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Full text of "International Review of the Science and Practice of Agriculture"

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INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 

Bureau of Agricui,turai, Inteli,igence and Pi^nt Diseases 



MONTHLY BULLETIN 

OF AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE 

AND PLANT DISP:ASES 
VOL.l 1910 



CONTENTS 

YEARS 1910 & 1911 










* « * ROME: PRINTING OFFICE OF THE INSTITUTE. 1913. *-»-**» 



1. 

PREFACE 



The present contents are those of the two first numbers 
of the Bulletin of the Bureau of Agricultural Intelligence 
and of Plant Diseases (November and December, 19 lo) and 
of the successive numbers of the whole year 191 1. These 
Bulletins contain nearly 3000 abstracts dealing with the 
various branches of agriculture and allied industries. 
The contents are divided into two sections: 
Agricultural IntelHgence and Plant Diseases, and each 
of them is subdivided into: 

a) Alphabetical index of subjects ; 

b) Alphabetical index of authors. 
The reference to the Bulletins is given by the number 

attached to each abstract, except for the first two Bulletins 
(November and December 1910) in which the abstracts 
were not yet numbered ; for these the number of the page, 
printed in italics is given instead. 

This volume of Contents has been prepared by the 
Redacteur Dr. V. de Tivoli. 



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THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 



The International Institute of Agriculture was established under the 
International Treaty of June 7th., 1905, which was ratified b}' 40 Govern- 
ments. Eleven other Governments have since adhered to the Institute. 

It is a Government Institution in which each Country is represented 
by delegates. The Institute is composed of a General Assembly and a 
Permanent Committee. 

The Institute, confining its operations within an international sphere, 
shall : 

(a) Collect, study, and pubhsh as promptly as possible, statistical, 
technical, or economic information concerning farming, vegetable and ani- 
mal products, the commerce in agricultural products, and the prices pre- 
vailing in the various markets. 

{b) Communicate to parties interested, also as promptly as possible, 
the above information. 

(c) Indicate the wages paid for farm work. 

(d) Make known the new diseases of plants which may appear in 
any part of the world, shoviing the territories infected, the progress of the 
diseases, and, if possible, the remedies which are effective. 

(e) Study questions concerning agricultural co-operation, insur- 
ance, and credit in all their aspects ; collect and publish information which 
might be useful in the various countries for the organisation of works con- 
nected with agricultural co-operation, insurance and credit. 

(/) Submit to the approval of the Governments, if there is occasion 
for it, measures for the protection of the common interests of farmers and 
for the improvement of their condition, after having utilized all the ne- 
cessary sources of information, such as the wishes expressed by interna- 
tional or other agricultural congresses, or by congresses of sciences applied 
to agriculture or agricultural societies, academies, learned bodies, etc. 



The Permanent Committee of the 
International Institute of Agriculture. 



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President : Marquess Raffaele Cappelli, Delegate of Italy. 
Vice-President : I,ouis-Dop, Delegate of France. 
List of the Delegates to 'Me Permanent Cemmitee. 



Germany 

Argentine Repubuc. 

Austria 

Hungary 

Belgium 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 

Chile 

China 

CoSTA-RlCA 

Cuba 

Denmark 

Ottoman Empirb .... 

Egypt 

BCUAOOB 

Spain 

United States 

Abyssinia 

France 

Algeria 

Tunis 

Gr. Britain & Ireland 

Australia 

Canada 

British India 

New Zealand | 

Mauritius , 

Union OF South Africa 1 

Greece 1 

Guatemala | 

Italy 

Eritrea & It. Somal. 

TrIPOU AND QbENAICA 

Japan ". 

i4uxemburg 

Mexico 

Montenegro 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Paraguay 

Netherlands 

Dutch East Indies... 

Peru 

Persia 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Russia 

Salvador 

San Marino 

Servta 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Uruguay 



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Dr. T. MflLLBR, Privy Councillor. 

Dr. Octavio PiReiro Sorondo. 

Chev. V. DK Pozzi, Government Councillor. 

E. DB Mikl6s, Sec. of State, Member of House of Magnates. 

O. Bolls. 

Antonino Fialho, Ex -Deputy. 

D. RizoFP, Minister plenipotentiary. 

S. Aldunate, Minister plenipotentiary. 

Shu-Tongchi. 

R. MONTKALEGRE, Minister plenipotentiary. 

C M. DE Cespedes y Qubsada, Minister plenipotentiary. 

A. DB Oldenburg, Charge d'affaires. 
Dr. Mehmed DjiaOL BET. 

B. Chimirri, Deputy. 
S. Aldunate, Delegate of Chile. 
Enrique Rodriguez de Celis, Agricultural Engineer. 
David Lubin. 

Prof. G. CuBONi, Director, Station of Plant Pathology, Rome. 
I/jms-Dop, Vice-Preddent of the Institute. 
I^uis-Dop, 

I^UIS-DOP. 

H. G. Dering, Counsellor to the British Embassy. 

H. G. Dering. 

H. G. Dering. 

H. G. Derino. 

H. G. Dering. 

H. G. Dering. 

H. G. Dering. 

D. Caclamanos, Charg6 d'affaires. 

G. Montefiore, Consul General of Guatemala. 

Marquis R. Cappelli, Deputy, President of the Institute. 

B. Chimirri, Deputy. 

B. CmMiRBi. 

Otojiro Sasano, Charge d'affaires. 

O. BOLLB, Delegate of Belgium. 

G. A. Esteva, Minister plenipotentiary. 

G. VOLPi, Minister plenipotentiary. 

V. E. BiANCHi, Consul General. 

Dr. A. FjELSTAD, Agricultural proprietor. 

Prof. Orazio Combs, Director of the High School of Agricult. 



I<ouis-Dop, Delegate of France. 

A. DEL GaLLO, Marquis of ROCCAGIOVIMB. 

Prof. I,uiz FiLippE DB Castro, Lisbon. 

Demetrius C. Pennesco, Coimsellor of the Legation. 

His Excell. G. Zabiello, Consul General of Russia. 

Dr. C. M. Cespedes y Quesada, Delegate of Cuba. 

His ExceU. L. Luzzatti, Minister of State. 

C SCOTTI, Consul General of Servia. 

Baron C. N. D. de Bildt, Minister plenipotentiary. 

J. B. Pioda, Minister plenipotentiary. 



Secretary General: Prof. Dr. Giovanni Lorbnzoni. 



EDITORIAL STAFF OF THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE 

AND PLANT DISEASES 



Chief of Bureau : Dr. A. Hermes. 

Chief of Section : Dr. Jules M. Saulnier. 

Ridacteurs : Prof. A. Bruttini, Chief Redacteur. - C. J. Alexander, B. Sc.(Agric.) - J. BENNiNGER,Ing6nieui 
Agronome. — W. Berendes, Ingtoieut-Agronome. - Dr. Th6odore Bi6ler. Dr. Guido Borghesani 
- Dr. Vitale de Tivoli - Dr. Leo Gabrici. - Joseph Glauden, Ing6nieur -Agronome. - F. Graeter 
Ingtaieur- Agronome. - Jules Jobert, Ing^nieur- Agronome. - W. Khail, Dlplom-Ingenieur. - Dr. Fran 
CESCA Pirazzoli - Dr. GiuLio Provenzal. - A. Ruiz-Atauri, Ingdnieur- Agronome. - Prof. Giulk 
Trinchieri. - L. M. Underwood, B. Sc. (Agr.). 

Attached to the Staff of Redacteurs : Miss Florence M. Mac Iver. 

TratKlators : Mme. J. M. Jobert. - L60N Boudouresque - A. Rinieri de' Rocchi. 



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SUMMARY 



Preface Page 3 

I. — Agricultural Intelligence » 9 

A) Index of Subjects » 11 

B) » » Authors » 51 

II, — Plant Diseases » 71 

A) Index of Subjects » 73 

B) » » Authors » 123 



I. - AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE. 



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♦' 



A) INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Abaca. 114, 454, 1408. 
Abacaxis (Pineapple) 9. 
Abortion in CofiEee Flowers. 72. 

— in Cows. 199. 

Absorption of Ammonia from Atmos- 
phere. 2083. 

— of Colloidal Organic Matter by 

Roots. 1645. 

— of Nitrates and Chlorides by 

Plants. 2450. 

— of Phosphoric Acid by Plants. 

387- 

— of Salts by Roots. 206. 
Acapulco System of Oil Extraction. 

571- 
Acaridian Parasites on Horses and 

Cattle. 1805. 
Accidents in the Use of Agricultural 

Machines. 2268. 
Acclimatisation Experiments on Plants 

in the United States. 2503. 

— of European Livestock in the 

Tropics. 304, 2203. 

— of Plants in Java. 1665. 
Acidity in Natural Wines (Decrease). 

559- 

— of Milk. 1473. 

— of Soils and Fertility. 2502. 

— of Soil and Grass Crops. 2476. 2502. 
Ackermann's Apparatus for Detection 

of Watering of Milk. 3201. 
Acorns. 3190. 
Acrolein (Formation in Wines). 942. 

2467. 2874. 
Action of Acids and Alkalis on 

Plants. 37. 



Action of Anaesthetics and of Cold 
on Certain Plants, 41, 1366, 
2075. 2532. 

— of Fertilizers on the Sugar Con- 

tents of Beets. 832. 

— of Frost on Grapes. 1434. 

— of Intensity of Light on Formation 

of Flowers. 40. 

— of Lime on Nitrification. 2484. 

— of Salts of Lime on the Fixation 

of Ammonia in Plants. 2452. 

— of some Inorganic Salts on Plants. 37- 

— of Stimulants on Plant Respira- 

tion. 1 1 17. 

— of Ultra Violet Rays on Plants. 
1364, 1365. 

— of Ultra Violet Rays on Starch. 
1109. 

— of Weather on the Growth of 
Buckwheat, Oats and Millet. 1127, 
1128, 1129. 

— of Wind on Plant Development. 47. 
Active Rays in Chlorophyllian Syn- 
thesis. 382. 

Adaptation of Crops to Soil and Cli- 
mate. 793. 

Adulterations and Frauds. 146, 315, 
342, 343, 896, 898, 958, 959, 2097, 
2258, 2259, 2260, 2261, 2262, 2263, 
2931. 2932, 3221. 

— of Milk. 315, 908, 1247, 1471, 1835, 

2214, 3201. 

— of Rubber. 959. 
Afforestation. 96, 290, 292, 863, 2165, 

2700, 2701, 2706. 

— in Scotland. 486. 



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AfEorestation See also Reforestation. 
African Gramineae in Italy. 441. 
Agave 68, 830, 946, 1744, 21 19, 

2595- 
Agave rigida, var. elongata. 2595. 

Agave rigida, var. sisalana. 68. 

Agrictdtnral Advice : R. Committees 

in Hmigary for. 186. 

— Control in Germany. 1630. 

— Development of the Negro in the 
U. S. of America and Africa. 1343. 

— Education in Oklahoma. 1344. 

— Engineering in the United States. 

960. 

— Experimentation. 30, 31, 227, 228, 

229, 230, 65, 1630, 1685, 1686, 
2501, 2502, 2503, 2504. 

— Explorations in Palestine. 5. 

— Geography in Higher Education. 

1354- 

— Improvements in Bavaria. 2385. 

Agricultioral Machines and Imple- 
ments. 161, 271, 965, 1512, 1875, 
1876, 1878, 2266, 2268, 2935, 2940, 
2942, 3222. 

Agricultural Machines in Asia Minor. 
U9, 1873. 

— in Austria. 577. 

— in British India. 149, 1874. 

— in Chile. 1513. 

— in China. 150. 

— in Cochin-China. 2265. 

— in German E. Africa. 2938. 

— in Poland. 2937. 

— in Russia. 148, 2936. 

— in the United States. 961. 

— in Turkey. 343. 

— in Uruguay. 344. 
Agricultural Museum. 201. 

— Production in Senegal. 2414. 

— Shows. 200, 201, 27. 
Agrictdture : Education in Various 

Countries, see Education. 
Agriculture in Algeria. 1349. 

— Angola. 2048, 2418. 

— Argentina. 196, 11, 241 1. 

— Australia. 712, 1342, 1612. 



Agriculture in Belgian Congo. 15. 719, 
722, 2049, 2419, 2420, 3098. 

— Bolivia. lO. 

— Bosnia Herzegovina. 709. 

— Brazil. 8, 9, 10, 373, 1621, 2409. 

— British East Africa. 197. 

— British India. 3, 1337, 1610. 

— Bulgaria. 1333. 

— Canada. 6. 6, 372. 

— Chile. 374. 

— China. 1084, 1085. 

— Cochin China. 4. 

— the Comoro Islands. 1091. 

— in Corsica. 1331. 

— Ecuador. 195, 7. 

— Egypt. 1622. 

— Fernando Po. 197, 718. 

— Fmland. 187. 

— France. 185, 1331, 2383. 

— French Equatorial Africa. 12. 

— French Indo China. 4, 6, 1338. 

— French Possessions in India and 

Oceania. 371. 

— French West Africa. 197, 375, 1090, 

2412, 2413, 2414. 

— German Colonies. 14, 370, 708, 

2047. 

— German East Africa. 1624. 

— German New Guinea. 2040. 

— German vSouth West Africa. 10, 

2423- 

— Germany. 708, 1605, 2384, 2385. 

— Greece. 710, 2386, 2387. 

— Guadeloupe. 1620. 

— Guatemala. 7, 714. 

— Hawaii. 5. 

— Hinterland to the North of Beira. 

2421. 

— Holland. 1332. 

— Honduras. 2043. 

— Hungary. 186, 3094, 3095. 

— Ireland. 2382. 

— Italian Somaliland. 197, 1350, 

— Italy. 2388. 

— Jamaica. 2406. 

— Japan. 1086, 1339, 2398, 2399. 

— Liberia. 3097. 



Agriculture in Macao. 5. 

— Madagascar. 19, 2422. 

— Madeira. 2035. 

— Martinique. 715. 

— Mayotte. 1091. 

— Mexico. 7, 194. 2405. 

— Montenegro. 1079. 

— Morocco. 10, 717, 1623. 

— Mozambique. 2421. 

— Natal. 198. 

— New Caledonia. 161 4. 

— Newfoundland. 1087. 

— New Zealand. 713. 

— Nigeria. 2415. 2416. 

— Panama. 8, 194. 

— Papua. 1615. 

— Persia. 1609. 

— Peru. 9, 2408. 

— Portugal. 2390. 

— Portuguese Kast Africa. 2417,2421. 

— Portuguese India. 3. 

— Roumania. 2033. 

— Russia. 187, 190. 3, 4, 1334. I335. 
2391. 

— Salvador. 7, 1346. 

— Samoa. 1613. 2047, 

— Santo Domingo. 161 9. 

— Servia. 2, 2031, 2032. 

— Siam. 161 1. 

— Sierra I^eone. 13. 

— Sokotra. 2401. 

— Spain. 187, 1083, 2034, 2389. 

— Spanish Guinea. 197. 

— St. Vincent. 1088. 

— Sweden. 369. 

— Switzerland, i, 1080, 2063. 

— the Caucasus. 190. 

— the Dutch East Indies. 1341, 2039, 
2400. 

— the French Society Islands. 2041. 

— the Galapagos Jslands. 716. 

— the Great AntUles. (W. Indies). 8. 

— the Leeward Islands. 2044. 

— the Lesser Antilles (W. Indies). 

1347- 

— the Philipphies. 191, 1340. 



Agriculture in the Province of the 
Cape of Good Hope 18. 

— the Province of the Orange Free 
State. 17. 

— the Sudan. 1622, 2046. 

— the Transvaal. 16. 

— the Tropics. 12. 

— the United States of America. 6, 
192, 194, 1344, 1345, 1616, 1617, 
1618, 2042, 2055, 2402, 2403, 
2404. 

— the Valley of the Niger. 196. 

— Togo. 10. 

— Trinidad. 2407, 

— Tripoli. 3096. 

— Turkey in Asia. 5, 2037, 2038, 

2395. 2396, 2397. 

— Turkey in Europe. 711, 1081, 1082, 
1336, 1606, 1607, 2036, 2392, 

2393. 2394- 

— Uganda. 1092. 

— Uruguay. 1348, 2045,2410. 

— Venezuela. 9, 1089. 

— Non-Euiopean Countries. 2435. 
Agri-Silviculttural Method. 1789. 
Ai Camphor. 1223. 

Akond or " Fafton ". 2121, 2122. 

Alasch. 78. 

Alaska, Agriculture, 6. 

Albvuninoid Residues in the Alcohol 

Industry. 2887. 
Albvunose in Sausage Meats. 1478. 
Alcohol from Carob Bean. 945. 

— Coffee Pulps. 1502. 

— Henequen. 946. 

— Nipa Palm. 2884. 

— Potatoes. 809. 

— Residual Waters in Paper Facto- 
ries. 2886. 

— Tuna Cactus. 1501. 

— Wood. 2885. 

— Wood Waste. 259. 

Aldehyde, (a., p. hexylenic), in Green 

Leaves. 1361. 
Aleppo Pine. 1444. 
Aleurites cordaia. 2129. 



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Alexandria Gover. 61, 812, 2566. 
Alfalfa. 209, 512, 1402, 1813, 2106, 

2565- 

— for Dairy Cows. 118. 

— Grimm's. 2106. 
Algaroba. 174. 

Alkaline Soils. 1673, 1675, 2486. 

Alluvial Soils. 3173. 

Almonds. 281, 1189, 1190, 2671, 
2681, 2891. 

Almond Trees. 2462. 

Alternating Currents : Action on Ger- 
mination. 40. 

Alvmiinimn and SOica in the Utili- 
zation of Phosphorus by Plants. 761. 

— Nitride. 36. 

— Physiological Importance ui the 

Vegetable Cell. 1363. 
American Forestry Association. 97. 

— Library, Association and Agricul- 

tural Literature. 28. 

— Vine Stocks. 1106, 2151, 2660. 
Amidases in Putrefaction. 2466. 
Ammonia. 26, 37, 403, 575, 11 38, 

1392, 2083, 2452. 
Ammonium Sulphate. 245, 70, 71, 

2489, 3110. 
Amylolytic Ferments. 1377. 
Anaerobic Bacteria. 1378. 

— Origin of Life. 2464. 
Anaesthetics, Action on Seeds. 2532. 
Analysis : Bacteriological of Soil. 401. 

— (Microscopic) of Oil Cakes. 181 7. 

— of Milk. 128. 

— of Oils. 338. 

— of Sea -Weeds. 1391. 

— of Soils. 216, 217, 401, 1673. 

— of Wines. 326, 256. 
Ancona Fowls. 2830. 
Andropogon Sorghum (Kafir Com). 799. 
Angola Pea. 2439. 

Angraecum fragrans. 1366. 
Angus Aberdeen Cattle. 212. 
Animal Metabolism. 1457. 

— Physiology. 304. 200, 210, 1457, 

1807, 2199, 2755, 3185, 3186. 

— Products from Denmark. 914. 



Anise Plant. 844. 

Anna tto Tree. 2137. 

Anodic and Cathodic Liquids, Effect 

on Germination. 40. 
Anona squamosa Custard Apple, (v.). 

2679, 
Anthocyanin in Crassulaceae. 2445. 
Anticryptogamic Substances : Effect 

on Germinative Energy. 89. 
Antiseptic Properties of. Hops. 566. 
Apiculture at the Trappist Convent 

at Maristella 1855. 
" Apoplexy " in Winter-fed Lambs. 

2199. 
Apparatus for Filling Beer Casks. 152. 

— Measuring Ploughuig of Rice F'ields. 

271. 

— Measuring Rubber Trees. 12 14. 

— Milking. 344. 

— (R. Vallat's) for Rectifymg Alco- 

holic Liquids. 2949. 
Apples. 277, 327, 850, 957, 1187, 

1 188, 2257, 2693, 2694. 2695, 2696, 

2881, 3158. 
Apple Show. 277. 

— Tree. 276, 277, 850, 1187, 1188, 

2693, 2694, 3153, 3158. 
Apricots. 2159, 2443. 
Aquatic Plants as Green Manure. 1390. 
Aqueous Extracts of the Soil. 36. 
Arable Land. 406. 
Arboriculture, New. 81. 
Arclomys bobax (Tarabagan). 2855. 
Areca Catechu. 873. 
Argania sideroxylon. 2713. 
Argan Tree. 2713. 
Aromatic Plants and Spices : see Hops, 

Vanilla, Cinnamon, Saffron, Cloves 

Pepper, etc. 
Arsenate of Lead, Elimination from 

Vintage. 1260. 
Artesian Irrigation. 64. 
Artificial Coloming Matter for Foods, 

Permitted in France. 3221. 

— Greening of Canned Vegetables. 

2262. 

— Rubber. 116, 1452, 2916. 



Artificial Seasoning of Timber. 2719. 

— Silk. 248, 1854, 291 1. 
Artificials, see Manvires. 
Arum Dracumiium. 330. 
Arum esciileninm. 1720. 
Asclepias syriaca. Food for Bees. 249. 
Ash Constituents of Wheat Bran. 1228. 
Ash Tree. 2533. 
Asparagus. 737, 2077. 
Asparagin (Synthetic Formation of) 

in Plants. 2452. 
Assil Cotton. 1159. 
Assimilation in Plants. 15, 383, 387, 

761, 1112, 1698, 3109. 

— of Nitrogen by Plants. 3109. 

— of Nitrogen by Soil Bacteria. 216. 

— of Phosphorites. 1698. 
Association of Characters Ivimiting 

Variation. 2459. 
Atmosphere over Towns. 212. 
Atmospheric Nitrogen. Fixation and 

Utilisation. 36, 11 13, 2490, 3109, 

3127, 3128. 
Atraciylis gummifera. 875. 
Airiplex Halimus L. 1726. 
Attacus ricini. 2235. 
Australian Marine Fibre. 2599. 
" Automatique Boulay ", New Forage 

Elevator. 2944. 
Automatic Water-Finder. 1677, 1879. 
• — Watering. 1679. 

— Watering Troughs. 277. 
Automobile Mower. 972. 
Auto-mower and Agricultural Motor. 

Avocado Pear. 92, 2678. 
Awnless Barley : New. 1369. 
Ayapana. 2075. 

Azotobacter, 211, 54, 745, 1657. 
Azotogene. 775. 

Baby Beef. 1230. 

Bacillus of Contagious Abortion in 
. Cows. 199. 

• — of Red Plague in Carps and Teu- 
ches. 2862. 

— which breaks up Cellulose. 1660. 



Bacteria in Flour. 336. 
Bacterial Beds. 11 40, 1376. 

— Flora in Soils. 2478. 

Bacteria, Nitrogen fixing, in the Soil. 

216. 
Bagasse. 257. 

Bajac's Traction Engine. 272. 
Baking. 144, 336, 1504, 2904, 2905, 

2907, 2908, 3217. 
Balata. 113. 

Balearic Isles, Apricots. 2159. 
Bambarra Groimdnut. 2128. 
Bamboo. 2729, 2910. 

— as Fodder and Litter. 899. 

— Paper. 104, 331, 2910. 

— Wattle Silo. 1271. 
Banana Flour. 1506. 

Bananas. 91, 283, 1193, ii94. 1505. 
1506, 2595, 2684, 2685, 2686, 2687. 
Baphia nitida. 101. 
Barley. 48, 49, 243, 95, 207, 432, 

433. 434. 435. 436, 760, 797. 1369. 

1712, 2101, 2543, 2544. 
Barraguda. 2597. 
Barosma. 338. 
Baryta in Soils. 217. 
Basic Slag. 75, 417, 1699. 
Basil. 269. 
Bean : Fetish. 2439. 

— Lablab. 2439. 

— Moon. 2439. 

— Mimgo. 2439. 

— Vigna. 2439. 
Beans. 412, 1700. 

— Cyanogenetic Haricot. 2263. 

— Edible. 148, 2439. 

— Haricot. 791, 11 19. 
Bedouin Bread. 1504. 
Beds : Tobacco Seed. 1760. 

Beech. 100, 101, 294, 296, 169, 333, 

2173, 3172. 
Bee Diseases. 250, 551, 1490, 2848, 

2849. 
Beef : Bufialo. 281 1. 
Bee Hives. 136. 
Bee Keeping. 135, 136, 932, 933, 

934, 1489, 2850, 2851. 



— i6 



Beer Casks : Apparatus for Filling. 
152. 

Beer Yeast. 306, 519. 112 4, 1262, 
1263, 2928. 

Bees. 135. 136, 249, 250, 550, 551. 
1490, 1855, 2239, 2846, 2847, 2848, 
2849. 

Beeswax. 136, 2893. 

Beet Roots, 70. 71, 233, 246, 255, 44, 
78, 79, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 
123, 124, 125, 381, 426, 458, 459, 
779, 831,832,833,965, 1145, 1164, 
1410, 1411, 1748, 2123, 2124, 2504, 
2600, 2601, 2895, 3222. 

Beets : Common Salt as Manm-e for. 

779- 
Beet Seeds Treated with Disinfectants 

426. 
Benedikt Zsigmondy 's Method of Wine 

Analysis. 256. 
Bengal Bean. 2557. 
Bermuda Grass. 1727. 
Berseem Clover. 61, 812, 2566. 
Betratra. 2615. 
Bibos frontalis. 3192. 
Bill on Doctoring of Wines in Russia. 

2260. 
Biochemical Activity of Bacteria. 58. 
Biometric Study of Offspring of 

Grafted and . Ungrafted Haricot 

Beans. 11 19. 
Birds' Feathers. 2232. 
Birds' Nest Industry in Siam. 252. 
Birds : Protection of, 137, 251, 552, 

553. 1492, 1856, 2832, 2852, 2856, 

3035- 
Bitches' Mlk. 3204. 

Bitter Taste in Wines. 942, 2467, 2874. 
Bitto Cheese. 1249. 
Black Bean. 2200. 

— Cotton Soil 61. 
Blackleg. 1456. 

Black Monukka grape. 2503. 

— Mulberry. 2840. 

— Soils. 214, 61. 

Bleaching of Flour. 144, 337, 1867. 
Bleaching of Tussor Silk. 2842. 



Blood as Food. 266. 

Blossoming of Eucalyptus, its In- 
fluence on Products of Honey-bee. 
2846. 

Blossoming of Fruit Trees. 1773. 

Blue Berries. 475. 

— Grass. 1821. 

Blumea Balsam.if.->ra. 1223. 

" Blutwein ". 1863. 

Bogbean. 1639. 

Boja Medelloa, a New Green Manure. 

2091. 
Boleko seeds. 2614. 
Bombcx. 116. 

— cyalhopJiGrum. 2597. 

— Malabaricum. 103. 2726. 
Bombyx pernyi. 54S, 2233. 
Bomhyx yaaui-mai. 548, 2233. 
Bone Manures. 1690. 
Bordeaux Wines. 939. 

Borocera madagascarlensis. Producer 
of Native Silk. 2838. 

Borodizk Experiment Station. 1128. 

Boron, accustoming Maize to. 3G. 

Bos indicus. 3191. 

Botanical Experiment Station, Salis- 
bury. 3139. 

— Explorations in Palestine. 5. 

— Map of French West Africa. 
1636. 

Botanic Garden of Buitenzorg. 2431. 

— Station of Dominica iioo. 
Botrytis cinerea. 397. 

Boulay's Automatic Forage Elevator. 
2944. 

Bourdiol's Method of Cultivating Ce- 
reals on Arid Lands. 2098. 

Bovine Tuberculosis. 1225, 1455, 

3183. 
Braekel Hen. 133. 
Bran for Dair}'^ Cows. IIS. 

— Rye. 2757. 

— Wheat. 1228, 2757. 
Brassica arvensis. 2932. 

Bread 1504, 2904, 2905, 2907, 2908. 
Bread making. 144, 336, 2904, 2907, 
3217- 



— 17 



Breeding Station in Saint Paul, Brazil. 

32. 
Brewing. 49, 76, 140, 327, 95, 257, 

433, 436, 565, 566, 567, 944, 1261, 

1262, 1263. 2248, 2543, 2548, 2878, 

2879, 2880. 
Broccoli : Packing 2257. 
Broom Industry. 953, 2913. 
Broussonetia papyrifera. 2066. 
Buchu oil. 338. 

Buckwheat. 392, 803, 1127, 1128, 1401. 
Budget of the Department of Agri- 

cidture in France. 2383. 
Buffalo. 220, 524, 525, 1240. 
Buffalo Beef. 281 1. 
Buffaloes' Milk. 3203. 
Buitenzorg Botanic Garden. 2431. 
Bvilb Industry in Holland. 271. 
Bultuc. 1146. 
Bupleurum fruHcosum (Hare's Ear). 

2139. 
Bvireau for the Study of Rubber. 1094. 
Butter. 125, 129, 315, 317, 909. 9io, 

911, 1095, 1475. 1837, 2612, 2617, 

2798, 2799, 2800, 2801, 2802, 2803, 

2804, 2805, 3187. 

— Control Station. 1095. 

— Karite. 78, 835, 2612. 
Butyrospermmn Parckii. (Karite fat). 

2612. 

Cacao. 73, 74, 191, 282. 134. 135, 
391, 466, 467, 839, 1425. 2132. 2624, 
2625, 2689, 3150. 

— Powder. 267. 
Caciocavallo. 2219. 

Cactus. 328. 204. 1501, 2177. 

— alcohol. 328, 1501. 
Cactus opuniia. 91. 
Cactus; Spineless. 204. 
Caesium. 1703. 
Cajaniis indicus. 2439. 

Calcivun Cyanamide. 35, 87, 231, 232, 
72, 414. 831, 2093, 2517, 2518. 

Calcium silicate. 207. 

Calotropis : Akond or Fafton Fibre. 
2121. 



Calorimeter : Respiratory. 3185. 

Calves. 1236, 2750. 

Calving Fever. 303. 

Camanioc. 2562. 

Camel's Wool. 1842. 

Campbell's Method, See Dry Farming. 

Camphor. 301, 191. 192, 193, 1223, 1447. 

Camphor and Sulphurous Acid Re- 
frigerator. 2926. 

Camphor, artificial. 117, 1510. 

Camwood. 101. 

Canadian Act for Suppression of 
Foul Brood. 2848. 

Canadian Record of Performance for 
Pure Bred Dairy Cattle. 526. 

Cananga odorata. 4, 77. 

Canavalia ensiformis. 2459. 

Candelilla Wax. 117, 2747. 

Cane-Sugar : Inversion of. 15. 

Canned Foods. 146. 

Canning. 1859, 2255, 2261, 2262, 3198. 

Canning Food Stuffs : Instruction in, 
at Naples. 1356. 

Capri-fig. 1 191. 

Capriola (Cynodon) Dactylon. I'j^'j. 

Capsicmn. 848. 

Caraguata. 1747. 

Carapa microcarpa. 2617. 

Caravonica Cotton. 251. 

Caraway Cultivation. 1424. 

Caraway Stalks for Pasteboard. 78. 

Carbohydrates : Sj^thesis of. 384, 
2449. 

Carbonates of Lime : Influence on 
Phosphatic Manures. 2526. 

Carbon Dioxide in Grotmd Air. 754, 

755- 

— in Living Cells. 45. 

— in the Soil and Vegetation. 385. 
Carbon in plants. 1367. 

Carib Cabbage. 1720. 
Carica Papaya L. 93. 
Carica Quercifolia. 93. 
Carludovica palmata. 2912. 
Ca.rva fibre. 828. 
Carob. 280. 
Carob Bean. 945, 2683. 



i8 



Carob Bean Alcohol. 945. 

Carpinese Silkworms. 244. 

Carps. 2241, 2862. 

Carum Carvi I/inn. 78. 1424. 

Casein By-product. 2809. 

Cassava. 58. 

Cassava Meal. 1232. 

Casso. 2616. 

Castanospermum austvale (Toxic Ef- 
fects). 2200. 

Castilloa elastica. 391, 1800, 1801, 
2189, 2190. 

Castor Plant and Seed. 1751, 2400, 
2610, 2611, 2632, 2649. 

Catalase in Milk : Measurement of. 

234- 
Catalases in Plants. 205. 

Catalases of Milk. 534, 1472. 

Catha Edulis : Substitute for Tea. 

131- 

Cattalo. 220. 

Cattle, 120, 121, 304, 305, 306, 309, 
310, 311. 199. 200, 201. 211, 212, 213, 
214, 218, 219, 220. 511, 519. 522, 
522, 523, 524, 526, 527, 901, 902, 
go2, 903, 1239, 1240, 1460, 1808, 
1815, 1819, 1820, 1821, 1824, 1825, 
1830, 1831, 1832, 1840, 2200, 2201 
2202, 2205, 2207, 2765, 2766, 2767, 
2782, 2783, 3101, 3192. 

— (Breeding etc). 211, 212, 213, 218, 

522, 523, 1230, 1239, 1819, 
1820, 1821, 1824, 1825, 2205, 
2761. 

— Breeding in Argentina 11. 

— Feeding 1810, 1811, 1815. 

— Judging in Sweden. 120. 

— Raising in Salvador. 7. 

— Sheds. 126. 

— Ticks 2198, 2425, 2753. 
Cavanillesia arbor ea. 2597. 
Ceara. 2192, 2738, 2739. 
Cellase 2446. 

Cell Composition in Different Regions 

of a Bee Colony. 136. 
Cellular Elements in Milk. 1833. 
Cellulose. 332, 264. 



Cellulose Industry. 103, 257, 331, 
332. 264, 952, 1577. 2729, 2886, 

2910. 
Centrifugal Fertilizer Distributor. 583. 
Cereal and Bean Stubble. 412. 
Cereals. 6, 48, 240, 241, 333, 91. 94. 

412, 428, 787, 1 146, 1663, 2058, 

2098. 
Certification of Recognised Breeds 

(Regulations). 900. 
Chabdar Clover. 249. 
Chamaerops hiimilis. L, 1206. 
Changes in Potted Butter. 911. 
Charlock as a Substitute for Mustard. 

2932. 
Chasmogamous Flowers. 40. 
Cheese. 129, 130, 131, 315, 316, 317. 

239. 529, 535. 536, 912, 950. 

1250, 1476, 1837, 1838, 1839, 2218, 

2219. 2805, 2806, 2807, 2808, 3205, 

3206, 3207. 

— Bitto. 1249. 

— Coulommier. 317. 

— Emmental. 316, 2806. 

— wGranai) Parmesan. 529, 912, 1248. 

— Neufchatel. 1839. 

— Pecorino (Ewe's milk). 310, 2807. 
Chemical Manures. 70, 71, 72, 74, 75,76, 

80, 415, 420, 779, 832, 1145, 1687, 
1700, 1701, 1702, 1703, 1704, 2096, 
2097, 2507, 2528, 2708, 3123. 
Chemistry of Animal Nutrition in 
1911, 1807. 

— of Biological Variations. 2448. 

— of Milk and Dairy Produce in 191 1. 

2788. 

— of Proteins. 3186. 

— of Soil in 1910. 1666. 

— of Terpenes. 2916. 
Chenopodium amaranticolor. 150. 
Chestnuts. 1442, 1779, 2682. 
Chicken Meat. 2836. 
Chickpeas. 1715, 1716. 

Chicle Gum. 1224. 
Chile Nitrate. 1393, 2515, 3124. 
Chilling of Meat, New Process. 1871. 
China Gra.ss. 253, 254. 



— ig 



Chinese Food Products. 537. 
Chinese Wood-oil Tree. 2129. 
Chloride of Manganese in Treatment 

of Night-Soil. 2090. 
Chlorides. 1702, 2450. 
Chloris gayana. 58. 11.50. 
Chloris virgata. 58. 
Chlorocodon Whitei. 2596. 
Chloroform : Action on Coumarin 

Plants. 2075. 
Chlorogenic Acid. 2441. 
Chlorophj'll. 15, 382, 383, 11 12. 

— Assimilation. 383, 11 12. 
Chlororophyllian Synthesis : Active 

Rays in. 382. 

Chlorophyllian Synthesis. 382. 

Choice of Crops for Alkali I^and. 1675. 

Cholesterol in Soils. 758. 

Christmas Trees. 175. 

Chromitun Compoimds : Stimulating 
and Toxic Action of. 1704 

Chrysanthemvuns. 80, 729. 

Chrysopia macrophylla, Tapia. 2715. 

Cider. 327, 1500, 2881, 2882, 2883. 

Cigar Industry 574. 

Cinchona. 138, 139, 3149. 

Cinnamon. 2640. 

Citric Acid in Citrate and Concentra- 
ted I^emon- Juice. 2253. 

Citronella Oil. 2651. 

Citrus decumana. 88, 2676. 

Citrus Fruit. 87, 88, 275, 276. 155, 
163, 483, 855, 856, 1435, 1536, 2157, 
2502, 2670, 2671, 2672, 2673, 2674, 
2675, 2676, 3159. 

Citrus Hysirix 276. 

Citrus Varieties in Comoro Isles. 855. 

Cyanogenetic Haricot Beans. 2263 

Classification for Horses. 1238. 

Classifying Wools. 317. 

Cleaning Beer Bottles. 327. 

Cleistogamous Flowers. 40. 

Climate. 289, 304, 400, 793, 1382, 
1665, 2203, 2472, 2473, 2474, 2503. 

Qover. 424, 813, 1152, 1700, 2535. 

— Alexandria 2566 

■ — Berseem. 61, 812, 2566. 



Clover Chabdar. 249. 

— Egyptian. 61, 812. 2566. 

— Japan. 1724 

— New Species. 109. 

— Red. 1723. 

— Seed : Production of. 2942. 

— vStrawberry. 1153. 

— Threshing Machine on Loan. 
2942. 

Cloves. 77. 

Coagulation of Rubber Latex. 107. 

885, 1451, 2194, 2745, 2951. 
Coca Leaves. 2638, 2639. 
Cocci, Acidity and Proteolysis in 

Cheese. 129 
Cocoline. 1835 
Coconut Cake. 3187 
Coconuts. 92, 282. 1780, 2163, 2604, 

2688, 2690, 2691, 2692, 3219. 
Coconut Oil Margarine. 3219. 
Cocoonery (Influence of Light on) 

322. 
Cocoons (Silkworms). 135. 
Coffea robusta. 72, 462, 1754 
Coffee 71, 72, 208, 259, 261, 262. 391, 

462. 463, 836, 837, 838, 1502, 1754, 

1755, 2129, 2130, 2400, 2441, 2619, 

2620, 2621, 3150. 

— Alcohol. 1502. 

— Pulp as Fertilizer. 1691. 
CogoUo Palm. 1746. 

Cold in the Manufacture of Aitifi- 

cial Camphor. 15 10. 
Cold in Treatment of White Wines. 

563- 
Cold Storage 147, 376, 1269, 1495. 
1511, 2924, 2925, 3157. 

— and Cheese Making. 130. 

— and Gder. 1500. 

— Company in Sweden. 3220. 

— Fxperiment Station. 147. 

— for Flowers and Fruit 956, 957, 

— for Meat. 1871. 2222. 

— for Mushrooms. 1872. 

— in Floriculture 956. 

— in the Silk Industrv. 135. 



20 



Cold Storage Meat. 124, 126, 1251, 
1871, 2222, 2223, 2224, 2803, 2814, 
2815, 2817, 2819. 

— of Bggs. 320. 

— of Tobacco. 270. 

— Plant on Transatlantic Steamer 
1268. 

— Transport and Depots. 2264. 
Cold Stored Hares and Rabbits 2819 

— Meat. 2817 

Coli-bacillns on Sausages. 241. 
College of Agriculture, Saskatchewan 

University. 3102. 
Colloidal Organic Matter, Absorption 

by Roots. 1645. 
CoUodionised Filtering Candles and 

Ultrafiltration. 2950 
Colloids : Action on the Higher Plants 

2074. 
Colocasia anfiquorum Schott, and C. 

esculenia 1720. 
Colonial Garden at Palermo. 1353 

— In,stitute in Amsterdam. 11. 
Colonisation : European Agricultural, 

in Dahomey. 375. 

— in Annam. 5. 

— in Cochin China. 4. 

— in Japan. 190. 

— in Tonkin. 4. 
Colophony. 2725. 

Colorimetric Reactions of Milk. 128. 
Colouring Colza Oil Cakes. 896. 
Colza. 896, 947, 1235. 

— Oil. 947. 

— Oil Cake. 896, 898, 1235. 
Common Salt as Manure for Beets. 

779- 

Comparative Cost of Travel by Horse 
and Wagon and Automobile. 1878. 

Comparative Feeding Value of Green 
Grass and Hay. 2736. 

Comparison of Various Phosphates. 
1696. 

Compositae : Variations. 743. 

Composition of vSeeds of I^gmni- 
nous Plants Grown in Togo and (Ger- 
man E. Africa. 39 



Composition of Sweet Apricot Kernels. 

2443- 
Concentrated Lemon Juice. 2253. 

Condensed Milk. 1834, 2216. 

Congress : Dairy. 1625, 2051, 2428, 

— Dry Farming. 26, 730. 1351. 

— Farm Women. 1351. 

— Fishery. 731. 

— International Scientific, in Buenos 

Ay res. 11. 

— Irrigation. 2429. 

— of Chrysanthemum Societ}'. 729. 
— • of Olive Growers 1628, 2427. 

— of Vine Growers. 25, 2050. 
Conifers. 95, 99, 100, 292, 293, 296. 

170, 427, 492, 493, 494, 495> 
496, 497. 868, 869, 1203, 1204, 
1443, 1444, 1711, 2709, 271 1, 
2712. 

Consolidation of Dunes. 2166. 

Constituents of Seeds : Influence of 
Fertilisers on. 2088. 

Contagious Abortion in Cows. 199. 

Contassot's Ebiilliometer. 2871. 

Conversion of Old Mills into Power 
Plants 2953. 

Copernicia cerijera. 887. 

Copper in Wine. 1499. 

— Salts in Canned Vegetables. 2262. 

— Stimulating Effect on Plants. 31 10. 
Copra. 268, 2163, 2690, 2691, 3219. 
Corchorus capsularis var. oocarpus. 

3147- 
Corojo. 1409. 

Cork. 176. 1791. 

Cork Oak. 295. 

Corks. 314. 

Corosos nuts. 2714. 

Corrected Acidity in Wines. 2246. 

Cost of Horse Power. 217. 

Cotton. 64, 65, 66, 67, 250. 251, 252, 253. 
61, III, 112, 391. 449, 450451. 
452, 817, 818, 819, 820, 821, 
822, 823, 824, 1156, 1157, 1158, 
1 159, 1 160, 1403, 1404, 1405, 
1406, 1407, 1730, 1731, 1732, 
1733. 1734. 1735. 1736, 1737. 



— 21 — 



1738. 1739. I740. ^74^> 1870, 
2077, 2110, 2111, 2112, 2113, 
2114, 2115, 2116, 2117, 2409, 
2571, 2572, 2573, 2574, 2575, 
2576 2577, 2578, 2579. 2580, 
2581, 2582, 2583, 2584, 2585, 
2586, 2587, 2588, 2592, 3142. 
3143, 3144, 3145, 3150. 
Cotton Assil 1159. 

— Caravonica 251. 

— « Hindi » 1741. 

— Improvement. 2572. 

— Industry in Egypt. 821. 

— in the United States. 2580, 2581. 

— Picker (Price-Campbell). 3224. 

— Picking by Machine. 824. 3224. 

— Sea Island. 2579. 

— Seed as Human Food. 949. 

— Seed Meal. 897, 2512. 

— Seed Oil Cake. 573, 949. 

— Substitutes for. 11 60. 
Coulommier Cheese in Canada. 317. 
Cover Crops. 483. 

Covering of Vegetable Growth and 

of Snow on Soil. 1670. 
Cow pea. 230, 2077, 2288. 
Cows: 219, 526, 527, 891, 183T, 2201, 

2207. 

— Contagious Abortion 199. 

— Stalls : Sanitary. 1270. 

— Testing Associations. 1831. 
Crab Grass. 2588. 
Cranberry. 270. 

Crop Production and Climate. 914. 

— Rotations. 422, 2530. 
Crops of Sugar Beet. 123. 

Cross between the Buffalo and the 
Cow : The Cattalo. 220. 

— between Tomato and Capsicum: 

Peppermato. 848. 

— Breeding Cattle. 3191. 3192. 

— Breeding of Pigs, 223. 

— Fertilisation : Natural. 393. 

— Fertilisation of Sugar Beets with 

Mangels. 121. 
Crossing of Maize and Euchlaena 
mexicana. 43. 



Cross Pollination. 2463. 2802. 

Crotolaria funcea. 115. 

Crucifers and Milk. 305. 

Crude Ammonia Liquor. 35, 2517. 

Cryoscopic Examination of Milk. 2213. 

Cultiire Systems in the United States 

1397- 
Currants. 1863, 2387, 3154. 

Custard Apple. 2679. 

Cutting Grain and Ploughing Land 

at Same Time. 2940. 
Cyanamide, Calcium. 35, 87, 231, 

232, 72, 414, 831, 2093, 2517, 

2518. 
Cyanogenetic Haricot Beans. 2263. 
Cyanophyceae. 11 12. 
Cyclamen : Mutation of. 2076. 
Cylinder Harrow (Zehetmeyer's). 1272. 
Cynodon Dactylon. 1727. 



Da Fou. 69. 

c Dagussa ». 11 46. 

Dairy Congress. 1625, 2051, 2428. 

Dairying. 126, 315, 316, 238. 536, 1244, 
1467, 2211, 2216, 2217, 2220, 
2785, 2786, 2788, 2794, 2795, 
2796, 2797, 2798, 2799, 2800. 
2809, 2810, 3199, 3200, 3202. 

— in Various Covm tries. 

— Argentina. 531. 

— California. 1466. 

— Canada. 3199. 

— Finland. 2799. 

— German S. W. Africa. 907. 

— Hungary. 1465. 

— Italy. 528, 530, 2797, 2798. 

— New Zealand. 1830. 

— Rhodesia. 228. 

— S. America. 227. 

— vSwitzerland. 226, 1243. 

— the Punjab (Brit. India). 1820. 

— Institute at Konigsberg. 202. 

— Uruguay. 2210. 
Dairymen : Training of. 2062. 
Dairy Station in Himgary. 202. 
Dammar Resin. 2727. 



— 22 



Damp and Frost : Kffect upon Win- 
ter Cereals. 1663. 

Dalen's Milking Machine. 152. 

Damp and Frost on Winter Cereals. 
1663. 

Danish Moorland Society. 1097. 

Darnel. 263. 

Date Palms. 1190. 2687. 

Dates. 283. 

Datura. 2644. 

Death Camas. 739. 

Decrease of Acidity in Natural Wines 

559- 
Deer Raising in the United States .1255. 

Defective Measures of Unhewn Tim- 
ber. 31 71. 

Dehydration of Glycerine in Wine by 
a Ferment. 2874. 

Demacentor venustus. 2425. 

Demonstration Fields in Brazil. 2061. 

— Orchards in Canada. 724. 

— Trains. 203. 725. 
Demtschinsky Drills. 151. 
Demtschinsky Method. 151, 787, 

1707, 1708. 

Dendrobaena merciensis, (New Earth- 
worm), 2480. 

Denitrification in the Vegetable King- 
dom. 2072. 

Denitrifying Bacteria. 2079. 

Department of Agriculture, Grenada- 
Work of. 721. 

Depaty Pasteuriser. 399. 

Derris elliptica. 2648. 

Desiccation of Cider Apples. 327. 

Destruction of Flies. 174, 3078, 3079. 

Detection of Germinative Power. 792. 

Detection of Horse Meat Glycogen, 
Method. 539. 

Dew. 1 65 1. 

Diastases. 2064, 2065, 2066. 

Diet Investigations. 90, 145. 

Diffusion of Saline Matter throughout 
Plant Organs. 2069. 

Diffusion Wines. 325, 255, 2869. 

Dihydrostearic Acid in Soils. 217. 

Dihydroxystearic Acid in Soils. 31 14. 



Dimorphic Branches in Tropical Crop 
Plants. 391. 

Diospyros Kaki. 2162. 

Dioxide of Manganese. 420. 

Direct Assimilation of Nitrogen by 
Plants. 3109. 

Direct Hybrid Producers (Vines). 480. 

Direct Producers. 159, 2050, 2151. 

Disadvantages of Growing only one 
Crop. 1637. 

Disc Harrow : (New). 151. 

Disconnection of Gearing in Agricul- 
tural Machinery. 2266. 

Diseases of Bees. 250. 55^, 1490, 2848. 
2849. 

Disease Resistance of Wheat. 2456. 

Disease Resistant Melons. 2077. 

Disease Resistant Timothy. 2077. 

Disinfection of Seed. 236, 238, 426, 

795- 
Distilling. 141, 328, 259, 945, 946, 

1501, 1302, 2884, 2885, 2886, 2887. 
Distomato.sis. 1454, 1804. 
Distribution of Forests in the World. 

2669. 
Divining Rod : Bibliography of 2499. 
Djati (Teak). 2169. 
Djiulutong see Jelutong. 
Docking Lambs' Tails. 2769. 
Doi. 79. 

Dolichos Lablab. 2439. 
Domestic Animals : Hair Vertices on. 



210. 



Douglas Fir. 493, 496, 869. 
Doumori Butter. 2617. 
Drainage. 62, 31 13. 
Drainage and Liming of Grass Lands 
for Prevention of Liver Rot. 1804. 

— in Bavaria. 2385. 

— Egypt. 2493. 

— Macedonia. 3120. 

— Montenegro. 11 34. 

— Roumania. 1681. 

— the Straits Settlements. i90. 

— the United States. 766. 

— Turkey. 28. 
Draught Dogs. 313. 



23 — 



Drier tor Seeds. 344. 

Drills. 151, 274. 970, 1514. 

Drill Manuring. 1141. 

Drinking Water Purification. 408. 

Drought Resistance of the Olive. 854. 

Dry Extract of Red Gironde Wines. 

940. 
Dry Farming. 234, 26, 82, 83, 84, 85, 

86, 87, 93, 423, 725, 730, 781, 782, 

783, 784, 785, 786, 1342, 1351, 1396. 

1705, 1876, 2098, 2945, 3094, 3136. 
Dr3dng Fruit and Vegetables. 1505, 

2254, 2918, 2919, 2920. 
— Potatoes. 948. 
— ■ Vegetables in Germany. 2918. 
Dry Rot in Timber. 168. 
Dwarf Palm. 1206. 
Dumoria Heckeli. 2617. 
Dum Palm. 2714. 
Dimes. 290, 2166. 
Dura. 1 146. 

Dyer a costulata Hook. 508. 2 191. 
Dynamite in Tilling Land. 2529. 



Karly Slaughtering of Animals. 240. 
Earthing Wheat by Machine. 1708. 
Earth Nuts. 258, 11 65, 1749, 1750, 

2607, 2608, 2618, 2888, 2889,. 
Earth-worms. 215, 2480. 
East Coast Fever, 198. 
Eberth's Bacillus on Sausages. 241. 
Ebulliometer : Contassot's. 2871. 
Economy of Moisture and Hedges. 

2483. 
Edam cheese. 130. 
Edible Plants in German S. W. Africa. 

140. 
Edible Beans. 148. 2439. 
Education in Agriculture in Brazil. 

32, 728, 1635. 

— in Belgium. 30. 

— in Canada. 379, 724, 3102. 

— in Egypt. 204. 

— in France 1631. 

— in German East Africa. 12. 

— in Germany. 3101. 



Education in Great Britain. 378, 1358. 

— in Italy. 723, 1356. 

— in Mexico. 1104. 

— in Porto Rico. 727. 

— in Portugal. 1632. 

— in the Republic of S. Domingo. 

1357- 

— in Russia. 31. 

— in Spain. 1103. 

— in Switzerland. 1102. 

— in the Tropics. 12. 

— in the United States. 203, 725, 

726, 960, 1633, 1634, 2434, 3103. 

— in Tvmis. 1105. 

Education in Forestry, in Denmark. 
12. 

— in the United States. 377. 
Education in Horticulture. 203. 
Effect of Electricity on the Hatching 

of Silk -worms' Eggs. 2839. 

— of lyow Temperature and Frost on 

the Plant Cell. 48. 

— of Radium Emanations on Ger- 

mination. 735. 
Egg Demonstration Train. 320. 

— Laying Competitions. 2833. 

— Production. 920, 2833. 

Eggs. 319, 320, 542, 543, 544, 920, 
922, 923, 924,925, 1848. 1849, 1850, 
2228, 2229, 2833, 2834, 2835. 

— The Xograph, Instrument for Te- 

sting. 1 48 1. 

— Storage. 544. 2834. 2835. 
Eichornia crassipes. 1390. 
Ekoun. 2616. 

Elaeis guineensis. 145, 259, 337, 460, 
2609, 2892. 

Electrical Bridge for the Determina- 
tion of Soluble Salts in Soils. 52. 

Electric Current and Trees. 1788. 

Electricity in Agriculture. 21, 38, 39, 
40, 81, 1709, 1788. 

— in Hatching of Chickens. 543. 

— in Hatching of Silk- worms' Eggs. 

2839. 

— in Horticulture. 1175. 

— in the Ripening of Bananas. 2684. 



24 



Klectricity : Tree Felling, by. 102. 
:eiectrified Artificial Rain. 2500. 
Electric Wind Motors in Denmark. 

962. 
Electrolytic Conductibility of the 

Soil. 51. 
Elephants. 137. 1242. 3194. 
Ellangowan Poison-Bush. 2760. 
Emmental cheese. 31G, 2806. 
Emulsine. 2446. 
Energy from Waterfalls. 222. 
Engineering: Agricultural in the U- 

nited States. 960. 
Ensilage. 64, 269, 438, 815, 816, 

1155, 1271, 1810, 1812, 2952, 3225. 
Enzymes. 127, 31 17. 
Eragrostis A bissinica (Te£F Grass) .2107. 
Enosema erythrocarpon . 2716. 
Eri Silk in Behar. 2235. 
Eritrea Food Grains. 1146. 
Erylhrina indica. 872. 
Erythroxylon Coca. 2638, 2639. 
Esparto Grass. 1745. 2598. 
Essence of Anise. 844. 

— Citronella. 2651. 

— Iris. 143. 

— Neroli. 2650. 

— Petit Grain. 88, 2650. 

— Rosemary. 11 72. 

— Roses. 2917. 

— Sandal Wood. 147. 

— Turpentine. 178, 1446, 2725. 
Essential Oils. 339, 144, 145, 146, 

459, 1426, 1763, 1765. 2139, 2728, 

2946, 2947. 
Estimation of Crops. 3105. 
Ether : Action of on Ayapana. 2075. 
Eucalyptus. 500, 1353. 1795, 1796. 

2174, 2846, 3174. 
Eucalyptus diversicolor 1353. 
Euchlaena mexicana. 43. 
Eupatorium triplinerve. 2075. 
Euphorbia pirahazo. 2y^^. 
Euphorbia Tirucalli. 189. 
European Agricultixral Colonisation 

in Dahomey. 375. 
Evaporation from the Soil. 404. 



Evonymus europaeus. 1752. 
Ewes' Milk. 909. 1247. 
Ewes' Milk Butter. 909. 
Excretions from Roots. 733, 1846. 
Exhibitions. 200, 201, 277, -z-j. 
Exhibition : International of Aqui- 
culture. 2859. 

— International of Motors. 731. 

— International, of Rubber. 2053. 

— Royal Agricultural Society's Show. 

3184. 

— Royal International Horticultural, 

London, 1912, 2052. 

— of Wheats. 796. 

Exotic Trees in German Forests. 

2168. 
Experimental Garden in Guadeloupe. 

12. 

— Institute for Cereal Products in 

Berlin. 2058. 

— Milk Station at MagyarovAr. 202. 

— Oil Station at Spoleto. 1628. 
Experimentation in the Oasis of 

Gafsa. iioi. 
Experiments : Lysimeter. 2484. 
Experiment Station at Borodzk. 11 28. 

— Field at Dikopshof. 2059. 

— Station at Rothamsted. 2057. 

— Station for Cold Storage. UT . 

— Station for Cotton. 2060. 

— Station for Fish Culture at Ane- 

boda, Sweden. 2433. 

— Station for Olive Growing. 1185. 

— Station for Rice Cultivation. 

97- 

— Station for Tobacco Cultivation. 
266, 1099. 

Explosives in Agriculture. 2529, 3135. 
Exportation of Bones. 1690. 
Exporters of Poultry and Eggs. 

925- 
Extraction of Olive Oil. 338. 571. 



Facilities in Ceylon for Study of Agri- 

cvdture in the Tropics. 12. 
Factory for Smoking Rubber. 2951. 



— 25 — 



Factory Residues as Food for Milch 
Cows : Dangers and Drawbacks of. 

220I. 

Fafton. 212 1. 

Fagopyrum. 1401. 

Farm Buildings. 586, 587, 588, 1270, 
1271, 3225. 

Fanner as Business Manager. 732. 

Farms in the United States. 1107. 
2436. 

Farm Women Congress. 1351. 

Farm-yard Manure from Peat let- 
ter. 65. 

— from Sawdust Litter. 65. 

— from Straw Litter. 65. 

— in a Dry Season. 2504. 
Fats. 572. 835, 1380, 1470, 2612. 
Fatness as Cause of Sterility. 892. 
Fat Splitting by Bacteria. 1380, 1470. 
Fattening Calves. 1237. 

— Cattle. 1230. 

— Pigs. 207, 208, 516. 

— Steers. 2766. 

Fecundity in Hens. 2227, 2228, 
2229. 

— of Sheep. 2772. 

Federal Budget of Agriculture in 

Switzerland, i. 
Feeding Calves. 306, 1231, 1232. 

— of Horses. 118, 306, 307, 217, 514, 
520. 

— Value of Green Grass, and Hay. 
2756. 

— Value of Pumpkins. 2758. 

— Value of Roots. 1811. 

Feeds and Feeding for Pigs. 207, 
208, 209, 516, 895, 1233, 1458, 

2758- 
Feeds and Feeding of Live stock. CO, 

118, 306, 309, 200, 201, 202, 203, 

205, 206, 510, 511, 512, 514. 520, 

893, 894, 1219, 1226, 1227, 1228, 

1229, 1807, 1809, 2199, 2201, 2202, 

2755> 2756, 2776, 2777, 3186, 3187. 

Fermentation as a Digestive Process. 

2072. 

— 211, 2072, 2243, 2465, 2466. 



Fermentation of Galactose. 210. 

— of Grape Must. 2243. 

— Putrefactive. 2466. 

— Panary. 144. 
Fermented Milks. 2215. 
Ferments. 314. 

— in Fermenting Tea. 130. 

— in Wine -making. 2244, 2245, 3214. 
Ferns : Nutrition of some. 1367. 
Fertility of Pollen. 11 18. 

— of Soil. 31, 1383. 1667, 1674, 
2475. 2478, 2502, 3115. 

Fertilizer Mixtures. 773. 

Fertilizers, see Manures. 

Fertilizing Value of some Phosphatic 
Substances. 1697. 

Fetish Bean. 2439. 

Fibre Crops. 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 
70,250.261,252,253,254, 113, 114. 
115. 116, 453, 454, 826, 827, 828, 
829, 830. 1408, 1409. 1744, 1746, 
1747, 2121, 2122, 2595, 2596, 2597, 

2599. 3147- 
Fibre Production in the Philippines. 

114. 
Ficus alhinervis. 116. 
Ficus elastica. 1215, 1451, 1785. 
Figs. 485, 1 191, 2680. 
Filtering Candles. 2950. 
Filtering Sewage Beds. 2079. 
Filters. 974. 
Fir seed. 95. 
Fish: 138, 554, 555, 937. 1256, 1335, 

1493, 1494, 1495, 1857, 2240, 2857, 

2859, 2862, 2863, 2864. 

— Culture as a Preventive of Ma- 
laria. 938. 

— in Austria-Himgary. 935, 1857, 2241. 

— in Canada. 2861. 

— in France. 3197. 

— in Germany. 138, 2240. 

— in Italy. 935- 936. 

— in Servia. 2031. 

— in Spain. 3177. 

— in Sweden. 1858, 2860. 

— in Switzerland. 2858. 

Fishery Congress. Copenhagen. 731. 



26 — 



Fisher, W. R. (Biog.). 33. 
Fish Guano. 66, 2510. 

— Meal in Cattle Feeding. 2759. 

— Ponds : Fertilizers for. 1256. 

— Spawn, Transport of. 1495. 

— Trade in Roumania. 3198. 
Fixation of Nitrogen by Azotobacter.54. 

— of Phosphoric Acid in the Soil. 

1384. 
F^lacherie (Infection through Food). 

2841. 
Flax. 67, 825, 1161, 1162, 1640, 

1742, 1743, 2077, 2118, 2589, 2590, 

2591, 3M6. 
Flemingia rhodocarpa. 2716. 
Flies. 2424. 

Floating Agricultural Show. 200. 
Floods. 289. 

Flora of Upper Dahomey. 76. 
Flour Bleaching. 1867. 1868. 

— (Rice). 305. 

— (Wheat). U3, 144, 333, 336, 337, 

263, 569, 1122. 1503, 1867, 1898, 
2402, 2542, 2904, 2905, 3217, 3218. 

Flowers. 80, 270, 271, 487, 729, 2076, 
2142. 

— of Tea. 2623. 

Fodder for Live Stock. 305, 309. 204, 
205. 517. 815, 895, 8g6, 1459, 1809, 
2756. 

Fodder : New Estimate of Values of. 

1234- 
Fontina Cheese. 3206. 

Food Consumption in Paris. 265. 

— for Poultry. 319, 919, 920, 1844, 

2226. 

— for Silkworms and Quality of Silk. 

2840. 

— Grains, Frithrea. 11 46. 

— Products. 90, 91, 145, 146, 265. 

266. 267, 537, 1266, 2254, 2255, 
2259, 2261, 2262, 2263, 2918, 
2922, 2923, 2928, 2930, 2931, 
2932, 3208. 

— Reserves of Trees. 2070. 

— Stuffs, Determination of Saccharine 

in. 342. 



Foot and Mouth Disease. 890, 2197, 

2752, 2783. 
Forage Crops. See Grass Crops. 

— Elevator : Boulay's Automatic. 
2944. 

— for Live Stock : Furze. 60. 
Forcing Plants. 1769, 2147. 

Forest Conservation Congress. 97. 98- 

— Economy. 3163, 31 71. 

— Fires. 288, 11 99, 1200, 1441, 1786, 

1787, 2055, 3168, 3169. 

— Products Laboratory. 377. 

— Products of Chile. 489. 

— Railways. 1207, 21 71. 

— Reserves in Oregon. 191. 

— Resources of the World. 1438. 
Forestry. 94 to 102, 110, 286, to 

297. 165, 166, 167, 486, 488, 490, 
491, 862, 866, 867, 1197, 1201, 1207, 
1784, 1788, 1789, 1790, 2165, 2166, 
2167, 2168, 2169, 2170, 2172, 2702, 
2707, 2708, 2709, 2710, 3163, 3164, 
3165, 3170, 3171, 3172, 3177. 

Forestry Association, American. 97. 

Forests. 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 292^ 
293, 295, 296, 165, 486, 491, 502, 
1201, 1207, 1438, 1788, 1790, 2507, 
2724, 3170. 

— and Floods. 490. 

Forest School Nurseries. 293. 
Forests : Distribution of, in the World. 
2699. 

— in Algeria. 295. 

— Angola. 2048. 

— Australia. 2170, 2705, 2718 

— Austria. 292. 

— British Colimibia. 96, 862. 

— British Guiana. 488. 

— British India. 95, 102, 1785, 2704. 

3164. 

— Canada. 487. 

— Denmark. 94. 

— Eritrea. 864, 1440. 

— French Guiana. 2172. 

— French West Africa. 1636. 

— Germany. 858, 2710. 

— Indo China. 1784. 



27 



Forests in Japan. 860. 

— Karaeruii. 1197. 

— Madeira. 2702. 

— Natal. 287. 

— New Zealand. 96. 

— Russia. 287, 1439. 1783. 

— Servaa. 859, 2032. 

— Siberia. 861, 2954. 

— Spain. 3177. 

— Switzerland. 286, 3136. 

— Tasmania. 98, 2706. 

— the Belgian Congo. 2049, 3175. 

— the French Congo. 3167. 

— the Gabon. 865. 

— the United States. 96, 97, 98, 288, 

490, 863, 1196, 2171, 3165, 3166. 

— Turkey. 2703. 

Forests of Teak. 2169. 2180. 

Forest Soils 1201, 2167. 

Formation of Fatty Matter in Olives. 

1114. 
Foul Brood in Bees. 2848. 
Fourmes du Forez and d'Ambert 

Cheeses. 2218. 
Fowls see Poultry. 
Fowl Houses. 542. 2226. 
Fox Farming. 2854. 
Frames in Truck Growing. 2653. 
Fraxinus excelsior. 2533. 
French Colonial Cotton Association. 

817. 
« Frigorifique « : The, 147. 
Frost. 18, 218. 48, 748, 11 28, 1434, 

1662, 1663, 1664. 

— Effect of, on Winter Cereals. 1663. 

— Resistance of Walnut Trees to. 281. 
Frozen Meat. 125. 

Frozen Meat Trade, 2222, 2223, 2803, 
2816, 2818. 

Fruit and Vegetables : Production, 
Preservation and Trade. 89, 90, 
91. 92, 93, 147, 283, 284, 285, 956, 
957, 1176, 1182, 1430, 1505, 1781, 
1782, 2159, 2160, 2162, 2164, 2264, 
2443, 2693, 2918, 2919, 2920, 2924, 
2925, 3156. 3157. 3162. 

Fniit Bottling. 2922. 



Fruit Drying. 2918, 2919, 2920. 

— Growing. 81, 82, 83, 272, 153, 
154. 155. 156, 157. 479. 850, 853, 
857. 1773. 1774. 1788, 2144, 2145' 
2146, 2657, 2658. 

— Judging Standards. 2694. 

— Packing. 147, 285. 379. 503, 2257, 

3156, 3157- 

— Packing Schools. 379. 

— Precooling. 345, 2924, 2925. 

— Preservation in Peat. 2921. 

— Preserves : German Regulations 

on. 2923. 

— Size of, in Relation to Germination 

of Pips. 1375. 

— hi Bags. 853. 

— Trees. 82, 89, 272, 276, 153, 
154. 155. 156, 479. 483. 850, 853, 
857, 1191, 1773, 1774, 2144, 2145, 
2146, 2147, 2657, 2658, 2687, 2693. 

— Variation of Form in. 741 . 

« Fucoma » Apparatus for Testing 
Milk and Cream. 128. 

Fvmction of Hormones. 1644. 

Fimicular Traction System for Har- 
vesting Beets. 965. 

Funtunia elaslica. 186, 187, 506, 1219, 
2740. 

Furcroya gigantea. 453. 

Furniture (Rattan and Sea Grass). 

954- 
Furs. 254, 2855. 

Fur Trade in Russia. 2855. 

Furze as Forage. 60. 



Galacto.se. 210. 11 16. 

Galvanic Current : Action on Germina- 
tion. 40. 

Game. 137, 251, 254, 1255, 1335, 
1491, 1492, 1856, 2032, 2852, 2853. 
2854, 2855, 2856. 

Gandule. 856. 

Garapa Grossa. 2247. 

Garbanzo. 1716. 

Garcinia mangostana and G. Tincioria. 
2658. 



28 — 



Gamgues. 2652. 

Gasso. 2616. 

Gayal. 3192. 

Gelatine from Seeweeds. 340. 

Gentian. 2643. 

Geography : Agricultural in Higher 

Education. 1354. 
German Colonial Institute. 203, 3100. 
Germination. 39, 40, 42, 43, 89, 424, 

735- 789, 791. 792, 1375. 1711. 

2531. 2533. 2534, 2626. 

— and Fertility of Pollen. 11 18. 

— and Hydrocyanic Acid. 42. 
Germinative Power, Detection of in 

Certain Seeds. 792. 
Genstl Fimicular Traction System 

for Harvesting Beets. 965. 
Ginger. 2642. 
Ginseng. 3152. 
Gypsum. 762, 1659. 

— Action of, on Nitrification. 1659. 
Glazing of Glass Houses. 588. 
Gluten of Wlieat. 2904. 3217. 
Glycerides of Fatty Acids in Soils. 

756. 
Glycerine. 2874, 2894, 2931. 
Glycogen Method for the Detection 

of Horse Meat. 539. 
Goats. 124, 198, 524, 906, 1734, 

1842, 2208. 

— Milk. 2793. 

— Wool, 1842. 
Gouioma Kamassi. 1222. 

Grafted and Ungrafted Haricot Beans. 

iiig. 
Graft Hybrids. 396. 
Graft Hybrid of Pear and Quince. 

1374- 
Grafting. 82, 272, 281, 743, 857, 
1191, 1373, 2658. 

— Chestnut on Oak. 1442. 

— Rubber Ficus. 12 15. 

Grain Experiment Fields in Victoria. 
1398. 

— Farming. 1359. 

— Moisture Tester for. 429. 
Gramineae : Erithrean in Italy. 441. 



Gramineae and Leguminoseae. Culti- 
vated together or separately. 3128. 

Grana Cheese. 529, 912, 1248. 

Grandeau Louis (Biography). 2438. 

Grapes. 84, 85, 273. 274, 162, 1183, 
1431, 1432, 1434, 2387, 2503. 2665, 
3104, 3155, 3156, 3157. 

Grape Fruit. 88, 2676. 

— Must. 2243, 3215. 

— Pips: Utilisaton of. 518, 1866, 2251. 

— Pip Oil. 1866, 2251. 

— Seed Oil Cake. 518. 

Grass Crops. 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 
249, 250, 446, 447, 448, 810, 814 
815, 816, 1149, 1T54, 1155, 1721, 
1722, 1728, 1729, 2108, 2109, 2568, 
2569, 2570, 3139, 3140, 3141. 

— Land 479, 1804. 

— Land : Harrowing of. 421. 
Green Grass. Feeding Value of. 2756. 
Green-houses. 26. 

Green Manures. 273, 1139, 1389. 
1390, 2080, 2091, 2504, 3127, 3128. 
Greenness of Oysters. 556. 
Giimm Alfalfa. 2106. 
Grosbeaks. 2831, 3034. 
Gros Pigncn d'Inde. 1091. 
Groimd Nuts, See Pea Nuts. 
Guayule 1449, 2741. 
Guana. 1409. 
Guano. 38, 413, 1688, 1689, 2509. 

— Fish. 66. 2510. 
Guava Apple. 339. 

— Pear. 339. 
Guaxinia. 826, 827. 
Guinea Com. 2550. 
Guinea Grass. 2406. 
Gul. 2688. 

Gum : Chicle. 1224. 

— Copal. 195, 3182. 

— from Bomhax malabancum. 2726. 

— from Red Silk Cotton Tree. 2725. 

— Jelutong. 508. 

— from N. Nigeria. 886. 

— Tragacanth. 194. 
Guttapercha. 110, 301, 121a, 1803, 

2730- 



— 29 - 



Hail. 20, 21, 2050, 2081, 3107. 
Hair Vertices on Dome.stic Animals. 

210. 
Hares. 2819. 
Haricot Beans: Grafted and Un grafted. 

1119. 

— Cyanogenetic. 2263. 
Harrow for Marsh I,ands. 1877. 
Harrowing of Grass Land. 421. 
Hatching Chickens by Electricity. 543. 
Hay. 64, 415, 2109, 3141. 
Hazelnuts. 1779. 

Heating and Firing of Hay. 3 141. 
Hedges and Economy of Moisture. 

2483. 
Hedges and Windbreaks. 8i. 
Helianti. 127. 
Helianthus decdpetalus. 127 

— tuber osus. 127. 
Hemp. 1163. 

— Manila. 114, 454, 1408. 

— Mauritius. 113. 

— Sann. 115. 

— Sisal. 68, 2119, 2120. 
Henequen. 946. 2995. 
Hens. 133. 

Heredity in Mangels. 1370. 
Heredity of Characters in Plants. 742. 

1 1 19, 2459, 2460, 2461. 
Herring Manure. 2510. 
Hevea. 107, 108. 109, 301, 183, 476, 

509, 884, 1209, 1216, 1217, 1218, 

1753, 1754. 1802, 2188. 2736, 2737. 
Hevea Brasiliensis. See Hevea. 
Hibiscus cannabinus. 68, 69. 
Hides. 132, 1841. 
High Temperatures : Effect on Ome- 

sugar Solutions. 2896. 
"Hindi" Cotton. 1741. 
Hogs see Pigs. 
Home Making in the United States. 

2495- 
Honey. 136, 932, 933, 934, 1489, 

2850, 2851. 
Hops. 76, 267, 269. 436, 566, 567, 

843, 1171, 1261, 1761, 1762, 2136, 

2525. 2634, 2635, 3094. 



Hormones in Regulating Metabolism. 

1644. 
Horse Hair. 2826. 
Horse Meat. 539. 

Horses. 118, 119, 201, 304, 307, 311, 
312, 215, 216, 217, 514, 520, 900, 

901, 1238, 1461, 1462, 1818, 2054, 

2206, 2763, 2826. 
Horse Show. 201, 2054. 
Horticulture. 38, 11 75, 1177, 1332, 

1627. 1769, 2052, 2143, 2652, 2653. 
Housekeeping Schools. 3101. 
Houses for Peasants and lyaboiirers in 

Apulia, Italy. 586. 
Human Food. 90, 145, 265, 949, 

2202, 2927, 2928, 2929, 2930, 2931, 

2932. 
Hmnates. Influence on Micro-orga- 
nisms. 2078. 
Huia : Preservation of. 253. 
Humus. 216, 57, 781, 1668, 2477. 
Hybridisation. 209. 

— of Coffee. 71. 

— of Silk- worms. 322. 

— of Zea Mays and Euchlaena mexi- 

cana. 43. 
Hybrid Producers in Rhone Valley 

Vineyards. 480. 
Hybrids of Bison Americanus and 

Bos taurus. 1240. 

— Graft. 369. 

— of Table Grape Vines. 160. 

— of Zebras. 1823. 
Hydrocj'-anic Acid formed during 

Germination. 42. 

Hydrocyanic Acid in Plants. 1360. 

Hydrographical Map of Italy. 225. 

Hydrolysis of Polysaccharides by Bo- 
trytis Cinerea. 397. 

Hydrolysis of Protein. 736. 

Hygiene of I^ive Stock. 126, 303, 304, 
198, 199, 510, 889, S90, 891, 892, 
1225, 1454, 1455, 1456, 1804, 1805, 
2169, 2197, 2198, 2199, 2200, 2750, 
2751, 2752. 2753, 2754, 2755, 3183. 

— of Milking. 2779. 

— of Slaughter-houses. 1477. 



Hygromipisimetry. 128. 
Hygroscopicity of Certain Nitrogen 

Fertilisers. 3126. 
Hyphaene. 2714. 
Hyosciamus. 2644. 



Ibera. 1747. 

" Ideal ", P. Pugens' vScraper for 
Vines. 276. 

Ignition and Solubility of Soil Phos- 
phates. 1672. 

Ilex Paraguayensis. 263, 132, 133, 
2534, 2626, 2627. 

Imbirussu. 2597. 

Immmiisation of Goats against Malta 
Fever. ig8. 

Improvement and Crossing of Pigs. 
223. 

— of Farm Animals in 'Egypt. 214. 

— of Madeira River Valley. 10. 

— of lyia River in China. 2491. 

— of System of Cultivation in Rou- 

mania. 2033. 
Inarching 2658. 
Incisions on Rubber Plants. 884, 1209, 

1216, 1450. 
Increase in Weight of Long Turnips. 

1649. 
Incubation of Hens Rggs. 543, 924, 

2229. 
Indian Industries. T508. 

— Oils. 572. 

— Rice. 63. 
Indigo. 142. 

Indol in Plants. 2444. 
Influence of Age on Profit of Feeding 
Calves. 1236. 

— of Air on Wine. 943. 

— of Atmospheric Pressure and Hu- 

midity on Animal Metabolism. 

1457- 
Influence of Feeding on Quality of 
Milk : see Milk. 

— of Forests on Drought. 3170. 

— of Grass on Growth of Fruit Trees. 

479- 



Influence of Litter on Utilisation of 
Food. 510. 

— of Manures on the Composition of 

Seed. 2067, 2088. 

— of Molasses on Soil Fertility. 2482. 

— of Radio-active Minerals on Wheat. 

2456. 

— of Salts of Lithium and Caesivmi 

on WTieat. 1703. 

— of the Leaves on the Development 

of the Fruit of Pear trees. 164. 

— of the Soil on Plant Growth. 1383. 

— of Volatile Substances on Plants. 39. 
Injecting of Plants with Mineral and 

Organic substances. 11 15. 
Inheritence of Row-numbers in Maize. 
Inoculation Experiments with Legu- 

minouseae. 775. 

— of Alfalfa. 1402. 

— with Nitragin. 2080. 
Inspection of Food Products. 2259. 

— of Silk Fabrics in Japan. 1509. 
Institute for Dairying at Konigsberg. 

292. 

— for Classifying Wools. 317. 

— for Stock Breeding at Pinheiro, 

Brazil. 2432. 
International Fxhibition of Aquicul- 
ture. 2859. 

— Horticultural Exhibition, T<ondon. 

1912. 

— Motor Exliibition, Copenhagen in 

1912. 731. 

— Rubber Exhibition, London 191 1. 

2053. 

— Scientific Congress in Buenos Ay- 

res. 11. 

Interpretation of Experimental Re- 
sults. 780. 

Inversion of Cane Sugar. 15. 

Invertase. 15. 

Infiltration Water. 31 13. 

Ire. 3098. 

Iris. 143. 

Irrigation. 223. 225. 226, 227, 763, 
766, 1680, 2085, 2086, 2087, 2492, 
2493, 2500. 



— 31 



Irrigation, Artesian. 64. 

— Congress. 2429. 

— Foremen : School for. 220. 

— in Argentina. 1137, 3122. 

— British India. 226, 1682, 2086. 

— Burma. 1682. 

— Canada. 2994. 

— Chile. 1513, 1684. 

— China. 1084. 

— Cuba. 1388, 1683. 

— Egypt. 29, 30, 2493- 

— Haiti. 29. 

— Hawaii. 5. 

— India. 29. 

— Italy. 225. 

— Mesopotamia. 3121. 

— Mexico. 1 1 36. 

— Russia. 3, 763, 764, 2498. 

— Spain. 1083, 2085. 

— the Steppes. 3, 764, 2498. 

— the Transcaucasus. 410. 

— the United States. 227, 63, 765, 

766, 1387, 2087, 2429, 2492, 
2495, 2496, 2497. 

— Tonkin. 411. 

— of Grazed Meadows. 1680. 

— Olives in Spain. 2155. 
Italian Rye-grass. 790, 3140. 
Italian Tomato Paste. 149. 



Jack Pine. 1204. 

Jager's Method of Cereal Cultivation. 

1707. 
Jaggery. 501. 
Japan Clover. 1724. 
Japanese Maple. 297 . 

— Rice. 801. 
Jarey Palm. 1409. 
Jatropha Curcas. 1091. 
Jatropha mahafalensis. 2615. 
Java Jute. 68. 

Jelutong. 508, 2 1 91, 2742. 

Jenjebrillo. 1821. 

Jerez Wine. 1496. 

Jerusalem Artichokes. 107, 127. 

— Peas. 847. 



Jippy Jappa Hats. 2912. 
Judging Cattle in Sweden. 120. 
Juice of Beer Yeast. 1262, 1379. 
Jute. loi, 117, 3147. 



Kafir Com. 440, 799, 800. 

Kaki. 2162. , 

Kainit. 831. 

Kapok. 254, 2122, 2577, 2592, 2593, 

2594- 
Karambusi Oil. 1765. 

Karite Fat. 78, 835, 2612. 

Karri. 1353. 

Keeping Poultry Free of Lice. 1843. 

Kernel in Wheat : Type of. 744. 

Kerstinguella geocarpa. 1174, 

Kew Bulletin. 11. 

Kickxia. 186, 187, 506, 1219, 2740. 

Kneading Trough : Mechanical, 152. 

Knife for Tapping Rubber. 979. 

Knox Crushing Mill for Elaeis Oil 

nuts. 145. 
Kobi butter. 2617. 
Kola-nut. 76, 465, 2636, 2637, 
Komondor Shepherd Dogs. 225. 
Kpeme and Agu Plantations Company 

in Togo. 10. 
Kraemer, A. (Biography). 34. 
Kowliang. 800. 
Kozesnik Method of Tree Planting. 

788. 



Lablab Bean. 2439. 

Laboratory for Forest Products. 377. 

Labour Saving, by LTse of Maclmes. 

1512. 
Lactc-pulp Fermant. 64. 
Lactose : Extraction of. 913. 
Lamb Shearing. 123. 
Lamp Snares. 975. 
Land Clearing in Denmark. 2056. 
Landibe, Madagascar Silkworm. 2838. 
Landolphia. 112, 188, 507, 2735. 
Land Reclamation in Straits Settle- 
ments. 190. 



— 3^ 



Lands for Settlement in Oregon. 191. 
Laporiea pterostigma. 2717. 
Larch. 100, 296, 497. 
Large Game Raising in the United 

States. 1255. 
Larix leptolepis. 100. 
Larix dahurica, 105 
Latex: Part Played in Plant Kconomy. 

2066. 
Latextor. 979. 

Lathy f us in Wheat Flour. 263. 
Lavender. 145. 
Lead in Tins. 2261. 
Leather. 1841, 2933, 2934. 
Leaves. 1361, 1650, 3172. 
Leghorn Poultry. 2230. 
Legiuninoseae. 55, 425, 775, 810, 1225, 

1658. 3128. 
Leguminous Plants in Togo and Ger- 
man E. Africa. 2439. 
Leicester Sheep. 1241. 
Lemons. 855, 1435, 1436, 2675. 
Lespedeza striata. 1724. 
Liatris spicata. 144. 
Lichis. 92, 2658. 
Life without Oxygen. 2464. 
Lignite used in Drying Tobacco. 1420. 
Lime. 59, 388, 740, 762, 2452, 2484, 

2485. 
Lime in Basic Stag. 1699. 
Liming. 404, 1144, 1804, 2527, 3132. 
Liming and Lime Fertilisers in Peat 

Soils. 1 144. 
Limitation of Variation in Plants. 

2459- 
Linseed. 736, 898, 1640, 2440, 2618. 

— Meal. 898. 

— Oil. 144. 

— Oil Cake. 896, 3187. 
Litchi chinensis. 2658. 
Lithiimr. 1703. 

Litter : Influence on Utilisation of 

Food. 510. 
Little Known Vegetable Oils. 570. 
Liver Fluke (Liver Rot.) 1454, 1804. 
Live Stock. 118 to 124, 303, 304, 310, 
311, 214, 218, 521, 523, 524, 9T4, 



1237, 1359, 1460, 1818, 1822, 
2203, 2204, 2762. 
Live Stock Feeding. 1459. 

— in Algeria. 1237. 

— in Argentinz. 1460. 

— in Kgypt. 214. 

— in Russia. 1335. 

— in Servia. 2032. 

— in Uruguay. 2045 
Lobsters. 2863. 
Loganberry. 79. 
Loqtiats. 90. 

Loluim italicum. 790, 3140. 

Lolium Temulenium Ceptochoeton. 59. 

Lolium Temulenium in Wheat Flour. 

263. 
Loofah. 2140. 
Low Tempera tiue and Frost: Kffet on 

Plants. 41, 48, 1366, 2075. 
Low Teniijerature in Cheese Making. 

130. 
Lucerne. 60, 249, 209, 512, 1402, 

1813, 2565. 
Lucerne, (Turkestan Lucerne) 445, 

811, 1151. 
Lupins. 388, 1719. 
Lygeum spartum. 1745. 
Lysimeter Experiments in Hawaii. 

2484. 



Macadam as Forage, no. 
Macerations of Yeast and of Cereals. 16. 
Machines for Cleansing Rubber. 585. 

— for Cotton Picking. 824, 3224. 
Machines for Destroying Aquatic. 

Plants. 580. 

— for Extracting Citrus Fruit Oils. 

2946, 2947. 

— for Felling Trees. 2267. 

— for Gathering Stones. 344. 

— for Milking. 152, 344, 1273, 1274. 

— for the Cultivation of Potatoes. 

582, 968, 971. 

— for Unloading Bananas. 2948. 

— for Working " Grana " Cheese. 

978. 



33 



Madagascar, Euphorbia ceous Plant 
{Jatropha mahafalensis). 2615. 

Madeira Wine. 941, 1258. 

Madi. 2688. 

Magnesia. 419. 740. 

Mahogany. 172. 

Maize. 51, 53, 238, 240, 38, 43, 87, 
90, 96, 207, 376, 438, 439, 515, 798, 
1147, 1372, 1507, 1647, 1654. 1714. 

— African. 2547. 

— as a Sugar Crop. 2127. 

— Grains : Deterioration of. 90. 

— in the Brewery. 2879. 

— Preservation of 955. 

— Shrinkage in Storage. 2io3- 

— Stalks : Utilisation of. 2915. 
Majaqua. 1409. 

Malaga : Vine Products. 852. 

— Wine. 852. 
Malaria. 24, 720. 
Malta Fever. 198. 
Malt from Oats. 944. 
Mangahazo, 2562. 
Mangaicy. 185. 

Manganese. 233, 420, 1132, 1363, 
1701, 2090, 3110. 

— in Wine. 326. 1259. 

Mangels 106, 121, 1370, 2505, 2546, 

2564, 3148. 
Mangifera indica. 2658. 
Mango. 92, 857, 1195, 2658. 
Mango " Pairi ". 1195. 
Mangosteen. 2658. 
Mangrove. 107. 

— Bark. 871. 
M am hot. 58. 
Manihot aipi. 2562. 

Manihot dichoioma Able. 113. 882. 
Manihot Glaziovii. 113, 114, 505, 

2735. 2738. 2739. 
Manihot pianhyensis. 113. 882. 
Manioc. 1232. 2562. 
Manna Ash in Sicily. 1202. 
Manteche (Cheese). 2807. 
Manures. 336, 583, 768, 1141, 1687, 

1790, 2088, 2505, 2506, 2508, 2513, 

2528, 2708, 3123, 3133. 



Manures for Beetroots. 233, 255. 

— for Carobs. 280. 

■ — for Chrysanthemums. 80. 

— for Cotton. 65. 

— for Cranberries. 270. 

— for Fish Ponds. 1256. 

— for Grass-L,ands. 62, 250. 

— for Hops. 267. 

— for Mulberries. 278. 

— for Mushrooms. 118. 

— for OHve Trees. 87. 

— for Rice. 245. 

— for Rubber. 300. 

— for Scotch Firs. 290. 

— for Tobacco and Tomatoes. 264. 

— for Wheat. 336. 

— Green. 273, 11 39, 1389, 1390, 2080, 

2091, 2504, 3127, 3128. 

— Nitrogenous. 33 to 38, 230, 231, 

232, 70, 71, 72, 414, 767, 771, 

772. 773. 775. 1138, 1392, 1393, 
1692, 1693, 1694, 1695, 2092, 
2093, 2514, 2515, 2516, 2517. 
2518, 3124, 3125, 3126, 3127, 
3128. 

— Organic. 33, 38, 230, 66, 67, 68, 69, 

412, 413, 769, 770, 774, 1140, 
1391, 1392, 1688, 1689, 1691, 
1692, 2089, 2090, 2509, 2510, 
2511, 1512, 3125. 

— Phosphatic 37, 38, 232, 233, 73, 74, 

75, 416, 417, 418, 776, 1142, 

1394. 1395. 1696, 1697, 1698, 

1699, 2094, 2519, 2520, 2521, 

2522, 2526. 

Manures : Potassic. 69, 76, 77, 777, 

778, 1143, 2095, 2523, 2524, 2525, 

3129. 

Manures in Sylviculture. 293. 1790, 

2708. 
Manure Value of Root Residues. 769. 
Manuring in I,ines. 11 41. 

— Barley. 435, 760. 

— Beets. 233, 255, 78, 79, 779, 831, 

832, 1145, 1748, 

— Buckwheat. 803. 

— Castilloa elastica. 2189. 



— 34 



Manuring Ceara Rubber. 2739. 

— Fish Ponds. 1256. 

— Forests. 1790, 2507, 2708. 

— Hevea Rubber. 2188. 

— Hops. 2525, 2635. 

— Mangolds. 2505. 2564. 

— Manihot Glaziovii. 505, 

— Oats. 435. 2505. 

— Olive Trees. 482, 1778. 

— Pastures and Meadows. 448, 11 49. 

1728, 1729, 2506, 2569, 2570. 

— Potatoes. 804, 806, 808, 1 145, 2559. 

— Rice. 2513. 

— • Rose Trees. 477. 

— Rubber Plants. 505, 2188. 2189, 

2739- 

— Spruces. 2709. 

— Swedes. 2563. 

— Truffles. 888. 

— Wheat. 760. 

— With Peat. 770. 

Map: Botanical of French W. Africa. 
1636. 

— Hydrographical, of Italy. 225. 

— Panoramic Agricultural, of Bel- 

gium 1355. 
Margarine. 2810. 

— Added to Milk for Fattening Cal- 

ves. 1231. 

— from Coconut Oil. 3219. 
Marjoram. 1764. 

Market Gardening 38. 1177, 1766, 
2143, 2652, 2653. 

— in Provence. 2652. 

— in Senegal. 1177. 

— in Tunis. 2143. 

— in the United States. 11 76. 
Market Garden Produce, see Vegetables. 
Marmiophytum fulvum. 2616. 
Marsh I^ands. 1877. 

Martelline. 268. 

Martin vSlag Containing Fluorine. 417. 
Mascarenhasia Elastica. 883. 
Mastitis. 891. 

Matches from Grass and Straw. 2914. 
Mate. 263, 132, 133, 2534, 2626, 
2627. 



Mauritius Hamp. 113, 453. 

Mead. 258. 

Meadows. 62, 479, 814, 1149, 1804, 

2506. 
Meadows of Mulberries. 2697, 2698. 
Meal-Moth. 336. 
Meat. 121, 124, 125, 314, 318, 240, 

537. 538. 539, 540. 914. 915. 916. 
1478, 1840, 2221, 2222, 2223, 2224, 
2402, 2410, 2820, 3208. 

— Chicken. 2836. 

— Chilling Process : New. 1871. 

— Cold Storage of 1251, 1871, 2222, 

2223, 2224, 2803, 2814, 2816, 
2817, 2818, 2819. 

— Consumption in Germany. 915. 

— Frozen. 125. 2222, 2223, 2803, 

2816, 2818. 

— Horse. 

— Industry. 3208. 

— Packing. 2405, 2812, 2813, 2930. 

— Refrigerated. 2814, 2815, 2816. 
Means of Preventing Accidents in 

the Use of Agricultural Machines. 
2268. 

Mechanical Kneading Trough. 152. 

Mechanical Cow-Milking. 2778. 

Medicinal and Narcotic Plants. 140, 
141, 468, 1426, 2644. 

Megass Paper. 2910. 

Melampyrum in Wheat Flour. 263. 

Melaleuca vindiflora. 287. 

Meliatine. 1639. 

Melons : Disease Resistant 2077. 

Mendelian Analysis and Cotton Im- 
provement. 2572. 

Mendelian Methods in Sheep Breed- 
ing. 905. 

Menyanthes trifoliata. 1639. 

Merulius lacrymans, 168. 

Mespilodaphne pretiosa. 77. 

Metabolism : Animal. 1457. 

— Plant 2071, 2453. 
Meteorological Institute in Hmigary. 

212. 

— Reports and Year Books. 2471. 
Meteorology. 17, 18, 20, 21, 212, 49, 



35 — 



400, 74^, 747. 749, 1098, 1127, 
II28, II29, 1382, 1665, 2471, 2472, 

2474- 
Meteorology in Fiance. 1381. 

— in the United Kingdom iii 191 1. 

2472. 

— ill the United States. 1661. 
Methods of Cultivation. 234, 81, 

421, 422, 780, 787, 788, 1397, 1706, 
1707, 1708, 1709, 1710, 2529, 2530, 

3134. 3135- 
Methoxyl in Soil Organic Matter. 757. 

Micas in Arable Land. 406. 

Microbe of Contagious Abortion in 

Cows. 199. 

— which breaks up Cellulose. 1660. 
Microbiology (Agricultural). 209, 210, 

211, 45, 397, 398, 745. 1123, 1125, 
1657, 1658, 1659, 1378, 2078, 2079, 
2080, 2464, 2466, 2468, 31 16, 31 17, 
3118, 3119. 

Microflora of Milk. 314. 

Microorganism living at Low Tempe- 
ratures. 46. 

— their Utilisation in the Arts, Ma 

nufactures, etc. 1656. 
Microscopic Analysis of Oil Cakes. 1 81 7 . 
Milk. 126, 127, 128, 314, 315, 226, 
227, 229, 232, 233, 238, 528, 529, 

530, 531. 533. 535. 907, 1243, 
1244, 1245, 1465 1466, 1467, 1468, 
1470, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1836, 
2209, 2210, 2211, 2217, 2777, 2778, 
2779, 2784, 2786, 2787, 2794, 2795, 
2796, 2797, 2798, 2799, 3199, 3200. 

— Addition of Margarine for Fat- 

tening Calves. 1231. 
Milk : Adulterations of. 315. 908, 
1247, 1471, 1835, 2214, 3201. 

— Analysis and Composition. 127, 

128, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 
237, 534. 891. 1245, 1246, 1469, 
1472, 1473, 2212, 2213, 2214, 
2788, 2789, 2790, 2792, 3201. 

— Condensed. 1834, 2216. 

— Experimental Station at Magya- 

rovdr. 202. 



Milk, Fermented. 2215. 

— Industry, See Dairying. 

— Influence of Food on. 118, 305, 

309, 206, 511, 768, 893, 894, 
1229, 1459, 1810, 2201, 2569, 
2775. 2776, 3187. 

— Influence of Physiological and 

Pathological Conditions on. 532, 
890, 891, 903, 1806, 1831, 2212, 
2780, 2781, 2782, 2783. 
Milking. 2779. 

— Machine. 152, 344, 1273, 1274, 

2778. 

— Mechanical. 2778. 
Milk Lecithin. 236. 

— Microflora. 314. 

— of Bitches. 3204. 

— of Buffaloes. 3203. 

— of Bwes. 1247. 

— of Goats. 2793. 

— Over-ripe in Cheese -ma king. 536. 

— Pail : Modem. 977. 

— Permanent Conmission. 2785. 

— Powder. 127. 

— Powder Starters in Cremeries. 1836. 

— Purifier. 127. 

— Ropy or Slimy. 127. 

— Serum. 913, 1458. 

— Skimmed. 128, 315, 3202. 
Millet. 87. II 29. 

Milling. 143, 144, 333, 336, 337, 263, 
569, 744, 1503, 1867. 1868, 2542, 
2904, 2905, 2906, 3218. 

Milo. 800. 

Mimusops glohosa. 113. 

Mineral Resources of the United Sta- 
tes. 2489. 

Mineral Substances in Plants. 1645. 

Mixtures of Fertilizers. 773. 

Modem Milk Pail. 977. 

Moisture and Hedges. 2483. 

Moisture of Soil. 403, 404, 405, 760, 
867, 1133, 1386, 1399, 1671, 2167, 
2483, 2454, 2530. 

— Tester for Graui. 429. 
Molasses as Manure. 230, 2482. 

— for Fodder. 307, 308. 



36 



olassin. 307. 
Mono-Rail. 1207. 
Moon Bean. 2439. 
Moors. 1 1 44, 2385. 
Moreton Bay Chestnut. 2200. 
Mosquito Larvae in Drinking Water. 

2426. 
Motoculture. 1710, 1875, 2935, 3223. 
Motor Exhibition at Copenhagen. 

731- 

— Hoeing Machine. 151 5. 

— Hoes. 2939. 

— Ploughs. 273, 966, 967. 
Moulds in Flour. 336. 
Moulds : Organic. 753. 
Moving Alluvial Mud. 213. 

Mower, Reaper and Binder Combined. 

3U. 
Mozzarelle Cheese. 2807. 
Mucorinae and their Action in the 

Soil. 31 19. 
Mucuna pruriens. 2558. 
Muddy Taste'of PVeshWater Fish. 937. 
Mulberries. 275, 279, 325, 1192, 2066, 

2697, 2698, 2840. 
Mulberry Leaves, Carriage of. 323. 
Mulberry Meadows. 2697, 2698. 
Muliya Rubber Tree of Rhodesia. 

1222. 
Mule Breeding. 2764. 
Miillers New Sack Lifter. 1277. 
Mungo Bean. 2439. 
Museiun for the Improvement of 

Packing. 146. 

— of Agriculture. 201. 

— of Vineyard Apparatus. 324. 
Mushrooms, 117, 302, 29, 196, 1872, 

2195, 2749. 

Mustard 920, 1816, 2932. 

Mutation in Cyclamen. 2076. 

Mutton. 521. 

Mycological Office at Besan^on, Fran- 
ce. 29. 

Mycology. 29, 1656. 

Mylitta. 548. 

Myoporum laeium. 2760. 

Myrabolans. 3176. 



Myrica gale : Root nodvdes. 2468. 
Narcotic and Medicinal Plants. 140, 

141, 468, 1426, 2644, 
Narras. 473. 

Native Bees in Pataguay. 2847. 
Natural Cross Fertilisation. 393. 
Navel Oranges in Algeria. 484. 
Nepheliiim lappaceum. 2658. 
Nephelium Litchi. 92. 
Nerium Oleander. 2647. 
Neroli. 2650. 
Nettles. 829. 
Neufchatel Cheese. 1830. 
New Anise Plant. 844. 

— Bacillus of Red Plague in Carp 

and Tenches. 2862. 

— Breed of Cattle. 1240. 

— Camphor and Sulphurous Acid Re- 

frigerator. 2926. 

— Dise Darrow. 151. 

— Forage Klevator " Automatiquc- 

Boulay ". 2944. 

— Jersey Forests and Forestry. 490. 

— Receptable for Wine. 1276. 

— Vegetable Forms produced by 

Tramuatic Action. 13 71, 1372. 
Ngaio. 2760. 
Niaouli 287. 
Nicotme. 137. 
Nicotine Manufacture in German E).| 

Africa. 75. 
Night Soil. 2090. 
Nile. 226. 

Nipa fruHcans. 2884. 
Nipa Palm Alcohol. 2884. 
Nitragin. 775, 1658, 2080. 
Nitrate Content of Soils. 1131. 

— of Lime. 831. 

— of Potash. 232. 

— of Soda. 34, 300, 773, 808, 831J 

1393, 2515, 2739, 3124. 
Nitrates : Action on Alcoholic Ferj 

mentation. 211. 
Nitrate and Chlorides : their Absorp^ 

tion by Plants. 2450. 
Nitric Acid in Natural Wines. 2872] 

— in Rain-water. 11 38. 



37 — 



Nitrification and Solvent Action on 
Potash. 2484. 

— by Electricity. 36. 

— by Ultraviolet Rays. 771. 

— in the Soil. 402, 1659. 

— in Volcanic Soils. 2484. 
Nitrites and Nitrates in the Soil. 403. 
Nitrites in Manures. 2092. 
Nitrobacterine. 230. 
Nitro-Cvilture. 11 25. 
Nitrogen. 767, 771, 11 38, 1139, 1140, 

1392, 2071, 2073, 2514, 2517, 
3116, 3218. 

— fixing Bacteria in the Soil, 216. 

— gathering Plants. 3127. 

— in Brewing. 140. 

— in the Soil. 55. 56, 781, 1668. 

— Market in 1910. 767. 
Nitrogenous Constituents of Beet- 
root. 381. 

— Manures. 33 to 38, 230, 231, 232, 
70, 71, 72, 414, 767, 771, 772, 
773. 775. 1138, 1392, 1393. 1692. 
1693, 1694, 1695, 2092, 2093, 
2514, 2515, 2516, 2517, 2518, 
3124, 3125, 3126, 3127, 3128. 

Nitrous Acid in the Living Cell. 2073. 

— in the Plant Cell. 2451. 
N'kam. 2616. 
Nodule Forming Bacteria. 1402. 2469. 

2502. 
Nodules of Legvuninoseae. 209, 216. 
Norway Spruce. 296. 
Nosema (Bee Disease). 1490, 2849. 
Nutrition of Plants. 206, 207, 37, 38, 

386, 387, 459, 1367, 1368, 1645, 

2450. 



Oaks. 294, 295, 1442, 1791. 

Oak Silk Worms. 548, 2233. 

Oat Malt. 944. 

Oats. 17, SO, 51, 89, 389, 430, 944, 

H29, 1133, 1400. 1713, 2505. 2545, 

2546. 
Oat Straw. 3188. 
Odorous Constituents of Certain Plants 

and Plant Metabolism. 2453. 



Oil Cake. 206, 898, 1439, 1817. 

— Coconut. 3187. 

— Colza. 896, 1235. 

— Cotton. 573, 949. 

— Cruciferous Plants. 181 6. 

— for lyive Stock. 1459. 

— Grape Seed. 518 

— Linseed. 869, 3187. 

— Microscopic Analysis. 181 7. 

— Peanut. 181 5. 

Oil from Boleko Seeds. 2614. 

— Colza. 947. 

— Coprah. 3219. 

— Cotton Seed. 573. 

— Grape Pips. 1866, 2251. 

— Hevea Brasiliensis. 107, 108. 

— E^apok. 2594. 

— Linseed. 144. 

— Olives. 338, 343, 571, 2427, 2891, 

3213- 

— Palms. 145, 337, 2892. 

— Peanuts. 2S88, 2889. 

— Poppies. 2250. 

— Soy Beans. 144, 1452. 

— Spindle Tree Seeds. 1752. 

— Sunflowers. 129. 

— Sweet Apricot Kernels. 2443. 

— Tobacco Seed. 1422. 

— Tomato Seeds. 2890. 

— Various Palms. 2892. 

— Xanthophyllum lanceolalum Seeds. 

2613. 
Oily Fruit of Guatemala. 1166. 
Oil Making. 343, 205, 571, 572, 1267, 

2249, 2888. 
Oil : Niger. 2250. 

— Olive. 338, 571, 2427, 2891, 3213. 

— Palms. 460, 461, 2609, 2892. 

— Seeds. 2616, 2617, 2618. 

— Seeds from French W. Africa. 2617. 
Old Fruit Trees : Pruning of. 82. 
Olea hiixifolia. 2669. 

Oleaster. 83. 

Oleo-distearines in Plants. 2444. 
Olive Growers Congress. 1628, 2427. 
Olive Oil. 338, 343, 571, 2427, 2891, 

3213- >i 



-38 



Olive Pomace. 951, 1267. 

— as Food ior Cattle. 205. 

— Detection of, in Pepper. 951. 
Olives. 338, 343, 571, 1266, 2427, 

2891, 3213. 

— Stones. 205, 

— Trees. 85. 86, 87, 275, 482, 854, 

1185, 1186, 1777, 1778, 2153, 
2154, 2155, 2156, 2394, 2666. 

Onguekoa Gore. 2614. 

Onions. 846, 1178, 1179, 1768. 

Ooze of the Thames. 2481. 

Opening of Buds in Sliiide and Sun- 
light. 3172. 

Opium. 2135. 

Opossimi Fanning in Australia. 
1491. 

Opuntia Tuna. 950. 

Orange Flowers. 2650. 

Oranges. 87, 163, 484. 1642,. 2650. 

Orchards. 82, 157, 724. 

Orchards. Windbreaks. 272. 

Organic Ma-nures. 33, 38, 230, 66, 
67, 68, 69, 412, 413, 769, 770, 774. 
1140, 1391, 1392, 1688, 1689, 1691, 
1692, 2089, 2090, 2509, 2510, 251 1, 
2512, 3125. 

Organic Mould. 753. 

Organisation of Agricultural Science. 
2501. 

Organisation of Cold Storage Transport 
2264. 

Osiers. 1205, 1445. 

Osmotic Pressure of the Soil. 51. 

Ostriches. 133, 134, 927, 928, 929, 
1482, 1483, 1484, 185T, 2231, 2837, 

3195- 
Ostrich Feathers. 929, 2837. 
Otto of Ro,ses. 2917. 
Over-Ripe Milk in Cheese-making. 

536- 
Oxidation of Hunms. 1668. 

— of Nitrogen. 771. 

— of Soil. 60. 
Oxydases. 14. 

Oxygen : Life without. 2464. 
Oysters ; Greeimess of 556. 



Packing Beetroots for Analysis. 2895. 

— Fruit and Vegetables. 146, 147, 

285. 379, 503. 2257, 3156, 3157. 
" Pairi " Mango. 1195. 
Palmaer Phosphate. 37. 
Palm : Areca. 873. 
Palma de Cogollo. 1746. 
Palm Fibre Industry. 1746. 

— Hat Industry. 342. 

— Nipa. 2884. 

— Oil. 145, 460, 461, 2609, 2892. 
Palms. 145, 337, 342. 501, 1206, 

1746, 2175, 2176. 

Palm : Sugar. 141 3. 

Panama Hats. 1746, 2913. 

Panama, Public Lands. 196. 

Panary Fermentation. 144. 

Panax ginseng. Myer. 3152. 

Panicum maximum. 2406. 

Panoramic Agricultural Map of Bel- 
gium. 1355. 

Paolo Amarello. 339. 

Papaya Fruit. 93, i437, 3100. 

Paper. 103. 257. 331. 

— from Bagasse. 257. 

— from Megass and Bamboo. 2910. 

— from Sugar Cane Fibre. 257. 

— from Wood Pulps. 103. 

— Mulberry. 2066. 

— Pulp. 1507, 2729, 2886, 2910. 

— Yarn. 952. 
Para-grass. 257. 

Paraguay : Native Bees. 2847. 
Parasites of Live Stock : Destruction 

by Fish and Ducks. 2754. 
Para tuberculous Enteritis in Cattle. 

2751- 
Parmesan Cheese. 529, 912, 1248. 

Parthenocarpy in Apples and Pears. 

2146. 
Partridges. 137. 
Pastiires. 61, 62, 63, 260. 448, 511, 

1728, 1729, 2108, 2165, 2476, 2502, 

2569, 2707. 
Pasteuriser (Depaty). 399. 
Pea : Angola. 2439. 
Peach. 2158, 2254, 2462, 2677. 



— 39 — 



Peanuts. 258, 1165, 1749, 1750, 
2128, 2607, 2608, 2618, 2888, 2889. 

Peanut Oil. 2888. 

Peanut Oil Cake. 181 5. 

Pea : Pigeon. 2439. 

Pear and Quince Graft Hybrid. 1374. 

Pear Tree 277, 164, 853, 1374. 

Peas. 209, 269, 11 20, 1180, 2556, 
2654. 

Peat. 285, 341, 65, 770, 1392,2 488, 
2489, 2921. 

— and Molasses as Fodder. 307. 

— Farm Yard Manure. 65. 

— Soils. 775, 1 144, 2385. 
Pecorino cheese. 316, 2807. 
Pelea madagascarica. 844. 
Pellagra. 21, 22, 23, 90, 376, 3099. 
Penetration of Frost in Soil. 218. 

— of Salts into Protoplasm 2068. 
Pepper. 76. 

Pepper Adulteration, of. 951, 2258. 
Peppermato, cross between Tomato 

and Capsicimi. 848. 
Peppermint. 146, 2448. 
Percolation Water. 221. 
Perennial Rice. 54, 802. 
Perfiune Plants. 271, 469, 1426. 
Perini Fibre, Hibiscus radiatus. 69. 
Periodicity in Plants. 2457. 
Permanent Improvements. 10, 190, 

2385, 2492. 
Peroxidases of Milk. 2792. 
Peroxidiastases in Seeds. 2447. 
Persea gratissima. 92, 2678. 
Persimmon. 2162. 
Petitgrain. 88, 2650. 
Fetter's Traction Fngine. 964. 
Phaseolus albomaculatus. 2439. 

— inamaenus. 2439. 

— lunatus. 2439. 

— Mungo. 2439. 
Phonolite. 77. 

Phosphates. 37. 38, 232, 233. 73, 
74, 75, 416, 776, 1 142, 1395, 1696, 
1697, 1698, 2519, 2520, 2521, 2522, 
2526, 2563. 

— Solubility in the Soil. 1672. 



Phosphoric Acid, Absorption bv Plants 

387. 

— and the Quality of Wine. 1862. 

— Influence in Brewing. 2248. 

— in the Soil. 58, 1384. 

— in Wheat and Flour. 3218. 
Phosphorites : Russian, Utilisation of. 

1394- 
Phosphorus in Beef. 126. 

— in Milk. 1245, 1246. 

— in the Nutrition of Animals. 1226, 

1228. 

— Utilisation by Plants. 716. 
Photo Synthesis. 15, 206, 382, 383, 

384, 2449. 

Physical Properties of Sandy Soils. 
2084. 

Physic Nut. 1091. 

Physiological Phenomena which ac- 
company the Fall of Leaves. 1650. 

Physiology of Animals, see Animal 
Physiology. 

Physiology of Plants., see Plant Phy- 
siology. 

Phjrtine. 14. 

Phylosterol in Soils. 758. 

Pianhy. 882. 

Piassava. 70. 

Picea Excelsa. 168. 

Picramnia Carpinterae Polak. 11 66. 

Pigeon Pea. 2439, 2715. 

Pigs. 313, 314, 348, 207, 208, 209, 
223, 224, 516, 895. 1233, 1458, 1829. 
2766, 2774. 

Pine : Aleppo. 1444. 

Pineapples. 92, 285, 476, 849, 1181, 
1429, 1772. 

Pineapple Soil. 1181. 

Pine : Jack. 1204. 

— Scrub. 271 1. 
Pines 95. 

— of Australia. 868. 
Pine : White. 1203. 

Pinus divaricata or Banksiana. 1204. 

— sylvestris. 290, 493, 494, i443- 

— virginiana. 271 1. 
Piraliazo. 2743. 



— 40 — 



Pitch used for Sterilising Beer Casks. 

2880. 
Piteira. 453. 
Plant Breeding. 1121, 1358. 

— Dispersal. 31 11. 

— Food Removed from Growing 

Plants by Rain or Dew. 1651. 

— Metabolism. 2071, 2453. 

— Nutrition. 206, 207, 37, 38, 386, 

387, 459, 1367. 1368, 1645, 2450. 

— Physiology. 205, 206, 35, 40, 42, 

383, 386, 1 108, 1363, 1368, 
1644, 1650, 1651, 2068, 2070, 
2071, 2072, 2448, 2453, 2457. 
3108, 3109. 

— Respiration. 208, 11 17. 
Plants : Nitrogen fixing. 3127. 
Plant Selection. 208, 392, 393, 395, 

742, 743, 1119, 1120, 1121, 1358, 
1370, 1371, 1373. 1374, 1375, 1652, 
1653, 1654, 1655, 2076, 2077. 2438, 
2459, 2460, 2461, 2462, 2463, 3111. 
Plants : Tannin. 106. 

— Watered with Saltwater. 2455. 
Pleuroius cornucopioides. 196. 
Ploughing. 271, 2940. 

— by Electricity. 150. 

— I^nd and Cutting Grain at Same 

Time. 2940. 
Ploughs., UO 273, 578, 579, 966, 

967. 
Plovers' Eggs. 1850. 
Plum Drying in. France. 2920. 
Plum Growing. 2160. 
Poa Compressa. 1821. 
Pod of Vicia Faba. 390. 
Poisonous Fungi. 118. 29. 
Polyculture. 1637. 
Pollen : Germination and Fertility of 

1118. 
Pollination : Cross 2463, 2602. 
Pomegranate. 3161. 
Pomelo. 88, 2676. 
Pompelmos. 88. 
Poplar. 297, 503, 3173. 
Poppy Oil. 2250. 
Pork. 314, 539, 540. 1233, 2766. 



Posidonia australis. 2599. 
Potash. 69, 777, 778, 803, 2095, 2523, 
3129. 

— from Feldspar. 2523. 

— Nitrification and Solubility. 2484. 

— Rendering it Soluble. 2484. 

— Residues as IVIanure. 777. 

— Solutions for Detection of Ger- 

minative Power of Certain Seeds. 
792. 

Potassivmi Sulphate. 778. 

Potato Alcohol. 809. 

Potatoes as Food for Horses. 118. 

Potato Drill. 151 4. 

Potatoes. 39. 55, 56, 57, 247, 248, 
306, 330, 102, 103, 104, 105, 395, 
444, 804, 805, 806, 807, 808, 809, 
895. 948, 971. 1145. 1652, 1812, 
2559. 2560, 2561. 

Potted Butter: Changes in. 911. 

Poultry. 132, 133, 318, 319, 243, 
542, 543, 544, 919, 920, 921, 922, 
923, 924, 926, 1252, 1253, 1480, 
1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 2226, 
2227, 2228, 2229, 2230, 2382, 2827, 
2828, 2829, 2830. 2833. 

Poultry Experiment Farm. 243. 

Pracol. 107. 

Prairie SoUs. 752. 

Precooling of Fniit. 2924. 2925. 

Premature Blooming of Sugar Beets. 
122. 

— Publication of Agricultural Expe- 

riments. 2501. 
Premivuns for Silk Worm Breeding. 

931- 
Premivmis for the Cultivation of Olive 

Trees m France. 2666. 
Preparation of the Soil without 

Ploughing. 3134. 
Prerefrigeration. 345, 2924, 2925. 
Preservation of Eggs. 544, 2834, 2835. 

— of Fruit. 2918, 2919, 2920, 2921, 

2922, 2923, 2924, 2925, 3156, 

3157- 

— of Hops. 567. 

— of Maize. 955. 



41 — 



Preservation of Meat. 124, 125, 314, 
1251, 1871, 2222, 2223, 2410, 2803, 
2812, 2813, 2814, 2815, 2816, 2817, 
2818, 2819. 

— of the Huia. 253. 
Preserved Olives. 1266. 
Presses. 974. 

Prickly Pear. 91, 282, 309, 2177. 

Primula Sinensis: Inheritance in. 2461. 

Priprioca. 77. 

Prolonged Exposure of the Wheat 
Crop to the Open Air. 94. 

Propagation of Mango. 2658. 

Proportion between Skin and Cotyle- 
dons in Peas. 11 20. 

Prosopis jttli flora. 174. 

Protection of Birds. 137, 251, 552, 
553, 1492. 1856, 2832. 2852, 2856, 

3035- 

— of Crops against Weather. 747. 

Protein. 736, 1643, 2904, 2927, 3186. 
Proteolysis in Cheese. 129. 
Protoplasm : Penetration of Salts 

into. 2068. 
Protozoa of the Soil. 2470, 2479. 
Provature Cheeses. 2807. 
Provolone. 2807, 2219. 
Pnuiing. 272, 279, 1774. 
Pnming of Old Fruit Trees. 82. 
Prussic Acid in Plants. 1360. 
Pseudo Strophantines. 2647. 
Psidium guyava. 339. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii. 170, 2712. 
Public Lands in Panama. 195. 
Pulse. 55, 148, 791, II 19, 1715, 

1716, 1717, 1718, 1719, 2105, 2263, 

2439. 2554, 2555, 2556, 2557, 2558, 

3138. 
Pumpkins : Feeding Value of. 2758. 
Pumps. 976. 

Punica granaium. 3161; 
Ptuguo. 113. 

Purification of Drinking Water. 408. 
Putrefactive Fennentation . 2466. 
Pyanng. 243. 

Pyrophosphates. 233, 74. 
Pyroplasmosis. 1805. 



Quebracho. 173. 
Quince. 1374. 



Rabbits. 2819. 

Radio Activity. 735, 2456. 

Radio Active Minerals in the Soil. 

2456. 
Radimn Emanations and Germin- 
ation. 735. 
Rain. 1126, 1138, 1651, 3106. 
Rain : Electrified Artificial. 2500. 
Raisin Industry 1481. 
Rake Roller for Rapid Tillage. 381. 
Ramie. 253, 254. 

Ranching and Dairy Farming. 228. 
Ranching in Rhodesia. 228. 
Raspberries. 152. 
Rattan and Sea Grass Fmniture in 

China. 954. 
Ready made Buildings. 587. 
Reana luxurians. 2567, 
Reclamation Service in the United 

States. 2492. 
Recognised Breeds and Pure-bred 

Animals (Regulations). 900. 
Reconstitution of vSwiss Vineyards. 

2660. 
Rectification of Alcoholic Liquids. 

2949. 
Red Qover. 1723. 

Red Silk-Cotton Tree. 103. 2726. 
Reforestation. 96, 290. 292. 863, 

2165, 2700, 2701, 2706. 

— and Truffles. 2748. 

— Experiments at Porto Rico. 292. 

— of Peaty Soils. 866. 
Refrigerated Meat. 2814, 2815, 2816. 
Refrigeration : Technique of. 576. 
Refrigerator Cars . 345, 1 5 1 1 . 

— New Camphor and Svdphurous 
Acid Refrigerator. 2926. 

— for Carriage of Agricultmal Pro- 
duce. 345. 

Regeneration of Phoresis. 491. 
Rendering Potash Soluble in the Soil. 
2484. 



42 



Rennet. 316. 

Rennet in the Manufacture of Em- 
mental Cheese. 2806. 

Repression of Adulterations and 
Frauds. 146, 3in, 342, 343, 896, 
898, 958, 959. 2258, 2259, 2260, 
2261, 2262, 2263. 2931, 2932, 
3221. 

— of Frauds in the Manure Trade 

in France. 2097. 
Reservoirs. 221. 

Residuary Waters. 568, 2220, 2886. 
Residues of Tobacco Culture : Utili- 
sation of. 840. 
Resin Collector. 104. 

— in the Distillery. 141. 
Resinous Wines of Greece. 1257. 
Resin, Rubber and Essential Oils. 2728. 
Resins, 104, 2724, 2725. 
Resistance to Fungoid Diseases : 

Wheat. 2456. 
Respiration of Plants. 208, 1117. 
Respiratory Calorimeter. 3185. 
Rest Period in Plants. 42. 
Rhizobia in the vSoil. 31 18. 
Rhizophora Mangle. 107 . 
Rhodes Grass. 68. 
Rice. 53, 54, 244, 245, 246, 97, 98, 

99, 100, loi, 257, 271, 442, 443, 

738, 801, 802, 1148, 2104, 2513, 

2551. 2552, 3137. 
Rice-fields. 271, 938, 1093, 2513. 
Rice in Brewing. 257. 

— Japanese. 801. 

— Straw. 54. 

Rick-Mould Waggon : Bajac's. 973. 

River Water : Storage of. 1678. 

Road Side Fruit Trees. 2657. 

Roatan, Bananas, 2595. 

Robinia. 171, 870. 

Rocky Mc'untain vSpotted P'ever Tick. 

2425- 
Royal Agricultural Society's Show at 

Norwich, England. 3184. 
Royal Committees in Hvmgary for 

Agricultural Advice. 186. 



Roos' Zymogen. 325. 

Root Crops. 55. 56. 57, 246, 247, 248, 

2562. 
Root Nodules of Leguminoseae. 1402. 
2468, 2469. 

— Nodules of Myrica gale. 2468. 

— Residues : Manure Value of. 769. 
Roots : Comparative Feeding Value. 

of 1811. 

Roots of Plants. 733, 769, 1368, 1645, 
1646, 2468. 

Root Secretions. 1646. 

Roots: Selective Power of 206. 

Ropy milk. 127. 

Roquefort Cheese. 1250. 

Rose I/aurel. 2647. 

Rosemary. 1172. 

Roses, 419, 477, 1763, 2141, 2917. 

Rotation of Crops in the United States. 
422. 

Rothamsted Expermient Station. 
2057. 

Rubber. 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 
113, 114, 115, 116, 298, 299. 300, 
301, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 
186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 391, 504, 
505. 506, 507, 508, 509, 874, 875, 
876, 877, 878, 879, 880, 881, 882. 
883, 884, 885, 959, 979, 1094, 1210, 
1211, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1216, 
1217, 1218, 1219, 1220, 1221, 1222, 
1448, 1449, 1450, 1451, 1452, 1626, 
1797, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 
1803, 2053, 2180, 2181, 2182, 2183, 
2184, 2185, 2186, 2187, 2188, 2189, 
2190, 2191, 2192, 2193, 2194, 2728, 
2729, 2730, 2731. 2732. 2733, 2734, 
2735. 2736. 2737, 2738, 2739, 2740, 
2741, 2742, 2743, 2744, 2745, 2746, 
2916. 2951, 3178, 3179, 3180, 3181. 

Rubber and Teak Forests. 2180. 

— Commission of German Colonial 

Committee. 1626. 

— Exhibition : Second International, 

in London 191 1. 2053. 

— Ficus: Slip Experiments. 12 15. 



- 43 — 



— Forests in the Dutch Kast In- 

dies. 2169. 

— Substitute. 2916. 

— Substitute from Soy Bean Oil. 

1452. 

Rumanian Soils. 1130. 

Rural Hygiene 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 376, 
720, 1093, 2424, 2426, 3099. 

Rural Schools in Spain. 1103. 

Russian Bureau of Agricultural Me- 
teorology. 1098. 

Russian Phosphorites : Utilisation of. 

1394- 
Rye. i7 , 243, 1664, 2102, 3094. 

iSaccharates of Lime in Sterilized 

Milk. 237. 
[Saccharification of Starch. 1377. 
[Saccharine. 342. 
[Saffron. 470, 845. 

Sainfoin. 1725. 

Sale of Perishable Foods. 146. 
f Saline Matter : Diffusion of, through- 
out Plant Organs. 2069. 

Salmon. 138, 1494, 1858, 1859, 2864. 
.Salmon Packing in Alaska. 1859. 
\Salino Salvelinus. 936. 

Salmonideae. 138, 936, 3197. 

Salpetre : Toxis Action on Cattle. 119. 
[Salts Capable of Hydrolysis : their 

Action on Plants. 2074. 
'Salt Soils. 1 148. 

— Water : Watering Plants with. 

2455- 
Sandal Wood. 147. 

Sandy Soils. 2084. 

Sanitary Cow Stalls. 1270. 

Sanitary Privy. 2424. 

Sann Hemp. 115. 

Sanseveria Quisaso. 1409. 

Saponification of Oils, Determination 
of Saponification Value. 2893. 

Saponin Plants. 380. 

Sardine Oil. 1508. 

Sausage Meats. 241, 539, 1478. 

Saving of Labour by the Use of Ma- 
chines. 1512. 



Saw dust Cakes. 103. 

Scamorze. 2807. 

Scammony Resin. 2646. 

Scatol in Plants. 2444. 

Scenery Preservation in New Zealand. 

96. 
Schonner's method of Cultivating 

Cereals. 1707. 
School: Agricultural in Yucatan. 1104- 

— and Home gardening. 203. 

— for Irrigation Foremen. 220. 
Schools : Housekeeping. 3101. 

— of Agriculture : Winter. 1631. 

— of Fruit Packing. 379. 

— Rural in Spain. 1103. 
Scorpiurus siibvillosa. 513. 
Scotch Fir. 290, 493, 494, 1443. 
Scouring Lands of Somerset, England. 

24. 1487. 

Scour in New-Bom Calves. 2750. 

Scrap Rubber. 113. 

Scrub Pine. 271 1. 

Scuppemong Vine. 2866. 

Sea Island Cotton. 2579. 

Sea Route between Siberia and Wes- 
tern Europe. 2954. 

Sea Salt. 70, 78, 79, 779. 

Seasoning of Timber. 2719. 

Sea Weed. 340, 69. 

Sea-Weeds : Analysis. 1391. 

Seed Beds for WTieat. 84. 

Seed : Clover. 2942. 

— Control in Canada. 2536. 

— Control Stations in Hvmgary. 236. 

— Disinfection. 236, 238, 426, 795. 

— Flax. 736, 2440. 

— Hevea. 1753. 

Seedling Inarch and Nurse Plant Me- 
thods. 2658. 

vSeeds. 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 236, 
238, 239, 240, 88, 89, 90, 424, 425, 
426, 427, 428, 429, 789, 790, 791, 

. 792, 793. 794. 795. 1105. 1398, 1711. 
2059, 2067, 2088, 2531, 2532, 2533, 

2534. 2535. 2536. 

— Beet Root. 120. 

— Constituents of. 2088. 



44 



— Selection. 45, 239, 240. 

— Hay : Manuring of. 2506. 

— Mate. 2626. 

— New Drier for. 344. 

— of Ash Tree. 2533. 

— of Pine and Fir. 95. 

— Oil Seeds from French W. Africa. 

2617. 

— mider the Influence of Anaesthe- 

tics. 2532. 
Selection of Barlej'. 1369 

— of Beets. 44, 394, 1653. 

— of Cacao. 73. 

— of Cattle. 1236, 2458. 

— of Cereals and Potatoes. 1653. 

— of Coffee. 71. 

— of Cotton. 2572. 

— of Maize. 2502. 

— of Plants, see Plant Selection. 

— of Seeds, 45, 239, 240. 

— of Wheat. 45, 744, 1122. 
Selective Power of Roots. 206. 

— Power of Vegetable Cells in Pre- 

sence of Dextrine and Levulose. 
1108. 

Separators. 275, 1275. 

Sericulture, see Silkworms and Silk- 
worm Breeding. 

Serotherapy of Scour in Calves. 
2750. 

Sesamum indicutn. 1414, 2606. 

Sewage. 33. 67, 766, 11 40, 1376, 2089. 
2090, 3125. 

— Beds. 2079. 

— Deposits. 33, 

— Disposal. 766. 

— Sludge. 3125. 
Shaddock. 88. 

Shade : Effect on Evaporation from 
Soil. 404. 

Shade-Trees. 872, 873, 2129, 

Shank-Noo. (Citrus Hystrix). 276. 

vSheep. 122, 123, 310, 312, 221, 222, 
242, 512, 521, 524, 904, 905, 909, 
1241, 1247, 1463, 1464, 1826, 1827, 
1828, 2199, 2768, 2769, 2770, 2771, 
2772, 2773. 3193. 



Sheep Breeding by Mendelian Me- 
thods. 905. 

— Leicester. 1241. 

— Suffolk. 1827. 
Shield Buddmg. 857. 
vShorthoms : Irish. 121. 
Shrinkage of Maize in Storage. 2103. 
Skimmed Milk. 128, 315, 3202. 
Skins. 918, 1841, 3211. 

Silica. 761. 

Silicate of Lime. 207. 

Silicate of Soda for the Preservation 
of Eggs. 2835. 

Silk and Silk wonns : 134, 135, 320, 
321, 322, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 
548, 549, 1485, i486, 1854, 2235, 
2236, 2237, 2238, 2839, 2840, 2841. 

— Artificial. 248, 1854, 291 1. 

— Fabrics, Inspection of 1509. 

— produced by Borocera Madagascar- 

iensis. 2838. 

— Production. 246, 247, 2238. 

— Quality of and Food cf Silk- 
worms. 2840. 

— Tussor, 2842. 

Silk Wonn Breeding in Various Coun- 
tries : 

— Austria Hungar3\ 930, 1853, 2234. 

— Brazil. 931. 

— British India. 1254. 

— Central Africa. 549. 

— China. 1488. 

— Corea 321. 

— Europe. 1485. 

— France, i486, 2233, 2843. 

— Italy. 1852, 2844. 

— Japan. 322, 1485, 2844. 

— Madagascar. 134. 

— Persia. 547. 

— Roumania. 1487. 

— Russia in Asia. 321, 546. 

— Russia in Europe. 2236, 3196. 

— the Philippines. 2845. 

— Tonkhig. 134, 135. 

— Turkey in Asia. 2237. 

— Turkey in Europe. 545. 
Silkworms : Carpinese. 244. 



45 



Silkworms, Oak. 548, 2233. 

— Toussah. 321. 

Silos. 269, 816, 1155, 181, 2952, 3225. 

Silos for Cereals. 269. 

Sisal Hemp. 68, 21 19, 2120. 

Slaughter-Houses. 915, 1477, 1840. 

Slaughtering Cattle. 121, 1840. 

vSlimy Milk. 127. 

Slip Kxperiments with Rubber Ficus. 
1215. 

Smoking of Rubber. 2194, 2745, 2951. 

Smudging. 157. 

vSnail, Injurious to Cotton. 2082. 

Sodiimi Selenite. 45. 

Soil. 22, 23. 24, 26. 213, 214. 215, 216, 
217, 218, 223, 225, 53, 54, 55, 
56, 58. 59, 60, 61, 83. 385, 402, 406, 
407, 498, 751, 753, 754, 755, 759, 
761, 762, 781, 793, 867, 1131, 1132, 
1 133. 1 144, 1384, 1386, 1668, 1669, 
1670, 1672, 1673, 2078, 2083, 2084, 
2476, 2479, 2480, 2481. 2482. 2487, 
2488, 2489, 2530, 2682, 3112, 3113, 
3118. 

— Analysis. 23, 216, 217, 50 51, 52, 

57, 401, 402, 756, 757, 758, 1666, 

1673, 2477, 2484, 2486, 3114, 

3131- 

— Bacteriology. 58, 401, 1666, 2478. 

— Bacteriology in 1910. 1666. 

— Black. 214, 61. 

— Chemistry in 1910. 1666. 

— Culture : 84, 3134. 

— Fertility. 31, 215, 218, 1383, 1667, 

1674, 2475, 2478, 2502, 31 15. 

— for Pineapples. 11 81. 

— in Greenhouses. 26. 

— Investigation : Tanks for. 407. 

— Moisture. 403, 404, 405, 760, 867, 

1133, 1386, 1399, 1671, 2167, 
2483, 2454, 2530. 

— of Rovunania. 11 30. 

— Oxidation. 60. 

— Protozoa. 2470, 2479. 

Soils : Alkaline. 1673, 1675, 2486. 

— Alluvial. 3173. 

— Clayey. 2485. 



Soils, lyoamy. 2485. 

— of Vineyards. 213. 

— Salt. 1 148. 

— Sandy. 405, 2488. 
Soil Sickness. 218. 
Soils : Volcanic. 2484. 
Soil Temperature. 1670. 

— Tillage. 84, 3134. 
Solanaceae. 743. 
vSolanaceous Drugs. 2644. 
Solanum dulcamara. 2645. 
Solanum Maglia. 2560. 

Soluble Carbohydrates in Asparagus 
Roots. 737. 

Soot. 774. 

Sorghmn. 243, 257, 440, 799, 800, 
2549. 2550. 

Sorghum saccharalum. 2549. 

Sorghum vulgare. 2550. 

Sour Cream. 2809. 

Sows. 224, 2774. 

Soya Bean Oil. 144. 1452. 

Soy-beans. 55, 144, 1452, 171 7, 1718, 
1869, 2105, 2554, 2555, 2618, 3138. 

Spinach. 79. 

Spindle Tree. 1752. 

Spirits of Turpentine. 1446. 

Spotted Fever Tick. 2425. 

Sprayers. 976. 

Spraying Machines. 584, 976. 

Spruce. 168, 169, 492, 493, 2709. 

Stacked Straw : Variations in Com- 
position of. 437. 

Stallions : Licensing of. 2763. 

Starch. 329. 330. 568, 808, 1109, 1265, 
1720, 2909. 

vStarch. Action of Diastase upon. 

1377- 
State Plantations in Belgian Congo. 

15- 
Steam Ploughs. 578. 
Steer Feeding. 1236. 
Steffen's Scalding Process in Sugar 

Factories. 3216. 
vSteppes. 3, 764, 2498, 2712. 
Sterility in Animals due to Fatness. 

892. 



46 



Sterilisation of Water. 16, 210, 408. 
Sterilizing Beer Casks with Pitch. 

2880. 
Stilozobium deeringianum. 2557. 
Stimulating and Toxic Action of 

Chromium Compounds. 1704. 
Stimulation of Air by Radium E^ma- 

nations. 735. 
Stinging Tree of Formosa. 2717. 
Stipa tenacissima. 1745. 
Stock-breeding in Germany. 2384. 
Stock Plant of the Potato. 103. 
Stocks: American Vine. 1106, 2151, 

2660. 
Stone Gathering Machines. 344. 
Storage of River Water. 1678. 
Storing Moisture in the Soil, 83, 1385, 
Straw. 47. 54, 437, 11 39, 2914. 
Strawberries 151, 474, 1428, 1770, 

1771. 2655, 2656. 
Strawberry Clover. 1153. 
Straw : Caraway. 78. 

— Oat 3188. 

— Rice. 64. 

— Wlieat 1641, 1814. 
Stud Farms. 312. 

Study of Agriculture in the Tro- 
pics. 12. 
Substitutes for Cotton. 11 60. 
Sucking Calves : Feeding of. 306. 
Sucrose in Grapes. 2442, 2665. 
Sudd. 179. 
Suffolk Sheep. 1827. 
Sugar Beets, see Beet Roots. 
Sugar Beet Crops. 123. 

— Cross Fertilisation with Mangels. 

121. 

— Pulps. 64. 

Sugar-Cane. 142, 256, 257, 126, 262, 
455. 456. 457. 834. 1407. 1412, 2125, 
2126, 2247, 2400, 2602, 2603, 2604, 
2605, 2899. 

Sugar-Cane as Forage, no, 2568. 

— Wine. 2247. 

Sugar Contents of Beets: Action of 

Fertilizers on. 832. 
Sugar Content of Oranges. 1642. 



Sugar Content of Selected Beet Roots. 

125. 

— Crops. 70, 71, 255, 256, 257, 141 3, 

2125, 2127. 

— Imports and Kxports in the United 

States. 2903. 

— Industry. 143, 262, 2895, 2896, 

3216. 

— Industry in Brazil. 1863. 

— British Guiana. 261. 

— British India,. 2899. 

— Cuba. 142. 

— England. 2897. 

— Formosa. 2901. 

— France. 564. 

— Java. 261, 2252. 

— Liberia. 260. 

— Mauritius. 2126. 

— Natal. 141 2. 

— Panama. 141. 

— Peru. 142, 328, 2902. 

— Porto-Rico. 2125. 

— the Philippines. 328. 

— the United States. 141 1, 

1864, 2898, 2903. 
Sugar Palm. 141 3. 

Sulphate of Anmionia. 245. 70, 71, 
2489, 3110. 

— of Copper. 31 10. 

— of Manganese. 1701, 3 no. 

— of Potash. 778. 

Sulphide of Carbon : its Effect on 
Germination of Wheat. 2531. 

Sulphur. 1 145, 3130. 

Sulphure Dioxide in Wine-making. 
1498. 

Sulphur Dioxide in White Wines. 139. 

Sulphuric Acid in Soils. 3131. 

Sulphurous Acid in White Wines. 

2873- 
Stilphurous Acid in Wine-making. 326, 

2050. 
Sumach. 106. 

Simflower. 259, 128, 129, 1655. 
Semflower Oil. 129 
Superphosphates : Importation into 

Australia. 418. 



— 47 — 



Suspected Poisonous Plant in New 

Zealand. 2760. 
Swedes. 2563. 
Sweet Apricot Kernels : Composition. 

2443- 
Symptomatic Anthrax or Blackleg. 

1456. 

Synthesis : Chlorophyllian. 382. 

— of Asparagin in Plants. 2452. 

— Photochemical. 384, 2449. 
System of Soil Culture. 84. 

Table Grape Vine Hybrids. 160. 
Tafi. 1 146. 

Tamarinds in Kamerun. 1423. 
Tanks for Soil Investigation. 407. 
Tannin. 106, 107. 173, 174, 499, 871, 

1208, 1792, 1793. 1794. 2395, 2722, 

2723. 3175- 
Tannin Acacias in Sicily. 499. 
Tanning in Australia. 2934. 
Tanning Substances. 1208, 3175. 
Tan Plants. 174, 499, 871, 1208, 1792, 

1793. 1794. 2722, 2723, 3175, 3176. 
Taro. 330. 1720. 
Tapia. 2715. 
Tapping Rubber Plants. 299, 884, 

1209, 1216, 1450. 
Tarabagan-fur Trade. 2855. 

Tea. 73, 263, 130, 464, 1167, 1756, 
1757, 1758, 2131, 2621, 2622, 2623. 
Teak. 2169, 2178. 

— and Rubber Forests. 2180. 

— Forests in the Dutch Kast In- 
dies. 2169. 

Teart I^and. 24, 2487. 

Technical Mycology. 1636. 

Tectonia grandis. 2169. 

Teff Grass of Abyssinia. 2107. 

Temperature of Soil. 1670. 

Tenches : Red Plague in. 2862. 

Teosinte. 43. 

Tephrosia Candida. 2091. 

Terpenes. 2916. 

" Terrano " Wine. 560. 

Thames Ooze. 2481. 



Thick and Thin Sowing. 797, 798. 

Thomas Slag 75, 417. 

Tlueshing Machines. 2941, 2942. 

Tilimbar. 245. 

Tillage, Influence of, on Natural Fauna 
of Soil. 227. 

Tilling Land with Dynamite. 2529. 

Timber, 95, 101, 102, 103, 104, 342, 
166, 168, 172, 173, 500, 501, 864, 
865, 1207, 1440. 1784, 2178, 2718, 
2719, 2720, 2721, 3171. 

Timothy, Resistant to Disease. 2077. 

Tin Salts in Canned Foods. 146. 

Timothy for Dairy Cows. 118. 

Tympanitis in Cattle 303. 

Type of Kernel in Wheat. 744. 

Tobacco. 74, 75, 264, 266, 267, 68, 
136, 137, 270, 574, 840, 842, 1099, 
1168, 1169, 1170, 1416, 1417, 1418, 
1419, 1420, 1421, 1759. 1760, 2133, 
2134, 2256, 2628, 2629, 2630, 2631, 
2632, 2633. 

Tobacco Juice. 75. 

Tobacco Oil. 1422. 

Toddy Palm. 501. 

Togo. Plantations in. 10. 

Tomatoes. 264, 149, 420, 471, 472, 
1767, 2890, 3151. 

Tomato Seed Oil. 2890. 

Top Dressing with Nitrogen Ferti- 
lizers. 1605. 

Torula Bogoriensis rubra. 212. 

Touareg Cheese. 2808. 

Toussah Silk Worm. 321. 

Toxic Action ot Saltpetre on Cattle. 
119. 

— Action of Vegetable Fssences. 734. 

— Qualities of Colza Oil Cakes. 1235. 
Traction Engines. 963, 964, 1876, 2943. 
Traction Wmch : Bajac's. 272. 
Trade and Commerce in Kctiador. 196. 
Training Dairymen. 2062. 
Training Farm for Elephants. 1242. 
Transatlantic Steamer with Cold Stor- 
age Plant. 1268. 

" Transhumance " 122. 



-48- 



Ti anspiration of Plants. 1647, 1648. 
Transportability of the Phosphoric. 

Acid of the Soil. 58. 
Transport by Pack Animals. 2955. 

— of Fish Spawn. 1495. 

— of Milk and Dairy Produce. 1244, 

1511. 
Traumatic Action and Production of 

New Foims of Plants. 1371, 1372. 
Travelling Instructors in the Gold 

Coast-Colony. 204. 
Tree Felling. 102. 

— Plantations in Great Britahi. 95. 
Treub (Biography). 13. 

Trial Milkings. 1832. 

Trifolium alexandrinum. 61, 812, 2566. 

Tfifolium fragiferum. 1153. 

Tropical Diseases. 20. 

Truffles. 302. 197, 888. 1453, 2748. 

— and Reforestation. 2748. 
Tubercle Bacilli in Butter and Cheese. 

1837- 

— in Milk. 2780, 2781. 

Tuberculosis. 889, 1837, 2196, 2780, 

2781. 
Tuna Cheese. 950. 
Turf-cutting Plough. 150. 
Turkestan Lucerne. 445, 811, 11 51. 
Turkeys. 319. 
Tiunips. 1649. 2775. 
Turpentine. 105, 177, 178, 1446, 

2724, 2725. 
Tuskegee Institute and Agricultural 

Development of the Negro. 1343. 
Tussor Silk. 2842. 

Ultrafiltration. 2950. 
Ultra-violet Rays. 16, 210, 41, 190, 
562, 771, 1 109, 1364, 1366, 2065. 

— Action on Diastases. 2065. 

— Nitrification by. 771. 

— on Fermenting Wines. 562. 
Underground Water. 2087. 

Union of Agricultviral Experiment 
Stations in Austria. 1096, 1352. 

United States Department of Agri- 
culture : Growth. 2055. 



" Unterlip " Machine for the Cultiv- 
ation of Potatoes. 968. 

Useful Fibres in Cuba. 1409. 

Utilization of Food influenced by 
Litter. 510. 

— Old Mills. 2953. ^ 

— Timber. 1784. 

— of Waste Products. 251 1. 

— of Waterfalls. 2490. 

— of Wood Waste : 259, 502. | 



Vaccination against Abortion in Cows. 

199. 
Vaccinium corymbosum. 475. 
Vaccinium Macrocarpon. 270. 
Valdarno Fowls. 2230. 
Valloton Auto-mower and Agricul- 
tural Motor. 1 51 7. 
Valonea. 2395. 
Valuation of Forage : Kellner's Table. 

1809. 
Value of Fodders : New Estimation 

of. 1234. 
Vanilla. 1173, 1425, 2138, 2641. 
Variation as Liixiited by Association 

of Characters. 2459. 
Variation in Peach Tree. 2462. 
Variation in Plants. 395, 741, 743, 

1371, 1372, 1373, 1374, 1652, 2076, 

2077, 2458, 2459, 2462, 2463. 
Variation of Races and Molecular 

Transformations in the Vegetable 

Kingdom. 2448. 
Variety of Crops in the State of vSao 

Paulo, Brazil. 1637. 
Vegetable Caseine of Soy Bean. 1869. 

— Cell. 1363, 2073, 2451. 

— Ivory. 2714. 

Vegetables. 90, 163, 11 76, 1182, 
1427, 1766. 

— Drying in Germany. 2918. 

— see also Market Gardening. 
Vegetable Spimge. 2140. 
Vegetarianism. 145. 2927, 2929. 
Velvet Bean. 2558. 
Verbascose. 205. 



49 



Veterinary Institutions of Japan. 

2430. 
Vicia Faha ly. 390. 
Vine Canes as Fodder. 3189. 

— Hybrids, Direct Producers. 84. 

— Nurseries. 158, 2149. 

— Ridge Hoes. 969. 

Vines. 83, 84. 85. 273. 274. 159, 160, 
161, 396, 480, 851, 852, 1106, 1184, 
1431, 1434, 1775. 2050, 2148, 2659, 

3153- 
Vine Stocks for Dry Calcareous Soils. 

1433- 

— for Grafting. 1106, 21 51, 2660. 
Vigna Bean. 2439. 

Vigna catjang. 229. 1439. 
Vigna sinensis. 229. 
Violets. 271. 

Virulence of Lactic Ferments in De- 
jections of Milch-Cows. 533. 
Viscous Bread. 2908. 
Viticulture in Various Cotuitries : 

— Argentina. 83, 2152. 

— British India. 2661. 

— Hungary. 2150. 

— Mexico. 1776. 

— Peru. 2662. 

— Russia. 2260. 
Voandzeia Poissoni. 79, 2128. 
Voandzeia subterranea. 79, 2128. 
Volcanic Soils. 2484. 

Walnuts. 281, 498, 2161. 
Warburgia stuhlmanni. 1765. 
Wars. 2716. 

Water: Carriage of Samples for Ana- 
lysis. 1 1 23. 

— Drinking. 408, 2426. 
Waterfalls. 2490. 

— Energy from. 222. 

— Utilisation of. 2490. 
Water-Finder : Automatic. 1879. 
Water Finding. 1879, 2499. 
Watering Milk. See Milk : Adulter- 
ations. 

— of Plants with Salt Water. 
2455- 



Watering Troughs. 277, 2767. 
Water in the Soil. 83, 1385. 

— Irrigation. 409, 2455. 

— Percolation. 221. 

— Power. 222. 

— Rain. 1138 

— reqxaired for Crops. 1706, 2454. 

— Residuary. 568, 2220, 2886. 

— Sewage. 67, 1140, 1376, 2089. 

— Sterilisation of 16, 210, 408. 

— Undergroimd, 1676, 1879, 2087. 

— Works. 28. 

Wattle Bark. 1794, 2722. 

— in Sicily. 499. 

Wax : Candelilla. 117, 2747. 

— from Sugar Cane. 262. 

— Plants. 117, 262, 2747. 
Weather Forecasts. 49, 746, 2473. 

— hi the United Kingdom in 1911. 

2472. 

— Protection of Crops against. 747. 
Weed Exterminator. 2945. 

— Extirpator. 15 16. 

Weeds in Relation to Soils. 1674. 

WTieat. 43, 45, 46, 143, 239. 240, 241, 
242, 333, 336, 337, 84, 89, 91, 92. 93. 
94. 263, 430, 431, 569, 744, 760, 
796, 1122, 1228, 1386, 1398, 1399, 
1703, 1708, 2099, 2100, 2456, 2537, 
2538. 2539, 2540, 2542, 2904. 2905, 
2906,2907,3217,3218. 

Wheat Bran. 2757. 

Wheaten Flour. 143, 144, 333, 336, 
337, 263, 569, 1 122, 1503, 1867, 
1868, 2402, 2542, 2904, 2905, 
3217, 3218. 

Wheat Exhibition, Marseilles. 796. 

— Gluten. 2904, 3217. 

— Straw. 1641, 1814. 
Whey. 913, 1458. 

— as Poultry Food. 319. 

— of Fat Cheeses. 315. 
White Mulberr5^ 2840. 
White Pine. 1203. 

Wild Rice in Cliina. 2503. 
Wild Silk. 549. 
Willows. 1445. 



— 50 



Wind. 83, 272, 47, 483, 749, 750> 

2082. 
Windbreaks. 83, 272, 483, 750. 
Wind Erosion. 749, 
Wind Motors (Electric). 962. 
Wine. 138. 139, 325, 326, 256, 557, 

55^' 559, 563. 940. 942, 943. 1497. 
1498, 1499, 1861, 1862, 2050, 2242, 
2246, 2260, 2467, 2865, 2867, 2868, 
2870, 2872, 2873, 2874, 2875, 2876, 
2877, 3212, 3213. 

— Jerez or Sherry. 1496. 

— Madeira. 941, 1258. 

— Making in North Carolina. 2866. 

— Malaga. 852. 

— Bordeaux. 939. 

— Resinous -Wines of Greece. 1257. 

— Russia. 2260. 

— " Terrano ".560. 

Winter Cereals. Damp and Frost 

upon. 1663. 
Winter Schools of Agriculture in 

France. 1631. 
Wobum Experimental Farm. 2504. 
Wool. 123, 131, 312, 317, 512, 541, 

917, 1479, 1479, 1734, 1841, 2224, 

2225, 2821, 2822, 2823, 2824, 2825, 

3193, 3209, 3210. 

— Morphological Microscopical Study 
of. 242. 

Wood. 101, 102, 103, 342, 166, 171, 
172, 173, 259, 500, 502, 503, 865. 
1440, 1784, 2178. 

— Alcohol. 2885. 
Wooded lyands. 167, 867. 
Wood Pulp. 1508. 

— Pulps as Textile Material. 952. 

— Pulp for Paper. 103. 

— Waste Alcohol. 259. 

— Waste. Utilisation of. 259, 502. 



Woody Growth of Forests. 166. 
World's Nitrogen Market in 1910. 
767. 

Xanthophyllum lanceolatum Seeds Oil. 

2613. 
Xoan. 2129. 
Xograph : Instnunent for Testing 

Eggs. 1481. 

Yangtse River. 1084. 
Yeast. 16, 306, 45, 1379. 

— (Beer). 306, 519, 1124, 1262, 1263, 

2928. 

— (Dry) as Food for Men and Ani- 

mals. 306, 203, 1263, 2928. 

— in Wine Making. 2245, 3214. 
Yield of Roadside Fruit Trees. 

2657. 
Ylang-ylang. 4, 77. 
Yuzu. 2503. 

Zapupe. 1744. 

Zea Mays (Inheritance of Characters). 
2460. 

Zea Mays D. 43. 

Zebra Hybrid. 119, 1823. 

Zebus in Germany. 2765, 3191. 

Zehetmayr's Cylinder Harrow. 1272. 

Zehetmayr's Method of Cereal Cul- 
ture. 1707. 

Zygadenus intermedius (Analysis of).. 

739- 

Zikmantel's Method of Cereal Cul- 
ture. 1707. 

Zymase, Extraction by Maceration. 

398. 
" Zymogen " : Roos. 32S. 
Zinc in the Nutrition of Plants. 1362. 
Zizania latifolia. 2503. 



B) INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



Aaronsohn a. 5. 

Abbate 2629. 

Abd'ir Rahman Khan vide Howard. 

Abriutin, A. B. 310. 

Achalme, Pierre 2064. 

Adams, Frank 1387. 

Adams, R. I/. 1864. 

Advisse-Desruisseaux P. 77. 855. 

Aery and Monroe, N. Work 1343. 

Agugliaro, H. G. 471. 

Agulhon, H, 38. 

Aiken, G. 296. 

Alb, B. 61 

Alban 2096. 

Alibisetti vide Decoppet, 

Alice, G. 97. 

Allard, H. A. 2571. 

AUdridge, T. J. 101. 

AUemann, O. and Muller, W. 2806. 

Allen 920. 

Allport, W. A. D. and Davenport T. Y. 

W. C. 2947. 
Alpera 1103. 

Alsberg, C. 1,. vide Black. 
Althausen, Iv. 392. 
Alvarez, T. 59, 66. 
Alway, F. J. 1402. 
Alway, F. J. Files B. K. and Pincknej^ 

R. M. 216. 2477, 
Alwood, B. 2442. 
Ammann, Paul 802. 
Ammann, Paul vide Henry Y. and also 

VuiUet. 
Ampola, G. 1694. 
Andersen, B. R. 2645. 
Anderson, G. 2221. 
Anderson, I^aroy 1634. 



Anderson, Wilgress C. 488. 

Andouard vide Bussard and also Gouin. 

Andre, G. 11 10, iiii, 2069. 

Andrlik, K., Bartoz.V. and Urban, J. 121. 

Andrlik, K. and Urban, J. 459. 

Apostol 442. 

Apsit, J. and Brocq-Rousseau 3217. 

Apsit, J. and Gain B. 2447, 2532. 

Arbos, Ph. 185. 

Arche, Jose Vicente 717. 

Arezzo, G. 513. 

Armand vide Maurel. 

Armstrong 719. 

Armstrong, H. F. and Armstrong, F. 

F. 1644. 
Arnold, Jos. A. 194. 
Aronssohn, F. 136. 
Athanasof, Nicolau 1825. 
Attwell, J. S. 21 15. 
Atwood, H. 2226. 
Aubert, 243, 268. 
Aubrunner, J. 527. 
Aufray, M. 1138, 
Augustin, 797. 
Austead, R. D. 2739. 
Austed, and Hewett. 1513. 
Auzinger 136. 
Aviragnet 2201. 
Axeiro, E. 1621. 
Azimonti, B. 431. 

Babcock, S. M. 130. 
Baclesseanu, A. 1468. 
Bader. 1205. 
Badermann, G. 141. 
Badermann 1803. 
Badoux, H. 293. 



— 52 



Bagnall, G. 3205. 

Bailey, C. J. 217. 

Bailhache, G. vide Riviere, G. 

Baillaud, E. 461, 796. 

Baird, R. O. and Francis, C. K. 799. 

Baker, R. T. and Smith, H. G. 868. 

Bakonyi, Paul 782. 

Ball, Carleton R. 800. 

Ballou H, A. 1060, 1345. 

Bamber, M. K. and Lock, R. H. I2i6. 

Band, R. 465. 

Baragiola, W. J . vide Heide, P. v. 

Barakov, P. 385. 

Barbut, G. 276. 

Bardy 232. 

Barker. P. B.T. and Hillier, Florian V. 
2883. 

Barr, Hugill. 3152. 

Barret 1431, 2823. 

Barrett, O. W. 2692. 

Barrett, Ch. F. 1344. 

Barrett, J. and Jones, J. 481, 489. 

Barrier 1477. 

Bartlie, E. A. 204, 1357. 

Bartlett, J. M. 919. 

Bartmann, Henry 233. 

Bartoz, V. vide Andrlik. 

Bastide, A. 35. 

Bates, A. P. vide Martin T. C. 

Bateson, W. 2458, 2501, 2572. 

Baud, P. 830. 

Bauer, H. 99. 

Batunann 82. 

Baumann, A. 11 44. 

Bayer, Alex. 33. 

Bay ley, CUve 2909. 

Beattie, W. R. 1749, 1768, 2653. 

Beatty, M. J. 2767. 

Beau, M. 233. 

Beck, E. 266. 

Becker 312. 

Becquerel, P. 1371. 

Bedini, B. 853. 

Beger, C. vide Morgen A. 

Bellet, Daniel <$. 

Belli, B. 261. 

Bellucci, A. and Valbusa, T. 1164. 

Beltzer, F. J. G. 1869, 2842. 



Belz, J. O. vide Briggs. 
Ben Danon 321 1. 
Bendandi, N. 2540. 
Benini, T. 11 48. 
Bennett 1617. 
Berger, R. 2835. 
Bergerot 588. 
Berges, P. 227. 
Bernard, Ch. 130. 
Bernard ini, I/. 738. 
Bemer and Chiirchill, Sidney 2388. 
Bersch 814. 

Berthelot, D. and Gaudechon, H. 771. 
Barthet, Arthaud I. 2247. 
Berthold 2762. 
Bertrand, A. 767. 

Bertrand, Gabriel and Compton, Ar- 
thur 2446. 
Bertrand, G. and Devuyst, T. 133. 
Bertrand, G. and Javillier, M. 1362. 
Besana, Carlo 2219, 2807. 
Besana, G. 935. 
Besson, A. A. 2622. 
Betts, H. S. and Stowell, Smith 500. 
Bieber 1822. 

Bieler-Chatelan, Th. 406, 2682. 
Bignami 2797. 
Bigot, C. 2175. 
Bilinsky and Kraus 2036. 
Billwiller Jr. Rob., J. Maurer, Hess, 

Clement vide Maurer. 
Binaghi, R. 128. 
Bioletti, E. T. 161. 
Bizzel, F. A. vide Lyon, T. L. 
Black, O. F. and Alsberg, C. L. 376. 
Blair, A. W. ;uid CoUison, S. E. 407. 
Blair, A. W. and Wilson, R. U. 849. 
Blanc, L. 281. 
Blanc, G. 539. 
Blanchard, Raoul 85. 
Blanck. E. vide Pfeiflfer, Th. 
Blaringhem, L. 1372. 
Blathey, T. 2173. 
Blese, M. J. and Ferle, F. R. 763. 
Blin, H. 1422, 2886, 2915, 2918, 3215. 
Blome, H. 75. 
BocchiaUni, F. 978. 
Bock, H. and Engberding, D. 207. 



— 53 



Boekhont, P. W. J. and De Vries, 

J. Ott. 130. 
Bogdanow, S. 2084. 
Bohntignsky, G. 787. 
Bois, D. 2176. 
Boisiot, A. 57. 
Bolgav Joseph, B. ISl. 
Bormner 170. 
Boname no. 
Bondil, F. 951. 
Bonjean, K. 408. 
Bonn 565. 

Booth-Tucker 1795, 3174. 
Bordage, E. 742. 
Bordas vide Gautier. 
Bordas and Touplain 1245, 1473. 
Borzi, A. 1353. 
Bosch, K. 210. 
Bottomley, W. B. 216. 2468. 
Boulay, H. 2944. 
Bourdiol-Humbert 234. 
Boiirquelot, B. and Bridel, M. 205. 
Boyer, Jacques 2935. 
Boyer, M. G. 2748. 
Boyle, J. 2035. 
Brabant and Naslin 3 143. 
Bracken, John, vide Hedley. 
Bradley, C. E. 762. 
Brainerd.W.K. and Malloby, W. I,. 275. 
Braithwaite, Wallis C. 2412. 
Branchini 801 . 
Brand, Ch. J. 2106. 
Brand, Charles J. and Waldron, I^.R. 60. 
Breazeale, J. F. vide Le Qerc, J. A. 
Brenchley, W. E. 1674. 
Brendlen, J. B. vide Moufang, Ed. 
Brenier, H. vide Russier, H. 
Brewster, C. E. vide Oldys, H. 
Bridel, M. 1639. 
Bridel vide Bourquelot. 
Briem, H. 44, 458, 779. 
Briggs, Iv. J. 1705. 
Briggs, ly. J. and Belz, J. O. 423. 
Brilinski, A. 3, 764. 
Brioux 414, 
Brioux, Ch. 230, 1816. 
Briscoe, Chas F. and Mc Neal, W. J. 
2780. 



Briscol, J. M. vide Zon, R. 

Brocq-Rousseau vide Apsit. 

Broeck-Bowles, J. Ten. 2220. 

Broili, J. 389. 

Brome, C. 77. 

Brooks, W. P. 270. 

Brooks.W. P., Fulton, E. S. and Gaskill 

E. F. 250, 319. 
Brounov, P. J. 1098. 
Brown, Horace T. 140. 
Brown, A. J. 2878. 
Brown, A. J. and Ward, G. B. 566. 
Brown, P. E. vide lyipman, J. G. 
Brown Robertson 2661. 
Brunet, R. 399, 976. 
Brutschke, F. 150. 
Buchet 286. 
Buckley, S. S. 88g. 
Bufalini. D. 338. 
Buffault, Paul 289. 
Bugnon, Eug. 514, 15 17. 
Buissmann, M. 1665. 
Bunyard, E. A. 3158. 
Burkill, H. and Finlow, R, S. 3147. 
Bum-Burdock, A. M. 110. 
Bums, E. ly. 1351. 
Biims, W. 1 195. 
Burr, W. W. 83, 1385. 
Burtt, Davy Joseph. 1654, 2460. 
Bushway, R. H. 2680. 
Bussard, Leon 896, 898. 
Bussard, I^eon et Andouard. 2258. 



Cadbury, W. a. 135. 

Cadman, W. H. 204. 

Cadman 214. 

Cailletet, ly. 1367. 

Calvet and Paul 556. 

Campbell, C. 2668, 2669. 

Campbell, H. C. 2781. 

Campbell, R. H. 1200. 

Campbell, Douglas Houghton. 396. 

Camus, E. G. and Camus, A. 77, 269. 

Cappello, C. 746. 

Cappuyns, A. 2880. 

Capra, G. 2707. 

Carle, G. 1484. 



54 — 



Carleton. Mark Alfred 51. 

Carlisle 111. 

Carroll vide Emmett. 

Carter, R. H. 1762. 

Cartier, P. 159. 

Cartwright. 195. 7. 

Cassez, B. 937- 

Castellotti 1852. 

Castle, R. L. 117. 

Catelani, R. 1420. 

Cathcart, C. S. 773. 

Cancurte. 906, 2208. 

Caughey, W. J . M. C. vide Robinson, 

W. O. 
Cavara, F. 47. 
Caviglia 2844. 
Cay la, V. 142, 1451. 
Celinzev, A. J. 1121. 
Celli, Angelo 24. 
Cemui, A. P. 17. 
Chalhoub, Maurice 187. 
Chalot, C, 54. 

Chancrin, B. and Desriot, A. 11 45. 
Chapelle, J. 2153, 2155. 
Chapelle, J. and Ruby, J. 205, 2249. 
Chaplet, A. 2950. 
Chaptal, L. 2090. 
CharitschkofiE 342. 
Charlan, P. 1099, 1169, 1170. 
Chartin and Colin 2445. 
Chauchard, A. and M.lle Mazoue, B. 

2065. 
Chavan, P. 1234. 
Chavemac, P. 748. 
Cheel, Bdwin 248. ■ 
Chevalier, A. 76, 196. 1636, 1722. 
Chevalier, Aug. and Perrot, Em. 2636. 
Chiaramonte. 86. 
Chierici, R. 1106. 
Chiesi, A. 1231. 
Chilcott, E. C. 422. 
Chiles, Rose Pendleton 192. 
Chiovenda, E. 2716. 
Choles, H. J. 198. 
Choren, Erizian 3207. 
Chowdhury, A. P. 2235. 
Christensen, Harald R. and Larsen. O. 

H. 59. 



Christy, C. 2740. 

Chryssochoides, N. 143. 

Churchill, Sidney vide Bemer. 

Ciapetti, G. 1866. 

Cischini 187. 

Civetta, A. vide Prandi, O. 

Claassen, O. 124. 

Qaessens, I. 2614. 

Claine. 2799. 

Clark, A. H. 1492. 

Qausen. 803. 

Qement, Ch. 1244. 

Clerget, P. 1340. 

Cochel, W. A. vide Skinner, J, H. 

Cochelet. 929. 

Cochet-Cochet 2 141. 

CoflSgnier, Ch. 105. 2727. 

Coit, J. Elliot 2675. 

Cold well 1736. 

Colesco 1487. 

Colin, E. vide ViUiers, A. 

Colin, M. 397. 

Colin vide Chartin. 

CoUens, A. E. 1505. 

CoUignon vide Vincent. 

Collin, Eug. 1764. 

Collins, Muirhead 1342. 

CoUison, S. E. vide Blair. 

Combes, R. 1650. 

Compton vide Bertrand. 

Conner, A. B. 2549. 

Connor, J. M. B. 1398. 

Content vide Menegaux. 

Contino, A. 1132. 

Cook, O. F. 391, 1741. 

Cooke, W. T. 86. 

Cooke, C. J. 2386. 

Cordoba 241 i. 

Cornell. 200. 

Cosme. 852. 

Coste. 255. 

Coupia, H. 39, 734. 

Courtoy, F. vide Wuyts h. 

Cousins, H. H. 1801, 2686. 

Coventry, F. M. 2 119. 

Coventry, B. 1271. 

Coville, F. V. 475. 

Cowan. John 340. 



— 55 — 



Crahay, N. I. and Durieux. 2708. 

Cramer, P. J. S. 208. 1218, 1754. 

Cranfield, H. T. 3187. 

Crastre, F. 11. 

Crispo. 911. 

Cromer. 2493. 

Cromer, C. O. vide Wianko, A. T. 

Cufino vide La Vaissiere. 

Currie, J. R. 1678. 

Curtius and Franzen, H. 1361. 

Czadek, O. V. 3189. 



Dacnowski, A. 2478, 

Daire, P. 2062, 2779, 3202. 

Daire vide Domic. 

Dall'Aglio, A. 909. 

Dallimore, W. 95. 

Damseaux, Ad. 79. 

D'Anchald, H. 116, 157, 535. 

Dancy, Henry and Martin, Joseph 302. 

Dangeard, P. A. 382, 11 12. 

Daniel, Lucien 82. 395, 11 19, 1373, 

1374- 
Danilov, L. G. 49. 
Dans, G. vide Windisch. 
Darthez vide Diffloth. 
Dautremer, J. 1084. 
Davis, A. P. 2492. 

Davis, W. A. and Sadtler, S. S. 2728. 
Davenport voir Allport. 
Day, G. B. 515. 
Day, W. 824. 

De Bartolozzi, Pericle 2697. 
De Brie, Jehan 247. 
Dechambre, P. 2203. 
De CiUis, E. 812. 
De Conde, F. 1679. 
Decoppet, Wanger, Alibisetti 3163. 
De Coulon, P. 294. 
Decotix, L. 1 416. 
Deerr, N. 2896. 
De Gironcourt, G. 2808. 
De Gontcharoff 2827. 
Degrully, 1,. 46. 
De Guillen, Garcia 563. 
Dehaye, Em. 2548, 2879. 



De Heen, P. vide Micheels H. 

De KniijfE., E. 212. 2639. 

Delaney, C. R. 106. 

Delaval, A. vide Kayser E. 

Delgado Do Carvalho, C. M. 2538. 

Deligny, E. 152. 583, 2266. 

Delonca i486. 

Delorme, E. 969. 

De Luze, J. J. 2165. 

De Halliard, P. 15 14. 

De Martino 1745. 

De Mazieres 823. 

De Mello Geratoles, C. E. and D'Oli- 

veira Fragaterio, B. 180. 
De Moraes, P. 1502. 
Demonlins, A. and Villars, V. 84. 480. 
Demtschinsky 1708. 
Denaiffe 430, 445. 

Dennie, S. J. vide Stubenrauch, A. V. 
Derbanne, J. N. 303. 
De Recklinghausen, Maw vide Henry, V. 
Derr. H. B. 1369, 2544. 
De Ruiz De Lavison, Jean 206. 1368 

2068. 
Derwa. 215. 
De Salazar. 2403. 
De Saporta, A. 2050. 
De Schneidauer Robyns, E. 8, 10, 32. 
De Sigmond, A. A. J. 1673. 
De Sornay, P. 2679, 3131. 
Desriot, A. vide Chancrin. 
Dessaisaix, R. 972. 
Devedeix. 1242. 
De Vertevul, Joseph 402. 
Devey. 1715. 
De Vries vide Boekhont. 
Devuyst vide Bertrand. 
De Welle, Michotte 2, 859. 
De Wildeman, E. 1404. 
De Winkelried, Bertoni A. 2847. 
Dezani, S. 1659. 
Diez, Pablo 558. 
Diffloth, P. 581. 

Diffloth, P. and Darthez, J. 2177. 
Di Mattei, V. 280. 
D'Ippohto, G. 89, 263. 
Distaso, A. 1660. 
Di Trento, F. 3173. 



— 56 



Dojarenko, A. G. 1668. 

D'Oliveira vide De Mello. 

•Dombrowski, W. 314. 

Dommes. 268. 

Donnini, A. 1421. 

Donon, D. 845. 

Dornic, P. 129. 

Domic ai;d Daire. 236 

Douarche. 304. 

Douglas, Ch. 1806. 

Douglas lyoudon, M. 3208. 

Dreiman, A. J. 770. 

Dubard Marcel 2105. 

Dubard et Eberhardt. 872. 

Dubois, L. 152, 344. 

Duckerts. 2598. 

Ducousso. 1 192. 

Dudgeon, G. C. 1159, 2566, 2687. 

Duerden, J. E. 2231. 

Dumazet Ardouin 1171, 1406, 2218.' 

Dumitrescou and Nicolau 326. 

Dunstan, W. R. 1403. 

Durand, Henry 2623. 

Durier M.me et M. 2260. 

Durieux vide Crahay. 

Duschsky, J. E., Minz, I. R., et Paw- 

lenko, W. P. 381. 
Dusserre, M. C. 62. 
Dusserre, C. 3188. 
Dussert. 115. 
Dussert. P. 1091, 11 73. 
Duval vide Duvel. 
Duvel, J. W. T. 429. 
Duvel, J. W. T. et Duval, L. 2103. 
Duvieusart, P. 1680. 
Dybowski, J. 508. 
Dyer B. vide Parke E. 



Bari,E. 132. 

Eamshaw, F. vide Oldys, H. 
East, E. 1652. 
Eberhardt, Ph. 2506. 
Eberhardt vide Dubard. 
Eckenbrecher, V. 49. 
Eckenbrecher, C. V. 807. 
Ecobar, R. 785. 
Effront, J. 2466. 



Efimov, R. 4. 

Eichholz, W. 237. 

ElUott Scott, G. F. 38. 

EUis, L. M. 1204. 

EUis, L. W. 1876. 

Ellmore Paulgrave and O' Rey. 1445, 

Emmet, A. B. and Carroll, E. C 1233, 

Engberding, D. vide H. Bock. 

Engelbrechten 1423. 

Engler, A. 3172. 

Equo. 247. 

Erdmann. 2095. 

Erskine, T. 2404. 

Esnault-Pelterie, A. 817. 

Esten, W. M. 1155. 

Etheridge, W. C. 2866. 

Euler, H. 3117. 

Evans, F. 2190. 

Evans, M. W. 2556. 

Ewald, W. 1334. 

Ewart Alfred, J. et Nightingall Victor. 

2456. 
Ewert, R. 2146. 
Eyek, A. M. Ten. 84. 

Fabre, G. 735. 

Fabre, H. 137, 840. 

Faes, H. 2660. 

Fairchild, David. 3161. 

Falci, R. 1202. 

Famechou. 865. 

Farcy, J. 302. 151, 1428. 

Farrell. F. D. 725. 

Fascetti, G. 126, 316. 529, 1249. 

Fau, Eugene 60, 303. 

Fauchere, A. 141 5, 2562. 

Favilli, N. 221 4. 

Fechtig. 1396. 

Feige, A. vide Urbain. 

FeiHtzen Hjalmar von 218. 65, 775. 

Feilitzen Hjalmar von, and I^u gner, 

Ivan. 3126. 
Felsinger, L. 3 116. 
Fenyvessy, B. V. 2904. 
Ferle vide Blese. 
Fembach, A. 2248. 
Fembach, A. and I^anzenberg, A. 231 . 
Fernbach, A. and Vulquin E. 16. 



- 57 



Ferreira Da Silva. 941. 

Feustel, A. 277. 

Fickendey, E). 337. 

Filaudeau, G. 557, 2865. 

Filaudeau, G. and Muttelet, F. 258. 

Files, K. K. vide Alway. 

Filter, F. 790. 

Finch, C. H. 94. 

Fingerling, G. 37, 306. 894. 

Finlow vide Burkill. 

Fiori, A. 864, 1440. 

Fischl., J. 71. 

Fisher, W. R. 33. 

Fitz, ly. A. 94. 

Fixter, J. 438. 

Fleurent, B. and I^evi, Lucien. 1246. 

Flourens, Abel. 2261. 

Fogson, 2182. 

Fondard, L. ard Gauthie, F. 477. 

Fontana. 2397. 
Fontenay. 3095. 

Forbes, R. H. et Fortier, S. 2496. 

Fortier vide Forbes. 

Foreman, F. W. 736. 

Forgwer. 3190. 

Fortini, V. vide Tortelli. 

Fourie, P. J. 2588, 2611, 2632. 

Foumet, F. 1453. 

Fox 21 12. 2900. 

FragoUe, M. vide Villiers, A. 

Francesconi, 1,. and Sanna, G. 2139. 

Francis, C. K. 440. 1727. 

Francis, C. K. vide Baird. 

Francis, C. K. and Trowbridge Perry, 

F. 126. 
Francolini G. 2156. 
Franzeii vide Curtins. 
Frankforter, G. B. 502. 
Frantzen. 2054. 
Fraps, G. S. 1672. 
Fraser, G. 2255. 

Fraser, Wilber J. and Cassius, C. Hay- 
den. 118. 
Frateur, J. I^. 2227, 2228, 3195. 
Fredholm, A. 73. 

Free, E. E. and Westgate, J. M. 749. 
Freundl, E. vide Pammer, G. 
Fribourg, A. 122. 



Friderich 526. 

Friend, Hilderic 2480, 2481. 

Frombling, D. 427. 

Fruwirth, K. 1707. 

Prye, T. C. 496. 

Fuchs, C. S. 518. 

Fulford 1734. 

Fuller, M. L. 1676. 

Fullers, J. G. vide Hart. 

Fulton vide Brooks. 

Funaro, A. and Musante, L. 1247. 

Funek, I^. and Schmitz, Iv. 1605. 



GaBEI^W, lyUCIO. 197. 

Gage. 138. 

Gain vide Apsit. 

Gaisford. 2390. 

Gallacher, W. J. 462. 

Gallwey, H. L. 230. 

Gandara, Gmllerino 1805. 

Garaicoechea 196. 

Garcia de Los Sahnones, N. 1433. 

Gaskill vide Brooks. 

Gaspari. 1273. 

Gaudechon vide Berthelot. 

Gauthie, F. vide Fondard. 

Gautier, Armand 2448, 2663. 

Gautier and Bordas 2263. 

Gautrelet. 139. 

Gay-Lugny, I,ouis 53, 76. 

Geary H. 135. 

Gedroiz, K. K. 37. 

GeerUgs, Prinsen. 1865. 

Georgeson, C. C. 6. 3 115. 

George vitch, Pierre 209. 

Gerber, N. 127. 

Gerber C. 1377, 2066. 

Gerlach 221, 223. 806, 31 13. 

Giacchi. 709. 

Gibson. 91. 

Gilbert, A. G. 542. 

Gilbert, R. L. 162. 

Gitningham, C. T. 24. 

Giovetti, G. 882. 

Girard, A. Ch. 568. 

Glasenapp. 37. 

Goblet, Iv. 2160. 



58 - 



Godard, F. 2583. 

Coding. 841. 

Goethe, R. 479. 

Goltara, L. 225. 

Gomilevskii, V. J. 1662. 

Goodey, T. 2470, 2479. 

Gorini, Costantino 129. 533. 

Gorrini, C. 2157, 2393. 

Gorther. 2441. 

Gouin, A. 1815. 

Gouin, A. and Andouard, P. 305. 240, 

1232. 
Grabham, M. 2702. 
Graham vide Scobell. 
Granato. 11 79, 1772. 
Grand voinnet, J. 11 43. 
Grangeon. 2715, 2838. 
Granville, Fortescue 716. 
Green, F. F. 2828. 
Gregoire. 47. 
Gregoire, Ach. 961, 2074. 
Gregoire, A. and Hendrick, J. 1697. 
Gregory, R. P. 2461. 
Greig-Smith, R. 31 18. 
Greisenegger, J. K. 511, 
Grequen. 363. 
Griffet, T. 2511. 
Griffon. 743. 2462, 2677. 
Grimme, C. 570, 1166, 2439, 2613. 
Grimmer. 2788, 2792. 
Groom, Percy 2457. 
Groud, Ch. 316. 2793. 
Grove. 68. 2590. 
Gruvel, A. 2048. 
Guardasoni, Mario 2230. 
Guerin, P. 13. 41, 2637. 
GufEroy. 118. 
Guignard, ly. 341. 
Guignes, P. 2646. 
Guillemard, A. 1378. 
GviiUocbon, ly. 2143. 
Guillon. 1 63 1. 
Guillon, J. M. 2664. 
Guiselin, A. 15 10. 
Guisset 1512. 
Giinther, H. K. 120. 
Guthrie, A. 2933. 
Guthrie, F. B. 1122. 



Guthrie, F. B. and Jensen, H. J. 235. 
Guttmann, A. vide PfeifEer Th, 
Gyarfas, J. 421, 1141, 2123. 

Haas, F. 866. 

Haddon-Smith, G. B. 13. 

Hadlock, W. Iv. vide Thatcher R. W. 

Hagemann, O. 3185. 

Hagen, L. 3 119. 

Haggard. 714. 

Haid, R. 3214. 

Hall, A. D. 1389, 1638, 1666, 1687, 

1807. 
Hall, A. D. ;ind MiUer, N. H. J. 2083. 
HaU, A. D. and Russell, E. J. 30. 
Hall HaU. 2813. 
Hammer vide Hoffmann. 
Hampton, J. H. 3139. 
Hannsch, F. 232. 
Hansen, A. J. 971. 
Hansson, N. 307. 181 1. 
Hanton, C. O. 497. 
Harden, A. and Norris, R. V. 210. 
Harding, H.H., Wilson, J .K. and Smith, 

G. A. 977. 
Harms. 11 74. 
Harries, C. 298. 
Harris 2396. 
Harrison, J. B. and Stockdale, J. A. 

456, 483. 
Hart, E. B., MC CoUum, E. V. and 

Fullers, J. G. 1227. 
Hart, E. B., MC CoUum, E. V. and 

Hvunplnrey, C. C. 1228. 
Hart, E. B. and Peterson, W. H. 3130. 
Hart, G. H. vide Mac Kellar. 
Hart, John Hinchley 2625. 
Hartley, C. P. 96. 
Harvey, H. W. 774. 
Hasenbaumer, J. vide Koenig, J. 
Hansen, J. and Hofmann, K. 2059. 
Havik. 54. 
Hayden vide Eraser. 
Hayter, C. S. 287. 
Heam, 1618. 
Hebert, A. 2612. 2617. 
Hebert, A. vide Hein. 
Heckel, E. 844, 1336, 1507, 2075,2560. 



59 — 



Hedley, F. Atdd and Bracken, John. 

2565- 
Heide, P. v. der and Baragiola, W. J; 

2870. 
Heim F. vide Herbert A. 
Hein, F. et Hebert, A. 2189. 
Helbonner, V. vide Henry. 
Helms, J. 2709. 
Hendrick, J. 1699, 1729. 
Hendrick vide Gregoire. 
Hennet 1102, 1818, 1838. 
Henry vide Railliet. 
Henry, A. 1355. 
Henry, V. 190. 
Henry, V., Helbonner, A. and Max 

de Recklinghausen 16. 
Henry, Yves 301. 509, 1090, 2547, 
Henry, Yves and Ammann, Paul 145. 
Henze. 80. 

Herbert, A. and Heim, F. 302. 
Herbertson, ]. 17. 
Herissant. 82. 

Hermann, B. vide Otter, Ed. 
Hesdorfier. 225. 
Hess, C, Billwiler jr., Rob. and Maurer, 

J. vide Maurer. 
Hewett. 1393. 
Hewett vide Austed. 
Hewlett, R. Tanner, Villar, Sidney 

and Revis, Cecil 1833. 
Heyl, F. W. and Raiford, C. 739. 
Hillier vide Barker. 
Hillmann, P. 1354. 
Hiltner. 88. 

Hinson.W. M. and Jenkins, E. H. 1760. 
Hitier. 50, 242. 372, 1712, 2094. 
Hoffmann, J. F. 804. 
Hoffmann C. and Hammer, B. W. 54. 
Hofmann, E. 2169, 2180. 
Hofmann, K. vide Hansen, G. 
Hofman-Bang, N. O. 520. 
Hoft, H. 239, 2791. 
HoU. 788. 
Holland, H. 1690. 
Hohns, P. G. 1 716. 
Hohns vide Scobell. 
Homery. 1087. 
Hooper, C. H. 1773, 2656. 
Hooper, D, 55. 



Hooper, Geofrey F. 79. 

Home. 1 183. 

Hostermann. 1709. 

Hougenson, J. C. 2945. 

Houghton, H. W. 2836. 

Howard, A. and G. L. C. 115. 

Howard, A. and G. I^. C, Khan, Ab- 

dur Rahman 393. 
Howard, Esme 232. 
Howard, Reed 818. 
Howard, W. L. 42. 
Hubert. 2892. 
Hublard, G. E. 2394, 2667. 
Hudson, C. S. 15. 
Hudson, C. S. and Paine, H. S. 16. 
Huffel, A. 2710. 
Hugues 1434. 

Hmnphrey, C. C. vide Hart. 
Humphries, A. E- 2905. 
Hunt vide Shermann. 
Husmann, George C. 84. 
Hutchinson, H. P. 1717. 
Hutchinson, H. B. and Miller, N. H. J. 

3109. 
Huyptera. 2205. 

Ikeda, T. 1774. 

Imperial Gennan Colonial Office 1156. 

Inghilleri, G. 2449. 

Ito, D. vide Takenchi, E. 

Ivanoff, E. 1240. 

Ivanoff, N. 11 17. 

Jackson, H. V. 2819. 

Jackson, E. and Sahasrabuddhe, G. V. 

2688. 
Jacometti, G. 2102. 
Jacotot, A. 262. 
Jadoul. 540. 
J ago, William and J ago, WilUam C. 

2907. 
Janse, J. M. 192. 
Janssen. 1348. 
Javillier vide Bertrand. 
Jeancard, P. and Satie, C. 11 72. 
Jenkins, E. H. vide Hinson. 
Jensen, Orla 2786. 
Jensen vide Guthrie. 
Jentsch 1197. 



— 6o — 



Jepson, W. L. 3166. 

Jeszensky. 1608. 

Johnson, A. T. 928. 

Jones vide Barrett. 

Jones, J. S. 1 201. 

Jorgensen, A. 2465. 

Josa, G. 1 154. 

Joukow, G. I. 754. 

Jiiillet, A. vide Planchon, L. 

JumeUe, H. 247. 

Jumelle, H. and Perrier De L,a Batliie, 

H. 115. 1213, 2609, 2615. 
Jiirgens. 328. 



Kaserer, H. 745, 3134. 

Kayser, E. 211. 1262, 1379, 2078, 

2244. 
Kayser, E. et Delaval, A. 2908. 
Kearney, T. H. 450, 1675. 
Keegan, P. O. 2450. 
Kellerman, Karl F. 3127. 
Kelley, W. L. 2513, 2553. 
Kennedy. 2410. 
Kerz. 552. 

Kesava-Menon, A. 572. 
Kiessebleach, T. A. 1647. 
Kindt, R. 114. 
King. 2042. 
King, F. G. 1230. 
Kinman, C. I. 276. 
Klinckowstroem, Carl V. 2499. 
Knapp, F. B. 1203. 
Kjiapp 246. 
KJiight, Ch. S. 1 41 1. 
Knight, R.F. and Thomson, C.G. 2430. 
Knowles, C. H. 2120. 
Koch, A. 55. 
Koch, B. 201. 
Kochs 1752. 
Koenig. O. 447. 
Koenig, P. ^704. 
Koenig, J., Hasenbaiomer, J. et Meyer- 

ing, H. 51. 
Kol, A. 784. 
Konig, J. 231. 
Konowalow, J. 740. 
Koranteng, I. D. 467. 



Korsakoff Marie 45. 

Kosinsky, V. 2 151. 

Kotschetkov, W. P. vide Prianisch- 

nikow. 
Kovessi, F. 11 13. 
Krasser, J. M. 1832. 
Kjraus, F. G. 11 65. 
Krauss. 98. 
Kraus vide Bilinski. 
Kriiger 223, 213. 1748. 
Kryshtofovich, T. 783. 
Krzemieniewska, H. 232. 
Kuhl, H. 336. 
Kuhnert. 1256. 
Kunz, L,. 843. 

lyABi. 3096. 

L. Br. 285. 

Laborde, J. 1497, 2868. 

lyabroy, O. 263, 272. 

Lafar, F. 1656. 

Lafont. 547. 

I,aidlaw 191, 203. 63, 85, 2812. 

Laigue. 1714. 

lyaine, E. vide Miintz A. 

Lainville, R. vide lyecompte, G. 

Lakon, G. 171 1, 2533. 

Lalim, A. vide Stoeren, K. 

Lambert, F. 548, 2840. 

Langenbeck, E. 3105. 

Lantz, D. E. 1255. 

Lanzenberg vide Fembach. 

Lapie G. 295. 

Laplixme. 3194. 

Larionov, D. 1655. 

I/arsen vide Christensen. 

Larsen and White 1836. 

Lathrop Elb.. C. vide Schreiner, 0» 

and also Shorey, E. O. 
Laiigguth. 713. 
lyaurenfont, I,. 297. 
Laurent. 1265. 
Laurie. 318. 

La Vaissiere et Cufino 715. 
Lavalle y Garcia 1739. 
Lavrielle, G. 313. 
Laxa, O. 1472. 
Leake Martin, H. et Parr., A. E. 820. 



— 6i — 



:^ath«r, J. W. 1648, 2603. 

Leay. 2239. 

lycbedefi, A. 398. 

Lebrou, P. 130. 

Le Clerc, J. A. aid Breazeale, J. F. 

1651. 
Lecompte, G. and Lainville, R. 127. 
Ledeboer, P. vide Wilbrink, G. 
Leete, F. A. 1207. 
Lega, M. 1198. 
I/egge, Col. 2170. 
Legier, E. 394- 
Lehmann, Franz 2774. 
Lehnert, G. 576. 
lyelorrain. 1784. 
Le Men, E). 2098. 
Lemmemiann, O. 417. 
Lemoigne. 2079. 
Lent. 1790. 
Lenz, W. 2648. 
Lepice. 1488. 
Leplae, E. 2431, 2955. 
Lerou, J. 974. 
Lerrou, P. 130. 
Lesage, P. 792, 2455. 
Lesourd, F. 2 161. 
Lesourd. 2858. 
Letcher 7. 
Leulier, A. 2647. 
Levasseur, E. 1731. 
Levat. 232. 

Levi, Lucien vide Fleurent. 
Levy, L. 141. 
Lewis, J. 2243. 
Leyendecker-Hilders 100. 
Liebau, P. 1152. 
Lilienberg vide Rezek. 
Lill, J. G. 43. 
Limage. 211. 
Linard, 113. 
Lindet, L. 1108, 2778. 
Lindhard, E. 1723. 
Lindsey, J. B. 1467. 
Lindsey, J. B. and Smith, P. H. 308. 
Lipman, J. G. 31. 

Lipman, J. G. vide Voorhees, E. B. 
Lipman, J. G. and Brown, P. E. 403. 
Lipman, J. G. and Owen, J. L. 26. 



Lippmann, O. V. 11 16. 

Liuboslavskii, G. 1670. 

Lock, R. H. vide Bamber. 

Loew, Oscar 218. 

Lojacono. 1791. 

Lonay, A. 1875. 

Lonay, H. 2099. 

Lorin. 374. 

Loring, Frederic-Henry. 144. 

Losada. 555. 

Lospinoso. 275. 

Lotz. 161 1. 

Loucheitx, G. 2949. 

Lubimenko, W. N. 206. 383. 

Luc. 2419. 

Lucion. 116. 

Ludewig, J. 2184. 

Lugner, Ivan vide Feilitzen. 

Luis, B. 194. 

Lukicevic, M. N., Vasic, M. S., Petrovic, 

M. 2032. 
Lumsden, L. L. vide Stiles, C. W. 
Lyon, G, E. 490. 
Lyon, T. L. and Bizzell, J. A. 1131. 

Macai,ik, B. 242. 

Macbean. 2670. 

Macdermott, F. D, 18. 

Macdonald, J. S. 2927. 

Mac KeUar,W. M. and Hart, G. H. 2198. 

Mackie, H. G. 3098, 3150. 

Mackintosh, J. 1808. 

Macmeikan, J. 125. 

Macmillan, H. R. 1787, 1793. 

Madden. 11. 

Magerstein, V. 962. 

Magini, G. 28 11, 3203. 

Magnin, A. 29, 3222. 

Main, F. 102. 1093, 1407. 2121, 2721. 

Maine, E. 1390. 

Maizieres. 90. 

Majmone. 3151. 

Malcor, M. 786. 

Malfitano, G. and Mile. Moschkoff, A. 

N. 329. 
Mallet R. 975. 
MaUoby vide Brainerd. 
Malpeaux, h. 64. 



— 62 — 



Maker, A. I. 433. 
Manaresi, A. 2158. 
Manetti, Carlo 899. 
Manetti, O. 11 46, 1350. 
Marcille, R. 338. 
Mares. 1237. 
Marescalchi, A. 273. 
Marre, Francis 2251. 
Marre. 1463. 
Marriot, R. A. 2473. 
MarshaU, F. H. A. and Peel, W. R. 892. 
Martel, H. 124. 
Martin, J. B. 1458. 
Martin Commerford, T. and Bates Put- 
nam, A. 2953. 
Martin, J. vide Dancy. 
Martinet, G. 239. 34. 
Martiny. 273. 
Marvaud 3, 5. 1331. 
Mascheroni, K. 1824. 
Masferre, J. 259. 
Mason, S. C. 854. 
Masoni, G. 1701. 
Massol, L. 1 109. 
Masson, G. 380. 
Massot, W. 829. 
Mathews Wrenford, J. 1622, 2769, 

3193- 
Mathey. 2081. 
Mathieu. 1,. 325. 1499. 
Mathieu, V. 2242. 
Matruchot, L. 196, 
Mattel, G. E. 875. 
Matthes. 492. 
Matthes, Wilhelm. 1490. 
Matnnok, Michael 553. 
Maugham, Richards and Tothill. 2417. 
Maurel, F). 241. 
Maurel et Annand 1478. 
Maurer, J., Billwiller jr., Rob., Hess, 

Clement 20. 
May. 1485. 
May. D. W. 292. 

Maze. 733, 1645, 2072. 2073, 2451, 3108. 
Mazoue vide Chauchard. 
Mazzaroni. A. 753, 127. 
Mazzolani. 1085, 
Me. Burbitt. 2436. 



Mc Call Stewart, J. 253, 312. 3144- 

Mc CoUum vide Hart. 

Mc Connel, R. 2846. 

Mc Donald. 1153. 

Mc Garvey. Cline. 377. 

Mc Gregor, P. J. 2392. 

Mc Kay, A. 536. 

Mc Kerral, A. 1610, 2128, 2607. 

McNair, A. D.andMercier.W.B. 1724. 

Mc Naughton. 317. 

Mc Neal vide Briscoe. 

Meisier. 246. 

Mekoyie. 1079. 

Mell, C. D. 498. 

Menabey. 902. 

Meneganx and Content. 2232. 

Meniaud vide Vuillet. 

Mensio, C. 561. 

Mercier, W. B. vide Mc Nair, A. D. 

Merkel, F. 1653. 

Mertens, A. 1261. 

Mertus, A. 567. 

Mestre, C. P. 2873. 

Mette, H. 78. 

Meyer, F. N. 2162. 

Meyering, H. vide Koenig, J. 

Micheels, H. 40. 

Micheels, H. et De Heen, P. 40. 

Mickel. 1624. 

Miege, Em. 1401. 

Mieth, H. 207. 

Miller. 95. 

Miller vide Hall. 

Miller, N.H.J, vide Hutchinson, H. B. 

Milne-Home, J. H. 493. 

Minangoin, N. 86. 

MingioU. 571. 

Minz vide Duschsky. 

lyiir, Eugene 3197. 

Miteacher, M. 468. 

Mitscherlich, E. A. 23. 

Mohler, J. R.. Washburn, H. J. and 

Rogers, L. A. 1837. 
Mohs vide Neumann. 
MolUard, M. 40. 
Monseu. 1481. 

Montanari, O. vide Ravenna, C, 
Montemartini, L. 122, 386, 3 no. 



— 63 - 



Montgomery, K. G. 1400. 

Monticone, A. 2934. 

Montoux, A. 2164. 

Mooers, C. A. i6g6. 

Moore, B. vide Roger R. 

Moore, F. 1775. 

Moore, R. W. 67. 

Moore, Willis I/. 289. 1661. 

Moore, V. A. 1455. 

Morand, M. 135. 

Moreau, Edmond 90. 932, 933, 1186. 

Moreau, E). vide Sartory A. 

Moreau, I/, and Vinet E). 1260, 1496. 

Morel, Ennemond 546, 2415. 

Moreland,W. H. and Oliver, E. W. 213. 

Morettini, A. 2531. 

Morgen, A., Beger C. and Westhausser 
F. 2756, 2776. 

Moricz. 1336. 

Morisseaux, C. 2421. 

Morse, F. W. 737. 

Morse, S. F. 1437. 

MoschkofE, A. N. vide Malfitano, G. 

Moser. 71. 2401. 

Moufang, Ed. and Brendlen, J. B. 327. 

Moussu, G. 1804, 2751, 2783. 

Moussu vide RaiUiet. 

Mozziconacci, A. 2841. 

Miiller. 2423. 

Miiller, W. 425. 

Miiller, W. and Alleman, O. vide Alle- 

man. 
Miimford, H. W. 1359. 
Mundy, G. 2618. 
Mnnerati, O. 246. 
Miintz, A. and lyaine, E. 1140, 1376, 

2089. 
Murray, G. 1088. 
Murray, Walter C. 3102. 
Murphy, CarroU D. 220. 
Musante vide Funaro. 
Muszynski, J. 2135. 
Muttelet vide Filandeau. 



Nasi^in vide Brabant. 
Nasmyth-Miller F. B. 1846. 
Nathusius, S. von 3191, 3192. 



Nemeth. 312. 

Nesom, G. E. 203. 256. 
Neubauer, H. 517, 1630. 

Neugerman, A. A. 2056. 

Neumann, O. 2545. 

Neumann. 76, 269. 2101. 

Neumann, F. 267. 

Neumaim, M. P. et Mohs, K. 333. 

Netunann. vide Weisriger. 

Newell, F. H. 2495. 

Nicolau vide Diunitrescou. 

Nightingall vide Ewart. 

Nixon, C, vide Rice, L. E. 

Njegovan, V. 235. 

Norero, A. 466. 

Norgaard, V. A. 1456. 

Norgord, C. P. 3103. 

Norris vide Harden. 

Northcote, Lord 20. 

Nugent. 953. 

Ny lander. 18 19. 

Nyssen, Em. 81. 

Oakenfui,!,, J. C. 550, 826, 887. 

Ocker. 208. 

Ocock, C. A. and White, F. M. 3225. 

Oetken, W. 805. 

Olcock, C. A. 1270. 

Oldys, H., Brewster, C. E. and Eam- 

shaw, F. 2853. 
OHva, A. 1248. 

Oliver E. W. vide Moreland W. H. 
Oliver, George W. 2658. 
Olson, G. A. vide Thatcher, R. W. 
Olson-Sefier. 141 4. 
Olsson. 2500. 
Omeis. 559. 
Omeliansky,W. L. and Sewerowa, O. P. 

1657. 
O'Rey. 1445. 
Orseiiigo, ly. 936. 
Orvis, Burchard M. 2724. 
Osborne, J. 2706. 
O' Sullivan-Beare 2409. 
Otis, D. H. 732. 
Otter, Ed., Hermann E. and Stumpf^ 

769. 
Owen, J. ly. vide I/ipmann, J. G. 



-64 



PAir<I,ARD. 1339. 

Paine, H. S. vide Hudson. 

Pakhomovim, P. A. 1828. 

Palmas, L. 181 7. 

Palmer, W. J. 17. 

Pammer, G. and Freundl, E. 432, 

Pankov, M. 437. 

Papageorgiou, M. P, 1097. 

Pape, G. H. Fr. 341. 

Paris, G. 1726. 

Paris, M. 121 1. 

Parke, K. and Dyer, B. 2505. 

Parkinson, S. T. 1383, 1769. 

Parow. 330. 

Parr, A. E. vide Leake, H. M, 

Passalacqna, P. 1725. 

Paturel, G. 415. 

Paul, H. 1 1 49. 

Paul vide Calvet. 

Pauzols, P. 284. 

Pawlenko vide Duschsky. 

Pearl, Raymond and Surface, M. Frank 
132. 921, 922. 

Peck, S. S. 2484. 
Pedroso, A. 946. 

Peel, W. R. vide Marshall, F. H. A. 

Peglion, V. 255. 

Pelet Berent. 747. 
Penck, A. 400. 
Pennington, B. 544. 
Perkins 310. 
Perrier De La Bathie 2743. 

Perrier De La Bathie, H. vide Ju- 

meUe, H. 
Perriraz 2076. 
Perrot. 1623. 
Perrot, B. 2053. 
Perrot vide Chevalier. 
Pervinquiere, M. L. 2489. 2520. 
Fetch, T. 73, 108, 109. 
Peter and Plab 2761. 
Peters, I. 3184. 
Peterson, W. H. vide Hart. 
Petit, A. 1384. 
Petrie, J. M. 2071. 
Petrovic, M. vide Lukicevic, M. N. 
Petti, F. 2209. 



Pfeiffer, Th. and Blanck, B. 388, 761. 
PfeifEer. Th., Guttmami, A., et Thiel, F. 

56. 

Pfisterer 57. 

Pfyl, B. et Schweitz, W. 470. 

Philippe, B. 2790. 

Phihps, P. P. 2726. 

PhiUpps, F. J. vide Preston, J. F. 

Piazza, B. vide TortelU, M. 

Pickering, S. U. 22. 

Pillans, N. S. 338. 

Pilz, F. 3128. 

Pinchot, G. 96. 

Pinckney vide Alway. 

Pinter, J. 2037. 

Pipers, P. 768, 808. 

Pirovano, L. 160. 

Pisciotta, F. 2659. 

Plab vide Peter. 

Planchon, L. and Juillet, A. 330. 

Plisterer. 189. 

Poller, B. 1459. 

Pojidaev, C. H. 813. 

Polle, R. 760. 

Popenoe, F. W. 2678. 

Popovitz, K. 798. 

Portele. 3154. 

Potucek, J. 9. 

Pouget J., and Schuchak, D. 387. 

Pougnet, J. 1364. 1365. 

Powell, G. B. 277. 

Prandi, O. and Civetta, A, 1259. 

Prasolov, L. I. 751. 

Preissecker, K. 270. 

Preston, J. F. and Philipps, F. J. 

2070. 
Prianischnikow, D. 2526. 
Prianischnikow and Schulow 2452. 
Prianisclmikow, D. N., Kotschetkov, 

W. P. and Sazanow, W. I. 1394. 
Priestley. 112. 

Prinsen Geerlings, H. C. 457, 1865. 
Promsy, G. 789. 
Proost. A. 2652. 
Puig Nattino, 1. 93. 
Pulman, J. A. 1127, 1128, 1129, 1133. 
Pyrlas, P. 1257. 



65 - 



QUAJAT 244. 

Quajat, E. and Tomaselli, P. 2839. 

Quanta, H. 240. 428. 

Quinn, G. 272. 

Rabak, F. 469, 2453. 

Rabild, H. 1831. 

Rabino-Iyafont 244. 

Rabot, Charles 1443. 

Rackmann, K. 290. 

Raiford, C. vide Heyl, F. W. 

Railliet, Moussu, Henry 1454. 

Ramberg Egon, Freiherr von i6. 

Ramult, S. v. Baldwin. 30. 

Rane, F. W. 863. 

Raposo, Ivouis 828. 

Rasser, E. O. 297. 

Ravasini vide Tschirch. 

Ravenna, C. and Montanari, O. 206. 

Raverma, C. and Zamorani, M. 40, 42. 

Ray, J. 2514. 

Reboul, E. 877, 1436. 

Recklinghausen, M. de vide Henry. 

Reed vide Schreiner. 

Reeves, A. 64. 

Reggiani, E. 2207. 

Reid, F. R. vide Schreiner, O. and also 

SulUvan. 
Reinhard, A. vide Zaleski, W. 
Reinhart Werner 147. 
Reis, Fr. 35. 
Remlinger, P. 1123. 
Remy, Th. et Rosing, G. 401. 
Renouf. W. C. 524. 
Rentiers, J. B. 2729, 2901. 
R^pin. 2926. 
Repiton, Femand 2246. 
Report of Austrian Consul. 11 34. 
Report of French Consul. 11 89. 
Revis, Cecil vide Hewlett, R. T. 
Rezek, J. 577. 
Rezek, j., Lilienberg R.v., Richter L. 

1516. 
Rezek, J. and Richter L. 579. 
Rice, I/. E. and Nixon, C. 1844. 
Richards vide Maugham. 
Richardsen, A. 120. 
Richmond. G. F. 331. 



Richmond, H. Droop 2789. 

Richter, ly. vide Rezek. 

Riley, E. H. 1823. 

Ringelmann, Max 272, 963. 

Ripert. 345. 

Ripper, M. 560. 

Ritter, G. 171 9. 

Rivet. 2852. 

Riviere, Ch. 279. 1215. 

Riviere, G. and Bailhache, G. 164, 1649. 

Roberts, H. J. 43. 744. 

Robin, 710. 

Robin, V. 2750. 

Robinson, T. R. 795. 

Robinson, W. O. and Caughey, W. J. 

M. C. 1669. 
Robinson, C. H. 2434. 
Rockwood, E. W. 337. 
Rodier, M. 1444. 
Rodway, L,. 98. 1796. 
Roger, R. and Moore, B. 3169. 
Rogers, C. G. 1789. 
Rogers, 1,. A. 2215. 
Rogers, L. A. vide Mohler, J. R. 
Rolet, Antonin 3155, 3156. 
Ronnet, Leon 3221 . 
Roos, h. 1863. 
Rosenberg, A. 205. 
Rosenstiehl. 2245. 
Rosenthaler and Schaeffer 2443. 
Rosing, G. vide Remy, Th. 
Ross, A. C. 2152. 
Rossati, G. 1435. 
Rossi. 273. 
Roth, J. 166. 

Rousseavix, Eug. and Sirot 943. 
Rowley. 204 1. 
Royds. 105. 
Ruata, E. 2109. 
Ruby vide Chapelle. 
Rudauy, lyucien 1126. 
Ruddick, J. A. 957, 2925, 3199. 
Rueg, S. G. 143, 257. 
Riimker, V. 1633. 
Riimker, K., Tschermack, E. v., Edler, 

v. Seysenegg. 726. 
Russell, Edward John 26, 45. 215. 82, 
1667, 2475, 2487. 



— 66 



Russell. 1092. 

Russell vide Hall. 

Russier, H. et Brenier, H. 1338. 

Rutherford, J. G. 2763. 

Rutherford, W. J. 1238. 

Sachs, H. 1180. 

Sack, J. 2444. 

Saderce 3216. 

Sadtler vide Davis. 

Sagnier, H. 2438. 

Sahasrabuddhe, G.V. vide Jackson, E. 

Saaiard, K. 831. 

Saint-Hilaire 123. 

Salas Auton. 2389. 

Saleeby. 114. 

Salmon, E. S. 1761. 

Sames, Th. 128. 

Samson. 1418. 

Sanarens, J. 897. 

Sandsten, E. P. 11 18. 

Sanfelice, Ricciardo 913, 1471. 

Sanguinetti, U. 2040. 

Sanna vide Francesconi. 

Sansom. 1735, 2398. 

Sapartovitch, Lez 777. 

Sapper. 1347. 

Sartory, A. and Moreau, E. 2851. 

Sasanov, V. S. 1698. 

Satie, C. vide Jeancard. 

Saunders, C. E. 569. 

Savic vide Stoykowitch W. 

Sawyer. 276. 

Sazanow, W. J. vide Prianischnikow, 

D.N. 
Seal, CI. vide Urbain. 
Schaeffer vide Rosenthaler. 
Schaffnit, E. 48. 
Schander ;ind Wolff 227. 
Schidrowitz, P. 2 191, 3181. 
Schierning, H. 45. 
Schiffel, A. 3171. 
Schiffer. 460. 
SchiUing. 311. 
Schindler, F. 2080. 
Schloesing, Tli. FUs 74. 
Schluter, W. 337. 
Schmidt, B. 1721, 2435. 



Schmitz vide Funek. 

Schneidewind. 336. 

Scholz, H. 435. 

Scholz, N. von Aschersleben . 491, 

Schotter, F. 216. 

Schranz, F. 3201. 

Schreiber, C. 772. 

Schreiner, Oswald and Lathrop Elbert, 

C. 3114- 
Schreiner and Reed. 31 12. 
Schreiner, O. and Shorey, E. C. 57, 756, 

758- 
Schreiner, O. and Skinner, J. J. 217. 
Schreiner, O. Sullivan, M. X., and Reid 

F. R. 60. 
Schroeder, E. C. 2782. 
Schroeder, B.. 236. 
Schubart, P. 123. 
Schuchak, C. vide Pouget, J. 
Schulow vide Prianischnikow. 
Schultz, C. H. 2754, 2829, 2857. 
Schulze, B. 70, 412, 2092. 
Schulze, Ernst 1643. 
Schulze- Besse, H. 2543. 
Schumacher. 2604. 
Schinnann-Hinrichof. 232. 
Schurig. 967. 
Schwalbe, Carl G. 264. 
Schwappach. 293. 
Schwarz. 1829. 
vSchweitz, W. vide Pfyl, B. 
Schweitzer. 2938. 

Scobell, Graham, and Holms 2405. 
Scott, J. M. 2568. 

Scurti, F. andTommasi, G. 11 14, 2088. 
Secretariat of S\\iss Peasants 2063. 
Seel, Eugen. 891. 
Seelhorst, C. v. 404, 2454, 2530. 
Sencial. 1691. 
Senn Hermann, C. 2929. 
Serenyi. 186. 
Sewerin, S. A. 58. 
— sSewerowa, O. P. vide Onieliansky 

W. L. 
Seysenegg, Edler v. vide Rumker, K. 
Shaw, J. R. 277. 
Shaw, K. J. vide V/aught F. A. 
Shepherd, F. R. 2044. 



Shemiann, Henry and Hunt. 2755. 

Sherwood, S. R. 1827. 

Shirasawa, H. 100. 

Shorey, E. C. and L,athrop, E. C. 757. 

Shorey, B. C. vide Schxeiner, O. 

Shutt, F. T. 752, 1370, 1399, 1640, 

1641, 1658, 1671, 1868. 
Sidmann, Ch. A. 28S. 
vSilcox, F. A. 288. 
Simpson, W. 2854. 
Sinclair, W.309. 
Singh, Puran. 1792, 3176. 
Sirena, S. 1206. 
Sirot vide Rousseaux, Eug. 
vSivers, Jon 2712. 

Skinner, J. H. and Cochel, W. A. 1236. 
Skinner, J.J. vide Schreiner, O. 
Smaghi, R. 420. 
vSmith. 809, 1 61 5. 
Smith, E. F. 46. 
Smith, Gilliat 118. 
Smith, H. G. vide Baker. 
Smith, G. A. vide Harding. 
Smith, H. R. 1239. 
Smith, H. S. 1800. 
Smith, P. H. vide lyindsey, J. B. 
Smith Stowell vide Betts. 
Smits 1337. 

Smythies, E. A. 11 99, 1786. 
Snow, A. B. 504. 
Snyder, Carl 2464. 
Sohngen, N. L. 1380. 
Somerville, W. 2720. 
Southcombe, M. 78. 
Spampani, G. 63. 
Spemann. 1613. 
Sperber. 142. 

Sperber, O. 172, 1224, 2662. 
Spica, Matteo 2253. 
Splendore, A. 266. 
Splinder, F. 534. 
Squadrini, G. 1840. 
Stabler H. 409. 
Staib, Ch. 474. 
Start, E. A. 97. 
vStavenhagen, W. 2166. 
Stein, S. 71. 
Stepan 2241. 



Stephani, WUhelm. 3 148. 

Steppes, R. 1664. 

Sterrett, W. D. 271 1. 

Stevens. 190. 2038. 

Stewart. 2400. 

Stewart, Robert 781. 

Stiles, C. W. and Lumsden, 1. 1^. 2424. 

Stirling-Maxwell, J. 486. 

Stockdale, J. A. vide Harrison. 

Stoecklin, L. 2213. 

Stoeren, K. and LaUm, A. 2775. 

Stoklasa, J. 1363, 1646. 

Stoklasa, J. et Zdobnicky, W. 15. 384. 

Stormer, K. 11 39. 

Stormer, W. 426. 

Stomi, JuUo 810, 2567. 

vStoykowitch, W. et Savic 2031. 

Stratton, F. J. M. vide Wood, T. B. 

Street, J. P. 1692. 

Strohmer, F. .125. 

Stubenrauch, A.V. et Dennie.S. J. 2924. 

Stmnpf, J. vide Otter, Ed. 

Stutzer, A. 264. 35, 50, 107, 200, 1812. 

Suigelmann 2 41 8. 

Sullivan, M. X. et Reid, F. R. 759. 

Sullivan, M. X. vide Schreiner, O. 

Suprenenko, A. J. 405, 755. 

Surface, M. F. vide Pearl, R. 

Suter, ]. 62. 

Sutherst, W. F. 1642. 

Svoboda, H. 448. 

Sylven, N. 168. 

Symmonds, R. S. 64. 

Symons, vS. 2200. 

Tacke, B. 510. 
Tahy von Tahvar 1081. 
Tait, C. E. 2087. 
Takenchi, E. and Ito, S. 1702. 
Tamburini, Augusto 90. 
Tangl, F. et Weiser, S. 815. 
Tangl, F. et Zaitschek 893. 
Tanton, L. 221. 
Taylor George, M. 56. 
Tedin, H. 1120. 
Teodorov, D. V. 901, 1663. 
Tellier, Ch. 147. 
Tempany. H. A. 65. 



— 68 



Thaer, W. 2485. 

Thaler, K. 294. 

Thallmayer 249. 

Thatcher, R. W. 793. 

Thatcher, R. W., Olson. G. A. and 

Hadlock W. 1,. 2542. 
Thery. 247. 
Thiebaut, V. 275. 
Thiel, F. vide Pfeiffer Th. 
Thienemann, D' August 2862. 
Thomas. 146. 

Thomson, C. G. vide Knight, R. F. 
Thomson, W. 1457. 
Thomber, J. J. 446, 2108. 
Tidsweel, F. 199. 
Tilden, Wilham A. 2916. 
Tillmans, J. 2872. 
Timar, Dagobert 36. 
TomaseUi, P. vide Quajat, E. 
Tommasi, G. vide Scurti, F. 
Tortelli and Fortini, V. 947. 
Tortelli, M. and Piazza, F. 342. 
Tosi Enore. 530. 
TothiU vide Maugham. 
Totten 91. 
Touchais, C. 2129. 
Touplain vide Bordas. 
Toumier, A. 1776. 
Trabut 249. 434, 484, 1151. 
Trealase, W. M. 1744. 
Trillat 2887. 

Tromp de Haas, W. R. 183. 
Tropea, C. 390, 1157. 
Trowbridge vide Francis. 
Truelle, A. 741, 1375, 2921. 
Tschermack, E. v. vide Rumker, K. 
Tschirch and Ravasini 11 91. 
T'Serstevens, J. vide Visart, A. 
Tudhope. 204. 
Tumin Grig. 36. 
Turner, J. M. 856. 
Tumey, A. G. 1188. 

Urbain, Scai,, Ci,. and Feige, A. 210. 
Urban, J. vide Andrhk. 

Vadas, E. 870. 
Valbusa vide Bellucci. 



Valder, George 229. 

Vaher. 105. 

Valle, S. 80. 

Vallese, F. 245. 

Vallese-Manetti. 61. 

Van Andenaerd . 1 2 4 1 . 

Van Damme, C. 2764. 

Van Den Steen. 1080. 

Vander Snickt, 1,. 133. 

Van der Stok, J. E. 209. 43. 

Vandevelde, A. J. J. 144. 1835. 

Varvari, U. 449. 

Vasic, M. S. vide L,ukicevic, M. N. 

Vassallo, Ettore. 11 15. 

Vater, H. 167. 

Vaughin, Arthur P. 190. 

Velten. 910, 2382. 

Venkayya, P. 211 1. 

Vercier, J. 152, 419, 1771. 

Verdiani. 201. 

Verholst. 9. 

Vemet, G. 884, 1209, 1450. 

Vemetti, A. 531. 

Verona-Rinati, G. 256. 

Vidal. 21. 

Vidal, J. I.. 851, 1 184. 

Villar, Sidney vide Hewlett, R. T. 

Villard vide Demoulins. 

Villiers, H. M. 2802, 3146. 

VilUers, A., Colin, E. and FragoUe, M. 

129. 
Vincart. 1089. 

Vincent, H. ;;nd Collignon 198. 
Vinet, E. vide Moreau. 
Visart, A. and T'Serstevens, J. 1441. 
Viziranu. 1686. 

Voelcker, J. A. 1695, 1700. 1703. 1728. 
Voeltz. 203. 
VogUno, E. 233. 
Voisenet, E. 942, 2874. 
Volkens, G. 1426. 
Voorhees, J. F. 1382. 
Voorhees, E. B. and J. G. Lipman 

1693. 
Voultz. 306. 

Vuaflart, L- 1235, 2093, 2250, 2517, 3218. 
Vuillet, Amman, Meniaud. 904. 
Vulquin vide Fembach. 



69 — 



WaCker 794. 

Waggaman, W. H. 776. 

Wagner, P. 26?'. 

Wagner, J. P. 206, 2437, 2657. 

Wagner, K. 318. 

Waldron, C. B. 83. 

Waldron, I^. R. vide Brand. 

Walker, G. R. 310. 

Wallace 720. 

Wallenbock, R. 867, 2167. 

Wallis vide Braithwaite. 

Walther 869, 2168. 

Wanger vide Decoppet. 

Warburton, C. W. 1713. 

Ward vide Brown. 

Wardembonrg 970. 

Washburn, H. J. vide Mohler, J. R. 

Waught, P. A. and Shaw, K. J. 209. 

Wauters, P. 1229. 

Weber, Kw. 532. 

Weber, J. 2147. 

Weigmann, H. 2787. 

Wein 1606. 

Weinzierl, W. 109, 424. 

Weisriger and Neumann 519. 

Weiser, S. vide Taugl., P. 

Weisser, U. 2875. 

Weissennehl, A. 118. 

Wenger, C. 316. 

Wentworth-Sykes, J, 2107. 

Westgate vide Free. 

Westhausser, P. vide Morgen, A. 

Whellens, W. H. 495. 

Whitaker, G. M. 2217. 

Wianko, A. T. and Cromer, C. O. 2555. 

Wibeck, E. 169. 

Wicherley, William 2690. 

Wickremaratne, N. 2651. 

Wilbrink, G. and Ivedeboer. P. 2602. 

Wilcox, K V. 1 181. 

Wileman. 1408. 

Wilk. 2860. 

Willis CHfford. 2486. 

Wilson, J. K. vide Harding, 

Wilson, R. V. vide Blair. 

Wilson, W. James 2766. 

Wind, K. 119. 



Windirsch, P. 62. 

Windisch. 106. 

Windisch, R. 2809. 

Windisch, W. and Dans, G. 257. 

Wiag, H. H. 2199. 

Winkel, M. 91. 

Winkler. 890. 

Winslow, A. 2515, 2621. 

Wiaton Seaton. 3179. 

White vide I^arsen. and also Ocock. 

Wittmack, 1,. 103. 

Wohltmann, P. 14, 708. 

Wojciechowski, Et. 1809. 

Wolk Daffy. 36. 

Woltereck, H. 1392. 

Wood Leman, P. 93. 

Wood, T. B. 905, 3186. 

Wood, T. B. and Stratton, P. J. M. 780. 

Woodhouse. 200. 

Woolsely, J. S. 109. 

Work, N. Monroe vide Aery. 

Worsley, A. 2459. 

Woy. 2757. 

Wuyts, lyouis et Covirtoy, P. 3219. 



Yermoi^ofp, Ai,exis . 811. 
Yoshimura, K. 1194. 



Zacharewigz, Ed. 482, 888. 

Zaharia, Al. 2539. 

Zaitschek, A. vide Tangl, F. 

Zaleski, W. 207. 

Zaleski, W. and Reinhard, A. 207. 

Zambaur. 1082. 

Zamorani, M. vide Raverma, C. 

Zander, Knock 250. 

Zarzecki. 711. 

2^obnicky, W. vide Stoklasa, J. 

Zech. 3097. 

Zunmermann. 226. 2642. 

Ziselsberger, K. 267. 

Zon R. X438. 

Zon, R. et Briscoe, J. M. 2174. 

Zucvilia. 1607. 

Zunini. 1612. 



II. - PLANT DISEASES. 



A) INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Abortive Flowers in the Olive. 2958. 
Acacia decurrens : Root Disease of. 

636. 
Acarids and parasitic I/aboulbenia- 

ceae. 2971. 
Acarina inhabiting Plants. 3261. 
Accidental Variations in Composi- 
tion of Cupric Mixtures. 999. 
Acer rubrum (scarlet maple): Rot 

produced by Daedalea unicolor. 2312. 
Achatina fulica, a Cotton Pest in 

Mauritius. 2082. 
Acidity of American Vines in Rela- 
tion to Resistance to Phylloxera. 

386. 
Acrostalagmus (Fumago or Smut of 

Cacao Seeds) 363. 
Adhesiveness of Arsenate of l^ead 

Insecticides. 2339. 
Adult Dotted Pentodon on Lettuce 

and Chicory. 381. 
Aecidiimi in the Uromyces Dactylidis. 

355. 
Aegerita Webberi, Fimgus on Aleyro- 

des Cilri and ^. nubifera. 373. 651. 
Aesculiis : Endotrophic Mycorhiza 

of. 2284. 
African Tick : Transmitter of a Try- 

panosome Disease. 3024. 
Agricultural Service : Belgian Congo. 

1078. 
Agriotes lineatus, a Tomato Pest. 1586. 
Agromyza Phaseoli, French-Bean Fly. 

1320. 
Agromyza simplex. The Asparagus 

Miner. 1587. 



Agropyron repens : Eradication of. 

301 1. 
A gratis (Common Dart) injurious to 

Beetroots in Kiew, Russia. 379. 
Agrotis : Control of. 673. 
Alabama argillacea on Cotton in 

St. Kitts. 3049. 
Alder and Osier Weevil, Cryptorrhyn- 

chus Lapathi. 2008. 
Aleurodes olivinus. New Pest on Olive 

Trees. 2000, 2368. 
Aleurodes A triplex, White Fly, New 

Pest of Salt Bush. 3270. 
Aleyrodes Citri. 373, 651. 
Aleyrodes Citri (White Fly of Flo- 
rida) : Parasitic Fimgus on. 373. 

— nubifera : Aegerita Webberi. 373. 

— nubifera. Citrus White Fly: Control 

in Florida. 1562. 

— vaporarium (White Fly) Tomato 

and Cucumber Parasite in Mas- 
sachusetts : Fimiigation with 
Hydrocyanic Acid. 382. 

— (White Fly) and Hydrocyanic 

Acid. 2340. 

— Systematic Destruction of, in 

Texas. 2371. 
Alfalfa Caterpillar (Eurymus eury- 
theme) on Lucerne. 2353. 

— Weevil {Phytonomus murinus). 2352. 
Algae in Ricefields. 1935. 

Algeria : Aspidiotus britannicus. 2325. 

— Importation of Trees and Bushes 

other than Vines and Resinous 
Plants. 2026. 
Algiers : Phylloxera in 1910, 386. 



— 74 



Almond Trees : Red Spider. 1998. 

— Scolyius Amygdali. ig99- 
Alternanthera Achyrantha, Amaran- 

thacea injurious to Sheep. 170. 
Alternaria: Blight of Ginseng. 306. 
Amaranthus Weed injurious to Sheep. 

170. 
American Gooseberry Mildew in Lin- 
colnshire : Order of the Board of 
Agriculture. 368. 

— in Switzerland. 2280. 

— New Investigations for Control of. 

163. 

American Vines : Acidity of Saps 
and Resistance to Phylloxera. 386. 

America : Wheat Rust in Rio Grande 
do Sul. 2977. 

Anaphes gracilis parasite of the Eggs 
of Codling-Moth. 1959. 

Anguillulidae which Destroy Sugar- 
cane. 897. 

Animals injurious to Fruit Trees 
and Bushes in Great Britain. 
1941. 

— injurions to Sugar Cane in Hawaii. 

2357. 2375- 
Anjou : Cochylis Control in 1910. 669. 

Anomalies of Buds of the Genus Quer- 
cus caused by Cnethocanipus proces- 
sionea. 691. 

Anthemis Disease. 3056. 

Anthomyia Ceparum on Onions. 1989. 

Anthonomns grandis " Boll- Weevil ": 
Resistant Varieties of Cotton. 3021. 

— (Cotton-Boll Weevil) in the United 

States. 1583. 

— Drought and Weevil Resistance. 

3020. 
Anthracuose of Beans. 995. 
Anthonomus pomorum, Pest of Apple 

Trees. 683. 
Anthonomyia funesta on Lupins. 378. 
Anthracnosis of the Vine in Mexico. 

1923. 
Anthracnosis of Beans. 995. 

— of Red Clover, Gloeosporium cau- 

livorum. 1540. 



Anticarsia gemtnatilis on Velvet Bean 
and Birds controlling it. 3036. 

— on Velvet Bean in the United Sta- 
tes. 3042. 

Antigua : Aspidiotus destrttctor on 
Coconuts. 3067. 

Anti-Locust Campaign in South A- 
frica. 1580. 

Antiphylloxera Committee in the 
Caucasus. 2022. 

Ants : Used against Cacao-Bug in 
Java. 172. 

Aphelenchus Fragariae on Strawber- 
ries. 2013. 

— olesisius on Chr^^santhemums. 698. 

— Ormerodi of Violet Galls. 2012. 
Apliides. 635. 

— Effect upon the Inflorescence of 

Carrots. 680. 
Aphididae of vS. California. 3255. 
Aphis Brassicae : its Parasites and 
Hyperjoarasites. 1566. 

— Crataegi, on Appletrees. 1592. 
Aphis-eating Ladybirds : new Open- 
ing for Cold-storage. 1563. 

Aphis Fabae, a Beetroot Pest in tlie 
Duchy of Brunswick. 3046. 

— Mali and the Spread of Fire 
Blight. 684. 

— on Pea-nuts in the I'nited vStates. 

1979. 

— Papaveris on Sugar Beets. 2354. 

— persicae niger, Peach Aphis. 1950. 
Aphycits Lounshuryi : Introduction 

into California. 2334. 
Apiosponum Oleae, a Parasite of the 

Olive Tree Scale Insect. 2974. 
Apple and Pear Mildew. 325. 
Apple Bitter Rot. 367. 

— Endomyces mali. 165. 

— Membracids. 1067. 

— Red Colour of Epidermis and Fusi- 

cladium. 1898. 

— Scab or " Black Spot " {Fusicla- 

dium dendriiicum) . 102 1. 
Apple Tree : Aphis crataegi. 1592. 

— Aphis Mali, Schizoneura lanigera 



75 — 



and Scolyius rugulosus in the 
Spread of Fire Blight. 684. 
Apple Tree : Bacillus amylovorus. 627. 

— Birds, injurious to. 2018. 

— BroAvn Rot Fungus {Sclerotinia 

fructigena). 324. 

— Codlin Moth (Carpocapsa pomonel- 

la). 1066, 3274. 

— Canker Nectria diiissima. 165. 

— Cheimatobia brumata. 387. 

— Coieophora Alcyonipenella in Cen- 

tral Asia. 1997. 

— Control of Fusicladium. 1024. 

— Coryneum Follicolum. 166. 

— Crown Gall. 626. 

— Diplodia. 367. 

— Fungoid Diseases in N. S. Wales. 

1022. 

— Hairy Root. 626. 

— Lepidosaphes ulmi in Russia. 1593. 

— New Canker {Conioihyrium Fuc- 

kelii). 2307. 

— Pest [Anihonomus pomorum). 683. 

— Phoma Mali. 166. 

— " Schorf " " Apple Scab" Monilia 

and Sphaerella sentina. 1023. 

— Sphaeropsis. 367. 

— Squirrels injurious to. 2018. 
Areca Catechu : Diseases. 330. 

A reca Palm : Rot Disease or Kole- 

roga 330. 
Argentina : Control of Locusts. 182, 

2381. 

— Destruction of Locusts. 3265. 

— Peyonospora Schachtii, an Onion 

Pest. 2988. 

Argentine Ant. ( Iridomyrmex, hu- 
milis) : Control. 1968. 

Army Worms in Minnesota. 2322. 

Arrowroot (Maranta): Disease in St. 
Vincent. 1915. 

Arsenate of Lead Insecticides : Adhe- 
siveness. 2339. 

— in Vine Growing and Consumption 

of Fresh and Dried Grapes. 346. 
Arsenate of Zinc Insecticide in Viti- 
cultvire : 1287. 



Arsenical Compovmds in Trypanoso- 
miasis, Pyroplasmosis and Spiril- 
losis. 3083. 

— Insecticides. 3037. 

— Treatment of Fruit Trees. 662. 

— Treatment of Urbec in the Yonue, 

France. 387. 
Aschersoi'iia flavocitrina. A aleyrodes. 
Fvmgus on White Fly. 651. 

— Fvmgus on Aleyrodes nubifera 

(White Fly). 1562. 

Ascophore Form of Vine Oidium. 603. 

Ascospora Coffeae : Canker of Coffee 
Plant Stems. 313. 

Ash : Cercospora hinibricoides, in Mexi- 
co. 1552. 

Asparagus : Crioceris asparagi and 
Platyparea poeciloptera. 2341. 

— Crowns : Gangrene. 618. 

— Miner [Agromya simplex). 1587. 

— Resistant to Rust. 2289. 

— Scolopendrella californica. 2362. 
Aspergillus niger : Resistance to Cold. 

279. 
Aspidiotus betulae on Canadian Pop- 
lar. 3069. 

— britannicus, new Pest in Algeria. 

2325- 

— destructor on Coconuts in Antigua 

and Bombay Presidency. 3067. 

— nerii. Rose Laurel and Jasmine 

Louse. 3055. 

— perniciosus, San Jose Scale in the 

Transvaal. 3258. 

Associations for Control of Phylloxera 
in Italy. 2379. 

Athalia spinarum in S. Africa. 1988. 

Atmospheric Impurities and Vegeta- 
tion. 2270. 

Aulacophora oliverei, Pumpkin Beetle : 
Remedy for. 2363. 

Australia : Campaign against Rab- 
bits. 1602. 

Australia : Control of Codling Moth 
{Carpocapsa pomonella). 3274. 

— (Queensland): Devastation by Rats 

of Sugar Plantations. 363. 



76- 



Austria : Measures taken for Control 
of Leaf -curl in Potatoes. {« Blatt- 
rollkrankheit ») . 2020. 

— Phylloxera. 385. 

— Sphaerotheca Mors-uvae on Goose- 

berry and Oidium on Oak in 
Galicia. 365. 

Bacillus amylovorus on Apple and 
Pear Trees in Canada. 627. 

— coli : Onion Rot. 2987. 

— Melonis: Soft Rot of Musktnelons. 

1545- 

— musae on Bananas. 1925. 

— Oleraceae on Swedes. 1005. 
Bacteria in the Leaves of Rubiaceae. 

2966. 

— in Vegetable Pathology. 597. 
Bacterial Disease of Bananas. 1925. 

— of ^Lucerne (Pseudomonas medica- 

ginis). 309. 

— of Swedes probably due to Bacil- 

lus Oleraceae. 1005. 

— of Orchids. 2991. 

Bacterial Kpizoon on Mexican Lo- 
custs. 1561. 

— Rot of Turnips in Ireland. 619. 
Bacteriosis of Iris pallida. 2302. 

— of the Potato. 2978. 

— of the Tomato : Bacterium Briosii. 

1544- 

— of Tomatoes and Potatoes. 163. 

2985. 

— of Vanilla Planifolia. 2990. 
Bacterium Briosianum on Vanilla 

Planifolia. 2990. 

— Briosii. 1544. 

— Montemartini, Canker of Wistaria. 

2993- 

— olivae. 322. 

— Pruni on the Peach. 166. 

Baden (Grand Duchy of) : Experi- 
ments on Remedies against Vine 
Pests. 660. 

Banana Disease due to Bacillus mu- 
sae. 1925. 

— in Bengal. 2959. 



Banana Disease in Central Ame- 
rica. 328. 

— Panama. 329,' 1549. 

— in Surinam and Central Ame- 

rica. 329. 

" Banana Rot " {Gloeosporium Musa- 
rum). 630. 

Bananas : Surinam Disease, Ele- 
phantiasis caused by Ustilaginoi- 
della oedipigera. 1550. 

Barium Chloride as Insecticide. 1537. 

Barley : Fmigi and Insect Pests. 2292. 

Bartsia latifolia, a Weed in S. Austra- 
lia. 1939. 

" Bassara " of Eastern Tobaccos in 
S. Italy. 2274. 

Bean Anthracnose. 995. 

Beech Trees : Defective Formation of 
Heart. 333. 

— " Silver Blight " of Oaks. 331. 
Bees and Vineyards. 1308. 
Beetroots: Decortication of Seeds 

the Control of " Root Disease ". 2297. 

— Diseases. 191 2. 

— Insect Pests. 176, 3045. 

— New Investigations on Beet and 

Mangel Rot. 360. 

— Pest {Aphis Fabae) in the Duchy 

of Brunswick. 3046. 

— Preventive Treatment of Seeds 

with Phenol and Water. 606. 

— Rot : new Investigations. 360. 
Beets : Common Dart [A gratis) in 

Kiew, Russia. 379. 

— " Heart-Rot ". 1055. 

Belgian Congo : Agricultural Service. 
1078. 

— Disease Resistant Wheats. 2287. 
Belgiimi : Gooseberry Mildew [Sphae- 
rotheca MorS'Uvae). 364. 

Bengal : Banana Disease. 2959. 

— (Moka-meh-tal) Insect Pests. 3017. 

— Sugar Cane Borers. 678. 
Biatorina Bouteillei on Leaves of Pit 

and Spruce. 103 1. 
Biological Notes on Species of Dia- 
hrotica in S. Texas. 645. 



77 — 



Biology of the " Froghopper " [To- 

maspis postica). 649. 
Birds and Reptiles in the Control 

of Euphyllura oleae, an Olive Tree 

Pest. 1044. 
Birds controlling Anticarsia gemnia- 

tilis, injurious to Velvet Bean, in 

the United States. 3036. 

— damaging Pears and Apples. 2018. 
Birds destroying Locusts in S. Africa. 

1572- 

— in the Control of Cochylis (Vitictil- 

tural Congress at Montpellier, 
1911) 2278. 

— Protection of 388, 251, 343. 
Bitter Rot of Apples. 367. 

" Black Beetle " {Oryctes Rhinoceros) 

on Coconut Palms. 2372. 
Blackberry, declared a Noxious Weed 

in Queensland, (Australia). 2025. 
Black Currant Rust Cronariium ri- 

bicolum. 3243. 
Blackleg : Bacterial Disease of the 

Irish Potato. 157. 
Black Rats injurious to Sugar Cane 

in Hawaii, controlled by Mongoose. 

2375- 
" Black Rot " in the Ivlichigan Vi- 
neyards : Cupro-Calcic Sprayings. 
366. 

— of Chestnut. 332, 635, 1299, 3002. 
" Black Scab " of Potatoes. 610. 

— of Potato, See Wart Disease. 

— of the Potato, Measures to pre- 

vent Introduction into the U- 
nion of S. Africa. 3280. 
" Black Spot " Fusicladium dendri- 
ticum on Apples. 102 1. 

— or " Peach Freckle ". {Cladospo- 

rium carpophylum). 2309. 
" Black Stripe " of Tomatoes {Ma- 

crosporum Solani). 2293. 
Black- veined White (Pieris). 1559. 
" Bladder Rust" of Scotch Pine. 1929. 
" Blight " of Medlar Tree. 629. 
Bhster Blight on Tea and on Oak. 

363, 370. 



Blister Blight Exobasidium vexans on 
Tea in British India. 363. 

Blister Mite on Cotton in the W. In- 
dies. 1976. 

Blister Rust of White Pine. 1928. 

" Blumenfliege " {Hylemyia coarctata) 
on Winter Wheat. 1971. 

Bohemia : Diseases of Plants in 1910. 
1526. 

— Hydroecia micacea and Diplosis Hu- 

muli (?) on Hops. 1984. 

Bolivia : Control of Locusts. 1281. 

" Boll- Weevil " {Anthonomus grandis) : 
Relation of Drought to Weevil 
Resistance in Cotton. 3020. 

" Boll- Weevil " Resistant varieties 
of Cotton. 3021. 

Bombay Presidency : Aspidiotus des- 
tructor on Coconuts. 3067. 

Bordeaux Injury on Peaches. 1002. 

— • Mixtxire and Soap. 607. 660. 

— Fungicidal Action. 1904. 

— in a Medimn of Sulphate of Iron 

for Control of Mildew and Co- 
chylis. 358. 

" Borer " of Indo-China, Parasite of 
Coffee. 380. 

Borocera madagascariensis , Madagas- 
car Silkworm or " Landibe " : Pa- 
rasites of. 3080. 

Botryodiplodia Theohromae on Cacao 
in Ecuador. 616. 

Botrytis Cinerea cause of Leaf-shed- 
ding in Conifers. 1028. 

— Control by Carbolineum. 1906. 

— on Gooseberries. 319. 

— on Roseries. 365. 

Botrytis Douglasii on Douglas Fir. 634. 
Botrytis of the Gooseberry. 1922. . 

— of Vine : Treatment of 320. 

— vulgaris on Chrysanthemvmis and 

Poinsettias. 2300. 
Br aeon sp. Parasites of Phytonomus ni- 
grirostris. Forage Crops Pest. 1954. 
Brazil : Control of Locusts. 2381. 

— Diaspis Bromeliae and Pseudococcus 

Bromeliae on Pineapples. 1990. 



- 78 - 



Brazil " Vaquinhas " Epicatita sp. inju- 
rious to Potatoes and Vege- 
tables. 2350. 

Breeding of Asparagus Resistant to 
Rust. 2289. 

Breeding Plants to Resist Disease: Cot- 
ton, Cowpea, Timothy, Flax, Me- 
lon. 2288. 

British Colimibia : Fruit Tree In- 
spection. 181. 

British Guiana : Chionaspis Citri on 
Citrus Fruits. 358. 

— Eudamus a£f. proieus Insect Pest 

of Pigeon Pea in British Guiana. 
1987. 

— Protecting Plants against Slugs 

and Snails. 2014. 
British India : Bud Rot of Palms. 369. 

— Diseases of Grovmd Nuts. 2982. 
British India : Fmigus Diseases of the 

Vine at Peshawar. 2997. 

— Insect Pests of Deodar 3068. 

— Jaindhara Disease, Soft Rot of 

Ginger. 1018. 
Broad Beans : Rust of, in the W. of 

F)ngland. 2979. 
Broomrape : Control. 338. 

— on Sunflower in Russia. 1938. 

— {Orobanche). 3250. 

Brown Root Disease on Hevea {Hy- 

menochae noxia). 637. 
Brown Rot Fungus {Sclerotinia fruc- 

tigena) on Apple Trees. 324. 

— of Peaches : Control. 628, 1535. 
Brown Spot of the Navel Orange. 2277. 
Brown-tail Moth, Euproctis chrysor- 

rhoea in the United States. 3252. 

— Iiuportation of its Natural Ene- 

mies into the United States. 656, 

3025. 
Buckwheat : Plant and Animal Pa- 
rasites. 1290, I 32 I. 
Bud-rot of Palms in India. 369. 

— of Coco Palms. 2310, 3004. 

— New Caledonia Coconut Palms 

exempt from Disease. 2310. 
" Bulb Rot " of the lyily. 620. 



Bulgaria : Sleganosporium Kosarofjfi 

on the Mulberry. 1552. 
Bimt Resistant Varieties of Wheat. 

301. 
Bureau for Locust Control in S. Africa. 

1521. 
Burr Weed, Xanthium spp. in Natal : 

Legislative Measures. 2029. 
Bush Clearing to Combat the Tsetse 

Fly. 367. 

Cabbage : Club Root in the State of 
New York. 162. 

— " Soft Black Rot " due to Bacillus 

Oleyaceae, in Ireland. 6ig. 
Cacao and Woodpeckers. 2376. 
Cacao Borer Beetle [Steirastoma de- 
pressum). 354. 

— Bug, in Java, Control by Ants. 172. 

— Canker. 315. 

— Diseases. 615. 

— Diseases in San Domingo. 316. 

— Hemiptera Injurious on the Gold 

Coast. 1 06 1. 

— Insect Pests in Jamaica. 380. 

— Thrips, Helioihrips rubvocinctus. 

1982. 

— Tree : Botryodiplodia Theobromae 

in Ecuador. 616. 

— Fmnago or Smut of Seeds (Acro- 

stalagamus) 363. 

— Oryctes sp. in Samoa. 689. 

— ^^lute Ants on the Gold Coast. 679. 

— " Witches Broom " [Colleiotrichum 

luxificum) in Surinam. 1014. 
Calcium Pentasulphide. 1000. 

— Sulpiride against Fxmiago and Scale 

Insects. 665. 

— Sulphide Mixture : Preparation and 

Experiments. looi, 1003, 1533, 

1534. 1535- 
Calendar for Control of Vine Diseases 

and Pests. 2995, 3059. 
Calico or Mosaic Disease of Cucixm- 

bers and Melons. 364. 
California : Celerj^ Blight, Septoria 

petroselini apii. 2305. 



— 79 — 



California Fvimigation with H^'dro- 
cyanic Acid. 1967. 

— Introduction of Aphycus Louns- 

buryi. 233.]. 

— Noctuidae. 3254. 

— Phylloxera. 179. 

— Phylloxera-Resisting Vine Stocks. 

342. 

Califomian Disease in Vineyards of 
Cerignola, Apulia, Italy. 321. 

Cambium Miners : Life Histor^^ 3018. 

Campaign against Rabbits in Austra- 
lia. 1602. 

Camphor Tree : Trioza Camphorae. 
696. 

Canada : Bacillus mnylovorus on Pear 
and Apple Trees. 627. 

— Injurious Insects. 1034. 

— Legislation on Injurious Insects 

and Plant Diseases. 3089, 3090, 
3091, 3092. 

— See also British Colvunbia. 181. 
— '- See also Nova vScotia. 3091. 
Canadian Poplar : Aspidiotiis Be- 

iulae. 3069. 
Cane Borers on the Louisiana LTpper 

Coast. 1059. 
Canker of Apple Tree : Nectria di- 

iissinia. 165. 

— of Cacao. 315. 

— of Coffee Plant vStems. 313. 

— of the Tubers : New Potato Dis- 

ease. 1007. 

— of Wistaria : Bacterium Montemar- 

tini. 2993. 

— on Larch. 602. 
Cantaloups : Spraying. 2989. 

Cape of Good Hope : Provisions 

against Phylloxera. 182. 
Caper-bush Fly {Ceratitis Savastiani). 

1589- 

Capparis rupestris : Pieris Brassicae, 

P. Rapae. 1322. 
Carbolineum in the Control of Plant 
Diseases. 1962. 

— in the Control of Sclerotinia fruc- 

iigena, Botrytis cinerea, Peni- 



cillium glaucum, and Perono- 
spora of Vines. igo6. 
Carbon Bisulphide for Destraction 

of Field Mice. 2017. 
Care of Ladybirds. 3262. 
Carpocapsa ponionella : Anaphes gra- 
cilis, Parasite of its Eggs. 1959. 

— Control in Australia. 3274. 
Carpophihis hemipterus : Dried Fruits 

Beetle. 3278. 
Carrots : Aphides. 680. 
Cassava : Root Rot in Tasmania. 308. 
Castilloa elastica : Nectria castilloae 
in Mexico. 1552. 

— Lecanium Oleae in India. 177. 

— Root Disease. 2313. 

— and other Plants: Root Di.seases. 

2313- 
Castnia Licus on Sugar-cane in 

Trinidad. 353. 
Catch Crops for repressing Weeds. 

1033- 
Caucasus : Antiphylloxera Committee. 
2022. 

— Knemies of the Tea Plant. 314. 
Ceanothus americanus : Fvmgus Root 

Tubercles of. 2285. 

Cebrionides and Klaterides: Preli- 
minary Study. 372. 

Cedar : Pineus Sibiricus. 1075. 

Cedrus Deodara : Pests of, in British 
India. 3068. 

— Libani : Pests of, in British India. 

3068. 
Celery Late Blight (Septoria Peirose- 
lini apii) in California. 2305. 

— " Leaf vSpot " in England. 3242. 
Central America : Banana Disease. 

328. 
Central Asia : Coleophora alcyonipe- 

nella, an Apple Pest. 1997- 
Ceratitis capitata in Hawaii. 3253. 

— Measures to prevent Introduction 

into United States. 3253, 3281. 
Ceratitis Savasiani, Caper-bush Fly. 

1589. 
Ceratostomella pilifera on Timber. 1930. 



— 8o 



Cercospora heticola on Sugar Beets. 
1009. 

— circumscissa (Shot-Hole Fungus) 

on Rosaceus Fruit Trees. 1019. 

— lumhricoides on the Ash in Mexico. 

1552. 

— personaia on Pea-nuts in the Uni- 

ted States. 1916. 
Cereal Rusts in S. Africa. 1528. 
Cereals : Formalin against Smuts. 604. 

— Frit Fly. Oscinis frit. 2345. 

— Harm caused by Fusarium. 993. 

— Hylemia coarciata. 1908. 

— Insufficiency" of Influence of Radio- 

active Minerals against Com 
Mildew {Erisyphe graminis).2gy5. 

— Mechanical Determmation of the 

Resistance to Diseases and to 
the Attacks of Insects. 1284, 

1313- 

— Remed)'^ against Rust in Seed 

Com. 1286. 

— Smut. 2976. 

— Smut Preventives. 605. 

— Straw Blight. 360. 

Ceylon : Coccidae collected on Rubber 
Plants. 2374. 

— Diseases of Cinnamon Tree. 364. 

— Insect Pests. 2320. 

— " lyUcBinh" Eichornia crassipes SiS 

a Weed in Rice Fields. 1555. 

— Mango-Weevil {Cryptorhynchusman- 

giferae). 177. 

— Mealy Bug [Dactylopius Virgatus 

on Cotton. 175. 

— Nettle Gmb on Tea. 176. 

— Plague of Snails. 1076. 

Change of Food Recorded for Oo- 

chylis and Eudemis. 1947. 
Cheimatobia brumata on Apple Trees. 

387. 

— Control of. 663. 

Chemistry of Fumigation with Hydro- 
cyanic Acid Gas. 1966. 

— of Lime Sulphur Wash. 1533. 
Chermes Piceae : Omission of Sexual 

Reproduction. 3259. 



Cherry Leaf Scorch [Gnomonia ery- 
thro stoma). 1025, 1295. 

— Stem Borer {Semasia Woeberiana) . 

687. 
Chestnut " Black Rot " or " Ink Dis- 
ease ". 332, 635, 1299, 3002. 

— Canker [Diaporthe parasitica) in 

the United States. 3003. 

— Disease of Chestnut Copses. 332. 

— Parandra brunnea in the United 

States. 695. 

— " Silver Blight " of Oaks. 331. 

— Strina in Italy. 289. 

Chevrier Bean in Normandy attacked 

by Scleroiinia Libertiana. 609 
Chionaspis Citri on Citrus Fruits in 

British Guiana. 358. 
Chladochylrium {Physoderma caes- 

pitis): Parasite of Rye Grass. 1008. 
Chlorosis and " Rupestris du Lot ". 

2276. 

— in Fruit Trees : Sulphate of Iron. 

155, 1280, 3229. 

— of the Vine and Mineral Ferti- 

lizers. 2275. 
Chromate of Lead Insecticides. 376. 
Chrysanthemums : Aphelenclns ole- 
status. 698. 

— Botrytis vulgaris. 2300. 

— Rot. 366. 

Chrysomphalus dictyospermi var. pin- 
nulifera : Citrus Scale Insect. 688. 

— and its natural Knemies. 131 2. 
Chrysophlyctis endobiolica , Control 

Experiments with Flowers of Sul- 
phur. 191 1. 

— " Wart Disease " of the Potato. 

361. 

Chrysopia macrophylla (Tapia) : In- 
sects Injurious to. 3071. 

Cicinnobolus, Natural Enemy of Oak- 
white. 167, 998. 

Cicinnobolus Parasite of Sphaerotheca 
mors uvae. 300. 

Cinchona : Control of Solenopsis ge- 
minata. 1985. 

CinnamonTree of Ceylon: Diseases. J<5^. 



— 8i — 



Citellus (Ground Squirrel) injurious 
to Crops in the United States. 699. 

Citrus : " Exanthema ". 984. 

Citnis Fruits : Chionaspis Citri in 
British Guiana. 358. 

— Diplodia Natalensis in Natal. IGi, 

323- 

— Insect Pests in Porto-Rico. 2002. 

— Mottled Leaf, Withertip. 1884. 
Citrus : " Gtunmosis ". 984. 

Citrus Pests : Natural Enemies of, in 

Florida. 1569. 
Citrus : " Squamosis ". 984. 
Citrus Tree Pests in Florida. 1556. 

— Resin Wash for Control of Scale 

Insects. 1317. 

— Wither Tip {Colletotrichum gloco- 

sporioides). 1547. 
Citrus White Fly [Aleyrodes nubifera) 
control of in Florida. 1562. 

— {Aleyrodes) : Systematic Eradica- 

tion of, in Texas. 2371. 
Cladosporiiim carpophylum " Peach 
Freckle " or " Black Spot ". 2309. 

— carpophiluni " Peach Scab ", 
" Black Spot " " Peach Freckle " 

on Peaches. 1535, 2309. 

— sp. on Lemon Blossoms. 3001. 
Clasieyospovium puirefaciens on Su- 
gar Beet. 1009. 

Clover Mildew [Erysiphe communis) : 

Sources of Infections. 1531. 
Clover Seed from Chile : Dodder. 

1936. 
Club Root {Plasmodiophora Bras- 

sicae) in the State of N. York. 162. 
Clythris nmbiguella and Polychrosis 

botrana : Importance of Chemical 

Methods in controlling them. 3060. 
Cnethocampa processionea : Anomalies 

in the Development of the Buds 

of Genus Quercus. 691. 
Coal Tar Products and Vegetation. 

592, 1522. 
Coccidae collected on Rubber Plants 

in Ceylon. 2374. 
Coccus of Citrus Fruits : Chrysom- 



phalus dictyospernii var. pinnuli- 

fera, and its natural Enemies. 13 12. 
Coccus viridis (" Green Scale " of 

Coffee and Tea Plants in Ceylon. 

2358. 
Cochin China : Insect Pest of Rice. 

1318. 
Cochylis ambiguella : Control. 357. 
Cochylis and Eudemis : Change of 

Food. 1947. 

— Control. 671. 

— : Geographical area of. 647. 

— in the Gironde. 682. 

— Oophthora semblidis an Egg- Pa- 

rasite. 3263. 
Cochylis and Lamp traps. 2344. 

— and Pyralis: Destruction by Lamp 

Traps. 3273. 

— and Pyralis : Sulphide of Carbon. 

384. 

— and Solenobia iriquetrella, Insect 

resembling it. 13 10. 

— and Sulphide of Carbon. 3038. 

— Are their Larv^ae to be foimd 

in Vine-Shoots ? Conditions for 
Winter Treatment. 668. 

— Attempts to destroy. 383. 

— Caterpillars and other Insects con- 

trolled by Phenate of Nicotine. 

2343- 

— Control in Anjou in 1910. 669. 

— Control of, in the Rhine Palati- 

nate. 705. 

— Destruction by Birds (Viticultural 

Congress at Montpellier 191 1). 
2278. 

— in the Gironde in 1910. 625. 

— Measmes officially recommended 

for its Control in Wiirttemberg. 
704. 

— New Treatment of. 179. 382. 

— Niunber of Generations, Ovaries, 

Fecundity. 340, 1945, 1946. 

— of the Vine: Method for Destruc- 

tion. 2342. 

— Remedies tried in 1910 in the 

Vaudois Vineyards. 1048. 



— 82 — 



Cochylis: Scalding as a Reinedyf or. 670. 

Treatment with Bordeaux Mixture 

in a Medivun of vSulphate of 
Iron. 358. 
Coconut : Insect Pests in the W. In- 
dies. 2004. 
Coconut Palm : a new Enemy, Hy- 
lecoelus, in Madagascar. 2005. 

— " Bud-rot ". 2310, 3004. 

— Diseases. 368. 

— Hylecoetus in the vStraits Settle- 

ments. 2023. 

in New Caledonia exempt from 

" Bud-rot". 2310. 

— Insect Pests. 1058. 

— Oyyctes Rhinoceros in Kaiser Wil- 

helm's Land and Bismarck Ar- 
chipelago. 2372. 

— Root Disease. 1296. 

Coconuts : Aspidiotus destructor in 
Antigua and Bombay Presidency. 
3067. 

— Stem Bleeding Disease. 161. 
Codlin Moth. 1066. 

— Anaphes gracilis, a Parasite of its 

Eggs. T959- 

— and Plum Curculio, One-spray 

Method. 667. 

— (Carpocapsa pomonella) : its Ene- 

mies. 654. 
— . Control in Australia. 3274. 
■ — Maggots : Treatments. 1575. 
Coffea arabica : Resistance to He- 
mileia in Java. 2299. 

— libevica : Resistance to Henileia in 

Java. 2299. 

— robusta : Corticum javanicuni and 

Hemileia vastatrix in Java. 191 7. 

— robusta : Xyleborus Coffeae in Java. 

1980. 
Coffee : " Borer " of Indo-China. 380. 

— " Borer " {Xylotrechtis quadrupes 

in Tonking. 1585. 

— Pellicularia Koleroga. 2983 

— Canker of Stem. 313. 

— in Ceylon : " Green Scale " [Coccus 

viridis). 2358. 



Coffee not affected by Hemileia 
vastatrix in Reimion and Mada- 
gascar. 362. 

— Tree : Diseases. 613. 

Cola nitida : Phospharus Jansonii 

in French W. Africa. 3051. 
Cold Treatment for Preservation of 

Aphis eating Ladybirds. 1363. 
Coleophora alcyonipenella, an Apple 

Pest in Russian Central Asia. 1997. 

— caryaefoliella, the Pecan Cigar Case- 

Bearer. 360. 

— laricella : Injurious to Larch in 

Russia. 1074. 

Collembola (Springtails), their Im- 
portance. 1949. 

Colletotrichum falcatum, " Red Rot " 
of the Sugar-cane. loii. 

— gloesporioides. Wither Tip of Citrus 

Trees. 1547. 

— luxificunt " Witches Broom " on 

Cacao. 1014. 
Colloidal Copper vSoap Fungicide. 

1536. 
" Colorado Beetles " on Potatoes. 

^351- 
Colorado : Gymnosporangium. 1896. 

— Potato Beetle " and its Natural 

Enemies. 2332. 
Combined Treatments against Oi- 

dium, Grape Mildew and Botrytis. 

320. 
Common Dart, injurious to Beets in 

Kiew, Russia. 379. 
Common Fly : Destruction of. 3078, 

3079- 

Competition of Insecticides at Va- 
lencia. 1 31 4. 

Conidia formed in Summer : Resist- 
ance to Cold. 1 891. 

Conifers : Botrytis cinerea. 1028. 

— Breakage of Branches caused by 

Snow and Herpotrichia nigra. 371. 
■ — Diseases and Place of Origin of 

Seeds. 631. 
Coniothyrium Fuckelii, a New Apple 
Canker. 2307. 



-83 



Coniothyrlum Fuckelii : Rose Canker. 

2303- 
Conium maculatum. Hemlock jjro- 

claimed a Weed. 1330. 

Conotvachelus nenuphar. Plum Cur- 

culio in the United-States. 628. 

— Plmn Curculio on Peaches. 685, 

1535. 1577- 

Contarinia [Diplosis) sorghicola (Sor- 
ghum Midge). 1565, 2330, 2348. 

Contarinia gossypii (Flower bud Mag- 
got) on Cotton in the W. Indies. 1976. 

Control of A gratis. 673. ' 

— of Algae in Ricefields. 1935. 

— of Argentine Ant (Pridomyrmex 

humilis). 1968. 

— of Boll worm (Earias insulana) 

in Egypt etc. 3048. 

— of Broomrape. 338. 

— of Chematobia, Winter moths harm- 

ful to Apple Trees. 663. 

— of Codling JSIoth {Carpocapsa po- 

monella) in Australia. 3274. 

— of Cotton Weevils in the United 

States. 350. 

— of Crows. 388. 

— of Cuscuta arvensis in Italy. 3009. 

— oiCyclocomium of Olive Tree. 1289. 

— of Epicauta spp. (" Vaquinhas "). 

2350- 

— of Field Mice in Oermany. 2016. 

— of Finger- and-Toe Disease. 2984. 

— of Froghoppers (Tomaspis) on 

Sugarcane. 352. 

— of Grape Moth. 384. 

— of Grape Pests in (^rmany. 384. 

— of Green Aplris of Peach Trees by 

means of Red Oil Emulsion. 
2367. 

— of Large Larch Sawfly {Nemaius 

erichsoni). 666. 

— of Locusts 1572, 1578, 1579, 1580, 

3265. 

— of Locusts in S. Africa and in India. 

1521, 1580. 

— of " Oak White " 1298. 3006. 

— of Olive Fly. 2369. 



Control of Pear Thrips. 1049. 

— of Phlaeotribus Oleae of Olive 

Trees in Liguria. 359. 

— of Potato Moth {Lita solanella). 1047. 

— of Root Disease of Yoimg Sugar 

Beets. 307. 

— of Scale Insects by Means of Fun- 

goid Parasites. 171. 

— of " vSlijmziekte " of Tobacco. 311. 

— of Solenopsis geminata. Ant inju- 

rious to Cinchona. 1985. 

— of Take-all in Wheat. 2291. 

— of the Enemies of Plants in Fran- 

ce. 3085. 

— of Vine Diseases and Pests : Ca- 

lendar. 2995. 3059. 

— of Weeds by Means of their Na- 

tural Enemies. 2315. 

Cooper's Liquid : Destruction of Wool- 
ly Aphis. 377. 

Copper Blight of Tea {Laestadia 
Theae) 1012. 

— Oxy chloride as Fvmgicide on Vines. 

1537. 3239- 

— Salts and Vine Mildew. 624. 

— Salts in Viticulture (Viticultural 

Congress at Montpellier in 
1911). 227S. 

— Soap in Colloidal Condition for 

Fungicides. 1536. 

— Sulphate on the Leaves of the Tea 

Plant after Spraying. 156. 

Cordiceps sp. Parasitic on Larvae 
of Swift Moths (//e/?tfl/Ms) . 190 1. 

Cork-Oak : Destruction of Wood- 
Leopard Caterpillars {Zeuzera py- 
rina). 1598. 

" Corky " Scab of Potatoes. 1890. 

Com Mildew [Erisyphe graininis ; 
Influence of Radio-active IVIinerals. 

2975- 
Corticium javanicum on Coffea yo- 

busta in Java. 1917. 
Corticium laetum ; New Fig Disease. 

1924. 
Corylus Avellana var. laciniata : A- 

nomalous Leaves. 982. 



-84 



Coryneum Bejerinkii on Fruit Trees. 

I020. 

— Follicolum on Apple Trees. 166. 
Costa Rica : Station of Plant Patho- 
logy. 1520. 

Cotton : " Blister Mite " [Eriophyes 
gossipii). in the W. Indies. 1976- 

— Boll Weevil {Authonomus grandis) 

in the United States. 1583. 

— Control of Boll Worm {Earias 

insulana) in Egypt etc. 3048. 

— Control of Heliothis Obsoleta in 

Uganda. 3047. 

— Control of the White Louse (" Piojo 

Blanco ") in Peru. 1042. 

— Crown Canker. 611. 

— Daclylopius Virgaius Mealy Bug 

in Ceylon. 175. 

— Diseases in Missisippi U. S. 310. 

— Bxperiments with Cotton vStain- 

ers {Dysdercus sp.). i975- 

— Importation of Seed forbidden in 

Turkey. 3088. 

— injured by Alabama argillacea in 

St. Kitts. 3049. 

— " Leaf Curl ". 1523. 

— New Disease in Dahomey Phoma 

Rotimii. 191 4. 

— Pest : Achatina fulica. 2082. 

— Relation of Drought to Weevil Re 

sistance. 3020. 

— Resistant Varieties. 2288. 

— Scale Insect. 1057. 

— Seed: Importation into Kamerun. 

3093- 

— Varieties Resistant to Boll- Weevil. 

3021. 

— Weevils in the United States : De- 

monstration Work. 350. 

— Worm {Alabama argillacea) in W. 

Indies. 1976. 

— Worms in St. Kitts. 3049. 
Cowpeas : Insect Pests. 3269. 

— Resistant Varieties. 357, 2288. 
Cricotopus : New Chironomide or 

Midge Larva feeding on a Water 
Lily. 178. 



Creation of Disease- resisting Varie- 
ties : Potatoes, CoAvpeas. 357. 

Crioceris asparagi on Asparagus : Con- 
trol of. 2341. 

Cronartium ribicola on Wliite Pine. 
1928. 

— Black currant Rust. 3243. 
Cronartium Peridermium -Pint: "Blad- 
der Rust " of Scotch Pine. 1929. 

Crops, injured by Ground Squirrels. 
Crown Canker of Cotton Plants. 

611. 
" Crown Gall" 2967. 
"Crown gall" Dendrophagns globosus. 

298. 

— and Legmne Inoculation. 1894. 

— and Sarcoma. 2286. 

— of Grape Vines. 623. 

— of the Apple Tree. 626. 

Crows : To keep them from Sown 

Lands. 388. 
Crucifers : Diamond backed Cabbage 

Moth [Plutella criiciferarum). 380. 
Cryptogamic Diseases : destniction 

of Weeds. 169. 
Cryptorrhynchus Lapathi, Alder and 

Osier Weevil. 2008. 
— ■ on Populus canadensis. 3070. 
Cryptorrhynchus angi ferae. Mango 

Weevil. 177, 2373. 
Cucmnber : Calico or Mosaic Disease. 

364. 

— Control of Aleyrodes vaporarium 

("White Fly") by Means Hy- 
drocyanic Acid Fmnigations. 
382. 

— Heterodera radicicola. 201 1. 

— Spraying. 2989. 
Cucurbitaccae : New Disease of, {Fu- 

sarium lagenarium) in Russia. 349. 
Cucurbitaria Pruni Mahaleb. 1026. 
Cultivated Trees and Vine : Fumago. 

355. 
Cumin : Depressaria nervosa. 1908, 

1986. 
Cupric Mixtures: Accidental Variations 

in Composition. 999. 



- 85 - 



Cupro-Calcic Sprayings against Black 
Rot in Michigan Vineyards. 366. 

Curcxilio on Peaches : Control. 1535. 

Curcuma : Taphrina maculans. 614. 

Currant Bushes : Insect Pests. 3057. 

Cuscuta arvensis in Italy, Control. 
3009. 

— and C. Trifoliis. Effect of Chemical 

Substances on the Germination 
of their Seeds. 2316. 

Cuscuta racemosa : Possibility of its 
Diffusion in Russia. 1553. 

Cutworms. 2322. 

Cyanospora Albicedrae on the Motm- 
tain Cedar [Sahina sabinoides). 1030. 

Cybocephalus rufifrons : Metamor- 
phosis and Habits. 375. 

Cycloconium (of Olive Tree): Control. 
1289. 

Cycloconium Oleaginum : on Olive 
Trees. 2999. 

Cystopsova : New Genus of Uredi- 
neae. 294. 

Cytosporina Ribis on Gooseberries. 319. 

— sepiospora ou Pinus Montana in 

Russia. 3005. 



Dactyiopius Virgatus (Mealy Bug) on 

Cotton in Ceylon. 175. 
Dacus Oleae (Olive Fly) Experiments 

in the Province of Florence, Italy, 

against the Olive Fly. 3005. 
Daedalea unicolor, Rot of Scarlet 

Maple. 2312. 
Dahomey : Phoma Roumii on Cotton. 

1914. 
Damage caused by Insect and Fim- 

goid Pests. 1309. 

— by Smoke, and Remedies. 285. 

— by the Adult Dotted Pentodon. 381. 
Dandelions in Lawns : Destruction of, 

by Spraying. 2319. 
Darluca Filum : a Parasite of Rusts. 

299. 
Decay of Ornamental Plants and the 

Tarring of Roads. 35.5. 



Deciduous Fruit Insects and Insecti- 
cides. 1 59 1. 

Decortication of Sugar Beet Seeds 
in Control of " Root Disease". 2297. 

Defective Formation of the Heart of 
Beech Trees. 333. 

Deilephila Elpenor, Vine Hawk Moth : 
Its Natural Enemies. 1567. 

Depressaria nervosa on Cvunin. 1908, 
1986. 

Dendrophagus Globosus : Cro\vn Gall. 
298. 

Destruction of Dandelions by Spray- 
ing. 2319. 

— of the Common Fly. 3078, 3079. 

— of Field Mice. 362, 1328, 2016, 2017. 

— of Field Mice with Carbon Bisulphi- 

de. 2017. 

— of Fruit Flies. 174. 

— oflyoeusts. 1572, 1578, 1579, 1580, 

3265. 

— of Rats. 361, 3073, 3074. 

— of Rodents. 388. 

— ofRunch by Sulphuric Acid . 1304. 

— of Slugs and Snails. 377. 

— of Snails injurious to Mulberry 

Plantations in Japan. 378. 

— of Stinging Nettles. 1 305 . 

— of Thistles. 1306. 

— of Tobacco Worms by Cold. 177. 

— ofTse-tse Flies. 367, 1603. 

— of Vine Cochylis. 2342. 

— of Weeds by Cryptogamic Di- 

seases. 169. 

— of White Fly in Texas. 2371. 
Destruction of Wood-Leopard Ca- 
terpillars in Cork Oak Forests. 1598. 

Didbrotica sp., in Texas, Biological 
Notes. 645. 

Diacrisia virginica injurious to Kitchen 
Garden Produce. 177. 

Diamond backed Cabbage Moth. {Plu- 
tella cruciferarum). 380. 

Diaporthe parasitica, Chestnut Can- 
ker, in the United States. 3003. 

Diaprepes abbreviatus Sugar-Cane 
Root Borer. 2356. 



— 86 



Diaspis Bromeliae on Pineapple in 

Brazil. 1990. 
Diaspis pentagona and its Knemies. 375. 

— Geographical Distribution of. 1557. 

— Its Parasites in Italy. 1956. 

— List of Plants attacked. 1311. 

— Pnuiing Mulberries close to the 

Ground to prevent its Attacks. 
3022. 
Diaspis of the Mulberry Tree : Pruning 

as a Preventive. 1050. 
Diatraea saccharalis, Parasite of Reana 

luxurians. 3043. 
Die Back of Hevea. 168. 

— of the Gooseberry. 1922. 

— of the Orange. 1884. 

— of the Walnut. 1884. 
Dinoderus truncatus, Larger Grain 

Borer, affecting Stored Products. 
1581. 
Diplodia causing Gumming of Peach 
and Orange. 1895. 

— natalensis on Citrus Fruit in Natal. 

164. 323. 

— Pinea on Pines. 633. 

— sp. Parasites of Pear and Apple 

Trees. 367. 
Diplosis (Contarinia) sorghicola. The 
Sorghum INIidge : Its Natural Ene- 
mies. 1565. 

— Humidi a Hop Pest in Bohemia. 

1984. 
Disease of Banana. " Banana Disease " 
in Central America. 328 

— of Coconut Palm (Hylocoetus) in 

the vStraits Settlements : Legis- 
lative Measures 2023. 

— of Hevea brasiliensis " Die-Back" 

due to Gloeosporium alborubrum 
168. 

— of Lilac, Helminthosporiuni syrin- 

gae. 1017. 

— of Rhubarb {Peronospora Jaa- 

piana) in German}'. 317. 

— of Roots of Hevea. 638. 

— of Roots of Yoxmg Sugar Beets : 

Control. 307. 



Disease of Sainfoin in Italy. 2981. 

— of Sugar-Cane in Mexico. 1541. 

— of Tobacco : in the Dutch E. 

Indies. 312, 617. 

— of the Leaves of Hevea in Su- 

rinam. 335. 

— Resisting Plants. 357, 301, 602, 

996, 1284, 1897, 1899, 2287, 
2288, 2289, 2970, 3234, 3235, 

3236. 3234- 
Diseasi and Decaj' of Plantations of 
Scotch Firs. 353. 

— and Enemies of the Rose Tree. 

1294, 1324. 

— and Pests of Sugar Beets. 1053, 

1036. 

— bacterial, of Orchids. 2991. 

— of Apple Trees in N. S. Wales in 

1909. 1022. 

— of Bananas in Surinam and Cen- 

tral America. 329. 

— of Beetroots. 191 2. 

— of Cinnamon in Ceylon. 364. 

— of Cacao in San Domingo 316. 

— of Cacao Trees. 615. 

— of Coconut Palms. 368. 

— of Coffee Tree. 615. 

— of Conifers and Place of Origin of 

Seeds. 631. 

— of Cotton. 61 1 . 

— of Crops in Hmigary in 1910. 589. 

— of Crops in Sagaing District of 

Burma. 1889. 

— of Cultivated Plants in France. 1886. 

— of Economic Plants in the United 

States. 1524. 

— of Fruit Trees in N. S. Wales in 

1909, 291. 

— of Ground-nuts in the Bombay 

Deccan. 2982. 

— of Hevea brasiliensis. 1932. 

— of Peas. 3241, 3272. 

— of Plants: Control by Carbolinemu. 

1962. 

— of Plants in Bohemia in 1910 1526. 

— of Plants in Russia in 1909. 1527, 
1888. 



- 87 - 



Diseases of Plants in the State of New 
York. 988. 

— Plants in the Govt, of Moscow, 

Russia in 1910. 987. 

— Plants in Tobago in 1909- 1 910. 292. 

— Plants : Special Sections at the 

Intel-national Horticviltural Ex- 
hibition of London, 191 2. 2279. 
^ Plants : W'^ork of the Russian 
Department of Agriculture in 
1 909, in their Control. 2021. 

— Prunus Mahaleb. 1026. 

— Rubber Trees. S71. 

— Rye. 3266. 

— Spinach at Norfolk. Virginia. U. S. 

318. 

— Sugarbeet caused by the Soil's 

Reaction. 280. 

— Sugar-Cane. 160, 361, 613, loio, 

1541- 

— the Cotton Plant in IVIississippi 

U. S. 310. 

— the Fig Tree. 3276. 

— the Hazel Tree. 1597. 

— the Medlar. 686. 

— the Mulberry. 3277. 

— the Olive Tree. 3065. 

— the Pine apple. 1292. 

— the Potato in Ireland. 1910. 

— the Tea Plant. 161, 314, 615, 

1013, 1291. 

— the Vine. 2996, 3058. 

— the Vine, at the Viticultiiral Con- 

gress at Montpellier. 2278. 

— the Vine in France in 1910. 1283. 

— the Violet Plant. 365. 

— the Walnut Tree. 3066. 

— transmitted by Stinging and Blood 

sucking Insects. 1320. 
Disinfection of Seed. 357. 

— Soil sown with Tobacco. 362. 
Douglas Fir : Bobrytis Douglasii. 634. 

— Hylobius Abietis and Megastimus 

spermatrophus. 694. 

— Strophosomus obesiis. 2006. 
Dodder : Destruction bj' Sodiixm Ni- 
trate. 169. 



Dodder in Clover Seed from Chile. 1936. 

— Physiological Studies on. 337. 
Dothiorellina Tanhofjii New Disease 

of the Mulberry. 1297. 
Dried Fruits Beetle [Cavpophilus 

hemipterus). 3278. 
Drinking Water containing Mosquito 

Larvae. 3081. 
" Droah " Vine Disease in Lower 

Austria. 288. 
Drought and Sugarbeets. 2273. 

— and Weevil Resistance in Cotton. 

3020. 
Dry Farming Weed P/Xterminator. 

3012. 
Dry Rot m Timber. 168, 1301, 

3249- 
" Dry spotting " of Oats. 590. 
Dutch 15. Indies. Imperaia arundi- 

nacea. Weed injurious to Teak and 

Rubber Plants. 2318. 

— Tobacco Diseases. 312, 617. 
Dysdercus sp. : Cotton Stainers, Bx- 

periments. 1975. 



Earias insulana : Cotton BoU-wonn, 
Control in Egypt etc. 3048. 

" Ear- Worm " [Laphygma fugiperda), 
on Maize. 378. 

Eastern Tobaccos: " Bassara " or 
" Verderame ". 2274. 

Economic Entomologv'. Recent Pub- 
lication. 3015. 

— Zoolog}^ in England. Report for 

1908-1909. 1307. 

Ecuador : Botryodiplodia Theobro- 
mae on Cacao. 616. 

Eel worms of Violet Galls and of 
Leaf -spot of Ferns and Chrysan- 
themums. 2012. 

— on Sugarcane. 897. 

Effects of the Svunmer of 191 1 on 
Horticultural Products in France. 
3226. 

Egg-parasite of Cochylis and Eude- 
mis. 3263. 



- 88 - 



Egypt : Control of Cotton Boll Worm 
{Earias iusulana). 3048. 

— Experiments on the Destruction of 

Insects. 344. 

— Parasites of the Cotton Boll- worm 

{Earias insulana). 3031. 

Eichornia crassipes {" Luc Binh ") 
in the Rice Fields of Ceylon. 1555. 

Elaeagnus argeniea : Fungus on Root 
Tubercles. 2285. 

Elaterides and Cebrionides, Prelimi- 
nary Study. 372. 

Elaphidion villosum The " Oak Pru- 
ner ", in the Forests of the United 
States. 6qo. 

Elephantiasis of Banana. 329, 1550. 

Empusa, [Entomophthora) sphaeros- 
perma, parasitic on Pupae of Phy- 
(onomus nigrirostris. 1902. 2973. 

Endomyces Mali. 165. 

— Magnusii. 165. 

Endotrophic Mycorhiza of Horse 

Chestnut. 2284. 
Enemies and Diseases of the Rose 

Tree. 1294. 1324- 

— of Diaspis pentagona. 375. 

— of Funtumia elastica. 1599. 

— of Kapok. 351. 

— of " Landibe " [Borocera madagasca- 

riensis) Madagascar Silkworm. 
3080. 

— of Plants in France: Control. 3085. 

— of the Codling Moth [Carpocapsa 

pomonella). 654. 

— of the Fig Tree. 3276. 

— of the Hazel Tree. 1597. 

— of the Medlar. 686. 

— of the Mvilberry. 3277. 

— of the Olive. 179. 

— of the Plmn. 179. 

— of the Raspberry. 1588. 

— of the Rhododendron. 355. 

— of the Tea Plant in the Caucasus .314. 

— of the Vine. 3058. 

— of the Vine : Action of the German 

Government in their Control. 703. 

— of the Walnut Tree. 3066. 



England : Uromyces Betae on Man- 
golds. 1913. 

— West of : Rust of Broad Beans. 

2979. 
Entomological (agricvdtural) Station 
of Florence : Experiments in 1910 
against the Olive Fly. 105 1. 

— Papers. 3016. 

— Station of Kiev : Report. 1993. 

— Station of the Rennes Faculty of 

Science. 1278. 
Entomophagous Fimgi in the W. In- 
dies. 2329. 
Entomophilous Flowers : Experimen- 
tal Investigations. 170. 
Eniomosporium maciilatuin, Leaf Blight 

of Peat and Quince. 2308. 
Epicauta Larvae, Foes of Schist ocerca 
paranense. 2333. 

— spp. (" Vaquinhas ") injurious to 

Potatoes and Vegetables in 
Brazil. 2350. 

Epidiaspis pyricola on Fruit Trees : 
Spraying Experiments in the U- 
nited States. 672. 

Eradication of Quack Grass. 301 1. 

Ergot in Gramineae spread by In- 
sects. 991. 1039. 

Eriophyes gossipii (Blister Mite on 
Cotton in the W. Indies. 1976. 

Erisyphaceae : Wintering of. 1893. 

Erysiphe communis : Sources of In- 
fection of Clover Mildew. 152 1. 

— graminis, Com Mildew : Influence 

of Radio-active Minerals. 2975. 
Euchlaena m,exicana (" Teosinte ") : 

Insect Pests of. 3269. 
Eudamus aff. proieus : Insect Pest 

of Pigeon Peas in British Guiana. 

1987. 
Eudemis and Cochylis : Control. 671. 

— and Cochylis : Geographical Area 

of. 647. 

— and Cochylis in the Gironde in 
1910. 1316. 

— and Cochylis : Oophthora seniblidis, 

an Egg-parasite of. 3263. 



89 



Eudemis boirana in the Neighbou- 
rhood of Paris. 68 1. 

— Control of, in the Rhine Palati- 

nate. Germany. 705. 

— in the Gironde in 1910. 625, 682. 
Euphorbiaceae : Disease of, due to 

Lepiomonas Davidii. 2994. 

Euphorbia pulcherrima : Botrytis vul- 
garis. 2300. 

Euphyllura oleae, an Olive Tree Pest 
controlled by Birds and Reptiles. 
1044. 

Euphyllura oleae : on Olive Trees. 
1068. 

Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Brown -tail 
Moth) and Porthetria dispar (Gipsy 
Moth) : Importation into the U- 
nited States of their Parasites. 3025. 

— and Liparis monacha : Natural 

Knemies of. 656. 

— Brown tail Moth in the United 

States. 3252. 

Eurymus eurytheme. Alfalfa Caterpil- 
lar on Lucerne. 2353. 

Euthrips pyri : Control. 1049. 

EiUypa caulivora on Para Rubber 
Trees. 639. 

Eutypella prunastri on Plum Trees. 
1548. 

Evils of Weeds. 640. 

" Exanthema " of Citrus. 984. 

Exoascus deformans on Peach Trees. 
326. 

Exobasidium vexans on Tea in British 
India. 363. 

Factory Smoke. 1281. 

Fagopyruni (Buckwheat) Vegetable 

and Animal Parasites. 1321. 
Fann-yard and Liquid Manure : 

Influence on Phylloxera and its 

Eggs. 1560. 
Fecundity of Cochylis. 1945. 
Ferrous Sulphate against the Rusts 

of Plants. 3238. 
Field Mice : Control of, in Germany. 

2016. 



Field mice Destruction of. 362, 1328, 
2016, 2017. 

— Destruction by Carbon Bisulphide. 

2017. 

— Experiments on Destruction in 

France. 362. 
Figs : Premature Dopping of, in N. 

Carolina. 983. 
Fig Tree : Coriicium laetum. 1924. 

— Enemies and Diseases of. 3276. 

— Insect Pests of. 1593. 

— Tubercularia fid. 1924. 
Finger-and-toe Disease [Plasmodio- 

phora Brassicae). 2984. 

— Infection Experiments. 601. 
Fir : Biatorina Bouteillei. 103 1. 

Fire Blight on Apple and Pear Trees 
in Canada. 627. 

— spread by Aphis Mali, Schizoneura 

lanigera and Scolytus rugiilo- 
sus. 684. 
France : Permanent Commission for 

Sale of Nicotine. 3086. 
Flax : Resistant Varieties. 2288. 
Flea Beetles and Colorado Beetles 

on Potatoes. 2351. 
Floods : Damage by, ua the Forests 
of Gemiersheim, Palatinate. 985. 

— in 1909 in France and Natural 

History. 644. 
Floret Sterility of Wheats due to 

Fimgi in the United States. 1907. 
Florida : Citrus Tree Pests. 1536. 

— Natural Enemies of Citrus Pests. 

1569. 
Florida : White Fly {Aleyrodes nu- 

bifera) Control. 1562. 
Flower-bud Maggot {Contarinia gossy- 

pii) on Cotton in the \\'. Indies. 

1976. 
Flowers of Sulphur in the Control of 

Potato Pest, ChrysophlycHs endo- 

biotica. 191 1. 
" Fluted Scale " controlled by Vedalia 

cardinalis {Novius cardinalis) . 1957. 
Food of Toussah vSilk worm and Oak 

Oidium. 355. 



— qo — 



Foot-rot in Wheat. 2291. 

Forage Crops : Lesser Clover-Leaf 

Weevil in N. America. 1974. 
Forest Pests in France. 1070. 
Forests : Injurious Insects. 1326. 

— of Gemersheim, Damage by Floods. 

985- 

Formalin against the Smuts of Ce- 
reals. 604. 

Formalin : Treatment of Seeds. 359. 

Formosa : Laportea pterostigma, Sting- 
ing Tree. 3013. 

France : Department for the Phyto- 
pathological Inspection of Horti- 
cultural Produce. 1604. 

— Destruction of Field Mice. 362. 

— Diseases of Cultivated Plants. 1886. 

— Diseases of the Vine, at the Viti- 

cultural Congress at Montpel- 
lier. 2278. 

— Effects of the Summer of 191 J 

on Horticultural Products. 3226. 
- — Engagement of Staff of Horticul- 
tural Plant Diseases Inspection. 
3084. 

— Entomological Station of the Ren- 

nes Faculty of Science. 1278. 

— Experiments on Destruction of 

Field iVIice. 362. 

— Mildew, Cochylis and Eudemis in 

the Gironde in 1910. 625. 

— Phylloxera in Champagne. 178. 

— Phytopathological Station in Me- 

doc. 1 5 18. 

— Protection of Crops. 3085. 

— see also French Colonies and Pro- 

tectorates. 2378. 
^ Station of Viticultural Informa- 
tion in the Gironde. 2956. 

— Temporary Entomological Stations. 

2269. 

— The Chief Forest Pests. 1070. 

— Vine Diseases and the Vintage 

Decrease in 1910. 1283, 1302. 
French-Bean Fly (Agromya Pha- 

seoli). 1320. 
French Colonies and Protectorates : 



Decree for the Protection against 

Hemileia vastatyix. 2378. 
French West Africa : Phospharus jan- 

sonii injurious to Cola nitida. 3051. 
Fringed Water Lil}' {Limnanthemm 

nympfi aides) : Cricotopus. 178. 
" Frit Fly " {Oscinis frit). 1971. 

— (Oscinis frit) on Cereals. 2345. 
Froghopper of the Sugar cane : 

Identification of. 1358. 

— [Tomaspis postica) : Biology. 649. 

— {Tomaspis postica) : Green Muscar- 

dine. 650. 

— (Tomaspis) on Sugar-cane. 379, 

352, 1584- 
Frviit and Forest Trees, Insect Pests 

in Russia. 1993. 
Fruit Flies : Destniction of. 174. 

— in N. S. Wales. 2364. 

Fruit Trees and Cereals ; Insect Pests 
in Russia. 1969. 

— and White Ants (Termes spp.). 

2365- 

— Duty-free Admission in Russia of 

Preparations for Control of Dis- 
eases. 3087. 

— Grease Banding. 173. 

— Growing : Arsenical Treatment. 

662. 

— Pest. 622. 

— Pe.sts in (ireat Britain. 1941. 

— Coryneum Bejerinkii. 1020. 

— Limewasliing for Control of Pests. 

348. 

— New Enemies. 356. 

— Rhynchites pauxillus in Russia. 

1995- 

— Spraying European Fruit Lecanium 

and European Pear Scale. 672. 

— Withering of Tops due to Fimgi. 

2968. 
Fumagi : Contribution to Study of. 

295- 
Fvunago and Scale Insects : Calcium 

Sulphide. 665. 

— of Vine and Cultivated Trees. 355. 

— of Tobacco. 1543- 



91 



Fumaaio or Smut of Cacao seeds. 363. 
Fumigation in California with Hy- 
drocyanic Acid. 1977. 

— with Hydrocyanic Acid against 

White Fly of Tomatoes and Cu- 
cmnbers. 382. 

— with Hydrocyanic Acid : Chemistry 

of. 1966. 
Fmigi affecting Barley. 2292. 

— affecting Rice. 305, 608. 

— as Natural Enemies of Parasities 

355, 299, 300, 998, 1900, 1901, 
1902, 2972, 2973. 

— as Parasites on White Fly on 

Florida. 651. 

— causing Withering of Tops of Fruit 

Trees. 2968. 

— Natural Enemies of Tipulidae. 374. 

— New Species in Japan. 1529. 

— New Species in Texas. 1530. 

— of the Caucasus. 599. 

— on Cultivated Plants in Sagaing 

District, Burmah. 1942. 

— on Mosses. 2282. 

— on the Olive Tree. 2999. 

— (Parasitic) of the Canton of Neu- 

chatel. 598. 
Fungicidal Action of Bordeaux Mix- 
tures. 1904. 

— Properties of Liver of Sulphur. 1003. 

— Spraying Mixtures with High 

Wetting Power. 1285. 
Fmigicide and Insecticide Regulations 
in the United States. 181. 

— Colloidal Copper Soap. 1536. 

— Copper Oxychloride. 1537. 

— Regulations in the United States. 

181, 707. 

Fmigicides : Action on Germinative 
Energy of Wheat and Oats. 303. 

Fmigicides for Vines : Copper Oxy- 
chloride. 3239. 

Fvmgoid and Insect Pests. 1309. 

— Parasites of Scale Insects. 171. 
Fungus {Aegerita Wehberi) Parasite 

of Aleyrodes Ciiri and A. nubifera 
373. 631. 



Fungus Diseases of Gromid Nuts in 
the W. Indies. 1542. 

— of Olives in the Province of Jaen, 

Spain. 3245. 

— of Peas. 3241. 

— of Rice. 305, 608. 

— of Rye. 3240. 

— of the Vine at Peshawar (India). 

2661, 2997. 
Fmigus -growing Insects. 2969, 3019. 
Fungus Parasites of Green-House 
Plants. 1016. 

— Parasites of Scale Insects. 1900. 

1950, 2972, 2974. 

— Root Tubercles of Ceanothus ame- 

ricanus, Eleagniis argentea and 
Myrica cerifera. 2285. 

— spores on Onion Seeds. 36i. 
Funtiimia elastica. Disease of. 1599. 
Funtiimia elastica injured by Mistletoe 

in Tropical Africa. 1554. 
Fiisarium : Basis of a Monograph. 
356. 

— Disease of Rye. 1908. 

— Harm caused to Cereals. 993. 

— lagenariuni on Cucurbitaceae in 

Russia. 349. 
Fusicladmm and the Red Colour of 

the Epidermis of Apples and Pears. 

1898. 
Fusicladium dendriticum : Apple Scab 

or " Black spot ". 1021. 

— of Apple and Pear Trees : Control. 

1024. 

Galicia, (Austria) Oidiuni on Oak in 

365. 
Galls on Roots of Kickxia elastica. 

336. 

Galtonia candicans attacked by " Nar- 
cissus Fly " Merodon equestris. 3271. 

Gangrene of Asparagus Crowns. 618. 

" Garrof " a Disease of the Quince. 
3228. 

Gelechia operculella on Tomatoes in 
N. Zealand. 2361. 

— ( Potato Moth) in New Zealand . 1973 . 



— 92 — 



Genera tious (Number of) of Cochylis. 

340- 
Geographical Area of CochylivS and 

Kudemis. 647. 

— Distribution of the Mulberry Pest, 

Diaspis pentagona. 1557. 
German New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelm's 

I,and and, Bismarck Archipelago, 

Oricies Rhinoceros on Coconuts. 

2372. 
Germany : Control of Enemies of the 

Vine. 703. 

— Control of Grape Pests. 384. 

— Destruction of Field Mice. 2016. 

— Peronospora Jaapiana, a Rhubarb 

Disease. 317. 

— Piesma capitaia on Sugar Beets in 

Silesia. 677. 

— see Rhine Palatinate. 705. 

— see Wiirtemberg. 704. 
Germination of Seeds of Cuscula 

arvensis and C. Trifolii : Effect of 
Chemical Sibstances. 2316. 
Germinative Energy of Wheat and 
Oats affected by Certain Fimgicides. 

303- 

Ginger - Jaindhara Disease m Bri- 
tish India, Soft Rot. 1918. 

Ginseng : Altermaria Blight. 306. 

Gipsy Moth and Browntail Moth : 
Natural Enemies of. 656. 

Gipsy Moth : Importation into the 
United States of its Natural Ene- 
mies. 3025. 

— Parasite I^aboratory : Investiga- 

tions. 1568. 

— Parasites of 3025. 

— Porthetria dispar in New England. 

3023. 
Gironde : Cochylis in 1910. 625. 

— Eudemis and Cochylis in 1910. 

1316. 

— Mildew, Cochylis ande Eudemis 

in 1910. 625. 682. 
Glass- Houses : Insect Pests. 3053. 
Glass Trapss : Efficacy of, for the Cap- 
ture of Insects. 347. 



Gloeosporinni alboriibmm on Hevea 
brasiliensis. 168. 

— caulworum Anthracnosis of Red 

Clover. 1540. 

— Lindemuthianunt on Beans. 995. 

— Musarum " Banana Rot ". 630. 
Glue for the Destmction of Tse-tse 

Flies. 1603. 
Gnomonia erythrostoma : Cherry Leaf 

Scorch, 1025, 1295. 
Gold Coast - Hemiptera on Cacao. 

1061. 

— Insect Pests. 1944. 

— Leaf Beetle injurious to the Oil 

Palm. 1069. 
— - White Ants in Cacao Trees. 679. 
Gooseberry : American Mildew. 2280. 

— Bolrytis cinerea and Cytosporina 

Ribis. 319. 

— Botrylis or " Die Back ". 1922. 

— Control of American Mildew in 

Lincolnshire. 368. 

— Insect Pests. 3057. 

— Mildew in Belgiimi. 364. 

— New Investigationsf or Control of 
American Mildew. 163. 

— Saw-Fly, {Nematus veniricosus). 

1992. 

— S phaerotheca Movs-iivae in Galicia 

(Austria). 365. 

Ciram : The Mexican (rrain Beetle 
{Pharaxonoth a Kerschi) in the Uni- 
ted States. 3039. 

Gramineae : Ergot spread by In- 
sects. 991. 1039. 

— Harmful Thysanoptera. 674. 

— Laphygma exempt a in Rhodesia. 

1970. 
Granary Insects. 1581, 2349, 30.|0. 
Grape Curculio : Protected from its 
Natural Enemies. 2336. 

— Insects in the State of New York. 

3062. 

— Leaf-hopper in the Lake Erie 
Valley. 1591. 

— Mildew : Treatment. 320. 

— Moth : Control. 384. 



— 93 — 



Grape Pests: Control of in Germany. 

384. 
Grapes Stored Fresh Attacked by 

Rots. 3244. 
Grape Vines : CrowTi Gall. 623. 
Grasshopper Law in Minnesota. 2322. 

2380. 
Grasshoppers. 2322. 

— Hairworms {Mermis sp.) Para- 

sites of. i960. 
Grasshoppers (Migratory) destroyed 

by Larvae of Epicauta). 2350. 
Grease Banding of Fruit Trees. 173. 
Great Britain, Bacteriosis of Potato. 

2978, 2985. 

— Injurious Animals. 1941. 

— Leaf Spot of Celery. 3242. 

— Order concerning American Goose- 

berry Mildew. 368. 

— Plant Diseases. 1885. 

— Septoria Disease of Tomators. 2986. 

— Potato Bacteriosis. 2978. 2985. 

— Strawberry Pests. 1991. 
Greece : Locusts. 3075. 

" Green Aphis " on Peach Trees ; 
Bxperiments with Red Oil Emul- 
sion. 2367. 

Green-house Orchids : New Rust of. 
1015. 

— Plants : Fungus Parasites of. 1016. 
Green Muscardine of Froghopper {To- 

massis posiica). 650. 
" Green scale " [Coccus viridis) of 
Coffee and Tea Plants in Ceylan. 

2358- 

Grosbeaks and their Value to Agri- 
culture. 3034. 

Ground Nuts : Diseases in British 
India. 2982. 

— Fungus Diseases in the W. Indies. 

1542- 
Ground Squirrels injurious to Crops 

in the United States. 699. 
" Gummosis" of Prunus andCitrus. 984. 
Gymnospoyangiiim Sabinae : Medlar 

Tree Blight. 629. 
— • in Colorado. 1896. 



"Hairworms" [Mermis sp.) Parasites 
of Grasshopers. i960. 

"Hairy Root" of the Apple Tree. 
626. 

Harm Caused to Cereals by Fusarium.. 
993- 

Hawaii : Animals Injurious to Sugar- 
cane. 2357. 

— Black Rats [Mus alexandrhius) 

on Sugar Cane, controlled by 
the Mongoose. 2375. 

— Injurious Insects. 1943, 2321. 

— Mediterranean Fruit Fly {Ceratitis 

capitata). 3253. 

— Melanchonium sacchari on Sugar- 

Cane. 2298. 

— Natural Enemies of Sugar Cane 

Pests. 2331. 

— Perkinsiella saccharicida on Sugar 

cane. 3267. 

— Use of Insecticides. 1573. 
Hawk Moth (Vine). 1590. 
Hawthorn Aphis on Apple Trees. 1592. 
Hazel Tree : Diseases and Enemies of. 

1597- 

Head Smut on Maize. 2283. 

" Heart-Rot " of Beets. 1055. 

Heart Rot of Quercus nigra in N. 
Carolina. 231 1. 

Hedgehog as Destroyer of Insect 
Pests and Slugs. 1961. 

Hedysarum coronarium : Insect Pest. 
676. 

Heliothis Obsoleta, Cotton Pest in 
Uganda. 3047. 

Heliothrips rubrocincttis on Cacao. 
1982. 

Helminthosporium syringae, a Di- 
sease of Lilac. 10 1 7. 

Hemileia oncidii, a New Rust of Green- 
house Orchids. 1015. 

Hemileia : Resistance of Coffea ara- 
bica and C. liberica, in Java. 
2299. 

— vastatrix : Decree for the Pro- 

tection of French Colonies and 
Protectorates. 2378. 



— 94 — 



Hemileia vastairix Infections and Ger- 
minative Power of its Uredospores. 
356. 

— on co§ea robusta in Java. 191 7- 
-^ Resistant Coffee Plants in Reu- 
nion and Magagascar. 362. 

Hemiptera on Cacao on the Gold Coast. 

1061. 
Hemlock proclaimed a Weed in Tas- 
mania. 1330. 
Hendersonia acicola, Disease of Pi- 

nus Sylvestris. 632. 
Hepialidae (Swift Moths). 1948. 
Hepialus (Swift Moths) : parasitised 

by Cordiceps. 1901. 
Hernia of Beetroots. 1009. 
Herpoivichia nigra and Breakage of 

Branches caused by »Snow, in 

Conifers. 371. 
Heterodera radicicola : on Cucumbers 

and Tomatoes. 201 1. 

— Potato Eelworm. 1601. 
Heterodera schachtii attacking Hops. 

2010. 
Hevea brasiliensis, a Slug Pest (Ma- 
riaella Dussumerii). 2015. 

— Gloeosporiiim alborubriim. 168. 

— Physiology and Diseases. 1932. 
Hevea : Brown Root Disease, Hyme- 

nochae noxia. 637. 

— Disease of Root, due to Sphaerostilbe 

repens. 638. 

— Diseases of the Leaves in vSuri- 

nam. 335. 

— Eittypa caulivora. 639. 
Hibernation of Spores in Vine-Buds. 

990. 

Hieroglyphus furcifer. Cane and Rice 
Grasshopper in India. 1978. 

Hippeastruni : attacked by " Narcis- 
sus Fly ". 3054. 

Holland : Phytopathological Service. 
702. 

Hollyhock Rust. 3237. 

Honieosoma nebulella and Resistant 
Sunflower. 1951. 

Hops : Heterodera schachtii. 2010. 



Hops : Hydroecia micacea and Diplosis 
hmnnli (?). 1984, 3050. 

— Natural Enemies of Hydroecia mi- 

cacea. 2032. 
Horse Chestnut : Endotrophic My- 

corhiza. 2284. 
Horticultural Products in France : 

Effects of Summer of 191 1. 3226. 
Host Plants and Parasitic Fmigi 

from Chemical Point of View. 354. 
Hungary : Diseases of Crops in 1910. 

589- 
Hyalodema Evansii in the Transvaal. 

365. 
Hybrids of Swedes and Turnips : 

Modifications, of Roots. 981. 
Hydroecia micacea a Hop-Pest. 1984, 

3050- 
Hydrocyanic Acid and the White 

Fly (Aleyrodes) 2340. 

— Chemistry of Fumigation 1966. 

— Fmnigations for Control of White 

FI5' on Tomatoes and Cucmn- 
bers. 382. 

— Fumigations in California. 1967. 
Hydrogen Peroxide : Treatment of 

Seed. 3237. 
Hylocoetus, Coconut Palm Disease : 
Legislative Measures in the Straits 
Settlements. 2023. 

— New Enemy of Coconut Palms, 

in Madagascar. 2005. 
Hylemia coarctata on Cereals. 1908. 

— on Winter Wheat. 1971. 
Hylesimus Oleiperda of the Olive Tree. 

3064. 

Hylobius Abietis on Douglas Fir. 694. 

Hymenochaete noxia " Brown Root 
Disease " of Hevea. 637. 

Hypoderma brachysporum on Wey- 
mouth Pine. 1927. 

— (Lophoderniiiim) brachysporum, on 

Pines in Ru.ssia. 334. 
Hypodevmella sitlcigena on Pines. 

1926. 
Hypodermium Orchidearum on Orchids 

at Cambridge. 2301. 



— 95 — 



Hypostema variabilis Parasites of Phy- 
tonomus nigrirostris. Forage Crops 
Pest. 1954. 



I eery a Purchasii (Fluted Scale) , con- 
trolled by Vedalia cardinalis. 1957. 

Identification of the vSugar-Cane Frog- 
hopper. 1558. 

Imperata afundinacea, Weed injurious 
to Teak and Rubber Plants in the 
Dutch E. Indies. 2318. 
\ Importation of Plants and Seeds into 
Italian Somaliland forbidden. 2027. 

— of Cotton Seed into Kanierun. 3093. 

— into the United States of the Pa- 
rasites of the Browntail Moth 
and the Gipsy Moth. 656. 3025. 

— of Plants into Algeria. 2026. 

— of Cotton Seed forbidden in Tur- 
key. 3088. 

India : Anti Locust Campaign. 1521 

— " Blister Blight " on Tea (Exo- 
basidium vexans). 363. 

— Control of Insect Pests. 339. 

— Fmigoid Attack of Crops in Saga- 
ing District, Burma. 1889. 

— Insects injurious to Vines. 3061. 

— Lecaniuni Oleae on Castilloa. 177. 

— Nilgiri Potato Disease. 361. 

— Snakes and Wild Animals. 3072. 
Indigo f era gale go ides : Phytoptus in 

Java. 1063. 
Infectious and Germinative Power 

of the Uredospores of Hemileia 

vastatrix. 356. 
Infection Experiments with Finger- 

and-Toe {Plasmodiophora brassi- 

cae). 601. 
Infection of Vines by Mildew. 3232. 
Influence of Liquid and Farm-yard 

Manure on Phylloxera and its Eggs. 

1560. 

— of Radio-active Minerals, on Com 
j Mildew : 2975. 

Injurious Insects : Natural Enemies 
I of. 3024. 



Injur}' to Peaches by Bordeaux Mix- 
ture. 1002. 

" Ink Disease " of Chestnut. 332, 635, 
1299, 3002. 

Insect and Fvingoid Diseases of Fim- 
tumia Rubber Tree. 1599. 

— and Fungoid Pests. 1309. 

— and Fimgoid Pests in Sagaing 
District, Burma. 1942. 

— and other Pests on Olives, in the 

Province of Jaen, Spain. 3251. 

— Foes of Sulla {Hedysarutn corona- 

rium) 676. 

— Parasites of Kermes pubescens. 

1570- 
Insects affecting Barley. 2292. 

— affecting Rice. 305, 349. 675. 

— affecting Stored Produce. 1581. 
2349, 3040. 

— and Insecticides : Deciduous Fruit 

Trees. 1591. 

— as Agents of the Spread of Ergot 

in Gramincae. 991. 1039. 

— Control of. 1046. 

— Efficacy of Glass Traps for their 

Capture. 347. 

— Experiments on their Destruction, 

in Eg>'pt. 344. 

— Fvmgus Growing. 2969, 3019. 

— Granary. 1581, 2349, 3040. 

— injurious to Forest. 1326. 

— injurious to Mate. 1062. 

— injurious to Olive Trees : their 

Parasites. 3033. 

— injurious to Tapia (Chrysopia ma- 

crophylla). 3071. 

— injurious to the Vine, in India. 

3061. 

— in the Field, the Orchard, the Gar- 

den and the House : Insecticides, 
Mixtures and Recipes. 3246. 

— ou Kapok. 351. 

— on Rye. 3266. 

Insect Pests and Slugs destroyed by 
Hedgehogs. 1961. 

— and their Parasites. 57^. 

— Control, and Protection of Birds. 251 . 



96 - 



Insect Pests Control in British India, 

339- 

— in Canada. 1034. 

— in Ceylon. 2320. 

— in Glass-Houses. 3053. 

— in Hawaii. 1943, 2321. 

— in Moka- meh-tal (Bengal) 3017. 

— in Several Countries. 3016. 

— in the Gold Coast. 1944. 

— in Uganda. 1035, 1944, 3257. 

— in Uruguay. 3256. 

— in W. Africa. 1944. 

— of Beetroots. iy6, 3045. 

— of Cacao in Jamaica. 380. 

— of Cereals in Russia. 1969. 

— of Citrus Trees in Florida : Na- 

tural Enemies. 1556, 1562, 1569. 

— of Citrus Fruit in Porto-Rico. 2002. 

— of Coconut in the W, Indies. 2004. 

— of Cowpeas [Vigna catjang). 3269. 

— of Currant and Gooseberry Bushes. 

3057- 

— of Forests in France. 1070. 

— of Fruit and Forest Trees in Rus- 

sia. 1993. 
■ — of Fruit Trees in Russia. 1969. 

— of Fruit Trees in , Russian Central 

Asia. 1994. 

— of Hops. 1984. 

— of Kapok. 351. 

— of Plants : Control by Volatile 

Substances. 39, 1045. 

— of Rice. 305, 349, 675. 

— of Rice in Cochin China. 1318. 

— of Sugar Beets. 1055, 1056. 

— of Sugar Cane in Bengal: Borers. 

678. 

— of Sweet Potato and Coconut Palm. 

1058. 

— of Teosinte {Euchlaena mexicana). 

3269. 

— of the Fig Tree. 1595. 
Insects on Barley. 2292. 

— Jack Pine, Pinits Banksiana. 1327. 
■ — Peas. 3272. 

— Sweet Potato in Hawaii. 1319. 

— Tobacco in Ireland. 1986. 



— Truck-Crops. 2360. 

Insects spreading Ergot in Gramineae 
991, 1039. 

— which transmit Diseases. 1320. 
Insecticidal Value of Ordinary To- 
bacco Juice. 1964. 

Insecticide Competition at Valencia. 

1314- 

— (Chloride of Barium. 1537. 

— Parafi&n Emulsion. 1965. 

— Regulations in the United States. 

181, 707. 
Insecticides : Arsenical 3037. 

— General Principle of their Formulae. 

345- 

— in Vine Cochylis. 661. 

— Mixtures against Insects in the 

Field, the Orchard, the Garden 
and the House. 3264. 

— Saponin in Emulsions. 1052. 

— Use of, in Hawaii. 1573. 

— with Arsenate of Lead : Adhesi- 

veness. 2339. 

— with Chroma te of Lead. 376. 

— Zinc Arsenate. 1287. 
Insectivorous Birds destroying Mole- 
Crickets m Trinidad. 2324, 2338, 

— BirdsofN.S.Wales. 1571,2337, 3035. 

— Birds protecting Tobacco in Sal- 

vador. 172. 

Inspection of Fruit Trees in British 
Columbia. 181. 

" Internal Disease " of Potatoes. 158. 

International Horticultiiral Exloibi- 
tion of London, 1912 : Special 
Sections for Diseases of Plants. 2279. 

Invasions of Eudemis and Cochylis 
in the Gironde, France, in 1910, 
Studies on Insecticides. 13 16. 

Ireland : Bacterial Rot in Tiunips 
and other Brassicae. 619. 

— Insects on Tobacco. 1986. 

— Potato Diseases. 1910. 

— Protection against Plant Diseases, 

2019. 
Iridomyrmex humilis (Argentine Ant) 
Control. 1968. 



97 - 



Iris pallida : Bacteriosis. 2302. 
Italy : Associations for the Control 

of Phylloxera in Apulia and Te- 

ramo. 2379. 

— Califomian Disease in Vineyards 
of Cerignola, Apulia. 321. 

— First Phytopathological Congress. 

3230- 

— Introduction of Indian Hymenopte- 

ra to control Orange Fly. 375. 

— Measures against the Invasion by 
Cuscuta arvensis. 3009. 

— Natural Knemies of Diaspis pen- 
tagona. 1956. 

— New Disease of Sainfoin. 2981. 

— New Micromycetes of Ornamental. 
Plants. 297, 3233. 

— Phlaeotribus Oleae of Olive Trees 
in Liguria. New Method of 
Control. 359. 

— Phytopathological Observatory of 
Turin. 278. 

— Plant Diseases in 1910-1911. 1282, 
1525, 1887, 2962, 2963, 2964, 

2965, 3231- 

— Rotala indica var. uliginosa : New 
Weed in Rice Fields. 1934. 

— Trenomyces histophorus, New I^a- 
boulbeniacea. 354. 

I Italian Somaliland : Importation of 
Plants and Seeds forbidden. 2027. 
Invasion of Italy by Cuscuta ar- 
vensis. 3009. 

Jack Pine : Insects on. 1327. 
Jaindhara Disease, Soft Rot of Gin- 
ger in British India. 191 8. 
I Jamaica : Insect Pests of Cacao. 380. 

— Daw on Infectious Diseases of 
Plants. 3279. 

— Scybalium jamaicense, Parasitic 
Flowering Plant. 1937. 

Japan : Destruction of Snails on 

Mulberries. 378. 
Japanese Millet : a Rust Resistant 

Variety. 3235. 
Japan : New Species of Fungi. 1529. 



Japan Rice, Fungi. 608. 

— Species of Phragmidium. 994. 

■ — Trioza Camphorae on Camphor 

Tree. 696. 
Jasmine Louse {Aspidiotus nerii) 

3055- 
Java : Acari on Tea. 1315. 

— Corticium javanicum and Hemileia 

vastatrix on Coffea robusta. 191 7. 

— Destruction of Rats. 3074. 

— Resistance of Coffea arabica and 

of C. Hberica to Hemileia. 2299. 

— Tetranychus sp. 1036. 

— Use of Ants against Cacao- Bug. 172. 

— Xyleborus Coffea on Coffea robusta. 

1754. 1980. 

Kamerun : Importation of Cotton 

Seed. 3093. 
Kapok: Enemies of. 351. 
Karst, Austria : Locusts and Means 

of Control. 376. 
Kermes pubescens : Natvural Enemies. 

1570- 
Kerosene in the Treatment of Maize 

Seed. 1574. 

Kickxia elastica : Galls on Roots of. 

336- 
Killing Weeds with Sodium Arsenite. 

1993- 
Kitchen Garden Produce : Diacri- 

sia virginica. 177. 
Koleroga or Rot Disease of Areca 

Palm. 330. 
Krupiik : Disease causing Anomalous 

Leaves in Nicotiana Tabacum and 

Corylus Avellana var. laciniata. 

982. 

Laboulbeniacea, hitherto imknown 

in Italy : Trenomyces Hislophtorus. 

354. 
Ladybird Beetle, Minute but Useful : 

Scymnus vagans. 1564. 
Ladybirds : Care of 3262. 
Laestadia Theae : Copper Blight of 

Tea. 1012. 



- 98 



I^amp Traps for the Cochylis Moth. 

2344- 

— for the Destruction of Cochylis 

and Pyralis. 3273. 
" I^andibe " {Borocera madagasca- 

riensis) Madagascar Silkworm : its 

Enemies. 3080. 
Laphygma exempta on Gramineae 

controlled by Tachinidae and White 

Stork. 1953. 

— on Gramineae in Rhodesia. 1970. 
Laphygma fugiperda " Ear Worm " . 

on Maize. 378. 
Laportea pterostigma The Stinging 

Tree of Formosa. 3013. 
Ivarch : Coleophora laricella. 1074. 

— Control of Nemalus ericksoni. 666. 

— Resistance to " Canker ". 602. 
Larger Grain Borer [Dinodevus trun- 

catus) affecting Stored Products. 

1581. 
Lantana camara : New Weed in the 

Philippines. 2317. 
Leaf Beetle on Oil Palms on the Gold 

Coast. 1069. 

— Blight of Pear and Quince {En- 

tostnosporium maculatum). 2308. 

— Blotch " of Olive Tree. [Cycloniuni 

Oleaginuni). 2999. 

— Blotch " of Potato. 1882. 

— Curl " in Cotton. 1523. 

— of Potato. 622. 1882. 2293. 

— of Potatoes : Measures taken for 

its Control in Austria. 2020. 
Leaf Roller Caterpillar in the Jura 
Pine Forests. 1073. 

— Shedding of Conifers due to Bo- 

tryiis Cinerea. 1028. 

— Shrivelling Disease " of Potato. 

286, 594, 595, 622, 1881. 

— Spot {Cercospora personata) inju- 

rious to Pea -nuts in the United 
States. 1916. 
Leaf Spot of Celery in E^ngland 3242. 

— of Ferns and Chrysanthemxuns, 

Eelworms. 2012. 

— of Strawberry. 621. 



Leaf Spot of Tumeric : {Taphrina 

maculans). 614. 
Leaves of Hevea : Disease of, in Suri- 
nam. 335. 

— of Rubiaceae : Presence of Bacte- 

ria. 2966. 
Lecaniutn Corni on Fruit Trees: Spray- 
ing Experiments in the United 
States. 672. 

— Oleae : Olive Tree Scale Insect. 

2974. 

— Oleae on Castilloa in India. 177. 
Leeward Islands. St. Kitts : Cotton 

Worms {Alabama argillacea). 3040. 
Legislation affecting Landowners, Far- 
mers and Agriculturists in Natal. 2028. 

— in Canada on Insect Pests and 

Plant Diseases. 3089, 3090, 3091, 
3092. 

Legislative Measures against Burr 
Weed in Natiil. 2029. 

Legislative Measures in the Straits 
Settlements for the Control of Co- 
conut Palm Disease. 2023. 

Legume Inoculation and " Crown 
Gall ". 1894. 

Lemon Tree : Cladosporium sp. on 
Blossoms. 3001. 

Lenzites sepiaria : on Timber. 3008. 

Lepidoptera attacking Vanilla in Ma- 
dagascar. 3052. 

Lepidosaphes Ulmi on Apple Trees in 
Russia. 1593. 

Leptomonas Davidii on Euphorbiaceae. 
2994. 

Lesser Clover-Leaf Weevil {Phyto- 
nomus nigrirostris) on Forage Crops 
in N. America. 1974. 

Lesser Grain Borer (Rhizoperiha do- 
minica) affecting Stored Products. 
1581. 

Lettuce : Pentodon punctatus. 381. 

Life History of some Cambium Mi- 
ners. 3018. 

— of Uredineae. 600. 

Lilac : Disease of, Helminthosporium 
Syringae). 1017. 



— 99 — 



Libac New Disease, Pseudomonas sy- 
ringae. 2992. 

Lily : " Bulb Rot ". 620. 

I/ima Beans : Scolopendrella calif ar- 
nica. 2362. 

Lime-Sulphur against Sclerotinia fruc- 
tigena, Cladosporium carpophiliuni 
and Conotrachelus nenuphar on 
Peaches. 1535. 

— Mixture against Brown-Rot Scab 

and Curculio on Peaches. 1535. 

— Wash. 1000. looi. 1533 1534- 1535- 
Limes {Citrus Limetta) : Scale In- 
sects. 180. 

Lime-washing in Controlling Fruit 

Tree Pests. 348. 
Limnaniherum nymphoides, Fringed 

Water Lily: Cricotopus. 178. 
Liparis monacha : Migration of Moths. 

1638. 
List of Plants attacked by Diaspis 

pentagona. 131 i. 
Lita solanella (Potato Moth) Control. 

1047. 
" Little Leaf " of the Peach. 1884. 
Liver of Sulphur, Fungicidal Proper- 
ties of. 1003. 
Locusts and their Control in the Karst, 

Austria 376. 
Locusts : Anti-Locust Campaign in 

S. Africa. 1580. 

— Bureau for their Control in S. 

Africa. 1521. 

— Control. 659. 

— Destroyed by Birds in S. Africa. 

1572. 

— Destroyed by Rooks and Storks. 

658. 

— Destruction of, in Argentina. 3265. 

— Destruction. 1572, 1578, 1579, 

1580, 3265. 

— in Argentina. 182. 

— in Mexico infested by Bacterial 

Epizoon. 1 561. 

— in Natal. 2030. 

— International Control. 2381. 
Locust Plague in Greece. 3075. 



Locusts: Royal Decree on their Con- 
trol in Spain. 706. 

Lophocateres pusillus, Siamese Grain 
Beetle in Texas. 2323. 

Lophodermium macrosporum : Dam- 
age caused by it. 166. 

Lophyrus Townsendi, a Sawfly inju- 
rious to Western Yellow Pine in 
the United States. 692, 1072. 

Louisiana : Cane-Borers. 1059. 

Louse of Jasmine. 3055. 

— of Rose Laurel. 3055. 

" Luc Binh " [Eichornia crassipes) 
as a Weed in Rice Fields in Ceylon. 

1555- 
Lucerne : Alfalfa Weevil 2352. 

— Alfalfa Caterpillar. 2353. 

— Phytonomus variabilis. 1037. 

— Pseudomonas medicaginis. 309. 

— " Red Disease " {Neocosmospora 

vasinfecta). 160. 
Lumber injured by Fungi. 3007. 
Lupins : Authonomyia funesta. 378. 



Macrosporium Solani : " Black Stripe 

of Tomato. 2293. 
Madagascar : Coffee Plants Resistant 

to Hemileia vastatrix. 362. 

— Hylecoetus New Enemy of Coco- 

nut. 2005. 

— Lepidoptera attacking Vanilla. 

3052. 

— Parasites of "Landibe" {Borocera 

madagascariensis) Silk worm. 
3080. 
Maize Billbug {Sphaenosphorus May- 

dis). 3041. 
Maize : " Ear- Worm " {Laphygma fu- 
giperda). 378. 

— Oscinis pusilla. 1972. 

— Seed Treated with Kerosene. 1574. 

— Smut : American. 2283. 

— Snout Beetle. 1582. 

Malaria : Transmission and Preven- 
tion of, in the Panama Canal vSone. 
180. 



— lOO — 



Mangel Rot : New Investigations. 
360. 

Mango Weevil {Crypiorhynchus Man- 
giferae). 177, 2373. 

Mangolds : Uromyces Betae, in Eng- 
land. 1913. 

Manioc : Root Rot in Tasmania. 308. 

Manures : Influence on Skipjacks and 
Thrips. 376. 

Manuring of Sickly vSpruces on Moor- 
land. 2960. 

Maranta : (Arrowroot) Disease in St. 
Vincent. 191 5. 

Mariaella Dussumerii a Slug Pest of 
Hevea brasiliensis. 2015. 

Market Garden Crops : Insects. 2360. 

Massachusetts : Control of White 
Fly on Tomatoes and Cucumbers 
by Hydrocyanic Acid Fumigations. 
382. 

Mate : Injurious Insects. 1062. 

Mauritius : Government Measures con- 
cerning Control of a New Sugar- 
cane Insect. 3282. 

— New Sugar-Cane Insect Pest. 3268. 

— Ordinance to prevent the Intro- 

duction of Diseases of Plants. 
2024. 

Mealy Bug [Dactylopius Virgaius), on 
Cotton in Ceylon. 175. 

Measures against Diseases of Plants 
in Mauritius. 2024. 

Mechanical Determination of the Re- 
sistance of Cereals to Diseases and to 
the Attacks of Insects. 1284. 

Mediterranean Frviit Fly in Hawai. 

3253- 
Mediterranean Fruit-Fly : Measures 

to prevent its Introduction into 

the United States. 3253, 3181. 
Medlar : Diseases and Knemies of. 

686. 
Medlar Rust. 686. 

— Tree Blight, Gymnosporangium 

Sabinae. 629. 
Megastimus spermairophus on Dou- 
glas Fir. 694. 



Melanchonium Sacchari : on Sugar 

Cane in Hawaii. 2298. 
Melons : Mosaic Diseases. 364. 

— Resistant Varieties. 2288. 
Membracids of Apple and Pear. 1067. 
Merniis sp. (Hairworms) Parasites 

of Grasshoppers. 1941. i960. 
Merodon equestris attacking Gallonia 
candicaus. 3271. 

— in Hippeastrum bulbs. 3054. 
Merulius lacrymans. 168, 1301, 3249. 
Mespilus (Medlar) Pests) 686. 
Metachromatic Corpuscles and My- 
coplasma. 989. 

Metamorphosis and Habits of Cybo- 

cephalus rufifrons. 375. 
Mexican Grain Beetle Pharaxonotha 

Kirschi in the United States. 3039. 
Mexico : Anthracnose of the Vine- 

1923. 

— Bacterial Epizoon on Locusts. 

1 561. 

— Cercospora lumbricoides and Nectria 

castilloae. 1552. 

— Diseases of Sugar cane. 1541. 
Microcera sp. Fungus on White Fly. 

651. 
Microlepidoptera in Piedmont. 1950. 

— in Truiidad. 646. 
Microphtalma disjuncta, Parasites of 

Larvae of Rhizotrogus solstilialis, 
injurious to the Vine in Russia. 

1955- 
Migration of the Moths of Lipans 

monacha. 1638. 
Migratory Grasshoppers [Schistocerca 

paranense) destroyed by Larvae 

of Epicauta. 2350. 
Mildew and Nitrate of Silver. 357. 

— in the Gironde in 1910. 625 

— of Apple and Pear. 325. 

— of the Vine. 1018, 3232. 

— of the Vine : Inquiry into the 

Treatment of, in 1910. 164. 

— on Gooseberry in Belgiimi. 364. 

— Resistance of Vine to. 1899. 

" Mildew " treated with Bordeaux 



— lOI — 



Mixture in a Medium of Sulphate 

of Iron. 358. 
Mineral Fertilisers and Chlorosis of 

Vine. 2275. 
Minnesota : Cutworms, Army Worms, 

and Grasshoppers. The Minnesota 

Grasshopper Law. 2322. 2380. 
Mississippi : Cotton Diseases. 310. 
Mistletoe on Funlumia elastica 1554, 

1599- 
Modifications of the Roots of Hybrids 

of Swedes and Turnips. 981. 
Moka-meh-tal (Bengal) Insect Pests. 

3017- 
Mole Crickets destroyed by Birds 

in Trinidad. 2324, 2338. 
Mongoose : Controlling Black Rats 

injurious to Sugarcane in Hawaii. 

2375- 
Monilia on Pear Trees. 1023. 
Mosaic Disease of Cucmnbers and 

Melons. 364. 

— of Tomato. 287. 

Mosquito Larvae in Drinking Water. 

3081. 
Mosses, Fxmgi on. 2282. 
Moths of the Vine. 1065. 
Mottled Leaf in Citrus Fruits. 1884. 
Motmtain Cedar : Whitening of, due 

to Cyanospora Albicedrae. 1030. 
Mulberry : Diseases and Enemies of. 

3277- 

— Dothiorellina Tanhoffii. 1297. 

— Priming it Close to the Groimd 

to Protect it against Attacks of 
Diaspis pentagona. 3022. 

— Steganosporium Kosaroffi in Bul- 

garia. 1552. 

— Tetranychus pilosus. 1596. 

— Thyrococcum Sirakoffi. 1027. 
Musk Melons : Soft Rot, Bacillus Me- 

lonis. 1545. 

Mustard Beetle {Phaedon Betiilae) . 3044. 

Mycological Flora of the Environs of 
Stockholm. 986. 

Mycoplasma ^and Metachromatic Cor- 
puscles. 989. 



Mycosphaerella citrullina on Water- 
Melons in Italy. 1546. 

Myoporum laetum of New Zealand, 
Suspected Poisonous Plant. 3014. 

Myrica cerifera, Fimgus Root Tu- 
bercles. 2285. 

Mytilaspis pomorum, its Parasites. 

341- 

— on Willows. 3069. 
Myxosporium Pruni Mahaleb. 1026. 

" Narcissus Fly " attacking Galtonia 
candicaus. 3271. 

— in Hippcastrum bulbs. 3054. 
Natal : Diplodia natalensis on Citrus 

Fruit. 164, 323. 

— Legislation affecting Landowners, 

Farmers and Agriculturists. 
2028. 

— Legislation against Locusts. 2030. 

— Legislative Measures for eradicat- 

ing Bvurr Weed, Xanthium spp. 
2029. 
Natural Enemies of Black Rats 
{Mus Alexandrinus), injurious to 
Sugar-cane in Hawaii. 2375. 
Natural Enemies of Brown Tail Moth. 
656, 3025. 

— of Chrysomphalus dictyospermi var. 

pinnulifera, the new Coccus of 
Fruit Trees. 1312. 

— of Citrus Pests in Florida. 1569. 

— of Earias insulana, the Cotton 

Boll-worm, in Egypt. 3031. 

— (Fungi) of Parasities. 355, 299, 

300, 998, 1900, 1901, 1902, 
2972, 2973. 

— of Gipsy Moth and Brown-tail 

Moth. 656. 

— of Grape Curculio. 2336. 

— of Hydroecia micacea, Injurious to 

Hops. 3032. 

— of Injurious Insects. 3024. 

— of " Oak White ". 167, 998. 

— of Scale Insects. 653. 

— of Sugar Cane Pests in Hawaii. 

2331- 



I02 — 



Natural Enemies of the Caterpillars 
of the Vine Hawk Moth [Deilephila 
Elpenor). 1567. 

— of the " Colorado Potato Beetle " 

and of the Potato Stalk Weevil. 
2332. 

— of the Sorghum Midge {Contari- 

nia [Diplosis] sorghigola). 1565, 

2330- 
Natural History and the Floods in 

1909 in France. 644. 

Navel Orange : " Bro\vn spot ". 2277. 

Nebraska U. S. Pine-tip Moth. 693. 

Neciria castilloae on Castilloa elastica, 
in Mexico. 1552. 

Neciria ditissima, Apple Tree canker. 
165. 

Nematus erichsoni (Large Larch Saw- 
fly) Control. 666. 

Nematus ventricosus on Gooseberry. 
1992. 

Neocosmospora vasinfecta : Red Dis- 
ease of Lucerne. 160. 

Nettle grub on Tea in Ceylon. 176. 

New Caledonia : Coconut Palms exempt 
from Bud-rot. 2310. 

— Disease of Cucurbitaceae in Russia 

[Fusarium lageiiarium). 349. 

— Enemies of Fruit Trees. 356. 

— England " Gipsy Moth " [Porthe- 

tria dispar). 3023. 

— Fig Diseases : Tubercularia Fici 

and Corticium laetum. 1924. 

— Fungi in the W. Indies. 2281. 

— Fungi on Ornamental Plants in 

Italy. 297, 3233. 

— Insect Pest on Sugar-cane in Mau- 

ritius. 3268. 

— Methods of controlling Cochylis. 

179, 382. 

— Parasitic Fvmgi of Japan. 1529. 

— Parasitic Laboulbeniacea of the 

Acarids. 2971. 

— Rust of Greenhouse Orcliids. He- 

mileia Oncidii. 1015. 
• — South Wales, American Maize. 
Smut. 2283. 



New South Wales: Diseases of Apple 
Trees. 1022. 

— South Wales : Fruit Flies. 2364. 

— South Wales : Insectivorous Birds. 

i57i> 2337, 3035. 

— Sugar-cajie Insect in Mauritius. 

3268. 

— York (State of) Club Root in 

Cabbage (Plasmodiophora Brassi- 
cae). 162. 

— York (State of) : Plant Diseases. 

988. 
— - Zealand : Myoporum laetum. Sus- 
pected Poisonous Plant. 3014. 

— Zealand : Potato Moth {Gelechia 

operculella). 1973. 

— Zealand : Potato Moth on To- 

matoes. 2361. 
Nicotiana Tahacuni Anomalies in 

Leaves. 982. 
Nicotme. 304, 1538, 1903. 

— Permanent Commission for Sale 

of, in France. 3086. 

— Poisonous Qualities and Danger of 

its Use. 304. 

— Wetting Solution 1963. 
Nilgiri Potato Diseases. 361. 
Nitrate of Silver against Mildew. 

357. 

— of Silver in Viticulture (Viticul- 
tural Congress at Montpellier). 2278. 

— of Soda against Dodder. 169. 
Noctuae : Measures against them in 

Umbria, Italy. 664. 

Nocttiidae of California. 3254. 

Normandy : Sclerotinia Libertiana on 
Chevrier Bean. 609. 

North America : Hypostema varia- 
bilis and Br aeon sp., Nattiral Ene- 
mies of Phytonomus nigrirostris, 
Forage Crops Pest. 1954. 

— Carolina : Heart Rot of Quercus 

nigra. 231 1. 
Nova Scotia, Injurious Insects, Pests 

and Plants Diseases Act. 3091. 
Novins cardinalis ( Vedalia cardinalis) 

in Control of " Fluted Scale ". 1957. 



- 103 - 



Oak : Blister Blight. 370. 

— Oidiiun and the Food of the 

Toussah Silk Worm. 365. 

— Oidivun : Effect of Application of 

Sulphur in Nurseries. 1298. 

— Oidium in Galicia (Austria). 365. 

— " Pruner" [Elaphidion villosum) in 

the Forests of the United States. 
690. 

— Silver Blight, a Danger to Chest- 
nut and Beech. 331. 

— " White " and Oidium Quercinum. 

370. 

— "White ": Control. 1298. 3006. 

— " White " covmteracted by a Na- 

tural Enemy (Cicinnobolus) . 
167, 998. 

— White {Oidium). 167. 1892. 
Oats : Action of Fungicides on Ger- 

minative Energy. 303. 

— " Dry Spotting ". 590. 

— Oscinis Frit (Fritfly). 2345. 

— Rust Resistance. 157. 

— Tylenchus devastatrix. 2009. 
Occurrence of Tilletia horrida in Rice 

Meal. 992. 
Oidivun of the Oak. 167, 1892. 

— of the Oak and the Food of the 

Toussah Silk worm. 355. 

— of the Oak : Application of Sul- 

phur in Nurseries. 1298. 

— of the Oak: Cicinnobolus, Natural 

Enemy of. 167, 998. 

— of the Oak in Galicia, Austria. 365. 

— of the Vine : Action of Svdphur. 

1288. 

— Quercinum and Oak White. 370. 
Oil Palms: Leaf Beetle on the Gold 

Coast. 1069. 
Olive Cochineal : Scutelluta cynea a 
Parasite of. 1041. 

— Fly and Prof. Lotrionte's Expe- 

riments for Control. 2369. 
Olive Fly : Control Experiments. 3065. 

— [Dacus Oleae) Experiments of Con- 

trol in the Province of Florence, 
Italy. 3065. 



Olive Fly in the Sanjak of Briissa, 
Turkey in Asia. 2370. 

— in Tunis : Its Parasites. 657. 
Olive Tree : Abortive Flowers. 2958. 

— Aleurodes olivinus. 2000. 2368. 

— and some of its Poisons. 593. 

— Bacterium Olivae. 322. 

— Control of Cycloconium. 1289. 

— Euphyllura oleae. 1068. 

— Fimgi. 2999. 

— Fimgus Diseases of, in the Pro- 

vince of Jaen, Spain. 3245. 

— Hylesinus oleiperda. 3064. 

— Injurious Insects and their Para- 

sites. 3033. 

— Its Enemies. 179. 

— Insects and other Pests of, in the 

Province of Jaen, Spain. 3245, 

3251- 

— " Leaf Blotch ". 2999. 

— Pest, Euphyllura oleae Controlled 

by Birds and Reptiles. 1044. 

— Phleothrips Oleae. 1594. 

— Scale Insect: Parasite of, 2974. 

— Scolytus in its Relations to Te- 

trastichus gentilei. 3027. 

— vScolytus : Natural Enemies of. 3026. 
Omiodes accepta on Sugar- Cane in 

Hawaii, its Natural Enemies. 2357. 
Omission of Sexual Reproduction in 

Chermes Piceae. 3259. 
One -Spray Method in the Control 

of the Codling Moth and the Plmn 

Curculio. 667. 
Onion Rot due to Bacillus colt. 2987. 

— Seeds : Fimgus Spores on. 364. 

— Smut ( Urocystis cepulae) in [the 

United States. 191 9. 
Onions : Ant homy ia ceparum {Phorbia 
Cepetorum) and Thrips). 1989. 

— Peronospora Schachtii in La Plata. 

2988. 
Oophthora semblidis : an Egg Para- 
site of Cochylis and Eudemis. 

3263. 
Oospora destructor : as Control of 
Froghoppers. 171. 



V 



I04 — 



Oospora scabies, Potato Scab. 2294. 
Ophiobolus graminis, Control. 2291. 
Orange Fly : Introduction into Italy 

of Indian Hymenoptera for its 

Control. 375. 

— " Mottled Leaf " and " Dieback ". 

1884. 

— Thrips. 1325. 

— Tortrix. 2003. 

— Trees : Diplodia causing Gumming 

of. 1895. 
Orchideae : Bacterial Diseases. 2991. 

— in Green-houses, New Rust of. 

1015. 

Orchids : Hypodermium Orchidearum 
at Cambridge. England. 2301. 

Ordinary Tobacco Juice : Insectici- 
dal Value. 1964. 

Organic Substances wliich are inju- 
rious to Plants. 1279. 

Organisation of the Study of Plant 
Diseases in Great Britain. 2961. 

Original Source of Seed and Certain 
Diseases of Conifers. 631. 

Ornamental Plants. New Micromy- 
cetes in Italy. 297, 3233. 

Orobanche (Broomrape). 3250. 

— cumana on Simflower in Russia. 

1938. 

— elatior on Clover. 642. 

Oryctes Rhinoceros (" Black Beetle ") 
injurious to Coconut Palms in 
Kaiser Wilhelm's Land and Bis- 
marck Archipelago. 2372. 

— sp : Cacao Tree Pest in Samoa. 689. 
Oscinis Frit (Frit Fly) : on Oats and 

other Cereals. 2345. 

— frit (Frit Fly : on Winter Wheat. 

1971. 

— frit in Russia. 652. 

— pusilla on Maize. 1972. 
Ovaries of the Cochylis. 1946. 

Palm Pests attacking Sugar Cane. 

2355- 
Palms : " Bud-rot " in India. 369. 
Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus palrna- 



rum on Sugar-cane at Trinidad. 

1977. 2355. 
" Panama Disease " of Bananas. 329, 

1549- 

— Transmission and Prevention of 

Malaria in the Canal Zone. 180. 
Panicum Crus-galli Resistant to Rust. 

3235- 
Paraffin Emulsion as Insecticide. 1965. 

Parandra hrunnea on Chestnuts in the 
United States. 695. 

Parasite of an African Tick trans- 
mitter of a Trypanosome Disease. 
3024. 

— of Lecanium Oleae, Olive Pest. 
1041. 

— of Rusts : Darluca Filum. 299. 
Parasite of Saturnia pavonia. 1043. 

— of the Eggs of the Codling- 

Moth. 1959. 

— of the Olive Tree Scale Insect. 

2974. 
Parasites and Hyperparasites of A phis 
Brassicae. 1566. 

— of Diaspis pentagona in Italy. 

1956. 

— of " Gipsy Moth ", Laboratory In- 

vestigations. 1568. 

— of Insect Pests. 374. 

— of Insects injurious to Olive Trees. 

3033- 

— of Kermes pubescens. 1570. 

— of Landibe, the Madagascar Silk- 

worm. 3080. 

— of Mythlaspis pomorum. 341. 

— ■ of Phyionomus nigrirostris. 1954, 
3028. 

— of Phyionomus variabilis, a Pest 

of Lucerne. 1037. 

— of the Olive Fly in Timis. 657. 

— of "White-Fly", Citrus Pest in 

Florida. 1562. 

— Flowering Plant from Jamaica 

{Scybalum jamaicense). 1937. 

— Ftmgi and Host Plants, from 

the Chemical Point of View. 
354. 



I05 — 



Parasitism as a Factor in Insect Con- 
trol. 3023. 

— in Plants. 155. 

— occasional, of Volvaria Murinella, 

370. 

Paring and Bumitig the Soil as a Re- 
medy against " Root-rot " of To- 
bacco Plants. 1004. 

Parthenocarpy, a Protection against 
Insect Attack. 2327. 

Pavia : Endotrophic Mycorhiza of. 
2284. 

Paw-win-the. 1889, 1942. 

Peach Aphis {Aphis persicae-niger) . 
1950. 

— Bacterium Pruni. 166. 

— Brown Rot of the Fruit in the 

United States. 628. 

— Diplodia, Causing Gtunming of. 

1895- 

— Freckle or Black Spot : Clados- 

porium carpophilum 2309. 

— Injury by Bordeavix Mixture. 

1002. 
Peach : Sprayhig for Control of Brown 
-Rot Scab and Curculio. 1535. 

— Spraying for Plum Curculio.1577. 

— Tree : " Little Leaf. 1884. 

— Tree : Plum Curculio. 628. 

Peach Trees : Experiments with Red 
Oil Fmulsion against " Green A- 
phis ". 2367. 

— Shrivelling of Leaves. Exoascus de- 

formans. 326. 
Peanuts : Aphis in the United States. 

1979. 
— ■ Leaf Spot [Cercospora personata) in 

the United States. 191 6. 
Pear Leaf Blight. 2308. 

— Membracids. 1067. 

— Red Colour of Epidermis and 

Fusicladium. 1898. 

— Thrips : Control. 1049. 

— Tree : Aphis Mali, Schizoneura 

lanigera and Scolytus rugulosus 
in the Spread of Fire Blight. 
684. 



Pear : Bacillus amylovorus. 627. 
— ■ Control of Fusicladium. 1024. 

— " Schorf ", " Pear Scab ", Monilia 

and Sphaerella sentina. 1023. 

— Squirrels. 2018. 

— Sphaeropsis. 367. 

Pears : Birds and Squirrels Injurious 

to. 2018. 
Peas : Diseases and Insects. 3272. 

— Fxm.gus Diseases. 3241. 

Pecan Nut : Cigar Case-Bearer {Co- 
leophora caryaefoliella) in the United 
States. 360. 

Pediculoides ventricosus Natural Ene- 
my of Mexican Grain Beetle, in the 
United States. 3029. 

Pelargonium : Pythium de Baryanum. 
1920. 

Pellicularia Koleroga on Coffee in 
Porto-Rico. 2983. 

Penicillium glaucum, Control by Car- 
bolineum. 1906. 

Pentodon punctatus. Injurious to Let- 
tuce and Chicory. 381. 

Periodical Cicada in 191 1 in the Uni- 
ted States. 1064. 

Perkinsiella saccharicida on Sugar- 
cane in Hawaii. 3267. 

Permanganate, Use against Woolly 
Aphis {Schizoneura lanigera). 174. 

Peronospora J aapiana, a Rhubarb Dis- 
ease in Germany. 317. 

— of Vines, control by Carbolineum. 

1906. 

— Schachtii, an Onion Pest in La 

Plata (Argentina). 2988. 

— Schachtii on Sugarbeet. 1009. 
Peru : Control of White Louse on 

Cotton. 1042. 
Peshawar, India : Fimgus Diseases of 

Vine. 2661, 2997. 
Pests of Medlar. 686. 

— of Strawberries in England. 1991. 

— of Fruit Trees. 622. 

Phacidium infestans on Yoimg Pines. 

1029. 
Phaedon betulae, Mustard Beetle. 3044. 



io6 — 



Phanerogams Injurious to Sugarcane 

643- 
Pharaxonotha Kirschi the Mexican 

Grain Beetle in the United States. 

and its Natural Enemy Pedicii- 

loides ventricosus. 3039. 
Phenate of Nicotine, a Remedy for 

Cochylis, Caterpillars and other 

Insects. 2343. 
Phenol and Water : Preventive Treat- 
ment of Beetroot Seeds. 606. 
Philippines, Lantana camera, New 

Weed. 2317. 
Phlaeothrips oleae : Natural Enemies. 

of. 3026. 

— on Olive Trees. 1594- 

— on Olive Trees in I^iguria. 359. 
Phlyctinus callosus, Injurious to Vine- 
yards in S. Africa. 385. 

Phoma Betae on Sugar Beet. 1009. 

— mail on Apple Trees. 166. 

— Roumii : New Disease of Cotton in 

Dahomey. 191 4. 
Phorbia cepetorum on Onions. 1989. 
Phospharus Jansonii Injurious to 994. 
Cola nitida in French West Africa. 

3051- 

Phragmidium : Japanese Species. 

Phylloxera and its Eggs, how Affected 
by Farmyard and Liqmd Manure. 
1560. 

— Associations for Control of, in 

Apulia and in the Provuace of 
Teramo, Italy. 2379. 

— at the Cape of good Hope. 182. 

— in Algeria in 1910. ^86. 

— in Austria. 385. 

— in California. 179. 

— in Champagne, France. 178. 

— Provisions against, at Cape of 

Good Hope. 182. 

— Resistance to, in Relation to Aci- 

dity of Saps. 386. 

— Resistance of " Rupestris du 

I.ot". 2328. 
Phylloxea resistant Vine Stocks in 
California. 342. 



Physiological Studies on Dodder. 

337- 
Physiology and Diseases of Hevea 

hrasiliensis . 1932. 

Phytonomus Murinus, Alfalfa Weevil. 

2352. 

— nigrirostris : Empusa sphaeros- 

perma, Natural Enemy of. 1902. 

2973- 

— nigrirostris, Forage Crops Pest in 

N. America and its Parasites. 

— nigrivostris (" I^esser Clover-Leaf 

Weevil) on Forage Crops in N. 

1954- 
America. 1974. 

— nigrirostris : Parasites of. 3028. 

— variabilis a Pest of lyuceme. 1037. 
Phytopathological Congress in Italy. 

3230. 

— Inspection of Horticultural Pro- 

duce, in France. 1604. 

— Observatory of Turin. 278. 

— Service in Holland. 702. 

— Station in Medoc, France. 151 8. 
Phytophthora infestans Potato Di- 
sease. 1909. 

— infestans Resistant Variety of Po- 

tato. 360. 

— of Tobacco in the Dutch E. Indies. 

617. 

— omnivora var Arecae cause of 

" Koleroga " (Rot Disease) of 
Areca Palm. 330. 

Phytoptus on Indigofera galegoides 
in Java. 1063. 

Picea excelsa : Rhizina undulata. 370. 

Piedmont : Microlepidoptera. 1940. 

Pieris (Black-veined White). 1559. 

Pieris Brassicae and P. Rapae pa- 
rasites on Capparis rupestris. 1322. 

Piesma capitata on Sugar Beets in 
Silesia, Germany. 677. 

Pigeon peas : Eudamus aff. proteus, 
Insect Pest of, in British Guiana. 
1987. 

" Piojo Blanco" White Louse on 
Cotton in Peru. 1042. 



— I07 — 



Pineapple : Diseases. 1292. 

— Diaspis Bromeliae and Pseudococciis 

Bromeliae in Brazil. 1990. 

— Thielaviopsis paradoxa. 2306. 
Pine-Tip Moth {Retinia frustrana). 

1071. ' 

— {Retinia frustrana) in Nebraska, 

United States. 693. 
Pine: Trametee Pini, Ring scale 167. 
Pine Trees : Rhizina undulata. 166. 
Pines : Diplodia Pinea. 633. 

— Hypoderma {Lophoderniium) bra- 

chysporum in Russia. 344. 

— Hypodermella sulcigena. 1926. 

— Phacidium infestans. 1029. 
Pineus sibiricus on Cedar. 1075. 
Pinus Banksiana (Jack Pine) : In- 
sects on. 1327. 

Pinus insignis : Retinia buoliana. 2007. 

— Montana : Cytosporina septospora 

in Russia. 3005. 

— ponderosa : Lophyrus Townsendi 

in the United States. 692. 

— strobus: Cronartium ribicola. 1928. 

— strobus : Hypoderma brachysporum 

1927. 

— sylvestris : New Disease of. Hen- 

dersonia acicola. 632. 

Plague and Rats. 364. 

Plant and Animal Parasites of Buck- 
wheat. 1290, 1 321. 

Plantain Disease due to Bacillus 
musae. 1925. 

Plant Diseases in Bohemia. 1526. 

— Great Britain. 1885. 

— in Ireland : Protection against. 

2019. 
— • in Italy in 1910-1911. 1282, 1525, 
1887, 2962. 2963, 2964, 2965, 

3231- 
Plant Diseases : Law on, in Jamaica. 

3279- 
Plant Inhabiting Mites of a Useful 

Nature. 3261. 
Plants : Disease Resisting. 357, 301, 

602, 996, 1284, 1897, 1899, 2287, 

2288, 2289, 2970, 3234, 3235, 3236. 



Plant Lice. 655. 

Plant Pathology in Russia. 1519. 

Plant Pests in Tobago during the 

Years 1909-1910. 366. 
Plants Injurious to Vanilla. 1303. 
Plasmodiophora Brassicae : Club Root 

or Finger-and-Toe in Cabbage. 162. 

2984. iv 

Plasmodiophora brassicae, Infection 

Experiments . 60 1 . 
Platyparea poeciloptera on Asparagus. 

2341- 
Plmn Curculio {Conotrachelus nenu- 
phar). 628, 685. 

— Control by the One Spray Method. 

667. 

— on Peaches : Control. 628. 
Plum. Rust {Puccinia Pruni). 3246. 
Plum Trees : Eutypella prunasiri. 

1548. 

— Their Enemies. 179. 

Plutella cruciferarum. Diamond backed 

cabbage Moth. 380 . 
Podosphaera leucotricha [Sphaerotheca 

Mali). 325. 
Poinsettias : Botrytis vulgaris. 2300. 
Polychrosis botrana : Importance of 

Chemical Methods in Controlling 

it. 3060. 
Populus canadensis : Cryptorrhynchus 

Lapathi. 3070. 
Porthetria dispar (Gipsy Moth) ill 

New England. 3023. 
Porthetria dispar, Gipsy Moth. La- 
boratory Investigations. 1568. 
Porto-Rico : Insect Pests on Citrus 

Fruit. 2002. 
Porto-Rico : Pellicularia Koleroga on 

Coffee. 2983. 
Potato : Bacteriosis. 163, 2985. 

— Bacteriosis in Great Britain. 2978, 

2985. 

— " Blackleg " of Irish Potato. 157. 

— " Black Scab " or "Wart Disease " 

Measures to prevent its Intro- 
duction into S. African Union. 
3280. 



— io8 



Potato : Canker of the Tubers. 1007. 

— Control of Chrysophlyctis endo- 

biotica with Flowers of Sul- 
phur. 191 1. 

— " Corky " or " Powdery " vScab. 

1890. 

— 'Disease Phytophtora infestans. 1909. 

— Diseases in Ireland. 1910. 

— Kelworm Heteroderaradicicola 1601. 

— Epicautas pp. " Vaquinhas " in Bra- 

zil. 2350. 

— " Flea Beetles " and " Colorado 

Beetles ". 2351. 

— " Internal Disease ". 158. 

— " I,eaf Blotch " and " Leaf Curl". 

1882. 

— Leaf Curl. 622, 1882, 2293. 

— " Leaf Shrivelling Disease " 286, 

594. 595. 622, 1881, 
— • Moth attacking Tomatoes in N. 

Zealand. 2361. 
• — Moth [Gelechia operculella) in New 

Zealand. 1973. 

— Moth [Lita solanella) Control of. 

1047. 

— Resistant Varieties. :i57, 996, 3236. 

— Scab {Oospora scabies). 2294. 

— Selection of Seed and Disease. 

997- 

— " Sprain " (" Streak Disease "). 

158. 

— Spraying Experiments. 1905. 

— " Stalk Weevil " and its Natural 

Enemies. 2332. 

— Stringiness in. 980. 

— " Tipbum ". 2272. 

— Variety not Affected by Phy- 

tophihora. 360. 

— Wart Disease {ChrysophlyoHs endo- 

bioiica). 361. 

— "Wart Disease" or "Black Scab". 

610. 
" Powdery " Scab of Potatoes. 1890. 
Preliminary Study of Elaterides and 

Cebrionides. 372. 
Preparation of Lime Sulphur Wash. 

1000, 1053. 



Preparations for Control of Plant Di- 
seases admitted Duty-free into 
Russia. 3087. 

Preventive Treatment of Beetroot 
Seeds with Phenol and Water. 606. 

Preventives of Cereal Smut. 605. 

Products of Combustion : Damage to 
Woods and Forests, and Remedies. 
284. 

Protection of Birds. 388. 251. 343. 

— of Crops in France. 3085. 
Protecting Plants against Slugs and 

Snails in British Guiana. 2014. 
Proto-callephora groenlandica : New 

Enemy of Sheep. 3077. 
Province of Jaen, Spain, Insect and 

other Pests of Olive Trees. 3251. 
Prunes : Spoiling of. 327. 
Prune Trees : Red Spider. 1998. 
Pruning as a Preventive of the Dias- 

pis of the Mulberry Tree. 1050. 
Prunus : Gummosis. 984. 

— Mahaleb : Cucurbitavia Pruni Ma- 

haleb and Myxosporium Pruni 
Mahaleb. 1026. 
Pseudococcus Bromeliae on Pineapple 

in Brazil. 1990. 
Pseudococcus calceolarius " Sugarcane 
Mealy Bug : its Natural Enemies in 
Hawaii. 2357. 
Pseudomonas Medicaginis, a Bacterial 
Disease of Lucerne. 309. 

— syringae, New Disease of Lilac. 

2992. 
Puccinia Malvacearum. 3237. 

— Phlei pratensis, Timothy Rust 

in the United States. 2980. 

— Pruni, Plvmi Rust. 3246. 
Pumpkin Beetle, Aulacophora olivevei, 

Remedy for. 2363. 
Pya-kya-the (Smut) in Burma. 1942. 
Pyrahs and Cochylis ; Destruction 

by Lamp-Traps. 3273. 

— and Cochyhs : Sulphide of Car- 

bon. 384. 
Pyroplasmosis : Arsenical Compomids. 

3083. 



109 



Pyropolyporus Calkinsn, Heart Rot 
of Quercus nigra in N. Carolina. 
2311. 

— igniarius on Sugar Maple. 1300. 
Pythium de Baryanum on Pelargo- 
niums. 1920. 

— gracile on Ginger. 1918. 

palmivorum in India. 369. 

Quack Grass : Eradication of. 301 1. 
Queensland (Australia) : Blackberry 

[Riihus fruticosus) Proclaimed a 

Noxious Weed. 2025. 

— Rats in Sugar-Cane Plantations . 363 . 
Quince : Garrof Disease. 3228. 

— Leaf Blight. 2308. 

Quercus : Anomalies of Buds caused 
by Cnethocampus processionea. 691. 

— nigra : Heart Rot, in N. Carolina. 

2311. 

Rabbits : Campaign against, in Aus- 
tralia. 1602. 

Radio-active Minerals against Com 
Mildew. 2975. 

Raising of Disease Resisting Plants. 

3234- 

' Ralliance " : Belgian Disease Resis- 
tant Wheat Variety. 2287. 

Raspberry : Enemies of. 1588. 

Rats and Plague. 364. 

— Destruction of, 361, 3073, 3074. 

— Devastation of Sugar Plantations 

in Queensland (Australia). 363. 
Reaction of Soil on Sugar Beets. 280. 
Reana luxurians : Diairaea saccharalis. 

3043- 
Recent Publications of Economic 

Entomology. 3015. 
Red Clover : Anthracnosis [Glocospo- 

rium caulivovum). 1540. 

— Disease of L,ucerne or Alfalfa 

{Neocosmospora vasinjecta). 160. 

— Rot of Palms in British India. 369. 

— Rot of the Sugar Cane : Colle- 

totrichum falcatum. ion. 



Red Spider on Almond and Prune 

Trees. 1998. 
Remedies against Vine Pests : in 

Grand Duchy of Baden. 660. 
Reptiles and Birds in the Control of 

Euphyllura oleae, an Olive Tree 

Pest. 1044. 
Resin Wash for Scale Insects on Ci- 
trus Trees. 1317. 
Resistance of Cereals to Diseases and 

the Attacks of Insects : Mechanical 

Determination. 1284. 

— of Coffea arabica and C. liberica 

to Hemileia m Java. 2299. 

— of Coffee Plants to Hemileia vasta- 

trix. 362. 

— of "Japanese Millet" to Rust. 3235. 

— of Inarch to Canker. 602. 

— of Plants to Disease. 357, 301, 602, 

996, 1284, 1897, 1899, 2287, 
2288, 2289, 2970, 3234, 3235, 
3236. 

— of Potatoes to Disease. 357, 996, 

3236. 

— of Rimpaus Strubes Roter Schland- 

stedter Wheat to Smut. 1897. 

— of " Rupestris du Lot " to Phyl- 

loxera. 2328. 

— of the Vine to Mildew. 1899. 

— to Cold of Aspergillus niger. 279. 

— to Cold of Conidia formed in 

Smnmer. 1891. 

— to Disease of the Belgian Wheats 

"Reve d'or" and "Ralliance". 
2287. 

— to Phylloxera in Relation to Aci- 

dity of Sap. 386. 

— Varieties of Cotton. 2288. 

— of Cow-peas. 357, 2288. 

— of Flax. 2288. 

— of Melons. 2288. 

— of Potatoes. 357, 996, 3236. 

— of Timothy. 2288. 

Retinia buoliana on Pinus insignis. 

2007. 
Retinia frustrana Pine-Tip Moth. 693, 

1071. 



— no — 



Reunion. Coffee Plants resistant to 
Hemileia Vastatrix. 362. 

" Reve d'or " : Belgian Disease Re- 
sistant Variety of Wheat. 2287. 

Rhinantheae : Transpiration of the 
Hemiparasites of. 2314. 

Rhine Palatinate : Control of Ende- 
mis and Cochylis. 705. 

Rhizina undtdata on Pine Trees. 166. 

— on Spruces. 370. 

Rhizoctonia violacea on Sugar Beet. 

1009. 
Rhizopertha dominica, Lesser Grain 

Borer, affecting Stored Products. 

1581. 
Rhizotrogus solstitialis on Vine in 

Russia : parasitized by Larva of 

Microphtalma disjuncta. 1955. 
— ■ Control in Rus.sia. 1996. 
Rhodesia : Laphygma exempta on Gra- 

mineae. 1970. 

— Snout Beetle on Maize. 1582. 

— Turnip Sawfly. 1988. 
Rhododendron : Enemies of. 355. 
Rhubarb : Peronospora Jaapiana in 

Germany. 317. 

Rhynchites pauxillus on Fruit Trees 
in Russia. 1995. 

Rhyncophorus palmarum Palm-wee- 
vil on Sugar-cane in Trinidad. 1977. 

2355- 
Rice Field Weeds. 641, 675. 

— Algae. 1935. 

Rice Fields: "Luc Binh" [Eichornia 
crassipes) Injurious in Ceylon. 1555. 

— Rotala indica var. uligrinosa New 

Weed in Rice Fields in Italy. 

1934- 
Rice Fulgorid. 175. 

— Fungus and Insect Pests. 305, 608. 

— Fimgus Diseases. 349. 

— Hispa. 175. 

— Insect Pests. 305, 349, 675. 

— Insect Pest in Cochin China. 

1318- 

— Meal : Occurrence of Tilletia hor- 

rida. 992. 



Rice Spodoptera maurita Larvae in 
the Philippines. 1054. 

Rimpaus Strubes Roter Schlanstedter 
Wheat Resistant to Smut. 1897. 

Ring Scale of the Pine 167 

Rio Grande do Sul : Wheat Rust. 
2977. 

Road Tarring and Vegetation 281, 
282, 2271, 3227. 

Rodents : Destruction of. 388. 

" Roncet " of the Vine. 1883. 

Rooks and Storks Destroying Lo- 
custs. 658. 

Root Borer of Sugar-cane. 2356. 

— Disease of ^cfldfl decurrens. 636. 

— Disease of Castilloa and other 

Plants. 2312. 

— Disease of Coconut Palms. 1296. 

— Disease of Sugar Beet : Decorti- 

cation of Seeds. 2297. 

— Disea.se of Yovmg Sugar Beet. 307. 

— Rot of ISIanioc in Tasmania. 308. 

" Root Rot " of Tobacco, Thielavia 
basicola. 1004. 

Roots of Hybrids of Swedes and Tur- 
nips : Modification of. 981. 

Root Tumours of Sugar Beet. 612. 

Rosaceous Fruit Trees : Shot Hole 
Fimgus {Cercospora circumscissa). 
1019. 

Rose Canker Coniothyrium Fuckelii. 

2303- 
Rose Laurel Louse {Aspidioius nerii). 

3055- 
Roseries : Bohrytis cinerea. 365. 
Rose Tree : Diseases and Enemies of. 

1294. 
Rotala indica var. uligiuosa, New 

Weed in Rice Fields in Italy. 1934. 
Rot Disease or Koleroga of Areca 

Palm. 330. 

— in Bananas {Gloesporium Mnsa- 

rium). 630. 

— in Timber due to Lenzites sepiaria. 

3008. 

— of Chrysan them vans. 366. 

— Attacking grapes Stored Fresh. 3244. 



Ill 



Rubber Plants : Coccidae collected 
on them in Ceylon. 2374. 

— Trees : Diseases of. 371. 

— Plants : Imperata arundinacea In- 

jurious to, in Dutch E. Indies. 
2318. 
Rubiaceae : Constant Presence of Bac- 
teria in the Leaves. 2966. 
Rubus fruHcosus (Blackberry) declared 

a Noxious Weed in. Queensland, 

Australia : 2025. 
Rimch, Destruction of, by Sulphuric 

Acid. 1304. 
" Rupestris du Lot " Resistance to 

Chlorosis. 2276. 
" Rupestris du Lot " Resistance to 

Phylloxera. 2328. 
Russia : Broomrape on Siunflower. 

1938. 

— Control of Rhizotrogus solstitialis. 

1996. 

— Cytosporina sepiospora on Pinus 

montana. 3005. 

— Duty free Admission of Pre- 

parations for Control of Plant 
Diseases. 3087. 

— Fruit and Forest Trees Insect 

Pests. 1993. 

— Hypoderma {Lophodermiutn) ' hra- 

chysporum on Pines. 334. 

— Insect Pests of Fnut Trees and 

Cereals. 1969. 

— Larvae of Microphtalma disjuncta 

Parasites of Larvae of Rhizo- 
Irogus solstitialis, Injurious to 
the Vine. 1955. 

— Lepidosaphes ulmi, Acarus Pest 

of Apple Trees. 1593. 

— Oscinis Frit. 652. 

— Phytopathological Service. 2021. 

— Plant Diseases. 599, 987, 1527, 1888. 

— Plant Pathology in. 1519. 

— Possibility of Diffusion of Cuscuta 

racemosa. 1553. 

— Rhynchites pauxillus in. 1995. 

— See also Caucasus. 2022. 

— Slugs in Fields and Gardens. 365. 



— Sugar Beets damaged by Common 

Dart (Agrotis). 279. 
Russian Central Asia Insect Pests of 

Fruit Trees. 1994. 
Rust in Seed Com : Remedy. 1286. 

— of Black Currant. Cronartium ri- 

bicolum. 3243. 

— of Broad Beans {Uromyces Fabae) 

in the N. of England. 2979. 

— of Hollyhocks. 3237. 

— of Medlars. 686. 

Rusts of Plants and Ferrous Sulphate. 

3238. 
Rust of Plmn Trees {Puccinia Pruni). 

3246. 

— Resistance of Japanese Millet. 3235. 

— Resistance of Various Varieties of 

Wheat and Oats. 157. 

— Resistant Asparagus. 2289. 

— resistant Wheats for the South of 

France. 156. 
Rusts : Cereal, in S. Africa. 1528. 

— Parasite of, Darluca Filum. 299. 
Rust - Wheat Rust in Rio Grande do 

Sul. 2977. 
Rye : Fvmgus Diseases. 3240. 

— Fusarium. 1908. 

— Grass - Chladochytrium [Physoder- 

ma) caespitis. 1008. 
Rye : Insects and Diseases. 3266. 



Sabina sabinoides Moxmtain Cedar : 
Cyanospora Albicedrae. 1030. 

Sagaing District, Burmah ; Fvmgus 
and Insect Pests. 1942. 

Sainfoin : New Disease in Italy. 2981. 

Saissetia nigra : Parasitized by Za- 
lophotrix mirum. 3030. 

— oleae (Black Skale) : its Para- 

sites. 2335. 

— oleae injurious to Citrus Fruit : 

parasitised by Scutellista cyanea. 

1958. 
Salt Bush: New Pest of, Aleurodes 

Atriplex. 3270. 
Salts of Copper in Viticulture (Viti- 



112 — 



cultural Congress at Montpellier 
in 1911). 2278. 

— of Silver against Mildew. 359. 

— of Silver in Viticulture Viticul- 

tural Congress of Montpellier, 
1911. 2878. 

Salvador : Use of Birds Insects in- 
juring Tobacco. 172. 

Salvias : Tetranychus telarius. 2359. 

Samoa : Oryctes sp. Cacao Tree Pest. 
689. 

Samples of Fungicides : Measures to 
be taken in France. 2377. 

Sandal Tree [Santalum album) "Spike" 
a New Disease in Mysore, Brit. 
India. 290. 

San Domingo : Diseases of Cacao. 

316. 

San Jos^ Scale [Aspidiotus perni- 
ciosus) in the Transvaal. 3258. 

San-nwin-po. 1942. 

San Thome : Funiago or Smut of the 
Seeds of the Cacao Tree. 363. 

Saponin in Insecticide Emulsions. 
1052. 

Sarcoma and " Crown Gall ". 2286. 

Sarcophagidae : Habits of. 1568. 

Saiurnia Pavonia and one of its Pa- 
rasites, Masicera sylvatica. 1043. 

Sawflies. 1326. 

— [Nematus veniricosus) on Goose- 

berry. 1992. 

— Turnip, in Rhodesia. 1988. 
Scab of Peaches, Control. 1535. 

" Scab " on Apple and Pear Frees. 

1023. 
Scalding as a Remedy for Cochylis. 

670. 
Scale Insects and Fiunago : Calcivmi 

Sulphide. 665. 
■ — and their Natural Enemies. 653. 

— Control by Means of Fmigoid 

Parasites. 171. 

— Fungus Parasites of 1900, 1950, 

2972, 2974. 

— on Citrus Trees Controlled by Resin 

Wash. 1317. 



Scale Insect' on Cotton. 1057. 

— which attack Limes (Citrus Li- 

metta). 180. 
Scarlet Maple Rot produced by Dae- 

dalea unicolor. 2312. 
Schistocera paranense destroyed by 

Epicauta Larvae. 2333. 
Schizoneura lanigera and the Spread 

of Fire Blight. 684. 

— Control by Means of Permanga- 

nate. 174. 
" Schorf " of Pear and Apple Trees. 

1023. 
Sclerospora macrospora, New Host 

Plants. 296. 
Sclerotinia Disease of the Gooseberry. 

1922. 

— fructigena, Brown Rot Fmigus on 

Apple Trees. 324. 

— fructigena, Brown-rot of Peach. 

628, 1535. 

— fructigena : Control by Carboli- 

nevun. 1906. 

— Liber tiana in Holland. 1532. 

— Libertiana on Chevrier Beans in 

Normandy. 609. 

Scolopendrella californica : on Aspa- 
ragus, Lima Beans and other Seed 
Crops in California. 2362. 

Scolytus amygdali on Almond trees, 
in Sicily. 1999. 

— of the Olive, Phlaeothrips oleae. 

1594- 

— of the Olive Tree in its Relations 

to Telrastichus gentilei. 3027. 

— rugulosus and the vSpread of 

Fire BHght. 684. 
Scotch Firs : Diseases and Decay of 

Plantations. 353. 
Scotch Pine : Bladder Rust. 1929. 
Scutellista cynea, Parasite of Lecanium 

Oleae, the Olive Cochineal. 1041. 
Scutigera colcoptrata : Habits. 3082. 
Scybalium jamaicense, Parasitic 

Flowering Plant from Jamaica. 1937. 
Scymnus vagans : Minute but Useful 

Ladybird Beetle. 1564. 



Seed : Disinfection of. 357. 
Seeds of Weeds : their Vitality in the 
Ground. 169. 

— Produced by Weeds. 3010. 

— Treatment with Formalin. 369. 

— Treatment with Hydrogen Pe- 

roxide. 3237. 
Selection in Control of Plant Diseases. 
2970. 

— of Disease Resistant Plants. 2288. 

— of Seed Potatoes. 997. 

Self -boiled Lime-sulphur. 1534, 1535- 

Semasia Woeberiana, Cherry Stem Bo- 
rer. 687. 

Sepiogloeum Arachidis, Ground- nut 
Disease in British India. 2982. 

Seploria lycopersici var. europea on 
Tomatoes in Great Britain. 2986. 

— petroselini apii, Celery Blight in 

California. 2305. 

— Petroselini var apii. " lyeaf Spot " 

of Celery, in England. 3244. 

— Viciae. 1154. 

Sheep : Alternanthera achyrantha, In- 
jurious Amaranthacea. 170. 

— New Enemy of, Proto-calliphora 

groenlandica. 3077. 
Shot Hole Borer on Tea Plants. 176. 

— Fvmgus) {Cercospora circumscissa 

on Rosaceous Fruit Trees. 1019. 
Shrivelling of Peach Leaves, Control. 

325- 
Siamese Grain Beetle [Lophocateres 

pusillus) in Texas. 2323. 
Sicily : Control of Locusts. 1579. 

— Scolytus amygdali, an Insect Pest 

of Almond Trees. 1999. 

Sickening of Grafted Vines in vSicily 
and Algeria. 591. 

Sickly Spruces on Moorland, Experi- 
ments on Manuring. 2960. 

Silkworm of Madagascar " Landibe " 
[Borocera madagascariensis) : Para- 
sites of. 3080. 

" Silver Blight " of Oaks a Danger to 
Chestnut and Beech Trees. 331. 

Silver Salts in Viticulture. 2878. 



Skip-jacks and Thrips : Influence of 

Tillage and Manure. 376. 
" Slijmziekte " of Tobacco : Control. 

311- 
Slugs and Insects destroyed by Hedge- 
hogs. 1961. 

— and Snails : Destruction of. 377. 

— and Snails in British Guiana: Pro- 

tecting Plants against. 2014. 

— in Fields and Gardens in Russia. 

365- 

— Natural Cause of Destruction of. 

701. 
Slug Pest of Hevea hrasiliensis [Ma- 

riaella Dussumerii). 2015. 
Smoke : Damage Caused by, and 

Rem.edies. 285. 
Smut : Effect or the Shape of Wheat 

Ears. 1006. 

— of Cacao Seeds. 363. 

— Preventives. 605. 

— Resistant Wheat: Rimpaus-Strubes 

Roter Schlanstedter. 1897. 
Smuts of Cereals and Formalin. 604. 
Snails : Control in Japan. 378. 

— Plague of, in Ceylon. 1076. 
Snakes and Wild Animals in India. 

3072. 
Snout Beetle : Curculionid on Maize. 

1582. 
Soap and Bordeaux Mixture. 607. 
Sodium Arsenite for Killing Weeds. 

1993- 
Soft Rot of Ginger in British India. 

1918. 

— Rot of Muskmelons : Bacillus Me- 

lonis. 1545. 

Solenobia triquetrella : Easily Mista- 
ken for Cochylis. 13 10. 

Solenopsis geminata on Cinchona : 
Control. 1985. 

Sorghum Midge {Contarinia {Diplo- 
sis) sorghicola). 1565, 2330, 2348. 

South Africa: Anti Locust Campaign. 
1580. 

— Athalia spinarum. 1988. 

— Birds Destroying Locusts. 1572. 



8 



— 114 — 



South Africa : Cereal Rusts. 1528. 

— Phlyciinuscallosus iiiViaeyards. 385. 

— African Central Locust Bureau. 

1521. 

— Australia : Bartsia latifolia, a Weed . 

1939- 

— California : Aphididae. 3255. 

Southern Nigeria : Insect Pests. 2326, 
South of France : Rust Resistant 

Wheat. 156. 
Spain : Fungus Diseases of Olive. 

3245- 

— Royal Decree on the Control of 

Locusts in Spain. 706. 

Sphaenophorus Maydis, Maize Bill- 
bug. 3041. 

Sphaerella jragariae on Strawberries. 
621, 1921. 

— seniina; on Apple and Pear Trees. 

1023. 
Sphaeropsis (species of) Parasites of 

Pear and Apple Trees. 367. 
Sphaerostilbe repens Root Disease of 

Hevea. 638. 
Sphaerotheca castagnei on StrawDer- 

ries. 1 92 1. 

— Mali. 325. 

— Mors uvae. 163, 364, 300. 

— Mors-uvae in Galicia, Austria. .365. 

— Mors-uvae in Switzerland. 2280. 
Spicaria sp : Arrow Root Disease in 

St. Vincent. 191 5. 
Spike : New Disease of Sandal -Tree in 

Mysore, Brit. India. 290. 
Spinach : Diseases of, in Virginia U. S. 

318. 
Spirillosis: Arsenical Compounds. 3083. 
Spodoptera maurita in Philippine Rice 

Fields. 1054. 
Spoiling of Primes. 327. 
Spongospora subterranea. 1890. 
Spores : Hibernation in Vine-Buds. 

990. 

— of Ustilago and Tilletia in the Bodies 

of Animals and in Manure. 293. 
" Sprain " (Streak Disease) in Potato. 
158. 



Spraying Cucumbers and Cantaloups. 
2989. 

— Buropean Fruit Lecanimn and 

the Kuropean Pear Scale. 672. 

— Bxperiments on Potatoes. 1905. 

2295. 

— Experiments with Lime Sulphur 

Stunmer Wash. looi. 

— for Plmn Curculio on Peach. 1577. 

— Peaches for Control of Brown-Rot, 

Scab, and Curculio. 1535. 

— to Eradicate Dandelions from 

Lawns. 2319. 
Springtails {Collenibola) their Import- 
ance. 1949. 
Spruce : Biatorina Bouteillei. 1031. 
Strawberries : Tylenchus devastatrix 
and Aphelenchus Fragariae. 2013. 
Substances which are| Poisonous to 

the Olive Tree. 593. 
" Squamosis " of Citrus. 984. 
Squirrels Damaging Pears and Apples. 

2018. 
Staff of Horticultural Plant Diseases 

Inspection in France : Decree. 3084. 
Stainers {Dysdercus sp.) on Cotton : 

Bxperiments. 1975. 
Starling. 1077. 
State of New York: Grape Insects. 

3062. 
Station of Plant Pathology in Costa 

Rica. 1520. 

— of Viticultural Information in the 

Gironde, France. 2956. 

Steganosporium Kosaroffi on the Mul- 
berry in Bulgaria. 1552. 

Steirastoma depressum, Cacao Borer 
Beetle. 354. 

Stem Bleeding Disease of Coconut. 
161. 

Stinging and Bloodsucking Insects 
which transmit Diseases. 1320. 

Stinging Nettles : Destruction of. 

1305- 

Stizolobium Deeringianum (Velvet 

Bean) : Anticarsia getnmatilis in 
the United States. 3042. 



— 115 — 



Stored Products : Dinoderus trunca- 
tus, Rhizopertha dominica. 1581. 

Storks and Rooks destroying Locusts. 
658. 

Straits Settlements : Legislative Mea- 
sures for the Control of Coconut 
Palm Disease {Hylocoetus) . 2023. 

Strawberry Leaf Spot, Sphaerella fra- 
gaviae. 621. 1921. 

— Mildew, Sphaerotheca castagnei. 

1921. 

— Pests in England. 1991. 
Straw-Blight in Wheat. 2291 . 

— of Cereals. 360. 

" Streak Disease " in Potatoes. 158. 

Strina on Chestnut in Italy. 289. 

Stringiness in Potatoes. 980. 

Strophosomus obesus on Douglas Fir. 
2006. 

St. Vincent. W. I : Arrowroot Di- 
sease. 1915. 

Sugar Beets Aphis papaveris. 2354. 

— and Drought. 2273. 

— Diseases and Pests. 1055, 1056. 

— Diseases Caused by the Soil's Re- 

action. 280. 

— Phoma Betae " Beet-Rot ". Rhi- 

zocfonia violacea, Hernia of the 
Roots, Peronospora Schachtii, 
Cercospora heticola, Clasterospo- 
rium putrefaciens. 1009. 

— Piesma capitata in Silesia, Ger- 

many . 677. 

— Root Disease. 307. 

— Root Tumours. 612. 

— See Beetroot. 

Sugar-Cane and Rice Grasshopper, Hie- 
roglyphiis furcifer inlndia.. 1978. 

— Attacked by Palm Pests. 2355. 

— Borers in Bengal. 678. 

— Castnia Licus in Trinidad. 353. 
Sugar cane : Cane Borers on the Loui- 

vsiana Upper Coast. 1059. 

— Diaprepes abhreviatus Root Borer. 

2356. 

— Diseases. 160, 361, 613, loio, 1541. 

— Diseases in Mexico. 1541. 



Sugar cane: Eel Worms. 897. 

— Froghoppers (Tomaspis). 379. 352, 

1584. 

— Ynjurious Animals in Hawaii. 2357. 

— Injurious Phanerogams. 643. 

— Mealy Bug Pseudococcus calceo- 

larius in Hawaii. 2357. 

— Melanchonium SaccAan in Hawaii, 

2298. 

— New Insect Pest in Maviritius. 3282. 

3268. 
Sugar-Cane : Palm Weevil as Sugar- 
cane Pest. 1977. 

— Perkinsiella saccharicida in Hawaii. 

3267. 

— " Red Rot ". loii. 

— Rhyncophorus Palmarum in Tri- 

nidad. 1977. 

— White Ants in the W. Indies. 

1060. 
Sugar Maple : Pyropolyporus ignia- 

rius. 1300. 
Sugar Plantations in Queensland, 

Devastated b}^ Rats. 363. 
Sulfabion. 607. 
Sulla : Insect Pests of. 676. 
Sulphate of Copper on the Leaves of 

the Tea Plant after Spraying. 166. 

— of Iron against Chlorosis of Fruit 

Trees. 155, 1280, 3229. 
Sulphide of Calcimn Mixture : Prepa- 
ration. 1053. 

— of Carbon against Cochylis and 

Pyralis. 384. 

— of Carbon against Field Mice. 

2017. 

— of Carbon and Cochylis. 3038. 
Sulphur against Oak White. 1298. 

— easy to Moisten. 2290. 

Sulphurer (New) : the "Unica". 1539. 

Sulphur (Flowers of) against the Po- 
tato Pest, Synchytrium endobioti- 
cum. 191 1. 

— used against Oidivun : Mode of 

Action. 1288. 
Sulphuric Acid for Control of Runch. 
1304. 



— ii6 



Svuiflower: Broomrape in Russia. 1938. 

— Resistant to Homeosoma nebulella. 

1951- 
Surinam : Banana Disease. 329. 

— Cacao Canker. 315. 

— Disease of Banana. 1550. 

— Disease of leaves of Hevea. 355. 
- — Leaf Disease of Hevea. 1932. 

— " Witches Broom " {ColletotHchum 

luxificum) on Cacao. 1014. 
Swede Hybrids : Modifications of 

Roots. 981. 
Sweden : Mycological Flora of the 

Environs of Stockholm. 986. 
Swedes : Bacterial Infection probably 

due to Bacillus Oleraceae. 1005. 
Swedes : Control of Finger-and-Toe 

Disease {Plasmodiophora Brassi- 

cae). 2984. 
Sweet Potato Insect Pests. 1058. 1319. 

— White Rust of. 2296. 
Swift Moths [Hepialidae). 1948. 
Switzerland : Plant Diseases. 598, 

2280. 

Synchytrium endobioticum : Wart Di- 
sease or Black Scab. 3280. 

Systematic Eradication of Citrus 
White Fly {Aleyrodes spp. in Texas. 
2371- 

Tachinidae, Natural Enemies of La- 
phygnia exenipia. '1953. 

Take-all {Ophiobolus graminis) : Con- 
trol. 2291. 

Taphrina niaculans : Leaf Spot of 
Turmeric. 614. 

Tapia : Insects Injvu-ious to. 3071. 

Tarring of Roads and Decay of Orna- 
mental Plants. 353. 

Tar Vapours : Effect upon Vegetation. 
1522. 

Tasmania : Hemlock proclaimed a 
Weed. 1330. 

— Root Rot of Cassava. 308. 
Tea : Acari on, in Java. 1315. 

— " Blister Blight " Exobasidius 
vexans in British India. 363. 



Tea: Copper Blight (Laestadia Theae). 
1012. 

— Nettle grub in Ceylon. 176. 

— Plant : Copper Svilphate on the 
Leaves after Spraying. 156. 

— Plant: Diseases, 161, 314, 615, 

1012, 1013, 1291. 

— Plants in Ceylon : " Green Scale " 

{Coccus viridis). 2358. 

— Plant: Shot Hole Borer (Xyle- 

borus formicans). 176. 

— Plant: Tortrix. 1981. 

Teak : Imperata Arundinacea, In- 
jurious Weed in Dutch E. Indies. 
2318. 

Telephone and Telegraph Posts Da- 
maged by Wood-Boring Insects. 
1600. 

Temporary Entomological Stations in 
France. 2269. 

Tenthredinid Injurious to the Vine. 
648. 

" Teosinte " {Euchlaena mexicana) In- 
.sect Pests of. 3269. 

Tetranychis pilosus : New Disease 
of Mulberry. 1596. 

Tetranychus sp. in Java. 1036. 

— telarius on Salvias. 2359. 
Tetrasiichus geniilei in its Relations 

to the Scolytus of the Olive Tree. 
3027. 
Texas : Destruction of Citrus White 
Fly. 2371 

— New Species of Fimgi. 1530. 

— Siamese Grain Beetle {Lophocateres 

pusillus) 2323. 

Thielavia basicola « Root Rot » of To- 
bacco. 1004. 

Thielaviopsis ethacelica Stem Bleed- 
ing of Coconut 161. 

— paradoxa, Pineapple Disease 2306 
Thistles : Destruction of 1306. 
Tlnips and Skip-jacks, Influence of 

Tillage and Manure. .376. 

— on Onions. 1989. 

— on Oranges 1325. 

Thymalus limbatus : Pear Pest. 3275. 



— 117 — 



Thyrococcum Sirakoffi on Mulberry. 

1027. 
Thysanoptera Harmful to Gramineae . 

674. 
Tibicen septemdecim the Periodical 

Cicada in the United States. 1064. 
Tillage : Influence on Skip-jacks and 

Thrips. 37(5. 
Tilletia horrida : Occurrence in Rice 

Meal. 992. 

— Spores in the Bodies of Animals 

and in Manure. 293. 
Timber : Ceratostomella pilifera. 1930. 

— Dry Rot. 168, 1301, 3249. 

• — Rot caused by Lenzites sepiaria. 
3008. 

— Zythia resinae. 1931. 

Timothy : Resistant Varieties. 2288. 

— Rust {Puccinia Phleipratensis) in 

the United States. 2980. 
"Tipbum" of the Potato. 2272. 
Tipulidae : Fvingi, natural Enemies 

of. 374. 
Tobacco : Destruction of Worms by 

Cold. 177. 

— Diseases in Dutch E. Indies. 312, 

617. 

— Disinfection of Soil sown with. 362. 

— Fumago. 1543. 

— Growing for Nicotine Extraction. 

1903. 

— Insects in Ireland. 1986. 

— Juice. 1538. 

— - Juice : Ordinary, its Insecticidal 
Value. 1964. 

— " Krupuk " Disease. 982. 

— " Slijmziekte " : Cause and Means 

of Control. 311. 

— Smoke : Action on Plants. 1880. 

— " Root- rot ". 1004. 

— Use of Insectivorous Birds. 172. 

— Worms : Destroyed by Cold. 177. 
Tobago: Plant Pests. 292, 366. 
Tomato : Agriotes lineatus. 1586. 

— Bacteriosis. 163, 2985. 
Tobacco Bacteriosis, Bacterium Brio- 

sii. 1544. 



Tobacco "Black Stripe" {Macrospo- 
rium Solani). 2293. 

— Control of White Fly {Aleyvodes 

vaporarium) by Hj^'drocyanic 
Acid Fumigations. 382. 

— Gelechia operculella. 2361. 

— Heterodera radicicola. 201 1. 

— Mosaic Disease. 287. 

— Septoria lycopersici var. europea 

in Great Britain. 2986. 
Tomaspis : Control by Oospora des- 
tructor. 171. 

— (Froghoppers) : Control. 352. 

— Froghoppers on Sugar cane -379, 

352, 1584. 

— postica (Froghopper.): Biology. 

649. 

— Green Muscardine. 650. 
Tonking : Hylotrechus quadrupes, Cof- 
fee " Borer ". 1585. 

Tortrix of Oranges. 2003. 

— of Tea Plant. 1981. 

Toussah vSilkworm and oak oidium. 
355. 

Trametes Pini. 167. 

Transmission and Prevention of Ma- 
laria in the Panama canal zone. 180. 

Transpiration of the Hemiparasites 
of the Tribe Rhinantheae. 2314. 

Transvaal : Aspidiotus perniciosus 
(San Jose Scale). 3258. 

— Hyalodema Evansii. 365. 
Treatment of Eudemis and Cochylis 

with Insecticides. 1316. 

— of Seed with Hydrogen Peroxide. 

3237- 

— of Vine Cochylis with Insecticides. 

661. 

— of Vine Flea Beetle. 1576. 
Treatment of Vine Mildew in 1910 in 

France. 164. 

Treatments agamst Codlin Moth Mag- 
gots. 1575. 

Trenomyces histophorus, Laboulbenia- 
cea New to Italy. 354. 

Trifolium pratense : Orobanche ela- 
iior. 642. 



— ii8 - 



Trinidad : Control of Castnia Licus. 

353- 

— Control of Froghoppers (Tomaspis) 

on Sugar-Canes. 379, 352, 1584. 

— Microlepidoptera. 646. 

— Mole-Crickets. 2324. 

— Rhynchophorus palmarunt on Su- 

gar Cane. 1977, 2355. 

Trioza Camphorae : on Camphor Trees 
in Japan. 696. 

Tropical Africa : Mistletoe on Fun- 
iumia elastica. 1554. 

Truck Crops : Insects. 2360. 

Trypanosome Disease Spread by Pa- 
rasite of an African Tick. 3024. 

Trypanosomiasis : Arsenical Com- 
poimds. 3083. 

Tsetse Fly : Control by Bush Clearing. 

367- 

Tse-Tse Fly, destroyed by Euphor- 
bia Glue. 1603. 

Tubercularia Fici : New Fig Disease. 
1924. 

Tunis : Parasites J of the Olive Fly. 

657- 
Turkey : Importation of Cotton Seed 

Forbidden. 3088. 
Turkey in Asia : Olive Fly in the 

Sanjak of Brussa. 2370. 
Tvirmeric : " Leaf Spot " [Taphrina 

maculans). 614. 
Turnips : Bacterial Rot in Ireland. 

619. 

— Hybrids : Modifications of Roots. 

981. 
Turnip Sawfly in Rhodesia. 1988. 
Tylenchus devasiatrix on Oats. 2009. 

— devasiatrix on Strawberries. 2013. 
Typhlocyba comes var. color adensis, 

the Grape Leaf-hopper in the Lake 
Erie Vailey. 1591. 



Uganda : Control of Heliothis Obsoleta, 

Cotton Pest. 3047. 
— Insect Pests. 1035, 1944, 3257. 
Umbria : Control of Noctviae. 664. 



Union of S. Africa : Measures to Pre- 
vent the Introduction of " Black 
Scab " or " Wart Disease " of the 
Potato [Synchytrium endobioticum). 
3280. 

United States : Anthonomus grandis 
(Cotton-Boll Weevil). 1583. 

— Anticarsia gemmatilis on Velvet 

Bean. 3042. 

— Aphis on Pea-nuts. 1979. 

— Birds Controlling Anticarsia gem- 

matilis. 3036. 

— Brown-tail Moth [Euproctis chry- 

sorrhea). 3252. 

— Control of Brown Rot and Plum 

Curculio on Peaches. 628. 

— Cotton Boll Weevil. 350. 

— Cotton Diseases in Mississippi. 310. 

— Cupro-Calcio Sprayings against 

Black Rot in Michigan. 366. 

— Diaporthe parasitica, Chestnut Can- 

ker. 3003. 

— Diseases of Economic Plants. 1524. 

— Diseases of Spinach. 318. 

— Elaphidion villosum Injurious to 

Forests. 690. 

— Floret Sterility of Wheats due to 

Fmigi. 1907. 

— Grosbeaks and their Value to Agri- 

culture. 3034. 

— Ground Squirrels Injuriousto Crops. 

699. 

— Importation of the Parasites of 

the Gipsy Moth {Porthetriadis- 
par) and the Brown-tail Moth 
{Euproctis. chrysorrhoea). 3025. 

— Insecticide and Fvmgicide Regu- 

lations. 181, 707. 

— Leaf Spot {Cercospora per sonata). 

injurious to Pea-nuts. 1916. 

— Lophyrus Townsendi Injurious to 

Western Yellow Pine. 692, 1072. 

— Measures to Prevent Introduction 

of " Mediterranean Fruit Fly". 

3253. 3281. 

— Onion Smut [Urocystis cepulae). 

1919. 



— 119 



United States Parandra brunnea on 
Chestnuts. 695. 

— Pecan Cigar Case-Bearer Coleo- 

phora caryaefoliella. 360. 

— Pediculoides ventricosus Natural 

Enemy of Pharaxonotha Kirschi, 
the Mexican Grain Beetle. 3029. 

— Periodical Cicada, Tibicen septem- 

decim. 1064. 

— Pharaxonotha Kirschi the Mexican 
Grain Beetle. 3039. 

— Pine-tip Moth {Retinia frustrana). 

in Nebraska. 693. 

— See also Colorado. 1986. 

— See also Minnesota. 2380. 

— See also Texas. 1530. 

— Spraying Lecanium Corni and 

Epidiaspis pyricola, Fruit Tree 
Pests. 672. 

— Timothy Rust {Puccinia Phleipra- 

tensis). 2980. 
Urbec : Arsenical Treatment in the 

Yonne, France. 187. 
Uredineae: Cystopsora a New Genus. 

294. 

— lyife History. 600. 

Urocystis Cepulae : Onion Smut, in 

the United States. 191 9. 
Uredospores of Hemileia vastatrix : 

Infections and Germinative Power. 

356. 
Uroniyces Betae on Mangolds in 

England. 191 3. 

— Dactylidis : Development of Aeci- 

diimi. 355. 

— Fabae Rust of Broad Beans in the 

West of England. 2079. 
Uruguay: Control of Locusts. 2381. 

— Insect Pests. 3256. 

Useful Acarina on Plants. 3261. 
U stilaginoidella musaeperda, Panama 
Disease of Bananas. 1549. 

— oedipigera Elephantiasis of Banana. 

1550- 
Usiilago Reiliana, Maize Smut. 2283. 

— Spores in the Bodies of Animals 

and in Manure. 293. 



Valencia : Insecticide Competition. 

1314- 

Vanilla : Injurious Plants. 1303. 

— Lepidoptera in Madagascar. 3052. 

— Planifolia : Bacteriosis {Bacterium 

Briosianum) . 2990. 

" Vaqviinhas " aEpicauta spp.) Inju- 
rious to Potatoes and Vegetables 
in Brazil. 2350. 

Variations in Diet among Hylophagous 
Bostrychida. 1040. 

Varieties of Wheat and Oats : Resis- 
tant to Rust. 157. 

— of Wheat Resistant to Bunt. 301. 

— of Potato not afifected by Phy- 

xophthora. 360. 
Vedalia cardinalis [Novius cardinalis) 

in Control of " Fluted scale " 

{Icerya purchasi). 1957. 
Vegetables : Epicauta spp. in Brazil. 

2351- 
Vegetation and Atmospheric Impu- 
rities. 2270. 

— and Road Tarring. 281, 282, 

2271, 3227. 

Velvet Bean injured by Aniicarsia 
gemmatilis and Birds Controlling 
the Latter. 3042, 3036. 

" Verderame " of Eastern Tobaccos 
in S. Italy. 2274. 

Verticillum heterocladum in White 
Fly Control. 651. 

Vigna Catjang, Cowpeas : Insect Pests. 
3269. 

Vine: Action of Sulphur Used to Con- 
trol Oidium. 1288. 

— Action of the German Govern- 

ment in the Control of Ene- 
mies of the Vine. 703. 

— and Cultivated Trees : Fvunago 

355. 

— and Fruit Tree Pests : Control of. 

1046. 

— Anthracnose in Mexico. 1923. 

— Ascophore Form of Oidivun. 603. 

— Cochylis : Method for Destruc- 

tion. 2342. 



— I20 



Vine: Diseases and the Vintage De- 
crease in 1910. 1283. 1302. 

— Diseases of, in France inigio. 1283. 

— Diseases of the Vine at the 

Viti cultural Congress at Mont- 
pellier. 2278. 

— " Droah " Disease in Lower 

Austria. 288. 

— Kffect of Mineral Fertilizers 

on Chlorosis. 2275. 

— Flea Beetle and its Treatment. 

1576. 

— Fungoid Diseases. 3058. 

Vine : Fungus Diseases at Peshawar, 
India. 2997. 

— (Grafted) : Sickening of, in vSicily 

and Algeria. 591. 

— Growing : Arsenate of Lead and 

Consumption of Fresh and 
Dried grapes. 346. 

— Hawk Moth, Deilephila Elpenor, 

and its Natural Enemies. 1590. 

— Infection by IVIildew. 3232. 

— Inquiry into the Treatment of 

Mildew in 1910. 164. 

— Insect Pests in India. 3061. 

— Its Enemies. 3058. 

— Maerophyaan Injurious Sawfly. 648. 

— Mildew. 1018, 3232. 

— Mildew : Copper Oxychloride as 

Fvmgicide. 1537. 

— Mildew and Copper Salts. 624. 

— Moths. 1065. 

— Oidium : Ascophore Form. 603. 

— Oidiimi : Treatment. 320. 

— Pests : Experiments of Control in 

Grand Duchy of Baden. 660. 

— Resistance to Mildew. 1899. 

— " Roncet " 1883. 

Stocks : Phylloxera Resistant in Ca- 
lifornia. 342. 
Vines and Bees. 1308. 

— Copper Oxychloride as Fimgicide. 

3239. 

— Duty-free Admission in Russia of 

Preparation for Control of Di- 
seases. 3087. 



— Injurious Insects in the State of 

New York. 3062. 

— vmder Glass : Control of Red 

Spider. 2366. 

— Treatment of Mildew with Bor- 

deaux Mixture in a Medium of 
Iron Sulphate. 358. 

— Treatment of Mildew with Copper 

Oxychloride. 1537. 

— Treatment of Peronospora with 

Carbolineum. 962. 
Vineyards : Califoniian Disease in 
Cerignola, Apulia, Italy. 321. 

— Cupro- Calcic Sprayings against 

Black Rot in Michigan. .366. 

— Phlyciinus callosus in S. Africa. 

385. 
Vintage in France in 1910 and Vine | 

Diseases. 1283. 
Violets: Aphelenchus Ormerodi. 2012. 
Violet Plants : Disease. 365. 
Vitality of the Seeds of Weeds in the 

Gromid. 169. 

— of Weeds. 1032. 

Viticultural Congress at Montpellier 
191 1 : Diseases of the Vine. 2278. 

Viticulture and Salts of Silver. 
2878. 

— : Insecticides. 661. 

Volatile Substances in Control 
of Insect Pest of Plants 39, 

1045- 

— Substances : Influence on Vege- 

tation. 283. 
Volvaria Murinella its Occasional' 
Parasitism. 370. 



Wahiut : " Dieback ". 1884. 

— Tree : Diseases and Enemies of. 
3066. 

Wart Disease of the Potato {Chrysoph- 
lictis endohiotica) . 361. 

— of Potato: Experiments in Con- 

trol with Flowers of Sulphur. 
1911. 

— of Potato, Measures to prevent In- 



— 121 — 



troduction into the Union of 
S. Africa. 3280. 

— or " Black Scab " of Potatoes. 610. 
Wasp Destruction. 3076. 

Water Melons : Mycosphaerella ci- 
trullina in Italy. 1546. 

— Withering of, in Italy. 1546. 
Weed Exterminator for Dry Farming. 

3012. 

— of S. Australia : Bartsia lati folia. 

1939- 
Weeds and their Vitality. 1032. 

— Control by Means of Catch Crops. 

1033- 

— Control by Means of their Natu- 

ral Enemies. 2315. 

— Destruction by Cryptogamic. Di- 

seases. 169. 

— Destruction by Sodium Arsenite. 

1933- 

— Evils of. 640. 

— Legislation in Canada. 3092. 

— of Rice Fields. 641. 

— Seeds Produced. 3010. 

— Vitality of their Seeds in the 

Ground. 169. 

Weevils on African Maize. 2347. 

West Africa : Insect Pests. 1944. 

Western Yellow Pine : Lophyrus 
Townsendi. 692. 

West Indies : Blister Mite {Eriophyes 
gossypii), Cotton Worm [Alabama 
argillacea) and the Flowerbud Mag- 
got [Contarinia gossypii on Cotton. 
1976. 

West Indies : Cocoa-nut Insect Pests. 
2004. 

— Entomophagous Fungi. 2329. 

— Fvmgus Diseases of Gromid Nuts. 

1542- 

— New Fungi. 2281. 

— vide Jamaica. 3279. 

— White Ants on Sugar Canes. 

1060. 
West of England : Rust of Broad 

Beans [Uromyces Fabae). 2979. 
Wetting Nicotine Solution. 1963. 



Weymouth Pine Hypoderma brachys- 

porum. 1927. 
Wheat : Action of Fimgicides on 

Germinative Energy. 303. 

— Belgian Disease-Resistant Varie- 

ties " Reve d'or " and " Ralli- 
ance ". 2287. 

— Bulb Fly [Hylemyia coarctaia). 

1971. 

— Bimt Resistant Varieties. 301. 

— Control of " Take-all ". 2291. 

— Effect of Smut on the Shape of 

Wheat Ears. 1006. 

— Floret Sterility due to Fmigi in 

the United States. 1907. 

— Rimpaus-Strubes Roter Schland- 

stedter Smut-resistant Wheat. 
1897. 

— Rust in Rio Grande do Sul. 2977. 

— Rust Resistance. 157. 

— Rust Resistant, varieties for the 

South of France. 156. 

— Smut. 2976. 

— Smut-Resistant. 1897. 
White Ants and Fruit Trees. 2365. 

— on Cacao Trees in the Gold 

Coast. 679. 

— on Sugar Canes in the W. Indies. 

1060. 
" White Fly " a Citrus Pest, Control 
in Florida. 1562. 

— (Aleyrodes) and Hydrocyanic 

Acid. 2340. 

— [Aleyrodes vaporarium) Parasite 

of Tomato and Cucvunber : Hy- 
drocyanic Acid Fumigations. 
182. 

— (Aleyrodes) Systematic Destruc- 

tion of, in Texas. 2371. 

— Control : Microcera sp. 651. 

— Verticillium heierocladium Fungus 

on. 651. 

— How to discover it. 2001. 
White-heads in Wheat. 2291. 
White Louse (" Piojo Blanco ") on 

Cotton in Peru. 1042. 

— Pine : Cronartium ribicola. 1928. 



122 — 



White Rust of Sweet Potato. 2296. 

— Stork and Tachinidae, Natural 

Enemies of Laphygma exempta, 
Injurious to Gramineae. 1953. 

Wild Animals in India. 3072. 

Willows : Mytilaspis pomorum. 3069. 

Wintering of Certain Erisyphaceae. 

1893- 

— of the Oak-Oiditun. 1892. 

Winter Wheat: Hylemyia coarctata 
and Oscinis frit. 1971. 

Wistaria Canker : Bacterium Monte- 
martini. 2993. 

" Witches Broom " on Cacao Trees 
(Colletotrichum luxificum). in Suri- 
nam. 1014. 

— of the Water Melon in Italy. 1546. 
Withering of Tops of Fruit Trees 

Caused by Fungi. 2957, 2968. 

Wither Tip of Citrus Trees. 1547. 
1884. 

Wood -Boring Insects Damaging Te- 
lephone and Telegraph Poles. 1600. 

Wood-Leopard Caterpillars in Cork 
Oak Forests. 1598. 

Woodpeckers and Cacao. 2376. 

— Injurious to Bananas etc. 700. 
Woolly Aphis : controlled ^by Per- 
manganate. 174. 



Woolly Aphis destroyed by Cooper's 
Liquid. 377. 

Wood wasps. 1326. 

Wiirttemberg: Measures officially Re- 
commended for Control of Cochylis. 
704. 

Xanthium spp. Burr Weed, in Natal. 
2029. 

Xylehorus Coffeae on Coffea rohusia in 
Java. 1754, 1980. 

— fornicans on Tea Plants. 1 76. 

Xylophagous Bostrycliida: Variations 
in Diet. 1040. 

Xylotrechus qnadrupes. Coffee " Bo- 
rer " in Tonking. 1585. 

Yellow Pine : Lophyrus Townsendi 
in the United States. 692, 1072. 

Zalophotrix mirum : Natural Enemy 
of Saissetia nigra . 1057, 3030. 

Zeuzera pyrina. Wood Leopard Cater- 
pillars in Cork Oak Forests. 1598. 

Zinc Arsenate Insecticide in Viti- 
culture. 1287. 

Zoology : Economic, in England. 1307. 

Zopfia rhizophila. 618. 

Zythia resinae on Timber- 1931. 



B) INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



ACCARDI, S. 1578. 1579. 1999. 

Acloque, A. 3076. 

Adams, Fredk. C. 3054. 

Adams, J. vide Johnson, T. 

Advisse-Desmisseaux 1303. 

Ahrens, R. 174. 

Annett, H. E. 156. 

Anstead. 177. 

Appel, O. 997. 

Appel, O. & Werth, E. 601. 

Appel, O. & Wollenweber, H. W. 356. 

Amaud, G. 160. 355. 295. 

Arrenger, Ch. 3239. 

Arzberger, E. G. 2285, 

Astruc, H., Couvergne, A., Mahonx, J. 

2339- 
Aumiot. 996. 

Anssenac, G. vide Herbert P. 
Avema-Sacca. R. 386. 1883. 



Baccarini, p. 2312. 

Bacon, C. 1965. 

Bahrfeldt, B. 1033. 

Ballon, H. A. 180. 1556. 

Bancroft, K. 633. 

Bargagli, P. 3070. 

Barker, B. T. P. & Gimingham, C. T. 

1904. 
Barrett, O. W. 1985. 2317. 
Barry, B. 1599. 
Barthe. 316. 

Bartlett, A. W. vide Brooks, F. T, 
Basu, S. K. 2959. 
Beauverie, J. 989. 
Bellair, Georges 2359. 
Berge, R. 609. 
Berger, E. W. 651. 1562. 



Berlese, A. 375. 1051. 

Bernard, Ch. 1013. 1036. 1063. 1315. 

Bemastky, J. 2275. 

Bioletti, F. T. 342. 

Bioletti, F. T. & Bonnet, L. 179. 

Black, R. A. 1330. 

Blin, Henri 3056. 

Bois, D. & Gerber, C. 364. 

Bonnet, L. vide Bioletti, F. T. 

Bosworth, A. W, vide Van Slyke. 

Bordiga, O. 2379. 

Bouyat, Andres 3256, 

Braucher, R. W. vide Quaintance, A. 1,. 

Briosi, G. & Fameti, R. 635. 1299. 

3002. 
Brionx & Griffon 662. 
Britton, E. G. 2282. 
Brocq-Rousseau vide Stoykowitch. 
Brooks, F. E. 2336. 
Brooks, F. R. 3246. 
Brooks, O. 2364. 

Brooks, F. T. & Bartlett, A. W. 319 
Bru, P. 3083. 

Bruner, Lawrence 692. 1072. 
Bninet, Raymond 164. 671. 
Bruni, D. 2965. 
Bubak, Fr. 1027. 1297. 1526. 
Burger, O. P. vide Fawcett H. S. 
Burgess, W. B. 1533. 
Busch, A. 466. 
Busse, W. 1912. 
Butler, E. J. 369. 294. 614. 
Butler, O. 984. 

Caesar, L. 1066. 
Campbell, C. 2368. 2958. 
Capus, J. & Feytaud, J. 13 16. 
Cames, E. K. 2334. 



— 124 



Ckrroll, T. 1909. 
Carstensen-Bacharach 383. 
Gates, J. S. 301 1. 
Cayara, P. 2302. 
Chapelle, J. 2000. 
Chapman, George H. 364. 
Chappaz, G. 178. 

Chittenden, F. H. 690. 1581. 1587. 
2323. 2349. 2360. 3039. 3242. 3260. 
Chuard, K. 3239. 
Clausen. 590. 
Cleve. 1603. 

Cockayne, A. H. 169. 1973. 
Coffigniez, J. 155. 
Collinge, W. E. 687. 
Cook, A. J. 1950. 
Cook, O. F. 3020. 
Cooke, C. J. 3075. 
Coupin, H. 283. 1045. 3019. 
Couston, F. 604. 
Couvergne, A. vide Astruc, H. 
Crepin, H. 366. 

Crowther, Ch. & Ruston, A. G. 2270. 
Cuif, E. 1298. 



Dafert, F. W. 2020. 

Dahnasso, G. 384. 

Dane. 1046. 

Dantony, E. vide Vermorel, V. 

D'Arbois de Jubainville 1018. 

Darling, S. T. 180. 

Darnell-Smith. 301. 302. 

De Jonge, A. E. 315. 

De Koning, M. 378. 2006. 

De Kruyff, F. 308. 3074. 

De Lange, D. 1^2. 

Delbriick. 703. 

Delgove & Foex 641. 675. 

Del Guercio, G. 372. 359. 1594. 3026. 

3027. 3069. 
De Michele, G. 2999. 
Derr, H. B. 2292. 
De Saporta, A. 2278. 
De Seabra, A. F. 1068. 
Desflassieux 358. 1287. 
De Stefani, T. 659. 676. 
De Varenne, A. 2342. 



D'Herelle, F. 1561. 

D'IppoUto, G. 303. 2316. 3009. 

Doidge Ethel, M. 2308. 

Donon, D. 362. 

Doroguine 3005. 

Dorph- Peterson, K. 981. 

Doten, B. S. & Frandsen, P. 1601. 

Ducloux, A. 165. 

Ducomet. V. 1886. 

Dudgeon, G. C. 3048. 

Durier, E. 999. 

Dussert, P. 362. 

D'Utra 1062. 

Dutt, H. h. 175. 678. 

Dutt, H. L,. vide Woodhouse E. I. 



Bdgerton, C. W. 995. loio. 1924. 
Edwards, A. W. B. 666. 
Elenkin, A. A. 987. 1031. 1930. 
Eliot Coit, J. 2277. 
Ellis, L. M. 1327. 
Ellsworth Bethel 1896. 
Eriksson, J. 1898. 
Essed, Ed. 1549. 1550. 
Essig, E. O. 1547. 3255. 
Eulefeld 370. 
Ewert, R. 1891. 

FabER, F. C. v. 356. 313. 336. 2966. 

Fabre, H. 304. 

Fabre, H. vide Picard F. 

Faes, H. 1048. 

Fallada, O. 1055. 

Farcy, J. 169. 

Fameti, R. 331. 618. 

Fameti, R. vide Briosi, G. 

Faucheron, L. 361. 

Fawcett, H. S. 373. 

Fawcett, W. 1937. 

Fawcett, G. ly. 2983. 

Fawcett, H. S. & Burger, O. P. 1895. 

Feytaud, J. 647. 1590. 

Feytaud, J. vid$ Capus, J. and Mar- 

chal, P. 
Filter, P. 992. 

Fiske, W. F. vide Howard, L,. O. 
Fletcher, T. Bainbridge 1978. 



Plot, Martin 3273. 

Foex. 365. 998. 

Foex vide Delgove. 

Foex, E. & Vidal. D. 156. 

Foreman F. W. 1003. 

Foster. S. W. & Jones, P. R. 1049. 

Frandsen, P. vide Doten, B. S. 

Fredholm 2324. 

French, C. (Jimior) 3278. 

French, G. T. 2319. 

French, G. T. vide Stewart F. C. 

Frogatt, W. W. 380. 1320. 2365. 3270. 

Frombling, D. 631. 

Fullaway, D. T. 13 19. 1573. 1943. 

Fulton, H. R. 1540. 

Fuschini, C. 664. 980. 3238. 



Gain, E. 990. 

Gastine. 1557. 

Gastine, G. 1052. 

Garrad, G. H. 1903. 

Gatin, C. L. 2271. 3227. 

Gaudot, G. 387. 

Gehrmann, K. 689. 

Geromerig, O. 1308. 

Gerber, C. vide Bois D. 

Gertz, O. 337. 

Giampietro, A. W. 2987. 

GianelU, G. 1940. 

Giddings, N. S. 1545. 

Gimingham, C. T. vide Barker, B. T. P. 

Girault, A. A. 1570. 1959. 

Gola, G. 1934. 

Gordon, Hewitt C. 1034. 3089- 

Gough, D. L. H. 649. 1584. 1977. 

Gowdey, C. C. 1035. 3257- 

Green E. E. 174. 175. 176. 177. 

1076. 1981. 2320. 2374. 
Grequeu F. 363. 
Griffon vide Brioux. 
Griffon, E. 282. 
Griffon & Maublanc 360. 367. 370. 

332. 1008. 1015. 1016. 
Grinakowskii, P. O. vide Vasiliev, M. 
Grohmami. Th. 284. 
Grosdemange, Ch. 3226. 
Grossenbacher, J. G. 3018. 



Groth, B. H. A. 1002. 
Grozdenovic, F. 376. 
Gueguen. 370. 
Guicciardini P. 3065. 
Guitel F. 1278. 
Guppy J. L. 354- 
Gussow 2992. 

Hafiz Khan, Abdui, 167. 

Hall-De Jonge, A. E. v. 335. 

Hall. J. G. vide Stevens, F. ly. 

Hammar, A. G. 654. 

Hansen, K. 1032. 

Hanson, C. O. 602. 

Hara, K. vide Shirai, M. 

Hardenberg, C. B. 3258. 

Harper Dean, W. 1565. 2348. 

Harrison, J. B. & Stockdade, J . A. 358. 

Harter, h. h. 318. 

Hartzell, Frederick Z. 3062. 

Hawkins, L. A. 366. 

Heald, F. D. & Wolf, F. A. 1030. 1530. 

Hedgcock, G. G. 623. 626. 

Hedges, C. C. vide Van vSlyke. 

Hedlund, T. 594. 

Hegyi, D. 307. 589. 2976. 

Heim, F. 365. 

Henry, E. 1070. 

Heraud, A. 665. 

Herbert, P. & Aussenac, G. 381. 

Herry, J. 2347. 

Herscher, G. & Millot, ly. 2005. 

Hibbard, R. P. 310. 

Hiltner, L. & Ihssen, G. 993. 

Hitier. 1283. 

Hodgkiss, H. E. 1067. 

Hollick, A. 1281. 

Hollis, T. 2289. 

Honcamp, Fr. & Ziminennann, H. 293. 

Honing, J. A. 311. 

Home, A. S. 158. 1882. 

Horton, J. R. vide Jones, P R. 

House, H. D. 231 1. 

Howard, L. O. 656. 

Howard, L,. O. & Fiske, W. F. 3023. 

3024. 3025. 
Hudson, James 3053. 
Hyslop, J. A. 374. 



126 



Ihssen, G. vide Hiltner, L. 

Inglese, E. i543- 

Jaccard, Paui. 2284. 

Jack, R. W. 1317- 

JaconthofE, N. 683. 

Jaczewski. A. A. 349, 359. 1007. 1519. 

1527. 1551. 1888. 1997- 2970- 
Janson, A. 2957. 
Jeffrey, I. W. i957- 
Jemmett, C. W. 2326. 
Jenkins, E. H. 3271. 
Jensen, H. 312. 
Jhering, H. von 1595. 
Johnson, Edw. C. 1907. 2980. 
Johnson, F. 1591- 
Johnson, T. & Adams, J. 619. 
Johnson, T. C. 2989. 
Johnston Harvey, 291. 1022. 2283. 
Jones Dan, H. 627. 684. 
Jones, P. R. 672. 
Jones, P. R. vide Foster, S. W. 
Jones, P. R. & Horton, J. R. 1325. 

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Keller, G. N. 1983- 

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3077- 
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E. 669. 
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127 



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128 — 



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120 



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V^'' 



International Institute of Agriculture 






BULLETIN OF the bureau of 



AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE AND OF 



PLANT-DISEASES a a a a a a a 



NOVEMBER 1910 




ROME, 1910 - PRINTED BY UNIONE EDITRiCE, Via Federico Cesi, 45. 



v1^ 



CONTENTS 



THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE . . Page ix 

STAFF OF THE BUREAU xiii 

INTRODUCTION xv 



AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE. 

Development of Agriculture in Different Countries. — Sind. - Por- 
tuguese India. - Cochin-China. - Tonkin. - Annam. - Macao. - 
Hawaii - Alaska. - Canada. - Mexico. - Guatemala. - Salvador. - 
Panama. - Greater Antilles. - Venezuela. - Peru. - Bolivia. - Mo- 
rocco. - Togo , 3-1 1 

Congresses. — International Scientific Congress in Buenos Ayres. . . 11 

Scientific Institutions. — Kew Bulletin. - Colonial Institute in Am- 
sterdam II 

Education in Agriculture and Forestry. — Forestry Education in Den- 
mark. - Ceylon, Agricultural Research in the Tropics. Experimental 
Garden in Guadeloupe. - Agricultural Course at Amani 12 

Biography. — Dr. Treub 13 



AGRICULTURE 
AGRICULTURAL PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY AND BOTANY. 

Chemistry of Plant Constituents. — Phytine. - Oxydases. - Invertase 14-15 

Chemistry of Plant-life. — Photochemical Synthesis 15 

Microbiology. — Microbe-destroying Action of Yeast and of Cereal Ma- 
cerations. - Sterilisation of Water 16 

R^eteorology. — Progress. - Meteorological Stations in Russia. - Is it 
possible to influence Rainfall artificially? - Protecting Orchards irom 
Spring Frosts. - Hail-storms in Switzerland. - Influence of Elec- 
tricity on Plants. - Protection against Hail 17-21 



IV CONTENTS 



Soils. — Heated Soils. - Physic?! Analysis of the Soil. - Scouring Lands. 

- Ammonia in Soils. - Bacteriology of Soils in Green-houses . Page 22-27 
Water in Agriculture. — Portsmouth Water Works. - Drainage and 

Irrigation Works : Turkey, India, Haiti, Egypt 28-30 

Field Experimentation. — Error of Experiment. - Study of Soil-Fer- 
tility 30-33 

Fertilisers. — Sewage. - Nitrate of Sodium : World's Consumption; Pro- 
duction. - Crude Ammonia. - Calcium Cyanamides. - Atmospheric 
Nitrification. - Nitrogen Oxides. - Aluminium Nitride. - Synthetic 
Ammonia. - Palmaer Phosphate. - Deposits of Phosphates in Russia; 

in Tunis. - Madagascar Guano 33-38 

Agricultural Seeds. — Electricity in Horticulture. - Vitality of Farm- 
Seeds. - Germination : The Action of Continuous Galvanic Cur- 
rents ; of Anodic and Cathodic Liquids ; of Alternating Currents. 

- Importance of Mucilage in Germination. - Formation of Hydro- 
cyanic Acid during Germination. - Germination of Wheat. - Breed- 
ing for type of kernel in Wheat 38-43 



FIELD-CROPS. — INDUSTRIAL CROPS, 
HORTICULTURE. — ARBORICULTURE. 



Cereals. — Wheat growing and its Problems. - New Method of culti- 
vating Cereals. - Disintegration of Straw. - Varieties of Rye. - 
The Ripening of Barley. - Malting Barleys. - Oats: World's Pro- 
duction ; Composition ; Swedish Select. - Maize from China. - Maize 
Show at Johannesburg. - Rice : Composition of Indian Rice ; Pro- 
duction in Indo-China ; Inspection in Japan ; Perennial Rice Plant 
in .Senegal ; Rice Straw and Paper Industry 45-54 

Leguminous Plants. — Soy 55 

Root and Tuber Plants. — Potato: Origin and variation; Cross-ferti- 
lisation ; Planting in Argentina ; Potato-drying Industry. - Cassava 
culture in Surinam 55-58 

Forage-Crops. — Experiments with Grass Crops. - Lolium TenmlenUun 
Ceptochoetoti cultivation in Uruguay. - Furze. - Protecting Alfalfa 
against Cold. - Berseem cultivated in Italy. - Struggle for Life in 
Pastures. - Grass Crops in Switzerland. - Potassic Fertilisers on 
Grass-Lands. - Alpine Pastures. - Stacked Hay. - Preservation of 
Sugar-beet Pulps 58-64 

Fibre-Plants. — Cotton Culture: in the British Empire; in German 
East Africa ; Manurial Experiments in the Leeward Islands ; Expe- 
riments in Uruguay; Cultivation in Ceylon. - Uganda Regulations 
for the Buying of Cotton. - Moisture in Cotton. - Cultivation of 
Cotton and Flax in Italy. - Flax Exhibition at Moscow. - Exhibition 
of Fibre Plants at Surabaya (Java). - New fibrous plants for Java. - 
Sisal. - The Perini in Brazil. - The Da Fou in Upper Senegal and 
on the Niger. - Fibre Trade in the German Colonies. - Piassava 
Palms in Madagascar 64-70 

Sugar Plants. — Production of Sugar. - Sugar Beets : in England ; in 

Hawaii 70-71 

Other Industrial Crops. — Moka Coffee. - Selection and Hybridisa- 
tion of Coffee in Southern India. - Coffea robusta associated with 
Rubber in teh Malay States. - Abortion in the Flowers of the 



CONTENTS 



Arabian Coffee Plant. - New Coffee Plant in Madagascar. - Tea 
and Hevea interplanted. - Tea in Java. - Cacao Culture at Bar- 
badoes. - Manuring Cacao Trees in Grenada. - Cacao in the 
German Colonies. - Production of Nicotine. - Tobacco Cul- 
ture in the Bahamas. - Nicotine Manufacture in German East Africa. 

- Turkish Tobacco in Cape Colony. - The Kola-nut in Upper Da- 
homey. - Hop-valuation in Germany. - Pepper Production in Indo- 
China. - Clove Crops in Zanzibar and Pemba. - Perfume Plants ; 
Priprioca ; Ylang-Ylang. - Caraway Stalks for Pasteboard. - Karite 
Butter. - Doi Page 71-79 

Horticulture. — Canning Spinach. - Cultivation of the Loganberry. - 

Manuring of Chrysanthemums. - Flower-culture in the Riviera . . 79-80 

Arboriculture. — R. Richter's " New Arboriculture. " - Inverse Graft- 
ing. - Pruning of Old Fruit Trees. - Propping and Binding Trees. 

- Windbreaks and Hedges. - Viticulture in Argentina. - Wire Ba- 
skets for Vine-layering. - Direct Hybrid Producers in France. - Re- 
sistant Stocks, direct Producers and Viniferas in California. - Ita- 
lian Grapes on German Markets. - Dessert Grapes of Bologna. - 
Raisin Industry in California. - The Northern limit of the Olive in 
the French Alps. - Pickle-olives in Argentina ; in Tunis. - Olive cul- 
ture at Matmata (Tunis). - Calcium cyanamide in the Manuring of 
Olive Trees. - Jaffa Orange. - Citrus fruit in Syria. - "Grape fruit" 
in the United-States. - Citrus fruit from Mexico. - Essence of Petit- 
grain in Paraguay. - Fruit-Trees in Germany. - Sale of Fruit and 
Vegetables at Mannheim, Germany. - Dried Fruit fumigated with 
Sulphur. - Loquats in Sicily. - Banana-culture in Venezuela. - Dried 
Bananas. - The Uses of the Prickly Pear. - Canning Tropical Fruits 
in India. - Cocoanut Cultivation in the Federated Malay States. - 

The Per sea gratissima. - The Carica Quercifolia 81-93 

Forestry. — Danish Forest-Statistics. - Importation of Pine and Fir- 
Seed into Sweden. - Forests in Rewa State, India. - Reservation 
of Forests in Columbia. - Exportation of Timber from the Gold Coast. 

- Tree-Plantation in Inverness-shire. - Afforestation in New Zealand. 
■^ United States : Forest Conservation ; Forestry Association ; Con- 
servation Congress. - Forestry in Tasmania. - Assimilation in Young 
Conifers. - The Japanese Larch. - The Restoration of Beech Woods 
with Conifers. - Railway Sleepers of Beech Wood. - Restoration 
of Chestnut- Woods. - Camwood. - Lumber Exports. - Tree Felling 
by Electricity. - Indian Woods. - Sawdust Cakes for Horses. - 

- Wood Pulp from Newfoundland. - Bamboo for Paper-making. - 
Identification of Timber. - Resin Collector. - Varnish Industry. - 
Japanese Turpentine. - Vegetable Tannins. - Virginia Sumachs. - 
Mangrove Tannin. - New Method of coagulating Rubber. - Hevea : 
Oil from Seeds ; How to place Seeds when sowing ; New Method 
of Tapping Trees for Rubber. - Seeds and their Oil. - Singapore 
Rubber : Experimental Tapping. - Rubber Cultivation : Penang, 
Indo-China, Cochin-China, Mexico, Honduras, Venezuela, Belgian 
Congo, Madagascar, Reunion. - Forest Improvement in Malacca. - 
Investigations on Rubber Culture ; Rubber Industry in Mexico. - 
Germination of Manihot. - Manihot and Bee-Culture in Dahomey. 

- Manihot in German East Africa : Plantations of the German 
" Sigi. " Society. - Artificial Rubber. - Camphor: Ceylon, Japa- 
nese. - Artificial Camphor. - Candelilla Wax. - Cultivation of Mush- 
rooms. - Immunisation against Poisonous Mushrooms. - Fertilisers 

for Mushrooms 94-rit 



VI CONTENTS 



LIVE STOCK BREEDING. 

AVICULTURE. — SILK-PRODUCTION. - BEEKEEPING. 

FISHERIES AND GAME. — ANIMAL INDUSTRIES. 



Nutrition and Hygiene of Domesticated Animals. — Feeding Horses 
with Potatoes. - Alfalfa for Dairy Cows. - Toxic action of Chile 
Salpetre on Cattle Page 118-119 

Special Stock-breeding. — Supply of Light Horses in England. - New 
Zebra Hybrid. - Judging Cattle in Sweden. - High Price for Irish 
Shorthorn. - Slaughtering Cows in Argentina. - Madagascar Cattle. 
Mountain Sheep in England. - Sheep " Transhumance " in Spain. 

- Lamb Shearing in New Zealand. - Cross Breeding of Dairy Sheep. 

- Goat-Breeding in Mexico 11 9- 124 

Animal Industries. — Preservation of Meat. - Frozen Meat and Butter 
Export from Victoria. - Phosphorus in Beef. - Dairying Handbook. 

- Inspection of Cattle Sheds and Dairies in New Zealand. - Milk 
Purifier. - Slimy Milk. - Milk Powder. - Enzymes in Milk. - Distin- 
guishing Raw from Heated Milk. - Milk Testing : New Apparatus ; 
Hygromipisimetry. - Butter Making in the Charentes and in Poitou. 

- Crumbly Butter. - Cocci in Cheese. - Cold Storage in Cheese- 
Making: United States, Canada, France. - Defects in Edam Cheese. 

- Consumption of Cheese in Egypt. - Wool : Production in Hungary 
and in Russia ; Packing wool in South-Africa. - Production and Trade 

in Peruvian Hides 124-132 

Aviculture. — Fertility of Eggs. - Poultry-Farming in New York. - 

The Braekel Hen. - Ostrich Breeding: Madagascar, Transvaal . . 132-134 

Silk-production. — Sericulture: in Madagascar, in Tonkin, in Bengal. 

- Cold Storage in the Silk Industry 134-13- 

Beekeeping. — Bees for Profit and Pleasure. - Honey Ferments. - 

Beeswax : Composition ; Production in India, in Africa 135-136 

Game. Fisheries. — Protecting the Elephant. - Destruction of East 
African Birds. - Importation of Partridges into England. - Fish 
Culture in Germany. - The Salmonidae of Bosnia-Herzegovina . . 136-138 



AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES. 



Australian Wines. - The Physiological Action of Sulphur Dioxide in 
White Wines. - Nitrogen in Brewing. - Use of Resin in Distille- 
ries. - Sugar Industry : in Panama, in Cuba, in Peru. - Sugar from 
Dried Cane in Wisconsin. - Milling Industry in China. - Handbook 
for Millers. - Bleaching and Sterilising Flour. - Linseed and Soya 
Oils. - Adam Knox Crushing Mill. - Diet Investigations in the United- 
States. - Tin Salts in Canned Foods. - Sale of Perishable Foods 
in Canada. - Packing : Paris Museum ; Packing Fruit in Italy. - The 
" Frigorifique. " - Cold Storage Experimental Station in France . 138-147 



CONTENTS VII 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING 
AND FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS. 

Agricultural Machinery : in Russia, in Asia Minor, in British India, in 
China. - Electrical Ploughing. - Turf Cutting Plough. - Plough 
Importation in Ceylon. - Disc Harrow. - Drill Machines for the 
Demtschinsky Cultivation of Cereals. - Agricultural Machines for 
the Colonies. - Apparatus for filling Beer Casks. - Mechanical 
Kneading Trough. - Milking Machine Page 148-152 



PLANT DISEASES 
NOXIOUS INSECTS ANE OTHER PESTS. 

Non-Parasitic Diseases and their Control. — Chlorosis 155 

Parasitic Diseases. Generalities. Parasitism. Bacteria and Fungi 
as Parasites and Saprophytes. Remedies. — Parasitism in Plants. 
- Copper Sulphate Spraying on Tea-Plants , 115-156 

Parasitic Diseases of Various Plants and Means of Prevention and 
Cure. — Wheat and Oats: Rust Resisting Varieties. - Potato: 
Blackleg ; Internal Disease and Streak Disease. - Alfalfa : Red Di- 
sease. - Sugar Cane Diseases, - Tea : Fusarium. - Cocoanut : Stem 
bleeding Disease. - Cabbage : Plasmodiophora Brassicae. - Toma- 
toes and potatoes : Bacteriosis. - American Gooseberry Mildew. - 
Vine-Mildew. - Citrus Fruits : Diplodia tiatalensis. - Apple Tree : 
canker; Endomyces iiiali; Corynetmi follicolum; Photna mali. - Peach: 
Bacterium pruni. - Spruce : Lophodermiuni Macrosporum. - Pine Tree: 
Rhizina undulata; Tranietes Pint. - Oak-White. - Hevea : Gleospo- 
rimn alboriibriint. - Timber : Dry Rot 156-168 

Phanerogamous Parasites and Weeds. Their Control. — Destruction 
of Weeds by Cryptogamic Diseases. - Vitality of the Seeds of 
Weeds. - Dodder. - Alternanthera Achyrantha 169-170 

Insects and other Noxious Invertebrata: Biology. Control. — Ento- 
mophilous Flowers. - Control of Scale Insects and of Aphids by 
means of Fungoid Parasites. - Use of Birds and of Ants in pro- 
tecting Plants. - Ants against Cacao-Bug in Java. - Grease Band- 
ing of Fruit Trees. - Poisoned Bait for Fruit Flies. - Permanga- 
nate against Woolly Aphis 170-174 

Insects noxious to Special Crops. — Rice: Rice Hispa ; Rice Ful- 
gorid. - Cotton : Dactylopins Virgatiis. - Beet: Silpha atrata ; Cas- 
sida nebulosa. - Tea: Natada nararia ; Xyleboriis. - Tobacco: 
Worms. - Mango : Criptorhinchus mangiferae. - Castilloa : Leca- 
nium oleae. - Truck Crops : Diacrisia virginica. - Waterlily : Cri- 
cotopus. - Vine : Phylloxera in France and in California. - Co- 
cky lis. - Plum and Olive: their Enemies. - Lime: Coccidae . . . 174-180 

Insects and other Invertebrata injurious to Man and to Animals. — 

Mosquitoes transmitting Malaria 180 

Legislation on the Protection of Plants. — Fruit Tree Inspection 
in British Columbia. - Insecticide and Fungicide Regulations in the 
United States. - Provisions against Locusts in Argentina. - Preven- 
tive Measures against the Phylloxera at the Cape of Good Hope . 180-182 



THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE. 



The International Institute of Agriculture was established under 
the International Treaty of June 7th, 1905, which was ratified by 40 
Governments. Seven other Governments have since adhered to the 
Institute. 

It is a Government Institution in which each Country is repre- 
sented by delegates. The Institute is composed of a General As- 
sembly and a Permanent Committee. 

The Institute, confining its operations within an international 
sphere, shall : 

a) Collect, study, and publish as promptly as possible statis- 
tical, technical, or economic information concerning farming, vegetable 
and animal products, the commerce in agricultural products, and the 
prices prevailing in the various markets ; 

d) Communicate to parties interested, also as promptly as pos- 
sible, the above information; 

c) Indicate the wages paid for farm work ; 

d) Make known the new diseases of vegetables which may 
appear in any part of the world, showing the territories infected, the pro- 
gress of the diseases, and, if possible, the remedies which are effective; 

e) Study questions concerning agricultural co-operation, insur- 
ance, and credit in all their aspects ; collect and publish information 
which might be useful in the various countries for the organization of 
works connected with agricultural co-operation, insurance, and credit; 

/) Submit to the approval of the Governments, if there is 
occasion for it, measures for the protection of the common interests 
of farmers and for the improvement of their condition, after having 
utilized all the necessary sources of information, such as the wishes 
expressed by international or other agricultural congresses or of con- 
gresses of sciences applied to agriculture, of agricultural societies, aca- 
demies, learned bodies, etc. 



X 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 



The Institute publishes : a) a Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural 
Statistics; d) a Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Intelligence and Diseases 
of Plants ; c) a Monthly Bulletin of Economic and Social Intelligence. 

It has also published a volume on " The Organization of Agri- 
cultural Statistical Services in the Several Countries ", and a volume 
" Statistics of Cultivated Areas and of Vegetable and Animal Production 
in the Adhering Countries" (an Inventory drawn up from documents 
published by Governments). 



Officers of the institute 
and List of the Delegates to the Permanent Committee. 

President: Marquess Raffaele Cappelli. Delegate of Italv. 
Vice-President: M. Louis-Dop, Delegate of France. 
General Secretary: Prof. Pasquale Jannaccone. 

Delegates of the Adhering States to the Permanent Comnnittee. 





States adhering 
to the Institute 


Groups 
in which 

the 

adhering 

States 

are 

classified 


Names and Rank of the Delegates 


1 


Germany . 






1)1 


. T. Mueller, Privy CounciUoi. 


2 


Argentine 


Rep. 




J. 


Llanos. 


3 


Austria 






Chev. V. DE Pozzi, Government Councillor, 


4 


Hungary- 






E. 


DE Mikl6s de Mikl6svak, Member of the House 
of Magnates, late Secretary of State for Agriculture. 


5 
6 


Belfnum . . 




IV 


O 


Bolle. 


Brazil . . . 






Hi 


s Excell. A. FiALiio, Minister Plenipotentiary of 
Brazil to II. M. the King of Italy. 


7 


Bulgaria . 




III 


D. 


RlzoFF, Minister Plenipotentiary of Bulgaria to 
H. M. the King of Italy. 




8 


Chile. . . . 








— 


9 


China . . . 






TcHAO-Hr-TcHiou, Secretary to the Imperial Chinese 
Legation. 


ID 


Costa-Rica 




V 


R. 


Montealegre, Minister Plenipotentiary of Costa- 
Rica to H. M. the King of Italy. 


T r 


Cuba . . . 




\' 


C. 


M. DE Cespedes, Minister Plenipotentiary of Cuba 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 


1 




.... 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 



xr 



States adhering 
to the Institute 



Groups 
in which 

the 

adhering 

States 

are 

classified 



Names and Rank of the Delegates 



f 



12 

13 
14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 

20 

21 

22 



I ^3 

25 
26 

27 

28 
29 



Denmark 

Ottoman Empire 

Egypt 

Ecuador 

Speiin 

United States • ■ 
Ethiopia 

France 

Tunis 

Great Britain & 
Ireland 

Australia 

Canada 

British India . . . 

New Zealand- . . 

Mauritius 

Greece 

Italy 

Eritrea and Ita- 
lian Somali- 
land 



IV H. H. KoNOW, Secretary to the Danish Legation to 

the Italian Government. 

I ! Dr. Mehmed Djemil Bey. 



II 
V 
I 

I 

V 



V 

I 
IV 

II 

II 

IV 
V 
IV 

I 

IV 



B, Chimirri, Delegate of Eritrea and Italian Soma- 
liland. 

Louis-Dop, Delegate of France. 

auguste echeverria. 

David Lubin. 

Prof. G. CuBONi, Director of the Station of Vegetable 
Pathology of Rome. 

Louis-Dop, Vice-President of the Institute. 
Louis-Dop, Delegate of France. 



P. C. Wyndham, Counsellor to the British Embassy 
to the Italian Government. 

P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

A. Carapanos, Charge d'affaires of Greece to the 
Italian Government. 

Marquess R, Cappelli, Vice-President of the Chamber 
of Deputies, President of the Institute. 



B. Chimirri, Member of Parliament. 



XII 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 



States adhering 
to the Institute 



Groups 
in which 

the 

adhering 

States 

are 

classified 



Names and Rank of the Delegates 



30 



3a 

33 

34 

35 
36 

37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 

43 
44 
45 
46 

47 



Japan 

Luxemburg . . 

Mexico 

Montenegro . . 
Nicaragua . . . 

Norway 

Holland 

Peru 

Persia 

Portugal .... 
Roumania . . . 

Russia 

Salvador .... 

San Marino . . 

Servia 

Sweden 

Switzerland . . 
Uruguay . . . . 



V 
II 



IV 
IV 

V 
IV 
IV 

I 



V 



V 



III 



IV 



IV 



Shinooh Imai, Second Secretary to the Imperial 
Japanese Embassy to the Italian Government. 

O. BoLLE, Delegate of Belgium. 



G. A. EsTEVA, Minister Plenipotentiary of Mexico 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 

G. VoLPi, Director General of the Monopolies of 
the Principality. 

V. E. BiANCHi, Consul General of Nicaragua at 
Rome. 

Dr. G. FjELSTAD, Landowner. 



H. DE Weede, Minister Plenipotentiary of Holland 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 

Dr. M. M. Mesones. 



A, DEL Gallo Marquess of Roccagiovine. 

Luiz FiLiPPE DE Castro, Professor of the Institute 
of Agriculture at Lisbon. 

G. C. Nano, Minister Plenipotentiary of Roumania 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 

G. Zabiello, Consul General of Russia in Rome. 



A. Ballo, Acting Consul General of Salvador at 
Genoa, 

His Excell. L. Luzzatti, President of the Council 
of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. 

B. I. SouBOTiTCH, Secretary to the Servian Legation 
to the Italian (jovernment. 

G. V. T. DE Strale, Counsellor to the Swedish 
Legation to the Italian Government. 

J. B. Pioda, Minister Plenipotentiary of Switzerland 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 

E. Acevedo Diaz, Minister Plenipotentiary of Uru- 
guay to H. M. the King of Italy. 



I 



I 



EDITORIAL STAFF 

OF THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE 

AND PLANT DISEASES 



DIRECTORS. 

Prof. ITALO GIGLIOLI, M. R. A. C, Chief of Bureau. 
Dr. JULES M. SAULNIER, Chief of Section. 



ABSTRACTORS. 



Dr. GiROLAMO Azzi 

Dr. Theodore Bi^ler 

Dr. GUIDO BORGHESANI 

Dr. VlTALE DE TlVOLI 

Dr. Leo Gabrici 



Dr. Giuseppe Lazzarini 
Pascal Ottavi, Agric. Engineei 
Dr. Francesca Pirazzoli 
Dr. GiULio Provenzal 
Dj. Giulio Trinchieri 



Dr. Mario Zamorani 



TRANSLATORS. 



Mrs. Olivia Agresti-Rossetti, Mrs M. D. Byrne, Dr. A. Brodrick-Bul- 
LOCK M. A. are provisionally attached to the Bureau as English translators. 



INTRODUCTION 



The Bureau of Agricultural Intelligence and of Plant- Diseases 
of the International Institute of Agriculture inaugurates its monthly 
publications with this Bulletin. 

One of the duties of the Bureau is to review without delay the 
scientific and technical, and in part the legislative, literature of Agricul- 
ture and the allied industries. The result of this work is issued in 
the present Bulletin, which thus furnishes a periodical summary of 
the agricultural literature of the world. 

The abstracts are grouped in large divisions corresponding to 
the chief branches of Agricultural Science and Practice. The subjects 
coming under each division will be classified, as far as possible, by 
countries, in geographical order. This geographical classification will 
be especially followed in the division regarding the Development oj 
Agriculture, for it is this branch of information which throws light 
on the progress of agricultural work going on in each single country. 

Agricultural progress in all parts of the world is considered 
with equal care in this Bulletin, not neglecting those less known coun- 
tries which may furnish information valuable alike for farming, for 
industry and for trade. 

The Service of the International Institute of Agriculture acts 
as a kind of Agricultural Observatory, and its observations are con- 
tained in this Bulletin, which may be considered as the daily register 
of the world's agricultural progress. It deals with all methods by 
which the production of field and forest may be increased, the quality 
of the products improved, and crops and stock protected against 
injury, disease, and pests. 

The combating of pests, including those that are more directly 
harmful to man, must be one of the chief considerations. The very 



XVI INTRODUCTION 



possibility of bringing into fruitfulness vast territories in different 
parts of the globe is dependent, before all, on the destruction oj 
injurious insects. It is precisely where the conditions of temperature, of 
moisture and soil are most favourable to high and varied fertility that 
pests harmful to man, to cattle and to crops, especially when con- 
veying malaria and other human diseases, are formidable causes of 
desolation and the allies of barbarism. 

The information collected in this Bulletin is restricted to the 
domain of the physical, chemical, biological and technical conditions 
which govern farm and forest. Statistical and economic intelligence 
forms the subject matter of separate publications brought out by other 
branches of the Institute. Thus, the Statistical Division publishes the 
Bulletin of Agicultural Statistics and the Bureau of Social and Economic 
Institutions publishes the Bulletin of Economic Intelligence. Besides 
these, the Library of the Institute issues a weekly Bibliographical 
Bulletin. 

At the date of writing, November 19 lo, the Library of the 
Institute receives about 1400 periodicals, coming from 56 different 
States, Colonies and Possessions. Roughly speaking, more than 500 
of these deal with physical and biological sciences, more especially 
in their bearing on agriculture, live-stock breeding, forestry, tech- 
nology, rural engineering, land improvement and reclamation. 

Besides these periodicals, the Institute receives a number of 
Bulletins and Reports sent by scientific and agricultural bodies, and 
by the Departments of Agriculture in the different countries. The 
number of these Bulletins will naturally increase as the International 
Institute of Agriculture gets into closer touch with the experimental 
stations and with all other istitutions which contribute original research 
to the scientific and technical literature of agriculture. Recent enquiries 
show that there are in the whole world about 800 agricultural experi- 
mental stations, without counting allied institutions ; and their number 
is constantly on the increase, as also that of the Bulletins and Reports 
they issue. A like increase occurs in the case of the technical reports 
published by Agricultural Societies, by Scientific and Agricultural 
Congresses, and by the different branches of the Departments of 
Agriculture in most of the important States and Colonies. 

Such are the sources whence the Bureau of Agricultural Intelli- 
gence and of Plant Diseases will draw the information it publishes, 
besides Official Communications which Governments adhering to the 



INTRODUCTION xvn 



International Institute of Agriculture may see fit to make on agri- 
cultural questions, especially on Diseases of Plants, according to art. 9 
of the Convention of 1905. 

The Bulletin of Agricultural Intelligence is divided into two parts : 

Part I: Officiai, Communications. 

Part II : Agricultural Intelligence. 

The first is the only official portion of the Bulletin. It includes 
communications made to the International Institute of Agriculture by 
the adhering Governments, either directly, or through their delegates. 
In these official communications the Bureau of Agricultural Intelli- 
gence merely reprints or translates the information received. This 
part of the Bulletin will appear whenever occasion arises, and need 
not be a regular feature of the monthly issue. 

The main part of the Bulletin is that of Agricultural Intelligence, 
drawn from books and the technical press, and from such special 
reports as may eventually be prepared for, and approved by, the author- 
ities of the International Institute of Agriculture. 

The Agricultural Intelligence is grouped as follows : 

I. — Agricultural Science, Farming, and Agricultural Industries. 

Development of agriculture in different countries- Scientific institutions 
- Education in agriculture and forestry - Experimentation - 
Biography - History of agriculture. 

Agricultural Physics. Chemistry, Geology and Botany. 

Field crops - Industrial cultures - Horticulture - Arboriculture - Fo- 
restry. 

Stock-breeding - Animal Industries. 

Industries connected with agriculture. 

Agricultural Engineering. 

II. — Diseases of Plants, Pests of Farm, Field and Forest. 

a) Official Communications ; 

b) Intelligence. 

Rome, November, 1910. 

Italo GrGLiOLi, Chief of Bureau. 
j. M. Saulnier, Chief of Section. 



AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE. 



NB. The Intelligence contained in the present Bulletin has been taken 
exclusively from the books, periodicals, bulletins, and other publications 
which have reached the Library of the International Institute of Agriculture 
in Rome during the month of October, 1910. 

The Bureau assumes no responsability with regard to the opinions and 
the results of experiments outlined in the Bulletin. 

The Editor's notes are marked [Ed.]. 



1 
y 



Development of Agriculture in Different Countries. 
— Education in Agriculture and Forestry. 
Biography. — History of Agriculture. 



Scientific Institutions. 
- Experimentation. — 



Agriculture in Sind (British India). 

London, No. 3016. i()io. 



Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 



In studying the agriculture of Sind the first impression is of the great 
need for up-to-date agricultural implements and machinery. 

Farming is still done with primitive implements, which involves a large 
outlay of energy with small result. 

A well equipped Sind farmer is provided with a plough, a roller, a 
harrow, a rake, a pitchfork, and a drill. The plough has only one handle, 
a pole to which the yoke is attached, and instead of the plougshare, a 
pointed stake, generally tipped with iron; and the soil is worked to about 
six inches' (15 centimetres) depth. The roller is simply a rounded beam 
of wood. The rake is a large piece of wood with five or six teeth. The 
drill is a piece of bamboo which is fixed to the plough at the time of 



sowmg. 



Government has tried recently, Init without much success, to introduce 
more perfect implements, especially in the district of Chenab. 



British 

India: 

Sind 



Maryaud. Portuguese India. • — Questions diplomatiques et coloniales. Paris, 
No. 326. Sept. 1910. 

Portuguese India (4030 sq. kilom, = 1556 sq. miles, comprising Goa, Da- 
mao. Diu) lies on the Coast of Malabar. 

The colony is obliged to import every year for its consumption hundreds 
of contos of reis worth of rice, the staple food of the natives, which the 
colony is unable to produce in sufficient quantity, owing to defective agri- 
cultural systems and insufficiency of irrigation. From the commercial point 



Portuguese 
India 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



of view, the port and the railway of Mormugao suffer from the formidable 
competition of Bombay. These are the two chief reasons that hinder the 
economic development of Portuguese India. The principal import is rice. 
The leading exports are : cocoa-nuts and copra (250 contos = i 250 000 frcs.). 
spices or native aromatic plants, products of the betel-nut palm ; live ani- 
mals, salt, fish, and cocoa-nut oil. 

The exports to Portugal have amounted to 2 100 000 reis (10 500 frcs.) 
those to Mozambique to 2 479 200 reis (12 396 frcs.), and to Angola 8800 reis. 
Perhaps the development of the port of Mormugao, the more intense culti- 
vation of rice, and the introduction of a better navigation service, will help 
in advancing this district of India. 



European Colonisation in Cochin China. 

Paris, 1910. 



' Bulletin de F Office Colonial, No. 29, 



French' 
Indo-China: 
Cochin- 
china 



The improvement of the large concessions proceeds very slowly and 
the results are unimportant. This state of things is mainly due to the dif- 
ficulties which the European settlers find in recruiting the necessary labour 
for the cultivation of vast tracts of land. Further, those European settlers 
who have taken up rice-growing (and they are in the majority), are still suffer- 
ing from the effects of the Mekong floods, against which the only protect- 
ion would be a net-work of suitably arranged canals. The cultivation of 
rubber takes first rank amongst other cultures. The cultivation of pepper, 
of which there is also an important plantation in the district of Baria (in 
the province of Hathien), is stationary. Cattle breeding would be of great 
benefit to the European settlers; the Baria district is extremely well adapted 
for stock, on account of its extensive pastuie lands. 



European Colonisation in Tonkin. 

No. 29, 1910. 



Bulhtin de V Office Colonial, Paris, 



French 
Indo China 



The planters' efforts ai;e obtaining good results in the cultivation of 
coffee and tea and in the raising of cattle. The plantations of Ficus elastica 
are being actively pursued. The greater part of the settlers cultivate a part 
of their lands on the metayage system, notably for rice and tobacco. 

The cultivation of the perfume tree ylang-ylang (i), has been attempted 
in the province of Huang-Hoa, and is on the eve of yielding good crops. 

European colonisation is not likely to extend beyond its present limits. 



(i) Cananga odorata. \Ed?\. 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



European Colonisation in Annam. 

1910, Paris. 



-Bulletin de F Office Colonial, No. 29, 



In 1908 the European Colonisation movement extended to 54 estates, 
including 11 000 hectares of improved land as against 9 670 hectares in 1907. 

Since January 1909, 450 hectares of land at Gio-Linh have been granted 
in provisional concession, as well as 400 hectares at Nhon-Thuan. 

During the current year more than 40 000 plants of Hevea B?'asiliensis 
have been planted at Phantiet, in the South. 

Last season's crop at Suigiao yielded a total of i 400 kilograms of 
pure rubber and 300 of scrap on 4 hectares. The experimental cultivation 
of Liberian coffee, cacao-trees, "white cotton tree" (Kapok)(i) and kola trees 
promise well. 

Marvand. Macao. Questions diplomatiques et coloniales. Paris, N. 326, 1910. 

Macao is the smallest ot the Portuguese Colonies, measuring no more 
than 10 square kilometers. The opening of Hong Kong to European com- 
merce in 1842 was a great blow for this Colony. At the present day its 
trade is developing, a considerable part of income coming from the mono- 
poly in " cocido " opium [exclusivo de opio cocido). 

The business transacted at Macao in 1905 amounted to 20 ^00 cantos, 
(102 000 000 fr.). 

The chief articles of trade are: raw opium, silk and cotton thread and 
tissues, rice, sugar, tea, aromatic woods, tobacco and Chinese "wine." The 
relations with the mother-country are very limited, this trade reaching the 
sum of 3700000 reis (18500 fr.) for the exports and 6900000 reis 
(34 500 fr.) for the imports. 

At present an economic danger threatens the prosperity of Macao. An 
international conference recently held at Shanghai adopted some excessively 
rigorous decisions on opium trade, the result of which will be greatly to 
the prejudice of Macao. 

The economic and financial situation of Macao is far from being unfa- 
vourable, and its progress will be still more rapid when the railway dis- 
cussed in the treaty that is now being negotiated with China has been 
constructed. 



French 
Indo-China 



Macao 



Irrigation Scheme in the Hawaiian Isles. — The Louisiana Planter and Sugar 
Manufacturer, Vol. XLV, No. 14, pp. 216-217. New Orleans, Octo- 
ber 1910. 

The planters of Hawaii have formed a project for the construction of Hawaii 



(l) Eriodendron anfractiiosum D. C. or Bombax paifandriini Linn. Watt, Dictionary 
I of the Economic Products of India. Vol. Ill, p. 25S. \Ed}^. 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



a new irrigation canal of the lengtK of 145 kilometers, which will be the 
greatest work of irrigation in the Hawaiian Isles. By its means several thou- 
sand acres of good land will be rendered arable, and the greater part of this will 
be distributed for homesteads, according to the recent land-laws of Hawaii. 



United 
States : 
Alaska 



C. C. Georgeson. Corn Crops and other Products, and the Improve- 
ment of Cattle in Alaska. — Annual Report of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations of Alaska for iQog, Government Printing Office. ^Vash- 
ington, 1910. 

The culture of cereals and market garden produce, the cultivation of 
fruits and the breeding of cattle would prosper in Alaska all along the coasts 
and in the valle3^s sheltered from the north winds. In fact oats and barley are 
thriving over a vast extent of land in the interior of the peninsula, which is 
sheltered from summer-frost. 

Amongst the numerous varieties experimented with at the agricultural 
station of Rampart, the best results have been obtained with the early va- 
rieties of barley Fattier S. P. J. n. 18922 and Yakutsk G. I. n. 574, and 
with the early varieties of oats Yakutsk G. 1. n. 498; their superiority is 
due to their early growth and to their short period of vegetation. A success- 
ful farmer, William Young, has obtained 2 tons of barley per acre and 1.6 ton 
of oats per acre, cut when green as fodder. Amongst the vegetables, the 
Early White Ohio ])Otatoes and the Washington Wakefield cabbages are 
preferred; they yield an average return per acre of 6 and 5 tons respect- 
ively, a quantity which could be doubled by manuring. 

Of cultivated apples there are probably none that could succeed in 
Alaska ; hybridisation is suggested with the native variety Fyrus rivularis 
(Alaska Crabapple), which offers great resistance to the cold. Excellent re- 
sults have already been obtained by crossing the best varieties of straw- 
berry with the Fragraria chilensis, which grows wild along the coasts from 
Muir Glacier to Prince William Sound. 

To solve the problem of cattle breeding. Bos giunnietis, is suggesteil for 
introduction into Alaska, this is a breed from the Himalayas, suitable to the 
rough conditions of cold mountain regions. It is probable that by crossing 
this breed with the Galloway breed a good beast of burden would be obtained, 
provided with a fur equal or even superior to that of the practically ex- 
tinct American buffalo. 



New Territories for Agriculture in Canada. 

Farttier, Oct. 5th, 1910, Toronto. "" 



Weekly Globe and Canada 



The Home Secretary of Canada has published an illustrated pamphlet 
Canada describing the lands explored during the past two years in North Saskat- 
chewan, and in Alberta. 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



Of the 8500000 hectares of land visited, about 4040000 hectares are 
suitable for farming, and only await means of communication in order to 
be put under culture. The climate is good; and the cultivation experi- 
ments hitherto made there have been successful. 

It is proposed to open out this new region by a railway as far as 
McMurrav. 



Letcher. Agricultural Development in Acapulco, Mexico. (Improve- 
ments for Acapulco). — The Bulletin of the Pan-American Union, Wa- 
shington, October, 191 o. 

Agriculture is continually expanding in Acapulco. The chief product 
is sesame, closely followed by cotton, rubber and sugar cane. The raising Mexico 
of cattle and the cultivation of fruit are also growing. The soil is very 
fertile, but a wise and experienced management is what is needed for 
Acapulco farming. 

Economic Development of Guatemala. — Bureau of the American Republics. 
Washington, September 1910. 

The climate of Guatemala is a perpetual spring. There are two seasons : 
the dry season and the rainy season. The country consists of three 
zones: i) the coast zone, where temperatures are prevalently high; 2) the 
upland and hilly region, from 2000 to 5000 feet above sea-level (600 to Guatemala 
1500 meters), where the climate is cool and temperate; 3) the high mountain 
region, over 6000 feet (1800 meters) a]:)0ve the sea, with a severe, dry and 
remarkably healthy climate. 

The Government tries to attract colonists and promote the economic 
development ot the country. 

Agriculture and Cattle-raising in Salvador. — Bureau of the American 
Republics. Washington, September 19 10. 

'i'he Diario del Salvador publishes the following information as to the 
live-stock and agricultural industries of the Republic. 

Data supplied by the several municipalities show that in igo8 there 
existed on the haciendas de ranches of Salvador, about 284 013 head of cattle, Salvador 
74336 horses, 21457 sheep and 422980 swine. 

The following is the agricultural produce of the last six months : 

Cheese 35 899 quintals 

Coffee 755 279 » 

Cocoa 6 386 » 

Rubber 5 194 » 

Tobacco II 666 » 

Sugar 273 901 » 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



Maize i 219 914 fanegas (r) 

Rice 94 669 quintals 

Beans 163 608 y^ 

Wheat 10 527 » 

Sweet Potatoes 18 778 » 

Yucca Starch 5 960 > 

Balsam i 448 

Agriculture near Colon, Panama. — Bureau of American Republics, Wash- 
ington, September, 1910. 

A Company has been formed, under the iiame of the Ingenio de las 
Panama Minas, which is beginning agricultural operations with a capital of £350 000. 

The Company proposes to ctiltivate cane sugar besides rubber, banana 
and other tropical plants. The Company has therefore secured the posses- 
sion of several thousand acres ot very fertile land and is actively pushing 
forward projects for an extensive sugar cane plantation. 



Great 
Antilles 



Daniel Bellet. The Great Antilles. — Guihnoto, Paris, vol. I, p. 320, 1910. 

This volume treats of Cuba, Porto Rico, Haiti, St. Domingo and Ja- 
maica. Each of its five parts contains a chapter with information on all 
the principal vegetable products of the Great Antilles. 

In Cuba there is a considerable and varied wealth of forests. There 
are upwards of 3500 native plants, besides introduced species. The island 
possesses many precious woods, such as mahogany, ebony, and also good 
ordinary timber, like the Cuban pine. 

Forests are especially abundant in the provinces of Santiago, Puerto 
Principe and Santa Clara. Fruit trees are very numerous; pine-apples, dates, 
cocoa-nuts, mangoes and even peaches, apricots and grapes are to be met 
with everywhere. The trade in pine-apples and bananas is developing ra- 
pidly, and attempts are being made to establish canning factories. 

The most favourable soil for sugar cane is in the east of the Island. 
The best tobaccos come from the districts West of Havana, this culture 
occupying only the tenth part of the cultivated surface of the Island. The 
season for tobacco cultivation is from September to January. 

" The cultivation of coffee in Cuba is no longer what it used to be; and 
yet both soil and climate are admirably adapted to the growth of the 
coffee tree. 



''i) A fatiega is equivalent to r "/a busliels and the Salvadorian quintal is equal 
to 104 lbs. 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



r 



In Porto Rico the cultivation of the sugar cane, coftee and tobacco are 
important industries. The sugar production is being developed at the expense 
of coffee, the cultivation of which is passing through a crisis. There is a gro- 
wing interest in the cultivation of tobacco, for which the soil is very favou- 
rable. Porto Rico is very rich in timber and precious dye-woods. Fruits are 
abundant, especially bananas, lemons and pine-apples. The introduction of 
Sisal hemp is bein^ tried, and cotton culture is being developed. 

The chief cultivation in Haiti is coffee. Vanilla also grows very well. 
The sugar cane and indigo have lost their importance for this country, 
and even the coffee tree is being replaced by bananas, cotton and the 
cacao tree, all of which seem likely to rise in importance. Medicinal, per- 
fume-, rubber- and starch-producing plants, which are found to a certain 
extent everywhere in Haiti, might all be turned to account. 

The Republic of St. Domingo has the same natural wealth and possibi- 
lities as Haiti ; the starch-producing plants, oranges, pine-apples and fibre 
jjlants may be mentioned. At present the cultivation of cacao and sugar 
cai^e is carried on there; the cultivation of coftee is hardly to be re- 
commended. 

Sugar cane, coftee, bananas, cacao, tobacco, etc., still hold the chief 
l^lace amongst the diff"erent cultures of Jamaica. The area growing bananas 
has nearly tripled in ten years. 

Ginger is not a very important nor a growing industry in Jamaica. The 
production of cacao is rapidly increasing. The cultivation of tea has been 
tried, but not successfully. 

^'ERHOLST. Agricultural Development in Venezuela. (Report of Meat Ex- 
ports).— Z-V/Z/t-A/z of the Fan American Union. ^Vashington, October 1910. 

Cattle breeding in Venezuela is becoming a source of exportation ; 
and the first consignment of frozen meat has been sent from Puerto Cabello Venezuela 
to London. A Company is being formed with the object of creating a 
regular line of navigation between London and Venezuela, the ships being 
furnished with refrigerators for meat, fresh fruits and unrefined sugar (mu- 
scovado), 

The first consignment of unrefined sugar for Europe was made some 
weeks back; it amounted to 75 000 lbs. 

Progress in Peru. — Bureau of the. American Republics. Washington, Sept- 
ember 1910. 

The agricultural resources of Peru, so far imperfectly utilised, have Peru 
greatly increased during recent years. 

Thus the exportation of sugar has increased 50 per cent in five years, 



lo DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



Bolivia 



and still continues to increase, bringing large profits to Peruvian planters. 
Cotton growers produce a special quality of cotton and are able to com- 
mand high prices; the European markets showing themselves ready to 
take the whole Peruvian production of this article. In the eastern pro- 
vinces of the Republic there are vast extents of rubber-producing land ; and 
a splendid network of rivers will permit the rubber to be transported cheaply 
by water. 

The high prices of rubber are inducing the Government to open out 
the eastern forest land. 

Progress on the Madeira River, Bolivia. — India Rubber ]Vorld. New 
York, ist October, 1910. 

The Madeira River is destined to become the outlet for one of the 
richest rubber countries in the world: Bolivia. The Avorks for improving 
sanitation in this valley are advancing rapidly, and they have already given 
satisfactory results, promising well for the opening out of the rubber re- 
gion of Bolivia to the world. 

A. M. Madden. Agricultural Development in Morocco. — Tlic Board of 
Trade Jotu'Tial. London, October 13th, 1910, p. 71. 

A new economic feature in the development of the Shawia consists in 
the large number of farms owned by foreigners. 

The most up-to-date methods of cultivation and agricultural machinery 
Morocco and implements are already in use on some of these farms. Light steel 
ploughs, disk-harrows, cultivators, reaping machines and traction engines are 
to be seen on the quays of Casablanca. 

An increase is likely in the number of farms owned by foreigners in 
the Shawia, to the great advancement of farming. The attention of the 
world is once more called to the great fertility and other agricultural re- 
sources of Morocco. 

The Kpeme and Agu Plantations Company in Togo. (Pflanzung.sgesellschaft 
Kpeme und Agu). — Deutsches Kolonialblatt. Berlin, 15th September, 1910. 

The plantation of Kpeme has continued to prosper during the agri- 
cultural year 1909-1910, in spite of the unfavourable season; 483000 cocoa- 
Togo 'luts have been gathered, whilst during the preceding year only the figure of 
366000 was reached: the copra was 75 tons. The number of cocoa-nut 
trees has already reached 60 000, half of which are yielding fruit. 

The cultivation of Sisal occupies 79 hectares with 119000 plants. 
The cotton growing amongst the young trees have been suppressed by the 
development of the latter, but the separate cotton-cultivation is extending. 



CONGRESSES. - SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS. - EDUCATION ii 



The Agu Colonial Company continues to prosper. In one 3'ear the cacao 

]jF harvest has risen from 12 500 kilograms to 23 630 kilograms. The Kickxia (i) 

rubber cultivation is growing well, but it has not yet reached the period 

of production. A mill at Agu is being built for the extraction of palm oil 

by the Haake system. 

Cotton has been suppressed as a temporary cultivation in the tree 
plantations, on account of the vigorous development of the rubber-trees. 



The International Scientific Congress in Buenos Ayres: Agriculture. — 

Nature, 2138, vol. 84, October 20th, 1910, p. 510. London. 

The Agricultural Section of the Buenos Ayres Congress excited much 
interest, and a large number of papers were read. Juan A. Devoto, Civil 
Engineer, contributed a paper on researches on micro-organisms in milk. 
Dr. Wolff hiigel read a jjaper on the zooparasites of domestic animals in the 
Argentine Republic. Mr. Suarez on the degeneration of the Malbec-Vine. 

The Agricultural Section voted a motion recommending the protection 
of the llama and of the vicuna. 



Argentina 



Kew Bulletin, No. 7, 1910. 

p. 402. 



Nature, No. 2035, September 29th. 1910, 



No. 7 of the Kew Bulletin is for the greater part devoted to classifi- 
cation. J. S. Gamble publishes a long series of new species of Protca and 
other diagnoses of phmts. as well as a second list of new Lauraceae of Malesia, 
mainly concerning the genera Cinnamomum, AlseodapJme and NoiopJwebe. 
M. O. Stapf publishes a description of the Australian plant Epacris hetero- 
)iema. G. Massee describes some new exotic mushrooms, amongst which are 
a Spliaerulina and a Fhofna, both found on a Welwitschia mirabilis in Dama- 
raland. From the economic point of view the Entypa caulivora (Sphaeria- 
ceae), a parasite gathered on a gum tree at Singapore, is more important ; 
this parasite kills its host by obstructing with its mycelium the vessels of 
the wood. 



Great 
Britain 



A Colonial Institute in Amsterdam. 

n. 19, 1910. 



La Quinzaliie Coloiiiale. Paris, 



At a meeting of the Society which founded the Colonial Museum of 
Haarlem, it was proposed to transform this Museum into a new Institu- Netherlands 
tion under the name of Kolonial Institut, with headquarters at Amsterdam. 



(i) Kickxia: an Apocynea of Tropical Africa, Java and the Philippine Islands. (Index 
Kewensis, torn. II, p. 6). [Ed.]. 



12 AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS. 

A sum of 750 000 florins was already collected last June, and the new Mu- 
seum can therefore be opened under excellent conditions. 

Holland, ever at the head of the Colonial movement, is also about to 
create an Institute where all the colonial oflices will be united ; this is the 
onlv way of doing useful work for the economic future of the Colonies. 

Forestry Education in Denmark. Statistics of Danish Forests. — Quart. 
Jour, of Forestry, Oct. 1910. London, pp. 300-305. 

Danish Forest officials, whether for State or private employ, are trained 
Benmark by the Royal Agricultural Academy. The course lasts six years, and is 
attended, on an average, by 40 students. 

The subordinate forest employt^s (foresters), of whom there are 90 in 
the forests of the State, do not receive their instruction in special schools, 
but follow a three-year theoretical and practical course in the districts and 
are then examined by a State Commission. , 

Observations on the influence of forests on climate and on rainfall are 
continued, but the resiflts have not hitherto modified past experience. 

The Experimental Forest Department is directed by a technical officer 
assisted bv a Commission. 



Ceyion 



Guadeloupe 



German 
East 
Africa 



Facilities in Ceylon for the Study of Agriculture in the Tropics. — Supple- 
ment to the IVopical Agriculturist, vol. XXX\', 11.3. Colombo, Sept. 1910. 

At the Government Experimental Station of Peradeniya (Ceylon) the 
greatest facilities have been accorded to strangers desirous of studying the 
agriculture of tropical countries. Several Governments, amongst them those 
of Nyasaland, Sierra Leone. Southern Nigeria and others, have sent to Para- 
deniya their agricultural directors. Professors of botany, zoology, the science 
of forestry, and others,from England, Germany, etc.. have visited the station, 
making a more or less prolonged stay. 

Experimental Garden in Guadeloupe. — La Quinzaine Coloniale, Paris, 
25th Oct. 1910. 

In view of the opening of the Panama Canal and of the expected in- 
crease of traffic in agricultural products, the Chamber of Agriculture of 
Guadeloupe is establishing an Experimental Agricultural Garden {Jardin 
(fEssais). A loan has been raised for the purpose. 

Agricultural Course at Amani (German East Africa). (Unterrichtskurse 
in Amani). — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, Berlin, Sept. 1910. 

The Government of German East Africa has decided to institute a 
Colonial agricultural course at Amani for colonial officers, planters and 
cattle breeders. 



BIOGRAPHIES 



The stafif of the Amani Biological Agricultural Institute will be en- 
trusted Avith the teaching, and with field demonstrations. The subjects 
treated will concern agriculture, tropical forests and cattle breeding. Special 
attention will be given to pests and diseases of plants. 

Studies are to be made on the soil and on the climate, in their relation 
to production. 

P. GuERiN. Dr. Treub. — Reime Scientifique. Paris, 15th October, 1910, 
p. 508. 

'• Dr. Melchior Treub, who recently died at Saint Raphael (Var), ranks 
high amongst botanists. 

"Born at Voorschoten, Holland, in 1853, Dr. Treub was sent by the 
Dutch Government in 1880 to Buitenzorg, Java, as Director of the Botan- 
ical Gardens. He retired from service in 1909, settling in France. 

"During the thirty years that Trueb lived in Java, not a single year i-^Nethor. 
passed without his producing important contributions to vegetable bio- ' lands 
logy. Treub has left several works on lacticiferous and climbing plants, and j_y„ 
on myrmecophilous plants. In embriology, his observations on the develop- 
ment of the embryonic sac of parasitic plants are classical. In physiology, 
his researches on the presence of hydrocyanic, acid in the higher plants led 
to the elaboration of interesting theories. 

" The Institute of Buitenzorg, unique in the tropical world, with its 
various services, its numerous laboratories, and above all, its laboratory for 
foreign investigators, is Treub's monument. To him also is chiefly due the 
Department of Agriculture in the Dutch Indies. 

"All who have worked in the Buitenzorg Institute remember the hos- 
pitality of its eminent Director and the liberality with which he facilitated 
researches. It is impossible to forget the kind response given by Dr. Treub 
to demands for materials for study ; and many are the botanists whose 
researches have been advanced by specimens from Buitenzorg. The un- 
timely death of Dr. Treub, the victim of the depressing climate of the 
tropics, and, it may be added, the victim of science, to which he devoted 
all his energies, will cause profound regret. „ 



14 



PLANT CONSTITUENTS. - OXYDASES 



Agriculture — Agricultural Physics, Chemistry and Botany. 



France 



Alb. B. On the Constitution of Phytine. — Rev. Scient. Paris, 2gth October. 
1910. No. 18. (II Sem.). p. 560. 

In the course of recent researches o\\ the chemical composition of the 
husks of barley grains, M. K. Geys has separated an organic phosphatic 
compound presenting all the reactions of phytine. His researches {^Ann. de 
Brasserie et de Distillerie. 1910, n. 14) confirm the formula of phytine given 
by Neuberg and Brahn. who consider inosite as pre-formed in the molecule. 



Great 
Britain 



Oxydases. Cheraistry at the British Association. — N'ature, No. 
vol. 84, Oct. 20th, 1910, p. 518, London. 



213S, 



During the meetings at Sheffield of the British Association in Septem- 
ber 1910, Dr. E. F. Armstrong summarised our present knowledge on 
oxydases. Dr. Armstrong put the question whether oxydases should be consi- 
dered as organic enzyme or as inorganic catalysts in a colloidal substrate. 

The following facts support the second hypothesis: 

i) the solutions of oxydases preserve their activity even after drastic 
purifications ; 

2) they invariably contain, after the most complete purification, traces 
of salts of manganese, iron and calcium ; 

3) their action may be imitated by the colloidal suspension of the 
salts of the above-mentioned metals. 

On the other hand, there is evidence concerning the specific nature of 
oxydases and the existence of difterent oxydases. 

Dr. Armstrong also described the remarkable blackening of the leaf of 
the Aucuba japouica when submitted to the action of toluene vapours or of 
those of chloroform. The blackening is due, according to the general 
opinion, to the oxidative effect of an oxydase. 

Systematic researches have shown that this blackening was produced 
by most organic vapours, such as ethyl acetate, ether, benzene, etc., b)- 
carbon dioxide and by such salts in aqueous solution as cadmium iodide, 
mercuric chloride and potassium and sodium fluorides. All these substances 
possess but litde affinity for water; and it is supposed that being able to 
pass through differential septa, they enter the cell and cause there osmotic 
disturbances, whereby the cell-contents become diluted and hydrolysis sets 



INVERTASE. - VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY 



15 



in to restore equilibrium. This brings the various cell-enzymes into play, 
and ;i general degradation ensues. 

This opinion is confirmed by determinations of sugar, or starch, or glti- 
coside, contained in the leaf before and after the action of the stimulating 
substances. These determinations reveal, as a matter of fact, a great in- 
crease in the amount of the reducing sugar. 



C S. Hudson. Inversion of Cane-sugar by Invertase. A Theory regard- 
ing the Influence of Acids and Alkalis on the activity of Invertase. — 
Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. XXXII, No. 10, Oct. 191 o. 
Easton Pa., p. 1220. 

In alkaline solutions invertase shows no activity ; in slightly acid solu- 
' tions this enzyme action reaches a maximum, which decreases rapidly as the 
acidity increases. 

The author formulates various hypotheses based on different experiments. 



United 
States 



C. S. Hudson and H. S. Paine. Inversion of Cane-sugar by Invertase. 
The action of Alcohol on Invertase. — Journal of the American Chcm. 
Society, Vol. XXXII, No. 10. Oct. 1910, p. 1350. 

From the practical point of view it is important to know the action of 
alcohol on invertase ; in the first place because, alcohol is naturally present 
during the fermentation of cane-sugar by yeast, and the invertase is tlius 
normally in the presence of weak alcohol; and secondly, alcohol is often 
used, though generally with little success, to prepare the enzyme in a 
solid form. 

The authors ha^^e made various researches to ascertain the effect of al- 
cohol of different strengths upon invertase. 

The results show that the main effects are three; arrest of activity, 
precipitation of the enzyme, and permanent destruction. 

If the alcohol contains some cane-sugar, the destruction is greatly re- 
tarded, and the invertase may be precipitated without any important loss 
of activity. 



United 
States 



J. Stoklasa and W' . Zdobnicky. Photochemical Synthesis. Carbohydrates 
obtained without the intervention of Chlorophyll. — Chcmiker Zeituiig. 
Cothen, Sept. 1910, No. 102. 

The experiments made show that the ultra-violet rays, acting on a 
mixture of carbonic anhydride and of hydrogen in the nascent state, bring 
about photosynthesis: a reaction of 2 molecules of carbonic anhydride on 
2 molecules of hydrogen, produces 2 molecules of formaldehyde, and i 
of oxygen. 



Austria 



i6 ASSIMILATION IN PLANTS. - AGRIC. MICROBIOLOGY 



In tlie presence of caustic potash the formaldehyde polymerizes and 
gives rise to sugars. 

Without the intervention of the ultra-violet rays, nascent hydrogen can- 
not act on the carbonic anhydride in such wise as to produce formaldehyde. 

The nature of the sugars formed by this photosynthesis has not yet 
been determined. 

One may surmise that formaldehyde is produced in the cells of plants 
containing chlorophyll as a first product of the reduction of carbonic anhy- 
dride by nascent hydrogen. The latter is formed in the process of respi- 
ration caused by glucolytic enzymes. The function of the chlorophyll in 
the assimilation-process would consist in the absorption of the ultra-violet rays. 

Ultra-violet rays, when acting on a mixture of carbonic anhydride and 
water-vapour, also give rise to formaldehyde, but in small quantities, which 
do not polymerize to sugars in the presence of caustic potash. 

The ultra-violet rays also appear to accelerate chlorophyll-formation in 
the cells of etiolated plants. 

A. Fernbach and E. Vulquin. Microbe-destroying Power of Yeast and 
of Cereal macerations. — C.J?. Acadimie des Scieiices. Paris, loth Oct. 
1910, pp. 656-658. 

The poison produced by yeast is quite different from that found in 
cereals, each having a very dissimilar effect, according as it is measured 
by the multiplication of the yeast-cells or the activity of yeast-zymase. The 
France experiments have been carried out on the action of wheat maceration on 
the multiplication of the yeast cells, and on the activity of yeast itself, 
as well as on the action of yeast maceration in similar circumstances. 



V. Henry, A. Helbonner and Max de Recklinghausen. New Researches 
on the Sterilisation of large quantities of Water by Ultra-violet Rays. 

— C. R. Academic des Sciences. Paris, 17th October 1910, No. 16, 
pp. 677-680. 

The authors give results, obtained with a new apparatus of their own 
construction, for sterilising large quantities of water by means of the ultra- 
France violet rays emitted by a mercury-vapour lamp. 

The experiments for steriHsing water were made first at the Sorbonne, 
then at Marseille, where the apparatus has been installed with the purifiers 
{digrossisseurs) and filters {prifiltres) of Puech and Chabal. 

The apparatus contains a quartz lamp of the Westinghouse Cooper 
Hewitt type, of 220 volts and 3 amperes, and it worked uninterruptedly from 



AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY. - AGRIC. METEOROLOGY 17 

August 19th till the end of September, with an average output of 25 cub. 
metres an hour. 

Before treatment by the apparatus the water contained from 30 to 300 
germs per cubic centimetre and from 50 to 1000 coli per litre (i). After 
treatment, it contained an average of i germ per cubic centimetre and no 
coli. The cost was 26 Watts-hours per cubic metre of water. 

J. Herbertson. Progress in Meteorology. Geography and some of its 
present Needs. — Presidential address to the Geographical Section of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Sheffield, 1910. 

— The Geographical Journal, Oct. 1910. London, p. 469. 

Great progress has been made during the last decade in meteorology 
and climatology connected with geography. 

The importance of climatological knowledge for tropical agriculture and 
hygiene has led to an increase of meteorological stations all over the tro- Great 
pical zone. Mr. Bartholomew's Atlas of Meteorology appeared at the begin- Britain 
ning, and Sir John Eliot's Meteorological Atlas of Itidia at the end of the first 
decade of this century. 

Dr. Hann's Lehrbuch and the new edition of his Climatology, Messrs. Hil- 
debrandsson and Teisserenc de Bort's great work, and the recent studies 
of the Upper Atmosphere are among the landmarks of progress. The re- 
cord is marred only by the closing of the Ben Nevis Observatory when its 
work was becoming most useful. 

To appreciate the progress of climatolog>', it is only necessary to com- 
pare the present number and distribution of meteorological stations with 
those given in Bartholomew's Atlas of 1899. 

The author calls attention to the improved weather-maps and to the 
excellent pilot-charts of the North Atlantic and of the Indian Ocean, pub- 
lished monthly by the British Meteorological Office. 

A. P. Cernui. Agricultural Meteorological Station in the Government 
of Vladimir, Russia, with Observations on the Cultivation of Oats. 

— Selskoje Kosiastvo i Liesovodstvo, Vol. CCXXXIV, year LXX, pp. 3-18, 
St. Petersburg, Sept. 1910. 

During the last four years the meteorological stations in the Govern- jjuggfa 
ment of Vladimir have turned their attention to the study of agricultural 
meteorology. Clover, potatoes, rye, and oats have been the objects of their 
special attention. The results are more than satisfactory. 



(i) Bacillus coli? \Ed\ 



i8 



AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY 



With regard to oats, the period of vegetation, from sowing to harvest- 
ing, extends over an average period of 94 days, with a minimum of 80 in 
1906 and a maximum of 107 in 1908. As oats are generally sown during 
the first half of May, the harvest is in September, and sometimes even as 
late as the first days of October, i. e. at a period when the average tem- 
perature is already low (10° to 11° C.) and when night frosts are of frequent 
occurrence. It must be added that though the average rainfall is low, light 
showers are frequent, occurring every two or three days, and even every day. 
Consequently the crop is incompletely dried, and is thus greatly deterio- 
rated, the seed often geting mouldy, and the straw spoiled. 

The remedy would be to sow earlier than usual, provided it can be 
done without seriously endangering germination and the growth of the oats. 

The meteorological stations have been able to supply decisive information 
on the question, by fixing the last ten days of April as the most propitious 
period for sowing. The temperature of the soil is then fairly low (8-10° C), 
but this in no wise compromises the crop, as it has been proved that 
seed sown in cool soil is particularly well adapted to resist drought. 

Observations have also been made on clover, potatoes, and rye ; but 
the material collected is still too incomplete to allow positive conclusions 
to be drawn. 

Is it possible to influence Rainfall artificially? (Mathematics and Physics 
at the British Association). — Nature, n. 2138, vol. 84, Oct. 20, 1910, 
p. 515. London. 



Great 
Britain 



During the proceedings of the British Association last September, Sir 
Oliver Lodge referred to the existence of a positive gradient of potential 
during fine weather, and of a negative gradient during rainy weather, and 
spoke of the possibility of influencing weather, by varying the potential 
gradient. He thought that rain might be produced in this way, opening a 
field of experiment for the enterprising capitalist. 



Protecting Orchards from Spring -Frosts. — Journal of the Board of 
Agriculture, Vol. XVII, No. 7, p. 558. London. 



Great 

Britain 

and tlie 

United 

States 



The prevention of damage to fruit crops from spring frosts by means 
of fires and smudges has been attempted by a few growers in England 
with some success. In those districts of the United States where fruit 
is grown on an extensive scale, considerable progress has been made in 
recent years in investigating the value of different methods. Recent expe- 
riments have proved that damage to fruit trees by frost can be controlled 
to a greater or less extent. Two methods have been principally adopted, 



AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY 19 

viz.: i) heating the air by fires, and; 2) creating a thick smoke, or " smudge, " 
as it is called, to diminish nocturnal radiation. 

Heating the air by fires. — When well managed, this method is stated 
to be very effective. It is of little use when the wind is high, or when the 
temperature falls below 20° F. ( — 6.6° C), It is a great mistake to produce 
intense heat by very hot fires, because this creates a strong draught which 
carries the heat directly into the upper atmosphere. 

The best results are obtained by means of numerous, but small, slowly 
burning, and well-distributed fires of coal, wood, or whatever fuel is 
cheapest. Crude oils have been tried, but they have the disadvantage of 
forming lampblack, which sticks to the leaves and fruit. 

Oil heaters are, however, extensively used in America. In Colorado a 
grower who had heated a portion of his orchard in the spring of 1909, 
secured a fine crop of more than 15 000 boxes of apples, whereas several 
acres not protected by heaters did not produce a single box. 

In another case, in New Mexico, 30 acres of orchard were heated 
with about 90 oil heaters to the acre, with the result that a full crop of 
fruit, valued at £5000 was obtained, while in the rest of the valley the 
apple crop was almost a complete failure. 

Smudge Fires. — It is stated that the fires should be started early in 
the evening, before radiation begins. This method is well adapted for use 
when the night is not windy and the temperature is not expected to fall 
much below 27° F. (— 3° C). 

Stable manure with a little oil poured on it makes a good smudge 
fire ; or mixtures of tar or oil with damp straw, hay, or sawdust. 

Farmers' Bulletin, No. 401 gives an account of experiments conducted 
in 1909 in South Oregon. It indicates the fuel used, the number of 
heaters per acre, the time required for lighting, the cost, etc. 

The conclusion arrived at by the United States officer, who was in 
charge of these investigations, is that frost injury to fruit trees may be 
prevented by the use of fires and smudges. 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture gives a Table of temperatures 
at which the principal orchard fruits are liable to be injured by frost, 
when in blossom, when setting fruit, etc. 

The Weather Bureau of the United States issues and forwards by 
telegraph and telephone warnings and forecasts as to the occurrence of 
frosts and cold- waves. 



20 



AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY 



Switzerland 



J. Maurj-R, Robert Billwiller jr. and Clement Hess. Frequency and 
Distribution of Hail-storms in Switzerland. Influence of Woods, Peat- 
bogs, Marshes, etc. (Die Hagelschlage der Schweiz - mit einer Karte). 
Das Klitna der Sch7veiz, Bd. I, pp. 285-302. Frauenteld, 1909-10. 

Using the data collected by the Central Meteorological Institute of 
Switzerland, the authors have made a study of the frequency of hail-storms 
in Switzerland from 1883 to 1900. 

The average frequency of hail during the period under consideration, 
the annual probability, and the percentage in the principal Swiss districts 



are given as follows ; 



Jura . . . 
Mittelland . 



Voralpen . 
Alpen . . 



Frequency Annual Percentage 

1883-1900 Probability of Storms 



Westrand 

Ostrand 

Westrand 

Mitte . 

Ostrand 

Westrand 

Ostrand 

Westrand 

Ostrand 



6.09 


0.388 


4.1 


4-55 


0.258 


3-0 


5-53 


0.307 


4.4 


6.14 


0.341 


3-4 


7-39 


o'4ii 


4.0 


6.24 


0.346 




3-49 


0.194 




1.91 


o.ro6 




0.81 


0.045 





Great 
BritaiR 



Alpengebiet 



Percentage of Storms. 
I Westlicher . . . ^ 



Voralpenrand 
Mitte . . . 
Ostlicher . 
Voralpenrand 



\ 



s 



3-6 

2.2 

1.8 



It has been observed that woods have the effect of diminishing the 
intensity of hail-storms, provided however that they are very extensive, and 
that the neighbouring land does not favour the formation of fresh hail. 
Any water district, with river, marsh, peat-bog or lake, contiguous to a 
wooded mountain, leads to an increase in the violence of the storm. 

These observations confirm many others that have been made and 
which go to show that large peat districts favour the formation of hail. 

Influence of Electricity on Plants. (Mathematics and Physics at the British 

Association). — N'aiiire, No. 2138, [Vol. 84, Oct. 20, 1910, p, 515. 
London. 

At a meeting of the British Association last September, Sir Oliver Lodge, 
referring to the effect of electricity on plant life, explained that the expe- 
riments with which he had been connected showed that in dull weather 



AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY 21 

the plants were stimulated by electricity, and the effect was good ; but 
in bright, sunny weather they were over-stimulated, with consequent bad 
results. He did not think that the action on plants was due to nitrification, 
but to some effect on the growing tips. 

ViDAL. Protection against Hail. — Revue Scientifique. Paris, October ist, 
1910, p. 435- 

At the meeting of the Association fran^aise pour F Avancement des Sciences 
M. Vidal declared his belief in the possibility of preventing the formation 
of hail. 

He spoke as follows: 

"As far back as 1901 that we made public at the International Con- 
gress of Lyons our invention for preventing hail by the firing of rockets. - 

" We do not pretend to try and convert our adversaries ; but we hope 
to arouse the interest of those who up to now have remained indifferent, France 
and also of those whose opinion may have been influenced by the purely 
theoretical denial of some of our opponents, especially by the report of the 
experiments conducted at Castelfranco Veneto under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Blaserna. 

"In the first place we may consider why the brilliant discovery of 
M. Stiger has not yielded results such as we had every reason to expect. 

"Is this due to a false principle? or to unskilled application? 

"The principle is certainly sound, because the action of sonorous or 
other vibrations on storm clouds is undeniable ; but from the first the prin- 
ciple was applied under conditions which could not but lead to failure. 
How could one hope to make a gaseous projectile, such as the vortex- 
rings produced by the explosion, less dense than the air, rise high enough ? 

" This is the reason, and the sole reason, why the principle was aban- 
doned ; but as we did not lose sight of its real value, we had the idea, ten 
I years ago, of replacing the vortex-ring by rockets, or by hail-dispelling pe- 
tards which break up the clouds at a certain altitude. 

" These new weapons have since then given practical proof of their 
^- work, and been more or less adopted; but in order to coutrol hail-storms 
successfully, is it enough to discharge these rockets without any definite 
I method over the lands intended to be protected? We do not think so. On 
the contrary, we have clearly shown, ever since the Congress of Lyons, 
that the points of defence of a given district may be at a considerable dis- 
I tance, and that its orographical features must be well known in order to 
fix precisely those strategical points which lie on the path of hail-storms. 
P' We have, moreover, made clear that it is essential to break up the hail- 
, storms on their way, before they r6ach the district to be protected. 

"It is in this method that, as we believe, the chief condition of success 



22 SOIL. - ACTION OF HEAT ON SOIL 

in controlling hail lies. And it has this further advantage, that a great 
saving of expense may thereby be effected. At Gannat, in the Department 
of the Allier, in France, we are using it to protect 24 000 hectares (59 304 
acres) of the rich land of Limagne, and we have less than eighty firing 
stations, 

"The question, which is still disputed, as to the height at which our 
projectiles should burst remains to be considered. Numerous experiments 
as to their mode of action, and as to the altitude of the lower storm strata, 
have led us to the conclusion that the height ought to be between 400 and 
500 metres (131 2 ft. and 1640 ft.); and everything up to the present goes 
to show that we are right. 

"However much we may be convinced ourselves, and can count fresh 
records of success every day, we must follow the wise advice of M. Violle 
and wait until the general irrefutable testimony of experience has proved 
the efficacy of the means we employ in our campaign against hail." 

S. U. Pickering. Plant Growth in Heated Soils. — Journal of Agricultural 
Science, Sept. 1910, Vol. Ill, Pt. 3, pp. 277-284. 

The author begins by briefly alluding to the work of Darbishireand Russell 
and of Russell and Hutchinson, who have sufficiently proved that plant-growth 
is generally more vigorous in soils that have been heated, and that this 
JSreat increased vigour is mainly due to the altered bacterial conditions, though 
the increase in the soluble organic and nitrogenous constituents must also 
contribute to this effect. 

At the same time the existence of a toxic substance, which may gra- 
dually disappear by a process of slow oxidation, and the increase (due to 
the action of heat) of the amount of soluble organic matter, would seem to 
offer an explanation of certain anomalies which have been observed in the 
growth of plants in these soils. 

The author's experiments throw a new light on the subject. 

On heating the soil, the soluble matter available for nutrition is increased, 
and changes in the bacterial condition are brought about, which conduce 
to increased vigour of the plants); but the heating also results in the form- 
ation of some substance or substances which are actively toxic. The 
proportion of toxin formed at low temperatures is small, and is generally 
insufficient to counteract those conditions favouring increased growth, but 
this proportion increases at a very rapid rate as the temperature rises 
above 100°, and its baleful influence is generally the preponderating factor; 
hence the results obtained of increased vigour with soils heated up to 
about 100°, and of greatly decreased vigour with those heated to higher 
temperatures. But the toxic substance is unstable, and gradually disappears 
by the action of air and moisture. Whence it results that when the soils 



Britain 



SOIL: ANALYSIS 23 



are used at once after heating, and when the cultivation, and the access 
of air, are reduced to a minimum, the toxic action will prevail, and there 
is no increased vigour of growth; whereas, under conditions favouring 
oxidation, the toxic action disappears, and increased growth becomes the 
predominant feature. The gradual recovery of plants grown in strongly 
heated soils, and the smallness of the toxic action in the case of second 
crops are illustrations in point. 

Whether the substance which is toxic towards plant-growth is actually 
the same as that which is toxic towards germination cannot be settled at 
present ; but the heated soils appear to be equally toxic as regards these 
two processes, and the toxin in both cases is equally susceptible to oxida- 
tion. Hence it is legitimate to assume provisionally that it is the same toxin 
which is active in both cases, and on such an assumption we can use the 
germination of seeds as a method for testing its presence in soils. 

This is a point of importance, for germination experiments can be 
carried out in a few days, before a soil has had time to 'undergo any 
alteration due to the oxidation of the toxins ; besides which, the germination 
of seeds is unaffected by the other factors such as the change in bacterial 
conditions and the formation of new soluble organic matter which would 
mask any toxic action in the case of plant-growth. 

Another point of great importance is the different susceptibility of 
different plants to the action of the toxin. It would be impossible, of 
course, to draw any conclusions from the experiments made by the author 
showing that grasses generally are much less susceptible than other plants ; 
but the results with grasses are sufficient to show that great differences in 
susceptibility exist. 

This, the author thinks, may lead to some light being thrown on the 
obscure question of the action of grass on the vegetation of trees, and it 
also is suggestive of a fresh cause which may be assigned to the flourishing 
of certain species of plants in some soils and localities to the exclusion of 
others, in cases where differences of climate and food-supply seem insufficient 
to afford an explanation ; for the formation of this toxin has been traced 
down to such a low temperature of heating, that it is impossible to avoid 
the conclusion that some of it must be present in so-called unheated soils. 

E. A. MiTSCHERLicH. Ncw Method of Physical Analysis of the Soil. (Die 
physikalische Boden-analyse). — Versammlung deutscher Naturforscher 
und Aerzte, Abt. 5, Agriculturchemie und landwirtschaftliches Ver sucks- Germany 
tvesen. Zeitschrift filr angewandte Chemie. XXIII Jahrgang., No. 39, 
pp. 1840-41. Leipzig, 30 Sept. 1910. 

The author criticises adversely the methods so far employed for the 
"mechanical analysis" of the soil by means of sieves and sedimentation; 



24 SOIL: SPECIAL SOILS 



he show hows the smallest differences in form, in specific gravity and in 
colloidal structure may produce striking differences in the determination of 
particles, even when they are of equal dimensions. Consequently these 
methods cannot afford any certain data as to the fertility of the soil and 
the faciUty with which the soil can be tilled. 

Better results are obtained by a new method which is based on the 
researches of Rodewald, of Kiel, whereby it has been possible to establish 
a relation between the surface of the soil particles and its hygroscopicity, 
and also to differentiate the internal and external surfaces. Both the internal 
and the external surfaces let themselves be wetted by water ; but the internal 
surface, as opposed to the external, may be wetted with water, but not 
with organic fluids of high molecular weight. 

Now by determining the hygroscopicity of the soil, and by determining 
the loss of weight by drying, it is possible to measure its total surface both 
external and internal; and also its fertility, since the degree of solubility 
of the plant food contained in the soil depends from the extent of this 
surface. 

Further, by determining the increase in weight of the dessiccated soil 
when exposed to benzol vapour (the soil may be exposed over a 20 per 
cent solution of benzol in oil), a measure is obtained of the exterior surface 
of the soil particles in percentage of the dry soil: and the external soil 
surface must be considered a factor in the soil's capacity for being tilled 
while the total surface is a factor in its fertility. 

The author endeavours to establish the last statement by reference to 
the figures he obtained recently by pot-cultures of mustard plants growing 
in sand mixed with increasing proportions of peat. He shows how the 
mustard yield rises with the increasing surface, that is, with the hygrosco- 
picity of the soil, in accordance with his quantitatively formulated law. 

A table is annexed to compare the actual yields with the yields cal- 
culated according to a proposed general formula. 

C. T. GiMiNGHAM. The Scouring Lands of Somerset in ^n^dind.— Journal 

of the Board of Agriculture. Vol. XVII, No. 7, Oct. 1910, P. 529. London. 

In certain central districts of the county of Somerset (England) pastures 

occur which produce herbage which causes severe scouring in cattle. Such 

Great scouring pastures are known locally as " teart " or "tart" land. 

Britain xhe first mention of "teart" land is to b^ found in an essay by Mr. 

Aubrey Clarke, {Journal, Bath and West Soc, Vol. Ill, P. 52, 1855). The 

investigation was continued in 1862. 

The subject was then left untouched till 1896, when a series of field 
experiments was planned and carried out, and analyses of herbage, soils, etc., 
were made. {See Journal of the Bath and IVest Society, from 1896 to 1903). 



SOIL: SPECIAL SOILS 25 



Characteristics of ■" Teart" Land. — The scouring properties of these pas- 
tures vary greatly in different places, and in certain seasons the same field 
will scour cattle much less than in others ; in very dry summers scouring 
from this cause is hardly heard of. Moreover the scouring pastures in most 
districts are intermixed with perfectly sound fields. 

If we refer to the geological map, we shall find that these lands coin- 
cide approximately with the Lower Lias formation. 

Effect on Cattle. — The effect on cattle turned into a " teart " pasture 
is often manifest within twenty-four hours, and is always most noticeable 
in spring and autumn. In a short time the animals lose flesh, become " pile- 
haired " and go out of condition altogether; if left for any long period in 
a bad "teart" field, they may ''scour themselves to tieath." Cows in 
milk are the worst suft'erers, soon becoming very ill, and ceasing to yield 
the normal amount of milk. Lambs up to about a year old are also liable 
to scour. Fortunately, sheep and horses do not appear to suffer. 

Water Supply. — Scouring on " teart " land has frequently been put down 
to the water supply, indeed, springs charged with mineral salts possessing 
aperient properties do occur in some " teart " fields. On the other hand, 
many fields, though supplied with perfectly good water coming from a dif- 
ferent geological formation, are none the less very " teart." 

Influence of Manures. — The application of manures increases the trouble. 
Probably this is simply because it increases the rapidity and amount of 
growth in the grass: it is always in seasons of rapid vegetation that scouring 
is most serious. 

Influence of Frost. — It is remarkable that after the first two or three 
sharp frosts all " teartness " disappears and cattle may then be safely put 
into the fields. 

Hay from ''Teart'' Laml. — From the woist "teart" land, hay will 
nearly always scour cattle, though never so badly as fresh grass ; but on 
most farms the hay is considered practically harrnless, especially if allowed 
to get somewhat old before feeding. 

The botanical examination and chemical analysis of the herbage of 
these scouring lands fail to give any explanation. It is almost certain that 
the pfiysical condition of the "teart" soils is at the bottom of the trouble; 
the worst fields are those in which the texture of the surface soil is most 
" clayey ", and where stiff clay subsoil comes nearest to the surface. 

It has been noticed that when " teart " land is ploughed up, and laid 
down again after a time, the new pasture is not " teart "at first, becoming 
so gradually. 

It is very probable that drainage as near tJie surface as is praticable 
would, in many cases, improve the surface texture and decrease the tendency 
to produce scouring herbage. 

In one case a drainage at a depth of about 2ft. effected considerable 



26 



SOIL: AMMONIA. - BACTERIOLOGY 



improvement. Even deep drainage (from 4ft. to 4ft. , 6 in) has been known 
to do some good. A continuation of careful experiments on the effects of 



surface drainage is advisable. 



Great 
Britain 



Edward John Russell. Ammonia in Soils. — Journal of Agricultural Science. 
September 1910, pp. 233-245. 

When soils are subjected to distillation at low pressures in the presence 
of small quantities of potash dissolved in alcohol, a definite amount of 
ammonia is evolved, the reaction soon coming to an end. It is considered 
that this amount represents the ammonium salts in the soil. 

When larger quantities of potash are used, or when baryta or magnesia 
in aqueous suspension is substituted, the decomposition is not definite but 
continues indefinitely. During the progress of the first distillation, however, 
magnesia gives off the same quantities of ammonia as are produced by small 
quantities of alcoholic potash. 

Two methods, based on these observations, are given for estimating the 
amount of ammonia in soils. If the amount ot organic matter is not too 
high, distillation with magnesia at reduced pressure gives accurate results ; 
otherwise it is necessary to use alcoholic potash. 

The amount of ammonia in samples of soil taken at different periods 
of the year is found to be constant, but very small, being only about one 
or two parts per million of soil. The higher the amount of organic matter, 
tbe greater the ammonia content, rising to five or six parts per million on 
heavily dunged arable or garden soils. 

As there is no tendency for ammonia to accumulate, it follows that 
the rate of nitrification must be greater than that of ammonia production, 
which, in normal conditions, is limited by this rate. Reviewing in the light 
of this observation the various methods of studying the rate of nitrification 
in soils, it is seen that they really deal with three separate conditions — the 
rate of ammonia production in soils, the rate of nitrification in soils and in 
pure culture solutions. In these circumstances it is not surprising that con- 
cordant results have not been obtained. 

When ammonium salts react with a soil, a certain proportion enters into 
a stable combination which is not decomposed on distillation with alcoholic 
potash or with magnesia and is therefore not an ammonium compound. 
Its constitution has, however, not yet been determined. 






J. G. LiPMAN and J. L. Owen. Some Bacteriological Relations in Soils 

in Green-house Conditions. — Journal of Agricultural Scie?ice, Sept. 1910, 

United vol. Ill, Pt. 3, pp. 301-310. 

States: 
New Jersey Soils in the green-house are exposed to conditions that are admittedly 

more or less artificial. The consequence is an abnormal multiplication of 



SOIL: BACTERIOLOGY 27 



soil bacteria, which leads to an abnormally rapid oxidation of the organic 
matter. In the course of time the more readily decomposable portions of the 
organic matter in the soil become depleted, and this is followed, in turn, by 
a decline in the number of bacteria that will grow on agar plates. This 
decrease may be due to an accumulation of toxic substances which prevent 
the development of bacteria. It may, however, be added that the greatly 
decreased number of bacteria appearing on agar plates should not be 
accepted as absolute proof that the total number of micro-organisms in the 
soil had diminished. Possibly a compensating increase of bacteria that 
do not grow on agar plates, had occurred as for instance, the nitrous and 
nitric ferments, etc. 

The experiments under consideration were carried out either in earthen- 
ware or glass pots, each containing 20 lbs of soil. The soils received different 
chemical or bacterial treatment, since it was the purpose of the experiments 
to determine whether such treatment would affect the numbers of bacteria 
producing colonies on agar plates. 

The first series of experiments were to observe the effect of varying 
quantities ot phosphoric acid, of citric acid, and of carbonate of lime. 

The second series regards the influence of small additions of fertile soil 
on the bacterial contents of quartz sand well supplied with plant-food. 

The third series was for the purpose of determining the numbers of 
bacteria in green-house soils as affected by additions of organic matter and 
of cultures of Bacillus Mycoides. 

The fourth and last series of experiments was made to observe the 
influence of gypsum on the numbers of soil bacteria capable of forming 
colonies on agar plates. 

The results of these experiments prove that in greenhouse soils there 
may be at first a very rapid increase of decay bacteria to numbers above 
the normal, and then a gradual dechne to numbers decidedly below the 
normal. It seems also that the nitrifying organisms become more prominent 
as the others gradually decrease in numbers. There are, moreover, indi- 
cations of periodicity in the increase and decrease of the decay bacteria 
in the soil. 

As to the cause of the decrease in numbers, it may lie, as already sug- 
gested, in the gradual mineralisation of the organic matter and the partial 
exhaustion of the more readily available organic food. It is less probable 
that the decrease may be due entirely to the accumulation of injurious sub- 
stances produced by the biochemical action of these micro-organisms, although 
this accumulation may be a contributing cause. It is conceivable how the 
readily decomposable organic food may become fixed in the bodies of the 
micro-organisms, and how, on the death and decomposition of the latter, the 
organic matter may again become available for the growth of other bacteria. 
This assumption would account for the periodicity in the increase and 



28 



AGRICULTURAL HYDRAULICS 



decrease of decay bacteria in the soil. Moreover, the partial mineralisation 
of the organic matter and the accumulation of nitrates would favour the 
growth of algae which, in turn, would provide an additional amount of 
new organic nutrients encouraging, thereby, the multiplication of the decay 
bacteria. The algae would thus become one of the factors responsible for 
periodicity in the increase and decrease, not only of decay bacteria, but 
also of nitrifying and of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 

The conclusion arrived at is that it is the quantity as well as the quality 
of the available food that is of controlling moment in the growth of soil 
bacteria and that there is still much to learn concerning the conditions under 
which the utilisation of available plant-food by bacteria may hinder the growth 
of crops. The competition for food between higher and lower organisms 
may not always be favourable to the former, and it is therefore desirable 
that further knowledge lead to proper methods of soil treatment so as to 
turn the balance in favour of those micro-organisms which are useful to the 
growth of cultivated plants. 



Great 
Britain 



Portsmouth Water '^ or\i.s.— N'ature, No. 2137, October 13, 1910, p. 471. 

An illustrated article on the Portsmouth water works appears in En- 
gineering for Oct. 7. 

The borough of Portsmouth has recently ordered a new system of 
filter-beds and covered service reservoirs. The new works are situated at 
Farlington on the side of Portsd©wn Hill, distant five miles from Portsmouth. 

The water supply comes from chalk springs at Havant and Bedhampton, 
where pumping stations are situated. The water is delivered through three 
rising mains to the filter-beds, from which, after passing through the service 
reservoirs, it gravitates to the town. 

Previous to the construction of the new works, the water was delivered 
from the pumping-stations to two open service reservoirs on Portsdown Hill ; 
these are now covered, and form part of the reconstructed scheme. 

It was the practice under the old conditions to deliver, the water in 
an unfiltered state from the open service reservoirs to the town. The raw 
water is normally excellent, owing doubtless to the under-ground chalk 
through which it passes, but discoloration occasionally occurs during wet 
weather following a period of drought. Ferro-concrete on the Hennebique 
system has been employed largely on the new constructional work. 



Drainage Works in Turkey. 

No. 721, 1910. 



The Board of Trade Journal, London, 



Turkey '^^^ Conseil Administratif des Vilayets in conjunction with the Municipal 

Council of Salonica has prepared a number of projects for the improvement 



AGRICULTURAL HYDRAULICS 29 



of the town. Among these is one for the drainage of a large marsh in the 
Wardar district. 

Grant for Irrigation Works in India. — The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly 
Review ami Oriental and Colonial Record. London, Oct. 1910, vol. XXX, 

P- 433- 

The Secretary of State for India has sanctioned the increase of the grant 
for next year to 100 lacs of rupees, or £672 000, for the protection of the 
irrigation works in India. Meanwhile, if the monsoons do not fail, an attempt Britisii 
will be made to provide a supplementary grant for the Tindula irrigation India 
project. 

The expenditure from loan funds on new productive irrigation works 
in India during the past official year has amounted to about 156 lacs of 
rupees, or £1 048 632. no lacs, or £739 420, were spent in the Punjab alone, 
chiefly on the Triple Canal project. Of the rest, 17 lacs, or £114 274 were 
spent in the North- West Frontier Province, mainly on the Upper Swat Canal, 
also engineered by Punjab officers. Burma spent 12 lacs, or £80 664, and 
Madras, Bombay, and the United Provinces smaller sums. 

Irrigation in Haiti. — Bulletin of the American Republics. Washington, 
Sept. 1910, pp. 536, 537. 

In the lowlands of Haiti a large reservoir is in construction, which, _when 
completed, will furnish abundance of water to irrigate a considerable tract of 
land, which is said to have been once highly cultivated under the old French Haiti 
regime, and to have yielded sugar-cane and other products plentifully. 

The yield has gradually declined owing to inadequate arrangements for 
the water supply during the dry season. 

Irrigation in Egypt. (Die Bewasserung Aegyptens). — Deutsche Rundschau 
filr Geographic und Statistik. Vienna, 10 September, 1910. 

Mr. Jenidounia, Civil Engineer, has been authorised to submit to the 
Egyptian Government a scheme of irrigation for the zone comprised between 
Deirrut and Esne. According to his technical and financial project, this 
work will cost 6000000 Egyptian pounds (i) (156000000 frcs.), but the Egypt 
Government will subsequently derive therefrom a profit of 60 000 000 Egyp- 
tian pounds (i 560 000 000 fcs.). The Government will receive each year 
500000 Egyptian pounds (13000000 frcs.) in taxes, and the land owners 
will increase the value of their estates by 6 400 000 Egyptian pounds 
(166 400 000 frcs.). 



(i) The Egyptian pound rz: 26 frcs. 



30 AGRICULTURAL HYDRAULICS. - AGRIC. EXPERIMENTATION 

A German Irrigation Company in Egypt. (Deutsche Bewasserungsgesell- 
schaft in Aegypten). — Export. Berlin, Oct. 6th 1910. 

The Upper Egypt Irrigation Company is the first German Irrigation 
Company formed in Egypt. This Company owns 400 wells of great ca- 
pacity which can supply the water needed for irrigating 42 800 feddan 
(i feddan=:4200 sq. m.). The Company has a subscribed capital of 
Egypt 500 000 Egyptian pounds, and in accordance with an old Egyptian law it 
is entitled to one third of the crops obtained on the lands it irrigates. 
Phosphate deposits are found in the neighbourhood. Thus all the condi- 
tions requisite for obtaining three crops a year are combined. The district 
which comes under the sphere of influence of the Company is specially 
suited to the cultivation of cotton and of sugar cane. The Company will 
pay a dividend this year. 

A. D. Hall and E. J. Russell. The Error of Experiment in Agricultural 

Field Trials. (A paper read before the British Association. Sheffield, 
Sept. 1910). — Chemical News, Oct. 7th 19 10. London. 

The causes of error may be shown to fall under several heads : 

a) Lack of Uniformity in the Soil. 

Even on an apparently uniform field, analysis demonstrates certain dif- 
ferences. A simple but excellent test is to ascertain the percentage of 
moisture in samples of soil collected at the same depth — 6 or 9 inches — 

Great and as nearly as can be at the same time. The diff"erences commonly 
Britain ■ ■ 

amount to 5 (or in dry fields to 10) per cent of the moisture present. An- 
other factor greatly influenced by variations in the soil is the amount of 
nitrates. 

This affords an even more sensitive index of variation, since it depends 
on all the conditions favouring plant growth — moisture, temperature, air 
supply, and food-stuffs, these being necessary for the production of nitrates 
— and also on the amount of water percolating through the soil, nitrates not 
being retained like ammonium salts. Here, also, differences are found of 
the order of 5 or 10 per cent of the amount present on fields that appear 
to be uniform. These differences may be accentuated where there is a dip 
in the field. 

These variations arise partly from natural and partly from artificial 
causes. 

So many agents come into play in soil formation that uniformity can 
hardly be expected. Further, the purely artificial operations, such as till- 
ing, cropping, manuring, and folding have a profound effect on the soil, 
persisting for some years. Frequently the treatment has not been uniform 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTATION 31 

over the whole field. For instance, drainage, whether artificial or natural, is 
rarely uniform; during a very wet winter it is not uncommon to see places 
in the field where wheat has been affected by differences arising either from 
lines of good drainage or patches of bad drainage. In other seasons the 
differences still exist, though not to so marked an extent. 

b) Lack of Uniformity in the Conditions of Grotvth. 

The conditions of the outside row of a plot differ from those obtain- 
ing inside the plot, and those on the outside of the field are much modified 
by the competition of hedges and trees. These difficulties can however be 
obviated. The unequal incidence of disease is sometimes very troubiesome. 

c) Effect of Season. 

In manurial trials it is possible after a number of years to allow for 
the effect of season in a general way, especially as knowledge of the pro- 
perties of fertilisers increases. But in variety trials the problem is much 
more difficult, and cannot yet be said to be solved. 

Total Magnitude of the Error of Experiment. 

An examination of the Rothamsted records shows that the error is 10 
per cent on plots where the past treatment has for many years been uni- 
form, where all weighing, measuring, and other operations are performed 
with the utmost care, and where the general conditions are favourable for 
experimental work. 

Having regard to these considerations and the difficulties often en- 
countered in field trials, the authors would not be prepared, as a general 
rule, to lay stress on differences of less than 15 per cent. 

J. G. LiPMAN. A method for the Study of Soil-Fertility Problems. — 

Journal of Agric. Science. London, September 19 10, Vol. Ill, Part. 3, 
p. 297-300. 

Referring to the good results that have been obtained, especially in 
North America, where dairy farming is carried on extensively, by the growing 
of mixtures of legumes and non-legumes in pasture lands, the Author has 
experimented a new method that promises to be of service in the study of United 
soil fertility problems. States 

" When considered from the nitrogen standpoint the combinations of 
legumes and non-legumes reveal possibilities of great economic importance. 
Should it be demonstrated that non-legumes could be provided with an 
abundant supply of nitrogen even in poor soils, by being grown together 
with legumes under proper conditions, it would become practicable not only 
to dispense with all or a portion of the nitrogenous manures employed for 



32 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTATION 



certain crops, but also to secure non-legumes with an increased proportion 
of protein in the dry matter. Accordingly a method was devised for the 
study of the reciprocal effects of legumes "and non-legumes. 

The method itself is very simple (the text gives the figure) the leguminous 
and non-leguminous plants {e. g. oats and peas) are grown side by side in 
two pots, the one pot being inside the other. 

The outer vessel is an ordinary five-gallon glazed earthenware pot. 
The inner and smaller pots are made out of a very porous flint mixture ; 
and differ only in that the inner pot in one case is glazed, while in the 
other case the inner pot is unglazed. 

In arranging the experiment for the study of the relations of legumes 
and non-legumes, the small and large pots were filled with white quartz 
sand, the smaller pots being placed inside the larger. 

Thus two portions of soil, identical in composition and supplied with 
the same fertilizer materials, were secured. The two portions of soil 
were separated from one another by a porous wall in the one instance, 
and by a non porous wall in the other. The legumes were planted in 
the small inner pot. Previous to planting the sand used as soil was 
supplied with all the essential mineral constituents and with a small amount 
of soil infusion in order to supply the bacteria for the inoculation of the 
legumes. 

It was reasoned that if the legumes allow soluble nitrogen compounds 
to pass out of the tubercles and the roots, these soluble compounds will 
diffuse through the porous wall of the unglazed pot and supply nitrogen to 
the non-leguminous vegetation in the inner pot. On the other hand such 
diffusion cannot take place through the walls of the glazed pot and the 
non-legumes growing in it will starve for lack of nitrogen if none is sup- 
plied in the fertilizer material. 

Accordingly, field peas and oats were planted in the outer and inner 
pots respectively. 

No nitrogen being applied, the plants had no other source of supply 
except the atmosphere, or the slight amounts of nitrogen present in the 
seed or in the water used. 

The outer pot contained about 80 lbs. of sand, the inner pot about 
20 lbs. The moisture conditions were kept uniform. 

The oats in the unglazed pot were sturdier and were making better 
growth. Evidently they were securing nitrogen from some source that was 
not available to the oats in the corresponding glazed pot. Every indica- 
tion was thus supplied that soluble nitrogen compounds were diffusing 
through the unglazed porous wall and were being utilized by the oats. 

We have here a striking proof of the ability of oats to secure an ade- 
quate supply of nitrogen when growing together with field peas in a soil 



SPECIAL FERTILISERS: SEWAGE 



.53 



devoid of nitrogen. We have proof, further, that the nitrogen compounds 
suppHed to the oats were soluble and diffusible through porous earthen- 
ware. Subsequent weighing and anal3fsis of the oats grown in glazed and 
unglazed pots, respectively, showed not only a much larger yield of dry 
matter and of nitrogen in the latter, but also of dry matter containing nearly 
double the proportion of nitrogen as compared with that grown in the 
glazed pots. 

This method may be employed for the study of the influence of va- 
rious crops on the bacterial flora of soils; for the study of the effects of 
various fertilizers on certain groups of soil bacteria; for the study of the 
influence of different crops on one another when grown continuously and 
in rotation ; and for the study of the so-called toxic effect of plant-root 
excretions. 

In Older to secure satisfactory results with this method it is necessary 
to have special porous mixtures for the preparation of the inner pots. 

Mr. Lipman secured satisfactory porous pots by mixing the clay with 
25 per cent of hard coal and 25 per cent of soft coal. The pots made 
out of this mixture are fired in the usual way. 

As checks to take the place of the glazed pots described above, the 
same pots coated with asphaltum paint were used, being impervious to diffu- 
sible salts. 

Sewage deposits in Septic Tanks. — Rev. Chim. Indust. Paris, Sept. 1910. 
Supplement. 

According to Mr. Grassman, the purification of 13 635 000 litres of Great 
sewage water at Oldham, England, left 20 tons of deposit in the septic Britain 
tanks, from which a ton of saleable fat was extracted, the remainder being 
utilised as odourless manure. 



Alex. Bayer. The Industrial Utilisation of Sewage-sludge. — Revue de 
Chhnie Industrielle. Paris, Sept. 1910, No. 249, p. 279. 

Professor Honig, of the German Technical School, has been studying 
for the Municipality of Briinn the utilisation of sewage deposits. About 
23 000 cubic metres of sewage pass through the Briinn sewers in 24 hours, 
and each cubic metre contains 16 664 gr. of solid matter, of which 41.95 °/o 
are ashes, 4.02% fatty substances and 2.86 °/q nitrogen. As the sludge of 
sewage cannot be conveniently used for manure, it has been utilised for 
making illuminating gas. For this purpose it is necessary to dry the sludge 
thoroughly and speedily. Mr. Abt, superintendent of the Municipal Board 
of Works in Briinn, has had an apparatus made for this purpose, the illu- 
strated description of which is given in the Revue. 



Austria 



34 NITROGENOUS FERTILISERS 

t . ^ 

After discussing the results of the experiments made. Professor Honig 
concludes : 

1. By mechanical and continuous treatment a moist sludge is obtained, 
loo kgs. of which may be effectively dried by the combustion of 2 legs, of 
cheap coal ; 

2. By distillation, 25 cubic metres of good lighting gas and at least 
75 kgs. of ammonia will be obtained per ton of dry sludge ; 

3. The sewage, deprived of its sludge, can be easily purified: by a bio- 
logical process or by being used for irrigation ; in both cases the clear sewage 
water will require relatively small areas to get purified. 

According to Prof. Honig, a population of 15 millions, could save 
70 000 frs. per day by this process, while preventing the pollution of rivers 
and streams. 

The World's Consumption of Nitrate of Soda during 1909. — Nature, 
No. 2138, Vol. 84, Oct. 20th, 1910, p. 502. London. 

The World's consumption of nitrate of soda during 1909 amounted to 
Chili 43 99^ 99^ Chilian quintals of 46 kgs. each, equal to 20 238 604" metric 
quintals, with an increase of 8 000 000 Chilian quintals, or 3 680 000 me- 
tric quintals, on the consumption of 1908. 

Production of Nitrate of Soda in Chile. — The Journal of the Board of 
Agric. Sept. 1910, No. 6, p. 504. 

The Chilian Nitrate Combination was dissolved in 1909. after havinS 
for long ruled the production of nitrate of soda. In his report {F. O, 
Reports, Annual Series, No. 4510) on the trade of the district of Iquique, 
Chili Mr. Hudson, British Consul, states that during the first year of free pro- 
duction, from April ist 1909, to March 31st, 19 10, the output increased by 
7732325 quintals (no lbs., that is 3853017 metric quintals) on the pre- 
vious year's production, while the world's consumption for 1909 (January 
ist to December 31st) increased by 4559769 quintals of no lbs. (that is 
2 272 032 metric quintals). 

The average price of 95°/o nitrate was 8s. 7'/jd. per Chilian quintal 
in 1907 (21.60 frs. per metric quintal), 7 s. 6 72d. (18.92 francs per metric 
quintal) in 1908; and, in 1909, 6 s. lo'/zd- per Chilian quintal, namely 17.18 frs. 
per metric quintal of 100 kgs. 

It seems doubtful whether the Combination will be renewed; neverthe- 
less those who were most opposed to it seem inclined to discuss some 
new arrangement on similar lines. 



NITROGENOUS FERTILISERS 



35 



A. Bastide. Dangers attending the use of Crude Ammonia Liquor from 
Gas-works in Vineyards. — Journal d' Agriculture pratique, Paris, No. 42, 
Oct. 20 1910, pp. 435.436- 

The author calls attention to damage due to Crild d'anwtaniague (am- 
monia liquor from gas works) in vineyards. The vineyard in which the criid 
was spread, had to be uprooted. Oats sown on the same spot were blighted. 
On digging up the soil it was discovered that the criid was still intact after 
4 years. Roots of "3309" American vine stocks were planted, but none 
of them took ; plantations were again made with all possible care, but they 
always met with failure. The only vines that finally prospered were isolated 
plants, growing in well decomposed mould. It is thus seen that the cyanides 
of the crude ammoniacal liquor from gas-works may work great harm as 
they retain injurious qualities for a long while. 



France 



Fr. Reis. Physiological Action of Calcium Cyanamide and Derivatives. — 

Biochem. Zeitschr., 19 10, 25, 477-493 ; Journal oj the Chemical Society, 
London, September, 19 10, No. DLXXV, p. 801 (see ^■io Journal Chem. 
Soc. Abstr., 1910, I, 465). 

Cyanamide, the active and important constituent of nitro-lime, or Kalk- 
stickstoff, is a powerful poison. It may act toxically not only on animals, 
but also on bacteria, on the organisms -contained in vegetable mould, on 
germinating seeds and also on growing plants. Certain organisms, however, 
are able to live in a o.i per cent solution of Cyanamide. Sterile earth 
decomposes a solution of Cyanamide. Dicyanodiamide, dicyanodiamidine 
and diguanide in a o.i per cent solution may also be assimilated by 
certain organisms, but no formation of ammonia has been observed in these 
circumstances. 

Cyanamide undoubtedly has excellent qualities as an artificial manure, 
and experiments have been made on plants in pure quartz sand in order to 
determine under what conditions it loses its toxic properties and becomes 
a source of nitrogen for the higher plants. 

Similar experiments have been made with dicyanodiamide, sulphate of 
dicyanodiamide and diguanide. When the soil was watered with the solution 
of these substances before sowing, and there was no other source of nitrogen 
available the toxic action was very marked. But when the plants were already 
sufficiently well developed before the use of these compounds, the sulphate 
of dicyanodiamide could be employed within certain limits without danger ; 
whereas the sulphates of dicyanodiamidine and diguanide do not serve 
as plant-food. 

When calcium cyanamide is used as a fertiliser it undergoes some alte- 



Germaiy 



36 SPECIAL FERTILISERS: ARTIFICIAL FIXATION OF NITROGEN 

rations in the soil. These alterations are not well understood, but the for- 
mation of urea probably takes place, for it has been shown that calcium 
cyanamide may give rise to this compound in the presence of ferric oxide. 

Atmospheric Nitrification by Electricity. F. Louis and C. Limb's process. | 
Annales de la SocUte d' Agriculture, Sciences et Industrie de Lyon. Lyons, 
January-June 1910, fasc. i and 12, pp. 2225. 

A description is given of a process which makes it possible to obtain 

France from 40 to 50 grammes of anhydrous nitrous gas per Kilowatt-hour. The 

product is nitrogen bioxide. By varying the conditions of the experiment 

it is possible to cause the production of a more or less large quantity of 

nitric acid at the expense of the nitrous acid. 

The paper is illustrated with figures explaining the new process. 



Dagobert Timar. Process for producing Nitrogen Oxides. — La Revue de 
Chimie industrielle, September 1910, 21st year. No. 249. Paris. 

A process for the manufacture of oxides of nitrogen by electrical heating 
of a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. 
France ^^^ mixture of gases is made to pass through a special apparatus [corps 

creux), thence issuing in one or more expanding jets. 
The process presents the following characteristics: 

i) The corps creux is inserted in an electrical circuit and brought to 
a very high temperature. 

2) The corps creux, which is heated by the electrical current, is in the 
form of a tube. 

3) By modifying its internal diameter or the thickness of its walls, 
the corps creux is especially heated at the points where the gases are made 
to issue. 



Daffy Wolk. Aluminium Nitride. — C. R. Acad. d. Sc. Paris, July 25th, 
1910; The Chemical Nercs, No 2653, Sept. 30, 1910, p. 174. 

Aluminium absorbs nitrogen at 820-850° C. Below 700° the absorption 
is imperceptible. Dissociation takes place at 1100°, no definite product being 
France obtained. The Aluminium Nitride which the Author prepared contains 
33-6 °/o of nitrogen (34.06 for Al^ N,). It forms a gray amorphous mass, 
which is decomposed by water the more readily the lower the temperature 
at which it was formed. Ammonia has no specific action on aluminium. 



NITROGENOUS FERTILISERS: PHOSPHATES 



37 



Synthetic Ammonia. — Rev. Chhnie industrielle. Paris, Oct. 1910, t. XXI, 
No. 250. 

Mr. Johnson passes a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen over a catalyser 
at a high temperature and under pressure. The ammonia which is formed 
issues at a low temperature and the apparatus is regulated so that Iresh 
mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen are introduced in proportion to the 
quantity of ammonia collected. The work is done at a temperature of 500° C, 
under a pressure of 200 atmospheres; uranium is used as the catalyser. 
(Recent British Patents). 



Great 
Britain 



G. FiNGERLiNG. The Palmaer Phosphate. A New Fertiliser. (Palmaerphos- 
phat, das neueste kiinstliche Diingemittel). — Mitt, iiber Weinbau und 
Kellerwirtschaft. Geisenheim, Oct. 1910, n. ro, pp. 153-155. 

In Germany, especially in Central Germany, deposits of phosphates exist 
in the Lahn and the Dill basins, near Wetzlar, Weilburg and Dillenburg. 

Phosphates are found also in the North of Germany, in the Harz and 
in other regions situated towards the South. 

Many of these mineral phosphates are not of a nature to be directly 
employed as fertilizers ; still less can they be converted into superphosphate, 
on account of their low contents in phosphoric acid. 

The electrolytic process invented by Palmaer allows even poor pho.s- 
phates to be used economically. The process is based on the regeneration 
of the acid employed to dissolve the raw materials, thus greatly reducing 
the cost of manufacture. 

Palmaer's phosphate contains from 36 to 38 per cent of phosphoric 
acid, of which about 95 per cent is soluble in a citric solution. 

Experiments by Soderbaum with oats have shown that Palmaer's phos- 
phate acts like superphosphate and is more efficacious than phosphatic 
basic slag. 



Germany 



Glasenapp. Natural Deposits of Phosphates in Russia. Systematic Explo- 
ration of the Russian Phosphate Deposits. L Engrais, Lille, Oct. 1910. 
No 15, p. 1194-1195. 

In the provinces of Kastroma, Jaroslaw, Twer, Ismard and Kasan there 
are important deposits of phosphates, rich in phosphoric acid. 

The explorer Archangelski has found natural phosphate deposits con- 
taining 26 7o of phosphoric acid along the banks of the Isyasrani and 
the Kulna. Along the middle course of the Volga he has found deposits 
containing 22 °/o of phosphoric acid. 



Russia 



38 PHOSPHATES. - GUANO. - ELECTRO-CULTURE 



N. I. Andrussow, of Kiew University, has discovered important phos- 
phate deposits in the peninsula of Mangischlah, at the North-East of the 
Caspian Sea. 

New Phosphate Deposits in Tunis. — J he Board of Trade Journal. London, 
No. 723, 1910. 

Phosphate deposits have been discovered in the neighbourhood of Dje- 
Thiiis bel-Gorrah (District of Teboursouk). Engineers have been sent to estimate 
their importance. 

Madagascar Guano. — Revue de Madagascar, Paris, October 15, 1910. 

A recent decree authorises a planter of Nossy-Be to utiHse the guano 
Madagascar deposits of the islands of Nossy-Sutrana, Nossy-Borona, Nossy-Manitsa, Nossy- 
Andramona, Nossy-Notolo, Ratafany, etc. This concession is granted for 
10 years. 

G. F. Scott Elliot. Electricity in Horticulture in Scotland. — The Gar- 
deners' Chronicle, No 1244, vol. XLVIII. Oct. 29, igio, p. 314. 

Some interesting results were obtained last summer from a small 
installation belonging to Miss E. C. Dudgeon, at Lincheden House, near 
Dumfries, in Scotland. 

The apparatus consisted of a i 7+ HP gas engine, a 60 volt d\'namo, 
a transformer and five of Sir Oliver Lodge's patent valves. The conductor 
Seotland ^^''^ ^^^ supported by ordinary telegraph poles at about five metres above 
ground. In fine weather the apparatus worked for about two hours to- 
wards sunset. 

When the sky was overcast the discharges were kept on for four or five 
hours. In showery weather the discharges continued as long as the wires 
were sufficiently dry. The experiments lasted from the beginning of June 
until July 14, with interruptions (of a total of two weeks) for repairs. 

The plants on which the experiments were made were oats, potatoes, 
beets, peas, strawberries and onions. 

The oats received electric discharges for 177 hours. The seed was 
sown on March 28th, and the crop harvested on August nth. The length 
of straw varied from 1.75 m. to 1.87 m. 

In a neighbouring field, richly manured, oats, which had been sown the 
same day, only ripened 8 or 10 days later, and the straw was only from 
1.35 m. to 1.45 m. long. 

The grain was too much damaged by the sparrows for the quantity to 
be exactly determined. 



SEEDS: VITALITY GERMINATIOX 



The potatoes received electric discharges for altogether 224 hours. Ex- 
cluding the small and diseased tubers, 263 lbs of potatoes were gathered 
in the plot under, the electric discharge and 201 lbs in the plot which had 
not been so treated. 

Beets, electrified, 98 lbs ; non-electrified 84 lbs. 

The electrified peas, strawberries and onions were all superior in quality 
and quantity to those which had not been electrified. 

The experiments are to be repeated next year over six acres, or two 
and a half hectares. 



Vitality of Farm Seeds. — Journ. Bd. of Agriculture, Vol. XVII, No 7, 
October, 19 10, p. 563. London. 

Miss Jean White recently read a paper before the Royal Society on 
the " Ferments and Latent Life of Resting Seeds " {Proceedings of the R. So- 
ciety, B. Vol. 81) in which she gave th^ result of experiments on the lon- 
gevity of cereal seeds from different Australian States. 

Of wheat, seeds kept from 6 '/z months to 4 '/^ years, germinated from 90 
to 100 7o. Beyond 6 '4 years the Wheat of South Australia began to show 
a noticeably higher percentage of vital seeds than the Wheats from the 
other States. 

At 6 Vz years, 74 "/o of the South Australian Wheat germinated, 42 7o 
of that of Victoria and 39 °/o of ^^^^ of New South Wales ; 

^^^ 7 Vz years, 68 % of the South Australian Whe-'.t germinated. 16° j, of 
the Victorian ; 

At 8 7a years, South Australian 32 "p, Victorian 3°/o; 

At 9 72 years, South Australian 32 7o« Victorian o7oJ 

At 10 '/j years. South Australian 28 7o' Victorian o7o; 

At II 72 years. South Australian 12 7o» Victorian o°j^\ 

At 12 7, years. South Australian 4 "Z^, Victorian o 7o- 

Miss Jean White considers that the vitality of seeds depends chiefly 
on the dryness of the climate. 

Tables are given indicating the results of observations on Oats, Maize 
and Rye. The vitality of each of these cereals is inferior to that of Wheat. 



Australia 



H. MrcHEELS. The Action of Continuous Galvanic Currents oa Germina- 
tion. Academic Royale de Belgique. — Bulletin de la Classe des Science, 
Brussels, 1910, No. i, pp. 51-104. 

The Author makes a study of germinating wheat to which aqueous Belalum 
solutions of electrolytes have been administered. Numerous experiments 
have been made with solutions containing one or several electrolytes. 



40 SEEDS: GERMINATION 



It has been observed that both in simple and complex solutions even 
a feeble galvanic current is injurious to young plants. 

The Author has also made investigations on the modifications caused 
by the passage of the current. 

H. MiCHEELS. Action of Anodic and of Cathodic Liquids on Germination. 

Academie Royale de Belgique. — Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Brussels, 
1910, No. 5, pp. 391-403. 

The experiments show that galvanic currents, passing through the aqueous 
solution of an electrolyte, act on seeds put to germinate in it not by the 
Belgium electric charges of the ions and electrons, but by the modifications deter- 
mined in the solution. 

The Author calls the liquid into which the anode is plunged the anodic 
liquid. Negative ions are contained in the cathodic liquid, while the anodic 
liquid contains the positive residues. The former are favourable to ger- 
mination. 

While the cathodic liquid is more favourable to the development of 
wheat, and, as the Author affirms, of seeds of higher plants generally, the 
anodic liquid, which got invaded by algae, appears to favour the lower forms 
of vegetation. 

H. MiCHEELS and P. de Heen. The Action of Alternating Currents on Ger- 
mination. Acad(fmie Royale de Belgique. — Bulletin de la Classe des 
Sciences. Brussels, 1910. No. 8, pp. 665-668. 

A continuous galvanic current is generally injurious to the germination 
Belgium of seeds. The authors have observed, in experiments on wheat, that an 
alternating current, even of low frequency, is, on the contrary, favourable 
to germination. Several tables are inserted in the text. 

C. Ravenna and M. Zamorani. Importance of Mucilage in the Germination 
of Flax Seeds. — Rendiconto delta R. Accademia dei Lincei. Estratto dal 
vol. XIX, serie 5, 2 sem., fasc. 5°, pp. 247-252. Roma, 1910, Tip. Reale 
Ace. Lincei. 

The germination of linseed is less regular when the seeds are steeped 
Italy ^n water, to swell for some hours before sowing. 

This fact, not observed with other seeds, may be attributed to the 
impoverishment of the seeds in mucilage, of Avhich linseed contains a 
considerable quantity. 

The first experiments were made with the object of discovering the 
differences in the ash and dry matter contents of young plants grown from 



SEEDS: GERMINATION 



41 



seeds deprived of mucilage and those from ordinary seeds. The seeds 
were soaked in distilled water for three or four hours renewing the water 
several times. Some of the steeped seeds were then put into pure silicious 
sand, an equal number of ordinary seeds being at the same time sown 
under similar conditions. After ten days the young plants were washed, 
dried at 100°, and reduced to ashes. 



Seeds 


No of seeds 


No of seeds germ'd 


Dry mat. 
grams 


Ashes 
grams 


Normal 

Without mucilage .... 


262 weigh gr. 2,5 
id. 


255 or 97.32 °/„ 
194 » 74-02°/o 


1.5456 
0.8030 


1766 
0.0706 



Thus loss of mucilage appears to diminish germinative power, while 
the dry matter and ashes are very much less in steeped linseed than in 
ordinary seeds. The steeped seed produced weaker plants. 

Comparative germination tests were made with ordinary linseeds and 
seeds deprived of mucilage, some of the latter being put to grow in sand to 
which the constituents that had been taken away with the mucilage were 
returned in the form of mineral salts and of sugar. 

The mucilage extracted from i Kgr. of linseed was dried, reduced to 
ashes, and analysed. From 3.0420 gr. of ash the following constituents were 
determined, in grammes: 



K 


0.84 


Na 


0.20 


Ca 


0.31 


Mg 


0.12 


PO, 


0.046 


SO4 


0.19 


SiO, 


0.12 


CI 


0.026 



The comparative tests of germination were in the following order: 

1. normal seeds ; 

2. seeds deprived of mucilage; 

3. seeds deprived of mucilage but treated with a solution containing 
the constituent elements determined by the above analysis, and in the same 
quantities 

For fear that the steeping might act unfavourably on germination, the 
control seeds were also steeped in water, but the mucilage taken from 
them was poured over them again as soon as they were sown. The 
following results are given: 

1. Plants from mucilage-deprived seeds are deficient in dry matter 
and in mineral constituents ; 

2. Addition, during growth, to plants from steeped seeds, of the 
constituents lost during the steeping, renders the growth nearly normal. 

This suggests that the mucilage of flax seeds is used during germin- 



42 SEEDS: GERMINATION 

ation the same as other reserve materials. The experiments tend also to 
show that, even during the period of germination, plants may, in certain cases, 
avail themselves of mineral solutions. 

C. Ravenna and M. Zamorani. Formation of Hydrocyanic Acid during 

Germination. (Sulla formazione dell'acido cianidrico nella germinazione 
dei semi). — Rendiconti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, estratto dal vol. XIX, 
serie 5% 2° sem., fasc. VII, pp. 356, 361. Roma, 1910. 

After referring to the experiments of Jorissen, Soave, and Guignart, the 
Authors report investigations made on Sorghu7n vulgare and on Linum usi- 
iatissimum. They placed the seeds of Sorghum to germinate in metallic 
boxes divided into compartments, containing a layer of washed and calcined 
silicious sand and then moistened with distilled water. The boxes were 
divided into two series, one lot being in the dark and the other exposed to 
Italy light, all other conditions being identical. When germination began, some 
young plants were, from time to time, taken from each lot. Whilst normal 
grains of Sorghum do not contain any hydrocyanic acid, the distillate of grains 
in germination gave in every case the Prussian blue reaction. 

The results show that there is a formation of hydrocyanic acid during 
the germination of Sorghum seeds both in the light and in the dark. 

In both cases the acid formed increases with the duration of germi- 
nation up to a certain limit, beyond which it decreases. 

During Equal periods of germination, the quantity of Prussic acid formed 
diminishes when the plants are kept in the dark. 

Experiments on Flax seeds, give similar results. 

Investigations followed as to whether the lower content in acid, observed 
in plants which had germinated in the dark, was due to their weaker content 
of carbo-hydrates owing to arrest in the assimilation of carbonic anhydride. 

Flax seed was made to germinate under bells in which the air that cir- 
culated was deprived of carbon dioxide. In the control bells, the air was 
normal. It was found that plants living in an atmosphere deprived of car- 
bonic anhydride contain less hydrocyanic acid. 

In order to study better the influence of carbo-hydrates, Sorghum was 
made to germinate in pots on washed and calcined sand. Some of the 
pots were exposed to light, others were kept in the dark and the sand 
moistened either with water or with a 2 per cent glucose solution. 

The analyses showed that the proportion of hydrocyanic acid is notably 
higher in etiolated plants that had been watered with the glucose solution. 
This suggests that carbohydrates play an important part in the formation of 
hydrocyanic acid during germination. 



SEEDS: GERMINATION. - SELECTION- 



43 



J. G. LiLL. Influence of Size, Weight and Density of Kernel in the Ger- 
mination of Wheat. — Kansas State Agricultural College. Experiment 
Station Circular N. ii, pp. i-8. 

Numerous experiments at the Experimental Station of Kansas State 

Agricultural College investigate the relation between the physical constants 

of seeds (weight, size and density) and their germinative power. 

i) Deterftiifiation of the relations betiveen the weight and germinative power United 

of grains from the same ear. States : 

■' "" Kansas 



Degree 


Number 
of grains 
observed 


Number 

of grains 

that germinated 


Percentage 

of germinative 

power 


Above average weight ... . . 
Below » » . . 


4707 
2972 




4604 
2877 


98.74 
96.80 


Total . . 


7679 




7 481 


Aver: 97.77 



There appears to be a difference of i °/q in favour of the heavier grains. 
Their germinative power is not so much above the average, as that of the 
lighter grains is below it; it is respectively 1.19 and 0.75 °/o- 

2) Determination of the relati. n betiveen the size of the grains and their 
germinative power. 

The grains were divided into 5 groups, according to their length and 
their weight. We give a brief summary of the results obtained : 

a) There was only a slight difference between the germinative power 
of the large grains and that of the small ones, and this difference was in 
favour of the large grains. 

b) The largest grains were not always those that germinated best. 

3) The relation between the density and the germinative power of the 



grains. 



The germinative power is in direct relation to the density of the grains. 
4) Selection according to dimensions is consequently not the method 
for obtaining good seeds. 



H. J. RoBKRTS. Breeding for Type of Kernel in Wheat. — Kansas State. 
Agricultural College. Exper. St. Bull. ijo. Manhattan, Kan., Sept. 19th, 
1910. 

There are great differences even among the purest varieties of wheat United 
from the point of view of the type of kernel. Whence the necessity for States: 
selecting types which offer the most desirable form of grain. 



Kansas 



44 SEEDS: SELECTION 



In order to make this selection it is necessary to keep in mind two 
essential points : 

i) Qualities affecting milling: 

A short form is preferable in it, the bran is less, and the longitudinal 
groove is slightly marked. 

2) To choose grains that pack well together, so that the bushel 
weight is high. 

This question of the choice of an ideal form of grain is treated at 
length in Bulletin 190 of the Kansas Experimental Station. Observations 
made on 52 different varieties of wheat are brought together. The following 
describes the method determining the length of the grains: 

Five hundred grains were selected for each variety and placed in groups 
of 100 each. All the grains ard placed in a line, with the extremities of 
the grains touching each other ; the length, measured in millimetres, is divided 
by the number of grains. The width is determined in the same way, but 
care must be taken to place the grains with their longitudinal axes parallel. 

In both cases such uniformity of results were obtained for the hundreds 
of seeds examined in each group as to permit of a much smaller number 
of grains being considered sufficient for ordinary measurements. 

Having once established for each variety of wheat the relation between 
length and breadth of grain, a morphological factor of great importance is 
established. 

The average volume of each grain in cubic millimetres is established 
in the following way. A hundred grains are placed in a graduated test tube 
filled with alcohol at 95°, up to a certain level : the subsequent displacement 
furnishes the elements for determining the volume. The bushel-weight 
and the real volume are determined exactly. 

In studying carefully the relations between these elements, the following 
conclusions regarding the best form of grains have been reached: 

t) Varieties of wheat having identical average kernel-volume and 
kernel weight may attain a difference in weight of 3 lbs. per bushel, (i) 
difference due to the superior packing quality of a given type of grain 
over another. This property is the more marked in proportion as the ratio 
between length and width diminishes ; this is the case with wheats that have 
short caryopses and are consequently more appreciated. As sales in Kansas 
are made by weight, and not by measure, farmers cannot but gain consi- 
derably by this process. 

2) When the ratio between the length and breadth remains constant, 
the higher the average volume of grain, the greater the weight per bushel. 

The best and most appreciated form of grain is therefore one that is 
short and bulky. 



'i) The United States bushel equals 35.2 litres. 



CORN-CROPS: WHEAT 45 



Field-crops. — Industrial Crops. — Horticulture. — Arboriculture. 



Edward J. Russel. Wheat growing and its present day Problems. — 

Science Progress in the 20th Century, London, October 19 10. 

In order that a plant may grow satisfactorily, it must receive a sufficient 
quantity of food, water, heat, air, light, and be protected from all adverse 
influences. 

By being rendered more favourable, these conditions may increase the 
produce ; but each of them may set a limit to the growth of production. 

Water, for instance : in the Punjab, in India, where the wheat is irri- Great 
gated, several experiments have shown that by increasing the amount of Britain 
water given to the crops the harvest is augmented up to a certain point, 
beyond which the effect is reversed. 

Farmers tend to over-irrigate, to their own detriment and to that of 
the soil. 

The irrigation of wheat is extending in India, Canada, the United States 
and in South Africa, and consequently the problems connected therewith 
are continually assuming more importance. It is necessary to be extre- 
mely well informed as to the periods when the plant has most need of 
water, on the effect produced by a larger or smaller quantity of water, and 
on the relations existing between the need for water and that for other 
food. Thus, Dr. Leather has proved that unmanured wheat needs 850 lbs. 
of water to form one lb. of dry matter; while 550 lbs. are sufficient to pro- 
duce the same result with manured wheat. In very arid places, in Australia, 
the utility of phosphates administered in small doses has been demonstrated, 
because they stimulate the production of the roots, which descend deeper 
into the soil where there is more moisture. 

The need of heat also varies during the difterent periods of the life of 
wheat. In its earlier stages it can support temperatures hardly above 0° C. ; 
but in Western Canada the cold is too great and only spring wheat is 
cultivated. In order to enlarge the present wheat belt, varieties are used 
that ripen earlier, or nitrogenous manures are applied, because it has been 
observed that in the presence of nitrates growth begins at lower tempera- 
tures, and also phosphatic manures are used, which hasten ripening 

Insufficient attempts have been made so far to extend the southern limits 
of the wheat belt where the limits are set by the high temjierature ; but it 



46 CEREALS: WHEAT 



appears that good results could be obtained in this direction with late va- 
rieties and with potassium manures. 

The exhaustion of virgin soils by continuous wheat growing is a very 
interesting question. It has been proved that this exhaustion is not so much 
due to the absorption of the substances which produce the crops as by the 
loss occasioned by leaching and by the change in bacterial action. Expe- 
riments in Minnesota have demonstrated that out of 170 lbs. of nitrogen 
lost in one year by a virgin soil, 27 7^ only were absorbed by the crops 
and 132 Vi were purely and simply washed aAvay and lost. 

No means of stopping these useless losses, which go on in all the richest 
soils, is so far known, except that of alternating the wheat crops with grasses 
and leguminosae. 

Another important question is that of the so called strength of wheat, that 
is, its greater or less aptitude for panification, which depends; 

i) On its gluten content and the tenacity of the same ; this property 
increases with the salts contained in the grain, and decreases with the amount 
of acids and alkalis ; 

2) On the greater or lesser quantity of gas formed during panary fer- 
mentation. This in its turn depends on the quantity of sugar and diastase, 
on the condition of the starch and its greater or lesser resistance to diastase 
action, etc. The influence of outside conditions on the strength of wheat 
is at present being studied. In general, damp soils grow feeble wheats. 

At the experimental stations of the various countries .some new varieties 
have already been discovered which permit the cultivation of wheat to be 
extended to regions where hitherto wheat-culture was impossible. And as 
these investigations proceed it is certain that the wheat-area must widen more 
and more. 

L. Degrully. a Nev^ Method of cultivating Cereals. — Progrh agrkole et 
viticole, Montpellier, No. 43, Octobei 23rd, 1910, pp. 501-502. 

The Author has tried the new Demtschinsky method of cultivating 
wheat, which consists essentially in earthing up mould round the wheat in 
the course of its growth. Mr. Degrully applied the method to wheat and 
France to maize, using the modification proposed by two German agriculturists, 
Messrs. Schonner and Zehetmayr, which consists in sowing in deep furrows. 
Special circumstances unfortunately prevented the harvesting of the wheat, 
but the maize gave remarkable results. 

In one plot some rows of maize were sown according to the ordinary 
method, the seeds being put in about 8 cm. deep. In another plot some 
furrows were made 20 cm. in depth, at the bottom of which the maize was 
sown and then covered with 8 cm. of earth ; when the plants reached the 
height of about 40 or 45 cm. the furrow was earthed up. 



CEREALS: WHEAT. - STRAW. - RYE. - BARLEY 



47 



In the course of its growth, the maize sown in furrows was much su- 
perior to the other, and at harvest gave the following figures: 

weight of ears 

Maize sown in the ordinary method . . . ■ . . . 6 kg. 
„ „ in furrows i3 » 

The soil where the experiments were carried out was poor, it was not 
irrigable and the summer was very dry. The modified Demtschinsky method 
may, therefore, be suggested for hot countries and dry soils. 

GrSgoire. Disintegration of Straw (The production of Cereals). — Revue 
iconomique et internationale. Paris, N». 1906. 

The world's production of straw may be reckoned at 250 million tons. 
In the new countries, (Argentina, West of the United States) straw has 
practically no value. In Hungary (i) straw is used as fuel for the engines 
working threshing-machines. In countries where high-farming prevails straw 
serves for litter and is employed on the farms. But the value of straw as 
a fertiliser is not more than from 7.50 to 11.50 francs per 1000 kilograms. 
Straw is far from having the capital importance that was formerly attributed 
to it for the production of manure. 

Kellner and Lehmann's investigations lead to the conclusion, that the 
fodder-value of disintegrated straw is 8 or 9 times greater than that of 
natural straw. Lehmann insists very much on the possibility and utility of 
connecting the works of a sugar-refinery with those for disintegrating straw. 
Practical experiments have been made at the sugar-refinery of Steinitz (Mo- 
ravia) by Seidl, Bauriedl and Strohmen. 

The Steinitz plant, which can serve for the provisioning of about 
600 to 700 oxen, costs 17 000 crowns. The profit on straw-disintegration has 
been calculated at 2.57 crowns per 100 kilograms of straw. 

The adoption of this system may be considered as equivalent to an 
increase of the area under culture. Lehmann's straw-disintegrating process, 
as it exists at present or with the improvements which experience will suggest, 
may react very beneficially on farming. 



Germany 

and 
Austria 



Experiments on Varieties of Rye in Minnesota. University of Minnesota. 
Agricultural Experiment Station. — Bulletin, No. 120, July 1910, p. 7. 

Cross-fertilisation is very easily effected with rye, and very few varieties United 
are really fixed. New varieties often appear but they do not long remain States: 
on the market as fixed varieties. The Experimental Station of Minnesota 



(i) Also in some provinces of South Italy. iEd'. 



48 



CEREALS: RYE. - BARLEY 



has tried a great number of varieties since 1900, and has devoted its at- 
tention mainly to the production and selection of the best. The variety 
known as Minnesota No. 2, has been widely distributed in the United States. 
The following table gives the product of Minnesota No. 2 Rye for 
each year since 1900 compared with the average crop of other varieties of 
Rye, cultivated in the State. 



Year 



Rye Minnesota N". 2 



Bsh. per acre HI. p. Ha. 



Average of other varieties of Rye 



Bsh. per acre 



HI. p. Ha. 



1900 
1 90 1 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 



Average for 10 years 



41.4 
30.8 
43-2 

54-3 
38.2 
32.5 
542 
28.9 

351 
35-2 



39.38 



36-3 
27.7 

38.9 
48.9 

34-4 
29.2 
48.8 
26.1 
31.6 
31-7 



35-J6 



19.5 

19-3 
22.3 
18.4 
17.7 
18.2 

19-3 
18.5 
19.2 
19.0 



19.14 



17-5 
17-4 
20. 1 
16.5 

'5-9 
16.4 

17.4 
16.6 

17-3 
17.1 



17.22 



H. ScHiERNiNG. The Ripening of Barley. — La Biere et les Boissons fertnenties, 
Paris, Sept. 1910, No. 9, p. 104. 

This study on the ripening of barley forms the first part of the investi- 
gations of H. Schierning on the proteids of barley, in the grain and during 
malting. 

In England the barleys richest in nitrogen are considered the best; 
Germany but on the Continent, notably at Munich, the poorest in nitrogen 3 re consi- 
dered the most valuable. The fact is there is no agreement as to the rela- 
tive proportion of proteids in starchy and hard grains, nor as to the effect 
of richness in nitrogen on the malting qualities of barley. 

Kukla, Prior and Jolawetz, abandoning the determination of total ni- 
trogen, came to the conclusion " that the richer barley is in non-coagu- 
lable protein the less suitable it is for malting purposes. " According to 
Schierning this is incorractbut ; it is a great step forward to have given up 



CEREALS: BARLEY 49 



the valuation of malting qualities on the contents of nitrogen in the grain, 
giving instead a greater weight to quantitative and qualitative methods. 

However, according to Schierning, it is not possible to arrive at the 
valuation of barley for malting by determining the proportion of the com- 
ponents of its dry matter, since malting and beer are so different in the 
different countries. 

The Author has studied the changes in composition of the barley grain, 
in successive stages of development, of the wort and finally of the beer. 

Schierning concludes, as regards the first part of his work, that the de- 
termination of the total nitrogen cannot serve as a basis for valuation. The 
time which passes between the first stage of maturity (green maturity) of the 
grain and the last (full maturity) is of great importance. During ripening 



o 



the soluble nitrogen becomes insoluble. Similar changes have been verified 



■'ti 



in 1902 for carbohydrates by G. Andre. 

V. EcKENDRECHER. Valuation of Malting Barleys. (Oktobertagung der 
Versuchs- und Lehranstalt fiir Brauerei in Berlin igio. Sitzung der 
Rohstoffabteilung). — Tagesz. f. Brauerei, VIII, J.; N. 239, 1273-74. 
Berlin, October 12, 19 10. 

At the XVIIth Exihition of Barley and Hojds, held at Berlin from Oc- 
tober 10 to 14, 1910, the following exhibits were noticed: Germany 

Summer Barleys. 187 

AVinter Barleys 6 

Brewery Wheats 27 

Total . . . 220 

These samples took altogether 12 First Prizes, 25 Second Prizes, 36 Third 
Prizes and 30 Certificates. The greater part of the prizes went to the pro- 
ducts of Silesia and Prussian Saxony. 

As the points considered in judging favoured [the Imperial types, in 
particular the Goldthorpe Barleys, some opposition was made and the regula- 
tions were modified as follows: the lower albuminoid-limit is raised from 9 
to 9-5 %; the higher limit of the weight per loo grains is lowered from 41 
to 40 gr. ; the points as to the fineness of the husk are calculated at from i 
to 9 instead of from 2 to 18; the points for colour from i to 5 ; the im- 
purities from 2 to 18. As regards moisture one point is taken away for a 
water percentage of 15 to i6°/o) 2 points for 16 to i77o' 3 for 17 to 
i8°/o' ^f^d 5 above 18 7o- These regulations permit the superiority of the 
Goldthorpe barley to be maintained, but they favour also the varieties Erectiim 
and Nutans. 

Barleys for malting have been much improved in Germany, bringing 
the German products to the same level as the best in other countries. 



. 



50 



CEREALS: OATS 



France 



France : 
Aisne 



The better to encourage this improvement, a Propaganda Committee has 
been constituted, which has ah-eady formulated the " golden rules for the 
cultivation of barley for malting ". Upwards of i6 coo copies of these 
"Golden Rules " will be distributed throughout Germany. A leaflet entitled 
"Advice for the next harvest of malt barley, etc." will be published. 

HiTiER. Increase in the World's Production and Comsumption of Oats. 

— L'Engrais. Paris, No. 42, Oct. 21, 1910, pp. 1171-1173. 

In spite of the reduction in the number of draught animals and of the 
progress of mechanical traction, the production and consumption of oats 
in the world continues to increase. The oat crop in Europe in 1909 was 
a very heavy one; notwithstanding this prices have continued to rule 
high. The development of the cultivation of oats in America is consider- 
able. There is, therefore, no need to fear a reduction in the markets for 
this staple ; on the contrary, the demand is rising. This is due to the fact 
that horses are better fed, and oats are being used more and more as a 
feed for farm animals. Oats now form part of the rations of sheep, of cattle 
fattened for market, and even of milk cows. Sweden, where stock-breeding 
is on the increase, consumes more and more oats, and the home product- 
ion is inadequate to meet the demand. Therefore farmers who have been 
prevented by unfavourable weather from sowing wheat in time, can find 
compensation for their loss by sowing oats. 

M. HiTiER. The Composition of some Varieties of Oats. — Bulletin des 
Stances de la Societi Nat. d'Agr. de France. Paris, July, 19 10. N. 7, 
pp. 607-613. 

At the Saint Susanne Farm (Aisne), some experiments were made in 
1908-09 on the yield of several varieties of oats. The soil where the expe- 
riments were made is sandy and poor. The following tables give the results. 

YEAR 1908. 



Oat 

Varieties 


Extent 

of 

each 

plot 


Total 


yield 


Yield per hectare 


Weight 


in 
straw 


in 

grains 


in 
straw 


in 
grains 


of 

hectolitre 




hectares 


quint. 


quint. 


quint. 


quint. 


kilos. 


Noire Cbampenoise . . . 


1-3750 


51.60 


35.00 


37-52 


25-45 


51.700 


Jaune des Salines. . . 


1-2350 


38.10 


28,00 


29.65 


21.79 


46 000 


Noire de Mesdag .... 


0.6960 


19.50 


13.20 


28.00 


19.10 


47.200 


Blanche de Ligowo . . . 


0.6880 


20.50 


17.60 


29.79 


25.58 


52.000 



CEREALS: OATS. - MAIZE 



51 



YEAR 1909. 



Oat 

Varieties 


Extent 

of 

each 


Total 


yield 


Yield pe 
in 


r hectare 


Weight 


in 


in 


in 


of 
hectolitre 




plot 


straw 


grains 


straw 


grains 






hectares 


quint. 


quint. 


quint. 


quint. 


kilos. 


Noire Champenoise . 


1.47 


42.60 


27.50 


29.00 


18.75 


48.200 


Jaune des Salines. . . . 


1-35 


50.80 


3250 


37.60 


24.00 


45.000 


Noire de Mesdag .... 


1.40 


40.60 


38.00 


29.00 


20.00 


46.300 


Blanche de Ligowo . . . 


1.44 


52.80 


36.00 


36.70 


25.00 


48.700 



Numerous other tables give the results of the analyses of the grahis 
and straw of several varieties of oats. 



Mark Alfred Carleton. Ten Years' Experience with Swedish Select 

Oats. — U. S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Plant Industry. Bull. 
N° 182, Washington, September. 

The variety of oats most extensively cultivated in the region comprised 
between the Great Lakes and the Rocky Mountains is the Stvedish Select. 
The annual production in this region already reaches 50 000 000 bushels 
(18 million hectolitres). This variety has completely substituted the varieties 
formerly cultivated. This oat, which was not known until 1889, is the one 
most in favour, and the extent over which it is grown, in Wisconsin and the 
neighbouring districts, is increasing every year. 

The Swedish Select was introduced into the United States by Mr Car- 
leton in 1899, after an exploration into the cold and almost arid [regions 
of Russia and Western Siberia to seek for cereals adapted to the cli- 
mate of the United States. Two other varieties were introduced at the 
same time, of which one, the Tobolsk, is excellent; but the [Swedish Select 
is much superior to all others. It comes originally from Sweden, where it 
had undergone selection for many years, and was then transported into 
Russia, into the province of St. Petersburg and into Finland, in which 
countries it has become better adapted to cold and dry climates. 



United 
States 



N. P. Nassau. A New Maize from China. — Bulletin of the Department of nuj_„ 
Agriculture, Bahamas, Sept. 1910, Nassau, Bahamas, p. 85. 

The Bureau of Plant Industry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
has issued Bulletin n. 161. entitled A New Type of Indian Corn from 



52 CEREALS: MAIZE 



China, giving an account of a new variety of maize obtained recently from 
China. 

The variety of Indian corn here described was introduced from Shanghai, 
China, and appears to be distinct from all hitherto known types. The plants 
possess the following unique characters : 

The leaf blades on the upper part of the plant stand erect instead of 
being borne in a more or less horizontal position, as in the ordinary varieties; 
those on the upper part of the plant are in many cases all on one side of 
the stem. 

Instead of the ear pushing out before the silks appear, the silks are 
produced directly at the base of the leaf blades, before the young ears 
emerge. 

The texture of the endosperm is unique, and cannot be referred to either 
the starchy or horny types, common in our cultivated varieties. It resembles 
the horny endosperm in location and hardness, but differs in texture and 
optical properties. 

The early developments of silks and erect leaf blades combine to pro- 
duce an adaptation which ensures pollination, and prevents the silks from 
drying out. The pollen is blown against the erect leaf blades, and accu- 
mulates in their bases. The silks are pushed into these accumulations of 
pollen, and become pollinated before they are exposed to the air. 

Xenia characters in hybrids appear for the most part to follow Mendel's 
laws. Coloured aleurone is dominant to transparent aleurone ; yellow en- 
dosperm is dominant to white endosperm, and horny endosperm is dominant 
to waxy endosperm. 

In explanation, it may be stated that Xenia is the name given to the 
process by which pollen, in hybridization, has an effect on the character 
of other parts of a seed, or fruit, than the embryo ; for instance, it has been 
found that, when ears of a yellow corn are pollinated with pollen of a 
maize whose distinctive colour is red, the resulting ears contain yellowish-red 
and dark-red grains as well as grains similar to those of the normal mother 
plant. The colour really resides in the aleurone layer of the endosperm, 
that is in the outer layer of cells of the plant food in the seed, which contain 
a large proportion of nitrogenous food-bodies. An extension of the statement 
that Xenia characters in hybrids appear mostly to follow Mendel's laws, in 
relation to the particular instance that is dealt with above, may be provided 
by saying, broadly, that if plants possessing coloured aleurone, or yellow or 
horny endosperm are crossed with those having colourless aleurone, or white 
Oi waxy endosperm, the resulting hybrids will all have seeds with coloured 
aleurone, or yellow or horny endosperm. 

The discovery in China of a distinct type of maize has bearing upon 
the historical question whether maize was known in the Orient before the 
discovery of America. Though maize undoubtedly originated in America, 



CEREALS: MAIZE. - RICE 



the nature of the historical evideace regarding the extensive cultivation of 
maize in China in the latter part of the sixteenth century seems to preclude 
the idea of very recent introduction, leaving open the possibility that this 
specialized type of corn has developed in China. The generally accepted 
view to the contrary is further thrown into doubt by references to its wide- 
spread use, and introduction from the West, that occur in Chinese literature 
published during the sixteenth century. 



Maize and Citrus Show at Johannesburg. — The Agr. Journal of the Cape 

of Good Hope. Vol. XXXVII, N. 3, pp. 261-266. Cape Town. Sep- 
tember 1 910. 

The recent Exhibition at Johannesburg has shown that South Africa is in South 
some parts especially favourable for the production of the best varieties African 
of Maize. 

1 he White Dents variety gave excellent results as well as the German 
yellows. 

The first prize was taken by the variety Hickory King, grown in Natal. 



Union: 
Transvaal 



D. Hooper. The Composition of Indian Rice. Department of Agriculture, 
Bengal. — Quarterly Journal, Vol. IV; N° i : pp. 4-48. Calcutta, July, 1910. 

The analyses of 159 samples of Indian rice have shown that the ave- 
rage percentage of albuminoids is higher in the rice of East-Bengal, Assam 
and Bombay than in the lice of Cuttack and the Central Provinces. The 
percentage varies from 5.44 to 9.81 'Vo- 
lt has further been found that the market valuations correspond to 
the nitrogen content. In this connection the Ambemohar rice of Belgana 
and the Jeera Salai of South Kanara are recommended, as they contain 
more than 8 "/o of albuminoids. 

Nevertheless, the most important conclusion appears to be that the 
good feeding quality of the rice is independent of its appearance, and of the 
variety cultivated. Quality is due to cultivation. The rice with the best 
composition is in fact obtained by cultivation in abundantly manured virgin 
soils. The Author insists, therefore, on the importance of manuring in order 
to improve the rice production, both from the commercial and alimentary 
point ot view. 



British 
India 



Louis Gay-Lugny. Rice Production in Indo-China. — Z^a' commerce exterieur 
tie rindochine. Paris, Emile Larose, libraire edit. 1910, pp. 8-22. 

Amongst the French Colonies of Indo-China, Cochin-China is well adap- 
ted to the cultivation of rice, on account of its labour conditions, chmate, 
nature of the soil and the character of its inhabitants. The surface cultivated 



French 
Indo-Chlna: 
Cochlnchina 



54 



CEREALS: RICE. - RICE STRAW 



may be estimated at i 200 000 hectares, producing annually an average of 
800 000 tons ; of which a third only is consumed on the spot. 

One half of the Mekong-delta, the principal centre of cultivation of 
this cereal, is left uncultivated: it is therefore possible to increase enor- 
mously the rice production of Cochin-China. The sustained and regular 
demand in the Far East assures a constant outlet for this produce. 

Rice Ispection and its Results in Japan. (Prefecture Oita, Empire of Japan), 
Tokio, May 191 o. 

The lack of efficacious control over rice production and rice-trade, which 
Japan became accentuated in Japan with the decadence of the feudal system, had 
very serious effects on the rice trade of Japan. 

The Regulations of the Rice Imp7-oz>ement Guilds, which have been establi- 
shed by the Japanese Government and applied with praiseworthy vigour, have 
proved beneficial. 

The inspection is mainly exercised over the drying of the rice, on the 
quality, the form and colour of the grain, on the weight and the packing. 

The prefecture of Oita annually consumes 600000 koku; from 10 to 
i2°/p of which were lost previously in consequence of the imperfect system 
of preparation. This loss is to day limited to from 5 to 6 7o (i)- 



French 

West 

Africa : 

Senegal 



C. Chaloi. a Perennial Rice Plant in %^y\^^?\. Journal d' Agriculture pra- 
tique. Paris, No. 40, Oct. 6th. 1910, pp. 445-446. 

Mr. Ammann has found, in the district of Richard Toll, in Senegal, 
a perennial rice plant, the roots of which are real rhizomes, capable of re- 
producing the plant indefinitely, without the need of cultivation. This plant 
is being studied at the Jardin Colonial. The diffusion of this species may 
have very important results for Africa and for all hot countries where rice 
is raised. 



Dutch East 

Indies. 

Java 



Havik. Rice Straw ard the Psper Industry in the Dutch Indies. 

Quinzaine Coloniale. Paris, No. 19, 1910. 



La 



The utilisation of rice-straw, and of the wood of Albizzia moluccana is 
considered from the point of view of the^ paper-industry. 

Java at present produces about 100 000 coo piculs (2) of rice straw per 
year, the value of which varies from 4.50 to 5.50 florins per ton of 1000 ki- 
lograms. It is possible to obtain 45 "/^ of dry paper from the mass of straw 



(1) A koku is equal to 4.96 English bushels, or 182 litres. \Ed.\ 

(2) A ficul K equal to about 60 kilcgrs. li?^/.]. 



RICE. - RICE STRAW. - SOY-BEAN. 



POTATO 



55 



worked by the soda process ; but out of the stubble-straw, remaining on the 
fields after harvest, only 32°/^ of paper can be obtained, which moreover is 
more difficult to prepare. 

The expenses, per 100 kilos of raw material, for the manufacture of 
halfstflf (cellulose pulp), are as follows: 



Bleached Pulp. 

florins 

Rice straw 114 

Straw left on the fields . . 174 



Unbleached Pulp. 
florins 

94 
^2>Z 



Alhizzia nioluccana is a tree which grows very quickly, even on poor 
soils. At the end of six years, with 125 trees per bouw (7080 m.^) from 900 
to 1000 kilos of air-dried wood are produced, the yield of unbleached paper 
being about 43.1%. The expense of preparing the raw material per ton is: 
unbleached, 60 florins ; bleached, 90 florins (i). 

The Soy Question. — La Quinzaine Coloniale, Paris, Oct. 25th, 1910, 

Rich in fatty matter (15 to 18%) and \\\ nitrogen (about 6 «>/J, the soy- 
beans play a considerable part in the food supply of China and Japan, where 
they take the place of meat. The soy-plant is also an excellent green ma- 
nure. It constitutes a first class fodder and the soy oil-cakes are already 
much sought after. The oil of the soy-bean, of an agreable taste and odour, 
is used in China and Manchuria for culinary purposes. In England this oil 
is chiefly appreciated for the manufacture of soap. 



China: 
Manchuria 



Origin and Variation of the Potato. — Revue Scientifique. Paris, October 
15, 1910, p. 502. 

" The question of the origin of our cultivated potato is not yet defini- 
tively decided. It is generally admitted that it comes from a single 
species, Solanum tuberosum, originally of the Andes of Central America. 
The Solanum tuberosum is a fixed species, which has varied but little in the 
form of the flower since its introduction into Europe. 

" It is interesting to remark that the ^. tuberosum is no longer to be France 
found in the wild state ; in Chile, for instance, or in the Argentine Republic, 
only edible plants analogous to our own are found. But on the East coast 
of South America, in the whole of Argentina, as well as in Mexico and in 
Arizona, the Solaumn Commersoiiii is found wild. This species in appearance 
differs much from our potato ; its leaves are relatively small, it is almost 
without folioles, has white flowers, with short calycinal lobes and star- shaped 



(i) Albizzia nioluccaiia^ Miq. (Leguminosae) Molucca Islands (Ind. Kew). [.fi"^.]. 



56 ROOTS AND TUBERS: POTATOES 



corolla, small tubers, abundant lenticels, very slightly marked eyes and 
long stolons ; -the tubers are very bitter, difficult to cook, they are refused 
even by animals. 

Some years ago M. Labergerie announced that he had succeeded, by 
simple culture, in obtaining the abrupt transformation of the wild Sola/mm 
Conwiersonii into a variety analogous in all points to our common potato. 

This variation appeared so remarkable that several botanists in different 
countries have repeated M. Labergerie's experiments, and have confirmed 
them. But as some botanists, as Wittmack of Berlin, did not succeed 
in transforming Solanum Commersonii, it became desirable to renew the 
investigations. M. Louis Planchon, of the Montpellier University, has pu- 
blished an interesting work on the subject, with numerous photographs and 
plates {Annales. de la FaculU des Sciences de Marseille, t. XVIII, fasc. i), where 
the fact is confirmed of the abrupt and direct change (in starting from the 
primitive type) of the S. Commersonii into the .S". tuberosum. 

M. Planchon has cultivated some tubers of the well defined wild type 
of 6". Cotnmei sonii. Although cultivated in a sufficiently manured and well 
watered soil (conditions recommended by M. Labergerie), these tubers did 
not present any modification during the first four years of cultivation. 
In 1908, the tubers underwent a rapid transformation, and in the following 
year the change appeared evident. The wild jilant, M. Planchon found, 
had varied to two distinct typesj the first as xet but little difterentiated, 
but presenting undoubted signs of variation (tliis is the half wild, or half 
variated type); the second type is entirely transformed. Since then, the char- 
acteristics of the two plants are perfectly homogeneous and distinct. The 
changed type is absolutely analogous, as to carriage, leaves, flowers, etc., 
to the Solanum tuberosum; the tubers have totally lost their bitterness, and, 
according to the unanimous opinion of the persons who have been con- 
sulted, their taste is excellent, and superior to that of most market varieties. 

M. Planchon asks why this change, obtained within the course of a few 
months' cultivation, should not have been produced gradually throughout 
indefinite time. It seems likely that at some indeterminate epoch the So- 
lanum tuberosum has issued, as a sport, from the Solanum Commersonii, 
acquiring afterwards fixity of type, just as is seen in some varieties formed 
at the present day. 

After the first chief variation, secondary variations have brought into 
being the many varieties of the cultivated potato. 

M. Gkorge Taylor. The Cross-fertilisation of the Potato.— T^Z/r Gar- 
defiers' Chronicle, No. 3642, p. 279. London, October 15, 1910. 

Great The Factor variety of potatoes is not fertilised b)- its own pollen, nor 

Britain by that of the most closely allied varieties. 



POTATOES 



57 



But if it is crossed with potatoes having coloured tubers and white 
ilowers crosses are obtained which yield heavy crops. 



A. BoisiOT. Observations in Argentina on Potato-planting. (Consejos sobre 
la plantacion de las papas; Republica Argentina). — Revista dc la So- 
ciedad Rural de Coj-doba. Cordoban, July 1910. N° 229-230. pp. 5766-5768. 

In planting potatoes when half tubers cut lengthwise are use!, the 
tubers should be prepared some da3^s before being planted, in order that the 
cut surface may be well dried. Tubers which have been freshly cut deteriorate 
easily when they are planted, producing weak plants. 

Amongst the varieties recommended, from the point of view of richness 
in starch and for the feeding of cattle, the following are mentioned: 

Institid-Bcauvais, Ric /iter's Imperator, \Giga71te azid, Alaravillo de Ame- 
rica, etc. 

The following are recommended for rhe table : Bella de Julio, Early Rose, 
Amarilla de Hollanda, etc. 

Certain new varieties are also praised, such as : Professor JVohlimann, 
Prisident Krilger, Silecia. etc. 



Argentine 



Pfisterer. Potato-drying Industiy in Germany. (Die Kartofifeltrocknung 

in Deutschland). — Mitteilungen der Fachhcrkhterstatter des k. k. Acker- 
■ baunwiisteriums. Wieii, 6-7 Oct.. 1910. 

The new German law (1909) on spirits, and the Socialist boycott of 
alcohol in Germany have affected not only distilleries, but also, and strongly, 
the agricultural production of potatoes. The potato crop in Germany, in 
1908, was 465000000 metric quintals, utilised in the following way: 



Germany 



130 000 000 quintals fur food ; 
15 000 000 ,, for the manufacture of starch 

25000000 „ for the alcohol industry; 

55 000000 .. for sowing; 

190 000 000 ,. for cattle feeding. 



There remain 50 millions qs. which were destroyed by frost, by rotting, etc. 

To avoid this loss and diminish the importation of cattle-feeds the po- 
tato-drying industry is being developed. There already exist 300 establish- 
ments, which are able to treat from 5 to 6 million quintals of fresh pota- 
toes. The plant of a potato-drying factory does not cost more than 7 1 000 
marks (88 750' frs.). This utilisation of potatoes is giving satisfactory results. 



5« 



POTATOES — FORAGE PLANTS 



Cassava Culture in Surinam. — La Quinzaine Coloniale. Paris, N° 19, 1910. 



Dutch 

Guiana: 

Government 

of Surinam 



For some years past the cultivation of indigenous and of imported 
varieties of Cassava {Manihot utilissima) has been methodically carried out 
by the Department of Agriculture of Surinam. Native varieties of Guiana 
have in general given the best returns. Only one foreign variety, originally 
from Antigua, has given a yield which is comparable to that of the best 
varieties of Surinam. Good native crops yielded from 8460 to 15 670 kilos 
per acre. The best of the Antigua varieties, the White Top, has furnished 
10 068 kilos. The varieties of Colombia have not exceeded 5 980 kilos 
per acre. 



New 



New Zealand Experiments with QxxslSs QxQi^%.— Journal of the New Zealand 
Dept. of Agriculture, vol. i. No 3, August 15, 1910, p. 202-210, Wel- 
lington. 

Experiments with forage grasses from Europe and other countries con- 
tinue at the Government Experimental Farm at Ruakura, New Zealand. 

The grasses are cultivated both on plots, and in isolated rows. 

Already some of the native grasses have been so much improved by 
Zealand cultivation as to be hardly recognisable. 

The Chloris virgata (i) and the Chloris Gay ana (2), imported from 
South Africa, where they are called Khodes Grass, resist drought, and 
grow well on light sandy soils. They send out runners which extend ra- 
pidly and widely. The roots are superficial and easily torn up. These two 
species of Chloris however cannot stand frost, which causes their roots tO' 
remain inactive for months. 

The Phalaris cotntnutata (3), on the other hand, is not of much value 
as a summer crop ; but as a winter fodder it is without rivals. The vital 
knot of this grass is well below the level of the soil, having nothing to fear 
either from grazing or mowing. 

The Paspaliim dilatatum (4), has proved useful during extremely dry 
seasons, but when there is other fodder the cattle neglect it. 

The Panicutn sp. ? {Giant Couch), imported from Brazil, is the grass 
whose growth is the most rapid in the whole collection. It creeps over 
the ground, issuing roots at each knot. A single plant has produced runners 



(i~l Chloris vh-gata S\v. (Gramineae). 

(2) Chloris Gayana Kunt (Gramineae). 

(3) Phalaris commutata Roem. and Schultz ; Ph. coerulescens litsi. (Gramineae). 

(4) Paspalum dilatatum Poir. [Gramineae). \Ed.\ 



FORAGE PLANTS: LOLIUM TEMULENTUM 59 



more than 3 metres long, covering a surface of 6 metres in diameter in 
9 months. 

The experiments and studies on forage plants are also being continued 
at the Experimental Farm of Moumahaki, where more than 400 species and 
varieties are being cultivated, mainly with the object of investigating their 
practical value. 

T. Alvarez. On the Cultivation in Uruguay of "Lolium Temulentum 
Ceptochoeton" (i). (Un cultivo de joyo). Republica Oriental del Uru- 
guay. — Estudios sob re cultivo s y trabajos Ixperimentalcs de la division de 
V Agriculhira. Montevideo, 19 10, No. 5, pp. 7-10. 

This note treats of a variety of the European Loliuvi tonulentum. This 
rye-grass is said to be of value as a [forage for its [richness in digestible Uruguay 
carbohydrates, for early ripening and for productiveness. 

According to analyses at the Experiment Station of Toledo,'' Uruguay, 
the chemical composition of the air-dried forage oi Lolium temulentum is the 
following : 

Total dry matter 88.76 

Water 11.24 

100.00 

Ash 7.91 

Organic matter 80.85 . 

Water 11.24 

100.00 

Total nitrogenous matter . . 2.80 

Fats 0.83 

Fibre 33-2o 

Carbohydrates 44.02 

Ash 7.91 

Water 11.24 

100.00 



(i) The variety " cheptochoeton " of the Lolium temidentiim is not to be found 
in the Index Ketvensis, nor in its Supplements up to 1908. 

The Lolium temulentum is generally considered as an injurious plant, particularly 
when the seeds ripen in the midst of corn crops. It seems that the harmful action is 
not due to the sound grains of Lolium temulentum, but to the grains which are infested 
with some fungus. The interest of the present article lies in the fact that an attempt is 
being made to employ the Lolium temulentum as a forage crop. Generally all Rye- 
grasses are good forage crops. [^(/.]. 



6o 



FORAGE PLANTS: FURZE. - LUCERNE 



At the experimental field of Toledo, Lolium tenulentmn was grown also 
on a clayey soil, the best adapted for this kind of Rye-grass. It was sown 
in June, at the rate of iii kilos of seed per hectare. The grass was mowed 
in November, and yielded 2687 kilos of hay per hectare. 



France 



Eugene Fau. Furze as Forage. (Is Furze likely to provoke Haematuria 
amongst Horses and' sporadic Abortion amongst Cows?). — L Industrie 
laitiere. Paris, October i6th, 1910, 35th year, No. 42, pp. 677-679. 

Furze (i) should be considered as the "golden plant" of poor and non- 
cultivated lands. Furze when used as forage never causes haematuria in 
horses, as has been suspected, the urine simply being reddened by a special, 
harmless principle which is eliminated through the kidneys. As to abortion 
amongst cows, it should be attributed to the preparation rather than to the 
nature of furze-fodder. 

The furze should be well crushed, and a greater quantity should never 
be prepared than that for daily use. in order to avoid toxin-producing fer- 
mentations. 



United 
States : 

North 
Dakota 



Charles J. Brand and T. R. Waldron. Protecting Alfalfa, or Lucerne, 

against Cold. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bur. of Plant Industry. Bnl- 
lethu No. 185. Washington, Gov. Print Off., Sept. i6th 1910, p. 69. 

Observations made during four years at Dickinson (North Dakota) and 
for more than one year in other regions of the North West of the United 
States, show that the conditions for success in alfalfa— , or lucerne — culture 
in the North West of the United States, and in soils of average fertility are: 
deep ploughing, the employment of good seed and the character of the 
winter season. 

In North Dakota the atmospheric conditions most injurious to lucerne 
were: 

1. Snow fall insufficient to cover the plants, or the uncovering of the 
herbage when snow is wind-drifted. The drifting away of snow may be 
prevented by cutting the alfalfa early enough for the plants to be 8 or 10 
inches high before the cold season, so that the snow may be retained by 
the herbage. 

2. A succession of frosts and thaws which may kill the plants, either 
by disintegrating the tissues or by upheaving the soil. 



(i) Ulex Europaens L. There are several kinds of furze that can be cultivated or 
utilised. The French original names generally ajonc. [ZsV.]. 



FORAGE PLANTS: PASTURES 6i 

3. An excess of moisture in autumn, by which the vegetable tissiies 
remain tender and susceptible to frost. 

F. Vallese and O. Manetti. Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) cultivated 

near Otranto, in Italy. (II trifoglio alessandrino o bersim in Terra 
d'Otranto). — L Agricoltura coloniale. Firenze, Sept. 19 10. 

Ferd. Vallese has cultivated four varieties of berseem in Puglia (Terra 
d'Otranto), in poor, friable, calcareous and deep soil. 

Berseem, or Egyptian Clover, gives from 3 to 4 cuttings. The average 
crops, are 400 qtiintals of green forage, besides 300 kilos of seed, per 
hectare. '**'y • 

The seed was sown in September. The crops were much superior, 
under equal conditions of cultivation, to those of fenugreek, vetches and 
red clover. The introduction of berseem in the more arid parts of South 
Italy is recommended. 

Alb. B. Struggle for Life in Pastures, under the Influence of Manures and i 

of Climate. — Revue Scieiitifique. Paris, October 22nd, 1910, p. 534. 

In this summary of interesting studies by M. Eniile Mer, published 
in the Journal (f Agriculture pratique (Paris, 1910, Tome I, pp. 621-656; 
T. II, p. ■^■^, the results are given of 30 years' observations. The com- 
petition among grasses in the meadows of the Upper Vosges presents four 
principal aspects: 

1. It is almost non-existent in permanent uncultivated pastures. The 

flora there is uniform, having but slightly varied; France 

2. Under culture the hardy species of meadow plants give place to 
more exacting kinds, the hardy plants tending to disappear, or become less 
hardy, under the influence of manure and of climate; 

3. By rich manuring, new plants, still more exacting and of more 
rapid growth, mix with the preceding ones and dispute the ground with 
them ; these are principally the Gramineae, giving more abundant but coarser 
hay than from the herbage of an average cultivated meadow; 

4. When the soil has become too rich, either rapidly or by successive 
stages, the competition of certain species of large foliaged plants increases 
to such a point that they oust the grasses and other meadow plants, re- 
maining the chief masters of the ground. 

The flora of a meadow may be so modified by manuring during a few 
years' as to become unrecognisable ; but a shorter period is sufficient, 
by the suppression of all manuring, to cause the return to the primitive flora. 



62 



PERMANENT PASTURES 



Switzerland 



SuTKR. Grass Crops in the Sub-Alpine Regions (Hugelland) of Central 
and North West Switzerland. (Die reine Graswirtschaft in der Hugel- 
region der Nordost und Zentralschweizerischen Alpenfusslander). — 
Landwirtschaftliclic Jahrbilcher. Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Land- 
wirtschaft u. s. tv. B. XXXIX, H. 4/5. pp. 487-612. Berlin, 1910. 



The following are the conclusions on the different systems of cultivation 
to be adopted for Sub-Alpine regions, in the Hiigelland of Switzerland in 
particular : 

i) It is advisable to substitute clover for grass where the rainfall does 
not exceed 120-130 cm. per year, in places where cattle is kept in stables 
during summer and where the soil can be easily ploughed. 

2) When the annua • infall approaches 130 cm., where the slope of 
the ground is marked, the soil poor in lime, or wet, or stony, or too clayey, 
the land should be left in grass. 

Pastures may be associated with the culture of corn-crops and with 
green crops in a measure depending on the possibilities of ploughing, on 
the rainfall and on prevailing temperatures. 

3) Grazing is generally advisable: 

a) with low soil values ; 

b) with difficult tillage conditions; 

c) with undivided farms; 

d) where the land is not favourably exposed; 

e) when rainfall is heavy; 

/) when litter for cattle is scarce ; 

g) when the aim is to breed sound and profitable cattle; 

li) when the chief products are milk and cheese. 

4) When the climatic conditions permit, it is advisable to associate as 
far as possible the culture of fruit-trees with grassland. 



M. C. DusSERRK. Potassic Fertilisers on Grass-Lands. (Ueber die Wies- 
endiingung mit ]LvX\?,2\z^n).—Jahrcsvcrsam. d. Schweiz. Verein analyt. 
Chemiker in Glarus ; 19 10; Chemiker Zeitung,]. XXXIV, n. 117, p. 1040, 
Cothen, October, 19 10. 



In the Manuringiof Meadow '^ Lands, published this year, M. Wagner 
establishes a 'relationship between the potash contents of the crops and 
Switzerland the employment of potassic fertilisers. He also determines the limits beyond 
which the'^application of such fertilisers is no longer advantageous. 

By comparing these data with the results of experiments in the West 
of Switzerland, the fact] has been verified that they are not in general appli- 
cable to the conditions of soil and climate in that region. 



ALPINE PASTURES 



Ash-analysis does not permit of any conclusion being drawn as to the 
necessity of using potassic fertilisers, except in extreme cases, when the 
potash contents of the crops are very high or very low. Usually recourse 
to practical experiments is desirable. 

These observations once more prove that the conclusions drawn from 
soil-analyses and fiom the examination of the products obtained have only 
a relative value in determining the needs of a soil. 



G. Spampani. Alpine Pastures.— Cu/f//ra montana con speciale riguardo 
airapicoltiira. Milano, U. Hoepli. pp. vii -|- 424 and 171. 

This Manual contains theoretic and practical information from the point 
of view of harmonising sylviculture with the other cultures in mountainous 
districts, especially where cattle breeding and other farming industries may 
be developed. 

The subject is treated in fourteen chapters. First of all the^ physio- ^^jiy 
graphy is given, of the principal Alpine and Apennine regions of Italy. Then 
follows information on the climate and on the management of forests. The 
Author finally treats of alpiculture properly so-called. 

Official statistics, not of recent date, show that there exist in Italy nearly 
3 million hectares of grass-land and pastures; 7? of this grazing land is in 
the higher mountain region, where no care or culture is given to the soil. 

The area of this pasture-land is almost equal in extent to the wheat- 
area in Italy. It will therefore be easily understood how vastly important 
it would be to increase the present exceedingly low returns from these 
lands : returns which vary from a minimum of 5 quintals of hay per hectare, 
in the districts of Brescia and Belluno, to a maximum of 40 quintals in 
the district of Verona. 

The production of mountain grassland could be increased or improved : 
i) By modifying the flora and introducing good grasses and other 
forage- plants ; 

2) by better protectmg pasture-land against deterioration; 

3) by more careftil culture ; 

4) by using fertilisers ; 

5) by planting trees to protect the grassland ; 

6) by irrigation, where possible. 

The following chapters treat of permanent pastures and of planting 
them with trees. The author combats the opinion that trees are injurious 
to grassland. The book deals also with temporary forage crops; with the 
mountain and dairy cattle industries; with the question of shelters and of 
the maintainance of mountain roads ; with upland irrigation, finally, with the 
measures taken by the Italian State for Alpine agricultural development. 



64 



HAY.— ENSILAGE OF BEET ROOT PULPS 



Experiments on Stacked Hay in England. — {Jo urn. S. East Agric. Coll. 
n. i8, icfoc,)] Journ. Bd. of Agriculture ; vol. XIV, n. 7, October. 1910^ 
London. 

Some experiments have been made to determine the loss of weight by 
the fermentation that hay undergoes in the stack. 
Great Three sacks, each containing 50 lbs (22.65 ^S^) of new hay were placed 

Britain at different heights in a stack. During the winter they were taken out and 
weighed, and it was found that they lost 16 % of their original weight. 

The internal temperature of the stacked hay was also verified. The 
new hay attains its highest temperature within about a week after stacking. 
The highest temperatures observed were 60° and 62° C. The rising and 
falling of the temperature was rapid, attaining 13°. 8 C. in 24 hours. It 
was also observed that within three weeks after stacking the hay set up a 
secondary fermentation. This after-heating is peculiarly dangerous, from the 
point of view of causing a fire; because the hay gets heated when very dry, 
having lost most of its moisture during the first fermentation. 



L. Malpeaux. Preservation of Sugar-beet Pulps by Lactic Ferments. — 

L'Agro/iome. Namur, October 18, 1910, No 41, p. T)Z^-2,c>9- 

This is a report to the General Council of the Pas-de-Calais depart- 
ment, in France, on the Lacto pulpe ferment, prepared by M. Bouillant. The 
France Sugar-beet pulps stored in a silo lose any bad odour, acquiring and retaining 
a wholesome smell, even after a storage of 8 months. 

The fattening of animals fed with this pulp has been hastened by 
nearly three Aveeks. 

The influence of the ferment is seen by the small loss in gross weight 
and in dry matter. The acidity of the pulp is not very high and its com- 
position varies but little. Ensilaged pulp resists the action of ferments. 
The advantages of the treatment are especially marked in the case of pulp 
ensilaged very soon after it comes out of the presses in the sugar-factory. 
The expense of the treatment is not over 10 centimes per ton. 



A. Reeves. Cotton Culture in the British Empire. Geography at the 
British Cotton Association. — The Geographical Journal, London, Octo- 
ber 1910, p. 467. 



British 
Empire 



Mr. J. Howard Reed recently read a paper before the British Cotton 
Association on the cultivation of cotton in the British Empire. The con- 
tribution is of special interest for the Lancashire manufacturers. 



FIBRE PLANTS: COTTON 



65 



The Author showed that the cotton crisis increases each year, because 
of insufficient production. Up" to the present the only countries which can 
compare with the United States for cotton production are India and Egypt, 
The cultivation of cotton has made rapid progress in some other countries, 
where it has been introduced only recently. 

Mr. Howard Reed describes the action and aim of the British Cotton 
Association, and indicates the countries of the British Empire offering the 
best conditions for cotton culture : the East Indies, Uganda, Nyasaland, Lagos 
and Nigeria. 

This report seemed rather pessimistic as regards the future develop- 
ment of the cotton industry in the British Empire. On the other hand, 
the members of the Cotton Association recognised the importance of the 
question, and were glad to learn that Mr. Reeves' report is soon to .be 
printed and widely distributed. 

Cotton Cultivation in German East Africa. (Vom Baumwollbau in Deutsch 
Ost-Afrika). — Deutsche Kolonial Zeitung, October 8, 1910. 



German East Africa will not be able to produce cotton of good qua- 
lity and high commercial value until native cultivators are compelled to use 
selected seeds and of a certain type. In order to obtain this result the 
Government has decided that only authorities and certain specially ap- 
pointed persons shall distribute cotton seeds. It is forbidden to use seeds 
from other sources ; and cotton plantations grown from seeds produced by 
private persons will be destroyed. These regulations have already been 
applied with success by the British Government in Uganda. 



German 
East Afrika 



H. A. Tempany. Manurial Experiments with Cotton jin the Leeward 
Islands. — West Indian Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. i, Barbadoes, 1910, pp. 60-63. 



The average restilts of the entire series of experiments carried out during 
six years, comprising a great number of experiments by Mr Tempany at 
St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat and Antigua, show that the appreciable increase 
in the cotton-crops is not in any case attributable to the use of fertilisers. 
These results are not, therefore, of a nature to modify the opinion already 
expressed in the preceding Report on these experiments {West Indian Bul- 
letin, Vol. X, p. 273); viz., that under existing conditions in the Leeward 
Islands, for soil in an average state of cultivation, the use of natural or 
artificial fertilisers is not remunerative. 

It must not be supposed, however, that the occasional use of natural 
and green manures is not desirable. There are, on the contrary, reasons 



Leeward 
islands 



66 FIBRE PLANTS: COTTON 

for believing that periodic applications of fertilisers are indispensable for 
mantaining the soil in tilth and for ensuring good crops. 

T. Alvarez. Experiments on Cotton Cultivation in Uruguay at the To- 
ledo Experimental Station. (Un cultivo de algodonero. Campo de 
ensayos, (Toledo). — Republica Oriental del Uruguay, Estiidios sobre cul- 
tivos, y trabajos experimentales de la Division de Agricultura, Montevideo, 
1910, No. 5, pp. 2>-6. 

These experiments were made with the two following herbaceous cotton 
varieties : Excelsior de Moore and Sea Island. The best results were obtained 
with the latter. 

In one of these experiments, sowing on September 8th, the plants 
were made to grow at a distance of 70 cm. one from the other; the har- 
Uruguay vest was on April 22nd, and yielded 751 kg., including bolls and seeds. 
The bolls were dried in the open air, and then weighed. The cotton fibre 
alone was 195 kg. per hectare, of excellent quality. It would seem that the 
cultivation of the herbaceous varieties of cotton ought to be advantageous, 
not only in Uruguay but also in the neighbouring districts of Brazil. 



Cotton Cultivation in Ceylon. (Baumwollbau auf Ceylan). — Deutsches Ko- 
lonialblatt, Sept. 15, 19 10. 

The Government of Ceylon is promoting the cultivation of cotton. The 
Agricultural Society has introduced Egyptian and Sea Island cottons in the 
Ceylon East and in the North of the Island. But this cultivation is, at least 
in part, [dependent on irrigation. In the Northern province alone there 
are 800 000 hectares admirably adapted for the cultivation of cotton, 30 000 
only being devoted to the cultivation of other plants. In the face of the 
growing difficulties which stand in the way of the exportation of tobacco 
from Ceylon, it is certain that cotton cultivation will advantageously replace 
that of tobacco (i). 



Regulations for the Buying of Cotton in Uganda. (Vorschriften fiir den 
Autkauf vom Baumwolle). — Deutsches Kelonialblatt, Berlin, Sept. 1910. 

The buying of cotton is permitted in Uganda, but only by special yearly 
authorisation of the Government. Heavy fines are inflicted on those who 



(i) In 1908, the area under tobacco in Ceylon was over 14060 acres. \^Edi\. 



United 



FIBRE PLANTS: COTTON. - FLAX 67 

infringe this provision. Buyers must engage to furnish information on the 
origin, spinning and picking of the cotton. 

The aim of all these provisions is to protect the cotton cultivation in 
the country against defective methods. 

R. W. Moore. Moisture in Cotton. (American Cotton Manufacturers' 
Meeting, 1910). — Textile World -Record. Vol. XL, No. i, pp. 114-116, 
(85-191). Boston, Mass, October 1910. 

The variation of moisture in cotton makes the question of the amount 
of moisture in the staple very important. 

Raw cotton may absorb 30 % of moisture (when it is stored in damp 
warehouses, or is otherwise exposed to dampness) and this without assuming states 
a damp appearance, or giving any sensation of moisture to the touch, 

From reports already made to the Association of Cotton-growers in 
the United States, it appears that the moisture in cotton may exceed the 
quantity considered normal by 18 kgr. (36 lbs.) per bale. 

Therefore it is of the highest importance that a standard should be 
determined to fix the amount of moisture to be considered as normal. Any 
excess above this limit should be held abnormal and valueless. 

It has, in fact, been established that cotton when perfectly dried absorbs 

8.5 7o of moisture under natural and normal conditions; which is equal to 

saying that the normal excess of moisture over absolutely dry cotton would 

be 8.5 7u, and the normal rate of moisture of raw cotton in the natural 

state would be 7.8 "J^, 

G. S. Cultivation of Cotton and Flax in the Southern Provinces of Italy. 

(La coltura del cotone e del lino nelle provincie meridionali). — La 
Puglia agricola c com?nerciale, n. 45, Bari, November 6, 19 10. 

The Italian Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Raineri, is studying the means Italy: 
of developing cotton culture in South Italy, and he has recently examined ^ 
some projects presented by the Colonial Institute of Florence. 

The cultivation of cotton in Italy which, at certain periods (as during 
the Civil War in the United States) gave excellent results, has since been 
neglected, farmers having turned their attention chiefly to the cultivation 
of the vine. It is desirable that attention be again given in Italy to 
cotton-culture. Flax is another fibre-crop, the cultivation of which ought to 
increase in Italy. 

Apart from the growing importance of linseed production, (the manu- 
facture of linseed oil and commercial derivatives), flax is as valuable as ever 
as a fibre. 



1 



68 FIBRE PLANTS : COTTON. - FLAX, ETC. 

Flax stalks are often thrown away as rubbish, after threshing the seeds ; 
sometimes they are used for burning or for thatching. Yet, simply as pro- 
ducers of tow, flax-stalks may sometimes yield a profit comparable to that 
of the linseed. 

Grove. International Flax Exhibition at Moscow. - The Board of Trade 
^ournal, London, October 20, 19 10. 

In January 191 1 an Exhibition of flax cultivation and manufacture will 
Russia be opened at Moscow. The Exhibition has been organised by the Russian 
General Industrial Society for the cultivation of flax. Exhibits will be 
transported free of charge to and from Moscow. 

Exhibition of Fibre Plants at Surabaya in Java. (Internationaler Pflanzen- 
faser Congress und Ausstellung in Surabaya, 191 1). — Deutsches Kolo- 
7iialblatt, Berlin, September 15, 1910. 

The Agricultural Syndicate of the Dutch Indies will inaugurate at Su- 
Dutch rabaya in July, in 191 1, an Exhibition of Fibre Plants. 
^^** _ A section of machinery for the preparation of fibres will be attached 

Java" ^^ ^^ Exhibition. All exhibited machines not sold during the Exhibition 
will be returned free of freight to the ports of Genoa, Marseilles, Ams- 
terdam and Rotterdam. 

New Fibrous Plant for Java. — La Quinzame Coloniak, Paris, n. 19, 191 o. 

According to an account by M. de Kruyf on the fibres of the Hibiscus 
cannabinus, L., which has been cultivated in British India and even in 
Egypt, it may be concluded that the fibres obtained in Java are equal, 
though not superior, to good qualities of jute. Hibiscus cannabinus does not 
Indies: stand persistent and abundant rains, nor does it grow well in marshy places, 
lava ,-,Q^ even in soils with a humid sub-soil. Thanks to its rapid growth, this 
plant may be sown after the harvesting of other crops, so that by adjusting 
the crop-rotation it is possible to have three crops per year on the same 
field. This plant, wrongly named Java-jute, promises well as a crop for 
certain regions of Java. 

Sisal-Culture. — {^Journal of the Board of Agriculture, British Guiana, III, 
Jan, 3d, 1910). — The Tropical Agriculturist, Vol. XXXV, No 3, Sept. 1910, 
p. 201, Colombo. 
British 
Guiana It is sometimes believed that Agave rigida, var. sisalana, which produces 

the fibre called " Sisal, " can grow and prosper in any soil and in many 



Dutch 
East 



FIBRE - PLANTS 



69 



climates, and it has even been said that the best fibre came from the worst 
Soils. But experience has shown that, to grow rapidly, Sisal-Agave needs 
good soil, abundant rains and careful cultivation. 



The Perini Fibre Plant in Brazil. — Btdleiin of the Department of Agrictiltwe. 
Nassau, Bahamas, October 15, 1910. 

The Hibiscus radiatvs known as " Perini, " produces a valuable fibre. 
Sown in November, it may bear as much as three crops per year. When 
two crops are grown, the first, a small one, is harvested for seeds, the 
second for fibre. 

The cultivation of Perini on a large scale requires the use of good 
machinery. " Perini " grows rapidly, attaining a height of three metres. 
This cultivation is in its first development in Brazil. 



Brazil 



The Da Fou in Upper Senegal and on the Niger. — Btdletin de f Office Co- 
lonial, Paris, No. 29, 1910. 

The Hibiscus cannabiinis L., called Da Fou, is a textile plant of the 
Malvaceae family, cultivated on the banks of the Niger and the Bani by the 
Somono people. This fibre is only produced for local use. But if the cul- 
tivation were increased, the exportation of this fibre would be very remune- 
rative. Some experiments made in the Segu district have given the follo- 
wing results : 

1st field: Rich soil, on the banks of the Niger. 

Yield in dry stalks 8 400 kilos per hectare 

Yield in fibre i 596 » » 

2nd field: Poor soil : 

Yield in dry stalks 7 000 » » 

Yield in fibre i 316 f » 

This shows that Da yields heavy crops. A hectare of land sown with 
Da returns about 750 francs. 

The Da trade may develop; but before beginning this culture it would 
be well to make sure of the reception that Da fibre would meet with on 
the European markets ascertaining also the approximate quantit)^ required 
annually by European industry. 

Fibre-Trade in the German Colonies. (The Textile Trade in Germany. 
— Revue des Question Scieniifiques, Louvain, October 20, 1910. 

During the past few years the textile industry has made considerable 
progress in Germany, and the cultivation of fibre plants has developed in 



French 

West 

Africa: 

Senegal 



Togo 



70 



FIBRE PLANTS: PALMS. - SUGAR-PLANTS 



German colonies, particularly cotton, which has given the most encoura- 
ging results in Togo. 

Ramie, sisal and the cocoa nut fibre made their appearance in com- 
merce after 1890; and only after 1905 Indian and New Zealand hemp came 
on the markets to any extent (i). 

Germany imported about 800 000 tons of fibres in 1909. The figures 
of German Colonial importation are not high, but they are continually and 
regularly increasing. 



Piassava Palms in Madagascar. 

1910. 



La Quinzaine Coloniak, Paris, No. 18, 



It is known that a fibre palm, the Dictyosperma fibrosum (2), is cultivated 

in East Madagascar. Messrs Jumelle and Perrier de la Bathie have found in 

Madagascar West Madagascar a species also capable of culture; they consider it to 

belong to the species Vonitra, Beccari. and describe it under the name ot 

Vonitra crinita (3). 

This palm tree yields a minimum of 3 kilograms of piassava. The indu- 
strial value of the fibre, which may be extracted either from the sheaths of 
the leaves or from the spathes, is not yet ascertained. 



World 
Production 



Sugar-Plants and the Production of Sugar. — Revue des Questions Scien- 
tifiques, Louvain, October 20, 1910. 

The total sugar yield of the sugar cane {Saccharum offic'marum) in 1908 
was about 5 161 000 tons; the production of beet-sugar appears to have 
been 6 527 800 tons. 

Java, with Cuba, produces most of the cane-sugar, and the greatest pro- 
ducer of beet-sugar is Germany. 

The production of maple-sugar in North America has greatly increased, 
but there is no hope of its extending greatly. It is the same with palm 
sugar (India and Java). Other sugar-plants are: 
The Sorghos, in East Africa. 
Maize, in Africa and America. 
Panicum, in West and Central Africa. 
Panicum Burgu, in West and Central Africa. 
The sugar of Pineapples and Agaves is not used for industrial pur- 
poses. 



(i) In England cocoa nut fibre, or coir, attained commercial importance shortly 
after 1850, whilst no less than 18000000 lbs of sisal were sent to British ports in 1875. 
Sir G. Watt, The Economic Products of India. Calcutta 1S89. [£■</.]. 

(2) Dictyosperma fibrosum C. H. Wright, Madag. {Index Kew ) [Ed.]. 

(3) The Index Kezvensis and its Supplements up to 1908 make no mention of the 
species Vonitra. [Ed.]. 



SUGAR-PLANTS. - COFFEE 



71 



S. Stein. The Cultivation of Sugar Beats in England. (Zuckerriiben- 
kultuf and Riibenzuckergewinnung in England). — Ckein. Zeitung. Cothen, 
October, 1910, No. 124, p. mo. 

Twenty years ago the writer experimented in several districts of Eng- 
land, Scotland and Ireland, with 36 different varieties of sugar-beets. 39 tons 
5 cwt. were obtained per acre (98 596 kg. per hectare). The amount of sugar 
in the beets varied from 17.65 to 21 7o- 

According to Mr. Stein, the climate of England is well adapted to the 
cultivation of beets. 



Great 
Britain 



The Cultivation of Sugar Beets in Hawaii. — Zeitschrift filr angetvaitdte Cheniie. 
J. XXIII, H. 42, p. 1986, Leipzig, October 21, 1910. 

Beet-sugar will shortly be [produced in Hawaii, in addition to cane-sugar. 

A Company has been started at Honolulu, with a capital of 400 000 
dollars (2 060 000 frs.), for the cultivation of sugar beets in the Island of 
Lanai. The Company also farms and breeds live-stock. Experiments show 
that the beets raised are very rich in sugar. 

On account of drought, Lanai Island has not been cultivated for many 
years ; but it is hoped that, with artificial irrigation, 60 000 tons of sugar 
may be produced. 



Hawaii 



MosER. Production of Moka-Coffee.— ^/'-^mc(?« Grocer, New York, Oc- 
tober 12, 1 9 10. 

Moka coffee is all grown in the Yemen, on a limited area, but it could 
be grown also in the hilly regions of the interior. Arabia does not pro- 
duce much coffee for commerce, and sorghum, or durra, is raised on soils 
well adapted for coffee. The cultivation of this plant is continually dimi- 
nishing. The districts where coffee is most cultivated are those between Tair, 
Ibb, Yerim and Sanaa. The country along^^the route from Hodeida to Sanaa 
is generally well cultivated. The best qualities of Moka are Mohtari, Sharah , 
Menakha and Hi/ash. 



Arabia : 
Yemen 



Selection and Hybridisation of Coffee in Southern India. — The Indian 
Agriculturist, Vol. XXXV, No. 9, pp. 271-272. Calcutta, ist Septem- 
ber 1910. 

At the annual meeting of the United Planter's Association the present Britisli 

status of coffee plantations in Southern India was brought up for discuss- '"'l'^" 

^, . . • , • • , ^ ^ f Southern 

ion. The situation is becoming more critical year by year, on account ot ^^^^^ 

the low yields obtained, the quality of the product, and the spread of 



72 



COFFEE 



disease. Mr. J. G. Hamilton communicated to the meeting some results 
he obtained by hybridisation and selection. By crossing the common Arabian 
coffee with Liberian coffee, in suitable proportions, a type can be obtained 
which offers great resistance to Hemileia vastatrix, without deteriorating the 
quality of the product. 

Mr. C. Danvers expressed doubts as to the effects of hybridisation, 
which he believes to be too lengthy and uncertain in its results; he would 
be more in favour of the introduction of new types, such as the Robitsta. 

Mr. Lampard referred to the discovery of indigenous types of coffee 
in the forests of the Congo ; experiments have shown that these varieties 
yield 2 cwts. per acre. 



Federated 

Malay 

States 



Congo Coffee i and; Investigations on Rubber-culture. — {Bulletin of the 
Federated Malay States). Nature, No 2138, vol. 84, October 20, 1910, 
p. 510, London. 

Amongst the crops which it is proposed to associate with the rubber 
plant during the years before it enters into full production, a Bulletin of 
the Department of Agriculture of the Federated Malay States suggests Coffea 
robusta, of which it enumerates the advantages. 

This plant, which grows wild in the Congo, was discovered in 1898. 
It grows more rapidly and produces more than the C. liberica. When 
associated with rubber-plants it begins to produce at two years, and at three 
yields already a good crop. At five years Coffea robusta would damage the 
rubber, and must be suppressed. 



Abortion in the Flowers of the Arabian Coffee Plant. 

Colo/dale, Paris, No iS, 19 10. 



La Quinzaine 



Abortion in the flowers of the Arabian coffee plant is attributed to exces- 

Gnadeloiipe sive shade and perhaps also to the unwise use of manure. The coffee 

plantations in Guadeloupe are_^^ scarcely shaded, and only by direct experiment 

can the suitable degree of shade be determined. An attempt should be 

made in Tonkin to plant the Arabian cofifee plant in full sunlight. 



The Introduction of a New Coffee Plant in Madagascar. — Revue de Ma^ 
dagascar, Paris, October 15, 1910. 

Mr. Fauchere, Inspector of Agriculture, after numerous trials, confirms 

Madagascar that the Congo cofifee plant seems able to resist Hemileia vastatrix, which 

decimates the plantations of Madagascar. Its product is superior to that 

of the Liberia cofifee, and its yield is nearly double. These considerations 

recommend the Congo coffee-plant to the attention of planters. 



TEA. - CACAO 



73 



F. Fetch. Tea and Hevea interplanted. Imports of Tea Seeds in Ceylon. 

— Tropical Agriculturist, vol. XXXV, No. 3, Sept., 1910, p. 207. Colombo. 

In Ceylon, both in the low country and on the hills, Hevea has been 
grown with tea without diminishing the yield of tea. 

The tea and Hevea plantations occupy at present nearly 75 000 acres, or 
30 000 hectares ; but as the greater part of this land lies on the hills, where 
the growth of the Hevea is slow, the tea plant will suffer little damage by 
interplantation for many other years. 

Whilst the statistics from 1900 to 1906 show that the exports of tea- 
seeds nearly balanced the imports, the sum of those from 1907 to 1909 
shows an excess of imports over exports of 3506 cwt (1780 quintals), a 
quantity sufficient for planting about 14 000 acres, or 6000 hectares, exclu- 
sive of tea-seed produced in the island. 



Ceylon 



Tea in Java during recent Years. — La Quinzaine Coloijiale. Oct. 25, 1910. 

The area in Java under tea has greatly increased in the last few years. 
The production, which in 1905 was about 11 704162 kg., had risen in 1909 
to 16 672 274 kg. 

The Government of Java is actively promoting tea plantations, and is 
studying the diseases of tea, especially those which may be introduced with 
the seeds. Amongst these is the well known Blister Blight, which may be 
prevented by immersing the seeds in a Viooo solution of corrosive sublimate, 
sufficient to kill the germs of the fungus (i). 



Dutch 

East 

Indies: 

Java 



A. Fredholm. Improvement of Cacao Culture by Selection, at Barba- 
does. — Proc. Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago. Agricultural 
News, Vol. IX, No. 220, Barbados, October i, 1910, p. 305. 

To improve the cultivation of cacao in the West Indies it is necessary 
to select the varieties. Interplanting of different varieties is injurious to the 
uniformity of the product; the varieties should be studied, choosing only 
the best. The aim must be the production of a superior quality and a 
uniform type of cacao. 



Barbados 



Profit in Manuring Cacao Trees in Grenada, W. I. Tropical Life. Vol. VI, 
No. 10, pp. 186-7. London, October, 1910, 

Though there has been no considerable increase in cacao-tree area in Windward 

Isisindss 
the Island of Grenada, the exports have risen very considerably. Grenada 



(i) "Blister Blight of tea-plant is due to Exobasidium vexans fMassee), This di- 
sease is described by Sir George Watt as " one of the very worst blights on tea... " 
The foliage is the part principally attacked, although young shoots are also sometimes 
infected. " Vide Massee, Kew Bulletin, 1898, p. 109; Watt, The Pests and Blights 
of the Tea Plant, p. 41 g. 

Geo. M\'s,?,kk, Diseas'S of Cultivated Plants and Trees. London, 19 10, p. 402. [^Ed.'\. 



74 



CACAO. - TOBACCO 



This is due to the increased practice of chemical manuring, which, ac- 
cording to Mr. Malins-Smith, increases the 3aeld by more than 7 bags in 
the three crops obtained per acre (i). As the average value of a bag is 
£ 4 and the cost of manuring £ 5 per acre, the net profit realised is £ 23. 

It has, moreover, been observed that cacao trees, when well manured, 
develop surface roots in preference to deep roots, avoiding clay sub-soils, 
which prove fatal to this culture. 



Kamerun 
and Samoa 



Cacao in the German Colonies. — Agriculture \Pr. des Pays chauds, Paris, 
Sept. 1910, No. 90, pp. 253-254. 

The cacao planters in the German Colonies complain that their pro- 
ducts must seek foreign markets. 

The Deutsche Kolonialzeitung gives the area and yield of German cacao 
plantations. Non-German plantations prevail in the German possessions 
of Kamerun and Samoa. Several recent plantations are now beginning to 
yield (2). 



France: 

Ille-et-Vilaine, 

Lot 



Th. Schloesing Fils. Tlie Cultivation of Tobacco for the Production of 
Nicotine. — Bull, [des Siances de la Soc. Nat. d'Agr. de Prance. Paris, 
July 1910, No. 7, pp. 596-603. 

The growing use of nicotine in agriculture for destroying 'parasites 
has induced M. Schloesing to consider the advantages of cultivating tobacco 
for nicotine. 

Experiments have been made in France under two different climates ; in 
Ille-et-Vilaine (with variety Aurlac) and in Lot (with variety JVykerka). 

The cultures were carried out on plots of one are, (100 sq. meters) the 
number of plants on each plot being in the proportions of 10 000, 20 000, 
40 000 and 80 000 per hectare. 

It appears that in every case the quantity of nicotine produced per hec- 
tare diminishes considerably when all the leaves are left on the plants and 
the soil is unmanured. 

In the tobacco cultivations in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine the best 
restilts were obtained by leaving from 6 to 12 leaves per plant and fertilising 
with 300 kgr. of sodium nitrate per hectare; or by leaving only, 6 leaves on 
each plant and using 800 kgr. of nitrate. 

The highest yield in alkaloid was from Nykerka tobacco, leaving six 
leaves "per plant. 



(i) M. Wildemaa [Lcs Planks Tropicales de grank culture, Bruxelles-Paris, igoS), 
states that the weight of a bag of cacao in Trinidad is 90 legs. \Ed.\ 

(2) In Kamerun, in 1908-1909, the Cacao-plantations occupied 7578 hectares \Ed?^. 



TOBACCO 



75 



Sowing the plants close together has exercised less influence on the total 
yield of nicotine per hectare than the number of leaves left per plant. Abun- 
dant manuring with nitrate does not appear to increase very greatly the per- 
centasje of alkaloid in the tobacco leaves. 



Experiments in Tobacco-Culture in Long Island, Bahamas. Bulletin of the 
Department oj Agriculture. Nassau, N.. P. Bahamas, Sept. 1910. 

The cultivation of tobacco, which has been introduced into Long Island 
in the Bahamas, has suffered in the neighbourhood of Clarence Town, first 
from floods and then from drought. 

About 400 lbs. of leaves were gathered on 3/4 of an acre. The soil 
around Clarence Town is well adapted for the cultivation of tobacco, and 
in normal seasons good crops may be realised. 



Bahamas 



Nicotine Manufacture in German East Africa. — De Indische Mercur, 
August 23. The Chemist and Druggist, N. 1601, vol. LXXVII, Oct. i, 
1910, p. 40. London. 

A nicotine-factory has been erected in German East Africa. In South 
Africa and in Australia tobacco juice is very much used for sheep-dips. 

The tobacco of East Africa, very rich in nicotine, is rendered lighter 
and more adapted to European taste by having some of the nicotine 
removed. 



German 
East 
Africa 



Turkish Tobacco in Cape Colony. (Der Anbau von Tilrkischem Tabak in 
der Kap Kolonie). Deutsches Kolonialblatt. Berlin, Sept. 1910. 

For several years Boer Tobacco has been cultivated in Cape Colony, 
giving average crops of about 5 000 000 lbs. 

In consequence of some chance experiments, by a foreigner named 
Stella, controlled since by successive cultivation, the Turkish tobacco Suluk 
is being introduced into the two districts of Riversdale and Mosselbay. 
Hitherto results have not been sufficiently satisfactory, 

Turkish tobacco is appreciated in Europe; but European consumers, on 
account of price, prefer tobacco produced by countries that are nearer than 
South Africa. Nevertheless, the success of Turkish tobacco culture in Cape 
Colony is not doubtful, and the South African Government is determined to 
favour this production. 



South 

African 

Union: 

Cape Colony 



76 



TOBACCO. - KOLA-NUT. - HOPS. 



PEPPER 



French 

West 

Africa : 

Dahomey 



Aug. Chevalier. The Flora of Upper Dahomey. The Kola-nut Trade. 

(Mission of Mr. Aug. Chevalier in French West Africa). — La Geo- 
graphic. Paris, Oct. 15, 1910, XXII, N. 4, pp. 264-65. 

Djougou, or Jugu, is a very important commercial centre. It is on the 
way of the Hausa caravans seeking Kola-nuts in Ashanti for trade in Kano, 
Sokoto and even Bornu. About 15 000 cargoes of Kolanuts pass through 
Jugu every year, each of 30 kgr. weight. 

The Hausa when on their out-journey to purchase Kola-nuts, barter the 
following products of their country: tanned leather, native cotton or cotton 
cloth, onions, mats, straw-hats, etc. 



Neumann. Hop-valuation in Germany. (Oktobertagung der Versuchs-und 
Lehranstalt fiir Brauerei, in Berlin. 1910. Sitzung der Rohstoffabteilung). 
— Tagez.f. Brauerei, VIII J., Nos. 239-1274. Berlin, Otc. 12th, 1910. 

The preservative, anti-germinative and bitter qualities of hops are due 
to the proportion of bitter principles, or I/ipi/iin. 

It has been recently observed that of the three different substances 
constituting lupulin, two only should be taken into consideration : the hutmi- 
Germany lone and the lupuli7iic acid, constituting the soft resin ; the remaining hard 
resin is of no value. 

Hops may therefore be valued by marking with points, in the following 
manner: 5 points for hops with less than 8 "/^ of bitter principles; 7 points 
when the proportion is from 8 to 10 "Z^,; 9 points when from 10 to 12 "7^; 
II points from 12 to 14%; ^3 points from 14 to 16%; 15 points when the 
bitter principles are above 16° j^. The maximum recorded percentage of 
bitter principles was 17.3%' ^^^ minimum 9°/oi the general average is 
from 13 to 15%. 

At the XVIIth Exhibition of Barley and Hops, held this year in Berlin, 
the following prizes were awarded, according to the described method of clas- 
sification, out of a total of 134 samples exhibited: 14 First Prizes; 19 Second 
Prizes ; 30 Third Prizes, and 4 Certificates. The German production carried 
off 4750 marks in prizes; the Hallertau production was particularly noted. 



French 
ndochina 



Louis Gay-Lugny. Pepper Production in Indo-China. — Commerce hiUrinir 
de r Indochine. Paris, Emile Larose, Ed., 1910, pp. 30-31. 

It is necessary to limit or even to reduce the production of pepper in 
Indo-China. This commodity has its market in France, where the demand 
varies between 2800 and 2900 tons per year, whereas the supply oscillates 
between 4000 and 5000 tons. 



CLOVES. - PRIPRIOCA. - YLANG-YLANG. - LINALOE 77 



Clove Crops in Zanzibar and Pemba. (Nelkenernte in Zanzibar und Pemba). 
— Deutsches Colonialblatt. Berlin, Sept. 15th, 1910. 

The clove crop this year is below the average in Pemba, and normal 
at Zanzibar. On the whole there is a shortage of 65% on the preced- Zanzibar 
ing crop. ^"^ P«"'»'a 

The cloves gathered in Zanzibar in 1908-09 amomited to 175 743/rrt:w7<a;/^ 
{frasilah := 35 lbs.) and those in Pemba to 449 685 frasilah, whereas only 
109 683 were gathered in Zanzibar this year, and 300 042 in Pemba. 

E. G. Camus and A. Camus. The Priprioca, a Perfume Plant: Mespilo- 

daphne pretiosa. — Bull. Sclent, et indust. de la Maison Roure Bertrand. 
Grasse, Oct. 19 10, pp, 3-22. 

The leaves of this plant when bruised give off an agreable but complex 
perfume, recalling clove, cinnamon and bergamot at the same time. The 
bark appears to be the most aromatic part of the plant, and its scent is 
perhaps sweeter that that of the other parts. Priprioca has been identified 
by Messrs Camus with the Mespilodaphfie pretiosa, a tree growing in 
Brazil, in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro and Minas, in the forests of 
Amazonia, and in Guiana near the Orenoco. The tree has been briefly 
described under the names of Pao pretiosa, Cased pretiosa, and medlar-bay 
{laurier nefle). 

The paper desciibing the plant is illustrated by four plates, and contains 
a study of the essential oils of the branches and of the wood. The Mespi- 
lodaphne pretiosa, almost unknown in Europe, contains in all its parts an 
essence which could be employed in perfumery and for soap, as a substitute 
for the essential oil of linaloe (i). 

P. Advisse-Desruisseaux. Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odorata). — Agr. Pr. Pays 
chauds. Sept. 19 10, An. X, N. 90, pp. 216-225. 

This paper on Ylang-Ylang contains an historical survey ^of the subject, a 
description of the botanical characters of the plant, and some information Malaya 
on the cultivation, the associated cultures and the enemies of Cananga odorata. 



Brazil 



(l) « Mr Holmes {^Perfume and Essential Oil Record, I, 19 10, pag. 32) publishes 
an article on linaloe wood from Mexico, recapitulating all that is known on this product. 
According to Mr Holmes, besides Bttrsera Delpechiana Poiss. and Bursera Aloe-xylon 
Engl., which produce the Essential Oil of Linaloe, there exist in Mexico other species 
of Bursera producing aroma, such as Bursera penicillata Engl, and Bursera f agar aides 
Engl. var. ventricosa. The latter produces an aroma like caraway. " Bulletin semestriel 
de la Maison Schimmel et C.ie a Miltitz. Octobre 19 10, pag. 82. \Ed.\. 



78 



CARAWAY. - KARITE. - DOI 



Netherlands 



The Use of Caraway Stalks (Alasch) for Pasteboard — Feuiue d inform- 
ations dii Ministh'e de l' Agriculture. Paris, N. 38, 19 10. 

Several pasteboard mills in Holland have tried the use 01 caraway-stalks 
mixed with the straw of wheat, oats and barley. These stalks are relatively 
cheap. The results have been satisfactory ; and the pasteboard manufact- 
urers have made new purchases of carawa} stalks. At present the co-opera- 
tive pasteboard mills of Scheemda are experimenting this new material (i). 



Soudan. 
Nigeria 



M. SouTHCOMEE. Karite Butter. {Annates de Chimie analytiqne. July 15th, 
1910. p. 288). Abs. Revue de Chimie Industrielle, Sept. 1910, 21 '"^ annt§e, 
No. 249, Paris, p. 284. 

This fat comes from the seeds of two varieties of Spotaceae. The 
nuts give both Shea butter, and Karite butter, which have the following 
characters : 

Carite butter 
(Soudan) 

25° to 27° C. 

175-3 177 
66 67.1 



Melting point . . . , 
Index of saponification 
Iodine Number . . . 



Shea butter 
(Nigeria) 






2.0' 


C 


77.8 to 


183 




56.2 


57 





The Shea butter prepared by the natives contains 6o°/o C)f oleic acid, 
30 to 35 °/o of stearic acid, 3 to 4°/o o^ lauric acid. It is thought that this 
at contains also some linoleic acid. 



French 

West 

Africa : 

Dahomey 



P. G. The Karite Butter Tree of Dahomey. The Doi (Voandzeia Pois- 
soni), a Leguminous Plant whith Hypogaeic Fruit. (Auguste Chevalier 
Mission). Revue Scientifique, Paris, Oct. 15th, 1910, p. 507. 

"Pursuing inquiries into the agricultural and forest resources of West 
Africa, Mr. Auguste Chevalier, after a five months' exploration of Lower 
and Middle Dahomey, proceeded towards the extreme North of the country. 
At Nioro, in the Atacora mountains, he was busy in June with the study of 
Karitt', the butter tree of West Africa {Quinzaine Coloniale, August 23rd, 1910). 
This species covers an immense area in Africa, almost entirely situated on 
French territory; for hundreds of kilometers the bush is nothing but an 



(1) Caroway or Cariwi Caivi Linn. (Umbelliferae). " Caroway seed is principally 
employed for the purpose of flavouring bread, sauces, sour-kraut, in Germany and Sweden. 
It enters into the composition of certain cakes, especially in that of the liqueur called 
Kummel. It is chiefly exported from Finland and Germany, where caroway is cultivated 
extensively, as well as from Morocco. The essential oil is manufactured on a large scale." 
Cfr. Dujardin-Beaumetz and Egasse, Les Platttes AIedici?jales indigems et exoiiques, 
Paris, 1889, pp. 155-156. [Ed.l. 



DOI. 



SPINACH. - LOGANBERRY 



79 



immense growth of karites, the natives utilising only a very small portion 
of the fruit. More than 500 000 tons of dry karite nuts cotild be exported 
annually from French African territory; and as they are worth 250 francs 
per ton at Hamburg, they represent a great wealth left waste. Unfortun- 
ately, the karite grows some hundreds of kilometers from the sea, in a 
region not yet penetrated by railways. 

"Mr. Chevalier has studied a new leguminous plant with subterranean 
fruits, the " Doi " {Voandzeia Poissoni), which may be used as haricots. 
Europeans find Doi beans very agreable to the taste " (i). 



Doi: a New Vegetable from Dahomey 

cole, XVIth year, N. 379. Antibes, Sept 



La Petite Remie agricole et horti- 



!5, 19T0, p. 210. 



The bean of the cultivated Doi of Dahomey, is sold in very consider- 
able quantities on the market of Abomey, and constitutes a first class 
alimentary product. 

The Doi is an annual plant, from 5 to 8 centimeters high, with a 
creeping stem producing numerous slender runners, which spread over the 
soil and are partly buried. The Doi has very small leaves. 

The underground fruit, a thin wrinkled leathery pod, contains one 
(or two) round seeds, ditferently coloured, of the size of large peas. The 
Doi-bean may be used as the haricot, of which it resembles the best va- 
rieties. 



French 

West 

Africa : 

Dahomey 



Canning Spinach in California. — The Canner and Dried Fruit Packer, Vo- 
lume XXXI, N. 13. Chicago, Oct. 6, 1910, p. 48. 

During the present season, the factories in California have canned a United 

larger quantity of spinach than usual: 600 tons have been prepared near States: 

El Monte. This district promises an important contribution to the canning California 
industry. 

Geoffrey F. Hooper. The Commercial Cultivation in England of the 
Loganberry. — fournal of the Board of Agriculture, Vol. XVII, N. 7, 
Oct. 1910, p. 552. London. 

The Loganberry is a hybrid, or cross, of the raspberry and blackberry. Great 
obtained in California in 1881 by Judge Logan. Britain 



(i) The name Voandzeia Poissoni is not in the Index Ke^vensis nor in its Supple- 
ments up to 1908; the Voandzeia stibterranea Thon. is the only species named. \_£d.\ 



So CHRYSANTHEMUMS. - FLOWER CULTURE . 

The loganberry very much resembles the raspberry, but is larger and more 
productive; it is eaten when fresh, or in the form of syrups, jellies, jams. 
It is used chiefly for bottling. One firm of preservers bought in 1909, some 
10 tons of loganberries for bottling. 

The loganberries have been cultivated in England on a large scale for 
barely five years. Some growers have already five acres in full production of 
Loganberries, yielding as much as 4 tons of fruit per acre (or 100 quintals 
per hectare). 

The fruit ripens from the middle of July to the end of August. 

Mr. Hooper gives instructions on the subject of the cultivation of this 
new fruit. Loganberry is resistent to spring frosts, but is already damaged 
by two enemies : the By turns tomentosus, or raspberry weevil, and a disease 
probably due to a fungus (i). No satisfactory remedy has hitherto been 
found either for the one or the other (2). 

Henze. Chemical Manuring of Chrysanthemams and other Flowers. 
(Blurnendiingung). — Die Erndhrung der Pjianze. Stassfurt, Oct. 1910, 
N. 20, p. 200. 

Germany Remarkable results may be obtained with Chrysanthemum plants when 

chemically manured. The flowers of plants fertilised with phosphates, potash 
salts and nitrogen have finer colours and are more developed than the 
flowers of plants with insufficient or no manure. 

Indications are given for the manuring of Azaleas, Rhododendrons, 
Camelias, Orchids, etc. 

S. Valle. Mixed Flower-culture in tiie Riviera. (Osservazioni economico- 
agrarie sulle consociazioni dei fiori nella Riviera Ligure). — L Agricol- 
tura Italiana, Pisa, October 1910, fasc. 682, p. 577-580. 

In fields where there are no trees it is the custom on the Riviera to 

grow roses and carnations together, so that the rose-plantation gives some 

Liquria returns during the first four years, when the rose plant is of small yield. 

In olive groves, where carnations cannot thrive, because requiring plenty 
of sunlight, the rose is cultivated during one year together with violets 
{violets touffues), and during the next three years with the hyacinth or with 
the narcissus. 



(i) Byturus tomentosus is the most injurious of all the insects which attack the 
raspberry. This weevil, 4 mm. in length, is known in England under the name of 
Raspberry Bug. Text Book of Agricultural Zoology, by Fred. W. Theobald, London, 
1898. [Ed.]. 

(2) For information on the cultivation and origin of the Loganberry, see Ch. H . 
Shinn and F. W. Card, in L. H. Bailey, Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. New- 
York, 1903, vol. IV, p. 937. [Ed.]. 



FLOWER-CULTURE - ARBORICULTURE 8i 

It is certainly not advisable (as sometimes done in the Riviera) to cut 
down olive groves and replace them with flowers. By judicious pruning 
of the olive-trees, flowers may profitably be interplanted. 

Floriculture associated with the cultivation of the olive tree is a pecu- 
liarity of the Eastern Riviera, where the experience of crops and ornamental 
plants suitable for growing with olive-trees has led to increased profits. 
Olive-trees and ornamental palms may be profitably grown together. 

Ern. Nyssen. R. Richter's " New Arboriculture " in Germany. Chasse et 
Peche. Brussels, Oct. ist, 1910, p. 14-16. 

Mr. Rudolph Richter, in a book entitled Der Neue Obstbau, published 
by Rudolph Just at Stapelberg am Harz (Germany), proposes a new method 
of tiee-culture which, if practised, would revolutionise fruit tree cultivation. 
This method is a modification of that of Stringfellow, which is adapted to 
the conditions prevailing in some parts of the United States, and has given 
good results in Central Europe (i). 

By Richter's method the soil is not specially prepared before planting, Germany 
and the main branches of the tree are cut back to within 3 or 6 centimetres 
of their base, whilst the root is reduced by an oblique cut to a mere stump. 

The tree is planted superficially, after plastering the stump with moist- 
ened clay; no props are used, Richter considering them injurious. Ma- 
nure must be placed on the surface of the soil, and the earth should not 
be tilled superficially. No vegetables should be grown under the tree, 
within the radius of a metre, while the tree is young, and later on not 
within distances corresponding to the spread of the foliage. 



1,1) "Of late years a method of drastic pruning has come into notice under the 
name of Stringfellow or stub-root system, taking its name from H. M. Stringfellow of 
Texas, who has written much concerning it. The fullest presentation of Mr. Stringfellow's 
ideas will be found in \\\i book ''The New Horticulture." It advises that practically all 
the roots be cut away and that the top be shortened to a straight stick, one or two feet 
long, without side branches. It is the supposition that when trees are reduced to their 
lowest terms in this way, the new root-branches that arise will take a more natural form 
and the tree will assume more of the root character of a seedling. This method of 
transplanting has met with good success in many places. The fundamental theories on 
which it is founded, however, have not been demonstrated. This system is, in fact, a 
matter of local practice rather than of principle. In a great majority of cases, it will be 
found to be better, particularly in trees that are three years old or more, to prune them 
only moderately, allowing a part of the original root system and a part of the top to 
remain." 

Cyclopedia of American Horticulture^ L, H. Bailey. New York, vol. Ill, 1907, 
p. 1442. \Ed?^. 



82 



FRUIT-TREES 



Mr. Richter is contraiy to pruning, and to the use of poisonous insecti- 
cides ; moistened clay is his sole treatment for plants and their wounds. 

New methods are suggested for the cultivation of herbaceous plants, for 
the strawberry in particular. 



France 



L. Daniel. Inverse Grafting. — Revue Horiicole, No. 20, Paris, October 16, 
1 910, pp. 469-472. 

Mr. Daniel, of the Rennes Faculty in France, dtscxlhes inverse grafting, 
done with two plants, each of which may play alternatively the role of stock 
and of scion. He has tried to discover whether it were possible to make 
inverse grafts with any two kinds of plant and whether the two inverse 
grafts succeed equally and with similar results. M. Daniel has made inverse 
grafts of Belladonna and Potatoes, of Potatoes and Tomatoes ; and after 
numerous trials he has come to the conclusion that the same plant behaves 
differently, according to whether it plays the part of stock or of scion. 
This tends to prove that the immutability of grafted plants is not absolute, 
there being a reciprocal injiuence of the stock and of the scion. 



France 



Herissant. Pruning of Old Fruit Trees. — Bull, des Stances de la Soc. Nat. 
d'Agric. de France. Paris, July igio, n. 7, p. 613-615. 

In the treatment of old or decaying fruit trees good results have been 
obtained by Mr. Herissant's new method of pruning off branches and twigs 
with a diameter under one centimetre. Secondary bi-anches are topped at 
the point where they attain the same diameter, while the big branches 
and principal boughs remain untouched. 

Experiments were made apple trees of the varieties : Petit Doux, Bidan 
and Gilet Rouge. 



Germany 



Baumann. Propping and Binding Trees. (Stamm-und Baurabande). — 
Geisenheinier Mitt, liber Obst ii/id Gartenbaii. Geisenheim, Nov. 1910, 
No. 14, pp. 177-188. 

A new system for binding trees to their props. The prop, driven into the 
ground along the tree, is fitted with a special hinged ring, the two segments 
of which, when properly opened, encircle the stem. Thus the tree is well 
supported without being hindered in its development. The segments of 
the ring are wrapped in cocoa-nut fibre. There are several types of rings 
for different plants. The rings are of galvanised iron ; they last long, proving 
cheap in the long run. 



TREES AS WINDBREAKS. - VINE-CULTURE 



C . Waldron. Windbreaks and Hedges. — North Dakota Agrictdtural 
College. (Government Agricultural Experiment Station for North Dakota). 
Bull. No. 88, pp. 3-1 1. 

Orchards in North Dakota are doomed to failure unless the fruit trees 
are sheltered against the wind by a belt of trees. The more useful plants 
as wind-breaks are: 

Poplars (Norwegian and Carolina poplars), Maples {Acer Negundo and 
saccharimini). Willows (Golden Russian Willow), Elms, Ash trees, Oleasters 
{Olea europea and Oleaster). The Oleaster is adapted for alkali soils. 
Amongst Coniferae, Finns ponderosa and spruce may be mentioned. 

n arranging windbreaks it is useful to plant the trees in several rows, 
for mutual protection. To avoid the injurious piling up of snow it is ad- 
visable to plant a single row of willows on the north side. 

The following is a good plan : Willows to the north side ; elms on the 
south; maples and ash trees in central alternate rows. 



United 

States : 

North Dakota 



Viticulture in Argentina, in 1910. — Bulletin mensuel de tOffice des Rensei- 
gnements agricoles. Paris, Sept. (Oct.), 1910. 

The chief viticultural provinces of Argentina are those in the Cordil- 
lera region: San Juan, La Rioja, Catamarca and Mendoza. The Cafayate 
wines will become a source of wealth for the province of Salta when it is 
provided with means of transport. 

The climatic conditions of the provinces of Mendoza and San Juan are 
very suitable for wine production. The soil is rich, the climate dry, rains 
and hail very rare. 

At Mendoza there are at present 48500 hectares of vineyards, andthe 
native vines have been substituted by good varieties: Malbec, Shnillon, Ca- 
bernet, Pinot and Barbera. These vines can yield 98 hectolitres to the 
hectare. The average yield of these European varieties is from 10 000 to 
12000 kilograms of grapes per hectare; some of them yield 40000 kgr., 
producing 280 hectolitres of wine per hectare. 

These remarkable yields are due to climatic conditions, to the possibiHty 
of abundant irrigation at suitable times and to the fertilising qualities of the 
irrigation water. 



Argentina 



Wire Baskets for Vine-layering. (Drahtkorbe fur die Anzucht von Korb- 
reben von der Firma Mik. Krebs. Neumagen (Mosel).— J////, uber 
Weinbaii and Kellerwirtschaft. Geisenheim, Oct. 1910, No. 10, pp. 1 51-15 2. 

These wire baskets are 20 cm. long by 17 cm. broad. A vine branch 
is passed through a mesh of the basket and fixed to a prop. The 



Germany 



84 



VINE-CULTURE. - AMERICAN VINES 



basket is then fixed in the ground at a certain depth ; thus the roots which 
spring from the vine-layer are kept well together, within the basket. The 
wire of the net is so fine that eventually it rusts away in the soil, letting 
the roots develop freely. 



France: 

Cotes-du- 
Rhone 



A. Demoulins & V. ViLLARD. Further Ob.servations on American Vines 
as Direct Hybrid Producers. Cotes du Rhone. France. — Progrcs 
Agricole et Viticole. Montpellier, No. 42, October 12th, 1910, pp. 474-481. 

The writers publish an account of their tenth year of observations on 
a collection of direct hybrid producers in the Cotes du Rhone. They 
mention the more important hybrids, Coiiderc, Seibel and Castel, which have 
proved useful in the South, and refer to the advantages which could be 
derived by cultivating them along with the Vinifera. Lastly, they classify 
these hybrids according to the soils best suited to them, and according to 
the depth of colour of the wines they produce. 



United 

States : 

California 



George C. Husmann. Grape Investigations in the Vinifera Regions of 
the United States, with reference to resistant Stocks, direct Pro- 
ducers, and Viniferas. — U. S. Dept. of Agriculiure. Bureau of Plant 
Industry. Bull. No. 172, p. 3, Washington, August 25, 1910. 

This Bulletin collects the results of many experiments in vine-culture 
in California, with a view to high production and resistance to phylloxera. 

Cuttings of the resistant varieties Monticola, Berlandieri, Aestivilis, Bi- 
cotoc, Lincecomii, and Candicans, are slow in taking root. It is advisable to 
plant them in nurseries where they root ; they are then grafted, on the spDt, 
or in the vineyard after transplanting. 

The Riparia possess good qualities, but they do not find in California 
suitable soils. The Rupestris is also much appreciated from several points 
of view, but shows scarce affinity for the Vinifera, which, when grafted 
on Riparia, Berlandieri and Campiiii, produces better and ripens sooner. 

The hybrids of Riparia and Rupestris, which inherit the good qualities 
of both stocks, will become the types best suited to the conditions of 
California. 



Italian Table Grapes on German Markets, (live da tavola sui mercati 
di Germania). — Bolletti7io del Ministero di Agr. Ind. e Comm., Roma 1910, 
fasc. 3, series B. 

Italy occupies the first place on the German market for the importation 

Italv °^ table grapes ; France and Algeria follow immediately after, Spain having 

only a secondary position. The first grapes of the season, which formerly 



GRAPES AND RAISINS. - OLIVE TREE 



85 



came exclusively from Italy, are now imported also from Algeria, but in 
small quantities. The earliest grapes arriving on German markets are from 
Algiers, then those from Bisceglie in Puglia, in South Italy, after which 
come those from North Italy and France ; finally the grapes from the Abruzzi. 
The packing of Itahan grapes is very carefully done. Late grapes find 
an excellent market, provided they have been well packed in small boxes of 
from 2 to 5 kilograms. Late select Italian grapes might replace hothouse 
grapes, if only the finest varieties were chosen. 



The Cultivation of Dessert Grapes in the Province of Bologna, Italy. — 

Bulletin de r Office du Gouvernement de lAlgirie. Paris, Oct. 15, 1910. 

Different qualities of dessert grapes are cultivated in the province of 
Bologna, notably the Chasselas and Negretto. The latter variety, which has 
smaller berries than the Chasselas, is less appreciated in trade and is consumed 
locally. 

Consignments are mostly sent to Germany, whence a part is re-exported 
into Holland and into Scandinavia. The quantity exported amounts to about 
80 000 metric quintals. 



Italy 



United 
States : 



The Raisin Industry in California. Seedless Raisins. — Bulletin de t Office 
du Gouvernement de I'Algdrie, Paris, Oct. 15, 1910. 

The Californian raisin is becoming more and more a valuable export 
article. 

The method employed to stone the raisins consists in the following California 
operations : 

1 . Sun-drying the grape : 

2. Warehousing in sacks; 

3. Artificial drying, to facilitate seed-separation (stemming). 

Before the extraction of the pips by a special machine, the dried raisin 
is softened by steaming. The berry is then ready for the machine which 
extracts the pips, the pips falling on one side of the machine and the 
raisins on the other. This machine is patented by " The United States 
Consolidated Raisin Company, " 



Raoul Blancard. The Northern Limit of the Olive in the French Alps. — 

La Giographie, Paris, October 15, 1910, XXII, No. 4, pp. 225-240. 

Observations on changes in the northern limit of the olive in the French 
Alps are given. In th«^ first part of the paper the region considered extends 
from the Rhone to the Durance. In no part of France does the olive reach 



France 



86 OLIVE TREE. - OLIVES FOR PICKLING 

such a northern latitude as between Valence and Orange. The last olive 
trees of the Eygues are at Villeperdrix and Saint May ; starting from the 
confluence of the Joulourenc and the Ouveze, the limit suddenly turns 
southwards towards Malancene, attaining its most southern point at nine 
kilometres from Cavaillon, after rounding the plateau of Saint-Christol. The 
olive-trees of Bevons mark the northern limit in the Durance valley. 

Chiaramonte. Pickle-olives in Argentina. — Bulletin de l Office du Gou- 
vernemcnt de lAlgirie. Paris, October 15, 1910. 

In 1908, the olive area in the Argentine Republic was 274 hectares, 
with 98 265 trees. This culture is beginning to acquire some importance 
in the province of Mendoza. In other parts of Argentina olive trees are 
Argentina quite neglected. The preparation of pickled green olives is developing in the 
province of Mendoza, where the green olives are valued on account of their 
size and taste. 

The province of Rioja has also acquired some importance for the pro- 
duction of olives for pickling. In the province of Buenos Ayres, Govern- 
ment is trying to encourage olive cultivation and olive-oil making. 

A prize of 15 000 pesos is offered by law to all planters of more than 
500 olive trees, and a prize of 20 000 pesos is awarded to the person who 
makes 1000 hectolitres of oil from olives gathered in the province. 

MoREAU. Olive Culture at Matmata, Tunis. — Bulletin de la Direction de 
r Ariculture, Tunis, 2nd quarter, 1910. 

The number of Olive-trees in the district of the Matmata, which at 

present amounts to at least 60 000, is increasing, yearly. The plantations are 

Tunis all done by natives. The restoring of old olive trees, which has given such 

good results in the north of the Regency, would also be of great benefit 

in Matmata. 

As to the method of oil making, it has remained unchanged for cen- 
turies. The expense of a European oil-mill would be too great even for 
rich natives. 

N. MiNANGOiN. Pickle-olives in Tunis. — Progres agricole ei horticole. N. 44. 
Montpellier, 30 October 1910, pp. 547-551- 

Amongst the many varieties of olives cultivated in Tunis some are of 
Tunis such a size that they could well be used for pickling. But this industry 
has not yet developed to any extent, because the varieties that yield large 
berries are not cultivated in sufficient numbers by themselves, being scat- 
tered all over the territory interplanted with other varieties. 



OLIVE TREE. - CITRUS FRUIT 



87 



This renders the cost of picking too heavy. 

According to researches made by M. Marzac, M. Minangoin has drawn 
up the following list of the best pickling varieties : 

I. Barouni; 2. Bidh el Hammani; 3. Besbassi ; 4. Tefahi ; 5. Menkarer- 
Ragma; 6. Zarazi; 7. Yaconti; 8. Limi; 9. Marsaline ; 10. Meski; 11. Nab 
el Ujemel; 12. Regragni or Djerbouai. 



Calcium Cyanamide in the Manuring of Olive Trees. — Relazione annuale 
suir attivita della Cattedra arnbulante di Agric. (July igog-June 1910). R. Isti- 
tuto Sup. Agr. Sper. in Perugia; 1910, pp. 48-49. 

Experiments were made both on young and old olive trees, manured 
with quantities of calcium cyanamide varying from a minimum of 0.5 kgr. 
to a maximum of 3 kgr. per tree. In some cases the fertiliser was spread 
over a surface corresponding to the spread of the branches, in other cases 
the fertihser was buried in a furrow round the tree at a distance of 40 or 
50 cm. The effect of this manuring was injurious from the beginning. 
The olives which had received more than 0.5 kg. of calcium cyanamide, 
already in August showed distinct signs of withering. 

The leaves began to wither at the vertex, in the manner characteristic 
of the disease called brusca. This withering eventually causes the leaves 
to fall, the tree becoming so weakened that no fruit ?is produced in the 
following year. Calcium cyanamide is more or less injurious, according to 
the ^nature of the soil, especially in proportion to its contents in humus. 
Poor sandy soils are those in which calcium cyanamide is particularly harmful 
to the olive tree. 



Italy: 
Umbria 



The Jaffa Orange. — The Agricultural News, vol. IX, N. 219, p. 292, Bridge- 
town, Barbados. September 17, 1910. 

A special orange flourishes on the limestone soils of Jaffa, the fruit of 
which is large and free from pips. These characters distinguish the true 
Jaffa Orange from other types, often erroneously also called Jaffa oranges, 
and cultivated in Tunis, Algeria and in America. This orange tree is to 
be recommended for the flavour and good keeping qualities of the fruit. 



Turkey: 
Palestine 



Citrus-fruit from Saida in Syria. — Bulletin de T Office du Gouvernement de 
FAlgirie. Parigi, October 25. 1910, 

Saida, a port in Syria, south of Beyrouth, is an important centre for 
the production and exportation of oranges and lemons. The greater part 
of the consignments are for Beyrouth, Damascus and the principal towns of 
the interior ; the remainder goes to Egypt, Liverpool, Odessa, in Roumania 



88 



CITRUS FRUIT: ESSENCE OF ORANGE LEAVES 



Turkey: 
yria 



United 

States : 

California 

Florida 

Texas 



and to Constantinople. The whole exportation however, does not exceed a 
value of 280000 frs. The boxes of lemons contain 300 lemons and weigh 
30 kg. ; the orange cases contain 200 fruits and weigh 25 kgr. 

"Grape fruit" Production and Trade in the United States.— Bulkiin de 

rOffice du Gouvernement de l Algirie. Paris, October 15, 1910. 

Besides the oranges and lemons of Florida and California, a local pro- 
duct is raised in the United States, called Grape Fruit \ it resembles a large 
orange having a special flavour. In Texas some extensive groves of Japa- 
nese varieties of oranges have been planted. 

450000 cases of "Grapefruit" are raised in Florida; and 50000 in 
Louisiana and the Mississipi delta (i). 



Citrus Fruits from Vera Cruz, Mexico. — Agriculture commerciale, Paris, 
N. 18, 1910. 

To encourage the production of citrus fruits in Mexico, the Mexican 
Government grants a bounty of 5 frs. per 1000 oranges and 3.75 frs. per 
Mexico 1000 lemons exported. 

The bitter orange and the lemon grow wild in abundance around 
Vera Cruz, where they flourish at a height of 4000 feet above sea level, 
bearing fruit during the greater part of the year. Wild lemon trees grow- 
to a good size. 

The exportation of oranges began in 1908. 



Essence of Petitgrain in Paraguay. — Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 
London, 1910, No. 3016, Sept. 1910, p. 934. 

Oil of petitgrain is obtained by distillation from the leaves of the 

Paraguay bitter orange. Neroli is obtained by distilling orange flowers, but is not 

produced in Paraguay, as it requires skilled labour to cause the trees to 

bloom regularly and abundantly. The bitter orange in the wild state is so 

abundant in Paraguay that the leaves can be gathered at all seasons. 

From 550 to 650 lbs (i lb =: 453 grams) of leaves are required for a 
quart of essential oil (about a litre). 

The dealers, merchants and exporters, refine, purify and filter the oil by 
a secret process. 



(i) Citrus decumana L. [Citrus povielanus., Hort.) comprises the varieties which in 
the United States are called Pomelo, Putnelo, Shaddock, Grape fruit., Potiipelmos. The Po- 
me OS or Grape fruits, of a round form, are commercially the most important of these 
var eties. Shaddocks are pear-shaped, and are cultivated as ornamental plants. 

See: L. H. Bailey, Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, New York, 1909, vol. I, 
pages 342. 



APPLES. - PEARS. - OTHER FRUIT 89 

Before purification the oil has a distinctly oily odour, while afterwards its 
perfume is like that of Florida Water. 

It is said that small quantities of oil distilled from orange flowers are 
mixed with oil of petitgrain, and the mixture sold as neroli. 

Oil of petitgrain is employed in perfumery, especially for toilet soaps. 

Plisterer. The Cultivation of Fruit Trees in Germany. (Deutscher Obstbau). 
— Mitteilungen der Fachberichterstatter des K. K. Ackerbauministeriums. 
Wien, October 1910. 

The number of fruit trees in Germany in 1900 was 168432000. Of 
every 100 fruit trees, 31 are apple trees, 15 pear, 13 cherry and 41 plum 
trees. 

The best region for fruit is the Neckar Valley in Wiirtemburg, then Germany 
come Saxe-Altenburg, Schaumburg-Lippe, Karlsruhe, Mannheim and Bran- 
denburg. 

The following are the imports of fruit in Germany: 



Apples. . 


. I 871 590 quintals 


Pears . . 


431 995 » 


Cherries . 


63 391 » 


Grapes. . 


353 623 » 


Nuts . . 


193 881 » 



Fruit exports do not exceed 3 per cent of the imports ; they go to 
Switzerland, England and Denmark, and amount to : 



Apples . . . 


14 022 quintals 


Pears . . . 


. 25 148 » 


Cherries . . 


• 30 500 » 


Plums . . . 


• 37 097 » 



The importation of dried and preserved fruits, mainly from California 
and Florida, exceeds 572 000 quintals. 

The principal countries which export fruit to Germany are Holland, 
Austria-Hungary, France and Italy. Italy sends table grapes, cherries, pea- 
ches, pears and apricots. 

The main supply of apples comes Trom Austria ; Hungary sends small 
cooking apples. The imports from France include strawberries, pears and 
apricots. Servia sends plums and apples, and Russia nuts. 

The total value of imported fruit is nearly 100 000 000 marks. The 
country which is always gaining more and more footing on the German 
market for price, organised communications, and Government facilities 
is Italy. 



90 



FRUIT AND VEGETABLES. - DRIED FRUIT. - LOQUATS 



Germany 



Sale of Fruit and Vegetables at Mannheim, Germany. — Feuilks d' infor- 
mations du Minister e de V Agriculture. Paris, October, i8, 1910. 

Chestnuts are supplied to the Mannheim market by Italy and France, 
but the Italian product fetches a higher price. Nuts come from France, 
Italy and Servia, and oranges from Sicily and Spain (Valencia and Murcia). 
Lemons come from Sicily only. The greater number of apples arrives from 
Italy ; but France, Holland and Switzerland also compete, and would do so 
to a greater extent if the Italian crops were insufficient. Grapes are fur- 
nished by France (white grapes from Vaucluse), Italy and Spain (Denia and 
Almeria). 

Provence and Anjou cauliflowers are much appreciated; the impor- 
tation from the South of France begins at the end of November, whereas 
the Italian product only arrives in December. Egypt furnishes onions, via 
Trieste. Potatoes begin to arrive in January, and the most appreciated 
varieties come from Malta, from Piedmont and the Neapolitan region. France 
and Italy export lettuces to Mannheim. 



United 

States : 

California 



Dietetic Experiments in California with Dried Fruit fumigated with Sul- 
phur. — California Fruit Groiver. The Canner and Dried Fru't Packer, 
Chicaco, October 1910, p. 43, vol. XXXI, No 13. 

Twenty students of Stanford University have been selected for dietetic 
experiments on the effects of sulphur fumigated dried fruit on the human 
organism. 

These experiments will be conducted under the usual conditions of 
dietetic experiments, and the results compared with those obtained last year 
at the California University. 



Italy: 
Sicily 



MAiziiiRES. Loquats in Sicily. (The Japanese Medlar for Exportation). — 
F Agriculture commerciale. Paris, N. 18, 1910. 

The improvements in loquat-culture have resulted in crops of large 
fine fruit. 

The Algerian produce not being able to stand a long voyage, that of 
Sicily is in increasing request and loquat-culture has consequently grown in 
importance. Reed-baskets are preferred for exportation. 

The medlar should be packed while still somewhat green, as it ripens 
well on the way. The baskets are sent to France, Switzerland and Ger- 
many. 

The ^demand for Sicilian loquats is steadily rising, as the fruit ripens in 
May, when there are not yet many good fruits on European markets. 

The best variety of loquat cultivated in Sicily is the Tanaka, a recent 
introduction from Japan. 



BANANAS - PRICKLY PEARS 



91 



ToTTEN. Proposed Banana-culture in Venezuela. — Pan-American Union. 
Washington, October, 1910. 

The Government of Venezuela has granted a concession to aj Company, 
already engaged in banana culture in other parts of South America. The Venezuela 
concession regards the cultivation of this fruit in the region South of Lake 
Maracaibo, a fertile and wind-sheltered district. 



M. WiNKEL. Dried Bananas. — Journ. de Pharmacie et de Chimie. Paris, 
October 16, 1910, N. 8, p. 29. 

The unripe banana, when dried, contains 80 per cent of starch and 
only from 3 to 4 per cent of sugar. The dry ripe fruit, contains 70 per 
cent of sugar (40 per cent of which is saccharose and about 30 per cent 
inverted sugar) and only 2 per cent of starch. Sugar therefore is produced 
at the expense of starch, during ripening. Bananas for exportation are 
gathered before they are ripe, and ripen on the journey or after. These 
bananas have not the delicate perfume of fruit ripened on the plant. 

Considering that 40 per cent of this fruit consists of peel, the advantage 
of drying them for exportation when perfectly I'ipe and aromatic is obvious. 

Dried bananas are known under different names. They are rapidly and 
completely digested, and are highly nutritive. Their cheapness renders 
them admirably adapted for popular consumption. 



Jamaica 



Dried Bananas in Europe. — The Canner and Dried Fruit Packer, vol. XXXI, 
No. 14. Chicago, Oct. 13, 191 o, p. 44. (From a Report of the U. S. 
Consul General, R. P. Skinner, Hambourg). 

Bananas dried whole and in slices have been sold in Germany for the 
last two years with growing success. 

So far the best dried bananas come from Jamaica, whence they are 
despatched in wooden boxes of 25 kilos. The average price is about 68 frs. 
per 100 kilos. 

Gibson. The Uses of the Prickly Pear. — L Agi-iculture commerciale- Paris, 

No 18, 1910. 

Alcohol comparable to the best brandy has been extracted from the 
Cactus opuntia in Australia. From the distillation residue or mash, a cake 
for cattle is prepared, by mixing with several substances. Now that the raw 
material for cellulose pulp is giving out, paper is also prepared from the 
prickly pear. The latter production may become remunerative considering 
the present deficiency and cost of cellulose pulp from timber. Prickly pears 



Jamaica 



Australia. 
United 
S tates : 
Arizona 



92 



MANGOES. - PINE-APPLES. - COCOANUTS. - AVOCADO 



are rich in sugar; it is said that from 2 tons of this fruit the sugar-yield 
may be equal to that of 3 tons of cane. 

Experiments in Arizona with another species of cactus, Echinocochis 
Wislizeni, have led to the manufacture of a substitute for leather. 



India: 
Bengal. 



Canning Tropical Fruits in India. — The Tropical Agriculturist, Vol. XXXV, 



No. 



o» 



Sept. 1 910, p. 277 (Statesman, Aug. 21). Colombo, dep. 1910. 



At MurzufFarpore, in Bengal, the Bengal Preserving Company began 
recently to can mangoes, lichis {Nephelium Lit-chi) and pine-apples. The 
factory employed 85 hands this year and has turned out 20 000 tins. When 
this business is completely organised, the out-put will be 300 000 tins per 
annum. 



Federated 

MaU'y 

States. 



Cocoanut Cultivation in the Federated Malay States. — The Board of 
Trade /ourvaL London, No 722, 1910. 

The report made in 1909 by the Inspector of cocoanut plantations in 
the Federated Malay States shows that a total area of about 123 815 acres 
in the different States is under cocoanut palms. This area is distributed 
as follows : 



Perak . . . . 


63 225 


acres 


Selangor . . . 


25818 


» 


Negri-Sembilan. 


19037 


» 


Pahang . . . 


15 735 


» 



About two-thirds of this area is bearing, and the value of the whole is 
estimated at 25000000 dollars. In 1909, 5 118 acres were cleared and 
planted, 1500 acres of this being planted by Europeans, the rest by natives. 



West Indies. 
Bahamas. 
Yamaica. 



The Avocado Pear, " Persea gratissisra. " — Bulletin of the Departnwit 
of Agriculture^ Nassau, Bahamas, September 1910. 

The Persea gratissima in the West Indies produces sufficient fruit for local 
consumption, and if this fruit were not so delicate and difficult to transport a 
prosperous export industry would by now have grown up. The Persea gra- 
tissima is one of the most delicate fruits of the West Indies ; but, when care 
is taken in gathering and packing, the difficulties now standing in the way of 
its exportation will be overcome. This is proved by two consignments, one 
to New York and the other to London. By proper packing, the loss was 
reduced to less than 2.9 per cent (i). 



(i) Persea gratisshna CJaertn. F. a Lauracea, the iniit of which in the United States 
is called Avocado or Alligator Pear. The Avocado is very plentiful in Jamaica. 

L. H. Bailey, Cyclopedia of American Horticulture^ New York, 1907, Vol. Ill, 
p. 1280. \Ed\ 



CARICA QUERCIFOLIA 93 



I. PuiG Nattino. « Carica Quercifolia » or Triguera del Monte. — Repu- 
blic a Oriental de Uiuguay. Estudios sobre cultivos y trabajos experimen- 
tales de la division de agricultiira. Montevideo, 19 10, N. 5, p. 11-21. 

The botanical characters of this plant are described and the chemical Uruguay 
composition of the ripe fruit is given : 

Water 84.92 7o 

Total dry matter. .... 15.18 » 

Composition of the dry matter, referred to the fresh fruit: 

Albuminoids 2.00 » 

Fatty matter 2.33 » 

Woody Fibre 1.26 » 

Ash 1.07 » 

Non-nitrogenous extract . , 8.40 » 

Nutritive ratio 

5-35 

The chemical composition of the Carica Papaya L., according to an 
analysis by D. A. Niobay, in Brazil, is 



o 



Water 79.97 7, 

Fatty matter 2.50 

Albuminoids 5.31 » 

Non nitrogenous extract . . 8.16 » 

A fermented drink has been prepared from the fruit of the Carica quer- 
cifolia, the chemical composition of which is given. It seems that the ripe 
fruit can also be used as food for cattle (i). 



(i) The Carica quercifolia Solins-Laubach (also called Vasconcellia quercifolia St. Hil.) 
is a Passifloracea. It is a very hardy plant, with small fruit and large lanceolated leaves, 
containing a higher percentage of papaine than the Carica Papaya L. Papaine is much 
used as a vegetable pepsin. See Franceschi in L. H. Bailey, Cyclopedia of American 
Horticulture^ New York, 1909, vol. I, p. 246. \^Ed?^. 






r4 FORESTS 



Forestry. 



C. H. Finch. Danish Forest-Statistics. (These statistics, reported by the 
British Vice-Consul at Copenhagen, are repHes to questions to the Da- 
nish Government by the Forest Department of Minnesota, U. S. A.). 
— Quarterly Journal of Forestry. October 1910. London, p. 300-305. 

The area of woodlands in Denmark, according to the returns of 1907 
is 810 070 acres (327 268 hectares) or 8.3 per cent of the Danish territo- 
rial area. About 200 000 acres (80 800 hectares) of this area belong to the 
State, 17 070 acres (6 890 hectares) to communes and 563 000 acres (239 572 
hectares) are private property. 
Denmark Only 85 per cent of this area is wooded (33.4 % ^I'lf^er beech and 

41.4 7o under conifers). 

The State of Denmark possesses: 

Total area Wooded area 

Acres Hectares Acres Hectares 

State Forests 141 000 56 964 100 600 40 642 

Parks • . 2 840 I 147 I 520 614 

The Forests of Soro Academy . 8 580 3466 7 650 3 090 

Down Plantations 535 00 31927 

The productive area would be therefore 109700 acres (44347 hect.). 

The soil of the country is mostly alluvial, with the exception of Born- 
holm Island, where granite is frequent. Of the productive area 37.6 % 
grows beech, 3.6 per cent oak, 5.9 per cent ash, maple, birch, elm and alder, 
and 52-9 per cent conifers, especially spruce {Picea excelsd). The Jutland 
heaths have been almost entirely planted with spruce and mountain pine 
{Pinus montand). The annual timber output is 225 000 cubic metres. 

The State never sells standing timber, the trees being only felled by 
State foresters. 

The total annual forestal expenditure for 1908-1909 was i 201 495 crowns 
. (i 658 063 frs.). This sum does not include the expenditure for the tuition 
of forest officials, nor expenses for experiments shared equally by the State 
and private owners. The annual gross revenue from 1906 to 1909 was 
I 718088 crowns. The comparatively low net return is chiefly due to the 
expense of afforestation of heaths belonging to the State and to the low 
produce of recent woodland. 



FORESTS - SCENERY PRESERVATION 



95 



Importation of Pine znd Fir Seed into Sweden. — 7 he Jour tml of the Board 
of Agriculture, Sept. 1910, No. 6, p. 499. 

A Law dated April 4, 191 o, enacts that foreign seed of all kinds of 

pine {Pimis), (with the exception of Firms Cembra and Pinus sibirica) and all 

kinds of fir, Abies, must be imported into Sweden in sacks marked ittldndskt 

fro (foreign seed), the mark to be written in large letters. The act requires 

that imported seeds be rendered recognisable by colouration with eosine. 



Sweden 



Forest Administration in Rewa State, India. For 1908-1909. — The Indian 
Forester, Yo\. XXXV, No. 10, Allahabad, October 1910, p. 590. 

The year 1908-1909 was marked in the native State of Rewa by two British 
impbrtants events regarding forests, the chief being the passing of a Forest '"'"^^ 
Law; the other, the opening of a State factory for shellac. 



Reservation of valuable Forests in Colombia. — The Board of Trade 
Jour7ial, London, October 20, 1910. 

A decree dated July 25, reserves to the nation the forests of Colombia 
producing cocoa-nuts, vegetable ivory, quinine, rubber, gums or resins, fibres 
and valuable woods. 'I hese torests therefore cannot be appropriated as 
waste lands (tierras baldias). 



Colombia 



Prohibition of Exportation of Immature Timber from the Gold Coast. — 

The Board of Trade Journal. London, N. 723, 1910, p. 34. 

The Gold Coast Government Gazette contains a notice laying down 
certain .rules under the Timber Protection Ordinance of 1907, under which 
it is provided that no person may sell, export or be in possession ot timber 
cut from a tree below a girth of 9 feet at a point one foot above the con- 
vergence of the buttress roots, or at the base where there are no such roots. 



Gold Coast 



W. Dallimore. Tree-plantations in Inverness-shire. — Nature, No. 2137, 
October 13, 1910, p. 470. 

Writing on tree-Dlantation in Inverness-shire in the Kew Bulletin (n. 7) 
Mr. W. Dallimore gives some useful data on the cost of the plantations and 
the kinds of trees which have given the best results on different estates. 
The area planted out on the Ardverirkie Estates since 1873, exceeds 10 000 
acres, for which more than 34 million plants have been required. The 
Scotch pine, the larch, and the spruce have been planted in great numbers ; 
the pine and larch have grown well on dry soil, at altitudes exceeding 
900 feet (273 metres); whilst the spruce thrives better on damp soil. ^/w.<- 
obilis has, on the whole, proved the hardiest of the three. 



Great 
Britain: 
Scotland 






. 96 



FOREST - CONSERVATION 



The cost of planting, including fencing-, is estimated at £ 3 12s (90 frs.) 
per acre. The interesting fact is noted that a larch plantation, on the 
Invergarry Estate, which had been condemned owing to the larch disease, 
but which was spared on the representations of the forestry in charge, now 
produces splendid trees, straight and sound. 

Afforestation and Scenery Preservation in New Zealand. — Nature, 
No 2138, Vol. 84, Oct. 20, 1910, p. 505. London. 



Great 
Britain: 
Scotland 



The Department of Lands in New Zealand, is responsible for the ma- 
nagement of the State nurseries, re-afforestation and the preservation of 
natural scenery. Reports for 1909-10 of this Department show that five 
nurseries produced 1 2 000 000 young trees; 8000000 of which have been 
used for re-wooding seven plantations. 

The nursery trees are nearly all European, chiefly larch, Pinus larkio, 
spruce, and Pinus ponderosa. Of the Eucalypts, Eucalyptus Stuartiana, has 
proved a fast grower, and is being planted. Mixed plantations and deci- 
duous trees have not generally given geod results. 

Additional areas, amounting to 1500 acres (607 hectares), have been 
reserved during the year for the preservation ot scenery. 



Gtfford Pinchot. Forest Conservation Programme in the United States. 

(Second National Conservation Congress, St. Paul, Sept. 5-8). — American 
Forestry, Vol, XVI, No. 10, pp. 585-587, Washington, Oct. 1910. 



United 
States 



As the Second National Conservation Congress, which met in Septem- 
ber at St Paul, Minnesota, Mr. Gifford Pinchot delivered an address" on the 
Conservation programme, laying down the following principles: 

"First. — All forests necessary for the public welfare should be in the 
public ownership, such as the national forests already in existence, the pro- 
posed Appalachian and White Mountain national forests and the State forests 
of New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and other States. 

" Second. — The protection of forests against fires is the first duty of 
forestry of states and nation alike. The way to stop fires is to get men to 
them as soon as they begin. The maintenance and extension of forest fire 
control by the nation, the states, and their subdivisions, and by associations 
of private citizens who own timberland is absolutely necessary. 

" Third* — The protection of existing forests by wise use is the first 
step in forestry. Reforestation is the second. 

" Fourth. — Land bearing forests should be taxed annually on the land 
value alone, and the timber crop should be taxed when it is cut, so private 
forestry may be encouraged. 



FORESTS. - FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 97 

" Fifth, — The private ownership of forest land is a pubUc trust, and 
the people have both the right and the duty to regulate the use of such 
lands in the general interest." 

E. A. Start. The American Forestry Association. (Second National Con- 
servation Congress, St Paul 5-8 Sept. — American Forestry. Vol. XVI, 
No. 10, pp. 587-588, Oct. 1910. Washington. 

Edwin A. Start, executive secretary of the American Forestry Associa- 
tion, submitted to the National Conservation Congress in St Paul, Minne- 
sota, the following statement on behalf of his Association : 

" No organization can more appropriately than the American Forestr)' 
Association make its statement and its appeal to this Congress. This As- 
sociation is the first of our conservation organizations. It has a past of 
nearly thirty years to which it can point with pride of real achievement. 

" In a very real sense we may say that the work of this Association, 
through long years of much misunderstood effort under the able guidance 
of the great leaders of the American forestry movemenr, made this Con- 
gress possible ; for it was through the study of forestry and its relation to 
the country that the whole problem of our national resources came to be 
understood. The man who has given the conservation of natural resources 
its impetus, with the help of his distinguished chief, then President of the 
United States, was the recognized leader, the apostle and evangelist of the 
forestry movement; and to-day no portion of our natural resources holds a 
more important place than the forests. They are inseparably linked with 
soils and waters, both of which depend upon them in great measure, and 
as a product of the soil nothing exceeds the forest in value and in neces- 
sity to human welfare. Forests, like agricultural crops, belong to the re- 
newable class of products and their maintenance involves much more com- 
plicated and permanent problems than the non-renewable products like mi- 
nerals, oil, and gas. 

« Therefore, we conceive the field of our Association to be vital and 
lasting and so broad, many sided and farreaching as to amply justify the 
existence of an association dedicated to the advancement of scientific fo- 
restry for the best utilization of our forest lands for all time. 

« Our work is independent of that of the Government, but conducted in 
close touch with it. As an independent body of citizens we can do and 
say what Government officials cannot do and say : 

« Our program embodies : 

i) An equitable system of taxation which shall not unduly burden the 
growing crop. 

2) Adequate protection against fire, which will' reduce this greatest 
of forest perils to a minimum. 



United 
States 



98 



FOREST CONSERVATION, - FOREST TREES 



3) The practice of scientific management upon all existmg forests. 

4) The planting of all unoccupied lands which can be utilized more 
profitably for forestry than for any other purpose. 

5) The whole to be brought about through harmonious adjustment 
of functions between the three classes of owners : national, state and private. 

"We do not believe that either one of these agencies is to be relied upon 
alone. Each has its place. I say this because our position in this regard 
is often misconceived. I may add, to correct another misapprehension, that 
we do not believe in putting under forest land that is more valuable for 
agriculture. Forestry and agriculture are not rivals. They go hand in hand." 

Resolutions of the Conservation Congress. — American Forestry, Vol. XVI, 
No. 10, pp. 597-600. Wa.shington, October 1910. 

Amongst other things, the Congress approved " the continuance of the 
control of the national forests by the Federal Government " and approves 
" the policy of restoring to settlement such public lands as are more valuable 
for agriculture." The Congress recommended that the " states and federal 
governments acquire for reforestation land not more valuable for other 
purposes, and that all existing forests pubHcly and privately owned be care- 
fully protected by state and federal governments." 

The Congress recognise " the invaluable services rendered by the Forest 
Service to the people, and earnestly recommend that it be more generously 
supported by the Federal Government, and that state, federal and private 
fire patrol be more generously provided for the preservation of forests and 
human life," and appreciate and approve of the continuance of the Services 
of the U. S. Army in fire-control in emergencies." 

The Congress recommends further: 

" That the Federal Government conserve migratory birds and wild- 
game animals ; 

" 1 hat the public and pjivate Schools instruct the youth of the land 
in the fundamental Doctrines of Conservation." 



Common- 
wealth 
of 
Australia: 
Tasmania 



L. RoDWAY. Forestry Notes in Tasmania. — The Agriadtural Gazette, 
Vol. XVIII, No. 9, Pp. 208-210, Hobart, September 1910. 

(A continuation of a series of articles by the botanist of the Tasma- 
nian State, Mr. L. Rodway). 

Notes on the technical importance of the following trees, of interest for 
Tasmania. 

i) Cupressus: 

Monterey Cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw ; 
Lawson's Cypress. C. Latvsoniana, Andr. Murr ; 



FOREST TREES. - CONIFERS 99 

Yellow Cypress, C. 7iootkatensis, Don (i) ; 
Himala)'an Cypress, C. torulosa, D. Don ; 
White Cedar, C. thyoides, Linn). 

2) Thuya: 

Giant Thuja, Thuya gigantea, Nutt. 

3) Libocedrus : 

Californian Incense Cedar, Libocedrus decurrens, Torr. 

4) Juniperus : 

Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana, Linn. 

H. Bauer. Assimilation in Young Conifers. (Stoffbildung und Stoffauf- 
nahme in jungen Nadelholzern. Eine forstchemische Untersuchung. — 
Naturunssoischafftliche Zeitschrift iiir Forst-und Lndwirtschrift, 8 s. H. 10, 
pp. 457-498, Stuttgart, Oct. 1910. 

A complete series of chemical analyses made at different periods of 
the year of various parts (roots, stem, leaves) of larch, pine, spruce and 
fir have led Mr. Bauer to important conclusions on substance formation in Germany 
conifers. 

The statements made are partly new, partly the practical proof of 
old ones. 

The following chief conclusions are typically referred to particular trees, 
but have also a general bearing. 

In the larch, after the shedding of the leaves, the constituents that re- 
turn into the sap are deposited in the stem, returning into circulation in 
spring-time. 

In pine and fir, the first formation of matter on the re-awakening of 
vegetation is produced at the expense of the nitrogen and of the mineral 
substances stored in the stem and in the roots. 

In the spruce, vital energy during spring is chiefly engaged in the ab- 
sorption of nourishment more than in the formation of new matter. 

And in the fir, the organs which have been impoverished during the 
spring by the re-awakening of vegetation are enriched again the autumn. 



(I) In Index Kewensis, Cupressiis nootkatensis^ Lamb, synon. with Cupressns nutka- 
tensis, Hook. [Ed.^. 



loo JAPANESE LARCH. - BEECH 

H. Shirasawa. The Japanese Larch, {Larix leptolepis). — Quarterly Joiirn. ^ 
of Forestry. Oct. igio. London, p. 307. 

The Larix leptolepis grows wild in the Central Mountain Range of the 
Main Island of Japan, where it abounds at an altitude of 3000 feet in the 
regions of Nikko, Shirane, Asama and Fuji; it is generally found associated 
with other species, but sometimes forms forests by itself. 

It was recently planted in the Nagano Prefecture, on the North-Eastern 
slope of the Main Island and also in the Hokkaido. It may grow to a 
Japan height of 50 feet, and a diameter of 6 inches in the space of 20 years; at 
the end of 50 years it may reach a height of 85 feet and a foot in dia- 
meter; its height at 150 years is often 130 feet and its diameter 2 feet 
6 inches. 

This species is suited to any kind of soil. It grows well in a dry soil 
composed of volcanic ash and is not affected by severe cold . 

Leyendecker-Hilders. The Restoration of Beech Woods with Conifers, 

(Wann und wie bringt man in Buchenverjiingungen Nadelholznutsholz 
auf solchen Boden ein, welche die Einbringung edierer Laubholzer nicht 
angezeigt ercheinen lassen?) XXIX Versammlung des Hessischen Forst- 
vereins. — Allgemeine Forst und Jagd-Zeitung, 86 J., pp. 384-86. Frank- 
furt-am-Main, October 1910. 

The decrease in the timber yield of forests of pure beech confers im- 
Germany portance on the problem of their restoration by the help of other species. 
The following species are suggested, when inadvisable to introduce oaks 
or other broad leaved trees: 

i) The spruce (i) provided the soil be cool enough. In any case only 
forest glades should be planted with this species. 

2) The forest pine (2), to be planted in stony ground of an average 
or inferior quality. 

3) The fir (3), for good, cool soil. 

4) The; larch (4), is the most suitable for mixing with Beech (5) 
in any proportion; the Japanese Larch (6) is equally good, as well as the 
Weymouth Pine (7), the Douglas Pine (8), and, for damp soil, the Sitka 
Pine (9). 



(i) Picea excelsa Link = Fichte =3 Spruce. 

(2) Pinus sylvest}-is L. rr Kiefer = Scotch Fir. 

(3) A ies pectinata DC. = Tanne =1 Fir. 

(4) Larix sp. rrz Larche :=3 Larch. 

(5) Pagus sp. = Buche = Beech 

(6^ Larix leptolepis Hon. rr: Japanische Larche =: Japanese Larch. 

(7) Pinus Strohus L. =z Weymouthskiefer =: Weymouth Pine. 

(^8) Pseudotsuga Donglasii Carr. = Douglasfichte = Douglas Pine. 

(9j Picea sitchensis Trautv. et Mey. z^ Sitkafichte = Sitka Pine. \_Ed.[. 



BEECH. - CHESTNUT. - CAMWOOD 



lOI 



Railway Sleepers of Beech Wood. (Fiir die buchene Einsenbahnschwelle). 
— Forst- imd Jagd-Zeitung, J. 29, N. 41, p. 375. Wien, October 14, 
1910. 

A railway sleeper of the best beech wood when injected with preser- 
vatives weighs about 120 kilos; if oak, the weight is 100 kg.; and if pine 
70 kg. Besides being more durable, beech wood sleepers hold screws better 
than oak. 

In order to ensure durability, the wood must, however, be perfectly 
sound before injection. By the new economical method of treatment, 
16 kg. of tar oil are sufficient for one beech sleeper, instead of 56 kg., as 
formerly required. 

The sleeper is previously treated with from 14 to 18 kg. of a weak so- 
lution of zinc chloride. 



Austria 



Restoration of Chestnut-Woods in France. — La Halle aux Cuirs. Paris, 
October 16, 1910, p. 670. 

The Syndicate of French manufacturers of tanning and dyeing extracts 
intends to give an annual subsidy of 1500 frs. to the Department of the 
Card. This sum, added to subsidies from the Department and the State, 
will be used as follows for restoring chestnut woods, in accordance with 
the decision of the Departmental Commission: 

i) compensation to those who plant new chestnut woods or replace 
the felled chestnut-trees; 

2) contributing to the institution of experimental stations in districts 
affected by chestnut-disease, for the discovery of disease-resisting stocks. 



France: 
Gard 



T. J. Alldridge. Camwood. (A Transformed Colony: Sierra Leone). — 
London, Seely and Co., 1910, 8°, p. 354. 

The Camwood tree grows in Upper Mendi, in the lower countries 
near the coast, and in the forests between Bo and Baiima. This timber, 
which is extraordinarily hard and heavy, gives fine, long thick logs, some- 
times attaining 14 inches in diameter. 

When the trunk is felled and the sapwood chopped away, the heart which 
is the part used for trade, is orange coloured, but this wood rapidly dar- 
kens on the surface and becomes a beautiful blood red. 

The trade in this wood was organised as soon as the railway ran 
through the forests near Baiima, but as the price offered was unprofitable, 



Sierra 
Leone 



(i) The tree producing Camwood is the Baphia nitida, Lodd. [Ed.]. 



Philippines: 
Mindanao 



I02 CAMWOOD. - TIMBER-FELLING. - THE MATCH INDUSTRY 

the attempt failed. However, camwood is really too beautiful to be long 
neglected, and it is very probable that new styles of furnishing will renew 
the demand and thus revive a trade which had an unprecedentedly short 
duration in this remote part of the Sierra Leone Protectorate. 

Philippine Lumber Exports. — {Mindanao Herald, June, 1910). The Tropical 
Agriculturist, vol, XXXV, No. 3, p. 221. Colombo, Sept. 1910. 

The Port Banga saw-mill is exporting hard woods from Mindanao, cut 
into planks, for the manufacture of high-class furniture: 200000 cub. feet 
were recently sent to the United States, 98 000 feet to London and Rot- 
terdam, and orders have been received for new consignments. 



F. Main. Tree Felling by Electricity. — Journal d! Agriculture Tropicale, 
Sept. 30, 1910, No III, p. 273, Paris. 

The following information is given on tree-felling by thermo-cautery. 

The Thermo-cautery — a German invention — is a metallic wire, i mil- 
limetre in diameter, moved backward and forwards by a motor and an 
Germany eccentric wheel. By friction the wire becomes so heated as to char the 
wood, eating its way through the trunk. Felling by this means is rapid ; 
only 6 minutes are required for a tree 50 cm. in diameter. Even trees 
3 m. in diameter can be easily cut. The apparatus is not cumbersome, 
and can be adjusted so as to cut trunks either above or below the level 
of the soil. If the timber yard does not possess an electric plant, a pe- 
troleum, or benzene electrical motor may be applied, as frequently done, 
to supply the requisite energy. 

No information is given as to the economy of tree-felling with the 
thermo-cautery, but it is certainly a time-saving and waste-preventing process. 



British 
India 



R. S. Troup. Fissibility of some Indian Woods and Prospects of the 
Match Industry for the Indian Empire, — Indian Forest Records, 
Vol. II, Part II; Indian Forest Memoirs, Vol. II, Part I; Nature, No. 
2139, Vol. 84, p. 547. London, October 27, 1910. 

Experiments on the fissibility of woods show that splitting depends 
mainly on the nature of the grain, and that a hard wood with straight grain 
like Acacia Catechu splits more readily than a cross-fibred soft wood, like 
the Bombax malabaricum. Tests were made to compare the cleaving force 
required in radial and tangential planes, with the result that for most timbers 
cleavage proved to be easier in the latter plane. 

The memoir on match-wood is very comprehensive and sets out the 
results of practical manipulation with different woods, suitable location for 






SAW-DUST. - WOOD-PULP 103 



(i^ « The Bombax ?nalaharicnin belongs to the family of Malvaceae, it is known under 
the name of the Red Silk Cotton Tree, common through the hotter forests of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. The tree yields a brown gum sold in the bazars under the name 
Mocharas, also known as Supari-ka-phul. The gum only exudes from portions of the 
bark that have been injured by insects or decay, for incisions in the healthy bark do 
not cause it to flow. The inner bark of the tree yields a good fibre, suitable for cor- 
dage. The seeds afford the so-called Red Silk Cotton, or Semul-Cotton, useful like 
Kapok for stuffing pillows ». 

The roots form part of the Indian medicinal drug Musla-Semul. 

" The timber of Bombax malabariciun is not very durable except under water. 
It is used for planking, packing-cases, toys, etc. The tree is called the yama-drtima, 
or tree of the infernal regions, or of the god of death, because it makes a great show 
of flowers and produces no fruit fit to eat. The cotton is made into tinder, and the 
wood used in the Ahmedabad match factory. Of all readily available timbers it is one 
of the most suitable for that purpose. " (Sir George Watt, The Commercial Products 
of India. London, 1908, p. 168). 

(2) The B. insigne yields a brown gum See "Watt, A Dictionary of the Economic 
Products of India, vol I, p. 487, Calcutta 1889; Dujardin-Beaumetz and Egasse, Les 
Plantes Mcdicinalcs htdigenes et exotiques, p. loi, Pari=;, 1889, \Ed\ 



Germany 



factories, the possibilities of obtaining supplies, and an article on the 
manufacture of matches. 

Some Indian trees yield excellent wood for the match industry, amongst 
which Bombax malabaricum (i) and B. insigne (2). 

Sawdust Cakes for Horses. — Rezuie des Eaiix et Forets, October i, 191 o, 
p. 603. 

A German paper gives an account of sawdust bread. Works in Berlin 
are producing about 200 quintals of "wood bread" per day. 

This cattle-food is made by submitting the sawdust to several chemical 
processes after it has been fermented, and then mixing it with rye flour 
in the proportion of two parts of sawdust to one of flour. It is then baked 
in the same way as ordinary bread. 

The product is used for feeding horses, ^but it is said that it could 
serve as human food in famines. 

Wood Pulp from Newfoundland. — {La Nature). Revue des Eaux et Forets, 
October i, 1910, p. 607. 

Some few years ago, the Amalgamated Press, which publishes the 
Daily Mail, Daily Mirror, Evening News, and about forty other daily and 
weekly pubUcations in England, decided to make its own paper. Putting 
together a capital of 30 milHons frs., the organisation bought two million Newfound- 
acres of forest in the North-East of Newfoundland, at a place called Grand land 
Falls, building paper mills on the spot. 

The mills, which are in ftill working order, have a motor force of 



I04 BAMBOO PAPER-PULP. - IDENTIFICATION OF TIMBER, ETC. 



30 000 H. P., and will later on have 80 000. The output is 90 metres of 
paper per minute. A first consignment of 2 000 tons, sufficient to make 
40000000 copies of a 12 page paper, has been sent to London by a 
specially chai^tered steamer. 

A town which already numbers more than 3 000 inhabitants has grown 
up round these works, in addition to the woodcutters' huts scattered through 
out the forests. The trees are felled in the autumn and winter, giving 
work to the cod-fishers who are unemployed at that time of the year. 
The logs are floated down the rivers to the mills, and the rolls of paper 
are afterwards taken by rail to Botwood, whence fast steamers carry them 
in four days to London. 

Bamboo for Paper-making. — A??nales Forestieres. Revue des Eaux et Forcts. 
Paris, October 1910, No. 20, pp. 632-633. 

Inexhaustible reserves of fibre exist in South East Asia, including India 
P "V' and Ceylon, which could be used for the manufacture of paper pulp. The 
of chief of these is furnished by the common bamboo, which is now recognised 
Asia as the most suitable for this industry. 



The Identification of Timber. — Mitteiliingen a us Deiitschen Schuizgebieten, 
vol. XXIII, part. II; Nature, No. 2139, vol. 84, p. 546, London, Oct- 
tober 28, 1910. 

In this paper Dr. Btisgen deals with the distinguishing characters of 

Kamerun trees, observed during an expedition through the German Cameroons, and 

gives a series of engravings illustrating sections of the more important 

timbers, the original samples of which are at the Forestry College in 

Miinden. 

Amongst these timbers are the following: Chlorofora excelsa, which 
appears to be identical with African teak ; Enantia chlorantha a yellow 
wood; Efitandophragna Ca/idollei, a mahogany wood; Lophira alata, also 
known as ironwood; and Mirmisops Djave, the Congo mahogany. 



United 
States: 
Florida 



J. S. WooLSEV A new Type of Resin Collector. — Nature, No. 2135, 
Sept. 29, 1910, p. 402. 

Mr. Woolsey describes in the Indian Forester for August a new and 
peculiar type of resin collector, which is being tried in the pine forests of 
Florida. Two small tunnels, 5 inches in length by an inch in diameter, are 
made in the tree, both starting from the same spot and passing tangentially 
through the sap wood. The collector consists of two metal caps set at 
right angles and connected by a hollow angle piece. One of the caps is 



RESINS. - VARNISH INDUSTRY. - TURPENTINE 



105 



fitted to the mouth of the two openings and a glass jar, into which the 
resin flows, is fitted to the other horizonal cap. 

It is claimed that this method increases the yield and prevents evapo- 
ration, at the same time furnishing a clean product. 



C h. CoEFiGNiER. The Varnish Industry in 1908-1909. — Revue de chimie 
indiistrielle. Paris, Sept. 1910, N. 249, p. 265. 



This analytical review of works published in 1908-1909 on resins, co- 
pals and elemis, used in the varnish industry, contains information on the co- 
pals of the Congo and Benguela, the elemis of Africa, and the most recent 
chemical researches on essence of turpentine, from which the following 
notes on the pine oils, Chinese Oil and Poison sumac are taken. 

Chinese Oil is obtained from the seed of Aleurites cordata. The tree 
yields from 52 to 82 kg. of oil w^hen 5 or 6 years old, and could be cul- 
tivated in the South of France and in Algiers. 

The Poison Sumac, Rhus Vernix, is a tree yielding a lac similar to that 
of the Japanese Rhtis vernicifera. 

The pine oils are obtained by distilling the needles and cones of the 
different pine trees in the Austrian Tyrol, Hungary, the region of the Ural 
and the North of Russia. By treating these oils with ozone in the presence 
of acetic acid a product similar to essence of turpentine is obtained. 



Congo 

China 

Hungary 

Russia 



W. M. RoYDS. Japanese Turpentine. — The. Board of Trade Journal, 
No. 721, 22nd Sept. 19 10, London, p. 605; and the Che?nist and Druggist, 
London, Oct. 22nd 1910, p. 64. 

The British Acting Vice-Consul at Hakodate reports that, prefiminary 
experiments having proved very successful, the manufacture of turpentine 
by the Government is to be commenced shortly. 

Machinery for the purpose, to the value of 150 000 yen (about £15 000) 
has been ordered. 

It is hoped eventually to produce a very large amount of turpentine, 
as the sources of supply are almost inexaustible. The Acting Vice-Consul 
has forwarded samples of raw turpentine extracted from the tree Larix 
dahnrica, Turez, known in Karafuto (Sakhalin) as the " Rakuyosho "; and 
of refined turpentine oil, produced at the Government experimental labo- 
ratory, and of the resin left after the extraction of the oil. 



Japan : 
Karafuto 
(Sakhalin) 



io6 



TANNIN. - VIRGINIA SUMACH 



Vegetable Tannins. — La Revue de Chimie Industrielle, Sept. 19 lo, 21st year, 
No. 256, Paris. 

A large number of tannins are used, in the leather trade, and Mr. Thuau, 
in Le Cuir, gives the following table of the chief tannins obtained from 
roots, leaves, galls, fruits, or the bark of trees: 



France 



Raw Products 


Average 

percentage 

of water 


Average 
percentage 
of tannin 


Limits of the 

Tannin 
percentage 


Algarobilla .... 


. 12.5 


43 


35 to 52 


Birch (bark) 


■ 13 


10 


6 » 18 


Canaigre 





25 


20 » 30 


Chestnut wood . . . 


• 14-5 


8 


7 ' 9 


» » extract (2 c 


°B) 58 


30 


28 » 32 


Oak wood 


• 14-5 


— 


6 » 9 


» bark 


• 13 


10 


5 ^> 17 


■» » extract (25° B) 


— 


25 


20 » 28 


Divi-Divi 


. 13-5 


41-5 


30 » 50 


Gambier 




— 


40 » 55 


Bark of Kermes Oak . 


• 13 


25 


18 » 30 


Hemlock bark . . . . 


• 14.5 


15 


10 » t6 


Gall-nuts 


. 16.5 


30 


24 » 38 


Malette (bark of) . . . 


• 14-5 


42 


35 » 55 


Mangrove bark . . . . 


• 14-5 


36 


25 ^' 45 


Mangrove extract (dry) 


— 


60 


55 » 62 


Mimosa bark. . . . 


• . 14-5 


34 


20 » 40 


Myrobolans .... 


• • 13 


32 


20 » 48 


» extract . . 


— 


25 


23 » 30 


Pine bark 


• . 14-5 


11.6 


6 » 20 


Quebracho wood . . 


. . 14.5 


20 


15 » 28 


» extract (dry) . 


20 


65 


60 » 75 


» (25° B) 


— 


34 


30 » 38 


Rove (? £d.). . . . 


. . 14 


30 


24 » 46 


Sumach 


. . 12 


25 


23 » 32 


» extract. . . 


— 


20.8 


18 » 26 


Trillo 


• • 14-5 


43-5 


30 » 50 


Velonea Acorns. . . 


• • 15-5 


28 


16 » 38 



United 

States: 

Virginia 



C. R. Delaney. Varieties and Analyses of Virginia Sumachs. — Leather 
Chem. Assoc. 19 10, 5, 404-405; Abst. Journal of Chemical Lndustry, 
October 10, 1910, No. 19, London, p. 1169. 

The preparation of tannic extracts from the Virginian sumach, is 
suggested. A comparison is made with the price of the extracts prepared 



MANGROVE. - RUBBER COAGULATION. - HEVEA OIL 107 

in other countries, and a table given of analyses of samples of Rhus glabra, 
Rhus typhina and Rhus copalliim. 

Mangrove Tannin. Partie tecnique, Suppl. to La Halle aux Cuirs, No. 10, 
Octoqer 9, 1910. 

Experiments are being made in different parts of the French Colonies 
for promoting mangrove plantations as a source of tannin. Large planta- 
tions of mangroves are suggested for the shores of the lake near Tunis, to 
prevent landslips at Bahira. The species proposed for planting are either 
the Rhizophora Mangle L. or the variety raceinosa G. F. W. Mey, growing Tunis. 
on the eastern coast of America, and on the West African Coast in Guinea, Venezuela 
San-Thome, Grand Bassam on the Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, the Congo, etc. 

Mangrove wood is very hard, giving excellent timber; in this wood, the 
heart is a dull or brownish red. The San-Thome Mangrove bark contains 
about 17.5 7o of tannin and a red colouring matter, used to dye fishing nets. 

Mangrove tannin is nearly white when pure, but red brown as ordi- 
narily prepared; it resembles the tannin of the horse-chestnuts, of tormen- 
tilla and of rhatany; and is identical with the tannin of Mimosa bark. 
Indeed, mangrove-tannin needs further study. 

The mangrove bark, formely collected in large quantities near- the Lake 
of Maracaibo, is very difficult to find now-a-days, the Maracaibo mangroves 
having been almost completely exhausted by the large exportation to the 
United States; the price of the bark has risen 16 frs. per ton in conse- 
quence. This rise in price gives encouragement to introduce mangrove 
plantations in the French Colonies. 

A New Method of Coag slating Rubber. The Pracol. (Auf bereitung der 
Kautschukmilch). — Giimnii-Zeitung, Berlin, 28th Oct. 1910. 

In centres of raw rubber production experiments have been made to 
find rapid and efficacious methods of i'coagulation, in order to obtain a pgpu 
good quality of rubber. In London, Mr. Aubrey has discovered for this 
purpose a new method which favours coagulation and prevents fermentation. 
This system which is easy and economical, has already been adopted by 
the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company, and has been monopolised by a London 
Syndicate, which puts the requisite preparation on the market under the name 
of Pracol. This product is sold in tubes; the contents of a tube, dissolved 
in a pint of water, are sufficient to coagulate two gallons of rubber latex. 

Oil from Seeds of Hevea Brasilieasis. — The India Rubber World, New 
York, I St Oct. 1910. 

At a recent meeting of the United Planters' Association of South India, British 
report was made on the vast plantations of Hevea Brasiliensis, made during 
recent years and which have already begun to bear seed. 



io8 



HEVEA. - TAPPING FOR RUBBER 



Ceylon 

and 

British 

Guiana 



The production of the seeds will naturally go on increasing. It is 
calculated that after the fifth year each tree will give 500 seeds, those of 
400 trees weighing a ton (1016 kgs.). The seeds contain about 20°/^, of oil, 
valued at 500 frs. per ton. The report demonstrates the advantage of 
gathering the seeds and pressing them to extract the oil. The oil-cake may 
be used as manure for the Hevea trees. 

Fetch. How to place Seeds when sowing Hevea. — Journal of Board 
of Agriculture^ British Guiana, 3rd January 19 10. Tropical Agriculturist, 
Vol. XXXV, No. 3, p. 202, Colombo, Sept. 1910. 

Seedlings of Hevea bi asiliensis frequently grow up so bent and twisted 
that they sometimes form nearly complete circles. Mr. Fetch, of the Bo- 
tanical Department of Ceylon, explains this peculiarity in a recent paper 
.where he demonstrates how the manner of placing the seed at the time 
of sowing contributes to bring about abnormal growth. The seed of the 
Fara is a slightly flattened ellipsoid, in which the upper and lower sides 
and the micropyle are easily distinguished. The experiments described by 
Mr. Fetch were repeated in British Guiana. 5000 seeds were placed in the 
soil, 1000 in each of the five following positions: horizontally, with the lower 
side downwards, germination 61.1 °/oS "^'i^h the upper side downwards, ger- 
mination 63 "/oJ sidewards, germination 65 7oJ vertically, with the micropyle 
turned down, germination 61.4 "/qJ with the micropyle upwards, germina- 
tion 54.7 °/q. This last position gives the greatest number of twisted seed- 
lings, while the horizontal position appears to be the most favourable to 
normal growth. 



Great 
Britain 



New Method of Tapping Trees for Rubber. (Ein neues Zapfsystem. — 
Giimmi Zeitiing, Berlin, 28th Oct. 1910. 

Mr. Spence, C. E., oi Glasgow, has invented a new method for tap- 
ing rubber trees for the extraction of rubber. Above and below the inci- 
sion, and at a certain distance around, strong pressure is applied to the bark 
by means of a steel ring, fixed round the trunk. This ring is gradually 
drawn near to the incision squeezing out the latex, which flows into the cups. 



Straits 
Settlements 



Hevea Brasiliensis Seeds and their Oil. — Journal of the Royal Society of 
Arts, No. 3021. London, 1910. 

The demand for seeds of Heiea brasiliensis is superior to the supply; 
and the authorities of the Botanical Garden of Singapore have decided to 
refuse any further orders for seeds before the spring of 1911, in view of the 
enormous quantity of seed already reserved. 



RUBBER PLANTS 



109 



Soon however there will be extra supplies from many millions of trees 
which are being planted. These seeds may furnish a fine clear oil, of as 
good drying properties as the best Hnseed oil. 

Taking into account the commercial value of the seeds, it has been 
proposed to provide the plantations with seed-crushing machines. In this way 
the residues could be utilised as fodder and manure. 



Singapore Rubber. — Journal of the Royal Society of Arts,, No. 3015, 
Vol. LVIII, Sept. 1910, p. 922. 

The vast stretches of uncultivated land in Singapore which have lain 
fallow since the cultivations of the gambler, the coffee plant, and the pepper 
tree were abandoned, are now the scene of great activity. 

Rubber is being planted there, and seems to thrive. A large marshy 
area in the neighbourhood of Singapore has been drained, and converted into 
a nursery for para-rubber trees, which are sold at a profit in the island. Se- 
veral square miles of land in Malacca, hitherto the haunt of the tiger and 
other wild beasts, have been transformed into flourishing rubber plantations. 
To-day Malacca, after a long period of neglect, is in a prosperous condition. 
Till quite recently, there was no bank in Malacca: there are now three, 
doing a good business, and the town will soon become an important centre. 



Straits 
Settlements 



T. Fetch. Experimental Tapping of Hevea at Singapore. — Tropical 
Agriculturist, Vol. XXXV, No. 3, pp. 194-197. Colombo, Sept. 1910. 

Experiments were made at Henaratgoda, in 1905-1906, which showed, 
on a superficial examination, that more rubber was obtained by tapping the 
trees once every two days than by repeating the operation every day. 
Many persons, however, do not adopt this method ; for, though the amount 
obtained by tapping every other day is greater than that obtained by daily 
tapping, it is not equal to double the latter. The total rubber collected 
by the end of the year by the alternative process (one day out of two) is 
less than that collected by the continuous process, although more than 
half. Experiments on the subject would seem to show that the actual 
amount is three quarters. The advantage lies in the decrease of the net 
cost per pound of rubber; but daily tapping yields, in a given time, the 
best return. 



Straits 
Settlements 



Rubber Cultivation in Penang. — " The Board of Trade Journal.'' London , 
No. 723, 1910. 

Rubber-growing in Penang developed considerably during the past year. 
It is mainly in the hands of Chinese and Malays, and hitherto its impor- 
tance has been inconsiderable, but it is now rapidly spreading. 



Straits 
Settlements 



no 



RUBBER PLANTS 



During the year new companies have been formed to grow rubber 
in the province of Wellesley. Many small farms have already been planted 
with rubber, and their condition is satisfactory. 

In the district of Bindings, the cultivation of rubber is looked upon as 
the only hope of that region. The Sandycroft Estate is very prosperous, 
and will become still more so. Plantations are being pushed forward on 
other estates. The quantity of rubber exported from Penang in 1909 
amounted to nearly 1000 tons, but most of it came from other producing centres. 



Federated 
Malay 
States 



A. M. Burn-Murdoch. Forest-Improvement in Malacca. (Notes on Works 
of Improvement in the Federated Malay States Forests). — The Indian 
Forester, vol. XXXVI, No. 10, Allahabad, October 1910, pp. 566-571, 

The forests may be divided, for purposes of improvement, into two 
principal classes: 

1. The gutta-percha forests; 

2. The forests for timber. 

These two classes of forests are not, however, always distinct, and it 
often happens that gutta-percha is found here and there, though seldom in 
considerable quantities. 

The forests of the first class are generally a little less thickly wooded 
than those of the second, and the finest trees are the Falaquimn Gutta, the 
P. oblongifolium, and one or two other species of Palaquium. 

" Fortunately there is no mistaking the Gutta-percha tree, known to the 
Malays as Getali-Taban-Mcrah. It has rather stiff leaves, glossy dark green 
on the upper surface, snd a golden brown colour on tlie under, and can be 
recognized by any one. Good instances of the Gutta-percha forest are found 
in the TroUah Forest Reserve, Perak, in the Rantau Panjang Reserve, Se- 
langor, and in many other tracts." 

Important details are given by Mr Burn-Murdoch on the method fol- 
lowed for the improvement of the Gutta-percha forests. 

In the second class of forest, the useful species come in the following 
order : 

I. Chengal, Balanocarpm maximus; 

1. » » IVrayi; 

2. Merbau Bukit, Afzelia retusa; 

2. » Afzelia, » Palombanica; 

3. Tembusu, Fagraea flagrans and speciosa; 

4. Penaga, Mesua ferrea ; 

5. Kulim, Scorodocarpus Borneensis; 

6. Keranji, Dialium Imirinum; 

7. Kledang, Artocarpus ; 



RUBBER PLANTS 



in 



8. 
9- 

lO. 

II. 

12, 



Merauti, Shorea and Hopea various species ; 

Jelutong, Dyera costulata; 

Tampines, Seoetia Sideroxylon; 

Resak, Shorea barbata; 

Balau, » materialis (Ridley), 



" Jelutong is important for its latex, which it yields in large quantities, 
producing a low grade rubber, it also yields a soft white timber used for 
planking of ceilings and for native clogs. Chengal, Merbau, Resak are hard 
and heavy, useful for sleepers and for building, bridges, as pests, beams, etc. 
Tampines is useful for any purpose in which great strength is required." 



Carlisle. Rubber Production in Indo-China. — The Board of Trade [onrtial, 
London, Oct. 20th, 1910. 

The rubber at present exported is obtained from trees which grow 
wild, especially in the forests of Upper Laos. Such an unskilful method 
is adopted for the extraction of the product that the yield is continually 
diminishing, and has finally fallen from 372 tons m 1905 to 35 tons in 1909. 
Some plantations of Hevea have been made in South Annam and in Cochin- 
China, but they are not yet productive. At the end of 1909 there were 
fifteen plantations containing 650 000 trees. The production of rubber from 
existing plantations will not exceed 6 tons in 1910, but it is expected that 
it will reach 1000 tons in 1918. It would seem that the winters in Tonkin 
are too severe for Hevea ; there exist, however, plantations of Ficus elastica. 

A new rubber tree was discovered three years ago in Northern Tonkin, 
and named Bleekrodea tonkinensis (i). 



Fren&h 
Indo-China 
and Siam 



The Association of Rubber Planters of Cochin-China. 

Coloniale, Paris, No. i8, 1910. 



La Qimizaine 



A Rubber planters Association {Association des Planteurs de Caoutchotic 
de Cochimhine) is about to be constituted in Saigon for the cultivation of 
rubber trees and the sale of their products ; it will also promote the ope- 
rations of buying and selling the seeds, plants and rubber, and aid in 
recruiting foreign or local labour. 

The new Association has its headquarters at the Saigon Chamber of 
Agriculture, and its statutes were published in the July number of the Bulletin 
of this Chamber. 



French 
Indo-China 
Cochinchina 



(i) Bleekrodea tonkincns is not named in the Index Keivensis and its supplements 
up to 1908. \_Ed^. 



112 



RUBBER PLANTS 



HawaV 

Straits 

Settlements 



Recent Investigations on Rubber-Culture. — {Tropical Life. The Agri- 
cultural News. Imp. Dep. of Agr. for the West Indies. Bulletins of the 
Malay States, and of the Hawaii Agric. Exp. Station). Nature, No. 2138, 
Vol. 84, Oct. 20 1910, p. 510. London. 

Experiments are being made in the cultivation and preparation of rubber 
in several agricultural stations, and the results have been discussed in the 
agricultural press of tropical countries. 

The effect of the modes of tapping on the yield of latex has been 
studied in Hawaii. It appears that a V incision yields less than the vertical 
cut. There is no advantage in making four tappings per day instead of two. 

Manuring with sodium nitrate appears to increase the flow of the latex. 
In one experiment, five trees, to each of which 226 grammes of nitrate 
were given, produced 25.5 grammes of dry rubber during the three days 
which preceded manuring, and 36.8 grammes during the three days following 
it. It still remains to be seen whether this fertiliser is economical. The 
experiments were made with the Ceara tree. 

Numerous analyses of latex have been made at the Botanical Garden 
of Singapore. A 32 year Hevea brasiliensis yielded 764 grs. of latex at one 
tapping, of which 61.08 °/o was water, 2.3 °/q serum solids, mainly organic 
matter, and 36.2970 coagulum obtained hy means of acetic acid. Nearly 
all the coagulum was rubber, with a small amount of resin. In another 
variety, the Landolphia Heudelotti, the dry rubber yielded 89.5 °/o of pure 
rubber and io.5{7o of resin. 

The extraction of the rubber from the latex is a very important que- 
stion. It is considered that the difference in value between rubbers is partly 
due to the methods of dealing with the latex. 

A process has recently been studied in which smoke, creosote and acetic 
acid are used in order that the latex may coagulate under similar condi- 
tions to those usual in Brazil. Steam under pressure of 30 or 35 lbs to th e 
square inch (slightly more than two atmospheres), mixed with fumes from 
strongly heated green palm leaves, is injected in the tanks which contain 
the strained latex. In about ten minutes the globules of rubber coagulate 
and rise to the surface. 



Mexico 



Rubber Industry in Tabasco and North Chiapas, Mexico. — Bureau of the 
Americati Republics, Washington, Sept. 1910, 

There are about 35 rubber-tree plantations in the State of Tabasco 
and in Northern Chiapas, covering from 350 000 to 400 000 acres. The 
number of trees approximate 10 to 12 millions. These figures are probably 
trustworthy, coming from official information and from persons well acquainted 
with the local rubber industry. 



RUBBER PLANTS 



113 



LiNARD. Rubber Cultivation in Honduras. — Consular Notes. 
the American Republics. Washington, Sept. 1910. 



Bureau of 



A private Company has been authorised to lay out 3000 acres of 
virgin land suitable for raising rubber and it is now about to turn them into 
vast plantations. The Company intends to increase this area still more, so 
as to plant rubber-trees by hundreds of thousands. Up to the present no 
rubber trees have been cultivated in the country. The demand for wild 
rubber, or scrap, which is very abundant and is sold by the Indians, has made 
the local price rise from 38 cents to 1.33 gold dollars per pound. 

The planters, having found that the commercial demand for rubber 
greatly exceeds the world's production, are showing a very marked tendency 
to make rubber cultivation a permanent Honduras industry, to the gradual 
limitation of banana-culture. 



Honduras 



G. B. GiLiJAT Smith. Rubber Production in Venezuela. — Board of Trade 
Journal, London, Oc^. 20, 1910, p. 140. 

In Venezuela, in the Upper Orenoco and in the valley of the Rio Negro, 
rubber comes from tlie wild Hevea brasiliensis. There is a considerable expor- 
tation of balata, the product of a tree known under the name of purguo 
{Mimusops globosa) which grows wild all over Venezuela, especially in the 
district of Guiana. Balata is sold at about £12 (300 frs.) per CAvt. (50.08 kgs.). 

A Venezuelan cacao planter has planted some 150000 trees of the 
Castilloa elastica (of which some are already from 10 to 12 years old) 
among his cacao trees; but the quantity of rubber he exports as yet is 
very small. 



Venezuela 



Germination in two Species of Manihot: Manihot dichotoma, and Ma- 
nihot pianhyensis. — Gummi Zeitung, Berlin, 28 Oct. 1910. 

Manihot dichotoma Able, and Manihot pianhyensis Able, have been im- 
ported from Brazil into some British Colonies, to experiment their cultivation. 
The germination of the seeds was very satisfactory in the first species every- 
where, excepting in S. Lucia. In Borneo, two months after sowing, the 
M. dichotofna had already grown to five feet, whilst M. pianhyensis gave lower 
but bigger plants. 



Brazil. 

S. Lucia. 

Borneo. 



Manihot Glaziowi and Bee-Cuiture in Dahomey. (II Manihot Glaziowi e 
I'apicultura). — L' Agricoltura Coloniale, {fourn. d'Agric. tropicale. Juillet), 
Sept. 1910, Florence. 

The introduction of Manihot in Dahomey furnishes a new source of 
honey for bees. In July, when it flowers, the wild bees neglect the native 



West 

French 

Africa: 

Dahomey 



114 



RUBBER PLANTS 



Belgian 
Congo 



vegetation and prefer the Manihot. The abundance of flowers and the 
prolonged blooming of the Manihot allow the production of Ceara rubber 
to be supplemented with that of honey and beeswax. It remains to be 
seen whether this honey originating from an Euphorbia has a good flavour. 

R. Kindt. Rubber Planting in the Belgian Congo. — {Bulletin de V Assoc, 
des Planteurs de Caoutchouc). Abs,; Jour^ial of the Soc. of Chemical In- 
dustry, 15th Oct. 1910, No. 19. London, p. 1168. 

The Funtumia elastica is considered the only native species worth plant- 
ing. The great value of this species consists in its growing successfully 
and of giving good yields in regions subject to long droughts. On the 
other hand, Hevea brasiliensis and Manihot Glaziovii are more hardy, are better 
yielders and are less sensitive to variations of soil and climate. 

The Hevea can be planted with advantage where thfe dry season does 
not exceed four months. Manihot resists a dry season lasting from 4 to 6 
months, where the Hevea could not thrive. 

As regards the gathering of Manihot rubber, the following figures are given : 





Number 




Number 


Dry rubber 


Locality 




Age 


of 






of trees 




tappings 


per tree 




'- 


years 




grammes 


Boma . . . 


3 


II 


55 


340 


> ... 


I 


12 


12 


625 


» ... 


10 


12 


43 


564 


Vere. . . . 


10 


6 '/. 


5 


136 


Kitobola . . 


40 


8 


10 


198 


» 


190 


8 


39 


90 (in the dry season). 


» 


200 


8 


25 


92 (in the rainy season). 


» 


lOOO 


8 


7 


42 (tappings at lo-day intervals). 



The rubber of the Congo Manihot has been valued at Antwerp at 23 frs. 
per kilogram, the Para being valued at 25 frs. The M. Glaziovii should 
be sheltered from winds, to which it is more sensitive than Hevea. 



German 

East 

Africa 



G. K. R, The Future of the Cultivation of Manihot in German East 
Africa. (Die Aussichten der Manihotkultur in Deutsch Ostafrika). — 
Gu7nmi-Zeitung, 25 J., No. 3, pp. 102-3. Berlin, 21 Oct, 1910. 

It is impossible to forecast correctly the development and value of Ma- 
nihot. It is therefore premature to affirm that the future of Manihot cul- 



RUBBER PLANTS 



115 



tivation is assured and to advise the laying out of large plantations. On 
the contrary, great prudence should be exercised in making new ones. 

Although planters, who have used due caution, have little to fear, they 
ought all the same to be warned not to rely solely on Manihot, but to grow 
also some other remunerative crop, such as tea. 

In any case it is desirable that further experiments be made, that the 
extraction process be improved, and that a more satisfactory manipulation 
of the latex be adopted. 

Good quality in the rubber must be the chief aim for achieving sure 
profits in East African Manihot plantations. 



H. JuMELLE and H. PERRrER DE LA Bathie. Rubber Plants of North 

P^adagascar. — L' Agriculture Pr. des Pays chauds. September 19 10, 
An. 10, No. 90, pp. 184-196. 

Information is given on Landolphia and Mascarenhasia of Analalava, 
in continuation of what was published in the Agriculture pratique des Pays 
Chauds in 1909. The writers describe several little known species, of 
which only one, a Plectaneia called P. micro phylla, gives a tenacious and good 
rubber. Landolphia Perrieri var. ambatensis and La?uiolphia crassipes are 
exploited in the forest of Manongarivo: the South Antaimoros natives cut 
the lianas in bits, barking them by hammering {martelage), then they dry 
the bark and pound out the rubber {pilonage). 



Madagascar 



DusSERT. Ficus Albinervls, a Rubber Plant of Reunion Island. — L' Agricul- 
ture Pr. des Pays chauds, Sept. 1910, No. 10, pp. 255-256. 

This is a hardy form of Ficus elastica. There are about a hundred 
specimens of the plant in the "Providence" Garden at Reunion, and M. 
Dussert has found the plant at Mayotte, Angouzon, Dapany and Majunga. 
The tree is not at all exacting as to soil, quantity of water, heat, etc. 
Its latex yields 40 to 45 % of excellent rubber, or about i kilogram per 
tree per year, and trees from eight to ten years old are ready for exploitation 

This Ficus may be of special interest for the Colonies of the Indian 
Ocean. 



Reunion 



Plantations of the German Colonial Society " Sigi " (Sigi-Pfianzuags- 
Gesellschaft). — Deutsches Kolanialblatt . Berlin, October 1910. 

In the plantations of the Sigi Society 300 000 Ceara rubber trees are 
yielding 19 270 kilograms of rubber. Further, 100 000 trees of Kickxia, ^^^^ 
I 300 trees of Hevea brasilieusis and some Ficus elastica are shortly to be Africa 
exploited. 



World 



ii6 RUBBER PLANTS. - KAPOK. - PEPPER. - CAMPHOR 

The Kapok tree has already furnished 33 768 kilograms of floss and the 
plantations contain 177 000 trees. The cacao plantations occupy 100 hectares, 
with 48 800 trees. ^ 

The pepper plantation {Piper nigrum) is also well developed, and counts 
30 000 plants. The Cardamom is about to be introduced, with an experimental 
plantation of 9 000 plants. 

LuciON. Natural and Artificial Rubber. — Revue Economique Internationale. 
Paris, October 20th, 1910, * 

The Para of Brazil, extracted from Hevea brasiliensis, is the best rubber ; 
it owes its superiority to the almost complete absence of resins. It repre- 
sents half the production of the whole world. 

Hevea begins to yield rubber from its seventh year, attaining the max- 
imum secretion towards the thirtieth year. The United States of Brazil own 
more than 100 million hectares of serinquals, or forests of Hevea. In Co- 
Production lombia, in Peru, etc., Castilloa elastica produces rubber. In Africa, the 
rubber producers are chiefly creepers, of which the most diffused are Lan- 
dolphia, Kickxia, Capodinus, etc. The product from these plants is generally 
good, though sometimes only of average quality. In South Africa, in Mo- 
zambique and in Liberia, an impure, very resinous rubber is extracted from 
the Membuku, the Ibunqu and the Mimusops. 

In Asia, Cochin China, India, Burma, Assam and the Simda Isles, Ficus 
elastica gives a good rubber, but its exploitation proceeds very slowly. 
The enormously increased consumption is necessarily leading to the extension 
of rubber-cultivation. Numerous Companies have been formed in Europe 
and America for the culture and exploitation of rubber trees, and they have 
acclimatised diff"erent species in Java, Sumatra, Malacca, in the Antilles 
and in the African Colonies. 

Expert culture and management of rubber plants may furnish a good 
raw rubber at 3, 4, or 5 francs per kilogram. [But what indeed would 
revolutionise the rubber markets would be the manufacture of artificial 
rubber. 

On this subject Mr. Roussel observes : •' We do not doubt that the ma- 
nufacture of artificial rubber will in a few years jeopardize the Hevea plan- 
tations, permitting us to obtain a product of more uniform and constant 
qualities at small expense, to the great advantage of rubber industries." 

Ceylon Camphor. — The Chemist ami Druggist, N. i 001, vol. LXXVII, 
Oct. I, 1910, p. 63. London. 

The camphor tree grows well and quickly in Ceylon, when planted under 

^ favourable conditions, but it has hitherto [been difficult to develop this 

culture adequately on account of the difficulties in extracting the camphor. 



CAMPHOR. - WAX PRODUCING PLANTS. - MUSHROOMS 117 

If camphor trees are to be grown on a larger scale, expert advice on 
the preparation of camphor should be had. 

Japanese Camphor. — The Chemist and Druggist, No. 1601, Vol. LXXVII, 
Oct. ist 1910. London, p. 39. 

The Official Report of the Japanese Ministry of Finance estimates the japan 
exportation of camphor from January to July at i 593 901 yen (4 383 322 fr.). 



Artificial Camphor. — {Comptes rendus. Paris, 1910, 150, p. 925); The Chemist 
and Druggist, p. 1601, vol. LXXVII, Oct. i, 1910, p. 59. London. 

M. E. Darmois states that he has succeeded in preparing, from essence 
of turpentine, an artificial camphor possessing an optical activity nearly equal 
to that of the natural product, by operating at a relatively low temperature. 
It is probable that at a still lower temperature a product identical with na- 
tural camphor may be obtained. 



France 



Candelilla Wax. — 7 he Chemist and Druggist, N. 1601, vol. LXXVII, Oc- 
tober I, 1910. London, p. 64. 

Small lots of this wax are now appearing on the London markets and 
in other European centres. According to the Bulletin du Musce colonial de 
Haarlem (July 1910) a Company has been formed at Montere3^ in Mexico, 
for the exploitation of Pedilanthus Pavonis, the Euphorbia which produces it. 

This plant grows wild in North Mexico and in the neighbouring ter- 
ritory of the United States. It is a shrub of from m. 0.75 to m. 1.20 in 
height, and every part of it is covered with a thin coating of wax. The 
yield in the works is from 3 Vz to 4 °j^. 

The cost of a factory capable of producing 226 kilograms of Avax per 
day is about 12 000 francs. The working expenses amount to 370 fr. per 
ton, and the price of the product is 3 000 fr. per ton. This wax is used 
for candles, varnishes, photographic plates and electrical isolators. It is 
hard, of a pale colour, with a high melting point. It is superior to the 
Carnanta wax as it keeps perfectly white. 



R. L. Castle The Cultivation of Mushrooms. 

13, 1910, p. 470. 



Nature, N. 1137, October 



Mexico 



" The ' One and All ' collection of gardening books publishes a small ^t^^\ 
n pamphlet on the cultivation of mushrooms, by Mr. R. L. Castle, recommen- Britain 
' dable as a practical and authoritative guide. 



ii8 MUSHROOMS. - POISONOUS MUSHROOMS. - CATTLE FEEDING 



France 



France 



GuFFROY. Fertilisers for Mushrooms in France. — The Gardeners' Chronicle, 
No. 3642. London, October 15th, 1910, p. 284. 

Experiments in France, by Mr. GufFroy, show that the addition of 
phosphates to the manure on mushroom beds greatly increases the yield. 

Immunisation against Poisonous Mushrooms. — Scieniific American, vol. CIII, 
N. 16, New York, October 15, 1910, p. 291. 

In a communication to the Academy of Sciences in Paris, MM. Radias 
and Sartory report that they extracted the toxic principle of the Amanita 
phalloides and of the Amanita tnappa, which they then injected into the pe- 
ritoneum of some rabbits, following the usual method for preparing therapeutic 
serums. After four months treatment, the rabbits were completely immune, 
and could eat the most poisonous mushrooms with impunity. These ex- 
periments would indicate that poisoning by mushrooms could be treated by 
means of serums similar to those employed against diphtheria, etc. 



Aviculture. 



Live stock Breeding. 
Beekeeping. — Silk-Production. — Animal Industries. 



Germany 



A. Weissermehl. Feeding Horses with Potatoes to the Exclusion of Grains. 

(Kartoffelfiitterung an Pferde als vollstandiger Ersatz fiir Korner). 
Ztschr. f. Spiritus Industrie, XXXIII J, N. 41, 503, Berlin, 13 Oct. 1910. 

For three years working horses, during the greater part of the year, 
have been fed with potatoes, without receiving cereals. The horses kept 
in excellent condition, although obliged to work hard. The rations suggested 
are: 30 lbs. of potatoes (14 kilograms) during winter and 40 lbs. (18 kilo- 
grams) during spring, summer, and autumn. The potatoes are boiled and 
then mixed with cut straw. 



Wilbur J- Eraser and Cassius C. Hayden, Alfalfa Hay versus Timothy, 
Hay and Alfalfa versus Bran, for Dairy Cows in Illinois. University 
States- ^^ Illinois, Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. N. 146, pp. 129-144, L^rbana, Illinois, 

Illinois June 1910. 

Two causes influence unfavourably the production of milk in Illinois, 
one being the great production of Timothy {Phleum pratense) the ordinary 



CATTLE BREEDING. - HYGIENE. - HORSES, ETC. 



119 



fodder of milch cows, and the other the high price of concentrated foods 
that may be used to make up the deficiency of protein in Timothy. Hence 
the more extensive cultivation of leguminoseae would be advantageous. They 
would be more profitable and would furnish food much richer in proteid 
substances. 

Experiments carried out with care by Mr. Charles Gilkerson, on a 
herd of cattle in the northern part of Illinois, have demonstrated that a 
ration of 10 pounds (4.53 kg.) of alfalfa hay in place of Timothy hay 
ensures an increase of 16°/^ in the production of milk. 

These results do not coincide with those obtained by other stations in 
Pennsylvania and Tennessee, according to which alfalfa meal and hay are 
slightly inferior to wheat bran for this purpose. However that may be, 
alfalfa hay is one of the best substitutes for bran for milch cows, who 
derive great benefit from it. 



K. Wind. Toxic action of Chile Saltpetre on Cattle. (Ueber Chile salpeter- 
vergiftung). — Deutsche-Landw-Rundschau. Gr. Lichterfelde-Ost. Oc- 
tober 1910, Nv. 13, p. 139. 

Serious injury may be caused to domestic animals by the ingestion of 
nitrate of sodium. Cases of poisoning may be produced even when animals 
eat fodder containing some Chilian nitrate, or when sacks which have con- 
tained this fertiliser have been washed in the water that the cattle after- 
wards drink. Nitrate-poisoning very often has a fatal issue. 



Germany 



Supply of Light Horses in England. 

Arts. Vol. LVIII, N. 3019, p. 971. 



- Jota-nal of the Royal Society of 
September 30th, 1910. 



A light type of horse is required in England both for agricultural and 
military purposes. To encourage breeding to this type, the Board of Agri- 
culture proposes an annual expenditure of £ 50000 (i 250000 frcs.), for the 
purchase of stallions and mares, for prizes, etc. 



Great 
Britain 



New Zebra Hybrid. — Chasse et Peche. Bruxelles, 8 Oct. 1910. pp. 32-33. 

During recent years investigations on the production of new and useful 
zebra hybrids have made progress at the Experimental Station of Bethesda 
(Maryland), connected with the Bureau of Animal Industry of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 

Hybrids between the ass and the zebra have been obtained for some 
time past, and it is hoped that they will prove fertile, which fact will be 
soon tested. An attempt has been made to obtain a hybrid of a zebra 
and a horse: a certain number of large mares have been chosen for this 
purpose. 



I20 CATTLE BREEDING. - CATTLE 



A. RicHARDSEN. Points in Judging Cattle in Sweden. (Die schwedische 
Rinderzucht). Landwirtschaftliche /ahrbiicher.B. XXXIX, H, ■*/$» PP- 623- 
774, Berlin, 1910, 

The methods followed in Sweden in judging stock for breeding is of 
interest. 

Special importance is given to the record of production. For example, 
the following method is adopted for cows kept for butter, in the giving of 
marks for prize-classification: 

Form of body . - Maximum, 9 points 

Pedigree » 9 » 

Production: for each 10 kg. of butter » i » 
Id. : for each kg. of butter per nutri- 
tive unit » I » 



^ . In 1910, the following method of assigning marks to bulls was introduced, 

this method already proving satisfactory : 

Form of Body Maximum points 

Head, horns, neck and shoulders . . 3 points 

Breast and withers 3 » 

Loins and flanks 3 > 

Bony frame and carriage 3 > 

Hide and colour 3 » 

15 points 

Pedigree: Breeding Value 

Breed 4 points 

Colour 3 » 

Paternal pedigree 5 » 

Maternal » 3 > 

15 points 

Productivity 

Milk production of dam 6 points 

Id. of maternal family 3 » 

Id. of paternal dam 3 » 

Constitution and development ... 3 > 

15 points 

Maximum total of marks. ... 45 points 

An example of the results obtained is given by the Nasbylom herd, the 
biggest in Sweden, where the annual production per cow is 5233 kilogr. 



CATTLE BREEDING. - HORNED CATTLE 



121 



of milk, containing 3.26 °/o of fatty substances, or 170.6 kilograms of 
butter. The breed is of the Tiefland stock, derived from the Dutch black- 
spotted cattle. 

A record every three years at certain ages is sufficient, when it is 

completed by general data as to birth and years of lactation. The milk 

production record from the second to the fourth lactation inclusive, furn- 
ishes a good indication on future productiveness. 



High Price in Argentina for Irish Shorthorn. 

breeder. London. Oct. 17th, 1910, p. 1894. 



The Farmer and Stock' 



In a sale of 32 Shorthorn bulls at Buenos-Ayres, the bull "Orphan 
Courtier " bred from the family of Irish Shorthorns the Orphan Luxuries, 
by the Right Hon. Fred. Wrench, fetched the second highest price of the 
sale: £1232, or 31 108 francs. 



Great 

Britain 

and 

Ireland. 
Argentina 



Slaughtering Cows in Argentina. (La matanza de animales vacunos). 
— Revista de la Sociedad Rural de Cordoba, Julio 1910, No. 229-230, 
PP- 5786-5787. 

In the interests of cattle breeding, a heavy tax should be levied on the Argentina 
slaughtering of cows fit for breeding. At Buenos Ayres the cows sent to 
the butcher represent 37.78 "/^ of the cattle slaughtered. 

Madagascar Cattle. — Revue de Madagascar . Paris, October, 19 10. 



There are 5 milion head of cattle in Madagascar. The meat of these 
oxen, or rather zi'bus, is savoury and delicate ; the average weight is 400 kg.; 
the net yield of meat, about 65 per cent, would be higher than that of 
French cattle. Arrangements are to be made for exporting Madagascar 
cattle to France. 

Though the African cattle trade has been at a standstill for a long time 
past, there are nevertheless several other Madagascar products which could 
find a market in British South Africa: rice, maize, peas, and especially 
timber for railway sleepers. 

The increase of agricultural exports from the port of Majunga shows 
that the agricultural produce of this province has grown considerably of 
late, and that the condition of trade is good. The increase is chiefly in 
hides, paddy, raphia, rubber and mangrove bark. Unfortunately, crops are 
frequently ravaged by locusts, sometimes so numerous as to cover tracts 
of land. 



Madagascar 



122 CATTLE BREEDING. - SHEEP 



Mountain Sheep in England. — Live Stock Journal, Vol. LXVII, No. 1907, 
p. 443, London, October 21, 1910. 

Oxford Downs are no longer so much in favour as formerly, and the 

Blackfaced Mountain Sheep, a much smaller breed, appears to be largely 

breat taking their place. The reason is that there is an increased demand for small 
Britain: ° . 

England mutton. This need not be disadvantageous to the farmer ; but intending to 

breed the smaller sheep he must increase the number of his stock and keep 

up the weight per acre: otherwise there is risk of financial failure. The 

so called Scottish half bred, a first cross between the Blackfaced Mountain 

and the Border Leicester, is the best breed to adopt; although it presents 

all the peculiarities of a first cross and gives a very mixed-looking flock, 

the sheep put on flesh rapidly, and the meat is excellent. 

A. Fribourg. Sheep " Transhumance „ in Spain. — Atmales de Geographle, 
May 15, 1910. The Geographical Jaurnal. London, Oct. 1910 p. 490. 

" Transhumance ", the periodic migration of flocks between summer 
and winter pastures, is fostered by natural conditions in Spain. 

The great contrasts of climate and soil and consequently of vegetation 
ensure successive pasturage for the flocks in different and distant parts of 
the country. 

The long wars and disturbances which have always more or less agitated 
Spain Spain favoured more the breeding of stock than settled farming, and when 
the conflict of pastoral and agricultural interests reached a climax, the 
powerful Association of shepherds and herdmen, "Mesta". long enjoyed royal 
protection, along with many special privileges. These privileges were abolished 
half a century ago, with the result that agriculture has increased and the 
migratory movement of cattle and sheep considerably diminished. In 1892 
the number of sheep in Spain was reduced to half ot the number in 1842. 

The distribution of sheep in Spain, and the distribution of migrating 
flocks, are shown in two different maps. 

Both show a stronger migration to the north than to the south of 40° N. 
latitude, but whilst the numerous flocks in the mountainous and well wa- 
tered province of Navarre do not migrate, the less numerous flocks of the 
neighbouring province of Huesca must seek the wide winter pasturages along 
the Ebro. The chief migratory centres are regularly distributed on both 
sides of the winter pasture area. 

The principal route followed by the flocks is from north to south 
across central Meseta. But railway facilities in the transport of flocks have 
now caused the old routes to be almost deserted. 

A comparison is made of transhumance in Spain with that in other 
Mediterranean countries. 



CATTLE BREEDING. - SHEEP. 123 



Lamb Shearing Experiments in New Zealand. — Journal of the Neiv Zea- 
land Dept. of Agric, Vol. I, N° 3, August 15, 1910, p. 217. Wel- 
lington. X 

There are great differences of opinion as to the shearing of lambs. New 

The following experiment was made in 1909 at the Ruakura Experimental Zealana 
Farm, in New Zealand. 

Twenty lambs were divided into two equal lots, one lot being shorn. 
At the end of 6 months the unshorn lot had gained 35 lbs. more than 
the other; the total gain at the end of 9 months being 74 lbs. Later, when 
the two lots were shorn, the unshorn lot gave an average of 2.1 lb. more 
wool than the other. 

The following is the complete table of results: 

Lot I (Shorn) 

£ s. d. 

First shearing, 25 lbs. wool at 7 per lb o. 15. i 74 

Second » 65 lbs. wool at 11 d. per lb 3. o. 6 

518 lbs. mutton, at 3 d. per lb 6. 9. 6 



Total £ 10. 5. 1 74 



Lot II (Unshorn) 



77 lbs. wool at II d. per lb 3. 19. 9 

618 lbs. mutton, at 3 d. per lb 7- 9- 3 



£ II. 9. o 



Gain in favour of unshorn lot £ i. 3. 1074- 

Saint-Hilaire. The Cross Breeding of Dairy Sheep. — Bulletin de la Di- 
rection de r Agriculture, 3rd quarter, 1910. Tunis. 

The Sardinian sheep is the breed most in favour in Tunisian dairy 
farms. 

A year after exportation, the Sardinian sheep lose in milk and are no Tunis 
longer remunerative. This has been also observed in Sicily, and Sardinian 
sheep are not imported as before into Sicily. By crossing Sardinian with 
Barbary sheep, a breed is obtained which is constant in milk yield and su- 
perior to the imported sheep in yield of wool and meat. 

The Sardinian sheep is not satisfactory for the production of wool and 
meat, giving at most a kilogram of wool per year and when slaughtered 
yielding from 10 to 12 kilograms net of meat. 

The Sardinian-Barbary cross, instead, produces 2 kilos of wool per year 
and from 18 to 20 kilos of meat. 



124 GOATS. - ANIMAL INDUSTRIES. - COLD STORAGE 



Goat-Breeding in Southern Mexico. — Bulletin of the Pan-American Union. 
Washington, October, 1910. 

The breeding of goats is steadily increasing in Southern Mexico on ac- 
jj. . count of the growing demand for skins. Waste lands were formerly used 
for pasturing the goats, but the use of better lands for this purpose is more 
profitable. 

H. Martel. Preservation of Meat by Freezing or Refrigeration. — Revue 
Scientifique. Paris, October 22, 1910, No 17, p. 527. 

Low temperatures are not suited to all meats alike, each kind should be 
France preserved at special suitable temperatures. 

Temperature for prolonged 
preservation 
Centigrade degrees Kinds of Meat 

— 10° Beef, mutton. 

i Russian hares ; 

— 7"". 5 < Fowls for broth; 

f Legs and chines of reindeer, roe-buck. 

— 5° Salted ox-tongue. 

Fish : salmon, soles. 

Lobster and other crustaceans; 

3° ( Hams in barrels ; 

Turkeys ; 

Pheasants, young pullets, partridges, grouse ; 

Pickled meats, herrings, caviare ; 

Cooked hams in tins ; 
o"" I Ox-cheek ; 

Potted chicken; 

Sardines in oil. 
Some degrees above 0° . . Butcher's meat, sausages etc. 



Frozen meat loses much less weight than meat kept in a refrigerator. 

Preserved leg of beef Loss p. loo 

Meat frozen at — 20" (3 days) and — 5° (47 days) 4.5 

» at — 5° (50 days) 4.6 

Meat refrigeiated — 2° (3 days) and -j- 2° (47 days) lo.o 

-f 2° (50 days) 13 



» 



The use of frozen meat has not spread in France, attempts to intro- 
duce it having failed. In other countries there is obviously a tendency to 
substitute frozen by refrigerated meat; numerous slaughter-houses in Ger- 



COLD STORAGE OF MEAT. - BUTTER 



125 



many have refrigerators, and the British import trade also inclines towards 
refrigerated meat, with or without the addition of preservatives (Formol, etc.). 

Refrigeration at -\- 1° keeps beef sound for fifteen days, even if the 
atmospheric moisture conditions are not the best (75 to 80° hygrometric 
degrees). Experiments in 1902, 1903 and 1904 by the Commission for the 
Study of Refrigeration Processes appointed by the French War Office 
showed that the first signs of mould {Penicillium and Aspergillus) appeared 
after 15, 17 and 22 days; but this effect was retarded by lowering the tem- 
perature to — 1°, when it was observed that the meat kept sound from 12 
to 30 days. 

Refrigeration, like freezing, destroys the parasites in the muscular tis- 
sues. Cysticerci, the larval forms of the human tape-worm, are destroyed 
by three weeks refrigeration at -\- 3°. 

Some food stuffs should never be preserved except in cold chambers, 
raw chopped meat, so easily spoilt, belonging to this class. It is a question 
which certainly deserves further investigation. 

We note the following concluding remarks : 

i) Governments shotild encourage in every way the institution of re- 
frigerators in public slaughter-houses, markets and even in butchers' shops. 

2) In warm climates where cysticercose or tape-worm is frequent, the 
use of refrigerators should be particularly enforced for meat intended for 
potting, for local consumption, and for fresh meat t.o be exported. 

3) Permission should be refused for the sale of raw chopped meat 
except to shops provided with refrigerators. 

4) Public institutions, as 'hospitals, etc. should require guarantees 
testifying that the meat supplied them has been kept in refrigerators under 
proper conditions of temperature, of moisture etc. 



J. Macmeikan. New Freezing Process for Butcher's Meat. — Revue geni- 
rale du froid. Paris, October, 1910, No. 17, pp. 625-626. 

By this new process freezing is obtained by cold sterilised air, at a 
temperature not so low as usual. 

As soon as the animal is slaughtered the carcase is washed in sterilised 
water and hung ujd to drain for from 6 to 10 hours, according to the outside 
temperature. The carcase is then put in the refrigerator, where it is exposed 
to a current of cold sterilised air (-{- 4° C.) for 6 hours. 



France 



Frozen Meat and Butter Exported from Victoria in 1909-10. — Bidietm 
mensuel dc l Office de Renseignements agricoles, Sept.-Oct. 19 10. 



The frozen meat and butter trade is developing considerably in Victoria. Australia: 
In addition to local consumption, 17 000 tons of butter were this year sent Victoria 



126 



MEAT. - MILK. - BUTTER 



abroad and to the other States of the Austrahan Confederation against 
9 402 tons last year. The frozen meat trade is an export trade only. In 
1909-1910, I 097 432 sheep and lambs were exported, the number for the 
previous year being 651 890. There were besides 8 766 bullocks exported, 
4 639 calves, 8 581 pigs, and 13 480 tins of preserved meat. 

The meat is stored in the Government refrigerators. It is expected 
that the quantities of butter and meat refrigerated next season will be quite 
as high as they were last year. 



United 
States 



C. H. Francis and Perry F. Trowbridqe. Phosphorus in Beef. — /. Biol. 
Chem. 1910 , 8 Si-()^; /ourn. Chem. Soc, Sept. 1910, Abs. 792. 

The conclusions are drawn from a large number of analyses of the 
different organs of several calves and bullocks. The results were uniform 
for young animals, but variable ior older ones. The phosphorus-compounds 
are proportionally more abundant in the circulatory and nervous systems. 
Lean animals give a meat generally poorer in phosphorus-compounds. 



Italy 



G. Fascetti. Dairying. {Caseificid). Ulrico Hoepli, edit., Milano, 1910, 
pp. 2-543. 

This handbook deals with dairying in Italy. It is divided into five 
parts, which treat respectively of milk, cream, butter, cheese and by-pro- 
ducts. Information is given on the organisation of the dair3dng interests 
and business in Italy. 



New 
Zealand 



Inspection of Cattle Sheds and Dairies in New Zealand. — Journal of the 
New Zealand Department of Agric. Vol. i. No. 3, August 15, 1910, 
p. 212, Wellington. 

When the New Zealand Department of Agriculture was reorganised, 
the work of giving instruction and of inspecting dairy farm premises was 
assigned to the Dairy-produce Division. Since April 1910 the inspectors have 
visited from 2000 to 3000 farms, interviewing the owners in regard to im- 
provements. Many cattle-sheds have been repaired and made more healthy ; 
drainage and water supply attended to, and concrete floors laid down where 
possible. In many cases the dairies have been removed further from the 
milking sheds and yards, or will be removed shortly. 

The inspectors often allow as long as three months for carrying out 
the improvements and have been throughout on the friendliest terms with 
the farmers. There is every reason to believe that this new system will 
greatly benefit dairying interests, contributing to produce better and cleaner 
milk and therefore more valuable dairy produce. 



MILK 



127 



A Milk Purifier. {Eine neue Milchreinigungseinrichtimg). 
tober, 1910, No 43, p. 505-506 (With two figures). 



Milch-Ztg Oc- 



The serious dangers that may arise from impure milk, both when used 
as milk and when transformed into butter and cheesse, are dealt with in 
this description of a milk purifier, which is formed of cloth filters through 
which the milk is drawn by a pump. In this apparatus several filters varying 
in thickness may be placed one above the other. 



Germany 



Ropy or Slimy Milk. — The Farmer and Stock-breeder, No. iioi, vol. XXIII, 
October 31, 1910. p. 1969, London. 

Viscosity is relatively common in milk and may be caused either by 
bacteria or by a disease of the cow's udders. Ropy 'milk is very much 
appreciated in some parts of Europe, and good milk is sometimes made 
ropy by being put into a vessel that has previously been lightly rubbed 
with butterwort {^Pinguicula vulgaris), a plant which always has the Bacillus 
hollandicus adhering to its leaves. 

Ropy milk is sometimes used to make Emden cheese. 

In England, viscosity is looked upon as a defect, and every effort is 
made to prevent it. If the ropiness appears immediately after milking, it 
is obviously due to a disease of the udders, and in that case the milk ought 
not to be used for food. If, on the contrary, the ropiness does not appear 
until from 12 to 24 hours after milking, it is probably due to the Bacillus 
lactis viscosus, which is often present in the water used for washing the cans. 
The remedy is to use pure water and to sterilise the cans with boiling water 
or steam. 



Great 
Britain 



G. Lecompte and R. Lainville. New Method of Making Milk Powder. 

[L! Industrie laitiere beige) ; Lindustria lattiera e zootecnica, Reggio Emilia, 
October, 1910, No 20, p. 379. 

The dry matter is separated from the water by freezing the milk. The Belgium 
method described may be used both for fresh, and partially or completely 
skimmed milk. Freezing does not cause caramelisation, nor that cooked taste 
sometimes observed in milk powders prepared by heating. 



N. Gerber. Catalytic Actbns of Enzymes in Milk (Katalase). — Milch 
Zeitung, 1910, No 28, p. 255. 

A new and rapid method is suggested for finding out whether a sample Switzerland 
of milk comes from a healthy animal. The method is based on the cata- 
lytic property of certain enzymes on hydrogen peroxide. If a certain amount 



128 



MILK. - BUTTER 



of milk is mixed with a given quantity of hydrogen peroxide the amount 
of ox}'gen given ofif will reveal the presence of catalytic agents, i. e. the 
secretion from germs which are more or less numerous according to the 
impurity of the milk. 

By using the apparatus suggested by M. Gerber, it is possible to ascer- 
tain whether the milk is fresh. Infections of the mammary glands may also 
be discovered without clinical tests. 

Th. Sames. Some Colorimetric Reactions for distinguishing Raw from 
Heated Milk. (Ueber einige Farbereaktionen zur Unterscheidung der 
erhitzten von der rohen Kuhmilch). — Milchwirtsch. Zeiitralblatt, Oc- 
tober igio. 

The question as to whether milk contains enzymes decomposable by 
Germany heating is important and has been much discussed. 

Of these enzymes the reductases and the oxydases are particularly 
interesting ; the first are generally recognised by the reaction ot methyl 
blue, the second by the reactions of guaiacum tincture, benzidine and 
paraphenylenediamine. 'i'hese reactions are studied by the writer together 
with Scherdinger's modified reaction with methyl blue and formaldehyde. 
The conclusion is reached that for testing milk to verify if it is raw or 
heated satisfactory results are obtainable by employing all these reactions 
together and not relying on one single test. 

" Fucoma ": An apparatus for the Rapid Testing of Milk and Cream. 

(" Fucoma Schnellapparatus " zur Milch und Rahmuntersuchung von der 



Firma P. Funke, Berlin). 
P- 517-518- 



Milch Ztg.. Leipzig, October 1910, No 44, 



Germany A new milk-testing apparatus is described and illustrated by several 

figures. 



Italy 



R. BiNAGHi. Hygromipisimetry, a Nev7 Method of Testing Skimmed and 
Unskimmed Milk. — Rev. Geu. du laii, Brussels, Oct. 1910, No. t6, 
pp. 361-371. 

The term Hygromipisy ijiygromipisie) is used as describing the condition 
of two miscible liquids of different density and capable of mixing, when 
in contact, their respective contact-surfaces being in superposed planes. 
This physico-chemical condition has been investigated by professor Cappa- 
relli from a biological point of view. The degree of hygromipisy is mea- 
sured by means of an apparatus called hygromipisimetre, constructed by Cap- 
parelli. 



MILK. - BUTTER. - CHEESE 



129 



Using milk as the descending liquid and a 0.20 7oo fuchsine solution 
as the ascending liquid, Mr. Binaghi has applied Capparelli's method to 
compare different milks, as those of the goat and of the cow. Binaghi 
observes that the quantity of fat in the milk exerts a great influence on the 
rate of hygromipisimetric time, and suggests the use of Capparelli's method 
for detecting fraudulent skimming in milk. 



P. DoRNic. Butter Making in the Charentes and in Poitou, France. ^ 

L'tndustrte laitiere. No. 41, Paris, 9 October, 1910, p. 663 sgg. 

The report on dairying in the Charentes and in Poitou shows its growing 
importance. From 1908 to 1909 the production of milk in this district in- 
creased by 13 q/°. 

There are 115 cooperative dairies with an average of 600 members 
each. The cows, which give a fair average of milk (1900 litres a year in 
the Lower Charente) are carefully fed. Thanks to good organisation, the 
pastures are being improved, the produce increased, expense reduced, and 
a larger profit netted. The butter output is also very considerable (13 mil- 
lion kg). Competition encourages emulation and removes the prejudices 
of the peasants. 

The average income from each cow in this district is estimated at 
208 frs, a year, the annual amount of milk being 1600 litres, representing 
75kg of butter, giving the milk a value of 13 frs. per hectolitre. 



Frances 

Charentes 

Poitou 



Cru Tibly Butter. — (Kurze, brockelige Butter), 
ber 5th, 1910. 



Fricks Rundschau, Octo- 



In November and December butter is often crumbly. This is due 
not only to imperfect methods of butter-making and a too low temperature 
when the milk is skimmed, but also to feeding the cows with sugar beet 
tops. Pulse and linseed, cocoa and cotton oil-cakes also affect the consis- 
tency of the butter, so that, when the defects are not due to the method 
employed, it is advisable to substitute the above foods, at least in part, 
with corn meal and colza oil cakes. 



Germany 



CosTANriNO GoRiNi. Proteolytic and Acid producing Cocci in Cheese. — 

Revue ginirale du Lait, Brussels, Sept. 1910, No. 15, pp. 338-346. 

Amongst the bacteria which produce acid and cause proteolysis in cheese 
there are some which do not show proteolytic action in gelatine cultures. 
This suggests that these cheese-bacteria must be much more abundant and 
their action more important than would be shown by the usual bacteriolo- 
gical testing of cheese by gelatine plates. In the ripening of certain cheeses, 



Italy 



I. 1,0 



CHEESE 



Emmenthal and Cheddar, these micrococci play an important part. They 
may be recognised and determined by their peptogenic action in milk cul- 
tures. Micrococcus casei acido-proteolyticus is the name suggested for the Cocci 
inducing acidity and proteolysis. 



United 
States: 
Wisconsin 
etc. 



Canada 



S. M. Babcock. Low Temperature in the Making and Storing of Cheese. 

(Ueber die Anwendung niederer Temperaturen bei der Behandlung von 
Kase und bei dessen Autbewahrung). — I. Intern. Kaltekongress in 
Wien, 6-12 Oct. 1910. Chemiker Zeitutig, Jahrg. XXXIV, No 126, p. 11 27. 
Cothen, Oct. 22, 19 10. 

Numerous experiments on this subject have been made at the Experi- 
mental Stations of Wisconsin, Iowa, New York, and in Ontario. 

It is generally believed that cold is harmful to the ripening of cheese, 
causing a bitter taste. The experiments described in this paper show that, 
on the contrary, a judicious application of cold may improve the flavour. 
Moreover cold may prevent certain changes due to bacterial action, such 
as " eyes " in Swiss cheese, the characteristic taste of Limburg cheese and 
mouldiness in Roquefort. When these changes occur, the best way of pre- 
serving the cheese from further harm is to store in a refrigerator. 



P. Lebrou. Cold Storage and Cheese Making in the Aveyron, France. — 

L Industrie laiticre. Paris, October 1910, No 43, p. 695-701. 

The cold-storage in the Department of the Aveyron is of importance 
France only at Roquefort, where it serves for the preservation of the celebrated 
cheese, the production of which in 1908 was 9000 000 kg., valued at 30000000 
francs. Roquefort cheese is made from unskimmed ewe's milk, fermented 
at low temperatures. The action of cold in the cellars where the cheese 
ripens delays fermentation, putting it under control. Roquefort cheese is 
wrapped in silver paper to keep it from the air, and may be kept for 8 or 
10 months without deterioration The temperature in the cellar is about 0° C. 



F. W. J. BoEKHONT and J. Ott. de Vries. Two Defects in Edam Cheese. 

— Revue ginerale du lait. Brussels, Sept. 19 10, Nos 14 and 15, pp. 313- 
325 and 347-356. 

Boekef s cracks {^fentes de Boeket) are lenticular gaps with scaly walls, 
Holland formed in certain Edam cheeses made all in one piece. 

The gases in this cheese and in that with rounded holes have the 
same composition. The forming of lenticular gaps can therefore only be 
explained by the fact that the plasticity of the paste has been modified, the 
cheese with round holes being of greater plasticity than that with Boekel's 
cracks. 



CHEESE. - WOOL 



131 



The writers have shown that this " short " cheese or fromage court 
is caused by a want of plasticity resulting from a hard, brittle, chalky paste, 
called " short " or courte paste, This seems to be due to the formation of 
bilactate of paracasein, which is insoluble in the saline solution found in Edam 
cheese. 

Another salt, monolactate of casein, is simultaneously formed in the 
cheese, and it may generally be said that the plasticity of a cheese varies 
directly with its content of monolactate of paracasein and inversely with its 
content of bilactate of paracasein. By adding a certain quantity of water 
the forming of cracks in Edam chese may be prevented. 

Knijpers. Are cheeses, which have a large crack right through the centre, 
only the rind remaining w^hole. The study of the gases and plasticity of 
these cheeses leads to the conclusion that the crack is caused by the large 
amount of gas and is connected with the conditions of plasticity of^'<$iii 
cheese-mass. ^'jdnoo 

j^noo 3flJ 

The Consumption of Cheese in Egypt. (Der Kasewarenbedarf Ae^^^i'dH.^^ 
Milch Zeitung. Leipzig, October 1910, No 43, p. 507. '^ci ^'^' ^ 

Cheese-consumers in Egypt are nearly all Europeans for']who4ij7,(jheeiSQ 
is imported from Italy, Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Switzerland _^^(JJ<allaj^i,^, 
A cheese of the Swiss type is now being made in Germany^ fjCjjj^xg^iitatipji 
to Egypt. Information respecting the trade in this produgt^jfj;^v|§ijj. y^jj \\^ 

.rlT .?-i\vA?. baJffi'J 

Joseph B. Bolgav. The Wool Industry in Hungary. n~'^e3itilei{M6orM\RS, 

cord. Lord and Nagle Co., Boston, Mass. Oct. it.^id, p,.i;io4. gnibiooDK 

Hungarian sheep supply the trade with the finest raw wool. 

The annual production of raw wool exceeds 200 000 cwt.Yio i0o 000 ki7 

logrs.), and includes the finest qualities, such as'mermos, cross ureeds, and 

_._L„;_ .a-jLifi qaiKb baiJfia joi adlod 

'j<yiijjl ni ^Jfvso^. s/jyi oiVii 
illy Dy.hand, only 

the raw 

material, namely one- third, is manufactured in Hungary. 

A-J< .1/1 -A/ kA-i ijfli; JMAl'l^ (T/Imi/.vaM 

Diminished Wool Production in Rus^i^. {B(mmfiTmAjM^i^Pp ^'MlMn 

de r Office da Goiivernemait de ri4igiHe\-¥^M'; OWcftj^t 'i/ igi'o.''^' ■ 

The progressive transfer of l:airg;^;itiiaats,>iDf paBtuire^tifiid-^ta'tHe^ek^ntry 
who, by help of the Peasants', iBan[lc,jifarm themnvasJsmMl 'tholdiftfgfe,'fo'l^'diJ 
minished the number of sheep ittiriRussiaitD/aTi CKtfdntchkVdly baianced^'bif''eTj6i 
increase of flocks in Siberial.rjjJrhengradual decr.daseqof!^iihel'vv^(Ml"©'titput'''i§ 
due to this change, and the br;©eding')Of;-a 'Bpjedki^.ijaibe'iiof! ^hc^' whielk' 
grow better wool goes but a very short way towards making up the deficiency. 



mohair. 

One third of this output is washed in Hungari^,' generaffy W,hana, .only 
35 / bemg washed ni factories. About the same ^oportion of — 



>8 



msS 



Egypt 



Hungary 



snisM 



132 



WOOL. - HIDES. - POULTRY FARMING 



Earle. Packing of Wool in South Africa. — BulUtin de V Office du Gou- 
vernement de V Alger ie, Paris, October 15, 1910. 



Mr. Earle classifies South African Wools under five heads. Wool should 
always be sheared and packed while dry ; nothing repels a buyer so much as 



South 

Union damp wool, and goods so packed lose in weight, deteriorate and become 
discoloured. It is to the interest of South African breeders to sell on the 



spot rather than through Continental markets. 



Production and Trade in Peruvian Hides. (Produ/.ione e commercio delle 
pelli nel Peru). — Bollett. Uff. deW Associazione it. deW Industria e del 
Commercio del Cuoio, Torino, Ottobre 5, 1910, p. 760. 

The importance of this industry is increasing, and the export and locai 

Peru trade is improved in every way. The hides come from large breeding 

centres in the interior. Those from the slaughter-houses of Lima, where 

the consumption is greater than in any other part of the country, are not 

exported, but are used by local industry. 

The goat and kid hides of Piura are highly valued for suppleness ana 
strength, and the ease with which they can be tanned ; they serve generally 
for gloves. The hides from the arid districts of the Sierra are sun dried 
and exported, but most of the exports come from the coast districts. Very 
few sheep-skins are exported, being mostly utilised on the spot. Nearly 
all the kid skins are sent abroad, those from Piura being all bought by the 
United States. The principal market for Peruvian skins is the Havre, 
80 per cent of the whole production being bought by France. Prices vary 
according to the localities where the skins are sold and the conditions of 
the market. 

The weight of the hides varies; those from the coast districts being 
heavier than those from the interior. The average weight is from 50 to 
60 lbs for salted damp hides. They are bought direct from the breeders 
who have agents in Europe. The skins are generally small, but uniform in 
quality and rather ragged. 



I 



United 

States : 

Maine 



Raymond Pearl and Frank M. Surface. Conditions Influencing the Fer- 
tility and Hatching of Eggs. — Thirty-Fifth Annual Report of the Maine 
Agric. Exp. Station., igog, pp. 105-184. State of Maine, 1910. 

Interesting studies have been made in the poultry section of the Expe- 
rimental Farm of Maine on the conditions influencing the fertilisation and 
hatching of eggs. When like treatment and identical incubating systems 
have eliminated the possibility of error, hereditary characteristics can be 
distinguished from those due to surroundings. 



POULTRY FARMING 






The percentage of eggs which hatch may be determined by feminine 
descent and perhaps also by the male line, and may therefore be improved 
by selection. The degree of fertility is not hereditary, but in each indi- 
vidual depends on the treatment and several other circumstances: tempe- 
rature, the situation of the fowl house, etc. 

Among the factors that tend to produce fertilised eggs, with a high 
percentage of hatched chicks, the following may be mentioned, although the 
data are as yet rather scanty. Anything which tends to lower vitality, acts 
unfavourably on the development of the embryo, as for instance abundant 
winter laying, a purely meat diet, etc. There should be individual selection, 
because under identical conditions some individuals readily transmit to their 
offspring the marked characteristics they possess, while others with the 
same characteristics fail to do so. 

As there is a direct relation between the percentage of eggs hatched 
and the total number laid, the advantage of this kind of selection is doubled. 
Rational treatment and elimination of individuals not presenting or not 
transmitting the desired characteristics, may thus produce a good fertile type 
of hen. 

Poultry Farming in New York. — Weekly Globe and Canada Farmer. Oct. 5, 
19 10. Toronto. 

The New York Legislature having voted $ 90 000 for the purpose, United 
Cornell University has decided to enlarge its plantTor the teaching of poultry ,7 w^'i, 
raising ; a fifty acre farm is to be added, with a fine building attached. The 
farm is to be used for experiments and for practical instruction. Cornell 
University is also to have a professorship of poultry farming. 



L. Vander Snickt. The Braekel Hen. — Chasse et Pechc. Brussels, Oc- 
tober 29, 1910, XXIX, No. 5, p. 98. 

The Braekel hen, celebrated for the size and number of its eggs, is 
known in England under the name of Campine, an error which dates from the 
introduction of the Campine into that country. The secretary of the English 
Campine Club, the Rev E. LcAvis Jones, and Mr. Oscar Thomaes, President 
of the Belgian Braekel Club, have together studied the origin of the type 
adopted by the English Campine Club, and have found that the Stud Books 
of the English and the Belgian Clubs have the same origin. The variety ot 
Braekel which lays the biggest eggs is found at Alost. 



Belgium. 
Great 
Britain 



Ostrich Breeding in Madagascar. — Revue de Madagascar. Paris, Oct. 15, 1910. 

The settlers in the Majunga district are at present trying to acclimatise 
the ostrich, and at their request an experiment in breeding is to be made at 



Madagascar 



134 



OSTRICHES. - SILK PRODUCTION 



the agricultural experiment Station of Maxovoay. Ostrich raising on large 
farms, which is the rule at the Cape, does not seem very practical in Mada- 
gascar, owing to the nature of the country and the uncertain character of 
native labour. It is proposed to introduce into Madagascar the method of 
breeding used in Somaliland, where tame ostriches are often put to pasture 
with the cattle. A few ostriches could be assigned to the native shepherds 
along with the cattle, and ostrich raising thus be rendered inexpensive. 



South 
African 
Union: 
Transvaal 



Raising Ostriches in the Transvaal. — Nature, No. 2139, vol. 84, p. 513. 
London, Oct. 27,1910. 

The Transvaal Department of Agriculture is actively suggesting new- 
industries and new crops that might be developed, and recently, \\.?, Journal 
(vol. VIII, No, 32) discussed the question of raising ostriches in the Trans- 
vaal and mentioned several localities where this industry might well be 
successful. 



The Progress of Sericulture in Madagascar. 

Milan, November 5, 1910. 



Bolldtino di Sericoltura. 



The natives are becoming every day more interested in raising silk- 
Madagascar worms, which are really profitable; the fairs in which prizes are given to 
the best lots are gaining in importance. More than 800 native breeders 
exhibited cocoons at the last fair. 

Europeans are also interested in this industry and thirty European esta- 
bhshments have received prizes from the French authorities. The future 
of this industry in Madagascar is assured. 



French 
Indo-China: 
Tonkin 



Sericulture in Tonkin. — La Quinzaiiu Coloniale, N. 18, Paris, 19 10. 

This has been a good year for silk raising, and more than 3 million 
lays of eggs have been distributed gratis. The demands of the native in 
fact exceed the supply, and it is probable that branch estabUshments for the 
production of eggs will shortly be opened to supply the silk raising centres 
which are developing in various parts of the Colony that are distant from 
the Station at Phu-lang-Thuong. 

Some stocks recently bred from French, Canton and Annamite crosses 
have given a kilogram of cocoons from \.\vo lays; the average number of 
cocoons to the kilogram was 630, and 13.5 kilogram of cocoons yielded 
a kilogram of silk, whilst the pure native breeds require four lays for one 
kilogram of cocoons, of which 1200 to 1300 go to the kilo. For one kilo 
of silk 22 to 23 kilogr. of native cocoons are required. The Government 
has just voted premiums for the importation of raw silk from the colonies. 



SILK PRODUCTION. - BEEKEEPING 



135 



Progres'? of Sericulture in Tonkin. — Bollettino di Sericoltura. Milan, 
Oct. 2gth 1910. 

Sericulture in Tonkin has made enormous progress thanks to the joint 
action of the Government and of a private Company. The output increases 
whilst the quality improves. Silk-weaving by machinery has already been 
introduced. The development of sericulture has given rise to great pros- 
perity in the country, the inhabitants never having handled so mtich money 
as now. 



French 
Indo China 
Tonkin 



Sericulture in Bengal. — Department of Agriculture, ^tv^gdX.Quarui Ly Journal, 
vol. IV, n. I, pp. 26-31. Calcutta, 1910. 

A very important experiment has been made in Bengal for improving 
the silk industry. The seed-cocoons are placed in cold storage, at a tempe- 
rature varying from 40"^ to 72° F. 

The issue of the moths from the cocoons and the laying of eggs has 
been retarded by 7 to 9 days by means of repeated changes of temperature, 
thus making it easier to answer the requests of the different breeders for 
fresh seed. 

The microscopical examination of the moths from seed cocoons kept 
in cold storage show that they are very healthy, the worms produced being 
stronger than usual, and their cocoons heavier and less liable to disease 
than those raised in the ordinary way. There is a steady demand for eggs 
from cold storage-cocoons. 



British 
India: 
Benga 



M. MoRAND. Col Storage in the Silk Industry. ^ La Revue generale du 
froid, October, n. 17, pp. 592-597. Paris, 1910. 

Cold is necessary for the development of the embryo in annual silk- 
worms' eggs; and by the application of cold, making a sort of artificial 
winter, the Chinese of the North get two crops a year. The Japanese get 
three crops by the same means: one in spring, one in summer, and a third 
in autumn. 

From 2 027 339 koku (i koku equal to 180 '/^ litres), in 1897, the yearly 
Japanese crops have increased to 3 530 770 koku in 1908. 



China 



H. Geary. Bees for Profit and Pleasure. — {Farm and Garden Handbooks, 

T. Sanders, pp. 114, London. W. H. and L. Collindridge) Nature, Cpgot 
No. 2137, Oct. 13th, 1910, pp. 464-465. Britain 

"This is a practical treatise on bee-keeping, written by an expert. The 
advantages of bee-farming, both as a recreation and an auxiliary source of 



136 



BEEKEEPENG. - HONEY. - WAX 



profit, are dwelt on; there is a clear and concise account of the natural 
history and habits of the bee, and a description of the different kinds of 
hives and other apparatus. 

The instructions which the author gives with a view to ensuring suc- 
cess are interesting and precise. The book is provided with an index." 



France 



AuziNGER. Importance of Honey Ferments in the Analysis of Honey. 

— Bull. Ass. Chim., 1910, 1244; Annales des Falsiji cations. No. 24, Oc- 
tober 1910, Paris, p. 450. 

There are a number of diastatic, proteolytic and inversine ferments in 

natural honey, which give it its nutritive value. These enzymes are destroyed 

at a higher temperature than 70° C. and do not exist at all in artificial 

honey. The article treats of methods of investigating characteristic ferments, 

and recommends that they be applied together with usual chemical analysis. 



France 



F. Aronssohn. The Cell Composition in different Regions of a Bee 
Colony. — L'Apla/lteur, Paris, No. 10, October 1910, pp. 380-3S2. 

Prof. Desgrez, investigating whether bees modify the construction of 
their cells when the latter have been destroyed, observes : 

i) That bees of the same hive, and working at the same time, produce 
a wax not constant in composition. 

2) Bees add foreign matter to their wax, in proportions which vary 
according to the kind of cell they are building. 

3) The combs that have contained larvae are of a special composi- 
tion, rich in non-saturated compounds ; this peculiarity is probably acquired 
after construction. 



British 
India 



Production of Beeswax in India. — La Quinzaine Colo?iiak, Paris, N° 18, 1910. 

Although there are three species of bees, the Apis dorsafa, A. indica 
and A. florae, which produce the wax exported from India, the products 
are of the same composition ; they differ slightly from European wax, chiefly 
in acidity, which is lower. The wax is gathered from rocks and trees (in 
all parts of India and Burma) by jungle-tribes. Turmeric powder is often 
added to the wax after it has been purified, to give it a brilliant yellow 
colour. 



Production of Beeswax in Africa. — La Quinzaine Colon., Paris, N° 18, 1910, 

Africa "^ species of bees common in Europe the Apis mellifica, is met with 

all over Africa, from Egypt to West Africa and southwards to the Cape, 



ELEPHANTS. DESTRUCTION OF BIRDS. - PATRIDGES 



137 



but bees are not kept by the African natives, except by the fellaheen of 
Egypt. There has been an important exportation of wax for some years 
from German East Africa. 

AVild bees gather much of their honey from Manihot Glaziovii. 

Some Uganda chiefs have been studying the production of wax in East 
Africa and have set up several thousand hives, many of which are well 
stocked with bees. 

Large quantities of wax are gathered yearly in the districts of Kammbo 
and Fogni and exported from Gambia. 

Protecting the Elephant in French Central Africa. — La Quinzaine Colo- 
niale, Paris, No. 18, 19 10. 



The Lieutenant-Governor of Ubangui Chari-Chad has forbidden the 
trapping of elephants. These animals are in danger of extinction. It is to 
be hoped that this prohibition will be obeyed, because the elephant is a 
very valuable animal. Its preservation depends on the vigilance of the colo- 
nies interested. 



Freneh 
Central 
Africa 



Destruction of East African Birds. 

London. 



Travel and Exploration, Oct. 1910. 



Among the feathers exported from German East Africa for millinery 
are those of the king-fisher, the bright-feathered starling and the turacos. 
A German named Grote has asked his Government to prohibit this trade, 
or at any rate to put a stop to the shooting of these birds during the nesting 
season, when their plumage is at its highest beauty. Mr. Grote suggests that 
permission to take the birds at that period be given only to naturalists and 
collectors for museums. The other Governments of Tropical Africa would 
do well to adopt the same measures. It has been possible to protect the 
rarer species of big game by international agreement; the same should be 
done for the gay-plumed birds, not less interesting than antelopes and okapis 



East 
Africa 



Importation of Partridges into England. — The limes, London, October 5 
1910, No. 39395, p. 19. 



The importation of partridges from the Continent or elsewhere, chiefly 
from Germany and Austria, has developed a considerable trade during the 
past few years. These birds are very similar to the common English species. 
Russian and even Manchurian partridges are sent to the London market in 
cold storage, and some have been exported this year from Budapesth to 
Ensfland for the first time. 



Great 
Britain: 
England 



138 



FISHERY. - AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES 



Germany 



Fish Culture in the Liineburg Heath, in Germany. (Fischzucht in dei Lu- 
neburger Heide). — Deutsche Rundschau fiir Geographic und Statistik, 
Wien, Sept. 10,1910. 

The improvements in the water-courses of the Liineburg Heath have 
greatly increased the quantity of fish in them. One fisherman has already 
caught 1778 lbs, of trout. 

Fine Galician carp are being bred in these waters in the place of the 
valueless native carp. Whereas formerly there were only 600 Morgen (i) 
of trout ponds there are now 7000. Modern methods are being adopted 
for stocking these waters, and the breeders artificially feed the fish. 



Austria 

Ungary: 

Bosnia 

Herzegovina 



The Salmonidae of Bosnia-Herzegovina. (Die Salmoniden Bosniens und 
der Herzegovina). — Oesterrekhische Fischerei-Zeitung. Wien, October 
15, 1910. 

Investigations in the Narenta and its affluents, between Mostar and 
Gravaticevo, as well as in the Lake of Boski, have shown that these waters 
abound in three species of Salmonidae: Trutta fario L., Salar obtusirostris 
Heck., and Salar genivittatus Heck. 

The same Salmonidae of the Danube, are found in the Bosna, an affluent 
of the Sava. There are two interesting varieties of the Trutta fario in the 
Lake of Pliva, one with silvery and the other with golden scales. 



Agricultural Industries. 



Australia 



Wine Production in Australia. (La produzione del vino in Australia). — 
Bollettitw del Ministero di Agric, Ind. e Cotnin., Roma, 1910, fasc. 4°, 
serie B. 

Information is given on the vine area in Australia, where the climate 
and soil in some parts are very favourable to this culture. Of late the pro- 



il The Prussian Morgen is equal to 2553 m.^ a little more than a quarter of a 
hectare. [Ed.]. 



WINE 139 



duction has been very abundant relatively to the area cultivated. A con- 
siderable amount of grapes is not made into wine, but is used for the table, 
or dried for currants. Consignments of fresh grapes are sent to England, 
packed in cork chips, during the seasons when grapes are not to be had 
elfjev.here. 

Much alcohol is added to Australian wines. 

Phylloxera has caused much damage, but the Agricultural Departments 
have acted with energy importing phylloxera resistent American vines. 

Gautrelet. The Physiological Action of Sulphur Dioxide in White Wines. 

— Progres agric. etviticole. No. 44, Montpellier. Oct. 30, 1910. p. 539-546. 

The use of sulphur dioxide in wine having caused much discussion, 
several experts have studied its action on the human organism. Experi- 
ments were made in 1895 by Leuch and in 1907 by Wiley, but the former Franee 
used wines containing concentrated sulphur dioxide, the latter aqueous solu- 
tions or capsules of sodium sulphite, neither of which in conditions suitable 
to the problem under consideration. The Syndicat de la ProprieU et du Com- 
merce de la Gironde, influenced by Wiley's unfavourable opinion, appointed 
a Committee to study the subject thoroughly. A series of tests were accor- 
dingly made on animals and on man. 

Some dogs received : 

1. wine containing 100 milligrammes of free sulphur dioxide per litre; 

2. wine containing 400 mgr. of sulphur-dioxide, 100 mgr. of which 
was as free sulphurous acid and the rest combined ; 

3. an aqueous solution of sulphurous acid (100 mgr. per litre of water). 
The dogs were first kept some time under observation, then studied 

under the influence of ordinary wine (10 cc. per kg. of live weight); lastly, 
under the influence of sulphurous wine, the same dog being used for each 
test. The urine was collected with care, the appetite observed, and the 
animals frequently v/eighed ; the main elements of the blood were also 
determined. It was found that notwithstanding the fact that wine is an 
unusual beverage for dogs, it increased nitrogen dis-assimilation, sulphur 
dioxide acting rather as a corrective The liver and kidneys acted well, 
there was no sign of albuminuria, and there was absolutely no morbid 
change in any organ, nor destruction of blood globules. In fact, the dogs 
stood the tests very well and sulphur dioxide proved perfectly harmless. 

As to the experiments on man, the Committee chose 9 healthy persons 
of average constitution, accustomed to wine, and had them shut up in a sa- 
natorium for 30 days and submitted to a carefully calculated diet. Three 
of these persons drank only pure wine, while the other six took the same 
wine for six days and, for the next twelve, wine containing 100 mgr. of sul- 
phur dioxide and 300 mgr. of combined acid, at the rate of 15 cc. per kg. 



I40 BREWING 



of live weight. During the following 6 days the quantity of sulphurous wine 
was carried to 20 cc. per kg. of live weight, which amounted to 1.300 litres 
to 1.600 per individual. Finally, for the last 6 days, a flask of 90 cc. of 
Sauterne wine containing more than 400 mgr. of sulphur dioxide per litre, 
was added to the former amount. 

The health of the patients remained excellent, and their weight and 
temperature did not vary; the haemoglobin of their blood as well as their 
sight remained normal, the liver was not congested, and the bowels were 
in good condition. The urinary elements varied but very little, only the 
amount of sulphates increased: which showed that the sulphurous acid 
is eliminated under the form of inorganic and not organic combination. 
There was no trace of albumen in the urine, or other sign of kidney 
trouble, nor any diarrhoea. 

The Committee is convinced of the complete harmlessness of white 
wines containing as much as 400 mgr. of sulphur dioxide. This conclusion 
justifies the old established use of sulphurous acid in preparing white wines. 

Horace T. Brown. The Nitrogen Question in Brewing. — Jmirnal of the 
Institute of Brewing, vol. XIII, p. 394 ; Monit. Scientijique, Paris, Jan., 
Feb., April, Oct. 19T0. 

Researches were made : 

i) to determine variations in the quantity of assimilable nitrogen in 
wort, caused by variations in compo.sition of the raw material and changes 

Britain "^ *^^ processes followed. 

2) to investigate the conditions concurring to eliminate nitrogen during 
fermentation. 

As the ratio between assimilable and soluble nitrogen remains constant 
under the same conditions of malt extraction, the investigation may, in 
certain cases, be restricted to a study of the conditions which increase or 
diminish soluble nitrogen, viz, the nitrogenous compounds not precipitated 
by boiling. There is a close connexion between the original amount of 
nitrogen in barley and the quantity of soluble nitrogen contained in the malt 
obtained from the same barley, when the conditions of extraction remain 
the same. Barleys of the same class (and therefore comparable) are those 
of the same variety, grown as far as possible under similar climatic 
conditions. 

The following are the points of most practical interest among the 
many conclusions to which these lengthy investigations have led: 

i) The temperature during brewing has little effect on the extraction 
of the soluble and assimilable nitrogen of malt. 

2) any attempt to increase the extraction by excessive watering. 



DISTILLING. - SUGARMAKING 



141 



especially at high temperatures, causes increase of soluble nitrogen in the 
extracts. 

3) hops, far from diminishing assimilable nitrogen, as generally be- 
lieved, increase it slightly. 

An International Commission appointed to examine 800 samples of 
barley, recently exhibited in Berlin, assigned the highest marks to the barleys 

poorest in nitrogen. This method of classification of malt-barley is followed 
in Germany but not so much in Great Britain or in America. 

Mr Beaven, in the discussion on Mr Brown's paper, at the Brewing 
Institute, in reporting the German method of classifying malt-barleys, expressed 
his disagreement with Mr Brown on the question of the proportion of 
nitrogen dissolving in the boiled wort, which would not remain a con- 
stant fraction of the primitive nitrogen in the barley. 

This nitrogen question should not be neglected in ale brewing; but 
its importance is probably not equally great in the case of porter- brewing. 



L. Levy. Use of Resin in Distilleries. — Bull, de V Association des Chiinistes 
de sucrerie et distilkrie. Paris, Sept. 1910, N, 3, pp. 195-197. 

The use of resin (resinose) in the distillation of beets and molasses has 
been studied at the Agricultural Industrial School of Douai. 

Resin must be used differently from antiseptics. When fermentation 
has begun it may be used in smaller quantities than at the beginning; it 
is better to add it when fermentation is active than later on, because it is 
only a clarifier and not an antiseptic, and can only eliminate the microbes 
when they have had time to develope. It does not interfere with their 
production, but makes the cells heavier, precipitating them. This process 
effects a great saving in the amount of the sulphuric acid employed, as 
usual in agricultural distilleries. With resin the fermentation becomes more 
regular and the yield in spirit is consequently greater. 



France 



The Sugar Industry in Panama. — Feuille d informations du Ministere de 
V Agriculture. Paris, N. 37, 19 10. 

The Panama Government has been much interested recently in the ma- 
nufacture of sugar and a plant has just been laid down at Las Tablas with 
a centrifugal machine recently introduced. The experiments have proved 
satisfactory ; and other machines have been put up in various localities in 
the province of Los Santos, the district best adapted to the cultivation of 
the sugar cane. 

The sugar industry promises to acquire much importance in Panama, 
and the country will probably soon be able to supply the quantity of stigar 
required for local use. 



Panama 



142 SUGAR MAKING 



Suba 



T. D. Progress of Sugar Production in Cuba. (Havana: Cane Growers' 
Profits, Loss in Sugar Manufacturing). — The Louisiana Planter and Sugar 
Manufacturer, vol. XLV, N. 15, pp. 232-232, New Orleans, Oct. 8, 1910. 

The constant progress made in the manufacture of cane sugar in Cuba 
has enabled several sugar manufacturers to raise the percentage of juice 
extracted from the canes to i2.5'{~per cent and even 13 per cent; and at 
the same time to decrease the fuel that is added to the bagasse. Thus, 
whilst the manufacturers are making a bigger profit, the planters are also 
getting a better price for their cane, independently of the condition of the 
market. 

The loss in manufacture is reduced, in the best sugar factories, to 
only 1.85 per cent of the cane: 



Sugar remaining in the bagasse . 
> » » molasses 



» » » scum . 

» >; unaccounted for 

Total percentage of loss of sugar 
relatively to weight of cane . 



0-45 7o 

0.05 7o 
°-^5 7o 

1-85 7o 



Sperber. Sugar Industry in Peru. — The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Ma- 
nufacturer. New Orleans, Oct. i. No 14, 1910, p. 213. 

Peru is very suitable for growing sugar cane, and is likely soon to 
pgpy rank first amongst sugar producing countries. This is due to the favourable 
climate and labour conditions in the coast regions, the part of Peru best 
adapted for raising sugar. The climate is very hot, and rains and frost are 
unknown. The want of rain which would be a drawback elsewhere, is here 
considered a great benefit, as the crops are never exposed to heavy, inju- 
rious downpours. 

Artificial irrigation from the numerous water-courses supplies the neces- 
sary moisture; and the growth of the crops is so regulated that the ploughing, 
planting, harvesting and milling of the cane continue all the year round. 
Thus, capital invested in sugar production in the coast-land of Peru is never 
unproductive. 

There is no need of sending Peruvian sugar abroad for sale, as the 
entire output is bought up in the country, even when its price is higher 
than that of other sugars. Peruvian sugar is much sought after in the United 
States, on account of its quality. 

The thing wanting for Peru, to become the chief sugar producing country 
in South America, is capital and enterprise, which would enable the country 



SUGAR MAKING. - MILLING 



143 



to avail itself of the advantages that the opening of the Panama Canal will 
offer. This event will give considerable impetus to Peruvian economic 
development. 



S. G. RuEGG. Extracting Sugar from Dried Cane, in Wisconsin. 

Louisiana Planter, New Orleans, Nov. 5, 1910. 



The 



The United States Sugar Company at Madison (Wisconsin) is making 
experiments in exti acting sugar from dried or crushed cane, sent from the 
Nipe Bay factory in Cuba, where the contracting engineers, Roberts Bro- United 

Qf of pe • 

thers, of Chicago, have set up special machinery for the purpose. The first Wisconsin 

experiments were made with 50 tons, and the results were fairly satisfactory; 

but the process of extraction will have to be turned into one of washing 

with a special battery, for, as the drying breaks up the cells, the sugar is 

not extracted by osmosis and dialysis, as with beets. The washing may be 

done with cold water and quickly, but special modifications must be made 

in the diffusion apparatus, because the very fine pith becomes so tightly 

packed that the water cannot circulate through it. 

Experiments with dried beets by the Simmons Sugar Company of Ke- 
nosha did not give satisfactory results. 



Development of the Milling Industry in China. 

Oct. 1910, 236, 



Le Meun. franc. Paris, 



The milling industry is rapidly developing in China, and the mills around 
Shanghai are becoming more important every day ; they have succeeded in 
coHquering the markets throughout the district between Shanghai and Hong 
Kong in the South. 

This development of the milling industry in North China is all the 
more astonishing as the climate is far from being favourable, and also 
because the natives are very unpractical in their methods of cultivating 
wheat. Their methods of harvesting and threshing are not such as to improve 
the quality of the wheat, which has to dry in the sun for a long time after 
the harvest is over. 



China 



N. CHRYssocHOiDES. Handbook for Millers, Corn-Dealers and Mill-Builders. 

— Encyclopidie Roret, T. I, pp. VIII-429; T. II, p. 324, fgs. 140. Pa- 
ris, 1910. 



With the rise of the wages of the working classes tastes become more 
refined and people more and more exacting in regard to their food. This 
has caused a radical change in the miller's trade. The old simple mill with 
its rudimentary mechanism, is disappearing, and in its place large mills have 



France 



144 



MILLING. - OIL PRESSING. - LINSEED-OIL 



risen, near the great centres where wheat is accumulated : mills equipped 
with good machinery and with facilities for transport and distribution. 

This Handbook describes the process through which after its arrival at 
the mill the wheat is transformed into marketable products, such as flour, 
groats and bran. 

The Handbook is divided into the following chapters: i) Cleaning the 
wheat; 2) Grinding; 3) Separation and division of mill-products into market- 
able products; 4) The auxiliary plant of a mill; 5) Transport of products; 
6) Mill granaries; 7) Milling diagrams; 8) Milling methods; 9) Plan of a 
mill; 10) Windmills; 11) Cereals; 12) The results of grinding. 

M. P^RtofiRic-HENRY LoRiNG. Proccss for Seasoning, Conditioning and 
Bleaching Flour. (French Patent). — La Meunerie Franfaise. Paris, 
October 1910. No 301, p. 233. 

This flour is acted upon by vapour of sulphuryl chloride or other chlo- 
France ^^^^ '^^ oxychloride of sulphur, or of formic acid. The vapours are mixed 
with a large volume of air or of some other inert gas, the mixture being 
obtained by letting the air bubble through (or pass over the surface) of the 
sulphuryl chloride, or other active agent. After treatment, the flour is 
aerated. The treatment by chloride or oxychloride of sulphur may be 
applied either simultaneously, or before or after the action of other agents used 
for improving flour, such as nitrogen peroxide. 

L L Van de Velde. Sterilising Flour in Connection with Panary Fermen- 
tation. — Acaddmie Royale de Belgique. Bulletin de la classe des Sciences, 
Brussels, 1910, No 7, pp. 597-610. 

To determine the relative importance of the various organisms observed 
Belgium during panary fermentation, investigations were made to ascertain whether 
flour could be sterilised without altering the properties of its gluten. As it 
was found impracticable to sterilise by heating, an acetone solution of chlo- 
roform as well as successive treatments by formol, were used. 

The formol was insufficient as a germicide, or rendered the flour unfit 1 
to be a medium of culture. The mixture of chloroform and acetone destroyed 
all the organisms in the flour, except Bacillus mesentericus vulgatus. 



Great 
Britain 



Linseed and Soya Oils. — 2'he Chemist and Druggist. No 1601, vol. LXXVII, 
Oct. I, 1910. London, p. 63. 

The great scarcity of linseed oil is causing anxiety. The paint-trade is 
using more or less satisfactory substitutes, but nothing can replace pure 
linseed oil in certain industries. The scarcity of linseed oil is explained 



Gold Coast 



MILLING. - OIL PRESSLNG. - PALM-OIL. - FOOD STUFFS 145 

partly by the shortage of the seed-supply and partly by the fact that many 
crushing-mills are occupied with the soya-bean. The present price of linseed 
oil is about 100 per cent higher than a year ago: indeed, during the last 
twenty years the price of linseed oil has never been so high. 

Yves Henry and Paul Amman. The Adam Knox Crushing Mill for Ex- 
tracting Elaeis Palm Oil. — Agriculture pratique des pays chauds. Paris, 
August, 1910, No 89, pp. 135-142, and Sept. 1910, No 90, pp. 226-231. 

Experiments have been made at Aburi (Gold Coast) to ascertain what 
modifications must be made in the various types of mills in order that they 
may be used by natives for crushing the Elaeis nuts and also for working 
the entire Iruit. 

The writers have studied the effect of speed in crushing, and the im- 
portance of selection, of drying and of selection after drying, and they con- 
clude as follows: 

i) It is very important, with the dry nut, to regulate the speed of the 
drum so that the kernels are not crushed too rapidly ; 

2) Great saving in speed may be effected by judicious drying. 
The palm nuts used were of two varieties, common on the Gold Coast: 
a~) the Abe pa, fruit red, black at tip: 130 nuts to the litre; 
U) the Abe dam, fruit entirely red: 170 nuts to the litre (i). 

Diet Investigations by the U. S. Office of Experiment Stations. Organi- 
sation and Publications. — U. S. Departinent of Agriculture, Office of 
Experiment Stations. Circular 102, Sept. 15, 1910, p. i. 

The object of these investigations is the study of the food value for 
man of agricultural, animal and vegetable products. Numerous reports have States 
been published in technical bulletins, and the most important results and 
general data summarised in the Farmers' Bulletins, in circulars and in other 
similar publications. The list of these publications is given in Circular 102. 



(i) The species used for the extraction of oil is the Elaeis gaimensis Jacq. This 
palm tree grows wild in Cazamance, I'iio-Nunez, Rio-Pungo, Grand-Bassain, Assinie, Da- 
bou. (labon, where it is very abundant, and all along the coast of Guinea. 

The fruit of this plant is gathered when ripe, and is left for some time heaped on 
the ground, undergoing a sort of fermentation. When sufficiently fermented, the fruit is 
i)oiled in water for a certain time, then pounded in wooden mortars ; the kernel removed, 
and the fibrous sarcocarp boiled again. The oil, which it contains in the proportion of 65 
to 70 per cent, rises to the surface of the water and is skimmed off with wooden ladles. 
The crushed kernel contains 45 per cent of fat, which is white, firm and fresh, and might 
perhaps be used as butter. 

The part of West Africa known as the Palm Ci9tfj^ carries on the biggest trade in oil. 
See T- I. Aldridge, Sierra Leone, I^ondon, 1910, p. 334. [j5'c/.]. 



United 



146 



LEGISLATION ON FOOD STUFFS. - INSPECTION 



Tin Salts in Canned Foods. — The Canner and Dried Fruit Packer 
Vol. XXXI, No 14. Chicago, Oct. 13, 1910, p. 17. 



United 
States 



The U. S. Department of Agriculture has issued a Food Inspection Deci- 
sion No 126, which rules that all canned goods prepared prior to January 
ist, 191 1, will be permitted to enter and pass into interstate commerce 
without detention or restriction in so far as their content of tin salts is con- 
cerned. 

But all foods canned subsequently to January ist, 191 1, will be refused 
importation and interstate commerce if they contain more than 300 milli- 
grams of tin per kilogram, or salts of tin equivalent thereto. If such goods 
be found in interstate commerce, proper action will be taken. 

It is the opinion of the Board that the trade will experience little 
hardship in adjusting itself to this condition, as the results of examinations 
made by the Bureau of Chemistry of various types of canned goods indi- 
cate that in the great majority of cases the quantity of salts of tin lies well 
within the assigned limit. 



Organisation of the Sale of Perishable Foods in Canada. — Bulletin de 
I' Office du Gouvernenient de r Algirie, Paris, October i, 1910. 



Great 

Britain 

and 

Ireland. 

Canada 



There is an Official Service in the United Kingdom for the inspection 
of perishable foods from Canada. Its function is to examine the packing 
of butter, cheese, eggs, fruit and other commodities. The Service is not 
of the nature of a sanitary inspection, but has only to make sure that the 
goods are delivered in sound condition to the British consumer. 

In addition to this control in England, all alimentary and other com- 
modities exported from Canada are examined before leaving Canada, under 
the Inspection and Sale Act. 



Paris Museum for the Improvement of Packing of Farm Produce 

Deutsche Landw. Fresse, Sept. 24, igio. 



The Socidte pour l' amelioration des emballages des produits agricoles (S0- 
F ranee ciety for improving the packing of farm products) instituted by E. Tisserand, 
has opened a permanent museum in the Carmes Market, Boulevard Saint 
Germain, in Paris. ^Entrance to the museum is free, the object being t« 
collect the best models of packing and of packing material for farm produce 
in use in France and abroad. 

The Secretary General of this Museum is M. Caraille Pabst, 21 Avenue 
des Champs Elysdes, Paris. 



PACKING. - COLD. - STORAGE 147 

Packing Fruit in Italy for Exportation to Germany. (Appunti suU'imbal- 
laggio di fnitta destinate in Germania). -~ Bollettino del Mi7nste.r0 di 
Agricoltura, rnanstria e Commercio, Rome, 1910, Fasc. 3, Serie B. 

Peaches exjjoited to Germany should be packed in small baskets, 
each peach being wrapped in paper; whole car-loads of these baskets should 
never be sent. Favourite pears on the German market are the yellow 
ones, but they must not be quite ripe when sent off. There is no need to jtaly 
pack these pears separately in paper; it is sufficient to place them in layers 
covered with paper, and there is no reason why whole carloads should not be 
sent at a time. Apricots must be j^acked in the same way as peaches. The 
Reine Claudes are preferred to all other plums, and they travel well. Plums 
fetch a good price in Germany, though the sale is not extensive. 

Ch. Tellier. The Story of a Modern Invention: The " Frigorifique. " — 

Paris, Ch. Delagrave, 1910, P"" vol. pp. XI-456. 

Dr. d'Arsonval, of the French Institute, says: "In the domain of pure 
science it is to Tellier that we owe the first idea of the multiple cycle 
frigorific apparatus, which led to the Jiquefaction of permanent gases. In 
practice, it is also to Tellier that we owe nearly all the methods and ap- France 
paratus which have built up the present cold storage industry. The im- 
mense development in the preservation and transport of the most varied 
foods is due to TelHer's Frigorifique » . 

M. Tellier describes the theory of his invention in all its details, from 
the obstacles overcome in the scientific investigations down to the innu- 
merable practical difficulties which were mastered with great persistence 
and faith. 

We follow the gradual development of this invention, the triumphal 
entering of pure science into the practical domain : from the initial expe- 
riments to the liquefation of gases, from the studies on the action of cold 
on microorganisms, on vegetables, on foods, to the construction of the first 
" frigorifique " for the exportation of meat from South America to Europe. 
When it is remembered that goods now kept in cold storage exceed in 
value six thousand million francs, it may well be observed, as M. Tellier 
puts it, that the "frigorifique" has amply accomplished its mission. 

The last chapters of this publication treat of new applications of frigo- 
rific science, concluding with a chapter on the International Cold Storage As- 
sociation. 

Tke Cold Storage Experimental Station at Chateaurenard, Bouches-du- 
Rhone. France. — Rev. Scient. Paris, Oct. 29, 1910, 2° sem., No 18, p. 561. 

The French Cold Storage Association has instituted an Experimental n 
Station for the study of the preservation and transport by cold storage of 



148 AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY 

perishable produce, especially fruits and early vegetables. All the early 
vegetables for Germany and Central Europe, from the Comtat Venaissin 
and Provence are sent zm Chateaurenard. 

The Station is built on M. de Loverdo's plans with subsidies from the 
Railway Company of Bouches-du-Rhone, from the Dyle and Bacalan Company 
and from two civil engineers, Messrs. Saint-P^re and Ripert. A special la- 
boratory serves for experiments on the application of cold in wine-making. 
A system of cork panels and charcoal serves in this Station for ensuring 
isolation. The cold storage apparatus is a carbon dioxide machine of 50 ooo 
'' frigories-heures ", with a temperature of -|- 25° C at the condenser and — 5° C 
at the refrigerator. The air is sterilised by means of ozone, generated in an 
ozoniser. 

The Station has cost 75 000 francs. 



Agricultural Engineering 
and Farm Machinery and Implements. 



Demand for Agricultural Machinery in Russia. — Joitnta! of the Board of 
AgHadture. London, Sept. 1910, Vol. XVII, No. 6, p. 500. 

The Board of IVade foi/r/ial (August 4th, 1910) contains extracts from 
Consular Reports, dealing with Agricultural Machinery. Particulars of the 
Russ-Ja ^nnount of machinery imported into Russia from various countries, and stati- 
stics of the home production are given. Machine-making works are stated to be 
340, and the output in 1908 was valued at £3 500 000. Agricultural machi- 
nery business increased, both as regards imports and home manufactures, 
during 1909. 

The Board of Trade Journal for August nth gives information on the 
prevailing terms of payment, pointing out that German makers have a great 
advantage over British firms in the agricultural machinery market on ac- 
count of the ease with which the former can obtain credit, German banks 
offering great facilities in discounting bills. This enables the German 
dealer to offer more acceptable terras, getting for his machines a better 
price than his British rival. 



AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY 



149 



For success in this kind of business the maker must keep in touch 
with his customers, far more than is usual with the British machine- 
maker. 



Probable Demand for Agricultural Machinery in Asia Minor. — Journal 
of the Royal Society of Arts. London, Oct. 21, 1910, p. 1031. 

The Turkish Government has appointed a Director of Agriculture for 
Bagdad. Sooner or later there will be a demand for agricultural machinery 
of all descriptions. Ploughs and agricultural machinery should be of light 
make, as the soil is not heavy, consisting chiefly of loam, and the draught 
animals are small. The only available fuels are kerosene, wood and brush- 
wood. No coal or electric power is procurable. These facts should be 
borne in mind in designing engines for driving machines. 

A French firm has already supplied its agent at Bagdad with two sample 
ploughs. German firms established in Anatolia and Syria are said to hire 
ploughs and machinery to landowners and farmers, or sell them on payment 
by instalment. 



Asia Minor 



Agricultural and Industrial Machinery in British India. — The Board of 
Trade Journal. London, Oct. 6, 1910, No. 723, p. 2. 

There has been a decline in the values of agricultural implements im- 
ported into British India: from 13.27 lacs of rupees (£88500), in 1907-8, 
to 9.17 lacs (£61 100) in 1909-10. 

In the Canal Colonies of the Punjab there is a steadily increasing and 
not inconsiderable demand for labour-saving appliances for farming. Increase, 
in the imports of machinery of all kinds, of agricultural and industrial 
machinery in particular, may be expected as a result of the Allahabad 
Exhibition. 



British 
India: 
Punjab 



Agricultural Implements and Machinery in the Central Provinces of 
India. — The Board of Trade Journal. London. Sept. 29th, 1910, No. 722. 
p. 614. 

The Deputy Director for Agriculture, Northern Circle, Central Provinces 
India, states that there is likely to be a great demand for improved machi- 
nery and implements in the Jubbulpur and Nerbudda administrative divisions, 
and that British firms with enterprise could readily dispose of such goods, 
if designed to suit local conditions. 



British 

India : 

Central 

Prov. 



I50 AGRICULT. MACHINERY. PLOUGHING BY ELECTRICITY 

Agricultural Machine Trade in China. — Board of Trade Journal. Vol. LXX, 
No. 720. London, vSept. 15, 1910, p. 539. 

Notwithstanding the great possibihties exi.sting in China, especially in 
the great northern plains, there is at present no opening for the introduc- 
tion of agricultural machinery. 

The financial risk attending the purchase of such machinery for China 
China has been proved in several instances, and British firms in China have to 
be careful how they make similar experiments. British manufacturers desi- 
rous of introducing agricultural machinery into China would have to be 
prepared to share the risk with their agents to a much greater extent than 
they show any signs of doing at present. 

The chief reasons determining this state of things are the following; 
i) The subdivision of farms amongst small peasant proprietors; 

2) Their extremely conservative methods; 

3) The cheapness of labour ; 

4) The absence of effective organisation of agriculture. 



Germany : 
Prussia 



F. Brutschke. Ploughing by Electricity, Technical Requirements and 

Yield. — Zeitschr. Landw. Maschinen utid Gerdtschaften. October 22, 191 o. 

In regard to electrical ploughing in the East of Prussia, it is observed 
that the best results are obtained when ploughing not more than 0.5 or 
0.7 hectares per hour, according to the soil and the depth. The difficulties 
of transport and the expense of running machines that plough a hectare and 
more per hour have shown them to be unsatisfactory. 



Sreat 
Britain 



A Turf-Cutting Plough. — The Gardeners'' C/iro/tuIe, .ol. XLVIII, No. 1243, 
p. 307. London, October 22, 1910. 

A plough for cutting field and lawn turf, invented by H. J. Miintz, 
has recently been put on the market by Me.ssrs. Boulton and Paul, Ltd., 
of Norwich, who state that the great advantage of their machine over others 
is that it cuts the sods of uniform thickness, effecting a great saving of 
labour in re-turfing lawns. An acre of turf may be cut in two hours by 
this plough. This turf-cutter should prove most useful in laying down 
large lawns. 



Importation in Ceylon of Light Iron Ploughs.- 

London, September 21, 1910, No. 721. 



The Board of Trade Journal . 



Ccyttn About 100 new ploughs were used at Tissa (Ceylon) for last winter's 

cultivation, and some 1600 acres were ploughed. The more intelligent cul- 



PLOUGHS. - HARROWS. - DRILLS. - VARIOUS MACHINES 151 



tivators were not slow to acknowledge the utility of the plough ; but there 
was a certain amount of opposition to its introduction, which however 
would probably disappear if the fields on which the plough was used yielded 
a good return. From what the Assistant Agent could gather at the time 
the crop was being reaped, the crop on ploughed fields was in most cases 
far better than formerly, when " Mudding " was the system of cultivation 
employed. 

New Disc Harrow. (Neue Scheiben oder Spatenegge). — Blatter fur Zi/cker- 
riibenbau, Berlin, October 1910. No. 19, p. 319. 

The firm J. Kenna of Breslau has just turned out a new type of harrow 
for peat soils, by order of the Prussian Ministry of Agriculture. 

The essential parts of these harrows are smooth or toothed discs, which 
by their peculiar construction may be adapted to different kinds of soil. 
The harrow is fitted to a fourwheeled frame, drawn by a steam or electric 
traction engine. 



Germany; 
Prussia 



Drill Machines for the Demtschinsky Cultivation of Cereals. — Zeit. 
Land2v. A4asch. 11. Ger., October 22, 1910. 

Messrs. Siedersleben & Co. of Bernburg, have made some drilling ma- 
chines for the Demtschinsky system, according to which young cereal plants 
are earthed up some weeks after sowing and again at the beginning of spring, 
in order to stimulate growth and development. These drills are now being 
used for the first time on a large scale, the cereals being sown in rows at 
the bottom of small open furrows, in which the young plants remain sheltered 
from the severity of winter. At the beginning of spring, or even towards 
the end of autumn, the ground is rolled and harrowed, so as to cover the 
young plants completely. 



Germany 



W. Gert Boonzaier's. Agricultural Machines for the Colonies. — Journal 
of the Royal Society of Arts. London, No. 3020, October 7, igio. p. 992. 

One of Mr. W. Gert Boonzaier's successful inventions is an appliance 
for doubling, trebling, and even quadrupling the supply of water drawn up South 
by wind power. In countries like South Africa and Australia, where the supply Afrtcan 
of water is often variable, this should prove a welcome boon. The appliance 
with the Boonzaier Patent Duplex Lever Multiplicator is constructed entirely 
of wrought iron, it is powerfully built and so simply designed as to be practi- 
cally unbreakable. 

Two other inventions of great promise will shortly be placed on the 
market. The first consists of a self-cleaning harrow, which, whenever it be- 



Union: 

Cape 

Colony 



152 



VARIOUS MACHINES 



comes clogged, can be cleansed automatically by a lever. The second is a 
double-furrow reversible plough, which is convertible into a treble-furrow on 
occasion. 

Mr. Boonzaier has also invented a sheep-dip heating apparatus, con- 
structed on the geyser principle. This consists of a square iron box the 
flat bottom of which is evenly exposed to the fire. The hot water flows 
into the dipping troughs near the bottom at one end, and out near the top 
at the other, thus maintaining a constant temperature. 



Germany 



Apparatus for filling Beer Casks. — La Biere et les boissons fermenUes, Paris, 
Sept. 1910, p. 106. 

Mr. Loew of Dusseldorf has constructed a very simple apparatus by 
means of which beer casks of all sizes can be filled without loss of either 
beer or carbon dioxide and consequently without production of froth. 

The machine is very easy to work, being set in action by the easy 
motion of a handle. The maximum delivery is 125 hectolitres of beer per 
hour, but the machine can be regulated to do less. Three casks, even of 
different sizes, can be filled simultaneously, by three taps. 



E. Deligny. a Mechanical Kneading Trough. — Journal tV Agriculture pra- 
tique. Paris, No. 40, Oct. 6th igio, pp. 440-443. 

Messers. PoUet & Co., have constructed ;i mechanical kneading trough, 
France ^^^*^ "Map", which kneads bread rapidly, economically and cleanly. It 
consists of a tub turning freely on its axis, and of a framework to which 
a kneader is attached, worked by a shaft and set in motion by an engine, or 
by a crank worked by hand. The movement of the tub is ensured by the 
adherence of the dough, which is dragged and drawn out by the kneader. 
200 kgs. of dough can be thus kneaded in 15 to 20 minutes. The cost of 
the trough is trifling; the kneader can also be worked by a horse. When 
worked by hand (small model), less effort is required than for hand-kneading. 



Sweden 



L. Dubois. Dalen's Milking Machine. — Journal li Agriculture pratique. 
Paris, No. 41, October 13, 1910, p. 475. 

M. Dalen, a Swedish engineer, has invented a new apparatus for milking 
cows, which was on view at the Brussels Exhibition. 'I'here are two rubber 
surfaces, one fixed, the other moveable. The latter is acted on by two 
pistons in succession, worked by compressed air. The apparatus is said to 
be successful. 



PLANT DISEASES 
NOXIOUS INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS. 



I 



i 



INTELLIGENCE 



Non Parasitic Diseases of Plants and their Control. 



J. CoFFiGNiEZ. Chlorosis: Use of Ferrous Sulphate against Chlorosis in 
Fruit Trees. — Revue Horticole, No. 21. Paris, Oct. ist, pp. 496-497. 

An account of numerous experiments on the employment of sulphate France 
of iron against chlorosis in fruit trees. The sulphate, introduced into l.oles 
made in the trunk or branches, spreads through the upper and lower parts 
of the tree and does not interfere with the circulation of the sap. The 
results are good, the trees turning green again and bearing fine fruit. 



Parasitic Diseases of Plants. 

Generalities — Parasitism — Bacteria and Fungi as Parasites 

and Saprophytes.— Remedies 



Parasitism in Plants. — Nature, No. 2138, Vol. 84, Oct. 20th, 1910, p. 505. 
London. 

The Carnegie Institute in Washington publishes a volume (No. 129) 
containing an account of field observations made at the Desert Laboratory United 
of Tucson (Arizona). Dr. W. A. Cannon has discovered parasitism, appa- States 
rcntly facultative, in two species of Krameria, a genus considered hitherto 
as auto-trophic. Krameria caiiescens has been found on several hosts, most 
frequently on Covillea tridentata. 



156 PARASITIC DISEASES. - BORDEAUX MIXTURE 

Dr. D. T. Macdougal tried to induce dependent* nutrition by the inser- 
tion of prepared slips into a host plant. He introduced cuttings of Cissi/s, 
Agaiie, and other plants into the tissues of the Opuntia, the Echinocactiis and 
other fleshy plants. In some cases the xenoparasites grew roots and showed 
some degree of development for a year or longer. A stronger osmotic acti- 
vity on the part of the parasite seems to be essential. 

The volume ends with a study on the origin of parasitism. 

H. E. Annett. Copper Sulphate on the Leaves of the Tea Plant after 
Spraying. — Jouru of Agric. Science, London, September 1910. 

The Bordeaux mixture has given good results in preventing the deve- 
lopment of a fungus, Exobasidiiim vexans, causing great havoc in tea plan- 
tations, in Ceylon. In consequence of the objections raised, chiefly in the 
United States, to the sale of grapes that had been sprayed with copper sul- 
Ceylon phate, some experiments in spraying with Bordeaux mixture have been made 
in Ceylon on tea-plantations, completing them by the chemical analysis of 
the tea gathered, in order to determine the quantity of copper contained 
in the leaf. 

The tea not treated with Bordeaux mixture contained grams 0.005 of 
copper per pound (i pound = 453 gr.). The tea which had been treated 
contained gr. 0.030 per pound. When it is considered that barley contains 
grams 0.00118 of copper per kilogram, wheat gr. 0.0052 to gr. 0.0108 per 
kilogram, and that traces of copper are found in all food, it must be ad- 
mitted that by drinking the tea from plantations treated with Bordeaux 
mixture only inappreciable traces of copper are introduced into the system 



Parasitic Diseases of various Plants and Means 
of Prevention and Cure. 



E. FoEX and D. Vidal. Rust resisting Wheats for the South of France. 

— Progres Agricole tt Viticole, Montpellier. No. 41. October 9, 1910, 

PP- 447-457- 

For the last three years some wheat varieties in the South of France 
France have been studied from the point of view of resistence to rust and to " scor- 
ching" (echaudage). Although the experiments were not sulficiently conclu- 



WHEAT. - OATS. - POTATOP:S 



157 



sive, the following list of the more resistant varieties, among which a selection 
may be made for sowing in the South of France, has been drawn up. 

Rieti, Touzelle rouge de Provence, Odessa sans barbes, Midiah, Richelle 
blanche de Naples, Bordeaux, De Gironde, Rouge prolifiqne, Hybride hdtif in- 
versable. 

These wheats may be cultivated separately, or in mixtures of two or 
three. 



v. J. Lamonl. Rust Resistance and Yield of Various Varieties of Wheat 

and Oats. — The Agricultural /ournal of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Vol. XXXVII, No. 3, pp. 242-248, Cape Town, September 1910. 

The great damage by rust to cereal crops in Cape Colony renders neces- 
sary a careful selection of resistant varieties. For many years hundreds of 
varieties of Avheat have been submitted to rigorous tests; but the results were 
not very satisfactory. 

The only truly resistant type is the Old Rieti, introdticed into Cape 
Colony for the first time fifteen years ago; but this wheat has the defect 
of ripening late and easily shedding its grains. 

At present the aim is chiefly to create a type resisting rust, all other 
qualities being of secondary importance. Amongst the varieties experimented 
with, the Theunissen, Syring No. i, and the Glugas Early wheats take a good 
place from the point of view of resistance. The Glugas, imported from 
Australia only a few years ago, offers the advantage of having very adherent 
husks and of maturing early. 

Amongst oats the best results were obtained with the T'exas, Applez. 
Algerian and River Plate varieties. 



South 
African 
Union: 

Cape 
Colony 



W J. Morse. Blackleg: A Bacterial Disease of the Haulms and Tubers of 
the Irish Potato. — Thirty-Fifth Annual Report of the Maine Agric. 
Exp. St., pp. 309-328, State of Maine. 1910. 

A disease, knowii under the name of " Blackleg, " is extensively attacking 
the Irish potatoes in the State of Maine, demanding strong preventive mea- 
sures. At the level of the soil the stem turns of a blackish colour, which 
may spread to a height of several inches above ground and is accompanied 
by necrosis of the tissues. The branches of the plant have a tendency to 
lengthen, growing along and against the stalk, the leaves drooping and 
folding. The original tubers invariably rot, and the young tubers run 
the same risk. Except in low-lying and damp lands, no serious damage 
is to be feared in Maine. In Canada, on the contrary, great losses were 
caused by a similar disease, produced by the Bacillus solanitaprum, Harrison, 
which is very different from the B. phytophthorus, the cause, according to 



United 

States : 

Maine 



158 



POTATO 



Appel, of the Schwarzbeinigkeit, or Black-leg disease, in the potatoes of 
Germany. 

As a remedy, it is suggested that rotting tubers be eliminated and those 
which are to be used tor planting be first disinfected with a solution of 
formaldehyde or of corrosive sublimate. 



Great 
Britain : 
England 



A. S. HoRNE. The Symptoms of the 
" Streak Disease " in Potatoes. — 

September, 1910. 



*' Internal Disease " and of the 

Journal of Agric. Science. London, 



The tubers of potatoes infected by Internal Disease have brown-co- 
loured specks inside. The number of specks, as well as their dimensions, 
vary according to the intensity of the infection ; at the beginning of the 
infection they are, scarcely visible. The presence of this disease was observed 
in early July, in Devonshire in England. On examining the tubers it could 
be seen that the skin was in certain cases discoloured, the discoloration 
being due to the crowding of the internal specks. Even in the first period 
of the disease the specks had spread through the whole inside of the tuber. 
The infected cells preserve their starch contents and are disposed in irre- 
gular groups. The protoplasm assumes a granulous aspect and a brownish 
colour, due to the formation of gummy substances. Later on, a change 
occurs at the expense of the surrounding amylaceous cells, spreading on the 
discoloured zone and through the dead cells in such a way that a zone of 
starchless cells is tormed near the epidermis. The outer limits and the 
inner layer of the infected zone react strongly to phloroglucine, while the 
brown substance contained in the cells scarcely gives a slight coloration 
with this reagent. 

The transformation of the internal layer of cells proceeds gradually as 
the cells die, as may be perceived by the phloroglucine reaction. The ex- 
ternal cellular wall does not readily decompose at the beginning of tlic di.s- 
ease; even if the disease is propagated from cell to cell this decomposition 
does not occur until the death of the cell. 

Mr. Home recently drew attention to the presence of certain corpus- 
cles in the cells of potatoes affected with Internal Disease and Sprain. 
These corpuscles multiply by .successive division, sometimes resembling the 
sporangia of Chrysophlyctis endobiotica. The smallest of these corpuscles are 
sometimes less than i v- in diameter. Mr. Home believes that whatever the 
nature of these corpuscles may be, they may be considered rather the 
result than the cause of the disease. 

Frank's opinion, that the specks do not appear at the outer part ot 
the tuber (which is the case with the PhytophtJwra) is not confirmed. The 
specks often appear near the epidermis, even immediately under it. Af- 
fected cells, to the number of two or three, have been met with in some 



POTATO 159 



young tubers in the zone of the internal cambium. It is difficult to esta- 
blish the point of penetration in tubers which are infected both by Phytoph- 
thora and by Bacteria ; but once the parasite has entered, it developes pre- 
ferably in the internal tissues. 

Symptoms of Streak Disease, or Sprain. 

This disease is characterised by bodies in the form of a circular arc 
or curve, as they appear in the section, often taking the aspect of a series 
of curves one within the other. These spots or semi-lunary bands some- 
times form compact masses. Isolated cells are occasionally observed, and 
also groups of cells similar to those described by Frank in the disease 
called Bimtwerden; but it is difficult to establish whether these cells or these 
zones are connected with the others. In the early phases of the disease 
and in the slighter infections, the characters described above may be re- 
duced to simple lines or even corpuscles, From the examination of se- 
veral samples of infected tubers of well known varieties, the writer has 
come to the conclusion that although there are intermediate stages between 
the appearance of these corpuscles and the formation of the characteristic 
undulated spots seen in section, the form taken in passing from the cor- 
puscle to the characteristic speck of the Lniernal Disease is never observed. 
The manner of propagation of the disease and the way in which it deve- 
lopes are as yet unknown ; indeed, it has been remarked that the curvili- 
near bands do not develop along vascular bundles nor in special series 
of cells. Neither is it possible to explain why the disease appears sometimes 
in the form of semi-lunary bands and sometimes in that of spots. The cells 
which form these bands are united one to the other, but the way they are 
disposed is not regular. It has not been possible to observe any difference 
in the structure of the walls which separate the infected cells, forming the 
characteristic bands ; these infected cells have a great resemblance to those 
suffering with the Internal Disease. 

At the begmning of the infection alterations in the walls are sometimes 
perceived, generally due to fragments of the impaired protoplasmic mem- 
brane of the neighbouring cell. The median lamella of the cell-wall of in- 
fected cells gives little or no reaction with phloroglucine. When the infection 
shows itself near the epidermis the cells which are just under it assume a 
flattened form, probably due to the action of the infected zone of the cam- 
bium. In this case, the median lamella of the cell-wall gives a more marked 
reaction with phloroglucine and the gummy substance reacts slightly. 

In tubers strongly attacked by Streak Disease, the bands in the form of 
circular arcs extend near to the exterior, nearly reaching the cork layer 
of the skin. Less frequently the bands may be traced to the lenticels or 
to excoriations. The connection with the external pellicule is shown by 
a line of undulated cells which may be seen by making a series of sections. 



i6o 



LUCERNE. - SUGAR-CANE 



Experiments have been made to control Frank's assertion that tubers 
affected by the Buntwerden disease, when used as seed, produce sound tubers. 
In some of the experiments 22 per cent of the tubers were diseased, and in 
all the other experiments made with tubers affected with the Internal Disease 
and the Streak Disease, both in Devonshire and in Northumberland, a crop 
was obtained which had a high percentage of infected potatoes. 

In some experiments on the conservation of tubers, it was observed 
that the infection is propagated from the diseased to the sound potatoes. 
To these diseases are often added, the PJiytophthora infestans in the fields, 
and the Fusariiim Solani in the places where the potatoes are stored. 

G. Arnaud. a New^ Disease of Alfalfa, or Lucerne. (Red Disease). — 

Progris agricole et viticole. Montpellier. No. 43, October 23, 1910. 



Franoe 



In the neighbourhood of Montpellier, France, a disease of alfalfa, new 
to the neighbourhood, was observed by M. Arnaud; but the disease has 
been known for a long time in the United States. The infection is caused 
by a fungus, the Neocosmospora vasinfecta Smith, a Nectriacea. The fungus 
attacks the tap-root and radicles of lucerne, and spreads a little into the 
stalk and leaves, which die rapidly. On the roots appear tiny brick-coloured 
prominences, formed by ascus-containing peritheca. In addition to the asco- 
pores, the fungus multiplies by spores of the Fusarimn type. In order to 
combat this disease, investigation must be made, as has been done in Ame- 
rica, to find resistant varieties of alfalfa ; the lucerne must be alternated 
with other crops, and the soil should be disinfected with carbon di-sulphide, 
or with formol. Soil and climate must have some influence on the de- 
velopment of this disease. 



Ch. Maublanc. Sugar-cane Diseases. (Diseases of Plants cultivated in 
Tropical Countries). — FAgr. pr. des Pays chatids, Paris, Sept. 1910, 
pp. 232-252. 



M. Maublanc, continuing the study of the different diseases of the 
France sugar-cane, describes the Black rot [Thielaviopsis) ; the Pind disease {Conio- 
thyrium Saichari) \ the Ladodiplodia Theobromae ; the Marasmius Sacchari: 
the Schizophyllum commune ; the Trametes pusilla : the Sphaeronenia adiposum ; 
the Cytospora Sacchari; the Saccharomyces apiculatus : the Gum disease, or 
Gommose hacillaire of the sugar cane ; the Point rot and the Knot-rot [Collet- 
rot). The descriptions are accompanied by illustrations and numerous bib- 
liographic data. 



Ceylon 



SUGAR-CANE. - TEA. - COCOA NUT PALM i6i 



F. Petch. Diseases in Tea Plant Nurseries. — Tropical Agriculturist, Vo- 
lume XXV, No .3, Sept. 1910, Colombo, p. 223. 

During the last two years nurseries have been laid out for providing 
tea plants for new plantations, to substitute those believed to have been 
injured by associating the tea-plant with Hevea. There has been a great 
mortality in the nurseries of certain localities during the last few months ; 
in every case the cause of infection appears to be the same fungus. 

The infection appears at the vital knot of the plant, where a ring is 
formed of decayed bark, extending to within about 25 millimeters from the 
soil; this infected ring prevents the descent of the sap. A swelling (struma) 
is thus formed in the upper part of the stem in the infected region, below 
which development is arrested. The lower extremity of the swelling is marked 
by a callosity, forming a ring round the stem. The progress of the infection 
is slow, the upper part having time almost to double its diameter before 
decaying. The cause of the disease appears to be a kind of Fusariutn (Tu- 
ber culariaceae) . 

Mr. Petch proposes as a remedy to cover the infected soil, as soon as 
the plants have been attacked, by a layer of coarse ;and, carefully pressed 
down ; better still, he proposes to sterilise the nursery-bed before sowing, 
as is done in the United States for tobacco, by injecting steam, by soil- 
burning, or by formalin. 

In order to sterilise by steam, iron pans are used which measure 2 or 
3 metres in diameter and 14 centimeters in depth. These are inverted over 
the ground, into which their edges are well pressed down, the steam under 
pressure being then injected in the pans. 

A more economical method is that of soil-burning. When the nur- 
series are attacked by the fungus in question, all the plants affected must 
be pulled up and burnt, and the ground sprayed with a 7 per looo solutiou 
of carbolic acid. 



F. Petch. Stem bleeding Disease of the Cocoanut, — {Circ. and Agric. 
Journ. Roy. Bot., Gardens, Ceylon), y>Y>- 194-305; Botanisches Centralblatt, 
Bd. 114, No. 13, Jena, Sept. 27, 1910, pp. 330-334. 

The first part of the article gives general information concerning the 
structure of the trunk of the cocoa-palm, on the effect of the disease, its Ceylon 
influence on the crop and its geographical distribution. 

The external symptom of the disease is a flowing of sap through fissures 
in the bark. The sap is slightly sticky, soon blackening by exposure ; the 
fissures formed in the bark are few, often only one. 

Examination of the infected trunks showed the presence of the hyphae of 

II 



i62 COCOA NUT. - VEGETABLES: CABBAGE 



Thielaviopsis ethacetica; inoculation experiments have proved that this fungus 
is the cause of the disease. 

The fungus produces two kinds of spores ; oblong spores with thin 
walls iniicroconidid) and oval black spores imacroconidia). The two kinds of 
spores are endoconidia, that is, they are produced in the interior of the co- 
nidiophorum and not externally to this organ. The Thielanopsis develops 
abundantly in the internal tissues of the trunk of the cocoa-palm, probably 
on account of the sugar contents of these tissues ; the fungus develops feebly, 
or not at all, on the leaves and the envelope of the fruit, whether fresh or 
fallen. The disease is undoubtedly propagated by spores, transported from 
one tree to another. 

Experiments have been made to investigate the biological development 
of this fungus, and to determine the effect of certain chemical reagents on 
its development. Carbolic acid and sulphate of copper at different concentra- 
tions kill the spores, or at least prevent them from germinating. It is ad- 
visable to cut away all the affected parts and to smear the wounds imme- 
diately with tar, in order to avoid the attacks of the Red Beetle. 

The writer gives information on the causes of this disease of the cocoa- 
palm, and suggests some remedies. It is generally known that this fungus 
attacks several plants in different countries ; and it is believed that it infects 
the plants through wounds. 

Club Root in Cabbage in the State of New York. — {American Agricul- 
turist). The Caniier and Fruit Packer. No\. XXXI, No. 14, Oct. 13, 1910, 
Chicago. 

In the course of this year cabbage cultivations in the western part 

Unitpd ^^ ^^ State of New York have suffered greatly from Club root {Plasnio- 

States: diophora Brassicae). There is no remedy that is of any use to save the 

New York cabbages attacked ; but the disease may be prevented. A change in the 

succession of crops for four or five years is a good preventive, if use is 

made of manure exempt from the disease. The latter may be extirpated 

by a strong dressing of lime (2 to 5 tons of lime per acre) immediately 

after the harvest, no cabbages being planted on the infected soil for from 

3 to 5 years (i). 



(i) "Finger and toe", also known in different districts as' Club-root', 'Anbury', 
'Grub,' etc., is caused by a Myxogaster called Plasmodiophora Brassicae (Woronin). Nearly 
all kinds of cruciferous plants, both wild and cultivated, are attacked. The cultivated plants 
that suffer most in Great Britain are turnips and the various kinds of cabbage. The root is 
the part attacked, which becomes much distorted and more or less covered with large 
swellings, or finger-like out-growths. Finally the entire root is resolved into a loathsome, 
rotten, foetid mass. The disease has undoubtedly increased very much in severity in 
Great Britain during the past fifty years. This period agrees roughly with the cessation 



VEGETABLES: TOMATOES. - POTATOES. - GOOSEBERRY 163 

Bacteriosis of Tomatoes and Potatoes. — The Gardeners' Chronicle. N. 3642, 
London, October 15, 1910, p. 283. 

This disease has been known for a long time in America, where it has 
been studied by Dr. E. F. Smith. It has recently found its way into Great 
Britain, where, according to the Journal of the Board of Agriculture, it has 
become endemical to at least two localities and is giving cause for serious 
concern. Bacteriosis is caused by the Bacillus solanacearum^ which is carried 
by insects on to the stems of plants, whence it penetrates to the inner tis- 
sues by means of the holes made by the insects and works its way all along great 
the stem. Britain 

The effect of the disease is to cause the upper leaves to wither and 
shrivel up, turning yellow; brownish black spots then appear on the leaves 
and dark brown streaks on the stems ; a section of the stem shows the vas- 
cular tissues turned brown, which under the microscope are seen to be full 
of bacteria. The fruit is also spotted brown. All the organs so spotted 
finally fall off. 

The disease manifests itself in the same way in the potato with the 
addition of a brown circle at a little distance under the skin in infected 
tubers. 

As this micro-organism is propagated by insects, the best remedy seems 
to be that of preventive sprayings with some insecticide, such, for instance, 
as arseniate of ead. 

Wagner New Investigations for Combating the American Gooseberry 
Mildew. (Neuere Versuche zur Bekampfung des amerikanischen Stachel- 
beermehltaus). — Rheinische Monatschrift f Garten u. Gemiisebaii. Bonn, 
October 1910, No. 10, pp. 146-148. 

At Alster, in the district of Bonn, in Germany, experiments have been 
made to control the American gooseberry mildew. The bushes were sprayed Ger-nany 
with solutions of sulphate of lime, with Bordeaux mixture and with carbo- 
lineum. 

Not one of these solutions was sufficient to destroy the blight. Dusting 
with powdered sulphur during the summer hastened the fall of the leaves. Pruning 
down to the vital knot does not appear advisable, for the young growths 
which sprout forth after this pruning are very easily invaded by the blight. 

The most practical method seems to be that of limiting the pruning, 
during the vvinter, to the infected yearling shoots. 



of the previous general use of lime ia favour of artificial manares. inaay of which contain 
crude acid." G. MxsSKE, Diseases of Cu!tiv.7t.'d Plants and Trees. London, Duckworth, 
19 10, p. 524. \Ed\. 



1 64 



VINES. - CITRUS FRUIT 



Raymond Brunet. An Inquiry into the Treatment of Vine Mildew 
in 1910. — Revue de Viticulture. Paris, October 20, 1910, No. 879, 
pp. 421-456. 

In consequence of the great damage caused, in 1910, by mildew, in the 
wine-growing districts of France and Central Europe, the Revue de Viticul- 
ture has organised an inquiry* in the different regions of France to investi- 
gate the causes of failure in controlling the parasite. 

The result of this inquiry is that the efficacy of copper salts in the 
treatment of mildew, which appeared for a moment doubtful, has been 
France again confirmed. 

The damage done by the infection has been great because the Bordeaux 
mixture dressings were applied too late, at too long intervals, and were not 
accompanied by treatment with a dry mixture of flowers of sulphur with 
copper sulphate. 

The spraying with the liquid mixture ought to have been followed by 
treatment with the sulphur-copper powder. 

The observations made in ^the different regions of France suggest the 
following : 

i) Treatment with Bordeaux mixture before the appearance of the 
mildew in the region ; 

2) Renewing the treatment each time that the vine is in a state of 
receptivity: viz., when the barometer is falling and the temperature cooling; 

3) To treat rapidly with the Bordeaux mixture, even when it is 
raining ; 

4) To dust freely with the sulphur-copper powder all over the vine 
and on both sides of each row ; 

5) To raise the vines as soon as possible ; 

6) At blossoming to treat with Bordeaux mixture and then with sulphur- 
copper dust; after fertilisation of the flowers to dress only with sulphur-copper 
dust. Vines in a good state of vegetation are the most resistant to mildew. 



South 

African 

Union: 

Natal 



J. B. Pole Evans. A New Disease of Citrus Fruits. - Transvaal Dpt. of 
Agr. Fanner s Bull., No. 109, p. i. 

In Natal, a new disease has been discovered in Citrus fruits. 

The infected fruits, when exposed to the air, blacken and wither ra- 
pidly. If sheltered from the air, they soften, turn brown, and the outer 
surface of the pericarp becomes covered with greenish exudation and with 
an olive green coloured velvety felt. 

These alterations are caused by a fungus, Diplodia natalensis (i). The 



fi) Sphaerioideaceae. [£ct^\. 



APPLE TREE 



165 



disease spreads by means of spores abundantly produced on the infected 
fruit, which must consequently be at once gathered and destroyed by burning. 



A. DucLOux. Apple Tree Canker. 

vember 1910, pp. 506-508. 



Revue horticole, Paris, No. 21, i No- 



The apple-tree canker, due to Nectria ditissima, causes considerable ra- 
vages in the North of France ; the woolly mite or aphis {Fucero/i lanigere) 
greatly contributes to the spreading of the canker. 

It appears from an inquiry made by M. Ducloux that the apple-tree 
canker, aided by the woolly aphis, is causing much harm in Belgium, Holland, 
in the Rhine Provinces and in North Germany. All the old varieties, with 
the exception of the Petit Bon Poinmier, are aftected; the new varieties show 
a greater resistance. The influence of the soil is evident; for the canker 
shows itself mainly in places that are either too damp or too dry, or where 
the soil is very rich in nitrogen. The writer gives a list of the French, Bel- 
gian, Dutch and Rhenish varieties of the apple which have shown them- 
selves resistant to canker: 

1. French varieties: Transparente de;Croncels; Posson de France; 
Petit Bon Pommier; Belle-Fleur du Brabant. 

2. Beli!;ian varieties: Belle-Fleur du Brabant; Gueule de Mouton. 

3. Dutch varieties: Belle de Boskoop; Double-Brabant; Jacob Dirk. 
We may add Reinette x\nanas, a great favourite in the Rhine Provinces. 

4. Varieties of the Rhine Provinces: Roter Eiser; Purpurroter Cousinot; 
Boiken (i). 



France. 
Belgium. 
Holland. 
Germa y 



Ch. E. Lewis. A new Cryptogamic Disease of the Apple. (New Species of 
Endomyces from Decaying Apple). [Bull. No. lyS of the Maine Agri- 
cultural Exp. Stat., April 1910); Botanisches Centralblatt, Bd. 114, No. 16, 
Jena, 1910, p. 404. 

A new species of fungus which causes a disease ot die apple called 
Endomyces mali is described. Its cytological characters are given together 
with a comparison with the Endomyces Magnusii. The article ends with a 
discussion on the classification of this fungus, and a bibliography. Details 
of its structure are illustrated by 14 figures. 



(l) Nectria ditisshna (Tul.) attacks not only apple-trees, but also frequently the 
beech, oak, hazel, ash, hornbeam, maple, lime, dogwood and bird-cherry. G. Massee has 
observed it on the gooseberry in such quantities as to kill the branches The fungus is 
a wound-parasite, and it frequently follows on the wounds caused by the American Blight 
{Schizoneura lanosa) since the advent of which in Great Britain canker has been much 
more prevalent, " and perhaps it is not going too far to state that if we had no Ame- 
rican blight or woolly aphis we should have no epidemic of canker. 

See G. Massee, Diseases of Cultivated Plants and Trees, London, 19 10, p. J 83. 

[Ed.], 



United 

States : 

Maine 



1 66 



APPLE TREE. - PEACH. - SPRUCE 



United 
States : 
Maine 



Ch. E. Lewis. Diseases of the Apple Tree caused by "Coryneum Folli- 
colum " Eckl. and the " Phoma Mali " Schulz and Sacc. — (Bulletin 
No. 170 of the Maine Agric. Exp. Stat., Nov. 1909); Botanisches Cen- 
tralblatt, Bd. 114, No. 16. Jena, 1909, p. 404. 

The two fungi described in this Bulletin cause diseases in the trunk 
of young, and in the branches of fully grown apple trees. These parasites 
settle in cracks, crevices and weak spots, and attack the young trees in the 
same way as the Iphaeropsis malorum. 

Mr. Lewis gives a detailed description of the characters of these two 
parasites, and shows in 42 engravings the different phases of their develop- 
ment on the wood of young apple trees, and on mature trees. 



J. B. RoRER. A Bacterial Disease of the Peach. — {Mycologia, I, pp. 23-27, 
\<^o^). Botatiisches Centralblatt, Bd. 114, No. 13. Jena, 27 September, 1910, 

P . A Report on the Bacterium Fruni, and on the inoculation of this bacte- 

Britain rium. These studies are not yet complete, but results so far obtained con- 
vince the writer that the Bacterium Prutii is the cause of a disease of the 
leaves, small branches and fruits of the peach. 

Mer. Damage caused by the Lophodermium Macrosporum. — Bull, aes 
sciences de la Socicti nat. d'agr. de France. Paris, July, 1910, No. 7, 
pp. 652-660. 

France 1 he author has studied the injury caused by this fungus on the Spruce 

in the Upper Vosges. He distinguishes two forms of the disease, which he 
defines form « and p. The first appears on leaves which possess a remark- 
able degree of vitality and contain starch. Form (3 appears on the leaves 
of branches two or three years old which are decaying. Instructions are 
given for combatingUhis parasite, which may cause considerable damage. 



F. T. Brooks. Rhizina undulata in Pine Trees. — Quarterly Journal of Fo- 
restry, October, 1910, p. 308. London. 

Some specimens of young pine trees attacked by the fungus Rhizina 
Great undulata were recently examined. The damage caused by this fungus is 
Britain go serious that it has been considered advisable to draw attention to its 
destructive power in plantations of young Conifers. The fructifications of 
this fungus should be gathered and destroyed. This could be done by- 
children, greatly diminishing future danger. 



PINE. - OAK. - HEVEA 



167 



Abdul Hafiz Khan. Root Infection of ** Trametes Pini (Brot) Fr. 

Indian Forester, October, 1910, No. 10. 



The 



In 1904 a serious disease was reported in the forests of the Finus 
excelsa. Wall (Blue Pine or C/iil) in the Division of Simla. The trunks of 
the pines affected by the disease were found to be infested with the spo" 
rophores of a fungus. Mr. Mayes, Deputy Conservator of Forests, sent spe- 
cimens to the Imperial Mycologist, and the fungus was recognised as being 
the Trametes Pini, Fr., which causes the disease well known iniEurope under 
the name of the " ring scale " of the pine-tree. 



British 
India 



P. Magnus. Oak-White (Oidium). (Zum Auftreten des Eichenmehltaus). {Ver- 
einschrift. Ges. Liixemh. Naturfreunde, pp. 168-111, 19 10). — Botanisches 
Centralblatt, 114, No. 15, Jena, 19x0, 11 October, p. 385. 

The writer denies that the cryptogamic disease which has attacked 
European oaks in an epidemic form since 1907, is of the same nature as 
that observed by Mdrat near Paris in 1843. The latter must, as a matter 
of fact, be attributed to the Phyllactinia corylea (Per.) Karst., which differs 
greatly from the Oidium epidemic amongst oaks. Mr. Magnus considers 
it improbable that Oak-White is of American origin, as no epidemic of 
Oak-White has been observed in America, and American oaks are seldom 
attacked by it in Europe, either spontaneously or artificially. Oak-White 
may belong to the biologic cycle of the Microsphaera Alni Wallr. 



Luxemburg 



Paul Vuillemin. Oak- White (Oidium) counteracted by a Natural Enemy 
(Cicinnobolus). (On a natural check to the Oak-disease). — C. R. Ac. 
Sciences, Paris, 10 October, igio, p. 647. 

Oak- White is caused by an Oidium, the origin of which is still uncer- 
tain, which has attacked the oaks of Europe and North Africa since 1907. 
An unusual succession of mild winters and wet summers has favoured the 
disease and has given rise to a natural enemy of the Oidium. 

The writer observed last September, in the wooded country which sepa- 
rates the Meuse from the Moselle, and in the forest of Nancy, a Cicinnobolus 
(Sphoer opsided) whose characteristics agree with those of the Cicinnobolus 
Cesatii De Bary of the Evonymi F. form, which destroys Oidium. 

The Cicinnobolus prevents both the multiplication of Oidium by means of 
conidia and its preservation by mycelium. It possesses pycnids of 40 ^,-50 u, 
by 26 [^,-32 fj, or more, and spores of 6-7 p, by 2-2,7 p-i otherwise, it has the 
usual characteristics of its congeners. The Cicinnobolus has been observed on 
several Erysiphaceae and the chief difference between the species is one of 
dimensions or simply of the organism on which they have been observed. 



France 



i68 OAK. - HEVEA. - TIMBER 

The spontaneous settling of the Cicinnobohis on the Oak Oidium puts a na- 
tural check on the propagation and persistance of oak-white. Foresters 
can thus rely on these natural agents to attack Oidium and restrict them- 
selves to keeping the trees in healthy conditions. 

F. Fetch. Die-Back, a Cryptogamic Disease of the Hevea brasiliensis. — 

(Die-back oi Hevea brasiliensis). {Circ. and Agric. four na I Roy. Bot. Gard. 
Ceylon, pp 304321, 1910). Botanisches Centralblatt, Bd. 114, No. 13, 
Jena, 27 Sept. 1910, p. 330. 

The fungus Gloeosporium alborubritm. Fetch, which causes this disease, 
attacks the terminal shoot towards the middle. The part attacked turns 
Ceylon dark brown, and the discoloration extends above and below. This process 
appears to be due to the true Die-back fungus. Unless the dead bud is 
nipped off, a secondary fungus, Botryodiplodia elasiica, attacks the affected 
part and spreads downwards, through the trunk, killing it little by little to 
the root. 

The fungus appears on the bark, and consists of small black globes filled 
with spores of the characteristic Diplodia type, oval with a transverse par- 
tition towards the middle. As the fungus spreads downwards, it kills in 
succession the different circles of branches which remain sound and leafy 
until it reaches them. The progress of the disease is very rapid; in most 
cases the tree perishes from four to six weeks from the death of the highest 
branches. All parts attacked should be cut off and burned. 

Mr. Fetch discusses the identity of the fungus Botryodiplodia elastica with 
other Diplodia which attack plants in other parts of the world. 

Dry Rot in Timber. — The Indian Forester, Vol. XXXVI, No. 10, p. 629, 
Allahabad, Oct, 1910. 

It has long been known that the fungus Merulius lacrytnans. Fries, de- 
British termines the disease commonly called dry rot in timber. In spite of improve- 
Indla ments in ventilation systems, etc., the disease appears to be continually 
gaining ground, which is explained by the rapidity with which modern 
houses are built, leading to the employment of freshly cut and imperfectly 
dried timber. 



PHANEROGAMOUS PARASITES AND WEEDS. - DODDER 169 



Phanerogamous Parasites and Weeds. — Their Control. 



A. H. Cockayne. Destruction of Weeds by Cryptogamic Diseases. — 

Jour. N. Zealand, Dept, of Agriculture, Vol. I, No. 3, 15th August, 191 o, 
pp. 214-215, Wellington. 

Attempts have been made recently to control weeds by means of cryp- 
togamic diseases, and Mr. Cockayne, Biologist to the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture of New Zealand, communicates a report of his experiments. He has 
mainly studied the destruction of the cardoon of California, obtaining en- 
couraging results with two cryptogams, the Puccinia Hieracii and a Fusa- 
rium, expecially with the latter, which has the advantage of attacking the 
roots and is innocuous to cultivated plants. It has been used to advantage 
in several parts of New Zealand. 

The experiments are being continued in the district of Taieri. 

The most serious disease of the blackberry in America is blight {Caeoma 
nitens), which hitherto has not spread much in New Zealand. The Phoma 
Ruin has killed some plants here and there, but has not spread. 

The rose blight {Phragmidium subcorticurn) has spread very much, but 
its action is not particularly rapid. There is another disease, however, which 
is very destructive to the. sweet briar, which is now' beginning to be studied. 



New Zealand 



O. MuNERATi. The Vitality of the Seeds of Weeds in the Ground. (La 

vitality dei semi delle cattive erbe nel terreno). — Rivista Agraria Po- 
lesana, anno X, No. ig, Rovigo, 30 Sept. 1910, pp. 291-295. 

The writer, continuing experiments undertaken some years back on 
the vitality of the seeds of weeds in the ground, has placed some of these 
seeds under conditions favourable to germination, experimenting both in a 
nursery and in the open field. The weeds employed were: Avenafatua, 
Vicia segetalis. Lathy rus Aphaca, Rapistrum rugosum, Myagrum perfoliatum. 
Sorghum halepense, Cirsiutn arvense, etc. 

Avetia fatua was found to be one of the weeds more easily kept down, 
on account of the greater rapidity with which its seeds germinate. 



J. Farcy. Destruction of Dodder by Sodium Nitrate. —Journal d' Agri- 
culture pratique. Paris, No. 42, October 20, 1910, pp, 497-496. 

Careful experiments made in alfalfa fields invaded by dodder show : 

i) That dodder can be destroyed by strong applications (1000 kg. per France 
hectare) of sodium nitrate. Its fertilising action makes sodium nitrate more 



I70 



WEEDS. - DODDER. - NOXIOUS INSECTS 



advantageous than ferrous sulphate and other caustic salts, which are some- 
what dangerous to vegetation. 

2) That alfalfa and other leguminous forage plants, subject to dodder, 
are benefited by the fertilising action of the nitrate, nothwithstanding the 
faculty of absorbing atmospheric nitrogen by their root nodules. 



South 

African 

Union: 

Cape 

Colony 



N. S. PiLLANS An Amaranthacea Injurious to Sheep. (The Amaranthus 
Weed in South Africa). — The Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good 
Hope, Vol, XXXVII, No. 3, pp. 267-268, Cape Town, September 1910. 

The Amaranthus weed, Alternanthera Achyrantha, which was recently 
imported from South America into Cape Colony, is spreading in the eastern 
provinces, and causing injury to agriculture and cattle raising. 

Its flowers, furnished with spiky squamae, get readily caught in the fleece 
of the sheep, whose skin it irritates, thus paving the way for infectious germs. 

As this weed spreads very readily by fragments of the rhizome, the soil 
should be ploughed deeply in order to extirpate these fragments completely. 



Insects and other noxious Invertebrates: Their Biology and Control- 



F. Plateau. Experimental Investigations on Entomophilous Flowers, 
seldom visited by Insects, and made Attractive by means of Odo- 
rous Sweet Liquids. (Acaddmie Royale de Belgique). — Bulletin de 
la Classe des Sciences. Brussels, 1910, No. 3, pp. 144-146, 

According to the writer, insects are attracted to flowers much less by 
Belgium their shape or colour than^by their scent. If this view be correct, the 
coloured organs do not exercise the attraction ascribed to them. 

For three summers in succession many experiments were made on twelve 
kinds of flowers which are usually neglected by insects, M. Plateau intro- 
duced the following liquids into the flowers': aniseed cordial, the attractive 
properties of which are remarkable ; syrup of brown sugar with the addition 
of a little rum ; the juice of cherries stewed with sugar ; finally, a mixture 
of syrup of sugar and angelica. Not only were the insects attracted, but 
they often came in as great numbers as to flowers naturally pollenised. 



SCALE -INSECTS. - FROGHOPPERS 



171 



F. W. Sauth. The Control of Scale Insects in the British West Indies by 
means of Fungoid Parasites. — IVesf Indian Bulletin, vol. XI, No. i, 
pp. 1-30. Barbados, 1910. 

The employment of fungi, the mycelium of which develops in the 
bodies of insect pests, has already done signal service to agriculture. In 
the West Indies the Mytilaspis, the cochineal which causes so much havoc 
in the plantations of citrus fruit, has been effectualy controlled by means of 
four kinds of fungoid parasites : Cephalosporium lecanii, Myriangiimi duriaei, 
Ophionedria coccicola and Sphaerostilbe coccophila. 

There are two means of rapidly propagating these fungi : 

i) spraying with water containing a large quantity of spores in sus" 
pension ; 

2) placing fragments of plants attacked by this fungus in the branches 
of the tree to be protected against the cochineal. 

In very dry regions it is advisable to spray the leaves during the hottest 
hours of the day. Good results have also been obtained by covering the 
Citrus Medica of the Island of Montserrat with a creeping leguminous plant, 
the Mucuna prui'iens, the shade from which favours the development of the 
mycelia, which it protects against the action of the sun and wind. 

A series of investigations made throughout the Islands, seems to show that 
the disappearance of certain cryptogamic diseases, such as Capnodium and 
Meliola, depends on the destruction of the cochineals {Lecatiium viride and 
L. mangiferae), which is therefore doubly advantageous. 



Barbados 



James Birch Rober. Destruction of Froghoppers (Tomaspis) by means of 
a Fungoid Parasite, the " Oospora Destructor." (" The Froghopper 
Fungus "). — Board of Agriculture of Trinidad. Trinidad, September 23, 
1910. 

In the southern regions of the United States and in the Antilles, certain 
entomophagous fungi have been successfully employed against the aphids 
which injure the orange plantations. 

Some experiments just made at Trinidad give hopes of similar results 
in the case of a fungoid parasite, the Oospora destructor, the enemy of the 
froghoppers Tomaspis postica, which infest the sugar plantations. 

The thin, cylindrical spores germinate in a few hours if exposed to 
damp, and the germinal tubes, penetrating through the abdominal articula- 
tions of the insect, ramify there in a thick network ; the insect dies within a 
few days. 

Slender hyphae issue out of the mass of mycelium, and segment at their 



Trinidad 



172 



BIRDS AND ANTS AGAINST NOXIOUS INSECTS 



extremities into a great number of spores, covering the body of the insect 
with thick oUve green dust. 

Agar, and fresh sHces of sweet potatoes, constitute an excellent substratum 
for the cultivation of these fungi. A small quantity of spores obtained thus 
and spread over a hundred canes which were vigorously attacked by the 
froghoppers killed most of them in less than a week. 

Froghoppers are particularly active during the rainy season, which is most 
favourable for the development of this fungus. 



Salvador 



The use of Birds in protecting the Cultivation of Tobacco in Salvador. 

(El empleo de las aves en el cultivo del tabaco). — El Hacendado Mexi- 
cano. Mexico, October i. 1910. 

In certain regions of Salvador where tobacco is cultivated, the farmers 
protect the leaves against insects and worms by an ingenious method. A 
bird called Chompipe, which is very easily tamed, is let loose at certain hours 
of the day over the tobacco plantations, where it destroys the insects and 
caterpillars on the leaves with surprising voracity and thoroughness. But for 
these birds, the crops would sometimes be completely destroyed, or expensive 
hand-labour would have to be employed. 



Dutch 

East 

Indies : 

Java 



D. DE Lange. The Use of Ants against the Cacao-Bug in Java. — Journal 
d' Agriculture Tropicale. 30 Sept. 1910, No in. Paris, p. 284. 

The writer, who is the botanist of the cacao-tree plantations at Salatiga, 
gives the following information on the utilisation of the black ant in the de- 
struction of the cacao-bug. During the two years that he has been attached 
to the Salatiga Station, he visited many cacao plantations where the Helopeltis 
(Cacao bug) is fought by means of the black ant {Dolicho denes bituberculatus 
Mayr). He has never been able to ascertain that the ants make a direct attack 
upon the bugs. The two insects live near each other on the same branch 
and meet apparently without doing one another any harm. The damage 
which the ants do to the bugs is of quite another nature. 

It is known that the black ant lives principally on the pod of the cacao 
tree, to which it is attracted by the secretions of the white cochineal 
{Dactylopius crotonis. Green). The cacao-bug, on its side, prefers to deposit 
its eggs on the cacao pods. Thus the presence of the ants hinders the bugs 
from depositing their eggs on the cacao-pods and interferes with the attacks 
of the young larvae on the skin of the cacao-pods. 

The ants never fight the adult bugs, but decimate the larvae, thus ren- 
dering precious service to the cacao planters in Java. 



NOXIOUS INSECTS: PROTECTING FRUIT - TREES 173 



Fred. V. Theobald. Grease Banding of Fruit trees. — Journ. Board of 
Agric, Vol. XVII, No. 7, October 1910, p. 542. London, 

It has long been customary to surround the trunks of trees with bands 
of viscous matter to prevent insects from crawling up them, and excellent 
results have in general been obtained. But as several arboriculturists re- 
ported failures, many observations and experiments on this subject have 
been made during the past six years, and it has been found that such grease 
bands are useful when properly applied. 

The main object of these experiments has been: 

1. to ascertain what insects injurious to orchards can be controlled by Great 
the bands, and when is the period of their appearance ; Britaiii 

2. to decide on what part of the trunk the band may be most ad- 
vantageously applied ; 

3. to discover which are the best substances to use for making these 
bands. 

The following conclusions have been arrived at: 

1. If the bands are to be really efficacious they should be applied 
in the month of October and kept in place until the middle of April. 

2. A large number of injurious insects are taken by these bands, in 
addition to the Cheimatobia brumata. 

3. It has been shown that most viscous substances are injurious if 
applied on the bark of young trees. 

The American preparation. Tanglefoot, is not injurious. Experiments, 
however, should be continued to settle this point finally. 

4. The viscous substances employed may be divided into three groups : 

a) white or yellow substances ; 

b) black substances (German Raupenleime) ; 

c) substances of the bird-lime, or Tanglefoot, type. 

The first dry quickly; the second are not sufficiently viscous; the third 
keep perfectly viscous for from 10 to 15 months. 

5. The bands are efficacious for trees, but they are not always a 
sure defence for shrubs. 

6. The bands must be placed at a height of not more than 1.35 m. 
(54 inches) and not less than 0.20 m. (8 inches^. 

7. The efficacy of the viscous substance depends largely on the 
quality of paper of which the bands are made. 



174 



NOXIOUS INSECTS - FRUIT-FLIES - WOOLLY APHIS 



South 
African 
Union: 

Natal 



E. E. Green. Poisoned Bait for Fruit Flies. — Natal Agricultural Journal, 
July 1 910, p. 84. Tropical Agriculturist, Vol. XXXV, No. 3, p. 222. 
Colombo, Sept. 1910. 

Some recent experiments made in South Africa have demonstrated the 
efficacy of the Mally poisoned bait against flies of the Dacus species, which 
attack oranges, mangos and other fruits as well as cucumbers, pumpkins, etc. 

This poisoned bait is composed of sugar (1.400 kg.), arseniate of lead 
(ti2 gr.) and water (22 '/j litres). It is of the same type as the Dachicida 
{Dacus-Y\\^tx) that is employed in Italy against the olive fly, composed of 
6e; parts of molasses, 31 parts of honey, 2 of glycerine and 2 of arseniate 
of sodium. 



Germany 



R. Ahrens. The Use of Permanganate against the Woolly Aphis (i) (Schi- 
zoneura Lanigera). (Uebermangansaures Kali gegen Blutlaus). — Gei- 
senheimcr Mitteil. Tiber Obst-u. Gartenbau. Geisenheim, Nov. 1910, No. 11- 
pp. 182-183. 

A report on the good results obtained by the use of a i % solution 
of permanganate of potassium. 

Another good mixture is: 250 grams of potassium bi-sulphide ; 2 kg. of 
soft soap; i litre of tobacco juice, the whole to be dissolved in 100 litres of 
water (i). 

To destroy these insects kerosene should be poured evenly over the 
surface of the water in the rice plantation, the plants being then shaken 
to compel the insects to fall on to the kerosene, which kills them. 



(i) The American Blight or Woolly Aphis {Schizoneura lanigera) " is one of the 
most wide-spread plant-lice affecting fruit-trees. Its presence can easily be detected by 
the quantity of white cottony wool produced by the larvae and females. We often, 
especially in west-country orchards (England), see this white excretion hanging from the 
trees in great festoons. The trees suffer severely. Apple-trees are those that suffer 
mo?t, but pear-trees may also be attacked. These plant-lice cause cankered growths to 
appear on trunk and boughs ; the new wood is their favourite seat of war, where they 
can easily plunge their beaks into the soft rind. This wound usually ends by splitting, 
deep cracks and crevices being formed, in which the culprits seek shelter later. Growth 
is checked; the crop does not mature, and often the trees fail under the attack." 
Fred. V. Theobald, A 7 ext-book of Agricultural Zoology, London and Edinburgh, 1899. 
p. 240. [Ed.]. 



NOXIOUS INSECTS ON RICE AND COTTON 



175 



Insects noxious to special Crops. 



H. L. DuTT. The Rice Hispa. — Dept of Agric. Bengal Quarterly Journal, 
Vol. IV, No. I, pp. 32-33. Calcutta, July 1910. 

This small insect devastates rice fields, by feeding on the leaves of the 
plant. The females deposit their eggs at the tip of the leaf, and the larvae 
on issuing destroy the tissue of the leaf (mesophyll). Out of the cavity 
formed in the leaf the perfect insect issues, devouring the epidermis, thus 
completing the destruction of the leaf. 

The following remedies are suggested: 

i) the destruction of the wild grasses on which the insect usually 
multiplies and whence the Hispa swarms on to the rice-plants; 

2) The selection of varieties of rice with tougher leaves (i). 

H. L. DuTT. The Rice Fulgorid. — Dept. of Agriculture, Bem^al. Quarterly 
Journal, Vol. IV, No. i, p. 2,Z- Calcutta, July, igio. 

These are very small insects of a whitish colour, generally found in 
great numbers clustering on the lower surface of the leaves and on the outer 
sheath of the rice. They suck the juice of the leaf by a slender and elongated 
rostrum which they bury in the tissues. The leaf attacked becomes etiolated 
and yellow. 



British 

India: 

Bengal 



British 
India: 
Bengal. 



E. Ernest Green. " Dactylopius Virgatus " (Mealy Bug) on the Cotton 

Plants of Ceylon. — Tropical Agriculturist. Vol. XXXV, N. 3, p. 22. 

Colombo, September 19 10. 

The upland cotton, grown at the Experimental Station of Maha Huppa- 
lama (Ceylon), has been violently attacked by a cochineal, Dactilopius virgatus. 
This insect multiplies with extraordinary raj^idity, and appears to kill back 
all the branches on which it forms its colonies. It is a pest that should 
be treated as soon as it appears, as it is difficult to destroy it when it has 



(i) Hispinae. The life history of these beetles is given in H. Maxwell Lefroy 
and F. M. HowLETT, Indian Insect Life (Indian Research Institute, Pusa). Calcutta 
and Simla, 1909, p. 363. 

'' The essential features of the Hispinae are that the egg is laid in the tissues of a 
leaf or plant, the resulting grub mining in the tissues, and producing a '' blotch " mine. 
Moults take place inside the mine and the larva is much flattened, though in some cases 
provided with legs. Pupation takes place in the leaf So far as known, all Hispinae 
have such a life-history and the 1 arva lives concealed in the tissues of plants. One species 
Hispa aenescens By. is a serious major pest, and another Leptispa pygmaea By. occasion- 
ally rivals it." [£"(/.]. 



Ceylon 



176 NOXIOUS INSECTS ON BEET ROOTS. AND TEA 



Germany 



begun to propagate. It is spread by the coolies who work in the fields, 
the young insects clinging to their clothes. Soapy insecticides are the best 
remedy against these insects. 

K. ScHLELEiN. The Beet-Root Parasites (Tierische Schadliuge in Riibenfel- 
dern). — Deutsche Lamhvirtschaftliche Rundschau, N. lo, p. 102. Lank- 
witz, Gr. Lichterfelde, 15 August, 1910. 

It is stated that serious havoc has been made in different parts of Ger- 
many in plantations of beet-root for sugar-making and for fodder, by the 
Silpha atrata and the Cassida r;ebulosa{\). 

The larvae of these insects attack the leaves of young plants, of which 
they devour all the parenchyma. 

Chickens or ducks should be let loose in the fields attacked, as they 
eat up the larvae ; it is also advisable to spread ashes or recently prepared 
lime on the edges of the leaves. 

E. E. CiREEN. Nettle Grub on Tea in Ceylon. — The Tropical Agriculturist, 
Vol. XXXV, N. 3, Sept. 1910, j). 222, Colombo. 

" Nettle-grub " {Natada nam rid) (2) is reported in the district of Rat- 
tota. The grub first attacks the biggest leaves on the lower part of the 
plant, and gradually mounts towards the younger leaves. 

Arsenical sprays would be efficacious, but as they might be harmful 
to the consumers of the tea, Mr . Green proposes that experiments be made 
with Vermisapon, an Indian insecticide, and that the leaves and twigs which 
fall be gathered up and burnt, and the cocoons found on the trees collected 
and destroyed. Neither lime nor sulphur have any effect on these cater- 
pillars. 

E. E. Green. The Tea Plant Shot Hole Borer (Xyleborus fornicatus). 

(Report of the Entomologist). — Supplem. to the Tropical Agriculturist, 
Vol. XXXV, N. 3, Sept. 1910, Colombo. 

The tea plant borer is slowly making headway. It has spread into 

Ceylon the valley of Kelani ; its presence is also reported in the district of Matu- 

rata, and it is probably in other localities where it has not yet been identified. 

In order to control this insect, it is proposed to import from England the 
Clems formicarius, a rapacious beetle of which some batches have already 
been sent out; but they all died on the journey. The experiments will be 
repeated next summer. 



Ceylon 



(i) Coleoptera [Ed.]. 

(2) 8 A heteroecious lepidoptera whose caterpillars are covered with hair rendered 
often strongly irritant owing to the presence of formic acid?. Indian Insect Life, by 
H. Maxweli.-Lf.froy, Calcutta, 1900. \Ed\. 



NOXIOUS INSECTS ON TOBACCO, MANGO, CASTILLOA, ETC. 177 



G. PooK. Destruction of Tobacco Worms by Cold. (Die Anwendung von 
Kalte zur Vernichtung des 'J'abakwiirms). — // Intern. Kdltekongress in 
Wien, p. 12, (Jkt. 1910; Chemiker Zeitung, J. XXXI, No. 126, p. 1127, 
Cothen, 22 Okt. 1910. 

The experiments made with a view to kilHng the Tobacco-worm by Brazil 
means of frigorific treatment have been very successful. The process is 
employed to-day in the whole of Brazil. The tobacco is exposed for about 
22 days, in premises which are absolutely dry, to a temperature 3° or 4" 
below zero C, better still 10° below zero C. The worms and their ova are 
completely killed at these temperatures. 

E. Ernest Grenn. The Mango-Weevil (Cryptorhynchus mangiferae) in 

Ceylon. — The Tropical Agriculturist, Vol. XXXV, No. 3, pp. 222-223, 
Colombo, Sept. 191 o. 

The mango-weevil {Cryptorhynchus niangtferae) has spread to an extra- 
ordinary extent this year. The natives say that there is one in every mango Ceylon 
stone. But the presence of this insect does not seem to make any difference 
in the size or flavour of the fruit. The larva feeds solely on the kernel 
of the stone and the perfect insect does not usually emerge, until after the 
decomposition of the fruit. 

Anstead. a New Enemy of the " Castilloa " in India. (Another Scale- 
bug Pest of Castilloa). Planter's Chronicle, Vol. V, No. 29, Aug. 6). — 
The Tropical Agriculturist, Vol. XXXV, No. 3, Sept. 1910, p. 222, Co- 
lombo. 

Lecaniunv oleae, the cochineal of the olivetree (i), attacks the Castilloa Ceylon 
in Southern India. It is also found on the Dapap {Etythrina lithospermd) (2) 
and it appears to be rapidly spreading on the coffee tree. This species has 
hitherto been rare in Ceylon. 

H. O. Marsh. Some Insects injurious to Truck Crops (Kitchen Garden 
Produce). The " Diacrisia virginica." (Biological and Economic Notes 
on the Yellow Bear Caterpillar, Diacrisia virginica, Fab.). — U, S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology Bull., No. 82, Part V, 
August 31st, 1910, p. 59. 

The Diacrisia virginica did a great deal of harm in Upper Arkansas ol'"+ . 
in the simimer and autumn of 1909. Never before had this region suffered Arkansas 



(i) This parasite has been successfully controlled in Europe by a decoction of resin, 
potash and fish oil. E. Boursand, Maladies des plantes. Paris, 19 10. 

(2) The Dapap is a tree of the family of the Leguminosae, often grown in rubber, 
coffee and other plantations for its shade; its- prunings, which are rich in nitrogen, are 
used for vegetable manure. G, Watt, Commercial products of India^ London, 1910. \^Ed?[, 



X3 



178 MIDGES ON WATER LILY. - PHYLLOXERA 



from the ravages of so fatal a pest, which broke out in an absolutely un- 
expected fashion. 

List of the plants attacked. — During the month of September, when 
the disease attained its maximum, the larvae of this insect were found living 
at the expense of the following plants: mangolds, sugar-beets, beet-roots, 
rhubarb, cabbage, cauliflower, turnips, radish, celery, carrot, parsnips, egg 
plant, potato, pumpkin, melon, cantaloup (musk-melon), sweet potatoes, 
maize, asparagus, peas, earth-nut. alfalfa, holly-hock, Ipomaea purpurea, reed, 
hyacinth, dahlia, cherry, gooseberry, raspberry, currants, grapes, Rumex, 
Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Helianthus, Solanum rostratum, Verbesina, Ambrosia, 
Salsula Tragus, Bidens cernua. 

Arseniate of lead and Paris green were used against this pest on 
mangolds and on celery. The former proved quite useless; but strong 
solutions of Paris green, applied carefully by hand to celery, gave excellent 
results ; but when sprayed on mangolds were ineffective. Mr Marsh believes 
that the negative results obtained in the struggle against the larvae of this 
insect are mainly due to the insufficient quantity of the remedy employed. 

V. WiLLEM. A new Chironomide or Midge larva, feeding on a Water- 
lily. — Acaddmie Royale de Belgique, Bull, de la Classe des Sciences, 
Brussels, 1910, No. i, p. 33-39. 

A new kind of midge, a Cricotopus, a Chironomid, lives in great numbers 
in the larval state on the surface of the river Lys, near Ghent in Belgium. 
Belgium The adult midge obtained by breeding, has beeen examined by Professor 
J. J. Kieffer, who describes it. These larvae are found in the furrowed 
parts of the upper surfaces of the floating leaves of the fringed water-lily 
(Faux-Ntfnuphar) {Limnanthemum nymphoides. Link). The midge-larvae feed 
on these leaves, mining and burrowing through them. 

G. Chappaz. ^- A Phylloxeric Decay of the Mourvedre-Rupestris 1202 
Vine in Champagne, France. — Progris agricole et viticole. Montpellier, 
No 42, 16 October, 1910. 

In Champagne, France, the writer has observed the damage due to 
phylloxera in a vineyard where the stocks are Mourvedre-Rupestris 1202. 
France: This hybrid is very extensively used as a stock on account of its resistance 
Champagne to lime soils and in general it may ^be considered as sufficiently resistant 
to the phylloxera on account of the great vigour of its roots. The writer 
adds that there is no need to be unduly alarmed at this case of phylloxera 
attack, because the vineyard in question had already been enfeebled for 
some three years past by various affections: " brunissure ", pectic disease, 



INSECTS NOXIOUS TO VINE AND FRUIT TREES 



179 



{inaladie pcctiqzie) and mildew, which had prevented the formation of suffi- 
ciently strong roots. 

It would be as well, however, not to make use of Vine « 1202 » as a stock, 
except on very calcareous and damp soils. 



New Treatment of the Vine-Cochylis.- 

de r Agriculture. Paris, No 37, 19 10. 



-Feu ilk d informations du Minis tire 



Some experiments on the destruction of the Cochylis were recently 
made by the entomologist Catoni. The spray most efficacious as an insec- 
ticide is a solution of kgr 0.500 of carbon disulphide and 2 kg. of yellow 
soap in 100 litres of water. The soap is first dissolved in hot water; the 
remainder of the 100 litres of water is added cold to the emulsion, and 
the carbon disulphide is then added while the mixture is stirred. 

This solution penetrates amongst the flowers of the grape where the 
insect lies hidden. The carbon disulphide must be well mixed with the 
soap to avoid scorching. 



Italy 



F. T. BiOLETTi and L. Bonnet. The Phylloxera in California. 

Viticulture. Paris, No 877, 6 October 1910, pp. 371-375. 



Revue de 



Owing to the distance between vine growing centres and to special cli- 
matic conditions, the phylloxera, reported in California since about 1884, 
has not caused such great havoc in this country as in Europe. Its progress 
is very slow, but for several years past the work of replanting the vineyards 
has been going on. The experiments which have been made so far tend to 
show that the Rupestris du Lot is well adapted to deep soils and hot regions, 
while the Riparia-Gloire and the 3309 are adapted for cooler places and 
shallow soils. 



United 

States : 

California 



P. Noel. The Enemies of the Plum and the Olive. — Bulletin du^Labora- 
ioire regional dentomologie agricole. Quatrieme trimestre de 19 10 (October- 
November-December 1910). Rouen, Imprimerie E. Caquiard, 1910, p. 16. 

Soils which are slightly moist and calcareous are best adapted to the 
plum of which many varieties form a very profitable culture. 

Paris imports annually 2 500000 kg. of Reine Claude and i 500000 of 
Mirabelles. 

The plum is liable to the same pests as the pear and the cherry. A 
list of the enemies of this valuable tree is given and includes figures of 
254 insects and 7 fungi. 



France 



i8o 



INSECTS NOXIOUS TO CITRUS TREES. - MALARIA. 



The olive, like the vine, is a southern plant, and unhappily it also is 
exhausted by over-production and the lack of manure. The olive tree loves 
light, heat and a well manured, substantial, and above all well drained soil ; 
stagnant humidity near the roots must be carefully avoided. 

When insufficiently manured, the olive has numerous enemies, and 
M. Noel gives a list comprising 40 harmful insects, 3 fungi and a bacterial 
disease. 



H. A. Ballou. Scale Insects (Coccidae) which attack the Citrus Li- 
metta. (Notes on Lime cultivation). — IVes^ Indian Bulletin, vol. XI, 
No I, pp. 19-49. Barbadoes, 1910. 

The principal Scale-insects which attack the Citrus- Limetta, or lime, are the 

" Purple, " " White " and " Green " scale. Under the designation of " green 

Barbados scale " are comprised the Lecanium viride and Lecanium Hespcridum. It has 

only been known sinee 1905 that the Lecanium viride was to be found in 

the Lesser Antilles. 

The natural enemies of these insects are two: insects and fungi. Amongst 
the insects are the Coccinellidae, or Lady-bird beetles and Hymenoptera pa- 
rasites. The species Scymmus and Pentilia of the Lady-bird beetle are par- 
ticularly useful. 

Cyclonida sanguinea and Megilla maculaia feed mainly on Aphididae, or 
Plant-lice, and are not of much use in repressing scale-insects, although 
they are frequently found on the limetta citrus. 

The Purple Scale is frequently the victim of at least one species of 
tiny Hymenoptera, and the Purple, White and Green Scale Insects are all 
attacked by fungi of which at least four useful species are to be found in 
the West Indies : the Red-headed Fungus, the Black Fungus, the Shield Scale 
Fungus and the White Headed Fungus, of which the first three species are 
found, as is well known, in Montserrat. 



Insects and other Invertebrates injurious to IVIan and to Animals. 



S. T. Darling. Factors in the Transmission and Prevention of Malaria 
in the Panama Canal Zone. — Abs. Nature, No. 2135, Sept. 29, 1910, 
p. 401. 

A memorandum on the " factors in the transmission and prevention of 
Panama Malaria in the Panama Canal zone " by Dr. S. T. Darling has appeared in 
the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. IV, No. 2. 



MALARIA. - INSECTS. - FRUIT TREE INSPECTION. - INSECTICIDES i8i 

Some interesting observations and experiments are described on the 
development of the ordinary malaria parasite and the mosquito of malignant 
tertian ague, and on the infectious power of the different local species of 
Anopheles. 

The Celia Albimana, the common white-foot mosquito, is a very resistant 
species, and is the principal agent in spreading the malady. 

The Celia tarsiriaculata is almost as dangerous as the Celia Albimana ; 
the Arribalzagia malefactor, in spite of its name, does not carry infection. 

Incidentally, the writer has come to the conclusion, that the character- 
istic buzz of the mosquito is not due to the vibration of its wings during 
flight, but to its proboscis. 



Legislation on the Protection of Plants. 



West. Fruit Tree Inspection in British Columbia. — California Fruit Grower, 
Oct. 8, 1910, San Francisco. 

The reports on the importation of orchard plants which have recently 
been sent to the Government by the Provincial Inspector of Plant Diseases 
will give some idea of the development of the fruit industry in British Co- 
lumbia. The number of trees and plants inspected at Vancouver during 
the first four months of 1910 was 2 718056, each plant being inspected as 
it passed through the station. 

The orchards will cover a large part of the arable land of the province, 
and the fruit is of the same size, colour, taste and generally excellent 
character as that grown in the famous orchards of the States of Washing- 
ton and Oregon. 

Apples have been grown successfully at a height of 4500 feet (1368 m.) 
near Rossland. 

The inspection of fruit imported from British Columbia is very severe 
and impartial. East Canadian fruit is condemned as promptly as Ame- 
rican fruit if it is not sound and free from all insects and disease. 



Canada : 

British 

Columbia 



Insecticide and Fungicide Regulations. — The Canner and Dried Fruit Packer, 
Vol. XXXI, No. 14, p. 26. Chicago, Oct. 13th, 1910. 

A new law, similar to the Food and Drugs Act, was passed in April, 1910 
to prohibit the adulteration or false declaration of insecticides and fungi- 
cides. A Commission has been nominated by the Departments of the Trea- 
sury, Commerce and Labour, and Agriculture, to draw up the regulations, 



United 
States 



Argentina 



182 MEASURES AGAINST LOCUSTS AND PHYLLOXERA 

but the manufacturers and vendors of these products have first had an op- 
portunity of presenting their remarks on this subject at the Pubhc Con- 
ference which was held on October 29th last at the Bureau of Chemistry, 

Provisions against Locusts in Argentina. Bulletin of the Pan American 
Union, October, 1910, Washington. 

The Agricultural Defence Committee, which was specially constituted 
for the purpose of controlling locusts, has taken the following decisions: 
The zones exposed to locusts are to be divided into three categories: agricul- 
tural, pastoral and unoccupied. The cultivators of the first two categories 
must give notice of the presence of locusts to the authorities within 
24 hours after their appearance. For the destruction of this pest the pro- 
prietors must pay for at least one workman per 50 hectares of tilled land 
and one workman per 500 hectares of pasture. The Railway Companies 
must, on the contrary, pay for three workmen per kilometer invaded. The 
zinc plates (which are used for the purpose of making noise) will be fur- 
nished gratuitously. 

This outlay will be covered by a special tax. The government will 
have to convoke a Conference with neighbouring States for the purpose of 
arranging a common plan of action in the struggle against locusts. A 
prize of 100 000 gold argentitios has been offered to the person who dis- 
covers an economic and not dangerous method of destroying locusts. 

Provisions against Phylloxera at the Cape of Good Hope. — The Gar- 
deners' Chronicle, No. 3642, London, October 15th, 1910, p. 284. 

"We have received a communication from the Acting Trade Commis- 
sioner of the^South African Union, calling attention to an extract from the 
African South African Union Govertiment Gazette of August 19th, 1910. This extract 
Union: explains the rules^to be followed in order to prevent the diffusion of the 
tape Phylloxera vastatrix in the wine-growing districts of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Among other measures there is one requiring that all imported trees, plants, 
tubers, roots, bulbs, etc., should be accompanied by a declaration stating 
explicitly that there are no vines nor parts of vines among them; and this 
declaration should be accompanied by a certificate from one of the Govern- 
ment Commissioners of the port of entry affirming that the plants introduced 
are exempt from disease, are not attacked by insects, and that they are 
quite free from Phylloxera vastatrix. The importation of grapes into the 
division of Graff Reinet is prohibited. 



Colony 



International Institute of Agriculture 



> 
\ 



BULLETIN OF the bureau of 



AQRICULTIRAL INTELLIGENCE AND OF 



PLANT-DiSEASES a i> a a a a a 



No. 2. - DECEMBER 1910 




ROME, 1910 - PRINTED BY UNIONE EOITRICE, Via Federico CesI, 4;. 



CONTENTS 



THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE . Pag. ix 

STAFF OF THE BUREAU xiii 



AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE. 

Development of Agriculture in Different Countries. — France. - Hun- 
gary. - Spain. - Finland. - Caucasus. - Straits Settlements. - Japan. 
- Philippines. - German Samoa. - United States. - Mexico. - Pa- 
nama. - Ecuador. - Argentina. - Nigeria - Ivory Coast. - Fernando 
Po and Spanish Guinea. - Italian Somali-land and British West 
Africa. - Natal 185-199 

Agricultural Shows: in Sweden ; at Omsk (Siberia) ; at Bangkok (Siam); 

at New York; at Dikoa (Kamerun) 200-201 

Scientific Institutions. Education in Agriculture and Forestry. — 

Agricultural Museum at Budapest. - Chemical Institute, Agronomi- 
cal Stations and Experimental Milk Stations in Hungary. - New 
Konigsberg Institute for Milk Investigations. - Colonial Institute at 
Hamburg. - Demonstration Trains in the United States. - School 
and Home Gardening in the Philippines. - Department of Agricul- 
ture and Technical Education in Egypt. - Native Travelling In- 
structors on the Gold Coast 201-204 



AGRICULTURE 
AGRICULTURAL PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY AND BOTANY. 

Chemistry of Plant Constituents. — Verbascose. - Catalases. - Pen- 
tosanes. - Chlorophyll and Photosynthesis. - Salts : Selective Power 
of the Root ; - Calcium Silicate. - Action of salts on the Respiration 
of Plants. - Reduction Processes in the Respiration of Plants . . . 205-208 

Selection and Hybridization. — Selection: Coffea, Peas. - Essays in 

Hybridization 208-209 

Microbiology. — Nodules of Leguminous Plants. - Fermentation of Ga- 
lactose. - Sterilisation of Water. - Alcoholic Fermentation : Action 
of Nitrates of Manganese and other Nitrates. - Azotobacter and 
Mineral Constituents of Nutritive Solutions. - Torula bogoriensis 
rubra * 209-212 



IV CONTENTS 



Meteorology. — Impurities of the Atmosphere. - Meteorological Ob- 
servatory in Hungary 212-213 

Geology in its Relations to Agriculture. Soil. — Geological Study of 
the Soils of Vineyards in the Province of Brescia, Italy. - Utilising 
Moving Alluvial Mud. - Black Soil Plains in Australia. - Action 
of Worms on the Fertility of Soil. - Nitrogen fixing Bacteria in the 
Soil. - Determination of Humus. - Baryta in Soil. - A Harmful 
Organic Soil Constituent. - Soil-Sickness. - The Penetration of Frost 
in Boggy and Sandy Soil 213-220 

Water in Agriculture. — School of Foremen for Irrigation and Drai- 
nage. - Percolation Water; Composition. - A Sudan Reservoir. -■ 
Energy from water falls in Sweden and Norway. - Irrigation of 
Light Soils. - Irrigation Experiments. - Irrigation : in Italy ; in Bri- 
tish India; in Egypt; in the United States 220-227 

Field Experimentation. — Influence of Tillage and Fertilisers on the 
Natural Fauna of the Soil. - Agricultural Experimental Station at 
Magyarovar. - Experiment Station Committee at Budapest. - Far- 
mers' Experiments in New South Wales. - Nitro-Bacterine Expe- 
riments 227-230 

Fertilisers. — Molasses. - The New Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilisers. - 
Calcium Cyanamide. - Nitrate of Potash : State Monopoly in Hun- 
gary. - Enriching Natural Phosphates. - Pyrophosphates. - Phos- 
phate Rock. - Manganese as a Fertiliser 230-233 

Systems of Culture. — Defects in the Australian and American Dry 

Farming Methods for the Arid Regions of Algeria and Tunis . . 234-235 

Agricultural Seeds. — Hungarian Stations for Seed Control. - Seed- 
disinfection : Wheat ; Barley ; Maize. - Selection of Native Wheat in 
Switzerland. - Ear Characters of Seed Maize in Relation to Yield . 236-240 



FIELD-CROPS. — INDUSTRIAL CROPS, 
HORTICULTURE. — ARBORICULTURE. 



Cereals. — Variation of Cereals. - Cleaning Grain. - Wheat: Crop in 
France in 1910; Possibilities of Production in Manchuria. - Rye and 
Barley: Experiments; Composition. - Andropogon Sorghum in 
Burma. - Rice : Cultivation in Persia and in French India ; Fertilis- 
ing; Varieties in the United States 240-246 

Root and Tuber Plants — Wild Beet. - Cultivated Tuber Plants 
(Handbook). - Potato: The Potato Question in France ; a New Po- 
tato ; Culture in Poland ; Raising from Seed-berries 246-249 1^ 

Forage-Crops. — Cultivation of Lucerne for Seed at Tamworth (New •'; 

South Wales). - « Chabdar » Clover. - Manuring Grass Lands . . 249-250 \ 

Fibre-Plants. — Cotton: Cultivation in Greece; Cyprus; Montserrat ; j' 
Leeward Islands; Peru; Hawai (Perennial Cotton); East Airica ; '? 
Nyasaland and Sudan; Transvaal. - Caravonica Cotton. - Ra- 
mie : Cultivation in British India ; Practical Observations on its Cul- 
ture. - Venezuelan Kapok 250-254 

Sugar Plants. — Sugar Beets : Nitrogenous Manures ; Vegetation Ano- | 

malies. - Sugar Cane : New Varieties in the Philippines ; Varieties || 

in Queensland. - Paper from Bagasse. - Decline of Sorghum as a ;^ 

Sugar Producing Plant 255-258 jj 



CONTENTS 



Oil Producing Crops. — Ground-Nut in Malabar. - Sunflower Farm 

in Queensland. - Oil-Palm in Madagascar 258-259 

Other Industrial Crops. — Coffee Growing in the Philippines; Queens- 
land. - Coffee: its Country and Importance (Book). - Future of the 
Coffee-Plant in the French Colonies. - Russian Tea-Growing. - Mate. . 

- Tobacco : Manuring Experiments ; Experimental Station for To- 
bacco Cultivation in Hungary; Influence of the Age of the Repro- 
ductive Organs. - Tobacco Industry : at Smyrna ; in the Philippines ; 

at Panama. - Hops : F"ertilisers ; Harvest in Bohemia 259-269 

Horticulture. — Peas. - Basil. - Cranberry. - Flower Crops in the 
Sout'h of France. - Bulb Industry in Holland. - Violets. - Flori- 
culture in the Ligurian Riviera (Italy) 269-272 

Arboriculture. — New Method of Grafting. - Fruit Tree Pruning. - 
Windbreaks. - Green Manure in Vineyards. - Grapes from the Ex- 
tremity and from the Base of the Branch. - Table Grapes on the 
Swiss Markets. - Vine Cultivation in Uruguay. - Olive : Cultiva- 
tion in the Caucasus ; Pickled Olives. - Citrus Fruits : Trade at O- 
dessa ; the Shank-noo {Citrus Hystrix); Citrus Fruits at Portorico. 

- Apple Show at Vancouver. - Variation in Apples. - Pear : Cul- 
tivation in Massachusetts. - Mulberry Plantations in Japan. - Ca- 
rob : Crop in Cyprus in 1910; Treatment with Chemical Fertilisers. 

- Walnut-Trees. - Almond Crops and Trade in the Malaga Region. 

- Coconuts : Yield per Tree ; Plantations in Java. - Spineless Cactus. 

- Banana Cultivation in Travancore ; in Australia. - Cassava and 
Dates in the Punjab. - Preservation of Fruit. - Fruit, Flower and 
Early Vegetable Trade in Germany. - Exportation Facilities for Spa- 
nish Fruits. - Fruit Production in South Australia. - Transport of 

Fresh Pine Apples 272-286 

Forestry. — Forests: of Lausanne; of the Petchora (Russia); of the 
French Colonies. - Tree-Growing in Natal. - Fighting Forest Fires. 

- Influence of Forests on Climate and Floods. - Reforesting : of the 
Kurische Nehrung, Prussia ; of the Karst District, Carniola ; at Por- 
torico. - Forest School Nurseries in Switzerland. - Fertilisers in 
Sylviculture. - Oak ?nd Beech. - Oaks in Rumania. - Cork-Oak 
Forests in Algeria. - Norway Spruce in Massachusetts. - Larch 
interplanted with Beech. - Poplar. - Japanese Maple. - Rubber 
Plants: Yields in Jamaica; Planting in Cochin China; Chemistry; 
Tapping ; Nitrate of Soda as Fertiliser ; Plants Producing good Rub- 
ber ; Hevea of West Africa ; Rubber and Guttapercha in New Gui- 
nea. - Camphor : American and Japanese Trade. - Mineral Nutri- 
tion of cultivated Mushrooms. - Truffle Cultivation in the South of 
France 286-302 



LIVE STOCK BREEDING. — AVICULTURE. 
SILK-PRODUCTION. — ANIMAL INDUSTRIES. 

Nutrition and Hygiene of Domesticated Animals. — Remedies for 
Tympanitis. - Treatment of Calving Fever. - Acclimatisation of Eu- 
ropean Cattle in Tonkin. - Cattle-Foods : Rice Flour Middlings ; Dried 
Potatoes and Dried Yeasts ; Molasses ; Molasin ; Prickly Pear. - Feed- 
ing of Sucking Calves. - Crucifers and Milk 303-309 

Special Stock-breeding. — Cattle-breeding: in Ireland; Greece; Brit- 
ish India; Russia; German Colonies. - Cost in England of a Day's 
Horse Labour on the Farm. - Stud Farms of Babolna. - Iceland 
Horses. - Sheep Farming in South Africa. - Algerian Pigs. - Draught 
Dogs 309-313 



VI CONTENTS 



Animal Industries. — Chinese Refrigerated Pork in England. - Milk: 
Microflora of Milk Products ; Sale of Skimmed Milk ; Adulteration. 
- Preserving Butter. - Cheeses : Utilisation of Whey ; Pure Cul- 
tures in the Preparation of Rennet ; Salting and Ripening of Roman 
«Pecorino»; Butter and Cheese Industry in Japan; Coulomnier 
Cheese Making in Canada. - Royal Institute for Classifying Wools 
at Budapest 314-317 

Aviculture. — Poultry Raising and the Increased Price of Meat. - Poul- 
try-Breeding in South Australia. - Whey as Poultry Food. - In- 
fluence of Feeding on Egg-Laying. - Turkey : Fattening ; Breeding 
on Open Lands. - Eggs : Preservation by Cold Storage ; Liquid 
Eggs; Egg and Poultry Demonstration Train in Wales 318-320 

Silk-production. — Industrial Sericulture in Italy. - Experiments with 
the « Toussah » Silk Worm in Italy. - Silk-Culture : in Ferghana, 
Turkestan ; in Corea. - Crossing of Silk-worms. - Lighting the Co- ■ 
coonery. - Transportation of Mulberry Leaves 320-323 



AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES. 

Museum of Vineyard Apparatus in Germany. - Diff"usion Wines. - Roos 
« Zymogen ». - Selling Wine by the Kilogram. - Wine Analysis: 
Sulphurous Acid in Wine ; New Method of Wine Analysis : Re- 
search on Manganese in Wine. - Desiccation of Cider Apples. - 
Cleaning Beer Bottles. - A new Source of Supply of Alcohol. - 
Sugar Production in the Philippine Islands. - Sugar Industry in 
Peru. - The Purifying of Starch. - Colonial Starches. - Varieties 
of Potato in Starch Manufacture. - Bamboo Fibres for Paper Mak- 
ing. - New Method of Manufacturing Cellulose. - German Cereals 
and their Flour. - Effect of Microorganisms on the Quality of Bread 
and Flour. - Meal-Moth. - Effect of Manures on the Baking Pro- 
perties of Wheat. - Bleaching Flour. - Digestibility of Bleached 
Flour. - Palm-oil as Food. - Extraction and Analysis of Olive-oil. 
- Buchu Essential Oil. - New Essential Oils. - Es.sence of the Wood 
« Paolo Amarello ». - Seaweed. - Renewing Old Corks. - Utilisa- 
tion of Peat. - Palm-hat Industry. - Seasoning Wood. - Saccha- 
rine in Food Stuffs. - Protection of Olive-oil against Fraud .... 324-343 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING 
AND FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS. 

Agricultural Implements and Machinery : in Turkey ; in Uruguay. - Stone 
Gathering Machines. - Mower-Reaper and Binder. - Drying Appa- 
ratus for Seeds. - Milking Apparatus. - Refrigerator for the Carriage 
of Agricultural Produce . 343-345 



PLANT DISEASES 
NOXIOUS INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS. 

Official Communications. — The Russian Department of Agriculture. 

- A new Disease of the Cucurbitaceae 349-352 

Non-Parasitic Diseases and their Control. — Decay of Plants attri- 
buted to the Tarring of Roads. - Diseases of Plantations of Scotch 
Firs 353 



CONTENTS VII 



Parasitic Diseases of Various Plants. Prevention and Cure. — Parasitic 
Fungi and Host-Plants. - Aegerita Webberi parasitic on Aleyrodes 
Citri. - Trenomyces histophtorus parasitic on Fowl Louse. - The 
Oidium of the Oak and the Food of the Toussah Silkworm. - De- 
velopment of the Aecidium in the Urotnyces Dactylidis. — Fumago 
of the Vine and Cultivated Trees. - Monograph on the Genus Fu- 
sarium. - Hemileia vastattix : Infections Power. - Creation of Di- 
sease-resisting Varieties. Disinfection of seed. - Mildew and Cochylis : 
Treatment with salts of silver ; with Bordeaux Mixture and Iron 
sulphate. - Disinfection of Seeds with Formalin 354-359 

Parasitic Diseases of Various Plants and Means of Prevention and 
Cure. — Cereals: Ophiobolus graminis. - Beet and Mangel Rot. - 
Potatoes : Variety not affected by Phytophthora; Wart Disease ; Nil- 
giri Potato-Disease. - Disease of Plants in Hot Countries. - To- 
b?cco : Seedling Disinfection. - Coffee Plants not Affected by He- 
mileia vastatrix. - Tea : Blister Blight. - Cacao Trees : Acrostalag- 
tnus. Cinnamon Tree : Calico or Mosaic Disease of Cucumber and 
Melon. - Onion : Fungus Spores on Seeds. - Gooseberry: Mildew. - 
Zizyphus: Hyalodema Evansi. - Roseries : Bo try lis cinerea. - Violet 
Plant : Thielavia basicola. - Chrysanthemum : Rot. - Vine : Black Rot. 
- Apple and Pear Trees : Bitter Rot Sphaeropsis and Diplodia. - 
Cocoa Nut Palms: Diseases. - Palms: Bud Rot. - Oak: Oidium; 
Blister Blight. - Oak White. - Coniferous Plants: Volvaria murine lla ; 
Rhizina undulata; Herpotrichia nigra. - Rubber Trees : Some Di- 
seases 360-371 

Insects and other Injurious Invertebrata: Biology. Control. — Ela- 
terides and Cebrionides. - Entomogenous Fungi : Aegerita Web- 
beri parasitic on Aleyrodes Citri; Enipusa parasitic on Pachyrhina 
ferrugitiea. - Insects and their Parasites : Galerucella luteola; Cybo- 
cephalus rufifrons and Prospatella Berlesei parasitic on Diaspis pen- 
tagona; Syntomosphyrum indicum, parasitic on Ceratitis capitata. - 
Influence of Tillage and Manure on Skip-Jacks and Thrips. - Lo- 
custs and Means of Control. - Insecticides with Chromate of Lead. 
Destruction of the Woolly Aphis by Cooper's Liquid. - Slugs and 
Snails, Destruction 372-378 

Insects noxious to Special Crops. — Maize Plant: Laphygma fugi- 

perda. - Lupin : Anthomyia funesta. - Sugar Beets : Agrotis. - Su- 
gar Cane: Tom,aspis. - Coffee Plant: « Borer ». - Cacao: Insect- 
Pests. - Cruciferous Plants : Plutella cruciferarum. - Lettuce Plant: 
Pentodon punctatus. - Tomato and Cucumber Plants : Aleyrodes va- 
poriarum. - Vine : Cochylis and Pyralis; Control of Grape Pests in 
Germany ; Grape Moth Phlyctinus callosus; Phylloxera in Austria 
and in Algeria; Resistance to Phylloxera ; Rhynchites betuleti. - Ap- 
ple-Tree : Cheimatobia brutnata 378-387 

Other Pests. — Destruction of Rodents and Protection of Birds. - 

Crows 388 



THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE. 



The International Institute of Agriculture was established under 
the International Treaty of June 7th, 1905, which was ratified by 40 
Governments. Seven other Governments have since adhered to the 
Institute. 

It is a Government Institution in which each Country is repre- 
sented by delegates. The Institute is composed of a General As- 
sembly and a Permanent Committee. 

The Institute, confining its operations within an international 
sphere, shall : 

a) Collect, study, and publish as promptly as possible statis- 
tical, technical, or economic information concerning farming, vegetable 
and animal products, the commerce in agricultural products, and the 
prices prevailing in the various markets ; 

d) Communicate to parties interested, also as promptly as pos- 
sible, the above information; 

c) Indicate the wages paid for farm work; 

d) Make known the new diseases of vegetables which may 
appear in any part of the world, showing the territories infected, the pro- 
gress of the diseases, and, if possible, the remedies which are effective; 

e) Study questions concerning agricultural co-operation, insur- 
ance, and credit in all their aspects ; collect and publish information 
which might be useful in the various countries for the organization of 
works connected with agricultural co-operation, insurance, and credit; 

/) Submit to the approval of the Governments, if there is 
occasion for it, measures for the protection of the common interests 
of farmers and for the improvement of their condition, after having 
utilized all the necessary sources of information, such as the wishes 
expressed by international or other agricultural congresses or of con- 
gresses of sciences applied to agriculture, of agricultural societies, aca- 
demies, learned bodies, etc. 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 



The Institute publishes : a) a Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural 
Statistics; d) a Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Intelligence and Diseases 
of Plants ; c) a Monthly Bulletin of Economic and Social Intelligence. 

It has also published a volume on " The Organization of Agri- 
cultural Statistical Services in the Several Countries ", and a volume 
" Statistics of Cultivated Areas and of Vegetable and Animal Production 
in the Adhering Countries " (an Inventory drawn up from documents 
published by Governments). 



Officers of the Institute 
and List of the Delegates to the Permanent Committee. 

President: Marquess Raffaele Cappelli, Delegate of Italy. 
Vice-President: M. Louis-Dop, Delegate of France. 
General Secretary: Prof. Pasquale Jannaccone. 

Delegates of the Adhering States to the Permanent Committee. 





States adhering 
to the Institute 


Groups 
in which 

the 
adhering 

States 


Names and Rank of the Delegates 






classified 




I 


Germany 


I 


Dr. T. Mueller, Privy Councilloi. 


2 


Argentine Rep. . 


I 


J. Llanos. 


3 


Austria 


I 


Chev. V. DE PozzT, Government Councillor, 


4 


Hungary 


I 


E. DE Mikl6s de Mikl6svar, Member of the House 
of Magnates, late Secretary of State for Agriculture. 


5 


Belgium 


IV 


O. BOLLE. 


6 


Brazil 


I 


His Excell. A. Fialiio, Minister Plenipotentiary of 
Brazil to II. M, the King of Italy. 


7 


Bulgaria 


III 


D. RrzoFF, Minister Plenipotentiary of Bulgaria to 
H. M. the King of Italy, 


8 


Chile 


I 


— 


9 


China 


I 


TCHAO-Hi-TcHiou, Secretary to the Imperial Chinese 
Legation. 


lO 


Costa-Rica .... 


V 


R, MoNTEALEGRE, Minister Plenipotentiary of Costa- 
Rica to H. M. the King of Ilaly. 


n 


Cuba 


V 


C. M, DE Cespedes, Minister Plenipotentiary of Cuba 
to H. M, the King of Italy, 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 



X* 





States adhering 
to the Institute 


Groups 
in which 

the 

adhering 

States 

are 

classified 


Names and Rank of the Delegates 


12 


Denmark 


IV 


H. H. KoNOW, Secretary to the Danish Legation to 
the Italian Government. 


13 


Ottoman Empire 


I 


Dr. Mehmed Djemil Bey. 


14 


Egypt 


II 


B. Chimirri, Delegate of Eritrea and Italian Soma- 
liland. 


15 


Ecuador 


V 


Louis-Dop, Delegate of France. 


16 


Spain 


I 


AUGUSTE ECHEVERRIA. 


17 


United States . . 


1 


David Lubin. 


18 


Ethiopia 


V 


Prof. G. CuBONi, Director of the Station of Vegetable 
Pathology of Rome. 


«9 


France 


I 


Louis-Dop, Vice-President of the Institute. 


20 


Tunis 


V 


Louis-Dop, Delegate of France. 


21 


Great Britain & 
Ireland 


I 


P. C. Wyndham, Counsellor to the British Embassy 
to the Italian Government. 


22 


Australia 


IV 


P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 


23 


Canada 


II 


P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 


24 


British India. . . 


II 


P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 


25 


New Zealand. . . 


IV 


P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 


26 


Mauritius 


V 


P. C. Wyndham, Delegate of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 


27 


Greece 


IV 


A. Carapanos, Charge d'affaires of Greece to the 
Italian Government. 


28 
29 


Italy 

Eritrea and Ita- 
lian Somali- 
land 


I 

IV 


Marquess R. Cappelli, Vice-President of the Chamber 
of Deputies, President of the Institute. 

B. Chimirri, Member of Parliament. 



XII 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 





States adhering 
to the Institute 


Groups 
in which 

the 

adhering 

States 

are 
classified 


Names and Rank of the Delegates 


30 


Japan 


I 


Shinooh Imai, Second Secretary to the Imperial 
Japanese Embassy to the Italian Government. 


31 


Luxemburg . . . 


V 


0. BoLLE, Delegate of Belgium, 


32 


Mexico 


II 


G, A. EsTEVA, Minister Plenipotentiary of Mexico 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 


33 


Montenegro . . . 


V 


G. VoLvT, Director General of the Monopolies of 
the Principality. 


34 


Nicaragua .... 


V 


V. E. BtANCHi, Consul General of Nicaragua at 
Rome. 


35 


Norway 


IV 


Dr. G. FjELSTAD, Landowner. 


36 


Holland 


IV 


n. DE Weede, Minister Plenipotentiary of Holland 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 


37 


Peru 


V 


Dr. M. M. Mesones. 


38 


Persia 


IV 


A. DEL Gallo Marquess of Roccagiovine. 


39 


Portugal 


IV 


Luiz FiLippE DE Castro, Professor of the Institute 
of Agriculture at Lisbon. 


40 


Roumania .... 


I 


G. C. Nano, Minister Plenipotentiary of Roumania 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 


41 


Russia 


I 


G. Zabiello, Consul General of Russia in Rome. 


42 


Salvador 


V 


A. Ballo, Acting Consul General of Salvador at 
Genoa. 


43 


San Marino . ■ . 


V 


His Excell. L. Luzzatti, President of the Council 
of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. 


44 


Servia 


III 


B. I. SoUBOTiTCH, Secietary to the Servian Legation 
to the Italian Government. 


45 


Sweden 


IV 


G. V. T. DE Strale, Counsellor to the Swedish 
Legation to the Italian Government. 


46 


Switzerland . . . 


IV 


J. B. Pioda, Minister Plenipotentiary of Switzerland 
to H. M. the King of Italy. 


47 


Uruguay 


V 


E. Acevedo Diaz, Minister Plenipotentiary of Uru- 
guay to H. M. the King of Italy. 



EDITORIAL STAFF 

OF THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE 

AND PLANT DISEASES 



DIRECTORS. 

Prof. ITALO GIGLIOLI, M. R. A. C, Chief of Bureau. 
Dr. JULES M. SAULNIER, Chief of Section. 



ABSTRACTORS. 



Dr. GiROLAMO Azzi 

Dr. Theodore Bi^ler 

Dr. GUIDO BORGHESANI 

Dr. VlTALE DE TlVOJ.l 

Dr. Leo Gabrici 



Dr. Giuseppe Lazzarini 
Pascal Ottavi, Agric. Engineer 
Dr. Francesca Pirazzoli 
Dr. GiULio Provenzal 
Dr. GiULio Trinchieri 



Dr. Mario Zamorani 



TRANSLATORS. 



Mrs. Olivia Agresti-Rossetti, Mrs M. D. Byrne, Miss Florence. M., 
Mac-Iver, Dr. A. Brodrick-Bullock M. A. are provisionally attached to the 



Bureau as English translators. 



,..-y 



AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE. 



NB. The Intelligence contained in the present Bulletin has been taken 
exclusively from the books, periodicals, bulletins, and other publications 
which have reached the Library of the International Institute of Agriculture 
in Rome during the month of November, 1910. 

The Bureau assumes no responsibility with regard to the opinions and 
the results of experiments outlined in the Bulletin. 

The Editor's notes are marked [Ed.]. 



\ 



C' 



Development of Agriculture in Different Countries. — Scientific Institutions. 
— Education In Agriculture and Forestry. — Experimentation. — 
Biography. - History of Agriculture. 



Roussiliofl 



Ph. Arbos. The Plain of Roussillon, France. — Annales de Giographie, 
Paris 1910, No. 104, pp. 150-168. 

The rainfall of the Roussillon district has contributed to give its vege- 
tation a special character. The rivers of this region are chiefly torrents, but 
notwithstanding the irregularity of their flow they have been extremely 
useful to farmers in their efforts to control drought. Numerous canals water France 
the plain, and the distribution of irrigation-water takes place according to 
very strict regulations. In times of scarcity of water, the Syndicats sub- 
stitute for the old regulations a series of measures, which vary according to 
the different places, but are governed by a single aim. Thus, waterings of 
small account are prohibited, preference being given to those crops which 
would suffer most from drought or which were considered important at the 
time when the statutes were drawn up. Arthur Young was struck by the 
fertility of the irrigated valleys in the midst of " dry and sterile " Roussillon. 

The extension of the vineyards, which occupied more than half the 
cultivated area in 1903, their extraordinary development along the coast 
plains and the substitution of the American for the native stock have been 
finally economically very disastrous for the district. Cereals and grass-land have 
almost entirely disappeared except at Aspres, where at one time they were 
the only cultivation and yielded but poor returns. The vine alone seems 
able to adapt itself to this soil and climate. To the south of the river 
Tet, there are still some grass-lands along the coast, and they are gaining 
ground since the crisis in the wine trade. 

But it is especially above Perpignan that meadows of high fertility 
and fields under various cultivations in regular rotation are found mingled 
with the vineyards. The gardens form a fresh and verdant belt around Ille 



i86 DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

and Perpignan, which, thanks to the hot sun and irrigation, yield a varied 
abundance of early produce. The gardens are on rich soil, protected from 
the North wind either by their position or by cypress or laurel groves ; they 
grow chiefly legumes and other early vegetables, the famous Perpignan arti- 
chokes and " Riveral " asparagus. lUe, Elne and Perpignan are the three 
great forwarding centres ; about 7000 tons of fruits and early vegetables 
being exported yearly. 

The prosperity of the market gardens, notwithstanding the crisis in the 
wine trade, has caused such a rush towards horticulture that fears are en- 
tertained of a crisis in this industry also, due to over production, to the 
conservatism of gardeners and exporters, and due also to the distance of 
Roussillon from the great centres of consumption. 

Royal Committees in Hungary for Agricultural Advice. — Les Institutions 
agricoles honi^roises. Edition du Minist. Royal Hongr. de I'Agriculture. 
Budapesth, 1910. 

In all the Hungarian towns where there are Agricultural Academies, in 
Magyarovdr, Debreczen, Kassa, Keszthely and Kolozsvdr, there are also Royal 
Hungary Committees for Agricultural Advice. They give suggestions as to the mana- 
gement of farms, draw up leases, make agricultural valuations, and give 
practical teaching on book-keeping, etc. 

Advice is given gratuitously but the travelling expenses of the experts 
have to be reimbursed according to a fixed tariff. 

Ser^nvi. Developing Agriculture in Hungary. — Revue de Hongrie, Buda- 
pesth, No. 5, 1910. 

The present state of the world's market shows the necessity for increa- 
sing the agricultural production of Hungary, a country within reach of 
markets where she could very largely develop her trade. All outlay for 
increasing production is fully justified. 

In spite of her great fertility, [Hungary produces much less than the 
Western countries, whose soil and climate are less favourable for agriculture ; 
this is true not only for cereals, but for fruits, vegetables, butcher's meat 
and other animal produce. One of the most urgent tasks for the Govern- 
ment is that of encouraging cattle raising, especially pig breeding. Instruct- 
ions have been given to competent agents to furnish stock breeders, espe- 
cially small proprietors, with breeding animals as cheaply as possible. The 
Department of Agriculture undertakes >to pay from 10 to 30 per cent of 
the purchase price of these animals, allowing easy conditions as to payment. 

Measures have also been taken to increase forage-production and improve 
pastures. Dairying is also being helped. Lastly, the Government is helping 



Hungary 






DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



187 



in the rapid and cheap transport of Hungarian produce to Western markets, 
both by land and water. In some parts of the country the land distribution 
requires improvement and the Government is encouraging colonisation and 
the forming of small holdings. 



CrscHiNi. Development of Agriculture in Spain. — Ber. dei K. K. Oesterr- 
Ung. Kotisulardmter {Barcellona), 1910. Wien. 

Spain is trying to improve its agriculture. The average wheat yield 
in Valencia, Saragossa and Barcelona is not more than 10 hectolitres per 
hectare, while in Almeria it is scarcely 5 hectolitres. The extent of agri- 
cultural progress is indicated by the increasing importation of agricultural 
machinery and fertilisers ; the first has doubled in two years and the import 
of fertilisers has increased by 20 per cent. But the effects of drought are 
still grievous in this excessively dry country, where 53 p'^r cent only of 
the whole area is cultivated and where it is estimated that there is still at 
least 32 per cent which could easily be brought under culture. During recent 
years, works of reforestation, canalisation and reservoir construction have 
been undertaken. 

The Spanish production of wheat, which was about 25 million metric 
quintals in 1905, had increased in 1909 to 39 millions. The rye, barley and 
maize crops are very poor in comparison with the area cultivated. 

There is a great falling off in the cultivation of the vine and in the 
quantity of wine produced in Catalonia, owing to the crisis which lasted 
until 1909, and to the tardy substitution by American stocks in the vine- 
yards invaded by phylloxera. The trade in the best Spanish wines has suf- 
fered considerably by adulterations carried on in foreign markets. 

The olive groves in Spain are almost equal in extent to those of France, 
Italy, Austria, Portugal, and Greece taken together, but olive-cultivation also 
has deteriorated. Much however is being done to control the diseases and 
improve the olive and oil production. The citrus fruit industry keeps at 
a steady level; about 132 citrus trees par hectare are grown in Valencia. 

The number of cattle and sheep have decreased considerably in Spain. 



Spain 



Maurice Chalhoub. Agriculture in Finland. 

Paris, H. Le Sondier, 1910, p. 581. 



Extract from La Finlande, 



About 70 per cent of the population of Finland are engaged in farming, 
the principal source of her wealth. The most varied methods of culture 
are employed: from fertilising only by paring and burning the soil to the 
most modern systems of crop rotation. The general rule is a rotation of 
two or three years so that a part of the land always lies fallow. Improved 
rotations were introduced on some of the most important farms only recently. 



Russlfta 
Empire: 
FiHiMi 



i88 DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



The lowering of the lake levels and the draining of swamps have extended 
cultivation, and the use of modern mowing and threshing machines and of 
artificial manures is becoming rapidly more general even in outlying districts. 

Rye is cultivated over 14 per cent of the total area of arable land, 
barley over 6 per cent, and oats over 19 per cent. The rest is cropped 
with wheat, potatoes, flax, hemp, grass, forage-plants and vegetables. Rye 
and wheat are sown in August; they spring up during autumn lying buried 
under the snow until spring. In South Finland rye is harvested at the end 
of July. Oats and barley are sown in the spring and reaped after the rye 
harvest. 

As the land is cut up into small holdings, the poorest peasant is able 
to acquire a farm, and for this reason nearly all the soil belongs to the 
peasants. The State possesses 38 per cent of the land, which is almost 
entirely covered by forests ; 2 per cent belongs to the Communes and the 
Church, and the rest is owned by private persons and is land mostly under 
cultivation. There were 110629 landowners in 1901, and 160525 tenants. 

The Finland Society of Domestic Economy, to which the great deve- 
lopment of potato cultivation is due, succeeded in obtaining in 1836 an 
Imperial Charter for an Agronomical Institute, to which the immense domain 
of Mustiala was given. The first director of the Institute was S. Gripenberg, 
who did much to improve the breed of milch cows. The opening of this 
Institute marked the real beginning of agricultural progress in Finland. After 
the great land holders W. Baeckman, A. von Daehn, Julius Frey, Aug. 
Armfelt and G. J. Silfversvahn, had introduced crop-rotations the system 
soon spread throughout the country. Agricultural Congresses became fre- 
quent ; the Mortgage Society {SocUU hypothicaire) was founded; special 
schools were instituted to teach the principles of farming, while State and 
provincial teachers in agriculture were appointed to enlighten the peasants. 

But the Society of Domestic Economy was insufficient for all the needs 
of the country, and by degrees several private Societies were founded and 
have done much to second the Government in its efforts to improve agriculture. 
The Private Society of Domestic Economy was founded at Uleaborg in 1828, 
the Agricultural Society of the Government ofViborg in 1847, the Agricul- 
tural Society of the Governments of Nyland and Tavastehus in 1856, and 
in 1858, 1 86 1, 1862 and 1863 the Societies of St. Michel. Knopio, Sata- 
kunta and Vasa. 

These Societies superintend some of the Agricultural Schools and all 
the Dairy Schools which have sprung up since i860, and they have orga- 
nised on their ow^n account competitions and Agricultural Shows and have 
each in their particular districts encouraged cattle breeding and appointed 
school-gardeners and teachers in the manual arts. 

The State has granted large subsidies to these Societies. In other parts 
of Finland there are less important Societies with similar aims. Another 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 189 



Agronomical Institute was founded at Kronoborg in 1874, and there are 
also 24 training agricultural schools in Finland. 

In order to improve the dairy industries, cattle-breeding was attended 
to and it is to N. Grotenfelt that the chief reforms in this respect are due. 
The State has alwa3^s encouraged dairying by improving the meadow and 
grazing lands and helping to utilise the wealth in water of the country. 
The lands long ago laid bare by forest fires in the Savolaks and in Carelia 
are now covered every summer with rich pastures, producing abundant and 
excellent milk. 

The Institute of Mustiala has opened a model Dairy School where 
young men and women are prepared for teaching improved dairy methods 
all over Finland. In 1905, there were 37 schools for herdsmen, besides 
numerous practical dairy schools. 

Finland butter, which is very much appreciated on foreign markets, is 
mainly exported to Russia and England. The amount exported in 1905 was 
valued at 38000000 frs. or £1 520000. 

Horse breeding is being improved both by the Government and by 
private Societies. The Finland horse, probably of Tartar origin, is small 
but very robust, with intelligent eyes, broad shoulders, deep and well arched 
neck, powerful haunches and very hard hoofs. His endurance is remarkable. 
There are about 325 000 horses and colts in Finland; of these from 1500 to 
3000 are exported to Russia and Sweden every year. 

The people in Finland are every day becoming more convinced that 
the forests must be properly cared for and turned to account, and some 
very able foresters have been trained by the Evois Forest Institute, whose 
former director, A. Blomqvist, has greatly contributed to the improvement of 
forestry. The Finland Forest Society, founded in 1877, has also been doing 
its part, and has organised well attended congresses. Indeed, the fears 
which have been expressed as to the probability of forests disappearing 
from Finland are unfounded, especially as the climate is very favorable to 
reforestation. 

The Finlanders are interested in every branch of horticulture, and 
gardening has been raised to an industry, almost to an art, by G. Niklander, 
M. G. Stenius, and many others, whilst B. Lindberg and Miss Alexandra 
Smirnoff have improved Finnish fruit-tree cultivation. There are two Hor- 
ticultural Societies, one at Helsingfors the other at Kuppis, near Albo. A 
prosperous school is attached to the Helsingfors Horticultural Society, sup- 
ported by Government, and a dozen other horticultural schools are at work 
in different part of the country. 



190 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



Russian 

Empire: 

Caucasus 



Stevens. Agriculture I in the Caucasus. The Board of Trade Journal. 
London, Oct. 27, 1910, No. 726, p. 169. 

About 20 per cent of the land in the Transcaucasian provinces was 
umcultivated. 

In the government of EUsavetpol there are still 669 339 acres of land 
lying fallow. 

The production of cereals in the Caucasus is improving, and the cul- 
tivation of tobacco, lately introduced, is becoming rapidly more important 
on account of the suitability of climate and soil. The Mahorka variety 
of tobacco is ihe only one cultivated in the district of Nuha, where it is 
grown on an area of 17 000 acres (6 868 hectares). 

The cultivation of cotton is also spreading. The area at present cul- 
tivated is more than 113 000 acres (45 719 hectares) and yields an average 
of 18000 tons; it is of excellent quality and sells at a high price. 

The cultivation of liquorice is steadily extending. 

Tea plantations have increased from i 000 acres (404 hectares) in 1905, 
to more than 2000 acres in 1910, with a yield of more than 150000 lbs. 
(67 950 kg.). 

The sunflower is very widely cultivated, the seeds furnishing oil which 
is largely consumed by the poorer classes. 



Straits 

Settlements 



Land-reclamation and Drainage in the Straits Settlements. (Drainage 
Works). — 2 he Board of Trade Journal. London, Nov. 10, 1910. 

The Governor of the Straits Settlements has decided, in addition to 
other works of less importance from an agricultural point of view, to have 
the lands near the Penang Road raised to a higher level and to begin the 
improvement of the Balestrier Road Swamp by draining it. In addition to 
this, a plentiful suj^ply of water will be carried over to the districts of 
Bukit Seraya in Wellesley. and^Lumut in Bindings. 



Japan : 
Hokkaido 



Arthur P. Vaughin. Colonisation in Japan. — The American Review of 
Re^'iews. New-York, Nov. 1910, p. 573. 

The population of Japan increases yearly by about half a million. The 
Government is encouraging internal colonisation rather than transoceanic 
emigration ; Formosa, Korea, Sakhaline and Manchuria could take several 
million settlers, but the region which emigrants have for a long time preferred 
is the Hokkaido or Yezo Island, where they find a cooler and drier climate 
than in the Main Island and in the extreme southern islands of the Japanese 
Archipelago. 

In Yezo there are mountains covered with fine forests, and fertile 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



191 



alluvial plains, and allotments are granted on very favourable terms in order 
to encourage the poorest settlers. The Government founded the Imperial 
Agricultural College, now the University of Sapporo, for the purpose of 
introducing Western methods of cultivation. Each settler receives free from 
the Government 5 chobu (about 12 '/a acres, or 5 hectares) of land, on 
condition that it is cleared of forest and a certain portion put under cul- 
tivation within three years. For the first twenty years the land is free 
of taxes. 

There are also military Colonies, where each head of a family not only 
receives the same extent of land as the other settlers, but the Government 
also builds him a modern house with granaries, etc. These military Colo- 
nies are flourishing, and comprise a population of about 10 000. The settlers 
have no taxes to pay for 30 years, but are liable to be called for military 
service in the reserve. 



Agricultural Conditions in the Philippines. — Philippine Agricultural Review. 
Manila, No 9, 1910. 

Anyone acquainted with existing conditions in the Philippines under- 
stands that their agricultural progress cannot but be slow. The occasional 
wealthy " hacenderos " and farmers coming to these Islands from other 
countries provided with both capital and knowledge of modern agricultural 
methods could find no richer field for immediate and rapid development. The 
average farmer in the Philippines is generally neither wealthy nor equipped 
with any knowledge of modern agriculture. Farming here^is largely in 
the hands of small holders, who are, as a rule, conservative [and poor, 
and the most difficult problem at the present moment is''to effectively reach 
this class of farmers. 



Philippines 



The Safata-Samoa Company's Plantations iin Samoa. (Safata-Samoa Ge- 
sellschaft). — Deutsche Kolonialzeitung. Berlin, Nov. 5, 1910. 

This Company has three plantations, at Saninoga, Tuamainato and 
Falelannin, on which 145 000 cacao trees, 68 000 Hevea, 2 000 Ficus and 
6 000 cocoa nut trees are cultivated, in addition to a large number of 
coftee plants. The Hevea and the cacao trees are already beginning to 
yield. An excellent road has been opened between Apia and Sangoga, and 
the port at Apia will have to be enlarged tOjfacilitate exportation. 



Gerwan 
Samoa 



Laidlaw. Lands for Settlement and Forest Reserves in the Consular 
District of Portland, Oregon. — Diplomatic and Consular Reports, 
No. 4558, London, Sept. 1910, p. 3. 

The report of the Secretary for the Interior shows the following public 
lands vacant and available for settlement in the British Consular District 



Uiited 
States ; 
Montana 
Oregon 
WashlRgton 
Idaho 
Alaska 



192 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



of Portland, Oregon; but these lands are of all qualities, many of them 
being unsuitable for agricultiu-e and remote from centres of transportation: 



In Montana . . 


42 Qoo 229 


acres 


» Oregon . . 


18 225 694 


» 


» Washington . 


3198645 


» 


>/ Idaho . . . 


90 119 805 


» 


» Alaska . . 


. 368016038 


» 



In Montana, during the first half of 1909, nearly 5000 homestead en- 
tries were filed, covering about i 000 000 acres of land mostly in the so- 
called dry-farming sections of the State. 

The area of forest reserves of the Federal Government is stated to be 



In Montana , 
:i Washington 
» Oregon 
» Idaho . 
» Alaska . . 



20 389 696 acres 
12 065 500 » 
16 227 368 » 
20 099 029 
26 761: 626 



Some large tracts in Oregon, held by owners of grants made long ago 
to military road companies, are now being offered for sale to settlers. One 
of these grants, aggregating 900 000 acres, from Lakeview, Oregon, to the 
Idaho boundary, was cut up into 7000 lo-acre lots, all irrigable, 4000 20- 
arre lots, and the remainder into lots of from 40 to 1000 acres. 

The vendors also undertook to provide works for the purpose of irri- 
gating such portion of the lands as could be reached and required water. 
A constant demand exists for lands irrigated under Federal and State Acts. 
Many of these projects are nearly completed and others are being inaugu- 
rated. The railways, now beginning to penetrate the great district of Central 
Oregon, will open an immense area hitherto devoted to cattle and sheep. 
There is a decided tendency to cut up large farms into smaller holdings, 
particularly in the case of lands suitable for fruit growing. 



United 

States : 

Southern 

States 



Rose Pendleton Chiles. Agricuitural Progress in the Southern States 
of the United States of America. — T/'/e American Review 0/ Reviews. 
Nov. 1910. New York, pp. 563-572. 

Six years ago an important agricultural reform in the Southern States 
of the North American Union was precipitated by the scare caused by the 
appearance of the boll-weevil in Texas. 

To restore confidence, the Bureau of Plant Industry founded in 1904 
the Section of Cotton Demonstration Work eventually known as the Farmers' 
Cooperative Demonstration Work. 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 195 



Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, first head of this section, showed at once that 
a good yield of cotton could be secured in spite of the weevil. 

By planting an early variety of cotton, maturity is secured by intensive 
culture before the weevil reaches the destructive stage. Wherever the insect 
is observed the affected parts of the plants are removed and burned. 
With these precautions planters no longer dread the boll-weevil. 
The work of the new Section is not limited to saving the cotton crop, 
Owing to insufficient capital and want of technical instruction agriculture 
in the Southern States was in a very backward condition. 

Dr. Knapp began by instituting demonstration fields, under the super- 
intendance of a competent working staff. 

Beginning with an acre at a time, the farmers were persuaded to make 
fair trial of scientific methods, with the result that within three years the whole 
farm was brought under the new system. The demonstrators on their monthly 
visits, insist on very strict book-keeping, the results of which go far in helping 
to convince the farmers. 

The funds for the Demonstration service are furnished partly by the 

Federal and Local Governments, partly by Societies and private individuals. 

From one in 1904, the number of demonstrators increased to 430 in 1909 ; 

from one State the work has extended to thirteen ; from one farm to 60 000 

farms, representing 53 436 acres cultivated in cotton and 39 058 in maize. 

The cotton showed an increase in 1909 of about 13 750 bales, and the 
maize of 609 304 bushels. It is calculated that the annual revenue of the far- 
mers has been increased in this way by about four million dollars. 

One of the most interesting results of the movement has been the forma- 
tion of Boys' Corn Clubs. 

The object, under Prof. O. B. Martin, is to interest boys between 10 and 
18 in maize cultivation. They begin under the instruction of Government 
agents, upon an acre each, the land being provided by their parents. A strict 
account has to be kept and a yearly report sent in to the Bureau of Agricul- 
tural Industries. 

In 1909, forty-six thousand boys were thus being trained in scientific 
farming. In one county of Mississippi they obtained an average of 74 bushels 
of maize to the acre, while the farmers of the county, employing old methods, 
made an average of less than 20 bushels. 

In South Carolina, in 1909, one of these boys obtained a yield of 152.5 
bushels of maize per acre at a cost of 31 cents a bushel. He won the county 
and State prizes, and also a special prize offered by Dr. Knapp, consisting in a 
trip to Washington. 

Another boy obtained 122 bushels per acre at a cost of 14.5 cents a bushel. 
These and two other boys were presented with the first certificates of 
merit ever given to youthful farmers. 



194 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



Next year all boys raising 75 bushels of maize per acre, at a cost not ex- 
ceeding 30 cents a bushel, will receive certificates of merit. 



Mexico : 
Tehuantepec 



B. Luis. The Chief Cultures of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Mexico). 

— Joiim. Agric, Tropicale. Paris, Oct. 30, 1910, No 112, p. 301. 

One of the chief obstacles to the development of agriculture in this 
region is the lack of means of communication. Mexico does not produce 
anything like the quantity of maize necessary for the country labourers, 
peones, for whom it is the staple article of diet. 

Most of the settlers (nearly all of whom are citizens of the United 
States of America) have begun to cultivate rubber, cacao trees or sugar 
cane, but nothing definite can be said for the next five or six years as to 
the results of Castilloa cultivation in the Isthmus. Cacao has given encou- 
raging results everywhere, but is not cultivated to any great extent. Sugar 
cane is doing remarkably well. 

At the present moment, however, the only agricultural undertaking 
which is really flourishing is cattle raising. The native cow, worth about 
75 frs., crossed with a foreign bull, gives good results. It is said that the 
greater part of the Isthmus is being gradually transformed into a vast graz- 
ing area. 

Banana plantations have recently been started along the railway towards 
Santa-Lucrecia, and if well managed, ought to give good returns. 



United 
States 



Jos. A. Arnold. Catalogue of Publications of the Department of Agri- 
culture of the United States. — United States Department of Agricul- 
ture. Publications for Sale. Division of Publications. Circular 8, Wash- 
ington, June 15, 1910. 

This Catalogue contains the list of publications of the Secretary's and 
of the following Bureaus: 

Animal Industries, Biology, Chemistry, Entomology, Experimental Farm 
Stations, Textile Fibre Investigations, Foreign Markets, Forestry, Library, 
Vegetable Industries (including the Divisions of Agrostology, Botany, Pom- 
ology, Vegetable Physiology and Pathology), Divisions of Publications, Public 
Roads, Soils, Legislation, Statistics and Meteorology. 



Panama 



Bocas del Toro, Panama. Peru To-Day, vol. II, No 5, July 1910, p. 23. 
Lima. 

The great valley of Sixaola, in the most northern province of Panama, 
Bocas del Toro, is "connected by rail with the port of Almirante in the 
Bay of Bocas del Toro, and is the most important region in Central Ame- 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



195 



rica for the production of bananas. The United Fruit Co., which owns the 
Sixaola plantations, exports an average of 300 000 bunches of bananas every 
month. The Company owns fifteen other plantations in the territories of 
Cricamola, Chiriqui Grande and Changuinola, comprising altogether 6 800 
hectares of land. The Company employs 3000 men, mostly natives of Ja- 
maica, whose wages vary from 0.75 dollar to 1.50 dollars per day. Nearly 
3 million dollars have been spent on the Changuinola plantations, which 
yield 3 000 000 bananas yearly. 

In addition to bananas, the province of Bocas del Toro produces a 
certain quantity of maize, cacao, rubber and cocoanuts; 75000 of the 
latter were exported during the second half of 1909. 

The Government is actively forwarding the construction of roads 
through the most important regions of the country, till now inaccessible. 
Modern agricultural methods are being introduced. 

Public Lands in Panama. — Peru To Day, Vol. II, No. 2, April 1910. Lima. 

Since the passing in Panama of the law on public lands (Law 19 of 1907) 
a noticeable movement for their occupation and colonization has taken place. 
The lands are divided into tierras baldias and tierras indultadas\ the former 
belong to the Government as Trustee for the v/hole nation and extend from 
the crest of the Cordilleras to the Atlantic coast. The latter (freed lands) 
occupy the Pacific slope, and belong to the people by patent from the 
Spanish Crown. 

The law of 1907 provides for the disposal of these lands to settlers at 
reasonable prices, the tierras indultadas being sold at 2.50 dollars per hectare 
to new applicants and 0.50 doll, to old settlers desiring to secure a title 
for their holdings. The price of the tierras baldias is i.oo doll, per hectare 
up to one hundred hectares, when it increases by 5 cents per hectare for 
each successive hundred hectares. These prices are very low, and leave 
but a stnall revenue to the Government when the cost of surveying, register- 
ing titles, etc., has been covered. 

Two hundred applications for land have already been'fmade in the 
Province of Colon, and a large number also in other provinces. 

The Department of Fomento is busy opening up roads, and within a 
short time the habitable parts will be within reach of settlers, and coloniza- 
tion will become more active. Certain parts of the tierras baldias, which 
are occupied by hostile Indians, are not hkely to be opened up by settlers 
for some time yet. 

Cartwrtght. Trade and Commerce of Ecuador, — Diplomatic and Con- 
sular Reports, N. 4360. London, 19 co. 

Agriculture has made great progress during the year in the coast di- 
strict of Ecuador. A new Company has been formed to work and develop 



Panama 



Ecuador 



196 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



the Tenquel cacao and rubber plantation, which is of vast extent and has a 
great future before it. The Company has the right of extending its field 
of operations and probably the important neighbouring properties of Pagna 
Chaquana and others will be worked later on. 

In London various projects are in hand for new cacao and rubber 
plantations, and some German syndicates are working large properties in 
the country. 

The chief want tor the further development of production in Ecuador 
is labour. 



Garaicoechea. The Germania Estate in Argentina. — La Quinzaim Co- 
loniale, Paris, Nov. 10, J910. 

One of a number ol large farms in Argentina which yield considerable 
Argentina profit to their owners, the Germania, is situated to the north-west of Buenos 
Ayres and extends for a distance of 13 leagues. There are 17000 head of 
cattle on this farm, mostly Herefordshire Shorthorns, 1000 Lincoln sheep, 
and more than 2000 horses and iioo milch cows. The farm work is done 
by Englishmen, according to scientific methods. Several hectares are culti- 
vated as orchard and kitchen garden, 
the farm. 



A railway station is situated on 



M. A. Chevalier, Agricultural Trad2 in the Valley of the Niger. 

L! Agriculture commerciak. Paris, Nov, 27, 1910. 



French 
West 
Africa: 
Nigeria 



Eleven years ago trade in French Nigeria consisted of barter irom vil- 
lage CO village and a native traffic in salt bars from Timbuctu and in Kola 
nuts. Now there is a trade in agricultural produce estimated as follows for 
the year 19x0: 200 tons of Macho wool; paddy, about 15000 tons of sor- 
ghum and millet; earth nuts; picked; cotton, gums, skins, bees-wax, Karite 
butter (i); and 20000 head of oxen, sent from the mouth of the Niger to 
the Gold Coast. The trade in these products is only just beginning, and 
preparations are being made for opening a trade in other articles : sesame, 
Karite kernels, neU (2), Da (3), a fibre resembling jute, ronier kernels, which 
might take the place of eorozo (4), and potatoes, of which the Europeans 
are getting as good yields on the banks of the Niger as in France. 



(i) Butyrospermum Parkii (Sapotaceael. 

(2) Parkia africana R. Br. 

(3) Hibiscus cannabinus L. 

(4) Vegetable ivory, Phytelcphas mncrocarpa (Palmae). [Ed]. 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



197 



The Ivory Coast Production. (II movimento commerciale della Costa d'A- 
vorio), — Bollettino della Societa Geo^rafica Italiana. Rome, Novem- 
ber 1910. 

Rubber is one of the chief agricultural products of the Ivory Coast, and 
is furnished in abundance by the Funtumia and Landolphia. The various 
forms in which it appears in trade are called Niggers, 2\t'ists, Cakes and 
Lumps. The value of the yield is nearly 7 000 000 francs. 

The production of Palm oil is also large, the value being about 4 000 000 
francs. The country also produces mahogany, cacao and kola-nut, but in 
comparatively small quantities. It is not a country producing only one staple 
like French Guinea, but rubber constitutes half the agricultural wealth of the 
Ivory Coast Colony. The forest reserves are also very important (i). 



Fre.'ich 
West 
Africa 
Ivory Coast 



Agricultural Production of Fernando Po and Span'sh Guinea. (Gli sta- 
bilimenti spagnuoli del Golfo di Guinea). — Bollettino della Societa Geo- 
grafica Italiana, Rome, Nov. 1910. 

The principal production of Fernando Po is cacao, which has increased 
from 1499050 kg. in 1902 to 2779264 kg, in 1909; the whole of this 
product goes to Spain, because the export dues for foreign ports are prohi- 
bitive. The plant is sometimes attacked by a disease {pina negra) which 
causes much damage. 

Rubber of the Landolphia species is abundant in Guinea, and attempts 
are being made to acclimatise the Hevea at Fernando Po ; there are already 
two plantations of 3000 and 500 trees respectively, which yield a larger 
quantity o{ latex than is obtained in the Hevea cultivations in Kamerun. 

Maize is largely cultivated in Guinea, and the forests are rich in maho- 
gany, ebony and red-wood. 



Fernando Po 

and 

Spanish 

Guinea 



Kismayu and Juba. (Kisimayu und der Juba). 
schrift filr den Orient. Wien, Nov. 1910. 



Oesterreichische Monats- 



The middle and lower course of the Juba follows the frontiers of Ital- 
ian Benadir and of the British province of Jubaland, the principal centre 
of which is Kisimayu, where nothing grows but a few cocoa palms. 

The natives of the Hinterland raise oxen, goats and sheep. Along the 



Italian 

Somali land. 

British 

East 

Africa 



(i) "The natives cultivate maize, plantains, bananas, pineapples, and other fruits; 
European colTee culture is successful, especially in Elima near Assinie; coco-nuts . and 
rubber are collected. The mahogany forests inland are worked. " 

The Ivory Coasi, in The Statesman s Yearl)ook, 19 10, p. 807. [£<t.\ 



198 DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



South 



river, on the British side, extensive cotton plantations have been started, 
with a steam plough and machinery for irrigation. 

On the Italian side, opposite, towards Giumbo, vegetation is luxuriant. 
Kisimayu exports about 200000 rupees worth (i rupee = 1.65 frs.) of ox, 
goat and sheep skins, maize, sheep, oxen, rubber, buffalo butter and sesame. 
The maize comes from Goscia. 

An ItaloBelgian Company has started agricultural and transport works. 
The systemisation of the Juba and Tana Rivers, for transport and irriga- 
tion, will greatly help to develop the agriculture in this region. 

H. J. Choles. Agriculture in Natal. (Agriculture. Province of Natal, 
The Union of South Africa). — The Times, November 5, 1910. p. 25. 
London. 

Owing to the favourable climate and general conditions of the country 
farming has made remarkable progress during the past tew years in Natal, 
in spite of the cattle disease " East Coast Fever," which has been raging 



African of late. This disease, brought from Zululand after the war, has been de- 

Union : cimating the herds since 1Q06. The oxen alone have decreased by 60 000 

head (an average of 12 to each farmer), consequently all efforts have been 

concentrated on the raising of sheep, the number of which has risen from 

587 150 in 1905 to 916998 in 199. 

The cattle disease has interfered with the production of meat and of 
milk on the one hand, and on the other has made transport and farm labour 
extremely difficult, thus influencing the production of maize, one of the chief 
crops of the province. 

The disease continues to spread in some parts of Natal but in others 
there is evidence of impiovement, and some spans of "salted" cattle, /. e. 
oxen that have recovered from the disease are to be seen. They are held 
to be immune from further attacks. Meanwhile, the farmers have been 
turning their attention to the question of mechanical traction and tillage, and 
some plantations are already being worked by mechanical power. 

Natal is divided naturally into three zones, the Coast Belt, the Midland 
Belt and the Upland Belt. 

The Coast Belt is comprised between the rivers Umtanvuna and Tugela, 
and is from 16 to 49 kilometers wide. It is suited to the cultivation of 
sugar, tea, maize, tropical fruits, acacias, tobacco, cotton, arrow root, in- 
digo, etc. Coffee also grows well in some parts, but is not cultivated over 
very great extents. The main products everywhere are tea and sugar. 
From 16000 to 20000 hectares are under sugar cane, and produce 85000 
tons of sugar and 2200 tons of molasses yearly, as well as large quantities 
of rum and methylated spirits. The tea plantations (2404 hectares) produce 



DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 199 



6800 quintals of tea. Another important agricultural industry of the Coast 
Belt is fruit culture. 

Cattle bred on the coast thrive well here, hut the same cannot be said 
of sheep. Nearly all the farm labourers are indentured Hindus. The men 
are paid from ids to 15s (12.60 to 18.90 frs) a month, and the women 
5s to 7s 6d (6.30 to 9.45 frs) a month, and all Indians who settle in the 
Colony at the end of their engagement are paid from £1 to £2 (25.25 to 
50.50 frs) a month. Most of the farms in this region are from 200 to 
1000 acres in extent (80 to 400 hectares), but there are some under 50 
acres (20 hectares). 

The chief industry in the Midland Belt is cattle raising (oxen, horses, 
sheep) ; and maize, barley, oats, haricots, potatoes and turnips are culti- 
vated, and also wattle for tanning. Nine-tenths of the wattle bark exported 
from Natal into Europe, where it is used in the tan-yard, are produced in 
this region. Tobacco also promises to become an important product. 

Stock farms have an average extent of from 1500 to 8000 acres (600 
to 3200 hectares), about 4^/^ acres (1.8 hectare) being necessary for each 
head of cattle, and i 74 ^^cre (half an hectare) for each sheep, that is where 
no provision is made for artificial feeding during the winter. The farms 
near Pietermaritzburg or Durban, or in the neighbourhood of railways, have 
an extent of between 200 and 600 acres (80 and 240 hectares). 

The farms in the Upland Belt support large numbers of live stock, all 
branches of which do well. 36 °/^ of these farms are from 1000 to 2000 
acres (400 to 800 hectares) in extent, and 20 "/^ from 2000 to 3000 acres 
(800 to 1200 hectares). The crops grown are much the same as in the 
Midland Belt. 

7m platitations. — The best tea plantations are situated about 1000 feet 
(300 metres) above the sea level; they require a hot and moist climate, 
and there are large tracts of land well suited to this culture. 

Sugar cane. — There are 8000 men employed in this industry, at 34 
factories which represent a capital of more than £1 000 000 (25 million 
francs). It could be greatly increased, however, by a proper selection of the 
varieties of cane, by improvements in cultivation and in the methods of 
extracting the sugar, etc. 

Black wattle {^Acacia melanoxyloii). — This plant, which is a native of 
South-East Australia, is perhaps the most characteristic of all cultivations 
in Natal, and the one which has l.")een most useful to the country from several 
points of view. It reaches full bearing within a few years after being planted, 
and continues practically for ever. It yields a good return for the outlay, 
without demanding any special knowledge in its cultivation, and gives a high 
value to soils unsuited for ordinary cultivation. There are about 150 000 
acres (60 000 hectares) under black wattle in Natal, which produce nearly 
24 000 tons of bark per year, besides wood which is used for fuel and for 



200 



EXHIBITIONS 



props in the mines. Bark to the value of £ii (275 frs) was exported in 1886; 
in 1891 to the value of £5588 (150000 frs.), in 1901 £69 850 (i 750000 frs.) 
and in 1909 £192950 (4872000 frs.). 

Fruit culture. — All the fruits of the temperate and tropical zones grow 
well in the various regions of Natal. There are between 2000 and 3000 
acres (about a thousand hectares) under fruit trees. 

Navigating Agricisitural Show in Sweden. (Die Schwedische schwimmende 
Pflanzenkultur-Austellung). — Die Erndhnvig der Pjlanze. Stassfurt, Nov. 
1910, N. 21, pp. 205-208. 

Very ^^'^ people in Sweden, especially among the rural population, are 
able to visit Agricultural Shows, on account of the distance and the expense 
of the journey. 

Mr. G. Fraenckel, of Goth^nberg, with other persons has therefore or- 
Sweden ganised a show on board sliip. 

A demonstration ship, voyaging along the coast of Sweden, making 
numerous calls, has been fitted up. It has sections dealing with agriculture, 
entomology, plant diseases, etc., and samples of grain, models, coloured 
maps, etc. are shown. 

Experiments are carried out on the ship to demonstrate the good effects 
of chemical manures. 

The article in Die Ermihrung der Pjlanze is accompanied by numerous 
illustrations. 



Russian 

Empire: 

Western 

Siberia 



WooDHOUSE. West Siberian Exhibition of Agriculture at Omsk, Summer 
of 1911. — Diplomatic and Consular Reports. No 4551. London, 1910. 

In the summer of next year, 191 1, an exhibition of the agriculture, fo- 
restry and industry of Western Siberia will be held at Omsk. The main 
object of this show, the fi st of its kind in Siberia, is to make generally 
known the unlimited resources and increasing productiveness of Western 
Siberia, and to attract foreign exhibitors interested in Siberian trade. Fo- 
r eign exhibits will be admitted free of import duties. 



Slam 



Cornell. The Siam Agricultural Show. 

Manila, No 9, 1910, p. 555. 



Philippine Agricultural Review 



was inaugurated 



The First Annual Agricultural Exhibition in Siam 
this year in Bangkok. In addition to the numerous paddy exhibits, there 
was a model farm with paddy fields and rice under cultivation, and the me- 
thods of irrigating and fertilizing them. 

A steel plough drawn by a buffalo, to be used in the dry season was 
also exhibited as well as exhibits from a pine apple p lantation under cultiva- 



EXHIBITIONS. - AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS 



20 1 



tion, and ninety different varieties of grasses which grow in the rice fields. 
The results of experiments conducted with tobacco were shown, and Siar 
mese, Sumatra and Havana plants were exhibited. Samples of cotton raised 
in Siam were also on view. Considerable space was devoted to sericulture, 
which has become an important industry. The Irrigation Department exhi- 
bited models of schemes for irrigation. There were also exhibits of fruit, 
horses, cattle and poultry. 



Horse Show in New York. — The Times, Nov 16, 1910. 

The winners of the " Blue Ribbon " have been bought for the price United 
of £. 5000 (126 250 frs.). This is the highest price that has ever been paid States: 
in the United States for a pair of carriage horses. 



New York 



Agricultural Show in Kamerun. (Landwirtschaftliche Ausstellung in Nord- 
kamerun). — Deutsche Kolonial Zeitung, Berlin, Nov. 19, 1910. 

A Colonial Agricultural Show has been inaugurated at Dikoa, and seeds, 
cotton, cattle, horses, sheep, goats and fowls are among the exhibits, as 
well as ploughs and other agricultural machinery. The natives are taking 
part in the exhibition, and show a lively interest in it. 

The show has given proof of the agricultural importance of North Ka- 
merun, which would develop very considerably if that district were con- 
nected with the coast by railway. 



Kamerun 



Verdiani. Hungarian Agricultural Museum at Budapest. — Bulletin tnen- 
suel de V Office derenseignements agricoles,'22s\%,'^o. "], pp. 1026-1040, 1910. 

The Agricultural Museum at Buda-Pest is an important institution, and 
undoubtedly first among those in existence. 

The museum is divided into 28 sections: \) Agricultural Statistics ; 2) Agri- 
cultural Geology ; 3) Cultivation oj Wheat. Wheat is grown on a quarter of 
the whole cultivated area of Hungary, and this section contains a remark- 
able series of samples of wheat gathered during jo years. 4) Plants ana 
their Diseases; 5) Useful and Injurious Animals; 6) Horticulture : horticulture 
m Hungary owes it development to the Government, which has done and 
is still doing everything in its power to encourage horticulturists by granting 
them all sorts of facilities. For this purpose the State has 36 nurseries, 
which distribute large quantities of fruit tree stocks for grafting, and seeds. 

Section 7) Grapes and Vines, is also very important, not only because 
of the famous Hungarian vines, but because 60 000 hectares of once sandy 
and waste lands are now covered with thriving vineyards, due to the initiative 
of the State. 



Hungary 



202 AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS : EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS 



8) Experimefit Stations; 9) 10) 11) Dairy Farms, Agricultiiral and Domestic 
Industries; 12) Labour; 13) History of Agriculture] 14) Meteorology; 15) Agri- 
cultural Implements and Machinery ; 16) Agricultural Buildings. 

Section 17) State Lands, is an exhibition of the work of the four model 
State farms, Babolna, Fogaras, Kisber and Mezohegyer, and also of the Farm 
of GodoUo: 1^) Horse Breeding, is also a very important section, the value 
of the annual exportation of horses from Hungary being between 20 and 
30 million crowns. 19) Veterinary Service; 20) Cattle Raising; 21) Primiiive 
Industry; 22) Special Agricultural Instruction; 23) Land Drainage; 24) Bee- 
keeping; 25) Silk-worm Breeding; 26) Forestry; 27) Fishery; 28) Game. 

Chemical Institute and Agronomical Stations in Hungary. — Les Insti- 
tutions agricoles hongroises. Edition du Minist. Royal Hongrois de I'Agri- 
culture. Budapest, 1910. 

The Agricultural Chemical Institute of Hungary and the Central Expe- 
riment Station at Budapest, as well as the Agricultural Chemical Stations 
Hungary of Debreczen, Kassa, Keszthely, K6l6zsvar, Magyar6var, Pozsony and Fiume, 
carry out chemical analyses connected with agriculture. The stations of 
Debreczen, Kassa, Keszthely and Magyar6var also make chemical experi- 
ments bearing on the development of agriculture. All these stations have 
official authority in legal questions concerning the manufacture and sale of 
artificial wines and the repression of frauds in agricultural products. 

Royal Experimental Milk Station at Magyarovar. — Les Institutions agri- 
coles hongroises. Edition du Minist. Royal Hongr. de I'Agriculture. Bu- 
dapest, 19 10. 

This Station studies dairy questions, examining milk and its derivatives 
Hungary and making investigations on the practice of dairying, in order to g^ve 
suggestions and advice to farmers. The Station organises milking compe- 
titions, examines dairy utensils, the working of co-operative and other dairy 
farms, reports on the production, manipulation and utilisation of milk, and 
undertakes to develop and spread instruction in dairying. 

The New Konigsberg Institute for Dairying. — Milch Zeitung. Leipzig, 

Nov. 1910, No. 46, pp. 529-532. (Der Neubau der Konigsberg Molke- 

Germany reigenossenschaft, das neue Heim der Versuchsstation and Lehranstalt 

fiir Molkerei-Wesen, Institut der Landwirtschaftskammer fiir die Provinz 

Ostpreussen). 

The object of this Institute is to assist in providing the town of Ko- 
nigsberg with an abundant supply of pure milk, to make investigations and 



AGRICULTURAL STATIONS. - EDUCATION 



203 



experiments, and to spread instruction in all branches of dairying. A plan 



of the new building is given in this 



article, 
of the various sections of the Institute. 



as well as several illustrations 



The German Colonial Institute at Hamburg (Germany). — Bull, de P Of- 
fice colonial. Melun, III, No. 32, August 1910, pp. 252-254. 

The Law of April 6th, 1908, gave considerable satisfaction to German 
merchants, who had for a long been wishing for a Colonial Institute. This 
Institute is not intended to be simply a specialised centre of education, but 
also a Central Bureau of Intelligence for all questions relating to the Colo- 
nies, and for the publication of scientific results of interest to countries co- 
lonised by Germans. Thus, the Institute has two distinct sections : the Edu- 
cational Section and the Central Office. Everything connected with the first 
is the province of a Council of Professors, the President and Secretary of 
which are elected for two years. The teaching staff, numbering twelve pro- 
fessors, is under its orders, as also the lecturers (of whom there were 35 in 
the year 1 908-1 909). The lectures are attended both by students and hearers. 

The Central Office, as well as the Council of Professors, is under the 
direction of the Commissioner of the Senate, and its mission is to keep 
in touch with persons having Colonial interests, to supply information, to 
furnish useful documents to scientific institutions, and to keep itself well 
informed, both from an economic and scientific point of view, on all Co- 
lonial questions. 



Germany 



Laidlavv . Agricultural Demonstration Trains in the United States. — 

Diplomatic and Consular Reports. No 4558. London, 1910, p. 9. 

Following a practice inaugurated two or three years [ago, (American 
railway companies send out over their lines trains fitted up with all kinds of 
machines and appliances for demonstrations in every branch of agriculture, 
even carrying live poultry, and in some instances milch cows. Teachers are 
on these trains, lecturing at each place where the train stops. Large ga- 
therings of farmers await the arrival of these educational trains, which 
hitherto have been very successful. 



United 
States 



G. E. Nesom. School and Home Gardening. - 

Review, Vol. Ill, No. 10, October 19 10, p. 



- The Philippine Agricultural 
599, Manilla. 



The Bureau of Education published a bulletin in September entitled: 
School and Home Gardening, by C. H. Magee, S. C. Kelleker, N. H. Fore- 
man, and others. Gardening and elementary agriculture as outlined in this 
bulletin are now prescribed for all elementary schools in the Philippines. 



Philippine* 



Egypt 



Md Coast 



204 AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 

This publication, which marks the beginning of a new departure in the 
Educational System in the Philippines, is the first step towards popular agri- 
cultural instruction. 

W. H. Cadman. Work of the Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Education in Egypt. — Trade and Commerce of Alexandria. Diplomatic 
and Consular Reports. No 4554. London, 1910. 

The Department of Agriculture and Technical Education continues to 
do excellent work in Egypt. It has already planned, built and equipped eight 
agricultural and horticultural schools, each adapted to the special needs of 
its locality. 

Others are in course of construction. Most of the expense has been 
met by voluntary contributions from the people of the provinces. The de- 
mands for admission to five of these schools, which were completed at the 
end of last year, exceeded 2000. These two facts indicate a growing desire 
for education of a practical nature. Increased interest is being taken in 
this matter since the recent modification of the Organic Law enabling the 
Provincial Councils to utilise part of the land tax for educational purposes. 

The Department is endeavouring to persuade the Councils to use these 
additional funds for the foundation of practical schools of agriculture. Two 
of these have already been jjlanned in the provinces of Menufia and Dakhalia. 
The advice and assistance of the Agricultural Department is in great demand 
in Egypt and will be much more needed in the near future (i). 

TuDHOPE. The Work of Native Travelling Instructors in the Gold Coast 
Colony. — The Tropical Agriculturist. Colombo, Oct. 1910, p. 322. 

By order of the Gold Coast Government, native travelling instructors 
are required, for the most part, to travel and instruct chiefs and native 
farmers in the best methods of growing economic products and preparing 
them for the European markets; but they may be employed in such other 
capacity as the Director of Agriculture^may from time to time consider ne- 
cessary. 

The instructors are expected to pay special attention to cocoa, rubber, 
palm-oil products, cotton and fibres. 



(i) Of the Egyptian population over 10 years of age, 62.65 per cent were employed, 
in 1907, in agriculture. In the year 1897 these existed in Egypt only one Agricultural 
School, attended by 59 boys. In 1909, the number of boys attending this school w*s 138. 
These numbers show, in comparison with what is given in the text, how rapidly in Egypt 
Agricultural Education has been developed during the last year. 

Compare with The Statesman's Yearbook for igio, pag. 1292. [.ff^.]. 



CHEMISTRY OF PLANT CONSTITUENTS 



205 



Agriculture. — Agricultural Physics, Chemistry, Botany and Geology. 



E. BouRQUELOT and M. Bridel. On a new Sugar, Verbascose, extracted 
from the Root of the Mullein (Verbascum Thapsus). — C. Ji. de F Acad, 
des Sc.YdiXX^, T. 151, No, 18, 31 Oct. 1910, pp. 760-762. 



A new sugar, Verbascose, has been extracted from the root of the mul- 
lein {Verbascum Thapsus). By hydrolysis it gives rise to levulose, glucose 
and galactose. It differs from stachyose in its higher melting point and its 
greater rotatory power. The mullein root also contains a glucoside decom- 
posed by emulsine. 

Verbascose is present in larger quantities^in the roots of the first year 
than in those of the second, while glucoside is especially plentiful in the 
latter. 



Franc* 



A. Rosenberg. Catalases in Plants. — (Ber. der Deutsch. bot. Gesllesch., 
1919, 28, 280-288). Journ. Chem. Soc, 1910, Nov. Abs. II, 992. 



Equal quantities of different seeds, reduced to powder, were digested 
with water for an hour, and then treated with hydrogen peroxide. 

No connection was found to exist between anaerobic conditions and 
catalase, for seeds of leguminous plants reacted but feebly with hydrogen 
peroxide, while grains of cereals, though but slightly adapted to these con- 
ditions, showed themselves to be rich in catalases. 

Acids, even citric acid at 0.25 7o' ^^^ injurious to catalase, and acid 
phosphates of sodium and potassium reduce its activity. Alkaline salts, as 
sodium carbonate and dibasic phosphates, are favourable to it; the latter 
especially in the case of seeds containing small quantities of catalases. 

The catalase of lupins is soon destroyed by autolysis. The addition 
of dibasic phosphates protects catalase from decomposition, but the amount 
decreases gradually with increase of temperature. 

The amount of catalase increases during germination. The addition of 
0.5 **/„ of nitrate of potassium, sulphate of magnesium, acid phosphate of 
potassium or calcium nitrate retards this production of catalase. 



Germai^ 



2o6 COMPOSITION AND NUTRITION OF i '.ANTS 



C. Ravenna and O. Montanari. Origin and Physiological Function of 
Pentosanes in Plants. — (Atti R. Ace. dei Lincei, s. U., vol. XIX, fasc. 4°, 

1910). Bolletiino tecnico della coliivazione dei tabacchi. Scafati, N. 5, set- 
tembre-ottobre, 1910, p. 300. 

Experiments made in the Laboratory of Agricultural Chemistry at the 
Italv University of Bologna upon the horse-bean {Faba minor) show that: 

i) In the plant under examination, the absolute quantity of pentosane 
presents a tendency to increase during the day and to diminish during the 
night; 

2) Sugars administered to the leaves cause great increase in the 
amount of pentosanes ; 

3) The prevention of chlorophyll action and the absence of carbo- 
hydrate nutriment entail a reduction in the amount of pentosanes. 

This would show that in the horse-bean pentosanes derive from sugars, 
and that they may also be considered as reserve materials. 

W. N. LuBiMKNKO. Relation of Amount of Chlorophyll with Energy of 
Photosynthesis. — {Trav. de la Soc. des Naturalistcs de St- Peter sbourg, 
Ser. Ill, Pt. I., § II). —Nature, No. 2141, vol. 85, Nov. 10, 1910, p. 48, 
London. 

Experiments to ascertain the relation between the amount of chlorophyll 

in a leaf and the energy of photosynthesis. The intensity of light required 

Russia to start photosynthesis is in inverse ratio to the amount of chlorophyll ; with 

the increase of chlorophyll the energy of photosynthesis increases up to a 

maximum and then decreases. 

Some of the experiments showed that there are two phases in photo- 
synthesis ; first, carbon dioxide is decomposed and oxygen liberated, and 
then certain photochemical reactions cause the translocation and the assi- 
milation of the organic matter. 



'&■- 



Jean de Rufz de Lavison. Selective Power of the Root in Absorption of 
Salts. — C. R. Ac. des Sciences. Paris, 17 Octobre 19 10, No. 16, p. 675. 

Different substances were made to be absorbed both by the entire 
France plant, and by cut stems. Haricot beans were chosen for the experiments, 
and equimolecular solutions employed, equal to 7io ^f the normal solution, 
of chlorides of sodium, potassium and calcium. 

The cut stems absorbed all the salts equally. It is remarkable that great 
quantities of the different chlorides were absorbed. Plants furnished with 
roots, absorbed the various salts in the ratio of 1 for chloride of potassium, 
0.6 for chloride of calcium and 0.55 for sodiuiii chloride. 



NUTRITION OF PLANTS. - RESPIRATION OF PLANTS 



207 



Hans Mieth. Is Calcium combined as Calcium Silicate assimilated by 
Plants? (1st der Kalk clesKieselsauren Kalkes zur Ernahrung der Pflanze 
geeignet?). — Landw. Versuchs-Statiouen. Band LXXIV, Heft I-III, Berlin, 
1910, pp. 81-120. 

The writer, after mentioning the great importance of lime in the soil 
not only as a plant food but also for its other physico-chemical and biolo- 
gical functions, calls attention to the fact that soils naturally rich in lime, 
or that have been marled, gradually lose calcium carbonate while there is 
an increase in the quantity of the easily decomposable silicates containing 
calcium, which are formed by the transformation of silicates and by the 
action of the calcium compounds in solution on the colloidal silica of the soil. 

The results of experiments extending over two years with cultures of 
oats in nutritive solutions point to the following conclusions. 

i) Calcium in silicates is readily and usefully absorbed by plants; 

2) There is no perceptible difference in the action of the various 
silicates containing calcium ; 

3) Oat-plants assimilated much more silica than lime. 
From this may be deduced: 

i) The vital activity of plants transforms calcium silicate into silica 
and calcium carbonate. 

2) Plants need silica. When kept in nutritive solutions without silica, 
plants take up small quantities of silica from the glass vessel in which they 
grow. 

3) In the soil the easily decomposable calcium silicates, are decomposed 
by the carbon dioxide produced by the roots, into calcium carbonate and 
silica (probably colloidal silica). That the decomposition of the silicates in 
the soil, as first explained by D. Mayer, is due to the action of carbon 
dioxide, would be confirmed by the observation of Mieth that calcium sili- 
cates exposed to the air gradually decompose while they absorb carbon dioxide. 

In examining soils it is not exact to consider only the calcium oxide 
contained in the carbonate. The calcium of silicates must also be considered 
as a plant food(i). 

W. Zaleski and A. Reinhard. Action of Salts on the Respiration of 
Plants and on the Respiratory Enzymes. — Biochemische Zettschrift. 
1910, 27, 450-473 ; y<?//r//. Chem. Soc, Nov. 1910. Abs. II. 990. 

All the salts contained in Knop's nutritive solution diminish the energy 
of respiration. 



(1) Vegetable growth on vulcaDic soils and on otlier soils not containing lime as car- 
bonate, and the abundant supply of calcium oxide in the ashes of plants growing in these 
soils, are an evident proof that silicates are good providers of calcium to vegetation. 

[Ed]. 



Germany 



Germany 



2o8 



RESPIRATION OF PLANTS. - PLANT-BREEDING 



An acid reaction is especially harmful, but alkalis also cause a diminution. 

Dibasic phosphates considerably increase the formation of carbon dioxide 
in ground living seeds of Pisum sativum, Zea mais, and Liipinus angustifolius, 
also in seeds which have been exposed to frost, or killed by acetone. 

In Triticum, the energy of respiration was diminished. Basic phosphates 
have a stimulating effect. Phosphates stimulate not only zymases, but also 
oxydases, catalases, and reductases. 

With regard to the quantities and activity of reductase and catalase of 
different seeds, it was found that the activity of reductases increased in the 
following order: Zea (o), Triticum (i), Lupinus (lo), Pisum (480), With 
catalases, the order is inverted: Pisum (10), Lupimis {12), Triticum {^6), and 
Zea (50). 

W. Zaleski. Reduction Processes in the Respiration of Plants. — {Ber. 

d. deutsch. bot. Gesellsch., 1910, 28, 3 19-3 2 9) y*?/////. Chem. Soc. Nov. 1910. 
Abs. II, 990. 

It has been observed that the reducing action in different seeds is 

greater in peas, and less in cereals and oil seeds. Wheat and lupins occupy 

an intermediate position. A certain pararelism exists bethwen resistance to 

fiernany anaerobic conditions and the reducing property of seeds, which is greater 

in leguminous seeds, and less in cereals and oil seeds. 

Acid salts, as acid pho.sphates of potassium and of sodium, lessen the 
reducing power of peas; neutral salts act more unfavourably. Alkalis, and 
still more dibasic phosphates, stimulate the reduction. 

P. J- S. Cramer. A Method of Selection applicable to Tropical Agricul- 
ture. — Ann. Jard. but. Biiitenzorg, 3'''^ Supplement, I, pp. 461-472, 1910; 
Bot. Centralblatt., Bd. 114, No. 18. Jena, i Nov. 1910, p. 452. 



Dutcb 

East 

Indies: 

lava 



After having distinguished the different methods of selection,— intraspe- 
cific, interspecific, and hybridation,— the writer shows the variability of tro- 
pical plants in a wild condition, especially of the genus Coffea. In discus- 
sing the point from which selection should begin, he recommends the 
explorer to study all the variations of any new species he may find. It 
is desirable that a special Institute, directed by a botanist, should under- 
take the breeding of new species by rational selection. There is also need 
in the Tropics of a Central Institution where not only small samples of 
seeds could be procured, but larger quantities of selected seeds of agricul- 
tural plants. M. Cramer finally describes a practical attempt to carry 
out his ideas which he has begun at Buitenzorg in Java, thanks to the 
late M. Treub's support. 



PLANT-BREEDING. - AGRIC. MICROBIOLOGY 



209 



r. A. Waugh and J. K. Shaw. Plant Breeding in Peas. — Twenty-second 
Annual Report of the Massachusetts Agricultural Station, pp. 168-175. 
Boston, 1910. 

The Horticultural Department of Massachusetts has published the results 
of experiments on the selection of peas, taking as point of departure the tjpe 
Nott's Excelsior. 

The following conclusions may be deduced: 

i) The tendency to variation is an hereditary character, especiallf 
pronounced when the conditions of environment are most favourable. 

2) Variations and fluctuations are more frequent in the reproductive 
organs, than in the vegetative, as variations in the length of shoots, etc. 

3) Contrary to what might have been expected, there is a direct rela- 
tion between the number of seeds in a pod, and the number of pods on 
a shoot. 



United 
States : 
Massa- 
chusetts 



J. E. VAN DER Stok. Essays in Hybridization. (Mededeelingen omtrent 
kruisingsproven) — {Teysmannia, XXI, 1910, pp. 1 18-124). Bot. CentrcU- 
blatt, Bd. 114, No. 18. Jena, i November 1910, p. 453. 

Experiments, extending over several years, were"made on the hybridi- 
sation of different plants cultivated in the East Indies. 

A red variety of Ricinus conmiunis crossed with the colourless variety, 
produced intermediate hybrids in the first generation ; in the second, dif- 
ferentiation was noticeable (1:2: i). The hybrids were easily distinguished 
by their pale red colour from the pure bred individuals which were dark red. 

The crossing of a species of Capsicum with dark violet pods with x 
variety bearing green pods produced a predominance of dark violet ; after 
the separation, which took place in the second generation, the number of 
violet individuals was greater than could have been expected according to 
Mendel's law. 

This law was followed, as far as the colour of the spermoderm was 
concerned, by two varieties of Arachis hypogaea, the darkest maroon-red 
having complete predominance. With regard to the pods, the characters 
induced are a little more complicated ; signs of serial division showed them- 
selves in the second generation. 



Oatch 

East 

Indies: 

Java 



Pierre Georgevitch. Morphology of the Microbes in the Nodules of Le- 
guminous Plants. (Morphologic des microbes des nodosites des legu- Sertta 
mineuses). — C.-R. de la Sociiti de Biologic. Paris, 28 Oct. iqio. 

M. Georgevitch of the Belgrade University cultivated two species of the 
bacilli found in the nodules of Vicia sativa : 



2IO AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY 



i) A sporogenelic variety, short and very motile. 

2) A longer kind, not motile, in the shape of small rods. 

The first of these varieties forms, at the end of 48 hours, in the bacillus, 
a refrangible spore whence arise always new bacilli not bearing ramifica- 
tions. A culture of the second kind of bacillus, on potato, and at 35° C, gives 
rise to branched individuals, from which afterwards young, branched bacilli 
are produced. 

The study of the formation and separation of the members of these 
bacilli shows clearly, from their mode of development, that the separate 
segments of a branched bacillus act as spores, and that we are dealing with 
an arthrospore, for the formation of which the whole mass of segments is 
used, without modification of form. This development of the segments 
represents a siuiplified method of spore formation, and is not the formation 
of branched coccobacilli, as described by Mazd. 

Accordingly, in the nodules of leguminosae only two varieties of bacilli 
are found, i. e. the two forms described. No coccobacilli occur in the cul- 
tures, but only a kind of arthro.spore, which has been mistaken for coc- 
cobacillus. 

A. Harden and R. V. Norris. Fermentation of Galactose by Yeast and 
Yeast Juice. — {Proc. Roy. Soc, 1910, B. 82, 645-649). Journ. Chem. 
Soc, Nov. 19 10, Abs. II, 989. 

These experiments confirm the results obtained by other workers, and 
Sreat prove that yeast cultivated in a medium containing galactose acquires the 
property of fermenting this kind of sugar. 

A mixture of yeast juice and galactose reacts with phosphates in the 
same manner as a mixture of yeast juice and dextrose. The fermentation 
is quickened; a supplementary quantity of carbon dioxide, equivalent to 
the added phosphate, is produced, then the fermentation pursues its normal 
course. During the process, an organic compound of phosphorus is formed, 
which is not precipitated by the magnesia mixture. 

Small quantities of sodium arseniate also accelerate the fermentation 
of galactose. 

Urbain Cl. Seal et A. P eige. Sterilisation of Large Quantities of Water 
by Ultraviolet Rays. (Sterilisation des grandes masses d'eau par I'ultra- 
violet). — C.-R. lie l' Acad, des sciences. Paris, t. 151, No. 18, 31 Oct. 1910, 
pp. 770-772. 

The inventors by means of a new arrangement place the source of 

France their light in the centre of the mass of water. The positive electrode 

which is fixed to the lower part of the apparatus consists of a rod of alumi- 



AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY 



211 



nium with an iron core of loo mm. The wear and tear of such an elec- 
trode is infinitesimal. 

This arrangement renders possible the sterilization of water with the 
consumption of 20 watts per cubic metre. 



A. Fernbach and A. Lanzenberg. The Action of Nitrates on Alcoholic 

Fermentation. (De Taction des nitrates dans la fermentation alcoolique). — 
C.-R. Ac. Sc. Paris, 24 Oct. 1910, T. 151, No. 17, pp. 726-729. 

These researches prove that the presence of nitrates retards consider- 
ably the multiplication of yeast cells, the effect being increased by the 
strength of the dose. On the other hand, it is shown that nitrates are 
distinctly favourable to the action of zymase. The writers have observed 
that high doses of nitrates may cause a more prompt fermentation, and in 
any case prove harmless to the yeast. The beneficial action of the nitrate 
begins to show itself when the dose is about 5 gr. per litre. The optimum 
dose of nitrate varies with the nature of the yeast, but in all cases potassium 
nitra'e certainly increases the activity of the zymase. 



France 



E Kayser. Influence of Nitrate of Manganese and other Nitrates on Al- 
coholic Fermentation. (Influence du ni'rate de manganese et d'autres 
nitrates sur la fermentation alcoolique). — C.-R. de V Acad, des sciences. 
Paris, t. 151, No. 19, n. Nov. 1910, pp. 816-817. 

The addition of nitrate of manganese, far from hindering alcoholic fer- 
mentation, accelerates its starting, causes a more complete disappearance of 
the sugars, and gives a greater production of alcohol than in the control 
experiments without nitrate. 

1 here appears to exist for each variety of yeast an optimum dose of 
the manganese salt, beyond which the latter becomes toxic. The optimum 
dose of the salt produces the maximum diastasic activity : given equal quan- 
tities, nitrate of manganese has more effect than nitrate of potassium. The 
optimum dose depends not only on the variety of yeast, but also on the 
composition of the culture medium, and on the base combined with the 
nitric acid. 



France 



M'^'^ H. KRZEMiENrtwSKA. Influence of the Mineral Constituents of Nu- 
tritive Solutions on the Development of Azotobacter. (De I'influence 
des constituants min^raux des solutions nutritives sur le ddveloppement 
de V Azotobacter. — [Bull, de I'Acad. des Sciences de Cracovie, 1910, 
Bd. 376-413). Journ. Chem. Sac. London, Abs. Nov. II, 678. 

Potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulphur are indispen- 
sable to the development of Azotobacter. Iw the experiments described, the 



Rassia 



212 AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY. - METEOROLOGY. - GEOLOGY 



minimum quantities necessary for the normal utilization of one gramme of 
dextrose are the following, in milligrams: 

K, 0.38; Ca, 0.36; Mg. 0.35; P, 2.46; S, more than 0.49 mg. 

An insufficiency of any of these mineral substances — essential constituents 
of nutritive solutions — causes a diminished utihsation of the dextrose, and 
a decrease in the fixing of nitrogen per gramme of dextrose. The increase 
of the organisms stops, while respiration processes go on in the existing cells. 

Beyond certain limits, the salts of potassium, sodium, and magnesium 
are toxic to Azotobacter. The injurious effect is diminished, or prevented 
by adding salts of calcium. Salts of magnesium lessen the harmful action 
of excessive quantities of potassium and sodium. 



Dutcb 
East 
iRdies 



E. DE Kruyff. Torula Bogoriensis rubra. — (^Ann. du Jard. hot. de Buiten- 
^<^^g^ 3*^ supplement (Treub-Festschrift), 1910, I, pp. 36-39). Bot. Ccn- 
tralblatt, Bd. 114, No. 19. Jena, 8 Nov. 1910. 

A new species of red yeast has been isolated from a solution of man- 
nite prepared according to Beyerinck's method, and inoculated with earth 
from the Botanical Garden at Buitenzorg. 

The yeast fixes free atmosphere nitrogen, and secretes amylase and lipase, 
but cannot ferment glucose, saccharose, maltose, and galactose, forming no 
alcohol. 



Great 
Britain 



Impurities of the Atmosphere over Towns. Effect upon Vegetation. (Agri- 
culture at the British Association). — Nature, No. 2140, Vol 85, No- 
vember 3, 1910, p. 24. 

At the meeting of the British Association held at Sheffield, Drs. Crowther 
and Ruston spoke on the impurities contained in the atmosphere above 
towns and their effect on vegetation. 

The rain which falls on Leeds is fairly rich in mineral, tarry, and acid 
substances. 

These substances choke the stomata of the leaves of Conifers especially, 
and contaminate the soil, so that they are doubly harmful to plants, oftett 
killing them. 

Impure rain diminishes the production of grass, reduces the content of 
protein and increases the proportion of woody fibre. 



Hongary 



Royal Meteorological Institute and Observatory in Hungary. — Les Ins- 
titution Agricoles Hongroises. Ed. du Minist. Royal Hongrois de I'Agric. 
Budapest, 1910. 

The Royal Institution of Heterology and Terrestrial Magnetism at Bu- 
dapest studies the climatic questions which affect Hungary. 



AGRICULTURAL GEOLOGY. - IMPROVEMENTS OF LAND 213 



It publishes a daily Meteorological Report giving on a map a forecast of 
probable temperatures for the following 24 hours. 

These communications are sent to institutes, newspapers, and private 
subscribers ; they are sent to 300 telegraphic bureaux where they are exposed 
in frames arranged expressly for this purpose. 

The Observatory of the Institute is at O. Gyalla (Comitat of Komarom, 
railway station: Ersekujvar). Visitors should write to the Director of the 
Observatory or of the Institute. 

Geological Study of the Soils of Vineyards in the Province of Brescia. 

(Studio geologico-viticolo dei terreni delle plaghe della provincia di 
Brescia dove piii estesamente e coltivata la vite). Brescia, Tipografia 
Senghi 1910, p. 150. 

This work aims at guiding vine growers in the selection of stocks, and 
in the necessary experiments in adapting American stocks to the soil. It '^^'y 
deals with the topographical, physical and chemical conditions of the soil, 
and the nature of the rocks whence it is derived. 

Before examining the adaptation of the principal grafting-stock to the 
soil, attention is drawn to the fact that too much reliance should not be 
placed on vines « direct producers*, for the present. These hybrids often yield 
those heavy crops of little value which have led to crisis in the wine trade. 

Two geological maps and one showing the connexion between the areas 
under vines and the geology of the province of Brescia accompany this work. 

F. M. Methods for Arresting and Utilising Moving Alluvial Mud. (Fixation 
et mise en valeur des vases mouvantes). — Revue scientifique. Paris, 
Nov. 1910, p. 628. 

All the recent Congress of " I'Association frangaise pour I'avancement 
des sciences " at Toulouse, M. G6ze, who had returned from a scientific 
mission, described the methods employed in Holland for arresting and re- Netherlands 
claiming the moving mud which borders the Rhine and the Meuse near 
Rotterdam. 

Rhizomes of the large rush, Scirpus lacustris {/one des Tontuliers) are 
first planted, the roots of which rapidly form a thick mat, and gradually 
raise the level of the land. 

As soon as the land is above the reach of the tides, plantations are 
made of the rhizomes of the rush used for brooms {Phragmites communis), 
which takes deep root and thus completes the work of consolidation. 

After this, the mud is fixed and is relatively fertile, and can be transformed 
into artificial meadows. The constant decay of vegetable dt^bris gradually 
enriches the soil, kept aerated by the mass of roots below, and after a few 
years it becomes fit for the cultivation of sugar-beet. 



214 



BLACK SOILS OF AUSTRALIA 



It may be remarked, that the ground was aheady productive, even when 
only planted with rushes and reeds, which, used either for litter, or for 
baskets, mats, etc, afford a source of considerable revenue. 

M. Geze's report is interesting, not only as announcing a successful 
agricultural experiment, but chiefly because it should be possible to imitate 
the Dutch in several countries, in the reclamation of extensive lands. 



Common- 
wealth 
of 
Australia: 
New 
South 
Wales 



J. B. Guthrie and H. J. Jensen. The Chemical Nature of the Black 
Soil Plains in Australia. (With Notes on the Geological Aspect of the 
Question). — Agricultural Gazette for New South Wales. Oct. 4, 1910, 

P- 855- 

The Department of Agriculture in New South Wales has made some 
analyses of typical specimens of the black soil of the North West portion 
of the State. 

The whole black soil area, which is probably of alluvial origin, is di- 
vided between virgin soil and pasture land, some of the richest grazing of 
the State being found here ; it is a very clayey soil of low capillary power; 
water percolates through it but slowly, with the result that it is exceedingly 
sticky when wet, and hard and cracked when dry. It is not rich in vegetable 
matter, although the blackness shows the presence of humus. Further in- 
vestigations are necessary to ascertain whether this black colour is due to 
the presence of humus and to its special condition or to salts of iron. The 
nitrogen content is low, but the soil is rich in lime and potash and other 
plant foods, and is very fertile, as is shown by the luxuriance of the herbage 
after rain. 

These soils are generally very deep, and by their physical constitution 
suited to wheat. They are very difficult to work, tillage being possible only 
iu certain special conditions of moisture. 

When once broken the surface becomes friable through exposure to the 
air and the work is easier. The soils are slightly alkaline, but not to the 
extent of interfering with cultivation, as in the alkali plains of Western 
America. 

All these peculiarities, alkalinity, deficiency in nitrogen, stickiness and 
hardness, are increased by irrigation from artesian wells. 

The soils may be divided, geologically, as follows: 

A) Black peaty soils of swampy tracts and along water courses. These 
mainly owe their colour to organic matter and the black compounds of iron 
produced by the reducing action of organic matter on the higher oxides. 

When found in sandy areas, as in the county of Cumberland, this soil 
generally becomes whitened in consequence of the large addition of silica, 
while it is reddened in volcanic or rocky districts rich in iron, b) the oxi- 
dation of the iron compounds. The soils which whiten are generally poor 
in lime and potash, and have a strong acid reaction. 



i 



EARTH-WORMS. - THEIR ACTION IN THE SOIL 215 

E) Black soils of the basaltic plains, such as the Darling Downs, Queens- 
land. The colour in this case is indirectly due to the presence of lime derived 
from basaltic rocks, which favours nitrification and the reduction of iron, 
and, by accelerating vegetable growth, increases the amount of humus. 

These soils are some of the most fertile in the State, and are usually 
neutral or slightly acid in low-lying lands. Similar soils are foimd on the 
slopes of the basaltic mountains 

C) Black alluvial soils of thi Western Plains, clayey in character, 
probably deriving their colour from the abundance of lime, humus and 
organic salts of iron. This soil dries more rapidly than that derived from 
the decomposition of basalt in situ. The Acacia pe?ulula. Eucalyptus Wool- 
siana and Eucalyptus melanophloia are characteristic of this soil. 

D) Black soils of calcareous origin, generally very fertile. AVhen de- 
rived from pure limestone rocks free from silicates they are less fertile be- 
cause deficient in potash and phosphates. But when they result from the 
disintegration of silico-calcareous rocks they are rich in these substances. 

Edward John Russell. Effect of Earth-worms on Soil Productiveness. — 

Journ. of Agric. Science, Sept. 1910, Cambridge, 

i'hese experiments were made at Rothamsted, to determine the action 
of earth-worms in the formation of nutritive substances for plants, a subject 
already studied by Wollny. Britain 

They led to the following conclusions : Worms seem to have no marked 
and direct action in the matter, and the decomposition of organic substances, 
and consequent formation of nitrates, is not greater in the presence of worms, 
than in their absence. 

By the amount of nitrogen which they contain (1.5 "/^ to 2 %) and by their 
rapid and complete decomposition after death, worms enrich the soil through 
the addition of a certain quantity of nutritive substances. 

Taking Mr. Hensen's figures as correct, 25 000 worms per acre (62 000 
per hectare) of arable land, there would be (in the most favourable cir. 
cumstances) an increase per annum of 620 grammes of nitric nitrogen per 
hectare (equal to about 3.6 kg. of sodium nitrate), due to the decomposi- 
tion of these organisms. 

The effect whicli worms have upon" the fertilization of the soil is a me- 
chanical and indirect one, for by their burrows they contribute to its drainage 
and aeration. 



i 



2l6 



NITROGEN FIXATION IN SOIL. - SOIL-ANALYSIS 



W. B. BoiiOMLEY. Assimilation of Nitrogen by certain Nitrogen fixing 
Bacteria in the Soil. (Proc. Roy. Soc. 1910. B. 82, 627-629). —Jour. 
C/iem. Soc, Nov. 1910, Abs. II, 988. 

Nutritive solutions were respectively inoculated with pure cultures of 

Azotobacter from garden soil ; with pure cultures of Pseudomonas from the 

tubercles of kidney bean roots and of clover ; and with these two bacteria 

together. While Azotobacter alone fixed 2.17 mgr. per unity of carbohydrate 

Great ^"^^ Pseudomonas alone fixed 2.30 mgr., the two micro-organisms together 

Britain fixed 4.51 mgr. 

Other experiments are described in which 140 gr. of soil, with and 
without the addition of lime, were inoculated with an extract of soil which 
was first sterilized and then inoculated with Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. 
This was done in order to obtain the greatest adaptation of the micro-or- 
ganisms to the conditions prevailing in the soil. In 10 days, there was an 
increase of 35 mgr. of nitrogen in the mixed cultures in the soil treated with 
lime, while the increase was 25 mgr. in the soil not thus treated. The 
amount fixed by the culture alone was 6 mgr. 



S. J. Alway, E. K. Files and R M. Pincknkv. Determination of Humus 

in the Soil. — (^Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1910, 
2, 317-322). The Analyst, Vol. XXXV, w^ 416, pp 495-496. 



United 
States 



Difterent methods for the determination of humus in the soil were 
compared, understanding by humus that brown or black part of soil which 
is soluble by dilute alkalis. 

The conclusions are as follows: 

i) Hilgard's method gives good results, but presents certain difficulties 
when soils are rich in humus, and have a particularly good physical con- 
sistency. 

2) Huston-Mc Bride's method (the official American method) gives, 
in general, results which are too high, and not convincing. 

3) Moore-Hampton's modification of the official method gives re- 
liable results, and with many soils, is more rapid than Hilgard's. 

4) The power of solutions of ammonia of dissolving humus depends 
on their concentration. Solutions of 16-28 °/o dissolved most. 

In these experiments solutions of ammonia at 4 °/o were used. 

5) The quantity of ashes obtained from the humus varies according 
to the method employed, and is not dependent on the concentration of the 
ammonia solution used. 

The official method gives 4 to 38 times the weight of ashes obtained 
by other methods. 



BARYTA IN SOILS. - HARMFUL SOIL-CONSTITUENTS 



217 



The greater part of the ashes, obtained by each method, is probably 
not an essential constituent of the humus, and it would be well always to 
state the quantity ot ash found, together with that of the humus, as the 
first serves is some measure as a control to the figures of the second. 



Baryta in Soils. — Nature, 214T, vol. 85, Nov. 10, 1910. London. 

Mr. Failyer, of the Bureau of Soils of the Department of Agriculture in 
the United States, publishes in Bulletin No. 72 a number of analyses showing 
that barium is to be found in the greater part of the soils of that country. 

The amount sometimes reaches o.i "/j,. 

It seems probable that solutions in the soil which play an important 
part in plant nutrition contain salts of barium. Felspar is also a source of 
barium. 

Cases have een observed of the occurrence of barium in the ashes 
of plants. 

The presence of barium in forage plants may possibly be harmful to 
the animals which feed on them, and perhaps explains some unexpected 
results produced in feeding. 



United 
States 



B. ScHREiNER and J. J. Skimmer. Effects of a harmful Organic Soil Con- 
stituent. — U. S. A. Dep. of Agriculture. Bur. of Soil. Bulletin 70, 
pp. 98 -f- tabl. XLV -\- fgs. 31. Washington, 1910. 

A long series of researches on the harmful action "of dihydrostearic 
acid is described. 

B. Schreiner had previously discovered [this substance in soils, espe- 
cially in such as were rather unfertile. 

The experiments were carried out with cultures of wheat in a series of 
66 solutions containing, in every possible proportion, phosphoric acid, am- 
monia, and potash, varying in the proportion of 10 to 10 7o of the' total con- 
centratron of 80 millionths. 

The chief results obtained can be summed up as follows: 

i) Dihydrostearic acid (50 millionths) hinders the development of 
wheat cultivated in distilled water, and also in the various culture solutions. 

2) Its harmful effects are greatest when the proportion of nutritive 
substances is not suitable to the wants of the plant, less when this propor- 
tion is favourable, and still less when the nitrogen predominates over the 
phosphoric acid and the potash. 

3) Dihydrostearic acid sensibly modifies the absorption of nutritive 
substances by diminishing the amount of phosphoric acid and of potash 
taken up, and by either augmenting, or leaving unaltered, the quantity of 
nitrogen absorbed. 



United 
States 



2i8 SOIL SICKNESS. - PENETRATION OF FROST 

4) Dihydiostearic acid has also the effect of blackening and dilating 
the extremities of the roots, of hindering their development, and it often 
makes them bend in the shape of a hook, and also diminishes their oxidizing 
power— this explains the beneficial effect of fertilizers which favour oxi- 
dation. 

5) The best development of wheat was observed when the culture 
solution contained all the nutritive constituents. The most favourable pro- 
portion of these constituents was: 30-60% potash; 30-60% nitrate of soda, 
and 10-30 7o mionocalcic phosphate. 

Oscar Loew. Soil-Sickness. — Report of the Physiologist. Annual Report of 
the Porto Rico Agr. Experitnent Station for igog, pp. 15-18. 

It has been shown that the condition of " sick," or " tired " soils in 
P»rte Rico Porto Rico is usually accompanied by the presence of a considerable num- 
ber of the microbes of butyric fermentation. A suggestion was made to 
disinfect the soil with a solution of tricresol, a substance quite harmless to 
plants. The absorptive power of the soil probably lessens the poisonous 
properties of this compound. 

As butyric ferments develop rapidly amongst decomposing roots which 
contain sugar or starch, the use of lime would certainly prove beneficial; 
for lime neutralizes the acids which are formed and the calcium salts pro- 
duced are entirely oxidized by moulds. 



HjALMAR VON Feilitzen. [Experiments on the Penetration of Frost in 
Boggy and Sandy Soils. (Ergebnisse einiger Messungen iiber die Starke 
der Frostschicht wahrend der Wintermonate der letzten drei Jahre 
1908-1910 im Moorboden und Sandboden in Flahult und Torestorp, 
Schweden). — Der Kulturtechnikcr, XIII Jahrg., No. 4, Breslau. Oct. 15, 
1910, pp. 277-288. 

Frost penetrates the soil to different depths according to its capillary 
^ . power, the specific heat of the strata, the moisture content, etc., and expe- 
riments have been made by the Experimental Station of Flahult on the high 
and low boggy soils {Hoch- und Flachmoor) as well as upon sandy soils, to 
determine the degree of penetration of frost in soils of different kinds. 

Similar experiments have been made also at the Experimental Park at 
Torestorpsmossen. 

In order to measure the depth of frost, five or six holes were made 
Avith an iron rod and the depth was then taken with a decimeter, the depth 
of the snow covering the soil being measured at the same time. 



PENETRATION OF FROST IN MOORLAND 



219 



The measurements were made once a month and the dates of the frost 
and thaw registered. 

The experiments were made during the winter from 1907 to 1910, and 
in each of the three winters the depth of penetration and the duration of 
frost were different. The greatest thicknesses of the frozen surface were on 
an average as follows. 

Experimental Station at Flahult: 

Boggy uplands (Hochmoor). 





1907-8 




1908-9 




1909-10 




Uncultivated land 


14.0 


cm. 


38.8 


cm. 


18.0 


cm 


Ploughed land. . 


16.2 


» 


29.8 


» 


23.6 


» 


Drained land . . 


20.6 


» 


33-8 


» 


r8.6 


» 


Cultivated fields . 


. 21.8 


» 


43-8 


» 


25.6 


» 


Meadow .... 


20.4 


>/ 


36-4 


» 


19.2 


> 



LoW-LYIt^G BOGS (FlACHMOOb). 



Field . 
Meadow 



Field . 
Meadow 



23.0 » 


48.0 


» 


21.2 


» 


18.2 » 


53-2 


» 


16.4 


?} 


Sandy Soil. 










24.6 » 


57.6 




22.6 


» 


— » 


.52.0 


>y 


21.6 


V 



Torestorp Experimental Station : 



Low-lying bogs. 



Field . 
Meadow 



Field . 
MeadovN' 



20.6 -> 45.8 


» 


15-7 


» 


15.5 » 28.3 


y> 


4.7 


» 


Sandy soil. 








16.6 > 68.4 


>i 


17.2 


> 


14.0 7 43.6 


» 


14.2 


» 



It will be observed that on deep, undrained bog lands the frost pene- 
trates more slowly through the moss than through the heath on bogs that 
are drained, or through ploughed land. In the first case, in two years out 
of three, the frozen crust was thinner, la springtime, the uncultivated soil 
thawed more slowly than the others under experiment ; in 1909 it was not 
completely thawed until June 10, and in 1910 on May 6, that is, 38 and 



220 FREEZING AND THAWING IN SOILS. - FOREMEN FOR IRRIGATION 

13 days later, respectively, than in ploughed land, and 25 and 13 days later 
than in the deep peaty land that had been drained but not cultivated. 
This is explained by the poor conducting power of ploughed sphagnum soil. 

Boggy soil that has been drained and covered with heath freezes more 
slowly than ploughed land without vegetation, but the frost goes deeper and 
is much later in thawing. Deep boggy land, tilled and cultivated, freezes 
much deeper than uncultivated soil, but thaws more rapidly in spring. 

The same thing may be observed with superficial bogs that have been 
simply tilled, but these freeze even deeper and thaw more quickly. 

The experiments on sandy soil showed that the frozen crust is some- 
times thicker, but thaws earlier than in other soils. Meadow lands are not 
easily penetrated by frost, and have always a much thinner frozen crust than 
simply tilled lands. 

Statistical tables and a diagram are given in the original paper. 

Irrigation Stations and School of Foremen for Irrigation and Drainage 
in Hungary. (Ecole des maitres d'eau en Hongrie). — Les Institutions agri- 
coles hongroises, edition du Minist. royal Hongrois de I'agriculture. Buda- 
pest, 1 910. 

Stations of Agricultural Engineers have been established at Arad, Besz- 
Hungary terczebanya, Brasso, Budapest, Debreczen, Kassa, Kolozsvar, Kom^ron, Mis- 
kolcz, Nagyenyed, Nagyv^rad, Nagyszeben, Pecs, Pozsony, S^toraljaujhely, 
Szdkesfeht^rvar, Szonibathely and Temesvar. 

These stations assist farmers in drainage and irrigation works and in 
the regulation of water courses, etc., and even undertake such works as 
they consider of public utility. 

The stations give advice on soil improvement schemes, design the plans 
for projected undertakings, draw up the estimates and devise the means ol 
carrying them out. Permission to use the services of these stations is granted 
on request by the Ministry of Agriculture. The service is gratuitous, the 
expenses of the engineer, or the foreman only being charged. The labour- 
ers, carts, etc., used in the preliminary survey must be gratuitously provided 
by the persons interested. 

The School for Drainage and Irrigation Experts trains a technical 
working staff for employment under the Stations of Agricultural and Hydro- 
graphic Engineers, hydraulic Societies and private individuals, for levelling and 
regulating land, for hydraulic constructions, dykes against inundation, the 
regulation of rivers, etc. 

Entrance to the school is granted either by the Minister, or by the Direc- 
tion of Hydraulic Works, to the agents of irrigation companies, or to pri- 
vate individuals. 



PERCOLATION WATER IN SOILS 221 



Candidates for admittance must not be under 18 nor over 30, they 
must have a strong constitution, be of good conduct, have passed at least 
the 2nd class of a secondary school (gymnasium, technical school, etc.) or have 
the rank of non-commissioned officer. The non-commissioned officers of 
the engineer reserve regiments have the right of priority of admission. 
Private students receive lodging, board and gratuitous medical service. 
Those students who are in the employ of companies, or of individuals, pay, 
for complete board and for writing and drawing materials, 60 crowns per 
month. 

The course lasts 3 years; it begins on December ist and finishes in 
March. The students are admitted free of charge in the spring and go through 
a preliminary course, until the regular course commences. 

M. Gerlach. Researches on the Composition and Quantity of Percolation 
Water. (Untersuchungen iiber die Menge und Zusammensetzung der 
Sickerwasser). — Centralblatt fiir Agrikulturchemie. Leipzig, Okt. 1910, 
No. ID, pp. 647-653. 

As the result of researches made on 1 1 plots of ground in the Province 
of Posen, where the annual rainfall amounts to 500 mm. and the infiltration 
into the soil is 20° j^, the following annual losses per hectare have been 
computed. 

Lime kg. 215 

Potash » 6.T, 

Total Nitrogen » 11.8 

There is no loss of phosphoric acid. This acid is not washed out 
from the soil, even when it is bare of vegetation. The nitrogen contained 
in the soil in the form of nitrates is carried away. No ammonia has been 
found in drainage water. Four unmanured plots lost greater quantities of 
nitrogen than manured plots. 

The greatest loss of potash occtirred in light soils. It is probable that 
sandy soils cannot be permanently enriched with potash. 

The amounts of lime lost were great. The experiments did not confirm 
the idea that lime is more easily removed by water after manuring with 
salts of potash. The greatest loss of lime took place in unmanured soils. 
The amount of magnesium removed by water is also considerable. 

Stanton. A Sudan Reservoir. — Travel and ExpIoratton,'Londor\,'^o. 16, 1910. 

West of Omdurman, extending right down to Korti in Dongola there 
is a vast wady, or depression, known as the Wady Mokattam, some two 



Germany 



222 IRRIGATION RESERVOIR. - ENERGY FROM WATERFALLS 



Sudan 



hundred feet below the level of the Nile at Khartum, and some sixty miles 
from it. It is known that the Nile falls about three hundred and fifty feet 
between Khartum and Abu Hamed, at the upper end of the great bend. 
The depression is nearly two hundred miles in length and varies from one 
to three miles in breadth. Wells are found in considerable numbers in 
parts of the wady, and it is remarkable that the level of the water in 
them varies with the level of the Nile. The Kababish Arabs, the prin- 
cipal tribe in this part of the desert, state that the Wady Mokattam was at 
some remote date the old bed of the Nile before it took the great bend 
round by Abu Hamed. Even to this day, when heavy rains fall in these 
deserts, as they sometimes do, the water rushes down this watercourse to 
the Nile at Korti in a stream over one hundred yards wide and several 
feet deep. It would almost seem as if the traditions of the Kababish Arabs 
are correct and that a prehistoric race once lived where to-day no water 
is to be found. At one] spot the remains of a strong fort of cut stone 
perched high on the top of a hill are visible, while the nearest water is now 
over thirty^miles distant. Petrified forests, too, are to be seen, with trunks 
of trees over a yard in diameter, showing that at some period this now 
waterless desert was covered with thick forest. If a canal were dug from 
the White Nile some thirty miles above Omdurman and connected with 
this wady, and a dam built across its mouth at the narrowest part near 
Korti, an enormous voltmie of the flood-water, which at present escapes 
to the sea, could be impounded for use when the river is low and water 
badly wanted in summer. 



Sweden 

and 
Norway 



Energy from Waterfalls in Sweden and Norway. — JJie Tunes Engineering 
Supplement, Nov. i6, 1910, p. 15, London. 

The Govermnents of Sweden and Norway have been very much 
interested of late years in -some projects for utilising electric power on 
certain State Railways, and in various industries. According to a recent 
report, the Government of Sweden, which has been buying up waterfalls 
for the past fifteen years, has now enough falls at its disposal to produce 
545 145 HP, the Numedal Fall alone being estimated at 164 000 HP. This 
power is not yet utilised, although many projects have been made. 

Sweden is ahead of Norway in the utilisation of hydraulic power ; the 
State decided in 1906 to utilise the great Trollhattan Falls to the extent 
of 80 000 HP, and the plant for half this power has already been put up 
and began to work this year. 

The Royal Hydraulic Power Council is also building an electric station 
for 50 000 HP at the Porjus Falls. When the works on the lakes above 
the Station have been completed, as well as those on some portions of the 
River Luie, the State will have at least 300 000 HP at its disposal. 



IRRIGATION EXPERIMENTS 



223 



The Riksdag has voted 21 500 000 kr. (28 595 000 frs.) for the hydraulic 
station at Porjus and the railway from Porjus to Gellivare. 

Preliminary investigations are being made for regulating the out flow 
from some of the large lakes and rivers and for the utilisation of the 
waterfalls bought by the State, and a complete hiventory has already been 
begun of the hydraulic power of Sweden. According to a brief report 
published in 1903, the State then owned 267 waterfalls. 

The power now owned by the State is estimated at 670 000 HP (63 000 
already utilised), which can be used during nine months of the year. 

Gerlach. Irrigation of Light Soils. (Versuche liber die Bewasserung des 
leichten Ackerbodens). — Mitteilungen des Kaiser Wilhelnis [nstituts filr 
Landwirtschaft in Bromberg, B. III., H. i, p. 6-7. Berlin. 



Experiments continued since 1906 have already given the following re- 
sults; 

i) Irrigation of light soils has increased the crops in every case. 

2) The increase of the crops is not always satisfactory unless irrigation 
is accompanied by heavy manuring. Water can not be used advantageously 
on light soils without large quantities of nitrogenous fertilisers. 

3) The certainty of the result is very largely dependent on the time 
when the soil is watered, which should be when the ^plants are in full ve- 
getation 

4) When the quantity of irrigation water is not more tham 20 m/m 
deep at a time, its temperature may be as low as 5° or 6° Centigrade. 



GerMMy 



Kruger. New Irrigation Experiments. (Die Ackerbewasserung). — Mittei- 
lungen des Kaiser JVilhelms Instittits filr Landwirtschaft in Bromberg. 
{Abteiliing filr Meliorationsiveseii). Bd. Ill, H. i, pp. 15-20. Berlin. 

Remarkable results have|been given by irrigation|experiments on various 
■cultivations with constant manuring, in continuation of those made in previous 
years, at the Farm Station of the Emperor William Agricultural Institute at 
Bromberg. The main^ object of the experiments was to determine the in- 
fluence of the period, duration and amount of irrigation on crops and the 
net profit. 

The experiments were made Vith ^potatoes, oats, kidney-beans, and 
cabbage, and irrigation by absorption was applied by flooding and watering 
with a hose, previous experiments having shown that furrow-irrigation gave 
negative results. During the first year (1909) the rainfall, from April to 
July, was 164 mm. 



Germany 



224 IRRIGATION EXPERIMENTS 

Potatoes. — Two series of experiments were made : 

of short duration: July 17, August 17 . . . days 62 
» long » May 15, Sept. 10 . . . . » 118. 

The best results were obtained with prolonged watering, and hose- 
watering was of greater advantage than absorption ; the quantity of water 
distributed varied from 500 to 2400 cubic metres per hectare. 

The following results were obtained: 

Increase of produce . . . . 15 300 Kgs. per Hectare 
» of starch produced . 3 400 » » » 

r . u i ^^^ irrigated plots . . 17.2% 
Percentage of starch t ■ . j 1 . ^0/ 

° / Irrigated plots . . . . 21.6/0 



Increase . . . 4.4 "/o 

Increase of gross yield fr. 471 per Hectare 

» of net profit fr. 304 •» » 

The most profitable proportion of water was 1200 cubic metres per 
hectare, distributed at the rate of 10 m/m in depth each time, the net 
profit being 0.27 fr. per cubic metre. 

Peat compost used as top dressing gave no result. 

Oats. — Two series of experiments were made on light sandy soil, by 
hose-watering : 

a) from May 13 to July 3 . . 52 days 140 m/m water 

b) t> » 29 » 4 . . 26 » 100 » 

The following increase was obtained : 

a) b) 

Grains 1540 kgs. 860 kgs. per hectare 

Gross value 370 frs. 221 frs. » » 

Early watering, because the spring was dry, gave an increase of 148 frs. 
per 400 cubic metres of water, corresponding to 0.40 fr. per cubic metre. 

DwarJ beans. — Grown in sand: hose-watering gave the following 
results: 

Increase Increase 

of yield of profit 

950 m/m of water 700 kgs. per hect. frs. 147 per hect. 
1800 » ' 3200 » » » 668 » 



IRRIGATION 225 



Cabbage. — Grown on clay soil: hose-watering gave the following results: 

Increase Hrofit per cub. met 

of profit of water 

105 m/m of water frs. 430 per hectare 0.31 frs. 

220 ■» » » 656 » » 0.40 * 

Generally speaking, irrigation gave a considerable increase in the crops 
and in the net profit. The advantage ot prolonged irrigation was clearly 
demonstrated in the case of potatoes and oats ; in the case of oats early 
watering was especially profitable. Whether an early start would be better 
for potatoes also is still to be investigated. The question is not yet settled 
with regard to the other " hoed " {sarclS) crops. 

E. GoLTARA. Hydrographical Map of Italy. Irrigation in the Province of 

Bergamo. {Carta idrografica d' Italia. Irrigazione delta provhicia di Ber- 
gamo). Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio. Vol. Vl-bis, 
1910. Rome, Tipografia Nazionale, p. 320 (i). 

About 48 280 hectares in the plain of Bergamo are irrigated and about 
II 917 hectares remain to be brought under irrigation. 

The area which may be considered dry includes all the hill and mountain \^g^\y 
region and measures about 203 921 ^hectares. As a rule, a seven years 
rotation of crops on a dry soil will give a gross return of 140 frs. per 
hectare, whilst the gross return of the same land when irrigated is about 
235 frs. 

The best and most extensively irrigated district is the valley of the river 
OgHo, closely followed by those of the Brembo, Adda, Serio and Cherio 
The most extensive irrigated cultivations in the plains of Bergamo are : 

I. Maize about 28 000 hectares 

2 Permanent grasses and marcite (2). » 5 000 * 

3. Temporary meadows ..... * 3 000 * 

4. Flax » 400 » 

5. Rice-fields (on the decrease) . . » 600 » 

6. Melon beds. 

7. Marke gardens. 



l^i) Under the title of c Carta idrografica d'ltalia » (Hydrographical map of Italy) 
the Italian Ministry of Agriculture publishes an important series of volumes, dating from 
1888, illustrated by maps, diagrams and tables, containing a complete hydrographical 
^survey of the different regions of Italy. 

All questions dealing with Italian rivers and water-courses, from the historical, tech- 
nical, statistical and economical points of view, are treated. Thirty-four volumes have 
already been published. 

(2) In Lombardy, meadows irrigated during winter by water kept flowing over them 
are called marcite. They are celebrated for their numerous heavy yields. \Ed. 



226 IRRIGATION: IN ITALY, IN INDIA, IN EGYPT 

When the high level of the lands renders irrigation impossible, the 
farmers counteract drought by increased manuring and frequent hoeing. 
This plan is adopted on the very fertile plateau called Isola, between the 
Brembo and the Adda and the northern mountains, the soil consisting 
chiefly of deep clay. 

The grazing industry is very profitable in the Alpine regions, the soil 
getting fertihsed by the abundant manure produced. Some small part of 
the Alpine land is watered from natural sources. 

In the hill regions where irrigation is not possible, vineyards, mul- 
berry plantations, olive groves, etc., which suffer little from the lack of 
water, are cultivated in preference to green crops. 

The volume giving this .information on the agriculture of the province 
of Bergamo is plentifully supplied with maps and hydrometric data. 

Projected Irrigation from the River Tendula, in British India. (Das Tendula- 
BcAvasserungsprojekt in Britisch-Indien) — Deutsches Kolonialblatt, Berlin, 
Nov. I, 1910. 

The irrigation plans for the Tendula River, in Central India, have been 
British approved by the Secretary of State. Though not attaining the magnitude 
'* of the Punjab works, these plans when carried out will be highly beneficial 
to Indian agriculture. 

About 16000 million cubic feet of water (i cubic foot =:= 0.028 315 cub 
met.) flow yearly in the Tendula and the Lukka, but 9000 million cubic 
feet would be sufficient for the projected irrigation. The principal canal 
will be 40 miles long (equal to 64 kilometres), out of a total area of 608 516 
acres (equal to 245 840 hectares) more than a third will be irrigated each 
year. An irrigation tax of 2 rupees (3.20 frs.) per acre will be imposed. 

As soon as the works on the Tendula and the I.ukka are complete, 
other irrigation works will be begun for the benefit of the Central Provinces. 

Zimmerman. The Nile during the last Fifty Years. — La Quinzaine Coloniah, 
Paris, Oct. 25, 1910. 

It may be said that we are perhaps only at the beginning of the util- 
Egypt isation of the Nile. Sir W. Willcocks proposes forming a sort of new Lake 
Moeris by filUng the depression of the Wady Rayan, 41 metres below sea- 
level. The Lake would be 70 metres deep and with the Assouan reser* 
voir Would help to supply Egypt with water from March to May. 

Great projects are being discussed for the Egyptian Sudan : local dams 
on the Blue Nile, the Atbara and the Gash, with the object of fertilising 
the plains to the North of the Abyssinian range, dredging the bed of the 



IRRIGATION IN THE UNITED STATES. - TILLAGE 



227 



Bahr-el-Giraf, opening a new channel for the river across the swamps, and 
later on building dams on the Albert Lake. In short, the immense quantities 
of water descending from the Abyssinian mountains are to be utilised to the 
fullest possible extent. 

Irrigation Investigations in the United States. — U. S. Dept. of Agric. An- 
nual Report of the Office of Experiment Stations. 1909, pp. 34-39. Wash- 
ington, 1910. 

Irrigation is developing rapidly in the United States. The following 
official data are given: 

Acres Hectares 

Area already provided with canals, not yet cultivated 5 670 570 2 295 777 
Area in course of irrigation 8424026 3410537 

To this must be added 12 972 000 acres (5 252 000 hectares) which are 
already irrigated and cultivated, so that, even allowing for possible repeti- 
tions in the above figures, the total irrigated area of the United States will 
shortly be doubled, attaining about 24 700 000 acres (10 millions hectares). 

The net cost is as follows : 



Year 

1904 

1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 



Irrigation 
area 



Total cost 



1378576 
I 026 418 
I 260 920 

1 905 950 

2 287 487 



hectares 
538 128 

415554 
510494 
771 640 
926 108 



dollars 
27 779542 
26 767 900 
40 320 816 
72 100 000 

86 964 445 



francs 
138897 709 

133839500 
201 649 079 

360 500 000 

434822 225 



Cost per 

acre 

dollars 

20.88 

28.08 

31.05 
37-90 
30.41 



Cost per 
hectare 
francs 

258.18 
347-16 

395-05 
467.28 

487.25 



These figures represent the average cost ; in practice, it varied from 
17,69 to 67.04 dollars per acre, 218.75 to 828.75 f''^- 

The average cost per hectare was 9.04 doll. (11 1.83 frs.) in 1900, and 
9.42 doll. (116.53 f^s.) in 1902, showing an increase of Z'^l^l^. 



United 
States 



ScHANDER and Wolff. Experiments on the Influence of Tillage and Fer- 
tilisers on the Natural Fauna of the Soil. (Versuche iiber den Einfluss 
der Bodenbearbeitung auf natiirliche Bodenfauna). — Mitteilungen des 
Kaiser Wilhelms Instituts filr Landwirtschaft in Bromberg. B. Ill, H. i, 
p. 51, Berlin. 

The effect of mechanical and chemical treatments (tillage, rolling and 
manuring) on the fauna of some virgin forest land were studied. Three large 
plots were first marked out: 



Germany 



aa8 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTATION 



Hungary 



a) manured with potash ; 

b) treated with hme 

€) treated with common salt. 

Each plot was laid down : 

73 with lupins; 
" " potatoes ; 
" oats. 

Plots a) and U) were tilled: 



1. with very deep autumn ploughing; 

2. with shallow spring ploughing; 

3. with simple superficial ploughing. 

Plot c) on the contrary, was tilled; 

1. with deep autumn ploughing; 

2. with simple superficial ploughing. 

Each subdivision was further divided in two parts, one of which was 
rolled and the other not. The first results showed that lupins and potatoes 
are less strongly attacked by skip-jacks {Agrioies sp.) in soil treated with 
potash. No favourable effect upon them was obtained by the lime dressing, 
and the effect of common 'salt' was uncertain. Deep ploughing proved in- 
effectual while shallow ploughing was highly beneficial. 

In the case of the oats only the potash treatment was effective against 
thrips ; because in oats treated with potash the ear grows out of the sheath 
more rapidly. 

The Hungarian' Agricultural Experimental Station at Magyarovar. (Station 
royale d'experiences agricoles k Magyar6vd.r). — Les Institutions Agricoks 
Hongroises. Edition du Minist. Royal Hongrois de I'Agric. Budapest, 
1910, 

The Agricultural Experimental Station at Magyar6vir and its branch 
at Arad have undertaken some practical experiments on the culture and 
use of new species of plants, and on the employment of manures. The 
experiments are carried out with the cooperation of farmers. 

The Hungarian Central Agricultural Experiment Station Committee at 
Budapest. — Les Institutions Agricoles Hongroises. Edition du Minist. 
Royal Hongrois de I'Agric. Budapest, 19 10. 

Hungary The Central Agricultural Experiment Committee at Budapest (Depart- 

ment of Agriculture) directs the work of the Hungarian Experiment Sta- 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTATION 



229 



tions, and publishes reports in the periodical Kiserleiilgyi Kdzleinenyek (Com- 
munications on agricultural experiments). 



G. Valder. Farmers' Experiments in New South Wales, Summer Crop 
Season 1909-1910. — Agrictdttiral Gazette of New South Wales, Oc- 
tober 4, 1 910. 

Twenty plots of land in the Coastal Districts and sixteen in the Inland 
Districts were selected for experiments with maize for grain, forage-maize, 
sorghum, millet and cowpeas (i), for fodder. The following varieties of maize 
were used: "Yellow Dent" and "Hickory King" for fodder and grain, be- 
cause they had given the best results last season; "Iowa Silvermine " because 
it is a quick growing fodder and grain variety, and "Pride of the North" 
on account of its early ripening for grain. The new varieties imported 
from the United States include': "Funk's Yellow Dent," "Boone County 
Special," "Cocke's Prolific" and "Marlbro' Prolific; " from Victoria, "Long- 
fellow," "Early Yellow Dent," "Sibley" and "Early Leaming." 

The "Yellow Dent" is the best all-round variety yet obtained and is 
to be used as a standard for testing the new Victorian and American va- 
rieties. Its ears are large, grain long and narrow, with small core, and 
the fodder of excellent quality. 

The "Hickory King" gave inferior results both in grain and fodder. 

The "Iowa Silvermine" was the best early variety, both for grain and 
fodder. 

The "Pride of the North" came next to " Iowa Silvermine " for early 
grain but was far inferior to it as fodder. 

The results of manure on rich soils such as those of Pambula, Tumut 
and Grafton, were economically unsatisfactory, but on the poorer soils of 
Myrtle Creek, Moss Vale, etc., manuring gave the remarkable yield of 
10 bushels of grain and 2 to 3 tons of green fodder per acre. Ihe in- 
crease of production was 16' ^ cwt. of green fodder and 3 bushels of grain 
per acre, at a cost of los. for manure. 

Of the varieties obtained from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
"Funk's Yellow Dent" and "Boone County Special" proved good grain 
varieties, while "Cocke's Prolific" and "Marlbro' Prolific" were particu- 
larly good for fodder and ensilage. 



Common- 
wealth 
of 
Australia: 
New 
South 
Wales 



(i ) Covvpea ( Vigna Catjang, Walp. and V. Sinensis Eadl.). The cowpea is a leguminous 
plant comprising about thirty species allied to Dolichos and /'/^aj^^/wj' (the common bean). 
The nomenclature of the cultivated varieties of the cow-pea is very confused. It is 
known in the South of the United States as Black-Eyed Pea and Cornfield Pea. It is 
grown for hay and green manure, and also furnishes a bean which has for a long time 
past been used for human consumption. 

See H. Bailey, Cyclop, of Atner. Hort., vol. IV, p. 193 1). [^Etf], 



230 AGRIC. EXPERIMENTATION. - NITRO-BACTERINE, ETC. 

Among the sorghums, the "Planter's Friend,'' Sorghum Saccharaium, and 
"Early Amber Cane," already grown in New S. Wales, have proved to be better 
than any of the newly imported varieties of sorghum. New experiments have 
again shown the "Planter's Friend" to be the best all-round variety known. 
The "Early Amber Cane" is a quicker grower and of excellent quality, 
and therefore a good variety for early feed. The Sorghum Saccharahnn was 
not quite equal to the other two. 

The sowing of sorghum and cowpeas together did not give such good 
results as a mixture of cow pea and maize. 

Trials were made with the following varieties of cowpeas. "Black," 
"White," "Clay-coloured," "New Era" and "Whip-poor-will;" "Black" 
and "Clay-coloured" gave the heaviest crops, also 'when sown with maize 
or sorghum. 

The ensilage experiments gave excellent results, and greatly contributed 
to recommend the system. 

H. L. Gallwev. Nitro-bacterine Experiments at St Helena. (Agriculture, 
Forests and Gardens). — Colonial Reports, Annual, n. 638, p. 11, St. He- 
lena. London, 1910. 

Experiments in St. Helena with nitro-bacterine, on poor soils sown with oats, 
gave very satisfactory results, the crop reaching a height of 4 7a feet, having 
Saint never been higher than from 9 to 12 inches previously, and yielding an ex- 
cellent fodder and plentiful grain. 

The) cost is not more than 5 s. per acre (about 15 frs. p. ha.); a great 
advantage over heavy manures where communications are defective and 
transport costly. 

Influence of Molasses on Soil Fertility. — The Agricultural News, vol. IX, 
n. 222, p. 339, Barbados, Oct. 29, 1910. 

An article by Mr. W. P. Ebbels on the fertilising effect of molasses 
on sugar cane soils, led to some experiments being carried out by the 
Agricultural Department in Antigua. The first results are given in the Re- 
Leeward port on Sugar Cane Experiments in the Leeward Islands, and in Pamphlet 
leies: 5^ of the Department Series; and the experiments are being continued. 

It appears that the good effects of the molasses are still observable 
after the third ratoons in cases where the molasses had been applied to 
the land before planting. In one such case the third ratoon yielded 12 tons 
more of cane per hectare than land untreated with molasses. These re- 
sults are confirmed by M. P. Boname, Director of the Station Agronomique, 
Mauritius. 

The effect of molasses is better than that of other manures containing 



SPECIAL FERTILISERS. - NITROGENOUS FERTILISERS 231 

the same quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash in a different form ; 
this may be due to its action in developing certain soil bacteria. 
The quantity employed is about 74 hectolitres per hectare. 

Dr. J. KoNiG. The New Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilisers. (Ueber Norgesal- 
peter, Kalkstickstofif und Stickstoffkalk). — Zeitsc/irift der Landw. Kammer 
Hcrz. Braunschweig, Braunschweig, No. 11 and 18, 1910. 

This article deals vvith the present state of production of nitrate of 
lime, calcium cyanamide, and nitrogenous lime {Stickstoffkalk) in relation 
to other sources of nitrogenous fertilisers. After a brief outline of the 
investigations made, for determining the fertilising value of the three new 
nitrogen compounds, their behaviour in the soil and action on its bacterio- 
logical flora, the writer comes to the following conclusions: 

i) As calcium cyanamide absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from 
the air, with loss of nitrogen, even when kept in a dry place, it is not 
advisable to store it for any length of time. 

2) Calcium cyanamide has a disagreeable smell. It produces much fine 
dust when handled, and Can therefore only be applied to the soil by manure 
drills or by mixing it with slightly moistened mould and spreading it by 
hand. (It has recently been so prepared as to avoid this drawback). 

3) Calcium cyanamide may be mixed with salts of potash as well as 
with Thomas slag, or with both together. But it should never be mixed 
with superphosphates. 

4) Calcium cyanamide should not be used on sour organic soils, as 
peat soils, or those deficient in lime and with a tendency to sourness, nor for 
poor, sandy soils. It is not suitable for summer top dressings, being used 
in top dressings at most only for winter crops and for permanent pastures. 
The fertiliser must be spread not later than February. 

5) Calcium cyanamide may be advantageously used for all other 
soils, especially for light clays, containing a sufficient quantity of lime, and 
regularly manured with stable manure, provided the following rules be 
observed: 

a) It should be applied from 8 to 15 days before .sowing; 

U) The quantity must not exceed 300 kg. to the hectare (^n 60 kg. 
cif nitrogen per hectare) ; 

c) It should be ploughed in deeply, so as to well mix the fertiliser 
with the soil; 

a) It must not be used on moist soils, or on those heated by the 
sun, which would cause loss of nitrogen. 

If used with these precautions, calcium cyanamide may advantageously 
replace sodium nitrate and ammonia salts for all kinds of crops. 



Germany 



232 



CALCIUM CYANAMIDE. - PHOSPHATES 



The production of these artificial fertiUsers derived from atmospheric ni- 
trogen removes all fear of any deficiency in the supply of nitrogenous fer- 
tilisers arising from the exhaustion of the Chili nitrate deposits. Moreover 
their use will prevent an immoderate rise in the price of nitrogenous ferti- 
lisers, which till quite recently have been an absolute monopoly. Indeed, 
their price has already diminished of late years, although the consumption 
is much greater than before. It is in the general interest of agriculture that 
the new industries connected with the utilisation of atmospheric nitrogen 
should be successful. 

P. Hannsch. Calcium Cyanamide as a Fertiliser. (Kalkstickstoff). —La/id- 
und Volkswirtschaftl. Mitteilungen, Linz. Nov. 1910. No. 22. pp. 242-243. 

This article deals with the decomposition of calcium cyanamide in the 
soil, and its effects in dift'erent cases. In peat soils, rich in humus, in 
Austria damp meadows, and generally in all soils which, being deficient in lime, 
are of an acid nature, calcium cyanamide does not give good results. Where 
its use is advisable, the quantity should not exceed the proportion of 150 to 
300 kg. per hectare. 

Excessive dressings with calcium cyanamide prevent its transformation 
into nitrates by the bacteria of the soil. 

Calcium cyanamide should be well mixed with the soil, and never 
used when the soil is warm or damp, and never as a top dressing. 

EsME Howard. Hungarian State Monopoly Bill for Nitrate of Potash. 

— The Board of Trade Jourtuil. London, Nov. 5, 1910, p. 232. 

Hungary A Bill was passed by the Hungarian House of Representatives on 

October 5th, making the production of nitrate of potash a State monopoly. 

Levat. Process for' Enriching Natural Phosphates. (Brevet franqais du 
8 mars 1910). — L'E/igrais, Lille, Nov. 1910, No. 45, p. 1252. 

The carbonates of lime contained in the phosphates are transformed 
France into calcium chloride by! means of ammonium chloride; the calcium chloride 
is leached out and the ammonium chloride regenerated. 



France 



Bardy. Improvement in the Process of Enriching Phosphates of Lime. 

(Brevet fran^jais du 17 Juin 1909). — L Engrais, Lille, November 1910, 
No. 45, p. 1252. 

The phosphatic chalks, containing 60-70 "/^ of carbonate of lime, are 
burned so as to decompose the carbonates. The lime is then dissolved away 



PYROPHOSPHATES. - ROCK PHOSPHATES 



233 



by a 10 or i2°/o solution of sugar. The sucrate of lime thus formed is 
then decomposed to regenerate the sugar. 



E. VoGLiNO. The Pyrophosphates, New Phosphatic Fertilisers in the 
Cultivation of Sugar Beets. (Nuovi concimi fosfatici nella coltivazione 
delle bietole zuccherine). — // Coltivatore, Casal Monferrato, 6th year. 
No. 30, Oct. 30, 1910, p. 370-372. 

Experiments have been made at Alexandria, in Piedmont, with two new 
fertilisers, prepared by a Firm at Vercelli : Simple Pyrophosphate and Acid 
Pi7'.9///(?,'.;/'//a/^, the first containing i7*'/o and the second 19% of phosphoric 
pentoxide. soluble in dilute citric acid. 

The experiments were made to form a comparison with mineral super- 
j)hosphates, and with a plot cultivated without any phosphatic manure. The 
results showed: 

1) That simple pyrophosphate has an action slightly inferior to that 
of mineral superphosphate, containing an equal quantity of phosphoric pen- 
toxide ; 

2) That acid pyrophosphate increases production when compared 
with mineral superphosphates, containing an equal quantity of phosphoric 
I'entoxide ; 

3) That there is no difference in the percentage of sugar contained 
in the beets, when manured with superphosphates or with pyrophosphates. 



Italy 



Phosphate Rock. — Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, London, Novem- 
ber 4. 1910. 

The demand for mineral phosphates in the chemical manure industry 
is continually increasing. 

The total annual output of mineral phosphates is now about 5 mil- 
lion tons, America being in the first rank of producers with 2 million tons. 
Tunis produces, about 907 000 tons, the Pleasant Islands 250 000 tons. ^There 
are deposits estimated at about 10 million tons in the Makaten Islands of 
the Archipelago of Tuamotu, which will be worked for many years to come. 



World 
Production 



Henry Bartmanx. Manganese as a Fertiliser. — Journal d' Agriculture 
pratique, No. 47, Paris, November 24, 1910, pp. 666-667. 

The action of a manganese fertiliser has been tried in the Experimental 
field at Rueil (Seine and Oise) on a light silico-calcareous, sandy soil, poor 
in fertilising elements. 

The experiments were made : 

i) on the comparative action of the different salts and products ot 
manganese ; 



France : 
Seine et Oise 



234 MANGANESE FERTILISERS. - DRY FARMING 



2) on the action of increasing doses of manganose and manganese 
lime, the two new manganese fertilisers. (Manganose is a 15 per cent car- 
bonate of manganese, and the manganese lime also contains 15 per cent of 
manganese in the form of sub-oxides). 

In the first experiment the fertilisers tried were; manganese dioxide, 
chloride, sulphate, manganese lime and manganose, and finally simple lime, 
in order to observe the action of the manganese in the manganese lime. 
The experimental plots measured 2.50 m. by 2 metres, and the fertilisers 
were used in proportions corresponding to 300 gr. of manganese per are {1). 
The plants experimented upon were turnips, peas and beans. The crops 
showed little evidence of the action of the three salts, manganese dioxide, 
manganese chloride and manganese sulphate ; but the carbonate and the 
sub-oxides had a marked beneficial influence on the early development and 
size of the produce. 

Potatoes, maize and beets on plots of 50 square metres were used for 
the experiments on the action of increased doses of manganose and of 
manganese lime in proportions of 200. 400 and 600 kg. per hectare. 

These experiments showed: 

i) that the most suitable quantity of manganose and manganese lime 
is between 200 and 400 kg. to the hectare ; beyond 400 kg. the effect is 
insignificant and even injurious ; 

2) manganose and manganese lime have practically the same effect, 
the difterence in their action being due to the amount of lime in the soil, 
the manganese lime having most eftect on soils jioor in lime. 

The manganese fertilisers hasten germination and undoubtedly improve 
the quality of the crops. 

BouRDiOL-HuMBERT. Defccts in Australian and American Dry Farming 
Methods for the Arid Regions of Algeria and Tunis. — Frop-cs aiJ^ricole 
et viticole. No. 48, Montpellier, Nov. 27, 1910, pp. 658-662. 

The greatest drawbacks for agriculture presented by the ( limate of 
Tunis Algeria and lunis are: 

i) Persistent drought during certain winters and springs; 

2) A too rainy winter followed by an excessively damp spring; 

3) Early siroccos, or strong West winds, in April and May. 

The writer considers it a mistake to adopt in Algeria and Tunis the 
dry farming methods which are used with advantage in the United States 



Algeria. 



(i) I are = lOO square metres := 1 19.6 square yards ~=:r 0.0247 acres \Ed.'\, 



1 



DRV FARMING IN ALGERIA AND TUNIS 235 

and in Australia, in the so-called semi-arid regions. There are great diffe- 
rences in climate, especially in the rainfall, and in the nature of the soil, 
between Algeria and the arid regions of the Western States of the United 
States and Australia. It is therefore necessary to adopt special methods 
peculiarly adapted to each country. The writer suggests a method of farming 
for Algeria and Tunis based on the following principles: 

1) Aeration ^nd freque/it breaking up of the surface of the soil; 

2) Successive storing of rainwater in the soil; 

3) Almost complete suppression of soil evaporation ; 

4) The direction and width of the drill furrows and their distance 
from each other to be determined by the nature of the soil and according 
to the climate. 

The American and Australian methods of dry farming aim only at re- 
taining moisture in the soil until the time of solving. Whereas in Algeria and 
Tunis, soil evaporation except by transpiration through the crops shouhl 
be prevented, and the only economical and advantageous method of attaining 
this result is repeated breaking up of the surface after each fall of rain 
and during the whole period of vegetation. 

This method has given remarkable results with cereals. 

Algeria and Tunis may be divided into three agricultural areas: 

i) The low coast districts, subject to irregular rain and early siroccos ; 

2) Districts lying between 600 and 800 metres above sea level, subject 
to regular rains ; 

3) High table lands or plateaux between 900 and 1200 metres, where 
the rains are ver}'^ irregular. South winds are frequent and the temperature is 
liable to sudden and considerable changes. 

The usual preparatory tillage is in general sufficient for the second region, 
but in the coast-region, superficial breaking of the soil must follow pre- 
paratory tillage throughout the luJiole period of vegetation. In the third region 
preparatory tillage is useless, and economical superficial hoeing must be 
repeated after each shower, all the year raund, both on bare soils and oti soils 
lAth groiving crops, in order that the almost complete suppression of evapo- 
ration may be insured. 

The advantages of this superficial culture for cereals in seed-rows set 
widely apart are: that large and small farms can be easily cultivated in this 
way, and an uninterrupted succession of good crops obtained even without 
the use of manures ; only a hoe or a cultivator, drawn by a good horse, arc 
wanted ; the rain gets safely stored in the soil as soon as it falls ; weeds 
are completely stamped out. Heavier crops can thus be had in Algeria 
than have hitherto been produced, while in most soils cultivation with the 
[plough can be entirely dispensed with. 



236 



SEED-CONTROL STATIONS. - SEED-DISINFECTION 



Hungary 



Hungarian Stations for Seed Control. — Les FnatUutions Agricoles H'ongroisc.'^, 
Edition du Minist. Royal Hongr. de I'Agric. Budapest, 1910. 

In Hungary all the seed testing stations have official authority for ap- 
plying the law against the adulteration of seeds, of farm products and of 
substances required in agriculture. There is a .special tariff for the Station 
work, but in the case of seed tests made for farmers as to identity, purity, 
germination and freedom from dodder icusaitd), there is no charge. 

Cleaned and pure clover seeds are supplied with a certificate of their 
freedom from dodder. Hay and fodders are examined from the botanical point 
of view, and weeds and their seeds are determined and methods of control 
indicated. 



H. ScHROEDEK. Resistance of Wheat and Barley Seeds to various Poi- 
sons with Regard to Seed-disinfection. (Die Widerstandsfahigkeit des 
Weizen und Gerstenkorns gegen Gifte und ihre Bedeutung fiir die Ste- 
lilisation). — Ccntralblatt filr Bacteriologlc, Parasitenkunde und hifectiom- 
krankheiten, 28 Bd. n. 161 19, pp. 492-505. Jena, Nov. 15. 1910. 

The sterilisation of vegetable tissues is rendered difficult by the da- 
mage caused by the antiseptics to the living organs of the plant. Cereal 
grains, on the other hand, are generally enclosed in membranes that are 
impervious to silver nitrate, to copper sulphate, to sodium fluoride and to 
bai-ium chloride solutions, although pervious to iodine, to corrosive subli- 
Gernany mate, to ether, to chloroform and to acetic acid. A 0.2 to cy^/o solution of 
corrosive sublimate destroys the germinative power of the seeds in 18 hour.s, 
whilst a 24 hours' contact with a 6 "/,, solution of nitrate of silver is 
harmless. 

The protection offered by the membrane surrounding the seeds is not 
limited only to aqueous solutions, but it extends also to anhydrous poisons, 
alcohol, ether, etc., as appears from the following e.xperiments with whole 
or partly decorticated grains. 

The following table gives the percentage of the seeds capable of ger- 
mination after treatment with the chemical agents during a certain number 
of hours (i): 



^i) The results of these experiments on the vitality of seeds subjected to chemical 
reagents, regard seed? not completely dry. 



SEEDS: DISINFECTION 



23V 



Percentages of germinating seeds. 







Control 


Ether 




Alcohol 


Chi 


oroform 


T>ixration of the treatment, in hours . . 


24 


48 


144 


24 


1 
48 1 144 

1 


24 


48 






144 


Whole grains 


95 


1 9S 


84 


79 


55 65 


65 


70 


1 
65 63.5 






100 


87 


93 


58 


47 73 


47 


73 


1 
66 1 92 




1 


Grains decorticated when dry, near the 


embryo . 


100 


9'^ ■ 45 

1 











° 









The spores of a large number of bacteria act ia a similar manner with 
regard to the chemical reagents, which naturally makes sterilisation very 
difficult. 

Sterilisation is only possible when there are quantitative differences 
which permit of the alteration of the spore membranes and the consecutive 
toxic action of the antiseptics on the bacteria and their spores before the 
antiseptics have time to damage the protective membrane of the grains. 

Satisfactory results have been obtained with silver nitrate, which, in a 
47o solution, killed in one hour the spores of B. Anthracis without affect- 
ing the germinative power of the seeds. 

The advantages of this system of sterilisation may be summed up as 
follows ; 

i) there is a sufficient margin between the killing of the spores and 
the destruction of the germinative power of the grains on which the spores 
are resting; 

2) the silver nitrate used as an antiseptic may easily be rendered 
harmless by a solution ot sodium chloride; 

3) during the process of disinfection, the seeds swell, and on their 
smoothed surface the silver nitrate comes promptly into contact with the 
spores adhering externally to the seed (i). 



(l) Seeds may be remarkably resistant lo chemical agents when dry and when their 
enveloping membranes are intact, and when the antiseptics, such as alcohol, are as far 
as possible deprived of water. But when the seeds have been swollen in water, or when 
the chemical agents are in aqueous solution, or when the outer membranes of the seeds 
have been punctured or bruised, the toxic action of the antiseptic soon destroys the vi- 
tality of the seed. 

See ItaLO Giglioli, Resistcnza del semi, specialmente del semi di medica, all'azione 
prolungata di civaiti chimici gasosi e liquidi. « Gazzetta Chimica italiana », vol. IX, 1879, 
pag. 474. [Ed]. 



23S 



SEEDS: DISINFECTION 



Disinfection of Maize Seed. — The Agricultural N'e^vs, vol. IX, No. 222. 
Barbados, p. 350, Oct. 29. iqio. 

It has been considered advisable ;lo disinfect the seed of maize at 
Antigua in consequence of the frequenc}' of disease in the roots of maize and 
of isolated cases of smut. 

Experiments have been made at the laborator)' of the Department of 
Agriculture to ascertain whether solutions of corrosive sublimate damage the 
seeds. Of six lots of seed, the first was steeped in the solution for 40 mi- 
nutes, the second for 25 and the third for 20; the other three were not 
treated at all. They were all placed in the germinating chamber, and within 
five days had germinated in the following proportion: 





Seeds treated 
Germination per 


cent. 


Seeds not treated. 
Germination per cent 


Lot I 
» II 
» III 




97 
99 
93 








74 

73 
82 


of I 3 davs ; 














Lot I 
» II 
* III 




98 
99 
98 








81 
86 

87 



This proves not only that corrosive sublimate is not harmful to the 
Maize seed, but seems rather to favour germination. 

In these experiments the seeds that had not been treated were sown 
dry, but other experiments were made in which the seeds not treated were 
steeped in distilled water for 20 minutes and the others for the same period 
in a I 7oo solution of corrosive sublimate. 

The percentage of germination was as follows, at the end of two days: 





Treated seeds, 


Untreated seeds, 




per cent 


per cent 


Lot I 


82 


52 


» II 


76 


27 


» III 


70 


83 


of the next 


three days: 




Lot I 


99 


83 


» II 


98 


60 


» III 


99 


69 



The seeds treated with water only, continued to germinate for 18 days 
more, when the following were found to have germinated out of 300 seeds: 





Untreated seeds 
per cent 


Lot I 
» II 

V III 




98 
96 
96 






I 



*' 
:« 



WHEAT SEED. - SELECTION IN SWITZERLAND 



239 



These figures show that treatment with dilute corrosive subHmate soki- 
tion increases the percentage of germination, diminishes the chances of in- 
fection with fungoid diseases, acts as a stimukis to germination, and produces 
plants of more regular development from having germinated at the same time. 

Mr. C. J. Simmons, of St. Vincent, informed the Department of Agri- 
culture that this treatment of maize seeds is practised on several estates in 
that island, with satisfactory results. It is taking the place of the old system 
of immersion in salt water. 

G. Martinet. The Advantages of Selection of Native Wheat in the 
Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. (Bles indigenes selectionnes et bles 
dtrangers). — La Terre Vaiidoise, 2nd year, No. 49. igio, pp. 516-517. 
Lausanne. 



" The Federal Seed Station at Lausanne sent several samples of Swiss 
native selected wheat in 1909 to Mr. Alfred Jordan of Carrouge, an expert 
in wheat selection, in order that he might cultivate them on a large scale. 
The comparative experiments were carried out at Jorat, at an altitude of 
about 729 metres (2400 feet) above sea-level. The weather prevented the 
sowing of the wheat until December 4th, an extremely late date, especially 
at the altitude of the Jorat. Some improved wheats of Vilmorin were sown 
in the same field a month earlier under the same conditions as* to soil and 
manure. Notwithstanding the late sowing, the native selected wheats grew 
strong and well, and were not affected by the severe winter nor by the 
excessive moisture of. the whole season. 

" The following were the average comparative yields per hectare : 



Switzerland : 
Vaud 



Average of 11 native wheats . 
Average of 6 Vilmorin wheats 





Grain 


Straw 


kg- 


2217 


5722 kg 


» 


1242 


3370 » 



" If the average yield of the native Swiss wheats be estimated at 100, the 
yield for the foreign wheats is* 56 for grain and 59 for straw. 

" The largest yield of a Vaudois native wheat in ordinary conditions 
was 3190 kg. of grain and 6800 kg. of straw, while the smallest yield of 
Noe Vilmorin wheat, was 365 kg. of grain and 2000 kg. of straw. The best 
foreign wheat, the Bordier, which yielded 1870 kg. of grain and 3600 kg. 
of straw, is therefore considerably below the average of the improved native 
vheats of Vaud. 

" These experiments once more confirm the superiority of native over 
breign wheats, when the former have been improved by selection." 



240 



MAIZE SEED-SELECTION. - VARIATION IN CEREALS 



United 

States : 

Ohio 



Ear Characters of Seed Maize in Relation to Yield. — U. S. Depart, of 
Agr. Farmers' Bull. 419; Experiment Station IVork, LIX. pp. 10-15, 
Washington, October 8, 1910. 

A series of minute observations made at the Ohio Experiment Station 
have led to the formation of some rules which may help farmers to im- 
prove maize on their own farms, and widen the field of agricultural expe- 
riments. 

The long-eared maize yields from 3 to 5 bushels more per acre than 
the short eared varieties ; and the greater the difference between the ears 
of the same variety, the greater the increase in yield. A prolonged selection, 
however, tending to the maximum length of ear, never gives a heavier vield 
than that corresponding to the average length. 

Maize having tapering ears yields a little more (about 0.86 bushel per 
acre) than the cylindrical-eared maize. Seeds from an ear with a bare tip 
give good results the first year, but the number of bare ears increases and 
the yield grows less every year if this process of selection is continued. 

There is a close relation between the productiveness of a variety of 
maize and the total weight of the ear. 

The value of germination experiments is very relative ; they never give 
an index of hereditary qualities. In the choice of the best plants, those 
whose vigour is due to special surroundings (such as more abundant manure, 
favourable exposure to light, etc.), should be avoided. 

It is not possible to express an opinion as to the value of imported 
varieties until these have had time to become acclimatised and an equili- 
brium between the plant and its new environment be established. 



Field-crops. — Industrial Crops. — Horticulture. — Arboriculture. 



Germany 



QuANTE. Investigations on the Variation of Cereals. (Variationstatistische 
Untersuchungen iibeu den Bau der Getreidearten unter Zugrundelegung 
der KoUektivmasslehre). — Landzv. Versuchs-Statio/ien, Berlin, Band LXXIV, 
Heft. I-II, pp. 121-162. 

If a certain number of individuals of the same cereal breeds be observed, 
it will be seen that they do not all present in the same degree the cha- 
racteristic racial marks. Measure, for instance, the length of straw of Square 



CLEANING GRAIN 241 



head w/ieats and represent the lengths by a series of ordinates : the middle 
point of the curve does not coincide with the point corresponding to the 
arithmetical mean of the numerical values, but occurs sometimes on the 
right and sometimes on the left of it. 

According to Gauss, the reason of this is that natural forces acting as 
couples are so nearly balanced one against another as in most cases to 
produce equilibrium, but occasionally one force becoming dominant causes 
a deviation from the average type. Dr. Quante expresses the Gauss theory 
by the following algebraical formula: 

±: S 

r — 0.84s 

\/^n. (// — /) 

which allows the probable error r of an isolated observation to be estimated. 
In this formula, ■±:^ 1\ represents the sum of the deviations in relation to 
the average of the different observations ; // represents the number of the 
observations, and 0.845 '^ ^ constant factor obtained by calculation. • 

Dr. Quante has tested and adopted this formula in a large number of 
observations on the length of stems and the weight of grain in wheat, 
barley and rye, and summarises thus his results: 

i) To qualify exactly the measurable characters of a cereal the 
knowledge of average values given by the examination of a series of indi- 
viduals of a species, sub-species, etc., is insufficient. On account of the 
assymmetrical individual deviations (demonstrated by Dr. Quante) in relation 
to the average value, the series {Verteilungsreihe) to which ihey correspond 
must also be established, and its most frequent, idichteste) and therefore 
most probable, value, be calculated. 

2) When selection for a given quality has been rigorously made, de- 
viations become symmetrical, thus giving the means of determining the 
precision of the selection made. 

Cleaning Grain. (Amme, Giesecke u. Konegen Aktiengesellschaft, 407, 122 

September 10, 1909). — La Meunerie fraiif^aisf^ Paris, Nov. 1910. No. 302, Germany 
pp. 260-261. 

This new process consists in adding to the water in which the cereals 
are washed an alkali, or a salt which acts as an alkali (soda, lime, etc.). 
This removes the impurities from the grain by dissolving the fatty matter 
of the husk and germ to which the impurities adhere. 

The water used may be hot or cold, and the alkali or similar substance 
added beforehand, or at the same time as the grains, or it may be previously 
mixed with the grains. The subsequent manipulations (drying by hot air, 
where indicated, etc.) are carried out in the usual manner. 

Instead of washing by immersion, the grains may be simply moistened 
and then cleansed of the impurities thus detached by means of friction. 



242 



CEREALS: WHEAT 



HiTiER. Inquiry into the Cause of the Deficit in the Wheat Crop in France 
in 1910. The most Successful Varieties. (Etude des causes du deficit 
de la recolte du ble en France en 19 lo. Les varietes qui ont le mieux 
reussi). — Azotes d' agriculture. Bull, de la Soc. d Encour. pour r Industrie 
Nat. T. 113, No 8, pp. 297-304. Paris, 1910. 



France 



The year 1909-1910 was one of the worst, for wheat production, which 
has been known in France for 50 years. 

Excess of humidity in the soil was the more or less direct cause of the 
poor wheat harvest. On very permeable chalky soils, or even on thin clay 
with a sandy or limestone subsoil, the wheat grew fairly well, and where 
the crops were clean and well manured the harvest was good. But on 
more or less heavy clay soils the damp was so great that much of the 
wheat rotted, while cryptogamic diseases were rife every where. Straw 
Blight made terrible havoc by vveakening the stems, so that the wheat was 
laid very early. Many of the soils were so hardened and beaten down by 
the rain, that the principal roots ot the wheat which spring from the 
crown, and on which the life of the plant chiefly depends, developed either 
very feebly, or not at all. 

In 1909-10 the varieties of wheat which succeeded best were early ri- 
pening kinds, among which were Hybride du Bon Fermier, Trisor, Dattel, etc. 
French wheats, which were hardy and ripened well, were and are still sought 
after by millers, but the weakness of the straw, Avhich frequently causes it to 
be laid, and the small yields, have caused foreign varieties 10 be preferred. 
Among these, EnglishSvheats had a long popularity, but the hybrid varieties 
of M. de Vilmorin, which seem suited to the soil and climate of France, have 
taken their place. These hybrids are Bon Fermier, Trcsor, Dattel, Massy, 
Bordier, Hybride inver sable, etc. 



Possibilities of Wheat Production in Manchuria. — The Board of Trade 
Journal, London, Nov. 3, 19 10, p. 218. 



China: 
Mand- 
churia 



The present annual production of wheat in Manchuria is about 10 mil- 
lion bushels, notwithstanding the primitive methods of cultivation. The soil 
and climate are as favourable for wheat production as those of the Mis- 
sissippi valley, but millet, sorghum and maize have been hitherto preferred 
as food by the inhabitants, and wheat has not been extensively cultivated. 
The demand has been increasing lately, and mills have been set up at Harbin, 
Changchun, Hailin and Shuangchengpu. Wheat culture is now likely to 
develop considerably in China. 



CEREALS : RYE. - BARLEY. - SORGHUM 



243 



Kruger. New Experiments with Rye and Barley. (Winterroggen und 
Sommei'gerste nach verschiedener Anbaumethode). — Mitteilinig des 
Kaiser Wilhebns Institutes fiir Landwirtschaft in Bromberg, Bd. Ill, H. i, 
pp. 21-22, Berlin. 

The toUowing interesting results are given of a series of experiments 
in the cultivation of winter rye and summer barley \Hannd) according to the 
Demtschinsky method. There were four series of cultivations: 

i) 120 kg. of seeds per hectare, sown in furrows 15 cm. apart; 

2) Transplantation and earthing up ; 

3) Seeds sown in furrows according to the Demtschinsk}' method, 
60 kg. per hectare, with successive earthing up ; 

4) Same as No. 3, but hoed to keep the plants apart. 
The grain yield was as follows : 

Metliod of cultivation Rye Barley 

1 Quintals 33.4 per hec. Quintals 31.6 per hec. 

2 » 21.6 » » 3.7 (r) » 



35- 



59.6 



4 » 23.7 » » 31.7 » 

The cost of earthing up was scarcely covered in the case of rye by the 
increased crop of 2 quintals par hectare, whereas the 8 quintals increase 
in the case of barley make the method profitable. 



Germany 



K. ZiSELSBERGER. Composition of this Year's Barley. (Die neuen Gersten). 
— [Zeitschrift f. ges. Brauivesen, 2,2)1 473"75)) Chemisches Centralblatt, 81 J-- 
II, p. 151 1, Berlin. Nov. 9, igio. 

The following are some interesting data from the analyses ot 25 qualities 
of this year's barley: 



Bavarian barley 
Bohemian barley . 
Moravian barley . 
Slovnc barley . . 
Hungarian barley. 



Weight 


Albuminoids 


Non nitrogenous 


of 100 grains 




Extr.ict 


• • 446 gr. 


12.9% 


75-05 7o 


. . 44.8 » 


10.9 » 


77-35 ^ 


. . 44.2 » 


11.7 » 


76.3 


. . 38.8 » 


1 1.5 » 


75-6 » 


• • 37-3 ■> 


12.5 » 


74.4 -> 



Germany 



AuBEKT. The Cultivation of " Andropogon " Sorghum in Burma. (An- 
dropogon Sorghum " Pyanng "j. — 2Vie Tropiuil Agriculturist, Colombo, 

Oct. 19 TO. 

Sorghum, Pyanng, {Andropogon sorghum) (i) is, the main source of 



11) Andropogon sorgJium is more often six)ken of as Sorghum vulgare Pars. In 
1905-1906, it was grown on an area of 24000000 acres (between g and 10 million 
hectares) in British India. 

See : .Sir Geiirge Watt, The Commercial Products of India, London, 1908, pp. 1031 ; 
A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, London, 1893. f^^/.]. 



British 
India: 
Burma 



244 CEREALS: RICE 



food for men and animals in the dry region of Upper Burma, especially in 
the districts of Tegaing, Shwebo, Meiktila, Magwe, Minbu, etc. : where it 
is to the population what rice is to the inhabitants of the southern pro- 
vinces. Pyanng also grows in some parts outside this region. About 2000 
square miles are cultivated yearly in Burma with this variety of sorghum 
which forms the chief food of 2 250000 men and i 000 000 cattle. 

The principal varieties of sorghum are: Andropogon sorg/nmi, Sorg/iiivi 
sacc/iaratum, or Chinese sorghum, Sorghum mg>-nin and Sorghum halepcnse. 
Sorghum is much damaged by the weeds Corwok'tdus arvensis and Striga 
lutea, the growers being quite unable to cope with either of them. 

Besides the thousands of birds Avhich ruin the flower and the ripe crops, 
there is a snake, RusselF s Orper, which twines round the stem of the plant 
and breaks it in trying to reach the flowers and grains. The Pyanng'x^ also 
ravaged by a fungus, which lives as a parasite in the flowers. 

Rabino-Lafont. Rice Cultivation in Guilan, Persia. — Amiales de r Ecolc 
Naiionale d' Agriculture de Montpellier, Oct. 19 10. 

Rice is cultivated in nearly every province in Persia, but the greatest 
quantities are produced in Guilan where the average production is 180 mil- 
lion kg., 128 millions of which are consumed by the inhabitants of the 
province. 

The varieties at present cultivated are : Rasmi, Sadri, Moulal, Amberbou, 
and Tchampai, in all of which the unhusked grain is white. The Rasmi 
of which there are 22 sub-varieties has a very large grain. The most 
Persia esteemed variety is the Sadri, which has a particularly fine and well-shaped 
grain. There is no distinction made as a rule between the Sadri and 
the Moulal, although the latter has a hooked point. The Amberbou is 
one of the oldest varieties cultivated in Guilan, but it is now less grown 
in Mawazi, where the Moulal is preferred. The Tchampa is cultivated more 
than the Rasmi on account of its higher yield, the grain being heavier. The 
villages of Foumen use it exclusively, because it is the cheapest rice. 

In Mawazi the plant called chounde {Sambucus Ebiilus), which grows 
plentifully there, is much used for green-manuring rice-fields, but generally 
speaking, the rice plantations are not sufficiently manured in these regions. 

The seeds are always sown in nurseries, called Poumbedjar, and placed 
beside a canal, failing which, a well is dug. When the young plants are 
8 or 9 cm. high, they are transplanted into the rice-field in rows. They 
are hoed twice. After the second hoeing the cultivation of the rice consists 
chiefly in watering. When the growth tends to become too luxuriant iu 
very rich soils, the rice is mown in order to force the production of the ear. 



CEREALS: RICE 



245 



Rice Culture in the Karikal Settlement. — Agriculture pratique dfs Pays 
chauds. Paris, Oct. 1910, n. 91. 

A description is given of the primitive methods of cultivating rice at 
Karikal, in French India, near the mouth of the Arselar, one of the branches 
of the river Cavery, on a soil watered by eight rivers and five large canals. 
There is an area of 3500 velys (9364 hectares), of which 1337 hectares are 
cultivated for double and the rest for single crops. 

In May, June and July, when the Cavery rises, ail the lands to be used 
for rice cultivation are flooded, and the water turned off as soon as the 
ground is well soaked and softened. The prepared soil is then tilled, the 
water turned on again, and the seeds sown broadcast on the water, which 
should be 5 cm. deep. Before sowing, the N^eliy (i) is steeped for twenty 
four hours and has already begun to germinate. The water is drawn off 
the rice field two or three days after the seeds have been sown, and the 
soil is again flooded by degrees as the plant grows. Thirty or forty days 
later the nelly, tied in sheaves, is moved to a neighbouring field, where it is 
replanted in little groups of from 5 to 10 plants each ; the watering is fre- 
quently renewed until the harvest, three to six months later, according to 
the quality of the nelly. The Courouve variety of nelly is gathered nine or 
ten weeks after transplantation, while the Chamba is not ready for six full 
months from the day the seeds were sown. 



French 
India: 

Karikal 



Ammonium Sulphate as a Fertiliser for Rice. 

1910. 



The Agric. News, Oct. 15, 



A report on methods of rice and cotton cultivation in China and Japan 
is published in the Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist of July. 1910. At- 
tention is drawn to the fact that, after centuries of continuous crops, the 
fertility of the Japanese rice fields increases every year, especially as re- 
gards soil-content in nitrogen, while in Hawaii the rice harvests and the 
nitrogen in the soil are diminishing year by )^ear. The Japanese system 
of cultivation, which mainly consists in abundant fertilising with stable ma- 
nure and special rotations with alternate crops, is therefore recommended. 

Experiments made in Japan with ammonium sulphate have given a 
considerable increase of yield, but have shov.-n that its continued use causes 
undesirable variations in the physical condition of the soil. Sodium nitrate 
does not give such rapid or eftective results as ammonium sulphate, and 
experiments have shown that, under existing conditions, only a small part 



(i) Nelly or jVellh is one of the many synonyms used in India for the different 
varieties of cultivated rice (sathi, garri, tandula dangar, Akki, etc.). 

See Sir George Wait, The Commercial Products of India, 1908, p. 824. \Ed}^. 



China, 
iapan. 
Hawai' 



246 CEREALS: RICE. - ROOTS AND TUBERS: BEET 

of the nitric nitrogen is really assimilated by the rice plants. Their direct 
assimilation of ammoniacal nitrogen is a fact of considerable interest, and 
confirms the conclusions recently reached by Hutchinson and Miller at the 
Rothamsted Experiment Station on the absorption of salts of ammonia by 
plants. 

Knapp. Rice Varieties in the United States. — Farmers' Bnlletiiu 417, 
Washington. 

The two chief varieties of rice cultivated in the low lands of the 
Atlantic States are Gold Seed and White Rice. Gold Seed is gaining ground 

United over White Rice along the coast, on account of its quality and high pro- 

Stsites "^ 

duction. Gold Seed has two types of seed, small and large ; the White Rice 

has the advantage of being an early variety. 

In Louisiana preference is given to the Honduras variety, which is 
brought direct from Honduras, 'i'he rice imported from Japan gives excel 
lent results, and the straw keeps green even after the grain is ripe. Of all 
the Japanese varieties the Kiusku yields the finest crops. 

Experiments with Upland Rice in the United States have given unsatis- 
factory results, although it does well in India, China and Japan. 

O. MuNEKATi. Observations on the Wild Beet (Beta Maritima L.) (i ). (Os- 

servazioni suUa bietola selvaggia. Beta Maritima \^.). — Stazioni Sperimen- 
tali Agrarie Italiane, Modena, 19 10, Vol. XLIII. Fasc. VII, IX, pp. 577-584. 



Italy 



The Beta Maritima, unlike the cultivated beet, flowers as a rule the 
same 3'ear that it is sown ; it cannot be considered an annual, because it 
renews its growth in the 2nd. 3rd, and 4th year, or even later. Dr. Mu- 
nerati, in Polesine, in the Venetian Provinces, found very large and woody 
roots which must have been eight or ten years old at least, and the pre- 
dominant form was tap-rooted and more or less branched. 

Analyses by Dr. G. Mezzadroli show that towards the end of August 
the juice of the roots contains 10, 13 and even 14% ^^ sugar, but not all 
saccharose. The data of analyses of roots gathered in the second half of 
October are here given. 

L.irge iJeets Medium Kieets .Small Beets 

Water 91.2% 89.9% 90.47^ 

Dry matter 8.8 10. i 9.6 

Sugar (polarimetric observ.) . . 6.0 7.2 7.2 

Coefficient of purity .... 68. or 71.2 73.0 

Ash of the central part ... 3.T 3.0 ^ 

Ash of the outer part .... 4.9 5.5 \ ^■'^° 



I 



(i) Beta maritinia L. = />. J^idgaris L., according to the Index Kewensis. \^Ed.\. 



ROOTS AND TUBERS: CULTIVATED TUBERS. - POTATO 247 



H. JuMELLE. Cultivated Tuber-Plants. — EncydopMie Scientifique, ptibliU 
sous la direction du Dr. Tozilouse. Paris, O. Doin, i vol. in-8'\ p. 372. 

M. Jumelle gives a rapid survey of the botanical characters and the culti- 
vation of tuber-producing plants as well as of their diseases and pests. The 
crops mainly described are the potato, the manihot, the yam, the sweet po- 
tato, the arrowroots, etc. A bibliographical index is given. 

Th^ry. The Potato. — L' Economiste Europien. Paris, Nov. 4, 1910. 

The potato is much discussed in France at the present moment. On 
account of the bad harvest this year, which did not reach 95 million quin- 
tals, present prices are high. At least half the potatoes consumed in France 
are used as food for cattle and for starch-production. 

Potatoes are increasingl)' cultivated all over Europe; the entire Euro- 
pean crop increased from an average of 1159 million metric quintals ^for 
the period 1899-1903 to 1206 million quintals for the period 1 904-1 908. In 
the United States there has been an increase of 66 million quintals in four 
years. To the production in Europe and the United States must be added 
that of the rest of America, Australasia, Asia and Africa, wheve the potato 
is more or less cultivated. 

Potato production may be considered nearly as important as that of 
wheat, the world's production of which is not more than 900 million quintals. 



France 



France 



Jehan De Brie. The Potato Question in France. 

Oct. 20, 1910. 



Le Fermier. Paris, 



Notes on the varieties of potatoes for the French markets. 

"The cultivation of some of our varieties of potato ought to be dis- 
continued, because they do not offer sufficient resistance to disease. The 
English and the Germans grow new varieties of potato every year, obtained 
either by prolonged selection or by hybridisation, and the only difficulty is 
choice among so many good varieties. 

"In a report issued in 1900, Heine declared that during 25 years he 
had studied 33 11 varieties of potato, and that more than a thousand of these 
were of recent production. What an advance since the 11 varieties men- 
tioned by Parmentier in his first catalogue ! 

"We are becoming familiar with some of the best new varieties of 
German importation. Only eight days ago, we had among others, on our 
great weekly market, the Professor Wohltmann, a very fine, large, elliptical po- 
tato, red skinned with yellow flesh, which yields 40 000 kg. per hectare ; 
and the President Kriiger, a still newer variety, with a round or roundish 
tuber, yellow skin and yellowish white flesh, which yields crops varying from 
30 000 to 40 000 kg. per hectare. 

5 



France 



248 



ROOTS AND TUBERS: POTATO 



The Industrie, well known in Belgium, the Geheimrafh Thiel, the Ceres, 
Char, Ella and Oom Paul, of Dutch origin will undoubtedly soon he seen 
on French markets ; and if the United Kingdom should come to our aid 
even to a very small extent, we should know and appreciate the Duchess 
of Cornwall with half-yellow flesh and very robust, the Puritan, which gives 
enormous crops, the Edward IVilm, with a smooth skin and exquisite fla- 
vour, and, above all, the Epicure, white inside, but with a skin so wrinkled 
that it would seem to be fit for nothing but the pig-trough. 

"It is known that the resistance of potatoes to disease is in proportion 
to the length of their period of growth. It is also acknowledged that ni- 
trogenous manures ought to be used with moderation, and preference be 
given to phosphates and to potassic fertilisers. 

"Finally it is most important to bear in mind the hereditary qualities 
of each variety because, as Aimd Girard has well said: // is with potatoes 
as with animals ; both transmit to their descendants their hereditary qualities.'' 

The farmer must therefore give as much care to the selection of his 
stock of potatoes as he would to the selection of his breeding animals. 

« 

A Nfcw Potato. — Bulletin de T Union Centralc dcs Syndicats des Agriculteurs 
de France. Paris, Nov. i, 19 lo, p. 341. 

M. Tingry, of Soissons, has grown this year in a small garden a variety 

France of potato remarkable for the great development of the haulms, which reached 

a height of 2.43 m. The exact origin of these potatoes is not known, but 

they were brought to France from South America. Among other peculiarities 

they resist the attacks of Phytophthora infestans (Mont, de Bary). 



Russian 
Poland 



Cultivation of Potatoes in Poland. (La culture des Pommes de terre en 
Pologne). — L Agriculture Commerciale. Paris, 27 Nov. 1910. 

Potato-growing in Poland has developed considerably. From 70 74Q 140 
metric quintals, the average in 1903-07, the production reached in 1909 about 
106000000 quintals. As Russia only produces double this amount on an 
area 40 times as large, the Polish crop finds a ready market in the interior. 
In Poland potatoes are used in large quantities in the distillation of alcohol 
and the manufacture of starch, so that their exportation is relatively restricted. 
The whole export goes to Germany and is used chiefly for industrial purposes. 



Edwin Cheel. Raising Potatoes from the Seedberries or Fruits, with Notes 

on certain other Species of Tuber-bearing Solanums. — Agricultural 

New South Gazette of New South Wales, Oct. 4, 1910. 

Wales -ri J •, 

Ihe writer describes experiments in the culture of potatoes obtained 

from seed of the variety Blue-Eyed Russet. After giving his results he con- 



FORAGE PLANTS : LUCERNE. - CHABDAR CLOVER 



249 



siders the question of the production of varieties capable of resisting the more 
common diseases. To attain this end, he recommends that the seed be se- 
lected either from those varieties which showed themselves more resistant 
than others, or else from plants rendered immune. 

In the laboratories of the United States, experiments were made with 
the IVilt disease of cowpeas ( Vigna Catjang Walp.) and it was proved that this 
complaint does not attack other species of leguminosae, nor even other va- 
rieties of the cow-pea itself. The same method should be employed in the 
study of varieties of the potato, including those obtained by crossing with 
more resistant varieties. 

Cultivation of Lucerne for Seed at Tamworth (New South Wales). 

(Tamworth Lucerne Seed). — Agricultural Gazette of N. S. IV. Octo- 
ber 4, 1910. 

The cultivation of lucerne for the production of seed has rapidly spread 
in the valley of the Nemingha during the past few years. The soil, of 
basaltic and granitic origin, is very fertile, both light and deep, and is 
particularly adapted to the growth of lucerne. The seeds are as a rule 
obtained from plants 3 or 4 years old after the second December mowing. 
The crops vary from 3.60 to 7.20 hectolitres per hectare (from 4 to 8 
bushels per acre), and are worth sometimes as much as from 933 to 1120 frs. 
per hectare. The dry winds frequently prevent normal flowering and fer- 
tilisation. 

The price of the seed varies from 1.20 to 3.45 frs. per kg., and this 
explains why farmers grow this crop whenever the season permits. 

Trabut. " Chabdar " Clover (Trifolium Suaveolens). — Pr ogres agricolc 
et viticole. No, 48, Montpellier, November 27, 1910, p. 670. 

The Botanical Station of the Government of Algeria has been makinsf 
some experiments with a new forage plant which seems hkely to be very 
useful for the Mediterranean region. It is a clover, the Trifolium suaveo- 
lens IV., a variety of T. resupiuatum L., which it closely resembles from the 
botanical point of view, and is extensively grown in Persia and India. If 
sown early in the autumn, it gives several crops, and seems likely to prove 
superior to the red clover. It may be cut green in the rainy season, and 
if dried in May makes excellent hay. It is also one of the best possible 
green manures. 

The Chabdar is therefore an important forage plant, and ought undoubt- 
edly to be introduced into the rotations in Algeria, where it would prove 
useful (i). 



(i) G. Watts, {D'uHonary of the Economic Products of India, vol, VI, part IV, 
p. 85) does not mention the Trifolium suaveolens among the Indian clovers. He men- 



Common- 

wealth 

of 

Australia: 

New South 

Wales 



Algeria 



250 FORAGE PLANTS: GRASSES. - FIBRE PLANTS: COTTON 



United 
States : 

Massa- 
chusetts 



W. P. Brooks, E. S. Fulton, E. T. Gashill. Manuring Grass Land du- 
ring Winter or in Spring. — Report of the Agriculturist, IX, {XXII An- 
nual Report of the Masitichusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. Part I, 
p. 44, (36-45), Boston, 1910. 

The interesting results of an uninterrupted series of manuring experi- 
ments made on ten plots of grass-land since 1899, five being manured in 
winter and five in spring, are given below 

Kg. of hay 
per hect. 

Manured in winter : 

First cutting 7 890 

Second cutting 516 

Total ... 8 406 
Manured in spring: 

First cutting 7 260 

Second cutting 728 

Total . . . 7 988 

The advantage of winter manuring is obvious, especially as when the 
manuring is to be done in spring, the manure must be heaped up on the 
land during winter and spread in the spring, which costs more in labour. 



Cotton Cultivation and Industry in Greecer 

Ginirale de P Algirie, Paris, Nov. 15, 1910. 



IS Office du Gouvernement 



In 1908, cotton was grown on 89 hectares of land in Greece and pro- 
duced a crop of 95 481 kg., which rose to 99 790 kg. in 1909, although the 
Greece extent of land was reduced to 80 hectares. In 19x0 there were upwards 
of 243 hectares under cotton. 

The average price obtained for Egyptian varieties of cotton is more 
than double that paid for Greek varieties. Experiments have been made with 
some American varieties, but the quantity of seed dealt with is so small that 
the results cannot be considered as conclusive. 

Greece receives from 8000 to 10 000 bales of foreign cotton every year, 
2500 of which come from America, from 5000 to 7000 from Turkey and 
500 from Egypt. 



tions only the following: Trifolium fragijerum \,., or C/iit-ltattn, found only in Kashmere; 
Trifolinm praicnse, from Kashmere io Gahrwal, especially at altitudes from 4000 to 
8000 feet, where it constitutes a common fodder known as Tre-patra or Chit-batlo; and 
Trifoliii/n repcns. called by the natives Shaftal or Sholal, which is common in several 
temperate and alpine regions of the Himalayas, and is also found in the Nilgiris and in 
Ceylon. '1 he spontaneous varieties of this clover are, it seems, poisonous for horses. [Ed.]. 



FIBRE PLANTS: COTTON 



2tI 



Cotton Culture Experimaats n Cyp us. 

rgog-igio, p. 26, London, 1910. 



— Cyprus Annual Report for 



Experiments have been made with several varieties of cotton, in- 
cluding the Culpepper Big Ball, Sea Island^ and Allen s Long Staple. The Cyprus 
best results were obtained with Sea Island, and the comparison of this year's 
results with those of other years leads to-the conclusion that the most suit- 
able varieties for the climate of Cyprus are Sea Island and Allen s Long 
Staple. 



Caravonica Cotton. 



The Tropical Agriculturist, Colombo, Oct. 19 10. 



Experiments made in the Soudan in growing Caravonica cotton did not 
give good results, and the crops were greatly inferior to those of Egyptian 
cotton. The same thing occurred in India, where the failure may be attri- 
buted to drought, and the bad system of cultivation. In Queensland, on the 
other hand, where there is a greater rain-fall, excellent crops were obtained. 
In Lancashire, the thread of Carovonica cotton is considered too fine and 
delicate for ordinary fabrics. But at Berlin, a syndicate has been formed 
for the cultivation of this cotton in German East Africa. Caravonica yields 
I ton per acre (2500 kg. per hec). About 90 °/gOf pure fibre being obtain- 
able from a properly grown crop. 

A hybrid, Mamara, is at present being studied, which bids fair to be- 
come a serious rival of Caravonica. 



India. 

Qneenslandt 

German 

East 

Africa. 

Soudan 



Cultivation and Selection of Cotton at Montserrat, Leeward Islands. — 

lieport of the Botanic Station and Experiment Plots, Montserrat 1909- 
1910, Barbados, 1910. 

The work of cotton selection carried out in the trial ground of the 
Botanical Station at Montserrat, Leeward Islands, has had good results. 
Thus, during the present year, it has been possible to distribute to the chief 
cultivators in the island 90 lbs. of selected seed for purposes of expe- 
riment. 

Among the most productive varieties may be mentioned : Stirling n.° S, 
Rivers n.° 7 and Gilberts ;z.° 10, .which yield respectively, 161 7, 1125 and 
1125 lbs. of seed cotton per acre (respectively 1811, 1260 and 1260 kilo- 
grams per ha.). In the plants submitted to control, the weight of 100 seeds 
varied from 10.10 — 15.00 grs. with a mean of 12.40 grs., and that of the 
fibre varied from 3.50 — 5.80 gr. with an average of 4.32 gr. There are 
therefore types of very voluminous seeds and others much less so ; but 
there is no relation between the size of the seed and the fibre produced. 



Leeward 

Islands; 

Montserrat 



Peru 



252 FIBRE PLANTS: COTTON 

Peru's Cotton Industry. — A Monthly Account of Peru's Development, edited 
by John Valvasour Noel, Lima. Peru, To-day, July 19 10. 

Peruvian cotton is well known to-day in the markets of the world. In 
the department of Piura, and in the North of Lima, irrigation is employed 
on a vast scale. Indigenous labour is cheap and sufficient. Exportation is 
becoming important, amounting lately to about 20 000 tons, worth 5 million 
dollars. 

The principal diseases which attack cotton have not spread in the Peru- 
vian plantations, which may be considered almost free from them. 

The produce of cotton per hectare varies with the age of the plants, 
but in plantations of 2-3 years' standing, which are the most productive, it 
amounts to 750 kg. of cotton per ha, with a yield of 35 °/o of fibre. 

The cost of production of cotton is calculated at 0.55 dollar (2 fr. 75) per 
kilogram. 

The varietes cultivated are the Rough Peruvian, American flpland, and 
varieties of Sea Island and Mitaffi; 65 "/^ of the whole of the cotton pro- 
duced is American Upland, 32% Peruvian, and 2 '/i °/o ^'^^^ Island and J//- 
taffi: 90 °/o of the crop is exported. 

O. L. The Cultivation of Perennial Cotton in Hawii. (La Culture des 
Cotonniers vivaces aux iles Hawii). — Journal d' Agriculture tropicak. 
Paris, N. 12, 30 Octobre 1910. 

Experiments methodically carried out on cotton-plants in different parts 
of Hawaii, have given good results, and the Direction of the Experimental 
HawaT Station of Honolulu considers that, in certain localities, cotton is more 
productive than sugar-cane. 

The cotton plants best suited to the Hawaian archipelago seem to be 
the Caravonica and the Sea Island grown as perennials. The former is 
the more resistant to drought, because of the great development of its 
tap-root. The Sea Island is suited to the low-lying grounds of the coast 
which are relatively cool during the dry season; but it is being less grown, 
while the cultivation of Caravonica is continually extending. The latter, in 
fact, is more vigorous, its cuttings bearing fruit 5 months after planting. 

Shield-grafting seems very successful, and well adapted to the multiplica- 
tion of Caravonica on a large scale. 



't>^ 



Cotton Growing in East Africa. The Agricultural Navs^ Oct. 15, 1910, 

British Barbados. (From Textile Mercury, September 3, 1910). 

East 
Africa A concession has been granted to a syndicate for experiments in cotton 

growing on the banks of the River Juba, in East Africa. It is believed that 



FIBRE PLANTS: COTTON. - RAMIE 



253 



cotton can be produced equal in quantity and quality to Egyptian cotton. 
Transport is easy, and irrigation is abundant ; the Juba overflows its banks 
in the same way as the Nile, and leaves deposits of rich fertilising soil. 
The scheme is on the point of being put into execution. 



Stewart Mc Call. Cotton Growing within the Empire. — Journal of the 
Royal Society of Arts, London, Oct. 28th, 1910. 

In Nyasaland 3000 more acres have been sown with cotton this year 
than last. The total area planted with cotton is now 12 000 acres. The 
quality is excellent, because Upland cotton, which has already been acclima- 
tized, has been sown, and this grows well at different altitudes between 1000 
and 3000 ft. In five years the production per acre has increased 70 7o- 

No other crop is better adapted to Nyasaland than cotton. 

Plans are also being made for irrigating and cotton-planting in the 
Soudan, and £300000 have been set aside tor preparing the Plain of Ga- 
zira. This will render the irrigated cultivation of cotton possible on an 
area of more than 500 000 acres of fertile land, and later this acreage may 
be doubled and even trebled. 



Nyasaland 

and 
Soudan 



Cotton Growing Experiments in the Transvaal. — The Agricultural News, 
Oct. 15, 1910. Barbados. [The /our?i. of the Roy. Soc. of Arts, Au- 
gust 16, 1910). 

The first cotton crop in the Transvaal has been gathered on the Rusterberg 
Experimental Farm, and the quality compared excellently with similar United 
States varieties. The whole crop was very good, the first picking^ yielding 
260 lbs. per acre, and some of the bolls that were exhibited were said to 
be particularly fine. 

On the whole, the experiments show that cotton as good as American, 
if not better can be grown in the Transvaal, and under better conditions 
than in the United States. 



South 
African 
Union: 
Transvaal 



Cultivation of Ramie (China Grass) {Boehmeria) in British India. — The 

Indian Agriculturist, vol. XXXV, No. 10, p. 316, Calcutta, Oct. i, 19 10. 

The recent cotton crisis in India has brought up again the question of 
cultivating the Boehmeria nivea {Urticaceae), which grows well in the most 
different conditions of chmate and soil. Its fibre is glossy, stronger even 
than jute, and from 7 to 45 cm. long, and it may be used for various 
purposes, stuffs, sail-cloth, ropes, etc. 

The plant does not need much care, and grows rapidly, and the fibre 
may be warehoused for a long time without fear of deterioration; a most 
valuable point. 



British 
India 



254 



FIBRE PLANTS: RAMIE. - KAPOK 



Charles Riviere. Practical Observations on the Culture of Ramie (China- 
grass). (Observations pratiques sur la culture de la Ramie). — Jotirn. 
iTAgric. Tropicale, 31 Oct, 1910, N. 112, pp. 289-291. 

The attention of planters and manufacturers has been again turned to 
this fibre. 

Success is certain when the crop is planted on suitable soil, that is to 
say, a good loam rich in humus containing a certain quantity of lime but 
not too much clay. The climate should be temperate, and the soil well 
drained as regards the winter rain-fall, the sub-soil water should not be salt, 
nor reach the roots, which descend fairly deeply towards the sub-soil. But 
however excellent the soil may be, irrigation is absolutely necessary to ob- 
tain several crops in climates with long dry periods, and in these it is 
necessary to allow at least 500-600 cubic metres of water per hectare, espe- 
AlgerJa cially in rather old plantations where the water circulates with difficulty. 

Scarcely any cultivation is required, according to the writer, when 
good rhizomes completely occupy the soil. Up to this })oint, the ground 
should be simply hoed, weeded, and watered ; after this, any further treat- 
ment would do more harm than good. 

The attention of planters has not been sufficiently drawn to the na- 
ture of the plant and, in many cases, want of success is due IX0 the con- 
fusion made between Rhizome and Root which some vendors have not found 
it to their interest to distinguish. 

Now, the rhizome alone sends out roots and a plant ; the root remains 
inert and decomposes. 

A plantation may last a long time on the same piece of ground ; the 
Jardin d'Essais of Algiers possesses a plantation of 43 years' standing which 
has rarely been sufficiently manured or irrigated. ; '\ \ :^ 

This old plantation has supplied hundreds of thousands of plants, which 
have been sent over the whole world, as well as material for a great number 
of experiments on the various processes for treating the fibre. 

The writer nevertheless advises the rational use of nitrogenous and 
potassic chemical fertilisers, followed by watering. 



Venezuelan Kapok. — L Agriculture pratique, des pays c/iauds. No. 91, Octo- 
bre 1910. (Bull, mensuel du Jardin Colonial et des Jardins d'essai des 
Colonies, p. 344, Paris. Augustin Challemel. 

The Colonial Garden in Paris procured during 1910 some samples 

France. of a kind of Kapok (i) from Venezuela which appears to be much superior 

Java ^° ^^^ ^^^^ Kapok of Java and British India. Experts who have examined 



(i) True Kaj^ok frop.i India is a vegetable down or floss produced in the fruit of a 



SUGAR PLANTS: BEETS 255 



this material believe that if well prepared and cleaned it v/ould fetch from 
15 to 20 frs. more than good Kapok from the Dutch Indies. 

A considerable quantity of the seeds of this tree, the botanical origin 
of which is not yet exactly known, has been sent to the various French 
Colonies in order that preliminary experiments may be made. 

H. B. Nitrogenous Matjure for Sugar Beets. (Diingungsversuche zu Zuck- 
errtiben. Bericht uber Fortschritte und Neuerung auf dem Gebiete 
des Riiben und Riibensamenbaues). — Blatter flir Zuckerriibenbau, XVII 
J., No. 20, pp. 325-329, Berlin, Oct. 31, 1910. 

This paper points out the very different results obtained by various 
experts with mineral nitrogeous fertilisers (Chili saltpetre, nitrate of lime, Germany 
calcium cyanamide, ammonium sulphate), for sugar beets. An account is 
then given of Dr. H. Kaserer's experiments, which have established the im- 
portant fact that phosphoric acid is the only useful artificial fertiliser out 
of the many added to stable manuie for the cultivation of beets. 

Indeed, the question of nitrogenous fertihsers for sugar beets is not 
settled yet, and new experiments are desireable. 

V. FEGLroN. Vegetation Anomalies ia Seed-Bearing Sugar Beels, (Ano- 
malie di vegetazione delle bietole zuccherine porta-seme), — Boll, del- 
r Assoc, fra Lmpiegati delle Industrie dello zucchero, alcool ed affini. Fer- 
rara, ott. 1910, N. 7, pp. 148-151. 

M. Peglion points out certain anomalies which occur during vegetation 
in seedbearing beets cultivated on an extensive scale by P. A. Barbd on the 
Ca' del Bosco Estate at Mezzano, near Ferrara, in Italy. 

The "Standard" roots were grown and selected at Avezzano, in the Italy 
Abruzzi, where they remained stored in silos during the winter. They were 
then sent to Mezzano, to be planted for seed production. The following are 
the main anomalies observed at Ca' del Bosco. 

Some of the roots, which had taken perfectly after transplantation, had 
grown to nearly double the ordinary weight, and showed a notable enlargement 
of the crown and the formation of four to six large tufts of leaves without 
any sign of floral shoot. 

Other roots, which had also taken well and had grown remarkably after 
transplantation, sent forth shoots which at a height of from 30 to 40 cen- 
timetres, and from 20 to 25 mm. in diameter at the base stopped growing. 



yi2.\v3iCQa. Eriodendron anfVactuosum D. C. Synonymous with Bornbax pentandniin Z-., grow- 
ing in British India. 

.See: G. Walt. Dictionarv of the Economic Products of Tndia, T.ondon and Calcutta, 
1890, vol. Ill, p. 258. ' " {Ed\ 



256 



SUGAR PLANTS: SUGAR CANE 



Philippines 



Aistralia: 
Queensland 



and- produced a terminal rosette of long-stalked but small leaves, without 
any trace of floral organs. 

In other roots, most of the shoots ended in bunches of leaves, of which 
only a few bloomed, the flowers being very small, although normal, and 
generally single, rarely in couples, growing either on the main or the lateral 
flower stems. 

These peculiarities are not interesting only from a scientific point of 
view, for in some plots more than 25 per cent of the roots were in this 
condition, a very serious inconvenience considering the object of the 
plantation. 

A parasitic origin of the defect is excluded, the most probable expla- 
nation being that there was some imperfection in the preservation of the roots 
in the silos; this storing is considered necessar} as a precaution against 
frost, but it may have prevented some parts of the roots from seasoning pro- 
perly and having complete winter rest. 



(i. E. NEsom. New Sugar Cane Varieties in the Philippines. — The Phi- 
lippine Aoricultiiral Reviezv, Vol. Ill, No. 10. Oct. 1910, p. 598. Manila. 

la tropical countries sugar cane is generally grown by planting the tops 
of the canes, from 25 to 50 cm. long; in sub-tropical and temperate zones 
the usual method is to plant portions of the cane before it is quite ripe. 
For two years past attempts have been made to grow cane from seed, the 
English being the first to make these experiments at the Demerara Station. 

Seed grown plants are nearly always differentiated from the mother 
plant; each one is known by the initial letter of the country where it 
was grown and by a progressive number. Among the seed-grown canes of 
Demerara the D. 74 is at present much cultivated in Louisiana. 

The Louisiana Experimental Station experimented with cane seed 
from all parts of the world in 1909 in the hope of obtaining still better 
varieties. 

In Hawaii, the Experimental Station of the Planter's Association has 
already obtained some new varieties, slips of which were sent to Manila 
and are planted on the Government Farm at Alabang. 

Sugar Cane Varieties in Queensland. (The Queensland Campaign). — 
The Lotiisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer, Vol. XIV, No. 17, 
pp. 264-265, New Orleans, Oct. 22, 1910. 

The sugar content of the cane gathered in Queensland this year was >1 . 
ver)^ high : ^H p. 

Variety Sugar Purity 

Striped Singapore. . . . 19 % 95-9 % 

D. 1135 19-8 7o 93.7 7o 



^1 

Mi 



SUGAR PLANTS: SUGAR QANE ; SORGHUM 



257 



The variety D. 1135, imported some years ago from the West Indies to 
Queensland, is rapidly replacing all the other varieties, on account of its 
good yield and its resistance to frost and drought. 

Paper from Bagasse. — The Agricultural News, Oct. 15, 191 o, p. 325, Bar- 
bados. From The Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, Vol. VIII, p. 151. 

In a paper read at the recent International Congress of Tropical Agri- 
culture at Brussels on the manufacture of paper from bagasse or refuse of 
sugar cane stalks, it was stated that the late Mr. de Lamarre had made 
fairly good commercial paper from bagasse at the Tacarigua Factory, 
Trinidad. The best results were obtained by blending bagasse with bamboo 
and Para grass. It is estimated that there is about a ton of fibrous waste 
for each ton of sugar produced, and this, made into a pulp with bamboo 
fibre and Para grass, would be worth £ 15 per ton (i). 



Trinidad 



Production of Paper from Sugar-Cane Fibre. 

of Arts. London, Nov. 4th, 1910. 



■ Journal of the Royal Society 



It was known that excellent paper could be made from the residue of 
the Sugar-cane (bagasse) but the problem was, how the fibre could be pre- 
served intact while extracting the sugar. * 

The difficulty has been almost completely overcome by means of recently 
constructed machines. The fibre is separated mechanically from the pulp, 
then the water is removed by evaporation, which leaves in the dry fibre 
and in the pulp (already separated) the solid substances and the saccharose. 
With this system the fibre remains intact and adapted for making paper, 
while the pulp is taken to the sugar-factories. 

The residue of the pulp can also be used in the manufacture of com- 
mon paper. 

A manufactory has been set up in Cuba for the separation .of the 
fibre and pulp on the above system. 



Cuba 



S. G. RuEGG. The Decline of Sorghum ^as a Sugar-producing Plant. — 

The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer, Vol. XLV, No. 20, United 
pp. 307-308. New Orleans, Nov. 12. 1910. States 

The writer recalls the introduction of Sorghum from China into France, 



(i) Para-grass is a fodder plant known in South America under the Spanish name 
of Malojilla (Ann. Rep. Porto Rico Agricult Exper. Stat, for 1909, Mayaques, 1910, 
p. 41). 

Para-grass {Panicum mollc) comes originally from Africa, whence it was introduced 
into Brazil, in Venezuela, in the West Indian islands. It is cultivated especially in Tri- 
nidad, where Para-grass is considered the best fodder for cattle, especially for dairy-cows. 

See H. (tEMI.er. Die Tropische Agrikultur, Wismar, 1892, Vol. IV, p. 453. \^Ed.\. 






2S8 OIL PLANTS: GROUND NUTS 



and thence, in 1854, into the United States, where the cultivation of the 
plant spread to 44 States and territories of the Union. It was then recog- 
nized, that a sandy calcareous soil with a dry subsoil and good exposure, 
sunny and well ventilated was the best for sorghum. Ihe climate should 
be neither too wet, nor too dry, and should come within the extreme limits 
of 508 — 1778 mm. (20 to 71 inches) of rainfall. 

The early Amber variety from Minnesota, ripens in 80 days ; the White 
Mammoth in 102 ; and the Orange in 163 days. 

The early ^Ambcr is the variety preferred, especially in Wisconsin ; its 
composition is as follows: 

Decrees Brix 13.5% 

Saccharose 7,3 

Glucose 4 

Mineral substances (ash^i . 1,9 

The cultivation of Sorghum however is steadily decreasing, as is also 
the out-put of its sugar or syrup, and of the alcohol and vinegar which are 
its secondary products. There is also a remarkable decrease in the culti- 
vation of varieties used for fodder. Maize has taken the place of Sorghum, 
and its cultivation is increasing rapidly in the United States. 

The soil favouuable to Sorghum, is equally so to maize, which has the 
same fodder-properties. Maize corn is used more and more as fodder. 

Ground Nut (^Arachis hypogaea^ Experiments in Malabar. — The Tropical 
Agriculturist, Colombo, October 1910. 

British Ground-nut, which two years ago was unknown in Malabar, is now 

india doing well in Palghat. About 500 acres were planted there last year. The 
overseers {tahsildars) in all the other districts {talugs) are struck with the 
abundance of the crop. Though it has now been shown that ground-nut 
will succeed on any dry land if sown in May or June, Mr. Francis suggests 
growing it experimentally as a second crop on damp soils that have grown 
but one crop hitherto. Should this prove a success, very important results 
may follow, as there are thousands of acres in Malabar that lie fallow half 
the year, except for a scanty crop of gingell}' (Scsamum i/nlicum) or a few 
vegetables (i). 



(l) Arachis hypogaea (Ground-nut, Pea-nut, Monkey-nut, Manila-nut, Chinese-nut, etcj. 
" Although grown here and there all over India as a garden and even an occasional 
field- crop, it is only in Madras and Bombay that the pea-nut is produced on a com- 
mercial scale." In 1889-90 Madras alone was returned as having had 279 355 acres 
under this crop, of which 185 876 acres were in South Arcot, the chief seat of South 
Indian ground-nut production In 1906-07 the Madras area was 507 600 acres, while 
that of Bombay is only 93 800 acres. 

For a revolution in !he Pea-Nut production in India, due to the introduction of 



OIL PLANTS: ELAEIS. - COFFEE 



259 



A Sunflower Farm. — The Natal Agricultural Journal, vol XV. No. 4, 
p. 508. Pietermaritzburg, Oct. 1910. 

In the district of Wide Bay, situated on the plateau of Binjour (Queen- 
sland), there is a farm entirely devoted to the cultivation of Sunflowers 
{Helianthus a?muus). The seed crop, has amounted to about 50 bushels 
per acre, (45 hi. per ha). The oil extracted can be employed in soap 
manufacture. 



Australia: 
Queensland 



The Oil Palm, Elaeis Guineensis in Madagascar. — La Quinzaine Coloniale, 
Paris, Nov. 10, 1910. 

In a geological tour through the West of Madagascar, M. Perrier found 
that the Oil-producing palm Elaeis Guineensis (i) grows in abundance in the 
valley of the River Tzinbihina. The industrial value of the products of this 
palm make the discovery of considerable interest to Madagascar. 

J. Masferre. Coffee Growing in the Philippines. (Cultivo del Cafd en 
las Filipinas). — La Hacienda. Buffalo, N. Y. U. S. A., Nov. 1910, vol. VI, 
PP- 35-38- 

The writer is of opinion that the coffee plant should never be allowed 
to grow from a single stem, because it then does not bear abundantly 
and the berries are difficult to gather. If the plant does not begin to grow 
branches by the time it is 2 or 3 cm. or a little more, in diameter, it should 
be bent downwards and fixed at an angle of 45°, first in one direction and 
then in another; this forces the growth of new branches. The best period 
to begin bending is just before the plant blossoms. Six branches at most 
should be preserved; those furthest from the soil and those growing in the 
same direction should be pruned off. 

It is not advisable to nip the highest branches in order to make the 
plant spread. 

The Cultivation of Coffee.- — l^he Philippine Agricultural Review, Vol. Ill, 
No. 9, p. 52, Manila. 

Deep, rich and healthy soil is necessary for the growth of the coffee 



good varieties of seed, and for extensive information on this important Indian crop, see 
Sir George Watt, The Commercial Products of India^ London, 1908, p. 74. 

Arachis is a leguminous plant and should profit by inoculation, without which the 
crop is likely to decline. It is interest'ng to note from this point of view that in India 
silt is considered a specially gocd manure : " Sabba Rao observes that the best manure 
appears to be the silt deposit of tanks, and so highly is this valued that the cultivators 
carry silt from great distances and pay high prices for the privilege of removing it." 

{Ed\ 

(i) The Elais Guineensis produces palm-oil, used in the manufacture of candles and 
soap. ' \^Ed.\. 



Madagascar 



Philippines 



Philippines. 

Australia: 

Queensland 



26o COFFEE 



plant, which is sown in nurseries, in rows 15 cm. apart each way. The plants 
must be sheltered from the sun until they are 15 or 20 cm. in height, and 
at 30 cm. they may be transplanted. In Ceylon, the plants are usually set 
at a distance of from 1.50 to 1.80 m. from one another in all directions, but 
in the Philippines 2.10 or even 2.40 m. is advised. When the plant is suffi- 
ciently developed, it is cut back to a metre or little more from the ground, 
and staked on account of the wind. It is in full production by the 3rd year. 

The fruit or " cherry," which resembles a cherry and encloses two grains, 
"beans," is passed through a machine which removes the pulp from the 
beans ; the latter are left to ferment in tanks for one or two days, and are 
then washed, dried and packed for exportation. 

Indian planters estimate that the first crop averages about 20 tons 
per 100 acres (40 hectares), and that good crops of the third and fourth year 
may be as much as 40 tons. " In Queensland, where in 1905 318 acres 
(128 hectares) were producing out of 394 acres (160 hectares) under culti- 
vation, the crop was 83 518 lbs. (37 894 kg.); while at Herbeston 615 lbs. 
were gathered per acre (i) (690 kg. per hect.). 

The coffee plant requires thinning and bud-nipping as well as winter 
pruning and, old or neglected plants, special cutting back. During the last 
tenor twelve years, several new methods of cultivation have been proposed, 
the abolition of pruning being one of them, and, in fact, this could be greatly 
reduced with advantaoe after the first four years. 

The question as to whether it is advisable to shade the plantations with 
other trees has been much discussed and is not yet solved. There are un- 
doubted advantages in this method for dry countries, especially if the trees 
adopted are Leguminosae, which enrich the soil in nitrogen. The best Le- 
guminosae for this purpose in Queensland are the following: Gvvango l^Pi- 
thexolobiiwi Sama/i), the Madre de cacao, of Nicaragua [Gliricidia maculata), 
the Albizzia stipiilata, the Albizzia Lebbek,iht Albhzia moluccana, and all the 
Erythrinae, several of which are native plants. I'he shade-trees should be 
planted at the same time as the coffee plants. 

It is advisable to grow coffee plants with bananas for the first four 
or six years, but association with other plants, even annuals, is not advi- 
sable. As to fertilisers, coffee plantations are made on such rich land, as a 
rule, that they can easily do without them for several years. Chemical 
fertilisers are used in old plantations when the beans are of a milky con- 
sistency. After the crops are gathered, the soil is treated with manures 



(i) In India the mean yield for some years before 1906 would appear to be a little 
over 100 lb. to the acre, but it fluctuates very greatly; thus in igoS the mean yitld 
would appear to have been 139 lb., while in 1901 it was only 65 lb. It is probable 
however that in all the larger and better worked plantations an average yield of 2 to 
3 cwt. is usually obtained, ' 

See Sir Geo. Watt. The Cotnmercial Products of India, 1906, p. 370. [Ed.\. 



i 



COFFEE 



261 



containing stable manure or with composts for which the pulp of the coffee 
berry can be utihsed. Green manuring with leguminous plants is both 
satisfactory and economical. 

B. Belli. Coffee: Its Country and Importance. (II caffe. II suo paese e la 
sua importanza). — Ulrico Hoepli, Milan, igio, pp. xxiv-395 

This book deals with the history ot coffee, with other works written on 
the subject, its cultivation, especially in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and 
finally, the world's production of coffee. 

Statistics show that the average annual production of coffee from 1820-21 
to 1829-30 was 1 650 000 bags (60 kg. each), 300 000 of which came from 
Brazil. In 1901-2 the output had increased to 20 000 000 bags 16 250 000 
of which prodnced by Brazil (i). 

Transport facilities, which are continually increasing with the development 
of the railways, together with the immigration of Italian labour, have helped 
to convert St. Paulo into a great coffee mart. It is calculated that there are 
about 700 million coffee plants in this region. 

The following table will give an idea of the coffee export from 1895-96 
to 1907-8. 

For Europe. . . 61 261 921 bags = 64.57 % 
■» America . 
» Africa . 
» Asia . 
•» Various . 
v the Coasting trade 



32 


239623 


» 





33-98 




358616 


>> 


— 


0-39 




icy 441 


■» 





0.14 




628 013 


V 


— 


0.58 


ie 


301 ^33 


■>> 


— - 


0.34 



94 906 747 bags = 100.00 7o 
The total importation of Brazilian coffee into Italy has been continually 
increasing since 1900-1, as is shown by the following table: 

bags 



^ear 


1899-1900 


232 000 


>; 


I900-I90I 


• 273 900 


. » 


I90I-I902 


267 700 


V 


I902-I903 . 


285 000 


» 


T 903- 1 904 . 


290 900 


V 


I904-I905 . 


• 305 200 


V 


.905-1906 . 


. 329 080 


» 


1906-1907 


• 358970 



This book also deals with the markets, customs duties, the price of 

coffee, its physiological properties and chemical composition ; it treats also 

of coffee roasting, and coffee substitutes and adulterations, with information 

about banks, etc. There are 40 tables. 7 diagrams and a map of the coffee 

le I districts in the State of Sao Paulo. 



(i) The world's production of coffee has been estimated at close on 15 million 
bags (132 lb. each) of which 11 '/^ million bags are furnished by Brazil. See Geo. W.att, 
T/ie Commercial Products of India, 1906. [Ed.'\. 



262 COFFEE 



A. Jacotot. The Cultivation of the Coffee-plant, its Future in the French 
Colonies. (La Culture du Cafdier, son avenir dans les Colonies fian- 
gaises). — These potir le doctor at, vol. 184. Paris, Ed. Lnrose. 

The writer reviews the coffee production of the world, its consumption, 
and the crisis of over-production, which occurred after the two exceptional 
crops of 1901-1902 and of 1906-1907. M. Jacotot bases his remarks on the 
fact that France consumes about 100 milHon kilograms of coffee, of which 
one million alone is supplied by its colonies. Passing on to the study of the 
present conditions of the cultivation of the coffee plant in the French colo- 
nies, he comes to the conclusion that, everywhere in the new French colo- 
nies, the industry is in its infancy, having suffered from the fall in price, 
which has turned the attention of planters to more paying crops, such as 
cacao and indiarubber. 
French T^e cultivation of coffee deserves encouragement, for if undertaken 

Colonies properly and concurrently with that of other crops, it may become a lasting 
source of wealth. Mr. Jacotot considers that " the best encouragement which 
can now be given to the cultivators in the French colonies is the admission 
of their coffee into France free of all duty." 

The coffee-producing countries of the present day are within the 28th 
degree of S. latitude and are as follows : 

hi America\: Brazil, Mexico, Central America (Guatemala, San Salvador, 
Costa Rica, Nicaragua), the Antilles (Haiti, Jamaica, Porto Rico, and Gua- 
daloup), Dutch and English Guiana, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru 
and Paraguay. 

In Asia and Oceania: the Dutch Indies. India and Ceylon, French 
Indo China, New Caledonia, Manilla, Arabia. 

In Africa: Abyssinia, and the various European possessions (German 
and English East Africa, the Ivory Coast, Belgian and French Congo, Ma- 
dagascar, Rdunion) possessions which contribute little to the total production 
of coffee. 

The world's production, which in 1825 did not exceed 1650000 bags 
of 60 kg. each, reached, with the famous crop of 1906-1907, the extraordinary 
amount of 23 920 000 bags. Brazil alone furnishes more than '/4 of the \\hole 
amount produced. The mean output of the other countries per annum, 
from [900-1910, was about 3 900 000 bags, i. e. 234 millions of kilograms, 
of which only one million was produced by French colonies. And this, 
although the cultivation of the coffee plant in Martinique, Guadaloup, Reu- 
nion and French Guiana dates back to the xviii century. But in these old 
colonies, this industry has had to compete with that of the sugar cane and 
to contend with disease, Avant of labour, and with Hemileia. Its decline in 
the nineteenth century is noticeable, nevertheless M. Jacotot sees, in the 
grafting of West Indian varieties on Liberian stocks, a possibility of enlarging 



COFFEE. - TEA. 



MATE. 



263 



the area of the coffee-plant. Of late years the exportation from Guadaloup, 
Rdunion, and New Caledonia tends to increase again. 

Experiments have been, and are still being carried out in the new colo- 
nies. Prospects in Tonkin are brighter than could have been expected at 
one time when the coffee crop was threatened with diseases and pests espe- 
cially the insect called the Borer, the larvae of which devour the pith of 
the plant. 

Experiments made at Madagascar, prove that neither Arabian nor Li- 
berian coffee-plants can resist the attacks of H'Tnileia. The exceptional 
qualities of the Congo coffee plant are now well known, and it appears 
more likely to replace the Liberian than the Arabian variety. The exporta- 
tion from Madgascar reached 93 368 kg. in 1908, as against 177 kg. in 1901, 
which speaks well for the future. 

In French East Africa coffee can only be grown in Guinea, on the 
Ivory Coast, and at Dahomey. From the first place the exports are at present 
very small, but according to M. Chevalier, Coffea stenophilla appears to give 
good returns there. 

The Ivory Coast, from the great richness of its soil, seems more suitable 
than even Guinea for the production of coffee. At Dahomey, the experi- 
ments hitherto made have yielded unsatisfactory results, and the industry 
there seems to have but a limited future before it. At Cheri, in the French 
Congo, M. Chevalier found coffea excelsa, the aroma of which places it among 
the best kinds, and which is capable of further improvement by careful cul- 
tivation. Coffee-growing is likely to prosper in the Congo. 



Russian Tea-Growing. — The Tropical Agriculturist. Colombo, Oct., 19 10, 

Russian tea planters are taking advantage of the increasing consumption 
of tea in Russia to resume culture on their abandoned plantations. These 
were thoroughly weeded and cleaned last year and are likely to yield this 
year a good crop of green tea. There are thirteen villagesn ear Batum en- 
tirely devoted to tea culture. The total return from these tea-crops amounted 
to £17 700 in 1908, and last year the crops were nearly doubled. 



Russia 



O. Labroy. Cultivation of Mate in South America. 

Tropicale, Oct. 30, 1910, No. 112, pp. 291-295. 



fourii. (f Agric. 



The Matd extractive industry in South America is gradually becoming 
an agricultural industry. Plantations are extending in those parts where the 
plant grows wild, and well equipped works prepare the raw article for export 
to European markets, where there is already some demand. 

Encouraging results seem to have been obtained at Nueva Germania 
and Villa Ricca in Paraguay, Rosario and Sant' Ignacio in Argentina and in 



Paraguay 
Argentina 
Brazil 



264 MATE. - TOBACCO 



No. of the series 
of pots 


IS'itrog 


e» 


Phosph 
acid 


sric 


Potash 


I 


O 


gr- 


0.75 


gr- 


1.0 gr 


2 


0.2 


» 


■v 


» 


1.5 » 


3 


0.4 


> 


> 


> 


1.5 » 


4 


0.6 


> 


» 


» 


1.5 » 


5 


0.8 


> 


» 


> 


2.0 » 


6 


I.O 


» 


» 


» 


3.0 » 



South Brazil ; but precise data are still wanting on the yield and productive 
period of the tree, and the price per kilo of mate compared with the cost 
of production. 

The South American planters began by using seeds and young plants 
obtained from good native producers. Scientific study of the Matt? ilex and 
its culture conditions by an expert would enable planters to select the best 
types. The //ex paraguayensis, considered as the genuine matti holly, is not 
the only species used, or, if so, it comprises a number of varieties, very un- 
equal in value, which should be carefully studied, to deterniine the respective 
merits of varieties known locally as: Long- leaved Verba, Round- leaved Verba, 
Congonhinha Mansa^ Co?igonha des Misiones, Verba Morada, V. branca, V. amarella. 

The writer gives statistics of the development of mate cultivation and 
of the exports ot 1908 and 1909, as well as technical information on the 
choice of soils, the laying out and management of plantations, the preparation 
of matd on the spot and in the works, and on the method of making the 
infusion. 

A. Stutzer. Manuring Experiments with Tobacco and Tomatoes in 

Peaty Soil. (Diingungsversuche ftir Tabak und Tomaten im Hochmoor- i 
boden). — - Die Erndhrung der Pflanze, Stassfurt, Nov. 1910, No. 22, 
pp. 213-215. 

Experiments have been made at the Experimental Farm of the Institute 
of Agricultural Chemistry at Konigsberg for the purpose of studying the 
growth of tobacco and tomatoes in peaty soil. 

Pots were used containing, for the tobacco, about 1.5 kg. and for the 
fiermany tomatoes about 3 kg. of peat, dried in the air. A Havana variety of to- 
bacco was used and two varieties of tomato, the Roosevelt and the Johan- 
nisfeuer. Both tobacco and tomatoes were sown in a hot bed, the tomatoes 
being transplanted into the pots on May 13 and the tobacco on June 13. 

To each tobacco pot were added 5 gr. of Thomas slag, i gr. of mag- 
nesium sulphate and 2 gr. of sulphate of potash. On June 15, 0.2 gr. of 
nitrogen in the form of nitrate of lime were added to each of the pots from 
no. 2 to no. 6. Pots no. 3 to 6 were further treated with nitrogenous and 
potash fertilisers in June and August. The following are the figures for 
each pot: 



TOBACCO 



265 



Each series included 4 pots. Onlr the 5 upper and the 5 middle leaves 
of the tobacco were considered. 
The results were: 



Size of leaves when harvested 



0. of series 
of pots 


Average 
length 


Average 
width 


I 




20 


cm. 


9-10 cm 


2 




25 


» 


14-17 » 


3 




27 


>• 


14-19 » 


4 




34 




18-20 » 


5 and 


6 


36 


» 


20-24 * 



Fifteen leaves were taken from three pots of each series to determine 
the dry matter : 



No. of series 
of pots 


Middle 
leaves 


Upper 
leaves 




Total 
gr- 


I 


6.5 


gr- 


(not determined) 





2 


15.0 


» 


7.2 gr. 




22.2 


3 


21.5 


» 


10. » 




3,^-5 


4 


29.0 


» 


24.5 » 




53-5 


5 


31-5 


» 


22.0 » 




53-5 


6 


34-5 


» 


19-5 » 




54-0 



The drv matter of the leaves contained: 



. of series 
of pots 


Chlorine 


I 


0.65 7o 


2 


0.47 * 


3 


0.57 » 


4 


0.59 » 


5 


0.50 » 


6 


0.48 » 



Potash 



Ash 



3.08 


7 

/o 


3.08 


» 


3.08 


» 


3-72 


» 


4.27 


» 


4.48 


» 



9 


89 


7o 


10 


.16 


» 


10 


18 


» 


10 


•79 


» 


9 


64 


» 


10 


18 


» 



The dry matter of good tobacco leaves should contain less than 0.6 per 
cent of chlorine and about 6 per cent of potash, The higher the potash 
content and the weaker the proportion of chlorine, the better is the com- 
bustible quality of the tobacco. 

These experiments shewed that tobacco could be grown well even in 
a high peaty soil and in the climate of East Prussia. 

For the tomato experiments the soil was manured with Thomas slag, 
nitrate of lime and salts of potash at 40 7o- Each plant gave on an average 
3.2 kg. of fruit. 

The article is illustrated by several figures. 



266 TOBACCO 



Royal Experimental Station for Tobacco Cultivation at Debreczen (Pallag). 

(Les Institutions Agricoles Hongroises. Edition du Minist. Royal Hongr. 
de I'Agr.). Budapesth, 1910. 

Hunaarv This Station is making experiments for improving the cultivation and 

manipulation of tobacco, as well as the quality. Experimental cultures are 
being made, with the aid of the tobacco growers, on the Experiment fields 
at Debreczen and Csaba. 

A, Splendore. The Relation between the Age of the Reproductive Organs 
of the Tobacco Plant and their Fertilising Activity. (Influenza dell'eta. 
degli organi di riproduzione del tabacco sull'attivitk fecondativa). — Bol- 
httino tecnico coliivaziom tabacchi. R. Istituto Sperimentale in Scafati. Sept.- 
Oct. 1910, No. 5, pp. 273-277. 

Experiments were made with the Virginia Orinoco (typical) and the 
Comstock Spanish (Brazilian) varieties, and comparison was made between 
the following: 

i) Young stigmata (well formed and without viscous liquid) and fresh,, 
Italy ""ipe pollen; 

2) Viscous stigmata (ripe) and pollen as above; 

3) Viscous stigmata (ripe) and withered pollen (old, turning gray) ; 

4) Withered stigmata (old, turning brown) and fresh, ripe pollen ; 
The numerous data in this paper show that viscous, ripe stigmata and 

ripe fresh pollen have the greatest fertilising activity and produce the largest 
quantity and best quality of seed in the Virginia Orinoco] next in order 
come young stigmata joined to fresh, ripe pollen, but the seed is on the 
whole much more delicate. Withered pollen and viscous stigmata give satis- 
factory results. The stigmata are very sensitive to fertilising reaction ; as 
soon as they begin to fade, even if treated with the best pollen, the formation 
of seed decreases by about 45 per cent in comparison with that of viscous 
stigmata and ripe pollen. 

The experiments with the Comstock Spanish led to much the same con- 
clusions. 

The Tobacco Industiy of Smyrna. — Journal of the Royal Society of Arts,. 
London, Nov. 4, 19 10. 

The Magnesia variety of tobacco, which was formerly cultivated in the 
Turkish Hinterland of Smyrna, has been replaced by the variety Ayaso louk (ancient 
tmpire Ephesian). In order to have good results, this variety must be grown with 

others in the proportion of 3 to 10, and even then, it exhausts the best fields 

in 5 or 6 years. 



TOBACCO. - HOPS 267 



Tobacco is grown in 3 regions : the upland, the low upland and the 
plain. The uplands yield from 88 to no lbs. per stremma (1-6 of an hectare), 
the low uplands from 143 to 200, and the plains from 220 to 600 lbs. per 
stremma. The main production centres are : Giaour Keni, Scala Nova, Thyra, 
Baindir. Ghermonda, Ak-keni, Melessos and Cara Aghania. The total crop 
in good years is about 5 660 000 lbs. 

L. Br. Tobacco Growing in the Philippines. — Journ. d'Agric. Tropicale. 
Paris, Sept. 30, iQio, No. in. 

Mr. J. S. Hord, in a communication to the Philippine Agricultural Revierv, 
affirms that the new Customs tariff of the United States, by favouring the 
products ot the Philippines, seems, indirectly to have had a bad effect on the 
quality of the tobacco produced there. Only four or five plantations are Philinoines 
cultivated with rational methods, and the 20 000 small planters who have 
each about half a hectare under cultivation, use so little care in gathering 
the crops and preparing the tobacco, that it is always of a very poor quality. 
This state of things is likely to lead to the loss of European custom unless 
rational methods are rapidly enforced. 

Mr. Hord suggests a return to the old methods, consisting in the use 
of those plants only, Avhich have been selected in the nurseries by an expe- 
rienced staff, the destruction of all leaves of inferior quality, and he insists 
upon the planters having proper appliances for fermenting and drying the 
tobacco. 

Tobacco Industry in Panama. — Peru To-day, vol. 11, No. 3. Lima, May 
1910, p. 28. 

The Government of the Republic of Panama is taking great interest in 
the cultivation of tobacco. The plantations continue to extend, even in new 
districts. A variety of native tobacco is produced in nearly all the provinces 
of Panama, especially at Chiriqui and Chame. The soil is very well suited 
to this cultivation, but the product is of medium quality as yet, on account 
of insufficient care. ■ • 

An experienced horticulturist, Mr. H. F. Schultz, in a recent report to 
the Ministry of Fomento, states that with proper care a tobacco equal to 
the best products of Cuba and Florida could be obtained in Panama. To- 
bacco can be cultivated all the year round, but the beginning of the dry 
season is the most favourable period. 

F. Wagner. Experiments with Fertilisers on Hops (Humulus Lupulus). 

(Vierjahrige Kalidiingungsversuche des Deutschen Hopfenbauvereins 
1903-1906). — Die Erndhrting der Pflanze. Stassfurt, Nov. 1910, No. 22, 
p. 217-218. 

Hops that are growing well, take about 79 kg. of nitrogen, gi of po- 
tash, 30 of phosphoric acid, 147 of lime and 54 of magnesia per hectare 



GermaHy 



268 TOBACCO. - HOPS 



out of the soil every year. The " German Hop-Growers Union " (Deutscher 
Hopfenbau Verein) has had experiments made on the following plan during 
several years: 

Plot i) Not fertilised. 
» 2) Usual stable manure. 
» 3) Manure without potash. 

100 gr. ammonium sulphate and 120 gr. Thomas slag, per 
plant. 

» 4) Complete manuring with Martelline (i). 

Per plant: 100 gr. ammonium sulphate. 
» 120 gr. Thomas slag, 

» 115 gr. Martelline with 25 per cent of potash. 

» 5) Complete fertiliser with salts of potash at 40 per cent. 

Per plant: too gr. ammonium sulphate. 
» 120 gr. Thomas slag. 

» 70 gr. salts of potash with 40 per cent of potash.. 

The following are taken from the tables of results: 

The yield of hops was lowest on the plot that had not been manured, 
and increased with the numbers as above, the complete manure giving the 
largest crop. 

The quality of the hops followed the same gradation. The action of 
the potash was favourable both in compact and in light soils. On the 
whole, the effect of Martelline on the quality and quantity of the product 
was better than that of the salts of potash at 40 per cent, but not invariably. 
The potash manure, as a rule, strengthened the resistance of the plants to 
drought, and to vegetable and animal parasites. The blossoming of the plant, 
and the ripening of the cones and falling of the leaves took place earlier on 
the plots not manured, or simply treated with stable manure. The results 
with stable manure were, on the whole, inferior to those obtained with a 
complete manure. The colour of the leaves was deeper in plants grown with 
potash manure. 

In some experiments lasting four years, excellent results were obtained 
from several soils by using mineral instead of organic fertilisers. 

The writer gives data on some economic questions, together with some 
tables and a diagram. 



(i) Martelline is a mixture of potassium silicate and peat; its potash content may 
be as much as 28 per cent. [Ed.] 



HOPS. - HORTICULTURE: GREEN PEAS. - BASIL 



269 



The Hop Harvest in Bohemia. — Feuille cT information dii Ministere de t agri- 
culture. Paris, Nov. i, 1910. 

There has been an excellent crop of hops in Bohemia this year, the 
amount at Saaz alone being about 77 500 quintals (of 100 kgs. each) or 
6 72 quintals per hectare over an area of 11 200 hectares, which last year 
yielded only 3 Vj quintals. In the district of Auscha (Aussig) Rotland the 
crop is estimated at 20000 quintals on an area of 2100 hectares. 

The yield in the lower part of the Poleppe plain was 6500 quintals, or 
about 8 Vi quintals per hectare against 3.6 last year. The plantations in 
the Danba district were very unequal in their yield. 

The crop in the whole of Bohemia was about 11 1 500 quintals, and 
although the development of the hops was very unequal this year, the qua- 
lity was good. The colour also was satisfactory, in spite of the bad weather. 



Austria : 
Bohemia 



Neumann. Simple Method for obtaining Early Green Peas. — Bull, de la 

Soc. d'hort. et de vitic. d Eur e-et- Loire. Chartres, October 1910, No. 22, 
pp. 422-424. 

The peas should be sown in pots during the winter, and the pots 
sunk in the ground, so as to protect the soil from frost. When the young 
plants have reached a certain growth, they are transplanted in the open, and 
if early varieties, such as the Express, are chosen, peas may be gathered 
as early as May 15. 

It was observed that peas grown by this method are more vigorous 
than those grown on the spot, and that they are less affected by the attacks 
of vegetable and animal parasites. 



E. G. Camus and A. Camus. Botanical Study of cultivated Basils. (Etude 
botanique des Basilics cultives). — Bulletin Scientifique Industriel. Roure 
Bertrand fils. Grasse, Oct. 1910, pp. 22-38. 

Most of the cultivated basils come from India, where they are very 
popular, both as remedies and as condiments. They are similarly employed 
in Europe, especially in the South. After describing the wild plant, this paper 
deals with the varieties, or species which are rarely cultivated for industrial 
purposes, or grown for culinary uses. The descriptions, and the anatoni}' 
of the type Ocimum Basilicwn and its varieties, are made clear by means of 
three plates. 

The greatest yield of essential oil is obtained by distillation from the 
variety crispum, the characteristics of which are described. The variety with 
curled leaves is not inferior to the ordinary one, either in scent, or es- 
.sential oil, and is the most interesting from every point of view. 

The amount of estragol in all the varieties is about 55 °/j,. 



France 



270 



SMALL FRUIT : CRANBERRY. - FLOWERS 



United 
States : 

Massa- 
chusetts 



W. P. Brookes. Experiments in Manuring the Cranberry {Vacciaiutn 

Macrocarpon). — Ammal Report of the Massachusetts Agricultural Expe- 
riment Station, Part I, pp. 28-33, Boston, 19 10. 

Experiments have been made, in union with the Cape Cod Cranberry 
Growers' Association, on 2>Z plots of soil, each of 0.02 ha, to determine the 
manure suited to the cranberry. 

i) The mean production per hectare of all the plots was: 

Unmanured 135 hi. per hec 

Manured (nitrate of soda, superphosphate, 

potash salts) 241-276 » » 

2) The employment of nitrate of soda, in quantities exceeding 112 kg. 
per ha., appears seldom necessary. 

3) The favourable influence of sulphate of potash is shown in a 
decisive manner. It assists ripening, and improves colour and quality. The 
heaviest crop, 405 hi. per hec, was due to the predominance of potash 
manure. 

4) The effect of phosphoric acid appears to be less beneficial ; never- 
theless, superphosphate apparently causes early maturity and brilliance of 
colour. 



Flower Crops in the Souih of France. (Les r^coltes florales du Midi de 
la France). — Bulletin Scientifique Industriel, Roure Bertrand fils, Grasse, 
Oct. 1 9 10, pp. 59-65. 

The writer gives information on the crops, with prices, production, and 
France the conditions of the season. 

The following are the flower crops and their months of production: 

Violets :zz. February-March- April ; 

Mimosa inz February-March ; 

Jonquil = April-May; 

Narcissus nz. April-May; 

Broom =: May : 
Orange-blossom ^r. May ; 

Rose = May-June ; 

Mignonnette ■=: July; 

Pink = June ; 

Jasmine zi: July-October ; 

Tuberose 1= August-September ; 

Cassia =r October-November. 



(l) " The Large Cranberry { Vacciniuni macrocarpon Ait.) is now cultivated on hundreds 
of acres of boggy land in North America. The three principal varietes of cranberry 
are now a staple article of food in North America and an effort has been made to open 
an European market. The export trade has now assumed some importance, and is 
growing. " 

Bailey, CyclopcJia of American Horticulture. New York, 1909. [■^'^■j 



FLOWERS 



271 



The Bulb Industry in Holland. (Daily Consular Reports). — Moder?i Miller, 



vol. 36, No. 



St. Louis, Nov. 5, 1910, p. II. 



The regulr cultivation and exportation of flower bulbs has been carried 
on in Holland since 1750. but the trade did not begin to attain its present 
enormous proportions until the last 20 or 30 years of the XlXth century. 
At first bulbs were grown only at Haarlem, but the industry has since spread 
wherever conditions were favourable. The preparation of the soil for bulb 
cultivation is often very costly, and the value of the best plots varies from 
£320 to £500 per acre (20000 to 31 247 frs. per hectare). 

The export statistics, very carefully kept since 1897, show a remarkable 
increase during the past ten years. About £800 000 worth of bulbs are now 
exported annually, about 40 per cent of which go to England. There are 
about 200 export firms for bulbs in Holland, and 2500 growers who do not 
export directly ; the total number of persons engaged in the industry is esti- 
mated at 4000. The Dutch bulb growers form a General Federation which 
numbers about 3000 members divided into 37 groups. The Federation pub- 
lishes a paper twice a week, organises sales during the season, submits new 
varieties to a committee of judges and lays all trade disputes before a council 
specially named for the purpose. The Federation has also organised exhi- 
bition.s and sent Dutch produce to foreign shows. 

There are two other Societies connected with the bulb industry, one 
protects the interests of exporters, and the other those of growers who do 
not export. 



Netherlands 



Preserving the Scent of Violets. — Revue scientifique. Paris, Nov. 19, 1910. 

The following is a proctss for preserving the odour of violets when the 
flowers are no longer fresh : 

The fresh flowers must be detached from the stalk and placed in a 
clean glass jar with ordinary salt, thin layers of the salt and of the flowers 
being placed alternately. The jar should be completely shut, preferably 
with a ground glass stopper, and must be kept in a cool place. At the end 
of fifteen days the perfume will be ready, and may be kept for months : 
when it is desired to have the scent of fresh violets in a room, the bottle 
is opened for a few seconds and then closed again. 



France 



Floriculture in the Ligurian Riviera. (La floricultura suUa Riviera Ligure). — 
Agrlcoltura italiana, XXXVI, 683, pp. 614-618. Pisa, October 31, 1910. 



This article, continued from a previous number, gives an account of the Italy: 
cultivation of the rose and carnation together, a characteristic combination Liguria 



in Liguria in recent years. 



272 



ARBORICULTURE 



The cost and yield may be regarded as constant after the fifth year 
of growth, excepting that in the last year the value of the rose stocks has- 
to be added to the returns. At the fifteenth year the following balance may 
be drawn up for one hectare ol land containing about 500 rose stocks and 
1600 carnations. 

Expenses 6418 frs. 35 

Returns 12307 » 67 

Total net profit 5 889 » 32 

Annual » ...... 273 » 25 



New Method of Grafting. 

P- 393- 



L Agronome. Namur, Nov. 1910, No. 48,. 



This method consists simply in cutting both graft and stock obliquely, 
fitting the oblique surfaces closely together and keeping them in place by 
Belgium a small piece of elastic tubing. This should cover the graft entirely, so as 
to exclude air from the cuts. It enlarges with the growth of the plant, and 
gradually drops away under the influence of the air, the heat and the rain, 
so that by the time the graft has taken well it is free. 

G. QuiNN. Fruit Tree Pruning. (A Practical Text Book for Fruit (jrower.s 
working under the Climatic and Economic Conditions prevailing in Tem- 
perate Australia. By George Quinn, pp. vi-230, Adelaide, Australia, 
1910). — Nature, No. 2140, vol. 85, p. 2. London. 

Australia: This book, which deals with fruit tree pruning, was written by the Hor- 

bouth ticultural Instructor of the Agricultural Department of South Australia, for 
the use of those who cultivate fruit trees under the climatic and economic 
conditions of temperate Australia. 



Uniteii 
States : 
AntilJes 



O. Labroy. Wind-breaks in Fruit Orchards. — Journal (f Agriculture 7ro- 
picale. Paris, Sept. 20. 1910, No in, p. 286. 

A report on wind-breaks in fruit orchards has been made by M. A. von 
Hermann to the National Horticultural Society of Cuba. 

The fruit growers of California, Porto Rico and Florida have adopted 
the system of wind-breaks in their orchards and orange groves where 
M. von Hermann saw some of the finest fruit in the United States. 

Fruit trees sheltered by wind-breaks are more vigorous in appearance 
than those in plantations left open to the weather and to rough or dry winds, 
and their products are much finer. 

Among trees most adapted as wind-breaks the following are recommended: 
Eucalyptus {E. robusta, E. resinifera) the Filaos [Casuai'ina) and the Gre- 



ARBORICULTURE: VINE 273 



villea robusta. The roots of these may be prevented from encroaching on 
the soil of the orchards by digging every two years a trench at a distance 
of 5 metres from the foot of the trees and cutting off all the roots which 
spread beyond this space, but there is some danger that this method may 
weaken the trees forming the wind-breaks. 

I. Rossi. Green Manure in Vineyards. (I sovesci nei vigneti). — La Ri- 
vista Agricola. Roma, Nov. 1910, fasc. 123. pp. 424-425. 

The efficacy of green manuring has been proved by experiments made 
in a vineyard at S. Ilario Ligure, It lies on the slope of a hill, and the Italy: 
soil is loam of a clayey-siliceous character. The experiments were begun Liguria 
in the autumn of 1907, with horse-beans, beans, and lupin, but the two 
latter were abandoned, the horse-beans having given the best results. The 
following fertilisers were given to the horse-beans: 

Thomas slag .... Kgs. 800 per hectare 
Sulphate of potash . . » 100 » » 

^> of lime . . » 600 --> • » 

The results obtained in comparison with 1907, Avhich year may be 
considered as representing the normal production before the experiments 
were tried, were as follows : 





Production per 


hectare : 


Composition 


of product 


Year 


Qs. 




Glucose % 


Acidity * , 


1907 . 


... 42 




16 7, 


"7. 


1908 . 


... 60 




17 


xo7. 


1909 . 


... 69 




177. 


10 


igio . 


. . . 50 




177. 





A. Marescalchi. Grapes from the Extremity and from the Base of the 
Branch. (L'uva dell'estremita e quella della base del tralcio). — // 
Coltivatore. Casale Monferrato, Nov. 1910, N. 32, pp. 422-426. 

M. Marescalchi made experiments to determine the variation in sugar 
content in grapes, according to their position on the vine. Analysis gave Pjedmoiit 
the following results: 



Grapes 


from 




Extremity of branch 




Base of branch 


17.5 7o 




17-7 7o 


15.2 » 




16.3 » 


13.0 » 




16.0 » 


^2,-Z » 




15.0 » 


13.2 » 




15.0 i> 


14.0 » 




15.0 » 



Average: 14-4 7o i5-9 7o «f s"ga'' 



274 



ARBORICULTURE: VINE 



This shows that, given the method of cultivation used (which is des- 
cribed) grapes from the base contain more sugar than those from the end 
of the branch. 

Table Grapes on the Swiss Markets. (Uve da tavola sui mercati della 
Svizzera). — Bollettino del Ministero d Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio^ 
serie B, fasc. I, Rome, 1910, p. 239. 

White table grapes are preferred to black, in Switzerland. The va- 
rieties most in demand are: the Chasselas, from France, Algeria and Bo- 
logna; the French Servent, the Swiss Pendant from the Valais, the Trebbiano 
from the Abruzzi, the Colombana from Pisa and the Spanish Muscats. 

Next to the Italian Dolcetto and Negretto, the Raisin Praise [Uva fra- 
gold) from the Ticino is preferred among black grapes, as well as the French 
Olivette rouge and the Belgian Gros Colman, the two latter varieties are 
very expensive. The hothouse grapes of Almeria and Belgium are very little 
in request, on account of their high price. 

The Belgian grapes are packed in cases lined with wadding, and those 
from Spain in boxes filled with cork chips. 

Vine cultivation in Uruguay. — Office du Gou'^ernement gendrale de T Algirie, 
Nov. I, igio. 

The Bulletin biniensuel de la C/iand)re de commerce fran^aise de Montevideo 
gives the following information for 1908-1909 on the cultivation of the vine 
Uruguay i" Uruguay: 

1906 1909 

Hectares cultivated .... 361 1 5693 

Bearing vines 10525882 18588692 

Vines not yet bearing . . . 4717386 '4250615 



15243268 22839307 



1908 



Total crop . . . Kg. 7 388 562 



1909 

29378340 



The consumption of wine in Uruguay at present is more than 400 000 
hectolitres, while the wine produced and imported does not amount to more 
than 260000 hectolitres altogether. The difference is made up by mani- 
pulation of strong Spanish and Italian wines, containing upwards of 16° 
of alcohol. 



ARBORICULTURE: OLIVE. - CITRUS FRUITS 275 



The Preparation of Pickled Olives in Seville. (La Preparation des Olives 
de table a St^ville). — Office du Governement Ginerale de F Algirie. Paris, 
I Nov. 1910. 

The varieties of olive chiefly used for the table, are Gordal, Reina, 
Manzanilla, Padrou, etc. While green, they are placed in a lye of com- 
mercial caustic soda, having a density of about 2% to 2.75 % (^eaumd), gnaj- 
the vessel being covered with a mat, in order that the olives may remain 
well immersed. Usually, they are kept 1 1 hours in the lye, by some makers 
as much as 14 hours; according to the variety and the ripeness of the 
fruit. The olives are then washed in clear running water and left for 10 
hours ; fiftally, they are put into a solution of kitchen salt with a density of 
11°, Beaumd, and remain for one month in this pickle. 

V. Thiebaut. Olive Cultivation in the Caucasus. — Journal d Agriculture 
pratique, No. 47, Paris, November 24, 1910, p. 669. 

The Russian Ministry of x\griculture has sent a specialist to study 
olive culture in Italy, France and Algeria, with the object of improving this 
cultivation in the Caucasus. In Russia, the olive is cultivated along the 
eastern shores of the Black Sea, in the districts of Artvine, Batum and 
Soukhoum. It has decreased in the district of Artvine in consequence of „ . . 
the emigration which followed the conquest of this country. The monks Caucasus 
of the convent of Novoi-Afou, near Sankhorim, possess 10 000 olive trees, 
planted over an extent of 60 hectares. A tree 20 or 30 years old yields 
about 160 kg. per year and a net revenue of from 30 to 60 francs. 

About 5 per cent of the olives are pressed for extracting the oil, and 
the rest are salted and sold at Tiflis and other towns of the Caucasus. The 
total crop in the Caucasus does not exceed 200 tons and is far from suffi- 
cient for local consumption. 

The cultivatiqn of the olive has therefore a great future in the Cau- 
casus, where the climate and soil are propitious. 

LospiNOSo . The Trade in Citrus Fruits at the Port of Odessa. (II com- 

mercio degli agrumi nel porto di Odessa). — BoUettino dd Minisiero di 
Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio, serie D, fasc. V, Roma, 1910. 



Russia. 



Odessa supplies nearly all Russia with citrus fruits. The trucks for the 
conveyance of these fruits are heated in winter and refrigerated in summer, |^g.|y 
The tariff is very low, and in inverse proportion to the distance traversed. 
Preference is given to lemons from Messina, especially J'^erdelli, and to 
oranges from Catania, while in America, the produce of Palermo is held in 
highest estimation, as in England and Germany. But a suitable warehouse 



i 



276 



ARBORICULTURE: CITRUS FRUITS 



for citrus fruit is wanting at Odessa. This inconvenience is chiefly felt in 
winter, when, as the entrance of goods into the town is forbidden by the 
Russian custom-house after 5 o'clock in the evening, many oranges and le- 
mons freeze on the wharves. 



British 
India: 
Burma 



Sawyer. The Shank-Noo {Citrus Hystrix), — Agricultural Journal of India, 
Calcutta, October 19 10. 

The Burmese skank-noo is the least known member of the familiar 
group of valuable plants represented by the lime and lemon. The shank- 
noo may be described as a small tree from 15 to 20 feet high, attaining a 
girth of 2 feet at the base. It has crooked, reddish-brown stems and bran- 
ches, dark-green, glossy leaves looking like two leaves folded together. It 
is found wild in the forests of Tenasserim and is cultivated there and 
elsewhere in gardens. The light-green oil extracted from the rind resem- 
bles the oil of the true Bergamot; it is has a milder perfume than the 
distilled essence, but the yield is relatively small and uncertain. The pulp 
of the young fruit is insipid, besides being thick and mucilaginous. As the 
fruit matures, the mucilage is replaced by an acid juice which becomes 
gradually more watery. 

The chief use to which the fruits of the shank-noo are at present ap- 
plied in Burma is as a detergent for washing the hair. The ripe fruit is 
sometimes also employed for the fomentation of painful joints. 



C. I. KiNMAN. Citrus and other Fruit Trees at Porto Rico. (Report ot 
the Horticulturist). — Annual Report of the Porto Rico Agricultural 
Experiment Station for igog, Mayaguez, 1910, pp. i8 23. 

A number of experiments have been made at the Porto Rico Experi- 
mental Station on the types of citrus fruits most Hkely to grow well in the 
Porto Rico various parts of the island. Certain selected native orange trees, although 
slow growers, are recommended on account of their excellent produce, and 
very good results were obtained from the exotic varieties Thompson Navel, 
Homasassa, Parson Brown, Centennial and Pine Apple. Trees of Citrus me' 
dica var. acida are frequently found with 400 or more fruits; the Duncan^ 
Marsh Seedless and Pernambuco are the best varieties of the Citrus decu- 
mana {pomelo). 

The rapid growth of the mango-tree {Mangifera indica), which reaches 
a height of at . least 6 metres in 5 years, makes it very valuable as a wind- 
break for citrus fruit plantations. 

Apples, pears and plums could never be made to pay in this country, 
although they grow well enough, nor could bananas and other tropical plants 
like the Blighia rapida and Eugenia Malaccensis. 



. 



ARBORICULTURE: APPLE TREE. - PEAR TREE 



277 



National Apple Show at Vancouver. — T^ie Globf. Toronto, vol. LXVII, 
No. 18954-18957, Nov. 14, 1910, p. 4. 

The first National Apple Show in Canada was opened at Vancouver 
on October 31 last. There were 287 exhibitors and 3424 exhibits, compris- 
ing 194 varieties of apples. 

Fruit cultivation has made enormous progress during the past ten years 
in British Columbia, largely owing to the initiative of Lord Aberdeen, who 
bought a vast extent of land near Vernon in 1891 and began irrigating and 
planting it. His example was first followed by Englishmen and then by 
Americans. Now nearly 100 000 acres (40 460 hectares) are already planted 
and irrigated at Okanagan ; 400 000 trees were planted on 11 000 acres 
(4 450 hectares) in one district only, and last year these plantations furnished 
ten truck-loads of fruit. It is estimated that they will yield eventually a net 
revenue of 800 000 dollars (4 144 000 frs.). 

Apples, pears, peaches and plums are among the fruits cultivated, and 
until the trees are in full bearing, tobacco is grown, especially at Kelowna. 



Canada : 

British 

Columbia 



L R. Shaw. Variations in Apples — Twenty-secand Annual Report of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station igio, pp. 194-213, Bos- 
ton, 1910. 

The Ben Davis variety of apple is one of those most cultivated in 
America, and grows equally well from Quebec to Texas, under the most 
varied conditions of climate and soil. It is more suitable than any other 
for the study of variation. The Massachusetts Agricultural College, by ex- 
periments carried on for some time, has reached the important conclusion 
that the variability of the apple shows itself