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I 



HOTOGRAPHER 



/'ENTH YEAR 



HOLLYWOOD 



JANUARY, 1936 



VOL. 7 

No. 12 






->5i 




BY CLARENCE H. GUTERMUTH — LOCAL 666 



CENTS 
A COPY 



Here our cameraman trapped this beautiful picture in the "good box," somewhere near Chicago, 
typical shot of the New Year landscape worthy of any of our artist cameramen. 



It is a 



MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND GRAFTS 



^fcW YEAR 



F 




R EC. U.S. PAT. OFF 



DUPONT FILM MANUFACTURING 
CORPORATION 



w 



SMITH AND ALL£R, LTD. 

6656- ■ -SANTA MONICA BLVD 

HOLLYWOOD • CAL. 



35 WEST 45th STREET 

NEW YORK CITY 
PLANT • PARLIN, N. J. 



January. 1936 



T h c I N T E R N A T I O N A L PHOTOGRAPHER 



Oni 



Reindeer Have Nothing On This Dog Team 




From the facile camera of Mi. Chalmer D. Sinkey, Chicago Daily News-Reel staff cameraman at Seattle. 
Scene shot in Rainier National Park. Yes, the dog team belongs to Mr. Sinkey and — it is Happy New Year. 



INTERNATIONAL 
PHOTOGRAPHER 

MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 



Vol. 7 



HOLLYWOOD, JANUARY, 1936 



No. 12 



Silas Edgar Snyder, Editor-in-Chief 

Earl Theisen and Charles Felstead, Associate Editors 

Lewis W. Physioc, Fred Westerberg, Technical Editors 

Helen Boyce, Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication Dedicated to the Advancement of Cinematography in All 

Its Branches; Professional and Amateur; Photography; Laboratory and Processing, 

Film Editing, Sound Recording, Projection, Pictorialists. 



CONTENTS 

Frontispiece by Chalmer D. Sinkey 
THREE COLOR PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS ANNOUNCED - 3 

By Silvio del Sarto 
THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MOTION PICTURE - 4 

By Earl Theisen 
WHAT IS HOLDING UP TELEVISION? ----- 6 

By Delmar A. W hitson 
MINIATURE CAMERA PHOTOGRAPHY 8 

By Augustus Wolfman 
JAPAN— A CENTER OF WORLDS FILM DISTRIBUTION - 10 

By Harry Mimura 
TELEVISION IN ENGLAND - -12 

By Alan Faivson 
WITH PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT AT BOULDER DAM - - 14 

By Frank M. Black<well 
AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHY— SOME DATA ON BUILDING 
A TITLE BOARD— AND "IT HAPPENED ONE DAY" 16 and 17 

By F. Hamilton Riddel 
THE CINEMATOGRAPHER'S BOOK OF TABLES 18 

By Fred W esterberg 
TECHNICOLOR AT LONESOME PINE ----- 20 

By Raymond Palmer 
RECENT PHOTOGRAPHIC AND SOUND PATENTS - - 21 

By Robert Fulivider 
AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHY— (Continued) - 22 

By F. Hamilton Riddell 
MOTION PICTURE PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AMERICA - 23 

By John Alton 
PICKFORD-LASKY READY FOR PRODUCTION - 24 

NEW ARC LIGHTING EQUIPMENT TO RIVAL INCAN- 
DESCENT LIGHTS FOR STUDIO SOUND PICTURE 
ILLUMINATION ---------- 2 5 

By Associate Editor 
DARK SECRETS OF THE STUDIOS ------ 26 

By William Kislingbury 
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING ------- 30 

TELEVISION AS A PROFESSION ----.. 31 

By Harry R. Lubcke 
CINEMACARONI ---------- 32 

By Robert Tobey 

Entered as second class matter Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, 
California, under the act of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright 1935 by Local 659, I. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. O. of the United States 

and Canada 

Office of publication, 1605 North Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, California 

GLadstone 3235 

James J. Finn, 1 West 47th St.. New York, Eastern Representative 

McGill's, 179 and 218 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. Australian and New Zealand agents 

Subscription Kates — United States, $2.50 : Canada and Foreign $3.00 a year. 

Single copies, 25 cents. 

This Magazine represents the entire personnel ot photographers now engaged in 

professional production of motion pictures in the United States and Canada Thus 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER becomes the voice of the Entire Craft, 

covering a field that reaches from coast to coast across North America. 

Printed in the U. S. A. at Hollywood, California 

eo~£cTggtr^> 

SERVICE ENGRAVING CO 




In this issue The International 
Photographer presents three short 
articles on Television by request that 
the present status of this interesting 
subject be cleared up. 

Allen Lawson, chief cameraman 
of the system of London states the 
English point of view; Harry Lubcke, 
well known to these columns, writes 
instructively on the subject, Tele- 
vision", while Delmar A. Whitson, 
under the title "What Is Holding Up 
Television," sets forth the startling 
news that the machinery of commer- 
cial Television is already a fact and 
describes it in detail. 

Motion picture cameramen, ac- 
cording to Jesse Lasky of the Pick- 
ford- Lasky Co. need not see in 
the present Television situation any- 
thing threatening to the craft, and 
there are others who even go so far 
?s to believe that the coming of 
Television will be of great benefit to 
the cameramen. 



REMEMBER! 

The International Photographer is 
out to double its circulation during 
our New Year beginning February, 
1936, and it will be more than worth 
its subscription price of $2.50 to any- 
body interested in photography and 
cinematography. Its price in Canada 
and Foreign Countries is $3.00. A 
year's subscription to this magazine 
would be welcomed by anyone with 
a hobby for the camera. Remember, 
the price is 

$2.50 in United States 




16 MM.- 
35 MM. 

$1.00 

At Your Dealers 



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January, 1936 



r h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Three 



Three Color Process Announcement 

By Henrik Sartov and Alfred Linstead of Hollywood 

By Silvio del Sarto 




HE announcement of the perfection of a three 
color process of photography by Henrik 
Sartov and Alfred Linstead is an event in 
anybody's country, to say nothing of Holly- 
wood itself, where even the Japanese house-boys are 
researching in color, three dimension photography, 
television, etc. 

The sterling character of these well known men 
is amply sufficient to guarantee the integrity of their 
representations and, if other guarantees are required, 
the practical results already attained are available 
for examination. 

It is not necessary herein to stress the importance 
of color pictures, printable on paper, to the motion 
picture industry. Everybody knows that color is at- 
taining more and more prominence in the minds, 
not only of motion picture executives and artists, but 
also in the minds of the public generally. In other 
words, America is color conscious and this is mani- 
fested not only by the trend toward color productions, 
but likewise in every field of advertising, whether it 
be books, magazines or street signs and billboards. 

The trend being toward color productions, it is 
evident that color stills must follow in their wake, be- 
cause it is through still pictures that the productions 
are sold. Only color stills can properly describe 
pictorially the players, the beautiful sets, gowns and 
other natural colors that the director and cameramen 
see when the production is being photographed. 

For years cameramen have been seeking some 
process in color that would enable them commer- 
cially to market their product. By that is meant that 
they have been seeking some commercially prac- 
tical process for making three-color prints. 

As far back as forty years ago they were able to 
make color prints, but only by a long drawn-out,, 
intricate, complicated, commercially impractical and 
unprofitable process. 

In the discovery of Sartov and Linstead there is 
now ready to be marketed a process that enables 
them to print three color pictures, which incidentally 
means all the colors of the spectrum and these three 
colors may be printed on any sort of paper, whether 
it be glossy or satin finish. 

They are photographed with a camera that en- 
ables the photographer to make the pictures neces- 
sary instantaneously with this process. In fact the 
inventors' "stop motion" with it, as evidenced by a 
certain print taken of one of the owners of this pro- 
cess, wherein he is holding a smoking pipe in his 
hand and the smoke is stopped. In other words, with 
this process and camera, three color pictures, which 
mean, of course, all color pictures, can be photo- 
graphed as conveniently as with the present day 
black and white still camera. 

Let it be stressed that this process is not in its 
experimental stage, but is an accomplished fact, an 
achievement whereby, let it be repeated, a three- 
color photography capable of being instantaneously 
taken, printable on paper, reasonable in cost and, 
therefore, commercially practicable. 

The results speak for themselves, any photogra- 
phic cameraman or producer interested in viewing 



these results may see them through the medium of 
this office. 

Of the inventors and developers Henrik Sartov 
is known as having been one of the outstanding 
cameramen in the motion picture industry until the 
time of his retirement to devote his efforts to othei 
interests. He entered the motion picture business 
through the suggestion and at the invitation of D. W. 
Griffith at which time he photographed Lillian Gish 
in "Orphans of the Storm." He also photographed 
Marion Davies, under contract to the Cosmopolitan 
Productions in "Quality Street", "La Boheme" and 
"The Scarlet Letter," very favorably compared by 
critics to the artistry of Rembrandt's paintings. 

Mr. Sartov, while comparatively a young man, 
has been prominent in the photographic profession 
for a period of thirty-five years; entering it at a very 
early age and his work has been favored with inter- 
national honors. He was the first to introduce por- 
trait close-ups of soft quality to the motion picture 
industry and in doing so originated lenses of his own 
make. He also designed incandescent lights, which 
were for the first time used in the production of 
"Broken Blossoms" and that picture forever will be 
remembered for its marvelous close-ups. He was 
recognized as outstanding in his close-up lightings 
and is said to have commanded the highest salary up 
to that time which had been paid to any motion pic- 
ture cameraman. In this he has unquestionably done 
much, not only to establish and maintain photogra- 
phy as a true art, but likewise has impressed upon 
the executives of the motion picture industry that the 
cameraman was entitled to a greater remuneration 
for his services than he had theretofore been receiv- 
ing. Mr. Sartov was also one of the first to introduce 
panchromatic film to the motion picture industry and 
making thereon a complete production which was 
"La Boheme", with Lillian Gish. At the time of mak- 
ing this picture, Mr. Sartov prophesied the use of 
panchromatic film exclusively by the industry within 
a period of a year, which prophesy was fulfilled as 
we are aware. 

Mr. Linstead has been actively engaged in the 
photographic profession for approximately thirty 
years. Some years ago, it will be remembered, he 
invented and developed an "etching process" which 
he sold and taught to the prominent photographers 
all over the country. He is recognized as one of the 
outstanding portrait men of this section and has done 
a number of notable things in the inventive field of 
photography. 

Color has attained such prominence in recent 
months that this announcement will be considered 
almost as revolutionary to the industry as was sound 
and it is interesting to note that Mr. Sartov now pro- 
phecies that within a year color portraits and color 
prints will become as important to the industry as 
panchromatic did within the time he predicted. Un- 
questionably such a statement coming from a man 
of his known ability and artistry is entitled to very 
serious consideration. 

It is also interesting to note that he now predicts 
within a year there will be more than twenty color 
(Turn to Page 18) 



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Four 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Januarx, 1936 



The Archaeology of the Motion Picture 

IN THREE PARTS— PART II 
Prepared for the Encyclopedia International Institute of Educational Cinematography, League of Nations 

By Earl Theisen 

Honorary Curator Motion Picture and Theatrical Arts, Los Angeles Museum 

[Because of the pressure of other matters this article will be extended to Part III and Part IV, February and March. 

respectively. — Editor's Note.] 

Slide-Shows and Phantasmagoria 



The audience is leaning forward, tingling with 
fright. Amid a backstage clatter and a steady 
thump-thump, a devil on a smoky cloud is approach- 
ing. As he gets larger, the boldest of the audience 
become less bold and the timid ones look to the near- 
by exit. It is a new experience to them. It is magic! 
Yes, magic to them; but to us the medieval slide- 
show. 

In the Slide-Shows of 1798-1835, which were 
known then as the "magic lantern performances," or 
"phantasmagoria," the audiences were held in a 
spell of terror while they were shown pictures of the 
devil, ghosts, monsters, or other subjects that would 
impress them or arouse their fears. A favorite illusion 
was having the devil with his trident approach the 
audience. A simulation of motion was obtained by 
the magic lantern operator slowly moving the lan- 
tern, in which, hand-painted on glass, was a trans- 
parency of the devil. The motion obtained was only 
a static movement of the entire picture on the screen, 
but because the audiences had heard much about 
the devil and very little about the magic lantern, they 
were tantalized with sincere doubts whether it might 
not be the real thing. Such was this antecedent of 
today's cinematic presentation. 

It is popularly believed that the magic lantern 
was invented by Athanasius Kircher in 1640. Kircher 
called it the "Magia Catoptrica" or "Megaloscope." 
He described it as his invention in his book, "Ars 
Magna Lucis et Umbrae" (Great Art of Light and 
Shade), which was published in 1646. Even though 
Kircher is credited with this invention, it would ap- 
pear that Cellini knew of it a century earlier, since, 
to quote from W. I. Chadwick's "The Magic Lantern 
Manual," published in 1886 as Number 19 of the 
Scoville Photo Series, "Cellini must have used some 
such instrument a century previous [to Kircher] to 
produce phantom figures in the smoke of fire." Since 
Daniello Barbaro in his book published in 1568 de- 
scribes the use of a lens in conjunction with Camero 
Obscuro, it is entirely possible the Camero Obscuro 
could have been adapted to the lantern use credited 
to Cellini by the addition of a light. That, howevei, 
is a comment for the critical student, though it does 
indicate that the underlying principle of projection i? 
well over three centuries old. 

A Belgian physicist, Etienne Gaspard Robert (also 
known as Robertson), who had learned of the magic 
lantern from Van Estin of Maestricht, perfected the 
technique of the lantern shows through constant use 
over a great number of years. As a fad while still in 
school, he tried to invoke mystifying pictures of the 
devil by incantation and magic wizardry, but without 
success. He decided to create them himself. After 
reading outstanding works on magic and physics of 



his time, he realized the desired effect could be ob- 
tained by the lantern. After a preamble, he would 
make the show room totally dark. Then, unknown 
to the audience, he would lower a screen, and in the 
midst of terrifying noises, claps of thunder and weird 
cries a ghost image would appear. He would in- 
crease the size of the apparition by moving his lan- 
tern, of which the audience was unaware. The 
"seances" that he gave at Paris in March and April, 
1798, established his reputation as a magician. 
Lengthy articles in the press invested him with super- 
natural powers. He was a master in dressing his 
shows with the cunning of a perfect showman. - 

The lantern may be said to have come into vogue 
in England, and here it became something more 
than a device to frighten people. Henry Langdon 
Child, it is said by an authority, Will Day, inaugu- 
rated them as early as 1806. Child started his slide- 
shows as the "Phantasmagoria" at the Sanspareil 
Theatre, now the Adelphi, in London. Under his use 
the lantern attained a certain proficiency in story 
telling. Child knew of the authoritative manner in 
which a picture illustrates an idea.,., 

With the beginning of his shows the lantern was 
heralded as an educational device. His lectures and 
stories covered all subjects. He facilitated the per- 
formance of the lantern with the addition of a "dis- 
solver." This "dissolver" was used on his Bi-Unial 
Lantern, which was one that had two optical sys- 
tems, or in other words it could project two pictures 
at once. The two objectives with slide holders were 
side by side on the same lamp house. The "dis- 
solver" was in the form of a rocker arm that extended 
across the front of the two slide holders. With this 
system such elaborate themes as "The Orphan's 
Dream" could be presented. In this picture, which 
was in essence a motion picture, a slide picture of 
the "little orphan" was first shown asleep on a 
couch; this was known as the "foundation image." 
A second slide with a picture of angels in a bank of 
dream clouds would be made to appear from the 
other optical unit. The super-imposing of the two 
slides presented a pleasing theme — an orphan 
dreaming she was with angels in heaven. 

Comedy was obtained from such slide-show sub- 



Phone CLadstone 4151 

HOLLYWOOD STATE BANK 

The only Bank in the Industrial District of Hollywood 
under State Supervision 

Santa Monica Boulevard at Highland Avenue 



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January, 1936 



T h e I N T E R N A T I O N A L P H O T O G R A P H E R 



Five 



By EARL THEISEN, Associate Editor 



jects as "The Boy and Cat." The first slide showed 
the boy holding the cat by the tail over a tub of what 
was evidently water. The comedy was in the climax- 
ing second slide, which showed him dousing the cat. 
They did not show a third slide of the boy getting 
scratched, thereby overlooking the moral. 

Another popular theme was "Proving the Rotund- 
ity of the World." The method of doing this was to 
project a slide picture of the world. A second slide 
with a picture of a ship so placed that it coincided 
with the outer circumference of the world was made 
to revolve by means of a small gear. The Chromo- 
trope, another invention credited to Child, was very 
popular. It consisted of two slides. Each had a 
spiral design in color. When the two were revolved 
while in the lantern, a kaleidoscope of color in an 
ever- varying pattern was the result. 

Probably the most elaborate of these slide-shows 
was the "Siege of Delhi," which was given at the 
Royal Polytechnic Institution in England. Six lan- 
terns were used and the field of battle with its burst- 
ing of shells, fire of artillery, accompanied by suit- 
able sound effects, made it a dramatic show. 

The first of the "travel slides" was brought to- 
gether by Richard Vaughan Yates of Liverpool some 
time prior to 1837. He made a tour of the Holy Land 
and then had noted artists paint transparencies of 
the interesting points. (A transparency was a term 
used to designate a transparent painting in color on 



glass as used in the lantern slides. The hand-painted 
slide was eliminated as photographic methods were 
perfected.) John Smith, one of the editors of the 
"Liverpool Mercury," became so enthused over the 
Yates travel slides that he arranged an extensive 
lecture course on geography which was delivered in 
all the principal English towns. 7 

With the exception of the lecture tours and educa- 
tional demonstration, the slide-shows were generally 
put aside when the motion picture was finally made 
possible; but until then it was a popular form of 
entertainment for the class of people who were later 
the motion picture fans. Even after the "pictures that 
moved" were shown, the slides were used as a 
means of announcing program changes and for ad- 
vertising. As an advertising medium during the 
"nickelodeon," or five-cent admission period, of the 
film theatres, it seems that every merchant within a 
radius of miles had a slide that he wanted on the 
screen between the "pictures." 

The illustrated song slide of this same period 
must be mentioned. All the popular song hits were 
made into elaborately colored slides which were 
thrown on the screen to be sung by the audience, 
accompanied by a rather worn piano and pianist 
down near the screen. The song slides and adver- 
tisements continued, particularly in the provincial 
districts, until the advent of the sound film. (Part III 
will appear in February 1936.) 



Capt. Herford Tynes Cowling Joins National 
Archive Service at Washington 




Mr. R. D. W. Connor, Archivist of 
the United States, announces the 
appointment of Captain Herford 
Tynes Cowling to be Technical 
Assistant, Division of Motion Pic- 
tures and Sound Recording, the 
National Archives. 

Since July 1st of the present 
year, Capt. Cowling has been 
with The National Archives in 
connection with a survey of Gov- 
ernment historical motion picture 
films. Capt. Cowling is a native 
of Suffolk, Nansemond County, 
Virginia. Two years at George 
Washington University. From 1909 
to 1916 was photographer andchief photographer with the U.S. 
Reclamation Service, traveling extensively throughout the United 
States filming reclamation projects, Indian life on reservations, and 
national parks; was selected by the late Franklin K. Lane to inau- 
gurate a pictorial "See America First" film program for the United 
States. 

For seven years was with the Burton Holmes Paramount Pic- 
tures, Inc., as Technical Director and Producer, which took him to 
many countries in Europe, Asia and Africa. In 1922 Cowling was 
managing director of a new production company, headed an expe- 
dition to Central Africa, producing films of life and customs of 
native tribes and several big game hunting expeditions. 

Continuing his work in foreign fields, in 1923 he headed u 
special expedition in Western Tibet, making the first films of 
Tibetan people and customs. 



In 1926 he made a trip to Kashmir, India, with a commission 
from the Government to film the Durbar at the coronation of the 
Maharaja of Kashmir for the Government Archives. 

In 1927 Capt. Cowling was selected by George Eastman as 
technical director for the Eastman Teaching Films Program which 
produced a series of educational motion picture films for use in 
American schools. This was discontinued in 1932, owing to the 
death of the sponsor, Mr. Eastman. This program involved the 
expenditure of over $2,000,000. 

On duty as reserve officer in the Signal Corps, Photographic 
Section of the U. S. Army, War College, Washington, D. C, Octo- 
ber, 1934, to July 1, 1935, in connection with the preservation of 
World War historical film records. 

Cowling, motion picture engineer, producer, director and ex- 
plorer, is probably better acguainted with the motion picture film 
and photographic archives of the United States Government than 
any other one person. 




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Sit 



T 1 1 



INTERNATIONAL P H O T O G R A 1> H K R 



January, 1936 



Is This The Answer? 



w 



What Is Holding Up Television?" 



A Fool Proof Invention 



By Delmar A. Whitson 



"What is holding up television?" 
This remark is heard on all sides, today, and is 
practically replacing the classical weather subject 
as a topic of universal interest. However, unlike a 
remark attributed to Mark Twain: "Everybody talks 
about the weather, but nobody does anything about 
it," it seems that everybody of any scientific import- 
ance has been, or is working on it, and the practical 
instrument is said to be a near reality. 

In the meantime the patient public has divided 
itself into two general divisions of opinion, i.e. that, 
either the large electrical companies are holding out 
on them because of some commercial policy, or that 
they have found it to be a scientific "joker" and the 
public is left to be weaned of its expectations by 
fiction writers. However encouragement is main- 
tained by the announcement from time to time that, 
this or that big electrical combine is to erect imme- 
diately elaborate television stations, involving large 
New Deal sums, meaning, of course, that the saving 
in admission for the Saturday foot-ball game will 
soon be applied to the payments on the home tele- 
vision set. And, adding to the anxiety, the spot-light 
inventors are busy hastening from coast to coast 
explaining to Sunday magazine reporters a bagful 
of reconditioned television fossils which will very 
soon ruin the movies. 

However, a confidential peep behind the scenes 
reveals the important fact that we have a house 
divided against itself, on the part of the inventors 
working in the field. One class champion the Nip- 
kow revolving disc scanner and its modified rotat- 
ing lenses and prisms and the other class choose 
their corner on the cathode ray scanner. 

The cathode ray inventor claims that the problem 
of synchronization is successfully solved by his in- 
ertialess, weightless stream of scanning electrons, 
as against the leading and lagging of his opponents' 
revolving scanning system, which cannot be made 
to keep in step for high quality vision. 

The cathode ray inventor is vigorously met by his 
opponents' criticism that the cost of the cathode ray 
tube, in view of its short life, places too high a pre- 
mium on the operating cost from the standpoint of 
the average pocketbook, and is also discouragingly 
limited to a small image, in the neighborhood of sev- 
eral inches, while his wares in turn are enchanced 
by a much greater image, several feet, in fact, and 
a low operating cost. 

While both systems have their offsetting merits, 
they are each admittedly affected by what seems 
to be a defeating element peculiar to their respective 
scanners, and, as a consequence, have been unable 
to graduate from the laboratory. 

Food for thought may be found in the fact that 
the television inventors have apparently fallen into 
the same hypnosis which impelled our automobile 



body maunfacturers to copy the horse drawn car- 
riage for the greatest number of years and, likewise, 
our radio manufacturers to repeat the same idiosyn- 
crasy, by copying "His Master's Voice" type of horn, 
for quite a number of years, despite the fact that 
the phonograph people were greatly advanced in 
cabinet design when broadcasting was at first com- 
mercially introduced. 

The present system of television, excepting the 
amplifiers, that is, the scanners, are fossils of early 
television schemes. Nipkow invented the Revolving 
Disc in the latter part of the nineteenth century, and 
Prof. Rosing proposed and actually used the Braun 
tube or cathode ray scanner about 1910 or 1911 and, 
with all our modern electronic technique, we are 
still laboring with these outmoded hangovers. 

However,it is the growing conviction of a large 
number of recognized scientists, that the real answer 
to the problem will be found in a new principle or a 
new result from an old principle not yet applied to 
television. Such was the parallel state of quandary 
in the radio art. then called wireless, when, by an 
inspiration Dr. Lee De Forest introduced a simple 
grid shaped wire into what is known as the Fleming 
Valve and, Presto! . . . wireless was reborn and 
swept the world as radio! 

In view of the conviction that history repeats itself 
it is not thought passing strange that Dr. De Forest 
should appear again at this stymied period, with 
what is undoubtedly the key to practical television, 
but this time it is as god-father. It was the writer's 
good fortune to be invited by the Doctor to inspect 
in his laboratory a scanning system regarding which 
he stated: "Will sweep the country with the same 
degree of success that attended the original recep- 
tion of radio broadcasting in the early twenties." 

Such a statement, coming from a recognized 
world pioneer in electronics, was rather startling, al- 
though incredulous. 

The invitation was accepted, with the result that 
the readers of this article have the opportunity to 
ponder for themselves the prediction of Dr. De Forest, 
whose accurate scientific prognostications are his- 
toric. 

The Doctor predicated the essentials of successful 



35mm. Eastman or Dupont 

Fresh Qray Backed Negative 

Price 2V2C per Foot 

for 

AMATEURS or PROFESSIONALS 

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January, 1936 



7 /; 



INTERNATIONAL P H TOGRA P H E R 



Seven 




S «3SS£ 5 «S« S - SHa SBftna^ -;-:„. as «s as jk-- arws ara 

Torsional viurii of scanner show j ng suspension of scanning frame. 



television on several vital points: 

"First, it must be fool-proof; that is, it must not 
exceed the present simplicity of operation of the 
standard radio set. 

"Second, it must have clear definition and be 
capable of being witnessed by at least a roomful of 
people, or on a par with the latest 16 mm. film pro- 
jection. 

"Third, it must be within reach of the average 
pocketbook, and with no more upkeep cost than the 
present set." 

Having outlined these requirements, Doctor De 
Forest then drew attention tc the actual machine 
which was to qualify under these rather unmistak- 
able counts, and prefaced his explanation by highly 
complimenting the inventor who is responsible for 
this ephocal invention. 

This is William H. Priess, of New York City, who 
is a brilliant scientist and well known in the U. S. 
Patent Office for his important inventions. 

He is also renowned in the electrical fraternity 
for his valued contributions and, if Dr. De Forest is 
correct in his estimate, Mr. Priess will, with the public 
introduction of his invention, be added to the world's 
immortals. 

The scanning unit is completely disarming in its 
simplicity of construction and one immediately rec- 
ognizes in it these earmarks of all genuine solutions, 
which invariably invoke the remark: "Why didn't 
someone thing of that before?" 

Doctor De Forest stated: "It makes use of the 
torsional properties of a steel wire, somewhat after 
the old and well known principle of the galvano- 
meter, except in this case two wires of unequal 
length are employed and crossed at right angles." 
He indicated where a small l A- by Va inch metal 
mirror was welded at the center of the shorter wire 



and had a small iron vane or arm projecting from 
the back side of the mirror and extending into an 
air-gap between the poles of an electro magnet. The 
Doctor interrupted the inspection at this point to ex- 
plain what occurs here in practical operation. "This 
electro magnet," he explained, "produces an alter- 
nating magnet field of 1500 cycles per second, which 
moves this arm to and fro as many times, produc- 
ing an oscillating motion to the mirror around the 
axis of the wire. This alternate rocking of the mirror 
is sufficient to completely sweep a bright spot of 
reflected light upon a screen measuring from two to 
six feet in an optional size area. The wire, of course, 
only sweeps the mirrored spot on the horizontal, or 
in other words is to form just the lines." 

The Doctor then continued his explanation of each 
part by pointing out that this wire upon which the 
mirror and vane are welded, is anchored at each 
extremity upon an oval shaped channel framework 
of aluminum, measuring about two by four inches 
in area, and one-half inch thick, and weighing but 
a few ounces. This wire is aligned in the direction 
of the length of the framework and the framework, 
in turn, is suspended at its exact mid-section by a 
wire extending out at ach side, not unlike a pair of 
oars in a small boat. These wires are fastened at 
their outer extremity at the top of a pair of upright 
metal standards mounted upon the final base. This 
arrangement of mounting produces a balanced unit 
or framework which may be rocked like a walking 
beam or like a simple see-saw. Doctor De Forest 
paused here to explain that when the device is in 
operation this framework assembly is alternately 
rocked by the larger electro-magnet underneath at 
the rate of 24 vibrations per second, giving a verticle 
displacement to the reflected spot after each hori- 
zontal sweep. 

He laid particular stress upon the fact that neither 

(Turn to Page 27) 



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Eight 



7 // c 1 N T K R NATIONAL PHOTOGRA P HER 



January, 1936 



Printing Paper 

Miniature Camera Photography 




RINTING PAPERS: We still occasionally en- 
counter the amateur who is making an at- 
tempt to try every type of printing paper the 
market offers. The amount of different 
papers is considerable, giving the photographer 
much leeway in jumping from one type to the other. 
If such practice is engaged in one cannot expect to 
produce good prints. 

At the start the photographer should select a 
brand of enlarging paper which can be had in dif- 
ferent contrasts, as hard, medium and soft. This 
will enable him to have a correct type of paper for 
each negative. Many papers are offered in but a 
single grade of contrast. In such cases it is really 
necessary to develop the negative in a manner to 
suit the printing paper. Such procedure is relatively 
simple with large negatives, as 3 1 /4x4 1 /4, 4x5, etc., 
plates or cut film, etc. Negatives of such size can 
be developed singly to obtain the correct contrast 
for the best results with a particular type of paper. 

The miniature camera photographer is, however, 
confronted with a different problem. He has many 
negatives on a single roll of film; in many cases such 
negatives having been exposed under varying con- 
ditions and consisting of widely different subjects. 
The entire roll of film is developed for the same 
time in the same developing solution, so that nega- 
tives of different contrasts usually result, necessitat- 
ing the use of paper of different grades to obtain 
good prints. 

Then again papers are offered in quite a variety 
of surfaces — another temptation for the beginner. 
It would be best at the start to choose one of the 
more popular surfaces, as semi-rough or rough 
matte. In most cases such types of papers are ob- 
tainable in a larger number of grades than the spe- 
cial surfaces as linen, porcelain, stipple, etc. 

Once a single type of paper has been selected 
it would be advisable for. the photographer to work 
with this paper until he is able to obtain good prints 
with it. In many instances the reason for failure to 
make an acceptable print is poor judgment in select- 
ing the proper grade of paper for the negative. For 
experience it would be advisable for the beginner to 
pick about three or four negatives of varying con- 
trasts and make a set of prints from each negative, 
on each grade of paper. This will be a guide to 
him in selecting the proper grade of paper to suit 
the negative. After this step has been mastered it 
will be simple for the photographer to indulge in 
different paper surfaces and obtain excellent prints 
with them. 

Another step upon which the amateur trips, 
though simple and often repeated in these columns, 
is the correct exposure and development of the 
paper. 

In many instances where flat, lifeless prints are 
encountered, it will be found that the paper is over- 
exposed—the image comes up very quickly in the 
developer, and it is necessary to pull it out of the 
latter to prevent the print from becoming burned up. 

Generally the exposure should be such that the 
paper will require from 1 Vt. to 2 minutes develop- 



Lens Speeds 



ment time. In this manner — giving the paper a 
short exposure and full development, the print will 
have more snap and brilliance. 

Another bit of advice for the beginner is that he 
should not intend to make about two or three dozen 
prints in a single night, but be contented with four 
or five good ones. Care and time should be taken 
with each negative; test strips made to determine the 
exposure and developing times to obtain the best 
results. Each negative to be printed should be ex- 
amined for small particles of dust or dirt, and these 
removed with a suitable expedient. This will ob- 
viate much subsequent spotting. Care and thought 
expended in this fashion will reveal itself in better 
prints. 

Quick Drying: In many cases in order to dry the 
prints faster, photographers submit the ferrotype 
tins with the prints on them to high temperatures. 
Glossy prints which have been dried at too high a 
temperature without sufficient circulation of air will 
not have a high gloss, and in some cases will have 
a "ground glass" effect. The excessive heat may 
also affect the black japan surface, causing check 
markings. In some cases the shape of the print will 
show on the tin after the latter has been removed. 
At times these may be removed by placing the tin 
in hot water or near a steam pipe for a few minutes. 
The oft repeated advice, "haste makes waste," is 
quite applicable in this case. 

Winter Exposures: Because snow is white, reflect- 
ing a relatively large amount of light, it is the sup- 
position of many photographers that snow scenes 
require short exposures. Such a fact may be true 
when we are photographing scenes containing a 
large expanse of snow. The same procedure cannot 
be followed when foreground objects are the center 
of interest. In this case exposure should be judged 
for the objects. If an exposure meter is used the 
photographer should take the reading close to the 
object so that the field covered by the meter will not 
include the snow in the background. In such cases 
it is well to keep the old photographic axiom in 
mind, "Expose for the shadows and let the high- 
lights take care of themselves," the objects in this 
case representing the shadows and the snow the 
highlights. 

Filters and Contrasts: Many of the films employed 
in miniature camera photography, especially those 
of the extreme fine grain type, are prone to produce 
contrasty results. Such films are usually developed 
for less time than normal, to obtain normal contrast. 

In outdoor pictorial work contrast can be addi- 
tionally softened through the use of filters. Despite 



/WiQVIOLlA FILM VIEWING and 



REPRODUCING MACHINES 



ALL MODELS ON DISPLAY— FOR SALE- 
lllustrated Literature On Requt 



FOR RENT 



MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, INC. 

723 7th AVE., NEW YORK CITY CABLE: "CINECAMERA' 



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January, 1936 



T h 



I N T E R N A T I O N A L P H T () G R A P H E R 



Nine 



By AUGUSTUS WOLFMAN 



the fact that a panchromatic film may be employed, 
such films are still greatly sensitive to blue, and 
without the use of a filter the sky will be rendered 
too light. Greens are also generally reproduced too 
dark. When a yellow filter is employed the blue of 
the sky will be held back, and the latter will repro- 
duce in a definite tone. Greens will reproduce light- 
er, resulting in less contrast. Especially in brilliant 
sunshine, in which case strong contrasts are prone 



fully exposed negatives than the other. This may 
be quite true. We may have two f:3.5 lenses of 
different construction, and when both are used wide 
open the results obtained relative to exposure will 
not be the same. 

The entire matter concerns itself with the manner 
of determining the numbers denoting the speed value 
of a lens. It is obtained by dividing the diameter of 
the largest diaphragm opening into the focal length. 




Left: Spring Cleaning, photo by A. Wolfman. Center; taken with a Summar f:2 lens wide open, on DuPont Superior film. 

Right, Waterfront, by Karl A. Barleben, |r., F.R.P.S. 



to exist, the use of filters will do much to eliminate 
harsh results. 

Formula for Supersensitive Panchromatic Film: 

Many amateurs still seem to experience dire results 
with supersensitive panchromatic films in relation 
to grain. There are many instances where the illum- 
ination is relatively weak, despite the fact that a 
supersensitive film and a fast lens are employed, as 
in night photography. In such cases the use of a 
developer containing metol is advisable, to bring 
out the shadow detail, extreme fine grain being 
sacrificed for the proper shadow values. 

However, there may be cases where sufficient 
illumination is present, allowing the use of an ex- 
tremely fine grain developing solution. The Sease 
No. 3 formula is excellent, but many photographers 
object to the doubling of exposure necessitated by 
this developer. An excellent fine grain formula for 
supersensitive panchromatic films has been repro- 
duced in these pages some time ago, however, for 
the benefit of those who are not acquainted with it, 
we are listing this formula below. This formula re- 
quires only normal exposure. 

Formula for Supersensitive Pan Films: 

Paraphenylene-diamine 6 grams 

Glycin 6 grams 

Sodium sulphite (dry) 37.5 grams 

Water, to make 500 c.c. 

The formula is prepared by dissolving a portion 
of the sodium sulphite in about 250 c.c. hot water; 
the paraphenylene-diamine is dissolved, then the 
glycin and the remainder of the sulphite, and cold 
water added to make 500 c.c. 

The developing times are: 30 minutes at 65°F., 
and 25 minutes at 70°F. 

Lens Speeds: Often we have heard from pho- 
tographers that they have worked with two different 
lenses, both of the same relative speed, and using 
the same shutter speed, the exposures on the film 
not being the same. One lens will produce more 



However, due to variances in design or construction 
of lenses some may actually transmit more light 
than others, despite the fact that their speeds are 
the same, as determined in the manner stated 
above. Usually the differences are so small that the 
latitude of the film will amply take care of them. 

Straightening Film: This is the time of the year 
when many of the films made during the past sum- 
mer season are being printed. Usually the pho- 
tographer keeps his negatives curled up in the orig- 
inal roll, and if they have been kept in a warm 
dry place the rolls of film will have curled up to a 
considerable extent, especially in the case of cine 
film. In many cases the curled film hampers the 
photographer in enlarging. This condition can be 
remedied by rolling the film in the opposite direction 
of the curl, placing a rubber band around it, and 
then putting the film in a warm place, such as near 
a radiator, for an hour or two. 

A Hint: By adding a small amount of sodium 
chloride (ordinary table salt) to a normal MO paper 
developer, prints with more brilliance and of a colder 
tone will be produced. 



TA & La.^iWo^<i 



In Sound Recording 

THE NEW PRINCIPLE 
MINOR QUARTZ OPTICAL UNIT 

becomes an integral part of your sound recorder- — this unit is cemented 
into a steel block — it focuses a beam of light of great intensify and 
actinic value a distance away and on the film, which PROVIDES CLEAR- 
ANCE and PREVENTS SCRATCHING of the sound track. The width of 
the beam of light measures from .0005" to .0008" as it strikes the 
moving film. 

This Quartz Optical Unit was used for the sound effects in the 
recent production of the "Tarzan" picture, filmed in Guatemala and 
referred to in the March issue of International Photographer. 
Send for details and specimen of sound track. 



C. C. MINOR 



1835 Whitley Avenue 



Phone: GR. 4781 



Hollywood 



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Ten 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



January, 7V.i<5 



H 



Japan-Center of World's Film Distribution'' 



By H. A. MiMURA, 

Member of Local 65'J , 11 ho Received His Cinematographic Education in the Hollywood Motion Picture Studios 




|HOUGH the entire country itself is smaller than the 
State of California, the Japanese as a whole are among 
the most ardent film fans. Together with our own pro- 
duced features of over 500 a year, we have about the 
egual number of foreign made pictures. Most theaters 
are distinguished for their policies to show either home-made pic- 
tures or foreign films. In comparison, the American pictures at 
one time occupied the greater part of the Japanese market, while 
European films followed in smaller scales. However, the present 



Myrna Loy, William Powell, Clark Gable, Franchot Tone, James 
Cagney, Grace Moore, Miriam Hopkins and Gary Cooper are 
still well-known to the Japanese movie fans. 

While such imported films are drawing some business, we 
are making our own in the studios, more than ten in number. 
With the exception of only one, the rest of the studios are all 
using their own system, making talkies, sound pictures and some 
are still making silents. 

The studio that I am connected with is located about ten 




Upper left: Shooting a bar scene. Director Kimura in front of the camera; Harry Mimura looking through the finder. Lower 

Left: Nos. 1 and 2 stages of P. C. L. Studio. Talkie recording rooms are located on the third floor in the center of the 

stages. Upper right: Love scene on fire escape. Harry Jvlimura at camera. Lower right: Screen process shot from 

Hany Mimura's recent picture, "Seven thirty O'clock," a mystery story of a modern city. 



year shows an amazing increase in European-made pictures — all 
trying to wedge into the Nippon market. Now we see films from 
England, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Austria- 
Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia and others. Titles are super- 
imposed to make the audience understand. Another process cf 
showing foreign film was recently attempted by Paramount on 
their old film, "Feet First," Harold Lloyd's picture, in -which all 
the English dialogues were taken off and in its place, Japanese 
actors and actresses spoke in Japanese. This picture was shown 
on the screen immediately after its completion and the great 
hit that it made is something worthwhile speaking about. Seeing 
the good box-office result, Paramount is making two more pictures 
in the same manner. 

The pictures which made a clean hit on the screen within a 
year ■were "The Lives of a Bengal Lancer," "It Happened One 
Night," "Manhattan Melodrama,'' "Talk of the Town," and "Un- 
finished Symphony" (a German picture). The name of Robert 
Riskin, of Columbia scenario department, is so famous among 
fans that his name is printed in every advertisement, -which 
draws more people. Shirley Temple is the topnotcher in fame. 



miles from the heart of Tokyo. P.C.L. Studio is the name. It is 
not the abbreviation of PenCiL, but stands for Photo Chemical 
Laboratory, which is the origin of this organization. It is one of 
the well eguipped studios in Japan, with every bit of machinery 
made in Japan except cameras. Two new Mitchell sound cam- 
eras, one silent Mitchell, two Parvos, Eyemos and other cameras 
are the only ones bought from abroad. At present we have four 
units making pictures, two at a time; however, short subject 
staffs are working along with feature productions. Six cameramen 
and eighteen assistants are under long term contract and each 
cameraman has four assistants -when making pictures. Each 
cameraman is scheduled to shoot four pictures a year and rest 
between pictures with full monthly salary. Since we commenced 
using the new Mitchell we avoid the clumsy "Blimp," and it gives 
more pleasure for the cameraman than anything else. Our studio 
is the only one in Japan using this super-machine. 

I have just finished my fourth picture and am taking it easy 
until the next picture, which will probably start about a month 
later. 



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January, 1936 



T h 



I N T E R X A T I O N A 



PHOTOGRAPHER 



Eleven 



The Best of Its Kind in a Field of Its Own 



In December 1932 just as photographers were 
beginning to realize that the miniature camera was 
a serious instrument and was destined to revolution- 
ize photography in many respects, the pioneer mag- 
azine of miniature camera photography made its 
appearance. At that time "Leica Photography" was 
issued as an eight page offset bulletin. 

The interest in the little magazine was tremend- 
ous, and in April 1934 it was issued in regular print- 
ed form. The number of its readers increased stead- 
ily with remarkable speed; naturally the interest in 
the magazine was also augmented. To cope with 
this interest and provide its readers with much of 
the valuable information contributed by authorita- 
tive miniature camera users, "Leica Photography" 
was increased in size from time to time, to include 
more articles and illustrations. 



With the number of its readers at present well 
over 15,000 "Leica Photography" now appears in a 
completely new and interesting dress. Its pages 
number twenty-four, including much more material, 
and it is profusely illustrated. The entire layout is 
different, and the illustrations beautifully reproduced. 
Nor does this mark the criterion, for improvements 
and additions will be made from time to time. 

Readers are always invited to send in sugges- 
tions, ideas and photographs to "Leica Photogra- 
phy," which are published in the magazine. In this 
manner it serves as an exchange of ideas thereby 
fostering the progress of miniature photography, and 
the numerous photographs that are reproduced 
serve to show the miniature photographer the possi- 
bilities of his camera. Write for a sample copy of the 
new Dec. 1935 "Leica Photography" to E. Leitz, Inc., 
60 East 10th St., New York City. 



ArtReeves' Galvanometer 



One of the latest additions to the long line of re- 
cording and laboratory equipment manufactured by 
the Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Company 
is an oil damped galvanometer and optical system 
for recording the variable area type of sound track. 
The complete unit is shown in the accompanying 
photograph mounted on the standard model record- 
ing camera with the automatic speed control motor. 

Although in over 90% of all major studios, sound 
recording in Hollywood is done on variable density 
recording systems, foreign studios and the smaller 
independent studios are finding it increasingly diffi- 
cult to keep up with the high standards of quality set 




The ArtReeves' New Galvanometer 

by these Hollywood studios. The reason for this is 
well known to all in the sound branch of the motion 
picture industry. The smaller laboratories feel they 
cannot afford the densitometers, sensitometers, con- 
tinuous developing machines, exact temperature con- 
trol of all developing solution and numerous other 
costly accessories necessary to process variable 



density sound track and to maintain the proper 
gamma in both negative and prints. 

Since in variable density improper development 
of either the negative or prints results in a loss of 
quality a variable area recording system inherently 
stable and free from development troubles soon pays 
for itself in savings on retakes and reprints. 

The Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Com- 
pany after exhaustive tests and months of experi- 
ments designed a foolproof oil damped galvano- 
meter that far surpasses any previously offered to 
the trade in ruggedness, frequency range and low 
power requirements. The complete galvanometer is 
encased in an oil tight, oil filled, duralumin case, 
the light from the exciter lamp entering and leaving 
through a lens window. Oil damping of the mirror is 
used as the only means of damping the mirror which 
does not introduce spurious harmonics and reson- 
ance peaks. The oil also protects the mirror surface 
and keps it free from dirt. No current is required for 
the magnetic field, a powerful new designed cobalt 
permanent magnet being used. The movement needs 
a power level of only .060 watts for 100% modulation 
of the sound track. This means that instead of the 
large bulky amplifiers and associated batteries form- 
erly used, small compact amplifiers and batteries, 
weighing only a few pounds may be used. 

The optical system is highly efficient, a 3 watt 
exciter lamp being sufficient on regular sound re- 
cording stock. Monitoring the sound track may at 
all times be checked visually. All sliding surfaces 
have been eliminated in the recording camera, a 
great help in hot, humid climates. 

For those studios already equipped with an Art 
Reeves double sprocket recording camera a bracket 
having galvanometer and optical system solidly 
mounted may be purchased and their recorders 
changed over to variable area in a few minutes. An 
entirely new type amplifier, using the new all metal 
tube and including adjustable noise reduction has 
been built to go with the new galvanometer and 
optical system. 



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Twelve 



T 1 1 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOIiKAPH E R 



J.nnmry, W36 



Television In England 



By Alan Lawson 

(Chief Cameraman of Baird Television) 




Telecine Electro Scanner for the transmission by television of 
talking pictures with a definition from 100 - 500 lines. 



IN 1934 the British Government formed a 

|2§lij Television Advisory Committee to seek an 
answer to the problem as to what system 
should be used for Television transmission. 

In February 1935 they published their report with 
these recommendations: To build a Television sta- 
tion, with Baird Television Company, Ltd., working 
on 240 line definition and Electrical and Musical In- 
dustries Ltd., working on 405 line definition, each 
supplying a set of scanners. 

The Advisory Committee recommended that all 
patents relating to Television reception should be 
laid open for all set manufacturers. 

The site picked for the first Television Station is 
situated in North London — at The Alexander Palace. 
The Di pole Aerial will be some 650 ft. above sea 
level. 

The Transmitter to be installed there will be of 
the ultra short wave type working on approximately 
6.5 meters, with an output of 17.5 Kilowatts. The 
service area of this station will be close on 40 miles 
radius, which means that the whole of Greater Lon- 
don will be given a chance to receive Television 
programs that are expected to commence in the New 
Year. 

This is a short summary of the apparatus that 
will probably be installed by the two companies: 

Baird Television Company, Ltd.: 

Spotlight Scanner. This is the older method of 
Television Scanning known as The Flying Spot 
Method. It consists of a moving spot of light which 
passes over a subject and the reflected light is 
picked up by photoelectric cells and then ampli- 
fied. 

The method is used for announcing, lectures, etc., 
and is capable of televising three quarter length 
figures. 

Telecine Scanner. Consisting of a continuous 
projector turning at 25 pictures a second, a 60 hole 
disc revolving at 6,000 r.p.m. the light source being 



supplied by a 60 amp. arc. This Scanner is used for 
Transmitting Films. 

Intermediate Film Scanner. A direct pick-up 
method of Television, using a motion picture camera, 
sound recorder, developing machine, scanning gate 
and sound reproducer. The same type of disc and 
arc are used on this machine as on the Telecine 
Scanner. 

The total delay period of this Scanner is 30 sec- 
onds, (the time from actual taking to actual scan- 
ning) accounted for thus: 5 seconds developing, 3 
seconds washing and 15 seconds fixing; the remain- 
ing 7 seconds are taken up in the film travelling from 
one bath to the next. 

The film used is a Panchromatic stock approxi- 
mately the same as the non-Super Sensitive Pan. 

Lighting, make-up etc., for this method, is the 
same as the usual film studio procedure. 

This Scanner can be moved into a normal sized 
truck as used by news reel companies and thus be- 
comes almost as flexible as the news camera. Its 
limitations are the same as the standard motion pic- 
ture camera, which are comparatively small. 

All the scanners mentioned so far have been of 
the mechanical type. We come now to those known 
as Electrical Scanners. 

The Electron Camera. This was invented by Philo 
Farnsworth in Philadelphia. It consists of a high 
aperture lens focusing an image on to a photo-sensi- 
tive plate which in turn produces an electronic 
image on the anode of a dissector tube. 

The electron image is moved electrically over an 
aperture to produce the scanning movement. Thence 
the signal is amplified in the usual way. 

This scanner can be used either for Telecine 
work, (thus displacing the Scanning disc) or for direct 
pick-up on interiors or exteriors, as is the Intermedi- 
ate Film Scanner. 

Now we come to the E. M. I. installation which 




Baird Television, Ltd., Crystal Palace Studios. Intermediate 
film scanner, for use on interiors or exteriors. 



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January, 1936 



I 1 1 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirteen 



consists chiefly of the Iconoscope, invented by 
Zworykin in America. 

This method is a combination of a photo cell 
and a Cathode Ray Tube: an image is focused on 
to a mosaic photo-electric plate, charging the minute 
cells which in turn are discharged by a Cathode 
Ray Beam. The discharged current is collected on 
a positive metal anode, this current is the Television 
Signal and is now amplified. 

The Iconoscope is used in the same manner as 
the Farnsworth Electron Camera for Telecine or 
direct pick-up. 

Reception 

All the leading radio manufacturers will be mar- 
keting receivers that will be capable of receiving 
both systems. 

Most of these receivers will utilize the Cathode 
Ray Tube for picture reception; picture size will vary 
from 5" x 6" to 14" x 16". The cost of the receivers 
will range from $130 to $500. The largest receiver 
will be no larger than a large Console Radio. 

Programs 

There is no definite proposal as to the type of 
programs that may be expected. 

But this is a rough guess: The major part will be 
in the form of films, with vaudeville and talks from 
the direct pick-up methods. I do not think, that much 
will be done in the way of play production until 
Television has established itself as a definite enter- 
tainment. 

Big Screen Television in Cinemas 

The Baird Company has two methods for big 
screen work: 

1. Intermediate Film Projection. The Television 
Image is received on a Cathode Ray Tube and is 
rephotographed by means of a continuous camera. 
The film is developed and then projected on to the 
screen in the space of 2 minutes. 

Although this method is in its infancy, it shows 
great promise. Some film that was taken by this 
method was shown at the Cinema Exhibitors Asso- 
ciation, at Cardiff, this year, making a good impres- 
sion on those that saw it. It proved that Television 
could be used in cinemas for more than a novelty 
and that for important topical events it would be a 
definite asset. 

2. High Speed Mirror Drum. In this method the 
Television Signal modulates a Kerr cell which al- 
lows a varying amount of light to fall on a High 
Speed Drum which throws the image on the screen. 

This method of big screen Television is being 
installed at a London Theatre where it will be pub- 
licly demonstrated in the near future. 

It has been stated that the Scophony Television 
Company, of England, have perfected a big screen 
Television Method, but to date no details have been 
published. 

This is the fairly advanced state in which Tele- 
vision finds itself in England. Everybody is awaiting 
1936 when Television transmissions start in earnest. 



HOLLYWOOD TO JAPAN 

Art Reeves reports the shipping to Japan, recent- 
ly, of one of his latest type developing machines 
which was billed to the Yokohama Cinema Com- 
pany. The shipment was accompanied by a varied 
assortment of other laboratory equipment. 



"SPEAKING PAPER" DEMONSTRATED IN LONDON 

"Speaking paper," an invention of an Argentine 
engineer, was recently demonstrated in London, ac- 
cording to a report from the American consulate- 
general, London, made public by the Commerce De- 
partment. 

By means of this paper, it is possible to present 
a record of speech, music or any other sound in as 
handy a form as the daily newspaper. It is claimed 
that the invention will create a new industry, which 
will produce "speaking" books, sell the equivalent 
of 12-inch graphophone records and will also permit 
newspapers to print an actual record of a public 
speech, concert or play which readers could repro- 
duce in their own homes, the report states. 

The system, called the Fotoliptofono, works more 
or less on the principles of a talking picture. A sound 
track is registered on a celluloid negative by means 
of a microphone and oscillograph. From this pho- 
tographic impression a block is made from which is 
printed the "speaking paper," a series of close par- 
allels of jagged black lines, it was stated. 

The paper is then placed in the reproducing ap- 
paratus, the subject of the recent demonstration. A 
piece of paper about the size of a single newspaper 
sheet was fitted on to the cylinder of a machine re- 
sembling the early Edison phonograph and a photo- 
electric cell retranslated the black lines into impulses 
which issued from an ordinary portable wireless set 
as speech, song and music in turn, according to the 
report. 

It is reported that negotiations are in progress 
looking to the production of the "speaking paper" 
by the English graphophone companies. 




CAMERA & PROP 
RENTALS 

Camera Supply Co. 

1515 Cahuenga Blvd. 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Ruddy Ceraus, Manager 
CLadstone 2404 

Nite Phone CLadstone 6583 
Cable Address — "CAMERAS" 



_ 



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Fourteen 



T 1 1 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



January, /V.?6 



With President Roosevelt At Boulder Dam 



By Frank M. Blackwell 

(Pa the News) 




Fresident and Mrs. Roosevelt at Boulder Dam 

Las Vegas, Nev., Sept. 27th, 1935. 
Frank M. Blackwell, 

Pathe News, 1926 South Vermont Ave., 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

FOLLOWING INFO VIA OMAHA BUREAU QUOTE 
PRESIDENTIAL SPECIAL ARRIVING SALT LAKE CITY 
TWELVE FORTY FIVE PM SEPT TWENTY NINTH DE- 
PARTING TWELVE FIFTY FIVE PM STOP ARRIVING 
LAS VEGAS ONE THIRTY AM SEPT THIRTY DEPARTING 
ONE FORTY AM STOP ARRIVING BOULDER CITY THREE 
NAUGHT FOUR AM STOP PRESIDENT PROCEEDING 
THENCE VIA AUTO TO DAMSITE WHERE DEDICATION 
ADDRESS SCHEDULED NOON SAME DATE UNQUOTE 
STOP ADVISE YOU ARRANGE BE LAS VEGAS LEAST 
DAY IN ADVANCE ORDER COMPLETE FINAL AR- 
RANGEMENTS FOR COVERAGE. 

Union Pac, News Bureau Denton. 

And then the fun began for all the "news hounds" 
in Southern California. This wire, received by each 
news reel office, was the signal for all the newsreel 
trucks to be loaded with extra film — shipping boxes 
— cans — all the dozens of spare parts and pieces of 
equipment not carried in our trucks on the average 
story and which are invariably needed when on an 
assignment away from our bases. 

President Roosevelt, headed cross-continent for 
a rest from his duties in Washington, D. C, was 
about to "swing into our territory!" 

Greenwald and Jones, of Hearst Metrotone; Brick 



and Tice, Lehman and McGrath, of Fox Movietone; 
Johnson and Sawyer, Koverman and McCarroll (who 
had to "break away" from the colony of Mormons 
on Salt Creek in the wilds of Arizona in order to be 
present), for Paramount; and the writer, with his 
newly-wedded recordist, Michael James Duffy, for 
Pathe — all pointed the noses of their "sound wag- 
ons" out along the three hundred mile stretch of high- 
way toward Las Vegas and, ultimately, Boulder 
Dam, for the President's dedication of that great 
engineering triumph. 

Noon, Monday, Sept. 30th! Thermometer regis- 
tering 102 ! ! ! The President arrives at the dam- 
site. Ten thousand men, women and children — from 
desert ranches — from verdant valleys — from city and 
hamlet — from mountain cabins — on hand to hear 
him dedicate this twentieth century marvel to the 
well-being of humanity. 

Cameras everywhere! ! ! News crews, travelling 
with the President, stationed on specially built plat- 
forms in front of, and just below, the speaker's stand, 
ready to photograph his every move and record his 
every word on this historic occasion. Others high 
on the towering peaks of both Arizona and Nevada 
— getting "long shots" — showing the entire awe-in- 
spiring panorama — the mighty pile of cement block- 
ing the turbulent waters which, for centuries, had cut 
their way, unhindered, down through strata after 
strata of the desert lands, to form the mile deep 
Black and Boulder Canyons. Still others up in 
"skips" — platforms travelling on cables, suspended 
across and above the canyon, with ends embedded 
and anchored in the mountain tops on either side 
of the river — to "shoot" down upon the speakers — 
the dam itself — the thousands of people, looking like 
pigmies on its parapeted top. 

The President first stops on top of the dam, seven 
hundred and twenty-seven feet above the bared 
floor of the mighty Colorado river, and gazes raptly 
over the stone parapet of the highest dam ever built 
by man. Then he looks out over a greenish blue 
lake more than 380 feet below him — a lake 
stretching away for some eighty-three miles up a 
narrow canyon and spreading out over the arid, flat 
lands of Nevada and Arizona. Finally he goes to the 
flag-draped speaker's stand to make the dedication 
address for which he has travelled almost the 
breadth of our continent. 

And the men, women and children stand and 




See all these men? Well, most of 'em are news-reelers. Yes, that's the President delivering his address at Boulder Dam. 
Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



Jamtarv, 1936 



The I N T E R N A T 1 O N A L P H O T O G R A 1' H E R 



Fifteen 



listen, out there on top of this great monument which 
man, in skill and daring and science — with his very 
sweat and blood — has erected — and the news cam- 
eras grind — until the President's final: "Well Done!" 

Sept. 30th, 1935. 
C. R. Collins, 

Assignment Editor, Pathe News, 
35 West 45th St., 
New York, N. Y. 

NONEXCLUSIVE DAM DEDICATION FILM DUE YOU 
EIGHT FORTY FIVE TUESDAY MORNING VIA RAILWAY 



AIR EXPRESS WAYBILL NUMBER THREE NINE TWO 
FIVE EIGHT FOUR REGARDS. 

Blackwell. 

Then, with the exposed film packed and aboard 
a New York bound plane, headed for our respective 
editorial offices, and the sending of the above wire 
—AND THEN ONLY— was the assignment ended— 
the story "covered" — with the hope in the heart of 
each "News Hound" that his editor would also say: 
"Well Done!" 



AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHY 



FILM CLIPS 

Camera Speed For Close-Ups: Most average 
home-movie reels of family and friends contain a 
number of Big Close-ups. In such films the camera- 
man is chiefly concerned in securing close-ups 
which are characteristic of the subject being photo- 
graphed, rather than portraying any specific action. 
More often than not, if Big Close-ups are taken with 
the camera running at normal speed, plus the in- 
ability of the subject to gage the tempo of move- 
ment, the nervousness of your subject becomes apal- 
lingly apparent when later the shot looms on the 
screen. You will get a much smoother shot, with a 
lot of the jerks of the subject ironed out, when shoot- 
ing a 3-foot focus Big Close-up, if you use 24 speed. 
This slight increase in camera speed over normal 
will effect a very natural motion of the face on the 
screen. And when shooting at 24 speed, don't forget 
to set your lens for the increased exposure. This 
compensation calls for one-half stop larger than for 
normal 16 speed. 

Dolly Shots: Have you ever tried a traveling cam- 
era shot? It is quite simple — if you can borrow 
Junior's wagon — and adds variety to your films. 
Simply seat yourself in the wagon, have Junior push 
the wagon towards the subject, while you keep your 
camera in operation. The wagon must not be pushed 
too quickly; you need smooth motion. A camera 
speed of 24 or 32 frames per second is indicated for 
a dolly shot. 

Snow Exposures: At this season of the year, do 
not miss the opportunity of securing some scenic 
shots of the snow-covered landscapes. A word of 
caution, however, about exposure. Watch out for 
over-exposure! A brilliantly sunlit expanse of dis- 
tant snow has great reflecting power, so with regular 
Panchromatic film stops F 11 and F 16 are advisable. 
Splices: If you have never become adept at mak- 
ing a good, strong and neat splice, there is no time 
better spent than learning the art. With a few feet 
of discarded film to work on, practice making splices. 
This is one phase of amateur movies everyone 
should be adept at. 

Novelty Title: Alphabet soup letters provide 
simple material for a novelty title, if your title board 
is of the small card type which allows for the camera 
to shoot down on a card. Lay out the wording of 
the title with the alphabet soup letters. Start the 
camera and when you have sufficient footage, care- 
fully blow the letters from the title card. On the 
screen, when the title has been read, the letters will 
disappear as if by magic. 

Backward Motion: Oldtimers can skip this para- 
graph, as its content is directed to the beginner in 
amateur movies. You can create scenes of cine- 
magic by photographing a view, such as one of 
heavy downtown traffic, by holding the camera up- 



side-down during exposure. When your film is re- 
turned from processing, cut out the traffic shot, re- 
verse it end for end, and splice it into your roll again. 
You'll see your city traffic doing queer things on 
the screen. Always follow this same procedure 
whenever you desire to obtain backward motion on 
the screen. 

Fast. Trick Motion: There are many amateurs 
possessing variable speed and hand-crank cameras. 
Too often when a shot calls for a bit of comedy ac- 
tion, the amateur thinks only of the 8 speed. Now 
this 8 speed is in many respects ideal, but why ig- 
nore the hand-crank shaft? It's not there for emer- 
gency use only, in case of a breakdown of your 
motor drive, nor only to photograph an entire roll of 
film continuously. Rather the hand-crank shaft is 
the original trick crank; capable of giving various 
speeds to your camera under the 8 per second. Just 
a little practice at hand cranking with an empty 
camera, will soon make you adept at judging speed. 
And you'll find 4 frames per second will give you 
the original Keystone Kop chase speed better than 
by any other means. Such slow exposure speed as 
4 per second requires a very small aperture setting 
on your lens — cut it way down to F 16 at least, 
when working in good light. 

Projection Hint: When screening your movies, 
don't allow a broken splice to cause a long interrup- 
tion while you try the tuck-under system unassisted. 
Your guests will fidget and you'll come close to los- 
ing your mind trying to get that stray film onto the 
take-up reel. Keep a box of paper clips handy, the 
small, round variety. Then it is only a matter of a 
moment to clip together the broken splice (after the 
film has passed the last sprocket or roller), and con- 
tinue with your show. 

Storage Cans: After all, the only proper place for 
a reel of film, when it is not in use, is in a container. 
Not left open to attract dust, heat or moisture. Film 
tins, in which originally is packed positive film, are 
most inexpensive and serve well as a container for 
a projection reel of film. A small piece of blotting- 
paper slipped in the tin will act as a humidor. Small- 
er tins, such as 16mm, 100-foot positive is packed in, 
will serve nicely for projection reels of 8mm film. 

Tripods: We don't care whether or not you have 
nerves of steel — the truth is you can never hold a 
motion picture camera as steady as can a tripod. 
Tripods will always give better results. You want a 
movie of your subject, not of a background. The true 
illusion of motion is strengthened considerably when 
the background remains in a constant position on 
the screen. And too, once a camera rests upon a 
good tripod, the temptation to panoram is greatly 
lessened. Invest in a good tripod, you won't regret 
it. And use it! If not on all your shots, certainly 
on all your interior work. 

(Turn to Page 22) 



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S ixtcen 



T h e I N T E R X A 'J - I O N A L P H O TOGRAPHE R 



January. W36 



Some Data On 
Building a Title Board 



N such a popular hobby as home-movies, 
j there are always to be found those ama- 




Ulll teurs, possessing a small work shop and a 
capacity for handling tools, who will desire 
to build their own accessory equipment. To these 
cine-makers we dedicate this data on building a title 
board. We hope it may smooth their way because 
constructing a title board presents many perplexing 
problems, as only one who has made his own board 
for the first time knows all too well. Be it said at the 
beginning, however, that building a good title board 
calls for great accuracy and much patience on the 
part of the builder; yet your own board, made to 
suit your own particular requirements, will never 
cease to be a most useful adjunct to your personal 
movie making. 

The type of title board you will choose to build 
will depend to a large extent on your camera; on 
its features as well as on its limitations. For all 
ordinary requirements, however, you will most likely 
choose the type which has the camera mounted on 
the board at one end, with the title card holder at 
the other. 

Two very important requisites of a title board are 
sturdy construction and solidness in the camera 
mount. A title board may not be altogether neat in 
appearance — more often it is not — but it must by all 
means possess these two, foregoing qualifications. 
Flimsy construction and a hit or miss camera mount- 
ing will only yield poor results in the last analysis. 

Good, hard wood is the safest material for a title 
board base. One inch, or three-quarter inch, stock 
is preferable. Laminated stock of this thickness will 
serve nicely for the purpose as it is less liable to 
subsequent warping, thus destroying the accuracy 
of your title setup. 

Your camera mount must insure the camera be- 
ing mounted to the title board in a rock steady posi- 
tion. Not the slightest movement is permissible. 
Moreover, as in most instances the average amateur 
possesses only one camera, necessitating its re- 
moval from the title board at frequent intervals for 
other photographic work, the camera mount must 
be of such accuracy that each time the camera is 
replaced on the board, it will automatically assume 
the same exact position as in former setups. 

Whether you will mount your camera on the 
title board vertically or horizontally depends upon 
the make you own. Those amateur movie cameras 
of Eastman manufacture, the Cine-Kodaks, which 
follow the same general shape as the well-known 
Brownie Box still camera — and all other makes of 
movie cameras of like design — should be mounted 
in normal vertical position. Their base is substan- 
tial, and the regular tripod socket on the bottom may 
well be used for attaching the camera to the board. 
It is good practice, however, to provide side guides 
of some sort, either of metal or of wood, screwed 
permanently to the title board. These guides should 
fit the sides of the camera as snugly as possible, to 



By HAMILTON RIDDEL, Edito C 

insure that the camera assumes the same, exact posi- 
tioning at each setup. Without these side guides 
there is a distinct tendency for the camera to shift 
slightly, to the right or to the left, thus making for 
lopsided results in your finished titles. 

With other type amateur movie cameras which, 
because of their particular design and shape, have 
a smaller base, such as the Bell & Howell Filmo 
and the Victor Cine Camera, it is more advisable to 
mount this kind in a horizontal position on the title 
board. A camera "bed", carefully cut out to fit the 
general outline of the camera, with a wooden end 
brace, through which a bolt extends into the tripod 
socket, will assure rock steadiness and accurate 
positioning every time. When the camera is mounted 
horizontally, the title card holder must of course be 
attached to the title board in a like, horizontal posi- 
tion — to match the camera position. This is in no 
way inconvenient. 

The next consideration in building a board is the 
matter of card-size which you will want to standard- 
ize on. There are several sizes, all the way from 
11x14 inches, 9x12 inches, down to the smaller 
3 3 /4x5!/2 inches. The larger size cards of course 
allow some leeway in setups, but as they usually 
call for hand-lettering, a rather difficult undertaking 
for the average amateur with no particular training 
in this line, the smaller cards seem to be more adapt- 
able for home use. Again, a small card is advisable, 
for in this case the title board need not be large 
nor bulky, there being only a comparatively few 
inches necessary between camera lens and title 
card. Also, a small card is much cheaper in the 
end, and it may be typed out on an ordinary type- 
writer, a convenience you should not overlook. 

A convenient method to determine the approxi- 
mate area covered by the lens, working close to the 
small card as on a title board, is as follows: Set up 
your projector, making sure its lens is a regular 2- 
inch focus one, and snap on the lamp. Move the 
projector to or from the screen, as the case may be, 
until the white frame area is somewhat smaller than 
your title card. When this proper size has been de- 
termined, measure carefully the distance from the 
screen to the tip of the projection lens. For example, 
the result may be 18 inches. If the lens on your 
camera is a 1-inch (25mm) focus one, simply divide 
your result, 18 inches, by two. The result, 9 inches, 
is the distance which will be required on your board 
from title card to the tip of your camera lens. This 
method is a good aid in arriving at the overall length 
of your title board base. 

The most convenient type of title card holder is 
a simple wooden frame. On the back of the frame 
are screwed two pieces of spring metal strips, which 
will hold the card in place and yet allow for con- 
venient centering of the card to be photographed. 
The card frame of course is permanently mounted, 
at the proper distance, on the base of the title board. 
Its center should match the center of the camera lens, 
both sideways and up-and-down. Allowance must 
be made so that no part of the frame will be included 
by the camera lens. On the card frame there may 
be guide lines, or marks, for easy centering of the 
title before the camera lens. These guide lines are 
(Turn to Page 28) 



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January, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPH E R 



Seventeen 




vnt of Amateur Photography 

Sggr^ES, sir, anything can happen in the film 
game, and it sure did in the early days!" 
We were comfortably seated in the lab 
office. Art, the one time amateur, now su- 
perintendent of a professional motion picture labor- 
atory, had just finished speaking. 

"What did?" I queried. For although there had 
been a hard run of film through the lab that day, 
even now continuing into the evening, I knew Art 
was never too tired to talk pictures. "Sounds to me 
as though you'd had some interesting experiences; 
let's hear about 'em." 

"Okay," Art rejoined. "Movie making was 
mighty different in the old days. Today the amateur 
movie maker has it pretty easy by comparison." 

Settling himself in his chair, a bit tired perhaps 
but with his face reflecting bygone happy days, Art 
continued his story: 

"Well, let's see ... it must have been over thirty 
years ago when I first took up making motion pic- 
tures. I lived in a small town in the northern part of 
the state, where I worked for the railroad. The single 
movie theatre the town boasted of was my favorite 
hangout, and there it was that I spent most of my 
spare moments. For a very long, long time I studied 
the pictures shown on the screen. And then, with 
the enthusiasm of my eighteen years, I got the idea 
I'd like to make my own. 

"In those days, however, buying a motion pic- 
ture camera was a real job; hard on one's patience 
as well as on one's pocketbook. There were no pho- 
tographic dealers, nearby or far away, to offer sug- 
gestions or to show you movie equipment. The one 
popular camera used almost universally by early 
film producers was the old Pathe — you remember, 
the one with the rear crank on it. Being the profes- 
sional standard of that time, the Pathe was beyond 
the reach of the average amateur because of price. 
Well, I'd watched every ad I could when at last I 
ran across one offering a camera at the startling low 
price of $150, I think it was. 

"It took a lot of saving, for that first outfit, but 
one day I sent to New York City for my first motion 
picture camera, an Eberhardt Schneider. For those 
days, it was the last word in moviecameras, though 
this point could be argued today. 

"The old Schneider box was made of teakwood, 
and its capacity was 165 feet of 35mm film. The film 
magazines were of the interior type, placed side by 
side, with a cross-over loop to the aperture gate. 
The gate itself was nothing more than a piece of flat 
metal, with absolutely no tracks on it. The pressure 
plate was felt-lined and was adjustable. And the 
intermittent movement was the Slip Claw, also ad- 
justable. Well, I'll tell you, those two adjustments 
could drive a man crazy! If the pressure plate ot 
the gate was adjusted too tightly, you'd scratch the 
devil out of your negative or jam the camera! If the 
Slip Claw adjustment wasn't just right, the move- 
ment would back up your negative! A constant 
frame-line in that camera was nothing short of a 
miracle. There were only two gears in the old box 
whcih, when they got spinning, made the camera 
sound more like a threshing machine than anything 



u 



It Happened 

One Day 



n 



else. And there was no footage counter or meter. 
I soon found out you just cranked the camera until 
you thought you were out of film — and more often 
you were wrong rather than right. So I got a bright 
idea. I mounted an old bicycle cyclometer, with a 
'star and cam' connection, to the camera. This make- 
shift meter gave me readings by half-foot steps. 
Without doubt, the most valuble item on the camera 
was the genuine Carl Zeiss, 2-inch, focusing F 3.5 
lens. I've still got that great old lens, and have 
used it on several of my later cameras. 

"My next important acquisition for my outfit was 
a tripod. I chose a surveyor's tripod, which set me 
back about $40. Naturally, there were no pam or 
tilt gears. But their lack didn't daunt me. Whenever 
I wanted to pam, I'd just grab the old camera with 
my left arm and twist while cranking the old box 
with my right. The results on the screen were full 
of jerks, but still the shots were pams! And if I 
wanted a tilt, a friend of mine would slowly move 
one leg of the tripod, as I cranked merrily away. 

"Now that my outfit was more or less complete, 
the difficulty was to secure some film stock. Again 
I was snagged, until I learned of the French nega- 
tive, Lumiere film. I sent off an order for a supply 
... it was cheap in those days, believe negative 
was only one and a half cents per foot. After sev- 
eral weks, the film stock arrived and with a letter 
of thanks for my order, containing advice on ex- 
posure from Lumiere. But the darn thing was writ- 
ten in French" What a help that was. 

"Came the day when I was ready to take my first 
movies, a parade in the old home town. Remember, 
I was the first to ever have a moving picture camera 
in town ... I thought I was somebody, and so did 
everyone else. Practically bursting with pride over 
my outfit, I set up the old Schneider on the main 
street, while the townfolk looked on with interest. 
Well, the parade started and so I began to crank 
away. The first shot seemed to be going all right. 
But as I turned the camera for the next scene, all of 
a sudden — wham! — the camera crank shot out of 
my hand and high into the air! My footage counter 
had jammed and . locked the entire mechanism. 
Forcing it by dead center, I regained my crank and 
continued merrily on my way to finish the film . . . 
or so I thought. I'd just emptied one magazine and 
was loading another into the camera, meanwhile 
thinking of the swell pictures I was getting when, 
with a terrible feeling, I discovered I'd left the lens 
cap on all the time I thought I'd been exposing the 
first magazine! There it was, there could be no 
doubt; the little lens cap to which was attached a 
string leading to the box. But necessity was still the 
mother of invention then as it is now. Yanking the 
safety string from the box, I tied it to the camera 
crank. No more was I harried. Thenceforth every 
time I turned the crank, the cap very obligingly 
popped from its perch on the lens! And so my sec- 
(Turn to Page 29) 



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Eighteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



January, 1936 



The Cinematographer's Book of Tables 

By FRED WESTERBERC 



SHUTTER OPENING— EQUIVALENT STOP 

F-VALUES REQUIRED IN ORDER TO OBTAIN THE SAME 
EXPOSURE AT VARIOUS DECREES OF SHUTTER OPENING 

CAMERA SPEED CONSTANT 



CAMERA SPEED— EQUIVALENT STOP 



240° 


160° 


120° 


80 


60° 


40° 


30° 


20° 


1.7 


1.4 


1.2 


1.0 










2.0 


1.6 


1.4 


1.15 


1.0 








2.5 


2.0 


1.7 


1.4 


1.2 


1.0 






2.8 


2.3 


2.0 


1.6 


1.4 


1.15 


1.0 




3.5 


2.8 


2.5 


2.0 


1.7 


1.4 


1.2 


1.0 


4.0 


3.3 


2.8 


2.3 


2.0 


1.6 


1.4 


1.15 


4.9 


4.0 


3.5 


2.8 


2.5 


2.0 


1.7 


1.4 


5.6 


4.6 


4.0 


3.3 


2.8 


2.3 


2.0 


1.6 


6.9 


5.6 


4.9 


4.0 


3.5 


2.8 


2.5 


2.0 


8.0 


6.5 


5.6 


4.6 


4.0 


3.3 


2.8 


2.3 


9.8 


8.0 


6.9 


5.6 


4.9 


4.0 


3.5 


2.8 


EQUIVA 
C 


LENT F 
HANCE 


-VALUE 

D INSTI 

CAM 


S OBTA 

:ad of 

ERA SPEE 


INED W 
THE LE 

D CONS! 


HEN Tl 
NS DIA 
ANT 


HE SHU" 
PHRACN 


ITER IS 
1 


240 


160° 


120° 


80° 


60° 


40° 


30° 


20° 


1.15 


1.4 


1.6 


2.0 


2.3 


2.8 


3.3 


4.0 


1.3 


1.6 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


1.6 


2.0 


2.3 


2.8 


3.3 


4.0 


4.6 


5.6 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.3 


6.5 


2.3 


2.8 


3.3 


4.0 


4.6 


5.6 


6.5 


8.0 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.3 


6.5 


7.5 


9.2 


3.3 


4.0 


4.6 


5.6 


6.5 


8.0 


9.2 


11.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.3 


6.5 


7.5 


9.2 


10.7 


13 
16 


4.6 


5.6 


6.5 


8.0 


9.2 


11.3 


13 


5.3 


6.5 


7.5 


9.2 


10.7 


13 


15 


18 


6.5 


8.0 


9.2 


11.3 


13 


16 


18 


22 



EQUIVALENT F-VALUE OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT CAMERA 
SPEEDS WHEN THE SHUTTER VALUE REMAINS CONSTANT 


Camera 

Speed 

in 

Pic- 
tures 
Per 


Relative 
Exposure 


STOP ACTUALLY USED 


11.3 8.0 5.6 4.0 , 2.8 i 2.0 1.4 




EQUIVALENT F-VALUE 


240 


1/10 


45 


25 


18 


13 


9.0 


6.3 


4.5 


192 


1/8 


32 


22 


16 


11.3 


8.0 


5.6 


4.0 


144 


1/6 


28 


20 


14 


9.8 


6.9 


4.9 


3.5 


120 


1/5 


25 


18 


13 


9.0 


6.3 


4.5 


3.2 


96 


1/4 


22 


16 


11.3 


8.0 


5.6 


4.0 


2.8 


72 


1/3 


20 


14 


9.8 


6.9 


4.9 


3.5 


2.4 


64 


3/8 


18 


13 


9.2 


6.5 


4.6 


3.3 


2.3 


48 


1/2 


16 


11.3 


8.0 


5.6 


4.0 


2.8 


2.0 


36 


2/3 


14 


9.8 


6.9 


4.9 


3.5 


2.5 


1.7 


32 ' 3/4 


13 


9.2 


6.5 


4.6 


3.3 


2.3 


1.6 


24 i 1 


11.3 


8.0 


5.6 


4.0 


2.8 


2.0 


1.4 


22 


1 1/10 


10.8 


7.6 


5.4 


3.8 


2.7 


1.9 


1.4 


20 


1 1/5 


10.3 


7.3 


5.2 


3.6 


2.6 


1.8 


1.3 


18 


1 1/3 


9.8 


6.9 


4.9 


3.5 


2.5 


1.7 


1.2 


16 


1 1/2 


9.2 


6.5 


4.6 


3.3 


2.3 


1.6 


1.2 


14 


1 7/10 


8.6 


6.1 


4.3 


3.1 


2.2 


1.5 


1.1 


12 


2 


8.0 


5.6 


4.0 


2.8 


2.0 


1.4 


1.0 


10 


2 2/5 


7.3 


5.2 


3.7 


2.6 


1.8 


1.3 


.9 


8 


3 


6.5 


4.6 


3.3 


2.3 


1.6 


1.2 


.8 


6 


4 


5.6 


4.0 


2.8 


2.0 


1.4 


1.0 


.7 


4 


6 


4.6 


3.3 


2.3 


1.6 


1.2 


.8 


.6 


3 


8 


4.0 


2.8 


2.0 


1.4 


1.0 


.7 


.5 


2 


12 


3.3 


2.3 


1.6 


1.2 


.8 


.6 


.4 


1 24 


2.3 


1.6 


1.2 


.8 


.6 


.4 


.3 



THREE COLOR PROCESS ANNOUNCED 

(Continued from Page 3) 



feature productions made in this country and that an 
average of twenty-five thousand dollars will be spent 
on each production for color prints with which to 
advertise the color production. 

It is intended by the owners of this process, yet 
to be given a name, to establish their permanent 
place of business within the next thirty days and 
before the expiration of this time they will be in a 
position to introduce their product to a market that 
will quickly absorb all their time and talent in the 
production of motion picture colored stills alone. It 
is also intended to enter the industrial field which is 
much larger in its scope than that of motion pictures. 
These two fertile fields offer them an unlimited op- 
portunity to expand, though there are other lucrative 
fields, such as portraits, miniature, three color lan- 
tern slides for advertising purposes, etc. 

The Sartov-Linstead camera is of a very peculiar 



design, it being somewhat in the shape of an air- 
plane, having wings and fuselage. The average 
cameraman can possibly conceive of the funda- 
mental and basic purposes of such a design and it 
is exceedingly unique in its construction, though 
mobile and light so as to enable the operator con- 
veniently to move it about as he would the ordinary 
still camera. This camera will soon be introduced 
to the cameramen of Hollywood. 



NEW KODACHROME PROCESSING STATION 

Eastman Kodak Company has opened another 
completed Kodachrome processing depot at Chicago. 
There are now three such stations in the United 
States, the two others being located at Rochester and 
Los Angeles. The address of the Chicago station is 
1727 Indiana Avenue. 



Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



January, 1936 T h e INTERNATIONAL PHOTO G R A P H E R Nineteen 



COMPLETE 



UNPARALLELED photographic quality... 
speed . . . fine grain . . . Eastman Super X has 
them all. It is the complete modern negative 
film. Agreeing that it leaves nothing to be de- 
sired, cameramen and producers are using it 
in the bulk of today's feature productions. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, Fort Lee, 
New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN SUPER X 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 



7 zventy 



T h c INTERNATI O N A L PHOTOGRAPH E R 



January, 1936 



Technicolor On the Way To Its Greatest Triumph In The 

Trail of the Lonesome Pine" 

By Raymond Palmer 




JILL Walter Wanger's "The Trail of the Lone- 
some Pine," made in Technicolor, become 
another motion picture history maker? 
That is the question being asked by those 
privileged few who have seen rough cuts from this 
feature that was photographed by William Howard 
Greene, Local 659, in the new three-color Techni- 
color. It will be recalled that eleven years ago 
"Wanderer of the Wasteland" was filmed in the old 
two-color Technicolor process. That picture started 
the stampede to color which reached its height in 
the early thirties. It "made" the Technicolor com- 
pany. 

Nothing had ever been seen before that could 
approach the film for sheer, breath-taking beauty. 
The fundamental reason for its success was the fact 
that it was a picture of the great out-doors. Nature 
had provided the colors, and the camera had tran- 
scribed them to the film as well as was possible with 
the two-color process. Truly, it was natural color, 
as near as it was mechanically possible to photo- 
graph it. It charmed the theatre-going public; made 
them color conscious. 

Two-color Technicolor had its day and, as every- 
one knows, color production fell off. Then came the 
newly perfected three-color Technicolor process 
which bids fair to revolutionize motion picture color 
photography. A short has been made with it; also 
the feature, "Becky Sharp." While the colors were 
true and beautiful, there was too much color delib- 
erately thrown into the productions. They did not 
again make the public cry for color. But now with 
"The Trail of the Lonesome Pine", according to those 
who have seen it, we have something else again. 

"We stuck to the natural in color in this film," 
explains Mr. Greene, the Technicolor cameraman in 
charge of the photography. "Every effort was made 
to keep away from adding color just for color's sake. 
The story is laid in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Vir- 
ginia, and while we did all our exteriors at Big Bear, 
in California, we found locations that will match 
anything in Virginia, and we set about to photo- 
graph them just as they look to any traveler who 
journeys down through the Southern state. 

"Where as in so many productions in times past, 
everything colorful that could be thought of was put 
before the camera, in this film people and places 
were photographed just as they really are. In other 
words, in 'The Trail of the Lonesome Pine' we strove 
to produce natural color, and not just color. When a 
character naturally would wear a pair of dirty black 
trousers, that's what he wore in this film, and not a 
pair of bright red ones with green stripes running 
down the sides. Even red and black checkered 
shirts, which might well be found in the mountains, 
were not allowed, because the effect might suggest 
that they had been added to bring out more color. 

"The lighting was all in a very low key; decid- 
edly unlike most lighting for color pictures. But the 
low key blends in with the story and the characters 
and the locale. 

"When you see Henry Fonda plowing in a field 
in this film you will see him dressed in the drab 



clothes such a character would wear in real life, and 
not flashing on the screen in the outfit one would 
look for in a musical comedy. Of course, there are 
spectacular scenes, such as one in which a big 
steam shovel is blown up by dynamite. That was a 
thriller for everyone, especially those of us at the 
cameras. Two hundred and forty-four sticks of dyna- 
mite were planted under that shovel. The cameras 
were protected by bulwarks made of 3 by 12 inch 
planks. These were put up in front of the cameras 
and over the tops of them, with a hole large enough 
to shoot through. When the explosion came and the 
debris started falling on the planks just over our 
heads, well — it was exciting. With the new three- 
color process we got that explosion exactly as it 
looked. 

"Another spectacular scene is the burning of a 
big construction camp. That was a scene for which 
we had to await the proper time for shooting, due to 
the terrible fire hazard up in the Big Bear district. 
We had to wait for rain before we were allowed to 
do it. 

"Like 'Wanderer of the Wasteland,' 'The Trail of 
the Lonesome Pine' is made up largely of exteriors, 
vast sweeps which thrill you with their beauty. Shot 
with a color process that gives you the ultimate in 
natural color reproductions, these exterior scenes 
will give the public what it long has been wanting — 
naturalness. Every vacation season hundreds of 
thousands of persons travel far afield to see the 
beauties of the various sections of the various coun- 
tries. They exclaim as they look at the magnificent 
colorings of the Grand Canyon, or the breath-taking 
sight of the Green Mountains of Vermont. 

"It is nature as God created it that they see and 
thrill to; not a flock of color added by humans. Color 
photography should place upon the screen these 
same natural scenes in the same natural color. That 
is what we strove for in 'The Trail of the Lonesome 
Pine'. A restful valley is still restful on the film. It is 
not spoiled by the sudden injection of a group of 
colorfully garbed people waving bright colored flags. 
The audience will not be conscious of the fact that 
they are looking at color. They will only see men 
and women going about the business of life looking 
real." 

It would seem as though Mr. Wanger, his direc- 
tor, Henry Hathaway, and his cameraman, Mr. 
Greene, have gone about something that promises 
to be another milestone in the progress of motion 
picture photography. Many are already saying that 
this film will be the most important one made in 
many years; that it will bring color to the front as 
never before. 

In selecting Green to handle the photography, a 
man of great experience in photographing the great 
outdoors in color was chosen. He has made Techni- 
color films in Europe, by the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, in the magic Isle of Bali, in French and Indo- 
China and far under water down off the coast of the 
Bahamas where he once was nearly drowned when 
a tropical hurricane swept their equipment to destruc- 
tion. He knows color and how to photograph it. 



Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



1936 



r h 



INTERNATIONAL P H (") T O G R A P H E R 



Tzventx-i 



Recent Photograph and Sound Patents 



By Robert Fulwider 

Registered Patent Attorney 
(Wilshire at La Brea, Los Angeles) 



2,019,615-2,019,616 — Sound Transmission Sys- 
tem; Sound Recording System. Both by Joseph P. 
Maxfield, assignor to E. R. P. I., New York City. 

2,019,675 — Sound Picture Screen. Harry Hertz- 
berg, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

2,019,698 — Device for Illuminating Lenticulated 
Film. Fritz Fischer, Felix Strecker and Kurt Rantsch, 
assignors to Siemens & Halski, Seimensstadt, Ger- 
many. 

2,019,718 — Differential Treatment of Color Images. 
Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky, Jr., Roch- 
ester, N. Y. 

2,019,735— Focusing Objective. John W. Scott, 
assignor to Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

2,019,748 — Photographic Printing Apparatus. C. 
M. Tuttle, assignor to Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. 

2,019,767— Motion Picture Camera. C. E. Phil- 
more, assignor to Tobin Tool & Die Co., Fond du lac, 
Wise. 

2,020,521— Projecting Apparatus. Albert B. Scott, 
Los Angeles. 

2,030,564— Method of Preparing Film for Repro- 
duction in Color. Gabriel G. Moreno, assignor to 
C M. C. Corp., New York City. 

2,020607— Photographic Material (Film). Gerd 
Heymer, assignor to Agfa Ansco Corp., Binghamton, 
N. Y. 

2,020,636 — Sensitizing of Silver Halide Emulsion. 
Walter Dieterle, assignor to Agfa Ansco Corp. 

2,020,688 — Process for Production of Color Separ- 
ated Negatives and Positives. Michael Kronschnabl, 
Munich, Germany. 

2,020,775 — Method of Producing Photographic- 
Pictures in Colors. Bela Gaspar, Brussels, Belgium. 

2,020,820-2,020,821— Method of Producing Com- 
posite Pictures. Conrad G. Briel, assignor to Cinema 
Development Co., Chicago, 111. 

2,020,857 — Device for Recording a Sound Film. 
Willem Six and R. Vermeulen, assignor to N. V. 
Philips' Corp., Eindhoven, Netherlands. 

2,020,861 — Carrier for Recording and Process for 
Making Same. R. C. van der Willigen and J. H. de 
Boer, assignors to N. V. Philips' Corp., Eindhoven, 
Netherlands. 

2,020,901— Process for Producing Pictures. A. Mil- 
ler and W. Keis, assignors to Agfa Ansco Corp., 
Binghamton, N. Y. 

2,021,016 — Film Splicing. Albert Narath, assignor 
to General Electric Co., New York. 

2,021,162 — Apparatus for Stereoscopic Picture 
Recording and Reproducing. George W. Walton, 
London, England. 

2,021,181 — Automatic Electric Change-over for 
Motion Picture Machine Shutters. Cecil E. Hall, Free- 
port, Texas. 

2,021,264 — Printing Device for Sound Films. R. 
Schmidt, assignor to Agfa Ansco Corp. 

2,021,533 — Telltale System for Projection Appar- 
atus. Walter S. Wolfe, Greenwood, Mass. 



2,021,560 — Cinematographic Mechanism. Pedro 
Lira, Santiago, Chile. 

2,022,014— Method of Making Reflex Copies. L. 
P. F. van der Grinten, Venlo, Netherlands. 

2,022,108— Sound and Motion Picture Reproduc- 
ing Machine. James W. Early, Los Angeles. 

2,022,353 — Film Magazine. A. Kindelmann and 
J. Pearlman, assignors to International Projector 
Corp., N. Y. 

2,022,362— Amateur Motion Picture Camera. E. S. 
Porter, New York. 

2,022,366 — Gate and Lens Structure of Motion 
Picture Film. Ewald Boecking, assignor to Interna- 
tional Projector Corp., N. Y. 

2,022,432 — Printing Apparatus for Lenticulated 
Film. A. Rodde, A. H. Herault, V. Hudely and Jean 
Lagrave, Paris, France. 

2,022,454 — Monocular Photographic Apparatus. 
Allen L. Barnes, Oak Park, 111. 

2,022,473 — Method of Rerecording Sound. James 
V. Maresca, assignor to R. K. O. Corp. 

2,022,492 — Phonographic Apparatus. Murray S. 
Clay, assignor to R. C. A. 

2,022,495 — Sound Recording Apparatus. Glenn 
L. Dimmick, assignor to R. C. A. 




WENDELL MACRAE 



ENLARGED 7000 TIMES 

— one of the most amazing feats of 
candid camera history 

The picture shows Ivan Dmitri standing alongside his mammoth enlarge- 
ment — 10 feet long by 7 feet high — shown at the Second International 
Leica Exhibition at Rockefeller Center, New York. (Now on tour to 20 
of the principal cities.) 

The spectacular has become almost commonplace with Leica. As one 
critic said "it has revolutionized picture taking and placed it among the arts". 

Are y ou familiar with the Leica? Would you like to take pictures 
that are different — action pictures, 
natural, unposed candid pictures? 
Then write for our latest illustrated 
booklet describing The Leica 
Model G — just out. 



^ica 




1:2 Summar Lens 



THE ORIGINAL MINIATURE CANDID CAMERA 
PRICES START AT $99. U. S. PAT. NO 1,960,044 

E. LEITZ, INC • DEPT. 108 • 60 EAST 10th ST., NEW YORK CITY 
Branch Offices in CHICAGO • WASHINGTON ■ LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO 



Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



Twenty-two 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



January, 1936 



AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHY 

(Continued from Page 15) 

QUESTIONS and ANSWERS 

By F. Hamilton Riddel 



1. Is it possible to enlarge 16mm to 35mm film? 

Yes, but this should only be done when there is 
no other way out; such as a unique shot, of news 
value, taken with a 16mm camera when there was 
no 35mm outfit recording the scene. Or in the case 
of early amateur films of family value filmed on 
35mm. In such instances, the value of the shots 
more than compensate for the considerable loss in 
quality of the transferred image. 

2. Are tests, for checking proper exposure and 
lighting, advisable? 

Very much so; and quite useful to the cinema- 
tographer in filming important work. Two or three 
feet, exposed, and developed in total darkness for 
the specified time of such developer, will give a 
positive check on exposure and lighting. The test 
will, of course, render a negative film but is suffi- 
cient in itself. Subsequent processing of the entire 
roll of film by a laboratory, whether by reversal or 
negative-positive processing, will give similar re- 
sults. 

3. Does amateur size film keep well? 

Yes, quite, if properly stored away. The three 
enemies to the life of such film are: dust, excessive 
heat, or excessive moisture. Exposure of the film to 
these common enemies quickly deteriorates it. Care- 
ful storage, in film tins or in humidor cans, in a cool 
place is advisable. 

4. In certain shots there is a dark shadow in 
the corner of the picture, cutting off part of the view. 
What is the cause? 

In holding a motion picture camera, do not allow 
your finger or other solid object to come between 
the camera lens and the subject you are photo- 
graphing. The view-finder of the camera does not 
warn of such obstruction to the camera's eye, so be 
careful. 

5. At what camera speed are sound films re- 
corded? 

Sound picture exposures are made at the stand- 
ard rate of 24 pictures (or frames) per second. This 
rate is, therefore, 8 more frames per second than the 
standard 16 pictures per second for silents. 

6. What is the cause of blurred pictures? 

This condition occurs most often as a result of 
panoraming too quickly with the camera. Panorams 
should always be made very slowly, except in the 
case of following a nearby, fast moving subject in 
which event the moving subject is of greater im- 
portance than the background. Another cause of 
blurred pictures obtains when the camera is not held 
steadily in the hand of the photographer. 

7. Although the background of a scene is sharp, 
an automobile in the foreground is blurred. Why is 
this? 

The automobile moved too rapidly and too close 
to the camera to be stopped by the fixed shutter 
speed of the usual amateur motion picture camera. 
As such cameras do not have provision for chang- 
ing shutter speeds, it is imperative to shoot rapidly 
moving subjects from an acute angle of view, rather 
than at right angles. 

8. How is slow-motion accomplished? Fast- 
motion? 

For silent films, the normal speed of the camera 
is 16 frames per second. Therefore, the greater 



number of frames exposed per second the slower 
will be the action. Conversely, the lesser number of 
frames exposed per second the faster will be the 
screen action. 

9. Why is it standard practice to photograph 
titles for Kodachrome or Dufaycolor pictures on a 
tinted base film? 

Since such movies are in natural color, it is more 
appropriate to interrupt the pictures with a tinted ttile 
than with a "cold" black and white one. 

10. In stopping a projector for a single frame 
still picture, is it advisable to hold same on the 
screen for a considerable length of time? 

No. It will bore the audience if held on the screen 
too long. More important and in spite of safety film, 
proper aperture ventilation and light shield, pro- 
tracted still projection is hard on the film. 

11. How may normal camera speed be checked? 
With no film in the camera and with the camera 

door open and with the camera set for 16 speed (if 
camera is of the variable speed type), press the ex- 
posure button. Watch and count the revolutions of 
the film feed sprocket. This sprocket should revolve 
at the rate of two times per second. For easy check- 
ing, time the sprocket at 20 revolutions every ten 
seconds. Some cameras, such as the Victor Cine, 
have a regulating screw which is extremely conveni- 
ent in adjusting speed to normal. Normal camera 
speed is most important. Otherwise decided changes 
take place in exposure calculations and in the tempo 
of the screen action. Always be sure your camera 
is running at proper speed for normal pictures. 

12. Why do rental libraries reguest that their 
film subjects be returned to them without rewinding 
of the film? 

Observance of this request saves your time and 
saves theirs. After film subjects are returned to the 
library, they must be thoroughly inspected for any 
possible damage. Since this necessary film inspec- 
tion can be done at one and at the same time as re- 
winding, it is more convenient to the libraries, rather 
than winding through a rewound subject for inspec- 
tion purposes and then immediately rewind it again, 
so that the film is ready for another screening. 

As a service to amateur movie-makers, we ex- 
tend a cordial invitation to write in questions which 
will be replied to in this department. Address all 
such letters to: 

Questions and Answers Department 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 

1605 North Cahuenga Avenue 

Hollywood, California 



M P G 

Reg. U. S. Patent Off. 

THE MOST TALKED OF FINE GRAIN DEVELOPER ON THE 
MARKET. IDEAL FOR MINIATURE CAMERA FILM. NO MIXING. 
ONE QUART SOLUTION GOOD FOR MORE THAN A DOZEN FILMS. 
FULL INSTRUCTIONS WITH EACH BOTTLE. AT YOUR DEALERS 
AT SI. 25 A QUART. OR AT 

R. J. FITZSIMONS CORP. 
75 FIFTH AVE. (Dept. B) NEW YORK CITY 



Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



January, 1936 



7 I, c INTER N ATIONAL PHOTOGRAPH E R 



Twenty-thrci 



Motion Picture Production In South America 

By John Alton 

(./ Letter to the Editor from John Alton of Local 659 "Tecnio de L/iz," "Cameraman" in Argentina. 




RGENTINA'S motion picture production busi- 
ness as yet cannot be called an industry. 
It is still in its experimental stage, but judg- 
ing by the talent of its pioneers and the 
enormous progress it has made in such a short time, 
it may soon turn out to be one. 

Up to the year of 1932 a few insignificant silent 
pictures were locally produced by amateurs. Then 
the sound came. In the year of 1932 a well known 
local theatrical producer built the first sound studio 
and in the same year produced the first Argentine 
"talkie" based on a successful stage play. This film, 
partly because of being the first one of its kind, had 
quite a success, both financially and artistically. 
Prints of it were sold to all the republics of South 
America and even to Spain. 

Encouraged by this success, a few individuals 
turned to the promising new field of film production. 
The year of 1933 found several locally produced 
talkies, a few of which were quite successful. And 
so production, from one film a year in 1932, has 
gradually grown to about fifteen in the year of 1935. 
That local production has not progressed more is 
partly due to the fact that local producers do not as 
yet realize the importance of a good story as the 
base of a successful film. 

An early attempt to discover "new talent" and 
use amateurs as actors, has failed completely. Pro- 



ducers soon realized that, in order to sell their fin- 
ished product, actors of the theatre must be em- 
ployed. Some of these actors soon adapted them- 
selves to the camera and today Argentine is proud 
of the few box office names known throughout South 
America. 

Right now production has come to a standstill. 
Several films are all ready, but the season being 
over, producers prefer to wait for the higher entrance 
fees of the coming season. 

Local production is still in the hands of so called 
private capitalists, with a limited sum at their dis- 
posal, hence a product suitable only for the local 
market. But in the background serious capitalists 
are eagerly waiting and watching every step. If 
the coming releases are only fairly successful they 
expect to take the field. Great capital will be in- 
vested, new studios built, more technicians imported, 
resulting in better pictures, to be sold, not only to 
the local market, but to the entire motion picture in- 
dustry of Spanish films. 

Mr. Alton is well known among the craft in Holly- 
wood, having learned his cinematography in the 
studios of the Film Capital. He has been in Argen- 
tina several years and is the pioneer cameraman 
of that country. There he is known as "Tecnio de 
Luz" which is Spanish for "first cameraman" or 
"the technician who does the light." 



ETHIOPIA" IN 16MM FILM 



The first new single-reel 16 mm. motion picture 
subject on Ethiopia, sound-on-film or silent, is an- 
nounced as available for sale or rental by the Li- 
brary Division of the Bell <S Howell Company. This 
timely and vitally interesting film portrays the nature 
of the country and the intimate daily life of the peo- 
ple. The sound narrative, entirely free from forced 
"wisecracks", provides an intelligent, fair, and un- 
varnished presentation of Ethiopian history, popula- 
tion, form of government, economic peculiarities, 
trades, religions, and many other points of interest. 

It is not a transitory "war" film, although thou- 
sands of tribesmen, afoot and on horseback, are 



caught by the camera, and the problems of provid- 
ing food for a vast army are drastically portrayed. 
A high spot of the film is the raw-meat-eating ritual 
of courage, practiced by the army on the eve of its 
departure for battle, under the watchful eye of the 
Emperor. The photography, of intense interest and 
high educational content is by Burton Holmes, world- 
renowned traveler. 

The sound version can be rented through FILM- 
OSOUND rental libraries. A silent version, with 
copy of the narrative text supplementing a minimum 
of titles, will also be available. Both sound and silent 
versions can be bought through Bell & Howell. 




ArtReeves film tested equipment 



Light Test Machines, Amplifiers, 

Bloop Punches, Microphones, 

Soundolas, Cables. 

Variable Area Recorders Glow Lamps, 



Developing Machines 
Galvanometers, 
Interlock Motors, 
Reeves Lights & Stands. 



Dependable Equipment At Prices Within Reason. 



Hollywood 

Motion PicTure/^quipmenTCo. |Td. 



645 NORTH MARTEL AVE- 



CABLE ADDRESS ARTREEVES 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, USA 



Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



Tzventy-four 



The INTERNATIONAL P H O T O G R A P H E R 



January, 1936 



Jesse Lasky Foresees a Cycle of Operatic Films 
Pickford-Lasky Ready For Production 



Repeated predictions that television had been 
perfected to the point where it is destined soon to 
become a home-entertainment comparable to radio, 
making it a threat to the motion picture industry, are 
scouted by Jesse L. Lasky, president of the recently 
formed Pickford-Lasky Productions, Inc., at United 
Artists' studios. 

"Perhaps some day," says Mr. Lasky, "but not 
yet! The audience-instinct is still too strong among 
the rank and file of people. They prefer to enjoy 
their major amusements en masse. 

"The crowd generates enthusiasm, which one 
misses by himself. Who wants to listen to the details 
of a football game, if he can join the spectators, to 
cheer and suffer with them? Thus you make your- 
self part of the drama, almost as much as the play- 
ers. Moreover, when you applaud a performance 
you want someone to applaud with. There is little 
incentive to do so by yourself." 

Mr. Lasky opines that when television reaches 
that stage of mechanical perfection, where produc- 
tions are broadcast from a central station to scattered 
theatres for audience reception, it may give the mo- 
tion picture industry something to worry about. "But 
that, it seems to me, is still in the dim and distant 
future," says Mr. Lasky, "in spite of the undoubted 
progress television is making. However, I do not see 
it as a menace to the picture industry in 1936." 

One of the developments during the New Year 
that Mr. Lasky does look forward to expectantly is a 
more intelligent use of music, as applied to the tell- 
ing of screen stories. "By the creation of a new musi- 
cal technique," he says, "I believe the international 
appeal of motion pictures, which received a tem- 
porary setback when the screen became audible, 
can be enlarged. 

"I do not mean to imply by this that we are in 
for a cycle of operatic films — pictures dominated by 



music. What I really foresee is a more discriminat- 
ing use of music, to the end that screen-stories may 
be unfolded more understandingly, in much the 
same way that sound and dialogue have advanced 
cinematography, in recent years." 

Mr. Lasky makes this forecast, not theoretically, 
but as a practical musician — one who knows and 
loves music as a moving force of general appeal. 
He got his original start in the amusement world as 
a musician and has never lost sight of the unfailing 
lure of melody and rhythm for the public-at-large, as 
entertainment. 

"Granted that comedy and the emotions speak 
convincingly to most people everywhere," Mr. Lasky 
points out, "music is generally conceded to be the 
universal language best understood among civilized 
nations. Such being the case, I feel there is room to 
use it to still better advantage; and I look for definite 
progress in that direction, during the year 1936." 

Pickford-Lasky's program in the New Year calls 
for the production of four pictures, all made for the 
world-market. The first will be "One Rainy After- 
noon," starring Francis Lederer. It is a romantic 
comedy. Lederer will sing in it for the first time in 
his screen career. 

As part of the policy to cultivate the international 
market, at least one production will be made abroad 
annually. The first will most likely be done in Great 
Britain, with Nino Martini as soon as he finishes his 
current operatic season at the Metropolitan in New 
York. It will naturally be a big musical production. 

The association of Mary Pickford and Jesse L. 
Lasky is regarded as a most fortunate one, as both 
desire to produce outstanding motion pictures, off 
the beaten path. Variety will characterize their out- 
put, no particular type of story being preferred, save 
that it must be entertaining as well as significant. 



CROWING INTEREST OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES IN 
GERMAN FILM PROCESSING MACHINES 



As reported in business circles, exports of Ger- 
man film working machines have considerably im- 
proved during the last few months. Detailed export 
figures could not be obtained, since this machinery 
does not represent a statistical group of its own. It 
has been learned that this improvement has included 
principally developing and copying machines. Com- 



petition with foreign producers of similar machinery 
is said to be very sharp. In spite of this competition, 
it is reported that German manufacturers have suc- 
ceeded increasing sales of their product in Holland, 
Austria, Italy and Spain, and also to some extent in 
the Argentine and in Brazil, reports Acting Commer- 
cial Attache Douglas Miller from Berlin. 



MAX FACTOR'S 

N EW 

LIQUID FOUNDATION 

A REVELATION IN FACIAL MAKE-UP 



January, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL P H O T O G R A P H E R 



7 iventy-five 



New Arc Lighting Equipment to Rival Incandescent Lights 
for Studio Sound Picture Illumination 

[The designers of the equipment herewith outlined have brought their product to the point of commercial distribution and further announcement regarding 
the new equipment will appear in the February International Photographer. — Editor's Note] 



Today the designers of arc lighting equipment for 
use in the modern studio for illuminating sound pic- 
ture sets are faced with the problem of producing arc 
lamps which will equal incandescent lamps in light, 
weight, silence of operation of both arc and mechan- 
ism and dependability in burning. 

Having set about the task of so designing an arc 
the designer will be obliged to adopt a radical de- 




Arc Control and Element of New Light 

parture from former types of arcs. The old arcs have 
been characterized by low efficiency and great 
weight and a multiplicity of parts. 

High efficiency of light collection and distribution 
present no problem providing the designer takes ad- 
vantage of highly perfected mirrors which are al- 
ready used in the other types of arc equipment 
which although standard in theatre projectors have 
not as yet found their way into studio equipment. In 



fact such high efficiency may have to be secured by 
the use of a reflector that the current consumption 
now becomes less than half that formerly required, 
while the light emission steps up amazingly, the arc 
proper becomes small, cool and extremely steady 
and quiet and light distribution on the set very 
smooth and even. 

Now having reduced the current to less than half 
the designer finds it possible also to reduce the total 
of the lamp weight by more than half, a step which 
readily may be understood when it is realized for 
instance that the weight of the ballast resistor, or 
grid, is proportionate to the current it must carry, 
also the cable and thus all the other parts. The final 
step is the building into the new lamp those recently 
developed but widely used aluminum alloys by 
which weight of housing and stand become just one- 
third that of former lamps using iron or steel. Not the 
least of the satisfaction gained from the use of the 
aluminum alloys is the knowledge that the housing 
for the new lamp undergoes no deterioration from 
internal heat nor extreme weather conditions. 

The above illustration shows the arc control and 
element which has been perfected for holding and 
feeding carbons for the new light weight arc spot 
lamp. Proper design here has resulted in a perfectly 
noiseless mechanism which strikes and feeds the 
carbons into the arc with such precise fashion as to 
produce a stable arc flame rivalling the incandes- 
cent in steadiness. 

A valuable feature is the long burning resulting 
from proper selection of carbon. By properly posi- 
tioning these carbons the new lamp will operate 
without aberration through an entire day's shooting. 



Automatic Sound and Picture Printers 



The last obstacle to the reproduction in theatres 
of startingly realistic talking motion pictures has 
now been removed, according to statements recently 
issued by leading Hollywood executives. For several 
months, cameramen and sound engineers have been 
producing sound films of extraordinary quality, but 
these master films could not be duplicated without 
serious losses in sound and picture value in the hun- 
dreds of copies needed for theater circulation. At a 
cost of over $375,000, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Para- 
mount, and Columbia Pictures have contracted for 
the installation of new duplicating equipment known 
as Automatic Sound and Picture Printers. 

These printers were developed in the Engineering 
and Research Laboratories of the Bell & Howell Com- 
pany, Chicago, and have been perfected as the re- 
sult of five years of development work costing 
$300,000. 

Both the picture and the sound track are auto- 
matically reproduced on these new machines at one 
operation, retaining all of the depth and definition 
of the original film and without loss of the full range 
of the recorded sound. As a result, pictures are now 
being released combining such photographic excel- 
lence and faithful sound reproduction that the most 
critical audience will be free to enjoy the new films 
as pure entertainment without making allowances 
for losses due to imperfect printing. 



Unlike the printers formerly used, the new ma- 
chines are entirely independent of the skill of the 
operator. Although running at higher speeds, these 
printers are equipped with interlocking controls and 
safety devices which make them entirely foolproof. 
They will stop instantly and automatically in case 
of film breakage, lamp burn-outs, power-line varia- 
tions, or failure of the air-supply lines which vacuum- 
clean the film while it is being run. Film waste is 
thus entirely eliminated. 




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/ zvcnlx-si.v 



T I: 



I N T E R N A T I O X A I. P H T O GRAPHER 



January, 1936 



TELEVISION AS A PROFESSION 

(Written Especially for the Readers of The International Photographer) 

By Harry R. Lubcke 

Director of Teh vision of the Don Lee Broadcasting System 




ANY young men and those in allied fields are interested 
in television as a profession. The following notes are 
intended as a guide for those who are interested them- 
selves, or for those who may have a young man that 
they want to guide vocationally. 
At the present time television is almost wholly a technical 
endeavor. It goes without saying that the prospective employee 
must therefore have a technical education. 

It is well that a man examine himself to see if he is suited 
for technical -work. Such work, in its higher aspects, calls 
for continuous exercise of creative imagination, and offers no 
opportunities to those -who are mentally lazy. As a boy, the 
candidate should have shown a desire to make and understand 
things rather than to use and break them. The former attribute 
is the first manifestation of the creative instinct, which, in a 
somewhat broader way, is a requisite for executives as well as 
for technical men. To use and break things signifies a desire to 
operate and consume. Operating work, such as the operation 
of office machines, technical equipment, street cars and other 
things, is comparatively easy on the brain, but not always easy 
on the nerves. We are all consumers, but no one is paid to 
consume. 

After the usual grammar school education, the candidate's 
high school training should be along scientific or engineering 
lines, preparatory to similar work in college. It is not particu- 
larly important that the young man secure top grades. Most 
important is an enthusiasm in his chosen work and the habit of 
carrying through difficult tasks to a conclusion. His grades in 
the subjects akin to his profession should be high, otherwise the 
profession has been wrongly chosen, or a lack of ability is indi- 
cated. If the student secures excellent grades in all subjects, i 
high natural ability or the will to make a success of all things, 
including those essentially distasteful to him, is shown. A gen- 
erous portion of this last attribute can never be amiss, for in 
later life the greatest rewards go to those who have the ability 
to bring pleasant solutions out of disagreeable problems. 

It is important that the young man engage in extra curricula 
activities, particularly during the high school and college years. 
This brings into his nature an initiative, a self-reliance, and a 
spirit of cooperaton, which is absent in purely academic work. 
Extra curricula activities should not provide a means of mental 
escape from the rigors or academic training, nor should the mere 
accumulation of knowledge crowd out a proper exercise of what 
might be called playing hookie from studies. 

It is possible to engage in television work without a college 
education. A trade or correspondence course taken at the 
completion of high school will fit a student for television work. In 
this case an extra portion of initiative and natural ability is nec- 
essary to compensate for the lack of mind training and knowledge 
secured in college. In Los Angeles, trade school training can be 
had almost for the asking through the facilities of the Frank 
Wiggins Trade School. This school is operated by the Board of 
Education of the City and the fees are very small. In following 
this path, the young man can secure a job in a radio receiver 
factory, a radio service organization, or in similar enterprises 
where it is possible to enter as an apprentice and learn while 
working. His work must be supplemented by intelligent reading 
of the higher professional periodicals, such as the Proceedings 
of the Institute of Radio Engineers, and by study of modern text 
books on radio, electronics and physics. 

If it is financially possible, a complete college education in 
engineering or physics is the best entree to the field. A student 
should enroll in the College of Electrical Engineering, and special- 
ize in communications engineering, or in the College of Physics, 
and specialize in electronics, in any of the large or accredited 



universities of the country. Four years of work leads to a 
bachelor's degree. This forms an excellent foundation technically, 
economically, and culturally if the student has applied himself 
with a determination to learn something, rather than making an 
effort to slide through an ordeal as easily as possible. 

For pure research work a Master's or a Doctor's degree, se- 
cured after a total attendance in the University of five or eight 
years, respectively, is desirable. This specialized training is net 
required for the broader aspects of television work, in fact, it 
may tend to cramp the mind into purely technical channels. It 
is an extremely useful tool of the out-and-out research scientist, 
however, unless it makes the man too conservative and unwilling 
to try the untried. 

Having completed his formal training, it is necessary that the 
candidate be fitted for jobs available in the field if he would be 
employed at once. It is desirable for him to obtain a radio sta- 
tion operator's license from the Federal government. The radio 
telephone second class, or better, the first class grade is required. 
This license is issued by the Federal Communications Commission 
and is obtained by taking a government test which is given in 
any of the large cities of the United States by the resident Radio 
Supervisor. It embraces the theory and operation of radio trans- 
mitters, as well as the International Regulations on distress sig- 
nals, secrecy of messages, etc. Such license is required by 
Federal Law for the operation of television and radio trans- 
mitting equipment, and this is often included in the duties of the 
young television engineer. 

Should the candidate be particularly interested in television 
receiver manufacturing field, the best preparation for this 'work 
is employment in existing radio receiver factories and at a later 
date, of course, employment in television receiver factories. A 
Federal license is not required for this work. 

The present positions in the radio field throughout the country 
embrace the posts of director of television activities, television 
engineer, television operator, and television technician. It is for 
one of these positions that the above requirements have been 
set forth as a prerequisite. This group of positions will gradually 
expand to include the television continuity writers, program direc- 
tors, producers, advertising salesmen and executives. 

The best training for television continuity writers is previous 
radio and motion picture continuity writing experience, with as 
much of a grasp of the technical aspects of television as can be 
acquired. Program directors and producers are best trained in 
the radio field, for in live subject presentations there are no "re- 
takes." Motion picture experience is. of course, valuable, and in 
the production of motion pictures for television it is most important. 
Motion picture cameramen will continue as such, photographing 
simpler productions according to new requirements for television 
motion pictures, or leave their field to engage in one of the other 
activities here mentioned. Advertising salesmen will, of course, 
sell sponsors television programs, and for such work advertising 
agency or radio sales staff experience is the only preparation. 

The executive will come from any of the above mentioned 
branches of the television field, often to be those who entered 
the field early or who are already in it. To be a well rounded 
executive requires that the man have worked, or have a very 
intimate experience, with all the divisions of the industry. At the 
present time fantastic misconceptions about television reside in 
the minds of some, who are now executives in other fields of 
endeavor. Technical training is the only thing that will set these 
people aright, whether it is gleaned from conversation with those 
in the industry, or learned from text books in private. That a 
technical training is suitable training for such positions is evi- 
denced by the presidency of David Sarnoff of the Radio Corpora- 
tion of America, who started life as a ship radio operator. 



REFERENCES 



In order to make this discussion as practical as 
possible a list of periodicals and books is here given. 
The first reference in each group has been listed as 
most suitable for the beginner and for the person 



who wants the most information for the least expend- 
iture. The other references follow in the order of 
need to one more and more deeply interested in the 
art. 



(Turn to Page 27) 



January, 7V.iV> 



T he INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty- 



A. Periodicals. 

1. "Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers,'' 
monthly, The Institute of Radio Engineers, 33 W. 39th 
St., New York City. Particularly the December 1933 and 
November 1934 issues $1.00 per copy to non-members). 
Membership in the organization can be secured by 
responsible interested persons. Dues vary from $3.00 to 
$15.00 per year depending upon the grade of mem- 
bership. For information write to the Secretary at the 
above address. 

2. "Electronics," monthly, McGraw-Hill, 330 W. 42nd St., 
New York City. 

B. Pamphlets. 

Cathode-ray Tubes and allied Types, Series TS-2, RCA 
Radiotron Division; RCA Mfg. Co., Harrison, N. J. (25c) 

C. Books. 

1. "Radio Engineering Handbook," Henney, Second Edition, 

October 1935, McGraw-Hill. This one up-to-date volume 
gives more radio-television information than any other 
book. 

2. "Television" Felix, McGraw-Hill. This gives the back- 
ground and history of television and discusses the pro- 
gram, entertainment, and commercial aspects. 

3. "Measurements in Radio Enginering," Terman, 1935, 
McGraw-Hill. This gives the measurement and labor- 
atory technigue reguired by the prospective technical 



(Continued from Page 26) 

employee. Thirty-two experiments are found in the 
back of the book. 

4. "Experimental Radio Engineering," Morecroft, Wiley, 440 
4th Avenue, New York City. This contains fifty-two 
experiments, which comprise the book. 

5. "Radio Operating Questions and Answers,'' Nilson and 
Hornung, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill. This book gives 
all the information required to pass any of the United 
States Government examinations for a television (or 
radio) station operators license. 

6. "High Frequency Measurements," Hun, McGraw-Hill. 
This is an advanced work, giving valuable data on a 
wide variety of measurements and measuring technique. 

7. "Photoelectric Phenomena," Hughes and DuBridge, 
McGraw-Hill. This advanced book on photoelectric cells 
furnishes excellent instruction for television research 
workers to do. 

8. "Higher Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists," 
Sokolnikoff, McGraw-Hill. This is an advanced work 
intended to assist the research engineer in understand- 
ing the mathematics found in advanced books and in 
the advanced papers appearing in the "Proceedings of 
the Institute of Radio Engineers," and similar publica- 
tions. 

9. "Inventions, Patents, and Trade Marks," Wright, Mc- 
Graw-Hill. This gives information on patent practices 
and is useful to either the executive or research worker. 



WHAT IS HOLDING UP TELEVISION? 

(Continued from Page 7) 



of the wires were under any great tension, but were 
given a natural period corresponding to the fre- 
quency at which they were intended to oscillate. He 
hastened to add: "The wires not being under a great 
tension, are not subject to crystalization or fatigue, 
hence have an extremely long life, at least longer 
than any radio set so far built." Also he said: "Be- 
ing that a torsional form of vibration was employed, 
instead of a rotating-resolution, it could be kept under 
a positive control at the receiving set at all times by 
the master oscillator at the transmitting station." 

This, of course, is something that has not been 
approximated so far by any mechanical system of 
scanning. The overall dimensions of the unit oc- 
cupies a space of two by five by eight inches and 
weighs about ten pounds. Incidentally, the manu- 
facturing cost is said to be much lower than any 
system yet devised. 

Doctor De Forest's explanation and remarks re- 
garding the optical light control, were also very in- 
teresting in their practical aspects. The modulation 
of the light which builds up the image on the screen 
by the flying spot is obtained by the electrical in- 
coming variations acting upon polarized light. This 
light control principle is not new to television, but 
it has been greatly refined in recent years. 

It makes use of what is known as a Kerr cell, 
the operation of which is a beautiful example of the 
electro-magnetic nature of light. Its electro-static na- 
ture was first studied by Dr. Kerr, of Glasgow, Scot- 
land, about 1854. Doctor De Forest was very assur- 
ing that these cells are now a practical article. 

They are absolutely without inertia and have no 
moving parts, are fool proof and have a low con- 
struction cost. The only replacement cost encoun- 
tered is in the life of the projection lamp, which is 
around several thousand hours, and they may be 
purchased anywhere at a nominal price. 

However, to complete the decription of the scan- 
ning system, use is made of proper lenses to con- 
centrate the light from a 200 watt projection lamp 
through the Kerr cell and on to a metal scanning 
mirror where it is reflected through an objectifying 
lens to sharpen the spot and then on to the screen. 

Consistent with what Doctor De Forest outlined 



in the beginning as practical television requirements, 
the amplifier employed by Mr. Priess is greatly in 
advance of the average television amplifier and it 
has been developed by him over a long period of 
years. 

Some of this work has been done by Mr. Priess 
while with the United States Government, especially 
in connection with what he calls an "untuned" am- 
plifier. This amplifier has no peaks or any form ot 
emphasis throughout the entire television frequency 
range, which assures a perfect transmission of the 
image variations. 

Doctor De Forest concluded by saying that Mr. 
Priess had taken out patents in foreign countries as 
well as here and that he has exclusive rights in the 
United States on "untuned" amplifiers, which are 
to issue shortly, as property of the United States Gov- 
ernment. The scanning system is also thoroughly 
protected here and abroad. Mr. Priess is now pre- 
paring to manufacture these sets at a low market 
price, within the reach of the average income. 



HEAD STILLMAN MARION IS BUSY 

Still Cameraman Art Marion has returned from 
location where he shot the stills for Buck Jones, star- 
ring in "Silver Spurs," Picture No. 10 of Universal 
release. Direction, Ray Taylor; Mike Eason, assist- 
ant director; Allan Thompson, first cameraman; Herb 
Kirkpatrick, operative cameraman; Edward Jones, 
assistant, first unit; Joe Lykens, assistant, second unit. 



In (AtarlJ-OOid* Us* 



prwltice C^^n li<gbr and Ni^bV 
Offsets in Daytim^'F^ Sc^n^s- 
Oif fuse*! F^ccis.arwl many vHicrvffvcts 
Witb any Camera " In any Climate 
GcorcjG H. ScHcibe 

ORIGINATOR OF EFFECT FILTERS 



1927 WEST 78TH ST. 



LOS ANGELES, CAL 



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Twenty-eight 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



January, 1936 



SOME DATA ON BUILDING A TITLE BOARD 

{Continued from Page 16) 



best determined by test. It is well to spend as much 
time as is necessary in checking these guide lines, 
for once determined they can always be depended 
upon when you come to making your titles. 

Exact focus between your card and camera lens, 
at such short distance, is usually obtained by un- 
screwing the lens slightly from its mounting. Again, 
it is necessary to make tests to determine exact 
focus. 

The next consideration to be met in building your 
own title board is the matter of lighting the card for 
exposure. In this respect, there are three choices: 
Ordinary daylight, Photoflood bulbs, and Projection 
type bulbs, which we shall discuss in order. 

Ordinary daylight, there can be no doubt, is the 
cheapest and the simplest lighting source. But in 
the matter of lighting when you will want to make 
titles at any time during the day or night, nature's 
own light is not the most convenient source to de- 
pend on. Besides, you can never get constant results 
in exposure, which is an absolute requisite in photo- 
graphing any title matter. 

The Photoflood bulbs are quite ideal. Their light 
is brilliant and efficient, and their first cost is very 
low. They also possess an advantage in that they 
may be burned in any position, which is a matter 
to consider, for you may some time desire to tilt your 
entire title board when employing movable letters 
on your title cards for purposes of animation. The 
only slight drawback of these bulbs, from the view 
point of service, is the short life of the Photoflood 
if you will be making a great number of titles. 

The Projection lamps, for example the 250 watt 
type, are equally ideal for lighting a title board. 
They must, however, only be burned base down; 
tilting them to any great degree will cause them to 
burn out prematurely. Projection lamps possess the 
advantage of longer life than Photofloods; and 
though their first cost is somewhat higher than the 
Photoflood, replacements are few and they deliver 
fine service. 

Whichever type of artificial light source you 
choose, Photoflood or Projection, reflectors are essen- 
tial. As the lamps will be permanently mounted to 
the title board, the reflector not only will give fullest 
efficiency to your light source, but more important, 
they will cut off any extraneous light rays from the 
camera lens. Perfect positioning of the reflectors, it 
must be noted, will leave the taking lens in shadow. 

The permanent mounting of the lamp sockets on 
the title board can only be determined by test. Gen- 
erally speaking, the lamps should be practically 
even with the camera lens and to each side of it, on 
a small title board. In no case may there be any 
trace of a "hot spot" on the title card. The lighting 
must be very even, each lamp socket being equally 
distant from the title card frame. 

A toggle switch, controlling both lamps, should 
be mounted at some convenient location on the title 
board. Usually this will be near the rear of the 
board, and near to the operating button of the cam- 
era. A female supply plug is also attached to the 
board. In some instances, it may be found conveni- 
ent for purposes of focusing, etc., to light only one 
lamp at a time. This may be accomplished with 



pull-chain sockets, holding your lamps, making them 
independent of each other. 

Whether you will want to make your titles fade- 
in and fade-out will depend upon what film you will 
use. Ordinary positive titles (quite often called, di- 
rect) can not have fades imparted to them. How- 
ever, there may be occasion when you will be 
making negative titles, or titles on reversal film, in 
which case fades can be obtained. It is advisable, 
therefore, to equip your title board for any such in- 
stance. Probably the easiest way to secure fades 
is by the so-called "fading glass." This is a glass 
slide, clear at one end, which gradually darkens into 
perfect opacity at the other. Since, in the operation 
of the "fading glass," it must be passed in front of 
the camera lens while the latter is in operation, your 
fades will be far less subject to any possible error 
if a guide is provided to accommodate the "fading 
glass." This guide may be fashioned of metal or 
wood. It should be permanently attached to the base 
of the title board, so that it will hold the "fading 
glass" at the center of, and just clearing, the camera 
lens. This guide, or holder, will permit smooth action 
of the "fading glass", thereby greatly improving the 
quality of your title fades. 

The final touch to your home-made title board 
should include one or two coats of a good shellac, 
applied to all wooden surfaces. Should there be any 
reflection from the title card frame, due to its rela- 
tively close proximity to the lighting units, the frame 
should receive a coat or two of flat black paint. This 
will produce a dull black finish which will "kill" all 
reflected rays. 

New Standard 2000 Foot Reel 




Std j|" 

Bushing 



Keyway 



24 G 



Lightening Holes 

Turned 6* Flattened Edges 



Rolled Edge 



"T"T 
Section B-B 



Designed IZ-17-34 

by A G W 
Revised 3-28-35 
9-21-35 

by A G W 
Traced 11-4-35 

by H R A 



STANDARD 2000 FOOT RELEASE REEL 

FOR 35 MM. MOTION PICTURE FILM 

RESEARCH COUNCIL 

OF THE 

ACADEMY Of MOTION PICTURE ARTS 4 SCIENCES 
HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA 



Original 
specifications 
approved 7~30'35 

Revisions approved 
11-6-35 by 
Research Council 
AMPA S 



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January, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



7 wenty-nine 



IT HAPPENED ONE DAY 



(Continued from Page 17) 



ond magazine of film was exposed without further 
mishap. 

"With one negative worth developing I turned 
to the problem of processing when I arrived home. 
Again it was in the cards I was to come to grief. 
From some old discarded wood, I constructed a 
single developing tray. You see, in those days, you 
made what you needed. I had an awful time mak- 
ing the tray liquid-proof; guess I used oil cloth, par- 
affin and tar before the tray quit leaking. As the 
tray would only accommodate approximately 50 
feet of film, I had to proceed to slice up my exposed 
165 feet; spliced film didn't mean anything in those 
days. Next 1 needed a film rack on which to place 
my 50-foot lengths of negative. This I made of wood, 
the rack being the cross-rack type, with separation 
pins made from common nails. Probably if I'd ended 
there everything would have been okay. But an 
article on film developing came to mind and, fol- 
lowing its suggestion, I tarred the rack. The job 
was done neatly but all too well. Developing the 
negative was some job! Having but a single tray 
to work with, one had to work fast — and when I say 
fast, I mean fast! I had to dip the rack, with the film 
wound on it, into the developer, then pull it out and 
dump the solution; quickly refill the tray with water 
to wash the film, then dump the water; refill the tray 
with hypo, fix the film, then again dump the tray; 
and lastly again fill the tray with water so that the 
film might receive its last immersion. And I had to 
repeat this process every fifty feet! As a told you 
before, my job of tarring the rack had been done 
neatly but all too well, as I soon found out right after 
my first length of film was processed. For when I 
tried to remove the negative from the rack, it wanted 
to remain! Trying to get it off was worse than en- 
gaging in a taffy pulling contest. The negative was 
certainly tarred, if not feathered, yet in the end I 
pried it loose. Don't ask me how I ever cleared the 
film of the tar, I only know I finally succeeded. 

"There still remained the necessity of a print. 
This proved a difficult problem until, removing the 
mechanism from the camera box, I decided the 
mechanism would serve as a printer. An old wooden 
cracker box, lightproofed with film tin tape, became 
the container for the printing light. The rays of an 
ordinary lamp bulb passed from a small hole in the 
side of the container and then onto the aperture of 
my makeshift printing machine — thus I made my 
first print. What light changes there were in making 
the print were accomplished by varying the crank- 
ing speed of the printer. Believe me, it took some 
maneuvering of that home-made printer to prevent 
the positive strip of film from being exposed in the 
wrong places. 

"Then came the night of nights . . . when I was 
to exhibit my first movies to a group of friends and 
neighbors. On an old Powers projector, recently 
resurrected from the junk pile, and equipped with 
an arc lamp. Careful not to overload the ordinary 
house fuse circuit, I'd cut into the power line ahead 
of the fuses. The sputtering arc finally lit up with 
a glare, and I started cranking the old Powers. At 
last, my show was under way despite all difficulties. 

"Not fifty feet had passed by on the screen when 
there came a loud rapping at the front door. Who 
could it be?, I wondered. The knocking became more 



determined ... I must see what was wanted. Open- 
ing the door I was confronted by an extremely ex- 
cited old German neighbor from next door. He was 
tense. He pointed excitedly in the direction of the 
main power wires, running from the line to my home, 
as he exclaimed: 'The wire, red from the houze midt 
the pole!' Sure enough, he was right, the wires 
were redder than red, the arc lamp was proving too 
much a load. My show was over for that evening! 
And that's the story of my first movie making experi- 
ence ..." 

Art had hardly finished speaking when his re- 
marks were interrupted by a loud cry of distress 
from the direction of the laboratory. There was an 
unmistakable sound of a great splash, followed by 
a great rush of water from the developing room, as 
we both dashed towards it. But before we could 
reach the door, the victim slowly emerged. What 
a sight greeted our eyes! There stood Jack, the 
assistant lab man, dripping wet, soaking from head 
to foot! With a sheepish grin, Jack explained: "I 
was only adjusting the safe lamp and climbed onto 
the wash tank," he sputtered, "guess I slipped in!" 

Midst our roar of laughter at Jack's rather moist 
condition, Art turned to me and exclaimed: "This 
just goes to prove what I've been telling you — any- 
thing can happen in the film game!" 

And so we prepared Jack for the drying room. 




Davidge Developing System 

Developing outfits, 25 feet to 1000 feet. Light, compact 
and efficient. The ideal equipment for small studio labor- 
atories, expedition work, schools and the home. You can 
get superior results at low cost with the patented Roto- 
Tank processing. We also manufacture The Davidge Im- 
proved Celluloid Apron for use with our units or as a 
replacement apron for any of the developing tanks using 
the 16 or 35 M.M. sizes. Bakelite spooling discs, negative 
tightwinders and synchronizing machines at attractive 
prices. Send for the new illustrated catalog and price list. 

Hollywood Roto-Tank Ltd. 

5225 Wilshire Blvd. Los Angeles, Calif. 



Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



Thirty 



T 1 1 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



January, 1936 



INTERNATIONAL 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

Brings results — Rates 45 cents per line — minimum charge one 

dollar per insertion. For Rent — For Sale — Wanted — For 

Exchange, etc. 

FOR SALE OR RENT— CAMERAS 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell and Bell & Howell silenced cameras, 
follow focus. Pan lenses, free head, corrected new aperture. Akeley, 
De Brie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost, Willart, De Vry, Eyemo, Sept, 
Leica. Motors, printers lighting equipment. Also every variety of 
16 mm. and still cameras and projectors. B & H Cameras with old type 
shuttles silenced $150. Everything photographic bought, sold, rented 
and repaired. Send for our bargain catalogue. Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd. Phone HO. 3651. Cable, Hocamex. 

FOR SALE— CAMERAS AND EQUIPMENT 

REAL BARGAINS in 16 and 35 mm. movie equipment and still cameras. 
Newest types cameras and projectors in all' popular makes. Save money 
on film, lights, lenses and all essential accessories. Our 36 years of 
experience stands back of every sale. Before you buy, send for our new 
bargain booklet. Burke & James, Inc., 223 W. Madison St., Chicago. 



MODEL L DE BRIE CAMERA — Full ground glass focusing auto- 
matic dissolve, 40 mm, 50 mm. 75 mm, 100 mm lenses mounted. Has 
special upright image view-finder, De Brie motor, tripod, six magazines. 
Motion Picture Camera Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York 
City. Cable: Cinecamera. 

SILENCED BELL & HOWELL with new Fearless Movement 40 mm, 
50 mm and 75 mm F.2:7 lenses mounted. Two'1000-ft. magazines, tri- 
pod, finder and sunshade. Rebuilt like new. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc.. 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable: Cinecamera. 



SILENCED BELL & HOWELL with check pawl shuttle. 40 mm, 
50 mm, and 75 mm F.2:7 lenses mounted. Two 1000-ft. magazines, tri- 
pod, finder and sunshade. Rebuilt like new. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable: Cinecamera. 



MITCHELL CAMERA; Mitchell & B. & H. Magazines; Mitchell Tri- 
pods ; Cooke Lenses — mounted and unmounted ; Duplex Printer ; Maga- 
zine and Accessory Cases ; and other miscellaneous equipment. Ed 
Estabrook, 430 No. Flores St., Hollywood. OR. 5003. 



BELL & HOWELL and Eyemo Cameras, Lenses, Magazines, Tripods, 
Moviolas, Splicers, all kinds of Sound and Laboratory equipment. East- 
man and Dupont spliced negative, tested and guaranteed, 2^4^ per foot, 
on daylight loading rolls, $2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTINENTAL 
FILMCRAFT. 1611 Cosmo St., Hollywood. 



MITCHELL CAMERA, COMPLETE with equipment. Excellent con- 
dition Price $2500. Box AC, Internatnonal Photographer. 

35 mm CAMERAS, Universal, Erneman, Pathe, DeBrie, Akeley. Hell & 
Howell, $50 up; 35mm Projectors, $25 up; Holmes, Portable Sound 
Projector, Special $450 ; 35 mm Sound Recording Outfit, single or 
double system, complete, less batteries, $750 ; 35 mm Fried Step Printer, 
$65. Camera Supply Co., 1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. Calif. 

FOR SALE— SOUND RECORDERS AND EQUIPMENT 

COMPLETE RECORDING SYSTEM CHEAP— Includes beautiful 
amplifier in case, special condenser microphone, chrome plated slit block 
with Artreeves quartz slit, glowlamp with holder, all battery cases and 
cables. Ready to install in single or double system camera. Like new, 
beautiful quality, will last years. SOUNDFILM COMPANY. 261 
Golden Crate Ave., San Francisco, Calif. 

ART REEVES, latest model 1935, double system sound recording in- 
stallation, factory guaranteed, Automatic Speed Control Motor, Twin 
Fidelity Optical Unit, Bomb microphone, the only genuine, modern, 
workable ArtReeves equipment for sale in Hollywood outside factory. 
Price, complete in every detail, $2,400. Slightly used ArtReeves sound 
equipment, complete, $1,800. CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 
1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 

POWERS CINEPHONE RECORDERS with Slit Block and Syn- 
chronous Motor $200.00 each. Also used Synchronous and D-C Inter- 
lock Camera Motors. T. BURGI CONTNER, 723 Seventh Ave., New 
York City. 



CAMERA REPAIRING 



FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT 



VERY POWERFUL FLOODLIGHTS of new design. Will burn 
through a 1000 W. Rifle with Cable — $5.00. With 12 foot collapsible 
Stand, $22.50. Camera Supply Company, 1515 North Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. 



SEVERAL HOLMES PROJECTORS, 35 mm., excellent condition. 
Full Guarantee. Prices $75.00 to $95.00. Camera Supply Co., Ltd., 
1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



BELL & HOWELL cameras with old type shuttles silenced, $150. 
Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Co., 645 No. Martel Ave., 
Hollywood. 



WANTED TO BUY 



WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell &: Howell, Mitchell, Akeley or De Brie 
Cameras, lenses, motors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 

MOTION PICTURE — Still Picture — Laboratory and Cutting Room 
Equipment — Lenses — Finders — Tripods. Highest prices paid. CONTI- 
NENTAL FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hollywood, Calif. 



POSITION WANTED 



DO YOU WANT A CAMERAMAN who is an expert on studio pro- 
duction ; or an expedition cameraman who knows every corner of the 
world ; or a cameraman who thoroughly understands the making of indus- 
trial pictures ; or an expert newsreel photographer ; or an expert color 
cameraman? A limited number of cameramen, backed by years of experi- 
ence, are available. Write stating your requirements and we shall be 
glad to assist you in choosing the kind of cameraman you want. INTER- 
NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Holly 
wood. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECTIONIST 



THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECTIONIST, a monthly magazine 
published in the interests of the projectionist. Interesting, instructive. 
Yearly subscription U. S. and possessions, $2; foreign countries, $2.50. 
James L. Finn Publishing Corp., 580 Fifth Ave., New York. 

BUYERS READ these classified advertisements as you are now doing. 
If you have something for sale or exchange — advertise it in these col- 
umns. THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 1605 No. 
Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood. 

COMPLETE COURSE IN FLYING— If interested in aviation, see Roy 
Klaffki, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave.. Hollywood. 

WANTED — To know of the whereabouts of motion picture relics, docu- 
ments, or equipment of a historical nature for Museum purposes. Write 
Earl Theisen, care of International Photographer, 1605 Cahuenga Ave., 
Hollywood. 



For the Most Authentic 
Technical Information 
About the Motion Picture 
Industry Consult — 

International 
Photographer 

Order Your Copy Now! 
$ 2 5 ° A YEAR 

IN THE UNITED STATES 

Name 

Address 

City State 



Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



January, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirty-one 



HOT POINTS 

By William Kislingbury 




I HE average visitor to Hollywood, fortunate 
enough to gain admittance to a studio lot, 
usually ventures to express an amazed in- 
credulity at what appears to him a need- 
less waste of time and materials on the part of the 
personnel and management in picture making. One 
interested in psycho-analysis can form rapid and 
fairly accurate conclusions from the observations 
and reactions of these visitors placed in his charge. 



forming light rays to captured images. Everything 
may be at a standstill on the stages as production 
is held up for one cause or another, but the labora- 
tory works on schedule with an incessant rhythm 
and an alertness for any possible error which might 
destroy efficiency. 



Experience has taught me to discreetly detour 
from the vicinity of our huge continually blazing in- 
cinerator when escorting the practical minded sight- 
seer. Such a display of wanton incendiarism has 
not always been a practice within the studios, but 
because a few greedy workers incorrigibly took ad- 
vantage of their permission to haul away discarded 
material by hiding valuable properties among the 
junk pile, this privilege to the employees had to be 
definitely and permanently rescinded. This is by no 
means pleasant to explain to our guests, 



Of the thousands of visitors shown through the 
studios each year a very few indeed ever reach or 
even know of the existence of the most practical and 
interesting department of the motion picture indus- 
try, the Lab. It is to this department I resort for any 
necessary refutation of inefficiency or waste and I 
have yet to find the practically-minded person the 
laboratory has not intrigued and convinced. There 
is something extremely fascinating about the work of 
a dark room and the wizardry and magic in trans- 



It is rather difficult to explain the intricate pro- 
cedure of laboratory methods, and one can only be 
discursive in enlightening a layman, but once they 
have held a strip of film in their hands and exam- 
ined it, tested it for strength and shown how easily 
it can be torn, the guide acting then as mentor need 
only answer eager questions. From the 80 mil strip 
of modulations forming the sound track enough in- 
quiry can arise to tax the mentality of a professor. 
When hard put, I have found an immediate remedy 
by pointing out the operations of a splicing machine. 
More curiosity is expressed regarding the manner in 
which films are welded together than of any other 
task in the industry. Splicing seems to be an answer 
to a great mystery in peoples' minds and explains 
simply how motion pictures are edited into story 
telling continuity. 



A tour down the long row of overspeeding pro- 
jectors of the inspecting room (which is positive proof 
that the multiple feature bill has always been an 
institution within the laboratory) and our practical 
minded guests are quite satisfied that efficient, prac- 
tical methods do exist within the motion picture in- 
dustry, yet it took to convince them, an extra added 
attraction. 



SOVIET MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY 
By V. I. Verlinsk£, 




(Reprinted from S. M. P. E. Journal by request.) 
| HE motion picture industry of the Soviet Union is essen- 
tially a growth of the past ten years, but, if I may say 
so, a substantial and healthy growth. During the czar- 
ist regime the industry was insignificant, most of the 
films being imported from foreign countries. When the 
Soviet Government came into power in 1917, it found itself in pos- 
session of two small studios which represented the entire produc- 
tive equipment of the country. 

Conditions during the next few years were not conducive to 
the expansion of the industry. The few films made during this 
period were documentary records of important events during those 
stormy days, perhaps of no great artistic pretensions, but of in- 
creasing historical importance. It -was not until the close of the 
period of civil wars and invasions that the country was in a posi- 
tion to build up the motion picture industry. During the past 
decade the growth has been rapid. Today there are over ten 
studios, located in Moscow, Leningrad, Odessa, Kiev, Yalta, and 
other centers, and the country has become one of the most impor- 
tant world producers. There are upwards of 30,000 theatres, and 
the attendance at performances was over 650,000,000 last year. 
In addition to motion picture schools for the development of its 
artistic and technical staffs, the industry has its own academy and 
a special research institute. 

The days of the silent pictures brought to the fore some great 
masters and some great productions, which commanded artistic 
admiration and respect far beyond the Soviet borders. Eisenstein's 
"Potemkin" and Pudovkin's "Mother" were among the pioneers in 
these great works, and others outstanding in this period included 
Dovzhenko's "Soil" and "Arsenal" and Pudovkin's "Storm Over 
Asia" and "End of St. Petersburg." 

The transition from silent to sound pictures has been a pecul- 
iarly difficult one in the Soviet industry for many reasons, not the 
least of which is the fact that the Soviet Union is composed of 182 
different nationalistic stocks speaking 150 different languages and 
dialects. Obviously the creation of talking pictures for such a 
polyglot population presents special problems. . . . 

The Soviet studios are working beyond their capacity. For 
1935, 150 full-length pictures will be produced, in addition to 
many short subjects and news reels. The most recent efforts of the 
Soviet film industry tend toward a mastery of film technic result- 



ing in a finished product of great art. Such films have already 
been made and have received universal recognition, as was 
shown at the International Motion Picture Exhibition in Venice, 
where the Soviet Union was awarded first prize as the producer 
of the world's most artistic films. 

The motion picture industry of the Soviet Union has been de- 
veloped under the aegis of the government. Each of the seven 
constituent Republics of the Union has its own motion picture 
industry, operating under the People's Commissariat for Education 
of the Republic in which it exists. The whole industry is combined 
in the Motion Picture Trust of the U. S. S. R. It is the problem of 
each division of the industry to satisfy the public in its territory. 

All the silent films produced have to be released with titles in 
some 150 languages, to accommodate the entire polyglot popula- 
tion of the Soviet Union. The talking pictures are made in ten 
principal languages, and have superimposed titles for the various 
minor linguistic groups. In this respect the Soviet industry is faced 
with a complication that does not affect the industry in the United 
States. 

All the newsreels in the Soviet Union are under the control of 
the newsreel trust, Soyuz filmnews, which takes care of the entire 
territory of the U. S. S. R. Every month Soyuz filmnews issues 
three silent newsreels of general interest, three sound newsreels 
of general interest, two shorts on village life, a special short de- 
voted to children, one on science and mechanics, one on art, and 
one on national defense. In addition, Soyuz filmnews participates 
in all scientific expeditions, and in this line has produced films of 
such expeditions as those of Sibiryakovs and the Cheliuskin and 
the exploration of the desert Kara-Kum. The trust has over 100 
news cameramen scattered over the Soviet Union. The aim of 
Soyuzfilmnews is to install a system similar to that of the Ameri- 
can newsreel companies to enable them to have the newsreels in 
the theatres 24 hours after being filmed. 

All the scientific films are produced by a special scientific 
trust, which is assisted by the leading scientists, those of the 
Academy of Science of the U. S. S. R., including the famous physi- 
cist Pavlov. In 1933 the trust issued 107 silent short subjects and 
only three sound; in the first nine months of 1934 there were 177 
silent short subjects and 24 sound. 

It is only lately that the Soviet Union has begun to develop its 
own manufacture of raw stock and equipment. 



Thirty-two 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTO G R A P H E R 



By 

Robert » 
Tobey 




^ 



CINEMACARONI 

(With sauce for those who like it.) 



HOLLYWOOD HONEYMOON 

(A novel novel of a thousand and our nights 
in a daze ) 

By 
R. THRITIS 

Synopsis of preceding chapters, for you dopes 
who can't remember anything overnight. 

Lili Liverblossom, long on beauty but sold short 
m the engine-room, is a famous screen star on 
the wane. She has for her Public Relations Coun- 
sel the trigger-witted 

Perriwether Murgle, young and handsome press- 
agent extraordinary. In the line of duty Perri is 
carried off to the eyrie of a huge Bald Eagle 

named 

Willy Nilly. Here in the Eagle's lair Willy 
Nilly's wife, 

Nelly Nilly, makes googly eyes at Perri, and it's 
getting pretty hot for our little friends. Mean- 
while 

Bill, a writer, has just sent a ghost over to Lili's 
apartment, t.ili has figured out, reith her Einstein- 
like brain, that a ghost can help her find her lost 
Perri. As we raise the field-glasses to our eyes. 
J. Hi has fust been making friends with tne ghost 
and preparing to leave in search of Perri. Note 
it's yotti turn at the pecpsight. 

CHAPTER XV. 
Over the Hills and Far Away 

"And now to the rescue!" cried Lili. 

"The Rescue?" repeated the ghost inquiringly, 
v/ith a touch of interest in his voice. "What is it, 
a new Night Club?" 

"Certainly not!" snapped Lili. "It's a Boy Scout 
deed. Didn't Bill tell you what he made you up 
for?" 

"He didn't even tell me he made me up," said 
the ghost. "He just sent me over here in a hurry. 
I thought maybe it was Hallowe'en." 

"Giblets!" exclaimed Lili. "Then I'd better tell 
you the story." And she told him the story. 

"... and Perri is probably a prisoner by 
now in an eagle's lair," she sobbed in conclu- 
sion. 

"What you need is an eagle's ghost, lady," 
said the ghost -with a sigh. "And a couple of 
handkerchiefs," he added hollowly as Lili's tears 
dripped into an old straw hat she had placed on 
the floor to catch them. 

"Do you mean you can't help me?" asked Lili 
pitifully, looking up, her big blue eyes dark with 
sorrow. 

"Oh, I guess we can find some way of rescu- 
ing your boy-friend," the ghost answered. 

"My press-agent," corrected Lili. 

"Don't quibble," said the ghost. 

"I can't help it," said Lili. "I itch." 

"Grab hold of me," commanded the ghost, 
"and we'll be off." 

"Do you mean you're going to carry me?" 
asked Lili. 

"Certainly," said the ghost. "Did you think 
we were going by bus?" 

"How fast do you generally go?" asked Lili ^ 
dubiously, stepping forward hesitantly. 

"I can be anywhere in a second," said the 
ghost. "But I can't go that fast if I'm taking you. 
You'd melt. So I'll just sort of mosey along. 
Come on, hang onto me." 

Diffidently Lili clasped her arms around the 
ghost's waist. They went right on through and 
she found she was merely hugging herself. She 
put her arms around him again, with the same 
result. 

"My, but you're flimsy," said Lili exasperat- 
edly. "What do I do now?" 

"I guess I'll have to grab hold of yon," said 
the ghost and, suiting action to words, he picked 
her up in his arms as if she were a feather and 
immediately began to rise in the air and float 
off across the city. In no time at all he -was up 
to sixty or seventy miles an hour. To Lili the 
sensation was that of being transported on a 
eloud or an infinitely soft oillow. The moon had 
just come up over the Hollywood hills, and the 
stars were sparkling and flashing in the cold 
crystalline air above the city. 

"Looka here." said Lili, "If you're going to 
romp on it like this, you'd better take me back 
for my fur coat. I haven't got my red flannels 
on, you know, partner." 



(How zvill the ghost take the wise-cracking Lili? 
And where! Will they reach Perri in time? And 
what of Lili's career? Any fool can ask questions 
like those So I guess any fool ran answer them. 
See next month's installment of this super-serial.) 



Mad Hattie says that stenographers with weak 
eyes must find it very trying, typing on onion- 
skin paper. 



DAILY INCONGRUITY 

A man walked up to an office boy on the 
Columbia lot and borrowed a dime from him to 
buy a magazine. 

The boy turned to a fellow-worker when the 
man was out of earshot. "That's the writer," 
said he, "who is "working on the story, "Millions 
To Spend!" 



KNEECAP REVIEWS 
l I have my thumb in my month) 

"PI I lili IBBETSON." with Ann Hardin,, and 
Gary Cooper. Here is a picture so superbly eon 
structed that it brings an ache to the heart. Haz- 
ing nothing but praise for the picture. I am pained 
to wager it will not he a box office hit. I fear it 
is a little too fine for the average public taste and 
comprehension, but hope i am wrong, 

/'raise falls equally on all heads in this produc- 
tion. Ann Harding will never look more divine 
than she does in "Peter Ibbetsoii." Judged by 
this picture alone. Miss Harding would be the 
most beautiful woman on the American screen. 
The subtle direction of Henry Hathaway was a 
thing of beauty. Great credit must go to the one 
or ones who evolved the interesting, beautiful, and 
thoroughly satisfactory method of handling the 
dream transition sequences. Ann Harding's act- 
ing is as impeccable as her appearance, and al 
though Gary (o per's touch is not quite so mas- 
terful, on the whole his part is well bandied. John 
HalliJay. Virginia Weidler, Douglas Dumbrille, 
and Dickie Moore play their small parts well. 

II you doubt that the screen can adequately eon- 
vey an idea with a truly haunting and ethereal 
beauty, see "Peter Ibbetson" and unreel in objec- 
tion. 



"DR. SOCRATES." Interesting chiefly because 
it puts Paul Muni into a type of role that he 
has not handled before. Some say he is pretty 
bad in the role of the brilliant medical student 
turned country doctor for personal reasons and 
embroiled in gangland didoes for reasons beyond 
his control. Some say he is excellent. 

I'll take vanilla. 

Ann Dvorak should have stayed home when 
they called her for this production. She is poorly 
photographed and has a part that is quite thank- 
less. 

The film is fast moving, and especially is inter- 
esting if you like anti-gangster films. 



"THE LAST DAYS OF POMPEII." This is mostly 
Preston Foster, and if his fan-mail from love-lorn 
ladies doesn't jump a thousand fold after this 
epic I'll pop my gum. It's a he-man tale of 
bloodletting among the Old Romans, and don't 
see it unless you have a strong stomach. Prac- 
tically all of the then means of sudden death are 
graphicaly illustrated. 

Basil Rathbone portrays Pontius Pilate with a 
master's touch, and Gloria Shea does well with 
a casting crumb thrown her way. 



"I LIVE MY LIFE." Since Joan Crawford can 
practically write her own ticket, I don't see why 
she chose a story that made her out such a heel 
in general. She is nevertheless a lovely and 
desirable little heel, and manages to make you 
long to be in Brian Aherne's shoes even if she 
is addicted to nasty feminine wiles and the New 
Deal platform involving furniture demolition. 
Aherne improves each shining hour in this, his 
first juicy part. 



"ANNA KAREN IN A." Garb,, climbs :„, I 
again. Threatened seriously with extinction, II,. 
Garbo legend is thoroughly alive once more. No 
one can stop the great Garbo. She gives a ; 
fill performance here, as the tragic Tolstoy lu 
whose great love transcends the bonds of man 
and motherhood. Fredric March ably supports hei 
Drinking ceremonial sequence opening the / 
is uotab'c. Whole thing is slightly heavy fart 
•■he general public. Photography excellent. 



IS MY FACE RED DEPT. 

One of the better known columnists did himself 
proud in a recent day's work. Said columnist 
wrote, "The making of a Technicolor picture is 
not quite so simple as it is cracked up to be . . . " 



// you'll pardon the interruption. I didn't knoa 
a color picture was cracked up to be a simple 
thing to make. 



But to go on. " 'THE TRAIL OF THE LONE- 
SOME PINE' is on a location that is SO cold the 
noses of the cast are continually red and frost 
bitten and, as red photographs black, the effect 
should be too startling." 



The italics are mine. Tsk. tsk. What a weird 
color process. 



The same renowned scribe, on the same day 
(it must have been Blue Monday) states that he 
is advised that when color pictures predominate 
the industry, blondes will fade from the Holly- 
wood spotlight, because in color they photograph 
BLAH. 



A new color, no doubt; this BLAH. Better than 
Brownette. 



But seriously, consider this statement just aftet 
the production of "Becky Sharp"; come, come. 



HOLLYWOODCUTS, by the Shovel Boys (They 
dish the dirt). * * * No matter what they find 
out for the benefit of the headlines, two facts 
about Thelma Todd are undisputed — she was 
superbly beautiful, and she was a beguiling and 
witty actress. * • * The Rochelle Hudson - Harry 
Richman crush is wearing off already. For a 
while they were seen everywhere together. It 
was only natural that a sweet youngster like 
Rochelle should be intrigued by the worldliness 
of a man like Richman. * * * Lionel Stande: 
wanted to get paid when he was asked to work 
in a newsreel. Heigh ho. * * * The morals case 
against Dave Allen of Central Casting and Gloria 
Marsh, alias Turner, was thrown out of court 
because two of the chief prosecution witnesses 
were accused of horse-stealing. Tut, tut! Mrs. 
Astor's horse, no doubt. * * * At the Pain". 
Springs Dog Show held last month Jeanette Mac- 
Donald's two pedigreed dogs won three prizes. 
Jeanette drew a few rounds of applause herself. 



ADVANCE FASHION NOTE 

A writer who is NOT noted for remarkable pen- 
manship wrote the line, "She was wearing a 
bracelet set with emeralds and diamonds." 



In the first typed script it came out. "She was 
wearing a bracelet \ct with emeralds and drain 
ends."' 



Pardon me while I dust off a batch of slightly 
used New Year's Resolutions. 



Water, pic, no' 



MS N >*YH MART EL AVENUE, 

;, is atieles, ca: kornia. 



EASTMAN 

Super X 

PANCHROMATIC 
NEGATIVE 




Has No Equal — 
— No Superior/ 



. 



J. E. BRULATOUR, INC 

DISTRIBUTORS 



INTERNATIONAL 
HOTOGRAPHER 



HOLLYWOOD 



"H YEAR 



FEBRUARY ,1936 



VOL. 
No. 1 




PICKFORD-LASKY LAUNCHES PICTURE UNIQUELY 

Coincidenlally with Hollywood's iirst rainy allernoon in the New Year, Pickford-Lasky launched its initial 
production, "One Rainy Afternoon," with a unique scientific feat. For the first time in cinema history, 
the actinic ray which makes photography possible was harnessed to provide power to start the cameras 
grinding, by projecting the ray through a photo-electric cell. The achievement was attended by a number 
of eminent scientists, notable among them being Dr. Edison Pettit, astronomer and solar radiation expert 
of Mount Wilson Solar Observatory staff, Pasadena. This picture shows Miss Pickford operating the cell, 
by passing her hand through the beam. Surrounding her are, left to right: Countess Liv de Maigret, 
Phil Friedman, Jesse L. Lasky, Dr. Pettit and Samuel Goldwyn. Mr. Lasky is president of Pickford Lasky 
Productions. The Countess is a member of the "One Rainy Afternoon" cast. 



CENTS 
A COPY 



lOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 



ANNA KARENINA 
THE HEADLINE WOMAN 
THE EAGLE'S BROOD 
WANDERER OF THE 

WASTELAND 
ACCENT ON YOUTH 
FATHER BROWN, DETECTIVE 
MAN'S BEST FRIEND 
$20 A WEEK 
SWEEPSTAKE ANNIE 
ONE HOUR LATE 
LIGHTNING STRIKES TWICE 
ROBERTA 
BEHOLD MY WIFE 
VANESSA, HER LOVE STORY 

THE WEDDING NIGHT 
RUGGLES OF RED GAP 
NAUGHTY MARIETTA 
THE MARRIAGE BARGAIN 
THE CASINO MURDER CASE 
PORT OF LOST DREAMS 
PRIVATE WORLDS 
WILDERNESS MAIL 
BEHIND THE GREEN LIGHTS 
McFADDEN'S FLATS 
CYCLONE RANGER 
HIGH SCHOOL GIRL 
LADDIE 

THE WORLD ACCUSES 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 
THE GHOST WALKS 
STRANGERS ALL 
FOUR HOURS TO KILL 
CIRCLE OF DEATH 
SONS OF STEEL 
RECKLESS 

THE DEVIL IS A WOMAN 
ON PROBATION 
STOLEN HARMONY 
GOIN' TO TOWN 
ONE FRIGHTENED NIGHT 
RESCUE SQUAD 
THE TEXAS RAMBLER 
SUNSET RANGE 
HOT TIP 

NEW ADVENTURES OF 
TARZAN 



THE DARK ANGEL 
UNCONQUERED BANDIT 
NO RANSOM 
ENTER MADAME 
ENCHANTED APRIL 
THE NITWITS 
PEOPLE WILL TALK 

ADVENTUROUS KNIGHTS 
KENTUCKY BLUE STREAK 
LADIES CRAVE EXCITEMENT 
SYMPHONY OF LIVING 
CODE OF THE MOUNTED 
KID COURAGEOUS 
THE VANISHING RIDERS 
MEN WITHOUT NAMES 
NOW OR NEVER 
COLLEGE SCANDAL 
MEN OF ACTION 
CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE 
RAINBOW'S END 
DANGER AHEAD 

CHINA SEAS 

JALNA 

HOP-ALONG CASSIDY 

SMOKEY SMITH 

CAPTURED IN CHINATOWN 

SMART GIRL 

OLD MAN RHYTHM 

ACCENT ON YOUTH 

MANHATTAN BUTTERFLY 

HARMf 

TWO F 

THE Rl 



TWO FOR TONIGHT 

WATERFRONT LADY 

PURSUIT 

TWO-FISTED 

THE MAN ON THE FLYING 

TRAPEZE 
HOT OFF THE PRESS 
I LIVE MY LIFE 
SADDLE ACES 
WHEN A MAN'S A MAN 
HARD ROCK HARRIGAN 
THUNDER MOUNTAIN 
BARBARY COAST 
THE JUDGEMENT BOOK 
CONFIDENTIAL 
THE RIDER OF THE LAW 
WILD MUSTANG 
VALLEY OF WANTED MEN 
FALSE PRETENSES 
SOCIETY FEVER 
IN PERSON 
THE RAINMAKERS 
MARY BURNS, FUGITIVE 
SHIP CAFE 
SKYBOUND 

THE LAST OF THE CLINTONS 
MILLIONS IN THE AIR 
SPLENDOR 

THE SAGEBRUSH TROUBADOUR 
THE IVORY-HANDLED GUN 



ST. LO 
TAKE 

FIGHTlfS 
A SHOfSl 
WHAT 
THE RE 
COUI 
STREA 
TUMBL 
DEATH 5 
PUBLIC 
THE GVE 
THE Li 



IN 1935 



DUPONT NEGATIVE WAS CHOSEN 
OFTEN AND WISELY BY PRODUCERS 
AND CAMERA MEN. 

WE THANK YOU 



BJ PON! 



REG U.S.PAT.OFF. 



Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation 



35 WEST 45™ STREET 
NEW YORK CITY 



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6656 --SANTA MONICA BLVD. 

HOLLYWOOD, CAL. 



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TRADEMARK HAS NEVER BEEN PLACED ON AN INFERIOR PRODUCT 




THE CLIPPER SHIP 
A masterpiece by Mr. Fred Archer who shot this grand old windjammer while on location one 
day at sea off San Pedro. California. Note the U. S. battleship faintly through the mist away down 
on the horizon. Thanks. Mr. Archer. It isn't often that the landlubber gets a marine eye-ful like this. 



INTERNATIONAL 
PHOTOGRAPHER 

MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 



Vol. 8 



HOLLYWOOD, FEBRUARY, 1936 



No. 1 



Silas Edgar Snyder, Editor-in-Chief 

Earl Theisen and Charles Felstead, Associate Editors 

Lewis W. Physioc, Fred Westerberc, Technical Editors 

Helen Boyce, Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication Dedicated to the Advancement of Cinematography in All 

Its Branches; Professional and Amateur; Photography, Laboratory and Processing, 

Film Editing, Sound Recording, Projection, Pictorialists. 



CONTENTS 

Cover Still by Kenneth Alexander 
Frontispiece by Fred Archer 

MOTION PICTURE SOUND RECORDING, CHAPTER XXIII - 3 

By Charles Felstead 
THE LEGION OF HONOR DECORATES DISNEY - - - 5 

By H. O. Stechan 
THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MOTION PICTURE 6 

By Earl Theisen 
SHARPSHOOTERS IN THE "ARTICHOKE RACKET" - - - 7 

By Golden Gate Wing, Local 659 
JOSEPH ALLER PROMOTED - - - - - - - 8 

By the Editor 
THE AKERS CAMERA COMES INTO ITS OWN - - 9 

THE QUESTION OF DEVELOPMENT TIME 10 

By William Flaherty 
MINIATURE CAMERA PHOTOGRAPHY - - 12 

By Augustus Wolf man 
MINIATURE CAMERAS IN THE STUDIOS - - - 14 

By Kenneth Alexander 
AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE SECTION - 16 and 17 

By Hamilton Riddel 
THE CINEMATOGRAPHERS BOOK OF TABLES - 22 

By Fred W esterbcrg 
ASHCRAFT AUTOMATIC CONTROL CO. - - - - - 23 

By Donald Ashhy 
ART WORK ON PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS - - - 24 

By Avenir he Heart 
RECENT PHOTOGRAPHIC AND SOUND PATENTS - - 27 

By Robert Fulnvider 
CINE CAMERA FORNIA ........ 2i 

By William Kislingbury 
CLASSIFIED ........ 30 

APPLYING WIDE-RANGE PRINCIPLES TO HIGH 

POWER LAMPS - 31 

By Elmer Richardson 
CINEMACARONI - - - - 32 

By Robert Tobey 
IN MEMORIUM, James Seeback 

Entered as second class matter Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, 
California, under the act of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright 1935 by Local 659, I. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. O. of the United States 

and Canada 

Office of publication, 1605 North Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, California 

GLadstone 3235 

James J. Finn, 1 West 47th St., New York, Eastern Representative 

McGill's, 179 and 218 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. Australian and New Zealand agents. 

Subscription Rates — United States, $2.50: Canada and Foreign $3.00 a year. 
Single copies, 25 cents. 

This Magazine represents the entire personnel ot photographers now engaged in 

professional production of motion pictures in the United States and Canada. Thus 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER becomes the voice of the Entire Craft, 

covering a field that reaches from coast to coast across North America. 

Printed in the U. S. A. at Hollywood, California 

SERVICE ENGRAVING CO 




Our Writers for 
March, 1936 

* 

LEWIS W. PHYSIOC 

* 

FRED WESTERBERC 

* 

EARL THEISEN 

• 

CHARLES FELSTEAD 

* 

ROBERT TOBEY 

* 

DELMAR A. WHITSON 

* 

E. HAMILTON RIDDEL 

* 

ROBERT W. PARKER 

• 
WILLIAM KISLINGBURY 

* 
WARREN TRANSUE 

* 

CAPT. HERFORD TYNES 

COWLING 

* 

H. O. STECHAN 




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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Three 



Motion Picture Sound Recording 

Chapter XXIII 

By CHARLES FELSTEAD, Associate Editor 

Our Associate Editor, Charles Felstead, who was formerly 
Night Foreman of the Sound Department at the Universal Pictures 
Corporation, is now connected with the Southern California 
Telephone Company. 



FTER a regrettable but unavoidable absence 
from these pages, we resume our study of 
sound recording as it is practiced in the mo- 
tion picture studios. As though no lapse 
had occurred in this series of chapters, the present 
installment continues the discussion suspended by 
the chapter published in the November, 1935, issue 
of the International Photographer. 

In that twenty-third chapter, the circuit for and 
the elementary mathematical design of a highly 
effective three-stage audio-frequency amplifier were 
presented. This amplifier was termed a "basic" 
amplifier, since it will serve with equal success as 
a speech amplifier for a radio broadcast transmitter, 
as a preliminary amplifier for a public address sys- 
tem or a centralized radio installation in a hotel, or 
as a main recording amplifier for a motion picture 
sound recording installation. 





fier must be center tapped, as shown at A in Figure 
2. When such a microphone is used, a separate 
battery, sometimes termed a D battery, is required 
to supply current for the buttons of the microphone; 
and the voltage is regulated by a rheostat. 

A jack is connected in series with each button 
to permti the meter, which will be described later, 



0-20 A\A 



Analysis of the Amplifier 

The first two stages of the amplifier function as 
voltage amplifiers, while the final, or third, stage of 
amplification functions as a power amplifier of mod- 
erate output. See Figure 1. The type -56 tube in 




A, 

>oubi? 1 
button L 



&« 
bi 
CSrbon 

In uropU 



'SMUNT 

Rkeostd + 
-WVWW |— 1'|'|<- 
t— J " n - 

, Snunt 



B^t+er^ 



O- 20 /*% A 



200-ohm 

■ I M00t 

circuit 
to grid of 

■F>rst-S6 
^"■ropdone 

Transforms r 



Figure 1. Circuit of the basic amplifier. 



Figure 2A. Double button carbon microphone circuit. 

to be plugged in to check the current taken by the 
buttons and to determine if a condition of balance 
exists between them (in other words, to determine if 
they are drawing, as they should, equal amounts of 
current). Shunts to provide the meter with a 0-20 
milliampere range are connected across the jacks 
as shown in the illustration. The method of cal- 
culating the values of these shunts will also be 
described. For the average two-button carbon mi- 
crophone, a current of approximately ten milliam- 
peres should be passed through each button. 



the first stage provides voltage amplification alone, 
since its power output (measured in watts) is quite 
low. The push-pull type -56 tubes in the second 
stage also served as voltage amplifiers; and are 
connected in this manner to handle the increased 
grid voltage swing provided by the preceding stage 
without overload or distortion. 

The final stage of this basic amplifier employs 
push-pull type 2A3 tubes, which together will handle 
a grid voltage swing as great as 124 volts. The 
power output of this stage is relatively high, being 
in the order of ten or fifteen watts. This output 
power is sufficient to supply a pair of loud speakers 
with enough energy to provide sound coverage for 
a moderate size crowd of people for public address 
work, to modulate the output of a small radiophone 
transmitter, or to drive a wax-cutting head or light- 
modulating device for sound recording. 

The Input Circuit 

If a double-button carbon microphone is to be 
used as the sound pick-up device, the 200-ohm pri- 
mary winding of the input transformer of the ampli- 



Y~ 200-ohm input 



S i iv) I e 
t>u tton 

CArbon 

microphone 



1 




' 3 volt 

'P* b Jt+ery 



Figure 2B. Single-button carbon microphone circuit. 

At B in Figure 2 is shown the circuit arrangement 
when a simple single-button carbon microphone is 
connected to the input transformer. If the voltage 
of the battery used is correct as specified for the 
particular microphone employed, usually about 
three volts, no rheostat or meter are required. A 
single-button carbon transmitter is not recommended, 
as the quality of reproduction is decidedly poor. 
Even a double-button carbon microphone does not 
provide the sound quality deserved by this amplifier. 

High-Quality Input Circuits 

If a condenser microphone; crystal, piezo-electric, 
microphone; ribbon, or "velocity," microphone; or 
a dynamic ("moving-coil") microphone is used with 



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The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



this amplifier, a different input arrangement is neces- 
sitated. These microphones have a very low level 
output, the power in watts measured at the trans- 
mitter is infinitesimal, so pre-amplification is neces- 
sary with them. The pre-amplifier is usually a two 
or three-stage affair, and it has a circuit resembling 
that shown in Figure 3, which is a standard two- 
stage pre-amplifier for a condenser transmitter. 



2 61 -A 



mote- Output ii-ipcohmce 
so w whcn winding* in parallel 

2O0 w WllEN WINPIN4J ix SHItt 

■26+-A ^OUTPUT TM«S««»'« 



CONPClMSelV 

T«»N:nin(n 








I OO 000 <" 



Joov. Y/^ijv.+ ov. 

"B"Batt«a<J -A'BATrCRY 



6 +2 00 </ 

" B" SATTtrtV 



Figure 3. Circuit of a standard two-stage condenser microphone pre- 
amplifier. 

The microphone, or transmitter, is connected to 
the input circuit of this pre-amplifier, the exact meth- 
od of connection depending on the type of trans- 
mitter. This matter of microphone connection will 
not be discussed here, since several chapters have 
already been devoted to the study of high-quality 
microphones, but the circuits for ribbon, dynamic, 
and crystal transmitters are shown in Figs. 4A, B, 
and C. 

/'MICROPHONE 
TRAMSroffPIC R 



0i[U 

,9— 




aoQ w OUTPUT 



MlCRopHoNt , 

Figure 4A. Coupling circuit for a ribbon microphone. 




MlCRoPrtOWe TRANS- 
FORMER 



2oo vv output 




PYrVAMlc UX\ 

MICROPHONfl 



Figure 4B. Coupling circuit for a dynamic microphone. 

-•OUTPUT 
i.Omf 264-A (TRANSFORMS 

c«vstal| ~ ; — 7C^£— ~^* r°-+ 

— ► >Wi 

Micro- ~~\~ 
PHowe 2 °f 

B * R+- 

A- A+ B + 

Figure 4C. Coupling circuit for a crystal microphone. 

The output impedance of commercial pre-ampli- 
fiers is usually adjustable to provide either fifty or 
200 ohms impedance. The change in impedance is 
accomplished by means of straps on the terminal 
plate. When the two secondary windings of the 
output transformer are connected in parallel, the out- 
put impedance is fifty ohms; when the windings are 
connected in series, the output impedance becomes 
200 ohms. This arrangement will be apparent from 
Figure 3. Naturally, the latter connection must be 
used when a pre-amplifier is to be employed with 
the basic amplifier described last month, for im- 
pedances must always match at junction points in 
a circuit if reflection losses and distortion are to be 
avoided. 

If a phonograph pick-up is to be used, its con- 



nection will depend on its output impedance. Cer- 
tain types of phonograph pick-ups are designed to 
be connected directly in the grid circuit of the first 
stage of the basic amplifier, replacing the input 
transformer shown; while other types are provided 
with their own output transformer and may be con- 
nected directly to the primary of the input trans- 
former, just as a pre-amplifier would be. 

Grade of Transformers Determines Quality 

The quality of output to be secured from this 
basic amplifier is determined in a very large meas- 
ure by the grade of audio-frequency transformers 
used in its construction. Here, as in most radio 
equipment, the cost of the item is a good measure 
of its worth. A few dollars extra spent for the pur- 
chase of the best grade of audio transformers that 
may be secured is an investment that will be re- 
turned many times over in pleasing sound quality 
from the amplifier. 

If transformers with permalloy cores are em- 
ployed, it will be necessary to use parallel feed in 
the plate circuit of the first stage of amplification. 
The passage of the steady direct current from the 
power supply through the winding of a transformer 
with a permalloy core will cause magnetic satura- 
tion of the core material; and if the direct current 
becomes excessive, the transformer will be harmed 
to the extent that it will no longer function satis- 
factorily. 

Parallel Plate Feed 

Parallel plate feed is not necessary in the other 
two stages of amplification, since push-pull circuits 
are used, and the direct current to the plates of the 
tubes flows in opposite directions through the pri- 
mary windings, resulting in the cancellation of the 
magnetic fields created thereby. 

The arrangement of the first stage circuit for 
parallel plate feed is shown in Figure 5. Separate 

.PLATE. Blocking 

>(• CONDENSER 
jlJ^MFMwioUE 
U o>||)es TO C.BI0S OF , 
>. o^ Ci<. PUSH- PUU -56 
Ac .3 6 TUBES |M SECOND 

*> t D«=\IIC — kSTAtt OF Ai- 
PLIFIER 




OUPLING 

TRANSFORMER 

AUDIO- FrUQUF/VCV 
CHOKE COI1. 



Figure 5. Parallel plate feed for first stage of the basic amplifier. 

paths are provided for the d-c. plate current from 
the power supply to the tubes and for the a-c. speech 
current generated by the microphone. The d-c. 
plate current can flow with but little opposition 
through the audio-frequency choke, but cannot pass 
through the condenser; while the choke coil offers 
very high impedance to the a-c. speech current, 
practically preventing its passage, although the con- 
denser passes the a-c. speech current with practi- 
cally no loss. 

This provision of separate paths for the two com- 
ponents of the plate current precludes any possi- 
bility that the audio transformer core will become 
saturated with magnetic flux by the plate current 
drawn by the tube. Whether or not the transformer 
employed has a permalloy core, this parallel plate 
feed circuit is highly desirable. 

The only precautions that must be taken when 
this plate circuit is used are to secure an audio 
choke that has an inductance of at least thirty 
henrys and low ohmic resistance, and to provide a 
plate blocking condenser that is capable of standing 
the full plate voltage of that particular amplifier 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Five 



stage without puncturing. Also, for the sake of 
sound quality, this condenser must have a capacity 
of at least one-half microfarad, with a capacity of 
two microfarads being more desirable. 
Matching the Push-Pull Tubes 

It is important that the tubes used in the push- 
pull stages of this amplifier match in characteristics, 
so that a perfectly balanced condition will prevail. 
With standard tubes, there is not a great reason for 
concern on this score, since modern production meth- 
ods produce tubes of high uniformity. This is par- 
ticularly true of the type -56 tubes. 

The type 2A3 tubes used in the last stage, how- 
ever, have a tendency to be less uniform in charac- 
teristics than most other types of tubes. Tubes for 
this stage should be selected carefully, taking pre- 
cautions that tubes that draw nearly the same plate 
current under conditions of identical filament and 
plate voltages are chosen to work together. 

The Amplifier Output Transformer 

The output impedance of the transformer that is 
connected in the plate circuit of the last stage of 
amplification is an important matter, and is governed 
by the impedance of the circuit into which the ampli- 
fier is to operate. 

For normal conditions, the standard output im- 
pedance of 500 ohms should be selected; but if the 
amplifier is to work directly into a loud speaker, 
or bank of loud speakers, as in public address work, 
the output impedance of this transformer should be 



matched to the impedance of these speakers. 

Where the amplifier is to feed a transmission line 
that carries its output to some more distant point, the 
standard line impedance of 500 ohms is most desir- 
able for the secondary of this transformer. 

If the basic amplifier is intended to serve as a 
speech amplifier for a radio broadcast transmitter, 
the secondary of its output transformer should have 
an impedance that will match the grid input im- 
pedance of the high-power modulator stage it 
drives. The secondary, in such cases, will be either 
without taps or center-tapped, depending on whether 
the modulator stage is of the single tube or push- 
pull type. 

For sound recording, this transformer should be 
provided with a secondary impedance of four ohms 
if it is to feed directly into a light valve; or with an 
impedance of 500 ohms if it is to supply energy to 
a wax record cutting head. 

The next chapter will describe the adaptation of 
this amplifier to operation from an a-c. power sup- 
ply, and the arrangements of grid and plate filter- 
ing circuits to prevent interaction between the stages 
and "motorboating." The power supply for use 
with this amplifier will also be described. 

The arrangement and calculation of the shunts 
to permit a single plate current meter to be used 
with all stages of this amplifier, and the design of a 
high-power amplifier capable of feeding a large 
number of loud speakers, will also be discussed. 



The Legion of Honor Decorates Walt Disney 



By H. O. Stechan 



With appropriate ceremony, Walt Disney, creator 
of Micky Mouse, was recently decorated with the 
Legion of Honor, conferred upon him by the French 
Government. The presentation took place at the 
Disney Studios, on Hyperion Avenue, in Hollywood. 

The decoration, one of the most coveted honors 
in the world, was pinned on Mr. Disney in the pres- 
ence of a large number of friends and associates, 
by Mons. J. J. Viala, French consul in Los Angeles. 
It came from the French Embassy in Washington, 
D. C. 

Mr. Disney was awarded the Legion of Honor in 
recognition of his contribution to the screen, as the 
French people feel that he has raised the movie- 
cartoon to an art. In his use of animals to interpret 
the human comedy, Mr. Disney is regarded abroad 
as a modern Aesop. 

Mr. Viala pointed out that Micky Mouse has be- 
come a world-famed screen star second to none, for 
the good humor that he radiates. The legends he 
enacts are understandable everywhere. He has 
developed into an institution for the promotion of 
international good will, in appreciation of which the 
French Government singled out Mr. Disney for the 
Legion of Honor. It also feels that his "Silly Sym- 
phonies" exert a benign influence around the world. 



OVIOLA 



AAQVIOl 



FILM VIEWING and 



2 ▼ 1 REPRODUCING MACHINES 

ALL MODELS ON DISPLAY— FOR SALE— FOR RENT 

Illustrated Literature On Request 

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Napoleon Bonaparte instituted the Legion of Hon- 
or in the year 1802. He was its first grand master. 
It was originally a general military and civil order; 
but in the century that has elapsed, it has undergone 
many changes. Nevertheless, it exists pretty much 
today as conceived by the Corsican and is the sole 
order of France. Its higher grades rank in estima- 
tion with the most distinguished European orders. 

Now the President of the French Republic is the 
real head of the Legion of Honor, which consists of 
five classes. There is a limit to the membership in 
all classifications, except the one relating to foreign 
recipients. In the present order, as it was conferred 
on Walt Disney, the symbolical head of the French 
Republic appears in the center and a laurel wreath 
replaces the imperial crown of Napoleon. The in- 
scription around the medallion is "Republique Fran- 
caise." 

In establishing the Legion of Honor, Napoleon 
said: "In ambition is to be found the chief motive 
force of humanity; and a man puts forth his best 
powers in proportion to his hopes for advancement." 
With this order the founder sought to recognize and 
reward merit in all walks of life. The decoration is 
bestowed on foreigners solely for the purpose of 
creating good will toward France. 

In accepting the Legion of Honor medal and the 
button, which is worn on the lapel, Mr. Disney ex- 
pressed his gratitude to the French Government, say- 
ing that he felt it was not all entirely his own, but 
that a goodly share of it belonged to his associates 
who helped him bring Mickey Mouse and the Silly 
Symphonies to life. This French decoration is one 
of the few which American citizens are permitted 
to accept, by Uncle Sam. 



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Six 



I I, e I X T K R N AT10NA1. PHOTOGRAPH E R 



February, 1036 




The Archaeology of the Motion 

Picture 



Prepared for the Encyclopedia International Institute of Educational Cinematography, 

League of Nations 

By Earl Theisen 

Honorary Curator Motion Picture and Theatrical Arts, Los Angeles Museum 



V. 
Devices Dealing With Persistence of Vision 

Through the characteristic of the eye to retain an 
image for a momentary flash after the image has 
ceased is based the whole phenomena of the motion 
picture. The eye does not see motion on the screen, 
but instead sees a series of poses. These poses con- 
tain a record of the motion stage by stage as it pro- 
gresses, and when they are projected at high speed 
on the theatre screen the eye remembers each static 
pose until it is replaced by the succeeding one. In 
this manner the individual pictures blend to show 
motion. The discovery of this principle of persistence 
of vision dates back at least 2,000 years. Lucretius, 
as has been noted, in his fourth book of "De Rerum 
Natura" mentions the phenomena. Ptolemy, in his 
"Optics," which was written about 130 A. D., men- 
tions that if a sector of a disc is colored and then 
revolved, the whole will appear colored. Allhazen 
mentions the subject about 1100 A. D.; Leonardo da 
Vinci, Newton, Boyle and others refer to it. 

Abbe Nollet, in his "Lecons de Physique," tome 
5, written 1765, mentions it: "When as an object 
moves very rapidly before our eyes, we often attrib- 
ute to it size and shape which it does not possess. 
A Polyhedron revolved on its axis seems to us a 
sphere; as does also a circle revolved on one of its 
diameters, etc." Many top-like toys were made at 
this time illustrative of this principle. 

On December 9, 1824, Peter Mark Roget read a 
paper before the Royal Society which dealt with 
Persistence of Vision. He illustrated his paper with 
a spoked wheel device. When viewing the wheel, 
which was revolving forward through a vertical 
aperture, the illusion that it was turning forward 
when turned at one speed and backward at another 
was witnessed. s 

The "Thaumatrope" may be said to be the 
"grandfather" of the motion picture because it was 
the first device that dealt with persistence of vision 
in connection with pictures. Though William H. Wol- 
laston, Sir John Herschel, W. H. Fitton and others are 
said to have invented the Thaumatrope, its invention 
is now generally credited to John Ayrton Paris. This 
confusion evidently arises from the fact that these 
men, who were members of the Royal Society, had 
much to say of this little device that could combine 
two pictures as one. In fact, it attracted so much 
attention and interest as a scientific novelty that the 
Royal Society undertook to sell them. It was put on 
the market in 1826 by Paris and he described it as 
his own invention in his book, "Philosophy in Sport 
Made Science in Earnest," which was published a 
year later. In Charles Babbage's autobiography, 



"Passages from the Life of a Philosopher," we find 
the following passage: "One day Herschel, sitting 
with me after dinner, amusing himself by spinning a 
pear upon the table, suddenly asked whether I could 
show him the two sides of a shilling at the same 
moment. I took out of my pocket a shilling, and 
holding it up before the looking glass pointed out my 
method. 'No," said my friend, 'that won't do'; then, 
spinning my shilling upon the table, he pointed oui 
his method of seeing both sides at once. The next 
day I mentioned the anecdote to the late Dr. Fitton, 
who a few days after brought me a beautiful illustra- 
tion of the principle. It consisted of a round disc of 
card suspended between two pieces of sewing-silk. 
These threads, being held between the finger and 
thumb of each hand, were then made to turn quickly 
when the disc of card, of course, revolved also. Upon 
one side of this disc of card was painted a bird; upon 
the other an empty bird cage. On turning the thread 
rapidly the bird appeared to have got inside the 
cage." He goes on to say, in substance, that some 
months later at a dinner at the Royal Society Club, 
he was told of a "wonderful, invention of Dr. Paris" 
being sold at the Royal Institution. After investiga- 
tion the next day he found a device selling as the 
thaumatrope which was similar to "our unnamed 
toy" that Dr. Fitton had made months before for Sir 
John Herschel and him. 1 " 

In 1831, Michael Faraday conducted a series of 
experiments with revolving wheels similar to those 
of Roget. Faraday went further and revolved two 
wheels in opposite directions which at certain speeds 
gave the illusion that one of the wheels was station- 
ary. His device, which was known as "Faraday's 
Wheel," was a direct approach to the problem of the 
animated picture. He could have had pictures in 
motion by a substitution of the rear wheel for one 
bearing a series of pictures around its periphery. 11 

In the meantime Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Pla- 
teau had been conducting experiments of a similar 
nature in Belgium. He approached the problem in 
1828 and in 1831 he announced the "Phenakisto- 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seven 



Sharpshooters of Local 659 
In the Artichoke Racket 

Herewith is a snapshot of the Newsreelers of Local 659, Golden 
Gate Wing, in action. The shot was made during the photographing 
of a story on the "Artichoke Racket." As all of the artichokes sold 
commercially are raised in the district twenty miles south of San 
Francisco, naturally, with Mayor La Guardia (N. Y.) making a 
proclamation decrying the racketeering, the boys here went to work 
on the story. Left to right: Carl Wallen, Still Man; Eric Mayell, 
Fox Movietone; George Lyng, Hearst Metrotone; Capt. John Mac- 
Henry, Universal Newsreels; Joe Rucker, Paramount News; Frank 
Vail, Pathe News; and the dressed up cameraman, Frank Lowery, 
Paramount News. (The Fox Soundman, Paul Heise, is under the 
blanket alongside of his cameraman — "it's raining.") 







scope." The "Phenakistoscope" consisted of two 
discs which revolved on the same shaft. The front 
disc had a series of slits and the rear disc had a cor- 
responding number of progressive cartoon drawings. 
While peering through the slits at the passing draw- 
ings on the rear disc the appearance of motion was 
created. His drawings were of cartoon characters 
somewhat similar to those used in the films today. 
The first drawing portrayed the character in one po- 
sition; the next drawing showed the character in a 
slightly progressed pose of the action, until eight or 
ten drawings of progressive poses had been made. 
When they were mounted on the rear disc of the 
"Phenakistoscope" and spun, the drawings blended 
together to simulate motion. 

It was the tantalizing beginning of motion pic- 
tures for the first time. Though it is true the few draw- 
ings that he used could not tell a story, it was prog- 
ress toward the screen. Plateau continued his exper- 
iments with the hope of improving and making 
longer motion pictures. He tried every means at his 
disposal until finally through endless peering into 
devices, he lost his eyesight in 1843. Even that did 
not deter him. He continued with the aid of his wife 
and assistants, who worked at the problem under his 
direction. His favorite subject was depicting the 
devil in the act of blowing up a fire. In his later 
years he tried to use photography, but as yet it had 
not reached the stage of usefulness for this kind of 
work, i o 

In December of 1832 Simon Ritter von Stampfer in 
Austria made his "Stroboscope," which was very 
similar to the Plateau Phenakistoscope, though 
neither was aware of the other's experiments. 

In England, William George Horner tried to 
achieve pictures with another system. His "Daeda- 
leum," or Wheel of the Devil, as it was popularly 
known, was a shallow cylinder mounted on a stand 
for revolving that had a sequence of action drawings 
mounted around its interior. The drawings could be 
seen through slits. The "Daedaleum" was announced 
in "The Philosophical Magazine" in 1834: ". . . The 
phenomena may be displayed with full effect to a 
numerous audience. I have given this instrument 
the name of 'Daedaleum' as imitating the practice 
which the celebrated artist of antiquity was fabled to 
have invented, of creating figures of men and ani- 
mals endued with motion ..." 

Desvignes re-invented the Daedaleum and pat- 
ented it in France in 1860. Now it came to be known 
as "The Wheel of Life" because it showed action 
and portrayed little every-day happenings, such as 
a child jumping rope, a man pumping water, a top 
spinning, a darky sawing wood, or perhaps a more 
serious theme, a monster swallowing an angel. 



Many such events were recorded by hand drawings 
on strips of paper which were to be inserted in the 
interior of the cylinder. They were motion pictures 
2Vz feet in length. 

The Wheel of Life was first introduced in the 
United States by William Lincoln, who patented it on 
April 23, 1867 (U. S. Patent No. 64,117). It was then 
known as the "Zoetrope," and as such became very 
popular. Its popularity is attested to by the fact that 
one of these fragile devices is known to have been 
carried across the plains of the United States in a 
"covered wagon." 

There were a host of experimenters who, seem- 
ingly unrelated, tried to devise instruments or toys in 
an attempt to achieve the motion picture. 13 - 14 Space 
would not permit a complete resume of all the ap- 
proaches which by count of the records indicate 146 
different devices before 1890. 1 "' Among them was 
Lieutenant Baron Franz von Uchatius, who in 1853 
tried to combine the "Stroboscope" with a magic lan- 
tern in order to project pictures showing the trajec- 
tory of bullets. This is thought to be the first time a 
certain measure of success attended an attempt to 
project pictorial motion. 

In 1869 Linnett patented the first of the book form 
devices for showing pictures of objects in motion 
which, in principle, was used later in the American 
Biograph Mutoscope. By thumbing the edge of the 
pictures that were bound in a pack the illusion of 
motion was obtained as the different pictures flipped 
into view. 

In narrative ability, the most notable of the pre- 
photographic inventions was the "Praxinoscope" de- 
vised by Emile Reynaud in 1877. The Praxinoscope 
was a magic lantern arranged with a mechanism 
that could project strips of pictures 30 feet in length. 
Reynaud drew bits of dramatic action or fairy tales 
on a transparent medium which he termed "crystal- 
oid" and then projected them on a large screen to 
audiences in his "Optical Theatre." His most notable 
subject, "Pauvre Pierrot," was a picture-play 30 feet 
in length. It is of interest to note that he used a trans- 
parent medium twelve years before Eastman intro- 
duced his first emulsion on a Tollable celluloid base. 

VI. 
The Photographic Motion Picture 

While some scientists were studying motion, oth- 
ers, notably Wedgewood, Fox-Talbot, Daguerre, Her- 
schel and Archer, had introduced photography. In 
1802 Wedgewood published his photographic proc- 
ess, and by 1835, after two years' experimentation, 
Fox-Talbot had achieved a certain measure of suc- 
cess in fixing a photographic image. Then within a 
few years photographic methods were improved suf- 

(Turn to Page 19) 



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lilt I lit 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



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Joseph Aller, "Joe" to all cameramen of the mo- 
tion picture industry, is back on his old stamping 
ground, this time as general manager of the Con- 
solidated Film Laboratories on the Pacific Coast. 

On December 10, 1935, he succeeded Benjamin 
Goetz, Vice-president and General Manager, as chief 
executive who goes to take charge of M-G-M pro- 
duction in Europe. 

It was 1903 when Aller, a young laboratory tech- 
nician from Russia, arrived in America and sought 
a connection with a first class lab. He didn't have 
to wait long, for the famous old Biograph, New York, 
needed a bright young man and the youthful Rus- 
sian made good at once. 

He soon came under the eagle eye of D. W. Grif- 
fith, that great shining light of the cinema, then just 
arising in the east, and D. W. packed him off to 
Hollywood. 

He arrived at the Fine Arts Studios in 1913 and 
remained there until 1919. This was the Golden Age 
of the cinema when "Intolerance," "Birth of a Na- 
tion," "Hearts of the World," "Broken Blossoms" and 
other cinema classics were unfolding their banners 
to the breezes. 

It was 1919 when Mr. Aller decided to go into 
business for himself and, for a beginning, he pur- 
chased the old Triangle lab. at 4500 Sunset Boule- 
vard, now known as the Talisman Studio, where he 
handled many great productions and made a host 
of friends among the cameramen for his geniality 
and for his eagerness to help them with their film 
problems. 



Joseph Aller Elevated By Con- 
solidated to the Chief Execu 
tiveship of the West Coast 

By The Editor 



In the meantime another lab. man was coming 
to the front, in the person of Watterson R. Rothacker, 
president of the Rothacker Film Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Chicago, pioneer of industrial advertising 
with film. 

It was 1921 when these two enterprising young 
men came in contact and it did not require any 
lengthy negotiations to bring about a partnership; 
an alliance was formed and within less than four 
months the Rothacker-Aller Laboratory was a fact. 

It location on Melrose Avenue, was in the heart 
of the motion picture studio district, the finest and 
most up-to-date of the kind in the industry. 

For six years the new lab. prospered beyond ex- 
pectation and then, in 1926, the Rothacker-Aller Lab- 
oratory was sold to Consolidated, Mr. Aller remain- 
ing with the concern and Benjamin Goetz assuming 
charge as executive vice-president. 

Three years later this fine plant was destroyed 
by fire and the service was transferred to Consoli- 
dated No. 2 (the Bennett Lab. on Santa Monica Boule- 
vard), G. W. Yates in charge. 

From this time to December 10, 1935, Mr. Aller 
acted as lieutenant to Mr. Goetz, with headquarters 
at the Consolidated branch on Seward and Romaine 
Streets, Hollywood. 

There the concern owns a tract of seven acres, 
which is rapidly building into the largest and most 
up-to-date film laboratory in the world, and it is here 
that Joseph Aller, as General Manager of Consoli- 
dated on the Pacific Coast, will again be surrounded 
by his cameramen and producer friends of early 
days, but now big shots in the industry where he 
helped largely to make them great. 

But Joe Aller's activities were not alone of the 
dark room and the conventional duties of the lab. — 
he had other things to think about. 

Being naturally of an inventive turn of mind he 
was quick to see the need for improvement in vari- 
ous directions and, between the years 1917 and 1926 
he was awarded patents as follows: 

FILM CUTTING INDICATOR (1917), "a device to 
make changes" in film during editing. 

TO FACILITATE DEVELOPMENT AND WASH- 
ING OF FILM (1921), "improved film racks." 

NUMBERED FILMS (May, 1926), "to provide 
means by which every foot of film may be instantly 
found." 

This last was first employed at Griffith Studio, 
Sunset Boulevard, and has since come into universal 
use. Note first strip of film with number printed on 
edge, cut from the picture "Home, Sweet Home," 
featuring the late Bobbie Herron. 

These, with other patents applied for, have made 
the name of Joseph Aller prominent throughout the 
technical world of motion pictures, and others may 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Nine 



The Akers Camera Comes Into Its Own 



The new Akers Camera is now being manufac- 
tured by the originators and executives of the Duplex 
Machine Co., manufacturers of cinemachinery, 
Messrs. H. O. Carleton, G. W. Carleton and C. R. 
Carleton, who developed the now famous Duplex 
Printers, developing machines, etc., have taken over 
the manufacturing rights of all the products of the 
Akers Camera Co., of Hollywood. 

The world-wide demand for this flexible little 
camera brought it to the attention of the Carleton 
Brothers and seeing the future of a new departure 
from the old type heavy cameras they concluded a 
deal for its perfection and production on a large 
scale. 

The manufacture of the Akers Camera by this 
recognized cinemachinery organization puts the 
Akers products now on a plane of substantiality en- 
joyed by the best of camera concerns. The toler- 
ances of manufacturing precision have been raised 
to the highest possible standards and the new 
cameras are comparable now to the finest the pro- 
fessional market can show. 

Five months have been spent by the Duplex or- 
ganization in perfecting manufacturing details, re- 
designing and tooling up for production of the new 
model Akers cameras the first of which will make 
its appearance about February 1st. 

From this point they will be produced in manu- 
facturing lots of twelve, thus insuring customers a 
steady supply and overcoming the difficulties of de- 
lay in delivery which, heretofore, caused incon- 
venience both to the Akers Camera Co. and pur- 
chasers. 

Essentially the camera remains the same as to 
size and weight; however, everything is contained 
in this little camera that can oe found in the largest 



studio camera, plus its being excellently silenced 
for sound, and the beauty and precision of work- 
manship leave nothing to be desired. 

Back of all this is the story of a cameraman, effi- 
cient, highly respected in his trade and with many 
years of experience whom the depression found, like 
many others, broke. 

In sheer force of desperation he envisioned a 
new thing — a new mechanical help to his trade — - 
perhaps if he had been employed he would not have 
had time to dream — anyway almost four years ago 
in the deepest gloom of the depression he borrowed 
a few tools and in a little shed in the rear of his 
house he built his first camera — entirely by hand. 

The result was a little camera that could do many 
things the larger cameras could not do and he found 
quite a bit of employment making shots that big 
cameras could not accomplish. Others saw him 
working with it and wanted one like it, which led 
to the first order, and slowly the demand grew until 
today a substantial organization is producing this 
new camera which helps so greatly the men who 
use it. 

And now that the dream is a reality, the dreamer, 
Irving Akers, is now returning to the field of his 
trade — production cinematography. He will remain 
president of the Akers Camera Co. and is still on 
call to his firm as consulting engineer, but his ability 
as a cameraman far outweighs his necessity of re- 
maining in the shops and he is anxiously awaiting 
his return to active production. 

For years Irving Akers has been known as one 
of Hollywood's best production cinematographers 
and it is understood that he has had several for- 
eign offers to photograph productions abroad, but 
here or abroad he will be an ornament to his pro- 
fession. 



S.M. P. E. To Hold Spring Meeting at Edge water Beach Hotel, 
Chicago, Illinois, April 27-30, 1936 



The Spring Meeting of the Society of Motion Pic- 
ture Engineers will be held at the Edgewater Beach 
Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, April 27-30, according to an 
announcement recently by W. C. Kunzmann, Con- 
vention Vice-president. 

Mr. Kunzmann has just completed advance ar- 
rangements for the Convention and has appointed 
all local committees. C. H. Stone is Chairman of 
the Local Arrangements and Reception Committee. 
Herbert Griffin of New York will handle Projection 



and O. F. Neu of New York is in charge of the Ap- 
paratus Exhibit. Mrs. C. H. Stone has been ap- 
pointed Hostess in charge of all entertainment for 
women guests. 

Seven technical sessions are scheduled for the 
four-day convention. A get-together luncheon will 
be held the first day and the semi-annual banquet 
will be held on April 29th. One afternoon has been 
set aside for visits to prominent motion picture plants 
in the Chicago area. 



be expected as the years go by. 

Congratulations, Joseph Aller, upon both your 
past achievements and your recent elevation to the 
big job and may the procession of the years be 
filled with bundles of prosperity. 

The Austin Company is building the new Con- 
solidated Lab. on the tract at Seward Street where 
Mr. Aller will once more gather about him the 
cameramen and producers whose mentor he was 
in the good days at 4500 Sunset Boulevard and at 
the big W-R Lab. on Melrose Avenue. 



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Ten 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



The Question of Development Time 



By William Flaherty 



a.-flNE of the hardest problems which confronts 
riul 'h e nov i ce (and the professional, too) in 
photography is that of correct development 
time for films or plates. That is, how long 
should he develop a certain film or plate to obtain 
the best results. It is by no means an easy problem 
to solve. In fact, the question of development time 
is so important that one authority has stated that 
the whole science of development consists in know- 
ing when to stop. This is true because, generally 
speaking, the photographer can best control the con- 
trast of negatives by varying the time of develop- 
ment. 

Most beginners have an erroneous conception of 
what development means. They are concerned 
mainly with getting a negative image on the film 
and then searching until they find a printing paper 
that will give a suitable print; one that is neither 
too contrasty, nor too flat. This is usually the case 
with roll film where there are from six to sixty ex- 
posures on one roll. When the photographer has 
a camera using plates, cut film, or film pack he can 
give each exposed film individual development. And 
individual development means developing the nega- 
tive to suit the printing paper, and not vice-versa. 

Contact paper usually comes in six degrees of 
contrast, ranging from soft to hard. Enlarging bro- 
mide paper comes in three or four degrees, and most 
of the higher grade chloride and chloro-bromide 
papers come in only one degree. In any case, select 
some standard brand of paper, and endeavor to 
develop all negatives so that they give suitable 
prints on the normal or average grades of paper. 
That means that the negatives should be such that 
they can be printed on paper calling for negatives 
of average contrast, which in turn, is all dependent 
upon the length of time that the exposed film is left 
in the developer. 

However, there are a number of things govern- 
ing the time of development. These are mainly: 

I. Nature of the subject to be photographed. 

II. Temperature of developer. 

III. Exposure given to film. 

IV. The film itself. 

V. The printing paper. 

Photographic subjects can be divided roughly 
into those of high, medium and low contrast. Under 
high contrast subjects can be listed: 

I. Landscapes which show the sky, and have 
large areas of shadow in the foreground. 

II. Shots made in the shade of trees, and show- 
ing some sky; or else showing both the shade from 
trees and patches of bright, sunlit ground. 

III. Indoor scenes illuminated by light from the 
windows. 

IV. Landscapes with snow and dark objects or 
shadows in the foreground. 

V. Scenes in streets with high buildings and 
showing some sky. Also indoor shots made with 
Photo flash and Photo flood lamps are generally 
contrasty unless the light is very well balanced or 
diffused. Light which comes from a small source 



such as an open electric arc or a clear glass elec- 
tric light bulb gives a contrasty subject, hence the 
use of diffusers. Fog and grey, overcast skies are 
nature's diffusers. Any subject which has good 
bright highlights and large areas of shadow near the 
camera is a contrasty subject. Usually, the more 
contrasty the subject the shorter the development 
time. 

Subjects of medium contrast include: 

I. Average shots made in sunlight, such as 
small groups of people, animals, etc. 

II. Shots made on ordinary, well lighted streets 
in which theer are no large areas of shadow within, 
say 100 or 150 yards of the camera. 

III. Landscapes with no heavy shadows in 
foreground. 

A subject of medium contrast, should be de- 
veloped so that the negative will give a suitable 
print on a paper of normal grade. This will be re- 
ferred to later. 

Low contrast subjects include: 

I. Ordinary landscapes on a dull, cloudy day. 

II. Shots taken in the shade where there is no 
bright sunlight, or no bright sunlit areas showing, 
such as in a well shaded porch. 

III. Distant landscapes. 

Subjects of low contrast usually call for longer 
development, depending on the subject. 

Temperature also has its effect on the length of 
development. Ordinary developers give more con- 
trast in a given time as the temperature increases. 
This is especially true of metol-hydroquinone devel- 
opers. In this case the increased temperature gives 
the hydroquinone greater energy, resulting in more 
contrast in the negative. Sixty-five degrees F. is the 
temperature generally recommended by manufactur- 
ers. When it is not possible to maintain this tem- 
perature one must refer to the time and temperature 
tables for the particular developer being used. Most 
of these tables give a time which is suitable for 
amateur film when exposed to subjects of medium 
contrast. The time must be varied one way or an- 
other when the subject is not one of medium con- 
trast; contrasty subjects requiring less time, and vice 
versa. 

Exposure governs the shadow density of the nega- 
tive, and development governs the highlight density, 
so the two are related. Low contrast subjects re- 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPH KK 



Eleven 




Top Left — Subject of high contrast. 
Lower Left — Subject of medium contrast 



Top Right — Subject of low contrast. 
Lower Right — Subject of low contrast. 



quire less exposure as a rule, but there are excep- 
tions. Distant landscapes are low in contrast but 
reflect a great deal of light toward the camera. There- 
fore, less exposure and longer development. Ex- 
perience will soon enable one to know when such 
a procedure should be followed. 

When the subject is contrasty one must give 
more exposure; enough so that detail in the shadows 
will have time to be recorded in the negative, and 
now the development time must be less than that 
shown in the tables. How much less depends on 
the subject. 

Some films will develop to greater contrast in a 
given time than others. Until one becomes pro- 
ficient in judging contrast in negatives it is better 
to use only one kind of film and learn just what it 
will do. 

The last and most important factor to be con- 
sidered is the printing paper and the kind of nega- 
tive it calls for. Enlarging bromide of normal grade 
requires a negative of a little more contrast than 
would be necessary for normal contact papers. 
Chloro-bromide enlarging papers are about midway 
between the other two. 

Let us suppose that we wish to photograph a 
subject of normal contrast. After three or four films 
are exposed, in succession, to the same subject we 
go to the dark room and find that the temperature 
of the developer is 60° F. 

The tables might read something like this: 
55° - — 30 minutes development 
60° - — 25 minutes development 
65° — 20 minutes development 
70° -15 minutes development 

One of the above films is developed for 25 min- 
utes and printed on let us say, normal contact paper. 
If the print is of suitable contrast we can use the 
different times given in the table for all negatives 
intended to be printed on this same make and kind 
of paper. If the subject had been contrasty, about 
18 or 19 minutes time would do. On the other hand, 
if the subject had been dull or low in contrast 35 



to 37 minutes development would be necessary. 

In the example above, suppose that 25 minutes 
development resulted in a negative of too much con- 
trast for the contact paper. Take another of the 
exposed films and develop for 23 minutes at 60° F. 
and print again on the same kind of paper. If this 
does not give a good print, try a still different length 
of time. If the correct time is found to be 21 min- 
utes, then we can amend the time and temperature 
tables thus: 





Av. 


High 


Low 


55 


26 min. 


19 min. 


41 min. 


60° 


21 min. 


16 min. 


33 min. 


65° 


16 min. 


12 min. 


25 min. 


70° 


1 1 min. 


8 min. 


17 min. 



The table as it now stands will practically always 
give the correct times of development when using 
the same kind of film and paper as was used in the 
test exposures. In the first column the times are 
for average subjects; the second for subjects of high 
contrast; and the third column for subjects of low 
contrast. 

Each particular make of developer has its own 
time and temperature tables. If necessary write to 
the manufacturer and ask for them. After you get 
the tables try them out at 60° or 65° and find the 
time for your favorite film and paper combination 
and make a table as shown above. The times all 
have about the same relationship to one another, 
i. e.: 25-16-12 for subjects of low, medium and high 
contrast, respectively. 

To sum it all up briefly, choose your printing 
paper and develop each negative to fit this paper. 
In the long run this method will give the best re- 
sults, besides making it unnecessary to stock up 
with five or six different grades of paper. With 
roll film cameras, more often than not all the ex- 
posures will fall into one class. And finally, the 
ability to judge contrast in subjects and negatives 
comes only with experience. If you make a slip, 
don't feel badly. Those with years of experience 
make their mistakes, too. 



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Twelve 



T 1 1 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAP 



HER 



February, 1936 





|HE Miniature and the 8x10: Under this 
heading could be written an article far ex- 
ceeding the limits of this department, listing 
the pros and cons as voiced by many 
camera enthusiasts, and we would probably end up 
by getting nowhere. However, a talk given by Dr. 
Agha, art director of the Conde Nast publications, 
to the Miniature Camera Club of New York City 
recently, brought out some interesting points. 

The miniature camera enlargement and the 
8x 10 contact print are difficult to compare, for there 
is a difference between an enlargement and a con- 
tact print. In the latter there exists that extreme 
sharpness. We may even consider it too sharp. 
It does not seem natural but rather harsh, which is 
especially noticeable in portraits made with the ordi- 
nary anastigmat lens. Such extreme sharpness is 
desirable in certain types of commercial work. 

The enlargement diffuses the sharp lines, giving 
them a softer and more natural appearance, without 
undue loss of detail, the latter because of the pre- 
cision lenses of the miniature camera. It is there- 
fore a mistake for miniature camera photographers 
to make comparisons of their enlargements with 
contact prints. The miniature camera is unsur- 
passed for many types of photographic work, and 
its owner should take advantage of its possibilities, 
producing photographs that are out of question with 
larger cameras. 

Quality in Enlargements: In his address to the 
Miniature Club of New York City, Dr. Agha also 
stressed a point which has been constantly written 
about in this department — enlargement quality. 
Many of the miniature camera prints submitted to 
him were not only obviously enlargements, but also 
of poor quality. They had a grey flat appearance. 
The shadows were not really black, and the high- 
lights not white. We will not delve into this topic 
but will refer the reader to past issues of INTER- 
NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER. Hints on how to ob- 
tain quality enlargements have been continuously 
mentioned in this department. 

Dust: This is the season of greatest enlarging 
activity, and dust on the negatives will be the cause 
of some miniature camera photographers losing their 
good humor. So many materials have been sug- 
gested for removing dust effectively that it would be 
difficult to mention any specific item to be used for 



The Miniature and the 8x10 

Miniature Camera Photography 

Interesting Method of Reducing Negatives 



this purpose. We may say that any soft material 
can be suitable for this purpose. 

In many instances the difficulty will be found to 
be the desire of the photographer to turn out a large 
quantity of prints in a single evening. Attention is 
not given to the individual negatives, with the re- 
sult that there will be many dust spots in the en- 
largements. If each negative is closely inspected 
before prints are made, and every dust speck re- 
moved, cleaner enlargements that require little or 
no spotting will be produced. Undoubtedly, this will 
mean that fewer enlargements will be made in a 
single evening, but it is best to have a few good 
enlargements than a quantity of them that will have 
so many specks and spots as to entirely discourage 
the photographer. 



Still Another: We have heard of another sug- 
gestion in reference to obtaining better results in 
fine grain developing. One amateur "primes" his 
developer by placing about a foot of fresh film in 
it, and allowing it to remain there for 24 hours. The 
film is exposed to light first. The "rawness" is taken 
out of the developer, and this amateur claims that 
it also produces finer grain. 

Simplified Sepia Toning: We have just received 
a notice from George Murphy, Inc., in which a one- 
solution sepia toner is mentioned. All that is re- 
quired is to immerse the prints in a dilute solution 
of this product, known as Septon, and a permanent 
sepia tone is obtained. The solution serves equally 
as well for bromide papers and chloride papers. 
This will greatly simplify matters for the photog- 
rapher, and will bring sepia toning within the realm 
of individuals whose available space and time does 
not permit them to mix their own solutions. Further 
information can be obtained by writing to George 
Murphy, Inc., 57 East 9th St., New York City. 

Diffusion to Minimize Grain: Every now and 
then a negative having a relatively large grain does 
pop up. One method of minimizing grain is to slip 
a diffusion disk or filter over the enlarger lens. This 
does the trick in many cases . 

Mounting Prints: At times that problem of what 
to do with the ever-increasing number of prints at 
hand has the photographer perplexed. Many ama- 
teurs prefer the usual method of mounting the prints 
in an album. However, when one makes 5x7 and 
larger prints the ordinary album does not seem to 
be the right expedient for this purpose. One method 
of keeping the prints neatly, and also enhancing 
them, is to mount the prints. Uniform size boards 
can be selected. It is difficult to recommend a par- 
ticular type of board to use for this purpose. Any 
art dealer will have quite a few different types for 
the photographer to select from. A relatively simple 
and inexpensive material for this purpose is known 
as "eggshell board." 

The prints can just be simply mounted on the 
boards, or if the photographer wishes to be more 
elaborate, he can draw borders around the prints 
after they have been mounted. Then again, the 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirteen 



boards can be cut out in the center, and the prints 
placed in the cut-out portion, the mount acting as 
a frame. In this case it will be necessary to have 
additional material as backing. 

There is one step in which the amateur usually 
fails, and that is pasting the photographs to the 
mounts. The proper material to use for this purpose 
is rubber cement. This is used by applying a gener- 
ous layer both to the portion of the mount upon 
which the print is to be pasted, and to the back of 
the print. The cement is allowed to dry, the print 
then placed correctly on the mount. A sheet of white 
paper is placed over the print, and by rubbing with 
the hand the latter is secured to the mount. For 
better results the mounted prints should be placed 
under pressure for a short time. 

The rubber cement can be applied freely, for 
after the print has been mounted the surplus cement 
is easily removed with an ordinary eraser, without 
leaving any stains. 

An Interesting Method of Reducing Negatives: 

In the December, 1935, issue of the English maga- 
zine Photography, a method of reducing negatives 
is prescribed which not only does not increase the 
grain size, but is actually claimed to produce a 
finer grain. The method is to treat the dense nega- 
tive with the sepia toning bleach (10 grains of potas- 
sium ferricyanide and 10 grains of potassium bro- 
mide to each ounce of water.) 

The negative is partially bleached in the above 
solution, rinsed and immersed in hypo. The bleach- 
ing should not be carried too far, but the process can 
be repeated time and again. 

The reason it is claimed to actually create a finer 



BY 
AUGUSTUS 
WOLFMAN 




grain in the negative is the fact that the process has 
the effect of reducing away the top layers of silver 
first, in which apparently the larger grains exist. 
In addition contrast is not increased. Quite the re- 
verse this method of reduction tends to reduce con- 
trast. Its effect on the reduction of grain makes this 
process extremely interesting to the miniature 
camera photographer. 

Orange Filters in Enlarging: At times amateurs 
are heard to complain about the inefficiency of the 
filters they employ on their enlargers. The claim 
is, that despite the fact that the filter is placed be- 
tween the light coming from the enlarger lens and 
the paper, the latter becomes fogged. It is usually 
found in such cases that the sensitive paper is ex- 
posed to the filtered light for as long as 10 to 15 

(Turn to Next Page) 




To 
The Akers Camera Company 

Your little Akers Camera has proved itself perfect for 
all kinds of aerial work. Being small, it lends itself 
excellently to stream-lining on set mounts anywhere on 
a plane. Your pilot pin movement permits shooting back- 
ground key negatives of absolute steadiness. 

Very truly yours, 

RAY FERNSTROM. 



(Aerial and background cinemaphotographer on Universal'! 
"Storm Over the Andes.") 



Akers Camera Company 

7414 Santa Monica Boulevard • Hollywood 

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Fourteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



minutes. The filters used with enlargers are in- 
tended to enable focusing directly on the paper, and 
allow the latter to be correctly placed, which should 
only take a minute or two. Allowing the paper to 
remain exposed to the filtered light for an unusually 
long period may result in the paper becoming 
fogged. 

Color: One phase of photography which is des- 
tined to take great strides this year is color photog- 



raphy. Interest in this type of work is increasing 
rapidly. The making of color transparencies has 
been greatly simplified by the introduction of Dufay- 
color film, and we can look forward to having pro- 
cesses introduced which will enable the amateur 
either to simply make actual color prints, or have 
them produced at a reasonable price by photo- 
graphic laboratories or manufacturers. The photog- 
rapher should interest himself in color for it is the 
coming thing. 



Miniature Camera in the Studios 

By Kenneth Alexander 




|T has been interesting to note the growth 
in popularity of the miniature camera 
around the studios, especially as employed 
. by the still men. At first a greatly despised 
tool among all of us, still men and laboratory men 
combined, condemned from the start, and now so 
strongly entrenched as a valuable asset to "what 
the up-to-date still men must have" as part of his 
equipment. 

It is important to keep in mind that there is no 
such thing as a universal camera, one which is the 
best for every purpose. Some people like blondes, 
some brunettes, and the same is true in modern 
photography today. 

It is an absolute fact that there is a vast new 
field opened up for our experimentation with the 
advent of a precision instrument such as Leica and 
Contax cameras. 

On this matter of cameras of different types, I 
have worked at both ends of the scale, from the 
size 11x14 down to two-frame miniature sizes. I 
obtained the finest technical quality on the 11x14 
size film and used it successfully on three of our 
major productions. Balancing this, however, incurred 
a loss of spontaneity and animation, due to the ab- 
sence of quick action in the operation of such a size 
camera. This again proves my point regarding a 
universal camera. 

The miniature camera is a sort of stimulant to 
the still man, tends to shake him out of conven- 
tionality, makes him see things that go on about 
us all in our daily lives and then get them down 
on paper. 

Now that the miniature camera is with us I find 
myself more observing with an eye trained at all 
times on possible photographic material. 

Photography in general has evolved greatly in 
the past few years. First we strove to imitate the 
great painters of portraiture and landscape — and the 
results were pretty bad. 

Then a few of the more alert minds began to 
see things of interest photographically going on all 
around them and that was what brought about the 
small instrument development to its present state 
of perfection. 

I have thrown out of the window certain ideas 
of technical ptrfection and, to my mind, it is neces- 
sary to do so at the start, in this sort of photography. 

As I size up the situation of modern technique 
and what it attempts and is intended to do, it is 
this: It is a visual record of life in this year 1936, 
as we find it, and the worker with the most alert, 
active, observant, broad-minded point of view is in 
a position to obtain the best results. And, in the 
final analysis, that is what it all amounts to. 



As the result of technical training, skillful still 
photographers should have no trouble with the 
miniature camera. We should be easily able to 
eliminate all the "applesauce" which now surrounds 
the choice of developers, enlargers, film and what 
not. Remember, there are many good automobiles 
on the market, but consider the amount of useless 
argument and wasted conversation that goes on be- 
tween one human being and another on this sub- 
ject. The same thing applies to miniature photog- 
raphy. 

There are numerous simple rules, familiar to all 
of us: 

(1) Scrupulous care and cleanliness in all steps 
of the work. 

(2) A good enlarger, preferably of the condenser 
type, which aids in obtaining extreme brilliancy. 

(3) Avoid too much worry about fine grain de- 
veloper. Get a good formula and keep it at the 
correct temperature. 

(4) Remember that a tripod is still a most valu- 
able photographic instrument. 

(5) Keep photographic quality in mind, but don't 
make an issue of it. Let your subject matter and 
how you handle it more than make up for certain 
unavoidable set-backs of the miniature technique. 

(6) Work for the play of large masses of shadow 
against light, and big, broad composition of subject 
matter, avoiding detailed composition entirely. 

(7) Remember that there is a lot going on in the 
world and, if you are on to your job as a miniatur- 
ist in photography, you can register very interesting 
pictures. 

(8) Get set on a certain technique, suitable to 
yourself, master it completely and then forget all 
about it. 

I would not go back to the old days, of the 8x10 
camera only, for anything; in other words photog- 
raphy has enlarged its vision — and it's the miniature 
camera that has done it. 



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February, 1936 The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Fifteen 



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Sixteen The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 

WHAT IT TAKES TO MAKE A GOOD SPLICE 



February, 1936 



I 




>R 



ET'S consider that 
indispensible ad- 
junct, that con- 
connecting link, 
of cinematography — the 
good old reliable Film 
Splice. For, all too soon, 
"there'll come a day" as 
Joe Penner puts it, when 
splicing film becomes a 
necessity whether you 
are an advanced ama- 
teur or mere beginner in 
movie - making. Film 
splices are used more 
often for repairing dam- 
aged film or for purposes 
of editing, it happens, than in any other phase of 
cinematography. And since this is the case, it be- 
hooves everyone handling film to be adept at mak- 
ing a good, clean and neat splice. 

Unfortunately, it must be admitted, in the field of 
amateur cinematography there is a deal of variance 
in splice making. All sorts of splices, good — bad — 
and indifferent, are encountered. In the majority of 
cases, however, the poor splice is most often the 
result of the maker's lack of experience; and very 
often, his inability to use properly the splicing equip- 
ment at hand. At this juncture it may be aptly re- 
marked that splicing film is not at all difficult, but 
it is an operation that requires skill. Only by suf- 
ficient practice, as in everything else which must 
be mastered, may the movie-maker acquire the 
necessary technique. That old saying, "Practice 
Makes Perfect," is probably truer of splicing skill 
than in most any other movie-making endeavor. 

Stated simply, splicing is that part of cinema- 
tography whereby two films are joined together by 
cutting and cleaning the overlap of one to match 
the frame of the other, applying film cement, then 
pressing both ends together. 

Splicing is not, as many persons suppose, the 
result of any "gluing" together of two film ends. 
Actually, it is a chemical action in which the film 
cement acts as a solvent of the slow-burning acetate 
of cellulose Safety Film base. More correctly, there- 
fore, the two film ends are welded together — the ce- 
ment chemically softening the two surfaces which, 
when pressure is applied to them and the cement 
has thoroughly dried — forms a homogeneous and 
continuous strip of film. The removal of emulsion 
image from the overlapping portion of one film end 
is required, it must be remembered, because film 
cement has no action on film emulsion. To effect 
the welding process of a splice, the cement must 
be applied direct to the clear base of the film. Of 
lesser importance for removing the emulsion, it may 
also be pointed out, the overlap should be perfectly 
transparent to accommodate the other film end visual 
image which is spliced over it. This in order not 
to obstruct the clear passage of light from the pro- 
jector, and to preserve the full frame visual image 
where the splice occurs. Even if it were possible 
to splice film without removing a bit of the emul- 
sion on one end, there would still be an overlap 
in the visual image which, while only causing a 
momentary dark flash on the screen, nevertheless 
would prove unpleasant and annoying. 

A film splice may be either of two kinds; the 
straight or the diagonal. There is much to be said 



AMATEUR MOTTO 



HAMTLTC 



for both types and at the same time, as is so often 
the case in making comparisons, each also has its 
drawbacks. 

The straight splice is universally used in pro- 
fessional films and therefore it was natural enough 
that the same idea was carried over into the sub- 
standard film field. Straight splices necessarily in- 
clude emulsion removal from around the film per- 
forations (two perforations in 16 mm.; one in 8 mm.) 
and this calls for greater care in scraping than on 
the diagonal splices. However, the straight splice 
does not extend very far into the frame. In fact, 
the smaller aperture of the projector cuts down 
somewhat the area covered by the camera and at 
the same time serves to reduce the width of the 
straight splice to a minimum. 

On the other hand, the diagonal splice advocates 
uphold the claim that being longer, the diagonal 
is stronger; also, that the splice runs through the 
projector gate more smoothly than the straight; and 
lastly, there is no danger of destroying film per- 
forations in removing emulsion, preparatory to splic- 
ing, as the splice does not fall at the point of these 
perforation holes. Nevertheless, in actual projection 
the diagonal because of its greater length, which 
hits the screen diagonally, is very likely to leave 
the impression of a momentary flicker. 

The choice in type of splices therefore resolves 
upon the individual amateur. Personally, we have 
used both types of splices, for a good many years, 
each with equal success. It is our experience that 
proper care in making a splice is of far greater im- 
portance than the type used. 

It seems fitting at this point to take up the funda- 
mentals of good splice-making and to enumerate 
and consider them: 

First — A good splicer. By this is meant a splic- 
ing machine that is practically automatic and one 
that minimizes actual handling of film by the splice 
maker. Amateur films being the narrow gauge they 



Film Ti 



m Itiavel 




Film Travel 



Lamp 





Projector Gate 



Splice Overlaps 



Incchhcct Lap 



Ficf.t. 



B 



Cohkect Lap 



are, it is manifestly impossible to do a neat splicing 
job with makeshift apparatus. Cheap splicers will 
only afford indifferent results, besides unduly tiring 
one out in attempting to patch film. In this connec- 
tion, we recall a personal experience which hap- 
pened several years ago. The projectionist of a 

(Turn to Page 18) 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



[CTURE SECTION 



[EDITOR 



FILM CLIPS 

Blank Separation Frames in Titles: Leaving a 
short section of blank film — only a few frames — be- 
tween each individual title, as they are being pho- 
tographed, will prove a great aid later when the 
titles are being cut into a reel of movies. Thus, in 
splicing, the spot where one title ends and the next 
one begins is more easily located by the appear- 
ance of the blank frames. The need for this splic- 
ing "signal" is particularly necessary when han- 
dling 8 mm. film, due to the minute frames of this 
narrow-gauge stock. To incorporate blank frames 
between titles, proceed as follows: After having pho- 
tographed a single title, turn off the title lights. Then 
press the camera operating button for a single frame 
or two, exposure. Repeat this process after photo- 
graphing each title, until your entire roll of film is 
completed. If your titles are of the direct positive 
type, the blank separation frames will be white; 
or if reversal film has been used, they will be black. 

Experimenting With Positive Film: No film is 
cheaper than positive stock and for the amateur, 
who likes to experiment, it can provide a great deal 
of entertainment at small expense. Positive film is 
quite contrasty, however, and has a slower speed 
than regular cine film. Even so, interior scenes of 
medium close-up size may be recorded on positive 
with the aid of some Photoflood bulbs. Short lengths 
of positive film can be developed in still-picture de- 
veloping trays, using regular snapshot film develop- 
ing solutions. And your own camera, provided it 
has a removable lens, can be pressed into service 
as a printer. With the lens detached, the camera 
is loaded with the develop film strip in contact with 
another strip of fresh positive. Hold the lens aper- 
ture about six inches from a 40-watt bulb, with the 
camera operating at normal speed. Develop this 
second strip of positive, and you'll have a real 
home-made print. 

"Mammy": Regular reversal film will not work 
this trick. But by using positive film as in the fore- 
going paragraph, or regular negative-positive sys- 
tem film, you can outdo Al Jolson in his famous 
"Mammy" song make-up. Shoot a close-up, about 
a six-foot length of 16 mm., with a result that you 
have two films; a negative strip and a positive strip, 
each of like footage and identical action. Now for 
some editing and cutting. Begin the close-up with 
about two feet (80 frames) of the positive strip; then 
cut in a length of negative, switching at the identi- 
cal frame of the negative which your positive ends 
with. That is, the positive strip will be cut at frame 
80, and the negative strip will be spliced to it be- 
ginning with negative frame 81. (To keep relative 
positions of the subject, the positive print will have 
to be spliced emulsion face down — negative strip 
with emulsion face up on the splicer.) Alternate 
your cutting and lengths of both positive and nega- 
tive strips, keeping splice changeovers accurately 
corresponding to frame measurements. If the work 
is done carefully, you'll get a good laugh when the 
completed close-up is screened. 

Timing Slow Motion: Don't start your camera for 

(Turn to Page 18) 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

1. Can duplicates be made of Kodachrome 
natural color films? 

No, not in natural color. However, if your roll 
of Kodachrome contains some valuable subject, 
scenes which are impossible to retake, ordinary 
duplicates may be obtained from the original Koda- 
chrome roll; these duplicates will of course be on 
plain black and white film. 

2. What is the purpose of Fades, in most ama- 
teur films? 

Fades are most useful in these types of films to 
impart smoothness to the pictures on the home 
screen. They are generally used as follows: To 
denote lapse of time; change of subject; and change 
of location. 

3. In photographing my own direct titles, I notice 
a difference in density of the background. In every 
case I was using the same lens stop with my spring- 
driven camera. 

No doubt the change in density, which you have 
noticed, was caused by your camera spring-motor. 
Some cameras have a tendency to slow down, as 
the spring unwinds; thus this causes a slight change 
in exposure. While this slight slowing down does 
not normally affect your regular pictures, it becomes 
quite apparent in the case of photographing titles. 
It is good practice to wind the camera fully before 
each and every title; this will remedy your trouble. 
Of course, if after doing this you still encounter 
trouble, have your camera checked over at your 
dealer's. 

4. What lens stop shall I use on my title board? 
I am using positive film, making directs. 

It is impossible to give you an exact lens aper- 
ture setting, due to the many different types of boards 
and conditions of lighting. Therefore, the only safe 
way to ascertain the proper exposure for your board 
is by tests, as follows: Expose about 10 feet of posi- 
tive film in the test. Starting at F/16, expose sev- 
eral frames; then set your lens at F/ 1 1 and expose 
several more frames. Continue this procedure, 
changing your lens aperture for each exposure, until 
you have used the largest aperture of the lens. In- 
struct the film laboratory to develop the film nor- 
mal time. From the finished film you can easily 
select the exposure which has given the best re- 
sults. Henceforth, any future titles you make should 
yield similar results. 

5. Are fades possible when making direct posi- 
tive titles? 

Not with much success. Gradually increasing the 
opening of your lens, while the camera is in opera- 
tion, will simulate a fade-out; and gradually de- 
creasing the lens aperture will produce a fade-in. 
For various reasons, however, direct positive fades 
are not recommended. 

6. Why does a projector have a two- or three- 
blade shutter while a camera has but one blade? 

Only a single blade is absolutely necessary 
either on a projector or on a camera to cover the 
movement of the film from frame to frame. How- 
ever, a single blade causes a noticeable flicker, of 
no consequence in the case of a camera but very 
objectionable in a projector. Experience has proved 
that intercepting the screen images more often than 
once per frame, materially reduces flicker and the 
(Turn to Page 20) 



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Eighteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



WHAT IT TAKES TO MAKE A GOOD SPLICE 

(Continued from Page 16) 

first-run theatre, which was exhibiting some con- 
tinuous narrow gauge films in the theatre lobby, 
had occasion to splice the 16 mm. film. We found 
him in a state of great agitation — his cement re- 
fused to hold and he could not get the 16 mm. film 
ends to register properly. Experienced as was our 
friend in making patches, even without the aid 
of a splicer on large 35 mm. professional film, he 
was grateful indeed when we came to his assistance 
with our 16 mm. splicing machine. Remember, then, 
a really good splicer will properly hold film with- 
out undue handling by the maker; will cut the film 
ends accurately; will apply correct pressure on the 
splice to insure elimination of any air bubbles; and 
will provide a neat splice which does not disclose 
an overlap of the frame or, worse yet, will not show 
a white transparent line on the screen at the splicing 
point. 

Second — Adequate removal of emulsion from the 
overlap which is to receive the film cement. Re- 
moving emulsion may be accomplished by the wet 
or by the dry method. The first named is the quick- 
est, if not absolutely necessary, and is especially 
recommended for old, brittle film. For film emul- 
sion, when slightly moistened, is removed very 
easily by the film scraper. However, moist emul- 
sion is quite tender and open to damage until it is 
dry again. And further, in spite of precautions, some 
moisture remains which, when the cement is ap- 
plied, destroys the efficiency of the splice, as water 
and film cement do not mix. The dry method for 
most films is preferable although it does require 
greater care in the making. Emulsion scraping 
should be done carefully to avoid ruining perforation 
holes. Again, no trace of the emulsion must be 
left and the film base must not be scratched into, 
as this would only weaken the splice. Sometimes 
it is advisable to roughen the film base surface 
slightly with a typewriter eraser to insure a good 
splice. 

Third — Film cement that is in proper condition. 
Cement is a very active solvent and prolonged ex- 
posure to air quickly thickens the solution, which 
will not effect a good weld. In some cases cement 
may be too thin which also adversely affects splic- 
ing. Nevertheless, a poor splice is more often caused 
by using "stale" cement. To avoid prolonged ex- 
posure of film cement to air, a special bottle, as 
shown in Figure 1, has been found very useful. This 
is a small-mouthed perfume bottle, fitted with a 
cork into which has been fastened a quill and brush. 
The bottle, positioned in a hole drilled in the splic- 
ing board, is of convenient dimensions for handling 
and it is possible to secure just the right amount 
of cement on the brush. Only a small portion of 
cement is transferred from the supply bottle, thus 
insuring a fresh mixture each time a splicing job 
is undertaken; and the perfume bottle prevents un- 
due evaporation of the solution, because of its very 
small mouth. 

Fourth — Cementing the splice. When the point 
of applying cement to the film is reached, both good 
judgment in the amount of solution and swiftness 
of application are essential. Too much film cement 
applied to the base will considerably weaken it; 
when dry the splice will become brittle and is quite 
likely to buckle in the projector. Only apply enough 
to cover the entire cementing surface with a thin 
(Turn to Page 20) 



FILM CLIPS 

(Continued from Page 17) 

slow motion scenes until the action of the shot is 
under way, or wasted film will be the result. If 
possible, rehearse the scene for timing, by counting 
it off in seconds. For example, if the scene normally 
takes 20 seconds and your rate of 16 mm. exposures 
is 72 frames per second, you will be shooting 1440 
frames or 36 feet of film! This shot would last 60 
seconds on the screen! This is abnormally long, 
will prove uninteresting in most cases, so only pho- 
tograph the significant portion of action. Always 
bear in mind, a slow motion shot "eats up" film 
rapidly; and becomes boring on the screen if over- 
done. 

Title Test Trailer: Laboratories prefer to make 
tests before proceeding to develop a roll of title 
film. When making your titles, it is advisable there- 
fore to allow for a test by including extra footage 
on the last title; two or three feet will do. Before 
the lab man transfers your film from reel to develop- 
ing rack, he can first tear off this trailer strip for 
test purposes. Foresight on your part will prevent 
your last title being missing after processing; and 
equally as important, the final title will not be 
finger-marked, rack scratched or punctured by the 
developing rack pins. 

Spooling Positive Film: Since positive film ordi- 
narily comes coiled on a core for laboratory use, it 
is necessary to exercise certain care when you de- 
sire to spool the film onto a daylight loading reel 
for camera use. Your film rewinder and a five- 
watt red bulb, the latter easily procurable at any ten- 
cent store, are all you need. The room where you 
do this work must be totally dark, except for the 
red bulb which will not fog the positive. When the 
film has been threaded on the camera reel, already 
in place on the film rewinder, hold the core care- 
fully as you begin to turn the rewinder. Avoid hav- 
ing your fingers in contact with the positive. An- 
other word of caution: do not rewind too fast. Posi- 
tive, as it uncoils from its core, is subject to static 
electricity. Quite often you can hear the crackling 
and see the static, therefore wind the film very 
slowly — you don't want it fogged before you have 
a chance to use it in your camera. 

Film Splicer: Do you number yourself among 
those movie makers who, having bought a camera 
and a projector, believe their outfit is complete? 
This is not unlike starting an automobile trip with 
no spare tire, as you'll soon find urgent need for 
a good, automatic splicer in your movie making 
activity. A splicer is one accessory that is indis- 
pensable in cine work. Its cost is small indeed com- 
pared to the yeoman service it will render. And 
while you're at it. buy a good splicer; one which 
minimizes handling film by your fingers and one 
which makes a neat splice. 

Winter Filming: When taking your camera from 
the warmth of your home for outdoor service on 
extremely cold winter days, moisture is likely to 
condense on the front lens element. Always check 
the lens for this condition before taking your first 
pictures. 



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February, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF A MOVING PICTURE 

(Continued from Page 7) 



ficiently to attract attention as a possible means of 
recording pictorial motion. In 1849 Plateau sug- 
gested that it could be employed to obtain a series of 
photographic images to be used in his Phenakisto- 
scope. Because photographic emulsions at this time 
required lengthy exposures — sometimes of an hour's 
duration — it was Plateau's intention to photograph 
models rather than persons in various poses and by 
this method get an outline that would be more accu- 
rate than the hand-drawn pictures he had been 
using. 

Desvignes was the first to achieve a photographic 
motion picture. In 1860 he photographed for his 
Wheel of Life a series of pictures of a steam engine 
in which he showed the flywheel revolving. The 
next year Du Mont, in England, patented (British Pat- 
ent No. 1457) a method of photographing successive 
poses in which a shutter exposed the photographic 
plates as they succeeded each other. He suggested 
several methods of changing the plates, such as 
arranging them as facets on a prismatic drum, or 
dropping them from an upper chamber to a lower 
one. It was his hope to successfully photograph the 
necessary progressive poses in order to portray mo- 
tion; but the photographic emulsions of the time were 
still too slow. 

The most significant of the experiments of this 
time were those conducted by Coleman Sellers in the 
United States. He attacked the problem as an avo- 
cation to make a toy to amuse his children. He pho- 
tographed his two children at play in a series of 
poses. The difficulties he encountered may be 
judged from the fact that the fastest of the photo- 
graphic methods of his time was the "wet plate" 
method. In this system the photographic emulsion 
had to be kept moist during exposure, and to do this 
and photograph his children while they held the 
necessary poses was no small task. In order to keep 
his plates moist a sufficient length of time, he em- 
ployed glycerine. After he finished the photographs 
each pose was mounted on a paddle and the pad- 
dles were mounted by means of hinges to a hub. By 
turning the hub each paddle was raised to an eye- 
piece, then as the hub progressed in its revolution 
the first paddle dropped from view, leaving the next 
paddle exposed to view. This device was patented 
in the United States, No. 31,357, on February 5, 1861, 
as the Kinematoscope. The word "Kinema" used 
here for the first time in reference to the motion pic- 
ture eventually came to be its international name. 

Ducos de Hauron in 1864 filed a patent applica- 
tion in France on a device which may be said to be 
the first motion picture camera. In this application, 
he designated a series of small lenses mounted in a 
band in conjunction with an aperture for a shutter. 
This band, as well as the sensitized photographic 



band, unwound by means of sprockets and perfora- 
tions simultaneously from one spool to another. The 
viewing was accomplished in the same manner. 
This patent was not published until 1900, as No. 
61,976. 

In the subsequent years many attempts were 
made to achieve the motion picture. J. A. Rudge, in 
1866, tried to photograph motion as a series of poses, 
and four years later he exhibited some pictures in his 
"Bio-Phantoscope," which was a magic lantern with 
a revolving lamp house. He mounted his poses of 
the action which were in the form of a transparency 
slides around the lamp house, and in turning it by 
means of an intermittent arrangement, each picture 
was projected to a screen. 11 ' He also used a shutter 
that intercepted the light beam while the picture was 
being turned in place. Edwards, in 1867, took out 
British Patent No. 849 on a system for taking succes- 
sive pictures instantaneously on the same plate, 
which was later used by both LePrince and Friese- 
Greene with a certain measure of success. 

Henry Renno Heyl evolved still another method. 
He took posed photographs of a couple doing a 
waltz by the wet collodion process, then mounted 
the photographs in the form of transparencies around 
the periphery of a large disc. The disc was re- 
volved intermittently by ratchet and pawl, and a 
shutter was arranged to cover each picture during 
substitution. Heyl exhibited his "Phasmatrope" at 
the Academy of Music in Philadelphia on February 
5, 1870, to an audience of about 1600. His motion 
picture of eighteen separate poses attracted much 
attention. Ottomar Ancheutz in 1889 further im- 
proved this type of device, which in principle dates 
back to the Phenakistoscope of 183 1. 17 

In 1870 E. J. Marey, and two years later Edweard 
Muybridge, independently commenced their famed 
studies of motion, though neither man did much to- 
ward recreating the illusion of motion. Both were 
concerned with the biologic study of motion; how- 
ever, due to the extent of their researches they have 
become by tradition connected with motion picture 
history. Even though their primary aim was to pho- 
tographically record the progressive poses and mus- 
cular movements of moving bodies, they later turned 
their attention to the problem of showing their pic- 
tures consecutively. Muybridge did his photograph- 
ing with a battery of cameras side by side, which 
resulted in the illusion of his subject standing still 
while its limbs moved, as when a person walks on 
a continuous belt. Marey in 1882 invented a "Pho- 
tographic Pistol" with which he could successfully 
photograph images on the same plate through the 
same lens as is embodied in the successful cinema 
equipment. However, this also was limited, since 

(Turn to Page 26) 





1 




1 1* 


" ■:▼ 



MAX FACTOR'S 

N EW 

LIQUID FOUNDATION 

A REVELATION IN FACIAL MAKE-UP 



Twenty 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

(Continued from Page 17) 



eye strain on the audience. Hence the reason for 
a two- or three-blade projector shutter. 

7. Are duplicates from an original 8 mm. rever- 
sal film available? 

At the present time, this service is not avail- 
able by the film manufacturer. Nevertheless, there 
are certain laboratories prepared to do this work. 

8. Can 8 mm. reductions be made from 16 mm. 
film? 

Yes. Certain laboratories specialize in this work. 

9. Is 8 mm. positive stock available for title 
work? 

Yes. This positive is in regulation 16 mm. width, 
but has the special 8 mm. perforations. It will fit 
the Eastman Cine-Kodak 8 mm. camera models, as 
well as the Keystone 8 mm. camera. After develop- 
ment, the 8 mm. positive stock must be split in two 
in order to run it on an 8 mm. projector. A Film 
Splitter is available for this purpose. 

10. Does 8 mm. positive stock possess the same 
speed as 16 mm. positive? 

Yes. There is no difference between the two 
films, as far as speed is concerned. For example: 
If the F/8 is the correct exposure for a 16 mm. posi- 



tive title, the same aperture, F/8, would also be 
correct for an 8 mm. positive. 

11. In making tests of a home-made title, is it 
necessary to screen the results? 

It is advisable to do so. While many an amateur 
has sharp eyes and may be able to detect a "down 
hill trend" in a title by viewing it through a film 
viewer machine, it is far better practice to screen 
the title on a good size screen. If your title will 
pass this test which, after all is the only good one, 
you'll know you're making real titles. 

12. How much film cement should be applied 
to make a satisfactory splice? 

Only enough to spread a thin coating on the 
scraped portion of film. Too much cement makes 
a bad splice and a messy one. 

As a service to amateur movie-makers, we ex- 
tend a cordial invitation to write in questions which 
will be replied to in this department. Address all 
such letters to: 

Questions and Answers Department 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 

1605 North Cahuenga Avenue 

Hollywood, California 



WHAT IT TAKES TO MAKE A GOOD SPLICE 

(Continued from Page 18) 



layer of the solution. As quickly as possible bring 
the two film ends together, under pressure, and al- 
low about ten seconds for the initial set of the ce- 
ment. After this, remove pressure and wipe off any 
excess cement from both sides of the film. 

Fifth — Neatness. This attribute of a good splice 
can only be obtained by exercising extreme care 
in the whole cycle of operation of splicing, with 
particular emphasis on proper scraping, applying 
cement carefully, and quick removal of any excess 
amount. In the case of sound film, neatness is ex- 
tremely essential; for as you know, the sound track 
is scanned by exciter lamp and photo-electric cell 
in the process of sound reproduction. Any smudge 
or buckling splice greatly alters, if only temporarily, 
the quality of the sound coming from the screen. 

Speaking of sound, there are special precautions 
to observe in splicing both types of talking picture 
film. All the foregoing that has been mentioned 
for splicing silent film applies to sound film and 
more! 

Sound-on-disc, while being the earlier method for 
sound reproduction, is still quite largely employed 
in the amateur field of cinematography. We will 
even venture the opinion that in the case of 8 mm. 
sound-on-disc is admirably suited and we may yet 
see it used for the benefit of the users of this minia- 
ture movie film. As is well known, sound-on-disc 
film is perfectly synchronized to its companion disc, 
from first frame to the last frame of the film. Any 
damage to this film, even amounting to only three 
or four frames, must be replaced by an equal num- 
ber of frames of blank film. Unless this is done, 
correct synchronization will be lost between film 
and disc; from the point of the break the picture 
will be ahead of sound and will so continue until 
the end of the reel. Insertion of the correct num- 
ber of blank frames, while splicing, will overcome 
this difficulty, and will only cause a momentary 
blank screen when projected. Perhaps you will 



recall the earlier Vitaphone professional movies, 
with such a patch, when the picture disappeared 
for a second or so while the sound continued from 
the blank screen speakers. 

Happily enough, sound-on-film can't lose syn- 
chronism and thus becomes almost as simple to 
splice as silent film. The sound recording is spaced 
on the sound track next to the pictures, so when 
damage occurs both are deleted from the reel. Nev- 
ertheless, since with this film we are dealing with 
a sound track and a photocell which "observes" 
everything, the sound track should be shaded at 
the splice to avoid any annoying "plop" from the 
sound screen speakers, as the double-thick film 
splice runs through the projector sound gate past 
the exciter lamp and photo-electric cell. Shading of 
a 16 mm. sound splice should be done carefully 
and very neatly, and painting it out is best accom- 
plished by using lacquer. Thus shading a sound 
splice reduces the sound level to an insignificant 
intensity, but does not last long enough to be per- 
ceptible to the audience. 

Although in splicing any type of film, sound or 
silent, the position of the overlap of the splice is 
seldom observed in amateur movies, it is worthy 
of note. No matter how well a film is spliced, there 
remains the possibility of the splices opening slight- 
ly at the edge. Referring to Figure 2, it will be 
noted that during the projection if the open edge 
faces, as at A, it may tear apart. But if it faces, 
as at B, there is less likelihood of this happening. 
In splicing therefore this position of the overlap 
should always be observed, bearing in mind like- 
wise that reversible and negative-positive system 
films face different ways when they are screened. 
All original reversible film and reduction prints made 
from 35 mm. must have their respective emulsion 
face towards the screen. But all contact prints made 
from 16 mm. negative and duplicates of original re- 

(Tiirn to Page 25) 



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February, 1936 The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Twenty-one 



STAR 
PERFORMER 



SUPER X delivers unparalleled photographic 
quality to the screen. That is why it continues 
to hold its position as star performer among 
negative motion picture films. That is why 
it plays a part in most of the feature pictures 
released in the world's leading movie-pro- 
ducing country. Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester, N. Y. (J. E. Brulatour, Distributors, 
Fort Lee, New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN SUPER X 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 



Tzventy-two 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



The Cinematographer's Book of Tables 



By Fred Westerberg 



APPARENT VELOCITY OF SCREEN IMAGE 

THE EFFECT OF MINIATURE SCALE AND CAMERA SPEED 

ON THE APPARENT VELOCITY OF A MOVING IMACE 

ON THE SCREEN 



Camera 
Speed 

in 
Pictures 

Per 
Second 



192 



144 



96 
72 



48 
36 

24 



MINIATURE SCALE 



1/2 



1/3 



1/4 



1/6 



1/8 



1/12 



APPARENT VELOCITY OF SCREEN IMACE COMPARED 
TO REAL VELOCITY OF OBJECT WHEN PHOTOCRAPHED 



1/8 



1/6 



1/4 



1/3 



1/2 



2/3 



1/4 



1/3 



1/2 



2/3 



1 1/3 



3/8 



1/2 



3/4 



1 1/2 



1/2 



2/3 



1 1/3 



2 2/3 



3/4 



1 1/2 



1 1/3 



2 2/3 



5 1/3 



1 1/2 



GEAR-BOX CRANKING SPEEDS 



Camera 

Speed 

in 

Pictures 

Per 
Second 


Relative 
Camera 
Speed 


CEAR-BOX RATIO USED 


1-3 1-4 1-6 


1-8 


REQUIRED CRANKING SPEED IN 
TURNS PER SECOND 


192 


8X 








3 


144 


6X 






3 


2 1/4 


96 


4X 




3 


2 


1 1/2 


72 


3X 


3 


2 1/4 


1 1/2 




18 


2X 


2 


1 1/2 


1 




36 


1 1/2X 


1 1/2 









Based on Normal Camera Speed ot 24 Pictures per Second. 



REAL VELOCITY OF OBJECT 

CHECKINC THE REAL VELOCITY OF A MOVING OBJECT 
WHETHER ACTUAL SIZE OR BUILT TO MINIATURE SCALE 



VELOCITY 


DISTANCE TRAVELED 


Miles 
Per 
Hour 


Feet 

Per 

Second 


25 Feet 100 Feet 1 Mile 


ELAPSED TIME IN SECONDS 


2.50 


3.667 


6.80 


27.2 


1440 


3.00 


4.400 


5.68 


22.8 


1200 


3.50 


5.133 


4.87 


19.4 


1029 


4.00 


5.867 


4.26 


17.0 


900 


4.50 


6.60O 


3.79 


15.2 


800 


5.00 


7.333 


3.40 


13.6 


720 


5.50 


8.067 


3.10 


12.4 


655 


6.00 


8.800 


2.84 


11.4 


600 


6.50 


9.533 


2.62 


10.4 


554 


7.00 


10.267 


2.43 


9.7 


514 


7.50 


11.000 


2.27 


9.0 


480 


8.00 


11.733 


2.13 


8.5 


450 


8.50 


12.467 


2.01 


8.0 


424 


9.00 


13.200 


1.89 


7.6 


400 


9.50 


13.933 


1.80 


7.2 


379 


10.00 


14.667 


1.70 


6.8 


360 


11.00 


16.133 


1.55 


6.2 


327 


12.00 


17.600 


1.42 


5.7 


300 


13.00 


19.067 


1.31 


5.2 


277 


14.00 


20.533 


1.21 


4.9 


257 


15.00 


22.000 


1.14 


4.5 


240 


16.00 


23.467 


1.06 


4.3 


225 


17.00 


24.933 


1.00 


4.0 


212 


18.00 


26.400 


.95 


3.8 


200 


19.00 


27.867 


.90 


3.6 


190 


20.00 


29.333 


.85 


3.4 


180 



For higher velocities move decimal points to the right in first two columns, 
to the left in the other three columns. 




TEAGUE 

Back Projection 



Back - Ground - Projection 



Complete Units Bell & Howell Type Registration Projector 

Optical Printers 

Electric - Interlock Camera Drives 

Equipment on Productions 
Hollywood and European Studios 

COMPLETE UNITS FOR RENTAL 

General Service Studios 

Stage - Space - E'cts. 

TEAGUE PROCESS 

HOLLYWOOD 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-three 



Ashcraft Automatic Control Company 

(A New Line of Arc Equipment Coming Up) 




|HE use of arc lamps is daily coming into 
more favor for lighting motion picture sets. 
After several years of comparative disuse 
the inherent merits of this form of light are 
again being recognized and, today, we find all 
available arcs in use. In the effort to supply this 
hard light the only thing the studios could do was to 
resurrect the arc lighting equipment which was built 
many years ago and which they have already on 
hand. 

In spite of the excellent mechanical performance 
of this old equipment the fact remains that it is not 
in any way adapted to modern studio practice. We 
may point out that these lamps produce a quality 
of light, which, although well adapted for exposing 
the old orthochromatic film of silent picture days 
that today's picture production demands a quality 
of light in an entirely different key, namely: The use 
of incandescent light has crystallized photographic 
practice in a color key towards the lower end of 
the spectrum. 

Also, although the efforts of the lighting men to 
silence the formerly noisy mechanisms has proven 
to be successful in a measure, we feel that these 
efforts have been of a makeshift nature which have 
been necessary in an effort to bring the old equip- 
ment up to date, or at least to make the old equip- 
ment conform in some measure to the rather rigid 
requirements of sound picture practice. 

The answer to this situation would be that arc 
equipment be placed at the disposal of the studios 
especially designed to meet today's requirements. 
The characteristics of this new equipment should be, 
first: To project a quality of light correctly color bal- 
anced for the exposure of modern superspeed pan- 
chromatic film; and second, to conform as closely 
as possible to the mechanical practice existing to- 
day in lighting departments. 

This technique has undergone a vast change 
since the old days when noisy, bulky and inefficient 
arc equipment was in vogue. Today, due to several 
years use of the perfectly silent and light weight 
incandescent lamp, a new order of studio practice 
brings the expectancy by lighting men that arc 
equipment offered for their use must be highly effi- 
cient, silent and light in weight also. 

Earnest efforts on the part of Ashcraft Automatic 
Control Company to reconcile the arc lighting situa- 
tion to modern practice has resulted, after many 
months of development, in the production of an arc 
spotlight built to conform as closely as possible to 
the requirements of today's sound picture needs. 
The manufacturers of this new lamp have endeav- 
ored to produce a lamp so efficient as to surpass 
both the former arcs and incandescents in light value 
while drawing an extremely small amount of cur- 
rent and to reduce the weight of the new lamp to 
less than half that of existing equipment. 

Considerable success has been attained in the 
production of a new quality of light for this lamp, 
which shall give a correct color rendition of full 



range for panchromatic film. This means that while 
the low key lighting of the incandescents has been 
retained, the complete range of color into the greens 
and blues is covered. 

Not the least of the valuable features of this new 
lamp is the perfectly silent fully automatic feed 
which has been adopted. This permits the lamp to 
be burned without attention for retrimming through- 
out an entire day's shooting. 

The makers of this new line of arc equipment 
have uncovered a valuable fact relating to the arc 
flame proper. The use of a full automatic feed per- 
mits the use of carbons which burn with a small 
extremely steady flame of such inherently silent 
nature as to preclude the use of chokes or other 
silencing equipment for eliminating the arc noise 
produced by line current ripple. When one con- 
siders the weight of a choke coil (about 100 lbs.) 
used on each arc lamp of the present type to reduce 
the noise below the audible range, it can be seen 
that with the use of this new type of equipment the 
weight of all these auxiliary devices can be elim- 
inated. 



3fie Ashcraft Automatic 
Control Co. 

ANNOUNCES 

the first product of a complete line of arc lighting 
equipment for motion picture studio lighting, the 

ASHCRAFT "30" 

A NEW SILENT ARC SPOTLIGHT designed espe- 
cially for lighting SOUND PICTURE sets. 

LIGHT IN WEIGHT. A one-piece lamp weighing 
only 65 pounds. 

LOW IN CURRENT CONSUMPTION. Draws 
only 30 amperes. 

HIGH IN EFFICIENCY. Illumination value equal 
to former designs drawing 80 amperes. 

LOW IN CARBON CONSUMPTION. Operates 
through full day's shooting without retrimming. 

PRODUCES A NEW QUALITY OF LIGHT cor- 
rectly color balanced for the exposure of modern 
super-speed panchromatic film. 



THE 
ASHCRAFT AUTOMATIC CONTROL CO. 

6729 SANTA MONICA BLVD. CL. 7303 



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Twenty-fou) 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 




Art Work On Photographic Prints 

Coloring With Oil Paints 




Mr. Le Heart's artistry is 

internationally known. In 

this art his judgment is 

authoritative. 



[LACK and white photographic prints of sug- 
gestive interest quite often tempt the pho- 
tographer to enhance them by additional 
art hand work. Many sorts of art expres- 
sion are at service for the photographer that may 
be applied on the photographic image; of these the 
transparent coloring in oil paints is the most popular 
as well as the most expressive. Through intelligent 
conception of such coloring the black and white 
print acquires what might be termed a natural ap- 
pearance. 

Hand coloring of prints is generally regarded as 
an art that is easily learned and widely understood 
and accessible to almost any one who might hap- 
pen to have a tuft of cotton and a tube of paint. The 
art of oil coloring contains its own "tricks of the 
trade" which when applied elevate the standard of 
such work to the level of equality with other works 
of art. 

As there is no space to write a complete treatise 
on hand coloring of prints, a few important high- 
lights of its technique can be shared with the reader. 
The kind and the quality of paints that are most suit- 
able for this work, the surface of the photographic 
papers most beneficial for oil acceptance, the print- 
ing of a print in quality for coloring and a few illus- 
trations on color effects upon the black and white 
print are the highlights of this issue. 

Almost any oil prepared paint is good for hand 
coloring of prints. The list of tints and shades of 
various colors found in tubes of art oil paints is more 
than sufficient to satisfy the color artist. While 
most of the oil paints are transparent when properly 
applied with cotton over the photograph, some of 
the paints known as "lake" colors are more so and 
they present very little effort of retaining the per- 
fect visibility of photographic details from under the 
color. The commonly known as "photo oil colors" 
are mostly composed of the selections of lake colors 
and, therefore, are quite answerable to the purpose 
of anyone who desires to do his own hand color- 
ing of prints. 

The surface of the photographic image or the 
grade of paper should be considered in favor of 
coloring. The paper must be reasonably soft in order 
to accept the color pigment and retain it after the 
oil is dry. The original tint of the paper itself hardly 
bears any effect upon coloring, although the papers 
of buff tint finish are more preferable, due to their 
warmness. 

Since the principle of oil tinting is the application 
of paints in transparency over the image, the photo- 
graphic quality of the print must be perfect as pos- 
sible if a good job of coloring is anticipated. A weak 



By Avenir Le Heart 



photographic print will show itself through the color 
and the ultimate effect will be a weak coloring. The 
same in reverse applies to the excessively printed 
image. A good print is a good ground for coloring. 

Preparing a print in chemical toning for the pur- 
pose of coloring hardly justifies, since the paints in 
their variety of tones and shades are a better source 
for obtaining the desired color tonation. Skillful ar- 
rangement of colors, held to one key of color, will 
more than better the effect of preparatory toning. 

The ground substance of a black and white pho- 
tographic image is the tonation ranging from perfect 
white to the utmost black. These degrees of black- 
ness are permanent, non-removable and solid and 
placing the color over such blackened spaces should 
be seriously considered. Forcing a light luminous 
color over an area of the photographic blackness is 
quite futile and should be substituted by an illusion- 
ary approach. It is quite impossible to expect the 
appearance of a light green shade of color, the 
natural shade of foliage, to register correctly over 
a photographically darkened area of the print. To 
offset this handicap and in order to create the pleas- 
ing semblance of foliage it is necessary to soften 
the blackness of the foliage on the print with warm 
brown throughout as an under coloring coat and then 
to touch the highlights of foliage with warm yellow. 
It is known that yellow mixed with black photo- 
graphic undertone will give the pleasing appearance 
of green. 

The lustrous effect of red, especially red flowers, 
is quite often lost due to the photographic under- 
tone of black. The nearest remedy of bringing the 
semblance of fiery red is to tint the red flowers 
with water soluble red dye and over it to touch with 
deeper shade of red oil paint. 

Coloring of a daylight sky which conventionally 
appears to be a blue, should hardly ever be tinted 
in a shade of pure blue. A slight addition of lemon 
yellow mixed into the pure selected blue for the 
sky will produce the shade that will be pleasing 
and in perfect harmony with the rest of colors on 
the picture. 

In coloring portrait prints the correct tone of flesh 
quite often presents the major difficulty. As the 
undertone of photographic white and black of the 
flesh differs in every print, so the quality or mix- 
ture of flesh tint should differ in coloring. A tube 
of flesh tint might serve the purpose in coloring of 
any print if the quality of coloring is just a mere 
suggestion, otherwise preparation of a suitable mix- 
ture of flesh tone is recommended. The color of flesh 
is orange which is modified by the addition of either 
yellow dark or red, if necessary it is diluted with 
either mixing medium or white. 

Opaque or solid painting with brushes over the 
paper prints is not recommended generally. The 
sensitive surface of the paper is too smooth to accept 
the brush strokes and they might appear in too great 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-five 



a contrast with transparent tinting throughout. On the 
other hand certain studies may gain in coloring if 
skillfully touched with opaque brush work. On the 
views such places that may be touched with the 
brush or flowers, foreground bushes, stumps, rocks — 
in fact, the items of attraction that are not occupy- 
ing any amount of space and are well pronounced 
in their outlines. On the portrait studies the details 
such as eyes, eyelashes, the upper lip and jewelry, 
if there is any, may likewise be effectively touched 
in opaque with brushes. The most important con- 
sideration in the art of coloring should be given to 
the use of colors in harmonious combinations. The 
best of workmanship is lost if the colors on the 
study are clashing and in violation with the laws 
of color harmony. The theory of color harmony is 



very simple and can be easily learned by acquaint- 
ing oneself with the color harmony spectrum and 
its practical applications. 

Coloring photographs by hand has been a by- 
product or an allied art of photography since its 
birth. In the days gone by it has been the privi- 
leged art of an artist, now it has grown to the size 
of an industry in itself with a great number of peo- 
ple occupied in performing it. It is widely known 
as a commercial art, although it is taken by a great 
many as an enticing pastime or fascinating hobby. 
Everyone who performs this work, by its conception, 
is entitled to be classified as an artist. The name 
of an artist would be justly applicable if everyone 
involved in this good work would be conscientious 
in giving it its due by elevating its standard of 
quality to the higher grade of betterment. 



WHAT IT TAKES TO MAKE A GOOD SPLICE 

(Continued from Page 20) 



versible film have their film base — shiny side — face 
the screen. Therefore, to place the overlap cor- 
rectly, we shall have to consider the splicer that 
is used, and the direction of travel of the film on 
the rewinding board on which the splicing is done. 
With the majority of splicers, the film is placed 
emulsion-side upwards; the left film end is scraped, 
and the right film end is cemented over it. Thus, 
for proper overlap of a splice, when patching origi- 
nal reversible film or reduction prints, work from 
right to left. That is, a supply reel of film should 
be placed on the right-hand rewind spindle, with 
the tops of the pictures pointing to the left-hand re- 
winder spindle; this direction of travel must be main- 
tained from the beginning to the end of the reel. 
On the other hand, however, when splicing con- 
tact prints made from 16 mm. negatives or duplicates 
of original reversible films, work from left to right 



on the splicing board; the tops of these films must 
point in the direction of the right rewind spindle. 

Cleanliness is very necessary in making good 
splices and should be observed at all times to pro- 
tect film from finger marks and mars during splic- 
ing. As a protection against finger marks, it is 
advisable for the amateur to wear gloves — a pair 
of cheap white cotton gloves serves nicely. Do 
not allow the film splicer to become rusty or allow 
film cement to accumulate on the metal parts there- 
of. After having finished splicing, clean the splicer 
thoroughly. Dried cement is quickly removed from 
the metal parts by painting with film cement and 
wiping off with a dry cloth. 

The knack of good splicing is well worth the ini- 
tial practice it takes to acquire. For, in all your 
movie-making activities, you'll have frequent use for 
that old reliable — the Film Splice. 




ArtReeves film tested equipment 



Variable Area Recorders 
Light Test Machines, 
Bloop Punches, 
Soundolas, 



Amplifiers, 
Microphones, 
Cables, 
Glow Lamps, 



Developing Machines 
Galvanometers, 
Interlock Motors, 
Reeves Lights & Stands. 



"ArtReeves 



Dependable Equipment At Prices Within Reason. 



Motion PioTure/^qljipmemTCo. |Td 



645 NORTH MARTEL AVE- 



CABLE ADDRESS ARTREEVES 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, USA 



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Twenty-six 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MOVING PICTURE 

(Continued from Page 19) 



he could only photograph twelve pictures on the 
plate. ls 10 

Now the Living Picture awaited a successful pho- 
tographic medium. By a combination of the contri- 
butions of many men, the general mechanics for the 
portrayal of pictures in motion were achieved. No 
one man may be said to have invented the prin- 
ciple of the motion picture but each pioneer contri- 
buted a detail. Bands to carry pictures were sug- 
gested by Stampfer in 1833; photography was used 
by Plateau in 1849, who, while blind, magnificently 
hoped to create living pictures; Brown in 1869 in- 
vented several intermittent devices, one of which 
was a star and pin similar to the Geneva or Maltese 
Cross intermittent now used so generally. At this 
time Brown used a two sector shutter as is used on 
projectors today. Janssen in 1874 evolved a photo- 
graphic gun camera which used a single lens for 
taking a series of pictures on one plate. Even the 
word "Kinema" had been in use for a great number 
of years. 

The successful motion picture awaited the roll- 
able celluloid film, which was to be probably the 
greatest single contribution of them all. Hannibal 
Goodwin conceived the idea which he patented in 
1887 as United States Patent No. 610,861, although 
the patent was not reduced to commercial applica- 
tion. That distinction goes to George Eastman and 
his co-worker, Harry Reichenbach. On April 9, 1889. 
Harry Reichenbach, with Eastman as assignee, ap- 
plied for a U. S. Patent which was granted on Decem- 
ber 10 of the same year. That patent gave practical 
celluloid photographic film to the world. It may be 
said to be the birthday of the celluloid and silver 
medium of our theatres, because on that day the 
motion picture was made possible. In the mean- 
time, LePrince, Friese-Greene and Edison had under- 
taken, unknown to each other, the problem of mak- 
ing pictures live. 

The Successful Cinematic Picture 

Who, definitely, perfected the successful motion 
picture equipment? If that question is asked an 
American his somewhat noncommital reply will be 
Thomas Edison, while an Englishman will maintain 
that Louis A. A. LePrince or William Friese-Green 
invented it. A Frenchman will point to the work of 
Louis and August Lumiere, and a German will be- 
lieve that Oscar Messter made it possible. The im- 
portance of the contributions of these individuals to 
the art is a disputed point which need not be con- 
sidered here. Let it suffice to summarize each of 
their achievements from which the critical student 
will deduce that each served to crystallize in their 
own country the age-old idea of living pictures. 

LePrince was granted a British Patent No. 423 on 
November 16, 1888, on a one and multiple lens cam- 
era, or "receiver" and projector, or "deliverer." At 
this time he was granted an American patent from 
which the claims for the single lens camera were 
not granted, due to the interference of the earlier 
patent of Du Mont. Subsequent to the granting of 
these patents he made a camera having sixteen 
lenses from the drawings that accompanied the pat- 
ent specifications. These lenses were arranged in 
two parallel rows of eight. Each of the lenses of the 
first series were to consecutively photograph, while 
the sensitized paper or film band facing the other 
eight was being moved forward in readiness for 



their exposure. Pictures taken in this manner from 
two viewpoints would not be steady on the screen, 
although it would be possible to get stereo effects if 
both rows of lenses exposed simultaneously; how- 
ever, this was not LePrince's intention. 

At an unestablished later date LePrince made a 
single lens camera which he evidently used in tak- 
ing the pictures exhibited at the Paris Opera House 
on March 30, 1890. At this time, according to a 
signed statement by Ferdinand Mobisson, secretary 
of the National Opera, LePrince had a successful 
showing. The work of LePrince is significant and 
had he not unaccountably disappeared on Septem- 
ber 26, 1890, the course of motion picture history 
might have been filled with his name. 

William Friese-Greene first started working on the 
motion picture problem sometime in 1883. He began 
with a series of experiments in recording motion on 
glass plates, which were to be shown in the "Bio- 
Phantoscope" device made by J. A. Rudge. After 
the death of Rudge, Friese-Greene continued his ex- 
periments and in 1885 demonstrated some pictures 
taken spirally on glass. These were not a success, 
so he tried to photograph on paper bands made 
transparent with castor oil. On June 21, 1889, he 
and Mortimer Evans applied for a patent in England 
which was accompanied by conceptional drawings 
made by Evans. The date of the construction of 
this camera covered in the patent has not been es- 
tablished, although it evidently was at a later date 
if we may judge from the Scientific American Sup- 
plement of April 19, 1890, page 11921, in which is 
described the mechanism of his camera and closes 
with: "Some years ago he exhibited a little optical 
lantern which cast four pictures in succession upon 
the screen, and before one was quite removed, the 
next was superimposed. 

"By an improvement upon that lantern, now in 
the course of manufacture, Mr. Greene hopes to be 
able to reproduce upon the screen, by means of 
photographs taken with his machine camera, street 
scenes full of life and motion; also to represent a 
man making a speech, with all the changes in his 
countenance, and at the same time to give speech 
itself in the actual tones of the man's voice by means 
of the loud speaking phonograph." 

Though he worked hard to achieve the motion 
picture, his contributions were chiefly of a theoretical 
nature and had little importance in actual screen 
history. 

(Concluded in March) 




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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Tiventy-seven 



Recent Photographs and Sound Patents 



By Robert Fulwider 

Registered Patent Attorney 
(Wilshire at La Brea, Los Angele> 



2,022,665 — Plastic Sound Reproduction System. 
W. H. Halstead, White Plains, N. Y. 

2,022,768 — Process of Printing Copies from Len- 
ticular Film. Gerd Heymer, assignor to Agfa Ansco 
Corp. 

2,022,902-2,022,903 -- Acoustic and Cinemato- 
graphic Apparatus. Household Cabinet for Motion 
Picture Projection. A. A. Thomas, assignor to 
R. C. A. 

2,022,933— Photographic Printing (Lenticular). J. 
Eggert and Gerd Heymer, assignors to I. G. Farben- 
industrie, Germany. 

2,022,934 — Film Editing and Splicing Apparatus. 
Arthur R. Guth, New York. 

2,022,978 — Objective for Taking, Printing and Pro- 
jecting Lenticular Films. Kurt Rantsch, assignor to 
Opticolor Co., Glarus, Switzerland. 

2,023,065 — Motion Picture Apparatus. F. Conrad 
and C. Aalborg, assignors to Westinghouse Electric 
& Mfg. Co. 

2,023,103— Motion Picture Apparatus. Walter H. 
Schulz, assignor to Westinghouse Elec. Mfg. Co. 

2,023,348 — Apparatus for Optical Printing. Denes 
von Mihaly, Berlin, Germany. 

2,034,411— Motion Picture Camera. T. M. DeLa- 
Garde, Los Angeles, Cal. 

2,023,493 — Driving Mechanism for Motion Picture 
Cameras. Leland H. Stanford, U. S. Army, Fort 
Shafter, Hawaii. 

2,023,581 — Sound Picture Projector. Omer Glunt, 
assignor to Bell Telephone Co. 

2,023,649 — Device for Recording and Reproducing 
Films. William Six, et al., Eeindhoven, Holland. 

2,023,770 — Sound Film Equipment. Kurt Riess, 
et al., assignors to I. G. Farbenindustrie, Germany. 

2,024,080 — Light Source for Recording Sound on 
Film and Method of Producing Same. Stewart Whit- 
man, assignor to Whitman Sound System, Dover, 
Del. 

2,024,081— Composite Picture Mat. Frank Wil- 
ham, Los Angeles. 

2,024,522 — Color Photography. G. B. Harrison, 
assignor to Dufaycolor, Ltd., London, England. 

2,024,563 — Process for the Reproduction of Sound 
Recorded by Means of Photograms. R. Berthon, as- 
signor to Kislyn Corp., N. Y. 

2,024,608-2,024,609— Sound and Picture System. 
E. H. Smythe, assignor to Bell Telephone Labs. 

2,024,627— Edge Marked Motion Picture Film. John 
Crabtree, assignor to Eastman Kodak Co. 

2,024,644 — Process and Solution for Treating Pho- 
tographic Images. K. C. D. Hickman, assignor to 
Eastman Kodak Co. 

2,024,660 — Automatic Film Threading Control. 
W. A. Riddel, assignor to Eastman Kodak Co. 

2,024,661 — Apparatus for Controlling Photo- 
graphic Exposures. Odon Riszdorder, Budapest, 
Hungary. 



2,024,869— Apparatus for Motion Pictures. N. Ny- 
strom, assignor to United Research Corp., Queen 
County, N. Y. 

2,024,942— Sound Recording System. J. A. Miller, 
assignor to United Research Corp., New York, N. Y. 

2,025,327 — Method and Apparatus for Producing 
Composite Pictures. C. S. Briel, assignor to Cinema 
Developing Co., Chicago, 111. 

2,025,366 — Portable Sound Film Reproducing Ap- 
paratus. Denes von Mihaly, Berlin, Germany. 

2,025,374 — Sound Transmitting System. L. G. 
Bostwick, assignor to Bell Telephone Co. 

2,025,608 — Method and Apparatus for Recording 
and Reproducing Mechanical Vibrations. R. L. A. 
Nublat, Paris, France. 

2,025,658 — Process for the Production of a Col- 
ored Sound Film. Bela Gaspar, Berlin, Germany. 

2,025,671 — Cinematographic Film in Natural Col- 
or. G. A. Raguin, assignor to Societe Lumiere, 
Paris, France. 

2,025,675 — Light Sensitive Layers. Oskar Sus, 
Wiesbaden, Germany. 




CAMERA & PROP 
RENTALS 

Camera Supply Co. 

1515 Cahuenga Blvd. 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Ruddy Ceraus, Manager 
GLadstone 2404 

Nitc Phone GLadstone 6583 
Cable Address — "CAMERAS" 



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Twenyt-eight 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



CINECAMERAFORNIA 

By William Kislingbury 




|T MAY be "The Best Movie in Town," one of 
the ten best, or rated four stars with an All- 
Star cast, "The Gem of the Program," or 
even have attained an Academy award, but 
when the laboratory has finished summing it up the 
result is always — just so much footage. 

With a maximum measurement of one thousand 
feet in a roll of positive raw stock and a length in 
reels of cut negative varying from seven hundred 
and fifty to not more than nine hundred and ninety- 
five feet the left-over remnants of unexposed film in 
release printing would amount to a tremendous loss 
if it were not for the ingenuity of laboratory super- 
intendents in making use of short ends. 

All major industries take pride in the results ob- 
tained by staffs of experts dedicated to reclamation 
and are justly proud in boasting of any new methods 
devised to curtail waste. Comparable on a basis of 
economy of operation the motion picture laboratory 
has an enviable lead over all other fields of com- 
mercial enterprise, for with capable managtment 
there is no such thing as waste. 

Even "The Face on the Cutting Room Floor," 
which has long been accepted as an adage of Hol- 
lywood extravagances, may be trampled upon and 
denied a public showing; yet, to the laboratory, this 
ill-fated castaway has a reclamation value for a 
silver content forming the image and for its support- 
ing base of celluloid convertible into lacquer. 

Fortunately for the separate sound track, which is 
almost devoid of any appreciable amount of silver 
when matted down to the track area, the lacquer 
by-product is now the more valuable of the two. A 
great deal of experimental work has been neces- 
sary in finding a suitable method to clean the emul- 
sion from the celluloid and make it a commercially 
feasible process. Hypo, when ready to discard as 
a fixation for pictures, is thoroughly permeated with 
silver particles and continues on in fixing up the 
profit sheets with a high yield in metal. Even the 
special Bakelite spools, the core of a roll of stock, 
can be shipped back to the manufacturer for re- 
demption. 

With silent pictures the using up of short ends 
proves quite a simple procedure, for with a suitable 
means of fastening or stapling the two ends of film 
together the negative can be "pulled back," allow- 
ing a fresh start, and then after processing the two 
ends, matched and spliced to the exact frame. Syn- 
chronization in the composite printing of sound pic- 
tures has made this method impractical. Splicing 
into full length rolls (in the dark room) has now be- 
come the most satisfactory practice in printing up 
short ends. With an experienced and careful splicer 
the danger of breakage in the developing machine 
is negligible, but particularly with a dried out and 
brittle stock. It is worth the extra precaution to 
reinforce with a few frames of clear leader attached 
through the splice and anchored to the celluloid 
surface with two Mercer Metal Patches. 

For best results in release printing the splicing 
should be controlled to insure a registration with 
the negative frame line so that when projected it 
will not become an annoying factor by flashing 




across the screen. A sprocket mounted on the splic- 
ing machine and marked off in frames is the best 
present method of establishing a starting mark by 
which the printer can be threaded "in frame" with 
relation to the splices contained in a roll. With the 
inked-in key numbers placed each foot along the 
edge of positive film by the manufacturers it is also 
possible to use the perforation following the last 
numeral of the group nearest the point at which a 
splice is to be made and slipping this perforation 
over a guide pin match the strip of film along a 
gauge marked off in frames. 

The task of splicing raw stock could be expedited 
considerably if the manufacturers would incorporate 
in numbering devices an attachment to ink in a 
frame line along the perforation margin which would 
be discernible before development. 



DIRECTOR BUCK JONES 

In No. 1 1 of the Buck Jones series for Universal 
release, just completed, the popular Wild Western 
actor not only played the star part but also directed 
the picture. With a six gun in one hand and a 
megaphone in the other, the irrepressible Jones put 
the picture through in record time. The title is "For 
the Service," and the locale is West Texas in the 
seventies. Art Marion shot the stills. 



In U)prlJ-(A)iJg Use 



pr<?Au.*:iz (^O^cnli^br and OOi^nt 
Effects in DayTrme'F^ Scenes- 
LYif fused. Fv7cus. and many ^m«r effects 
Witn any Camera - In any Climare 
GcorcjG H. ScHeibo 

ORIGINATOR OF EFFECT FILTERS 



1927 WEST 78™ ST. 



LOS ANGELES. CAL 



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February, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPH E 



K 



Twenty-nine 



16 MM. FILMS IN LARGE AUDITORIUMS 

Lt. Commander George Noville, second in com- 
mand of the recent Byrd expedition to the Antarctic, 
took over 64,000 feet of 16 mm. film to record the 
activities of the expedition. With a Bell & Howell 
1,000-watt 16 mm. auditorium projector, which he 
carries with him, he is now, all over the United 
States, giving illustrated lectures of his Antarctic 
experiences. In 1926 Noville flew with Byrd over the 
North Pole and in 1927 accompanied him on the 
trans-Atlantic flight to Europe. Noville also partici- 
pated in the first navy round-the-world flight and was 
first superintendent of the United States transconti- 
nental air mail. 

Capt. Irving Johnson, just returned from a trip 
around the world in his ninety-foot schooner, The 
Yankee, is also using the same type 16 mm. projector 
to show films in connection with his lecture work. 
Captain Johnson has shown his motion pictures to 
audiences of more than 3,400 people with fine re- 
sults. One of these big audiences was in Eastman 
Auditorium, Rochester, N. Y., and he has just re- 
ceived an invitation for a repeat engagement. 

Capt. John Craig, who has visited 39 different 
countries in the last six years, making adventure 
motion pictures, is another convert to this sort of 16 
mm. projector for lecture work, as is Richard Finnie, 
the brilliant Canadian traveler and lecturer. Mr. 
Finnie is this season presenting a new illustrated lec- 
ture, "Wandering Through French Canada," the mo- 
tion pictures for which he took entirely in 16 mm. 
Part of the film is in natural color. With the 1,000- 
watt 16 mm. projector he attains brilliant color pic- 
tures on the screen, and movies in color are a gen- 
uine asset for any lecturer who uses illustrative 
material. Mr. Finnie could not have taken natural 
color movies in 35 mm. except at almost prohibitive 
expense. 

Other well-known lecturers, including Arthur C. 
Pillsbury of "In and Under the South Seas" fame, are 
going into 16 mm. movies. Pillsbury, we understand, 
will soon announce all his lectures available in 16 
mm. He will carry a 1,000-watt projector with him. 

The National Geographic Society in Washington 
has purchased one of these machines to take care of 
lecturers who have 16 mm. films. One of the finest 
lectures presented by this organization was illus- 
trated with 16 mm. films projected by a Bell & Howell 
1,000-watt projector. The lecture was given in Con- 
stitution Hall, which seats upwards of 4,000 people. 

In a recent issue of Program Magazine, which is 
devoted to the lecture field, is an editorial by James 
B. Pond, to the effect that the new B. & H. machine 
has solved the projection problems of any lecturer 
who uses motion pictures. 

Besides affording large-sized (up to 20 feet wide), 
brilliant pictures, the 1,000-watt 16 mm. projector can 
use 1,600-foot reels and thus show a full hour of pic- 
tures without change of reels. A trained operator is 
not necessary, for all that is needed is to start the 
projector going and it will run right along until the 
entire 1,600 feet of film are projected. 



8 MM. 

Extending the scope of the 8 mm. Filmo cameras, 
Bell & Howell Company announces as available for 
both the straight and double 8 cameras a new 1-inch 
F 2.7 Taylor-Hobson Cooke lens in either universal 
or focusing mount; also a Taylor-Hobson fast 1-inch 
F 1.5 lens in focusing mount. On an 8 mm. camera, 
a 1-inch lens compares in magnifying power with a 
2-inch lens on a 16 mm. camera. 



EASTMAN TEACHING FILMS GOING STRONG 

In the story appearing in the January, 1936, issue 
of International Photographer covering the activities 
of Capt. Herford Tynes Cowling, a statement was 
included indicating that Eastman Teaching Films 
Program had been discontinued. 

A letter just received from Mr. W. H. Maddock, 
manager of Eastman Teaching Film Division of the 
Eastman Kodak Company, points out that this pro- 
gram is still in active operation and that, while pro- 
duction was drastically curtailed in 1932, owing to 
economic conditions existing at that time, a number 
of new films have been added each year and that 
the films continue to enjoy a wide sale and active 
use in hundreds of school systems throughout the 
country. 

It is generally known that the Teaching Films pre 
pared and sold by the Eastman Kodak Company 
have been one of the most important contributions to 
the field of visual education and we are therefore 
glad to report that they are still alive and going 
strong. 



FILM SPECIALTIES 



Film Specialties, of El Monte, Calif., caters to 8 
mm. owners. This firm is supplying a variety of 
emulsions in the popular 8 mm., size, including super 
sensitive panchromatic, color film, titling film, etc. 

In addition, many accessories for the 8 mm. 
owner have been developed and are being mar- 
keted. Full information may be secured by address- 
ing Film Specialties, P. O. Box 111, El Monte, Calif. 




Davidge Developing System 

Developing outfits, 25 feet to 1000 feet. Light, compact 
and efficient. The ideal equipment for small studio labor- 
atories, expedition work, schools and the home. You can 
get superior results at low cost with the patented Roto- 
Tank processing. We also manufacture The Davidge Im- 
proved Celluloid Apron for use with our units or as a 
replacement apron for any of the developing tanks using 
the 16 or 35 M.M. sizes. Bakelite spooling discs, negative 
tightwinders and synchronizing machines at attractive 
prices. Send for the new illustrated catalog and price list. 

Hollywood Roto-Tank Ltd. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 



5225 Wilshire Blvd. 



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Thirty 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



INTERNATIONAL 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

Brings results — Rates 45 cents per line — minimum charge one 

dollar per insertion. For Rent — For Sale — Wanted — For 

Exchange, etc. 

FOR SALE OR RENT— CAMERAS 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell and Bell & Howell silenced cameras, 
follow focus. Pan lenses, free head, corrected new aperture. Akeley, 
De Brie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost, Willart, De Vry, Eyemo, Sept, 
Leica. Motors, printers lighting equipment. Also every variety of 
16 mm. and still cameras and projectors. B & H Cameras with old type 
shuttles silenced $150. Everything photographic bought, sold, rented 
and repaired. Send for our bargain catalogue. Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd. Phone HO. 3651. Cable, Hocamex. 

FOR SALE— CAMERAS AND EQUIPMENT 

REAL BARGAINS in 16 and 35 mm. movie equipment and still cameras. 
Newest types cameras and projectors in all popular makes. Save money 
on film, lights, lenses and all essential accessories. Our 36 years of 
experience stands back of every sale. Before you buy, send for our new 
bargain booklet. Burke & James, Inc., 223 W. Madison St., Chicago. 



REBUILT BELL & HOWELL single system camera. Complete with 
lenses, magazines, tripods. Movietone quartz shoe. 12 volt motor, ampli- 
fier, dynamic microphone, cables and cases. Motion Picture Camera Sup- 
ply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 



8 MM. 



8 mm. COLOR, S. S. Panchromatic, Reversible, and Positive Palomar 
Titling Film ; for all 8 mm. cameras, reversible data. Home titling 
data, accessories, Processing, Titling, Reducing from 16 mm. to 8 mm. 
Dup. 16 mm. and 8 mm. Film Specialties, 111-N, El Monte, California. 



CAMERA REPAIRING 



ffELL & HOWELL cameras with old type shuttles silenced, $150. 
Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Co., 645 No. Martel Ave., 
Hollywood. 



POSITION WANTED 



DO YOU WANT A CAMERAMAN who is an expert on studio pro- 
duction ; or an expedition cameraman who knows every corner of the 
world ; or a cameraman who thoroughly understands the making of indus- 
trial pictures ; or an expert newsreel photographer ; or an expert color 
cameraman? A limited number of cameramen, backed by years of experi- 
ence, are available. Write stating your requirements and we shall be 
glad to assist you in choosing the kind of cameraman you want. INTER- 
NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Holly 
wood. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECTIONIST, a monthly magazine 
published in the interests of the projectionist. Interesting, instructive. 
Yearly subscription U. S. and possession's. $2; foreign countries, $2.50. 
James L. Finn Publishing Corp., 580 Fifth Ave., New York. 



MODEL L DE BRIE CAMERA— Full ground glass focusing auto- 
matic dissolve, 40 mm, 50 mm, 75 mm, 100 mm lenses mounted. Has 
special upright image view-finder, De Brie motor, tripod, six magazines. 
Motion Picture Camera Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York 
City. Cable : Cinecamera. 



SILENCED BELL & HOWELL with new Fearless Movement 40 mm, 
50 mm and 75 mm F.2:7 lenses mounted. Two 1000-ft. magazines, tri- 
pod, finder and sunshade. Rebuilt like new. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc.. 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable : Cinecamera. 



SILENCED BELL & HOWELL with check pawl shuttle. 40 mm, 
50 mm, and 75 mm F.2 :7 lenses mounted. Two 1000-ft. magazines, tri- 
pod, finder and sunshade. Rebuilt like new. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable: Cinecamera. 



BELL & HOWELL and Eyemo Cameras, Lenses, Magazines, Tripods, 
Moviolas, Splicers, all kinds of Sound and Laboratory equipment. East- 
man and Dupont spliced negative, tested and guaranteed, 2y 2 $ per foot, 
on daylight loading rolls, $2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTINENTAL 
FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hollywood. 



DEBRIE INTERVIEW MODELS $250.00 and $350.00, DeVry 35mm 
Cameras $65.00, Projectors $40.00 up, Holmes 35mm Portable Sound 
Projector Type 7A $450.00. 35mm Sound Recording Outfit, single or 
double system, complete, less batteries $750.00, Akeley Studio Camera 
$800.00. CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood. 

FOR SALE— SOUND RECORDERS AND EQUIPMENT 

COMPLETE SOUND TRUCK with extension mixer, microphone, con- 
verter. All complete, ready for production. Write Box 208, International 
Photographer. 



ART REEVES, latest model 1935, double system sound recording in- 
stallation, factory guaranteed. Automatic Speed Control Motor, Twin 
Fidelity Optical Unit, Bomb microphone, the only genuine, modern, 
workable ArtReeves equipment for sale in Hollywood outside factory. 
CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood. 

WANTED TO BUY 

WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, Mitchell, Akeley or De Brie 
Cameras, lenses, motors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 

WANTED — DeBrie Model L Camera; also Akeley Gyro Tripod. Len 
H. Roos, 903 Kenwood, Burbank, Calif. 



MOTION PICTURE — Still Picture — Laboratory and Cutting Room 
Equipment — Lenses — Finders — Tripods. Highest prices paid. CONTI- 
NENTAL FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hollywood, Calif. 

BUYERS READ these classified advertisements as you are now doing. 
If you have something for sale or exchange — advertise it in these col- 
umns. THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 1605 No. 
Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood. 



COMPLETE COURSE IN FLYING — If interested in aviation, see Roy 
Klaffki, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood. 



WANTED — To know of the whereabouts of motion picture relics, docu- 
ments, or equipment of a historical nature for Museum purposes. Write 
Earl Theisen, care of International Photographer, 1605 Cahuenga Ave., 
Hollywood. 



For the Most Authentic 
Technical Information 
About the Motion Picture 
Industry Consult — 

International 
Photographer 

Order Your Copy Now! 
$ 2 5 ° A YEAR 

IN THE UNITED STATES 

Name ..-. - 



Addr 



City. 



.State. 



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February, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirtv-one 



Applying Wide-Range Principles to 

High-Power Lamps 



By Elmer Richardson 

Mole-Ricluirdson Inc. 




The industry's first 
wide-range lighting unit 
was the Mole-Richardson 
"Junior Solarspot," which 
was introduced early in 
1935. In it, for the first 
time, the power of a re- 
flecting Sunspot and the 
wide range and ideal 
beam of a condenser- 
spotlight were combined 
in a single unit. For the 
first time, a motion pic- 
ture lighting unit was en- 
gineered specifically to 
meet the problems of the 
camera, without paying 
tribute to traditions estab- 
lished in searchlighting 
and theatrical spotlight- 
ing practice. The success 
of the "Junior Solarspot" 
since its introduction is 
almost too well known to 
repeat, for it has received an enthusiastic welcome 
in every studio in the industry, and in many quar- 
ters is supplanting the older "eighteens" as the stan- 
dard 2,000-watt unit for all-around service. 

The success of this 2,000-watt unit brings with it 
a demand for a similar wide-range lamp of higher 
power. This demand is now answered by the in- 
troduction of the "Senior Solarspot," a 5,000-watt 
companion to the "Junior," based on the same op- 
tical principles, and bearing the same relation to 
the 24-inch Sunspot that its running-mate does to 
the "eighteen." 

Briefly, the new lamp (which is officially termed 
MR Type 214) is a 5,000-watt wide-range spotlight, 
using a G-64 C-13 (clear) bi-post Mazda globe. The 
optical system consists of a "Morinc" lens 14 inches 
in diameter, in combination with a spherical mirror 
placed behind the globe to utilize the rearward em- 
anations. The lens is made of special, heat-resisting 



glass, and due to its large diameter and short focal 
length, works at a speed of approximately f:0.7. 
This lens, like that of the smaller unit, is the result 
of many months of research carried on jointly by 
Mole-Richardson engineers and optical experts from 
the firm responsible for the 200-inch eye of the new 
Palomar Mountain telescope. 

In its physical layout, the "Senior Solarspot" re- 
sembles its companion, the "Junior." Due to the 
optical principles used, it is somewhat smaller than 
previous 5-KW units. The housing is an aluminum- 
alloy casting, with ample provision for ventilation. 
The controls are conveniently grouped at the rear 
and right-hand side; the main switch is at the opera- 
tor's right hand, with the tilt locking-handle carried 
through the casing to a convenient location at the 
rear of the barrel, and the flooding crank in its ac- 
customed place below. Access to the globe is 
through a large door at the back of the lamphouse. 

The general performance of the lamp is similar 
to that of the "Junior Solarspot." The beam may be 
concentrated to a tight spot-beam of 10 degrees or 
less, and flooded out to a spread of over 44 degrees. 
The intensity of the concentrated beam compares 
favorably with that of conventional 5-KW units, 
while the overall intensity at the wider spreads is 
definitely superior. While in reflector-type spotlights 
there is at the wider beam-spreads a variation in 
intensity between the edges and the center of the 
beam which may be as great as 85 per cent, with 
the dark center growing more and more objection- 
able as the beam is flooded, in the "Senior Solar- 
spot," even at its widest spread (nearly double the 
maximum usable flood of a Sunspot), the variation 
between center and edges is scarcely visible. 

Like its smaller companion, the lamp may be 
fitted with an Iris-diaphragm which permits many 
new effects, including changing the intensity without 
altering the size of the spot, dimming effects with- 
out the use of dimmers or alteration of the color of 
the light, etc. It is, in fact, a really modern lamp, 
engineered to meet the requirements of today's cine- 
matography. 





Junior 

(2000 Watt) 



SOLAR SPOTS 

The Perfect Photographic Light 

MOLE-RICHARDSON, Inc. 

941 No. Sycamore Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
Cable "Morine" 




SenioR 

(5000 Watt) 



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Thirty-two 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



February, 1936 



CI 



EMACABO 

(With sauce for those who like it.) 





By 

Robert 
Tobey 



HOLLYWOOD HONEYMOON 

(A novel novel of a thousand and one nights in a 

daze) 

by 

R. THRITIS 

Synopsis of preceding chapters, I guess: 

Lili Liverblossom, Periwether Murgle, Willy 
Nilly, Nelly Nilly, Bill, and a ghost whose name 
we don't yet seem to knoiv, have become pretty 
well involved in a lot of toil and trouble. Now 
you can fuss with the back issues of the magazine 
if you want to, but our job is to keep things mov- 
ing, and here we go. 

CHAPTER XVI— A Ledged Romance 

"You mean to say you're cold, y' poor kid?" 
inquired the ghost, still ripping along about sev- 
enty. 

"You said it," replied Lili. "This wind goes 
right through me." 

"Your mistake," said the ghost. "It goes right 
through me. You're no ghost." 

"What is this, a debate?" snapped Lili. "I 
said I'm cold, and I mean it. How about turning 
around and whisking me back home so I can 
get my fur coat." 

"I'll have a fur coat for you in no time," said 
the ghost. "Just wait right here." 

"Giblets!" exclaimed Lili. "Don't leave me 
here! I'll drop." 

But the ghost had vanished into thin air. 
Screaming with terror, Lili began to drop toward 
the gleaming city a mile below her. Before she 
had dropped a hundred feet there was a rush 
of dank air and the ghost was back, clasping 
Lili in one arm and with a mink coat draped 
over the other. 

"I told you I could get anywhere and back in 
practically no time," said the ghost, grinning at 
her. "Here, put this coat on." 

"Cripes, but you scared me," said Lili as she 
struggled into the coat, no small feat for one a 
mile in the air and going seventy miles an hour. 
She began to examine the coat. 

"This isn't my coat!" she exclaimed. "It's a 
now one It still has the price tags on it." 

"I know," smirked the ghost, 'winking at Lili. 
"I didn't bother going all the way back to your 
apartment. I just dropped into one of the stores 
down below and picked up the nearest thing that 
came to hand." 

Lili meanwhile had looked the coat over pretty 
thoroughly, and discovered that it was much 
better than hers, which was no mean mink itself. 

"You have pretty swell taste, kid," said Lili. 
"I could learn to be very fond of you." And she 
put her arms, those lily-white arms that had 
brought many a movie-goer's heart right up into 
his mouth, around the ghost's neck. But her 
arms 'went right through him. She'd have re- 
membered they would if her dome hadn't been 
gold plated. Lili found she was only hugging 
herself, which was no particular fun. 

"Anyway, I like you," grumbled Lili, cha- 
grined, "even if I can't do anything about it. 
What's your name, by the way?" 

"There you have me," answered the ghost. 
"You see Bill made me up in such a hurry he 
used -whatever ghost material he had handy, and 
I really don't know myself yet. I was sort of 
thrown together like a pot pie." 

"Then I'll just call you Potty," said Lili, with 
her customary ingenuity. "That's a chummy sort 
of name." 

"Is it?" said the ghost. "I wouldn't know." 

They were by now miles from the bustle of the 
city; and passing up an inviting looking ledge 
high up on a precipice, the ghost set Lili down 
to rest, fearing she would become cramped from 
the awkward position in 'which she was being 
carried. Awkward to explain to her mother, any- 
way. 

"This is red sandstone," I believe," said the 
ghost just to start the conversation, as he prod- 
ded at the face of the cliff with an old eyebrow 
pencil he found lying on the ledge. But the 
conversation got no farther than that, for just then 
they heard a rush of air, and turning quickly in 
time to see two great flapping buzzard 'wings 
silhouetted against the huge silvery moon. The 
buzzard was there too. 

"Looks as if we were in for it," said the ghost. 

"Go away," screamed Lili, as the buzzard hov- 
ered within a few feet of them. 

"Oh no!" said the big bird. "You can't fool 
a buzzard. Something's dead around here." 

"It 'was just a couple of jokes I was telling," 
confessed Lili, trying to stave off disaster. 

With an audible snort of disbelief, the buzzard 
backed off and prepared to attack. 

"What'll we do," cried Lili. 

"Calm yourself," said Potty. "I have an idea." 



(What is Potty's idea, and will he be able to 
save Lili from the cruel talons (not an advt.) of 
the voracious, ferocious, rapacious, but not very 
perspicacious buzzard? In other words, will his 
idea prove efficacious? Hoping yon are the same, I 
can hardly wait for next month.) 



And these nifties got together on a studio sche- 
dule listing future productions: 

YOU MAY BE NEXT 
IF YOU COULD ONLY COOK 

MOONLIGHT ON THE RIVER 
PANIC ON THE AIR 

MAID OF HONOR— UNASSIGNED 



KNEECAP REVIEWS 

(I have my thumb in my mouth) 
"SYLVIA SCARLETT," starring the elusive Kath- 
arine Hepburn. First part of this opus is just one 
of those things for which you hope everyone is 
properly sorry. However, if you can sit through 
it, you'll come to the last part, which is just 
one of those things. 

Cary Grant wears his robes best of all the 
cast, and although overacting a bit, is quite con- 
vincing and satisfactory as the Cockney who 
lives by his nimble wits and has the mind of a 
pig because he firmly believes it's a pig's world. 
Regret: I suspect the director of giving Cary long 
speeches merely to prove that Cary could handle 
a Cockney accent. Edmund Gwenn as the -weak- 
minded father of Sylvia, is too brown around the 
edges. Dennie Moore as a servant with delu- 
sions of grandeur came through nobly, although 
she would have appeared to better advantage if 
properly foiled. The 'whole story got off on the 
wrong foot by acting like burlesque, 'with noth- 
ing to burlesque. Brian Aherne and Natalie 
Paley, who appeared on the scene after some of 
the inertia had been overcome, contributed inter- 
esting performances. 

But to get to the meat of the situation. Hep- 
burn, -who was amazing in "Morning Glory" and 
gave a performance in "Alice Adams" that was 
as real as rain on a roof, turns out a Sylvia 
Scarlett that is surely the work of no cinema 
artisan. A great deal is due to the aimless wan- 
derings of the plot; yet one moment Hepburn is 
scaling the heights of perfection, the next she 
is floundering in the mire of ineptitude. It is 
becoming apparent that K. H. is depending on a 
limited number of acting tricks, chief among them 
a breathless method of speech delivery that is 
beginning to pall. She nevertheless possesses the 
spark of genius, and it is to be hoped that the 
man 'who directs her next picture ■will forget she 
is the Terror of R.K.O. and will adapt her to the 
story instead of adapting the story to her. 

"WHIPS AW ," starring Myrna Loy and Spencer 
Tracy. No ballyhoo, just a program picture, yet I 
think it compares favorably (though comparisons 
are odious) with "The Thin Man." Plausible and 
fast-moving, it keeps you constantly outguessed ; 
and you'll fall for the sympathetic renditions by 



$2.50 



Only, for a Year's Subscription 

to the 

International Photographer 

• 

Canada and Foreign 

only 



$3.00 

It's Worth It. 



Myrna and Spencer of the lovely "square crook" 
and the quick-witted, human detective. Every time 
I see Tracy I am more and more convinced of 
what a splendid actor he ■ is, and there isn't an 
atom of doubt about that smooth Loy. Stay away 
only if you positively detest all kinds of gangster 
stories. Maybe you'd better go even then — you 
might be converted. 

Much credit must go to smooth-flowing direction 
by Sam Wood. Especial thanks to the production 
for showing us Robert Warwick once more. War- 
wick was notable in the small part he had. We 
should see this grand actor more often. 



DIPPY DITTY 



I like sce-na ri-os. 

* * * 

Sce-nar-ri-os are full of plots. 

Plots are full of dirt. 

I love dirt; 

It makes such nice mud pies for sling-ing. 



I LIKE sce-na-ri-os! 



By R. THRITIS. 



HOLLYWOODCUTS, by the Shovel Boys (They 
dish the dirt). * * * Lila Lee and Patsy Ruth 
Miller have opened a gown shop on Sunset Blvd. 
A beautiful place it is too. * * * Walt Disney 
added another distinction to his long list when 
the French Consul, on behalf of the Republic of 
France, awarded Mickey Mouse's papa the cross 
of the Legion of Honor. » * » Young George 
Breakston received an award, too — this time an 
award from the Italian Government for his work 
in the Frank Borzage production, "No Greater 
Glory." Just as the Italian Consul was about to 
be photographed handing George an autographed 
picture of Mussolini, all the lights on the stage 
went out, and it was an hour before they came 
on again. No doubt about an Ethiopian in the 
woodpile this time. * * * Mary Pickford is 
now a producer, under the United Artists ban- 
ner. She turned over the cameras on the first 
scene of the picture, herself, personally, by black 
magic. She simply waved her tiny hand in 
front of a beam of light, a "photo-electric eye" 
saw her do it, a switch automatically clicked on, 
and away went the cameras grinding out a 
close-up of Francis Lederer. * * * 

The second season at Santa Anita Park is well 
under way. 'The track has been beautified in a 
hundred ways and many additions have been made 
to the buildings. With these increased facilities 
and a lower "take," the resort is packing in the 
pony-watchers. * * * Douglas Fairbanks the 
Elder (you-all remember ol' Elder Fairbanks!) lost 
no time after his return to America in appearing 
at the Santa Anita playground. Doug is more 
tanned than ever and can stilt turn the old grin 
on and off like a faucet. He drew the newsfeet 
cameras like a magnet. * * * Madge Evans 
was elated over a bet split with Tom Gallery across 
the board on "Great Lover" — -because he won, 
silly. * * * Eadie Adams started off not doing 
so well, but recouped on Azucar. * h Bing 

Crosby didn't want to be photographed because his 
plaid sport coat was too loud. It might outshout 
you, Bing, but it can't outcroon you. 
Walter Connolly was ducking newsreels on account 
of he's zvorked up a new superstition. At the 
Pacific South-vest Tennis Matches he was plwto- 
graphed with Kay Stammer. After that he didn't 
win another bet on the matches. So now he wont 
be photographed if he's doing any betting: The 
hosses have been playing up to the spirit of things. 
Several long shots have come in. There have been 
two dead heats so far this season, whereas all last 
year brought out only one. In the San Felipe 
Handicap a riderless horse, Ima Count, came in 
first, although of course it was disqualified. _ * 
Al Jolson got off a merry-go-round of losing just 
in time to dash to the radio station and sing "The 
Music Goes 'Round and 'Round." * * * In the 
crush of cars leaving the track an irate motorist 
was honking impatiently at the cars in front of 
him. Herbert Mundin leaned out of a nearby car 
and yelled, "You must have lost, Mister!" 



A SLIP OF THE PEN 

An inquiring fan wrote to ask: "What is Mae 
West's middle name?" 

And the answer that went back was: M 

"Mae West's middle is not for publication. 



HOW SAD DEPT. 
Here lie the blonde ashes of Susan McPart; 
She told the screen idol that Love wasn't Art. 



All right: all right; all right! 



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WE JOUNCE LAMP BULBS ON A 

BLOCK OF STEEL 




Ordinary handling can be hard 
on a lamp bulb. It all depends on what you call 
"ordinary handling." And handling on movie lots 
is as tough on lamps as any handling they receive. 

To be sure that the insides of G-E MAZDA lamps 
will stand up, we test them for fragility. For 
lamps like the one pictured, this test takes the form 
of a jouncing ride on a hammer of steel. 

The lamp is first inspected for any breakage or 
distortion of filament support. (In frosted bulbs, a 
special device enables the inspector to see inside.) 
Then the lamp is placed in the test machine shown 
above which drops the lamp onto a block of steel. 
This delivers a nasty jounce such as a lamp might 
receive when a truck carrying lights from one set 



to another hits the bump at the bottom of a ramp. 
The lamp is lighted and inspected again, especially 
for breaks in the stem or exhaust tube . . . breaks 
which would permit air to enter and end the life 
of the lamp. 

We test for fragility, a definite proportion of every 
size G-E MAZDA lamp produced, according to the 
service expected of the lamp. The lamps are selected at 
random, and tested, by employes of an independent 
testing organization, Electrical Testing Laboratories. 

It is by such means that General Electric assures you 
of dependable lamps adapted to your needs. That is 
one reason why scores of cinematographers use G-E 
MAZDA lamps for every lighting purpose. General 
Electric Company, Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 



GENERAL i^) ELECTRIC 

MAZDA LAMPS 



Jn HUmnnum 




Fox Movietone announces the passing of James 
Seeback, for twenty years head of the photographic 
staff of Fox Movietone on the Pacific Coast, death 
occurring on January 19 after an illness of three 
years. 

Deceased was a loyal member of Local 659 and 
popular with a host of friends. He was widely trav- 
eled, internationally known as a news reel operative 
and his passing will be lamented by everyone asso- 
ciated with the industry. 

Mr. Seeback was 34 years old and left a wife and 
son of nine years at the home on Beechwood Drive, 
Hollywood. He was a native of New York City. 

Local 659 and INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRA- 
PHER extend to the bereaved family assurance of 
their sincere condolences. 



INTERNATIONAL 
HOTOGRAPHER 



4H YEAR 



HOLLYWOOD 



MARCH, 1936 



VOL. 
No. 2 




"Modern Times." written, directed and produced by Charles Chaplin and released through United Artists. 
It took live years between "City Lights" and "Modern Times" and that's too long by anybody's chrono- 
meter, Charlie. We're expecting at least one a year, henceforth; otherwise it will be too late lor some ol 

us. Have a heart! 



CENTS 
A COPY 



PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 



ACCOMPLISHMENT 



— Another field but 
the same organiza- 
tion that gave you 
faster, Finer grain neg- 
ative film when such 
a film was needed. 




"EO. U.S. PAT. OFF 



Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation 



35 WEST 45 th STREET 
NEW YORK CITY 



PLANT 



PARLIN, N. J 



SMITH & ALLER LTD. 

6656 •• SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
HOLLYWOOD, CAL. 



I§§ 



The Spring Thaw in the Mountains 




BY FRANK B. BJERRING 



Imagine having something like this in your backyard. Our photographer used to steal away up there for a rest between pictures 
and, 'while fishing, he took time out to get a feiv pictures like this in his "gude box." 



INTERNATIONAL 
PHOTOGRAPHER 

MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 



Vol.8 



HOLLYWOOD, MARCH, 1936 



No. 2 



Silas Edgar Snyder, Editor-in-Chief 

Earl Theisen and Charles Felstead, Associate Editors 

Lewis W. Physioc, Fred Westerbero, Technical Editors 

Helen Boyce, Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication Dedicated to the Advancement of Cinematography in All 

Its Branches; Professional and Amateur; Photography; Laboratory and Processing, 

Film Editing, Sound Recording, Projection, Pictorialists. 



CONTENTS 

Cover Still by Max Munn Autrey 

Frontispiece by Frank B. Bjerring 

THE SCENIC ARTIST --------- 3 

By Lews W. Physioc 

WRITING WITH A CAMERA ------- 4 

By Karl Barleben 

GLENN KERSHNER— ACTOR, ETC. ------ 5 

MOTION PICTURE SOUND RECORDING, Chapter XXIV - 6 
By Charles Felstead 

PHOTOGRAPHING IN COLOR - - 8 

By Earl Theisen 

THE DENSOMETER UP-TO-DATE ------ 10 

By Delmar A. W hitson 

SIMPLIFYING COLOR LIGHTING ------ 12 

By William Shall 

ARC LAMP DESIGNERS ARE REWARDED 14 

By Donald Asliby 

THE FLEXIBLE SCREEN ------- 16 & 17 

By Fred IV . W estcrberg 

CINE SHOTS THROUGH THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE 18 & 19 

By Paul R. Nelson 

AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE PHOTOGRAPHY - - 20 & 21 
By F. Hamilton Riddel 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING ------- 30 

RECENT PHOTOGRAPH AND SOUND PATENTS - 31 

By Robert Futvoider 

CINEMACARONI ---------- 32 

By Robert Tobey 

Entered as second class matter Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeies, 
California, under the act of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright 1935 by Local 659, I. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. O. of the United States 

and Canada 

Office of publication, 1605 North Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, California 

GLadstone 3235 

James J. Finn, 1 West 47th St., New York, Eastern Representative 

McGill's, 179 and 218 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. Australian and New Zealand agents. 

Subscription Rates — United States, $2.50 : Canada and Foreign $3.00 a year. 
Single copies, 25 cents. 

This Magazine represents the entire personnel ot photographers now engaged in 

professional production of motion pictures in the United States and Canada. Thus 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER becomes the voice of the Entire Craft, 

covering a field that reaches from coast to coast across North America. 

Printed in the U. S. A. at Hollywood, California 

80-CTggTT^- 

SERVICE ENGRAVING CO 




Our Writers for 

April, 1936 

* 

Robert Tobey continues his de- 
lightful patter on Cinemacaroni. 

* 

Earl Theisen will submit Part I of 
"The Evolution of the Motion Picture 
Stcry." 

• 
Captain Herford Tynes Cowling 
will supply an excellent story on 
"The National Archives" — new. 



Lewis W. Physioc, Technical Edi- 
tor, contributes something new and 
engaging on a subject not yet to be 
znnounced. 



Paul R. Harmer will be back with 
"Intensity of Light Under Sea;" 
scmething for the sub-marine cam- 
er:man to think about. 



Charles Felstead will continue his 
remarkable series of studies on Mo- 
tion Picture Sound Recording. This 
series is a liberal education on the 
subject. 

* 
E. Hamilton Riddel is rapidly build- 
ing up his Amateur Picture Section 
in our magazine. He is one of the 
cleverest writers on this subject in 
the country. 

* 
Robert Edmond Jones, internation- 
ally celebrated artist and specialist 
in scenic art, will honor our publica- 
tion with an article on a subject of 
his own choosing. 

* 
And there will be others! All Stars! 
* 
Rollie Totheroh 




A camerman who helped the 
world's greatest cine artist to be- 
come famous. 



March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Three 




THE SCENIC ARTIST 

(The Cameraman's New Ally) 

By Lewis W. Physioc 

Technical Editor of International Photographer 



„ HE technique of the modern motion picture is 
%1 *'m gradually confining production to the studio. 
The complications of the sound department 
have made location trips expensive, slow 
and inconvenient. Consequently every photographic 
trick and production process has been developed and 
perfected in order to enable the producers to avail 
themselves of the conveniences of the indoor studios. 

Many exteriors heretofore done on location are 
now artificially reproduced, on elaborate scales, in- 
doors. A visit to a modern studio will disclose beau- 
tiful gardens, bits of streets, huge ships lying at 
anchor, rolling landscapes and the like — remarkable 
combinations of actual, built stuff and painted back- 
ings and set pieces. 

The new system has many advantages as well 
as disadvantages. While the natural effects of real 
exteriors are sacrificed, the art director is allowed a 
wide range in designing many artistic effects of 
lighting, composition and atmospheric character not 
always found, in nature, to fit the story. 

It readily may be seen, then, the combination 
represents a perfect co-ordination of the efforts of art 
director, cameraman and scenic artist — the camera- 
man must arrange his lighting to furnish the effects 
designed by the art director, and the scenic artist 
must be able to paint in tones and tints that will also 
match the photographic tones of the real portions of 
the settings, to say nothing about accuracy of draw- 
ing and perspective. 

It may be of interest to some of the younger stu- 
dents to know something about these scenic artists. 

Away back in the year 1605 A. D., an ancient 
dramatist started something of importance. Instead 
of being satisfied with performing upon an empty 
stage where placards informed the audience, "This 
is a stone wall," "This is a doorway," etc., he played 
in front of a painted drop. 

Then, in 1777, we are told the first stage setting 
was built and painted. Since those ancient times 
scene painting has flourished as a highly special- 
ized form of art. 

It enjoyed what was probably the pinnacle of its 
achievements about three decades ago, just prior to 
the coming of motion pictures, and was for some 
years forced to suffer a loss of prestige due to the 
ultra realism of picture settings and the more af- 
fected simplicity of stage productions. Gone were 
the days when theater patrons loved to sit in the 
parquet and enjoy studying those painted drop cur- 
tains, and then applaud the setting as that curtain 
was slowly raised. Some of us can remember many 
of those productions — those great spectacles of the 
London Hippodrome; the Germans with their Wag- 
nerian operas; the French and Italians with their 
fine contributions, and the Americans with such pro- 
ductions as "The Bonnie Briarbush," "Ben Hur," 
"Quo Vadis," "The Ninety and Nine" and the many 
grand and comic operas. 

A feature of the scenic artist is his great versa- 
tility — he must be able to paint anything and paint 



it well. To be sure, not all are able to execute a 
subject to the full satisfaction of the academicians, 
but many paint in a style that will challenge the 
most critical appraisal. While there is a tendency 
among some artists to depreciate the work of the 
scenic artist, there have been instances of such com- 
manding merit as to receive the applause of all. 

The craft boasts of those, among its members, 
who have been gold medalists in the most exclusive 
salons of the world — members of the Royal Acad- 
emy, the National Academy and other institutions, 
foreign and American. One Leon Bakst, a French- 
man, was even a Nobel Prize winner. As regards 
the relations between the cameraman and the scenic 
artist, there is a peculiar signficance in the fact that 
Daguerre, to whom the photographers owe so much, 
was a scenic artist. 

Of course, as in all professions, there are spe- 
cialists — some excell in decorative effects; others are 
more proficient in exteriors (landscapes); and some 
are fine figure painters; some specialize in architec- 
ture, interiors, perspective and such subjects. 

A great critic once said: "The position of the 
scenic artist is particularly difficult, inasmuch as 
while artistic temperament and a thorough knowl- 
edge of art are essential for the practice of his voca- 
tion, it is equally essential that he should be thor- 
oughly practical and, to a great extent, an engineer." 

The medium of the scenic artist is known as 
"Distemper," a flat-drying water color set with gela- 
tine size. It probably is one of the most difficult of 
all mediums of painting, but one of the most beauti- 
ful. One of the difficulties is due to the colors drying 
out several shades lighter than they appear while 
wet. The artist must keep in mind, with every brush 
stroke, what the ultimate tones must be. The medium 
is subject to a wide range of treatment, such as glaz- 
ing with thin, transparent wash or bold, direct im- 
pasto, as with oils. 

A great authority was asked what he thought of 
distemper. He answered: "A splendid material, dis- 
temper! For atmosphere, unequalled; for strength, 
as powerful as oil; and in half an hour you can do 
with it that which with wash or oil would take one or 
two days." 

In painting for photographic effects, monotone is 
more practical than too free a use of color, regard- 
less of the selective properties of the panchromatic 
film now used. However, simple black and white, 
while furnishing perfect photographic values, the 
tones are cold and unpleasant. It is more pleasing 
to the eye as well as more enjoyable to work, if a 
little umber and siena are used to warm the tones, 
giving something of the effect of sepia, without de- 
stroying the photographic values. 

Some scenic artists are so skilled in reading pho- 
tographic values that they can enjoy the personal 
delight of using color and still preserve the monotone 
requirements for photographing. In painting in color 
it is well continually to study the work through a 

(Turn to Page 22) 



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Four 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 




WRITING WITH A CAMERA 

By Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F. R. P. S. 



Dean of the Faculty New York Institute of Photography 




IRITING with a camera — does that sound 
strange to you? Well, it needn't, for it is a 
legitimate practice these days. It is well 
known that practically all forms of maga- 
zine and newspaper writing, with the exception of 
fiction, stand a better chance of acceptance if accom- 
panied by suitable and appropriate photographs, 
than without. Many writers are "getting wise" to 
the chances they lose daily by not being equipped 
with a suitable camera — and knowledge of its oper- 
ation. The up-to-the-minute writer has long ago real- 
ized that a small investment in a camera means 
additional revenue for him in his work. Indeed, 
many feel the camera to be as indispensible as the 
typewriter. 

The kind of camera to use for illustrating articles 
and other forms of writing is of no importance. From 
a practical standpoint, however, most writers seem 
to favor the small cameras such as those making 
negatives of 2 1 /4x3 1 /4 inches and smaller. Greater 
freedom and economy are the reasons. It must be 
remembered that today the smaller camera is capa- 
ble of producing just as good results as the larger 
models, sometimes better. 

Of utmost importance is knowing the fundamen- 
tals of photography and correct method of operation 
of the camera. It is well known that the most expen- 
sive camera cannot turn out even passable results 
in the hands of an inexperienced operator. On the 
other hand, the least expensive and simplest box 
camera, when used by one well versed in photog- 
raphy, can be made to produce outstanding results. 
It is, then, mainly a question of application and 
skill in handling the camera, regardless of the cost. 
For some unaccountable reason, many people are 
unwilling to spend a little time delving into the 
science of photography. Yet they expect the camera 
to produce good results. After all, the camera is but 
a tool, just as is the typewriter. Of its own accord, 
it is incapable of making pictures; it needs to be 
guided and operated. 

A person taking up tennis, swimming, golf, horse- 
back riding or any other sport realizes that a certain 
amount of study and practice is essential before 
enjoyment or success can be achieved. So it is with 
photography, too, but all too few people realize this 
fact. After all, with each new camera comes a 
usually complete instruction manual which tells ex- 
actly how the camera is operated. With this new 
camera in front of him, unloaded, of course, the be- 
ginner should read the instruction manual carefully, 
and follow the directions on the camera closely. 
Then a few moments at manipulating the various 
camera parts and studying their mode of operation 
and their function will give complete confidence. 
Certainly no sport or activity can be so easily or 
quickly learned. Rule one, then, to neophytes, is to 
study the camera carefully from the very start. This 
one rule if heeded will prevent hundreds of disap- 
pointments and expenses later. 



Rule two comes next, and calls for loading the 
film into the camera and exposing it. It is easy to 
snap pictures, but something else again if good re- 
sults are to be expected. Shoot a roll of film and 
charge it to experience. In all probability the roll 
will turn out 100 per cent satisfactory if rule one has 
been followed. Even if a few mistakes manifest 
themselves — what of it? It is a sure bet that these 
same mistakes will be carefully avoided in the 
future. Therein lies the value of making mistakes on 
the first roll. 

Along with camera manipulation comes the be- 
ginner's horror — faulty exposure. Poor exposures 
are responsible for at least 50 per cent of photo- 
graphic failures. Yet how simple it is to completely 
remove the whole exposure problem by simply buy- 
ing a reliable exposure meter! How much? Well, 
for two dollars you can get a tiny instrument known 
as the Leudi which is entirely satisfactory, or, if you 
wish, you can pay twenty-two dollars and a half and 
treat yourself to the finest and most accurate type of 
meter made — the electric photo cell type. The best 
are known as Photoscop and Weston Universal. 
Equipped with one of these instruments, you can 
banish all fear of faulty exposure. 

Focus is another nuisance to most, yet it can 
easily be overcome by care. For example, it is desir- 
able to become accustomed to judging distances. 
This will stand you in good stead in photography. 
Then, if the principal object to be photographed is 
thirty feet away from the camera, set the lens for 
this distance exactly, not twenty-five, and not thirty- 
five or forty — but thirty. The more expensive cam- 
eras of modern design are equipped with automatic 
range finders, built in, which remove all bother in 
this regard. Remember that exposure and sharp 
focus are the two main roads to successful photog- 
raphy, and they should be accorded the considera- 
tion of all who aspire to good photography. 

Let us assume that complete mastery of the cam- 
era has been learned. The owner now knows ex- 
actly what's what on his camera, and can produce 
technically satisfactory results. There still remains 




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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Five 




GLENN KERSHNER 



FICTION WRITER- 
CAMERAMAN— ACTOR, 
ETC., ETC. 



Glenn R. Kershner, ace cameraman, lecturer, 
traveler, musician, recently returned to Hollywood 
after a prolonged tour of the South Seas, especially 
in the neighborhood of Papeete. 

He went to check with the natives upon a book 
he had recently written with the South Seas and 
Papeete as a background and, while there M-G-M 
sent two companies to that locale, one to make back- 
grounds for "Mutiny on the Bounty" and the other, 



headed by Richard Thorp, to make "The Last of the 
Pagans." 

Kershner, always an actor at heart, was immedi- 
ately grabbed by Thorp to play the part of Captain 
Larson, the only white man on the all native cast, 
while Sidney Wagner and Clyde De Vinna did the 
camera work. 

Kershner made a perfect Captain Larson and 
also succeeded in getting a month's camera work, 
when De Vinna was called away to shoot some ad- 
ditional backgrounds for the "Mutiny" picture. 

Kershner's son, 18, has been trained for the cam- 
era by his dad and is also an efficient assistant, 
while Norbert, 12, and Beverly, 9, go in for acting. 

Talk about "doubling in brass" in the old minstrel 
days, Kershner can write the story, play the music, 
act a part, handle the camera, light the set, develop 
the film, cut the picture and do a dozen other odd 
jobs while illustrating the story. 

The camera-author admits that he has several 
other books almost ready for the press. He is an 
ornament to the cinematographic group of the in- 
dustry. 



VICTOR DIRECTORY READY FOR YOU 

Victor Animatograph Corporation, Davenport, 
Iowa, announces the Fifth Revised Edition of the 
Victor Directory of 16 mm. Film Sources, and it is a 
masterpiece of its class. No devotee of 16 mm. 
should lack the service afforded by this little book, 
and it isn't so little, either, for between its crimson 
covers are 100 pages chuck full of information that 
is absolutely necessary to the owners and operators 
of 16 mm. silent and sound films. Also it is as cheap 
as it is good. Get yours. You'll have to hurry! 



THE MOVIES ON TRIAL 

Compiled and edited by William J. Perlman and 
published by the Macmillan Company, this volume 
contains the views and opinions of outstanding per- 
sonalities regarding screen entertainments. Among 
these are William Allen White, the Most Reverend 
John J. Cantwell, Edward G. Robinson, Raymond J. 
Cannon, Don Marquis, Seymour Stern, Upton Sin- 
clair, Judge Ben B. Lindsey, and other notables. 
While there is much variance of opinion, there is 
also very decided agreement expressed on certain 
points. If interested in the judgment of those quali- 
fied to pronounce it, the book will be found very en- 
lightening. 



an important factor to be conquered — composition. 
Too much has been written about composition being 
difficult. As a matter of fact, the few simple rules of 
composition are ingrained in most of us, and we 
either are born with artistic instincts or we're not. 
Our instinct usually tells us whether a picture is 
good or bad from the standpoint of composition. If 
we lack the intuitive artistic sense, we can easily 
acquire enough understanding to make good pic- 
tures for our purpose. A simple little book entitled 
"Composition Simplified," by Hermon Gabriel, cost- 
ing only 75 cents, will give the fundamentals at a 
glance, and is recommended to all who seek better 
and more pleasing photographs. 

For those who write, photography is more than a 
means to an end. Its usefulness manifests itself at 
every turn. There is good reason for practically all 
famous authors and writers being photographic ad- 
dicts. Fiction writers use their cameras for personal 
pleasure and also for the recording of scenes during 



m 



OVIOL/A 



FILM VIEWING and 
REPRODUCING MACHINES 

ALL MODELS ON DISPLAY— FOR SALE— FOR RENT 
Illustrated Literature On Request 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, INC. 

723 7th AVE., NEW YORK CITY CABLE: "CINECAMERA" 



their travels. Taking notes may suffice in some 
cases, but supposing you are writing about a Mexi- 
can village — couldn't you write more forcefully if 
you could refer to actual photographs showing the 
natives, their costumes, the houses, the streets, etc.? 
Of course. The photograph tells more at a glance 
than ten thousand words — and what is more, is abso- 
lutely accurate! No wonder wise writers use the 
camera. 

The vast majority of technical and trade journal 
writers use the camera for reproduction purposes, of 
course. In fact, to them the camera is more than an 
accessory to the typewriter — it is as important as the 
typewriter. With it they weave their industrial, sci- 
entific or political story with photographs. Around 
these pictures the text is usually written; not visa 
versa. Here is an ever-increasing field for ambitious 
writers who have the knack of finding the material 
that sells. 

Writing with a camera, then, is not so strange as 
it at first appears. It is definite. It is the modern 
writer's medium of expression. BUT — without a 
basic knowledge of the camera and photography in 
general, little if any success will reward him. The 
public today is accustomed to the best and will not 
tolerate inferior illustrations. It demands the best, 
and regardless of how interesting the text is, it comes 
back with the usual rejection slip unless the photo- 
graphs are skillfully produced. 



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Six 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 



Motion Picture Sound Recording 



Chapter XXIV 




|N the preceding chapter of this series a num- 
ber of additional constructional details and 
1 modifications of the three-stage "basic" am- 
plifier described in the November, 1935, is- 
sue of The International Photographer were given. 
These details of design included such considerations 
as the input circuit of the amplifier and the asso- 
ciated input equipment, parallel plate feed in the 
stages of amplification, matching of the push-pull 
tubes, and a discussion of the most suitable output 
impedance for the amplifier. 

Before describing the adaptation of this amplifier 
to operation from an a-c. power supply, and the de- 
sign of grid and plate filtering circuits to prevent 
interaction between the stages of amplification, we 
will consider the meter that is used for measuring 



ing in this plate circuit is approximately ten milliam- 
peres. The meter will just handle a current of this 
value at full scale reading, but it is better to use a 
shunt across the jack to increase the meter range 
to 0-20 milliamperes. When in this jack, the appar- 
ent reading of the meter must be multiplied by two 
to give the real current reading. 

The push-pull type 2A3 tubes in the final stage of 
the amplifier draw a total current of eighty milliam- 
peres at a plate potential of 300 volts; so a shunt 
must be used across this meter jack. This shunt 
should be of such value that the meter range is in- 
creased to about 0-100 milliamperes; and the read- 
ings of the meter when the plug is in this jack should 
be multiplied by ten to determine the actual plate 
current drawn by these tubes. 



8A3 



r-r^t 



2oo 







B+.25oV 24-VAt B+3«»V.. 



v oo 

2^VA.C 
Fig. 1 — Meter jack circuit for the D-6 model of the "basic" amplifier 



the plate current drawn by the tubes in the amplifier 
and for checking the grid and plate voltages applied 
to the tubes. 

The Meter Arrangements 

Due to the rather high cost of high-grade meters, 
circuit arrangements have been worked out that per- 
mit a single meter to be used for all the necessary 
measurements in the amplifier. Three-terminal jacks 
are connected in the circuit of the basic amplifier as 
shown in Figure 1. A milliammeter with a range of 
to 10 milliamperes is connected by a flexible cord 
to a telephone plug that may be inserted in any of 
the jacks. The polarity of the jacks and of the plug 
must be exactly as shown. 

Since the normal plate current of the type 56 tube 
in the first stage of amplification is approximately 
five milliamperes at a plate voltage of 250 volts, no 
shunt is required across this jack, and the meter 
reading is as marked on its scale when the plug is 
in this jack. As there are two type 56 tubes in the 
second stage of amplification, the total current flow- 



The three jacks just discussed are marked res- 
pectively Jl, J2, and J3 in Figure 1. 

Calculation of the Current Shunts 

The formula for the calculation of the shunts for 
jacks J2 and J3 follows — the circuit arrangement is 
shown in Figure 2A — 

)-l — 

Fig. 2A — Increasing rarge of milliammeter. 



R 



R 



m 



n— 1 



where R is the required resistance of the 
— s shunt in ohms, 

R is the internal resistance of the 
— m meter — also in ohms, and 

n is the scale multiplication factor. 

In the case of J2, where we wished to double the 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seven 



milliammeter range, n, the multiplication factor, is 
two. With jack J3, n is ten, since in that plate circuit 
we wished to increase the range of the meter ten 
times (100/10= 10). 

Assuming the 0-10 milliammeter has an internal 
resistance of ninety ohms (the resistance of any par- 
ticular meter may be learned by writing to the manu- 
facturer), and substituting the values just given in 
the above formula, we discover that the shunt across 
J2 must have a resistance of ninety ohms, and that 
the shunt across J3 must have a resistance of ten 
ohms. 

The resistors used for the shunts must be sturdy 
wire-wound units securely soldered to the jacks. An 
open circuit in a shunt would cause the entire cur- 
rent to flow through the meter, and, particularly in 
the case of the shunt across J3, the excessive current 
would damage or burn out the meter. Any resistance 
rated over one watt carrying capacity will be satis- 
factory. 

In the case of the shunt across J2, when the meter 
is plugged into that jack the current divides equally, 
half passing through the shunt resistance and half 
through the meter; so the meter reads only half the 
current that is flowing and the range of the meter 
thus is doubled. When plugged in J3, ninety percent 
of the current passes through the shunt resistance 
and onyl ten percent of the current flows through the 
meter, so the meter indicates only one-tenth of the 
current that is actually flowing. 

The Voltage Jacks 

By using two-terminal jacks and series resist- 
ances, or "multipliers," connected across the grid 
bias batteries and the plate voltage sources, as 
shown by jacks J4, J5, J6, J7, and J8 in Figure 1, the 
grid and plate voltages may also be measured with 
the one meter. This arrangement is shown in Figure 
2B. The formula for the calculation of these multi- 



METFr 



Fig. 28 — Circuit for using a milliam- 
meter as a voltmeter. 



plier resistances is- 



R = 
v 



1000 E 

7~ 



where R is the required resistance of the 
— v series multiplier, 

E is the desired full-scale voltage 

reading of the meter, and 
I is the normal full-scale current 

reading of the meter in 

milliamperes. 

Since we are considering the use of a 0-10 mil- 
liammeter in this paper, I will be ten. Since for jacks 
J4 and J5 we wish to measure a lS'A-volt C-bias bat- 
tery, a maximum meter range of 0-20 volts will be 
desirable here. Substituting in the aobve formula, 
we learn that the resistances required with these 
jacks should have a value of 2000 ohms each. They 
need not have a rating higher than one watt. 

Figuring a meter range of 0-80 volts for J6, an 
8000-ohm resistor is found necessary for that jack. 
It should be rated at two watts or higher. Using a 
meter range of 0-300 volts for J7 and 0-400 volts for 
J8, the resistance values found to be necessary are, 
respectively, 30,000 ohms and 40,000 ohms. These 
resistors should be rated to dissipate ten watts. 
Carrying Capacity of the Resistors 

For those readers who wish to be able to cal- 
culate the required wattage rating of the resistors, 
the formula is — 



By 

CHARLES 

FELSTEAD, 

Associate 

Editor 




where W is the wattage rating the resistor 
W = PR 

must have to carry the cur- 
rent without heating, 
I is the current in amperes flowing 
through the resistance (re- 
member, 1000 milliamperes 
equal one ampere), and 
R is the resistance of the resistor in 
ohms. 
In the case of the resistor associated with jack 
J8, the wattage rating of the resistor determined by 
the above formula is four watts. But for a good mar- 
gin of safety a resistor having at least twice this rat- 
ing should be used. This same formula may be used 
for calculating the required wattage carrying capa- 
city of the shunt resistors across the plate current 
jacks— Jl, J2, and J3. 

Other Uses of the Meter 

If a double-button carbon microphone is used 
with this amplifier, the shunts across the meter jacks 
in series with each of the carbon buttons of the 
microphone should have a value such that the meter 
has a range of about 0-20 or 0-30 milliamperes when 
plugged into these jacks to read the button current. 
See Figure 3. 



A/\STt SHUNT 



[— ■ O-lc 



Zoo input 



UvvwJ 

SMUNT 

, Rheostat -t 

YvWVW 



DOUBLL 
BOTTOM 
CAR8o~ 

"^'CUOPHOME 



SHUNT 



ww |H'I>I» — 

C '"D' BAT7 



0" &AT7E«\ 



" Yt) O-20C 




fnA 



TO OftiU CIRCUIT 

of first 5& Tone 



/*MCROpHON€ 
T RAMSFoftr-it-fV 



Fig. 3 — Meter jack connection for a double-button carbon microphone. 

When the filaments of the tubes are operated from 
direct current, a suitable resistor and two-terminal 
jack may be in series connected across the filament 
voltage supply to read the filament applied to the 
tubes. Since the meter used operates only on direct 
current, this arrangement may not be employed 
when alternating current is used for the filament sup- 
ply. 

With the d-c. filament circuit shown in Figure 4 
and described in Chapter XXIII, a resistance should 
be employed that will provide the meter with a 0-6 
volt range. With the 0-10 milliampere meter, the re- 

(Turn to Page 24) 



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Eight 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 




Photographing In Color 



By Earl Theisen 



[The dye imbibition process mentioned in this article is the one used by W. Wallace 

Clendenin and Steliin Hansen for the direct color work being done by them for "Dancing 

Pirates," the Pioneer Production, these two men having contracted to furnish all the 

color still work on that production.] 



Honorary Curator Motion Picture and Theatrical Arts, Los Angeles Museum 



in^T|OTHING is nearer to the heart of all photo- 
i Jib y&fo grcphers than the wish to reproduce pic- 
Hk-vO \\ tures in direct colors. 

L— iJMl While heretofore the making of direct 
color photographs was largely confined to the ad- 
vanced professional, due to recent advancements 
the amateur can, with a little patience and expense, 
make charming color-prints. While working in color 
is not as simple as black and white, it is entirely 
within the scope of the photographer who desires to 
do so. 

First in making color prints, negatives must be 
made having the required "color-separation"; that 
is, negatives must be made which are a record of 
the colors of which the image is composed. As is 
known, white light is composed of equal amounts of 
the primary color lights, orange-red, green, and blue- 
violet; any coloration is a combination of these three 
in various proportions. The visible colors of all ob- 
jects is a combination of the three primaries. 

In making color-prints a record, or "color separa- 
tion," of each of the three primaries is required to 
make the picture in color. This is done by photo- 
graphing three separate negatives, one for each of 
the primary colors. To get the color-separation, a 
filter which permits only the one primary color to 
pass while absorbing the others is inserted in the 
optical path before each of the negatives. 

The negatives so obtained is a photographic rec- 
ord of one of the primary colors. Now if transpar- 
ent prints were made in color from the negatives 
and held up to the light in register, an image show- 
ing the colors of the original would be seen. 

By the three negatives, which are usually made 
on panchromatic film through the Wratten tri-color 
filters "A No. 25" (red), "B No. 58" (green), and "47 
C-5" (blue-violet), it is possible to reproduce practic- 
ally all the shades and colorations of the spectral 
range visible to the eye. 

While the three negatives make it possible to 
more accurately reproduce the original colors, for 
the purpose of the amateur, a two-color process is 
simpler to work and will attractively reproduce por- 
traits and certain still life subjects with a fairly broad 
range of colors other than yellow. With the two- 
color method only two negatives are made which 
contain a record of the red-orange and green-blue 
objects. 

A number of methods are available for making 
the negatives, of which the simpler is, perhaps, the 
bi-pack, which consists of two negatives held to- 
gether, emulsion to emulsion, with a reddish dye 
layer (similar to Congo red), on the face of the front 
negative that acts as a filter transmitting only the 
orange-reds to the rear negative, which is panchro- 



matic and red sensitive. The front negative is sen- 
sitive to the green-blue rays and blind to the red, 
the red passing through to the rear panchromatic 
negative. In this way the front negative makes a 
record of the green-blues, while the rear negative 
makes the record of the orange-reds. With the ex- 
ception of removing the dye-filter interlayer after 
developing, preferably before drying, the negatives 
are developed as with normal black and white. 
Bi-packs may be obtained along with information 
from the Defender Photo Supply under the trade 
name "Dupac," although the advanced amateur 
may successfully make his own. 

In photographing with bi-pack film a film pack 
adapter which may be altered is recommended. Be- 
cause precautions must be taken to keep the two 
films in close contact, a thin glass should be placed 
in the adapter on the side next to the camera lens, 
while a thickness or two of sponge rubber is placed 
in the back of the adapter to press the two films 
against the glass and into contact. Allowance should 
be made in the focussing for the thickness of the 
glass by racking back the lens, although care must 
be taken that this is not overdone, otherwise much 
necessary sharpness will be lost. Ordinary plate 
holders may be also altered to accommodate bi- 
packs. 

At times where the blues predominate, a com- 
pensating filter of the K2 or its equivalent may be 
found necessary for best separation. 

A second method for making separation nega- 
tives is that of individually exposing for each of the 
primaries. Whereas action may be photographed 
with the bi-pack, the separate exposure method is 
confined to still life photography or portraits be- 
cause of possible movement between exposures. 

By this method for exposures with daylight use 
Wratten filter No. 28 for the red record and No. 40a 
for the green-blue, and with tungsten incandescent 
illumination Nos. 28 and 40 are used. 

Make an exposure through each filter on pan- 
chromatic film with an increase in exposure accord- 
ing to the "factor" recommended by the film manu- 
facturers for the filter. Develop and finish both nega- 
tives together so that uniform contrast and density 
is the result. 

For the amateur who wishes to avoid the possi- 
bility of movement in portraits, but who does not 
have available a color camera which takes the sep- 
aration negatives simultaneously, the sliding back 
will greatly speed up the exposing by eliminating 
the necessity of changing the plate or film holders 
between each exposure. Even with the sliding back 
some difficulty will be encountered getting the "sit- 
ter" to remain perfectly still, although it can be done. 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Nine 



The sliding back is loaded with films and placed 
on the back of the ordinary camera, the exposures 
thus being made more rapidly since the film and 
filters are changed simultaneously by sliding the 
next film into place. Many professional photogra- 
phers use this method in obtaining color negatives. 

A number of color cameras including the Butler, 
Jos-Pe, Steinheil, and others are designed to make 
the negatives with one exposure by optically split- 
ting the light beam; these cameras are, however, 
very expensive. 

After the negatives are made the task remains to 
make the reproduction. The simplest method for the 
amateur is color transparencies obtained by metal- 
lic tones. While the results are a far cry from nat- 
ural colors, the pictures obtained have color separa- 
tion and can make very charming portraits and re- 
produce certain still life subjects. To make this type 
of transparency make a direct transparency print 
from each of the two bi-pack negatives on lantern 
slide plates or on Eastman Positive Film, Defender 
Adlux, or other positive mediums, print emulsion to 
emulsion, and finish and dry like black and white 
with the exception the prints should be less con- 
trasty and a shade weaker. After drying, the print 
from the rear negative of the bi-pack, which is the 
"blue-printer," is toned blue, while the front nega- 
tive, which is the "orange-red printer," is toned red- 
dish-brown in a uranium tone. The uranium tone 
gives a brownish-red that is not the desirable color; 
however, it is the nearest that can be obtained with 
other than dye tones. 

A suitable uranian tone is as follows: 125 cm. water, 1 gram 
Uranian Acetate, 10 cm. Glacial Acetic Acid, 1 gram Potassium 
Ferricyanide, 1 gram Ammonium Chloride. 

After toning wash until the highlights are clear. 

Blue tone for transparency or paper prints: 0.2 gram Ferric 
Ammonium Alum, 0.2 gram Citric Acid, 5 drops concentrated 
Nitric Acid, 0.1 gram Potassium Ferricyanide, 100 cm. water. 

Dissolve in order given. The solution should be 
a pale yellow color. If during toning it becomes 
colorless it is exhausted. Wash transparencies very 
thoroughly to remove the yellow discoloration. 

While the metallic tones are the easiest to han- 
dle, dye mordant tones which give more brilliant 
transparencies may be worked; although working 
with dyes is costly and not at all advisable for the 
beginner because of many variables. 

The "ferricyanide mordant" is often recommend- 
ed and will give comparatively good dye images; 
however, the "iodide mordant" is by far the most 
certain for the amateur, although the resulting dye 
colors are not of the best. 

An iodide formula is: In 5 cm. of water disolve 3.6 gram of 
Potassium Iodide, and when dissolved add 1.5 gram of flake 
Iodine. When this is completely dissolved to form a dark red- 
dish brown solution add water to 125 cm. total volume. The film 
is bleached completely to a straw yellow color and washed thor- 
oughly. The "blue-printer" (the print from the rear negative of 
the bi-pack) is then toned in the following Blue Dye Solution: 
2.3 cm. 1% solution Victoria Blue, 125 cm. water. 

For the print from the front negative, or "red- 
printer," the following red solution may be used 



35mm. Eastman Super X 

Panchromatic Negative 



Short Ends 



Price 2V2C per Foot 
KINEMA KRAFTS KOMPANY 

6510 Selma Ave. Hollywood, Calif. GLadstone 0276 



straight, or by mixing various proportions accord- 
ing to the requirements of the color subject. 

Red Dye Solution: 6 gram Poncean Red (basic), 125 cm. water. 

Yellow Dye Solution: 7 gram Auramine 0, 125 cm. water. 

Orange Dye Solution: 5 gram Acridine Orange, 125 cm. water. 

The film remains in the dye solution until completely saturated, 
and then after a short rinse cleared in the following: 45 cm. 
Glacial Acetic Acid, 50 cm. Denatured Alcohol, 125 cm. water. 

After this a thorough washing and finally the silver iodide may 
be partly removed and the dyes fixed by long treatment in: 
15 gram Hypo, 10 gram Sodium Acetate, 10 gram Tannin, 150 
cm. water. 

"Ferricyanide Mordant" for dye toning: Bleach both the posi- 
tives completely in: 5 gram Potassium Ferricyanide, 1 gram 
Ammonium Bichromate, 14 cm. Glacial Acetic Acid, 125 cm. water. 

They are then washed a few minutes in running water and 
cleaned until the yellow discoloring has disappeared in 5 gram 
Sodium Bisulphite, 100 cm. water. Then follow with a thorough 
washing. 

Blue Dye Solution: 2 gram Methylene Blue, 2 cm. Glacial 
Acetic Acid, 200 cm. water. 

Orange-Red Dye: 2 gram Chrysoidine, 2 cm. Glacial Acetic 
Acid, 200 cm. water. 

These dye solutions may be mixed to produce 
intermediate tones. The films are immersed for about 
five minutes, after which they are washed until the 
highlights are clear. If the dye does not wash out 
readily add a little acetic acid to the wash-water. 

If three color transparencies are desired, it is 
necessary to make the positive prints from three 
color separation negatives on film rather than plates. 
Use the Blue Dye already mentioned in conjunction 
with the following: 

Red Dye Solution: 2 gram Rhodamine B, 2 cm. Glacial Acetic 

Acid, 200 cm. water. 

Yellow Dye Solution for three color separation: 2 gram Thio- 
flavine T, 2 cm. Glacial Acetic Acid, 200 cm. water. After the 
transparencies are dry, bind them together in register between 
glass with tape. 

Interesting pictures which may be viewed direct- 
ly like the black and white photographs may be ob- 
tained by making a blue metallic toned image on 
paper (best blue images are obtained on a gas 
light paper) from the "blue-printer" separation nega- 
tive, and then from the "red-printer" make a red dye 
transparency as already described, using the for- 
mulae mentioned. When the two are bound to- 
gether, some interesting effects in color are obtained. 
This method is similar to the Ives' Polychrome pro- 
cess, information on which may be obtained directly 
from Mr. F. E. Ives, 1753 North 15th Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

The advanced worker will prefer to work with 
a carbro or dye imbibition process because of the 
better results or because pictures on paper may be 
obtained. Both processes are difficult. 

If the photographer wants to tackle a dye pro- 
cess, a knowledge of dye chemistry and much pa- 
tience is required to learn the manipulation of the 
dyes. Months and often years are required before 
skill is gained. 

There are, for example, many, many dyes hav- 
ing the same name but made by different manufac- 
turers which are not the same chemical structure 
and consequently act entirely different under al- 
most the identical manipulation. Acidity and hard- 
ness of water which differs in various localities is 
very important, temperature and slight impurities 
in the chemicals all affect the dyes which makes 
information of less value unless the worker has a 
knowledge of the chemistry involved. It remains 
for the patient worker to approach the matter not 
expecting the best results at first and find a set of 
dyes that "track" for his particular type of separa- 
tion negatives and which can be more or less de- 

(Turn to Page 26) 



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Ten 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 



The Densometer Up To Date 

A Machine for Determining the Printing Values of 
Motion Picture Negatives 




[HOSE engaged in photography, especially 
the cinematographic department, can hard- 
ly escape the thought that tremendous in- 
terests are dependent, to a great degree, 
upon mere guess-work or judgment in manipulating 
the various instruments and phases of the process. 
The cameraman nervously adjusts the dia- 
phragms of his lenses, being guided only by his 
experience and judgment. He is intimidated by 
many variables that influence the ultimate product — 
exterior light conditions, the problems attendent upon 



end of a long run of development there is no mis- 
taking the change. 

The quality of negatives at the end of such a 
long run must necessarily be inferior to those de- 
veloped in the ideal solution, regardless of attempts 
to maintain a balance between contrast and density 
by boosters, modifying the time, and the like. 

All these difficulties are likewise encountered in 
the production of the positive and suggest the com- 
plications of the printing process; and it may be seen 
that so many variables must produce a series of 




Fig. 1 



Fig. 2 



Fig. 3 



arranging the artifcial lights, etc. He knows that his 
exposures are to be developed by a machine that 
rulthlessly ignores any account of variations or er- 
rors in exposures. He is fearful of the tremendous 
expense that "retakes" entail. 

This sense of uncertainty extends to the process- 
ing of the flms. There is a degree of accuracy em- 
bodied in the developing machine and the time and 
temperature system of development; and the plotting 
of the gamma, from hour to hour, is a highly scien- 
tific means of showing the conditions of the solu- 
tions. But there still remains the problem of the 
control of those solutions — it is one thing to point out 
the depreciations but it is quite another thing trying 
to keep the characteristic constant. The gamma 
checks merely offer a good suggestion in applying 
the current expedient of dilution or adding the so- 
called "boosters." Such a method, however, can do 
no more than maintain a fairly satisfactory printing 
density after the developing solutions begin to break 
down. Quality depends upon the degree to which 
the character of those solutions can be preserved. 
This is a very difficult matter, due to the complicated 
chemical reaction that takes place during the de- 
veloping process. From the time the first foot of 
film enters the developing bath this reaction begins 
to take place and increases with every foot of film — 
for every grain of silver reduced there is a propor- 
tionate decomposition in the solution. It is scarcely 
noticeable in the first few hundred feet, but at the 



negatives as greatly varying in densities. 

As the cameraman has had to rely on his judg- 
ment and experience in obtaining his exposures so 
must the laboratory expert arrive at his printing ex- 
posures. To be sure, he has been given a valuable 
aid in the so-called Cynex strips, but even after this 
graduated test is given him, the choice of the proper 
gradation depends upon the sharpness of his eyes, 
his taste for quality and judgment of densities. 

Here, too, there are many variables. There is as 
wide a range of choice as there are differences in 
eyes of the many operators, their tastes, their de- 
grees of judgment, etc. 

Then, again, the test strips are the first to be de- 
veloped, and while the prints that follow them match 
the selections fairly well, those at the end of a long 
run of development frequently vary both as to den- 
sity and contrast. 

It likewise requires considerable time to expose, 
develop, dry and read the tests, during which time 
the actual printing is delayed. 

The selecting, too, is very trying. The operator 
must stand, for hours, gazing on to a brightly illumi- 
nated ground-glass over which the strips are laid; 
and it is reasonable to suppose that the pupillary 
contraction, as the result of the light shining into the 
eyes, must influence the selections during a long 
session. This is proved by the fact that no two 
operators can give the identical readings of the same 
set of tests, and further, no one operator can give 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Eleven 



his same readings after a lapse of any great length 
of time.* 

Such discrepancies have shown that the ultimate, 
visual correction by screening is necessary to insure 
satisfactory results. 

Such a process must necessarily be expensive 
as evidenced in the difference between the price of 
processing the dailies and the release prints. In 
th case of the release prints, the waste in time and 
material is represented in the master print which is 
subjected to the same uncertain process as the 
dailies. After the master has been satisfactorily 
tested and corrected, the readings furnish a record, 
or matrix, from which any number of copies may 
be printed with very little loss. But with the dailies, 
only one print being made from each negative scene, 
errors are expensive, and the greater price is im- 
posed to pay for such errors. 

In exposing for the negative, the cameraman is 
guided by a slogan that has very nearly become a 
law — "Expose for the shadows and let the highlights 
take care of themselves." In exposing for the posi- 
tive, the order must be reversed. In both instances, 
there is the suggestion that good photography is rep- 
resented in finding the happy balance between these 
two extremes — highlights and shadows. 

Mr. Lloyd A. Jones (Eastman Kodak Research 
Laboratories) has very beautifully expressed the 
printing problem by recommending exposing to a 
degree that will give a "just perceptible" tone in the 
highlights. He arbitrarily establishes this tone at a 
density of 0.008 in the highest light of the negative. 
This is quite satisfactory, but actual laboratory tests 
show that such a tone usually varies with the taste 
for quality among the different superintendents of 
the labs. This, too, is perfectly proper, and does not 
in the least affect Mr. Jones' finely expressed solu- 
tion to the problem. 

It would seem, then, that any device that would 
enable the printing expert to determine this exposure, 
not only the arbitrary density suggested by Jones, 
but any density desired by any individual operator, 
would be of value to the industry. 

To this end, many experiments have been made. 
The selenium cell was the first of the photo-active 
agents to be tried, but without much success; nor 
has the thermopile proved much more satisfactory. 
The photo-electric cell has given more encourage- 
ment, but great difficulty has been encountered in 
trying to devise an electrical hook-up that will in- 
sure simplicity of construction and constancy in the 
light source, and a reliable action of the cell. 

Those acquainted with the characteristics of the 
photo-electric cell, know that the straight line por- 
tion of its characteristic curve is rather limited. 
When controlled by most of the circuits, it suddenly 
and spasmodically kicks off at the shoulder — the 



* Substantiated by the findings of Physioc and Whitson over years 
of experimentation; and Clifton Tuttle ("Assignment of Printing Ex- 
posure by Measurement of Negative Characteristics," Journal of The 
Society of Motion Picture Engineers). 



J < 

1 < 


| r VARIABLE AREA RECORDERS' 

r PATENT NO. 1985584. OTHERS PENOING 
! ALSO 

^^ 35 mm to 16 mm ^^ 
L rj REDUCTION SOUND PRINTER 1 

p. |Hi SOUND EQUIPMENT [^ 
' ^J Cable address CRSCO ^J 

* C. R. SKINNER MFG. Co. 

290 TURK STREET. PHONE OROWfiV 6909 

^ ^ San Francisco. California U. S. A. j 


| 



By DELMAR 
A. Whitson 




point where quasi-ionization takes place — and re- 
sponds sluggishly at the toe, crowding the calibra- 
tions representing the desired straight line portion. 

Most of the experiments have considered the 
overall density of the negative, which is in violation 
of the Jones provision which we consider correct. 

The machine about to be described represents a 
satisfactory compromise between actual practice and 
exacting theory, and is predicated on Jones' idea of 
finding and measuring the point of greatest density, 
and calibrating the reading to match the shutter of 
the printer that will furnish that "perceptible" tone, 
or any tone agreeable to the tests of laboratory 
superintendent or meticulous cameraman. 

Figure 1 shows a general view of the machine — 
THE DENSOMETER. Figure 2 is a close-up of the 
upper portion, showing the principal features. Figure 
3 is a more detailed view of the working parts. A 
(Figures 2 and 3) is the housing for the light sensitive 
cell, and its various electrical connections. B is the 
light source and its optical system. The cell and 
the light represent a single unit floating over an 
area equal to the motion picture frame, including 
the sound-track. The cell is a new type peculiarly 
fitted for this use. The light source is the ordinary 
lighting supply stepped down and controlled by a 
unique electrical system. The most violent line varia- 
tions are compensated and the light is so constant 
that the slightest deviation of the indicator is not de- 
tected. A feature of the electrical system is that 
there are no tubes employed; no storage batteries; 
no generator. The only variable in the lighting sys- 
tem is the depreciation of the filament of the lamp. 
As this becomes apparent, the reduction of light is 
compensated by a control that keeps the intensity 
up to the standard. The life. of the lamp is extended 
by being relieved of the full current except when 
making the reading of the negative, at which time 
a button is pressed, giving the full illumination, 
When the lamp becomes so impaired that it will 
not respond to the control, another is inserted in 
the socket. To this end, another lamp is always 
ready, and the connections are so designed that the 
setting of the filament is secured without undue and 
tedious adjustment. In Figure 2, the lamp house is 
shown in its proper position for reading; in Figure 3, 
it has been swung out of position to permit of open- 
ing the gate for threading the film. However, in 
threading, the film may be simply pushed through, 
and the gate opened only occasionally, just to make 
sure no dust has accumulated on the runways. 

C, Figure 3, is a slide holding a ground-glass 
screen of constant transmission value. D is a meter 
calibrated in degrees corresponding to the light 
changes of the printing machines. E is the aperture 
where the negative is measured, showing the sound- 
track slit at the upper end. E' is the pilot aperture. 



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Twelve 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 

Simplifying Color Lighting 

By William Skall 



March, 1936 




jS we simplify any photographic problem, we 
find ourselves able to think less about the 
mechanical routine of the task, and grow 
more conscious of the artistic and dramatic 
possibilities of our work. Lighting for natural-color 
cinematography should not be a problem; any color 
process must inevitably require more light than is 
usual in monochrome, but aside from this one re- 
quirement, the principal difference I see between 
the two is that in color you have far greater possi- 
bilities. 

When assigned to photograph Pioneer Produc- 
tions' "Dancing Pirate," I resolved to do everything 
possible to simplify the mechanics of the job, so that 
the possibilities offered by the Technicolor process 
and the story could be more fully realized. After 
reading the script which called for a great number 
of moonlight effects, it was felt that the mood called 
for softly pictorial low-key lightings. This in itself 
would build for simplicity; and by using light-colored 
sets, the problem would be made still more simple. 
So from the outset, it was planned to the use of light, 
neutral-toned settings, and in the extensive prelim- 
inary tests Color Designer Robert Edmond Jones and 
I made, progressively reduced the key of the lighting 
for these moonlight scenes until we were using what 
is, I believe as low a general level of illumination 
yet tried in natural-color camerawork. The results 
on the screen have so far been startlingly suc- 
cessful. The color generally is more natural — rest- 
ful rather than aggressive; and as the lightings 
grew more simple, it has been easier to balance the 
various angles of light to avoid the colorless high- 
lights and other unnatural effects which have some- 
times detracted from color scenes. In addition, the 
combination of lower keyed lighting and the light- 
toned sets has proved a tremendous aid in the prob- 
lems of lighting some of the very big stage-built 
exteriors used for the dance-numbers. 

But it is in the field of effect-lightings, I think, that 
the combination of low-key lighting and light sets 
pays the biggest dividends. Nearly half of the scenes 
call for night-effect lightings, and thanks to the com- 
bination of light sets and an improved dye-balance 
evolved by the Technicolor laboratory, we have been 
able to reduce the light-level of the night-effects to 
an incredibly low average. 

Now there is more than one way of photograph- 
ing night-effects in color. Some of the cameramen 
favor the use of more or less exaggerated cross-light- 
ings, with a rather general use of blue gelatine to 
suggest moonlight. Personally, I haven't been able 
to visualize night scenes made this way as being 
natural. Real moonlight gives a soft lighting, mostly 



from overhead, with soft, luminous and highly pic- 
torial shadows. And it isn't aggressively blue. 

We have been able to duplicate this effect per- 
fectly by simply taking advantage of the natural 
color-differences betwen the light-sources we have at 
hand. For our day lightings, we use Mole-Richard- 
son twin-arc broadsides and overhead "scoops" for 
our general illumination; these units are inherently 
balanced to give a strongly white beam, closely 
comparabley to sunlight. Our spotlighting is done 
with the same firm's new "H-I-Arcs" and "Ultra-H-I- 
Arcs," and some of the older 36" SunArcs. All of 
these are high-intensity arcs, and give a light which 
has just enough of a faint bluish tinge so that for 
day effects we use light straw-colored gelatin screens 
to whiten the beam. 

Using these high-intensity units without the gela- 
tins — "raw", so to speak — we get a light which, in 
low-key effects, precisely duplicates the steely blue- 
gray of natural moonlight. So for our night effects, 
we light the set with unfiltered "H-I-Arcs" and Sun- 
Arcs, striving for the picturesque shadow-effects from 
foliage and balconies. The same units, of course, 
take care of modelling the players. As a fill-in light, 
to keep the shadows luminous, we use a few diffused 
"scoops" overhead, and a very few, well-diffused 
broadsides on the floor. Since the whiter light from 
these units is kept in a low key, and used simply to 
fill in the shadows partially, the difference in color 
is not noticeable, and is really an advantage. At 
times, our shot may call for an occasional trace of a 
more obviously bluish light here and there, to ac- 
centuate the moonlight illusion. This is done by sim- 
ply slipping a blue gelatin onto one or two of the 
high-intensity units overhead, so that we get a few 
bluish catch-lights outlining the set or players. 

Getting our moonlight effects this way simplifies 
the matter of getting the warmer tones of lamplight 
coming from within houses, or from street lamps. 
And again, we have a variety of effects available if 
we take advantage of the natural characteristics of 
mazda light-sources. Normal incandescent lamps 
will give a definitely warm yellow-orange light in 
Technicolor. The familiar reflector sunspots give the 
most strongly ruddy glow; the more efficient Mole- 
Richardson "Solarspots," while still warm-toned, 
give a far less ruddy effect. Playing these two fa- 
miliar sources against each other and against the 
steely blue-gray of our arc-moonlight, we have al- 
most every type of colored lighting needed for nor- 
mal effects — and all without having recourse to the 
as yet barely explored (and therefore undependable) 
technique of using colored gelatins. 

(Turn to Page 24) 



Pending powoe" 



MAX FACTOR'S 

N E W 

LIQUID FOUNDATION 

A REVELATION IN FACIAL MAKE-UP 



March, 1936 The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Thirteen 



EASTMAN 

Super X 

PANCHROMATIC 
NEGATIVE 



Has No Equal — 
— No Superior! 



J. E. BRULATOUR, INC 

DISTRIBUTORS 



Fourteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 



Arc Lamp Designers Are Rewarded 



By Donald Ash by 



Patient work by arc lamp designers has removed 
the last obstacle which might prevent the general 
adoption of arc lighting equipment especially adapt- 
ed to the rigid requirements of modern sound picture 
lighting. A glance at the final result of these labors 
reveals the fact that modern arc design has been 
greatly influenced by prevailing incandescent lamp 
construction, in fact, the characteristics of lightness, 
quietness and general performance are so identical 
that any incandescent may be removed from its po- 
sition and a modern arc lamp substituted and no 
one on the set will be aware of the change other 
than the fact that it is now illuminated by a more 
intense light of beautiful photographic quality. 

Engineering work of a high order extending over 
a period of years and prosecuted with great pa- 
tience is summed up in the few words of the above 
paragraph, but the results upon the motion picture 
industry promise to be of far-reaching benefit. The 
introduction of this new light may mark the begin- 
ning of a great change in lighting conceptions and 
practice. 

With the advent of sound, silent lighting was re- 
quired. Because there were no silent arcs it became 
necessary to adopt incandescent lighting; then with 
the entire studio attention focused upon the produc- 
tion of sound only, incandescent lighting became the 
practice. 

Photography became secondary, and the cam- 
era man was left to struggle with a lighting medium, 
the deficiencies of which have tied his hands even 
to the present. Robbed of his greens and blues, he 
has unceasingly struggled to secure the magnificent 
results of which his panchromatic film stock was 
capable had he been permitted the use of a light 
source which embraced the color range of sunlight. 

So suddenly was sound adopted that arc manu- 
facturers could not on the instant produce a mech- 
anism silent enough for the new sound pictures. 
Also with the adoption of panchromatic film, a new 
quality of light for use on the sound stage was re- 
quired which differed radically from the light of any 
arc available at that period. 

With these obstacles to overcome we cannot 
wonder that the arc lamp manufacturers folded up 
and incandescent lighting, with all its drawbacks, 
adopted as an expediency, became entrenched as 
standard. 

Panchromatic film, with its excellent reproduc- 
tion of color rendition, with exterior sunlight expo- 
sure, suffered serious handicaps when it went in- 
side the sound stage, lighted by a medium which 
had been robbed of its greens and blues. There- 
fore, we find cameramen in an odd situation of 
being required to use a lighting medium over- 
abundant in red, yet when he needed hard-light 
having arc to use the older forms of existing arc 
lighting equipment, which is known to be equip- 
ment so over-abundant in blues as to be equally 
disastrous to good photography. 



It is not surprising then that the realization of 
this situation has inspired someone with the desire 
to supply the cameramen with a light whose qual- 
ity should cover the range of their photographic 
color requirements and which should abolish those 
limitations existing in the only light equipment to 
which they had access. 

Needless to say, the successful conclusion of this 
effort could only be accomplished by a due regard 
for the merits of existing lighting practice combined 
with an earnest attempt to introduce improvements 
in both the mechanism and light quality, which 
should be in perfect keeping with not only the light- 
ing man's daily practice, but also the cameraman's 
present technique, and yet not neglecting the other 
factors of photography, such as scenic color 
schemes, make-up ,etc. 

The introduction of this new lighting medium 
and the benefits to the industry are immediate and 
profound. Released from the constant struggle to 
balance photography against a refractory medium 
of lighting, a cameraman finds a natural color 
scheme unfolding. By balancing the color at the 
source a natural balance of costume, make-up and 
color schemes results. 

We may say that for the first time the excellent 
results of exterior lighting may be secured for pan- 
chromatic film indoors upon the sound stage. Better 
photography may now be secured at less trouble 
and expense to the photographic department. It is 
better that innovations do not come suddenly. The 
incandescent lamp has become so permanently en- 
trenched in studio practice that it will continue for 
some time for general lighting, but by the introduc- 
tion of this new quality light at a few strategic points 
photographic benefits may be secured without in- 
terruption to customary scenic, make-up or photo- 
graphic practice. 

Thereafter the technique of those responsible for 
color schemes of costumes, scene painting and 
make-up may be gradually shaped until the time 
when the realization of easier and better photogra- 
phy shall have been made possible by the more 
general use of arc lighting equipment. 



Attention . . . Foreign Producers! 

DE BRIE AT SACRIFICE 

New Type SUPER PARVO DEBRIE 

Ultra Silent Camera No Rlimp Necessary 

Has built in motor, automatic dissolve, pilot pins and anti- 
buckling device. Four 1000-ft. magazines — 40mm, 50mm and 
75mm lenses — Debrie friction tripod and new type Debrie 
finder. Leather-covered carrying trunk and tripod cover. It's 
the latest type equipment . . . like new! 

Thoroughly Guaranteed 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, Inc. 

723 Seventh Avenue New York City 

Cable: "Cinecamera" 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Fifteen 




A focusing hood for a still camera designed and built by Ceo. N. Ball for Milton Gold; in use at 

Warner Brothers. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE PHOTOGRAPHIC 
POSSIBILITIES OF POLARIZED LIGHT 

F. Tuttle and J. W. McFarlane. J. Soc. Mot. Pic. 
Eng. 25: 69-78, July, 1935. The introduction of an 
efficient plane polarizing sheet material in sizes 
large enough to cover lenses and lights has made 
simple the use of polarized light in photography. An 
Eastman Pola-screen, incorporating this material, 
over the lens, allows unusual sky effects, photograph- 
ing obliquely through glass and water without re- 
flectors, and photographing other surfaces obliquely 
to show surface detail. When the subject is illumi- 
nated through larger Pola-screens, in addition, com- 
plete control of gloss results. Faces so photographed 
can appear unnaturally perspiry, or devoid of all 
luster, depending upon the camera Pola-screen posi- 
tion. Reflections from animation cells can be greatly 
reduced, and photographing any small subject that 
presents a reflection problem is quite simple. Vari- 
ous trick lightings and color effects are also attain- 
able. — Kodak Research Laboratories. 



BARLEBEN TO N. Y. I. OF P. 

Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F. R. P. S., internationally 
known as a writer on photographic subjects, an 
authority on the miniature camera and an expert in 
all lines of photography, has resigned his position 
with E. Leitz, Inc., New York City, manufacturers of 
the Leica camera, to assume the position of dean of 
the New York Institute of Photography, 10 West 33rd 
Street, New York City. 

The International Photographer congratulates 
both Mr. Barleben and the Institute upon the new 
connection. It is certain to prove of mutual benefit 
and this applies also to the patrons of the Institute. 

Mr. Barleben has also but recently undertaken a 
broadcast over Station WHN, New York, a 30-minute 
program, "Behind the Lens," already a success. 



CINECAMERAFORNIA 

| William Kislingbury, cameraman, ex-soldier 
flyer, film editor, lab man, etc. and a loyal member 
of Local 659, I. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. O., departed 
February 12, for Detroit, Michigan, where he has ac- 
cepted a position with one of the biggest concerns 
in the field of industrial photography. Mr. Kisling- 
bury will continue to write "Cinecamerafornia" for 
International Photographer and later will write some 
interesting articles on industrial photography in pro- 
duction. — Editor's Note. I 



THE RECRUDESCENCE OF "OTTO" 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Boyle arrived in Holly- 
wood on St. Valentine's Day from almost a year's 




sojourn in Manila, P. I., where Mr. Boyle has been 
associated with Mr. Paul Perry, another Hollywood 
cameraman located in the Pearl of the Philippines. 

The Boyles arrived on a Dutch steamer and they 
are settling down in Hollywood where both have 
formerly been at home and have a host of friends. 
They were married in Manila last fall. 

Mr. Boyle, especially, is of international fame 
because of his comic feature published for several 
years in International Photographer under the title: 
"Out of Focus" and under the By Line, "Otto Pho- 
cus." Every cameraman on earth knows this feature 
and some day Mr. Boyle may consent once more to 
parade "Otto's" talents before his many admirers. 



A CORRECTION 

Kinema Krafts Kompany, through an oversight 
in their copy for the advertisement which appeared 
in our February issue, neglected to state that the 
35 mm Eastman Super X they are offering at 2V2C 
per foot is short ends. The correction has been made 
in their advertisement in this issue. 



SCENARIOS READY TO FILM 

Amateur Cinema League, Inc., publishers of 
Movie Makers, announces the publication of a new 
thirty-two page booklet issued by their Continuity 
Department of "Scenarios Ready to Film." In it there 
are four stories ready to film. These booklets consti- 
tute a service not available elsewhere for such a 
price. It is free on request of members of the Ama- 
teur Cinema League. This activity of James W. 
Moore is a most admirable and useful work. 



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Sixteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 




The Flexible Screen- 
By FRED WESTERBERC 

Technical Editor International Photographer 





No. 2 Screen Proportion 3x5. This still by Mr. Elmer Fryer allows I 
people in a group, clearer expression and greater effectiveness to the screen 



ELM 

arger 



GORMAN A. CHARLES. SIGNAL CORPS U. S. ARMY 

No. 1. 1x2 Screen Proportion. Here is a shot from the facile camera of Sergeant Gorman A. Charles, Signal Corps 
of the United States Army. This picture illustrates a type of scene for which the wide screen is particularly appro- 
priate. 

Who can forget the 
tumult over wide 
screen pictures that 
arose in the late 
twenties, waxed fev- 
erishly f o r awhile 
and then suddenly 
died? Now, it is just 
barely possible that 
with confidence and 
optimism returning 
to the land, some- 
thing may be done 
in the near future to 
revive this ailing 
giant, the wide 
screen. 

Before such activ- 
ity gets under way it 
may be well to take 
stock and observe 

just where we stand. Let us ask ourselves a few 
pertinent questions. What, for instance, do we 
hope to achieve by using the wide screen? What 
errors have been made that we can rectify? What 
methods are indicated for attaining wide screen 
pictures? Are any of these methods feasible? 

The motives behind the development of the 
wide screen in the past can only be surmised, but 
the apparent reason was quite evidently to exploit 
the box office value of the big screen for its own 
sake. Whole productions were cast on the screen 
in this heroic mold, but the response was not as 
great as anticipated. The effect of mere size was 
like listening to a fusillade of brasses in a Wag- 
ner opera, very stirring for awhile but hardly to 
be endured for any length of time without sooth- 
ing interludes of quiet harmony by the strings and 
wood-winds. 

The logical conclusion to be drawn is simply 
this, that a motion picture production to be effect- 
ively presented in all its moods should not be all 



wide screen. In fact it 
would be better if it 
were not all shown on 
the normal screen 
either. The ideal screen, 
in other words, would 
be flexible in order to 
make use of the most 
suitable screen propor- 
tion at any one point in 
the story. 

The bulk of the scenes 
perhaps would be serv- 
ed best by the normal 
screen. The problem in 
most cases is one of 
height rather than 
width. In order to read 
facial expressions the 
heads must be as large 
as possible without cut- 
ting off vital ac- 
tion near the 
bottom of the 
picture. That is 
the reason why 
tables a nd 
desks are so of- 
ten raised and 
put on blocks 
for the close 
shots. 

On the other 
hand, as the 
distance from 
the subject is 
increased, t h e 
point is usually 
reached where 
the problem be- 



ER FRYER 

heads of 



comes one 
obtaining 



of 
as 




March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



Are We Coming to It? 



much width as possible 
as far as the set is con- 
cerned without dwarf- 
ing the actors. A typical 
example of this kind of 
a scene is one in which 
two people at opposite 
ends of a table must be 
included in the picture 
at the same time. Such 
a scene to my mind 
would be greatly im- 
proved by the use of 
about a 3x5 screen pro- 
portion, which would 
permit the camera to 
be moved in closer than 
would otherwise be pos- 
sible. 

Then we come to the 
spectacular episodes 
that cry out for 
the wide 1x2 
screen propor- 
t i o n. Imagine 
great displays 
of pageantry, 
battle scenes, 
revues, in fact 
any stirring ac- 
tion on a large 
scale presented 
in full orches- 
tration on such 
a screen! 

Can there be 
any doubt that 
the wide screen 
has a destiny to 
fulfill? 

But now 




No. 
of light, 
without 



ALEXANDER KAHLE 

No. 4. 1x2 Screen Proportion. A wonderful photographic shot by Alexander Kahle. It tells its own story 
and the human figures but add to it a touch of life. Only the wide screen could do justice to a scene of 
such scope and magnitude as this one. 



comes the rub. How 
are we going to ac- 
complish this desired 
advancement in 
screen technology? 

There are two prin- 
cipal avenues of ap- 
proach to this prob- 
lem. One is to work 
out a method utiliz- 
ing the present stand- 
ard 35mm. film, the 
other is by adopting 
a new and wider 
standard film. 

One way to obtain 
wide screen pictures 
by using 35 mm. film 
would be to adopt a 
projection aperture 




.VID RAGAN 

5. 3x5 Screen Proportion. David Ragan is the artist who painted this with his brush 
By using a medium wide screen proportion one is able to get the door into the picture 
having to move the camera so far away from the action. 




No. 6. 3x4 Screen Proport 
caught this bit of action. The 
for an intimate scene of this k 



DONALD MACKLNZIE 

ion (Present Standard). Donald MacKenzie 
regular screen proportion is probably ideal 
nd. 



.400x.825 of an inch 
(Fig. 1) and use a projection lens having two-thirds 
the focal length of the normal projection lens. 
The normal height of the screen would thus be 
maintained and 50 per cent added to the width. 
The screen magnification would be increased by 
50 per cent and the brightness of the picture re- 
duced about 55 per cent. 

Due to the changes required in projection, all 
sequences intended for wide screen use would 
have to be segregated in separate reels. In pho- 
tographing these sequences it would be necessary 
to compose the pictures so that they could also 
be projected in the ordinary manner, since all the- 
atres might not care to undertake wide screen pre- 
sentations under these adverse conditions. 

The answer to this method of obtaining wide 
screen pictures is obvious. A headache for all con- 
cerned. 

Another method of utilizing 35 mm. film would 
be to abandon the present standard aperture and 

(Turn to Page 28) 



Riphteen 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 



AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE SECTION 

HAMILTON RIDDEL, EDITOR 



Cine Shots Through the Compound Microscope 



By Paul R. Nelson 



(Editor's Note: Although Mr. Nelson is primarily concerned 
with scientific aspects of the microscope, the account of his initial 
experiments in Microcinematography contains much that is in- 
teresting and helpful to amateur movie makers.) 




^jgURING the dull winter months, when shoot- 
ing out of doors is not desirable, Microcine- 
matography is one form of photographic 
venture which is not only an education by 
itself, but is intensely fascinating as well to every 
lover of nature. The writer, in relating his experi- 
ence with microscopic movies, does so in the hope 
of dispelling any fearful apprehension which may 
be entertained by amateur movie makers regarding 
the idea of making a film through the compound 
microscope. For the diversion afforded by micro- 
cinematography is unlimited and bears investiga- 
tion by those movie makers who complain, "There's 
nothing left to film." 

The illustrations, shown on this page, were taken 
from a motion picture negative, filmed under the 
most simple circumstances. The equipment was 
stripped of all refinements and apparent complica- 
tions, leaving only essentials to work with. The 
microphoto apparatus was the last word in sim- 
plicity. 

Cameramen who make a specialty of filming 
wild animals usually select for their set-up some 
spot near a water hole, termed a donga, from which 
to obtain pictures. The writer concluded that, in the 
making of his "animal" film, he had something in 
common with them. He too used a "water hole" to 
secure his subjects, in this case the family fish bowl. 
A drop of water from this source contained an abun- 
dance of specimens suitable for microcinematog- 
raphy. Incidentally, it should be remarked in pass- 
ing that stagnant water taken from a puddle in a 
meadow will also reveal additional species not to 
be found in a fish aquarium. For an amoeba (a 
shapeless, irregular cell) can usually be found in 
these types of water. Tap water from city mains 
does not, as a rule, contain much material for a pic- 
ture. Therefore, if one has not already adopted a 
fish bowl hobby in his home, he may place some 
aquarium plants in a dish of gravel and water, and 
leave them there for a few days, by which time 
some form of life should be available. This is called 
preparing a culture. 

Attention must now be given to the arrangement 
of cine camera and compound microscope. There 
are different microscopes on the market, as there are 
different cameras, but all operate on the same gen- 
eral principle. The microscope objectives are the 
tiny lenses on the turret nose of the instrument, and 
the eye-piece is the ocular lens from which observa- 
tion is made possible. For microcinematographic 
purposes, the ocular lens is usually put aside. And 
the camera lens is also removed from the camera, 
as the only lens used in making the film was one of 
the small objective lenses of the microscope. 

In order to obtain a satisfactory image of a cul- 



ture, capable of filling a motion picture screen, it 
will be appreciated that an exceptionally close set- 
up is necessary to couple microscope and camera 
together. Obviously, a light-proof connection tube 
between the two instruments is required and was 
supplied. This connecting tube was attached to the 
eye-piece lens mounting of the microscope; the other 
end being recessed in the vacant camera lens 
mount. By this coupling of the two instruments, the 
image-forming light is projected vertically from the 
microscope to the film in the camera's aperture. The 
cine camera and the microscope are thus so closely 
related that the microscope becomes, in effect, an 
extension or continuation of the camera itself. More- 
over, the depth of the camera lens' recess permitted 
sufficient perpendicular action of the connecting 
tube to correctly focus the film. 

A succeeding problem was one of proper illumi- 
nation to light the field of action within the specimen 
slide. Several types of light sources were tried, but 
care must be taken to provide a "cool" light, or 
rapid evaporation of the specimen water will result. 
Readers may be surprised to learn that the greater 
part of the writer's microphoto film was photo- 
graphed by the light of an ordinary 50-watt frosted 
bulb, placed directly beneath the specimen slide. 
The bulb being about two inches away from the 
under part of the slide, there was ample ventilation, 
and there was no apparent tendency to "cook" the 
specimen being filmed. 

A very important factor in successful microcine- 
matography is critical focus. Extreme care is neces- 
sary to insure absolute sharpness of image. Remem- 
ber, the plane of action is very narrow; the actual 
depth of focus varying only about the thickness of a 
blotter. The slightest over- or under-adjustment will 
raise your flat field of focus above or below the de- 
sired plane of activity. Usually, microscopes have 
a dual control for focusing. One control brings the 
subject into focus instantly, but not critically. The 
other control obtains the final necessary delicate 
adjustment. In this connection it is advisable to 
place a thin piece of cover glass, commonly used by 
students of biology, on top of the drop of water 
which rests on the specimen slide; the cover glass 
being held in place on the carriage by means of 
spring clips. This cover glass will restrict the up 
and down movements of the specimen, and tends to 
keep them within the narrow depth of focus. 

Amateur cinematographers may encounter some 
inconvenience in clearly seeing the culture while 
centering and focusing it on the film, depending of 
course upon the type of camera being used. If you 
possess a camera with a prism focusing aperture, 
there is no more difficulty than occasioned by pro- 
fessional 35 mm. cameras. Observation of all pro- 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



tozoan life in the culture is obtained by placing an 
eye on the focusing aperture of the camera as the 
dual focusing control of the microscope is manipu- 
lated. 

Specific exposure data cannot be given, as such 
data will vary, depending upon the type of micro- 
scope lens, subject and film being used. Of the 
three microscope objectives on the turret of the writ- 
er's instrument, only two were used. Tests proved 
that with the first low power lens it was possible to 
shoot 16 frames per second and get ample exposure 
with the 50-watt bulb light source. The next higher 
power lens did not permit such exposure because of 
its slower quality. However, on "still" subjects, 
such as the cluster of egg-like material shown in the 
illustration, it was discovered that one frame per 
second gave correct exposure. Panchromatic film 
was used. Fine grain and normal speed film stock 
should be used in microcinematography. And ex- 
posure tests are the most satisfactory means to 



ture of the camera enabled one to see, there on the 
film, exactly what had been seen many times before 
through the microscope alone. Along with the old 
familiar creatures came others of great diversity in 
size and shape. It was an immediate problem to 
pick out those that would give some idea of what 
could really be accomplished in making a picture. 
Some protozoan life will challenge the utmost pa- 
tience of a photographer, due to circumstances 
which arise in the use of light, magnification and 
moderate heat. On the other hand, there are crea- 
tures easily victimized by the motion picture camera. 
The first subject of the film was a long, worm- 
like creature; held "on location" by the assistance 
of a piece of cotton fiber. It demanded its divine 
right of freedom, whipping and squirming about like 
fury. But it made a good picture. The exciting part 
of making this shot was the chance taken on the 
questionable grip of the cotton fiber, trusting the 
creature would stay "put." 




ascertain correct exposure data for your own par- 
ticular microphoto set-up. 

It will pay the movie maker well to spend a little 
time in using the microscope alone. Examine differ- 
ent sources of water (stagnant) through the instru- 
ment, and thus familiarize yourself with the crea- 
tures you are about to film. Simple conjecture will 
disclose the writer's thoughts, during this prelimi- 
nary examination through the microscope, as he 
peered into the strange acquatic world. Every cell 
movement was translated into cinematic visions, 
projected on an imaginary screen. Such are the 
ones that drive the cinematographer to work. The 
film was about to become a reality! Accordingly, 
the equipment was put together, as explained, and 
operations begun. 

The first specimen, or drop of water, placed under 
the cinemicrophoto apparatus yielded immediate re- 
sults. Merely placing an eye at the focusing aper- 



Another specimen was placed under the micro- 
scope, revealing the common Rotifer — so named be- 
cause of the rotary action of the cilia, or hairs, cir- 
cumscribing the gullet at the head of the creature. 
These fellows are symbols of industry, and are full 
of animation for the camera. However, their actions 
did not bespeak distress; they seemed quite indiffer- 
ent to the mechanical giants over their heads. Their 
locomotion can be compared to the small green 
measuring worm, often seen on the leaves of green 
plants during summer. One end of the Rotifer is 
heaved ahead and the rest of the body follows. 
Critical examination made the discovery that the 
animal traveled in reverse; the double-pointed tail 
hooked to something ahead and pulled the rest of 
the body up to it. Next the Rotifers became like 
crude telescopes, as the animal stretched out to full 
length. The cilia at the gullet moved rapidly back 

(Turn to Page 31) 



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Twenty 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHE 



R 



March, 1936 




RIGHT OFF THE REEL 



Negative Storage: When a roll of 16 mm. nega- 
tive has been processed, and by editing has been 
conformed to match a completed positive print, it 
should be safely filed away for future reference. It 
is not necessary, nor advisable, to spool negative 
film. Simply rewind it on a split-reel (see December, 
1935, issue, page 26), remove and tape end of the 
coiled film. Wrap the negative in tissue paper and 
store it in a film can. The can should be securely 
sealed by adhesive tape and the subject of the neg- 
ative inscribed thereon. 

A Magician's Trick: Stop motion, or delayed 
action in photographing, is from the cinematogra- 
pher's bag of tricks which on the screen will appear 
to emulate the intriguing feats of a magician. Sim- 
ple to accomplish, stop motion can be obtained with 
any amateur movie camera, as no special attach- 
ment — or gadget — is necessary. For example, sup- 
pose we are photographing a friend in a medium 
shot as he makes several magical "passes" before 
the camera. At a predetermined time, after record- 
ing several such "passes," command the subject to 
"freeze" — that is, stop his entire motion and remain 
so posed, at the same time cutting off the camera. 
An assistant can then place in the subject's hands a 
hat, a watch or what have you. Then the camera is 
again started and action proceeds. This operation 
is repeated several times, with variations. On the 
screen, the results are very amusing — if they were 
originally timed correctly — as the entire scene be- 
comes continuous action and your subject a regular 
magician. One word of caution: When taking stop 
motion, it is imperative that the camera rest on a 
tripod, or some other stationary support, to complete 
the satisfactory illusion of magic. 

Adhesive Tape: One of the most often used ac- 
cessories of home movie work is the w. k. but lowly 
adhesive tape. The half-inch variety will be found 
most useful. There seems no end to the uses for 
tape; to identify reels and cans, as a temporary 
editing splice, securing coiled film ends, and to tag 
scenes for editing and titling purposes. Keep a good 
supply of tape on hand. You're bound to use it 
often. 

Screens: Don't ruin the results of good movie 
making by projecting your pictures on any wall or 
bedsheet that's handy. By so doing, the beauty of 
a good movie is at once lost, and the results very 
disappointing. A motion picture is purely a matter 
of reflection; the moving images projected on the 
screen are reflected back by it to your eyes. Thus 
it becomes evident that a good, clear reflecting sur- 
face is essential to maintain and to promote all the 
beauty and deliver a non-distorted image of your 



By F. Hamilton Riddel 



pictures. Select a good screen with the same care 
and thought as you did your camera and projector. 

Care of Filters: Careless handling of lens filters 
is a habit to overcome. Each individual filter should 
have its own case. Once cleaned, avoid getting the 
filter dirty or finger-marked in handling. Clean fil- 
ters no more often than is necessary, and once 
cleaned, strive to keep them so. Excessive cleaning 
is hard on the filter glass, as in the case of camera 
lenses, and so is prolonged exposure to the hot rays 
of the sun. A good filter deserves good care. 

Use for Tinted Stock: Besides its regular use, to 
impart a "color mood" to a scene, tinted film is quite 
useful as a "signal" to cut into the beginning and 
the end of a reel of movie film. About a foot of 
green tinted film at the beginning of a reel and a 
foot of red at the end will do. In selecting a reel for 
projection, and by noticing which color appears at 
the start of the film, it is at once apparent whether 
the subject is ready for screening. As in driving a 
car, green denotes "go." While if red appears, then 
"stop" and rewind. 

Instruction Manuals: It seems no more than hu- 
man that the average movie maker so often com- 
pletely ignores the instruction manuals furnished 
with new movie outfits and accessories. That the 
same can be of inestimable value, both to a begin- 
ner or seasoned veteran, goes without saying. Yet 
it is common practice among movie makers to fum- 
ble around with new equipment, very often missing 
the fine points of a particular make of apparatus. 
Bear in mind that the instruction manual was written 
and compiled by the manufacturer, whose product 
you are about to use for the first time, and that for 
this reason the manual is authoritative. It is exceed- 
ingly well worth your time to study carefully your 
instruction manual and, through proper use, receive 
a full measure of satisfactory service from the equip- 
ment. Also, always keep in mind your cine dealer, 
who is glad indeed to render you advisory service. 
If there are any questions you have in mind after 
reading the equipment manual, don't hesitate to call 
on him. 

Stock Titles: For the movie maker desiring pro- 
fessional appearance for his film titles at a minimum 
of expense, there are available many "stock" titles. 
A few examples of this kind of title are: The Family 
Album; Our City; Vacation Memories; Spring Time; 
Home Newsreel; End of Part One; The End, etc. 
Usually these "stock" titles have fitting backgrounds 
and are also available on tinted film if desired. 
While these titles are of a general nature, they will 
add immeasurably to your movies. Moreover, many 
movie makers, who for various reasons delay titling 
a film, find the "stock" title to be valuable, though 
temporary, until such time when they get around to 
incorporating personal titles in a film subject. 

Travel Library Films: This being an age of speed, 
it is not always possible, in taking a motion picture 
camera along on a trip, to secure all the scenes of 
prominent places which we should really like to 
record. Often, too, a matter of insufficient light be- 
comes a problem which, coupled with a rigid travel- 
ing schedule, precludes all movie making. In many 
cases, disappointment in completing a travel se- 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-one 



quence may be avoided by buying library film of 
the subject missed. These library films are readily 
cut into your own personal travel record, and round 
out your entire subject nicely. 

"Filmo Topics": Containing material that is of 
timely interest to amateur cinematographers, "Filmo 
Topics" is an attractive publication of the Bell <S 
Howell Company. Special articles in the current 
issue of "Filmo Topics" include: "Shoot Them In- 
doors, Too" — containing some specific data on inte- 



rior movies, both for 16 mm. and for 8 mm. Filmopan 
film; an interesting discussion of Kodachrome 16 
mm. natural color filming; "The Evolution of a Movie 
Party" — describing an annual event in the home of 
a movie maker in planning and presenting a film 
party; together with photographs of new Bell & How- 
ell amateur movie equipment. A copy of "Filmo 
Topics" will be sent, gratis, to any user of motion 
picture equipment by addressing the Bell & Howell 
Co., 1801 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



QUESTIONS and ANSWERS 

By F. Hamilton Riddel 



i. 



How many Photoflood lamps, for making inte- 
rior movies, can be safely used on one circuit? 

Do not use more than five lamps on a single cir- 
cuit, or you may encounter fuse trouble. 

2. Are there any other precautions to observe in 
using Photoflood lamps? 

When using Photoflood lamps in ordinary home 
fixtures, bridge lamps with parchment or cloth 
shades, etc., make certain the bulbs do not come in 
contact with the shades. It is even advisable to 
keep an eye on Photoflood lamps so placed, as they 
burn at high temperatures, and if left lighted for a 
considerable length of time, scorched shades will 
result. Except for artistic lighting effects, back-light- 
ing, etc., it is far better to light your scene with Photo- 
floods in metal photographic reflectors. The effi- 
ciency of the Photofloods is enhanced three-fold and 
there is no possible danger of damage to the regular 
room lamps. 

3. Can still picture enlargements be made from 
single frames of a movie film? 

Yes, whether you are using the reversal or the 
negative-positive film system. However, the method 
for securing stills differs with each system, the nega- 
tive-positive offering the most direct. In the latter 
case, merely project the 16 mm. negative frame onto 
a sheet of enlargement paper, develop the latter, 
and your print is completed. Reversal frames re- 
quire projection onto a piece of cut film negative, 
development, then subsequent printing from the 
processed cut film negative to obtain a still-print. 

4. Is it necessary to use expensive fast negative 
film, reversal or negative-positive systems, in black 
and white cartoon work or direct title work? 

No. Ordinary positive film stock will serve the 
purpose nicely. As a matter of fact, due to its con- 
trasty characteristics, positive film used as a nega- 
tive will prove superior for this type of work. 

5. Can regular 16 mm. film be used in 8 mm. 
cameras? I note it is the same width as 8 mm. cam- 
era film. 

No. Before processing 8 mm. is identical in size 
to regular 16 mm., as you state, but the number of 
perforation holes per frame is increased. There are 
three perforation holes, instead of two, on each side 
of 8 mm. film frames. Thus regular 16 mm. per- 
forated film cannot be accommodated in 8 mm. 
cameras. 

6. In a pinch can 8 mm. perforated positive film 
be used in making 16 mm. titles? I use both outfits, 
8 mm. and 16 mm. 

Yes, though for convenience sake it is not advis- 
able; inasmuch as your titles may not frame them- 
selves automatically in the projector. Moreover, 
extreme care would have to be exercised in splicing 
8 mm. perforated film together with regular 16 mm., 
so that improper register of frame lines may be 
avoided. 



7. Is increased speed of the super-fast camera 
film its only recommendation? 

Absolutely not, although speed is the most gen- 
erally talked about feature of fast films. Of equal 
importance, unfortunately not emphasized often 
enough, is color correction. That is, the ability of 
the fast films to render faithfully, in black and white 
tone gradations, the subject as the human eye sees 
it. Other types of film, the non-Panchromatic, are 
not sensitive to all the colors of the spectrum, though 
they are none the less valuable for use in certain 
types of motion picture work. 

8. Do the darker modulations on a sound film 
track render the loudest sound volume in projection? 

No, just the opposite is true. Light modulations 
on the sound track afford loud volume, while the 
dark ones produce reduced volume of sound. 



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March, 1936 



THE SCENIC ARTIST 

(Continued from Page 3) 



filter that more nearly represents the value of the 
light used by the cameraman. Exteriors, set out of 
doors, require varied treatment, according as they 
are photographed in the warm, direct sunlight or the 
cool light reflected from the north on to the sets in 
the shade. By viewing the subject through the filter, 
the artist can easily judge whether the delicate reds 
will be too much bleached out by the selective effect 
of the panchromatic film. The same test will help in 
determining the strength and purity of the blues and 
greens. 

In order to balance these extreme effects, which 
are the result of the color sensitivity of the film to 
some of the primary tints, a neutral tint composed of 
umber and white may be dipped into, occasionally, 
and those positive tones may be modified so as to 
bring them into good photographic values without 
destroying the delight of responding to that sense of 
color inherent in all artists. 

However, there is one advantage in the monotone 
medium that cannot be overlooked. Some of the 
studio jobs are extensive propositions, and must be 
done hurriedly, requiring many artists, working to- 
gether. Consequently, if painted in color, the work 
most likely would show too great a variety of color 
schemes and as many different temperaments. It is 
not always possible to assign one man to an indi- 
vidual job. 

The most successful method provides for a series 
of tones, mixed from specific formulae. These tones 
not only harmonize the efforts of all engaged on the 
job, but furnish a standard of reference, comparison 
and practice, in general; and enable the art director 
and chief scenic artist to direct the progress of the 
work in a very accurate manner. 

As an illustration of the possibilities of the com- 
bination of the arts of the cameraman, art director 
and scenic artist, we may cite a recent picture called 
"The Music Went Round and Round," made by 
Columbia Studios and directed by Victor Schert- 
singer. One of the numbers involved a very inter- 
esting problem. 

A peculiar transformation was required — a group 
of dancers performed before a set painted in colors 
of complementary values. Under the ordinary light- 
ing, the background represented a composite design 
and the dancers were the usual types of pretty girls. 
At the proper cue a startling change was seen to 
take place. The girls turned to blondes, apparently 
wearing different costumes, and the background as- 
sumed an entirely different design. Then another 
change took place — the blondes changed to black- 
haired colored damsels with a characteristic change 
in the design of the background and costumes. 

This effect was achieved by the cameraman, at 
the proper cue, by sliding a red filter across the lens, 
creating the blondes; another position of the filter, 
and there were the colored girls, created by the blue 
section of the filter. 

To understand the effect of the filters on colors of 
the background, try the simple experiment of placing 
a red and blue stamp, side by side, upon a piece of 
white paper. Viewed through a red filter, the red 
stamp becomes invisible, and the blue stamp ap- 
pears black; viewed through the blue filter, the blue 
stamp disappears and the red stamp becomes black. 
This would indicate that a mixture of the two colors, 
commonly called purple, would be visible through 
either filter, and the degree of visibility, through the 



respective lenses, would depend upon the propor- 
tion of either color in the mixture, and the delicacy 
or intensity of the tones of the mixed tint. 

In laying out the design, the tints of those portions 
that overlapped were mixed so as to form a com- 
posite picture under the ordinary lighting. In this 
case there was a mixture of the warm incandescent 
and the cold arcs to more nearly simulate natural 
light and aid the properties of the pan film. But the 
tints were calculated, also, to be obliterated or inten- 
sified when their respective filters were interposed. 
Thus, when the red filter was interposed, the reds 
were neutralized in proportion to their delicacy or 
intensity, rendering the design worked in the blues, 
and vice versa; with the same effect on the faces and 
costumes of the girls. The makeup of the girls was 
similarly selected. 

It was a complicated problem, and Mr. Robert 
Wright, head of the scenic department, deserves 
great praise for the manner in which he directed the 
process. Each tint was carefully calculated as to 
the amount of each color it contained, and photo- 
graphic tests were made to verify their actinic qual- 
ities. Each tint was carefully identified, and during 
the painting the background was continually studied 
through the filters and corrections made here and 
there where any errors in absorption or transmission 
occurred. 

A specially designed filter was used — a 49 C. 
transmission on one end, a clear space> in the middle 
and 29 F. on the other end. 

Fifteen artists were continually at work on the 
picture. 

To realize the growing importance of the work of 
the scenic artist, one needs but visit these depart- 
ments in the various studios — especially the new 
outfit recently opened at the Warner Brothers-First 
National. 

Mr. William McConnell, head of the department, 
gives us some interesting details. 

The painting loft comprises a floorspace 40x112 
feet; two frames 30x60 feet, two 30x50 feet. They are 
raised and lowered by Westinghouse automatic elec- 
tric control — single switches move each frame, indi- 
vidually; another switch moves the two frames in 
unison, so that a great drop may be stretched over 
the two frames. The control is so accurate that there 
is not the slightest deviation in the movement of 
either frame, thereby avoiding a single wrinkle 
across the face of the drop. 

There is a special department for the painting of 




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March, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twnty-three 



WINTER MADE TO ORDER 




After reviewing the snow sequences used in 
many pictures, the technical department of Califor- 
nia Consumers Corp. conceived the idea of creating 
a large refrigerated stage where pictures of an icy 
or cold climatic condition could be realistically du- 
plicated under the exact controlled temperatures of 
specific locales. 

In furtherance of this idea the corporation con- 
verted one of the largest refrigerated buildings in 
the state into a modern refrigerated sound stage. 

Where formerly prohibitive costs and lack of fa- 
cilities made advisable the exclusion of snow or ice 
scenes an actual necessity, together with lack of 
realism except under the most favorable seasonal 
conditions, the corporation today is capable of cre- 
ating on this refrigerated stage, at a fraction of usual 
cost, any snow or ice scene using real ice and snow. 

Unusual features of this stage include a portable 
snow slinger which takes blocks of ice and pulver- 
izes them into the consistency of fine snow, and 
blows the snow on the set where it is wanted in any 
amount needed. 

This same machine is not confined to the stage, 
but may be used any place where electric power is 
available. It can literally make enough snow in one 
day to overflow nearly any stage in Hollywood. 

Other features of this stage include the supplying 

smaller pieces, such as panels, decorations, por- 
traits, etc. 

Mr. McConnell further cites a single picture, "The 
Petrified Forest," to illustrate the extent of the scenic 
artist's work. From twelve to fifteen artists were con- 
tinually at work; 26,000 square feet of canvas was 
used, and over four barrels of paint. 

In one sequence there was a purely scenic effect 
worthy of mention. A tremendous panoramic sky 
drop was painted as a transparency, to permit of the 
transition from day to evening. When lighted from 
the front with normal illumination, it appeared as it 
should, during the beauty and glory of the day. As 
the day waned, the front lights were dimmed and 
those at the back began to show through the trans- 
parency, similating the evening glow along the hori- 
zon and bringing out the silhouettes of masses of 
trees, hills and such features of the night landscape. 

The other major companies are rapidly building 
up their departments under the able supervision of 
such other artists as George Gibson, M-G-M; Charles 
B. Baker, Fox-Twentieth Century; Otto Kiekle, Uni- 
versal. 

It is needless to say, the scenic artists look with 
interest toward the development of color pictures. 



of real icicles (hanging from roofs, trees, etc.,) that can 
be broken off and eaten. These can be furnished, 
as well as the snow, in a variety of colors if wanted. 

The formation of a skating rink using real ice is 
only a matter of a few hours and any of the snow 
or ice set can be maintained in their original condi- 
tion indefintely within the refrigerated stage. 

Another item of possible interest is the carving of 
crystal ice into beautiful artistic designs that are of 
exceptional beauty when various forms of lighting 
are used, giving them the appearance of crystal 
carvings. 

This stage now makes possible the shooting of 
actual snow or ice scenes, irrespective of the time 
of year or temperature. They create their own weath- 
er to correspond with that of any section of the coun- 
try where all or a portion of the year has a cold or 
frozen climate. 

It is most desirable in scenes of cold climate to 
have the breath of animals and people visible in the 
form of vapor while surrounded with banks of snow, 
in front of buildings covered with snow, or while 
occupied in skating, skiing, sleighing or walking 
through snow. This is easily possible under the 
controlled temperature, making it as simple a matter 
in a set on the hottest day of summer, as on the cold- 
est day of winter. 

This stage is located in downtown Los Angeles 
at Seventh and Mesquite Street. 




Davidge Developing System 

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and efficient. The ideal equipment for small studio labor- 
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get superior results at low cost with the patented Roto- 
Tank processing. We also manufacture The Davidge Im- 
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replacement apron for any of the developing tanks using 
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Twenty-four 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 



MOTION PICTURE SOUND RECORDING 

(Continued from Page 7) 



sistor used should have a resistance of 600 ohms; 
and its wattage rating would not need to be over one 
watt. When the filament rheostat is adjusted to the 
correct value, five volts will be applied to the por- 
tion of the circuit across which the meter is con- 



2A5 





h^( 0pM 



6o» 



6V.AT 




A\ET£R JACK 



Fig. 4 — Meter jack circuit for d c filament supply. 

nected. This will cause the meter to give a reading of 
eight milliamperes, which corresponds to five volts 
(5/6th of ten milliamperes). 

Extending the Range of a Voltmeter 

To complete this series of formulas on meter con- 
version and range extension, it will be desirable to 
give the formula for the extension of the range of a 
voltmeter, even though such an operation is not nec- 
essary in the design of this amplifier. The external 
resistance required to extend the range of the volt- 
meter is connected as a multiplier in series with the 
meter as shown in Figure 2B. The formula to use for 
the calculation of the required resistor is given by — 
R = R (n— 1) 
x m 

where R is the required resistance of the 
— x multiplier in ohms, 

R is the internal resistance of the 
— m voltmeter in ohms (which 

may be learned by writ- 
ing to the manufacturer of 
the meter), and 
n is the scale multiplification fac- 
tor. 
If the range of a 0-100 volt voltmeter is to be ex- 
tended to 0-1000 volts, n will have a value of 1000/ 
100, or 10, and (n— 1) will be equal to 9. If a 5-volt 
voltmeter is to have a range of 100 volts, (n — 1) will 
have a range of 100 volts, (n — 1) will have a value of 



19; and if the meter has an internal resistance of 
2000 ohms, Rx, the multiplier resistance, should have 
a value of 38,000 ohms. 

In all the cases that have been stated, it is vitally 
important that the resisitors have exactly, or very 
nearly, the required resistance, as otherwise the 
readings of the meter would be incorrect. And 
likewise it is important that the resistors be of 
high enough quality so that they will not vary appre- 
ciably in value with time and with changes in atmo- 
spheric conditions. If any sort of accuracy is de- 
sired with this meter, it is advisable to buy the high- 
est grade resistors obtainable. 

An even better meter for this purpose than the 
0-10 milliampere meter described here, but a more 
expensive one, is a 0-1 milliampere. Greater accur- 
acy in reading voltages may be secured with this 
meter since it places less load on the voltage source 
under test. The internal resistance of most high- 
grade meters of this range is about 27 ohms. The 
formulas given previously apply equally well to this 
meter, remembering, when using the formula, to con- 
vert it to a voltmeter that the full-scale reading of 
this meter in amperes is 0.001 ampere. 

Plate Meter Serves As Overload Indicator 

When the milliammeter is connected in theplate 
circuit of any of the tubes (Jl, J2, or J3), it serves not 
only as an indicator of the plate current taken by the 
tube but as a check for tube overloads. There should 
be no movement of the meter pointer from the posi- 
tion indicating normal plate current when the micro- 
phone is spoken into if the tube is functioning prop- 
erly (as a true Class A amplifier); but if the tube is 
being overloaded by too great a grid voltage swing, 
the meter pointer will move erratically when speech 
current is fed to the tube. 

In cases where the meter pointer varies during 
the operation of the amplifier, it is most likely to be 
due to incorrect voltages being applied to the tubes, 
particularly the bias voltage in the grid circuits. If 
the voltages are found to be up to normal value, the 
trouble usually can be corrected by reducing the 
speech current applied to the input of the amplifier. 
This may be accomplished by varying the volume 
control potentiometer in the grid circuit of the first 
amplifier tube. 

It was impossible to complete the discussion of 
this basic amplifier and its related circuits in this 
chapter, but the next installment will describe an im- 
proved amplifier circuit designed to operate entirely 
from an alternating current source. Plate and grid 
filtering circuits will be discussed; and the design of 
a high-power amplifier to be coupled to the output 
of this basic amplifier will be described. 



SIMPLIFYING COLOR LIGHTING 

(Continued from Page 12) 



The range of effects is really surprising. For ex- 
ample, one of our tests showed a waist-length figure 
of a man in a flat Mexican hat standing in the moon- 
light. Under the hat, his face was in a deep but 
luminous shadow, while a strong beam of moonlight 
lit up the lower side of half his face. Two diffused 
M-R Side arcs took care of the front-lighting, filling in 
the shadow just perceptibly; a single High Intensity 
arc spot on the lamprail overhead provided the key 
high-light. You could hardly have lit the scene more 
simply in black-and-white, though of course mono- 
chrome would permit smaller units. 



It should naturally be understood that what we 
have been doing in this picture is by no means the 
idea of any one individual, but the result of combin- 
ing the thought and experience of many experts in 
the fields of color-design, art direction, illuminating 
engineering, and color-printing. Our lighting tech- 
nique has evolved in the natural progression of the 
many cameramen who have photographed Techni- 
color during the past sixteen years. Since the 3-color 
process has been in use, Technicolor's control sys- 
tem has kept scientific record of every technical de- 
(Concluded on Page 31) 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Tiventy-five 



George E. Browne, President, I. A. T. S. E. and 

M. P. M. O. 



George E . 
Browne, president 
of the I.A.T.S.E. 
and M.P.M.O., ar- 
rived in H o 11 y- 
wood recently for 
a sojourn of sev- 
eral weeks in Cal- 
ifornia. 

Mr. Browne is 
greatly in the pub- 
lic eye just at pres- 
ent, due to his 
startling coup 
which brought 
about peace 
among the war- 
ring elements in 
the I.A.T.S.E. and 
M.P.M.O., in cer- 
tain theatres of the 
Middle West and 
in the major studios of Hollywood. 

Since Mr. Browne took things in hand the labor 
horizon has entirely cleared in Hollywood and he 
will depart from here having won the respect of 
of every man with whom he came in contact. 




He merits in every way what was said of him 
after his election to the presidency of the I.A.T.S.E. 
of the United States and Canada: 

"Too much cannot be said in praise of the new 
president. He is a thorough Union man and a mas- 
ter of the principles of Unionism. He particularly 
understands the problems of the great organization 
of which he has the honor to be the head and those 
who know him will say that he not only understands 
the problems, but that he has the courage, ability 
and wisdom to solve them. 

"He is firm; he is absolutely trustworthy. He is 
loyal to the body over which he presides and de- 
mands loyalty in return. President Browne, though 
a man of vision and firm in his judgments, is never- 
theless a diplomat and his reputation for fair dealing 
has done much to bring him the great popularity he 
enjoys. 

"Moreover, the new executive is a man of action 
and ideas and he does not wait for anybody to take 
the initiative. In brief, he goes and he gets." 

All of this and more was justified by his recent 
coup and THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 
is glad to add its plaudits to those of the thousands 
who have known and appreciated Mr. Browne all 
his life. 



ROYALTY IN 

Peverel Marley, director of photography on Pick- 
ford-Lasky's "One Rainy Afternoon," says he is the 
last of the Peverels. That may not mean much to the 
average person; but it is sure to interest him who 
knows his Sir Walter Scott — particularly the story 
"Peveril of the Peak." 

The opening sentence reads: "William, the Con- 
queror of England, was or supposed himself to be, 
the father of a certain William Peveril, who attended 
him to the battle of Hastings, and there distinguished 
himself." 

If the novelist is correct that makes Cameraman 
Marley a descendant of "the Conqueror" — a blue- 
blood of the first rank. And quite a distinction for 
Pickford-Lasky to have a man of such antecedents 
on the producing staff of its initial production. 

"I never paid much attention to the old family- 
tree," said Peverel Marley on the set at United Art- 



HOLLYWOOD 

ists, the other day, "until I saw a copy of Scott's his- 
torical novel, a while back. I bought it because of 
the similarity of the spelling of the name of the hero 
and my first name. It came to me through my mother. 

"After reading the story, I made some inquiries 
and found that the family had credentials linking us 
up to the historic Peverils of England. The spelling 
of the name was changed years ago, the 'i' becom- 
ing 'e' in the last syllable." 

Peverel Marley belongs to cinematography's 
royalty in Hollywood, being right up at the top, 
among the ace cameramen. He is fascinated by the 
pictorial possibilities of "Peveril of the Peak," and 
says he hopes some day to have a hand in bringing 
the story of his illustrious forebear to the screen. "For 
the last of the Peverils that wouldn't be such a bad 
gesture," Marley remarked. "Maybe I can talk Pick- 
ford-Lasky into it." 




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Twenty-six 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 



PHOTOGRAPHING IN COLORS 

(Continued from Page 9) 



pended on under the particular circumstances which 
the photographer works. 

The procedure for the dye imbibition consists of 
"transferring" the primary color images in a manner 
that is not unlike the system employed in making 
color pictures by the printing process in which a 
cut is coated with ink and pressed in contact with 
paper. An imbibition matrix, which corresponds to 
the printer's cut in the printing process, must be 
first made from each of the separation negatives 
and then superimposed over each other on a final 
support which is subsequently dyed and "laid-on" 
a sheet of gelatine coated paper. This is done for 
each of the primary colors, if a three color process 
is used or green-blue and orange-red for two colors. 

For making the matrix the best results are being 
obtained with the "wash-off" relief film made by the 
Eastman Kodak Company which is made specially 
for the purpose and may be obtained directly along 
with directions from their Service Department. The 
company also sells a set of three color dyes which 
give good color renderings, although some workers 
have found difficulty in getting the dyes to work. 

The "acid" dyes obtained from Bachmeyer and 
Company, New York, such as Azo Rubine for the 
red and Patent Blue for the blue-green, have been 
found satisfactory. If difficulty is found working the 
Azo Rubine alone Metanil Yellow may be added. 
It is well to remember that the red dyes will bleed 
if the solution is not acid enough or not transfer at 
all if too acid. 

If three color separation negatives are used Acid 



The 

SENIOR 
Solarspot 





The Perfect Photographic Light 



For Black 'and 'White or 
Color 



MOLE-RICHARDSON, Inc, 

941 No. Sycamore Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
Cable "Morinc" 



Fuchsine for the magenta or red printer, Patent Blue 
for the cyan or green-blue, and Tartrazine for the 
yellow, may be tried. 

The matrices are made as positives on the 
"wash-off" stock, dried, and then dyed. After dye- 
ing they are washed back to the density desired or 
required for the contrast in the separation negatives, 
and then again dried before transferring. In trans- 
ferring, the red, then the yellow, then the blue ma- 
trix is laid in register one after the other on a sheet 
of smooth surface gelatine coated stock that has 
been previously fixed. Five minutes should be re- 
quired for each transfer. A solution of slightly aci- 
dulated water is flowed between matrix and final 
support, which facilitates the transfer. 

The registration is accomplished by clipping the 
final support and the matrix together with a sheet 
of celluloid inserted between so the two do not con- 
tact until registration is complete. The matrix is 
lifted after the registration is complete, the celluloid 
removed and the transfer solution poured on, after 
which the matrix and support are squeezed together. 
Five minutes under five pounds pressure should be 
required for transfer. By lifting one corner of the 
matrix, the progress of the transfer may be observed. 

For the photographer who wishes to work with 
the Trichrome Carbro and Autotype processes, the 
Belcolor, Dufaycolor, Dyebro, Duxochrome, Koda- 
chrome home-movie, Pinatype, or other commercial- 
ly available processes, information and printed cir- 
culars, may be obtained from George Murphy, Inc., 
57 East Ninth Street, N. Y. 

All of these processes have been worked success- 
fully. 

Color photography is fascinating, and it is a 
question of a short time before it will be more wide- 
ly adopted; however, there is nothing simple about 
it and a photographer can not expect to get good 
color working the kitchen sink or just with a casual 
interest in the subject. It takes patience and study, 
and it is advisable for the beginner to start with a 
simple process and learn, thereby avoiding dis- 
couragement. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND COLOR REFERENCES 

WALL, E. J., "The History of Three-Color Photography," pub. 
American Photographic Publishing Co., Boston, 1925, in which 
may be found a very good survey of all the color processes. 

"A Glossary of Color Photography," Journal of the oSciety of 
Motion Picture Engineers, May, 1935, Vol. XXIV, Number 5, 
Page 432. 

Cassell's Cyclopaedia of Photography, Pub. Cassell and Com- 
pany, London. 

Reg, O., "Byepaths of Color Photography," Lund and Humphreys, 
Inc., London, reprint by E. P. Dutton and Co., New York. 

"The Photography of Colored Objects," Pub. Eastman Kodak 
Company, in which may be found information relative to the 
principles of filters and the making of the negatives. 

"Tinting and Toning cf Eastman Positive Motion Picture Film," 
Eastman Kodak Company, has information about metallic 
tones. 

Johnson, G. L., "Photography in Colors," pub. George Routledge 
& Sons, Ltd., 1914. 

Dufaycolor Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y., supplies a booklet 
regai ding this color process. 

Von Huebl, "The Theory of Three Color Photography," Penrose 
& Co., London. 

Koenig and Jacobsohn, "Die Praxis der Farbenphotographie," 
Union Deutsche Verlagsgessellschaft, Berlin. 

Chancellor, Philip M., "Still Photography in Natural Colors," 
American Cinematographer, October, 1935, page 422. 

"Polychrome Process of Color Photography," Frederic E. Ives, 
1753 North Fifteenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., in which may 
be found concise directions and explanations of the poly- 
chrome process. 

(Turn to Page 29) 



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March, 1936 The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Twenty-seven 



WELL-NAMED 



SUPER X ... as unusual as it sounds, and 
well-named too. For it passes superlatively 
excellent photographic quality on to the 
screen. Producers, exhibitors, the public . . . 
everyone benefits. No wonder that camera- 
men choose Super X Film for the majority 
of the big feature pictures. Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, N. Y. (J. E. Brulatour, 
Inc., Distributors, Fort Lee, New York, 
Chicago, Hollywood.) 

EASTMAN SUPER X 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 



Twenty-eight 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 



THE DENSOMETER UP TO DATE 

(Continued from Payr 11) 

It may be noted that E contains an opaque mat 
punctured with a tiny hole. E' contains an amber 
screen similarly perforated, and illuminated from be- 
low. It is just five frames removed from the one 
to be measured — not so far as to permit any per- 
ceptible change in the position of the section to be 
chosen (visually) and that to be measured. F is a 
knob which controls the scanning of the entire 
frame by freely moving in any horizontal direction. 
G is a counter for checking each scene. This per- 
mits of catching any errors in assembling the rolls — 
the failure to record one scene on the time card will 
throw the entire roll out of printing order and neces- 
sitate a reprint. The counter also aids the account- 
ing department. H is a swivel lock-joint to allow 
for shifting the light source when timing the sound- 
track. 

The upright panel at the back merely supports 
the various toggle switches and the meters for 
checking the voltage and amperage. Also may be 
seen the receptacle for the spare lamp, lying on the 
machine. 

The Operation: In setting the machine to the 
standard, as suggested by Mr. Jones (or to the taste 
of the lab superintendent) a standard negative, 
known to print on a particular exposure, is inserted 
in the machine, one frame properly adjusted in the 
pilot aperture. The densest highlight portion may 
be in the center or near edge — anywhere. The lit- 
tle knob will permit of moving the tiny aperture in 
the opaque mat, seen at E, directly over this dense 
spot, and a check of the meter will show when the 
exact spot is covered. In scanning the frame it will 
be seen that the photo-cell and energizing lamp as- 
sembly move in unison with the visual aperture. 
When the densest spot is found, the needle indicator 
is shifted, by turning a control knob at I, until it 
rests on the number known to be correct for that 
particular negative. The next move is to remove 
the negative and shove in the ground-glass standard 
and take a reading of the needle with the tiny aper- 
ture in the center of the frame. Then, a record is 
made of the number upon which the needle rests. 
This number is now the standard for future opera- 
tions. This standard may be shifted to suit any 
change in policy or quality agreeable to patron or 
superintendent, or to meet any slight variation in 
speed or quality of the different stock emulsions, or 
the various manufacturers. It likewise furnishes an 
accurate standard by which to check all departments 
of the processing. The lower part of the housing 
(Figure 1) contains the current balancing unit. 

As the photo-electric cell camera exposure meter 
has removed the timing hazard for practically all 
of the leading cameramen, the photo-electric cell 
equipped "Densometer" may be considered an ex- 
tension of this service to the laboratory man, to 
shorten his print timing operations, eliminate the 
many re-runs in the projection room for corrections, 
and effecting economy in his department. 



THE FLEXIBLE SCREEN 

(Continued from Page 17) 



THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MOTION PICTURE 

This most interesting and learned article by Earl Theisen 
will be concluded in the April issue of International Photographer. 
It is carried over from February in order to give place for Part I 
of Mr. Theisen's article, "Photographing in Color," which begins 
in this issue. "The Archaeology of the Motion Picture" was 
specially written for the Encyclopedia International Institute of 
Educational Cinematography, League of Nations. 



adopt about a .431x.868 of an inch wide screen cam- 
era aperture as a basis. The medium wide and nor- 
mal picture proportions could be obtained by matting 
in the sides (Fig. 2). 

The focal length of projection lenses would have 
to be reduced by one-third. The screen magnifica- 
tion would be 50 per cent greater than at the present 
time. No changes would be necessary, however, 
in order to show the various screen proportions, as 
the height of the frame would always be the same. 
The screen magnification would therefore be con- 
stant, as would the picture brightness. 

This method seems to be quite feasible in all 
respects except that of photographic quality which 
would inevitably suffer due to the high screen mag- 
nification required. However, as a last desperate 
effort to retain 35 mm. film, it is at least worth a trial 
in spite of the agonized cries which are likely to 
arise from the cinematographers. 

We come now to the question of actually widen- 
ing the film. Here of course is the happy hunting 
ground for cinematographers and technicians who 
see a chance to achieve their hearts' desire as far 
as the technical quality of their output is concerned. 

We realize now that 70 mm. and other gargan- 
tuan film sizes which were tried out in the boom 
days were unnecessarily large and costly to utilize 
and represented far too great a departure from the 
existing standard film to warrant the adoption of 
any one of them as a new standard film. For what 
we seek is after all a new standard film and not just 
a special film for wide screen pictures. 

It seems to me, therefore, that a more conserva- 



To The Cameraman 

A brand new photographic quality 
of light for all modern high speed pho- 
tographic emulsions, — 



SUPER X 
SUPER PAN 



SUPERIOR PAN 
CRAYBACK 



Blends perfectly with Incandescent Light, yet 
supplies the missing greens and blues. 



Ask the cameramen at Universal and Charles 
Chaplin Studios what they think of the new Ash- 
craft 30 Arc Spotlight. 



THE ASHCRAFT AUTOMATIC 
CONTROL CO. 

6729 Santa Monica Blvd. Gladstone 7303 

Night phone— CLadstone 1844 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Twenty-nine 

1.378" - —2.000' 






Fig. 1 

tive approach is indicated. As a tentative proposal 
I would suggest a film about 2 inches wide, or just 
enough to attain a 1x2 picture proportion (plus allow- 
ance for projection angle) and still retain a height of 
four sprockets (Fig. 3). 

The magnification required in projecting such a 
film would be about 15 per cent less than is needed 
to project existing pictures, which should be ample 
insurance that photographic quality would be main- 
tained and even improved. 

Since the height of both normal and wide screen 
frames would be the same, no changes would be 
required in order to project either one. The change 
from one proportion to another could be made at 
any time on the same reel of film. The same lens 
would project all scenes, therefore the magnification 
and the picture brightness would also remain con- 
stant. 

We cannot, of course, ignore the difficulties in- 
volved in making a fundamental change in the film 
size. The fact that all cameras and projectors would 
have to be replaced or rebuilt to accommodate the 
increased width between the sprocket rows is one 
great hurdle that is barring the way. Such a change, 
world wide in scope, could not be accomplished 
suddenly. There would have to be a transition pe- 
riod during which both the old and the new film 
would be used. Projectors would have to be built 
that could project either film. This requirement 
should not be hard to meet, however, if the new film 
retains the essential features of the old, i. e., the 
same sprockets, the same sound track and the same 
speed through the projector. Another requirement 
of the transition period would be to furnish 35 mm. 
prints to theatres not yet equipped to show the new 
film. 

Yes, the problem is difficult, but will it not have 
to be faced eventually? The inherent possibilities 
of the wide screen are too great and the eventual 
need of an efficient broad gauge film is so inexor- 
able that neither can be dismissed with a shrug. 
The prospect is not too remote that some particular 
group will take the initiative as usual if Hollywood 
fails to exercise the cooperative leadership which is 
expected of it in a case of this kind. 



Fig. 2 Fig. 3 



PHOTOGRAPHING IN COLORS 

(Continued from Page 26) 

"A New Principle in Colour Reproduction," by M. Robach, British 
Journal of Photography, October 7, 1932, No. 312, Vol. XXVI, 
in which may be found much valuable information about dye 
mordanting. 

Mimeographed material may be obtained from the Service De- 
partment of Eastman Kodak Company on the manipulation 
of their "Wash-Off" relief film. 

Briefs and other printed material on various processes available 
from George Murphy, Inc., 57 East Ninth Street, N. Y. 

Matthews, Glenn, "Processes of Photography in Natural Colors," 
Journal of Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Vol. XVI, No. 
2, February, 1931. Page 188. 




CAMERA b PROP 
RENTALS 

Camera Supply Co. 

1515 Cahuenga Blvd. 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Ruddy Ceraus, Manager 
CLadstone 2404 

Nite Phone CLadstone 6583 
Cable Address — "CAMERAS" 



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Thirty 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 1936 



INTERNATIONAL 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

Brings results — Rates 45 cents per line — minimum charge one 

dollar per insertion. For Rent — For Sale — Wanted — For 

Exchange, etc. 

FOR SALE OR RENT— CAMERAS 



FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell and Bell & Howell silenced cameras, 
follow focus. Pan lenses, free head, corrected new aperture. Akeley, 
De Brie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost, Willart, De Vry, Eyemo, Sept, 
Leica. Motors, printers lighting equipment. Also every variety of 
16 mm. and still cameras and projectors. B & H Cameras with old type 
shuttles silenced $150. Everything photographic bought, sold, rented 
and repaired. Send for our bargain catalogue. Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd. Phone HO. 3651. Cable, Hocamex. 

FOR SALE— CAMERAS AND EQUIPMENT 

REAL BARGAINS in 16 and 35 mm. movie equipment and still cameras. 
Newest types cameras and projectors in all popular makes. Save money 
on film, lights, lenses and all essential accessories. Our 36 years of 
experience stands back of every sale. Before you buy, send for our new 
bargain booklet. Burke & James, Inc., 223 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

REBUILT BELL & HOWELL single system camera. Complete with 
lenses, magazines, tripods, Movietone quartz shoe, 12 volt motor, ampli- 
fier, dynamic microphone, cables and cases. Motion Picture Camera Sup- 
ply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 

SILENCED BELL & HOWELL with new Fearless Movement 40 mm, 
50 mm and 75 mm F.2:7 lenses mounted. Two 1000-ft. magazines, tri- 
pod, finder and sunshade. Rebuilt like new. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc.. 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable : Cinecamera. 

SILENCED BELL & HOWELL with check pawl shuttle. 40 mm, 
50 mm, and 75 mm F.2:7 lenses mounted. Two 1000-ft. magazines, tri- 
pod, finder and sunshade. Rebuilt like new. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable : Cinecamera. 



WANTED TO BUY 



DEBRIE INTERVIEW MODELS $250.00 and $350.00, DeVry 35mm 
Cameras $65.00, Projectors $40.00 up. Holmes 35mm Portable Sound 
Projector Type 7A $450.00. 35mm Sound Recording Outfit, single or 
double svstem, complete, less batteries $750.00, Akeley Studio Camera 
$800.00. CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood. 

FOR SALE— SOUND RECORDERS AND EQUIPMENT 

LIKE NEW BELL & HOWELL 5-wav Sound Printers and Sound 
Moviolas. Reasonable price. HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANGE, 
1600 Cahuenga Blvd.. Hollywood, Calif. 

COMPLETE SOUND TRUCK with extension mixer, microphone, con- 
verter. All complete, ready for production. Write Box 208, International 
Photographer. 

ART REEVES, latest model 1935, double system sound recording in- 
stallation, factory guaranteed, Automatic Speed Control Motor, Twin 
Fidelity Optical Unit, Bomb microphone, the only genuine, modern, 
workable ArtReeves equipment for sale in Hollywood outside factory. 
CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood. 

HARDENED AND GROUND recording curved gates with adjustable 
mechanical slit, $20.00 each. J. Burgi Contner, 723 Seventh Avenue. 
New York City. 

CAMERA REPAIRING 

BELL & HOWELL cameras with old type shuttles silenced, $150. 
Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Co., 645 No. Martel Ave., 
Hollywood. 



POSITION WANTED 



DO YOU WANT A CAMERAMAN who is an expert on studio pro- 
duction ; or an expedition cameraman who knows every corner of the 
world ; or a cameraman who thoroughly understands the making of indus- 
trial pictures ; or an expert newsreel photographer ; or an expert color 
cameraman? A limited number of cameramen, backed by years of experi- 
ence, are available. Write stating your requirements and we shall be 
glad to assist you in choosing the kind of cameraman you want. INTER- 
NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Holly 
wood. 



8 MM. AND 16 MM. 



16 mm. TITLING FILM, Reversible Negative, S. S. Panchromatic. 
N. H. 9. S. Pan. with or without Processing, Reversible Data with 
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8 mm. COLOR, S. S. Panchromatic, Reversible, and Positive Palomar 
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Dup. 16 mm. and 8 mm. "Movie Making Made Easy," 50c. "How 
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WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, Mitchell, Akeley or De Brie 
Cameras, lenses, motors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECTIONIST, a monthly magazine 
published in the interests of the projectionist. Interesting, instructive. 
Yearly subscription U. S. and possessions, $2 ; foreign countries, $2.50. 
James L. Finn Publishing Corp., 580 Fifth Ave., New York. 



COMPLETE COURSE IN FLYING— Tf interested in aviation, see Roy 
Klafifki, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood. 



WANTED — To know of the whereabouts of motion picture relics, docu- 
ments, or equipment of a historical nature for Museum purposes. Write 
Karl Theiscn, care of International Photographer, 1605 Cahuenga Ave., 

1 1 oily wood. 



For the Most Authentic 
Technical Information 

About the Motion Picture 
Industry Consult — 

International 
Photographer 

Order Your Copy Now! 
$ 2 5 ° A YEAR 

IN THE UNITED STATES 



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With any Camera *" In any Ulimare 

Gcorqe H. Scheibo 

ORIGINATOR OF EFFECT FILTERS 
1927 WEST 78th ST. LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



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March, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirty-one 



RECENT PHOTOGRAPH AND SOUND PATENTS 

By Robert Fulwider 



2,025,731 — Photographic Apparatus. Ludwig M. 
Dieterich, assignor to The Dieterich Corp., New York, 
N. Y. 

2,025,862 — Illuminating Device. Gerd Heymer, as- 
signor to Agfa Ansco. 

2,026,134— Portable Talking Motion Picture Appa- 
ratus. R. P. May and H. C. Holden, assignors to 
R. C. A. 

2,026,232 — Sound on Film Recording or Reproduc- 
ing Apparatus. Hermann Joachim, Dresden, Ger- 
many. 

2,026,376 — Apparatus for Copying Goffered Film. 
S. B. Colgate, assignor to Keller-Dorian Colorfilm 
Corp., N. Y. 

2,026,478 — Lighting Device for Projection Ma- 
chines. Franz Lisintzki, Budapest, Hungary. 

2,026,660 — Film Advancing Mechanism for Motion 
Picture Apparatus. A. W. Tondreau, assignor to 
Warner Bros. Pictures. 

2,026,675 — Method and Apparatus for Controlling 
Photographic Exposures. W. A. Edwards, Santa 
Barbara. 

2,026,960 — Motion Picture Camera and Projector. 



L. E. T. Branch, assignor to Eastman Kodak Co. 

2,026,964— Film for Color Photography. John G. 
Capstaff, assignor to Eastman Kodak Co. 

2,026,984 — Film Magazine. D. F. Lyman, assignor 
to Eastman Kodak Co. 

2,027,007— Feelable Footage Indicator for Motion 
Picture Apparatus. Otto Wittel, assignor to Eastman 
Kodak Co. 

2,027,028 — Apparatus for Making Composite Talk- 
ing Motion Pictures. W. L. Douden, assignor to 
R. C. A. 

2,027,191 — Combination Projector and Sound Re- 
producer. W. J. Morrissey, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

2,027,207— Sound Picture Apparatus. E. H. 
Smythe, assignor to Bell Telephone Laboratory, New 
York. 

2,027,369 — Photographic Apparatus. Fernand A. 
Bourges, New York City. 

2,027,411— Lens Mount. Lloyd E. Whittaker, as- 
signor to Technicolor. 

2,027,520— Shutter Mechanism for Motion Picture 
Projectors. Israel Biebel, Minneapolis, Minn. 



SIMPLIFYING COLOR LIGHTING 

(Continued from Page 24) 



tail which gave us invaluable information with 
which to work. Pioneer's Color Designer, Robert Ed- 
mond Jones, and Technicolor's Color Control staff, 
were responsible not only for the light sets, but for 
determining exactly the right shade to give the ef- 
fects we needed. 

Still another fortunate link in obtaining the pres- 
ent results was the construction of the new Mole- 
Richardson Type 90 and Type 170 High-Intensity 
H-I-Arc spots. These new units have helped the color 
cameraman tremendously in obtaining more pleas- 



ing and more effective lighting. They allow a pre- 
cision in lighting which could not be obtained with 
earlier equipment. 

Add to this a company which, like Pioneer, per- 
mits time to get satisfactory light-effects, together 
with an Art Director who contributes good costum- 
ing and set coloring, and a constantly improved color 
process, and the result is bound to show on the 
screen as an improvement — but it is a combination 
of efforts on the part of many people and depart- 
ments. 



CINE SHOTS THROUGH THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE 



(Continued from Page 19) 



and forth, while the whole animal swung its body 
from side to side, pivoted at the tail, in a perfect arc. 
This gyration is a method of foraging for the crea- 
ture, as their action sets up currents in the surround- 
ing water and attracts food particles. When forag- 
ing ceases to be good, operations are set up else- 
where. Readers who have not yet watched this 
protozoan "actor" have a real treat in store. 

One's attention was next held by the perambu- 
lating Paramoecium. These fellows are straight and 
swift in their travel, and their stream-lined bodies 
make them appear as up-to-date as tomorrow's 
motor car. If any obstruction hinders their path, 
they will rotate on their body axis and make a bee- 
line elsewhere. These animals also have small 
cilia which aid them in swimming about the water. 
If one can show these minute details, such as the 
structure of the creature, your film will be all the 
more interesting. 

While studying a certain specimen, it was the 
writer's good fortune to witness actual cases of cell 
division. Some cells are bi-sexual. On one occa- 
sion a peculiar bell-shaped creature became divided 
within the short period of forty minutes. This is a 



rare sight, which fortunately was recorded by the 
camera. As this process of division takes time to 
effect, the movie maker should only expose a few 
frames at one time; use "stop motion," in other 
words. A quick full pressure on the camera operat- 
ing button, instantly released, exposes but a single 
picture. Proper timing of individual exposures pro- 
duces a film which, during projection, will re-create 
in two minutes such action as actually took an hour 
or more in reality. 

No doubt to the processing laboratory the micro- 
film was no more than a succession of meaningless 
specks and spots. But in projection, the screen 
turned into a living pool of water with the creatures 
doing their stuff beyond fondest expectations. The 
result was well worth the trouble. 

Microcinematography still remains a virgin field 
for the movie maker with an experimental turn of 
mind. There are numerous accessories for micro- 
scope and camera, if one contemplates a great deal 
of microcinematographic work, which further sim- 
plifies filming micro-movies. It is with best wishes 
for success that the writer heartily recommends the 
making of movies under the microscope. 



Please mention The International Photographer when corresponding with advertisers. 



Thirty-two 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



March, 193 



GINEMAGABONI 

(With sauce for those who like it.) 



HOLLYWOOD HONEYMOON 

(A novel navel of a thousand and one nights 
in a daze.) 

By 
R. THRITIS 

Cast of characters and synopsis of preceding 
installments, for those who mumble and mutter: 

Perriwether Murgle, press-agent for that lovely, 
luscious lulu, 

Lili Liverblossom, screen star superb, has been 
carried off across the desert to the lair of a great 
Bald Eagle named 

Willy Nilly. Willy and his wife, 

Nelly Nilly, are holding Petri captive. Lili en- 
lists the aid of 

Bill, <i ghost writer, who writes her up a ghost 
whom Lili dubs 

Potty. After a little difficulty. Lxli coaxes Potty 
to guide her in her search for Perri. They start 
off across the desert, and while resting on a 
rocky ledge, are set upon by a big buzzard, who 
ought to know better. Now jump on your push- 
bike and peddle. 

CHAPTER XVII 
On the Rocks 

"What'll we do now," cried Lili. 

"Calm yourself," said Potty. "I have an idea. 

"What do you hold it in with?" asked Lili, 
merely curious, and not meaning to be nasty. 

Potty merely jumped and clicked his heels. 
He was watching the buzzard, who in turn was 
watching Lili, licking his ugly beak, and prepar- 
ing to dash at his prey. 

"Here's looking at you," said the buzzard 
nastily, as he started toward poor Lili cowering 
on the ledge. , 

Potty could scarcely be discerned as he stood 
beside Lili. He drew in a deep breath, and im- 
mediately began to glow with a weird phos- 
phorescent light. 

"Who-o-o-o-o-o!" came a horrible, deathly moan 
from Potty, and a dank clammy chilliness filled 
the air. The buzzard stopped in his charge. 

"Well, look who's here!" cried the buzzard, 
and with a terrible screch he drove straight at 
the ghost, behind whom the rocky ledge was 
now scarcely visible. Just as he reached Potty, 
the phosphorescent glow died out as quickly as 
it had come. The buzzard flew straight for 
Potty's head, struck him— and went right on 
through! With a shriek and a crash he smacked 
into the solid rock behind Potty before he could 
even slow up, and he fell limp to the floor of 

the ledge. ... , i v v~j 

The ghost winked at Lili, jumped and clicked 

his heels. , , ,, , 

"Guess we took care of that smarty-pants, he 
said, as he picked Lili up and set out again 
across the desert, none the worse for wear. 

Meanwhile Perri was having his troubles. Nelly 
Nilly's two children had ben persuaded, alter 
some coaxing, to take a walk, and had gone out 
the back way, smirking at each other as they 

W When they had left, Nelly Nilly looked up at 
Perri, a strange light in her eyes --that is, in 
the one he could see, anyway. Mr. Murgle, 
she cooed at him, "You're such a strong silent 
man. But you can't fool me— I know you Holly- 
wood fellows. ..." . 

She was interrupted by an insistent, steadily 
mounting shrill whistle, like that of a large bullet 
on a business trip. They barely had time to look 
up when around the corner whizzed Potty the 
ghost, with Lili under his arm. He came to a 
whistling stop and set Lili down on the edge of 
the eagle's lair. Perri fell over with surprise 
(backwards, fortunately). Nelly wasn t surprised 
a bit But she was mad enough to chew nails. 

While Nelly was out loking for some nails, 
Lili stretched her slim white arms out to Pern. 
"Darling!" she cried. "Aren't you glad to see 

"Sure kid," said Perri, walking into the out- 
stretched arms, and not wasting his own either 
But to himself he was saying, Shucks, now 1 11 
never know whether I was about to be proposi- 
tioned by an eagle or whether Nelly just wanted 
to know if I could get her a job in pictures 

Then Perri for the first time took a good look 
at Potty, who was standing quietly by. 

"Who's your somewhat transparent traveling 
companion?" he asked Lili. Just then Nelly came 
back in with the two children. 

"This is Potty, everybody,' said Lili, doing trie 
right thing, more or less. "I was sure he could 
find the way here," she added to Pern, and I 
knew I would always have a way to handle 
him Wasn't I smart?" It took Perri a minute or 
two to trace out her line of reasoning. Then he 
flashed her a quick look and hastily said, Sure, 
kid." , , , __ 

Just at tho-t moment there was a yelo trom 
Mrs Nilly. "Here comes Willy." she cried, and 
he's loaded with something." And all looked out 
to where Willy could be seen in the distance, 
staggering homeward through the sky. 



{Well, wlioe do we go from here, What will 
Willy Nilly have to say, if he can talk? Will Nelly 
Nilly cause trouble? And how will Lili and Perri 
get away? Send a stamped addressed envelope and 
I'll send you the answers, plus a lot more ques- 
tions just as amazing. They'll all be published 
next month.) 



Carole Lombard went through a bad month 
■with her men-folk. George Raft walked out of 
Carole's current picture, "It Had to Happen," 
because he claimed Carole's pet lens squirter, 
Teddy Tetzlaff, gave Carole all the breaks in 
photographing her pictures. Fred MacMurray, 
who scored such a success previously as her 
team-mate in "Hands Across the Table," was put 
into the cast in place of Raft. Then MacMurray 
walked out, demanding a raise. But all is now 
quiet on the Potomac; MacMurray has his raise, 
and is back in the picture. 

Anyway Carole should worry. She still has 
that schoolgirl complexion. And Bob Riskin. 



From the current theatre marquees : 

MURDER ON A HONEYMOON 

MAN'S ^BEST FRIEND 

HERE COMES THE BAND 
and TWO SINNERS 

ANYTHING GOES 

with 

BING CROSBY and ETHEL MERMAN 

SHE COULDN'T TAKE IT 
Surprise Night 



Tsk, tsk! 



KNEECAP REVIEWS 
(Somebody stepped on my thumb) 

"MODERN TIMES," a production of, by, to, 
from ,and with Charles Spencer Chaplin. With 
its customary pathetic figure beset by antagon- 
istic forces, this time a man harnessed and be- 
wildered by the complexity and mechanization 
of these parlous times, Charlie's latest brain-child 
is nothing if not interesting. Film is an amazing 
compromise between pantomime and sound. Al- 
though a few sequences have recorded natural 
voices, production in general follows the old sil- 
ent form. After so long an absence from this 
type of treatment, the effect is almost that of an 
entirely new technique. Picture could be much 
improved by judicious pruning. Opening se- 
quence where Chaplin endlessly performs one 
single operation on a series of articles on a 
conveyor-belt, is repetitious to a point where 
laugh value is lost. Same applies to several 
other sequences. Funniest sequence in the pic- 
ture: Chaplin made the goat in trying out a new 
automatic employee-feeding device — machine runs 
amuck and practically takes stitches in the audi- 
ence. Maybe you'll prefr seguence in which 
poor Charlie picks up a red danger-flag and gets 
involved in a Communist uprising — to the tune of 
ten days in jail! 

Chaplin credited with original composition of 
the excellent musical accompaniment as well as 
production, direction, and writinq of the story. 
Is said to have composed the entire melody, bit 
by bit, on his violin. Two other fellows wrote 
the arrangement for orchestral accompaniment. 

Pic is debut of Paulette Goddard, and she's 
going to do all riqht from now on. Appears 
amazingly young, but is not photographed to 
best advantage. Less flexibility to Chaplin's face 
than in previous films. Depends more on ges- 
tures. There was little brilliance to the print I 
saw, so it is hard to comment on photography 
by Rollie Totheroh and Ira Morqan. 

Chaolin has been going ■with Goddard ever 
since he first discovered her. They've been rum- 
ored separated a dozen times lately. Few are 
even sure they were married. Certain it is that 
Paulette adores Charlie. In "Modern Times," 
Chaplin departs radically from his stock ending 
wherein a lone figure -walks forlornly toward the 
settinq sun. In the new picture, Charlie and 
Paulette walk together, heads high, down a twi- 
light road. Perhaps Charlie means to signify he 
has at last found real happiness. 

"SHOW THEM NO MERCY." They don't 
don't neither, no snh. Above-average gangster 
story with all the trimmings: murder, kidnapping, 
chases, torture, and on-spot puttings. Unless your 
heart's weak, you'll love it. Not much in the way 
of really new story angles, but some clever touches 
here and there. Cinemallurina Pochette Hudson 
badly mistreated photographically, but did all right 
personally. Cesar Romero outstanding ■ credit him 
with an excellent characterization. Bruce Cabot 
produced the nastiest heel ever portrayed. You 
positively arit your teeth with ecstasy at the end 
where little Roehellc . . . ah, but that's too good 
a secret to give away. 




"THREE LIVE GHOSTS, 
why triple it? 



Dead, all right; but 



"RIFF RAFF." Directed by J. Walter Ruben 
Anything with Jean Harlow in it is automaticallv 
okay. That's a premise. Spencer Tracy play's 
opposite Harlow. Tracy is tops as usual, though 
you do wish he could have been a fisherman 
who washed a little oftener. Plenty of unreal 
spots in the story, such as the one where Har- 
low, in prison, gives up her baby. But it's good 
entertainment, and keeps moving every minute. 

Joseph Calleia good, but a little too musicom- 
edy as the oily cannery boss. Una Merkel, in 
an insufficient role as Harlow's sister, was grand. 
We must not forget Mickey Rooney. Photography 
by Ray June, in spite of drab settings, was out- 
standing. 

"THE BRIDE COMES HOME." Latest effort of 
the glamorous Claudette Colbert; added efforts 
by Robert Young and the mushrooming Fred Mac- 
Murray. Although sprightly frippery, hardly 
worthy of the possibilities of the three clever 
youngsters around whom the story revolves. 
Difficulty lies in pushing the middle finger down 
and making the reasons come out here. Thre's 
just as much plot as there was in "It Happened 
One Night," in whose footsteps "The Bride Comes 
Home" evidently hopes to follow. There are high 
spots in the film, but too many let-downs occur. 
Too little made of the piquant beauty of Colbert, 
a couple of apples hanging on her cheeks all 
through the picture. MacMurray looked as if he 
needed a shave most of the time. William Collier, 
Sr. was false as Colbert's father. 

With all this, pic is still good entertainment. 
High point is the most hilarious marriage cere- 
mony you'll see in a "coon's age.'" Leaves you 
weak and trembling. Film is worth seeing for 
this sequence alone. 

"MAGNIFICENT OBSESSION." Etching in cel- 
luloid the evanescent spiritual quality of Lloyd 
C. Douglas's novel is seemingly impossible. Yet • 
director John Stahl creditably performs the task 
of transferring this etherial idea to the screen. 
The many poignant scenes especially are hand- 
led with a deft, masterful touch. 

When I read the cast I couldn't conceive of . 
Irene Dunne as the unfortunate wife of philan- 
thropic Dr. Hudson, or of Robert Taylor as the ; 
young philanderer who later takes up the torch 
of the famous surgeon. But casting was inspired . 
— each contributed an admirable performance. 
Robert Taylor is a newcomer that doesn't act like 
one. I'm glad I'm no girl — I couldn't sleep 
nights — gawd, but he's handsome! And maybe 
I'll have to fight my way out, but I think Miss 
Dunne gave the most realistic, withal the least 
gruesome, portrayal of a blind person I have j 
ever witnessed. 

If the film seems to start slowly, relax; it 
makes up for lost time. Arthur Treacher certainly 
does not harm as a very funny valet. Betty 
Furness and Ralph Morgan earn their salt. A 
tear falls for Charles Butterworth; one expects 
so much of him, perhaps. The whistling-among- 
the-sewer-pipes scene is the only thing worthy 
of Charlie. 

Bring all the handkerchiefs you got for Christ- 



HOLLYWOOD, by The Shovel Boys. (They 
dish the dirt.) * * * Arthur Treacher having a fine 
time one day at the races at Santa Anita. He was 
doing his betting from the bar — and most of Ins 
bets were across the board. It was his first day 
off in months. His chief worry these days is that 
he competes with Edward Everett Horton and 
Charlie Ruggles for lauqh honors in the 1 
Dairies pic, "Hearts Divided." * * * Marian Marsh 
had her appendix kidnapped recently at the Good 
Samaritan Hospital, and is now recovering nicely 
at home, thank you. * * * Fay Wray recently re- 
turned from England (Fay practically commutes 
t'esc days) and jumped riqht into Columbia s 
"Roaming Lady" with Ralph Bellamy. * * * inci- 
dentally, Ralph left lor New York on February 
25th, to start a series of personal appearances. 

* * * Vince Barnett handing out tips at the races. 
People betting on his advice. They fornot he is a 
professional ribber. Hii horse did NOT come in. 

* * * Hard luck for Eleanor Powell. She tapped 
the stream of fame and fortune, and then collapsed. 
She is recovering from a nervous breakdown in a 
Xiw York hospital. * * * And now Vcloz and 
Yolanda, famous dance team, are running a con- 
test to discover new dance teams. And then the 
dancing craze will fizzle out, leaving these couples 
high and dry. * * * Bctte Davis was seen m Public 
several times recently with a peach of a black eye. 
Her husband didn't 'give it to her- one of the em- 
ployees at Warner Bros. Studio was responsible— 
a make-up man. in fact. Bctte was wearing it for 
her current picture, "Golden Arrow:" -</"„'"» 
Treacher plays in that too, the busy fellow. 



iR. ART REEVES. 

645 NORTH KARTEL AVENUE, 

LOS ANVrLFS. CALIFORNIA. 





EXCLUSIVE < 

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WOftKv fop. • • • 

CupfMie Cuppun 



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in [HoDefsn Time5 

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FOPs TH6IIS PHOTOGhfiPHy 



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CONSOLIDATED FILM INDUSTRIES, Inc. 



1 



HOTOGRAPHER 



li YEAR 



HOLLYWOOD 



APRIL 1936 



VOL. 8 
No. 3 




3ENTS 
\ COPY 



CHARLES RHODES 

"THE OLD MAESTRO HAS GOOD CAUSE TO SMILE" 

Hal Mohr, Ace Cinematographer and Director of Photography at Warner Brothers, is congratulated by 

his wife, the famous Evelyn Venable, on winning the Academy Award for Cinematography. Mr. Mohr 

has long been a bright light as a motion picture cameraman and among his many honors is that of 

President of Local 659. I. A. T. S. E. 4 M. P. M. O. 



IOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 




An event eagerly awaited for five 
years— the World Premiere of Charlie 
Chaplin in "MODERN TIMES"— turns 
Broadway into a struggling mob of 
thousands eager to be the first to 
acclaim the world's greatest comic. 

In every portion of the globe the name 
of Chaplin means box-office magic, 
for his actions speak every language. 



Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation 



35 WEST 45™ STREET 
NEW YORK CITY 

PLANT • • • PARUN, N. J. 



SMITH & ALLER LTD. 

6656 -SANTA MONICA BLVD. 

HOLLYWOOD, CAL. 



n 



Open Wide that Golden Gate! 



a 




An infra-red taken from Pylon S-l showing the great fender wall surrounding the San 

Francisco tower and the footbridge walks with the completed storm system underneath. 

Through the deck level of the tower may be seen the footbridges reaching out to the 

Marin tower, 4200 feet away. 



INTERNATIONAL 
PHOTOGRAPHER 

MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 



Vol.8 



HOLLYWOOD, APRIL, 1936 



No. 3 



Publisher's Agent, Herbert Aller 

Silas Edgar Snyder, Editor-in-Chirf 

Earl Theisen and Charles Felstead, Associate Editors 

Lewis W. Physioc, Fred Westerberg, Technical Editors 

Helen Boyce, Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication Dedicated to the Advancement of Cinematography in All 

Its Branches; Professional and Amateur; Photography; Laboratory and Processing, 

Film Editing, Sound Recording, Projection, Pictorialists. 



CONTENTS 

Cover Still by Charles Rhodes 

Frontispiece by our newsreelers at San Francisco 

WANDERING WITH THE LEICA 3 

By Hansena Frederickson 
BROADCAST STUDIO PHOTOGRAPHY 4 & 5 

By Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F.R.P.S. 
THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES 6 

By Jo/in G. Bradley 
EASTMAN NEW CINE-KODAK CAMERA— 16mm. ... 8 

(Contributed) 
INTENSITY OF SUNLIGHT UNDER SEA 9 

By Paul R. Harmer 
LENS APERTURES VERSUS PRINTER POINTS - 10 

By Peter Parnell 
AVALANCHE OF COLOR ON THE WAY ----- 11 

(Contributed) 
PHOTOGRAPH AND SOUND PATENTS ----- 12 

By Robert Fulvjider 
MOTION PICTURE RELIEF FUND 14 

By the Executive Vice-President 
M-R TO MANUFACTURE IN ENGLAND ----- 15 

By Wm. Stull 
THE EVOLUTION OF THE MOTION PICTURE STORY - 16 & 17 

By Earl Theisen 
AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE SECTION - - - 18 & 19 

By F. Hamilton Riddell 

"Tinting Home Movies" 

Right Off the Reel 

Questions and Answers 
ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MOTION PICTURE - 25 

By Earl Theisen 
PRODUCTION USE TESTED— THE "ULTRA H. I. ARC" - 26 

By Elmer C. Richardson 
A STILL FROM "DANCING PIRATES" ----- 27 

By William Thomas 
A VOICE FROM NIPPON— AN INTERVIEW - 28 

By Harry A. Mimura 
"HEAR! FOREIGN TECHNICIANS!" 29 

By Philip Tannura 

CLASSIFIED 30 

CURRENT PRODUCTIONS IN COLOR ----- 31 

By Silvio del Sarto 
CINEMACARONI - 32 

By Robert Tobey 

Entered as second class matter Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, 
California, under the act of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright 1935 by Local 659, I. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. O. of the United States 

and Canada 

Office of publication, 1605 North Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, California 

GLadstone 3235 

James J. Finn, 1 West 47th St., New York, Eastern Representative 

McGill's, 179 and 218 Elizabeth St.. Melbourne, Australian and New Zealand agents. 

Subscription Rates — LTnited States, $2.50; Canada and Foreign $3.00 a year. 

Single copies, 25 cents. 

This Magazine represents the entire personnel of photographers now engaged in 

professional production of motion pictures in the United States and Canada. Thus 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER becomes the voice of the Entire Craft, 

covering a field that reaches from coast to coast across North America. 

Printed in the U. S\ A. at Hollywood. California 

^s^to eo-^TggjJ^ 

tyijgglgg^D si SERVICE ENGRAVING CO 




Our Menu for 

May, 1936 

* 

Earl Theisen will conclude Part II 
of "The Evolution of the Motion Pic- 
ture Story." 



Frederick Westerberg will contrib- 
ute four more tables to "The Cine- 
matographer's Book of Tables." 



Paul R. Harmer will continue his 
series — Intensity of Light Under the 
Sea. 



Lewis W. Physioc begins his article 
on "Censorship," the best on the sub- 
ject ever written. 



Charles Felstead contributes Chap- 
ter XXV on Motion Picture Sound 
Recording. 



Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F.R.P.S. will 
contribute two yarns in his own in- 
imitable style and on his pet subject 
"Miniature Photography." 



Delmar A. Whitson promises an 
authoritative article for May on his 
favorite subject, "Polarized Light." 




April, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Three 



\\ 



Wandering With the Leica 




By Hansena Frederickson 

Our Lady Globe Trotter in the Orient 




IF ONE has ever 
traveled with a 
snap-shot cam- 
era and switch- 
ed to a Leica or any 
camera which is com- 
pletely adequate, he will 
understand why I have 
pushed the button on my 
Leica 1,000 times since I 
left Los Angeles two 
months ago. It is a relief 
to be able to catch the 
moods and moments that 
with the ordinary camera 
are impossible. One 
group of negatives that I 
shot was an attempted 
series of sunrise shots 
over Diamond Head, in 
Honolulu, morning 
clouds on the Pali, and 
the sun-shot mist making 
the ship's entrance into 
' the harbor unreal and fairy-like. This series was an 
effort to catch a certain atmosphere, and when the 
I negatives were developed among the blankets of 
my berth on board ship the results were all that I 
had hoped for. I had attempted this same sort of 
thing on a previous trip, and a foggy day in London 
would have been the subtitle for most of the shots. 

Right Angle View Finder 

When it comes to crowded, festive streets in 

: Japan on one of their frequent national holidays, the 

right angle view finder is invaluable. The Buddhist 

priests object to having their photos taken and will 

create a disturbance if they catch you at it. Some of 

them are unbelievably picturesque and can easily 

be taken home in your camera if the angle view 

' finder is used. When I first started using mine, I 

I wondered if they wouldn't catch on to the trick, but 

I they were too busy watching the foreigner and her 

clothes to wonder about where her camera was 

| pointing, until it was trained directly upon them. 

The Japs Know Their Cameras 

It is easier to use the camera in Japan than in 
China. Every other Japanese gentleman owns a 
camera of some kind, and the people there are more 
or less used to the instrument. The Japanese them- 
selves are great travelers within their own country 

\ and make pilgrimages to all the shrines. The differ- 
ence between the foreign and the Japanese tourist is 
that the latter is not interested in taking pictures of 
the people and their life. It is the foreigner who 
shoots the queer, narrow, colorful side streets, the 
funny wooden stilt-shoes, the vari-colored kimono 

' and the living conditions on the flat barges. This 
marks him for attention and he feels before he has 



been in the country long that he should get a gold 
cage and crawl into it, so as to be the more easily 
stared at. 

The Japanese Sigh for Color 

In Japan the photographer sighs for the perfection 
of color film. The costumes, the autumn leaves peek- 
ing through the snow, the dull lacquer-red shrines, 
and the gay flag-hung streets cry aloud for color 
film. In China this isn't felt as much, because the 
color here is all blue, until one gets out into the coun- 
try. The streets of Shanghai itself are a blur of 
blues. When the various objects are segregated 
they become the sheath-like dress of the Chinese in 
all shades of blue and black. The black is either 
rusty, purple-black or a gray-black. The one obvious 
note of color becomes very dramatic and romantic. 
It is the turbaned traffic cops. They are the Sikhs 
imported from India. These swarthy, heavy-featured 
men with their thick, dark beards wear gay and art- 
fully wound turbans in the most subtle shades of 
yellow-green, odd purples, canary yellow, blue- 
green, salmon pink, and turquoise. When these col- 
ors are set off by the handsome dark features of the 
East Indian, they lend a fantastic note to the city's 
traffic. 

The Sightshooters 

The use of the camera is gradually becoming the 
rule rather than the exception and a bond is felt be- 
tween all "sightshooters" as it is among sightseers. 
On the ship coming across the Pacific there were 
several miniature cameraists aboard, some home 
movie camera users and many snapshooters. The 
Leica enthusiasts were all interested in doing their 
own developing on board in order to be sure that 
the results that they were getting were the best pos- 
sible. We asked for the use of the dark room on 
board and bothered the dark room steward at all 
times of day. He finally had to shut us out in order 
to get some of his own work done, so we resorted to 
the old standby, crawling under blankets to do our 
work. We all got expert at this sport and loaded 
cameras, filled developing tanks and checked up on 
maimed cameras in this manner. 

Small Cameras Busy 

Each minicam user had a different light meter 
and we had many a conference ending in an argu- 
ment as to what reading was correct. In the end we 
all read our own and each achieved the result that 
he wanted. We would all take the same general 
shot, such as sunset rays over the bow, a group in 
the swimming pool, huge waves on a stormy sea, 
and each picture would be entirely different as each 
photographer saw a different mood in the shot. We 
of the small cameras took many more shots than did 
the other photographers and, as a result, we have 
had to send prints of some of our prize shots to pas- 
sengers scattered in all parts of the world. One day 
a group of four started choosing pictures from my 

(Turn to Page 24) 



Font 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 




Broadcast Studio Photography 

By Karl A. Barlebex, Jr., F.R.P.S. 

Dean of Neiv York Institute of Photography 




|HE average radio broadcast studio is closed 
to photographers, particularly amateurs, 
yet there are sufficient programs and con- 
tests going on all the time during which 
cameramen are permitted to use their cameras that 
a few words on the subject may be useful. It has 
been my good fortune to have been permitted to 
various broadcasts with my camera, and also to 
broadcast from various stations, hence I feel fairly 
well qualified to write on the subject. 

The one thing that is liable to attract most can- 
did camera photographers is the unusual facial ex- 
pressions to be caught during a broadcast. As 
people speak they often produce startling expres- 
sions — quite unknown to themselves. Do I know! 
This is, on the other hand, a point to be carefully 
watched for. By means of it, otherwise good shots 
can be ruined, particularly if the subject is wanted 
at his or her best. 

As for technique — the first thing is naturally to 
secure permission to photograph. Do not under any 
circumstances try to force the issue or sneak a 
camera into the studio if permission has been re- 
fused. This is one of those cute tricks that does 
no one any good. It merely bars photographers in 
general all the more defnitely from the studio in 
the future. Some programs arrange special events 
for amateur photographers. 

For instance, last year the Eno Company, 
through its advertising agency, L. W. Ayre & Son, 
arranged a "candid camera night" to be held dur- 
ing one of the popular Eno Crime Clues series. One 
hundred and fifty passes were issued and placed 
only in the hands of deserving cameraists. The 
studio in which this program originates in Radio 
City, New York City, was especially lighted for the 
occasion by a dozen or more high-powered Mazda 
lamps in suitable reflectors. These were furnished 
by the station. Two rehearsals of the program were 
called, prior to its going on the air, and as they 
were run through, the cameramen present were 
privileged to snap pictures to their heart's content. 
During the actual broadcast, however, no one was 
permitted within the field of action, but those who 
wished, were invited to remain and see the air 
presentation. 

Needless to say, a gang of cameramen, bent on 
making suitable pictures to submit for competition 
for the $100.00 first prize offered for the best pic- 
ture made at the event by the Eno Company, is 
not especially careful — nor quiet. Secretly I felt 
sorry for the actors who had to work through those 
two rehearsals with lenses aimed at them, shutters 
clicking like machine guns, and here and there an 
overly-ambitious cameraman worming his way on 
the floor for "angle shots." However, all went well, 
and surprisingly good pictures were submitted to the 



contest. Adolf Fassbender, F.R.P.S., famed pictorial- 
ist, was present to give some words of advice to the 
cameramen, although his presence was more in a 
visitor's, rather than an overseer's, capacity. He 
served, incidentally, as one of the judges on the 
jury which selected the prize-winning prints. 

This event was perhaps the first of its kind to be 
staged by a leading radio station (WJZ of the Na- 
tional Broadcasting Company's Blue Network). It 
was a success, needless to say. But things were 
rosy, for everything was prepared for the camera- 
men. During the average broadcast one does not 
find such ideal conditions. Rudolf H. Hoffmann, spe- 
cialist in stage and radio star candid shooting ex- 
plained — or rather complained — to me that in studios 
where he is called to work, he has to actually bribe 
the electricians to give him enough light to work 
with. In fact he has to come to the point of toting 
around his own lighting units because of his in- 
ability to get the proper co-operation from the 
"juicers" at the studios. Now and then he bumps 
into the temperamental tantrums of radio stars — they 
won't face this way, the lights hurt their eyes, they 
don't like the angle from which he photographs 
them, and so on. Yes, my friends, it is not exactly 
a life of ease which Rudy Hoffmann leads, in spite 
of its glamorous aspects from the outside. 

So granting that you have gained permission and 
entrance, your troubles are not by a long shot over. 
See to it that lights are available, at least enough 
to enable you to get a decent exposure. In the 
end you may have to wind up by bringing along 
your own pair of Photoflood lamps and reflectors. 

The camera best suited to radio studio photog- 
raphy is of course one that is easily and quickly 
handled and equipped with a speed lens and film. 
For this reason, miniature cameras are usually re- 
garded as ideal outfits for the work. Their small 
size, quickness in operation, and ability to be fitted 
with fast lenses make them practical. As tripods 
are quite out of the question, shutter speeds of not 
more than 1 /5th of a second (if you can hold it that 
long) are indicated. To make sure, use a shutter 
speed of 1 /25th second. The camera must be hand- 
held. 

Because the click of the shutter is audible over 
the microphone, and it is extremely disturbing to be 
darting about during an actual broadcast, most 
radio pictures are made as posed shots or during 
reeharsals. Once when Ivan Dmitri, number one 
candid camera shooter, gave a short talk over sta- 
tion WNEW in New York City, I shot some negatives 
of him before the microphone. I hardly got to first 
base that time, for I. found not enough light to 
make the feeblest impression on the film. Luckily 
I was armed with a speed-gun and a few Photo- 
flash lamps. These did the trick. I got Dmitri in 




Upper left — Edward Reese, who is Spencer Dean the man-hunter of the Eno Crime Clues broadcasts, which go over the Blue Network I NBC I every Tues- 
day evening, doing his sleuthing in front of the microphone during a broadcast in Radio City, New York City. Dialogue between two actors during an Eno 
Crime Clues broadcast at station W|Z. Production man at desk in foreground. Upper center — Principals in the Eno Crime Clues broadcasts during an 
actual broadcast at station W)Z located in Radio City, New York City. The sound effects department — whistles, trains, fire engines, automobiles, music 
— all comes from these effect records. Upper right — The production man tin foreground with ear-phones* pauses while the announcer introduces the Eno 
Crime Clues program. Station WJZ (Blue Network I, Radio City, New York City. A group of amatuer candid cameramen during a rehearsal of an Eno 
Crime Clues broadcast in the studios of W|Z. These amateurs were competing for a fifty dollar prize offered by the Eno Company, sponsors of the broadcast 

series. — Photographs by Karl A. Barleben, )r. 



front of a microphone and blazed away — during the 
rehearsal. But it just goes to show how uncertain 
the whole business is. 

About a year later Dmitri came back at me, but 
fortunately with better equipment. It was during one 
of the broadcasts of the Behind the Lens program 
of which I am technical director, over station WHN. 
Dmitri was my guest speaker for that particular pro- 
gram, and as it is a rule to have several Photoflood 
lamps in reflectors in studio C — from which we 
broadcast — he had no difficulty in catching me in 
action. Our program, incidentally, is one of the 
very few during which it is permissible to make 
pictures during the actual broadcast. The picture 
of me at the microphone was made during the actual 
airing of the show — and I was in the midst of "do- 
ing my stuff." No fake to this — it is a genuine can- 
did shot. 

The clicking of cameras, however, is something 
of an annoyance, I can assure you, for I have to 
stand it every Saturday evening during the WHN 
Behind the Lens program. The bright lights do not 
help to make matters easier in reading the script, 
either. However, as it is a photographic program, 
passes are issued to members of the Behind the 
Lens Club and they are entitled to bring their 
cameras and shoot during the airing of the shew. 
Funny how people will turn their nose up at shoot- 
ing during a rehearsal if they can snap you during 
a broadcast. My friends who are interested enough 
to listen to the program tell me that the camera- 




clicks come through the microphone fairly distinctly. 
But then, it's a lot of fun and if the folks like it, 
we let them have it. 

The trick to make pictures realistic is to always 
include a microphone in the shot. Regardless of 
whether it is dead or not, it always definitely stamps 
the picture as having been made in a studio. It 
explains a lot, that little mike. Another trick is to 
use angle shots. It seems to lift the picture out of 
the general run of pictures. Hoffman and Dmitri, 
I notice, rarely take a straight on view. Always 
they get on the floor, or at least on their knees, 
or again high above, on a chair or other elevated 
structure, if there is one handy. This makes swell 
action in an otherwise more or less lifeless picture. 

The control room fascinates many cameraists. 
They attempt to carve through the plate glass and 
catch the control man, but usually they are met with 
defeat. That glass simply won't behave, for it re- 
flects all images and lights in the studio. Then, too, 
the control room is usually in darkness. It's a dif- 
ficult job at best. I've tried to catch my own pro- 
duction man, Gene Stafford, at the WHN controls 
during rehearsal, but have failed miserably. About 
the only way of shooting into the control room is 
to illuminate it fully and then shoot through the 
glass, taking care to avoid all reflections — some job. 

Announcers are almost always attractive men 
with beautiful voices. My announcer at WHN, with 
his tiny mustache, is a perfect shot for any camera. 
But Gene Marshall is a bit camera-shy and it is 
not so easy to catch him at the microphone. How- 
ever, Stafford and Marshall have, since working on 
the Behind the Lens program with me, become 
camera-conscious. Both want cameras now, and 
have learned of the delights such an instrument 
can give them. The WHN staff cameraman, Gene 
Lester — yes, I know there are too many Gene's in 
my program but what can I do about it? — turns out 
some really grand stuff with his baby cameras. He 
usually sees to it that our studio is properly lighted — 
and he shoots grand stuff himself. 

All in all, radio photography is exciting and 
fruitful of excellent pictures — if you go about it in 
the right way. If you happen to have the oppor- 
tunity of getting some studio pictures, by all means 
make the most of it. The results will be unusual 
and different from the ordinary run of pictures. 



Six 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES 



(From the First Annual Report of the Archivist of the United States, 

John G. Bradley, Chief of Division of Motion Pictures and Sound 

Recordings.) 



Division of Motion Pictures and Sound 
Recordings — This division is set up under Section 7 
of the National Archives Act, which authorizes the 
National Archives to accept, store, and preserve 
motion picture films and sound recordings pertain- 
ing to and illustrative of historical activities of the 
United States, and to maintain a projecting room for 
showing such films and reproducing such sound 
recordings for historical purposes and study. 

Although the motion picture industry has reached 
enormous size, it is still in its infancy from the view- 
point of experience in the solution of the many prob- 
lems relating to the preservation, storage, and safety 
of motion picture films. The division will conduct 
scientific researches into methods of reproduction 
and processing; into the storage and preservation of 
motion picture films with special reference to the 
elimination of fire risks and other hazards. It will 
classify, arrange, and catalogue its collection of 
films and sound recordings, make duplicate copies 
of each original film for purposes of preservation 
and for projecting, reconditioning films in order to 
remove harmful chemical impurities, maintain a 
projecting room for showing such films and for re- 
producing such sound recordings, co-operate with 
government and other research agencies in scientific 
research, and furnish reference and information ser- 
vice to the other professional divisions of The Na- 
tional Archives and to searchers. . . . 

Storage and Preservation of Motion Pictures 
Films — The most pressing problems connected 
with the acceptance of motion picture films by The 
National Archives, and those to which greatest at- 
tention was given, concern the storage and preser- 
vation of films and the protection of The National 
Archives Building and its contents from possible 
fire hazards that might result from the storage of 
motion picture films in it. In his efforts to find satis- 
factory solutions to these problems, the Chief of the 
Division and his staff have spared no pains or trou- 
ble. Many conferences were held with the chief 
producers and distributors of motion pictures in this 
country as well as with private chemists and engi- 
neers, the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, the 
Office of the Fire Marshal of the District of Columbia, 
the motion picture experts of the Departments of 
War, Interior, and Commerce, and of the United 
States Bureau of Standards. The results are dis- 
cussed in the report of the Chief of the Division, 
p. 53. . . . 

Division of Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings 
(From the report of the Chief, Mr. Bradley.) 
This Division was organized with the appoint- 
ment of its Chief, John G. Bradley, January 19, 
1935. 

It is the function of this Division to carry into 
effect the provisions of Section 7 of The National 
Archives Act, which is as follows: 



"The National Archives may also accept, store, 
and preserve motion picture films and sound record- 
ings pertaining to and illustrative of historical activi- 
ties of the United States, and in connection there- 
with maintain a projecting room for showing such 
films and reproducing such sound recordings for 
historical purposes and study." 

For these purposes The National Archives Build- 
ing contains eight concrete vaults for the storage of 
films and a projecting room for showing them. 

The motion picture industry is still in its infancy 
and its experience sheds but little light on the prob- 
lems of durability and preservation of films. There 
is very little published literature on the subject. The 
Division of Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings, 
therefore, is to a considerable extent, pioneering in 
a new field. The problems with which the Division 
has been chiefly concerned are: (1) Accessions, (2) 
Preservation, and (3) Service. 

Accessions 

Either by direct authority, or by inference from 
The National Archives Act, accessions of motion 
picture records and sound recordings may be made 
through four channels: (a) Direct transfer from other 
Government agencies; (b) gifts from non-federal in- 
stitutions; (c) purchase under contract; and (d) record- 
ing. 

Transfer — A preliminary survey was made by 
mail to ascertain what motion picture records and 
in what quantities, were to be found in the various 
departments, agencies, and independent establish- 
ments of the Government. Although this was by 
no means an accurate study, it revealed some five 
million feet of motion pictures and many thousands 
of phonographic records. The films included the 
World War films of which there are nearly a million 
feet, pictures of tribal life among American Indians, 
studies in sanitation, agricultural extension pictures 
and others. 

The disc recordings included studies in primitive 
languages, folk music, etc. 

Gifts — In a lesser degree the non-federal field has 
been surveyed for source material that might come 
to The National Archives as gifts. The offers have 
been generous and include far more than can be 
accepted. The problem has become, therefore, one 
of selective discrimination. It will be well, however, 
to consider some of these accessions seriously — 



w 



OVIOLA 



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REPRODUCING MACHINES 

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Illustrated Literature On Request 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, INC. 

723 7th AVE., NEW YORK CITY CABLE: "CINECAMERA" 



April, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seven 



such pictures as show the early history of our coun- 
try in the making; pictures of explorations, such as 
the Byrd Polar Expeditions; pictures of Indian and 
Filipino tribal life; pictures of the inauguration of 
Presidents; news reels of historical value, etc. 

Purchase and Recording — A study has also been 
made of possible subjects that would justify record- 
ing at public expense either through purchase under 
contract or by actual recording. There are many 
current and future events of historical importance 
which will probably not be recorded unless The 
National Archives makes provisions for doing so. 

Preservation 

In the matter of storage and preservation some 
very definite steps have been taken toward per- 
petuating film records over a long period of time. 
The Chief of the Division personally visited a great 
many cities, institutions, and individuals, seeking 
help — Hollywood, Motion Picture Producers and Dis- 
tributors of America, Inc., Eastman Kodak, Academy 
of Motion Picture Arts and Science, DuPont, Radio 
Corporation of America, Electrical Research Prod- 
ucts, Inc., and others. The question was constantly 
asked: "How can motion picture films be preserved 
for one hundred years?" The answer (in substance) 
was generally: "We are interested only in producing 
and selling pictures"; or "We are interested in the 
manufacture and sale of film and are not, there- 
fore, primarily concerned in preserving such prop- 
erty for any great length of time." 

However, valuable help and information was re- 
ceived from each visit and by placing this infor- 
mation together storage specifications were worked 
out and submitted in a memorandum of May 13th. 
In brief, these specifications included insulated fire- 
proof cabinets within the concrete vaults of the 
main motion picture storage vault system. In these 
cabinets each one thousand feet of film is to be 
isolated in a separate compartment, vented to a 
stack flue which leads to the exterior of the building. 
Each compartment is to have a gravity trap door 
that will permit quick and easy egress of combus- 
tion flames or gases to the exterior and prevent 
ingress of these same gases to the film compart- 
ments. The flues leading to the exterior are to be 
provided with proper insulation to prevent heat con- 
duction and a return of outside air; so that, in brief, 
the preservation plans comprise, in addition to edit- 
ing and conditioning, the following controls: 

(a) Temperature control 

(b) Humidity control 

(c) Air content control 

(d) Heat conduction control 

(e) Air connection control 

The Chief of the Division has been made a mem- 
ber of the National Research Council's Advisory 
Committee to the Bureau of Standards, further to 
study preservation of motion picture film, and also 



35mm. Eastman Super X 

Panchromatic Negative 



Short Ends 



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chairman of the Film Preservation Committee of the 
Society of Motion Picture Engineers which will fur- 
nish additional and valuable help in the study of 
this problem. 

Service 

In approaching the problem of servicing, the only 
completed work is that of writing specifications for 
storage and for motion picture and sound recording 
equipment. In this, help was given by various 
federal agencies interested in motion pictures and 
by several non-federal institutions. These specifi- 
cations were submitted May 13 and June 26, re- 
spectively. 

As a consequence of his travels and studies, the 
Chief of the Division made some valuable contacts 
which should prove of inestimable value in the future 
development of this Division. He was also called 
upon from time to time to counsel with various 
federal and non-federal institutions with similar func- 
tions in working out their problems. Among these 
may be mentioned the Division of Motion Pictures, 
Department of Interior, on problems of storage; the 
American Society of Photogrammetry, also on stor- 
age problems; the Smithsonian Institution, on sound 
recording; the Rockefeller Laboratory of Archaeol- 
ogy, on recording. 

The work of the Division may become mate- 
rially handicapped unless preservation of motion 
picture films is interpreted to mean preservation of 
motion picture records. The present language of 
Section 7 of The National Archives Act limits the 
work largely to that of curating. Preservation of a 
motion picture film has a definite limitation but if 
the concept were enlarged to include preservation 
of motion picture records by all necessary means, 
including duplication, The National Archives could 
look forward to a more successful effort in preserv- 
ing this material as permanent archives of the Gov- 
ernment. 

"BROKEN EARTH" 

A little gem if there ever was one is this one- 
reeler recently produced by three cameramen and 
given its first showing to newspaper men at Bell & 
Howell Auditorium, Thursday, March 24. 

This delightful and technically perfect picture has 
to do with a negro spiritual, entitled "Broken Earth" 
and written by Clarence Muse and Roman Freulich, 
the latter still photographer at Universal Studios. 
Mr. Freulich also directed the picture. 

His associates in production were King Gray and 
Jerome Ash, with Michael Walsh acting as assistant. 

The picture was "shot on two Sundays and a 
shoe string," as Mr. Freulich described it, but they 
had good luck and it looks like a winner. 

Appropriate music was furnished by the Los An- 
geles Ethiopian Choir of forty-five voices, directed by 
Frieta Shaw. 

Mr. Muse, collaborator, is a negro actor of great 
talent, and "Broken Earth" is a mild glorification of 
the spiritually minded negro. He is author of the 
successful song, "Sleepy Time Down South" and 
was cast in "Hearts in Dixie," "Porgy" and other pic- 
tures and plays. 



BORN 

In Hollywood, March 27, 1936, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Ray Fernstrom, an eight and one-half pound boy. 
Mr. Fernstrom is an internationally noted newsreel 
cameraman. 




The New 16 MM. Magazine 
Cine-Kodak Camera 




IASTMAN Kodak Company has produced a 
new 16 mm. Cine-Kodak loading with a 
magazine and having other features further 
simplifying the taking of motion pictures by 
the amateur and at the same time providing him 
with increased versatility of operation. 

In addition to the use of a magazine, thereby 
eliminating the operation of threading the film, the 
new camera has three speeds, interchangeable 
lenses, a device that prevents accidental exposure 
while the camera is not in use, an automatic shut- 
off for the spring motor, and an ingenious device 
described as a "pulse" for timing the length of 
scenes. 

Appropriately named "Magazine Cine-Kodak," it 
can be loaded in three seconds, merely by opening 
the hinged cover of the camera, as if it were a 
book, slipping the magazine inside and closing the 
cover, without having to adjust a single thing in- 
side the camera or on the magazine. Sliding a fin- 
ger tab on the top of the camera releases the cover 
for opening and locks it when closed. A further 
slide of the tab sets the mechanism for operation. 
Until this is done, the mechanism remains locked 
and there can be no accidental exposure. 

Another eminent advantage is the ability to ex- 
change partly used film for another type without 
having to run the entire footage to do so. Thus, 
to switch from Panchromatic to Super Sensitive 
"Pan" for indoor pictures or to Kodachrome for color 
"movies," it is only necessary to remove the partly 
used magazine and replace it with a magazine 
loaded with the film desired. A magazine can be 
removed without the necessity of wasting a single 
frame of film because of a protecting slide which 
is moved over the film aperture of the magazine by 
the same operation that unlocks the cover of the 
camera. One may have any number of partly used 
magazines which may be returned to the camera to 
complete the exposure. The magazine protects the 
film. A footage meter on each magazine shows how 
much film has been used, whether in or out of the 
camera. The dial may be plainly seen through a 
shatter-proof window in the camera cover. 

The Magazine Cine-Kodak also gives the ama- 
teur increased versatility in speeds. There are three 
of them — normal, half speed and slow motion — con- 
trolled by a lever located beneath the built-in ex- 
posure guide on the front of the camera and 
marked "8," "16" and "64." 

The new and intriguing device called a "pulse" 
is located in the side of the camera — a tiny button 
over which the finger is placed and which "beats" 
every half foot, or 20 frames, while the film is be- 
ing run. This is of great convenience in timing the 
length of a scene. 

For the Magazine Cine-Kodak are supplied the 
same accessory lenses available for Cine-Kodak K 
and Cine-Kodak Special — the 2-inch f.3.5 and the 3-, 
4V2-, and 6-inch f .4.5 telephoto. There is an in- 
expensive adapter which fits them to the camera by 
a simplified method. To make a change to any 
one of the four, the standard f.1.9 lens is removed 
merely by pressing a button, and turning the lens. 
The adapter fits as easily in its place. Then the 



(CONTRIBUTED) 

other lens is fitted on by sliding a lug on the lens 
into a slot in the adapter; the rotating collar is given 
a turn or two, and the lens is set in positive, taking 
position. 

In focusing, guess work and squinting are taken 
out by the full-vision eye-level finder system, which 
competentlly serves all lenses. The front view find- 
er has two elements. Together they show the field 
of the standard f.1.9 lens. By sliding the rear ele- 
ment backwards along a track it "clicks" into a 
notch identified by an arrow as the position for 
use with the 2-inch lens. Another move backward 
and it further narrows the field as it slides to the 
position for the 3-inch lens. Again in the same way 
for the 4V2- and 6-inch telephotos. 

Two other features of this camera are the se- 
cured winding crank, which swings back into a 
notch in the case when not in use, and an auto- 
matic shut-off for the spring motor, which insures 
against over-exposure when the motor is in need of 
winding. 



OUR NAVAL MILITIA 

On the night of February 21, at the Clark Hotel, 
in Los Angeles, the California Naval Militia had its 
annual dinner, which was attended by sixty-two 
officers. Commodore George Hurst and Commander 
L. F. Brown presided. 

Commodore Hurst assured the officers that steps 
were now being taken to federalize the California 
Naval Militia as soon as the enlisted personnel 
reaches the required number. 

Many rates are now open to young men who are 
qualified to follow the navy life, either as a hobby 
or as a profession. Every branch of naval service 
is included in the organization. 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER is es- 
pecially interested in the California Naval Militia, 
because it was in the offices of this publication at 
1605 Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, as far back as 
1932, that the organization of a naval unit for the 
protection of the local coast line was discussed and 
planned. Many officers and men who are now 
active in the present set-up were recruited in these 
offices. 

Naval Militia, we wish you good luck and suc- 
cess: "We salute you, sailors." 











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\ 




Intensity of Sunlight 
Under Sea 



By Pail R. Harmer 



&MM | ANY interesting articles have been written 
E ?\yA M regarding the intensity of light under sea, 
I P^f 3 ! but very little of this data has been used 
V*^™*-^ by undersea photographers with any de- 
gree of certainty. 

Several factors are responsible for this condi- 
tion and, when this series of articles which I am 
writing for THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 
is concluded, I hope to have been of assistance 
to the photographer. 

Professor Burt Richardson made many tests dur- 
ing the past five years off the coast of Southern 
California, and, while gazing upward with a light 
sensitive cell he found that one-quarter of sunlight 
is absorbed in the first inch of water; that one-half 
of the light fails to reach ten feet; that nine-tenths 
of the light fails to reach fifty feet and only a trace 



Observed by Beebe with Cinophot 


Depth 
Feet 


Horizontal Light 
Candles Per $q. ft 







50 


10.4 


100 


3.37 


200 


0.41 


250 


0.21 


300 


0.15 


.350 


0.12 


500 


0.02 


800 


0.02 



Fifiure 



of light reaches two hundred feet, green predomi- 
nating to this depth. 

One-half of all blue light is absorbed in the first 



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Bermuda 
Fig. 1 




ten feet; one-half of all blue-green light is absorbed 
in the first thirty feet; one-half of the more pene- 
trating green light is absorbed at thirty-five feet; one- 
half of all red light is absorbed by the first few 
inches. 

Professor Beebe describes his descent into the 
sea as follows: "It was midday, with bright sunlight 
on the surface. At fifty feet the water was a brilliant 
bluish-green; at one hundred feet there was the effect 
of slight twilight and chilling blue. This blue be- 
came weaker as I descended to greater depths. At 
five hundred feet a strange illumination was en- 
countered and at fourteen hundred feet a strange 
transparent blue." 



CINOPflOT, HORIZONTAL LI6HT 




As far as Professor Beebe's eyes could see there 
was no change in light values from five hundred 
to eight hundred feet and he was able to read large 
print at eight hundred feet. 

The spectroscope which he used to measure the 
kinds of light gave a slightly different record. 

Fig. 1 illustrates how the light green (almost a 
blue-green) persists to further depths than any other 
visible light. This illustrates a diminishing wedge 
of light. 

Fig. 2 is a table showing the comparative light 
values at different depths. 

Fig. 3 is a graphical explanation of the same ob- 
servations. These observations were made by a 
Cinephot Exposure Meter and the readings trans- 
lated to candles per square foot in the laboratory 
with a comparison light. Fig. 3 shows more plain- 
ly how the intensity of light varies from a straight 
line or a regular curve. The irregularity of these 
light values is not fully accounted for, but it is prob- 
ably due to animal, vegetable or mineral matter in 
suspension. 



Ten 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



Lens Apertures Versus Printer Points 



By Peter Parnell 




[N the course of a good many years develop- 
ing negative film and contacting camera- 
« men, the writer has often been faced with 
the query from many of them just what the 
exact reaction is in printer points when a lens is 
stopped down or opened a full doubled stop. 

Unfortunately, in a good many cases where 
actual tests never have been made it has resolved 
itself into more of a series of individual interpre- 
tations quite at variance with one another rather 
than a basic guide dependent on corroborating 
tests, repeated from time to time in the laboratories 
due to the changing conditions therein. 

Paralleling this condition too, are the printer 
variations and quality changes resulting from the 
use of the longer (telephoto) focal length lenses 
shot from the same set-up at the same exposure with 
the resulting expressions of wonder from the camera- 
man as to the often adverse result. 

It occured to the writer that a few analytical 
tests (repeated by others if desired under the con- 
ditions prevailing in different laboratories) would 
be helpful, consequently a few tests were made in 
one with the results checked as closely as varia- 
tions of the human eye permitted. An exterior loca- 
tion with consistent sunlight was chosen. 

Though the exposure meter is still a disputed in- 
strument it was used as a check on the light varia- 
tions, which proved nil however, as the tests were 
made in a short time and any slight change that 
might have registered was negligible. 

Inasmuch as solution gammas and densities vary 
in different laboratories results from these tests 
would not coincide exactly with those of another 
laboratory, though the essentials remain constant, 
and tests are advised for differing conditions of de- 
velopment. 

The first tests were made with lenses ranging in 
order from the 25 mm. to the telephoto of 150 mm., 
from the same set-up all shot at F: 12. Here two 
interesting things were ascertained: The practical 
aspects of the optical theory — "that light possesses 
a certain intensity at the diaphragm aperture and 
diminishes in proportion to the square of the dis- 
tance between the lens and the sensitive plate"; 
and the reason the wondering cameraman exclaims 
at the difference between the exposure and quality 
obtained with the two-inch lens and that obtained 
by the second cameraman with a four or six-inch 
lens from the same set-up both using the same lens 
stop. 

Theoretically, the F number represents the F 
value only when the lens to plate distance cor- 
responds to the maker's focal length and aperture 
speed as applied to objects at a distance (infinity), 
and the moment the so-called bellows distance is 
increased the actual F value changes, so that in 
theory if a lens with an F:8 aperture were racked 
out to make a life-size copy its extension would be 
doubled with a corresponding increase of exposure, 
as the aperture would then become F: 16. 

For practical purposes one need not draw the 



line so fine as variations are permissible and cap- 
able of being rectified in development, but the few 
findings still remain interesting. 

Below is a scale of aperture exposures and print- 
ing lights: 



Lens 
150 mm. 
100 mm. 

75 mm. 

50 mm. 

25 mm. 



Aperture 
F:12 
F:12 
F:12 

F:12 
F:12 



Printing 
Light 
9 
11 
12 
13 
15 



It was found that the exposure at F:12 was in 
too low a key for the longer focal lengths, while 
the 25 and 50 mm. lenses were at an intermediate 
place on the printing scale; the 25 mm. lens print- 
ing on light 15 and the 50 mm. on light 13. Here 
already is a difference of two printer points with the 
50 mm. negative requiring (for a finished print) slight- 
ly more development to match the contrast of the 
shorter lens. 

While the 75 mm. lens dropped one point to 
12 (taking the 50 mm. as standard) a more pro- 
nounced dropping off in brilliancy was marked 
which would have necessitated prolonged develop- 
ment to bring it to the density and contrast level of 
the 50 mm. lens. 

The 100 mm. lens fell another point lower with 
a decided increase of flatness and at the low aper- 
ture of F:12 with the 150 mm. lens, plus the in- 
creased separation between lens and film we get 
a negative printing on light 9 as compared to 13 
(50 mm.) but with such lack of exposure and con- 
trast that forced development would add little but 
chemical veil. 

These tests reveal that the 25 and 50 mm. lenses 
though shading the under exposed side, with little 
more than normal development make a negative 
that prints in the desired portion of the printer scale, 
possessing good brilliancy and density and quite 
acceptable from all standpoints. 

The 75 mm. lens produces a flatter negative 
which, while its density can be increased gains very 
little in added contrast, remaining virtually what it 
(Turn to Page 20) 



ICTER^ 

In Utarld-(/0id* Us* 



uce rOv^nli^br anA (\)Kjbt 
:1s in Daytime ~Fvy Scenes- 
Diffused F*7cus.ar7*l many vmer ef F«crs 
Wiib any Camera - In any Ulimatre 
Gcorcje H. Sckeibe 

ORIGINATOR OF EFFECT FILTERS 
1927 WEST 78th ST. LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



FhouywoodI 

STUDIOS 
USE THEM 
IN EVERY 

kPRODUCTIONi 



April, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Eleven 



Avalanche of Color On the Way 



(Contributed) 



Hollywood acclaimed "The Trail of the Lonesome 
Pine" as the first successful color picture that has 
ever been made, but experts who have been shown 
reels of the new Pioneer production, "Dancing Pi- 
rates," say that the use of color in this picture is 
even more revolutionary. 

Back of the success of these color pictures lies 
the work of Max Factor, veteran Hollywood make- 
up artist, who was allowed, for the first time, free 
rein in the make-up applied to the actors. 

"No color picture can surmount improper make- 
up," a well-known cameraman admitted, and added 
that half the faults of color photography to date have 
been unrealistic make-up effects! 

Mr. A. B. Shore, in charge of the make-up depart- 
ment at Factor's, recently said: "The new make-up 
we have developed for color pictures is revolution- 
ary. The range of colors employed has multiplied 
ten-fold in an attempt to reproduce faithfully colors 
matching the skin tones of the subject. 

"First of all, the new make-up is of skin-stain con- 
sistency. It is so thin that the effect is somewhat like 
a thin coating of tan, permitting the natural flesh 
tones to show through. 

"Naturally, highlights and shadows cannot be 
employed and less latitude is given for what is 
known as correction make-up. Imperfections of fea- 
tures or skin can be disguised no more successfully 
than with street make-up the average woman wears. 

"Rouge we applied to the lips of actresses in re- 
cent color pictures, for instance, is five times as light 
as rouge worn by women for street wear. We 
advised Steffi Duna, appearing in 'Dancing Pirates,' 
to bite her lips before each close-up to make the 
blood come to the surface and give them a more 
natural appearance!" 

Recently Factor discovered a secret shade of hair 
which will photograph chalk-white, and this was 



used for the white wigs in "Dancing Pirates." For- 
merly the color camera photographed white wigs in 
unbecoming shades of blue and it had been thought 
impossible to make pure white hair photograph 
white. Experiments were tried with 300 different 
shades before the "secret" shade was discovered. 

Another innovation color demanded was individ- 
ual make-ups for all players, from the humblest extra 
to the most important star. Make-up men working 
on "The Trail of the Lonesome Pine" spent as much 
time and effort over the make-ups for each extra as 
for that of Sylvia Sydney, the star. 

"We wanted to avoid a fault of former color pic- 
tures," Mr. Shore said, "in "which atmosphere play- 
ers, in the background, looked badly made up. 
Variations of the human complexion must be care- 
fully studied to retain individuality of type." 

The importance of this new make-up is proved 
by the number of color pictures now being produced 
in Hollywood. "Trail of the Lonesome Pine," "Danc- 
ing Pirates" and "Changing of the Guards" are three 
of the newest. In addition, Samuel Goldwyn plans 
to make two features in color. Douglas Fairbanks, 
Sr., will film "Marco Polo" in color. Warner Brothers 
plans three shorts and two full length features. Wal- 
ter Wanger has four color pictures in preparation. 
RKO will do a series of western pictures in color. 
And Pioneer intends to produce two more full length 
color pictures after "Dancing Pirates." 

If these pictures bring about the revolution in 
Hollywood which is confidently expected by techni- 
cal experts, who say that after viewing several color 
pictures, black and white photography will seem 
dull and boring to audiences, Max Factor will have 
contributed as much as he did with the introduction 
of panchromatic film, when his new panchromatic 
make-up was adopted as a standard by almost 
every film studio in the world. 




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Variable Area Recorders 
Light Test Machines, 
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645 NORTH MARTEL AVE 



CABLE ADDRESS ARTREEVES 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, US A 



Twelve 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



Recent Photograph and Sound Patents 



By Robert Fulwider 

Attorney at Laiv 



2,029,300 — Method and Apparatus for Producing Stereoscopic 
Effects. Newton Arfsten, New York. 

2,029,306— Motion Picture and Sound Cabinet. W. R. Bull, 
Pelham Manor, N. Y. 

2,029,418— Reflex Shutter. Max Friedland, New York. 

2,029,500— Composite Pictures. Willis H. O'Brien, assignor to 
R. C. A. 

2,029,614 — Apparatus for Taking or Projecting Lenticular Film. 
F. Fischer, F. Strecher and H. Neugebauer, assignors to Siemens & 
Halske, Berlin, Germany. 

2,029,703 — Cinematograph Apparatus. B. E. Lubcshez, Har- 
row, England. 

2,029,736 — Motion Picture Camera. Kurt Morsbach, Berlin, Ger- 
many. 

2,030,098 — Sound Picture Record. T. W. Case, assignor to Case 
Research Laboratory, Auburn, N. Y. 

2,030,163 — Color Photography. T. T. Baker, assignor to Dufay- 
color, Ltd.. London, England. 

2,030,300 — Composite Photography. Fred Jackman, assignor to 
Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc., New York. 

2,030,428 — Sound Recording System. M. Chambers, assignor 
to Western Electric Co., New York. 

2,030,446 — Apparatus for use in Color Photography. 

2,030,447 — Multicolor Screen for use with Lenticulated Films. 
Edgar Gretener, assignor to Opticolor Co., Glarus, Switzerland. 

2,030,465 — Receptacle for Motion Picture Film. Joseph T. Nist, 
Canton, Ohio. 

2,030,489 — Projector. Russell E. Wilson, Cleveland, Ohio. 

2,030,760 — Method and Means for Recording Sound. C. L. 
Oswald and W. D. Fester, assignors to Kinatome Patents Corp, 
New York. 

2,030,795 — Color Cinematography. V. Hudeley and L. Lograve, 
Paris, France. 

2,030,812 — Projection System. R. F. Dirkes and R. Steeneck, 
assignors to Western Union Co., New York. 

2,030,903 — Photographic Film for Color Photography. Hans 



von Traunhofer, assignor to Omnichrome Corp., New York. 

2,030,904— (Same.) 

2,030,973 — Method and Apparatus lor Recording and Repro- 
ducing Sound. Merle Duston, Detroit, Mich. 

2,031,032 — Means for Mixing the Color Element Images in Mul- 
ticolor Screen Photographic Printing and Projecting. Walter Chap- 
man, assignor to Dufaycolor, Ltd., London, England. 

2,031,079 — Device for Rewinding Film. H. J. Streyekmons, as- 
signor to Automotion Pictures, New York. 

2,031,608— Talking Motion Picture Apparatus. J. R. Kiel, as- 
signor to Auditone Co., Chicago. 

2,031,635 — Film Reel. Herman de Vry, Chicago. 

2,031,756 — Film Feeding Mechanism for Sound Films. Ewald 
Boecking, assignor to International Projector Corp., New York. 

2,031,794 — Motion Picture Sound Recording and Reproducing 
Apparatus. Paul Safranski and King Ross, New York. 

2,031,809 — Camera Mounting. A. G. Zimmerman, assignor to 
R. C. A. 

2,031,813 — Phonophotographic Apparatus. C. N. Batsel and 
E. W. Kellogg, assignors to R. C. A. 

2,031,817 — Film Driving Apparatus. A. G. Bradford, assignor 
to General Electric Co. 

2,031,832— Portable Talking Motion Picture Apparatus. H. C. 
Holden, assignor to R. C. A. 

2,031,835 — Recording and Reproducing of Electrical Impulses. 

2,031,836 — Sound and Picture Camera. E. W. Kellogg, assig- 
nor to R. C. A. 

2,031,865 — System and Apparatus for Recording and Repro- 
ducing Sound. A. A. Thomas, assignor to R. C. A. 

2,032,116 — Motion Picture Apparatus. F. Conrad et al., assig- 
nors to Westinghouse Electric Co. 

2,032,184— Sound Gate. Frank Schiffli, assignor to R. C. A. 

2.032,200 — Method and System for Reproducing Sound from 
Films. Oscar Chournard, assignor to R. C. A. 

2,032,213— Photographic Film Magazine. Albert S. Howell, as- 
signor to Bell & Howell Co., Chicago. 

2,032,336 — Motion Picture Film Reel. T. O. Strauss, assignor to 
Casteel Research Laboratories, New York. 



TO THE SOUTH SEAS WITH 
PILLSBURY 

Two new single-reel 16 mm. 
sound films of the South Seas, pho- 
tographed and narrated by Arthur 
C. Pillsbury, well known naturalist 
and lecturer, are announced by 
the Bell & Howell Filmsound Li- 
brary. 

"Life in the South Seas" takes 
us to the Samoan Islands, shows 
in detail the life of these happy-go- 
lucky wards of Uncle Sam, and 
presents marvelous time-lapse 
photography of the development 
of the cocoanut plant and the uses 
to which it is put. The building of 
the South Sea Islands by two 
widely differing methods, coral 
and volcano, is graphically por- 
trayed. 

"Life Under the South Seas," the 
second film, shows undersea div- 
ing with water-tight motion picture 
equipment and the photographic 
results — utterly fascinating time- 
lapse pictures of starfish, anem- 
ones, barnacles, hydroids, jelly- 
fish, sea pens, sea urchins, and 
many kinds of fish. Mr. Pillsbury's 
own voice accompanies these pic- 
tures as it has at thousands of pop- 
ular science lectures throughout 
the country. 




Everything for 
CAMERAMEN 

and 

m i mos 



Right here in our Display Rooms! 

New and Used Cameras. Accessories, Lighting Equipment, 
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Everything is thoroughly guaranteed 




Eastern Representatives 
MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

HARRISON FILTERS — FEARLESS PRODUCTS 
MOVIOLA FILM EDITING EQUIPMENT 



We now have a modern, completely equipped repair and service department — 
specializing on Mitchell, Bell & Howell, Akeley and De Brie Cameras. 



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April, 1936 T he INTE R N A T I O X A L PHOTOGRAPHER Thirteen 



EASTMAN 
FILMS 



BRULATOUR 
SERVICE 



Fourteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



Motion Picture Relief Fund of 

America, Inc. 



Interesting Facts for Cameramen 



In January, 1933, the Motion Picture Relief Fund 
fed 2,500 hungry people by supplying grocery orders 
amounting to $4,000. 

Saved 75 families from being evicted from their 
homes by paying $1,000 in rents. 

Paid 200 public utility bills amounting to $900. 

Provided medical care in hospitals, sanitariums, 
drugs, doctors' calls, etc., for 300 patients at a cost 
of approximately $3,000. 

In addition to this financial aid, we also rendered 
special service to practically every one of the 800 
cases on our books representing about 3,000 people, 
such as securing studio interviews, making contacts, 
helping clients to get positions, etc. 

All charitable organizations are subject to ad- 
verse criticism. Investigation has proven that 99 per 
cent of this criticism is biased, prejudiced and un- 
founded. In most cases it is used as a convenient 
alibi or excuse for not donating to a worthy cause. 

May we ask that you give this Fund — WHICH IS 
YOUR FUND— a break to this extent. When you 
hear adverse criticism of our activities, before re- 
peating it or accepting it at face value, will you give 
the Fund an opportunity to defend itself by asking 
us for the facts? 

Among the unfortunate people we are caring for 
in the motion picture industry, we have the names of 
carpenters, electricians, housemaids, nurses, moth- 
ers' helpers, seamstresses, etc., whom we can recom- 
mend if at any time you are in need of such help. 

The Motion Picture Relief Fund is a private fam- 
ily welfare agency conducted along private lines to 
alleviate distress among unfortunate members of the 
industry. 

It has been rumored that applicants for aid who 
were former contributors to the Fund have been de- 
nied assistance. This is positively erroneous. There 
never has been a contributor, even one who has 
been found ineligible for aid, whose donation, at 
least, has not been returned. No hungry person has 
ever been turned away without help in some shape 
or form. 

We have been obliged to drop cases only be- 



cause of our limited funds, but before doing so, the 
individual or family had been carried along over a 
period of time in an endeavor to assist applicants to 
get on their feet. 

Each case is considered on its individual merits 
and we are disbursing our income according to our 
best judgment in helping the most urgent and worthy 
cases. Our activities are limited only to the extent 
of the amount of money you contribute. 

During the calendar year 1932, you generously 
gave the Fund $155,000 and relief was dispensed to 
the extent of $190,000, or $35,000 more than you 
gave. The demands continue to be heavy, and the 
amount of suffering we can alleviate depends en- 
tirely on you. 

We believe we have an efficiently operated or- 
ganization and that our overhead is as low, if not 
lower, than any similar organization in the city. 
Funds are being disbursed now according to the fol- 
lowing policy: 



1. To care for illness- 
health. 



-preservation of life and 



2. To lend financial aid for food, shelter and 
clothing to those persons whose work in pic- 
tures has been such as to definitely entitle 
them to such aid and who are now, through 
no fault of their own, unemployed. Such aid 
to be distributed: 

(a) To married couples with small children. 

(b) To a woman with dependents. 

(c) To married couples without families. 

(d) To single men and single women. 

3. To lend such aid in unusual and extraordi- 
nary cases as may be deemed advisable 
when voted upon by the Executive Committee. 

If any case of distress of people in the industry 
come to your attention, before criticizing us, please 
notify us. We will contact the individual or family 
and report back to you, keeping you posted on our 
actions throughout the case. 

Disbursements $1,124,224.20 
Dec. 31, 1925-Jan. 1. 1935 



MAX FACTOR'S 

N EW 

LIQUID FOUNDATION 

A REVELATION IN FACIAL MAKE-UP 



William Skall and 
His Camera Crew 
— a Living Mural 
Lighted by the 
Magic Lamps of 
MR. 




MR LAMPS TO BE BUILT IN BRITISH PLANT 



British-built Mole-Richardson lamps will soon be 
available to cameramen in the British studios. The 
Hollywood office of Mole-Richardson, Inc., announces 
that an affiliated company is being formed in Eng- 
land to manufacture and service Solarspots, H-IArcs, 
and other M-R products, which have come into in- 
creasing demand overseas with the recent expan- 
sion of British production. British producers have 
scheduled over a score of features in Technicolor 
for production during the coming season, and Mole- 
Richardson Side Arcs, H-I-Arcs, etc., have been pro- 



nounced a necessity for Technicolor photography. 
The incandescent Solarspot lamps are also declared 
to be creating as much interest abroad as in Holly- 
wood, where they have been called "the perfect 
photographic light." 

Peter Mole, president of Mole-Richardson, is now 
in London, completing the final details of organiz- 
ing the English affiliate. With him is Robert Linder- 
man, who lately resigned from the General Electric 
Company's Hollywood staff to accept the post of 
Managing Director of the new British enterprise. 




ARCS 



ENGINEERED FOR 

TODAY'S PICTURES 

M-R Type 170-150 Amperes 
M-R Type 90-120 Amperes 




150- Amp. H. I. Arc. 



MOLE-RICHARDSON, Inc. 

941 No. Sycamore Ave. Hollywood, California 

Cables: "Morinc" 



Sixteen 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 




The Evolution of the Motion 
Picture Story 

By Earl Theisen 

Honorary Curator Motion Picture and Theatrical Arts, Los Angeles Museum 

PART I. 




HE motion picture began as a newsreel. 
During the early nineties Edison's film sto- 
ries for his Kinetoscope "Peep-Show" were 
topical portrayals and performances of 
noted persons, who had been persuaded to pose 
for "living pictures." Louis LePrince, William 
Friese-Greene, and the other experimenters of their 
time hoped to create a moving picture that they 
might re-enact or report news events. As far re- 
moved as 1878 we find Wordsworth Donisthorpe 
concerned with the idea. In a letter to the editor of 
"Nature," which was published in the January 24 
issue of that year as "Talking Photographs," he 
wrote: 

"By combining the photograph with the Kinesi- 
graph I will undertake not only to produce talking 
pictures of Mr. Gladstone, which, with motionless 
lips and unchanged expression, shall positively re- 
cite his latest anti-Turkish speech in his own voice 
and tone. Not only this, but the life-size photograph 
itself shall move and gesticulate precisely as he did 
when making the speech, the words and gestures 
corresponding as in real life." 

That letter expressed the ultimata hope of those 
who throughout the years made the motion picture 
a possibility. It was their philosophic dream to bring 
the image of the great to the masses and to record 
historic events, that they might be preserved for pos- 
terity. It was not until well after 1900 that the dra- 
matic narrative possibilities of the cinema were de- 
veloped. 

Sensational Exploration of Movement 

The exploitation of the motion picture began in 
the Edison "Peep-Show Parlors." The first of these 
parlors was opened by the Holland Brothers on April 
14, 1894, at 1155 Broadway, New York. Here the 
first movie patrons paid an admission at the door 
that privileged them to pass down a row of ten or 
so Kinetoscopes in which they saw the motion pic- 
tures by peering through an eye-piece into a trunk- 
like cabinet. Because it was necessary to "peep" 
through an aperture to see the new novelty of pic- 
tures that moved, the Kinetoscope acquired the pop- 
ular pseudonym of "Peep-Show." And what a show 
it was! At the door was a frock-coated "ballyhoo 
barker" who declaimed the wonders of the new Edi- 
son achievement, while inside the fortunate ones 
who had managed to jockey themselves with the 
crowd into the place would be eagerly "peeping" at 
the "living pitchers" — the Edison marvel. 

The films were forty or perhaps fifty foot subjects 
showing such noted persons as Eugene Sandow, the 
Strong Man; Carmencita, the Dancer; Mae Lucas, 
the Gaiety Girl from the famous George Edwards' 



Girl Show; Annie Oakley, from Buffalo Bill's Wild 
West Show; Dr. Colton, who invented gas for den- 
tistry, was shown taking out a tooth; and Madame 
Bertholdi, the contortionist. Also there were bits 
showing Mexican knife throwers, boxing cats, Texas 
cowboys throwing lariats, trained dogs and fencing 
bouts. All these and other items of popular interest 
were duly recorded to satisfy the demand of the 
curious who wanted to see the pictures of objects in 
motion. 

Projector Dramatic Device 

Within a year there were several experimenters 
who devised projectors to remove the pictures from 
the peep boxes and throw them on a screen in life 
size. The most important of these were Louis and 
August Lumiere, who had perfected a small, light- 
weight combination camera and projector. With it 
they could go to the subject, while other cameras of 
this period were ponderous, and had to be anchored 
to a studio floor. Other experimenters contemporary 
with the Lumieres were primarily scientists, and as 
such they were concerned with the technical aspects 
of making pictures move. Fortunately for the inter- 
ests of the better cinema, the Lumieres had an inter- 
est equally important — that was the improvement of 
what the picture had o say. As a result, their pic- 
tures excelled and gave the public something be- 
sides just the novelty of pictures in motion. Subse- 
quent to the first public demonstration on March 22, 
1895, of the Lumiere Cinematographe, topical pic- 
tures from all points were brought to the screen. 
Wherever there occurred an historic event, there 
could be found a Cinematographe. The popular ap- 
proval accorded them served as a vanguard to lead 
other film producers afield for their pictures. 

Starting with 1896, the films reported every major 
event. At the William McKinley inaugural parade 
the cameras of E. H. Amet, Biograph, Edison and 
Lumiere could be seen vying with each other for 
points of vantage, and after the fashion of news- 
reelers that has existed ever since, they tried, as a 
newsreeler would say, "to score a beat" by getting 
to the screen first with the best picture. Biograph, 
as a result of its President McKinley picture, enjoyed 
an extended run at Hammerstein's Olympia Music 
Hall in New York, dating from October 12, 1896, 
which, by the way, was the premiere showing of 
Biograph pictures. 

Now comes a transition in motion picture history. 
The narrative aspects of the McKinley and other pic- 
pictures of 1896-97 catered to the popular demand 
that the films say something. They were no longer 
considered scientific curiosities and the public was 
no longer willing to pay to see nothing more than 
pictorial movement which from the first the scientists 



April, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seventeci 



had overdone in their eagerness to emphasize their 
achievement of pictures in motion. 

Queen Victoria, Pope Leo. Boer War 

Though many years were to pass before narra- 
tive plot was used in a screen picture, from this point 
on the film makers aspired to definite themes and to 
dramatic forms. The Biograph pictures of this time 
of Queen Victoria's Jubilee taken in London; the 
Boer War, taken in Africa; and those of Pope Leo 
XIII, taken in the Holy See, had incorporated in 
them a substantial screen value. To facilitate nar- 
ration, Edison increased the length of his pictures to 
seventy-five or one hundred feet. The Vitagraph, 
too, who had started in 1896, showing an Edison 
Peep-Show, were now making a few comedy films. 

The films had by now allied themselves very 
profitably with the prize-fight fans, who in their en- 
thusiasm for this form of sport furnished much need- 
ed capital which served in the interests of extending 
the motion picture as an industry. This financial 
impetus helped establish it and it furnished funds 
for greater efforts at a time when it was, as a literary 
or theatrical medium, still a foundling. Its profits 
and spectacularisms at this time brought to it many 
individuals who promoted the films. The reputation 
it then acquired has lasted long, although the influ- 
ences which gave it that reputation have passed into 
history. That is the story of many arts that have 
majored in public service, and is a situation that 
oddly enough is difficult to outgrow. 

The first motion picture prize fight was a bout 
between Michael Leonard and Jack Cushing, which 
was staged for the motion pictures in July, 1894, at 
the Edison studio. It came at a time when action 
was the chief asset and the main interest in a 
"movie." In that, and in the popularity of the par- 
ticipants, this fight, which was shown in the Peep- 
Shows, brought to the motion picture many fights in 
the following years. The fight was arranged by 
Otway and Gray Latham, and Samuel Tilden, Jr. 

To record it, Edison, in collaboration with Enoch 
Rector, constructed a special camera which would 
photograph 150 feet of film. This fight was immedi- 
ately followed by a more pretentious undertaking 
between James Corbett, then the heavyweight cham- 
pion, and Pete Courtney. Until 1912, practically 
every fistic event was duly recorded. On July 31, 
1912, the Sims Bill, which made interstate traffic in 
films unlawful, was passed by the United States 
Congress. The prize fight picture played no impor- 
tant part in the history of the European industry. 

II. 
NARRATIVE PICTURES 

It is difficult to ascertain just when the first nar- 
rative motion picture was made. 

There were story films as early as 1895. An 
example of this is the "L'Arroseur Arrose" or "The 
Sprinkler Sprinkled," made by the Lumieres, which 
showed the naughty boy kinking the garden hose, 
and the climax came when the gardener looked into 
the end of the hose. Edison made comics of a sim- 
ilar nature, as "In a Chinese Laundry." 

Among the more elaborate pictures of this time 
was "The Oberammergau Passion Play," made in 
New York by Rich G. Hollaman, president of the 
Eden Musee, and Albert G. Eaves. It was completed 
in January, 1898, in a length of 2,100 feet, and was 
sold to individuals who road-showed it through the 
United States. This was by far the most pretentious 
picture yet made, and for the first time much favor- 
able attention was directed toward the motion pic- 
ture as a dramatic medium. Several versions of 



"The Passion Play," made by others, followed it on 
the screen. Another picture, "The Life of an Ameri- 
can Fireman," is generally credited with being the 
first of the story-telling films. In it was incorporated 
a definite plot, and for the first time such dramatic 
devices as parallel action and cut-backs were used. 
And for the first time the hero — the fireman with gal- 
loping horses and smoke-spouting fire wagon — ar- 
rived just in time. 

With the making of the "Great Train Robbery," 
in the fall of 1903, motion picture history really be- 
gan. Its 740 feet of film carried to the farthest cor- 
ners of the world a story that had a particular appeal 
to the movie patrons of that time. It was considered 
the "ne plus ultra" and as such was used as a pat- 
tern by the picture producers during the nickelodeon 
period of pictures. Its simple plot, of the short story 
type, almost totally lacked characterization, but in- 
stead relied upon action for its appeal. There was 
the gun fire, mad movement, horses, and the hero 
element that was then thought to be the desired 
ingredient for the super-production. For the most 
part, this action type of plot was used until the 
motion picture industry availed itself of a star, or 
celebrity system, in 1910-12. "The Great Train 
Robbery" was remarkably like the present-day 
Westerns. 

The story was written, directed and photographed 
by Edwin S. Porter, who, in 1912 was associated with 
Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman in the formation 
of Famous Players. In the cast were Frank Hana- 
way, a stunt rider in the United States Cavalry; 
George Barnes, a performer at Huber's Wax Mu- 
seum in New York. (Barnes is the one who caps the 
climax by pointing a menacing gun, William S. Hart 
fashion, into the eye of the audience, and in that 
way the picture ends.) Max Aronson, later to be- 
come known as "Broncho Billy" Anderson, was in 
the cast, as well as Marie Murray, the "Phoebe 
Snow Girl" of the Lackawanna Railroad publicity 
campaigns. 

The popularity of "The Great Train Robbery" is 

(Turn to Page 22) 



GOLDEN GATE NEWSREELERS HIT THE DECK 

Left to right: Jack McHenry, Universal; Joe Ruck- 
er, Paramount; Eric Mayell, Fox Movietone; George 




Lyng, Hearst Metrotone; Frank Vail, Pathe; Nigger, 
the dog and Paul Heise, Fox Soundman, seated. 

Clad in all regulation marine safety devices the 
news-hounds sail forth on a treasure hunt story. 
Came a narrow escape from a watery grave, when 
the good ship, "Albertine," ran afoul of a reef. 
After waiting hours and hoisting distress signals to 
lure some help — it was discovered that the tide had 
gone out and all hands were able to walk ashore — 
minus the life belts. 



Eighteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE SECTIOJH 

— -r-^— — HAMILTON RIDDEL, EDITOR 




Tinting Home Movies 

— Hoiv Nev) Beauty Can B< Added to the Black and White Films — 



By 

F. HAMILTON 

RIDDEL 




ONG recognized by professionals as a pleas- 
ing asset of the motion picture screen, tinted 



film is likewise worthy of attention by ama- 
teur movie makers. And once having wit- 
nessed the satisfying results obtained by a tinted 
print on the home screen, movie makers are made 
all too aware of one fact: In many instances, ordi- 
nary black and white films leave something to be 
desired. However, new beauty can be added, even 
now, to one's plain black and white subjects — 
thanks to color-tinting. Nor is this coloring of film, 
by tinting, "too technical" or "complicated." 

While it is not the purpose of the present article 
to encompass an exhaustive discussion of tinting 
methods, it does seek, rather, to point out the pos- 
sibilities of tinted home movies. Procedure in tint- 
ing films, of course, will be dictated by the personal 
tastes of individual movie makers. And a reason- 
able mixture of imagination and care will yield 
worthwhile results. 

Tinted film is the type which gives the screen 
a single, over-all color or tint. For example, movies 
in pink, or green, or amber shades. The base of 
tinted film stock is colored, not the photographic 
image itself. 

Before the birth of the talkies, tinted film was 
extremely popular on the professional movie screen. 
For it built up certain "moods" and greater real- 
ism, in dramatic pictures; and added untold beauty 
to the screen travel short subjects. With the advent 
of sound-on-film, however, due to the exigencies of 
sound reproduction, this means of coloring film was 
dropped. "Cold," black and white shadows ruled 
the screen for some time. But tinted film eventually 
returned, more delicately tinted, to be sure, but none 
the less welcome. So it is that tinted film has con- 
tinued with all its pleasing effects. 

Various tints may be used in coloring personal 
movies, the following list being merely suggestive: 

Amber — Air scenes; landscapes; for general sub- 
jects, both interiors and exteriors. 

Blue — Night scenes; moonlight and snow. 

Green — Water scenes; forest and woods; fields 
and gardens; and in some cases for "gruesome" ef- 
fects. 

Lavender — Late evening; early morning; and 
hunting scenes. 

Pink — Scenes of babies; children; general sub- 



jects; fireside interiors; sunsets; burning buildings 
or explosions. 

Red — Fire scenes; explosions; special effects. 

Yellow — Brilliant sunshine scenes; at the beach 
or on the desert. 

In making a decision of what tints to use, it 
is advisable to bear in mind that the lighter hues 
will give greater screen illumination. Darker tints, 
such as red, should be used sparingly. Selection 
of tints will therefore depend to some extent upon 
the power _of your projector lamp. 

One should next decide whether an entire roll of 
film is to have color imparted to it, or only certain 
sequences. Generally speaking, for the sake of 
variety (that quality which should be striven for) it 
is preferable to tint each distinct sequence differenly. 
Single subject reels, on the other hand, are more 
readily adapted to a single tint; such as light amber 
or pink. In more remote cases, only individual 
scenes might contain color. 




Color Wheel 



Wheel P.attieter;4 J /« 



Color Holes - I /f " 



>R 



Tinting may be accomplished with any size or 
type of amateur motion picture film, although the 
method will vary according to the type of film being 
tinted. 

Familiar reversal film stock, being a single-film 
process (camera and projector film being one and 
the same) will require its base being dyed, after 
regular processing, in order to impart the desired 
color tint. Film laboratories can do this work, or 
if desired it may be done at home. In the latter 
case, simple tinting preparations are available to- 
gether with instructions for use. 

Users of negative-positive, which is a two-film 
process, have somewhat the advantage over single- 

(Turn to Page 23) 



April, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



Right Off the Reel Questions and Answers 



By F. Hamilton Riddel 




PRING Cleaning: About this time of year, 
with spring in the air and summer not far 
off, your camera is due for a cleaning. The 
next six months will mean a busy period 
of movie making, so take time off now and check 
over your camera. This will include cleaning lenses, 
oiling, checking proper speed, checking the take-up 
reel belt, and cleaning the camera's aperture plate. 

Natural Curl: When splicing frosted leaders onto 
a reel of film, take advantage of the natural curl 
of the film base. Make a splice so that each sec- 
tion fits this natural curl of the other. Such splices 
will be stronger and will last longer. 

Dull Base: The section of film which fits over 
the scraped lap of a splice is the base (shiny) side. 
A splice will be stronger if you will "dull" this shiny 
side with a common typewriter eraser. By so do- 
ing, the "dulling" process is accomplished in a neat 
manner. 

Identifying Reels and Cans: To label 400-foot 
reels and cans, for identification purposes, secure 
some half-inch adhesive tape. This tape adheres 
quickly and conveniently to the polished surface of 
the reels and cans. By placing a small strip of 
tape on a typewriter roller, the reel number and sub- 
ject may be easily typed onto the tape. Make two 
such labels — one for the reel itself, the other for the 
can. Be sure to affix the label for the can on the 
side of the can, for then it is easily seen when sev- 
eral cans are stacked together. Using adhesive tape 
as a label has a distinct advantage for, should it 
ever become necessary to re-classify reels and cans, 
the tape can be very conveniently removed. 

Scenes Lengths: Most scenes of a personal mo- 
tion picture film should not last longer than ten sec- 
onds on the screen, or about four feet of 16 mm. 
film. This is a good rule to remember when photo- 
graping. Many scenes are improved if they are re- 
duced to five or eight seconds. Have a good sense 
of what is interesting and you'll never project a 
picture that is jerky, because of scant footage; nor 
a boring one, due to excess film footage. 

Getting Ready for Summer: It doesn't seem too 
soon to mention summer and color. Those less for- 
tunate amateur cinematographers who do not have 
the opportunity of enjoying fair southern climes the 
year 'round perhaps appreciate better that summer 
and color are synonymous. With this thought in 
mind and if you have not yet made an initial trial 
of the natural color 16 mm. films — Dufaycolor and 
Kodachrome — the spring months offer a forerunner 
of summer's colorful subjects. So load up your 
camera with a roll of color film and sally forth. 
Make this first roll a test — both of the film and of 
your own ability to choose good color subjects. Fol- 
low the film manufacturer's exposure instructions 
and keep notes on your individual exposures and 
lighting conditions. Thus, when the color film has 
been processed, study carefully the results on the 

(Turn to Page 24) 



In the International Photographer for February, 
1936, a mistake was made in the answer to Question 
No. 7. The correct answer is that the Eastman Kodak 
Company has been making duplicates of 8 mm. film 
for more than a year. 

1. What is meant by the various terms, anti- 
halation or grayback. in speaking of such films? 

Each film manufacturer has its own particular 
term for such films. A special coating on the back 
of the film base minimizes the danger of halation 
(reflections) when photographing, thus rendering a 
more pleasing image. 

2. What is meant by "grain" in a cinefilm? 
In any film the picture image is composed of 

small clumps of silver which are embedded in the 
gelatine emulsion, coated on the film base. These 
small clumps of silver are the "grain." 

3. What is the difference in the amount of per- 
ceptible "grain" in fast film and slow film emul- 
sions? 

Speed film emulsions are necessarily somewhat 
more "grainy" than slower film stocks. However, 
the problem of "large grain, fast film versus small 
grain, slow film" has been well met by modern film 
manufacture. In addition to improved film manu- 
facture, proper processing in special "fine-grain" 
developers has minimized the effect of any per- 
ceptible grain in the fast films. 

4. May a camera be hand-held when using a 
telephoto lens? 

Conservatively speaking, a camera with a two- 
inch lens may be held in the hands. Experience 
has demonstrated, however, that far better results 
are obtained in telephoto work when a tripod is 
used. A somewhat faster camera speed also helps. 
And of course, with longer focal length telephoto 
lenses, a tripod is an absolute requirement for suc- 
cessful long distance shots. 

5. Occasionally one of my rolls of film turns 
out a complete loss. The frames are a blurred 
streak (a sort of multiple image) and are unsteady, 
etc. What is the cause? 

No doubt the condition of such rolls is the re- 
sult of losing the proper film loops in the camera. 
As is well known, there is a combination film move- 
ment in a movie camera, continuous and intermit- 
tent, and the film loops bridge the gap between the 
two. When these loops are lost the film moves con- 
tinuously past the lens aperture, thus ruining your 
pictures. Lost film loops are either the result of 
hurried and careless threading; or less frequently by 
a partially exposed film which having become "set" 
by lapse of time, loses loops when filming is re- 
sumed. Usually, when loops are lost, the camera 
mechanism will jam or labor, and thus warns you 
that something is wrong. Unfortunately, this is not 
always true of all cameras and an entire roll may 
be spoiled. Very careful threading of the camera 
is the best insurance against lost loop trouble. 

6. Does tinted positive film cost more than plain 
black and white? 

(Turn to Page 24) 



Twenty 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



LENS APERTURES VERSUS PRINTER POINTS 

(Continued from Page 10) 



was. The drop to the 100 and 150 mm. lenses with- 
out a corresponding increase in exposure or added 
lighting contrast to the scene gives flat under- 
exposed negatives incapable of being improved with 
forced development. Here, considering the low work- 
ing key of F:12 the remedy for the 75 and 100 mms. 
would be a three-quarter stop increase in exposure 
while the 150 mm. at F:63 would give it the de- 
sired density allowing latitude in developing either 
side of normal, producing a negative with satisfac- 
tory gradations and brilliancy, printing in the upper 
register of the printer. 

A further point to be considered in the use of 
long focal length lenses is the removal by proper 
filters of the luminous haze that affects the sensitive 
film adversely when not so corrected. 

This haze, a resultant of fine moisture particles 
in the atmosphere, produces a scattering effect in 
the violet and ultra-violet regions causing a diffusion 
of the light which upon reaching the more sensitive 
film (in comparison with the vision) causes a spread- 
ing ground-glass effect, making a flat over-accentu- 
ated condition quite different from the actual scene 
as the vision perceived it. Filters not too sharp cut- 
ting should be employed here giving normal cor- 
rection, as deep sharp cutting filters tend to over 
correctedness, again giving an effect not normal. 

Correct lens shades should be given considera- 
tion also, due to the narrow angle of the telephoto 
and the greater scattering of light within the camera 
causing slight fog that further increases the flat- 
ness. 

In another series of tests with a slightly lower 
light intensity the same result with certain modi- 
fications was brought out with the 25 mm., 50 mm. 
and 100 mm. lenses shot with the doubled stops 
from F:18 to F:2.3. 

F:9 was found to be here the desirable exposure 
for normal daylight (exteriors) under the laboratory 
processing conditions at hand. This gave latitude 
either way in development, enabling control over the 
density-contrast of the scene which if too high, could 
be lowered with decreased development, still giving 
a positive within the desired range yet retaining 
normal brilliancy and gradation. 

A further definite result was obtained: The ap- 
proximate ratio in printer points between the vari- 
ous lens stops which for all practical purposes was 
fairly consistent. This showed, as in the previous 
test, the gradual reduction in density and brilliancy 
of the longer lens though this was not as extreme 
where the exposure was near normal, as when de- 
cidedly under. 

As the results for the different lenses retained 
the same ratio toward themselves and each other, 
only the scale of the 50 mm. is here given. The 
printing scale is that ranging from point 1 to 22, 
it still being the predominating scale in use. 

The readings above 22 are given and accurate 
enough for a guide, but are almost useless except 
as a criterion for the kind of exposure not to get, 
as a negative printing that high except in excep- 
tional cases of lighting or flatness is far from de- 
sirable, the fine half-tones and modeling of the 
lights being opaqued to the extreme, thus undoing 
all the cameraman strove for. 



Lens 
50 mm. 
50 mm. 
50 mm. 
50 mm. 
50 mm. 
50 mm. 
50 mm. 



Aperture 
F:18 
F:12 
F:9 
F:6.3 
F:4.5 
F.-3.2 
F:2.3 



Printing 
Light 

7 

10 
15 
20 
25 
32 
38 



It will be observed that between the lowest two 
apertures where the under-exposure is pronounced 
the variation is only three printer points and too low 
on the scale. At F:9 it prints on light 15, has fine 
quality and capable of being "juggled" either way 
to its benefit if necessary and is a good basic ex- 
posure for normal exterior sunlight. 

Then with the various increases and doubling of 
the apertures it prints on 20, 25, 32 and 38 showing 
that F:6.3 is at the extreme top of the scale except 
where hazy flat conditions have prevailed; that 
F:4.5 is outside the printing range and the two 
higher stops valueless, save when lights are bad 
and heavy filters employed. 

As stated before, the inherent flatness still per- 
sists in the longer lenses, though there is a faint 
dropping off at the higher printing points that could 
be beneficial (due to the flatness of the lens and 
haze) counteracting the great build in density. 

The ratios of printer points to lens apertures re- 
main fairly constant, however, with about a three 
point difference at F: 12, jumping five points for the 
F:9, 6.3 and 4.5, then increasing to six to eight points 
as the scale is exceeded and over-exposure carried 
beyond the extreme. 

While these readings are not absolute, depend- 
ing on differing processing conditions (both negative 
and positive) and slight variations in vision between 
various individuals, they do contribute somewhat 
as an aid in correcting and guiding where the 
camerman is in doubt. 

They do establish that where exposure is lean 
with the 25 and 50 mm. lenses, the longer focal 
lengths will be below the minimum at the- same ex- 
posure, therefore an exposure increase. varying from 
a half a stop to one and a half is essential to pro- 
duce a good negative. 

That where exposure is more normal this varia- 
tion decreases slightly, yet persistent enough to de- 
mand attention and correction. 

(Turn to Page 22) 




April, 1936 The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Twenty-one 



QUALITY 



PRODUCERS of many special-purpose 
pictures must have Eastman Super X Pan- 
chromatic Negative because of its unusual 
characteristics. And the bulk of the in- 
dustry's big feature hits regularly benefit 
by its unmatched photographic quality. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, Fort 
Lee, New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN SUPER X 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 



Twenty-two 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



LENS APERTURES VERSUS PRINTER POINTS 

(Continued from Page 20) 



That the telephoto lens demands careful filter 
correction and proper shading in the way of a lens 
hood, to overcome the flatness due to the greater 
glass separation, magnification and atmospheric 
haze that is so pronounced with greater distances. 

They give a guide if carefully tabulated as to the 
relative differences in printer points of the various 
lens apertures in relation to themselves and in rela- 
tion to the scale on the printing machine. 



Finally, they show the limits to which under- 
exposure can be carried and still be "forced" in 
development to obtain a passable negative; and 
the limits of over-exposure consistent with good 
negative quality and printing density. And they do 
assure the elimination of both extremes, thus setting 
a minimum and maximum range conducive to the 
benefit of both the cameraman and the laboratory. 



EVOLUTION OF THE MOTION PICTURE STORY 



(Continued from Page 17) 



attested to by the fact that it has never entirely left 
the screen since is first night at Hammerstein's. It 
did not arrive in Australia until 1910, and a few 
years ago it was synchronized to a sound track. 
Statisticians may some day conjecture the number 
in billions of persons who saw that picture. 

Ill 
NICKELODEON PICTURES 

The motion pictures of the period of 1900 to 1910 
may be divided into three general classes. There 
were the topical pictures that later evolved to the 
newsreel; the action pictures that relied upon a fast- 
moving plot; and the melodrama with a broad at- 
tempt at characterization. 

The melodrama had its inception largely with 
the French pictures, particularly those of Pathe. They 
first became popular about 1905, at which time they 
spread to other countries. For many years the 
French pictures of this type were unsurpassed in 
quality; that is, judging by the accepted standards 
of the day. 

In the "melerdramer," as they were known, the 
players were required to exaggerate their gestures, 
and to overact in an attempt to convey the story, 
because the explanatory title had not yet come into 
use. For purposes of emphasis and dramatization, 
various stock postures were used by the players to 
signify ideas. For instance, indifference was ex- 
pressed by two or three large shoulder shrugs; in- 
dignity and disdain were implied by one of those 
drawn-up poses, with one arm akimbo, while look- 
ing down the nose; rage was expressed by holding 
the arms aloft while pumping them up and down, 
or by pulling the hair. Villainy was conveyed by 
leaning forward and elaborately looking about with 
rolling eyes. 

The heroine always covered her face and tear- 
fully heaved her shoulders after the villainous in- 
sult. The hero usually reproved the villain by shak- 
ing his finger at him. The badge of the villain was 
a long moustache, while the hero could be told by 
his handsome features and faultless coiffure. Some 
heroes affected nicely curled eyelashes. 

The melodramas were slow moving and impor- 
tance was placed in characterization. The action 
picture, in contrast, stressed movement, and in it the 
player was not permitted a moment of idleness. 
Usually there was a chase. It started, perhaps, by 
the bad boy stealing an apple from a vendor who 
immediately tried to catch him. In a block there 
would be a dozen persons in pursuit. At other times 
the villain would be pursued by the sheriff and an 
inordinately large posse. Very often during the film- 
ing of one of these pictures the director could be 
heard shrieking, "Faster — keep moving." 

In both classes the story was brief and con- 
densed. In the majority of pictures the narration 



and continuity were so poorly arranged that affluent 
theaters found it necessary to have a "spieler" who 
stood by the side of the screen and improved on the 
pictures with apropos comments and explanations. 
The photography was, at times, of such poor quality 
that it was impossible to decide what the picture 
was supposed to represent. 

At first the motion pictures were shown in vacant 
stores which were equipped with folding chairs. In 
the provincial districts the films were carried by 
itinerant showmen and were exhibited in carnival 
tents between the acts. The tents were made of 
black canvas, in order to darken them sufficiently 
for showing the pictures. They were about twenty 
by forty feet in size, and as many as one hundred 
folding chairs were crowded into this space. Very 
often they were so crowded the film from the projec- 
tors unwound in the spectators' laps. Since that was 
before the projectors had take-up arrangements for 



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T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-three 



the film, it unwound from the projector into baskets. 

The poorer showmen had a "center-pole tent," 
that is, one that had a pole in the center for support- 
ing the tent. The affluent ones proudly used the 
newer type tent, the "split-pole." In this tent the 
projector could be set in the center with no interfer- 
ence from a pole. The projectors sat on shoulder- 
high platforms until about 1906, when specially de- 
signed showhouses made their appearance. Outside 
the tent entrance, as was practiced at the "peep- 
show parlors," a "barker" proclaimed and exhorted 
the passers-by to see the "living pictures." Also, 
they resorted to attracting attention by the use of 
phonographs. These phonographs had large horns 
six feet long and three feet wide. Their cylindrical 
records, three or four inches in diameter, could be 
heard a block away. In some of the larger cities the 
films were booked on circuits as part of a vaudeville 
program. 

Between the pictures, particularly those shown in 
the vacant stores, or provincial town "opera-house," 
a series of slides of the song hits of the day were 
projected, accompanied by a rather worn piano 
down front. The numbers, such as "Love Me and the 
World Is Mine," and the more sentimental songs 
were popular. During this intermission a vendor 
noisily sold candy up and down the aisle. 
END OF PART ONE. 



TINTING THE HOME MOVIES 

(Continued from Page 18) 

film reversible stock. For, in this case, tinted posi- 
tive stock is available for making prints from the 
negative. This tinted positive stock is offered in 




Davidge Developing System 

Developing outfits, 25 feet to 1000 feet. Light, compact 
and efficient. The ideal equipment for small studio labor- 
atories, expedition work, schools and the home. You can 
get superior results at low cost with the patented Roto- 
Tank processing. We also manufacture The Davidge Im- 
proved Celluloid Apron for use with our units or as a 
replacement apron for any of the developing tanks using 
the 16 or 35 M.M. sizes. Bakelite spooling discs, negative 
tightwinders and synchronizing machines at attractive 
prices. Send for the new illustrated catalog and price list. 

Hollywood Roto-Tank Ltd. 

5225 Wilshire Blvd. Los Angeles, Calif. 



various colors, with the tints inherent in the base. 
Thus an even, delicate tint is easily obtained by 
using tinted positive when making prints. Tinted 
positive is developed in the same manner as plain 
black and white, no additional processing steps be- 
ing necessary. 

For those movie makers who, whether they use 
reversal or negative-positive film systems, do not 
care to delve into the respective methods for tint- 
ing their particular stock, one of the simplest alter- 
native tinting devices is the color wheel. 

The color wheel is quickly attached to any home 
projector. Any film — already tinted or black and 
white — of any size, may be used with the color 
wheel. It also has an extra advantage not obtain- 
able by any other method of tinting film. At the 
will of the projectionist, movies may be shown on 
the screen either in plain black and white, or in 
tints. 

The drawing accompanying this article shows a 
simple and inexpensive home-made color wheel, di- 
mensioned to fit the average home projector. The 
device consists of two circular pieces of heavy card- 
board, with four color holes (apertures) cut into 
them. A selection of colored gelatines — in this case 
amber, pink and green — are "sandwiched" between 
the two pieces of cardboard, the latter being glued 
together. One aperture is purposely left blank; this, 
for projecting plain black and white, or Dufaycolor 
and Kodachrome natural color, flms. After the two 
pieces of cardboard are glued together, the neat- 
ness of the job is enhanced by application of linen 
mending tape to the circumference of the color wheel. 
The color wheel is then pivoted on a small metal 
bracket, the latter being attached to the front of the 
projector. The color wheel must be mounted so 
that the four color apertures will revolve, in tur- 
ret fashion, in front of the projection lens. 

With a little practice in manipulating the color 
wheel, scenes may be variously tinted to suit the 
personal taste of the operator. Should a cue be 
necessary, a small pin-hole may be punched into 
several concluding frames of a sequence. Two or 
three frames so punctured are sufficient. The pin- 
hole should be made at the upper right-hand corner 
of the frames. This signal ,or cue, in use, is identical 
to the "change-over" in the professional field. While 
the pin-holes appear only momentarily on the screen, 
such a cue gives the home-movie operator warn- 
ing — and time — to change the color wheel's aper- 
ture to any other desired tint selection. 

Color-tinting films is another phase of amateur 
movie making that will enhance your movies, and 
which will win praise from your home-movie audi- 
ences. It is well worth a trial. 



COLOR STUFF 



With the advent of color we are beset with many 
"firsts," if you know what that means. For instance 
Edward T. Estabrook shot the first feature color pic- 
ture with sound. 

When the rush for color came in 1928-29 he was 
head of the camera department for Technicolor and 
held the big job for several years. He was first to 
train a class in color cinematography. 

During the past year Mr. Estabrook has been em- 
ployed at Universal. "The Red Skin," "Song of the 
West" and "Fifty Million Frenchmen" were some of 
his color pictures. 



'Twenty-four 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



RIGHT OFF THE REEL 

(Continued from Page 19) 

screen. Through this experience, you will be bet- 
ter prepared to shoot scenes in full natural lifelike 
color when summer rolls around, and get results 
that will bring everlasting satisfaction. 

"Cine-Kodak News": Devoted to the interests of 
amateur motion pictures, "Cine-Kodak News" is an 
attractive periodical published bi-monthly by the 
Eastman Kodak Company. Each issue of the "Cine- 
Kodak News" contains concise hints and many illus- 
trations that are of interest to all 8 mm. and 16 mm. 
filmers; together with current announcements of new 
Eastman amateur cinematographic equipment. 
Movie-makers may obtain a copy of the "Cine- 
Kodak News" by addressing the Eastman Kodak 
Company at Rochester, N. Y. 




WANDERING WITH THE LEICA 

(Continued from Page 3) 

negatives and the result was that we all spent three 
hours tying different colored threads through the per- 
forations indicating the number of prints desired. I 
should have liked to have been in the darkroom 
when the Japanese printer was trying to decide 
whether a piece of thread was pink or gray, under 
the red light. 

Developing and Printing 

The developing and printing done in the Orient is 
excellent, if it is done in an accredited place. I took 
my work to the Leitz dealers and the results were 
good and inexpensive. It is very costly to buy sup- 
plies in the Orient, though, and enough film should 
be taken along for the entire trip. In China the firms 
do not carry long rolls, and only single loads are 
available. 

Custom Officers Courteous 

Upon entering Japan there was a little difficulty 
with the customs, but they were very courteous and 
merely inspected my exposed film rolls. In China 
there was no trouble on entering and the camera 
can be used everywhere. The Japanese rules on 
photography are easily ascertained and, if one will 
be careful to ask when in doubt, trouble can be 
avoided. Even if one does make a mistake and is 
taken into custody, as a friend of mine was, he is 
given courteous treatment and the experience really 
becomes an interesting one. 

Great Field for Photographers 

There are enough intriguing subjects in the Orient 
to warrant careful choosing on the part of the pho- 
tographer and the use of all the devices he can 
evolve to take pictures unobserved will prove valu- 
able. Some of wrinkled old faces, the eager ones 
and the beautiful geisha faces can be caught only if 
the subject is unaware that the camera is pointed at 
him. Therefore my advice to all enthusiasts is to 
come well prepared with plenty of his favorite film, 
a good meter for use in the smaller streets and inside 
shrines and buildings, a right angle view finder, and 
his trip to the Orient will remain with him always on 
his film record. 



International Photographer 

$2 5 ° A YEAR 
In the United States 



NEW NATURAL COLOR CAMERA HAILED 

By Karl A. Barlebex, Jr., F.R.P.S. 

HE MIKUT Color System is here! With 
America eager for the latest advances in 
color photography, the Mikut outfit is hailed 
the outstanding system by authorities. 
Already a number of leading newspapers and syn- 
dicates have purchased one or more complete Mikut 
units, and the time is not far off when you will be 
greeted by natural color pictures in your daily news- 
papers and favorite magazines. Indeed, already 
some papers have started to print special color sec- 
tions, the pictures made with the Mikut camera. 

The Mikut camera is a one-shot color camera 
producing three negatives simultaneously on a sin- 
gle plate, each negative measuring 4x4 cm. Its 
dimensions are 3 3 /4x4x6 inches; weight, 3 pounds; 
lens, fully corrected Mikutar; shutter, latest model 
Compur. A built-in range finder assures complete 
freedom from out-of-focus pictures. 

Of great interest is the projector which is used for 
projecting color pictures upon a screen and also for 
making direct enlargements. It is easily portable, 
uses high-intensity, low-voltage lamps, does not gen- 
erate excessive heat, requires no experience, and is 
absolutely safe. 

The Mikut Color System, employing the camera, 
projector, and various accessories, is not only for the 
press, but for professional color photographers and 
amateurs, too. Many of the leading specialists in 
natural color photography for advertisements and 
illustrations are now using it. The precision, sim- 
plicity and accomplishments of the Mikut make it 
the ideal color system for amateur use. Its flexibility 
makes it the ideal amateur and all-purpose color 
outfit. 

Color photography has suddenly forged ahead 
by leaps and bounds during the past year, and the 
Mikut comes just in the nick of time as the answer to 
a complete outfit which will accommodate the vari- 
ous variations of color. Methods for color photog- 
raphy have come and gone, but somehow we feel 
that the Mikut system will remain because it is fun- 
damentally sound in principle and operation. When 
the press takes up something as enthusiastically as 
it has taken up the Mikut outfit, you can rest assured 
that it is "the goods." You will see and hear more 
about the Mikut as time goes on. In the meantime, 
if you are interested in the production of natural 
color pictures, either for projection or for prints, or 
both, write for descriptive literature. Start the sum- 
mer right by using more color pictures. 

The sales rights for the United States are handled 
by the Photo Marketing Corp., 152 West 42nd Street, 
New York City. Amateurs, institutions of learning, 
museums and others may direct their inquiries to 
this firm. Professional and news photography sales 
are accommodated by the Raygram Corporation, 
425 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

(Continued from Page 19) 

No. All amateur-size positive, plain or tinted, 
is the same price. 

NOTE: As a service to amateur movie makers, 
we extend a cordial invitation to write in questions 
which will be replied to in this department. Address 
all such letters to: 

Questions and Answers Department, 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 

1605 North Cahuenga Avenue, 

Hollywood, California. 



'April, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 

The Archaeology of the Motion Picture 

By Earl Theisen 

(Continued from Feb., '36) 



Tzventy-fit e 



In the meantime Thomas A. Edison had assigned 
his co-worker, William Kennedy Laurie-Dickson, to 
the problem of the motion picture. During 1887 their 
experiments and devices were patterned after the 
principle of the early cylinder phonograph. This 
line of experiments was proved impractical and was 
followed by other methods that utilized, besides the 
available photographic mediums, long sensitized 
paper bands. The trend of the experiments was 
altered when Laurie-Dickson attended a lecture at 
the New York Camera Club, at which time he saw 
the first of the Eastman Celluloid Film demonstrated. 
When Edison saw a sample he told Dickson in his 
characteristic manner: "That's it, now work like hell!" 

Laurie-Dickson completed a rough copy of the 
Kinetoscope which was ready for demonstration on 
Edison's return from Paris in 1889. This demonstra- 
tion is said to have been held on October 6, 1889. 
In the files of the Eastman Kodak Company is the 
record of the first order of motion picture film that 
was used in this demonstration. It is dated Septem- 
ber 2, 1889, and is for the sum of $2.50, to cover the 
charges for a roll of Kodak film. 20 

Edison applied for a U. S. patent on August 24, 
1891, which was granted August 31, 1897, as No. 
589,168. The device it covered, "The Kinetoscope," 
was first shown commercially April 14, 1894. Though 
it was a "Peep-Show" (the pictures were seen by 
looking in an eyepiece) it used film of the same 
width, sprockets and perforations and embodied 
general principle still in use today and which made 
possible and crystallized the motion picture vogue 
throughout the world. Due to the popularity of the 
Living Pictures of Edison, several endeavored to 
make devices to project pictures in motion to a screen 
as was accomplished with the magic lantern. 

Louis and August Lumiere were granted a French 
Patent on February 13, 1895, on a projector, and 
their first public demonstration was held on March 
22 of this same year. The "Cinematographe," as 
they called their device, was a camera, printer and 
projector combined, and due to its mobility and com- 
pactness it could be carried to the subject or event 
which as a result made the Cinematographe some- 
thing of a popular reporter from the very first, while 
the contemporary equipment of others was too bulky 
and heavy to be easily moved. 

Others to project pictures this same year were 
Woodville Latham, who had a press showing in New 
York of his Pantopticon on April 26, and Thomas 
Armat and C. F. Jenkins in Washington, who col- 
laborated to make a projector which was shown in 
August, 1895. It had a beater movement which was 
not successful. At this time another projector with 
a Geneva Star Movement was started and was suc- 
cessfully finished independently by Armat, the rights 
and patents of it being acquired from Armat by Edi- 
son, who manufactured it commercially as the Vita- 
scope. The Vitascope was made and sold by Edison, 
who at the same time continued making his Kineto- 
scope Peep-Shows. In England, Robert Paul and 
Birt Acres completed a projector with a Geneva 
Movement in the fall of this same year. In Ger- 
many, Oscar Messter demonstrated a projector in 
1896. 

The ancients had struggled with chisel and stone 
from which evolved the printer's ink and paper, can- 
vas and paint as a means of recreating events. Now 



the scientists brought into being a new medium of 
expression, the celluloid and silver. They had suc- 
cessfully completed their task of animating pictures 
and in so doing created an international language. 
They took the young motion picture, in the year 
1895, to the doorsteps of the artists and left it there 
to be taught to speak and to educate it in drama- 
turgic art. 

REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES 

1 "Chinesische Schattenspiele," Wilhelm Grube, Munchen, 1915. 

' J La Grande Encyclopedia, 1902, Vol. 25, pp. 377-378. 

3 "Parlour Magic — Chinese Shadow Shows," 5th edition, 1861, 
W. Kent and Company, London, pp. 56, 58. 

4 This is evidently a reference to Ptolemy's "Optics," written 
about 130 A.D., of which two copies are known to exist, one in 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and the other in the Bodleian Li- 
brary, Oxford. In this manuscript is a description of the phe- 
nomena of spinning colored wheels. 

''Histoire du Cinematographe, G. H. Coissac, pub. Gauthier- 
Villars, Paris, 1925. 

''Illustrated catalogue of the Will Day Collection at the South 
Kensington Museum of the Cinema, W. E. I. Day, London, 1930. 

7 For further detailed information see "The Magic Lantern 
Manual," 2nd edition, W. I. Chadwick, 1886, Scoville Photo Series 
No. 19. 

s "Puppets, Ancient and Modern," Francis J. Ziegler, Harper's 
New Monthly. Vol. 96, 1896, p. 85. 

'•'"Explanation of an Optical Deception in the Appearance of 
the Spokes of Wheel Seen Through Vertical Apertures,'' P. M. 
Roget, Phil. Trans. Royal Society, 115, 1825, pp. 131-140. 

K '"Living Pictures," Hopwood and Foster, 2nd edition, Hatton 
Press, London, 1915, pp. 5, 8. (This book first published in 1899 
contains a good survey of the early pre-screen cinematic devices.) 

u "On a Peculiar Class of Optical Deception," Michael Faraday, 
J. Royal Institution, 1, (New Series), 1831, p. 205. 

12 "Lettre sur une Illusion d'Optique," J. A. F. Plateau (Ann. 
de Chimie et de Phys.) (2) XLVIII, 1831, p. 281. 

13 J. Soc. Motion Picture Engineers, vol. XX, No. 3, March, 1933; 
p. 249 for a chronological survey of devices by Earl Theisen. 

14 A list of the more notable devices would include: Plateau's 
Anorthoscope, 1836 (dealing with the theory of Faraday's Wheel), 
also Plateau's Phantasmascop, 1834; Stampfer s Kaleidorama or 
Phantascope, 1835 (similar to Plateau's Phenakistoscope); Wen- 
ham's Kinetoscope, 1852 (Edison chose this name for his appara- 
tus); besides Plateau, Poppe, Savart and Muller each made a 
Stroboscope; Rose's Kalotrope, 1856; Langlois and Angier's Kine- 
scope and Photoscope, 1868; Linnett's Kineograph, 1868 (animated 
pictures in book form); Laing's Motorgraph, 1865, besides Beale 
in 1866, Brown, 1869, and Hughes, 1884, invented Choreutoscopes; 
Topler and Radau. Vibroscope, 1867, Variations of the "Wheel of 
Life" were made by Clerk-Maxwell, 1869, and Ross, 1871; there 
are about fifty others who varied the principle of the Wheel of 
Life and then called their devices by another name); Messonier 
Zoopraxoscope, 1877, Donisthorpe, Kinesetograph, 1878; Reynaud, 
besides the Prazinoscope, 1877, devices the Theatriaxinoscope or 
La Toupee-fantoche, in 1889; Marey, assisted by Demeny, Chrono- 
graph (which was known in 1893 as Photochronographe, or 
Chronomatograph), 1882; and Ottomar Ancheutz, Tachyscope, 
1889. 

1 A further list of the names of devices prior to the advent of 
the screen include (as taken from page 24, "Animated Pictures." 
C. F. Jenkins, pub. C. F. Jenkins, Washington, D. C, 1898), Cri- 
terioscope, Wondorscope, Cosmoscope, Anarithmoscope, Pano- 
ramograph, Katoptukum, Zoeoptotrope, Cinograph, Hypnoscope. 
Centograph, X-ograph, Electroscope, Cinagraphoscope. Crabo- 
scope, Viletoscope, Cinematoscope, Mutoscope, Animaloscope, 
Kineatograph, Rayoscope, Motiscope, Kinotigraph, Venetrope, 
Vitrescope, Zinematograph, Vitopticon, Stinnetiscope, Daramiscope, 
Lobsterscope, Corminograph, Scenamotograph, Pictorialograph, 
Kinegraphoscope, Vileograph, Kinevitograph, Mophotoscope, Move- 
mentoscope, Touniatoscope, Vilophotoscope, Waterscope, Vision- 
scope, Phonendoscope, Heliographoscope, Pantobiograph, Chrono- 
photographoscope, Vileocigraphoscope, Pantomingraph, Ammoti- 
scope, Acheograph, Lifeoscope, Sygmographoscope, Cieroscope, 
Stereoptigraph, Eragraph, Moto-Photoscope, Thropograph, Mimico- 
scope, Musculariscope, Involograph, Shadographoscope, Counter- 
fivoscope, Realiphotoscope, Salfseminograph, Getthemoneygraph, 
Parlorgraph, Klondikoscope, Scenoscope, Tropograph. 

"'This intermittent was a variation of the present Geneva Cross 
or "star and pin ' movement. 

( Turn to Page 30) 



Twenty-six 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



Production Use Tested the 
"Ultra H. I. Arc" 



By Elmer C. Richardson, 

(Mole-Richardson, Inc.) 



A 


N 






T is not often that 
a new piece of 
c i n e t e c h n i cal 
equipment can 
be proven by actual use 
on an important produc- 
tion before its introduc- 
tion to the industry. Yet 
the ultimate proof of 
equipment is its practical 
utilization; a single day's 
work on the set can often 
reveal flaws which pass 
undetected through the 
most exhaustive of labo- 
ratory tests. 

The Mole - Richardson 
"Ultra H. I. Arc" spot- 
lamp, which makes its 
formal bow to the indus- 
try this month, is one of 
the few devices which 
has had the advantage 
of being previewed on 
actual production. One 
of a series of new arc 
lighting units designed 
and built especially to 
meet the requirements of Technicolor's three-color 
process, the "Ultra H. I. Arc" emerged from the 
laboratory-test stage of its development just as Cine- 
matographer William Skall, photographing Pioneer 
Productions' "Dancing Pirate," needed a battery of 
high-power arc spotlamps to illuminate a sequence 
of important dance numbers on an unusually large 
set. The new lamps went to work immediately; 
and so successful did they prove that instead of 
returning to the factory for further testing or modi- 
fication, they stayed on with Skall to finish the pic- 
ture. The announcement of the new lamps has, in 
fact, been withheld until the completion of the pro- 
duction proved beyond doubt that no slightest 
change was necessary to make them, to arc light- 
ing, what the "Solarspot" has been to the incan- 
descent field. 

The "Ultra H. I. Arc" is a 150 ampere, high in- 
tensity rotary carbon arc spotlight. Scarcely half 
the size of a conventional 36-inch Sun Arc, the new 
lamp, at normal working beam-spreads, consider- 
ably exceeds the "36" in power. As it is fitted with 
a "Morinc" lens of the same type as the one used 
on the "Solarspot," the light is distributed with al- 
most perfect uniformity at all beam-spreads from 
the tightest spot-beam to a maximum flooded spread 
of 48 degrees. A newly designed carbon-feeding 
mechanism gives an unequalled steadiness of burn- 



ing, and special carbons give a light considerably 
whiter than is usual in high-intensity arcs. 

The design and performance of the "Morinc" lens 
is familiar to every "Solarspot" user. With this type 
of optics, it is not only possible to use a faster lens, 
of shorter focal length, thereby collecting the light 
more efficiently, but to give each individual zone 
of the lens the curvature best suited to the work 
assigned to it. Thus it is possible to overcome both 
the inherent inefficiency of conventional condensing- 
lens spotlights, and the optical aberrations which 
produce dark centers in the flooded beams of con- 
ventional reflecting spotlights. The use of this type 
of optical system to collect the light from a high 
intensity arc eliminates the objectionable element- 
shadows seen in most mirror-arc spotlights, since the 
elements supporting the carbons cannot cast their 
shadows into the beam. 



the carbon-feeding mechanism, two 

were sought: Silent operation, and 

The use of silent gearing in the 

drive has silenced the mechanism 

I. Arc" to a point where both labo- 

recording engineers, and practical 

have proved that the lamp can be 

feed operating, within ten feet of 



In designing 
important ends 
steady burning, 
carbon-feeding 
of the "Ultra H. 
ratory tests by 
use on the set 
used, with the 
the microphone. 

Steady burning is achieved by careful attention 
to detail in the design and operation of the carbon 
feed. In a high intensity arc, the major portion of 
the light comes from a glowing ball of incandescent 
gas which forms in the crater of the positive carbon. 
If the positive crater is not symmetrical, this gas- 
ball will waver, and the light will be unsteady. Re- 
search into this crater-formation showed that regard- 
less of the carbons used, or electrical safeguards 
employed, if the carbon rotated too slowly, the 
crater could not be kept symmetrical. Accordingly, 
in the "Ultra H. I. Arc," the carbons are rotated at 
a speed considerably higher than has hitherto been 
customary. Intermittently feeding a carbon, in ad- 
dition to creating noise, will be likely to disturb the 
symmetrical maintenance of the positive crater and 
the constancy of the gas-ball. In the "Ultra H. I. 
Arc," the carbons are ndt only rotated faster, but fed 
continuously. As a result, the light-flux does not 
vary in excess of plus-or-minus five per cent during 
a burning period of twenty minutes. 

Since the advent of sound, it has been customary 
to provide a means of temporarily stopping the 
carbon-feed to quiet an arc when it is used close 
to the microphone. This will inevitably disturb the 
steadiness of the light; therefore in the "Ultra H. I. 
Arc," thanks to efficient electro-mechanical silencing, 
the feed does not need to be stopped; it can, how- 



A shot from "Danc- 
ing Pirates," Pioneer 
Pictures. On the 
swinging boom is Will 
Kline with a Techni- 
color camera. Direc- 
tor Lloyd Corrigan is 
the gentleman with 
the pipe and William 
Skall is at his side. 
Note the lamp rail 
with the old MR 36 
Cineart lamps and the 
new M-R-Ultra H-l- 
Arc lamps. The big 
lamps diffuse only 
about 1/3 the light 
of the smaller ones. 
Bill Thomas, stills. 




ever, be retarded when necessary, without seriously 
impairing the constancy of the light for short 
periods. 

The "Ultra H. I. Arc" is quite similar in appear- 
ance to its smaller companion-unit, the 120 ampere 




CAMERA & PROP 
RENTALS 

Camera Supply Co. 

1515 Cahuenga Blvd. 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Ruddy Ceraus, Manager 
CLadstone 2404 

Nite Phone CLadstone 6583 
Cable Address — "CAMERAS" 



"H. I. Arc," and only slightly larger. All operating 
controls are conveniently grouped at the rear of the 
lamp-house, and the auxiliary grid is demountable, 
so that the lamp and its grid may be handled sepa- 
rately when the lamp is put on a parallel or over- 
head lamprail. The elevation of the lamp on its 
pedestal, instead of being affected by the usual tele- 
scoping tubes and clamp collars, is controlled by 
a convenient crank, operating the lift through irre- 
versible gears. 

In actual production use, the lamp was found 
to be all its designers expected. Designed around 
a 20-inch lens, it is obviously more compact than 
the 36-inch mirror Sun Arcs with which it was 
used, and thus it could be used in places where 
a larger lamp could not be set up. When high levels 
of illumination were needed, a space which would 
be crowded with two Sun Arcs proved ample foi 
three "Ultra H. I. Arcs," and the sections where 
there was not enough room for two of the big re- 
flector lamps (though their light was needed) suf- 
ficed generously for a Sun Arc and an "Ultra H. I. 
Arc." The wider range of useful beam divergences 
proved valuable, and the flatter field of the new 
unit's beam did much to simplify the problem of 
lighting the big, stage-built exterior sets. 

The silence and simplicity of the new units won 
the favor of both the sound and electrical crews. 
Retrimming, focusing adjustments, and the like were 
much easier, especially on the crowded spot-rails; 
and as one of the recording staff phrased it, "The 
Ultras are the only big lamps that we never hear!" 

Actual use also proved that at all working beam- 
spreads — divergences of 1 8 degrees or over — the new 
lamps, for all their compactness, produce a beam 
averaging more than 40 per cent greater intensity 
than that of the Sun Arc. The elimination of the 
central shadows in projected beams obviates the 
need for much corrective diffusion, ineviiably in- 
creases this margin. In a word, actual production 
use has proved that the "Ultra H. I. Arc" makes 
lighting natural-color pictures simpler, quicker, and 
more precise. 



Twenty-eight 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 




A Voice From Nippon 

A Rapid Firr Interview with Hurry Mimura 



Harry A. Mimura, a member of Local 659, one 
of the brightest young Japanese in the motion pic- 
ture world, and who is a graduate of the Holly- 
wood studios, is here from Tokyo to buy photo- 
graphic equipment for the P. C. L., the big production 
corporation of Japan. 

In a rapid fire interview the other day Mr. Mi- 
mura touched upon the following highlights of the 
cinema in his native land. Said Mr. Mimura: 



Japan sends no pictures to China, but a con- 
siderable footage is sent to Manchukuo for the 
Japanese who are settled there. 



The Japanese purchase most of their motion pic- 
ture equipment from the United States. The pro- 
ducers have made some flattering tests, but the cost 
was so near the same that it was deemed best 
for the time being to buy in America. 



Next to Japanese and American the English pic- 
tures are most popular in Nippon, but of the for- 
eign trade America has the world beaten. 



Japanese producers believe in television, but 
they feel that the time for its advent has not yet 
arrived. They, have, however, their ears to the 
ground. 



Construction of new theatres is active and of 
style up-to-the-minute. The Japanese have every- 
thing that may be found in the best show houses 
in America and England. 



The motion picture producers of Japan are not 
yet ready to attempt the production of feature pic- 
tures of Japanese subjects for the foreign markets. 
Only shorts are made now, but the time will come 
when the beautiful Japanese folk-lore is done into 
pictures — that the whole world will understand. 



The Japanese are not particularly intrigued with 
American color in pictures. They will tell you that 
the color is too "strong" and that it is too expen- 
sive, but they are researching in color on their own 
account and who knows 'what they will bring forth. 

P. C. L. is the largest and most up-to-date labora- 
tories in the Orient. It has a machine shop as good 
as any in the United States and the only one in 
Japan. One interesting item of news is that this 
shop has just completed a 16 mm. camera and pro- 
jector — the first ever turned out in the Orient. 



Mitchell camera has become the favorite of the 
major studios of Japan. 



Last year the favorite foreign pictures in Japan 
were "It Happened One Night," "Informer," "Escape 
Me Never." 



The leaders among foreign stars in Japan during 
the past two or three years were Shirley Temple, 
Gary Cooper, Frederic March, Miriam Hopkins, 
Charles Laughton, Clark Gable, Joan Crawford and 
Claudette Colbert. 



The Japanese art as seen and remembered by 
the passing generation (as the marvelous pictures on 
Japanese fans) has not departed. The old masters 
are still there, but the Nipponese are a smart peo- 
ple and their artists are not above modernizing their 
up-to-date art — and they are certainly making a 
success of it. 



The length of the feature pictures produced by 
the Japanese averages 7000 feet. 



An innovation in Tokyo is a theatre devoted to 
newsreel entertainment. Its program, in addition to 
the newsreel, is composed of travelogues, cartoons, 
educational and industrial films, novelties, etc. The 
program runs one hour and costs 7 cents in United 
States money. It has an up-to-date orchestra and 
has scored a great success. 



Japanese cameramen, working in the P. C. L. stu- 
dios, photograph five feature pictures per year, the 
time on each picture being about four weeks. The 
rest of their time is taken up in research, study, rest 
and travel. Not bad! 



At present operating in Japan are ten major 
studios and three laboratories — the largest in the 
Orient. 



Why is it that only Japanese are employed in 
the Japanese studios and lots? Answer: So that they 
may learn motion picture production. Of course. 



The Japanese orchestras use the music of the 
United States bands, but they can furnish Japanese 
music if necessary. 



P. C. L. developed and installed its own sound 
system. It was entirely homemade, efficient and 
satisfactory. 



Up to the present time "Inkies" have been used 
and their lighting equipment has been manufactured 
by the Japanese themselves. Arc lights, says Mr. 
Mimura are on the way. 



The four great movie stars of the Japanese screen 
are, masculine: D. Okhawachi and George Oka; 
feminine: Chieka Takehisa and Sachika Chiba, this 
last named marvel soon to tour the United States. 



April, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-nine 



Hear! Hear! Foreign Technicians! 

By Philip Tannura (659) 



Yes, once every year, around spring time, the 
boys get a yearning for a little travel. Their first 
thoughts are London as the papers, of late, have 
spoken of the tremendous boom in film production. 
It's true, but to a certain extent a closed shop for 
a specified number of technicians. In the past year 
or two the English companies have been elevating 
their own junior technicians to head positions, some 
have come out successfully, others are just getting 
along. Nevertheless it's cheaper to use a native 
son than it is to import a foreigner with heavy ex- 
penses attached, unless the import is a technical ex- 
pert in his particular line. 

Also in the past some expert technicians have 
been imported from different countries who arrived 
with manufactured achievements, only to be found 
out by the producer as a very, very expensive lia- 
bility. Some of these men have been assistants 
and what nots and not the experts they were cracked 
up to be; so the authorities tighten up the entree for 
foreign technicians to enter England. 

To stop this burglarizing of jobs from good men 
an association has been formed under the name of 
the Association of Cine-Technicians. Allow me to 
quote from their magazine what their policy is to- 
wards foreign technicians: 

"In response to requests from members, we are 
pleased to publish A. C. T.'s views on the employ- 
ment of foreign technicians in the British film indus- 
try. The following is a summary of statements is- 
sued to the press during the past few months. 

"The association makes it clear that it is not 
opposed to foreign ace technicians working in British 
studios in reasonable numbers, provided that: 

"(a) Their employment does not deprive equally 
expert British technicians of employment. 

"(b) Their crews are British. 

"(c) The association is given an opportunity of 
being consulted when renewals of any such permits 
are applied for. 

"It is felt that the above stated conditions are 
not regularly observed and that the claims of cer- 
tain individuals to be ace technicians are not always 
fully investigated, or, if they are, the fact that they 
are not definitely in the front rank does not neces- 
sarily lead to the refusal of permits. 

"Further, it is understood that in the issue of per- 
mits the entertainment industry is considered as a 
whole. We are told, for example, that the employ- 
ment of British actors and actresses abroad is an 
important factor in determining the issue of permits 
to foreign technicians for work in British studios. 
The Association feels that this retards both the tech- 
nical progress of a British film industry and the per- 
sonal advancement of the younger technicians. 

"Until all countries withdraw their restrictions on 
the employment of foreign labor it is felt that con- 
ditions in this country should be no less rigid than 
elsewhere. It is extremely difficult for British tech- 
nicians to work in Hollywood and even a musician 
of the calibre of Jack Hylton is only allowed to work 




in America on condition of his band being composed 
entirely of Americans. We have stressed the im- 
portance of British crews before and in this respect 
commend the facts about Jack Hylton to the atten- 
tion of the Ministry of Labor. 

"Further, we feel that permits should generally 
be granted only for a single definite picture, named 
on the permit, rather than for a time period. 

"The Association of Cine-Technicians is not un- 
mindful of the important part played by technicians 
of other countries in the development of the British 
film industry, but it does feel that, particularly in 
view of the considerable number of competent 
British technicians, at present without regular em- 
ployment, the whole question of the issue of permits 
requires careful overhaul." 



Americans in London: Lee Garmes is leaving his 
wife and a beautiful baby girl — only long enough 
to go to New York to do a picture for Hecht & 
McArthur — Eddie Cohen holding down the trick de- 
partment while Ned Mann and Jack Thomas are 

(Turn to Page 31) 



m 




*> 



Even Your 

Eye Couldn't 

"Stop" That 

Lightning 

Jab. Bui **»* 

LEIOA PHOTO bY W. ULM 

LEICA Slopped It COLD! 

Think of a camera that can "stop" the almost invisible thrust of a frisky 
cat's paw as clearly as though the cat were a stuffed cat posed for 
the picture! That's what Leica does. 

Take snapshots by lamplight -moonlight — by the campfire. Take 
color snapshots with the marvelous new Dufaycolor Film. 

This is the ultimate in photography. Until you've seen pictures 
of your own taking that you wouldn't believe possible, you'll never 
know the greatest thrill offered to camera lovers. 

Get The LEICA MANUAL— 
And See What's Waiting For You 

You'll find the 500 page Leica Manual worth far more than its price c f 
$4.00 as an education in the al- 
most incredible new world of photo- 
graphy opened to you by Leica. Get 
it at your photographic dealer or 
bookstore. It's a book you'll be 
proud to show your guests. 




'eica 



Moded G with 
f:2 Summar Speed Lens 



THE ORIGINAL MINIATURE CANDID CAMERA 
PRICES START AT $99. U. S. PAT. NO. I, 960,044 

E. LEITZ, INC • DEPT. 140-60 EAST 10th ST., NEW YORK CITY 
^rancn Officer in CHICAGO . WASHINGTON - LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO 



Thirty 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 1936 



INTERNATIONAL 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

Brings results — Rates 45 cents per line — minimum charge one 

dollar per insertion. For Rent — For Sale — Wanted — For 

Exchange, etc. 

FOR SALE OR RENT— CAMERAS 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell and Bell & Howell silenced cameras, 
follow focus. Pan lenses, free head, corrected new aperture. Akeley, 
De Brie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost, Willart, De Vry, Eyemo, Sept, 
Leica. Motors, printers lighting equipment. Also every variety of 
16 mm. and still cameras and projectors. B & H Cameras with old type 
shuttles silenced $150. Bipack magazines and adaptors for color. Every- 
thing photographic bought, sold, rented and repaired. Send for our bar- 
gain catalogue. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd. 
Phone HO. 3651. Cable, Hocamex. 

FOR SALE— CAMERAS AND EQUIPMENT 

SILENCED BELL & HOWELL witli new Fearless Movement 40 mm, 
50 mm and 75 mm F.2:7 lenses mounted. Two 1000-ft. magazines, tri- 
pod, finder and sunshade. Rebuilt like new. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable : Cinecamera. 

REBUILT BELL & HOWELL single system camera. Lenses, maga- 
zines, tripod, Movietone Quartz shoe, 12 volt motor, amplifier, dynamic 
microphone, cables and cases complete in every detail. Motion Picture 
Camera Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable : 
Cinecamera. 

COMPLETE DE BRIE MODEL L CAMERA with full frame shift- 
ing focusing ground glass, pilot pins, intermitting pressure plate, DeBrie 
110 volt motor, one 35 mm, one 50 mm, one 75 mm and one 100 mm 
lenses, 6 magazines, one magazine case, and tripod. $700 complete. 
Motion Picture Camera Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York 
City. Cable : Cinecamera. 

METAL DE BRIE MODEL M with footage counter, speed indicator, 
automative dissolving shutter, one 50 mm, one 75 mm, one 120 mm 
lenses, six 400 foot magazines, pan-and-tilt tripod. Complete, $500. 
Motion Picture Camera Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York 
City. Cable : Cinecamera. 

SILENCED BELL & HOWELL with check pawl shuttle. 40 mm, 
50 mm and 75 mm F.2:7 lenses mounted. Two 1000-ft. magazines, 
tripod, finder and sunshade. Rebuilt like new. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Cable: Cinecamera. 

REAL BARGAINS in 16 and 35 mm. movie equipment and still cameras. 
Newest types cameras and projectors in all popular makes. Save money 
on film, lights, lenses and all essential accessories. Our 36 years of 
experience stands back of every sale. Before you buy, send for our new 
bargain booklet. Burke & James, Inc., 223 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

DEBRIE INTERVIEW MODELS $250.00 and $350.00, DeVry 35mm 
Cameras $65.00, Projectors $40.00 up. Holmes 35mm Portable Sound 
Projector Type 7A $450.00. 35mm Sound Recording Outfit, single or 
double system, complete, less batteries $750.00, Akeley Studio Camera 
$800.00. CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood. 

FOR SALE— SOUND RECORDERS AND EQUIPMENT 



8 MM. AND 16 MM. 



LIKE NEW BELL & HOWELL 5-way Sound Printers and Sound 
Moviolas. Reasonable price. HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANGE, 
1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

FOR SALE— SOUND RECORDERS AND EQUIPMENT— Complete 
Double System Sound-on-Film recording installation, late model 1935, 
new studio velocity microphone, wide range optical unit, carrying cases, 
used only as demonstrator for few weeks ; cannot be told from new ; 
laboratory guaranteed, ready to use. Price $1375.00. Also De Brie 
Parvo "L" all metal movie camera with all accessories, five lenses, etc., 
with special design motor drive for double system work; new condition, 
bargain. Synchronous motors, recording amplifiers, movie lighting equip- 
ment, etc. PHONOTONE MOTION PICTURE LABORATORIES. 
Washington, Indiana. 



ART REEVES, latest model 1935, double system sound recording in- 
stallation, factory guaranteed, Automatic Speed Control Motor, Twin 
Fidelity Optical Unit, Bomb microphone, the only genuine, modern, 
workable Art Reeves equipment for sale in Hollywood outside factory. 
CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood. 



POSITION WANTED 



DO YOU WANT A CAMERAMAN who is an expert on studio pro- 
duction ; or an expedition cameraman who knows every corner of the 
world ; or a cameraman who thoroughly understands the making of indus- 
trial pictures ; or an expert newsreel photographer ; or an expert color 
cameraman? A limited number of cameramen, backed by years of experi- 
ence, are available. Write stating your requirements and we shall be 
glad to assist you in choosing the kind of cameraman you want. INTER- 
NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Holly 
wood. 



8 MM. ULTRACHROM, NATURAL COLOR, FINE GRAIN— $3.50. 
S. S. Panchromatic, reversible, and Positive Palomar Titling Film, for 
all 8 MM. Cameras, reversible data. Home Titling Data, Accessories, 
Processing, Titling, reducing from 16 MM. to 8 MM. "Movie Making Made 
Easy" — 50c. "Money Saving Tips for the Amateur Movie Maker" — 25c. 
"How to Make Money with a Movie Outfit" — 15c. Cine Nizo Camera 
Distributors. FILM SPECIALTIES, 111-N. El Monte, California. 

16 MM. WITHOUT PROCESSING ONLY — Reversible Negative, 
Orthochromatic Reversible, Positive Titling Film. FILM SPECIAL- 
TIES, 111-N, El Monte, California. 



WANTED TO BUY 



WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, Mitchell. Akeley or De Brie 
Cameras, lenses, motors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECTIONIST, a monthly magazine 
published in the interests of the projectionist. Interesting, instructive. 
Yearly subscription U. S. and possessions, $2 ; foreign countries, $2.50. 
James L. Finn Publishing Corp., 580 Fifth Ave., New York. 

COMPLETE COURSE IN FLYING — If interested in aviation, see Roy 
Klaffki, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood. 

WANTED — To know of the whereabouts of motion picture relics, docu- 
ments, or equipment of a historical nature for Museum purposes. Write 
Earl Theisen, care of International Photographer, 1605 Cahuenga Ave., 
Hollywood. 



CAMERA REPAIRING 



BELL & HOWELL cameras with old type shuttles silenced, $150. 
Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Co., 645 No. Martel Ave., 
Hollywood. 



ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MOTION PICTURE 

(Continued from Page 25) 

17 Illustrated Scientific American, Nov. 16, 1889, Vol. LXI, pp. 1 
and 310, article by Anchuetz on the Tachyscope. 

18 "La Chronophotographie," J. Marey, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 
1899, also illustrated story by Marey in Scientific American, supp. 
June 10, 1882, vol. XIII, p. 1. 

la "Horse in Motion," E. Muybridge, University of Pennsylvania, 
1882. 

20 "A Brief History of the Kinetograph, the Kinetoscope, and the 
Kineto-Phonograph," W. K. L. Dickson, Journal Society Motion Pic- 
ture Engineers, vol. XXI, No. 6, December, 1933, p. 1 et seq.; also 
"Edison's Invention of the Kineto-Phonograph," A. and W. K. L. 
Dickson, Century Magazine, vol. 48, 1894, p. 207. 

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 

"La Chronophotographie," by L. Gastine, Gauthier-Villars, 
Paris. 1897. 

"Picture Ribbons,'' by C. F. Jenkins, published by C. F. Jenkins, 
Washington, D. C, 1897. 

"La Photographie Animee," by E. Trutat, Gauthier-Villars, 
Paris, 1899. 

"Living Pictures," by H. V. Hopwood, Optician and Photogra- 
phic Trade Review, London, 1899. Contains an excellent review 
of the early patent literature. (Revised 1912 and 1915.) 

"Die Kinematographie," by K. W. Wolf-Czapek, Union Deutsche 
Verlags., Dresden, 1908. 

"Motion Picture Work," by D. S. Hulfish. American School of 
Correspondence, Chicago, 1913. 

"Wissenschaftliche Kinematographie," by F. P. Liesegang, E. 
Liesegang, Dusseldorf, 1920. 

"A Million and One Nights — The History of the Motion Pic- 
ture,'' by T. Ramsaye, 2 vols., Simon and Schuster, New York, 
1926. 

"Geschichte der Kinematographie," by Wilhelm Dost, W. 
Knappe, Halle, 1925. 

"A History oi the Movie," by B. B. Hampton, Covici-Friede, 
New York, 1931. 



April, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirty-one 



Current Productions in Color 



By Silvio del Sarto 



Regal Productions, under supervision of George 
Hirliman, has completed two more feature pictures 
in color, the last of six color 8-reel features produced 
by this company since August, 1935. 

These also are said to be the first sound color 
features ever produced outside of Technicolor and 
they were made with Hirlicolor, the patents on which 
are owned by Mr. George Hirliman, president of 
Regal Productions. These pictures also were the 
first all Spanish features ever produced in color and 
in two versions — Spanish and English. 

Three of these pictures were directed by John 
Reinhardt and one by Crane Wilbur. Mr. Reinhardt 
for four years was director with Fox and the producer 
of all the Fox Spanish features, including the Carlos 
Gardel pictures. 

The cinematography was under the direction of 
Mack Stengler, color expert, who , since August, 1935, 
has been under contract to Regal Productions. His 
staff was composed of Tom Galligan, operative cam- 
eraman; William Margulies, first assistant; Perry 
Finnerman, second assistant; John Jenkins, stills. 

An interesting fact in connection with the oper- 
ations of this successful organization is that two color 
features were produced concurrently — Spanish and 
English — and always with one camera, Mr. Sten- 
gler's Mitchell. 

A new portable sound eauipment was used, an 
equipment developed by Glen Glenn, light valve re- 
cording, one hundred percent noiseless background 
and described by Mack Stengler as "marvelous." 
That this new Glenn equipment is something that will 
be heard a lot about is indicated by the many en- 
comiums tossed its way, not only by the Regal Pro- 
ductions, but by the other major producers. 

Director of Cinematography, Mack Stengler, 
stated that before the Hirliman program of color feat- 
ures was launched film manufacturers declared that 
he couldn't photograph projection background scenes 
in color, but four beautiful 8-reel features are there to 
prove that Regal was right. 

Mr. Stengler also stated that a peculiarity of 
Regal photography was a beautiful sharpness hither- 



to not seen in color productions, glorious, natural 
blue skies and sea; the secret, he said, being fre- 
quent visits to the desert and to the grand old Pacific 
Ocean. 

As to make-up Regal used formulas developed 
by Mr. Stengler and Vernon Murdock and applied 
by Max Factor experts, productive of flesh tones in 
natural skin texture. They had no trouble at all with 
make-up. 

Night scenes, also, were easy to do, Mr. Stengler 
having solved that problem by accident in 1934 
while he was shooting a color featurette for National 
Pictures, at San Antonio, Texas, the secret being pho- 
tography in actual sunlight without any booster 
lights. 

This process was used to advantage by Regal in 
the filming of "Captain Calamity." The scene was 
night on a ship's deck — lantern burning, bright sun- 
light — sneaking up on the ship in a boat; night shots 
in color — a case of "it couldn't be done," but Mr. 
Stengler and Hirliman did it for the first time, they 
say. 

A fine example of the projection background and 
miniature in color was used in "The Rest Cure," done 
by Mr. Hirliman and Mr. Stengler, under direction of 
Ray Smallwood. It was described by Mr. Stengler 
as "perfection." 

Hirlicolor Process, itself, was perfected by George 
Hirliman and shot by John Jenkins, using special 
attachments patented by Mr. Hirliman. 

Special reflectors were used in Regal photogra- 
phy — a new type of metal paint sprayed upon 
boards and practically indestructible. These reflect- 
ors are the product of the Regal photographic depart- 
ment and, according to Mr. Stengler, they are the 
best things in the way of reflectors now in use in the 
studios. 

Regal Productions is between pictures at this writ- 
ing, in preparation for two more 8-reel color features, 
which soon will be announced. 

Roy Klaffki was associated with Regal Produc- 
tions in the laboratory. 



OBITUARY 



John H. Coakley, Vice-President, Local 621 
United Scenic Artists, was killed at 4:30 o'clock, 
Thursday, March 24, by a fall from a scaffolding at 
M-G-M Studios. He left a wife and three children. 



Deceased was a nationally known scenic artist and 
a highly respected citizen. International Photogra- 
pher extends sentiments of heart-felt sympathy to the 
bereaved family. 



HEAR! HEAR! FOREIGN TECHNICIANS 

(Continued from Page 29) 



sunburning in Hollywood — Francis Lyon doing like- 
wise for Bill Hornbeck, also bound for Hollywood — 
Jack Okey doing 'his darndest to finish the building 
of the new London film studios so as he can snatch 
a bit of California sunshine — Bob Martin just re- 
turned from German Olympics — John Boyle work- 
ing at A. T. P. until the MOANING HOURS— ditto 
straight from the shoulder Jack Kitchen — the her- 
mit of Beanconsfield, Arthur Tavares piling up a 
record of edited pictures for British Lion — Chas. Van 
Enger just starting a rest with Gaumont British — 
Glenn McWilliams busy on a G. B. SUPER musical 



what? — Otto Ludwig on his way to California — 
Miniature Jackman brushing up on his French for 
his holidays — Harry Perry with a long chin waiting 
for the sunshine — YOURS TRULY packing his bags 
for a short rest in Switzerland — that is if the war 
holds up for a couple of weeks. 
NEW ADDRESS! 

3 Oaklands, 

Cleveland Road, 

W. Ealing, W.13, 

England. 

The W.13 is very important to the address. 



1 hirty-two 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



April, 19y 



GINEMACABONI 

(With sauce for those who like it.) 




i 



■'s 



I w 



By 

Robert 
Tobey 



HOLLYWOOD HONEYMOON 
By 
R. THRITIS 
Back Issue Department: 

Perriwether Murgle, high-powered press-agent for 
the beautiful screen star. 

Lili Liverblossom. bai been carried "If through a 
slight misunderstanding and ovet the desert in the 
lair of 

Willy Nilly, a large Bald Eagle. Lili, with aid of 
a tailor-made ghost known as 

Potty, finds Perri just m time to rave him from 
goodnessnosewbat at the hands (tsk, tsk) of the 
Eagle's wile. 

Nelly Nilly. As we again place hand upon throt- 
tle, Willy Nilly, who has gont out foi a few gro- 
ceries, is returning laden and listing heavily to star- 
board. 

CHAPTER XVIII 
Bringing Home the Sheaves 

Yes, sir, there was Willy Nilly, barely able to 
fly. As he came closer, our heroes, heroines, and 
villains, not to mention an unclassified ghost, 
could see that he had a string of fish hanging, 
like the tail of a kite, from his beak. Under one 
wing, and seriously hampering his navigation, 
was snugly tucked a jug. 

Willy -was completely tired out by the time he 
reached the nest, and he flung (or flang) the fish 
and the jug down on the floor of the lair and 
sank exhausted. The jug tinkled pleasantly. It 
was half full of an amber liquid. So 'was Willy 
Nilly. 

"I didn't expect you back so soon, Willy," said 
Mrs. Nilly. "How did you catch all those fish in 
such a hurry?" 

"Oh, I just swiped them from a couple of fish- 
ermen in a boat," answered Willy smugly. "I 
swiped that bottle of moon, too," he added 
proudly, pointing at the jug. 

"I smell a rat . . ." Perri began. 

"That's my wife," interrupted Willy. "I've told 
her to bathe oftener." 

"I smell a rat," continued Perri firmly. "How 
could you find a boat in this desert? There isn't 
a lake for miles." 

"It was a Dry Lake," retorted the Eagle tartly. 

"But there aren't any fish in a Dry Lake," 
argued Perri. 

"Don't be ridiculous. These are dried fish!" 
sneered Willy, waving one in the air and clout- 
ing an eaglet over the snout with it for picking 
his talons. 

"Stop your nonsense," interrupted Mrs. Nilly, 
fixing Willy with an eagle eye — a simple enough 
trick for her. "Where's my snake?" 

"Why. here it is." said Willy with an innocent 
air, picking an object from among the pile of 
dried fish and tossing it in front of his wife. 
Nelly looked at it, and anger flared up in her 
bosom, if 1 may call it a bosom. There before 
her was a disjointed wooden toy, an imitation 
snake. 

"One of the fishermen had a child along. I 
swiped this from the kid," said Willy. 

"That's a dirty trick to play on me," said Mrs. 
Nilly. 

"Oh, go lay an egg," snapped Willy. 

And to everyone's amazement, Mrs. Nilly 
gasped, turned pale, and did. Three eggs, in 
fact, one after another. 

"That's the trouble with you," fumed Willy. 
You can't take any kidding." 

"Dear, dear!" said Potty, jumping and clicking 
his heels. 

Willy looked up at the sound of the strange 
voice, and started as he saw the shadowy out- 
line of Potty against the dim interior of the nest. 
"Heavens," he cried, "am I seeing a ghost?" 

"Don't be naive," said Potty shortly. "Of 
course you are." 

"Now what will I do?" said Mrs. Nilly, a little 
hysterical. "Here I have company for dinner 
and now I have to sit on these eggs, or they 
won't hatch." 

It was Lili's turn to speak up. So up she 
spoke. "Go get your dinner ready," she said. 
"I'll sit on the eggs for you." 

"You've hardly the build for it, dearie," said 
Nelly, eyeing Lili's slim figure — in some envy, it 
must be confessed. 

"I can do better at it than I could at cooking 
an eerie meal," retorted Lili. 

"Okay, toots," said Mrs. Nilly, leaving for the 
kitchen, without further ado. 

As Lili settled herself on the eggs -with the aid 
of her new mink coat, she looked up to see Willy 
Nilly staring at her with a fanatical gleam in his 
beady eyes. Stretching his claws, he began to 
move ominously toward her. 

Perri, watching, stiffened. 



Potty began to glow eerily in the gathering 
dusk. The air was charged with impending dis- 
aster. 

(Oh. my, what's going to happen to pool Lili now? 
Has the Eagle gone mad? Why is he staring at Lili? 
And what can Pent and Potty do? YOU'LL find 
out!) 



KNEECAP REVIEWS 
(No space left on my thumbnails) 

"A MESSAGE TO GARCIA." Twentieth Cen- 
tury-Fox's starring vehicle for Wallace Beery. 
Also marks the return to the screen, after some 
absence, of Barbara Stanwyck. Rather liberal 
adaptation of Elbert Hubbard's perennial essay 
plus book by original message-carrier, Lieut. An- 
drew Rowan, provides plenty of excitement, 
humor, and pathos for one picture. Yet somehow 
the -whole thing seems pretty meaningless. Beery 
gives meaty, flavorsome portrayal of double- 
crossing exiled American coming thiough with 
what we fondly believe to be good old funda- 
mental American loyalty. Stanwyck, beautifully 
photographed, and proven actress, flats the part 
of fiery Spanish lass whose heart cries out for 
her people. Please, such casting! Ennihoo she 
senses the gold beneath John Boles's ten-day 
layer of about the unkemptest beard in captivity 
and her heart cries out for him, too. Femme 
hearts due to be horribly twinged on finding that 
their Johnny isn't once given chance to shave. 
Boles does well as possible -with rather ordinary 
role. Alan Hale a thorough rattler as Dr. Krug. 
* * * 

ROSE MARIE." A lovely thing with its beauty 
of wrung — and of Jeannette MacDonald. Nelson 
Eddy an interesting foil for MacDonald in this 
scarcely new pun. James Stewart as Rose Marie's 
exhibitionist brother, decidedly outstanding in a brief 
pan. 

hi general, production follows line of previous Mac- 
Donald successes full of song and of the very con- 
siderable beauty of Mas MacDonald . Musical com- 
edy license in abundant e is taken. I always resent 
toilet lugged in by the heels, but here it is more ex- 
cusable than generally, Indian Dance a la Busby 
Berkeley seemed highly destructive of realism, but I 
suppose is excusable on grounds of musicomedy. 

"NEXT TIME WE LOVE." Title changed from 
that of book, "NEXT TIME WE LIVE," because 
movie-going public doesn't care if you live or not, 
just so they know whether, why, where, and 
whom you love. Herein Margaret Sullavan and 
James Stewart help you analyze the lives of two 
young people who vow to love, honor, and obey 
and never interfere with each other's career. In 
a series of incidents separated by the years and 
well-timed dissolves, m.g.p. is taken through the 
life-span of these two sensitive souls -who are so 
considerate of each other that they forego their 
individual happiness until "NEXT TIME WE 
LIVE." Casting plum opposite Sullavan probably 
given to newcomer Stewart so Maggie would 
have little competish. Jimmy surprises with 
plenty. A strange young man, far from general 
conception of sleek screen hero, yet peculiarly 
compelling of personality. Don't let these re- 
marks mislead you into thinking Sullavan gives 
a poor performance. Quite the contrary. 

"THE TRAIL OF THE LONESOME PINE." with 
SOME cast, and superbly directed by Henry Hath- 
away. Let's get cast out ol the way, and clear 
decks tor action. Every one on list counts. Or else 
gets gypped on pay day. Sylvia Sidney, Henry 
Fonda, Fred MacMurray, Fred Stone, Nigel Bruce, 
Beulah Bondi. Robert Barrat, Spanky McFarland. 
Samuel Hinds, and Henry Kleinbach. That's list 
on credit title, but real star of pic isn't mentioned 
— chief character really is old Mother Nature. 
And she gives a beautiful performance with help 
of three colors in Technicolor's present process. 
Usually suicide to inject straight pictorial shots 
into a rapidly moving tale. "TRAIL OF THE 
LONESOME PINE" does it — and you love it. 
Many shots truly breathtaking. 

Critic after critic has called it "first outdoor 
Technicolor picture," an error ol the first water. 
Outdoor pictures have been made in Technicolor 
since "TOLL OF THE SEA" in 1924. But this is 
firstie in Technicolor's comparatively new tricolor 
process, which went begging until super-cartoon- 
ist Walt Disney had the courage to tricolor his 
Mickey Mouse. Jock Whitney climbed on the 
band wagon and then followed "La Cucaracha" 
rnd "Becky Sharp." Cinematographers Howard 
"Duke" Greene and Ray Rennahan certainly 



know their color. Greene, with Technicolor 
practically since its inception, is the man behind 
the gorgeous photography in "THE TRAIL." A 
production such as this makes the camera a mo 
bile paint brush and the cinematographer an art- 
ist worthy of standing beside Corot, Landseer 
and Rosa Bonheur. 

P. S. — The actors are very good. loo. Yon can': 
afford to stay away. 



TODAY'S LITTLE FABLE 

Once upon a Time there was an Actor who 
wasn't making very much Money. So he married 
an Indian Squaw who was getting a mighty nice 
little Stipend from Her Uncle, Sam by name. Bui 
the Romance didn't last, and the Actor sued for 
Divorce, asking Alimony. He got it. The Indian 
Woman kept neglecting to send his Check. The 
Actor kept going to Court about it. 

Finally the Actor struck it Rich, got a big Con- 
tract, and everything was Rosy. One day he 
was driving down the Blvd. in his big Car, when 
he saw his former Wife walking along the Streel. 
He jumped out and greeted her Effusively. 

"Hello, Pocahontas," he cried. "Aren't you 
Surprised to see me in such a nice Car?" 

"No catchum Surprise," said Pocahontas. "Long 
time no sue." 



TOO SAD DEPT. 
Here lies a poor extra, one Gustave Q. Gnome: 
He told the director, "It's time I go home!" 



HOLLYWOODCUTS, by the Shovel Boys (they 
dish the dirt). For years Lew Ayres has wanted 
to quit the grease-paint, and direct. He's been 
studying to that end, producing 16 mm. pictures 
in his spare time as practice. Nat Levine wanted 
Lew to star in "THE LEATHERNECKS HAVE 
LANDED," for Republic. They couldn't get to- 
gether on salary. Finally Ayres consented to do 
the picture at Levine's price provided they would 
let him direct a picture. It was agreed. With 
some misgivings Levine lived up to his promise 
by entrusting Lew with the direction of "GLORY 
PARADE." Meanwhile Ayres signed a direc- 
tional long-termer with Columbia. Now "GLORY 
PARADE" turns out to be a fine piece of work— 
and is Republic chagrined! * * * Al Jolson is 
the latest to be immortalized in the Grauman- 
esque manner — in concrete in the forecourt of the 
Chinese Theatre. But just to be different, he did 
a "MAMMY" and put his knee-prints in the goo! 

* * * Clark Gable and Carole Lombard are run- 
ning a temperature over each other these days. 

* * * The Related Warner Boys are planning to 
star Arthur Treacher in a forthcoming production 
as a reward for his splendid work in the last few 
years. This is a bad move. A whole picture full 
of Treacher would be unforgiveable. His is the 
role of a foil or background and he shouldn't be 
made to step out of it. * * * Bette Davis called 
her Academy statuette "Oscar" at the presenta- 
tion because that's hubby "Ham" Nelson's mid- 
dle name. Sid Skolsky picked it up and made 
much of it in his column, and now everyone calls 
the little jiggers "Oscar." * * * Virtue is justly 
repayed even in the motion picture business. 
Anne Shirley, -who in one grand bound landed 
among the fine actresses of far less tender years 
■with her devastatingly real interpretation of a 
stage-struck little country girl in "CHATTERBOX," 
is being rewarded by being made a full-fledged 
star. » • • 

The story of the Tahoe location trip of the 'Bh>< 
Their Hearts" company reads like a nightmare. The 
company went to Lake Tahoe to stay several weeks 
and shoot exterior snow scenes for the picture. * * * 
The snow storms were so bad they had to shoot inte- 
riors. * * * Then Director Elliot Nugent was 
stricken with influenza. * * * The studio sent up 
,i relief director — he couldn't gel pail the snow block- 
ade. * * * Next Mary Astor. the star, contracted 
flu. She finally had to be moved to a Reno hospital, 
later being moved to Cedars of Lebanon in Los Ange- 
les, where she was attended by Dr. Franklin Thorpe, 
her former husband ! * * * Henry Freulich, direc- 
tor of photography, slipped and injured his neck. 
Just for good measure, he got a case of flu. too. 
" * * The second cameraman took over the work, 
and then the auxiliary lights went out. Pou 
mile* had been cut off. * * * The company was 
ordered home, and found they couldn't get out. They 
were snowed in. * * * Snow plows were sent. una 
everyone left in trucks and buses. A mile or so, ana 
the leading truck stalled on a hill. The men had I" 
PUSH ii ovet the hill! * * * They all finally .?"' 
to the nam. But the ear with everyone's baggage 
neve' showed up 1 * * * 



9,000 VARIETIES 




. . . of f( 'lamps for every lighting purpose 



ff 



Rack after rack of G-E MAZDA lamps of 
different shapes, sizes and uses fill this room. 
Yet it stores only a few of the many different 
types of lamps which General Electric makes 
. . . lamps which offer light to create effects 
difficult or impossible with other illuminants. 

G-E MAZDA lamps provide light to paint your 
scenes exactly as your artistry dictates. You have 
at your command a range of intensities and sizes 
that extends from "practicals", "lupe" lamps 
and "bonbons" to the big 36-inch "sun" spots. 

No matter where you need a highlight or a 
delicate modelling light ... no matter how 
limited your working space is . . . there is a 



type of G-E MAZDA lamp that will solve 
your problem. 

Behind this flexibility, which is supported by 
extensive developmental work, there is com- 
plete dependability. By rigid inspection, 
exhaustive tests and careful manufacture, 
General Electric assures you dependable light 
to fit your requirements. 

Perhaps these facts suggest reasons why scores 
of studios use G-E MAZDA lamps for every- 
thing from set lighting to process work. Are 
you benefitting fully from the versatility of 
these lamps? General Electric Company, 
Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 



GENERAL ff ELECTRIC 

MAZDA LAMPS 



645 NiJRTH KftBTEL AVENUE. 
LjS ANQELES, CAMP3RNIA. 





35 MM. FILM 



iOU know the important part that fine-grain negative 
plays in getting the kind of photography audiences like. 
SUPERPAN is the new, impro\ed,/itier-graiti film, which 
also offers you supersensitive speed, wider latitude and 
unparalleled emulsion quality. Made by Agfa Ansco 
Corporation in Binghamton, New York. 

C. KING CHARNEY, Incorporated 



HOLLYWOOD 

6372 Santa Monica Blvd. 
Tel. Hollywood 2918-2919 



NEW YORK 

245 West 5 5th Street 

New York City 



NTERNATIONAL 
HOTOGRAPHER 




iH YEAR 



HOLLYWOOD 



MAY, 1936 



VOL. 

No. 4 




BERT LONGWORTH 

"THE CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE" 

Inspired by Alfred Lord Tennyson's immortal poem. A Warner Bros, production. Left to right: "Limey" Plews, property 

CENTS man; Frank Flannigan, chief electrician; Dick William, Maintenance of sound; Al Green, operative cameraman; Frank 

— _._., Evans, assistant cameraman; Michael Curtiz, director; Sol Polito, chief cinematographer; Jack Sullivan, assistant director; 

A COPY Joseph Bonner, make-up; Olivia de Haviland and Errol Flynn, who play the featured roles. Staff included Mack Julian. 

still photographer; Stanley Logan, dialogue director; Frank Fox, script clerk; Eddie Larkin, dance director; Frank Mattison, 

unit manager; Bill Harrington, lieutenant electrician; Mary Dery, wardrobe; Ethel Hogan, hairdresser. 



MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 




NEGATIVE 



DUPONT FILM 

MANUFACTURING 

CORPORATION 

SMITH AND ALLER, LTD. 

6656---SANTA MONICA BLVD. 

HOLLYWOOD . CAL. 



35 WEST 45 T . H STREET 

NEW YORK CITY 
PLANT • PARLIN, N. J. 




Another of the Great Southwest's Wonderlands 




Elivood Bredell went away up to Red Rock Canyon to get tins wonderful shot for his "good 
box." This location is one of the most impressive in the entire Southwest and this particular 
shot is especially picturesque and typical of Sierra Madre and Sierra Nevada mountain forms. 



INTERNATIONAL 
PHOTOGRAPHER 

MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 

Vol. 8 HOLLYWOOD, MAY, 1936 No. 4 

Publisher's Agent, Herbert Aller 

Silas Edgar Snyder, Editor-in-Chief 

Earl Theisen and Charles Felstead, Associate Editors 

Lewis W. Physioc, Fred Westerberg, Technical Editors 

Helen Boyce, Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication Dedicated to the Advancement of Cinematography in All 

Its Branches; Professional and Amateur; Photography; Laboratory and Processing, 

Film Editing, Sound Recording, Projection, Pictorialists. 

CONTENTS 

Cover still by Bert Longworth 
Frontispiece photographed by Elwood Bredell 

INFRA RED FILM FOR SPECIAL FIELDS IN MOTION 

PICTURE PHOTOGRAPHY 3 

By Wilson Leahy 
THAT OLD DRAGON CENSORSHIP ------ 4 

By Lewis W . Physioc 
INTENSITY OF SUNLIGHT UNDER THE SEA 8 

By Paul R. Harmer— Paper II. 
MUSEUM OF MODERN ART FILM LIBRARY 9 

By John E. Abbott 
INEXPENSIVE MINIATURE CAMERA PHOTOGRAPHY - - 10 

By Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F.R.P.S. 
THE EVOLUTION OF THE MOTION PICTURE STORY - - 12 

By Earl Theisen 
RECENT PHOTOGRAPHIC AND SOUND PATENTS - - 14 

By Robert Fulicidcr 
MORE ABOUT THE NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY-FOX 
CAMERA 15 

By Billy Boice 
A NEWS LETTER FROM SOUTH AMERICA - 16 

By John Alton 
COLOR MARCHES ON - - 17 

By Herbert Aller 
AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE SECTION - - - - 18 to 21 

By F. Hamilton Riddell 

Springtime and a Movie Camera 
Right Off the Reel 
Cinema Tidings 

The New Kodachrome Artificial Light Film 
Questions and Answers 
NOTES ON PROJECTING DUFAY COLOR FILM - 22 

By Film Specialties, El Monte 
A CINEMA COLOR PIONEER 26 

By H. 0. Stechan 
THE CINEMATOGRAPHERS BOOK OF TABLES - 29 

By Fred W esterbcrg 
COLUMBIA STUDIOS MOVE AHEAD ----- 31 

CLASSIFIED - 30 

CINEMACARONI - - 32 

By Robert Tobey 

Entered as second class matter Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, 
California, under the act of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright 1935 by Local 659, I. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. O. of the United States 

and Canada 

Office of publication, 1605 North Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, California 

GLadstone 3235 

James J. Finn, 1 West 47th St., New York, Eastern Representative 

McGill's, 179 and 218 Elizabeth St., Melbourne, Australian and New Zealand agents. 

Subscription Rates — United States, $2.50; Canada and Foreign $3.00 a year. 

Single copies, 25 cents. 

This Magazine represents the entire personnel of photographers now engaged in 

professional production of motion pictures in the United States and Canada. Thus 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER becomes the voice of the Entire Craft, 

covering a field that reaches from coast to coast across North America. 

Printed in the U. S. A. at Hollywood, California 

^SSgP^ "' SERVICE ENGRAVING CO 




SPECIAL COLOR 

EDITION FOR 

JUNE 



Parties and organizations in- 
terested in color are hereby ad- 
vised that the edition of Inter- 
national Photographer for June 
will be devoted largely to the 
exploitation of color and the 
leading color processes are ex- 
pected to be represented. If 
the reader has something to say 
about color he is invited to do 
it here and now. 




May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Three 



Infra Red Film For Special Fields in 
Motion Picture Photography 



By Wilson Leahy 

(Agfa Ansco Corporation) 





jECHNICAL progress in the motion picture 
field, and especially since the introduction 
of sound, has been a slow but gradual ad- 
vance to the present day excellence. Con- 
tributing to this movement, and in most instances 
exerting a very powerful acceleration, has been a 
changed technic in writing which permits a wider 
and more efficient expression of the finer nuances 
now necessary to a successful story exposition. No 
doubt, had the industry been content to remain artis- 
tically quiescent, satisfied that all demands had 
been fulfilled by the addition of sound, the solution 
of technical problems would have been greatly re- 
tarded and in general the presentation of a picture 
as we now see it would be far less efficient. 

It is interesting to note also the sharper discrimi- 
nation on the part of the box office public as the 
product gained in cultural accomplishment and 
finally emerged as a full-blown vehicle for the major 
classics. This, of course, again actuated increased 
competitive production and resulted in better pic- 
tures necessitating tremendous monetary invest- 
ments, and it is here that the full value of technical 
progress is appreciated, for time certainly in this 
case is the soul and essence of economy. 

Among other manufacturers supplying material 
to the motion picture industry, the raw film com- 
panies have step by step kept pace with the ever- 
increasing demands of the consumer. Not only have 
they kept pace, but in many instances have led the 
way to accomplishments that otherwise would have 
been impossible. 

The design and production of the new Agfa Infra 
Red negative was carried out by the Agfa Ansco 
Corporation with the thought in mind of satisfying a 
need that would at once be of economic value and 
enhance the pictorial beauty of any production. 
Subsequent use and experience have proven the 
soundness of the idea, and this was demonstrated 
by the granting to this company of one of the two 
highest annual technical awards by the Academy 
of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for the introduc- 
tion to general use of this film type.* 

It is now possible by the use of Infra Red nega- 
tive to photograph night scenes in the daytime with 
more realism and economy than with ordinary pan- 
chromatic film. This was recently made evident dur- 
ing the production of a major picture when it was 
discovered that the script called for a night shot of a 
coast guard cutter effecting a rescue at sea. It was 
decided to shoot the scene in the daytime. Natu- 
rally, this necessitated complete over-correction of 
sky and water, but at the same time full retention of 
inherent contrast in order that certain action and 
characters remain clearly evident. The scene was 
successfully made at midday, using Infra Red film 
with a 29F Wratten filter, thereby saving the cost of 



"Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Vol. 25, 
No. 3, September, 1935. 



Fig. 1 

expensive miniatures and lending a realistic atmos- 
phere that would not have been obtained any other 
way. 

Utilization of this film type for night shots, how- 
ever is not the only means of securing the available 
advantages offered. As is well known, Infra Red 
has been used with excellent results in the past to 
penetrate atmospheric haze, and this characteristic 
is particularly valuable in aerial photography 
wherein fine definition and full cloud correction is 
desired. 

It has also been proven to be of inestimable 
value for background plates in process projection 
work where, due to the limitations of the process 
itself, the finished product generally suffers a loss 
of contrast and definition. Infra Red negative has 
produced plates which have successfully withstood 
the most rigid tests possible both as to grain size 
and photographic quality. 

The speed of Agfa Infra Red negative is approx- 
imately one-half that of Superpan when both types 
are exposed without filter and developed to the 
same gamma. This film type, however, must be 
used with red filters, as it is sensitive to blue light 
rays like all silver bromide emulsions. It is not sen- 
sitive to green-yellow, which permits the use of rela- 
tively light red filters, as it is only necessary that 
these filters absorb blue. For this reason, also, the 
filter factors are practically the same for all blue- 
absorbing and red-transmitting filters which have 
approximately the same transmission factors within 
the visible range of the red end of the spectrum. 
All Wratten filters from monochrome No. 21 up to 
29F fulfill this requirement and will be found to have 
equivalent exposure factors. Even filters as light as 
Wratten No. 12, minus blue, and 15G are suitable 
for most cases, although both transmit some ultra- 
violet in the wave length range of 300 A. 

Tests conducted under conditions comparable to 
those encountered in production work reveal that 
the lighter the filter used, the less contrast obtained, 
and this, of course, permits a wider latitude in the 
general use of his type film. Filters such as the 
Aero No. 2 and X 1 even further decrease the con- 
trast and make possible the photography of close- 
ups with straight panchromatic makeup. With the 
exception of the last two filters named, the filter fac- 
tor for Infra Red in combination with Wratten filters 
from No. 21 to No. 29F has been found by practical 
test and sensitometric comparison to be of the order 
of 10 to 15. At standard motion picture camera 
speed a normal exposure of Infra Red, using Wrat- 
ten filter No. 25, will be obtained with a lens open- 
ing of 5.6. The use of deeper red filters is not recom- 
mended, except for special scientific work, as they 
unnecessarily prolong the exposure due to their 
lower transmission factor without rendering better 
picture quality. 

(Turn to Page 24) 



Four 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, J936 




That Old DRAGON 

CENSORSHIP 



By Lewis W. Physioc 



(The perpetual threat against the motion picture as an institution. One hundred thousand 
persons of all sorts estimated to be on the censorship job!) 



Every once in a while we hear of the closing of 
a show by the authorities, the arrest of a fan dancer 
of the cancellation of the release contract of a mo- 
tion picture. This seems to suggest that the subject 
of censorship is still a live issue. 

Furthermore, it will continue to be a real problem 
until the educators institute some system of educa- 
tion that will destroy the lure of vicious suggestion. 
They must rip aside the veil of prohibitive mystery 
that invites indulgence. They must establish the 
overwhelming value of cleanliness and beauty by a 
frank and open expose of the opposing forces of 



darkness. The one cannot live without shame in the 
presence of the other; but evil influences, when pro- 
tected by false prohibitions and hypocritical tradi- 
tions, flourish under the peculiar protection furnished 
by that alluring mysticism our social customs have 
thrown around the guestion of morality. 

The moment we erect the sign: "For Men Only," 
we invite not only men of vicious inclinations, but 
fire the imagination and arouse the curiosity of the 
adolescent of both sexes. If we force wickedness 
out in the open by a system of general enlighten- 
ment the need of censorship would soon vanish. — 
Editor's Note. 




N STUDYING great social problems we can 
hope for very little help in their solution by 
our prognosis of the future; but it is logical 
to suppose that historical analogies will fur- 
nish us a reliable text upon which to construct an 
argument. 

History teaches us that many innovations, eco- 
nomic and social that were subsequently proven of 
great benefit to mankind, were sometimes discour- 
aged and often bitterly opposed. Many resented the 
advent of the railroads and other great inventions, 
and automobiles were considered instruments of 
great wickedness, and some conservatives associat- 
ed their use almost entirely with clandestine "joy 
rides." The idea of a girl riding a bicycle was shock- 
ing to the average mind. For generations, varying 
fashions of dress and innocent pleasures, such as 
cards and dancing, have been attacked as having 
a demoralizing effect on the youth of the time. The 
best of our novels were the subject of the most un- 
reasonable prejudice; some of our greatest works 
were as much feared as Nick Carter or Jesse James, 
as to their effects on the juvenile mind. 

Christianity itself offers the saddest pages of his- 
tory as to the varying judgment of mankind of what 
is beneficial to the race. To whom but the censors 
of the times did Christ speak when He said, "For 
John came neither eating nor drinking, and they 
say, he hath a devil. The Son of Man came eating 
and drinking, and they say, Behold a man glutton- 
ous, and a wine-bibber, a friend of publicans and 
sinners." 

It is not surprising, therefore, that motion pic- 
tures should have their opponents, and we find 
them condemned by those who know the least about 
them. 



These good people cry for the purification of mo- 
tion pictures and the elevation of its ideals. 

Only those who have been intimately connected 
with the industry can realize the moral character of 
its evolution. Those who know its early history will 
tell you that the first pictures shown were almost 
entirely devoted to the lowest themes and in many 
cases, filthy, obscene subjects, shown only to men, 
and boys who dared see them; and for a long time 
only the boldest characters ventured to perform in 
them. 

They have advanced morally, they have been 
considerably purified, and some of our recent pro- 
ductions suggest they have very nearly reached the 
stage where they have been glorified, like the other 
great arts. 

The great concern of our present moralists is the 
fear of evil influence by immoral suggestion in mov- 
ing pictures. 

History and science both can reassure the most 
solicitous; they teach us that in all ages, despite the 
anxiety with which these radical changes (social and 
civic, and we dare say religious) have been receiv- 
ed, the race has progressed steadily. 

The dark ages of ignorance, bigotry and super- 
stition have been superseded by the great light of 
education, by a broadening of perception and inde- 
pendence of mind. Man has reached a state of men- 
tal development, a degree of intellectual culture in 
conceiving and creating, that make it impossible to 
estimate where and when his achievements will end. 
It is hardly logical to suppose that moral degener- 
acy is the natural accompaniment of so great a 
progression. 

Mental relaxation and entertainment have al- 
ways been subjects of great consideration to man- 



May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Five 



kind. As early as 65 B. C, Horace, and 406 B. C, 
Sophocles were confronted with the problem of the 
manner in which the drama should influence the 
ideals of the people; and yet we have survived the 
influence that these classical plays may have had 
on the history of morality. 

In 1710, Joseph Addison wrote an essay entitled 
"Petty Censorship," in answer to many complaints 
against the dress of the day, and also against the 
English stage tragedies. Despite the remoteness of 
the date, their problems were so similar to ours, we 
are constrained to quote at some length from this 
great intellect. 

"There is scarce an ornament of either sex, which 
has not been inveighed against with some bitterness. 
... It is not my intention, however, to reflect upon 
red heels or topknots, but rather to enter into the 
passions of mankind and to correct those depraved 
sentiments that give birth to all those extravagances. 
Extinguish vanity in the mind, and you naturally 
retrench the little superfluities of garniture and equip- 
age. The blossoms will fall of themselves when the 
root that nourishes them is destroyed." 

And of moral behavior we quote further: "I shall 
not make an example of any particular criminal. 
If I attack the vicious, I shall only set upon them in 
a body; I shall pass over a single foe to charge a 
whole army. It is not Lais or Silenus, but the harlot 
and the drunkard, whom I shall endeavor to expose; 
and shall consider crime as it appears in the species, 
and not as it is circumstanced in an individual." 

And in answer to some dramatic critics: "The 
English writers of tragedy are possessed with a no- 
tion that when they represent a virtuous or innocent 
person in distress, they ought not to leave him until 
they have delivered him out of his troubles, or made 
him triumph over his enemies. This error they have 
been led into by a ridiculous doctrine in modern 
criticism, that they are obliged to an equal distribu- 
tion of rewards and punishments. 

"I am sure this has no foundation in nature or 
reason. We find that good and evil happen alike 
to all men — and as the principal design of tragedy 
is to raise commiseration and terror in the minds of 
the audience, we shall defeat this great end if we 
always make innocence and virtue happy and suc- 
cessful. 

"There is nothing which delights and terrifies so 
much as a ghost, especially when he appears in a 
bloody shirt. . . . There may be a proper reason 
for these several terrors; and when they only come 
in as aids and assistances to the poet, they are not 
only to be excused, but applauded. Far be it from 
me to think of banishing these instruments of sorrow 
and terror from the stage; I know a tragedy could 
not subsist without them; all I would contend for is 
to keep them from being misapplied, dramatic in- 
ventions made use of by ignorant poets to supply 
the place of tragedy, and by the skillful to improve 
it." 

So it can be seen that even in Addison's time, 
there were those who were willing to condemn great 
institutions simply because they could not be ad- 
justed to the opinions of the few. 



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In defending motion pictures by scientific argu- 
ment, it is necessary to keep parallel with history; for 
the history of science is the history of man. 

The study of the influence of motion pictures on 
morality calls upon various branches of science, viz., 
psychology, sociology, pathology, heredity; it carries 
us from the theory of categories to the modern study 
of instincts; and all these lead in turn to the study 
of criminology, in which we analyze those condi- 
tions which are the primary reason for all laws, 
moral, civic and natural (or divine) by which men 
are governed. In the last analysis, the appeal is to 
pathology, for underlying all other influences that 
determine an individual's classification in society, 
his pathological condition is found as the decisive 
factor. 

The three departments of law alluded to are the 
result of man's experience, and are so basically true 
that men of all ages, all nations, of widely diversi- 
fied religious opinions, civil customs and moral 
ideas, agree upon them thoroughly. From the time 
when man was emerging from the purely animal 
to the conscious state, his daily actions burnished 
the current code of regulations. When the first mur- 
der was committed, the animal instinct for self pre- 
servation dictated to his fellows the principle that the 
perpetrator was a menace to their existence; and he 
paid the penalty by being removed from among 
those whose welfare he had jeopardized. Then pen- 
alty for theft was likewise developed, for even a dog 
cannot take another dog's bone with impunity. 

This process continued until it had such broaden- 
ing effect on the awakening intelligence that men 
became conscious of the development of moral laws; 
which are distinguished from civic laws in that they 
govern the individual life, furnishing the standard by 
which he judges the rectitude or obliquity of his own 
acts and causing him to suffer the penalty of any 
transgression in his own soul (or conscience) before 
he has been the subject of judgment by his fellows. 

This awakening of man to his true nobility is the 
inauguration of a long process, at the end of which 
he becomes conscious of the Divine laws which bind 
the whole of nature in a system of order and beauty; 
and this higher state is the stage reached by the 
normal man today, who has achieved the Life of 
Reason; for it is through the Reason that all great 
truths are revealed. 

Now the normal mind has learned by experience 
that adherence to these laws is not only a source of 
profit, but also of pleasure; for it is impossible for 
the normal mind to conceive an offense without its 
concomitant penalty; and obedience to the moral 
code presupposes not only his own personal appro- 
bation of his acts but the good opinion of his fellows, 
which is a source of profit and pleasure beyond all 
measure. 

The normal mind cannot conceive a crime with- 
out a conception, as equally vivid, of a penalty: It 
cannot contemplate or propose to itself immorality 
without a salutary sense of the signs of conscience. 
Nor can a healthy man surrender himself to degen- 
eracy without realizing that the laws of God and 
Nature will follow him down through the genera- 
tions and blot out his issue from posterity. 

These suppositions seem so logical that all laws 
— moral, civic and criminal — have been built on 
these natural, simple truths. They have been formu- 
lated to save unfortunate weaklings from themselves, 
and to protect the future of the species. 

Criminologists give, among the principal causes 
of crime, immorality and degeneracy; passions of 
anger and jealousy; ignorance; alcoholism; destitu- 



Six 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



tion and malnutrition; hereditary taint; physical 
shocks, such as blows on the head; undue repres- 
sion of the instincts; insanity; and all of these are 
associated with pathological subnormality, resulting 
in physical weakness which robs the mind of its 
power to resist criminal, immoral or degenerate 
impulses. 

These weaknesses — let us not forget that the 
world has not yet recovered from the lamentable 
effects of the great war in history — may be due to 
malformation of the brain or anemic functioning of 
the brain, making it difficult to establish the correct 
association of ideas or clouding the impression re- 
ceived through the senses. The subnormal mind has 
poor machinery to work with in the first place; the 
categories of space and number and cause and 
effect by which most of us are able to build up an 
ordered world, are dimly apprehended and easily 
erased; add to this the confusion that many minds 
suffer by the suppression of their natural impulses, 
with the resulting complexes as the Freudian psy- 
chology calls them, and we can see how much the 
healthy mind owes to nature and humanity for an 
opportunity to live a life of comparative freedom. 

To sum up, what we assume in the normal mind 
is a balancing of intricate functions and a delicate 
adjustment of mental machinery, which is achieved 
through average heredity and environment; and 
what we are dealing with when we study crime and 
degeneracy and their causes, is not a material which 
is the same in all people and which reacts suddenly 
in good ways or bad according as the immediate 
stimulus is good or bad; but we are dealing with 
hereditary taint, pathological conditions, long-con- 
tinued strain and misdirection and perversion. Given 
these causes for criminal impulse, we can never 
foretell where the weakened mind will find its in- 
citement or suggestion to harmful action, and we can 
never so sterilize the environment that it will not 
serve to elicit deeds unimaginable to sanity and 
normality. It was a great student of human nature 
who said: "It is not that which cometh into a man 
from without that defileth him, but that which goeth 
out from within." And this is the beginning of wis- 
dom in the treatment of sin and crime. 

The production of motion pictures is entrusted in 
many cases to individuals who abuse their preroga- 
tive. But the facts supplied to us by science as the 
result of earnest research show that there is a re- 
sponsibility resting on society greater than can be 
discharged by a superficial criticism of motion pic- 
tures. 

There is divine wisdom in the old Biblical pas- 
sage: "The sins of the fathers shall be visited upon 
the children unto the third and fourth generations." 
And if we study the statistics of the scientists, we 
shall discover that there are graver and more deep 
seated tendencies to be dealt with those those de- 
scribed as the effects of newspapers and motion 
pictures. 

Among the most vital of the findings of the scien- 
tists are those included in eugenics and the study of 
heredity. Great emphasis has been placed on en- 
vironment; but we are impressed by the fact that 
children adopted into the best families have suc- 
cumbed to an unfortunate hereditary bent; and on 
the other hand, many who have been thrown into 
the most dangerous surroundings have survived their 
influence untarnished. 

We find subject for serious thought in the history 
of two New England families. The progeny of Jona- 
than Edwards includes sixty physicians, sixty auth- 
ors, one hundred ministers, one hundred lawyers, 



seventy army officers, two hundred and ninety-five 
college graduates, thirteen college presidents (includ- 
ing presidents of Yale, Harvard and Amherst). Of 
the Jukes stock in a few generations, there are re- 
corded three hundred and ten paupers, six hundred 
feeble minded and epileptic, more than three hun- 
dred immoral women, one hundred and forty crim- 
inals, seven murderers, not a single soldier, not one 
who had a common school education, and only 
twenty who learned a trade, ten of whom acquired 
that advantage in prison. This family cost society 
$2,500,000. 

Professor Chas. B. Davenport of Chicago says: 
"Nearly two centuries ago John Preston of London- 
derry married Elizabeth Patton of Donegal and took 
her to the wilds of Virginia. Their descendants were 
governors, senators and members of Congress, presi- 
dents of colleges and eminent divines. There were 
four governors of old Virginia and many great gen- 
erals and gallant officers and sailors." 

We cannot deny that degenerate minds are dan- 
gerously susceptible to any form of influence by 
suggestion, whether through moving pictures or oth- 
erwise. The depraved mind finds vicious mental ex- 
citement in some of nature's purest passages. We 
have known them to search for such stimulus in no 
less a source than the pages of the Bible. And shall 
we censor this great text-book of human experience, 
destroying the force of its truths by deleting its an- 
tinomies? Human experience has given us this 
mirror of life; it reflects the ugly as well as the beau- 
tiful, the vicious as clearly as the virtuous; we can- 
not admire or lose the one without disapproving or 
despising the other. Over a vivid drama of lust and 
hate and moral ruin it has written: Unto the third 
and fourth generation. It has not weakened the force 
with which the truth is taught by dimming either 
aspect of life. We may smash the mirror if we will; 
but it has told us the truth. And this reflection of the 
truth it has offered not only to the elite but to the 
common people, teaching that the average man 
must take the responsibility for handling the good 
and the bad, and selecting the materials and the 
design by which he is to build his life. 

The criminal tendency is a maladjustment within 
a person or group; it is not the creation of a moment 
in a theatre. We cannot deny that the germ cells 
are directly affected by motion pictures or by actual 
conditions of which the pictures are only the reflec- 
tion. Art is a condensation of life; no condensation, 
no art. The real problem is to improve the mentality 
that is taking in these impressions from life and art. 

Of all the miseries of mind and body, the chief 
causes are transmitted diseases, especially venereal 
diseases. This leads to the consideration of eugenics 
and birth-control. 

In past ages, and in some countries today, the 
great concern of the better classes was their progeny. 
In the time of Lycurgus perfect mating was the foun- 
dation of the social system; a woman who could 
give to the world beautiful children was all but dei- 
fied. But in our day and especially in our country, 



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May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seven 



A lot of humans like their snow 
via the photographer's lens. 

Along the shores of the Truckee 

River, where the movies go to 

shoot their winter stuff. By 

Frank Bjerring. 




according to Callell's sad statistics, the first design 
of the intellectuals is how to avoid the responsibility 
of children. The birthrate among our best stock, 
especially among scientific men, is unfortunately 
very low, averaging less than two children per fam- 
ily. But the families of the degenerate average six 
or seven. Our only hope lies in the law of compen- 
sation again; the higher death rate among the lower 
type offsets the lower birth rate among the higher 
type. 

The improvement of the racial stock and the re- 
moval of social conditions that repress and misguide 
human lives are problems for statesmanship. If 
the moving pictures help to call attention to the need, 
that is a distinct service. 

Now let us consider what motion pictures are 
worth to society. Aristotle expressed the Greek con- 
clusion that all arts and employments are to be 
judged by their value to the state. All elements were 
to be democratized, and self-expression was to be 
encouraged. Tragedy in particular served the pur- 
pose of purifying (katharsis) the minds of the spec- 
tators by permitting them to exercise their emotions 
of pity and terror and thus be freed of ingrowing and 
conflicting impulses. 

As a means to recreation and instruction, the pic- 
tures are rivaled only by the press. The shortcom- 
ings of the press we know; but who has proposed a 
censorship of the press? Admitting that every column 
offers suggestions for the vicious mind, I hope such 
a censorship shall never be attempted, for it cannot 
be carried out without throttling the power of a great 
institution. The censorship of the press and that of 
the motion pictures offer the same practical problem. 

Motion pictures minister to that instinct of the 
normal man, the love of the dramatic. The normal 
mind takes no interest in what are usually meant 
when we speak of normal things. We love to laugh 
and cry. Now the drama is the history of extra- 
ordinary lives and events, the struggle everlasting 
between good and evil, and in order to arouse our 



anxiety about virtue, we must threaten it with evil. 
It is as impossible to write a drama without intro- 
ducing some degree of crime as it is to write a ser- 
mon without a text. In this the law of compensation 
again takes care of things. The bad type of play or 
picture must inevitably give way to the better. 

We may remember the shock that came to some 
of the moralists at the first problem plays; these have 
so soon exhausted all the possibilities of sensation 
as no longer to excite any unusual interest; simi- 
larly, in the problem of dress, men have become so 
used to the short skirt that a pair of shapely limbs 
no longer has the fascination of mystery. Conceal- 
ment is a false protection to morals. 

In trying to lay the present so-called crime wave 
to the movies, let us not forget that the world has not 
yet recovered from the lamentable effects of the 
greatest war in history. And war, unlike motion 
pictures, can offer no defense for its tale of lost lives, 
weakened bodies, shattered reasons, depraved mor- 
als, enfeebled wills. The pictures, like life itself 
today, undoubtedly have to appeal to an impaired 
mental fiber; there is no remedy but to remedy life. 

Let us ask, with Aristotle, is the art good for the 
state? We believe that it is; recreation is as neces- 
sary as food and shelter; the industry has shown its 
capacity to improve from within; the whole public, 
by its expressed preferences, constitutes the censor- 
ship; and it is safe to say that there are no pictures 
wilfully designed to show that crime and wickedness 
prosper over law and virtue. Is there, in fact, any 
doubt that the picture of life presented in the movies 
has woven into its texture less justification for wrong- 
doing, more emphasis on beauty and right, than life 
in the crude has for just those elements in society 
whom some would protect with a censorship? It 
is this problem of life in the crude which presses for 
solution, and we shall not evade the grim necessity 
of solving that problem, nor simplify it, by anything 
in the nature of an official censorship of the newest, 
the most democratic and the most rapidly evolving 
of the arts. 



Eight 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



Intensity of Sunlight Under Sea 



By Paul R. Harmer 

PAPER No. II. 




During the summer of 
1933, E. B. Stephenson, of 
the Naval Research Lab- 
oratory, had the oppor- 
tunity to measure the in- 
tensity of light at differ- 
ent depths in the open 
sea of the Pacific Ocean 
in widely separated 
areas. 

The readings were 
taken from the conning 
tower of a submarine, 
which has four or five 
eyeports of plate glass, 
one inch thick and about 
five inches in diameter. 

A portable photometer, a General Electric candle- 
meter, was placed in a horizontal position two feet 
from an eyeport. The intensity of light was measured 
in lumens per square foot. The other ports were 
closed and the artificial light turned off during meas- 
urements. The depths were obtained from the depth 
gauge of the submarine, corrections being made for 
the eyeport above the keel. 

Temperatures were read from an alcohol ther- 
mometer mounted outside a forward eyeport. Each 
group of readings was taken at irregular intervals 
during a period of one to three hours while the sub- 
marine was under way on an irregular course, at a 
speed of three to six knots. 

The light measured was that which was scattered 
horizontally so as to come in through an eyeport. 
The intensity varied with the course of the submarine 
with respect to the position of the sun. The course 
was toward or away from the sun, the port and star- 
board readings checked within about ten percent. 
On other courses the difference occasionally was as 



Surface of water, 









Lumens 






Depth 






Depth 


per 






of Sea 






in ft. 


sq. ft. 


Temp. 


Fathoms 


April 17— 


Pinos Bay, 


5 




26.5C 


79.7F 


400 


Curve A 


Republic 


17 


0.080 


25 


77 






Panama 


52 


.030 


22 


71.6 




April 19— 


Perlas 


12 


.100 


22.5C 


72.5F 


30 


Curve B 


Islands, 


15 


.075 


22 


71.6 






Panama 


17 


.060 


22.5 


72.5 








19 


.075 


21.5 


70.7 








34 


.020 


21.5 


70.7 








37 


.015 


21.0 


69.8 








42 


.012 


20.5 


68.9 








47 


.010 


20.3 


68.5 




June 1 — 


Coronado 


4 


.100 








Curve CI 


Islands, 
Southern 
California 


6 
12 
14 
23 
24 


.090 
.080 
.075 
.040 
.036 


17.8C 


63.5F 


300 


Curve C2 




34 


.030 






600 






44 


.025 


14.0C 


57.2F 








54 


.022 












64 


.018 


13.5C 


56.3F 




July 18— 


Lahaina 


17 


.100 


21 C 


69.8F 


35 


Curve D 


Roads, 


17 


.095 


21 


69.8 






Territory 


32 


.075 


21 


69.8 






of Hawaii 


52 


.050 


21 


69.8 






5.0 5.2 s.4 8.6 88 9.0 9.2 
Log. ,oI i n Lumens per sq.ft. 



great as fifty percent. To compensate, at least in 
part for this effect, two readings each were made 
alternately on the port and starboard sides and the 
average value taken. Fortunately the sky was gener- 
ally clear and bright and the readings were taken 
between 10 A. M. and 2 P. M. 

The plate glass in the eyeport had a green tint, 
but the accuracy of reading the photometer was not 
improved by the use of a green filter. 

To give a qualitative measure of the under water 
visibility, it may be stated that on the forward deck 
of a submarine there is a guard rail consisting of a 
wire rope supported on stanchions of one inch iron 
pipe, spaced five feet apart and painted gray. Near 
the Perlas Islands in Panama Bay one could count 
two or three stanchions, approximately fifteen feet. 

In Lahaina Roads, Hawaii, one could count eight 
or nine stanchions, approximately forty-five feet. 

Near Boronados Islands, California, one could 
count eleven or twelve stanchions, approximately 
sixty feet. 

(Acknowledgment is made to "Journal of the Optical Society of 
America/') 



GERHARD F. RADZAT MOVES UP 

Gerhard F. Radzat, who, during the past four 
years, has held the important office of secretary- 
treasurer for the Hollywood Camera Exchange, Ltd., 
1600 North Cahuenga Avenue, has resigned to ac- 
cept an administrative position with the Industrial 
Supply Co. in downtown Los Angeles. 



May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Nine 



The Museum of Modern Art Film Library 

By John E. Abbott 

Director of the Museum of Modern Art Film Library 
485 Madison Avenue, New York 

Abstract from paper read at S.M.P.E. Spring meeting, 1936. 



Until last year, no organization existed anywhere 
for preserving films of outstanding merit or for ar- 
ranging for their continued distribution. That such 
an organization would be desirable had been gen- 
erally agreed many years ago, yet it hardly lay 
within the scope of the film industry itself to bring 
it into existence. No man can look forward and 
backwards at the same time; and no artist is the 
best judge of his own work. The probability was, 
therefore, that the films, all of them from the begin- 
ning of the industry until now, would lie unseen and 
unappreciated in their vaults until in the course of 
time they disintegrated completely. However, if 
anything were to be done to create a museum of 
the film, it seemed obvious that a singularly appro- 
priate institution to undertake the work was the Mu- 
seum of Modern Art in New York, which, since 1929, 
has so energetically concerned itself with all aspects 
of contemporary art, from architecture to photog- 
raphy. Yet before it could approach this task three 
things were needful. One was to ascertain if there 
existed a serious interest in the film as a living art 
and in its history and development. Another was 
money to create and maintain a film library. The 
third was the cooperation of the film industry. 

The Museum of Modern Art found, by inquiry, 
that colleges and museums all over the country 
were anxious for material to make possible a serious 
study of the film. A scheme for the creation and 



operation of a film library which would enable the 
motion picture to be studied just as, for example, 
mediaeval sculpture or contemporary drama already 
are studied, was then drawn up by the Museum. 
A grant from the Rockefeller Foundation and certain 
gifts of money from private individuals provided 
the necessary funds to start work. The Museum of 
Modern Art Film Library came into existence in 
June, 1935, with John Hay Whitney as President, 
John E. Abbott, Vice-president and Edward M. M. 
Warburg, Treasurer. John E. Abbott was appointed 
Director and Iris Barry, Curator. Later an advisory 
Committee was formed with the following members: 
Will H. Hays, Chairman, Jules Brulatour, Stanton 
Griff is, Dr. Irwin Panofsky, Dr. David H. Stevens 
and Irving Thalberg. 

The Film Library then became actively engaged 
in the following activities: 

1. To compile and annotate a card index of all 
films of interest or merit of all kinds produced since 
1893, both American and foreign. 

2. To trace, secure and preserve the important 
films, both American and foreign, of each period 
since 1893. 

3. To edit and assemble these films into pro- 
grams for educational and non-commercial exhibi- 
tion in New York and throughout the country by 
colleges, museums and local organizations. 

(Turn to Page 28) 



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T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 




Inexpensive Miniature Camera 
Photography 




By 

Karl A. Barleben, 

Jr., F.R.P.S. 



|H A T miniature camera photography has 
swept the country — no, world — by storm, 
there is no denying. The public has taken 
to the tiny instruments like a duck to water, 
and everybody these days is snapping unsuspect- 
ing friends and relatives — candid camera work on a 
small scale. While the small cameras have made a 
decided hit, it is true that many thousands are forced 
to stand by and content themselves with watching 
other and more fortunate of their fellow beings enjoy 
them because of their high cost. The fact that these 
watch-like, precision cameras are endowed with the 
finest materials, workmanship and lenses, plus the 
fact that they are almost all without exception im- 
ported from Germany, makes their cost prohibitive 
to many who would gladly give their shirts for one. 
Unfortunately, dealers will not accept shirts in pay- 
ment for miniature cameras, with the result that 
there are thousands in this fair land who have an 
intense interest, but not enough cash, for a miniature 
camera. 

Wise merchants and manufacturers have long 
weighed the demands for a low-priced, yet suffi- 
ciently well-built and appointed, miniature camera 
to be produced for the accommodation of those who 
cannot see their way clear to invest one or more 
hundred dollars for one of the imported precision 
instruments. Rumors have been going the rounds 
for several years of various firms about to start pro- 
duction on an American-made miniature camera. 
Until recently these rumors were either groundless 
or incorrect. 

Late in December the International Research Cor- 
poration of Ann Arbor, Mich., exploded a bombshell! 
The Argus camera was about to be announced! The 
I. R. C, after several years of experimentation, was 
ready to put on the market a good miniature camera, 
not in the least to be confused with a cheap toy-like 
affair, at a price of only $12.50. American-made, too. 
Here was food for thought. The agents of the im- 
ported cameras were somewhat startled, while the 
wise-acres of miniature cameradom winked slyly at 
each other. Would the Argus step in and lick the 
high-priced imported cameras? Would it soon fade 
away after the novelty wore off? Or would it serve 
a more practical purpose of permitting new thou- 
sands to enjoy miniature camera photography with 
the thought that with the increased interest many 
would in time switch over to one of the high-grade 
and high-priced cameras? The logical and sane 
viewpoint would be inclined to uphold the latter 
contention. 

Mr. Verschoor, general manager of the I. R. C, 
likes to feel that the new Argus will find its place in 
the miniature camera field. This it unquestionably 
will. And what a place it will find for itself! Thou- 
sands of enthusiasts are now going to be able to 



enjoy a good small camera at a price that they can 
easily afford. It is true that the Argus is no Leica or 
Contax, but it will, nevertheless, satisfy many thou- 
sands of enthusiasts who in all probability would 
have no need for the various refinements and flex- 
ibilities of the more costly cameras. The Argus, 
built of a resinous material with an f:4.5 lens, shutter 
with speeds up to 1 /200th second, and ability to 
accommodate all standard film rolls such as are 
used in the Leica, Contax, Retina, Peggy, etc., includ- 
ing natural color film in the form of Lumiere Film- 
color and Dufaycolor, stands as a most remarkable 
value. As such, its sales are assured. I. R. C. antic- 
ipate many thousands of sales on the basis of honest 
value. 

Not only has America now a standard low-priced 
miniature camera, but here is more news — I. R. C. 
will introduce various accessories such as an en- 
larger, as yet to be announced. For a price the same 
as, or close to, the initial cost of the camera, this 
enlarger will boast of the money-saving feature of 
using the Argus camera itself as part of the enlarg- 
ing outfit. In other words, the lamp house unit will 
attach to the camera for the making of enlargements, 
making it very inexpensive to produce one's own 
enlargements with simplified equipment. These 
items and accessories will be released from time to 
time in the future. There is a rumor that within the 
next year or two a more expensive precision camera 
will be introduced by I. R. C. So it appears that we 
are now about to witness an interesting contest be- 
tween miniature camera manufacturers. 

From where I sit and view the entire proceedings, 
I cannot help but feel that the Argus will fill a long- 
felt need. That it will interfere with the sale and use 
of the higher-priced jobs I seriously doubt. I like to 
feel that the Argus will bring miniature camera pho- 
tography and technique into every home, on a sim- 
plified scale, of course. Those who buy the Argus 
now may in the future create a desire for a more 
expensive outfit with its various flexibilities and 
attachments. If so, that inexpensive camera will 
have done a good turn to its so-called competitors. 
If not, nothing is lost anyway, for the person who 
cannot afford a high-priced job can't get one any- 
way. Naturally the Argus will be bought by many 
thousands who cannot and will not buy the expen- 
sive imported cameras. In turn, however, they will 
be automatically added to the vast army of minia- 
ture camera users for the betterment of the entire 
industry. 

Just watch the minicameras being used this sum- 



ARCUS 
The new 

Candid 
Camera. 



mer. It is safe to assume that there will be a camera 
in every pocket during the coming months, and 
whatever gain is obtained in the small camera field 
can be blamed on I. R. C. for their vision and cour- 
age in placing on the market the new Argus camera. 




May, 1936 The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Eleven 

EASTMAN FILMS 

BRULATOUR SERVICE 



EASTMAN FILMS 

BRULATOUR SERVICE 



EASTMAN FILMS 

BRULATOUR SERVICE 



Twelve 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 





Associate 
Editor 



|S EARLY as 1897, Edison used a short two- 
inch title to carry his name and copyright. 
This may be said to be the first title, though 
it carried no picture name or other informa- 
tion, only that it was made and copyrighted by T. A. 
Edison. This identification was inserted five feet 
from the beginning, in the first and only scene of the 
picture. Records do not indicate when pictures were 
identified by main titles. "The Great Train Robbery" 
was one of the first big pictures that had such a title. 

A company was formed in 1902 by the Gunby 
Brothers for the purpose of making titles for motion 
pictures, which would indicate that titles were used 
at that time; however, Albert E. Smith, one of the 
founders of Vitagraph, recalls that they were gener- 
ally adopted about 1904. This is corroborated by 
Wallace Clendenin. 

During 1906 and 1907 the sub-title was used. It 
was first inserted in the picture to show the passage 
of time. Such titles as "One Hour Later," "The Next 
Day," and "One Year Passes" could be seen on 
the screen. Very soon, because pictures were now 
rapidly developing a narrative technique, other con- 
notative titles were added to their repertoire. "Love 
at First Sight," "Bob Meets Betty," and "The Sacri- 
fice" were characeristic examples. 

The action around the title, "The Sacrifice," for 
example, would be one of those eternal love trian- 
gles. The best friend loves the girl; the hero puts 
the hand of the girl in the hand of his friend, and 
then elaborately sighs, registering disappointment. 
He exits with his hands over his eyes, which would 
then be followed by a title, "The Sacrifice." 

The sub-title gradually improved until about 1910 
when the dialogue title made its appearance. As 
the title assumed a share of the narrative burden it 
became possible to improve the plot and slow the 
tempo of the story. 

The producers of pictures felt, as did the Empire 
Stock Company under the direction of Charles Froh- 
man, that curiosity and mystery around the players 
would increase their box-office value. 

The Imp, an "independent" concern founded by 
Carl Laemmle in 1909, was the first to publicize the 
name of the players as a business move against the 
Motion Picture Patents Company, who had been try- 
ing to stop the smaller picture makers. He an- 
nounced that his company had acquired the serv- 
ices of Florence Lawrence. She had until this time 
been known as "The Biograph Girl," and it was no 
small accomplishment to take her — the most noted 
of the screen players then — away from the powerful 
patent trust. 

The "Sunday Post-Dispatch" of St. Louis carried 



The Evolution of the Motion 
Picture Story 

Part II. 

By Earl Theisen 

a featured article on March 20, 1910, announcing 
"for the first time that 'The Imp Girl' is really Flor- 
ence Lawrence." The article also states that she 
made "300 rolls a year, or one for each working 
day." That, however, is exaggerated. Florence 
Lawrence recalls that she made about three pictures 
a week earlier, while at this time she was making 
only one. 

The "Motion Picture Story" magazine, which was 
first published in February, 1911, by J. Stuart Black- 
ton, as the "Patents Company" publication, carried 
stories about the players. This first issue announced, 
besides others, the names of Florence Turner, known 
as "The Vitagraph Girl," and Alice Joyce, both Vita- 
graph players. 

One of the earliest pictures in which Edison gave 
credit to a cast was his 700-foot picture, "Interna- 
tional Heartbreaker," released on December 11, 
1911. 

The advertising of players' names greatly im- 
proved pictures. It had a distinct dramatic value, 
in that the audiences were in a more sympathetic 
and receptive mood for the players' work. It facili- 
tated characterization. Now for the first time screen 
players took pride in their work and it was a great 
striae toward the social recognition of the screen. 

D. W. Griffith, though pioneering in most of the 
other dramatic devices of the screen, did not see the 
importance and the appeal of the name of the player 
to the audience. Adolph Zukor, in contrast, capital- 
ized on the name of the player in 1912 with his idea, 
"Famous players in famous plays." 

IV. 

The Trend Toward the Artistic 

The French pictures in general were superior in 
narrative technique to the Nickelodeon pictures. 

The English, and particularly the Italian pictures, 
while suitable in their ethnology, began to improve 
rapidly. In 1911 the Milano Film Company in Italy 
began exporting multiple reel pictures which very 
materially assisted in popularizing the longer pic- 
tures. Their version of Dante's "Inferno" in four reels 
was followed immediately by "The Fall of Troy" 
and "Quo Vadis." They were brought to the United 
States by George Kleine. Perhaps their best picture, 
which incidentally was the first to command a $2.00 
admission, was "Cabiria." That was in 1914. 

The Kalem Company was the first American 
company to make a five-reel picture. Their picture, 
"From the Manger to the Cross," which was made 



l 

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| Variable area recorders' 

W~ POTENT NO. 1985584. OTHERS PENOINC 
J ALSO 

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| 



Maw 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirteen 



in the Holy Land, was released in 1912. (Vitagraph 
made a five-reel picture, "The Life of Moses," in 
1909, but it was released in single reels as a serial.) 

Most of the dramatic devices of the motion pic- 
ture were originated and found their first use in the 
Biograph pictures, particularly those made by D. W. 
Griffith. In his Biograph pictures made during 1908- 
10 there are examples of such fundamental devices 
as "recurrent theme," "fade in" and "fade out," 
"camera angle," "contrast," "close-up," "lighting ef- 
fects," and "montage." Griffith very ably conveyed 
the abstractions of the "montage" (effect gained by 
the use of short scenes, for example in war scenes, 
showing in rapid order the marching of troops, ex- 
ploding shells, etc., in order to convey the abstrac- 
tion and dramatize a war sequence). This cinematic 
device, along with the others in use today, are very 
ably explained in Dr. Rudolf Arnheim's "Film." 

The picture, "A Corner in Wheat," made by Grif- 
fith and released as Biograph No. 3646 on December 
13, 1909, in a length of 935 feet, was a good example 
of Griffith's work, and in it are examples of the chief 
dramatic devices employed today. The picture 
opened with a fade-in of a poor farmer and his wife 
broadcasting wheat seed. It showed their meager 
existence. This cuts to a wealthy buyer who intends 
to corner this food commodity. To quote from the 
Biograph handbill: "What a contrast is shown in the 
office of the Wheat King surrounded by his lieuten- 
ants ... He finally buys all the wheat, and is then 
shown in a "montage" superimposure effect, majes- 
tically standing over the wrecked hopes and for- 
tunes of others. He is lauded for his acumen, wined 
and dined and regarded as a man among men." 
He is then shown in the large wheat storehouses, 
proudly showing the steady flow of wheat into his 
elevators. He slips and falls into the stream of 
wheat and is buried with the movement of the grain. 
A close-up shows his hands waving as he disap- 
pears. This picture fades back to the farmer and his 
wife who are still trudging along throwing the grain 
from their seed sack. In this fade the tempo of the 
picture changes. In the sequences showing the 
Wheat King there had been a faster tempo, which 
faded to a slower one of the farmer rhythmically 
swinging his arms as he threw the seed. 

A study of the elements of this picture and its 
contemporaries convinces that Griffith was a master 
of the dramaturgic art. It is a far cry from the Bio- 
graph picture number 958, made about 1900, "It's 
Unlucky to Pass Under a Ladder, a Prevailing Super- 
stition Verified," or their house-cleaning "Moving 
Picture from Life" (which was the Biograph slogan 
then), number 881, entitled "A Moving Picture, and 
the Difficulties Encountered About May 1st." 

Griffith had his first connection with the motion 
picture as a player in cm Edison picture, "The 
Eagle's Nest," which was made by Edwin S. Porter 



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in 1907. Before that Griffith had been a writer and 
stage actor. 

Years later his "The Clansman," that later be- 
came known as "The Birth of a Nation," due to the 
suggestion of Thomas Dixon, who wrote the story, 
was the most pretentious motion picture the industry 
had yet known. It was first released in twelve reels 
on February 15, 1915, at Clune's, in Los Angeles. 
This won for the motion picture much recognition as 
an art. For the first time it was something more than 
an industry. 

The perfection and use of mechanical equipment 
for creating dramatic effects received impetus about 
1915. "Accelerated Motion" and "Trucking shots" 
(moving the camera) were used in many of the Essa- 
nay pictures of this time. "Slow motion" was con- 
sidered a novelty in the Pathe pictures of 1915. This 
effect was used to advantage in the dream sequence 
of Douglas Fairbanks' "When Clouds Roll By," re- 
leased on January 4, 1920. 

Artificial lighting and its dramatic effects came 
into vogue about 1913-14. Biograph, however, used 
lights as a regular thing as far back as 1902, at 
which time they moved into their famous "Brown- 
stone" at 11 East 14th Street, New York. 

Chaotic "superimposure" as a montage effect, 
while used earlier by Griffith, came into prominence 
only recently. It was used to particular advantage 
in Universal's "All Quiet on the Western Front," 
made in 1930. The "split screen," used to show 
parallel action, has been in use since 1910. Pathe 
originated this effect in their early pictures. 

The "glass-matte" was perfected by Walter Hall, 
who used it first in Cecil B. De Mille's pictures of 
1920. It was patented a year later. It is an opaque 
painting, approximately three by four feet in size, 
painted on glass with portions left transparent. When 
set before the camera, both the painting and players 
performing through the transparent portion are com- 
bined. It is used to advantage in changing or add- 
ing certain features, or beautifying landscapes. 

Miniatures are most important in bringing to the 
screen sequences that otherwise would not be avail- 
able. The dramaturgic force of train wrecks, vol- 
canic scenes, airplane mishaps or other scenes 
where human life would be endangered, or where 
the prohibitive expense of creating sets in full size, 
such as in foreign architecture or landscapes, are 
only made available through the use of miniatures. 

The use of miniatures date back to 1898. In this 
year Edward H. Amet made a fifty-foot picture, "The 
Sinking of Cervera's Fleet," in which he re-created 
this signal battle of the Spanish-American War by 
miniature ships and fireworks. In 1906 the Biograph 
Company released a picture in which they fabri- 
cated the San Francisco disaster. The city was re- 
created of pasteboard in miniature on a table top, 
and then burned. During this time Melies did some 
very creditable miniature motion pictures. 

The most perfect miniatures have been made by 
Willis O'Brien, who started making them in 1914. 
His most recent was "The Lost World," from the A. 
Conan Doyle story, and "King Kong," in which the 
major portion of the picture was miniature animated 
by hand. The more true to life miniature sequences 
made for the Fox Films by Ralph Hammeras are, 
however, the most convincing on the screen. 

While there were earlier trick photographic proc- 
esses used for introducing atmospheric background, 
the first to become popular was the "Williams Trav- 
eling Matte," first used in the Famous Players-Lasky 
picture, "Beyond the Rocks," released in May, 1922. 
(Turn to Page 27) 



Fourteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



"he New Viscose Brush Announced 



By Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F.R.P.S. 




|HE Viscose Sponge needs no introduction. 
It has, for the past few years, been the main- 
stay of thousands of amateur photographers 
— and all others who require a soft, absorb- 
ent material in their work. This sponge, made of a 
cellulose fibre compound, has been so universally 
accepted that literally hundreds of uses were found 
for it, in spite of the fact that it was primarily de- 
signed originally for safely wiping film after wash- 
ing. Since its introduction, people have found that 
it makes an ideal bath sponge, housewives are 
crazy about it in their hundred-and-one jobs about 
the home, especially the kitchen. Pipe smokers, for 
example, have discovered that a small piece of 
Viscose Sponge is simply grand in the tobacco 
humidor to keep the tobacco fresh and moist. 

As a film and plate wiping medium, however, 
the Viscose Sponge has found its greatest use. 
Previous to its introduction, amateurs, particularly 
amateur miniature camera users, were continually 
scratching their tiny films by using various so-called 
soft wiping mediums. The introduction of the Vis- 
cose Sponge at once put an end to all scratches due 
to wiping. It follows that it was hailed as a real 
boon to miniature camera photography. I dare say 
that there are few amateurs indeed who do not use 
this sponge exclusively for the wiping of their films. 
I know that since using it, I've never had a single 
scratch on my negatives, and you couuldn't pry me 
loose from my sponges for anything. 



It is good news, therefore, that Willoughby Cam- 
era Stores announce a new style Viscose Sponge — 
pardon, brush. The new brush is the same old re- 
liable Viscose Sponge in new form. A most prac- 
tical and convenient wooden handle or grip has 
been fastened to one end, making it doubly easy to 
use. With this new handle, the sponge can be 
manipulated with extreme ease and convenience. 
The new brush is particularly useful to bromoil 
workers in their technique, eliminating as it does 
the mess usually associated with the former plain 
sponge. Yes, indeed, the new Willo Viscose Brush 
is just the thing for every dark room, regardless of 
the type of work done in it. 

The Willo Viscose Brush comes in two conveni- 
ent sizes: a three-inch size, costing sixty-five cents, 
and the larger five-inch size, costing one dollar and 
forty cents. It is not my custom to go into a frenzy 
over any products in print, but in this case I feel 
justified in doing so because the product is really 
good, and I want everyone to know about it, for 
once tried, it becomes a habit — a habit you will 
never do without in the future. 

Complete details about the Willo Viscose Brush 
may be obtained by writing direct to Willoughby 
Camera Stores, Inc., 110 West 32nd Street, New York 
City. Incidentally, the introduction of the brush does 
not indicate that the sponge will no longer be avail- 
able. Both the brush and the sponge type will con- 
tinue to be sold. 



Recent Photograph and Sound Patents 



By Robert Fulwider 

A ttorney-at-Law 



2,032,393— Film Gate. A. N. Batsel and I. J. Lar- 
son, assignors to R.C.A. Corp. 

2,032,397— Projection Printer. R. F. Brady, as- 
signor to R.C.A. 

2,032,398— Film Drive Mechanism. R. F. Brady, 
assignor to R.C.A. 

2,032,401— Color Photography. A. B. Clark, as- 
signor to Technicolor Inc. 

2,032,410— Motion Picture. A. N. Goldsmith, as- 
signor to R.C.A. 

2,032,422 — Mechanism for Producing Intermittent 
Motion. I. J. Larson, assignor to R.C.A. 

2,032,506 — Sensitizing Photographic Emulsions. 
W. Schneider, assignor to Agfa Ansco Corp. 

2,032,633 — Diaphragm for Photographic Cameras. 
Odon Riszdorfen, Budapest, Hungary. 

2,032,676 — Viewing Device. A. Warmisham, as- 
signor to Bell & Howell. 

2,032,930— Electric Safety Mechanism for Cine- 
matographs. V. Gazulla and D. Arguelo, Barcelona, 
Spain. 

2,033,038— Projector. R. L. Lee, assignor to Mo- 
tion Picture Engineering Co., Dayton, Ohio. 

2,033,193— Method & Device for Reproducing 
Sound Records on Lenticulated Film. Fritz Fischer, 
assignor to Siemens & Halske Co., Siemensstadt, 
Germany. 

2,033,225 — Projector. Carl Bornmann, assignor to 
Agfa Ansco Corp. 

2,033,277 — Film Driving Mechanism for Sound 



Pictures. L. A. Elmer and H. W. MacDougall, as- 
signors to Bell Tel. Labs., Inc., N. Y. 

2,033,337 — Bifocal Distance Sound Concentrator. 
Paul R. Harmer, Los Angeles, Cal. 

2,033,476 — Regenerative Sound Recording De- 
vice. Bernard Kwartin, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

2,033,499— Film Copying Apparatus. Karl Wahl, 
assignor to Sifico A. G., Shaffhausen, Switzerland. 

2,033,945 — Method and Apparatus for Recording 
Sounds on Film. J. F. Lindberg, assignor to Lindberg 
Sound Film Co., Chicago, 111. 

2,033,957 — Optical Reflection and Sound Repro- 
ducing Apparatus. F. G. Salcedo, assignor to Con- 
solidated Advertising Corp., L. A., Calif. 

2,034,148 — Glow Tube for Use in Recording 
Sound. R. B. Morgan, assignor to R.C.A. 

2,034,176 — Motion Picture Apparatus. Carmine 
Doino, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

2,034,220— Light Sensitive Layer and Method of 
Producing Colored Pictures. Donald K. Allison, as- 
signor to Detracolor Ltd., Los Angeles, Calif. 

2,034,193 — Moving Lens Cinematograph Ma- 
chine. W. E. John, Johannesburg, Transvaal, South 
Africa. 

2,034,230— Color Photography. L. M. Dieterich 
and D. K. Allison, assignors to Detracolor Ltd., Los 
Angeles. 

2,034,508 — Process for Obtaining Color Contrasts. 
J. H. De Boer and R. J. H. Alink, Netherlands. 



More About the New 20th 

Century 



In November, 1935, INTERNATIONAL PHOTOG- 
RAPHER introduced the first successful silent motion 
picture camera. The Twentieth Century-Fox Camera 
— and now comes one of our contributors who favors 
the magazine with additional comments upon its ex- 
cellence. Read on: 

After lending a more or less sympathetic ear to 
the troubles of cameramen with respect to the short- 
comings of their equipment, we decided to do a little 
technical investigating on our own. The rumors we 
heard regarding a certain mysterious piece of equip- 
ment that could be operated within two feet of the 
microphone; that weighed only 82 pounds and did 
not require the services of a small army of men 
to move it from place to place about a set, decided 
us to start upon a little "snooping." We will ad- 
mit that we were somewhat skeptical, as past ex- 
perience with these photographic Wonder Boxes 
proved many times that they would not stand close 
inspection. 

Proceeding to the Precision Machine Shop at 
Twentieth Century-Fox, we were very pleasantly 
greeted by Mr. Grover Laube, Chief Cine Techni- 
cian, who, with Charles M. Miller and Robert G. 
Stevens of the cine technical department, are the 
actual inventors of this remarkable camera. 

Mr. Laube invited us over to see the camera in 
operation. Well, after looking it over and seeing 
it in operation, we decided that what we had 
heard not only was true, but fell short of doing 
it justice. The camera was entirely new in appear- 
ance, as well as in its mechanical and optical prin- 



Fox 
Camera 

By 

Billy Boice 




Grover Laube 



ciples. It also does all that is claimed for it by its 
many admirers among the clan of Hollywood film 
foggers. We prophesy that this camera will in time 
receive recognition as the answer to the old and 
very expensive problem of camera silencing. 

The employment of the unwieldly blimp as the 
main factor in silencing the camera during the shoot- 
ing of sound pictures is, with this new Fox camera, 
no longer necessary. The inventors have eliminated 
the cause of camera noise rather than concern them- 
selves with the effect. 

The camera may be operated at all speeds with- 
in two feet of the sound microphone with no sound 
cover or blimp. 

However, the sound proofing is only part of the 
final achievement in this camera. Better optical re- 

(Turn to Page 29) 



New: Argus 



CANDID 
CAMERA 



$12.50 

(f:4.5 and 
1/200 sec.) 



Exciting new photography at a penny a picture! 

The new Argus Candid Camera is changing the entire 
field of photography. 

This amazing Ail-American camera has adapted the 
technique of the motion picture camera and applied it 
to the most advanced features of the still camera. Us- 
ing inexpensive 36 exposure motion picture film, the 
Argus camera achieves the same sharpness and clarity, 
the same delightful candor as is found on the screen. 
The Argus is 5 inches long — weighs 14 ounces. It can 
be carried everywhere, used anywhere. Sharp, clear 
prints — to virtually any size — are possible, even though 
the snapshots were taken under the most adverse light- 
ing conditions. 
Natural color photography, too, by the use of natural 



DEALERS: 

The valuable Argus Charter Dealer Franchise is still 
available in a few communities. Write us as to whether 
we can offer this franchise to you, for your community. 




(PAT. PENDING) 

color film, without change of lens. 
Argus lens are needle-sharp — you can catch split-second 
action. The shutter is adjustable from time, bulb and 
1/25 of a second to l/200th of a second . . . making 
possible successful photographs of practically any sub- 
ject. 

Unlike costly foreign products, the Argus is a marvel 
of simplicity. Anyone can take good pictures with an 
Argus — no confusing gadgets. You merely aim the 
camera and take your shot ! 

Argus is new. While many progressive dealers are 
prepared now to demonstrate it, if the store in your 
locality has not yet received its Argus shipment, send 
the coupon for more information. 

I 

INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CORP. 
119 B 4th Street, Ann Arbor. Michigan 

Please send me full details about the Argus Camera. 

Name 

Address.... 



Sixteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



News Letter From South America 

By JOHN ALTON, Formerly of Local 659 




Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, 1936. 

Dear Mr. Editor: 

OOKS like things are going to pick up at last, 
so after having signed a contract and re- 
ceived the "on account", I resolved to "pest" 
you some more from way down here. 

The other day I visited the White family, all run- 
ning around in Turkish bath costume, for hot it was. 
The humidity here is what kills. The General Electric 
Company could use Death Valley as an ad for their 
Frigidaire. These poor boys (mean Bob Roberts) 
playing the immigrant. It's tough. 

Now that it looks like more of the Argentine cli- 
mate, would you kindly forward your most highly 
appreciated publication that is like water in the des- 
ert, for INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER is like a 
piece of Hollywood and it's mighty good to see fa- 
miliar faces and hear names you know. 

It might interest your readers to know that motion 
picture production is beginning to be a reality in the 
Capiol of Argentine. According to the plans for 
1936, three studios expect to go full force and the 
fourth, the Rio de la Plata, under the technical man- 
agement of Tom White, is in preparation and is soon 
to knock them for a loop with his Hollywood stuff. 
The three major ones are: The Argentine Sono Film 
Company ,under the technical direction of ':yours 
truly," John J. Alton. According to my contract I am 
to supervise all production, but, as I am a born cam- 
eraman, I am not going to trust anyone else with the 
lighting. It remains a hobby. 

At present we are installing a brand new studio 
and have to be ready to shoot by the end of Febru- 
ary. During the early part of March we start the 
first of our 1936 productions and it is to be called 
"Amalia," after an historic novel. 

The second studio on the line is the Lumiton, who 
are to come out with their first picture entitled, "Mu- 
chachada de Abordo," a native story. The S. I. D. E. 
Studios, under the management of Arturo Mom, a 
son of the Pampa, shows signs of becoming a good 
producer. One of last season's hits was a picture 
called "Monte Criollo," directed by Mom. Their first 
1936 production is called "Amor y Amor," with spe- 
cial light effects by myself. 

The S. I. D. E. Studios, beside producing their own 
pictures, also rent studio space to the little "Indies," 
who here and there scrape a few pesos together to 
invest in the adventure of the picture game, — ■ for 
game it is. 

Tom White's first production is to be called "El 
Comisario," which translated means "the chief" (of 
police). 

I do not like to talk about the past, for one knows 



it is only repetition, but the year 1935 has brought to 
the foreground a young comedian called Sandrini, 
who is today the hit of the Spanish world. Among the 
directors who show signs of real talent is Arturo 
Mom, whom I have mentioned above. The picture 
"Monte Criollo" certainly made people think and 
proved that pictures can be produced even way 
down below the River Rio de la Plata. 

Alberto Zavalia, a young director with his pic- 
ture entitled "Escala en la Ciudad," and whose pho- 
tography won the highest merits in 1935, deplores 
the misunderstanding of most of the world about the 
Argentine. He proves that Buenos Aires is as mod- 
ern a city as London, New York, Paris or Los An- 
geles and the Indians are not running around on the 
streets and that the only gaucho in B. A. is one work- 
ing in pictures. 

Mario Soffici, another new director, with his pic- 
ture "El Alma de Bandoneon" beat all local box of- 
fice records. He is an old stage actor of Spanish 
fame, and who, if given the proper opportunity, might 
turn out to be a King Vidor of great Hispania. 

We also count that the first so-called producer, 
Senor Angel Mentasti, president of the Argentina 
Sono Film, is the first high calibered motion picture 
producer of the Argentine. He looks, and is, the 
typical supervisor of Hollywood and would fit the 
executive staff of any American major studio. Up 
early in the morning, reading stories for his 1936 
program, interviewing foreign representatives, super- 
vising the building of his modern studio, casting the 
picture, then into the projection room, where, with the 
interruption of a sandwich and a glass of certified 
milk, sits through the afternoon signing mail, holding 
a production meeting, making preparations for the 
next day — in other words, he is a busy man. And 
the results show, too. For only a few years ago did 
he start with "one picture a year" program; then two 
in 1935, so several in 1936 is quite a stride ahead. 
He is a man well educated, with the vision of a phil- 
osopher and the strong will of a dictator, a master 
of discipline, but still loved by his employees, for 
he is human and bound to make good. He has the 
stuff that makes big men. 

And last, but not least, comes my Fotography, 
with a big F which, as proven by the clippings you 
must have received by now, has at last brought the 
local photographic quality up to standard and even 
compared wiht the work of men like Sternberg, 
Pabst, Eisenstein, etc. It was the result of three and 
a half years of labor, for it was not my good fortune 
to have the technical staff Tom White brought along 
with him. 

Yours truly, 

JOHN ALTON. 



MAX FACTOR'S 

N EW 

LIQUID FOUNDATION 

A REVELATION IN FACIAL MAKE-UP 



May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



COLOR MARCHES ON 



By Herbert Aller 




[IRST with the creep of a snail, then like a 
sweeping hurricane, the transition to color 
finds itself entrenched in the motion picture 
studios of Hollywood, for on the lips of 
every cameraman comes the question: "What do 
you think of color?" 

"Is it here to stay?" 

"Have you seen any pictures in color?" 

The conversational barometer or the cross-ques- 
tioning of cameramen as to the relative significance 
of color became noticeable when the first feature- 
length picture in Technicolor, "Becky Sharp," was 
released. 

Today the matter is one beyond dispute. Techni- 
color's achievement in "The Trail of the Lonesome 
Pine," magnificently photographed by W. Howard 
Greene, ended all doubt about color's desirability. 
Cameraman Greene had performed a Herculean 
task. Acclaim by the cinemaddicts changed public 
opinion from the thought of experimentation to the 
acceptance of color as an improved, elaborate and 
embellished form of motion pictures — unquestion- 
ably a contribution to the arts of modern civilization. 

Shooting in Magnacolor — a two-color process — 
we find Cameraman Mack Stengler, responsible for 
the photographic work on two recent productions 
produced under the personal supervision of George 
E. Hirliman. This same producer is now preparing 
to produce a number of western dramas, starring 
George O'Brien, in this color. 

In the Far East, sometimes in the modern cities of 
the oldest civilization or concealed amongst the wild 
animals in the jungles of Asia, may be found Paul 
Perry, that renowned cameraman, shooting in Mag- 
nacolor for companies in Manila and India. 

Cinecolor, another two-color process, finds its 
photographic exponent in Jerry Fairbanks, traveling 
cameraman. Mr. Fairbanks has given the cinema 
audiences hours of delight with his novelty reel, 
portraying modern invention ever so much more 
effectively exhibited through the medium of color 
photography. Cameraman Len Roos is another 
shooting in Cinecolor. 

From England comes word that the color likely 
to be much heard from in the immediate future is 



Gasparcolor (Gasparcolor Process by Major Adrien 
B. Cline, M. B. E., technical adviser to Gasparcolor, 
Ltd., February, 1936, issue, Journal of Association of 
Cine-Technicians). Also of interest in England is the 
DeBrie Color Process known as Dascolor. 

In Hollywood, Technicolor, just now, is foremost 
of all color processes. On his way to England to 
photograph in Technicolor for the producer, Alexan- 
der Korda, is that well-known and popular camera- 
man, Ray Rennahan, and with him is to be found 
Henry Imus, assistant cameraman. Cameraman 
Rennahan should enjoy his stay in England, for his 
attachment to Hollywood is quite evident. He writes 
from the tropics: "The tropics are fine, but I do love 
Hollywood." 

Duty bound to perform without flaw, the introduc- 
tion of feature length motion picture photoplays was 
the arduous undertaking of the cameramen em- 
ployed by the Technicolor organization. These cam- 
eramen carried with them the inalienable thought 
that the audience when leaving the theatre must not 
say the story lagged for the sake of color. The rapid 
popularity of color has been successful because of 
the pioneering efforts of so many able, intelligent 
and unflinching cameramen. 

William Skall, who has photographed numerous 
shorts and recently completed "The Dancing 
Pirates," a Pioneer production in Technicolor, is 
about to commence another feature length picture 
that will be a genuine treat to the cinemaddics. 

Cameraman Skall produced some intriguing ef- 
fects in "The Dancing Pirates." It is said he stand- 
ardized a new form of lighting for Technicolor pic- 
tures. Consequently it is easily understood why the 
release of this production is awaited eagerly by his 
fellow cameramen. In the production of "The Danc- 
ing Pirates" Mr. Skall was assisted by Second Cam- 
eraman Lee Davis and his two able assistant cam- 
eramen, John Hamilton and Paul Hill, of whom the 
latter is expected to be seen shortly in the ranks 
of the second cameramen. Skall is now engrossed 
in photographing "Ramona" for Twentieth Century- 
Fox. 

Cameraman Howard Green is now engaged in 

(Turn to Patje 26) 




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Variable Area Recorders 
Light Test Machines, 
Bloop Punches, 
Soundolas, 



Amplifiers, 
Microphones, 
Cables, 
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Galvanometers, 
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645 NORTH MARTEL AVE 



CABLE ADDRESS ARTREEVES 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA. 



Eighteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE SECTION 

HAMILTON RIDDEL, EDITOR 




SPRINGTIME-AND A 
MOVIE CAMERA 




{Contributed by 
a Fellow Filmer) 



SPRINGTIME— that rarest interim of all the 
year! Welcome indeed are the days of 
balmy weather, when the good old Earth 
casts off its drab winter aspect and is re- 
dressing itself in colorful array for the summer 
months. With the return of the sun, warmly caress- 
ing the face of the northern hemisphere, and with 
winter snows fast becoming dissipated, the cold 
tomb of seasonal circumstance has indeed been split 
asunder. The annual resurrection of springtime- 
pageantry has begun in Nature. 

It's just about this time of year that many movie 
makers smile thankfully at the bright Spring sun, 
breathe deeply the clear air, and survey the pros- 
pects for some good pictures. And, as in every year 
since the inception of personal movies, there will 
be two rather distinct classes of amateur camera- 
men doing this. They both may look alike, as Ike 
and Mike, and no doubt they both have similar cine 
equipment, yet the result of their springtime filming 
will tell quite a different story at the end of the 
season. 

Our friend Ike, for instance, will note only the 
obvious: Improved cinematographic light of spring- 
time sunshine. Following his usual custom, Ike will 
grab his movie camera and will proceed to burn up 
foot after foot on the family kindred, whom he has 
hastily herded together in the front yard. Never 
heeding for one moment his subject's protestation 
of muddy feet and evident dislike of the glaring 
sunlight, Ike will keep his camera in constant oper- 
ation down to the last foot of film. Ike, 'tis sad to 
relate, just knows these swell shots will wow his 
friends and neighbors for all time to come! 

Mike, on the other hand, without minimizing the 
importance of a family film properly produced, has 
reckoned with the contents of his movie library. Can 
after can of former filming has revealed, none too 
kindly, that Mike has committed a common fault in 
personal movie-making, cine-monotony. Thus it is 
that an earnest survey in springtime will bring new 
determination to Mike. For the birth of Spring not 
only offers new inspiration, it actually provides bet- 
ter opportunities to all movie makers for good pic- 
tures. 

Some thoughtful preparation, before making a 
visual record of Springtime, will go far toward insur- 



ing happy results. In a reel of personal movies, bear 
in mind that you will be making and recording your 
impressions of the Spring season. The continuity, or 
individual treatment of the subject, should reflect the 
personality of the movie maker in the completed 
film. Strive to become cinema-minded. Allow full 
play of the imagination in arranging a continuity; 
and take every advantage of the features of camera 
and equipment in picturizing what has been visual- 
ized in one's mind. Thus armed with a continuity 
— written or mental — you're ready for filming. 

A short drive, perhaps into the country, will sup- 
ply ample material for that better roll of springtime 
shots. With the car parked conveniently and with 
your movie equipment in hand, the warm breath of 
Spring will lure the movie maker on and on. 

Birds, and such small animals as the squirrel, 
will challenge one's cinematic ability and patience; 
causing the movie maker to wade through bubbling 
streams, or stumble perhaps over fallen logs, and to 
chase up and down ravines in obtaining those price- 
less, natural shots of them. In your rambles, don't 
overlook the lowly turtle sunning himself on a log; 
or a robin, posing on a tree branch, whose picture 
is easily obtained with the aid of a long-range lens. 
Get on your film those lifelike shots of various people 
you meet on the way, without their being made 
aware that movies are being taken. Don't forget 
that beautiful waterfall; or ignore a swift-flowing 
stream as it leaps over boulders and rocks. Nor 
must you pass by the stately lighthouse on the cliff 
by the sea, with fluffy clouds forming a vivid back- 
ground. 

No matter where you live, the freshness of 
Springtime shots of people and animals and flowers; 
of canyons and mountains, of forest and country, of 
city and parks, of oceans and lakes, rivers and 
streams, and of the setting sun — all make beautiful 
subjects for the home-movie screen. And any re- 
liable movie camera, equipped with a few useful 
accessories, will do good work in recording them. 

Telephoto lenses, in addition to the standard lens 
on your camera, will permit greater latitude and af- 
ford better results in filming unusual close-up ef- 
fects; the kind that make friends aware of one's 
movie making ability. Don't attempt a close-up of 
a squirrel, then, with a short focal length lens; the 
animal will surely scamper away, frightened by the 
approach of the filmer. Use a telephoto! It should 
be remembered, moreover, that due to Nature's nat- 
ural camouflage which "melts" an animal into a 
background, the relative size of the usual home 
screen will not reveal an animal as clearly and dis- 
tinctly as it appeared at the time of filming. Again, 
it is good practice to use a telephoto, and secure the 
largest possible image of such an object. 

Not only is a tripod of great worth — we'd say ab- 
solutely necessary — in making telephoto shots, it 



p 

R 
I 

N 
C 

T 
I 

M 
E 




Springtime is Movie Camera Time. Shots from the Creat Lakes. 



also affords solid support for a camera resulting in 
steadier, more pleasing, pictures on the screen. A 
steady camera is most important in filming birds 
and animals, for their lightning-quick movements can- 
not be easily detected on a motion picture screen 
unless the background is perfectly stationary. Move- 
ment of both subject and background, liable with 
an unsteadied camera, will prove very disappoint- 
ing. Be sure the camera is rock-steady when it's in 
action. 

It may not be orthodox advice, but the use of 
super panchromatic film is to be recommended. 
When you find yourself in some deep ravine, 
through which the sun does not penetrate, and you 



have an animated subiect at bay, such is the time 
fast film will assure sufficient exposure. When car- 
rying on filming once again in sunlight, super pan- 
chromatic will continue to be an able ally. Due to 
the speed of this film, the camera lens may be 
"stopped" way down, thereby increasing depth to 
one's movie scenes and enhancing the beauty of 
them. 

An assortment of filters for the lenses of the cam- 
era will prove their worth. Beautiful cloud effects 
filmed through filters will, in most cases, take on 
added beauty that has escaped the human eye. 

Springtime is movie-camera-time! Let's see what 
you can do with it! 



RIGHT OFF THE REEL 

By F. Hamilton Riddel 




IITLING Caution: Several years ago, it was 
the experience of the writer to edit and title 
a European Travel film, consisting of some 
8000 feet of 16mm. The enthusiastic amateur 
filmer of these 80- hundred foot rolls of motion pic- 
tures had been careful to cover most thoroughly, 
from practically every angle, in long, medium and 
close-up, every bit of the countries he had visited. 
Knowing well the tricks of memory, he'd noted names 
and places on each flim box for future reference in 
titling. All very well. But, upon his arrival home 
and following several screenings, the various 100- 
foot rolls became separated from their respective 
cartons. The result was utter chaos. Only by exer- 
cising a great deal of patience with much work, was 
order restored. The moral of this experience is: Mark 
all title notations on the leader of individual rolls of 
film! And further, don't delay titling your films. It's 
the only safe way to supplement your movie-making. 
Split Perforation: There are occasions when a 
sprocket hole splits out to the edge of a film, due to 
excessive brittleness of the stock. In projection this 
damaged perforation may catch and tear out com- 
pletely, necessitating a splice. If, upon examining 
a film, you find a split perforation, merely clip a "V" 
at the damaged spot with scissors. The danger of 
the film snagging in projection is considerably re- 
duced by this simple means of repair. 

Rubber Stamp: Failure, on the part of many 
movie-makers, to inscribe legibly their name and 
address on a film carton has given many a head- 
ache to motion picture laboratories. When one con- 
siders there are thousands of rolls being processed 
daily, and that your name and address on a film 



box is the laboratory's only means of identification 
of your particular film, it is readily realized how im- 
portant such inscription becomes. The prudent ama- 
teur will secure, at nominal cost, a rubber stamp 
with his name and address on it. And he will make 
a habit of stamping his film cartons immediately that 
he buys film. 

Reflectors: Too small attention is paid by movie- 
makers to reflected light and to the value of reflec- 
tors. The latter are particularly useful in photograph- 
ing exterior, back-lighted scenes. By catching the 
sun's rays on a reflector and throwing them back 
onto the face of a subject being photographed, 
greater luminosity is obtained, rendering a more 
pleasing effect to the scene. In interior work, reflec- 
tors again prove themselves of service to the ama- 
teur cinematographer. Most any bright surface, such 
as a silver screen or silver showcard board, two by 
two feet in size or more, can be employed as a re- 
flector. 

Reel Rubber Bands: Every amateur movie-maker 
knows how film is returned from processing, held 
snugly on a reel by a special rubber band with 
handy tab on it. Likewise well known is the procliv- 
ity of these special rubber bands to become lost. 
And of the ensuing trouble caused by an ordinary 
replacement rubber band when it slips out of one's 
fingers and down inside the reel flanges. All this 
grief (for surely it is all that to anyone who's experi- 
enced this misfortune) can easily be avoided. Simply 
take an ordinary rubber band and at one end of it 
tie a loop knot. Then you'll have as handy a tab 
grip as was on the laboratory special. 





EASTMAN 
KODASCOPE E. 



JpJEjMPORTANT news in the amateur movie 
world is the announcement by the Eastman 
Kodak Company of a new type of Koda- 
chrome film for use with artificial light. 
Heretofore, in order to obtain satisfactory interior 
exposures with regular Kodachrome, the amateur 
had to use more light than the average house is 
fused to carry, and a blue filter was necessary to 
compensate for the redness of artificial light as com- 
pared with daylight. With this new type of Koda- 
chrome, which is extremely blue sensitive, no such 
filter is necessary. 

The film is about four times the speed, or two 
diaphragm openings faster, than is the regular Koda- 
chrome with artificial light and filter. 

This new film produces much more satisfactory 
color results by artificial light than have been pos- 
sible before, and opens up a new field of possibili- 
ties to the amateur movie maker. 

The new film is fast enough to make pictures of 
illuminated street signs at night. Times Square in 
New York City, for instance, offers many possibili- 
ties for interesting color pictures of this type. Satis- 



The New Kodachrome Artificial 

Light Film 



factory exposures of such subjects can be made at 
f.1.9 at the regular camera speed of 16 pictures a 
second. 

The introduction of this film is of importance not 
only to the amateur who makes movies for pleasure, 
but to photographers engaged in medical work and 
indoor professional work. Heretofore, the medical 
photographer working with the aid of artificial light 
has had to use the compensating filter to obtain 
necessary color correction. The filter factor which 
was about "4X," or two diaphragm stops, materially 
limited the extensive use of Kodachrome for such 
work. 

This new film, designated Kodachrome Film, 
Type "A," is balanced for the light of the inexpen- 
sive and readily available Photoflood lamps but 
will also render very excellent results with new 
regular tungsten filament lamps. For white flame 
carbon arcs the regular daylight Kodachrome film 
should be used. Since the new film is extremely 
blue sensitive, care must be exercised to exclude 
all daylight from the room when artificial light pic- 
tures are made. 

Type "A" is similar to the regular daylight 
Kodachrome in that exposures must be judged fairly 
accurately to obtain the best results, and also the 
subject contrast must be kept low by the use of 
soft, flat lighting. This is because Kodachrome is 
very sensitive in registering slight differences in light 
and shade, or in shades of color; hence, the con- 
trasty lighting commonly used for black and white 
pictures is not suitable. So, like the daylight Koda- 
chrome film, the best results with Type "A" will be 
obtained when the Photoflood lamps are arranged to 
give very flat or soft lighting. 

An exposure guide for Kodachrome Artificial 
Light Film, Type "A," with Eastman Kodaf lectors, ac- 
companies the film. Type "A" may be also used in 
daylight with an orange filter to compensate for its 
blue sensitivity; its speed to daylight with the filter 
being about the same as regular Kodachrome with- 
out a filter. This filter will be available in the near 
future. The price of Type "A" is the same as regu- 
lar Kodachrome film. 



CINEMA-TIDINGS 

Amateur Motion Picture News 



Kodascope E. A new, low-priced 16mm projec- 
tor, Kodascope E, is announced by the Eastman Ko- 
dak Company. Kodascope E is new in style, de- 
sign and performance. Standard equipment includes 
a 400-watt lamp, giving more than ample illumina- 
tion for showing Kodachrome, and a 2-inch f2.5 lens. 
If maximum illumination is desired, however, a 2- 
inch fl.6 lens and 750- watt lamp equipment can be 
had at nominal additional cost. 

By a simple, ingenious arrangement, the base of 
Kodascope E fits down snugly over the handle on 
the top of its carrying case, and eliminates the bother 
of setting up or clearing off a table when movies 
are to be shown. 



The projector uses either A.C. or D.C., 100 to 
125 volts. Oil impregnated bearings insure perm- 
anent, proper lubrication. Other oiling is reduced 
to the minimum and all danger of oil-spotted film 
is eliminated. 

Other features of Kodascope E are: Simplified 
threading; line switch in supply cord, with lamp 
switch on projector; motor driven rewind; joint at 
top of pedestal base provides tilt of 30 degrees for 
projector; and as regularly supplied, Kodascope E 
accommodates 400-foot reels. 

Film Division Works Overtime. According to 
"The Victor 16mm News Reel," demands for the 
services and film offerings of Film Division, Victor 



May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-one 



Animatograph Corp., 242 West 55th St., New York 
City, have been such that it has been found neces- 
sary to increase the Division personnel, and to work 
considerable overtime in order to take care of ex- 
isting contracts. 

The Division specializes in direct-on- 16mm re- 
cording. Capable engineers and highly perfected 
equipment insure the best quality in both voice and 
music. On this service, the Division specializes in 
serving laboratories and dealers. 

Addition of sound to silent films is another serv- 
ice. Sound can be added to old or new silent pic- 
tures, whether they be of 16mm or 35mm size. A 
staff of editors and highly skilled cutters give a real 
professional touch to work of this kind produced by 
the Division. 

The Division also specializes in making 16mm 
sound private by optical reduction printing from 
negative or positive 35mm originals. 

Film Division offers a large selection of sound 
pictures and short subjects for outright sale only. 
No rental service is offered. Subjects may, how- 
ever, be rented through many libraries which the 
Division is serving. 

Naturalist Prepares Four New Films. Four brand- 
new films by the well-known naturalist, Arthur C. 
Pillsbury, are announced for outright sale and ren- 
tal by Bell <S Howell Company. The 16mm titles are: 

"Life in the South Seas" (1 reel. Sound version 
ready; silent, in preparation) — a trip to Hawaii and 
Samoa, giving many intimate details of native life. 



"Life Under the South Seas" (1 reel. Sound ver- 
sion ready; silent, in preparation) — shows chiefly 
underwater photography and how it is done. Many 
forms of marine life are photographed right in their 
natural setting. In this picture we have the first- 
known combination of time lapse and underwater 
photography. 

"Plants Without Soil" (1 reel. Silent version 
ready; sound, in production) — a popular presenta- 
tion of a radically new scientific method of agri- 
culture. Time lapse photography shows plants 
growing and blooming. 

"Reproduction of Plants and Lower Animals" (1 
reel) — a scientific biology film showing, with micro- 
scopic detail, the processes of fertilization, conjuga- 
tion and cell division, as well as reproduction by 
budding. 

16mm Medical and Dental Films Catalog. Bell 
& Howell has ready for distribution a new edition 
of its Medical and Dental Films Catalog. A listing 
of 16mm films on such subjects which are available, 
from their respective sources, for loan, rental or 
purchase. Significant is the appearance of a num- 
ber of sound films among the silent films listed in 
this catalog. 

The new Medical and Dental Films Catalog con- 
sisting of 58 mimeographed pages, with cover, will 
be sent on request to Films Division, Bell & Howell 
Co., 1801 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, when the re- 
quest is accompanied by 25 cents in stamps to help 
defray the cost of preparation and mailing. 



QUESTIONS and ANSWERS 

By F. Hamilton Riddel 



1. What are the causes of poor splices? 

There are several but a few include (1) Failure to 
remove all emulsion from the surface of the lap; (2) 
Scraping the film lap with an excessively sharp in- 
strument, or excessive scraping which makes the 
film base too thin; (3) Using film cement which has 
become too heavy through prolonged exposure to 
air; (4) Using too much cement, thus causing the 
splice to buckle; (5) Imperfect registration of sprocket 
perforations; and (6) not allowing sufficient time for 
the splice to set before removing same from the 
splicer. 

2. In making my hand-lettered titles, the results 
are guite disappointing. There is a distinct lack of 
contrast between letter and background. What is the 
cause of this? 

Your lettering was not heavy enough, although 
possibly your exposure was at fault. If you are satis- 
fied exposure was correct, look at your title cards. 
Letter the wording boldly, with heavy strokes, and 
make sure that the ink dries out jet black, with no 
gray tones apparent. Always work for extreme con- 
trast between lettering and background in title work 
in order to secure the best results. 

3. What is the usual size of glass filters (special 
effect type) as used for amateur cameras? 

The professional standard, the 2-inch square, glass 
effect filters are most generally employed. This size 
is adaptable to amateur filter holder matte boxes. 

4. Can a "fade" be made with any amateur 
movie camera without using a special device? 

Yes, by proper manipulation. A fade-out can be 
secured by gradually closing the diaphragm of the 
lens, while the camera is in operation. The opposite 
effect, the fade-in, is obtained by gradually opening 



the diaphragm to the pre-determined lens-setting for 
a particular scene. It is advisable in making fades 
this way to have the camera on a steady support or 
tripod to facilitate the work of the movie maker. 

5. Can 16mm film be colored by hand, such as 
the early-day travel professional film? 

Such a procedure on a film with as small frame 
as the amateur standard would be impractical. Tint- 
ing and toning the 16mm film is better and far more 
satisfactory. For true natural color, Kodachrome or 
Dufaycolor film stock is the practical answer for col- 
orful subjects. 

6. In making silhouette movies of persons, how 
should the film be exposed? 

Try for the greatest possible contrast. Calculate 
your exposure for the white background. Since there 
is a lack of color in such subjects, ordinary positive 
film used as a negative will suffice, because of its 
inherent contrasty nature and will be found particu- 
larly satisfactory. 

7. In titling a picture, should the titles be worded 
in the past or present tense? 

Generally speaking, when an audience witnesses 
a motion picture screening they "live" with the pic- 
ture. Consequently, since titles supplement the ac- 
tion being depicted, the present tense is the better 
choice for titling. 

Note: As a service to amateur movie makers, 
we extend a cordial invitation to write in questions 
which will be replied to in this department. Address 
all such letters to: 

Questions and Answers Department, 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 

1605 North Cahuenga Avenue 

Hollywood, California 




Notes On Projecting Dufay-Color 

Film 



Advice received 
from Film 
Specialties of 
El Monte, Calif. 



Lewis River 
and Falls in 
Yellowstone Park. 
By Henry E. 
Polak. 



In projecting Dufay-color Film, the natural tend- 
ency is to focus so that the small, crossed lines 
(reseau) are sharpest on the screen. 

However, after this is done, if the operator will 
readjust slightly, moving the lens toward the projec- 
tor lamp, a point will be found where the lines prac- 
tically disappear, but where the picture is clear, 
sharp and bright. The improvement is immediately 
evident and the results little short of miraculous. 

The explanation is simple: On one side of the 
film the color reseau is placed, and on the other side 
of the film is the picture-bearing emulsion. It is the 
latter which should be placed in sharp focus, and 
the color effect will then take care of itself without 
the lines being noticeable. 

The above remarks apply equally well to either 
16 m/m or 8 m/m Dufaycolor Film. 

Ques. I have recently acquired a new 8 m/m 
camera and projector, because I desire to take ad- 
vantage of the economies of 8 m/m film. But I 
have several highly prized rolls of 16 m/m film 
which I of course desire to have available for pro- 
jection. Can I have these reduced to 8 m/m? 

Ans. Yes, 16 m/m films may be reduced to 8 
m/m with no loss of quality. Several firms are doing 
this work. In addition 8 m/m films may be en- 
larged to 16 m/m, and of course either size may be 
duplicated with entire satisfaction. 

Ques. I am interested in extremely close-up 



work. Cannot afford to spend much money for extra 
equipment. What can you suggest? 

Ans. We presume you do not refer to the use 
of a microscope, but simply want to get as large 
pictures of normal objects as possible. Probably 
the most satisfactory, as well as economical, is the 
use of a small Titling Board. Mount your camera on 
the board, exactly as if you were going to photo- 
graph titles. Get the objects you wish to photograph 
in the space ordinarily occupied by the title. Be 
sure that the lighting is sufficient; remember that for 
extremely close-up work less light enters the lens, 
and opens it up accordingly. If you are working in 
bright sunlight probably one stop wider will prove 
satisfactory; for example, on an 8 m/m camera with 
standard film in bright sunlight the setting would 
ordinarily be f.8, but for close-up shots through the 
titling lens f5.6 will be better unless the object be- 
ing photographed is white or very light colored. 

Some of the most interesting pictures we have 
seen have been made in this way — bees working in 
flowers; spider's webs; and other similar ideas. 

Color film produces especially beautiful results 
when used in this way. 

Ques. I recently took some pictures of a parade, 
but unfortunately lost several very important parts 
because I was changing film when the floats passed. 
Isn't there some way to avoid this grief in future? 

Ans. Yes. A practically continuous record of 
any such event may be assured by either of two 
methods. One is the use of a camera with so-called 
"magazine loading." The time consumed in chang- 
ing films is reduced to almost nothing flat with one 
of these cameras. Another sure way is to borrow 
a camera similar to your own and have an assistant 
at hand to change films. When one roll is shot, 
pick up the other camera and use it, while the as- 
sistant changes films in the first camera — and so on. 



CLASS SHOTS IN COLOR 

By Edwin G. Linden 



For years black and white glass shots have been 
the means of shooting scenes which otherwise would 
have been impossible, and now, with the motion 
picture industry leaning stronger than ever towards 
color, added beauty and economy can be had by 
employing glass shots in color. 

A good example of this can be seen in Pioneer's 
latest all-color production, "Dancing Pirate." 

Such shots are, however, not quite as easy to 
make as one would think. They require the utmost 
skill upon the part of the cameraman in lighting and 
the artist in blending and balancing of colors to 
match those used on the set. 

The lighting technique for the three-color process 
is entirely different from that used on black and 
white, as ordinary "inkies" cannot successfully be 
used, and carbon arcs have too much flicker when 
photographing at an extremely slow speed, so an 
entirely new method had to be devised. 

Artist Byron Crabbe and the writer, in collabora- 
tion with the Technicolor Company, made a series 
of tests to determine the correct colors and lighting 
to use, and found that many other types of special 
effects are not impossible. 



Beautiful blue skies with clouds can be painted 
into landscapes where there was formerly only a 
"bald" sky; scenes shot in daytime can by a simple 
process be turned into night shots; sunsets, moon- 
light, stars, etc., are possibilities now in color. The 
sky is not the limit any more. 





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May, 1936 The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Twenty-three 



WORLD LEADER 



ABROAD, as well as in America, its unique 
photographic qualities have made Super X 
the undisputed leader among motion pic- 
ture negative materials. It is king of the 
movie-making capitals of the world. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, Fort 
Lee, New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN SUPER X 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 



Twenty- four 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



HOW TO USE YOUR CANDID CAMERA 




|UTSTANDING pictures with the miniature 
camera! Often the small camera user will 
peruse his prints and find few which could 
be included in this class. They may be 
technically perfect as far as exposure, freedom from 
grain, selection of paper, etc., are concerned; but 
there is something lacking. The prints do not pic- 
ture the subject in a forceful enough manner, to 
make them "different." They are just another batch 
of photographs. 

Reference to various technical volumes or articles 
offers no enlightenment in this respect, for they con- 
tain information on how to make negatives and 
prints technically perfect, but do not disseminate 
knowledge on the manner of making the prints ex- 
hibit artistry. In this case, we must confer with an 
individual who is an artist and is also acquainted 



with the technical aspects of miniature camera pho- 
tography. 

With this in mind, Ivan Dmitri, who is a success- 
ful artist as well as a famous miniature camera pho- 
tographer, has produced a book entitled "How to 
Use Your Candid Camera." This volume tackles 
the problem of miniature camera instruction in a 
new and different manner. Instead of a mass of 
technical data, it contains reproductions of about 
70 of Mr. Dmitri's best prints, each exemplifying a 
different effect. "How to Use Your Candid Camera" 
indeed takes advantage of the old proverb, "A good 
picture is worth 10,000 words." This book sells at 
$3.50 per copy. A pamphlet describing this new book 
can be obtained by writing to E. Leitz, Inc., 60 East 
10th Street, New York City. 



"ONE RAINY AFTERNOON" SCORES 



Pickford-Lasky's initial production, "One Rainy 
Afternoon," on which the camera was started grind- 
ing uniquely by means of an actinic ray impulse — 
as pictured on the front cover of INTERNATIONAL 
PHOTOGRAPHER, February 1 936— delighted a ca- 
pacity audience at its recent preview in the Chinese 
Theatre. 

One often hears complaints that Hollywood can- 
not turn out cinema entertainment with the lighter 
touch that is so much enjoyed in the better Conti- 
nental productions. If "One Rainy Afternoon" does 
nothing else, it disposed of that objection to the 
native output; for it proves that, given the story, the 
players and the direction, Hollywood is equal to if 
not superior even in the realm of gay lightsomeness. 



For their entering wedge as United Artists' pro- 
ducers, Miss Pickford and Mr. Lasky seem to have 
made a happy selection to win public support. Con- 
sonant with their original announcement, they have 
brought to the screen a lilting opus "to drive dull 
care away." And it is as beautifully chaste as a 
dew-gemmed daisy at sunrise. 

"One Rainy Afternoon" is as starry as a night 
in June for the cast includes such first magnitude 
players as Hugh Herbert, Roland Young, Erik 
Rhodes, Joseph Cawthorn, Richard Carle, Eily Mal- 
yon and many others who conspire to provide a 
feast of genteel mirth. Rowland V. Lee again proved 
himself a deft director. Superb camera effects were 
turned in by Peverel Marley and Merritt Gerstad. 



INFRA RED FOR 

(Continued f 

Fig. 1 is a spectrogram of Infra Red indicating 
the color-sensitivity over the full range of the visible 
spectrum. 

Fig. 2 shows graphs of sensitometric curves ex- 
posed on Infra Red film in an Eastman time-scale 
sensitometer, developed for different times in a reg- 
ular picture negative borax developer. The gamma- 



SPECIAL FIELDS 

rom Page 3) 

The sensitometric curves shown in Fig. 2 were 
developed using a green safelight, Agfa No. 103. 
Green filters permit the transmission of Infra Red 
rays to some degree, but fog an Infra Red sensitive 
emulsion during an extended development. This is 
evidenced in the fog-density-time curve shown in 
Fig. 2, which marks the rapid increase in fog den- 



Fig. 3 





Fig. 2 



time curve and the fog-density-time curve are also 
inserted in these graphs. 

For comparison of relative contrast, similar sen- 
sitometric curves were made on Agfa Superpan and 
developed in the same developer, as shown in Fig. 
3. It will be noticed in these that the gradation of 
Infra Red film is considerably steeper than that of 
Superpan. Exposure of Infra Red film through red 
filters naturally causes an increase in contrast, 
which was found to be approximately 7 per cent, 
referring to increase in gamma values. 



sity with extended developing time. For normal 
developing time, however, it is permissible to use 
green lights with the ordinary precautions.* 

It is a fine commendation on the industry in gen- 
eral to observe the rapid application of this type 
film and the experimentation being carried on to 
further realize possibilities not yet explored, and 
certainly it is typical of a business which has in a 
few short years attained international magnitude. 



"Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 3, 
September, 1935. 



May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-five 





35 MM. FILM 



\^J NEQUALLED fineness of grain . . .wider latitude . . . 
supersensitive speed . . . high sensitivity, evenly balanced 
...Agfa SUPERPAN has them all! In fact, this new, 
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in the ideal supersensitive panchromaticjfilm. Made by 
Agfa Ansco Corporation in Binghamton, New York. 

C. KING CHARNEY, Incorporated 



HOLLYWOOD 

6372 Santa Monica Blvd. 

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245 West 55th Street 

New York City 



Twenty-six 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



A CINEMA COLOR PIONEER 

By H. O. Stechan 




JITH the growing interest of British producers 
in color cinematography, there is an in- 
creasing demand for Hollywood camera- 
men experienced in screen color. Harry 
Vallejo, a pioneer in the field, is considering offers 
to cross the Atlantic for the purpose of helping the 
studios "over there" to get started in this newest 
film development. 

But a chat with Vallejo indicates that it isn't so 
new after all, since he has been active in the mak- 
ing of color motion pictures since 1911. That year 
he started with Kinemacolor, on Sunset Boulevard, 
where the old Griffith Studio stood for many years. 
There, in association with Bert Longnecker, he had 
a laborotory in which he processed many of the 
earliest color films exhibited on the screens of the 
world, to the wonder and admiration of audiences. 

Several years later, Cinematographer Vallejo (he 
shot the big Clune production of "Ramona," con- 
ceded to be one of the most artistic pictures ever 
brought to the screen) joined with William Worth- 
ington in forwarding the first experimental work on 
the Multicolor process, which showed a marked 
advance over the earlier achievements of Kinema- 
color. The researching of this period laid the foun- 
dation for much that has only lately been brought 
into full bearing in chromatic film production. 

Again it was Harry Vallejo behind the camera 
who made the first big picture in Technicolor, "The 
Black Pirate," with Douglas Fairbanks as the star, in 
1926. This was the furthest point north in motion 
picture color photography and is generally regarded 
as marking the beginning of the contemporary era 
of color production for the screen. Though he may 
not generally be given credit for any material con- 
tribution, it was the technical knowledge of color 
cinematography which Mr. Vallejo had "dug out of 
the blue" in the fifteen years of research and experi- 
mentation previously which went a long way to- 
ward making "The Black Pirate" the sensation of its 
day on the screen and gave reason to hope that the 
problems of color photography could be solved. 

Some time later, when Howard Hughes took over 
the Multicolor process and pumped a lot of money 



into the effort to perfect it, Vallejo again became 
interested in its possibilities. For demonstration pur- 
poses, he made a series of "shorts," which are still 
remembered for their pristine beauty. Next, his 
knowledge and experience were commandeered by 
the Harris Color Procss, which was highly touted at 
the time. 

During the last two years Vallejo has been work- 
ing with Gabriel Moreno's Crosene Corporation of 
Los Angeles, which, it is claimed, is proceeding 
along revolutionary lines. Until now practically all 
of the processes proposed have been "substractive" 
— that is, those where the color is in the film. 
Crosene uses black-and-white photography and 
achieves color by projecting through filters. 

While admitting that subtractive color is not 
without certain merits and fine points, Vallejo is con- 
vinced that the additive method spells the last word 
in color for the screen, as it overcomes many of the 
main objections found with color pictures made sub- 
tractively today, he says. Moreover, he is confi- 
dent that before long all-color productions will be 
the rule instead of the exception. 

"But they will not be the color pictures that we 
see on the screen today," says Vallejo. "They will 
be naturally shot, as color is seen in every-day life 
around us. The trouble now is, it seems to me, that 
whenever a producer thinks color, he immediately 
engages a so-called color-conscious artist whose 
chief concern is to figure out how he can work all 
of the hues of the spectrum into the picture. 

"That makes for unnaturalness at once and re- 
quires a lot of costly lighting and more patience to 
get results, which in the end are not satisfying, but 
hard on the eyes. Natural colors are easy to look 
at and they never jar. The trouble with most color 
productions is that they concentrate on gaudiness 
and garish combinations, which is all wrong. Bright 
reds and deep blues may be seen in nature, but they 
do not predominate like the rich purples and the 
super-Paris greens of the screen today." 

Mr. Vallejo came to Hollywood with the first- 
flight of motion picture workers, and is probably 
the pioneer camera-colorist of Hollywood.. 



photographing "The Garden of Allah" for Selznick 
International Productions. His work in "The Trail 
of the Lonesome Pine" will live forever. It was a 
monumental contribution to the advancement of 
color photography. Cameraman Greene has, as his 
operative cameraman on "The Garden of Allah," 
Lee Davis and Assistant Cameramen Thad Brooks, 
Nelson Cordes and Clarence Slifer. 

En route to Hawaii we find Second Cameraman 
Sidney Zipser and his assistant, Roger Mace. 

Traveling around the world, photographing 
shorts of the different walks of life, as produced by 
Fitzpatrick in Technicolor, we find Second Camera- 
man Hoch, assisted by Fred Detmers. 

Will Cline, globe-trotting second cameraman, is 
soon to realize an enviable position. It is already 
known in camera circles that Cameraman Cline is 
to be elevated to the rank of a first cameraman to 
photograph an epochal undertaking in Technicolor. 

Also we find Cameraman Allen Davey preparing 



COLOR MARCHES ON 

(Continued from Page 17) 

for his initial performance as a Technicolor first 
cameraman. 

Technicolor is employing many cameramen at 
the present time. Others are being groomed. 

In time we will find many more cameramen in 
Hollywood working on color pictures. The inevitable 
has apparently occurred; nothing can stop advance- 
ment. COLOR MARCHES ON! 



ICTER^ 

In W^rld-Wid* Us« 



Effects in Dayrime-F^tj Scenvs- 

Diffuse^. Fvrctis.and many ^ro«r effrcls 

Witb any Camera " In any Ulimare 

GeorcjG H. Sckeibe 

ORIGINATOR OF EFFECT FILTERS 
1927 WEST 78th ST. LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-seven 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE MOTION PICTURE 

(Continued from Page 13) 



Another process was developed in 1926 by the Dun- 
ning Process Company, known as the "Traveling 
Transparency." 

The "Rear-Projection" process was first developed 
by George Teague and was in the Fox Film "Just 
Imagine," released in November, 1930. 

The value and use of the trick processes may be 
judged from an incident relative to the release in 
May, 1927, of "Silver Comes Through," the first pic- 
ture using the "Dunning Transparency." "Silver," 
who was Fred Thompson's horse, is shown in this 
picture jumping off a traveling train. The Board of 
Censors of a state in the United States would not per- 
mit the showing of the picture on the ground that it 
showed unnecessary cruelty to animals. Of course, 
they retracted when it was explained the horse had 
not really jumped off the train; instead it was an il- 
lusion and was the result of a moving picture of the 
scenery in the camera being added by technical 
means around the body of the horse. In other words, 
the scenery had jumped instead of the horse. 

In the scenes where the players are delivering 
their dialogue in travelling taxis or autos, trains, 
boats, or airplanes in the air, the illusion of move- 
ment is usually obtained by the players sitting near 
a window through which is seen moving scenery. 
The "shots" are usually taken in the studio where 
they have the advantage of sound equipment for the 
recording of the dialogue, and the travelling scenery 
is previously photographed motion picture which is 
introduced through the window by a "process." This 
type of scene which is used to denote time lapse, 
movement of the story, or for an opportunity for dia- 
logue, has become a necessity since the advent of 



sound, when picture-making was largely confined 
to the sound stages. 

With the advent of sound, dating from the War- 
ner Brothers' John Barrymore picture "Don Juan," 
released August 27, 1926, the entire technique of the 
photoplay was altered. New restrictions entered, 
new devices had to be developed. 

The first of the sound pictures were the imper- 
sonal creations of musical reviews which had a cer- 
tain appeal in their beauty of mass movement and 
rhythm; though in most cases they were unsatisfy- 
ing. 

By 1930 the studios had developed the necessary 
technique of bringing the picture in a more intimate 
frame. They eliminated awkwardness in the dia- 
logue and in the placement of the players. Too, 
they had largely acquired the ability of using a dia- 
logue that was needed to portray the narrative move- 
ment. 

They are still revising the concepts of story in- 
terpretation and the dramatic devices of the silent 
pictures. 

Man in his demand of entertainment, or, if you 
will, vicarious living and recreation of events, will 
always present a changing appetite. His desires in 
this regard do not rest on seeing static or familiar 
interpretations of themes. For that purpose the cine- 
matic producers will take the old dramatic mechan- 
isms and themes and build a new interpretation. 

Story ideas, like "Camille," the "Life of Christ," 
"Ben Hur," and a great number of others have al- 
ready been remade in different versions as many as 
five times. 




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WHAT TO SHOOT- 
WHERE TO SELL IT 

Photo Markets recently have is- 
sued a very interesting little 
magazine, the slogan of which is 
"Make Money With Your Cam- 
era." Among other interesting ma- 
terial is "The Market for Photo- 
graphy," "What to Shoot," "How 
and Where to Get It," "How to 
Submit Material," "Copyright 
Laws," etc. This good little book 
may be purchased from dealers 
in most of the larger towns, or you 
may write direct to Photo Markets, 
Barrister Building, Washington, 
D. C. The price is 50c a copy. 



***** 

INTERNATIONAL 
PHOTOGRAPHER 

$2.50 

In the United States 

$3.00 in Canada 

***** 



Twenty-eight 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



THE MUSEUM OF MODERN FILM LIBRARY 

(Continued from Page 9) 



Once our objects were made clear, the fullest co- 
operation proved forthcoming; vaults were opened 
up, films were made available and the conditions 
under which we might use them were agreed upon. 

Our first preliminary circulating series, "A Short 
Survey of the Films in America, 1894-1932," was re- 
leased in January, 1936, as a first year course or 
survey which would provide the ground-work for a 
more voluminous series of films next year. It con- 
sists of five complete programs, entitled, respec- 
tively: 

The Development of Narrative, 1894-1911. 

The Rise of the American Film, 1912-1915. 

D. W. Griffith — Intolerance. 

The German Influence. 

The Talkies. 

Each single program is composed of about two 
and one-half hours of films, available in new prints 
on either 16 or 35 mm. non-flam but wholly untam- 
pered with and uncut, preceded by a long rolling 
title of exposition and each single film in it pre- 
ceded also by a brief note of comment and informa- 
tion. Music was arranged as an accompaniment for 
the silent films and sent out with them. A care- 
fully written critical program-note is also sent out 
to be distributed to students seeing the films. Stills 
have been made from the films themselves where 
otherwise lacking. I think there is little question 
that anyone who has seen these five programs has 
had a good grounding in the history of the art, and 
has acquired a totally new respect for and under- 
standing of the medium. The reports and comments 
we have had from college professors, members of 



art faculties and museum directors have been most 
encouraging. * * * 

4. To compose program notes on each exhibi- 
tion, which include a critical appraisal of the films 
and aid the student in appreciation of the medium. 

5. To assemble a library of books and periodi- 
cals on the film, and of other historical and critical 
material, including the vast amount of unrecorded 
data which is still in the minds of men who de- 
veloped the film. If the history of the formative 
period is to be preserved, it is necessary to secure 
this information at once for otherwise it will be irre- 
coverably lost at the death of these men. 

6. To assemble and catalogue a collection of 
film "Stills." 

7. To preserve and circulate the musical scores 
which are originally issued with the silent films and 
to arrange musical scores (sheet music or phono- 
graph records) to be circulated with the silent pro- 
grams when needed. 

8. To act as a clearing house for information on 
all aspects of the film, and to maintain contacts with 
all interested groups, both in America and abroad. 

9. To make available the sources of technical 
information to amateur makers of film. 

10. To publish a Bulletin with articles and illus- 
trations to make known the Film Library's activities 
and to further the appreciation and study of the mo- 
tion picture. 

We immediately approached the film industry in 
this country, first through the M.P.P.D.A. and then, 
individually, the executive heads of producing com- 
panies. 



NEW CAMERA FILM FOUND 



A New York special despatch of recent date is re- 
printed for what it may be worth. Hollywood cam- 
eramen do not grow enthusiastic about it: 

A laboratory experiment which went awry has 
brought about the development of a new photogra- 
phic emulsion for coating films, plates or paper. It 
is expected to have far-reaching effects in the photo- 
graphic industry and films. 

It functions in a directly opposite manner from 
emulsions in common use. The new solution, with 
the use of ordinary developing materials, prints posi- 
tives from positives and negatives from negatives 
instantly. Prints are blacker with the least exposure 
to light and softer with more exposure, exactly con- 
trary to the way ordinary prints behave. 
Developed By Four 

Dr. Miller Reese Hutchison, who formerly was as- 
sociated with Thomas A. Edison and now is a con- 
sulting engineer with a record of many inventions, 
told of the new emulsion today. It was developed 



by four young research chemists, George B. Crouse, 
Francis A. Holt, Karl D. Robinson and Jack Jatlow, 
who now are giving their full time to perfecting the 
emulsion. 

The new mixture, the ingredients of which are be- 
ing kept secret, looks like thick cream in its raw state. 
Spread over film, plates or paper, it is no different 
from other solutions. But a roll of film coated with 
the solution used in a camera produces positive 
black and white pictures when printed instead of a 
negative under the present process. A compensating 
lens must be used, however, to keep the films from 
developing in reverse. 

Advantage Cited 

In the motion-picture industry, Dr. Hutchison ex- 
plained, great savings can be effected. Instead of 
making a master negative, cutting and trimming it 
and then printing positives as needed, the picture 
could be taken directly on a positive film and as 
many copies as wanted printed immediately. 



THE FIFTEEN ELEMENTS OF PICTURES 



The reproduction of motion pictures is the most 
complex art. More elements enter into the building 
of a picture than into any other industry or art. 
There are untold details, but the principal elements 
in order of evolution of a picture are: 

Financing (overhead, the motive power). 
The Story (the foundation of the picture). 
Continuity (the plan of action). 
Casting (the building material). 
Research (verification of the investiture). 
Production (art and architectural investiture, stage 
sets, props, and costuming). 



Locations (exterior scenes). 

Lighting (placing the color). 

Direction (application of the mechanics and ex- 
pression of the drama). 

Photography (registering the action, including the 
technical placing of sound and color). 

Developing and printing (toning the film). 

Editing (cutting the picture, placing the subtitles, 
fixing the tempo). 

Distribution (disseminating the prints — the fin- 
ished product). 

Publicity and exploitation (telling the public). 

Exhibition (showing the public). 



May, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-nine 



THE CINEMATOGRAPHER'S BOOK OF TABLES 

By Fred Westerberg 



EQUIVALENT CAMERA DISTANCES— (1 ) 

CAMERA DISTANCE REQUIRED WITH VARIOUS 

LENSES IN ORDER TO OBTAIN THE SAME 

HEIGHT OF FIELD 





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MORE ABOUT THE NEW FOX CAMERA 

(Continued from Page 15) 

suits were possible, too, than with the conventional 
type of motion picture camera. The manner of 
monitoring of the image through the finder is 
particularly novel, inasmuch as the image is per- 
fectly true in respect to the image that is being pho- 
tographed on the film. This is due to the fact that 
the optical system is in a position very close to the 
photographing lens. There is no viewing system 
taking up room or space between the shooting lens 
and the lens used on the finder system. 

A few of the pictures photographed with this new 
Twentieth Century-Fox camera are: "Little Miss No- 
body," "Show Them No Mercy," "Prisoner of Shark 
Island" and "Poor Little Rich Girl." 

Mr. Laube has been associated with the motion 
picture business since 1908, and even before was 
connected with the picture industry in the building 
of stereopticans. During the World War he was an 
instructor in photography at Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany, in their war-time school for photographic 
branches of the industry. Later Mr. Laube was chief 
cinematographer for the United States Government 
at Scott Field, Illinois. Other important develop- 
ments for which he is responsible are: In front of 
the lens attachment for motion picture camera and 
the remote control follow-focusing device. 

See outside back cover for cut of camera. 



EQUIVALENT CAMERA DISTANCES— (2) 

CAMERA DISTANCE REQUIRED WITH VARIOUS 

LENSES IN ORDER TO OBTAIN THE SAME 

WIDTH OF FIELD 





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Fully Guaranteed 

USED 35 MM. 
EQUIPMENT 

•• • 

Mitchell, Bell & Howell, Akeley, DeBrie, 
Universal, Pathe Cameras. 

Portable Sound Recording Outfits. 

B & H Eyemo, 400 ft. Magazine, Motor 
driven. 

Holmes Projectors, Sound and Silent. 

DeVry Suit Case Model Projectors. 

We buy, sell and rent anything Photo- 
graphic. 

•• • 

CAMERA SUPPLY CO. LTD. 



1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd. 

Cable Address: 



Hollywood, Calif. 
CAMERAS. 



Thirty 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



INTERNATIONAL 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

Brings results — Rates 45 cents per line — minimum charge one 

dollar per insertion. For Rent — For Sale — Wanted — For 

Exchange, etc. 

FOR SALE OR RENT— CAMERAS 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell and Bell & Howell silenced cameras, 
follow focus. Pan lenses, free head, corrected new aperture. Akeley, 
De Brie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost, Willart, De Vry, Eyemo, Sept, 
Leica. Motors, printers lighting equipment. Also every variety of 
16 mm. and still cameras and projectors. B & H Cameras with old type 
shuttles silenced $150. Bipack magazines and adaptors for color. Every- 
thing photographic bought, sold, rented and repaired. Send for our bar- 
gain catalogue. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd. 
Phone HO. 3651. Cable, Hocamex. 



REAL BARGAINS in 16 and 35 mm. movie equipment and still cameras. 
Newest types cameras and projectors in all popular makes. Save money 
on film, lights, lenses and all essential accessories. Our 36 years of 
experience stands back of every sale. Before you buy, send for our new 
bargain booklet. Burke & James, Inc., 223 W. Madison St., Chicago. 



DEBRIE INTERVIEW MODELS $250.00 and $350.00, DeVry 35mm 
Cameras $65.00, Projectors $40.00 up, Holmes 35mm Portable Sound 
Projector Type 7A $450.00. 35mm Sound Recording Outfit, single or 
double system, complete, less batteries $750.00, Akeley Studio Camera 
$800.00. CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood. 



LARGEST STOCK FIRST CLASS UP-TO-DATE CAMERA 
EQUIPMENT IN THE WORLD 

Rebuilt silenced and Standard Bell & Howell 170° Cameras — Hi-Speed 
gear boxes — Hi-Speed check pawl shuttles, new Fearless shuttle for 
Bell & Howell. Complete DeBrie equipments. All metal Model L with 
motor, lenses and tripod. Metal Model H with lenses and tripod. Super 
Parvo ultra silent studio camera (see display adv. page 27). Two 
Single System cameras complete with sound equipment — Mole Richardson 
Perambulator with tilt head — Two Bell & Howell rebuilt Splicers as new. 
Portable blimp with follow focus for Mitchell Camera. 100 ft. Stineman 
Developing outfit. Used Holmes 35 mm. Sound-on-Film Projector com- 
plete. Precision, DeBrie and Bell & Howell pan and tilt tripods. Bell 
& Howell 1000 ft., 400 ft. magazines. Motors, sunshades, finders, lenses 
and all accessories. Write, wire or cable. 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY. INC. 
723 SEVENTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY 
CABLE: "CINECAMERA" 



MITCHELL CAMERA, all built in teatures. Five 400 ft. magazines, 
40-50 Astro F2.3 75 mm. F3.5 Carl Zeiss, Pan and tilt tripod, two new 
cases — sunshade. $750.00. Irving Browning, 110 West 40th St., New 
York City. 



DEBRIE CAMERA WITH AKELEY TRIPOD, 4 lenses, 8 magazines, 
motor, cases. All like new, $450. Complete single system. Camera, 
Tripod, Amplifier, cases, etc., $1000. Also new Moviesound "Camera- 
lator" (folding dolly). Weighs 18 lbs. Will carry 4000 lbs. Rock 
steady, fits all regular tripods, $100 with case. Moviesound Studios, 
Jamaica, Long Island. 



FOR SALE— SOUND RECORDERS AND EQUIPMENT 

LIKE NEW BELL & HOWELL 5-way Sound Printers and Sound 
Moviolas. Reasonable price. HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANGE, 
1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

ART REEVES, latest model 1935, double system sound recording in- 
stallation, factory guaranteed, Automatic Speed Control Motor, Twin 
Fidelity Optical Unit, Bomb microphone, the only genuine, modern, 
workable ArtReeves equipment for sale in Hollywood outside factory. 
CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood. 



POSITION WANTED 



DO YOU WANT A CAMERAMAN who is an expert on studio pro- 
duction ; or an expedition cameraman who knows every corner of the 
world ; or a cameraman who thoroughly understands the making of indus- 
trial pictures ; or an expert newsreel photographer ; or an expert color 
cameraman? A limited number of cameramen, backed by years of experi- 
ence, are available. Write stating your requirements and we shall be 
glad to assist you in choosing the kind of cameraman you want. INTER- 
NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Holly 
wood. 



8 MM. AND 16 MM. 



8 MM. ULTRACHROM, NATURAL COLOR, FINE GRAIN— $3.50. 
S. S. Panchromatic, reversible, and Positive Palomar Titling Film, for 
all 8 MM. Cameras, reversible data. Home Titling Data, Accessories, 
Processing, Titling, reducing from 16 MM. to 8 MM. "Movie Making Made 
Easy" — 50c. "Money Saving Tips for the Amateur Movie Maker" — 25c. 
"How to Make Money with a Movie Outfit" — 15c. Cine Nizo Camera 
Distributors. FILM SPECIALTIES, 111-N. El Monte, California. 



DEVELOPING DUFAYCOLOR FILM 



LEICA DUFAYCOLOR and other miniature camera owners who use 
the 35mm. film. We are now prepared to develop your Dufaycolor film, 
brilliant, beautiful, zippy colors. We guarantee to show more color than 
ever before in this color film with less lines. Processing One Dollar 
FILM SPECIALTIES, Box HID, El Monte, California. 



WANTED TO BUY 



WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, Mitchell. Akeley or De Brie 
Cameras, lenses, motors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECTIONIST, a monthly magazine 
published in the interests of the projectionist. Interesting, instructive. 
Yearly subscription U. S. and possessions, $2 ; foreign countries, $2.50. 
James L. Finn Publishing Corp., 580 Fifth Ave., New York. 

COMPLETE COURSE IN FLYING — If interested in aviation, see Roy 
KlarTki, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave.. Hollywood. 

WANTED — To know of the whereabouts of motion picture relics, docu- 
ments, or equipment of a historical nature for Museum purposes. Write 
Earl Theisen, care of International Photographer, 1605 Canuenga Ave., 
Hollywood. 



CAMERA REPAIRING 



tJELL & HOWELL cameras with old type shuttles silenced, $150. 
Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Co., 645 No. Martel Ave., 
Hollywood. 

PRESENT TRENDS IN THE APPLICATION OF THE 

CARBON ARC TO THE MOTION 

PICTURE INDUSTRY 

By W. C. Kalb 

National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio 

The present trend in the application of the carbon 
arc to the needs of the motion picture industry is to- 
ward more extensive use of the high intensity arc. 
This is true both in the theatre and in the field of 
motion picture production. 

The limitations of the low intensity arc, both as 
to brilliancy and quality of light, are discussed and 
compared with like properties of the high intensity 
arc. The needs of the small theatres for increased 
volume and improved quality of projection light 
having been met by the development of the AC High 
Intensity and Suprex type arcs, the demands of the 
largest theatres for still greater volume of projection 
light are now met by the new Super High Intensity 
Arc. 

The trends in projection lamp design as related 
to light on the screen are briefly discussed. 

The discussion of the progress of carbon arc light- 
ing in studios covers the new White Flame Carbon 
Arc for broadside illumination, the new Sun Arcs and 
Rotary Spots designed to prevent interference with 
sound productions, and the application of the new 
Super High Intensity Arc to background projection. 



i i'.!i:iMiiiiiiiilii:n.\ ■.«: r i in si.'R 



Tk^LsL^V/ToT^ 



In Sound Recording 

THE NEW PRINCIPLE 
MINOR QUARTZ OPTICAL UNIT 

becomes an integral part of your sound recorder — this unit is cemented 
into a steel block — it focuses a beam of light of great intensity and 
actinic value a distance away and on the film, which PROVIDES CLEAR- 
ANCE and PREVENTS SCRATCHING of the sound track. The width of 
the beam of light measures from .0005" to .0008" as it strikes the 
moving film. 



Send for details and sped 



of sound track. 



C. C. MISOI 

1835 Whitley Avenue Phone: GR. 4781 



Hollywood 



May, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirty-one 



COLUMBIA MOVES AHEAD 



On the Columbia Studios lot in Hollywood has 
just been completed a modernistic new building that 
houses the entire camera department of the studio. 
It is said to be the finest and most efficient building 
specially constructed for studio camera work in 
cinematown. 

Emil Oster, director in chief of the Columbia 
camera department, refers to the new building as 
the "gem of the Columbia lot," and states that in 
his opinion it is the camera department after which 
will be modeled all future studio camera depart- 
ments in Hollywood. 

"Columbia's new camera department was con- 
structed with two ideas in mind," Oster said. "First, 



Included in the equipment in the machine shop, 
which is under the direction of John A. Durst, recog- 
nized as one of the most competent camera engi- 
neers in the United States, is a 14-inch Porter-Cable 
tool room lathe; a 9-inch Cataract bench lathe; a new 
No. 12 Van Norman milling machine and attach- 
ments; a high class new type drill press and a spe- 
cially constructed Onsrud air grinder. 

At present the machine shop is not manufactur- 
ing cameras, but is simply keeping the motion pic- 
ture and still cameras used by Columbia in per- 
fect condition. At a later date, according to Durst, 
the machine shop will construct new cameras for the 
studio. 




Columbia Studio's New Camera Shop. Right: John A. Durst, Head of Machine Shop. Left: Emil Oster, Head of Camera Dept. 



the plans called for a centrally located building 
readily accessible on the lot, which would incor- 
porate all the units of the department under one 
roof, thus providing a maximum in effciency. 

"Secondly, the plant was constructed with the 
thought in mind of providing a really healthful place 
for the cameramen to work. We have accomplished 
these two things in our new building." 

The new department includes the most modern 
and complete precision machine shop to be found 
in any Hollywood studio — $10,000 alone was spent 
on the equipment for the shop, which is capable 
of constructing both motion picture and still cameras. 



William Sk all. one of the 

brilliant young exponents of 

color — now a member of the 

Technicolor organization. 




Another innovation in the building is a complete 
test room in which it is possible to develop a test 
on a motion picture film. This saves time and effort 
since the test can now be made in the camera de- 
partment as the roll of film comes in. This room can 
also be used to develop still photos. 

In addition there is a new loading room four 
times larger than the space available formerly, and 
an unusually large film stock vault in which is 
stocked approximately 1,000,000 feet of film at pres- 
ent. 

Oster remembered the fact that the employees of 
a camera department spend at least half their lives 
within their workshop. For this reason he insisted 
that the new building be air-conditioned. The tem- 
perature is constant at all times in the department. 

"I am convinced we get a far greater degree of 
efficiency by maintaining an ultra-healthful work- 
shop," Oster said. "We even have showers in the 
building for the convenience of our men and we 
don't object in the least when they take a few min- 
utes of time to step under the shower." 

Oster added emphatically: "And our shower 
room isn't just for the bosses in this department, 
either." 

With the entire department under one roof, it is 
possible to keep in touch with each unit with ease, 
according to Oster. This promotes better under- 
standing between the various departments and aids 
greatly in maintaining the highest possible effi- 
ciency. 

At present approximately 53 persons are em- 
ployed in the Columbia camera department. 



Thirty-two 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



May, 1936 



CINEMACARONI 

(With Sauce for Those Who Like It) 

By Robert Tobey 



HOLLYWOOD HONEYMOON 

(A novel novel of a thousand and one nights 

in a dace.) 

By R. THRITIS 

Synopsis of preceding installments: 

Everything has happened I could possibly think 
of. Read the back issues and see whether yon 
could do any belter. If you think Jin stooped, yon 
ought to see my uncle. Carry on from there. 
CHAPTER XIX— A BURST FOR FREEDOM 

As Willy Nilly moved ominously toward her, 
Lili sat rooted to the spot. After all, she had to 
keep the eggs warm. It was a bit terrifying how- 
ever, as the Great Bald Eagle's eyes were par- 
ticularly beady in the summer twilight. At least 
I have Perri and Potty to look out for me, thought 
Lili, in quotes. As if in answer to her thought, 
Murgle and the eerily glowing ghost closed in 
behind Willy, one on each side. The eagle 
stopped a foot away from Lili's face. It was a 
tense moment. Lili's figure shook with fear. 

"You might stop rattling Nellie's eggs together 
like that," said the Eagle pointedly. "And do 
you mind if I have that bug on your collar 
Or is it something you want to eat yourself?" 

"You take it," said Lili generously, studiously 
avoiding a glance at the large snagglebug on 
her coat. 

The bug -was down the eagle's gullet in a trice. 

"Thanks," said Willy. 

"That's all right," answered Lili rather peev- 
ishly. "But I don't see why you had to stare me 
right in the eye." 

"I'm sorry," apologized the Eagle. "I meant to 
be staring at that delicious snagglebug. If you 
noticed, I was staring at you with one eye. I'm 
a little cross-eyed." 

At that moment Nellie poked her head out of 
the kitchen. "Come out here," she cried. "You 
have to dry-clean these fish!" 

"Aw," said Willy, and went. 

"Now's our chance," whispered Perri excitedly. 

"What chance," asked Lili. 

"To escape, you dumb dora." 

"Oh, that's right," said Lili. "We do have to 
escape. But how can I leave now? I must keep 
these eggs warm." 

"Don't be silly," said Perri. "What do you care 
about a couple of Eagle eggs! Let's get going." 

"I can easily see that you've never been a 
mother," said Lili haughtily. "It's my duty to 
stay here with' the eggs. You boys had better go 
and leave me to my fate." Ever the actress, that 
Liverblossom. 

"Come, come," said Perri impatiently. "Forget 
the eggs and let's get out of here." 

"I promised," said Lili stubbornly. 

It began to look as if another impasse had been 
reached. But Perri as usual with his quick wit 
thought of a way out. 

"I have it," he cried. "I've got an electric 
warming-pad in my pocket. We'll just leave that 
on the eggs and that'll hatch 'em in no time." 
Almost roughly he pulled Lili from the eggs and 
adjusted the pad over them. 

"You don't happen to have a hot cup of coffee 
in your pocket, too, do you?" inquired Lili icily. 

"Certainly," answered Perri, and abstractedly 
reached into his overcoat and pulled out a cup 
of coffee. "I haven't any cream for it, though," 
he added. Meanwhile he was hooking the heat- 
ing pad up to a nearby lightning rod, thus an- 
swering another question in everybody's mind, 
I'm sure. 

Finishing his job Perri straightened up. 

"Now how do we get down from here?" he 
remarked. 

(That's the question, all right. And will our 
three friends be able to escape unknown to the 
Eagle and his mate? Startling events arc to come. 
You said it, kid.) 



A guy from Singapore, Straits Settlements, 
writes in and wants to know the names of the 
two native girls who played in "Mutiny on the 
Bounty." Tsk, tsk. Whatever would he want of 
their names. 

Stop that clamoring, fellows. Their names are 
Mamo Clarke and Maria Louisa. Their addresses? 
Just write in care of M-G-M Studios. 



KNEE CAP REVIEWS 
(No space left on my thumbnails) 
"THE GREAT ZIEGFELD." Glorified version of 
the life of that clever showman, picture moves at 
a breathtaking pace in a kaleidoscopic montage 
of gorgeous girls and superb musical numbers. 
At last a musical with a place for every song 
and every song in its place. Cannot vouch for 
Bill Powell's performance being true to life, but 
can for its suavity and polished perfection. Luise 
Rainer captivating as the delightful minx, Anna 
Held, who divorced Ziegfeld in a temper and 



later died of a broken heart. Myrna Loy scores 
again, as Billie Burke. In fact there's not a flaw 
in the entire cast. Photography by George Fol- 
sey, Karl Freund, Ray June, and Oliver Marsh is 
something at which to marvel. 

"THE PRISONER OF SHARK ISLAND." A stom- 
ach full of crullers. But I won't say a thing 
against it. Everyone should see it. It's a beau- 
tiful plea against capital punishment, against 
the taking of human life by "law," no matter 
what the circumstances. 

Warner Baxter as the tragic Dr. Samuel Mund, 
does a presentable job. John Carradine deserves 
especial mention for his work as the very heavy 
heavy. Bert Glennon in his photography cap- 
tured the mood of the picture. 



"THESE THREE." Emasculate version of 
splendid "The Children's Hour." Original by 
Lillian Helhnan. Operation by the Hays Clinic. 
Not as good as the play, of course, but pic at 
least offers some neat characterizations. Best is 
by Bonita Granville, child actress who delineates 
a Mary Tilford who'll gnaw at your very vitals. 
Amelia Tilford and Lily Mortar as played by Alma 
Kruger and Catherine Doncet are sharply drawn. 
Miriam Hopkins has little to do. Merle Oberon 
and Joel McCrea are innocuously pleasant enough. 

Would say William ll'yler extracted all possible 
from the devitalized script; and Gregg Toland 
photographed with a meticulous camera. 



"FOLLOW THE FLEET." A dish of pleasant 
porridge featuring Fred (Jack-Be-Nimble) Astaire 
and Ginger (Twinkletoes) Rogers. A thousand 
compliments are theirs for a song. Film does a 
big service in introducing Harriet (Lovely-to-See) 
Hilliard, who is a newcomer that's a wow. 

"WIFE VERSUS SECRETARY." Interesting treat- 
ment of an age-old problem; a problem much 
older than secretaries (who are usually 19). 
Gable plays part of uprising young executive 
who thinks of his beautiful secretary merely as 
an office appliance until gossip cuts a path for 
him to follow. Best boost for the director is that 
he makes you believe this in spite of fact sec is 
played by Jean Harlow. Anything in pants 
(masculine) that could stay in an office with 
J. H. for more than one day without becoming 
a jelly-like mass isn't human. Not even if he's 
married to Myrna Loy, who ain't nothing easy to 
resist, herself. Very pretty performances are 
chalked up for Gable, Loy, and Harlow, who are 
all exceptionally well modelled in lights by Ray 
June. 



"DESIRE," among Marlene Dietrich, Gary Coop- 
er, and John Halliday. Well directed, well acted, 
and well photographed, Cooper is somewhat 
over-coy in spot or two, but this detracts little 
from his excellent performance. As for Dietrich, 
she is at her best in "Desire." Don't fail to note 
clever way film eludes the censors and still gets 
over a seduction scene. Should be a B. O suc- 



"MR. DEEDS GOES TO TOWN." Frank 
Capra goes to town for Columbia in a blase of 
Gary Cooper. This is a hilarious piece of fun- 
making that should bring the customers in from 
near and far. With probable slight advance bally- 
hoo, this looks like a "sleeper." Tale is of a rube 
poet (Gary Cooper) who has a large fortune land 
in his lap. Rube goes to town, where the wolves 
set upon him. Rube neatly skins the wolves and 
ends up with a fur coat, thus greatly upsetting 
than all, including Jean Arthur, who is one of the 
wolves but repents in time for the fadeout. It 
may not be new, but it*s never been done like 
this before. With Bob Riskin and Frank Capra 
sitting on the original egg by Clarence Budington 
Kclland, a scintillating and sparkling film was nat- 
urally hatched. Cooper gives a performance that 
is as full of understanding as a library on psy- 
chology. Space does not allozv more than a word 
of praise for the glowing portrayals by George Ban- 
croft, Lionel Stander, Douglas I <u mbrille. Raymond 
lValburn, and all the others of a superb cast. 
Photography by Joseph Walker in keeping witli the 
production. 

Put this on your list of "musts." 



PROGRESS NOTE 
Lyons, McCormick, and Lyons, licensed agents, 
now number among their clients Mr. and Mrs. 
Oliva Dionne, who are listed as contract artists. 

Getting things onto a production basis, as it 
were. . 



HOLLYWOODCUTS, by the Shovel Boys (They 
dish, the dirt). * * Irene Dunne is having more 
fun than King Edward's horse, planning her new 
home in Hohnhy Hills. She used to scuff at the 
idea she'd ever be interested in building her own 
place. Now she's running around with blue-prints 




under her nails. * * * What well-known actor re- 
cently declined to show up at a beach party given 
for publicity purposes, because he was wearing 
sideburns and felt they wouldn't look well in a 
bathing suit! * * * There aren't many people in 
the country that can boast of having eaten bison. 
That really comes under the heading of rare cuts. 
But the 250 guests of Ken Maynard last month 
are now numbered among the initiates. Ken gave 
a buffalo barbecue in order to bring together his 
friends and members of the press, to show them 
his new ranch and circus wintering grounds in 
I' an Nuys. It's pretty good stuff, too. Both the 
buffalo and the circus. » * » The Mayfair Club's 
social event of last month was a Print Mayfair. 
Not thus named because of the pictures in the 
papers. All the gals came in print dresses. Sort 
of misprints, you might say. The Florentine Room 
'teas decorated with hundreds of roses, and the 
floor was carpeted with imitation grass — until 
everyone tripped over it, and it all had to be 
taken up. * * * 



Evalyn Knapp and her new husband, Dr. 
George A. Snyder, gave one of the earliest fish- 
ing parties of the season. * * * Cruising north 
in the morning in one of Bob Oefinger's boats, 
Evalyn's party encountered a huge stray whale 
near shore. I figured him for about a ninety 
footer, but I just looked it up to protect myself 
and find the largest known whale to have been 
eighty-nine feet long, so perhaps I'm wrong. This 
bird had hung around when the other robins 
flew north, to scrape the barnacles off his keel 
on the warm sands of California. * * * Smart 
whale. It's no fun scraping barnacles off on an 
ice-berg. Try it some time. * * * Evalyn and 
Paul Kelly vied with each other for top catch of 
sheep's-head. * * * Cute Lillian Emerson was 
along with her mother. Lillian spent more time 
eating sandwiches than catching fish. * * * Elsa 
Buchanan, English importation, was along too. 
And so was Elsa's kid sister, who was deter- 
mined no one should mistreat the live bait, and 
so spent most of the day throwing minnows over- 
board and secreting the live crabs where they 
couldn't be found. * * * 



The formal opening of the West Side Tennis 
Club commanded a turnout that looked like the 
lineup for a big premiere. But not a microphone 
was in sight. * * * Margaret Sullavan was there, 
busted wing and all. * * * So was Henry Fonda, 
Margaret's ex. * * * Also director "Willy" Wy- 
ler, Sullavan's ex No. 2. Quite an ex family 
gathering. Should I say this makes her another 
Madame X? * * * Errol Flynn and "Jinx" Falken 
went down to valiant defeat in a spirited exhibi- 
tion match against Edward Burns and Peggy 
Stratford. * * * Lili Damita was very much among 
the audience, admiring hubby Errol's prowess, of 
which he has plenty. * * * James Stewart put 
in one of his rare social appearances, spending 
most of his time with Betty Furness. * * * Virginia 
Bruce there, a beauty in pastel as usual. She 
was accompanied by Ralph Jester, in case you 
care. * * * Also among those present were Ann 
Sothern, Inez Courtney, Eadie Adams, Harriet 
Parsons, and little Marcia Mae Jones. More on 
the courts than off were Fredric March, one of 
filmdom's topnotch players; George Murphy and 
the Mrs. Jack Cummings; Elmer Griffin, Presi- 
dent of the Club; and his wife, the former Edith 
Fitzgerald. 



And a gal writes in begging to know if what 
she hears is true — that you have to have a pass 
to get into Hollywood! 

You sure do, sister. And you have to come in 
riding on a white elephant and blowing a kazoo. 

Oh, Miss Superstar — may I ask you just ONE 
thine, — do you REALLY wear the Sqiieezhainn 
Girdle day and night? 



FEB FEET BALANCI 




Lloyd Corrigan. Photographed 
by William Stall. 



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I 



HOTOGRAPHER 



H'H YEAR 



HOLLYWOOD 



JUNE, 1936 




ROBERT W. COBURN 

Here we have the two dog stars of "Two in Revolt," "Lightning," posed upon the rock, and "Malamute" below. The 
CENTS artisl > s Robert W. Coburn, still man oi Local 659, and the d' rector. Glen Tryon. It is a dog and horse picture, the horse 

being "Warrier." trained by Jack Lindell, and the dog trained by Earl Johnson. The producers are R.K.O., the locale near 
A COPY Flagstaff, Arizona. Our camera crew personnel includes lack McKenzie, first cameraman and director of photography; 

Russell Metty, operative cameraman; Harold Wellman, assistant. John Arlidge and Louise Latimer were featured aside 

from the animal stars. 



VOL. 8 
No. 5 



HOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 



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INTERNATIONAL 
PHOTOGRAPHER 

MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND CRAFTS 

Vol.8 HOLLYWOOD, JUNE, 1936 No. 5 

Publisher's Agent, Herbert Ali.er 

Silas Edgar Snyder, Editor-in-Chief 

Earl Theisen and Charles Felstead, Associate Editors 

Lewis W. Physioc, Fred Westerberg, Technical Editors 

Helen Boyce, Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication Dedicated to the Advancement of Cinematography in All 

Its Branches; Professional and Amateur; Photography; Laboratory and Processing, 

Film Editing, Sound Recording, Projection, Pictorialists. 

CONTENTS 

Cover Still by Robert W. Coburn 
Insert painted in oil by Lewis W. Physioc 

RANDOM THOUGHTS ON NATURAL COLOR 

PHOTOGRAPHY ---------- i 

By Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F.R.P.S. 
CANDID COLOR— THE MIKUT COLOR SYSTEM - - 2 

By Herbert C. McKay 
ARTHUR MAUDE ON COLOR ------- 3 

By George H. Elvin, Secretary Association Cine Technicians 
COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY THROUGH THE PAINTER'S EYES - 4 

By Lewis W. Physioc 
THE GASPARCOLOR PROCESS - 6 

By Major Adrian B. Klein, M.B.E. 
POIRIERCOLOR ---------- 7 

By Maurice Poirier 
NOTES ON THE HISTORY OF COLOR IN MOTION PICTURES 8 

By Earl Theisen 
THE NEW MAX FACTOR TECHNICOLOR MAKE-UP - - 10 

By Nancy Smith 
A NEW TYPE OF BACKGROUND PROJECTOR - 10 

A NEW LUMIERE FILMCOLOR - By W alter M. P. Batts - 11 
DUFAYCOLOR BY THE NEGATIVE POSITIVE METHOD 
FOR 35mm. PROFESSIONAL USE - By Walter II. Carson - - 12 
THE KELLER-DORIAN THREE-COLOR PROCESS - 13 

By William E. Celestin 
SUNLIGHT UNDER THE SEA 14 

By Paul R. Harmer— Paper III. 
LIGHTING EQUIPMENT FOR NATURAL COLOR 
PHOTOGRAPHY - By Peter Mule ------ 15 

AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE SECTION - - 18-21 

By F. Hamilton Riddell 

Cine-Essentials 
EASTMAN ANNOUNCES 8mm. KODACHROME - 20 
NEW FILM REWINDING APPARATUS - By Morgan Hill - 22 
A FEW MOMENTS WITH CINECOLOR 25 

By W. F. Crespinel 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING - - 30 

RECENT PHOTOGRAPH AND SOUND PATENTS - 31 

By Robert Fulivider 
DUPLICATING KODACHROME ------ 31 

By Billy Boyce 
CINEMACARONI - By Robert Tobey ----- 32 

Entered as second class matter Sept. 30, 1930, at the l'ust Office at Los Angeles, 
California, under the act of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright 1935 by Local 659, 1. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. O. of the United States 

and Canada 

Office of publication, 16U5 North Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, California 

GLadstone 3235 

James J. Finn, 1 West 47th St., New York, Eastern Representative 

McGill's, 179 and 218 Elizabeth St., Melbourne, Australian and New Zealand agents. 

Subscription Rates — United States, $2.50 ; Canada and Foreign $3.00 a year. 

Single copies, 25 cents. 

This Magazine represents the entire personnel of photographers now engaged in 

professional production of motion pictures in the United States and Canada. Thus 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER becomes the voice of the Entire Craft, 

covering a field that reaches from coast to coast across North America. 

Printed in the U. S. A. at Hollywood, California 

SERVICE ENGRAVING CO 




COLOR 



Our color symposium, if it may be 
so called, was a success; at least in 
the number of color "processes" and 
"systems" represented. 



If our readers got nothing out of 
it except a general understanding of 
the making of natural color photo- 
graphic print on paper, the magazine 
will be repaid for the effort. 



Several processes were not avail- 
able for exploitation until our July 
issue and, if engagements are kept, 
these will be worth waiting for. They 
are all Hollywood concerns and ready 
to go. 



The International Photographer is 
grateful for co-operation extended, 
especially to Mr. Karl Barleben, F.R. 
P.S. and his associates in New York 
City and to THE JOURNAL OF THE 
ASSOCIATION OF CINE-TECHNI- 
CIANS, LONDON, ENGLAND; also 
to the Defender Chromatone Process 
(Photo Supply Company, Inc., Roch- 
ester) ; Arthur Maude, England; Lewis 
W. Physioc; Major Adrian B. Klein, 
M.B.E. ; Dr. Reuben Higgins; Walter 
M. P. Batts, of New York; Walter H. 
Carson; William E. Celestin; Paul R. 
Harmer; Peter Mole; Hamilton Rid- 
del; William Stall; Morgan Hill; 
W. T. Crespinel; Ross Fisher, Mexico 
City; Attorney Robert Fulwider; Rob- 
ert Tobey; Projectionists' Journal, 
London; Earl Theisen; Arthur Reeves; 
Anthony Kornmann; Billy Boyce, and 
many others. 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 




Random Thoughts On Natural 
Color Photography 

By Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F.R.P.S. 




| HERE is no lack of color in photography — on 
the contrary, the trouble seems to be too 
many complications and too many pro- 
cesses capable of producing from mediocre 
to really good natural color. It is probable that the 
very numerous processes available give most of the 
trouble to the novice, for how is he to choose intelli- 
gently? Color in photography is not new. Fortunes 
have been spent — and made — in the frantic search 
for good and practical color processes. And many 
more will no doubt in the future be spent — and made. 
Not many seem to worry about third dimension, 
strangely enough, but color — ah, that is something 
everyone goes after in a big way. Possibly the fact 
that color is so elusive, and because we are so near, 
and yet so far, makes it all the more appealing to us. 
In any event, it can safely be said that 1936 has seen 
tremendous strides made in color photography. 

If only some standards could be worked out, the 
whole thing could be simplified, but as it is, each 
process has its own methods and procedures, and it 
is doubtful if anyone can truthfully say that he knows 
all there is to know about color, or even about all 
the color processes. A strange fact is that a few of 
the first processes to be brought forth are still in 
existence and used a great deal, in spite of the fact 
that new and seemingly better processes have been 
brought to light since. It all looks like a mad 
scramble to see which process gets there first — and 
the race waxes hotter and hotter as the years go by. 
Surely the time must come when some inventive 
genius will proclaim the discovery of the certain 
something that will place color in the front rank. To 
date, certain obstacles crop up to mar the perfect pic- 
ture. If the process produces good color, it usually 
is impractical or too expensive to produce commer- 
cially. If it is satisfactory from the commercial stand- 
point, it usually is unsatisfactory from the technical 
point of view. However, the "bugs" in color are be- 
ing rapidly ironed out as time goes on, and as I said 
previously, the time must come when we can really 
say "color is here." 

Of the processes recognized today as satisfactory 
on one or more counts, we can count on the Agfa- 
color, Lumiere Autochrome Filmcolor, Defender Du- 
Pac, Defender Chromatone, Finlay, Dufaycolor, East- 
man Wash-off, Ruthenberg, etc. These, of course, are 
for still photography in the main. When it comes to 
movies, Technicolor, Bi-Pack, Dufaycolor and Koda- 
chrome seem to hold their own. The Lord knows how 
many other obscure processes there are, many of 
them excellent, for all the public knows. In any 
event, there are sufficient processes to keep the ama- 
teur busy for many years. 

Just which process to adopt is something I 
shouldn't care to suggest. Some favor one, others 
prefer another. It all amounts to personal preference 



and the type of work intended. Aside from the vari- 
ous color processes in which the color is inherent in 
the film or plate, there are various so-called "one- 
shot" cameras coming out which seem to draw a 
great deal of attention. The Mikut (which I men- 
tioned on its arrival in the United States a short time 
ago — see page 24 of the April 1936 issue of THE 
INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER) is creating tre- 
mendous interest because of various novel and prac- 
tical features. Then the Defender Photo Supply Com- 
pany is, at this writing, completing plans for a "one- 
shot" camera to be exploited along with the Chroma- 
tone printing process. Many individuals have turned 
to the making of their own "one-shot" cameras, and 
a few are even making them on special order for 
sale. The "one-shot" camera uses ordinary pan- 
chromatic film and makes three negatives, each 
through a filter, simultaneously. From these three 
negatives, color prints are easily made via the 
Chromatone and other processes. Color films and 
plates, however, still hold their own. The Finlay, 
Agfa, Dufaycolor, and Lumiere Autochrome Film- 
color (which, incidentally, has been speeded up con- 
siderably only recently) are widely used by those 
who are content with transparencies. 

The novice in color photography must realize at 
the start that when taking up color he is best off if 
he disregards a few of the conventional black and 
white rules. Color is an entirely different medium, 
and it follows that its treatment is a bit different. 
First of all, scenes must be chosen for color. With a 
black and white picture, a scene may be drab and 
dreary, as far as color is concerned, and still make 
(Turn to Page 26) 




Cameraman Jack Alton likes his backgrounds 
tall and sharp. Here is one from Slamboul. 



Tzvo 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



MODERN 
COLOR 



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pin controlled pre-registry makes possible color 
prints with white margins! "Black" copy for 
four color work from fully panchromatic image 
composed of all three color records. 

SEMI-AUTOMATIC REGISTRATION 

Pin controlled, just as cartoon work is con- 
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standard pins in projection easel and assembly 
board make possible color registration almost 
"with your eyes shut." 

A Truly Modern 
Color System 

Full details sent upon request. 

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By Herbert 

(Photo Marketing Co 

|HE rapid increase in interest 
in natural color has made it 
imperative that color should 
be reduced to the technical 
level of black and white. While this 
may seem to be a wild dream, the 
fact is that great strides have already 
been made toward this desirable 
goal. 

Less than a year ago the color pho- 
tographer was forced to make a most 
unsatisfactory choice. He had to 
make use of mosaic screen plates or 
films with their consequent unsatis- 
factory reproduction or he had to 
limit himself to an unwieldly one- 
camera which could only be used in 
the studio or under the most favor- 
able exterior conditions. The spirit 
of modern photography which has 
arisen under the influence of the can- 
did camera and the speed flash was 
an absolutely closed field to him. 

Although a factor of not too great 
importance in the professional field, 
operating expenses were extremely 
high. With flash shots using as many 
as one hundred and even more bulbs 
at a single shot, the cost of an ex- 
posure was staggering. All in all, 
the restrictions surrounding color 
photography have made it impos- 
sible for the casual photographer to 
indulge in this most fascinating 
branch of the art. 

These conditions have been over- 
come. It is now possible to obtain a 
one-shot camera which weighs less 
than three pounds, which is capable 
of producing 8x10 inch color prints 
on paper from negatives made at 
speeds as high as 1/50 second. The 
restricted size and weight make the 
camera perfectly practical for free- 
hand use; the standard Compur is 
perfectly adapted to flash synchroni- 
zation and the lens speed is such that 
two medium bulbs at five or six feet 
will give good results! 

Another phase of color work which 
has been radically changed recently 
is the production of color proofs. Un- 
til recently it has been necessary to 
make a composite print to show the 
result which will be obtained from 
the set of separation negatives. If 
done hurriedly, this proof was worse 
than nothing at all, and if well made 
it demanded the expenditure of time 
and money. 

At the present time it is possible to 
prepare color proofs within the space 
of a half hour and at a cost of less 
than ten cents each. These proofs are 
examined by projection to any de- 
sired size up to eight or ten feet 
square, thus giving ample opportun- 



C. McKay 

rp., New York City) 

ity for examination and choice by a 
group rather than by one individual 
at a time. 

These radical changes and simpli- 
fications of color routine have been 
brought about by a recently intro- 
duced process known as the Mikut 
Color System. The word "system" 
is used advisedly because the cam- 
era, as such, is incidental to the en- 
tire working system. 

Briefly the system involves the pro- 
duction of a three-color separation 
set of negatives, each measuring 45 
mm. square and situated side by side 
on a 50x150 mm. glass plate. Inter- 
registration is fixed, as the images 
cannot move relatively to each other. 
From this negative a black and white 
positive transparency is made. This 
positive is exactly similar to the con- 
ventional glass lantern slide and 
made in the same way. The only 
difference between making the Mikut 
transparency and an ordinary slide 
is that the exposure given the three 
separate images is under control so 
that the balance of the color records 
may be altered. 

The transparency is used with a 
special triple projector, and by the 
application of conventional additive 
methods, a superimposed, composite 
color image is projected. The optical 
method used for combining the three 
distinct color records in projection is 
closely similar to that used in the 
camera for dividing the original 
image into three parts for separation 
recording. 

When the pose has been selected 
to reproduce as a paper print, the 
projector is converted into an enlarg- 
er by substituting a low intensity, 
diffused light source and by placing 
the projector head upon a special en- 
larging bed which enforces parallel- 
ism between negative and easel. As 
colors are not desirable in the image 
for projection printing, the filters are 
removed from the lantern for this pur- 
pose. 

The easel bears a paper holder 
which has a metal masking frame 
and which is equipped with registra- 
tion pins. The negative image is 
focussed upon a sheet of plain paper, 
supported in this holder. The images 
are superimposed and sharply fo- 
cussed. The individual lamps of the 
projector are then extinguished by 
their separate control switches. A 
sheet of sensitive paper is punched to 
fit the register pins, a special punch 
being provided for this purpose. The 
paper is placed in the holder and the 

(Turn to Page 24) 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Three 



Arthur Maude On Color 

An interview with George H. Elvin 

(Secretary, The Association of Cine-Technicians) 
Reprinted from the Projectionists' Journal, London, England. 



An outstanding feature of A.C.T.'s recent colour 
evening, in which five leading technicians demon- 
strated and talked about five of the leading colour 
processes, was Mr. Arthur Maude's talk on his ex- 
tensive experiences and his advice and opinions on 
the technicalities of colour. 

Mr. Maude was a colour expert on Technicolor 
and received the Reisenfeld Gold Medal, by an over- 
whelming vote of American exhibitors, for his colour 
picture, "The Vision." In this picture, it has been said 
that the ideal and most artistic effects were secured 
by making colour a pleasing adjunct rather than the 
predominant feature of the film. 

In an interview for this Journal, Mr. Maude talked 
particularly of the Debrie Colour Process, in relation 
to the all important factors of cost and lighting. 
Debrie Colour Process 

The Debrie Colour Process, financed by Mr. De- 
brie, is called Dascolour. Patents were first taken 
out in 1931 and have been worked on ever since. It 
has taken four years' continuous work to perfect the 
print. Mr. Arthur Maude is so enamoured with the 
process that, together with his partner, Mr. Arthur 
Cross, he has taken out an option for the British Em- 
pire and has the first refusal for the United States of 
America. 

The quality of the process and its low cost are its 
main attractions. Speed of printing should make the 
process additionally welcome to newsreel com- 
panies. 

No special camera is needed for the process, as 
it is possible to adapt an existing model at a cost of 
seventy pounds. The only additions necesary are a 
double spool box and a double negative. Debries, 
however, made a special camera which will be 
available shortly. 

As a rule, bi-pack processes take double the time 
and to overcome this a double printer has been in- 
vented which takes the same processing time as ordi- 
nary black and white. The cost is only an additional 
five percent. The prints cost only one-fifth of a penny 
more than black and white. 

In emphasizing that the element of cost is vital, 
Mr. Maude pointed out that a three-colour system 
costs one-third more. While admitting that there are 
moments when a three-colour system may be neces- 
sary — for example, the photography of Royal Robes 
— as a general rule two colours only are sufficient. 
A forest can be photographed in two colours when 
it is remembered that the component colours of green 
are yellow and blue. Ninety percent of stage work 
needs but two colours. Why should film need more? 
Lighting 

The essence of colour photography is lighting and 
entirely different treatment is required from that for 



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black and white. Colour must be clearly defined. 
An excessive front light is not required and no extra 
power than for ordinary black and white photogra- 
phy is necessary. 

Fringing of colours must, however, be safe- 
guarded against. A human being has two eyes with 
which to select his vision. A camera has only one 
lens and is therefore more restricted than the eye. 
In brilliant sunshine, for example, red must be fring- 
ing and, in case of a sunset at sea, the sea would 
appear red to the camera, although we know it is 
not so. We must have a light or lights behind the 
object in order to kill this fringing. For this reason 
it is vital that the colour expert — the cameraman — 
should be with the scenic designer when the sets are 
being designed. Natural sources only — doors, win- 
dows, etc. — should be used to obviate fringing. 

Back lighting can make a stereoscopic effect in 
colour with twice the ease of black and white, but 
it is essential that the scenery must not be painted 
or wall papered in certain colours or lack of colours. 
Darkish grey panelling, or any dark shade, will help 
obtain a stereoscopic effect. The proper effect is 
obtained by turning the front lights as much as pos- 
sible off the scenery. Lighting should be reflected 
light and not direct light. Any object which it is de- 
sired to emphasize should be lighted separately by 
spots. 

In this new art of colour pictures long shots are 
of necessity not quite so bright as foreground shots, 
because the light is so much further away. There- 
fore, it is essential that in mid and foreground the 
light on the colours must be entirely different from 
that on the face. There must be two sources of light 
for mid shots and the colours will then correspond 
in density to the colours in long shot. 

Finally, it must be emphasized that it is essential 
to forget that we are shooting colour once the colour 
scheme has been devised. Every costume worn, 
whether for modern or costume play, must be cal- 
culated according to the foreground and close-up 
shots required. 

As far as possible there should be only one sali- 
ent point of colour in each foreground shot. Cos- 
tumes or clothing of other persons should be chosen 
to blend with that one salient point. 



PASTE THIS IN YOUR HAT 

The Meniscus lens supplied with most inexpen- 
sive box cameras is rated about F. 1 1 . 

The F 7.9 lens is 2 l A times faster than the menis- 
cus lens. 

The F 6.3 lens is 4 times as fast as the meniscus. 

The F 4.5 lens is 2 times as fast as the F 6.3 lens. 

The F3.5 lens is 60% faster than the F 4.5 lens. 

The F 2 lens is 3 times as fast as the F 3.5 lens. 

The 1.5 lens is 6 times as fast as the F 3.5 lens. 

The F 1.5 lens is also said to be 60% faster than 
the F 1 .9 or practically twice as fast as the F.2 and it 
is claimed that an F 1.5 lens with super pan film will 
make a snapshot anywhere there is enough light to 
comfortably read a newspaper. 



Four 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 




Color Photography Through The 
Painters Eyes 

By Lewis W. Physioc 

Technical Editor International Photographer 




| HE writer frequently has been asked to give 
his opinions on the important subject of 
color photography. Up to the present time 
he has refrained — for several reasons. First: 
because he believes that opinions are of less benefit 
to mankind than axiomatic conclusions. Second; an 
expression of opinions entails the use of that old 
personal pronoun so generally obnoxious. More 
dreadful, still, he trembles at the thought of opposing 
the opinions of those who are recognized as authori- 
ties. This is admittedly the case, as regards the pres- 
ent subject. 

Many of my color-minded friends have suspected 
me of lacking interest in color photography. This is 
true only in the matter of the two-color processes. 
This confession does not mean that I lack apprecia- 
tion for the efforts of those who have so patiently and 
courageously experimented in the application of 
color to the motion pictures: and I concede many 
striking effects in those experiments. It means, 
merely, that one who has enjoyed the delights of the 
unlimited range of the painter's palette could not fully 
be satisfied with the renderings of a two-color system. 

I have been a color-photo enthusiast from the 
first introduction of the Autochrome, and other color 
plates. I still pour over the pages of the Geographic 
Magazine, whose particular appeal is in those color 
plates. They have taught me one outstanding fact; 
i.e., the success of each subject depends upon the 
ability of the artist behind the camera: It is choice of 
the subject. Even after the completion of a series, 
there is still another choice to determine which 
among the group fully satisfies the demands of the 
artistic taste for color. One needs but look into the 
rack of discards to realize this fact. 

This suggests a string of questions, opinions and 
stock phrases we so frequently hear regarding color 
photography — "pastel shades"; " colors as seen in 
nature"; "gaudy colors that tire the eyes"; "art direc- 
tors and color theorists running wild," and the like. 

Let us study these questions. 

It would seem that the very thought of color pho- 
tography would encourage the employment of the 
trained artist (or color expert); but the general criti- 
cism and comments tend to show that color-pictures 
appeal to the vast public and not to the minor group 
of art enthusiasts. This, in turn, throws the subject 
into an all-time controversial field. Many works of 
art that have enjoyed a wide popular approval have 
been less favored by academicians and art critics; 
and, conversely, those works more loudly acclaimed 
by the critics have been coldly accepted by the 
public. 

Then, the question arises — What is art? Is it 
something that appeals to the great mass of lay 
minds, or that which is approved by the trained artist 
or critic, or is it represented only in those rare pro- 
ductions that satisfy not only the masses but elicits, 
also, the praise of the critic? If this latter clause sug- 
gests the answer — we, indeed, set a high mark for 
color photography. 



We frequently hear the comment: "Color pictures 
will never be a success until they can produce those 
soft, "pastel shades." This term "pastel shades" 
means nothing to the artist. His every color scheme 
is the result of some design, some instinctive res- 
ponse he cannot define. Every time he takes up his 
palette those pigments upon it yield to a variety of 
tints that bear no name except in the abstract tongue 
of that artistic instinct. Those tints may range from a 
series of delicate, high-key hues of soft grays (pas- 
tels, if you wish) to bold, rich, positive tones. Has 
either any value over the other? They are both the 
result of that instinctive direction. 

The term "pastel" has been popularized by the 
sheer beauty of that particular medium — the velvety 
surface and softness of line and texture. Unlike oils 
or wash, pastels are not mixed on the palette from the 
primaries; they are made in series of hues, ranging 
from the full value of the primary to its most delicate 
suggestions. The artist conveniently selects the hue 
most nearly approaching the dictates of his instinct. 
But these hues have been mixed by the trained ex- 
pert, and are judiciously tempered with delicate 
grays, to relieve the garish effects likely to result 
from tints mixed by students that do not fully under- 
stand color harmony. 

Gaudy Colors That Tire The Eyes 

I do not believe there is any pair of eyes that tires 
of a pretty color scheme — certainly not mine. On the 
contrary, my eyes refuse anything that is not agree- 
able in the matter of color. I am looking for color in 
everything, at all times. 

I readily admit, however, that it is easy to tire of 
a succession of effects rendered by the raw primaries 
or the two complements unrelieved by secondary 
and tertiary tints as furnished in the full spectrum. 
Hence my lack of interest in a two-color process. 

Colors As Seen In Nature 

There are some features of this heading that over- 
lap the preceding, as well as the following "Artists 
Running Wild." 

The producers have been criticised for an un- 
natural extravagance in color schemes. This is mere- 
ly a prejudicial hangover from the two-color systems 
that rendered a preponderance of the two comple- 
ments employed — (red and green) or (orange and 
blue). 



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Here is a shot of natives at 
Balak, Sumatra, by Lewis W. 
Physioc. The strange build- 
ings are storehouses for rice. 
The natives in the picture 
are beating an alarm drum. 




In considering this criticism we cannot refrain 
from a defense of those who have striven so earnest- 
ly in the two-color efforts, particularly Mrs. Natalie 
Kalmus who grew up with the color pictures. Mrs. 
Kalmus has had considerable experience, and there 
is little doubt but that the best results of the Techni- 
color two-color process were due to her taste and 
training in color harmony plus her knowledge of the 
limits of any two-color system. The best proof of this 
is their persistent efforts for a three-color process. 

The other systems, like Multicolor, and particu- 
larly the additive systems, are subject to the same 
criticism, but claim the same defense, the limits of 
any two-color system. 

However, we hope Mrs. Kalmus, and the other 
experts, will not be too much influenced by the de- 
mands for naturalness — there are many reasons. 

I have no fanatical belief that everything in 
nature is beautiful. Dame Nature is a lady of many 
moods, otherwise she would not be so intriguing. 
Art is dependent upon catching her in her most fas- 
cinating moods. John Ruskin said something to the 
effect that if the artist always painted Nature as he 
saw her he would sell few of his pictures. And the 
portrait painter and photographer will tell you that 
if they rendered their patrons "true to life" they would 
enjoy few commissions. 

Artists have gone sketching, and wandered for 
days without finding a fit subject for reproducing. 
Returning, disconsolate, one may come upon one of 
those rejected subjects and become startled into en- 
thusiasm. The commonplace scene now appears 
under different lighting and atmospheric conditions 
and is transformed into an inspiring subject. 

But even now, the artist feels impelled to alter the 
drawing here and there, and modify certain tones; 
generally idealizing an already attractive subject. 

To be sure, nature is sometimes lavish in her 
offerings and there are occasions when the artist 
finds it difficult to find anything on his palette to 
match the brilliance of the color scheme before him. 
Here lies the fascination of still-life subjects, such as 
flowers and fruit. 

But I have never heard of anyone becoming tired 
of looking at flowers, natures "gaudiest" color dis- 
play. 

This fickleness of nature seems to suggest that if 
the producers of color pictures go out to nature and 



shoot from morning till night, without the aid and 
guidance of the artist, they will meet with many dis- 
appointments. And any process that does not permit 
of the artist's aid will not be a permanent success — 
The true artist seldom "runs wild." 

Technicolor (three-color) 

When I first beheld one of the "Silly Symphonies" 
I was thrilled — my emotions were almost childishly 
respondent. I recognized the artist's influence; ex- 
cept that instead of merely making an artistic choice 
of one of nature's offerings, the subject was created 
by the artist. My ideas of color were fully satisfied. 
Furthermore, it seemed to prove that the system was 
capable of properly reproducing a good color 
scheme. 

I experienced the same delight in viewing "Becky 
Sharpe"; and I refuse to be influenced by the "pastel 
patrons," or "true to nature" fanatics. I love pretty 
costumes and appropriately designed backgrounds. 
I like women dolled up and made up. I love color. 

I recognized some technical difficulties such as 
matching the closeups and long shots. But such er- 
rors are found in the best black and white pictures. 
This will be overcome when the technicians grad- 
ually realize that every change of light and varia- 
tion in exposures means as great a variety of color 
values. This error in matching closeups and long 
shots seems less noticeable on exteriors for the very 
reason that the cameramen cannot haul in old Sol 
twenty-five million miles, or so nearer, when making 
the closeups. 

It must be realized that there are many subjects 
that, while not offering much in the way of color, are 
beautiful when rendered in black and white: This is 
because the features of that subject may be a strik- 
ing light effect, a happy distribution of tones and 
other elements not particularly represented in the dis- 
tribution of color values. Therefore, if I must choose 
between dingy reds, dusty greens, neutral grays, 
faded blues and other indifferent tones (as too fre- 
quently found in nature) and the black and white, I'll 
take the latter. 

But as there is no question but that the artistic 
cameraman can come to nature's aid in the black 
and white, we can likewise hope for success in color 
photography by permitting the artist or color expert 
to contribute his peculiar training. 



Six 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



The Gasparcolor Process 

(Reprinted from the Projectionists' Journal, London, England) 

By Major Adrian B. Klein, M.B.E. 

{Technical Adviser to Gaspacolor Ltd.) 
From the Journal of the Association of Cine-Technicians, London, England 




| HE experiments of the last twenty years have 
at length resulted in more than one process 
which can claim full-scale color reproduc- 
tion and which fulfills the practical condi- 
tions of price, processing and projection. One of 
these processes is already familiar to all of us, 
namely, the recently perfected three-color Techni- 
color film. Very beautiful work has already been 
shewn and a lot more is on the way. 

The most recent color process to make its debut 
is known as GASPARCOLOR. A great deal is likely 
to be heard of Gasparcolor film in the immediate 
future. It is therefore important to know what it is 
like and how it is made. 

To begin at the end — Gasparcolor film is a color 
film giving accurate reproduction of all colors and 
ready to go into any projector anywhere without any 
addition to the projector; and without any departure 
from standard black and white practice. 

It is hardly necessary to state that in all color 
photography one has to analyze the light coming 
from the object to be photographed. In other words, 
we have to obtain negatives which record limited 
wave-length bands in the whole range of visible light 
known as the spectrum. 

For this purpose we can divide the spectrum into 
two regions, or into three. Two records can only give 
us a comparatively limited reproduction of the orig- 
inal colors. But owing to the nature of color vision it 
is possible to reproduce every color from the mixture 
of the varying proportions of the three colors. These 
three are the so-called primary colors — Red, Green, 
Violet. It is essential, therefore, in order to reproduce 
all colors as seen by the eye, that three photogra- 
phic records should be obtained; the first being taken 
through an appropriate red filter, the second through 
a green filter, and the third through a blue filter (or 
violet ,as it is generally called.) In a three-color cine- 
matographic process it is necessary to take all three 
pictures simultaneously. This can be accomplished 
in several different ways. We can employ a special 
camera, in which a prism system is used behind the 
lens to divide the beam so that more than one iden- 
tical image can be obtained on more than one gate. 
It is usual on such cameras to have two gates, one at 
right angles to the other. In one gate we expose a 
single film and in the other we expose two films, one 
behind the other (known as bi-pack). It is possible 
with such an arrangement to get a record of the blue 
light on the single film, of the green light from the 
front film of the bi-pack, and of the green light on the 
rear film of the bi-pack. When developed in the 
usual way, we have thus obtained three geometric- 
ally identical films, but each will represent a record 
of the subject in terms of one of the primary colors. 
Such a system is used by Technicolor and also by 
Gasparcolor for the photography of negatives. Nat- 
urally, if the subject is still, as in the case of cartoon 
photography or trick work, it is possible to photo- 
graph the pictures all on to one film. In this case it 



is only necessary to alter the color filters successive- 
ly and to take three frames of each shot; one through 
red, one through green and one through blue. But 
no matter how the three negatives are obtained — 
what is important is how they are going to be printed 
on the final positive film. Here it is that the proceses 
differ from each other fundamentally. 

Gasparcolor is the first color film positive mate- 
rial upon which the three negatives may be directly 
printed each in its own appropriate color. For the 
first time, no dyes are used in the processing, no 
staining, coloring or toning enters into the treatment 
of the film. This sounds like a miracle, and in one 
sense it certainly is a miracle. Yet the principle is 
simple. Imagine three colored emulsions. That is, 
emulsions which contain transparent dyes in suspen- 
sion in the gelatine. These emulsions are coated on 
the celluloid in layers in the following order. On one 
side of the film we have the pink, and beneath the 
pink layer a yellow layer. On the other side of the 
film is coated a blue layer. Now these emulsions are 
so sensitized that we can print them with colored 
lights each in turn, independently of the other. 

The layers are sensitized in the following man- 
ner: The pink layer is sensitive to the blue light only, 
but the yellow layer underneath is sensitive to red 
light also. The blue layer is blue sensitive only. 
By printing the three layers with colored lights it is 
possible to print the film three times upon the three 
layers independently of each other. The film which 
is to print the pink layer is printed with blue light, 
but as the yellow layer lying beneath will not admit 
the blue rays, nothing from this negative is recorded 
on any layer except the uppermost pink layer. Next, 
the yellow layer is printed with red light, but as the 
uppermost pink layer is not sensitive to red light 
nothing is printed upon this layer, whereas the yel- 
low layer lying underneath the pink layer is sensi- 
tive to red light. It therefore records the red light. 
Finally, the blue layer (which is blue sensitive) on 
the other side of the film is printed with the third 
film, using white or blue light. Obviously only blue 
light can get through the blue coating and no blue 
light can enter the yellow emulsion lying beneath. 
Thus the three layers can be separately printed with- 



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June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seven 



out the slightest danger of printing more than one 
layer at a time. 

The three printings can be done on a single print- 
ing machine as fast as normal black and white. 

The subsequent development of the film differs 
in minor respects from black and white, but normal 
processing machinery is employed. 

The claims of the Gasparcolor process are: 

(1) It is three color film and therefore gives per- 
fect reproduction of the whole range of color. 

(2) It is photographically produced print and 
does not rely upon dyes, color toning or chemical 
treatment for the color. 

(3) It is accurately resproduceable by standard 
normal photographic practice and almost standard 
processing equipment, whereas other color processes 
require specially equipped processing laboratories. 

(4) It is as transparent as black and white film 
and requires no more than the usual illumination for 
projection. It is virtually a grainless pure color 
image. 

(5) No addition of any kind is required to the 
projector. It can be exhibited anywhere at any time 
in any projector. 

(6) It does not show scratches more than black 
and white film. 

(7) Sound track is black on a transparent red 
background giving normal results. 

Gasparcolor film is double coated and projection- 



ists very generally have been of the opinion that it 
is difficult to focus double coated color films. This 
opinion is based on an accurate observation, but 
the cause of the difficulty does not lie in the fact 
of the film being double coated. First of all, previous 
processes have not had sharp pictures to focus. That 
the double coated film cannot be the cause is shown 
by the fact that the distance apart of the blue image 
and the red-yellow image is, at the most, four and 
a half thousandths of an inch. Now, assuming a 
projection distance of 100 feet and a four-inch lens 
focus, the distance apart of the sharp projected pic- 
tures could not be more than one and a half inches. 
Therefore, it is absurd to blame the double coating 
of the film. 

The sound track of Gasparcolor, having a red 
background, it may be found advisable to increase 
the volume by one or two steps. Naturally it is 
impracticable to use non-red-sensitive photo-electric 
cells. 

The question of the color characteristics of the 
illuminant in relation to the projection of a color film 
involves too many factors to be discussed in this 
brief description; but this aspect is really very im- 
portant and it will have to be taken into considera- 
tion by both the producer and exhibitor of color films. 
A large difference in the color temperature of the 
light source can cause a tremendous difference in 
the appearance of the colors upon the screen. 




POIRIERCOLOR 



BY MAURICE POIRIER, 



INVENTOR 



Color plates of this process are made from one 
image in four parts. One part is black and white 
and is a complete image in every detail. The other 
three parts are each a part of the black and white 
image, but in color value they differ and each takes 
on one of the primary colors — practically eliminating 
the rest of the image. 

Negatives exposed into four images of whatever 
subject chosen, either still or moving objects. One 
image is black and white without color value, and 
a good sharp negative, but the other three are in 
some respects incomplete; that is to say, for illus- 
tration, the negative which is meant to register the 
red component will register the whole image, but 
only the red part of the subject will be sharp; the 
rest of the image or subject, which consists of black 
and white and other colors, will be registered with 
less degree of sharpness. To continue explanation, 
the parts meant to register the blue and yellow com- 
ponents are showing the same results as that of the 



red; the blue part of the subject is sharp and the rest 
of the image is dull. The yellow is the same as the 
red and the blue. 

Now in making positives on zinc or on to other 
materials for the purpose of printing color, or in mak- 
ing positives on films for projecting in color, we find 
this process somewhat different from most of the 
color processes. When positives are made from col- 
ored negatives, on zinc, or on film, the part of the 
image that is not sharp disappears almost entirely, 
eliminating all hand etchings. 

Our camera used for color photography is not 
complicated. Of course, it must have extremely fast 
lenses, but does not require any reflectors of any 
kind, nor is the lens covered with any colored filters 
at any time. There is nothing in the path of light to 
interrupt its speed toward film to be exposed. White 
light only strikes films giving even exposures of the 
four images, or in reality one image in four parts, 
black and white, the red, the yellow and the blue. 
It may be difficult to understand how this is done 
because there are things that cannot be written and, 
if I were to enter the subject, it would require too 
much space saying nothing of what has been said 
about color photography by others. However, 
I am glad to send my contribution and hope it will 
be of interest to readers. 

My associates in this business are Joseph C. 
Lamb, 1057 No. Tujunga Ave., Burbank, California 
and Dr. Reuben Higgins, 1442 No. Keystone St., Bur- 
bank, California. All information regarding this may 
be had by communicating with Dr. Reuben Higgins. 



Eight 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 




Notes On The History Of Color In 
Motion Pictures 

By Earl Theisen 




{Associate Editor 

International 

Photographer) 



*7|[NCE the box-office is becoming color-minded 
' and Hollywood is willing to pay for color, 
% it is fitting that we pause a moment to look 
back on some of the pioneering attempts to 
achieve color films and to bring them to their present 
perfection. 

Throughout the course of motion picture history 
the desire of its pioneers has been to broaden the 
scope of the camera by adding to it the ability to 
record color and to catch the everchanging flow and 
tapestry of nature's coloration, thus improving the 
screen with a truer and more dramatic picture. 

Edison wanted to color his films. As early as 
1894 he hand-colored some of his forty-foot films for 
the Peep-show. 

In the Los Angeles museum I have a specimen 
of hand-colored film made by E. H. Amet in 1898. 
It is a picture of the flag and was made as a propa- 
ganda film during the Spanish-American War. Be- 
cause it is the earliest colored film which I could 
locate for the Society of Motion Picture Engineers' 
Historical Collection, this fragment of film is bound 
between glass for preservation. Many hand-colored 
films made by Pathe, Gaumont and others, before 
1910, are on display in the motion picture gallery. 

* * * 

A program of Madison Square Garden, dated 
December 11, 1909, announces the first showing of 
Kinemacolor in the United States. This rare piece 
of memorabilia was located in Hawaii by Dr. William 
A. Bryan and through the enterprise of Charles Ur- 
ban, Kinemacolor, was brought to this country and 
may be seen by visitors to the museum. 

* * * 

Wally Clendenin, the walking movie encyclopedia 
recalls that the first Los Angeles showing of Kine- 
macolor was the roadshow of the Durbar picture ex- 
hibited at the Trinity Auditorium, in 1910. Later it 
was shown in regular movie house in Venice. 

* * * 

Tally's theater, in Los Angeles, became known for 
a time as the "Kinemacolor," running nothing but 
color subjects. After Tally discontinued the color 
films, "Clune's Broadway" exhibited Kinemacolor 

for awhile. 

* * * 

Kinemacolor established a Hollywood studio in 
1912 taking over the "Harry Revier lot" which was 
located at the junction of Sunset and Hollywood 
Boulevards. Later it had a studio at the "Fine Arts 
lot," having as director E. J. LeSaint. The leading 
ladies were Mabel Van Buren, Linda Arvidson (Then 



Mrs. D. W. Griffith), Stella Rogers (Mrs. LeSaint), and 
others. Murdock MacQuarrie was character man. 

The interior sets were shot in the sunlight without 
diffusers in order to get enough light for the slow 
lenses and raw-stock of that period. 

* * * 

The projection speed of Kinemacolor was 32 
frames a second, using beater movements which 
almost shook the theaters down. The flicker of the 
alternating colors and color fringe of this additive 
process was disliked by many persons. 

The American Kinemacolor went out of business 
about the time of the war. 

The first commercially successful process in 
which the color was applied directly to the film (sub- 
tractive process) was the Prizma perfected by Will- 
iam VD. Kelley. Using this process J. Stuart Blackton 
made a five reel dramatic feature in England en- 
titled "The Glorious Adventure," released on April 
30, 1922. In the cast among others were Lady Diana 
Manners and Victor McLaglen. 

* * * 

Before this Kelley, who is recognized by color ex- 
perts as the foremost pioneer in color motion pic- 
tures, established a laboratory at 1586 E. Seventeenth 
Street, Brooklyn, New York, in 1913-14 and with the 
aid of J. A. Wohl, Max Mayer, Charles Raleigh and 
George P. Kelley (later Julius Lichtenstein replaced 
Wohl and Mayer) formed a company and experi- 
mented on a process known as "Panchromotion," an 
additive color, which was incorporated as "Prizma" 

in 1916. 

* * * 

Kelly's first experiments were with a four color 
additive system which was first publicly demon- 
strated at the Metropolitan Museum in New York in 
1917. According to records compiled by Kelley for 
me, another showing was given at the Smithsonian 
Institution, on April 16, 1917, after which public 
showings were given at the Strand Theater in New 
York. At this same time experimental demonstrations 
were given after the regular shows of a subtractive 
process in which the color wheel which until this 
time had been used was eliminated. The additive 
color filters were dyed on the film. 

The first feature length showing of Prizma color, 
in which the color filters were applied directly to the 
film, in which alternate frames were colored for ad- 
ditive projection, was a seven reel film entitled "Our 
Navy," released on June 23, 1918 for a two weeks 
show at the 44th Street Theatre, New York. 

About this time Kelley began experimentation 
with the first subtractive motion picture process. In 
order to carry out his researches, he entered into a 
partnership with Carroll H. Dunning and Wilson 
Saulsbury, and a laboratory was opened at 205 West 
40th Street, New York City, under the name of "Kes- 
dacolor." The first film was a fifty foot subject of the 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Nun 



American flag. It was shown simultaneously at the 
Roxy and Rialto Theatres, on September 12, 1918. 
The film cost the theatre a dollar a foot. 

A trial showing of a full length subject, "White 

Horse Rapids" was shown in December, 1918. 

* * * 

The only medal ever issued by the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers was presented to Kelley on 
October 13, 1919 "for achievement in color motion 

pictures." 

* * * 

A few of Kelley's achievements and activities 
were: Sixty-one patents on color; experimentation 
which led to the development of bi-pack began in 
1929; developed an imbibition process known as 
"Kelley-color" in 1924 and formed Kelley Color Com- 
pany with Max Handscheigl in 1926, which sold to 
Harris Color in 1928; developed a stereoscopic nov- 
elty in 1923; a colored animated cartoon series in 
collaboration with Pinto Colvig in 1919; and so forth. 
"Bill" Kelley died September 30, 1934. 

* * * 

While Kinemacolor was a two color additive pro- 
cess, Leon Gaumont introduced a three-color process 
called the "trichrome" with a public demonstration 
at the Gaumont Palace, in 1912. This exhibition was 
the result of several years' work and was consid- 
ered an innovation because of the three color repro- 
duction. 

* * * 

In 1917 Leon Douglas, of Berkeley, California, 
made some tests on an additive color process at the 
Lasky Studio. He photographed at 24 frames. A 
demonstration reel was shown at Tally's Kinema and 
a feature length picture of five reels entitled "Cupid's 

Angling," featuring Ruth Roland was made. 

* * * 

The Eastman laboratories began work on "Koda- 
chrome" in 1914. In this process a two coated nega- 
tive with a red sensitive emulsion on one side and a 
green sensitive emulsion on the opposite side were 
exposed and then the negative was reversed and 
dye toned. The dye application was made by wind- 
ing the film over a rubber coated drum which was 
then inflated to prevent the dye solution from carry- 
ing over to the opposite side. Both sides were so 

treated. 

* * * 

Eastman introduced the 16mm Kodachrome of 
the Mannes and Godowsky process about August, 
1934. The 16mm Kodacolor process, an adaptation 
of the Keller-Dorian line screen system, was intro- 
duced by Eastman in 1928. 

The Keller-Dorian process was patented in 1908- 




09 and introduced in 1925, although Paramount had 
been experimenting with this process for some time 
in the East, during March, 1935, Dr. N. M. LaPorte 
and Farciot Edouart began researches at the Holly- 
wood Paramount Studio. 

In this process the color is photographed by a 
banded tri-color filter associated with the camera 
lens and the film support in embossed with lines. A 
similar filter arrangement is used in projection. 

* * * 

Multicolor, a two color subtractive color process 
utilizing bipack for negative making was introduced 
in 1929. A somewhat similar system was introduced 
as Magnacolor by Consolidated Film Industries a 
year later. Harris-color, a single emulsion system 
was introduced in 1929. Morgana Color, a 16mm 
process, was introduced by Bell and Howell in 1932. 
Photocolor using a double coated film and dye im- 
ages was introduced in 1930 and Sennetcolor, a some- 
what similar process, was introduced a year later. 
Vitacolor, a process similar to kinemacolor was in- 
troduced in 1930. 

Raycol, an English system using quarter size 
frames was introduced in 1930. Sirius, among other 
processes, was introduced in Germany in 1929. The 
negatives were made by a beam splitter. 

Carroll and Dodge Dunning made a commercial 
subject for Del Monte in 16mm in which the two 
color subtractive film also had sound on the same 
film. Six prints were supplied the California Pack- 
ing Corporation during the winter of 1933-34. Adding 
sound to color on 16mm film was considered an in- 
novation at this time. 

* * * 

Technicolor, which has developed the present 
three color system and which is responsible more 
than any other company or individual for the popular 
acceptance of color, was organized in 1915 in Bos- 
ton. A group of trained men consisting of D. F. Corn- 
stock, H. T. Kalmus, and W. B. Wescott began work 
on a subtractive system in 1914. Three years later 
in the winter of 1916-17, they demonstrated and pub- 
licly showed a additive picture entitled, "The Gulf 
Between." This picture while not a great success, 
gave the company much added impetus. Shortly 
thereafter they undertook to perfect a subtractive 
two-color system from which was developed the color 
process used in 'Toll of The Sea," released Decem- 
ber 3, 1922. Several outstanding pictures were sub- 
sequently made in this color including "Black Pirate," 
"Wanderer of the Wasteland" and millions of feet 
of musicals and other films prior to the obsequies of 
two color processes in 1930. 
* * * 

The first sound and color flim, according to J. A. 
Ball head of the technical research for Technicolor, 
was deMille's "King of Kings." 

Experimentation on the three color imbibition pro- 
cess now in use began in 1925 with J. A. Ball in 
charge of developments. The first showing of this 
color in a real-life picture was a short sequence in 
the M.G.M. film, "Cat and The Fiddle." The first 
complete color subject was the single reel film, "La 
Cucaracha," released on November 15, 1934, at the 
R.K.O.-Hillstreet Theater, Los Angeles, and the first 
complete feature length film was "Becky Sharpe." 

J. A. Ball may be largely credited with technical 
perfection of the three color process. 
(Turn to Page 24) 



Ten 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



A New Type of Background Projector 




The Photo is that of George J. Teague and his 
dachshund, Mata Hari, on set at General Service 
Studio during production of Walter Wanger's, "The 
Case Against Mrs. Ames," photographed by Lucien 
Andriot. Background is of San Francisco Bay, the 
locale of the story being in that city. 

Mr. Teague is again installing background pro- 
cess equipment in England and in the new film 
"Hollywood" of U. S. S. R. While abroad he intends 
to have the Carl Zeiss Laboratory construct special 
optical equipment to be embodied in a radically 
new type of background projector, which will be 
placed in production upon his return to Hollywood. 



The New Max Factor Technicolor Make-Up 

By Nancy Smith 




[ROM the cameraman's viewpoint the new 
Technicolor make-up recently perfected by 
l Max Factor is one of the most important de- 
velopments of the year. 

Successfully demonstrated in such productions as 
"Trail of the Lonesome Pine," "Dancing Pirate," and 
"The Garden of Allah," the unique preparation is 
the result of years of experimentation on the part of 
Max Factor, in cooperation with the Technicolor Cor- 
poration. 

Over 20,000 feet of film were used in extensive 
tests with every type of beauty known to pictures 
before the make-up was pronounced ready for use. 

Then, in sample form, it was offered to such art- 
ists as Katharine Hepburn, Ginger Rogers, Henry 
Fonda, Fred MacMurray and William Powell, all of 
whom were most pleased with the appearance and 
feeling of the new preparation. 

Because it is more light-reflecting than the found- 
ation make-up now in general use, the Technicolor 
preparation requires four times less light and will 
save the studios hundreds of dollars in electricity 
bills. The comfort to the stars resulting from the less- 
ened light and heat is another major benefit of the 
new make-up. 

Although perfected for use in color pictures, it is 
just as successful in black and white photography. 
Tests were made with Dupont, Agfa, and Eastman 
film, and it registered perfectly with all. 



In consistency, it differs from all other make-ups 
in being vastly thinner than grease-paint. Conse- 
quently it makes for greater naturalness in photogra- 
phy, and removes the possibility of a pasty, made- 
up appearance. 

Foreign countries, following Hollywood in a rush 
for color pictures, have swamped the Factor plant 
with orders for the Technicolor make-up. Alexander 
Korda cabled to Hollywood for 8,000 items — the 
largest make-up order ever shipped abroad. Repre- 
sentatives of the Korda production unit, visiting in 
Hollywood, spent two days at the Factor plant watch- 
ing tests of the preparation before ordering it for 
"Lawrence of Arabia," now being filmed in Techni- 
color. 

A Japanese picture actress, Miss Sachiko Chiba, 
visited Mr. Factor's laboratories with her personal 
cameraman, Harry Mimura. Under an interesting 
arrangement current in Japan, Mimura doubles as 
Miss Chiba's make-up artist — and they wished to 
study both black-and-white and Technicolor make- 
ups under the tutelage of the Hollywood veteran. 

"All Japan want color pictures," said Mimura. 
"We are spending millions of yen in research and 
experiment, and hope to have color fully developed 
in a short time." 

Both Mimura and Miss Chiba were surprised and 
delighted with the much more realistic effects it is 
possible to obtain with the new make-up — in both 
black-and-white, and Technicolor photography. 



June, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Eleven 



A New Lumiere Filmcolor 

By Walter M. P. Batts 

R. J. Fitzsimons Corporation , 75 Fifth Avenue, New York City 




NEW Lumiere Filmcolor has just been 
placed on the American market. This pro- 
duct is five times faster than the Filmcolor 
previously manufactured and will permit 
snapshots of 12 times that which would be given 
for a Weston plate speed of 8, or 12 times the ex- 
posure for a plate of 17 Scheiner. The same filters 
are used that have been recommended in the past, 
and the same developing technique is employed. 

The emulsion which is used on the Lumiere Film- 
color (which is a flat film only) is the same emulsion 
that was used on the old Autochrome plate, with the 
exception of its increased speed. This emulsion is 
entirely free from all mechanical and technical de- 
fects, and will give brilliant results. The starch grains 
of which the starch grain screen is composed, are 
so minute they cannot be seen with the naked eye. 
The Filmcolor process of direct color photography 
is very simple, and a finished color picture, exactly 
true to the original subject, can be obtained in about 
15 minutes, after exposure. Special filters are neces- 
sary for the various types of illumination. There is 
a Daylight filter for daylight use, a Perchlora filter 
for white nitrogen bulbs, and a filter known as the 
Juniphot for photo flood lamps. Any plate camera 
may be used for this work, and the films will fit into 
any of the standard cut film sheaths. 

For any open landscape in bright sunlight we 
suggest an exposure of about 1/1 5th of a second at 
F4.5. For an open garden scene, bright sunlight, 
about 1/5 of a second at F4.5 would give an accurate 
exposure, or the equivalent of this if smaller stops 
are used. After exposure the film is developed in 
the following developer, diluted one to four, using a 
factor of 10, that is, developing for ten times the num- 



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We buy, sell and rent anything Photo- 
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ber of seconds it takes for the image to appear. An 
accurately exposed Filmcolor should be developed 
fully in from 2 l A to 3 minutes. 

First Development 

Distilled Water lOOOcc or 35 ozs. 

Metoquinone 15 grams or V2 oz. 

Soda Sulphite Anyd... 100 grams or 3V2 oz. 

Ammonia (22° Baume) 32cc or 9 drams 

Pot. Bromide 16 grams or 240 grains 

The darkroom lamp should be equipped with the 
special Virida papers for this work, and used with a 
10 watt bulb. After the film is developed, it is rinsed 
thoroughly, and put into the following reversing bath: 

Reversing Solution 

Water lOOOcc or 35 ozs. 

Pot. Bichromate 2 grams or 30 grains 

Sulphuric Acid (C.P.) lOcc or 3 drams 

After the film is immersed in the above solution, 
a white light may be turned on in the darkroom, 
and all subsequent operations may be carried on in 
this light. After the film is sufficiently reversed, 
which generally takes about 2 minutes, it is rinsed, 
and re-developed in the first developer, until it is all 
blackened over. The film is then washed for several 
minutes in running water, and hung up to dry. 

The finished film may be mounted between cover 
glasses for protection, or carried in transparent en- 
velopes. It may be viewed as a transparency in 
special shadow boxes called Diascopes, or may be 
used as lantern slides for projection, as they project 
very satisfactorily. 

It is very simple now, with the aid of a special 
reproduction filter, to make reproductions of any of 
your film color pictures, by contact printing, on to 
another Filmcolor. 

Filmcolor is used professionally in many branches 
of science, by hospitals and surgeons, for recording 
stained glass windows, and museum pieces. It is 
also widely used by florists and nurseries for pho- 
tographing flowers and gardens, and for all other 
purposes where absolute accurate color rendition is 
essential. 

Filmcolor is supplied in all standard sizes, and 
can also be supplied in centimeter sizes for foreign 
cameras, and in the 45x1 07mm and 6x1 3cm sizes for 
stereoscopic cameras. A special booklet describing 
this process more fully will be forwarded upon re- 
quest. 

Walter M. P. Batts, R. J. Fitzsimons Corporation, 
75 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 



COLOR IN FRANCE 

"La Cinematographie Francaise," the fortnightly 
paper published at Paris, France, announces PARIS 
COLOR FILMS very soon to be shown in Rene Baz- 
in's big picture, "La Terre Qui Meurt." So does the 
flood of color roll on and on. 



Twelve 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



Dufaycolor by the Negative-Positive Method 
For 35mm. Professional Use 



By Walter H. Carson 




T is the natural sequence that in the develop- 
ment of any art or industry the new sup- 
„ plants the old in the never-ending attempt 
to reach the ideal of which any medium is 
capable. 

The legitimate stage producers looked with dis- 
dain upon the feeble efforts of the earlier motion pic- 
ture producers, little knowing that the crude flicker- 
ing shadows on the screen of the old time nickel- 
odeon were but the first indications of the develop- 
ment of an industry that would some day far sur- 
pass the legitimate stage as a means of dramatic 
entertainment to say nothing of the place that it 
would take in industrial, educational, and travel pic- 
tures. 

For a number of years the legitimate stage was 
able to maintain its position in the amusement field 
because it had one factor, which up to that time the 
motion picture could not supply, namely: Sound. 
From the time of the introduction of sound even in 
its crudest state it was inevitable that the trend of 
theatrical productions would have to be changed to 
meet the ever growing popularity and mass appeal 
of the talking motion picture. 

One of the efforts that has been made by the 
legitimate stage to stem this tide of ever growing 
popularity is the introduction on the stage of a page- 
antry of depth and color which the film had not yet 
attained, but the march of progress is not to be de- 
nied and if the entertainment value of the "make- 
believe" as interpreted by the motion picture can 
now attain a comparable step by bringing to the 
screen color and depth, which to a great degree are 
synonymous, the ascendancy is bound to remain 
with the motion picture and sadly as we may view 
the passing of the legitimate stage it seems inevitable 
that it cannot withstand the inroads of this latest in- 
novation. 

It is not the intention of this article to decry the 
value of hte dramatic efforts of our greatest actors 
and actresses whose talents have been confined to 
emotional portrayal behind the footlights. Unfor- 
tunately, it is the dollar return as represented by the 
sale of seats and box office returns as compared to 
the dollar spent on the production itself that must in 
the last analysis be the determining factor. 

Photography, even in the black and white field, 
is at best a difficult medium with which to work be- 
cause it is dependent upon the delicate balances of 
certain chemical equations and constant variations 
of light. When to this you add the many mechanical 
complications which the introduction of sound has 
made necessary to say nothing of the tremendous 
expense which has been involved in both studio and 
theatre to accommodate that development, it is not 
unnatural that the producer is reluctant to accept any 
new factor which will without question still further 
complicate production difficulties and again add to 
the expense. The first question is, assuming that a 
satisfactory color is available, how much will it add 
to the production costs and will the added expense 
be warranted by increased returns in the box office? 
We do not believe that this question can yet be an- 
swered because of the dearth of satisfactory color 



subjects utilizing narrative and dramatic medium of 
comparable quality. 

It is unfortunate that in most cases the use of 
color on large productions has led to an accentua- 
tion of the color itself at the expense of the narrative 
value of the subject used. In other words, the use 
of color has been an end to demonstrate what color 
would do rather than a means to enhance the pro- 
duction itself. Until this technique has been devel- 
oped so that the use of color will serve its intended 
purpose we do not believe that we can fairly judge 
its comparable value as a factor in a successful pro- 
duction or prove its indispensible value as a box 
office factor. 

One of the reasons why color has not been util- 
ized more extensively up to the present time is the 
fact that it involved the use of special cameras and 
an excessive amount of light for illuminating the set 
and very highly specialized laboratory equipment 
to produce duplicate prints. DUFAYCOLOR film is 
the first photographic medium with which it has been 
possible to produce a color result on the screen with 
existing camera equipment, only a slight increase in 
set illumination, standard laboratory equipment, and 
no modification of projection equipment or screen 
illumination. 

This result has been achieved by the develop- 
ment of a film based on the additive principle where- 
in the film itself bears a tri-color screen of microscopic 
finesness in the three primal colors: red, blue, and 
green, which when loaded into the ordinary camera 
may be used the same as black and white negative 
of standard or panchromatic type and with a slight 
increase of exposure either in shutter speed or aper- 
ture secure a negative film in complementary colors 
which may be developed by ordinary development 
and fixation such as is now being done in standard 
developing machines. From this negative any de- 
sired number of positive prints can be made in either 
a projection or contact printer onto DUFAYCOLOR 
positive stock which differs from the negative ma- 
terial only in the fact that the screen pattern is ap- 
plied to the base at a different angle and the emul- 
sion so sensitized as to eliminate what is known as 
the over-laps in the transmission of the three original 
dyes used in the screen of the taking or negative 
stock. 

By the use of a three color additive system ap- 
plied to the film itself in a pattern of sufficient refine- 
ment so that it is not obviously visible on the screen 
when the film is projected to the size required for 
theatre use it is possible to meet all of the theoretical 
problems which have made the use of color imprac- 
tical in other processes. When to this feature is added 
a fidelity of reproduction of the entire spectrum in 
colors which are not garishly objectionable so that 
the color detracts rather than enhances, we feel sure 
that the value of color so used will justify the mod- 
erate increase in cost and become such an integral 
and necessary part of every screen production that 
without it the box office value will be minimized to 
the point where no producer will seriously contem- 
plate a major production of any sort without the use 
of this new medium. 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirteen 



The Keller-Dorian Three-Color Process 



By William E. Celestin 

President, Keller-Dorian Color film Co. 




|OR the past year, representatives of Para- 
$ mount Productions, the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany, and the Keller-Dorian Colorfilm Com- 
pany, have been quietly at work in Holly- 
wood, completing the final practical tests of a new 
and amazingly simple three-color process of natural- 
color cinematography. Working at the Paramount 
Studio, under actual studio conditions, the process 
has demonstrated its complete applicability to mod- 
ern production requirements, and established a new 
standard of fidelity, simplicity and economy in color 
filming. 

Although new to studio use, the Keller-Dorian 
process is by no means a mushroom growth. It 
was invented in France more than a decade and a 
half ago, and for the past seven years, a somewhat 
crude version of the process has been in general 
use in the 16mm. field under the trade-name "Koda- 
color" ("Agfacolor" in Europe). Millions of feet of 
successful 16mm. color have been made in this pro- 
cess by unskilled home-movie makers. Thus the 
task of the Paramount and Eastman experts has 
been one of refining and adapting a commercially 
successful process to the requirements of present- 
day studio production. Under the joint guidance of 
Dr. John G. Capstaff, Chief of Eastman's Research 
Division, Dr. N. M. LaPorte, and Farciot Edouart (the 
latter Paramount's representative on the Scientific 
Committee of the Academy Research Council), this 
work has reached fruition in a three-color Additive 
process which permits the use of any standard 
black-and-white camera with minor optical modifi- 
cations and using but a single film. The processing 
is familiar black-and-white technique, and can be 
carried out in any plant; no centralized "color lab- 
oratory" is required. Experts have pronounced the 
screened results more true-to-life than anything yet 
seen; and the cost-sheets prove the process the most 
economical three-color system yet introduced. 

In any three-color process, it is necessary to 
secure three color-separation images, one of which 
records the red components of the scene, another 
the blue, and the third the green. In some processes, 
these separations are obtained by using three sep- 



arate films; in others, the thre images, either as three 
normal-size frames or three frames of i educed di- 
mensions, have been made on one film through in- 
tricate beam-splitters and prisms. In the Keller- 
Dorian process, a unique, yet essentially simple op- 
tical system combines these three separations in a 
frame which is to all appearances a perfectly normal 
single image. The celluloid base of the film is em- 
bossed to form a myriad of tiny cylindrical lenses 
which extend from one side of the frame to the 
other. A special filter consisting of parallel hori- 
zontal strips of red, blue and green is placed on the 
camera lens. Each of the tiny embossed lens-strips 
on the film forms a microscopic image of this filter 
on the emulsion; therefore each frame consist of an 
infinite number of parallel, microscopic strips, each 
of which is photographed through one of the pri- 
mary-color filter areas of the lens. The same prin- 
ciple is used in projection, with a suitable three-color 
filter applied to the projector's lens. Thus in photo- 
graphing a red object, for example, the red rays 
could pass only through that part of the lens gov- 
erned by the red section of the filter, and would be 
arrested by the blue and green sectors. This condi- 
tion would be passed on to the emulsion through 
the lenticulations on the film-base; the red-filtered 
strips only would receive exposure. In the devel- 
oped negative, only these red strips would be dense; 
the adjacent blue and green filtered strips would be 
clear. In the print, these latter two strips would be 
opaque, while the red-filtered strip would be clear. 
When projecting, the light from the lamp would pass 
only through the clear, red-filtered section; and the 
embossed lens on the film would guide it to the red- 
filter section of the projecting-lens, reproducing the 
image of that part of the picture with red light. The 
coloring is thus produced and reproduced solely by 
the familiar factors of filtering and black-and-white 
density. Since these are so well understood from 
years of monochrome experience, there is no factor 
which can cause color-variation in the release-prints. 

Any standard camera suitable for serious black- 
and-white cinematography can be used as a Keller- 
(Turn to Page 28) 




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Fourteen 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 




Sunlight Under The Sea 



By Paul R. Harmer 



PAPER NO. III. 





1. Film Magazines. 

2. Ball Socket. 

3. 5-inch Pipe, 12 ft. long. 

4. Negative. 

5. 32 mm. Lens. 

6. 5-inch Glass Port. 

7. Prism. ) 



8. Viewing 
Class. 



Periscope Finder. 



9. Handle for Tilting Camera. 
10. 14-foot Boat. 

The film movement is removable 
from tube for reloading film. The 
tube can be turned or tilted until 
lens is within a few inches of the 
surface of the water. 



J 




RECENTLY I had the pleasure of chatting with 
our good friend, Earnest Crockett, one of 
Hollywood's finest motion picture camera- 
men. He is well known around the studios 
and has many pals among the celebrities and tech- 
nicians. He is the cameraman who helped develop 
the Mack Sennett periscope camera which made 
under water moving pictures a real thrill for the mo- 
tion picture audiences. For nine consecutive years 
Mr. Crockett made a trip each summer with Mr. Sen- 
nett, getting choice under water shots of fish, seals, 
sharks and other interesting sea life which were used 
in the Sennett Productions. 

A diagram of the principle of the camera, which 
was patented by Mack Sennett Company, is shown. 
The only model now in Hollywood is owned by 



Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. It was this camera 
that Mr. Crockett used when taking the picture of a 
swordfish taking the bait and hook. He describes it 
as follows: "The fish swam up to the bait, flipped it 
with his bill, then mincingly took it and immediately 
let go. He swam up to the bait again and taking it 
again, started to swallow it. That's where Mr. Sen- 
nett's fisherman interest made him pull in on the 
line — and the swordfish was hooked. Another cam- 
era mounted on the stern of the trolling boat caught 
a good picture of the swordfish leaping and spinning 
through the air for nearly a hundred yards." 

Another unusual bit of photography recorded by 
this camera was the playball antics of the giant wray 
fish. These huge creatures, twenty feet across the 
back, group together, then spin around in the water 
and leap out, then splash back with tremendous 
force. 

When divers go down in shark or barracuda in- 
fested waters, wire mesh nets are used. These huge 
nets are as large as 100 feet in diameter. Some are 
open at the top, while others are enclosed. 

Skin divers, with the aid of weights, are able to go 
down to thirty-five feet, which for most undersea pic- 
tures is deep enough. 

In order to give the reader an idea of the inten- 
sity of sunlight under the sea, the stop required in 
Fourth of July Bay and Isthmus Cone, Santa Catalina 
Island, was F: 5.6. In the sea near the Perlas Is- 
lands, Panama and in the Carribean, the stop was 
F:8, one fiftieth of a second exposure, no filters. This 
exposure gave good density on the negative in water 
depths down to thirty-five and forty feet. The shots 
were made from 10 A. M. to 3 P. M., using flat light 
(sun to the back of photographer). 

The clearest waters encountered were Santa Cata- 
lina Island, Tahiti and San Bias Islands, in the Car- 
ibbean. 

Billy Williams and Earl Stafford operated this 
camera on various other expeditions. 



June, 1936 



T 1 1 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Fifteen 



Lighting Equipment For 
Natural-Color Photography 



UR usual conception of light is keyed to sun- 
light, which is a blend of all the color-fre- 
^y^^A quencies from one end of the spectrum to 
^-=*^* the other. So perfect is this blend that we 



are not conscious of color at all: It is pure, white light. 

Lighting for natural-color cinematography must 
reproduce this condition, for since the picture is in 
color, any unnatural coloration in the lighting will 
be photographed, and will tend to give the picture 
an unnatural appearance on the screen. In addi- 
tion to meeting the usual standards of intensity and 
light-distribution, lamps for color photography must 
also produce light whose color is as nearly as pos- 
sible identical with that of mid-day sunlight. 

There are at present two light-sources whose rays 
approximate natural sunlight. The first of these is 
the carbon arc. As can be seen from Figure 1, the 
spectral energy distribution of a modern studio arc 
lamp is almost identical with natural sunlight ex- 
cept for an excess of the invisible ultra-violet, which 
can, however, be filtered out by means of a sheet of 
plain lead-glass, which does not in the least affect 
the lamp's visible light. 

The second source is the high-temperature tung- 
sten-filament globe. This is a relatively recent de- 
velopment of the familiar Mazda incandescent-fila- 
ment globe. By burning the globe at a voltage 
somewhat higher than that which would produce a 
normal light, it is possible to increase the filament- 
temperature so that the light is much whiter than 
would ordinarily be the case. The "Photoflood" 
and "Movieflood" globes are of this type. Designed 
to operate at filament temperatures higher than nor- 
mal, they give a strongly white light when operated 
at the higher voltages generally used in studio 
practice. 

Of these two sources, the arc is at present the 
most generally used for lighting natural-color pro- 
ductions. It is inherently very well suited to the 
requirements of today's color processes. It is ex- 
tremely efficient in producing the high levels of il- 
lumination needed, and it will operate satisfactorily 
on a variety of voltages. The high-temperature tung- 
sten filament globes, on the other hand, are (in the 
higher wattages) still more or less in the develop- 
ment stage. We know in theory what these lamps 
will do, and how they should work on color-film pro- 
duction, and the research experts of several organi- 
zations are busy reducing this theory to a matter of 
commercial practice. It may be said, however, that 
the use of these globes offers unquestionable possi- 
bilities for the future. 

The equipment in use on color sets today is pre- 
dominantly of the arc type. Some of the units are 
of familiar types, having been in use since pre- 
Vitaphone days; other types are of recent introduc- 
tion, having been developed expressly for the needs 
of modern color photography. For the purposes of 
this review, these units will be considered chrono- 
logically, rather than categorically. 

The basic spotlighting units are the 24-inch and 
36-inch Sun Arcs. Both of these are types that were 



By Peter Mole 

Mole-Richardson , Inc. 




in general use before the coming of sound. Except 
for such necessary modernization as the use of fibre 
gears in the carbon-feeding mechanisms, and the 
application of choke coils or other electrical silenc- 
ing devices, these lamps have required no modi- 
fication. The Sun Arcs are high-intensity rotary- 
carbon spotlights, using a parabolic mirror to collect 
the light and project it as a beam. The parabolic 
mirror is one of the most efficient light-collectors 
known, and the beams from these lamps are of very 
high power. The parabolic mirror is not, however, 
so efficient in its distribution of the light when the 
beam is flooded, and the fact that part of the carbon- 
feeding mechanism must necessarily be placed in 
front of the mirror adds to this central shadow when 
the beam is flooded. More modern units, with bet- 
ter beam-distribution, have been introduced within 
the past year, and will ultimately supplant the Sun 
Arcs; but as nearly every studio has quite a number 
of these older units, they are extensively used on 
color productions. 

Some of the old-type 100 Ampere rotary-carbon 
condensing-lens spotlights are also in use. Most of 
the units of this type proved unsuitable for modern 
use, as their carbon-feeding mechanisms did not 
rotate the positive carbon with sufficient speed to 
maintain a symmetrical crater, resulting in an un- 
steady light. Some of the later lamps of this type, 
however, have been found to have a rotation speed 
rapid enough to support a symmetrical crater, giving 
a light satisfactory for use with modern color pro- 
cesses. 

The basic general lighting units are the twin-arc 
floor and overhead floodlighting units. The older 
units of this type proved entirely unsuitable for mod- 
ern use, as they were noisy, unsteady, and not suf- 
ficiently powerful. They have been completely sup- 
erseded by new equipment. The modern floor unit 
is the MR Type 29, familiarly called the "Side Arc." 
It is a 40 Ampere, twin-arc floodlight. A separate 
mechanism is used to feed each of the two arcs, thus 
ensuring greater uniformity of the light-flux, and 
mechanically silent operation. The reflecting system 
gives an exceptionally uniform distribution of the 
light over an angle of 60 degrees. The light pro- 
duced is constant both as to quantity and as to col- 
or, and exceeds the output of the obsolete "Broad- 



Sixteen 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 




side" types by an average of 250 per cent. In oper- 
ation, the lamp is silent, and the light produced is 
almost identical with mid-day sunlight. 

For overhead use, the same mechanism and an 
essentially similar reflecting system have been built 
into an overhead floodlighting unit. This is MR 
Type 27, known as the "scoop." It is identical with 
the Side Arc except for the fact that it is built to be 
hung from above rather than mounted on a floor 
standard. 

The next unit developed with the "H-I-Arc" (MR 
Type 90). This is essentially an adaptation of the 
"Morinc"-lens construction familiar in the incande- 
scent "Solarspot" to the latest conception of high 
intensity arc mechanisms. The unit itself is com- 
parable to the 24-inch Sun Arc, which it is supplant- 
ing. Applying the "Morinc"-lens principle not only 
improves the beam-distribution by eliminating the 
faults inherent to the parabolic mirror, but also elim- 
inates the Sun Arc's objectionable element-shadow. 

The "H-I-Arc" is a 120 Ampere High Intensity 
Rotary Carbon Arc Spotlight. A newiy-developed, 
slightly smaller carbon contributes to both increased 
intensity and better color. Careful attention to keep- 
ing the incandescent crater of the positive carbon 
symmetrical results in steadier, more uniform burn- 
ing. Over a 20-minute burning period, the "H-I- 
Arc's" light will not vary plus-or-minus five per cent. 
Careful electrical and mechanical silencing of the 
carbon-feeding mechanism, coupled with the fact 
that the feed is continuous, rather than intermittent, 
have reduced he operating noise to a point where 
he lamp may be used wihin ten feet of the micro- 
phone. For such abnormally close work, the feed 
need not be stopped, but merely slowed down by a 
speed-control provided. 

As the "H-I-Arc" is designed around a lens 14 
inches in diameter, it is naturally a smaller and 
more compact unit than the conventional 24-inch 
mirror-arc. A considerable saving in weight also 
results. Notwithstanding its smaller size, however, 
the "H-I-Arc," especially in the wider beam-spreads 
most commonly used, has proven itself fully equal 
to the larger 24-inch Sun Arc. 

More recently, a companion unit of higher power 
has been put into use. This is the "Ultra H-I-Arc" 
(MR Type 170), a 150 Ampere unit of similar con- 
struction not larger in size and power. The "Ultra 
H-I-Arc" was first used on "Dancing Pirate," where 
they proved themselves definitely superior to the 
much larger 36-inch Sun Arcs. 

Most recently, the MR Type 60 arc spotlight has 
been introduced, to replace the old 80 Ampere spot- 
light. This unit is of the non-rotary type, and fitted 
with a conventional plano-convex condensing lens. 
It has the advantages of silent operation, and sup- 
plies the same spectral quality of light as do the 
other high-intensity lamps. 



With all of these units, modern incandescent 
filament lamps are also used, and serve two im- 
portant functions. The most common is for warm 
projected-color effects. For this, standard incande- 
scent globes are used, either in the familiar 24-inch 
and 36-inch Sun Spots, or in the newer and more 
controllable Junior and Senior "Solarspots." The 
yellower lights from these lamps, especially when 
contrasted with the almost perfectly white light of 
the arcs, produces a mellow, orange-red light which 
gives an excellent representation of lamplight, etc. 

The newer, overvolted "Movieflood" type of in- 
candescent globes also fill an important need in 
normal lightings. It frequently happens that certain 
parts of a set cannot conveniently be lit with the arc 
equipment, either because the space available for 
lamps is small, or because the lamps used must be 
tipped at an angle such that the arc would not burn 
satisfactorily. For these purposes, the Movieflood 
globes, usually with a corrective daylight-blue filter, 
are ideal. For spotlighting inaccessible parts of the 
set, the globes may be used in conventional para- 
bolic-mirror Sun Spots, or in the more modern Solar- 
spots. For generally illuminating small closed areas 
such as small rooms off a stage-built exterior set, 
hallways, closets, etc., these globes in special strip 
mountings are invaluable, and in some cases have 
been the only possible means of doing the job. 

Filtering plays an important part in lighting a 
natural-color picture. It has already been mention- 
ed that when the over-volted incandescent globes 
are used, they are fitted with filters of daylight-blue, 
to eliminate the small remaining predominance of 




150- Amp. H. I. Arc. 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



the incandescent globe's characteristic yellowness. 
In the same way, since the high intensity arcs pro- 
duce a slight excess of blue, these units are norm- 
ally used with a light straw-colored filter, which 
coordinates their light perfectly with that of the 
lower-powered general lighting equipment. Since 
all arcs produce an excess of the invisible but harm- 
ful ultra-violet, these rays are invariably filtered 
out by the use of a sheet of clear lead-glass or by 
the lenses with which they are fitted. This does not 
in the least change the lamp's illuminating charac- 
teristics, but it effectively removes the cause of the 
early-day plague, "Kleig eye." 

For projected-color effects, gelatin filters of any 
shade or color may be used, either locally, or in the 
entire scheme of lighting. The possibilities of this 
technique have scarcely been explored. 

The various types of diffusion commonly used in 
black-and-white lighting are also used in lighting 
for color. In addition, a special iris-diaphragm at- 
tachment has proved very useful for special effects 
with the newer "H-I-Arc" types. By closing the dia- 
phragm as the lamp's beam is flooded out, it is pos- 
sible to decrease the intensity of the light to any 
degree, without changing the size of the beam. 

Experience is proving that lighting for natural- 
color photography is not difficult. Each color pro- 
duction adds to the practical knowledge of the sub- 
ject, and as practical experience is gained, and new- 
er and more precisely controllable lighting equip- 
ment becomes available, the mystery of color light- 
ing vanishes. Each process, of course, has its char- 
acteristic special requirements, but in general, there 





iRICHARDSON, Inc. 



cmore Ave. 



Hollywood, California 



LONDON 

Mole-Richardson 

(England), Ltd. 

Robert Linderman, 

Managing Director 



BOMBAY 

Bombay Radio Co. 

14, New Queen's 

Road 

A. Fazalbhoy, 

Director 




is much less difference between lighting a mono- 
chrome picture and lighting a color picture than was 
once imagined. 

Color's outstanding requirement (so far, at least) 
is for a considerably higher average level of illumi- 
nation, to offset the inevitable losses in filtering and 
dividing the light into three color-separation images. 
This increased intensity is most frequently obtained 
by using higher powered units than would be re- 
quired to produce the same in black-and-white, 
though in some instances, a practically normal 
black-and-white lighting may be used, modified only 
by using the spotlights at a more concentrated beam, 
and by eliminating some of the diffusers used on 
the lamps. 

The exact amount of increased intensity neces- 
sary for color cannot accurately be fixed. It varies 
greatly, not only with the process used, but with 
the technique of the individual cinematographer. 
One expert recently stated that in his experience, in 
extreme low-key and effect lightings, color technique 
was very nearly identical with black-and-white, both 
as regards balance and the level of light required, 
while when working in higher keys, and in more 
conventional lightings, the need for additional il- 
lumination in color scenes increased largely be- 
cause of the need for additional illumination in the 
shadows to offset the shorter gradational range of 
all color-processes. 

In general, a rather flatter lighting balance than 
would be used for black-and-white seems to pro- 
duce the best results in color. This is to be expect- 
ed; in monochrome photography, the only possible 
method of separating objects and planes is through 
contrast of light and shade, while in a natural-color 
scene, much of this can be achieved by natural 
color-contrasts. In "The Garden of Allah," for in- 
stance, there is a sequence played by Marlene Diet- 
rich, wearing a soft, light-blue dress, in a gray Arab 
(Turn to Page 30) 



Eighteen 



T 1 1 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE SECTION 

HAMILTON RIDDEL, EDITOR - 




RIGHT OFF THE REEL 



Smooth Panoramic Shot: Many an amateur movie 
maker, possessing only an ordinary "still" camera 
tripod, overlooks the usefulness of this accessory in 
motion picture work. Because the tripod has no fric- 
tion or geared pam head, is no reason for not using 
the "still" outfit; and while it is true best results are 
obtained with a regular movie tripod and head, the 
ordinary "still" one may be employed to good ad- 
vantage. It is decidedly better than a hand-held 
panorama shot. Do not completely tighten the movie 
camera on the "still" tripod. Grasping the camera 
as it is in operation, it may be revolved slowly upon 
the tripod, thus securing a surprisingly smooth pam 
shot. Needless to say, a little practice before actual 
filming will improve the final "take." 

Lens Precaution: With the advent of summertime, 
with consequent greater outdoor movie camera work, 
particular attention should be paid to the protection 
and care of the camera lens. Avoid undue exposure 
of the lens to the hot sun. Before making scenes near 
water, make sure no water or spray has settled on 
the lens. 



Counting Off Seconds: Many amateur camera- 
men meet with disappointment when their individual 
shots in a roll of film turn out too long or too short. 
Apparently, the difficulty is due to their having no 
conception, when photographing, of what constitutes 
the average 10-second scene length. A satisfactory 
gauge of timing can be obtained by counting off 
seconds while the camera is in operation. Train your- 
self, until it becomes a regular habit, to measure, 
either audily or inaudibly, the seconds by using the 
old darkroom method: "one-thousand-and-one," 
' 'one-thousand-and-two' ' , "one-thousand-and-three," 
and so on. 

Preservative Fluids: Motion picture film at best is 
a fragile commodity, but it is not often considered as 
such by the casual filmer. That it withstands the hard 
wear and tear of common usage is indeed a tribute 
to modern manufacturing. Fortunately enough, there 
are preservative fluids which help keep movie film 
flexible. Used in conjunction with humidor cans, such 
fluids prevent the risk of formation of fungus and 
mould, thus preserving film freshness. Use of pre- 
servative fluids is to be encouraged. 

Prompt Processing: For best photographic results, 
as any motion picture laboratory man will tell you, a 
movie film should receive prompt processing after 
exposures have been made. It can not be too strong- 
ly stressed that it is poor technique to expose part 
of a roll — and six months later finish it. The early 
footage may result in inferior screen pictures, due to 
the prolonged lapse of time between exposure and 
processing. It is far better practice to expose an en- 
tire roll of film, all within a reasonable length of 
time, and have it processed immediately. 



CINE ESSENTIALS 

A Review of Ever New Film Fundamentals 

By F. Hamilton Riddel 




T is not difficult making good movies now- 
adays with the thoroughly dependable 
equipment and flim which is available, 
whether one's outfit be of simple variety or 
the more luxurious deluxe equipment, and yet ever 
present there remains the human element in the un- 
dertaking. Amateur cameramen being human, it is 
only natural that mistakes will occur by carelessness, 
by inattention to first principles and perhaps most 
often because we are all creatures of habit. 

Novices or maestros in the amateur movie game, 
we form a habit of making our movies a certain way 
— so often the wrong way — and let it go at that. We 
may well pause, therefore, every now and then and 
dwell for a time upon the fundamentals of filming, 
the Cine Essentials. 

Old as amateur movies, and yet ever new, are 
these fundamental principles of good filming. More- 
over, the old saying "In everything you do, consider 
the end" is so applicable in cinematography that 



reiteration of cardinal rules of the game can not fail 
to prove worthwhile. Reviewing cine essentials fre- 
quently will prevent formation of careless habits in 
movie making. 

Camera Steadiness 

One of the main principles of cinematography is 
camera steadiness. Volumes have been written on 
this; cautions, by the score. Yet film laboratories 
every day see wobbly scenes, jittery shots in many 
rolls they process. Such results aren't movies, they're 
just a lot of acetate debased. 

It is common knowledge that professional cine- 
matographers invariably use a tripod, but it is per- 
haps less well known that these tripods are cumber- 
some affairs of great weight. For the professional 
knows that all movement of the camera even from 
vibration, while it is in operation, must be overcome. 
The steadier the camera, the sharper will be the pic- 
tures. This axiom is every bit as true of the compact 
amateur movie box. Remember, then, to keep your 



June, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



camera steady. You're making motion pictures and 
to effect the illusion on the screen it is only permis- 
sible for your subject to move — not the background 
too. 

A Level Camera 

Carefully observe your subject via your camera 
viewfinder. It should show up there perfectly level, 
just as it will appear on the screen. Otherwise, you'll 
have the ridiculous effect of up hill and down dale 
movies! Hold the camera perfectly level, therefore, 
while making shots. This is elementary advice; yet 
it is surprising how often cock-eyed shots appear in 
amateur films. Again, we say — hold your camera 
level! 

Camera Panoraming 

Panoraming, or "pam shots" as they are more 
popularly known, occurs when the camera is moved 
horizontally across the field of action, while it is in 
operation. Pam shots should only be made when 
there is good reason for them. Don't become one of 
those garden hose variety of movie makers who gy- 
rates a camera hither and yon. Motion pictures 
aren't obtained this way — only fuzz. 

Pamming correctly, your subject should not be 
too nearby. This positioning will allow you to move 
your camera very, very slowly; very, very evenly; 
and only far enough to get the picture. 

There are notable exceptions, of course, regarding 
pams, such as certain fast action required to cover 
a rapidly moving subject. For example, a horse race. 
In such cases, it is permissible for the background to 
blur, for the effect adds sharpness and rivets atten- 
tion on your subject. 

Recall, however, that you must have a good rea- 
son for making any pam shot. And that you must 
shoot it carefully. 

Viewfinder Composition 

Any good movie shot depends on good composi- 
tion. Don't hurriedly start photographing as soon as 
your camera is in position. Study the composition of 
the subject as it appears in your viewfinder. Watch 
a good professional director at work, and you will 
note he never calls for action until he's seen the shot- 
to-be through the camera viewfinder. In the case of 
making a scenic shot, particularly, try to select a 
viewfinder composition that not only is pleasing, but 
also has some foreground in it. You want beauty and 
depth in such shots. 

Exposure Calculation 

Whether you judge exposure by experience, 
table, camera chart or meter, determine the calcula- 
tion deliberately and carefully and set the lens ac- 
cordingly. The old rule of still photography still holds 
good in cinematography: expose for the shadows 
and let the highlights take care of themselves. This 
old photographic rule is particularly true when using 
negative-positive film in your camera; slight over- 
exposure is recommended. With reversal film, how- 



ever, experience dictates slight under-exposure when 
in doubt. 

When you change a camera setup for a different 
shot or scene, don't forget to change your lens set- 
ting accordingly. Keep in mind that a long shot re- 
quires less exposure than does a close-up. 
Lens Focusing 

Generally speaking, universal focus camera own- 
ers have one less important film fundamental to bear 
in mind. They need only watch out for extreme 
close-ups. Focusing lenses, however, must be care- 
fully used and properly set. In your hurry in chang- 
ing from one set-up to another, don't forget to re- 
focus for the new shot. 

Camera Motor 

Experience teaches all cameramen to be on the 
alert for the unexpected to happen. When it does, 
as it most surely will, have your camera in instant 
readiness. One habit worth forming is keeping your 
camera motor fully wound. At the completion of 
each and every scene, wind the spring. By so doing 
you'll never be disappointed, nor waste film, by hav- 
ing the motor run down in the middle of a scene or 
exciting shot. 

Lens Flare 

We needn't say not to shoot towards the sun with 
your camera. But we must say: Always observe that 
the sun's rays (indoors, the photofloods' rays) do not 
strike the lens directly. For this will cause lens flare, 
a halo effect, that is displeasing in the extreme. Shoot 
your movies as you have a mind to. Just remember 
the lens should always be shaded. 

Interesting Shots and Length 

An understanding of what constitutes an interest- 
ing subject is known as "cinemasense." Always 
strive to avoid monotony in your subject matter and 
in the length of your scenes. With rare exception, no 
scene should run longer than ten seconds, nor less 
than five. 

Seguence and Close-Ups 

A sequence, the unit in making movies, should 
carry the spectators of your film from a general view 
to a particular big close-up. By successive shots, 
from long shot to close-up (or vice versa, in some 
cases), the sequence weaves your film story together 
into a comprehensible pattern. 

An important factor in photographing a sequence 
is the close-up. One heritage of the box Brownie days 
which, in making movies, must be disowned, is res- 
tricting all pictures you make to distant and medium 
shots. Make many close-ups! They tell the film story 
better, much more clearly and satisfactorily. 

Amateur movies, of course, are improving con- 
stantly as the technique of making them becomes 
familiar to movie enthusiasts, with a mind set on 
observing fundamentals. And too, there are new 
amateurs starting in every day to whom we hope 
this review of Cine Essentials will prove of assistance 
and guidance. 



CINEMA-TIDINGS 

Amateur Motion Picture News 



New Superspeed Filmo Double 8 Announced: As 

the superspeed model of the Bell and Howell Filmo 
Straight 8mm camera, which uses the pre-split Filmo- 
pan 8mm film, has proved so popular, B & H now 
announces a Superspeed Model of the Filmo Double 
8mm camera. The Double 8's use Eastman 8mm film. 
The new Superspeed Double 8 makes available 
four camera speeds — 16, 32, 48 and 64 frames. Other- 



wise it is identical with the regular speed Filmo 
Double 8 camera, which operates at 8, 16, 24 and 32 
speeds. 

It is announced that introduction of this new 
Double 8 model is actuated by the maker's desire 
to give 8mm users much of the versatility for which 
16mm camera owners have so long looked to this 
firm. 



Twenty 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



Victor's 16mm Film Directory: Victor Animato 
graph Corporation's "Directory of 16mm Film 
Sources," now in its Fifth Revised Edition, is a most 
comprehensive listing of where to buy, rent and bor- 
row 16mm film subjects. Both silent and sound-on- 
16mm sources are included, together with several 
pages devoted to information and data on 16mm. 
The Directory, consisting of 100 pages, will prove of 
value to all 16mm users. 

Cine-Kodak Tripod Truck: As a new movie acces- 
sory — for getting smooth, mobile camera shots — 
Eastman Kodak has announced the Cine-Kodak Tri- 
pod Truck. 

With camera and tripod mounted on this 3-wheel 
movable stand, amateur cinematographers can eas- 
ily follow action which is being photographed. When 
a stationary camera shot is required, a convenient 
toe-brake locks the truck securely. Cine-Kodak Tri- 
pod Truck, greatly simplifies the making of "dolly" 
shots, and should have much appeal for the serious 
worker. 

Increased 8mm Output: Further evidence of the 
popularity of 8mm movies may be deduced from a 
recent announcement of the Bell and Howell Com- 
pany of Chicago. According to word received, the 
company's factories are working extra shifts and 
both Straight 8 and Double 8 cameras now constitute 
an important part of Bell <S Howell production. 

"Wratten Light Filters": The Fourteenth Revised 
Edition of "Wratten Light Filters," published by East- 
man Kodak Company, is a valuable reference book 
consisting of some 93 pages of text and illustrations. 
The 1936 edition gives latest technical information 
and data on the Wratten filters. Over one hundred 
filter varieties are listed by name, use, and stability 
to light. 

The new edition of "Wratten Light Filters" may be 



obtained for fifty cents per copy from Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

New Model Filmosound Projector: A one-case, 
moderately priced, 16mm sound-on-film reproducer, 
known as Filmosound 138, is announced by Bell & 
Howell Company. Light (weighing 57 pounds com- 
plete), compact and portable, model 138 is said to be 
ideal for salesmen's use, for educational purposes in 
school classrooms, and for home entertainment. 

Filmosound 138 consists essentially of the time- 
tried Filmo projector, with sound head, amplifier and 
speaker. The sound head embraces a rotating sound 
drum and a film shrinkage compensating "floating 
idler." A balanced flywheel, rotating as an integral 
part of the sound drum assembly, assures constant 
speed and hence freedom from sound flutter. Volt- 
ages on exciter lamp and photo cell are automatic- 
ally balanced as volume control is changed, thus 
providing an automatic "photo-hiss" eliminator. The 
same photo cell and exciter lamps are used as in 
previous Filmosound models, but all amplifier tubes 
are of the new metal-tube type. 

The new model 138 uses a 750-watt projection 
lamp, and may be operated at either sound or silent 
film speed. A fast 2-inch projection lens is standard 
equipment, but other sizes to meet all projection con- 
ditions are also available as optional equipment. A 
new type convenient tilt rod, motor re-wind, and 
quickly attached reel arm are additional features. 

Filmosound 138 packs into a single 8 1 /2xl8x29 
inch case, with accommodation for a 1600-foot film 
in humidor can. For use, the one-unit projector and 
amplifier is removed, and the case then serves as a 
baffle for the built-in speaker. The case is covered 
in gray fabricoid to match the gray damaskene-finish 
of this new 16mm sound reproducer. 



EASTMAN ANNOUNCES 8MM. KODACHROME 

(Editor's Note: Coinciding indeed with "The International Photographer's" special June issue on color is 
the announcement of 8mm Kodachrome. Great impetus in the 8mm amateur movie field will result, now 
that small-film enthusiasts may also enjoy all the natural color filming of their older brothers, the 16mms.) 



That long awaited announcement from Rochester 
has been made by the Eastman Kodak Company. 
Cine-Kodak Eight Kodachrome, the natural color film, 
is ready for the great army of 8mm. enthusiasts! 

Since the first announcement of 16mm. Koda- 
chrome was made in 1935, thousands of amateurs 
have been asking the same questions: "When can 
we get Kodachrome for our 8mm. movie cameras?" 
"If it can be made in 16mm, why not eight?" 

However, exacting experiments and tests revealed 
problems occasioned by the smallness of the image 
on 8mm. film. It has taken time to solve these tech- 
nical problems but now the work is completed. 

Cine-Kodak Eight Kodachrome is ready — and 
ready without reservations. With this new Koda- 
chrome Film the 8mm. amateur movie maker can 
now make his movies in full color as satisfactorily 
as he has made his black-and-white. Any 8mm. 
camera using Eastman double 8mm. film will take 
Kodachrome movies. No filters are required for the 
making of all average shots. All 8mm. projectors will 
show Kodachrome movies. Again, no filters. 

There are, however, precautions to consider. 

As most 8mm. film users have probably learned 
by now from their experience with black-and-white 
film, the most effective results are obtained in fairly 
close views; that is, pictures made from 2 to 25 feet 
from the subject. This does not mean that you will 
not be able to make distance shots with a camera 
loaded with Cine-Kodak Eight Kodachrome Film. 



You can — and get wonderful effects. But as the col- 
ors of objects are more apparent to you when near 
by, so are Kodachrome movies of objects clearer and 
more pleasing when your subjects are relatively near 
the camera. 

Correct exposure in Kodachrome Film is of the 
greatest importance. In brief, Cine-Kodak Eight Koda- 
chrome requires a slightly larger aperture than Cine- 
Kodak Eight "Pan" Film — as is clearly pointed out 
in the instructions supplied with each roll of Koda- 
chrome. These instructions should be religiously 
observed, because over — or underexposure in color 
filming not only affects the quality of the images but 
likewise the colors. 

While filters are definitely not an integral part 
of the Kodachrome picture, there are occasions when 
their use may be desirable. Outdoors, when making 
distance shots presenting the problem of haze, a 
Kodachrome Haze Filter is suggested. It necessitates 
no change in exposure. And when filming indoors 
under artificial light, it is necessary to use the Koda- 
chrome Filter for Photoflood. 

The projection of Kodachrome is completely 
trouble-free. No extra gadgets are required. You can 
splice color sequences right in with black-and-white, 
project them consecutively without even a single ad- 
justment of your projector. The color is in the film. 

Certainly 8mm. owners will be greatly interested 
in the opportune arrival of 8mm. Kodachrome Film 
for their cameras. 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-one 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

By F. Hamilton Riddel 



1. Will you list a comparison of the various size 
films, giving the number of frames per foot in the 
respective sizes? 

Professional standard film, 35mm, has 16 frames 
per foot. 16mm film has 40 frames per foot. And 
8mm film has 80 frames per foot. 

2. In using the hand-crank on my camera, in- 
stead of the spring motor for certain shots, a few pic- 
tures at the end of the scene are badly overexposed. 
How may this be avoided? 

It is natural that as you cease normal cranking 
speed, a few pictures, or frames, will receive in- 
creased exposure. Simply delete these overexposed 
frames by editing them out. Or with an unloaded 
camera, check the shutter rotation as you turn the 
crank, noting the position of the crank-handle when 
the shutter fully covers the film aperture. Hence- 
forth, by stopping your cranking abruptly, in proper 
closed-shutter position, you will minimize overex- 
posed end frames. It is better practice, however, to 
delete overexposed end frames in editing. 

3. Can the sunshade on a camera lens be length- 
ened so scenes may be photographed more directly 
towards the sun without danger from halation? 

You might experiment in this. Lengthening the 
sunshade, however, will probably reduce exposures 
at large diaphragm openings and will vignette at 
smaller openings. It is easier and more advisable to 
shade your lens with the shadow of your hat, taking 
care the hat itself does not get into the picture. 

4. I desire to double expose a title onto a scene 
by means of camera work. How should the two ex- 



posures be made? 

Shoot your visual scene, slightly underexposing 
it. Rewind the film and photograph your title, giving 
it correct exposure. 

5. In making typewritten titles, what precautions 
should be taken in completing the cards? 

First, the type should be absolutely clean. Sec- 
ond, a sharp impression must be made. Third, con- 
trast must be great between card and typed copy. 
It is well to "back-space" each line of copy to secure 
greater contrast. Do not use a ribbon which is too 
fresh and smuggy, nor one that is too old and gives 
a ragged impression. Clean the type after every few 
cards. 

6. What is the average life of a print? 

Although film which is used in a projector is nat- 
urally subjected to more wear and tear than a nega- 
tive, which is only employed in making prints, its 
life will depend largely upon how it is handled. 
Prints should be handled very carefully. The pro- 
jector must be in perfect working condition. Proper 
storage of the print when not in use, following the 
recommendations of film manufacturers, will greatly 
prolong the keeping qualities of the film. 

Note: As a service to amateur movie makers, we 
extend a cordial invitation to write in questions which 
will be answered in this column. Address all such 
letters to: 

Questions and Answers Department 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 

1605 North Cahuenga Avenue 

Hollywood, California 



BEHIND THE LENS 

The WHN "BEHIND THE LENS" radio program 
has been working on a fifteen minute period during 
the past month, but went back to a full half hour 
period starting May 16. The world famous miniature 
camera expert, Karl A. Barleben, Jr., F.R.P.S., is tech- 
nical director of this program which includes valu- 
able information and technical advice on the care 
and handling of a camera. 

Monthly prizes awarded so far include a Photo- 
scope Exposure Meter, a Weston Universal Exposure 
Meter, a Chromotone outfit, an Argus Candid Cam- 
era and twelve sets of Fitzsimons MPG, FHS and FPD 
prepared photographic chemicals. 

Guests during the past few months have included 
Ivan Dmitri, Fredrick Beach, George W. Hesse, Jos- 
eph Dombroff, Edward Alenius, Miss Cornelia Wes- 
ton, Morris Germain, Harold A. Dumont and Adolf 
Fassbender. 

The program goes on from 6:30 to 7:00 P. M., 
Eastern Daylight Saving Time, every Saturday. 
WHN operates on a frequency of 1010 kilocycles, 
5,000 watts. The studios are located atop the Loew's 
State Theatre Bldg., 1540 Broadway, New York City. 



BIPACK ADAPTER GAINING POPULARITY 

The HCE V-Type Bi- 
pack Adapter is gain- 
ing popularity for color 
or process work. It has 
been proven thoroughly 
practical. As will be 
seen from the illustra- 
tion, regular 400-ft. B. & 
H. magazines can be 
used without any alter- 
ation. Unlike the regu- 
lar bipack magazine, 

the operator can have three magazines loaded. Only 
one take-up magazine is required, thereby effecting 
a considerable saving. The main body is made of 
special close grain aluminum alloy and accurately 
machined. The rollers are made specially large with 
bronze bushings to assure free and easy rolling with- 
out scratching. The large removable cover plate per- 
mits quick and easy access for threading. — At Holly- 
wood Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Avenue. 




MAX FACTOR'S 

N EW 

LIQUID FOUNDATION 

A REVELATION IN FACIAL MAKE-UP 



Twenty-two 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 




New Film Rewinding Apparatus 

terion Machine Works, 7769 Santa Monica Boule- 
vard, GR. 5524. 

The official monicker of this new improvement 
for the cutting room and new gift of the gods to the 
film editors is THE MORGAN HILL MULTIPLE RE- 
WINDER and, judged by the demand already cre- 
ated, it may justly be classed a success. 

This success has urged the young inventor to try 
again and he has already patented another rewinder 
of double capacity — four reels — which will soon be 
on the market. 



By Morgan Hill 



Morgan Hill is a member of Local 13, Hollywood. 
Phone HE. 2141. 



The invention here illustrated relates to improve- 
ments in film rewinding apparatus, particularly 
adapted for use in the motion picture industry. The 
primary object of the present invention is the pro- 
vision of an improved construction, whereby a plur- 
ality of films may be wound simultaneously upon a 
plurality of reels driven from one and the same drive 
shaft and, whereby the tension in the reels being 
rewound will be substantially constant, irrespective 
of differences in diameter which may exist in the 
supply reels or the take-up reels. 

More particularly, the present invention makes 
the provision for a film rewinding apparatus of the 
above stated character which is extremely simple 
and compact in construction, easy and convenient to 
use and manipulate and efficient in operation. 

This invention is the result of the research work 
of Morgan Hill, for eleven years assistant to Camera- 
man Rollie Totheroh, of the Charles Chaplin Studios. 

The idea of this new multiple rewinder is a brain 
child of Morgan Hill, but the machine was designed 
and built by Frank S. Testera, manufacturer, Cri- 




Duplicating Kodachrome 

By Billy Boyce 



For years many of the largest concerns in the 
country have considered the 16mm. camera one of 
their most valuable assets in the way of sales pro- 
motion and educating the public with their product. 
With the advent of color the value of this kind of 
advertising has been greatly enhanced. It would be 
surprising to learn the vast amount of money that is 
spent yearly for this kind of work. One that came to 
our notice just recently is the expenditure of $2500 
on one picture. While this amount may not seem 
large to a producer it must be remembered that it 
brings no box office returns. If by any chance — and 
it oftens happens — this film were lost or ruined by 
careless handling in the machine, the entire $2500 
might as well have been bet on a horse that "also 
ran." Aside from the financial loss, many other dis- 
appointments would follow. 

However, there is a very fine insurance for just 
that sort of a catastrophe. A duplicate copy of 
KODACHROME film may be procured for the modest 
sum of about $200, which is very economical insur- 
ance on the original investment. 

While on a snooping tour the other day we drop- 
ped in at the Stith Noble Corporation in Hollywood. 
We'd heard quite a bit about what they are doing, 



but seeing is believing. Well, they told us what they 
are doing and then ran a lot of the original Koda- 
chrome which was followed by their duplicate copy. 
In some cases there was a slight gain in contrast, 
due to the reversible process, and here's another fact 
that will delight the reader; owing to the fact that it 
is a DYE image there is no grain on the screen. 

What started this company on their discovery 
was that in order to put sound on KODACHROME 
it was necessary to make duplicate copies, so the 
Stith Noble Corporation worked out a process to 
make these dupes. The sound recording on KODA- 
CHROME is just as good as that on black and white. 

Here's another advantage in making these dupli- 
cates. A good many concerns want color over-em- 
phasized (something like an artist's license). For in- 
stance ,if peaches were colored in the pale yellow, 
exactly as they are, they don't look nearly so invit- 
ing on the screen as they do when this yellow is 
over-emphasized with some warmth. The Stith Noble 
Corporation accomplish this in their duplicating pro- 
cess by control of the different printing colors. 

This company is located at 645 No. Martel St. in 
Hollywood and is glad to demonstrate its work to 
the many who are interested and fortunate enough 
to be in its vicinity. 



June, 1936 The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER Twenty-three 



W I IN M E K 



EASTMAN Super X is a winner for every- 
body in the industry . . . from the camera- 
man and producer who choose it to the 
exhibitor and public who ultimately benefit 
by its exceptional photographic quality. 
That is why Super X is used in making the 
majority of the world's feature pictures. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, Fort Lee, 
New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN SUPER X 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 



Twenty-four 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 
NOTES ON THE HISTORY OF COLOR IN MOTION PICTURES 

(Continued from Page 9) 



June, 1936 



Originally Technicolor films cost the producers 
twenty cents a foot; then the cost was twelve cents, 
and now it is five and a half. 



Technicolor colored a cartoon sequence drawn 
by Walter Lantz for the Universal film, "King of Jazz," 
released in 1930. Ted Eshbaugh released a complete 
cartoon subject colored in Multicolor, July 6, 1931. 



The first use of the three color imbibition process was 
in a Walt Disney "Silly Symphony, Flowers and 
Trees," released on July 15, 1932 at Grauman's Chin- 
ese, in Hollywood. This film took the world by the 
tail. 

* * * 

Now color is here; if you have any doubt in the 
matter see the film "Dancing Pirate" soon to be re- 
leased by Pioneer Production. 



CANDID COLOR— THE MIKUT COLOR SYSTEM 



exposure made by operating only 
one of the control switches. The lens 
is, of course, stopped down to any 
desired degree for this operation. The 
same operation is repeated by using 
two more sheets of paper and expos- 
ing each with a different switch. This 
gives the three separation positives, 
all in exact register by virtue of the 
punched register holes. 

The color is produced by any 
chosen method such as dye printing, 
toning, carbon and so on. When the 
color elements are completed, they 
are registered by the use of a special 
assembly board which has register 
pins inserted along one end. It is of 
special interest to note that in such 
cases as require a "black" plate, this 
is obtained by exposing all three 
images simultaneously upon one 
sheet of paper (or transparency 
plate.) 

Among the factors of technical in- 
terest is the means of obtaining three 
identical images for the necessary 
color separation. This is usually done 
by a vertical division of the beam by 
the use of two mirrors behind the lens 
with a space between them; or by 
the use of part-silvered reflectors 
within the camera itself. The parallel 
tri-part mirror division produces the 
aberration of stereo-parallax, while 
the internal reflector usually imparts 
a distortion of refraction caused by 
the oblique passage of the beam 
through the glass of the reflector. 
Pellicle reflectors designed to over- 
come this refraction are too delicate 
for use in any but stationary studio 
cameras. 

The Mikut makes use of a tri-part 
lens division, but instead of parallel, 
vertical stripes, the lens is divided 
radially, so that each image is com- 
posed of rays which pass through all 
zones of the lens. Moreover, when 
stopping down the lens iris remains 
approximately circular, thus avoid- 
ing the errors produced by elliptical 
diaphragms. 

The beam splitter consists of three 
first surface mirrors behind the lens 
and three secondary, first surface 
mirrors immediately in front of the 
plate. The filters are carried in swing- 



(Continued from Page 2) 

ing metal holders immediately in 
front of, and parallel to the sensitive 
plate. The camera is equipped with 
a set of universal filters. For daylight 
use these are arranged in the order 
red-blue-green, but for photoflood or 
flash use the order is changed to 
blue-red-green. The reason for this 
is that the central image receives its 
light from a 90° sector of the lens, 
the remaining 270° being divided 
almost equally between the two ex- 
ternal areas. That given to green is 
slightly larger, perhaps by five de- 
grees, than that given to the other 
extreme which is red or blue accord- 
ing to the light conditions in use. 

The balance is unusually good, but 
it must be remembered that with the 
constantly varying character of light, 
particularly, daylight, there must be 
some variation. However, unless 



conditions are extreme, these varia- 
tions are within such limits that 
wholly satisfactory compensation can 
be made in the process of printing. 
For too long a time has color pho- 
tography been regarded as some sort 
of mysterious rite, understandable 
only to the initiate! It is time that we 
recognize the fact that it is merely a 
sensible, scientific application of 
sound principles, capable of great 
simplification it is true, but even to- 
day well within the ability of any 
competent photographic technician. 
There can be little doubt that the in- 
troduction of a serviceable color cam- 
era with all of the flexibility of any 
modern camera, together with its 
complementary equipment will do 
much to bring about a sane recogni- 
tion of the sensible facts about nat- 
ural color photography. 




Everything for 

CAMERAMEN 

and 

STUDIOS 

Right here in our Display Rooms! 

New and Used Cameras, Accessories, Lighting Equipment, 
immediately available. Phone, write or wire. 

Everything is thoroughly guaranteed 




Eastern Representatives 
MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

HARRISON FILTERS — FEARLESS PRODUCTS 
MOVIOLA FILM EDITING EQUIPMENT 



We now have a modern, completely equipped repair and service department — 
specializing on Mitchell, Bell & Howell, Akeley and De Brie Cameras. 



FRANK C. ZUCKER 



). BURCI CONTNER 



MOTION PICTURE CAMERA 

SUPPLY, Inc. 

723 Seventh Ave. New York City 

Telephone BRyant 9-7755 Cable Address: Cinecamera 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 

A Few Moments With Cinecolor 

By W. T. Crespinel 



Twenty- five 




[INECOLOR was formed over four years ago, 
as a successor to Multicolor and somewhat 
at the insistence of many color producers 
who had contracts to fill and who had been 
using the Multicolor process. Cinecolor owns all of 
the Multicolor patents, some twenty-eight, issued in 
the United States and foreign counries, aside from 
addiional patents isued to Cinecolor and also pat- 
ents pending. Cinecolor does not, however, use the 
Multicolor process. 

From the inception, it was the aim of the com- 
pany to so construct its equipment and process that 
a much more reasonable release print price could 
be offered producers and by so doing, eliminate one 
of the greatest hindrances to the use of color, and 
after considerable footage had been put through the 
plant, it was found possible to put into effect a low 
print price. 

About two years later, the company again effect- 
ed an additional saving in production, which saving 
was allowed to accrue to the benefit of the producer. 
This policy has continued until now Cinecolor re- 
lease prints cost only a little more than double that 
of black and white, which represents an achievement 
in the art of color processing. 

A further reduction will be effective in the near 
future. 

While at this time Cinecolor does not engage in 
any productions of its own, it does have a technical 
staff available to the producer for the purpose of ad- 
vising on the question of color selection, camera ex- 
posure, make-up lighting and color effects and in 



general, any question that is potent to color produc- 
tion. This service is made available to the producer 
without charge. 

It is the aim of Cinecolor to remove the mystery 
from color production and make color photography 
as simple as normal black and white shooting. 

At this writing, experiments are being concluded 
on a radical development, protected by patents 
pending, which will make any camera a color cam- 
era without any change of any description. This it- 
self will be revolutionary and will apply to any size 
camera. 

While the trade is used to designating color as a 
two or three color process, meaning prints made with 
two or three primary colors, this reference, as applied 
to Cinecolor, is entirely erroneous. Cinecolor obtains 
a range of colors far greater than any other so-called 
two color process. It is true that Cinecolor does not, 
at this time, obtain true colors represented at the 
indigo-violet end of the spectrum, yet by association 
these colors do appear to the observer. 

Cinecolor is rapidly becoming recognized as the 
most economical process for all types of color mo- 
tion pictures, whether they be cartoons, commercial, 
scientific, shorts or features. 

The Imperial Film Company of India has recently 
purchased the Cinecolor process rights for that coun- 
try and their first all-color feature is now being pre- 
pared. Three other foreign countries are now nego- 
tiating for similar rights, and it seems natural to pre- 
dict that Cinecolor, in the near future, will be repre- 
sented in most of the important countries throughout 
the world. 



Make Your Motion Pictures and Snapshots in 

DllfAY NATURAL COLORS 



(Film Transparencies) 



With Your Own Camera 

NO EXTRA EQUIPMENT OF ANY KIND IS NEEDED — THE SECRET IS IN THE FILM 

Any camera that uses any of the following films will take films in natural color as easily 

as black and whites. 



CUT FILM 



Half Doz. 
to Pkg. 



dVi cm. 
3^4 cm. 
9 cm. 

4 cm. 

5 cm. 
8 cm. 



9 cm. ..% 2.60 

4M cm. 3.75 

12 cm. 4.25 

5 cm 5.30 

7 cm. 8.50 

10 cm. 21.00 



Doz. 
to Pkg. 

$ 5.00 

7.20 

8.10 

10.35 

16.65 

40.50 



N. 



HAND CAMERA ROLL FILM 

27— ( 15/ 8 x2i/ 2 ) $1.50 



No. 20— (2i4x3!4) - - 2.00 

No. M20 — (21/4x314 metal spool) 2.00 

No. 16 — (2i/ox4i4) - 2.50 

No. M16 — (2i/ox4i4 metal spool) 2.50 

16mm AMATEUR MOTION PICTURE FILM 

50-ft. Roll $5.50 

100-ft. Roll 9.00 



You simply load your camera with Dufaycolor Film and ""shoot. 



MAIL ORDERS FILLED 



UllLOUCHBYS 

World's Largest Exclusive Camera Supply House 



110 West 32 nd Street 



New York 



Twenty-six 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 
RANDOM THOUGHTS ON NATURAL COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY 



June, 1936 



(Continued from Page 1) 



a satisfactory picture. With color, the scene would 
be a decided flop. Therefore, before making a color 
exposure, be sure that there is plenty of color — the 
richer the better — in the scene. And herein lies one 
of the limitations of color photography — it does not 
adapt itself readily to anything and everything. 
Subjects have to be chosen with care. 

The next thing to remember is lighting. As a rule, 
plenty of light is needed — another limitation. The pro- 
duction of color is dependent, so far at least, upon 
the use of filters which cut down the light, necessi- 
tating long exposures as a rule. By filters I mean 
not only filters over the lens, but also dyes placed 
on the film or plate of the color plate processes which 
act in the capacity of filters. However, with speedier 
emulsions and faster lenses, we are rapidly getting 
away from this difficulty of illumination. At present, 
however, it still remains that sufficient light is re- 
quired. 

Even if poor light were sufficient for photography, 
it would not readily lend itself to color photography 
because colors are brilliant or dead in accordance 
with the light. To illustrate, an outdoor scene on a 
dark, cloudy day would certainly result in a poor 
color picture, whereas a bright, sunny day would 
reveal the colors in all their glory. 

After that comes the matter of lighting itself. In 
black and white photography, we strive for fancy 
"effect" lightings to create depth and a sense of 
roundness. In color photography, all this effort would 
be wasted, for be it known that in color photography, 
contrast is secured by color and not lighting. When 
shooting color, flat lighting is the rule rather than the 
exception. Here we have a difference in technique, 
for as you will recall, flat lighting is one of the first 
things the beginner is taught to avoid — in black and 
white photography. The color picture depends upon 
color for almost everything, whereas the black and 
white picture depends upon cross and back lighting 
for effect. Back to the beginner's class when you first 
work with color. 

Possibly the most often asked question about 
color photography is "how can it be reproduced in 
newspapers and magazines?" The National Geo- 
graphic magazine is always pointed out as the most 
successful user of color photographs, and many won- 
der how they are able to do it so well. The answer 
is simple. National Geographic staff cameramen use 
4x5 and 5x7 cameras and shoot color plates such 
as Agfacolor, Lumiere Autochrome and Finlay, with 
now and then a splurge on Dufaycolor. It will be 
noted that each of these is a color plate in which the 
color is right in the plate itself — in other words, not a 
two or three color separation process. National Geo- 



graphic maintains a most complete and elaborate 
laboratory and the plates are merely sent to the en- 
graver's plant as they are, the engravings being 
made direct from the plates. Not so long ago this 
was considered quite a feat, but today many other 
magazines are doing it right along, notably Fortune. 

Dufaycolor, with its screen grating, offered a dif- 
ficulty in the elimination of the screen, but the en- 
graver's wit solved the problem. Today it is not a 
troublesome matter to "shake out" the screen at all, 
and as a result, Dufaycolor has been used success- 
fully for reproduction purposes. As time goes on, 
more and more color pictures will be seen in the 
magazines. 

Perhaps the best way to learn color is to get the 
three primary filters (Wrattan A, B and C5 — red, green 
and blue) and shoot three panchromatic films or 
plates which are correctly balanced, such as the II- 
ford or Defender XF, and make one negative through 
each of the filters on a still-life subject. Three black 
and white negatives will result on development. If 
these negatives are now printed — by contact or en- 
largement — onto the Chromatone sheets, and the pro- 
ceedure as outlined in the Chromatone book followed 
a complete, perfect natural color print will be your 
reward. This method will show the fundamentals 
of color photography. If a transparency is all you 
want, the matter is simplified by merely loading your 
camera with one of the color plate processes — such 
as Agfa, Dufaycolor, Lumiere Autochrome Filmcolor 
or Finlay — and shoot. On processing, which requires 
in most cases the reversal process, a color film or 
plate will result. This can be used as a lantern slide 
if the negative size is suitable, or may be viewed by 
holding against the light. There are several methods 
available now whereby paper prints can be made 
from all color processes, but in most cases these are 
too involved and complicated to attempt except by 
those skilled and experienced. 

What appears to be the quickest and most satis- 
factory for the greatest range of uses is the employ- 
ment of a "one-shot" camera such as the Mikut, for 
with three negatives you can do an awful lot of ex- 
perimenting — and isn't color photography still main- 
ly experimental? 

One thing is certain. Successful results do not 
come flying into the lap of the novice. It takes work 
and experimenting to turn out consistently good color 
results. By sticking to one process long enough to 
fully understand its characteristics, one can become 
more or less expert at it. By changing around from 
one to another, one quickly becomes a Jack of all 
processes and a master of none — which is as good 
as being no good at all. 



During the month of May Pacific Coast headquar- 
ters of I.A.T.S.E. had the honor to entertain William 
Bioff, personal representative of President George E. 
Browne; Harland Holmden, third vice-president and 
O. M. Jacobson, International Representative, of Ta- 
coma. President Browne is not expected on the West 
Coast before July. 



I.A.T.S.E. VISITORS FROM THE EAST 

C. P. Cregan, auditor I.A.T.S.E., has returned to 
Chicago, after several weeks' sojourn in Hollywood. 
He was accompanied by Mrs. Cregan and their 
children. Their many friends will be glad to know 
that they expect to return during the summer. 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-seven 




Complete 

Units 
Installed 



Prices 

Submitted 

Upon 

Request 



NEWMATZ 
PROJECTOR 



HOLLYWOOD 
U SA 



Newmatz Process Projector Equipment Co. 

Phone CRanite 0515 
6227 SANTA MONICA BOULEVARD • HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Tiventy-cight 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



KELLER-DORIAN THREE-COLOR PROCESS 

(Continued from Page 13) 




This Kelly-Dorian close-up of Marlene Dietrich was made using less light, 

according to Josef von Sternberg, than he normally used filming her in 

black-and-white. 

Dorian color camera. In the tests made during the 
research on the process (here and in New York), 
Pathe, DeBrie, Mitchell and the new magazine-type 
Akeley cameras have been used with complete suc- 
cess. At present, the studio-type Akeley is preferred 
bcause of the advantage its 230 degree shutter offers 
in offsetting the light-absorption losses of the tricolor 
filter. 

The lens used is of special design, to coordinate 
with the film-base lenticulations. It is of the con- 
vertible type, and works at f:1.9. A fixed front ele- 
ment is used in conjunction with a variety of inter- 
changeable rear elements, which give a wide range 
of focal lengths. The filter is mounted at the center 
of the lens, and a supplementary optical unit is in- 
stalled directly before the photographing aperture to 
eliminate color-fringes in the out-of-focus parts of 
the picture. 

Due to the nature of the process, the reversal pro- 
cess is used rather than the conventional negative- 
positive system. This method is well understood, 
and introduces no complications. Standard devel- 
oping machines can be converted to reversal-pro- 
cessing with only minor modifications. As the film 
exposed in the camera is reversed into a positive, 
there is the distinct advantage of being able to 
screen "rushes" in full color within three hours after 
a scene is shot. In other words, instead of having 
to wait overnight, as in black-and-white, or from sev- 
eral days to a week, as in most color processes, 
after filming an important sequence to see it on the 
screen, the Director and Cinematographer of a 
Keller-Dorian color picture can see their work 
screened in full color two or three hours after shoot- 
ing it. 

Release-prints are made, either optically or by 
contact, on lenticulated, reversal-type positive stock. 
The quality of the prints is entirely comparable to 
that of the original. Since the printing is a simple 
photographic operation, the results are consistent 
and economical. 

For projection, all that is essentially necessary is 
the use of the three-color filter on the projection- 
lens. It is only natural that the best results will 
come from the use of a modern projector, with a 
fast lens and an efficient lamp. 

As in most other color processes, satisfactory 
screen-illumination on the huge screens of the coun- 
try's largest theatres was for a time a problem. Dr. 
Capstaff's recent researches, however, have solved 



this problem in a simple and conclusive manner. 
Even with black-and-white, many of these theatres 
lacked really adequate screen brightness, yet it was 
believed impossible to gain an increase in light with- 
out danger to the film, and altogether excessive am- 
perages. Dr. Capstaff, after making useful gains by 
means of lightened print-densities and lighter filters, 
attacked the problem basically. By a combination, 
the exact nature of which cannot be revealed as yet, 
of more efficient carbons, a new and vastly im- 
proved mirror, and a speedier optical system, he 
increased the light-output by 380 per cent, while at 
the same time reducing the amperage used from an 
average of over 120 Amperes to 85 Amperes. 

In photographing Keller-Dorian color, the same 
fundamental technique familiar in monochrome cine- 
matography is used. Normal incandescent lighting 
units are employed, and the increase necessary for 
color averages from 30 per cent to 50 per cent more 
light than for black-and-white. How this increase is 
obtained depends on the technique of the individual 
cameraman; the majority of the Paramount camera- 
men who have made color tests with the process 
simply use their normal black-and-white lighting, 
but with the lamps "pulled down" to a more con- 
centrated beam. 

Virtually all of Paramount' s outstanding camera- 
men have photographed Keller-Dorian color tests. 
Their experience has proven that any capable cine- 
matographer can make successful color scenes by 
this process with only a few hours' instruction and 
explanation. And as each cinematographer can 
apply his individual technique, virtually unchanged, 
to color photography, artistic individuality does not 
become stultified in the transition from black-and- 
white to K-D color. 

No type of special-effects cinematography pre- 
sents any insuperable problems with this process. 
Optical printer and matte-shot effects can be achiev- 
ed with the same facility as in monochrome. The 
background-projection or "transparency" process 
appears equally feasible, especially in view of Dr. 
Capstaff's recent developments in projection illum- 
ination, which should assure ample light for the use 
of relatively sizeable background-screens. ' 

Color-rendition is extremely faithful; the flesh 
tones are especially noteworthy, as they achieve a 
naturalness impossible of attainment in subtractive 
processes. Color experts have also remarked that 
the Keller-Dorian process is unique in its reproduc- 
tion of true whites and true blacks. There is, too, a 
remarkable increase in shadow-detail when com- 





/ \ 
Fitter Objektive F!,m Emuls,on 

How the filter and embossed lenticulations on the film produce the color. 

pared to most color processes. The relative bright- 
ness or softnes sof coloring is completely controll- 
able; soft pastel shades may easily be had, while 
bright colorations are reproduced with neither un- 
natural effect or eye-strain. 

Since the process is strictly a matter of photogra- 
phic reproduction, there can be none of the "fuzzi- 



June, 1936 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Twenty-nine 



ness" and color-bleeding which so often accompan- 
ies dye-image printing. The definition obtainable is 
on a par with the best black-and-white. In this con- 
nection, it may be mentioned that tests using normal 
diffusing media have shown that diffusion can be as 
effective in color as in monochrome. 

The embossed lenticulations do not interfere with 
the definition, and they are not evident in the pro- 
jected picture. These lenticulations are so extremely 
fine that even when projected on large screens, they 
are no more visible than the perforations in the 
screen through which the sound passes from the 
loudspeakers to the auditorium. At the present time, 
a standard of 29 lines to the millimetre (724 per inch) 
is used, while if conditions should at any time war- 
rant it, still finer embossings (up to 875 per inch) can 
be used without making any change in camera or 
projection equipment. 

Recording and reproducing sound on the em- 
bossed film has presented no problem. According 
to the latest tests made by critical sound engineers, 
ground-noise due to the embossed film is practically 
identical with that now occurring in normal black- 
and-white production. Recording through the film- 
base on reversal film, far from being a disadvan- 
tage, has proven to be an advantage. As a direct 
result of the recording tests made with Keller-Dorian, 
the Paramount Sound Department is now changing 
over from the conventional negative-recording meth- 
ods to the use of reversal-type recording stock, which 
is exposed from behind, through the film-base. Ac- 
cording to the Paramount engineers, this has result- 
ed in better sound-quality, with finer grain and a 
more precisely-striated track. 

The problem of make-up for Keller-Dorian color 
is extremely simple. As the rendition of color is 
wholly accurate, make-up does not have to be dis- 
torted to correct an unbalanced color-rendition. In 
the many make-up tests made, the best results fol- 
lowed the use of only a very light street make-up, 
and satisfactory results were had with no make-up 
at all. Wally Westmore, head of the Paramount 
Make-up Department, has evolved a standardized 
system of make-up for the process, using the DeLong 
(Elizabeth Arden) products. He has stated that the 
best test of whether a make-up for Keller-Dorian color 
is correct is a glance in a mirror; if an actress feels 
that her make-up looks natural when she inspects it 
in her mirror, it will be satisfactory when she sees 
it on the screen. Incidentally, it may be remarked 
that a player wearing a satisfactory Keller-Dorian 
color make-up can wear it on the street without ap- 
pearing at all "made up for the studio." 

As might be expected from all of the foregoing 
facts, the Keller-Dorian process is the most eco- 
nomical three-color method yet achieved. Since 
essentially standard black-and-white methods and 
equipment are used throughout, the item of equip- 
ment can be figured as identical with the equipment 
cost of black-and-white. In many instances, exist- 
ing black-and-white equipment can be used; if new 
equipment of any type is desired, its cost will be 
substantially what the same unit would cost if it 
were to be used for black-and-white. A production 
unit photographing a Keller-Dorian color picture can 
work exactly as efficiently as it would making the 
same picture in black-and-white. The extra costs for 
art-direction and costuming in color would be ap- 
proximately the same for any color process, and 
depend entirely upon the individual producer's pol- 
icy. All of the tests made at the Paramount Studio 
have used standing sets from black-and-white pic- 
tures, with the actors either in street attire or in cos- 




Enlarged from a Keller-Dorian color frame; photographed by Charles Lang. 

tumes used for regular black-and-white films; the 
results have gone far to discount the need of any 
extraordinary expenditures for special "color" set- 
tings and costumes. 

The purely photographic costs for the process are 
very little higher than the cost of good black-and- 
white. Film, processing, "rushes" and release-prints 
for an average $400,000 feature produced in Keller- 
Dorian color should not exceed the cost of the same 
items for a comparable black-and-white production 
by more than $30,000, even under the present, semi- 
experimental conditions. With volume production, 
the costs should be appreciably lowered, ultimately 
reaching a point very close to, if not identical with 
today's monochrome costs. 

For exhibition, all that the average theatre will 
need will be the projecting filter. This is especially 
true in view of the fact that with the industry emerg- 
ing from the depression, an amazing number of 
theatres have been modernizing their projection 
equipment to secure more efficient projection of 
black-and-white. During 1935, for instance, one 
equipment firm alone installed more than 1,800 new, 
modern equipments in theatres in this country. In 
most cases, these equipments will already be satis- 
factory for first-class projection of Keller-Dorian color. 
In theatres where the screen is of more than aver- 
age size, the new optics devised by Dr. Capstaff, 
which increase the projecting light 380 per cent, can 
be installed for a negligible cost; and as such optics 
will be incorporated shortly in the newer types of 
projecting equipment, theatres re-equipping their 
booths in the future will find themselves ready for 
Keller-Dorian color with no additional expense. 

Very few showings of the process have as yet 
been made. A formal showing, however, took place 
in New York, before activities were transferred to 
the coast, when the process was demonstrated to the 
New York Chapter of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers, 360 strong. This group, by a unanimous 
vote, expressed its appreciation to Paramount and 
to the writer, and expressed its admiration of the 
process. An informal showing of the process re- 
cently took place before a meeting of the Art Direc- 
tors Section of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts 
and Sciences, where the process again received a 
most flattering reception. Showings before other 
local bodies are planned for the near future. The 
members of the Paramount camera staff, nearly all 
of whom have made tests with the process, are uni- 
formly enthusiastic, and such players as Marlene 
Dietrich, Claudette Colbert, Gary Cooper, Cary 
Grant, and others who have appeared in these tests, 
have shown equal enthusiasm. 



Thirty 



The INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



INTERNATIONAL 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

Brings results — Rates 45 cents per line — minimum charge one 

dollar per insertion. For Rent — For Sale — Wanted — For 

Exchange, etc. 

FOR SALE OR RENT— CAMERAS 



FOR SALE OR RENT— Mitchell and Bell & Howell silenced cameras, 
lollow tocus. l J an lenses, free head, corrected new aperture. Akeley, 
De Brie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost, Willart, De Vry, Eyemo, Sept, 
Leica. Motors, printers lighting equipment. Also every variety of 
16 mm. and still cameras and projectors. B & H Cameras with old type 
shuttles silenced $150. Bipack magazines and adaptors for color. Every- 
thing photographic bought, sold, rented and repaired. Send for our bar- 
gain catalogue. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd. 
Phone HO. 3651. Cable, Hocamex. 



REAL BARGAINS in 16 and 35 mm. movie equipment and still cameras. 
Newest types cameras and projectors in all' popular makes. Save money 
on film, lights, lenses and all essential accessories. Our 36 years of 
experience stands back of every sale. Before you buy, send for our new 
bargain booklet. Burke & James, Inc., 223 W. Madison St., Chicago. 



LARGEST STOCK FIRST CLASS UP-TO-DATE CAMERA 
EQUIPMENT IN THE WORLD 

Rebuilt silenced and Standard Bell & Howell 170° Cameras — Hi-Speed 
gear boxes — Hi-Speed check pawl shuttles, new Fearless shuttle for 
Bell & Howell. Complete DeBrie equipments. All metal Model L with 
motor, lenses and tripod. Metal Model H with lenses and tripod. Silent 
Moviola Model D. Two Single System cameras complete with sound 
equipment — Mole Richardson Perambulator with tilt head — Two Bell & 
Howell rebuilt Splicers as new. Portable blimp with follow focus for 
Mitchell Camera. 100 ft. Stineman Developing outfit. Used Holmes 35 
mm. Sound-on-Film Projector complete. Precision, DeBrie and Bell & 
Howell pan and tilt tripods. Bell & Howell 1000 ft., 400 ft. magazines. 
Motors, sunshades, finders, lenses and all accessories. Write, wire or 
cable. 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY. INC. 
723 SEVENTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY 
CABLE: "CINECAMERA" 



SILENCED BELL & HOWELL CAMERA, original B&H Movement. 
40, 50 & 75 mm. Lenses, choice of Astro, Cooke or Zeiss, Standard Matt 
Box, Disc and Filter Holders, Sunshade, Large Finder, Extension and 
Upright, two 1000 ft. or four 400 ft. Magazines, Standard Tripod Head 
and Legs. Complete with Carrying Cases, $1100.00. Camera Supply 
Co. Ltd., 1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. Calif. 



SILENCED MITCHELL CAMERA, 40, 50 & 75mm. Astro F2.5 
Lenses, Upright Mitchell Finder, Mitchell Matt Box and Sunshade, two 
1000 ft. Magazines, Friction Tripod Head and Legs, complete equipment 
with Carrying Cases. $2600.00. Camera Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 No. 
Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

DEBRIE CAMERA WITH AKELEY TRIPOD, 4 lenses, 8 magazines, 
motor, cases. All like new, $450. Complete single system. Camera, 
Tripod, Amplifier, cases, etc., $1000. Also new Moviesound "Camera- 
lator" (folding dolly). Weighs 18 lbs. Will carry 400 lbs. Rock 
steady, fits all regular tripods, $100 with case. Moviesound Studios, 
Jamaica, Long Island. 

MITCHELL CAMERA, all built in features. Five 400 ft. magazines, 
40-50 Astro F2.3 75mm F3.5 Carl Zeiss, tripod, two new cases — sun- 
shade, $750.00. Irving Browning, 110 West 40th Street, New York City. 

DEBRIE MODEL L, complete, converted for Bi-pack or Du-pack with 
outside Bell & Howell magazines, special take-up, perfect registration 
assured, sliding ground glass focus, outfit complete with four Bell & 
Howell magainzes, six DeBrie inside magazines, motor drive, cases, 
Model C pan and tilt tripod. Price $1450.00. BASS CAMERA COM- 
PANY, 179 W. Madison St., Chicago, Illinois. 

FOR SALE— SOUND RECORDERS AND EQUIPMENT 

LIKE NEW BELL & HOWELL 5-way Sound Printers and Sound 
Moviolas. Reasonable price. HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANGE, 
'600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

ART REEVES, latest model 1935, double system sound recording in- 
stallation, factory guaranteed, Automatic Speed Control Motor, Twin 
Fidelity Optical Unit, Bomb microphone, the only genuine, modern, 
workable ArtReeves equipment for sale in Hollywood outside factory. 
CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY, LTD., 1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood. 

BELL & HOWELL silenced camera with variable area single system 
sound. Complete outfit, like new, ready to shoot. Price, $3000.00. 
HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANGE, 1600 Cahuenga Ave., Holly- 
wood, Calif. Cable address — Hocamex. 

8 MM. AND 16 MM. 

8 MM. ULTRACHROM, NATURAL COLOR, FINE GRAIN— $3.50. 

S. S. Panchromatic, reversible, and Positive Palomar Titling Film, for 
all 8 MM. Cameras, reversible data. Home Titling Data, Accessories, 
Processing, Titling, reducing from 16 MM. to 8 MM. "Movie Making Made 
Easy" — 50c. "Money Saving Tips for the Amateur Movie Maker" — 25c. 
"How to Make Money with a Movie Outfit" — 15c. Cine Nizo Camera 
Distributors. FILM SPECIALTIES. 11 IN. El Monte, California. 



POSITION WANTED 



DO YOU WANT A CAMERAMAN who is an expert on studio pro- 
duction ; or an expedition cameraman who knows every corner of the 
world ; or a cameraman who thoroughly understands the making of indus- 
trial pictures ; or an expert newsreel photographer ; or an expert color 
cameraman? A limited number of cameramen, backed by years of experi- 
ence, are available. Write stating your requirements and we shall be 
glad to assist you in choosing the kind of cameraman you want. INTER- 
NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Holly 
wood. 



DEVELOPING DUFAYCOLOR FILM 



LEICA DUFAYCOLOR and other miniature camera owners who use 
the 35mm. film. We are now prepared to develop your Dufaycolor film, 
brilliant, beautiful, zippy colors. We guarantee to show more color than 
ever before in this color film with less lines. Processing One Dollar. 
FILM SPECIALTIES, Box HID. El Monte, California. 



WANTED TO BUY 



WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, Mitchell, Akeley or De Brie 
Cameras, lenses, motors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture Camera 
S'upply, Inc., 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECTIONIST, a monthly magazine 
published in the interests of the projectionist. Interesting, instructive. 
Yearly subscription U. S. and possessions, $2 ; foreign countries, $2.50. 
James L. Finn Publishing Corp., 580 Fifth Ave., New York. 

COMPLETE COURSE IN FLYING— If interested in aviation, see Roy 
Klaffki, 1605 North Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood. 

WANTED — To know of the whereabouts of motion picture relics, docu- 
ments, or equipment of a historical nature for Museum purposes. Write 
Earl Theisen, care of International Photographer, 1605 Cahuenga Ave., 
Hollywood. 



CAMERA REPAIRING 



BELL & HOWELL cameras with old type shuttles silenced, $150. 
Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Co., 645 No. Martel Ave., 
Hollywood. 

LIGHTING EQUIPMENT FOR NATURAL-COLOR 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

(Continued from Page 17) 

tent. In black-and-white, Miss Dietrich's blondeness, 
the blue dress, and the gray background, would de- 
mand a decidedly contrasty lighting. In Techni- 
color, the natural color-contrasts, enhanced by a 
normal lighting, separate the three exactly as our 
vision does. 

Experience on this picture, as on others, is prov- 
ing emphatically that color does not demand in- 
flexible adherence to a set style of lighting. The 
artistic individuality of the cinematographer, not the 
process or the fact that the picture is being made in 
color, is the governing factor. As color photography 
becomes better understood, and new and more effi- 
cient lighting tools are introduced, the problem of 
lighting for color grows less and less; ultimately, it 
undoubtedly will vanish, and become as complete- 
ly accepted a commonplace as is lighting today's 
black-and-white. 



5. M. P. E. 

The Hotel Sagamore, Rochester, New York, has 
been selected for Convention Headauarters for the 
Fall Meeting of the S.M.P.E. to be held October 12 to 
October 15, according to W. C. Kunzmann, Vice 
President in charge of Conventions. Mr. Kunzmann 
will be in Rochester the week of May 25 to line up the 
fall meeting committees and complete preliminary 
arrangements . This will be the first Society of Motion 
Picture Engineers' Convention to be held in the cam- 
era city since 1922. 



June, 1936 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



Thirtvonc 



Miniature Camera and Color 



By Gilbert Morgan 



What about color? Can it be printed on paper? 
How does it look? Who does it? Such are the 
questions being asked every day all over the coun- 
try. The color interest is aroused again as it has been 
many times in previous years, but this time the pres- 
ent group which raises the questions is out to obtain 
results. If color is to be had on the movie screen, 
then why not on paper as well? 

Today color is available for amateur and profes- 
sionals using the miniature cameras, such as the 
Leica and Contax. Color photography has long been 
in the minds of many, but only recently through the 
constant development of colored film emulsions and 
equally constant development of miniature cameras 
with fast lenses of shorter focal length has this aim 
been partially reached with a material reduction in 
cost. 

A year ago Dufaycolor film was introduced for 
use in the miniature as well as the larger cameras. 
This film embodies the old tri-color screen principle 
and is probably the most simple to process of the 
various films on the market, it being a straight re- 
versal process. Under normal conditions in daylight 
no filters or special lenses are necessary to produce 
colored transparencies since the tri-color elements 
of the screen serve as the filters for the primary color 
separations. However, where there is an abundance 
of ultra-violet light the use of a compensating filter 
is advisable so that the pictures are not dominated 
by an excessive bluish cast. Blue filters are neces- 
sary when artifcial Mazda or photoflood lighting is 
used for the picture. These filters overcome the ex- 
cess of red rays given out and balance the colors. 
As with all color films correct exposure is of prime 
importance for true color values. Under exposed 
pictures will produce, as most of us have found out, 
very little on a color film, everything going a dark 
blue, almost black, while over exposed pictures will 
give the color a faded or washed out appearance. 

Besides Dufaycolor film there are other miniature 
color films on the market, such as, Agfacolor, and 
the Lumiere color film which give good results. It 
is the hope of all color enthusiasts that Kodachrome, 
available at present only in 16mm and 8mm, will be 
out in the 35mm size. (The grapevine telegraph says 
that it will be only a matter of one or two months. 
Members of the Eastman Co. are at present testing 
the film in Leica and Contax cameras before placing 
Kodachrome in the hands of the public.) 

Three color separation negatives on Agfa, East- 
man, and Dupont panchromatic emulsions have 
been used for some time but until now there has been 
no satisfactory and simplified process by which 
color prints could be made on paper. By the new 



Ruthenberg Colorstil Process prints are easy to make 
at a low cost. Using the Colorstil Process prints can 
be made from Dufaycolor, Kodachrome, and three 
color separations. Results: three color separ- 
ations by far the best. Separation negatives are 
made by filtering the picture three times which must 
naturally be a still subject — a red filter is used for 
the blue green separation, a blue filter for the yellow, 
and a green filter for the magenta. Usually the three 
separations can be taken with a miniature camera 
within approximately three to four seconds. 

A new one-shot camera, the Mikut, at a more 
nominal price than most of this type, is expected to 
be on the market in America soon. The Mikut, a 
miniature snap camera, makes three 5 cm by 5 cm 
separations on a single glass plate 5 cm by 15 cm 
with the one exposure. This will enable action pict- 
tures to be taken in color with far less bulky equip- 
ment than heretofore. 

Once the separation negatives have been made 
natural color prints are then possible by the Colorstil 
Process. Color separations can be made from Du- 
faycolor or Kodachrome by breaking the colors down 
into three separations. In this process there are three 
films dyed in the complementary colors. Each is ex- 
posed to the corresponding separation negative and 
after development, fixing, and bleaching of the silver 
image the films are super-imposed upon each other 
in a white enameled tray for registration and color 
balance. If any one of the three colors is too strong 
it can be reduced by washing in hot water, the dye 
being only partially solvent in hot water. When sat- 
isfactory color balance is obtained the film is trans- 
ferred to a white glossy, matte, or semi-matte paper 
by stripping off the film backing of the three films, 
one at a time. 

It is possible to make a dozen color prints at the 
same time once the separations are made and the 
exposures for the corresponding dyed films have 
been correctly determined. Elapsed time from the 
moment that the separations are ready for printing 
to the finished print is not over two hours. 

For best results with the Colorstil Process good 
filters, a good photo electric cell exposure meter and 
precision work are above everything else most nec- 
essary. In making color separation negatives strive 
for a soft and not a harsh contrasty negative. 

This is only a brief sketch of things being accom- 
plished in color. There are other color printing pro- 
cesses and color films which have their merits, and 
I dare say that in the next few years those men who 
have been working with color photography will see 
the grand realization of the fruits of their years of 
labor. 



BUCK JONES HAS A NEW VEHICLE 



"Ride 'Em Cowboy" is Buck Jones' current ve- 
hicle for Universal production. Leslie Selander di- 
recting, an assistant cameraman of other days. 

Allen Thompson is first cameraman; Herbert 
Kirkpatrick, operative cameraman; Eddie Jones and 
Buddie Weiler, assistant cameramen; Arthur Marion, 
still artist. 

"Ride 'Em Cowboy" is somewhat of a departure 
from the usual Western of Buck Jones, but those in 
the know think that the handsome star of the West- 



erns will be sure to score a great success in it. 

The time is about the debut of the automobile and 
one of the thrills of the picture is a small time auto 
race. 

There will be plenty of horseflesh, six guns, hero 
stuff, etc., and the Dubrox Riding Academy of Holly- 
wood will supply the equine action. 

Admirers of Buck Jones should read a sketch of 
him recently published in Collier's Magazine. He's 
quite a citizen. 



Thirty-two 



T h 



INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



June, 1936 



CINEMACARONI 

(With Sauce for Those Who Like !t) 



HOLLYWOOD HONEYMOON 

(.1 novel novel of a thousand and one nights 

in a daze) 

By 
R. THRITIS 
Synopsis of preceding installments: 

There's been only one issue sinee I didn't give 
you any synopsis last time, so I don't see what 
you have to gain by no synopsis of last issue. So 
I won't bother with not any. Pick up the pieces 
from there. 

CHAPTER XX— THEME SONG 

"And now the problem is," remarked Perri- 
wether Murgle, "how do we get down from 
here?" 

"Maybe you mean the theme song from my last 
picture," said Lili brightly. " Where Do We Go 
From Here'." 

"Don't be dense," snapped Perri. " 'Where Do 
We Go From Here' is an old-timer. Your song was 
'Where Do We Go From Love'." 

"That's the one I mean," answered Lili. "Let's 
sing it!" And she sounded a note and began to 
hum the seductive melody in her $5,000-a-week 
contralto. (That is, if Flamboyant Films, Ltd., 
hadn't cut her off salary for being A.W.O.L.) 

When La Liverblossom sang, there was no re- 
sisting the appeal in that alluring voice, so Perri, 
hypnotized, sang along with her. He had once 
been a church singer. Just now he was an apart- 
ment house singer. Flat. 

Even the ghost attempted to join in. but his 
slow sepulchral voice couldn't keep up •with the 
lively tempo of Lili's song, so he contented himself 
with a low saxophone moan at judicious mo- 
ments, now and then clanking the bracelet on his 
wrist in a cymbal effect. 

After finishing one stanza and a couple of 
choruses, Lili and Perri looked up, sensing some- 
one nearby. There in the kitchen passageway 
were Willy and Nelly Nilly, enraptured by the 
music, leaning on the wall and gazing fatuously 
at each other. 

"I can certainly do something with that," said 
Perri, and muttered under his breath, "The fatu- 
ous in the fire." 

Aloud he said, "Get back into the kitchen, you 
two. I can smell the fish burning." 

"That's funny," said Nelly Nilly. "It's still in 
the sink." 

"Get back in the kitchen anyway," barked 
Perri. "We're trying to escape, and we certainly 
can't do it if you're going to stand there and 
gawk at us." 

"Excuse us." said Willy Nilly, and grasping 
Nelly by the arm, he led her back into the 
kitchen. 

"Come on," said Perri. "Let's go." 

"Just one more chorus," pleaded the ghost. 

"Okay, toots," said Lili, and started to sing 
again. 

The ghost jumped and clicked his heels with 
joy. 

"Ah, the Fred Astaire influence," exclaimed 
Perri. 

Lili interrupted herself to sniff," "Remember 
you're working for Flamboyant Films, will you, 
and not for R.K.O. Publicize our own stars. 
What's the matter with Franklie Fleetfoot?" 

Before Perri could reply adeguately, there was 
a hollow tapping sound from somewhere in the 
lair. It seemed to come from all around them. 
The ghost began to moan and clank his bracelet. 

"Don't carry on so," said Murgle. "What are 
you giving us — professional jealousy?" He 
kneeled down beside the eggs underneath the 
heating pad. Faint sounds came from inside the 
shells. 

"Let's get out of here," Perri said, rising quick- 
ly. "If those eggs hatch while we're here, 
there'll be the devil to pay. And I haven't a 
cent." 

"Okay," said the ghost. "I'll carry Lili. Can 
you still fly?" 

"Of course," said Perri. 

Without further ado, the ghost picked Lili up 
and set out across the desert. In a flash he was 
out of sight. 

Perri teetered on the edge of the Eagle's lair. 
The precipice took a sheer drop of two thousand 
feet below him. Perri ddin't care to follow suit. 
Could he still fly — or had he lost his magic 
power? 

Our hero drew a deep breath, jumped, and 
flapped his arms as he had done before. His 
arms seemed like lead, and he dropped like a 
plummet. Fortunately he managed to catch hold 
of an outjutting rock twenty feet below. And 
there he hung. 

{What can Perri do? Potty and Lili arc out of 
earshot. If Perri yells, he will attract the vicious 
Eagle and his mate. Our hero is really in a spot. 
HI, ittcr next month.) 



By Robert Tobey 

PROSPERITY POEM 
What with all his Mickey Mouse cartoons 
And Three Little Wolves and Silly Symphonisney, 
Walt Disney 

Is certainly keeping very bisney. 
Isney? 

by the prosperity poet, 

R. THRITIS. 



Warning on a theatre marquee: 
DON'T GET PERSONAL 
SPECIAL INVESTIGATOR 



KNEECAP REVIEWS 
(No space left on my thumbnails) 

"UNDER TWO FLAGS." A story of the French 
Foreign Legion and the desert that tends to prove 
ell the sand isn't under the horses' hoofs. Clau- 
dette Colbert, although not starred, carries off 
acting honors as the fiery, smiling little "Cig- 
arette." If her final scene in the picture doesn't 
bring a lump to your throat you just weren't 
looking at the picture. Ronald Colman, barring 
a slight woodenness, is splendid as the man 
whom all the shootin'