo haga saber a los demas Esta- 
dps participantes. Asimismo, el Go- 
bierno de Costa Rica comunicara a 



Sept. 5, 1942 PRACTICE OF LIBERAL PROFESSIONS 33 

cada uno de ellos su ratificaci6n, tan rios, quedard depositado en los 

pronto la otorgue. archives de la Secretarfa de Rela- 

XI. La presente Convenci6n en- ciones Exteriores de Costa Rica; y 
trard en vigencia para los Estados dos ejemplares de la misma, firmados 
que la ratifiquen, tan pronto como lo de igual manera por todos los Pleni- 
hagan por lo menos dos de los pafses potenciarios, seran remitidos a cada 
que la suscriben; y los obligard mien- uno de los Gobiernos participantes. 
tras no la denuncien formalmente. EN FE DE LO CUAL firmamos en la 

XII. Un ejemplar original de la ciudad de San Jos6 de Costa Rica el 
presente Convenci6n firmado por dfa cinco de septiembre de mil 
todos los Delegados Plenipotencia- novecientos cuarenta y dos. 

[Firmada:] Luis D. TINOCO H., ANGEL G. HERNANDEZ, ORANTES, AL- 
FONSO HERNANDEZ POLANCO, G. RAM{REZ BROWN, VfcxoR F. GovrfA. 

[Annexes omitted.] 



No. 620 

CONVENTION on the Practice of Liberal Professions. Signed at 
San Jose, September 5, 1942. 

CONVENCION sobre el ejercicio de profesiones liberates. Firmada 
en San Jos, 5 de septiembre de 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention was concluded at the First Conference of the Ministers 
of Public Education of the States of Central America and Panama held at San Jos, Costa 
Rica, August 3i-September 5, 1942. A Central American convention on this subject had 
been signed at Washington, February 7, 1923 (No. 87, ante). South American conventions 
on the exercise of liberal professions were signed at Montevideo on February 4, 1889, and 
on August 4, 1939. 18 Martens, N.R.G. (2d ser.), p. 441 ; No. 571, ante. An inter-American 
convention on the subject, adopted at Mexico City, January 27, 1902, was ratified by all 
Central American states with the exception of Panama. Scott, The International Confer- 
ences of American States, 2889-1928 (New York, 1931), p. 71; 6 Martens, N.R.G. (3d ser.), 
p. 191. An agreement on academic titles was signed at Caracas, July 17, 191 1. I Coleccion 
de tratados vigentes de la Republica de Bolivia (La Paz, 1941), p. 389. 

RATIFICATIONS. On January I, 1949, this Convention had been ratified by Costa Rica, 
Honduras, and 1 Salvador. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Convention is also published in Costa Rica, Coleccidn 
de leyes, 1942, II, p. 331; Honduras, Decretos del Congreso National, 1942-1943, pp. 29-30; 
135 El Salvador, Diario oficial (1943), No. 245, pp. 3178-79. Cf. El Salvador, Memoria de 
relaciones exterior es y justicia, 1942, pp. 47-50. 

See also the bibliography under No. 619, ante. 

Entered into force December 9, 1942. 

Text supplied by the Pan American Union. 

Los Gobiernos de las Repiiblicas Rica, considerando que los seis 
de Guatemala, El Salvador, Hon- pafses constituyen una unidad geo- 
duras, Nicaragua, Panami y Costa grdfica en el coraz6n del Continente 



34 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 620 



de la Democracia y aspiran a formar 
una sola nacionalidad ; que la Es- 
cuela, como una de las bases de la 
cultura, es el vehfculo m&s eficaz y 
mis poderoso para la preparation del 
ambiente necesario a la realizaci6n de 
ese ideal de unidad, para lo cual debe 
adaptar su organization y sus ac- 
tividades a la realidad viva de nues- 
tros pueblos; y que la diversidad de 
sistemas y de planes de ensenanza 
de los seis pafses del Istmo dificulta 
el intercambio de estudiantes, tan 
beneficioso para fortalecer los vfn- 
culos de fraternidad y ampliar el 
conocimiento mutuo de nuestros 
pueblos, ban convenido en celebrar 
una Convenci6n al efecto, y con ese 
prop6sito han designado como Dele- 
gados Plenipotenciarios: 1 

El de Guatemala, Alfonso Her- 
nindez Polanco, en representaci6n 
del Jose Antonio Villacorta; 

El de El Salvador, Jos6 Andres 
Orantes; 

El de Honduras, Angel G. Her- 
nindez; 

El de Nicaragua, Ger6nimo Ra- 
mirez Brown; 

El de Panamd, Vfctor Florencio 
Goytia; 

Y el de Costa Rica, Luis Demetrio 
Tinoco Castro; 

Quienes reunidos en Conferencia 
de Ministros de Educaci6n de Centro 
America, y despu6s de comunicarse 
sus respectivos plenos poderes, que 
fueron hallados en buena y debida 
forma, han convenido en llevar a 
efecto el proposito indicado, formu- 
lando las declaraciones y celebrando 
los convenios siguientes: 

Artfculo i. Los nacionales de las 
RepiSblicas representadas que hayan 
adquirido en cualquiera de ellas 
tftulo o diploma que los habilite 
legalmente para el ejercicio de pro- 
fesiones liberates inclusive el Magis- 
terio, Comercio y Hacienda serin ad- 
mitidos al ejercicio de su profesi6n 
en el territorio de los otros pafses 
siempre que se sometan a los mismos 



requisites y que cumplan las mismas 
formalidades que exigen a sus na- 
cionales las leyes del pafs en donde 
pretendan ejercer su profesi6n. 

Al ejercitar este derecho, el in- 
teresado presentard su diploma de- 
bidamente autenticado, los docu- 
mentos de identificaci6n necesarios, 
y una certificaci6n de haber cursado, 
con aprobaci6n, los estudios uni- 
versitarios correspondientes. 

Art. 2. Los nacionales de cual- 
quiera de los pafses representados, 
que fueren autorizados para ejercer 
su profesi6n en alguno de los otros 
paises, quedar&n sujetos a todas las 
leyes, reglamentos, impuestos y de- 
beres que se exigen a los nacionales 
de ese pafs. 

Art. 3. Las disposiciones ante- 
riores se aplican tambin a los tftulos 
adquiridos por los nacionales de estos 
pafses en Universidades existentes 
fuera de las Republicas representa- 
das, siempre que previamente hu- 
bieren sido incorporados, mediante 
examen, en la respectiva facultad o 
colegio de su propio pafs. 

Art. 4. El canje de las ratifica- 
ciones de la presente Convenci6n se 
hard por medio de comunicaciones 
que dirigirin los Gobiernos repre- 
sentados al Gobierno de Costa Rica, 
para que este lo haga saber a los 
demis Estados participantes. Asi- 
mismo, el Gobierno de Costa Rica 
comunicard a cada uno de ellos su 
ratificaci6n, tan pronto la otorgue. 

Art. 5. La presente Convenci6n 
entrari en vigencia para los Estados 
que la ratifiquen, tan pronto como 
lo hagan por lo menos dos de los 
pafses que la suscriben; y los obligarA 
mientras no la denuncien formal- 
men te. 

Art. 6. Un ejemplar original de la 
presente Convenci6n firmado por 
tpdos los Delegados Plenipotencia- 
rios, quedarA depositado en los 
archivos de la Secretarfa de Rela- 
ciones Exteriores de Costa Rica; 
y dos ejemplares de la misma, fir- 



1 The titles of plenipotentiaries are omitted. ED. 



Sept. 9, 1942 PRODUCTION AND EXPORT OF TIN 35 

mados de igual man era, por todos los EN FE DE LO CUAL firmamos en la 

Plenipotentiaries, serin remitidos ciudad de San Jos6 de Costa Rica el 

a cada uno de los Gobiernos partici- dfa cinco de setiembre de mil noveci- 

pantes. entos cuarenta y dos. 

[Firmada:] Luis D. TINOCO H., ANGEL G. HERNANDEZ, ORANTES, AL- 
FONSO HERNANDEZ POLANCO, G. RAM{REZ BROWN, VfcroR F. GovrfA. 



No. 621 

AGREEMENT for the International Control of the Production and 
Export of Tin. Signed at London, September 9, 1942. 

ARRANGEMENT pour le contrple international de la production et 
de Pexportation de 1'gtain. Signe & Londres, 9 septembre 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement, prepared by the International Tin Committee, re- 
placed the agreement signed at London, January 5, 1937 (No. 475, ante), which had expired 
on December 31 , 1941 . Prior agreements on the subject were signed at London on February 
27, 1931 (International Labor Office, Intergovernmental Commodity Control Agreements, p. 
73), and on October 27, 1933 (No. 349, ante). Agreements with respect to tin buffer stock 
schemes were signed at The Hague, July 10, 1934 (No. 349b, ante), and at London, June 20, 
1938 (No. 475b, ante). An agreement on a tin research scheme, signed at London, January 
2 5f *938 (No. 475c, ante) was continued in force until January i, 1946. An international 
conference on tin, held at London, October 8-12, 1946, led to the creation of an International 
Tin Study Group, which held its first meeting at Brussels, April 15-18, 1947. An arrange- 
ment concerning Siamese tin was signed at Washington, December 10, 1946. 15 U.S. De- 
partment of State Bulletin (1946), p. 1186. 

RATIFICATIONS. This Agreement was not subject to ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text and a French translation of this Agreement are published in 
205 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 137, and in 112 Momteur beige (1942), p. 480. See 
also International Labor Office, Intergovernmental Commodity Control Agreements, p. 95. 
Cf. 144 Peru, Boletin del Ministeno de Relaciones Exteriores (1941), pp. 341-42. 

J. VV. Barnet, "Tin in the Far East," 13 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1947), pp. 

401-4; , "Tin in the Transitional Period," 15 idem (1946), pp. 195-96, 238; E. Hexner, 

International Cartels (Chapel Hill, 1945), pp. 238-48; K. E. Knorr, Tin Under Control 
(Stanford, 1945), 314 pp.; C. K. Leith, J. W. Furness, and C. Lewis, World Minerals and 
World Peace (Washington, 1943), pp. 122-26; E. S. Mason, Controlling World Trade (New 
York, 1946), pp. 191-92; Tin Producers' Association, International Tin Control and "Buffer 
Stocks (London, 1942; 2d ed., London, 1944); U.S. Department of State, International 
Agencies in Which the United States Participates (Washington, 1946; Publ. 2699), pp. 90-94; 
P. L. Yates, Commodity Control (London, 1943), pp. 130-56. 

Entered into force September 9, 1042. T 
Text from British Treaty Series, No. 9 (1942), Cmd. 6396. 

The Governments of the Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Brit- 
of Belgium, the Republic of Bolivia, ain and Northern Ireland (herein- 

1 Retroactive to January I, 1942 (Article 3). Registered with the Secretariat of the 
League of Nations, No. 4831, October 2, 1944. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 621 



after referred to as the United King- 
dom), and the Kingdom of the 
Netherlands: 

Considering that it is necessary 
and advisable that steps should be 
taken to regulate the production and 
export of tin in and from producing 
countries with the object of keeping 
world stocks at a normal figure, ad- 
justing in an orderly manner supply 
to demand, while at the same time 
making available all the tin that may 
be required and preventing rapid and 
severe oscillations of price, and being 
desirous of concluding an agreement 
for this purpose : 

Have accordingly agreed to the 
following Scheme : 

ARTICLE i. Participants 

The obligations under this agree- 
ment of the Government of the 
Kingdom of Belgium apply to the 
Belgian-Congo, those of the Govern- 
ment of the Republic of Bolivia to 
Bolivia, those of the Government of 
the United Kingdom to the Feder- 
ated Malay States, the Unfederated 
Malay States and the Colony of 
Malacca in the Straits Settlements 
(constituting, for the purposes of the 
present agreement, a single group of 
territories and hereinafter referred 
to as Malaya) and to Nigeria, and 
those of the Government of the 
Kingdom of the Netherlands to the 
Netherlands Indies. 

ARTICLE 2. Definitions 
For the purposes of the Scheme: 

(a) "Standard tonnages" means 
the annual rate of permissible export 
of metallic tin when the quota is 100 
per cent. 

(b) "Quota" means the percent- 
age of the standard tonnages which 
may be exported in any quota 
period. 

(c) ' ' Q uota period ' ' means a quar- 
ter (i.e., three calendar months) 
commencing on the first day of 
January, April, July and October. 

(d) "International Tin Commit- 



tee" means the Committee referred 
to in Article 10. 

(e) "Control year" means any 
calendar year during the continuance 
of this agreement. 

(/) "Tin" means metallic tin in 
ingot form. 

(g) "True tin assay" means the 
percentage of pure tin metal con- 
tained in concentrates before any 
deductions are made by the smelter. 
The value of the assay shall be 
adopted to the nearest one-tenth of 
a unit. If the figure in the second 
decimal place is a 5 the adoption 
shall be made by taking the first 
decimal figure. The tonnage of 
metallic tin exported as concentrates 
shall be calculated by converting the 
concentrates into metallic tin on the 
basis of the true tin assay. 

(h) "Territory" means a territory 
(or group of territories) to which the 
obligations of the present agreement 
apply in accordance with Article i. 

ARTICLE 3. Enforcement of Scheme 

(a) The contracting Governments 
undertake to take such measures as 
may be necessary to maintain and 
enforce the Scheme in the territories 
to which their respective obligations 
apply as defined in Article i, so that 
the production and export of each 
territory shall correspond as closely 
as possible throughout the year to 
the quota, allowance being made in 
the case of production for the per- 
mitted stocks, as defined in Article 6. 

(b) The said Scheme shall be re- 
garded as having come into operation 
from the 1st January, 1942, and shall 
remain in force until the 3ist Decem- 
ber, 1946, as a minimum period. 

(c) Not less than twelve calendar 
months prior to the 3ist December, 
1946, the Committee shall make a 
recommendation to the contracting 
Governments as to the continuation 
or otherwise of the Scheme. The 
recommendation, if in favour of con- 
tinuation, may suggest amendments 
to the Scheme and include proposals 



Sept. 9, 1942 



PRODUCTION AND EXPORT OF TIN 



37 



relating to the other provisions of 
this agreement. 

(d) Each contracting Government 
shall signify to the Committee its 
acceptance or rejection of the recom- 
mendation referred to in the im- 
mediately preceding paragraph with- 
in three calendar months after the 
date of the receipt of such recom- 
mendation. 

(e) If the said recommendation is 
accepted by all the contracting Gov- 
ernments, the contracting Govern- 
ments undertake to take such meas- 
ures as may be necessary to carry 
out the said recommendation. The 
Committee shall inform the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom, which 
shall draw up a declaration certifying 
the terms of the said recommenda- 
tion and its acceptance by all the 
contracting Governments, and the 
present agreement shall be deemed 
to be amended in accordance with 
this declaration as from the date 
specified in that declaration. A 
certified copy of the declaration, to- 
gether with a certified copy of the 
agreement as amended, shall be 
communicated to all the other con- 
tracting Governments. 

(/) If the said recommendation is 
not accepted by all the contracting 
Governments, the Committee shall 
decide as soon as possible whether 
they desire to submit to the con- 
tracting Governments an amended 
recommendation. If the Commit- 
tee submits an amended recom- 
mendation each contracting Govern- 
ment shall signify to the Committee 
its acceptance or rejection of the 
amended recommendation within 
one calendar month after the date of 
its receipt. If the amended recom- 
mendation is accepted by all the 
contracting Governments the provi- 
sions of paragraph (e) above shall 
apply. 

(g) If the said recommendation is 
not accepted and the Committee de- 
cides not to submit an amended 
recommendation, or if the amended 



recommendation is not accepted by 
all the contracting Governments, the 
Committee shall so inform the Gov- 
ernment of the United Kingdom, 
which may of its own accord and 
shall if requested by any other con- 
tracting Government convoke a con- 
ference of the contracting Govern- 
ments to consider the situation. 

(h) Unless a recommendation to 
continue the Scheme is accepted 
under paragraphs (d), (e) and (/) 
above, or unless an agreement for 
continuation is concluded between 
the contracting Governments at the 
conference referred to in paragraph 
(g) above, the Scheme and all the 
obligations arising out of this agree- 
ment shall terminate on the 3ist 
December, 1946. If at the confer- 
ence referred to in paragraph (g) 
above an agreement for continuation 
is concluded between some but not 
all of the contracting Governments, 
the Scheme and all the obligations 
arising out of this agreement shall 
terminate on the 3ist December, 
1946 in respect of any contracting 
Government not a party to the 
agreement for continuation. 

(i) Without prejudice to the pro- 
visions of paragraph (c) of this Arti- 
cle, the Committee may at any time 
make a recommendation to the 
contracting Governments for the 
amendment of any part of the 
Scheme or any of the other provi- 
sions of the present agreement. 
The recommendations of the Com- 
mittee under this paragraph may 
include a recommendation that the 
present agreement should be made 
open to the accession of a non- 
signatory Government and proposals 
for such additions and amendments 
to the present agreement as may be 
necessary to determine the condi- 
tions of the participation of such 
Government. The provisions of 
paragraphs (d) and (e) of this Article 
shall apply as regards any recom- 
mendations made under the provi- 
sions of this paragraph. Recom- 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 621 



mendations under this paragraph if 
not accepted and put into force un- 
der paragraphs (d) and (e) shall fall, 
but without prejudice to the power 
of the Committee to present all or 
any of them again under paragraph 
(c) at the appropriate time. 

ARTICLE 4. Standard Tonnages 

The exports of tin shall be regu- 
lated in accordance with the follow- 
ing provisions: 

(a) The following annual quanti- 
ties in tons of 2,240 English pounds 
avoirdupois shall be adopted as 
standard tonnages for each terri- 
tory: 



Table of Standard Tonnages 



Tons 



Belgian Congo 20,178 

Bolivia . 46,768 

Malaya.... . 95474 

Netherlands Indies 55fH3 

Nigeria 15.367 

232,900 

(b) The Committee shall from 
time to time fix the quota which 
may be exported during each quota 
period. If no positive decision to 
change the quota is taken the quota 
shall remain unchanged. 

(c) In each control year the quan- 
tity of tin which is represented by 
the total of the quotas of each terri- 
tory during that year constitutes for 
that territory the permissible ex- 
portable amount for such territory. 

ARTICLE 5. Exports 

The nett exports of tin from each 
territory for any control year shall be 
limited to the permissible exportable 
amount. 

Provided that 

(a) If the permissible exportable 
amount is exceeded in any control 
year the nett exports for the im- 
mediately following control year 
shall be limited to the permissible 
exportable amount for such year less 
the amount of such excess for the 
previous year. 



(b) If any territory has exported 
in any control year less than its per- 
missible exportable amount, the net 
exports from such territory for the 
immediately following year may be 
permitted to exceed the permissible 
exportable amount for such year by 
an amount equal to the deficiency 
below the permissible exportable 
amount for the previous year if such 
deficiency was less than 8> per 
cent, of such permissible exportable 
amount or equal to 8> per cent, of 
such permissible exportable amount 
if the deficiency exceeded 8y per 
cent., provided that the quantity by 
which the exports may be permitted 
to exceed the permissible exportable 
amount for such year shall in no case 
exceed 8^3 per cent, of the standard 
tonnage of the territory concerned. 

ARTICLE 6. Stocks 

The stock of tin and tin in concen- 
trates within any territory shall not 
at any time exceed 25 per cent, of the 
standard tonnage of that territory. 

The Committee may, however, 
permit this percentage to be ex- 
ceeded in particular cases. 

ARTICLE 7. Statistics 

(a) Each territory shall furnish 
the Committee with the monthly 
figures of production and export and 
of the assay value used in their de- 
termination within 15 days of the 
end of each month. 

(b) Each territory shall furnish 
not later than three calendar months 
after the end of each half-year the 
true tin assay of the concentrates 
actually exported from the territory 
during each half-year commencing 
the 1st January and the 1st July. 

(c) Each territory shall furnish 
such additional statistics as will en- 
able the Committee to estimate 
world's production and stocks. 

ARTICLE 8, Adjustment of Statistics 

(a) On receipt of the detailed 
figures specified in Article 7 (b) the 



Sept. 9, 1942 



PRODUCTION AND EXPORT OF TIN 



39 



excess or deficiency due to change in 
assay value shall be determined for 
each territory and the figures of ex- 
port adjusted accordingly. 

(b) Within three months of the 
commencement of the Scheme the 
total exports of each territory during 
the period of the Scheme terminating 
on the 3 1st December, 1941 shall be 
calculated finally, in metallic tin, on 
the true assay basis. The total ex- 
ports so determined shall be com- 
pared with the permissible exporta- 
ble amount, and any excesses or 
deficiencies, subject in the case of the 
latter to a limit of 8^ per cent, of 
the permissible exportable amount or 
8>^ per cent, of the standard ton- 
nage, whichever is the less, shall be 
brought forward for adjustment in 
the first year of this Scheme. 

ARTICLE 9. Irregularities 

The contracting Governments and 
the administrations of the territories 
to which the present agreement ap- 
plies shall co-operate with each other 
to prevent smuggling, evasion and 
other abuses of the Scheme. 

ARTICLE 10. Administration 

(a) A Committee to be designated 
the International Tin Committee 
shall be constituted as soon as pos- 
sible. 

(b) The said Committee shall be 
composed of delegations representing 
the territories to which the present 
agreement applies. Each delegation 
shall consist of not more than three 
members, and its composition may 
be changed by formal intimation to 
the Chairman. Members may be 
nominated as alternates to such sub- 
stantive members of delegations. 

(c) Each territory may associate 
with its delegation such advisers, not 
exceeding two in number, as it may 
consider desirable and may change 
such advisers. The Chairman may, 
at the request of any delegation, in- 
vite any other person to attend a 
meeting in an advisory capacity. 



(d) The Government of the United 
Kingdom shall be informed as soon 
as possible by the other contracting 
Governments of the persons first 
designated as members of delega- 
tions representing their respective 
territories. 

(e) The Government of the United 
Kingdom shall convoke the first 
meeting of the Committee as soon as 
possible. 

ARTICLE n. Committee 

(a) The principal office of the 
Committee shall be in London. The 
Committee shall make such arrange- 
ments as may be necessary for office 
accommodation and may appoint 
and pay such officers and staff as 
may be required. The remunera- 
tion and expenses of members or 
delegations shall be defrayed by the 
Government by whom they are 
designated. 

(b) The proceedings of the Com- 
mittee shall be conducted in English. 

(c) The Committee shall at its 
first meeting elect its Chairman and 
Vice-Chairman. The Chairman need 
not necessarily be a member of a 
delegation. 

(d) The Committee may pay the 
Chairman such remuneration as they 
consider appropriate. 

ARTICLE 12. Procedure 

(a) Meetings shall be convened by 
the Chairman or in his absence by 
the Vice-Chairman. Not more than 
three calendar months shall normally 
elapse between any two consecutive 
meetings. An extraordinary meet- 
ing shall be convened at any time at 
the request of any delegation within 
fourteen days of the receipt of the 
request by the Chairman. 

(b) If no delegation opposes, deci- 
sions of the Committee may be taken 
without a meeting by correspondence 
between the Chairman and all dele- 
gations. Notice of any decision 
taken shall be given to all delega- 
tions as soon as possible; such deci- 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 621 



sion shall be recorded in the minutes 
of the next meeting. 

(c) The Committee shall carry out 
the provisions of this Scheme and 
shall in addition collect and publish 
such statistical information and 
make such other recommendations 
to Governments relevant to the sub- 
ject matter of this agreement as may 
seem desirable. The Committee 
shall do all such other lawful things 
as may be necessary, incidental or 
conducive to the carrying out of its 
functions and give such publicity to 
its actions as it may deem necessary 
or desirable. 

(d) Any delegation may at any 
time, if it considers that any con- 
tracting Government has failed to 
comply with its obligations under 
this agreement, request the Chair- 
man to call a special meeting of the 
Committee to decide whether a 
major infringement of the agreement 
has taken place and, if so, what 
recommendations should be made to 
the contracting Governments in view 
of that infringement. On receipt of 
such a request the Chairman shall 
immediately convene a meeting of 
the Committee. 

(e) The Committee shall have 
power to decide what constitutes a 
major infringement within the mean- 
ing of this agreement and may in 
their discretion decide that a number 
of minor infringements shall in the 
aggregate constitute a major in- 
fringement. In particular, a major 
infringement is constituted if, sub- 
ject to the provisions of Article 5 (ft), 
the exports from any territory, for 
any period of three consecutive 
months, exceed the quota for that 
period by an amount equal to 10 per 
cent, of that quota. 

ARTICLE 13. Consumers 9 
Representation 

The Committee shall, within one 
month of its first meeting, invite 

(i) two persons to represent the 
tin consuming interest of the 



United States of America, of 
whom one shall be appointed 
by the Government of the 
United States of America and 
the other shall be appointed 
as the direct representative of 
the tin consumers in the 
United States of America; and 
(ii) one person appointed to repre- 
sent the tin consumers other 
than the tin consumers of the 
United States of America 

to attend its meetings and to tender 
advice to the Committee regarding 
world stocks and consumption. 

ARTICLE 14. Voting 

(d) Each delegation shall vote as 
one unit. In case of delegations 
composed of more than one member 
the name of the member entitled to 
exercise the vote shall be communi- 
cated in case of the first meeting to 
the Government of the United King- 
dom and thereafter to the Chairman 
of the Committee. The voting 
member may, in case of absence, by 
communication to the Chairman 
nominate another member to act for 
him. The delegations shall be en- 
titled to cast the following number 
of votes, namely : 

Belgian Congo 2 

Bolivia 4 

Malaya 5 

Netherlands Indies 4 

Nigeria 2 

(6) The presence of voting mem- 
bers of at least three delegations 
shall be necessary to constitute a 
quorum at any meeting, provided 
that if within an hour of the time 
appointed for the meeting a quorum 
as above defined is not present, the 
meeting may be adjourned by the 
Chairman to the same day in the 
next week, and if at such adjourned 
meeting a quorum as defined above 
is not present, those delegations who 
are present at the adjourned meeting 
shall constitute a quorum. 

(c) At such an adjourned meeting 
decisions shall be taken by a simple 



Sept. 9, 1942 



PRODUCTION AND EXPORT OF TIN 



majority of votes. If at such an 
adjourned meeting the votes are 
equally divided, the Chairman shall 
have an additional casting vote. 

(d) At any meeting other than 
such an adjourned meeting, a total 
of ten votes in favour shall carry any 
proposal. 

ARTICLE 15. Financial 

(a) The Committee shall at the 
beginning of each control year draw 
up its budget for the forthcoming 
year. The budget shall show under 
appropriate headings and in reason- 
able detail the estimate of the Com- 
mittee of its expenses for that year. 
The budget shall be communicated 
to the contracting Governments and 
to the administrations of the terri- 
tories to which the present agree- 
ment applies, and shall show the 
share of the expenses falling upon 
each territory. 

(b) The expenses of the Commit- 
tee shall be defrayed by the adminis- 
trations of all territories to which the 
present agreement applies. The 
contribution of each territory shall 
bear the same proportion to the 
total contributions as the standard 
tonnage of the territory bears to the 
total of the standard tonnages. 

(c) The Committee may draw up, 
put into force, modify or abrogate 
rules for the conduct of its business 
and procedure as may from time to 
time be necessary, provided that its 
rules of procedure shall be at all 
times in conformity with the provi- 
sions of this Scheme. 

ARTICLE 16. Withdrawal from and 
Suspension or Abandonment of 
Scheme 

(a) If the Committee is satisfied 
that the estimated production of all 
territories not specified in Article 4 
has, over a period of six consecutive 
months, exceeded 20 per cent, of the 
estimated world production during 
that period, or 18,000 tons of me- 
tallic tin, whichever is the less 



amount, it shall be competent for 
any contracting Government to give 
six months' notice to the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom of its 
intention to withdraw from the 
Scheme. 

(b) Any contracting Government 
may at any time, if it considers that 
its national security is endangered 
and that the continuance of its obli- 
gations under this agreement would 
be inconsistent with the require- 
ments of its national security, give 
notice to the Government of the 
United Kingdom that it desires the 
suspension for the period of the 
emergency of all its rights and obli- 
gations under the agreement, and all 
such rights and obligations shall 
thereupon be suspended until the 
Government which has given notice 
informs the Government of the 
United Kingdom of the termination 
of the emergency. 

(c) If, in accordance with Article 
12 (d) and 12 (e) of this agreement, 
either the Committee should decide 
that a major infringement of the 
agreement has taken place, or a 
major infringement is proved to the 
satisfaction of the Committee, the 
Committee shall at once notify the 
Government of the United Kingdom, 
who shall inform the other contract- 
ing Governments. Any contracting 
Government may then, by written 
notice given to the Government of 
the United Kingdom, withdraw from 
this agreement; such withdrawal 
shall take effect from the end of the 
three months 1 quota period following 
that in which the notice of with- 
drawal is received. 

(d) The Government of the United 
Kingdom shall immediately inform 
all the other contracting Govern- 
ments on receipt of any notice of 
withdrawal or suspension under 
paragraphs (a), (b) or (c) of this 
Article, and each of the other con- 
tracting Governments shall have the 
right to notify the Government of 
the United Kingdom within one 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 62 ia 



month of the receipt of this informa- 
tion that, in the circumstances, it de- 
sires to withdraw from the Scheme or 
to suspend its rights and obligations. 

(e) If notifications of suspension 
are received under paragraphs (&) 
and (d) from two or more contracting 
Governments, the agreement shall be 
suspended in respect of all contract* 
ing Governments until the suspen- 
sion is terminated by the Govern- 
ment which first gave notice under 
paragraph (b) . Otherwise the agree- 
ment will remain in full force between 
the contracting Governments who 
have not given notice of suspension. 

(/) If the Committee at any time, 
at a meeting at which all delegations 
are represented, adopts by an unani- 
mous vote a resolution that it is 
desirable that the scheme should be 
abandoned forthwith, the Chairman 
of the Committee shall at once in- 
form the Government of the United 
Kingdom of this resolution. The 
Government of the United Kingdom 
shall, without delay, communicate 
this resolution to all the other con- 



tracting Governments, and the whole 
of the present agreement shall termi- 
nate as from the end of the quota 
period current at the date of the 
communication from the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom. 

ARTICLE 17. Research 

The continuance of international 
co-operation in research into prob- 
lems connected with the tin industry 
and stimulation of consumption of 
tin is accepted as most desirable. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the under- 
signed plenipotentiaries, being au- 
thorised to this effect by their re- 
spective Governments, have signed 
the present Agreement and affixed 
thereto their seals. 

Done in London this 9th day of 
September, 1942, in a single copy, 
which shall remain deposited in the 
archives of the Government of the 
United Kingdom, and of which duly 
certified copies shall be communi- 
cated by the Government of the 
United Kingdom to each of the other 
contracting Governments. 



[Signed:] For the Government of the Kingdom of Belgium: TH. DE 
LANTSHEERE; for the Government of the Republic of Bolivia: A. PATINO R. ; 
for the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland: ANTHONY EDEN; for the Government of the Kingdom of the 
Netherlands: E. TEIXEIRA DE MATTOS. 



No. 621a 

Protocol of Signature of the International Tin Control Agreement. 
Signed at London, September 9, 1942. 

Protocole de signature de I 9 Arrangement pour le contr&le interna- 
tional de retain. Sign6 & Londres, 9 septembre 1942. 

Entered into force September 9, X042. 1 
Text from British Treaty Series, No. 9 (1942), Cmd. 6396, p. 10. 

AT the moment of signing the Control of the Production and Ex- 
Agreement for the International port of Tin of this day's date, the 
1 Registered with the Secretariat of the League of Nations, under No. 4831, October 2, 1944. 



Oct. 19, 1942 EUROPEAN POSTAL AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION 43 

undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being the administrations of all the terri- 

duly authorised thereto, have agreed tories to which the above-mentioned 

as follows: Agreement applies until the status of 

(1) It is understood that the pro- Malaya and the Netherlands East 
visions of Articles 4(0) and 14 of the Indies prior to the occupation of 
Agreement shall be reconsidered as those territories by the Japanese 
soon as the status of Malaya and the forces, has been re-established. 
Netherlands East Indies prior to the ~ . T , ,. . , - 
occupation of those territories by the DONE U m Londo ? this ?* day of 
Japanese forces has been re-estab- September, 1942, in a single copy, 
lished and it has become possible to wh h shall remain deposited in the 
determine the actual productive archives of the Government of the 
capacity of those territories. United Kingdom, and of which duly 

(2) Notwithstanding the provi- certified copies shall be communi- 
sions of Article 15(6) of the Agree- cated by the Government of the 
ment, the expenses of the Committee United Kingdom to each of the other 
shall be defrayed in equal shares by contracting Governments. 

[Here follow the same signatures as those affixed to the Agreement.] 



No. 622 

AGREEMENT concerning a European Postal and Telecommunica- 
tions Union. Signed at Vienna, October 19, 1942. 

ACCORD relatif ft PUnion europeenne des Postes et des Tlcom~ 
munications. Signe ft Vienne, 19 octobre 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement was concluded at a conference held at Vienna, October 
12-24, I 94 2 it was accompanied by postal and telegraphic regulations. German Reichs- 
gesetzblatt, 1943, Part II, pp. 124, 126. The conference also established three permanent 
committees on postal services, telecommunication services, and telecommunication tech- 
niques; for their regulations, see Europaischer Postkongress, Wien 1942, Berichte und 
Vereinbarungen, pp. 232-35, 294-97, 300-5. The Permanent Postal Committee of the 
European Union held its first session at Copenhagen, June 24-30, 1943. The Permanent 
Telecommunication Services Committee of the European Union held its first session at 
Vienna, September 1-7, 1943. The establishment of the Union was preceded by numerous 
postal service agreements and telegraphic service agreements between Germany and other 
European states; e.g., the German- Italian agreements of October 8, 1941, Italian Gazzetta 
ufficiale, 1942, pp. 955, 957; 9 Journal des telecommunications (1942), p. 151. Special unions 
of this nature are envisaged by Article 5 of the Universal Postal Union Convention of May 
2 3 *939 (No- 558, ante), and by Article 13 of the Madrid Telecommunication Convention 
of December 9, 1932 (No. 316, ante). 

RATIFICATIONS. On March 31, 1943, this Agreement had been ratified by all states which 
had signed subject to ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is also published in Europaischer Postkon- 
gress, Wien 1942, Berichte und Vereinbarungen t pp. 98-103. The Italian version is pub- 
lished in Italian Gazzetta ufficiale, May 28, 1943, No. 124. 

Anon., "Congres europeen de Vienne, 11 67 Union postal* (1942), pp. 290-95; Anon., 
"Pro jet de creation d'un nouvel organisme europeen dans le dornaine postal et tele- 



44 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 622 



graphique," 9 Journal des telecommunications (1942), pp. 125-28; Anon., " A propos du projet 
de creation d'un nouvel organisme europeen dans le domaine postal et telegraphique," 9 
idem (1942), pp. 151-52; Anon., "L'Union europeenne des Postes et des T61ecommunica- 
tions, 1 ' 9 idem (1042), pp. 161-63, 193-202; A. S. Angwin, "Les telecommunications interna- 
tionales," II idem (1944), pp. 137-46; K. von Forster, "Die Aufgaben des europaischen 
Post- und Fernmeldevereins," n Ausw&rtigc Politik (1944), pp. 352-58; G. Gneme, "La 
Conference de Vienne de 1 'Union europeenne des Postes et des Telecommunications," 10 
Journal des telecommunications (1943), pp. 29-35; Ohnesorge, "L'Unione postale e telegrafica 
euro pea," 8 Relation* inter nasionali (1942), p. 1242; G. Pession, "L'Unione europea postale 
e delle telecommunicazioni," 23 Echi e commenti (1942), pp. 550-52; F. Risch, "Les inches 
et les buts d'une Union postale europeenne," 67 Union postale (1942), pp. 246-53. 

Entered into force April i, 1943. 

German version from German Reichsgesefablatt, 1943, Part II, p. 122; French translation from 
9 Journal des telecommunications (1942), p. 162. 



Die unterzeichneten Bevollmach- 
tigten der Post- und Fernmeldever- 
waltungen der nachstehenden Lan- 
der: Albanien, Bulgarien, Dane- 
mark, Deutschland, Finnland, Ita- 
lien, Kroatien, Niederlande, Nor- 
wegen, Rumanien, San Marino, 
Slowakei, Ungarn, haben zur Forde- 
rung der europaischen Zusammenar- 
beit auf dem Gebiete des Post- und 
Fernmeldewesens gestiitztauf den 
Weltpostvertrag und den Weltnach- 
richtenvertrag im gegenseitigen 
Einverstandnis folgendes beschlos- 
sen: 

ARTIKEL i. Europdischer Post- und 
Fernmddeverein 

Die beteiligten Verwaltungen bilden 
den " Europaischen Post- und Fern- 
meldeverein ", der zum Ziel hat, die 
einzelnen Dienstzweige im gegensei- 
tigen Post- und Fernmeldedienst zu 
verbessern und zu vervollkommnen. 



ARTIKEL 2. Vottzugsordnungen 

Die zur Durchfilhrung dieses Ube- 
reinkommens und zur Ausfuhrung 
des Post- und Fernmeldedienstes im 
Vereinsbereich notwendigen Dienst- 
vorschriften werden in Vollzugsord- 
nungen zusammengefaBt, die auf 
den Tagungen des Vereins (Artikel 
3) von den Verwaltungen miteinan- 
der vereinbart werden. 



[Traduction] 

Les plnipotentiaires soussign6s 
des administrations postales et des 
t16communications des pays ci- 
apr&s: Albanie, Bulgarie, Danemark, 
Allemagne, Finlande, Italic, Croatie, 
Pays-Has, Norvge, Roumanie, S. 
Marin, Slovaquie, Hongrie ont, en 
accord rciproque, pour le progrs de 
la cooperation europ6enne dans le 
domaine de la poste et des t16com- 
muni cations, en se basant sur la 
Convention postale universelle et la 
Convention internationale des tcl- 
communications, d6cid6, ce qui suit: 

ARTICLE i. Union europfenne des 
pastes et des tilicommunications 

Les administrations participantes 
forment 1' "Union europeenne des 
postes et des telecommunications", 
qui a pour but d'am61iorer et de per- 
fectionner les diverses branches des 
services de la poste et des telecom- 
munications. 

ARTICLE 2. Rkglements d 1 execution 

Les prescriptions de service neces- 
saires pour appliquer cet accord et 
pour executer le service de la poste et 
des telecommunications dans le do- 
maine de TUnion sont rassembiees 
dans des rfeglements d 'execution qui 
sont etablis en accord par les ad- 
ministrations dans les sessions de 
1'Union. 



Oct. 19, 1942 EUROPEAN POSTAL AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION 



45 



ARTIKEL 3. Vereinstagungen 

Die Vertreter der Vereinsverwal- 
tungen vereinigen sich zu gegebener 
Zeit zu Tagungen, um (iber die An- 
derung oder ErgSnzung der Vor- 
schriften dieses Ubereinkommens, 
(iber die Aufstellung, Anderung und 
Erg^nzung der im Artikel 2 genann- 
ten Vollzugsordnungen oder iiber 
sonstige, den Verein betreffende 
Angelegenheiten zu beraten und zu 
beschlieBen. 

Die Verhandlungssprachen auf 
den Tagungen sind deutsch und 
italienisch; dabei werden die 
deutschen Ausfiihrungen sofort ins 
Italienische iibersetzt und umge- 
kehrt. Die Vertreter konnen sich 
anderer Sprachen bedienen : sie mils- 
sen aber ftir unmittelbare pber- 
setzung in die deutsche oder italie- 
nische Sprache sorgen. 

Die Niederschriften und Akten der 
Tagungen sind in deutscher und 
italienischer Sprache zu verfassen. 

Bei den Abstimmungen auf den 
Tagungen entfallt auf jedes Land 
einschliefilich der abhangigen Ge- 
biete usw. eine Stimme. 

Jede Tagung bestimmt das Jahr 
und das Land der nachsten Ta- 
gung. Die Verwaltung des Landes, 
in dem getagt werden soil, setzt 
nach Verstandigung mit der Ve- 
reinsgeschaftsstelle (Artikel 5) den 
Zeitpunkt und den Ort der Tagung 
fest. 

Die Tagung kann auf einen frii- 
heren oder spateren Zeitpunkt fest- 
gelegt werden, wenn zwei Drittel 
der Verwaltungen bei der die Ta- 
gung abhaltenden Verwaltung den 
Antrag stellen. 

ARTIKEL 4. Stdndige Ausschusse 

Zur Priifung und Erorterung von 
Fragen des Post- und Fernmelde- 
dienstes konnen Standige Ausschusse 
eingesetzt werden. Sie werden aus 
Sachverstandigen derjenigen Post- 
und Fernmeldeverwaltungen gebildet, 
die sich zur Teilnahme an ihren 
Arbeiten bereit erklaren und sich 



ARTICLE 3. Sessions de V Union 

Les reprsentants des administra- 
tions de T Union se runissent une 
6poque d6termin6e, pour discuter et 
prendre des decisions en vue de 
modifier ou de computer les pre- 
scriptions de cet accord, d'tablir, de 
modifier et de computer les rdgle- 
ments d'ex^cution mentionn^s & 
Tarticle 2 pu pour discuter et prendre 
des decisions sur d'autres affaires 
concernant 1'Union. 

Les langues des discussions au 
cours des sessions sont 1'allemand et 
Titalien. 

Les explications fournies en alle- 
mand sont imm6diatement traduites 
en italien et inversement. 

Les repr6sentants peuvent se servir 
d'autres langues mais il doivent se 
charger d'en faire assurer la traduction 
immediate en allemand ou en italien. 

Les rapports et les actes des r6- 
unions doivent tre rdigs en alle- 
mand et en italien. 

Lors des votes au cours des ses- 
sions, chaque pays, y compris les ter- 
ritoires qui en dependent, etc., dis- 
pose d'une voix. 

Au cours de chaque reunion sont 
indiqu6s Tann6e et le lieu de la r- 
union suivante. Celle-ci est con- 
voqu6e, apr^s entente avec le bureau 
de 1'Union (art. 5), par Tadministra- 
tion du pays dans lequel elle doit 
avoir lieu. La reunion peut etre 
fix^e i une date plus rapproch6e ou 
plus 61oign6e si deux tiers des ad- 
ministrations en font la proposition 
4 Tadministration qui doit 1'or- 
ganiser. 



ARTICLE 4. Comitis permanents 

Pour Texamen et la discussion de 
questions du service de la poste et 
des t616communications, des comit6s 
permanents peuvent Stre institu^s. 
Ils sont formes d'experts des admin- 
istrations des postes et des t61com- 
munications qui se dclarent pretes ^ 
participer ^ leurs travaux, et s'en- 



4 6 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 622 



verpflichten, zu den allgemeinen 
Kosten ihrer Tagungen beizutragen. 
Fiir das Stimmrecht und die 
Sprache gelten die Bestimmungen 
des Artikels 3. 

ARTIKEL 5. GescMftsstelle des Euro- 
pdischen Post- und Fernmeldevereins 

Eine Dienststelle, die in Wien 
unter dem Namen "Geschaftsstelle 
des Europaischen Post- und Fern- 
meldevereins " tatig ist und unter der 
Oberaufsicht der deutschen Post- 
verwaltung steht, dient den Verein- 
sverwaltungen als Verbindungs-, 
Auskunfts- und Beratungsstelle. Ihr 
fallen im wesentlichen die gleichen 
Aufgaben fiir den Bereich des Euro- 
paischen Post- und Fernmeldeve- 
reins zu, wie sic fiir das Biiro des 
Weltpostvereins und das Biiro des 
Wcltnachrichtenvereins vorgesehen 
sind. 

Die amtlichen Sprachen fiir die 
Akten des Vereins sind deutsch und 
italienisch. Der amtliche Schrift- 
wechsel zwischen der Geschaftsstelle 
und den Verwaltungen wird deutsch 
oder italienisch gefiihrt. 

Vom Tage des Inkrafttretens des 
Obereinkommens an werden die Ko- 
sten fiir den Betrieb der Geschafts- 
stelle sowie die auBerordentlichen 
Kosten, die der Zusammentritt einer 
Tagung verursacht, und die Kosten, 
die etwa durch die der Geschaftsstelle 
iibertragenen besonderen Arbeiten 
entstehen, von samtlichen Vereinsver- 
waltungen gemeinsam getragen. 

Die Lander der beteiligten Ver- 
waltungen werden hierfiir in 7 Klas- 
sen eingeteilt, deren jede ihren 
Kostenbeitrag nach folgendem Ver- 
bal tnis leistet: 



gagent contribuer aux frais gne- 
raux de leurs reunions. 

En ce qui concerne le droit de vote 
et la langue, les prescriptions de 
1'article 3 sont applicables. 

ARTICLE 5. Bureau de V Union euro- 
ptenne des posies et des ttlicom- 
munications 

Un bureau, qui fonctionne & 
Vienne sous le nom de "Bureau de 
TUnion europ6enne des postes et des 
telecommunications M et est place 
sous la surveillance de 1'Administra- 
tion des postes allemande, sert aux 
administrations de TUnion de service 
de liaison, de renseigncments et de 
conseil. II lui incombe, essentielle- 
ment, les mmes tiches dans le 
domaine de 1'Union europ^enne des 
postes et des telecommunications 
que celles qui sont prevues pour le 
Bureau de 1'Union postale univer- 
selle et pour le Bureau de 1'Union in- 
ternationale des telecommunications. 

Les langues officielles pour la re- 
daction des actes de 1'Union sont 
1'allemand et Titalien. L'echange 
des correspondances officielles entre 
le bureau et les administrations se 
fait en allemand ou en italien. 

A partir du jour de la mise en 
vigueur de Taccord, les depenses 
pour Texploitation du bureau, de 
m6me que les depenses extraordi- 
naires occasionn6es par 1'organisa- 
tion d'une r6union et les depenses 
qui peuvent resulter, eventuelle- 
ment, de travaux particuliers as- 
sures par le bureau sont supporters 
eri commun par toutes les adminis- 
trations de 1' Union. 

Les pays des administrations par- 
ticipantes sont ranges, cet effet, en 
7 classes dont chacune fournit la 
contribution aux frais communs 
d'apr&s le rapport suivant: 



I. Klasse 25 Einheitcn I" classe 25 unites 



2. 

3. 

4- 
5- 
6. 

7- 



20 

15 
10 

5 
3 
I Einheit. 



2* 

3" 
4 e 
5' 
6- 

7' 



20 

15 
10 

5 



unit. 



Oct. 19, 1942 EUROPEAN POSTAL AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION 



47 



Jede Verwaltung teilt der Ge- 
schaftsstelle mit, in welche Klasse sie 
eingereiht zu warden wiinscht. 

ARTIKEL 6. Schiedsgericht 

Meinungsverschiedenheiten, die 
sich aus diesem Ubereinkommen und 
den Vollzugsordnungen zwischen den 
Vereinsverwaltungen ergeben, sind 
durch ein Schiedsgericht zu schlich- 
ten, das aus Mitgliedern des Euro- 
paischen Post- und Fernmeldeve- 
reins entsprechend der im Welt- 
postvertrag vorgeschriebenen Weise 
gebildet wird und auch nach den in 
diesem Vertrag gegebenen Vorschrif- 
ten verf ahrt. Wenn nach dem 
Vertrag die Ernennung der Schieds- 
richter dem Hiiro des Weltpostve- 
reins obliegt, werden die Schieds- 
richter von der Geschaftsstelle des 
Europaischen Post- und Fernmel- 
devereins bestcllt. 

ARTIKEL 7. Beitritt 

Jede europaische oder dem europai- 
schen Raum benachbarte Post- und 
Fernmeldeverwaltung kann jederzeit 
diesem Ubereinkommen beitreten. 

Die Beitrittserklarung ist der Ve- 
reinsgeschaftsstelle zu iibersendcn, 
die ihrerseits die Vereinsverwaltun- 
gen verstandigt. 

ARTIKEL 8. Austria 

Jede beteiligte Verwaltung ist bei 
Einhaltung einer einjahrigen Kiln- 
digungsfrist berechtigt, durch eine 
an die Vereinsgeschaftsstelle zu rich- 
tende schriftliche Erklarung ihren 
Austritt aus dem Europaischen Post- 
und Fernmeldeverein anzuzeigen. 
Diese Erklarung gilt nur fur die 
Verwaltung, von der sie eingereicht 
worden ist; das Obereinkommen 
bleibt fiir die anderen teilnehmenden 
Verwaltungen in Kraft. 

ARTIKEL 9. Anwendung des Welt- 
postvertrags und des Weltnach- 
richtenvertrags 

Die Bestimmungen des Weltpost- 
vertrags, der besonderen Abkommen 



Chaque administration commu- 
nique au bureau la classe dans 
laquelle elle desire ttre rang^e. 

ARTICLE 6. Arbitrage 

Les divergences d'avis qui se mani- 
festent entre les administrations de 
TUnion au sujet de cet accord et des 
r^glements d 'execution doivent tre 
aplanies par un tribunal d 'arbitrage 
qui est form6 de membres de 1'Union 
europ6enne des postes et des t61- 
communications suivant le mode 
present par la Convention postale 
universelle, et qui procfede d'aprfes 
les prescriptions indiques 6galement 
dans cette convention. 

Lorsque, d'apres cette convention, 
la nomination de Tarbitre incombe 
au Bureau de l v Union postale uni- 
verselle, les arbitres sont d6signs 
par le Bureau de TUnion europ^enne 
des postes et des telecommunications. 

ARTICLE 7. Adhesion 

Toute administration des postes et 
des telecommunications europeenne 
ou voisine de 1'espace europ6en peut 
adherer en tout temps a cet accord. 
La declaration d 'adhesion doit tre 
transmise au bureau de 1'Union qui, 
de son c6te, en avise les administra- 
tions de TUnion. 

ARTICLE 8. Sortie de V Union 

Chaque administration partici- 
pante a le droit, sous reserve d'un 
pr6avis d'un an, de declarer par une 
notification ecrite adressee au Bu- 
reau de 1'Union qu'elle sort de 
TUnion europeenne des postes et des 
telecommunications. Cette notifi- 
cation n'est valable que pour Tad- 
ministration de qui elle emane. 
L'accord reste en vigueur pour les 
autres administrations participantes. 

ARTICLE 9. Application de la Con- 
vention postale universelle et de la 
Convention international des tili- 
communications 

Les prescriptions de la Convention 
postale universelle, des accords par- 



4 8 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 622 



hierzu, des Weltnachrichtenvertrags 
und der dazugehorigen Vollzugsord- 
nungen bleiben unberiihrt, soweit 
der Gegenstand nicht durch dieses 
Obereinkommen oder die Vollzugs- 
ordnungen (Artikel 2) ausdrticklich 
geregelt ist. 

ARTIKEL 10. Inkrafttreten des Uber- 
einkommens und Vorbehalt der Ge- 
nehmigung 

Dieses Ubereinkommen wird am 
I. April 1943 in Kraft treten. 

Fiir eine Verwaltung, die unter 
Vorbehalt einer Genehmigung unter- 
zeichnet hat, tritt das Obereinkom- 
men nur in Kraft, wenn die Mit- 
teilung von dem Vorliegen der 
Genehmigung bis zum 31. Marz 1943 
bei der deutschen Postverwaltung 
eingeht. 

ARTIKEL n. Gultigkeit der Texte 

Dieses Ubereinkommen wird in 
deutscher und italienischer Sprache 
ausgefertigt. Beide Fassungen gel- 
ten als Urschrift. 

UNTERZEICHNET in einem Stiick, 
das im Archiv der deutschen Post- 
verwaltung aufbewahrt und von dem 
jeder Verwaltung eine beglaubigte 
Abschrift iibersandt werden wird. 

Wien, am 19. Oktober 1942. 



ticuliers additionnels y relatifs, de la 
Convention Internationale des t616- 
communications et des Rfeglements y 
annexes restent inchang6es pour 
autant que 1'objet n f en est pas ex- 
pressfiment r6gl6 par le present ac- 
cord ou les riglements d'ex6cution 
(art. 2). 

ARTICLE 10. Mise en vigueur de 
V accord et reserve d' approbation 

Le present accord entrera en 
vigueur le i er avril 1943. Pour une 
administration qui a sign6 sous 
reserve d 'approbation, Taccord entre 
en vigueur seulement si la notifica- 
tion de cette approbation est faite 
avant le 31 mars 1943 auprfes de 
I'Administration des postes d'Alle- 
magne. 

ARTICLE u.Validiti du texte 

Get accord est r6dig6 en allemand 
et en italien. Les deux redactions 
sont valables comme texte original. 



VIENNE, le 19 octobre 1942. 



[Unterzeichnet:] Albanien: unter Vorbehalt der Genehmigung, N. NARACI; 
Bulgarien: Dipl.-Ing. W. PISSOMOFF; DKnemark: K. J. JENSEN; Deutsch- 
land: OHNESORGE; Finnland: G. E. F. ALBRECHT; Italien: unter Vorbehalt 
der Genehmigung, G. PESSION ; Kroatien : unter Vorbehalt der Genehmigung, 
FRANJO POLJAN; Niederlande: W. L. Z. VAN DER VEGTE; Norwegen: 
SVEIN SVENSEN, ANDR. HADLAND; Rumfinien: unter Vorbehalt der Geneh- 
migung, Col. G. TEODORESCU; San Marino: unter Vorbehalt der Geneh- 
migung, Ing. Pio VENTURINI; Slowakei: Ing. KUDLAK; Ungarn: unter 
Vorbehalt der Genehmigung, Dr. FORSTER KAROLY. 



Jan. 5, 1943 DISPOSSESSION UNDER ENEMY OCCUPATION 49 

No. 623 

AGREEMENT concerning the Regulation of International Military 
Traffic on the Emergency Military Highway. Signed at San 
Salvador, December 15, 1942. 

ACUERDO sobre la reglamentaci6n del trafico international militar 
de la carretera militar de emergencia. Firmado en San Salva- 
dor, 15 de diciembre de 1942. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement was preceded by bipartite agreements made by the 
United States of America with Panama on March 23, 1940, with Costa Rica on January 16, 
1942, with El Salvador on February 13, 1942, with Nicaragua on April 8, 1942, and with 
Honduras on October 26, 1942. U.S. Executive Agreement Series, Nos. 293-296, 449. In 
addition, agreements with respect to the Inter- American Highway were concluded by the 
United States with Guatemala on May 19, 1943, and May 18, 1948, and with Panama on 
June 7, 1943. Idem, Nos. 345, 365. A convention on the Pan American Highway was 
signed at Buenos Aires, December 23, 1936 (No. 469, ante). An agreement concerning a 
Trans- Isthmian Highway was concluded by Panama and the United States on September 6, 
1940. U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 448. 

RATIFICATIONS. This Agreement was signed on behalf of Costa Rica, 1 Salvador, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the United States of America. On January I, 1949, 
it had been approved by Honduras. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is published in Honduras, Boletin del Con- 
greso National Legislative, March 2, 1943, No. 8, p. i; 68 Honduras, La Gaceta (1943), No. 
11.966, p. i; Honduras, Decretos del Congreso National, 1942-1943, pp. 41-44. 

E. W. James, "A Quarter Century of Road Building in the Americas," 79 Bulletin of the 
Pan American Union (1945), pp. 609-18. 

Not entered into force (January i, 1949). 

[Text not reproduced.] 



No. 624 

INTER-ALLIED DECLARATION against Acts of Dispossession 
Committed in Territories under Enemy Occupation or Control. 
Approved at London, January 5, 1943. 

DECLARATION INTER-ALLlfiE pour mettre en 6chec les m&hodes 
d'expropriation pratiquSes dans les territoires sous Poccupation 
ou le controle ennemi. Approuv6e ft Londres, 5 Janvier 1943. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Declaration was accompanied by an explanatory memorandum. 
Br. Par/. Papers, Misc. No. I (1943), Cmd. 6418. In the peace treaties of February 10, 
1947, with Italy (Article 75), Bulgaria (Article 22), Hungary (Article 24), and Rumania 
(Article 23), those states accepted the principles of this Declaration and agreed to ''return, 
in the shortest possible time, property removed from the territory of any of the United 
Nations. 11 U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, Nos. 1648-1651. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 625 



ACCESSIONS. On January 1, 1949, accessions to or approvals of this Declaration had been 
notified to the British Government by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, 
Egypt, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and 
Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Declaration is also published in 8 U.S. Department of 
State Bulletin (1943), p. 21 ; i Soviet Foreign Policy during the Patriotic War: Documents and 
Materials, p. 197; Canada, Treaty Series, 1943, No. I. For a French translation, see 67-72 
Jour, du dr. int. (1945), p. 464; for a Spanish translation, see 3 Rcvista peruana de derecho 
international (1943), p. 89. For correspondence relating to the Declaration, see Colombia, 
Memoria de relaciones exterior es, 1943, pp. 202-4, 213-14. 

Entered into force January 5, 1943. 

Text from Br. Par/. Papers, Misc. No. I (1943), Cmd. 6418. 



The Governments of the Union of 
South Africa; the United States of 
America; Australia; Belgium; Can- 
ada; China; the Czechoslovak Re- 
public; the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land; Greece; India; Luxemburg; the 
Netherlands; New Zealand; Nor- 
way; Poland; the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics; Yugoslavia; and 
the French National Committee : 

Hereby issue a formal warning to 
all concerned, and in particular to 
persons in neutral countries, that 
they intend to do their utmost to 
defeat the methods of dispossession 
practised by the Governments with 
which they are at war against the 
countries and peoples who have been 
so wantonly assaulted and despoiled. 

Accordingly, the Governments 
making this Declaration and the 
French National Committee reserve 



all their rights to declare invalid any 
transfers of, or dealings with, prop- 
erty, rights and interests of any 
description whatsoever which are, or 
have been, situated in the territories 
which have come under the occupa- 
tion or control, direct or indirect, of 
the Governments with which they 
are at war, or which belong, or have 
belonged, to persons (including ju- 
ridical persons) resident in such 
territories. This warning applies 
whether such transfers or dealings 
have taken the form of open looting 
or plunder, or of transactions ap- 
parently legal in form, even when 
they purport to be voluntarily ef- 
fected. 

The Governments making -this 
Declaration and the French National 
Committee solemnly record their 
solidarity in this matter. 

LONDON, January 5, 1943. 



No. 625 

CONDITIONS of an Armistice with Italy. Signed at Fairfield 
Camp, Sicily, September 3, 1943. 

CONDITIONS de Parmistice avec Italie. Signees ft Fairfield Camp, 
Sicile, 3 septembre 1943. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This was the first of the series of instruments which ended the hostilities 
in World War II. It was supplemented by the additional conditions of September 29, 1943, 
as modified on November 9, 1943 (Nos. 6*5a and 62 5b, post). For a memorandum of agree- 



Sept. 3, 1943 ARMISTICE WITH ITALY 51 

ment on employment and disposition of Italian fleet and mercantile marine of September 23, 
1943, and an amendment of November 17, 1943, see U.S. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series, No. 1604, pp. 28-34; *3 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1945), pp. 755-57- 
Italy, having declared war on Germany on October 13, 1943, was acknowledged by the 
Allied Governments as a "co-belligerent." An Allied Control Commission for Italy was 
established on November 10, 1943. The transfer of control to the Italian Government was 
outlined in an aide-memoire of February 24, 1945, from the President of the Allied Control 
Commission to the Italian Government. 13 idem (1945), p. 757. On the execution of the 
Italian armistice, see idem, p. 759. The peace treaty with Italy, signed at Paris, February 
10, 1947, came into force on September 15, 1947. U.S. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series, No. 1648. 

RATIFICATIONS. This instrument was not subject to ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this instrument is also published in U.S. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series, No. 1604; Br. Parl. Papers, Italy No. i (1945), Cmd. 6693, p. I; 
I Soviet Foreign Policy during the Patriotic War: Documents and Materials, p. 235; United 
States and Italy, 1936-1946, U.S. Department of State Publication 2669 (European Series 
i?). P- 5i; 40 Am. Jour. Int. Law (Supp., 1946), p. I. See also 12 Rivista di studi politici 
internazionali (1945), p. 179. 

Allied Commission, A Review of Allied Military Government and of the Allied Commission 
in Italy (Rome, 1945), 127 pp.; Anon., "Allied Control Commission for Italy," 11 U.S. 
Department of State Bulletin (1944), pp. 137-38; M. W. Graham, "Two Armistices and a 
Surrender," 40 Am. Jour. Int. Law (1946), pp. 148-58; R. Monaco, "La convenzione di 
armistizio secondo la legge italiana di guerra," 10 Rivista di studi politici internazionali 
(*943), PP. 283-358; G. Salvemini, "Documents, Public and Secret," I Free Italy (1945), 
No. 12, pp. 1-5; E. Wiskemann, "The Breaking of the Axis," 22 International Affairs (1946), 
pp. 227-39. 

Entered into force September 3, 1943.* 

Text from 13 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1945), p. 748. 

FAIRFIELD CAMP, SICILY United Nations to be immediately 

September 3,1943 turned over to the Allied Com- 
mander in Chief, and none of these 

The following conditions of an may now or at any time be evacu- 

Armistice are presented by General ated to Germany. 
Dwight D. Eisenhower, Commander- 4. Immediate transfer of the Ital- 

in-Chief of the Allied Forces, acting ian Fleet and Italian aircraft to such 

by authority of the Governments of points as may be designated by the 

the United States and Great Britain Allied Commander in Chief, with 

and in the interest of the United Na- details of disarmament to be pre- 

tions, and are accepted by Marshal scribed by him. 
Pietro Badoglio, Head of the Italian 5. Italian merchant shipping may 

Government. be requisitioned by the Allied Com- 

1. Immediate cessation of all hos- mander in Chief to meet the needs of 
tile activity by the Italian armed his military-naval program, 
forces. 6. Immediate surrender of Corsica 

2. Italy will use its best endeavors and of all Italian territory, both 
to deny, to the Germans, facilities islands and mainland, to the Allies, 
that might be used against the for such use as operational bases and 
United Nations. other purposes as the Allies may see 

3. All prisoners or internees of the fit. 

1 Published on November 6, 1945. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 625a 



7. Immediate guarantee of the 
free use by the Allies of all airfields 
and naval ports in Italian territory, 
regardless of the rate of evacuation 
of the Italian territory by the Ger- 
man forces. These ports and fields 
to be protected by Italian armed 
forces until this function is taken 
over by the Allies. 

8. Immediate withdrawal to Italy 
of Italian armed forces from all par- 
ticipation in the current war from 
whatever areas in which they may 
be now engaged. 

9. Guarantee by the Italian Gov- 
ernment that if necessary it will em- 
ploy all its available armed forces to 
insure prompt and exact compliance 
with all the provisions of this armis- 
tice. 

10. The Commander in Chief of 
the Allied Forces reserves to himself 
the right to take any measure which 
in his opinion may be necessary for 
the protection of the interests of the 



Allied Forces for the prosecution of 
the war, and the Italian Government 
binds itself to take such administra- 
tive or other action as the Com- 
mander in Chief may require, and in 
particular the Commander in Chief 
will establish Allied Military Gov- 
ernment over such parts of Italian 
territory as he may deem necessary 
in the military interests of the Allied 
Nations. 

11. The Commander in Chief of 
the Allied Forces will have a full 
right to impose measures of dis- 
armament, demobilization, and de- 
militarization. 

12. Other conditions of apolitical, 
economic and financial nature with 
which Italy will be bound to comply 
will be transmitted at a later date. 

The conditions of the present 
Armistice will not be made public 
without prior approval of the Allied 
Commander in Chief. The English 
will be considered the official text. 



[Signed:] MARSHAL PIETRO BADOGLIO, Head of Italian Government, by: 
GUISEPPE CASTELLANO, Brigadier General, attached to the Italian High 
Command; D WIGHT D. EISENHOWER, General, U. S. Army, Commander in 
Chief, Allied Forces, by: WALTER B. SMITH, Major General, U. S. Army, 
Chief of Staff. 

Present: RT. HON. HAROLD MACMILLAN, British Resident Minister, 
A.F.H.Q.; ROBERT MURPHY, Personal Representative of the President of the 
United States; ROVER DICK, Commodore, R.N., Chief of Staff to the C. in C. 
Med.; LOWELL W. ROOKS, Major General, U. 5. Army, Assistant Chief of 
Staff, G-3 A.F.H.Q.; FRANCO MONTANARI, Official Italian Interpreter; 
BRIGADIER KENNETH STRONG, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 A.F.H.Q. 



No. 625a 

Instrument of Surrender of Italy. Signed at Malta, September 29, 

1943- 

Acte de reddition de 1'Italie. Signe & Malte, 29 septembre 1943. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Instrument, which supplements the conditions of armistice of 
September 3, 1943 (No. 625, ante), was modified by a protocol of November 9, 1943 (No. 
62 5b, post). For a letter of the Allied Commander in Chief interpreting this Instrument, 
see 13 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1945), p. 754. See also a commentary on the 
execution of this Instrument, idem, pp. 759-61. 



Sept. 29, 1943 



SURRENDER OF ITALY 



53 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Instrument is also published in Br. Parl. Papers, Italy 
No. i (1945), Cmd. 6693, p. 4; United States and Italy, 1936-1946, U.S. Department of State 
Publication 2669 (European Series 17), p. 55. See also 12 Rivista di stvdi potttici inter- 
nazionali (1945), p. 181. 

Entered into force September 29, 1943.* 
Text from U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1604, p. 3. 



Whereas in consequence of an 
armistice dated September 3rd, 1943, 
between the United States and the 
United Kingdom Governments on 
the one hand and the Italian Govern- 
ment on the other hand, hostilities 
were suspended between Italy and 
the United Nations on certain terms 
of a military nature; 

And whereas in addition to those 
terms it was also provided in the said 
Armistice that the Italian Govern- 
ment bound themselves to comply 
with other conditions of a political, 
economic and financial nature to be 
transmitted later; 

And whereas it is convenient that 
the terms of a military nature and 
the said other conditions of a politi- 
cal, economic and financial nature 
should without prejudice to the con- 
tinued validity of the terms of the 
said Armistice of September 3rd, 
1943, be comprised in a further in- 
strument; 

The following together with the 
terms of the Armistice of September 
3rd, 1943, are the terms on which the 
United States and United Kingdom 
Governments acting on behalf of the 
United Nations are prepared to 
suspend hostilities against Italy so 
long as their military operations 
against Germany and her Allies are 
not obstructed and Italy does not 
assist these Powers in any way and 
complies with the requirements of 
these Governments. 

These terms have been presented 
by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, 
Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces, 
duly authorised to that effect; 

And have been accepted by Mar- 



shal Pietro Badoglio, Head of the 
Italian Government. 

i. (A) The Italian Land, Sea and 
Air Forces wherever located, hereby 
surrender unconditionally. 

(B) Italian participation in the 
war in all Theaters will cease im- 
mediately. There will be no opposi- 
tion to landings, movements or other 
operations of the Land, Sea and Air 
Forces of the United Nations. Ac- 
cordingly, the Italian Supreme Com- 
mand will order the immediate cessa- 
tion of hostilities of any kind against 
the Forces of the United Nations and 
will direct the Italian Navy, Military 
and Air Force authorities in all 
Theaters to issue forthwith the ap- 
propriate instructions to those under 
their Command. 

(C) The Italian Supreme Com- 
mand will further order all Italian 
Naval, Military and Air Forces or 
authorities and personnel to refrain 
immediately from destruction of or 
damage to any real or personal prop- 
erty, whether public or private. 

2. The Italian Supreme Command 
will give full information concerning 
the disposition and condition of all 
Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces, 
wherever they are situated and of all 
such forces of Italy's Allies as are 
situated in Italian or Italian occu- 
pied territory. 

3. The Italian Supreme Command 
will take the necessary measures to 
secure airfields, port facilities, and 
all other installations against seizure 
or attack by any of Italy's Allies. 
The Italian Supreme Command will 
take the necessary measures to in- 
sure Law and Order, and to use its 



1 Published on November 6, 1945. 



54 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 625a 



available armed forces to insure 
prompt and exact compliance with 
all the provisions of the present in- 
strument. Subject to such use of 
Italian troops for the above pur- 
poses, as may be sanctioned by the 
Allied Commander-in-Chief , all other 
Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces will 
proceed to and remain in their bar- 
racks, camps or ships pending direc- 
tions from the United Nations as to 
their future status and disposal. 
Exceptionally such Naval personnel 
shall proceed to shore establishments 
as the United Nations may direct. 

4. Italian Land, Sea and Air 
Forces will within the periods to be 
laid down by the United Nations 
withdraw from all areas outside 
Italian territory notified to the 
Italian Government by the United 
Nations and proceed to areas to be 
specified by the United Nations. 
Such movement of Italian Land, Sea 
and Air Forces will be carried out 
in conditions to be laid down by the 
United Nations and in accordance 
with the orders to be issued by them. 
All Italian officials will similarly 
leave the areas notified except any 
who may be permitted to remain by 
the United Nations. Those per- 
mitted to remain will comply with 
the instructions of the Allied Com- 
mander-in-Chief. 

5. No requisitioning, seizures or 
other coercive measures shall be 
effected by Italian Land, Sea and 
Air Forces or officials in regard to 
persons or property in the areas 
notified under Article 4. 

6. The demobilization of Italian 
Land, Sea and Air Forces in excess 
of such establishments as shall be 
notified will take place as prescribed 
by the Allied Commander-in-Chief. 

7. Italian warships of all descrip- 
tions, auxiliaries and transports will 
be assembled as directed in ports to 
be specified by the Allied Com- 
mander-in-Chief and will be dealt 
with as prescribed by the Allied 
Commander-in-Chief. (Note. If at 



the date of the Armistice the whole 
of the Italian Fleet has been assem- 
bled in Allied ports, this article 
would run " Italian warships of all 
descriptions, auxiliaries, and trans- 
ports will remain until further notice 
in the ports where they are at present 
assembled, and will be dealt with 
as prescribed by the Allied Com- 
mander-in-Chief.") 

8. Italian aircraft of all kinds will 
not leave the ground or water or 
ships, except as directed by the Al- 
lied Commander-in-Chief. 

9. Without prejudice to the pro- 
visions 14, 15 and 28 (A) and (D) 
below, all merchant ships, fishing or 
other craft of whatever flag, all air- 
craft and inland transport of what- 
ever nationality in Italian or Italian- 
occupied territory or waters will, 
pending verification of their identity 
and status, be prevented from leaving. 

10. The Italian Supreme Com- 
mand will make available all in- 
formation about naval, military and 
air devices, installations, and de- 
fences, about all transport and inter- 
communication systems established 
by Italy or her allies on Italian terri- 
tory or in the approaches thereto, 
about minefields or other obstacles 
to movement by land, sea or air and 
such other particulars as the United 
Nations may require in connection 
with the use of Italian bases, or with 
the operations, security, or welfare 
of the United Nations Land, Sea 
or Air Forces. Italian forces and 
equipment will be made available as 
required by the United Nations for 
the removal of the above mentioned 
obstacles. 

11. The Italian Government will 
furnish forthwith lists of quantities 
of all war material showing the loca- 
tion of the same. Subject to such 
use as the Allied Commander-in- 
Chief may make of it, the war mate- 
rial will be placed in store under such 
control as he may direct. The ulti- 
mate disposal of war material will be 
prescribed by the United Nations. 



Sept. 29, 1943 



SURRENDER OF ITALY 



55 



12. There will be no destruction of 
nor damage to nor except as author- 
ized or directed by the United Na- 
tions any removal of war material, 
wireless, radio location or meteoro- 
logical stations, railroad, port or 
other installations or in general, 
public or private utilities or property 
of any kind, wherever situated, and 
the necessary maintenance and re- 
pair will be the responsibility of the 
Italian authorities. 

13. The manufacture, production 
and construction of war material and 
its import, export and transit is pro- 
hibited, except as directed by the 
United Nations. The Italian Gov- 
ernment will comply with any direc- 
tions given by the United Nations 
for the manufacture, production or 
construction and the import, export 
or transit of war material. 

14. (A) All Italian merchant 
shipping and fishing and other craft, 
wherever they may be, and any con- 
structed or completed during the 
period of the present instrument will 
be made available in good repair and 
in seaworthy condition by the com- 
petent Italian authorities at such 
places and for such purposes and 
periods as the United Nations may 
prescribe. Transfer to enemy or 
neutral flags is prohibited. Crews 
will remain on board pending further 
instructions regarding their con- 
tinued employment or dispersal. 
Any existing options to repurchase 
or re-acquire or to resume control of 
Italian or former Italian vessels sold 
or otherwise transferred or chartered 
during the war will forthwith be 
exercised and the above provisions 
will apply to all such vessels and 
their crews. 

(B) All Italian inland transport 
and all port equipment will be held 
at the disposal of the United Nations 
for such purposes as they may direct. 

15. United Nations merchant ships, 
fishing and other craft in Italian 
hands wherever they may be (includ- 
ing for this purpose those of any 



country which has broken off diplo- 
matic relations with Italy) whether 
or not the title has been transferred 
as the result of prize court proceed- 
ings or otherwise, will be surrendered 
to the United Nations and will be 
assembled in ports to be specified by 
the United Nations for disposal as 
directed by them. The Italian Gov- 
ernment will take all such steps as 
may be required to secure any neces- 
sary transfers of title. Any neutral 
merchant ship, fishing or other craft 
under Italian operation or control 
will be assembled in the same man- 
ner pending arrangements for their 
ultimate disposal. Any necessary 
repairs to any of the above men- 
tioned vessels will be effected by the 
Italian Government, if required, at 
their expense. The Italian Govern- 
ment will take the necessary meas- 
ures to insure that the vessels and 
their cargo are not damaged. 

1 6. No radio or telecommunica- 
tion installations or other forms of 
intercommunication, shore or afloat, 
under Italian control whether be- 
longing to Italy or any nation other 
than the United Nations will trans- 
mit until directions for the control of 
these installations have been pre- 
scribed by the Allied Commander- 
in-Chief. The Italian authorities 
will conform to such measures for 
control and censorship of press and 
of other publications, of theatrical 
and cinematograph performances, of 
broadcasting, and also of all forms of 
intercommunication as the Allied 
Commander-in-Chief may direct. 
The Allied Commander-in-Chief 
may, at his discretion, take over 
radio, cable and other communica- 
tion stations. 

17. The warships, auxiliaries, trans- 
ports and merchant and other vessels 
and aircraft in the service of the 
United Nations will have the right 
freely to use the territorial waters 
around and the air over Italian terri- 
tory. 

1 8. The forces of the United Na- 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 625a 



tions will require to occupy certain 
parts of Italian territory. The terri- 
tories or areas concerned will from 
time to time be notified by the 
United Nations and all Italian Land, 
Sea and Air Forces will thereupon 
withdraw from such territories or 
areas in accordance with the instruc- 
tions issued by the Allied Com- 
mander-in-Chief. The provisions of 
this article are without prejudice to 
those of article 4 above. The Italian 
Supreme Command will guarantee 
immediate use and access to the 
Allies of all airfields and Naval ports 
in Italy under their control. 

19. In the territories or areas re- 
ferred to in article 18, all Naval, 
Military and Air installations, power 
stations, oil refineries, public utilky 
services, all ports and harbors, all 
transport and all intercommunication 
installations, facilities and equip- 
ment and such other installations or 
facilities and all such stocks as may 
be required by the United Nations 
will be made available in good condi- 
tion by the competent Italian au- 
thorities with the personnel required 
for working them. The Italian Gov- 
ernment will make available such 
other local resources or services as 
the United Nations may require. 

20. Without prejudice to the pro- 
visions of the present instrument the 
United Nations will exercise all 
the rights of an occupying power 
throughout the territories or areas 
referred to in article 18, the adminis- 
tration of which will be provided for 
by the issue of proclamations, orders 
or regulations. Personnel of the 
Italian administrative, judicial and 
public services will carry out their 
functions under the control of the 
Allied Commander-in-Chief unless 
otherwise directed. 

21. In addition to the rights in 
respect of occupied Italian territories 
described in articles 18 to 20, 

(A) Members of the Land, Sea or 
Air Forces and officials of the United 
Nations will have the right of pas- 



sage in or over non-occupied Italian 
territory and will be afforded all the 
necessary facilities and assistance in 
performing their functions. 

(B) The Italian authorities will 
make available on non-occupied 
Italian territory all transport facili- 
ties required by the United Nations 
including free transit for their war 
material and supplies, and will com- 
ply with instructions issued by the 
Allied Commander-in-Chief regard- 
ing the use and control of airfields, 
ports, shipping, inland transport 
systems and vehicles, intercommuni- 
cation systems, power stations and 
public utility services, oil refineries, 
stocks and such other fuel and power 
supplies and means of producing 
same, as United Nations may spec- 
ify t together with connected repair 
and construction facilities. 

22. The Italian Government and 
people will abstain from all action 
detrimental to the interests of the 
United Nations and will carry out 
promptly and efficiently all orders 
given by the United Nations. 

23. The Italian Government will 
make available such Italian currency 
as the United Nations may require. 
The Italian Government will with- 
draw and redeem in Italian currency 
within such time limits and on such 
terms as the United Nations may 
specify all holdings in Italian terri- 
tory of currencies issued by the 
United Nations during military oper- 
ations or occupation and will hand 
over the currencies withdrawn free of 
cost to the United Nations. The 
Italian Government will take such 
measures as may be required by the 
United Nations for the control of 
banks and business in Italian terri- 
tory, for the control of foreign ex- 
change and foreign commercial and 
financial transactions and for the 
regulation of trade and production 
and will comply with any instruc- 
tions issued by the United Nations 
regarding these and similar matters. 

24. There shall be no financial, 



Sept. 29, 1943 



SURRENDER OF ITALY 



57 



commercial or other intercourse with 
or dealings with or for the benefit of 
countries at war with any of the 
United Nations or territories occu- 
pied by such countries or any other 
foreign country except under au- 
thorisation of the Allied Commander- 
in-Chief or designated officials. 

25. (A) Relations with countries 
at war with any of the United Na- 
tions, or occupied by any such coun- 
try, will be broken off. Italian 
diplomatic, consular and other offi- 
cials and members of the Italian 
Land, Sea and Air Forces accredited 
to or serving on missions with any 
such country or in any other terri- 
tory specified by the United Nations 
will be recalled. Diplomatic and 
consular officials of such countries 
will be dealt with as the United Na- 
tions may prescribe. 

(B) The United Nations reserve 
the right to require the withdrawal of 
neutral diplomatic and consular offi- 
cers from occupied Italian territory 
and to prescribe and lay down regu- 
lations governing the procedure for 
the methods of communication be- 
tween the Italian Government and 
its representatives in neutral coun- 
tries and regarding communications 
emanating from or destined for the 
representatives of neutral countries 
in Italian territory. 

26. Italian subjects will pending 
further instructions be prevented 
from leaving Italian territory except 
as authorised by the Allied Com- 
mander-in-Chief and will not in any 
event take service with any of the 
countries or in any of the territories 
referred to in article 25 (A) nor will 
they proceed to any place for the 
purpose of undertaking work for any 
such country. Those at present so 
serving or working will be recalled as 
directed by the Allied Commander- 
in-Chief. 

27. The Military, Naval and Air 
personnel and material and the mer- 
chant shipping, fishing and other 
craft and the aircraft, vehicles and 



other transport equipment of any 
country against which any of the 
United Nations is carrying on hos- 
tilities or which is occupied by any 
such country, remain liable to attack 
or seizure wherever found in or over 
Italian territory or waters. 

28. (A) The warships, auxiliaries 
and transports of any such country or 
occupied country referred to in arti- 
cle 27 in Italian or Italian-occupied 
ports and waters and the aircraft, 
vehicles and other transport equip- 
ment of such countries in or over 
Italian or Italian-occupied territory 
will, pending further instructions, be 
prevented from leaving. 

(B) The Military, Naval and Air 
personnel and the civilian nationals 
of any such country or occupied 
country in Italian or Italian-occu- 
pied territory will be prevented from 
leaving and will be interned pending 
further instructions. 

(C) All property in Italian terri- 
tory belonging to any such country 
or occupied country or its nationals 
will be impounded and kept in cus- 
tody pending further instructions. 

(D) The Italian Government will 
comply with any instructions given 
by the Allied Commander-in-Chief 
concerning the internment, custody' 
or subsequent disposal, utilisation or 
employment of any of the above 
mentioned persons, vessels, aircraft, 
material or property. 

29. Benito Mussolini, his Chief 
Fascist associates and all persons 
suspected of having committed war 
crimes or analogous offences whose 
names appear on lists to be com- 
municated by the United Nations 
will forthwith be apprehended and 
surrendered into the hands of the 
United Nations. Any instructions 
given by the United Nations for this 
purpose will be complied with. 

30. All Fascist organisations, in- 
cluding all branches of the Fascist 
Militia (MVSN), the Secret Police 
(OVRA), all Fascist youth organisa- 
tions will insofar as this is not al- 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6253 



ready accomplished be disbanded in 
accordance with the directions of the 
Allied Commander-in-Chief. The 
Italian Government will comply 
with all such further directions as the 
United Nations may give for aboli- 
tion of Fascist institutions, the dis- 
missal and internment of Fascist per- 
sonnel, the control of Fascist funds, 
the suppression of Fascist ideology 
and teaching. 

31. All Italian laws involving dis- 
crimination on grounds of race, color, 
creed or political opinions will insofar 
as this is not already accomplished 
be rescinded, and persons detained 
on such grounds will, as directed by 
the United Nations, be released and 
relieved from all legal disabilities to 
which they have been subjected. 
The Italian Government will comply 
with all such further directions as 
the Allied Commander-in-Chief may 
give for repeal of Fascist legislation 
and removal of any disabilities or 
prohibitions resulting therefrom. 

32. (A) Prisoners of war belong- 
ing to the forces of or specified by the 
United Nations and any nationals of 
the United Nations, including Abys- 
sinian subjects, confined, interned, or 
otherwise under restraint in Italian 
or Italian-occupied territory will not 
be removed and will forthwith be 
handed over to representatives of the 
United Nations or otherwise dealt 
with as the United Nations may di- 
rect. Any removal during the pe- 
riod between the presentation and 
the signature of the present instru- 
ment will be regarded as a breach of 
its terms. 

(B) Persons of whatever national- 
ity who have been placed under re- 
striction, detention or sentence (in- 
cluding sentences in absentia) on 
account of their dealings or syn> 
pathies with the United Nations will 
be released under the direction of the 
United Nations and relieved from 
all legal disabilities to which they 
have been subjected. 

(C) The Italian Government will 



take such steps as the United Na- 
tions may direct to safeguard the 
persons of foreign nationals and 
property of foreign nationals and 
property of foreign states and na- 
tionals. 

33. (A) The Italian Government 
will comply with such directions as 
the United Nations may prescribe 
regarding restitution, deliveries, serv- 
ices or payments by way of repara- 
tion and payment of the costs of 
occupation during the period of the 
present instrument. 

(B) The Italian Government will 
give to the Allied Commander-in- 
Chief such information as may 
be prescribed regarding the assets, 
whether inside or outside Italian 
territory, of the Italian state, the 
Bank of Italy, any Italian state or 
semi-state institutions or Fascist or- 
ganisations or residents in Italian 
territory and will not dispose or 
allow the disposal, outside Italian 
territory of any such assets except 
with the permission of the United 
Nations. 

34. The Italian Government will 
carry out during the period of the 
present instrument such measures of 
disarmament, demobilisation and de- 
militarisation as may be prescribed 
by the Allied Commander-in-Chief. 

35. The Italian Government will 
supply all information and provide 
all documents required by the United 
Nations. There shall be no destruc- 
tion or concealment of archives, 
records, plans or any other docu- 
ments or information. 

36. The Italian Government will 
take and enforce such legislative and 
other measures as may be necessary 
for the execution of the present in- 
strument. Italian military and civil 
authorities will comply with any in- 
structions issued by the Allied Com- 
mander-in-Chief for the same pur- 
pose. 

37. There will be appointed a 
Control Commission representative 
of the United Nations charged with 



Sept. 29, 1943 



SURRENDER OF ITALY 



59 



regulating and executing this instru- 
ment under the orders and general 
directions of the Allied Commander- 
in-Chief. 

38. (A) The term ''United Na- 
tions 1 ' in the present instrument in- 
cludes the Allied Commander-in- 
Chief, the Control Commission and 
any other authority which the 
United Nations may designate. 

(B) The term "Allied Commander- 
jn-Chief " in the present instrument 
includes the Control Commission 
and such other officers and repre- 
sentatives as the Commander-in- 
Chief may designate. 

39. Reference to Italian Land, 
Sea and Air Forces in the present in- 
strument shall be deemed to include 
Fascist Militia and all such other 
military or para-military units, for- 
mations or bodies as the Allied Com- 
mander-in-Chief may prescribe. 

40. The term "War Material " in 
the present instrument denotes all 
material specified in such lists or 
definitions as may from time to time 
be issued by the Control Commis- 
sion. 

41. The term "Italian Territory " 
includes all Italian colonies and de- 
pendencies and shall for the purposes 
of the present instrument (but with- 
out prejudice to the question of 
sovereignty) be deemed to include 
Albania. Provided however that 
except in such cases and to such ex- 
tent as the United Nations may di- 

BADOGLIO 

Marshal Pietro Badoglio 
Head of the Italian Government 



rect the provisions of the present in- 
strument shall not apply in or affect 
the administration of any Italian 
colony or dependency already occu- 
pied by the United Nations or the 
rights or powers therein possessed or 
exercised by them. 

42. The Italian Government will 
send a delegation to the Headquar- 
ters of the Control Commission to 
represent Italian interests and to 
transmit the orders of the Control 
Commission to the competent Italian 
authorities. 

43. The present instrument shall 
enter into force at once. It will re- 
main in operation until superseded 
by any other arrangements or until 
the voting into force of the peace 
treaty with Italy. 

44. The present instrument may 
be denounced by the United Nations 
with immediate effect if Italian obli- 
gations thereunder are not fulfilled 
or, as an alternative, the United Na- 
tions may penalize contravention of 
it by measures appropriate to the 
circumstances such as the extension 
of the areas of military occupation 
or air or other punitive action. 

The present instrument is drawn 
up in English and Italian, the Eng- 
list text being authentic, and in case 
of any dispute regarding its inter- 
pretation, the decision of the Control 
Commission will prevail. 

SIGNED at Malta on the 29 day of 
September, 1943. 

DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER 

Dwight D. Eisenhower 

General, United States Army, 

Commander -in-Chief, Allied Force 



6o 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 

No. 625b 



Protocol Amending the Instrument of Surrender of Italy. 
Brindisi, November 9, 1943. 

Protocole amendant 1'Acte de reddition de 1'Italie. 

9 novembre 1943. 



No. 62sb 

Signed at 
Signe & Brindisi, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in Br. Par/. Papers, Italy 
No. I (I945) Cmd. 6693, p. u. 

Entered into force November 9, 1943. 

Text from U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1604, p. 23. 



It is agreed that the title of the 
document signed at Malta on Sep- 
tember 29, 1943 by Marshal Pietro 
Badoglio, Head of the Italian Gov- 
ernment, and General Dwight D. 
Eisenhower, Commander-in-Chief, 
Allied Forces, should be changed to 
"additional conditions of Armistice 
with Italy/' The following further 
amendments to this document are 
also agreed : 

In the first paragraph of the Pre- 
amble the words " acting in the in- 
terests of all the United Nations " are 
inserted between the words " gov- 
ernments " and "on the one hand". 
The paragraph in question therefore 
reads as follows: 

"Whereas in consequence of an 
Armistice dated September 3, 1943 
between the United States and 
United Kingdom Governments act- 
ing in the interests of all the United 
Nations on the one hand, and the 
Italian Government on the other 
hand, hostilities were suspended be- 
tween Italy and United Nations on 
certain terms of a military nature." 

In the fourth paragraph of the 
Preamble the words "and Soviet" 
are inserted between the words 
"United Kingdom" and "Govern- 
ments", and the word "and" be- 
tween the words "United States" 
and "United Kingdom" is deleted. 
The paragraph in question therefore 
reads as follows: 

"The following, together with the 



terms of the Armistice of September 
3, 1943, are the terms on which the 
United States, United Kingdom and 
Soviet Governments, acting on be- 
half of the United Nations, are pre- 
pared to suspend hostilities against 
Italy so long as their military opera- 
tions against Germany and the Allies 
are not obstructed and Italy does not 
assist these powers in any way and 
complies with the requirements of 
these governments." 

In paragraph six of the Preamble 
the word "unconditionally" is in- 
serted between the word "accepted" 
and "by". The paragraph in ques- 
tion therefore reads as follows : 

"and have been accepted uncon- 
ditionally by Marshal Pietro Badog- 
lio, Head of the Italian Government 
representing the Supreme Command 
of the Italian land, sea and air forces 
and duly authorized to that effect by 
the Italian Government." 

In Article I a the word "uncondi- 
tionally" is deleted. The Article in 
question therefore reads as follows: 

4 The Italian land, sea and air forces 
wherever located hereby surrender." 

Article 29 is amended to read as 
follows: 

"Benito Mussolini, his chief Fasc- 
ist associates, and all persons sus- 
pected of having committed war 
crimes or analogous offences whose 
names appear on lists to be com- 
municated by the United Nations 
and who now or in the future are on 



Oct. 4, 1943 INTER-AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 6l 

territory controlled by the Allied The present Protocol is drawn up 
Military Command or by the Italian in English and Italian, the English 
Government, will forthwith be ap- text being authentic, and in case of 
prehended and surrendered into the any dispute regarding its interpreta- 
hands of the United Nations. Any tion the decision of the Control Corn- 
instructions given by the United mission will prevail. 
Nations to this purpose will be com- SIGNED on the 9th November 1943 
plied with." at Brindisi. 

NOEL MACFARLANE II Capo del Governo Italiano: 

Lt. General BADOGLIO 
For the Allied Commander-in-Chief 



No. 626 

CONVENTION on the Inter-American University. Signed at Pan- 
ama, October 4, 1943. 

CONVENCION sobre la Universidad Interamericana. Firmada en 
Panamd, 4 de octubre de 1943. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention was adopted at the First Conference of Ministers and 
Directors of Education of the American Republics held at Panama, September 27-October 
4, 1943. The Statute of the Inter- American University was adopted at the same time (No. 
626a, post). The creation of a Pan American University had been recommended by the 
Third Pan American Scientific Congress held at Lima, December 20, 1924-January 6, 1925. 
The Bolivarian Congress, held at Panama, June 18-25, 1926, adopted a proposal for the 
establishment of a Bolivarian University at Panama. The Inter-American Congress of 
Rectors, Deans, and Educators, held at Habana, February 20-23, I 93p proposed that the 
Bolivarian University be transformed into a Pan American University. The Eighth Amer- 
ican Scientific Congress, held in Washington, May 10-18, 1940, recommended that the Pan 
American Union "study the most adequate measures to create and support in Panama an 
autonomous Inter-American University." On March 3, 1943, the Governing Board of the 
Pan American Union adopted a resolution giving assurance of the Union's cooperation in the 
furtherance of this object. See also Resolution No. 12 of the First Conference of the Minis- 
ters of Public Education of the States of Central America and Panama, held at San Jose", 
August 3i-September 5, 1942. 64 Costa Rica, La Gaccta, Diario oficial (1942), No. 232, 
p. 1862. 

RATIFICATIONS. On January i , 1949, a ratification of this Convention had been deposited 
only by Venezuela; it had also been ratified by Honduras. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The Spanish version of this Convention is also published in Honduras, 
Decretos del Congreso National, 1943-1944, p. 57; Libra amaritto de los Estados Unidos de 
Venezuela, 1944, p. 151. 

Anon., "Ministers and Directors of Education of the American Republics, First Con- 
ference," 78 Bulletin of the Pan American Union (1944), pp. 13-15; Anon., "Primera Con- 
ferencia de Ministros y Directores de Educaci6n de las Republicas Americanas," 6 Boletin 
del Ministerio de Justicia e Instruccidn PubUca de la Nacidn Argentina (1943), pp. 1840-1915; 
N. Garay, "En Camino hacia la Universidad Panamericana," 4 Proceedings of the Second 
Pan American Scientific Congress (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1917), pp. 
563-73; O. M6ndez Pereira, "La Univereidad Interamericana/ 1 12 Proceedings of the Eighth 
American Scientific Congress (Washington: Department of State, 1943)1 PP- 53-6o. 



62 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 626 



Not entered into force (January i, 1949). 

Text from Pan American Union, Congress and Conference Series, No. 45, p. 46. 



The Governments represented at 
the First Conference of Ministers 
and Directors of Education of the 
American Republics, 

Considering: 

That the creation and effective 
establishment of an inter-American 
center of higher learning, a symbol 
of the moral and spiritual unity of 
the Americas, has occupied for a long 
time the attention of the Govern- 
ments and educators in particular; 

This idea has taken concrete 
form at various Inter- American Con- 
gresses, namely: The Third and 
Eighth Scientific Congresses, as well 
as the Conference of Ministers of 
Education of Central America; 

The Governing Board of the Pan 
American Union, by means of a 
Resolution approved on the third of 
March of the present year, on the 
establishment of the Inter-American 
University in Panama, expresses its 
gratitude to the Government of 
Panama for having taken such an 
important initiative and assures it, 
at the same time, that the Pan 
American Union shall lend its most 
decided support and cooperation in 
carrying out the plan; and recom- 
mends, moreover, to the Govern- 
ments, members of the Pan Ameri- 
can Union, that they cooperate in 
the manner they deem appropriate 
in order to assure the success of this 
project. 

Have resolved to sign the present 
Convention, and to that end have 
appointed the following Ministers of 
Education or their representatives: l 

Haiti: Max Rigaud; 

Paraguay: Jos6 Dahlquist; 

Dominican Republic: Victor Gar- 
rido; 

Uruguay: Alfredo de Castro; 

El Salvador: Jos6 Andr6s Orantes; 

Brazil : Paulo Germano Hasslocher ; 



Los Gobiernos representados en la 
Primera Conferencia de Ministros y 
Directores de Educaci6n de las 
Repflblicas Americanas, 

Considerando: 

Que la creaci6n y el establecimi- 
ento efectivo de un centro de cultura 
superior interamericano, simbolo de 
unidad espiritual y moral dc las 
Americas, ha ocupado durante largo 
tiempo la atenci6n de los Gobiernos 
y de los educadores en particular. 

Que este pensamiento ha tornado 
forma concreta durante varios Con- 
gresos Interamericanos, a saber: el 
Tercero y el Octavo Cientificos, mds 
la Conferencia de Ministros de Edu- 
caci6n de Centro America ; y 

Que el Consejo Directive de la 
Uni6n Panamericana, mediante Re- 
soluci6n aprobada el dfa 3 de Marzo 
del presente ano sobre el estableci- 
miento de la Universidad Inter- 
americana en Panamd, expresa su 
reconocimiento al Gobierno de Pa- 
namd por haber tornado tan impor- 
tante iniciativa y le asegura al mismo 
tiempo que la Uni6n Panamericana 
le prestari su mds decidido apoyo y 
cooperaci6n a fin de que la lleve a la 
pr&ctica, y encarece, adem&s, a los 
Gobiernos que integran la Uni6n 
Panamericana, que cooperen en la 
forma que juzguen conveniente para 
garantizar el buen 6xito de este 
proyecto, 

Han resuelto suscribir la presente 
Convenci6n para cuyo objeto ban 
designado a los siguientes Ministros 
de Educaci6n o sus Representantes. 1 

Haiti: Max Rigaud; 

Paraguay: Jos6 Dahlquist; 

Reptiblica Dominicana: Victor 
Garrido; 

Uruguay: Alfredo de Castro; 

El Salvador: Jos6 Andr6s Orantes; 

Brasil: Paulo Germano Hasslocher; 



1 The titles of plenipotentiaries are omitted. ED. 



Oct. 4, 1943 



INTER-AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 



Cuba: Jos6 Maria Chac6n y Calvo; 

Honduras: Angel G. Hernandez; 

United States: John W. Stude- 
baker; 

Bolivia: Justo Rodas Eguino; 

Mexico: Octavio V6jar Vdzquez; 

Colombia: Carlos Lozano y Lo- 
zano; 

Guatemala: J. Antonio Villacorta; 

Venezuela: Rafael Vegas; 

Panama: Victor F. Goytfa; 

Ecuador: Abelardo Montalvo; 

Argentina: Juan G. Valenzuela; 

Chile: Benjamfn Claro Velasco; 

Nicaragua: Ger6nimo Ramfrez 
Brown ; 

Peru: Enrique Laroza; 

Costa Rica : Luis Demetrio Tinoco. 

Who, after having deposited their 
credentials, found to be in due and 
proper form, have agreed as follows: 

Article i. The Government of the 
Republic of Panama shall donate the 
lands on which the buildings of the 
Inter-American University will be 
constructed; it shall also donate, as a 
special contribution to the Univer- 
sity, the National Museum of Pan- 
ama and the equipment, libraries, 
laboratories, furniture, and financial 
endowment which formerly belonged 
to the National University. 

Art. 2. The Governments of the 
American Republics shall contribute 
to the expenses of maintenance of 
the University a sum of money 
which they may decide to allocate, a 
sum that shall not be less than the 
quota that they are now paying for 
the maintenance of the Pan Ameri- 
can Union. 

Art. 3. The expenses for the con- 
struction and equipment which shall 
be done according to a progressive 
plan, shall be distributed among the 
Governments on the same propor- 
tional basis established in the pre- 
ceding article. The Government of 
the Republic of Panama shall make 
known, before this Convention is 
ratified, the building plans and 
projects and the respective budgets. 



Cuba: Jos6 Maria Chac6n y Calvo; 

Honduras: Angel G. Hernandez; 

Estados Unidos de America: John 
W. Studebaker; 

Bolivia: Justo Rodas Eguino; 

Mexico: Octavio Wjar Vazquez; 

Colombia: Carlos Lozano y Lo- 
zano; 

Guatemala: J. Antonio Villacorta; 

Venezuela: Rafael Vegas; 

PanamA: Victor F. Goytfa; 

Ecuador: Abelardo Montalvo; 

Argentina: Juan G. Valenzuela; 

Chile: Benjamin Claro Velasco; 

Nicaragua: Ger6nimo Ramfrez 
Brown ; 

Peril: Enrique Laroza; 

Costa Rica: Luis Demetrio Tinoco. 

Quienes, despu6s de haber mos- 
trado sus Poderes o Credenciales, que 
fueron hallados en buena y debida 
forma, han convenido lo siguiente: 

Articulo i. El Gobierno de la 
Republica de Panam& donard los 
terrenes donde se construirdn los 
edificios de la Universidad Intera- 
mericana; donari asimismo, como 
contribuci6n especial a la Universi- 
dad, el Musep Nacional de Panamd 
y las instalaciones, bibliotecas, labo- 
ratories, mobiliario y dotaci6n fiscal 
de que antes disponfa la Universidad 
Nacional. 

Art. 2. Los Gobiernos de las 
Republicas Americanas contribuirdn 
a los gastos de mantenimiento de la 
Universidad con la suma de dinero 
que tengan a bien erogar, suma que 
no serd inferior a la cuota que actual- 
mente pagan para el mantenimiento 
de la Union Panamericana. 

Art. 3. Los gastos de construc- 
ci6n e instalaci6n, que se hardn de 
acuerdo con un plan progresivo, 
se distribuirdn entre los Gobiernos 
sobre la misma base proporcional 
establecida en el Artfculo anterior. 
El Gobierno de Panamd comunicari, 
previamente a las ratificaciones de 
esta Convenci6n, los planes y pro- 
yectos de edificaci6n y los presupues- 
tos respectivos. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 626 



Art. 4. The Inter-American Uni- 
versity shall make a certain number 
of scholarships available to students 
of each American country, in propor- 
tion to the contribution of each one 
of these countries to the maintenance 
of the Institution. In this same 
manner students shall be able to 
receive direct help in the form of 
scholarships from the Governments, 
universities, and other institutions. 

Art. 5. The University shall en- 
joy all customs, postal, telegraphic 
and similar privileges, and shall be 
exempt from taxes, imposts and 
duties of every kind, stamped paper, 
and other obligations, in all the sig- 
natory countries where the Univer- 
sity may solicit these exemptions and 
facilities. Likewise it shall enjoy 
governmental privileges with respect 
to lower tariffs of whatever nature, 
which may have direct or indirect 
relation to its purposes. 

Art. 6. For the functioning of the 
rotating courses established by the 
Statute of the Inter-American Uni- 
versity, a common fund shall be cre- 
ated to be formed, first, by the quota 
that the Inter-American University 
may agree to allot for this purpose, 
and second, by the contributions of- 
fered by the countries interested in 
this activity of the University. 

Art. 7. The Governments of the 
signatory countries shall make an 
examination, through the empow- 
ered organizations, of all the institu- 
tions or offices which are at present 
developing activities similar to the 
purposes of the Inter- American Uni- 
versity, in order to prevent possible 
conflicts and to establish points of 
coordination. 

Art. 8. The signatory Govern- 
ments also agree to prevent, by the 
legal means at their disposal, the use 
of the words, " Inter- American Uni- 
versity" either in its present form or 
in combination with other names 
which might bring about confusion. 



Art. 4. La Universidad Intera- 
mericana mantendrd una cantidad 
de becas abiertas para estudiantes 
de cada pafs americano, en pro- 
porci6n a la contribuci6n de cada 
uno de 6stos al sostenimiento de la 
Instituci6n. Del mismo modo los 
estudiantes podran recibir ayuda 
directa en forma de becas de los 
Gobiernos, las Universidades y otras 
entidades. 

Art. 5. La Universidad gozard de 
toda clase de franquicias aduaneras, 
postales, telegrAficas y similares y 
estari exenta de contribuciones, im- 
puestos y derechos de toda clase, 
timbres, papel sellado y otros tribu- 
tos en todos los pafses signatarios 
donde la Universidad solicite estas 
liberaciones y facilidades. Igual- 
mente gozara de los privilegios gu- 
bernativos en las tarifas rebajadas de 
cualquier naturaleza, que digan rela- 
ci6n directa o indirecta con sus 
finalidades. 

Art. 6. Para el funcionamiento de 
los cursos de rotaci6n establecidos 
por el Estatuto de la Universidad 
Interamericana se creara un fondo 
comtin formado: primero, por la 
cuota que la Universidad Intera- 
mericana acordare destinar para este 
fin, y segundo, por las aportaciones 
que los paises interesados en esta 
actividad de la Universidad desti- 
naren especialmente. 

Art. 7. Los Gobiernos de los 
pafses signatarios gestionaran la 
revisi6n por los organismos capaci- 
tados de todos los institutes u ofi- 
cinas que actualmente desarrollan 
actividades afines o conexas a los 
propositos de la Universidad Intera- 
mericana, con los tinicos objetos de 
evitar posibles interferencias y es- 
tablecer puntos de coordinaci6n. 

Art. 8. Se comprometen, asi- 
mismo, los Gobiernos signatarios, a 
impedir por las vfas legales que est6n 
a su alcance, el uso de las palabras 
Universidad Interamericana, ya sea 
unidas las dos, o combinadas con otras 
que pudieren engendrar confusiones. 



Oct. 4, 1943 



INTER-AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 



Art. 9. This Convention shall be 
ratified by the high contracting 
parties in accordance with their con- 
stitutional procedures. The Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs of the Republic 
of Panama shall preserve the origi- 
nals of this Convention, and shall 
send certified copies to the Govern- 
ments for their ratification. The 
instruments of ratification shall be 
deposited in the archives of the Pan 
American Union in Washington, 
which shall notify the signatory Gov- 
ernments of such deposit; this notifi- 
cation shall be equivalent to an 
exchange of ratifications. 

Art. 10. This Convention shall 
continue in force for an initial period 
of ten years. After that time each 
contracting country which wishes to 
do so, may withdraw from this Con- 
vention by giving advance notice of 
one year to the Pan American Union. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Min- 
isters of Education of the American 
Republics or their representatives, 
by virtue of the authority conferred 
upon them, sign this Convention in 
Spanish, English, French and Portu- 
guese, in the city of Panama on the 
fourth day of October of the year 
1943- 



Art. 9. La presente Convenci6n 
seri ratificada por las altas partes 
contratantes de acuerdo con los pro- 
cedimientos constitucionales. El 
Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores 
de la Reptiblica de PanamA conser- 
vard los originates de esta Con- 
venci6n, y queda encargado de en- 
viar copias aut6nticas a los Gobier- 
nos, con el referido fin. Los instru- 
mentos de ratificaci6n serdn depo- 
sitados en los archivos de la Uni6n 
Panamericana, en Washington, la 
cual notificari dicho dep6sito a los 
Gobiernos signatarios; esta notifica- 
ci6n serd equivalente a un canje de 
ratificaciones. 

Art. ip. Este convenio tendri un 
plazo inicial de diez anos. A partir 
de esta fecha cada pafs contratante 
que desee retirarse de este Convenio 
podrd hacerlo con aviso anticipado 
de un afio, dirigido a la Uni6n 
Panamericana. 

EN FE DE LO CUAL los Ministros de 
Educaci6n de las Repfiblicas Ameri- 
canas o sus Representantes, haciendo 
constar su caricter y poderes, firman 
la presente Convenci6n en espafiol, 
ingl&s, francos y portugu6s, en la 
ciudad de Panami, a los cuatro dias 
del mes de octubre de mil novecien- 
tos cuarenta y tres. 



RESERVATIONS 

Reservation of the Delegation of the 
United States of America: 

The Delegate of the United States of 
America votes in the affirmative, on the 
understanding that he will refer the Draft 
Statute and the Draft Convention of the 
Inter-American University to his Govern- 
ment, and that neither this vote nor any 
provision of said Draft Statute or Draft 
Convention of the Inter- American Uni- 
versity shall be considered to commit the 
Government of the United States in any 
way. The Delegate requests that this 
reservation be incorporated in the minutes 
of this session and in any document of the 
Conference which may contain the text 
of the Draft Statute or the Draft Con- 



RESERVAS 

Reserva de la Delegacidn de los Estados 
Unidos de America: 

El delegado de los Estados Unidos de 
America vota afirmativamente, en el 
entendimiento de que referira el Proyecto 
del Estatuto y el Proyecto de Convenci6n 
de la Universidad Interamericana a su 
Gobierno, y que ni este voto ni cualquier 
disposici6n de dicho Proyecto del Estatuto 
o Proyecto de Convenci6n de la Universi- 
dad Interamericana deberd ser conside- 
rado como obligatorio, en ninguna forma, 
para el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos. 
El delegado pide que esta reserva sea 
incorporada en el Acta de esta sesi6n y en 
cualquier otro documento de la Con- 
ferencia que pueda contener el texto del 



66 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 626a 



vention of the Inter- American Univer- 
sity. 

Reservation of the Delegation of Argen- 
tina: 

The Argentine Delegation believes that, 
with the creation of this University, 
friendship and collaboration among the 
peoples of the Continent will be intensi- 
fied; and consequently approves it with 
great pleasure, subject to the understand- 
ing presented to the II Commission, that 
the degrees conferred by the University 
shall not have international effect. 



Proyectode Estatutooel Proyectode Con- 
venci6n de la Universidad Interamericana. 

Reserva de la Delegacion Argentina: 

La Delegaci6n Argentina considera que 
con la creaci6n de esta Universidad se 
intensificara la confraternidad y la cola- 
boraci6n entre los pueblos del Continente; 
y por consiguiente la aprueba muy com- 
placida, de acuerdo con la aclaraci6n 
consignada en el seno de la II Comisi6n en 
el sentido de que los diplomas que expida 
no tendran efecto internacional. 



[Signed:] For Haiti: ad referendum, MAX RIGAUD; for Paraguay: ad 
referendum of the approval of my Government, JOSE DAHLQUIST; for the 
Dominican Republic: VfcroR GARRIDO; for Uruguay: ALFREDO DE CASTRO; 
for El Salvador: Jos6 ANDR&S ORANTES; for Brazil: PAULO G. HASSLOCHER ; 
for Cuba: Jos6 MARfA CnAc6N Y CALVO; for Honduras: ANGEL G. HER- 
NANDEZ; for the United States of America, with the Reservation set forth 
above: JOHN W. STUDEBAKER; for Bolivia: JUSTO RODAS EGUINO; for 
Mexico: OCTAVIO VEJAR VAzqusz; for Colombia: ad referendum, CARLOS 
LOZANO Y LOZANO; for Guatemala: ad referendum, J. ANTONIO VILLACORTA; 
for Venezuela: ad referendum, RAFAEL VEGAS; for Panama: VferoR F. 
GOYT!A; for Ecuador: ABELARDO MONTALVO; for Argentina: with the 
Reservation set forth above, JUAN G. VALENZUELA; for Chile: BENJAMIN 
CLARO VELASCO; for Nicaragua: GERONIMO RAM!REZ BROWN; for Peru: 
ENRIQUE LAROZA; for Costa Rica: Luis D. TINOCO. 



No. 626a 

Statute of the Inter-American University. Adopted at Panama, 

October 4, 1943. 

Estatuto de la Universidad Interamericana. Aprobado en Panam&, 

4 de octubre de 1943. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Statute was adopted by and embodied in the Final Act of the 
First Conference of Ministers and Directors of Education of the American Republics held 
at Panama, September 27-October 4, 1943. For the text of the convention on this subject, 
see No. 626, ante. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The Spanish version of this Statute is also published in Libra amarillo 
de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela, 1944, p. 157. 

Not entered into force (January i, 1949). 

Text from Pan American Union, Congress and Conference Series, No. 45, p. 51. 

Los Gobiernos representados en la 
Conferencia de Ministros y Direc- 
tores de Educaci6n de las Repiiblicas 
Americanas, 



Oct. 4, 1943 



INTER-AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 



6 7 



Whereas: The creation and effec- 
tive establishment of an inter-Amer- 
ican center of higher learning, a sym- 
bol of the moral and spiritual unity 
of the Americas, has occupied for a 
long time the attention of the Gov- 
ernments and educators in particular; 

This idea has taken concrete form 
at various Inter-American Con- 
gresses, namely: the Third and 
Eighth Scientific Congresses, as well 
as the Conference of Ministers of 
Education of Central America; 

The Governing Board of the Pan 
American Union, by means of a 
Resolution approved on the third of 
March of the present year, on the 
establishment of the Inter- American 
University in Panama, expresses its 
gratitude to the Government of 
Panama for having taken such an im- 
portant initiative and assures it, at 
the same time, that the Pan Amer- 
ican Union shall lend its most de- 
cided support and cooperation in car- 
rying out the plan ; and recommends, 
moreover, to the Governments, mem- 
bers of the Pan American Union, 
that they cooperate in the manner 
they deem appropriate in order to 
assure the success of this project. 

The Governments represented at 
the First Conference of Ministers 
and Directors of Education of the 
American Republics, 

Resolve: To formulate the follow- 
ing Statute which shall set the pat- 
tern of the University: 

Article i. The Inter- American 
University is a community of culture 
at the service of the nations of Amer- 
ica. Its work shall always rest on the 
fundamental principles of the spirit- 
ual, material and biological welfare 
of our peoples; it shall uphold the 
democratic postulates and those of 
freedom of teaching and investiga- 
tion; it shall respect religious and 
political beliefs which do not involve 
an ti -democratic differences of caste 
or race. 

Art. 2. The Inter-American Uni- 
versity shall have autonomy in all 



Considerando: Que la creaci6n y el 
establecimiento efectivo de un centro 
de cultura superior interamericano, 
simbolo de unidad espiritual y moral 
de las Americas, ha pcupado durante 
largo tiempo la atenci6n de los Gobier- 
nos y de los educadores en particular; 

Que este pensamiento ha tornado 
forma concreta durante varios Con- 
gresos Interamericanos, a saber: El 
Tercero y el Octavo Cientfficos, mAs 
la Conferencia de Ministros de 
Educaci6n de Centro Am6rica; y 

Que el Consejo Directive de la 
Uni6n Panamericana, mediante Re- 
soluci6n aprobada el dia 3 de Marzo 
del presente ano, sobre el estableci- 
miento de la Universidad Interame- 
ricana en PanamA, expresa su reco- 
nocimiento al Gobierno de PanamA 
por haber tornado tan importante 
iniciativa y le asegura al mismo 
tiempo que la Uni6n Panamericana 
le prestarA su mAs decidido apoyo y 
cooperaci6n a fin de que la lleve a la 
prActica; y encarece, ademAs, a los 
Gobiernos que integran la Uni6n 
Panamericana, que cooperen en la 
forma que juzguen conveniente para 
garantizar el buen xito de este 
proyecto. 



Resuelven: Formular el siguiente 
Estatuto que normarA la vida de la 
Universidad : 

Articulo i. La Universidad Inter- 
americana es una comunidad de 
cultura al servicio de las naciones de 
America. Su labor descansarA siem- 
pre sobre los principios fundamenta- 
les de mejoramiento espiritual, mate- 
rial y bio!6gico de nuestros pueblos; 
sostendrA los postulados democrAti- 
cos y los de libertad de ensenanza e 
investigaci6n ; respetarA los credos 
religiosos y politicos que no entranen 
diferencias antidemocrAticas ni de 
casta ni de raza. 

Art. 2. La Universidad Intera- 
mericana tendrA autonomfa en todo 



68 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 626a 



its internal activities and shall be 
endowed with full legal personality 
in all the signatory countries. 

Art. 3. The University shall have 
its Seat in the capital of Panama and 
shall be located in the place desig- 
nated by the Government of Pan- 
ama. 

Art. 4. The Inter-American Uni- 
versity shall offer regular courses for 
non-graduate students, and courses 
for graduates and post-graduates; in 
addition, it shall have extension 
courses on popular culture, institutes 
of investigation, and seasonal courses 
to which it can attract groups or- 
ganized by competent authorities 
from the different American coun- 
tries. 

Art. 5. As a fundamental basis 
for its studies and research, the 
Inter-American University shall be 
endowed with all departments and 
laboratories of instruction and re- 
search. The laboratories and li- 
braries shall be established with the 
aid of the governments, individuals 
and institutions interested in the 
work of inter- American cooperation. 

Art. 6. The University shall offer 
courses and facilities for research in 
its various departments and labora- 
tories on all the cultural problems 
which affect the American hemi- 
sphere, with particular emphasis on 
History, Archeology, Folklore and 
Popular Arts, Languages, Biology 
applied to health, Statistics, Eco- 
nomics, and Comparative Legisla- 
tion. Such instruction shall be im- 
parted both by the teaching per- 
sonnel proper of the University as 
well as by visiting or exchange pro- 
fessors and research scholars, or by 
the competent personnel who, for the 
same purpose, may be subsidized by 
charitable or scientific institutions. 

Art. 7. The University shall or- 
ganize a reference service for inter- 
American technical and cultural con- 
sultations, and an information serv- 



orden de actividades internas y estarA 
dotada de plena personalidad jurf- 
dica en todos los pafses signatarios. 

Art. 3. La Universidad tendrA 
como sede la ciudad capital de Pa- 
namA y estarA ubicada en el lugar 
que designe el Gobierno de la Re- 
pflblica de PanamA. 

Art. 4. La Universidad Intera- 
mericana comprenderA cursos regu- 
lares para estudiantes no graduados 
y cursos para graduados y post- 
grad uados; y cursos de extensi6n 
cultural popular, institutes de in- 
vestigaci6n y cursos de estaci6n a 
los cuales podrA atraer grupos de los 
diversos pafses americanos, organiza- 
dos por autoridades competentes. 

Art. 5. Como base fundamental 
de sus estudios e investigaciones la 
Universidad Interamericana estarA 
dotada de todos los departamentos y 
laboratorios de instrucci6n e investi- 
gaci6n. Los laboratorios y bibliote- 
cas podrAn ser formados con el 
auxilio de los gobiernos y de las 
personas e instituciones interesados 
en la obra de cooperaci6n intera- 
mericana. 

Art. 6. La Universidad ofrecerA 
cursos y facilidades de invcstigaci6n 
en sus diversos departamentos y 
laboratorios sobre todos los problc- 
mas de cultura que atanen al He- 
misferio Americano, con 6nfasis par- 
ticular en la Historia, la Arqueologfa, 
el Folklore y las Artes Populares, las 
Lenguas, la Biologfa aplicada a la 
salubridad, la Estadfstica, Economia 
y Legislaci6n Comparada, instruc- 
ci6n que serA impartida tanto por el 
personal docente propio de la Uni- 
versidad, como por los profesores e 
investigadores visitantes o de in- 
tercambio, o el personal competente 
que con id6nticos fines sea subvencio- 
nado por instituciones benficas o 
cientfficas. 

Art. 7. La Universidad organi- 
zarA un servicio de referencias, 
consultas e informaciones t6cnicas y 
culturales interamericanas de indole 



Oct. 4, 1943 



INTER-AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 



6 9 



ice of a bibliographical, economic, 
financial, educational, meteorologi- 
cal, or other character. 

Art. 8. Component parts of the 
Inter-American University shall be, 
among other sections which may be 
agreed upon in the future, six re- 
search institutes and schools, as fol- 
lows: 

1. INSTITUTE OF SANITARY SCI- 
ENCES, concerned with teaching, re- 
search and scientific study of public 
health and the related sciences in all 
their aspects; but especially in rela- 
tion to the problems of hygiene of the 
greatest importance for the Amer- 
ican Continent. Because of the 
complex character of its structure, 
the volume of its activities and the 
importance of its economic effort, the 
Institute of Sanitary Sciences shall 
enjoy all the privileges of an autono- 
mous body, administratively as well 
as technically and economically, and 
the privileges of an international 
character which the governments 
may grant it. 

2. INSTITUTE OF AMERICAN AN- 
THROPOLOGY AND HISTORY, to 
strengthen the anthropological stud- 
ies and related sciences, leading to 
the knowledge of the origins and the 
development of the peoples of the 
Continent. 

The Institute in its investigations, 
excavations, etc., shall be empow- 
ered to visit, on the indication of the 
governments, the different countries 
of the Continent for seminar work or 
in collaboration with the rotating 
courses hereinafter set forth. 

The results of the investigations 
and studies of the Institute shall be 
published and circulated among the 
Americanist and cultural institutions 
and the Governments of the Conti- 
nent. 

The bases for these studies shall be 
the Museum of Anthropology of 
Panama, which, with the coopera- 
tion of the remaining countries, shall 
be converted gradually into a Mu- 



bibliogr&fica, econ6mica, financiera, 
educativa, meteoro!6gica y otras 
materias. 

Art. 8. Formardn parte de la 
Universidad Interamericana, entre 
otras secciones que en el future 
puedan acordarse, los seis institutes 
de investigaci6n y seminarios que a 
continuaci6n se enumeran: 

1. INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS SANI- 
TARIAS, encargado de la ensefianza, 
investigaci6n y estudio cientffico de 
la salubridad pdblica y de las ciencias 
afines en todos sus aspectos; pero 
especialmente en relaci6n a los pro- 
blemas de higiene de mayor trascen- 
dencia para el continente americano. 
For lo complejo de su estructura, el 
volumen de sus actividades y la 
importancia de su gesti6n econ6mica, 
el Institute de Ciencias Sanitarias 
gozarA de todos los privilegios de una 
entidad aut6noma, tanto administra- 
tiva como t6cnica y econ6mica- 
mente, y de los de carActer interna- 
tional que le reconozcan los Go- 
biernos. 

2. INSTITUTO DE ANTROPOLOcfA 
E HISTORIA AMERICANAS, para pro- 
fundizar los estudios antropo!6gicos 
y en ciencias afines, conducentes al 
conocimiento de los orfgenes y el 
desarrollo de los pueblos del Conti- 
nente. 

El Institute en sus investigaciones, 
excavaciones etc., ppdrA visitar, a 
indicaci6n de los gobiernos, los dife- 
rentes pafses del Continente en tra- 
bajos de seminario o en colaboraci6n 
con los cursos rotatories que mAs 
adelante se establecen. 

Los resultados de las investiga- 
ciones y estudios del Institute serin 
publicados y difundidps entre las 
mstituciones americanistas y cul- 
turales y los Gobiernos del Conti- 
nente. 

Base de estos estudios serA el 
Museo de Antropologla de PanamA, 
el cual, con la cooperaci6n de los 
demAs paises, se irA convirtiendo 
poco a poco en un museo de las 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 626a 



seum of the Americas for the study 
of indigenous civilizations. 

3. INSTITUTE OF COMPARATIVE 
LEGISLATION AND INTERNATIONAL 
LAW, for the individual and com- 
parative study of legislation in its 
different phases in the countries of 
America, and of International Law. 

The Institute of Comparative 
Legislation and International Law 
shall have as its aims: 

a) To organize courses and re- 
search work on topics of comparative 
legislation and international law, to 
be offered by outstanding professors 
and specialists; 

6) To publish in the most ade- 
quate form the result of its doctrinal 
works and documents; 

c) To create and organize a law 
library, principally about legislation, 
jurisprudence, and doctrines of the 
American Republics; 

d) To publish an informative bul- 
letin about the legislative modifica- 
tions and the legal bibliography of 
the American countries; 

e) To translate into English, Span- 
ish, Portuguese and French, those 
laws which, because of their special 
interest, should be circulated through- 
out the Continent; 

/) To collaborate, whenever neces- 
sary, in the work of the Pan Amer- 
ican Union and to sponsor and or- 
ganize lectures or meetings of ex- 
perts. 

The American countries offer, in 
connection with the Institute, to 
send and continue sending in the 
future the most complete collection 
possible of their law works, gazettes, 
reviews, records and bulletins. 

The Directors of the Inter-Amer- 
ican University shall arrange that, in 
the future, in courses organized by 
the Institute, professors and special- 
ists from all the universities of the 
Continent shall participate, thereby 
contributing to a better knowledge 
of the different laws and doctrinal 
tendencies, and a more effective co- 



Am6ricas para el estudio de sus 
civilizaciones aut6ctonas. 
3. INSTITUTO DE LEGiSLACi6N 

COMPARADA Y DERECHO INTERNA- 

CIONAL, para el estudio individual y 
comparative de la Iegislaci6n en sus 
diferentes fases y modalidades en los 
pafses de America, y del Derecho 
International. 

El Institute de Legislaci6n Com- 
parada y Derecho Internacional 
tendra por finalidades : 

a) Organizar cursos y trabajos de 
seminario sobre temas de Iegislaci6n 
comparada y derecho internacional, 
a cargo de profesores y especialistas 
eminentes; 

b) Publicar en la forma mas ade- 
cuada el resultado de sus trabajos 
doctrinales y de documentaci6n; 

c) Crear y organizar una biblio- 
teca juridica, principalmente de Ic- 
gislaci6n, jurisprudencia y doctrina 
de todos los paises amcricanos; 

d) Publicar un boletin informa- 
tive de las modificaciones legisla- 
tivas y de la bibliografia juridica de 
los paises americanos; 

e) Traducir al ingls, espafiol, por- 
tugu6s y francos, aquellas leyes que 
por su interns especial merezcan ser 
difundidas en todo cl Continentc; 

/) Colaborar en cuanto sea re- 
querido en las tareas de la Uni6n 
Panamericana y ausptciar y or- 
ganizar conferencias o reuniones de 
expertos. 

Los paises amcricanos ofrecen, en 
relaci6n con el Institute, remitir y 
continuar remiticndo en adelante 
una colecci6n lo mas completa posi- 
ble de sus obras juridicas, gacetas, 
revistas, registros y boletines. 

Los organismos directives de la 
Universidad Interamericana cuida- 
ran de que en los cursos succsivos que 
organice el Institute participen pro- 
fesores y especialistas de todas las 
Universidades del Continente, para 
el mejor conocimiento de las dis- 
tintas legislaciones y tendencias doc- 
trinales y la efectiva convivencia de 



Oct. 4, 1943 



INTER-AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 



operation among the professors and 
students of America. 

The Institute shall organize stud- 
ies which foster uniformity of legis- 
lation of the American Republics in 
those branches where uniformity 
may be desirable. 

The Institute shall pay attention 
especially to those post-war prob- 
lems related to the legal organization 
and relations of the American Conti- 
nent and of the whole international 
life. 

4. INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL AND ECO- 
NOMIC RESEARCH, for the study of 
economic and social problems of the 
Americas. 

The principal object of this In- 
stitute shall be the study of the war 
and post-war inter-American econ- 
omy in its basic aspects; as well as 
the social problems that are funda- 
mental in the Americas, such as 
demographic problems and problems 
of distribution and use of wealth. 

The research work of the Institute 
shall be conducted, whenever the 
Governments request it, by means of 
trips, field studies and studies in sec- 
tions of the Continent, according to 
the programs to which the Univer- 
sity may agree. 

The result of the investigations 
and research work shall be published 
by the Institute and distributed 
among the institutions of higher 
learning and the governments of the 
Americas. 

5. INSTITUTE OF FOLKLORIC RE- 
SEARCH, for the promotion of the 
cultural relations of America which 
involves as its essential objective the 
study of folklore in all its manifesta- 
tions. 

The Institute shall coordinate the 
efforts of research workers of the 
different countries of the Continent; 
shall try to develop their own pe- 
culiar styles in music, literature and 
the fine arts; and shall initiate liter- 



profesores y discfpulos de toda 
America. 

El Institute hard estudios que 
propendan a la uniformidad de la 
Iegislaci6n de los pafses americanos 
en aquellas ramas en que sea conve- 
niente obtener dicha uniformidad. 

El Institute consagrard en sus 
trabajos especial atenci6n a los 
problemas que ha de suscitar la post- 
guerra en orden a la organizaci6n y 
relaciones jurfdicas del Continente 
Americano y de toda la vida interna- 
cional. 

4. INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES 
SOCIALES Y EcoN6MiCAS, para el 
cstudio de los problemas de orden 
econ6mico y social de las Americas. 

El objeto primordial de este Ins- 
tituto serd el estudio de la economfa 
interamericana durante y despu6s de 
la guerra actual en sus hechos bdsi- 
cos; asf como de los problemas so- 
ciales de cardcter fundamental en las 
Americas, demogr&ficos, de distribu- 
ci6n y aprovechamiento de las 
riquezas. 

Las investigaciones del Institute 
podrin efectuarse, cuando asf lo 
soliciten los Gobiernos, por medio de 
viajes de estudio en el campo y por 
secciones del Continente, segtin los 
programas que la Universidad 
acuerde. 

El resultado de las investigaciones 
y los trabajos de seminario serdn 
publicados por el Instituto y distri- 
buidos entre las instituciones de 
cultura y los gobiernos de las 
Americas. 

5. INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES 
FOLKL6RICAS, para el fomento de las 
relaciones culturales de America, que 
envuelve como objetivo esencial el 
estudio del folklore en todas sus 
manifestaciones. 

El Instituto coordinard los esfuer- 
zos de los investigadores de los 
distintos pafses del Continente y 
tratarA de desarrollar estilos propios 
en la mflsica, la literatura y las bellas 
artes; e iniciard actividades litera- 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 626a 



ary, scientific, and artistic activities 
in accordance with the programs of 
study. 

The Institute shall be provided 
with all the equipment necessary to 
carry out its work. 

The Institute shall not only collect 
folkloric data but also distribute 
them in the form of publications, and 
shall circulate them by all possible 
means. In this work it shall make 
use of excursions through the differ- 
ent countries in research work or in 
collaboration with the functioning of 
the rotating courses hereinafter es- 
tablished, or at the special invitation 
of the Governments. 

6. INSTITUTE OF SCIENCES, for the 
study, investigation and develop- 
ment of the fundamental sciences: 
mathematics, physics, chemistry and 
biology, which constitute the basis of 
all modern technique. The results 
of the investigations and studies car- 
ried out in this Institute shall be 
made known to all the universities 
and institutes existing in the Amer- 
icas. 

Art. 9. As an essential activity of 
the University, bimestral or trimes- 
tral courses are created, which shall 
be given each year in a different 
country of the Continent, according 
to the order that results from a 
periodic drawing by lot. 

Art. zo. The place of the courses 
that are established in the preceding 
article shall change periodically, so 
that they may be offered in all the 
countries of America, granted the 
previous acceptance of the respective 
Governments. 

Art. n. The courses shall func- 
tion with professors and students 
from the different countries of the 
Continent. It is recommended to 
the Governments that their delega- 
tions be selected always from among 
the personalities representative of 
the distinctive aspects of the culture 
of the country. 

Art. 12. It is left to the judgment 
of the countries which send students 



rias, cientfficas y artfsticas en con- 
formidad con los programas de 
estudio. 

El Institute dispondra de los 
equipos completes necesarios para 
realizar su labor. 

El Institute no s61o recogera dates 
folk!6ricos sino que los distribuira en 
forma de publicaciones y los difun- 
dird por todos los medios posibles de 
divulgaci6n, y en esta labor podra 
efectuar excursiones por los diferen- 
tes pafses, en trabajos de seminario 
o en colaboraci6n con el funciona- 
miento de los cursos rota tori os que 
mas adelante se establecen, o a espe- 
cial invitaci6n de los Gobiernos. 

6. INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS, para 
el estudio, investigaci6n y fomento 
de las ciencias fundamen tales: mate- 
mdticas, ffsicas, qufmicas y bio!6gi- 
cas, que constituyen la base de toda 
la t6cnica moderna. Los resultados 
de las investigaciones y estudios 
realizados en este Institute serdn 
dados a conocer a todas las Universi- 
dades e Institutes cxistentes en las 
Americas. 

Art. 9. Como actividad esencial 
de la Universidad sc crean cursos bi- 
mestrales o trimestrales que tendrdn 
lugar cada ano en diverso pai's del 
Continente, segtin el orden que re- 
suite de sorteos peri6dicos. 

Art. 10. La sede de los cursos que 
se establecen en el articulo anterior 
cambiard peri6dicamente, a fin de 
que sus trabajos se realicen en todos 
los pafses de America, previa acepta- 
ci6n de los Gobiernos respectivos. 

Art. n. Los cursos funcionardn 
con profesores y alumnos de los 
distintos pafses del Continente. Se 
recomienda a los Gobiernos que sus 
delegaciones estn siempre seleccio- 
nadas entre las personalidades repre- 
sentativas de los aspectos peculiares 
de la cultura de cada pafs. 

Art. 12. Queda al arbitrio de los 
pafses que envfen estudiantes a los 



Oct. 4, 1943 



INTER-AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 



73 



to the rotating courses to fix the 
academic credits which should be 
granted for the studies pursued in 
the courses mentioned. 

Art. 13. The countries which 
serve as the seat of the rotating 
courses shall offer the temporary use 
of their equipment, both for teaching 
and research, as well as their art 
studies, classrooms, libraries and 
laboratories. 

Art. 14. The Government of the 
Inter-American University shall be: 

a) THE ADMINISTRATIVE BOARD, 
which is the supreme authority of the 
University, and responsible for giv- 
ing effect to the provisions of this 
Statute, and which shall be com- 
posed of the heads of diplomatic 
missions of the American Republics 
accredited to Panama, or those 
whom the respective Governments 
may designate, and by the Minister 
of Education of the Republic of 
Panama, who shall preside over it. 

The Administrative Board has the 
following functions: 

1. To serve as a means of com- 
munication between the University 
and the Governments of the Amer- 
ican Republics. 

2. To sanction ultimately the 
plans, rules and regulations, and 
provisions of an administrative, aca- 
demic and cultural character which 
the University authorities may issue 
in fulfillment of their functions. 

3. To approve the annual budget. 

4. To decree the constructions, in- 
stallations, foundations, and extraor- 
dinary investments required by the 
University. 

5. To prepare the necessary gen- 
eral rules and regulations for the 
operation of the University, and the 
special regulations for the acceptance 
and distribution of the gifts made to 
the University by natural or legal 
persons. The Administrative Board 
shall not accept legacies which are 
contrary to the principles and basic 
purposes of the University. 



cursos rotatories, fijar los cr6ditos 
escolares que deban concederse a los 
estudios seguidos en los mencionados 
cursos. 

Art. 13. Los pafses que sirvan de 
sede de los cursos rotatories facili- 
tardn el uso temporal de sus instala- 
ciones tanto docentes como de in- 
vestigaci6n, asf como de sus talleres 
de arte, aulas, bibliotecas y labora- 
tories. 

Art. 14. El Gobierno de la Uni- 
versidad Interamericana ser: 

a) LA JUNTA DE ADMINISTRAC^N, 
que es la autoridad suprema de la 
Universidad, estara encargada de 
realizar las disposiciones de este 
estatuto y se integrard por los Jefes 
de Misiones de las Reptiblicas Ame- 
ricanas acreditados en Panamd o por 
aquellos que los respectivos Gobier- 
nos designen, y por el Ministro de 
Educaci6n de la Reptiblica de Pa- 
nama, quien la presidira. 

La Junta de Administraci6n tiene 
las siguientes atribuciones: 

1. Servir de medio de comunica- 
ci6n entre la Universidad y los 
Gobiernos de las Repfiblicas Ameri- 
canas. 

2. Sancionar en liltima instancia 
los planes, reglamentos y providen- 
cias de cardcter administrative, aca- 
dmico y cultural que dicten las 
autoridades universitarias en cum- 
plimiento de sus atribuciones. 

3. Aprobar anualmente los pre- 
supuestos. 

4. Decretar las construcciones, in- 
stalaciones, fundaciones e inver- 
siones extraordinarias que demande 
la Universidad. 

5. Dictar los reglamentos gene- 
rales necesarios para su funciona- 
miento y un reglamento especial 
para aceptar y destinar las dpna- 
ciones que se hagan a la Universidad 
por personas naturales o juridicas. 
La Junta de Administraci6n no 
podrd aceptar legados que compro- 
metan los principles y bases consti- 
tutivos de la Universidad. 



74 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 626a 



6. To elect the President of the 
University. In the absence or tem- 
porary disability of the President, he 
shall be replaced, in the capacity of 
Vice President by the dean of the 
Directors of the Institute. The 
President shall serve for a period of 
five years and may be re-elected. 

7. To approve the regulations 
which the Institute of Sanitary Sci- 
ences may present. 

8. To appoint the professors and 
administrative personnel, upon the 
recommendation of the different 
Governments and the President of 
the University. 

9. To solicit the reports which it 
may desire on the economic situation 
of the University and the movement 
of its funds and securities. 

ft) THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL, 
which shall be composed of the Presi- 
dent of the University, the Deans 
and Directors of the Faculties and 
Institutes, and whose organization 
the Administrative Board shall regu- 
late. It shall take charge of all the 
academic and education work not 
specifically resting in another au- 
thority. 

c) THE PRESIDENT shall be the 
representative and the executive of 
the University. In this capacity he 
shall prepare the budget, which shall 
be submitted later to the Adminis- 
trative Board for its examination and 
approval; he shall call and preside 
over the University Council, and 
shall direct the teaching, administra- 
tive, disciplinary and financial man- 
agement. He shall propose to the 
Administrative Board, after consult- 
ing the respective Institute, the 
nomination of the teaching and ad- 
ministrative personnel necessary for 
the progress of the Institution; he 
shall submit for the consideration of 
the Administrative Board the rules 
and regulations, reforms and feasible 
innovations. 

The President shall have immedi- 
ate and continuous control over the 



6. Elegir al Rector de la Universi- 
dad. En caso de ausencia o im- 
posibilidad temporal del Rector, lo 
reemplazarA, con el carActer de Vice- 
Rector, el decano de los Directores 
de los Institutes. El Rector durarA 
cinco anos en sus funciones y podrA 
ser reelegido. 

7. Aprobar la reglamentacion que 
el Institute de Ciencias Sanitarias 
presente. 

8. Nombrar los Profesores y per- 
sonal administrative, oyendo las 
recomendaciones que hagan los dis- 
tintos Gobiernos y el Rector de la 
Universidad. 

9. Solicitar los informes que desee 
sobre la situaci6n econ6mica de la 
Universidad y el movimiento de sus 
fondos y valores. 

ft) EL CONSEJO UNIVERSITARIO, 
que estarA integrado por el Rector 
de la Universidad, por los decanos o 
Directores de las Facultades o Insti- 
tutes, y cuya organizaci6n regla- 
mentarA la Junta de Administraci6n, 
tendrA a su cargo todo lo relativo a 
la obra acad^mica y cultural que 
especfficamente no radique en otra 
autoridad. 

c) EL RECTOR serA el represen- 
tante y ejecutivo de la Universidad. 
En tal carActer prepararA el presu- 
puesto que someterA luego a la Junta 
de Administraci6n para su examen y 
aprobaci6n; convocarA y presidirA 
el Consejo Universitario y dirigirA 
la gesti6n docente, administrativa, 
disciplinaria y fiscal. PropondrA a 
la Junta de Administraci6n, previa 
consulta con el Institute respectivo, 
los nombramientos del personal do- 
cente y del administrativo que scan 
necesarios para la buena marcha de 
la Instituci6n; someterA a la con- 
sideraci6n de la Junta de Adminis- 
tracidn los reglamentos, reformas e 
innovaciones convenientes. 



El Rector controlarA de modo in- 
mediato y constante las cuentas de 



Oct. 21, 1943 



MONETARY CONVENTION 



75 



expense accounts of the University 
and its movement of funds and 
securities. He shall report annually 
on the general state of the financial 
situation and the accounts of the 
Institution to the Administrative 
Board. 

Art. 15. On formulating the pres- 
ent Statute, the First Conference of 
Ministers and Directors of Educa- 
tion of the American Republics ex- 
presses its sincere recognition and 
full adherence to the efforts, acts and 
measures taken by the Government 
of Panama up to the present time, 
toward bringing into being the Inter- 
American University. 

Transitory Articles: i. The Uni- 
versity shall continue for the present 
to function on the site of the old 
University of Panama. 

2. The Administrative Board of 
the University is entrusted with sug- 
gesting to the Government of the 
country which may have been fixed 
as the Seat of the next Conference of 
Ministers of Education, the oppor- 
tune time for convoking it. This 
Conference should take place in 1944 
or 1945 so that, in the shortest time 
possible, the exchange of ideas and 
studies of the American educational 
problems may continue, and an 
analysis made of the results of the 
Resolutions adopted at this First 
Conference. 



gastos de la Universidad y su movi- 
miento de fondos y valores. Anual- 
mente someterd un estado general de 
la situaci6n econ6mica y las cuentas 
de la Instituci6n a la Junta de Ad- 
ministraci6n. 

Art. 15. Al formular el presente 
Estatuto, la Primera Conferencia de 
Ministros y Directores de Educaci6n 
de las Repilblicas Americanas con- 
signa de modo permanente su firme 
reconocimiento y plena adhesi6n a 
las gestiones, actos y medidas dicta- 
dos por el Gobierno de Panamd 
hasta la fecha, encaminados a dar 
vida a la Universidad Interameri- 
cana. 

Articulos Transitorios : i. La Uni- 
versidad continuard funcionando por 
ahora en el local de la antigua Uni- 
versidad Nacional de Panami. 

2. La Junta de Administraci6n de 
la Universidad queda encargada de 
sugerir al Gobierno del pafs que se 
haya fijadp como Sede de la pr6xima 
Conferencia de Ministros de Educa- 
ci6n, la oportunidad de convocarla, 
debiendo 6sta realizarse en 1944 
1945 a fin de continuar, en el menor 
tiempo posible, el intercambio de 
ideas y estudios de los problemas 
educativos americanos asi como el 
andlisis del resultado de los Acuerdos 
tornados en esta Primera Confer- 
encia. 



No. 627 

MONETARY Convention. Signed at London, October 21, 1943. 
CONVENTION mongtaire. Signee a Londres, 21 octobre 1943. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. Changes in Articles 6 and 7 of this Convention were made by an agree- 
ment of May 24, 1946. 31 United Nations Treaty Series, p. 169. The economic union 
between Belgium and Luxemburg was established under a convention of July 25, 1921, 
later amended. 9 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 224; 134 idem, p. 394; 160 idem, p. 327. 
Agreements concerning a common customs regime were concluded by the parties on Septem- 
ber 5, 1944, and on March 14, 1947 (Nos. 635, 6353, post). An agreement for economic con- 
sultation was signed by these states and France on March 20, 1945 (No. 649, post). The 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 627 



parties to this agreement later became members of the International Monetary Fund and 
the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development established by agreements 
signed at Washington, December 27, 1945 (Nos. 669-670, post). 

RATIFICATIONS. For the text of the Netherlands law of November 23, 1946, approving 
this Convention, see Netherlands Staatsblad, 1946, No. 0330. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Convention is also published in the Netherlands Staats- 
blad, 1944, No. 76, and 1946, No. 6330. An English translation is also published in 4 
Belgium (i943) PP- 516-18. 

Anon., "Monetary Pact Explained," 3 News from Belgium (1943), p. 373; Anon., "The 
Netherlands-Belgian Monetary Agreement," 2 Netherlands News Digest (1943), pp. 470-73; 
Anon., "The Netherlands-Belgian Monetary Agreement," 7 Netherlands News (1943), pp. 
208, 316-19; J. van den Broek, "The Dutch-Belgian Monetary Pact," 8 idem, pp. 238-39; 
H. Fast, "The Netherlands and Belgium," 4 Belgium (1943), pp. 386-88; J. Golay, "A 
propos de 1'accord montaire belgo-hollandais," 2 Revue economique et sociale (1944), pp. 
112-17; C. Gutt, "A Commentary by the Belgian Minister of Finance," 4 Belgium (1943), 
pp. 518-20. 

Entered into force, provisionally, October 21, 1943. 
Text and translation supplied by the Netherlands Information Bureau. 



[Translation] 

The Government of Her Majesty 
the Queen of the Netherlands, on the 
one hand, 

The Governments of His Majesty 
the King of the Belgians and Her 
Royal Highness the Grand Duchess 
of Luxemburg, on the other hand, 

being desirous of stabilizing mone- 
tary relations and facilitating the 
mechanism of payments between the 
Belgo-Luxemburg Economic Union 
and the Netherlands, including the 
overseas territories placed under the 
sovereignty or mandate of said 
States, have agreed on the following 
provisions: 

Article x. From the date of the 
signature of the present Convention 
the rate of exchange of the Nether- 
lands florin in relation to the Belgian 
franc is fixed at one Netherlands 
florin to 16.52 Belgian francs (3.304 
belgas), namely, 100 Belgian francs 
(20 belgas) to 6.053 Netherlands 
florins. 

This rate is called the "official 
rate." 

No change can be made in the offi- 
cial rate without preliminary agree- 
ment between the Netherlands and 
Belgian Governments. 



Le Gouvernement de Sa Majest6 
la Reine des Pays-Bas, d'une part; 

Les Gouvernements de Sa Ma- 
jest6 le Roi des Beiges, et de Son 
Altesse Royale La Grande-Duchesse 
de Luxembourg, d'autre part; 

d6sireux de stabiliser les rapports 
monStaires et de faciliter le mca- 
nisme des paiements entre les Pays- 
Bas et T Union Economique Belgo- 
Luxembourgeoise, y compris les ter- 
ritoires d f outre-mer places sous la 
souverainet6 ou le mandat des Etats 
pr6cit6s, sont convenus des disposi- 
tions suivantes: 

Article i. A dater de la signa- 
ture de la pr6sente Convention, le 
taux de change du florin des Pays- 
Bas par rapport au franc beige est 
fix6 i: i Fl.P.B. pour Frs.b. 16,52 
(belgas 3,304), soit 100 Frs.b. (belgas 
20) pour Fl.P.B. 6,053. 



Ce taux est appe!6 le "taux 
officid." 

Aucun changement ne peut 6tre 
apport6 au taux officiel sans accord 
pralable entre les Gouvernements 
nerlandais et beige. 



Oct. 21, 1943 



MONETARY CONVENTION 



77 



Art 2. The Netherlands and Bel- 
gian monetary authorities shall con- 
duct transactions between them on 
the basis of the official rate. 

They shall fix, by common agree- 
ment, the buying and selling rates to 
be applied on markets under their con- 
trol. These rates shall be the same 
in the Netherlands and the Belgo- 
Luxemburg Economic Union; they 
may not differ from the official rate 
by more than one-quarter per cent 
either way. 

They shall not exchange, except 
by agreement, Netherlands florins 
or Belgian francs against foreign 
currencies otherwise than at the 
rates at which those currencies are 
dealt with on the official market in 
the Netherlands, in the case of Neth- 
erlands florins, or in Belgium, in the 
case of Belgian francs. 

Art 3. For every payment 
which the Netherlands, the Nether- 
lands Indies or any other part of the 
Kingdom of the Netherlands may 
have to make in the territory of the 
Belgo-Luxemburg Economic Union, 
in the Belgian Congo or in territories 
under Belgian Mandate, the Belgian 
monetary authorities shall furnish 
Belgian francs to the Netherlands 
monetary authorities at the official 
rate against payment in Netherlands 
florins. 

For every payment which the 
Belgo-Luxemburg Economic Union, 
the Colony of the Belgian Congo or 
the territories under Belgian man- 
date may have to make in the Neth- 
erlands, the Netherlands Indies or 
any other part of the Kingdom of the 
Netherlands, the monetary authori- 
ties of the Netherlands shall furnish 
Netherlands florins to the Belgian 
monetary authorities at the official 
rate against payment in Belgian 
francs. 

Art. 4. The Netherlands mone- 
tary authorities shall furnish to the 
Belgian monetary authorities, against 
payment in Netherlands florins, the 
florins of the Netherlands Indies or 



Art. 2. Les autorit6s montaires 
nerlandaises et beiges traiteront 
entre elles sur la base du taux official. 

Elles fixeront de commun accord 
les cours acheteurs et vendeurs qui 
seront pratiques sur les march6s qui 
dependent d'elles. Ces cours seront 
les memes dans les Pays-Bas et dans 
TUnion Economique Belgo-Luxem- 
bourgeoise; ils ne pourront s'6carter 
du taux officiel de plus de }4%> en 
plus ou en moins. 

Elles n'6changeront, sauf accord, 
des florins des Pays-Bas ou des 
francs beiges centre des devises 
trangres qu'aux taux auxquels ces 
devises sont trait6es sur le march6 
officiel, aux Pays-Bas s'il s'agit de 
florins des Pays-Bas, ou en Belgique 
s'il s'agit de francs beiges. 

Art. 3. Pour tout paiement que 
les Pays-Bas, les Indes Nterlandaises 
ou toute autre partie du Royaume 
des Pays-Bas auraient & effectuer 
dans le territoire de T Union Eco- 
nomique Belgo-Luxembourgeoise, au 
Congo Beige ou dans les territoires 
sous mandat beige, les autorit6s 
mon^taires beiges fourniront aux 
autorit6s mon6taires n6erlandaises 
des francs beiges au taux officiel 
centre paiement en florins des Pays- 
Bas. 

Pour tout paiement que TUnion 
Economique Belgo-Luxembour- 
geoise, la Colonie du Congo Beige ou 
les territoires sous mandat beige au- 
raient & effectuer aux Pays-Bas, dans 
les Indes Nterlandaises ou dans toute 
autre partie du Royaume des Pays- 
Bas, les autorit6s mon6taires des 
Pays-Bas fourniront aux autorit6s 
monfetaires beiges des florins des 
Pays-Bas au taux officiel centre 
paiement en francs beiges. 

Art 4. Les autorits montaires 
nerlandaises fourniront aux autori- 
ts mon6taires beiges centre paie- 
ment en florins des Pays-Bas les 
florins des Indes Nterlandaises ou de 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 627 



any other part of the Kingdom of the 
Netherlands necessary to make any 
payment in the Netherlands Indies 
or any other part of the Kingdom of 
the Netherlands. 

The Belgian monetary authorities 
shall furnish the Netherlands mone- 
tary authorities, against payment in 
Belgian francs, the Congolese francs 
necessary to make any payment in 
the Belgian Congo or in the terri- 
tories under Belgian mandate. 

The Governments and monetary 
authorities of the Netherlands and 
Belgium shall consult together peri- 
odically with the object of taking, 
by common agreement, measures 
necessary to maintain the flexibility 
of the mechanism of payments and 
to prevent any operations incompati- 
ble with the monetary and economic 
policy of the Netherlands and Bel- 
gium. 

Art. 5. All Belgian francs held 
by the Netherlands and all Nether- 
lands florins held by Belgium may 
freely be used for operations contem- 
plated in the present Convention. 

Art. 6. The Netherlands and 
Belgium respectively shall keep ac- 
counts of the operations effected in 
the application of Article 3 of the 
present Convention. 

The Netherlands shall keep this 
account in Netherlands florins; Bel- 
gium, in Belgian francs. 

The balances of these accounts 
shall be cleared at the official rates 
in round sums on the last day of 
each month. 

The Netherlands and Belgium re- 
spectively shall, however, have the 
right to clear the balances during the 
month. 

That part of the credit balances 
exceeding 30,250,000 Netherlands 
florins or 500,000,000 Belgian francs 
shall bear interest at the current 
rate, payable by the debtor country. 
That interest, calculated at the offi- 
cial discount rate for accepted bills 
applied by the bank of issue of the 



toute autre partie du Royaume des 
Pays-Bas, nlcessaires pour effectuer 
tout paiement aux Indes N6erlan- 
daises ou dans toute autre partie du 
Royaume des Pays-Bas. 

Les autorit6s montaires beiges 
fourniront aux autorits mon6taires 
n6erlandaises contre paiement en 
francs beiges les francs congolais 
n6cessaires pour effectuer tout paie- 
ment au Congo Beige ou dans les 
territoires sous mandat beige. 

Les Gouvernements et les autori- 
t6s montaires des Pays-Bas et de 
Belgique se consulteront priodique- 
ment dans le but d'arrSter de 
commun accord les mesures nlces- 
saires pour maintenir la souplesse du 
mcanisme des paiements et pour 
prvenir toutes operations incom- 
patibles avec la politique mon6taire 
et economique des Pays-Bas et de 
la Belgique. 

Art. 5. Tous les francs beiges 
detenus par les Pays-Bas ainsi que 
tous les florins des Pays-Bas detenus 
par la Belgique pourront tre libre- 
ment utilises pour les operations 
vises par la prsente Convention. 

Art. 6. Les Pays-Bas et la Bel- 
gique tiendront respectivement le 
compte des operations effectu6es en 
application de 1'article 3 de la 
prsente Convention. 

Les Pays-Bas tiendront ce compte 
en florins des Pays-Bas; la Belgique, 
en francs beiges. 

Les soldes de ces comptes seront 
compenss au taux officiel, par 
sommes rondes, le dernier jour de 
chaque mois. 

Les Pays-Bas et la Belgique au- 
ront toutefois respectivement le droit 
de compenser dans le courant du 
mois. 

La partie des soldes crditeurs 
sup6rieure & trente millions deux 
cent cinquante mille florins des Pays- 
Bas ou cinq cents millions de francs 
beiges portera int6rt, prorata tem- 
poris, k charge du pays d6biteur. 
Get int6r6t, calcute au taux officiel 
de 1'escompte des traites accepttes 



Oct. 21, 1943 



MONETARY CONVENTION 



79 



debtor country, shall be applied on 
the last day of each three calendar 
months. 

Art. 7. If, at a given moment, in 
consequence of the application of 
Article 3 of the present Convention, 
the Netherlands has a credit balance 
of more than 1,000,000,000 Belgian 
francs or if Belgium has a credit 
balance of more than 60,500,000 
Netherlands florins, the two Govern- 
ments shall consult together with a 
view to putting an end to the dis- 
equilibrium. 

Art. 8. Without prejudice to the 
provisions of Article n below, no 
gold or any other kind of collateral 
shall be demanded as security for the 
balances accruing from the applica- 
tion of the present Convention, and 
no demand shall be made for con- 
version of these balances into gold 
or foreign currencies. 

On the other hand, the country 
with the debit balance shall have the 
right at any time to effect reimburse- 
ments in gold. The metal shall be 
accepted at the purchase price paid 
for gold by the bank of issue of the 
creditor country. 

Subject to the agreement of the 
creditor country, the debtor country 
may also effect reimbursements by 
means of payments in foreign cur- 
rencies at the purchase price of the 
latter paid by the bank of issue of 
the creditor country. 

It is in particular the intention of 
the Netherlands and Belgium to 
offer and accept payments in foreign 
currencies to correct any disequilib- 
rium that may result from com- 
mercial operations between the High 
Contracting Parties which have their 
origin in imports paid for by one of 
them in foreign currencies and which 
result in exports for which payment 
is made to the other in foreign cur- 
rencies. 

Art. 9. If the Netherlands and 
Belgium should decide to modify 
the official rate, the accounts should 
be drawn up and balanced at the 



pratiqufi par 1'Institut d'Emission du 
pays d6biteur, sera appliqu6 le dernier 
jour de chaque trimestre calendrier. 

Art. 7. Si, un moment donn6, 
en consequence de 1'application de 
1'article 3 de la pr6sente Convention, 
les Pays-Bas sont cr6anciers par 
solde de plus d'un milliard de francs 
beiges ou si la Belgique est cr6anci6re 
par solde de plus de soixante millions 
cinq cent mille florins des Pays-Bas, 
les deux Gouvernements se con- 
sulteront en vue de mettre fin & ce 
d6s6quilibre. 

Art. 8. Sans prejudice des dis- 
positions de 1'article n ci-apr&s, 
aucune garantie en or ni autre 
garantie r6elle ne sera demand6e en 
gage des soldes r6sultant de 1'appli- 
cation de la pr6sente Convention, et 
aucune demande de conversion de 
ces soldes en or ou en devises 6tran- 
geres ne sera introduite. 

Par contre, le pays d6biteur par 
solde aura toujours le droit d'effec- 
tuer des remboursements en or. Le 
m6tal sera accept^ au prix d'achat de 
Tor pratiquS par 1'Institut d'Emis- 
sion du pays chancier. 

Moyennant 1'accord du pays cr6- 
ancier, le pays d6biteur pourra 
6galement op6rer des rembourse- 
ments au moyen de paiements en 
devises trang6res au prix d'achat de 
celles-ci par 1'Institut d'Emission 
du pays cr6ancier. 

II entre notamment dans 1'inten- 
tion des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique 
d'offrir et d'accepter des paiements 
en devises 6trang6res pour corriger 
les d6s6quilibres qui r6sulteraient 
d f op6rations commerciales conclues 
entre les Hautes Parties Contrac- 
tantes ayant pour origine des impor- 
tations acquittes par Tune d'elles en 
devises 6trang&res et aboutissant 
des exportation payees & 1'autre en 
devises 6trang6res. 

Art. 9. Si les Pays-Bas et la 
Belgique dcidaient de modifier le 
taux official, les comptes seraient 
arret6s et compens6s au taux official 



So 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 627 



official rate in force up to that time. 
The amount of the final credit bal- 
ance, if expressed in currency which 
has varied in relation to gold, should 
be adjusted by the debtor country in 
proportion to that variation. 

Account shall be taken, in cal- 
culating the final balance, of amounts 
for which, by reason of forward ex- 
change contracts of the Netherlands 
or Belgium, the monetary authori- 
ties may be pledged at the date on 
which the change was made. 

Art 10. Subject to the agreement 
of the Netherlands monetary au- 
thorities, payments in favor of third 
countries may be made by the Bel- 
gian monetary authorities by means 
of florins held by them, and subject 
to the agreement of the Belgian 
monetary authorities, payments in 
favor of third countries may be made 
by the Netherlands monetary au- 
thorities by means of Belgian francs 
held by them. 

Art. xi. Should the present Con- 
vention be denounced, the final 
credit balance would be used for 
acquisition of Treasury Bonds issued 
by the debtor country. 

These Treasury Bonds would be 
issued in the currency of the creditor 
country; they would bear interest at 
3 per cent and would be amortized 
in conformity with an amortization 
table to be established by common 
agreement between the Netherlands 
and Belgium, the total duration of 
the amortization, however, not to 
exceed five years. 

As guarantee for the amortization 
and payment of interest on these 
Bonds, appropriate securities would 
be constituted in favor of the credi- 
tor country. 

Art. 12. It shall be the duty of 
the Netherlands monetary authori- 
ties and the Belgian monetary 
authorities to take individually the 
necessary measures to maintain be- 
tween their currency and those of 
third countries a relation correspond- 
ing to the official rate provided for in 



jusque la en vigueur. Le montant 
du solde crfediteur final, s f il 6tait ex- 
prim dans la devise qui a vari par 
rapport Tor, serait rajust par le 
pays dbiteur dans la proportion de 
cette variation. 

II sera tenu compte dans le calcul 
du solde final des montants pour 
lesquels, a raison de contrats de 
change a terme, les autorits mon- 
taires nerlandaises ou beiges seraient 
engagfes a la date a laquelle inter- 
viendrait le changement de taux. 

Art. 10. Moyennant Taccord des 
autorits mon^taires nerlandaises 
des paiements en faveur de pays tiers 
pourront gtre effectu^s par les au- 
toritfes mon6taires beiges au moyen 
de florins detenus par elles et moyen- 
nant Taccord des autorit6s mon6- 
taires beiges, des paiements en 
faveur de pays tiers pourront fitre 
effectu6s par les autorit6s mon- 
taires n6erlandaises au moyen de 
francs beiges detenus par elles. 

Art. ii. Si la pr6sente Conven- 
tion venait a tre d6nonc6e, le solde 
cr6diteur final serait affect^ a Tac- 
quisition de Bons du Tr6sor 6mis par 
le pays d6biteur. 

Ces Bons du Tr6sor seraient 6mis 
dans la monnaie du pays crancier; 
ils porteraient int6rt a 3% et 
devraient tre amortis conform6- 
ment a un tableau d'amortissement a 
6tablir de commun accord entre les 
Pays-Bas et la Belgique, sans toute- 
fois que la dure totale de Tamor- 
tissement ne dpasse cinq annes. 

En garantie de Tamortissement et 
du paiement des int6rets de ces Bons, 
des gages approprifis seraient con- 
stituis au profit du pays cr^ancier. 

Art. 12. II appartient aux autori- 
tis montaires n^erlandaises et aux 
autorit^s mon6taires beiges de pren- 
dre individuellement les mesures 
n6cessaires pour maintenir entre 
leur monnaie et celles des pays tiers 
un rapport correspondant au taux 
official pr6vu a 1'article i de la pr- 



Oct. 21, 1943 



MONETARY CONVENTION 



8l 



Article i of the present Convention. 
With a view, however, to insuring 
unity of action, they shall establish 
permanent contact between them- 
selves, shall keep each other mu- 
tually informed, and shall consult 
together on all questions relating to 
monetary and economic policy, as 
well as on any action which may ap- 
pear to be necessary. 

They shall also insure coordina- 
tion of measures which they may de- 
cide to take on their respective 
markets. 

Art. 13. The Nederlandsche Bank 
and the Banque Nationale de Bel- 
gique shall be charged respectively 
by the Government of the Kingdom 
of the Netherlands and the Govern- 
ment of the Kingdom of Belgium, 
and with the guarantee of the State, 
with the application of the provisions 
of the present Agreement; they shall 
establish the contacts desirable for 
that purpose and in particular those 
contemplated by Articles 4 and 12 
above. They shall be empowered to 
conclude the necessary agreements 
with international organizations in 
which their Government participates. 

Art. 14. Nothing in the present 
Convention shall prevent the Neth- 
erlands and Belgium from adhering 
to multilateral international agree- 
ments relating to stabilization of 
exchange. They pledge themselves 
to do so only jointly. 

On the other hand, third coun- 
tries may adhere to the present 
Convention subject to the agree- 
ment of the Netherlands and Belgian 
Governments. 

Art. 15. In order to make the 
present Convention fully effective 
the High Contracting Parties shall 
endeavor to establish close solidarity 
in their commercial relations. 

Art. 16. Subject to at least two 
years* notice, the present Conven- 
tion may be terminated on January i 
of each year as from January i, 1949. 



sente Convention. Toutefois, en vue 
d'assurer une unit6 d'action, elles 
6tabliront entre elles un contact 
permanent, se tiendront mutuelle- 
ment inform6es et se consulteront 
sur toutes questions relatives & la 
pplitique mon6taire et 6conomique 
ainsi qu'i 1'occasion de toute action 
qui parattrait n6cessaire. 

Elles assureront 6galement la co- 
ordination des mesures qu'elles se- 
raient amentes 4 prendre sur leurs 
marches respectifs. 

Art. 13. La Nederlandsche Bank 
et la Banque Nationale de Belgique 
seront chargdes respectivement par 
le Gouvernement du Royaume des 
Pays-Bas et par le Gouvernement du 
Royaume de Belgique et avec la 
garantie de TEtat, de 1'application 
des dispositions de la pr6sente Con- 
vention; elles 6tabliront les contacts 
d6sirables cet effet et notamment 
ceux prfevus aux articles 4 et 12 ci- 
dessus. Elles seront liabilities 
passer les conventions ncessaires 
avec les organismes internationaux 
auxquels participera leur Gouverne- 
ment. 

Art. 14. Rien dans la prsente 
Convention ne s'oppose ce que les 
Pays-Bas et la Belgique n'adhferent 4 
des accords internationaux multi- 
latraux relatifs la stabilisation 
des changes. Us s'engagent ne le 
faire que conjointement. 

D'autre part, des pays tiers pour- 
ront adherer la prfesente Conven- 
tion moyennant Taccord des Gou- 
vernements N6erlandais et Beige. 

Art. 15. Afin de donner toute son 
efficacit6 la pr6sente Convention, 
les Hautes Parties Contractantes 
s'emploieront 4 6tablir une 6troite 
solidarity dans leur relations com- 
merciales. 

Art. 16. Moyennant un pr6avis 
d'au moins deux ans, il pourra 6tre 
mis fin i la prsente Convention au 
i w Janvier de chaque anne, & partir 
du i" Janvier 1949. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 628 



Art 17. The present Conven- 
tion shall be ratified and ratifications 
shall be exchanged as soon as possi- 
ble. 

Meanwhile, it shall become effec- 
tive provisionally from the moment 
of signature, and the Netherlands 
Government or the Belgian Govern- 
ment shall have the right to bring it 
to an end at any time on giving six 
months' notice. In the latter even- 
tuality, the provisions of Article n 
would be applied. 

IN FAITH WHEREOF the Pleni- 
potentiaries, duly empowered for 
that purpose, have signed the present 
Convention and have thereunto 
affixed their seals. 

DONE in triplicate at London, 
October 21, 1943, in Dutch and 
French, both texts being equally 
authentic. 



Art. 17. La prfesente Convention 
sera ratifie et les ratifications en 
seront changes aussitdt que possi- 
ble. 

En attendant, elle sortira pro- 
visoirement ses effets d&s le moment 
de la signature, avec facult6 pour le 
Gouvernement N6erlandais ou pour 
le Gouvernement Beige d'y mettre 
fin tout moment moyennant un 
pr6ayis de six mois. Dans cette 
dernifere 6ventualit6, il serait fait 
application des dispositions de Tarti- 
cle ii. 

EN FOI DE QUOI, les P16nipoten- 
tiaires, munis des pouvoirs nces- 
saires k cet effet, ont sign la pr6sente 
Convention et 1'ont revtue de leur 
cachet. 

Fait en triple original, en ner- 
landais et en frangais, les deux 
textes faisant 6galement foi, & Lon- 
dres, le 21 octobre 1943. 



[Signed: E. N. VAN KLEFFENS, J. VAN DEN BROEK, H. J. VAN MOOK, 
P. KERSTENS, P. H. SPAAK, GUTT, A. DE VLEESCHAUWER, J. BECII, V. 

BODSON.l 



No. 628 



DECLARATION on General Security. Signed at Moscow, October 

30, IQ43- 

DECLARATION sur securit6 genSrale. Signee a Moscou, 30 

octobre 1943* 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Declaration was adopted at the Conference of Foreign Secretaries 
of the United States of America, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, held at Moscow, 
October 19-30, 1943. For an account of the conference, see 9 U.S. Department of State 
Bulletin (1943), pp. 307, 341. The Moscow conference was followed by conferences of 
heads of government at Tehran and Cairo, November and December 1943; at Crimea, 
February 1945; and at Berlin (Potsdam), July and August 1945. The Moscow Declaration 
led to the signing of the Charter of the United Nations at San Francisco on June 26, 1945 
(No. 653, post) ; Article 106 of the Charter envisaged the continuance of the consultations 
provided for in paragraph 5 of this Declaration. 

RATIFICATIONS. This Declaration was not subject to ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The Declaration is also published in i Soviet Foreign Policy during the 
Patriotic War: Documents and Materials, p. 241; 38 Am. Jour. Int. Law (Supp., 1944), p. 5. 
For a Spanish translation, see 3 Revista peruana de derecko international (1943), p. 494. 

P. B. Potter, "Moscow; Cairo; Teheran," 38 Am. Jour. Int. Law (1944), pp. 108-11. 



Oct. 30, 1943 



DECLARATION ON GENERAL SECURITY 



Entered into force October 30, 1943. 

Text from 9 U. S. Department of State Bulletin (1943), p. 308. 



The Governments of the United 
States of America, the United King- 
dom, the Soviet Union and China: 

united in their determination, in 
accordance with the Declaration by 
the United Nations of January I, 
1942, and subsequent declarations, 
to continue hostilities against those 
Axis powers with which they re- 
spectively are at war until such pow- 
ers have laid down their arms on the 
basis of unconditional surrender; 

conscious of their responsibility 
to secure the liberation of themselves 
and the peoples allied with them 
from the menace of aggression; 

recognizing the necessity of ensur- 
ing a rapid and orderly transition 
from war to peace and of establishing 
and maintaining international peace 
and security with the least diversion 
of the world's human and economic 
resources for armaments; 

jointly declare: 

1 . That their united action, pledged 
for the prosecution of the war against 
their respective enemies, will be con- 
tinued for the organization and 
maintenance of peace and security. 

2. That those of them at war with 
a common enemy will act together 
in all matters relating to the sur- 
render and disarmament of that 
enemy. 

3. That they will take all meas- 



ures deemed by them to be necessary 
to provide against any violation of 
the terms imposed upon the enemy. 

4. That they recognize the neces- 
sity of establishing at the earliest 
practicable date a general interna- 
tional organization, based on the 
principle of the sovereign equality of 
all peace-loving states, and open to 
membership by all such states, large 
and small, for the maintenance of 
international peace and security. 

5. That for the purpose of main- 
taining international peace and se- 
curity pending the re-establishment 
of law and order and the inaugura- 
tion of a system of general security, 
they will consult with one another 
and as occasion requires with other 
members of the United Nations with 
a view to joint action on behalf of 
the community of nations. 

6. That after the termination of 
hostilities they will not employ their 
military forces within the territories 
of other states except for the pur- 
poses envisaged in this declaration 
and after joint consultation. 

7. That they will confer and co- 
operate with one another and with 
other members of the United Nations 
to bring about a practicable general 
agreement with respect to the regu- 
lation of armaments in the post-war 
period. 



V. MOLOTOV, ANTHONY EDEN, CORDELL HULL, Foo PING-SHEUNG 
Moscow, 3oth October, 1943. 



84 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 629 

No. 629 

AGREEMENT for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration. Signed at Washington, November 9, 1943. 

ACCORD stir PAdministration des Nations Unies pour les Secours 
et la Reconstruction. Signe & Washington, 9 novembre 1943. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. Drafts of this Agreement were submitted by the Government of the 
United States to other governments on June 10 and September 20, 1943. 8 U.S. Depart- 
ment of State Bulletin (1943), p. 523; 9 idem (1943), p. 211. Additional functions were con- 
ferred on the Administration by the sanitary conventions of December 15, 1944 (Nos. 643, 
644, post). The Central Committee was enlarged in 1945 and 1946. The Council of the 
Administration held its first session at Atlantic City, November lo-December i, 1943. 
Formal agreements concerning supplies and services were concluded by the Administration 
with the governments of ten states. The activities of the Administration were discontinued 
in 1947, its functions being transferred to various specialized agencies of the United Nations. 
Reports of the Director General, October- December 1946, pp. 74-75; July-December, 1947, 
pp. 317-46. By an agreement of September 27, 1948, the residual assets of the Administra- 
tion were transferred to the United Nations. U.N. Doc. A/8io, p. 104. When it closed 
its books on March 31, 1949, UNRRA had spent almost four billion dollars for relief and 
rehabilitation. An International Relief Union had been established by a convention opened 
to signature at Geneva, July 12, 1927, which came into force in 1932 (No. 178, ante). 

RATIFICATIONS. All of the signatories approved or ratified the Agreement. Denmark 
and the Byelorussian and Ukrainian Soviet Republics became parties to the Agreement 
in 1945, and Turkey in 1946. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is also published in British Treaty Series, No. 3 
(1943), Cmd. 6491; Canada, Treaty Series, 1943, No. 16. For a French translation, see 
Belgium, Bulletin usuel des lois et arr&es, 1945, p. 519; for a Spanish translation, see Guate- 
mala, Memoria de las labores del Poder Ejecutive en el ramo de relactones exteriores, 1943, p. 
1 53 ; 4 Revista peruana de derecho internacional (1944), p. 276. Detailed accounts of UNRRA 
activities were published in the quarterly reports of the Director General to the Council. 

Anon., "The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration," 49 Int. Labour 
Rev. (1944), pp. 145-59; W. Arnold-Forster, "UNRRA's Prospects," 15 Political Quarterly 
(1944), pp. 57-65; G. Brand, "International Relief Machinery," 9 London Quarterly of 
World Affairs (1944), pp. 144-48; H. W. Briggs, "The UNRRA Agreement and Congress," 
38 Am. Jour. Int. Law (1944), PP- 650-58; V. M. Dean, "UNRRA -A Step Toward Re- 
construction," 19 Foreign Policy Reports (1944), pp. 266-76; A. G. B. Fisher, "The Consti- 
tution and Work of UNRRA," 20 International Affairs (1944), pp. 317-30; G. G. Goodman, 
"UNRRA in Perspective," 2 Year Book of World Affairs (1948), pp. 197-224; G. Gutierrez 
y Sanchez, El problema de los refugiados: La politico, de la UNRRA respecto a las poblaciones 
desarraigadas (Habana, 1944), 108 pp.; L. Hamori, " L f Administration des Nations Unies 
pour le Secours et la Restauration," 8 Revue pour I'etude des catamites (1945), pp. 159-76; 
J. P. Harris, "The Development of an International Civil Service for the Administration of 
Relief and Rehabilitation of War Devastated Areas/' 31 Iowa Law Review (1945), pp. 90- 
102; P. C. Jessup, "UNRRA Sample of World Organization," 22 Foreign Affairs (1944), 
pp. 362-73; J. A. Keyser and L. C. Marsh, "UNRRA and Its Task," 11 London Quarterly 
of World Affairs (1946), pp. 325-35; H. H. Lehman, "Some Problems in International Ad- 
ministration," 5 Public Administration Review (1945), pp. 93-101 ; L. L. Leonard, "UNRRA 
and the Concept of Regional International Organization," 30 Iowa Law Review (1945), pp. 
489-514; C. Parry, "The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Organization," 23 
British Year Book of International Law (1946), pp. 495-96; A. H. Robertson, "Some Legal 



Nov. 9, 1943 



UNRRA 



Problems of UNRRA," idem, pp, 142-67; W. A. Sawyer, "Achievements of UNRRA as an 
International Health Organization/' 37 American Journal of Public Health (1947), pp. 41-58; 
T. A. Sumberg, "The Financial Experience of UNRRA, 11 39 Am. Jour. Int. Law (1945), 
pp. 698-712; UNRRA Organization, Aims, Progress (Rev. ed., Washington, 1945), 34 pp.; 
Z. Warhaftig, Relic} and Rehabilitation Implications of the UNRRA Program for Jewish 
Needs (New York, 1944), 223 pp. 

Entered into force November 9, 1943. 

Text from U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 352. 



The Governments or Authorities 
whose duly authorized representa- 
tives have subscribed hereto, 

Being United Nations or being as- 
sociated with the United Nations 
in this war, 

Being determined that immedi- 
ately upon the liberation of any area 
by the armed forces of the United 
Nations or as a consequence of re- 
treat of the enemy the population 
thereof shall receive aid and relief 
from their sufferings, food, clothing 
and shelter, aid in the prevention of 
pestilence and in the recovery of the 
health of the people, and that prepa- 
ration and arrangements shall be 
made for the return of prisoners and 
exiles to their homes and for assist- 
ance in the resumption of urgently 
needed agricultural and industrial 
production and the restoration of 
essential services, 

Have agreed as follows: 

ARTICLE i 

There is hereby established the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Administration. 

1. The Administration shall have 
power to acquire, hold and convey 
property, to enter into contracts and 
undertake obligations, to designate 
or create agencies and to review the 
activities of agencies so created, 
to manage undertakings and in gen- 
eral to perform any legal act appro- 
priate to its objects and purposes. 

2. Subject to the provisions of 
Article 7, the purposes and functions 
of the Administration shall be as 
follows: 



(a) To plan, coordinate, adminis- 
ter or arrange for the administration 
of measures for the relief of victims 
of war in any area under the control 
of any of the United Nations through 
the provision of food, fuel, clothing, 
shelter and other basic necessities, 
medical and other essential services; 
and to facilitate in such areas, so far 
as necessary to the adequate pro- 
vision of relief, the production and 
transportation of these articles and 
the furnishing of these services. The 
form of activities of the Administra- 
tion within the territory of a member 
government wherein that govern- 
ment exercises administrative au- 
thority and the responsibility to be 
assumed by the member government 
for carrying out measures planned 
by the Administration therein shall 
be determined after consultation 
with and with the consent of the 
member government. 

(b) To formulate and recommend 
measures for individual or joint ac- 
tion by any or all of the member 
governments for the coordination of 
purchasing, the use of ships and 
other procurement activities in the 
period following the cessation of hos- 
tilities, with a view to integrating 
the plans and activities of the Ad- 
ministration with the total move- 
ment of supplies, and for the purpose 
of achieving an equitable distribu- 
tion of available supplies. The Ad- 
ministration may administer such 
coordination measures as may be au- 
thorized by the member govern- 
ments concerned. 

(c) To study, formulate and rec- 



86 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 629 



ommend for individual or joint ac- 
tion by any or all of the member 
governments measures with respect 
to such related matters, arising out 
of its experience in planning and per- 
forming the work of relief and re- 
habilitation, as may be proposed by 
any of the member governments. 
Such proposals shall be studied and 
recommendations formulated if the 
proposals are supported by a vote 
of the Council, and the recommenda- 
tions shall be referred to any or all 
of the member governments for in- 
dividual or joint action if approved by 
unanimous vote of the Central Com- 
mittee and by vote of the Council. 

ARTICLE 2. Membership 

The members of the United Na- 
tions Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration shall be the govern- 
ments or authorities signatory hereto 
and such other governments or au- 
thorities as may upon application 
for membership be admitted thereto 
by action of the Council. The Coun- 
cil may, if it desires, authorize the 
Central Committee to accept new 
members between sessions of the 
Council. 

Wherever the term "member gov- 
ernment" is used in this Agreement 
it shall be construed to mean a mem- 
ber of the Administration whether a 
government or an authority. 

ARTICLE 3 The Council 

I. Each member government shall 
name one representative, and such 
alternates as may be necessary, upon 
the Council of the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Adminis- 
tration, which shall be the policy- 
making body of the Administration. 
The Council shall, for each of its ses- 
sions, select one of its members to 
preside at the session. The Council 
shall determine its own rules of pro- 
cedure. Unless otherwise provided 
by the Agreement or by action of the 
Council, the Council shall vote by 
simple majority. 



2. The Council shall be convened 
in regular session not less than twice 
a year by the Central Committee. 
It may be convened in special ses- 
sion whenever the Central Commit- 
tee shall deem necessary, and shall be 
convened within thirty days after 
request therefor by one-third of the 
members of the Council. 

3. The Central Committee of the 
Council shall consist of the repre- 
sentatives of China, the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States of 
America, with the Director General 
presiding, without vote. Between 
sessions of the Council it shall when 
necessary make policy decisions of an 
emergency nature. All such deci- 
sions shall be recorded in the min- 
utes of the Central Committee which 
shall be communicated promptly to 
each member government. Such 
decisions shall be open to reconsider- 
ation by the Council at any regular 
session or at any special session 
called in accordance with Article 3, 
paragraph 2. The Central Com- 
mittee shall invite the participation 
of the representative of any member 
government at those of its meetings 
at which action of special interest to 
such government is discussed. It 
shall invite the participation of the 
representative serving as Chairman 
of the Committee on Supplies of the 
Council at those of its meetings at 
which policies affecting the provision 
of supplies are discussed. 

4. The Committee on Supplies of 
the Council shall consist of the mem- 
bers of the Council, or their alter- 
nates, representing those member 
governments likely to be principal 
suppliers of materials for relief and 
rehabilitation. The members shall 
be appointed by the Council, and the 
Council may authorize the Central 
Committee to make emergency ap- 
pointments between sessions of the 
Council, such appointments to con- 
tinue until the next session of the 
Council. The Committee on Sup- 



Nov. 9, 1943 



UNRRA 



plies shall consider, formulate and 
recommend to the Council and the 
Central Committee policies designed 
to assure the provision of required 
supplies. The Central Committee 
shall from time to time meet with 
the Committee on Supplies to review 
policy matters affecting supplies. 

5. The Committee of the Council 
for Europe shall consist of all the 
members of the Council, or their al- 
ternates, representing member gov- 
ernments of territories within the 
European area and such other mem- 
bers of the Council representing 
other governments directly concerned 
with the problems of relief and re- 
habilitation in the European area as 
shall be appointed by the Council; 
the Council may authorize the Cen- 
tral Committee to make these ap- 
pointments in cases of emergency be- 
tween sessions of the Council, such 
appointments to continue until the 
next session of the Council. The 
Committee of the Council for the 
Far East shall consist of all the 
members of the Council, or their 
alternates, representing member gov- 
ernments of territories within the 
Far Eastern area and such other 
members of the Council representing 
other governments directly con- 
cerned with the problems of relief 
and rehabilitation in the Far Eastern 
area as shall be appointed by the 
Council; the Council may authorize 
the Central Committee to make 
these appointments in cases of 
emergency between sessions of the 
Council, such appointments to con- 
tinue until the next session of the 
Council. The regional committees 
shall normally meet within their re- 
spective areas. They shall consider 
and recommend to the Council and 
the Central Committee policies with 
respect to relief and rehabilitation 
within their respective areas. The 
Committee of the Council for Europe 
shall replace the Inter-Allied Com- 
mittee on European post-war relief 
established in London on September 



24, 1941 and the records of the latter 
shall be made available to the Com- 
mittee for Europe. 

6. The Council shall establish 
such other standing regional com- 
mittees as it shall consider desirable, 
the functions of such committees 
and the method of appointing their 
members being identical to that 
provided in Article 3, paragraph 5 
with respect to the Committees of 
the Council for Europe and for the 
Far East. The Council shall also 
establish such other standing com- 
mittees as it considers desirable to 
advise it, and, in intervals between 
sessions of the Council, to advise the 
Central Committee. For such stand- 
ing technical committees as may be 
established, in respect of particular 
problems such as nutrition, health, 
agriculture, transport, repatriation, 
and finance, the members may be 
members of the Council or alternates 
nominated by them because of spe- 
cial competence in their respective 
fields of work. The members shall 
be appointed by the Council, and the 
Council may authorize the Central 
Committee to make emergency ap- 
pointments between sessions of the 
Council, such appointments to con- 
tinue until the next session of the 
Council. Should a regional com- 
mittee so desire, subcommittees of 
the standing technical committees 
shall be established by the technical 
committees in consultation with the 
regional committees, to advise the 
regional committees. 

7. The travel and other expenses 
of members of the Council and of 
members of its committees shall be 
borne by the governments which 
they represent. 

8. All reports and recommenda- 
tions of committees of the Council 
shall be transmitted to the Director 
General for distribution to the Coun- 
cil and the Central Committee by 
the secretariat of the Council estab- 
lished under the provisions of Article 
4, paragraph 4. 



88 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 629 



ARTICLE 4. The Director General 

1. The executive authority of the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Administration shall be in 
the Director General, who shall be 
appointed by the Council on the 
nomination by unanimous vote of 
the Central Committee. The Di- 
rector General may be removed by 
the Council on recommendation by 
unanimous vote of the Central 
Committee. 

2. The Director General shall 
have full power and authority for 
carrying out relief operations con- 
templated by Article I, paragraph 2 
(a), within the limits of available re- 
sources and the broad policies de- 
termined by the Council or its Cen- 
tral Committee. Immediately upon 
taking office he shall in conjunction 
with the military and other appro- 
priate authorities of the United Na- 
tions prepare plans for the emergency 
relief of the civilian population in 
any area occupied by the armed forces 
of any of the United Nations, ar- 
range for the procurement and as- 
sembly of the necessary supplies and 
create or select the emergency organ- 
ization required for this purpose. 
In arranging for the procurement, 
transportation, and distribution of 
supplies and services, he and his rep- 
resentatives shall consult and col- 
laborate with the appropriate au- 
thorities of the United Nations and 
shall, wherever practicable, use the 
facilities made available by such au- 
thorities. Foreign voluntary relief 
agencies may not engage in activity 
in any area receiving relief from the 
Administration without the consent 
and unless subject to the regulation 
of the Director General. The pow- 
ers and duties of the Director Gen- 
eral are subject to the limitations of 
Article 7. 

3. The Director General shall 
also be responsible for the organiza- 
tion and direction of the functions 
contemplated by Article I, para- 
graphs 2 (V) and 2 (c). 



4. The Director General shall ap- 
point such Deputy Directors Gen- 
eral, officers, expert personnel, and 
staff at his headquarters and else- 
where, including field missions, as he 
shall find necessary, and he may 
delegate to them such of his powers 
as he may deem appropriate. The 
Director General, or upon his author- 
ization the Deputy Directors Gen- 
eral, shall supply such secretariat 
and other staff and facilities as shall 
be required by the Council and its 
committees, including the regional 
committees and subcommittees. 
Such Deputy Directors General as 
shall be assigned special functions 
within a region shall attend meetings 
of the regional standing committee 
whenever possible and shall keep it 
advised on the progress of the relief 
and rehabilitation program within 
the region. 

5. The Director General shall 
make periodic reports to the Central 
Committee and to the Council cov- 
ering the progress of the Administra- 
tion's activities. The reports shall 
be made public except for such por- 
tions as the Central Committee may 
consider it necessary, in the interest 
of the United Nations, to keep con- 
fidential; if a report affects the in- 
terests of a member government in 
such a way as to render it question- 
able whether it should be published, 
such government shall have an op- 
portunity of expressing its views on 
the question of publication. The 
Director General shall also arrange 
to have prepared periodic reports 
covering the activities of the Admin- 
istration within each region and he 
shall transmit such reports with his 
comments thereon to the Council, 
the Central Committee and the re- 
spective regional committees. 

ARTICLE 5. Supplies and Resources 

i. In so far as its appropriate con- 
stitutional bodies shall authorize, 
each member government will con- 
tribute to the support of the Admin- 



Nov. 9, 1943 



UNRRA 



8 9 



istration in order to accomplish the 
purposes of Article I, paragraph 2 
(a). The amount and character of 
the contributions of each member 
government under this provision will 
be determined from time to time by 
its appropriate constitutional bodies. 
All such contributions received by the 
Administration shall be accounted for. 

2. The supplies and resources 
made available by the member gov- 
ernments shall be kept in review in 
relation to prospective requirements 
by the Director General, who shall 
initiate action with the member gov- 
ernments with a view to assuring 
such additional supplies and re- 
sources as may be required. 

3. All purchases by any of the 
member governments, to be made 
outside their own territories during 
the war for relief or rehabilitation 
purposes, shall be made only after 
consultation with the Director Gen- 
eral, and shall, so far as practicable, 
be carried out through the appropri- 
ate United Nations agency. 

ARTICLE 6. Administrative 
Expenses 

The Director General shall submit 
to the Council an annual budget, 
and from time to time such supple- 
mentary budgets as may be required, 
covering the necessary administra- 
tive expenses of the Administration. 
Upon approval of a budget by the 
Council the total amount approved 
shall be allocated to the member 
governments in proportions to be 
determined by the Council. Each 
member government undertakes, 
subject to the requirements of its 
constitutional procedure, to contrib- 
ute to the Administration promptly 
its share of the administrative ex- 
penses so determined. 

ARTICLE 7 

Notwithstanding any other pro- 
vision herein contained, while hos- 
tilities or other military necessities 
exist in any area, the Administration 



and its Director General shall not 
undertake activities therein without 
the consent of the military command 
of that area, and unless subject to 
such control as the command may 
find necessary. The determination 
that such hostilities or military ne- 
cessities exist in any area shall be 
made by its military commander. 

ARTICLE 8. Amendment 

The provisions of this Agreement 
may be amended as follows: 

a. Amendments involving new ob- 
ligations for member governments 
shall require the approval of the 
Council by a two-thirds vote and 
shall take effect for each member 
government on acceptance by it; 

b. Amendments involving modi- 
fication of Article 3 or Article 4 shall 
take effect on adoption by the Coun- 
cil by a two-thirds vote, including 
the votes of all the members of the 
Central Committee; 

c. Other amendments shall take 
effect on adoption by the Council by 
a two-thirds vote. 

ARTICLE 9. Entry into Force 

This Agreement shall enter into 
force with respect to each signatory 
on the date when the Agreement is 
signed by that signatory, unless 
otherwise specified by such signatory. 

ARTICLE 10. Withdrawal 

Any member government may 
give notice of withdrawal from the 
Administration at any time after the 
expiration of six months from the 
entry into force of the Agreement 
for that government. Such notice 
shall take effect twelve months after 
the date of its communication to the 
Director General subject to the 
member government having met by 
that time all financial, supply or 
other material obligations accepted 
or undertaken by it. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, this Agree- 
ment is signed by the following rep- 
resentatives, duly authorized for that 



90 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 629 

purpose by their respective Govern- partment of State of the United 
ments or Authorities. States of America, and certified cop- 
Done in Washington this ninth ies thereof to be furnished by the 
day of November, one thousand Government of the United States of 
nine hundred forty-three, in the America to each of the Governments 
English language, the original to be and Authorities on whose behalf this 
deposited in the archives of the De- Agreement is signed. 

[Signed :] For Australia : OWEN DIXON, Minister for Australia ; for Belgium : 
P. H. SPAAK; for Bolivia: Luis GUACHALLA; for the United States of Brazil: 
E. PENTEADO; for Canada: LEIGHTON MCCARTHY; for Chile: (Este Convenio 
regira respecto a Chile, de acuerdo con los preceptos de su Carta Fundamental, una vez 
que haya sido aprobado por el Congreso National y ratificado por los organismos con- 
stitucionales correspondientes de la Republica.) RoDOLFO MIGUELS; for China: 
T. F. TsiANG; for Colombia: (El Plenipotenciario de Colombia firma con la sal- 
vedad de la ulterior aprobaci6n del Congreso Colombiano.) A. VARGAS; for Costa 
Rica: CARLOS M. ESCALANTE; for Cuba: (Este Convenio, previa la aprobati6n 
del Senado de la Reptiblica, ser ratificado por el Ejecutivo.) A. F. CoNCHESO ; for 
Czechoslovakia: JAN MASARYK; for the Dominican Republic: JULIO VEGA 
BATLLE; for Ecuador: (Sujeto a ratificati6n por el Congreso de la Reptiblica del 
Ecuador.) S. E. DURAN BALLON; for Egypt: M. HASSAN; for El Salvador: 
HECTOR DAVID CASTRO; for Ethiopia: (Subject to the ratification of the Imperial 
Ethiopian Government.) EPHREM T. MEDHEN; for the French Committee 
of National Liberation: JEAN MONNET; for Greece: K. VARVARESSOS; for 
Guatemala : (Pending the required approval by the National Assembly of Guatemala, 
the immediate application of this Agreement shall be considered provisional with regard 
to the Government of Guatemala.) ADRIAN RECINOS ; for Haiti : A. LIAUTAUD ; for 
Honduras : JULIAN R. CACERES ; for Iceland : MAGNUS SIGURDSSON ; for India : 
(This Agreement is signed subject to a reservation under Article IX that it shall enter 
into force with respect to the Government of India as soon as it has been approved by 
the Indian Legislature.) G. S. BAJPAI ; for Iran : (This Agreement shall enter into 
force immediately after its approval by the Iranian Chamber of Deputies.) M. 
SHAYESTEH; for Iraq: (Subject to ratification by the Iraqi Parliament.) ALI 
JAWDAT; for Liberia: WALTER F. WALKER; for Luxembourg: PIERRE Du- 
PONG; for the United Mexican States: (Sujeto a ratificaci6n por el Senado de los 
Estados Unidos Mexicanos.) F. CASTILLO NAjERA; for the Netherlands: 
P. KERSTENS; for New Zealand: GEOFFREY S. Cox; for Nicaragua: Ad refer- 
endum, GUILLERMO SEVILLA SACASA; for Norway: W. MUNTHE DE MOR- 
GENSTIERNE; for Panama: ENRIQUE A. JIMENEZ; for Paraguay: CELSO R. 
VELAZQUEZ; for Peru: (Bajo reserva de su ratificaci6n constitucional.) M. DE 
FREYRE Y SANTANDER; for the Philippine Commonwealth: S. OSMENA; for 
Poland: JAN KWAPINSKI; for the Union of South Africa: RALPH W. CLOSE; 
for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: A. GROMYKO; for the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: HALIFAX; for the United 
States of America: FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT; for Uruguay: (Con la reserva de 
que no podra entrar en vigor con respecto al Uruguay hasta tanto se alcance la apro- 
baci6n legislative) J. C. BLANCO; for Venezuela: (El Plenipotenciario de Vene- 
zuela firma el presente Convenio en la inteligencia de que queda sujeto a la ratificaci6n 
de los Poderes Ptiblicos de la Naci6n, conforme al procedimiento constitucional venezo- 
lano.) Di6oENEs ESCALANTE; for Yugoslavia: CONSTANTIN A. FOTITCII. 



Dec. 15, 1943 INTER-AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE TRAFFIC 91 

No. 630 

CONVENTION on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive 
Traffic. Opened for signature at Washington, December 15, 
1943- 

CONVENCION sobre la reglamentaci6n del trafico automotor in- 
teramericano. Abierta a la firma en Washington, 15 de diciem- 
bre de 1943. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention replaces a convention on the regulation of automotive 
traffic signed at Washington on October 6, 1930 (No. 271, ante), which had been ratified by 
five states. A draft of this Convention was prepared by the Fourth Pan American Highway 
Conference and the Second Inter- American Travel Congress, meeting at Mexico City in 
1941. A convention on the international circulation of motor vehicles was signed at Paris, 
October n, 1909. 102 Br. and For. St. Papers, p. 64; 3 Martens, N.R.G. (3d sen), p. 834. 
It was superseded by the convention opened for signature at Paris, April 24, 1926 (No. 157, 
ante); a convention on road traffic was opened for signature on the same date (No. 158, 
ante). An agreement concerning triptychs, a convention on the unification of road signals, 
and a convention on the taxation of foreign motor vehicles were opened for signature at 
Geneva, March 28-30, 1931 (No. 287-289, ante). A convention on a Pan American tourist 
passport and a transit passport for vehicles was signed at Buenos Aires, June 19, 1935 (No. 
416, ante). 

RATIFICATIONS. On January i, 1949, ratifications of this Convention had been deposited 
with the Pan American Union by Argentina, Brazil, Chile (with reservation), Dominican 
Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and 
the United States of America (with reservation). It had also been ratified by Costa Rica. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Convention is also published in U.S. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series, No. 1567; the Spanish version is also published in 65 Dominican 
Republic, Gaceta oficial (1944), No. 6109, pp. 3-14; 40 Guatemala, D^ario de Centre America 
(1944), No. 95, pp. 785-88; Guatemala, Memoria de las labores del Poder Ejecutivo en el 
ramo de relaciones exteriores, 1943, pp. 205-13; Repiiblica Dominicana, Memoria de la Secre- 
taria de Estado de Relaciones Exteriores, 1943, PP- 279-88; the Portuguese text is published 
in Brazil, Colegao das Lets, 1945, II, p. 598. 

Anon., "Second Inter- American Travel Congress, 1 ' 76 Bulletin of the Pan American 
Union (1942), pp. 162-65; E. W. James, "More Highways for the Americas the Fourth 
Pan American Highway Congress," 75 idem (1941), pp. 677-81; f "A Quarter Cen- 
tury of Road Building in the Americas," 79 idem (1945), pp. 609-13; H. H. Kelly, "American 
Interest in International Motor Traffic," 17 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1947), PP- 
1063-68. 

Entered into force July 25, 1944. 

Text supplied by the Pan American Union. 

The Governments of the American Los Gobiernos de las Republicas 
Republics, desirous of establishing Americanas, deseosos de establecer 
uniform rules among themselves to entre sf reglas uniformes para el con- 
control and regulate international trol y la reglamentaci6n del tr- 
automotive traffic on their highways, fico automotor international en sus 
and to facilitate the movement of carreteras, y para facilitar el movi- 
motor vehicles among such States, miento de vehfculos entre dichos 

Estados, 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 630 



Have decided to conclude the 
present Convention in order to 
effectuate the foregoing purposes, 
and have agreed upon the following 
articles: 

Article i. It is recognized that 
each State has exclusive jurisdiction 
over the use of its own highways, 
but agrees to their international use 
as specified in this Convention. 

Art. 2. Under tjie terms of the 
present Convention, a motor ve- 
hicle shall be defined as any self- 
propelled vehicle circulating upon a 
public highway without the need of 
rails and used for the transport of 
persons or merchandise. 

A highway shall be defined as any 
public way maintained for and open 
to the use of the public for purposes of 
vehicular travel. 

An operator shall be defined as 
any person who drives or is in actual 
physical control of a motor vehicle 
upon a highway. 

Art. 3. The operator of a motor 
vehicle circulating in any State 
which is a party to this Convention 
is subject to the traffic laws and 
regulations in force in that State or 
subdivision thereof. 

A copy of such laws and regula- 
tions may be handed to the operator 
at the time of entering each State, 
by the customs authorities who are 
clearing the vehicle for entry, or by 
any authorized agency. 

Art. 4. The Contracting States 
shall not allow customs measures to 
be put into effect which will hinder 
international travel. 

Simplified customs and other regu- 
latory measures which have been or 
may be put into effect by any con- 
tiguous States parties to this Con- 
vention, for the facilitation of inter- 
national automotive traffic, shall be 
considered to be in furtherance of 
this Convention and shall be en- 
couraged. 



Han decidido celebrar una Con- 
venci6n con tales prop6sitos, ha- 
biendo convenido en los siguientes 
artfculos: 

Artfculo I. Se reconoce que cada 
Estado tiene jurisdicci6n exclusiva 
sobre el uso de sus carreteras, pero 
conviene en el uso international de 
las mismas tal como se especifica 
en la presente Convenci6n. 

Art. 2. De acuerdo con la presente 
Convenci6n, se entenderd por vehf- 
culo automotor todo vehfculo im- 
pulsado por sf mismo que circule en 
la vfa pflblica sin necesidad de rieles, 
y que se use para el transporte de 
personas o mercaderfas. 

Por carreteras se entenderd cual- 
quier vfa ptiblica conservada y 
abierta al piiblico para el trdnsito de 
vehiculos. 

Por conductor se entenderd cual- 
quier persona que gufe o tenga efecti- 
vamente el control fisico de un vehi- 
culo automotor en una carretera. 

Art. 3. El conductor de un vehf- 
culo automotor que circule en cual- 
quier Estado parte en esta Conven- 
ci6n, estd sujeto a las leyes y regla- 
mentos de trdfico vigentes en dicho 
Estado o subdivision polftica del 
mismo. 

Copia de dichas leyes o regla- 
mentos podrd ser suministrada al 
conductor, al entrar en cada Estado, 
ya por las autoridades aduaneras que 
tramitan la entrada del vehfculo, o 
por cualquier agencia autorizada. 

Art. 4. Los Estados Contratantes 
no permitirdn que se pongan en 
vigor medidas aduaneras que in- 
terpongan obstdculo al trdnsito in- 
ternacional. 

Se considerard en apoyo de esta 
Convenci6n, y se fomentard, toda 
simplificaci6n de los reglamentos 
aduaneros y demds medidas regu- 
latorias que han sido o sean puestas 
en vigor por cualquiera de los Es- 
tados limftrofes, partes en esta Con- 
venci6n, para facilitar el trdfico in- 
ternacional de vehiculos automotores. 



Dec. 15, 1943 INTER-AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE TRAFFIC 



93 



Art. 5. Before admission to in- 
ternational traffic, every vehicle 
shall be registered by the State of 
origin in the manner prescribed by 
its laws, or by any subdivision 
thereof having legal authority to 
register vehicles. 

Art. 6. Every motor vehicle op- 
erator before admission to interna- 
tional traffic shall have such driving 
license as may be required by the 
laws of his State or such as may be 
issued by any political subdivision 
thereof having legal authority to 
issue driving licenses. In the event 
that no such driving license is re- 
quired by his State or any political 
subdivision thereof, a special inter- 
national driving license such as is 
specified in Article 13 shall be valid. 
No operator shall be admitted to 
international travel who is less than 
1 8 years of age. 

Art. 7. Evidence of compliance 
with the conditions of this Conven- 
tion shall entitle motor vehicles and 
motor vehicle operators to circulate 
on the highways of any of the Con- 
tracting States. 

Art. 8. Each State or its political 
subdivisions shall maintain central 
bureaus of registration with facili- 
ties for the exchange of information 
with other States as to registration 
of vehicles and operators. 

Art. 9. In addition to the regis- 
tration plate or plates of the State 
of origin or of its legally empowered 
political subdivisions each vehicle 
shall display an international regis- 
tration marker indicating the coun- 
try of origin. This marker shall be 
in the form of an oval plate not less 
than 3 inches (8 cm.) wide by 10 
inches (26 cm.) long bearing capital 
Latin letters painted black on a 
white background. 

The distinctive names or letters 
indicating the several countries shall 
be the following: 



Art. 5. Antes de ser admitido al 
trdfico internacional, todo vehfculo 
deberd ser inscrito por el Estado de 
origen en la forma que prescriban 
sus leyes, o por cualquier subdivi- 
si6n del mismo que tenga autoridad 
legitima para hacerlo. 

Art. 6. Antes de ser admitido al 
trdfico internacional, todo conduc- 
tor de vehfculo automotor deberd 
tener el permiso para conducir que 
requieran las leyes de su Estado o 
que sea expedido por cualquiera de 
las subdivisions politicas del mismo 
autorizadas para ello. En caso de 
no ser necesario tal permiso en su 
Estado, o en las subdivisions polf- 
ticas del mismo, serd vdlido un 
permiso internacional especial para 
conducir como el que se especifica 
en el Artfculo 13. Ningun con- 
ductor menor de 18 anos de edad 
serd admitido al trdnsito interna- 
cional. 

Art. 7. Prueba de haber cumplido 
con las disposiciones de esta Con- 
venci6n dard a los vehfculos auto- 
motores y a los conductores de los 
mismos el derecho de circular por 
las carreteras de cualquiera de los 
Estados Contratantes. 

Art. 8. Cada Estado o subdi- 
visi6n polftica del mismo mantendrd 
oficinas centrales de registro con 
facilidades para el intercambio de 
informaciones, con otros pafses, sobre 
la inscripci6n de vehfculos y con- 
ductores. 

Art. 9. Ademds de la placa o 
placas de registro del Estado de 
origen o de las subdivisiones polfti- 
cas del mismo, cada vehfculo deberd 
llevar un distintivo de registro in- 
ternacional que indique el pais de 
origen. Este distintivo consistird 
de una placa ovalada no menor de 8 
centfmetros (3 pulgadas) de ancho 
por 26 centfmetros (10 pulgadas) 
de largo, con letras latinas mayuscu- 
las negras sobre fondo bianco. 

Las letras o nombres distintivos 
correspondientes a los diversos pafses 
serdn como sigue: 



94 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 630 



Argentina ARGENTINA 

Bolivia BOLIVIA 

Brazil BRASIL 

Chile CHILE 

Colombia .COLOMBIA 

Costa Rica COSTA RICA 

Cuba CUBA 

Dominican Republic REP. DOM. 

Ecuador ECUADOR 

El Salvador SALVADOR 

Guatemala GUATEMALA 

Haiti HAITI 

Honduras HONDURAS 

Mexico MEXICO 

Nicaragua NICARAGUA 

Panama PANAMA 

Paraguay PARAGUAY 

Peru PERU 

United States of America . U. S. A. 

Uruguay URUGUAY 

Venezuela VENEZUELA 

This distinctive plate shall be 
issued by the State or its authorized 
representatives. 

All registration plates shall be 
plainly visible. 

Motor vehicles bearing the inter- 
national registration markers pro- 
vided for by the International Con- 
vention for the Circulation of Auto- 
mobiles, 1909, as amended in 1926, 
shall be recognized as having com- 
plied with the foregoing conditions 
concerning international registration 
markers. 

For admission to international 
travel, each motor vehicle shall bear 
in a readily accessible location the 
name of the manufacturer of the ve- 
hicle, the manufacturer's number of 
the chassis, and the manufacturer's 
number of the engine. 

Art. 10. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided by the laws or regulations of 
the respective States or subdivisions 
thereof, the size of vehicles and 
loads shall be limited to the follow- 
ing: 

1. No vehicle shall exceed a total 
outside width, including any load 
thereon, of 8 feet (2.44 meters). 

2. No vehicle with or without load 
shall exceed a maximum height of 12 
feet, 6 inches (3.80 meters). 



Argentina ARGENTINA 

Bolivia BOLIVIA 

Brasil BRASIL 

Colombia COLOMBIA 

Costa Rica COSTA RICA 

Cuba CUBA 

Chile CHILE 

Ecuador ECUADOR 

El Salvador SALVADOR 

Estados Unidos de Am6rica U. S. A. 

Guatemala GUATEMALA 

Haiti HAITI 

Honduras HONDURAS 

Mexico MEXICO 

Nicaragua NICARAGUA 

Panaml PANAMA 

Paraguay PARAGUAY 

Peru PERU 

Republica Dominicana. . . .REP. DOM. 

Uruguay URUGUAY 

Venezuela VENEZUELA 

Esta placa distintiva serd expedida 
por el Estado, o por sus represen- 
tantes autorizados. 

Toda placa de registro deberd estar 
claramente visible. 

Todo vehfculo automotor que 
lleve el distintivo internacional de 
registro previsto en la Convenci6n 
Internacional para la Circulaci6n de 
Autom6viles, suscrita en 1909 y 
modificada en 1926, se considerard 
que ha cumplido con las condiciones 
anteriores respecto a distintivos in- 
ternacionales de registro. 

Para ser admitido al trdfico in- 
ternacional, cada vehfculo deberd 
llevar, en lugar de fdcil acceso, el 
nombre del fabricante del vehfculo, 
el nlimero de fAbrica del chasis y el 
niimero de fdbrica del motor. 

Art. 10. Siempre que no se haya 
dispuesto de otra manera en las 
leyes o reglamentaciones de los re- 
spectivos Estados o de sus subdi- 
visiones polfticas, el tamafio de los 
vehfculos y de las cargas tendrdn las 
siguientes limitaciones: 

1. Ningtin vehfculo excederd una 
anchura exterior total de 2 metres y 
44 centfmetros (8 pies), inclusive la 
carga que lleve. 

2. Ningtin vehfculo con o sin carga 
deberi exceder una altura maxima 
de 3 metres y 80 centfmetros (12 
pies, 6 pulgadas). 



Dec. 15, 1943 INTER-AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE TRAFFIC 



95 



3. No vehicle shall exceed an 
overall length of 35 feet (10.70 
meters) and no combination of ve- 
hicles coupled together shall exceed 
a total length of 45 feet (13-75 
meters). 

4. No vehicle shall carry any load 
extending more than 3 feet (91 centi- 
meters) beyond the front thereof. 

5. No passenger vehicle shall carry 
any load extending beyond the line 
of the fenders on the left side nor 
extending more than 6 inches (15.2 
centimeters) beyond the line of 
fenders on the right side thereof; 
provided however that in States in 
which the left hand drive is compul- 
sory the provisions of this para- 
graph referring to the side of loads 
shall be reversed. 



6. Special permits for vehicles or 
combinations of vehicles exceeding 
these limits may be issued by the 
competent authorities of the States. 



Art. ii. Unless the laws and regu- 
lations of the respective States or 
political subdivisions thereof pro- 
vide otherwise, the following re- 
quirements as to equipment shall be 
indispensable for motor vehicles 
admitted to international traffic: 

1. Every motor vehicle shall have 
brakes adequate to control the move- 
ment of and to stop and hold such 
vehicle. The brakes shall be capa- 
ble of stopping the vehicle on a dry, 
smooth, level road within a distance 
of 30 feet (9 meters) when travelling 
at a speed of 20 miles (32 kilometers) 
per hour. 

2. Every motor vehicle shall have 
a suitable horn or other warning de- 
vice satisfactory to the regulatory 
authorities. 



3. Ningtin vehiculo excederd una 
longitud total de 10 metros y 70 
centfmetros (35 pies) y ningtin tren 
o combination de vehfculos en- 
ganchados deberd exceder una longi- 
tud total de 13 metros y 75 centf- 
metros (45 pies). 

4. Ningun vehfculo deberd llevar 
una carga que se extienda mas de 91 
centfmetros (3 pies) fuera del frente 
del mismo. 

5. Ningun vehfculo de pasajeros 
deberd llevar una carga que se ex- 
tienda fuera de la Hnea exterior de 
los guardabarros del lado izquierdo, 
ni que se extienda mds de 15.2 centf- 
metros (6 pulgadas) fuera de la 
Hnea exterior de los guardabarros del 
lado derecho; disponi&idose, sin 
embargo, que, en los Estados donde 
sea obligatorio conservar la izqui- 
erda, regirdn a la inversa las disposi- 
ciones de este pdrrafo relativas al 
lado donde deben llevarse las cargas. 

6. Las autoridades competentes 
de los Estados podrdn expedir per- 
misos especiales para vehfculos o 
combinaciones de vehfculos que ex- 
cedan los Ifmites que acaban de 
estipularse. 

Art. 1 1 . Siempre que no dispongan 
otra cosa las leyes y reglamentos de 
los respectivos Estados o de las 
subdivisiones polfticas de los mis- 
mos, serdn indispensables en los 
vehfculos automotores admitidos al 
trdfico internacional los accesorios 
siguientes: 

1. Todo vehfculo deberd tener 
frenos adecuados para controlar el 
movimiento del vehfculo, pararlo y 
mantenerlo inm6vil. Los frenos 
serdn capaces de parar el vehfculo 
dentrp de una distancia de 9 metros 
(30 pies), movtendose a una veloci- 
dad de 32 ki!6metros (20 millas) per 
hora, en un camino a nivel, seco y 
liso. 

2. Todo vehfculo deberd tener 
una bocina u otro aparato destinado 
a llamar la atenci6n, que estimen 
satisfactorio las autoridades compe- 
tentes. 



9 6 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 630 



3. Every motor vehicle other than 
a motorcycle shall be equipped with 
two head lamps, at the front of and 
on opposite sides of the vehicle, 
which shall at night, under normal 
atmospheric conditions and on a 
level road, produce light sufficient to 
render clearly discernible a person 
not less than 350 feet (107 meters) 
ahead and shall be capable of opera- 
tion so as not to project a glaring or 
dazzling light. Every motorcycle 
shall have at least one head lamp. 

4. Every motor vehicle, and every 
trailer or semi-trailer which is being 
drawn at the end of a train of vehi- 
cles, shall carry at the rear a lamp 
which exhibits a red light plainly 
visible at night under normal at- 
mospheric conditions from a dis- 
tance of 500 feet (152 meters) to the 
rear of such vehicle. The registra- 
tion plate carried on the rear of such 
vehicle shall under like conditions 
be so illuminated by a white light 
as to be read from a distance of 50 
feet (15 meters) to the rear of the 
vehicle. 

5. Every motor vehicle shall have 
a muffler in good working order and 
in constant operation to prevent 
excessive or unusual noise. 

6. Every motor vehicle which is so 
constructed or loaded as to obstruct 
the driver's view to the rear thereof 
from the operator's position shall be 
equipped with a mirror so located as 
to reflect to the driver a view of the 
highway for a distance of at least 200 
feet (70 meters) to the rear of such 
vehicle. 

7. Every motor vehicle other than 
a motorcycle shall have a windshield 
wiper in good working order. 

Art. 12. A special international 
automobile certificate, in addition 
to the registration required by Arti- 
cle 5, may be required for each 
motor vehicle for admission to and 
circulation in any individual State 



3. Todo vehfculo automotor, a 
exception de las motocicletas, de- 
berd terser dos faros, uno a cada lado 
de la parte delantera del vehiculo, 
los cuales deberdn proyectar de 
noche, en condiciones atmosfericas 
normales y en camino nivel, un haz 
suficiente para distinguir claramente 
a una persona hasta una distancia no 
menor de 107 metros (350 pies) y 
que puedan funcionar sin producir 
una luz que deslumbre o encandile. 
Toda motocicleta deberd tener por 
lo menos un faro delantero. 

4. Todo vehfculo automotor, y 
todo remolque o semirremolque que 
ocupe el liltimo lugar en un tren de 
vehfculos, deberd llevar en la parte 
trasera una Idmpara que proyecte 
una luz roja, claramente visible de 
noche en condiciones atmosfericas 
normales, desde una distancia de 
152 metros (500 pies). La placa de 
registro en la parte trasera de dicho 
vehfculo debera estar iluminada por 
una luz blanca de modo que, en 
iguales condiciones, pueda leerse 
desde una distancia de 15 metros 
(50 pies). 

5. Todo vehfculo automotor de- 
ber& tener un silenciador en buen 
estado de funcionamiento y en uso 
constante para evitar ruido excesivo 
o anormal. 

6. Todo vehfculo automotor cons- 
trufdo o cargado de manera que 
obstruya la vista del conductor hacia 
atrds, deberi llevar un espejo colo- 
cado de modo que refleje el camino a 
la vista del conductor hasta una 
distancia, hacia atras, no menor de 
70 metros (200 pies). 

7. Todo vehfculo automotor, a ex- 
cepci6n de las motocicletas, deberd 
tener un limpiaparabrisas en buen 
estado de funcionamiento. 

Art. 12. Podri exigirse para cada 
vehfculo automotor que se admita al 
trdfico de un Estado, parte en esta 
Convenci6n, un certificado inter- 
nacional especial para autom6viles, 
ademas de la matrfcula prevista en 



Dec. 15, 1943 INTER-AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE TRAFFIC 



97 



party to this Convention, if the 
State so elects. Provision for the 
issuance of such certificate shall be 
made by each Contracting State, 
and such document shall be issued 
by the State, or by any authorized 
political subdivision thereof, or by 
an association duly empowered by 
such authorities, or by an authorized 
representative of either the Con- 
tracting State or of one of its political 
subdivisions, having legal authority 
to issue such certificates. The valid- 
ity of such special international au- 
tomobile certificate shall be recog- 
nized by all officials having jurisdic- 
tion over matters involving legal 
ownership of the vehicle. The cer- 
tificate shall be in the form, of the 
size, and contain the information 
prescribed in Annex A to this Con- 
vention, and shall be valid for one 
year from date of issuance. 

The international automobile cer- 
tificate issued in accordance with the 
International Convention of 1926 
on Automobile Circulation shall be 
deemed to meet the requirements of 
this Article. 

Art, 13. A special international 
driving license may be required for 
each operator admitted to circula- 
tion in any individual State party to 
this Convention, if the State so 
elects. Such a special license shall 
be required for each operator who 
does not possess a domestic driving 
license as required in Article 6. 
Provision for the issuance of such 
international driving license shall be 
made by each Contracting State, 
and such document shall be issued 
by the State, or by any authorized 
political subdivision thereof, or by 
an association duly empowered by 
such authorities, or by an authorized 
representative of either the Con- 
tracting State or one of its political 
subdivisions having legal authority 
to issue driving licenses. The val- 
idity of such special international 
driving license shall be recognized by 



el Artfculo 5, si dicho Estado asf lo 
desea. Cada Estado Contratante 
dispondra lo necesario para la ex- 
pedici6n de tal certificado, el que 
sera expedido por dicho Estado, 
por cualquiera de sus subdivisiones 
polfticas debidamente autorizadas; 
por una asociaci6n debidamente 
habilitada por dichas autoridades, o 
por un representante autorizado del 
Estado Contratante o de una de sus 
subdivisiones polfticas que tenga 
autoridad legal para expedir tales 
certificados. La validez de tal certi- 
ficado internacional especial para 
autom6viles sera reconocida por 
todos los funcionarios que tengan 
jurisdicci6n sobre asuntos relaciona- 
dos con la propiedad legftima del 
vehfculo. El certificado tendra la 
forma, el tamafio y la informaci6n 
prescritas en el Anexo "A" de esta 
Convenci6n, y sera valido por un 
ano a partir de la fecha de emisi6n. 

Se estimarA que el Certificado In- 
ternacional para Autom6viles ex- 
pedido de acuerdo con la Conven- 
ci6n Internacional de 1926, para la 
circulaci6n de autom6viles, satis- 
face los requisites de este articulo. 

Art. 13. PodrA exigirse un per- 
miso especial internacional para 
conducir a cada conductor que se 
admita al trafico en cualquier Es- 
tado, parte en esta Convenci6n, si 
este asi lo desea. En todo caso, se 
exigira dicho permiso especial al 
conductor que no posea un permiso 
para conducir en su propio pafs, 
como se establece en el Artfculo 6. 
Cada Estado Contratante dispon- 
dra lo necesario para la expedici6n 
de tal permiso internacional para 
conducir, el que serd expedido por 
dicho Estado; por cualquiera de sus 
subdivisiones polfticas debidamente 
autorizadas; por una asociaci6n de- 
bidamente habilitada por dichas 
autoridades, o por un representante 
autorizado del Estado Contratante 
o de una de sus subdivisiones polfti- 
cas que tenga autoridad legal para 
expedir permisos para conducir. La 



98 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 630 



all officials having regulatory powers 
over automotive traffic. The license 
shall be in the form, of the size, and 
contain the information prescribed in 
Annex B to this Convention, and 
shall be valid for one year from date 
of issuance. 



The international driving license 
issued in accordance with the Inter- 
national Convention of 1926 shall be 
deemed to meet the requirements of 
this Article. 

Art. 14. A general bond guaran- 
teeing payment of customs charges 
on any motor vehicle to be admitted 
to international traffic, due and pay- 
able within the country in which 
such charges may be incurred, may 
be required by any State party to 
this Convention. 

The international customs pass 
(carnet de passage en douane) of the 
Association Internationale des Auto- 
mobile Clubs Reconnus or of the 
Alliance Internationale de Tourisme 
shall be deemed to satisfy the re- 
quirements of this Article for any 
Contracting State in which a bond is 
required. 



No bond shall be required in any 
Contracting State if the stay of the 
foreign vehicle therein does not ex- 
ceed the period allowed for free stay. 

Art. 15. Each State may establish 
such requirements as it may deem 
necessary to record the passage into 
and out of its territory, of vehicles 
and operators admitted to interna- 
tional traffic. If such records are 
maintained, they shall include a 
notation that the vehicle has com- 
plied with the provisions of Articles 
10 and n. 

Art. 16. The hours and routes 
dedicated to the crossing of frontiers 
by properly registered vehicles shall 



validez de dicho permiso especial 
para conducir serd reconocida por 
todos los funcionarios facultados 
para reglamentar el trafico auto- 
motor. El permiso tendra la forma, 
el tamafio y la informaci6n prescritas 
en el Anexo "B" de esta Convenci6n, 
y serA valido por un aiio a partir de 
la fecha en que sea expedido. 

Se estimara que el permiso inter- 
nacional de conducir expedido segiin 
la Convenci6n Internacional de 1926 
satisface los requisitos de este Artf- 
culo. 

Art. 14. Cualquier Estado, parte 
en esta Convenci6n, podra exigir el 
dep6sito de una fianza que garantice 
el pago de derechos aduaneros sobre 
cualquier vehfculo admitido a trafico 
internacional, y pagadera en el 
Estado donde se incurran tales de- 
rechos. 

Se estimarA que la Libreta Inter- 
nacional de Paso por Aduanas (Car- 
net de Passage en Douane) de la 
Asociaci6n Internacional de Auto- 
m6vil Clubs Reconocidos (Associa- 
tion Internationale des Automobile 
Clubs Reconnus) o de la Alianza 
Internacional de Turismo (Alliance 
Internationale de Tourisme) satis- 
face los requisitos de este artfculo 
por lo que respecta a cualquier 
Estado Contratante en el cual se 
exija dep6sito de fianza. 

En ninguno de los Estados Con- 
tratantes se exigira dep6sito de 
fianza si la estadia del vehfculo 
extranjero no excede del plazo libre 
que le esta permitido. 

Art. 15. Cada Estado podra esta- 
blecer las formalidades que estime 
necesarias para registrar el paso de 
vehfculos y conductores admitidos al 
trAfico internacional, al entrar al 
salir de su territorio. Tales regis- 
tros, si se llevan, deberan incluir 
anotaciones al efecto de que el 
vehfculo ha cumplido con las dis- 
posiciones de los Artfculos 10 y 11. 

Art. 16. Las horas y rutas habili- 
tadas para el cruce de las fronteras 
por vehfculos debidamente inscritos 



Dec. 15, 1943 INTER-AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE TRAFFIC 



99 



be fixed by common consent of the 
adjacent States and their decisions 
communicated to the corresponding 
custom authorities. 

Art. 17. Infractions of this Con- 
vention shall be punished in con- 
formity with the laws and regula- 
tions of the country in which com- 
mitted. 

Infractions which shall have in- 
curred judicial penalty shall be com- 
municated by the judge or magis- 
trate to the proper authorities, who 
in turn shall communicate them to 
the authorities of the State or its 
political subdivision in which the 
vehicle and its owner or operator 
were originally registered. 

Art. 18. Any vehicle or operator 
admitted to international traffic 
under the provisions of the Inter- 
national Convention for the Circula- 
tion of Automobiles, 1909, as amended 
in 1926, and holding the documents 
required thereunder, will be recog- 
nized as fulfilling the requirements of 
the present Convention. 



Art. 19. The original of the present 
Convention in Spanish, English, 
Portuguese, and French shall be 
deposited with the Pan American 
Union and opened for signature by 
the American republics. The Con- 
vention shall also be opened for the 
adherence and accession of Ameri- 
can States which are not members of 
the Pan American Union. The Pan 
American Union shall transmit au- 
thentic certified copies to the Gov- 
ernments for the purpose of ratifica- 
tion. 

Art. 20. The present Convention 
shall be ratified by the High Con- 
tracting Parties in conformity with 
their respective constitutional pro- 
cedures. The instruments of rati- 
fication shall be deposited in the 
archives of the Pan American Union 
in Washington, which shall notify 
the signatory Governments of said 



se fijardn de comfln acuerdo entre 
los Estados limftrofes, comunicdn- 
dose sus decisiones a las autoridades 
aduaneras correspondientes. 

Art. 17. Las infracciones a la 
presente Convention serin casti- 
gadas de conformidad con las leyes y 
reglamentos del Estado en el cual 
se cometan. 

Las infracciones que sean motivo 
de multa legal serin comunicadas por 
el juez o magistrado a las autoridades 
correspondientes, las que, a su vez, 
darin cuenta a las autoridades del 
pafs, o de la subdivisi6n polftica 
correspondiente del mismo, en el 
cual el vehfculo y su duefio o con- 
ductor se hubieren inscrito original- 
mente. 

Art. 1 8. Todo vehfculo o conduc- 
tor admitido al trifico internacional 
de acuerdo con los trminos de la 
Convenci6n Internacional para la 
Circulaci6n de Autom6viles, suscrita 
en 1909 y enmendada en 1926, y que 
exhiba los correspondientes docu- 
mentos exigidos en la misma, se 
considerard que ha cumplido con las 
disposiciones de la presente Con- 
venci6n. 

Art. 19. El original de la presente 
Convenci6n en espanol, ingles, por- 
tugus y francos serd depositado en 
la Uni6n Panamericana y abierto a 
la firma de las Repiiblicas Ameri- 
canas. La Convenci6n quedard abi- 
erta, ademds, a la adhesi6n y 
accesi6n de los Estados Americanos 
que no sean miembros de la Uni6n 
Panamericana. La Uni6n Paname- 
ricana enviard copias certificadas 
aut6nticas a los gobiernos para los 
efectos de la ratificaci6n. 

Art. 20. La presente Convenci6n 
serd ratificada por las Altas Partes 
Contratantes de acuerdo con sus 
procedimientos constitucionales re- 
spectiyos. Los instrumentos de ra- 
tificaci6n serin depositados en los 
archives de la Uni6n Panamericana 
en Washington, la cual notificard el 
deposito a los gobiernos signatarios. 



100 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 630 



deposit. Such notification shall be 
considered as an exchange of ratifi- 
cations. 

Art. 21. The present Convention 
shall come into force between the 
High Contracting Parties in the 
order in which they deposit their 
respective ratifications. 

Art. 22. The present Convention 
shall remain in effect indefinitely, but 
may be denounced by means of one 
year's notice given to the Pan 
American Union, which shall trans- 
mit it to the other signatory Govern- 
ments. After the expiration of this 
period the Convention shall cease in 
its effects as regards the party which 
denounces it, but shall remain in 
effect for the remaining High Con- 
tracting Parties. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the under- 
signed Plenipotentiaries, having de- 
posited their full powers found to be 
in due and proper form, sign this 
Convention in Spanish, English, 
Portuguese, and French, at the Pan 
American Union, Washington, D. C., 
on behalf of their respective Govern- 
ments and affix thereto their seals on 
the dates appearing opposite their 
signatures. 

[Annexes omitted] 

[Firmada:] For Bolivia: Luis F. GUACHALLA, 15 de diciembre de 1943; 
pelo Brasil: FERNANDO LOBO, 15 de dezembro de 1943; por Cuba: 
AURELIO F. CONCHESO, 15 de diciembre de 1943; por Ecuador: C. E. 
ALFARO, 15 de diciembre de 1943; por Guatemala: ADRIAN RECINOS, 15 
de diciembre de 1943; pour Haiti: A. LIAUTAUD, 15 D6cembre 1943; 
por Nicaragua: GUILLERMO SEVILLA S., 15 de diciembre de 1943; por 
Peril: M. DE FREYRE Y S., 15 de diciembre de 1943; por la Republica 
Dominicana : (1 Plenipotenciario de la Reptiblica Dominicana firma la Convenci6n 
con la siguiente reserva: Que la disposici6n del Art. 14 no implica que el t6rmino de un 
ano que indica el Art. 12 se refiere al tiempo durante el cual un vehfculo puede transitar 
en un Estado Contratante, sin haber puesto fianza o sin pagar los derechos que sus 
leyes exijan, sino al trmino de cadutidad del certificado de admisi6n que el Estado 
puede no exigir. Asimismo, que esta Convenci6n no afecta los tratados, convenciones 
u otros acuerdos internacionales que la Republica Dominicana haya consentido o con- 
sienta ni a sus leyes de inmigraci6n,) A. COPELLO, 15 de diciembre de 1943; 
for the United States of America: (Signed subject to the understanding and reser- 
vation that nothing in Article 15 shall be construed to require the use of personnel and 
facilities of the United States of America for the purpose of determining compliance 



Se considerarA tal notificaci6n como 
un cambio de ratificaciones. 

Art. 21. La presente Convenci6n 
entrarA en vigor, con respecto a las 
Altas Partes Contratantes, en el 
orden en que depositen sus respecti- 
vas ratificaciones. 

Art. 22. La presente Convenci6n 
permanecerA en vigor indefinida- 
mente, pero podrd ser denunciada 
previo aviso de un ano que se dard 
a la Uni6n Panamericana, la que 
comunicarA la denuncia a los demas 
gobiernos signatarios. Terminado 
este plazo, la Convenci6n dejarA de 
tener efecto en lo que respecta a la 
Parte denunciante, pero continuard 
en vigor para las demAs Altas Partes 
Contratantes. 

EN FE DE LO CUAL, los infrascritos 
Plenipotenciarios, despu6s de haber 
depositado sus plenos poderes, que 
se han encontrado en buena y de- 
bida forma, firman y sellan esta 
Convenc56n en la Uni6n Panameri- 
cana, Washington, D. C., en nombre 
de sus respectivos Gobiernos, en las 
fechas indicadas junto a sus firmas. 



Jan. 15, 1944 INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES IOI 

with the provisions of Articles 10 and II by vehicles whenever, in the opinion of the 
competent authorities of the United States of America, there would result an impair- 
ment of essential services performed by such personnel and facilities or an undue 
hindrance to the movement of automotive traffic into and from the territory of the 
United States of America.) CORDELL HULL, December 31 , 1943 ; por El Salvador : 
HECTOR DAVID CASTRO, 6 de enero de 1944; por Costa Rica: CARLOS 
M. ESCALANTE, 20 de enero de 1944; P or Honduras: JULIAN R. CACERES, 
24 de abril de 1944; por Panami: E. A. JIM&NEZ, 13 de Julio de 1944; 
por Chile: (1 Embajador de Chile firma la Convenci6n con las siguientes reservas: 
la. La presente adhesi6n queda sujeta a posterior ratificaci6n previa aprobaci6n 
del Congreso Nacional Chileno, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en el Artfculo 20 de 
la Convenci6n. 2. Los Artfculos 14 y 16 de la presente Convenci6n obligaran 
a Chile en todo aquello que no sea contrario a sus leyes vigentes. 3. El Gobierno de 
Chile se reserva el derecho de suscribir Convenios de transito con paises americanos 
sobre las bases que crea necesarias.) MARCIAL MORA M., 27 de octubre de 
1944- 



No. 631 

CONVENTION on the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural 
Sciences. Opened for signature at Washington, January 15, 1944. 

CONVENCION sobre el Institute Interamericano de Ciencias 
Agricolas. Abierta a la firma en Washington, 15 de enero de 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention accords international recognition to the Inter- 
American Institute of Agricultural Sciences incorporated in the United States under the 
laws of the District of Columbia on June 18, 1942. Annual reports have been published by 
the Institute since 1942. The International Institute of Agriculture created by the Rome 
convention of June 5, 1905 (amended by a protocol of April 21, 1926, No. 156, ante), was 
dissolved in accordance with a protocol of March 30, 1946 (U.S. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series, No. 1719), its assets being transferred to the Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations (see No. 664, post). 

RATIFICATIONS. On January i, 1949, ratifications of this Convention had been deposited 
with the Pan American Union by Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, the United States of America, and 
Venezuela (with reservations). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this agreement is also published in U.S. Treaty Series, No. 
987. See also 40 Guatemala, Diario de Centro America (1944), Part II, No. 95, p. 788; 
Libra amarillo de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela, 1942, pp. 211-19; Reptiblica Dominicana, 
Memoria de relaciones exterior es t 1944, pp. 226-36. 

Anon., "The Third Inter- American Conference on Agriculture," 52 Int. Labour Rev. 
(iQ45) PP. 494-503; E. N. Bressman, "Inauguration of the Inter- American Institute of 
Agricultural Sciences," 77 Bulletin of the Pan American Union (1943), pp. 326-32; E. S. 
Furniss, Jr., "Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences," n U.S. Department of 
State Bulletin (1944), pp. 386-89; E. S. Hediger, "Agricultural Cooperation in the Americas," 
19 Foreign Policy Reports (1943), pp. 158-67; A. Linares Fleytas, "El Institute Interameri- 
cano de Ciencias Agrfcolas," 48 Revista de derecho internacional (1945), pp. 103-12; 
W. Popenoe, "The Development of Inter-American Cooperation in Agriculture," 80 



102 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 631 



Bulletin of the Pan American Union (1946), pp. 361-74; U.S. Department of State, Inter- 
national Agencies in Which the United States Participates (Washington, 1946; Publ. 2699), 
PP. 3I-35- 

Entered into force November 30, 1944. 

Text supplied by the Pan American Union. 



The Governments of the Ameri- 
can Republics, desiring to promote 
the advancement of the agricultural 
sciences and related arts and sci- 
ences; and wishing to give practical 
effect to the resolution approved by 
the Eighth American Scientific Con- 
gress held in Washington in 1940, 
recommending the establishment of 
an Inter-American Institute of Trop- 
ical Agriculture, have agreed to con- 
clude a Convention in order to 
recognize the permanent status of 
the Inter-American Institute of Agri- 
cultural Sciences, hereinafter re- 
ferred to as "the Institute," on the 
basis of the following Articles: 



Article i. The Contracting States 
hereby recognize the permanent 
status of the Inter-American Insti- 
tute of Agricultural Sciences, in- 
corporated under the laws of the 
District of Columbia, United States 
of America, on June 18, 1942; and 
they agree to recognize the Insti- 
tute as a legal entity in accordance 
with their own legislation. The In- 
stitute shall have all the rights, 
benefits, assets, lands and other 
property to which it was or may be 
entitled as a corporation, and shall 
assume all the obligations and con- 
tracts for which it became responsi- 
ble as a corporation. 



The executive headquarters of the 
Institute shall be located in Wash- 
ington, D. C. The principal field 
headquarters of the Institute shall be 
located in Turrialba, Costa Rica. 
Regional offices of the Institute may 



Los Gobiernos de las Republicas 
Americanas, animados del prop6sito 
de fomentar el adelanto de las cien- 
cias agricolas, asf como de las artes y 
ciencias conexas; y deseosos de dar 
cumplimiento en forma pr&ctica a la 
resoluci6n aprobada por el Octavo 
Congreso Cientffico Americano que 
se celebr6 en Washington en 1940, 
recomendando el establecimiento de 
un Institute Interamericano de Ag- 
ricultura Tropical, han resuelto con- 
certar una Convenci6n para recono- 
cer como instituci6n permanente al 
Institute Interamericano de Cien- 
cias Agrfcolas, que en el texto de 
esta Convenci6n se designard como 
"el Instituto", sobre las bases que se 
determinan en los siguientes Ar- 
tfculos: 

Articulo i. Los Estados Con- 
tratantes reconocen mediante la 
presente Convenci6n como Institu- 
ci6n permanente al Instituto Inter- 
americano de Ciencias Agrfcolas, 
organizado como sociedad auto- 
rizada de acuerdo con las leyes del 
Distrito de Columbia, Estados Uni- 
dos de America, con fecha 18 de 
junio de 1942; y convienen en darle 
al Instituto el cardcter de persona 
juridica de acuerdo con su propia 
Iegislaci6n. El Instituto gozari de 
todos los derechos, beneficios, capi- 
tal, terrenos y otros bienes que ha 
adquirido o adquiera en calidad de 
corporaci6n y asumird todas las 
obligaciones y cumplird los contratos 
que ha celebrado o celebre en la 
misma capacidad. 

La oficina central ejecutiva del 
Instituto tendrd su sede en Wdshing- 
ton, D. C. La oficina principal de 
actividades radicari en Turrialba, 
Costa Rica. Oficinas regionales del 
Instituto podrn ser establecidas en 



Jan. IS, 1944 INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 



103 



be maintained throughout the Ameri- 
can Republics. 

Purposes 

Art. 2. The purposes of the Insti- 
tute are to encourage and advance 
the development of agricultural sci- 
ences in the American Republics 
through research, teaching and ex- 
tension activities in the theory and 
practice of agriculture and related 
arts and sciences. 

In furtherance of these purposes 
the Institute may, subject to the 
laws of the several countries, exer- 
cise the following powers: To de- 
velop, finance and operate similar 
establishments and installations in 
one or more of the American Re- 
publics; to give assistance in the es- 
tablishment and maintenance of 
organizations having similar pur- 
poses in the said Republics; to pur- 
chase, sell, lease, improve or operate 
any property in the American Re- 
publics, in accordance with the pur- 
poses of the Institute; to collaborate 
with the Government of any Ameri- 
can Republic, or with any other or- 
ganization or entity, and to give 
assistance to the same; to receive 
contributions and donations of money 
or property, both real and personal ; 
to enter into and carry out contracts 
and agreements; to raise or acquire 
and, in any manner, dispose of all 
agricultural commodities and prod- 
ucts thereof essential for experimen- 
tal or research purposes; and to 
carry on any other business or ac- 
tivity appropriate to the foregoing 
purposes. 



The Board of Directors 

Art. 3. The representatives of 
the twenty-one American Repub- 
lics on the Governing Board of the 
Pan American Union shall serve as 
members of the Institute, and shall 
be considered as members of the 



todas las otras Reptiblicas Ameri- 
canas. 

Fines 

Art. 2. Los fines del Institute 
serin los de estimular y promover el 
desarrollo de las ciencias agricolas en 
las Reptiblicas Americanas mediante 
la investigaci6n, la ensenanza y la 
divulgaci6n de la teorfa y de la 
pr&ctica de la agricultura, asf como 
de otras artes y ciencias conexas. 

Para realizar estos fines, el Insti- 
tute podrA, de conformidad con las 
leyes de los distintos paises, hacer 
uso de las siguientes atribuciones: 
crear, sostener y administrar estable- 
cimientos similares e instalaciones en 
una o mis de las Reptiblicas Ameri- 
canas; prestar ayuda al estable- 
cimiento y mantenimiento de or- 
ganizaciones que persigan finalidades 
anilogas en dichas Reptiblicas; com- 
prar, vender, arrendar, mejorar o 
administrar cualquiera propiedad en 
las Reptiblicas Americanas, de ac- 
uerdo con las finalidades del Insti- 
tute; colaborar con el Gobierno de 
cualquiera Reptiblica Americana, o 
con cualesquiera otros organismos o 
entidades y prestar ayuda a los 
mismos; aceptar contribuciones y 
dpnativos en forma de dinero o 
bienes, tanto muebles como in- 
muebles; celebrar y llevar a cabo 
contratos y acuerdos; cultivar o ad- 
quirir toda clase de productos agri- 
colas y sus derivados o disponer de 
los mismos en cualquiera forma 
cuando sea esencial para fines de in- 
vestigaci6n o experimentaci6n ; y 
efectuar cualquier otro negocio o 
llevar a cabo cualquiera otra activi- 
dad que sean convenientes para los 
fines indicados. 

La Junta Directiva 

Art. 3. Los representantes de las 
veintiuna Reptiblicas Americanas en 
el Consejo Directive de la Uni6n 
Panamericana actuar&n como miem- 
bros del Institute y se considerardn 
como miembros de la Junta Direc- 



104 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 631 



Board of Directors thereof. In the 
event that any member is unable to 
attend a meeting of the Board of 
Directors the said member or his 
government may designate an al- 
ternate for that purpose. The de- 
cisions of the Board shall be adopted 
by a majority vote of its members, 
which majority vote shall include 
the votes of a majority of the mem- 
bers representing Contracting States. 
The Board shall have, among others, 
the following functions: 

To elect the Director of the Insti- 
tute and to approve the appointment 
of the Secretary made by the Director. 

To remove both the Director and 
the Secretary. 

To determine the compensation of 
the Director and the Secretary. 

To supervise the activities of the 
Director, who shall be responsible 
for carrying out all orders and resolu- 
tions of said Board. 

To appoint and define the duties 
and compensation of an administra- 
tive committee consisting of not 
more than eight persons, of whom 
one shall be the Director of the In- 
stitute ex offido. The members of 
this administrative committee need 
not be members of the Board of 
Directors. 

To approve the budget for the ad- 
ministration of the Institute to be 
submitted annually by the Director. 

To fix the annual quotas of the 
Institute. 

The Board shall receive an annual 
report from the Director upon the 
activities of the Institute as well as 
upon its general condition and finan- 
cial status. 

Officers 

Art. 4. The Institute shall have a 
Director and a Secretary. The Di- 
rector shall be elected by the Board 
of Directors in plenary session for a 
term of six years; he may be re- 
elected one or more times. The 
first term of the Director under the 



tiva del mismo. Si alguno de ellos 
no pudiere asistir a una reuni6n de la 
Junta Directiva se podrA designar un 
suplente para ese fin, ya sea por el 
propietario o por su respective 
Gobierno. Las decisiones de la 
Junta serin adoptadas por la ma- 
yorfa de los votos de sus miembros, 
cuya mayorfa de votos incluirA una 
mayorfa de votos de los represen- 
tantes de los Estados Contratantes. 
La Junta tendrA, entre otras, las 
siguientes atribuciones: 

Elegir al Director del Institute y 
ratificar el nombramiento del Secre- 
tario. 

Remover tanto al Director como 
al Secretario. 

Fijar la remuneration del Director 
y del Secretario. 

Vigilar las actividades del Direc- 
tor, quien serA responsable de dar 
cumplimiento a todas las 6rdenes y 
resoluciones de la Junta. 

Nombrar un Comit6 Administra- 
tive, asignAndole sus deberes y 
fijAndole sus gastos o emolumentos, 
el que consistirA de no mAs de ocho 
personas, entre las cuales servirA de 
miembro ex offido el Director del 
Institute. No se requiere que los 
miembros de este Comit scan miem- 
bros de la Junta Directiva del 
Institute. 

Aprobar el presupuesto que some- 
terA anualmente el Director para la 
administraci6n del Institute. 

La Junta fijarA las cuotas anuales 
del Institute. 

La Junta recibirA del Director un 
informe anual sobre las actividades 
del Institute, asf como de su estado 
general y situaci6n financiera. 

Funcionarios 

Art. 4. El Institute tendrA un 
Director y un Secretario. El Direc- 
tor serA elegido por la Junta Direc- 
tiva en sesi6n plenaria y durarA seis 
anos en su cargo; podrA ser reelecto 
una o rnAs veces. El primer perfodo 
del Director, para los fines de la 



Jan. 15, 1944 INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 



105 



provisions of this Convention shall 
begin as of the day on which this 
Convention enters into force. 

The Secretary shall be appointed 
by the Director with the approval of 
the Board of Directors of the Insti- 
tute and shall be directly responsible 
to the Director. 

The Director and the Secretary 
shall hold office until their respective 
successors shall be chosen and shall 
qualify ; but they may be removed by 
vote of the majority of the members 
of the Institute. 

The Director 

Art. 5. i. The Director under the 
supervision of the Board of Directors 
shall have ample and full powers to 
direct the activities of the Institute; 
and he shall be responsible for carry- 
ing out all orders and resolutions of 
said Board. 

2. The Director under the super- 
vision of the Board of Directors shall 
be the legal representative of the In- 
stitute; and he may legalize, with the 
seal of the Institute, all contracts, 
conveyances and other instruments 
which require such legalization and 
which in his opinion are necessary 
and advantageous to the operation 
of the Institute. In addition, he 
shall be authorized to take any other 
step necessary to validate such in- 
struments as may be required or per- 
mitted by law. The Director may 
grant powers to others for all those 
acts which he cannot perform per- 
sonally. 

3. The Director, under the super- 
vision of the Board of Directors of 
the Institute, shall have the power 
to appoint, remove, and determine 
the compensation of employees. 

4. The Director shall prepare the 
budget of the Institute for each fiscal 
year, and submit it to the Board of 
Directors at least two months before 
the annual meeting at which it will 
be considered for approval. 



presente Convenci6n, principiarA el 
dia que 6sta entre en vigor. 

El Secretario serd nombrado por el 
Director con la aprobaci6n de la 
Junta Directiva del Institute y seri 
directamente responsable ante el 
Director. 

El Director y el Secretario desem- 
penar&n sus cargos hasta que sus 
sucesores respectivos sean desig- 
nados y entren al desempeno de sus 
cargos; pero podrdn ser removidos 
por el voto de la mayorfa de los 
miembros del Institute. 

El Director 

Art. 5. i. El Director tendrd 
amplios y plenos poderes para dirigir 
las actividades del Institute, bajo la 
vigilancia de la Junta Directiva del 
mismo; y seri responsable del cum- 
plimiento de todas las 6rdenes y 
resoluciones de dicha Junta. 

2. El Director tendrd la represen- 
taci6n legal del Institute bajo la 
vigilancia de la Junta Directiva del 
mismo; y podrd legalizar con el sello 
del Institute todos los contratos, 
traspasos y otros instrumentos que 
requieran ese trimite y que en su 
opini6n sean necesarios y convenien- 
tes para el funcionamiento del In- 
stituto. Ademds estard facultado 
para tomar cualquiera otra medida 
necesaria para dar fuerza legal a 
tales instrumentos, de conformidad 
con los requisites o disposiciones de 
la ley. El Director podrd otorgar 
poderes a otras personas para todos 
aquellos actos que no pueda realizar 
61 personalmente. 

3. El Director, sujeto a la super- 
vigilancia de la Junta Directiva del 
Institute, tendrd facultad para nom- 
brar y remover empleados y fijar su 
remuneraci6n. 

4. El Director preparard el presu- 
puesto del Institute para cada ano 
fiscal y lo someterd a la Junta Direc- 
tiva con no menos de dos meses de 
anticipaci6n a la reuni6n anual, en 
la cual se considerard su aprobaci6n. 



io6 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 631 



5. The Director shall submit an 
annual report to the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Institute two months 
before the annual meeting, setting 
forth the work of the Institute dur- 
ing the year and its general condi- 
tion and financial status, and he shall 
submit to the approval of the said 
Board the budget and the plans for 
the following year. 

The Secretary 

Art. 6. The Secretary shall keep 
the minutes and records of the Insti- 
tute, shall exercise all prerogatives 
and carry out all administrative 
duties assigned to him by the 
Director. 

Technical Advisory Council 

Art. 7. Provision is made for the 
establishment of a Technical Ad- 
visory Council, as follows: 

i. Each of the Contracting States 
may appoint an agricultural expert 
to be its representative in the Tech- 
nical Advisory Council of the Insti- 
tute. This Council shall cooperate 
with the Director on agricultural 
matters of a technical nature. The 
appointment of each representative 
shall be officially notified to the 
Secretary of the Institute. The 
members of the Council shall serve 
for a period of five years at the will 
of their respective governments, and 
may be reappointed one or more 
times. 



2. The Technical Advisory Coun- 
cil shall meet at least once a year, 
under the chairmanship of the Direc- 
tor of the Institute, at such place as 
the activities of the Institute may 
require. The Director may call spe- 
cial meetings of the Council on his 
own initiative, whenever the best in- 
terests of the Institute may require. 
Notice with respect to any meeting 
shall be given at least two months in 
advance and shall state the purpose 
or purposes of the proposed meeting. 



5. El Director presentard un in- 
forme anual a la Junta Directiva del 
Institute, dos meses antes de cele- 
brarse la reuni6n anual, en el que 
dard cuenta de las labores del Insti- 
tute durante el ano, asf como de su 
estado general y situaci6n finan- 
ciera; y someterd a la aprobaci6n de 
la misma Junta el presupuesto y los 
planes para el ano siguiente. 

El Secretario 

Art. 6. El Secretario tendrd bajo 
su cuidado las actas y archivos del 
Institute, gozard de todas las facul- 
tades y desempeiiard todas las 
funciones administrates que le en- 
comiende el Director. 

El Consejo Ticnico Consultivo 

Art. 7. Se establecerd un Consejo 
T6cnico Consultivo, que se organi- 
zard en la forma siguiente: 

1. Cada uno de los Estados Con- 
tratantes podrd designar un experto 
agrlcola, quien actuard como su 
representante en el seno del Consejo 
T6cnico Consultivo del Institute. 
Este Consejo cooperard con el Direc- 
tor en asuntos de fndole t6cnica 
agrfcola. El nombramiento de cada 
representante se comunicara oficial- 
mente al Secretario del Institute. 
Los miembros del Consejo, sujetos a 
la voluntad de sus gobiernos, ejer- 
cerdn sus funciones durante un 
perlodo de cinco afios, pudiendo ser 
nombrados nuevamente una o mas 
veces para continuar en el desem- 
peno de sus cargos. 

2. El Consejo T6cnico Consultivo 
se reunird, a lo menos una yez al 
afio, bajo la presidencia del Director 
del Institute, en el lugar en que las 
actividades del Institute lo re- 
quieran. El Director podrd citar al 
Consejo a reuniones extraordinarias 
por su propia iniciativa, cuando la 
buena marcha del Institute asf lo 
requiera. Cada una de estas re- 
uniones deberd convocarse con dos 
meses de anticipacidn por lo menos, 
indicdndose el motive o motives de 



Jan. IS, 1944 INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 



107 



A majority of the members of the 
Council shall constitute a quorum. 

3. No member of the Technical 
Advisory Council, as such, shall re- 
ceive from the Institute any pecuni- 
ary compensation for his services, 
although the Institute may defray 
traveling expenses of the members of 
the Council to the annual meeting. 

Fiscal Agent 

Art. 8. The Pan American Union 
shall act as fiscal agent for and on be- 
half of the Institute, and as such 
shall receive and disburse the funds 
of the Institute. 

Maintenance of the Institute 

Art. 9. The income of the Insti- 
tute for its maintenance and opera- 
tion shall consist of annual quotas 
paid by the Contracting States, as 
well as of legacies, donations and 
contributions which the Institute 
may accept. Such funds and con- 
tributions shall be used only for pur- 
poses in keeping with the character 
of the Institute. 

The annual quotas shall be deter- 
mined by the Board of Directors of 
the Institute provided the vote is 
unanimous with respect to the mem- 
bers representing the Contracting 
States. The amounts of the respec- 
tive quotas shall be in proportion to 
the population of each Contracting 
State, on the basis of the latest offi- 
cial statistics in possession of the Pan 
American Union on the first day of 
July of each year. 

The annual quota payment of each 
Contracting State shall not exceed 
one dollar United States currency per 
one thousand of the total population 
of that State. The quota payments 
may, however, be increased by unani- 
mous recommendation of those mem- 
bers of the Board of Directors who 
represent Contracting States and the 
approval by the appropriate authori- 



la reuni6n propuesta. Una mayorfa 
de los miembros del Consejo con- 
stituird qu6rum. 

3. Ningtin miembrp del Consejo 
T6cnico Consultivo recibird del In- 
stituto, en tal capacidad, remunera- 
ci6n pecuniaria alguna por sus 
servicios; pero el Instituto podrd 
sufragar los gastos de viaje de los 
miembros del Consejo para su re- 
uni6n anual. 

Agente Fiscal 

Art. 8. La Uni6n Panamericana 
actuard como agente fiscal del In- 
stituto, y en tal capacidad recibird y 
administrari los fondos del Instituto. 

Sostenimiento del Instituto 

Art. 9. Los recursos para sos- 
tener y fomentar las labores del 
Instituto consistirdn en las cuotas 
anuales que cubran los Estados Con- 
tratantes, asf como en los legados, 
donatives y contribuciones que el 
Instituto acepte. Tales fondos y 
contribuciones se utilizar&n exclu- 
sivamente para fines que estn de 
acuerdo con el caricter del Instituto. 

La Junta Directiva del Instituto 
fijard las cuotas anuales, en el en- 
tendimiento de que el voto deberd 
ser undnime en lo que respecta a los 
miembros que representen a los 
Estados Contratantes. El monto 
de las cuotas respectivas se fijard en 
proporci6n con el ntimero de habi- 
tantes de cada Estado Contratante, 
tomdndose como base las ultimas 
estadfsticas oficiales que existan en 
la Uni6n Panamericana el i de 
julio de cada afio. 

Se fijard la cuota anual de cada 
Estado Contratante, la que no ex- 
cederd de un d61ar en moneda de los 
Estados Unidos de America, por 
cada mil habitantes. Sin embargo, 
esa cuota podrd aumentarse medi- 
ante la recomendaci6n undnime de 
los miembros de la Junta Directiva 
que represente los Estados Contra- 
tantes y con la aprobaci6n de las 



io8 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 631 



ties of each of the Contracting States 
of the increased quota of that State. 

The quotas shall be communicated 
annually by the Pan American Union 
to the Governments of the Contract- 
ing States, and shall be paid before 
the first of July of each year. 

The quota payments of each Con- 
tracting State shall commence on the 
day on which this Convention enters 
into force with respect to that State, 
prorated according to the number of 
full calendar months remaining in 
the current fiscal year. 

The fiscal year of the Institute 
shall begin on the first day of July of 
each year. 

Languages 

Art. I p. The official languages of 
the Institute shall be English, Span- 
ish, Portuguese and French. 

Postal Privileges 

Art. n. The Contracting States 
agree to extend to the Institute forth- 
with the domestic and international 
franking privilege provided in the 
existing inter-American postal con- 
ventions and to ask the States mem- 
bers of the Pan American Union 
which have not ratified the present 
Convention to grant the Institute 
the same postal privileges. 



Exemption from Taxation 

Art. 12. Lands and buildings in 
the territory of any of the Contract- 
ing States of which the Institute is 
the legal or equitable owner and 
which are used exclusively for the 
purposes of the Institute shall be 
exempt from taxation of every kind, 
National, State, Provincial or Munic- 
ipal, other than assessments levied 
for services or for local public im- 
provements by which the premises 
are benefited. 



autoridades competentes de cada 
Estado Contratante. 

La Uni6n Panamericana comuni- 
cari a los Gobiernos de los Estados 
Contratantes las cantidades que les 
correspondan, las que deberAn pa- 
garse antes del i de julio de cada afio. 

El pago de la cuota correspon- 
diente a cada Estado Contratante se 
comenzari a partir de la fecha en que 
esta Convenci6n entre en vigor con 
respecto a ese Estado, calculindose la 
cantidad a base del numero de meses 
completos que quedaren por termi- 
narse dentro del ano fiscal en curso. 

El ano fiscal del Institute comen- 
zarA cada i de julio. 

Idiomas 

Art. 10. Serdn idiomas oficiales 
del Instituto el espanol, el ing!6s, el 
portugufe y el francos. 

Franquicia Postal 

Art. n. Los Estados Contra- 
tantes acuerdan hacer extensiva al 
Instituto, desde luego dentro de sus 
respectivos territorios, y entre unos 
y otros, la franquicia postal estab- 
lecida en las convenciones postales 
interamericanas en vigencia, pidi- 
endo a los Estados miembros de 
la Uni6n Panamericana, que no 
hayan ratificado la presente Con- 
venci6n, que concedan al Instituto 
dicha prerrogativa. 

Exencidn de Impuestos 

Art. 12. Los bienes inmuebles que 
posea el Instituto, en derecho o 
equidad, en cualquiera de los Es- 
tados Contratantes, y que se utilicen 
exclusivamente para los fines que 
persigue el Instituto, estarin exentos 
de impuestos de cualquiera natu- 
raleza, ya sean nacionales, estaduales, 
provinciales o municipales, con ex- 
cepci6n de las tasas que deban ser 
pagadas por raz6n de servicios o de 
mejoramientos piiblicos locales que 
redunden en beneficio de dichos 
inmuebles. 



Jan. 15, 1944 INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 



IO9 



Furniture, equipment, supplies, 
construction materials and any other 
articles intended for official use of the 
Institute shall be exempt in the terri- 
tory of any of the Contracting States 
from every form of taxation, includ- 
ing but not limited to customs duties, 
excise and surtaxes. 



All funds and other property used 
for the purposes of the Institute, and 
all contracts and other official acts 
of the Institute within the scope of 
its purposes shall likewise be exempt 
from taxation of every kind in the 
territory of each of the Contracting 
States. 

Movement of Funds 

Art. 13. Each of the Contracting 
States shall take such measures as 
may be appropriate to facilitate the 
movement of funds of the Institute. 



Exemptions and Privileges for 
Personnel and Students 

Art. 14. Each of the Contracting 
States agrees that it will accord to 
persons engaged in the work of the 
Institute or pursuing studies under 
the auspices of the Institute, such 
privileges with respect to exemption 
from taxation and other burdens af- 
fecting the entry, travel and residence 
of such persons as may be appropriate 
under its laws and regulations. 

Signature and Ratification 

Art. 15. I. The original of the 
present Convention in the English, 
Spanish, Portuguese and French lan- 
guages shall be deposited with the 
Pan American Union and opened for 
signature by the Governments of 
the American Republics. The Pan 
American Union shall furnish a certi- 
fied copy of the present Convention 
to each signatory Government and 
to the Government of each non-sig- 
natory State which is a member of 
the Union. The Pan American Union 



El mobiliario, los efectos, enseres, 
utensilios, materiales de construc- 
ci6n y cualesquiera otros artfculos 
destinados al uso oficial del Institute 
estardn exentos, en el territorio de 
cualquiera de los Estados Contra- 
tantes, de todo gravamen, inclu- 
yendo derechos aduaneros, contribu- 
ciones indirectas y sobretasas, o 
cualesquiera otros. 

Estardn tambten exentos de toda 
clase de impuestos, en el territorio de 
cada uno de los Estados Contratan- 
tes, los fondos y otros bienes que se 
empleen para los fines del Institute, 
y todos los contratos y actos oficia- 
les del Institute, que se mantengan 
dentro de los Ifmites de sus funciones. 

Circulacidn de Fondos 

Art. 13. Cada uno de los Estados 
Contratantes tomard las medidas 
que scan necesarias para facilitar el 
movimiento de los fondos del Insti- 
tute. 

Facilidades para el 
Personal y Estudiantes 

Art. 14. Cada uno de los Estados 
Contratantes conviene en acordar a 
las personas al servicio del Institute, 
o que realicen estudios auspiciados 
por 61, todas aquellas facilidades que 
puedan conceder en cuanto con- 
cierne a exenciones de impuestos y 
otros recargos que afecten la entrada, 
viajes y residencia de tales personas, 
conforme a sus leyes y reglamentos. 

Firma y Ratification 

Art. 15, i. El original de la 
presente Convenci6n, redacto en los 
idiomas espanol, ing!6s, portugu6s y 
francos, serd depositado en la Uni6n 
Panamericana y abierto a la firma de 
los Gobiernos de las Reptiblicas Ameri- 
canas. La Uni6n Panamericana en- 
viarA copias certificadas aut6nticas 
de la presente Convenci6n a los go- 
biernos signatarios y a los gobiernos 
de los Estados no signatarios que 
scan miembros de la Uni6n Paname- 
ricana. La Uni6n Panamericana in- 



no 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 631 



shall inform all the Governments of 
the States members of the Pan Amer- 
ican Union with respect to all sig- 
natures and the respective dates 
thereof. 

2. The present Convention shall 
be ratified by the signatory States in 
conformity with their respective con- 
stitutional procedures. The instru- 
ments of ratification shall be depos- 
ited with the Pan American Union, 
which shall notify all the signatory 
Governments of each ratification de- 
posited and the date of its deposit. 

3. The present Convention shall 
come into force three months after 
the deposit of not less than five rati- 
fications with the Pan American 
Union. Any ratification received af- 
ter the date of entry into force of the 
Convention shall take effect one 
month after the date of its deposit 
with the Pan American Union. 

Denunciation 

Art. 16. i. The present Conven- 
tion shall, subject to the provisions of 
Paragraph 2 of this Article, remain 
in force indefinitely, but may be de- 
nounced by any Contracting State 
by a notification in writing to the 
Pan American Union, which shall in- 
form all the other Contracting States 
of each notification of denunciation 
received. After the expiration of one 
year from the date of the receipt by 
the Pan American Union of a noti- 
fication of denunciation by any Con- 
tracting State, the present Conven- 
tion shall cease to be in force with 
respect to such State, but the Con- 
vention shall remain in full force and 
effect with respect to all the other 
Contracting States. 

2. In the event that the number 
of Contracting States should be re- 
duced to less than five as the result of 
denunciations, the remaining Con- 
tracting States shall immediately 
consult with each other with a view 
to revising the present Convention 
and with a view to determining the 



formari a todos los gobiernps de los 
pafses miembros de la Uni6n Pan- 
americana acerca de las firmas de 
adhesi6n que se registren y de las 
fechas respectivas de las mismas. 

2. La presente Convenci6n sera 
ratificada por los Estados Signatarios 
de acuerdo con sus respectivos proce- 
dimientos constitucionales. Los in- 
strumentos de ratificaci6n serin de- 
positados en la Uni6n Panamericana, 
la que comunicari a todos los Gobi- 
ernos Signatarios los datos sobre cada 
ratificaci6n depositada. 

3. La presente Convenci6n entrari 
en vigor tres meses despus de que se 
hayan depositado en la Uni6n Pana- 
mericana cinco ratificaciones cuando 
menos. Cualquiera ratificaci6n que 
se reciba despu6s de que la presente 
Convenci6n entre en vigor tendra 
efecto un mes despu&s de la fecha del 
dep6sito de dicha ratificaci6n en la 
Uni6n Panamericana. 

Denuncia 

Art. 16. i. La presente Conven- 
ci6n, de acuerdo con lo dispuesto en 
el parrafo 2 de este Artfculo, regira 
indefinidamente, pero podr4 ser de- 
nunciada por cualquier Estado Con- 
tratante, dando aviso por escrito a 
la Uni6n Panamericana, la cual in- 
formal a todos los otros Estados 
Contratantes acerca de cada notifica- 
ci6n de denuncia que sea recibida. 
Transcurrido un ano a contar de la 
fecha en que haya sido recibida por 
la Uni6n Panamericana la notifica- 
ci6n de denuncia, la presente Con- 
venci6n cesari en sus efectos para el 
Estado denunciante, pero permane- 
ceri en pleno efecto en lo que res- 
pecta a todos los otros Estados Con- 
tratantes. 

2. En el case de que el numero de 
Estados Contratantes quedare re- 
ducido a menos de cinco, como resul- 
tado de las denuncias, los Estados 
restantes se consultardn reciproca- 
mente y de modo inmediato con el 
objeto de revisar la presente Con- 
venci6n y resolver lo conveniente 



Feb. 7, 1944 



REGULATION OF WHALING 



III 



future status of the Institute. If, 
within two years after the date upon 
which the number of Contracting 
States is reduced to less than five, as 
the result of denunciations, no agree- 
ment shall have been reached by the 
remaining Contracting States re- 
garding the continuation of the Con- 
vention and the status of the Insti- 
tute, the Convention shall, upon the 
expiration of six months' written 
notice by any remaining Contracting 
State, cease to be in force. In the 
event that the Convention should 
cease to be in force, the status of the 
Institute shall be determined by the 
Governing Board of the Pan Ameri- 
can Union. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the under- 
signed Plenipotentiaries, having de- 
posited their full powers found to be 
in due and proper form, sign this 
Convention in the English, Spanish, 
Portuguese and French languages at 
the Pan American Union, Washing- 
ton, D. C., on behalf of their respec- 
tive Governments and affix thereto 
their seals on the dates appearing 
opposite their signatures. 



sobre el future del Instituto. Si 
dentro de dos anos, a partir de la 
fecha en que el numero de Estados 
quedare reducido a menos de cinco, 
como resultado de denuncias, esos 
Estados no hubieren llegado a un 
acuerdo respecto a la continuidad de 
la Convenci6n y al futuro del Insti- 
tuto, la Convenci6n cesari de tener 
vigor seis meses despu6s de la fecha 
en que cualquiera de dichos Estados 
notifique por escrito a los otros su 
intenci6n de terminarla. En el caso 
de que la Convenci6n cesare de tener 
efecto, el futuro destino del Instituto 
serd determinado por el Consejo 
Directivo de la Uni6n Panamericana. 

EN FE DE LO CUAL, los infrascritos 
Plenipotenciarios, despus de haber 
depositado sus plenos poderes, que 
se han encontrado en buena y debida 
forma, finnan y sellan la presente 
Convenci6n en espanol, ing!6s, por- 
tugu6s y francos, en la Uni6n Pan- 
americana, Washington, D. C., en 
nombre de sus respectivos Gobiernos, 
en las fechas indicadas al lado de sus 
firmas. 



[Firmada:] Por Costa Rica: CARLOS MANUEL ESCALANTE, 15 de enero de 
1944; por Nicaragua: GUILLERMO SE VILLA SACASA, 15 dc enero de 1944; 
por Panam: ENRIQUE A. JIMENEZ, 15 de enero de 1944; for the United 
States of America: CORDELL HULL, January 15, 1944; P or Cuba: AURELIO 
F. CONCHESO, 20 de enero de 1944; por Ecuador: C. E. ALFARO, 20 de 
enero de 1944. 

[The Convention was also signed by Bolivia, Chile, Dominican Republic, 
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Uruguay, and Venezuela.] 



No. 632 

PROTOCOL for the Regulation of Whaling. Signed at London, 

February 7, 1944. 

PROTOCOLS sur la rglementation de la chasse & la baleine. 
Sign6 & Londres, 7 f6vrier 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. The regulation of whaling has been the subject of continuous legislation 
over a period of years, and the successive instruments afford a striking illustration of a 
continuous process of international legislation. A convention opened for signature at 



1 12 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 632 

Geneva on September 24, 1931 (No. 295, ante), applied to baleens or whalebone whales. 
An agreement of June 8, 1937 (No. 485, ante), which was of more general application, was to 
remain in force until June 30, 1938, subject to extension by agreement; an amending protocol 
of June 24, 1938 (No. 4853, ante), extended some of its provisions until September 30, 1939, 
and others until December 8, 1940. Pelagic whaling having been interrupted for several 
years, a conference of certain parties to the 1937 agreement and the 1938 protocol was held 
in London, January 4-31, 1944, and drafted the Protocol of February 7, 1944, which was 
designed to make certain provisions of the 1937 agreement less restrictive. A supplementary 
protocol of October 5, 1945, was concluded to bring the 1944 Protocol into force without 
awaiting the accession of Ireland. British Treaty Series, No. 44 (1946), Cmd. 6941. A 
protocol of November 26, 1945 (No. 6323, post), further amended the 1937 agreement and 
the 1938 protocol, making certain provisions of previous instruments applicable for the 
1946-1947 season. A protocol of March 15, 1946, gave permission to certain factory ships 
to continue whaling operations after March 24, 1946. British Treaty Series, No. 44 (1946), 
Cmd. 6941. The provisions of the protocol of November 26, 1945, were made applicable 
for the 1947-1948 season by a protocol of December 2, 1946. U.S. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series, No. 1708. A new convention, signed at Washington on December 
2, 1946, entered into force on November 10, 1948 (No. 632b, post). A protocol of March 3, 
1947, was concluded to bring into force in its entirety the protocol of November 26, 1945, 
without awaiting ratification by Mexico and the Netherlands, n U.N. Treaty Series, p. 52. 

RATIFICATIONS. On July i, 1946, ratifications of or accessions to this Protocol had been 
deposited at London by the Argentine Republic, Canada, Denmark, Great Britain, Mexico, 
New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, and the United States of America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in 10 U.S. Department of 
State Bulletin (1944), p. 592; British Treaty Series, No. 61 (1946), Cmd. 6990; Canada, 
Treaty Series, 1944, No. 20. 

Anon., "Antarctic Whaling," 101 Review of the River Plate (November 15, 1946), pp. 
18-19; A. G. N. Hildebrandt, "Het walvischvaartseizoen 1945/46," 31 Economised 
statistische Berichten (1946), pp. 596-98. 

Entered into force October 5, 1945. 

Text from Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. No. I (1944), Cmd. 6510. 

The Governments of the Union of pelagic whaling operations in the 
South Africa, the United States of area to which Article 7 of the 1937 
America, the Commonwealth of Agreement applies have been inter- 
Australia, the United Kingdom of rupted for a considerable period by 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the existence of hostilities and in 
Canada, Eire, New Zealand and order to meet the present emergency 
Norway, without prejudicing the conservation 

Being parties or signatories to the of stocks of whales, to put into force 

International Agreement for the by agreement such provisions as may 

Regulation of Whaling signed at be necessary with regard to pelagic 

London on the 8th June, 1937 (here- whaling in this area when whaling 

inafter referred to as the Agreement operations are resumed there: 

of 1937), and to the Protocol signed Have agreed as follows: 

at London on the 24th June, 1938, Article x. (i) The period fixed by 

introducing certain amendments into Article 7 of the Agreement of 1937, 

the Agreement of 1937 (hereinafter during which factory ships or a 

referred to as the Protocol of 1938); whale catcher attached thereto may 

and be used for the purpose of taking or 

Desiring, in view of the fact that treating baleen whales, shall be ex- 



Feb. 7, 1944 



REGULATION OF WHALING 



tended for the first season in which 
whaling operations are resumed in 
the area referred to in the said 
Article 7, so as to cover the period 
from the 24th November to the 24th 
March, both dates inclusive. 

(ii) Each Government party to 
the present protocol shall give notice 
to the Government of the United 
Kingdom when whale factory ships 
registered under the law of any ter- 
ritory under its authority or other- 
wise under its jurisdiction engage in 
whaling operations in the area de- 
fined in Article 7 of the Agreement 
of 1937. The Government of the 
United Kingdom will inform the 
other Governments party to the 
present protocol of all notices re- 
ceived under this paragraph and 
shall itself similarly give notice to 
the other contracting Governments 
if whale factory ships registered 
under the law of any territory under 
its authority or otherwise under its 
jurisdiction engage in whaling opera- 
tions in the said area. 

(iii) For the purposes of paragraph 
(i) of this article the first season in 
respect of which any notice has been 
given under paragraph (ii) above, 
shall be deemed to be the first season 
in which whaling operations are 
resumed. This season is hereinafter 
referred to as "the first season." 

Art. 2. The provisions of Article 
i of the Protocol of 1938 relating to 
the taking of humpback whales in 
any waters south of 40 degrees south 
latitude shall apply during the first 
season. 

Art. 3. (i) During the first sea- 
son, the number of baleen whales 
caught in the area referred to in 
Article 7 of the 1937 Agreement shall 
not exceed 16,000 blue whale units. 

(ii) For the purposes of paragraph 
(i) of this article, blue whale units 
shall be calculated on the basis that 
one blue whale equals 

(a) 2 fin whales, or 

(b) 2# humpback whales, or 

(c) 6 sei whales. 



(iii) The Government of the 
United Kingdom shall consult all 
the Governments who have given 
notice under Article I (ii) of this 
agreement in order to arrange by 
co-operation and agreement the 
measures necessary to ensure that 
the total number of baleen whales 
caught during the first season does 
not exceed the number specified in 
paragraph (i) of this article. 

Art. 4. In the absence of agree- 
ment to the contrary none of the 
provisions of the present protocol 
shall operate except in the first 
season. 

Art. 5. The present protocol shall 
be ratified and the instruments of 
ratification deposited as soon as pos- 
sible with the Government of the 
United Kingdom. 

Art. 6. (i) The present protocol 
shall be open to accession on behalf 
of any Government which was a 
party to the 1937 Agreement and has 
not signed the present protocol. 

(ii) Accession shall be effected by 
means of a notification addressed to 
the Government of the United 
Kingdom. 

Art. 7. (i) The Government of 
the United Kingdom shall inform 
the Governments of the United 
States of America, Canada, Eire, 
Mexico, New Zealand and Norway of 
all ratifications of this protocol or 
accessions thereto. 

(ii) The present protocol shall 
come into force as soon as ratifica- 
tions or accessions have been de- 
posited on behalf of all Governments 
referred to in paragraph (i) of this 
article and of the Government of the 
United Kingdom. 

(iii) The ratification of or acces- 
sion to the present protocol by a 
Government which is a signatory but 
not a party to the Agreement of 1937 
shall not become effective until such 
Government becomes a party to 
that agreement by ratification. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the under- 
signed plenipotentiaries, being duly 



114 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 

authorised to this effect by their which shall remain deposited in the 

respective Governments, have signed archives of the Government of the 

the present protocol and affixed United Kingdom by whom certified 

thereto their seals. copies will be transmitted to all the 

Done at London this yth day of Governments referred to in Article 

February, 1944, in a single copy 7 (i). 

[Signed:] For the Government of the Union of South Africa: DENEYS 
REITZ, A. P. VAN DER POST; for the Government of the United States of 
America: LOYD V. STEERE; for the Government of the Commonwealth of 
Australia: S. M. BRUCE; for the Government of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland: A. T. A. DOBSON, J. E. DE WATTE- 
VILLE; for the Government of Canada: VINCENT MASSEY; for the Govern- 
ment of New Zealand: W. J. JORDAN; for the Government of Norway: 
BIRGER BERGERSEN. 



No. 632a 

Protocol for the Regulation of Whaling. Opened for signature at 
London, November 26, 1945. 

Protocole sur la reglementation de la chasse & la baleine. Ouvert 
a la signature & Londres, 26 novembre 1945. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Protocol, prepared at the International Whaling Conference held 
at London, November 20-26, 1945, amended for the 1946-1947 season various provisions of 
the 1937 agreement on whaling (No. 485, ante) and of the 1938 protocol of amendment (No. 
48sa, ante). It was made applicable to the 1947-1948 season by the protocol of December 2, 
1946, and was brought into force by the protocol of March 3, 1947, without awaiting ratifi- 
cation by Mexico and the Netherlands. U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, 
No. 1708; ii U.N. Treaty Series, p. 52. 

RATIFICATIONS. On July I, 1948, ratifications of or accessions to this Protocol had been 
deposited at London by Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, 
Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, South Africa, the Soviet Union, and 
the United States of America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in n U.N. Treaty Series, 
p. 43; 17.5. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1597; Canada, Treaty Series, 
1945, No. 21. 

Entered into force March 3, 1947 , l 

Text from British Treaty Series, No. 70 (1946), Cmd. 7009. 

The Governments of the Union of land, Norway, the United Kingdom 
South Africa, the Commonwealth of of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, land and the United States of 
Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zea- America; 

1 Registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations, No. 148, November 26, 1947. 
Certain articles of this Protocol became binding on April 4, 1946, in pursuance of Article 



Nov. 26, 1945 



REGULATION OF WHALING 



Desiring, in view of the fact that 
pelagic whaling operations in the 
area defined by Article 7 of the Inter- 
national Agreement for the Regula- 
tion of Whaling, signed at London on 
the 8th June, 1937 (hereinafter re- 
ferred to as the Principal Agreement), 
as amended by the Protocol signed 
at London on the 24th June, 1938 
(hereinafter referred to as the Proto- 
col of 1938), have been interrupted 
for a considerable period by the war, 
and in order to meet the emergency 
produced by post-war conditions 
without prejudice to the conserva- 
tion of stocks of whales, to put into 
force by agreement such provisions 
as may be necessary in regard to pe- 
lagic whaling for the season 1946/47; 

Have agreed as follows: 

Article i. Subject to the provi- 
sions of Article 3 of the present 
Protocol, the period fixed by Article 
7 of the Principal Agreement, during 
which factory ships or whalecatchers 
attached thereto may be used for the 
purpose of taking or treating baleen 
whales, shall be extended for the 
season 1946/47 so as to cover the 
period from the 8th December to the 
7th April inclusive. 

Art. 2. Each contracting Gov- 
ernment shall give notice to the Gov- 
ernment of the United Kingdom 
when factory ships registered under 
the law of any territory under its 
authority or otherwise under its ju- 
risdiction engage in whaling opera- 
tions in the area defined by Article 
7 of the Principal Agreement. The 
Government of the United Kingdom 
will inform the other contracting 
Governments of all notices received 
under this paragraph and shall itself 
similarly give notice to the other 
contracting Governments if factory 
ships registered under the law of any 
territory under its authority or other- 
wise under its jurisdiction engage in 
whaling operations in the said area. 

Art. 3 . The prohibition contained 
in Article i of the Protocol of 1938 
relating to the taking of hump back 



LS1UV* 

(a) 
0) 



whales in any waters south of 40 
south latitude shall apply during the 
season of 1946/47. 

Art. 4. (i) During the season of 
1946/47 the number of baleen whales 
caught in the area defined by Article 
7 of the Principal Agreement shall 
not exceed 16,000 blue whale units. 

(2) For the purposes of paragraph 
i of this Article blue whale units 
shall be calculated on the basis that 
one blue whale equals 

Two fin whales or 
Two and a half hump back 
whales or 
(c) Six sei whales. 

(3) Each contracting Government 
undertakes to ensure that the Inter- 
national Bureau for Whaling Statis- 
tics shall be provided, within two 
days after the end of each calendar 
week, with data on the number of 
blue whale units caught by each fac- 
tory ship under the jurisdiction of 
the said Government in the area de- 
fined by Article 7 of the Principal 
Agreement. The Government of 
the United Kingdom shall consult 
from time to time with the Inter- 
national Bureau for Whaling Statis- 
tics and if it should appear that the 
annual quota provided by paragraph 
(i) of this Article may be reached be- 
fore the 7th April, the International 
Bureau for Whaling Statistics shall 
be requested to determine, on the 
basis of the data provided, the date 
on which the annual quota of blue 
whale units shall be deemed to have 
been reached and to notify each con- 
tracting Government of that date 
not less than two weeks in advance 
thereof. The taking of baleen whales 
shall be illegal after the date so 
determined. 

Art. 5. The provisions of Article 
3, paragraph (2), of the Protocol of 
1938, regarding the operation of fac- 
tory ships as land stations in the 
territorial waters of any contracting 
Government, shall not apply during 
the period from ist May, 1947, to 
3 ist October, 1947, inclusive. 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 632a 



Art. 6. (i) In the present Proto- 
col the following expressions shall 
have the meanings assigned to them 
in Article 18 of the Principal Agree- 
ment: "factory ship," "whalecatcher," 
"land station," "baleen whale," 
"blue whale," "hump back whale," 
"fin whale." 

(2) Sei whale means, for the pur- 
poses of this Protocol, any whale 
known by the name of balaenoptera 
borealis, sei whale, Rudol phi's ror- 
qual, pollack whale, or coalfish whale, 
and shall be taken to include Balae- 
noptera brydei, Bryde's whale. 

(3) The expression "land station" 
shall, for the purposes of Article 5 of 
the present Protocol, include a fac- 
tory ship the movements and an- 
chorage of which are confined to the 
territorial waters of any contracting 
Government. 

Art. 7. (i) The present Protocol 
shall be ratified and the instruments 
of ratification deposited as soon as 
possible with the Government of the 
United Kingdom; and it shall be 
open to accession on behalf of any 
Government which is a party to the 
Principal Agreement and the Proto- 
col of 1938 and has not signed the 
present Protocol. 

(2) Accession shall be effected by 
notification addressed to the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom. 

(3) The Government of the United 
Kingdom shall inform the Govern- 
ments which are parties or signa- 
tories to the present Protocol of all 
ratifications of this Protocol or ac- 
cessions thereto. 

Art. 8. (i) The present Protocol 
shall come into force in its entirety 



when all the Governments referred 
to in the Preamble hereof shall have 
deposited their instruments of ratifi- 
cation or given notification of ac- 
cession. 

(2) The provisions of this Article 
and Articles 2, 3, 4, 6 (i), 6 (2) and 7 
of the present Protocol shall, when 
instruments of ratification have been 
deposited by at least three signatory 
Governments, become binding on 
those Governments and shall become 
binding on each other Government 
which subsequently ratifies or ac- 
cedes, on the date of the deposit of 
its instrument of ratification or noti- 
fication of its accession. 

(3) The ratification of or accession 
to the present Protocol by a Govern- 
ment which is not a party to the 
Principal Agreement and the Proto- 
col of 1938 shall not become effective 
until such Government becomes a 
party to that Agreement and the 
Protocol of 1938. 

Art. 9. The present Protocol shall 
bear the date on which it is opened 
for signature and shall remain open 
for signature for a period of 14 days 
thereafter. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the under- 
signed plenipotentiaries being duly 
authorised to this end by their re- 
spective Governments have signed 
the present Protocol. 

Done at London this 26th day of 
November, 1945, in a single copy 
which shall remain deposited in the 
archives of the Government of the 
United Kingdom, by whom certified 
copies will be transmitted to all the 
Governments referred to in the pre- 
amble. 



[Signed:] For the Government of the Union of South Africa: A. P. VAN 
DER POST; for the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia: J. S. 
DUNCAN; for the Government of Canada: VINCENT MASSEY; for the Govern- 
ment of Denmark: P. F. ERICHSEN; for the Provisional Government of the 
French Republic: NOEL HENRY; for the Government of the United Mexican 
States: ALFONSO DE ROSENZWEIG DIAZ; for the Government of the Nether- 
lands: E. TEIXEIRA DE MATTOS; for the Government of New Zealand: R. M. 
CAMPBELL; for the Government of Norway: BIRGER BERGERSEN; for the 
Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: 



Dec. 2, 1946 REGULATION OF WHALING 117 

A. T. A. DOBSON, J. E. DE WATTEVILLE; for the Government of the United 
States of America: REMINGTON KELLOGG, IRA N. GABRIELSON. 



No. 632b 

Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Signed at Washington, 

December 2, 1946. 

Convention pour la reglementation de la chasse ft la baleine. 
Signe ft Washington, 2 decembre 1946. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention was drafted at the International Whaling Conference 
which met at Washington, November 2O-December 2, 1946. Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. No. 3 
(1947), Cmd. 7403. Amendments to paragraphs 6, 7, and 10 of the Schedule to this Con- 
vention were adopted by the International Whaling Commission at its first meeting held 
at London, May 3O-June 7, 1949. British Treaty Series, No. 75 (1949), Cmd. 7853. For 
previous agreements on the subject, see Nos. 295, 485, 48sa, 632, and 632a, ante. 

RATIFICATIONS. On May 20, 1949, ratifications of or accessions to the Convention had 
been deposited at Washington by Australia, Canada, France, Great Britain, Iceland, 
Netherlands, Norway, Panama, South Africa, the Soviet Union, Sweden, and the United 
States of America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Convention is also published in British Treaty Series t 
No. 5 (1949), Cmd. 7604; Canada, Treaty Series, 1946, No. 54. 

Entered into force November 10, 1948. 

Text from U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1849. 

The Governments whose duly mon interest to achieve the optimum 

authorized representatives have sub- level of whale stocks as rapidly as 

scribed hereto, possible without causing widespread 

Recognizing the interest of the na- economic and nutritional distress; 
tions of the world in safeguarding for Recognizing that in the course of 
future generations the great natural achieving these objectives, whaling 
resources represented by the whale operations should be confined to 
stocks; those species best able to sustain ex- 
Considering that the history of ploitation in order to give an interval 
whaling has seen overfishing of one for recovery to certain species of 
area after another and of one species whales now depleted in numbers; 
of whale after another to such a Desiring to establish a system of 
degree that it is essential to protect international regulation for the whale 
all species of whales from further fisheries to ensure proper and effec- 
overfishing; tive conservation and development 
Recognizing that the whale stocks of whale stocks on the basis of the 
are susceptible of natural increases if principles embodied in the provisions 
whaling is properly regulated, and of the International Agreement for 
that increases in the size of whale the Regulation of Whaling signed in 
stocks will permit increases in the London on June 8, 1937 and the 
numbers of whales which may be protocols to that Agreement signed 
captured without endangering these in London on June 24, 1938 and 
natural resources; November 26, 1945; and 

Recognizing that it is in the com- Having decided to conclude a con* 



118 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6326 



vention to provide for the proper 
conservation of whale stocks and 
thus make possible the orderly de- 
velopment of the whaling industry; 

Have agreed as follows: 

Article i. i. This Convention 
includes the Schedule attached 
thereto which forms an integral part 
thereof. All references to ''Conven- 
tion" shall be understood as includ- 
ing the said Schedule either in its 
present terms or as amended in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 
Article 5. 

2. This Convention applies to fac- 
tory ships, land stations, and whale 
catchers under the jurisdiction of the 
Contracting Governments, and to 
all waters in which whaling is 
prosecuted by such factory ships, 
land stations, and whale catchers. 

Art. 2. As used in this Conven- 
tion 

1. "factory ship" means a ship in 
which or on which whales are treated 
whether wholly or in part; 

2. "land station" means a factory 
on the land at which whales are 
treated whether wholly or in part; 

3. "whale catcher" means a ship 
used for the purpose of hunting, tak- 
ing, towing, holding on to, or scout- 
ing for whales; 

4. "Contracting Government" 
means any Government which has 
deposited an instrument of ratifica- 
tion or has given notice of adherence 
to this Convention. 

Art. 3. i. The Contracting Gov- 
ernments agree to establish an Inter- 
national Whaling Commission, here- 
inafter referred to as the Commis- 
sion, to be composed of one member 
from each Contracting Government. 
Each member shall have one vote 
and may be accompanied by one or 
more experts and advisers. 

2. The Commission shall elect 
from its own members a Chairman 
and Vice Chairman and shall deter- 
mine its own Rules of Procedure. 
Decisions of the Commission shall be 
taken by a simple majority of those 



members voting except that a three- 
fourths majority of those members 
voting shall be required for action in 
pursuance of Article 5. The Rules 
of Procedure may provide for deci- 
sions otherwise than at meetings of 
the Commission. 

3. The Commission may appoint 
its own Secretary and staff. 

4. The Commission may set up, 
from among its own members and 
experts or advisers, such committees 
as it considers desirable to perform 
such functions as it may authorize. 

5. The expenses of each member 
of the Commission and of his experts 
and advisers shall be determined and 
paid by his own Government. 

6. Recognizing that specialized 
agencies related to the United Na- 
tions will be concerned with the 
conservation and development of 
whale fisheries and the products 
arising therefrom and desiring to 
avoid duplication of functions, the 
Contracting Governments will con- 
sult among themselves within two 
years after the coming into force of 
this Convention to decide whether 
the Commission shall be brought 
within the framework of a specialized 
agency related to the United Na- 
tions. 

7. In the meantime the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
shall arrange, in consultation with 
the other Contracting Governments, 
to convene the first meeting of the 
Commission, and shall initiate the 
consultation referred to in paragraph 
6 above. 

8. Subsequent meetings of the 
Commission shall be convened as the 
Commission may determine. 

Art. 4. i. The Commission may 
either in collaboration with or 
through independent agencies of the 
Contracting Governments or other 
public or private agencies, establish- 
ments, or organizations, or inde- 
pendently 

(a) encourage, recommend, or if 



Dec. 2, 1946 



REGULATION OP WHALING 



119 



necessary, organize studies and in- 
vestigations relating to whales and 
whaling; 

(b) collect and analyze statistical 
information concerning the current 
condition and trend of the whale 
stocks and the effects of whaling 
activities thereon ; 

(c) study, appraise, and dissemi- 
nate information concerning meth- 
ods of maintaining and increasing 
the populations of whale stocks. 

2. The Commission shall arrange 
for the publication of reports of its 
activities, and it may publish inde- 
pendently or in collaboration with 
the International Bureau for Whal- 
ing Statistics at Sandefjord in Nor- 
way and other organizations and 
agencies such reports as it deems 
appropriate, as well as statistical, 
scientific, and other pertinent in- 
formation relating to whales and 
whaling. 

Art. 5. i. The Commission may 
amend from time to time the provi- 
sions of the Schedule by adopting 
regulations with respect to the con- 
servation and utilization of whale 
resources, fixing (a) protected and 
unprotected species; (ft) open and 
closed seasons; (c) open and closed 
waters, including the designation of 
sanctuary areas; (d) size limits for 
each species; (e) time, methods, and 
intensity of whaling (including the 
maximum catch of whales to be 
taken in any one season); (/) types 
and specifications of gear and ap- 
paratus and appliances which may 
be used; (g) methods of measure- 
ment; and (h) catch returns and 
other statistical and biological rec- 
ords. 

2. These amendments of the 
Schedule (a) shall be such as are 
necessary to carry out the objectives 
and purposes of this Convention and 
to provide for the conservation, de- 
velopment, and optimum utilization 
of the whale resources; (b) shall be 
based on scientific findings; (c) shall 
not involve restrictions on the num- 



ber or nationality of factory ships or 
land stations, nor allocate specific 
quotas to any factory ship or land 
station or to any group of factory 
ships or land stations; and (d) shall 
take into consideration the interests 
of the consumers of whale products 
and the whaling industry. 

3. Each of such amendments shall 
become effective with respect to the 
Contracting Governments ninety 
days following notification of the 
amendment by the Commission to 
each of the Contracting Govern- 
ments, except that (a) if any Gov- 
ernment presents to the Commission 
objection to any amendment prior 
to the expiration of this ninety-day 
period, the amendment shall not be- 
come effective with respect to any of 
the Governments for an additional 
ninety days; (6) thereupon, any 
other Contracting Government may 
present objection to the amendment 
at any time prior to the expiration of 
the additional ninety-day period, or 
before the expiration of thirty days 
from the date of receipt of the last 
objection received during such addi- 
tional ninety-day period, whichever 
date shall be the later; and (c) there- 
after, the amendment shall become 
effective with respect to all Con- 
tracting Governments which have 
not presented objection but shall not 
become effective with respect to any 
Government which has so objected 
until such date as the objection is 
withdrawn. The Commission shall 
notify each Contracting Government 
immediately upon receipt of each 
objection and withdrawal and each 
Contracting Government shall ac- 
knowledge receipt of all notifications 
of amendments, objections, and 
withdrawals. 

4. No amendments shall become 
effective before July I, 1949. 

Art. 6. The Commission may 
from time to time make recommen- 
dations to any or all Contracting 
Governments on any matters which 
relate to whales or whaling and to 



120 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6326 



the objectives and purposes of this 
Convention. 

Art. 7. The Contracting Govern- 
ments shall ensure prompt transmis- 
sion to the International Bureau for 
Whaling Statistics at Sandef jord in 
Norway, or to such other body as 
the Commission may designate, of 
notifications and statistical and other 
information required by this Con- 
vention in such form and manner as 
may be prescribed by the Commis- 
sion. 

Art. 8. i. Notwithstanding any- 
thing contained in this Convention, 
any Contracting Government may 
grant to any of its nationals a special 
permit authorizing that national to 
kill, take, and treat whales for pur- 
poses of scientific research subject to 
such restrictions as to number and 
subject to such other conditions as 
the Contracting Government thinks 
fit, and the killing, taking, and treat- 
ing of whales in accordance with the 
provisions of this Article shall be ex- 
empt from the operation of this Con- 
vention. Each Contracting Gov- 
ernment shall report at once to the 
Commission all such authorizations 
which it has granted. Each Con- 
tracting Government may at any 
time revoke any such special permit 
which it has granted. 

2. Any whales taken under these 
special permits shall so far as prac- 
ticable be processed and the proceeds 
shall be dealt with in accordance 
with directions issued by the Gov- 
ernment by which the permit was 
granted. 

3. Each Contracting Government 
shall transmit to such body as may 
be designated by the Commission, 
insofar as practicable, and at inter- 
vals of not more than one year, 
scientific information available to 
that Government with respect to 
whales and whaling, including the 
results of research conducted pur- 
suant to paragraph I of this Article 
and to Article 4. 

4. Recognizing that continuous 



collection and analysis of biological 
data in connection with the opera- 
tions of factory ships and land sta- 
tions are indispensable to sound and 
constructive management of the 
whale fisheries, the Contracting Gov- 
ernments will take all practicable 
measures to obtain such data. 

Art 9. i. Each Contracting Gov- 
ernment shall take appropriate meas- 
ures to ensure the application of the 
provisions of this Convention and 
the punishment of infractions against 
the said provisions in operations car- 
ried out by persons or by vessels 
under its jurisdiction. 

2. No bonus or other remunera- 
tion calculated with relation to the 
results of their work shall be paid to 
the gunners and crews of whale 
catchers in respect of any whales the 
taking of which is forbidden by this 
Convention. 

3. Prosecution for infractions 
against or contraventions of this 
Convention shall be instituted by 
the Government having jurisdiction 
over the offense. 

4. Each Contracting Government 
shall transmit to the Commission 
full details of each infraction of the 
provisions of this Convention by 
persons or vessels under the jurisdic- 
tion of that Government as reported 
by its inspectors. This information 
shall include a statement of meas- 
ures taken for dealing with the in- 
fraction and of penalties imposed. 

Art. 10. i. This Convention shall 
be ratified and the instruments of 
ratification shall be deposited with 
the Government of the United States 
of America. 

2. Any Government which has not 
signed this Convention may adhere 
thereto after it enters into force by a 
notification in writing to the Govern- 
ment of the United States of 
America. 

3. The Government of the United 
States of America shall inform all 
other signatory Governments and all 
adhering Governments of all ratifica- 



Dec. 2, 1946 



REGULATION OF WHALING 



121 



tions deposited and adherences re- 
ceived. 

4. This Convention shall, when 
instruments of ratification have been 
deposited by at least six signatory 
Governments, which shall include 
the Governments of the Nether- 
lands, Norway, the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland, and the United States of 
America, enter into force with respect 
to those Governments and shall en- 
ter into force with respect to each 
Government which subsequently rat- 
ifies or adheres on the date of the 
deposit of its instrument of ratifica- 
tion or the receipt of its notification 
of adherence. 

5. The provisions of the Sched- 
ule shall not apply prior to July I, 
1948. Amendments to the Schedule 
adopted pursuant to Article 5 shall 
not apply prior to July I, 1949. 

Art. n. Any Contracting Gov- 
ernment may withdraw from this 
Convention on June thirtieth of any 
year by giving notice on or before 
January first of the same year to the 
depositary Government, which upon 



receipt of such a notice shall at once 
communicate it to the other Con- 
tracting Governments. Any other 
Contracting Government may, in 
like manner, within one month of the 
receipt of a copy of such a notice 
from the depositary Government, 
give notice of withdrawal, so that the 
Convention shall cease to be in force 
on June thirtieth of the same year 
with respect to the Government giv- 
ing such notice of withdrawal. 

This Convention shall bear the 
date on which it is opened for signa- 
ture and shall remain open for signa- 
ture for a period of fourteen days 
thereafter. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the under- 
signed, being duly authorized, have 
signed this Convention. 

Done in Washington this second 
day of December 1946, in the Eng- 
lish language, the original of which 
shall be deposited in the archives of 
the Government of the United States 
of America. The Government of 
the United States of America shall 
transmit certified copies thereof to 
all the other signatory and adhering 
Governments. 



[Signed:] For Argentina: O. IVANISSEVICH, J. M. MONETA, G. BROWN, 
PEDRO H. BRUNO VIDELA; for Australia: F. F. ANDERSON; for Brazil: 
PAULO FR6ES DA CRUZ; for Canada: H. H. WRONG, HARRY A. SCOTT; for 
Chile: AGUSTIN R. EDWARDS; for Denmark: P. F. ERICHSEN; for France: 
FRANCIS LACOSTE; for the Netherlands: D. J. VAN DIJK; for New Zealand: 
G. R. POWLES; for Norway: BIRGER BERGERSEN; for Peru: C. ROTALDE; 
for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: A. BOGDANOV, E. NIKISHIN; 
for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: A. T. A. 
DOBSON, JOHN THOMSON; for the United States of America: REMINGTON 
KELLOGG, IRA N. GABRIELSON, WILLIAM E. S. FLORY; for the Union of 
South Africa: H. T. ANDREWS. 



SCHEDULE 

i. (a) There shall be maintained on 
each factory ship at least two inspectors 
of whaling for the purpose of maintaining 
twenty-four hour inspection. These in- 
spectors shall be appointed and paid by 
the Government having jurisdiction over 
the factory ship. 



(b) Adequate inspection shall be main- 
tained at each land station. The inspec- 
tors serving at each land station shall 
be appointed and paid by the Govern- 
ment having jurisdiction over the land 
station. 

2. It is forbidden to take or kill gray 
whales or right whales, except when the 
meat and products of such whales are to 



122 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 632b 



be used exclusively for local consumption 
by the aborigines. 

3. It is forbidden to take or kill calves 
or suckling whales or female whales which 
are accompanied by calves or suckling 
whales. 

4. It is forbidden to use a factory ship 
or a whale catcher attached thereto for 
the purpose of taking or treating baleen 
whales in any of the following areas: 

(a) in the waters north of 66 North 
Latitude except that from 150 East 
Longitude eastward as far as 140 West 
Longitude the taking or killing of baleen 
whales by a factory ship or whale catcher 
shall be permitted between 66 North 
Latitude and 72 North Latitude; 

(b) in the Atlantic Ocean and its de- 
pendent waters north of 40 South Lati- 
tude; 

(c) in the Pacific Ocean and its de- 
pendent waters east of 150 West Longi- 
tude between 40 South Latitude and 35 
North Latitude; 

(d) in the Pacific Ocean and its de- 
pendent waters west of 150 West Longi- 
tude between 40 South Latitude and 20 
North Latitude; 

(e) in the Indian Ocean and its de- 
pendent waters north of 40 South Lati- 
tude. 

5. It is forbidden to use a factory ship 
or a whale catcher attached thereto for 
the purpose of taking or treating baleen 
whales in the waters south of 40 South 
Latitude from 70 West Longitude west- 
ward as far as 160 West Longitude. 

6. It is forbidden to use a factory 
ship or a whale catcher attached thereto 
for the purpose of taking or treating 
humpback whales in any waters south of 
40 South Latitude. 

7. (a) It is forbidden to use a factory 
ship or a whale catcher attached thereto 
for the purpose of taking or treating 
baleen whales in any waters south of 40 
South Latitude, except during the period 
from December 15 to April I following, 
both days inclusive. 

(b) Notwithstanding the above prohi- 
bition of treatment during a closed season, 
the treatment of whales which have been 
taken during the open season may be 
completed after the end of the open sea- 
son. 

8. (a) The number of baleen whales 
taken during the open season caught in 
any waters south of 40 South Latitude 
by whale catchers attached to factory 



ships under the jurisdiction of the Con- 
tracting Governments shall not exceed 
sixteen thousand blue-whale units. 

(b) For the purposes of subparagraph 
(a) of this paragraph, blue-whale units 
shall be calculated on the basis that one 
blue whale equals: 



(i) two fin whales or 
(a) 



two and a half humpback whales 
or 
(3) six sei whales. 

(c) Notification shall be given in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of Article 7 
of the Convention, within two days after 
the end of each calendar week, of data on 
the number of blue-whale units taken in 
any waters south of 40 South Latitude 
by all whale catchers attached to factory 
ships under the jurisdiction of each Con- 
tracting Government. 

(d) If it should appear that the maxi- 
mum catch of whales permitted by sub- 
paragraph (a) of this paragraph may be 
reached before April I of any year, the 
Commission, or such other body as the 
Commission may designate, shall deter- 
mine, on the basis of the data provided, 
the date on which the maximum catch of 
whales shall be deemed to have been 
reached and shall notify each Contracting 
Government of that date not less than two 
weeks in advance thereof. The taking of 
baleen whales by whale catchers attached 
to factory ships shall be illegal in any 
waters south of 40 South Latitude after 
the date so determined. 

(e) Notification shall be given in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of Article 7 
of the Convention of each factory ship 
intending to engage in whaling operations 
in any waters south of 40 South Latitude. 

9. It is forbidden to take or kill any 
blue, fin, sei, humpback, or sperm whales 
below the following lengths: 

(a) blue whales, 70 feet (21.3 meters) 

(b) fin whales, 55 feet (16.8 meters) 
(c} sei whales, 40 feet (12.2 meters) 

(d) humpback whales, 35 feet (10.7 meters) 

(e) sperm whales, 35 feet (10.7 meters) 

except that blue whales of not less than 65 
feet (19.8 meters), fin whales of not less 
than 50 feet (15.2 meters), and sei whales 
of not less than 35 feet (10.7 meters) in 
length may be taken for delivery to land 
stations provided that the meat of such 
whales is to be used for local consumption 
as human or animal food. 
Whales must be measured when at rest 



Dec. 2, 1946 



REGULATION OF WHALING 



123 



on deck or platform, as accurately as pos- 
sible by means of a steel tape measure 
fitted at the zero end with a spiked handle 
which can be stuck into the deck planking 
abreast of one end of the whale. The 
tape measure shall be stretched in a 
straight line parallel with the whale's 
body and read abreast the other end of 
the whale. The ends of the whale, for 
measurement purposes, shall be the point 
of the upper jaw and the notch between 
the tail flukes. Measurements, after 
being accurately read on the tape measure, 
shall be logged to the nearest foot: that is 
to say, any whale between 75' 6" and 76' 
6" shall be logged as 76', and any whale 
between 76' 6 r/ and 77' 6" shall be logged 
as 77'. The measurement of any whale 
which falls on an exact half foot shall be 
logged at the next half foot, e.g. 76' 6" 
precisely, shall be logged as 77'. 

10. It is forbidden to use a land sta- 
tion or a whale catcher attached thereto 
for the purpose of taking or treating baleen 
whales in any area or in any waters for 
more than six months in any period of 
twelve months, such period of six months 
to be continuous. 

11. It is forbidden to use a factory 
ship, which has been used during a season 
in any waters south of 40 South Latitude 
for the purpose of treating baleen whales, 
in any other area for the same purpose 
within a period of one year from the ter- 
mination of that season. 

12. (a) All whales taken shall be de- 
livered to the factory ship or land station 
and all parts of such whales shall be 
processed by boiling or otherwise, except 
the internal organs, whale bone and flip- 
pers of all whales, the meat of sperm 
whales and of parts of whales intended for 
human food or feeding animals. 

(b) Complete treatment of the carcasses 
of "Dauhval" and of whales used as 
fenders will not be required in cases where 
the meat or bone of such whales is in bad 
condition. 

13. The taking of whales for delivery 
to a factory ship shall be so regulated or 
restricted by the master or person in 
charge of the factory ship that no whale 
carcass (except of a whale used as a fend- 
er) shall remain in the sea for a longer 
period than thirty-three hours from the 
time of killing to the time when it is taken 
up on to the deck of the factory ship for 
treatment. All whale catchers engaged in 
taking whales must report by radio to the 



factory ship the time when each whale is 
caught. 

14. Gunners and crews of factory 
ships, land stations, and whale catchers 
shall be engaged on such terms that their 
remuneration shall depend to a consider- 
able extent upon such factors as the spe- 
cies, size, and yield of whales taken, and 
not merely upon the number of the whales 
taken. No bonus or other remuneration 
shall be paid to the gunners or crews of 
whale catchers in respect of the taking of 
milkfilled or lactating whales. 

15. Copies of all official laws and regu- 
lations relating to whales and whaling 
and changes in such laws and regulations 
shall be transmitted to the Commission. 

1 6. Notification shall be given in 
accordance with the provisions of Article 
7 of the Convention with regard to all fac- 
tory ships and land stations of statistical 
information (a) concerning the number of 
whales of each species taken, the number 
thereof lost, and the number treated at 
each factory ship or land station, and (b) 
as to the aggregate amounts of oil of each 
grade and quantities of meal, fertilizer 
(guano), and other products derived from 
them, together with (c) particulars with 
respect to each whale treated in the fac- 
tory ship or land station as to the date and 
approximate latitude and longitude of 
taking, the species and sex of the whale, 
its length and, if it contains a foetus, the 
length and sex, if ascertainable, of the 
foetus. The data referred to in (a) and 
(c) above shall be verified at the time of 
the tally and there shall also be notifica- 
tion to the Commission of any informa- 
tion which may be collected or obtained 
concerning the calving grounds and mi- 
gration routes of whales. 

In communicating this information 
there shall be specified : 

(a) the name and gross tonnage of each 
factory ship; 

(b) the number and aggregate gross 
tonnage of the whale catchers; 

(c) a list of the land stations which 
were in operation during the period con- 
cerned. 

17. Notwithstanding the definition of 
land station contained in Article 2 of the 
Convention, a factory ship operating 
under the jurisdiction of a Contracting 
Government, and the movements of 
which are confined solely to the territorial 
waters of that Government, shall be sub- 
ject to the regulations governing the op- 



I2 4 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 633 



eration of land stations within the follow- 
ing areas: 

(a) on the coast of Madagascar and its 
dependencies, and on the west coasts of 
French Africa; 

(b) on the west coast of Australia in 
the area known as Shark Bay and north- 
ward to Northwest Cape and including 
Exmouth Gulf and King George's Sound, 
including the port of Albany; and on the 
east coast of Australia, in Twofold Bay 
and Jervis Bay. 

18. The following expressions have the 
meanings respectively assigned to them, 
that is to say: 

"baleen whale" means any whale other 
than a toothed whale; 

"blue whale" means any whale known 
by the name of blue whale, Sibbald's 
rorqual, or sulphur bottom; 

"fin whale" means any whale known 
by the name of common finback, common 
rorqual, finback, finner, fin whale, herring 
whale, razorback, or true fin whale; 

"sei whale" means any whale known 
by the name of Balaenoptera borealis, sei 



whale, Rudolphi's rorqual, pollack whale, 
or coalfish whale, ana shall be taken to 
include Balaenoptera brydei, Bryde's whale; 

"gray whale" means any whale known 
by the name of gray whale, California 
gray, devil fish, hard head, mussel digger, 
gray back, rip sack; 

"humpback whale" means any whale 
known by the name of bunch, hump- 
back, humpback whale, humpbacked 
whale, hump whale, or hunchbacked 
whale; 

"right whale" means any whale known 
by the name of Atlantic right whale, 
Arctic right whale, Biscayan right whale, 
bpwhead, great polar whale, Greenland 
right whale, Greenland whale, Nord- 
kaper, North Atlantic right whale, North 
Cape whale, Pacific right whale, pigmy 
right whale, Southern pigmy right whale, 
or Southern right whale; 

"sperm whale" means any whale 
known by the name of sperm whale, sper- 
macet whale, cachalot, or pot whale; 

"Dauhval" means any Unclaimed dead 
whale found floating. 



No. 633 

DECLARATION concerning the Aims and Purposes of the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization. Adopted at Philadelphia, May 10, 1944. 

DECLARATION concernant les buts et les objectif s de I'Organisation 
Internationale du Travail. Adoptee & Philadelphie, 10 mai 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Declaration, adopted by the International Labor Conference at 
its twenty-sixth session, reaffirmed the statement of "general principles" contained in 
Article 41 (427) of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (No. 2, ante). 
It became an annex to the Constitution of the Organization as amended by the instrument of 
October 9, 1946 (No. 665a, post), 

RATIFICATIONS. This Declaration was not subject to ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Declaration is also published in 26 International Labour 
Office, Official Bulletin (1944), pp. 1-3; 10 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1944), pp. 
482-83. See also International Labour Conference, Twenty-Sixth Session, Report I: 
Future Policy, Programme and Status of the International Labour Organisation (Montreal, 

1944). PP- i-2ii 185-86; , Record of Proceedings (Montreal, 1944), pp. I35t 187-88, 

3i5-i7f 350-51, 621-23; 98 Bundesblatt der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (1946), I, pp. 
780-805. 

Anon., "The Twenty-Sixth Session of the International Labour Conference," 50 Int. 
Labour Rev. (1944), pp. i~39; H. W. A., "The International Labour Conference," 21 Bulletin 
of International News (i944) PP- 431-36; M. Blanco Fasten, La 26* Conferenda International 
del Trabajo (Santiago de Chile, 1945), 103 pp.; A. Demaison, "La XXVI Conferencia Inter- 
nacional del Trabajo," 4 Revista peruana de derecho international (1944), pp. 50-56; D. T. 



May 10, 1944 



AIMS AND PURPOSES OF THE ILO 



125 



Elorrieta y Artaza, "La Carta del Atlantico y la Carta de Filadelfia," 25 Boletin minero e 

industrial (1946), pp. 173-82; , La Carta del Atlantico y la Carta de Filadelfia (Madrid, 

1945), 239 pp.; C. Goodrich, "International Labor Conference of 1944," 58 Monthly Labor 
Review (1944), PP- 49~99I C. Goodrich and J. Gambs, " Results of International Labor 
Conference, April-May 1944," 59 idem (1944), pp. 1-12; J. Hal Is worth, "I. L. O. Confer- 
ence in Philadelphia," 2 Trade Union World (1944), pp. 2-5; International Labour Office, 
11 A New Era" The Philadelphia Conference and the Future of the I. L. 0. (Montreal, 1944), 
145 pp.; O. E. Mulliken, "The International Labor Conference at Philadelphia," 10 Depart- 
ment of State Bulletin (1944). PP- 316-25; F. Perkins, "Twenty-Sixth International Labor 
Conference," n idem (1944), PP- 258-62; J. R. Pichetto, "Normas de derecho creadas par 
la Organizaci6n International del Trabajo," 8 Revista argentina de derecho internacional 
(1945), pp. 131-55; J. Price, "The International Labor Organization," 21 International 
Affairs (1945), pp. 30-39; J. E. Sandoval, Problemas sociales de la guerra y la paz: XXVI 
reunidn de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo (La Habana, 1944), 245 pp.; J. Secretan, 
"XXVIe session de la Conference Internationale du Travail," 22 Mitteilungen der schweizer- 
ischen Vdlkerbundsvereinigung (1944), pp. 59-62; S. Simpson, "Constitutional Development 
of the I. L. O. as Affected by the Recent International Labor Conference," 38 Am. Pol. Sci. 

Rev. (1944), pp. 719-25; , "International Labor Conference: 26th Session," 38 Am. 

Jour. Int. Law (1944), pp. 557-76; F. Yllanes Ramos, Comentario sobre la XXVI Confer- 
encia de la Organizaci6n Internacional del Trabajo (Mexico, 1944), 225 pp. 

Entered into force May 10, 1944. 

Text supplied by the International Labor Office. 



The General Conference of the 
International Labour Organisation, 
meeting in its Twenty-sixth Session 
in Philadelphia, hereby adopts, this 
tenth day of May in the year nine- 
teen hundred and forty-four, the 
present Declaration of the aims and 
purposes of the International Labour 
Organisation and of the principles 
which should inspire the policy of its 
Members. 

I. The Conference reaffirms the 
fundamental principles on which the 
Organisation is based and, in par- 
ticular, that: 

(a) labour is not a commodity; 

(b) freedom of expression and of 
association are essential to sustained 
progress; 

(c) poverty anywhere constitutes 
a danger to prosperity everywhere; 

(d) the war against want requires 
to be carried on with unrelenting 
vigour within each nation, and by 
continuous and concerted interna- 
tional effort in which the representa- 



La Conference g6nrale de 1'Or- 
ganisation Internationale du Travail, 
r6unie Philadelphie en sa vingt- 
six&me session, adopte, ce dixi&me 
jour de mai 1944, la pr6sente D6cla- 
ration des buts et objectifs de 1'Or- 
ganisation Internationale du Travail, 
ainsi que des principes dont devrait 
s'inspirer la politique de ses Membres. 



I. La Conference affirme nou- 
veau les principes fondamentaux 
sur lesquels est fondle 1'Organisa- 
tion, savoir notamment: 

a) le travail n'est pas une mar- 
chandise; 

b) la libert d' expression et d' asso- 
ciation est une condition indispen- 
sable d'un progr&s soutenu; 

c) la pauvret6, oti qu'elle existe, 
constitue un danger pour la prospfi- 
rit6 de tous; 

d) la lutte contre le besoin doit 6tre 
menfee avec une inlassable 6nergie 
au sein de chaque nation, et par 
un effort international continu et 
concerte dans lequel les repr&sentants 



126 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 633 



tives of workers and employers, en- 
joying equal status with those of 
Governments, join with them in free 
discussion and democratic decision 
with a view to the promotion of the 
common welfare. 

II. Believing that experience has 
fully demonstrated the truth of the 
statement in the Constitution of the 
International Labour Organisation 
that lasting peace can be established 
only if it is based on social justice, 
the Conference affirms that: 

(a) all human beings, irrespective 
of race, creed or sex, have the right 
to pursue both their material well- 
being and their spiritual develop- 
ment in conditions of freedom and 
dignity, of economic security and 
equal opportunity; 

(fr) the attainment of the condi- 
tions in which this shall be possible 
must constitute the central aim of 
national and international policy; 

(c) all national and international 
policies and measures, in particular 
those of an economic and financial 
character, should be judged in this 
light and accepted only in so far as 
they may be held to promote and 
not to hinder the achievement of this 
fundamental objective; 



(d) it is a responsibility of the 
International Labour Organisation 
to examine and consider all inter- 
national economic and financial pol- 
icies and measures in the light of this 
fundamental objective; 

(e) in discharging the tasks en- 
trusted to it the International La- 
bour Organisation, having considered 
all relevant economic and financial 
factors, may include in its decisions 
and recommendations any provisions 
which it considers appropriate. 

III. The Conference recognises 
the solemn obligation of the Inter- 



des travailleurs et des employeurs, 
cooprant sur un pied d'6galit& avec 
ceux des gouvernements, participent 
de libres discussions et des d- 
cisions de caractfere d^mocratique en 
vue de promouvoir le bien commun. 

II. Convaincue que I'exp6rience 
a pleinement d<6montr le bien-fonde 
de la declaration contenue dans la 
Constitution de 1'Organisation Inter- 
nationale du Travail, et d'apr&s la- 
quelle une paix durable ne peut tre 
etablie que sur la base de la justice 
sociale, la Conference affirme que: 

a) tpus les etres humains, quels 
que soient leur race, leur croyance ou 
leur sexe, ont le droit de poursuivre 
leur progr&s materiel et leur develop- 
pement spirituel dans la liberte et la 
dignit6, dans la scurit conomique 
et avec des chances egales; 

b) la realisation des conditions 
permettant d'aboutir ce r6sultat 
doit constituer le but central de 
toute politique nationale et inter- 
nationale; 

c) tous les programmes d 'action et 
mesures prises sur le plan national 
et international, notamment dans le 
domaine 6conomique et financier, 
doivent Stre appr6ci6s de ce point de 
vue et accept6s seulement dans la 
mesure oil ils apparaissent de nature 
favoriser, et non entraver, Tac- 
complissement de cet objectif fonda- 
mental; 

d) il incombe 1'Organisation in- 
ternationale du Travail d'examiner 
et de considerer & la lumifere de cet 
objectif fondamental, dans le do- 
maine international, tous les pro- 
grammes d'action et mesures d'ordre 
6conomique et financier; 

e) en s'acquittant des tSches qui 
lui sont confines, TOrganisation inter- 
national du Travail, aprfes avoir 
tenu compte de tous les facteurs 
6conomiques et financiers pertinents, 
a quality pour inclure dans ses de- 
cisions et recommendations toutes 
dispositions qu'elle juge approprtees. 

III. La Conference reconnatt To- 
bligation solennelle pour 1'Organisa- 



May 10, 1944 



AIMS AND PURPOSES OF THE ILO 



127 



national Labour Organisation to 
further among the nations of the 
world programmes which will achieve : 

(a) full employment and the rais- 
ing of standards of living; 

(ft) the employment of workers in 
the occupations in which they can 
have the satisfaction of giving the 
fullest measure of their skill and at- 
tainments and make their greatest 
contribution to the common well- 
being; 

(c) the provision, as a means to 
the attainment of this end and under 
adequate guarantees for all con- 
cerned, of facilities for training and 
the transfer of labour, including mi- 
gration for employment and settle- 
ment; 

(d) policies in regard to wages and 
earnings, hours and other conditions 
of work calculated to ensure a just 
share of the fruits of progress to all, 
and a minimum living wage to all 
employed and in need of such pro- 
tection ; 

(e) the effective recognition of the 
right of collective bargaining, the co- 
operation of management and labour 
in the continuous improvement of 
productive efficiency, and the col- 
laboration of workers and employers 
in the preparation and application of 
social and economic measures; 

(/) the extension of social security 
measures to provide a basic income 
to all in need of such protection and 
comprehensive medical care; 



(g) adequate protection for the 
life and health of workers in all 
occupations; 

(h) provision for child welfare and 
maternity protection; 

(*) the provision of adequate nu- 
trition, housing and facilities for 
recreation and culture; 

0) the assurance of equality of 



tion Internationale du Travail de 
seconder la mise en ceuvre, parmi les 
diff6rentes nations du monde, de pro- 
grammes propres a r6aliser: 

a) la plenitude de 1'emploi et T616- 
vation des niveaux de vie; 

b) 1'emploi des travailleurs des 
occupations oft ils aient la satisfac- 
tion de donner toute la mesure de 
leur habilete et de leurs connais- 
sances et de contribuer le mieux au 
bien-6tre commun; 

c) pour atteindre ce but, la mise 
en ceuvre, moyennant garanties 
adquates pour tous les intresss, de 
possibility de formation et de moy- 
ens propres a faciliter les transferts 
de travailleurs, y compris les mi- 
grations de main d'ceuvre et de 
colons; 

d) la possibility pour tous d'une 
participation 6qui table aux fruits du 
progr&s en mati&re de salaires et de 
gains, de dur6e du travail et autres 
conditions de travail, et un salaire 
minimum vital pour tous ceux qui 
ont un emploi et ont besoin d'une 
telle protection; 

e) reconnaissance effective du droit 
de n6gociation collective et la coop- 
ration des employeurs et de la main 
d'oeuvre pour I'am61ioration con- 
tinue de 1'organisation de la produc- 
tion, ainsi que la collaboration des 
travailleurs et des employeurs a 
l'laboration et a 1'application de la 
politique sociale et conomique; 

/) 1'extension des mesures de scu- 
rit6 sociale en vue d 'assurer un 
revenu de base a tous ceux qui 
ont besoin d'une telle protection, 
ainsi que des soins mdicaux com- 
plets; 

g) une protection adequate de la 
vie et de la sant des travailleurs 
dans toutes les occupations; 

h) la protection de 1'enfance et de 
la maternite ; 

*) un niveau ad6quat d 'alimenta- 
tion, de logement, et de moyens de 
r6cr6ation et de culture; 

j) la garantie de chances gales 



128 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 633 



educational and vocational oppor- 
tunity. 

IV. Confident that the fuller and 
broader utilisation of the world's 
productive resources necessary for 
the achievement of the objectives 
set forth in this Declaration can be 
secured by effective international 
and national action, including meas- 
ures to expand production and con- 
sumption, to avoid severe economic 
fluctuations, to promote the eco- 
nomic and social advancement of the 
less developed regions of the world, 
to assure greater stability in world 
prices of primary products, and to 
promote a high and steady volume 
of international trade, the Confer- 
ence pledges the full co-operation of 
the International Labour Organisa- 
tion with such international bodies 
as may be entrusted with a share of 
the responsibility for this great task 
and for the promotion of the health, 
education and well-being of all 
peoples. 



V. The Conference affirms that 
the principles set forth in this Decla- 
ration are fully applicable to all peo- 
ples everywhere and that, while the 
manner of their application must be 
determined with due regard to the 
stage of social and economic develop- 
ment reached by each people, their 
progressive application to peoples 
who are still dependent, as well as to 
those who have already achieved 
self-government, is a matter of con- 
cern to the whole civilised world. 

The foregoing is the authentic text 
of the Declaration concerning the 
aims and purposes of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organisation unani- 
mously adopted by the General Con- 
ference of the International Labour 
Organisation at Philadelphia during 
its Twenty-sixth Session, on 10 May 
1944. 



dans le domaine educatif et profes- 
sion n el. 

IV. Convaincue qu'une utilisa- 
tion plus complete et plus large des 
ressources productives du monde, 
necessaire a 1'accomplissement des 
objectifs enumeres dams la prfisente 
Declaration, peut 6tre assume par 
une action efficace sur le plan inter- 
national et national, et notamment 
par des mesures tendant promou- 
voir 1' expansion de la production et 
de la cpnsommation, eviter des 
fluctuations 6conomiques graves, 
r6aliser Tavancement 6conomique et 
social des regions dont la mise en 
valeur est peu avancee, assurer une 
plus grande stabilite des prix mon- 
diaux des matiferes premieres et 
denies, et a promouvoir un com- 
merce international de volume 61ev6 
et constant, la Conference promet 
Tentifere collaboration de 1'Organisa- 
tion international du Travail avec 
tous organismes internationaux aux- 
quels pourra Stre confine une part de 
responsibility dans cette grande 
t&che, ainsi que dans Amelioration 
de la sant6, de 1'education et du bien- 
Stre de tous les peuples. 

V. La Conference affirme que les 
principes noncs dans la pr6sente 
Declaration sont pleinement appli- 
cables tous les peuples du monde, 
et que, si, dans les modalits de leur 
application, il doit 6tre dflment tenu 
compte du degre de dfrveloppement 
social et 6conomique de chaque 
peuple, leur application progressive 
aux peuples qui sont encore depen- 
dants, aussi bien qu'a ceux qui ont 
atteint le stade oft ils se gouvernent 
eux-mfimes, intresse 1'ensemble du 
monde civilise. 

Ce qui precede est le texte authen- 
tique de la Declaration concernant 
les buts et objectifs de TOrganisation 
Internationale du Travail, adoptee a 
1'unanimite par la Conference inter- 
national du Travail i Philadelphie 
au cours de sa vingt-sixidme session, 
le 10 mai 1944. 



Aug. 5, 1944 CONTROL OF MERCHANT SHIPPING 129 

IN FAITH WHEREOF we have ap- EN FOI DE QUOI ont appos6 leurs 
pended our signatures, this seven- signatures, ce dix-septteme jour de 
teenth day of May 1944. mai 1944. 

The President of the Conference, W. NASH. 
The Acting Director of the International Labour Office, EDWARD J. PHELAN. 



No. 634 

AGREEMENT on the Continuance of Co-ordinated Control of 
Merchant Shipping. Signed at London, August 5, 1944. 

ACCORD sur la continuation de la controle coordonnee de la marine 
marchande. Sign a Londres, 5 aofit 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement, drafted at the Inter-Allied Shipping Conference held 
in London, July i^-August 5, 1944, became of more than temporary significance by reason 
of its influence on subsequent developments. The United Maritime Executive Board, 
referred to in paragraph I (b) of the Annex, held its first session at Washington, November 
20-24, X 944t at its fourth and final session in London, February 4-12, 1946, it recommended 
a transitional arrangement which was in force from March 3, 1946, to October 31, 1946. 
U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1723. The United Maritime Con- 
sultative Council established under this arrangement was succeeded by a Provisional Mari- 
time Consultative Council created by the agreement of October 30, 1946 (No. 6343, post). 
The United Nations Maritime Conference, held at Geneva, February 19-March 6, 1948, 
adopted a convention creating the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization. 
Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. No. 6 (1948), Cmd. 7412. 

RATIFICATIONS. This Agreement was not subject to ratification. On March 2, 1946, 
it had been acceded to by Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, 
Great Britain, Greece, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, 
Sweden, the United States of America, and Yugoslavia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement was also published in U.S. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series, No. 1722; Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, No. 28. 

J. C. Maclay, "The General Shipping Situation," 22 International Affairs (1946), pp. 
488-500; O. Mance and J. . Wheeler, International Sea Transport (London, 1945), pp. 146- 
48; D. Marx, Jr., "International Organization of Shipping," 55 Yale Law Journal (1946), 
pp. 1214-32; C. Parry, "The United Maritime Authority," 23 British Year Book of Inter- 
national Law (1946), pp. 491-95. 

Entered into force August 5, i044* & 
Text from Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. No. 3 (1944), Cmd. 6556. 

The undersigned representatives, declare that they accept as a com- 
duly authorised by their respective mon responsibility the provision of 

Governments or Authorities, herein- shipping for all military and other 

after referred to as contracting Gov- tasks necessary for, and arising out 

ernments, have agreed as follows: of, the completion of the war in Eu- 

i. The contracting Governments rope and the Far East and for the sup- 
1 Terminated March 2, 1946. 



130 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 634 



plying of all the liberated areas as well 
as of the United Nations generally 
and territories under their authority. 

2. The contracting Governments 
undertake to continue to maintain 
such powers of control over all ships 
which are registered in their terri- 
tories or are otherwise under their 
authority as will enable them effec- 
tively to direct each ship's employ- 
ment in accordance with the fore- 
going declaration. Subject to the 
provisions of paragraphs 3 and 9, 
this control shall continue to be exer- 
cised by each contracting Govern- 
ment through the mechanism of 
requisitioning for use or title. 

3. The contracting Governments 
agree not to release from control any 
ships under their authority or per- 
mit them to be employed in any non- 
essential services or for any non- 
essential car^o unless the total over- 
all tonnage is in excess of the total 
overall requirements, and then only 
in accordance with a mutually ac- 
ceptable formula which shall not dis- 
criminate against the commercial 
shipping interests of any nation and 
shall extend to all contracting Gov- 
ernments an equitable opportunity 
for their respective tonnages to en- 
gage in commercial trades. 

4. Neutral Governments having 
ships under their control in excess of 
the tonnage required to carry on 
their essential import requirements 
shall be invited to subscribe to obli- 
gations in respect of all their ships 
which shall ensure that their employ- 
ment is in conformity with the general 
purposes of the United Nations. 

5. The contracting Governments 
undertake to exercise control over 
the facilities for shipping available 
in their territories, by suitable meas- 
ures on the lines of the United States 
and British Ship Warrant Schemes, 
and to take such other measures as 
may be necessary to secure that ships 
under all flags are used in conformity 
with the purposes of the United Na- 
tions. Other Governments acceding 



hereto shall give a similar under- 
taking. 

6. Without prejudice to ques- 
tions of disposition or title, the em- 
ployment of such ships as may at 
any time be permitted to operate 
under enemy nag or authority shall 
be determined to serve the require- 
ments of the United Nations. 

7. (a) In order that the alloca- 
tion of all ships under United Na- 
tions control may continue to be 
effectively determined to meet the 
requirements of the United Nations, 
a central authority shall be estab- 
lished, to come into operation upon 
the general suspension of hostilities 
with Germany. The central author- 
ity shall be organised in accordance 
with the plan agreed in the Annex. 

(&) The central authority shall 
determine the employment of ships 
for the purpose of giving effect to 
the responsibilities assumed by each 
contracting Government in para- 
graph I to provide the tonnage re- 
quired from time to time to meet 
current requirements for ships for 
the military and other purposes of 
the United Nations, and ships shall 
be allocated for those purposes by 
those Governments in accordance 
with the decisions of the central 
authority. So far as is consistent 
with the efficient overall use of ship- 
ping as determined by the central 
authority for those purposes, and 
with the provisions of paragraph 7 
(c), each contracting Government 
may allocate ships under its own 
authority, wholly or partly to cover 
the essential import requirements of 
territories for which it has special 
shipping responsibilities. 

(c) In general, ships under the 
flag of one of the contracting Gov- 
ernments shall be under the control 
of the Government of that flag, or 
the Government to which they have 
been chartered. 

In order to meet the special case of 
military requirements those ships 
which have been taken up, under 



Aug. 5, 1944 



CONTROL OF MERCHANT SHIPPING 



agreements made by the United 
States Government and/or United 
Kingdom Government with the 
other Governments having authority 
for those ships, for use as troopships, 
hospital ships, and for other purposes 
in the service of the armed forces, 
shall remain on charter as at present 
to the War Shipping Administration 
and/or the Ministry of War Trans- 
port as the case may be, under ar- 
rangements to be agreed between the 
Governments severally concerned. 
(Any further ships required for such 
purposes shall be dealt with in a like 
manner.) 

The fact that these ships are as- 
signed to military requirements shall 
not prejudice the right of the Gov- 
ernments concerned to discuss with 
the central authority the measures 
to be taken to provide shipping for 
their essential requirements within 
the scope of paragraph I. 

(d) The contracting Governments 
shall supply to one another, through 
the central authority, all information 
necessary to the effective working of 
the arrangements, e.g., regarding pro- 
grammes, employment of tonnage, 
and projected programmes, subject to 
the requirement of military secrecy. 

(e) The central authority shall 
also initiate the action to be taken to 
give effect to paragraph 5 and shall 
direct action under paragraph 6. 

(/) The terms of remuneration to 
be paid by the users (Government or 
private) of ships shall be determined 
by the central authority on a fair 
and reasonable basis in such manner 
as to give effect to the following two 
basic principles: 

(i) Ships of all flags performing 



the same or similar services should 
charge the same freights. 

(ii) Ships must be employed as re- 
quired without regard to financial 
considerations. 

8. The principles herein agreed 
shall apply to all types of merchant 
ships, irrespective of size, including 
passenger ships, tankers and whale 
factories when not used for whaling 
(but paragraph 7 (ft) will not be ap- 
plicable to ships engaged in coastal 
trades and short trades between 
nearby countries, the arrangements 
for control of which shall be appro- 
priate to meet the requirements pre- 
vailing in each particular area). 

The principles shall also be applied 
to the extent necessary, through suit- 
able machinery, to fishing vessels, 
whale catchers, and other similar 
craft in those areas where special 
measures in respect of such craft are 
agreed to be necessary. A special 
authority shall be set up capable of 
apportioning between naval and 
commercial services such craft as are 
available in those areas. 

9. The foregoing principles shall 
take effect on the coming into opera- 
tion of the central authority, and 
shall remain in effect for a period not 
extending beyond six months after 
the general suspension of hostilities 
in Europe or the Far East, which- 
ever may be the later, unless it is 
unanimously agreed among the Gov- 
ernments represented on the duly 
authorised body of the central 
authority that any or all of the 
agreed principles may be terminated 
or modified earlier. 

DONE in London on the 5th day of 
August, 1944. 



[Signed:] For the Government of Belgium: A. BALTHAZAR; for the Gov- 
ernment of Canada: VINCENT MASSEY, A. L. MACCALLUM; for the Royal 
Hellenic Government: G. VASSILIADIS; for the Government of the Nether- 
lands: J. M. DE BOOY; for the Government of Norway: ARNE SUNDE; for 
the Government of the Republic of Poland: J. KWAPINSKI; for the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: 
LEATHERS; for the Government of the United States of America: PHILIP D. 
REED, HUNTINGTON T. MORSE, WALTER A. RADIUS, JOHN M. ALLISON. 



132 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 634 



ANNEX 

ORGANISATION OF THE CENTRAL 
AUTHORITY 

1. The central authority shall consist 
of 

(a) A Council (United Maritime Coun- 
cil). 

(b) An Executive Board (United Mari- 
time Executive Board). 

(a) The United Maritime Council 

2. Each contracting Government shall 
be represented on the Council. Member- 
ship of the Council shall also be open to 
all other Governments, whether of the 
United Nations or of neutral countries, 
which desire to accede and are prepared 
to accept the obligations of contracting 
Governments. 

3. The Council shall meet when deemed 
necessary and at least twice a year at such 
places as may be convenient. Meetings 
shall be arranged by the Executive Board. 
The Council shall elect its own Chairman 
and determine its own procedure. The 
meetings of the Council are intended to 
provide the opportunity for informing the 
contracting Governments as to the over- 
all shipping situation and to make possible 
the interchange of views between the 
contracting Governments on general 
questions of policy arising out of the work- 
ing of the Executive Board. 

(b) The United Maritime Executive Board 

4. The Executive Board shall be estab- 
lished with Branches in Washington and 
London under War Shipping Administra- 
tion and Ministry of War Transport chair- 
manship respectively. 

5. The Executive Board shall exercise 
through its Branches the executive func- 
tions of the central authority. Appropri- 
ate machinery under the two Branches 
shall be established for the purpose of 
enabling them to discharge the functions 
described in paragraph 7 of the Agree- 
ment on Principles. Machinery to carry 
out the arrangements under paragraph 8 
of that Agreement as regards ships en- 
gaged in coasting and short sea trades, and 
as regards small craft shall be set up under 
the Executive Board. 

^ 6. The division of day-to-day responsi- 
bility between the two Branches of the 
Executive Board shall be established as 
convenient from time to time. So that 



the two Branches of the Executive Board 
may work in unison, meetings of the Ex- 
ecutive Board as a whole shall be arranged 
at the instance of the two chairmen, as 
often as may be necessary, and at such 
place as may be convenient from time to 
time. 

7. The membership of the Executive 
Board shall be restricted in numbers. By 
reason of their large experience in ship- 
ping normally engaged in international 
trade, and their large contribution of ships 
for the common purpose, the following 
Governments shall be represented on the 
Executive Board: 

Government of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land; 
Government of the United States of 

America; 

Government of the Netherlands; 
Government of Norway. 
It shall be open to the members of the 
Executive Board to recommend to con- 
tracting Governments additions to the 
membership of the Executive Board as 
circumstances may require in order to 
promote the effective working of the 
central authority. 

8. Each contracting Government not 
represented on the Executive Board shall 
be represented by an associate member 
who shall be consulted by, and entitled to 
attend meetings of, the Executive Board 
or its Branches on matters affecting ships 
under the authority of that Government, 
or on matters affecting the supply of ships 
for the territories under the authority of 
that Government. 

9. The Executive Board and its Branches 
shall proceed by agreement among the 
members. There shall be no voting. 

10. The decisions of the Executive 
Board affecting the ships under the au- 
thority of any contracting Government 
shall be reached with the consent of that 
Government, acting through its represent- 
ative on the Executive Board or through 
its associate member, as the case may be. 

11. The Executive Board shall be the 
duly authorised body for the purpose of 
paragraph 9 of the Agreement on Princi- 
ples, but it is understood that no decision 
reached under that paragraph by the 
Governments represented on the Execu- 
tive Board shall impose any new or greater 
obligation on any other contracting Gov- 
ernment without its express consent. 

12. A Planning Committee shall be 



Oct. 30, 1946 PROVISIONAL MARITIME CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL 



133 



set up to begin work in London as soon as 
possible after the signature of the Agree- 
ment on Principles for the purpose of 
working out on a basis satisfactory to the 
contracting Governments the details of 
the machinery required to enable the 
Executive Board to discharge its func- 
tions, including the functions under para- 
graph 7 (/). Any contracting Govern- 
ment may be represented on the Planning 
Committee. 

13. The Executive Board shall have the 
full use of the machinery and procedure 
of the War Shipping Administration and 
Ministry of War Transport in order to 
avoid duplication. 



14. The contracting Governments shall 
nominate their representatives on the 
Planning Committee to the Governments 
of the United States and the United King- 
dom, as soon as practicable. They shall 
also so nominate their representatives as 
members or as associate members of the 
Executive Board as the case may be. 
The Governments of the United States 
and the United Kingdom ^shall be re- 
sponsible, in consultation with the other 
contracting Governments concerned, for 
determining the date of coming into op- 
eration of the central authority in accord- 
ance with paragraph 7 (a) of the Agree- 
ment on Principles. 



No. 634a 

Agreement for the Establishment of a Provisional Maritime Con- 
sultative Council. Adopted at Washington, October 30, 1946. 

Accord relatif & la creation (Pun Conseil consultatif provisoire de la 
navigation maritime. Adopte & Washington, 30 octobre 1946. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement was adopted at the second session of the United Mari- 
time Consultative Council, established by an arrangement of February 12, 1946. U.S. 
Treaties and Other International Acts Series ; No. 1723. The first meeting of the Provisional 
Council was held at Paris, May 16-19, 1947. 

ACCEPTANCES. On January I, 1948, this Agreement had been accepted by Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Greece, India, Nether- 
lands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, and the United States of America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of the Agreement is also published in n U.N. Treaty Series, 
p. 107; British Treaty Series, No. 36 (1947), Cmd. 7137. 

Entered into force April 23, 1047. J 
Text from U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series , No. 1724. 



ARTICLE i. Scope and Purposes 

The Provisional Maritime Con- 
sultative Council shall be established 
as a temporary organization pending 
the establishment of a permanent 
inter-governmental agency in the 
maritime field. 

i. to provide machinery for co- 
operation among Governments in 
the field of Governmental regulation 



and practices relating to technical 
matters of all kinds affecting ship- 
ping engaged in international trade, 
and to encourage the general adop- 
tion of the highest practicable stand- 
ards in matters concerning maritime 
safety and efficiency of navigation; 

ii. to encourage the removal of all 
forms of discriminatory action and 
unnecessary restrictions by Govern- 



1 Registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations, No. 151, November 26, 1947. 



134 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 634a 



ments affecting shipping engaged in 
international trade so as to promote 
the availability of shipping services 
to the commerce of the world with- 
out discrimination ; 

iii. to provide for the considera- 
tion by the Council of any shipping 
problems of an international charac- 
ter involving matters of general prin- 
ciple that may be referred to the 
Council by the United Nations. 
Matters which are suitable for set- 
tlement through the normal processes 
of international shipping business 
are not within the scope of the 
Council. 

iv. to provide for the exchange of 
information among Governments on 
matters under consideration by the 
Council. 

ARTICLE 2. Functions 

The functions of the Provisional 
Maritime Consultative Council, 
which shall be consultative and ad- 
visory, shall be 

(a) To consider and make recom- 
mendations on any matter within its 
scope as set forth in Sections (i) and 
(ii) of Article i. 

(ft) To consider and make recom- 
mendations on matters within its 
scope upon the request of any organ 
of the United Nations or other inter- 
governmental specialized agency. 

(c) To advise on matters relating 
to the draft constitution for a per- 
manent inter-governmental mari- 
time organization. 

ARTICLE 3. Membership 

Membership in the Council shall 
consist of those governments which 
notify the Government of the United 
Kingdom of their acceptance of this 
Agreement, being either govern- 
ments members of the UMCC or 
governments members of the United 
Nations. 

ARTICLE 4. Organization 

(i) The Council shall consist of 
all Member Governments. 



(2) The Council may elect an 
Executive Committee consisting of 
twelve member governments which 
shall exercise such functions as may 
be delegated to it by the Council. 
The Executive Committee shall not 
be established by the Council until 
at least twenty governments have 
accepted this agreement. 

(3) The Council shall at each ses- 
sion determine the host Government 
and the time for its next meeting. 
Upon the request of not less than 
four of the members the Chairman 
shall summon the Council for an 
earlier date. The Government of 
shall convene the first meet- 
ing of the Council at any time after 
March i, 1947. 

(4) The host Government ar- 
ranged for each session shall desig- 
nate a Chairman who shall hold 
office until the host Government for 
the next following session has been 
decided, and shall provide the neces- 
sary secretariat for meetings held 
within its territory. 

(5) Decisions of the Council shall 
be taken by a majority of those 
present and voting. Ten Members 
shall constitute a quorum. The 
Council shall otherwise determine 
its own rules of procedure. 

ARTICLE 5. Entry into Force 

(1) This agreement shall remain 
open for acceptance in the archives 
of the Government of the United 
Kingdom and shall enter into force 
when twelve Governments, of which 
five shall each have a total tonnage of 
not less than 1,000,000 g. t. of ship- 
ping have accepted it. 

(2) As soon as this agreement has 
come into force, a copy of the agree- 
ment together with the names of the 
Governments who have accepted it 
shall be sent by the Government of 
the United Kingdom to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations 
for registration in accordance with 
Article 102 of the Charter of the 
United Nations. 



March 14, 1947 CUSTOMS UNION 135 

ARTICLE 6. Termination or if the membership falls below 

This agreement shall cease to have twelve. A member government may 

effect upon the entry into force of a withdraw at any time upon six 

constitution for a permanent inter- months notice to the Government of 

government maritime organization the United Kingdom. 



No. 635 

CONVENTION concerning a R6gime of Customs Union. Signed 
at London, September 5, 1944. 

CONVENTION concernant tin regime de communaute douanidre. 
Signee a Londres, 5 septembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. After the signature of this Convention, the signatories found it neces- 
sary to give precision to and to interpret its provisions by a protocol signed at The Hague 
on March 14, 1947, to which an amended text was annexed. The Customs Union thus es- 
tablished does not displace the economic union between Belgium and Luxemburg under the 
Brussels convention of July 25, 1921, and the amending agreements of February 2, 1931, 
and May 23, 1935. 9 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 224; 134 idem, p. 394; 160 idem, 
p. 327. The three states also concluded a monetary agreement at London, October 21, 
1943 (No. 627, ante). 

RATIFICATIONS. The ratifications of this Convention, as amended, were exchanged at 
Brussels, October 29, 1947. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of the Convention is published in the Netherlands Staatsblad, 
1944, No. 77; 117 Moniteur beige (1947), No. 326, p. 10813; Pasinomie, 1947, p. 656. 

Anon., "One Step Toward a Better Europe," 4 News from Belgium (1944), pp. 301-3; 
E. Hylkema, BSntlux: Le chemin vers I'unitf iconomique (Paris, 1948), 206 pp.; R. Linnsen, 
"L'Union douaniere hollando-belgo-luxembourgeoise," I Action ftderaliste europtcnne (1946), 
No. 2, pp. 29-34. 

Entered into force January i, 1948.' 

[Original text not reproduced; for the amended text of 1947, see annex to No. 6353, post.] 



No. 635a 

Protocol concerning a Regime of Customs Union. Signed at The 

Hague, March 14, 1947. 

Protocole concernant un regime de communaut douanidre. Sign 
ft La Haye, 14 mars 1947. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Protocol supplements and modifies the convention of September 5, 
1944 (No. 635, ante). It was accompanied by an exchange of notes with respect to joint 
meetings of the Presidents of the Councils established by that convention. Netherlands 
1 Entered into force provisionally in May 1945 (Article 9). 



136 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 



Staatsblad, 1947, No. H282, pp. 458-63. The tariff annexed to the convention has been 
modified by the protocol of December 22, 1947. Belgium, Bulletin usuel dcsloiset arrtte's, 

1948, P. 557- 

RATIFICATIONS. The ratifications of this Protocol were exchanged at Brussels, Octo- 
ber 29, 1947- 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of the Protocol is also published in 117 Moniteur beige (1947), 
No. 326, p. 10813. See also 7 Belgium (1947), pp. 158, 386; 2 Netherlands News Letter 
(1947), No. 2, p. 18; 835 France, Notes documentaires etttudes (February 20, 1948), 80 pp. 

Entered into force January i, 1048 
Text from Netherlands Staatsblad, 1947, No. Ha82. 



Le Gouvernement de Sa Majest6 
la Reine des Pays-Bas, d'une part, 

Les Gouvernements de Sa Majest6 
le Roi des Beiges et de Son Altesse 
Royale la Grande Duchesse de 
Luxembourg, d'autre part, 

reconnaissant la n6cessit6 de pr6- 
ciser et d'interprter certaines dis- 
positions de la Convention qu'ils ont 
signfe Londres le 5 septembre 
1944, ainsi que de computer le tarif 
annex a cette Convention et de lui 
donner une forme adapted aux cir- 
constances actuelles, ont d6cid6 de 
conclure cette fin un Protocole qui 
fait partie int6grante de la Conven- 
tion. Dans cet esprit et a cet effet, 
ils ont arret6 les dispositions sui- 
vantes: 

I) Le texte de la Convention 
signe a Londres le 5 septembre 1944 
doit 6tre pr6cis6 et interprets con- 
formment au texte repris a 1' annexe 

I ci-jointe. 

II) Le tarif, prc&te des disposi- 
tions pr&iminaires, repris a 1'annexe 

II ci-jointe, constitue le tarif com- 
mun. 

III) Le second alinea des articles I 
et 2 de la Convention entend inter- 
dire sauf convention speciale entre 
les Parties la perception, 1'im- 
portation, de droits ou taxes autres 
que ceux express6ment d6signs la 
Convention ou existant au moment 
de la conclusion de la Convention, y 
compris les droits et taxes qui ont et6 
suspendus pendant 1'occupation par 



1'ennemi du territoire des Parties 
Contractantes. Toutefois, les dis- 
positions des articles I et 2 ne font 
pas obstacle 1'etablissement de nou- 
velles retributions (redevances pour 
prestations r6ellement fournies). 
Cependant, ces nouvelles mesures 
feventuelles n'entreront en vigueur 
qu'apr^s consultation pr6alable du 
Conseil Administratif des Douanes. 

IV) II est entendu qu'un droit 
special, ayant le caractere d'un droit 
d'accise, pourra 6tre pergu aux Pays- 
Bas ii 1'importation du cafe, du 
petrole, de l f essence en de certains 
hydrocarbures de benzol. Toute- 
fois, les regimes sp^ciaux dont il 
s'agit ne resteront en vigueur que 
jusqu'au moment oil les deux Parties 
auront adopt un regime commun de 
droits d'accise. 

V) Les deux Parties se r6servent 
la facult6 d'elargir les Conseils sui- 
vant les n6cessit6s, tant entendu 
que les deux delegations seront tou- 
jours en nombre gal. 

VI) II est institue & Bruxelles un 
Secretariat G^ndral des Conseils de 
la Convention, dont le statut est 
etabli par 1'annexe III ci-jointe. 

EN FOI DE QUOI, les Plenipoten- 
tiaires, munis des pouvoirs n6ces- 
saires a cet effet, ont sign le present 
Protocole. 

Fait i La Have, le 14 mars 1947, 
en trois exemplaires en nerlandais et 
en frangais, les deux textes faisant 
6galement foi. 



(W,g.) W, V. BOETZELAER LfiON NEMRY COLLAR! 



March 14, 1947 



CUSTOMS UNION 



137 



ANNEXE I 

TEXTE DE LA CONVENTION DOUANI^RE 
N&ERLANDO-BELGO-LUXEMBOURGEOISE, 

SIGN^E A LONDRES LE 5 SEPTEMBRE 

1944, pR^cisfe ET INTERPRET* CON- 
FORM&MBNT AU PROTOCOLS SIGN 6 A 
LA HAVE, LE 14 MARS 1947 

Le Gouvernement de Sa Majeste la 
Reine des Pay-Bas, d'une part, 

Les Gouvernements de Sa Majeste le Roi 
des Beiges et de Son Altesse Royale la 
Grande Duchesse de Luxembourg, d'autre 
part, 

desireux de crer au moment de la 
liberation des territoires des Pays-Bas et 
de 1'Union Economique belgo-luxembour- 
geoise les conditions les plus propices a 
la realisation ulterieure d'une union 
economique et a la restauration de 1'ac- 
tivit6 Economique, ont decide de pour- 
suivre celles-ci sous un regime de com- 
munaut douaniere et ont convenu a cet 
effet, des articles suivants: 

Article i. Les Pays-Bas et 1'Union 
Economique belgo-luxembourgeoise ap- 
pliqueront, a 1'entree des marchandises, 
des droits de douane identiques suivant le 
tarif ci-annexe qui fait partie integrante 
du present accord. 

En dehors des droits prevus par ce tarif, 
ils pourront percevoir a 1'importation des 
droits d'accise y compris des droits 
d'en tree Equivalents aux droits d'accise 
ainsi que toutes autres taxes, suivant le 
regime en vigueur sur leur territpire re- 
spectif; ils se reservent le droit d'en 
modifier le taux. 

Art. 2. II n'y aura aucune perception 
de droits de douane a 1'entree des mar- 
chandises de 1 'Union Economique belgo- 
luxembourgeoise dans les Pays-Bas et 
rciproquement a 1'entree des marchan- 
dises des Pays-Bas dans 1'Union Econo- 
mique belgo-luxembourgeoise. 

Les Pays-Bas et 1'Union Economique 
belgo-luxembourgeoise pourront perce- 
voir, a 1'importation, des droits d'accise 
y compris des droits d'entr6e Equivalents 
aux droits d'accise ainsi que toutes 
autres taxes, suivant le regime en vigueur 
sur leur territoire respectif ; ils se reservent 
le droit d'en modifier le taux. 

Art 3. II sera forme un Conseil Ad- 
ministratif des Douanes compose de trois 
delegues des Pays-Bas et de trois de!6- 
gu6s de rilnion Economique belgo-lux- 
embourgeoise. La preaidence du Conseil 



Administratif des Douanes sera exercee a 
tour de rdle par le principal delegu^ des 
Pays-Bas et le principal delegue de 
TUnion Economique belgo-luxembour- 
geoise. 

Le Conseil Administratif des Douanes 
aura a proposer les mesures propres a 
assurer 1'unification des dispositions legis- 
latives et reglementaires regissant la per- 
ception des droits d'en tree et des droits 
d'accise dans les Pays-Bas et 1'Union 
Economique belgo-luxembourgeoise et 
1'adaptation de celles-ci aux dispositions 
du present accord, ceci sans prejudice aux 
dispositions preliminaires du tarif ci- 
annexe. 

Art. 4. Le Conseil Administratif des 
Douanes sera assiste d'une Commission 
des litiges douaniers composee de deux 
delegues des Pays-Bas et de deux dele- 
gues de 1'Union Economique belgo-luxem- 
bourgeoise. 

La Commission des litiges douaniers, 
lorsqu'elle en est saisie par les Ministres 
competents, statue sur les differends 
dErivant de 1'application des dispositions 
legales et reglementaires resultant du pre- 
sent accord. 

La Commission communiquera ses de- 
cisions aux Ministres competents qui, 
chacun dans les limites de sa competence, 
en assureront 1'execution. 

Art 5. II sera constitue un Conseil de 
1' Union Economique compost de trois 
delegues des Pays-Bas et de trois delegues 
de 1'Union Economique belgo-luxembour- 
geoise. La presidence du Conseil de 
1'Union Economique sera exercee a tour de 
rdle par le principal delegu6 des Pays-Bas 
et le principal delegue de 1'Union Eco- 
nomique belgo-luxembourgeoise. 

Le Conseil de 1'Union Economique 
aura pour mission: 

a) de donner son avis aux autorites 
competentes des Pays-Bas et de 1'Union 
Economique belgo-luxembourgeoise sur 
toutes les mesures que les Pays-Bas et 
1'Union Economique belgo-luxembour- 
geoise se proposeraient de prendre en vue 
de reglementer, avec ou sans droits et 
taxes accessoires, les importations, les 
exportations et le transit, notamment par 
I'lnstitution de restrictions d'ordre eco- 
nomique, de licences, de contingents ou de 
droits sp6ciaux de licences et taxes d 'ad- 
ministration; 

b) de coordonner les mesures ci-dessus 
visees en vue de realiser autant que possi- 
ble un regime commun aux Pays-Bas et a 



138 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 



1'Union Economique belgo-luxembour- 
geoise; 

c) d'assurer Tadrninistration des con- 
tingents d'importation, d'exportation et 
de transit qui seraient communs aux Pays- 
Bas et & 1 Union Economique belgo-lux- 
embourgeoise; 

d) de donner son avis aux autorites 
competentes des Pays-Has et de 1 'Union 
Economique belgoluxembourgeoise sur 
toutes les mesures concernant les primes 
ou subventions & la production que les 
Parties Contractantes se proposeraient de 
prendre. 

Art 6. II sera cpnstitue un Conseil des 
Accords Commerciaux compost de trois 
delegues des Pays-Bas et de trois dele- 
gues de 1'Union Economique belgo-luxem- 
bourgeoise. La presidence du Conseil 
des Accords Commerciaux sera exercee & 
tour de r61e par le principal d61egu6 des 
Pays-Bas et le principal delegu6 de 1'Union 
Economique belgoluxembourgeoise. 

Le Conseil des Accords Commerciaux 
assurera autant que possible la coordina- 
tion des dispositions relatives aux rela- 
tions conventional! es avec les Etats tiers. 

Art 7. Les mesures communes visees 
aux articles 3, 5 et 6 de cet accord seront 
arre*tees par les Ministres competents 
siegeant d'une part pour les Pays-Bas 
et d'autre part pour 1'Union Economique 
belgo-luxembourgeoise. Elles seront sou- 
mises par eux & 1'approbation des instances 
gouvernementales ou legislatives comp- 
tentes. 

Art. 8. La presente Convention sera 
ratifiee; elle entrera en vigueur le premier 
du troisjeme mois suivant 1'echange des 
ratifications. 

II pourra y Itre mis fin tout moment 
moyennant un pr6avis d'un an. 

Elle cessera en tout cas ses effets lors 
de 1'entree en vigueur de 1'union Econ- 
omique longue echeance que les Parties 
Contractantes se proposent de conclure. 

Art. 9. En attendant 1'echange des 
ratifications, la Convention sprtira pro- 
visoirement ses effets des la reinstallation 
des Gouvernements neerlandais et beige 
dans leur territoire; chacun de ceux-ci 
aura toutefois la facult6 d'y mettre fin & 
tout moment moyennant un preavis de 
six mois. 

EN FOI DE QUOI, les Pienipotentiaires, 
munis des pouvoirs necessaires cet effet, 
ont signe la presente Convention et 1'ont 
rev^tue de leurs cachets. 



ANNEXE II 
TARIF DBS DROITS 



[Text omitted; see Netherlands Slaatsblad, 
1947, No. H282, pp. 19-453-1 



ANNEXE III 



STATUT DU SECRETARIAT GfeN^RAL DES 

CONSEILS DE LA CONVENTION DOUA- 
NI^RE N^ERLANDO-BBLGO-LUXEMBOUR- 
GEOISE 

1. II est institu ^ Bruxelles, un Secr- 
tariat General des Conseils de la Conven- 
tion douaniere neerlando-belgo-luxem- 
bourgeoise. 

2. Le Secretariat General releve, en ce 
qui concerne 1'execution de ses attribu- 
tions, des Presidents des Conseils. 

3. Le Secretariat General assure le 
secretariat des trois Conseils etablis par 
la Convention. II est chargg de coordon- 
ner, dans le domaine administratif, 1'ac- 
tivite de ces Conseils, d'etablir, le cas 
ech^ant, les liaisons necessaires entre les 
administrations int^ressees et, d'une ma- 
niere generale, de faire toutes propositions 
ou suggestions utiles au bon fonctionne- 
ment de la Convention. De plus, il 
execute les directives qui lui sont donnees 
par les Presidents des Conseils. 

4. La direction du Secretariat General 
est confiee ^ un Secretaire General, de 
nationality neerlandaise, qui est aid6 dans 
Tex^cution de ses fonctions par un Secre- 
taire General adjoint de nation alite beige 
et un Secretaire de nationality luxem- 
bourgeoise. 

Le Secretaire General, le Secretaire 
General adjoint et le Secretaire sont 
nommes et revoques, sur proposition des 
Presidents des Conseils, par les trois 
Gouvernements interesses. 

5. Les Pays-Bas et 1'Union Economique 
belgo-luxembourgeoise contribuent chacun 
pour la moitie aux frais du Secretariat 
General. 

6. Le Secretariat General elabore le 
projet de budget annuel et le soumet 4 

ition des Presidents des Conseils, 



qui en continent Texecution et arrStent 
les comptes. Sur la proposition des 
Presidents des Conseils, le Ministre des 
Finances de Belgique accorde les avances 
necessaires au bon fonctionnement du 
Secretariat General. 
7. Le Secretaire General nomme et 



Sept. 12, 1944 ARMISTICE WITH RUMANIA 139 

revoque les membra du personnel du 8. Lea archives du Secretariat G6n6ral 

Secretariat Gn&ral. Ces nominations sont inviolables. 

s'effectuent conform&ment & un cadre et 9. Le Secretaire General jouit en Bel- 
des bar&nes determines par les Presi- gique des privileges et immunites ana- 
dents des Conseils. Les membres du logues & ceux accordes un chef de mis- 
personnel doivent 6tre de nationality sion diplomatique rSgulidrement accrdit& 
neerlandaise, beige ou luxembourgeoise. dans ce pays. 



No. 636 

ARMISTICE Agreement with Rumania. Signed at Moscow, Sep- 
tember 12, 1944. 

ACCORD concernant Pannistice avec la Roumanie. Sign ft 
Moscou, 12 septembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This is one of the instruments which ended the hostilities in World 
War II. For other armistice instruments of the period, see No. 625, ante; Nos. 637, 638, 
645. 651, and 66 1, post. Rumania entered the war on the side of the Axis in 1941. By an 
agreement between Rumania and the Soviet Union of September 12, 1945, restitutions 
under the Armistice Agreement were reduced by one third; and deliveries of goods, from 
fifty to seventy-five per cent. The treaty of peace with Rumania, signed at Paris, Febru- 
ary 10, 1947, came into force on September 15, 1947. U.S. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series, No. 1649. A treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance was 
signed by Rumania and the Soviet Union at Moscow, February 18, 1948. i U.S. Depart- 
ment of State, Documents and State Papers (1948), p. 235. 

RATIFICATIONS. This Agreement was not subject to ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is also published in Br. ParL Papers, Misc. 
No. 1(1945), Cmd. 6585; Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, No. 40; 2 Soviet Foreign Policy during 
the Patriotic War: Documents and Materials (London, 1947), p. 123; 39 Am. Jour. Int. Law 
(Supp., 1945), pp. 88-93. For a Spanish translation, see 4 Revista peruana de derecho inter- 
national (1944), p. 284. 

Anon., " Armisticio concertado por Rumania y las tres potencias de las Naciones Unidas," 
7 Revista argentina de derecho internacional (2d ser., 1944), pp. 323-24; C. M. C., "Rumania 
and the War," 21 Bulletin of International News (1944), pp. 3-1 1, 43~54; M. W. Graham, 

"Armistices 1944 Style," 39 Am. Jour. Int. Law (1945), pp. 286-95; "The 

Legal Status of the Bukovina and Bessarabia," 38 idem (1944), pp. 667-73; V. V. Tilea, 
"The Roumanian Armistice," 166 Contemporary Review (1944), pp. 205-9; F. A. Voigt, 
"The End of Rumanian Independence," 138 Nineteenth Century (1945), pp. 84-91. 

Entered into force September 12, 1944. 

Text from U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 490. 

The Government and High Com- accept the armistice terms presented 
mand of Rumania, recognizing the by the Governments of the above- 
fact of the defeat of Rumania in the mentioned three Allied Powers, act- 
war against the Union of Soviet So- ing in the interests of all the United 
cialist Republics, the United States Nations. 

of America, and the United King- On the basis of the foregoing the 

dom, and the other United Nations, representative of the Allied (Soviet) 



140 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 636 



High Command, Marshal of the 
Soviet Union, R. Ya. Malinovski, 
duly authorized thereto by the Gov- 
ernments of the United States of 
America, the Soviet Union, and the 
United Kingdom, acting in the inter- 
ests of all the United Nations, on the 
one hand, and the representatives of 
the Government and High Com- 
mand of Rumania, Minister of State 
and Minister of Justice L. Patras- 
canu, Deputy Minister of Internal 
Affairs, Adjutant of His Majesty the 
King of Rumania, General D. Da- 
maceanu, Prince Stirbey, and Mr. 
G. Popp, on the other hand, holding 
proper full-powers, have signed the 
following conditions: 

1. As from August 24, 1944, at 4 
a. m., Rumania has entirely discon- 
tinued military operations against 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics on all theatres of war, has with- 
drawn from the war against the 
United Nations, has broken off rela- 
tions with Germany and her satel- 
lites, has entered the war and will 
wage war on the side of the Allied 
Powers against Germany and Hun- 
gary for the purpose of restoring 
Rumanian independence and sover- 
eignty, for which purpose she pro- 
vides not less than 12 infantry divi- 
sions with Corps Troops. 

Military operations on the part of 
Rumanian armed forces, including 
Naval and Air Forces, against Ger- 
many and Hungary will be con- 
ducted under the general leadership 
of the Allied (Soviet) High Command. 

2. The Government and High 
Command of Rumania undertake to 
take steps for the disarming and in- 
terning of the armed forces of Ger- 
many and Hungary on Rumanian 
territory and also for the interning of 
the citizens of both states mentioned 
who reside there. (See Annex to 
Article 2.) 

3. The Government and High 
Command of Rumania will ensure to 
the Soviet and other Allied forces 
facilities for free movement on Ru- 



manian territory in any direction if 
required by the military situation, 
the Rumanian Government and 
High Command of Rumania giving 
such movement every possible as- 
sistance with their own means of 
communications and at their own ex- 
pense on land, on water and in the 
air. (See Annex to Article 3.) 

4. The State frontier between the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and Rumania, established by the 
Soviet-Rumanian Agreement of 28th 
June, 1940, is restored. 

5. The Government and High 
Command of Rumania will immedi- 
ately hand over all Soviet and Allied 
prisoners of war in their hands, as 
well as interned citizens and citizens 
forcibly removed to Rumania, to the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command for 
the return of these persons to their 
own country. 

From the moment of the signing of 
the present terms and until repatria- 
tion the Rumanian Government and 
High Command undertake to pro- 
vide at their own expense all Soviet 
and Allied prisoners of war, as well as 
forcibly removed and interned citi- 
zens, and displaced persons and 
refugees, with adequate food, cloth- 
ing and medical service, in accord- 
ance with hygienic requirements, as 
well as with means of transport for 
the return of all these persons to 
their own country. 

6. The Rumanian Government 
will immediately set free, irrespec- 
tive of citizenship and nationality, 
all persons held in confinement on 
account of their activities in favor of 
the United Nations or because of 
their sympathies with the cause of 
the United Nations, or because of 
their racial origin, and will repeal all 
discriminatory legislation and re- 
strictions imposed thereunder. 

7. The Rumanian Government 
and High Command undertake to 
hand over as trophies into the hands 
of the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand all war material of Germany 



Sept. 12, 1944 



ARMISTICE WITH RUMANIA 



141 



and her satellites located on Ru- 
manian territory, including vessels of 
the fleet of Germany and her satel- 
lites located in Rumanian waters. 

8. The Rumanian Government 
and High Command undertake not 
to permit the export or expropriation 
of any form of property (including 
valuables and currency) belonging to 
Germany, Hungary or to their na- 
tionals or to persons resident in their 
territories or in the territories occu- 
pied by them without the permission 
of the Allied (Soviet) High Command. 
They will keep this property in such 
manner as may be prescribed by the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command. 

9. The Rumanian Government 
and High Command undertake to 
hand over to the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command all vessels belonging 
or having belonged to the United 
Nations which are located in Ru- 
manian ports, no matter at whose 
disposal these vessels may be, for the 
use of the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand during the period of the war 
against Germany and Hungary in 
the general interests of the Allies, 
these vessels subsequently to be re- 
turned to their owners. 

The Rumanian Government bear 
the full material responsibility for any 
damage or destruction of the afore- 
mentioned property until the moment 
of the transfer of this property to the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command. 

10. The Rumanian Government 
must make regular payments in Ru- 
manian currency required by the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command for 
the fulfillment of its functions and 
will in case of need ensure the use on 
Rumanian territory of industrial and 
transportation enterprises, means of 
communication, power stations, en- 
terprises and installations of public 
utility, stores of fuel, fuel oil, food 
and other materials, services in ac- 
cordance with instructions issued by 
the Allied (Soviet) High Command. 

Rumanian merchant vessels, 
whether in Rumanian or foreign 



waters, shall be subject to the opera- 
tional control of the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command for use in the gen- 
eral interest of the Allies. (See 
Annex to Article 10.) 

n. Losses caused to the Soviet 
Union by military operations and by 
the occupation by Rumania of 
Soviet territory will be made good by 
Rumania to the Soviet Union, but, 
taking into consideration that Ru- 
mania has not only withdrawn from 
the war, but has declared war and in 
fact is waging war against Germany 
and Hungary, the Parties agree that 
compensation for the indicated losses 
will be made by Rumania not in full 
but only in part, namely to the 
amount of 300 million United States 
dollars payable over six years in 
commodities (oil-products, grain, 
timber products, seagoing and river 
craft, sundry machinery, et cetera). 

Compensation will be paid by Ru- 
mania for losses caused to the 
property of other Allied States and 
their nationals in Rumania during 
the war, the amount of compensa- 
tion to be fixed at a later date. (See 
Annex to Article 11.) 

12. The Rumanian Government 
undertakes within the periods in- 
dicated by the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command to return to the Soviet 
Union in complete good order all 
valuables and materials removed 
from its territory during the war, 
belonging to State, public and co- 
operative organizations, enterprises, 
institutions or individual citizens, 
such as: factory and works equip- 
ment, locomotives, railway trucks, 
tractors, motor vehicles, historic 
monuments, museum valuables and 
any other property. 

13. The Rumanian Government 
undertakes to restore all legal rights 
and interests of the United Nations 
and their nationals on Rumanian 
territory as they existed before the 
war and to return their property in 
complete good order. 

14. The Rumanian Government 



142 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 636 



and High Command undertake to col- 
laborate with the All led (Soviet) High 
Command in the apprehension and 
trial of persons accused of war crimes. 

15. The Rumanian Government 
undertakes immediately to dissolve 
all pro-Hitler organizations (of a 
Fascist type) situated in Rumanian 
territory, whether political, military 
or para-military, as well as other or- 
ganizations conducting propaganda 
hostile to the United Nations, in 
particular to the Soviet Union, and 
will not in future permit the existence 
of organizations of that nature. 

1 6. The printing, importation and 
distribution in Rumania of periodi- 
cal and non-periodical literature, the 
presentation of theatrical perform- 
ances and films, the work of wireless 
stations, post, telegraph and tele- 
phone shall be carried out in agree- 
ment with the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command. (See Annex to Article 
16.) 

17. Rumanian civil administra- 
tion is restored in the whole area of 
Rumania separated by not less than 
50-100 kilometres (depending upon 
conditions of terrain) from the front 
line, Rumanian administrative bod- 
ies undertaking to carry out, in the 
interests of the reestablishment of 



peace and security, instructions and 
orders of the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command issued by them for the 
purpose of securing the execution of 
these armistice terms. 

1 8. An Allied Control Commis- 
sion will be established which will un- 
dertake until the conclusion of peace 
the regulation of and control over the 
execution of the present terms under 
the general direction and orders of the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command, act- 
ing on behalf of the Allied Powers. 
(See Annex to Article 18.) 

19. The Allied Governments re- 
gard the decision of the Vienna 
Award regarding Transylvania as 
null and void and are agreed that 
Transylvania (or the greater part 
thereof) should be returned to Ru- 
mania, subject to confirmation at 
the peace settlement, and the Soviet 
Government agrees that Soviet forces 
shall take part for this purpose in joint 
military operations with Rumania 
against Germany and Hungary. 

20. The present terms come into 
force at the moment of their signing. 

DONE in Moscow, in four copies, 
each in the Russian, English and 
Rumanian languages, the Russian 
and English texts being authentic. 

September 12, 1944. 



[Signed:] By authority of the Governments of the United States of 
America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom, 
MALINOVSKI; by authority of the Government and High Command of 
Rumania, LUCRETIU PATRAJCANU, GL. ADJ. DAMACEANU, B. STIRBEY, GH. 
POPP. 



ANNEX 

To THE ARMISTICE AGREEMENT BETWEEN 
THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA, THE SOVIET 
UNION, AND THE UNITED KINGDOM ON 
THE ONE HAND AND THE GOVERNMENT 
OF RUMANIA ON THE OTHER HAND 

A. Annex to Article 2 

The measures provided for in Article 2 of 
the Agreement regarding the internment 
of citizens of Germany and Hungary now 



in Rumanian territory do not extend to 
citizens of those countries of Jewish origin. 

B. Annex to Article j 

Under cooperation of the Rumanian 
Government and High Command of Ru- 
mania, mentioned in Article 3 of the 
Agreement, is understood the placing at 
the disposal of the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command for use at its discretion during 
the Armistice all Rumanian military, air 
and naval constructions and installations, 
ports, harbors, barracks, warehouses, air- 



Sept. 12, 1944 



ARMISTICE WITH RUMANIA 



143 



fields, means of communication, meteoro- 
logical stations which might be required 
for military needs in complete good order 
and with the personnel required for their 
maintenance. 

C. Annex to Article 10 

The Rumanian Government will with- 
draw and redeem within such time limits 
and on such terms as the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command may specify, all holdings 
in Rumanian territory of currencies issued 
by the Allied (Soviet) High Command, 
and will hand over currency so withdrawn 
free of cost to the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command. 

D. Annex to Article II 

The basis for settlements of payment of 
compensation provided for in Article II 
of the present Agreement will be the 
American dollar at its gold parity on the 
day of signing of the Agreement, i.e. 35 
dollars for i ounce of gold. 

E. Annex to Article 16 

The Rumanian Government under- 
takes that wireless communication, tele- 



graphic and postal correspondence, corre- 
spondence in cypher and courier corre- 
spondence, as well as telephonic commu- 
nication with foreign countries of Embas- 
sies, Legations and Consulates situated in 
Rumania, will be conducted in the manner 
laid down by the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command. 

F. Annex to Article 18 

Control over the exact execution of the 
Armistice terms is entrusted to the Allied 
Control Commission to be established in 
conformity with Article 18 of the Armi- 
stice Agreement. 

The Rumanian Government and their 
organs shall fulfill all instructions of the 
Allied Control Commission arising out of 
the Armistice Agreement. 

The Allied Control Commission will set 
up special organs or sections entrusting 
them respectively with the execution of 
various functions. In addition, the Al- 
lied Control Commission may have its 
officers in various parts of Rumania. 

The Allied Control Commission will 
have its seat in the city of Bucharest. 

Moscow: September 12, 1944. 



No. 636a 

Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Rumania. Signed at 
Moscow, September 12, 1944. 

Protocole & P Accord concernant 1'armistice avec la Roumanie. 
Signe & Moscou, 12 septembre 1944. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in Br. ParL Papers, Misc. 
No. i(i945), Cmd. 6585, p. 6. 

Entered into force September 12, 1944. 

Text from U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 490, p. 15. 



On the occasion of the signing of 
an armistice with the Government of 
Roumania, the Allied Governments 
signatory thereto are agreed ; 

I. Paragraph I of Article 5 of the 
Armistice Agreement defines the ob- 
ligations undertaken by the Rou- 
manian Government in regard to the 
surrender to the Allied authorities of 



Allied prisoners of war and Allied 
citizens interned in or forcibly re- 
moved to Roumania. Each Allied 
Government shall decide which of 
its nationals shall or shall not be 
repatriated. 

2, That the term "war material" 
used in Article 7 shall be deemed to 
include all material or equipment 



144 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 637 

belonging to, used by, or intended for ers will be matters for discussion and 

use by, enemy military or para-mili- settlement between the Allied Gov- 

tary formations or members thereof, ernments concerned and the Gov- 

3. That the use by the Allied ernment of the Soviet Union. 
(Soviet) High Command of Allied DONE in Moscow in three copies, 

vessels handed back by the Govern- each in the English and Russian lan- 

ment of Roumania in accordance guages, both English and Russian 

with Article 9 of the armistice and texts being authentic, 
the date of their return to their own- i2th September, 1944. 

[Signed :] By authority of the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica, W. A. HARRIMAN; by authority of the Government of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, A. VYSHINSKY; by authority of the Government 
of the United Kingdom, ARCHIBALD CLARK KERR. 



No. 637 

ARMISTICE Agreement with Finland. Signed at Moscow, Sep- 
tember 19, 1944. 

ACCORD concernant 1'armistice avec la Finlande. Signe & Moscou, 

19 septembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This is one of the series of instruments which ended the hostilities in 
World War II. For other armistice instruments of the period, see Nos. 625, 636, ante; 
Nos. 638, 645, 651, and 661, post. At the time of the armistice, Finland was at war with 
Australia, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, India, New Zealand, South Africa, and 
the Soviet Union. For the text of the treaty of peace between Finland and the Soviet 
Union signed at Moscow, March 12, 1940, the effect of which is restored by Article 6 of 
this Agreement, see 2 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1940), p. 453; The Finnish Blue 
Book (Philadelphia, 1940), pp. 115-20. For the text of the Aaland Islands agreement of 
October 1 1, 1940, the effect of which was restored by Article 9 of this Agreement, see Finland 
Reveals Her Secret Documents on Soviet Policy, March 1940- June 1941 (New York, 1941), 
p. 65; Finlands Forfattningssamlings, Fdrdragsserie, 1940, No. 24. The agreement concern- 
ing reparations provided for in Annex H was concluded by Finland and the Soviet Union 
on December 17, 1944. 2 Soviet Foreign Policy during the Patriotic War: Documents and 
Materials (London, 1947), p. 192. The treaty of peace with Finland, signed at Paris, 
February 10, 1947, came into force on September 15, 1947. British Treaty Series, No. 53 
(1948), Cmd. 7484. A treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance between 
Finland and the Soviet Union was signed at Moscow, April 6, 1948. I U.S. Department 
of State, Documents and State Papers (1948), p. 237. 

RATIFICATIONS. This Agreement was not subject to ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is also published in 12 U.S. Department of 
State Bulletin (1945), pp. 261-67; Finlands Fdrfattningssamlings, Fdrdragsserie, Overenskom- 
melser med Fr&mmande Makter, 1944, No. 4, pp. 8-22; 2 Soviet Foreign Policy during the 
Patriotic War: Documents and Materials (London, 1947), p. 128; Canada, Treaty Series, 
1944, No. 38; 39 Am. Jour. Int. Law (Supp., 1945), p. 85; 15 Acta Scandinavica Juris Gentium 
(1944), p. 81. 

Anon., " Armisticio concertado por Finlandia y las tres potencias de las Naciones Unidas," 
7 Revista argentine de derecho internacional (2d set., 1944), pp. 325-26; . Dancy, "Finland 



Sept. 19, 1944 



ARMISTICE WITH FINLAND 



145 



Takes Stock," 24 Foreign A/airs (1946), pp. 513-25; M. W. Graham, "Armistices 1944 
Style," 39 Am. Jour. Int. Law (1945), pp. 286-95; J. H. Jackson, "Russian Control in 
Finland," 170 Contemporary Review (1946), pp. 69-72; D. E. P., "Finland since the Moscow 
Treaty," 21 Bulletin of International News (1944), PP 507-12; 543-49; J. H. Wuorinen, 
ed. t Finland and World War II, 1939-1944 (New York, 1948), 228 pp. 

Entered into force September 19, 1944. 
Text from Br. Par/. Papers, Misc. No. 2 (1945), Cmd. 6586. 



Whereas the Finnish Government 
has accepted the preliminary condi- 
tion of the Soviet Government re- 
garding a break with Germany and 
the removal of German troops from 
Finland, and whereas the conclusion 
of a future treaty of peace will be 
facilitated by the inclusion in an 
Armistice Agreement of certain con- 
ditions of this peace treaty, His Ma- 
jesty's Government in the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland and the Govern- 
ment of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, acting on behalf of all the 
United Nations at war with Finland, 
on the one hand, and the Govern- 
ment of Finland, on the other hand, 
have decided to conclude the present 
agreement for an armistice, the exe- 
cution of which will be controlled by 
the Soviet High Command similarly 
acting on behalf of the United Na- 
tions at war with Finland, herein- 
after named the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command. 

On the basis of the foregoing the 
representative of the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command, Colonel-General 
A. A. Zhdanov, and the represen- 
tatives of the Government of Fin- 
land, Mr. Carl Enckell, Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, General Rudolf 
Walden, Minister of Defence, Gen- 
eral Erik Heinrichs, Chief of General 
Staff, and Lieutenant-General Oscar 
Enckell, duly authorised thereto, 
have signed the following conditions: 

Article i. In connexion with the 
cessation of military activites on the 
part of Finland on the 4th Septem- 
ber, 1944, and on the part of the 
Soviet Union on the 5th September, 



1944, Finland undertakes to with- 
draw her troops behind the line of 
the Soviet-Finnish frontier of 1940 
in accordance with the procedure 
laid down in the Annex attached to 
the present Agreement. (See Annex 
to Article I.) 

Art. 2, Finland undertakes to dis- 
arm the German land, naval and air 
armed forces which have remained in 
Finland since the isth September, 
1944, and to hand over their person- 
nel to the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand as prisoners of war, in which 
task the Soviet Government will as- 
sist the Finnish army. 

The Finnish Government also ac- 
cepts the obligation to intern Ger- 
man and Hungarian nationals in 
Finnish territory. (See Annex to 
Article 2.) 

Art. 3. Finland undertakes to 
make available at the request of the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command the 
aerodromes on the southern and 
south-western coast of Finland with 
all equipment to serve as bases for 
Soviet aircraft during the period 
necessary for air operations against 
German forces in Estonia and against 
the German navy in the northern 
part of the Baltic Sea. (See Annex 
to Article 3.) 

Art. 4. Finland undertakes to 
place her army on a peace footing 
within two and a half months from 
the day of signing of the present 
Agreement. (See Annex to Article 4.) 

Art. 5. Finland, having broken 
off all relations with Germany, also 
undertakes to break off all relations 
with Germany's satellite States. 
(See Annex to Article 5.) 



I 4 6 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 637 



Art. 6. The effect of the Peace 
Treaty between the Soviet Union 
and Finland, concluded in Moscow 
on the I2th March, 1940, is restored 
subject to the changes which follow 
from the present Agreement. 

Art. 7. Finland returns to the 
Soviet Union the oblast of Petsamo 
(Pechenga), voluntarily ceded to 
Finland by the Soviet State in ac- 
cordance with the Peace Treaties of 
the I4th October, 1920, and the I2th 
March, 1940, within the boundary 
indicated in the Annex and on the 
map 1 attached to the present Agree- 
ment. (See Annex to Article 7 and 
map to scale 1 1500,000. ) 

Art. 8. The Soviet Union re- 
nounces its rights to the lease of the 
Peninsula of Hang6, accorded to it 
by the Soviet-Finnish Peace Treaty 
of the I2th March, 1940, and Fin- 
land for her part undertakes to make 
available to the Soviet Union on 
lease territory and waters for the 
establishment of a Soviet naval base 
in the area of Porkkala-Udd. 

The boundaries of the land and 
water area of the base at Porkkala- 
Udd are defined in the Annex to the 
present article and indicated on the 
map. 1 (See Annex to Article 8 and 
map to scale 1:100,000.) 

Art. 9. The effect of the Agree- 
ment concerning the Aaland Islands, 
concluded between the Soviet Union 
and Finland on the nth October, 
1940, is completely restored. 

Art. 10. Finland undertakes im- 
mediately to transfer to the Allied 
(Soviet) High Command to be re- 
turned to their homeland all Soviet 
and Allied prisoners of war now in 
her power and also Soviet and Allied 
nationals who have been interned in 
or deported by force to Finland. 

From the moment of the signing 
of the present Agreement and up to 
the time of repatriation Finland un- 
dertakes to provide at her cost for 
all Soviet and Allied prisoners of war 



and also nationals who have been 
deported by force or interned ade- 
quate food, clothing and medical 
service in accordance with hygienic 
requirements, and also with means of 
transport for their return to their 
homeland. 

At the same time Finnish prisoners 
of war and interned persons now 
located on the territory of Allied 
States will be transferred to Fin- 
land. 

Art. xx. Losses caused by Fin- 
land to the Soviet Union by military 
operations and the occupation of 
Soviet territory will be indemnified 
by Finland to the Soviet Union to 
the amount of three hundred million 
dollars payable over six years in com- 
modities (timber products, paper, 
cellulose, seagoing and river craft, 
sundry machinery). 

Provision will also be made for the 
indemnification in the future by 
Finland of the losses caused during 
the war to the property of the other 
Allied States and their nationals in 
Finland, the amount of the compen- 
sation to be fixed separately. (See 
Annex to Article n.) 

Art. 12. Finland undertakes to 
restore all legal rights and interests 
of the United Nations and their na- 
tionals located on Finnish territory 
as they existed before the war and to 
return their property in complete 
good order. 

Art. 13. Finland undertakes to 
collaborate with the Allied Powers in 
the apprehension of persons accused 
of war crimes and in their trial. 

Art. 14. Finland undertakes 
within the periods fixed by the Allied 
(Soviet) High Command to return to 
the Soviet Union in complete good 
order all valuables and materials re- 
moved from Soviet territory to Fin- 
land during the war belonging to 
State, public and co-operative or- 
ganisations, factories, institutions or 
individual citizens, such as: equip- 



1 Not reproduced, 



Sept. 19, 1944 



ARMISTICE WITH FINLAND 



ment for factories and works, loco- 
motives, railway carriages, ships, 
tractors, motor vehicles, historical 
monuments, valuables from mu- 
seums and all other property. 

Art. 15. Finland undertakes to 
transfer as booty to the disposition 
of the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand all war material of Germany 
and her satellites located on Finnish 
territory, including naval and other 
ships belonging to these countries in 
Finnish waters. 

Art. 16. Finland undertakes not 
to permit the export or expropriation 
of any form of property (including 
valuables and currency) belonging to 
Germany or Hungary or to their na- 
tionals or to persons resident in their 
territories or in the territories occu- 
pied by them without the permission 
of the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand. 

Art. 17. Finnish merchant ships 
other than those already under Al- 
lied control shall be placed under the 
control of the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command for their use in the general 
interests of the Allies. 

Art. 1 8. Finland undertakes to 
transfer to the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command all ships in Finnish ports 
belonging to the United Nations, no 
matter at whose disposal these ves- 
sels may be, for the use of the Allied 
(Soviet) High Command for the 
duration of the war against Germany 
in the general interests of the Allies, 
these vessels subsequently to be re- 
turned to their owners. 

Art. 19. Finland will make avail- 
able such materials and products as 
may be required by the United Na- 
tions for purposes connected with 
the war. 

Art. 20. Finland undertakes im- 
mediately to release all persons, ir- 
respective of citizenship or national- 



ity, held in prison on account of their 
activities in favour of the United 
Nations or because of their sym- 
pathies with the cause of the United 
Nations, or in view of their racial 
origin, and will also remove all dis- 
criminatory legislation and disabili- 
ties arising therefrom. 

Art. 21. Finland undertakes im- 
mediately to dissolve all pro-Hitler 
organisations (of a Fascist type) situ- 
ated on Finnish territory, whether 
political, military or para-military, 
as well as other organisations con- 
ducting propaganda hostile to the 
United Nations, in particular to the 
Soviet Union, and will not in future 
permit the existence of organisations 
of that nature. 

Art. 22. An Allied Control Com- 
mission will be established which 
until the conclusion of peace with 
Finland will undertake the regula- 
tion and control of the execution of 
the present Agreement under the 
general direction and instructions 
of the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand, acting on behalf of the Allied 
Powers. (See Annex to Article 
22.) 

Art. 23. The present Agreement 
comes into force as from the moment 
of signature. 

DONE in Moscow the nineteenth 
day of September, 1944, in one copy 
which will be entrusted to the safe- 
keeping of the Government of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
in the Russian, English and Finnish 
languages, the Russian and English 
texts being authentic. 

Certified copies of the present 
Agreement, with Annexes and maps, 
will be transmitted by the Govern- 
ment of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics to each of the other Gov- 
ernments on whose behalf the pres- 
ent Agreement is being signed. 



[Signed:] For the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and the United Kingdom: A. ZHDANOV; for the Government of 
C. ENCKELL, R. WALDEN, E. HEINRICHS, O. ENCKELL. 



148 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 637 



ANNEXES 

To THE ARMISTICE AGREEMENT BETWEEN 
THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST RE- 
PUBLICS AND THE UNITED KINGDOM 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN 
IRELAND ON THE ONE HAND AND FIN- 
LAND, ON THE OTHER, SIGNED IN MOS- 
COW ON THE I9TH SEPTEMBER, 1944 

A. Annex to Article i 

The procedure for the withdrawal of 
Finnish troops behind the line of the State 
frontier between the U.S.S.R. and Fin- 
land laid down in the Peace Treaty of the 
1 2th March, 1940, subject to the modifica- 
tions arising from the Armistice Agree- 
ment signed on the iQth September, 1944, 
on all sectors occupied by Finnish troops, 
shall be as follows: 

1. In the course of the first day as from 
the moment of signing of the Armistice 
Agreement Finnish troops shall be with- 
drawn to such a distance that there shall 
be a gap of not less than one kilometre be- 
tween the forward units of the Red Army 
and the Finnish troops. 

2. Within forty-eight hours (two days), 
counted as from the same moment, the 
Finnish troops shall make passages 
through their mines, barbed wire, and 
other defences to a width of not less than 
thirty metres in order thereby to make 
possible the free movement of battalion 
columns with their transport, and shall 
also enclose the remaining mine-fields 
within clearly visible marks. 

The above-mentioned passages in the 
defences and the enclosure of mine-fields 
shall be made throughout the whole terri- 
tory from which Finnish troops are with- 
drawn. 

The clearance of passages by Finnish 
troops shall be made on all roads or paths 
which may serve for movement both in 
the neutral belt of one kilometre and also 
throughout the whole depth of the de- 
fences. 

Towards the end of the second day the 
Command of the Finnish troops shall 
hand over to the appropriate Red Army 
Command exact plans of all types of de- 
fences with an indication on these plans 
of the passages made and to be made by 
the Finnish troops and also of the enclo- 
sures of all mine-fields. 

3. The Finnish Command shall hand 
over within a period of five days to the 
Command of the Red Army and Navy 



the charts, forms and descriptive maps at 
its disposal with legends for all mine-fields 
and other defences on land, in rivers, and 
lakes and in the Baltic and Barents Seas 
together with data about the courses and 
channels to be recommended and the rules 
for navigation along them. 

4. The complete removal of mines, 
barbed wire and other defences through- 
out the territory from the line occupied 
by the advanced Finnish units to the line 
of the State frontier, and also the sweep- 
ing and removal of all defences from the 
channels on the approaches to Soviet ter- 
ritories, shall be made by the Finnish 
land and naval forces in the shortest possi- 
ble time and in not more than forty days 
from the moment of the signing of the 
Armistice Agreement. 

5. The withdrawal of Finnish troops 
behind the State frontier and the advance 
of the troops of the Red Army up to it 
shall begin as from 9.0 a.m. on the 2ist 
September, 1944, simultaneously along 
the whole length of the front. 

The withdrawal of Finnish troops shall 
be carried out in daily marches of not 
less than 15 kilometres a day and the ad- 
vance of the troops of the Red Army shall 
take place in such a manner that there 
shall be a distance of 15 kilometres be- 
tween the rear units of the Finnish troops 
and the advanced units of the Red Army. 

6. In accordance with paragraph 5 
the following limits are set for the with- 
drawal of Finnish troops on individual 
sectors behind the line of the State frontier: 



On the sector Vuokinsalmi, Riahimjaki, 

the 1st October. 
On the sector Riahimjaki, River Koita- 

Joki, the 3rd October. 
On the sector River Koita-Joki, Korpi- 

selka, the 24th September. 
On the sector Korpiselka, Lake Puha- 

Jarvi, the 28th September. 
On the sector Puha-Jarvi, Koitsan- 

lahti, the 26th September. 
On the sector Koitsanlahti, Station 

Enso, the 28th September. 
On the sector Station Enso, Virolahti, 

the 24th September. 

The retreating Finnish troops shall 
take with them only such reserves of mu- 
nitions, food, fodder and fuel and lubri- 
cants as they can carry and transport 
with them. All other stores shall be left 
on the spot and shall be handed over to 
the Command of the Red Army. 



Sept. 19, 1944 



ARMISTICE WITH FINLAND 



149 



7. The Finnish Military Command 
shall hand over on the territories which 
are being returned or ceded to the Soviet 
Union in complete good order and repair 
all inhabited points, means of communi- 
cation, defence and economic structures 
including: bridges, dams, aerodromes, bar- 
racks, warehouses, railway junctions, sta- 
tion buildings, industrial enterprises, 
hydrotechnical buildings, ports and 
wharves, telegraph offices, telephone ex- 
changes, electric power stations, lines of 
communication and electric power lines. 

The Finnish Military Command shall 
give instructions for the timely de-mining 
of all the installations enumerated above 
which are to be handed over, 

8. When the Finnish troops are being 
withdrawn behind the line of the State 
frontier the Government of Finland shall 
guarantee the personal inviolability and 
the preservation of the dwelling places of 
the population of the territory to be aban- 
doned by the Finnish troops together with 
the preservation of all the property be- 
longing to this population and of the prop- 
erty of public, co-operative, cultural-social 
services and other organisations. 

9. All questions which may arise in 
connexion with the transfer by the Finn- 
ish authorities of the installations enumer- 
ated in paragraph 7 of this Annex shall 
be settled on the spot by representatives 
of both sides, for which purpose special 
representatives for the period of the with- 
drawal of the troops shall be appointed 
by the Command to each basic route for 
the movements of the troops of both 
armies. 

10. The advance of Soviet troops to the 
line of the State frontier on the sectors 
occupied by German troops shall be made 
in accordance with the instructions of 
the Command of the Soviet forces. 

B. Annex to Article 2 

I. The Finnish Military Command 
shall hand over to the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command within a period fixed by 
the latter all the information at its dis- 
posal regarding the German armed forces 
and the plans of the German Military 
Command for the development of military 
operations against the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics and the other United 
Nations and also the charts and maps and 
all operational documents relating to the 
military operations of the German armed 
forces. 



2. The Finnish Government shall in- 
struct its appropriate authorities regularly 
to supply the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand with meteorological information. 

C, Annex to Article j 

x. In accordance with Article 3 of the 
Agreement the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand will indicate to the Finnish Military 
Command which aerodromes must be 
placed at the disposal of the Allied (So- 
viet) High Command and what equip- 
ment must remain on the aerodromes and 
equally will lay down the manner in 
which these aerodromes are to be used. 

The Finnish Government shall enable 
the Soviet Union to make use of the rail- 
ways, waterways, roads and air routes 
necessary for the transport of personnel 
and freight despatched from the Soviet 
Union to the areas where the above- 
mentioned aerodromes are situated. 

2. Henceforth until the end of the war 
against Germany Allied naval vessels and 
merchant ships shall have the right to 
make use of the territorial waters, ports, 
wharves, and anchorages of Finland. The 
Finnish Government shall afford the 
necessary collaboration as regards ma- 
terial and technical services. 

D. Annex to Article 4 

1. In accordance with Article 4 of the 
Agreement the Finnish Military Com- 
mand shall immediately make available 
to the Allied (Soviet) High Command full 
information regarding the composition, 
armament and location of all the land, 
sea and air forces of Finland and shall 
come to an agreement with the Allied 
(Soviet) High Command regarding the 
manner of placing the Finnish army on a 
peace footing within the period fixed by 
the Agreement. 

2. All Finnish naval vessels, merchant 
ships and aircraft for the period of the war 
against Germany must be returned to 
their bases, ports and aerodromes and 
must not leave them without obtaining 
the requisite permission to do so from 
the Allied (Soviet) High Command. 

E. Annex to Article 5 

i. By the rupture, referred to in Article 
5 of the Agreement, by Finland of all 
relations with Germany and her satellites 
is meant the rupture of all diplomatic, 
consular and other relations and also of 
postal, telegraphic and telephone com- 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 637 



munications between Finland and Ger- 
many and Hungary. 

2. The Finnish Government under- 
takes in future until such time as the 
withdrawal of German troops from Fin- 
land is completed to discontinue postal 
diplomatic communications and also any 
radio-telegraphic or telegraphic cypher 
correspondence and telephone communi- 
cations with foreign countries by diplo- 
matic missions and consulates located in 
Finland. 

F. Annex to Article 7 

The line of the State frontier between 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and Finland, in connexion with the return 
by Finland to the Soviet Union of the 
Oblast of Petsamo (Pechenga), shall pro- 
ceed as follows: 

From the boundary post No. 859/90 
(Koryatunturi), near the Lake Yauri- 
Yarvi, the line of the State frontier shall 
be fixed in a North-westerly direction 
along the former Russian-Finnish bound- 
ary by boundary posts Nos. 91, 92 and 93 
to the boundary post No. 94, where for- 
merly the frontiers of Russia, Norway 
and Finland met. 

Thence the line of the frontier shall run 
in a general North-easterly direction 
along the former Russian-Norwegian 
State frontier to Varanger-Fjord (see the 
attached Russian map, 1 scale 1:500,000). 

The line of the frontier, fixed from the 
boundary post No. 859/90 (Korva- 
tunturi) to the boundary post No. 94, 
will be demarcated on the spot by a 
Soviet-Finnish Mixed Commission. 

The Commission will establish bound- 
ary signs, will make a detailed description 
of this line and will enter it on a map of 
the scale of 1 125,000. 

The Commission will begin its work on 
a date to be specified by the Soviet Mili- 
tary Command. 

The description of the boundary line 
and the map of this line made by the 
above-mentioned Commission shall be 
confirmed by both Governments. 

G. Annex to Article 8 

I. The boundary line of the area of 
Porkkala-Udd leased by the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics from Finland 
shall begin at a point of which the map 
references are: latitude 59 50' North; 
longitude 24 of East. Thence the 



boundary line shall proceed North along 
the meridian 24 of to a point of which 
the map references are: latitude 60 o6 ; 
12" North; longitude 24 07' East. 
Thence the boundary line shall proceed 
along the line indicated in the map in a 
Northerly direction to a point of which 
the map references are: latitude 60 08' 6" 
North; longitude 24 07' 36" East. 

Thence the boundary line shall pro- 
ceed along the line indicated on the map 
in a general North-Easterly by Easterly 
direction to a point of which the map ref- 
erences are: latitude 60 10' 24" North; 
longitude 24 34' 6" East. Thence along 
the line indicated on the map along the 
bay of Espon-Lahti, and further East of 
the islands of Smuholmarne, Bjorken, 
Medvaste, Heg-holm and Stur-Hamn- 
holm to a point of which the map refer- 
ences are: latitude 60 02' 54" North; 
longitude 24 37' 42" East, and thence 
the boundary line shall proceed South 
along the meridian 24 37' 42" to the 
outer boundaries of Finnish territorial 
waters. (See the map, scale 1:100,000, 
attached to the present Agreement.) 

The boundary line of the leased area of 
Porkkala-Udd will be demarcated on the 
spot by a Soviet-Finnish Mixed Commis- 
sion. The Commission shall establish 
boundary marks and shall draw up a de- 
tailed description of this line and shall 
enter it upon a topographical map, scale 
1 120,000, and a naval map, scale 1 150,000. 

The Commission shall begin its work 
on a date to be specified by the Soviet 
Naval Command. 

The description of the boundary line 
of the leased area and the map of that line 
prepared by the above-mentioned com- 
mission shall be confirmed by both Gov- 
ernments. 

2. In accordance with Article 8 of the 
Agreement the territory and waters in the 
area of Porkkala-Udd shall be transferred 
by Finland to the Soviet Union within 
ten days from the moment of signature 
of the Armistice Agreement for the or- 
ganisation of a Soviet naval base on 
lease, to be used and controlled for a 
period of fifty years, the Soviet Union 
making an annual payment of five mil- 
lion Finnish marks. 

3. The Finnish Government undertakes 
to enable the Soviet Union to make use 
of the railways, waterways, roads and air 
routes necessary for the transport of 



1 Not reproduced. 



Sept. 19, 1944 



ARMISTICE WITH FINLAND 



personnel and freight despatched from 
the Soviet Union to the naval base at 
Porkkala-Udd. 

The Finnish Government shall grant to 
the Soviet Union the right of unimpeded 
use of all forms of communication be- 
tween the U.S.S.R. and the territory 
leased in the area of Porkkala-Udd. 

H. Annex to Article n 

I. The precise nomenclature and varie- 
ties of commodities to be delivered by 
Finland to the Soviet Union in accordance 
with Article 1 1 of the Agreement and also 
the more precise periods for making these 
deliveries each year shall be defined in a 
special agreement between the two Gov- 
ernments. 

As the basis for accounts regarding the 
payment of the indemnity foreseen in 
Article 1 1 of the Agreement the American 
dollar is to be used at its gold parity on 
the day of signature of the Agreement, 
i.e., thirty-five dollars to one ounce of gold. 

I. Annex to Article 22 

1. The Allied Control Commission is 
an organ of the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command, to which it is directly sub- 
ordinated. The Control Commission will 
be the liaison link between the Allied 
(Soviet) High Command and the Finnish 
Government, through which Government 
the Commission will carry on all its rela- 
tions with the Finnish authorities. 

2. The chief task of the Control Com- 
mission is to see to the punctual and ac- 
curate fulfilment by the Finnish Govern- 
ment of Articles 2, 3, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 



16, 17, 18, 20 and 21 of the Armistice 
Agreement. 

3. The Control Commission shall have 
the right to receive from the Finnish au- 
thorities all the information which it re- 
quires for the fulfilment of the above- 
mentioned task. 

4. In the event of the discovery of any 
violation of the above-mentioned Articles 
of the ^Armistice Agreement the Control 
Commission shall make appropriate rep- 
resentations to the Finnish authorities in 
order that proper steps may be taken. 

5. The Control Commission may estab- 
lish special organs or sections, entrusting 
them respectively with the execution of 
various tasks. 

Moreover, the Control Commission 
may through its officers make the neces- 
sary investigations and the collection of 
the information which it requires. 

6. The Control Commission shall be 
established in Helsingfors. 

7. The members of the Control Com- 
mission and equally its officers shall have 
the right to visit without let or hindrance 
any institution, enterprise or port and 
to receive there all the information neces- 
sary for their functions. 

8. The Control Commission shall enjoy 
all diplomatic privileges, including in- 
violability of person, property and ar- 
chives, and it shall have the right of 
communication by means of cypher and 
diplomatic courier. 

9. The Control Commission shall have 
at its disposal a number of aircraft for the 
use of which the Finnish authorities shall 
grant all the necessary facilities. 



No. 637a 

Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Finland. 
Moscow, September 19, 1944. 



Protocole & P Accord concernant P armistice avec la Finlande. 
& Moscou, 19 septembre 1944. 

Entered into force September 19, 1944. 

Text from Br. Parl, Papers, Misc. No. 2 (1945), Cmd. 6586, p. 10. 



Signed at 
SignS 



On the occasion of the signing of the 
Armistice Agreement with the Govern- 
ment of Finland, the Allied Governments 
signatory thereto are agreed that 



I. Paragraph i of Article 10 of the 
Armistice Agreement defines the obliga- 
tions undertaken by the Finnish Govern- 
ment in regard to surrender to the Allied 



152 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 637b 



authorities of Allied prisoners of war and 
Allied nationals interned in or forcibly 
removed to Finland. Each Allied Gov- 
ernment shall decide which of its nationals 
shall or shall not be repatriated. 

2. The term "war material" used in 
Article 15 shall be deemed to include all 
material or equipment belonging to, used 
by or intended for use by, enemy military 
or para-military formations or members 
thereof. 

3. The use by Allied (Soviet) High 



Command of Allied vessels handed back 
by the Government of Finland in accord- 
ance with Article 1 8 of the Armistice 
Agreement, and date of their return ^ to 
their owners will be matter for discussion 
and settlement between the Government 
of the Soviet Union and Allied Govern- 
ments concerned. 

DONE in Moscow on the I9th Septem- 
ber in two copies, each in the English 
and Russian languages, both English 
and Russian texts being authentic. 



[Signed:] For Government of United Kingdom: ARCHIBALD CLARK KERR; for 
Government of the Soviet Union: DEKANOZOV. 



No. 637b 

Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Finland. Signed at 
Moscow, October 8, 1944. 

Protocole a P Accord concernant 1'armistice avec la Finlande. Signe 
& Moscou, 8 octobre 1944. 



EDITOR'S NOTE. An alteration of the period of payment provided for in this Protocol 
was effected by a supplementary protocol signed by Canada and the Soviet Union at Ottawa, 
September 29, 1947; the British Government accepted this change on November 19, 1947. 
Canada, Treaty Series, 1947, No. 24. On previous negotiations between Finland and the 
Soviet Union with respect to the Petsamo mines, see Finland Reveals Her Secret Documents 
on Soviet Policy, March 1940 June 1941 (New York, 1941), pp. 23-28, 50-97. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in Canada, Treaty Series, 
1944, No. 29; 12 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1945), p. 267; 2 Soviet Foreign Policy 
during the Patriotic War: Documents and Materials (London, 1947), p. 161. 

Entered into force October 8, 1944. 

Text from Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. No. 2 (1945), Cmd. 6586, p. II. 



On the occasion of the signing of the 
Armistice Agreement with the Govern- 
ment of Finland, the Government of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland, the Government of 
Canada and the Government of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics are agreed 
that 

In connexion with the return by Fin- 
land to the Soviet Union of the former 
Soviet territory of the Oblast of Petsamo 
(Pechenga) and the consequent transfer 
to ownership of the Soviet Union of nickel 
mines (including all property and installa- 



tions appertaining thereto) operated in 
the said territory for the benefit of the 
Mond Nickel Company and the Interna- 
tional Nickel Company of Canada, the 
Soviet Government will pay to the Gov- 
ernment of Canada during the course of 
six years from the date of the signing of 
the present Protocol, in equal instalments, 
the sum of 20 million United States dollars 
as full and final compensation of the 
above-mentioned companies. For the 
purpose of this payment United States 
dollars will be reckoned at the value of 
35 dollars to one ounce of gold. 



Oct. 28, 1944 ARMISTICE WITH BULGARIA 153 

DONE in Moscow on the 8th October, and Russian languages, both the English 
1944, * n three copies, each in the English and Russian texts being authentic. 

[Signed:] For the Government of the United Kingdom: ARCHIBALD CLARK KERR; 
for the Government of Canada: L. D. WILGRESS; for the Government of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics: V. G. DEKANOZOV. 



No. 638 

ARMISTICE Agreement with Bulgaria. Signed at Moscow, October 

28, 1944. 

ACCORD concernant Parmistice avec la Bulgarie. Signe & Moscou, 

28 octobre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This is one of the series of instruments which ended the hostilities in 
World War II. For other armistice agreements of the period, see Nos. 625, 636, and 637, 
ante; Nos. 645, 651, and 661, post. At the time of the armistice, Bulgaria was at war with 
Australia, Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, Greece, Haiti, India, Luxemburg, New 
Zealand, Nicaragua, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United States of America, and 
Yugoslavia. The treaty of peace with Bulgaria, signed at Paris, February 10, 1947, came 
into force on September 15, 1947. U.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 
1650. A treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance between Bulgaria and 
the Soviet Union was signed at Moscow, March 18, 1948. I U.S. Department of State, 
Documents and State Papers (1948), p. 236. 

RATIFICATIONS. This Agreement was not subject to ratification. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement was published also in Br. Part. Papers, 
Misc. No. 3 (1945), Cmd. 6587; 2 Soviet Foreign Policy during the Patriotic War: Documents 
and Materials (London, 1947), p. 169; Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, No. 39; 39 Am. Jour. 
Int. Law (Supp., 1945), p. 93. 

A. J. Fischer, "Bulgaria and the Powers," 169 Contemporary Review (1946), pp. 344-48; 
M. W. Graham, "Armistices 1944 Style," 39 Am. Jour. Int. Law (1945), pp. 286-95; 
V. Kolarov, "Les revendications de la Bulgarie," 2 Cahiers du Monde nouveau (1946), 
No. 6, pp. 61-69. 

Entered into force October 28, 1944. 
Text from U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 437. 

The Government of Bulgaria ao representative of the Soviet High 
cepts the armistice terms presented Command, Marshal of the Soviet 
by the Governments of the United Union F. I. Tolbukhin, duly author- 
States of America, the Union of ized thereto by the Governments 
Soviet Socialist Republics and the of the United States of America, the 
United Kingdom, acting on behalf Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
of all the United Nations at war with and the United Kingdom, acting on 
Bulgaria. behalf of all the United Nations at 

Accordingly, the representative of war with Bulgaria, on the one hand, 

the Supreme Allied Commander in and representatives of the Govern- 

the Mediterranean, Lieutenant-Gen- ment of Bulgaria, Mr. P. Stainov, 

eral Sir James Gammell, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. D. 



154 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 638 



Terpeshev, Minister without Port- 
folio, Mr. N. Petkov, Minister with- 
out Portfolio, and Mr. P. Stoyanov, 
Minister of Finance, furnished with 
due powers, on the other hand, have 
signed the following terms: 

1. (a) Bulgaria, having ceased hos- 
tilities with the U.S.S.R. on Sep- 
tember 9, and severed relations with 
Germany on September 6 and with 
Hungary on September 26, has 
ceased hostilities against all the other 
United Nations. 

(ft) The Government of Bulgaria 
undertakes to disarm the German 
armed forces in Bulgaria and to hand 
them over as prisoners of war. 

The Government of Bulgaria also 
undertakes to intern nationals of 
Germany and her satellites. 

(c) The Government of Bulgaria 
undertakes to maintain and make 
available such land, sea and air 
forces as may be specified for service 
under the general direction of the Al- 
lied (Soviet) High Command. Such 
forces must not be used on Allied 
territory except with the prior con- 
sent of the Allied Government con- 
cerned. 

(d) On the conclusion of hostili- 
ties against Germany, the Bulgarian 
armed forces must be demobilized 
and put on a peace footing under the 
supervision of the Allied Control 
Commission. 

2. Bulgarian armed forces and of- 
ficials must be withdrawn within the 
specified time limit from the terri- 
tory of Greece and Yugoslavia in 
accordance with the pre-condition 
accepted by the Government of Bul- 
garia on October ii; the Bulgarian 
authorities must immediately take 
steps to withdraw from Greek and 
Yugoslav territory Bulgarians who 
were citizens of Bulgaria on January 
I, 1941, and to repeal all legislative 
and administrative provisions relat- 
ing to the annexation or incorpora- 
tion in Bulgaria of Greek or Yugo- 
slav territory. 

3. The Government of Bulgaria 



will afford to Soviet and other Allied 
forces freedom of movement over 
Bulgarian territory in any direction, 
if in the opinion of the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command the military situa- 
tion so requires, the Government of 
Bulgaria giving to such movements 
every assistance with its own means 
of communication, and at its own 
expense, by land, water and in the 
air. 

4. The Government of Bulgaria 
will immediately release all Allied 
prisoners of war and internees. 
Pending further instructions the Gov- 
ernment of Bulgaria will at its own 
expense provide all Allied prisoners 
of war and internees, displaced per- 
sons and refugees, including nation- 
als of Greece and Yugoslavia, with 
adequate food, clothing, medical 
services and sanitary and hygienic 
requirements, and also with means of 
transportation for the return of any 
such persons to their own country. 

5. The Government of Bulgaria 
will immediately release, regardless 
of citizenship or nationality, all per- 
sons held in detention in Bulgaria 
in connection with their activities in 
favor of the United Nations, or be- 
cause of their sympathies with the 
United Nations* cause or for racial 
or religious reasons, and will repeal 
all discriminatory legislation and dis- 
abilities arising therefrom. 

6. The Government of Bulgaria 
will cooperate in the apprehension and 
trial of persons accused of war crimes. 

7. The Government of Bulgaria 
undertakes to dissolve immediately 
all pro-Hitler or other Fascist po- 
litical, military, para-military and 
other organizations on Bulgarian 
territory conducting propaganda hos- 
tile to the United Nations, and 
not to tolerate the existence of such 
organizations in future. 

8. The publication, introduction 
and distribution in Bulgaria of peri- 
odical or non-periodical literature, 
the presentation of theatrical per- 
formances or films, the operation of 



Oct. 28, 1944 



ARMISTICE WITH BULGARIA 



155 



wireless stations, post, telegraph and 
telephone services will take place in 
agreement with the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command. 

9. The Government of Bulgaria 
will restore all property of the United 
Nations and their nationals, includ- 
ing Greek and Yugoslav property, 
and will make such reparation for 
loss and damage caused by the war 
to the United Nations, including 
Greece and Yugoslavia, as may be 
determined later. 

10. The Government of Bulgaria 
will restore all rights and interests 
of the United Nations and their na- 
tionals in Bulgaria. 

11. The Government of Bulgaria 
undertakes to return to the Soviet 
Union, to Greece and Yugoslavia, 
and to the other United Nations by 
the dates specified by the Allied 
Control Commission and in a good 
state of preservation, all valuables 
and materials removed during the 
war by Germany or Bulgaria from 
United Nations' territory and be- 
longing to state, public or coopera- 
tive organizations, enterprises, insti- 
tutions or individual citizens such as 
factory and works equipment, loco- 
motives, rolling stock, tractors, mo- 
tor vehicles, historic monuments, 
museum treasures and any other 
property. 

12. The Government of Bulgaria 
undertakes to hand over as booty to 
the Allied (Soviet) High Command 
all war material of Germany and her 
satellites located on Bulgarian terri- 
tory, including vessels of the fleets of 
Germany and her satellites located in 
Bulgarian waters. 

13. The Government of Bulgaria 
undertakes not to permit the removal 
or expropriation of any form of 
property (including valuables and 
currency), belonging to Germany or 
Hungary or to their nationals or to 
persons resident in their territories or 
in territories occupied by them, 
without the permission of the Allied 
Control Commission. The Govern- 



ment of Bulgaria will safeguard such 
property in the manner specified by 
the Allied Control Commission. 

14. The Government of Bulgaria 
undertakes to hand over to the Al- 
lied (Soviet) High Command all 
vessels belonging to the United Na- 
tions which are in Bulgarian ports, 
no matter at whose disposal these 
vessels may be, for the use of the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command dur- 
ing the war against Germany or 
Hungary in the common interest of 
the Allies, the vessels to be returned 
subsequently to their owners. 

The Government of Bulgaria will 
bear full material responsibility for 
any damage to or destruction of the 
aforesaid property up to the moment 
of its transfer to the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command. 

15. The Government of Bulgaria 
must make regular payments in Bul- 
garian currency and must supply 
goods (fuel, foodstuffs, et cetera), fa- 
cilities and services as may be re- 
quired by the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command for the discharge of its 
functions. 

1 6. Bulgarian merchant vessels, 
whether in Bulgarian or foreign wat- 
ers, shall be subject to the opera- 
tional control of the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command for use in the general 
interest of the Allies. 

17. The Government of Bulgaria 
will arrange in case of need for the 
utilization in Bulgarian territory of 
industrial and transport enterprises, 
means of communication, power sta- 
tions, public utility enterprises and 
installations, stocks of fuel and other 
materials in accordance with the 
instructions issued during the armi- 
stice by the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command. 

1 8. For the whole period of the 
armistice there will be established in 
Bulgaria an Allied Control Commis- 
sion which will regulate and super- 
vise the execution of the armistice 
terms under the chairmanship of the 
representative of the Allied (Soviet) 



156 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6s8a 



High Command, and with the par- 
ticipation of representatives of the 
United States and the United King- 
dom. 

During the period between the 
coming into force of the armistice 
and the conclusion of hostilities 
against Germany the Allied Control 
Commission will be under the gen- 



eral direction of the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command. 

19. The present terms will come 
into force on their signing. 

DONE at Moscow in quadrupli- 
cate, in the Russian, English and 
Bulgarian languages, the Russian 
and English texts being authentic. 

October 28, 1944. 



[Signed :] For the Governments of the United States of America, the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United Kingdom: Representative of the 
Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean, J. A. H. GAMMELL, Lt. 
Gen.; Representative of the Soviet High Command, F. I. TOLBUKHIN; for the 
Government of Bulgaria: P. STAINOV, D. TERPESHEV, N. PETKOV, P. 
STOYANOV. 



No. 638a 



Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with Bulgaria. Signed at 
Moscow, October 28, 1944. 

Protocole & 1' Accord concernant Parmistice avec la Bulgarie. Signe 
& Moscou, 28 octobre 1944. 

Entered into force October 28, 1944. 

Text from U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 437, p. 17. 



At the time of the signing of the 
Armistice Agreement with the Gov- 
ernment of Bulgaria, the Allied 
Governments signatory thereto have 
agreed to the following: 

I. In connexion with Article 9 it is 
understood that the Government of 
Bulgaria will immediately make 
available certain foodstuffs for the 
relief of the population of Greek and 
Yugoslav territories which have suf- 
fered as a result of Bulgarian ag- 
gression. The quantities of each 
product to be delivered will be 
determined by agreement between 
the three governments and will be 
considered as part of the repara- 
tion by Bulgaria for loss and dam- 
age sustained by Greece and Yugo- 
slavia. 



2. The term "war material" used 
in Article 12 shall be deemed to in- 
clude all material or equipment be- 
longing to, used by, or intended for 
use by enemy military or para-mili- 
tary formations or members thereof. 

3. The use by the Allied (Soviet) 
High Command of Allied vessels 
handed over by the Government of 
Bulgaria in accordance with Article 
14 of the armistice and the date of 
their return to their owners will be 
the subject of discussion and settle- 
ment between the Allied govern- 
ments concerned and the Govern- 
ment of the Soviet Union. 

4. It is understood that in the 
application of Article 15 the Allied 
(Soviet) High Command will also 
arrange for provision of Bulgarian 



Dec. 7, 1944 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 157 

currency, supplies, services, et cetera, DONE at Moscow in triplicate, in 

to meet the needs of the representa- the Russian and English languages, 

tives of the governments of the both the Russian and English texts 

United States and United Kingdom being authentic, 

in Bulgaria. 28 October, 1944. 

[Signed:] For the Government of the United States of America, GEORGE 
F. KENNAN; for the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
A. Y. VYSHINSKI ; for the Government of the United Kingdom, ARCHIBALD 
CLARK KERR. 



No. 639 

INTERIM AGREEMENT on International Civil Aviation. Opened 
for signature at Chicago, December 7, 1944. 

ACCORD PROVISIONNEL sur aviation civile Internationale. 
Ouvert a la signature & Chicago, 7 decembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement was formulated at the International Civil Aviation 
Conference held at Chicago, November I -December 7, 1944. A convention on international 
civil aviation and two agreements, on transit and on transport, were also concluded at that 
conference (Nos. 640-642, post). The Final Act of the conference with various resolutions 
and technical annexes was published in U.S. Department of State, Publication No. 2282, 
Conference Series No. 64, pp. 35-43, 96-284. The first meeting of the Interim Council 
was held at Montreal, August 15-30, 1945; a meeting of the Interim Assembly was held at 
Montreal, May 2i-June 7, 1946. 

ACCEPTANCES. On July i, 1947, acceptances of this Agreement had been effected by 
Afghanistan, Argentine Republic, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, 
China, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salva- 
dor, Ethiopia, France, Great Britain (with reservation), Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hon- 
duras, Iceland, India (with reservation), Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxemburg, 
Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand (with reservation), Nicaragua, Norway, Paraguay, 
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thai- 
land, Transjordan, Turkey, the United States of America, and Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is also published in U.S. Department of 
State, Publication No. 2282, Conference Series No. 64, p. 44; Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, 
No. 36, p. 22; Br. Part. Papers, Misc. No. 6 (1945), Cmd. 6614; 39 Am. Jour. Int. Law 
(Supp., 1945), pp. 122-35. The proceedings of the Chicago Conference have been pub- 
lished in U.S. Department of State, Publication 2820, International Organization and 
Conference Series IV, ICAO 3 (Washington, 1949), 2 vols., 1509 pp. The activities of 
PICAO are recorded in the PICAO Journal and in the PICAO Monthly Bulletin. 

Anon., "Conferencia Internacional de Aviaci6n Civil," 8 Revista argentina de derecho 
internacional (2d sen, 1945), pp. 180-207, 299-338; W. Arnold-Forster, "Civil Air Trans- 
port," 15 Political Quarterly (1944), pp. 213-19; T. Burke, "Influences Affecting Interna- 
tional Aviation Policy," n Law and Contemporary Problems (1946), pp. 598-608; Canada, 
Wartime Information Board, Canada and International Civil Aviation (Ottawa, 1945), 
30 pp.; D. Cook, The Chicago Aviation Agreements: An Approach to World Policy (American 
Enterprise Association, Economic Survey Series, No. 406, New York, 1945), 39 pp.; J. C. 
Cooper, The Right to Fly (New York, 1947), pp. 157-96; M. Domke, "International CivH 



158 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 639 

Aviation Sets New Pattern," I International Arbitration Journal (1945), pp. 20-29; A. Gar- 
nault, "Les conventions et resolutions de Chicago," I Revue frangaise de droit afrien (1947), 
PP- 25-32; S. Latchford, "Coordination of CITEJA with the New International Civil 

Aviation Organization," 12 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1945), pp. 310-13; , 

"Concerning Acceptance of Aviation Agreements as Executive Agreements," idem (1945), 
pp. 1104-8; A. Linares Fleytas, "La Conferencia Internacional de Aviaci6n Civil," 48 
Revista de derecho international (1945), pp. 215-42; 49 idem (1946), pp. 79-110, 237-46; 
O. Mance and J. E. Wheeler, International Air Transport (London, New York, 1944), 
117 pp.; A. C. McKim, "World Order in Air Transport," 2 International Journal (1947), 
pp. 226-36; S. W. Morgan, "The International Civil Aviation Conference at Chicago and 

What It Means to America," 12 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1945), pp. 33-38; , 

"International Civil Aviation Problems," idem, pp. 701-7,714; H. Oppikofer, "Die 
Konferenz von Chicago und ihre Abkommen," 2 Schweizerisches Jahrbuchftlr internationales 
Recht (1945), pp. 216-29; H. Osterhout, "A Review of the Recent Chicago International 
Air Conference," 31 Virginia Law Review (1945), pp. 376-86; C. S. Rhyne, "Legal Rules 
for International Aviation," idem, pp. 267-315; L. T. Salinas, "El porvenir del trafico 
a&reo: Comentarios a la Conferencia de Chicago," 9 Revista de estudios politicos (1944), 
pp. 170-77; H. Stannard, "Civil Aviation," 21 International A/airs (1945), pp. 497-511; 
United Nations Information Office, Towards Freedom in the Air: The Story of the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Conference (New York, 1945), 31 pp.; U.S. Department of State, 
Blueprint for World Civil Aviation (Publ. 2348, Conf. Series No. 70; 1945), 34 pp.; J. P. 

Van Zandt, Civil Aviation and Peace (Washington, 1944), *57 PP-I . "The Chicago 

Aviation Conference," 20 Foreign Policy Reports (1945), pp. 290-96; R. K. Waldo, "Sequels 
to the Chicago Aviation Conference," n Law and Contemporary Problems (1946), pp. 609- 
28; J. D. Walstrom, "The Chicago Air Conference," II U.S. Department of State Bulletin 
(1944), pp. 843-46; E. Warner, "The Chicago Air Conference," 23 Foreign Affairs (1945), 

pp. 406-21; , "Notes from PICAO Experience," I Air Affairs (1946), pp. 30-44; 

A. Worthington, International Airways (New York, 1945), 275 pp. 

Entered into force June 6, 1945.* 

Text from U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 469. 

The undersigned, on behalf of an Interim Council, and it shall have 
their respective governments, agree its seat in Canada, 
to the following: Section 3. The Organization is 

A O-T n i established for an interim period 

ARTICLE ^i. -The Provisional which shall last unti , a new p i ; rma . 

Urbanization nent convent i on on international 
Section I. The signatory States civil aviation shall have come into 
hereby establish a provisional inter- force or another conference on inter- 
national organization of a technical national civil aviation shall have 
and advisory nature of sovereign agreed upon other arrangements: 
States for the purpose of collabora- provided, however, that the interim 
tion in the field of international civil period shall in no event exceed three 
aviation. The organization shall be years from the coming into force of 
known as the Provisional Inter- the present Agreement, 
national Civil Aviation Organiza- Section 4. The Organization shall 
tion. enjoy in the territory of each mem- 
Section 2. The Organization shall ber State such legal capacity as may 
consist of an Interim Assembly and be necessary for the performance of 

*The Provisional Organization ceased to exist on April 4, 1947, when the permanent 
convention (No. 640, post) came into force. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



159 



its functions. Full juridical person- 
ality shall be granted wherever com- 
patible with the constitution and 
laws of the State concerned. 

ARTICLE 2. The Interim Assembly 

Section I. The Assembly shall 
meet annually and shall be convened 
by the Council at a suitable time 
and place. Extraordinary meetings 
of the Assembly may be held at any 
time upon call of the Council or at 
the request of any ten member 
States of the Organization addressed 
to the Secretary General. 

All member States shall have equal 
right to be represented at the meet- 
ings of the Assembly and each mem- 
ber State shall be entitled to one 
vote. Delegates representing mem- 
ber States may be assisted by tech- 
nical advisers who may participate 
in the meetings but shall have no 
vote. 

A majority of the member States 
is required to constitute a quorum 
for the meetings of the Assembly. 
Unless otherwise provided herein, 
voting of the Assembly shall be by 
a simple majority of the member 
States present. 

Section 2. The powers and duties 
of the Assembly shall be to: 

1 . Elect at each meeting its Presi- 
dent and other officers. 

2. Elect the member States to be 
represented on the Council, as pro- 
vided in Article 3, Section I. 

3. Examine, and take appropriate 
action upon, the reports of the Coun- 
cil and decide upon any matter re- 
ferred to it by the Council. 

4. Determine its own rules of pro- 
cedure and establish such subsidiary 
commissions and committees as may 
be necessary or advisable. 

5. Approve an annual budget and 
determine the financial arrangements 
of the Organization. 

6. At its discretion, refer to the 
Council any specific matter for its 
consideration and report. 

7. Delegate to the Council all the 



powers and authority that may be 
considered necessary or advisable for 
the discharge of the duties of the 
Organization. Such delegations of 
authority may be revoked or modi- 
fied at any time by the Assembly. 

8. Deal with any matter within 
the sphere of action of the Organiza- 
tion not specifically assigned to the 
Council. 

ARTICLE $.The Interim Council 

Section I. The Council shall be 
composed of not more than 21 mem- 
ber States elected by the Assembly 
for a period of two years. In elect- 
ing the members of the Council, the 
Assembly shall give adequate repre- 
sentation (i) to those member States 
of chief importance in air transport, 
(2) to those member States not oth- 
erwise included which make the 
largest contribution to the provision 
of facilities for international civil air 
navigation, and (3) to those member 
States not otherwise included whose 
election will insure that all major 
geographical areas of the world are 
represented. Any vacancy on the 
Council shall be filled by the Assem- 
bly at its next meeting. Any mem- 
ber State of the Council so elected 
shall hold office for the remainder of 
its predecessor's term of office. 

Section 2. No representative of a 
member State on the Council shall 
be actively associated with the op- 
eration of an international air service 
or financially interested in such a 
service. 

Section 3 . The Council shall elect, 
and determine the emoluments of, a 
President, for a term not to exceed 
the interim period. The President 
shall have no vote. The Council 
shall also elect from among its mem- 
bers one or more Vice Presidents, 
who shall retain their right to vote 
when serving as Acting President. 
The President need not be selected 
from the members of the Council but 
if a member is elected, his seat shall 
be deemed vacant and it shall be 



i6o 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 639 



filled by the State which he repre- 
sented. The President shall con- 
vene, and preside at, the meetings of 
the Council; he shall act as the Coun- 
cil's representative; and he shall 
carry out such functions on behalf 
of the Council as may be assigned to 
him. 

Decisions by the Council will be 
deemed valid only when approved by 
a majority of all the members of the 
Council. 

Section 4. Any member State not 
a member of the Council may par- 
ticipate in the deliberations of the 
Council whenever any decision is to 
be taken which especially concerns 
such member State. Such member 
State, however, shall not have the 
right to vote; provided that, in any 
case in which there is a dispute be- 
tween one or more member States 
who are not members of the Council 
and one or more member States who 
are members of the Council, any 
State within the second category 
which is a party to the dispute shall 
have no right to vote on that dis- 
pute. 

Section 5. The powers and duties 
of the Council shall be to: 

1. Carry out the directives of the 
Assembly. 

2. Determine its own organization 
and rules of procedure. 

3. Determine the method of ap- 
pointment, emoluments, and condi- 
tions of service of the employees of 
the Organization. 

4. Appoint a Secretary General. 

5. Provide for the establishment 
of any subsidiary working groups 
which may be considered desirable, 
among which there shall be the fol- 
lowing interim committees: 

a. A Committee on Air Trans- 
port, 

b. A Committee on Air Naviga- 
tion, and 

c. A Committee on Interna- 
tional Convention on Civil Avia- 
tion. 

If a member State so desires, it shall 



have the right to appoint a represent- 
ative on any such interim committee 
or working group. 

6. Prepare and submit to the As- 
sembly budget estimates of the 
Organization, and statements of 
accounts of all receipts and expendi- 
tures and to authorize its own ex- 
penditures. 

7. Enter into agreements with 
other international bodies when it 
deems advisable for the maintenance 
of common services and for common 
arrangements concerning personnel 
and, with the approval of the As- 
sembly, enter into such other ar- 
rangements as may facilitate the 
work of the Organization. 

Section 6. In addition to the 
powers and authority which the As- 
sembly may delegate to it, the func- 
tions of the Council shall be to: 

1. Maintain liaison with the mem- 
ber States of the Organization, call- 
ing upon them for such pertinent 
data and information as may be re- 
quired in giving consideration to 
recommendations made by them. 

2. Receive, register, and hold open 
to inspection by member States all 
existing contracts and agreements 
relating to routes, services, landing 
rights, airport facilities, or other 
international air matters to which 
any member State or any airline of a 
member State is a party. 

3. Supervise and coordinate the 
work of: 

a. The Committee on Air Trans- 
port, whose functions shall be to: 

(1) Observe, correlate, and con- 
tinuously report upon the facts 
concerning the origin and volume 
of international air traffic and the 
relation of such traffic, or the de- 
mand therefor, to the facilities 
actually provided. 

(2) Request, collect, analyze 
and report on information with 
respect to subsidies, tariffs, and 
costs of operation. 

(3) Study any matters affecting 
the organization and operation of 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



161 



international air services, includ- 
ing the international ownership 
and operation of international 
trunk lines. 

(4) Study and report with rec- 
ommendations to the Assembly as 
soon as practicable on the matters 
on which it has not been possible 
to reach agreement among the na- 
tions represented at the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Conference, 
convened in Chicago, November 
i, 1944, in particular the matters 
comprehended within the headings 
of Articles 2, 10, n, and 12 of 
Conference Document 422, to- 
gether with Conference Docu- 
ments 384, 385, 400, 407, and 429, 
and all other documentation relat- 
ing thereto. 

b. The Committee on Air Naviga- 
tion, whose functions shall be to: 

(1) Study, interpret and advise 
on standards and procedures with 
respect to communications sys- 
tems and air navigation aids, in- 
cluding ground marks; rules of the 
air and air traffic control prac- 
tices; standards governing the 
licensing of operating and mechan- 
ical personnel ; airworthiness of air- 
craft; registration and identifica- 
tion of aircraft; meteorological 
protection of international aero- 
nautics; log books and manifests; 
aeronautical maps and charts; air- 
ports; customs, immigration, and 
quarantine procedure; accident in- 
vestigation, including search and 
salvage; and the further unifica- 
tion of numbering and systems of 
dimensioning and specification of 
dimensions used in connection 
with international air navigation. 

(2) Recommend the adoption, 
and take all possible steps to secure 
the application, of minimum re- 
quirements and standard proce- 
dures with respect to the subjects 
in the preceding paragraph. 

(3) Continue the preparation of 
technical documents, in accord- 
ance with the recommendations of 



the International Civil Aviation 
Conference approved at Chicago 
on December 7, 1944, and with the 
resulting suggestions of the mem- 
ber States, for attachment to the 
Convention on International Civil 
Aviation, signed at Chicago on 
December 7, 1944. 
c. The Committee on Interna- 
tional Convention on Civil Aviation, 
whose functions shall be to continue 
the study of an international conven- 
tion on civil aviation. 

4. Receive and consider the re- 
ports of the committees and working 
groups. 

5. Transmit to each member State 
the reports of these committees and 
working groups and the findings of 
the Council thereon. 

6. Make recommendations with 
respect to technical matters to the 
member States of the Assembly in- 
dividually or collectively. 

7. Submit an annual report to the 
Assembly. 

8. When expressly requested by 
all the parties concerned, act as an 
arbitral body on any differences aris- 
ing among member States relating to 
international civil aviation matters 
which may be submitted to it. The 
Council may render an advisory re- 
port or, if the parties concerned so 
expressly decide, they may obligate 
themselves in advance to accept the 
decision of the Council. The pro- 
cedure to govern the arbitral pro- 
ceedings shall be determined in 
agreement between the Council and 
all the interested parties. 

9. On direction of the Assembly, 
convene another conference on inter- 
national civil aviation; or at such 
time as the Convention is ratified, 
convene the first Assembly under the 
Convention. 

ARTICLE 4. The Secretary General 

The Secretary General shall be the 
chief executive and administrative 
officer of the Organization. The 
Secretary General shall be responsi- 



1 62 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 639 



ble to the Council as a whole and, 
following established policies of the 
Council, shall have full power and 
authority to carry out the duties 
assigned to him by the Council. 
The Secretary General shall make 
periodic reports to the Council cov- 
ering the progress of the Secretariat's 
activities. The Secretary General 
shall appoint the staff of the Secre- 
tariat. He shall likewise appoint 
the secretariat and staff necessary to 
the functioning of the Assembly, of 
the Council, and of Committees or 
such working groups as are men- 
tioned in the present Agreement or 
may be constituted pursuant thereto. 

ARTICLE 5. Finances 

Each member State shall bear the 
expenses of its own delegation to the 
Assembly and the salary, travel and 
other expenses of its own delegate on 
the Council and of its representatives 
on committees or subsidiary working 
groups. 

The expenses of the organization 
shall be borne by the member States 
in proportions to be decided by the 
Assembly. Funds shall be advanced 
by each member State to coyer the 
initial expenses of the Organization. 

The Assembly may suspend the 
voting power of any member State 
that fails to discharge, within a rea- 
sonable period, its financial obliga- 
tions to the Organization. 

ARTICLE 6. Special Duties 

The Organization shall also carry 
out the functions placed upon it by 
the International Air Services Tran- 
sit Agreement and by the Interna- 
tional Air Transport Agreement 
drawn up at Chicago on December 
7, 1944, in accordance with the terms 
and conditions therein set forth. 

Members of the Assembly and the 
Council who have not accepted the 
International Air Services Transit 
Agreement or the International Air 
Transport Agreement drawn up at 
Chicago on December 7, 1944 shall 



not have the right to vote on any 
questions referred to the Assembly 
or Council under the provisions of 
the relevant Agreements. 

ARTICLE 7. Transfer of Functions, 
Records^ and Property 

The exercise of any functions 
which shall have been herein as- 
signed to the Provisional Organiza- 
tion shall cease at any time that 
those particular functions have been 
completed or transferred to another 
international organization. At the 
time of the coming into force of the 
Convention on International Civil 
Aviation signed at Chicago, Decem- 
ber 7, 1944, the records and property 
of the Provisional Organization shall 
be transferred to the International 
Civil Aviation Organization estab- 
lished under the above-mentioned 
Convention. 

ARTICLE 8. Flight over Territory 
of Member States 

Section I. The member States 
recognize that every State has com- 
plete and exclusive sovereignty over 
the airspace above its territory. 

Section 2. For the purposes of 
this Agreement the territory of a 
State shall be deemed to be the land 
areas and territorial waters adjacent 
thereto under the sovereignty, su- 
zerainty, protection or mandate of 
such State. 

Section j. This Agreement shall 
be applicable only to civil aircraft, 
and shall not be applicable to state 
aircraft. Aircraft used in military, 
customs and police services shall be 
deemed to be state aircraft. 

Section 4. Except in a case 
where, under the terms of an agree- 
ment or of a special authorization, 
aircraft are permitted to cross the 
territory of a member State without 
landing, every aircraft which enters 
the territory of a member State shall, 
if the regulations of that State so 
require, land at an airport designated 
by that State for the purpose of cus- 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



163 



toms and other examination. On 
departure from the territory of a 
member State, such aircraft shall de- 
part from a similarly designated cus- 
toms airport. Particulars of all 
designated customs airports shall be 
published by the State and trans- 
mitted to the Provisional Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization 
for communication to all other mem- 
ber States. 

Section 5. Subject to the provi- 
sions of this Agreement, the laws and 
regulations of a member State relat- 
ing to the admission to or departure 
from its territory of aircraft engaged 
in international air navigation, or to 
the operation and navigation of such 
aircraft while within its territory, 
shall be applied to the aircraft of all 
member States without distinction 
as to nationality, and shall be com- 
plied with by such aircraft upon 
entering or departing from or while 
within the territory of that State. 

Section 6. Each member State 
undertakes to adopt measures to in- 
sure that every aircraft flying over or 
maneuvering within its territory and 
that every aircraft carrying its na- 
tionality mark, wherever it may be, 
shall comply with the rules and 
regulations relating to the flight and 
maneuver of aircraft there in force. 
Each member State undertakes to 
insure the prosecution of all persons 
violating the regulations applicable. 

Section 7. The laws and regula- 
tions of a member State as to the 
admission to or departure from its 
territory of passengers, crew or cargo 
of aircraft, such as regulations relat- 
ing to entry, clearance, immigration, 
passports, customs, and quarantine 
shall be complied with by or on be- 
half of such passengers, crew or cargo 
upon entrance into or departure 
from, or while within the territory of 
that State. 

Section 8. The member States 
agree to take effective measures to 
prevent the spread by means of air 
navigation of cholera, typhus (epi- 



demic), smallpox, yellow fever, and 
plague, and such other communica- 
ble diseases as the member States 
shall from time to time decide to 
designate, and to that end member 
States will keep in close consultation 
with the agencies concerned with in- 
ternational regulations relating to 
sanitary measures applicable to air- 
craft. Such consultation shall be 
without prejudice to the application 
of any existing international conven- 
tion on this subject to which the 
member States may be parties. 

Section 9. Each member State 
may, subject to the provisions of this 
Agreement, 

1. Designate the route to be fol- 
lowed within its territory by any 
international air service and the air- 
ports which any such service may use; 

2. Impose or permit to be imposed 
on any such service just and reason- 
able charges for the use of such air- 
ports and other facilities; these 
charges shall not be higher than 
would be paid for the use of such air- 
ports and facilities by its national 
aircraft engaged in similar interna- 
tional services; 

provided that, upon representation 
by an interested member State, the 
charges imposed for the use of air- 
ports and other facilities shall be 
subject to review by the Council, 
which shall report and make recom- 
mendations thereon for the consider- 
ation of the State or States concerned. 
Section 10. The appropriate au- 
thorities of each of the member 
States shall have the right, without 
unreasonable delay, to search air- 
craft of the other member States on 
landing or departure, and to inspect 
the certificates and other documents 
prescribed by this Agreement. 

ARTICLE 9. Measures to Facilitate 
Air Navigation 

Section i. Each member State 
undertakes, so far as it may find 
practicable, to make available such 



164 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 639 



radio facilities, such meteorological 
services, and such other air naviga- 
tion facilities as may from time to 
time be required for the operation of 
safe and efficient scheduled interna- 
tional air services under the provi- 
sions of this Agreement. 

Section 2. Each member State 
undertakes to provide such meas- 
ures of assistance to aircraft in dis- 
tress in its territory as it may find 
practicable, and to permit, subject 
to the control of its own authorities, 
the owners or authorities of the State 
in which the aircraft is registered to 
provide such measures of assistance 
as may be necessitated by the cir- 
cumstances. 

Section j. In the event of an ac- 
cident to an aircraft of a member 
State occurring in the territory of an- 
other member State, and involving 
death or serious injury, or indicating 
serious technical defect, in the air- 
craft or air navigation facilities, the 
State in which the accident occurs 
will institute an inquiry into the cir- 
cumstances of the accident. The 
State in which the aircraft is regis- 
tered shall be given the opportunity 
to appoint observers to be present at 
the inquiry and the State holding the 
inquiry shall communicate the report 
and findings in the matter to that 
State. 

ARTICLE 10. Conditions to be 
Fulfilled with Respect to Aircraft 

Section I. Every aircraft of a 
member State, engaged in interna- 
tional navigation, shall carry the fol- 
lowing documents: 

(a) Its certificate of registration. 

(ft) Its certificate of airworthiness. 

(c) The appropriate licenses for 
each member of the crew. 

(d) Its journey log book. 

(e) If it is equipped with radio ap- 
paratus, the aircraft radio station 
license. 

(/) If it carries passengers, a list of 
their names and places of embarka- 
tion and destination. 



(g) If it carries cargo, a manifest 
and detailed declarations of the 
cargo. 

Section 2. (a) Aircraft of each 
member State may, in or over the 
territory of other member States, 
carry radio transmitting apparatus 
only if a license to install and operate 
such apparatus has been issued by 
the appropriate authorities of the 
State in which the aircraft is regis- 
tered. The use of radio transmit- 
ting apparatus in the territory of the 
member State whose territory is 
flown over shall be in accordance 
with the regulations prescribed by 
that State. 

(6) Radio transmitting apparatus 
may be used only by members of the 
flight crew who are provided with a 
special license for the purpose, issued 
by the appropriate authorities of the 
State in which the aircraft is regis- 
tered. 

Section j. Every aircraft en- 
gaged in international navigation 
shall be provided with a certificate 
of airworthiness issued or rendered 
valid by the State in which it is 
registered. 

Section 4. (a) The pilot of every 
aircraft and the other members of 
the operating crew of every aircraft 
engaged in international navigation 
shall be provided with certificates of 
competency and licenses issued or 
rendered valid by the State in which 
the aircraft is registered. 

(&) Each member State reserves 
the right to refuse to recognize, 
for the purpose of flight above its 
own territory, certificates of compe- 
tency and licenses granted to any 
of its nationals by another member 
State. 

Section 5. Subject to the provi- 
sions of Section 4(6), certificates of 
airworthiness and certificates of com- 
petency and licenses issued or ren- 
dered valid by the member State in 
which the aircraft is registered, shall 
be recognized as valid by the other 
member State. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



165 



Section 6. There shall be main- 
tained in respect of every aircraft 
engaged in international navigation 
a journey log book in which shall be 
entered particulars of the aircraft, its 
crew and each journey. 

Section 7. Each member State 
may prohibit or regulate the use of 
photographic apparatus in aircraft 
over its territory. 

ARTICLE ii. Airports and 
Air Navigation Facilities 

Where a member State desires as- 
sistance in the provision of airports 
or air navigation facilities in its ter- 
ritory, the Council may make ar- 
rangements for the provision of such 
assistance so far as may be prac- 
ticable in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter XV of the Conven- 
tion on International Civil Aviation 
signed at Chicago, December 7, 
1944. 

ARTICLE 12. Joint Operating 
Organizations and A rrangements 

Section I. Nothing in this Agree- 
ment shall prevent two or more 
member States from constituting 
joint air transport operating organ- 
izations or international operating 
agencies and from pooling their air 
services on any routes or in any re- 
gions, but such organizations or 
agencies and such pooled services 
shall be subject to all the provisions 
of this Agreement, including those 
relating to the registration of agree- 
ments with the Council. 

Section 2. The Council may sug- 
gest to member States concerned 
that they form joint organizations to 
operate air services on any routes or 
in any regions. 

Section j. A State may partici- 
pate in joint operating organizations 
or in pooling arrangements, either 
through its government or through 
an airline company or companies 
designated by its government. The 
companies may, at the sole discretion 
of the State concerned, be State- 



owned or partly State-owned or 
privately owned. 

ARTICLE 13. Undertakings of 
Member States 

Section I. Each member State 
undertakes to transmit to the Coun- 
cil copies of all existing and future 
contracts and agreements relating 
to routes, services, landing rights, 
airport facilities, or other interna- 
tional air matters to which any 
member State or any airline of a 
member State is a party, as des- 
cribed in Article 3, Section 6, Sub- 
section 2. 

Section 2. Each member State 
undertakes to require its interna- 
tional airlines to file with the Coun- 
cil, in accordance with requirements 
laid down by the Council, traffic re- 
ports, cost statistics, and financial 
statements as described in Article 3, 
Section 6, Subsection 3, a (i) and (2), 
showing, among other things, all re- 
ceipts and the sources thereof. 

Section j. The member States 
undertake, with respect to the mat- 
ters set forth in Article 3, Section 6, 
Subsection 3, b (i), to apply, as ra- 
pidly as possible, in their national 
civil aviation practices, the general 
recommendations of the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Conference, 
convened in Chicago, November i, 
1944, an d such recommendations as 
will be made through the continuing 
study of the Council. 

ARTICLE 14. Withdrawal 

Any member State, a party to the 
present Agreement, may withdraw 
therefrom on six months' notice 
given by it to the Secretary General, 
who shall at once inform all the mem- 
ber States of the Organization of 
such notice of withdrawal. 

ARTICLE 15. Definitions 

For the purpose of this Agreement 
the expression: 

(a) "Air service " means any sched- 
uled air service performed by air- 



1 66 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 639 



craft for the public transport of 
passengers, mail or cargo. 

(6) " International air service" 
means an air service which passes 
through the airspace over the terri- 
tory of more than one State. 

(c) ' 4 Airline ' ' means any air trans- 
port enterprise offering or operating 
an international air service. 

ARTICLE 16. Election of First 
Interim Council 

The first Interim Council shall be 
composed of the States elected for 
that purpose by the International 
Civil Aviation Conference convened 
in Chicago on November I, 1944, 
provided that no State thus elected 
shall become a member of the Coun- 
cil until it has accepted the present 
Agreement and unless such accept- 
ance has taken place within six 
months after December 7, 1944. In 
no case shall the term of office of a 
State as a member of the first In- 
terim Council begin before or go be- 
yond the period of two years, start- 
ing from the coming into force of the 
present Agreement. 

Each State so elected to the In- 
terim Council shall take its seat in 
the Council upon acceptance by that 
State of this Agreement or upon the 
entry into force of this Agreement, 
whichever is the later date, and it 
shall hold its seat until the end of 
the two years following the coming 
into force of this Agreement: pro- 
vided, that any State so elected to 
the Council which does not accept 
this Agreement within six months 
after the above-mentioned election 
shall not become a member of the 
Council and the seat shall remain 
vacant until the next meeting of the 
Assembly. 

ARTICLE 17. Signatures and 
Acceptances of Agreement 

The undersigned delegates to the 
International Civil Aviation Con- 
ference, convened in Chicago on 



November i, 1944, have affixed their 
signatures to the present Interim 
Agreement with the understanding 
that the Government of the United 
States of America shall be informed 
at the earliest possible date by each 
of the governments on whose behalf 
the Agreement has been signed 
whether signature on its behalf shall 
constitute an acceptance of the 
Agreement by that government and 
an obligation binding upon it. 

Any State, a member of the United 
Nations and any State associated 
with them, as well as any State which 
remained neutral during the present 
world conflict, not a signatory to 
this Agreement, may accept the pres- 
ent Agreement as an obligation bind- 
ing upon it by notification of its ac- 
ceptance to the Government of the 
United States, and such acceptance 
shall become effective upon the date 
of the receipt of such notification by 
that Government. 

The present Interim Agreement 
shall come into force when it has 
been accepted by twenty-six States. 
Thereafter it will become binding as 
to each other State indicating its ac- 
ceptance to the Government of the 
United States on the date of the 
receipt of the acceptance by that 
Government. 

The Government of the United 
States shall inform all governments 
represented at the International Civil 
Aviation Conference referred to of 
the date on which the present In- 
terim Agreement comes into force 
and shall likewise notify them of all 
acceptances of the Agreement. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the under- 
signed, having been duly authorized, 
sign this Agreement on behalf of their 
respective governments on the dates 
appearing opposite their signatures. 

Done at Chicago the seventh day 
of December 1944, in the English 
language. 1 A text drawn up in the 
English, French, and Spanish Ian- 



1 The following note is inserted at this point in U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 469, 
from which the text of the present Agreement is reproduced: "The present publication was 



Dec. 7, 1944 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 167 

guages, each of which shall be of United States of America, and certi- 

equal authenticity, shall be opened fied copies shall be transmitted by 

for signature at Washington, D. C. that Government to the governments 

Both texts shall be deposited in the of all the States which may sign and 

archives of the Government of the accept this Agreement. 

[Signed: 2 ] For Afghanistan: A. HOSAYN Aziz; for the Government of the 
Commonwealth of Australia : (Subject to confirmation by Australian Government) 
ARTHUR S. DRAKEFORD; for Belgium: [April 9, 1945]; for Bolivia: TCNL. 
A. PACHECO; for Brazil: [May 29, 1945]; for Canada: H. J. SYMINGTON; for 
Chile: R. SAENZ, G. BISQUERT, R. MAGALLANES B.; for China: CHANG KIA 
NGAU; for Colombia: [May 24, 1945]; for Costa Rica: [March 10, 1945]; for 
Cuba: [April 20, 1945]; for Czechoslovakia: [April 18, 1945]; for the Domini- 
can Republic: C. A. MCLAUGHLIN; for Ecuador: J. A. CORREA; for Egypt: 
M. HASSAN, M. ROUSHDY, M. A. KHALIFA; for El Salvador: [May 9, 1945]; 
for Ethiopia: [March 22, 1945]; for France: M. HYMANS, C. LEBEL, P. 
LOCUSSOL, BOURGES; for Greece: D. NOTI BOTZARIZ, A. J. ARGYROPOULOS; 
for Guatemala: [January 30, 1945]; for Haiti: EDOUARD ROY; for Honduras: 

E. P. LEFEBVRE; for Iceland: THOR THORS; for India: G. BEWOOR; for Iran: 
M. SHAYESTEH; for Iraq: ALI JAWDAT; for Ireland: ROBT. BRENNAN, JOHN 
LEYDON, JOHN J. HEARNE, T. J. O'DRISCOLL; for Lebanon: C. CHAMOUN, 

F. EL-Hoss; for Liberia: WALTER F. WALKER; for Luxembourg: [July 9, 
1945]; for Mexico: PEDRO A. CHAPA; for the Netherlands: M. STEENBERGHE, 
COPES, F. E. ARONSTEIN; for the Government of New Zealand: DANIEL 
GILES SULLIVAN; for Nicaragua: R. E. FRIZELL; for Norway: [January 30, 
1945]; for Panama: [May 14, 1945]; for Paraguay: [July 27, 1945]; for 
Peru: A. REVOREDO, J. S. KOECHLIN, Luis ALVARADO, F. ELGUERA, GUIL- 
LERMO VAN OORDT; for the Philippine Commonwealth: J. HERNANDEZ, 
URBANO A. ZAFRA, J. H. FOLEY; for Poland: ZBYSLAW CIOLKOSZ, DR. H. J. 
GORECKI, STEFAN J. KONORSKI, WITOLD A. URBANOWICZ, LUDWIK H. 
GOTTLIEB; for Portugal: MARIO DE FIGUEIREDO, ALFREDO DELESQUE DOS 
SANTOS CINTRA, DUARTE DE GUSMAO, VASCO VIEIRA GARIN; for Spain: 

E. TERRADAS, GERMAN BARAIBAR; for Sweden: R. KUMLIN; for Switzer- 
land: CHARLES BRUGGMANN; for Syria: KAHALE; for Turkey: S. KOCAK, 

F. SAHINBAS, ORHAN H. EROL; for the Union of South Africa: [June 4, 
1945]; for the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland: SWINTON; for the United States of America: ADOLF A. 
BERLE, JR., ALFRED L. BUL WINKLE, CHAS. A. WOLVERTON, F. LAGUARDIA, 
EDWARD WARNER, L. WELCH POGUE, WILLIAM A. M. BURDEN; for Uru- 
guay: CARL CARBAJAL, COL. MEDARDO R. FARIAS; for Venezuela: (La 
Delegaci6n de Venezuela firma ad referendum y deja constancia de que la aprobaci6n 
de este documento por su Gobierno esta sujeta a las disposiciones constitucionales de 
los Estados Unidos de Venezuela.) F. J, SUCRE, J. BLANCO UsTARiz; for Den- 
mark: HENRIK KAUFFMANN; for Thailand: M. R. SENI PRAMOJ. 

printed from a lithographed certified copy of the signed original, prepared by the Depart- 
ment of State under date of Jan. 22, 1945. Signatures affixed to the original document 
subsequent to that date do not appear herein, but the dates of those signatures have been 
indicated in footnotes." For convenience in the present volume these dates have been 
inserted in brackets within the paragraph listing the signatories of the Agreement rather 
than in the form of footnotes. ED. 
See note i, above. 



1 68 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 640 

No. 640 

CONVENTION on International Civil Aviation. Opened for signa- 
ture at Chicago, December 7, 1944. 

CONVENTION relative ft Taviation" civile Internationale. Ouverte 
& la signature Si Chicago, 7 dScembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention was formulated at the International Civil Aviation 
Conference held at Chicago, November i-December 7, 1944. The first Assembly of ICAO, 
which met at Montreal May 6-27, 1947, adopted an amendment to the Convention (No. 
64oa, post). An interim agreement on the same subject (No. 639, ante), and agreements on 
air services transit and air transport (Nos. 641, 642, post) were also concluded at the Chicago 
Conference. For the text of the Paris convention on aerial navigation of 1919, and of the 
Habana convention on commercial aviation of 1928, denounced by several states in ac- 
cordance with Article 80 of this Convention, see Nos. 9 and 187, ante; cf. Nos. 412, 413, ante. 
For other agreements relating to international aviation, see Nos. 170, 235, 326, 328, 436, 531, 
532, 554. te; No. 644, post. 

RATIFICATIONS. On February 28, 1949, ratifications of or accessions to this Convention 
had been deposited at Washington by Afghanistan, Argentine Republic, Australia, Austria, 
Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, China, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, 
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Great Britain, 
Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, India, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Liberia, Luxemburg, Mexico, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, 
Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Spain (see No. 6403, post), Sweden, Switzerland (includ- 
ing Liechtenstein), Thailand, Transjordan, Turkey, the United States of America, and 
Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Convention is also published in U.S. Department of 
State, Publication No. 2282, Conference Series No. 64, p. 59; Br. Part. Papers, Misc. No. 6 
(1945), Cmd. 6614; Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, No. 36, p. 34. 

Anon., "The International Civil Aviation Organization," 18 U.S. Department of State 
Bulletin (1948), pp. 463-67, 491; W. L. Clayton, "Chicago Convention on International 
Civil Aviation," 14 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1946), pp. 1004-7; H. A. Colclaser, 
"The New International Civil Aviation Organization," 31 Virginia Law Review (1945), pp. 
457~78; A. Giannini, "La convenzione di Chicago sull'aviazione civile internazionale," 44 
Rivista di diritto commerciale (1946), pp. 83-92; R.Y. Jennings, " International Civil Aviation 
and the Law," 22 British Year Book of International Law (1945), pp. 191-209; S. Latchford, 
" Comparison of the Chicago Aviation Convention with the Paris and Habana Conventions," 

12 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1945), pp. 411-20; , "CITEJA and the Legal 

Committee of ICAO," 17 idem (1947), pp. 487-97; G. Norton, "First Assembly of ICAO," 
16 idem (1947), pp. 979-81; E. S. Prentice, "The First Assembly of the ICAO," idem, pp. 
1145-51 ; A. Ulloa, "La Organizaci6n de Aviaci6n Civil Internacional," 6 Revista peruana de 
derecho international (1946), pp. 41-53. See also the bibliography under No. 639, ante. 

Entered into force April 4, I047- 1 
Text and translation from 15 U.N. Treaty Series, p. 295. 

[Traduction] 

PREAMBLE PR&AMBULE 

Whereas the future development Consid6rant que le cteveloppement 
of international civil aviation can futur de Taviation civile interna- 
1 Filed with the Secretariat of the United Nations, No. 102, April 19, 1948. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



169 



greatly help to create and preserve 
friendship and understanding among 
the nations and peoples of the world, 
yet its abuse can become a threat to 
the general security; and 



Whereas it is desirable to avoid 
friction and to promote that cooper- 
ation between nations and peoples 
upon which the peace of the world 
depends; 

Therefore, the undersigned gov- 
ernments having agreed on certain 
principles and arrangements in order 
that international civil aviation may 
be developed in a safe and orderly 
manner and that international air 
transport services may be estab- 
lished on the basis of equality of op- 
portunity and operated soundly and 
economically; 

Have accordingly concluded this 
Convention to that end. 

PART I 

AIR NAVIGATION 

CHAPTER I 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICA- 
TION OF THE CONVENTION 

ARTICLE i. Sovereignty 

The contracting States recognize 
that every State has complete and 
exclusive sovereignty over the air- 
space above its territory. 

ARTICLE 2. Territory 

For the purposes of this Conven- 
tion the territory of a State shall be 
deemed to be the land areas and 
territorial waters adjacent thereto 
under the sovereignty, suzerainty, 
protection or mandate of such State. 

ARTICLE 3. Civil and state aircraft 

(a) This Convention shall be ap- 
plicable only to civil aircraft, and shall 
not be applicable to state aircraft. 



tionale peut contribuer puissamment 
faire naitre et maintenir entre les 
nations et les peuples du monde 
1'amitie et la comprehension, alors 
que tout abus qui en serait fait peut 
devenir un danger pour la s6curit6 
generate, et 

Considerant qu'il est desirable 
d'eviter tout disaccord entre nations 
et entre peuples et de d6velopper 
entre eux cette cooperation dont de- 
pend la paix du monde, 

En consequence, les Gouverne- 
ments soussignes etant convenus de 
certains principes et arrangements, 
afin que Taviation civile Interna- 
tionale puisse se developper d'une 
mantere sflre et ordonnee et que les 
services internationaux de trans- 
ports aeriens puissent tre etablis en 
donnant tous des chances egales, 
et exploites d'une mantere saine et 
economique; 

Ont conclu la presente Convention 
4 ces fins. 

PREMlfiRE PARTIE 

NAVIGATION ARIENNE 

CHAPITRE I 

PRINCIPES GNRAUX ET APPLICA- 
TION DE LA CONVENTION 

ARTICLE i. Souveraineti 

Les Etats contractants reconnais- 
sent que chaque Etat a la souverain- 
ete complete et exclusive sur 1'espace 
aerien au-dessus de son territoire. 

ARTICLE 2. Territoire 

Aux fins de la presente Conven- 
tion, il faut entendre par territoire 
d'un Etat les regions terrestres et les 
eaux territoriales y adjacentes pla- 
c6es sous la souverainete, la suzer- 
ainete, la protection ou le mandat 
dudit Etat. 

ARTICLE 3. Atronefs civils et 
aSronefs d'Etat 

a) La presente Convention ne 
s'applique qu'aux aronefs civils et 
ne s'applique pas aux a6ronefs d f Etat. 



170 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



(b) Aircraft used in military, cus- 
toms and police services shall be 
deemed to be state aircraft. 

(c) No state aircraft of a contract- 
ing State shall fly over the territory 
of another State or land thereon 
without authorization by special 
agreement or otherwise, and in ac- 
cordance with the terms thereof. 

(d) The contracting States under- 
take, when issuing regulations for 
their state aircraft, that they will 
have due regard for the safety of 
navigation of civil aircraft. 

ARTICLE 4. Misuse of civil aviation 

Each contracting State agrees 
not to use civil aviation for any pur- 
pose inconsistent with the aims of 
this Convention. 

CHAPTER II 

FLIGHT OVER TERRITORY OF CON- 
TRACTING STATES 

ARTICLE 5. Right of non-scheduled 
flight 

Each contracting State agrees that 
all aircraft of the other contracting 
States, being aircraft not engaged in 
scheduled international air services 
shall have the right, subject to the 
observance of the terms of this Con- 
vention, to make flights into or in 
transit non-stop across its territory 
and to make stops for non-traffic 
purposes without the necessity of 
obtaining prior permission, and sub- 
ject to the right of the State flown 
over to require landing. Each con- 
tracting State nevertheless reserves 
the right, for reasons of safety of 
flight, to require aircraft desiring to 
proceed over regions which are in- 
accessible or without adequate air 
navigation facilities to follow pre- 
scribed routes, or to obtain special 
permission for such Sights. 



b) Les aronefs militaires et ceux 
de douane ou de police sont con- 
sid6r6s comme a6ronefs d'Etat. 

c) Aucun aronef d'Etat d'un 
Etat contractant ne peut survoler le 
territoire d'un autre Etat ou y at- 
terrir sans en avoir obtenu 1'autori- 
sation par voie d 'accord special ou 
de toute autre mantere, et conform6- 
ment aux conditions ainsi stiputees. 

d) Les Etats contractants s'en- 
gagent tenir dflment compte de la 
s6curit6 de la navigation des a6ronefs 
civils, lorsqu'ils tabliront des r6gle- 
ments pour leurs a6ronefs d'Etat. 

ARTICLE ^Emploi abusif de 
Variation civile 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
ne pas employer 1'aviation civile 
des fins incompatibles avec les buts 
de la pr6sente Convention. 

CHAPITRE II 

SURVOL DES TERRITOIRES DES 6TATS 
CONTRACTANTS 

ARTICLE 5. Droit de survol pour les 
aSronefs n'assurant pas des services 
reguliers 

Chaque Etat contractant convient 
que tous les a6ronefs des autres Etats 
contractants qui ne sont pas em- 
ploys & des services ariens inter- 
nationaux reguliers ont le droit de 
pn6trer sur son territoire, ou de le 
traverser en transit sans escale, et 
d'y faire des escales non commer- 
ciales sans avoir & obtenir une auto- 
risation pr6alable, & condition que 
soient respects les termes de la 
prsente Convention et sous reserve 
du droit pour TEtat survolfe d'exiger 
un atterrissage. N6anmoins, chaque 
Etat contractant se reserve, pour des 
raisons de s6curit6 de vol, le droit 
d'exiger que les aronefs qui d6- 
sirent survoler des regions inacces- 
sibles, ou non pourvues de facilit6s 
adquates pour la navigation ari- 
enne, suivent les routes prescrites ou 
obtiennent une autorisation sp6ciale. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



171 



Such aircraft, if engaged in the 
carriage of passengers, cargo, or mail 
for remuneration or hire on other 
than scheduled international air 
services, shall also, subject to the 
provisions of Article 7, have the 
privilege of taking on or discharging 
passengers, cargo, mail, subject to 
the right of any State where such 
embarkation or discharge takes place 
to impose such regulations, condi- 
tions or limitations as it may con- 
sider desirable. 



ARTICLE 6. Scheduled air services 

No scheduled international air 
service may be operated over or into 
the territory of a contracting State, 
except with the special permission or 
other authorization of that State, 
and in accordance with the terms 
of such permission or authorization. 



ARTICLE 7. Cabotage 

Each contracting State shall have 
the right to refuse permission to the 
aircraft of other contracting States 
to take on in its territory passengers, 
mail and cargo carried for remunera- 
tion or hire and destined for another 
point within its territory. Each con- 
tracting State undertakes not to 
enter into any arrangements which 
specifically grant any such privilege 
on an exclusive basis to any other 
State or an airline of any other 
State, and not to obtain any such 
exclusive privilege from any other 
State. 



ARTICLE 8. Pilotless aircraft 

No aircraft capable of being flown 
without a pilot shall be flown with- 



Si lesdits aronefs assurent le 
transport de passagers, de marchan- 
dises ou de courrier, moyennant re- 
muneration ou en execution d'un 
contrat de location, en dehors des 
services aeriens internationaux r6gu- 
liers, ils auront aussi le privilege, 
sous reserve des dispositions de 
1'article 7, d'embarquer ou de d6- 
barquer des passagers, des marchan- 
dises ou du courrier, sous reserve du 
droit pour 1'Etat oft a lieu 1'em- 
barquement ou le debarquement 
d'imposer telles r6glementations, 
conditions ou restrictions qu'il 
pourra juger souhai tables. 

ARTICLE 6. Services atriens riguliers 

Aucun service arien international 
regulier ne peut tre exploit^ au- 
dessus du territoire d'un Etat con- 
tractant ou 1'interieur de celui-ci, 
sauf avec une permission spciale ou 
toute autre autorisation dudit Etat 
et condition de se conformer aux 
termes de ladite permission ou auto- 
risation. 

ARTICLE 7. Cabotage 

Chaque Etat contractant a le 
droit de refuser aux a6ronefs d'autres 
Etats contractants la permission 
d'embarquer sur son territoire des 
passagers, du courrier ou des mar- 
chandises pour les transporter & 
destination d'un autre point situ6 
4 1'interieur de son territoire, moyen- 
nant remuneration ou en execution 
d'un contrat de location. Chaque 
Etat contractant s'engage d'une 
part & ne conclure aucun arrange- 
ment aux termes duquel tout privi- 
l&ge de cette nature serait express6- 
ment accorde, sur la base de 1'ex- 
clusivite, un autre Etat ou une 
entreprise de transports aeriens d'un 
autre Etat, et d'autre part 4 ne pas se 
faire octroyer un tel privilege ex- 
clusif par un autre Etat. 

ARTICLE S.ASronefs sans piloie 

Aucun a^ronef susceptible de voler 
sans pilote ne peut survoler sans 



172 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



out a pilot over the territory of a 
contracting State without special 
authorization by that State and in 
accordance with the terms of such 
authorization. Each contracting 
State undertakes to insure that the 
flight of such aircraft without a 
pilot in regions open to civil aircraft 
shall be so controlled as to obviate 
danger to civil aircraft. 

ARTICLE 9. Prohibited areas 

(a) Each contracting State may, 
for reasons of military necessity or 
public safety, restrict or prohibit 
uniformly the aircraft of other States 
from flying over certain areas of its 
territory, provided that no distinc- 
tion in this respect is made between 
the aircraft of the State whose terri- 
tory is involved, engaged in inter- 
national scheduled airline services, 
and the aircraft of the other contract- 
ing States likewise engaged. Such 
prohibited areas shall be of reason- 
able extent and location so as not to 
interfere unnecessarily with air navi- 
gation. Descriptions of such pro- 
hibited areas in the territory of a 
contracting State, as well as any 
subsequent alterations therein, shall 
be communicated as soon as possible 
to the other contracting States and 
to the International Civil Aviation 
Organization. 



(b) Each contracting State re- 
serves also the right, in exceptional 
circumstances or during a period of 
emergency, or in the interest of pub- 
lic safety, and with immediate effect, 
temporarily to restrict or prohibit 
flying over the whole or any part of 
its territory, on condition that such 
restriction or prohibition shall be 
applicable without distinction of 
nationality to aircraft of all other 
States. 

(c) Each contracting State, under 



pilote le territoire d'un Etat con- 
tractant & moins d'une autorisation 
sp6ciale dudit Etat et conform6ment 
aux termes de ladite autorisation. 
Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
prendre les mesures ncessaires 
pour que le vol sans pilote d'un 
tel a6ronef dans des regions ouvertes 
aux aronefs civils soit soumis 
contrdle de mani&re 6viter tout 
danger pour les a^ronefs civils. 

ARTICLE 9. Zones interfiles 

a) Chaque Etat contractant peut, 
pour des raisons de ncessit militaire 
ou dans l'intret de la scurit6 publi- 
que, restreindre ou interdire d'une 
mantere uniforme pour tous a6ronefs 
d 'autres Etats le survol de certaines 
zones de son territoire, 6tant en- 
tendu qu'il ne sera fait aucune 
distinction & cet gard entre les 
a^ronefs de 1'Etat en question em- 
ploys des services ariens inter- 
nationaux rguliers et les a6ronefs 
des autres Etats contractants em- 
ploys des services similaires. 
Lesdites zones interdites devront 
avoir une 6tendue et un emplacement 
raisonnables de fagon ne pas gener 
inutilement la navigation arienne. 
La definition desdites zones inter- 
dites situes sur le territoire d'un 
Etat contractant et toutes les modi- 
fications dont elles pourraient faire 
1'objet par la suite doivent gtre 
communiques dfes que possible aux 
autres Etats contractants ainsi qu' 
TOrganisation de 1'aviation civile 
internationale. 

b) Chaque Etat contractant se 
reserve 6galement le droit, dans des 
circonstances exceptionnelles ou pen- 
dant une p6riode de crise ou encore 
dans l'intrt de la scurit6 publique, 
de restreindre ou d'interdire pro- 
visoirement, et avec effet imm6diat, 
le survol de son territoire ou d'une 
partie decelui-ci, ^condition que cette 
restriction ou interdiction soit appli- 
cable, sans distinction de nationalit6, 
aux aronefs de tous les autres Etats. 

c) Chaque Etat contractant peut, 



Dec. 7, 1944 

such regulations as it may prescribe, 
may require any aircraft entering the 
areas contemplated in subparagraphs 
(a) or (b) above to effect a landing as 
soon as practicable thereafter at 
some designated airport within its 
territory. 

ARTICLE 10. Landing at customs 
airport 

Except in a case where, under the 
terms of this Convention or a special 
authorization, aircraft are permitted 
to cross the territory of a contracting 
State without landing, every aircraft 
which enters the territory of a con- 
tracting State shall, if the regulations 
of that State so require, land at an 
airport designated by that State for 
the purpose of customs and other 
examination. On departure from 
the territory of a contracting State, 
such aircraft shall depart from a 
similarly designated customs airport. 
Particulars of all designated customs 
airports shall be published by the 
State and transmitted to the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
established under Part II of this 
Convention for communication to all 
other contracting States. 



ARTICLE n. Applicability of air 
regulations 

Subject to the provisions of this 
Convention, the laws and regulations 
of a contracting State relating to the 
admission to or departure from its 
territory of aircraft engaged in in- 
ternational air navigation, or to the 
operation and navigation of such air- 
craft while within its territory, shall 
be applied to the aircraft of all con- 
tracting States without distinction 
as to nationality, and shall be com- 
plied with by such aircraft upon en- 
tering or departing from or while 
within the territory of that State. 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



173 



dans des conditions qu'il a la facult6 
de determiner, exiger que tout 
aronef qui p6ntre dans les zones 
vis6es aux alin6as a) et b) ci-dessus, 
atterrisse aussit&t que possible sur 
un a6roport d6sign6 & I'int6rieur de 
son territoire. 

ARTICLE 10. Atterrissage sur un 
a&roport douanier 

En dehors du cas oti, aux termes 
de la prsente Convention ou d'une 
autorisation sp6ciale, des a6ronefs 
ont la permission de traverser le 
territoire d'un Etat contractant sans 
y atterrir, tout a6ronef qui pn6tre 
sur le territoire d'un Etat contractant 
doit, si les rdglements dudit Etat 
1'exigent, atterrir sur un a6roport 
d6sign6 par cet Etat aux fins d'in- 
spections douanidres et autres. En 
quittant le territoire d'un Etat 
contractant, tout aronef doit partir 
d'un a6roport douanier d6sign6 de la 
mme mantere. Les caractristiques 
de tous les a6roports dsigns comme 
a6roports douaniers doivent 6tre 
publies par chaque Etat et trans- 
mises & 1'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile Internationale institute en 
vertu des dispositions de la deuxi&ne 
partie de la pr6sente Convention, 
qui en donnera communication & 
tous les autres Etats contractants. 

ARTICLE n. Application des rlgle- 
ments relatifs d la navigation 
a&rienne 

Sous reserve des dispositions de la 
pr6sente Convention, les lois et 
rglements d'un Etat contractant 
rgissant sur son territoire l'entre et 
la sortie des a6ronefs employes & la 
navigation a6rienne internationale, 
ou r6gissant 1'exploitation et la 
navigation desdits a6ronefs pendant 
leur sjour I'int6rieur de son 
territoire, s'appliquent, sans dis- 
tinction de nationality, aux aferonefs 
de tous les Etats contractants, et 
lesdits a6ronefs doivent s'y con- 
former & I'entr6e, la sortie et 4 
Tint^rieur du territoire de cet Etat. 



174 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



ARTICLE 12. Rules of the air 

Each contracting State under- 
takes to adopt measures to insure 
that every aircraft flying over or 
maneuvering within its territory and 
that every aircraft carrying its na- 
tionality mark, wherever such air- 
craft may be, shall comply with the 
rules and regulations relating to the 
flight and maneuver of aircraft there 
in force. Each contracting State 
undertakes to keep its own regula- 
tions in these respects uniform, to 
the greatest possible extent, with 
those established from time to time 
under this Convention. Over the 
high seas, the rules in force shall be 
those established under this Con- 
vention. Each contracting State 
undertakes to insure the prosecution 
of all persons violating the regula- 
tions applicable. 



ARTICLE 13. Entry and clearance 
regulations 

The laws and regulations of a con- 
tracting State as to the admission to 
or departure from its territory of 
passengers, crew or cargo of aircraft, 
such as regulations relating to entry, 
clearance, immigration, passports, 
customs, and quarantine shall be 
complied with by or on behalf of 
such passengers, crew or cargo upon 
entrance into or departure from, or 
while within the territory of that 
State. 



ARTICLE 14. Prevention of spread of 
disease 

Each contracting State agrees to 
take effective measures to prevent 
the spread by means of air navigation 
of cholera, typhus (epidemic), small- 
pox, yellow fever, plague, and such 
other communicable diseases as the 
contracting States shall from time to 
time decide to designate, and to that 
end contracting States will keep in 
close consultation with the agencies 



ARTICLE 12. Rtgles de Vair 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
It adopter des mesures propres It 
assurer que tout aronef survolant 
son territoire ou y manoeuvrant, ainsi 

3ue tout a^ronef portant la marque 
e sa nationality en quelque lieu 
qu'il se trouve, se conforme aux 
regies et rglements applicables en ce 
lieu au vol et It la manoeuvre des 
aronefs. Chaque Etat contractant 
prend Tengagement de veiller It ce 
que ses propres r&glements de- 
meurent It cet 6gard et dans la plus 
grande mesure possible conformes It 
ceux qui seront tablis de temps It 
autre en application de la pr6sente 
Convention. En haute mer, les 
regies applicables seront les regies 
tablies conformment la pr6sente 
Convention. Chaque Etat con- 
tractant s'engage poursuivre toutes 
les personnes qui enfreindront les 
r&glements applicables. 

ARTICLE 13. Rtglements d'entrte et 
de congt 

Les lois et rglements d'un Etat 
contractant r6gissant, sur son terri- 
toire, I'entr6e ou la sortie des 
passagers, des Equipages ou des 
marchandises transports par aron- 
efs, tels que les lois et rglements 
relatifs aux formalins d 'entre, de 
cong, d'immigration, de passeports, 
de douane et de quarantaine, doivent 
gtre observes par lesdits passagers ou 
Equipages ou pour lesdites mar- 
chandises, It Tentr6e, It la sortie ou It 
I'int6rieur du territoire de cet Etat. 

ARTICLE 14. Protection contre la 
propagation des maladies 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
It prendre des mesures efficaces pour 
pr6venir la propagation, par 1'inter- 
mdiaire de la navigation a6rienne, 
du cholera, du typhus (6pidmique), 
de la variole, de la fifrvre jaune, de la 
peste, ainsi que de toute autre 
maladie contagieuse qu'il appartien- 
dra aux Etats contractants, le cas 
6ch6ant, de designer. A cette fin, 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



175 



concerned with international regu- 
lations relating to sanitary measures 
applicable to aircraft. Such con- 
sultation shall be without prejudice 
to the application of any existing 
international convention on this 
subject to which the contracting 
States may be parties. 



ARTICLE 15. Airport and similar 
charges 

Every airport in a contracting 
State which is open to public use by 
its national aircraft shall likewise, 
subject to the provisions of Article 
68, be open under uniform condi- 
tions to the aircraft of all the other 
contracting States. The like uni- 
form conditions shall apply to the 
use, by aircraft of every contracting 
State, of all air navigation facilities, 
including radio and meteorological 
services, which may be provided for 
public use for the safety and expedi- 
tion of air navigation. 



Any charges that may be imposed 
or permitted to be imposed by a con- 
tracting State for the use of such air- 
ports and air navigation facilities by 
the aircraft of any other contracting 
State shall not be higher, 

(a) As to aircraft not engaged in 
scheduled international air services, 
than those that would be paid by its 
national aircraft of the same class 
engaged in similar operations, and 

(b) As to aircraft engaged in 
scheduled international air services, 
than those that would be paid by its 
national aircraft engaged in similar 
international air services. 

All such charges shall be published 
and communicated to the Interna- 



les Etats contractants se tiendront 
en 6troite consultation avec les 
prganismes charges des r&glements 
internationaux relatifs aux mesures 
sanitaires applicables aux aronefs. 
Ces consultations n'affecteront en 
rien 1'application de toute conven- 
tion Internationale existante en la 
matifere & laquelle les Etats contrac- 
tants pourraient gtre parties. 

ARTICLE 13. Taxes d'atroports et 
droits similaires 

Tout a6roport d'un Etat con- 
tractant qui est ouvert aux a6ronefs 
nationaux de cet Etat aux fins 
d'usage public est, sous reserve des 
dispositions de Tarticle 68, 6galement 
ouvert dans des conditions uniformes 
aux a6ronefs de tous les autres Etats 
contractants. Des conditions fegale- 
ment uniformes sont applicables en 
ce qui concerne 1'utilisation par les 
a6ronefs de chaque Etat contractant 
de toutes les facilits pour la naviga- 
tion arienne, y compris les services 
radiolectriques et m6t6orologiques, 
qui peuvent etre mises la disposi- 
tion du public pour contribuer a la 
scurit6 et la rapidit6 de la naviga- 
tion a6rienne. 

Les taxes qu'un Etat contractant 
peut imposer ou permettre d'imposer 
pour 1'utilisation desdits aroports et 
facilitfe pour la navigation arienne 
par les a6ronefs de tout autre Etat 
contractant ne doivent pas tre plus 



a) Pour ce qui est des a^ronefs 
qui ne sont pas employes a des serv- 
ices ariens internationaux r6guliers, 
que les droits acquitts par ses 
aronefs nationaux de meme classe 
employes a des services similaires; et 

b) Pour ce qui est des aronefs 
employes & des services a6riens inter- 
nationaux r6guliers, que les droits 
acquitts par ses aronefs nationaux 
employes a des services interna- 
tionaux similaires. 

Toutes ces taxes seront publtees et 
communiques TOrganisation de 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



tional Civil Aviation Organization: 
provided that, upon representation 
by an interested contracting State, 
the charges imposed for the use of 
airports and other facilities shall be 
subject to review by the Council, 
which shall report and make recom- 
mendations thereon for the consid- 
eration of the State or States con- 
cerned. No fees, dues or other 
charges shall be imposed by any 
contracting State in respect solely 
of the right of transit over or entry 
into or exit from its territory of any 
aircraft of a contracting State or 
persons or property thereon. 

ARTICLE 16. Search of Aircraft 

The appropriate authorities of 
each of the contracting States shall 
have the right, without unreasonable 
delay, to search aircraft of the other 
contracting States on landing or de- 
parture, and to inspect the certifi- 
cates and other documents prescribed 
by this Convention. 



CHAPTER III 

NATIONALITY OF AIRCRAFT 

ARTICLE 17. Nationality of aircraft 

Aircraft have the nationality of 
the State in which they are registered. 

ARTICLE iS.Dual registration 

An aircraft cannot be validly 
registered in more than one State, 
but its registration may be changed 
from one State to another. 

ARTICLE 19. National laws 
governing registration 

The registration or transfer of 
registration of aircraft in any con- 
tracting State shall be made in ac- 
cordance with its laws and regula- 
tions. 



1'aviation civile Internationale, 6tant 
entendu que, sur representation d'un 
Etat contractant intress6, les taxes 
imposes pour 1'utilisation des a6ro- 
ports et autres facilit6s feront 1'objet 
d'un examen par le Conseil, qui 
etablira un rapport et formulera des 
recommandations ce sujet aux fins 
d 'examen par 1'Etat ou les Etats 
intress6s. Aucun Etat contractant 
n'imposera de droits, frais ou autres 
taxes uniquement en raison du droit 
de transit ou d f entr6e, au-dessus du 
territoire ou sur celui-ci, ou de sortie 
hors de celui-ci d'un a6ronef quel- 
conque d'un Etat contractant, ou des 
personnes ou biens se trouvant bord. 

ARTICLE 16. Visite des atronefs 

Les autorit6s comp6tentes de cha- 
cun des Etats contractants ont le 
droit de visiter, 1'atterrissage et au 
depart, sans provoquer de retard 
excessif, les aronefs des autres 
Etats contractants, ainsi que d'ex- 
aminer les certificats et autres docu- 
ments presents par la pr6sente Con- 
vention. 

CHAPITRE III 

NATIONALITY DES A^RONEFS 

ARTICLE 17. Nationality des aSronefs 

Les aronefs ont la nationality de 
1'Etat dans lequel ils sont immatri- 
cutes. 

ARTICLE 18. Immatriculation 
multiple 

Un a^ronef ne peut Stre valable- 
ment immatricul6 dans plusieurs 
Etats. Toutefois, son immatricula- 
tion peut 6tre transferee d'un Etat 
un autre. 

ARTICLE 19. Lois nationales 
rSgissant Vimmatriculation 

L'immatriculation ou le transfert 
d'immatriculation d'un a^ronef dans 
un Etat contractant quelconque 
s'effectuera conform6ment aux lois 
et rfiglements dudit Etat. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



177 



ARTICLE 20. Display of marks 

Every aircraft engaged in inter- 
national air navigation shall bear its 
appropriate nationality and regis- 
tration marks. 

ARTICLE 21. Report of registrations 

Each contracting State under- 
takes to supply to any other con- 
tracting State or to the International 
Civil Aviation Organization, on de- 
mand, information concerning the 
registration and ownership of any 
particular aircraft registered in that 
State. In addition, each contract- 
ing State shall furnish reports to the 
International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization, under such regulations as 
the latter may prescribe, giving such 
pertinent data as can be made 
available concerning the ownership 
and control of aircraft registered in 
that State and habitually engaged in 
international air navigation. The 
data thus obtained by the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization 
shall be made available by it on 
request to the other contracting 
States. 



CHAPTER IV 

MEASURES TO FACILITATE AIR 
NAVIGATION 

ARTICLE 22. Facilitation of 
formalities 

Each contracting State agrees 
to adopt all practicable measures, 
through the issuance of special regu- 
lations or otherwise, to facilitate and 
expedite navigation by aircraft be- 
tween the territories of contracting 
States, and to prevent unnecessary 
delays to aircraft, crews, passengers 
and cargo, especially in the adminis- 
tration of the laws relating to immi- 
gration, quarantine, customs and 
clearance. 



ARTICLE 20. Port des marques 

Tout a6ronef employ^ & la naviga- 
tion arienne Internationale portera 
les marques de nationality et d'im- 
matriculation qui lui sont propres. 

ARTICLE 21. Communication des 
immatriculations 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
& fournir, sur demande, i tout autre 
Etat contractant ou & 1'Organisation 
de 1'aviation civile Internationale, 
des renseignements concernant Tim- 
matriculation et la propri6t6 de 
tout a6ronef immatricul6 dans ledit 
Etat. De plus, chaque Etat con- 
tractant fournira 1'Organization de 
1'aviation civile internationale, con- 
formment aux regies que cette 
derntere pourrait prescrire, des rap- 
ports donnant tous les renseigne- 
ments pertinents qu'il lui sera pos- 
sible de fournir concernant la pro- 
pri6t6 et le contrfile des a6ronefs 
immatricutes dans cet Etat et nor- 
malement affect^s la navigation 
arienne internationale. L'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile internatio- 
nale mettra les renseignements ainsi 
obtenus & la disposition des autres 
Etats contractants sur leur demande. 

CHAPITRE IV 

MESURES DESTINIES A FACILITER LA 
NAVIGATION A^RIENNE 

ARTICLE 22. Simplification des 
formalitis 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
& adopter, par la promulgation de 
rfeglements spciaux ou de toute autre 
manure, toutes mesures pratiques 
tendant faciliter et & acc616rer la 
navigation par a6ronef entre les 
territoires des Etats contractants, 
ainsi qu' viter des retards inu tiles 
aux a6ronefs, leurs Equipages, 
leurs passagers et & leur cargaison, 
sp6cialement en ce qui concerne 
1'application des lois relatives 
Timmigration, la quarantaine, aux 
douanes et aux formalitfe de cong6. 



178 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



ARTICLE 23. Customs and immigra- 
tion procedures 

Each contracting State under- 
takes, so far as it may find practica- 
ble, to establish customs and immi- 
gration procedures affecting inter- 
national air navigation in accordance 
with the practices which may be es- 
tablished or recommended from time 
to time, pursuant to this Convention. 
Nothing in this Convention shall be 
construed as preventing the estab- 
lishment of customs-free airports. 



ARTICLE 24. Customs duty 

(a) Aircraft on a flight to, from, or 
across the territory of another con- 
tracting State shall be admitted 
temporarily free of duty, subject to 
the customs regulations of the State. 
Fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, 
regular equipment and aircraft stores 
on board an aircraft of a contracting 
State, on arrival in the territory of 
another contracting State and re- 
tained on board on leaving the terri- 
tory of that State shall be exempt 
from customs duty, inspection fees or 
similar national or local duties and 
charges. This exemption shall not 
apply to any quantities or articles 
unloaded, except in accordance with 
the customs regulations of the State, 
which may require that they shall 
be kept under customs supervision. 



(b) Spare parts and equipment 
imported into the territory of a con- 
tracting State for incorporation in or 
use on an aircraft of another con- 
tracting State engaged in interna- 
tional air navigation shall be ad- 
mitted free of customs duty, subject 



ARTICLE 23. FormaliUs de douane 
et d' immigration 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage, 
dans la mesure oil il le jugera r6alisa- 
ble, 6tablir des r&glements de 
douane et d'immigration s'appli- 
quant la navigation arienne In- 
ternationale, conform6ment aux m- 
thodes qui pourraient fitre 6tablies 
ou recommand&es de temps autre 
en application de la prsente Con- 
vention. Aucune disposition de la 
pr6sente Convention ne peut gtre 
interprte comme empgchant la 
creation d'aroports francs. 

ARTICLE 24. Droits de douane 

a) Tout aronef effectuant un 
voyage destination ou en prove- 
nance du territoire d'un autre Etat 
contractant, ou travers ledit terri- 
toire, est temporairement admis en 
franchise de douane, dans les condi- 
tions pr6vues par les rdglements 
douaniers de cet Etat. Les carbu- 
rants, les huiles lubrifiantes, les 
pieces de rechange, I'^quipement 
normal et les appro visionnements de 
bord se trouvant bord d'un a6ronef 
d'un Etat contractant, son arrivte 
sur le territoire d'un autre Etat 
contractant et se trouvant encore 
bord dudit a^ronef lors de son depart 
de ce territoire, sont exon6r6s des 
droits de douane, frais de visite ou 
autres droits et taxes similaires im- 
posts par 1'Etat ou les autorit6s lo- 
cales. Cette exoneration ne s'ap- 
plique pas aux quantits ou aux 
objets d6charg6s, sauf dispositions 
contraires des r&glements douaniers 
de cet Etat, lesquels peuvent stipu- 
ler que lesdites quantit&s ou objets 
seront gardes sous la surveillance de 
la douane. 

b) Les pieces de rechange et 
r^quipement imports dans le terri- 
toire d'un Etat contractant pour 
fitre months ou utilises sur un 
a^ronef d'un autre Etat contractant 
employ^ la navigation arienne 
Internationale sont admis en fran- 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



179 



to compliance with the regulations 
of the State concerned, which may 
provide that the articles shall be 
kept under customs supervision and 
control. 



ARTICLE 25. Aircraft in distress 

Each contracting State under- 
takes to provide such measures of 
assistance to aircraft in distress in 
its territory as it may find practica- 
ble, and to permit, subject to control 
by its own authorities, the owners of 
the aircraft or authorities of the 
State in which the aircraft is regis- 
tered to provide such measures of 
assistance as may be necessitated by 
the circumstances. Each contract- 
ing State, when undertaking search 
for missing aircraft, will collaborate 
in coordinated measures which may 
be recommended from time to time 
pursuant to this Convention. 



ARTICLE 26. Investigation of 
accidents 

In the event of an accident to an 
aircraft of a contracting State oc- 
curring in the territory of another 
contracting State, and involving 
death or serious injury, or indicating 
serious technical defect in the aircraft 
or air navigation facilities, the State 
in which the accident occurs will 
institute an inquiry into the circum- 
stances of the accident, in accord- 
ance, so far as its laws permit, with 
the procedure which may be recom- 
mended by the International Civil 
Aviation Organization. The State 
in which the aircraft is registered 
shall be given the opportunity to 
appoint observers to be present at 
the inquiry and the State holding 
the inquiry shall communicate the 
report and findings in the matter 
to that State. 



chise de douane, sous reserve de 
Tobservation des rglements de TEtat 
int6ress6, lesquels peuvent stipuler 
que les articles en question seront 
gardes sous la surveillance et le 
contrdle de la douane. 

ARTICLE 25. Atronejs en dtiresse 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
fournir toute Tassistance qu'il 
jugera possible aux a6ronefs en 
d6tresse sur son territoire et, sous 
reserve de 1'exercice d'un droit de 
contr&le par ses propres autoritfes, 
permettre aux propri6taires ou aux 
autorit6s de 1'Etat dans lequel 
l'aronef est immatricul de fournir 
les mesures d 'assistance que les cir- 
constances pourraient ncessiter. 
Chaque Etat contractant, lorsqu'il 
entreprendra des recherches pour 
retrouver des aronefs disparus, 
participera aux mesures coordonnes 
qui pourront tre recommand6es de 
temps autre en application de la 
pr6sente Convention. 

ARTICLE 26. Enquite sur accidents 

En cas d'accident survenu 4 un 
aronef d'un Etat contractant sur le 
territoire d'un autre Etat con- 
tractant, entralnant mort ou bles- 
sures graves, ou indiquant 1'existence 
de graves imperfections techniques 
dans I'a6ronef ou dans les facilit6s 
pour la navigation arienne, 1'Etat 
sur le territoire duquel 1'accident 
s'est produit ouvre une enqute 
sur les circonstances de 1'accident, en 
se conformant, dans la mesure oft 
ses lois le permettent, & la procedure 
qui pourra 6tre recommande par 
1'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
Internationale. II sera accord6 
1'Etat dans lequel I'a6ronef est im- 
matricu!6 la possibility de designer 
des observateurs pour assister 
1'enqufite, et 1'Etat qui proc6dera 
cette enqufite communiquera Tautre 
Etat le rapport et les conclusions 
concernant Taccident. 



1 80 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



ARTICLE 27. Exemption from seizure 
on patent claims 

(a) While engaged in interna- 
tional air navigation, any authorized 
entry of aircraft of a contracting 
State into the territory of another 
contracting State or authorized tran- 
sit across the territory of such State 
with or without landings shall not 
entail any seizure or detention of the 
aircraft or any claim against the 
owner or operator thereof or any 
other interference therewith by or on 
behalf of such State or any person 
therein, on the ground that the con- 
struction, mechanism, parts, ac- 
cessories or operation of the aircraft 
is an infringement of any patent, 
design, or model duly granted or 
registered in the State whose terri- 
tory is entered by the aircraft, it 
being agreed that no deposit of se- 
curity in connection with the fore- 
going exemption from seizure or 
detention of the aircraft shall in any 
case be required in the State en- 
tered by such aircraft. 

(b) The provisions of paragraph 
(a) of this Article shall also be appli- 
cable to the storage of spare parts 
and spare equipment for the aircraft 
and the right to use and install the 
same in the repair of an aircraft of a 
contracting State in the territory of 
any other contracting State, pro- 
vided that any patented part or 
equipment so stored shall not be 
sold or distributed internally in or 
exported commercially from the 
contracting State entered by the 
aircraft. 



(c) The benefits of this Article 
shall apply only to such States, 
parties to this Convention, as either 
(i) are parties to the International 
Convention for the Protection of 
Industrial Property and to any 
amendments thereof; or (2) have 
enacted patent laws which recognize 
and give adequate protection to 



ARTICLE 27. Exemption de saisie 
pour contrefa$on de brevet d'invention 

a) Lorsqu'un a6ronef d'un Etat 
contractant est employ^ 4 la naviga- 
tion arienne internationale, Tentr6e 
autorise sur le territoire d'un autre 
Etat contractant ou le transit auto- 
ris6 travers ledit territoire avec ou 
sans atterrissage ne peut donner lieu 
ni saisie ou retention de I'a6ronef, 
ni reclamation Tencontre de son 
proprtetaire ou exploitant, ni & toute 
autre intervention de la part ou au 
nom de cet Etat ou de toute per- 
sonne y r6sidant, sous pr6texte que 
la construction, le m6canisme, les 
pieces, les accessoires, ou le mode de 
fonctionnement de l'aronef con- 
stituent la contrefagon d'un brevet, 
dessin ou module quelconque ddment 
accord6 ou dpos dans 1'Etat sur 
le territoire duquel a pn6tr l'a- 
ronef, 6tant entendu que 1'Etat sur 
le territoire duquel a pntr6 I'a6- 
ronef n'exigera en aucun cas un 
dp6t de garantie pour 1 'exemption 
mentionnte ci-dessus de saisie ou de 
retention de Taronef. 

b) Les dispositions du paragraphe 
a) du present article s'appliquent 
galement au magasinage des pieces 
dltaches et quipements de re- 
change pour Iesa6ronefs, ainsi qu'au 
droit d'utiliser et d'installer ces 
pieces et 6quipements lors de la 
reparation d'un aronef d'un Etat 
contractant sur le territoire d'un 
autre Etat contractant, tant en- 
tendu que toute ptece ou quipement 
brevet6 ainsi emmagasin6 ne peut 
Stre vendu ou distribu6 & I'int6rieur 
de 1'Etat sur le territoire duquel a 
p6ntr6 l'aronef, ou export^ dudit 
Etat titre commercial. 

c) Ne bn6ficient des dispositions 
du present article que les Etats 
parties la prsente Convention 
i) qui spnt parties la Convention 
internationale pour la protection de 
la propri^t^ industrielle et 4 tous 
amendements ladite Convention, 
ou 2) qui ont promulgu des lois sur 
les brevets reconnaissant les inven- 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



181 



inventions made by the nationals of 
the other States parties to this Con- 
vention. 

ARTICLE 28. Air navigation facilities 
and standard systems 

Each contracting State undertakes, 
so far as it may find practicable, to: 

(a) Provide, in its territory, air- 
ports, radio services, meteorological 
services and other air navigation 
facilities to facilitate international 
air navigation, in accordance with 
the standards and practices recom- 
mended or established from time to 
time, pursuant to this Convention; 

(b) Adopt and put into operation 
the appropriate standard systems 
of communications procedure, codes, 
markings, signals, lighting and other 
operational practices and rules which 
may be recommended or established 
from time to time, pursuant to this 
Convention; 

(c) Collaborate in international 
measures to secure the publication of 
aeronautical maps and charts in 
accordance with standards which 
may be recommended or established 
from time to time, pursuant to this 
Convention. 

CHAPTER V 

CONDITIONS TO BE FULFILLED WITH 
RESPECT TO AIRCRAFT 

ARTICLE 29. Documents carried in 
aircraft 

Every aircraft of a contracting 
State, engaged in international navi- 
gation, shall carry the following 
documents in conformity with the 
conditions prescribed in this Con- 
vention : 

(a) Its certificate of registration; 

(b) Its certificate of airworthiness; 

(c) The appropriate licenses for 
each member of the crew; 

(d) Its journey log book; 



tions faites par les ressortissants des 
autres Etats parties i la pr6sente 
Convention et leur accordant la 
protection qui convient. 

ARTICLE 28. Facilitts et systtmes 
standards de navigation airienne 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage, 
dans la mesure oft il le juge possible, 

a) A etablir, sur son territoire, des 
aroports, des services radio61ec- 
triques et mt6orologiques et d 'au- 
tres facilit6s la navigation arienne 
en vue d 'aider la navigation a6rienne 
Internationale, conformment aux 
standards et pratiques recommand6s 
ou 6tablis de temps autre en vertu 
de la pr6sente Convention; 

b) A adopter et mettre en applica- 
tion les systfemes standards appro- 
prifes en mattere de procedures de 
communications, de codes, de bali- 
sage, de signalisation, de feux et 
d'autres pratiques et regies d'exploi- 
tation qui peuvent 6tre recommands 
ou 6tablis de temps & autre en vertu 
de la pr6sente Convention; 

c) A collaborer aux mesures prises 
sur le plan international pour assurer 
la publication de cartes et plans 
aronautiques, en conformity avec 
les standards qui peuvent tre recom- 
mand6s ou 6tablis de temps & autre 
en vertu de la pr&ente Convention. 

CHAPITRE V 

CONDITIONS A REMPLIR PAR LES 
ARONEFS 

ARTICLE 29. Documents de bord des 
atronefs 

Tout a6ronef d'un Etat contrac- 
tant employ^ & la navigation Inter- 
nationale doit, conform6ment aux 
conditions prescrites par la pr6sente 
Convention, avoir bord les docu- 
ments suivants: 

a) Son certificat d'immatricula- 
tion; 

b) Son certificat de navigabilit6 ; 

c) Les licences approprtees pour 
chaque membre de l'quipage; 

d) Son carnet de route; 



182 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



(e) If it is equipped with radio 
apparatus, the aircraft radio station 
license; 

(/) If it carries passengers, a list 
of their names and places of em- 
barkation and destination; 

(g) If it carries cargo, a manifest 
and detailed declarations of the 
cargo. 

ARTICLE 30. Aircraft radio equip- 
ment 

(a) Aircraft of each contracting 
State may, in or over the territory of 
other contracting States, carry radio 
transmitting apparatus only if a 
license to install and operate such 
apparatus has been issued by the 
appropriate authorities of the State 
in which the aircraft is registered. 
The use of radio transmitting ap- 
paratus in the territory of the con- 
tracting State whose territory is 
flown over shall be in accordance 
with the regulations prescribed by 
that State. 

(b) Radio transmitting apparatus 
may be used only by members of the 
flight crew who are provided with 
a special license for the purpose, 
issued by the appropriate authorities 
of the State in which the aircraft is 
registered. 

ARTICLE 31. Certificates of air- 
worthiness 

Every aircraft engaged in inter- 
national navigation shall be provided 
with a certificate of airworthiness 
issued or rendered valid by the State 
in which it is registered. 

ARTICLE 32. Licenses of personnel 

(a) The pilot of every aircraft and 
the other members of the operating 
crew of every aircraft engaged in 
international navigation shall be 
provided with certificates of com- 
petency and licenses issued or ren- 
dered valid by the State in which the 
aircraft is registered. 



e) S'il est muni d 'appareils radio- 
lectriques, la licence de la station 
radio de l'aronef; 

/) S'il transporte des passagers, la 
liste nominative de ceux-ci, indi- 
quant leurs lieux d'embarquement 
et de destination ; 

g) S'il transporte des marchan- 
dises, un manifeste et des dclara- 
tions dtailles de la cargaison. 

ARTICLE 30. Equipement radio des 
a6ronefs 

a) Les aronefs de chaque Etat 
contractant ne peuvent, lorsqu'ils se 
trouvent sur le territoire d'autres 
Etats contractants ou au-dessus 
dudit territoire, avoir a leur bord 
des appareils 6metteurs que si les 
autoritis comp^tentes de 1'Etat dans 
lequel I'a6ronef est immatricul6 ont 
d61ivr & cet effet une licence per- 
mettant d'installer et d'utiliser les- 
dits appareils. Les appareils met- 
teurs ne peuvent 6tre utilises dans le 
territoire de 1'Etat contractant sur- 
vol qu'en conformity des r^glements 
presents par cet Etat. 

b) Les appareils 6metteurs ne 
peuvent gtre utilises que par les 
membres du personnel de conduite 
munis a cet effet d'une licence sp- 
ciale, d61ivr6e par les autorit6s 
comp6tentes de 1'Etat dans lequel 
l'aronef est immatricul6. 

ARTICLE 31. Certificats de 
navigabiliU 

Tout aronef employ^ a la navi- 
gation Internationale doit tre muni 
d'un certificat de navigability d- 
Iivr6 ou valid6 par 1'Etat dans lequel 
Taronef est immatricute. 

ARTICLE 32. Licences du personnel 

a) Le pilote et les autres membres 
du personnel de conduite de tout 
a6ronef employ^ a la navigation in- 
ternationale doivent Stre munis de 
brevets d'aptitude et de licences 
d61ivrs ou valid6s par 1'Etat dans 
lequel I'a6ronef est immatriculS. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



183 



(6) Each contracting State re- 
serves the right to refuse to recog- 
nize, for the purpose of flight above 
its own territory, certificates of 
competency and licenses granted to 
any of its nationals by another con- 
tracting State. 

ARTICLE 33. Recognition of certifi- 
cates and licenses 

Certificates of airworthiness and 
certificates of competency and li- 
censes issued or rendered valid by 
the contracting State in which the 
aircraft is registered, shall be recog- 
nized as valid by the other contract- 
ing States, provided that the require- 
ments under which such certificates 
or licenses were issued or rendered 
valid are equal to or above the mini- 
mum standards which may be es- 
tablished from time to time pursuant 
to this Convention. 



ARTICLE 34. Journey log books 

There shall be maintained in re- 
spect of every aircraft engaged in 
international navigation a journey 
log book in which shall be entered 
particulars of the aircraft, its crew 
and of each journey, in such form 
as may be prescribed from time to 
time pursuant to this Convention. 

ARTICLE 35. Cargo restrictions 

(a) No munitions of war or imple- 
ments of war may be carried in or 
above the territory of a State in air- 
craft engaged in international navi- 
gation, except by permission of such 
State. Each State shall determine 
by regulations what constitutes mu- 
nitions of war or implements of war 
for the purposes of this Article, 
giving due consideration, for the 
purposes of uniformity, to such 
recommendations as the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization 
may from time to time make. 



ft) Chaque Etat contractant se 
reserve le droit de ne pas reconnaltre 
valables, aux fins de survol de son 
propre territoire, les brevets d'apti- 
tude et les licences accords & Tun de 
ses ressortissants par un autre Etat 
contractant. 

ARTICLE 33. Reconnaissance des 
certificats et licences 

Les certificats de navigability, 
ainsi que les brevets d 'aptitude et 
les licences dlivrs ou valids par 
1'Etat contractant dans lequel I'a6- 
ronef est immatricute, seront recon- 
nus valables par les autres Etats 
contractants, & condition toutefois 
que les conditions sous lesquelles 
ces brevets ou licences ont 6te d- 
Iivr6s ou valid6s soient 6quivalentes 
ou sup6rieures aux standards mini- 
mum qui pourraient, de temps & 
autre, gtre tablis en vertu de la 
pr6sente Convention. 

ARTICLE 34. Garnets de route 

Pour chaque aronef employ^ i 
la navigation Internationale, il est 
tenu un carnet de route sur lequel 
sont portes les renseignements re- 
latifs & I'adronef, & l'quipage et 
chaque voyage, sous la forme qui 
peut tre prescrite de temps & autre 
en vertu de la pr6sente Conven- 
tion. 

ARTICLE 35. Restrictions relatives d 
la cargaison 

a) Aucun aronef employ^ i la 
navigation internationale ne peut 
transporter de munitions de guerre 
ou de mat6riel de guerre 1'interieur 
ou au-dessus du territoire d'un Etat, 
moins d'une autorisation dudit 
Etat. Chaque Etat determine par 
voie de r&glement ce qu'il faut en- 
tendre par munitions de guerre ou 
materiel de guerre aux fins du present 
article, en tenant dflment compte, 
dans un souci d'uniformitfe, des 
recommendations que ['Organisation 
de 1'ayiation civile internationale 
peut faire de temps autre. 



1 84 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



(b) Each contracting State re- 
serves the right, for reasons of public 
order and safety, to regulate or pro- 
hibit the carriage in or above its 
territory of articles other than those 
enumerated in paragraph (a): pro- 
vided that no distinction is made in 
this respect between its national 
aircraft engaged in international 
navigation and the aircraft of the 
other States so engaged; and pro- 
vided further that no restriction shall 
be imposed which may interfere with 
the carriage and use on aircraft of 
apparatus necessary for the opera- 
tion or navigation of the aircraft or 
the safety of the personnel or pas- 
sengers. 



ARTICLE 36. Photographic apparatus 

Each contracting State may pro- 
hibit or regulate the use of photo- 
graphic apparatus in aircraft over 
its territory. 



CHAPTER VI 

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND 
RECOMMENDED PRACTICES 

ARTICLE 37. Adoption of interna- 
tional standards and procedures 

Each contracting State under- 
takes to collaborate in securing the 
highest practicable degree of uni- 
formity in regulations, standards, 
procedures, and organization in re- 
lation to aircraft, personnel, airways 
and auxiliary services in all matters 
in which such uniformity will facili- 
tate and improve air navigation. 



To this end the International Civil 
Aviation Organization shall adopt 
and amend from time to time, as may 
be necessary, international standards 
and recommended practices and 
procedures dealing with: 



b) Chaque Etat contractant se 
reserve le droit, pour des raisons 
d'ordre public et de s6curit6, de 
rtglementer ou d'interdire le trans- 
port j'interieur ou au-dessus de 
son territoire, d 'articles autres que 
ceux qui sont 6num6rs au para- 
graphe a), 6tant entendu qu'il ne 
sera fait aucune distinction cet 
6gard entre ses aronefs nationaux 
employes la navigation interna- 
tional et les aronefs des autres 
Etats employes aux memes fins, et 
6tant en outre entendu qu'il ne sera 
impost aucune restriction susceptible 
de gner le transport et 1'usage, bord 
des aronefs, des appareils n6cessaires 
la manoeuvre ou la navigation 
desdits aronefs f ainsi qu' la scurit 
du personnel ou des passagers. 

ARTICLE 36. Appareils photogra- 
phiques 

Chaque Etat contractant a la 
facult^ d'interdire ou de rglementer 
1'usage des appareils photogra- 
phiques bord des a6ronefs survolant 
son territoire. 

CHAPITRE VI 

STANDARDS INTERNATIONAUX ET 
PRATIQUES RECOMMANDEES 

ARTICLE 37. Adoption de standards 
et de procedures international 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
prater son concours pour atteindre 
le plus haut degr6 realisable d'uni- 
formite dans les rfeglements, stand- 
ards, procedures et m6thodes d'or- 
ganisation relatifs aux aronefs, au 
personnel, aux routes ariennes et 
aux services auxiliaires, dans tous 
les domaines oil une telle uniformit6 
facilitera et am61iorera la navigation 
arienne. 

A cet effet, TOrganisation de 
Taviation civile Internationale adop- 
tera et modifiera, de temps & autre 
et selon les ncessits, des standards 
internationaux ainsi que des pra- 
tiques et procedures recommandes 
concernant les domaines suivants: 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



185 



(a) Communications systems and 
air navigation aids, including ground 
marking; 

(ft) Characteristics of airports and 
landing areas; 

(c) Rules of the air and air traffic 
control practices; 

(d) Licensing of operating and 
mechanical personnel; 

(e) Airworthiness of aircraft; 

(/) Registration and identifica- 
tion of aircraft ; 

(g) Collection and exchange of 
meteorological information ; 

(h) Log books; 

(i) Aeronautical maps and charts; 

(j) Customs and immigration pro- 
cedures; 

(k) Aircraft in distress and inves- 
tigation of accidents; 

and such other matters concerned 
with the safety, regularity, and effi- 
ciency of air navigation as may from 
time to time appear appropriate. 

ARTICLE 38. Departures from inter- 
national standards and procedures 

Any State which finds it imprac- 
ticable to comply in all respects with 
any such international standards or 
procedure, or to bring its own regu- 
lations or practices into full accord 
with any international standard or 
procedure after amendment of the 
latter, or which deems it necessary to 
adopt regulations or practices differ- 
ing in any particular respect from 
those established by an international 
standard, shall give immediate noti- 
fication to the International Civil 
Aviation Organization of the differ- 
ences between its own practice and 
that established by the international 
standard. In the case of amendments 
to international standards, any State 
which does not make the appropriate 
amendments to its own regulations 
or practices shall give notice to the 
Council within sixty days of the 
adoption of the amendment to the 



a) Systfemes de t616communica- 
tions et aides la navigation 
arienne, y compris le balisage au 
sol; 

b) Caracteristiques des a6roports 
et des aires d'atterrissage; 

c) Regies de 1'air et mthodes de 
contrdle de la circulation a^rienne; 

d) Dlivrance de licences au per- 
sonnel de conduite et aux m6cani- 
ciens; 

e) Navigability des aronefs; 

/) Immatriculation et identifica- 
tion des a6ronefs; 

g) Centralisation et ^change de 
renseignements m6t6orologiques; 

h) Livres de bord ; 

i) Cartes et plans aronautiques; 

j) Formalins de douane et d'im- 
migration ; 

k) Aronefs en detresse et en- 
quetes sur accidents; 

ainsi que tous autres domaines 
intressant la s6curit, la rgularit 
et I'efficacit6 de la navigation a6ri- 
enne, qui pourraient de temps i 
autre paraitre le ncessiter. 

ARTICLE 38. Derogations aux stan- 
dards et aux formahUs Internationales 

Tout Etat qui juge impossible de 
se conformer en tous points de tcls 
standards ou procedures interna- 
tionaux, ou de mettre ses propres 
rglements ou pratiques en complet 
accord avec des standards ou proc- 
dures internationaux lorsque ceux-ci 
auront t modifies, ou qui estime 
ncessaire d 'adopter des rdgles ou 
des pratiques diffrant sur un point 
quelconque de celles tablies par un 
standard international, notifiera im- 
mdiatement 1'Organisation de 
1 'aviation civile Internationale les 
differences existant entre ses propres 
pratiques et celles 6tablies par le 
standard international. S'il s'agit 
d'amendements i des standards in- 
ternationaux, tout Etat qui n'ap- 
portera pas les modifications cor- 
respondantes ses propres r6gle- 
ments ou pratiques en avisera le 
Conseil dans les soixante jours qui 



186 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



international standard, or indicate 
the action which it proposes to take. 
In any such case, the Council shall 
make immediate notification to all 
other States of the difference which 
exists between one or more features 
of an international standard and the 
corresponding national practice of 
that State. 



ARTICLE 39. Endorsement of certifi- 
cates and licenses 

(a) Any aircraft or part thereof 
with respect to which there exists an 
international standard of airworthi- 
ness or performance, and which 
failed in any respect to satisfy that 
standard at the time of its certifica- 
tion, shall have endorsed on or 
attached to its airworthiness cer- 
tificate a complete enumeration of 
the details in respect of which it so 
failed. 

(ft) Any person holding a license 
who does not satisfy in full the con- 
ditions laid down in the international 
standard relating to the class of 
license or certificate which he holds 
shall have endorsed on or attached 
to his license a complete enumera- 
tion of the particulars in which he 
does not satisfy such conditions. 

ARTICLE 40. Validity of endorsed 
certificates and licenses 

No aircraft or personnel having 
certificates or licenses so endorsed 
shall participate in international 
navigation, except with the per- 
mission of the State or States whose 
territory is entered. The registra- 
tion or use of any such aircraft, or 
of any certificated aircraft part, in 
any State other than that in which 
it was originally certificated shall 
be at the discretion of the State into 
which the aircraft or part is im- 
ported. 



suivront 1'adoption de ramendement 
au standard international ou indi- 
quera les mesures qu'ils se propose 
de prendre. En pareil cas, le Conseil 
notifiera immdiatement tous les 
autres Etats les differences existant 
sur un ou plusieurs points entre le 
standard international et la pratique 
correspondante en usage dans 1'Etat 
en question. 

ARTICLE 39. Mentions porUes sur 
les certificats et licences 

a) Tout a^ronef ou Element d'a- 
ronef au sujet duquel il existe un 
standard international en mati&re de 
navigabilit6 ou de performance, mais 
qui au moment de I'etablissement de 
son certificat de navigability manque 
en quelque point satisfaire & ce 
standard, doit avoir sur son certificat 
de navigability ou en annexe celui- 
ci une liste complete des points sur 
lesquels il s'carte de ce standard. 

b) Toute personne titulaire d'une 
licence qui ne remplit pas enttere- 
ment les conditions imposes par le 
standard international relatif 4 la 
classe de licence ou de brevet dont 
elle est titulaire doit avoir sur sa 
licence, ou en annexe celle-ci, une 
Enumeration complete des points sur 
lesquels elle ne remplit pas lesdites 
conditions. 

ARTICLE 40. ValiditS des licences et 
des certificats sur lesquels des men- 
tions ont iti porties 

Aucun a6ronef ou aucun membre 
du personnel poss6dant un certificat 
ou une licence sur lequel des men- 
tions ont 6t6 ainsi port6es ne peut 
prendre part la navigation Inter- 
nationale si ce n'est avec 1'autorisa- 
tion de 1 Etat ou des Etats dont le 
territoire est survolE. L'immatricu- 
lation ou Temploi d'un tel a^ronef, 
ou d'une ptece quelconque d'aronef 
ainsi homologu, dans un Etat autre 
que celui oft le certificat a 6t6 etabli 
1'origine, est Iaiss6 la discretion 
de 1'Etat dans lequel l'aronef ou la 
pifece en question est import^. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



I8 7 



ARTICLE 41. Recognition of existing 
standards of airworthiness 

The provisions of this Chapter 
shall not apply to aircraft and air- 
craft equipment of types of which 
the prototype is submitted to the 
appropriate national authorities for 
certification prior to a date three 
years after the date of adoption of an 
international standard of airworthi- 
ness for such equipment. 

ARTICLE 42. Recognition of existing 
standards of competency of personnel 

The provisions of this Chapter 
shall not apply to personnel whose 
licenses are originally issued prior 
to a date one year after initial adop- 
tion of an international standard of 
qualification for such personnel ; but 
they shall in any case apply to all 
personnel whose licenses remain 
valid five years after the date of 
adoption of such standard. 



PART II 

THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIA- 
TION ORGANIZATION 

CHAPTER VII 

THE ORGANIZATION 

ARTICLE 43. Name and composition 

An organization to be named the 
International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization is formed by the Convention. 
It is made up of an Assembly, a 
Council, and such other bodies as 
may be necessary. 

ARTICLE 44. Objectives 

The aims and objectives of the 
Organization are to develop the 
principles and techniques of inter- 
national air navigation and to foster 
the planning and development of 



ARTICLE 4 1 . Reconnaissance des 
standards existants en mati&re de 
navigabiliU 

Les dispositions du present chapi- 
tre ne s'appliquent ni aux a6ronefs 
ni aux 6quipements d'aronefs ap- 
partenant des types dont le proto- 
type a t soumis aux autorits 
nationales comp6tentes pour homo- 
logation avant 1'expiration des trois 
annes qui suivent la date d' adopt ion 
d'un standard international de navi- 
gabilit pour ce materiel. 

ARTICLE 42. Reconnaissance des 
standards existants en ce qui con- 
cerne la competence du personnel 

Les dispositions du present chapi- 
tre ne s'appliquent pas aux membres 
du personnel dont les licences ont 
t6 d61ivres 1'origine avant 1'expi- 
ration de l'anne qui suit la date de 
1'adoption initiale d'un standard 
international d'aptitude; toutefois, 
elles s'appliquent en tout 6tat de 
cause tous les membres du per- 
sonnel dont les licences sont encore 
valides cinq ans aprds la date de 
1'adoption de ce standard. 

DEUXlfcME PARTIE 

L'ORGANISATION DE L'AVIATION 
CIVILE INTERNATIONALE 

CHAPITRE VII 

L'ORGANISATION 

ARTICLE 43. Nom et composition 

II est instituS par la pr6sente Con- 
vention une organisation qui portera 
le nom d 'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile Internationale. Elle se com- 
pose d'une Assemble, d'un Conseil 
et de tous autres organismes qui 
pourront 6tre n6cessaires. 

ARTICLE 44. Objets 

L/Organisation a pour objet de 
d^velopper les principes et les tech- 
niques de la navigation arienne 
Internationale, ainsi que de favoriser 
l'6tablissement et de stimuler le 



188 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



international air transport so as to: 

(a) Insure the safe and orderly 
growth of international civil aviation 
throughout the world ; 

(b) Encourage the arts of aircraft 
design and operation for peaceful 
purposes; 

(c) Encourage the development 
of airways, airports, and air navi- 
gation facilities for international 
civil aviation ; 

(d) Meet the needs of the peoples 
of the world for safe, regular, efficient 
and economical air transport; 

(e) Prevent economic waste caused 
by unreasonable competition ; 

(/) Insure that the rights of con- 
tracting States are fully respected 
and that every contracting State 
has a fair opportunity to operate 
international airlines; 



(g) Avoid discrimination between 
contracting States; 

(h) Promote safety of flight in 
international air navigation ; 

(i) Promote generally the devel- 
opment of all aspects of international 
civil aeronautics. 



ARTICLE 45. Permanent seat 

The permanent seat of the Or- 
ganization shall be at such place as 
shall be determined at the final 
meeting of the Interim Assembly of 
the Provisional International Civil 
Aviation Organization set up by the 
Interim Agreement on International 
Civil Aviation signed at Chicago on 
December 7, 1944. The seat may 
be temporarily transferred elsewhere 
by decision of the Council. 



ARTICLE 46. First meeting 
Assembly 



cteveloppement des transports a6riens 
internationaux de fagon 4: 

a) Assurer le d6veloppement or- 
donn6 et sain de 1'aviation civile 
internationale dans le monde en tier; 

ft) Encourager des fins pacifiques 
les techniques de construction et 
d'exploitation des aferonefs; 

c) Encourager le d6veloppement 
de routes ariennes, d'a6roports et 
de facilit6s de navigation a6rienne & 
1'usage de 1'aviation civile interna- 
tionale; 

d) Procurer aux peuples du monde 
les transports ariens sflrs, r6guliers, 
efficaces et conomiques dont ils ont 
besoin ; 

e) Eviter le gaspillage 6conomique 
qu'engendre une concurrence exces- 
sive; 

f) Assurer que les droits des Etats 
contractants soient intgralement 
respect6s et que chaque Etat con- 
tractant ait une possibility Equitable 
d'exploiter des entreprises de trans- 
ports ariens internationaux; 

g) Eviter toute discrimination en- 
tre Etats contractants; 

h) Am61iorer la scurit6 de vol 
dans la navigation a6rienne inter- 
nationale ; 

i) Favoriser, d'une mani&re g6n6- 
rale, le d6veloppement de I'a6ronau- 
tique civile internationale sous tous 
ses aspects. 

ARTICLE 45. Sitge permanent 

L'Organisation a son stege per- 
manent au lieu que fixera, au cours 
de sa derntere session, 1'Assembtee 
intrimaire de 1'Organisation provi- 
soire de Taviation civile interna- 
tionale, tablie par 1'Accord intri- 
maire sur 1'aviation civile interna- 
tionale sign6 4 Chicago le 7 d6cem- 
bre 1944. Ce si&ge pourra etre 
transfer^ provisoirement en tout 
autre lieu par d6cision du Conseil. 



of ARTICLE 46. Premilre session de 
V Assemble 



The first meeting of the Assembly 
shall be summoned by the Interim 



La premiere session de TAssem- 
btee est convoqu6e par le Conseil 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



189 



Council of the above-mentioned 
Provisional Organization as soon as 
the Convention has come into force, 
to meet at a time and place to be 
decided by the Interim Council. 

ARTICLE 47. Legal capacity 

The Organization shall enjoy in 
the territory of each contracting 
State such legal capacity as may be 
necessary for the performance of its 
functions. Full juridical personality 
shall be granted wherever compatible 
with the constitution and laws of the 
State concerned. 



int6rimaire de TOrganisation pro- 
visoire mentionnte ci-dessus, d6s 
l'entre en vigueur de la prsente 
Convention, et se tient la date et au 
lieu que fixera le Conseil int6rimaire. 

ARTICLE 47. CapaciU juridique 

L'Organisation jouit, sur le terri- 
toire de chaque Etat contractant, de 
la capacity juridique n6cessaire & 
Texercice de ses fonctions. La pleine 
personnalite juridique lui est ac- 
cordfee partout oft elle est compatible 
avec la constitution et les lois de 
1'Etat intress6. 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE ASSEMBLY 

ARTICLE 48. Meetings of Assembly 
and voting 

(a) The Assembly shall meet an- 
nually and shall be convened by the 
Council at a suitable time and place. 
Extraordinary meetings of the As- 
sembly may be held at any time 
upon the call of the Council or at the 
request of any ten contracting States 
addressed to the Secretary General. 

(&) All contracting States shall 
have an equal right to be repre- 
sented at the meetings of the Assem- 
bly and each contracting State shall 
be entitled to one vote. Delegates 
representing contracting States may 
be assisted by technical advisers 
who may participate in the meetings 
but shall have no vote. 

(c) A majority of the contracting 
States is required to constitute a 
quorum for the meetings of the 
Assembly. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided in this Convention, decisions 
of the Assembly shall be taken by a 
majority of the votes cast. 

ARTICLE 49. Powers and duties of 
Assembly 

The powers and duties of the 
Assembly shall be to: 

(a) Elect at each meeting its 
President and other officers; 



CHAPITRE VIII 
L'ASSEMBLE 

ARTICLE 48. Session de VAssembUe 
et vote 

a) L'Assemblfe se r6unit chaque 
ann6e et est convoqu^e par le Conseil 
en temps et lieu utiles. Elle peut 
tenir des sessions extraordinaires 
tout moment sur convocation du 
Conseil ou sur requete adresse au 
Secretaire gn6ral par dix Etats 
contractants. 

b) Les Etats contractants ont un 
droit 6gal d'etre repr6sents aux 
sessions de TAssembl^e et chaque 
Etat contractant a droit i une voix. 
Les d616gu6s repr6sentant les Etats 
contractants peuvent tre assists 
de conseillers techniques, qui peu- 
vent participer aux reunions mais 
n'ont pas droit de vote. 

c) La majoritfe des Etats contrac- 
tants est requise pour constituer un 
quorum lors des reunions de T Assem- 
ble. Sauf dispositions contraires 
de la prtsente Convention, les d6- 
cisions de TAssembtee sont prises & 
la majorit6 des voix exprim6es. 

ARTICLE 49. Pouvoirs et attributions 
de r Assemble 

Les pouvoirs et attributions de 
TAssemblte sont les suiyants: 

a) Elire 4 chaque session son Prsi- 
dent et les autres membres du bureau ; 



190 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



(6) Elect the contracting States 
to be represented on the Council, 
in accordance with the provisions of 
Chapter IX; 

(c) Examine and take appropriate 
action on the reports of the Council 
and decide on any matter referred to 
it by the Council; 

(d) Determine its own rules of 
procedure and establish such sub- 
sidiary commissions as it may con- 
sider to be necessary or desirable; 

(e) Vote an annual budget and 
determine the financial arrange- 
ments of the Organization, in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 
Chapter XII; 

(f) Review expenditures and ap- 
prove the accounts of the Organiza- 
tion; 

(g) Refer, at its discretion, to the 
Council, to subsidiary commissions, 
or to any other body any matter 
within its sphere of action; 

(&) Delegate to the Council the 
powers and authority necessary or 
desirable for the discharge of the 
duties of the Organization and re- 
voke or modify the delegations of 
authority at any time; 

(*) Carry out the appropriate 
provisions of Chapter XIII; 

(j) Consider proposals for the 
modification or amendment of the 
provisions of this Convention and, if 
it approves of the proposals, recom- 
mend them to the contracting States 
in accordance with the provisions of 
Chapter XXI ; 

(k) Deal with any matter within 
the sphere of action of the Organiza- 
tion not specifically assigned to 
the Council. 

CHAPTER IX 

THE COUNCIL 

ARTICLE 50. Composition and elec- 
tion of Council 

(a) The Council shall be a perma- 
nent body responsible to the Assem- 
bly. It shall be composed of twenty- 



b) Elire les Etats contractants 
qui seront reprsents au Conseil, 
conform&nent aux dispositions du 
chapitre IX; 

c) Examiner les rapports du Con- 
seil et leur donner la suite qu'ils 
comportent; decider de toute ques- 
tion dont elle est saisie par le Conseil ; 

d) Determiner son propre rfegle- 
ment interieur et instituer les com- 
missions subsidiaires qu'elle pourra 
juger ncessaires ou utiles; 

e) Voter un budget annuel et 
determiner le regime financier de 
TOrganisation, conform6ment aux 
dispositions du chapitre XII; 

/) Verifier les dpenses et ap- 
prouver les comptes de 1'Organisa- 
tion; 

g) Renvoyer, & sa discretion, au 
Conseil, aux commissions subsi- 
diaires ou tout autre organe, toute 
question de sa competence; 

h) Deieguer au Conseil les pou- 
voirs et 1'autorite necessaires ou 
utiles & 1'exercice des fonctions de 
1'Organisation, et r6voquer ou modi- 
fier tout moment ces delegations 
d'autorite; 

i) Donner effet aux dispositions 
appropriees du chapitre XIII; 

j) Examiner les propositions ten- 
dant & modifier ou amender les 
dispositions de la pr6sente Conven- 
tion, et, si elle les approuve, en 
recommander 1'adoption aux Etats 
contractants conformement aux dis- 
positions du chapitre XXI ; 

k) Connaftre de toute question 
relevant de la competence de 1'Orga- 
nisation, dont le Conseil n'est pas 
expressement charge. 

CHAPITRE IX 
LE CONSEIL 

ARTICLE 50. Composition et flection 
du Conseil 

a) Le Conseil est un organe per- 
manent relevant de 1'Assembiee. II 
se compose de vingt et un Etats 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



191 



one contracting States elected by the 
Assembly. An election shall be 
held at the first meeting of the 
Assembly and thereafter every three 
years, and the members of the Coun- 
cil so elected shall hold office until 
the next following election. 

(b) In electing the members of the 
Council, the Assembly shall give 
adequate representation to (i) the 
States of chief importance in air 
transport; (2) the States not other- 
wise included which make the largest 
contribution to the provision of 
facilities for international civil air 
navigation; and (3) the States not 
otherwise included whose designa- 
tion will insure that all major 
geographic areas of the world are 
represented on the Council. Any 
vacancy on the Council shall be filled 
by the Assembly as soon as possible; 
any contracting State so elected to 
the Council shall hold office for the 
unexpired portion of its predecessor's 
term of office. 

(c) No representative of a con- 
tracting State on the Council shall 
be actively associated with the 
operation of an international air 
service or financially interested in 
such a service. 



contractants lus par 1'Assembtee. 
II est proc6d6 & une Election lors de 
la premiere session de I'Assembtee, 
et ensuite tous les trois ans; les 
membres du Conseil ainsi lus 
restent en fonctions jusqu'a l'election 
suivante. 

b) En glisant les membres du 
Conseil, I'Assemblee donne une reprfe- 
sentation approprtee: i) aux Etats 
d' importance majeure en matiere de 
transport arien; 2) aux Etats non 
reprsents par ailleurs qui contribu- 
ent le plus a fournir des facilites pour 
la navigation arienne civile inter- 
nationale; 3) aux Etats non repr- 
sent6s par ailleurs dont la dsigna- 
tion assure la representation au 
Conseil de toutes les principales 
regions gfographiques du monde. 
Tout stege qui devient vacant au 
Conseil est pourvu dans le plus bref 
d61ai par l'Assembl6e; tout Etat 
contractant ainsi 61u au Conseil reste 
en fonctions jusqu'a 1'expiration du 
mandat de son pr6d6cesseur. 

c) Aucun repr^sentant au Conseil 
d'un Etat contractant ne peut avoir 
une part active dans 1 'exploitation 
d'un service arien international ou 
fetre financiferement int6ress6 a un 
tel service. 



ARTICLE 51. President of Council ARTICLE 51. President du Conseil 



The Council shall elect its Presi- 
dent for a term of three years. He 
may be reelected. He shall have no 
vote. The Council shall elect from 
among its members one or more Vice 
Presidents who shall retain their 
right to vote when serving as acting 
President. The President need not 
be selected from among the repre- 
sentatives of the members of the 
Council but, if a representative is 
elected, his seat shall be deemed 
vacant and it shall be filled by the 
State which he represented. The 
duties of the President shall be to: 

(a) Convene meetings of the Coun- 
cil, the Air Transport Committee, 
and the Air Navigation Commission; 



Le Conseil 61it son President pour 
une p6riode de trois ans. Le Prtsi- 
dent est reJigibJe; il n'a pas le droit 
de vote. Le Conseil choisit parmi 
ses membres un ou plusieurs vice- 
prtsidents, qui conservent leur droit 
de vote lorsqu'ils remplissent les 
fonctions de President. Le Pr6si- 
dent n'est pas ncessairement choisi 
parmi les repr&sentants des membres 
du Conseil; toutefois, si un repr6- 
sentant est 61u, son stege est con- 
sid6r6 comme vacant et pourvu par 
TiEtat qu'il reprfeentait. Les at- 
tributions du Pr6sident sont les 
suivantes: 

a) Convoquer le Conseil, le Com- 
it6 du transport ajrien et la Com- 
mission de navigation aerienne; 



192 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



(b) Serve as representative of the 
Council; and 

(c) Carry out on behalf of the 
Council the functions which the 
Council assigns to him. 

ARTICLE 52. Voting in Council 

Decisions by the Council shall re- 
quire approval by a majority of its 
members. The Council may dele- 
gate authority with respect to any 
particular matter to a committee of 
its members. Decisions of any com- 
mittee of the Council may be ap- 
pealed to the Council by any in- 
terested contracting State. 

ARTICLE 53. Participation without 
a vote 

Any contracting State may par- 
ticipate, without a vote, in the con- 
sideration by the Council and by its 
committees and commissions on any 
question which especially affects its 
interests. No member of the Coun- 
cil shall vote in the consideration by 
the Council of a dispute to which it 
is a party. 

ARTICLE 54. Mandatory functions 
of Council 

The Council shall: 

(a) Submit annual reports to the 
Assembly; 

(b) Carry out the directions of the 
Assembly and discharge the duties 
and obligations which are laid on it 
by this Convention ; 

(c) Determine its organization and 
rules of procedure; 

(d) Appoint and define the duties 
of an Air Transport Committee, 
which shall be chosen from among 
the representatives of the members 
of the Council, and which shall be 
responsible to it; 

(e) Establish an Air Navigation 
Commission, in accordance with the 
provisions of Chapter X; 

(/) Administer the finances of the 
Organization in accordance with the 
provisions of Chapters XII and XV; 



b) Agir comme reprsentant du 
Conseil;et 

c) Exercer au nom du Conseil les 
fonctions que celui-ci lui assigne. 

ARTICLE 52. Vote au Conseil 

Les decisions du Conseil dpivent 
fitre approuves par la majority de 
ses membres. Le Conseil peut dl- 
guer son autorit, en ce qui con- 
cerne une question dtermine, un 
comit choisi parmi ses membres. 
Tout Etat contractant int6ress peut 
en appeler au Conseil des decisions 
prises par un comit du Conseil. 

ARTICLE 53. Participation sans droit 
devote 

Tout Etat contractant peut par- 
ticiper, sans droit de vote, 1'examen 
par le Conseil ainsi que par ses 
comits et commissions de toute 
question mettant directment en jeu 
ses intrSts. Aucun membre du 
Conseil ne peut prendre part au 
vote lors de 1'examen par le Conseil 
d'un dififerend auquel il est partie. 

ARTICLE 54. Fonctions obligatoires 
du Conseil 

Le Conseil doit: 

a) Soumettre des rapports annuals 
41 f Assemble; 

b) Mettre execution les direc- 
tivesde I'Assembtee et s'acquitter de 
toutes les fonctions et obligations 
qui lui incombent de par la pr6sente 
Convention; 

c) Determiner son organisation et 
son r&glement int6rieur; 

d) Nommer un Comit6 du trans- 
port arien, compost de reprsen- 
tants des membres du Conseil et 
responsable envers celui-ci, et d6finir 
ses attributions; 

e) Instituer une Commission de 
navigation a6rienne, conform6ment 
aux dispositions du chapitre X; 

/) Grer les finances de TOrganisa- 
tion, conformment aux dispositions 
des chapitres XII et XV; 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



193 



(g) Determine the emoluments of 
the President of the Council ; 

(h) Appoint a chief executive 
officer who shall be called the Secre- 
tary General, and make provision 
for the appointment of such other 
personnel as may be necessary, in 
accordance with the provisions of 
Chapter XI ; 

(i) Request, collect, examine and 
publish information relating to the 
advancement of air navigation and 
the operation of international air 
services, including information about 
the costs of operation and particu- 
lars of subsidies paid to airlines from 
public funds; 

(j) Report to contracting States 
any infraction of this Convention, as 
well as any failure to carry out 
recommendations or determinations 
of the Council ; 

(k) Report to the Assembly any 
infraction of this Convention where 
a contracting State has failed to take 
appropriate action within a reason- 
able time after notice of the infrac- 
tion; 

(/) Adopt, in accordance with the 
provisions of Chapter VI of this 
Convention, international stand- 
ards and recommended practices; 
for convenience, designate them as 
Annexes to this Convention; and 
notify all contracting States of the 
action taken; 

(m) Consider recommendations of 
the Air Navigation Commission for 
amendment of the Annexes and take 
action in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Chapter XX; 

(n) Consider any matter relating 
to the Convention which any con- 
tracting State refers to it. 

ARTICLE 55. Permissive functions of 
Council 

The Council may: 
(a) Where appropriate and as ex- 
perience may show to be desirable, 



g) Fixer les Emoluments du Prfisi- 
dent du Conseil ; 

h) Nommer un agent excutif 
principal, qui portera le titre de 
Secretaire gn6ral, et prendre toutes 
dispositions pour la nomination de 
tout autre personnel n6cessaire, con- 
form6ment aux dispositions du chapi- 
tre XI; 

i) Demander, r6unir, Etudier et 
publier les renseignements relatifs 
aux progrfes de la navigation arienne 
et Texploitation des services aferiens 
internationaux, y compris tous ren- 
seignements sur les frais d 'exploita- 
tion et les subventions verges sur 
fonds publics aux entreprises de 
transports ariens; 

j) Signaler aux Etats contractants 
toute infraction 4 la pr6sente Con- 
vention, ainsi que tout manquement 
aux recommandations ou aux deci- 
sions du Conseil ; 

K) Faire rapport T Assemble sur 
tpute infraction la pr6sente Conven- 
tion, au cas oft un Etat contractant 
n'aurait pas pris les mesures nces- 
saires dans un dlai raisonnable apr&s 
que Tinfraction aura 6t6 signa!6e; 

/) Adopter, conform6ment aux dis- 
positions du Chapitre VI de la 
prsente Convention, des standards 
internationaux et des pratiques rec- 
ommand6es; les designer, pour plus 
de commodity, sous le nom d'annexes 
& la pr6sente Convention ; et notifier 
A tous les Etats contractants les 
dispositions prises cet effet; 

m) Examiner les recommandations 
formutees par la Commission de navi- 
gation a6rienne en vue d'amender 
les annexes et prendre toutes me- 
sures utiles conformment aux dis- 
positions du chapitre XX; 

n) Examiner toute question rela- 
tive 4 la Convention, dont il est saisi 
par un Etat contractant. 

ARTICLE 55. Fonctions facultative* 
du Conseil 

Le Conseil peut: 

a) S'il y a lieu et si I'exp6rience en 
montre Tutilit^, cr6er des commis- 



194 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



create subordinate air transport 
commissions on a regional or other 
basis and define groups of states or 
airlines with or through which it may 
deal to facilitate the carrying out of 
the aims of this Convention; 



(ft) Delegate to the Air Naviga- 
tion Commission duties additional 
to those set forth in the Convention 
and revoke or modify such delega- 
tions of authority at any time; 

(c) Conduct research into all as- 
pects of air transport and air navi- 
gation which are of international 
importance, communicate the results 
of its research to the contracting 
States, and facilitate the exchange 
of information between contracting 
States on air transport and air navi- 
gation matters; 

(d) Study any matters affecting 
the organization and operation of 
international air transport, including 
the international ownership and op- 
eration of international air services 
on trunk routes, and submit to the 
Assembly plans in relation thereto; 



(e) Investigate, at the request of 
any contracting State, any situation 
which may appear to present avoid- 
able obstacles to the development of 
international air navigation; and, 
after such investigation, issue such 
reports as may appear to it desirable. 



CHAPTER X 

THE AIR NAVIGATION COMMISSION 



sions subordonnees de transport 
a&rien, sur le plan regional, ou de 
toute autre fagon, et designer des 
groupes d'Etats ou d'entreprises de 
transports ariens avec lesquels ou 
par 1'intermgdiaire desquels il pourra 
s'adresser en vue de faciliter la re- 
alisation des fins de la presente Con- 
vention; 

b) D16guer a la Commission de 
navigation aerienne toutes attribu- 
tions en sus de celles pr&vues par la 
prsente Convention et rvoquer ou 
modifier a tout moment de telles 
delegations; 

c) Proc6der a des recherches dans 
tous les domaines du transport a6rien 
et de la navigation arienne qui sont 
d 'importance internationale; com- 
muniquer le r6sultat de ses re- 
cherches aux Etats contractants et 
faciliter l'6change, entre Etats con- 
tractants, de renseignements relatifs 
au transport aerien et a la navigation 
a^rienne; 

d) Etudier toutes questions ayant 
trait a 1'organisation et a 1'exploita- 
tion des transports a6riens intcrna- 
tionaux, y compris la proprit6 et 
1'exploitation internationale de ser- 
vices a6riens internationaux sur les 
routes principales et soumettre a 
1' Assembled des projets s'y rapport- 
ant; 

e) Effectuer des enqugtes, a la de- 
mande de tout Etat contractant, sur 
toute situation susceptible d'opposer 
au d&veloppement de la navigation 
arienne internationale des obstacles 
qui peuvent tre 6vit6s et, ces en- 
qu&tes termin6es, publier les rapports 
qui lui semblent indiqus. 

CHAPITRE X 

LA COMMISSION DE NAVIGATION 
AfiRIENNE 



ARTICLE 56. Nomination and 
appointment of Commission 

The Air Navigation Commission 
shall be composed of twelve members 

appointed by the Council from __ t 

among persons nominated by con- des personnes 



ARTICLE 56. Candidature et nomi- 
nation d la Commission 



nation a la commission 

La Commission de navigation 
a6rienne se compose de douze mem- 
bres nomm6s par le Conseil parmi 
des personnes prsentes par les 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



195 



tracting States. These persons shall 
have suitable qualifications and ex- 
perience in the science and practice 
of aeronautics. The Council shall 
request all contracting States to sub- 
mit nominations. The President of 
the Air Navigation Commission shall 
be appointed by the Council. 

ARTICLE 57. Duties of Commission 

The Air Navigation Commission 
shall: 

(a) Consider, and recommend to 
the Council for adoption, modifica- 
tions of the Annexes to this Conven- 
tion; 

(6) Establish technical subcom- 
missions on which any contracting 
State may be represented, if it so 
desires; 

(c) Advise the Council concerning 
the collection and communication 
to the contracting States of all in- 
formation which it considers neces- 
sary and useful for the advancement 
of air navigation. 

CHAPTER XI 

PERSONNEL 

ARTICLE 58. Appointment of 
personnel 

Subject to any rules laid down by 
the Assembly and to the provisions 
of this Convention, the Council shall 
determine the method of appoint- 
ment and of termination of appoint- 
ment, the training, and the salaries, 
allowances, and conditions of service 
of the Secretary General and other 
personnel of the Organization, and 
may employ or make use of the 
services of nationals of any con- 
tracting State. 

ARTICLE 59. International character 
of personnel 

The President of the Council, the 
Secretary General, and other per- 



Etats contractants. Ces personnes 
doivent poss6der la competence et 
1' experience ncessaires en mati&re 
de science et de pratique agro- 
nautiques. Le Conseil invitera tous les 
Etats contractants lui soumettre 
des candidatures. Le President de la 
Commission de navigation arienne 
est nomme par le Conseil. 

ARTICLE 57 .Attributions de la 
Commission 

Les attributions de la Commission 
de navigation arienne sont les 
suivantes: 

a) Examiner les modifications 
apporter aux annexes la pr^sente 
Convention et en recommander 
1'adoption au Conseil; 

b) Instituer des sous-commissions 
techniques, auxquelles tout Etat 
contractant pourra fetre reprsent6, 
s'il le desire; 

c) Donner des avis au Conseil au 
sujet de la centralisation et de la 
communication aux Etats contrac- 
tants de tous renseignements qu'elle 
considre ncessaires et utiles aux 
progrfes de la navigation arienne. 

CHAPITRE XI 

PERSONNEL 

ARTICLE 58. Nomination du 
personnel 

Sous reserve des r&glements etablis 
par 1' Assemble et des dispositions 
de la presente Convention, le Conseil 
determine le mode de nomination et 
de licenciement, la formation pro- 
fessionnelle, les traitements et in- 
demnites et les conditions d'emploi 
du Secretaire general et des autres 
membres du personnel de 1'Organisa- 
tion; il a en outre la faculte d 'em- 
ployer des ressortissants de tout 
Etat contractant ou d'utiliser leurs 
services. 

ARTICLE 59, Caracttre international 
du personnel 

Dans 1'exercice de leurs fonctions, 
le President du Conseil, le Secretaire 



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INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



aonnel shall not seek or receive in- 
structions in regard to the discharge 
of their responsibilities from any 
authority external to the Organiza- 
tion. Each contracting State un- 
dertakes fully to respect the interna- 
tional character of the responsibilities 
of the personnel and not to seek to 
influence any of its nationals in the 
discharge of their responsibilities. 

ARTICLE 60. Immunities and 
privileges of personnel 

Each contracting State under- 
takes, so far as possible under its 
constitutional procedure, to accord 
to the President of the Council, the 
Secretary General, and the other 
personnel of the Organization, the 
immunities and privileges which are 
accorded to corresponding personnel 
of other public international organ- 
izations. If a general international 
agreement on the immunities and 
privileges of international civil serv- 
ants is arrived at, the immunities 
and privileges accorded to the Presi- 
dent, the Siecretary General, and the 
other personnel of the Organization 
shall be the immunities and privileges 
accorded under that general inter- 
national agreement. 

CHAPTER XII 
FINANCE 

ARTICLE 61. Budget and apportion- 
ment of expenses 

The Council shall submit to the 
Assembly an annual budget, annual 
statements of accounts and estimates 
of all receipts and expenditures. 
The Assembly shall vote the budget 
with whatever modification it sees 
fit to prescribe, and, with the excep- 
tion of assessments under Chapter 
XV to States consenting thereto, 
shall apportion the expenses of the 
Organization among the contracting 
States on the basis which it shall 
from time to time determine. 



g6nral et les autres membres du 
personnel ne devront ni demander ni 
accepter d 'instructions d'aucune au- 
torite exterieure & 1'Organisation. 
Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
4 respecter pleinement le caractere 
international des responsabilit6s du 
personnel et ne pas chercher 
influencer un quelconque de ses res- 
sortissants dans 1'exercice de ses 
fonctions. 

ARTICLE 60. ImmunitSs et privileges 
du personnel 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage, 
dans toute la mesure permise par ses 
regies constitutionnelles, accorder 
au President du Conseil, au Secr6- 
taire g6nral et tout autre membre 
du personnel de 1'Organisation les 
privileges et immunit6s accordSs au 
personnel correspondant d 'autres or- 
ganisations Internationales publiques. 
Si un accord international gnral 
intervient, concernant les immunits 
et privileges des fonctionnaires inter- 
nationaux, les immunit6s et privi- 
leges accord^s au President du Con- 
seil, au Secretaire gn6ral et aux 
autres membres du personnel de 
1'Organisation seront les immunit6s 
et privileges accord6s aux termes de 
cet accord international g6nral. 

CHAPITRE XII 
FINANCES 

ARTICLE 61. Budget et repartition 
des dfpenses 

Le Conseil soumet chaque anne 
1* Assemble un budget, des tats de 
comptes et des provisions de recettes 
et de d6penses. L 'Assemble vote le 
budget en y apportant les modifica- 
tions qu'elle juge propos et, excep- 
tion faite des contributions deman- 
d6es en vertu du chapitre XV 4 des 
Etats qui y consentent, rOpartit les 
d6penses de 1'Organisation entre les 
Etats contractants dans les propor- 
tions qu'elle determine de temps 
autre. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



197 



ARTICLE 62. Suspension of voting 
power 

The Assembly may suspend the 
voting power in the Assembly and 
in the Council of any contracting 
State that fails to discharge within a 
reasonable period its financial obli- 
gations to the Organization. 

ARTICLE 63. Expenses of delegations 
and other representatives 

Each contracting State shall bear 
the expenses of its own delegation to 
the Assembly and the remuneration, 
travel, and other expenses of any 
person whom it appoints to serve on 
the Council, and of its nominees or 
representatives on any subsidiary 
committees or commissions of the 
Organization. 



ARTICLE 62. Suspension du droit 
de vote 

L'Assemble peut suspendre le 
droit de vote F Assemble et au 
Conseil de tout Etat contractant qui 
ne s'acquitte pas, dans un dlai 
raisonnable, de ses obligations finan- 
cteres envers I'Organisation. 

ARTICLE 63. Dfpenses des 
delegations et des autres reprfsentants 

Chaque Etat contractant prend 
sa charge les dpenses de sa propre 
delegation 4 1'Assembiee, ainsi que la 
remuneration, les frais de d^place- 
ment et les autres depenses de toute 
personne nommfee par lui pour sieger 
au Conseil, presentee par lui ou d6- 
signee par lui comme repr6sentant 
dans Tun quelconque des comit6s ou 
commissions subsidiaires de 1'Orga- 
nisation. 



CHAPTER XIII 

OTHER INTERNATIONAL ARRANGE- 
MENTS 

ARTICLE 64. Security arrangements 

The Organization may, with re- 
spect to air matters within its com- 
petence directly affecting world se- 
curity, by vote of the Assembly enter 
into appropriate arrangements with 
any general organization set up by 
the nations of the world to preserve 
peace. 



ARTICLE 65. Arrangements with 
other international bodies 

The Council, on behalf of the Or- 
ganization, may enter into agree- 
ments with other international bodies 
for the maintenance of common 
services and for common arrange- 
ments concerning personnel and, 
with the approval of the Assembly, 
may enter into such other arrange- 
ments as may facilitate the work of 
the Organization. 



CHAPITRE XIII 

AUTRES ARRANGEMENTS 
INTERNATIONAL 

ARTICLE 64. Arrangements visant 
la stcuritt 

En ce qui concerne les questions 
aeriennes de sa competence qui af- 
fectent directement la scurit6 du 
monde, 1'Organisation peut, par un 
vote de 1'Assembiee, conclure des ar- 
rangements spedaux avec toute or- 
ganisation generate etablie par les 
nations du monde pour le maintien 
de la paix. 

ARTICLE 65. Arrangements avec 
d'autres organismes international 

Le Conseil peut, au nom de 1'Or- 
ganisation, conclure des accords avec 
d'autres organismes internationaux 
en vue de maintenir des services 
communs et de faire des arrange- 
ments communs au sujet du per- 
sonnel et, avec 1'assentiment de 
1'Assembiee, conclure tous autres 
arrangements susceptibles de facili- 
ter la tSche de 1'Organisation. 



198 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



ARTICLE 66. Functions relating to 
other agreements 

(a) The Organization shall also 
carry out the functions placed upon 
it by the International Air Services 
Transit Agreement and by the In- 
ternational Air Transport Agree- 
ment drawn up at Chicago on De- 
cember 7, 1944, in accordance with 
the terms and conditions therein set 
forth. 

(6) Members of the Assembly and 
the Council who have not accepted 
the International Air Services Transit 
Agreement or the International Air 
Transport Agreement drawn up at 
Chicago on December 7, 1944 shall 
not have the right to vote on any 
questions referred to the Assembly 
or Council under the provisions of 
the relevant Agreement. 



PART III 
INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT 

CHAPTER XIV 

INFORMATION AND REPORTS 

ARTICLE 67. File reports with 
Council 

Each contracting State under- 
takes that its international airlines 
shall, in accordance with require- 
ments laid down by the Council, 
file with the Council traffic reports, 
cost statistics and financial state- 
ments showing among other things 
all receipts and the sources thereof. 



ARTICLE 66.Fonctions relatives d 
d'autres accords 

a) L'Organisation exerce 6gale- 
ment les fonctions qui lui sont d6- 
volues par 1' Accord relatif au transit 
des services a^riens internationaux et 
par T Accord relatif au transport 
a6rien international, 61abor6s i Chi- 
cago le 7 d6cembre 1944, conform6- 
ment aux termes et conditions 
6nonc6s dans lesdits accords. 

6) Les membres de I 1 Assemble et 
du Conseil qui n'ont pas accept^ 
1' Accord relatif au transit des ser- 
vices a6riens internationaux ou 1' Ac- 
cord relatif au transport arien in- 
ternational 61abor6s It Chicago le 7 
d6cembre 1944, n'ont pas droit de 
vote sur toute question dont 1'As- 
sembl6e ou le Conseil sera saisi en 
application des dispositions de 1'ac- 
cord correspondant. 

TROISlfiME PARTIE 
TRANSPORT ARIEN INTERNATIONAL 

CHAPITRE XIV 

RENSEIGNEMENTS ET RAPPORTS 

ARTICLE 67. Dipot de rapports 
au Conseil 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
ce que ses entreprises de transports 
a^riens internationaux adressent au 
Conseil, conform6ment aux prescrip- 
tions 6tablies par celui-ci, des rap- 
ports sur leur trafic, des statistiques 
sur leur prix de revient, ainsi que des 
6tats comptables indiquant, entre 
autres, le montant et la provenance 
de toutes leurs recettes. 



CHAPTER XV 

AIRPORTS AND OTHER AIR NAVIGA- 
TION FACILITIES 

ARTICLE 68. Designation of routes 
and airports 

Each contracting State may, sub- 
ject to the provisions of this Con- 
vention, designate the route to be 



CHAPITRE XV 

A6ROPORTS ET AUTRES FACILITIES DE 
NAVIGATION A^RIENNE 

ARTICLE 68. Designation des routes 
et des aSroports 

Chaque Etat contractant peut, 
sous reserve des dispositions de la 
pr6sente Convention, designer la 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



199 



followed within its territory by any 
international air service and the 
airports which any such service may 
use. 

ARTICLE 69. Improvement of air 
navigation facilities 

If the Council is of the opinion 
that the airports or other air navi- 
gation facilities, including radio and 
meteorological services, of a con- 
tracting State are not reasonably 
adequate for the safe, regular, effi- 
cient, and economical operation of 
international air services, present or 
contemplated, the Council shall con- 
sult with the State directly con- 
cerned, and other States affected, 
with a view to finding means by 
which the situation may be reme- 
died, and may make recommenda- 
tions for that purpose. No con- 
tracting State shall be guilty of an 
infraction of this Convention if it 
fails to carry out these recommen- 
dations. 



ARTICLE 70. Financing of air navi- 
gation facilities 

A contracting State, in the cir- 
cumstances arising under the pro- 
visions of Article 69, may conclude 
an arrangement with the Council for 
giving effect to such recommenda- 
tions. The State may elect to bear 
all of the costs involved in any such 
arrangement. If the State does not 
so elect, the Council may agree, at 
the request of the State, to provide 
for all or a portion of the costs. 

ARTICLE 71. Provision and mainte- 
nance of facilities by Council 

If a contracting State so requests, 
the Council may agree to provide, 
man, maintain, and administer any 
or all of the airports and other air 
navigation facilities, including radio 
and meteorological services, required 
in its territory for the safe, regular, 
efficient and economical operation of 



route que doit suivre 4 Tint6rieur de 
son territpire tout service interna- 
tional a6rien ainsi que les aroports 
pouvant etre utilises par Tun quel- 
conque de ces services. 

ARTICLE 69. Amelioration des 
faciliUs pour la navigation airienne 

Si le Conseil estime que, dans un 
Etat contractant, les aroports ou 
autres facilits pour la navigation 
a^rienne, y compris les services radio- 
lectriques et mt6orologiques, ne 
sont pas raisonnablement suffisants 
pour assurer la scurit, la rgularit, 
I'efficacite et 1'exploitation 6cono- 
mique des services aferiens interna- 
tionaux existants ou projets, il pro- 
c&de des consultations avec 1'Etat 
directement en cause et avec les 
autres Etats int6ress6s en vue de 
trouver les moyens de remdier a 
la situation, et il peut formuler des 
recommandations a cet eftet. Aucun 
Etat contractant ne sera considr6 
comme coupable d'infraction a la 
prtsente Convention s'il ne met pas 
a execution ces recommandations. 

ARTICLE 70. Financement des 
faciliUs ae navigation afrienne 

Un Etat contractant peut, dans 
les circonstances vises a Particle 69, 
conclure un arrangement avec le 
Conseil en vue de donner effet 
de telles recommandations. L'Etat 
peut decider de prendre & sa charge 
tous les frais resultant dudit ar- 
rangement. Dans le cas contraire, le 
Conseil peut accepter, a la demande 
de 1'Etat, de pourvoir a la totalit6 ou 
a une partie des frais. 

ARTICLE 71. Fourniture et entretien 
de faciliUs par le Conseil 

Si un Etat contractant en fait la 
demande, le Conseil peut accepter de 
fournir, pourvoir en personnel, entre^ 
tenir et grer en totality ou en partie 
les a^roports et autres facility de 
navigation arienne, y compris les 
services radioglectriques et mto- 
rologiques qui, $ur le territoire dudit 



20O 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



the international air services of the 
other contracting States, and may 
specify just and reasonable charges 
for the use of the facilities provided. 



ARTICLE 72. Acquisition or use of 
land 

Where land is needed for facilities 
financed in whole or in part by the 
Council at the request of a con- 
tracting State, that State shall 
either provide the land itself, retain- 
ing title if it wishes, or facilitate the 
use of the land by the Council on 
just and reasonable terms and in 
accordance with the laws of the 
State concerned. 

ARTICLE 73. Expenditure and as- 
sessment of funds 

Within the limit of the funds 
which may be made available to it 
by the Assembly under Chapter 
XII, the Council may make current 
expenditures for the purposes of this 
Chapter from the general funds of 
the Organization. The Council shall 
assess the capital funds required for 
the purposes of this Chapter in pre- 
viously agreed proportions over a 
reasonable period of time to the con- 
tracting States consenting thereto 
whose airlines use the facilities. 
The Council may also assess to 
States that consent any working 
funds that are required. 



ARTICLE 74. Technical assistance 
and utilization of revenues 

When the Council, at the request 
of a contracting State, advances 
funds or provides airports or other 
facilities in whole or in part, the 
arrangement may provide, with the 
consent of that State, for technical 
assistance in the supervision and 



Etat, sont ngcessaires la scurit, 
la r6gularit6, I'efficacitS et 1'exploita- 
tion conomique des services ariens 
internationaux des autres Etats con- 
tractants, et peut Stablir des taxes 
justes et raispnnables pour 1'utilisa- 
tion des facilitfis fournies. 

ARTICLE 72. Acquisition ou 
utilisation de terrains 

L oft des terrains sont n6cessaires 
pour des facilits finances en totalit6 
ou en partie par le Conseil la de- 
mande d'un Etat contractant, ce 
dernier doit, soit fournir Iui-m6me 
ces terrains, dont il conservera la 
propri6t6 s'il le desire, soit en facili- 
ter 1 'utilisation par le Conseil i des 
conditions justes et raisonnables et 
conformment ses lois nationales. 

ARTICLE 7Z.D(penses et repartition 
desfonds 

Dans la limite des fonds qui 
peuvent tre mis par P Assemble 
la disposition du Conseil en vertu du 
chapitre XII, le Conseil peut pour- 
voir aux d6penses courantes nces- 
saires aux fins du present chapitre au 
moyen de pr61vements effectu6s sur 
le fonds g6nral de l f Organisation. 
Le Conseil rtpartit le montant en 
capital ncessaire aux fins du present 
chapitre, selon des proportions pr6- 
alablement convenues et sur une 
p^riode de temps raisonnable, entre 
les Etats contractants qui y consent- 
ent et dont les entreprises de trans- 
ports ariens utilisent les facilits en 
question. Si un fonds de roulement 
s'avfere nteessaire, le Conseil peut 
6galement en rtpartir la charge entre 
les Etats qui y consentent. 

ARTICLE 74. Assistance technique et 
utilisation des recettes 

Lorsque, la demande d'un Etat 
contractant, le Conseil avance des 
fonds ou tablit des aroports ou 
d'autres facilits en totalit ou en 
partie, l f arrangement peut prtvoir, 
si ledit Etat y consent, d'une part 
une assistance technique en ce qui 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



2OI 



operation of the airports and other 
facilities, and for the payment, from 
the revenues derived from the opera- 
tion of the airports and other facili- 
ties, of the operating expenses of the 
airports and the other facilities, and 
of interest and amortization charges. 

ARTICLE 75. Taking over of facilities 
from Council 

A contracting State may at any 
time discharge any obligation into 
which it has entered under Article 
70, and take over airports and other 
facilities which the Council has pro- 
vided in its territory pursuant to the 
provisions of Articles 71 and 72, by 
paying to the Council an amount 
which in the opinion of the Council 
is reasonable in the circumstances. 
If the State considers that the 
amount fixed by the Council is un- 
reasonable it may appeal to the 
Assembly against the decision of the 
Council and the Assembly may con- 
firm or amend the decision of the 
Council. 

ARTICLE 76. Return of funds 

Funds obtained by the Council 
through reimbursement under Arti- 
cle 75 and from receipts of interest 
and amortization payments under 
Article 74 shall, in the case of ad- 
vances originally financed by States 
under Article 73, be returned to the 
States which were originally assessed 
in the proportion of their assess- 
ments, as determined by the Council. 



CHAPTER XVI 

JOINT OPERATING ORGANIZATIONS AND 
POOLED SERVICES 

ARTICLE 77. Joint operating or- 
ganizations permitted 

Nothing in this Convention shall 
prevent two or more contracting 
States from constituting joint air 



concerne le contrdle g6n6ral et 1'ex- 
ploitation des a6roports et autres 
facilitfe, et d'autre part le paiement, 
au moyen des recettes d 'exploitation 
de ces a6roports et autres facilit6s, 
des frais d 'exploitation desdits aro- 
ports et autres facilit6s, des intrgts 
et de ramortissement. 

ARTICLE 75. Reprise des installa- 
tions ditenues par le Conseil 

Un Etat contractant peut i tout 
moment se d^gager des obligations 
contractes par lui en vertu de 
1'article 70 et prendre possession des 
a6roports et autres facilits 6tablis 
par le Conseil sur son territoire en 
vertu des dispositions des articles 71 
et 72, en versant au Conseil une 
somme qui, de 1'avis du Conseil, est 
raisonnable en 1'occurrence. Si 1'Etat 
int6ress6 estime que la somme fixe 
par le Conseil est excessive, il peut 
appeler de la decision du Conseil i 
T Assemble qui confirme ou modifie 
cette decision. 



ARTICLE 76. Restitution des fonds 

Les fonds r6unis par le Conseil, 
qu'il s'agisse de fonds rembourss en 
vertu des dispositions de Tarticle 75 
ou de fonds provenant du paiement 
d'int^rgts et d'amortissement en 
vertu de 1'article 74, sont, pour ce 
qui est des avances consenties i 
1'origine par des Etats en vertu de 
Tarticle 73, restitu6s auxdits Etats 
proportionnellement aux contribu- 
tions fixes initialement pour chacun 
d'eux par le Conseil. 

CHAPITRE XVI 

ORGANISATIONS D'EXPLOITATION EN 
COMMUN ET SERVICES EN POOL 

ARTICLE 77. Entreprises en commun 
autorisfes 

Aucune disposition de la prfesente 
Convention n'emp^che deux ou plu- 
sieurs Etats contractants de con- 



202 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



transport operating organizations or 
international operating agencies and 
from pooling their air services on any 
routes or in any regions, but such 
organizations or agencies and such 
pooled services shall be subject to 
all the provisions of this Convention, 
including those relating to the regis- 
tration of agreements with the Coun- 
cil. The Council shall determine in 
what manner the provisions of this 
Convention relating to nationality of 
aircraft shall apply to aircraft oper- 
ated by international operating agen- 
cies. 



ARTICLE 78. Function of Council 

The Council may suggest to con- 
tracting States concerned that they 
form joint organizations to operate 
air services on any routes or in any 
regions. 

ARTICLE 79. Participation in 
operating organizations 

A State may participate in joint 
operating organizations or in pooling 
arrangements, either through its 
government or through an airline 
company or companies designated 
by its government. The companies 
may, at the sole discretion of the 
State concerned, be state-owned 
or partly state-owned or privately 
owned. 

PART IV 

FINAL PROVISIONS 

CHAPTER XVII 

OTHER AERONAUTICAL AGREEMENTS 
AND ARRANGEMENTS 

ARTICLE 80. Paris and Habana 
Conventions 

Each contracting State under- 
takes, immediately upon the coming 
into force of this Convention, to give 
notice of denunciation of the Con- 
vention relating to the Regulation of 



stituer, pour les transports ariens, 
des organisations d 'exploitation en 
commun ou des organismes inter- 
nationaux d 'exploitation, ni de met- 
tre en pool leurs services ariens sur 
toute route ou dans toute region. 
Toutefois, ces organisations ou or- 
ganismes et ces services en pool 
seront soumis toutes les disposi- 
tions de la prgsente Convention, y 
compris celles qui ont trait 1'en- 
registrement des accords au Conseil. 
Le Conseil dterminera les modalits 
d 'application des dispositions de la 
prgsente Convention concernant la 
nationality des aronefs aux aronefs 
exploits par des organismes inter- 
nationaux d'exploitation. 

ARTICLE 7B.Rdle du Conseil 

Le Conseil peut suggrer aux 
Etats contractants intresss de 
former des organisations conjointes 
pour exploiter des services a6riens sur 
toutes routes ou dans toutes regions. 

ARTICLE 79. Participation aux 
entreprises communes 

Un Etat peut faire partie d'organ- 
isations d'exploitation en commun 
ou participer des pools par 1'inter- 
mdiaire soit de son gouvernement, 
soit d'une ou de plusieurs entreprises 
de transports a^riens d6sign6es par 
son Gouvernement. Ces entreprises 
peuvent, & la discretion exclusive de 
1'Etat intress6, fitre en tout ou partie 
propri6t6 d'Etat ou propri6t privte. 

QUATRlfiME PARTIE 

DISPOSITIONS FINALES 

CHAPITRE XVII 

AUTRES ACCORDS ET ARRANGEMENTS 
AfeRONAUTIQUES 

ARTICLE 80. Conventions de Paris 
et de La Havane 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
d&ioncer, ds I'entr6e en vigueur de 
la prsente Convention, la Conven- 
tion portant rtglementation de la 
navigation alrienne, signe & Paris 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



203 



Aerial Navigation signed at Paris on 
October 13, 1919 or the Convention 
on Commercial Aviation signed at 
Habana on February 20, 1928, if it is 
a party to either. As between con- 
tracting States, this Convention 
supersedes the Conventions of Paris 
and Habana previously referred to. 

ARTICLE 81. Registration of existing 
agreements 

All aeronautical agreements which 
are in existence on the coming into 
force of this Convention, and which 
are between a contracting State and 
any other State or between an airline 
of a contracting State and any other 
State or the airline of any other 
State, shall be forthwith registered 
with the Council. 



ARTICLE 82. Abrogation of 
inconsistent arrangements 

The contracting States accept this 
Convention as abrogating all obliga- 
tions and understandings between 
them which are inconsistent with its 
terms, and undertake not to enter 
into any such obligations and under- 
standings. A contracting State 
which, before becoming a member of 
the Organization has undertaken any 
obligations toward a non -contracting 
State or a national of a contracting 
State or of a non-contracting State 
inconsistent with the terms of this 
Convention, shall take immediate 
steps to procure its release from the 
obligations. If an airline of any 
contracting State has entered into 
any such inconsistent obligations, 
the State of which it is a national shall 
use its best efforts to secure their 
termination forthwith and shall in 
any event cause them to be termi- 
nated as soon as such action can law- 
fully be taken after the coming into 
force of this Convention. 



le 13 octobre 1919, ou la Convention 
relative 1'aviation commerciale, 
sign6e & La Havane le 20 fevrier 
1928, s'il est partie & Tune ou 1'autre 
de ces Conventions. La prsente 
Convention remplace, entre les Etats 
contractants, les conventions de 
Paris et de La Havane ci-dessus 
mentionnes. 

ARTICLE 81. Enregistrement 
des accords en vigueur 

Tous accords a6ronautiques exist- 
ant au moment de I'entr6e en vigueur 
de la prsente Convention entre un 
Etat contractant et tout autre Etat, 
ou entre une entreprise de transports 
a6riens d'un Etat contractant et 
tout autre Etat ou une entreprise de 
transports a6riens d'un autre Etat, 
doivent Stre enregistr6s imm6diate- 
ment au Conseil. 

ARTICLE 82. Abrogation d' arrange- 
ments incompatibles avec les disposi- 
tions de la prfsente Convention 

Les Etats contractants convien- 
nent que la pr6sente Convention 
abroge toutes obligations et tous 
engagements existant entre eux qui 
spnt incompatibles avec les disposi- 
tions de ladite Convention, et s'en- 
gagent a ne pas contracter des 
obligations ou des engagements de 
cette nature. Un Etat contractant 
qui, avant de devenir membre de 
TOrganisation, a assum6 envers un 
Etat non contractant ou un ressortis- 
sant d'un Etat contractant des obli- 
gations incompatibles avec les termes 
de la pr6sente Convention, doit 
prendre sans d61ai les mesures nces- 
saires pour se Iib6rer desdites obliga- 
tions. Si une entreprise de transports 
a^riens d'un Etat contractant quel- 
conque a assum6 de telles obligations 
incompatibles, 1'Etat dont elle est 
ressortissante s'emploiera de son 
mieux pour qu'il soit mis fin a ces 
obligations et en tout cas veillera 4 ce 
qu'il y soit mis fin d&s que cela sera 
juridiquement possible apr&s I'entr6e 
en vigueur de la prsente Convention. 



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No. 640 



ARTICLE 83. Registration of new 
arrangements 

Subject to the provisions of the 
preceding Article, any contracting 
State may make arrangements not 
inconsistent with the provisions of 
this Convention. Any such ar- 
rangement shall be forthwith reg- 
istered with the Council, which shall 
make it public as soon as possible. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

DISPUTES AND DEFAULT 

ARTICLE 84. Settlement of disputes 

If any disagreement between two 
or more contracting States relating 
to the interpretation or application 
of this Convention and its Annexes 
cannot be settled by negotiation, it 
shall, on the application of any State 
concerned in the disagreement, be 
decided by the Council. No mem- 
ber of the Council shall vote in the 
consideration by the Council of any 
dispute to which it is a party. Any 
contracting State may, subject to 
Article 85, appeal from the decision 
of the Council to an ad hoc arbitral 
tribunal agreed upon with the other 
parties to the dispute or to the 
Permanent Court of International 
Justice. Any such appeal shall be 
notified to the Council within sixty 
days of receipt of notification of the 
decision of the Council. 

ARTICLE 85. Arbitration procedure 

If any contracting State party to a 
dispute in which the decision of the 
Council is under appeal has not ac- 
cepted the Statute of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice and 
the contracting States parties to the 
dispute cannot agree on the choice of 
the arbitral tribunal, each of the 
contracting States parties to the 
dispute shall name a single arbitrator 



ARTICLE 83. Enregistrement de tout 
nouvel arrangement 

Sous reserve des dispositions de 
1'article pr6c6dent, tout Etat con- 
tractant peut conclure des accords 
qui ne soient pas incompatibles avec 
les dispositions de la pr6sente Con- 
vention. Tout accord de cette nature 
est immdiatement enregistr6 au 
Conseil, qui le rend public aussitdt 
que faire se peut. 

CHAPITRE XVIII 

DIFF^RENDS ET MANQUEMENTS 
AUX ENGAGEMENTS 

ARTICLE 84. R&glement 
des differ ends 

Si un disaccord survenu entre deux 
ou plusieurs Etats cpntractants k 
propos de Interpretation ou de Tap- 
plication de la prsente Convention 
et de ses annexes ne peut etre rgl 
par voie de ngociation, le Conseil 
statue & la demande de tout Etat 
impliqu dans ce disaccord. Aucun 
membre du Conseil ne peut voter lors 
de 1'examen par le Conseil d'un 
diflferend auqucl il est partie. Tout 
Etat contractant peut, sous reserve 
de 1'article 85, faire appel de la d- 
cision du Conseil soit & un tribunal 
arbitral ad hoc accept6 par les autres 
parties au disaccord, soit la Cour 
permanente de Justice interna- 
tionale. Tout appel de ce genre doit 
6tre notifi6 au Conseil dans les soix- 
ante jours qui suivront la date la- 
quelle notification de la decision du 
Conseil a 6t6 regue. 

ARTICLE 85. Procedure d'arbitrage 

Si un Etat contractant, partie 
un diflferend pour lequel il a 6t6 fait 
appel de la decision du Conseil, n'a 
pas accept6 le Statut de la Cour 
permanente de Justice Internationale 
et si les Etats contractants parties a 
ce diflferend ne peuvent se mettre 
d'accord sur le choix du tribunal 
arbitral, chacun des Etats contrac- 
tants partie au diflferend dsigne un 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



205 



who shall name an umpire. If either 
contracting State party to the dis- 
pute fails to name an arbitrator 
within a period of three months from 
the date of the appeal, an arbitrator 
shall be named on behalf of that 
State by the President of the Coun- 
cil from a list of qualified and avail- 
able persons maintained by the 
Council. If, within thirty days, the 
arbitrators cannot agree on an um- 
pire, the President of the Council 
shall designate an umpire from the 
list previously referred to. The 
arbitrators and the umpire shall then 
jointly constitute an arbitral tri- 
bunal. Any arbitral tribunal estab- 
lished under this or the preceding 
Article shall settle its own procedure 
and give its decisions by majority 
vote, provided that the Council may 
determine procedural questions in 
the event of any delay which in the 
opinion of the Council is excessive. 



ARTICLE 86. Appeals 

Unless the Council decides other- 
wise, any decision by the Council on 
whether an international airline is 
operating in conformity with the 
provisions of this Convention shall 
remain in effect unless reversed on 
appeal. On any other matter, deci- 
sions of the Council shall, if appealed 
from, be suspended until the appeal 
is decided. The decisions of the 
Permanent Court of International 
Justice and of an arbitral tribunal 
shall be final and binding. 



ARTICLE 87. Penalty for non- 
conformity of airline 



Each contracting State under- 
takes not to allow the operation of 
an airline of a contracting State 
through the airspace above its terri- 



arbitre et les arbitres ainsi dsigns 
nomment un surarbitre. Au cas oit 
Tun pu 1'autre des Etats contractants 
parties au diflferend ne dsignerait 
pas d'arbitre dans les trois mois qui 
suivent la date de 1 'appel, un arbitre 
sera choisi au nom de cet Etat par le 
President du Conseil sur une liste de 
personnes qualifies et disponibles 
tablie par le Conseil. Si, dans les 
trente jours, les arbitres ne peuvent 
se mettre d'accord sur le choix d'un 
surarbitre, le President du Conseil 
d6signe comme surarbitre une des 
personnes figurant sur la liste sus- 
mentionn6e. Les arbitres et le sur- 
arbitre constituent alors un tribunal 
arbitral. Tout tribunal arbitral 6tabli 
en vertu du present article ou de 
Tarticle pr6c6dent determine ses 
propres regies de procedure et rend 
ses decisions la majorit des voix, 
tant entendu toutefois que le Con- 
seil a la facult6 de decider des ques- 
tions de procedure, au cas oft se 
produiraient des retards qu'il esti- 
merait excessifs. 

ARTICLE 86Appds 

A moins que le Conseil n'en decide 
autrement, toute decision du Conseil 
sur la question de savoir si une 
entreprise de transports a6riens in- 
ternationaux est exploite conform6- 
ment aux dispositions de la prfesente 
Convention reste valable, k moins 
qu'elle ne soit infirm6e en appel. Sur 
toute autre question, les decisions du 
Conseil sont suspendues, s'il en est 
fait appel, jusqu' ce que le tribunal 
d'appel ait statu. Les decisions de 
la Cour permanente de Justice inter- 
national ou d'un tribunal arbitral 
sont definitives et lient les Parties. 

ARTICLE 87. Sanctions d Vigard 
d'une entreprise de transports atri- 
ens qui ne se conforme pas aux 
dispositions prtvues 

Chaque Etat contractant s'engage 
ne pas autoriser une entreprise de 
transports a6riens d'un Etat con- 
tractant & survoler son territoire si le 



206 



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No. 640 



tory if the Council has decided that 
the airline concerned is not conform- 
ing to a final decision rendered in 
accordance with the previous Article. 

ARTICLE 88. Penalty far 
non-conformity by State 

The Assembly shall suspend the 
voting power in the Assembly and in 
the Council of any contracting State 
that is found in default under the 
provisions of this Chapter. 

CHAPTER XIX 

WAR 

ARTICLE 89. War and emergency 
conditions 

In case of war, the provisions of 
this Convention shall not affect the 
freedom of action of any of the con- 
tracting States affected, whether as 
belligerents or as neutrals. The 
same principle shall apply in the case 
of any contracting State which de- 
clares a state of national emergency 
and notifies the fact to the Council. 



Conseil a dcid que 1'entreprise en 
question ne se conforme pas & la d6- 
cision definitive rendue conform- 
ment aux dispositions de 1'article 
precedent. 

ARTICLE 88. Sanctions A Vigard 
d'un Etat qui ne se conforme pas 
aux dispositions prfvues 

L'Assembiee suspendra le droit de 
vote 1'Assembiee et au Conseil de 
tout Etat contractant trouve en d- 
faut par rapport aux dispositions du 
present chapitre. 

CHAPITRE XIX 
GUERRE 

ARTICLE 89. Etat de guerre et etat 
de crise 

En cas de guerre, les dispositions 
de la prtsente Convention ne portent 
pas atteinte & la liberte d 'action des 
Etats contractants, qu'ils soient 
belligerants ou neutres. Le mgme 
principe s'applique tout Etat con- 
tractant qui proclame 1'existence 
d'un etat de crise et en donne notifi- 
cation au Conseil. 



CHAPTER XX 

ANNEXES 

ARTICLE 90. Adoption and amend- 
ment of Annexes 

(a) The adoption by the Council 
of the Annexes described in Article 
54, subparagraph (/), shall require 
the vote of two-thirds of the Council 
at a meeting called for that purpose 
and shall then be submitted by the 
Council to each contracting State. 
Any such Annex or any amendment 
of an Annex shall become effective 
within three months after its sub- 
mission to the contracting States or 
at the end of such longer period of 
time as the Council may prescribe, 
unless in the meantime a majority of 
the contracting States register their 
disapproval with the Council. 



CHAPITRE XX 

ANNEXES 

ARTICLE 90. Adoption et modifica- 
tion des annexes 

a) L'adoption par le Conseil des 
annexes vis6es & I'alinfea /) de 1'article 
54 requiert un vote des deux tiers 
des voix du Conseil lors d'une re- 
union convoqute cette fin; lesdites 
sont ensuite soumises par le Conseil 
& chaque Etat contractant. Cha- 
cune desdites annexes ou tout 
amendement & une annexe prend 
effet dans les trois mois qui suivent 
sa communication aux Etats con- 
tractants ou & la fin d'une p6riode 
plus longue fix6e par le Conseil, & 
moina qu'entre temps la majorit6 
des Etats contractants n'aient notifie 
leur disapprobation au Conseil. 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



207 



(i) The Council shall immediately 
notify all contracting States of the 
coming into force of any Annex or 
amendment thereto. 



b) Le Conaeil avise immfediate- 
ment tous les Etats contractants de 
l'entre en vigueur de toute annexe 
ou de tout amendement & une an- 



nexe. 



CHAPTER XXI 

RATIFICATIONS, ADHERENCES, 
AMENDMENTS, AND DENUNCIATIONS 

ARTICLE 91. Ratification of 
Convention 

(a) This Convention shall be sub- 
ject to ratification by the signatory 
States. The instruments of ratifi- 
cation shall be deposited in the 
archives of the Government of the 
United States of America, which 
shall give notice of the date of the 
deposit to each of the signatory and 
adhering States. 

(b) As soon as this Convention has 
been ratified or adhered to by 
twenty-six States it shall come into 
force between them on the thirtieth 
day after deposit of the twenty-sixth 
instrument. It shall come into force 
for each State ratifying thereafter on 
the thirtieth day after the deposit of 
its instrument of ratification. 



(c) It shall be the duty of the 
Government of the United States of 
America to notify the government of 
each of the signatory and adhering 
States of the date on which this 
Convention comes into force. 

ARTICLE 92. Adherence to 
Convention 

(a) This Convention shall be open 
for adherence by members of the 
United Nations and States associ- 
ated with them, and States which 
remained neutral during the present 
world conflict. 

(b) Adherence shall be effected 
by a notification addressed to the 
Government of the United States of 
America and shall take effect as 



CHAPITRE XXI 

RATIFICATIONS, ADHESIONS, AMENDE- 
MENTS ET DNONCIATIONS 

ARTICLE 91. Ratification de la 
Convention 

a) La pr^sente Convention est 
soumise la ratification des Etats 
signataires. Les instruments de rat- 
ification seront dposs dans les 
archives du Gouvernement des 
Etats-Unis d'Am6rique, qui notifiera 
la date de ce dpdt chacun des 
Etats signataires et adherents. 

6) Ds que la pr6sente Convention 
aura runi les ratifications ou adh- 
sions de vingt-six Etats, elle entrera 
en vigueur entre ces Etats le trenti- 
feme jour qui suivra la date du d6p6t 
du vingt-sixi&me instrument de rati- 
fication ou d 'adhesion. Elle entrera 
en vigueur, regard de chaque Etat 
qui la ratifiera par la suite, le trenti- 
&me jour qui suivra la date du dpdt 
de Tinstrument de ratification dudit 
Etat. 

c) II incombera au Gouvernement 
des Etats-Unis d'Am6rique de noti- 
fier au gouvernement de chacun des 
Etats signataires et adherents la date 
d'entre en vigueur de la prsente 
Convention. 

ARTICLE Q2.Adh6sion & la 
Convention 

a) La prsente Convention est 
ouverte b l'adhsion des Etats mem* 
bres des Nations Unies, des Etats 
assoctes a ceux-ci et des Etats de- 
meurs neutres pendant le conflit 
mondial actuel. 

b) Cette adhesion sera effectu6e 
par une notification adresste au Gou- 
vernement des Etats-Unis d'Am6- 
rique et prendra effet le trenti&me 



208 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640 



from the thirtieth day from the re- 
ceipt of the notification by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of 
America, which shall notify all the 
contracting States. 

ARTICLE 93. Admission of other 
States 

States other than those provided 
for in Articles 91 and 92 (a) may, 
subject to approval by any general 
international organization set up by 
the nations of the world to preserve 
peace, be admitted to participation 
in this Convention by means of a 
four-fifths vote of the Assembly and 
on such conditions as the Assembly 
may prescribe: provided that in each 
case the assent of any State invaded 
or attacked during the present war 
by the State seeking admission shall 
be necessary. 



ARTICLE 94. Amendment of 
Convention 

(a) Any proposed amendment to 
this Convention must be approved 
by a two-thirds vote of the Assembly 
and shall then come into force in 
respect of States which have ratified 
such amendment when ratified by 
the number of contracting States 
specified by the Assembly. The 
number so specified shall not be less 
than two-thirds of the total number 
of contracting States. 

(6) If in its opinion the amend- 
ment is of such a nature as to justify 
this course, the Assembly in its reso- 
lution recommending adoption may 
provide that any State which has 
not ratified within a specified period 
after the amendement has come into 
force shall thereupon cease to be a 
member of the Organization and a 
party to the Convention. 

ARTICLE 95. Denunciation of 
Convention 

(a) Any contracting State may 
give notice of denunciation of this 



jour qui suivra la date de la rcep- 
tion de cette notification par le 
Gouvernement des Etats-Unis 
d'Am^rique, qui la notifiera 4 tous 
les Etats contractants. 

ARTICLE 93. Admission d'autres 
Etats 

Sous r6serve de Tapprobation de 
toute organisation Internationale 
gnrale cre par les nations du 
monde pour le maintien de la paix, 
des Etats autres que ceux vis6s aux 
articles 91 et 92 a) peuvent 6tre 
admis participer & la pr6sente Con- 
vention par un vote des quatre cin- 
qui&nes de rAssemb!6e et dans les 
conditions que TAssembtee pourra 
imposer, tant entendu que dans 
chaque cas 1'assentiment de tout 
Etat envahi ou attaqu6 au cours de 
la guerre actuelle par 1'Etat deman- 
dant son admission est ncessaire. 

ARTICLE 94. Amendement & la 
Convention 

a) Tout projet d 'amendement 4 
la prfesente Convention doit tre 
approuv6 par les deux tiers des voix 
de 1' Assemble et entre alors en 
vigueur i regard des Etats qui 
Tont ratififi, aprfes ratification par le 
nombre d'Etats contractants fix6 
par I'Assembtee. Ce nombre ne 
devra pas tre inferieur aux deux 
tiers du nombre total des Etats con- 
tractants. 

b) Si 1' Assemble estime qu'un 
amendement est de nature & justifier 
cette mesure, elle peut, dans sa r6so- 
lution qui en recommande 1'adop- 
tion, stipuler qu'un Etat quel- 
conque qui n'a pas ratifi ledit 
amendement dans un d61ai fix6 
compter de la date de son entree en 
vigueur cesse ipso facto d'etre mem- 
bre de TOrganisation et partie la 
Convention. 

ARTICLE 95. D6nonciation de la 
Convention 

a) Tout Etat contractant peut 
dnoncer la pr6sente Convention 



Dec. 7, 1944 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



209 



Convention three years after its 
coming into effect by notification 
addressed to the Government of the 
United States of America, which 
shall at once inform each of the con- 
tracting States. 

(b) Denunciation shall take effect 
one year from the date of the receipt 
of the notification and shall operate 
only as regards the State effecting 
the denunciation. 



trois ans aprds son entree en vigueur 
au moyen d'une notification adresse 
au Gouvernement des Etats-Unis 
d'Amrique, qui en avise imm6diate- 
ment chacun des Etats contractants. 

b) Cette d6nonciation prend effet 
un an aprts la date de reception de la 
notification et n'a d'effet qu'i l'6gard 
de 1'Etat qui 1'a effectute. 



CHAPTER XXII 
DEFINITIONS 

ARTICLE 96 

For the purpose of this Conven- 
tion the expression : 

(a) "Air service" means any 
scheduled air service performed by 
aircraft for the public transport of 
passengers, mail or cargo. 

(b) "International air service" 
means an air service which passes 
through the air space over the terri- 
tory of more than one State. 

(c) 1 ' Airline ' ' means any air trans- 
port enterprise offering or operating 
an international air service. 

(d) "Stop for non-traffic pur- 
poses" means a landing for any pur- 
pose other than taking on or dis- 
charging passengers, cargo or mail. 



SIGNATURE OF CONVENTION 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the under- 
signed plenipotentiaries, having been 
duly authorized, sign this Conven- 
tion on behalf of their respective gov- 
ernments on the dates appearing op- 
posite their signatures. 

Done at Chicago the seventh day 
of December 1944, in the English 
language. A text drawn up in the 
English, French, and Spanish lan- 
guages, 1 each of which shall be of 



CHAPITRE XXII 
DEFINITIONS 

ARTICLE 96 

Aux fins de la prfeente Convention, 
il faut entendre par: 

a) "Service a6rien", tout service 
arien r6gulier assur6 par des a6ronef s 
destines au transport public de passa- 
gers, de courrier ou de marchandises; 

b) "Service a6rien international", 
un service qui traverse 1'espace a6rien 
situ au-dessus du territoire de deux 
ou plusieurs Etats; 

c) "Entreprise de transports adri- 
ens", toute entreprise de transports 
a6riens offrant ou exploitant un 
service adrien international. 

d) "Escale non commerciale", 
une escale ayant un objet autre que 
celui d'embarquer ou de d6barquer 
des passagers, des marchandises ou 
du courrier. 

SIGNATURE DE LA CONVENTION 

EN FOI DE QUOI, les ptenipotenti- 
aires soussignfes, dflment autoriss a 
cet effet, signent la prSsente Conven- 
tion au nom de leurs Gouvernements 
respectifs, aux dates figurant en re- 
gard de leurs signatures. 

Fait Chicago, le sept d6cembre 
mil neuf cent quarante-quatre, en 
langue anglaise. Un texte rdig6 
dans les langues anglaise, frangaise 
et espagnole, 1 chacune faisant 6gale- 



1 The Convention was signed in the English original version formulated at the International 
Civil Aviation Conference which took place at Chicago from i November to 7 December 
1944. No trilingual text has been opened for signature as provided for in the Convention. 
[Continued on page 210. ED.] 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 640 

equal authenticity, shall be open for ment foi, sera ouvert & la signature 

signature at Washington, D. C. Both Washington (D. C). Les deux 

texts shall be deposited in the ar- textes seront d6poss aux archives 

chives of the Government of the du Gouvernement des Etats-Unis 

United States of America, and certi- d'Am&ique, qui en transmettra des 

fied copies shall be transmitted by copies certifies con formes aux Gou- 

that Government to the govern- vernements de tous les Etats qui 

ments of all the States which may signeront la prisente Convention ou 

sign or adhere to this Convention. qui y adhreront. 

[Signed:] For Afghanistan: A. HOSAYN Aziz; for the Government of the 
Commonwealth of Australia: ARTHUR S. DRAKEFORD; for Belgium: Vicomtc 
DU PARC, April 9th, 1945; for Bolivia: TCNL. AL. PACHECO; for Brazil: FER- 
NANDO LOBO, May 29th, 1945; for Canada: H. J. SYMINGTON; for Chile: 
R. SANZ, G. BISQUERT, R. MAGALLANES B.; for China: CHANG KIA-NGAU; 
for Colombia: GONZALO RESTREPO JARAMILLO, October 31 1947; for Costa 
Rica: F. DE P. GUTIERREZ, March loth, 1945; for Cuba: GMO. BELT, Abril 20, 
1945; for Czechoslovakia: V. S. H URBAN, April 18, 45; for the Dominican 
Republic: C. A. MCLAUGHLIN; for Ecuador: J. A. CORREA, FRANCISCO 
GOMEZ JURADO; for Egypt: M. HASSAN, M. ROUSHDY, M. A. KHALIFA; for 
El Salvador: FELIPE VEGA-G^MEZ, May 9, 1945; for Ethiopia: RAS H. S. 
IMRU, Feb. 10, 1947; for France: M. HYMANS, C. LEBEL, BOURGES, P. 
LOCUSSOL; for Greece: D. T. NOTI BOTZARIS, A. J. ARGYROPOULOS ; for 
Guatemala: Osc. MORALES L., Jan. 30, 1945; f r Haiti: G. EDOUARD ROY; 
for Honduras: E. P. LEFEBVRE; for Iceland: THOR THORS; for India: G. V. 
BEWOOR ; for Iran : M . SHAYESTEH ; for Iraq : ALI JAWDAT ; for Ireland : ROBT. 
BRENNAN, JOHN LEYDON, JOHN J, HEARNE, T. J. O'DRISCOLL; for Lebanon: 
C. CHAMOUN, F. EL-Hoss ; for Liberia : WALTER F. WALKER ; for Luxembourg : 
HUGUES LE GALLAIS, July 9th 1945; for Mexico: PEDRO A. CHAPA; for 
the Netherlands: COPES, F. C. ARONSTEIN ; for the Government of New Zea- 
land: DANIEL GILES SULLIVAN; for Nicaragua: R. E. FRIZELL; for Norway: 
W. MUNTHE MORGENSTIERNE, January 30, 1945; for Panama: (The Delega- 
tion of the Republic of Panama signs this Convention ad referendum, and subject to the 
following reservations: I. Because of its strategic position and responsibility in the 
protection of the means of communication in its territory, which are of the utmost 
importance to world trade, and vita! to the defense of the Western Hemisphere, the 
Republic of Panama reserves the right to take, with respect to all flights through the 
air space above its territory, all measures which in its judgment may be proper for its 
own security or the protection of said means of communication. 2. The Republic of 
Panama understands that the technical annexes to which reference is made in the 
Convention constitute recommendations only, and not binding obligations. 1 ); for 

The Government of the United States of America in the note of the State Department of 
22 September 1947 addressed to the Chiefs of Mission of the Governments concerned, after 
having drawn their attention to the various problems involved in this respect and to the fact 
that the Convention as drawn up at the Chicago Conference did not place a specific responsi- 
bility upon the United States Government, as depository of the Convention, to prepare the 
trilingual text, concluded: "The Department of State considers that it is not advisable to 
proceed at this time with preparations to open for signature at Washington trilingual texts of 
those documents. On the contrary, the United States Government proposes to present the 
Question to the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization with a request that 
the question be placed on the agenda for the next meeting of the Assembly of that Organiza- 
tion. It is believed that this procedure will afford the most efficacious means by which the 
governments concerned may, after due consideration of all the factors and problems involved, 
make such decisions with respect thereto as they deem appropriate." 
No signature is affixed to this statement. ED. 



May 27, 1947 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 

Paraguay: CELSO R. VELAZQUEZ, July 27, 1945; for Peru: A. REVOREDO, 
. S. KOECHLIN, Luis ALVARADO, F. ELGUERA, GLLMO. VAN OORDT LE6N; 
or the Philippine Commonwealth: J. HERNANDEZ, URBANO A. ZAFRA, 
. H. FOLEY; for Poland: ZBYSLAW CIOLKOSZ, Dr. H. J. G6RECKI, STEFAN 
. KONORSKI, WITOLD A. URBANOWicz, LUDWIK H. GOTTLIEB; for Portugal: 

MARIO DE FlGUEREDO, ALFREDO DELESQUE DOS SANTOS ClNTRA, DUARTE 

CALHIEROS, VASCO VIEIRA GARIN; for Spain: E. TERRADAS, GERMAN BARAI- 
BAR, DUARTE CALHEIROS; for Sweden: R. KUMLIN; for Switzerland: 
CHARLES BRUGGMANN, July 6th 1945; for Syria: N. KAHALE; for Turkey: 
S. KOCAK, F. SAHINBAS, ORHAN H. EROL; for the Union of South Africa: 
D. D. FORSYTH, 4th June, 1945; for the Government of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: SWINTON; for the United 
States of America: ADOLF A. BERLE, JR., ALFRED L. BULWINKLE, CHAS. A. 

WOLVERTON, F. LAGUARDIA, EDWARD WARNER, L. WELCH POGUE, WlLLIAM 

A. M. BURDEN; for Uruguay: CARL CARBAJAL, Col. MEDARDO R. FARIAS; 
for Denmark: HENRIK KAUFFMANN; for Thailand: M. R. SENI PRAMOJ. 



No. 640a 

Protocol relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International 
Civil Aviation. Signed at Montreal, May 27, 1947. 

Protocole concernant un amendement & la Convention relative & 
Paviation civile Internationale. Sign & Montreal, 27 mai 1947. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Protocol was drawn up in accordance with a resolution of the 
First Assembly of the International Civil Aviation Organization of May 13, 1947, accepting 
a condition made by the General Assembly of the United Nations to the agreement between 
the United Nations and ICAO that ICAO should comply "with any decision of the General 
Assembly regarding Franco Spain." In its resolution on Spain, on December 12, 1946, the 
General Assembly recommended that " the Franco Government of Spain be debarred from 
membership in international agencies established by or brought into relationship with the 
United Nations." U.N. Doc. A/64/Add.i, pp. 63-64, 78. 

RATIFICATIONS. On January i, 1949, ratifications of the Protocol had been deposited at 
Montreal by Afghanistan, Canada, Ceylon, China, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, 
Great Britain, India, New Zealand, and Pakistan. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in Canada, Treaty Series, 1947, 
No. 22] Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. No. II (1947), Cmd. 7202; 17 U.S. Department of State 
Bulletin (1947), p. 177. For a report on it, see idem, p. 175. 

Not entered into force (January i, 1949). 
Text supplied by the International Civil Aviation Organization. 

The Assembly of the Interim- L 'Assemble de 1'Organisation de 

tional Civil Aviation Organization, 1'aviation civile internationale, 

Having been convened at Mon- Convoqu6e Montreal par le Con- 

treal by the Interim Council of the seil intrimaire de 1'Organisation 

Provisional International Civil Avia- proyisoire de 1'aviation civile inter- 

tion Organization, and having met in nationale et s'y 6tant rtunie le 6 mai 

its First Session on May 6th 1947, and 1947 en sa premiere session, et 



212 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640a 



Having considered it advisable to 
amend the Convention on Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation done at Chi- 
cago on December 7th 1944, 

Approved on the thirteenth day of 
May of the year one thousand nine 
hundred and forty-seven, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Article 
94 (a) of the Convention on Inter- 
national Civil Aviation done at 
Chicago on December 7th 1944, the 
following proposed amendment to 
the said Convention which shall be 
numbered as "Article 93 bis": 

"Article 93 bis 

(A) Notwithstanding the provi- 
sions of Articles 91, 92 and 93, above, 

(i) A State whose government 
the General Assembly of the United 
Nations has recommended be de- 
barred from membership in inter- 
national agencies established by or 
brought into relationship with the 
United Nations shall automatically 
cease to be a member of the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization; 



(2) A State which has been ex- 
pelled from membership in the 
United Nations shall automatically 
cease to be a member of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
unless the General Assembly of the 
United Nations attaches to its act of 
expulsion a recommendation to the 
contrary. 

(B) A State which ceases to be a 
member of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization as a result of 
the provisions of paragraph (A) 
above may, after approval by the 
General Assembly of the United Na- 
tions, be readmitted to the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
upon application and upon approval 
by a majority of the Council. 

(C) Members of the Organization 
which are suspended from the exer- 
cise of the rights and privileges of 



Estimant desirable d'appprter un 
ainendement & la Convention rela- 
tive 1'aviation civile Internationale 
en date Chicago du 7 d&embre 

1944, 

A adoptg le treize mai mil neuf 
cent quarante-sept, conformment 
aux dispositions de 1'article 94 (a) de 
la Convention relative & 1'aviation 
civile Internationale en date Chi- 
cago du 7 dcembre 1944, un 
amendement propos ladite Con- 
vention, dont le texte suit et qui 
constituera un "Article 93 bis": 

"Article 93 bis 

(A) Nonobstant les dispositions 
des Articles 91, 92 et 93 ci-dessus, 

(1) Tout Etat dont le gouverne- 
ment fait 1'objet de la part de 
1' Assemble gnrale de 1'Organisa- 
tion des Nations Unies d'une recom- 
mandation tendant le priver de sa 
qualit6 de membre d 'institutions 
Internationales, tablies par 1'Organ- 
isation des Nations Unies ou relives 
a celle-ci, cesse automatiquement 
d'Stre membre de 1'Organisation de 
1'aviation civile internationale; 

(2) Tout Etat qui est exclu de 
1'Organisation des Nations Unies 
cesse automatiquement d'etre mem- 
bre de 1'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale moins que 
l'Assembl6e g6n6rale de 1'Organisa- 
tion des Nations Unies joigne a son 
acte d 'exclusion une recommanda- 
tion contraire. 

(B) Tout Etat qui cesse d'etre 
membre de 1'Organisation de 1'ayia- 
tion civile internationale, en applica- 
tion des dispositions du paragraphe 
(A) ci-dessus, peut, avec 1'accord de 
1' Assemble ggngrale de 1'Organisa- 
tion des Nations Unies, etre admis a 
nouveau dans 1'Organisation de 1'avi- 
ation civile internationale sur sa 
demande, et avec 1'approbation du 
Conseil vote la majority. 

(C) Les membres de 1'Organisa- 
tion qui sont suspendus de 1'exercice 
des droits et privileges inhrents a la 



May 27, 1947 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



213 



membership of the United Nations 
shall, upon the request of the latter, 
be suspended from the rights and 
privileges of membership in this 
Organization " f 

Specified on the sixteenth day of 
May of the year one thousand nine 
hundred and forty-seven, pursuant 
to the provisions of the said Article 
94 (a) of the said Convention, that 
the above mentioned amendment 
shall come into force when ratified by 
twenty-eight Contracting States, and 

Instructed at the same date the 
Secretary General of the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization to 
draw up a Protocol embodying this 
proposed amendment and to the 
following effect, which Protocol shall 
be signed by the President and the 
Secretary General of the First As- 
sembly. 

Consequently, pursuant to the 
aforesaid action of the Assembly, 

The present Protocol shall be sub- 
ject to ratification by any State 
which has ratified or adhered to the 
said Convention. The instruments 
of ratification shall be transmitted to 
the Secretary General of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
for deposit in the archives of the 
Organization ; the Secretary General 
of the Organization shall immedi- 
ately notify all Contracting States 
of the date of deposit of each rati- 
fication ; 

The aforesaid proposed amend- 
ment of the Convention shall come 
into force, in respect of the States 
which have ratified this Protocol, on 
the date on which the twenty-eighth 
instrument of ratification is de- 
posited. The Secretary General of 
the Organization shall immediately 
notify all the States parties to or 
signatories of the said Convention 
of the date on which the proposed 
amendment comes into force; 

The aforesaid proposed amend- 
ment shall come into force in respect 



3ualit de membre de 1'Organisation 
es Nations Unies, sont, la requite 
de cette derntere, suspendus des 
droits et privileges inherents la 
quality de membre de la pr6sente 
Organisation", 

A spedfie le seize mai mil neuf 
cent quarante-sept, confprmment 
aux dispositions dudit Article 94 (a) 
de la Convention, que 1'amendement 
ci-dessus n'entrera en vigueur qu' 
aprds avoir ete ratifie par vingt-huit 
Etats contractants, et 

A charge, la mSme date, le 
Secretaire general de 1'Organisa- 
tion de Taviation civile Interna- 
tionale d'etablir un Protocole rela- 
tif au dit amendement propose et 
pour les fins ci-aprts, ce Protocole 
devant Stre signe par le President et 
le Secr6taire general de la Premiere 
Assemble. 

En cons6quence, conformfement aux 
decisions ci-dessus de 1'Assembiee, 

Le present Protocole sera soumis & 
la ratification de tout Etat qui a 
ratifie la Convention relative & 
Taviation civile Internationale ou y a 
adhere. Les instruments de ratifi- 
cation seront transmis au Secretaire 
g6n6ral de J'Organisation de 1'avia- 
tion civile internationale pour gtre 
deposes dans les archives de 1'Organ- 
isation; le Secretaire general de 
TOrganisation notifiera immediate- 
ment tous les Etats contractants la 
date du d6p6t de chaque instrument 
de ratification sur ce Protocole; 

L'amendement propose ci-dessus 
entrera en vigueur le jour du dep6t 
du vingt-huitifeme instrument de 
ratification i regard des Etats qui 
auront ratifie 4 cette date le present 
Protocole. Le Secretaire general de 
TOrganisation notifiera immediate- 
ment & tous les Etats parties It la 
Convention ou signataires de celle-ci 
la date laquelle le Protocole est 
entre en vigueur; 

L'amendement propose ci-dessus 
entrera en vigueur, regard de tout 



214 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6406 



of each State ratifying after that 
date upon deposit of its instrument 
of ratification in the archives of the 
Organization. 

IN FAITH WHEREOF the President 
and the Secretary General of the 
First Assembly of the International 
Civil Aviation Organization, being 
authorized thereto by the Assembly, 
sign this present Protocol. 

Done at Montreal on the twenty- 
seventh day of May of the year one 
thousand nine hundred and forty- 
seven in a single document in the 
English, French and Spanish lan- 
guages, each text being equally 
authentic. This Protocol shall re- 
main deposited in the archives of the 
International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization ; and certified copies thereof 
shall be transmitted by the Secre- 
tary General of the Organization to 
all States parties to or signatories of 
the Convention on International 
Civil Aviation done at Chicago on 
December 7th 1944. 



autre Etat ratifiant ult6rieurement 
le Protocole, le jour du d6p6t de son 
instrument de ratification dans les 
archives de TOrganisation. 

EN FOI DE QUOI, le President et le 
Secretaire gn6ral de la Premiere 
Assembl6e de 1'Organisation de 1'avi- 
ation civile Internationale, autoris6s 
& cet effet par 1'Assembtee, signent le 
present Protocole. 

Fait Montreal, le vingt-septi&me 
jour de mai mil neuf cent quarante- 
sept, en un seul document, en fran- 
ais, en anglais et en espagnol, 
chacun des textes ayant une gale 
authenticity. Ce Protocole restera 
d6pos6 dans les archives de 1'Organi- 
sation de Taviation civile Interna- 
tionale; et des copies certifies con- 
formes de ce Protocole seront trans- 
mises par le Secretaire g6n6ral de 
TOrganisation tous les Etats par- 
ties la Convention relative 
Taviation civile Internationale en 
date Chicago du 7 d6cembre 1944, 
ainsi qu'aux autres Etats signataires 
de ladite Convention. 



ARTHUR S. DRAKEFORD, President of the First Assembly. 
ALBERT ROPER, Secretary General of the First Assembly. 



No. 640b 

Agreement between the United Nations and the International Civil 
Aviation Organization. Signed at Lake Success, September 30, 1946. 

Accord entre les Nations Unies et 1'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
Internationale. Sign & Lake Success, 30 septembre 1946. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement was approved by the General Assembly of the United 
Nations on December 14, 1946, subject to the condition that the Organization comply 
"with any decision of the General Assembly regarding Franco Spain/' i.e., with its Resolu- 
tion 39 (I) of December 12, 1946, which recommended that "the Franco Government of 
Spain be debarred from membership in international agencies established by or brought 
into relationship with the United Nations." U.N. Doc. A/64/Add.i, pp. 63-64, 78. The 
approval of the Agreement by the Assembly of the International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion on May 13, 1947, was accompanied by a resolution proposing an amendment to the 
membership clause of the convention on international civil aviation (No. 640*, ante), A 
protocol concerning the entry into force of the Agreement was signed at New York, October 



Sept. 30, 1946 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



215 



i t 1947. 8 U.N. Treaty Series, p. 315. A supplementary agreement concerning the use of 
United Nations laissen-passtr was signed on May 10 and 31, 1948. U.N. Doc. A/6i5. 

Entered into force May 13, 1947.* 
Text supplied by the Secretariat of the United Nations. 



PREAMBLE 

Article 57 of the Charter of the 
United Nations makes provision for 
bringing the specialized agencies, 
established by intergovernmental 
agreement and having wide interna- 
tional responsibilities as defined in 
their basic instruments in economic, 
social, cultural, educational, health 
and related fields, into relationship 
with the United Nations. 



Article 64 of the Convention on 
International Civil Aviation pro- 
vides that the International Civil 
Aviation Organization may, with 
respect to air matters within its com- 
petence, directly affecting world se- 
curity, enter into appropriate ar- 
rangements with any general or- 
ganization set up by the nations of 
the world to preserve peace. Arti- 
cle 65 of the Convention provides 
that the Organization may enter into 
agreements with international bodies 
for the maintenance of common 
service, for common arrangements 
concerning personnel and for the 
facilitation of its work. 



Therefore the United Nations and 
the International Civil Aviation 
Organization agree as follows: 

ARTICLE 1 

The United Nations recognizes 
the International Civil Aviation 
Organization as the specialized agency 
responsible for taking such action as 
may be appropriate under its basic 
instrument for the accomplishment 
of the purposes set forth therein. 

1 Filed with the Secretariat of the United 



PR&AMBULE 

L'Article 57 de la Charte des Na- 
tions Unies prfrvoit que les diverses 
institutions specialises cres par 
accords intergouvernementaux et 
pourvues, aux termes de leurs sta- 
tuts, d 'attributions internationales 
etendues dans les domaines 6cono- 
mique, social, de la culture in- 
tellectuelle et de I'dducation, de la 
sant publique et autres domaines 
connexes, seront relives aux Nations 
Unies. 

L'article 64 de la Convention 
relative It Taviation civile Inter- 
nationale pr6voit que 1'Organisation 
de 1'aviation civile internationale 
peut, relativement aux questions 
a&riennes de son ressort intressant 
directement la scurit universelle, 
conclure des arrangements spciaux 
avec toute organisation gnrale 
tablie par les nations du monde 
pour le maintien de la paix. L'arti- 
cle 65 de la Convention prvoit que 
1'organisation peut conclure des ac- 
cords avec d'autres organismes in- 
ternationaux, en vue de pourvoir 
des services communs et prendre 
des arrangements communs au sujet 
du personnel ainsi que des mesures 
susceptibles de faciliter son travail. 

En consequence, les Nations Unies 
et TOrganisation de 1'aviation civile 
internationale conviennent de ce qui 
suit: 

ARTICLE 1 

L'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
internationale est reconnue par les 
Nations Unies en tant que 1'institu- 
tion specialise chargte de prendre 
toutes les mesures conformes aux 
termes de son acte constitutif en vue 
d'atteindre les buts fixfes par cet acte. 
Nations, under No. 45, October I, 1947. 



216 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 64Ob 



ARTICLE 2. Applications for mem- 
bership by certain States 

Any application submitted to the 
International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization by States other than those 
provided for in articles 91 and 92 (a) 
of the Convention on International 
Civil Aviation to become parties to 
the Convention, shall be immediately 
transmitted by the secretariat of 
the Organization to the General 
Assembly of the United Nations. 
The General Assembly may recom- 
mend the rejection of such applica- 
tion, and any such recommendation 
shall be accepted by the Organiza- 
tion. If no such recommendation is 
made by the General Assembly at 
the first session following receipt of 
the application, the application shall 
be decided upon by the Organization 
in accordance with the procedure 
established in article 93 of the Con- 
vention. 

ARTICLE 3. Reciprocal representa- 
tion 

1. Representatives of the United 
Nations shall be invited to attend 
the meetings of the Assembly of the 
International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization, the Council of the Or- 
ganization and their commissions 
and committees and such general 
regional or other special meetings 
as the Organization may convene, 
and to participate, without vote, in 
the deliberations of these bodies. 

2. Representatives of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
shall be invited to attend meetings 
of the Economic and Social Council 
and of its commissions and com- 
mittees and to participate, without 
vote, in the deliberations of these 
bodies with respect to items on their 
agenda relating to civil aviation 
matters. 

3. Representatives of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion shall be invited to attend meet- 
ings of the General Assembly of the 



ARTICLE 2. Demandes d' admission 
tmanant de certains Etais 

Les demandes d'admission & 1'Or- 
ganisation de 1'aviation civile In- 
ternationale emanant d'Etats autres 
que ceux vises aux articles 91 et 92 a) 
de la Convention relative 1'aviation 
civile Internationale comme devant 
tre parties & cette Convention, 
seront immgdiatement transmises 
1'Assembiee gn6rale des Nations 
Unies par le secretariat de 1'organisa- 
tion. L'Assembl6e g6nrale pourra 
recommander le rejet de cette de- 
mande et 1'organisation sera tenue 
de deferer & cette recommandation. 
Si aucune recommandation de ce 
genre n'est faite par 1' Assemble 
generate au cours de la premiere ses- 
sion qui suivra la reception de la 
demande, il en sera decide par 
1'organisation suivant la procedure 
pr6vue Tarticle 93 de la Conven- 
tion. 

ARTICLE 3. Representation rSciproque 

1. Des repr6sentants des Nations 
Unies seront invites assister aux 
reunions de 1' Assemble de 1'Organi- 
sation de Taviation civile Interna- 
tionale et de ses commissions ainsi 
qu' celles du Conseil de 1' organisa- 
tion et de ses comites et de toutes les 
conferences generates, r6gionales ou 
speciales, convoques par 1'organisa- 
tion, et participer, sans droit de 
vote, aux deliberations de ces or- 
ganes. 

2. Des repr6sentants de TOrgani- 
sation de Tavjatipn civile Interna- 
tionale seront invites & assister aux 
reunions du Conseil economique et 
social, de ses commissions et de ses 
comites et & participer, sans droit de 
vote, aux deliberations de ces or- 
ganes quand il est traite des ques- 
tions relatives It 1'aviation civile qui 
sont inscrites & Tordre du jour. 

3. Des representants de ^Organi- 
sation de 1 aviation civile interna- 
tionale seront invites assister aux 
reunions de TAssembiee generate 



Sept. 30, 1946 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



217 



United Nations for the purposes of 
consultation on civil aviation matters. 

4. Representatives of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
shall be invited to attend meetings 
of the main Committees of the Gen- 
eral Assembly when civil aviation 
matters are under discussion, and to 
participate, without vote, in such 
discussions. 

5. Representatives of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
shall be invited to attend meetings 
of the Trusteeship Council of the 
United Nations and to participate, 
without vote, in the deliberations 
thereof, with respect to items on its 
agenda relating to civil aviation 
matters. 

6. Written statements submitted 
by the International Civil Aviation 
Organization on matters relating to 
civil aviation shall be distributed as 
soon as possible by the Secretariat 
of the United Nations to all members 
of the principal and subsidiary or- 
gans of the United Nations, and 
their commissions or committees 
as appropriate. Similarly, written 
statements of any of the principal or 
subsidiary organs of the United Na- 
tions and their commissions or com- 
mittees shall be distributed as soon 
as possible by the secretariat of the 
Organization to all members of the 
Assembly or Council of the Organi- 
zation as appropriate. 



ARTICLE 4. Proposal of agenda Hems 

After such preliminary consulta- 
tion as may be necessary, the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
shall include on the agenda of the 
Assembly or Council of the Organi- 
zation items proposed to it by the 
United Nations. Reciprocally the 
Economic and Social Council and its 
commissions, and the Trusteeship 
Council shall include on their agenda 



des Nations Unies pour y fitre con- 
suites sur les questions relatives 
1'aviation civile. 

4. Des reprsentants de 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile Interna- 
tionale seront invites assister aux 
reunions des grandes Commissions 
de 1' Assemble gnrale lorsque des 
questions relatives 1'aviation civile 
y seront discutees et 4 participer, 
sans droit de vote, aux deliberations. 

5. Des representants de 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviatipn civile Interna- 
tionale seront invites assister aux 
reunions du Conseil de tutelle des 
Nations Unies et & participer, sans 
droit de vote, ses deliberations sur 
les questions relatives 1'aviation 
civile, inscrites Tordre du jour. 

6. Le Secretariat des Nations 
Unies assurera la distribution, dans 
le plus bref delai possible, i tous les 
membres des organes principaux et 
subsidiaires des Nations Unies et 
leurs commissions ou comit6s, selon 
le cas, de toutes communications 
ecrites soumises par TOrganisation 
de 1'aviation civile internationale et 
portant sur des questions d'aviation 
civile. De mgme, le secretariat de 
reorganisation assurera, dans le plus 
bref delai possible, la distribution 
tous les membres de 1'Assembiee ou 
du Conseil de Torganisation, selon 
le cas, de toutes communications 
ecrites soumises par Tun quelconque 
des organes principaux ou subsidi- 
aires des Nations Unies et de leurs 
commissions ou comites. 

ARTICLE 4. Inscription de questions 
dl'ordre dujour 

Sous reserve des consultations pr6- 
liminaires qui pourraient Stre neces- 
saires, TOrganisation de Taviation 
civile internationale inscrira Tordre 
du jour de TAssembiee ou du Conseil 
de I'organisation les questions qui 
lui seront soumises par les Nations 
Unies. Redproquement, le Conseil 
economique et social et ses commis- 
sions, ainsi que le Conseil de tutelle, 



218 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 64ob 



items proposed by the Assembly or 
Council of the Organization. 

ARTICLE 5. Recommendations of the 
United Nations 

i. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization, having regard to 
the obligation of the United Nations 
to promote the objectives set forth 
in Article 55 of the Charter and the 
function and power of the Economic 
and Social Council, under Article 62 
of the Charter, to make or initiate 
studies and reports with respect to 
international, economic, social, cul- 
tural, educational, health and re- 
lated matters and to make recom- 
mendations concerning these matters 
to the specialized agencies con- 
cerned, and having regard also to the 
responsibility of the United Nations, 
under Articles 58 and 63 of the 
Charter, to make recommendations 
for the co-ordination of the policies 
and activities of such specialized 
agencies, agrees to arrange for the 
submission, as soon as possible, to its 
appropriate organ of all formal 
recommendations which the United 
Nations may make to it. 



2. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization agrees to enter 
into consultation with the United 
Nations upon request, with respect 
to such recommendations, and in due 
course to report to the United Na- 
tions on the action taken by the 
Organization or by its members to 
give effect to such recommenda- 
tions, or on the other results of their 
consideration. 



3. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization affirms its inten- 
tion of co-operating in whatever 
measures may be necessary to make 
co-ordination of the activities of 



inscriront leur ordre du jour les 
questions soumises par I'Assembtee 
ou le Conseil de 1'organisation. 

ARTICLE 5. Recommandations des 
Nations Units 

1. L f Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile Internationale, eu egard 
1'obligation des Nations Unies de 
favoriser la realisation des buts 
preVus & 1'Article 55 de la Charte, et 
aux fonctions et pouvoirs du Conseil 
6conomique et social qui, en vertu 
de 1'Article 62 de la Charte, peut 
faire ou provoquer des Etudes et des 
rapports sur des questions interna- 
tionales dans les domaines econom- 
ique, social, de la culture intellectu- 
elle et de replication, de la sante 
publique et autres domaines con- 
nexes et adresser des recommanda- 
tions sur toutes ces questions aux 
institutions specialis6es interessees; 
eu egard egalement la mission as- 
signee aux Nations Unies, aux termes 
des Articles 58 et 63 de la Charte, de 
faire des recommandations en vue de 
coordonner les programmes et acti- 
vits des institutions specialises, 
convient de prendre toutes mesures 
en vue de soumettre, dans le plus 
bref delai possible, a son organe 
competent, toutes recommandations 
formelles que les Nations Unies 
pourraient lui adresser. 

2. l/Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile Internationale proc&dera a 
des ^changes de vues avec les Na- 
tions Unies, a leur demande, au 
sujet de ces recommandations, et, en 
temps opportun, fera rapport aux 
Nations Unies sur les mesures prises 
par 1'organisation ou par ses mem- 
bres en vue de donner effet ces 
recommandations ou sur tous autres 
r&sultats qui auraient suivi la prise 
en consideration de ces recomman- 
dations. 

3* L'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile Internationale affirme son in- 
tention de cpllaborer & toutes me- 
sures necessaires, en vue d' assurer la 
coordination efficace des activites 



Sept. 30, 1946 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



219 



specialized agencies and those of the 
United Nations fully effective. In 
particular, it agrees to participate in, 
and to co-operate with any body or 
bodies which the Economic and So- 
cial Council may establish for the 
purpose of facilitating such co-ordi- 
nation, and to furnish such informa- 
tion as may be required for the 
carrying out of this purpose. 

ARTICLE 6. Exchange of information 
and documents 

1. Subject to such arrangements 
as may be necessary for the safe- 
guarding of confidential material, 
the fullest and promptest exchange 
of information and documents shall 
be made between the United Nations 
and the International Civil Aviation 
Organization. 

2. Without prejudice to the gen- 
erality of the provisions of para- 
graph I: 

(a) The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization agrees to transmit 
to the United Nations regular re- 
ports on its activities; 

(b) The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization agrees to comply 
to the fullest extent practicable with 
any request which the United Na- 
tions may make for the furnishing of 
special reports, studies or informa- 
tion, subject to the condition set 
forth in article 16; and 

(c) The Secretary-General of the 
United Nations shall, upon request, 
consult with the appropriate officer 
of the Organization with respect to 
the furnishing to the Organization of 
such information as may be of spe- 
cial interest to it. 

ARTICLE 7. Assistance to the 
Security Council 

The International Civil Aviation 
Organization agrees to co-operate 
with the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil in furnishing such information 
and rendering such assistance to the 
Security Council as that Council 



des institutions specialises et des 
Nations Unies. Elle convient, no- 
tamment, de participer & tout organe 
ou tous organes que le Conseil co- 
nomique et social pourrait tablir en 
vue de faciliter cette coordination et 
collaborer avec eux et de fournir les 
informations qui pourraient tre 
n&essaires dans 1'accomplissement 
de cette t&che. 

ARTICLE 6. Echange d 1 informations 
et de documents 

1. Sous reserve des mesures qui 
pourraient fitre n6cessaires pour sau- 
vegarder le caract&re confidentiel 
de certains documents, les Nations 
Unies et 1'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale procderont a 
l'6change le plus complet et le plus 
rapide d 'informations et de docu- 
ments. 

2. Sans porter prejudice au car- 
act&re g6n6ral des dispositions du 
paragraphe I : 

a) L'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale convient de 
fournir aux Nations Unies des rap- 
ports r6guliers sur ses activitte; 

ft) L'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale convient de 
donner suite, dans toute la mesure 
du possible, a toute demande de rap- 
ports 8pciaux, d'6tudes ou d'infor- 
mations prsent6e par les Nations 
Unies, sous reserve de la condition 
pr6vue a Tarticle 16; 

c) Le Secretaire gnral des Na- 
tions Unies proc6dera a des ^changes 
de vues avec un fonctionnaire com- 
petent de 1' organisation, sur la de- 
mande de celle-ci, en vue de lui 
fournir toutes informations int6res- 
sant sp6cialement 1'organisation. 

ARTICLE 7. Assistance au Conseil 
de securiti 

L'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
internationale convient de coop6rer 
avec le Conseil conomique et social 
pour fournir au Conseil de scurit 
telles informations et telle assistance 
que celui-ci pourrait demander, y 



220 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 640b 



may request, including assistance in. compris 1'assistance destin6e & per- 
carrying out decisions of the Secur-1 mettre 1'exfeution des d6cisions du 
ity Council for the maintenance or ^ Conseil de steurite pour le maintien 



international peace 



ity , 

restoration of 
and security. 

ARTICLE 8. Assistance to the 
Trusteeship Council 

The International Civil Aviation 
Organization agrees to co-operate 
with the Trusteeship Council in 
the carrying out of its functions, and 
in particular agrees that it will to the 
greatest extent possible render such 
assistance as the Trusteeship Council 
may request in regard to matters with 
which the Organization is concerned. 

ARTICLE 9. Non-Self-Governing 
Territories 

The International Civil Aviation 
Organization agrees to co-operate 
with the United Nations in giving 
effect to the principles and obliga- 
tions set forth in Chapter XI of the 
Charter with regard to matters af- 
fecting the well-being and develop- 
ment of the peoples of Non-Self- 
Governing Territories. 

ARTICLE 10. Relations with the 
International Court of Justice 

1. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization agrees to furnish 
any information which may be re- 
quested by the International Court 
of Justice in pursuance of Article 34 
of the Statute of the Court. 

2. The General Assembly of the 
United Nations authorizes the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
to request advisory opinions of the 
International Court of Justice on 
legal questions arising within the 
scope of its activities other than 
questions concerning the mutual 
relationships of the International 
Civil Aviation Organization and the 
United Nations or other specialized 
agencies. 

3. Such request may be addressed 
to the Court by the Assembly or the 



pour 

et le rtablissement de la paix et de 
la steurit6 internationales. 

ARTICLE 8. Assistance au Conseil 
de tutdle 

L'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
Internationale convient de coop6rer 
avec le Conseil de tutelle dans 1'ac- 
complissement de ses fonctions, et 
notamment, de lui fournir, dans 
toute la mesure du possible, telle 
assistance qu'il pourrait lui demander 
au sujet des questions intressant 
1'organisation. 

ARTICLE 9. Territoires non 
autonomes 

L'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
Internationale convient de coop6rer 
avec les Nations Unies la mise en 
ceuvre des principes et obligations 
prvus au Chapitre XI de la Charte 
en ce qui concerne les questions 
affectant le bien-gtre et le developpe- 
ment des peuples des territoires non 
autonomes. 

ARTICLE 10. Relations avec la Cour 
Internationale de Justice 

1. L'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale convient de 
fournir toutes informations qui lui 
seraient demand6es par la Cour 
internationale de Justice, conform6- 
ment TArticle 34 du Statut de la 
Cour. 

2. L'Assembl6e g6n6rale des Na- 
tions Unies autorise 1'Organisation 
de Taviation civile internationale i 
demander des avis consultatifs & la 
Cour internationale de Justice sur 
des questions juridiques qui se 
poseraient dans le cadre de son ac- 
tivit6, & Texception de celles con- 
cernant les relations reciproques entre 
Torganisation et les Nations Unies 
ou d'autres institutions specialises. 

3. La requite peut gtre adress6e 
la Cour par 1'Assembtee ou par le 



Sept. 30, 1946 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



221 



Council of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization. 

4. When requesting the Inter- 
national Court of Justice to give an 
advisory opinion, the International 
Civil Aviation Organization shall in- 
form the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil of the request. 

ARTICLE 1 1 . Headquarters and 
regional offices 

1. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization, having regard to 
the desirability of the headquarters 
of specialized agencies being situated 
at the permanent seat of the United 
Nations and to the advantages that 
flow from such centralization, agrees 
to consult the United Nations before 
making any further decision con- 
cerning the location of its permanent 
headquarters. 

2. Having due regard to the spe- 
cial needs of international civil avia- 
tion, any regional or branch offices 
which the International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization may establish 
shall, so far as is practicable, be 
closely associated with such regional 
or branch offices as the United Na- 
tions may establish. 

ARTICLE 12. Personnel arrangements 

i. The United Nations and the 
International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization recognize that the eventual 
development of a single unified inter- 
national civil service is desirable 
from the standpoint of effective ad- 
ministrative co-ordination, and with 
this end in view agree to develop 
common personnel standards, meth- 
ods and arrangements designed to 
avoid unjustified differences in terms 
and conditions of employment, to 
avoid competition in recruitment of 
personnel, and to facilitate inter- 
change of personnel in order to ob- 
tain the maximum benefit from their 
services. 



Conseil de TOrganisation de 1'avia- 
tion civile internationale. 

4. Lorsqu'elle demande un avis 
consultatif la Cour internationale 
de Justice, 1'Organisation de 1'avia- 
tion civile internationale en informe 
le Conseil 6conomique et social. 

ARTICLE 11. Stege et bureaux 
regionaux 

1. Consid6rant qu'il serait sou- 
haitable que le stege permanent des 
institutions specialises fflt situ6 
au siege permanent des Nations 
Unies, et considrant les avantages 
qui rsulteraient de cette centralisa- 
tion, 1'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale convient de 
consulter les Nations Unies avant de 
prendre une decision relative Tern- 
placement de son siege permanent. 

2. Tenant dflment compte des 
besoins spciaux de 1'aviation civile 
internationale, les bureaux rdgionaux 
ou auxiliaires que 1'Organisation de 
1'aviation civile internationale pour- 
rait tablir seraient, dans la mesure 
du possible, en rapports dtroits avec 
les bureaux regionaux ou auxiliaires 
que les Nations Unies pourraient 
tablir. 

ARTICLE 1 2 . A rrangements 
concernant le personnel 

i. Les Nations Unies et 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile interna- 
tionale reconnaissent que le dvel- 
oppement futur d'un corps unifi 
de fonctionnaires internationaux est 
souhaitable du point de vue d'une 
coordination administrative efficace, 
et cette fin, elles conviennent de 
concourir l'tablissement de regies 
communes concernant les mthodes 
et les arrangements destines tant & 
6viter de graves ingalits dans les 
conditions d'emploi, ainsi qu'une 
concurrence dans le recrutement du 
personnel, qu'& faciliter l'change de 
membres du personnel en vue de 
retirer le maximum d 'a vantages de 
leurs services. 



222 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 64ob 



2. The United Nations and the 
International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization agree to co-operate to the full- 
est extent possible in achieving these 
ends and in particular they agree: 

(a) To consult together concern- 
ing the establishment of an Inter- 
national Civil Service Commission 
to advise on the means by which 
common standards of recruitment in 
the secretariats of the United Na- 
tions and of the specialized agencies 
may be ensured ; 

(b) To consult together concern- 
ing other matters relating to the 
employment of their officers and 
staff, including conditions of service, 
duration of appointments, classifica- 
tion, salary scales and allowances, 
retirement and pension rights and 
staif regulations and rules, with a 
view to securing as much uniformity 
in these matters as shall be found 
practicable; 

(c) To co-operate in the inter- 
change of personnel, when desirable, 
on a temporary or a permanent 
basis, making due provision for the 
retention of seniority and pension 
rights; 

(d) To co-operate in the establish- 
ment and operation of suitable ma- 
chinery for the settlement of disputes 
arising in connexion with the em- 
ployment of personnel and related 
matters. 



2. L f Organisation cles Nations 
Unies et 1'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale conviennent de 
coop6rer dans la plus large mesure 
possible en vue d'atteindre ce but 
et, notamment, elles conviennent: 

a) De procder a des ^changes de 
vues au sujet de l'tablissement 
d'une Commission d 'administration 
internationale charge de donner des 
conseils sur les moyens permettant 
d'avoir des regies communes pour le 
recrutement du personnel des secre- 
tariats des Nations Unies et des in- 
stitutions specialises; 

b) De proceder a des ^changes de 
vues au sujet des questions relatives 
a 1'emploi des fonctionnaires et du 
personnel, y compris les conditions 
de service, la dure des nominations, 
la hierarchic, les edielles de traite- 
ments et les indemnits, les droits a 
retraite et & pension, et les r6gle- 
ments du personnel, en vue de faire 
r6gner dans ce domaine autant d'uni- 
formite qu'il sera possible; 

c) De cooperer par des 6changes 
de personnel, lorsque cela sera sou- 
haitable, sur une base soit tempo- 
raire, soit permanente, en prenant 
soin de garantir le respect dc 1'an- 
ciennete et les droits a pension ; 

d) De cooperer a 1'etablissement 
et a la mise en oeuvre d'un mca- 
nisme approprie pour le rglement des 
litiges concernant 1'emploi du per- 
sonnel et les questions s'y ratta- 
chant. 



ARTICLE 13. Statistical services ARTICLE 13. Services de statistique 



I. The United Nations and the 
International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization agree to strive for maximum 
co-operation, the elimination of all 
undesirable duplication between 
them, and the most efficient use of 
their technical personnel in their 
respective collection, analysis, pub- 
lication, standardization, improve- 
ment and dissemination of statistical 
information. They agree to com- 
bine their efforts to secure the great- 
est possible usefulness and utiliza- 



i. Les Nations Unies et 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile interna- 
tionale conviennent de r6aliser une 
cooperation aussi complete que pos- 
sible, d'eviter le double emploi 
superflu et d'utiliser avec la plus 
grande efficacite leurs personnels 
techniques dans leurs activits re- 
spectives pour recueillir, analyser, 
publier et difluser les informations 
statistiques. Les Nations Unies et 
TOrganisation de 1'aviation civile 
internationale conviennent de mettre 



Sept. 30, 1946 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



223 



tion of statistical information and to 
minimize the burdens placed upon 
national Governments and other 
organizations from which such in- 
formation may be collected. 



2. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization recognizes the 
United Nations as the central 
agency for the collection, analysis, 
publication, standardization, im- 
provement and dissemination of 
statistics serving the general pur- 
poses of international organizations. 

3. The United Nations recognizes 
the International Civil Aviation 
Organization as the central agency 
responsible for the collection, analy- 
sis, publication, standardization, im- 
provement and dissemination of 
statistics within its special sphere, 
without prejudice to the rights of 
the United Nations to concern itself 
with such statistics so far as they 
may be essential for its own purposes 
or for the improvement of statistics 
throughout the world. 

4. The United Nations shall, in 
consultation with the International 
Civil Aviation Organization and 
with the other specialized agencies 
where appropriate, develop admin- 
istrative instruments and procedures 
through which effective statistical 
co-operation may be secured be- 
tween the United Nations and the 
agencies brought into relationship 
with it. 

5. It is recognized as desirable that 
the collection of statistical informa- 
tion shall not be duplicated by the 
United Nations or any of its spe- 
cialized agencies whenever it is 
practicable for any of them to utilize 
information or material which an- 
other may have available. 

6. In order to build up a central 
collection of statistical information 
for general use, it is agreed that data 
supplied to the International Civil 



leurs efforts en commun en vue 
d 'assurer la plus grande utility et le 
plus grand usage possible de leurs 
informations statistiques et de r- 
duire au minimum les charges des 
Gouvernements et de toutes autres 
organisations aupr&s desquels de 
telles informations seront recueillies. 

2. L'Organisation de 1'aviation ci- 
vile internationale reconnait que les 
Nations Unies constituent I'orga- 
nisme central charge de recueillir, 
analyser, publier, unifier et am61iorer 
les statistiques servant aux buts 
gnraux des organisations inter- 
nationales. 

3. L'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale est reconnue 
par les Nations Unies comme 6tant 
1 'organ isme approprte charg6 de 
recueillir, analyser, publier, unifier 
et am61iorer les statistiques dans son 
propre domaine, sans qu'il soit port 
prejudice aux droits des Nations 
Unies de s'intresser i de telles 
statistiques, pour autant qu'elles 
sont essentielles la poursuite de 
leurs propres buts et au dveloppe- 
ment des statistiques dans le monde 
en tier. 

4. Les Nations Unies, apr&s avoir 
consult^ 1'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale et les autres in- 
stitutions specialises, cr6eront, 
quand cela sera opportun, des instru- 
ments administratifs et des pro- 
cedures propres au moyen desquels 
pourra etre assur6e une cooperation 
efficace concernant les statistiques 
entre les Nations Unies et les institu- 
tions qui leur sont relives. 

5. II est reconnu souhaitable que 
les informations statistiques ne soi- 
ent pas rassembiees simultan6ment 
par les Nations Unies et par 1'une 
des institutions sp6cialises chaque 
fois qu'il est possible d'utiliser des 
informations ou la documentation 
qu'une autre institution peut fournir. 

6. Afin d'etablir un centre oft 
les informations statistiques destinies 
un usage general seront rassem- 
biees, il est convenu que les donn6es 



224 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6406 



Aviation Organization for incorpora- 
tion in its basic statistical series or 
special reports should, so far as 
practicable, be made available to the 
United Nations. 



7. It is agreed that data supplied 
to the United Nations for incorpora- 
tion in its basic statistical series or 
special reports should, so far as 
practicable and appropriate, be made 
available to the International Civil 
Aviation Organization. 

ARTICLE 14. Administrative and 
technical services 

1. The United Nations and the 
International Civil Aviation Organi- 
zation recognize the desirability, in 
the interest of administrative and 
technical uniformity and of the most 
efficient use of personnel and re- 
sources, of avoiding whenever possi- 
ble the establishment and operation 
of competitive or overlapping facili- 
ties and services among the United 
Nations and the specialized agencies. 

2. Accordingly, the United Na- 
tions and the International Civil 
Aviation Organization agree to con- 
sult together concerning the estab- 
lishment and use of common ad- 
ministrative and technical services 
and facilities in addition to those 
referred to in articles 12, 13 and 15, 
in so far as the establishment and use 
of such services may from time to 
time be found practicable and ap- 
propriate. 

3. Arrangements shall be made 
between the United Nations and the 
International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization with regard to the registra- 
tion and deposit of official docu- 
ments. 

ARTICLE 15. Budgetary and 
financial arrangements 

i. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization recognizes the de- 
sirability of establishing close budge- 



fournies & 1'Organisation de 1'avia- 
tion civile Internationale pour gtre 
insres dans ses s&ries statistiques 
de base et dans ses rapports spciaux, 
seront, dans la mesure du possible, 
mises la disposition des Nations 
Unies. 

7. II est convenu que les donnes 
fournies aux Nations Unies pour 
gtre insres dans leurs series statis- 
tiques de base et dans leurs rapports 
sp6ciaux seront, dans la mesure od 
ce sera possible et appropri6, mises 
la disposition de 1'Organisation de 
1'aviation civile internationalc. 

ARTICLE 14. Services administratifs 
et techniques 

1. Les Nations Unies et 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile intcrna- 
tionale reconnaissent que, afin d'uni- 
fier les mthodes administrates et 
techniques et de faire le meilleur 
usage possible du personnel et des 
ressources, il est souhai table d'6viter, 
au sein des Nations Unies et des in- 
stitutions specialises, la creation de 
services qui se fassent concurrence 
ou qui fassent double emploi. 

2. En consequence, les Nations 
Unies et 1'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale conviennent de 
proc6der & des ^changes de vues dans 
le but d'6tablir des services admin- 
istratifs et techniques communs, en 
plus de ceux qui sont mentionns 
aux articles 12, 13 et 15, sauf & 
reViser priodiquement 1'opportun- 
it6 du maintien de tels services. 



3. Les Nations Unies et 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile interna- 
tionale prendront toutes dispositions 
convenables concernant 1'enregistre- 
ment et le dp6t des documents 
officiels. 

ARTICLE 15. Arrangements 
budgctaires et financiers 

I. L'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale reconnaft qu'il 
serait desirable que d'6troites re- 



Sept. 30, 1946 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



225 



tary and financial relationships with 
the United Nations in order that the 
administrative operations of the 
United Nations and of the special- 
ized agencies shall be carried out in 
the most efficient and economical 
manner possible, and that the maxi- 
mum measure of co-ordination and 
uniformity with respect to these 
operations shall be secured. 

2. The United Nations and the 
International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization agree to co-operate to the 
fullest extent possible in achieving 
these ends, and to consult together 
concerning the desirability of making 
appropriate arrangements for the 
inclusion of the budget of the Organ- 
ization within a general budget of 
the United Nations. Any such ar- 
rangements which may be made 
shall be defined in a supplementary 
agreement between the two Organi- 
zations. 

3. The Secretary-General of the 
United Nations and the appropriate 
officer of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization shall arrange 
for consultation in connexion with 
the preparation of the budget. 

4. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization agrees to transmit 
its proposed budget to the United 
Nations annually at the same time as 
such budget is transmitted to its 
members. The General Assembly 
shall examine the administrative 
budget or proposed budget of the 
Organization and may make such 
recommendations as it may consider 
necessary. 

5. Representatives of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
shall be entitled to participate, with- 
out vote, in the deliberations of the 
General Assembly or any Committee 
thereof at all times when the budget 
of the Organization or general ad- 
ministrative or financial questions 
affecting the Organization are under 
consideration. 

6. The United Nations may 
undertake the collection of contribu- 



lations budgtaires et financieres 
s'etablissent avec les Nations Unies, 
afin que les travaux administratifs 
des Nations Unies et des institutions 
specialises soient menes a bien de la 
maniere la plus efficace et la plus 
conomique possible et que le maxi- 
mum de coordination et d'uniformite 
soit assure dans ces travaux. 

2. Les Nations Unies et 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile interna- 
tionale conviennent de cooprer dans 
toute la mesure du possible pour at- 
teindre ces objectifs et de proceder a 
des ^changes de vues afin de conclure 
les arrangements appropries pour 
1'insertion du budget de 1'organisa- 
tion dans un budget gnral des Na- 
tions Unies. Ces arrangements se- 
ront definis dans un accord comple- 
mentaire entre les deux organisations. 



3. Le Secretaire general des Na- 
tions Unies et le fonctionnaire com- 
petent de 1'Organisation de 1'aviation 
civile internationale procderont a 
des ^changes de vues sur la prpara- 
tion du budget. 

4. L'Organisation de 1'aviation ci- 
vile internationale convient de com- 
muniquer annuellement aux Nations 
Unies son projet de budget en m6me 
temps qu'elle le communiquera a 
ses membres. L'Assemblee g6nrale 
examinera le budget ou le projet de 
budget de 1'organisation et pourra 
faire des recommandations a 1'organ- 
isation au sujet d'un ou de plusieurs 
postes dudit budget. 

5. Les repr6sentants de 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile interna- 
tionale ont le droit de participer, 
sans droit de vote, aux deliberations 
de 1'Assemblee gen6rale ou d'une de 
ses commissions toutes les fois que 
sont examines le budget de 1'organi- 
sation ou des questions g6nrales 
administratives ou financi&res inte- 
ressant 1'organisation. 

6. Les Nations Unies pourront 
entreprendre le recouvrement des 



226 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 6405 



tions from those members of the 
International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization which are also Members of 
the United Nations, in accordance 
with such arrangements as may be 
defined by a later agreement be- 
tween the United Nations and the 
Organization. 

7. The United Nations shall, upon 
its own initiative or upon the request 
of the International Civil Aviation 
Organization, arrange for studies to 
be undertaken concerning other fi- 
nancial and fiscal questions of inter- 
est to the Organization and to other 
specialized agencies, with a view to 
the provision of common services 
and the securing of uniformity in 
such matters. 

8. The International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization agrees to conform, 
as far as may be practicable, to 
standard practices and forms recom- 
mended by the United Nations. 



ARTICLE 16. Financing of special 
services 

1. In the event of the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization's 
being faced with the necessity of in- 
curring substantial extra expense as 
a result of any request which the 
United Nations may make for spe- 
cial reports, studies or assistance in 
accordance with articles 6, 7, 8, or 
with other provisions of this Agree- 
ment, consultation shall take place 
with a view to determining the most 
equitable manner in which such ex- 
pense shall be borne. 

2. Consultation between the United 
Nations and the International Civil 
Aviation Organization shall simi- 
larly take place with a view to mak- 
ing such arrangements as may be 
found equitable for covering the cost 
of central administrative, technical 
or fiscal services or facilities or other 
special assistance provided by the 
United Nations. 



contributions des membres de 1'Or- 
ganisation de 1'aviation civile inter- 
nationale qui sont aussi Membres 
des Nations Unies, conformfement 
aux arrangements qui seront d6finis, 
s'il y a lieu, dans un accord ult6rieur 
entre les Nations Unies et 1'organisa- 
tion. 

7. Les Nations Unies prendront, 
de leur propre initiative ou la 
requite de 1'Organisation de 1'avia- 
tion civile Internationale, des dis- 
positions pour entreprendre des 
Etudes sur les questions financi&res 
et fiscales int6ressant 1'organisation 
et les autres institutions sp6cialis6es, 
en vue d'6tablir des services com- 
muns et d'assurer Tuniformit6 dans 
ces domaines. 

8. L'Organisation de 1'aviation ci- 
vile internationale convient de se 
conformer, dans la mesure du possi- 
ble, aux pratiques et aux rdgles uni- 
formes recommand6es par les Na- 
tions Unies. 

ARTICLE 16. Financement 
des services speciaux 

1. Dans le cas oil 1'Organisation 
de 1'aviation civile internationale 
aurait faire face des dpenses 
supplementaires importantes ren- 
dues ncessaires par suite d'une 
demande de rapports, deludes ou 
d'assistance spciale, aux termes des 
articles 6, 7, 8, ou de toute autre 
disposition du present Accord, 1'Or- 
ganisation de 1'aviation civile inter- 
nationale et les Nations Unies pro- 
cderont des ^changes de vues afin 
de determiner la fagon la plus Equi- 
table de faire face & ces d6penses. 

2. De m&ne, les Nations Unies et 
1'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
internationale proc6deront & des 
^changes de vues afin de prendre les 
dispositions quitables pour couvrir 
les frais des services centraux ad- 
ministratifs, techniques ou fiscaux, 
ou de toute autre assistance fournie 
par les Nations Unies. 



Sept. 30, 1946 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION 



227 



ARTICLE 17. Inter-agency 
agreements 

The International Civil Aviation 
Organization agrees to inform the 
Economic and Social Council of the 
nature and scope of any formal 
agreement between the Organization 
and any other specialized agency, 
inter-governmental or non-govern- 
mental organization, and to inform 
the Economic and Social Council 
before any such agreement is con- 
cluded. 

ARTICLE 18. Liaison 

1. The United Nations and the 
International Civil Aviation Organi- 
zation agree to the foregoing provi- 
sions in the belief that they will con- 
tribute to the maintenance of effec- 
tive liaison between the two Organi- 
zations. They affirm their intention 
of taking whatever further measure 
may be necessary to make this liaison 
fully effective. 

2. The liaison arrangements pro- 
vided for in the foregoing articles 
of this Agreement shall apply as far 
as appropriate to the relations be- 
tween such branch or regional offices 
as may be established by the two 
Organizations, as well as between 
their headquarters. 

ARTICLE 19. Implementation of the 
Agreement 

The Secretary-General of the United 
Nations and the appropriate officer 
of the International Civil Aviation 
Organization may enter into such 
supplementary arrangements for the 
implementation of this Agreement as 
may be found desirable, in the light 
of the operating experience of the 
two Organizations. 

ARTICLE 20. Other arrangements 

The present Agreement shall not 
preclude the conclusion of further 
appropriate arrangements between 
the International Civil Aviation 



ARTICLE 17. Accords entre 
institutions 

L'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
Internationale convient d 'informer 
le Conseil 6conomique et social de la 
nature et de 1 6tendue de tout accord 
formel qu'elle conclurait avec toute 
autre institution sp6cialise ou or- 
ganisation intergouvernementale ou 
non gouvernementale, et notamment 
de Tinformer avant de conclure de 
tels accords. 

ARTICLE 18. Liaison 

1. Les Nations Unies et 1'Organi- 
sation de 1'aviation civile interna- 
tionale conviennent des dispositions 
prccdentes dans 1'espoir qu'elles 
contribueront assurer une liaison 
effective entre les deux organisations. 
Elles affirment leur intention de 
prendre toutes les mesures suppl- 
mentaires qui pourront tre nces- 
saires pour rendre cette liaison vrai- 
ment efficace. 

2. Les dispositions relatives aux 
liaisons pr6vues aux articles pr6c- 
dents du present Accord s'appli- 
queront, dans toute la mesure du 
possible, tant aux relations entre les 
bureaux rgionaux et locaux que les 
deux organisations pourront 6tablir, 
qu'aux relations entre leurs adminis- 
trations centrales. 

ARTICLE 19. Execution de f Accord 

Le Secretaire gn6ral des Nations 
Unies et le fonctionnaire competent 
de 1'Organisation de 1'aviation civile 
Internationale peuvent conclure tous 
arrangements comptementaires, en 
vue d'appliquer le present Accord, 
qui peuvent parattre souhaitables & 
la lumtere de l'exprience des deux 
organisations. 

ARTICLE 20. Autres arrangements 

Le present Accord n'empgchera 
pas la conclusion, entre 1'Organisa- 
tion de 1'aviation civile Interna- 
tionale et les Nations Unies, de 



228 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



Organization and the United Nations 
with respect to air matters within 
the competence of the Organization 
directly affecting world security as 
contemplated in the Convention on 
International Civil Aviation. 

ARTICLE 2 1 . Revision 

This Agreement shall be subject to 
revision by agreement between the 
United Nations and the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization. 

ARTICLE 22. Entry into force 

This Agreement shall come into 
force on its approval by the General 
Assembly of the United Nations and 
the Assembly of the International 
Civil Aviation Organization. 



No. 641 

nouveaux arrangements au sujet des 
questions a6riennes de son ressort 
intressant directement la scurit6 
universelle, ainsi qu'il est prvu dans 
la Convention relative & 1'aviation 
civile internationale. 

ARTICLE 21. Revision 

Le present Accord sera sujet & 
revision par entente entre les Na- 
tions Unies et 1'Organisation de 
1' aviation civile internationale. 

ARTICLE 22. Entree en vigneitr 

Le present Accord entrera en 
vigueur lorsqu'il aura 6t6 approuv 
par 1' Assemble g6n6rale des Na- 
tions Unies et l'Assemble de 1'Or- 
ganisation de 1'aviation civile inter- 
nationale. 



No. 641 

INTERNATIONAL Air Services Transit Agreement, 
signature at Chicago, December 7, 1944. 



Opened for 



ACCORD concernant le transit des services aeriens internationaux. 
Ouvert & la signature & Chicago, 7 decembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement, known as the " two freedoms agreement," was formu- 
lated at the International Civil Aviation Conference held at Chicago, November i -Decem- 
ber 7, 1944. For the text of the more embracing "five freedoms agreement," concluded at 
the same time, see No. 642, post; for the text of other instruments drawn up at that con- 
ference, see Nos. 639, 640, ante. For a British-French agreement of June 18, 1947, re- 
garding the mutual application of the "two freedoms," see British Treaty Series, No. 62 
(i947) Cmd. 7194. A convention on transit of airplanes was signed at Buenos Aires, June 
*9i 1935 (No. 417, ante}. Numerous bipartite instruments on transit by air have been con- 
cluded in recent years. 

ACCEPTANCES. On February 28, 1949, acceptances of this Agreement had been effected 
by Afghanistan, Argentine Republic, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Cuba, Czecho- 
slovakia, Denmark, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Great Britain (with reservation), 
Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iceland, India (with reservation), Iraq, Liberia, Luxemburg, 
Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand (with reservation), Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, 
Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Trans- 
jordan, Turkey, the United States of America, and Venezuela. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is also published in U.S. Department of 
State, Publication 2282, Conference Series No. 64, p. 87; Br. Part. Papers, Misc. No. 6 (1945), 
Cmd. 6614; Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, No. 36, p. 60; 39 Am. Jour. Int. Law (Supp., 1945), 
PP- 135-38. 

See also the bibliography under No. 639, ante. 



Dec. 7, 1944 AIR SERVICES TRANSIT 

Entered into force January 30, 1945* 
Text from U.S. Executive Agreement Series, No. 487. 



229 



The States which sign and ac- 
cept this International Air Services 
Transit Agreement, being members 
of the International Civil Aviation 
Organization, declare as follows: 

ARTICLE i 

Section i. Each contracting State 
grants to the other contracting States 
the following freedoms of the air in 
respect of scheduled international air 
services : 

(1) The privilege to fly across its 
territory without landing; 

(2) The privilege to land for non- 
traffic purposes. 

The privileges of this section shall 
not be applicable with respect to 
airports utilized for military pur- 
poses to the exclusion of any sched- 
uled international air services. In 
areas of active hostilities or of mili- 
tary occupation, and in time of war 
along the supply routes leading to 
such areas, the exercise of such priv- 
ileges shall be subject to the approval 
of the competent military authorities. 

Section 2. The exercise of the 
foregoing privileges shall be in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the 
Interim Agreement on International 
Civil Aviation and, when it comes 
into force, with the provisions of the 
Convention on International Civil 
Aviation, both drawn up at Chicago 
on December 7, 1944. 

Section j. A contracting State 
granting to the airlines of another 
contracting State the privilege to 
stop for non-traffic purposes may 
require such airlines to offer reason- 
able commercial service at the points 
at which such stops are made. 

Such requirement shall not in- 
volve any discrimination between 
airlines operating on the same route, 
shall take into account the capacity 
of the aircraft, and shall be exercised 
in such a manner as not to prejudice 
the normal operations of the inter- 



national air services concerned or 
the rights and obligations of a con- 
tracting State. 

Section 4. Each contracting State 
may, subject to the provisions of this 
Agreement, 

(1) Designate the route to be fol- 
lowed within its territory by any 
international air service and the air- 
ports which any such service may use ; 

(2) Impose or permit to be im- 
posed on any such service just and 
reasonable charges for the use of 
such airports and other facilities; 
these charges shall not be higher 
than would be paid for the use of 
such airports and facilities by its 
national aircraft engaged in similar 
international services : provided that, 
upon representation by an interested 
contracting State, the charges im- 
posed for the use of airports and 
other facilities shall be subject to 
review by the Council of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
established under the above-men- 
tioned Convention, which shall re- 
port and make recommendations 
thereon for the consideration of the 
State or States concerned. 

Section 5. Each contracting State 
reserves the right to withhold or re- 
voke a certificate or permit to an air 
transport enterprise of another State 
in any case where it is not satisfied 
that substantial ownership and effec- 
tive control are vested in nationals 
of a contracting State, or in case of 
failure of such air transport enterprise 
to comply with the laws of the State 
over which it operates, or to perform 
its obligations under this Agreement. 

ARTICLE 2 

Section i. A contracting State 
which deems that action by another 
contracting State under this Agree- 
ment is causing injustice or hardship 
to it, may request the Council to ex- 
amine the situation. The Council 



230 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 641 



shall thereupon inquire into the 
matter, and shall call the States con- 
cerned into consultation. Should 
such consultation fail to resolve the 
difficulty, the Council may make 
appropriate findings and recommen- 
dations to the contracting States 
concerned. If thereafter a contract- 
ing State concerned shall in the 
opinion of the Council unreasonably 
fail to take suitable corrective ac- 
tion, the Council may recommend to 
the Assembly of the above-men- 
tioned Organization that such con- 
tracting State be suspended from its 
rights and privileges under this 
Agreement until such action has 
been taken. The Assembly by a 
two-thirds vote may so suspend such 
contracting State for such period of 
time as it may deem proper or until 
the Council shall find that corrective 
action has been taken by such State. 
Section 2. If any disagreement 
between two or more contracting 
States relating to the interpretation 
or application of this Agreement can- 
not be settled by negotiation, the 
provisions of Chapter XVIII of the 
above-mentioned Convention shall 
be applicable in the same manner as 
provided therein with reference to 
any disagreement relating to the 
interpretation or application of the 
above-mentioned Convention. 

ARTICLE 3 

This Agreement shall remain in 
force as long as the above-mentioned 
Convention; provided, however, that 
any contracting State, a party to the 
present Agreement, may denounce 
it on one year's notice given by it to 
the Government of the United States 
of America, which shall at once in- 
form all other contracting States of 
such notice and withdrawal. 

ARTICLE 4 

Pending the coming into force of 
the above-mentioned Convention, 
all references to it herein, other than 
those contained in Article 2, Section 



2, and Article 5, shall be deemed to 
be references to the Interim Agree- 
ment on International Civil Aviation 
drawn up at Chicago on December 
7, 1944; and references to the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion, the Assembly, and the Council 
shall be deemed to be references to 
the Provisional International Civil 
Aviation Organization, the Interim 
Assembly, and Interim Council, 
respectively. 

ARTICLE 5 

For the purposes of this Agree- 
ment, "territory" shall be defined as 
in Article 2 of the above-mentioned 
Convention. 

ARTICLE 6 

Signatures and Acceptances 
of Agreement 

The undersigned delegates to the 
International Civil Aviation Confer- 
ence, convened in Chicago on No- 
vember I, 1944, have affixed their 
signatures to this Agreement with 
the understanding that the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America 
shall be informed at the earliest 
possible date by each of the govern- 
ments on whose behalf the Agree- 
ment has been signed whether signa- 
ture on its behalf shall constitute an 
acceptance of the Agreement by that 
government and an obligation bind- 
ing upon it. 

Any State a member of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
may accept the present Agreement as 
an obligation binding upon it by notifi- 
cation of its acceptance to the Govern- 
ment of the United States, and such 
acceptance shall become effective 
upon the date of the receipt of such 
notification by that Government. 

This Agreement shall come into 
force as between contracting States 
upon its acceptance by each of them. 
Thereafter it shall become binding as 
to each other State indicating its 
acceptance to the Government of the 
United States on the date of the re- 



Dec. 7, 1944 AIR SERVICES TRANSIT 23! 

ceipt of the acceptance by that Gov- Done at Chicago the seventh day 

ernment. The Government of the of December, 1944, in the English 

United States shall inform all signa- language. A text drawn up in the 

tory and accepting States of the date English, French, and Spanish lan- 

of all acceptances of the Agreement, guages, each of which shall be of 

and of the date on which it comes equal authenticity, shall be opened 

into force for each accepting State, for signature at Washington, D. C. 

Both texts shall be deposited in the 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the under- archives of the Government of the 

signed, having been duly authorized, United States of America, and certi- 

sign this Agreement on behalf of fi e d copies shall be transmitted by 

their respective governments on the that Government to the govern- 

dates appearing opposite their re- ments of all the States which may 

spective signatures. sign and accept this Agreement. 

[Signed: l ] For Afghanistan: A. HOSAYN Aziz; for the Government of the 
Commonwealth of Australia: [July 4, 1945]; for Belgium: [April 9, 1945]; for 
Bolivia: TCNL. A. PACHECO; foi Canada: [February 10, 1945]; for Chile: 
R. SAENZ, G. BISQUERT, R. MAGALLANES B.; for Costa Rica: [March 10, 
1945]; for Cuba: [April 20, 1945]; for Czechoslovakia: [April 18, 1945]; fr 
Ecuador: J. A. CORREA, FRANCISCO GOMEZ JURADO; for Egypt: M. HASSAN, 
M. ROUSHDY, M. A. KHALIFA; for El Salvador: [May 9, 1945]; for Ethiopia: 
[March 22, 1945]; for France: M. HYMANS, C. LEBEL, BOURGES, P. LOCUS- 
SOL; for Greece: D. NOTI BOTZARIZ, A. J. ARGYROPOULOS ; for Guatemala: 
[January 30, 1945] ; for Haiti : EDOUARD ROY; for Honduras : E. P. LEFEBVRE ; 
for Iceland: [April 4, 1945]; for India: G. BEWOOR; for Iran: M. SHAYESTEH; 
for Iraq: ALI JAWDAT; for Lebanon: C. CHAMOUN, F. EL-Hoss; for Liberia: 
WALTER F. WALKER; for Luxembourg : [July 9, 1945]; for Mexico: PEDRO A. 
CHAPA; for the Netherlands: M. STEENBERGHE, COPES, F. E. ARONSTEIN; 
for the Government of New Zealand: DANIEL GILES SULLIVAN; for Nica- 
ragua: R. E. FRIZELL; for Norway: [January 30, 1945]; for Paraguay: [July 
27, 1945]; for Peru: A. REVOREDO, J. S. KOECHLIN, Luis ALVARADO, F. EL- 
GUERA, GUILLERMO VAN OORDT; for the Philippine Commonwealth: J. 
HERNANDEZ, URBANO A. ZAFRA, J. H. FOLEY; for Poland : ZBYSLAW CIOLKOSZ , 
Dr. H. J. GORECKI, STEFAN J. KONORSKI, WITOLD A. URBANOWICZ, LUDWIK 
H. GOTTLIEB; for Spain: E. TERRADAS, GERMAN BARAIBAR; for Sweden: 
R. KUMLIN; for Switzerland: [July 6, 1945); for Syria: [July 6, 1945]; for 
Turkey: S. KOCAK, F. SAHINBAS, ORHAN H. EROL; for the Union of South 
Africa: [June 4, 1945]; for the Government of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland: (I declare that, failing later notification of in- 
clusion, my signature to this Agreement does not cover Newfoundland.) [Reservation 
excluding Newfoundland withdrawn February 2, 1945.] SwiNTON; for the United 
States of America: ADOLF A. BERLE, JR.; ALFRED L. BULWINKLE, CHAS. A. 

WOLVERTON, F. LA GUARDIA, EDWARD WARNER, L. WELCH POGUE, WlL- 

LIAM A. M. BURDEN; for Uruguay: CARL CARBAJAL, Col. MEDARDO R. 
FARIAS; for Venezuela: (La Delegaci6n de Venezuela firma ad referendum y deja 
constancia de que la aprobaci6n de este documento por su Gobierno esti sujeta a las 
disposiciones constitucionales de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela.) F. J. SUCRE, 
J. BLANCO UsxARiz; for Denmark: HENRIK KAUFFMANN; for Thailand: 
M. R. SENI PRAMOJ. 

1 Signatures affixed to the original document subsequent to the date of January 22, 1945, 
do not appear herein, but the dates of those signatures have been inserted in brackets. ED. 



232 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 642 

No. 642 

INTERNATIONAL Air Transport Agreement. Opened for signa- 
nature at Chicago, December 7, 1944. 

ACCORD concernant le transport aerien international. Ouvert & 
la signature & Chicago, 7 decembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Agreement, also known as the "five freedoms agreement," was 
formulated at the International Civil Aviation Conference held at Chicago, November i- 
December 7, 1944. For the text of the more limited " two freedoms" agreement concluded 
at the same time, see No. 641, ante; for the text of other instruments drawn up at that con- 
ference, see Nos. 639, 640, ante. A protocol on the establishment and operation of regular 
air lines was signed by Italy, Rumania, and Yugoslavia on September 19, 1937 (No. 494, 
ante). Numerous bipartite instruments have been concluded on the subject in recent years; 
see, for instance, the American-Spanish agreement of December 2, 1944 (U.S. Executive 
Agreement Series, No. 432), and the American-British agreement of February 1 1, 1946 (U.S. 
Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1507). 

ACCEPTANCES. On April i, 1948, acceptances of this Agreement had been effected by 
Afghanistan, Bolivia, China, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Greece (with 
reservation), Honduras, Liberia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Sweden, Thailand, 
Turkey (with reservation), the United States of America, and Venezuela. 

DENUNCIATIONS. The Agreement has been denounced by Afghanistan (March 18, 1948), 
China (December II, 1946), Dominican Republic (October 14, 1946), Nicaragua (October 
7, 1946), and the United States of America (July 25, 1946). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Agreement is also published in U.S. Department of 
State, Publication No. 2282, Conference Series No. 64, p. 91, Br. Parl. Papers, Misc. No 6 
(1945), Cmd. 6614; Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, No. 36, p. 60; 39 Am Jour. Int. Law 
(Supp., 1945), pp. I39-43- 

J. C. Cooper, "Air Transport and World Organization," 55 Yale Law Journal (1946). PP 
1191-1213; G. Norton, "World Air Transport. Development of United States Policy," 
15 U.S. Department of State Bulletin (1946), pp. 1006-10; O. Ryan, "Recent Developments 
in United States International Air Transport Policy," i Air Affairs (1946), PP- 45~66. 

See also the bibliography under No. 639, ante. 

Entered into force February 8, 1945. 
Text from 17.5. Executive Agreement Series, No. 488. 

The States which sign and accept territory without landing; 
this International Air Transport (2) The privilege to land for non- 
Agreement, being members of the traffic purposes; 
International Civil Aviation Organi- (3) The privilege to put down 
zation, declare as follows: passengers, mail and cargo taken on 
A in the territory of the State whose 
ARTICLE i nationality the aircraft possesses; 

Sections Each contracting State (4) The privilege to take on pas- 
grants to the other contracting sengers, mail and cargo destined for 
States the following freedoms of the the territory of the State whose na- 
air in respect of scheduled inter- tionality the aircraft possesses; 
national air services: (5) The privilege to take on pas- 

(i) The privilege to fly across its sengers, mail and cargo destined for 



AIR TRANSPORT 



Dec. 7, 1944 

the territory of any other contract- 
ing State and the privilege to put 
down passengers, mail and cargo 
coming from any such territory. 

With respect to the privileges speci- 
fied under paragraphs (3), (4), and 
(5) of this section, the undertaking 
of each contracting State relates 
only to through services on a route 
constituting a reasonably direct line 
out from and back to the homeland 
of the State whose nationality the 
aircraft possesses. 

The privileges of this section shall 
not be applicable with respect to air- 
ports utilized for military purposes 
to the exclusion of any scheduled 
international air services. In areas 
of active hostilities or of military 
occupation, and in time of war along 
the supply routes leading to such 
areas, the exercise of such privileges 
shall be subject to the approval of 
the competent military authorities. 

Section 2. The exercise of the 
foregoing privileges shall be in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the 
Interim Agreement on International 
Civil Aviation and, when it comes 
into force, with the provisions of the 
Convention on International Civil 
Aviation, both drawn up at Chicago 
on December 7, 1944. 

Section j. A contracting State 
granting to the airlines of another 
contracting State the privilege to 
stop for non-traffic purposes may 
require such airlines to offer reason- 
able commercial service at the points 
at which such stops are made. 

Such requirement shall not involve 
any discrimination between airlines 
operating on the same route, shall 
take into account the capacity of the 
aircraft, and shall be exercised in 
such a manner as not to prejudice 
the normal operations of the inter- 
national air services concerned or 
the rights and obligations of any 
contracting State. 

Section 4. Each contracting State 
shall have the right to refuse per- 



233 



mission to the aircraft of other con- 
tracting States to take on in its ter- 
ritory passengers, mail and cargo 
carried for remuneration or hire and 
destined for another point within its 
territory. Each contracting State 
undertakes not to enter into any 
arrangements which specifically 
grant any such privilege on an ex- 
clusive basis to any other State or an 
airline of any other State, and not to 
obtain any such exclusive privilege 
from any other State. 

Section 5. Each contracting State 
may, subject to the provisions of this 
Agreement, 

(1) Designate the route to be fol- 
lowed within its territory by any 
international air service and the air- 
ports which any such service may use ; 

(2) Impose or permit to be im- 
posed on any such service just and 
reasonable charges for the use of 
such airports and other facilities; 
these charges shall not be higher 
than would be paid for the use of 
such airports and facilities by its 
national aircraft engaged in similar 
international services: provided that, 
upon representation by an interested 
contracting State, the charges im- 
posed for the use of airports and 
other facilities shall be subject to 
review by the Council of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
established under the above-men- 
tioned Convention, which shall re- 
port and make recommendations 
thereon for the consideration of the 
State or States concerned. 

Section 6. Each contracting State 
reserves the right to withold or re- 
voke a certificate or permit to an air 
transport enterprise of another State 
in any case where it is not satisfied 
that substantial ownership and ef- 
fective control are vested in nationals 
of a contracting State, or in case of 
failure of such air transport enter- 
prise to comply with the laws of the 
State over which it operates, or to 
perform its obligations under this 
Agreement. 



234 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 642 



ARTICLE 2 



Section I. The contracting States 
accept this Agreement as abrogating 
all obligations and understandings 
between them which are inconsistent 
with its terms, and undertake not to 
enter into any such obligations 
and understandings. A contracting 
State which has undertaken any 
other obligations inconsistent with 
this Agreement shall take immediate 
steps to procure its release from the 
obligations. If an airline of any 
contracting State has entered into 
any such inconsistent obligations, 
the State of which it is a national 
shall use its best efforts to secure 
their termination forthwith and shall 
in any event cause them to be 
terminated as soon as such action 
can lawfully be taken after the com- 
ing into force of this Agreement. 

Section 2. Subject to the provi- 
sions of the preceding section, any 
contracting State may make ar- 
rangements concerning international 
air services not inconsistent with this 
Agreement. Any such arrangement 
shall be forthwith registered with the 
Council, which shall make it public 
as soon as possible. 

ARTICLE 3 

Each contracting State undertakes 
that in the establishment and opera- 
tion of through services due consider- 
ation shall be given to the interests 
of the other contracting States so as 
not to interfere unduly with their re- 
gional services or to hamper the de- 
velopment of their through services. 

ARTICLE 4 

Section I. Any contracting State 
may by reservation attached to this 
Agreement at the time of signature 
or acceptance elect not to grant 
and receive the rights and obliga- 
tions of Article I, Section I, para- 
graph (5), and may at any time after 
acceptance, on six months' notice 
given by it to the Council, withdraw 
itself from such rights and obliga- 
tions. Such contracting State may 



on six months' notice to the Council 
assume or resume, as the case may 
be, such rights and obligations. No 
contracting State shall be obliged to 
grant any rights under the said para- 
graph to any contracting State not 
bound thereby. 

Section 2. A contracting State 
which deems that action by another 
contracting State under this Agree- 
ment is causing injustice or hardship 
to it, may request the Council to 
examine the situation. The Coun- 
cil shall thereupon inquire into the 
matter, and shall call the States con- 
cerned into consultation. Should 
such consultation fail to resolve the 
difficulty, the Council may make 
appropriate findings and recom- 
mendations to the contracting States 
concerned. If thereafter a contract- 
ing State concerned shall in the 
opinion of the Council unreasonably 
fail to take suitable corrective ac- 
tion, the Council may recommend to 
the Assembly of the above-men- 
tioned Organization that such con- 
tracting State be suspended from its 
rights and privileges under this 
Agreement until such action has 
been taken. The Assembly by a 
two-thirds vote may so suspend such 
contracting State for such period of 
time as it may deem proper or until 
the Council shall find that corrective 
action has been taken by such State. 

Section j. If any disagreement 
between two or more contracting 
States relating to the interpretation 
or application of this Agreement 
cannot be settled by negotiation, 
the provisions of Chapter XVIII of 
the above-mentioned Convention 
shall be applicable in the same man- 
ner as provided therein with refer- 
ence to any disagreement relating to 
the interpretation or application of 
the above-mentioned Convention. 

ARTICLE 5 

This Agreement shall remain in 
force as long as the above-mentioned 
Convention; provided, however, that 
any contracting State, a party to the 



Dec. 7, 1944 



AIR TRANSPORT 



235 



present Agreement, may denounce it 
on one year's notice given by it to 
the Government of the United States 
of America, which shall at once in- 
form all other contracting States of 
such notice and withdrawal. 

ARTICLE 6 

Pending the coming into force of 
the above-mentioned Convention, 
all references to it herein other than 
those contained in Article 4, Section 
3, and Article 7 shall be deemed to 
be references to the Interim Agree- 
ment on International Civil Avia- 
tion drawn up at Chicago on De- 
cember 7, 1944; and references to the 
International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization, the Assembly, and the 
Council shall be deemed to be refer- 
ences to the Provisional Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization, 
the Interim Assembly, and the 
Interim Council, respectively. 

ARTICLE 7 

For the purposes of this Agree- 
ment, "territory 1 ' shall be defined as 
in Article 2 of the above-mentioned 
Convention. 

ARTICLE 8 

Signatures and Acceptances of 
Agreement 

The undersigned delegates to the 
International Civil Aviation Con- 
ference, convened in Chicago on 
November I, 1944, have affixed their 
signatures to this Agreement with 
the understanding that the Govern- 
ment of the United States of Amer- 
ica shall be informed at the earliest 
possible date by each of the govern- 
ments on whose behalf the Agree- 
ment has been signed whether signa- 
ture on its behalf shall constitute an 
acceptance of the Agreement by that 



government and an obligation bind- 
ing upon it. 

Any State a member of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
may accept the present Agreement 
as an obligation binding upon it by 
notification of its acceptance to the 
Government of the United States, 
and such acceptance shall become 
effective upon the date of the receipt 
of such notification by that Gov- 
ernment. 

This Agreement shall come into 
force as between contracting States 
upon its acceptance by each of them. 
Thereafter it shall become binding 
as to each other State indicating its 
acceptance to the Government of 
the United States on the date of the 
receipt of the acceptance by that 
Government. The Government of 
the United States shall inform all 
signatory and accepting States of the 
date of all acceptances of the Agree- 
ment, and of the date on which it 
comes into force for each accepting 
State. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the under- 
signed, having been duly authorized, 
sign this Agreement on behalf of 
their respective governments on the 
dates appearing opposite their sig- 
natures. 

Done at Chicago the seventh day 
of December 1944, in the English 
language. A text drawn up in the 
English, French, and Spanish lan- 
guages, each of which shall be of 
equal authenticity, shall be opened 
for signature at Washington, D. C. 
Both texts shall be deposited in the 
archives of the Government of the 
United States of America, and certi- 
fied copies shall be transmitted by 
that Government to the govern- 
ments of all the States which may 
sign and accept this Agreement. 



[Signed: 1 ] For Afghanistan: A. HOSAYN Aziz; for Bolivia: TCNL. A. PA- 
CHECO; for China: CHANG KIA-NGAU; for Costa Rica: [March 10, 1945]; 

1 Signatures affixed to the original document subsequent to the date of January 22, 1945, 
do not appear herein, but the dates of those signatures as given in U.S. Executive Agreement 
Series, No. 488, have been inserted in brackets. ED. 



236 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 643 

for Cuba: [April 20, 1945]; for the Dominican Republic: C. A. MCLAUGHLIN; 
for Ecuador: J. A. CORREA, FRANCISCO GOMEZ JURADO; for El Salvador: 
[May 9, 1945]; for Ethiopia: [March 22, 1945]; for Guatemala: [January 30, 
i 945] ; for Haiti : EDOUARD ROY ; for Honduras : E. P. LEFEB VRE ; for Iceland : 
[April 4, 1945]; for Lebanon: (Ad referendum concerning the fifth freedom enumer- 
ated in Art. i Section i.) C. CHAMOUN; for Liberia: WALTER F. WALKER; for 
Mexico: PEDRO A. CHAPA; for the Netherlands: M. STEENBERGHE, F. C. 
ARONSTEIN (In accordance with the provisions of art. 4 Section I of this agreement 
the Netherlands Delegation hereby accept only the first four privileges in art. I section 
i.) [Reservation withdrawn Sept. 21, 1945.]; for Nicaragua: R. E. FRIZELL; for 
Paraguay: [July 27, 1945]; for Peru: A. REVOREDO, J. S. KOECHLIN, Luis 
ALVARADO, F. ELGUERA, GLLMO. VAN OORDT; for Sweden: R. KUMLIN; 
for Syria: [July 6, 1945]; for Turkey: S. KOJAK, F. SAHINBAS, ORHAN H. 
EROL (In accordance with the provisions of Art. 4 section I of this agreement the 
Turkish delegation hereby accept only the first four privileges in Art. I sect, i and leave 
the acceptance of the fifth privilege to the discretion of their government.); for 
the United States of America: ADOLF A. BERLE, JR., ALFRED L. BULWINKLE, 
CHAS. A. WOLVERTON, F. LA GUARDIA, EDWARD WARNER, L. WELCH POGUE, 
WILLIAM A. M. BURDEN; for Uruguay: CARL CARBAJAL, COL. MEDARDO R. 
FARIAS; for Venezuela: (La Delegaci6n de Venezuela firma ad referendum y deja 
constancia de que la aprobaci6n de este documento por su Gobierno esta sujeta a las 
disposiciones constitucionales de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela.) F. J. SUCRE, 
J. BLANCO USTARIZ; for Denmark: HENRIK KAUFFMANN; for Thailand: 
M. R. SENI PRAMOJ. 



No. 643 

INTERNATIONAL Sanitary Convention. Opened for signature at 
Washington, December 15, 1944. 

CONVENTION sanitaire Internationale. Ouverte & la signature SL 
Washington, 15 decembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention was drafted by an Expert Commission on Quarantine 
established by the Subcommittee for Europe of the Standing Technical Committee on 
Health of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration Council. After 
its approval, with certain changes, by the Committee on Health, the Convention was 
approved "in principle" by the Second Session of the UNRRA Council held at Montreal, 
September 15-26, 1944, i ts final text, together with an explanatory resolution, was adopted 
by the Committee on Health at Washington, December 9, 1944. A protocol to prolong the 
duration of the Convention beyond July I, 1946, was opened for signature at Washington 
on April 23, 1946 (No. 643a, post). The World Health Organization, established under the 
Constitution of July 22, 1946 (14 U.N. Treaty Series, p. 185), took over UNRRA's functions 
under this Convention on December i, 1946. International sanitary conferences have been 
held periodically since 1851; sanitary conventions were signed at Paris in 1852, at Venice in 
1892, at Dresden in 1893, at Pans in 1894, and at Venice in 1897. They were superseded, 
successively, by the Paris conventions of December 3, 1903 (97 Br. and For. St. Papers, p. 
1085), January 17, 1912 (4 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 281), and June 21, 1926 (No. 
164, ante). The last-mentioned convention was modified by the convention of October 31, 
1938 (No. 537, ante), and, temporarily, by the present Convention. The Office Interna- 



Dec. 15, 1944 SANITARY CONVENTION 237 

tional d'Hygiene Publique, established in Paris by the agreement signed at Paris, December 
9, 1907 (100 Br. and For. St. Papers, p. 466), has been taken over by the World Health 
Organization under a protocol of July 22, 1946. 9 U.N. Treaty Series, p. 66. The Inter- 
national Sanitary Convention for Aerial Navigation, opened for signature at The Hague, 
April I2 t 1933 (No. 326, ante), was amended in 1944 (No. 644, post). A Pan American Sani- 
tary Convention was signed at Habana, November 14, 1924 (No. 131, ante). 

RATIFICATIONS. On September i, 1948, the Convention had been signed without any 
reservation with respect to ratification, or ratified, or acceded to, by Australia (with reserva- 
tions), Belgium, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
France, Great Britain (including certain British territories), Greece, Haiti, Honduras, 
India, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Poland, South Africa, 
Syria, Turkey, and the United States of America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. This Convention is also published in 17 U.N. Treaty Series, p. 305; 
British Treaty Serves, No. 58 (1946), Cmd. 6989, Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, No. 32; i 
UNRRA, Epidemiological Information Bulletin (1945), pp. 13-32, 51-68. For the declara- 
tions made by France and Egypt at the time of signature, see idem, pp. 85-100. For the 
1944 lext of tne ! 9 2 6 convention, see idem, pp. 125-56, 247-88. See also UNRRA, Report 
of the Director General to the Council for the Period i April 194$ to jo June 1945, pp. 31-32. 

Anon , "UNRRA and International Health," UNRRA, Monthly Review (1945), No. 9, 
pp. 8-1 1 ; N. M. Goodman, "Memorandum on the Chief Changes Made by International 
Sanitary Conventions, 1944," I UNRRA, Epidemiological Information Bulletin (1945), pp. 
219-27, G II. de Paula Souza, "History of the International Sanitary Conventions," idem, 
PP 5-12. 

Entered into force January 15, 1045. 1 
Text from U.S. Treaty Series, No. 991. 

The Governments signatory Les Gouvernements signataires, 
hereto, 

Considering that the Interna- Considerant que 1'Office inter- 
tional Office of Public Health created national d'Hygiene publique, cree 
by the Agreement signed at Rome par 1'Accord signe Rome le 9 de- 
on December 9, 1907, is unable for cembre 1907, ne peut, pour le mo- 
the time being to carry out effec- ment, remplir effectivement toutes 
tively all of the duties and functions les t^ches et fonctions qui lui ont etc 
assigned to it in the Annex to that assignees par 1' Annexe de cet Ac- 
Agreement; in the International cord, par la Convention sanitaire 
Sanitary Convention, 1926; in the Internationale de 1926, par la Con- 
International Sanitary Convention vention sanitaire Internationale pour 
for Aerial Navigation, 1933; and in la Navigation a6rienne de 1933 et 
other Conventions or Agreements par d'autres Conventions ou Ac- 
relating to the public health; cords ayant rapport 1'hygiene 

publique; 

Having entrusted the task of Ayant, conformement la r6so- 

solving this temporary problem by lution No. 8 (2) adopted lors de sa 

the preparation of emergency agree- premiere session par le Conseil de 

ments and arrangements for the TAdministration des Nations Unies 

notification of epidemic diseases and de Secours et de Restauration 

for uniformity in quarantine regula- (d6nomm6e ci-apres UNRRA), con- 

tions to the United Nations Relief fie 1'UNRRA la tSche de r&soudre 

and Rehabilitation Administration ce probleme temporaire en 61abo- 

1 Filed with the Secretariat of the United Nations, No. no, July 26, 1948. 



238 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 643 



(hereinafter referred to as UNRRA), 
in accordance with Resolution No. 8 
(2) adopted by the Council of 
UNRRA at its First Session, without 
prejudice however to the status of 
the International Office of Public 
Health which it is hoped will be able 
at the expiry of the present Conven- 
tion to resume the above-mentioned 
duties and functions; and having 
received the recommendations of 
UNRRA in this connection ; 

Having agreed that, in regard to 
the American Republics, the Pan 
American Sanitary Bureau shall 
continue to act as the general co- 
ordinating sanitary agency, includ- 
ing the general collection and dis- 
tribution of sanitary information to 
and from the said Republics, as 
specified in the Pan American Sani- 
tary Code and recognized heretofore 
by the International Office of Public 
Health; 



Desiring also to modify as be- 
tween themselves the provisions of 
the International Sanitary Conven- 
tion signed in Paris on June 21, 1926, 
as modified by the Sanitary Conven- 
tion signed in Paris in 1938, insofar 
as the provisions of the Convention 
of 1938 may be in force between the 
respective Governments (hereinafter 
referred to as the 1926 Convention), 
in the light of the present-day condi- 
tions which call for special measures 
to prevent the spread by land and 
sea across frontiers of epidemic or 
other communicable diseases; 



Have decided to conclude a Con- 
vention for these purposes, have 
agreed that, whereas the authentic 
text of the 1926 Convention is in the 
French language, the present Con- 
vention shall be in English and in 
French, both texts being equally 
authentic, and have accordingly ap- 
pointed the undersigned plenipo- 



rant, & titre de mesures d'urgence, 
des accords et arrangements pour la 
notification des maladies pidmi- 

3ues ainsi que pour 1'uniformisation 
es mesures de quarantaine, sans 
porter atteinte au statut de 1'Office 
international d'Hygtene publique 
qui, il est permis de l'esprer, pourra, 
Texpiration de la prsente Conven- 
tion, reprendre les tftches et fonc- 
tions mentionnSes ci-dessus; et ayant 
regu les recommandations de 
I'UNRRAicesujet; 

Ayant cpnvenu que, & l'6gard 
des Rpubliques am6ricaines, le Bu- 
reau sanitaire panam6ricain jouera, 
comme par le pass6, le r61e d'organe 
g6n6ral de coordination en mattere 
sanitaire, notamment pour la r- 
union et la distribution g6nrales 
d' in format ions sanitaires qui pro- 
viennent desdites Rpubliques ou 
leur sont destinies, ainsi qu'il est 
spcifi dans le Code sanitaire pana- 
mricain et comme cela a 6t ac- 
cept^ jusqu'ici par 1'Office interna- 
tional d'Hygidne publique; 

Dsirant aussi modifier, en ce qui 
les concerne, les dispositions de la 
Convention sanitaire Internationale 
sign6e Paris le 21 juin 1926 
telle qu'elle a t6 modifie par la 
Convention sanitaire signe Paris 
en 1938 et pour autant que les dis- 
positions de la Convention de 1938 
restent en vigueur entre les Gou- 
vernements intress6s (d6nomme ci- 
aprs la Convention de 1926) pour 
tenir compte des conditions actuelles 
qui n6cessitent des mesures sp6ciales 
pour empcher la propagation des 
maladies pidmiques ou autres ma- 
ladies contagieuses, par terre ou par 
mer & travers les frontteres; 

Ont dcid6 de conclure une Con- 
vention & cette fin, sont convenus 
que, alors que le texte authentique 
de la Convention de 1926 est r6dig6 
en langue frangaise, la pr6sente Con- 
vention sera rdige en anglais et en 
frangais, les deux textes faisant 
6galement foi, et ont en consequence 
disign les ptenipotentiaires sous- 



Dec. 15, 1944 



tentiaries who, having communi- 
cated their full powers, found in 
good and due form, have agreed that 
the 1926 Convention shall be 
amended as follows: 

ARTICLE i 

All references in the 1926 Con- 
vention to the International Office 
of Public Health shall be read as 
references to UNRRA. 



ARTICLE 2 

The second paragraph of Pre- 
liminary Provisions (2) shall be 
deleted and the following substi- 
tuted : 

The word surveillance means that 
persons are not isolated, that they 
may move about freely, but that the 
sanitary authorities of the place or 
places to which they are proceeding 
are notified of their coming. They 
may be subjected in the places of 
arrival to a medical examination and 
such inquiries as are necessary with a 
view to ascertaining their state of 
health; and, in any territory where 
the competent Contracting Party 
thinks fit, surveillance may include 
requirement to report on arrival and 
afterwards at such intervals during 
continuance of surveillance as may 
be specified, to the Health Officer of 
the city, town, district, or place to 
which they proceed. 

ARTICLE 3 

The following definitions shall be 
added to the Preliminary Provisions: 

(5) The term typhus, typhus fever, 
or exanthematous typhus in the 1926 
Convention and in the present Con- 
vention shall be deemed to relate 
only to epidemic louse-borne typhus, 



(6) The term Stegomyia, Ste* 
gomyia (Aedes aegypti), or Stegomyia 



SANITARY CONVENTION 



239 



signs qui, s'tant communique leurs 
pleins pouvoirs, trouv^s en bonne et 
due forme, sont convenus que la 
Convention sanitaire Internationale 
de 1926 sera modifie ainsi qu'il suit: 

ARTICLE i 

Toute reference & 1'Office inter- 
national d'Hygtene publique con- 
tenue dans la Convention de 1926 
sera consid6r6e comme une reference 
i TUNRRA. 

ARTICLE 2 

Au deuxi&me paragraphs des dis- 
positions preliminaires (2) substituer 
ce qui suit: 

Le mot surveillance signifie que 
les personnes ne sont pas isoiees, 
qu'elles obtiennent tout de suite la 
libre pratique, mais que 1'autorite 
sanitaire de la localite ou des local- 
it6s oft elles se rendent est prevenue 
de leur arrivee. Elles pourront tre 
soumises au lieu d 'arrivee un 
examen medical, et Ton pourra leur 
poser les questions necessaires 4 la 
constatation de leur etat de sante. 
Dans tout territoire oft la Partie 
Contractante competente le juge 
necessaire, la surveillance peut com- 
prendre 1'obligation de se presenter, 
lors de 1'arrivee, et ensuite 4 inter- 
valles fixes pendant la duree de la 
surveillance, devant 1'Officier de 
sante de la ville, de la region ou de 
1'endroit oft les interesses se rendent. 

ARTICLE 3 

Les definitions suivantes sont 
ajoutees aux Dispositions prSlimi- 
naires: 

(5) Les termes typhus, typhus 
jibrile et typhus exanthSmatique, dans 
la Convention de 1926 et dans la 
presente Convention, seront conside- 
r6s comme ne se rapportant qu'au 
typhus epidemique transmis par 
les poux. 

(6) Les termes Stegomyia, Ste- 
gomyia (Aedes aegypti) et Stegomyia 



240 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 643 



calopus (Aedes aegypti) shall be 
deemed to include Aides aegypti and 
any potential mosquito vectors of 
yellow fever. 

ARTICLE 4 

To Article I the following shall 
be added : 

Every Contracting Party shall, 
in addition to the diseases specif- 
ically mentioned in this Article, to 
wit, plague, cholera, yellow fever, 
typhus, and smallpox, notify to 
UNRRA outbreaks of such other 
communicable diseases as, in the 
opinion of that Party or in the 
opinion of UNRRA, constitute a 
menace to other countries by their 
spread or potential spread across 
frontiers, and shall keep UNRRA 
regularly informed of the course of 
the disease and the measures taken 
to prevent its spread. The pro- 
visions of the 1926 Convention as 
amended or supplemented by the 
present Convention shall, unless 
clearly inapplicable, apply to the 
above-mentioned other communi- 
cable diseases. 



ARTICLE 5 

In Article 3 the word "Paris" 
in the second paragraph shall be 
deleted and the words "London 
or Washington" shall be substi- 
tuted. 

To Article 3 the following shall 
be added : 

In order to facilitate the prompt 
and scrupulous fulfilment of the 
foregoing provisions, the Contract- 
ing Parties shall ensure priority for 
all communications which may en- 
able UNRRA rapidly to appraise 
the situation concerning the out- 
break of a disease and to inform 
governments in order that they 
may take appropriate measures 
against the spread of the disease 
across their frontiers. 



calopus (Aedes aegypti) seront con- 
sid6r6s comme comprenant Aedes 
aegypti et tous autres moustiques 
susceptibles d'etre des vecteurs de 
fifevre jaune. 

ARTICLE 4 
A V Article I, ajouter ce qui suit: 

Chaque Partie Contractante doit, 
en plus des maladies vis6es sp- 
cifiquement dans le present Article, 
savoir: la peste, le cholera, la fi&vre 
jaune, le typhus et la variole, aviser 
TUNRRA de 1'apparition de toutes 
autres maladies contagieuses qui, de 
1'avis de cette Partie ou de 1'avis de 
TUNRRA, constitue une menace 
pour d 'autres pays, par leur propa- 
gation ou la possibility de leur pro- 
pagation travers les frontteres. 
Elle doit tenir 1'UNRRA au courant 
du d6veloppement de la maladie et 
des mesures prises pour en empecher 
1'extension. Les dispositions de la 
Convention de 1926, telles qu'elles 
ont 6t6 modifies ou complies par 
la pr6sente Convention, s'appliquent 
aux susdites autres maladies con- 
tagieuses, moins qu'elles ne soient 
nettement inapplicables. 

ARTICLE 5 

Dans V Article j, paragraphe 2, 
le mot "Paris" est supprim6 et les 
mots "Londres ou Washington" 
y sont substitus. 

A r Article 3 ajouter ce qui suit: 

Afin de faciliter le prompt et 
scrupuleux accomplissement des dis- 
positions pr6c6dentes, les Parties 
Contractantes accorderont priority 
toutes communications suscepti- 
bles de permettre 4 1'UNRRA de 
juger rapidement la situation r6sul- 
tant de 1'apparition d'une de ces 
maladies et d 'informer les gouverne- 
ments afin qu'ils puissent prendre 
les mesures n6cessaires pour com- 
battre la propagation de la maladie 
travers leurs frontteres. 



Dec. 15, 1944 



SANITARY CONVENTION 



241 



ARTICLE 6 

After Article 5 the following shall 
be inserted : 

Article 5 A. In addition to carry- 
ing out the system of notification 
and intelligence prescribed in Part 
I, Chapter I of the 1926 Convention, 
which remains in full force, the Par- 
ties to the present Convention shall 
transmit promptly to UNRRA the 
notifications and other information 
prescribed in Part I of the 1926 
Convention. 

Article $B (/). In addition to 
the formal notification required 
above, the Contracting Parties shall, 
so far as possible, send to the Health 
Organization of IJNRRA at regular 
intervals notifications of communi- 
cable diseases notified in their coun- 
tries. 

(2). The Contracting Parties shall 
make the necessary arrangements 
with UNRRA for giving prompt 
information to all the governments 
concerned of the outbreak in their 
respective countries of a disease 
which, in the opinion of UNRRA, 
constitutes a menace to other coun- 
tries and of the measures which are 
being taken to prevent the spread of 
the disease across frontiers. 

ARTICLE 7 

To Article 13 the following shall 
be added : 

In a country where there exists 
a communicable disease, the sub- 
ject of a formal notification under 
any international sanitary or quar- 
antine convention for the time being 
in force, the Sanitary Authority in 
that country may prohibit the em- 
barkation on board a ship on inter- 
national voyage of persons suffering 
from the disease, and of persons in 
such relations to the sick as to render 
them liable to transmit the disease, 
unless the Medical Officer of the 
port of embarkation is satisfied that 



ARTICLE 6 

Apr Is V Article 5, ins6rer ce qui 
suit: 

Article $A. En outre, tout en 
appliquant le syst&me de notifica- 
tion et d' information present dans 
la Partie I, Chapitre I, de la Con- 
vention de 1926, qui reste pleine- 
ment en vigueur, les Parties la 
pr6sente Convention devront trans- 
mettre sans dSlai 1'UNRRA les 
notifications et autres renseigne- 
ments prvus dans la Partie I de la 
Convention de 1926. 

Article $B (/). Outre la notifi- 
cation formelle exige ci-dessus, les 
Parties Contractantes devront, au- 
tant que possible, adresser perio- 
diquement & 1'Organisation d'Hy- 
gine de 1'UNRRA des notifications 
concernant les maladies contagieuses 
qui ont fait 1'objet de declarations 
dans leurs pays. 

(2). Les Parties Contractantes 
devront faire avec 1'UNRRA les 
arrangements ncessaires pour tenir 
tous les gouvernements intresss 
rapidement informs de 1'appari- 
tion dans leur pays respectif d'une 
maladie qui, de 1'avis de 1'UNRRA, 
constitue un danger pour d 'autres 
pays, ainsi que des mesures en cours 
d 'execution pour en empcher 1'ex- 
tension & travers les fronti&res. 

ARTICLE 7 
A r Article ij, ajouter ce qui suit: 

Dans tout pays oft Ton a cons- 
tat6 1'existence d'une maladie con- 
tagieuse dont la notification est 
obligatoire en vertu d'une con- 
vention sanitaire internationale ou 
d'une convention internationale de 
quarantaine actuellement en vigueur, 
l'autorit sanitaire de ce pays peut 
interdire 1'embarquement bord 
d'un navire, pour un voyage in- 
ternational, de personnes atteintes 
de cette maladie, ainsi que de per- 
sonnes qui ont eu avec des malades 
des relations les rendant susceptibles 



242 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 643 



measures can be taken on board the 
ship to prevent the spread of the 
disease to the other persons on board. 
The Medical Officer of the port of 
embarkation, or other authorized 
officer of the sanitary authority, if 
he has reason to suspect any cloth- 
ing, bedding, or other article of 
personal use which belongs to or is 
intended for use by persons embark- 
ing to be infected, may examine 
and require the disinfection of any 
such clothing, bedding, or other 
article of personal use before it is 
taken on board. 



The measures enumerated in this 
Article shall be taken as far in ad- 
vance of the sailing date of the ship 
as possible in order not unduly to 
delay the ship's departure. 

Nothing in this Article shall 
affect the power of the Master of 
the ship to refuse to embark sick 
persons. 

ARTICLE 8 

In Article 15 the following shall 
be inserted between the third and 
fourth paragraphs: 

If on the call or arrival of any 
ship at a port there is on board a 
case of infectious disease duly veri- 
fied by the port medical officer, 
not being a case of plague, cholera, 
yellow fever, typhus, or smallpox, 
the usual measures in force in the 
country in which the port is situated 
shall be applied subject always to 
the provisions of Article 54 of the 
1926 Convention. 

In carrying out measures for 
control of the spread of communi- 
cable disease across frontiers, par- 
ticularly in regard to the movement 
.of displaced populations conveyed 
by international maritime transport, 
the Contracting Parties will not 
delay any ship at any point of her 
voyage longer than is necessary for 



de transmettre la maladie, & moins 
que TOfficier de sant6 du port d'em- 
barquement ne se soit assur que 
des mesures peuvent etre prises & 
bord pour empficher la propagation 
de la maladie aux autres personnes 
embarques. L'Officier de sant du 
port d'embarquement, ou tout autre 
agent habilit par Tautorit6 sani- 
taire, s'il a des motifs de soup- 
gonner que les vtements, literie 
ou autres effets personnels apparte- 
nant aux passagers ou destines 
leur usage sont infects, pourra les 
examiner et exiger que les dits 
vgtements, literie ou autres effets 
personnels soient dsinfects avant 
d'etre mis & bord. 

Les mesures num6res an pr- 
sent Article devront tre prises 
aussi longtemps que possible avant 
la date du depart du navire, afin 
de ne pas le retarder indflment. 

Rien dans le present Article ne 
porte atteinte au pouvoir que pos- 
sdde le Capitaine du navire de refuser 
1'embarquement & des malades. 

ARTICLE 8 

Dans I' Article 15, entre les 3^me 
et 4^me paragraphes, insurer ce 
qui suit: 

Lorsqu'i une escale ou Par- 
riv6e d'un navire dans un port, il 
existe & bord un cas de maladie in- 
fectieuse dflment constat6 par 1'Of- 
ficier de sant dudit port, autre 
qu'un cas de peste, de cholera, de 
ftevre jaune, de typhus ou de va- 
riole, on appliquera les mesures 
habituelles en vigueur dans le pays 
oti se trouve ledit port, sous reserve 
des dispositions de 1'Article 54 de 
la Convention de 1926. 

En appliquant les mesures des- 
tinies 6viter la propagation des 
maladies contagieuses & travers les 
fronti&res, et particulterement en 
ce qui concerne le mouvement des 
"populations d6places M par trans- 
port maritime international, les Par- 
ties Contractantes ne devront en 
aucun point du voyage retarder 



Dec. 15, 1944 



SANITARY CONVENTION 



243 



the medical examination of crew 
and passengers, for the disembarka- 
tion (if such is considered necessary) 
of persons suffering from communi- 
cable disease, and of their bedding 
and personal effects, and for the 
disinfection of the accommodation 
they occupied. The ship shall not 
be employed as a means of isolation 
of the sick, or of their contacts, 
unless such isolation can be effected 
without delaying or unduly inter- 
fering with her movements. 



ARTICLE 9 

The footnote to Article 25 shall be 
deleted and the following substituted : 

IN ALL CASES where this Con- 
vention provides for surveillance, 
surveillance may not be replaced 
by observation except 

(a) in circumstances in which 
it would not be practicable to carry 
out surveillance with sufficient thor- 
oughness; or 

(6) if the risk of the introduction 
of infection into the country is con- 
sidered to be exceptionally serious; or 

(c) if the person who would be 
subject to surveillance cannot fur- 
nish adequate sanitary guarantees. 

Persons under observation or sur- 
veillance shall submit themselves 
to any examination which the com- 
petent sanitary authority may con- 
sider necessary. 

ARTICLE 10 

In Articles J5 (a), 36 (4), and 47 
the words "200 meters" shall be 
deleted and the words "400 meters" 
shall be substituted. 

ARTICLE n 

To Article 40 the following shall 
be added : 

With a view to the elimination 
of Stegomyia (ASdes aegypti) as an 
important step in the control of 
the spread of yellow fever, the Con- 



le navire au deli du temps requis 
pour 1'examen medical de 1'equipage 
et des passagers, pour le dbarque- 
ment (si celui-ci est jug6 n6cessaire) 
de personnes atteintes de maladies 
contagieuses, de leur literie et de 
leurs effets personnels, et pour la 
disinfection des locaux qu'elles oc- 
cupaient. Le navire ne servira pas 
Tisolement des malades ou des 
personnes qui ont t en contact 
avec eux, moins qu'un tel isole- 
ment ne puisse etre effectu6 sans 
retarder le navire ou gener indflment 
ses mouvements. 

ARTICLE 9 

La note & I 1 Article 25 sera rem- 
placee par ce qui suit: 

DANS TOUS LES CAS oft la pr6sente 
Convention present une surveillance, 
celle-ci ne pourra 6tre remplac6e par 
1'observation, except^ 

(a) dans les circonstances oft la 
surveillance ne pourrait 6tre exercee 
avec le soin ncessaire; 

(b) si le risque d'introduire une 
maladie infectieuse dans le pays 
est considr6 comme exceptionnelle- 
ment s6rieux; 

(c) si la personne qui doit faire 1'ob- 
jet de la surveillance ne peut fournir 
les garanties sanitaires suffisantes. 

Les personnes en observation ou 
sous surveillance se soumettront 
tout examen que 1'autorite sani- 
taire comptente pourrait juger ne- 
cessaire. 

ARTICLE 10 

Dans les Articles 35(0), 36(4) et 
47, aux mots "200 metres" sub- 
stituer les mots "400 metres". 

ARTICLE 11 
A V Article 40, ajouter ce qui suit: 

En vue de I'glimination du Stego- 
myia (Aedes aegypti), 6tape im- 
portante dans la lutte contre la 
fivre jaune, les Parties Contrac- 



244 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 643 



tracting Parties shall, in the light of 
their knowledge and experience of 
the control of the yellow fever vec- 
tor, render and maintain free from 
Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti) (a) ports 
and their surroundings in endemic 
areas, and (b) ports not situated 
in endemic areas but exposed to 
the risk of the introduction of the 
disease. They shall also use their 
best endeavors to secure that per- 
sonnel employed in the handling 
of ships in ports in endemic areas 
and in ports specially exposed to 
risk shall be inoculated against 
yellow fever. 



The Contracting Parties agree 
that all persons inoculated in com- 
pliance with the provisions of the 
preceding paragraph of this Arti- 
cle shall be furnished with and 
carry an inoculation certificate signed 
by the officer carrying out the 
inoculation. This certificate shall 
conform to the International Form 
of Certificate of Inoculation against 
yellow fever annexed hereto. 

Persons in possession of a valid 
anti-yellow fever inoculation cer- 
tificate shall not for the purpose of 
the control of yellow fever be sub- 
jected to quarantine restrictions. 

In place of a valid anti-yellow 
fever inoculation certificate, a cer- 
tificate that the bearer has recov- 
ered from an attack of yellow fever 
and that his blood contains immune 
bodies against yellow fever, as 
proved by a test carried out by an 
institute regularly carrying out bi- 
ological tests for yellow fever and 
approved for this purpose by the 
government of the country con- 
cerned, will be accepted. 

ARTICLE 12 

In Article 41 (4) and (5), before 
the word "disinsected" the words 
"disinfected and" shall be inserted. 



tantes devront s'efforcer, la lu- 
miere de leurs connaissances et 
de leur experience en matiere de 
lutte contre le vecteur de la fievre 
jaune, de rendre et maintenir libres 
de Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti) (a) les 
ports et leurs environs situes dans 
les zones d'endemicit; (b) les ports 
situes hors des zones d'endemicite 
mais dans lesquels la maladie risque 
d'Stre introduite. Les Parties Con- 
tractantes devront s'efforcer egale- 
ment de faire vacciner contre la fievre 
jaune le personnel de manoeuvre et 
de manutention employ^ dans les 
ports des zones d'end6micit6 et dans 
les ports particulicrement exposes au 
risque de contagion. 

Les Parties Con trac tantes con- 
viennent que toutes pcrsonnes vao 
cinees en execution des dispositions 
du paragraph e precedent du present 
Article seront munies d'un certificat 
de vaccination signe par Fagent 
ayant effectue la vaccination et 
devront en etre porteurs. Ce cer- 
tificat doit tre conforme & la 
formule internationale de certificat 
de vaccination contre la fievre jaune 
annexee ci-apres. 

Les personnes en possession d'un 
certificat valable de vaccination 
contre la fievre jaune ne seront 
pas soumises aux restrictions de 
quarantaine institutes pour com- 
battre la fievre jaune. 

A defaut d'un certificat valable 
de vaccination contre la fievre jaune, 
on acceptera un certificat attestant 
que le porteur est remis d'un acces 
de fievre jaune et que son sang 
contient des anti-corps contre la 
fievre jaune, la preuve en ayant 
te faite par Femploi d'un test 
applique par un institut ex6ctitant 
habituellement des tests biologiques 
de fievre jaune et agr66 & cet effct par 
le gouvernement du pays int6resse. 

ARTICLE 12 

A V Article 41 (4) et (5) on fera 
preceder le mot "d6sinsectiser" des 
mots "desinfecter et". 



Dec. 15, 1944 



SANITARY CONVENTION 



245 



To Article 41 the following shall 
be added : 

The Contracting Parties will use 
their best endeavors to secure that 
ships trading with areas infected 
with typhus shall carry a sufficient 
quantity of an effective insecticide 
for the personal protection of the 
crew and passengers, and will give 
favorable consideration to the inocu- 
lation against typhus of all persons 
on board exposed to risk. 



ARTICLE 13 

Article 42 (j) shall be deleted 
and the following substituted: 

(3) Other persons reasonably sus- 
pected to have been exposed to in- 
fection on board, and who, in the 
opinion of the sanitary authority, 
are not sufficiently protected by 
recent vaccination, or by a previous 
attack of smallpox, may be subjected 
to vaccination or to observation or 
to surveillance, or to vaccination 
followed by observation or surveil- 
lance, the period of observation or 
surveillance being specified according 
to the circumstances, but in any 
event not exceeding 14 days, reck- 
oned from the date of arrival of the 
ship. 

In Article 42 the following shall 
be inserted as the penultimate 
paragraph : 

For the purpose of this Article 
" recent vaccination" shall be taken 
as meaning evidence of successful 
vaccination not more than 3 years 
or less than 14 days previously, or 
evidence of an immune reaction. 



To Article 42 shall be added 
"Vaccination of such persons may 
be performed". 



A V Article 41, ajouter ce qui suit: 

Les Parties Contractantes s'ef- 
forceront d'obtenir que les navires 
faisant escale dans les regions con- 
taminees par le typhus soient munis 
d'une quantit6 suffisante d'un in- 
secticide efficace pour la protection 
personnelle de 1'equipage et des passa- 
gers; elles examineront favorable- 
ment la possibility de faire vacciner 
contre le typhus toutes les personnes 
se trouvant bord qui seraient 
exposees au danger de contamina- 
tion. 

ARTICLE 13 

A I 1 Article 42 (j) substituer ce 
qui suit: 

(3) Toute personne que Ton su- 
specte, juste raison, d'avoir ete 
exposee i 1'infection & bord et qui, 
de Tavis de 1'autorite sanitaire, 
n'est pas suffisamment protegee par 
une vaccination r6cente ou par une 
attaque ant6rieure de variole, peut 
tre soumise soit la vaccination, 
ou 1'observation, ou & la surveil- 
lance, soit la vaccination, suivie 
d'observation ou de surveillance, 
la duree de Tobservation ou de la 
surveillance etant fixe suivant les 
circonstances, mais ne devant en 
aucun cas depasser quatorze jours & 
dater de 1'arrivee du navire. 

A r Article 42, ajouter comme 
avant-dernier paragraphe: 

Pour 1'application du present 
Article, 1'expression "vaccination 
recente" sera consideYee comme 
signifiant que preuve a ete fournie 
d'une vaccination faite avec succes 
au moins quatorze jours et pas plus 
de trois ans auparavant; ou que 
preuve a ete fournie que le porteur 
pr6sente une reaction d'immunit. 

A V Article 42 ajouter ce qui 
suit: On pourra procder la vac- 
cination de ces personnes. 



246 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 643 



ARTICLE 14 

In Article 43 after the word 
"crew " in the first paragraph shall be 
added the words "and passengers " . 

ARTICLE 15 

Article 49 shall be deleted and 
the following substituted : 

The Contracting Parties agree 
that bills of health and consular 
visas shall be abolished as soon as 
the conditions of hostilities permit 
the establishment of effective epi- 
demiological communications. The 
Master of every foreign-going vessel 
approaching the first port in a terri- 
tory shall ascertain the state of 
health of all persons on board and 
shall prepare and sign a Declaration 
of Health which shall be counter- 
signed by the ship's surgeon, if one 
is carried, to be handed to the ap- 
propriate authority. 

ARTICLE 16 

To Article 57 the following shall 
be added : 

The Contracting Parties will, so 
far as possible, adopt the Inter- 
national Form of Declaration of 
Health and the International Forms 
of Certificates of Inoculation or 
Vaccination against cholera, typhus, 
and smallpox, respectively, annexed 
hereto.* 

For the purposes of the present 
Convention the period of incuba- 
tion is reckoned as 6 days in the 
case of plague, 5 days in the case of 
cholera, 6 days in the case of yellow 
fever, 12 days in the case of typhus, 
and 14 days in the case of smallpox. 

ARTICLE 17 

Article 5<? shall be deleted and 
the following substituted : 

Observation may, if considered 
necessary, be enforced at land fron- 



ARTICLE 14 

A I' Article 43, paragraphe i, apres 
le mot "equipage" ajouter les mots 
"et des passagers". 

ARTICLE 15 

A V Article 49 substituer ce qui 
suit: 

Les Parties Contractantes sont 
d'accord pour abolir les patentes 
de sante et les visas consulaires 
aussit6t que le cours des hostilit6s 
permettra d'etablir des communi- 
cations epidemiologiques effectives. 
Le Capitaine de tout navire em- 
ploye la navigation internationale 
devra, & 1'approche du premier 
port d'un territoire, verifier IVHat 
de sante de toutes les personnes zk 
bord et devra prparer et signer 
une "declaration de sante" qui sera 
contresignee par le mddecin du bord 
(s'il y en a un) ; cette declaration sera 
remise 1'autorite appropriee. 

ARTICLE 16 
A V Article 57 ajouter ce qui suit: 

Les Parties Contractantes adop- 
teront, autant que possible, le mo- 
dele international de declaration de 
sante ainsi que chacun des modules 
internationaux de certificats de vac- 
cination contre le cholera, le typhus 
et la variole figurant dans les 
Annexes ci-jointes.* 

Aux fins de la pr^sente Conven- 
tion, la p6riode d 'incubation est 
estim6e & six jours pour la peste, 
cinq jours pour le cholera, six 
jours pour la fidvre jaune, i douze 
jours pour le typhus et quatorze 
jours pour la variole. 

ARTICLE 17 

A r Article 58 substituer ce qui 
suit: 

L'observation peut, si elle est 
jugee necessaire, gtre mise en vigueur 



* With regard to yellow fever see Article n. 

* Pour ce qui est de la fi&vre jaune, voir 1' Article n. 



Dec. 15, 1944 



SANITARY CONVENTION 



247 



tiers. Persons may be directed to 
the places which have been desig- 
nated for frontier traffic, and sani- 
tary stations, equipped in accord- 
ance with the terms of Article 22 of 
the 1926 Convention, shall be set up 
at such places. These places and 
the measures taken shall be notified 
immediately to the countries con- 
cerned and to UNRRA. Individu- 
als who have been in contact with a 
person suffering from a disease re- 
ferred to in Article I of the 1926 
Convention, a,nd their bedding and 
effects, may be subjected to the 
appropriate sanitary measures. In 
the case of persons suffering from 
a communicable disease not referred 
to in Article I , the measures in force 
in the country of arrival shall be 
applied. 

ARTICLE 18 

Article 63 shall be deleted and 
the following substituted: 

Railway carriages for mails or 
luggage and goods trains may not 
be detained at the frontier longer 
than is necessary to apply the 
necessary sanitary measures for the 
prevention of the entry of com- 
municable diseases into the country 
concerned. 

ARTICLE 19 

To Article 65 the following shall 
be added : 

In framing regulations under this 
Article, the Contracting Parties will 
consult UNRRA and will inform 
UNRRA of the regulations and of 
the date of their entry into force. 

ARTICLE 20 

To Article 66 the following shall 
be added : 

In the application of Articles 58 
to 66 inclusive of the 1926 Con- 
vention, as amended by the present 
Convention, to any persons coming 
within the category of "displaced 



aux frontieres terrestres. Les in- 
teYesses pourront tre dirig6s sur 
les Iocalit6s d6signes pour le trafic 
frontalier, et des stations sanitaires 
6quipees conform^ment aux termes 
de T Article 22 de la Convention de 
1926 seront 6tablies en ces localit^s. 
La liste de ces localitfe et stations, 
de mgme que les mesures prises, 
seront notifiees imm6diatement aux 
pays interesses et & 1'UNRRA. 
Les individus qui ont ete en contact 
avec une personne souffrant d'une 
des maladies mentionn6es I'Article 
i de la Convention de 1926, ainsi 
que leur literie et leurs effets, pour- 
ront tre soumis aux mesures sani- 
taires appropri6es. Dans le cas de 
personnes souffrant d'une maladie 
contagieuse non mentionn6e T Arti- 
cle I, les mesures en vigueur dans 
le pays d'arrivee seront appliquees. 

ARTICLE 18 

A V Article 63 substituer ce qui 
suit: 

Les wagons-poste, les wagons de 
bagages et les trains de merchan- 
dises ne seront pas retenus la 
frontiere plus longtemps que ne 
1'exige I'application des mesures 
sanitaires ncessaires pour empcher 
Tintroduction de maladies contagieu- 
ses dans le pays inte>ess6. 

ARTICLE 19 
A I' Article 65 ajouter ce qui suit: 

En laborant des reglements en 
vertu du present Article, les Parties 
Contractantes consulterpnt 1'UNRRA 
et lui feront part desdits reglements 
et de leur date d'entree en vigueur. 

ARTICLE 20 
A V Article 66 ajouter ce qui suit: 

Pour Tapplication des Articles 
58 & 66 inclusivement de la Con- 
vention de 1926, telle qu'elle a 
t6 modified par la prsente Con- 
vention, toute personne se trou- 



248 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 643 



persons", the Contracting Parties 
shall be entitled to make such modi- 
fications as may be required by any 
special international arrangements 
under schemes to be organized by 
governments and by UNRRA for 
dealing with such persons. 



And the Contracting Parties have 
further agreed as follows: 

ARTICLE 21 

The present Convention shall 
come into force as soon as it has 
been signed or acceded to on behalf 
of ten or more governments. 



ARTICLE 22 



shall 



The present Convention 
supplement and be read as one 
with the 1926 Convention, which 
as hereby amended remains in full 
force between the Contracting Par- 
ties, and whenever any provision of 
the 1926 Convention contains a 
reference to another provision, the 
reference shall be deemed to be a 
reference to that provision as modi- 
fied by any amendments effected 
thereto by the present Convention. 



ARTICLE 23 

After January 15, 1945 the present 
Convention shall be open to acces- 
sion by any government not a 
signatory. Accessions shall be noti- 
fied in writing to the Government 
of the United States of America. 

Accessions notified after the entry 
into force of the present Convention 
shall become effective with respect 
to each government upon the notifi- 
cation of its accession. 



vant dans la categoric des "per- 
sonnes eloignees de leur residence 
habituelle", les Parties Contrac- 
tantes auront le droit d'effectuer 
telles modifications qui pourraient 
6tre requises par un arrangement 
international special faisant partie 
d'un plan organist par les gou- 
vernements et par 1'UNRRA & 
regard de ces personnes. 



En outre, les Parties Contrac- 
tantes sont convenues de ce qui 
suit: 

ARTICLE 21 

La presente Convention entrera 
en vigueur aussit6t qu'elle aura 
t6 accepte, par voie de signature 
ou d'adh6sion, par dix gouverne- 
ments au moins. 

ARTICLE 22 

La presente Convention com- 
pletera la Convention de 1926 et 
sera consid6ree comme formant un 
tout avec elle. Ladite Convention, 
telle qu'elle cst modifiee par la 
prsente Convention, demeure plein- 
ement en vigueur entre les Parties 
Contractantes. Lorsqu'une dispo- 
sition de la Convention de 1926 
contient une reference a une autre 
disposition, cette rdference sera con- 
sideree comme etant une reference 
la disposition en question, telle 
qu'elle resulte de toutes modifica- 
tions qui y sont apportees par la 
presente Convention. 

ARTICLE 23 

A partir du 15 Janvier 1945, la 
presente Convention sera ouverte & 
l'adhesion de tout gouverncment 
qui n'en est pas signataire. Les 
adhesions seront notifiees par 6crit 
au Gouvernement des Etats-Unis 
d'Amerique. 

Les adhesions notifiees apres 1'en- 
tr6e en vigueur de la presente Con- 
vention deviendront effectives a 
Tegard de chaque gouvernement 
lors de la notification de son adhesion. 



Dec. 15, 1944 



SANITARY CONVENTION 



249 



ARTICLE 24 

Any Contracting Party may on 
signature or accession declare that 
the present Convention does not 
apply to all or any of its colonies, 
overseas territories, territories un- 
der its protection, suzerainty, or 
authority, or territories in respect 
of which it exercises a mandate. 
The present Convention may at 
any time thereafter be applied to 
any such territory by notification 
in writing to the Government of 
the United States of America, and 
the Convention shall apply to the 
territory concerned from the date 
of the receipt of the notification by 
the Government of the United States 
of America. 

ARTICLE 25 

The Government of the United 
States of America shall give notice 
in writing to governments parties 
to the 1926 Convention and to 
governments parties to the present 
Convention, of all signatures and 
accessions to the present Conven- 
tion and of all notifications regarding 
the territories to which the present 
Convention is to be applied. 

ARTICLE 26 

The present Convention shall 
remain in force as to each Con- 
tracting Party until either 

(1) such Party shall become 
bound by a further conven- 
tion amending or superseding 
the 1926 Convention, or 

(2) the expiration of eighteen 
months from the date on 
which the present Convention 
enters into force, 

whichever shall be the earlier. 



ARTICLE 27 

The original of the present Con- 
vention shall be deposited in the 
archives of the Government of the 
United States of America and shall 
be opened for signature at Washing- 



ARTICLE 24 

Toute Partie Contractante peut, 
en signant la Convention ou en y 
adh6rant, declarer qu'elle ne s'ap- 
plique pas tout ou partie de ses 
colonies, territoires d'outre-mer, ter- 
ritoires places sous sa protection, 
suzerainet6 ou autorit6, ou territoires 
pour lesquels elle exerce un mandat. 
La prsente Convention pourra & 
tout moment ult6rieur gtre rendue 
applicable & 1'un quelconque de ces 
territoires par une notification crite 
adress^e au Gouvernement des Etats- 
Unis d'Amrique; la Convention 
s'appliquera i ce territoire partir de 
la reception de la notification par 
le Gouvernement des Etats-Unis 
d'Am6rique. 

ARTICLE 25 

Le Gouvernement des Etats-Unis 
d'Am6rique informera par crit les 
gouvernements parties i la Conven- 
tion de 1926, ainsi que les gouverne- 
ments parties & la pr6sente Conven- 
tion, de toutes signatures et adhesions 
la pr6sente Convention, ainsi que 
de toutes notifications concernant 
les territoires auxquels la pr6sente 
Convention est rendue applicable. 

ARTICLE 26 

La prsente Convention demeu- 
rera en vigueur pour chaque Partie 
Contractante jusqu' ce que 

(1) cette Partie se trouve lie 
par une convention ultrieure 
modifiant ou remplagant la 
Convention de 1926, ou que 

(2) une priode de 18 mois se 
soit 6coule & dater du jour 
oft la pr6sentc Convention 
entrera en vigueur, 

selon que Tune ou Pautre circon- 
stance se produira la premiere. 

ARTICLE 27 

Le texte original de la pr6sente 
Convention sera dpos6 aux ar- 
chives du Gouvernement des Etats- 
Unis d'Am6rique et sera ouvert 
la signature, le 15 dcembre 1944, 



250 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 643 

ton on December 15, 1944, where it Washington, oft il demeurera 

shall remain open for signature until ouvert la signature jusqu'au 15 

January 15, 1945. Certified copies Janvier 1945. Des copies certifies 

hereof shall be furnished by the conformes en seront fournies par le 

Government of the United States of Gouvernement des Etats-Unis 

America to each of the governments d'Am6rique & chacun des gouverne- 

on behalf of which this Convention ments par lesquels cette Convention 

is signed or acceded to and to each aura 6t accept6e, par voie de 

of the governments parties to the signature ou d'adhsion, ainsi qu' 

1926 Convention. chacun des gouvernements parties 

la Convention de 1926. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the un- EN FOI DE QUOI, les ptenipoten- 

dersigned plenipotentiaries, having tiaires soussignfes ayant d6pos6 leurs 

deposited their full powers, found pleins pouvoirs trouv6s en bonne 

to be in due and proper form, sign et due forme, ont sign6 les textes 

the present Convention in the Eng- anglais et frangais de la prdsente 

lish and French languages, both Convention, les deux versions faisant 

texts being equally authentic, on 6galement foi, au nom de leurs 

behalf of their respective govern- gouvernements respectifs, aux dates 

ments, on the dates appearing oppo- figurant en regard de leurs signatures, 
site their signatures. 

[Signed:] For the French Republic: ANDR MAYER, January 5, 1945; 
for Poland : JAN CIECHANOWSKI, January 5, 1945 ; for the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland : (At the time of signing the present Con- 
vention I declare that my signature does not cover any of the territories referred to in 
Article Twenty-Four of the International Sanitary Convention, 1944.) HALIFAX, 
January 5, 1945; for the United States of America: (Subject to ratification.) 
E. R. STETTINIUS, Jr., January 5, 1945; for China: J. HENG Liu, January 
n, 1945; for the Union of South Africa: S. F. N. GIE, January 13, 1945; for 
Egypt : (With the following reservations: I. That this signature does not affect in any 
way the relations of the Egyptian Government with the International Office of Public 
Health, Paris, or its obligations toward the Regional Office at Alexandria; 2. That this 
convention is subject to ratification by the Egyptian Parliament.) M. HASSAN, Janu- 
ary 15, 1945; for Czechoslovakia: (Subject to ratification.) V. S. HURBAN, Janu- 
ary 15, 1945; for Canada: (Subject to ratification.) L. B. PEARSON, January 
*5i *945; f r Cuba: (Esta Convenci6n, previa la aprobaci6n del Senado de la Re- 
publica, ser& ratificada por el Ejecutivo.) GMO. BELT, January 15, 1945; for the 
Dominican Republic: (Con la reserva de que la Republica Dominicana no podri 
ratificar esta Convenci6n sin adherirse, al mismo tiempo, a las Convenciones de Paris y 
de La Haya, y que por virtud de disposiciones constitucionales de la Republica, estos 
procesos estaran subordinados a la previa sanci6n del Congreso Nacional.) EMILIO G. 
GODOY, January 15, 1945; for Nicaragua : GUILLERMO SEVILLA SACASA, Janu- 
ary 15, 1945; for Peru: (With the following reservations: I. That this Convention 
is signed ad referendum; 2. That if the execution of the said Convention would not 
conform with the regulations contained in the Pan American Sanitary Code of Havana, 
Perti will give preference to the latter.) P. G. BELTRAN, January 15, 1945; for 
Luxembourg: HUGUES LE GALLAIS, January 15, 1945; for Ecuador: S. E. 
DURAN BALLEN, January 15, 1945; for Greece: C. P. DIAMANTOPOULOS, 
January 15, 194^; for Honduras: JULIAN R. CAcERES, January 15, 1945; 
for Haiti: J. THEBAUD, January 15, 1945. 

[Forms omitted.] 



April 23, 1946 SANITARY CONVENTION 251 

No. 643a 

Protocol to Prolong the Duration of the International Sanitary Con- 
vention of 1944. Opened for signature at Washington, April 
23, 1946. 

Protocole prorogeant la dure de la Convention sanitaire de 1944. 
Ouvert i la signature & Washington, 23 avril 1946. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. The signature of this Protocol was recommended by the UNRRA 
Council on March 25, 1946. UNRRA, Journal, Fourth Session of the Council, p. 171. In 
August 1946, the Council of UNRRA authorized the Director General to transfer UNRRA 's 
functions under the International Sanitary Convention to the World Health Organization. 
Br. Par/. Papers, Misc. No. 10 (1946), Cmd. 6930, pp. 4-5. This transfer was effected as 
from December I, 1946, by an exchange of letters between the Director General of UNRRA 
and the Executive Secretary of the Interim Commission of the World Health Organization 
on October 22, 1946. 2 UNRRA, Epidemiological Information Bulletin (1946), pp. 848-49. 
By an agreement of December 9, 1946, other functions of UNRRA in the field of health were 
transferred to the World Health Organization as from January i, 1947. UNRRA, Report 
of the Director General to the Council for the Period i October 1946 to 31 December 1946, 

p. 75- 

RATIFICATIONS. On September i, 1948, the Protocol had been signed without any reser- 
vation with respect to ratification, or ratified, or acceded to, by Australia, Canada, China, 
Denmark, Dominican Republic, France, Great Britain, Greece, Haiti, Honduras, India, 
Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Philippines, Poland, South 
Africa, Syria, Turkey, and the United States of America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Protocol is also published in 17 U.N. Treaty Series, p. 3; 
2 UNRRA, Epidemiological Information Bulletin (1946), p. 424; British Treaty Series, No. 
41 (1946), Cmd. 6943; Canada, Treaty Series, 1946, No. 23. 

M. A. Kramer, M. Maylott, and J. W. Foley, "International Health Security in the 
Modern World: The Sanitary Conventions and the World Health Organization," 17 U.S. 
Department of State Bulletin (1947), pp. 953-58. 

Entered into force April 30, 1946.' 

Text from {/.S. Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1551. 

The Governments signatory to Les Gouvernements signataires 

the present Protocol, du present Protocole, 

Considering that, unless prolonged Considrant que, si elle n'est pas 
in force by action taken for that maintenue en vigueur par des me- 
purpose by the interested Govern- sures prises & cet effet par les 
ments, the International Sanitary Gouvernements intress6s, la Con- 
Convention, 1944, Modifying the vention sanitaire internationale de 
International Sanitary Convention 1944 portant modification de la 
of June 21, 1926, will expire on Convention sanitaire internationale 
July 15, 1946, the expiration of du 21 juin 1926 expirera le 15 
eighteen months from the date on juillet 1946, date d'expiration du 
which the said 1944 Convention d61ai de dix-huit mois & compter 
entered into force; and du jour ou ladite Convention de 

1944 est entree en vigueur; et 

1 Registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations, No. 265, July 26, 1948. 



252 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 643a 



Considering that it is desirable 
that the said 1944 Convention shall 
be prolonged in force after July 15, 
1946 between the Governments par- 
ties thereto; 

Have appointed their respective 
Plenipotentiaries who, having de- 
posited their full powers, found in 
good and proper form, have agreed 
as follows: 

Article z. Subject to the limita- 
tion provided for in Article 2 of the 
present Protocol, the International 
Sanitary Convention, 1944, Modi- 
fying the International Sanitary 
Convention of June 21, 1926, shall 
be prolonged in force on and after 
July 15, 1946, in respect of each of 
the Governments parties to the 
present Protocol, until the date on 
which such Government shall be- 
come bound by a further Convention 
amending or superseding the said 
1944 Convention and the said 1926 
Convention. 

Art. 2. The United Nations Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion (hereinafter referred to as 
UNRRA) shall continue to perform 
the duties and functions assigned 
to it by the said 1944 Convention, 
as prolonged by the present Protocol, 
until such time as a new Interna- 
tional Health Organization shall be 
established, at which time such 
duties and functions shall be trans- 
ferred to and shall be assumed by 
such new International Health Or- 
ganization, provided that if the new 
International Health Organization 
has not been formed or, having been 
formed, is unable to perform the 
above duties and functions by the 
date on which UNRRA, owing to 
the termination of its activities in 
Europe or for any other reason, 
ceases to be able to perform them, 
those duties and functions shall be 
entrusted to the Office International 
d 'Hygiene Publique and the coun- 
tries signatory to this Protocol will, 
in that event, make appropriate 
financial provisions so as to enable 



Consid6rant qu'il est desirable 
de proroger ladite Convention de 
1944 au del de la date du 15 
juillet 1946 entre les Gouverne- 
ments qui y sont parties; 

Ont design^ leurs Plenipoten- 
tiaires respectifs, qui, apres avoir 
depose leurs pleins pouvoirs, trouves 
en bonne et due forme, sont con- 
venus de ce qui suit: 

Art. I. Sous reserve des stipula- 
tions de 1'article 2 du present 
Protocole, la Convention sanitaire 
internationale de 1944 portant modi- 
fication de la Convention sanitaire 
internationale du 21 juin 1926 de- 
meurera en vigueur, dater du 
15 juillet 1946, i regard des Gou- 
vernements parties au present Pro- 
tocole jusqu'au jour oft chacun 
desdits Gouvernements se trouvera 
Hi par une convention ulterieure 
modifiant ou remplagant ladite Con- 
vention de 1944 et ladite Convention 
de 1926. 

Art. 2. L'Administration des Na- 
tions Unies de Secours et de Res- 
tauration (dnommee ci-apres 
UNRRA) continuera & assumer les 
tftches et fonctions qui lui sont 
assignees par ladite Convention de 
1944, telle qu'elle est prorogue par le 
present Protocole, jusqu'au jour 
oti une nouvelle Organisation Inter- 
nationale d'Hygiene sera etablie, 
date 4 laquelle ces t&ches et fonc- 
tions seront transferees 4 ladite 
Organisation internationale d'Hy- 
giene et assumees par elle; toute- 
fois, si la nouvelle Organisation 
internationale d'Hygiene n'a pas 
encore et6 constitute, ou si, apres 
sa constitution, elle se trouve dans 
1'impossibilite de se charger des 
tftches et fonctions mentionn6es ci- 
dessus & la date & laquelle UNRRA, 
parce que ses activit6s en Europe 
ont pris fin ou pour toute autre 
raison, cessera d'etre en mesure 
de s'en charger, ces tiches et fonc- 
tions seront confiees & 1'Office inter- 
national d'Hygiene publique et, dans 
ce cas, les pays signataires du 



April 23, 1946 



SANITARY CONVENTION 



253 



the Office to perform those duties 
and functions. 



Art. 3. The present Protocol 
shall remain open for signature until 
May i, 1946. 

Art. 4. The present Protocol 
shall come into force when it has 
been signed without reservation in 
regard to ratification, or instru- 
ments of ratification have been 
deposited or notifications of acces- 
sion have been received on behalf of 
at least ten governments. The pres- 
ent Protocol shall come into force 
in respect of each of the other 
signatory Governments on the date 
of signature on its behalf, unless 
such signature is made with a reser- 
vation in regard to ratification, in 
which event the present Protocol 
shall come into force in respect of 
such Government on the date of the 
deposit of its instrument of ratifi- 
cation. 

Art. 5. After May I, 1946, the 
present Protocol shall be open to 
accession by any Government which 
is a party to the 1944 Convention 
and is not a signatory to the present 
Protocol. Each accession shall be 
notified in writing to the Govern- 
ment of the United States of 
America. 

Accessions notified on or before 
the date on which the present 
Protocol enters into force shall be 
effective as of that date. Acces- 
sions notified after the date of the 
entry into force of the present 
Protocol shall become effective in 
respect of each Government upon 
the date of the receipt of that 
Government's notification of ac- 
cession. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the un- 
dersigned Plenipotentiaries sign the 
present Protocol, on the date in- 
dicated opposite their respective 
signatures, in the English and French 
languages, both texts being equally 



present Protocole prendront les me- 
sures financi&res approprtees pour 
permettre 1'Office de remplir ces 
tUches et fonctions. 

Art. 3. Le present Protocole de- 
meurera ouvert & la signature jus- 
qu'au ler mai 1946. 

Art. 4. Le present Protocole en- 
trera en vigueur lorsqu'il aura et6 
sign sans reserve de ratification, pu 
lorsque des instruments de ratifi- 
cation auront ete dpos6s ou des 
notifications d 'adhesion regues au 
nom de dix Gouvernements au 
moins. Le present Protocole en- 
trera en vigueur & l'6gard de cha- 
cun des autres Gouvernements signa- 
taires la date de la signature en 
son nom, 4 moins que cette signature 
ne soit accompagn6e d'une reserve 
de ratification, auquel cas le present 
Protocole entrera en vigueur 
l'gand de ce Gouvernement la 
date du d6p6t de son instrument de 
ratification. 

Art. 5. Apres le ler mai 1946, le 
present Protocole sera ouvert 
I'adh6sion de tout Gouvernement 
partie la Convention de 1944 qui 
n'est pas signataire du present Pro- 
tocole. Chaque adhesion sera noti- 
fiee par 6crit au Gouvernement des 
Etats-Unis d'Am6rique. 

Les adhesions notifiees avant ou 
& la date de Tentr6e en vigueur du 
present Protocole deviendront ef- 
fectives & partir de cette date. 
Les adhesions notifies apres Ten- 
tre en vigueur du present Proto- 
cole deviendront effectives regard 
de chaque Gouvernement partir 
de la reception de la notification 
d'adhsion de ce Gouvernement. 

EN FOI DE QUOI, les P16nipo- 
tentiaires soussignes ont sign6 les 
textes anglais et frangais du pr6- 
sent Protocole, les deux versions 
faisant galement foi, la date 
figurant en regard de leurs signa- 



254 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION No. 644 

authentic, in a single original which tures respectives, en un seul ex- 
shall be deposited in the archives emplaire qui sera dpos6 aux ar- 
of the Government of the United chives du Gouvernement des Etats- 
States of America and of which certi- Unis d'Am6rique et dont des copies 
fied copies shall be furnished by the certifies conformes seront fournies 
Government of the United States of par le Gouvernement des Etats-Unis 
America to each of the signatory and d'Am^rique 4 chacun des Gouverne- 
acceding Governments and to each ments signataires et adherents et & 
of the Governments parties to the chacun des Gouvernements parties 
said 1944 Convention or the said & ladite Convention de 1944 et & 
1926 Convention. ladite Convention de 1926. 

Done at Washington this twenty- Fait Washington, le vingt- 

third day of April, 1946. troisteme jour d'avril 1946. 

[Signed:] For New Zealand: C. A. BERENDSEN, April 23, 1946; for Bel- 
gium: (Sous reserve de ratification.) SiLVERCRUYS, April 24, 1946; for Canada: 
LESTER B. PEARSON, April 25, 1946; for Nicaragua: ALBERTO SEVILLA 
SACASA, April 26, 1946; for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland : HALIFAX, April 29, 1946; for the United States of America : 
(Subject to ratification.) DEAN AcHEsoN, April 30, 1946; for Greece: P. Eco- 
NOMOU-GOURAS, April 30, 1946; for China: WEI TAO-MING, April 30, 1946; 
for Luxembourg: HUGUES LE GALLAIS, April 30, 1946; for Ecuador: (Subject 
to ratification.) L. N. PONCE, April 30, 1946; for Australia: (Subject to the reser- 
vations with which Australia acceded to the 1944 Convention to which this Protocol 
relates.^]) J. B. BRIGDEN, April 30, 1946; for Haiti: DANTES BELLEGARDE, 
April 30, 1946; for France: H. BONNET, April 30, 1946. 



No. 644 

INTERNATIONAL Sanitary Convention for Aerial Navigation. 
Opened for signature at Washington, December 15, 1944. 

CONVENTION sanitaire Internationale pour la navigation aerienne. 
Ouverte a la signature & Washington, 15 decembre 1944. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. This Convention was drafted by an Expert Commission on Quarantine 
established by the Subcommittee for Europe of the Standing Technical Committee on 
Health of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration Council. After 

1 [On April 3, 1945, the Australian Government acceded to the International Sanitary 
Convention, 1944, subject to the following reservations contained in note no. 156/45 dated 
Mar. 26, 1946, from the Australian Legation: 

(a) Under Article No. 24 the Australian Government declares that the Convention does 
not apply to the Territories of Papua and Norfolk Islands or the Mandated Territories of 
New Guinea and Nauru. 

(b) The Australian Government reserves the right in respect of certificates of inoculation 
against cholera, typhus, yellow fever and certificates of vaccination against smallpox, to 
accept only those certificates which are signed by a recognized official of the Public Health 
Services of the country concerned, and which carry within the text of the certificate an 
intimation of the office occupied by the person signing the certificate. 

(c) The Australian Government reserves full rights under Articles Nos. 7 and 9 of the 
1926 Convention, especially with reference to the last paragraph on the re-establishment of 
the Eastern Bureau or analogous agencies as regional bureau for Asia or the Pacific zone.] 



Dec. 15, 1944 SANITARY CONVENTION FOR AERIAL NAVIGATION 255 

its approval, with certain changes, by the Committee on Health, the Convention was 
approved "in principle" by the Second Session of the UNRRA Council held at Montreal, 
September 15-26, 1944; the final text, together with an explanatory resolution, was adopted 
by the Committee on Health at Washington, December 9, 1944. A protocol to prolong the 
duration of the Convention beyond July i, 1946, was opened for signature at Washington 
on April 23, 1946 (No. 644%, post). The World Health Organization, established under the 
Constitution of July 22, 1946, took over UNRRA's functions under this Convention on De- 
cember i, 1946. For the text of the 1933 convention which was modified by this Conven- 
tion, see No. 326, ante. For a companion convention amending the 1926 sanitary conven- 
tion, see No. 643, ante. A Pan American Sanitary Convention was signed at Habana, 
November 14, 1924 (No. 131, ante). 

RATIFICATIONS. On September i, 1948, this Convention had been signed without any 
reservation of ratification, or ratified, or acceded to, by Australia (with reservations), Bel- 
gium, Canada, China, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Great Britain (including 
certain British territories), Greece, Haiti, Honduras, India, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, 
New Zealand (with a reservation), Nicaragua, Poland, South Africa, Syria, Turkey, and the 
United States of America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The text of this Convention is also published in 16 U.N. Treaty Series, 
p. 247; British Treaty Series, No. 64 (1946), Cmd. 6999; Canada, Treaty Series, 1944, No. 
33; i UNRRA, Epidemiological Information Bulletin (1945), pp. 33-49, 69-84. For the 
declarations made by France and Egypt at the time of signature, see idem, pp. 85-100. For 
the 1944 text of the 1933 convention, see idem, pp. 179-204, 410-38. 

See also the bibliography under No. 643, ante. 

Entered into force January 15, 1945** 
Text from U.S. Treaty Series, No. 992. 

The Governments signatory hereto, Les Gouvernements signataires, 
Considering that the International Consid6rant que TOffice interna- 
Office of Public Health created by tional d 'Hygiene publique, cr66 par 
the Agreement signed at Rome on 1'accord sign6 Rome le 9 d6cembre 
December 9, 1907, is unable for the 1907, ne peut pour le moment 
time being to carry out effectively remplir effectivement toutes les 
all of the duties and functions t&ches et fonctions qui lui ont 6t6 
assigned to it in the Annex to that assignees par 1' Annexe de cet Accord, 
Agreement; in the International par la Convention sanitaire inter- 
Sanitary Convention, 1926; in the nationalede 1926, par la Convention 
International Sanitary Convention sanitaire internationale pour la Navi- 
for Aerial Navigation, 1933; and in gation arienne de 1933 et par 
other Conventions or Agreements d'autres Conventions ou Accords 
relating to the public health; ayant rapport 4 1'hygtene publique; 
Having entrusted the task of Ayant conform6ment 4 la r6so- 
solving this temporary problem by lution No. 8 (2) adoptee lors de sa 
the preparation of emergency agree- premiere session par le Conseil de 
ments and arrangements for the 1' Administration des Nations Unies 
notification of epidemic diseases de Secours et de Restauration (d6- 
and for uniformity in quarantine nomm6e ci-aprs UNRRA), confi6 
regulations to the United Nations & 1'UNRRA la tSche de r6soudre 
Relief and Rehabilitation Adminis- ce probteme temporaire en 61abo- 
tration (hereinafter referred to as rant, titre de mesures d'urgence, 
UNRRA), in accordance with Reso- des accords et arrangements pour 

1 Filed with the Secretariat of the United Nations, No. 106, June 23, 1948. 



2 5 6 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 644 



lution No. 8 (2) adopted by the 
Council of UNRRA at its First 
Session, without prejudice however 
to the status of the International 
Office of Public Health which it is 
hoped will be able at the expiry of 
the present Convention to resume 
the above-mentioned duties and 
functions; and having received the 
recommendations of UNRRA in 
this connection ; 

Having agreed that, in regard 
to the American Republics, the 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau shall 
continue to act as the general co- 
ordinating sanitary agency, includ- 
ing the general collection and dis- 
tribution of sanitary information 
to and from the said Republics, as 
specified in the Pan American Sani- 
tary Code and recognized heretofore 
by the International Office of Public 
Health; 



Desiring also to modify as be- 
tween themselves the provisions 
of the International Sanitary Con- 
vention for Aerial Navigation signed 
at The Hague on April 12, 1933 
(hereinafter referred to as the ipjj 
Convention) in the light of the 
present-day conditions which call 
for special measures to prevent the 
spread by air across frontiers of 
epidemic or other communicable 
diseases; 

Have decided to conclude a Con- 
vention for these purposes, have 
agreed that, whereas the authentic 
text of the 1933 Convention is in 
the French language, the present 
Convention shall be in English and 
in French, both texts being equally 
authentic, and have accordingly 
appointed the undersigned plenipo- 
tentiaries who, having communi- 
cated their full powers, found in good 
and due form, have agreed that the 
1933 Convention shall be amended 
as follows: 



la notification des maladies pi- 
dmiques ainsi que pour 1'unifor- 
misation des mesures de quaran- 
taine, sans porter atteinte au statut 
de 1'Office international d'Hygi&ie 
publique qui, il est permis de 
1'esperer, pourra, a 1'expiration de 
la prsente Convention, reprendre 
les taches et fonctions mention- 
n6es ci-dessus; et ayant regu les 
recommandations de V UNRRA a 
ce sujet; 

Ayant convenu que, a l'6gard 
des Rpubliques am6ricaines, le Bu- 
reau sanitaire panam6ricain jouera, 
comme par le pass, le r61e d'organe 
g6n6ral de coordination en mattere 
sanitaire, notamment pour la reunion 
et la distribution g6n6rales d'in- 
formations sanitaires qui provien- 
nent desdites R6publiques ou leur 
sont destinies, ainsi qu'il est sp6cifi 
dans le Code sanitaire panamricain 
et comme cela a t6 accept^ jusqu'ici 
par 1'Office international d'Hygtene 
publique; 

Dsirant aussi modifier, en ce 
qui les concerne, les dispositions de 
la Convention sanitaire Interna- 
tionale pour la Navigation arienne 
signe la Haye le 12 avril 1933 
(dnom6e ci-aprs la Convention de 
JPJj)t pour tenir cpmpte des condi- 
tions actuelles qui ncessitent des 
mesures sp6ciales pour empecher 
la propagation des maladies 6pi- 
dmiques ou autres maladies con- 
tagieuses par la voie des airs a 
travers les frontteres ; 

Ont d6cid6 de conclure une Con- 
vention a cette fin, sont convenus 
que, alors que le texte authentique 
de la Convention de 1933 est r6dig 
en langue francaise, la pr6sente 
Convention sera r6dig6e en anglais 
et en francais, les deux textes faisant 
6galement foi, et ont en consequence 
dsign les p!6nipotentiaires sous- 
signls qui, s'gtant communique leurs 
pleins pouvoirs, trouvds en bonne et 
due forme, sont convenus que la 
Convention sanitaire internationale 
de 1933 sera modifie ainsi qu'il suit: 



Dec. 15, 1944 SANITARY CONVENTION FOR AERIAL NAVIGATION 



257 



ARTICLE i ARTICLE i 

All references in the 1933 Con- Toute reference & 1'Office inter- 



vention to the International Office 
of Public Health shall be read as 
references to UNRRA. 



ARTICLE 2 

The second paragraph of Article 
i, subparagraph VI, shall be deleted 
and the following substituted: 

The word surveillance means that 
persons are not isolated, that they 
may move about freely, but that the 
sanitary authorities of the place or 
places to which they are proceeding 
are notified of their coming. They 
may be subjected in the places of 
arrival to a medical examination 
and such inquiries as are necessary 
with a view to ascertaining their 
state of health; and, in any territory 
where the competent Contracting 
Party thinks fit, surveillance may 
include requirement to report on 
arrival and afterwards at such in- 
tervals during continuance of sur- 
veillance as may be specified, to 
the Health Officer of the city, 
town, district, or place to which 
they proceed. 



ARTICLE 3 

To Article i the following defini- 
tions shall be added : 

VIII. The term typhus, typhus 
fever, or exanthematous typhus shall 
be deemed to relate only to epi- 
demic louse-borne typhus. 

IX. An endemic yellow fever area 
is a region in which yellow fever 
exists in a form recognizable clini- 
cally, biologically, or pathologically. 



X. A valid anti-yellow fever inoc- 
ulation certificate is one certifying 
that the bearer has been inoculated 
against yellow fever, with a vaccine 



national d'Hygtene publique con- 
tenue dans la Convention de 1933 
sera consid6re comme une r6fe- 
rence 1'UNRRA. 

ARTICLE 2 

Au deuxilme paragraphe de V Ar- 
ticle ler, alinia VI, substituer ce 
qui suit: 

Le mot surveillance signifie que 
les personnes ne sont pas isoles, 
qu'elles obtiennent tout de suite 
la libre pratique, mais que 1'auto- 
rit6 sanitaire de la locality ou 
des localitfes oft elles se rendent est 
prvenue de leur arriv6e. Elles 
pourront tre soumises au lieu d'ar- 
riv6e k un examen medical, et Ton 
pourra leur poser les questions 
nteessaires la constatation de 
leur 6tat de sant6. Dans tout 
territoire oil la Partie Contrac- 
tante comptente le juge ntees- 
saire, la surveillance peut com- 
prendre 1'obligation de se presenter, 
lors de l'arrive, et ensuite inter- 
valles fixes pendant la dur6e de la 
surveillance, devant 1'Officier de 
sant6 de la ville, de la region ou de 
1'endroit oft les int6resss se rendent. 

ARTICLE 3 

A r Article ler ajouter les d6fini- 
tions suivantes: 

VIII. Les termes typhus, typhus 
febrile et typhus exanthimatique seront 
consid6rs comme ne se rapportant 
qu'au typhus 6pidmique transmis 
par les poux. 

IX. Une zone ffendimiciti de la 
fi^vre jaune est une region dans la- 
quelle la fidvre jaune existe sous une 
forme qui peut tre d6ce!6e par des 
signes cliniques, biologiques ou ana- 
tomo-pathologiques. 

X. Un certificat valable de vac- 
cination contre la fibvre jaune est un 
certificat attestant que le porteur a 
t6 vaccin6 contre la fi&vre jaune par 



258 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 644 



and by a method approved by 
UNRRA, if there have elapsed: 

(1) More than 10 days and less 
than 4 years from the date of the 
inoculation. 

(2) Less than 4 years from the 
date of a re-inoculation performed 
within 4 years of the previous 
inoculation. 

(3) More than 10 days and less 
than 4 years from the date of re- 
inoculation performed after an in- 
terval of more than 4 years. 

XI. The term Stegomyia (Aedes 
aegypti) shall be deemed to include 
A&des aegypti and any potential 
mosquito vectors of yellow fever. 



ARTICLE 4 

Article 9 shall be deleted and the 
following substituted : 

(i) All passengers traveling by 
aircraft on international flight shall, 
on or just before arrival at the 
point of final disembarkation, or, 
if required, at any aerodrome where 
the journey is broken, complete a 
Personal Declaration of Origin and 
Health. 



(2) The Commander of an air- 
craft on international flight shall, 
on or just before the arrival of the 
aircraft at the first authorized aero- 
drome in the country of entry, 
complete an Aircraft Declaration 
of Health to be handed to the aero- 
drome authority on arrival, and 
may be required to produce certifi- 
cates concerning sanitary measures 
which such Declaration states were 
undergone by the aircraft before 
departure or at stopping places in 
application of the 1933 Convention 
as hereby amended. 

(3) Aircraft shall not be required 
to carry Bills of Health. 

(4) The Contracting Parties will, 



un vaccin et au moyen d'une 
thode approuv6e par 1'UNRRA, s'il 
s'est 6coul6: 

(1) Plus de dix jours et moins de 
quatre ans depuis la date de la 
vaccination. 

(2) Moins de quatre ans depuis la 
date d'une revaccination pratiqu6e 
dans les quatre ans suivant la vac- 
cination prc6dente. 

(3) Plus de dix jours et moins de 
quatre ans depuis la date d'une 
revaccination pratique apr&s un 
intervalle de plus de quatre ans. 

XI. Le terme Stegomyia (Aedes 
aegypti) sera consid6r6 comme com- 
prenant Aedes aegypti et tous autres 
moustiques susceptibles d'etre des 
vecteurs de fivre jaune. 

ARTICLE 4 
A V Article Q substituer ce qui suit: 

(1) Les passagers faisant par 
a6ronef un voyage international 
devront, soit 1'arriv^e, soit imm- 
diatement avant I'arriv6e au point 
terminal de leur voyage, ou, s'ils 
en sont requis, tout aerodrome ou 
le voyage est interrompu, remplir une 
declaration personnelle d'origine et 
de sant6. 

(2) Le Commandant d'un a6ronef 
effectuant un voyage international 
devra, l'arrive ou immdiatement 
avant l'arrive au premier a6ro- 
drome autoris6 du pays ou il pntre, 
remplir une declaration de sant 
d'a6ronef qu'il remettra aux au- 
torits de l'arodrome d&s son ar- 
riv6e. II peut tre requis de pro- 
duire des certificats concernant les 
mesures sanitaires auxquelles, 
d'apr&s la declaration, a t soumis 
I'a6ronef avant le depart ou & des 
points d'arrgt, en application de la 
Convention de 1933, telle qu'elle a 
6t6 modifi6e par la prsente Con- 
vention. 

(3) Les a6ronefs ne seront pas 
tenus d'gtre munis d'une patente de 
sante. 

(4) Les Parties Contractantes 



Dec. 15, 1944 SANITARY CONVENTION FOR AERIAL NAVIGATION 



259 



so far as possible, adopt the Inter- 
national Forms of Aircraft Declara- 
tion of Health, Personal Declaration 
of Origin and Health, and Certifi- 
cates of Inoculation or Vaccination 
against cholera, typhus, and small- 
pox, respectively, annexed hereto.* 

ARTICLE 5 

To Article 13 the following shall 
be added : 

Further, the embarkation of per- 
sons who do not present adequate 
sanitary guarantees may be pro- 
hibited, until the sanitary measures 
delousing, disinfection of clothing, 
etc., or any other measures that are, 
in the opinion of the sanitary author- 
ity, necessary to prevent the carriage 
of the disease by aircraft, have been 
carried out. 

ARTICLE 6 

To Article 16 after "sanitary 
measures' 1 at the end of the first 
paragraph the words " including 
cleansing" shall be added. 

ARTICLE 7 

Article 20 shall be deleted and 
the following substituted : 

(1) Each Contracting Party shall 
immediately notify, by the most 
rapid means, the other Contracting 
Parties and UNRRA of: 

(a) The first recognized case of 
plague, cholera, or yellow fever dis- 
covered in its territory. 

(b) The first recognized case of 
plague, cholera, or yellow fever 
which occurs outside the limits of 
local areas already affected. 

(c) The existence of an epidemic 
of typhus or of smallpox. 

(2) Every notification prescribed 
above shall be accompanied, or 
very promptly followed, by de- 
tailed information as to: 

(a) The place where the disease 
has appeared. 



adopteront, autant que possible, les 
modules internationaux de dclara- 
tion de sant6 d'a6ronef, de d^clara- 
tion personnelle d'origine et de sant6 
et chacun des certificats de vaccina- 
tion contre le cholera, le typhus et la 
variole annexes ci-apr&s.* 

ARTICLE 5 
A I' Article 13 ajouter ce qui suit: 

En outre, 1'embarquement de per- 
sonnes ne pr6sentant pas de garanties 
sanitaires suffisantes peut etre inter- 
dit jusqu'i. ce qu'aient t6 prises 
les mesures sanitaires 6pouillement, 
disinfection des vetements, etc., ou 
toutes autres mesures qui, de 1'avis 
des autorit^s sanitaires, seraient n- 
cessaires pour prvenir la propagation 
de la maladie par aronef. 

ARTICLE 6 

A V Article 16, ajouter a la fin du 
premier paragraphe, apr&s les mots 
" mesures sanitaires approprtees" 
les mots "y compris le nettoyage". 

ARTICLE 7 

A I 9 Article 20, substituer ce qui 
suit: 

(1) Chaque Partie Contractante 
notifiera, sans dlai et par les voies 
les plus rapides, aux autres Parties 
Contractantes et & 1'UNRRA: 

(a) Le premier cas de peste, de 
cholera ou de fidvre jaune constat6 
sur son territoire. 

(b) Le premier cas constat6 de 
peste, de cholera ou de fivre jaune 
apparaissant en dehors des limites 
des zones d6j affect6es. 

(c) L 'existence d'une pid6mie de 
typhus ou de variole. 

(2) Chacune des notifications 
prescrites ci-dessus devra tre ac- 
compagne ou suivie dans le plus 
bref d61ai d f informations d6tai!16es 
sur les points suivants: 

(a) Lieu d 'apparition de la ma- 
ladie. 



* With regard to yellow fever see Article 11 (6). 

* Pour ce qui est de la ftevre jaune, voir Article u (6). 



260 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 644 



(b) The date of its appearance, 
its source, and its type (including 
reports of pathological examinations 
as soon as available). 

(c) The number of recognized 
cases and the number of deaths. 

(d) The extent of the local area 
or areas affected. 

(e) In the case of plague, the 
existence of that disease, or of an 
unusual mortality, among rodents 
(including reports of bacteriological 
examinations as soon as available). 

(/) In the case of cholera, the 
number of germ carriers when any 
have been discovered. 

(g) In the case of yellow fever, 
the presence and relative prevalence 
(index) of Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti). 

(A) The measures taken. 

(3) Each Contracting Party shall, 
in addition to the diseases specifi- 
cally mentioned in Article 18 of the 
1933 Convention, to wit, plague, 
cholera, yellow fever, typhus, and 
smallpox, notify outbreaks of such 
other communicable diseases as, in 
the opinion of UNRRA, constitute a 
menace to other countries by their 
spread or potential spread across 
frontiers and shall keep UNRRA 
regularly informed of the course of 
the disease. 

(4) In addition to the formal noti- 
fication required by paragraphs (i), 
(2), and (3) above, the Contracting 
Parties shall, so far as possible, send 
to UNRRA at regular intervals noti- 
fications of other communicable dis- 
eases notified in their countries. 

(5) The Contracting Parties shall 
make the necessary arrangements 
with UNRRA for giving prompt in- 
formation to all the governments 
concerned of the outbreak in any 
country of a disease which, in the 
opinion of UNRRA, constitutes a 
menace to other countries and of the 
measures which are being taken to 
prevent the spread of the disease 
across frontiers by aircraft. 

(6) The notifications contem- 



(V) Date de son apparition, sa 
source et son type (y compris des 
comptes rendus d'examens anatomo- 
pathologiques, dds qu'on en dis- 
posera). 

(c) Nombre des cas constates et 
nombre des d6cs. 

(d) Etendue de la ou des zones 
affecttes. 

(e) Dans le cas de la peste, existence 
de la maladie ou d'une mortality anor- 
male parmi les rongeurs (y compris 
des comptes rendus d'examens bac- 
t6riologiques, ds qu'on en disposera). 

(/) Dans le cas du cho!6ra, nombre 
de porteurs de germes s'il en a t 
dcouvert. 

(g) Dans le cas de la fivre jaune, 
presence ou pr6 valence relative (in- 
dice) de Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti). 

(h) Mesures prises. 

(3) Chaque Partie Contractante 
doit, en plus des maladies vis6es 
spcifiquement 2t 1'Article 18 de la 
Convention de 1933, savoir: la 
peste, le cholera, la fivre jaune, le 
typhus et la variole, notifier I'appa- 
rition de toute autre maladie con- 
tagieuse qui, de 1'avis de 1'UNNRA, 
constitue une menace pour d'autres 
pays, par leur propagation ou la 
possibility de leur propagation 
travers les frontteres et doit tenir 
TUNRRA rgulirement au courant 
du dveloppement de la maladie. 

(4) Outre la notification formelle 
exige par les paragraphes (i), (2) et 
(3) ci-dessus, les Parties Contrac- 
tantes doivent, autant que possible, 
notifier p6riodiquement & 1'UNRRA 
les autres maladies contagieuses 
constat6es dans leurs pays. 

(5) Les Parties Contractantes 
feront avec 1'UNRRA les arrange- 
ments ncessaires pour tenir rapi- 
dement inform6s tous les gouverne- 
ments int6ress6s de I'apparition dans 
leur pays respectif d'une maladie 
qui, de Tavis de TUNRRA, constitue 
un danger pour d'autres pays, ainsi 
que des mesures en cours d'ex6cution 
pour en empficher 1'extension par 
a^ronef & travers les fronti&res. 

(6) Les notifications envisages 



Dec. 15, 1944 SANITARY CONVENTION FOR AERIAL NAVIGATION 



261 



plated in paragraphs (i) and (2) 
of this Article are to be addressed 
to the diplomatic missions, or, failing 
them, to consular offices in the capi- 
tal of the infected country and shall 
be held at the disposition of consular 
offices established in its territory. 

(7) These notifications shall also 
be addressed to UNRRA which 
shall communicate them immedi- 
ately to all diplomatic missions, or, 
failing them, to the consulates in 
London or Washington as well as to 
the principal public health authori- 
ties of the participating countries. 
Those prescribed under paragraphs 
(i) and (2) of this Article shall be 
transmitted by telegraph or radio. 

(8) The appropriate health au- 
thority of each Contracting Party 
shall transmit to the sanitary and 
authorized aerodromes of its coun- 
try or within its jurisdiction all 
information contained in the epide- 
miological notifications and commu- 
nications received from UNRRA (and 
the regional bureaus with which it 
has made agreements for this pur- 
pose) in execution of the provisions 
of the International Sanitary Con- 
vention of June 21, 1926 which may 
affect the exercise of sanitary control 
in those aerodromes. 



(9) In order to facilitate the 
prompt and scrupulous fulfilment of 
the foregoing provisions, the Con- 
tracting Parties shall ensure priority 
for all communications which may 
enable UNRRA rapidly to appraise 
the situation concerning the out- 
break of a disease and to inform gov- 
ernments in order that they may 
take appropriate measures against 
the spread of the disease across their 
frontiers. 



ARTICLE 8 

The second paragraph of Article 
32 shall be deleted. 



dans les paragraphes (i) et (2) du 
present Article devront Stre adres- 
ses aux missions diplomatiques ou, 
& leur dfaut, aux bureaux con- 
sulaires tablis dans la capitate du 
pays infect6, et seront mises la 
disposition des bureaux consulaires 
tablis sur son territoire. 

(7) Ces notifications seront 6ga- 
lement adresses 1'UNRRA, qui 
les communiquera imm6diatement 
& toutes les missions diplomatiques 
ou, & leur dfaut, aux consulate 
Londres ou Washington, ainsi 
qu'aux principales autorit6s sani- 
taires des pays participant la 
Convention. Les notifications pre- 
scrites par les paragraphes (i) et 
(2) du present Article devront fetre 
adresses par t16gramme ou radio. 

(8) L'autorite sanitaire appro- 
prtee de chaque Partie Contrac- 
tante transmettra aux aerodromes 
sanitaires et autoriss, situs sur le 
territoire ou relevant de la juridic- 
tion de la Partie Contractante, 
toutes les informations contenues 
dans les notifications 6pid6miolo- 
giques et les communications regues 
de FUNRRA (ainsi que des bureaux 
r6gionaux avec lesquels des accords 
ont 6t conclus cet effet), en excu- 
tion des dispositions de la Conven- 
tion sanitaire internationale du 21 
juin 1926, si ces informations peu- 
vent affecter 1'exercice du contrdle 
sanitaire dans ces aerodromes. 

(9) Afin de faciliter le prompt et 
scrupuleux accomplissement des dis- 
positions prc6dentes, les Parties 
Contractantes accorderont priority 
toutes communications suscepti- 
bles de permettre & 1'UNRRA de 
juger rapidement la situation r- 
sultant de 1'apparition d'une de ces 
maladies et d'informer les gouverne- 
ments afin qu'ils puissent prendre les 
mesures ncessaires pour combattre 
la propagation de la maladie & tra- 
vers leurs frontferes. 

ARTICLE 8 

Supprimer le deuxi&me paragraphe 
de I* Article 32. 



262 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 644 



ARTICLE 9 

In Article 34, paragraph (ft), the 
following shall be inserted after sub- 
paragraph (3): 

(4) The Contracting Parties shall 
give favorable consideration to the 
inoculation against typhus of all 
persons on board exposed to risk. 



Sub-paragraphs (4) and (5) of 
Article 34 shall be renumbered (5) 
and (6) respectively. 

ARTICLE 10 

Article 35 (ft) (j) shall be deleted 
and the following substituted : 

(3) Other persons reasonably sus- 
pected to have been exposed to 
infection and who, in the opinion of 
the sanitary authority, are not 
sufficiently protected by recent vac- 
cination, or by a previous attack of 
smallpox, may be subjected to vac- 
cination or to observation or to sur- 
veillance, or to vaccination followed 
by observation or surveillance, the 
period of observation or surveillance 
being specified according to the cir- 
cumstances, but in any event not 
exceeding 14 days, reckoned from 
the date of arrival of the aircraft. 

The final paragraph of Article 35 
shall be deleted and the following 
substituted : 

For the purpose of this Article 
"recent vaccination' 1 shall be taken 
as meaning evidence of successful 
vaccination not more than 3 years or 
less than 14 days previously, or evi- 
dence of an immune reaction. 



ARTICLE n 

Article 36 shall be deleted and 
the following substituted : 

The Contracting Parties agree: 

(i) That persons ^suffering, or 
suspected to be suffering, from yel- 



ARTICLE 9 

A V Article 34, paragraphe (ft), 
aprfts I'alin6a (3) insurer ce qui suit: 

(4) Les Parties Contractantes 
examineront favorablement la pos- 
sibilit de faire vacciner contre le 
typhus toutes les personnes se trou- 
vant bord qui seraient exposes au 
danger de contamination. 

Les alinias (4) et (5) de V Article 

34 porteront respectivement les nu- 
meros (5) et (6). 

ARTICLE 10 

A V Article J5(ft) (j), substituer 
ce qui suit: 

(3) Toute personne que, juste 
raison, Ton suspecte d'avoir te 
expos6e 1'infection et qui, de 1'avis 
de I'autorit6 sanitaire, n'est pas 
suffisamment protge par une vac- 
cination recente ou par une attaque 
ant6rieure dc variole, peut etre 
soumise soit la vaccination, ou 
1'observation, ou & la surveillance, 
soit & la vaccination suivie d 'ob- 
servation ou de surveillance, la 
duree de 1'observation pu de la sur- 
veillance tant fix6e suivant les cir- 
constances, mais ne devant en aucun 
cas depasser quatorze jours dater 
de I'arriv6e de Pa6ronef. 

Au dernier paragraphe de r Article 

35 substituer ce qui suit: 

Pour 1'application du pr6sent Arti- 
cle, 1'expression "vaccination r- 
cente" sera consid6r6e comme signi- 
fiant que preuve a t6 fournie d'une 
vaccination faite avec succes au 
moins quatorze jours et pas plus de 
trois ans auparavant; ou que preuve 
a 6t6 fournie que le porteur prsente 
une reaction d'immunit. 

ARTICLE n 

A V Article 36 substituer ce qui 
suit: 

Les Parties Contractantes con- 
viennent que: 

(i) Les personnes atteintes, ou 
souponnes d'etre atteintes de 



Dec. 15, 1944 SANITARY CONVENTION FOR AERIAL NAVIGATION 



263 



low fever shall not be allowed to 
embark on aircraft on international 
flight. 

(2) That they will take all pos- 
sible measures to establish the exist- 
ence or non-existence of yellow fever 
within their territories. For this 
purpose, in territories where en- 
demicity of yellow fever is suspected, 
in cases where the person dies within 
10 days from the onset of any un- 
diagnosed febrile illness, it is impor- 
tant that a specimen of liver tissue be 
taken, if necessary by viscerotome, 
for histopathological examination. 
In endemic areas a sample of blood 
for a yellow fever immunity test 
should, in addition, wherever possi- 
ble, be taken from all persons suffer- 
ing from an undiagnosed fever, and 
if the cause of the fever remains 
doubtful and the patient recovers, a 
second sample should be collected at 
the end of the third week from the 
onset of illness. 



(3) For the purpose of quarantine 
control, UNRRA in consultation 
with the governments concerned 
and, as regards the Western Hemi- 
sphere, with the Pan American Sani- 
tary Bureau, shall define the bound- 
aries of endemic yellow fever areas. 

(4) That they shall use their best 
endeavors to secure that all persons 
who are likely to land in an endemic 
yellow fever area shall be inoculated 
against yellow fever 10 days before 
arrival in the area and that, so long 
as such persons remain in the area, 
they shall be re-inoculated every 4 
years. 

(5) (0) That inoculation against 
yellow fever shall be required for all 
regular staff employees and crews 
using authorized aerodromes situ- 
ated in endemic yellow fever areas. 

(b) That in areas in which yellow 
fever does not exist, but in which 
there may be conditions permitting 



ftevre jaune, ne pourront tre ad- 
mises s'embarquer & bord d'un 
aronef pour un voyage international. 

(2) Les Parties Contractantes 
prendront toutes les mesures pos- 
sibles pour 6tablir 1'existence ou 
la non-existence de la fivre jaune 
sur leurs territoires. A cette fin, 
dans les territoires ou Ton suspecte 
la presence de la fteyre jaune l'tat 
enctemique, s'il existe des cas de 
malades mourant dans les dix jours 
apr&s le d6but d'une maladie febrile 
non diagnostiqu6e, il est important 
qu'un specimen des tissus du foie 
soit prlev6, si n6cessaire par vis- 
crptomie, pour examen histopatho- 
logique. En outre, dans les zones 
d'end6micit, on fera, si possible, un 
prlvement de sang pour rechercher 
la reaction d'immunite la fivre 
jaune sur chaque personne atteinte 
d'une fivre non diagnostique; si la 
cause de la fifevre reste douteuse, et si 
le malade gurit, un second prlve- 
ment de sang devrait tre fait la fin 
de la troisi&me semaine partir du 
d6but de la maladie. 

(3) Aux fins de 1'application du 
regime de quarantaine, 1'UNRRA 
devra, en consultation avec les 
gouvernements int6resss, et, en ce 
qui concerne rhmisphre occidental, 
avec le Bureau d'hygi&ne panamri- 
cain, delimiter les zones ou la fivre 
jaune existe & l'6tat end6mique. 

(4) Les Parties Contractantes 
s'efforceront de veiller & ce que toutes 
personnes qui pourraient tre appeles 
atterrir dans une zone d'end6micit6 
de la fi&vre jaune soient vaccines 
contre la fi&vre jaune dix jours avant 
Tarriv6e dans cette zone et ensuite 
revaccin6es tous les quatre ans aussi 
longtemps qu'elles y sjourneront. 

(5) (a) La vaccination contre la 
ftevre jaune sera obligatpire pour 
tout le personnel ordinaire et les 
Equipages utilisant des aerodromes 
autorisSs situ6s dans les zones d'en- 
dfrnicite de la ftevre jaune. 

(ft) Dans les regions ou la ftevre 
jaune n'existe pas, mais ou les condi- 
tions de son dveloppement existent, 



264 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 644 



of its development, inoculation of 
such personnel is recommended. 

(6) That all persons inoculated in 
compliance with the provisions of 
paragraphs (4) and (5) of this Article 
shall be furnished with and carry an 
Inoculation Certificate signed by the 
officer carrying out the inoculation. 
This certificate shall conform to the 
International Form of Certificate of 
Inoculation against yellow fever 
annexed hereto. 

(7) That persons in possession of 
a valid anti-yellow fever inoculation 
certificate shall not for the purpose 
of the control of yellow fever be sub- 
jected to quarantine restrictions. 

(8) That in place of a valid anti- 
yellow fever inoculation certificate, a 
certificate that the bearer has re- 
covered from an attack of yellow 
fever and that his blood contains 
immune bodies against yellow fever, 
as proved by a test carried out by an 
institute regularly carrying out bi- 
ological tests for yellow fever and 
approved for this purpose by the 
government of the country con- 
cerned, will be accepted. 

(9) That any person not in pos- 
session of a valid anti-yellow fever 
inoculation certificate shall be con- 
sidered to have been exposed to the 
risk of contracting yellow fever dur- 
ing the period of his stay in an en- 
demic yellow fever area. 

(10) That UNRRA shall lay down 
standards with which yellow fever 
vaccine shall conform. 

(11) That they will make ar- 
rangements to test at frequent inter- 
vals the activity of the yellow fever 
immunizing vaccine in use in order 
to ensure that its immunizing prop- 
erties are satisfactory, and for this 
purpose agree that UNRRA in con- 
sultation with the governments con- 
cerned and, as regards the Western 
Hemisphere, with the Pan American 
Sanitary Bureau, shall designate 
from time to time institutes which 
are approved for the carrying out of 
such tests. 



la vaccination de ce personnel et des 
Equipages est recommande. 

(6) Toutes les personnes yac- 
cin6es en execution des dispositions 
des paragraphes (4) et (5) du present 
Article seront munies d'un certificat 
de vaccination sign6 par 1'agent ayant 
effectu6 la vaccination et devront en 
fitre porteurs. Ce certificat doit gtre 
conforme au module international de 
certificat de vaccination contre la 
fi&vre jaune annex6e ci-aprs. 

(7) Les personnes en possession 
d'un certificat valable de vaccina- 
tion contre la fifevre jaune ne seront 
pas soumises aux restrictions de 
quarantine institutes pour com- 
battre la fi&vre jaune. 

(8) A dfaut d'un certificat va- 
lable de vaccination contre la fi&vre 
jaune, on acceptera un certificat 
attestant que le porteur est remis 
d'un acc&s de fi&vre jaune et que son 
sang contient des anti-corps contre 
la fi&vre jaune, la preuve en ayant 
6t faite par 1'emploi d'un test ap- 
pliqud par un institut executant 
habituellement des tests biologiques 
de ftevre jaune et agr6 & cet effet par 
le gouvernement du pays int6ress!. 

(9) Toute personne ne poss6dant 
pas un certificat valable de vaccina- 
tion contre la ftevre jaune sera con- 
sid6r6e comme ayant 6t expose au 
risque de contagion pendant la dure 
de son sjour dans une zone d'end6- 
micit6 de la fi&vre jaune. 

(10) L'UNRRA 6tablira les stan- 
dards auxquels le vaccin contre la 
fiSvre jaune devra rpondre. 

(n) Les Parties Contractantes 
prendront des dispositions pour v6ri- 
fier de fr6quents intervalles 1'effica- 
citfe du vaccin d'immunisation en 
usage contre la fi&vre jaune. A cette 
fin, 1'UNRRA dSsignera de temps & 
autre, en consultation avec les gou- 
vernements int6ress6s, et, en ce qui 
concerne I'h6misphre occidental, 
avec le Bureau d'hygi&ne pan- 
amricain, les instituts qui seront 
agr66s pour procder ces v6rifi- 
cations. 



Dec. 15, 1944 SANITARY CONVENTION FOR AERIAL NAVIGATION 



26 5 



ARTICLE 12 

Article 38 shall be deleted and the 
following substituted : 

Notwithstanding Article 4 of the 
1933 Convention, every aerodrome 
which receives aircraft to which the 
1933 Convention as amended applies 
(Article I, I, second paragraph) and 
which is situated in a region, that is 
to say, a part of a territory, in which 
yellow fever exists in a form clin- 
ically, biologically, or pathologically 
recognizable shall be made a sanitary 
aerodrome as defined in the 1933 
Convention, and in addition, shall 
be: 



(1) situated at an adequate dis- 
tance from the nearest inhabited 
center;* 

(2) provided with arrangements 
for a water supply completely pro- 
tected against mosquitoes, and kept 
as free as possible from mosquitoes 
by systematic measures for the sup- 
pression of breeding places and the 
destruction of the insects in all stages 
of development; 

(3) provided with mosquito- 
proofed dwellings for the crews of 
the aircraft and for the staff of the 
aerodrome; 

(4) provided with a mosquito- 
proofed dwelling in which passen- 
gers can be accommodated or hos- 
pitalized. 

With a view to the elimination of 
insect vectors of yellow fever, the 
Contracting Parties will render and 
maintain free from such vectors 
(a) aerodromes and their surround- 
ings in endemic yellow fever areas, 



ARTICLE 12 

A V Article 38, substituer ce qui 
suit: 

Nonobstant TArticle 4 de la Con- 
vention de 1933, tout aerodrome re- 
cevant un a6ronef auquel s'applique 
la Convention de 1933, telle qu'elle 
a 6t6 modifi6e par la prsente Con- 
vention (Article I, I, deuxteme para- 
graphe), et qui est situ dans une 
region (c'est-&-dire une partie d'un 
territoire) oft la fivre jaune existe 
sous une forme cliniquement, bio- 
logiquement ou anatomo-patholo- 
giquement d6celable, sera d6sign 
comme un aerodrome sanitaire, selon 
la definition de la Convention de 
I 933 et devra en outre: 

(1) tre situ6 i une distance 
adequate des lieux habitus les plus 
proches;* 

(2) 6tre pourvu d'un syst&me 
d'approvisionnement en eau com- 
ptetement prot6g6 contre les mous- 
tiques, et 6tre maintenu autant que 
possible libre de moustiques par des 
mesures systmatiques de suppres- 
sion des nids d'incubation et de 
destruction des insectes tous les 
stades de leur d6veloppement; 

(3) tre pourvu d'habitations a 
l'6preuve des moustiques pour les 
Equipages et le personnel de I'a6ro- 
drome; 

(4) 6tre pourvu d'habitations 
l'preuve des moustiques pour le 
logement et 1'hospitalisation des 
passagers. 

Afin d'6Hminer les insectes vec- 
teurs de la fifevre jaune, les Parties 
Contractantes rendront et main- 
tiendront libres de ces insectes: 
(a) les aerodromes et leurs environs 
dans les zones d'endmicit6 de la 



* For the purpose of mosquito control the perimeter of the aerodrome should be defined 
as the line enclosing the area containing the aerodrome buildings and any land used or 
intended to be used for the parking of aircraft. A building-free zone of 400 meters should be 
maintained around the perimeter of all aerodromes on main air lines of communications 
within endemic yellow fever areas. 

* Pour tout ce qui concerne la lutte contre les moustiques, le p6rimetre de 1'aerodrome 
sera de'fini comme la ligne qui circonscrit la zone ou se trouvent les batiments de I'aeVodrome 
et tout terrain utjlisl ou susceptible d'etre utilise^ pour le stationnement des a6ronefs. Une 
zone non construite de 400 metres doit &tre maintenue autour du p6rimetre de tout aro- 
drome situ sur les grandes lignes de communication aeriennes et qui se trouve dans une 
zone d'endemicitS de la fievre jaune. 



266 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 644 



and (b) aerodromes not situated in 
endemic yellow fever areas but ex- 
posed to the risk of the introduction 
of the disease. 

As an immediate precaution 
against the carriage of vectors of 
yellow fever, disinsectization of 
aircraft shall be carried out at each 
aerodrome within an endemic yellow 
fever area, particularly on departure 
from the last aerodrome in an en- 
demic yellow fever area. 

Health authorities in any territory 
within an endemic yellow fever area 
shall be at liberty to impose such 
quarantine restrictions against other 
territories within that area as may 
be authorized by the 1933 Conven- 
tion as hereby amended. Detention 
of healthy passengers and crews not 
carrying valid Inoculation Certifi- 
cates shall not be carried out at the 
aerodrome of departure. They shall 
be permitted to depart, the necessary 
quarantine measures being carried 
out at the first aerodrome of arrival 
in an area at risk. 



ARTICLE 13 

Articles 39 to 46 inclusive shall 
be deleted.* 

ARTICLE 14 

Article 47 shall be deleted, and 
the following substituted : 

(i) In territories in which yel- 
low fever does not exist, but in 
which there may be conditions which 
permit of its development: 

(a) authorized aerodromes shall 
conform to the requirements set 



ftevre jaune; (b) les aerodromes 
situs hors des zones d'endmicit6, 
mais dans lesquels la maladie risque 
d'etre introduite. 

Comme mesure imm6diate contre 
le transport des vecteurs de la fifrvre 
jaune, une d&insectisation des 
afironefs sera effectu6e & chaque 
aerodrome situ dans une zone 
d'endmicit de la fi&vre jaune et, 
particuli&rement, au depart du der- 
nier a6rodrome situ dans une zone 
d'end6micit6 de la fi&vre jaune. 

Dans tout territoire compris dans 
une zone d f end6micit6 de la fivre 
jaune, les autorit6s sanitaires auront 
toute latitude pour imposer, & l'6gard 
d'autres territoires situ6s dans cette 
mme zone, les mesures de quaran- 
taine qui sont autoris6es par la Con- 
vention de 1933, telle qu'elle a t 
modifi6e par la prsente Convention. 
Les passagers en bonne sant6 et les 
membres de T6quipage non pprteurs 
de certificat valable de vaccination 
ne pourront tre retenus & I'a6ro- 
drome de depart. Us seront au- 
toris6s partir, les mesures de quar- 
antaine ncessaires 6tant prises au 
premier aerodrome d'arrive dans 
une zone menace. 

ARTICLE 13 

Les Articles 39 A 46 inclusivement 
sont supprim6s.* 

ARTICLE 14 

A V Article 47 substituer ce qui 
suit: 

(i) Dans les territoires oft la 
fifevre jaune n'existe pas, mais oft 
les conditions pourraient en per- 
mettre le dveloppement: 

(a) les aerodromes autoriss dev- 
ront se conformer aux prescriptions 



* In view of the deletion of Article 40, compliance with the requirements of Article 38 as 
amended shall no longer cause aerodromes situated in an endemic yellow fever area to be 
regarded as "antiamaril aerodromes" and separate local areas. Passengers landing at such 
aerodromes shall submit to the measures laid down in Article 38 as required. 

* Par suite de la suppression de T Article 40, 1 'application des prescriptions de 1'Article 38, 
mpdifie, n'aura plus pour effet de faire considerer les aerodromes situes dans une zone d 'end- 
mlcit6 de la fievre jaune comme "aerodromes antiamaril" et comme zones s6parees. Les 
passagers atterrissant a ces aerodromes teront soumis aux mesures defmies a 1'Article 38, 
selon les necessites du cas. 



Dec. 15, 1944 SANITARY CONVENTION FOR AERIAL NAVIGATION 



267 



forth in Article 38 of the 1933 Con- 
vention as hereby amended ; 

(b) upon arrival at the first aero- 
drome of call aircraft which have 
proceeded from endemic yellow fever 
areas shall be disinsected. 

(2) All persons traveling by air 
from an endemic yellow fever area 
to one in which yellow fever does not 
exist but in which there may be 
conditions which permit of its devel- 
opment, shall be dealt with in the 
following manner, at the first stop- 
ping place in the latter area : 

(a) if they are in possession of a 
valid anti-yellow fever inoculation 
certificate they shall be allowed to 
proceed without any quarantine re- 
strictions with respect to yellow 
fever; 

(b) if they are not in possession of 
a valid anti-yellow fever inoculation 
certificate, they may be isolated in 
properly screened quarters until the 
certificate becomes valid or until 6 
days have clasped, whichever is the 
lesser. 



(3) Notwithstanding the preced- 
ing provisions of this Article, the 
Contracting Parties may (but only 
in the most exceptional cases) issue 
Certificates of Urgency to non- 
inoculated persons whose unob- 
structed passage is absolutely and 
immediately essential on grounds of 
high policy, certifying that a passage 
without hindrance to the bearer of 
the Certificate is urgently necessary. 

The precise form and method of 
issue of the Certificate and the na- 
ture of the certifying authority shall 
be a matter for arrangement and 
communication between govern- 
ments concerned. 

The Contracting Parties under- 
take to grant unimpeded passage to 
bearers of such Certificates but the 



de 1'Article 38 de la Convention de 
1933, telle qu'elle a 6t modifi6e par 
la pr6sente Convention ; 

(b) & I'arriv6e au premier a6ro- 
drome, les a6ronefs provenant d'une 
zone d'endmicit6 de la fi&vre jaune 
seront d6sinsectiss. 

(2) Toute personne faisant par 
voie a6rienne un voyage d'une zone 
d'endmicit6 de la fi&vre jaune vers 
une autre zone oii la fifevre jaune 
n'existe pas, mais oft les conditions 
pourraient en permettre le d6velop- 
pement, sera trait6e de la fa^on 
suivante au premier point d'arrSt 
dans cette autre zone: 

(a) si elle est en possession d'un 
certificat valable de vaccination 
contre la fifevre jaune, elle sera au- 
toris6e a continuer son voyage sans 
subir les restrictions de quarantaine 
concernant la fivre jaune; 

(b) si elle n'est pas en possession 
d'un certificat valable de vaccination 
contre la fi&vre jaune, elle pourra 
Stre iso!6e dans des locaux dflment 
pourvus de grillages jusqu'au mo- 
ment oti le certificat deviendra val- 
able ou jusqu' 1'expiration d'un 
dlai de six jours, suivant que Tune 
ou 1'autre circonstance se produira la 
premiere. 

(3) Nonobstant les dispositions 
prcdentes du present Article, les 
Parties Contractantes peuvent (mais 
seulement dans des cas tout a fait 
exceptionnels) d61ivrer des per- 
sonnes non-vaccines dont le libre 
passage est absolument et immdi- 
atement essentiel pour des raisons de 
haute politique, des certificats d'ur- 
gence attestant qu'il est de ncessit6 
urgente de laisser passer sans en- 
traves le porteur du certificat. 

La forme exacte et le mode de 
dlivrance du certificat, ainsi que le 
caract&re de l'autorit qui aura 
qualit6 pour l'6mettre, feront 1'objet 
d'arrangements et de communica- 
tions entre les gouvernements in- 
tress4s. 

Les Parties Contractantes s'en- 
gagent a accorder le libre passage 
aux porteurs de ces certificats, mais 



268 



INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION 



No. 644 



movements of such Certificate hold- 
ers will, whenever possible, be re- 
stricted during stops on air routes to 
adequately screened quarters which 
will not be left except to re-enter the 
aircraft. 

ARTICLE 15 

The first line of Article 57 shall 
be altered to read "The following 
measures may be taken on arrival: 1 '. 

ARTICLE 16 

Article 53 shall be deleted, and 
the following substituted : 

Persons who, on their arrival 
at an aerodrome, are considered, 
under the terms of Part III of the 
1933 Convention as hereby amended, 
liable to surveillance* up to the 
expiration of the period of incuba- 
tion of the disease, may nevertheless 
continue the voyage on condition 
that the fact is notified to the au- 
thorities of subsequent landing places 
and of the place of arrival by some 
method sufficient to secure that they 
can be subjected to medical inspec- 
tion in any subsequent aerodromes 
on the route. 



Persons who are liable to obser- 
vation* under the terms of Article 
26 of the 1933 Convention shall 



les dfiplacements de ces personnes 
serpnt, autant que possible, res- 
treints pendant les escales sur les 
lignes a^riennes des locaux dflment 
pourvus de grillages qu'elles ne 
devront quitter que pour se rendre 
Taronef. 

ARTICLE 15 

A V Article 51 la premiere ligne 
sera modifi6e comme suit "Les 
mesures suivantes peuvent etre prises 



ARTICLE 16 

A V Article 53, substituer ce qui 
suit : 

Toute personne qui, 4 son arriv6e 
dans un aerodrome, est consid6re, 
aux termes de la Partie III de la 
Convention de 1933, telle qu'elle a 
t modifie par la prsente Conven- 
tion, comme astreinte etre place en 
surveillance* jusqu' la fin de la 
p6riode d'incubation de la maladie, 
peut n6anmoins continuer son voy- 
age, & la condition que le fait soit 
notifi6 aux autorits des territoires 
oil elle doit atterrir, ainsi qu' celles 
du territoire d'arriv6e, par une m- 
thode garantissant que I'int6ress 
sera soumis & 1'inspection