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INTERNATIONAL RADIO TELEGRAPH 
CONVENTION OF BERLIN : 1906 

AND PROPOSITIONS FOR THE INTER- 
NATIONAL RADIO TELEGRAPH 
CONFERENCE OF LONDON 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1912 



GIFT OF 








INTERNATIONAL RADIO TELEGRAPH 
CONVENTION OF BERLIN : 1906 

AND PROPOSITIONS FOR THE INTER- 
NATIONAL RADIO TELEGRAPH 
CONFERENCE OF LONDON 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1912 



368544 



PART 1. 



CONVENTION. 



International Radio Telegraph Convention concluded between 
Germany, the United States of America, Argentina, Austria, 
Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Denmark, Spain, 
France, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Monaco, 
Norway, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Roumania, 
Russia, Sweden, Turkey, and Uruguay. 



The undersigned, plenipotentaries of the Governments 
of the countries enumerated above, having met in con- 
ference at Berlin, have agreed on the following Conven- 
tion, subject to ratification: 

AETICLE 1. 

The High Contracting Parties bind themselves to ap- 
ply the provisions of the present Convention to all radio 
stations open to public service between the coast and 
vessels at sea both coastal stations and stations on ship- 
board which are established or worked by the Con- 
tracting Parties. 

They further bind themselves to make the observance 
of these provisions obligatory upon private enterprises 
authorized either to establish or work coastal stations 
for radio telegraphy open to public service between the 
coast and vessels at sea. or to establish or work radio 
stations, whether open to general public service or not, 
on board of vessels flying their flag. 



4 RADIO TELEGEAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

BELGIAN CONGO. 

The Berlin Convention and its appendices have to do with the 
regulation . of communications between the coast and ships at sea 
and those exchanged between two ships. The Belgian colony of the 
Congo considers that it would be proper also to recognize and regu- 
late intercommunication between fixed radio stations and to adopt 
for all radio stations a classification conformable to their location 
and object. It proposes to this end that the following text be in- 
serted in the Convention : 

" The High Contracting Parties have decided to classify radio 
stations under four heads : 

" 1. Coastal stations designed for maritime service. 

" 2. Stations on shipboard. 

" 3. Stations designed for regular service between fixed points 
which are not necessarily separated by the sea. 

" 4. Stations of general interest sending telegrams or signals of 
public utility." 

This text is submitted only as a basis for discussion. The London 
Conference should establish exact definitions and suitable regula- 
tions defining the functions of each class of stations. .These regula- 
tions should specify the wave length to be used by the different sta- 
tions according to "their purpose and class. If necessary, working 
hours for services of public utility (time, meteorology, etc.) might 
be established. 

ITALY. 

To consider, in the Kadio Telegraph Convention, as well as in the 
Kegulations, the definition of aerial radio stations. By this name 
shall be meant stations installed on board of dirigibles, balloons, and 
aeroplanes. 

To consider^ also, all that concerns the correspondence of aerial 
radio stations with other radio stations. 

REASONS. 

The necessity for this proposition is self-evident. Precise proposi- 
tions have not^been formulated for introduction into the Convention 
and Kegulations in view of the special information which practical 
experience will be able to furnish from time to time on the subject of 
radio stations, and anticipating that the London Conference will not 
meet until the month of June, 1912. 

AETICLE 2. 

By " coastal stations " is to be understood every radio 
station established on shore or on board a permanently 
moored vessel used for the exchange of correspondence 
with ships at sea. 



5 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION" OF BERLIN. 

Every radio station established on board any vessel 
not permanently moored is called a "station on ship- 
board." 

ARTICLE 3. 

The coastal stations and the stations on shipboard 
shall be bound to exchange radiograms without dis- 
tinction of the radio system adopted by such stations. 

ARTICLE 4. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of article 3, a station 
may be reserved for a limited public service determined 
by the object of the correspondence or by other circum- 
stances independent of the system employed. 

ARTICLE 5. 

Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes to 
connect the coastal stations to the telegraph system by 
special wires, or, at least, to take other measures which 
will insure a rapid exchange between the coastal sta- 
tions and the telegraph system. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The High Contracting Parties shall notify one another 
of the names of coastal stations and stations on ship- 
board referred to in article 1, and also of all data, neces- 
sary to facilitate and accelerate the exchange of radio- 
grams, as specified in the Regulations. 

ARTICLE 7. 

Each of the High Contracting Parties reserves the 
right to prescribe or permit at the stations referred to in 
article 1, apart from the installation, the data of which 
are to be published in conformity with article 6, the 
installation and working of other devices for the pur- 
pose of establishing special radio communication without 
publishing the details of such devices. 



6 EADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

ARTICLE 8. 

The working of the radio stations shall be organized 
as far as possible in such manner as not to disturb the 

service of other radio stations. 

i 

ARTICLE 9. 

Radio stations are bound to give absolute priority to 
calls of distress from ships, 'to similarly answer such calls, 
and to take such action with regard thereto as may be 
required. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

To change the text of article 9 as follows : 

" Radio stations are bound to give absolute priority to the calls of 
distress which they receive from ships, to similarly answer such calls, 
and to take such action with regard thereto as may be required." 

REASONS. 

It is desirable to make clearly apparent that coastal stations are 
not to be rendered responsible for calls which they have not received 
in consequence of disturbances or for other reasons. 

ABTICLE 10. 

The total charge for radiograms shall comprise: 

1. The charge for the maritime transmission, this is: 

(a) The coastal rate, which shall fall to the coastal 
station; 

(b) The shipboard rate, which shall fall to the ship- 
board station. 

2. The charge for transmission over the lines of the 
telegraph system, to be computed according to the 
general regulations. 

The coastal rate shall be subject to the approval of 
the Government of which the coastal station is depend- 
ent and the shipboard rate to the approval of the Gov- 
ernment whose flag the ship is flying. 



7 BADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

Each of these rates shall be fixed in accordance with 
the tariff per word, pure and simple, with an optional 
minimum rate per radiogram, on the basis of an equi- 
table remuneration for the radio work. Neither rate shall 
exceed a maximum to be fixed by the High Contracting 
Parties. 

However, each of the High Contracting Parties shall 
be at liberty to authorize higher rates than such maxi- 
mum in the case of stations of ranges exceeding 800 
kilometers (431.68 nautical miles) or of stations whose 
work is exceptionally difficult owing to physical condi- 
tions in connection with the installation or working of 
the same. 

For radiograms proceeding from or destined for a 
country and exchanged directly with the coastal stations 
of such country, the High Contracting Parties shall 
advise one another of the rates applicable to the trans- 
mission over the lines of their telegraph system. Such 
rates shall be those resulting from the principle that the 
coastal station is to be considered as the station of origin 
or of destination. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

For the last paragraph read : 

" Concerning radiograms proceeding from or destined for a country 
and exchanged directly with the coastal stations of such country, the 
rates applicable for transmission over telegraph lines are, in the 
European regime, the terminal charges fixed by Article XXIII, para- 
graphs 2 to 7. of the Regulations for the telegraph service, and, in the 
extra-European regime, those fixed in Table B annexed to the Regu- 
lations." 

REASONS. 

The object of this modification is to simplify the collection of 
charges on shipboard, and at the same time the keeping of accounts. 

The intention is that reductions in normal terminal charges pro- 
vided for by Article XXIII of the Telegraph Regulations, reduc- 
tions which a management (" administration ") might desire to 
apply to radiograms, shall be notified by the bureau at Berne in the 
same manner that changes of this sort relating to terminal telegraph 
charges are notified in the appendix to Table 1. 



8 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

ARTICLE XXIII OF THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH SERVICE REGU- 
LATIONS REFERRED TO ABOVE. 

XXIII. 

1. The tariff is fixed per word pure and simple; nevertheless, ea'ch adminis- 
tration may impose a minimum charge, which must not exceed one franc per 
telegram, or, in the case of traffic under the European regime only, may collect 
the charge in the form most convenient to it, provided that it observes the 
stipulations of Regulation XXVII. 

2. For traffic under the European regime, one and the same elementary ter- 
minal rate and one and the same elementary transit rate are adopted by all the 
States. 

3. The elementary terminal rate is fixed at 9 (10) centimes. 

4. The elementary transit rate is fixed at 7 (8) centimes. 

5. These two elementary rates are reduced, respectively, to 6 (6) centimes 
and to 34 (4) centimes for the following States : Belgiu.ni, Bosnia-Herzogovina, 
Bulgaria, Crete, Denmark, Greece, Luxemburg, Montenegro, Holland, Portugal, 
Rouinania, Servia, and Switzerland. 

6. .Russia and Turkey, owing to the exceptional conditions of construction 
and maintenance of their systems, have the right to apply terminal and transit 
rates not exceeding 30 centimes and 24 centimes, respectively. 

7. All States have the right to reduce their terminal and transit rates for 
all or a portion of their traffic, subject to the conditions laid down by Regula- 
tion XXVI. 

8. A special transit rate may be fixed, in each particular case, for the sub- 
marine cable sections. 



EXTRACT FROM INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND SERVICE 
REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

XXVI. 

1. Alterations of the charges or of the methods of application of the tariffs 
which may be agreed upon between interested States, by virtue of paragraph 4 
of article 10 and of article 17 of the Convention, must have for their object 
and effect, not to create a competition in charges between existing routes, but 
rather to open to the public as many routes as possible at equal charges; and 
the necessary combinations shall be so made that the terminal rates of the 
administrations of origin and destination are the same, no matter what route is 
followed. 

2. Xo new charge, or modification, either of a general or partial character, 
affecting the ta'riffs shall come into operation before the lapse of at least 15 
days after its notification by the International Bureau of the Telegraph Union, 
the date of notification not included. 

3. The administrations of the contracting States undertake to avoid, as far 
as possible, changes of rates arising from interruptions of telegraphic communi- 
cation. 

XXVII. 

1. The charges to be collectel under Regulations XXI to XXV may be 
rounded up or down, either after application of the normal rates per word 
fixed in accordance with the tables annexed to the present Regulations, or by 
an increase or decrease of those normal rates to suit the monetary or other 
convenience of the country of origin. 

2. Modifications made in carrying out the preceding paragraph apply only 
to the charges collected by the office of origin, and in no way affect the distribu- 
tion of the rates accruing to the other Administrations concerned. They must 
be so regulated that the difference between the charge collected for a tele- 
gram of 15 words and the charge, calculated exactly in conformity with the 
tables by means of the equivalents given in the following paragraph, shall not 
exceed one-fifteenth of the latter charge that is to say, the regulation rate for 
one word. 



9 EADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

AETICLE 11. 

The provisions of the present Convention are supple- 
mented by Regulations, which shall have the same force 
and go into effect at the same time as the Convention. 

The provisions of the present Convention and of the 
Regulations relating thereto may at any time be modified 
by the High Contracting Parties by common consent. 
Conferences of plenipotentiaries or simply administrative 
conferences, according as the Convention or the Regula- 
tions are affected, shall take place from time to time ; each 
conference shall fix the time and place of the next 
meeting. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

For. the second paragraph, read as follows : 

" The provisions of the present Convention and of the Regulations 
relating thereto may at any time be modified by the High Contracting 
Parties by common consent. Conferences of plenipotentiaries having 
the power to modify the Convention of the Regulations will be held 
from time to time ; each Conference shall fix the time and place of the 
next meeting." 

REASONS. 

In accordance with the procedure observed by the Universal Postal 
Convention, it is desirable to modify article 11 so as to clearly indi- 
cate that the Conference has the power to treat all questions which 
may arise affecting either the Radio Telegraph Convention or the 
Service Regulations. 

ARTICLE 12. 

Such conferences shall be composed of delegates of the 
Governments of the contracting countries. 

In the deliberations each country shall have but one 
vote. 

If a Government adheres to the Convention for its 
colonies, possessions, or protectorates, subsequent confer- 
ences may decide that such colonies, possessions, or pro- 
tectorates, or a part thereof, shall be considered as forming 
a country as regards the application of the preceding 



3514412 2 



10 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

paragraph. But the number of votes at the disposal of 
one Government, including its colonies, possessions, or 
protectorates, shall in no case exceed six. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

RUSSIA. 

" In the deliberations concerning questions of a military and polit- 
ical nature, affecting the Army, the Navy, and the national defense 
in general, the right to vote of each State shall in every case be lim- 
ited to one vote." 

AKTICLE 13. 

An international bureau shall be charged with collect- 
ing, coordinating, and publishing information of every 
kind relating to radio telegraphy, examining the applica- 
tions for changes in the Convention or Regulations, pro- 
mulgating the amendments adopted, and generally per- 
forming all administrative work referred to it in the 
interest of international radio telegraphy. 

The expenses of such institution shall be borne by all 
the contracting countries. 

AKTICLE 14. 

Bach of the High Contracting Parties reserves to itself 
the right of fixing the terms on which it will receive 
radiograms proceeding from or intended for any station, 
whether on shipboard or coastal, which is not subject to 
the provisions of the present Convention. 

If a radiogram is received the ordinary rates shall be 
applicable to it. 

Any radiogram proceeding from a station on ship- 
board and received by a coastal station of a contracting 
country, or accepted in transit by the administration of a 
contracting country, shall be forwarded. 

Any radiogram intended for a vessel shall also be for- 
warded if the administration of the contracting country 
has accepted it originally or in transit from a noncontract- 
ing country^ the coastal station reserving the right to 
refuse transmission to a station on shipboard subject to a 
noncontracting country. 



11 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

AETICLE 15. 

The provisions of articles 8 and 9 of this Convention 
are also applicable to radio installations other than those 
referred to in article 1. 

AETIOLE 16. 

Governments which are not parties to the present Con- 
vention shall be permitted to adhere to it upon their re- 
quest. Such adherence shall be communicated through 
diplomatic channels to the contracting Government in 
whose territory the last conference shall have been held, 
and by the latter to the remaining Governments. 

The adherence shall carry with it the fullest extent 
acceptance of all the clauses of this Convention and ad- 
mission to all the advantages stipulated therein. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

SPAIN. 

The Spanish management considers that a proposition should be 
made to the Conference to invite adherence to the International Con- 
vention and Kegulations by Governments and companies rendering 
abnormal service, such as that heretofore rendered by the radio 
stations of Morocco, as this would contribute toward making a 
universal radio service more easy. 

AETICLE 17. 

The provisions of articles 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 
and 17 of the International Telegraph Convention of 
St. Petersburg of July 10 to 22, 1875, shall be applicable 
to international radio telegraphy. 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION, SIGNED 
AT ST. PETERSBURG, JULY 10-22, 1875. 

[Referred to in article 17 of the Convention.] 
ARTICLE 1. 

The High Contracting Parties concede to all persons the right to correspond 
by means of the international telegraphs. 

ARTICLE 2. 

They bind themselves to take all the necessary measures for the purpose of 
insuring the secrecy of the correspondence and its safe transmission. 



12 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

ARTICLE 3. 

They declare, nevertheless, that they accept no responsibility as regards the 
international telegraph service. 

ABTICLE 5. 

Telegrams are classed in three categories: 

1. State telegrams: Those emanating from the head of the Nation, the minis- 
ters, the commanders in chief of the Army and Naval forces, and the diplomatic 
or consular agents of the contracting Governments, as well as the answers to 
such telegrams. 

2. Service telegrams: Those which emanate from the managements of the 
telegraph service of the contracting States and which relate either to the inter- 
national telegraph service or to subjects of public interest determined jointly 
by such managements. 

3. Private telegrams. 

In the transmission the State telegrams shall have precedence over other 
telegrams. 

ARTICLE 6. 

State telegrams and service telegrams may be issued in secret language in 
any communications. 

Private telegrams may be exchanged in secret language between two States 
which admit of this mode of correspondence. 

The States which do not admit of private telegrams in secret language upon 
the expedition or arrival of the same shall allow them to pass in transit, 
except in the case of suspension defined in article 8. 

ABTICLE 7. 

The High Contracting Parties reserve the right to stop the transmission of 
any private telegram which may appear dangerous to the safety of the State, 
or which may be contrary to the laws of the country, to public order or good 
morals. 

ARTICLE 8. 

Each Government also reserves the right to suspend the international tele- 
graph service for an indefinite period, if deemed necessary by it, either gen- 
erally, or only over certain lines and for certain classes of correspondence, of 
which such Government shall immediately notify all the other contracting 
Governments. 

ARTICLE 11. 

Telegrams relating to the international telegraph service of the contracting 
States shall be transmitted free of charge over the entire systems of such States. 

ARTICLE 12. 

. The High Contracting Parties shall render accounts to one another of the 
charges collected by each of them. 

ARTICLE 17. 

The High Contracting Parties reserve, respectively, the right to enter among 
themselves into special arrangements of any kind with regard to points of the 
service which do not interest the States generally. 

AETIOLB 18. 

In case of disagreement between two or more contract- 
ting Governments regarding the interpretation or execu- 
tion of the present Convention or of the Regulations 
referred to in article 11, the question in dispute may, by 



13 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

mutual agreement, be submitted to arbitration. In such 
case each of the Governments concerned shall choose an- 
other Government not interested in the question at issue. 

The decision of the arbiters shall be arrived at by the 
absolute majority of votes. 

In case of a division of votes, the arbiters shall choose, 
for the purpose of settling the disagreement, another con- 
tracting Government which is likewise a stranger to the 
question at issue. In case of failure to agree on a choice, 
each arbiter shall propose a disinterested contracting 
Government, and lots shall be drawn between the Gov- 
ernments proposed. The drawing of the lots shall fall 
to the Government within whose territory . the inter- 
national bureau provided for in article 13 shall be located. 

AETIOLE 19. 

The High Contracting Parties bind themselves to take, 
or propose to their respective legislatures, the necessary 
measures for insuring the execution of the present 
Convention. 

AETICLE 20. 

The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to 
one another any laws already framed, or which may be 
framed, in their respective countries relative to the object 
of the present Convention. 

AETIOLE 21. 

The High Contracting Parties shall preserve their en- 
tire liberty as regards radio installations other than pro- 
vided for in article 1, especially naval and military 
installations, which shall be subject only to the obligations 
provided for in articles 8 and 9 of the present Convention. 

However, when such installations are used for general 
public service they shall conform, in the execution of such 
service, to the provisions of the Regulations as regards the 
mode of transmission and rates. 



14 BADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

AETICLE 22. 

The present Convention shall go into effect on the 1st 
day of July, 1908, and shall remain in force for an in- 
definite period, or until the expiration of one year from 
the day when it shall be denounced by any of the Con- 
tracting Parties. 

Such denunciation shall affect only the Government in 
whose name it shall have been made. As regards the 
other Contracting Powers, the Convention shall remain in 
force. 

ARTICLE 23. 

The present Convention shall be ratified and the ratifi- 
cations exchanged at Berlin with the least possible delay. 

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries 
have signed one copy of the Convention, which shall be 
deposited in the archives of the Imperial Government of 
Germany, and a copy of which shall be transmitted to 
each Party. 

Done at Berlin, November 3, 1906. 

For Germany : 

KEAETKE. 

SYDOW. 
For United States: 

CHARLEMAGNE TOWEE. 

H. N. MANNEY. 

JAMES ALLEN. 

JOHN I. WATEEBUEY. 
For Argentina: 

J. OLMI. 
For Austria: 

BAETH. 

.FEIES. 
For Hungary: 

PlEEEE DE SZALAY. 

DE. DE HENNYEY. 
HoLL6s. 



15 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

For Belgium: 

F. DELAEGE. 

E. BUELS. 
For Brazil: 

OESAE DE CAMPOS. 
For Bulgaria: 

Iv. STOYAETOVITOH. 
For Chile: 

J. MUNOZ HURTADO. 

J. MEET. 
For Denmark: 

N. E. MEYEE. 

I. A. VOEHTZ. 

For Spain: 

IGNACIO MUEOIA. 

RAMON ESTRADA. 

RAFAEL RAVENA. 

ISIDRO OALVO % . 

MANUEL NORIEGA. 

ANTONIO PELAEZ-OAMPOMANES, 
For France: 

J. BOEDELONGUE. 

L. GASCHAED. 

BOULANGEE. 

A. DEVOS. 
For Great Britain: 

^H BABINGTON SMITH. 
~A. E. BETHELL. 

R. L. HIPPISLEY. 
For Greece: 

T. AEGYEOPOULOS. 
For Italy: 

J. COLOMBO. 
For Japan: 

OSUKE ASAITO. 

ROKUEE YASHIEO. 

SHUNKICHI KIMTJEA. 

ZIEO TANAKA. 

SABUEO HYAKUTAKE. 



16 



RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 



For Mexico : 

For Monaco: 
For Norway: 

For Netherlands 

For Persia: 

For Portugal: 
For Eoumania: 
Eor Eussia: 



For Sweden: 

For Turkey: 
For Uruguay: 



JOSE M. PEREZ. 
J. DEPELLEY. 

HEFT YE. 
0. T. EIDEM. 

KEUYT. 

PEEK. 
HOVEN. 

HOVHANNES KHAN. 
PAULO BENJAMIN CABEAL. 
GE. CEEKEZ. 
A. EICHHOLZ. 

A. EULEE. 
VlCTOE BlLIBINE. 

A! EEMMEET. 
W. EJEDEINE. 

HEEMAN EYDIN. 
A. HAMILTON. 

NAZIF BEYT 

F. A. COSTANZO. 



PROPOSITIONS. 

AUSTRALIAN FEDERATION. 

1. It is indispensable in the interests of the public telegraphic serv- 
ice that every ship shall be bound to communicate with every other 
ship without distinction as to the system employed on board such 
ship and to accept communications originating with such ship and 
those which may be transmitted by it. 

2. It is indispensable in the interests of the safety of passengers 
that each ship provided with radio apparatus, receiving its electrical 



17 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

energy from the dynamos of the ship, shall possess an installation 
for cases of distress, composed of a small storage battery connected 
with a spark induction coil ; the capacity of the battery shall be suffi- 
cient to assure communication at full power for six hours, so that 
such communications may be maintained independently of the energy 
furnished by the dynamos of the ship. 

3. With a view to rendering the control more effective, it is neces- 
sary that ships .which have obtained a license outside a country 
having radio stations with which they carry on regular correspond- 
ence shall be bound to apply for a permit authorizing them to work 
in such country. The conditions under which the licenses relating 
to public stations are granted shall likewise serve as the basis for the 
issuing of the permits in question. 



3514412- 



PART 2. 
SUPPLEMENTARY AGREEMENT. 

The undersigned plenipotentiaries of the Governments 
of Germany, the United States of America, Argentina, 
Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Den- 
mark, Spain, France, Greece, Monaco, Norway, the 
Netherlands, Roumania, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, and 
Uruguay bind themselves mutually, from the date of the 
going into effect of the Convention, to conform to the 
provisions of the following supplementary articles : 

I. 

Each station on shipboard referred to in article 1 of 
the Convention shall be bound to correspond with any 
other station on shipboard without distinction of the 
radiotelegraphic system adopted by such stations respec- 
tively. 

II. 

The Governments which have not adhered to the fore- 
going article may at any time signify, by following the 
procedure prescribed by article 16 of the Convention, 
that they bind themselves to conform to its provisions. 

Those which have adhered to the foregoing article 
may at any time, under the same conditions as provided 
for in article 22, signify their intention to cease con- 
forming to its provisions. 

III. 

This agreement shall be ratified and the ratifications 
exchanged at Berlin with the least possible delay. 

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentaries 
have signed one copy of the present agreement, which 

18 



19 



RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 



shall be deposited in the archives of the Imperial Gov- 
ernment of Germany, and a copy of which shall be trans- 
mitted to each of the Parties. 

Done at Berlin, November 3, 1906. 

For Germany: 

KEAETKE. 

SYDOW. 
For United States : 

CHAELEMAGNE TOWEE. 

H. K MANNEY. 

JAMES ALLEN. 

JOHX I. WATEBBTJEY. 



For Argentina: 
For Austria: 

For Hungary: 

For Belgium : 

For Brazil: 
For Bulgaria: 
For Chile: 

For Denmark : 



J. OLMI. 



BAETH. 
FEIES. 

PlEEEE DE SZALAY. 

DE, DE HENSTYEY. 
HOLLOS. 

F. DELAEGE. 
E. BUELS. 

CESAE BE CAMPOS. 
Iv. STOYANOVITCH. 

J. Mirfroz HURTABO. 
J. MEEY. 

]S T . R. MEYEE, 
I. A. VOEHTZ. 



20 



KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BEELJN. 



For Spain: 



For France: 



For Greece: 
For Monaco: 
For Norway: 

For Netherlands 

For Roumania: 
For Russia: 



For Sweden: 

For Turkey: 
For Uruguay: 



IGNACIO MUECIA. 

RAMON ESTRADA. 

RAFAEL RAVENA. 

ISIDRO OALVO. 

MANUEL NORIEGA. 

ANTONIO PELAEZ-CAMPOMANES, 

J. BORDELONGTJE. 
L. GASCHARD. 

BOULANGER. 

A. DEVOS. 

T. ARGYROPOULOS. 

J. DEPELLEY. 

HEFTYE. 
0. T. EIDEM. 

KRUYT. 

PERK. 

HOVEN. 

GR. CERKEZ. 

A. EICHOLZ. 
A. EULER, 
VICTOR BILIBINE. 
A. REMMERT. 
W. KEDRINE. 

HERMAN RYDIN. 
A. HAMILTON. 

NAZIF BEY. 

F. A. COSTANZO. 



PART 3. 
FINAL PROTOCOL. 

At the moment of signing the Convention adopted by 
the International Radio Telegraphic Conference of Berlin, 
the undersigned plenipotentiaries have agreed as follows : 

i. 

The High Contracting* Parties agree that at the next 
conference the number of votes to which each country is 
entitled (article 12 of the Convention) shall be decided 
at the beginning of the deliberations, so that the colonies, 
possessions, or protectorates admitted to the privilege of 
voting may exercise their right to vote during the entire 
course of the proceedings of such conference. 

This decision shall be of immediate effect and remain 
in force until amended by a subsequent conference. 

'As regards the next conference, applications for the 
admission of new votes in favor of colonies, possessions, 
or protectorates which may have adhered to the Conven- 
tion shall be addressed to the International Bureau at least 
six months prior to the date of the convening of such con- 
ference. Notice of such applications shall at once be 
given to the remaining contracting Governments, which 
may, within the period of two months from the receipt of 
the notice, formulate similar applications. 

II. 

Each contracting Government may reserve the right to 
designate, according to circumstances, certain coastal sta- 
tions to be exempted from the obligation imposed by 
article 3 of the Convention, provided that, as soon as this 
21 




22 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

measure goes into effect, there shall be opened within its 
territory one or several stations subject to the obligations 
of article 3, insuring, within the region where the ex- 
empted stations are located, such radio service as will 
satisfy the needs of the public service. The Governments 
desiring to reserve this right shall give notice thereof in 
the form provided for in the second paragraph of article 
16 of the Convention, not later than three months before 
the Convention goes into effect or, in case of subsequent 
adhesion, at the time of such adhesion. 

The countries whose names follow below declare now 
that they will not reserve such right : 

Germany, 

United States, 

Argentina, 

Austria, 

Hungary, 

Belgium, 

Brazil, 

Bulgaria, 

Chile, 

Greece, 

Mexico, 

Monaco, 

Norway, 

Netherlands, 

Roumania, 

Russia, 

Sweden, 

Uruguay. 

III. 

The manner of carrying out the provisions of the fore- 
going article shall be at the discretion of the Government 
which takes advantage of the right of exemption; such 
Government shall be at liberty to decide from time to 
time, in its own judgment, how many stations and what 
stations shall be exempted. Such Government shall 
likewise be at liberty as regards the manner of carrying 



23 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

out the provision relative to the opening of other stations 
subject to the obligations of article 3, insuring, within the 
region where the exempted stations are located, such 
radio service as will satisfy the needs of the public service. 

IV. 

It is understood that, in order not to impede scien- 
tific progress, the provisions of article 3 of the Conven- 
tion shall not prevent the eventual employment of a 
radio system incapable of communicating with other sys- 
tems; provided, however, that such incapacity shall be 
due to the specific nature of such system and that it shall 
not be the result of devices adopted for the sole purpose 
of preventing intercommunications. 

' ' ' v. 

The adherence to the Convention by the Government 
of a country having colonies, possessions, or protectorates 
shall not carry with it the adherence of its colonies, pos- 
sessions, or protectorates unless a declaration to that 
effect is made by such Government. Such colonies, pos- 
sessions, and protectorates as a whole, or each of them 
separately, may form the subject of a separate adherence 
or a separate denunciation within the provisions of 
articles 16 and 22 of the Convention. 

It is understood that the stations on board of vessels 
whose headquarters is a port in a colony, possession, or 
protectorate may be deemed as subject to the authority 
of such colony, possession, or protectorate. 

VI. 

Note is taken of the following declaration : 
The Italian delegation in signing the Convention does 
so with the reservation that the Convention can not be 
ratified on the part of Italy until the date of the expira- 
tion of her contracts with Mr. Marconi and his company, 
or at an earlier date if the Government of the King of 



24 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

Italy shall succeed in fixing such date by negotiations 
with Mr. Marconi and his company. 

VII. 

In case one or several of the High Contracting Parties 
shall not ratify the Convention, it shall nevertheless be 
valid as to the parties which shall have ratified it. 

In witness whereof the undersigned plenipotentaries 
have drawn up the present Final Protocol, which shall 
be of the same force and effect as though the provisions 
thereof had been embodied in the text of the Convention 
itself to which it has reference, and they have signed 
one copy of the same, .which shall be deposited in the 
archives of the Imperial Government of Germany, and 
a copy of which shall be transmitted to each of the 
parties. 

Done at Berlin, November 3, 1906. 

[Signed by all plenipotentiaries who signed the Convention, 
pp. 14, 16.] ' 

PROPOSITIONS. 

CANADA. 

NEW ARTICLE (VI a) . 

" The Canadian Government reserves the right to fix radio rates 
according to the method followed by the telegraph lines of North 
America, by charging a fixed rate for the first 10 words the address 
and signature not being charged for and a rate for each word above 
10 words, it being possible for the fixed rate to be greater or less 
than the rate fixed by the Eegulations for a radiogram of 10 words. 

" The said Government furthermore reserves the right to fix sepa- 
rately for each of its coastal stations a total maritime rate, the coastal 
rate amounting to three-fifths and the shipboard rate to two-fifths 
of this total rate. The shipboard rates thus computed shall apply to 
all radiograms transmitted by Canadian coastal stations to any sta- 
tion on shipboard." 

REASONS. 

The Canadian management finds itself obliged to request this 
change because of the peculiar situation of the telegraph systems of 
its country. 

The Canadian management is endeavoring to adopt the inter- 
national method of calculating the cost of telegrams in. all that con- 
cerns the operations of its coastal stations, and it is very possible 
that this object will be attained before the conference takes place, 
in which case the above propositions shall be annulled. 



PART 4. 



SERVICE REGULATIONS AFFIXED TO 
THE INTERNATIONAL RADIO TELE- 
GRAPH CONVENTION. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

1. Organization of radio stations 25 

2. Hours of service of coastal stations 44 

3. Form and posting of radiograms 45 

4. Rates 53 

5. Collection of charges 58 

6. Transmission of radiograms: 

a) Signals of transmission 60 

6) Order of transmission 63 

c) Method of calling radio stations and transmission of radiograms 63 

d) Acknowledgment of receipt and conclusion of work : 

e) Direction to be followed in sending radiograms ... 79 

7. Delivery of radiograms at their destination 82 

8. Special telegrams 86 

9. Files 92 

10. Rebates and reimbursements. 92 

11. Accounts and payment of charges : . . . 96 

12. International bureau 102 

13. Miscellaneous provisions 106 

1. OBGASTIZATIOK OF RADIO STATIONS. 



The choice of radio apparatus and devices to be used 
by the coastal stations and stations on shipboard shall be 
unrestricted. The installation of such stations shall as 
far as possible keep pace with scientific and technical 
progress. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

ITALY (1st). 

To consider in the Radio Telegraph Convention and also in the 
Regulations the definition of aerial radio stations. By this name 
shall be meant stations installed on board dirigibles, balloons, and 
aeroplanes. 
25 



3514412- 



26 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

To consider also all that concerns the correspondence of aerial sta- 
tions with other radio stations. 

REASONS. 

The necessity for the propositions is self -evident-. 

Precise propositions have not been formulated for introduction into 
the Convention and Regulations in view of the special information 
which practical experience will be able to furnish from time to time 
on the subject of radio stations, and anticipating that the Conference 
of London will not meet until the month of June, 1912. 

ITALY (2d). 

Add after the words " stations on shipboard shall be unrestricted," 
the sentence w r hich follows : 

" Nevertheless the radio apparatus and devices shall be of a kind 
to permit transmission by musical note for public correspondence." 

REASONS. 

This addition has for its object the introduction of the use of sys- 
tems having a musical note for public correspondence with a view to 
preventing, if possible, the detrimental effects due to atmospheric 
discharges. In this way radio correspondence can be carried on more 
successfully. 

II. 

Two wave lengths, one of 300 meters and the other 
of 600 meters, are authorized for general public service. 
Every coastal station opened to such service shall use 
one or the other of these two wave lengths. During the 
whole time that a station is open to service it shall be in 
condition to receive calls according to its wave length, 
and no other wave length shall be used by it for the 
service of general public correspondence. Each Gov- 
ernment may, however, authorize in coastal stations the 
employment of other wave lengths designed to insure 
long-range service or any service other than for general 
public correspondence established in conformity with the 
provisions of the Convention, provided such wave lengths 
do not exceed 600 meters or that they do exceed 1,600 
meters. 



27 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 

Add the following paragraph: 

" In particular the stations used for sending signals designed to 
facilitate the determination of the position of ships shall not employ 
wave lengths greater than 100 meters. The coastal stations which 
send time signals or transmit meteorological telegrams shall use a 
wave length of 2,500 meters." 

REASONS. 

It seems necessary to fix a maxium wave length for radiophares 
(radio stations for aids to navigation) in order to avoid the dis- 
turbances which these stations might introduce into the working of 
other stations. A maxium wave length of 100 meters would be 
sufficient. 

In the same manner it would be of advantage to provide a wave 
length to be employed by coastal stations sending time signals or 
transmitting meteorological telegrams. This measure would facili- 
tate the reception of such signals and correspondence by the stations 
on shipboard. This wave length might be fixed at 2,500 meters. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Change the text of Article II as follows : 

" Two wave lengths, one of 600 meters and the other of 300 meters, 
are authorized for the general public service. Every coastal station 
opened to such service should designate as its normal wave length 
either the wave length of 600 meters or that of 300 meters. During 
the whole time that a station is open to service it shall be in condi- 
tion to receive calls made by means of its normal wave length. 
Nevertheless each government, etc." 

REASONS. 

Experience has shown that it is desirable that coastal stations shall 
be free to use that one of the two wave lengths reserved for the 
general public correspondence which is best suited to its needs. 

According to the present provisions of Article II, stations are 
theoretically restricted to the use of one or the other of these two 
wave lengths. 

ITALY (1st). 

Replace the words : 

" Two wave lengths, one of 300 meters and one of 600 meters," by : 

" Two wave lengths, one of 400 meters and the other of 600 meters." 

REASONS. 

The wave length of 400 meters is now the one in current usage. 
It is therefore a question of taking account of this fact in the 
Regulations. 



28 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

ITALY (2d). 

At the end of the same article add : 

" The musical note which coastal stations shall adopt for public 

correspondence shall lie between - - ^indicate a low 

musical note or the number of simple vibrations which form it) and 

- (indicate another higher musical note or the number 

of vibrations which form it) ." 

REASONS. 

In connection with the proposition referring to Article I it seems 
necesary to fix and indicate the musical notes which stations shall 
use. This is for the purpose of regulating the use of transmission by 
musical note which facilitates communications carried on simul- 
taneously. 

JAPAN. 

Amend Article II as follows, and suppress the present Article III: 

"ARTICLE II. 

" The wave length to be employed by coastal stations and stations 
on shipboard subject to the provisions of the Convention shall not 
exceed 600 meters or shall exceed 1,600 meters. 

" Coastal stations open to general public correspondence and all 
stations on shipboard shall, however, in order to reply to calls from 
other stations, always regulate their receiving wave length to 300 
meters, at least when they are not in communication with another 
station." 

REASONS. 

It does not seem necessary to limit the wave length to two kinds, 
one of 300 meters and one of 600 meters. It seems preferable, rather, 
in the interests of the service and with the object of lessening cases 
of interferences to allow each office to employ the wave length which 
it considers best. It is nevertheless indispensable that the wave 
length for calls shall be made uniform. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Read as follows: 

"Wave lengths of 300 to 600 meters shall be authorized for the 
service of general public correspondence. Every soastal .station open 
to such service shall designate a wave length between the limits indi- 
cated above as its normal wave length. During the whole time that 
a station is open to service it shall be in condition to receive calls 
made by means of its normal wave length. 

" Each Government may, however, authorize in coastal stations 
the employment of other wave lengths designed to insure long-range 
service or any service other than for general public correspondence 
established in" conformity with the provisions of the Convention, pro- 
vided such wave lengths do not exceed 600 meters or that they do 
exceed 1,600 meters." 



29 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

Experience has shown that the Regulation fixing the wave lengths 
according to Articles II and III are too limited. 

III. 

1. The normal wave length for stations on shipboard 
shall be 300 meters. Every station on shipboard shall 
be installed in such manner as to be able to use this wave 
length. Other wave lengths may be employed by such 
stations provided they do not exceed 600 meters. 

2. Vessels of small tonnage which are unable to have 
plants on board insuring a wave length of 300 meters 
may be authorized to use a shorter wave length. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

AUSTRIA. 

Paragraphs 1 and 2. Replace the figure " 300 " by the figure " 600." 

REASONS. 

The normal wave length of the majority of stations on shipboard 
is at present 600 meters, and the wave length of the antennae of these 
vessels is at present almost always greater than 300 meters. To attain 
a wave length of 300 meters at present fixed by the service regulation, 
these vessels are compelled to intercalate condensers in the antennae, 
which are detrimental to the range of communication. 

Vessels whose antennae have a wave, length less than 300 meters 
will be able to attain a wave length of 600 meters by switching in 
additional inductance. 

FRANCE. 

Paragraph 2. Complete this paragraph as follows : 
" * * * a wave length less than this number of meters but 
greater than 150 meters." 

REASONS. 

It would be of advantage to use for correspondence only wave 
lengths greater than 150 meters, in order that radiophares may be 
able to use, without fear of interference, wave lengths of 100 meters. 

GREAT BRITAIN (1st). 

Paragraph 1. Replace the present text with the following : 
"The normal wave length for stations on shipboard shall be 600 
meters, and this wave length shall not be exceeded for transmission. 



30 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

Every station on shipboard shall be installed in such manner as to 
be able to use this wave length, as well as that of 300 meters. Inter- 
mediate wave lengths shall not be used, except in special cases, and 
only with the approval of the managements to which the coastal 
stations and stations on shipboard in question are subject." 

REASONS. 

Experience has show r n that a wave length of 600 meters is more 
generally adopted by stations on shipboard for the reason that it 
affords a greater radius of action than a wave length of 300 meters 
and is better adapted to the needs of public correspondence. 

Stations on shipboard should also be able to use a wave length of 
300 meters in order to conform to the provisions of the new article 
to be inserted after Article III. 

GREAT BRITAIN (2d). 

Paragraph 2. Change the text, as follows : 

" Paragraph 1 shall not apply to vessels which it would be im- 
possible, or at least very difficult, to equip with a plant producing 
a wave length of 600 or 300 meters. In such case the vessels shall 
be authorized to employ a wave length of 150 meters." 

REASONS. 

It is considered advisable to fix a special wave length for the use 
of vessels of small tonnage which could not readily be supplied with 
apparatus permitting the use of the wave lengths provided for gen- 
eral public correspondence. 

ITALY. 

Paragraph 1. Replace the present text with the following: 

" 1. The normal wave lengths for stations on shipboard shall also be 
400 and 600 meters. Every station on shipboard shall be installed 
in such manner as to be able to use without difficulty the wave lengths 
cited above. For communications at long range, however, other 
wave lengths may be employed by such stations, provided they do not 
exceed 1,600 meters." (Error?) 

Paragraph 2. Replace the words " wave length of 300 meters," 
referring to paragraph 2 of the article cited above by the following 
words : 

" Wave length of 400 meters." 

Add paragraph 3, as follows : 

" 3. The musical note which stations on shipboard shall use for the 

transmission of public radio correspondence shall lie between 

(indicate a high musical note or the number of simple vibrations 

which form it) and (indicate another higher musical note or its 

number of vibrations)." 

REASONS. 

The same as given for the propositions referring to Article II. 

JAPAN. 

Suppress the present Article III. 



31 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

(See the proposition above referring to the amendment' of Art. II.) 

NETHERLANDS. 

Kead Article III, as follows: 

" Wav e lengths up to 600 meters shall be authorized for stations 
on shipboard for the general public service. Every station on ship- 
board shall designate one of these wave lengths as its normal wave 
length. Other wave lengths may be employed by such stations, pro- 
vided they exceed 1,600 meters." 

REASONS. 
(See the reasons referring to Art. II.) 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

New article to be inserted at the end of Article III : 
"Communications between a station on shipboard and a coastal 
station shall be carried on on the part of both by means of the same 
wave length. When in a particular case much interference results 
therefrom the two stations may by common consent change this wave 
length. In this w^y a coastal station and a station on shipboard 
can agree between themselves to pass from a wave length of 600 
meters, by means of which they are corresponding, to one of 300 
meters, or from 300 to 600 meters. The stations shall, however, re- 
turn to their normal wave lengths as soon as the transmission of the 
message or messages is finished." 



Experience has shown the necessity for introducing this provision 
in order to prevent unnecessary interference and to provide all the 
means of communication possible for public correspondence. 

IV. 

1. The International Bureau shall be charged with 
drawing up a list of radio stations of the class referred to 
in article 1 of the Convention. Such list shall contain 
for each station the following data: 

(1) Name, nationality, and geographical location in 
the case of coastal stations; name, nationality, distin- 
guishing signal of the International Code, and name of 
ship's home port in the case of stations on shipboard. 

(2) Call letters (the calls shall be distinguishable 
from one another, and each must be formed of a group 
of three letters) . 



32 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

(3) Normal range. 

(4) Radio system. 

(5) Class of receiving apparatus (recording, acoustic, 
or other apparatus) . 

(6) Wave lengths used by the station (the normal 
wave length to be underscored) . 

(7) Nature of sendee carried on by the station: 
General public correspondence. 

Limited public correspondence (correspondence with 
vessels . . . .; correspondence with shipping lines . . . .; 
correspondence with ships fitted with apparatus of the 
.... system, etc.) . 

Long-range public correspondence. 

Correspondence of private interests. 

Special correspondence (exclusively official correspond- 
ence) , etc. 

(8) Hours during which the station is open. 

(9) Coastal rate or shipboard rate. 

2. The list shall also contain such data relating to 
radio stations other than those specified in article 1 of 
the Convention as may be communicated to the Interna- 
tional Bureau by the management of the Radio Service 
(" administration") to which such stations are subject. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY (1st). 

Paragraph 1. Replace the present text by the following: 
" 1. The International Bureau shall draw up, publish, and revise 
from time to time an official chart of coastal stations in which the 
normal range of these stations shall also be indicated. This chart 
shall contain, in addition, data concerning the principal lines of 
steam navigation and the time usually employed by vessels to make 
the voyage between the different ports." 

REASONS. 

The reception of telegrams will be facilitated if the posting offices 
have at their disposition a chart drawn up in accordance with a 
uniform system which shall give the information mentioned above. 

" 2. It shall draw up and publish a list of radio stations of the 
class referred to in article 1 of the Convention, and from time to time 
supplements to this list announcing additions and changes. Such 
list shall contain for each station the following data." 



33 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

With a view to making the wording of this paragraph conform as 
closely as possible to that of Article LXXXIV, paragraph 5, of the 
Telegraph Regulations, as revised at Lisbon. 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

LXXXIV. 

5. It compiles and publishes a nomenclature of the telegraph offices open for 
the international service, including coast radio stations and periodical annexes 
to this work, showing the necessary additions and modifications. 

GERMANY (2d). 

Change paragraph 1 as follows: 

" 1. In the case of coastal stations: Name, nationality, and geo- 
graphical location. In the case of stations on shipboard: Name, 
nationality, distinguishing signal of the International Code, name of 
the ship's home port, name of the charterer, name of the contractor 
who works the station when it is not worked by the charterer himself, 
character of the personnel operating the station (professional radio 
operators or the personnel of the ship)." 

REASONS. 

In the interest of the accounts and in consideration of the two dif- 
ferent examinations proposed for radio operators on shipboard (pro- 
fessional operators and the personnel of the ships ; see the proposition 
made under paragraph 3 (b) of Article VI). 

SPAIN. 

It would be well to submit for consideration by the Conference the 
desirability of having the descriptive lists contain the names of the 
companies working the stations on shipboard if they are not worked 
by the owners of the ships. This management is of the opinion that 
such shipowners should enter into an agreement with the station 
contractors, as otherwise complications would arise in accounting 
with a National Government, even though the result should be advan- 
tageous to the station contractors. 

FRANCE. 

Paragraph 1. Eeplace this paragraph with the following text : 

" The International Bureau shall be charged with drawing up a 
list, of radio stations of the class referred to in article 1 of the Con- 
vention. Such list shall contain for each station the following data : 

"(1) Name, nationality, and geographical location indicated by the 
territorial subdivision in the case of coastal stations ; name, national- 
ity, distinguishing signal of the International Code of signals in the 
case of stations on shipboard ; 

"(2) Normal range by day and by night; 



3514112 5 



34 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

" (3) Characteristic indications of the transmitting system (musical 
note, etc.) ; 

"(4) Wave lengths used by the stations (the normal wave length 
to be underscored) ; 

"(5) Nature of the services carried on by the station and the dura- 
tion of the service ; 

"(6) Indication of the time and manner of sending time signals 
and meteorological telegrams; 

"(7) Coastal rate or 4 shipboard rate." 

REASONS. 

The present list contains certain unnecessary data which has no 
other effect but to add to the weight and increase the cost of the 
document. 

It is proposed therefore to publish only the necessary data for 
fixing the charges and dispatching radiograms. 

The geographical position shall be indicated merely by means of 
the territorial subdivision. 

Call letters shall be omitted and replaced by the distinguishing 
signal of the International Code of Signals. It is, in fact, unneces- 
sary to have two signals designating the same ship. 

Two numbers should be given for the range ; one for the range by 
day, the other for the range by night, in view of the difference exist- 
ing between these two numbers. 

Information concerning the nature of the radio system and the 
class of receiving apparatus is not needed; it seems preferable to 
replace such data by information concerning the character of the 
transmission. 

As will be seen further on, the nature and duration of the service 
carried on by the station should be indicated by the use of letters. 

The hour and the manner of sending time signals and meteorological 
radiograms should be indicated in the list in view of the interest 
which a knowledge of these elements would have for ships. 

Finally, the adoption of the proposition presented under Article 
XII would make the publication or the Qoastal rates and shipboard 
rates unnecessary since the rates there indicated are the ones which 
would be employed. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Paragraph 1. Under 1. cancel: 
" Distinguishing signal of the International Code." 
Under 3, replace the present text by the following: 
tt 3. Normal range by day, and in case of stations continuously open 
to service also the normal range by night." 

REASONS. 

It is desirable to make known as fully as possible the true i; normal 
tange." It has happened that a ship, although within the radius of 
action of the normal range of a station as published in the lists, has 
not been able to communicate with this station. 



35 RADIO TELEGEAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

BRITISH INDIES. 

It seems necessary for the International Bureau to publish, in con- 
nection with the name of each ship or of each station, the name and 
address of the special central office with which accounts should be 
settled. 

REASONS. 

At present it is necessary in the British Indies to obtain this in- 
formation from the operator on board the ship. 

ITALY (1st). 

In case of the approval of the proposition relating to Articles I, II, 
and VI an additional paragraph should be added to Article IV, num- 
ber 6a, to read as follows: 

"6a. The musical tone of tfre transmission;" 

ITALY (2d). 

Add a new item under paragraph 1, to read as follows: 

" 10. Management, company, or individual who works a station." 

REASONS. 

The addition of the new item under paragraph 1 is necessary to 
indicate by whom a station is worked. It may in fact happen that 
coastal stations may be worked by private companies instead of by 
the Government of the country in which they are installed. Further- 
more the stations on shipboard may be worked by a radio telegraph 
company and not by the navigation companies who own the ships in 
which the stations are installed. 

The information in question is necessary when a special form of 
accounting for radio telegraphy, provided and authorized by the 
regulations, must be followed. 

The Italian management recently availed itself of this privilege 
of regulating in a special manner the settlement of its accounts with 
the Marconi company. 

ITALY (3d). 

Paragraph 2. Replace the words "by the management to which 
such stations are subject," by the following text: 

"By the management or the company to which such stations are 
subject, either in the case of managements adhering to the Conven- 
tion or of managements which are not adherents but which have made 
the declaration referred to in Article IX." 

REASONS. 

The change proposed for the last item of the same article has for 
its object the introduction into the list of all stations open to public 
service, provided the interested managements have assured the pay- 
ment of the charges which may eventually become due. 



36 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

JAPAN. 

Paragraph 1. Revise item 3 as follows: 

"3. Normal range (indicate the normal range by day and that by 
night) ;" 

REASONS. 

There is a sensibly appreciable difference between the range by 
day and that by night. It therefore seems necessary to indicate the 
normal range by classing it under two heads. 

FRANCE. 

Add a third paragraph as follows : 

" 3. The following notations shall be adopted in documents for 
use by the International Service to designate radio stations : 
u PG Station open to general public correspondence. 
" PR Station open to limited public correspondence. 
" P Station for correspondence of private interests. 
" O Station open exclusively for official correspondence. 
" N Station having continuous service. 
" C Station carrying on full service during the day from 

8 a. m. to 9 p. m. 

" L Station carrying on service limited to certain hours. 
" The first four notations may be combined with the last three." 

REASONS. 

In order to reduce the data contained in the list it is proposed to 
adopt the method employed for the list of telegraph offices consisting 
in the use of notations for designating the nature and duration of 
the service carried on by the offices. The notations given above seem 
to be sufficient for all cases; if necessary, certain of them could be 
specially amplified by repetitions. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Add a new paragraph as follows : 

" 3. (a) The word " radio " should be added to the name of each 
coastal station published in the official list. 

"() The name of a station on shipboard published in the first 
column of the official list should be followed, in case there are sev- 
eral vessels of the same name, by the call letters of this station." 

REASONS. 

It is proposed to add the word radio to the name of the coastal 
station instead of putting it in the preamble with a view (a) to 
making the omission of this word less probable in the course of trans- 
mission, and (&) to establishing a difference between the telegraph 
offices and the coastal stations bearing the same name. 

It is proposed to submit to the conference the suggestion of desig- 
nating every coastal station established in a little-known locality by 
the name of a large neighboring seaport or city, followed by the 
word radio. 



37 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

Sometimes several ships of the same nationality bear the same 
name. In such cases the present instructions given for the purpose of 
distinguishing such ships entail unnecessary transmissions. It would 
be better for the radio service to use for this purpose the call letters. 
(See amendment to Art. XL) 

V. 

The exchange of superfluous signals and words is pro- 
hibited to stations of the class referred to in article 1 of 
the Convention. Experiments and practice will be per- 
mitted in such stations in so far as they do not interfere 
with the service of other stations. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE (1st). 

Complete this article by the following sentence : 
" Practice shall be carried on with wave lengths different from 
those authorized for public correspondence." 

REASONS. 

The present text is not sufficiently definite; it seems necessary to 
specify that the use of the wave lengths for commercial service is 
prohibited in sending messages for practice. 

This measure will lessen interference produced by practice. 

FRANCE (2d). 

Add a new article, as follows : 

ARTICLE V a. 

" 1. A chart defining the zone covered by each coastal station open 
to general public correspondence shall be established in accordance 
with the rule fixed by Article XXX, paragraph 1. 

"Except in case of distress, a ship shall not correspond with any 
other coastal station than the one in whose zone it is. 

" 2. All stations are bound to carry on traffic with the minimum of 
power necessary to assure safe communication. 

"3. Waves sent out by a station shall be as pure and as little 
damped as possible. 

"4. Stations used for determining the position of ships (radio- 
phares) shall not have a range greater than 30 nautical miles. 

" Coastal stations charged with sending time signals and the trans- 
mission of meteorological radiograms shall not be limited as to the 
power to be used for sending the said signals and radiograms." 



38 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

The object of this new article is to facilitate the exchange of radio- 
grams by avoiding interference between the different stations. 

In order to define the measure proposed, a chart shall be published 
showing the zone covered by each coastal station on a basis of the rule 
established in Article XXX, paragraph 1. (A sample chart for 
French coastal stations is shown with the French text, published in 
Berne.) 

The provision made by Article XXVIII has been introduced into 
this article as being more appropriately placed. 

It seems necessary to define the conditions to be fulfilled by waves 
sent out by the stations. 

It would seem that the range of stations designed for determining 
the position of ships should be fixed at 30 miles, as beyond this range 
information furnished by such stations is no longer sufficiently 
accurate. 

Finally, in regard to stations charged with sending time signals 
and meteorological radiograms, no maximum of power should be 
imposed in order to permit such stations to be heard at as great a 
distance as possible. 

VI. 

1. No station on shipboard shall be established or 
worked by private enterprise without authority from the 
Government to which the vessel is subject. Such author- 
ity shall be in the nature of a license issued by said 
Government. 

2. Every station on shipboard that has been so author- 
ized shall comply with the following requirements: 

(a) The system employed shall be a syntonized 
system. 

(b) The rate of transmission and reception, under nor- 
mal conditions, shall not be less than 12 words a minute, 
words to be counted at the rate of 5 letters each. 

(c) The power transmitted to the radio apparatus 
shall not, under normal conditions, exceed 1 kilowatt. 
Power exceeding 1 kilowatt may be employed when the 
vessel finds it necessary to correspond while more than 
300 kilometers (161.88 nautical miles) distant from the 
nearest coastal station, or when, owing to obstructions, 
communication can be established only by means of an 
increase of power. 

3. The service of the station on shipboard shall be car- 
ried on by a radio operator holding a certificate issued by 



39 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

the Government to which the vessel is subject. Such 
certificate shall attest the professional efficiency of the 
operator as regards 

(a) Adjustment of the apparatus. 

(b) Transmission and acoustic reception at the rate of 
not less than 20 words a minute. 

(c) Knowledge of the regulations governing the ex- 
change of radio correspondence. 

4. The certificate shall furthermore state that the Gov- 
ernment has Abound the operator to secrecy with regard 
to the correspondence. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY (1st). 

Paragraph 2. Replace (a) by the following: 

"(#) The logarithmic decrement of the aerial shall be less than 
0.15 ; the receiving sj^stem shall be a syntonized system." 

REASONS. 

The term " syntonized system " is not sufficiently exact, each sys- 
tem being syntonized more or less. It would seem better to fix the 
degree of syntpnization which is determined by logarithmic decre- 
ment. 

GERMANY (2d). 

Paragraph 2. Replace the first sentence of (c) by the following 
text : 

"The power emitted by the aerial shall not, under normal condi- 
tions, exceed 0.75 kilowatt." 

In the second sentence replace the words " one kilowatt " by " 0.75 
kilowatt." 

REASONS. 

The present wording admits of doubt as to whether the expression 
" one kilowatt " refers to the power transmitted to the primary cir- 
cuit or to that transmitted to the secondary circuit (aerial). Only 
the power emitted by the aerial should enter into the consideration. 
In order to avoid as fully as possible reciprocal interferences, a 
power of 0.75 kilowatt emitted by the aerial should be considered 
as sufficient. 

AUSTRIA. 

Paragraph 2 (c). Replace the text of (c) by the following: 
" The power transmitted to the radio apparatus shall not exceed 
the power necessary to produce the desired effect." 



40 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

The majority of stations on board modern commercial ships have 
a power of 2 kilowatts. 

FRANCE. 

Paragraph 2. Replace the text of this paragraph by the following: 

" 2. Every station on shipboard that has been so authorized shall 
comply also with the following conditions: 

"(#) The rate of transmission and reception, under normal condi- 
tions, shall not be less than 12 words a minute, words to be counted 
at the rate of 5 letters each ; 

"(&) Receiving apparatus shall be able to receive with the greatest 
possible assurance against interference all the business provided for 
in the present Regulations." 

REASONS. 

The changes proposed are entailed by Article V-a. Moreover it 
seems necessary to require that stations on shipboard shall be organ- 
ized so as to be able to receive with a maximum assurance against 
interference in order to avoid as much as possible requests for 
repetition. 

GREAT BRITAIN (1st). 

Paragraph 2 (a). Replace the present text by the following: 
"(#) The system employed shall be a system of electrical selection 
so far as the transmitter is concerned; that is to say, that. the trans- 
mission of waves, while producing the maximum excitation in a 
receiver suitably tuned or adjusted to these waves, shall be of a 
nature not to anect unduly receivers not so tuned or adjusted." 

REASONS. 

The term " electrical selection " seems to define more exactly the 
meaning of this provision. 

The expression " syntonized " is susceptible of being incorrectly 
interpreted. 

GREAT BRITAIN (2d). 

Paragraph 2 (b). Replace " twelve words a minute " by " twenty 
words a minute." 

REASONS. 

It being known that the radio operator on shipboard must be 
capable of transmitting and receiving 20 words a minute, it is only 
right that the installation on shipboard should be of a nature to 
permit the same rate of work. 

ITALY (1st). 

Paragraph 2. Add at the end of (a) : 

" with transmission by a musical note comprised between the 

tones (indicate the tones which shall be fixed by the propo- 
sition referring to Article II, in the new Xo. 3 submitted for con- 
sideration) ." 



41 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

The same as those given for the propositions submitted for Articles 
I, II. and III. 

ITALY (2d). 

Paragraph 2. Cancel (c). 

REASONS. 

The proposition to suppress (c), paragraph 2 of Article VI of the 
Regulations, has its reason in the fact that limitation to 1 kilowatt 
for the power transmitted to the radio apparatus is not sufficient for 
the practical needs in working. In fact, installations on board 
Italian and foreign ships almost always have a greater power. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Paragraph 2. Suppress (c). 

REASONS. 

To associate the power with the distance does not seem to conform 
to the technical nature of the installations. 

GERMANY (1st). 

Paragraph 3 (a). Cancel the comma and add the words: 
" and a knowledge of their manner of functioning ; ". 

REASONS. 

It is necessary that the examination should show that radio oper- 
ators on shipboard understand the functioning of the apparatus in 
order that such operators shall also be able to repair without delay 
any derangements of the apparatus which may occur. 

GERMANY (2d). 

Paragraph 3 (&). Add at the end: 

in the case of professional radio operators, and twelve 
words a minute in the case of the personnel of ships." 

REASONS. 

The present conditions of the examinations are too difficult to be 
fulfilled by the personnel of ships, especially those of freight steam- 
ers and fishing vessels. 

AUSTRIA. 

Paragraph 3 (&) . Replace the number " 20 " by the number " 16." 

REASONS. 

Although radio operators of warships attain a rate of 100 letters 
or figures a minute, those of commercial vessels, and especially the 
radio operators on board freight ships, very rarely attain this rate. 



3514432 



42 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONTENTION OF BERLIN. 

BELGIUM. 

Paragraph 3. Change the wording of the first sentence of this 
paragraph as follows: 

" * * *, provided such operator is not already in possession of 
a certificate from another contracting Government. The certificate 
* * * ( the " instead of " such ") . 

REASONS. 

It sometimes happens that a radio operator in charge of the 
service of a station on shipboard under one of the contracting coun- 
tries, and therefore possessing the regulation certificate, is assigned 
to the service of a station on board a ship of another nationality. 

In such case the present text compels the Government to whom the 
last-named ship is subject to submit the efficiency of the operator to 
new proof, although his efficiency has already been recognized by 
another Government. This formality would seem to be superfluous. 

DENMARK. 

Paragraph 3 (6). New wording: 

"The rate of transmission and acoustic reception in case of radio 
operators carrying on the service of large ships authorized to have 
more than fifty passengers on board, shall not be less than twenty 
words a minute, and in the case of radio operators carrying on the 
service of other stations on shipboard it shall not be less than twelve 
words a minute." 

REASONS. 

The provision of the present Regulation that the radio operator 
shall be able to transmit and receive radiograms at a rate not less 
than 20 words a minute constitutes a serious obstacle to the employ- 
ment of radio telegraphy on board ships of small tonnage or on board 
ships designed solely for carrying merchandise. The correspondence 
with such ships is slight, and the radio work must be performed by a 
member of the crew. 

The difficulty of receiving and transmitting at a rate of 20 words a 
minute is too great for mariners, and the proposition in question 
compels the shipowners to hire a man especially for the radio serv- 
ice, which is too expensive, or to give up the station. 

ITALY (1st). 

Add to Article VI the following paragraph: 

" 5. Stations on shipboard, when the ship is under way, shall be 
manned during the first fifteen minutes of each hour, such hour to 
be referred to a special meridian, which shall be determined. 

" This is for the purpose of assuring the reception and transmission 
of radiograms as well as the reception of calls of distress." 

REASONS. 

Article 9 of the Radio Telegraph Convention compels stations to 
accept by absolute priority calls of distress coming from ships. 



43 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

However, it is necessary to insert a special provision to compel 
ships under way to have an operator at the radio instruments listen- 
ing in at fixed intervals of time in order to respond promptly to 
such calls. 

The proposition is intended to assure the reception of urgent com- 
munications by ships, which does not seem obligatory, since, for 
example, the English Radio Telegraph Regulations, under article 6, 
last sentence, clearly indicate that English ships are not compelled 
to exchange communications with other ships except in case of dis- 
tress; but there is no provision for putting the ships in a condition 
to receive without fail the communications referred to above. 

ITALY (2d). 
Insert a new article as follows: 

"ARTICLE VI a. 

" Stations on shipboard reserved for general public service should 
have a minimum normal range of 300 kilometers (101.88 nautical 
miles) . This range shall be guaranteed by the managements in 
question by means of a regular supervision in order to be certain that 
the power of the installations is sufficient. Account shall be taken of 
the efficiency of the system adopted for transmission compared with 
a standard receiving system." 

REASONS. 

The adoption of Article Vl-a would tend to assure the efficiency 
of the stations on shipboard either for calls in case of distress or for 
the transmission of radiograms on the high seas sent from one ship 
to another for the purpose of reaching the Continent. 

In order to promote the efficiency of the control to be exercised 
over the installations on shipboard by the managements with a view 
to guaranteeing a range of 300 kilometers, the necessary power of the 
different SA^stems of radio telegraphy should be determined by ref- 
erence to a standard receiving system (aerials, type of electrolytic 
detector, known circuits of resonance, earth wires). 

ITALY (3d). 
Add a new article. Vl-b, to read as follows: 

"ARTICLE Vl-b. 

" Stations of high power specially indicated in the list of radio 
stations shall give periodically, and at stated times, the local time 
signal or that of the standard meridian of the district in which 
the stations are located in order that ships at sea may be able to 
regulate their chronometers. 

" In the case of stations of high power located in the same district, 
the signal above mentioned shall be sent at different times indicated 
in the list of radio stations." 

REASONS. 



The reasons for this proposition are self-evident 



44 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

VII. 

If the management of the radio service of a country 
has knowledge of any infraction of the Convention or of 
the Eegulations committed in any of the stations author- 
ized by it, it shall ascertain the facts and fix the. respon- 
sibility. 

In the case of stations on shipboard, if the operator is 
responsible for such infraction, the management of the 
radio service shall. take the necessary measures; and if 
the necessity should arise, withdraw the certificate. If 
it is ascertained that the infraction is the result of the 
condition of the apparatus or of instructions given the 
operator, the same method shall be pursued with regard 
to the license issued to the vessel. 

2. In cases of repeated infractions chargeable to the 
same vessel, if the representations made to the manage- 
ment of the country to which the vessel is subject by that 
of another country remain without effect, the latter shall 
be at liberty, after giving due notice, to authorize its 
coastal stations not to accept communications proceeding 
from the vessel at fault. In case of disagreement be- 
tween the managements of the radio service of two 
countries, the question shall be submitted to arbitration 
at the request of either of the two Governments at issue. 
The procedure in such case shall be the same as indicated 
in article 18 of the Convention. 

2. HOUES OF SERVICE OF OASTAL STATIONS. 

VIII. 

1. The service of coastal stations shall, as far as pos- 
sible, be constant, day and night, without interruption. 

Certain coastal stations, however, may have a service 
of limited duration. The management of the radio serv- 
ice of each country shall fix the hours of service. 

2. The coastal stations whose service is not constant 
shall not close before having transmitted all their radio- 



45 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

grams to the vessels which are within their radius of 
action, nor before having received from such vessels all 
the radiograms of which notice has been given. This 
provision is likewise applicable when vessels signal their 
presence before the actual cessation of work. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 

Change the title as follows : 
" 3. Address of Radiograms." 

REASONS. 

(See below under Art. IX.) 

3. FORM AND POSTING OF RADIOGRAMS. 

IX. 

If the route of a radiogram is partly over telegraph 
lines or through radio stations subject to a noncontracting 
Government, such radiogram may be transmitted pro- 
vided the managements of the radio service to which such 
lines or stations are subject have declared that, if the 
occasion should arise, they will comply with such provi- 
sions of the Convention and of the Regulations as are 
indispensable to the regular transmission of radiograms 
and that the payment of charges is insured. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

BULGARIA. 

Change the article as follows: 

" The transmission of a radiogram originating in a nonadhering 
country over the lines or through the radio stations of adhering 
countries shall not be permitted except on condition that the Gov- 
ernment of the nonadhering country in which the radiogram origi- 
nated has declared that, if the occasion should arise, it will comply 
with such provisions of the Convention and of the ^Regulations as 
are indispensable to the regular transmission of radiograms, and that 
the payment of charges is assured. 

" This declaration shall be made to the International Bureau and 
communicated to the offices of the Telegraph Union." 



46 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

The question here seems to be rather that of permitting the trans- 
mission of radiograms originating in a nonadhering country over the 
lines or through the radio stations of adhering countries, similar to 
the stipulations of Article XVII of the Universal Postal Conven- 
tion of Rome, regulating the relations between the countries out- 
side the Union and the countries of the Union, by intermediation of 
a neighboring country belonging to the Union with a country outside 
the Union. In fact the question arises: Are the present stipulations 
of Article IX obligatory or optional in the case of a nonadhering 
country, and what would the position of an adhering country be 
with respect to a nonadhering country which was not disposed to 
make the declaration required by this article in case the adhering 
country should need to have recourse to the service of the non- 
adhering country? 

The present stipulations seem to contain an advantage for the 
nonadhering country in transmitting radiograms in transit over its 
lines or through its radio stations, and at the same time such trans- 
mission is made dependent upon the condition that the declaration 
in question has been made. Now, is it to be understood that in the 
absence, for example, of such a declaration on the part of a non- 
adhering country, adhering countries will be under the necessity of 
refusing to post radiograms the transmission of which would neces- 
sitate borrowing the- telegraph lines of a nonadhering country, while 
paragraph 2 of Article XXXVI of the Regulations (similarly par. 
6 of Art. LXII of the International Service Regulations, revised at 
Lisbon) provides that for transmission over telegraph lines radio- 
grams shall be treated in accordance with the International Telegraph 
Regulations ?. 

The Bulgarian management considers that in any event the pres- 
ent stipulations of Article IX should be elucidated in order to avoid 
misinterpretation. 

EXTRACT FROM INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND SERVICE 
REGULATIONS. MENTIONED ABOVE. 

RADIOGRAMS. 

Reg. LXII. 

1. A special nomenclature contains the particulars necessary for radio cor- 
respondence with ships at sea. especially the designations of stations and the 
radio charges. 

2. Radiograms bear in the preamble the service instruction " Radio." 

3. Radiograms are written in conformity with the rules in chapter -4, and 
subject to the application of the provisions of Reg. LX. The use of groups of 
letters taken from the International Code of Signals is permitted. 

4. The charge for a radiogram comprises: 

(1) The charge for transmission over the lines of the telegraph system, 
calculated according to the general rules. 

(2) The charge proper to the transmission over sea. viz: 
(a) The coast charge. 

(&) The ship charge. 

These two latter rates are indicated in the Nomenclature of Radio Stations. 
The total charge for a radiogram is collected from the sender. 

5. Radiograms which, notwithstanding their defective reception, are consid- 
ered by the coast station fit for delivery, bear in the preamble the service 
instruction " Reception doubtful," which is transmitted to destination. 



47 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

6. In respect of transmission over the lines of the telegraph system, radio- 
grams are treated, for accounting purposes, in conformity with the provisions 
of chapter 18. 

As regards the maritime transit, the coast and ship charges are included in 
special monthly accounts. 

These accounts are made out by the administrations responsible for the coast 
stations, radiogram by radiogram, with all necessary particulars, within six 
months from the month to which they relate. 

7. In respect of radiograms destined for ships, the administration which has 
collected the charges is debited directly with the coast and ship charges by the 
administration responsible for the coast station. 

8. Modifications of the provisions of the present regulations relating to radio- 
grams, which may be rendered necessary in consequence of decisions of future 
radio telegraph conferences, will be brought into force on the date fixed for 
the application of the provisions adopted by each of these latter conferences. 

FRANCE. 

Transfer Article IX to section 13 " Miscellaneous provisions." 

REASONS. 

The modifications proposed relate to questions of form. 

It seems preferable that the provisions of Article IX should be 
placed in the chapter on miscellaneous provisions. 

In the same way rules concerning the constitution of the preamble, 
should be inserted in the chapter of rules referring to transmission, 
analogous to what has been done in International Telegraph Regula- 
tions. 

It results from the foregoing that the title of section 3 applies 
only to the address of radiograms. 

X. 

1. Kadiograms shall show in the preamble that the 
service is radio. 

2. In the transmission of radiograms of shipboard sta- 
tions to coastal stations the date and hour of posting may 
be omitted in the preamble. 

Upon reforwarding a radiogram over the telegraph 
system the coastal station shall show thereon its own 
name as the office of origin, followed by that of the vessel, 
and shall state as the hour of posting the hour when the 
radiogram was received by it. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 

Transfer this article to section 6e. 
" Transmission of radiograms." 

REASONS. 

(See above under Art. IX.) 



48 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

GREAT BBITAIN. 
(See proposition under par. 2.) 

ITALY. 

Change the first paragraph as follows: 

" 1. Radiograms shall contain as the first word of the preamble 
the designation of the service : ' Radio.' ' ! 

REASONS. 

The word radio serves to designate a special class of telegrams 
similarly to the words press, urgent, state, etc., which are given the 
first place in the preamble. There is no reason why the same method 
should not be followed for the designations to be given to radio- 
grams, especially as the word radio placed at the beginning of the 
preamble could scarcely fail to be transmitted. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Insert, between paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, paragraph 2 of 
Article XVII. and change the number of the present paragraph 
2 to 3. 

REASONS. 

It seems logical to transfer the provision in question to Article X 
of the division " Form and posting of radiograms." 

AUSTRIA. 

Paragraph 2, second item. Replace the text of the second item by 
the following: 

"Upon forwarding a radiogram over the telegraph system the 
coastal station shall show thereon its own name, followed by that of 
the vessel and that of her nationality, as the office of origin; the 
hour when the radiogram was received shall be given as the hour of 
posting." 

REASONS. 

The indication of the nationality of the vessel is desirable in order 
to facilitate the settlement of international accounts. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Replace the present text of paragraphs 1 and 2 by the following: 
" 1. In the transmission of radiograms from a station on ship- 
board to a coastal station the hour of posting may be omitted in 
the preamble; the date of posting shall be indicated only when it is 
different from the date of transmission of the radiogram to the 
coastal station. 

" 2. Upon forwarding a radiogram over the ordinary telegraph 
lines the coastal station shall show thereon the name of the vessel 
of origin or, if necessary, that of the last vessel which served as in- 
termediary, as the name of the office of origin. These designations 



49 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

shall be followed by the name of the coastal station, to which shall 
be added the word radio, for example " Ushantradio." There shall 
likewise be indicated the date and hour of reception of the radio- 
gram by the coastal station, followed, if necessary (see par. 1), by 
the date of posting at the station on shipboard." 

REASONS. 

It is desirable to indicate the date of posting on shipboard when 
it is different from the date of reception at the coastal station, as 
well as the name of the last ship which served- as intermediary in the 
case of forwarding radiograms. The omission of these designations 
might lead to misunderstanding. 

It is desirable to suppress the word radio in the preamble and to 
add this word to the name of the coastal station, believing that 
there would be less probability of this w r ord being overlooked in the 
course of transmission, and with a view to avoiding any confusion 
with a telegraph office of the same- name. 

The present practice being capable of giving rise to mistakes, the 
name of the ship or ships should precede the name of. the coastal 
station in the preamble. 

XL 

The address of radiograms intended for ships at sea 
shall be as complete as possible. It shall embrace the 
following : 

(a) The name of the addressee, with additional des- 
ignations, if any. 

(b) The name of the vessel as it appears in the list, 
supplemented by her nationality and, if necessary, by 
her distinguishing signal of the International Code, in case 
there are several vessels of the same name. 

(c) The name of the coastal station as it appears in 
the list. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GEE-MANY. 

(&) Add at the end the following words: 

k> However, the name of the vessel may be written as a single word 
and shall then be counted for as many words as the number of its 
characters divided by 15." 

REASONS. 
With a view to removing doubts which have arisen on this subject. 



3514412 7 



50 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

BELGIUM. 

Change (6) as follows: 

"(&) The name of the vessel as it appears in the international list, 
supplemented by her nationality, and, if necessary, by her distin- 
guishing signal of the International Code; each of these designa- 
tions to be counted as one word whatever may be the number of 
characters which they contain." 

REASONS. 

The present wording permits the belief that the designation of the 
nationality of the vessel is obligatory, while it should be mentioned 
only when there are several vessels of the same name! 

On the other hand, it is reasonable to rate as a single word the 
name of a station on shipboard, as such station constitutes the ad- 
dress of the radiogram in the same way as a coastal station, although 
Article X of the Convention provides that the latter should be con- 
sidered as the address. 

FRANCE. 

Replace the text of this article by the following : 

" The address of radiograms intended for ships at sea should be as 
complete as possible. It shall embrace the following : 

"(a) The name of the addressee, with additional designations, if 
any; 

"(&) The name of the vessel as it appears in the list. In case 
there are several vessels of the same name, this name shall be sup- 
plemented either by the nationality of the vessel or by her distin- 
guishing signal of the International Code of Signals; 

"(<?) The name of the coastal station as it appears in the list. 

" However, the name of the vessel may be replaced, at the sender's 
risk; by the designation of the route to be followed by such vessel as 
determined by the name of the ports of departure and destination 
or by any equivalent information." 

REASONS. 

The changes proposed for (b) are intended to make the present 
text more exact, which now seems to require the designation of the 
nationality in all cases. 

By adding the last paragraph additional facility is afforded to the 
sender in case, as often happens, he does not know the name of the 
vessel on which the addressee is to be found. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

(1)} read: 

"(&) Name of the vessel as it appears in the first column of the 
official list." 

(<?) Cancel the period and add "official." 

REASONS. 
(See Art. VI.) 



51 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

NETHERLANDS. 

(&) Read as follows: 

"(&) The name of the vessel as it appears in the list, supplemented 
by her nationality and, if necessary, by her distinguishing signal of 
the International Code in case there are several vessels of the same 
name." 

REASONS. 

The present wording does not show distinctly that the mention of 
the nationality is obligatory only in case there are several vessels of 
the same name. 

The new wording agrees w r ith that occurring on page 231 of the 
Berlin document. 

ITALY. 

Introduce a new article, Xl-a, to read as follows: 

"ARTICLE XI A. 

" The public may request that coastal stations not having constant 
service prolong the duration of their service during the night in order 
to transmit radiograms to stations on shipboard or to receive such 
radiograms from them. The additional rates for such service shall 
be charged to the sender and collected at the same time as the rates 
for ordinary telegrams and radiograms. 

".Each management shall make known the amount of such addi- 
tional rates. The information relating thereto shall be given in the 
official list of radio stations. 

"The charges above mentioned shall be credited to the manage- 
ment to which the coastal station prolonging its service is subject in 
the special accounts for radiograms. 

" The request for night service shall be made in the radiograms by 
the proper designation (x nights) placed immediately in front of the 
address. The letter x indicates the number of nights during which 
the coastal station shall prolong its service after the arrival of the 
radiogram." 

REASONS. 

The reasons for the proposition are self-evident. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

New article to be inserted before Article XII : 

"ARTICLE XI-A. 

"In the address the name of the vessel as it appears in the first 
column of the official list shall in every case and independently of its 
length be counted as one word." 

REASONS. 

It seems that the time has come for the names of vessels to be 
treated in the same manner as those of telegraph offices of destina- 
tion. (Art, XIX of the Telegraph Service Regulations.) 



52 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

ARTICLE XIX OF THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

XIX. 

1. The following are Counted as one word in all languages : 
1st. .In the address 

a. The name of the telegraph office of destination written as it appears in 
the first column of the official nomenclature of offices and completed by any 
indications which appear in that column; 

b. The names of territorial subdivisions or countries, respectively, if written 
in conformity with the said nomenclature or their alternative names given in 
the preface ; 

2d. In tetegraph money orders, the name of the postal issuing office, the name 
of the postal paying office, and that of the locality where the payee resides; 

3d. Every code word fulfilling the conditions laid down in Regulation VIII; 

4th. Every isolated character, letter, or figure, as w T ell as every sign of 
punctuation, apostrophe, or hvphen, * transmitted at the request of the sender 
(Reg. XVIII) ; 

5th. Underline; 

6th. Parentheses (the two signs which serve to form them) ; 

7th. Inverted commas (the two signs placed at the commencement and end 
of one and the same passage) ; 

8th. Supplementary instruction written in the abridged form admitted by 
Regulation X. 

2. When the different parts of each of the expressions charged for as one 
word and indicating 

1st. The office of destination ; 
2d. The territorial subdivision; 
3d. The country of destination; 

4th. The names indicated above appearing in telegraph money orders, are not 
written as one word, the counter clerk joins them up. 

3. In telegrams in which the text is written entirely in plain language each 
ordinary word and each authorized compound are counted, respectively, at the 
rate of one word for each fifteen characters, according to the Morse alphabet, 
plus one word for the excess, if any. 

4. In code language the maximum length of a word is fixed at ten characters, 
counted according to the prescriptions of Regulation VIII, paragraph 3. 

Words in plain language inserted in the text of a mixed telegram i. e., 
composed of words in plain language and of words in code language are 
counted each at the rate of one word for each indivisible series of ten characters 
which they contain. If the mixed telegram contains, in addition, passages in 
cipher language, the passages in cipher are counted according to the prescrip- 
tions of paragraph 7 hereafter. 

If the mixed telegram is only composed of passages in plain language and of 
passages in cipher language, the passages in plain language are counted accord- 
ing to the prescriptions of paragraph 3 of the present regulation, and the 
passages in cipher language according to the prescriptions of paragraph 7 here- 
after. 

5. The address of telegrams the text of which is wholly or partially written 
in code language is charged for according to the prescriptions of paragraphs 
1 and 3 of the present regulations. The signature is charged for according to 
the same prescriptions, those of paragraph 1 (1st) excepted. 

6. Words separated by an apostrophe or joined by a hyphen are counted as 
separate words. 

7. Groups of figures or of letters, commercial marks composed of figures and 
letters, are counted at the rate of one word for each five figures or letters 
which they may contain, plus one word for any excess. Each of the combina- 
tions ae, aa, ao, oe, ue, and ch is counted as two letters. 

Full stops, commas, colons, dashes, and bars indicating fractions are each 
counted as a figure or a letter in the group in which they occur. This also 
applies to each letter added to groups of figures to form ordinal numbers, as 
well as to letters or figures added to the number of a house in an address, 
even in the case of an address in the text or in the signature of a telegram. 

8. Combinations or alterations of words contrary to the usage of the language 
are not admitted ; the same applies to combinations or alterations dissimulated 
by means of reversal of the order of letters or syllables. Nevertheless, the 



53 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

names of towns and countries; surnames belonging to one person; names of 
places, squares, boulevards, streets, and other kinds of public thoroughfares; 
names of ships, whole numbers, fractions, decimal or fractional numbers written 
entirely in words, and compound words admitted as such in the English and 
French languages, and which can, when required, be justified by the production 
of a dictionary, may be respectively grouped as one word each without apos- 
trophe or hyphen. 

9. The counting of the office of origin is decisive, both for purposes of trans- 
mission and of the international accounts. Nevertheless, when the telegram 
contains combinations or alterations of words of one of the languages of the 
country of destination, or of a language other than those of the country of 
origin, contrary to the usage of such language, the office of destination has the 
right to recover from the addressee the amount of charge not collected. If 
this right is exercised, the telegram is only delivered to the addressee on pay- 
ment of the short charge. In case of refusal to pay, a service advice thus 
worded is addressed to the office of origin : " Vienna from Paris 5.10 p. m. = 
No. * * * (name of addressee) * * * (reproduce the words wrongly com- 
biner or altered) * * * words (indicate number of words properly charge- 
able)." If the sender, duly notified of the reason for nondelivery, agrees to 
pay the excess, a service advice thus worded is addressed to the delivery 
office: "Paris from Vienna 7 p. m. = No. * * * (name of addressee) short 
charge collected." On receipt of this service advice the office of destination de- 
livers the telegram. 

10. When the administration of origin discovers after the charge has been 
collected that a telegram contains either inadmissible combinations or altera- 
tions of words, or expressions 'of words, which, although not fulfilling the con- 
ditions of plain or code language, have been charged for as belonging to these 
languages, it applies to these expressions of words, for the calculation of the 
short charge to be recovered from the sender, the rules to which they should 
have been respectively subjected. The combinations or alterations are counted 
in accordance with the number of words which they would contain if they were 
written in the usual manner. 

The administration of origin acts in the same way when irregularities are 
pointed out to it by a transit administration or by the administration of desti- 
nation. Nevertheless, neither of these two latter administrations may delay 
the forwarding or delivery of the telegram, except in the cases provided for in 
paragraph 9. 

4. RATES. 
XII. 

The coastal rate shall not exceed 60 centimes (11.6 
cents) a word, and the shipboard rate shall not exceed 
40 centimes (7.7 cents) a word. 

A minimum rate per radiogram, not to exceed the 
coastal rate or shipboard rate for a radiogram of 10 
words, may 'be imposed as coastal or shipboard rate. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

SOUTH AFRICA (UNION OF). 

Add the following: 

" When two coastal stations subject to the same management par- 
ticipate in the transmission of a radiogram, one coastal rate only 
shall be collected. One coastal rate only shall likewise be collected 
when a coastal station serves as intermediary for the transmission 
of a radiogram between two stations on shipboard." 



54 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. . 

Coastal stations open to the service of public correspondence and 
subject to one contracting management, with the exception of long- 
range stations,' should be considered as belonging to the same radio 
system, and in the matter of accounts only one coastal rate should, 
in principal, be collected in addition to the ordinary terminal rate 
for the transmission over the telegraph lines of the country. 

The collection of double rates is of a nature to make the rates pro- 
hibitive to some extent, while all the facilities that radio telegraphy 
can offer should be accorded to the public. 

V 

GERMANY. 

Add the following: 

" In the case of radiograms received by coastal station or station 
on shipboard by means of radio telegraphy and forwarded in the 
same manner, the coastal or shipboard rate shall not be collected 
more than once." 

REASONS. 

It seems right, with a view to facilitating the service, not to com- 
pute a double coastal or shipboard rate. 

SPAIN. 

Replace the present text by the following : 

" The' coastal rate shall not exceed 60 centimes a word, and the 
shipboard rate shall not exceed 40 centimes per word. 

"When the range of stations exceeds 800 kilometers' (431.68 nau- 
tical miles), or when their work is exceptionally difficult owing to 
the nature of their establishment or manner of working, the High 
Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to authorize higher rates. 

"The minimum * * *." 

REASONS. 

The object is to make the Regulations agree with the Convention 
of Berlin, article 10, which reads: 

" However, each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at lib- 
erty to authorize higher rates than such maximum in case of stations 
of ranges exceeding 800 kilometers or of stations whose work is ex- 
ceptionally difficult owing to physical conditions in connection with 
the installation or working of the same." 

FRANCE. 

Replace the present text of Article XII with the following : 
" 1. The rates of all coastal stations shall be fixed at 
" 1. 0.20 franc (3.86 cents) a word for radio communications 
within a zone not exceeding 4CK) kilometers (215.84 nautical miles). 

" 2. 0.40 franc (7.7 cents) a word for radio communications be- 
yond such zone but not exceeding 2,000 kilometers (1,079.3 nautical 
miles). 

"3. 0.60 franc (11.6 cents) a word for radio correspondence car- 
ried on over a zone of more than 2,000 kilometers (1,079.3 nautical 
miles) . 



55 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

;' The rates of all stations on shipboard shall be fixed at 

" 1. 0.20 franc a word for radio communications not exceeding 
400 kilometers. 

" 2. 0.40 franc a word for all other communications. 

" A minimum rate per radiogram not to exceed the coastal or ship- 
board rate for a radiogram of 10 words may be imposed as coastal 
or shipboard rate. 

" 2. In case of distances greater than 400 kilometers, every station 
on shipboard shall be bound to assure transmission of radiograms 
upon request by the coastal station or the station of origin on ship- 
board. 

"A rate of 0.20 franc a word shall be paid to the station on ship- 
board participating in the forwarding of the radiogram. When, in 
rare cases, several stations on shipboard shall act as intermediaries 
for the transmission of a radiogram, such rate of transit shall be paid 
to the first station on shipboard acting as intermediary. 

" In the case of radiograms intended for ships, the" rate of transit 
of 0.20 franc shall be charged against the coastal stajtion; in the 
case of radiograms originating in ships this rate of transit shall be 
collected over and above the rate of the station on shipboard." 

REASONS. 
t 

Certain countries have already established a different rate for each 
station. It seems evident that a single coastal or shipboard rate 
does not present sufficient elasticity for all the requirements. Reduced 
rates are imposed in case of vessels making short voyages. On the 
other hand, improvement in the methods of transmission having 
necessitated more powerful, and therefore more costly stations, it is 
only reasonable to grant such stations a remuneration conformable 
to their services. Under such conditions it is logical that the rates 
should be proportional to the distances, as is the general rule in ordi- 
nary telegraphy. 

However, in order to avoid too great complications, the French 
management proposes three rates for coastal stations: (1) 0.20 franc 
(3.86 cents) applicable to communications not exceeding 400 kilo- 
meters (215.84 nautical miles) ; (2) 0.40 franc (7.7 cents) for com- 
munications comprised between 400 kilometers and 2,000 kilometers 
(1,079.3 nautical miles); and (3) 0.60 franc (11.6 cents) for com- 
munications exceeding 2,000 kilometers. 

In the case of stations on shipboard, tw r o rates should be authorized : 
(1) 0.20 franc for communications at less than 400 kilometers and (2) 
0.40 franc for communications exceeding 400 kilometers. 

Furthermore, forwarding beyond 400 kilometers should be obliga- 
tory upon request from the sending office, but the first intermediate 
station on shipboard which shall have participated in forwarding 
the radiogram should receive a rate of transit of 0.20 franc, which 
should be paid to it by the coastal station in the case of radiograms 
intended for ships, and by the station on shipboard in the case of 
radiograms originating in ships. This manner of procedure would 
seem to entail the minimum of complications in the payment of rates" 
and the settlement of accounts. 

It should be understood that each country will be at liberty to fix, 
as it thinks proper, maritime rates for radiograms originating in 



56 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

or destined for its territory and exchanged between a station of its 
territory and 

1. Vessels belonging to. its navy. 

2. Vessels carrying on a regular passenger service sailing from a 
port of its territory. 

ITALY. 

Add a new paragraph as follows : 

" In the case of radiograms intended for yachts, the shipboard 
rate shall not be considered." 

REASONS. 

Yachts which exchange radiograms with coastal stations are quite 
numerous. It may be that Article IV of the Service Regulations is 
not intended to include under the designation correspondence of 
private interest correspondence with pleasure vessels. In this case 
it seerns necessary to add to Article XII the paragraph given above, 
which does not contain any change relating to the provisions of the 
Regulations. 

The payment of the ordinary and radio charges relating to radio- 
grams originating on yachts should present no difficulties. In fact, 
governments to whom such vessels are subject might require the 
deposit of a sum sufficient to cover the amount of such charges. 



XIII. 

The country within whose territory a coastal station 
is established which serves as intermediary for the ex- 
change of radiograms between a station on board ship 
and another country shall be considered, so far as the 
application of telegraph rates is concerned, as the country 
of origin or of destination of such telegrams and not as 
the country of transit. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

BELGIUM. 

Complete this article by the following paragraph : 
" The coastal station, however, shall be considered as the country 
of transit when it serves as intermediary for the exchange of radio- 
grams between two stations on shipboard. In such case the coastal 
rate shall be applied both for reception and retransmission." 

REASONS. 

This article does not determine the rate .to be applied when a coastal 
station serves as intermediary between two stations on shipboard. 



57 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

There is double radio work without use being made of the ordinary 
telegraph lines. It seems that the collection of a double coastal rate 
is justifiable, 

FRANCE. 

Replace the present text of Article XIII with the following : 

"1. The country within whose territory a coastal station is estab- 
lished which serves as intermediary for the exchange of radiograms 
between a station on shipboard and another country or another sta- 
tion on shipboard shall be considered, so far as the application of 
telegraph rates is concerned, as the country of origin or of destina- 
tion of such telegrams and not as the country of transit. 

" In the case of radiograms originating in ships at sea, the rate 
for transmission over telegraph lines shall be computed in accordance 
with the tariff in use in the country in which the coastal station 
receiving the radiogram is situated. 

" 2. In the case of radiograms originating in ships at sea intended 
for other vessels at sea and forwarded through the intermediation of 
one or two coastal stations the rate shall comprise : 

"(1) The shipboard rates of the two ships; 

"(2) The coastal rate applicable to communications with the ves- 
sel of origin and the coastal rate applicable to communications with 
the vessel of destination. 

"(3) The telegraph rate applicable to transmission between two 
coastal stations. This rate shall be collected even if the radiogram 
was forwarded by the coastal station which received it.' ? 

REASONS. 

The changes proposed are intended to regulate the exchange of 
radiograms between stations on shipboard by means of one or two 
coastal stations. Such cases frequently arise, and the regulations are 
not sufficiently exact in this respect. 

The rate to be collected for this class of correspondence should com- 
prise the shipboard rates of the two stations on shipboard, the coastal 
rates of the coastal stations, and the telegraph rate for transmission 
between these two stations. In case the transmission shall have been 
made by the intermediation of the same coastal station or of two 
coastal stations of the same country, it seems right to collect the 
interior rate of the country in which such coastal station or stations 
is located. 

The second division of paragraph 1 defines the rule to be followed 
for the collection of the telegraph rate for -transmission over the tele- 
graph system. When the radiogram originated in the country in 
which the coastal station is situated, it is logical to apply the tariff 
in use in such country and not the rates provided by the International 
Telegraph Regulations and the appendix thereto. 

This measure would imply particularly the application of the mini- 
mum conventionary rates and the general rates prevailing in such 
country. 



8514412- 



58 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

5. COLLECTION OF CHAEGES. 
XIV. 

The total charge for radiograms shall be collected of 
the sender. 

Stations on shipboard shall to that end have the neces- 
sary tariffs. They shall be at liberty, however, to obtain 
information from coastal stations on the subject of rates 
for radiograms for which they do not possess all the 
necessary data. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY. 

Add a new paragraph as follows: 

" If for any reason the coastal or the shipboard rate for a radio- 
gram can not be determined at the time of sending, such radiogram 
may be accepted at the risk of the sender and the coastal and ship- 
board rates shall then be collected of the addressee. Such radiograms 
shall show in their preamble the indication not paid " PCV coastal 
and shipboard rates." 

REASONS. 

It. would be to the interest of senders that radiograms of this kind 
be admitted. However, in order to avoid complications, there should 
be collected as a rule at the time of sending, in such cases, only the 
rate for transmission over the lines of the telegraph system. 

FRANCE. 

Add the following paragraph to Article XIV: 

"At the time of posting a radiogram the sender should indicate the 
maritime rates to.be applied. In case such information can not be 
furnished the rates of 0.40 francs (7.7 cents) for the coastal stations 
and of 0.40 francs for the shipboard station shall generally be 
applied." 

REASONS. 

As the tariff schedule provided under Article XII includes several 
rates for a coastal station and a station on shipboard, it is necessary 
that the sender should be given the privilege of choosing which one 
of the maritime rates he desires to have applied. However, in case 
the sender can not furnish any information on this subject, the rates 
for transmission of the radiogram within a zone comprised between 
400 and 2.000 kilometers (215.84-1,079.3 nautical miles) should be 
applied. 



59 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OP BERLIN. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Change the first paragraph as follows: 

" The total rate for radiograms sliall be collected of the sender with 
the exception, however, of (1) Express charges (Art. LVIII, par. 1, 
of the Telegraph Regulations) ; (2) the rates covering changes in 
the arrangement and meaning of words which were not admissible, 
as ascertained by the office or station of destination (Art. XIX, par. 
9, of the Telegraph Regulations), such rates being collected of the 
addressee." 

REASONS. 

In view of the proposition to admit radiograms to be forwarded 
by express (Art. LVIII of the Radio Telegraph Regulations) and 
of the new article proposed above for the purpose of authorizing the 
collection of the remaining charges of the addressee. 

EXTRACTS FROM INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND SERV- 
ICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

XIX. 

9. The counting of tlie olfice of origin is decisive, both for purposes of trans- 
mission and of the international accounts. Nevertheless, when the telegram 
contains combinations or alterations of words of one of the languages of the 
country of destination, or of a language other than those of the country of origin, 
contrary to the usage of such language, the office of destination has the right 
to recover from the addressee the amount of charge not collected. If this right 
is exercised the telegram is only delivered to the addressee on payment of the 
short charge. In case of refusal to pay, a service advice thus worded is ad- 
dressed to the office of origin : " Vienna Paris 5.10 p. m. = No. * * * (name 
of addressee) * * * (reproduce the words wrongly combined or altered) 
* * * words (indicate number of words properly chargeable)." If the sender, 
duly notified of the reason for nondelivery, agrees to pay the excess, a service 
advice thus worded is addressed to the delivery office: " Paris Vienna 7 p. m. 
No. * * * (name of addressee) short charge collected." On receipt of 
this service advice the office of destination delivers the telegram. 

LVIII. 

1. The cost of conveyance beyond the radius of the telegraph offices by quicker 
means than the post in States where such a service is organized is collected, as 
a general rule, from the addressee. 

When a telegram bearing the instructions " Express," which has given rise to 
a special service, is not delivered, the office of destination adds to the notice of 
nondelivery, provided for in Regulation XLVII, paragraph 3, the instruction 
" PCV * * * " (amount due for special service). 

TRANSLATOR'S NOTE. The term " Express," used in Regulations X, LVII, and 
LVIII, denotes the delivery of a telegram by special messenger (See Regulation 
LIX also) beyond the ordinary area of delivery of a telegraph office and always 
implies that a charge for porterage is payable. 

GBEAT BRITAIN. 

New article to be inserted after Article XIV : 

" The counting of the words by the office of origin shall be con- 
clusive in the case of radiograms destined for ships, and that of the 
station on shipboard in the case of radiograms originating in ships, 
both for transmission and for the international accounts. However, 



60 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

in case the radiogram has been entirely or partially ref ramed, either 
in one of the languages of the country of destination in the case of 
radiograms originating in ships, or in one of the languages of the 
country under whose flag the ship is sailing in the case of radiograms 
intended for ships, and if the radiogram contains combinations of 
words or words whose meaning is contrary to the usages of such 
language, the office or shipboard station of destination, as the case 
may be, has the right to recover from the addressee such charges as 
have not been collected. In case of refusal to pay, the radiogram 
may be withheld." 

REASONS. 

The object of this proposition is to decide the question as to what 
extent the provisions of Article XIX, paragraph 9 (see p. 59), of 
the Telegraph Regulations are applicable to radiograms under the 
terms of Article XLII of the Radio Telegraph Regulations. 

6. TRANSMISSION or EADIOGRAMS. 

a. SIGNALS OF TRANSMISSION. 

XV. 

The signals to be employed are those of the Interna- 
tional Morse Code. 

XVI. 

Ships in distress shall use the following signal: 



repeated at brief intervals. 

As soon as a station perceives the signal of distress it 
shall cease all correspondence and not resume it until 
after it has made sure that the correspondence to which 
the call for assistance has given rise is terminated. 

In case the ship in distress adds at the end of the series 
of her calls the call letters of a particular station the 
answer to the call shall be incumbent upon that station 
alone. If the call for assistance does not specify anv 
^articular station, every station perceiving such call shall 
be bound to answer it. 



61 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. ' 

DISPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 

Kepi ace the beginning of Article XVI bv the following : 
" 1. Ships in distress shall use the following signal : 

repeated at brief intervals. 

" The signal repeated at brief 

intervals shall be employed by a ship possessing a radio installation 
for the purpose of signaling a ship in distress which has no such 
installation or which has become unable to use the same. 

" 2. The condition and location of the ship in distress shall be 
indicated by means of the conventional signals provided under 
Article XVII. 

i; 3. As soon as a station perceives the signal of distress it shall 
cease * * *, etc." 

(The remainder to be unchanged.) 

REASONS. 

It is necessary to provide for the case of a signal of distress in 
transit which may be used to signal disasters to ships not having 
radio apparatus on board or such as have become unable to use their 
transmitting apparatus. 

Furthermore, it seems necessary to specify that indications con- 
cerning a case of distress should be given by means of conventional 
signals in order that they may be understood by all stations. 

JAPAN. 

Add at the end of the article a new paragraph, as follows : 
" Correspondence occasioned by calls for assistance from ships in 
distress and by the answer to such calls shall be transmitted free of 
charge." 

REASONS. 

No special provision having been made for correspondence relating 
to the succor of vessels in distress, it would seem reasonable to 
understand that such correspondence should be rated according to 
the general rule. But in view of the special nature of such corre- 
spondence, and of the difficulty of making an exact count of the words 
in such cases, and in view of the provisions of Article IX of the 
Convention, it would seem proper to stipulate in the Regulations 
that such correspondence shall be free of charge. 

NETHERLANDS. 

First and third paragraphs to read as follows: 

" 1. The call of distress shall be made only by means of the fol- 
lowing signal '- - repeated at brief intervals 

followed by the necessary indications. 

"3. In case the call letters of a particular coastal station are added 
at the end of the series of calls for assistance the answer to the call 



62 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

shall be incumbent upon that station alone, unless such station does 
not answer at all. If the call for assistance does not specify any par- 
ticular station, every station perceiving such call shall be bound to 
answer it." 

REASONS. 

In view of the fact that Article I of the Convention is intended to 
make radio telegraphy a means of preventing disaster or of lessen- 
ing the consequences, it seems necessary to show clearly that no dis- 
tinction is made as to who may be the victim of the disaster or whether 
the call emanates from the vessel in distress or not. 

In order to conform to the provisions, it is necessary merely that 
the signal of distress shall be exchanged by radio stations subject to 
the Convention. It would seem expedient to have the call of distress 
followed by suitable designations so that, whenever possible, the 
nearest coastal station could intervene, and it would seem desirable 
to impose the use of a general signal and not permit the use of any 
other signal. 

The addition of the words : " Unless such station does not reply at 
all " is in the interest of the station making the call, which, receiving 
no reply from the station designated, often continues its calls to 
this station, as has been shown by experience, without having re- 
course to another station able to render assistance in response to calls 
of distress, but having no power to offer its services without the addi- 
tion proposed. 

XVII. 

1. The call letters following the letters 



"PUB" signify that the vessel or station making the 
call desires to communicate with the station called by 
means of the International Signal Code. 

The combination of the letters P E B as a service 
signal for any other purpose than that specified above is 
prohibited. 

2. Radiograms may be framed with the aid of the 
International Signal Code. 

Those addressed to a radio station with a view to 
being forwarded by it are not to be translated by such 
station. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Paragraph 2 to be suppressed. 

REASONS. 
(See remarks concerning Art. X.) 



63 EADIO TELEGRAPH CONTENTION OF BERLIN. 

FRANCE. 

Add a third paragraph, as follows : 

" 3. Stations shall use the signals contained in the list annexed 
to the present Regulations for the purpose of giving or requesting 
information concerning the radio service." 

REASONS. 

In order to increase the rapidity of the service it is desirable to 
place at the disposition of stations a list of abbreviations correspond- 
ing to the usual data necessary for the exercise of the service. 

6. OEDEE OF TEANSMISSION. 

XVIII. 

Between two stations radiograms of the same order 
shall be transmitted, one by one, by the two stations alter- 
nately or in series of several radiograms, as the coastal 
station may indicate, provided the duration of the trans- 
mission of each series does not exceed 20 minutes. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

SPAIN. 

Revise Article XVIII as follows : 

" Between two stations radiograms of the same order shall be 
transmitted one by one, by the two stations alternately, or in series 
of several radiograms, giving priority to those which are urgent in 
character, as indicated * * *.". 

REASONS. 

As the result of the adoption of the proposition presented under 
Article XXXIII. 

C. METHOD OF CALLING EADIO STATIONS AND TEANS- 
MISSION OF EADIOGEAMS. 

XIX. 

L As a general rule, it shall be the shipboard station 
that calls the coastal station. 

2. The call should be made, as a general rule, only 
when the distance of the vessel from the coastal station 
is less than 75 per cent of the normal range of the, latter. 



64 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

o. Before proceeding to a call the station on shipboard 
shall adjust its receiving apparatus to its maximum sensi- 
bility and make sure that the coastal station which it 
wishes to call up is not in correspondence with any other 
station. If it finds that any transmission is in progress, 
it shall wait for the first pause. 

4. The shipboard station shall use for calling the nor- 
mal wave of the coastal station. 

5. If in spite of these precautions the public exchange 
of radiograms is impeded at any place, the call shall cease 
upon the first request from a coastal station open to public 
correspondence. The latter station shall in such case 
indicate the approximate length of time it will be neces- 
sary to wait. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY. 

Paragraph 1. Add the following words: 
" whether or not it has business to transmit." 

REASONS. 

In order that coastal stations may be able to transmit their radio- 
grams to passing ships should the case occur. 

JAPAN. 

Change this article as follows : 

" When the station on shipboard comes within the normal range 
of the coastal station, the station on shipboard shall as a general rule 
call the coastal station and shall make known to it : 

"(0.) The position of the ship in latitude and longitude, or the 
distance of the ship from the coastal station in nautical miles and 
her true bearing in degrees counted from to 360. 

"(!>} Her true course in degrees counted from to 360. 

"(<?) Her speed in nautical miles." 

GERMANY (1st). 

Paragraph 2 to read : 

" In waters where radio traffic is very great (British Channel, etc.) 
the call * * *." 

REASONS. 

It does not seem necessary as a general rule to fix a maximum 
limit of 75 per cent, except for communications to be established in 
waters where radio traffic is'very great (British Channel, etc.). 



65 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

GERMANY (2d). 

Add at the end of this paragraph the following words : 
"Provided, That the coastal station lies within the normal range 
of the station on shipboard." 

REASONS. 

With a view to avoiding an unnecessary call which might inter- 
fere with the service of other stations on shipboard which were al- 
ready sufficiently near to the coastal station. 

AUSTRIA. 

Cancel paragraph 2. 

REASONS. 

The possibility of radio communication depends upon accidental 
circumstances so that the normal range of coastal stations can not be 
indicated except approximately. 

Experience has shown that stations on shipboard generally trans- 
mit radiograms to coastal stations when they can hear their signals 
distinctly. 

FRANCE. 

Suppress paragraph 2. 

REASONS. 

The provision under paragraph 2 may be suppressed without in- 
convenience. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Article XIX. Replace the present text of paragraph 2 by the 
following: 

" 2. The station on shipboard shall exchange calls with every 
coastal station near which it shall pass. As a general rule the call 
shall be made when the distance of the vessel from the coastal sta- 
tion is less than 75 per cent of the normal range of the latter." 

REASONS. 

Stations on shipboard frequently pass close to coastal stations 
without signaling their presence, so that radiograms which are being 
held at a coastal station pending the passing of ships can not be 
sent to their destination. (See proposition relating to the amend- 
ment of Art. XXII.) 

JAPAN. 

(See under Art. XXII, a proposition which seems to have a 
bearing on this paragraph.) 



3514412 9 



66 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Paragraph 4. Insert at the beginning the words " as a general 
rule." 

REASONS. 

It follows from the propositions submitted under Articles II and 
III, that the use of the normal wave of the coastal station by a ship- 
board station for calling should not be prescribed as exclusively 
obligatory, but as a rule to which exceptions may be made for the 
purpose of preventing interference. 

FRANCE. 

Modify the beginning of paragraph 5 as follows : 
" 5. If in spite of these precautions the transmission of a radio- 
gram is impeded, the sail shall cease * * * ." 

REASONS. 

Since the changes relating to paragraph 5 involve a question of 
form the word " transmission " seems preferable to " exchange." 
Furthermore, the word " public " i not necessary, inasmuch as the 
provision formulated under this paragraph applies to every radio 
transmission. 

JAPAN. 

(See under Art. XX, a proposition which seems to have a bearing 
on this paragraph.) 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Add a new paragraph 6 : 

" 6. The station on shipboard shall notify every coastal station 
within whose range it may be, and to which it has signaled its pres- 
ence (see par. 2), when it proposes to cease operations, and shall in- 
dicate the probable length of time the interruption will last." 

REASONS. 

Operators on shipboard sometimes close their stations without 
having informed the coastal station, and the futile calls entail much 
unnecessary work if the station has radiograms to transmit to a ship. 



XX. 

1. The call shall comprise the signal 



the call letters of the station called repeated three times, 
the word "from" ("de") followed by the call letters of 
the sending station repeated three times. 



67 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

2. The called station shall answer by making the signal 



followed by the call letters of the corresponding station 
repeated three times, the word "from," its own call 
letters, and the signal 



PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY. 

Add a third paragraph, as follows : 

"3. Stations on shipboard desiring to enter into communication 
with other ships, without, however, knowing the names of the ships 
which may be within their radius of action, may employ the signal 
- . (signal of inquiry). The provisions of 'paragraphs 
1 and 2 are likewise applicable to the transmission of a signal of in- 
quiry and to the answer to such signal." 

REASONS. 

With a view to facilitating the establishment of communication 
between ships which are beyond the radius of action of the coastal 
stations. 

JAPAN (IstJ. 

Replace the present text of Article XX by the following : 

"ARTICLE XX. 

" 1. Before proceeding to call, the coastal station or the station 
on shipboard shall adjust its receiving apparatus to its maximum 
sensibility and make sure that the station which it wishes to call up, 
or any other station, is not in correspondence. If it finds that any 
transmission is in progress, and unless it has made sure that its 
call will not occasion interference in such transmission, it shall wait 
for the first pause. The same applies in case it desires to answer a 
call. 

"2. If in spite of these precautions a request to suspend the call 
shall be made for the reason that the public exchange of radiograms 
is impeded at any place, the call shall cease at once. In such case 
the station requesting suspension of the call shall indicate the prob- 
able length of time it will be necessary to wait. 

" 3. The coastal station and a station on shipboard .whose work is 
not very active shall whenever possible listen for calls from other 
stations during the first 10 minutes of each hour." 

JAPAN (2d). 

Add to the present Article XX the two paragraphs following and 
number them XXI: 

"3. When a coastal station or a station on shipboard wishes to 
ascertain whether shipboard or a coastal station is present within 



68 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

its radius of action or not, it shall proceed to call as provided in 
paragraph 1 of the present article, but instead of using the call letter 
of the station called, repeated three times, it shall use the following 

signal, repeated three times: . . . ; 

"4. In case a station perceives the signal provided by the pre- 
ceding paragraph, it shall answer as provided in paragraph 2 of the 
present article, using a wave length of 300 meters/' 

XXL 

If a station called does not answer the call (Art. 
XX) repeated three times at intervals of two minutes, 
the call shall not be resumed until after an interval of 
half an hour, the station issuing the call having first made 
sure that no radio correspondence is in progress. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY. 

Replace the words " half an hour " by " a quarter of an hour." 

REASONS. 

The German management has found by experience thaf a wait of 
a quarter of an hour before resuming the call may be considered as 
sufficient. 

FRANCE. 

1. Complete the text by the following sentence : 

" However, the length of time during which such calls shall be 
made shall not exceed two hours." 

2. Add the following paragraph: 

" In the case of State radiograms, however, the station shall make, 
in case it receives no answer, a series of four calls every 6 hours for a 
period of 24 hours." 

REASONS. 

1. The present text does not provide for the length of time during 
which a station may call. It seems necessary to limit such time to two 
hours. 

2. In view of the importance of State radiograms, it seems neces- 
sary ,to prescribe certain measures for the purpose of assuring the 
transmission of such radiograms. The provisions proposed above 
would seem sufficient to attain this end. 

JAPAN. 
Change the text of the present Article XXI and number it XXII. 

"ARTICLE XXII. 

" If a station called does not answer the call repeated three times 
at intervals of two minutes (new Art. XXI), the call shall not be 
resumed until after an interval of half an hour, except in case the 



69 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

calling station has made sure that its- call will not interfere in the 
correspondence of the station which it wishes to call, or of other 
stations." 

NETHERLANDS. 

Read as follows: 

"If the station called does not answer to the first call (Article 
XX), the call shall not be repeated except at intervals of two 
minutes." 

REASONS. 

Experience has shown that a wait of half an hour may cause the 
loss of the correspondence, while there is no objection to the call 
being repeated at intervals of two minutes, in view of the provision 
of Article XIX, paragraph 5, by virtue of which any coastal station 
may cause the cessation of interference resulting from such call. 

FRANCE. 

Add the following new article: 

"ARTICLE XXI-a. 

" Every station which has occasion to send a radiogram requir- 
ing the use of its maximum power shall first send out 20 consecutive 
dashes at the power which it was employing for its previous service. 
It shall not begin to transmit at high power until 30 seconds after 
sending the 20 dashes." 

REASONS. 

This provision is intended to notify stations that they must take 
the necessary measures to prevent injury to their apparatus which 
might result when a station intends at a given moment to transmit at 
high power. 

XXII. 

1. As soon as the coastal station has answered, the 
shipboard station shall make known to it : 

(a) The distance of the vessel from the coastal station 
in nautical miles. 

(b) Her true bearing in degrees, counted from to 
360. 

(c) Her true course in degrees, counted from 
to 360. 

(d) Her speed in nautical miles. 

(e) The number of words she has to transmit. 

2. The coastal station shall answer, stating the num- 
ber of words to be transmitted to the vessel. 



70 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

3. If the communication can not take place imme- 
diately, the coastal station shall inform the station on 
shipboard of the approximate length of time that it will 
be necessary to wait. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY. 

/ 

Article XXII, paragraph 1, replace paragraphs (a), (&), and (c) 
by the following paragraphs : 

"(a) The approximate distance of the vessel from the coastal sta- 
tion in nautical miles ; 

"(&) The position of the vessel in a concise form conformable to 
the circumstances; 

" (c) The next port at which the vessel will call ; 

"(d) The approximate number of words she has to transmit." 

REASONS. 

To obtain the data prescribed by the present provisions causes con- 
siderable trouble and a great loss of time. The simplification pro- 
posed will therefore facilitate the service of the stations. 

AUSTRIA. 

Paragraph 1, (<z), (&), (c), (d). Replace the present text by the 
following : 

"() The distance of the vessel from the coastal station either io 
nautical miles or by indicating the true bearing in degrees, or a place, 
cape, or island in the vicinity, for example : Near Corfu, near Cape 
Matapan.' 

" The speed and course shall not be indicated except when such 
information is necessary." 

REASONS. 

The signals of weak stations on shipboard can not be heard for a 
very long time without losing them. Consequently, it is necessary 
to abbreviate .the service indications as much as possible in order to 
be able to transmit the text of the radiogram itself more successfully. 

TRANCE. 

Replace the text of paragraph 1 by the following : 
" 1. As soon as a coastal station has answered, the station on ship- 
board shall make known to it the distance of the vessel from the 
coastal station in nautical miles and the number of words she has to 
transmit." 

REASONS. 

Information concerning the bearing, course, and speed of the vessel 
do not answer any need affecting the transmission. It is proposed 
that they be suppressed. 



71 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Article XXII, paragraph 1, read : 

"1. As soon as the coastal station has answered, the shipboard 
station, if it has messages to transmit or upon request from the coastal 
station, shall make known : 

"(a) The approximate distance of the vessel' from the coastal sta- 
tion in nautical miles ; 

"(&) Its approximate bearing expressed either in degrees counted 
from to 360 or in the language of the country to which the coastal 
station belongs; 

" (c) Its next port of call ; 

"(d) If necessary, the number of words which it has to transmit." 

REASONS. 

As a general rule the coastal station does not need to know how 
long the vessel will remain in contact with it when it has no radio- 
grams to transmit; however, it is desirable that the coastal station 
in case of necessity shall be authorized to request such information. 
It is desirable to simplify and abridge the information relating to 
bearing and the position of the vessel. The following example will 
show how the indications proposed should be given: 40 (distance in 
nautical miles), SW. (southwest; the bearing should be communicated 
in the English language), Plymouth (next port of call), 35 (number 
of words to be transmitted). 

Regarding the bearing of a vessel, difficulties sometimes arise when 
the bearing is indicated in conformity with the present provisions of 
the Regulations. With a view to obviating such difficulties it is pro- 
posed to authorize the communication of the bearing in the current 
language (in suitable terms) in all cases where this method would 
be advantageous. 

JAPAN. 

Cancel the present Article XXII. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Read as follows : 

" If, after the coastal station has answered, transmission can not 
begin at once, the coastal station shall indicate the approximate 
length of time it will be necessary to wait. 

" The station on shipboard shall furnish, upon request, the neces- 
sary data to indicate its geographical position." 

REASONS. 

The data referred to in Article XXII, pargraph 1, are not always, 
needed. However, it is necessary to impose the obligation to com- 
municate the position in case it may be favorable for the transmis- 
sion of radiograms. 

GERMANY. 

Paragraph 2. Cancel the period and add : 

"and the exact time, adding, in case of doubt, an indication of the 
time adopted by the station (for example, central European time, 
etc.). 



72 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

" ; The station on shipboard shall enter the preliminaries to trans- 
mission after the time of the coastal station." 

SEASONS. 

In order to facilitate the subsequent control of the service of the 
stations. 

JAPAN. 

Cancel the present Article XXII. 
(This refers to par. 2.) 

JAPAN. 

Cancel the present Article XXII. 
(This refers to par. 3.) 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Add a new paragraph 4: 

"4. The letters T R shall be used for the purpose of giving the 
information referred to in the first paragraph. 

REASONS. 

The use of the letters T R should be authorized for the service in- 
dications relating to the bearing of the ship. This sign is already 
frequently used. 

XXIII. 

When a coastal station receives calls from several 
shipboard stations, the coastal station shall decide the 
order in which the shipboard stations shall be admitted 
to exchange their messages. 

In fixing this order the coastal station shall be guided 
exclusively by the necessity of permitting each station 
concerned to exchange the greatest possible number of 
radiograms. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

JAPAN. 
Change Article XXIII as follows : 

"ARTICLE XXIII. 

" When a station called receives calls from several stations, it shall 
decide the order in which the stations calling shall be admitted to 
exchange their messages. 



73 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

" In fixing this order the station called shall be guided exclusively 
by the necessity of permitting each station concerned to exchange 
the greatest possible number of radiograms." 

GERMANY. 

Introduction of a new Article XXIII-a. 
"ARTICLE XXIII-a. 

" 1. Stations established on board lightships shall not communi- 
cate with vessels at sea by radio telegraphy, except in case of dis- 
tress and in urgent cases affecting the service of such vessels. The 
latter shall comprise particularly information furnished -with a view 
to preventing casualties at sea or to assist navigation, such as re- 
quests and information concerning the illumination of navigable 
waters, disposition of buoys and changes of current in such waters, 
obstacles to navigation, atmospheric conditions, storm signals, etc." 

REASONS. 

It would seem necessary, in view of the great increase in the num- 
ber of lightships provided with radio apparatus and their impor- 
tance to navigation, to regulate in a uniform manner the corre- 
spondence of lightships with other vessels. 

"2. Telegrams exchanged by means of semaphores between a 
lightship and a ship at sea, and by radio telegraphy between the 
same lightship and the mainland, shall be considered as semaphore 
telegrams." 

REASONS. 

In consideration of the fact that radio communication between a 
lightship permanently anchored and a coastal station takes place by 
cable, and should be considered as an ordinary extension of the 
telegraph system. 

" 3. Telegrams exchanged by radio telegraphy between a lightship 
and a ship at sea shall be considered as radiograms. In case a radio- 
gram is also transmitted by radio telegraphy between the lightship 
and the mainland the coastal rate shall be collected but once." 

XXIV. 

Before beginning the exchange of correspondence the 
coastal station shall advise the shipboard station whether 
the transmission is to be effected in the alternate order 
or by series (Art. XVIII) ; it shall then begin the 
transmission or follow up the preliminaries with the 
signal 



(invitation to transmit) . 



3514412 10 



74 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

JAPAN. 

Change Article XXIV as follows : 

" 1. As soon as the station called has answered, the station calling 
shall communicate, according to circumstances, in addition to the 
information referred to under Article XIX, the number of radio- 
grams and, if necessary, of words that it has to transmit to the station 
called. 

" 2. The station called shall answer and indicate the number of 
radiograms and. if necessary, of words that it has to transmit, fol- 
lowed by the signal . 

" If the coastal station is the station called it shall advise the 
calling station, before beginning the exchange of correspondence, 
whether the transmission is to be effected in the alternate order or 
by series; it shall then begin the transmission or follow up the pre- 
liminaries with the signal . 

" 3. If the transmission or reception can not take place immedi- 
ately, the station called shall indicate to the calling station the ap- 
proximate length of time it w r ill be necessary to wait." 

REASONS. 

I. 1 It does not seem necessary that call shall be permitted only 
when the distance of the vessel from the coastal station is less than 
three-quarters of the latter's normal range. 

2. When the station on shipboard enters within the radius of action 
of the coastal station it would be desirable to announce its presence 
to the coastal station. 

3. It would seem to be advantageous, as a general rule, to indicate 
the position of the vessel by latitude and longitude instead of by 
her distance and true bearing. 

4. There would seem to be no objection to admitting the call if the 
station calling has made sure, that its call will not interfere in the 
correspondence of other stations. 

5. Many cases arise in which the call is begun by the coastal sta- 
tion. It would therefore seem necessary to provide for such cases in 
the regulations. 

6. It is desirable to fix a time during which coastal stations and 
the stations on shipboard whose work is not very great should listen 

"for calls from other stations. 

7. It seems necessary that every station should know whether any 
other station is present within its radius of ^action. 

8. It would be better in many cases to make known the number of 
radiograms instead of the number of words. However, in the case 
of long radiograms it would seem necessary to indicate the number 
of words also. 

XXV. 

The transmission of the radiograms shall be preceded 
by the signal 



75 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

and terminated by the signal 

followed by the name of the sending station. 
PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 

Replace this article by the following: 

"ARTICLE XXV. 

" The transmission of the radiograms shall be preceded by the 
signal - . . and terminated by the signal . fol- 
lowed by the name of the sending station and the signal . 

" The signal shall be repeated four times at the 
beginning of the transmission of the first radiogram." 

REASONS. 

It seems necessary to end with the signal . which would 
indicate that the message may be sent. 

Moreover, the signal is too short to permit the ad- 
justment of the installation; it would be better to repeat it four 
times at the time of transmitting the first radiogram. 

BRITISH INDIES. 

The final signal -no longer seems to be used, it being 
understood that the signal is always used in its place. 

FRANCE. 

Insert the present Article X, modified as follows : 
"ARTICLE XXV-a. 

" 1. Radiograms shall show in the preamble that the service is 
' Radio,' f olowed by the indication ' ZC ' or ' GZ,' according to 
whether the sender has requested as the coastal rate the tariff of 
0.20 franc or 0.00 franc. In case the radiogram has been rated at 
the normal tariff of 0.40 franc the word ' Radio ' is not followed by 
any other indication. 

" 2. In the transmission of radiograms of shipboard stations to 
coastal stations the date and hour of posting may be omitted in the 
preamble. 

" Upon forwarding over the telegraph system, the coastal station 
shall enter its own name, followed by that of the ship as the office of 
origin, and shall state as the hour of posting the hour when the 
radiogram was received by it." 



76 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

The tariff schedule proposed under Article XII requires that, in 
the interests of the service of transmission and of accounts, mention 
shall be made of the maritime rates which have been collected. It 
is proposed, to this end, to represent the coastal rate of 0.20 franc 
by the designation " ZC " and that of t).60 franc by " GZ." These 
designations should be placed in the preamble after the word radio. 
The rate 0.40 franc, which is the one which should be normally ap- 
plied when the sender has not specified the rate he desires, should 
be indicated by the word radio without any further designation. 

BRITISH INDIES. 

t 

Insert a new article indicating the manner of transmitting radio- 
grams in correspondence with ships, to wit, the order of transmission 
of the date, hour, and other particulars of a radiogram. 

It would be well for these provisions to be uniform as to the form 
and the manner of procedure both for the reception and transmission 
of radiograms. 

REASONS. 

At present, as a general rule, stations on shipboard are requested 
to fix the order of transmission of the particulars of radiograms. 

XXVI. 

When a radiogram to be transmitted contains more 
than 40 words, the sending station shall interrupt the 
transmission after each series of about 20 words by an 
interrogation point 

and shall not resume it until after it has obtained from 
the receiving station a repetition of the last word duly 
received, followed by an interrogation point. 

In the case of transmission by series, acknowledgment 
of receipt shall be made after each radiogram. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 

Complete the first paragraph as follows : 

by an interrogation point or, if the reception is satis- 
factory, the signal . (invitation to transmit)." 

REASONS. 

It does not seem necessary to repeat in all cases the last word duly 
received. When the reception is satisfactory is would be sufficient 
for the receiving station to give the signal . . 



77 EADIO TELEGKAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

XXVII. 

1. When the signals become doubtful every possible 
means shall be resorted to to finish the transmission. To 
this end the radiogram shall be repeated at the request 
of the receiving station, but not to exceed three times. 
If in spite of such triple repetition the signals are still 
unreadable the radiogram shall be canceled. If no ac- 
knowledgment of receipt is received the transmitting 
station shall again call up the receiving station. If no 
reply is made after three calls the transmission shall not 
be followed up any further. 

2. If in the opinion of the receiving station the radio- 
gram, although imperfectly received, is, nevertheless, 
capable of transmission, said station shall enter the words 
"reception doubtful" at the end of the preamble and 
let the radiogram follow. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

NETHERLANDS. 

i 

Add to the first paragraph the following : 

" In the latter case the sending station shall have the privilege of 
causing the acknowledgment of receipt to be made by another radio 
station, if necessary, using the lines of the telegraph system." 

REASONS. 

An additional opportunity would thus be afforded for obtaining 
the assurance that the radiogram has been duly received and, there- 
fore, of informing the sender that his telegram has reached its desti- 
nation. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Paragraph 2. Add a new paragraph as follows : 

" In such case the management to which the coastal station is sub- 
ject shall reclaim the charges in conformity with the provisions of 
Article XXXVI of the present Regulations. However, in case the 
shipboard station shall have subsequently transmitted the radiogram 
to another coastal station under the same management, the latter 
may reclaim only the charges applicable to a single transmission. 
When a duplicate of the radiogram has been transmitted to a coastal 
station belonging to another management the coastal and telegraph 
rates collected on shipboard shall be divided equally between the 
two managements to which the two coastal stations in question are 
subject." 



78 KADIO TELEGEAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

The present Regulations do not include provisions covering the 
subject of the division of rates collected for a radiogram which, in 
consequence of the nonarrival of an acknowledgment of receipt for 
the first transmission, has been subsequently forwarded by a ship. 
The provision mentioned above is intended to supply this deficiency 
in a manner which would seem to be the most equitable. 

XXVIII. 

All stations are bound to carry on the service with s as 
little expense of energy as may be necessary to insure 
safe communication. 

d. ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RECEIPT AND CONCLUSION 

OF WORK. 

XXIX. 

1. Eeceipt shall be acknowledged in the form pre- 
scribed by the International Telegraph Regulations, pre- 
ceded by the call letters of the transmitting station and 
followed by those of the receiving station. 

2. The conclusion of a correspondence between two 
stations shall be indicated by each station by means of 
the signal 



followed by its call letters. 

EXTRACT FROM INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND SERVICE 
REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

XXXIX. 

After the verification of the number of words and. if necessary, the official 
repetition, the office which has received gives to that which has transmitted 
the acknowledgment of receipt of the telegram or of the telegrams constituting 
the series. 

This acknowledgment of receipt is given, for a single telegram, by R fol- 
lowed by the number of the telegram received : " R 436." 

For a series of telegrams, R is given with the indication of the number of 
telegrams received, as well as the first and last number of the series : " R 5 
157 980." 



79 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

e. DIRECTIONS TO BE FOLLOWED IN SENDING 
EADIOGRAMS. 

XXX. 

1. In general, the shipboard stations shall transmit 
their radiograms to the nearest coastal station. 

2. A sender on board a vessel shall, however, have the 
right to designate the coastal station through which he 
desires to have his radiogram transmitted. 

3. The station on shipboard shall then wait until such 
coastal station shall be the nearest. If this can not bo 
done, the wishes of the sender are to be complied with 
only if the transmission can be effected without inter- 
fering with the service of other stations. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

BELGIUM. 

Add to paragraph 1 the following: 

" If the station on shipboard has a choice of several coastal sta- 
tions at the same or nearly the same distance it shall, nevertheless, 
give preference to the one established within the territory of the coun- 
try of destination or normal transit for its radiograms.'' 

REASONS. 

A supplementary provision, which will further the prompt trans- 
mission of radiograms over the ordinary telegraph system and give 
to the sender the benefit of lower rates. 

BELGIAN CONGO. 

Article XXX of the Service Regulations annexed to the Conven- 
tion stipulates in general that the stations on shipboard having to 
communicate with the coast or with the shore shall use the nearest 
coastal station. 

This stipulation is frequently not observed. The offending sta- 
tions under such circumstances use a high power, and their trans- 
missions interfere with the service over an extended zone. 

In order to put an end to this state of things it might be decided 
to assign a fixed zone to each coastal station, which should not be 
exceeded except in case of absolute necessity. Stations on shipboard 
would have to take account of this limitation. 

For example, a maximum range of 50 miles might be assigned to 
navigational radio stations (radiophares) and wave lengths different 
from the commercial wave lengths. 



80 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION UF BERLIN. 

FRANCE. 

(See proposition under par. 2.) 

NETHERLANDS. 

Revise Article XXX as follows : 

" 1. In general, the shipboard stations shall transmit their radio- 
grams to the nearest coastal station which answers their call." 
(See the addition to the proposition under par. 2.) 

REASONS. 

It often happens, especially after sundown, that a station is able 
to communicate with a distant station although nearer stations do not 
hear its call. 

This state of affairs makes it desirable to add to the first paragraph 
the words " which answers its call," and also to provide an oppor- 
tunity to forward radiograms by the intermediation of a coastal sta- 
tion other than the nearest one when such procedure would serve to 
accelerate transmission and permit a lower charge, or when desired 
by the sender; always, however, with the understanding that the 
service of other stations shall not be impeded thereby. 

AUSTRIA. 

Paragraph 2. Cancel the second division and add to the first divi- 
sion the following: 

" but the wishes of the sender shall not be complied with unless the 
transmission can be effected without interfering with the service of 
other stations." 

REASONS. 

It is not always the nearest station that assures the most rapid and 
accurate communication. Moreover, it does not seem justifiable to 
defer transmitting a radiogram to the station designated by the 
sender simply because this station is no longer the nearest, even when 
the transmission could be effected without interfering with the serv- 
ice of other stations. 

FRANCE. 

Replace the text of Article XXX by the following : 
" 1. In general the shipboard stations shall transmit their radio- 
grams to the nearest coastal station. 

"2. A sender on board a vessel shall, however, have the right to 
designate the coastal, station through which he desires to have his 
radiogram transmitted. The station on shipboard shall then wait 
until such coastal station shall be the nearest. If this can not be 
done, the sender shall be informed." ,, 

REASONS. 

The French management considers that it is conformable to the 
general interests to compel ships to transmit their radiograms to the 
nearest coastal stations. This measure would contribute to facilitate 



81 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

to a great extent the transmission of messages by avoiding inter- 
ference. 

In case a sender requests that a particular station be used, his re- 
quest shall be complied with only in the event that such coastal 
station will at a certain time become the nearest one. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Paragraph 2. Replace the text of the second division by the fol- 
lowing : 

" The station on shipboard shall then wait until such coastal sta- 
tion shall be the nearest. 

" If this can not be done the station on shipboard shall obtain from 
the nearest coastal station permission to communicate with the 
coastal station designated by the sender. This permission shall not 
be refused if the desired communication can be established without 
interfering with the service of the nearest coastal station." 

REASON s. 

It is necessary to provide a means of deciding in the case of a 
difference of opinion as to whether communication may be estab- 
lished with a coastal station other than the nearest without causing 
interference; it seems proper that this decision should rest with the 
nearest coastal station. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Revise Article XXX as follows: 

" 2. If the transmission to the nearest coastal station is less fa- 
vorable to a rapid transmission of the radiogram or entails a higher 
rate of charge, the radiogram shall be sent to a more distant coastal 
station provided the transmission may be effected without interfer- 
ing with the service of other stations. 

" The request of a sender to transmit his radiogram to a particular 
coastal station shall be complied with under the same reservation." 

REASONS. 
(See above under par. 1.) 

GERMANY. 

Add paragraphs 3 and 4, as follows : 

" 3. If the vessel for which the telegram is intended is already be- 
yond the radius of action of the coastal station designated by the 
sender and can still be reached by another coastal station of the same 
country, the telegram shall be forwarded to the latter station. The 
forwarding shall be done officially if it has been made necessary by 
any derangement of the service of the coastal station; in all other 
cases it shall be effected on condition of the collection of the 
charges relating thereto of the addressee. In the latter case tele- 
grams shall contain in the preamble the designation not prepaid 
1 PCV * * *.' " 



'8514412 11 



82 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

It frequently happens that a telegram is reported as not delivered 
because the vessel could not be reached by the coastal station desig- 
nated by the sender, although it would have been possible to trans- 
mit such telegram to the vessel through another coastal station. The 
proposition formulated above would contribute to lessen the number 
of telegrams reported as not delivered. 

" 4. When a coastal station receives a telegram intended for a 
ship at sea which does not show the designation of the service 
"radio," it shall nevertheless transmit such telegram to the sta- 
tion on shipboard without previously consulting the office of origin. 
The coastal and shipboard rates shall then be collected of the ad- 
dressee. The preamble of such telegrams shall contain the designa- 
tion not prepaid l PCV coastal and shipboard rates.' ' : 

REASONS. 

In order that, in such cases, telegrams of this kind may not be held 
up or reported as not delivered. The question of knowing whether 
the radio rates have been eventually paid twice will be settled by the 
simple verification of the monthly accounts or previously when rec- 
lamation was made by the sender or addressee. 

7. DELIVERY OF RADIOGKAMS AT THEIR DESTINATION. 

XXXI. 

When, for any cause whatever, a radiogram proceed- 
ing from a vessel at sea can not be delivered to the 
addressee, a notice of nondelivery shall be issued. Such 
notice shall be transmitted to the vessel if possible. 
When a radiogram received by a shipboard station can 
not be delivered, the station shall notify the office of 
origin by official notice. Such notice shall be trans- 
mitted, whenever practicable, to the coastal station 
through which the radiogram has passed in transit; other- 
wise, to the nearest coastal station. 

. PROPOSITIONS. 

BELGIUM. 

Revise this article as follows: 

" When, for any cause whatever, a radiogram proceeding from a 
vessel at sea can not be delivered to the addressee, a notice of non- 
delivery shall be issued. Such notice shall be transmitted to the 
coastal station which received the original radiogram. The latter, 



83 EADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

after verifying the address, shall forward the telegram to the ship, if 
possible, by the intervention, if need be, of another coastal station. 
When a radiogram etc." (The remainder not to be 

changed.) 

REASONS. 

An error may arise between the coastal station and the office of 
destination. Moreover, it is proper to make every effort to have the 
notice of nondelivery reach the vessel from w r hich the radiogram was 
sent. To this end it is proposed to forward the notice of nondelivery 
so far as necessary by the ordinary telegraphy to another coastal 
station wrhich might be able to reach the vessel. This, by extension, 
is an analogous measure to that relating to notices of nondelivery 
originating in stations on shipboard, the latter being also permitted 
to use a coastal station other .than the one from w y hich the original 
radiogram was sent. 

FRANCE. 

Make a new paragraph of the latter part of the present text begin- 
ning with the words " When a radiogram * * *." 

REASONS. 

With the present arrangement this sentence would seem to apply 
to the two preceding ones. ' It would be an advantage in the interests 
of accuracy to make a new paragraph beginning with the w r ords 
" When a radiogram 

XXXII. 

If the ship for which a radiogram is intended has not 
signaled her presence to the coastal station within the 
period designated by the sender, or, in the absence of such 
designation, by the morning of the 29th day following, 
the coastal station shall notify the sender. 

The latter shall have the right to ask, by a paid official 
notice, sent by either telegraph or mail and addressed to 
the coastal station, that his radiogram be held for a further 
period of 30 days for transmission to the vessel, and so on. 
In the absence of such request, the radiogram shall be 
put aside as not transmissible at the end of the 30th day 
(exclusive of the day of posting) . 

If, however, the coastal station has positive information 
that the vessel has left its radius of action before it has 
been able to transmit to her the radiogram, such station 
shall so notifv the sender. 



84 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY. 

Third paragraph. Replace the words "so notify the sender" by 
the following: 

" shall immediately so advise the office of origin by means of official 
notice which shall be transmitted without delay to the sender of the 
radiogram. 

REASONS. 

With a view to making the meaning more clear. 

FRANCE. 

Replace the last paragraph by the following: 

"Nevertheless if the coastal station is certain that the vessel has 
left its radius of action before it has been able to transmit to her 
the radiogram, such station shall inform the office of origin which 
shall advise the sender that his telegram has been annulled. How- 
ever, the sender may % by means of a paid service notice request the 
coastal station to transmit the radiogram the next time the vessel 
shall pass." 

REASONS. 

The present text does not state definitely what shall be done with 
a radiogram when it has not been possible to transmit it at the time 
the vessel passed within the radius of action of the coastal station, 
it being understood that according to the first paragraph of Article 
XXXII. the transmission shall take place within the period desig- 
nated by the sender, or, in the absence of such designation within 
the next 30 days. The coastal station may therefore transmit the 
radiogram at the next passage of the vessel within its radius of action 
even if the addressee is no longer on board. 

In order to remove all uncertainty on this point, it is proposed 
to annul the telegram after the sending of the notice informing the 
office of origin that it has not been possible to transmit the telegram. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

First paragraph. Replace the words " of the 29th day " by " of 
the 8th day." 

REASONS. 

Experience has shown that it is sufficient to hold a radiogram for 
a week for the purpose of determining whether it can be transmitted 
to its destination or not. 

ITALY. 

Add at the end the following words: 

" * * * and not transmit the radiogram even if the vessel during 
a subsequent voyage shall pass within its radius of action." 



85 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

The proposition is intended to establish the fact that in the case 
considered under Article XXXII the radiogram shall not be trans- 
mitted. Consquently, the radio rates may immediately be refunded 
to the sender in accordance with the proposition referring to Article 
XXXII. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

New Article XXXII-a to be inserted in the chapter " Special tele- 
grams." 

" Telegrams with answer prepaid. 

"ARTICLE XXXII-A. 

"A voucher for reply issued by a station on shipboard shall carry 
with it the right to send, within the limits of its value, a radiogram 
to any destination whatever from the station on shipboard which has 
issued the voucher." 

REASONS. 

This addition is in connection with the proposition to remove 
from the list of radiograms not accepted (Art. XXXIII of the 
Regulations) radiograms with answer, prepaid. The proposition 
tending to limit the use of a voucher for reply would seem to be 
desirable for the purpose of simplification. The proposed regulation 
although more restrictive than the analogous provision of the tele- 
graph regulations (Art. L, par. 1), would seem to be of a nature to 
satisfy all requirements of the public. 

EXTRACT FROM *THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS MENTIONED ABOVE. 

L. 

1. At the place of destination, the delivery office delivers to the addressee a 
voucher of a value corresponding to the cost of a telegram of a number of words 
equal to that given in the supplementary instruction, intended for the office 
of origin of the reply paid telegram and to be sent by the same route as the 
latter. The voucher carries the right of sending, within the limit of its value, 
a telegram to any destination whatever, from any office of the administration 
whose office has issued the voucher. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

New Article XXXII-b. 

" Radiograms to be forwarded by mail." 

"ARTICLE XXXII-B. 

"Radiograms may be transmitted to vessels by being forwarded 
by mail, such forwarding to be effected from a port of call of such 
vessels. 

" The address of such radiograms shall embrace the following : 
" 1. The designation ' mail ' followed by the name of the port at 
which the radiogram shall be delivered to the mail. 



86 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

" 2. Name and complete address of the addressee. 
"3. Name of the ship. 
"4. Name of the coastal station. 

" Example : Mail Buenosaires Martinez, 14 Pratt Street, Valpa- 
raiso, Avon Lizardradio." 

REASONS. 

The admission of special radiograms of this kind is proposed as 
a change to be made in Article XXXIII of the Regulations. This 
service would be an extension of the present practice consisting in 
addressing a telegram to the port of departure of a packet for the 
purpose of having it forwarded as a letter. The proposition is in- 
tended to make it possible for a letter addressed to a ship to be 
forwarded by radio telegraphy in case there would not be sufficient 
time to reach the ship before sailing by the ordinary telegraph. 

8. SPECIAL TELEGRAMS. 
XXXIII. 

The following radiograms shall not be accepted for 
transmission : 

(a) Radiograms with answers prepaid; 

( b ) Money-order radiograms ; 

(c) Radiograms calling for repetition of message (for 
purposes of verification) ; 

(d) Radiograms calling for acknowledgment of re- 
ceipt; 

(e) Radiograms to be forwarded (if addressee is not 
found at the address given) ; 

(/) Paid-service radiograms, except in so far as trans- 
mission over the lines of the telegraph system is con- 
cerned ; 

(g) Urgent radiograms, except in so far as transmis- 
sion over the lines of the telegraph system is concerned, 
subject to the application of the provisions of the Inter- 
national Telegraph Regulations; 

(h) Radiograms to be delivered by express or mail. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY. 

(d) Replace the present text by the following: 

"(d) Radiograms calling for acknowledgment of receipt by tele- 
graph or mail (except telegrams intended for ships at sea and for 
transmission over the lines of the telegraph system),". 



87 EADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

In conformity with the wording of Article LX, paragraph 7, of 
the Telegraph Regulations, as revised at Lisbon. 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

LX. 

7. The following are not admitted as maritime telegrams : 
(a) Telegrams with prepaid replies (except semaphore telegrams destined for 
ships at sea) ; 

(6) Telegraph money orders; 

(c) Collated telegrams; 

(d) Telegrams with telegraphic or postal acknowledgment of receipt (except 
telegrams destined for ships at sea in regard to their transit over the lines of 
the telegraph system) ; 

(e) Telegrams . " to follow " ; 

(/) Paid-service telegrams, except as regards transmission over the lines of 
the telegraph systems; 

(ff) Urgent telegrams, except as regards transmission over the lines of the 
telegraph system; 

(h) Telegrams to be delivered by express or by post. 

AUSTRIA. 
Cancel paragraphs (c) and (g). 

REASONS. 

The Austrian management is of the opinion that the admission of 
radiograms calling for repetition of messages (for the purpose of 
verification) does not entail any inconvenience, and that priority 
could be given to urgent radiograms when a station is called simul- 
taneously by several others, or when there are a number of radio- 
grams to be transmitted between the same stations. 

BULGARIA. 

Cancel (c) and add a final paragraph, as follows: 
" However, telegrams intended for a station on shipboard may have 
answer prepaid and call for acknowledgement of receipt, but not in- 
versely." 

REASONS. 

A perusal of the provisions of Articles XXVII and XXXI can not 
fail to show that since the' transmission of a radiogram must be re- 
peated as many as three times when the signals are doubtful, and, 
further, that the station on shipboard is bound to notify the office of 
origin in case of the nondelivery of a radiogram adequate reasons 
can hardly be found for prohibiting the admission of radiograms 
calling for repetition of message, those with answer prepaid and 
those calling for acknowledgment of receipt. Moreover, the very na- 
ture of the radio service is such that in the majority of cases repeti- 
tion of a part or the whole of a message is indispensable, for the rea- 
son that the operator receiving the message can not interrupt the 



88 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

transmission to request the necessary repetition of doubtful signals, 
as can be done in ordinary telegraphy. (See par. 5, Art. XXXVI, of 
the International Telegraph Regulations.) 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

XXXVI. 

5. If the receiving clerk perceives that reception has become unintelligible, 
he interrupts his correspondent and repeats the last word understood, following 
it by a note of interrogation. The sending clerk then continues the transmission 
from that word. 

BELGIAN CONGO. 

Article XXXIII of the Service Regulations annexed to the Con- 
vention excludes urgent telegrams for transmission over maritime 
routes and radiograms to be delivered by express. It would seem that 
this exclusion should be annulled. 

Delivery by express, in particular, may be indispensable in the 
case of radiograms proceeding from a ship and intended for a 
locality not having telegraph service. The urgency might be made 
optional by the payment of the supplementary rates provided for by 
the International Telegraph Regulations. (For "Express" see 
translator's note, p. 59.) 

SPAIN (1st). 

Change the title of section 8 to the following: 
" 8. Special radiograms." 

REASONS. 

Because the telegrams considered are radiograms. 

SPAIN (2d). 

Change Article XXXIII as follows : 

" Urgent radiograms shall be accepted on the same conditions as 
radiograms of this kind. 

" The following radiograms shall not be accepted for transmission : 

"(#) Radiograms with answer prepaid; 

" ( & ) Money-order radiograms ; 

"(tf) Radiograms calling for repetition of message (for the pur- 
pose of verification) ; 

"(d) Radiograms calling for acknowledgement of receipt; 

"(0) Radiograms to be forwarded (if addressee is not found at the 
address given) ; 

"(/) Paid-service radiograms, except in so far as transmission over 
the lines of the telegraph system is concerned ; 

"(#) Radiograms to be delivered by express or mail." 

REASONS. 

According to the first paragraph of Article XL VIII of the Inter- 
national Telegraph Regulations the word " urgent " or " D " must 



89 EADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

be entered in the telegram upon the payment of three times the rate 
of an ordinary telegram, including the designation " urgent " or " D." 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

XLVIII. 

1. The sender of a private telegram may obtain priority of transinisssion and 
delivery at destination by writing the instruction " Urgent " or " D " before 
the address, and by paying three times the charge for an ordinary telegram of 
the same length between the same points. 

There is no difficulty in the case of a radiogram proceeding from a 
ship. All the words, " Urgent /" or " D," inclusive, will be charged 
at a triple rate, and the number of words stated in the preamble 
shall continue to be the same until the radiogram reaches its desti- 
nation. 

But if the telegram is addressed to a ship and has the designation 
" Urgent " or '"'D," it loses its character of urgency from the moment 
it arrives at the coastal station. 

' In such case should the maritime rate be applied to the designation 
" Urgent " or " D " ? If this designation can not be transferred by 
radio telegraphy, it would seem that the maritime rate should not be 
collected for it, but then the number of words as stated will be 
charged. Upon forwarding the radiogram to a ship, the coastal 
station will have to state as the number of words one less than that 
received by it over the telegraph system. 

As this would introduce an exception in the general procedure of 
transmission, one of the following measures should be adopted : 

Apply the triple rate to the whole of the radiogram, including the 
designation " Urgent " or " D," stating that the designation " Urgent " 
or " D " must be transmitted to the destination of the radiogram. 

Exclude the transmission of urgent radiograms. 

Since the sender is bound to pay for the urgency of the radio- 
gram over its entire route, it seems but just to decide that such radio- 
gram shall be accepted. 

If this amendment is admitted. Article XXXIII should be revised 
as above, and Article XVIII as indicated in the proposition refer- 
ring to this article. 

FRANCE. 

1. Change the title of section 8 as follows : 
" 8. Special radiograms." 

2. Modify the text of Article XXXIII as follows : 
"There sliall be accepted for transmission: 

"(#) Urgent radiograms only for transmission over the lines of 
the telegraph system and subject to the application of the provi- 
sions of the International Telegraph Regulations; 

"(&) Radiograms calling for acknowledgment of receipt by tele- 
graph or mail when they are intended for ships at sea and only for 
transmission over fhe lines of the telegraph system ; 

"(c.) Multiple radiograms; 

u (d) Radiograms proceeding from ships and for delivery by ex- 
press or mail within the country in which the corresponding coastal 
station is situated ; 



3514412 12 



90 EADIO TELEGRAPH CONVEXTIOX OF BERLIN. 

"(e) Paid service notices relating to corrections in the address 
of radiograms. Other classes of paid service notices shall not be 
accepted, except for transmission over the lines of the telegraph 
system." 

REASONS. 

1. It seems logical to give this chapter the title " Special radio- 
grams." 

2. It would seem preferable to indicate the kinds of special radio- 
grams to be accepted. 

3. Concerning radiograms calling for acknowledgment of receipt, 
the text proposed agrees with that accepted by the Conference of 
Lisbon. 

4. There would seem to be no objection to admitting service tele- 
grams relating to corrections in addresses. This measure would re- 
move the impossibility now existing for the sender to correct an error 
which he has committed in the address of his radiogram. 

5. It would seem possible to admit radiograms proceeding from 
ships at sea for forwarding by mail or by express. However, with a 
view to avoiding difficulties in the accounts, this measure should be 
limited to the country in which the corresponding coastal station is 
situated. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Article XXXIII. Suppress : 

"() Radiograms with answers prepaid. 

u \c) Radiograms calling for repetition of message (for the pur- 
pose of verification)." 

(/) Insert after: 

" Paid-service radiograms '* the words " requesting a repetition or 
information." 

(h) Replace the present text by the following: 

"(A.) Radiograms referred to under Article LVIII, paragraphs 3 
and 4, of the Telegraph Regulations (XPT and XPP)." 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

LVIII. 

3. A sender who does not know the cost of delivery by special messenger can 
relieve the addressee from any pryment, either by paying the charge for a tele- 
gram of five words to the same destination and by the same route or by paying 
a fee of 25 centimes. He deposits as security an amount fixed by the office of 
origin with a view to eventual settlement. The telegram then bears one of the 
instructions : " Express-paid telegram " XPT or " Express-paid letter " 
XPT . This instruction is written before the address and is charged for. 

4. The office which receives a telegram with the instruc ion "Express-paid 
telegraph " or XPT notifies to the office of origin by paid service advice the 
charge to be collected for portenige. This advice takes the following form : 
M St. Paris, Brussels, 40 (number of paid-service advice), 5 number of words, 
434 (number of telegram), 16 (day of telegram shown only by the day of the 
mon^h). Express fr. 2.50." These particulars are given by prepaid ordinary 
letter when the supplementary instruction is " Express-paid letter " or XPT . 
On receipt of these particulars the office of origin effects a settlement. 

REASONS. 

This proposition is made with a view to admitting radiograms with 
answer prepaid (the need for which has been made clear beyond 



91 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

doubt) and other special radiograms, including paid service notices 
relating to a correction, cancellation, or addition ; the admittance of 
such radiograms would certainly be an advantage both to the public 
and to the radio service. On the other hand, paid service notices 
requesting a repetition or information would still be excluded from 
the radio service. 

ITALY. 

Add under (d) the following words: 

by telegraph or mail (except radiograms intended for 
stations on shipboard and for transmission over the lines of the tele- 
graph system)." 

REASONS. 

The proposition serves to make the provision of Article XXXIII 
agree with that covered by Article LX, paragraph 7, of the Inter- 
national Telegraph Regulations (see p. 87). 

JAPAN (1st). 

Change (d) as follows: 

"(6?) Radiograms calling for acknowledgment of receipt except so 
far as concerns notification of the date and hour at which the coastal 
station shall have transmitted the original radiogram addressed to a 
vessel to the station on shipboard." 

JAPAN (2d). 

Modify (/) as follows, and change the letters of paragraphs fol- 
lowing the present (/) : 

"(/) Radiograms to be forwarded, except in case the rates for for- 
warding have been paid in advance by the person requesting the 
forwarding of the radiogram, and in the case of the forwarding of 
radiograms proceeding from stations on shipboard over the lines of 
the telegraph system." 

JAPAN (3d). 

Cancel under the present item (k) the words " or. by. mail." 

REASONS. 

It would be an advantage under certain conditions to admit radio- 
grams calling for acknowledgment of receipt and those which are to 
be forwarded, and. under all conditions, radiograms to be delivered 
by mail. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Under (A) read as follows: 

"(A) Radiograms to be delivered by express, except those for which 
the charges for transportation have been paid in advance, the man- 
agements to which the offices of destination are subject having made 
known the amount of such charges." 



92 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

It does not seem practicable to exclude radiograms which are to be 
forwarded by mail. The forwarding of radiograms by mail does 
not expose the managements concerned to any greater risk than the 
forwarding of ordinary telegrams. 

Radiograms to be forwarded by express could be admitted without 
inconvenience, provided they do not involve subsequent settlement of 
accounts with the senders. See the proposition referring to Article 
XXXVI. 

9. FILES. 
XXXIV. 

The originals of radiograms and the documents relat- 
ing thereto retained by the managements of the radio 
service or by private enterprises shall be kept for a period 
of at least 12 months beginning with the month following 
that of the posting of the radiogram, with all the neces- 
sary precautions as regards secrecy. 

Such originals and documents shall, as far as practica- 
ble, be sent at least once a month by the shipboard sta- 
tions to the management of the radio service to which 
they are subject. 

10. REBATES AND REIMBTJBSEMENTS. 
XXXV. 

1. With regard to rebates and reimbursements, the 
provisions of the International Telegraph Regulations 
shall be applicable, taking into account the restrictions 
specified in Article XXXIII of the present Regulations 
and subject to the following reservations: 

The time employed in the transmission of radiograms 
and the time that radiograms remain in a coastal station 
or station on shipboard shall not be counted as delays as 
regards rebates or reimbursements. 

Reimbursements shall be borne by the different man- 
agements of the radio service or private enterprises which 



93 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

have taken part in the transmission of the radiogram, 
each management or private enterprise relinquishing its 
share of the rate. Radiograms to which articles 7 and 8 
of the Convention of St. Petersburg (see p. 12) are ap- 
plicable shall remain subject, however, to the provisions 
of the International Telegraph Regulations, except when 
the acceptance of such telegrams is the result of an error 
made by the telegraph service. 

2. When the acknowledgment of receipt of a radio- 
gram has not reached the station which has transmitted 
the telegram, the charges shall be refunded only if the 
fact has been established that the radiogram is entitled 
to reimbursement. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

BELGIUM. 

Add after the second division of the first paragraph the following 
provisions : 

"The maritime rate for radiograms intended. for ships at sea, but 
which have not been transmitted for the reason that the station on 
shipboard had passed beyond the radius of action of the coastal 
station designated shall be refunded officially by the management 
which collected it. 

"If the transmission has not been effected on account of a fault 
chargeable to an irregularity in the radio service, the management 
of origin shall refund in addition the telegraph rate. The reim- 
bursement of the latter rate shall be instigated officially by the 
management to which the coastal station is subject." 

REASONS. 

When the radiogram has not been transmitted to the vessel it is 
reasonable to reimburse the sender with the maritime rate. It not 
having been possible to credit this rate to the coastal station or the 
station on shipboard, the office of origin should not keep it. 

Moreover, when the transmission has failed in consequence of a 
technical defect or through the fault of the officer in charge of the 
coastal station, it likewise seems reasonable to refund the entire rate 
for the radiogram without waiting for claim to be made by the 
sender. 

SPAIN. 

Paragraph 1. second division, to read as follows: 
"* * * reimbursements, if the radiogram is to be transmitted to 
a vessel. 

"When the radiogram emanates from a ship the time, so far as 
reimbursement is concerned, shall be counted from the hour when 
the coastal station received it from the station on shipboard." 



94 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

If the radiogram is to be transmitted from the coastal station to 
the ship, there is no difficulty; neither the coastal station nor the 
station on shipboard will always be in a position to correspond. 

But if the radiogram proceeds from a ship, as soon as it is re 
ceived by the coastal station, inasmuch as the latter is also a tele- 
graph office or at least is generally connected with the telegraph 
office by special wire, it would seem that the hour of the posting of 
the radiogram that is to say, the hour when it was received by the 
coastal station in conformity with Article X, paragraph 2, second 
division, of the Regulations should .alwavs be the hour of posting 
to all intents and purposes, even for the reimbursement of rates. 

The radiogram should be transmitted to the telegraph system 
without delay, as this retransmission is entirely independent of radio 
telegraphy. 

The radiogram is subject to the same conditions as a telegram 
posted at an office of origin or, if desired, as a telegram received in 
transit by an intermediate office. 

These considerations are emphasized by Article V of the Conven- 
tion of Berlin, which states : " Each of the High Contracting Parties 
undertakes to connect the coastal stations to the telegraph system 
by special wires or. at least, to take other measures which will insure 
a rapid exchange between the coastal stations and the telegraph 
system." 

That is to say. that even when there are no special wires connecting 
the coastal stations to the telegraph system, the communication be- 
tween them should be rapid. If the coastal station is connected with 
the telegraph system it would be all the more unjustifiable for the 
.radiogram to remain longer than necessary in the coastal station. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Paragraph 1. Add the following new division : 

" If the coastal station shall inform the office of origin that a 
radiogram can not be transmitted to the vessel to which it is ad- 
dressed, the latter having passed beyond the radius of action of such 
station, the management of the country of origin shall officially insti- 
gate reimbursement to the sender of the coastal and shipboard rates, 
which, in this case, shall not enter into the accounts provided for 
by Article XXXV-I." 

REASONS. 

It is equitable to refund the rates referring to a service which has 
not been effected, and it would seem desirable, with a view to avoid- 
ing unnecessary work, to take the measures necessary for the reim- 
bursemeVit to be made officially so that these rates shall not enter into 
the accounts. 

This proposition is in harmony with the practice already observed 
by certain managements. 

, JAPAN. 

Paragraph 1. Add a new division, as follows, to the paragraph 
regulating the reservations: 

" In the case of radiograms addressed to a ship, the rates for the 
transmission by radio telegraphy which has not been effected shall 
be refunded." 



95 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

The provisions of the International Telegraph Regulations are 
applicable so far as reimbursements are concerned. But since there 
are no provisions clearly covering the case in question it would seem 
advantageous to add this new division. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Paragraph 1. Insert between the first and second divisions the 
following : 

" The coastal and shipboard rates for every radiogram which it has 
not been possible for the coastal station to transmit, the station on 
shipboard having passed beyond its radius of action, shall be re- 
funded officially as soon as the service notice reporting the circum- 
stance under consideration shall have been received by the office, of 
origin." 

REASONS. 

The proposed addition is based upon considerations of fairness 
and equity and needs no explanation. 

GERMANY. 

Add a new paragraph as follows : 

" 3. The coastal and shipboard rates for telegrams transmitted to 
coastal stations with a view to their being forwarded to ships at sea 
shall be refunded officially to the sender after receipt of the service 
notice provided for in Article XXXII, third paragraph, if the re- 
transmission by radiotelegraphy has not been effected for the reason 
that the vessel has passed beyond the radius of action of the coastal 
station. The rates applicable to transmission over the telegraph 
system, however, shall not be refunded." 

REASONS. 

It would seem equitable in such cases to refund officially the 
coastal and shipboard rates. 

ITALY. 

Add a new paragraph 3, as follows: 

" 3. Reimbursement shall be made of the coastal and shipboard 
rates for radiograms intended for ships in case it has not been possi- 
ble to effect their transmission. 

" In the case designated by the last paragraph of Article XXXII 
the reimbursement shall be made when the service notice reporting 
failure to effect the transmission of the radiogram shall be received." 

REASONS. 

The addition seems necessary in order to fix exactly the cases call- 
ing for reimbursement of radio rates and the time for making such 
reimbursement. 



96 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

11. ACCOUNTS AND PAYMENTS OF CHANGES. 
XXXVI. 

1. The coastal and shipboard charges shall not enter 
into the accounts provided for by the International Tele- 
graph Regulations. 

The accounts regarding such charges shall be liqui- 
dated by the managements of the radio service of the 
countries concerned. They shall be drawn up by the 
radio telegraph management to which the coastal sta- 
tions are subject, and communicated by them to the 
radio telegraph managements concerned. 

2. For transmission over the lines of the telegraph 
system radiograms shall be treated, so far as the payment 
of rates is concerned, in conformity with the International 
Telegraph Regulations . 

3. For radiograms proceeding from ships, the radio 
management to which the shipboard station is subject 
shall be charged by the radio management to which the 
coastal station is subject with the coastal and ordinary 
telegraph rates charged on board of vessels. 

For radiograms intended for ships, the radio manage- 
ment which has collected the fees shall be charged 
directly by the radio management to which the coastal 
station is subject with the coastal and shipboard rates. 
The latter shall credit the radio management to which the 
vessel is subject with the shipboard rate. 

In case the radio management which has collected the 
charges is the same, however, as the one to w r hich the 
shipboard station is subject, the shipboard rate shall not 
be charged by the radio management to which the coastal 
station is subject. 

4. The month! v accounts serving as a basis for the 
special accounts of radiograms shall be made out for each 
radiogram separately, with all the necessary data, within 
a period of six months from the month to which they 
refer. 



97 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

5. The Governments reserve the right to enter into 
special agreements among themselves and with private 
enterprises (parties operating radio stations, shipping 
companies, etc.) with a view of adopting other pro- 
visions with regard to accounts. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 
Paragraph 1. Keplace the word "Governments" by "countries." 

REASONS. 

The word " countries " seems preferable to " Governments." 

GERMANY. 

Add to paragraph 3 the following: 

" When the coastal and shipboard rates for telegrams intended for 
ships have been collected of the addressee (Art. XIV, 3d par., new. 
and Art. XXX. par. 4. new), the management to which the ship 
is subject shall credit the management to which the coastal station 
is subject with the coastal rate." 

REASONS. 

As a result of the insertion of a third paragraph under Article 
XIV and of a fourth paragraph under Article XXX. 

BELGIUM. 

Paragraph 3. Modify as follows the wording of the second and 
third divisions of this paragraph: 

" For radiograms intended for ships, the radio management which 
has collected the fees shall be charged directly with the coastal and 
shipboard rates by the radio management to which the coastal station 
is subject. The latter shall credit the radio management to which the 
vessel is subject with the shipboard rate. 

" In case the radio management which has collected the charges is 
the same, however, as the one to which the shipboard station is sub- 
ject, this management shall be charged simply with the coastal rate." 

REASONS. 
A question of wording. 

FRANCE. 

Keplace paragraph 3' by the following : 

"3. For radiograms and paid-service notices proceeding from 
ships, tlie radio management to which the shipboard station is sub- 
ject shall be charged by the radio management to which the coastal 
station is subject with the coastal and ordinary telegraph rates 
charged on shipboard. 



3514412 13 



98 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

" Intermediate shipboard stations which are entitled to a transit 
rate for radiograms proceeding from other shipboard stations shall 
be credited with this rate by the vessel of origin. 

"For radiograms and paid-service notices intended for -ships, the 
radio management which has collected the rates shall be charged 
directly by the radio management to which the coastal station is sub- 
ject with the coastal and shipboard rates. The latter shall credit the 
managements to which the vessels concerned are subject with the 
shipboard rates, and, if there is occasion, with the transit rates." 

REASONS. 

The changes proposed are intended to fix the accountability for 
paid-service notices and rates of transit due to stations on shipboard 
which have participated in the transmission of radiograms. 

For paid-service notices it would seem proper for the shipboard 
and coastal stations to retain their respective rates. Moreover, in 
conformity with the provisions of the International Telegraph 'Reg- 
ulations, the country of the coastal station which has received a 
service radiogram from a ship would retain the ordinary telegraph 
rate; for service telegrams intended for ships the country of origin 
would retain the ordinary telegraph rate and would be indebted to 
the coastal station and the station on shipboard for the rates accru- 
ing to them. 

Concerning rates of transit to which stations on shipboard which 
have participated in the retransmission of the radiograms would be 
entitled, it seems that for radiograms proceeding from ships the liqui- 
dation of the rates should be effected between the shipboard stations 
concerned, for in this case it is the shipboard station of origin which 
takes charge of the transit rate. For radiograms intended for ship- 
board stations liquidation should be effected by the management of 
the country to which the coastal station belongs, the transit rate 
being borne by this management. 

Finally, it is proposed to suppress the last division of paragraph 3 
in order not to multiply exceptions. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Change paragraph 3 as follows: 

" 3. For radiograms proceeding from ships the radio management 
to which the shipboard station of origin is subject shall be charged 
by the radio management to which the coastal station is subject with 
the coastal and ordinary telegraph rates, the total rates collected for 
answers prepaid, the coastal and telegraph rates collected for repeti- 
tion of message (for purposes of verification), the rates for delivery 
by express or mail, and those for extra copies (TM). The radio 
management to which the coastal station is subject shall directly 
credit the radio management to which the office of destination is sub- 
ject with the coastal and shipboard rates relating to answers prepaid; 
in the case of telegraph rates and rates relating to delivery by express 
or mail and to extra copies, the procedure shall conform to the pro- 
visions of the International Telegraph Regulations, the coastal sta- 
tion being considered in this connection as a telegraph office of origin. 
However, where the radio management to which the office of destina- 



99 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

tipn is subject is the same as the one to which the shipboard station is 
subject, the coastal and shipboard rates collected for answers prepaid 
shall not enter into the accounts drawn up by the radio management 
to which the coastal station is subject. 

" For radiograms intended for a country lying beyond the country 
to which the coastal station belongs, the telegraph charges to be paid 
in conformity with the provisions stated above shall comprise those 
which result either from the application of the rates given in Tables 
A and B annexed to the International Telegraph Eegulations or the 
changes in such rates made by virtue of a special arrangement con- 
cluded between various radio managements of adjacent countries and 
published by such managements, but not the optional rates which may 
be collected in accordance with the special provisions of Article 
XXIII, paragraph 1, and XXVIL paragraph 1, of the Telegraph 
Regulations. 

"For radiograms intended for ships the radio management to 
which the office of origin is subject shall be charged directly by the 
radio management to which the coastal station is subject with the 
coastal and shipboard rates, including the coastal and shipboard 
rates collected for answers prepaid. The radio management to which 
the station is subject shall credit the radio management to which 
the shipboard station of destination is subject with the shipboard 
rate, the total rate collected for aftswers prepaid, the shipboard rate 
relative to repetitions (for purposes of verification), and also the 
rate collected for extra copies and for delivery by mail. 

" In case the radio management to which the office of origin is sub- 
ject is the same, however, as the one to which the shipboard station 
of destination is subject, the shipboard rate and the coastal and the 
shipboard rates collected for answers prepaid shall not be charged 
by the radio management to which the coastal station is subject. 

" Paid-service notices and answers prepaid shall be treated in the 
radio accounts in all respects the same as other radiograms. 

REASONS. 

The changes are proposed for the following reasons: 
1. With a view to making provisions applicable to the settlement 
of accounts concerning special radiograms and the accessory services 
which it is proposed to admit under Article XXXIII. 

The propositions relative to charging and crediting the radio 
managements to which the shipboard station is subject with the 
rates applicable to " paid-service notices " and to the accessory serv- 
ices (repetition, delivery by mail, delivery by express, the mak- 
ing of extra copies TM) are to be recommended for the reason 
that the reciprocity existing in the telegraph service between the 
different States is lacking in the radio service between the stations 
on shipboard and the offices on shore.. This proposition is to be 
recommended, furthermore, in consideration of the fact that (1) 
u paid-service notices." which it is proposed to admit, are not of the 
number of those which involve a reimbursement of charges, and are 
consequently excluded from the telegraph accounts, and (2) that 
since the accounts are made out for each radiogram separately 
(Art. XXXVI, par. 4. of the Regulations), a statement of the acces- 
sory rates would not entail any appreciable increase in the work. 



100 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONTENTION OF BERLIN. 

2. With a view to making it clearly apparent that in case of the 
forwarding of radiograms the coastal station shall liquidate the ac- 
counts relating thereto with the last ship and not with a ship which 
has acted as intermediary. 

The object of the proposition contained in the second division of 
paragraph 3 is to provide that the rate to be entered in the radio- 
accounts shall be the rate per word pure and simple expressed in 
francs and not the different rates which the radio managements have 
the right to collect as the result of monetary considerations or other 
exigencies of the country of origin. These optional rates are, more- 
over, excluded from the telegraph accounts by virtue of the provisions 
of Article XXVII, paragraph 2, and LXXVI, paragraph 1, of the 
Regulations. The exclusion of such rates from the radio accounts 
would have for effect a notieable simplication of these accounts. 

ITALY (1st). 

Modify the first phrase of the third paragraph as follows : 
" 3. For radiograms intended for ships of the Navy, commercial 
vessels, and yachts, the radio management * * *." 

REASONS. 

(See the proposition referring to Art. XII.) 

ITALY (2d). 

In paragraph 3. replace the words "the radio management to 
which the shipboard station is subject " by the words : 

"The radio management or company to which the shipboard sta- 
tion is subject." 

ITALY (3d). 

Same article, fifth division (same paragraph), last sentence, re- 
place the words " the radio management to which the vessel is sub- 
ject " by the words : 

" The radio management or company to which the shipboard sta- 
tion is subject." 

ITALY (4th). 

Same article, replace the text of the sixth division (same para- 
graph) by a new text, as follows: 

" For radiograms intended for ships subject to radio managements 
which have not adhered to the Convention and which have not made 
the declaration provided for in Article IX, the coastal and shipboard 
rates shall be charged to the first radio management which has re- 
ceived the radiogram in transit." 

ITALY (5th). 

If the proposition tending to introduce the Article Xl-a is 
adopted it will be necessary to add to the seventh line of paragraph 3, 
after the words " shipboard rate," the words " and the charges for 
night service." 



101 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

Consequently paragraph 3 of Article XXXVI should read as fol- 
lows: 

" 3. For radiograms proceeding from ships the radio management 
or the company which works the station on shipboard shall be charged 
by that to which the coastal station is subject with the coastal and 
ordinary telegraph rates charged on board of vessels. 

" For radiograms intended for ships the radio management which 
has collected the fees shall be charged directly by the radio manage- 
ment to which the coastal station is subject with the coastal and 
shipboard rates and the charges for night service. The latter shall 
credit the radio management or company which works the station on 
shipboard with the shipboard rate. 

" For radiograms intended for ships originating with manage- 
ments which have not adhered to the Convention and have not made 
the declaration provided for in Article IX, the first adhering radio 
management which received the radiograms in transit shall be 
charged with the coastal and shipboard rates." 

REASONS. 

The proposition is intended to introduce certain modifications in 
the settlement of accounts for radiograms intended for ships in ac- 
cordance with the system followed by certain managements. In 
effect it would be a question of having the payment of shipboard 
rates relating to the radiograms referred to above rest solely with 
the company which works the stations on shipboard and not with 
all the radio managements of the State under whose flag the vessels 
sail. 

The amendment to the sixth division is intended to fill a defi- 
ciency in the Service Regulations, since no provision is made therein 
with a view to guaranteeing to the radio managements concerned 
the payment of the radio coastal and shipboard rates for messages 
originating in countries where there is no telegraph service under 
government control, such, for example, as North America. In such 
countries the private telegraph companies accept radiograms intended 
for ships which are in Europe and, consequently, such messages 
should be transmitted by the European coastal stations to the ship- 
board station designated. 

NETHERLANDS (1st). 

Paragraph 3. Add to the first division the following : 
"The latter rates shall be augmented by the accessory rates, if 
there are any." 

NETHERLANDS (2d). 

Paragraph 3. Enter as a fourth division : 

" Radiograms which have not been transmitted, the shipboard sta- 
tion of destination being beyond range (Art. XXXV, par. 1, second 
division), shall not be paid 'for." 

(See the complement to this proposition under par. 4.) 

REASONS. 

The changes in this article result from the additions proposed in 
relation to Articles XXXIII and XXXV of the Service Regulations. 



102 KADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

ITALY. 

Paragraph 4. First line, replace the word "monthly" by the word 
" quarterly." 

To the last line add before the word " monthly " the word " last." 

REASONS. 

(See above under par. 3.) 

In regard to a quarterly instead of a monthly rendering of ac- 
counts, the proposition is intended to simplify this work in view of 
the small number of radiograms exchanged each month. 

NETHEBLANDS. 

Paragraph 4. Add the following : 

"The radiograms referred to in paragraph 3, fourth division, of 
this article, shall appear in the accounts for record solely." 

REASONS. 
(See above under par. 3.) 

ITALY. 

Introduce a new Article XXXVI-a to read as follows : 
"ARTICLE XXXVI-a. 

"The rates for radiograms transmitted to a coastal station by a 
station on shipboard which has received them from another vessel 
shall be charged to the station on shipboard with which the radio- 
grams originated." 

, REASONS. 

The proposition is intended to regulate the settlement of accounts 
for radiograms which have been forwarded as provided for in the 
proposition relating to the addition of the Article XLI-a. 

12, INTERNATIONAL BUKEAU. 
XXXVII. 

The International Bureau of Telegraphs shall be in- 
trusted with the duties specified in article 13 of the Con- 
vention, subject to the consent of the Government of the 
Swiss Federation and the approval of the Telegraph 
Union. 

The additional expenses resulting from the work of the 
International Bureau so far as radio telegraphy is con- 



103 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

cerned shall not exceed 40,000 francs a year, exclusive of 
the special expenses arising from the. convening of the 
International Conference. 

These expenses shall form the subject of a special ac- 
count, and the provisions of the International Telegraph 
Eegulations shall be applicable to them. Before the con- 
vening of the next Conference, however, each contracting 
Government shall notify the International Bureau of the 
class in which it desires to be entered. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY (1st). 

First division to read: 

" The International Bureau of the Telegraph Union shall be in- 
trusted with the duties specified in Article XIII of the Convention." 

REASONS. 

In conformity with the wording of Article LXXXI, paragraph 1, 
of the Telegraph Regulations, as revised at Lisbon, and in considera- 
tion of the actual conditions. 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

LXXXI. 

1. The central office provided for by article 14 of the Convention receives the 
title of International Bureau of the Telegraph Union. 

. GERMANY (2d). 

Replace the last phrase of the third division by the following : 

"In conformity with the provisions of Article LXXXII, para- 
graph 3, of the "Service Regulations annexed to the International 
Telegraph Convention, the managements of the Contracting Govern- 
ments shall, so far as contribution to the expenses is concerned, be 
divided into six classes, as follows: 

" First class : South African Union, Germany (Argentine Re- 
public), Australia, Austria, France, Great Britain, Hungary. Brit- 
ish Indies (Italy), Japan, Russia, Turkey. 

" Second class : Spain. 

"Third class: Belgium (Chile), Dutch Indies, Norway, Nether- 
lands, Roumania, and Sweden. 

"Fourth class: Denmark. Mexico, New Zealand (Uruguay). 

" Fifth class : Bulgaria and Tunis. - 

" Sixth class : Brazil, Colony of Curagao, Morocco, Monaco, Persia, 
and Portugal." 



104 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

In' conformity with the wording of Article LXXXII, paragraph 
3, of the Telegraph Regulations, as revised at London. 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

LXXXII. 

3. For the division of the expenses, the contracting or adhering States are 
divided into six clashes, each contributing in the proportion of a certain number 
of units, i e. : 

First class 25 units. 

Second class 20 units. 

Third class : 15 units. 

Fourth class 10 units. 

Fifth class 5 units. 

Sixth class ,. 3 units. 

XXXVIII. 

The management of the radio service of the different 
countries shall forward to the International Bureau a 
table in conformity with the annexed blank, containing 
the data enumerated in said table for stations such as re- 
ferred to in Article IV of the Eegulations. Changes 
radio managements to the International Bureau between 
the first and tenth day of each month. With the aid of 
such data the International Bureau shall draw up a list 
which it shall keep up to date. The list and the supple- 
ments thereto shall be printed -and distributed to the 
radio managements of the countries concerned; they may 
also be sold to the public at the cost price. 

The International Bureau shall see to it that the same 
call letters for several radio stations shall not be adopted. 



105 



RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 



[Supplement to Art. XXXVIII of the Regulations.] 
Radio management of 

Descriptive list of radio stations. 

(a) COASTAL STATIONS. 















E'.sf 


u 


I 2S^ 



















J. 


HH 




3 lUl* 


a 




Name. 


Nationality. 


Geographical locatioc 


Call letters. 


Normal range. 


Radio system. 


Class ofj receiving a 
tus (recording, ac 
or other apparatus) 


,2 

SB 

co^ 

at! 

tuD C 
S 
8* 

'~~ l 03 Q} 

& p* 6 

1" 


Nature of service fur 
by station. 


Hours during which 
is open (indicatin 
ridian to which tt 
fer). 


Coastal rate, stating 
mum rate. 


! 



























(b) SHIPBOARD STATIONS. 



Name. 



0*3 



n 



III 



(1) War vessels. 



(2) M 



t vessels. 



PROPOSITIONS. 

GERMANY. 

First division. Replace the words " a list which it shall keep up 
to date " by " the list provided for under Article IV." 

Further substitute the words " and the supplements thereto shall 
be printed and distributed " for the words " shall be distributed " 
and replace the words " they may also be sold " by the words " this 
document with the supplements relating thereto may also be sold." 

REASONS. 

Changes resulting from the proposition submitted under Article 
IV. paragraph 2. 



3514412 14 



106 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

* ik 

13. MISCELLANEOUS PEOVISIONS. 
XXXIX. 

The managements of the radio service shall give to 
agencies of maritime information such data regarding 
losses and casualties at sea or other information of general 
interest to navigation as the coastal stations may properly 
report. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 

Add the following paragraph : 

"The managements of the radio service shall take the necessary 
measures to have their coastal stations receive the meteorological 
telegrams containing observations concerning the region covered 
by such stations. These telegrams, which shall not be more than 
20 words in length, shall be transmitted to the vessels upon request 
of the latter. The rates for such meteorological radiograms shall be 
charged to the accounts of the vessels of destination. 

"The coastal stations shall, however, be bound to communicate, 
officially and free of charge to all vessels entering into communica- 
tion with them, all storm warnings of which they have official 
knowledge." 

REASONS. 

In view of the interest which the communication of meteorological 
telegrams may have for ships, it would be desirable for the radio 
managements to take the necessary measures to put their coastal sta- 
tions in the position of being able to furnish data on this subject to 
such vessels as request it. 

It would also be desirable, from a humanitarian point of view, to 
impose upon coastal stations an obligation to communicate, officially 
and free of charge to all vessels entering into communication with 
them, all storm warnings (typhoons, cyclones, tornadoes, etc.) of 
which they have knowledge. 

JAPAN. 

Add a new division as follows : 

" They shall likewise facilitate, so far as possible, the communica- 
tion by their coastal stations of time signals and storm warnings to 
stations on shipboard which are within the radius of action of such 
stations." 

REASONS. 

The communication of time signals and storm warnings being of 
g^eat utility for the interests of ships at sea, it is desirable, whenever 
circumstances will permit, to have the same communicated by the 
coastal stations to the stations on shipboard. 



107 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

XL. 

The exchange of correspondence between shipboard 
stations such as referred to in article 1 of the Convention 
shall be carried on in such a manner as not to interfere 
with the service of the coastal stations, the latter, as a 
general rule, being accorded the right of priority for the 
public service. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

FRANCE. 

Add the following article : 

"ARTICLE XL-A. 

"Time signals and meteorological telegrams shall be transmitted 
one after the other in such a manner that the time occupied for their 
transmission shall not exceed 10 minutes. As a general rule, all radio 
stations located within the radius of action shall keep silent during 
such transmission, in order that all stations desiring it may be able 
to receive such telegrams and signals. Exception shall be made in 
cases of distress and of state telegrams." 

REASONS. 

It is necessary to limit the time to be occupied in the transmission 
of time signals and meteorological telegrams. A period of 10 min- 
utes for each station would be sufficient. 

XLI. 

1. In the absence of special agreements between the 
parties concerned, the provisions of the present regula- 
tions shall be applicable analogously to the exchange of 
radiograms between two vessels at sea, subject to the 
following exceptions: 

(a) To Article XIV. The shipboard rate falling to 
the transmitting ship shall be collected from the sender, 
and that falling to the receiving ship shall be collected 
from the addressee. 

(b) To Article XVIII. The order of transmission 
shall be regulated in each case by mutual agreement 
between the corresponding stations. 



108 BADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

(c) To Article XXXVI. The rates for the radio- 
grams in question shall not enter into the accounts pro- 
vided for in that article, such charges falling to the radio 
managements which have collected them. 

2. Ketransmission of radiograms exchanged between 
vessels at sea shall be subject to special agreements be- 
tween the parties concerned. 

PROPOSITIONS. 

* 

GERMANY (1st). 

Suppress division (a) and replace (&) by (a). 

REASONS. 

According to the experience of the German management, the send- 
ers of radiograms exchanged between ships, desiring to prevent ex- 
pense to the addressee, request that the total rate shall be collected 
of the sender. 

GERMANY (3d). 

Eeplace the present text of division (c) by the following: 
" () Accounts relating to the radiograms in question shall be regu- 
lated directly between the shipboard stations concerned." 

REASONS. 
This is the method of procedure actually in use. 

BELGIUM. 

Paragraph 1. Modify the end of the first phrase of this paragraph 
as follows : 

" * * * between two vessels at sea without the intervention of 
a coastal station, subject to the following exceptions:", etc. 

REASONS. 
In consequence of the addition proposed under Article XIII. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Insert between paragraphs 1 and 2 the following: 
" la. In cases where radiograms proceeding from and intended 
for ships shall be exchanged by the intermediation of a coastal sta- 
tion, the coastal rate shall be collected twice. The total charge shall 
be collected of the sender. The liquidation of the charges shall be 
made by the radio management to which the coastal station is sub- 
ject, analogously to the provisions of Article XXXVI." 



109 RADIO TELEGKAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

REASONS. 

In cases where radiograms proceeding from and intended for ships 
are exchanged by the intermediation of a coastal station, it is not 
necessary to make an exception to the general rule that the radio 
rates shall be collected of the sender and that liquidation shall be 
made by the management to which the coastal station is subject. In 
conformity with the principle of a just remuneration for radio work, 
the article expressly provides that the coastal rate shall be computed 
twice; that is to say, once for reception and once for forwarding. 

FRANCE. 

Replace the text of paragraph 2 by the following : 
" Retransmission of radiograms by the intermediation of a station 
on shipboard shall be obligatory when a ship is not able to communi- 
cate directly with the nearest coastal station." 

REASONS. 

It would seem proper to make retransmission obligatory when a 
shipboard station of origin is not able to communicate with the 
nearest coastal station. This obligation should be compensated by 
the concession of a rate of transit of 0.20 franc to the shipboard 
station acting as intermediary. 

ITALY. 

Replace the last division of Article XLI by a new Article XLI-a, 
as follows: 

"ARTICLE XLI-a. 

" Retransmission of radiograms exchanged between ships at sea 
shall be permitted when the shipboard station of origin of the radio- 
gram is not able to communicate directly with a coastal station or 
with the shipboard station of destination of the message. Retrans- 
mission shall be subject to the condition that the station on ship- 
board which received the radiogram in transit is in a position to 
forward the same. 

" Only one retransmission shall be allowed. 

"The shipboard rate relating to radiograms requiring retrans- 
mission shall be divided equally between the shipboard station of 
origin of the radiogram and "the shipboard station which for- 
warded it." 

REASONS. 

Retransmission of radiograms between stations on shipboard has 
become very extensive in practice, and it is therefore necessary to 
regulate the service of transit which results therefrom. Further- 
more it is necessary to make it possible for ships at sea to have their 
messages reach the coastal stations when they are not able to enter 
into direct communication with such stations, for the reason that the 
distance to be covered is greater than the range of the installations- 
on board. 



110 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

The provision under consideration tends to regulate the relations 
to be established between stations on shipboard which discharge a 
general public service with a view to organizing the special service of 
retransmission of radiograms. 

A single retransmission has been considered in order to preserve a 
proper flexibility in the accounts of radiograms. 

Moreover a ship at sea is always at a distance from coastal sta- 
tions which can be covered by means of a single retransmission with 
the present range of the stations on shipboard. Therefore a radio- 
gram can always reach the coastal stations. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Enter as a new Article XLI-a, the following : 
"ARTICLE XLI-a. 

" 1. The total rate fixed for radiograms exchanged between sta- 
tions established on board lightships and coastal stations on shore 
shall be collected of the addressee in all cases in which the provi- 
sion of the first division of Article XIV can not be applied. In such 
cases the preamble shall contain the designation PCV. 

" 2. The radio management which has collected the total rate of 
the addressee shall be charged with the same directly by the radio 
management to which the coastal station on shore is subject by means 
of the radio accounts provided for under Article XXXVI on condi- 
tion that the latter radio management shall enter the radiogram in 
the ordinary telegraph accounts. 

" 3. For radiograms intended for lightships, the radio management 
which has collected the total rate shall be charged therewith by the 
radio management to which the coastal station on shore is subject, 
deduction being made of the rates for transmission over the lines of 
the telegraph system. 

" 4. If the radio management to which the coastal station on shore 
is subject is not the same as that to which the station established on 
board the lightship is subject, the former radio management shall 
credit the latter with the rates for the intermediation of the light- 
ship." 

REASONS. 

Experience concerning international correspondence by means of 
the Netherlands lightships has shown the necessity for regulating in 
a general manner the liquidation of rates for radiograms relating to 
radio correspondence between coastal stations on shore and the sta- 
tions on lightships, in so far as the latter exchange such messages 
with ships at sea otherwise than by way of radio telegraphy (for 
example, by semaphoric transmission). 

Since within, the meaning of the Convention radio stations estab- 
lished on board lightships are coastal stations, the radiograms in 
question are not subject to the provisions of the Convention and 
Regulations. The radio rates are to be fixed by the managements to 
which the radio stations are subject. It now remains to make pro- 
vision in the Regulations for the cases where the total rate for radio- 
grams proceeding from the sea is to be collected of the addressee (in 



Ill RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

derogation of Article XIV) , and next to regulate the liquidation of 
the rates by the coastal stations on shore. In the case of the latter 
equity demands that; in derogation of Article LXXVI of the Inter- 
national Telegraph Regulations, the rates (including those which 
are " equitable for the radio work " (Article X of the Convention) 
and the semaphore rates) shall also be paid in case they have been 
collected of the addressee. 

GERMANY. 

"Article XLII (new). 

" The modifications in the provisions of the present Regulations, 
which may be rendered necessary as the result of the decisions of 
subsequent telegraph conferences, shall go into effect on the date 
fixed for the application of the provisions determined upon by each 
one of such conferences." 

REASONS. 

In conformity with Article LXII, paragraph 8, of the Telegraph 
Regulations, as revised at Lisbon. 

EXTRACT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

LXII. 

8. Modifications of the provisions of the present Regulations relating to 
radiograms, which may be rendered necessary in consequence of decisions of 
future radio telegraph conferences, will be brought into force on the date 
fixed for the application of the provisions adopted by each of these latter 
conferences. 

XLII. 

The provisions of the International Telegraph Regula- 
tions shall be applicable analogously to radio correspond- 
ence in so far as they are not contrary to the provisions 
of the present regulations. 

In conformity with Article 11 of the Convention of 
Berlin, these Regulations shall go into effect on the 1st 
day of July, 1908. 

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries 
have signed one copy of the present Regulations, which 
shall be deposited in the archives of the Imperial Gov- 
ernment of Germany, and a copy of which shall be trans- 
mitted to each of the parties. 

Done at Berlin, November 3, 1906. 

(Signed by all plenipotentiaries as per pp. 14-16. 



112 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

GERMANY. 

Replace the present number by XLIII. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Add at the end of Article XLII the following paragraph : 
"There shall be considered as applicable, in particular, to radio 
correspondence the provisions of Article XXVII, paragraphs 3 to 
6, of the said Regulations, relating to the collection of rates ; those of 
Articles LXXV. paragraph 1, LXXVIII, paragraphs 2 to 4, and 
LXXIX, paragraphs 2 to 4, relating to the preparation and state- 
ment of accounts. On the other hand, the provisions of Article XVI. 
paragraph 2, of the Telegraph Regulations, shall not be considered 
as authorizing gratuitous transmission by the radio stations of service 
telegrams relating exclusively to the telegraph service nor the free 
transmission over the telegraph lines of service telegrams relating 
exclusively to the radio service; furthermore, the provisions of 
Article LXXIX, paragraph 3, of the Telegraph Regulations, shall 
not be applicable to the settlement of radio accounts. With a view 
to the application of the provisions of the Telegraph Regulations, 
coastal stations shall be considered as offices of transit except when 
the Radio Regulations expressly stipulate that such stations shall be 
considered as offices of origin or of destination." 

REASONS. 

The general terms in which the present provisions are expressed 
permit some uncertainty to exist as to whether certain provisions of 
the Telegraph Regulations are applicable or not to the radio corre- 
spondence. The intention of the proposition is to remove all doubts 
concerning such of the provisions as have given rise to different in- 
terpretations. The latter part of the proposed addition relates more 
especially to the following articles of the Telegraph Regulations 
regarding the verification of the count of words, namely. Articles 
XIX, paragraphs 9 and 10, XXXVII, paragraph 2, and LXXVI, 
paragraph 9. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION AND 
SERVICE REGULATIONS, MENTIONED ABOVE. 

XXVII 

3. In order to insure uniformity of charge as prescribed by the Convention, 
those of the Contracting States which do not use the franc as their monetary 
unit fix for the collection of their charges an equivalent in their respective 
currencies as nearly as possible of the value of the gold franc. 

4. The present equivalent of the franc is : 

In Germany, 0.85 mark. 

In Australia (Commonwealth), 9.6 pence. 

In Austria, 1 crown. 

Ip Hungary, 1 crown. 

In Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1 crown. 

In Bolivia, 50 centavos. 

In Brazil, 640 reis Brazilian money. 

In Bulgaria, 1 lev. 

At the Cape of Good Hope, 9.6 pence. 

In Ceylon, 0.68 rupee. 

In Chile, 0.5333 gold peso at 18 pence. 



113 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

In the Portuguese Colonies, 200 reis. 

In Crete, 1 drachma. 

In Denmark, 0.80 crown. 

In Egypt, 38.575 millienies (3 piastres 34 paras tariff money). 

In Erythrea, 1 liva. 

In Spain, 1 peseta, 13 centimes of a peseta. 

In Great Britain, 9.6 pence. 

In Greece, 1 drachma. 

In British India, 0.60 rupee. 

In Dutch East Indies, 0.50 florin. 

In French Indo-China, 50 centiemes of a piastre. 

In Iceland, 0.80 crown. 

In Italy, 1 lira. 

In Japan, 0.40 yen. 

In Montenegro, 1 crown. 

In Natal, 9.6 pence. 

In Norway, 0.80 crown. 

In New Zealand, 9.6 pence. 

In Orange River Colony, 9.6 pence. 

In Holland, 0.50 florin. 

In Persia, 2 krans 5 schahis. 

In Portugal, 200 reis. 

In the British Protectorate of East Africa and Uganda, 0.60 rupee. 

In the Argentine Republic, 20 gold centavos. 

In Roumania, 1 leu. 

In Russia, 0.25 of a metallic ruble. 

In Servia, 1 dinar. 

In Siam, 35 atts. 

In Sweden, 0.80 crown. 

In the Transvaal, 9.6 pence. 

In Turkey. 4 piasters 23 paras. 

In Uruguay, 0.1866 peso. 

5. In the case of countries where the value of the money varies according to 
fluctuations of exchange the equivalent of the franc given above is, in case of 
considerable change, modified by taking as a base the mean equivalent of a 
franc during the preceding 'three months. It is for the country affected to 
modify the equivalent in conformity with the foregoing provision, to fix the 
date from which charges shall be collected according to the new equivalent, 
and to notify the other administrations through the International Bureau. 

6. Payment may be required in coin. 

NOTE. One franc=19.3 cents United States gold. 

LXXV. 

1. The franc is the monetary unit employed in the preparation of interna- 
tional accounts. 

LXXVIII. 

2. The statement and settlement of the balance take place at the end of each 
quarter. 

3. The balance thus arrived at is paid by the debtor administration to the 
creditor administration by means of drafts. If the franc is the monetary unit 
of the creditor administration, the drafts are drawn in effective gold francs on 
a place in the creditor country at the option of the debtor administration. If 
the franc is not the monetary unit of the creditor administration, the drafts are 
drawn at the option of the debtor administration, either in effective gold francs 
on Paris or on a place in the creditor country, or in the currency of the creditor 
country and on a place in that country : in this latter case the administrations 
concerned come to an understanding as to the method of procedure and, if 
necesssary, as to the rate of conversion of the balance due into the monetary 
currency of the creditor administration. 

4. The cost of payment is borne by the debtor administration. 

LXXIX. 

2. The verification of the accounts, as well as the notification of their accept- 
ance and relative observations, takes place within a maximum period of six 



3514412 15 



114 RADIO TELEGRAPH CONVENTION OF BERLIN. 

months from the date on which they are sent. An administration which does 
not receive any rectifying observation within that time is entitled to consider 
the account admitted. This provision is also applicable to the observations 
made by one administration on the accounts prepared by another. 

3. The monthly accounts are admitted without revision when the difference 
between the amounts arrived at by the two administrations concerned does not 
exceed 1 per cent of the amount shown as due by the administration which has 
prepared the account. Should a revision have been commenced, it must be 
stopped if, as the result of an exchange of observations between the adminis- 
trations concerned, the difference which led to the revision is reduced within 
the limits of 1 per cent. 

4. The quarterly balance account must be verified and paid within a period 
of six weeks following the exchange of the accounts relating to the last month 
of the corresponding quarter. After the last day of this period of six weeks 
amounts due from one administration to another bear interest at the rate of 5 
per cent per annum. 

XVI. 

2. They are transmitted free between all countries except in the cases speci- 
fied in the following regulation : 

XIX. 

9. The counting of the office of origin is decisive, both for purposes of trans- 
mission and of the international accounts. Nevertheless, when the telegram 
contains combinations or alterations of words of one of the languages of the 
country of destination, or of a language other than those of the country of 
origin, contrary to the usage of such language, the office of destination has the 
right to recover from the addressee the amount of charge not collected. If 
this right is exercised, the telegram is only delivered to the addressee on pay- 
ment of the short charge. In case of refusal to pay, a service advice thus 
worded is addressed to the office of origin : " Vienna, Paris, 5.10 p. m., 
No. - - (name of addressee), - - (reproduce the words wrongly combined 
or altered), - - words (indicate number of words properly chargeable)." 
If the sender, duly notified of the reason for nondelivery, agrees to pay the 
excess, a service advice thus worded is addressed to the delivery office : " Paris, 

Vienna, 7 p. m., No. (name of addressee), short charge collected." On 

receipt of this service advice the office of destination delivers the telegram. 

10. When the administration of origin discovers after the charge has been 
collected that a telegramh contains either inadmissible combinations or altera- 
tions of words or expressions or words which, although not fulfilling the 
conditions of plain or code language, -have been charged for as belonging to 
these languages, it applies to these expressions or words for the calculation of 
the short charge to be recovered from the sender, the rules to which they 
should have been respectively subjected. The combinations or alterations are 
counted in accordance with the number of words which they would contain if 
they were written in the usual manner. 

The administration of origin acts in the same way when irregularities are 
pointed out to it by a transit administration or- by the administration of desti- 
nation. Nevertheless, neither of these two latter administrations may delay 
the forwarding or delivery of the telegram except in the cases provided for in 
paragraph 9. 

XXXVII. 

2. When the difference does not arise from an error in transmission, the 
rectification of the number of words indicated can only be effected by agree- 
ment between the office of origin and its correspondent. In the absence of such 
agreement the number of words announced by the office of origin is admitted. 

LXXVI. 

9. Nevertheless, the number of words announced by the office of origin serves 
as the basis for the application of the charge, except in the case where, owing 
to an error in transmisssion, it may have been rectified by agreement between 
the original office and the office in correspondence with it. 

o 



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