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Full text of "International studio"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/internationalstu48newy 




THE INTERNATIONAL 

STUDIO AN ILLUSTRATED 
MAGAZINE OF FINE AND 
APPLIED ART 
VOLUME FORTY-EIGHT 

COMPRISING NOVEMBER, DECEMBER, 1912, 
JANUARY AND FEBRUARY, 1913 
NUMBERS 189 TO 192 




NEW YORK OFFICES OF THE INTER- 
NATIONAL STUDIO 

JOHN LANE COMPANY, 116-120 WEST 32d ST. 
MCMXIII 



^J 
I 



Xy . '-t-< 



Index 



Aall, Hans 123 

Abdul-Aziz. Sultan. Four Illus. .162 

.\ckley. Floyd X Ixviii 

Adam, P. \V 238, 32s 

Adams. Miss K. One Illus. .... 297 

Affleck, A. F 16 

Airy, Miss A. Four Illus .si. 53. 55 

Alexander, Herbert 242 

Alison. David. One Illus. 325 

Allan. Robert 242 

Allen, R. W 338 

Almond. W. Douglas . . 155 

Amboise - 251 

Angermann. Armgard. Si.\ Illus. 4g. 51 

Anshuu. T. P. 342 

Armfield, Maxwell 245 

Armington, Mrs. C. . 16 

Armington, F. M. One Illus. 16, 20 

Armitage, Edgar. One Illus. 298 

Armitage. Joseph. Three Illus. 298 

.\mdt. Mina .340 

Arts and Crafts Society Exhibition at the 

Grosvenor Gallery. Twenty-eight Illus. 

By \V. T. WTiitley 290 

.\rts and Crafts Exhibition Society (Tenth) 

London 226 

.Associated Artists. Third .\nnual Exhibition. 

Two Illus Ivi 

.\tomi, tee Tai. One Illus 235 

Azayle-Rideau . . 251 



Bacchantes 

Backhausen & Sohine. One Illus 
Bacon, Henry. One lUus. 
Baiso, Yamamoto . . ■ 
Baldr>'. A. L. George Sheringhai 

lUus 

Ballin, Hugo. One Illus. 

Baluschek 

Banks, George 

Barkas, H. D. 

Barker. A. R. 

Basel. A 



Batik 

Bayes. Miss E. One Illus. 
Bayes, Miss Jesse. One Illus. 
Bayes. Walter . . 
Beach, Chester. One Illus. 
Beardsley. Aubrey . . 

Beatty. J. W 

Beaux. Miss C 

Beechy. Sir W. . 
Beerbohm. Max ... 
Beiot, Eugene. One Illus. 
Belcher, George .... 
Belcher, John. Two Illus. 
Bell, Robert .\. One Illus. 
BeU-Smith. F. M. . 
Bellini. GentUe. Two Illus. 
Belnet. Georges-.Mbert E. . . 

Bern, Rudolf. By H. Schanzlr. Fivi 

Benczur, Prof 

Benda, VV. T 

Berger. Betty. Three Illus. 

Bergeret 

Bergh, Richard 
Bernard 
Beurdeley. Jacques 

Bevan. R. P 

Bewlay. E. C. One Illus. 

Birch, Lamoma 

Birkbeck School of .\rt E.xhibition 

Birley, Oswald 

Bishop, H. One Illus 

Biun, Hayashi. One Illus. 

Black Frame Club's 191 2 Exhibition 

Blanche, M. J. E. One Illus. 

Blois 

Blumenschein. Mar>* G. One Illus. 
Boggs. F. Three Illus. 
Bol. Ferdinand. One Illus. 
Bolek. Hans . 



148,153 
246 



226 
330 



. 338 

ISS. 238 

345 



PAGE 

Bone, Muirhead 148,316 

Bonsignori, Francesco. One Illus. . . 30S 

Booth, Hanson. One Illus xlii, xl 

Boss, A. M 174 

Boulanger 63 

Bouroux. Paul-.Adrien 10 

Bracht. Eugen 170 

Bradley. W. H. . . xlii 

Brangwyn, Frank. One Illus. 170. 245. 339 

.xxiv. x.xvi. Ivi, Ixix, Ixxi, civ 

Branson, Miss E. M. 18 

Brehra, Worth xli 

Brierley. W. H. One Illus 33, 35 

Brigden, F. H. One Illus. . 245. 246 

Briggs. R. A. Three Illus. 31.32 

BriU. G. R. One Illus. Ivi. Iv 

Brinkmann, Maria. Two Illus. 40. 48 

Brinton. Christian: 

Standardized Sentiment in Current .-Vrt. 

Eleven Illus. ...... bcxxi 

Scandinavian Painting. Seven Illus. . Ivii 

Brinton, Christian xxiii 

British Society of Graver- Printers in Color 

Exhibition Ivi 

Britton, H 250 

Brochner, Georg. Open-.\ir Museum in 

Norway. Twenty-sLx Illustrations . 108 

Brown xl 

Brown, Austen .... ^i'i 

Brown. Ernest .... 156 

Brown, Prof. F .ii7 

Bruck. Miksa. One Illus. j30 

Brush. De Forest . . Ixx 

Bo-mner. William 246 

Brsn-Mawr College. One Illus. xlv 

Bucci, Anselmo ... civ 

Budapest Academy Exhibition .53" 

Bull, Rene .... .523 

Surge, Mrs 340 

Burne-Jones Exhibition 53 

Burnett, C. Ross ... 155 

Burroughs-Fowler, Walter 155 

Cadell, F. C. B. . 325 

Cadenhead, James . - - 325 

Calkins, Earnest Elmo. "The Principles of 
Advertising Arrangement. By Frank 
A. Parsons . . Ixvii 

Cameron. D. Y. . . 238,261 

Canadian National Exhibition 24S 

Canaletto 132 

Carcano 69 

Caro-Delvaille, Heiu^y. By .\rthur Hoeber. 

Three lUus Ixv 

Carozzi, Giuseppe. Six Illus. 69.71 

Carpaccio, Vittore. One Illus 304 

Cathelin .65 

Cavaliers 74 

Cazin 'xxi 

Cezanne ... 330 

Chahine, Edgar -'' 

Chambord -5i 

Chase, W. M. One Illus c 

Cheffer, Henry . 
Chenonseaux 
Cherry, Mrs. K. E. 

Cheston, Mrs. E 

Chicharro. Eduardo. Four Illus. 
Chikuha, Otake. One Illus. 
Chinon .... 
Chlebowski, Stanislaw 
Choffard. One Illus. 
Choim, Vamazaki 

Cima 

Ciolkowski, H. S. Nine Illus. 
Clarke. Brairford 
Claude .... 
Clausen, George 
Clausen, George. R. .\. 
Cockerell, Douglas. One Illus. 

Colin. Paul E 

Coll, J. Clement. Two Illus. 



64 

Ixix. xc, xcv 

148, 338, xlii 

. . IS6 

. 242 



College Etchings. Stevens Series. By Aldcn 

Noble. Nine Illus xliii 

Collings, C. J. By Val Davis. R. B. A. 

One Illus 21 

Collings, C. J. One Illus 156 

Columbia University. One Illus. . . xlv 

Conant. Miss L. S. One Illus 342 

Connard, Philip. By .Marion H. Dixon. 

Ten Illus. 269 

Connard. Philip 238. 316 

Conrad, Gyula 330 

Coover. Miss Nell .18 

Copley. John 24s 

Corcoran Gallery Exhibition Ixxxvi 

Corinth ... .80 

Comelissen 134 

Corot. J. B. . . .hex 

Corot iii 

Costa. J. da 148 

Country Architecture. By C. Matlack. 

Price. Six Illus xi 

Courvoisier. J. One Illus. 

Couse. E. I. One Illus. 

Craig. F. One Illus. 

Craig. Gordon 

Crane. Walter 

Crawhall .148 

Crowell. Miss Ixviii 

CuUen. Maurice 249 

Cunz. Martha ... .80 

Cutts. W. M. . . . 249 

Czeschka. Prof. CO. 222 

DA Brescia. Moretto 307 

Dabo. Leon .... . l.xx 

Dtungerfield . . Ixix 

Daingerfield, Eliot xxiv 

Daubigny Ixx 

Davis, \'al. Charles John Collings. One 

Illus 21 

Davison, G. D 155 

Davison. H. J. One Illus .xxxix 

Dawson, G. W 342 

Dawson, Nelson 338 

de .-Vrtistes Francais Societe. Two Illus. 15 

de Beule. A. One Illus 332. 33S 

de Chavannes ci 

Degas ci 

de Kay, Charles. Evans Collection of 
.American Paintings at Wash. Twelve 

Illus Ixxxix 

de Latenay. Gaston . . 21 
de la Mare. Miss. One Illus. 300 
DelaviUa. F. Two Illus. 40 
De Maupassant xli 
Denchu, Hiraguslii 345 
Dengg, Gertud 224 
Deri-Winter. Frau F. One Illus. . . 43, Si 
de Sauty. Alfred. Two Illus. . 293. 294, 297 
Desouches, Robert ...,..■ 16 
Deubner, L. German Embroidery. Twenty- 
seven Illus 39 

Deutsche Kunstlerbund Exhibition. Chem- 
nitz 7« 

Deutsche WerkstSttcn fur Handwerkskunst. 

Two Illus 44 

Dickens ^' 

Diemer, Prof. Zeno. Two Illus 329 

Dicterle ^^^ 

Diriks, Edvard l^iv 

Dismore, Miss Jessie '59 

Dittrich, Oswald ^^4 

Dixon, Marion H. Philip Connard. Ten 

lUus 2*9 

Dixon-Spain, J. E. Two Illus. . . 127.129 
Domestic .Architecture. Recent Designs in. 

Thirty-one Illus 31.123. 309 

Dougherty. Paul Ixx 

Douglas. Sholto. One Illus. ci. ciii 

Driver. Two Illus "3. 124 

du Bois. Guy P*ne Annual Exhibition of the 

Society of Illustrators. Five Illus il 



I fid ex 



du Boi*. Guy Pcnr. Six IIluv xiiii 

Dudits. Andor no 

du Gardicr, Rooul xt> 
DuKdalt. T. (.'. t>nr IIIus. -\tS. J4.' 

Dunklrv. \'iola D. 174 

Duputjt. Toon. One lllus. 79 

Du\iil- Lev-am u< f»3 

D>er. \V. B. xxvi 

D>na*ty. T anc- f>nc lllus. Ixxi 

Dyonnri. K. JS'' 

Eame. Mi»s Katf M. Two lllus, 390. 297 

Ea.1t. Sir Alfri-d ... 155. 3 J9 

Edu^d». A. C. . . xxvi 

Edwards. Miss G. One lllu^. .^0.1. 307 

Eldh. Carl .... 358 

ElCrero .... Ixxii 

EUioll. Mrei. E. S. C. 340 

Elphin^tonr. .\. H. . .... 155 

Embroidro'. German. By L. Dfubncr. 

Tweniy-scvcn lUus. 
Em«r9on. R. J. One lllut;. 
Ericks«>n. Christian. One lllu: 
Etchings from the Recent Salonj: in Pari 

By E. A. Taylor. Seven IIIus. 
E\-ans Collcv'tion of American Paintings at 

Waslunitton. By ("liarU's »k* Kay. 

Twelve lUus. Ix 

EvM. R. G. 

Fancher. Louis. One lllu.-*. 
Fanner. Miss Alice. One IlIn- 

Fanlo. Prof 

Farquharson. Davi<l 

Fearon. Miss Hilda 

Feau, Ameder 

Fercnciy . 

Ferguson. }. D. . 

Ficquct 

Fidler. Harr> . . 

FiKSis. Ml>^s K. One lllus. 

Fiiippo ... 

Fine Art Society Exhibition 

Fink. Denman 

Fischel. Ilarlwig 

Ftacher ... 

Fisher, Melton 

Fitton. Hedlcy 

FJKStad. Gustaf. Seven lllus 

Reming. A. M 

Fochler. Frau 

Foike Mu*<eum 

Fontanesi. Antonio 

Foottet. F. F. 

Forbes. Mrs. S. 

Foresticr. Marius 

Forstner. Leopold 

Fortuny. Marianito. One Illi 

Foster, Will . 

Fott'eraker. A. M. . 

Frampton. Sir Geori;*- 

Francken . 

Frank, Dr. J. 

Frankenlhal Porcelain Kxhii 

berg. Two lllus 
Frant2. K. Two IIIus. 

Friescke. F. C 

Fromel-Fochler, Lotte. Two 
Fuller. II. B. One lllus. . 
Fulper 



■ 338 
155.238 



, Ix, Ixiv 

■ 249 

224 



245 
339 



Ixvi 



Gajten. R. F. One lllus. 246 

Gaigher. Dr. H. One lllus. 331.332 

Gajnsboroueh boci 

Galle 224 

Garber. Daniel. One lllus. ... Uxxiv 

Garden and Terraces at the Hill. Hampstead 

Heath. Photographed by H. N. King. 

Nine lllus. 208 

Garstin. Norman. Harold and Laura Knight. 

Fourteen lllus 183 

Gartner. Fritz. Two lllus. 252 



P.\GE 

Gaskin. .\rthur. Four lllus 390. 294 

Gaskin. G. C. Four lllus 290. 394 

Gauffin. Dr. .\xel. .\nders 2om. Ten lllus. 89 

Gavarni. One lllus O3.65 

Gay. Walter. One !Uus 342.bcxxviii 

Geiringer, Helene 225 

Genthe. Dr. A. xxvi 

Gere. C. M. One IIIus 3I7 

German Embroiden*- By L. Dcubncr. 

Twenty-seven lllu.*; 39 

Geyling, Rcmisius. One lllus 225 

Giambellino 300 

Gibbs. Percy W 245 

Gibson, F. W. David Muirliead. Nine lllus. 97 

Gibson xli 

Gibson. W. .\. One lUus. .... 156. iS9 

Gimson. E. W. . . . . . 300 

Glackcns. Wm. ... xl 

Glattor. Gyula 332 

Glatz. Oszkar 33o 

Glen Tor . Ixviii 

Gloag. J. L. 338 

GloaR. Miss M. I I55 

Groundener Keramik-Werksiatte. One lllus. 225 
Gobo. George .18 

Gordon. Jan. One lllus 16, 18 

Gordoni . . Ixxii 

Gore. H. M. . 338 

Gore. Spencer F. 318 

Gore. W. C. 238 

Gothic Window in the Lawyers" Club of New 

York. By G. Leland Hunter. One lUus. xxxviii 

Gould, A. Carruthers 155 

Greaves. Walter . 146 

Greer. Miss B. . . 340 

GreifTenhagcn, Maurice 148 

Grier. E. W. One llhi^. 249. 250 

Gries. Mary P. . . Ixviii 

Groll . . Ixix 

Gronvald. Didrik 122 

Grosvenor Gallery. New: 

Inaugural Exhibition. Fourteen lllus. 143 

.-Vrts and Crafts Society Exhibition. By 

W. T. \\*hitley. Twenty-eight lllus. 290 

Grouiller. R. P iS 

Grozer riii 

Gruber xl 

Grut. Torben -'53 

Guardi 132 

Gussmann. Prof. Otto. Six IIIus . . 49. Si 

Guthrie. J. Gordon. One lllus .xxxix 

Gyokai. Ishimoto. Two IIIus. .\.\^ 

Gyokusho, Kawabata J34 

Hachiro, Nakagawa. One lllus. . 235.236 

Hadcn civ 

Haden, Sir Seymour civ 

Hahn, Gustav 250 

Haig. .\xel Ivi 

Haite. G. C. 330 

Hakurei. Voshida ... ,^45 

Hale. Lilian W. One lllus. . .i44 

Hall, Fred 339 

Hall. Oliver. One IIIus. . . . 146.150.338 

Hallstrom, Gunnar. One lllus lix 

Hals. Franz 250. ciii 

Hamilton, J. McL 342 

Hammershoi. Vilhelm. One lllus. Ixiii. Ixiv 

Hankey. W. Lee 15s. 338 

Hardenbergh . . . . Ixviii 

Harding, George 340. xlii 

Hardy. Dudley 323 

Hardy-Syms. Gladys 174 

Harmar, Fairlie 317 

Harpigny Ixx. cii 

Harris, Lawren S. One lllus 247.249 

Hartley. Alfred 155 

Hartrick. A. S 148, 242, 24s 

Har\'ey, A. E 174 

Hasi, Saru. Two lllus xxii 

Hassall 323 

Hassam. Childe. One lllus Ixxxiv 



PAGE 

Haughton, Benjamin .... 245 

Hawksworth. W. T. M. . . is6 

Hawthorne. Charles W. One lllus. xxiv 

Hayashi. set Biun. One lllus. 345 

Haydcn, Seymour Ivi. 

Hsal, .\mbrose 29B 

Heem. Jan dc Ixxii 

Herburger and Rhomberg. One lllus. 225 

Hermann. Hans xxvi! 

Herrburger & Rhomberg. One lllus. 224 

Heyenbrock. H i7" 

Hibler. Mrs Ixviii 

Hicks. Miss E 155 

Hill. James S iS5 

Hind. C. Lewis. W. Elmer Scholield. Nine 

lllus jSo 

Hiragushi. see Denchu , ,i.i5 

Hiroshige. One lllus. . xxi 

Hodgson. Mrs Ixviii 

Hitchcock. Lucius xlii 

Hoeber, Arthur. Henry Caro-Delvaille. 



Thn 



Itlu 



17. 220, 222, 224, 314 



Hoffman. Prof. Two lllus, 

Hofmann. \'lastimil. Two lllus 81 

Hokkai. Takashima. One IIIus 232 

Hokusai. Two lllus 3i9,xx 

Holme. C. G 156 

Holub. Adolf 222 

Homer, Winslow. One lUus c.xviii 

Hope Lodge. One lllus. . . li 

Hope. Robert. One lllus. 54. 57 

Iloppncr Ixxi 

Hornby, Lester G. . . i8 

Hort. Edmund . . 265 

Hosei, Mori. One lllus. 344.345 

Houdon. One lllus. .66 

House Beautiful of Japan. Five lllus. . xv 

Houston, George ^^i?, 

Howitt, William 174 

Hudson, Grace M. . . . , 174 

Hughes-Stanton, 11. 144. 238.338 

Hunter. Edmund .... 302 

Hunter, G. Leland: 

Gothic Window in the Lawyers' Club of 
New York. One lllus xxxviii 

Tapestries. Eight lllus Ixxiii 

Hunter. G. L. One lllus xlix 

Hunter. G. Young 339 

Hunter. Mary Y. . . 338 

Huot. E. One lllus. ^3.64 

Hyre. Laurent de la ci 

Ili.cs. Ede A 330 

Inaugural Exhibition at the New Grosvenor 

Galler>'. Fourteen lllus. 143 

Industrial Art School, Bielefeld. One lllus. 48 

Inness. George. One lllus Ixxxix, c 

Innes.J. D 316 

Isenbrant. .Adrian. One lllus. Ixxi, Lxxii 

Ishimoto, see Gyokai. Two lllus. 345 

Ivanyi-Grunwald. Bela . . 330 

Izzard. J. One lllus. 295 

Jack. George ... 298 

James, Francis ... 148 

Jamieson. Alexander 146. 23R 

Jansson. Eugcn 254. 256 

Japanese Painting. By Ilarada Jiro. Ten 

lllus 231 

Jcanniot, Pierre-Georges 21 

Jeffery, Charles 250 

Jiro. see Harada. Old and New Schools of 

Japanese Painting. Ten lllus, . 231 

Joass, J. J. Two IIIus. . . 125. 127. 129 

John. Augustus E. 143.316 

Johnova. Helene 224 

Johnson. E. Borough 242 

Johnston, R. F. Four lllus 30Q 

Jones. H. Bolton. One lllus l.xxxi 

Jungnickel, L. H 224 

Jurres. Johannes Hendricus. By W. (i. 

Peckham. Eleven IIIus iii 



Index 



Kaesebier, Mrs. G. xxvi 

Kampf. Prof. A. 252 

Kampf xxvii 

Karsten. Ludvig . Ixiv 

Kaufman, Oskar. Four Illns. 129 

Kavli, Arne Ixiv 

Kawabata. see Gyokusho 234 

Kayser. Edmond ... 21 

Kellar. A. I. One IHus. xli 

Keller. Alfred 225 

Kendall, Sergeant. One Illii>. xcv 

Kemp-Welch, Lucy 338 

Keramic-Werkstatte . , .224 

Keramische Werkgenossenschaft .... 224 

Kesdi-Kovacs. L. 330 

Khnopff. M. F. By Helene Laillet. Eight 

iilus .201 

Kimball. Alonzo. One Illus . , Ixxxii 

Kimball. F. H. One Illiis. xxxviii 

Kimball. Miss K. , . 18 

Kimpo, Mochizuki 233 

King, H. N. Garden and Terraces at the 

Hill, Hampstead Heath. Nine Illus. . 20S 

Kirsch. Hugo 224 

Kiss. Rezso 330 

Kitano, see Tsunetomi. One Illus. 233. 234 

Klaus . 224 

Klemm. Walter . So. 170 

Klimt, Gustav 222 

Klinger ... 79 

Knight. Buxton 146 

Knight. Harold. By Norman Garstin. 

Fourteen Illus. ..... 183 

Knight. Harold 338 

Knight. Mrs. Laura 242.339 

Knight, Laura. By Norman Garstin. Four- 
teen Illus. 
Knight. Ridgway 
Knowles, Mrs. 
Knowles, F. McG. ... 
Koboyachi. see Shokichi. One Illus. 
Kofukai Exhibition. Two Illus. 

Konig, Leopoldine 

Konoshima. see Okoku. One Illus 

Konstnarsfdrbundet 

Koopman. A. One Illus. . 

Korn 

Kotera. Jan. Five Illus. 
Krehan, Karl. One Illus. 222 

Kreuger, Nils. One Illus. 258 

Krohg, Christian Ixiv 

Krohg. Per Ixiv 

Kruell 66 

Kruse, Frau K. One Illus. 252 

Kumvald, Caesar. One Ittus 329.330 

Kuroda 236 

Labev. H. C xxvi 

La Farge, John. One illus xcv 

Laidlay, W. J 245 

Laillet, Helene. M. F. Khnopff. Eight Illus. 201 

r.\llemand. Margarete . - 225 

Lamb, H 318 

Lambert. G. W. One Illus. . 148, 154 

Langhammer. Carl. Twelve Illus. 168 

Langlois .... 66 

Lanteri, Edward. By I. G. Mc.VUister. Six 

Illus 25 

Lanyi. Dezso 332 

Lanz, J. W. One Illus. 74 

Larsson. Carl . . Ivii 

La Thangue. H. H. One Ilhi^ 321 

Latour. Fantin oo, xxiv 

Laurie, Professor 1 74 

Laurvik, J. Nilsen. Gari Melchers. SLx Illus. 



vii. Ix 



Lave 



. Illus. 
144. 140. 5 



, John. 

261, 323. xlvii, ci 
Layard Collection in Wnice. By .-Mfredo 

Melani. Nine Illus. ... 303 

Lay Figure: 

On Practical Art Teaching S6 



On the Disappearance of .Art 160 

On the Art of Illustration 266 

On Art Crazes and Tlieir Meanini; 350 

Learned. A. (i. cii 

Le Barbier ^j 

Lee. T. StcrUnj; 159 

Legrand. Louis . . 1 . 63 

Leheutre, Gustave 21 

Lehmann. Ida ,'24 

Lehr und \*ersuch — Ateliers fiir Frcie und 

Angewandte, Kunst. Two Illus. 39 

Leibl 330 

Ic Jeune, Moreau 63 

le Mains, Gaston. One Ilhis. , . 339.342 

Le Maistre. F. W 155 

Lenfestey, G. H 156 

Lepere. Auguste. One Illus 17. 18 

Levetus. A. S. Viennese Exhibition of .\rts 

and Crafts. Fourteen Illus. . 217 

Levitski (>3 

Lev>-, William A 18 

Lewis. W .315 

Lichtblau, Ernst 218 

Liebermann ... 80. 330 

Lietz. Otto. Three Illus. , 41,45.50 

Liljefors, Bruno. One Illus. . Ivii, Iviii 

Lindner, Moffat .... 330 

Lindstrom, Rikard. One Illus. 256 

Liotard. One Illus. 63 

Littret 06 

Livens. H. M. One Illus. 148 

Loches .... 251 

Loffler, Beithold 224 

LofSer, Frau Melitta. One Illus. 223.225 

Lorenz, Gertrud. Seven Illus. 42,44,47 

Lorimer, Sir R 298 

Loudan, Mouat . 33S 

Loy. Mina . . 159 

Luard, L. D. Four Illu>. 159 
Lucas, Eugenic. Two Illus. 

Luciani. Sebastian 

Ludovici 

Lum, Mrs. B. Five Illus. , . , 

Lund. Henrik 

Lunois. A 

McAllister. I. G. Edward Lanteri. 

Illus 

MacDonald. James E. H. One Illus. 
Mackintosh, Chas. One Illus. 



326,329 
. 303 
. 148 



Ma 



N. 



One Illus 
One Illus 



Maeterlinck . 
Mann. Harrington 
Manson. J. B. . 
Manyai. Jozsef 
Mann. Harrington. 
Mantegna. Andrea. 
Marblehead ... 
March. E. W. One lllu^. 
Mariller . , . . 
Marillier. Cochin 
Maris. J. . 
Maris, W. 

Martin. B. J 

Martin. Dr. One Illus. 

Masao, see Tanimori 

Master of Frankfort. One Illu 



238. 31S 
. 330 



Ma 



, F. B. 



• Shunnan. One Illu 



Masuzu, 
Matisse 
Maufra 
May, Phil 

Mazo 

Mazzanovitch, Lawrence 
Mednyansky. Baron 

Meid, Hans 

Melani. Alfredo. Layard Collection in 

ice. Nine lUus 

Melchers, Gari. By J. Nilsen I^urvik. 

lUus 

Meltzer, C. II 

\|.*rrill, H. C. One Illus. . 



302 

62.66 

. 234 

iii, XXV 

xlii 



Ivi, civ 
■ 330 



PAGE 

Merton. Owen 3^0 

Meryon 13^,1^ 

Mesdag Ixx 

Mctscher, Toni. One lllu> 42 

Mcunier. Constantin 132 

Meyer, Martha. One Illus. 50 

Millet, Francis Davis. Decorative Panels in 

the Cleveland Post-Oflfice. By C. M. 

Price. Six Illus . xxxiv 

Millet 132 

Milner. Fred .... 155 

Miranda, Carreno de cii 

Mochizuki, see Kimpo . 232 

Moinar, J. P. 330 

Monsiau 63 

Montagna. Bartolommco. One Illus. 305 

Monticelli cii 

Montrcuil-Bellay .251 

Mooney. R. J. E. 155 

Moore, Henry 338 

Moran . Ixix 

Moran. Thomas . xxiv 

Moreeke, Paulu ciii 

Morgan. Wallace xlii 

Mori, see Hosei. One Illus 344. 345 

Mori. S. Five Illus xv 

Moro, Ant. One Illus ciii 

Moroni 307 

Morrice. J. W. One Illus. 238. 241 

Morris. Miss P. P. 16 

Morris, William 313 

Morrow. George ^2^ 

Mouchon, Georges 21 

Mowbray, H. S. One Illus. . . . xciii. xcv 

Mrkvitchka. J. \'. Seven Illus 164 

Muirhead, David. By F. W. Gibson. Nine 

Illus. 97 

Muirhead. J. iss 

Munch, Edvaid 330. Ixiv 

Murillo. B. E. Om- llhis. Ixxii, Ixix 

Murillo cii 

Murray. David zy^ 

N.^DLER. Robert 330 

Naito. see Shin 345 

N'akagawa. see Hachiro. One Illus. . . 235. 23*^ 

Nanteuil, Robert Ivi 

Nationale des Beaux-Arts Socictc Exhibition. 

Five Illus i.S 

National Society of Craftsmen, Sixth .Annual 

Exhibition, 1913 Ixviii 

Neuwirth, Rosa 224 

Xew English Art Club. Forty-eighth Exhibi- 
tion. Two Illus 316 

Xew Zealand Academy of Fine .ArU 33^ 

New Zealand .Academy of Fine .Arts. Twenty- 
fourth .Annual Exhibition 340 

Nicholson. W 237 

Noble. Alden. Stevens Scries of College 

Etchings. Nine Illus xliii 

Noble, Mis. One Illus. 294. 297 

Nochez ^ 

Nocturnes .... ^32 

Nonnote 64 

Nordell. C. J. One Illus. Ixxxvi 

Nordstrom, Karl -'>4. 256 

Norsfeldt. B. J. O. . . »vi 

North, J. W.. A.R.A. . 242 

Nourse, Miss E. One Illu- 342 

Nuger. J Ixviii 

Oakley. Thornton. One llhis. 340. Uxxviii 

Obrist, Hermann ... 30. 44 

O'Hara. Dorothea W '^tviii 

Okoku, Konoshima. One Illus. 2^:^ 

Olbrich. Josef 3"4 

Oliver. Basil. One Illus. **3. 84 

Olsson, Julius IS5 

Onsager. SJircn *'^'** 

Open-Air Museum in Norway. By (rforu 

Brochner. Twenty-six Illus. ... 108 

Orley. Robert. One Illus. 218. 222. 22s 



Im/cx 



PACE 

OiUk 80 

Orpm. WOliam. Two lllus. 14S. ISL 338. 316 

0«tmeicbrr, FraQIrin. One IHus. »5 

Otakr. ut Chikuha. One Illut. . J33 

Oven . cii 

Pabschu. Paul s '. i:n 

Palmer. Hrtbert i-jn 

Palroeujno. Marco . - ci 

Panama Canal. By Joseph Pennell. Eisht 

lUus. . 133 

ParihaU IxU 

Panhall. Dc Witt xxiv 

Poraons, AUted H3 

PaTMinj, Frank .\l\-ah. "The Principles of 
AdveniMnjc .■Vrranuemenl." Reviewed 
by Earnest Elmo Calkins . - \xvi\ 

Partridie. P. Roy 16 

Pantor. Jano>. One Illu>. 330,331 

Patenon J4J 

Patervon. Jame« 335 

Paton. Iluch. One illui. iS.it> 

Paulsen. Ine^-er. Two Illu5. 74. 75 

Pawlikowtki. M. i6j 

Peclutein 330 

Peckham. \V. Cf. Johannes Mrmlricns Jtlire?. 

Eleven lUus. iii 

Peixetto. Ernest xhi 

Peller-HoUmann. Fmu -*.'> 

Pellini. Eugenio. rhie lUu<. 81 

Penman & llardenberfth .... bcviii 

Pennell. Joseph. Panama Canal. Eisht lllus. 

133. 34.S.344 
Pennell . . . . . I7«.3I7 
Pennjr>-l\'ania Academy of Fine .\it5. Exhibi- 
tion 8j 

Penn5>-lvania Society of Miniature Painters. 

Exhibition Ivi^ 

Pennell. Jo^ph, One lUus. xxiii, xlii 

Pepj>ercom, A. D. One lllus. 146. iso 

Peptoe. S. J 150 

Petenaen. EUif Ixiv 

Petter. \'alerie .... . . 22s 

Philadelphia Watei-Color Club Exhibition 

Ivi. Ixxxiv 
Philadelphia Water-Cotor Club. Tenth Annual 

Exhibition ... 340 

Phillips ijO 

Philpot. Glyn W. 148. 338 

Pietro. C. S. One lllu-. Ixxxii 

Piranesi 132 

Pissaro ci 

Plowman. G. 18 

Pollaiulo Ixxii 

PoUak. Fritx 224 

Pollak. Hedwin. One lllus. 224. 22s 

Poore. H. R. One lllus. Ixxxiii 

^pe. John Russell. Six lUus. xii 

Poppovits, Cesar .... 218,220 

Porter. Miss II 16 

Potthast xxiv. Ixix 

Po«-otny, Michael. One lllus. 220. 324. 226 

Pradiet 64 

Prax-Rudniker Korbwaienfabrication. One 

lllus. 218.220 

Preston. May W xli 

Price. C. .Matlack. Francis Davis .Millet. 
Decoratii*c Panels in the Cleveland Post 

Oflicr. Six lllus xxxiv 

Price. C. Matlack. Country Architecture. 

Six lllus. xi 

Price, R. C. One lllus. ... 292. 297 

Priestman. Bertram 338 

Princeton Vniversity. One lllus. xliii 

Prutscher. Otto. Two lllus. 21S. 220. 222. 225 

PO'de. James. One lllus. . 2.17 

P>e. Mus Sybil. Two lUus. 297 



PAGE 

RaflafUi. Je.in K. 

Raleigh 

Ramsa)' . . ... 

Ramsay, Miss Frances. One lllus. . . 292,297 

Ramsay, Miss \"iolct. Two lllus. . . 293. 397 

Rankcn. W. B. I 148. ISS. 237 

Raphael 

Ratcliffc. \V. 318 

Redlield. Helulso C.uillou. Miniatures. Two 

lUus. 
Reid. G. .\. 
Rcid. G. O. 
Reid. Robert 
Rembrandt 
Renoir 
Reynolds . 
Reutcrdahl 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua. Dm- lllus. 
Rhomberg. Two lllus. 
Rice, Miss .Vnne 

Rich, A. \V 

Richards. \V. T. One lllus. 
Richardson H. L. 
Rttleng, George 
Robertson. \V. ('.. 
Robetta . 
Robinson, Cayley 
Robinson. F. C. One lllus. 

Romeny 

Roqueplan ... 
Rosenficld. Lister 
Rossetti .... 
Rousseau. J. J.. Societe 

Roux, Maicel 

Royal .\cademy of Alts. East Asiatic Art 
Royal College of .■Vrt, Sketch Club Exhibition. 

London 261 

Royal Institute of Oil Painters, Exhibition 155 

Royal Porcelain Factorj- at Meissen. One 

lllus 73 

Royal Saxon Porcelain Factory at Meissen. 

One lllus 73 

Royal Society of British Artists. One lllus. 15s 
Ro>-al Society of Painters in Water Coloss, 

Autumn Exhibition 238 

Rubens . . cii 

Ruscheweijh. M. One lllus. 39 

Rusino, Santiago. Two lllus. . . 170 

Ruskin, John 



250. Iv 



XXIV. CII 

224.225 

. 159 

317 

. xlviii 
340 

. 148 
. Ixxil 
. 316 
M.S. 148 
Ixxi 
63 



252 



Russell. W. W. One lllus. 
Ryoichi, Kimura. One lllus 



313 

144. 146.316 
236 



QiAKEa Road . 

Quennell. C. H. B. Two lUus. 



R\CKii>iAN. Mrs. One lllus. 



Ixv 



Sabain, Miss Ethel 245 
Sachs, Alfred ... .225 
St. Aubin ... .66 

Sakuma, set Tetsuen 232 

Salon Schulte Exhibition 327 

Sander, Sofie 225 

Sandvig, M. . 108 

Sargent, J. S. • . 316 

Sargent, Louis 15s 

Saumur 251 

Scandinavian Painting. By Christian Brin- 

ton. Seven lllus Ivii 

Schall 63 

Schanzfr, H. Rudolf Bem. Five lllus. . 226 

Schille. .Miss A 342 

Schleiss. Frank. One lllus. ... 224 

Schleiss-Simandl, Frau 224 

Schofield, W. Elmer. By C. Lewis Hind. 

Nine lllus 280 

Scholt. P. One lllus 39 

School of .Art. London. One lllus. 82, 174, 261 

School of .\rt Students' Club 346 

School of Art. Wood-Carving 83 

Schuch. Carl. One lllus. . . 327 

Scott, Septimus E 245 

Sculpture by .\merican Artists' Exhibition Ivi 

Sedding. G. E. One lllus 292 

Seeley. G. H xxvi 

Segantini .69. 132 

Seifert, Dora 81 



Sciho, Takenouchi. One lllus. 

Seiii, Shimomura 

Seiun, Sekino. One lllus . 

Sekino. ste Se'wm. One lllus. 

Seliginilller. Dorothea 

Shannon, Charles 345 

Sharp, Miss D 1S5 

Shepherd, F. H. S. . . . 316 
Sheringham, George 323 
Sheringham. George. By A. L. Baldry. Six- 
teen lllus 3 

Shimomura, see Seiji 345 

Shin, Naito 345 

Shiner, A. M '74 

Shokichi, Koboyashi. One lllus. . 23s. 236 

Shore. Miss M 250 

Shunnan. Masuzu. One lllus 233 

Sicken, W 318 

.Simmons, Noel. Three lllu-^ 323 

Simon. T. F. . . -' 1 . Ivi 

Simpson, .A. B I55 

Simpson, Joseph "56,159 

-Sims, Charles. One lllus. . 147.148.24^.338 
Sinclair. A. G 325 



\ 



Two lllus. 



Sinsteden. M 

Sitte, Olga . . 

Sjoberg, A.\el. One lllus 

Skauma. see Tetsuen 

Skovgaard. Joakim . 

Slevogt 

Sloan, John 

Smith, D. M. 

Smith, F. II 

Smith, Hely . 

Smith. H. T. . . 

Smith. Miss Jessie W. . 



45,50 
224 
-'.i4. 256 
-'34 
-54 
80 



20i 
340 



Snell, H. B 342 

Society of Humorous Art, First Exhibition 321 

Society of Illustrators Exhibition. By Guy 

Pfine du Bois. Five lllus xl 

Sohne. One lllus 217 

Sonn. A. H 342 

SoroUa Exhibition Ivii 

Soulange-Tessiet . . 63 

Soulek, J. Two lllus. . ^\i.z2n 

Southall. J. E. One lllus. 300 

Spencer. Edward. One lllus 20S 

Spencer-Pryse. G. . . . 245 

Spenlovc-Spenlove ... 338 

Spooner, Mrs. M. D. . 302 

Staatliche Kunstgewerbe-Schulc. Four lllus. 

40,42, so 

Stanley- Barrett. Two lllus 123, 124 

Staschus . . 80 

Stcen, Jan . ci 

Steer, P. W. .261 

Steer, Wilson 237, 339 

Sterl, Robert 170 

Stevens Series of College Etchings. By 

Alden Noble. Nine lllus. . xliii 

Stokes. Mrs. A. 302 

Stratton. Fred 338 

Streeton. A. . . IS5 

Strnad, Prof. Oskar. One lllus. . 221,222 

Stubchen-Kirschner, Elsa 22s 

Studio Talk. One Hundred and Twenty-two 

lllus 51.155,236,316 

Stultig, F 298 

Sullivan, Sir Edwaid. One lllus. ... 297 

Sullivan. E. J 242 

Sumner. Ileywood. One lUus 300 

Svcnska Konstnarernas ForcninR 33s 

Swane, Sigurd Ixiv 

Swynneiton, Mrs. 316 

Symons, Gardnei Ixx 

Tai. .Atomi. One lllus 235 

Taiheiyogakai Exhibition. Two lllus. 234 

Takashima, see Hokkai. One lllus. . 232 

Takenouchi. see Seiho. One lllus. 234 

Talmage. Algernon 155. 238 

Tamemori, Viscount 234 



Index 



PAGE 

Tanimori, Masao 234 

Tapestries. The Acts of the Apostles. By 

George Leland Hunter. Eight Illus. . Ixxiii 

Tatz. Laszlo 330 

Taylor, D. C I5S 

Taylor. E. A. Etchings from Recent Salons 

in Paris. Seven Illus 15 

Teed. H 33S 

Teles, Ede 332 

Tenth Annual Art Exhibition. Tokyo 171 

Terraces and Garden at the Hill. Hampstead 

Heath. Photographed by H. N. King. 

Nine Illus 20S 

Tetsuen, Sakuma 232. J34 

Thackeray. W. M. iii 

Thames, Whistler 132 

Thegerstrom . 254 

Thibaudeau. A .x.xvi 

Thielmann. Wilhelm . 79 

Thomas. E. H. One Illus. 51 

Thomas. G. One Illus. T44. 153.339 

Thomson. Leslie .155 

Thurber. W. Scott , Ivi 

Tonks, Prof 316 

Townsend. Harry ... xli 

Travers. H. M. One Ilh[s. 207 

Triggs, Inigo. One Illus. , 313 

Tripe. Mrs 340 

Tronchin 63 

Trotter. Mrs. A. P. Two Illus. . 29».3i2 

Triibner. Wilhelm 330 

Tsunetomi. Kitano. One Illus. 233. 234 

Tuke, H. S 338 

Tura, Cosimo. One Illus. . . . 307. 309 

Tyrwhitt. Miss U 317 

Underwood. L 261 

University of Chicago. One Illus. xliv 

University of Pennsylvania. One Illus. xliii 

University of Virginia. One Illus. - .xliv 

Unsworth, Son. One Illus. 313 

Valdec, Rudolf. One Illus. . 161. 162 

V'allotton. M. Felix ... ,238 

Van Briggle . . , . . Lxviii 

van der Goes. Hugo. One Illus. , , 307, 308 

\'an der Weele .... Ixx 

Van Dyck . . xxiv 

Van Gogh 330 

Van Goyen ... . xxiv 

van Haarlem. Gerardo 307 



PAGE 

van Loo. Carle ... Ixxii 

\'an Muyden . . 66 

X'ecchio. Palma 307 

Velasquez 132. cii 

Viennese Exhibition of Arts and Crafts. By 

A. S. Levetus. Fourteen Illus. . 217 

\'enice Exhibition of Art 71 

Verpilleux, M. Emile 317 

Viala. Eugene . 21 

\'ickers. .Alfred ixxi 

\'igers. .■Ulan F. One Illus. 300 

\'iscount. see Tameraori . 234 

\'ivarini. Luigi. One Illus. 306. 309 

Vogel . xxvii 

von Debschitz. W. Two Illus. ... 39 

von Glehn. W. G 97. 148 

Von Glehn. Mrs ,48 

von Hennigs. Gosta 2.S6 

von Kalmar. Louise 225 

von Krauss. Freiherr 225 

von Salzmann. Alexander. Two Illus. 44. 4.5, 50 
von Stark. Fraulein . . . , . , . 225 

Voysey. C. F. . . . .... 300 

Vrankovic. Frau Sretna . 225 

Vyboud -64 



Wagner. Fred ... 
Wagner. H. H. Six Illus. , 
Walcott, H. M. One Illus. 
Walker. H. O. One Illus. 

■\Valrath 

Waltl. Wilfert . . 
Walton. E. A. 
Warndorfer 
Warner. E. L. . 
Washburn, Cadwallader. K 

kampf. Two Illus. 
Waterlow. Sir Ernest 
Watson, C. J. . 
Watson. Homer 
Watson. Spencer 
Watts . . 
Way, T. R. . 
Webster. H. A. One Illus. 
Weihe. Edward . 
Weir. J. Alden. One Illus. 
, H^ 



342 
35.38 
Lxxxvii 



We 

Weitenkampf. Frank Cadwallader W'ashburi 

Two Illus 

Wellesley College. One Illus. 

Wells. R. F. . . . 



PAGE 

Weltmann. Milla j^- 

Wenckebach, L. W. R. One Illus. .77 

Werenskiold, Erik Ltiv 

Wertheimer, Charles ^^iy 

West Point Old Cadet Barracks. One Illus. xlv 

^^'h'stl" Iii, Ivi, Ixxi. cii 

Whistler Exhibition e. 

Whitehead, Margaret. One Illus. ... |vi 

UTiiting. Frederic i-- 

Whitley. W. T. Arts and Crafts Society Ex- 
hibition at the Grosvenor Gallery. 

Twenty-eight Illus 290 

Wibrial. Dora jjs 

Wiener Werkstatte. Two Illus. 217.224.226 

Wiener Kunstkeramische Werkstatte. One 

I"-'^ 222 

Wiese. Frau Edda. One Illus. . . . 46 si 

Wildhack. Robert \\^ 

Willumsen. J. F. One Illus Ixii, Ixiv 

Wiles. I. R. One Illus ' xcv 

WUhelmson. Carl. One Illus. . . . 25s. 257 

Williams, Ballard 'xxiv 

Williams, F. Ballard ivi 

WiUiams. J. A xlii 

Williams. Terrick 155.323,338 

Willich. .\delheid. One Illus '48 

Wilson. Charles 340 

Wimmer. Edward , 222 

Wittmann. Thea. One Illus. . 43, 5, 

VVitzmann. Carl. One Illus 220 222 

Wrinch. Miss ... .246 

Wolfsfeld. Erich ... .80 

Wood. Derwent . 148 

Wright. Miss Ethel 159 

Wyeth. N. C. ... .340 

Wyon. -Allan G. One Illus 83.84 

Wysmuller. J. H. One Illus 335 

Wyzewa. Teodor de ci 



V.\.\L\MOTO. see Baiso 
Vamazaki. see Choun 
Vellin. Samuel 
Voshida. see Hakurei 
Young. .Arthur 
Young. C. M 



Illus, 



344 

lxviii 

345 

xli 
82,83 



Zador, Istvan 330 

Zorn, Anders. By Dr. .Axel Gauffin. Ten 

Illus 89 

Zorn. .Anders ... ciii 

Zotti. Josef. One Illus 218,220 



///(/('.\ 



CC)1A)K INSERTS 



Al«v. Anna. A.R.E.. R.O.I. "Willow Pattern." .\ Tinted Reproduc- 

llon of the Pen .111.1 1 li.iik Dr.iuiiie S.? 

Belchkr. J. "Mor vhc*ath. Kent." A Colonpd Rcpro- 

duv'tion of thr 1 ii: m 

Bm.Hvoois. ".X ^ r.irl." .\ Colored Reproduction of 

the Paintinx Jao 

Bkuo^y. Eknem C. "Near Rotterdam." A Tinted Reproduction of 

the Chalk Drawinc -MJ 

BttlEun'. \V. H. "Sion Hill. Thimk. Yorkshire." .\ Colored Repro- 
duction of Ihc Per!ipecti\'e Drawinc . 3.1 
Collin..- ( I 

■■■Lake." A Colortd Reproduction of the PaintinK- 2J 
Line." A Colored Reptoduclion of the Water- 

1S7 

CoNN.Ma.. riiiLlr- "The Supp<*r." " Baysw-aler." A Colori-d Repro- 
duction of two (HI PainlitiKd Ixxiv. .'76 
HuKoti \ SirniL.M.. ..r New Year Canl." A Colored Reproduction 

. !' 310 

Jo.v-- ■ . Blackheath. Kent." .\ Colore<l Repro- 

'■•• DrawinK i.'S 

Kmi.mi ll\k (linn/." "MominK Sun." "The Beach." .\ 

Colored RrproductJon of Three Paintinii.« Ivi. iSb. 19.' 



1».\GE 

LlM. Bertha. ".\ Winter Day in .lapaii." .-\ Colored Reproduction of 

the Wood Print I7S 

MriKlie.Mi. Davip. ".\ Woodland Pool," ".\ Night Piece." .\ 

Colored Reproduction of Two Paintinijs 1111,105 

ORI'EN. W.. A.R.A. "An .-Vrran Islander." "The Blue Hat," .\ 

, Tinted Reproduction of Two Paintings 131. .JJU 

ScilOElELD, W. Elmer. ".\ Cornish Cove." .\ Colored Reproduction 

of the Painting 287 

SiiERiNCHAM. George: "The Green Vase Fan" and "The Peacock Kan" 

Colored Reproduction of Two Decorative Panels from a Pastel 

Drawing ... ii, 7 

A Colored Reproduction Painted on Silk 13 

Triggs, Inigo. "Ashford Chace, Petersficld. Hants." .\ Colored 

Reproduction of the Drawing 311 

rsiiFORD. Son & Triggs. ".-\shford Chace, IVtersfield, Hants." A 

Colored Reproduction of the Drawing 311 

Wbxckebacii, L. W. R. .\ Tinted Reproduction of the Pen Drawing 77 

Wvsml'LLER. J. II. ".\t Kortenhoef." .V Colored Reproduction of the 

Chalk Drawing 332 

ZuRN. .-Vnders. " Matins on Christmas Day." .\ Colored Reproduction 

of the Painting v.\xi 



BOOKS RFATKWED 



.W«>f ^J^.V• Hy \. S \trnon Jones Jftj 

Am Actoaml 0/ .WnJirruJ Fiturr SculplHre in England. By Edward S. Prior 348 

AnAn,-tinFr-fl By Walter Tyndale. R.I 174 

.-tr.* iml DrauihUmrn. By Reginald Blonilield, .\.R..\. 26j 

.•lr( t Maspero 348 

Am^l' .n.i Thfir llomflanJs. By Jainr?i Baker 349 

tialU^i II '•' : .111 II unjrrfnl. By Vernon Hill 346 

Mil ami Olhrr Pormx. By Edgar .Mien Poe 263 

A Poolt lif tttuats. By W. Dacm .Adams 178 
Book 01 Distatrry. By W. B. S>-nge . . .265 

Bytantinr Cknrckrs in Constantinofle. By Alexander Van Millingen 349 

Canadmn I'ulum. By Harold Copping. Descrilicd by Emily P. Weaver 8s 

Cat-j! ■■ ' ''- ' ' '••'i Work f'f Frank Brangwyn 2(12 

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Col: ■ .ijrlphia and lis Srichhorhnt. By II. Donald.son 

1..- L.face Mather ... I 

CUor in Ikr Hunu. By Edward J. Duveen . 177 

Dit Ideair Landuhall. By Dr. J. Gtamm 263 

EntJii* Firtplair. By L. A. ShulTrey 347 
Epothi ofCkinrii and Japanrse An. .An Outline History of East .Asiatic 

Design. By Eroe»t EranciKO Fenollosa . . xx, 262 

Fablts 0/ Arjop. Illuitrated by Edward J. Detmold 178 

Folk Tatt$ of Btntal. By Rev. Lai Bchari 26s 

Grrmany. Painted by E. T. Compton and E. Harrison Compton . . 178 

Oondotifrs 26s 

Crtdt and Human I'orlrailt. By Dr. Anton Hekler 8s 

llrratUl Brahazon Brabazon. Iln Arl and Lift. By C. Lewis Hind . . 261 
Hailatr of lliroskitt: .4 Climpu of Japaneie Landscape Art. By Dora 

Arosden xx 

llrrots. or Crttk Fairy Talis far My Children. By Charles Kingsley. 

Illuitrated by W. Ruuell Flint 177 

lliiUry of Painlint in .Vor<A /laly. By J. A. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle 347 

lloimer. Harriet. Lelleri and Memories. By Cornelia Carr . . . . xxi 

Hours of Gladness. By M. Maeterlinck 263 

La Decima Fjposizione d'.\rtt a Venezia. l()ii. By L'go Ojetti 179 



L,i l-,urme el la I'orcelain de .Marseille. Par I'Abbe Arnaud d'Ag 
Lavery, John, and His Work. By Walter Shaw Sparrow 

Life and Letters of Frederic Shields. By Ernestine Mills 

Life in the West of Ireland. By Jack B. Yeats 

Little Songs of Long .Ago ... 

Little Women. By Louisa Alcot .... ... 

Lives of the Most Eminent Painters. .Sculptors ami .\rthiletts. By Giorgio 

Vasari 

.Magic World. By E. Nesbit 

.Mary, the Mother of Jesus. An Essay by Alice Meynell 

Moscow. Painted by F. de Haenen 

Sursery History of England. By Mrs. E. O'Neill 

Our Island Saints. By Miss Steednian 

Parsifal, or the Legend of the Holy Grail 

Pnems of Passion and Pleasure. By Ella Wheeler Wilcox .... 
Portrait Medals of Italian Artists of the Renaissance. By G. F. Hill . . 

Princess Ida 

Prints and Their Makers. By FitzRoy Carrington 

Richards: Masterpieces of the Sea. By HarrLson S. Morris .... 

Robin Hood. By Walter Crane 

Ruddigore 

Sacred Shrine. By Vrjo Him 

She Sloops to Conquer. By Oliver Goldsmith 

Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. By W. Hatherell 

Stitches from Old English Embroideries. By Louisa F. Pescl 

Story of a Hida Craftsman -. 

Story of Rome 

Studio Year Book of Decorative Art, igi3 

Tapestries, their Origin, History and Renaissance. By George Leland 

Hunter 

Vffizi Gallery. By P. G. Konody. Edited by T. Uman Hare . . . 

tVhite-Ear and Peter. By Neils Ileiberg 

Whitman's Print.Collerl„r' t I In mil.,,,, I: U,.vis,-,l bv Malcolm C. Salaman 
Yeomen of the Guard 



xlvii 
346 
340 
349 
26s 



26s 
265 
264 
265 
263 




<C5 
CL EC 

,.,o 



Whe 

INTERNATIONAL 
STUDIO 



VOL. XLVIll. No. Ifi9 



Copyright, 1912, h)) John Lane Company 



NOVEMBER. 1912 



JOHANNES HENDRICUS JURRES 
BY W. G. PECKHAM 
Genesis recites that God made man in 
his image, "to have dominion over the fish 
of the sea and the fowl of the air and o\-er the 
cattle and over all the earth." 

Could there not be a similar gradation of sub- 
jects for art, so far as the spiritual rank of the 
subject goes? 

The Dutch painters who paint vegetables and 
those who paint poultry and cattle are fine techni- 
cal painters. Claude and Corot did daintier 
work, or at least put it on more exquisite back- 
grounds. But Raphael had subjects of a higher 
quality. The man who paints his brother-man 
has the noblest subject. Again, the figure painter 
who paints the spirit and the flesh of the real man 



does work of enduring value, even though the 
painter who paints unreal men and women, crea- 
tures that never were, satyrs, fantastic nymphs, or 
such as are not kin to us common people may be a 
painter of vain things. As William Makepeace 
Thackeray wrote of an impressionist of his day: 

"Such monsters of beauty are quite out of the 
reach of human sympathy." 

The noblest value, the most permanent worth 
in art accrues when art comes home to all man- 
kind, as with Cervantes, Shakespeare, Franz Hals 
and Mark Twain, each in his way. Rossetti's 
verses and his paintings fall short, even as did the 
last French painter who painted centaurs. De- 
tail and technical execution have been, perhaps, 
more commonly perfected by the Dutch painters, 
while it has been noted of late that the Spanish 
school has put upon can\-as the richness of color 




Collection of Mr. W. C. Pccklui 
SPANISH BEGG.\RS 



BY J()H.\NNES H. JIKRES 



Johannes Heudricus Jurres 



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Xi^ 4k 


2l 


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THK PROIIIC.AL SON 



ll\ Jiill ANNKS H. JIRKK: 



and the splendor of li};hl that only Spanish artists 
find at home, and make their own. 

Now comes a Dutch painter, Johannes Hend- 
ricus Jurres, who first did hard work in Holland 
and later spent years of faithful study in Spain, 
and who paints men that are ([uite human and un- 
artiticial. His creations are none of them vanities. 
His subjects are from the Bible, Cervantes, Shakes- 
peare and the cverj-day life of the common folk. 
Sometimes he works in the mist)' note of Holland 
and sometimes in the color and light of Spain He 
makes one or more sketches of each detail. Jurres 
was born in Holland in 1875 and is in his prime 
and at work in Amsterdam. 

His Don Quixote is not so eccentric as was 
Dore's, but is more kin to us, and should last bet- 
ter. A glance at it makes one say: "The proper 
study of mankind is man." 

Is this the reason wh)' Israels is the true leader 
among many of equally strong technique? Jur- 
res's Don Quixote has the quality of a gentleman, 
which quality Lowell said was pre-eminently 
the Don's. That horse is like our old horse. 
Those people in the background you may meet 
on any back road in Spain. How frequent is 
the ability to paint good groups of real men in 
action ? 

The Spanish Beggars, also, has actuality in it. 
These are beggars at their trade, in actual busi- 



ness. There is no advertising, there is no sensa- 
tion, but there is true valuation and good work. 
Even the dog's attitude is convincing. So is each 
beggar's snivel. So is the ironic smirk on the 
rider's face. 

Jurres went to Spain in his twenty-si.xth year, 
worked at Granada and Madrid, and in the 
mountains, and lived with the herders and mine 
workers. You see them in his pictures. 

In the battle scenes he likewise makes separate 
sketches of the details, and works them over, and 
finally joins them in the large work. Again, he 
takes a broad subject and repeats it in different 
phases. Such, for instance, arc his vigorous Good 
Samaritan and his Prodigal Son and Father and his 
Peter and the Cripple. 

A Boston artist said: "There are few painters 
outside of the States, but your man Jurres does a 
horse better than Delacroi.x or Schreyer." 

His horses are not fanciful. He bought old 
horses, to study them and make them his own on 
the canvas. 

It is a little curious that Jurres was sustained, in 
his youth, by a Dutch lawyer, and was exploited 
in Canada by a canny critic, an accomplished 
king's counsel, Johnston, of Toronto, who has 
written of Jurres: 

"The greatness of an artist de[)ends largely on 




ColUilionc,/ Mr. I! . 
PETER AND THE 
CRIPPLE 



BY JOHANNES H. 
JURRES 



Johannes Hendricus Jtirres 



the creative power of the artist, the power to 
create the soul, and that Jurres can do. Young 
in years and immature in art, his productions, 
nevertheless, savor more of the glory of the an- 
cients than anything in the modern history of 
painting, and Jurres is the greatest of all the 
younger artists of the day." 

The comedian, Francis Wilson, is a lover of 
Jurres. The kind of picture that Wilson favors is 
in the Dutch manner, \\-ith tones that are rich but 
dreamy and not pronounced. 

A very- different picture is the Prodigal Smi, 
formerly owned by Alfred Henry Lewis, the writer. 
The figures of the last are m the overwhelming 
light that one finds only, as a rule, in the work of 
the artists of Andalusia. It will be hard to match 
this picture for vivid coloring. The remorse of 
the prodigal and the nobility of the father are ade- 
quate, and the figures have an e.xcellent dignity 
and vitality. 

The same is true of Pclcr and tin- Cripple. 
And "out from the heart of nature rolled, the 
burdens of the Bible old." 

Can one tell of anybody else who can paint a 
prophet so well up to the character and can paint 
Bible subjects so fitly? Who else gives us as 




THE MENDICANT 



BV JOHANNES II. JURRR: 



solid crimsons and such anticiue blocks of all 
colors? 

The Stoning of St. Stephen in the private collec- 
tion of Mr. Heaton, of Montreal, is rough and un- 




CoUfction of Mr. II'. G. Pckhjn 
THE BATTLE 



BY JOHANNES H. JURRES 




Collf.l, on of Mr. If. c;. I'r.kh 
THE HALT 



n I' UIANM-- 11. Jl KKli: 




DAVID AND SAUL 



UV JuHANNl-S 11. JUKRES 



Johannes Hendricus Jurres 




CUOD SAMARITAN 



BV JUUAN-NEs U. JLKKE^ 



finished, but it is more real and dramatic than per- 
haps any other recent artist's work in painting. 

Also, there is a different battle scene before me 
in the original, the best of several, and he who 
seeks for martial glory would find a whole epic in 
the canvas, that is not very large. A squad of 
marching, frenzied men and frantic horses, knights 



in combat and cowards running away, are shown 
strongly and simply in the right atmosphere. 

A magnificent example of Mr. Jurres' work has 
recently been imported by Messrs. R. C. & N. M. 
Vose, of Boston. It is a veritable masterpiece, 
in Jurres' best manner, superb in color and 
technique. 




JEZABEL 

BY JOHANNES H. JURRES 







z 3: 



si 




O >c 
X Z 



A Study in Country Architecture 



A 



STUDY IN COUNTRY ARCHI- 
TECTURE 
BY C. MATLACK PRICE 



In the United States there has al- 
ways been an elusive quality lacking in the design 
of small country houses. Just what this quality 
is may best be felt by studying the charm of the 
English countr}' house of the same tj^se. There 
the charm and interest have been achieved by the 
essentially artistic point of \dew of the architect 
and the temerity of the cUent, who, between them, 
evolve a dwelling full of quaint and unexpected 
features, yet one which seems ever a harmonious 
whole in itself as well as a consistent part of its 
surroundings. The][Eng- 
lish country- house is full r. 

of an architectural indi- 
\-iduality which has been 
approached in few other 
tj-pes of house, while the 
Americanhouse has seemed 
always a little forced, as 
though its designer had felt 
bound by certain con- 
straining conditions and 
its owner had felt himself 
bound by unwritten con- 
ventions. As a rule we do 
not sanction a house v\'ith 
a quaintly diversified roof- 
Hne, picturesque chimneys 
and variously disposed 
leaded casements because 
we are afraid, in a vague 
way, that somebody will 
laugh at us. Consequently 
we look first at our neigh- 
bors house before we think 
of the design of our o^\'n, 
and we are sometimes dis- 
turbed with a wondering 
query as to what is the 
matter with American do- 
mestic architecture. Why 
must a house be a rephca 
of a French Chateau or an 
English countrj' place in 
order to be good? Our 
own work has generally 
seemed successful only in 
so far as it has sho\Ma a 
skilful adaptation of some ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ "deepdale' 
foreign style. When we great neck, l. i. 



essayed it ourselves the "contractor and builder" 
gave us an elaborated packing-box with interior 
compartments, and Eastlake inflicted upon us his 
fantastic vagaries of spindles, rosettes and gener- 
ally weird proportions and details in an architec- 
tural chaos. 

The trouble in the matter, perhaps, lies in 
American self-consciousness in matters of personal 
expression. The Englishman speaks French with 
considerable practical bravado because he does 
not mind being laughed at a little, while the 
American too often keeps a self-conscious silence. 
The English architect builds a house which is a 
fearless expression of his personal ideals in the 
matter, while in this country we are ever prone to 




JOHN RUSSELL POPE 
ARCHITECT 



A Study in Con )i try Architecture 




DETAIL OF GROTESQIES. GATE LODGE 
AT "DEEPDALE," GRKAT NECK, L. I. 



lean on precedent, or if original, to indulge only 
in ])lalitudes. 

With such a deplorable state of affairs too 
generally prevailing it is interesting to find, in 
John Russell Pope, an architect with the strength 
of his con\-ictions, and to discuss the qualities 
which ha\e been achie\ed in his mdixidual ren- 
dering of a gate-lodge on the estate of Mr. W. K. 
Vanderbilt, Jr., on Long Island. While it is true 
that the feeling in this house is of a distinctly 



JOHN RUSSELL POPE 
ARCHITECT 



Elizabethan English type, it is of importance to 
observe the freedom and lack of restraint with 
which Mr. Pope has carried it out. 

The first glance will indicate that the lodge is 
of half-timber construction. This does not mean 
that a thin coat of stucco has been applied be- 
tween boards, but that the building is actually 
half constructed of timber. By reason of the 
fact that the modern caqjenter does not under- 
stand this t}-pe of work, Mr. Pope was at some 




GROTESQUES, GATE LODGE 
; D.VLE." GREAT NECK, L. I. 



JOHN RUSSELL POPE 
ARCHITECT 



A Study ill Country A rchitecture 



pains to obtain the services 
of a venerable ship-carpen- 
ter, who, pursuant of the 
training of his craft, hewed 
the timbers from the rough 
with an adze and morticed 
and pegged them together. 
There was obtained in this 
manner an interesting 
irregularity and uneven- 
ness, which is further en- 
hanced by the visible marks 
of the adze on the wood. 
Here was the first bit of 
finesse in detail which went 
to make up the unique ap- 
pearance of this little build- 
ing. The feature, however, 
which strikes the most sig- 
nificant note of difference is 
the introduction of the car\-- 
ed grotesc|ues, which run 

entirely around the building on a line above the 
windows. 

Each one of the gate-lodge grotesques is different 
from the rest, and all hold an excellent similarity 
in the general character of their treatment. At 
every angle and on every side the eye is jovially 
accosted by a fresh variety of quaintly bizarre 
corbells, and the prevailing sense of architectural 
fitness is admirable throughout. 

In no part did the lodge suffer from inattention 
or lack of careful study. The roof tiles were 
sought throughout Europe in vain, but nowhere 




DET.\IL OF GROTESQUES, GATE LODGE 
AT "dEEPDALE," great NECK, L. I. 



JOHN RUSSELL POPE 
ARCHITECT 




detailJof grotesques, gate lodge 
at "deepdale," great neck, l. i. 



could the exact kind that were wanted be found 
until they were met with in a little church almost 
two hundred years old, in Indiana. The church 
was in ruins, so the old, handmade tiles were 
secured and laid here, and the chimneys were 
built of carefully selected brick. Commonplace 
chimneys would have marred the charming en- 
semble of this unique building, so Mr. Pope was 
at no small pains to impart to their design the 
same remarkable individuality which he had 
attained in the hewii timber work and the 
carved grotesques. The field stone used in the 
foundations gave occasion 
for still further careful selec- 
tion. Each piece was i)icked 
from old walls in the vicin- 
ity, and each was chosen 
with the care of collector 
of rare specimens. All were 
required to show grey weath- 
ered faces, mottled with dull 
green lichens. 

Here, in values not to be 
denied, is a work of art — an 
assemblage of materials and 
forms so woven together as 
lo produce a ])erfect whole — 
and a testimonial that an 
actual building that shows 
European ideals of sincerity 
in architecture can be real- 

JOHN RUSSELL POPE . , . , • 

ARCHITECT ized m this country'. 




— ca 

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C W 

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■< Er Cii 
•J M O 



The House Beautiful of Japan 



T 



HE HOUSE 
JAPAN 



lEAUTIFUL OF 



There are certain ideals in Japanese 
art which are no less apparent in 
Japanese architecture and gardening, yet the art 
of Japan only as embodied in prints, paintings, 
porcelain, cloisonne and ivorj- has found a wide 
popular acceptance in this countrj'. WTiy this 
should be so is very difficult to imagine, and can 
only be ascribed to the fact that, in the west, 
the houses and gardens of Japan are virtually 
unknown. 

We turned with relief from over-decorated in- 
teriors to the simplicit}- of the "Mission" scheme 
of decoration, yet, oddly enough, overlooked 
a type more esthetically satisfying, and more 
intrinsically interesting. 

Perhaps there has been a too general indul- 
gence in the idea that Oriental art is "complex" — 
that a Japanese interior is too e.xotic, too alien for 
successful adaptation in this country'. As a 
popular idea this is no more founded on fact than 



most popular ideas, nor is it less erroneous. The 
complexity of oriental art is that baffling quality 
which results from carefully studied simplicity. 
The interior decoration of a Japanese house is the 
result of an elimination of the useless — an elimina- 
tion lasting over many centuries. There is noth- 
ing experimental about it. Upon first seeing a 
marvellously executed Japanese interior, rich in 
dull gold and oiled teak- wood, yet wonderfully 
subdued, an appreciative lady was heard to re- 
mark: "The Japanese are so clever to do such a 
beautifully novel hall-way I" to which the quiet 
Japanese host replied that he regretted its lack 
of any strictly up-to-date qualities, in that the 
houses of Japan were decorated in no wise 
differently four thousand years ago I 

In the western life of varied and wear\-ing 
activities the restfulness of the Japanese idea of 
an interior should come as a balm to over-WTOught 
nerves and tired eyes. There are broad, cool 
spaces, dull and subdued, yet interesting colors. 
Little furniture is wanted, and ornaments are few 
but carefully selected. One rare porcelain or 




CourUsy of Yamanaka & Company 

A JAPANESE GARDEN- WITH TEA-HOUSE AT TUXEDO PARK, X. Y. 



DESIGNED BY S. MORI 



The House Beautiful of Japan 




a bit of cloisonne may grace a simple teak-wood 
stand. The windows are treated with semi- 
opaque paper and light teak lattice, obscuring 
any jarring note from outside. On a wall of soft 
gray or dull gold, delicately decorated with grace- 
ful flowers or charming landscape, what need of 
picture? On a wall not treated thus, let there 
be one beautiful print, or a rare kakemono. If 
there is a large collection of porcelains, ivories or 
bronzes, the Japanese does 
not tire himself and his 
friends of them by keeping 
the entire collection con- 
stantly in N-iew. All but 
one or two are put away 
behind invisible sliding 
doors in the wall, or in the 
many compartments of a 
closed cabinet and taken 
out only for those who may 
ap]>reciate. 

The interior illustrated, 
one of many in a house at 
Tuxedo Park recently dec- 
orated by a Japanese firm, 
well known for its taste, 
the simplicity and adequac)' 
of the treatment is worthy 
of serious study. The wood- 
work, simple and free of 
meaningless mouldings, is of 
natural mahogany. The 



walls are of a curious neutral 
tint, somewhere in a chro- 
matic \alue between gray 
and tan, while the i)anels of 
the ceiling are again in a 
neutral between green and 
tan, painted with dull brown 
jjatterns. The walls arc deli- 
cately decorated, and the 
doors do not disturb the 
luiet harmony of the room, 
icing treated in a manner 
imilar to the walls, and in 
the same colorings. 

Such interiors make the 
instant impression that is 
felt at the sight of an\- work 
of art. Here is the tangible 
evidence of the hand of a 
, iv master-decorator — and who 
^ ^""" in the historj' of the civilized 

world ha\'e pro\-ed them- 
selves in any measure equal to the Jajianese in 
this art? 

Everj-thing the Japanese touches he beautifies 
— in no case has his handiwork been superficial, 
vulgar or stupid — and in these three detrimental 
particulars many other schools ha\'e been con- 
spicuous. And that all things Japanese have 
this quality of refined and delicate beauty is 
traceable not to any studied effort on the part of 




DESIGNED BY 
S. MORI 



TJie House Beautiful of yapan 




Courtesy of Yamanaka is* Company 

A JAPANESE INTERIOR IN A HOUSE AT TUXEDO PARK, 

the Japanese, but to the fact that he comes of a 
race of artists, whose ideals for thousands of years 
back have been ideals of beauty. Physically he 
lives in a beautiful countr\', a countrj' aboundingly 
picturesque in its conformation, its flora, its 
costumes and its customs. .\rt in all things is so 
inseparably a part of the people that neither can 
be understood without the other. 

Having, with a superficiality which brevity may 
pardon, pointed out certain salient characteristics 
of the Japanese idea of interior decoration, we 
find that the principles of simplicity in the 
interior are reversed in the garden, and that 
if any principle is followed, it is complexity. 
More accurately stated, the Japanese idea of 
a garden, as opposed to that of most of the 
great Italian and English garden builders, is that 
the garden should be a place of pleasant suqjrises. 
It must not be laid out by diagram, with obvious 
"axes" and "centres,'" with formal planting and 
the like. The Japanese garden abounds in quaint 
turnings and une.xpected little bridges over pools 
of aquatic plants. Here and there are stone 
lanterns, miniature rock-gardens and ri\ulet5. 



N. V. DESIGNED BY S. MORI 

A Japanese wTiter, who is by way of being an 
authority on the matter, says: "In the western 
garden one walks, for that seems to be the primary 
purpose of its construction; but the Japanese 
garden is planned to be looked at, and as a con- 
sequence, the Japanese house, even upon the 
tiniest plot of ground, has a garden. Attached to 
the dwellings in the crowded cities, such as Tokio 
or Osaka, you may even see gardens six feet by 
three; and even in such a bit of a garden will be a 
mountain covered with woods, a lake with an 
island and a tiny bridge, a waterfall, and perhaps 
an arbor and artistic lanterns. In the construction 
of such gardens the dwellers in the crowded cities 
seek to satisfy their longing for nature by looking 
at a landscape which appeals to them. They 
consider it as one considers a miniature by Isabey, 
and are wonderfully proud of it." 

.\nd here, as in most things Japanese, is an 
admirable piece of general philosophy of life, 
illustrating not only a theory of laying out gar- 
dens, but of deri\'ing a maximum of pleasure 
from a minimum source. 

C. M. P. 



The Miniatuyes of Heloise Guilloit Redfield 



T 



HE MINIATURES OF 
GUILLOU REDFIELD 



HELOISE 



An interesting example of the trend 
of modern study of painting is seen in 
the work of Heloise Guillou Redfield, exhibited 
recently at the Copley Gallery in Boston. These 
miniatures are remarkable for their "paint 
quality" and a carrying force equal to that of 
life-size painting. It is interesting to trace the 
influences which have produced this unusual 
development. 

The art of miniature painting has departed 
from the traditions which made it what it was 
in the eighteenth century when the masters of that 
time set us a very high example in what was, 
definitely speaking, "water-color drawing." In 
later times we have seen a great deal of thin 
color, uncertain values, and hesitancy between 
painting and water-color drawing. Miss Red- 
field has developed a form of expression which is 
really painting although the medium is water- 
color and the scale miniature. 

The training of this artist has been broad and 
varied in the painting academies of America and 
Europe. The influence of no modern teacher 
predominates but an appreciation of the old mas- 





MINIATURE PORTRAIT 



BY HELOISE G. REDFIELD 



MINIATURE PORTRAIT BY HELOISE O. REDFIELD 

ters such as Holbein, and the later English and 
French schools has made the years spent in 
Europe the period of greatest growth as to taste — 
that which is rarest of all qualities in modern 
painting but which is very nearly the raison 
d'etre of art. Under William Chase and Cecelia 
Beaux at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts she profited by the wholesome influence 
Hals and Velasquez are still handing down to us, 
later in Paris coming in contact with Blanche, 
Cottet, Desvaliere and Delecluse. .■X few months 
only were devoted to working under mmiature 
painters in order to learn the technical matters of 
the medium. 

But Miss Redfield is more especially an intel- 
lectual painter using much calculation and scienti- 
fic analysis in order to understand the phenomena 
of beauty and our means of expressing it in 
plastic form. Her work shows that she has a 
strong mental conception at the outset, virile 
enough to bend the means of expression to ser\-e 
the artist's will. Her miniatures are perfect 
l)ortraits in little, showing all the qualities of 
composition and handling of accessories that one 
demands in a large portrait, the size of the work 
in no way limiting beauty of design or character- 
istic posing of the sitter. This breadth of con- 
ception and paint tonality mark the ]>osition of 
this artist as unique in the art progress of the 
times. 



Some Recent Books 



SDMK KIXKNT BOOKS 
I Epochs of Chinese and Japanese 
Art: An Outline Hist on- of East Asiatic 
Design. By Ernest FraTicisco Fenol- 
losa, formerly Professor of Philosophy in the Im- 
perial University of Tokio, Commissioner of Fine 
Arts for Japan, etc. With 184 full-page illustra- 
tions in colors and black-and-white. Two vol- 
umes. 4to. Pages 204 and 212. (New York: 
Frederick .A. Stokes Company.) Si 0.00 net. 

The i)urpose of this book is to contribute first- 
hand material toward a 
real history- of East Asi- 
atic art in an interesting 
way that may appeal not 
only to scholars, but to 
art collectors, general 
readers on Oriental to])- 
ics and travelers in Asia. 
Its treatment of the sub- 
ject is no\el in several re- 
spects. Heretofore most 
books on Jajianese Art 
have dealt rather with 
the technique of indus- 
tries than with the es- 
thetic motive in schools 
of design, thus producing 
a false classification by 
materials instead of by 
creative periods. This 
book conceives of the art 
of each epoch as a pecu- 
liar beauty of line, spac- 
ing and color which could 

have been produced at no -Enochs ../ ch,7,fu- and japam-s 
other time, and which thk \vateki-.\i.l of yoro 
l)ermeates all the indus- 

tr\' of its day. This painting and sculpture, in- 
stead of being relegated to separate subordinate 
chapters, are showTi to ha\e created at each epoch 
a great national school of design that uiiderlay the 
whole round of the industrial arts. 

.\gain, the writer endea\ors to break down the 
old fallacy of regarding Chinese ci\ilization as 
standing for thousands of years at a dead level, 
by ojienly exhibiting the special en\'ironing culture 
and the special structural beauties which have 
rendered the art of each period unique. 

The treatment of Chinese and Japanese art 
together, as of a single esthetic movement, is a 
third innovation. It is shown that not only were 
they, as wholes, almost as closely inter-rela^ed as 




Greek art and Roman, but that the e\er-varying 
phases interlock into a sort of mosaic pattern, or, 
rather, unfold in a single dramatic movement. 

Mr. Fenollosa has had unique opportunities for 
the study of Far Eastern art. These opportuni- 
ties came in a most interesting transitional period. 
The strongholds of the great feudal lords, or 
'■ Daimyo," were being broken up and their ances- 
tral treasures scattered. In Boston he had 
studied art as a philosopher, and had also at- 
temjjted the practice of it. In Japan he was 
looked upon as an antiquarian, an authority, and 
before many years was 
appointed a Japanese 
commissioner for re- 
search, administration 
and art education. 

The Heritage of Hi- 
roshige: a Glimpse of 
Japanese Landscape Art. 
By Dora Amsden, with 
the assistance of John 
Stewart Happer. Illus- 
trated with prints from 
the Happer Collection. 
8 v o . (San Francisco : 
Paul Elder & Co.) $2.25 
net. 

Hiroshige has been 
termed the greatest in- 
terpreter of nature in all 
her moods, and through 
his master art his mes- 
sage appeals directly to 
the Occident as to the 
Orient. No translation 
is needed to appreciate 
his beautiful color prints, 
for he here speaks a universal tongue. In Mrs. 
Amsden's charming volume there is a general sur- 
vey of Japanese art which deals successively with 
its earliest expressions, the emergence of the rival 
schools of Tosa and Kano, and with the influence 
that led to color printing. This is followed by a 
consideration of the work of the great master, 
Hiroshige, and (with the collaboration of Mr. J. S. 
Happer, the well-known English connoisseur and 
collector of Japanese prints) by the presentation of 
an interesting contribution to our knowledge con- 
cerning one of the most distinctive artists of 
Japan — namely, the seal-dating of the Hiroshige 
prints by cycle-ciphers discovered by Mr. Hajiper 
and confirmed by the connoisseurs. 



BY UOKl SAI 



Some Recent Books 



The illustrations in the present volume are 
exquisite reproductions of rare prints belonging to 
the Happer and Amsden collections and are iypi- 
cal examples of the versatile master's art. An 
appendix contains facsimiles of Hiroshige signa- 
tures, seals and marks (including the cipher char- 
acters referred to in the text), facsimiles of other 
artists' signatures and a bibliographj' of important 
books dealing with the subject of Japanese art. 

The t}pographical scheme is striking and most 
attractive and, together with the unique but 
tasteful binding, produces a characteristic effect 
quite appropriate to the subject. 

H.\RRIET HosMER : Letters and Memories. Ed- 
ited by Cornelia Carr. With thirty-one illustra- 
tions. 8vo. 386 pages. (New York: ^Moffatt, 
Yard & Company.) §3.00 net. 

This volume consists of a col- 
lection of papers arranged in 
such manner as to show how an 
earnest and courageous young 
artist was led to honor and 
success. 

Miss Hosmer was an Amer- 
ican sculptress, well known in 
Rome, where she lived a great 
many years. She was a friend 
of the Brownings, William Wet- 
more Story, John Gibson and 
many others of their standing. 
From her letters an outline of 
her busy and happy career will 
be gleaned. To no one did she 
WTite so freely and consecu- 
tively of her work and her life 
abroad as to her early friend, 
Mr. Wayman Crow, to whom 
the majority of the letters in 
this present volume are ad- 
dressed. A few others, to and 
from friends, have been added 
by way of giving a little more 
fully the stor>- of a life that 
never seemed so vi\-id after she 
lost the sympathy, almost the 
inspiration, of him she called 
' ' The Pater. ' ' In these letters 
to him she quotes words of 
praise and cheer which were 
given to her, not from any 
moti\"e of vanity, but with the 
desire of justifying his belief in 
her power of achievement. The 



merry joke and the familiar doggerel which were 
characteristic of her have been left unpruned from 
these letters, for badinage and rhyme entered so 
freely into her conversation that it seems only 
natural they should form a part of her writings. 
Prominence is given to Old World hosts, hostesses 
and homes, because much of her time was passed 
among them, not onlj' in enjoying the cordial hos- 
pitality of the owners, but in studying their match- 
less treasures of art. Forsaking Italy, with its 
changing life and scene, she spent the later years 
of her Life partly in England and partly in America. 
She was never idle. Her busy brain was unceas- 
ingly at work on fa\^orite designs. The end came 
unexpectedly. After a brief Ulness, with mind 
undimmed, on the 21st of February, 1908, she 
passed into the Higher Life. 




"Epochs of Ck 
BRIDGE IN R.\I 



An," /•". 1 Slnkis o" Co. 



BY HIROSHIOE 
XXI 





"The Heritage of liiroshige" 
Paul Elder &■ Company 



"The Heritage of Hiroshige" 
Paul Elder &• Company 



THE SNOW GORGE 



THE MOONLIT SARU HASI 



In the Galleries 



I 



N THE GALLERIES 
BY GUY PENE DU BOIS 



Art dealers see in the people, and particularly 
in the picture buying part of the people, a 
flurry of excitement, fostered by uncertainty, which 
will keep them from the galleries until the presiden- 
tial election shall have been decided. They predict, 
in fact, no art moves of importance until the new year. 

The schedule of sales at the American Art Galleries, 
for example, at the present wTiting, has not even been 
made out. Meanwhile the old entrance to the galleries 
is to be converted into a flower stand possibly, and a 
new entrance which cuts into the old Hotel Bartholdi 
is xmder the process of construction. It is to be of 
marble. The upper galleries are to be reached now 
by elevators. The preserves of the old hotel, as in 
the instance of the entrance, have jdelded an addi- 
tional gallerj'. This will be used, exclusively, for the 
display and sale of books, prints and manuscripts. 

The first sign of activity in these galleries will come 
in December with the exhibition of the work of Scandi- 
navian painters arranged by Mr. Christian Brinton. 
This show, like the one of the American Painters and 





Courtesy o/ The Eh. 
ONE OF TWO 
'A PANELS 



BY THE M.\STER OF 
FRANKFORT 



.Courtesy of " The Print-Collector' 



THE END OF THE DAY 
GATUN LOCK 



BY JOSEPH PENNELL 



Sculptors Society to be held in the Sixty- 
ninth Regiment Armor}' in February, 
promises to be one of the events of the 
season, which will be officially opened, 
as is the custom, with the e.xhibition of 
the New York Water Color Club. 

Elsewhere the signs of awakening are 
becoming more pronounced. All the 
steamers now arriving unload a special 
shipment of old masters and antiques. 
The Custom Stores are crowded to their 
capacity. Dealers, as usual at this time 
of year, are lamenting conditions which 
make delay of the arrival of pictures in 
their galleries inevitable. Some say that 
the amount of art importations has broken 
all records since the removal of duty on 
old works of art. 

Lithographs and etchings of the Panama 
Canal, by Joseph Pennell, were shown at 
Keppel's from September 19th to October 
12th. The biographer of Whistler has 
WTitten an introduction to the catalogue 



/;/ the Galleries 



1 


% 




■ 


^V' \k 


t 



Courtfsy of The Mticbelh Gallery 
THE SONG 



BY CHARLE 



of it in which he describes his trip to the Isthmus 
and gives hints that should help to an intimate 
understanding of its fruits. 

Mr. Penneirs pencil is tremendously able, there 
are few, if any, subtle intricacies that may make 
it falter. In ever>- detail his prints have conclusive 
logic and, considering the amount of information 
they record, are handled with amazing simplicity. 
He has the architect's perception and the 
draughtsman's infallible accuracy. 

The Macbeth Galler\- will open November 
5th with an exhibition of the work of Ballard 
Williams, who more than many of our painters 
knows the value of consistency. This show will 
be followed in the same gallery^ on November 
19th. by a gathering of thirty pictures of western 
scenes representing the work of, among others, 
De Witt Parshall, Eliot Daingerfield, Thomas 
Moran and Potthast. 

A COLLECTION of etchings by Frank Brang^\-}Ti, 
in it many of recent date, will be shown until 
November 2d at the Kraushaar Gallery-. It 
includes the Cannon Street Railway Bridge, the 



well known Old Uammer- 
smitlt, The Mosque at Con- 
stantinople, and The Monu- 
ment. Brangwyn's state- 
ments have perha]is an 
excess of force. The darks 
a shade too dark, the lights 
a little too light. He shouts 
sometimes, as in the 
Mosque plate, when he 
might be expected to whis- 
per. His sense of the 
dramatic is tremendous 
and of the decorative irre- 
proachable. Mr. Krau- 
shaar has brought over 
from Europe, recently, 
Fantin Latour's Queen of 
Xighl and his Chess Players. 
Both are delightful. The 
latter had been in the j)os- 
session of the gifted French- 
man's wife since his death. 
It has never before been 
publicly shown. 



Mr. N. E. Montross 
opened his galleries to the 
public October loth with 

an exhibition of the work of the Camera Men. 

This is followed by the Bahr collection of Chinese 

antiquities. 

Dltch, Flemish, Spanish and Italian primi- 
tives are to be seen at the Kleinberger establish- 
ment. The main gallerv' contains Van Goyen's 
The Old Chateau, a masteqMece in subdued color; 
\'an Dyck's Donna Polyxena Espinola and the 
Woman Taken in Adultery, by Rubens. 

Theron R. Blakeslee has acquired from 
Charles \\'ertheimer, of London, a ver>' wonder- 
ful full length portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
It is of Lad)- .\nne Stanhope who was married to 
Sir William Stanhope, the second son of the third 
Earl of Chesterfield who so strenuously upheld 
the might of good manners. The portrait was 
painted in 1765-66. The Earl of Mexborough 
owned it before Wertheimer. It was exhibited 
at the Grafton Galler>' in 1883 and at the Royal 
Academy, Berlin, in 1908. C. Corbutt, S. W. 
Reynolds and James Watson, in 1767, have 
engraved it. 

The Lady, wearing a pink gown which falls in 



HAWTHORNE 



/;/ the Galleries 



folds of almost classic 
grace, is shown standing 
beside a table on which 
are a kneeling Venus and 
the head of a boy in marble. 
Books and portfolios are 
strewn incongruously at 
her feet. Her left hand 
holds a green scroll, her 
right a pencU. The waist 
is encircled by a blue green 
sash. All of the great Eng- 
lishman's refined and ro- 
mantic color are here; his 
idealistic version of reality ; 
his love of the decorati\-e 
and the dignified. 

A PAIR of companion 
pictures by the Master of 
Frankfort are among the 
prizes brought over from 
the other side of the water, 
for the coming season, at 
the Ehrich Gallery. 

The purchase, by Moul- 
ton & Ricketts, of the 
American interests of 
Arthur Tooth & Sons, is 
one of the important busi- 
ness changes of the season 
in New York. The house 
of Moulton & Ricketts, for 
thirty years identified witli 
the art de\'elopment of the 
Middle West, has, during 
this period conducted its 
present establishment in 
Chicago, the present loca- 
tion being 73 East \'an 
Buren Street. The influ- 
ence and the clientele, how- 
ever, has extended to most 
of the important centers of 

the West. Some fi^'e years ago the firm erected 
in Milwaukee a building of its own, one of the 
most beautiful and complete of the kind in the 
countrj', and one year ago, to accommodate its 
rapidly increasing eastern business, opened attrac- 
tive galleries at 12 West 45th Street, New York. 

The New York galleries of Moulton & Ricketts 
have now been transferred to the premises pre- 
viously occupied by Arthur Tooth & Sons at 




CourUsy oj Theron R. Blakeslee 
LADY ANNE ST.\XHOPE 



BY SIR JOSHl A REYNOLDS 



537 Fifth Avenue and will be in charge of Mr. 
Arthur B. Hughes, who for a number of j-ears 
was connected with that firm. 

While Arthur Tooth & Sons nominally retire, 
after a long business career in the United States, 
their influence will in nowise be withdrawn from 
this country-, inasmuch as there will e.xist close 
working relations between the two firms. 

Mr. R. R. Ricketts, who is the active head of 



/// the Galleries 



the firm of Moultun & Rickctts. has lonsj been 
identified with the art business of this country, 
and Messrs. Tooth & Sons have recognized his 
attainments and integrity in placing in his hands 
the future of what has been a long and honorable 
business career. 

Moulton & Ricketts will in the future con- 
tinue to pay particular attention to e.xploitation 
of American art, the masters of Europe past and 
present will also be represented by the best obtain- 
able examples. Mr. Ricketts has been instru- 
mental in adding many important old world 
masterpieces to American collections, and under 
the present regime the European facilities of the 
firm will be greatly increased. 

The business organization of Arthur Tooth & 
Sons will be retained intact by Moulton & 
Ricketts, including Mr. Herbert C. Labey and 



Mr. A. C. Edwards, both of whom are well and 
favorably known in art circles. 

The recognition of public desire to view that 
which has been accomplished by those workers in 
America who have chosen photography as their 
medium of art expression, has induced the Mon- 
tross Art Galleries to assemble an exhibition at 
their galleries, 550 Fifth Avenue, New York City, 
from October 10 to 31, inclusive. 

The exhibition will afford an opportunity for 
seeing in New York City a collection of photo- 
graphic prints by such workers of international 
distinction as William B. Dyer, Dr. Arnold 
Genthe, Mrs. Gertrude Kaesebier, George H. 
Seeley and A. Thibaudeau, together with those 
who, though less known to the public, have con- 
tributed distinguishing work. 




CourUsy of C. W. Krausha 
THE CRUCIFIXION 
XXVI 



BY FR.\XK BRANGWVN, A.R.A. 




'MATINS ON CHRISTMAS DAY." 

FROM THE PAINTING BY ANDERS ZORN. 



INTERNATIONAL 
STUDIO 



VOL. XLVIIl. No. 190 



Copurigfil, 1912, h John Lane Company 



DECEMBER. 1912 



G 



.\RI MELCHERS— PAINTER 
BY J. NILSEN LAURVIK 



Of the relatiN-el}' few contemporary 
American painters whose work is known 
abroad none has won greater honors than Gari 
Melchers, whose canvases are vital contributions 
to that refreshing naturahsm which swept out and 
forever disestabUshed the old studio conventions. 
Bom in America of foreign parents, this aUen 
note in his make-up has been further fostered by 
the training received in French and German 
schools, until today Gari Melchers expresses in a 
high degree that cosmopolitanism which is one of 
the characteristic marks of the modem American. 
And yet there is something about his work that 
savors as strongly of Germany as of America. 
The one seems to have confirmed and comple- 
mented the other, producing a rugged naturalism, 
tempered and revi\-ified by latter-day French art, 
whose teachings he has absorbed and made his 
own in a manner con\dncingly personal. This has 
been accomplished without any straining after 
efifect, without any attempt to shock or startle the 
casual eye of the world by tricks of technique or 
eccentricities of style. 

His work is distinguished by a straightforward 
frankness that abhors the pretty banalities of the 
conventional studio picture, and though a deft 
and quick workman he is not cursed with that 
ready facility which turns out a masterpiece ever}- 
morning before breakfast. A seeker after charac- 
ter, he can be as deliberate as an old master and 
no one deplores the haste and hurry of America 
more than he. Few have a more deep-rooted 
regard for their art than he, and no consideration 
of expediency can swerve him in the pursuit of his 
one ambition — the creation of a good work of art. 

Everj' canvas from his sincere brush is an 
affirmation of his dictum, pronounced some years 
ago, that: "Nothing counts in this world with the 
painter but a good picture; and no matter how 



good a one you do, you ha\e only to go to the gal- 
leries to see how many better ones have been 
done." In this spirit of never-flagging endeavor 
have come into being some of the most virile and 
stimulating pictures produced by an American- 
born painter. 

His themes are unaffectedly simple — goat-herds, 
shepherdesses, the clear-eyed peasantry- and the 
\\-ind-blown sailors of Holland. .Although he has 
made occasional excursions into other fields, he 
has never wholly forsaken the scenes of his earliest 
inspiration. Year after year he is drawn back to 
the little studio at Egmond-aan-Zee, where the 
homely picturesqueness of the natives still furnishes 
him with subject matter, as in the days back in 
i886, where he made his real debut with The 
Sermon, in which is truthfully depicted an episode 
out of contemporary Dutch life. 

The exhibition of this picture in the Salon of the 
year marks the advent of the real man, who was 
to develop into the personality we know today. 
Although he had made his initial entrance into the 
world of art some four years earlier with a picture 
called The Teller, which was followed the next year 
with two pictures entitled .1 Woman of Altina and 
Pater Xosler, both well hung and well received, it 
was not until the appearance of The Sermon that 
his art created a distinct impression. During the 
two or three inter\ening years he had been occu- 
pied with various tentatixe ex|)eriments that 
resulted in nothing notable. 

He did not altogether "find himself" until that 
summer in 1884 when he made a casual visit to 
Holland after a brief visit to his home in America. 
The discovery of these simple, unspoiled people 
put him on the track of his own esthetic evolution 
and from that moment dates his life as a produc- 
tive artist. Here he found something that 
aroused slumbering traits of character, quite as 
unsuspected by himself as by his colleagues anrl 
fellow-pupils, among whom were Kampf. X'ogel 
and Hans Hermann. 



Crari Melcliers— Painter 




HRABACONNE 



BY fiARl MKIAHKKb 



The picture that was to mark this mile post in 
his career represented the bleak interior of a little 
Lutheran church, filled with its worshippers, in- 
tently listening to the sermon being delivered by 
the preacher, who is not visible. The women are 
shown sitting apart in the body of the church, 
while the men are seated along in the high-backed 



liluc hi-i\ches against a whitewaslu'd wall that 
acfcntuales Ihc stark austerity of this biirc in- 
terior, as well as the grim immobility of the 
worshippers. 

While it is not a profound psycliological study 
of facial ex]iression it none the less rexeals a depth 
and sincerity of observation that is quite unusual 
in the first pictures of a iiouvcau. It is remark- 
able chiefly for its great simplicity, its good 
ilraughtsmanship and its naturalistic, unhack- 
neyed treatment of a chapter out of the inner life 
of the ])eople. However, the fact of his having 
been drawn to this sim])le, unaffected life is in 
itself noteworthy and signilicant of the man's 
inherent simplicity of character, to which he has 
remained true from the moment he found himself. 
This canvas won him an honorable mention. 

It was quickly followed by The Communion and 
The Pilots, which, together with T/ic Sermon, were 
awarded one of the two medals of honor given in 
the American section of fine arts in the Inter- 
national E.xhibition of 1889. This honor he 
shared with Sargent, to whom the other medal was 
awarded. These pictures were painted with an 
almost brutal directness that conveyed a strong 
impression of elemental life. 

The people in these can\-ases are no anemic 
abstractions; they have the maximum number of 
red corpuscles in their even-flowing blood. They 
are distinguished by a sane forthrightness of out- 
look and execution that holds on to the real and 
lets the sentimental go. To me these pictures 
constitute a truer inteqiretation of the every-day, 
actual life of Holland than anything done by 
Israels, whose representations of Dutch life are 
slurred over with a romantic and ])oetic glatnour 
such as ne\'er was on dune or sea. 

I recall vividly the strong impression of actual- 
il\' made upon me by Melchers' paintings when I 
lirst saw them after several years' sojourn in 
Flanders. .And I remember how, in the first flush 
of enthusiasm, I hailed him as a new Dutch 
jjaintcr who had succeeded at last in interpreting 
the s|)irit as well as the outward aspect of his 
people. These peasants were painted with a 
genuine appreciation of their life and its narrow 
round of interests. 

The name as well as the point of \iew revealed 
in these canvases led me to the easy conclusion 
that this must surely be the work of a Dutchman, 
nor was I set straight by the Americans whom I 
then knew; none of them seemed to be aware of 
the fact that he was a compatriot; all regarded him 
at that time as either Dutch or German, and I 




Copyright. igoS. by The DelroU Publishins Co 
Hugo Reisinger Colleclion 



THE SISTERS 

BY GARI MELCHERS 



(jari Melchers — Painter 



have since learned that this ignorance of his 
nativity persisted for many years. It is only 
quite recently that any very large number of the 
more cultivated citizens of Detroit have come to 
realize that in Gari Melchers they possess an 
artist no less renowned beyond the confines of his 
own countPt- than the illustrious connoisseur. Mr. 
Freer. .AH of which is highly indicative of the 
reticent, modest personality of this man who, at 
the age of fifty, has recei\"cd about ever>' honor 
that is of any consequence in the world of art. 

His career is one of those singular instances of 
good work getting its promjit reward without the 
aid of advertising. There has been a total ab- 
sence of reclame, and all the noise and bluster that 
even a Whistler found necessarj* to the proper 
exploitation of his art has been as foreign to Gari 
Melchers as he himself has been to his own coun- 
trymen, who did not awaken to the fact that he 
was an .American until long after he had won an 
international rei>utation. To me this is not the 
least of his charms, as a man or as an artist. 

The record of his life is almost monotonous in 
its uneventful placidity. .At the start he met with 
none of the usual parental objections, nor did he 
ha\-e to endure a long, \vear>' no\itiate, and when 
at the age of twenty-two he sent in his first canvas 
for the inspection of the jury made up of his 



seniors he was cordially received. His student 
years were passed in Dusseldorf and in Paris, 
where he worked with unremitting ardor under 
Boulanger and Lefebvre. In Dusseldorf he 
studied under Von Gebhardt without becoming a 
Dusseldwarf, if I may coin a word to express the 
myopic ])oint of view of the exponents of that 
school. 

From the \ery beginning of his career he has 
gone his oww way, undisturbed by fads and 
fashions in art. Neither a reactionary nor a revo- 
lutionar}-, he has remained unmoved by the clever 
precociousness of the age, content in the belief 
that the really fine things in art are so by virtue 
of kindred attributes expressing themselves in 
much the same manner in diverse individuals. 
Thus his art is related to the past by strong bonds 
of symjiathy as well as practice, while remaining 
essentially modern in outlook and treatment. 
His Poiirail of a Gentleman has something of the 
dignity and simplicity of design and treatment of 
a Velasquez, while in the decorative portrait of 
Mrs. Melchers is expressed in terms of today the 
flavor of the best achieved by his predecessors. 
This combination of modernity with a sincere 
regard for the established achievements of the 
past is what gives to the work of Gari Melchers its 
abiding value. 





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THl . . 
XXX 



BY GARI MELCHERS 




THE MORNING ROOM 
BY GARl MEU HERS 




Property of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 



THE MADONNA 

BY GAR I MELCHERS 




Copyright by Guri Mdihtrs 

Copyright by The Detroit Publishing Co. 



MOTHER AND CHILD 
BY <".ARI MKUHKRS 



The Late Francis Davis Millet 






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JKi^v^M^iFi^d^ri^ 



MAIL COACH OX THE PLAINS 
THE CLEVELAND POST-OFFICE 



T 



HE LATE ERAXCIS DAVIS 
MILLET— NOTES ON THE 
DECORATIVE PANELS IN THE 
CLE\ELAND POST OEFICE 
BY C. MATLACK PRICE 



It is difficult lo write of the art of the late 
Francis D. Millet in terms disassociated from his 
personality, for great as was his art, those who 
knew him — and there are many — speak first of 
the man. And perhaps it is the greater tribute. 

It has recently become the vogue to deer)' and 
discount the utterance of laudator)- remarks upon 
recently deceased celebrities. " Dc mortui nihil 
nisi bonum" seems to find little favor with latter- 
day critics, but in the present case, either in 
Millet's public or in his private life, any detractor 
must stand self-convicted of stupidity, or ignor- 
ance, or both. For Millet's life was one of noble 
actions and high ideals, and his heroic death, 
among the victims of the ill-fated 5. 5. Titanic. 
was a closing chapter as fit as it was untimely. 

Of New England birth, in the year 1846, Millet 
completed a brilliant career at Harvard, graduat- 
ing with the class of 1869. .\t this ])eriod it 
seemed a question whether the brush or the pencil 
would claim his ultimate activities, for he attained 
a skillful finish in the wTiting of fiction. As a 
linguist he distinguished himself by writing a 
translation of Tolstoi's Sebastapol. In 1877 he 
acted as a war correspondent in the Russo- 
Turkish War of that year, when the Czar had 
occasion to decorate him for signal braverj^ on the 
battlefield, and some years later Millet was again 
heard from at the front as a war correspond- 



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BY FRANCIS I). MILLET 



ent to the London Times in the Philippines. 
His more pacific activities and interests were 
legion, for he became generally known as exery- 
one's friend — an active and sympathetic counsel- 
lor, and a man who never shirked any obligation, 
real or fancied, public or private. His interest, 
s3-mj)athy and insight endeared him to e\eryone 
with whom he had occasion to work, and he was 
ne\er weighed and found wanting. On the art 
committee of New York, and on that of Washing- 
ton, he was an active member, and felt it his duty 
never to miss a meeting if he could possibly attend 
it. .\mong other similar activities we find him 
to ha\e been a trustee of the Metropolitan 
Museum of .\rt, the incorporator and secretary 
of the .American .Vcademy of .\rt in Rome, and 
the organizer of the National Federation of Art 
for the American .Academy of .\rts and Letters. 
Nor did he consider any of these offices nominal. 
He made his personality and ambitions one with 
the work which he entered upon, and was not only 
an officer or member of these and many other 
organizations, but an active worker in their 
interests. 

-Apart from these activities, which might be 
classed as associated with his work, we find that 
he even had time to take a ^•er^• keen and practical 
interest in a tubercular hospital founded by his 
brother. 

-An interesting incident is told which illustrates 
his ever-ready interest in attending to matters 
of any kind which had long escaped attention 
because they were "nobody's business.'' 

Mr. .Arnold W. Brunner, the architect, Mr. Millet 
and a United States senator were lunching to- 



The Late Francis Davis Millet 







CARRYING MAIL IN 

NORTH CHINA 

THE CLEVELAND POST-OFFICE 



BY F. D. MILLET 



gether in Washington . The senator, knowing Mr. 
Millet's nature and peculiar capacity, casually 
mentioned the fact that on a certain part of a 
certain street there was a little oak tree, struggling 
to grow under the overshadowing branches of a 
larger tree. If it were moved, or if the shadowing 
branches above it were mo\'ed, it might grow into 
a splendid tree. Probably it was some one's busi- 
ness to give this little tree a chance, but it was 
neglected. Millet's note-book came out, the 
exact locality of the two trees was put down, and 
Millet said, "I'll attend to that." It was at- 
tended to. And so, where\'er he went, with 
whomever he came in contact, no duty or obliga- 
tion was too smaU or apparently inconsequential 
for his most earnest attention — wherein is the 
reason that he became known as "everybody's 
friend." "His work was pleasure, and his play 
was work ... He made it his business to 
get the best out of everything." 

In his art that same capacity and love for de- 
tail, for the "tremendous trifles" that character- 
ized his daily actions, brought results in his paint- 
ing. He was like the late Edwin A. Abbey in his 



accuracy in the costumes and other accessories in 
his pictures, and no detail was too small for his 
most careful and conscientious study. 

This is readily illustrated in his painting. Be- 
tween Two Fires, which is still a picture of wide 
popularity, and one probably better remembered 
and by more people than any other example of his 
w ork as a painter. It showed a dour and grim- 
\isaged Puritan, seated on a wooden bench before 
a table, while two unquestionably comely and 
pleasing lasses, standing one on either side, are 
obA-iously twitting him on his unsociability. The 
delineation and expression of thinly concealed 
irritability on his part and trivial badinage on the 
girls' part is consummately rendered, while the 




THE POSTMAN IN liNl.LANI) Fa K. I>. MILLET 

THE CLEVELAND POSI-OFFICE 



The Late Francis Davis Millet 



^"^ 



whole picture rings triu' 
b)' reason of the jierlei ' 
accuracy of ever}- smalle>; 
detail of architecture, fur- 
niture and costume. 

-•Mthough Millet's signa- 
ture appears on many easil 
pictures, it is hard to sa\- 
whether he is better known 
through this or through his 
mural painting. He acted 
as superintendent of the 
decorations of the World's 
Fair in Chicago in iSg2 
Q5, and those who visited 
the buildings will remem- 
ber his charming lunettes 
in the loggia of the Liberal 
.\rts Building, and the dec- 
oration of the ceiling of the 
New York State Building. 

In the Baltimore Cus- 
toms House Millet painte-{i 
a series of decorative pan- 
els of various tjpes of 
ships, and in the new 
])ost-office in Cleveland he 
decorated the post-mast- 
er's official suite with a 
remarkable series of paint- 
ings illustrative of the 
many vehicles for mail 
distribution over all the 

world. One is fortunate in being able to illustrate 
a number of these panels, of which an analysis will 
only bring out more forcibly the truth of the 
statement that Millet was a lo\'er of detail and 
exacting in his accuracy. 

The last work which he had in hand, and which 
was lost forever in the sinking of the 5. 5. Titanic, 
consisted of a complete set of working sketches for 
the decoration of the New Bedford Public Librar}- 
— a set of panels illustrative of the histor\- and 
de\-elopment of the whale-fisher},- industr}', native 
and characteristic of the town. 

In the ])anels decorating the Cleveland post 
office Millet went into many conferences with the 
architect. Arnold W. Brunner, for the purpose of 
evoKing compositions which would best conform 
with the design of the rooms. Here his capacity 
for detail appeared in his conscientious study of 
the design of the ornamental borders enframing 
the various panels, while it found its fullest 
expression in the paintings themselves. 




THE ARABIAN MAIL CARRIER 
THE CLE\'ELAND POST-OFFICE 



liV F. I). MILLET 



His intention, in which he succeeded, was to 
leave for posterity a series of strictly accurate his- 
toric documents rather than a collection of vague 
symbols. The express train, carrv'ing fast mail, is 
not merely a picture of a train — it is a picture, one 
might almost say a portrait, of the famous 
"Twentieth Century Limited. " 

In England the scene is laid in Stratford-on- 
Avon, with Shakespeare's house in the back- 
ground. The postman is unlocking a "pillar- 
box,'' to take the mail. He could be mistaken for 
no one but an English post-man, and the portion 
of his bicycle which shows in the picture is an 
English bicycle, accurate in everj- detail. The 
French facleiir is no less characteristic, and in the 
same group are shown the Norwegian mail cart 
and the Belgian "post-girl." 

It was to the more picturesque methods of 
letter carr>-ing that Millet would seem to have 
desired to de^•ote the larger panels — such as the 
weather-beaten mail coach of the earlv days of 



The Late Francis Davis Millet 



our Western plains. Drawn by sLx wiry horses, 
trotting in a white cloud of alkali dust, it pursues 
its perilous way, guarded by a plainsman, sitting 
at porte amies on a seat above the driver. Nor 
would the painter ha\e sho^\Ti an imaginarj' stage- 
coach. 

One ma}- be safely assured that this is a 
faithful representation of some actual relic of the 
days when Pacific coast mail took this picturesque 
and danger-fraught route across the plains. 

In Arabia the shambling camel swings o\-er the 
burning sands, guided by a white-robed native 
perched on his oddly fashioned saddle, behind 
which is slung the parcel containing the letters. 
In North China the carrier, peacefully drawing at 
a pipe, as accords with his placid race, trudges 
along afoot, behind his mail-laden donkey, and in 
the background the great wall of China may be 
seen girdling the distant hills. In West Africa the 
slow and lumbering bullock, and in Alaska the dog 
team — to each country its every peculiarity of 
method, costume and scener>'. The Alaskan 
panel is one of the finest of the series, the five pair 
of "huskies," tailing out on their long harness, 
being a splendid piece of animal painting. The 
immense amount of careful research required for 
the conscientious painting of this series can only 
be imagined. We look at a picture such as the 
dog team, and we know that it is a dog team. If 
it were not before us, and we were required to 
make an accurate drawing of the exact sort of 
harness used for the dogs, we might begin to 
realize, in part, the gleanings from the four quar- 
ters of the globe that went into ^Millet's great 
"letter-carrying" series in the postmaster's suite 
in the Cleveland post-ofiice. 



From his wide travels, his keen observation and 
brilliant mind. Millet was recognized as a compe- 
tent and weighty critic of painting, architecture 
and sculpture, and his sympathetic and ever alert 
nature made him always ready to offer his services 
in this capacity whenever anj- of his many friends 
called upon him to do so. 

During the later years of his life he traveled and 
lived much abroad, becoming "a citizen of the 
world," equally at home in London, Rome, 
\'ienna or back in New York or Wasliington — and 
welcome anywhere. 

He li\-ed for several years in the quaint little 
English village of Broadway — a picturesque ham- 
let of a single street. The inn, the smithy, the 
little shops, a few cottages and the church made 
up the entire place — and an ancient prior)', where 
Millet lived and worked. It was a place replete 
with history and romance, and the painter must 
have been \"er3' happy beneath its venerable roof, 
or working out in the wonderful old rose-garden 
behind it. He loved every stone of the house, and 
the local legends surrounding it were equaled only 
by those which he chose to weave around it after 
his own fancy. 

There have been few painters, perhaps, in whom 
art has been so inseparable from their daily life. 
It is impossible to speak of Millet's work, as any 
of those who know him will attest, without think- 
ing of Millet. 

And as I ha\-e said before, perhajis such a feel- 
ing is the highest tribute that can be paid to an 
artist — to go down to ]30sterity not only as a 
painter of pictures, but as a man, in the words of 
Stevenson, "loyal and loving, down to the gates 
of death." 




\^^siy.^sf^.-^ *^i^s^'TS A^;^-^-^--^- ''^^^'^^^ 



LETTER-tARRVIXG B\ DOi . TEAM IN ALASKA 
THE CLEVELAND I'OST-OFFICE 



UV KKANCIS D. MILLET 



The Gothic IVindo^i' in the Lawyers' Club of Neiv York City 



T 



HE GOTHIC WINDOW IX THE 
LAWYERS" CLUB OF NEW YORK 
CITY 
BY G. LELAND HUNTER 



Of this window the architect of the building 
and of the club. Francis H. Kimball, said: ''If it 
had been made in the fifteenth century the people 
would have bowed down and worshipped it." 
For Mr. Kimball's admiration there is every 
reason. The window is appropriate in plan and 
design and texture to the position that it occupies, 
and in\Ttes comparison with the famous ancient 
windows in European cathedrals. 

Wonderfully does the window tell the story of 
the law — of its growth and dc\elopment during 
the ages, until Roman law and English law — the 
laws of .\ssyria. Egj-jit, the Roman Republic, the 
Roman Empire, the Laws of the Saxons, the 
Danes, the Normans — became merged in modern 
.\merican Law. It is no mere picture window 
\-aguely suggesting some ancient allegory or 
sacred scene. It is a storied window that reflects 
great credit on Mr. Guthrie's historical researches, 
and that is saturated with lore without pedantry. 

The captions freeh- used in the ancient fashion 
to describe the different scenes make it ea.sy to 
read the meaning of the window. And from the 
decorative point of \-iew the captions have been 
designed and placed most happily. They are 
quite as essential parts of the composition as the 
leads and muUions. 

The main diNisions of the window are three — 
the tracer}- section at the top and two jjicture 
sections below. Each picture section is divided 
into seven panels — two groups of three with a 
single panel between. 

In the tracer},- at the top of the window the 
dix-ine law, that is above all human law, is sym- 
bolized by the Mosaic tables of stone, bearing the 
Ten Commandments. To the right and left of 
these two female figures, one bearing the fasces, 
the old Roman sign of magisterial authority, the 
other the scourge that was carried ceremonially b\- 
Eg>-ptian monarchs. 

The picture panel in the center of the window is 
occupied by a con\-entional tree, bearing several 
shields. The largest of these, supported by a 
lawyer in green and by an archbishop in ecclesi- 
astical costume, pictures the latest development of 
the law, and carries the arms of the United States 
of America. Below this are the arms of Win- 
chester, capital of England under King Alfred, 
and Canterbury-, the see of Lanfranc, William the 



Conqueror's Italian jurist, who founded the school 
in the .\bbey of Bee and introduced the Roman 
law to the Normans. The other four shields are 
those of English barons — the Earl of Hereford. 
Simon de Montford, Robert Fitzwalter, Deburgh, 
Earl of Kent — leaders in the struggle that won 
Magna Charta from King John. 

The middle picture panel in the lower row of 
seven shows a full-rigged ancient ship with May- 
flower on a streamer floating from the masthead. 
Under the Pilgrims' ship, a figure of justice blind- 
folded with sword and scales, standing with mail- 
covered feet upon the Temple of Justice. 

The upper group of three panels on the left pic- 
tures Roman law, with Justinian as the central 
figure. These panels are enclosed in a frame of 
Byzantine character. The details of the picture 
are drawn from the mosaics at Ra\-enna, the coins 
of Justinian and a painted ivory in the British 
Museum. The Emperor Justinian, in robe of 
white and gold, with touches of jiure green and 
purple in the embroidery, is seated on a throne of 
curious design, in his right hand an open scroll, in 
his left a basket symbolic of the right of taxation. 
On Justinian's left is Maximian, his chief adviser. 
On his right, robed in dark green, the learned 
jurist, Tribonian, under whom the Roman laws 
were codified. Beside him, in purple robe and 
jeweled armor, Belisarius, the victorious general of 
many campaigns. Behind him shows the head of 
the historian, Procopius. On Justinian's left, 
next to Maximian, John of Cappadocia, finance 
minister and pretorian prefect. 

The bases of these three picture panels are three 
small scenes, illustrating details of Roman law: (i) 
Usufruct, by Justinian standing between the 
owTier seated on the steps of his house and the 
holder of the right of usufruct, who is plucking the 
fruit of the orchard. (2) Marriage, by Justinian 
standing between a man and a woman, holding a 
hand of each. (3) Personal liberty, by Justinian 
protecting a young man in his rights. 

The lower group of three jiicture panels on the 
left shows the origins of Roman law — the laws of 
the Assyrians, of the Egj-ptians and of the Roman 
Republic. 

Equalh- interesting is the upper group of three 
panels on the right, picturing English law, with 
William the Conqueror as the central figure. The 
lower group pictures the origins of the English 
law — the laws of the Saxons, the Danes and the 
Normans. 

The window is a liberal education in the history 
of the law, as well as an inspiring work of art. 




THE WINDOW IX THE LAWYERS' CLL15 
FRANCIS H. KIMBALL, ARCHITECT 
PLANNED BY HENRY J. DAVISON 
DESIGNED BY J. GORDON GUTHRIE 



Exhibition of the Society of Illustrators 




AN II.H STRATIDN 



T 



HK ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF 
THK SOCIKTY OF ILLUSTRATORS 
UV GUV PENE DU BOIS 



With the Third Special Exhibition 
of the Society of Illustrators, held there in October 
and November, the National Arts Club has added 
another notch to the 
width of its scope. 
It was, coinciden- 
tally, in October and 
November, 1899, 
that the first exhi- 
bition gi\-en by the 
club took place. That 
was made up of ob- 
jects in gold and 
silver, and included 
a series of exhibitions 
in which were repre- 
sented all the many 
varied branches of 
the arts and crafts, 
])ainting and sculp- 
ture and drawing, 
modem and ancient , 
foreign and national. 
While the work of 
American illustrators 
has been shown here 
in connection with an n.i.rsTKATioN 




nv HANSON BOOTH 

the annual ''Books of the Year"' exhibition there 
has never been a particular exhibition of illustra- 
tions at the club; thus the significance of the 
present show. There are two hundred and sixty- 
one numbers in its catalogue. Apart from thai 
movement in illustrating, headed by William 
Glackens and John Sloan, which numbers among 
its followers Raleigh, 
Gruber, Brown, the 
trend of modern illus- 
trating is ver\- thor- 
ough I y exemplified 
in it. 

One may feel there 
immediately that our 
illustrators march on 
abreast of the ])aint- 
ers in technical ac- 
c o m p 1 i s h m e n t . 
Technical accom- 
plishment is, indeed, 
the keynote of the 
show. That is la- 
mentable or not. 
There are many 
things that an illus- 
trator should be that 
a ])ainter must not 
be. The line of di\is- 
ion is similar to the 
uv AKTHiR I. KEiLAR one that comes be- 



Exhibition of the Society of Illustrators 




THE ICONOCLAST 



BY J. CLEMENT COLL 



tweeii the playwright and the actor. One of these 
holds strings to the despotic tugs, of which the 
other must answer. The first gets his inspiration 
from nature, and the second must fashion his 
impressions after that inspiration. 

That is the theoretical significance of illustrat- 
ing. It is to be battled with in practice and its 
error proved often as not. Actors have saved 
plays, just as illustrators have made books. And 
again the two have run hand in hand ver\- prettily. 
I am thinking of Dickens and Cruikshank, "Alice 
in Wonderland" and Sir John Tenniel. Either of 
these is better for the presence of the other. 

Keene and Leach illustrated a time and a 
people rather than a book about them. That is 
true of Glackens and Sloan, who, by the way, as 
painters, along with Robert Henri, Maurice Pren- 
dergast, George Luks and Arthur B. Davies were 
first brought prominently before the public eye 
(January, 1904), through the agency of the 
National Arts Club's galleries — and Gibson. 

The last is represented here by three character- 
istic pictures. They are honestly and ably exe- 
cuted. Thev tell a stor^' of life that is accurate 



and just. .Mr. (iiljson has been classed as a 
painter of jiretty pictures, and has had, for that 
reason, a rather scornful finger pointed at him. 
He deserved neither the scorn nor the classifica- 
tion. If I were to attack him at all I should argue 
that he drowns artistic and, that is. personal ex- 
pression in accuracy; that he shows too much 
fidelity to superficial fact. That is a common fault 
among our facile jxirtrait painters, whojjaint .shells 
of people and do not bother to illuminate them with 
the light from the lamps that keep them alive. 

One of our old masters of illustrating — Arthur 
I. Kellar — is here with five contributions so ably 
executed, so full of technical brilliancy, of learning 
in the value of accent and contrast, in the animat- 
ing power of spirited brush work, that one wonders 
if he might not make dancing compositions with- 
out the introduction of solid figures. He has a 
sense of color, that intuitix'e feeling for values that 




"THE ICONO( L \-T 



V.\ J. I I ' Ml N I TOLL 



Rxhibition of the Society of Illustrators 



is essentially a painter quality. He is a good 
illustrator. This statement holds up a rather 
tempting bait, for which space, even though the 
ability were there, is lacking — a discussion on the 
no\-els of the day, the sort of novels for which Mr. 
Kellar is a good illustrator. 

Frank Craig displays three of his very well-done 
works and Louis Fanchcr a poster for " Sumurun " 
that is admirable. Locke's " Septimus," as James 
Montgomer}- Flagg, too rapidly, has seen him, is 
near Denman Fink's broadly and simply treated 
Mr. Vance. George Harding shows A Wreck on 
Florida Reef. Lucius Hitchcock is here, as well as 
the Kinneys, J. A. Williams, F. B. Masters — 
whom publishers have assigned to an endless 
series of railroad pictures; Ernest PeLxetto, Joseph 
Pennell, Will Howe Bradley, Wallace Morgan and 
May Wilson Preston and Reuterdahl, who belong 
rather to the independents of illustrating; Schoon- 
over, Harn,- Townsend. Robert Wildhack and 
.\rthur Young, who is an artist and a proof that 
publishers do not, as it is the fashion to claim, 
invariably suppress personal expression. His art 
is individual and of truly \-irulent force. 

Historj- has showii that a renaissance in a single 
art is likely to be carried through all of them, and 
certainly that is true with regard to illustrators 
and authors — Dickens found a Cruikshank; De 
Maupassiint, Steinlin. The two are incontrovert- 
ably linked — for the school of Chambers we have 
the school of Gibson. 

In one comer of the present show are a number 
of examples of illustrations in color, the majority 
of them by pupils of the late Howard Pj'le, who 
with Abbey was made the feature of last season's 
show held at the New York Public Librarw 



Elsewhere one rinds the solid drawings of Will 
Foster executed with faultless precision; a Hurri- 
cane and Laughing Girl, by W. T. Benda, who 
sometimes displays a kind of wild force; Hanson 
Booth's The Tramp and a photographic Comrades, 
by Worth Brehm. 

With this exhibition at the National Arts Club, 
that does \-er}- successfully round ofiE an effort, 
one may not help but suggest that here is a kind 
of modem patronage that may well take the place 
of that old one so long covered with the dust of 
disuse. The club aims to "promote the acquaint- 
ance of art lovers and art workers, one with the 
other; to stimulate the artistic sense of the Ameri- 
can people; to proxade proper exhibition facilities 
for such spheres of art, especially industrial and 
applied arts, as shall not be adequately provided for, 
and to encourage the publication and circulation 
of news and information relating to the fine arts.'" 

I have before me a list of exhibitions that have 
graced these galleries since 1899. To show their 
diversity I shall mention a few: "The Woman's 
Art Club," "Works by the Society of Mural 
Painters," "Old and Modern Japanese Prints," 
"Glass in the Arts,'' "Artistic and Commercial 
Posters," "Pictures by Old Masters," "Sculp- 
tures by Rodin, Roche and Riviere,'' "Rugs and 
Embroideries," "Birds and Beasts in Art." "The 
Drake Collection of Brasses and Objects in 
Metal," "Paintings from the Collection of W. T. 
Evans," "Advertising Art," "Paintings by Louis 
Mark, of Budapest," "Paintings, Embroideries, 
Textiles and Tapestries from the Collection of Em- 
erson McMiUin," "Jewelry and Precious Stones, 
Modem, Old and Oriental," "Textiles and Cera- 
mics," and " Color Prints bv S. Arlent Edwards." 




DRAWING IN TEMPER.\ FOR .\ THEATRICAL POSTER 



m I.Dl I^ FANCHKK 



The Stevens Series of College Etchings 




Original elchins by Thomas W. Stevens 
Copyright, igil, Brown-Robertson Compan 

THE ARCH BETWEEN THE 
LARGE QUADRANGLE AND 
THE TRIANGLE 



UNIVERSITY OF 

PENNSYLVANIA- 



T 



HE STEVENS SERIES OF COL- 
LEGE ETCHINGS 
BY ALDEN NOBLE 



Etching would seem the most dif- 
ficult of mediums in which to force an inspiration. 
One can paint almost anything; an etching ordin- 
arily, and ideally, finds its subject more as a 
matter of fore-ordination, of predestined harmony 
between subject and method. One can hardly 
concei\-e of a fine etching being made where the 
artist did not feel that the thing ought to be etched. 
WTien one considers that in the series here dis- 
cussed the choice of subjects was in a measure 
prescribed, the achievement becomes the more 
significant. It is one thing to wander free till 
your etching, in all its allurement of line or of 
light and shade, bursts upon the retina; far 
difierent, and far more difficult to find, in a re- 
stricted territory, a scene which shall not only 
reflect its own essential character but also be 
susceptible of being made into a good etching. 
This was the problem which Thomas Wood 
Stevens and Helen B. Stevens approached, and 
which in the main they have solved m a 
thoroughly satisfactory manner. 

There are in all tweh^e American colleges or 
universities in the present series, and proofs of 
all but a few of the etchings are here reproduced. 



The entire list comprises Harvard, Wellesley, 
Smith, Yale, Vassar, West Point, Columbia, 
Princeton, Pennsylvania, Bryn Mawr, Virginia 
and Chicago. It does not lie within the scope of 
this article to do more than touch lightly the 
most interesting features of this unusual set of 
prints, inost of which have appeared in full in the 
pages of the Century Magazine. 

Nowhere perhaps is better found the wedding 
of subject and essence than in the Yale plate, 
which shows one of the old, characteristic build- 
ings, "South Middle," with an interesting 
arrangement of overhanging foliage in the im- 
mediate foreground, with a splendidly done sun- 
lit tree standing forth against the old brick wall. 
Aside from the technical interest this plate suc- 
ceeds perhaps better than any of the others in 
conveying atmosphere, the atmosphere of its 
environment. 

In the Harvard plate also the scene has been 
chosen in such a way as to preserve the idea of the 
campus in its most characteristic guise. Here 
appear two of the things which must remain in 
the memor>' of all who ever walked over these 
grounds, the great tree in the foreground and, a 
little farther back, a fair-scrolled iron gateway. 
A ver>' interesting plate, wherein however the 
subject forced upon the artist an arrangement 
which he would not otherwise ha\-e chosen, is 
that showing the Librar\- of the Unixersity of 




The Stcveus Series of College Etclihigs 




Original ekhing by Thomas W. Slams 
Copyright, iQlt. Brown-Robertson Company 



THE LIBRARY. WITH STATUE 
OF JEFFERSON 



UNIVERSITY OF 
VIRGINIA 



\'irginia at Charlottesville. This library building, 
which is historically significant from having been 
bulk under the direction of Thomas Jefferson, 
is a half-size model of the Pantheon at Rome. 
Blair Arch confronts the traveler to Princeton 
as soon as he leaves the train and turns toward 




the Uni\-ersity. No more imposing aspect could 
possibly have been chosen, and of it has been 
made a plate which for richness of color and of 
handling is not suq)assed by any in the set. The 
massive architecture of the twin towers, the 
solid, clean dignity of the masonry face of the 
wall, contrast magnificently with the rich and 
heavy shadow under the arch itself; altogether, an 
impressive arrangement handled in precisely the 
[)roper manner. 

Whether it be that the idea adds an extra 
touch of romance to the two colleges for women. 




HARPER ME.MORIAL AND 
LAW BUILDING 



UNIVERSITY OF 
CHICAGO 



Original et<hiiu i .■ 

Copyright, igtl, L>ru-,^ii-I<abfr:suii Company 

THE YARD, SHOWING JOHNSTON GATE BETWEEN 
HARVARD AND MASSACHUSETTS HALLS 



VVellesley and Br}-n MawT, which plates are here 
shown, or whether these college grounds owe their 
attracti\eness to the spaciousness of these 
demesnes and the decorative character of the 
buildings, matters little. 

At Br>'n MawT, the library cloister arch ; showing, 
across a sunny interspace, the turret and low 
arches of the main building itself. In the center 
of the open yard a fountain splashes. Here there 
is no effort, no straining for poetic touch, yet the 
whole conveys somehow a sense of old-world 
quietness and peace, with an air that blows 
straight from the cloister whence these arches 
sprang. 

Technically, this plate is among the most ad- 
mirable; the light and shade, the mellow pave- 
ment, the sunny midspace, and the dark but 



The Stevens Series of College Etchings 





THE LIBRARY FKtiM 
THE CLOISTER 



BRYX-MAWR 

COLLEGE 



MAIN BUILDING AND 

BOAT HOUSES 

FROM THE LAKE PATH 



WELLESLEY 
COLLEGE 



never sinister overhanging arch, combine to give 
it unusual and appealing quality. It, as well as 
those of the other three girls' colleges, is the work 
of Helen B. Stevens; the eight others are by 




Original etching by Helen B. Stevens 
Copyright, igll. Brawn-Robertson Company 



Thomas Wood Stevens. They have reached 
an accomplishment in this series of etchings 
worthy to take rank with any similar series by 
contem|)orarv \vorker? in this domain of art. 




THE LIBRARY 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



THE OLD CADET BARRACKS 

AND CHAPEL 

FROM ACADEMIC BUILDING 



WEST POINT 



Book Revieii's 



BOOK REMEWS 
Prints and Their Makers. (The 
Centun- Company, New York. S3. 50.) 
Edited by FitzRoy Carrington. 
Perhaps there has been no greater influence 
toward a keen and intelligent appreciation of fine 
prints in this countr\- than that exerted by the 
late Frederick Kcppel, and this book now put out 
by Centur}- seems to illustrate that here, at least 
(to misquote) " the good that men do lives after 
them." ToMr. Kep- 
pcl his prints were 
far more than mere 
stock-in-trade. He 
knew nearly all llif 
great etchers and en 
gravers of his time, 
and held them in 
warm j) e r s o n a 1 
esteem, which hi- 
broad a])])reciatioii 
and limitless enthu 
siasm caused to be 
no less warmly recip- 
rocated. 

Mr. Carrington 
feels that '-Prints 
and Their Makers" 
should be considered 
in the nature of ;i 
memorial to Mi 
Keppel, with whon 
he was so long a de- 
voted friend and co- 
worker. Following 
the title-page, in- 
deed, is this short 
and sincere inscrip- 
tion: "To Frederick 
Keppel, in Memory 
of a Friendship of 

Twenty Years, this Book is Dedicated by the 
Editor." 

That much of the material in the book does not 
make its first appearance therein is by no means 
detrimental to its value. The subjects which Mr. 
Carrington has chosen for its contents are of .such 
great intrinsic interest that their previous publica- 
tion in The Prinl-Collectors' Quarterly is imma- 
terial. I-"urther, inasmuch as back numbers of the 
Quarterly are likely to be very rare within the year, 
and as that admirable periodical is, unfortunately, 
not so widely kno\\Ti as it should be, a presentation 

XL VI 




Tnnls and Their Mak 
'AX IDYI.l." 



of many of the most interesting of its articles in 
permanent library form, under one binding, should 
find a warm reception. 

The book is rich in material — a \'ariety and 
interest of subject worthy of the collector to whose 
memor)' it is dedicated, and the illustrations have 
the clean-cut nicety (befitting print reproductions) 
so noticeable in the Quarterly. The contents opens 
with an article on Diirer's wood cuts by Campbell 
Dodgson, of the British Museum Print Depart- 
ment, and reckoned as the greatest authority on 
this phase of Diirer's 
art. "Early Italian 
Engravers " deh'es in 
a little-known epoch 
of the history of en- 
graving, and "Jean 
Morin" and "Rob- 
ert Nanteuil" form 
the subjects of a 
splendid pair of his- 
torical and critical 
essays on French 
portrait engraving. 
Follow " R e m - 
brandt's Landscape 
Etchings" and "Gio- 
\anni Baltista Piran- 
esi " (including many 
reproductions of the 
famous series of 
"The Prisons") and 
there are also re- 
printed the two ar- 
ticles on the weird 
nightmare-like etch- 
ings of Goya — sug- 
gestive of strange 
ideas, sinister, mo- 
rose, repellant. A 
lighter note is struck 
in "The Etchings of 
Fortuny." The value of the book is greatly en- 
hanced by the republication of the splendid articles 
on "The Characteristics of Sir Seymour Haden," 
written by Mr. Keppel himself. "Mer>'on and 
Baudelaire," "Felix Bracquemond." "Auguste 
Lepere," "Herman Webster" — a succession of 
brilliant articles, ending the collection with the 
remarkable work of "Anders Zom," a crescendo 
finale, indeed, and making up, in all, a book of the 
greatest value and interest, which, it is to be 
hoped, may be followed by others of a similar 
character. 



Century Co. 

BY MARIANITO FORTUNY 



Book Revieii's 



Authoritative literature dealing with prints is 
rare, the subject is a vastly interesting one, and 
"Prints and Their Makers'' is the kind of a book 
which will appeal in terms equally strong, even if 
of a difTerent nature, at once to the connoisseur- 
collector and the aspiring amateur. 

John Lavery and His Work. By Walter Shaw 
Sparrow. (Dana Estes& Co., Boston. S3. 50.) 
The author has not only introduced himself (and 
pleasantly) before as one of a facile but trenchant 
pen, but also as one who seems ever happy in the 
choice of his subjects. His "Life and Work of 
Frank Brangnyn" is fresh in our minds from last 
year. 

And in the same manner, if not even more inti- 
mately, Mr. Sparrow chronicles and analyzes the 
work of his brilliant friend, Lavery, with many a 
personal note that tells us, as in the Brangwj-n 
book, of the man no less than the painter, and fol- 
lows the same excellent arrangement of contents. 
And of Brangwyn and La\-er}% perhaps the biogra- 
pher found, in the Irish spontaneity of the latter, 
a possibility of getting closer to the man behind 
the painter. 

Apart from the interest which surrounds his 
subjects Mr. Sparrow should become a most popu- 
lar biographer by reason of the warm generosity 
and appreciation which he continually shows in 
his viewpoint, and by the facile and cheerful man- 
ner of his writing. He deals not only in facts but 
in fancies, and when it is realized that the two play 
equal parts in our lives, it will also come to be 
realized how man)- half -biographies we have read. 
Dates, facts, dates — alternated or thro%\Ti at us in 
solid blocks, with nothing of the man, none of his 
whims or that lighter side which has so much to 
do with the vitality of his art. One would be as 
successful in attempting to paint a picture all in 
shadows. And with painters, above all other 
mortals, how can we hope to arrive at an estimate 
of a man's art when he is so much a part of it (and 
perhaps the greater part) — if we do not know the 
man? 

John Laver}' came prominently into the view of 
the picture-loving American people in last year's 
Exhibition of International Art at Pittsburgh, 
where he showed a group of thirty-si.x paintings. 
It is the custom of the exhibition committee each 
year to devote one of the smaller galleries to a 
"one-man" show, and last season John Lavery 
w^as the painter featured. 

Those who were especially impressed with 
Lavery's art on this occasion will find great inter- 




From "John Lavery and His Work." David EsUs & Co. 

A PORTR.\IT BY JOHN L.WERY 

est in the present biography, which is beautifully 
illustrated with a profusion of the same sort of 
excellent color plates and heliotjpe reproduction 
which made the Brangwyn book so pleasing in 
this respect. 

RiciL-uuos: Masterpieces of the Sea. By Har- 
rison S. Morris (J. B. Lippincott Company. 
Si .00.) 

Perhaps there have been no painters of the " old 
school" who attained such wide recognition as the 
late William T. Richards, and whose work has 
been less a matter of written chronicle. 

In the Corcoran Gallen,', at Washington, in the 
Pennsyhania Academy of Fine Arts, in the Met- 
ropolitan Museum of New York City, and in 
many other important collections, public and 
private, there are paintings by Richards — paint- 
ings as saliently admirable today as they were 
when they were first hung — and yet not only their 
painter but the ideals of art which inspired him 
take little if any part in the tidal wa\e of impres- 
sionism and half -founded "schools" that seems to 
ha\-e nearly swept away the last breakwaters of 
conserv-atism. 

If the paintings of Richards — landscapes and 



Book Revieii's 



marines — represent any "school," that school is 
unknown or ignored today by nearly all our 
painters. "Nature" and "conscientious study" 
— does a generation of aspirants for tricky 
"effects" and smart "impressions" think of these 
in connection with painting? One can almost 
fancy some of our contemporary' exhibitors say- 
ing: "Draw? Oh, no, I don't draw; I paint" — 
and if they do not say it they think it, e^•en if they 
realize what a mighty serious and important thing 
"drawing" was to the men of the old school. 

Richards should have been reckoned as the 
logical successor of Inness and Wyant, excepting 
that, unlike those two great landscapists, he did 
not paint by formula. No matter how good the 
formula may be, it is dangerous and detrimental 
when it forms the basis of any work of art. Win- 
slow Homer, generally considered one of our 
greater marine painters, undoubtedly loved the 
sea, and while he came verj- near to understanding 
it, one cannot help feeling that he regarded it 
more as a stage setting than as subject. It was the 
background for some rendering of nautical genre. 

In Mr. Morris' intimate memoir of the life and 
work of William T. Richards, one could have 
wished, perhaps, a view of art on the part of the 
biographer as broad and deep as that of his sub- 
ject — there are no inaccuracies, but Richards' 
work was of such import that e\-en the largeness 
and vitality of his character, which ^Ir. Morris 
has shown in the sympathetic light of a warm 
fri(.ii(l>hip. niu-l >cem almost secondary". 



It is true enough that to understand paintings 
we must understand the painter, and with Rich- 
ards this was certainly true. Those who knew him 
only on canvas knew a master painter and missed 
a never-to-be-forgotten friend. Those who knew 
him first as a friend, have, perhaps, been prone to 
overlook his remarkable power as a painter. Free 
of all studio "patter" and jargon of "tones," 
"values" and "technique" (though a master of 
all), many people could not believe that the quiet, 
genial man could be a really great painter without 
talking about painting. 

Mr. Richards' art was a thing to him too vital 
to bring into casual conversation — not his opinion 
of his art, but the feeling so nearly akin to humUity 
with which he approached the e\er-changing 
phenomena of nature. 

To the very end he was, to himself, still trying 
to grasp his subject; he never fell back on a 
"style," or let his painting fall into the fatal rut 
of self-assured mannerisms or "tricks." And he 
never felt that he had solved entirely the prob- 
lems he loved and of whose rendering he was an 
acknowledged master. 

Yet all this Mr. Morris suggests, if he does not 
actually define it, and his life of William T. Rich- 
ards must come as a welcome memoir as well to 
those who knew Mr. Richards in name or in per- 
son, as to a younger generation which is in a fair 
way to accept as landscape and marine painting 
the canvases of those who now fill the public eye 
in the galleries. 




From "Richards: Masterpieces uj the 
ON THE JERSEY COAST 
XL VIII 



\," J. B. Lippincott j- Co. 



BY W. T. RICHARDS 



Book Reviews 










Cl PID AND P^VCHE 
PLATE no. 23. The Bath of Cupid and Psyche, a Louis XIV Gobelin in the set of eight entitled Sujets de la Fable 
after the X\*I century designs of Guilio Romano (See chapter VI). It is signed LEFEBVRE (Lefevre) and is in the 
Frencli National Collection. The dominant color in both border and panel is rose against which the flesh tones stand 
out with wonderful clearness and delicacy. Note the double L monogram of Louis XIV in the cartouche of the 
bottom border. 



Tapestries, Their Origin, History and Ren- 
aissance. By George Leland Hunter. 
Re\-iewed by Frank .-Vlvah Parsons, President 
of the New York School of Fine and Applied 
Art. 

Occasionally a man knows what he believes and 
believes in what he knows. If this man happens 
to write a book the truth therein revealed and the 
decision and clearness with which it is e.xpressed 
should appeal strongly to the intelligence of per- 
sons searching for that which is worth while in this 
day's wilderness of worthless books. "Tapes- 
tries, their Origin, History and Renaissance" is 
such a book. 

At last here is a book about tapestries which is 
not a dissertation on the technicalities of design 
and weaving, nor is it wholly a chronological 
directory of the period growth and decay of this 
form of art, with a properly arranged inde.x as to 



where each set of remams can be found. It is a 
psychological, geographical, practical and artistic 
treatise of the subject. It is the cause and effect, 
the how and the why of tapestries as they are 
related to man's experiences and to his other 
forms of art expression. This certainly is a new 
\-iewpoint in the histor>- of art production. 

Mr. Hunter sees art, first of all, as a quality, the 
sacred possession of the individual, and he sees 
this quality as the conscious impulse of man to 
put into concrete form his best ideals. He sees 
this conscious impulse, constant in its endeavor to 
form the spirit or atmosphere of the individual's 
entire thought. He shows clearly, in this book, 
many concrete things that even the cultured pub- 
lic needs to hear about tapestries, their interpreta- 
tion, expression and use. His preface declares 
that there should be a story interest and a texture 
interest, that there may be a picture interest in 



Book Rcvieii's 



ever\- tapestn' piece. He adds to this later the 
significant fact that these things influence the 
proper use to which tapestries should be put. 
This combination of use and esthetic correlation 
is the ideal \iew-point for the study of anj' prac- 
tical art. 

In discussing origin he shows, more clearly than 
I ha\"e ever seen before, the unspeakable bad taste 
of jiersons who ha\e thought tapestries must con- 
form to the possibilities and limitations of period 
picture painting. He also makes clear that the 
decorative quality is the ideal picture quality, and 
that the loss of decorative knowledge was the 
death-knell to ideal tapestrj- pictures, as it was to 
painting, during the decadent eras of the natural- 
istic, materialistic renaissance in Italy, France and 
Flanders. 

His emphasis of texture is splendid. Persons 
who think only in terms of photography, painting 
or sculptured marble will find particular interest in 
his sincere delight at the character, stor)- power 
and decorative quality given each style and tj-pe 
by its textural peculiarity. He says so frankly 
that art in tapestn*' is not a practical repetition of 
facts, a storj- ever\- whit told, but that the master 
artist weaver is known as much by the texture of 
his production as by his subject, his color, or his 
picture-making power. 

The one thought that tapestries, when used out- 
side of museums, are or may be related to the 
position in which they are to be shown and to 
their- environment or their uses, is worth the price 
of the book. The proper promulgation of this 
doctrine would do much to establish good taste 
on the part of decorators and collectors in the use 
of this form of decorative material. "The dese- 
crations of the French Revolution" have by no 
means been ended. 

A ver>' interesting sequence in the development 
of composition is Mr. Hunter's choice of illustra- 
tions in this book. Persons thinking in any field 
of decorative art work will find help and inspira- 
tion in the excellently chosen Gothic and Early 
Renaissance decorative pieces. One should, how- 
ever, give only due appreciation to the realistic, 
materialistic, overfed productions of the Renais- 
sance decline, with their oft-times unrelated set- 
tings and useless, unfilled background spaces. 
The author, while appreciating fully the skill, the 
sensuous lines, the voluptuous color and the 
technique of this period, ver\' subtly shows his 
opinion of its weaknesses, on page 127, by the 
introduction of William Morris and his work. 

^Ir. Hunter shows conclusively in many places 



that he does not value a tapestry because it is a 
proven Arras, Gobelin, Beauvais or Aubusson, but 
always takes a thing on its own art merit. This 
should sound the kej- note to a new intelligence in 
judging art objects in that field. Too long, in- 
deed, have persons of taste based their judgment 
on the degree of antiquity, the prominence of the 
artist producer, or the acknowledged traditional 
form or art merit of the period in which a thing 
was produced. 

Another strong feature in this book is its recog- 
nition and discussion of some .\merican master- 
pieces of the Tapestrj' Periods. This fact not 
only stimulates the reader to actual research, but 
locates for him his objects of study. 

The general form of the book is a delightful 
demonstration of the thought that "As a Man 
Thinketh, So Is He." The printed page, in its 
proportions, the illustrations in their size and 
placing, are but the reflection and artistic concep- 
tion of proportion. The same feeling and knowl- 
edge which enables an expert to recognize, realize 
and appreciate beauty of line, form and color in 
tapestr>' structure should, as in this case, find its 
ex'pression in whatever field the artist works. 

Mr. Hunter's book will not only find immediate 
recognition, but it will live, because it unites a 
strong sense of artistic feeling with a clearly 
defined intelligence in its general form, its subject 
matter, its illustrations and its teachings other 
than the bare facts which the book reveals. 

"The Colonial Homes of Phil.ajjelphla axd 
Its Neighborhood." By H. Donaldson Eber- 
lein and Horace Mather Lippincott (J. B. 
Lippincott Company, Philadelphia) S5.00. 
In this carefully prepared book, and disguised 
beneath a title which flavors of extreme localism, 
the authors have produced, rather, a book of 
nation-wide interest. With the exception of 
Boston no early American city played so prom- 
inent a part in the inception of the Revolution- 
ary War as Philadelphia — "The Red City," 
as its predominance of brick houses once char- 
acterized it. 

The families which constituted the backbone 
of Philadelphia and its environs occupy today 
much the same place which they held prior to the 
Revolutionar>' War, and in the unstable and ever- 
variant nature of society in this country, the fact 
is an interesting one. Many of the old houses 
described in this book, indeed, have never gone 
out of the hands of the immediate family which 
built them — and nearly all the houses saw stirring 



Book Reviews 




From "Colonial Homes of Philadelphia and lis Xeishborhood." J 
AN INTERIOR 



HALLWAY, HOPE LODGE 



and interesting incidents whicli are a part of 
national history. 

Biographically and genealogically there is a 
fund of interest in the careful text, which reflects 
not only the authors' knowledge of their field, 
but their love of it as well. 

Architecturally it is by way of being a revela- 
tion to realize what a factor in the evolution of 
current architecture in Pennsylvania are the old 
pre-Revolutionary manors and family seats in 
and around Philadelphia. In "Wynnestay," in 
"Graeme Park , " ' in " Waynesborough , " and in many 
others of these old houses there is to be seen the 
direct prototype of the present logical develop- 
ment of the country house architecture of the 
locality today. Houses of the Southern Type, 
or even of the strictly Georgian Type are rare, 
and the Classic Revival played a still smaller part. 
For the most part the older of the houses are of 
local fieldstone, with solid wooden shutters and 
small-paned windows, and the interiors are of the 
purest "colonial" type. 

There is a dignity which is inseparable from 
these early examples of American architecture, 



and a sincerity which seems reflected today only 
in the immediate sphere of their influence on 
modern architects, and when there is added to 
these qualities the rich historical interest which 
surrounds them, some measure of this " Colonial 
Homes" book may be had. Its pages take one 
directly back to the days when Boston, Newport, 
New York and Philadelphia were our four leading 
seaport towns — to times of a less complex yet 
more rigid social system than obtains today — 
and certainly to a day when plain living, high 
thinking and large deeds were national charac- 
teristics. 

And it comes as quite a pleasant surprise to 
find that Philadelphia and its neighborhood have 
had more veneration for historic and family 
landmarks than has shown itself in most parts 
of this country. Possibly no other locality of 
such historic importance has retained so much of 
its oldtime flavor— that quaint and thoroughly 
charming sort of conservatism which is so 
pleasantly and entertainingly chronicled in " Colo- 
nial Homes of Philadelphia and its Neighbor- 
hood." 



The Etched Work of Cadi.'allader U'asJiburu 



■^'■^- 





l^rom the Original EtchinR 
SANTA MARIA, MEXICO 



BY CADWALLADER WASHBURN 



T 



HE ETCHED WORK OF CADWAL- 
LADER WASHBURN 
BY FRANK WEITENKA.\n^F 



In the recent re\-ival of painter- 
etching among American artists the influence of 
Whistler was to be expected, but that of Merjon 
is equallj' strong or more so. Yet neither, nor any 
other, is dominant. It is the spirit that has been 
followed, rather]than the manner, and it has been 
absorbed, not copied. The note of direct ex-pres- 
sion is strongly felt in this work of the younger 
American etchers. In the best of it we feel that 
intimate relation between artist and subject in 
which we may join and which forms one of the 
chief charms of the print. This general charac- 
terization applies with particular force in the case 
of Cadwallader Washburn. 

When Washburn, in the course of his wander- 
ings, came to \'enice in 1903, he entered into the 
spirit of the group — Du\eneck, Bacher, et al — who 
had sat at the feet of Whistler in the city which he 
had glorified with the etching needle. The result 
appears in some very creditable views of Venetian 



palaces and plazas and canals. But Washburn 
ver}^ soon went his own way. 

Lessons in etching he never had. .\fter study- 
ing under H. Siddons Mowbray at the Art Stu- 
dents' League, New York City (about 1883-85), 
then for three years with W^ M. Chase, in Spain 
with Sorolla and in Paris under Albert Besnard, he 
one day exchanged canvas and brush for plate and 
needle. One may not always see just as he did; 
one may even find his powers inadequate in cer- 
tain instances; but his seriousness and steadfast- 
ness are always undoubted. From Italy the wan- 
derlust took him to Japan, Cuba and Mexico. His 
travels in various lands ha\"e resulted in groups or 
series of plates which accentuate well-defined 
stages of development. The Norlands sets, the 
only ones of these series done in his native land 
(though to them should be added some stray views 
in New York City and Coney Island as home 
products), may aj^i^ear to some as perhaps the 
least satisfactory; the latest ones (the Mexican) 
again may seem probably the best. Yet one hesi- 
tates to make this comparison, from fear that it 
may be instigated by too strong a preference for 



The Etched IVork of Cadwallader IVashburu 




^N^.^^^ 
^^. 



^^ :>^ 



From the Onutnal Etching 

BORDA GARDEN, FROM SAN ANTONIO 



BY CADWALLADER WASHBURN 



technical facDity, or that the appearance of 
greater definiteness and sureness in the architec- 
tural plates may be due, in part at least, to the 
subjects. In the Norlands series one balks at the 
somewhat fumbling rendering of water in The 
Turn in the Creek, for instance, or at the appar- 
ently meaningless foreground in Elms at Early 
Sunrise. Or the juicy application of drj' point in 
Creek Meadow (the first plate) or Bog Creek seems 
not entirely conscious of purpose, something like 
aimless gestures in speech. 

Yet in Martin Stream and The A ndroscoggin River 
the water is good, treated with some of the sim- 
plicity of Haden or Piatt. In Wood Road or The 
Atidroscoggin River at Strickland's Ferry (simple 
and direct in conception and composition) w^hat is 
elsewhere an apparent or real insufficiency of state- 
ment resolves itself into a delightful example of 
repression of detail, while in Road Near Tur- 
ner, the summariness brings up recollections of 
Pissarro or Rafiaelli. 

Throughout these Norlands plates one finds a 
delicately expressed feeling for light and air. 
Quivering, pulsating sunlight and atmosphere fill 



scenes such as Elms at Early Sunrise; Meadow 
near Martin's Stream (a crisp impression of sunny 
nature) among others. That feature takes us 
from the contemplation of details in execution to 
the consideration of a more fundamental charac- 
teristic, the expression, in these Maine \'iews, of 
the charm of everj'day nature. The old tree in 
the corner of the lot, the brook winding through 
meadow and beneath tangled undergrowth or 
water plants, the road through the woods, with 
their ever-present note of mysterj' — these things 
are set do-\\-n with an absence of any human or 
animal element. The resultant feeling of remote- 
ness centers attention on the mood awakened by 
nature alone. These Norlands dr\^ points are 
pure landscape art, a type occurring quite fre- 
quently in our first noteworthy movement in 
painter etching, about thirty years ago, but 
strangely rare in the present revival. Mr. Wash- 
bum's interest in his native soil and the emotions 
appealed to in its scenery, emphasize again the 
importance in art of the combination of national 
characteristics with a given personality, the im- 
portant role of local influences. 



The Etched J Fork of Caih^aUadcr IVashbitrn 



An entirely different world and in a measure a 
different outlook are (presented in the Mexican 
series. True, here, too, there is preeminently the 
\nsion of buildings as they appear, as they are 
bathed in atmosjihere and sunlight, but the ver\' 
choice of buildings and street views, and the 
himian staffage, causes a change of \ie\vpoint 
which is affected by the thought of the relation of 
man to all this. In fact, it has in this case drawn 
from the artist a WTitten expression of his interest 
in the poor, opjiressed peons, with whom he 
entered into congenial relations and whom he 
found "strangely polite." This attraction of the 
human element jirompted the execution of a few 
studies of single heads, which, together with the 
delightful Huddhisl jiriest done in Japan, have 
been named by some as his best work. Perhaps 
they ap]ieal because their good points are so 
apparent, perhaps because they offer the interest 
of the unusual, the unexpected in this artist's 
product. They illustrate, furthermore, the char- 
acteristic alertness of Mr. Washburn's art and 
personality, which is set forth, likewise, in his por- 
trait of himself. 

"If you compare the different plates, you will 
note that I made no attempt to specialize the 
different styles of architecture, but rather to 
depict their peculiarities as emphasized by nm- 
liglit. That is to say, the distinguishing features 
of each style are subordinated to the actual ap- 
pearance of the object as a whole. . . Where 
confusion of detail tends to embarrass presenta- 
tion of a truthful and simple impression, it is 
either generalized or suppressed completely so 
that often the style of architecture maj' not be 
discerned. In thus sacrificing ruthlessly the 
detail in The Front Facade of La Campania the 
imjiression of solidity and seclusion improves; 
while the preserving of it in West Faqade oj La 
Valcnciana suggests buoyancy and elegance." 

The points emphasized can be further illus- 
trated in their individual application by the 
re])roduction of notes made on the occasion of the 
exhibition of Washburn's etchings in Xew York 
in igio and iqii. Of the two plates referred to 
in the preceding extract from Mr. Washburn's 
letter. West Faqade of La Valenciana, Guanajuato 
shows a light yet sufficient treatment of stone in 
sunlight, and in La Campania, Front Faqade, 
Guanajuato the rendering of sunlight-flecked 
shadows by close, uncrossed lines is of technical 
interest. 

The Cathedral of Leon, with similar sun- 
spotted tremulous shadows, has comprehensive 



suggestions of effect without detailed delineation 
of ornament; the building is thrown into delicate 
relief by the translucent shadows in the fore- 
ground. In Grand Cathedral of Mexico City, 
again, the architecture is carefully drawn, the 
Cathedral of Orizaba is interesting in its attempt 
to render stone texture, and Templo Parroquialo 
{Xo. i), Ta.xco is somewhat suggestive of Pennell 
in its synthetic grasp and presentation. The 
lines of bridge, balustrade and clouds in Porficio 
Diaz Bridge, Cuernavaca combine into a harmoni- 
ous pattern, and the dark shadows under the 
foliage at the left of Calle Hidalgo, Cuernavaca 
throw a strongly accented note into the usual 
suniness of the series. A like sonority marks the 
Cameron-like interior of the Cathedral of Puebla. 
An effect of peculiar and juicy richness is pro- 
duced in Sacred Well, Guadalupe Hidalgo, ex- 
ecuted in straightforward style with a combina- 
tion of judicious distribution of light and shade, 
delicate treatment of ornamentation, and the 
use of brownish ink. 

One may easily connect the architectural train- 
ing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
(which preceded his art studies) with his choice of 
architectural subjects, particularly in Mexico. 

His interest in the buildings which he portrays 
is plainly that of the architect, but his expression 
is that of the artist. He sees architecture in its 
ultimate appearance, as affected by surroundings, 
by local conditions of light and atmosphere, by the 
disintegrating action of the elements or the mel- 
lowing effect of time. And the personal note, the 
rendition of mood, is carried into this appreciation 
of the picturesque qualities of architectural beauty. 

These notes may serve to some extent to indi- 
cate the variety in subject, treatment, attitude of 
the artist, and interest, which Washburn's work 
offers. But any appearance of finality in the 
present estimate of this artist was to be avoided. 
Definite judgment must of necessity be deferred 
to some future time. Washburn's critical attitude 
toward his plates is shown by the number of prints 
that he has from time to time ordered his dealers 
to destroy. His adaptativeness in method to sub- 
ject, his sober enthusiasm and the ever-fresh 
aspects of the world about him which he sees and 
records, warrant one in believing that the full 
measure of his development is yet to come. But 
in the meantime it seemed worth while to note the 
mile-stones in his career already passed, to record 
the progress of an interesting individual factor in 
the present American renaissance of painter- 
etching. 



In the Galleries 



IN THE G.\LLERIES 
Among current exhibitions which open the 
season it would seem that the print fancier is 
particularly favored. In the matter of 
"popularity'' (deplorable as the word is in con- 
nection mth the fine arts) it is evident that Frank 
BrangwjTi, the etcher, is looming strong and 
powerful over all other etchers, like Rodin over 
sculptors. Even if one be not an enthusiast on 
etching, Brangwjoi appeals through his tremen- 
dous strength and virility, though amateur and 
connoisseur alike would do well to study his plates 
separately — seventy-five seen together are like 
seventy-five kings; they are all co-important, and 
while thej' do not fight with each other, they cer- 
tainly are over-powering. But the Kraushaar 
Galleries are showing a larger collection e^•en than 
last j-ear, including many new plates. The Storm 
is a small plate, but a very stormy one. Bran- 
gw-yn's splendid apprecia- 
tion of the majesty of 
architecture is manifest 
in the Castella delta Zizi, 
Palermo, and of course 
there are the two tremen- 
dous windmUl plates, Dix- 
miule and The Black Mill. 
I do not know if the com- 
parison has ever been 
made between Brangwyn's 
Breaking Up the "Duncan" 
and Seymour Hay den's 
Breaking Up the" Agamem- 
non." Comparisons are 
usually unprofitable, but 
the subject is so similar 
here that there is point 
to it. 

At the Keppel Galleries 
the print lover is again re- 
warded for a %-isit by a 
splendid showing of Rem- 
brandt's etchings — and 
perhaps in these there is 
interesting food for a still 
closer comparison of Bran- 
gwyn. Ceitainly the lat- 
ter's Crucifixion and many 
of his other plates have 
much of the strength and 
much of the \iolent play of 
light and dark that made 
the great Dutchman one of 



the most powerful etchers of ail time. From the 
7th of November until the 30th of December these 
will occupy the Keppel Galleries, and, bemg the 
basis of all subsequent etching, should be taken 
not only on their face value, but on their educa- 
tional value as well. 

The Berlin Galleries wUl continue this season 
the interesting and highly unusual type of exhibi- 
tion which ran last season, and which by their 
brilliancy almost seems as though they were in- 
tended to make us forget that the permanent 
attractions of the establishment comprise a stock 
of remarkable carbon and color photographs of 
famous paintings. 

The charm of colored etchings and modern color 
prints is a comparatively new one for this country, 
and those who are in any way attracted to these 
will find many new examples in the galleries. 
Those of IMoulton & Ricketts and of A. H. Hahlo 
& Co. contain an importation of recent aquatints 




BY GliORCE REITIiR BRILL 



/;/ the Galleries 




Associated Artists of Pittsburgh 
"reflections" by MARGARET WHITEHEAD 

by F. T. Simon — very rich and soft in their color- 
ing. Among these there is a charming spring im- 
pression of the open-air old book market of Paris, 
and there is also an admirable city \'ista, i.\dth 
snow, and a soft gray color scheme. These will 
be on exhibition at the Hahlo Gallen,- from the 
1 2th of November until the ist of December, and 
will probably be followed by a collection of etch- 
ings and of unusual lithographs by Whistler. 
Moulton & Ricketts show, as well, a selection as 
wide as their last season's one of etchings by 
BrangwAn, Hedley P'itton and .\.\el Haig. 

Certainly the most varied exhibition of color 
prints is that of the "British Societ}- of Graver 
Printers in Colour," held at the Architectural 
League Galleries from the 4th to the 23d of 
November, by Manzi, Joyant & Coupou (Suc- 
cessors to Goupil, of ParisJ. The work of this 
society has attracted a good deal of attention in 
Europe, and is interesting in that e\-ery plate is 
entirely the work of its author, in engraving, 
coloring the block and jirinting. 

Another type of print, the exquisite steel en- 
gra\ing of the Seventeenth Centurj- in France, 
as embodied in the work of Robert Xanteuil (I63o- 
I678), is being shown at the Galleries of Rudolph 
Seckel. Here are fifty splendid jiortrait engrav- 
ings which illustrate what has often been called the 
"Golden Age" of steel engraxing and certainly 
■ an exhibition which no print lover will fail to 
visit. 



From this it may readily be seen that it is a 
month for the print fancier, although many of the 
galleries are following the general policies. With 
the exception of an unusually interesting show of 
art in photography at the jMontross Galleries, fol- 
lowed from the nth of November to the 7th of 
December bj one of early Chinese art, the exhibi- 
tions will, as in the past, be devoted to American 
painting. Announcement is made of a group of 
paintings, mostly of Eg}.-pt, by Henrj- Bacon, and 
of another, from the 2d to the i6th of January, of 
the ever-charming art of Robert Reid. 

Old ^Masters are on view at the Ehrich Galleries, 
at the Fischer's Galleries, and the splendid collec- 
tion of the Kleinberger Galleries will soon be more 
ad\-antageously sho\\ii in new upto'mi galleries at 
709 Fifth Avenue. 

I The first important exhibition at !Macbeth's 
Galleries was of recent paintings by F. Ballard 
Williams, pleasing and colorful as ever, and unusu- 
ally sincere in the ob\-ious homage paid b}^ the 
painter to abstract and ideal beaut\-. During the 
first two weeks in December the ^Macbeth Galler- 
ies will hold a special exhibition of the recent work 
of LawTence ^Iazzano\itch, whose last five years 
have been spent painting in Europe. 

Any monopoly of this season's exhibitions by 
paintings alone would be infringed on not only by 
the wide and varied showings of prints, but by 
sculpture as well, for the latter half of Novem- 
ber the Gorham Company holds an imposing 
and exceedingly interesting "E.xhibition of Sculp- 
ture by American Artists," and the National 
Academj' of Design announces an intention of 
devoting an entire gallery to sculpture in the 
winter show. 

Out of New York the season begins in Philadel- 
phia with the opening of the Philadelphia Water- 
Color Club and the Pennsylvania Society of Mini- 
ature Painters, and in Pittsburgh with the Third 
Annual Exhibition of the Associated Artists of 
Pittsburgh (October 24 to November 25). The 
first and second awards in this exhibition were 
given, respectively, to Margaret WTiitehead, for 
her Reflections, and to George Reiter Brill foi his 
Vanity. The exhibition, hanging two hundred 
and seven paintings this year, places it in the fore 
among the season's exhibitions in the Middle 
West. 

In Chicago the Roullier art galleries are hold- 
ing a splendid exhibition of etchings, drj'-points 
and ^lezzo-tints b\' Seymour Hayden, while the 
galleries of W. Scott Thurber are featuring an e.x- 
hibition of the paintings of B. J. Olson Norsfeldt. 



LVI 




"CHINTZ." FROM THE OIL 

PAINTING BY HAROLD KNIGHT. 



INTERNATIONAL 
STUDIO 



VOL. XLVIII. No. 191 



Copurighl, 1913 , bn John Lane Company 



JANUARY. 1913 



T 



HE PROGRESSIVE SPIRIT 
SCANDINAVIAN PAINTING 
BY CHRISTIAN BRINTON 



IN 



Much has lately been said in club 
and studio circles concerning the existence in this 
countr}% and more specifically in New York City, 
of a so-called "Art Trust." Its inception is sup- 
posed to have been a logical outcome of the 
unprecedented financial success of the recent 
SoroUa E.xhibition at the Hispanic Society. 
Directly following this particular event certain 
elements were supposed to have banded together 
in a spirit of self-protection and unanimously to 
have decreed that nothing of the kind must ever 
happen again — that, in short, American art and 
artists must be safeguarded from future foreign 
incursions. It has even been darkly hinted that 
the sinister machinations of this organization were 
mainly responsible for the non-appearance here 
last season of the notable exhibition by members 
of the Societe Nouvelle, so ably arranged by Miss 
Sage, of the .Albright Gallerj-, Buffalo. It was 
furthermore subtly insinuated that those responsi- 
ble for the present display of contemporary' Scan- 
dina\'ian painting at the American Art Galleries 
would likewise be unable to obtain a foothold in 
New York. While such savor)' hearsay may or 
may not have any foundation in actual fact, it 
nevertheless affords opportunity for a fruitful fund 
of speculation. There are, however, in this con- 
nection, two points which cannot be overlooked, 
one of them being that, despite definite efforts to 
that end, the exhibition of the Societe Nouvelle 
did not succeed in making its metropolitan appear- 
ance, and the other being that the current exhibi- 
tion of Scandinavian art has come to us largely 
owing to educational and patriotic initiative, and 
not because of a specific desire upon the part of 
any of our leading institutions or art societies to 
extend it their welcome. 

While there had been for some time since a 



desire on the part of those Scandinavian-Ameri- 
cans who were familiar with the work of their 
countrj'men at home to hold an exhibition of this 
character in America, it was not until the arrival 
in this country of the distinguished Norwegian 
painter Mr. Henrik Lund that the movement 
took definite shape. It was he who proved 
the guiding spirit of the undertaking, the success 
of which from thence onward was assured. The 
idea itself was a thoroughly praiseworthy one and, 
fortunately in this case, patriotism was more than 
justified by the actual esthetic importance of the 
work of these sturdy, clear-eyed Northmen, whose 
efforts had already been frequently acclaimed on 
the Continent and, on not less than three different 
occasions, in England, also. 

Apart from the strictly limited showing of con- 
temporary Scandina\'ian painting at Chicago just 
a score of years ago, and the small itinerant dis- 
play of two years later, it was not until the 
Louisiana Purchase E.xposition of 1904 that the 
American public was able to form a first-hand 
acquaintance with this essentially \'igorous and 
individual artistic expression. Both the Chicago 
and St. Louis exhibitions were, however, official 
affairs, the organization of each being confined to 
strictly Government channels. In the case of the 
itinerant venture already referred to, which toured 
the leading provincial cities during 1895-96, the 
selection was exclusively Swedish, while the still 
more hmited showing of Scandinavian art held 
under the auspices of the Copley Society of Bos- 
ton, in 1907, included the work of Norwegian paint- 
ers only. If it was the Swede, Carl Larsson, who 
won chief honors at Chicago in 1893, with his 
ever-spirited and delightful My Family, now in 
the possession of Mr. Thorstcn Laurin, of Stock- 
holm, it was the masterful painter of animal por- 
traits, Bruno Liljefors, also a Swede, whose 
splendid group of canvases was the sensation of 
his country's offering at St. Louis. 

It will be readily inferred from this brief resume 




o 

2 

o > 



Scandinavian Art 




Collection of Mr. Carl Nisser, Broby 
ON THE FROZEN SNOW 



BY GUXNAR HALLSTROM 



that, while Sweden has been reasonably well rep- 
resented in America, the art of Denmark and 
Norway has been chiefly conspicuous by its long- 
continued absence. The reasons for this are 
better known to the countries themselves, for the 
occasions when they have appeared together in 
full force have been indeed rare and far between, 
the recent International Exhibition in Rome, and 
the present instance being notable exceptions. 
Considering its necessarily limited scope, the cur- 
rent display of Scandinavian art is beyond ques- 
tion the most significant ever held. The selection 
has been frankly confined to the work of li\ing 
men only, and. in as far as possible, the choice of 
artists has been conducted on eclectic as well as 
stimulatingly progressive lines. The canvases are, 
however, in numerous instances something more 
than the work of merely living men; they are not 
infrequently the work of men who will continue to 
rank for many years to corneas the veritable found- 
ers of latter-day Scandinavian painting. It is not 
in any sense claimed that the exhibition is an 
ideal one; those who have been more or less 
closely connected with it from the outset best 
recognize its faults and shortcomings, but it may 
fairly be stated that it represents the artistic 
activity of the three countries as it obtains at the 



present moment. .\nd apropos of this may be 
mentioned one cardinal point of diflFerence be- 
tween the present undertaking and all of its 
predecessors, either here or abroad, and that is 
that it is the first exhibition of its kind to show, as 
it were, art in the makmg. Those responsible for 
previous displays have been distinctly more cau- 
tious in their choice of men and of canvases. 
They have as a rule taken only those names which 
were hallowed by precedent and backed by the 
weight of official dignity and prestige. It would 
have been a simple matter to hav-e done the same 
sort of thing in the current case. One is always 
safe in selecting popular and well-established 
figures; the possibility of committing mistakes of 
judgment is thus reduced to a niinimum, but, 
conversely, the chances for the d'scovery of new 
and virile talents virtually disappear. To hav-e 
been ultra-conservative would, moreover, in this 
instance have been flatly untrue to e.>dstent condi- 
tions in Scandinavia. The art of these nations is 
the youngest, in point of actual date, in all Europe. 
It is but a scant century since either Sweden, Den- 
mark or Norway, boasted what may be described 
as a native school, and to have exhibited the pro- 
duction of the older and essentially derivative 
painters would have been a work of pure super- 




to 



Scandinavian Art 



erogation, not to say superannuation. While 
there are doubtless in our midst many resi- 
dent Scandina^•ians, and not a few native-born 
Americans who would have preferred to see in the 
present exhibition the works of leading Fontaine- 
bleau-Swedish, Dtisseldorf-Xorwegian and Dano- 
Dutch painters, it was not the purpose of the 
organizers of this undertaking placidly to rely 
upon past performances, but rather to plunge 
courageously into the present — the present with 
its often crude and undigested actuality, yet its 
ever-potent promise of fresher outlook and wider 
possibility. You ■nill have already noted upon 
the walls of the American Art Galleries, and you 
may subsequently see in Buffalo, Toledo, Chicago, 
and Boston — to which cities the exhibition mo\-es 
in unbroken sequence — not only the work of the 
older li\ing men, but by its side the newer and 
bolder triumphs of young painters whose efforts 
have as yet barely been recognized in their own 
coimtries. It is this strong and unmistakable 
stamp of modernity, this conception of art as a 
vital, li\Tng force that lends the current exhibi- 
tion its distinctive character and which also serves 
to mark an epoch in the all too monotonous succes- 



sion of similar undertakings. It need not be as- 
sumed from the foregoing that art is necessarily 
good simply because it is fresh and radical, for 
much that is both fresh and radical is indubitably 
bad. And yet the fact remains that a bad new 
thing is better than a bad old thing; its defects at 
least having the distinction of novelty. 

It was held by the leading critics of Berlin 
and Munich on the occasion of the exhibi- 
tion of American painting organized under the 
liberal auspices of Mr. Hugo Reisinger, that we, as 
a nation, had nothing new to say in art. They 
were one and all surprised to find that the 
acknowledged novelty of our contribution to other 
fields of acti\-ity was in no sense paralleled in the 
pro\ince of painting. Whistler alone, they 
argued, had contributed something new, but he 
had done it so long ago that it had lost consider- 
able of its delicate and insinuating pertinence. 
Viewed not from a narrowly chau\'inistic, but 
rather from a broadly Continental standpoint, 
there can be little question concerning the justness 
of these strictures, which indeed are echoed by 
wellnigh every really frank and honest foreign 
authority who comes to our shores, .\merican art 




FR.\GMEXT OF WATERF.ALL 



i)V ol;)T.\f a. fJ/ESTad 



Scaiidi)iaviaii Art 



is, or at least appears 
to be, at a standstill. 
We clearly need the 
stimulus which 
comes from outside 
sources. We con- 
demn what is knowTi 
as the modern move- 
ment, without grasp- 
ing its significance, 
and keep on liking 
the same pictures 
which pleased us a 
generation ago. And 
they are in substance 
identical. Their gen- 
eral tonalitj' is a bit 
more crisp and clean, 
they are perhaps less 
constrained in treat- 
ment, but the under- 
lying mood is the 
same as before. Im- 
pressionism has come 
from overseas and 

has been discreetly adapted to our local needs, yet 
in essence these landscapes — for landscajie is thus 
far our only characteristic expression — are based 
primarily upon a mere genteel appeal to sentiment. 
We have not thus far attempted to master the syn- 
thetic or stylistic points of view, and, if placed 
beside the stinnilatinc; and colorful abstractions 




HOARFROST 




THE MOUNTAIN GIRL BY J. F. WILLUMSEN 

LXII 



BY GUSTAF A. FJ^STAD 

of the newer men, the work even of our boldest 
talents seems strangely antiquated. 

It is these facts, however unwelcome they may 
prove in certain quarters, which makes the coming 
of an exhibition such as the Scandinavians have 
sent us an event in the history of American artistic 
development. The success of the SoroUa display 
was clearly more psychological than esthetic; the 
splendid welcome accorded the exhibition of the 
Societe Nouvelle was in the nature of a tribute to 
a firmly established and consistently sustained tra- 
dition, but with the Scandinavians one goes a step 
further in the conquest of fresher territory. They 
are a young nation like ourselves, yet unlike us 
they strike valorously forth into relatively un- 
trodden pathways. It must not, however, be 
assumed that these men of the North have thus 
far epitoniized the modem movement in its most 
acute phases, for the relative difference in radical- 
ism between the present exhibition and that 
epoch-making demonstration made by the Sonder- 
bund at Cologne during the past spring and sum- 
mer will be patent to any who are fortunate 
enough to be in a position to make the comparison. 
Side by side even with the recent annual display 
of the renowned Konstnarsforbundet in Stock- 
holm the difference is almost equally great. And 
still there is no conspicuous lack of a healthy, pro- 
gressive spirit in the ciuxent Scandinavian e.xhi- 



Scandinavian Art 




Colleclion of Dr. Alfred Bra 
SUNBEAMS 



BY VILHELM HAMMERSHOI 



bition. It will indeed doubtless be considered 
much too ad\-anced by those sontnolent beings 
who are in the habit of regarding art as a station- 
ary product — as something which, if not reminis- 
cent and reposeful in appeal, is unworthy of 
serious consideration. 

It is o\\Tng mainly to the regrettable absence 
of the members of the Konstnarsforbundet, that 
close corporation which never exhibits save in 
full force and entirely by itself, in exalted and 
imperious isolation, that the work of the Swedes 



herewith appears less adxanced in feeling than 
that of the other Scandinavian countries. It was 
a question of the Konstniirsforbundet or the rest 
of Sweden, and the decision ^\•as, alas, made in 
favor of non-members of this unquestionably able 
but dictatorial organization, the only exception 
being Prince Eugen, who graciously consented to 
lend his support to the undertaking, There are 
nevertheless in the work of the Swedes as here 
represented notes which are new to the art-loving 
public of America. We are of course familiar 



Scandinavian A rt 



with the superlative manipulative masterj' of 
Zom, but we have never before encountered that 
broad sjTithesis and spacious grandeur which are 
the leading characteristics of the work of Otto 
Hesselbom, nor ha\-e we previously met with that 
incomparable fusion of motives at once natural- 
istic and stylistic, which is the keynote of Gustaf 
Fjajstad's crisply viewed snow scenes. You wll 
in fact readily discover in the work of the Swedes 
a highly developed technical facility, an unfailing 
sense of style, not visible in the work of her sister 
nations. Though its clima.x is perhaps attained 
in the brightly tinted water-color panels of Carl 
Larsson, one sees it in all this essentially consistent 
and conser\ative work. Stockholm has not for- 
gotten her one-time close association with the Court 
circles, and the esthetic and intellectual traditions 
of her one-time ally, France, and there is in the 
art of the Swedes, despite its manifestly national 
flavor, a distinct element of refined eclecticism. 

Denmark one habitually considers the epitome 
of conser\-atism. and in most respects it certainly 
answers the definition, yet in the production of 
Willumsen we have a creative A-itality and exuber- 
ance which, in their salutary quest of self- 
expression ha\-e sought to break all conventional 
bounds. His huge and brilliantly executed canvas 
entitled Y»uih and Sunshine may be taken as 
something more than a simple bathing scene. 
Though by no means ultra-radical, it symbolizes 
in its freedom of treatment and joyous delight 
in clear color and spontaneous movement, the 
essential characteristics of new school. With Wil- 
lumsen may be grouped the younger men, Sigurd 
Swane and Edward Weihe, who are continuing a 
work which bids fair to change the character of 
latter-day Danish painting. These men stand in 
a position of direct antithesis to Vilhelm Hammer- 
shoi, an artist revealing such delicate subtlety and 
penetration, and such rare subjecti\ity of feeling, 
that he will never be superceded, no matter to 
what lengths the men of the restless present or 
uncharted future may see fit to go. 

With the exception of a few canvases by certain 
of the older men, such as Christian Krohg, Erik 
Werenskiold, and Eilif Peterssen, whose existence 
it is impossible to ignore, the Norwegian section of 
this triune exhibition is still more uniformly mod- 
em than are the Swedish and Danish. The 
youngest nation of the three, and possessing com- 
paratively few artistic traditions, they ha\-e been 
free to go their own way, and, with the present 
generation, the path of progress has been trodden 
with no hesitant footsteps. The most copiously 



represented Norwegian painters are Edvard 
Munch and Henrik Lund. The position of Munch 
in Norway is analagous to that of Willumsen in 
Denmark. They are the veritable precursors of 
the modern movement in the Northland, and to 
their valiant and so frequently' misunderstood and 
maligned efforts is largely due the position which 
Scandinavian art at present occupies in Conti- 
nental appreciation. With Lund, who is perhaps 
the most brilliant and dexterous technician, and 
who is distinctly the leading portrait and land- 
scape impressionist in Norway, may be mentioned 
Ludvig Karsten, Ame Kavli, Soren Onsager and, 
lastly, Per Krohg, the youngest and most appro- 
priately radical of that talented group whose suc- 
cess was so marked at the recent exhibition at the 
Vienna Hagenbund. It is a noticeable fact that 
while the older painters of Sweden and Denmark 
have in the main remained imper\'ious to latter- 
day influences, certain Norwegians, on the con- 
trary, who have comfortably passed middle age, 
such as, for instance, Erik Werenskiold and 
Edvard Diriks, have courageously espoused the 
new cause. 

Vigorous and ad\'anced as some of this work 
unquestionably is, it nevertheless remains sturdily 
nationalistic and ScandinaNian in spirit. These 
people who for centuries have lived a typically 
free and unspoiled outdoor existence have sacri- 
ficed nothing of their fundamental esthetic birth- 
right during their brief conquest of self-expression. 
Their message to America is full of robust beauty 
and delicate sensibility. It reveals by turns 
that passionate lyric exaltation, and that heroic, 
bardic strength which are alone the gift of the 
North. 

Despite features of such undoubted significance 
as have herewith been noted, the exhibition in its 
entirety lea\'e3 a somewhat inconclusive impres- 
sion upon the popular as well as the critical mind. 
While revealing here and there decidedly progres- 
sive tendencies, it betrays in essence a fluctuation 
between the old and the new. A purely retrospec- 
tive display on the one hand, or a fearless demon- 
stration of radicalism, on the other, would have 
been preferable to the present vacillation between 
the yesterday and the today of Scandinavian 
artistic production. With such incomparable 
material as might have been furnished by Edvard 
Munch, for example, seen in full force, the aS^air 
would have assumed a vastly different aspect. In 
brief, one must not fail to recognize the fact that 
in art, as elsewhere, compromise is but thinly dis- 
guised cowardice. 



Henry Caro-Delvaille 




PORTRAIT OF MADAME SIMONE CASIMIR PERIER 



BV HENRY CARO-DELVAILLE 



H 



ENRY CARO-DELVMLLE 
BY ARTHUR HOEBER 



Only once in a great while does it 
happen that the painter finds recogni- 
tion from the very beginning of his career. 
Such good fortune is the exception to the rule 
in art where the tale is generally one of struggle 
against odds, of patience well-nigh exhausted, 
of hope deferred till the heart is sick. A promi- 
nent case in point happily of labor rewarded, of 
searchings culminating in appreciation, of com- 
missions following serious application, of honors 
supplementing earnest endeavor, is that of the 
Frenchman, Henry Caro-Delvaille, today the 
vogue in Paris, both as a painter of portraits and a 
maker of decorative panels, a man barely thirty- 
sLx, recognized, holding a place entirely his own, 
and all this in a land where one has to be much out 
of the commonplace to attract attention, for your 
French public has to be thoroughly convinced 
before it wUl yield its capricious favor or, once 
yielding it, continue to be loyal. ''A picture," 
said a writer once, "is nature seen through a tem- 



perament." Surely it is late in the history of art 
to see anything specially new in human nature, to 
make of the portrait an accomplishment that shall 
set the world talking. Singularly enough, how- 
ever, this is what M. Caro-DelvaUie has done and 
done it by the most simple, direct methods. 

A little more than a decade ago there appeared 
in the Paris Salon a canvas so novel in arrange- 
ment, so personal in color, so happy in the disposi- 
tion of light and shade that the jaded public of 
Gaul's capital sat up and took notice. A charm- 
ing, well-bred young woman half reclined on a 
divan, while an elderly woman in black, wth bon- 
net on, manicured the nails of the younger lady. 
Ordinarily one would say not an inspiring theme 
for a painter! Yet there was the touch of nature, 
the intimacy of a refined household. There were 
grace and naturalness to the poses and, in spite of 
everything, the canvas held one. A new note had 
been struck. A painter far out of the common- 
place had arrived. It was M. Caro-DelvaiUe's 
debut in the French official exhibition and, quite 
unheralded, quite without influence, the picture 
found instant favor with the jury and a medal 



Henry Caro-Delvaille 



resulted. The artist was a lad of twenty-four, a 
chap with jet-black hair, an alert face, a serious- 
minded worker, lull of enthusiasm, deadly in 
earnest, a painter by the grace of God, who was so 
overcome by his unexpected good fortune that he 
jumped into a cab and rode about Paris that he 
might hide his smiles and curb his crazy joy! 

Yet this was about all the vacation he allowed 
himself, for his profession was his life. Away 
from his easel he moped, pined. His was the 
gospel of work and again work. Not mere labor, 
but intelligent work, scheming, studying, analyz- 
ing, preparation to the end that he should make 
the most of his endowments. .\nd from that time 
his life has been uneventful, save as he has passed 
certain milestones in the road of art. Three years 
later came a work that was yet a serious advance, 
a portrait group of his wife and her sisters. Here, 
in the splendid pride of maternity, sat Madame 
Caro-Delvaille, with her first-born at her breast, 
the mother clad in evening dress, her lovely,, illu- 
mined face looking out at you with breeding and 
charm. \\ a table two handsome young girls play 
chess. Over the shoulder of one of these lovingly 
leans still another sister^^ while the last of the quin- 




PORTRAIT OF MADAME LACLOCHE 



tette, a young child almost, passes somerefresh- 
ments. .\ family party such as one might be per- 
mitted to see " chez eM.v." Indeed, so free was the 
canvas from any suggestion of pose, one really felt 
intruding at gazing at the intimate gathering of 
the sisters. Apathetic Paris was again stirred. 
The ^Minister of Fine Arts bought the work for the 
Musee de Luxembourg, and there came that simple 
scrap of red ribbon that means so much in the 
world of art for ^lonsieur Caro-Delvaille had 
been created a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor! 
To tell more simply would be to chronicle a 
series of continued successes, of portraits of the 
great in their various walks of art, for M. Caro- 
Delvaille has painted people congenial to him. 
leaders of the dramatic and operatic stage, writers, 
artists like himself. !Mnie. Rostand sat to him 
and the Rostand house was embellished by the 
man's beautiful decorations. In this field he has 
accomplished much and of a varied sort and com- 
missions came to him a-plentj-. He was bom at 
Bayonne, France, close to the Spanish border from 
which countrj- came his forebears to settle at Bay- 
onne. Froni there, too, came his master, the dis- 
tinguished portrait painter, Leon Bonnat, with 
whom he studied at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts, in 
Paris. M. Caro-Delvaille 
at present is in New York, 
where he vn[\ remain for 
some months, completing 
portrait commissions, and, 
later in the season, we are 
promised an exhibition of 
his works at the galleries 
of E. Gimpel & Wilden- 
stein, 636 Fifth Avenue. 
Even now one may see 
there two of his better- 
known canvases, one a por- 
trait of the distinguished 
French actress, Mme. Si- 
mone, now playing here, 
the other a group of the 
painter's wife and two 
children. 

It is always a stimulus 
not only to the lay ob- 
server but to the painters 
of this country as well 
when a European of such 
marked brilliancy and chic 
BY HENRY cARo-DELVAtLLE as M. Delvaillc c.xhibits. 



The Principles of Advei'tising Arrangement 



T 



HE PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTIS- 
ING ARRANGEMENT" 
BY FRANK .ALVAH PARSONS 
REVIEWED BY EARNEST ELMO 
CALKINS 



The lectures of Mr. Frank Alvah Parsons, the 
president of the New York School of Fme and Ap- 
plied Art, upon "The Principles of Advertising 
Arrangement," have been printed in book form, to 
the manifest advantage of all interested in what 
the author calls the topography of the advertise- 
ment. Mr. Parsons' talks were delivered to a 
body of men engaged in the production of adver- 
tising. They are of a character to hold the atten- 
tion and clear the vision of the experienced adver- 
tising man, while simple enough to offer a real help 
to the artist, designer, compositor or advertise- 
ment \\Titer whose foot is on the lowest rung of the 
advertising ladder. 

Mr. Parsons writes simply and sanely on a sub- 
ject he is competent to discuss. That which 
makes a design good makes an advertisement 
good. Balance, movement, emphasis, decoration 
come under the same general laws, whether ap- 
plied to furniture and architecture and fabrics, or 
to a page ad in a magazine. The fact that adver- 
tising men have produced strong, symmetrical, 
well-designed ads without the aid of Mr. Parsons' 
books means nothing. The fact that advertising 
matter wholly lacking in good arrangement has 
sold goods means less. 

Advertising men know even better than ]Mr. 
Parsons how much this atmosphere has improved 
the selling power of the ad. Mr. Parsons lays 
down the simple rules whereby this atmosphere is 
produced. It is capable of analysis, and analysis 
that is easily understood, as this book shows. Mr. 
Parsons lays down the rules that apply to all good 
designing, but applies them specifically to adver- 
tising. He shows the importance of related 
shapes, of balance, of movement, of emphasis (the 
"display" of the advertising man's lexicon), and, 
what is more important, proves that the ad is im- 
proved by the correct application of these princi- 
ples. These principles are not Mr. Parsons'. 
They are fundamental. They are felt in a way by 
every human being. They are the principles upon 
which all art rests. In applying them to the con- 
struction of advertisi:ig Mr. Parsons has rendered 
a service to the real advertising man. An intelli- 
gent following of the lines laid do^vn in this book 
would bring about a great improvement in the 
appearance of all advertising, in magazines, in 




PORTRAIT OF JIADAME 
DE POZXANSKA 



BY HENRY CARO- 
DELVAILLE 



newspapers, in street cars, on billboards and in 
printed things. This improvement would be 
double. The advertising would be intrinsically 
more attractive. It would afiFord a certain 
esthetic satisfaction. What is still more import- 
ant, the advertising would have greater efficiency. 
It would sell more goods. 

Mr. Parsons is an artist and a teacher of art, ap- 
plying to a business instrument the principles of 
the art he knows best. He does not pretend that 
good arrangement puts the salesmanship into the 
ad. The latter may contain an insipid message 
and yet be correctly designed. Art does not 
supersede copy. What he does contend is that a 
good arrangment will permit the ad to yield up its 
message more quickly and make a better collateral 



Exhibition of National Society of Craftsmen 



impression at the same time. And he is rijiht. 
The principles of advertisinj^ arrangement bear 
the same relation to an advertisement that a well- 
designed body does to a motor car. .\n efficient 
engine is necessary, but graceful lines, lines that 
suggest the motor car at its best, are also necessary 
for the fullest expression of the motor car. 

There are but ten short chapters in this book. 
\o reader will accuse the author of being prolix. 
But each chapter makes its point, the language is 
clear and easily understood, and any one engaged 
in producing advertising or, for that matter, any 
kind of printing, will find much that he can use to 
his artistic and linancial betterment. While some 
of us may disagree with the author on some minor 
points, still they are minor points. They have 
more to do with his illustrations and applications 
than with his principles. Besides, the book itself 
in its foreword lays out so modest a program 
and at the same time so inspiring a platform, 
that this notice will close with Mr. Parsons' own 
words : 

''The erroneous idea as to the meaning of art 
and its application to industrial problems, more 
particularly in the advertising field, is the reason 
for this book. The term 'prettiness,' frequently 
used as a synonym for art, gives an entirely wrong 
inipression. Pictures and drawings, particularly 
in color, often pass for art objects when the Art in 
them is too slight to be detected. Art is quality — 
not mere m.aterial. Its elements are fitness and 
beauty. The successful choice and arrangement 
of materials of any kind must take into account 
this art quality, because human intelligence de- 
mands fitness in things. The same human being 
loves and requires the element of beaut)- in all 
objects with which he is associated. 

"Art is a force and is, therefore, subject to laws 
or principles. A knowledge of Art as a force in 
ad\ertising means a knowledge of the principles of 
lit, arrangement and harmonious color. These are 
common to every field of so-called Applied Art. 
This modest effort is not calculated to e.xhaust the 
subject. It is only a set of condensed abstracts 
taken from ten lectures given before the Advertis- 
ing Men's League of New York City. Its aim is 
to make clear some principles of form and color, 
and to apply them specifically in some of the 
fields of this important subject. If it proves to 
the advertiser that 'Order is heaven's first law'; to 
the business man that Quality, not Quantity, 
counts, and to the public in general that color and 
arrangement each speaks its own language, then it 
will have done its work." 



s 



IXTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION, N.^- 
TION.\L SOCIETY OF CRAFTS- 
MEN 



Some one hundred members of the 
Society are represented in fifteen hundred or more 
exhibits, including fine examples of jewelry, metal 
work, ceramics, bookbinding, illuminating, leather 
work, potterj", woodcarving, textiles, embroidery, 
and basketry from craftworkers from all parts of 
the United States. 

The walls of the galleries are hung with beauti- 
ful, soft-toned tapestries, some of which are old 
and priceless, while others are American reproduc- 
tions of the output of looms of the Middle Ages. 

Exhibits of jewelry shown are the chains of 
clouded amber and silver links, also the aba- 
lone and pearl-blister necklaces Mary P. Gries 
is exhibiting. In gold stickpins and rings she has 
shown how harmonious and satisfactory is the 
opal matrix, and has fashioned a true artist's ring 
in her lapis with the lotos design. Floyd N. 
Ackley shows his famous ''Moonlight" necklace, of 
silver, moonstones, sapphires and ]iearls, which 
was shown in the circuit exhibition of last winter 
sent out by the American Federation of Arts. 
His straight-lined ring set with pink topaz also 
deserves mention. 

The Metal Workers are well and ably repre- 
sented. Mr. Samuel Yellin, of Philadelphia, 
shows a wonderfully interesting collection of 
wrought iron work, inspired undoubtedly by the 
achievements of the medieval craftsmen, and the 
spirit of the old work is admirably retained. The 
exhibits range from examples of the best Gothic 
period to those distinctly influenced by the later 
Renaissance. Mr. Yellin has done much of the 
metal work used in the cathedral of St. John the 
Divine. 

In the pottery exhibit it is evident that it has 
been the endeavor of each individual potter to 
show the best of his products. The Penman & 
Hardenbergh potter>% made at Birdcliffe, is espe- 
cially interesting, beautiful in texture and full of 
indi\iduality and distinction. Other potters 
showing charming work cf a high standard in 
shape, texture and color, are the Marblehead, Wal- 
rath. Van Briggle, Quaker Road, Fulper, Glen Tor, 
and others. The Bowl Shop has a new variety of 
children's sets, attractive in design and in com- 
bination of color. Among tho.se showing beautiful 
and interesting pieces are Dorothea Warren 
O'Hara, J. Nuger, Mrs. K. E. Cherry, Mrs. Hodg- 
son, Mrs. Hibler and Miss Crowell. 



In the Galleries 



IN THE CILLERIES 
The close of the year has been characterized in 
the art world by successions of exceptionally 
good exhibitions in the different galleries on 
or bordering on Fifth Avenue. It has been pos- 
sible to feast the eyes on many old masters, other- 
wise accessible only through the medium of a 
photograph or collot>'pe. We have seen grand 
displays of etchings, notably by Brang^\'yn, who 
has attained a degree of popularity which, well 
deser\'ed as it is, must none the less have come 
almost as a surprise to his keenest admirers. It is 
a strange coincidence that at one and the same 
time different dealers were independently occu- 
pied in London, arranging for an exhibition here, 
notwithstanding which each indi\ddual display of 
this artist's output has been eminently successful. 
The Macbeth Gallers' gave a ven,- successful 
display of Western pictures in the latter part of 
November, and the public had an opportunity of 
seeing for the first 
time an exhibition by 
painters of the Far 
West. Such artists as 
Parshall, Couse, 
Moran, Daingerfield 
and GroU were repre- 
sented by two pictures 
apiece. Mr. Dainger- 
field is seen at his best 
in a large canvas rep- 
resenting a caiion of 
the weirdest grandeur 
and of impenetrable 
depth, which is the 
keynote and essence 
of the picture. The 
tree in the foreground 
might, however, have 
been better handled; 
it is insufficiently 
dra-RTi and lacks form. 
Mr. Moran has shown 
us that he can paint 
mountains with the 
same masterly tech- 
nique that we are ac- 
customed to see in his 
pictures of the plains. 
No. 13, by Mr. Pot- 
thast, breathes the 

. ., ^ Courtesy of The EhrUh Galleries 

spmt of the great ,,^1,0^^.^ ^^^ child 
Northwest, and has "ch.^rity" 



been much admired. It represents Lake Louise, 
Alberta. Now canvas has had to yield to marble 
and bronze and people are flocking to see the 
work of Mr. Chester Beach, whose reputation 
needs no enhancing at our hands. We only wish 
that critics would not split hairs over whether he 
is a realist or an idealist — a realistic-idealist or an 
idealistic-realist. WTiat does it matter? Of 
course, he stands for all this and verj' much more. 
No. 2 in the catalogue, entitled Beyond, is the 
figure of a young girl on the threshold of woman- 
hood, the ver>' embodiment of immature grace, 
looking wistfully into the future; pose and expres- 
sion are admirable. Ver>' much admired is his 
Vestal Virgin guarding the sacred fire. The idea 
is grandly conceived, but the face is somewhat 
disappointing, the expression and features being 
heavy. There is also a most striking fountain 
— a great faun's head mth leering face, whose 
mouth, with amused contempt, spouts the water, 
serves as couch to a sprightly nymph, who views 




BY B. ESTEBAN MIRILLO 
I618-I662 



/// tJic Galleries 




Courtesy of The Muthelh Caller, 

'the stoker" 



BY CHESTER BEACH 



the world archly from her cos>- vantage ground. 
The knee being drawn up to the chin gives a 
straight line of liml>, which though characteristic 
of the pose can hardl_\- be styled graceful. Our 
illustration represents The Stoker, and recalls 
Schiller's famous lines: 

\'on dor Stirne heiss 
Rennon muss der Schweiss 

Next month will be on ^•iew works by Paul 
Dougherty, !•". C. Frieseke and Gardner Symons. 

At the Detroit Publishing Company it has been 
possible to see a ver\- interesting collection of 
pictures, ten oils and four pastels, by that gifted 
artist, Leon Dabo, whose claims to fame are 
amply justified by the large number of museums 
in which his can\ases have a lasting resting-place. 
Vol. No. 39 (JanuarA', 1910) contains an article 
upon Leon Dabo written by J. Nilsen Laurvik. 
.•Vmong his pictures on \-iew here, No. 3 in the 
catalogue is the most attractive canvas, represent- 
ing Early Dawn at Covenhmen. The simplicity 
and breadth, with its mysterious coloring, hold 
one spellbound. In No. 11, a pastel, the artist 
has attempted the difficult task of painting white 
light in an Indian Summer. Here he has not been 
so successful, and, in fact, several people have 
taken the picture to be a snow scene. His sea- 
scaf)es are quite beyond criticism. His Nocturne 



(No. 9) reveals black night on the East Ri\er, 
faintly illuminated by the lights from a few giant 
buildings; it is sketchy but ver\- powerful. 

At the Kraushaar Gallerj- were on xiew some 
forty etchings by Hedley Fitton during Decem- 
ber, two of whose works were selected from the 
Paris Salon, 1908, for the Petit Palais Collection. 
The subjects on \-iew are all recent work, executed 
mostly in France. England and Italy, and show 
exquisite bits of architecture, such as the Bargate 
(Southampton), the Rialto, Winchester Cross, 
Chartres, etc., of excellent transj^arency and 
gradation, his shadows being particularly rich and 
suggestive. 

Excellent pictures by great artists can be \iewed 
at the Galleries of M. Knoedler & Co., such artists 
as J. B. Corot, Daubigny, Harpigny, Dieterle, 
W. Maris, Mesdag, \'an der Weele are well repre- 
sented. There is an excellent portrait painting 
executed by De Forrest Brush in his inimitable 
manner. Another painter who is in a class by 




Courtesy of The Monlro,, o.i..frv 

"WINTER LANDSCAPES AND SWANS BY NIGHT" 

FROM THE CHINESE PAINTING BY AN ARTIST OF 

THE T'aNG DYNASTY 



In the Galleries 




CotirUsy of Henry Reinhardt 

ST. JOHN AND THE DONATORS 



himself is represented in a landscape by Cazin. 
Ridgway Knight has an arresting canvas. He has 
painted a peasant girl of southern Europe among 
rose bushes. The coloring is very brilliant and 
con\'incing. 

Besides paintings may be seen e.xcellent eight- 
eenth centurj' mezzotint engra\'ings, after Rey- 
nolds, Gainsborough, Hoppner and Romney. 
They are first states and proofs before letters. 

The Alfred Vickers pictures at the new galleries 
of Moulton & Ricketts have attracted consider- 
able attention. Vickers in his lifetime was so 
oN'ershadowed by giant artists that his true merit 
is only now beginning to be appreciated, and even 
now the prices asked are much too low. By dint 
of patience and perse\'erance a London dealer 



managed to collect some 
eighty canvases and Messrs. 
Moulton & Ricketts selected 
the best thirty, which ac- 
counts for the exhibition 
being so very even. It is 
impossible to look at his 
work without recognizing 
the influence of Constable, 
Crome and the so-called 
Norwich School, in his mel- 
lowness of tone, treatment 
of tree-groups and rich 
depths. Among the many 
excellent etchings on view 
may particularly be men- 
tioned Brangwyn's The 
Bridge at Alcantara. 

Another interesting exhi- 
bition of Whistler etchings 
has been on v-iew at the 
galleries of Arthur H. Hahlo 
& Co. ; some of the examples 
are very rare and conse- 
quently of great value. 
»« At the Montross Gallery 
during December was held a 
unique display of early Chi- 
nese art, ranging from the 
Shang Dynasty, two cen- 
turies before Christ, to the 
present, or Ching. One mar- 
\"els at the freshness, grace 
of composition and spacious- 
ness on the unframed, ban- 
nerlike lengths of silk, and 
at the strange effects of 
modernity which obtrude 
themselves so frequently, especially in the por- 
traits; their great power of svTithecizing and 
their grasp of essentials are characteristic of their 
early protagonists. The picture we are represent- 
ing is a winter landscape and geese by night — 
signed Wu-Tao-tze, of the T'ang Djoiasty, or first 
century of the Christian era. The Chinese who 
painted in the mode of outlines and flat tones 
never thought of objects as coming out of dark- 
ness, but always in light. Shadows were neg- 
lected, as being impediments in the way of vision. 
Form was the business of sculptors, not painters, 
they trusted to their true colors and correct out- 
lines to suggest suSiciently the form; moreover, 
they employed a five-color scheme, and knew their 
pigments as a hen knows her chicks. 



BY ADRIAN ISENBRANT, 1 55 1 



/;/ the Galleries 




\\v- \ \ ., M ■ |. I .\ MANTEGNA 

1 43 1 -1 506 

At the Ehrich Galleries, among many good pic- 
tures by Gordoni, Carle van Loo, El Greco and 
others, there is a large and interesting Still Life, 
by Jan de Heem, very important and quite of 
museum value. A very attractive canvas by 
N. Maes represents a youthful and winsome 
princess of the House of Orange. They are busy 
preparing an exhibition of Spanish masters, and 
our illustration shows a canvas by Murillo, 
Charily, in which the Virgin is seen seated on a 
nimbus, whilst the Christchild is handing out 
loaves of bread to kneeling suppliants. The col- 
oring is rich and the warm glow behind the Virgin, 
so characteristic of the painter of conceptions, is 
present to a marked degree. The picture is not 
over-sentimental and may be ranked as belonging 
to his second period, or cstilo calido works. 

On view at Reinhardt's Galleries is the subject 
of our illustration. It is a primitive of sixteenth- 
centurj' Flemish art, a portrait of St. John holding 
the lamb, in front of whom kneel the Donators. 
It is by Adrian Isenbrant, who died in 1551. The 
picture belongs to the medieval phase of Flemish 
art, before the emancipation so soon to follow in 
the ascending of Rubens and Van Dyck. In look- 
ing at this can\-as one is apt to recall the portrait 
of St. John in the National Gallery, London, gen- 
erally ascribed to Hans Memlinc. 

An interesting collection of Guardi pictures has 
been on \new at the galleries of Gimpcl & Wilden- 
stein. His eighteenth-century Venice is delight- 
ful work, much in advance of Canaletto, whose 
pupil he was. 



.•\n extraordinary exhibition during December 
has been that of the early Italian engravers, held 
by Mr. Ederheimer at 366 Fifth Avenue. To 
present such a remarkable and almost priceless 
collection, ranging in period from the Xielli to 
Marcantonio, could only have been made pos- 
sible by the co-operation of Mr. Junius S. Mor- 
gan, who lent his prints. The catalogue, reflect- 
ing great credit on the compiler, has divided the 
collection into two parts: I. Unknown masters — 
the Nielli, Prophets, Tarocchi, etc. II. Known 
masters: Mantegna to Marcantonio. 

Nothing in art is more fascinating than the 
study of its beginnings. The Niello, at first only 
employed for preserving patterns in the decora- 
tion of ecclesiastical utensils, soon showed its pos- 
sibilities for reproduction and thus paved the 
way for the art of engraving in Italy. It is idle 
in the face of so much conflicting evidence to at- 
tempt to assign the Prophets and other early 
prints to any particular artist. Dr. Kristeller 
condemns them all to anonymity. The Tarocchi 
cards of Mantegna, for instance, are not playing 
cards at all, nor by Mantegna. There are two 
sets of the same subjects by different engravers, 
known as the E & S set,, forming a manual of 
science, and endless discussion has been caused in 
the attempt to determine the original series from 
the copy; Mr. Ederheimer believes in the E 
Series and has succeeded in impressing his views 
on the British Museum authorities, who hitherto 
upheld the S. We pass to Andrea Mantegna and 
all the seven plates are shown, which out of 
twenty-four attributed to the master are now 
alone conceded to be authentic, and all are nearly 
perfect impressions. Near these can be seen 
plates attributed to him or to his pupils, Zoan 
Andrea and de Brescia. Robetta is represented 
by his Adoration of the Magi, and his allegories, 
Envy and Power of Love. His designs were mostly 
copied from pictures by Lippi and others. 

The only known engraving of Pollaiulo is his 
Battle of Naked Men, of which an excellent im- 
pression is shown, revealing vigorous drawing. 
He was a fellow-workman of Finiguerra and a far 
greater artist. With the dawn of the sixteenth 
century and the arrival of Marcantonio line en- 
graving, which had been a matter of original pro- 
duction as painter-engraving, now became a 
reproductive art entirely dependent upon paint- 
ing. Nothing prior to Marcantonio is quite on a 
level with Diirer, still the allure of the earlier 
Renaissance artists compensates for any lack of 
technical efficiency. 



U-NXM 




'THF <51IDDCP 



L X /- II 




'THE SUPPER." FROM THE OIL 



INTERNATIONAL 
STUDIO 



VOL. XLVIII. No. 192 



Copunghl. 1913, by John Lane C. 



T 



HE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES TAP- 
ESTRIES, AFTER RAPHAEL 
BY GEORGE LELAND HUNTER 



The tapestries are at the Vatican. 
The cartoons are at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum in South Kensington. There are copies 
of the tapestries in the Spanish Royal Collection, 
the Imperial Austrian Collection, the French 
National Collection, the Berlin Museum, Hamp- 
ton Court, the Beauvais Cathedral, the Cathedral 
of Loretto, the Dresden Museum. 

At the Metropolitan Museum there are neither 
cartoons nor tapestries, but, instead, there is a set 
of wonderful photographs of the tapestries, taken 
for Mr. Morgan by special permission of His Holi- 
ness the Pope, and by Mr. Morgan presented to 
the Museum. These photographs, of e.xtraordi- 
nary size and framed, are on exhibition in the 
photograph room of the Library of the Museum. 

By contemporaries, as well as by posterity, the 
tapestries were praised without end. They were 
admired by Frances I and Louis XIV, Henry VIII 
and Charles I, Charles V and Philip II. By en- 
gravers and painters, as well as by weavers, they 
were copied over and over again. The tapestries 
were first shown on December 26, 1519, in the 
Sistine Chapel, for which they were planned. 
The company assembled represented the learning 
and refinement of the world. There were red- 
robed cardinals and velvet-capped painters, gaily 
clad young noblemen and somber-gowned scholars, 
and foreign ambassadors in the picturesque attire 
of their various countries. All were enthusiastic. 
They were unable to e.vpress the full e.xtent of 
their admiration. "Every one present," wrote 
one of the guests, "was speechless at the sight of 
these hangings, and it is the unanimous opinion 
that nothing more beautiful e.xists in the universe'" 

Another guest wrote: "After the Christmas 
celebrations were over, the Pope exjjosed in his 
chapel seven tapestries (the eighth not being fin- 



FEBRUARY. 1913 



ished) executed in the West [in Flanders). They 
were considered by everybody the most beautiful 
specimens of the weaver's art ever executed. And 
this in spite of the celebrity already attained by 
other tapestries — those in the antechamber of 
Pope Julius II, those made for the Marchese of 
Mantua after the cartoons of Mantegna, and those 
made for the King of Naples. They were de- 
signed by Raphael of Urbino, an excellent painter, 
who received from the Pope loo ducats for each 
cartoon. They contain much gold, silver, and 
sOk, and the weaving cost 1,500 ducats apiece — a 
total of 16,000 ducats ($160,000) for the set — as 
the Pope himself says, though rumor would put 
the cost at 20,000 golden ducats." 

The tapestries were woven in Brussels under the 
super\ision of the Flemish painter, Barend Van 
Orley, friend and pupil of Raphael. Brussels was 
then the world's principal center of tapestr\- pro- 
duction. Arras, that gave its name to the English 
arras and the Italian arazzi, having been captured 
and ruined in 1477 by Louis XL The atelier 
selected was that of Pieter Van Aelst, who was 
tapestry weaver not only to Philip the Handsome 
but also to his son, the future Emperor Charles V. 

Of Van Aelst's success in interpreting the car- 
toons Vasari wrote thirty years later: "One is 
astonished at the sight of this series. The execu- 
tion is marvelous. One can hardly imagine how 
it was possible, with simple threads, to produce 
such delicacy in the hair and beards and to express 
the suppleness of flesh . It is a work more Godlike 
than human ; the waters, the animals and the habi- 
tations are so perfectly represented that they 
appear painted with the brush, not wo\en." 

The original tapestries woven for Leo X had 
their share of %'icissitude. The walls of the Vati- 
can were no protection. The portableness of the 
tapestries made them the easy prey of looters and 
thieves, while the other decorations of the Sistine 
— the frescoes — stayed securely in place. Their 
first misfortune was to be pawiied immediately 




1- IS V^O 




THI-: ^Al KIIR !■: AT LVSTKA 

IN THI, NATIIINAI, I- REN< H ((lI.LEt TION 



MOKTLAKH SEVliNTKKXTH-CENTrRV TAPESTRY 
Al TER RAPHAEL 




THE CIRE OF THE PAKAEYTK 

IN THE NATIONAL FRENCH COLLECTION 



MORTLAKE SE VENTEENTH-CENTIRV TAPESTRY 
AFTER RAPHAEL 



uiv: 



TJie Acts of tJie Apostles Tapestries, After Raphael 



after Leo's death in 1521. The great painter was 
then dead a year, so both Leo and Raphael were 
spared the ignominy of seeing the pride of their 
Hves mortgaged for the comparati\-ely small sum 
of 5,000 ducats (850,000). Next the tapestries 
were loot for the hordes that sacked Rome in 1527, 
under the Constable Bourbon. The soldiers sold 
them in various parts of the world. The Conver- 
sion of Saul and ,S7. Paul at Athens are known to 
have been in \'enice the following year. This lat- 
ter piece wandered to Constantinople, where it 
and the Draught of Fishes were bought by the 
Constable Montmorency and returned to Julius 

in. 

The worst fate of all befell the tapestry of 
Elynias Struck Blind. This the soldiers cut in 
pieces to sell the more readily. A quarter of a 
century later the Vatican regained possession of 
enough fragments to piece together half of it. 

After the tapestries were reassembled in Rome 



they left their places only to be shown to the 
populace e\-ery Corpus Christi. This custom 
lasted until 1798. In that year the French Army 
under Berthier entered the Holy City. Barely 
two weeks later the French carried Pius \TI ofT to 
die in France, after long captivity, and ordered an 
auction sale of the Vatican furnishings. French 
second-hand dealers were there in numbers, and 
among the bargains they picked up were the 
Raphael tapestries at 1,250 piasters each. 

The dealers took them to Paris and offered them 
to the French government. Pending the decision 
the tapestries enriched the walls of the Louvre. 
The new republic apparently had more important 
uses for its money and let the opportunity pass. 
The tapestries were returned to Marseilles and 
finally made their wav back to the Vatican in 
1808. How they got there no one can explain. 
This journey terminated their wanderings. 

The subjects of the tapestries are: (i) The 




THE CONVERSION OF SAIL 
.\T THE BEAUV.\IS CATHEDRAL 



BEAVVAIS SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY TAPESTRY 
AFTER RAPHAEL 



The Acts of the Apostles Tapestries, After Raphael 




THE STONING OF SAINT STEPHEN 
IN THE ROYAL SPANISH COLLECTION 



BRUSSELS SIXTEENTH-CEXTIRV TAPESTRY 
AFTER RAPHAEL 



Miraculous Draught of Fish; (2) The Charge to 
Saint Peter; (3) The Cure of the Paralytic; (4) The 
Death of Ananias; (5) The Stoning of Saint 
Stephen; (6) The Conversion of Saint Paul; (7) 
Elymas Struck Blind; (8) The Sacrifice at Lystra; 
(9) Saint Paul in Prison; (10) Saint Paul on the 
Areopagus. 

One of these St. Paul in Prison being small, or 
rather diminutive, in size, does not appear ever to 
have been reproduced, except as part of the first 
set for the Sistine Chapel. So that most of the 
sets of Acts of the Apostles tapestries consist of 
nine pieces. Those woven at Mortakle consist of 
only seven pieces, being wo\-en from the se\en 
cartoons that Sir Francis Crane got from Genoa 
for Charles I. 

As I have said in my book on " Tapestries, their 
Origin, History and Renaissance," these paintings 
of Raphael were not particularly suited for expres- 
sion in tapestry, and by leading tapestry design- 



ers off in the wrong direction did incalculable harm 
to the art of tapestry weaving. But the weavers 
of Brussels in the first half of the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury were so skillful that no difficulties could daunt 
them, and in the weaving of the tapestries for the 
Vatican they modified color and design boldij- in 
the direction of tapestry texture. 

The different sets of Acts of the Apostles tapes- 
tries, while resembling one another closely as 
regards the picture part, have borders that are 
totally unlike. 

The Vatican set has bottom borders woven in 
imitation of bas-relief depicting the life of Leo X 
before he became Pope, and scenes in the life of 
St. Paul. A full set of side borders the Vatican 
set never had, the space in the Sistine Chapel, for 
which the tapestries were calculated, admitting of 
only seven instead of twenty. 

The most interesting borders possessed by any 
are those of the principal set in the Royal Spanish 



The Acts of the Apostles Tapestries, After Raphael 




THE MIRACILOIS DRAUGHT OF FISH 
AT THE VATICAN 



URUSSELS SIXTEENTH-CENTURY TAPESTRY 
AFTER RAPHAEL 



Collection, several examples of which are illus- 
trated in connection with this article. This Span- 
ish set is not only fully equipped with side borders, 
but also has bottom borders designed in the same 
style, and rich with gold in basket weave. These 
borders are the same as the borders on Mr. Blu- 
menthal's two Herse tapestries loaned to the 
Metropolitan Museum. 

.\lso rich in composition are the borders spe- 
cially designed for the .\cts of the Apostles tapes- 
tries, woven at Mortlake for the Enghsh King 
Charles I, as showTi by the royal coat of arms in 
the top border and the Car. re. reg. ilortl. in the 
bottom border (illustrated on page lxx\-ii), which 
unabbre^^ated reads Carolo rege rcgnante Morllake, 
and means ".-Kt Mortlake in the reign of King 
Charles." 

The ^lortlake border is just as character- 
istically seventeenth century- in style as the 
borders of the Vatican and Spanish sets are six- 
teenth century. 

Formerly these Mortlake borders were attrib- 



uted to Van Dyck, merely lor the reason that 
he painted portraits at Charles's Court. 

There are no facts to support this attribution, 
and the probability is that these borders were 
the creation of the head cartoonist and artistic 
director of the Mortlake Works, Francis Cleyn. 
We know positively that he designed the Hero and 
Leander borders that resemble them. 

The borders of the Beauvais set are much less 
interesting and as the style of the design indicates 
are nearly three-quarters of a century later than 
the Mortlake ones. 

Tradition says that the seven Raphael cartoons 
now in the Victoria and Albert Museum were 
bought by Charles I in Brussels about 1630. In- 
asmuch as the cartoons were in use at Mortlake 
before this date and as Sir Francis Crane, the pro- 
prietor of the Mortlake Works, wrote in 1623 that 
Prince Charles had ordered him to send to Genoa 
for these Raphael drawings, I am afraid that the 
tradition, though long and generally accepted, has 
no foundation in fact. 



standardized Sentinient in Current Art 




The Winlt'r Academy 
MAPLES IN SPRING 



s 



TANDARDIZED SENTIMENT IN 
CURRENT ART 
BY CHRISTIAN BRINTON 



I. THE WINTER ACADEMY 

There can be scant doubt in the minds of 
those blessed with customary subtlety of percep- 
tion but that the officers and members of the 
National Academy of Design are engaged in play- 
ing for sympathy. Having earnestly and per- 
sistently appealed for assistance in their endeavors 
to secure more commodious quarters, they are at 
present beyond question gi^"ing a series of public 
demonstrations of how sorely they need room for 
expansion. It is frankly impossible on any other 
grounds to account for such an exhibition as has 
lately been on view in the Fifty-seventh Street 
galleries. With considerably less space than usual 
at command, owing to the extended representation 
given to sculpture, relatively more paintings were 
this season accepted and hung than has been the 
average for several years past. Obviously it was 



BY H. BOLTOX JONES 

a concerted and well-considered plan on the part 
of those in control, for not only were members and 
associates accorded reasonable consideration, but 
over three hundred works from outside sources 
were gathered into the fold. No one can seriously 
beheve that this appalling plethora of paintings, 
this grotesque and flagrant o\-ercrowding, was 
countenanced through any desire, however \'ague, 
to elevate taste or inspire even the crudest ama- 
teur with a love of art, as expressed in the eternal 
but ever-variable equation of line, form, and color. 
No, the affair was fathered in a spirit of pure 
propaganda, and it is in this light, and this alone, 
that it should rightfully be considered. 

It is, moreover, signiticant to note that the 
recent Winter Exhibition went even a step further 
in this particular direction than have any of its 
predecessors. As an object lesson it lacked none 
of the elements of completeness. Not only did 
the canvases suffer cruelly from constriction, but 
in themsehes they seemed to reflect, consciously 
or unconsciously, the conditions under which they 



StaiidanUzcii Sentiment in Current Art 




'Ihc Winter Acadt 
PORTRAIT OF 
MRS. KIMBALL 



BY ALOXZO KIMBALL 



were produced, and with which, having once been 
e\ol\ed, they were ine\-itably forced to contend. 
In brief, Academy exigencies have resulted in the 
creation of the tj'pically academic picture. .^ 
spirit which is wellnigh identical characterizes 
\irtually e\Tr>' canvas which season after season 
makes ajipearance upon these cramped and clut- 
tered walls. It seems as though each ])ainting 
had a subtle and pathetic premonition of its im- 
pending fate. It is possible that the artists may 
in certain instances deliberately add touches of 
wistful, shrinking deprecation, yet in any e\ent 
the result is the same, and we are confronted with 
a composite impression which arouses the keenest, 
most poignant solicitude. 

Positive suffocation from lack of jjroper breath- 
ing space is written across the face of most of these 
canvases. One instinctively recalls the pallid 
countenances of creatures herded together in the 
congested tenement districts. One thinks, indeed, 
of almost anything saving the splendid, spontane- 
ous zest of untrammelled creative impulse. In 



])ortraiture, in figure painting, and in landscape 
you observe the same general tendencies. Year 
by year the sturdy captain of finance or industry 
has grown less characterful, the female form more 
etherially tenuous and vapory, and glimpses of 
nati\e wood, water, or meadow more appro\-edly 
tonal in persuasion. In not a few cases artistic 
e\])ression has almost attained the vanishing 
point. Here and there it becomes a mere breath, 
a hint of lost loveliness, or a shadow of former 
strength reduced to docile subser\'iency. One 
must no longer be vigorous or positive, as in the 
first, joyous flush of early endeavor. One must 
conform to conditions. One must standardize 
one's sentiment as well as one's technique. It 
must not, in short, be forgotten that there is so 
little space upon Academy walls, that hanging 
presents such insuperable difficulties, and that 
work which tends to transcend or trample upon 
convention stands scant chance of acceptance or 
possible purchase. 

It is in this spirit of judicious deference that the 
majority of the pictures figuring in the .\cademy 
exhibitions are conceived and executed. Thev are 
in essence a protest against current conditions, 
often an involuntary protest, yet for that reason 
an all the more eloquent one. Save in isolated 
instances they do not exist as separate, self- 




Winler Academy 
ST.\TrETTE IN BRONZE BY CARTAINO 

PORTRAIT OF THE SCIARRINO PIETRO 

N.\TIRALIST, JOHN BURROUGHS 




The Winter Academy 



THE SEA 

BY HENRY R. POORE 



Standardized Sentiment in Cuyroit Art 




The Corcoran Gallery Exhibilion 
THE BOWX OF GOLDFISH 



BY CHILDE HASSAM 



sufficient esthetic entities, but rather as parts of 
a system. While such a situation has long been 
tacitly recognized, it would be remiss on the 
present occasion not openly to congratulate the 
Academy upon the frankness with which they 
have taken the public into their confidence. There 
has this season been absolutely no attempt to dis- 
guise or minimize actual conditions. We have 
been plainly shown what the crying needs are, 
and such rare and welcome naivete merits e\'ery 
consideration. There is, however, something am- 
biguous if not positively confusing in such an 
attitude. The average indi\idual not conversant 
with the general policy and programme of the in- 
stitution in question may fail to grasp the specific 
point at issue, or do full justice to the pertinency 
of this method of approach. It is barely possible, 
though of course not probable, that there are those 
who may even be misled into considering these ex- 
hibitions as serious, inspiring demonstrations of 
artistic accomplishment, and not in their true as- 
]5ect as appeals for public sympathy and support. 
The good, old-fashioned plan of putting one's best 



foot forward, of, in other words, offering a judi- 
ciously selected and installed display may, after 
all, prove wiser than the present juggling with 
one's poor, overwrought sensibilities. 

II. THE PHIL.\DELPHL\ WATER COLOR 
EXHIBITION 
Without advancing any claims to nationality in 
scope or significance, the Pennsylvania .\cademy 
of the Fine Arts nevertheless approaches more 
closely the definition of a national institution than 
does any organization of its character in America. 
Not only is it the oldest as well as the most rep- 
resentative of our art academies, it is also the 
one whose exhibitions ha\'e for years past main- 
tained the highest standard of general excellence. 
A special feature of the Philadelphia season is the 
annual Water Color Exhibition inaugurated just a 
decade ago, and on this occasion even more inter- 
esting and varied than usual. On entering the 
galleries you instantly feel the difference in aim 
and esthetic ideals between exhibitions as they are 
presented in Philadelphia and as one customarily 



standardized Sentiment in Current Art 




The Corcoran GalU 
WILDERNESS 



SOO) and the Corcoran Silver Medal 
BY DANIEL GARBER 



finds them in New York. There is here no con- 
fusion, no over-crowding. The possibility of sub- 
di^•ision into numerous smaller rooms makes it 
practicable to hang the pictures in more or less 
generically related groups, and everywhere there 
is that sense of dignity and spaciousness, as 
well as intimacy, which artistic effort would seem 
to e.xact, and which alone can render its message 
effective, if not indeed actually articulate. 

There is something in the superior freedom and 
spontaneity of the medium itself, and not infre- 
quently also in the artist's mood as well, which 
lends to water colors numerous points of attraction 
not ordinarily encountered in the average run of 
work in oils. Many of those represented in the 
recent Philadelphia exhibition were men of estab- 
lished position in the pro^■ince of oil painting who 
were here seeking casual relaxation from sterner 
effort; not a few were water color painters by pro- 
fession, and still others were recruits from the 
field of illustration. It was hence inevitable that 
there should have been to the display as a whole a 
\i\-acity of temper and a general diversity of 



handling which are all too rare in the more formal 
product of brush and canvas. There is no con- 
ceivable reason why American art should take 
itself with such preternatural seriousness. Our 
painters appear one and all to have lost the primal 
sense of play — to have ceased doing things for the 
sheer joy of accomplishment. They seem to get 
pathetically little downright fun out of their work, 
and the effects of this attitude are year by year 
more visible on the walls of our leading galleries. 
We must stand out against that tendency 
toward a monotonous standardization which is so 
paramount in the industrial and social worlds. 
The most precious cjuality in creati\-e effort is the 
note of wholesome individuality, and it must be 
preserved above and beyond all else. The great, 
levelling forces of latter-day existence — the legacy 
of this age of democracy — are frankly inimical to 
instinctive, spontaneous esthetic expression. They 
tend in art to produce mere pictorial conventions, 
paintings which are soothingly uniform in spirit 
rathei" than stimulating, which are delicate and 
persuasive rather than \-igorous or powerful in 

L.XXXV 



Standardized Senfiineiif in Current . I rt 




Thr Winltr A 



PORTRAIT OF 
LOriSE 



BY MARY GREENE 
BLUMENSCHEIN 



their grasp of scene and character or in their 
inherent chromatic appeal. It is impossible not 
to recognize the fact that the locks of our young 
Samsons become clipped in the space of a few- 
brief years. They not infrequently start upon 
their careers with a splendid burst of zeal and 
enthusiasm. They continue for a time to remain 
reasonably personal in their output, but in the 
end most of them succumb to the inevitable pro- 
cess of standardization. It is this situation which 
gives such a display as the Philadelphia Water 
Color E.Khibition its special significance, for here 
there is visible a definite desire to unbend, to 
strike out for one's self and achieve something free 
and unstudied. Were we able to get together 
a representative collection of oil paintings with 
something of this delightfully informal and experi- 
mental spirit, it might go far toward redeeming our 
early promises and, incidentally, proving that in 
art at least we are a young, rather than a prema- 
turely aged nation. 

III. THE CORCORAN GALLERY 
EXHIBITION .. 

The first thing which strikes the metropolitan 
visitor to the Fourth E.xhibition of the Corcoran 



Gallery is the fact that here e\erything has been 
done to beautify and dignify contemjiorary artis- 
tic production. The wall coverings arc light and 
harmonious in tone, the pictures are hung with 
scrupulous taste and balance, and the requisite 
amount of s])ace has been left between each can- 
vas and its nearest neighbor. Considering the 
wide and deser\-ed popularity of these admirable 
biennial exhibitions, and the large quantity of 
works at the disposal of the jur>-, it would have 
been an easy matter to have increased the numeri- 
cal strength of the display. And yet rigorous ex- 
clusion rather than indiscriminate inclusion as 
practised at the New York Academy of Design 
has kept the list down to 246 canvases, whereas 
the Academy, with infinitely less space at its com- 
mand, has had the temerity to hang no less than 
345. To be sure, the character of the two displays 
is different. The Academy show is frankly local 
and personal in its appeal. The Washington exhi- 
bition is distinctly more national in scope and pur- 
pose, and yet the fact remains that whatever be 
the motive in placing pictures before the public it 
must be done in approximately the same manner. 
We must be attracted, not repelled, by the appear- 
ance of the galleries. We must be stimulated and 
inspired, not crushed beneath a solid mass of 
mediocrity and rendered incapable of disengaging 
good from bad. 

On studying in detail and with something more 




The Corcoran Gallery Extubtlion 

Awarded the Fourth W. A. Clark Prize and the 

Corcoran Honorable Mention Certificate 

A NUDE BY CARL J. NORDELL 



Standardized Seiit'uiient in Current Art 



%y 




The Philaddphia Uairt C-okir ExhMtwn 

JAIPUR MARKET BY THORNTON OAKLEY 

than casual curiosity such an exhibition as that 
\vhich at present brightens the \valls of the Cor- 
coran Galler)-, there seems to he little question in 
the minds of serious folk but that American paint- 
ing has arrived at the historic jjarting of the ways. 
Are we going to airr\- any further this uniformly 
felicitous handling, this fondness for sweet, clear, 
purity of tone and, above all, this unfailing discre- 
tion in choice of theme. Are we, in short, going to 
remain precisely where we are and where we ha\-e 
been for close upon a generation, or are we going 
to attack newer problems and confront fresher 
issues. The resistless currents which are at 
present sweeping back and forth across the face of 
Europe have as yet barely reached our shores, and 
find no echo whatever in the work of the main 
body of American artists. That sovereign search 
for simphfication of line and color, and that quest 
of a sturdily individualistic and autonomous point 
of \'iew which are yearly making their presence 
more felt in Continental painting — almost everj' 
principle, in effect, that latter-day art is so valiantly 
battling for, seem one and all to count for nought 
in the eyes of the average American painter. 

The majority of our successful prize winners are 
men who returned from Paris or Munich during 
the early 'eighties and are at present utterly out of 
sympathy with the aspirations and ideals of the 



younger generation. It is. of course, presump- 
tuous to expect certain of these essentially sta- 
tionary and self-satistied figures to embrace the 
new and virile gospel of modernity, yet it is wholly 
within the province of legitimate criticism to in- 
quire as to whether their art, as they themselves 
concei\-e and practise it, expresses in any degree 
the fulness of life and nature, as we find it on every 
side. Do they not for the most part give us an 
esthetic convention in jilace of direct, first-hand 
observation, and is their feeling for integrity of 
form, color, and surface not more of a standardized 
studio product than a vital and \'ivifying response 
to the ever-changing vesture of actuality. Looked 
at in this light they seem to be relying consider- 
ably more upon sentiment than upon strength, 
and, possibly in a spirit of self-defence, the linger- 
ing evanescence of an oft-diluted Impressionism is 
held as vastly superior to the restless ardor of a 
wholly misunderstood Expressionism. 

While it is an easy matter to condemn what one 
does not comprehend, there are nevertheless signs 
of an impending change. From overseas are com- 
ing with increasing frequency hints of what Europe 
is accomplishing, and before long the beautiful, 
symmetrical mould into which so much contempo- 
rary American work is cast, may be rudely shat- 
tered. And it is then that we shall doubtless 
recall such an e.xhibition of native artistic accom- 
plishment as is now on view in Washington with 
an increased measure of that same fragrant and 
affectionate regard which it to-day so unequivo- 
cally inspires. 




The Philadelphia Water Color Exhibilion 

THE grandfather's CLOCK BY WALTER GAY 



The Evans Collection of American Paintings 





BY GEORGE IXNESS, N.A. (DECEASED) 



T 



HE EVANS COLLECTION OF 
AMERICAN PAINTINGS AT 
WASHINGTON 
BY CHARLES de KAY 



Undoubtedly one of the most significant groups 
of modern American paintings is the Evans gift to 
the National Art Gallery, Washington, where they 
are shown in the new museum which contains the 
Smithsonian collections. 

In number they do not yet reach two hun- 
dred, but the idea they represent, the principle 
they embody is of the highest value to the nation. 
They are works by men of our time, as far as pos- 
sible representative. They inaugurate the spirit 
that looks about to see what is being done here in 
America today, instead of ignoring what is close at 
hand and considering only what is foreign or old. 
They raise the question, why do we spend la\'- 
ishly on art made elsewhere or in the past, when 
such beautiful things are being fabricated about 
us? They are a standing reproach for the neglect 
of native work. They are a protest against the 
crude colonial timidity which prefers a foreign art 
it does not really understand to a native one ex- 
pressive of our country, customs and ideals. 

Mr. W. T. Evans began to collect pictures with 
no fixed purpose, merely to please himself. After 
he had lilled his house with foreign works he 



began to ask himself what it all meant. Having 
come in contact with various artists, he realized 
that art is not a matter of the past or of another 
land, but of today and his o\nt\ country. He was 
surprised to find that better pictures were being 
painted round about him in New York, in Phila- 
delphia and Boston, in Chicago and other cities 
of the United States than the foreign canvases on 
his walls. As his children grew up he gave them 
his taste for pictures and through them became 
acquainted with a yet wider circle of painters. 
Very soon he sold or gave away all his examples of 
foreign work and devoted his leisure time — for he 
is at the head of a very large and engrossing busi- 
ness — to the study of the living American arts in 
painting, water colors and stained glass. As he 
assembled a new collection he became more exact- 
ing, more critical, more the connoisseur, and dis- 
covered that many pictures he once admired gave 
him pleasure no longer. Of certain painters 
whose work he greatly cherished, the examples he 
had acquired seemed inferior to their best. There- 
upon he resolved to make a clean sweep of his 
collection and begin over again, so that the new 
Evans Collection would represent something far 
finer than the old. 

Thus occurred the Evans Sale, which will be 
remembered by artists, if not by laymen. It 
marked a turning point in the public's regard for 



The Evans Collection of . luierican Paintings 



native pictures, for it satisfied the aforesaid de- 
mand of the public that the dollar standard must 
be satisfactorily apjilied, or there would be "noth- 
ing doing." Instead of the loss which might have 
been expected in a sale of a large miscellaneous 
collection of recent work by American jMinters, 
there was a ven.- substantial gain over the original 
cost of the pictures. People of limited means who 
were hesitating to venture on the purchase of some 
favorite canvas, were not a little encouraged by 
the outcome of the sale, since the prices then ob- 
tained indicated that there are buyers of American 
pictures about, and that to buy one is not neces- 
sarily to indulge in a luxury- that absorbs money 
without a reasonable chance of its return, should 
conditions compel its surrender. 

Meantime Mr. Evans had begun to look outside 




ELKFOOT — PIEBLO TRIBE BY E. IRVING COrSE 



the narrower circle of the collector and interest 
himself in the welfare of artists. For the .\meri- 
can Water Color Society he founded an annual 
prize and in the Lotos Club and National Arts 
Club of New York he formulated plans whereby 
American pictures were added each year to their 
several permanent collections. He was also a 
leading spirit in an exhibition, where the best 
examples of American pictures to be obtained 
were hung alongside the best of French and other 
foreign paintings of modern make. The purpose 
was to allow the public, and especially collectors 
and hesitating would-be collectors, to compare 
.\merican painting as a living art with that of 
Europe. How far this action carried conviction it 
would be difficult, of course, to decide, but it may 
be said with certainty that were Mr. Evans to ef- 
fect another Evans Sale the linancial results would 
greatly surpass that of the one just mentioned. 

It is indeed a splendid gift to the nation which 
he has presented to the public, and he is con- 
tinually adding to the donation. Surprise has 
been expressed that he chose Washington, not 
New York, for this present, since the Metropoli- 
tan Museum is comparatively weak in American 
pictures. Among many there are two good 
and sufficient reasons for preferring Washing- 
ton; one is the existence in New York of 
other collectors who are gi\'ing American pic- 
tures to the Metropolitan from time to time, the 
other that Washington represents better than New 
Y^ork the heart of the country. As to the latter 
reason, it may be said that so long as New York 
remains the chosen center for collectors and for 
artists. New York will alwaj-s contain a far greater 
number of persons who will visit such a collection 
with pleasure and profit ; but on the other hand, 
that any influence the collection may bring to 
bear on members of Congress and the great mass 
of office holders who pass a portion of their lives 
in Washington, will be an influence radiating back 
in all directions to the remotest parts of the 
Union. It will not be a little feather in the cap of 
Mr. Evans if the silent testimony of these pictures 
is heard by members of the Senate and House, by 
the grand army of Government employees, by the 
crowd of politicians, sightseers and tourists which 
pours in and out of the national capital. Perhaps 
Mr. Evans came early to the conclusion that New 
York and the well-endowed Metropolitan can 
care for themselves, or will some day, while there 
is a more pressing need to emphasize the existence 
of a great living American art at the political 
heart of the countrs'. To this should be added a 




ILLUSION'S 

BY H. B. FULLER, A.X.A. 




Z d 









- ^ 

fr o 




o 
z 

tn O 

Si O 

2 Q 

— X 




THE BROWN' KI.MOXO 
BY IRVING R. WILES, N.A. 



The Evans Collection of Americati Paintings 




AN INTERLUDE 



m WILLIAM SERGEANT KENDALL, N.A. 



group of fifty-four native paintings given to the 
Art Museum of Montclair, N. J., and other por- 
traits and landscapes to the Brooklyn Institute 
and the Newark Library. 

From several examples of John La Farge we 
may select for illustration Vhil of Xicodcmus to 
Christ, a picture that reflects the artist's powerful 
feeling for color, his big sense for composition, his 
skill in management of drapery. Note the size of 
the hands; La Farge insisted on the import- 
ance of the hand as only second to the face in ex- 
pressing character. The face of Christ is said to 
have been influenced by that of the author Henr\- 
James, who when a young man lived at Ne\\'iiort 
with the painter. Illusions, by H. B. Fuller, is a 
fine example of the line in human figures and a 
symbolical composition of uncommon charm. 
Eros et Musa, by Henry Oliver Walker, represents 



the classical spirit that comes naturally to a man 
who has to clothe the walls of public buildings with 
dignified figures, figures that suit a grand style of 
architecture. Observe the skillful management 
of the lines of the young, boyish form, his wings, 
the arms and draperies of the Muse behind him, 
the rocks and trees in the background . The Pueblo 
Indian of the Southwest, with sacred feather, 
moccasins and embroidered buskins, has sat for 
his portrait to Eanger Irving Couse; he is a fine 
tvpe of the Taos tribe in New Mexico. A charm- 
ing group of Mother and Child by Sergeant Ken- 
dall, two pretty damsels watching a race between 
tortoises in a studio by H. Siddons Mowbray, a 
pensive gentlewoman by J. Alden Weir, a group in 
opulent colors — mother, babe and sibylline vase- 
bringer, by Hugo Ballin, a smiling young woman 
in a kimono, by Irving R. Wiles — these are exam- 




VISIT OF MCODEMIS TO CHRIST 
BV JOHN LA FAROE, \.A. (DECEASED) 




V«,\l/ I 



THE EUROPA SIBYL 

BY HUGO BALLIN. A.X.A. 



A GENTLEWOMAN 

BY J. ALDEN WEIR, N.A. 




<c/K 



EROS AND THE MISE 

BY HENRY OLI\ER WALKER, N.A. 



The Evans Collection of . liiicrican Paintings 



pies of the figure pieces, religious, symbolical or 
genre, which seem best adapted to reproduction 
in black and white. They are but a handful of the 
imposing list in the collection at Washington. It 
need scarcely be said that the landscapes and 
marines, the snow scenes and the jiictures whose 
atmosphere cannot be translated very well into 
black and white form an equally distinguished 
part of the collection. 

The New Jersey landscape by George Inness, 
as here reproduced, may suggest its pearly sky 
after a fa.shion, and the glow of the setting sun, 
the skillful use of rising smoke, the stillness and 
dull radiance of Indian summer. Here is a bit of 
the Shinnecock Hills, with clouds poised high 
overhead, as William M. Chase paints that spot, 
once his favorite. And here is a rugged headland on 
the Maine Coast, painted by Winslow Homer in 
1894, which has a rough savor, as elusive of defini- 
tion as are certain harsh chords of music. If the 
illustrations of figure pictures give a very inade- 
quate idea of that side of the collection, these few 



np 



landscapes and marines are still more obviously a 
hint rather than a rejKJrt. 

There are collectors of pictures in many ])arts 
of the Union who may take a leaf from Mr. 
Evans's book and devote their leisure to a more 
methodical and public-spirited purpose than has 
ruled them heretofore. Museums of art and gal- 
leries for paintings are becoming part of the usual 
make-up of a civic center in the United States. 

The example offered by Mr. Evans cannot fail 
to interest those who would like to help native art 
and at the same time provide their own city with 
a ]iermanent gallery of pictures to which all shall 
have access. Such already exist in cities by no 
means of the first or even the second order as to 
population; their number is constantly growing. 
Public-spirited collectors will do well to visit 
Washington, not merely to admire this impressive 
gift to the nation, but to take counsel with them- 
selves how to obtain on their own part such a 
striking success as that which Mr. Evans has 





SHINNECOCK HILL 



In tJie Galleries 



IX THE GALLERIES 
The current art season in Xew York 
maintained its prestige ably in the last week 
of the old year by displays of great variety 
and interest. 01d( masters and moderns, water 
colors and etchings could be enjoyed in endless 
profusion. 

Christmas week was t}T3ically represented at 
the Ehrich Galleries, with such subjects as Holy 
Family, Xalivity, Adoration of the Magi, and kin- 
dred conceptions. A Madonna and Child is a 
striking canvas by Laurent de la Hyre, betraying 
a strong influence of Murillo; a Francken canvas, 
very rich in tone, depicting the Magi in adoration, 
has all the force and color of Rubens; a Holy 
Family by Marco Palmezzano, a pupil of da Farli, 
is full of sweet expression; 
one particularly pleasing 
picture is the Flight by 
Night, by Jan Steen, admir- 
ably composed and full of 
modernity. Messrs. Ehrich 
have now a most important 
exhibition of early Spanish 
masters, including first-rate 
works of all the great men, 
excepting \'elasquez, and 
the picture by Mazo is an 
efficient substitute; it is 
only quite recently that this 
portrait of Dona Mariana 
of Austria was proved to be 
by Mazo and not a Velas- 
quez. This exhibition -n-ill be 
noticed in the next number. 
The Durand-Ruel Gal- 
leries showed sixteen paint- 
ings by Pissarro. He was 
not content with the disso- 
ciation of tonalities, merely 
juxtaposing taches of the 
primal tones, but accentu- 
ated his work with fine 
points to bring out effec- 
tively the vibrations of 
light. In a word, he was a 
Pointiliste. His pictures are 
all French scenes; among 
the best may be reckoned 
Bccheuse, Cours-la-Reine a 
Rouen, and a picture of the 
Louvre seen through the 
haze of early morning light. 



Following this exhibition came Chavannes, Degas 
and Renoir, represented by twenty-seven exhibits, 
mostly by the first-named, and chiefly small 
sketches used in his large decorative work, fres- 
cos, etc. Teodor de Wyzewa damns him with 
faint praise. "M. de Chavannes can neither 
draw nor paint, but he has genius " — and it is just 
this genius we admire, especially in a drawing of a 
sleeping woman, entitled Le Sommeil. Renoir 
has a large pastel of interest, called Lcqon de Piano. 
A young girl sits at a piano, practising, while an- 
other bends over her, turning the leaves; the face, 
hair and attitude are masterfully conceived. In 
another room are some fine decoratively painted 
seascapes by Maufra. 

John Laver}', the Irish painter, is seen at the 
Cottier Galleries in seven Tangier subjects. 




Courtesy of Messrs. Scott ^ Fowics 

H. H. PRINCESS PATRICIA OF COSNAUGHT 



BY SHOLTO DOUGLAS 



/;/ tJie Galleries 




A PRINCESS OF THE 
HOUSE OF BRAGANZA 



V ANT. MORO 



Little was known of this clever artist in America 
until his exhibition at Pittsburgh, with thirty-six 
paintings, in igii. He is certainly greater as a 
portrait painter, although his Tangier canvases 
reveal good color and masterful technique. His 
work is influenced both by Whistler and by Vel- 
asquez. Other paintings of importance are a 
Harpignies, The Lake, a rich, solid foreground, 
with misty \dew of water at dawn, in his best style; 
a blond Diaz, 1871, and a gem by Monticelli, en- 
titled Fountain of Love, a veritable blaze of color. 

The elegant Herter Galleries on Madison Avenue 
have been harboring a number of drj'-point etch- 
ings and pencil sketches by Mr. A. G. Learned. 

Owing to moving early in January to 709 Fifth 
Avenue, only few pictures were on \'iew at the 
Kleinberger Galler)-, but these were most import- 
ant — a typical Rubens, entitled Woman Taken in 
Adultery. Ferdinand Bol's, The Fortune Teller, 
with strong feeling of Rembrandt both in the 
landscape and in the figure of the soothsayer; the 
gold dress of the young woman has surely serv-ed 
as model to many eighteenth century portrait 
painters. We noticed a fine full-length portrait 
of Carreno de Miranda, by himself, the rich browns 
and blacks in true Velasquez manner; a St. John 
Holding the Child, by Murillo. The infant's face 



is beautiful in sleep, but not that sickly sort of 
beauty that mars the work of so many old masters. 
This picture once belonged to Louis Philippe. 

Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith had some thirty large 
watercolors on \-iew at the Knoedler Galleries, 
which attracted considerable attention; notably, 
five views of a charming old Norman inn at Dives, 
Cabourg, from which William the Conqueror 
embarked on his memorable trip to England. 
Some of his Dordrecht work has almost the 
strength of oils and displays marvelous skill in the 
handling of light and shade. 

A one-man exhibition at the Montross Galleries 
disclosed the watercolor work of the late Mr. 
Henry Bacon, embracing the results of fifteen 
winters in Egj^jt, where this skillful artist found 
his true expression. A pupil of Gerome and of 
Cabanel at the Beaux Arts, he did good work in 
England and France, but his "road to Damascus" 
lay evidently in Cairo and the Nile Valley, as up- 
wards of seventy pictures testify. He was the 
first artist who depicted the country in broad 
washes. His sense of space and atmosphere are 
very marked in the large desert tracts so ably 
portrayed and his caravans, camels, sheep, 
Bedouins, sphinxes, ruined shrines, sandstorms, 
obelisks and tombs are faithful chronicles. His 
charming picture of the ruins of Phylae has a 
separate value in that those ruins are now under 
water for all time. 

A visit to the Photo-Secession Gallery is always 
interesting. Mr. Stieglitz believes in every artist 
having a chance, and delights in launching out 
young talent on that dubious path that leads to 
glory, or in another direction. Notable displays 
have been held under his aegis, to wit, Rodin draw- 
ings and Matisse, so why not Walkowitz? At first 
sight the drawings seem so quaint, so crude, so 
revolutionary, that we pause and wonder whether 
we have not been trifled with; we almost imagine 
some one laughing at us from behind the wall for 
wasting one precious minute with such trash. 
This feeling wears off, however, and as we look 
further into his work we see genius struggling to be 
free and at times freeing itself. People laughed at 
WTiistler, yelled at Manet and ridiculed every 
artist who dared to be original. Nous verrons. 

Four portraits by Sir W. Beechy, with one each 
by Owen and Sir J. Reynolds have been on view 
at the E. M. Hodgkins Galleries. Beechy's por- 
trait of Miss Calcott is a charming specimen of 
this popular eighteenth-century court painter; a 
peculiarity about it is the fact that in spite of 
careful, almost meticulous finish to coiSure, robe 



In tJie Galleries 



i^ 



and surroundings, the artist 
omitted to model one of the 
arms, which in consequence 
appears broken, as it rests. 
The picture by Reynolds is 
the one engraved by Grozer, 
and known as The Lacemak- 
ers, being a multiple study 
of the same person in differ- 
ent positions, an art or arti- 
fice not unknown to the 
modern photographer. 

Messrs. Scott & Fowles 
showed some good canvases 
by W. and J. Maris. The 
seascapes of J. Maris were 
particularly pleasing ; one 
represented a desolate piece 
of shore, with a peasant 
carting seaweed, the other 
a bit of rough sea -nith drift- 
ing storm clouds. Jacque 
was on \new in a beautiful 
woodland scene in the rus- 
set tones of autumn, in the 
foreground a shepherd and 
his flock. The sheep are 
standing in an unruffled 
stream, which instead of 
being beautifully clear and 
transparent should by all 
rights be muddy and opaque 
— but that is painter's li- 
cense. Messrs. Scott & 
Fowles have recently been 
exhibiting some stately por- 
traits of dowagers and de- 
butantes, by Sholto Doug- 
las. Ver\- interesting is his 
portrait of Princess Patricia of Conuaiight, which 
we reproduce. Other portraits are the Misses 
Millais, in white frocks and strong sunlight, and 
three-quarter figures of Lady Kinross and Coun- 
tess of Drogheda. The artist has a bold style and 
is quite unconventional in his methods. His color 
is strong. 

Old Dutch masters are on %aew at the Fischer 
Caller}-. We reproduce a portrait by Moro of a 
princess of the House of Braganza, very stately in 
black velvet, with fine features full of expression. 
Other excellent portraits are two by Caspar 
Netscher of a warrior in blue steel armor and a 
lady of the court of Louis XIV. A Franz Hals is 
there, entitled Laughing Boy with His Whistle. 



k 




Courtesy of the Montn 
THE SPHINX 



BY HENRY BACON 



If you stand too close the boy appears to be howl- 
ing with misery, but on standing at proper range 
the howl of misery becomes a howl of joy. The 
artist might have given him better hair and teeth, 
but it is an eccentric picture; it is one of his little 
masterpieces in lighter vein. The picture of a 
young girl by Paulus Moreelse is an exquisite piece 
of coloring. He was a pupil of the elder Mierevelt 
and is taxed vAth coarse and cold color; but that is 
certainly not the case here. The Charcoal Burners 
is a superb example of Ruysdael, the fires glowing 
through the \-eO of night above a wooded stream, 
stormy clouds above. 

Some fifty etchings by Anders Zorn were on 
view during January' at the galleries of Arthur H. 



/;/ the Galleries 




Courtesy of the Kleinberger Galleries 
THE FORTUNE-TELLER 

Hahlo & Co., and aroused considerable interest. 
Tlie simplicity and at the same time boldness of 
his technique are suqjrising. His portraits and 
studies from the nude are very lifelike and striking 
in pose. An especially pleasing print is The 
Waltz, full of grace and action. 

.\n interesting collection of etchings by Sir 
Seymour Haden were on \-ie\v at the galleries of 
Charles H. Graff during December. Interest in 
the work of Haden, Brangwyn, Fitton and other 
great masters of the needle has been ver\' keen this 
season and shows no signs of flagging. 

A special exhibition of paintings by Lawrence 
Mazzanovich was held last month at the Macbeth 
Galleries. Four short years ago this artist was to 
all intents and puqroses unknown, but his work 
at the Paris salon caused quite a stir and caused 
Mr. C. H. Meltzer to break forth into prophecy. 
Certain it is that since then this young New 
Yorker has progressed along the path of fame in 
meteoric fashion. His work is impressionistic and 



honestly so; it is a loving 
inteqiretation of nature as 
Wordsworth would have 
portrayed it had he l)een 
an artist, and the moods he 
selects are the calmful ones 
seen at early dawn or ajv 
I )roaching dusk, a u I u m n 
hues being prevalent among 
I he can\-ases on view. 

The famous firm of Braun 
ft Cie, acceding to the re- 
i|uestofmanyoftheirclients, 
have decided to hold regular 
exhibitions, commencing 
now at their galleries, 13 W. 
46th St. They have hitherto 
been deterred from this en- 
terprise from the fact that 
so many exhibitions are held 
annually in New York, and 
they were unwilling to enter 
the lists unless convinced 
that they were in a position 
to give a really first-class 
display, worthy of their 
great position as art pub- 
lishers. They ha\'e now suc- 
ceeded in getting together a 
collection of some eighty 
color etchings by Anselmo 
Bucci, George Ritleng and all 
the members of the British 
Society of Graver Printers in Color. Following upon 
this exhibition, which will be on view the first half 
of this month, there will be a display of pictures 
suitable for educational purposes, the idea being 
to attempt to guide teachers, helping them to 
know what pictures merit wall space in American 
class rooms. This excellent idea goes to the ver\' 
root of a necessary reform. A third exhibition will 
be the miniature paintings of Matthias Sandor. 

In addition to exhibitions a scheme of lectures 
has been arranged, and each Sunday of this month 
will provide the opportunity of hearing Professor 
Pierre de Bacourt lecture on French Pastellists, 
Rubens and the Painters of the Barbizon School. 
Art lectures by Dr. Kriehn, of Columbia Univer- 
sity, will also be heard on dates under arrangement. 
To quote The Lotus Leaf: '' M. Braun has been the 
Aldus and the Henricus Stephanus of the great 
classics of drawing and painting." We wish them 
success in their new departure and feel sure that 
all art lovers here will have cause to rejoice. 



HV FERDINAND BOL 



THE STUDIO 



A 



NOTABLE DECORATIVE 
ARTIST: GEORGE SHERING- 
HAM. 



There are not many people at the present time 
who would be prepared to question the signifi- 
cance or to deny the importance of decorative art. 
The value of the decorator's work is too well 
understood to-day to be subjected to that careless 
disparagement under which it suffered not many 
years ago, and the position of the decorative artist 
in the art world is too clearly defined to be, as 
it was until quite recently, a matter for debate. 
Decoration has rightly come to be regajded as the 
most vita.1 of the various essentials which in com- 
bination make the perfect work of art ; it is recog- 
nised as the indispensable foundation upon which 
all the subsequent pictorial details must rest and 
the starting-point for the scheime of design which it 
's the artist's intention to work out. 



Of course, the decoration which plays so im- 
portant a part in artistic practice is not the 
mechanical and unintelligent mannerism which 
unthinking people have been accustomed to ac- 
cept as a permissible form of design. It is not, 
that is to say, a mere convention — a dull per- 
version of nature, or a stupid evasion of those 
subtleties of invention which are evidences of 
the artist's intellectual capacity. The popular 
idea of decoration in the past was something that 
required little knowledge of nature and little care 
in observation, something easy to do and therefore 
of negligible value : and from this idea came, as a 
not unnatural consequence, the belief that the 
decorator's position was an inferior one and his 
work of trivial interest. 

This idea has happily been changed for a 
belter understanding of the difference between 
the mechanical perversion of decorative principles 
and the application of these principles to work of 




"THE PANTOMIME TANEL 



XLVIII. No. 1S9.— November 1912 



PAINTEU ON SILK BY GEORGE SHRRINGHAM 
(In the possession (rf Lady Sackville) 



George S/irn'i/o-//(iiii 



serious and significant importance. The nianntr- 
isms of the incompetent designer are more than 
ever despised by every sincere student of esthetic 
activities, but the inspired decorator who is a 
master of his art and has a true judgment of its 
possibilities is being accorded something like the 
measure of appreciation that is indisputably his 
due. He is becoming a power in the art world, a 
very real power for good, and his influence upon 
the public taste is growing steadily and widening in 
its scope year by year. 

That this should be so is a matter for earnest 
congratulation, because it can safely be said that 
in the develo|)ment of decoration lies the future of 
modem art. The subject-picture, the painting w hich 
illustrates an episode and tells a story, has had its 
day, and there are many signs that its popularity 
is on the wane. A certain section of the public 
no doubt clings to it still as the most effective 
expression of the artist's aims, but there is a larger 
section which has lost all interest in illustrative 
painting and which craves frankly for something 



less obvious and less limited in its possibilities. 
These peo])le arc i)uite ready to accept the ab- 
stract imaginings of the decorator and to find real 
pleasure in the fantasies which he produces ; there 
is a demand which he can quite efficiently supply 
if only he has the proper qualifications for the 
work he is called upon to do. 

For this reason it is of the greatest imi)ortance 
that the men who venture into decorative under- 
takings should be possessed of powers which are 
perfectly balanced. It is only the artist who has 
his imaginative faculties highly developed, who has 
an excjuisite sense of rhythmical arrangement and 
a sensitive feeling for colour subtleties, and who 
is capable of appreciating the inner meanings of 
nature rather than her superficial realities that can 
be expected to reach the greater heights of decora- 
tive invention. 'I"he man who is not so soundly 
equipped is always in danger of lapsing into an 
unmeaning convention. If his imagination is un- 
equal to the demands made upon it by his work, 
his practice is apt to become stereoty|)cd and his 




DESIGN FOR A DECORATIVK PANEL 

4 



FROM A PASTEL IiRAWING BY C.E0R(;E SIIERINOHAM 




DESIGN FOR DECORATIVE PANEL. FROM A 
PASTEL DRAWING 15Y GEORGE SHERINGHAM 



George Slu-yiiiglwun 



methods are likely to lose their vitality ; if his 
sense of design is imperfect, if his colour-feeling is 
insufficiently acute, and if his observation is too 
matter-of-fact, his productions will be wanting in 
just that quality of distinctive originality which 
gives the true hall-mark to all fine decoration. 

There is, in a word, no room in the ranks of the 
decorators for the man of merely average capabilities. 
The artist who is by no means a consummate 
craftsman and who has only moderate powers of 
expression can often score a great popular success 
through the accident of a telling subject — many 
a poorly painted picture has brought fame to 
its producer because he has chanced to hit upon 
a motive which has pleased the crowd. But the 
decorator has not the opportunity of glossing over 
imperfections of practice by hiding behind a 
popular subject ; he makes his success or his 
failure by the use of his own capacities only, and 
he depends upon himself alone for the position he 
takes in his profession. It is this that causes the 
art of decoration to be more exacting than any 
other form of artistic expression and that obliges 
the men who follow it to acquire a more than 
ordinarily complete mastery over its complicated 
technicalities. 

Among the younger decorative artists of the 
present day there are few who are so thoroughly 
capable of meeting any demand that may be made 



upon them as Mr. George Sheringham. He is 
a typical decorator, possessing that peculiar balance 
of qualities which ensures an exceptional complete- 
ness of achievement, and endowed with an extra- 
ordinary fertility of imagination. A rarely graceful 
draughtsman, a colourist with an unusual sensitive- 
ness to refinements of combination and arrange- 
ment, and a designer whose wholesome originality 
is satisfying in the highest degree, he has advanced 
in a few energetic years to a position in the front 
rank. This position he can with complete JHstice 
be said to have made almost entirely by his own 
efforts, for his art is in all its main essentials a 
purely personal manifestation — something created 
by himself. It reflects neither the teaching of any 
particular master nor the tenets of any past or 
present school ; it sets forth an individual con- 
viction that is guided by an exquisite taste and 
controlled by a really delightful feeling for beauty 
of the highest order. 

Mr. Sheringham is, however, not a self-taught 
artist ; he has learned his craft under good tuition 
and has had the advantage of a thorough training : 
and on the foundation of this well-ordered educa- 
tion he has built up a system of working which 
owes much of its practical character to the teaching 
he received in his student days. He learned early 
in life what is so valuable to the artist — how to 
study and how to think, and most of all how to 



. "■ | »' » ?y -mi v it T^rxi»;T j ;wv« '»f"«)i J" >w g^W . H\ ^ 





PAI.NTED SI I K 

6 



(In thi posussion o' P. H. Kemp Prossor, Estj.) 



BY (;E0KGK SllKKINGHAM 




hV, 



'>%> 



f^l^ 



DESIGN 
FOR A 
DECOR- 
A T I V E 
PANEL 
BY GEO. 
S H E R- 
INGHAM. 



George S/ien'iig/iaiii 



use his powers of observation in gathering together 
that mixture of knowledge by which the artistic 
imagination is sustained during the labour of 
production. In the very confidence with which 
he took his own way when the pupil stage was over 
there is evidence of the thoroughness with which 
he was [irepared for the part he was to ]5lay in the 
world. 

His first experiences were gained at the Slade 
School, where he worked for some time, but later 



on he became a pupil of Mr. Harry Becker, an 
artist of strong convictions and vigorous methods 
who imparted to his students much of his own 
strenuous enthusiasm and implanted in them an 
understanding of what serious hard work really 
meant. Under Mr. Becker's tuition Mr. Shering- 
ham was drilled soundly in the grammar of the 
painter's craft and he was taught the value of 
rapid, decisive statement and of broad certainty 
of technical method ; and he was set an example 




" i.'arbre doree' 



FAN PAINTED OX SILK BY GEORGE SHERINOIIAM 
(/ii Ihe possession of Mrs. Huxloii Heinekev ) 




..J^^,-.-^K.^--.-^--i' r— ^ 



'THE LANDSCAPE FAN 



PAINTED ON KID BY GEORGE SIIBRINGHAM 
{In the possession of W'yndhain Hardins;, f'-sq.) 

9 



Gcori^c S/ic/'iiii:[/iaiii 



of earnest application which had a most helpful 
influence in the formation of his character as an 
artist. 

When he left Mr. Becker he went straight to 
Paris, where he took a studio and began to work 
out for himself the various art problems in which 
he was interested. He did not put himself under 
any m:ister, but spent most of his time sketching 
out of doors and drawing from life at the " Croquis." 
In these new surroundings he found himself very 
definitely diverted from the line of thought he had 
hitherto followed. He came under fresh influence.":, 
and he started a kind of .self-examination with the 
idea of finding out what was ihc real direction 
which by nature and temperament he was hitendcd 



to take. This, as might have been expected, put 
him for a while entirely adrift, for having shed the 
convictions he brought with him from England 
and not having as yet settled definitely on any 
other he spent some months in a search for the 
new road which he felt that he was destined to 
follow. 

It was by the study of Oriciilal art in the Paris 
museums that he was led first to believe that his 
destiny lay in decoration. This study opened up 
to him the possibilities of this branch of practice, 
and as time went on he began to realise that he 
was to find there the direction for which he was 
seeking. He did not enter \.\\nm it all at once, 
however, for he worked for a while at postcr- 





'TllE I'AKK FAN 



l-AINTKU ON SILK liV C.KOROE SHEUINC.IIAM 




'THE SPRING FAN 



PAINTED ON 
(III Ihc possession oj Mrs. d: R. Walker j 



SII.K BV (GEORGE SHERINOIIAM 



George Shcriii^haiii 




'THE ITALIAN LANDSCAFE FAN PAINTED ON SILK BY GEORGE SHERINGHAM 

(In the possession oj William Caiue, Esq. ) 




"THE KAKEMONO IA> 



SILK liY GEORGE >1IER1NGHAM 



designing and black-and-white work, and he had 
two exhibitions of landscape subjects in water- 
colours, one at the Brook Street Gallery and the 
other at the Ryder Gallery. But finally he aban- 
doned realistic painting entirely and decided to 
devote himself solely to the decorative work which 
by that time he had convinced himself was what 
he was by temperament and inclination most fitted 
to do. 

One of the first fruits of this decision was an 
exhibition of fans at the Ryder Gallery, an exhi- 
bition which showed in a way that did not admit 
of dispute how right he had been in his judgment 



of his own capacities. This exhibition and a 
second one held in the same gallery a little later on 
revealed him as a designer with something to say 
that no one had said before quite in the same way, 
and proved him to be an artist whose technical 
skill was as exquisite as his fancy was dainty and 
graceful in expression. They brought him at once 
into prominence, and established him in a position 
which has been confirmed and made more secure 
by the exhibition of several other fans and decora- 
tive paintings, and of the delightful series of wall- 
panels painted for Judge Evans. All these have 
appeared at the Ryder Gallery, the director of 



George SJieritigham 



which, Mr. Kemp Prossor, was the first to recog- 
nise Mr. Sheringhani"s abilities as a decorator and 
to encourage him in his efforts to express his 
individual preferences in art. Some other notable 
examples of his art have been seen in the exhi- 
bitions of the Pastel Society, of which he is a 
member — pastel is a medium which he handles 
with remarkable skill, and it is one which par- 
ticularly suits the daintiness and fanciful delicacy 
of his designs. He uses all mediums, however, 
with equal success, and he has a knack of getting 
out of each one its fullest measure of meaning. 

There is one thing that justifies the highest 
expectations for the future in Mr. Sheringham's 
case — that his choice of decoration as the walk in 
art that he has decided to follow has not been a 
matter of expediency, but the result of a slowly 
formed but absolutely sincere convictiwi. He 
believes that the new fields for exploration in the 
world of art are those in which decoration awaits 



discovery, and he holds that Western art has 
neglected decoration and has pursued realism 
instead to the exhaustion of its possibilities. Now 
he thinks the position is about to be reversed, and 
the East, which has hitherto confined itself to 
decorative art, will make its excursions into realism 
while the West will develop its latent decorative 
instincts. Decidedly, if such an awakening is at 
hand, he is helping manfully to bring it about, and 
he is offering an example which other artists who 
are concerned about the future of Western art 
would do well to follow. And he is to be sincerely 
commended for the earnestness with which he is 
setting to work ; in his treatment of the motives 
he selects there is no eccentric breaking away from 
sane traditions. His desire is rather to use these 
traditions as the starting-point of a new style which 
will show all needful traces of its ancestry and yet 
have a character of its own, and to build up this 
style by legitimate means. 




"THE BLACK FAN 



BY GEORGE SHERINOHA.M 




'THE CHINESE LANOSCAIE FAN 



PAINTED ON SILK BY GEORGE SHERINGHAM 





■'THE GREEN VASE FAN AND 
"THE PEACOCK FAN. paintedon 
SILK BY GEORGE SHERINGHAM. 



Etchings from the Paris Sa/oiis 



A decorator with such a well-poised judgment 
and with such a temperate view of his obligations 
is the more to be welcomed at this moment because 
there is a marked inclination among our younger 
artists to deny the authority of the past and to 
substitute a sort of anarchy for the judicious modifi- 
cation of ancient principles which are showing a 
tendency to become stereotyped. Mr. Sheringham 
demonstrates convincingly that the effort to keep 
touch properly with the past does not involve any 
sacrifice of his instinctive originality, and that he is 
by no means obliged to be old-fashioned because 
he has, as a sober student, taken the trouble to 
learn what his predecessors have done. There is 
no need for him to disregard their achievement or 
to refuse to profit by the traditions they have 
handed down ; his individuality is better displayed 
in the use he makes of the knowledge which has 
been gathered together through many centuries of 
artistic progress than it could possibly be in un- 
controlled excursions beyond the legitimate bounds 
of the artist's practice. A. L. Baldrv. 



s 



OME ETCHIiNTGS FROM THE 
RECENT SALONS IN PARIS. 



In making a comparison between the " Old 
Salon " of the Societe des Artistes Fran(;ais and 
the " New Salon " of the Societe Nationale des 
Beaux-Arts very little appreciable difference will 
be found in the standards attained in painting, 
and there would be practically none were the 
former dismantled of its mass of unquestionably 
mediocre work forming the bulk of the great 
assemblage of exhibits. 

In the sections devoted to the decorative arts and 
etching, however, the difference artistically and in 
arrangement is more notably distinct. To its etcher 
adherents the New Salon devotes a not aggressively 
large gallery wherein there is little crushing and 
their work can be seen in a good light, while the 
prints unavoidably hung in the passage below the 
dome do not paper the walls to the ceiling. In 
the Old Salon, on the other hand, every available 
space is utilised, and etchings and engravings are 




' COTTAGES IN CORNWALL 



(SocUti des Artistes Francois) 



BY HUGH PATON 
15 



I£fc/iii/gs from the Paris Salons 



liuddlcd together in a confusing mass, no distinc- 
tion being made between mere pictorial copies and 
original work. 

In viewing the collection of work shown this 
year at the Old Salon, it wa.s with a great sense 
of relief that one came across such spontaneous, 
open-air work as that of .Amedee Feau in Les 
Grands Pins, the I'ieilU Rue I'l Arge/ittui of 
Robert I )esouches, with its restrained KStheticism, 
and Mr. Hugh Paton's charming little print 
Cottages in Cormcall, in which that artist has 
fulfilled and accepted all the limitations of his 
medium withoutaffected knowledge. Characteristic, 
too, of a close and intimate relationship between 
the etcher and the interpretation upon cojiijer of 
the subject were Frank Milton .\rmington's Mount 
Sir Donald Glacier, Canada (Rocky .Mountains), 
and the little memories of Canada by Mrs. Caroline 
H. Armington. For subtle refinement the Dor- 
drecht of Mr. .Vndrew F. .Affleck claimed more than 
momentary attention, as did the Catliedrak de 
Chartres, by Mr. Hedley Fitton, for pallein and 



design. The Illustrations dune Monographic de 
Fril'ourg, by M. Paul-.Adrien Bourou.x, were simi- 
larly attractive. For a more distinct personality 
in selection and technique the Dancing Water and 
Pont Neuf, by Mr. 1\ Roy Partridge, were out- 
standing. The Roman Bridge and The Haunted 
House, with its suggestion of imagination, by Mr. 
Lister Rosenfield, were two most refreshing exhibits 
amongst much honest work with little inspiration. 

The prominent feature of the Old Salon was 
certainly technicality and ability applied to the 
|)ictorial representation of things as they are, and 
one felt thankful in viewing the coloured etchings 
that those qualities so far had not yet been achieved. 
Among the prints which kept within the medium's 
limits most successfully without presenting in ap- 
pearance a well-tubbed water-colour, Mr. Hugh 
Paton's Soir and M. Raoul du Gardier's Sur FEau 
were the most important. 'J'he aquatint An Clair 
de Lune, by Miss Hilda Porter, and Dans les Alpes, 
by M. Georges-Albert-l^tiennc Belnet, were also 
notable. Miss Polly Phill Morris showed some 




" THE ni'SV DWARl 

16 



( SocUU Xaltonale ties Beaux-.lrts) 



BY JAN GORDO.N 




CO 

en 

D 
O '^ 

-a 



-lii 



s 




D 


D 


< 


O 


:c 


D 


u 


< 



< > 



ir 



Iifc/iiii^s from the Paris Sa/oiis 



excellent dry-points, and Miss Xcll Coover some 
delicately obser\ed Studies of Children in the 
Luxemf'mirg, other able exhibits being Le Hois, by 
Miss Edith May Olive Branson, Suite ifEaiix-fortes 
Originales. by Henry Cheffer, Coude/'ee-en-Cai/x, by 
M. Robert Pierre Grouiller, Peniche au Bord du 
Medu'ay, by Miss Katherine Kimball, and Mr. 
William Averback Levy's La Porte de /'Eglise A'otre- 
Dame h I 'ernon. 

In the section of " Gravure "' at the Societe 
Nationale's Salon there were few among the two 
hundred and fifty odd prints displayed that did 
not claim attention. In walking round the little 
gallery one felt very much in tune with each 
etcher. The art and ability shown in the series of 
six prints by M. Auguste Lepere, one of which is here 
reproduced (p. 17), fully maintained the deserved 
reputation he has earned, and one's sense of creation 
and \ntality was satisfied by M. George Gobo's Port 
de Rotterdam and La Grande Brasserie a Bruges : 
quietude was attained by the delicate and refined 



work of M. Eugene Bejot — a good example 
being the Dutch scene, Pres de Le\'de, included 
among our illustrations — and the poetical tem- 
perament in the Boiujuet de Bois, by M. Jacques 
Beurdeley. Poignant in its imaginative dramatic 
eflect, the Sitio '. fai soif (from a series entitled 
" Les Sept Paroles ") by Marcel Roux was specially 
notable. A print entitled Sous les Cypres dEyoub, 
an Oriental graveyard scene, by M. Alexandre 
Lunois, arrested attention with an infinite fascination 
by its melancholy sadness and quaint decorative 
arrangement. Amongst the works by British and 
American artists in this Salon the most able and 
sincere were shown by Mr. Jan Gordon, Mr. 
Lester G. Hornby, Mr. Herman A. Webster, Mr. 
Augustus Koopman, and Mr. G. Plowman. Perhaps 
the finest by Mr. Hornby was his Dans le Jardin 
du Palais Royal, and by Mr. Webster La Route 
de Loui'iers, both of which have already been illus- 
trated in The Studio. Mr. Webster's Lihvenpldtz- 
chen made a good second to the print just mentioned. 







■ iJtbAK'.'l K.Mt.N 1 iJKn HAkt.S 
18 



(Society KationaU des Beaux- Arts) 



BV AIGISTL'S KOOPMAN 



H 
ui O 




Q 
> 

Q O 



/f 




MOUNT SIR DONALD GLACIER, 
CANADA." BY F. M. ARMINGTON 



(Socii'lt! des Artisles Ft cuicais) 



Charles John Colliiigs 



Other exhibits which deserve more than a passing 
mention include La Petite Fete des Fortifications 
and La Seine a Coiirhevoie, excellent in design and 
feeling of space, by M. Edgar Chahine, Les Deux 
Scieurs, instinct with active vitality, by M. Paul- 
Emile Colin, Le Folo, by M. Pierre-Georges 
Jeanniot, Danolition Rue Jean de Beauvais and 
Ferine en Correze, by M. Edmond Kayser, Le 
Chenal a La Rochel/e, by M. Gustave Leheutre, 
M. Gaston de Latenay's Le Grand Cliene and La 
Mer Sauvage, the dry-points by M. Louis Legrand, 
and M. Eugene Mala's La Ville Morte. Of the 
etchings in colour, Le Fort Cardinal ( Belie-Lk). by 
M. Georges Mouchon, Le Quai de /a Tournelle, by 
M. Jean Francois Raffaelii, and Nocturne dAuray, 
by M. T. Francois Simon, were the most noteworthy 
examples. E. A. Taylor. 



T 




"LUWE.M'I.ATZCUEN ' 



( Soch'ti! Nationale des Beaux-Arts) 



HE ART OF CHARLES JOHN 
COLLINGS; AX APPRECIA- 
TION. BY VAL DAVIS, R.B.A. 

Even to those for whom art is one of life's 
greatest interests there come, amid the multitude 
of exhibitions, moments of satiety and depression. 
One asks. Is it not played out, this "painting," 
has it anything fresh to offer? After all the centuries, 
is any form of pictorial art possible, combining 
beauty with originality — and sanity? The most 
jaded of art-lovers, the most blase of critics, must 
have found an answer to these questions in the 
recent exhibition of drawings representing the 
Canadian Rockies by Mr. Charles John Collings, 
at the Carroll Gallery, George Street, Hanover 
Square. One scarcely had dared to hope in these 
latter days that there 
could be such a revela- 
tion in vision, colour, 
and technique, for it 
seemed that even the 
" isms " must have ex- 
hausted their horrors 
— that finality had 
come. How quietly 
and unostentatiously 
the little "show" was 
announced! No 
trumpet blare or 
heralding of distin- 
guished patrons, but 
just a brief " foreword " 
in the catalogue, by Mr. 
Luscombe Carroll — 
whose faith in the artist 
has never wavered for 
twenty years. 

At first sight of Mr. 
Collings's work one is 
impressed with a sense 
of something un- 
familiar : no recollec- 
tion of kindred effort 
springs to the mind — 
this is admitted by the 
few to whom it does not 
make a complete ap- 
peal, as well as by 
the many who whole- 
heartedly succumb to 
its spell. The vision is 
new, the colour is new, 
the technicjue, even. 



BY HERMAN A. WEBSTER 



Charles John Callings 



is new. Indeed, this matter of quality in method 
is, to artists especially, one of the most remarkable 
features of Mr. CoUings's art. That after all the 
experiments of generations of workers with colour 
on paper a man should in our day show us an 
absolutely new effect and quality obtainable with 
- these materials verges on the incredible, and few 
artists indeed can be found to accept the fact save 
from the evidence of their own eyes. And how 
perfectly his method lends itself to the rendering 
of the crystalline air, the unsmirched snows, the 
pure light and colour of these mountain solitudes 1 
But this art goes further than any mere happy and 
dexterous rendering of the outward physical beauty 
of lake or mountain, for there is a " spirituality " in 
these drawings which nothing surpasses within my 
knowledge of landscape art. Standing before these 
few scjuare inches of framed paper, we feel the awe 
of great sanctuaries where abide Presences. Here 
Silence broods for ever on that far-off peak, and 
the spirit of Solitude dwells untroubled by man and 
his works amid the unsullied snow and ice. On 
that pinnacle of white piercing the heavens light 
inaccessible has for ever a resting-place. By what 
magic of selection and rendering, by what subtlety 
of drawing or colour, such emotions and imagina- 
tions are evolved in our souls it is difficult, in fact 
impossible, to analyse. All that can with certainty 
be said is that only an emotional ecstasy of vision 
could so transfuse peak and ravine, lake and sky, that 
all material substance, water, rock, and tree, becomes 
lucent, so that while we see only the essence of 
things we yet know them for what they are, lake 
and cloud and mountain. 

An analysis of the technicjue and craftsmanship 
of the.se water-colours reveals characteristics both 
interesting and instructive. The drawing is instinc- 
tive, it creates as well as records ; nevertheless the 
localities depicted are recognisable by all who 
know them. This innate sense of form enables 
the artist so to dispose and pattern his colour and 
tones as to give with truth the configuration of 
mountain and valley and plain ; indeed, only a 
phonetic summary of the drawing could present 
within such restricted compass these panoramic 
glimpses of the Rocky Mountains. We find no 
meticulous topographic detail in these bold con- 
structive lines and angles and curves, yet what have 
they missed that matters ? 

The composition of a picture can proceed from 
two principles, which, while to a certain extent 
mutually inclusive, yet contain essential differences. 
In one — and the more generally adopted — the 
main principle is the recession from the spectator in 



perspective, and consequent diminution, in pictorial 
dimensions, of the objects forming the subject, 
accompanied by a corresponding gradation, espe- 
cially in landscape, of their local tones and colours 
towards vanishing-point. Turner's Crossing the 
Brook will serve as an example, showing also to 
what a pinnacle of beauty this method can attain. 
Nevertheless artists in our day have elected to 
consider that form of pictorial composition higher 
which depends on the juxtaposition of objects, 
tones, and colour decoratively designed together 
like the pattern of a carpet or of a bird's wing. 
Perspective, linear and aerial, must not change the 
decorative effect into a mere opening in the wall or 
an outlook through a window. Brangwyn in our 
day, the Primitives in earlier times, conform to this 
latter method, as does Mr. CoUings. His drawings 
never suggest examples in a text-book of perspective; 
they are as purely decorative as a piece of inlay ; 
yet though he disdains the conventional and easier 
methods he rivals them by the ease with which he 
gives us space, height and mass, distance and air. 

Of the feast of colour displayed in this exhibition 
it is difficult to speak in terms which do not savour 
of exaggeration. Over all of them, even those 
nearest approaching the prismatic, there is a delicate 
veil, a sensitive withdrawing, as in an opal. Grey — 
for him the word means an underworld of colour 
shrinking as it were from the light of day — amethyst, 
ruby, sapphire, and pearl in ever-varying degrees, 
tint after tint, yet never the same, never repeated, at 
times — in a measure arbitrary — the creation of the 
mood and the moment. It would be hopeless to 
attempt to enumerate or describe a tenth of the 
fresh and fascinating tints and their combinations 
to be descried in these drawings. Most of us 
have had at times the feeling that snow is not 
always white. We are conscious occasionally of a 
yellow tone, more frequently perhaps of a blue. 
But Mr. Collings shows what a gamut of colour its 
surface can convey to the sensitive eye, for snow 
and sky and sea are Nature's changeful opals, the 
treasure-houses of her fairest iridescences. In the 
drawing On the Shiiswap Lake (here reproduced) 
see how the changes are rung on the lovely note of 
vivid blue of the mountains on the left, through 
varying gradations, green, grey, and black, till it is 
finally lost in the sober tones of the white sheen of 
the sun-glint down the mountain-side. 



\In a later tiumber we propose to reproduce in 
colour another of Mr. CoUings's drawings. Our 
readers will readily understand from the remarks of 
Mr. Davis our reason for not reproducing any of 
them in monochrome. — EnrroR.] 




^ O 



'1 •; 



Edward La uteri 



E 



DWARD LANTERI: SCULPTOR 
A\D PROFESSOR. BY I. G. 
MCALLISTER. 



Introductory A'ote by Air. Alfred Gilbert. 

Before you, you have an excellent account of 
the material side of a life's devotion. 

The greatness of a master's teaching is not 
necessarily proved by the productions of his pupils, 
but rather by their power to produce at all. It is 
no fault of the master if the pupil has been unable 
to follow him in aught but dexterity, for it is no 
part of a teacher's task to attempt to supply genius, 
nor yet artistic intelligence. 

His labour is at an end when the pupil has 
acquired all that can be taught, i.e. how to ex- 
press himself. There can be no doubt but that 
the revival of sculpture in England in recent times 
owes its inception and development to a systematic 




and intelligent training directed by one_.who has 
known how to lend the weight of his personality as 
a master as well as a teacher, and has thus been 
steadily creating an artistic moral influence worthy 
of the best traditions. To Edward Eanteri, the 
maker of many things, the originator of a raulti 
tude of ideas — Edward Lanteri, always the self- 
sacrificing and self-effacing master and friend — we 
are indebted for our school. It is a mistake to 
class this father of a revival with mere teachers of 
dexterity. Fate decreed that this man of infinite 
sensibility, subtle imagination and inflexible will, 
endowed, too, with natural poetical instincts, 
should sink all to benefit others by teaching them 
how to express themselves. England should be 
grateful to such a master for its awakening from 
a sleep of endless sorrow to a vision of future 
joy- 
It is certain that hundreds who have enjoyed his 
loving and unwearying care will 
join their gratitude to that of one 
who was his first pupil nigh forty 
years ago . Alfred Gilbert. 
Briges 1912. 



STUDY OF A BABY 



BY EDWARU l.ANTERl 



As sculptor and as master, the 
name of Edward Lanteri is known 
and revered throughout the king- 
dom. The history of his career is 
most interesting, and is especially 
instructive as showing how a great 
national educational work can find 
its centre of inspiration as well as 
vital impulse to development in 
the steadfast efforts of one man. 
And it must be a great satisfaction 
to the master — a satisfaction 
seldom realised in such cases — 
that he is able to see the far- 
reaching and permanent character 
of the results in his own lifetime. 

M. Lanteri very early began his 
art studies in Paris under Aime 
Millet and M. Lecocq de Bois- 
baudran ; at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts he studied under Guillaume 
and Cavelier ; and, as was the case 
with his predecessor, the great 
Dalou, his marvellous rapidity 
of execution, and the telling 
and expressive touches so cha- 
racteristic of him, are to be 
traced directly to the sound know- 
ledge of "life" work gained by 
25 



Edix.ui?'d Laiito'i 



ceaseless study and informing a temperament essen- 
tially that of the artist. 

At the age of twenty-three he became chief 
assistant to Sir Edgar Boehm, which position he 
held until Sir Edgars death in 1890. Ten years 
previously to this date he had succeeded M. Dalou 
(whose Life he afterwards wrote) as Professor of 
Modelling at the National Art Training School, 
South Kensington, now known as the Royal 
College of Art. Of this appointment Mr. Spielmann 
says: ''When M. Dalou departed in 1880, he left 
in his stead M. Lanteri, now a naturalised 
Englishman, who has proved an ability for teaching 
fully equal to that of his predecessor ; singularly 
endowed with the capacity for inspiring students 
with a passion for their art, and for securing from 
successive generations of them their admiration 
and affectionate esteem." 

Great changes have taken place since 1880 in 
the history and character of our national sculptural 
art, and in congratulating ourselves on our progress, 
we must remember to " give honour to 
whom honour is due '' — to the one 
Rodin addressed as " Homme precieux 
pour nos nombreu.x eleves." 

The great French sculptor paid a 
tribute to the modelling section of the 
Royal College of Art when he visited it 
with a group of French painters. He 
said : " We have nothing like this in 
Paris ; nothing to approach it " ; and he 
also added ; " If ever a renaissance in 
.sculpture should take place in England, 
it must come through the teaching of 
M. Lanteri I " This prophecy has 
already come to pass. We are ex- 
periencing to-day a very real revival of 
the art of sculpture, in great measure 
the outcome of Lanteri's work. During 
the last thirty-two years, numbers of 
thoroughly qualified men and women 
have passed out of the Royal College of 
Art to fill positions in schools all over 
the United Kingdom, and have in- 
culcated his methods and extended his 
influence on art far and wide. 

The standard of work at the Royal 
College of Art is of an unusually high 
order : the amateur is neither wanted 
nor received, and a test examination is 
set before entrance, to exclude beginners 
and all who are not serious workers. 
Those who are fortunate enough to 
gain admittance, therefore, are in 
26 



a position to immediately profit by the instruction 
given. In the " life " rooms are to be found 
the right type of student.s, animated with the 
spirit of art, and an enthusiastic capacity for work 
to a marked degree. The life-size figures wrought 
in clay from the living model are quite wonderful, 
both in the men's life rooms and in those of the 
women, and whether in the plastic or glyptic art, 
in every one of the many branches of the crafts 
so thoroughly taught by Prof Lanteri, all sections 
show that the most e.xcellent results have been 
attained. Prof. Lanteri is a rapid and dexterous 
manipulator, and his students say that only those 
who have witnessed the " demonstrations " which 
he gives every now and then, can have any con- 
ception of how marvellous they are. He will 
build up a complete figure in four hours, and a 
demonstration bust will take him only one hour 
and a half ! 

The method by which Prof. Lanteri teaches is 
entirely his own, and it has well been described 




ir.M' OF MON1IGNOR X. 



liV ElAVARIJ LAXTF.RI 




(In the collection of Sir James Gulhrie) 



'THE SACRISTAN." BY 
EDWARD LANTERI 



Eiiii'ard Lantcri 



as an expression of his own remarkable personality ; 
he holds that " sculpture is three-quarters scientific 
knowledge," and he has established his system 
on a firm scientific basis. In speaking of his own 
student days at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he said 
there was no teaching in the real sense of the word. 
" I was told only that ' this was right and that was 
wrong, that is too long or too short,' and no more 
than that. The best teacher of that time, to whom 
I owe so much, was M. Lecocq de Boisbaudran. 
His excellent lessons are still preseait in my 
mind. . . . 

'■ Taking the question of drapery, I used to copy 
it diligently, piece by piece, but I never understood 
or had pointed out to me any rule which would 
have simplified it. A\'hen I came to teach others. 




MARBLE BIST: "' REVERIE' 
28 



BY EDWARD LA.NTERI 



I thought a great deal of how to overcome some of 
the many difficulties to help my pupils, and I found 
that, by applying certain laws of nature to the 
obstacles, the difficulties vanished at once. The 
law of radiation, for instance, solved the problem of 
drapery, and the same law applies to the whole 
construction of the human figure." 

The hurry and superficiality of the education of 
the modem art student, Prof. Lanteri protests 
against greatly. " In the past there was less haste, 
and study was more profound. Nowadays it is 
rendered easy — a grave peril for the mind, which 
becomes superficial and fickle. Study may often 
be a kind of lure, by which students allow them- 
selves to be caught ; they grasp at its semblance, 
and it only serves them to disguise ignorance under 
an audacious cleverness." For slipshod methods 
he has no toleration. He holds that the period 
i)f training should be prolonged until the student 
has passed beyond the age of uncertainty and has 
acquired strength of character and clearness of 
aim. 

On tlie subject of composition he says : " For a 
master to impose on his pupil his own conception 
of a subject, is entirely contrary to the rules of 
artistic teaching. In such case, the hand of the 
student becomes merely the instrument of the 
teacher's brain, and he never acquires the needful 
strength of conviction to produce a work of in- 
dividual quality — the only result being that the 
student loses all interest in pursuing and perfecting 
his own conception. And yet this is just what 
the master ought to assist him in, by speaking to 
him of the masterpieces of old, and by using 
all possible means that will help him to give 
expression to his own thoughts and sentiments.' 
.Also : " A true teacher must exclude the systematic 
spirit from his judgment. Far from seeming to 
keep exclusively to one conception of art only, he 
must understand all those conceptions which have 
been produced before, and must be able to recei\e 
from his pupils all the new modes of e.xpression 
which can still be brought forth. Above all he 
must never: put his own example forward ; he 
should be absolutely impersonal." And again : 
" In order to develop the artistic intelligence you 
must work from nature with the greatest sincerity ; 
copy flowers or leaves, or whatsoever it may be, 
with the most scrupulous analysis of their character 
and forms, for Xature only reveals herself to him 
who studies her with a loving eye. In this way 
the student will find the essence of the spirit of 
composition, for there is nothing more harmonious, 
nothing more symmetrical than a flower, a leaf. 




(In the Alust'e du Luxembourg^ Paris ) 



'LE TRAVAILLEUR." BY 
EDWARD LANTERI 



Rihi'ard Laiitcyi 



and, above all, ihe'^human 
form. Here are found all 
the laws of beauty in com- 
position, and the student 
who copies them sincerely 
assimilates these laws with 
his temperament and per- 
sonality, and creates for 
himself an ideal which later 
on he applies to his own 
compositions." 

One of his most success- 
ful students gives an in- 
sight into the early days of 
the college, which is in- 
teresting. Under Prof. 
Lanteri the constructional 
side was very much insisted 
upon, but he always made 
it clear that technique was 
only a means to an end. 
He opened the students' 
eyes daily to the beauties 
of nature and the glories 
of the Old Masters, show- 
ing how the works of the 
latter implied an intimate 
study of the former. His 
enthusiasm extended from 
Phidias to examples of 
the modem school. To 
students of design he used 
to say the source of all 
design was in nature, and 
a knowledge of it was only to be obtained through 
much earnest study of nature. When his students 
showed dullness or depression he would strike 
sparks all round by his enthusiasm, and leave the 
little circle freshly inspired and ready to fight on. 
To those who were striving to do their best with- 
out, perhaps, much good result, he would say : 
" Courage, on arrive peu a peu," leaving them with 
a gleam of hope rather than in absolute despair. 
But the most laboured model ran a risk of being 
torn down, and the dismayed student would find 
that it had to be begun again from the beginning. 
One of the most dreaded phrases was : " Vou have 
tried to finish before you have begun." To all, 
however, he invariably showed the greatest personal 
kindness, and his courtesy acted like magic, meeting 
with an almost immediate re.sponse. 

A well-known sculptor who studied under Prof. 
Lanteri says : " Within the modem school of 
sculpture there has been one master only whom 
3° 




BY EDWARD I.ANTF.RI 
(In the Luxembourg, Paris, and Tate Gallery, London) 



those who know and understand Lanteri's work 
and power would admit as his superior in the craft 
as such, and that master is the giant Dalou. Like 
Dalou, and like Sargent in painting, M. Lanteri 
combines swift and true vision with the utmost of 
rapid technical power. ... He instantly per- 
ceives and sums up the vital essentials of the 
moment, and whilst his astonishingly rapid render- 
ing of these gives a vivid and sympathetic appre- 
ciation of the finer and subtler phases of external 
, nature, he yet ensures the presence in all his work 
of the deeper, the more abiding, and essential 
character of his subject. There can be no doubt 
that had the exigencies of life led to Lanteri 
devoting himself to the production of works of 
sculpture, his name ivould have stood high amongst 
the greatest men of his generation in art. But no 
one who understands the inner nature of things 
will regret his not having become a purely indi- 
vidual practitioner. All over the land former pupils 



Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 



are extending his influence and inspiration, and, 
notwithstanding all that has been done, and is 
being done, the best fruits of his gracious and 
unselfish labours are yet to come. It is a proof 
of what he could have done as an individual 
sculptor with his wonderful technical power. The 
work which he most appreciates and loves is the 
very greatest — the mighty Parthenon sculptures. 
A mark of his genius as an instructor and guide is 
that he never tries to bend any budding individu- 
ality out of its evident native tendency. No real 
merit escapes him however inadequately expressed." 

His time being so limited, most of his produc- 
tions have been busts, portraits, and ideal and 
portrait statuettes. In his earlier period (the late 
eighties and early nineties) he produced some 
purely ideal statues of much beauty, one of which, 
a marble figure, was acquired by King Edward, 
then Prince of Wales. In the higher intellectual 
and deeper emotional qualities his later work is 
the finer. A subtle artist, he has advanced all the 
time, so that now he is better than ever. 

The illustrations here presented give an im- 
pression of one phase only of Lanteri's mastery : 
that to which the conditions of his life as a teacher 
have in a great measure confined his own original 
work. But they amply reproduce two qualities 
which distinguish his work, namely, " life " and 
"colour." But there is another quality which will 
be observed in certain of the illustrations, and 



which can perhaps best be described by the word 
"monumental." It is his appreciation of the 
supreme importance of this quality that makes 
him one of the keenest and most understanding 
admirers of the work of Alfred Stevens. Unfor- 
tunately such monumental statues as Lanteri has 
produced have been made for places abroad. But 
those who have visited the college and seen the 
original work by advanced students cannot have 
failed to be impressed by the fact that this quality 
is insisted upon from beginning to end. It will 
also be seen from the illustrations how largely 
Lanteri's work is imbued with that intimate beauty 
and impresslveness which is the great charm of 
the best works of the Italian renaissance. What 
he has done for the revival of sculpture has not 
been at all realised yet by the public, but the 
sculptors know and say, that " if there is one in 
the whole realms of Great Britain and France who 
has earned high recognition of his unostentatious 
and disinterested labours on behalf of others, it 
is Prof Lanteri." I. G. M. 



R 



ECENT DESIGNS IN DOMESTIC- 
ARCHITECTURE. 



Below and on the next page w-e give 
illustrations of a house at Kingswood, in Surrey, a 
picturesque locality on the downs to the north of 
Reigate, lately erected from the designs of Mr. 




HOUSE AT KINGSWOOD, SURREY : GARDEN FRONT 



R. A. BRIGGS, F.R.l.l;.A., AKi HITECT 
31 



Recent Desii^iis in Domestic AnJiitectiiye 



R. A. Briggs, F.R.I. B. A. (Briggs and Browning), 
of London. The site offers views extending for 
many miles to the south-east, and in order that the 
residents should have the advantage of these views 
the dining-room and the drawing-room were both 
built with bay windows. Small light red bricks have 
been used for facing the external walls below the first 
floor, and also the chimneys, while the walls above 
the ground floor are covered with rough-cast. For 
the roofs rough tiles of a dark grev-red colour have 
been used, and the stone for the dressings comes 
from the Monk's Park quarries. The interior 
accommodation on the ground floor is shown on the 
accompanying plan. The rooms on the first floor 
comprise six bedrooms (including two for ser\-ants), 
a dressing-room, a schoolroom, two bath- 
rooms, and other offices. Part of the 
hall is carried through to the first floor, 
the window being continued all the way 
up (as shown in the illustration on this 
p)age), while facing the window is a 
galler)- reached from the first floor. 
The woodwork throughout has been 
painted white. 

Sion Hill, Thirsk, Yorkshire, of which 
we give an illustration in colour, is a 
house at present in course of erection 
for Mr. Percy Stancliffe on the site of an 
older house erected about one hundred 
years ago, that has been pulled down to 



make way for it. The estate until recently belonged 
to a branch of Lord Harewood's family, and is about 
four miles from Thirsk, in a richly wooded neigh- 
bourhood through which winds the river Wiske. 
The new house is planned so that the principal 
rooms all get as much sunshine as possible, and 
face the gardens and river, and several of the 
windows command fine \-iews of the Vale of York 
and the Hambleton Hills. The house is being 
built with cavity walls twenty inches thick, the 
outer facing being of two-inch red hand-made 
bricks, and the roofs are to be covered with thick 
red hand-made and sand-faced tiles. The entrance 
porch shown in the view is of Portland stone, which 
is also used sparingly for the windows, sills, strings, 





32 



R. A. BRIGGS, F.R.I.B.A., AR' HITKCT 



Recent Designs in Dojncstic Anhitcctiire 



&c. The interior is being treated in a simple but 
effective manner. The Hving-rooms and principal 
bedrooms are of ample dimensions, and there is a 
commodious hall. The architect is Mr. Walter H. 
Brierley, of York, and the drawing from which our 
illustration is reproduced was exhibited at the 
recent Summer Exhibition of the Royal Academy. 
Our remaining illustrations are of two houses and 
some interiors designed by an architect of Bremen, 
Herr H. Wagner, an active member of that pro- 
gressive organisation known as " Der Deutsche 
Werkbund," of which an account was given in 
"The Studio Year Book of Decorative Art, 1910." 
Herr Wagner has already given proof of his 
abilities in the designing of large buildings, but at 
present his energies are centred on the designing 
and complete equipment of private dweUing-houses. 
He feels deeply indebted to the teachings of the 
English School of Architects, but he has always 
made it his aim to work in the genuine German 
spirit. Solidity of material, thorough craftsmanship, 
abundance of light and air, and the planning of 
pleasant gardens are some of the points on which 
he lays particular stress. The illustrated house on 
this page has been built for Herr Delius at Versmold, 
a few miles from Bielefeld ; the other, which, 
with some of its rooms, is shown on the following 



pages, has just been built for Herr Halbrock 
at Hillegossen, near Bielefeld. E.xtraneous orna- 
mentation has been rigidly avoided, but the red 
pantile roofs and the greyish-white woodwork of 
balustrades and other external fittings in them- 
selves form a pleasing adornment. A feeling for 
orderly arrangement is admirably counterbalanced 
in the interiors by a predilection for comfortable 
shapes and cheerful colours. 



" The Studio Ye.\r Book of Decorative Art, 
19 13," is now in course of preparation, and the 
Editor is prepared to consider designs with a view 
to publication in the volume. An important section 
will again be devoted to recent work in domestic 
architecture, while interior decoration and the 
general equipment of the home will, as before, be 
fully dealt with. The work will contain numerous 
examples of furniture, fireplaces, wall and ceihng 
decoration, stained glass, wood-carving, metalwork, 
pottery, porcelain, glassware, embroidery, textile 
fabrics, &c. Designs should be sent in not later 
than October 31, addressed to the Editor of 
" The Studio Year Book," 44 Leicester Square, 
London. Drawings in colour of exteriors of houses 
will be acceptable, while special attention will be 
given to colour-schemes for domestic interiors. 




IKil. hi, Al \ EKbM'Jl.I', \\ L- 



H. WAGNER, AKCUITF.CT, BREMEN 
35 





HOUSE NEAR BIELEFELD 
H. WAGNER, ARCHITECT 



(Garden designed by Schnankeiiburg 
and iiiebold, Hanihurg) 




o 

o 

6 b 



5§ 






2> 



« 



o a 
2: :^ 



'^~ a, 



zr 




'^ 







i. "5 



Modern Gci'iiiaii lijiibroiiicry 




KMBKUlDKKKll CUSHION. IIKSIGNEI) KV I'. SCHOI.T, E\El ITKD 
IN THE LEHR- UND VERSUCH-ATELIERS FUR FREIE UND ANGE- 
WAN'DTE KUNST (W. VON DEBSCHITZ), MUNICH 



M 



ODERN GERMAN EMBROI- 
DERY. BY L. DEUBNER. 



It is a curious fact, and one that prob- 
ably very few readers of this magazine are aware 
of, that the modern movement which has had such 
a far-reaching influence on every branch of in- 
dustrial production in Germany and has funda- 
mentally transformed the appearance of our 
dwellings and furniture as well as our streets and, 
in fact, our towns, began with some embroideries 
— embroideries, moreover, which made no pre- 
tensions to being works of art, and, indeed, were 
nothing more than the dreamy fantasies of a 
sculptor, Hermann Obrist. It was just a momen- 
tary whim of his which led him to have some 
visions of fantastic ornamentation and piquant 
colour-combinations carried out in em- 
broidery instead of transferring them to 
canvas with the brush, quite regardless of 
any special purpose and unconstrained 
by any knowledge of material and tech- 
nique. Nor had his gifted collaborator, 
Berthe Ruchet, any experience as an 
enibroideress when both began, purely 
(Oe; their personal enjoyment, to design 
embroideries to be worked by Italian 
needlewomen — it was when the\' were in 
Florence, nearly twenty years ago. 

That which thus originated in what 
might almost be called playful experiment 
was so entirely novel, so instinct with 
vital energy and revealed such a delicate, 
refined feeling for colour and rhythm, that 
these essays, like apparitions from some 
imaginary dreamland far removed from 
the everyday world, at once cast a spell 



on those who saw them. Friends came 
forward with suggestions for an exhibition, 
but not until after three years of silent toil 
did the artist act on this advice. In 
Munich, whither he had returned with his 
assistant, he showed a collection of thirtj-- 
five pieces which, on account of the extra- 
ordinary daring of their ornamentation and 
their brilliant colour, aroused great en- 
thusiasm in artistic circles, but evoked 
amazement and unanimous repudiation 
among professional needleworkers and " the 
trade." And from their respective stand- 
points both were right : the artists, who 
rejoiced at the resolute departure from con- 
ventional design and tradition and at the 
evidence of creative activity ; the traders, 
who looked in vain for new methods and saw no sign 
of any manual dexterity or any regard for considera- 
tions of practical utility. But these embroideries 
were never intended to subserve any practical 
purpose. They were an artist's fantasies, ohjets 
de luxe pure and simple, and tremendously dear. 
Two years later Obrist was obliged to abandon the 
workshop which, in the full tide of optimism, he had 
started. At the present day his embroideries are 
museum rarities which have already acquired some 
historic value and are forgotten, like the artist 
who produced them, in obedience to that creative 
impulse with which he was so richly endowed, never 
dreaming what an immense transformation, economic 
and cultural, was to flow from his venture. 

When it was perceived t6 one's surprise that 
even on such a sterile soil as embroidery had 






CUSHION. DESIGNED BY M. RUSCHEWEIJH, EXECUTED IN THE 

LEHK- UND VERSUCH-ATELIERS FUR FREIE UND ANGEWANDTE 

KUNST (W. VON DEBSCHITZ), MUNICH 

39 



Mode I'll Gey Ilia II Eiubroidci'v 




TABLP.-COVER. DESIGNED AND WORKED AT THE 

STAATLICHE KI'NSIGEWERBE-SCHILE, HAMBIRC. (F. 

DEI. Will. A AND MARIA BRINKMANN's CLASS) 



become under the influence of wholesale manu- 
facture on the one hand and feminine dilettantism 
on the other, flowers of rare and fascina- 
ting beauty could be made to grow, the 
thoughtful began to ask why the same 
result should not be possible in other 
fields of work. W'as there not the soft, 
pliant clay of the potter waiting to be 
shaped into new forms and embellished 
with new colours ? Were not the graphic 
arts eager for new modes of expression 
and decoration? And the precious 
metals and coloured stones of the jeweller 
— were they not ready to be recombined 
into new harmonies and accords ? New 
possibilities were sought for and found ; 
experiment proved that there was a public 
favourably disposed. Failure failed to 
deter, and ever)- little success aroused 
fresh enthusiasm and gave the impulse 
to new and bolder enterprises. 

To-day we can look back with a smile 
at these impulsive, tumultuous efforts, 
this confident revaluation of accepted 
values — this " Umwertung aller Werte." 
W'hether, however, the new ideas and 
intentions would in the absence of such 
robust fanaticism have persisted in face 
of a world of prejudices and bitter op- 
position, is certainly a question. In 
this connection it is worth while 
to remember that in the development 
40 



of modem embroidery just the same conflict has 
had to be waged as that which the modem 
movement as a whole has experienced. There 
is nothing astonishing in the fact that, follow- 
ing Obrist's example, practically all the artists 
who espoused the new ideas turned their atten- 
tion to this despised field of feminine handi- 
work : it yielded them, indeed, an opportunity of 
achieving new effects of colour and surface and 
new rhythmic accords without any great sacrifice 
and expenditure of material and labour. The 
study of nature zealously pursued under the in- 
fluence of Japanese art brought with it a revelation 
of beauties that had long remained hidden, and 
showed how from natural forms might be derived 
those decorative adaptations which in the field of 
embroidery are of prime moment, while the rest 
was left to the deft fingers of the needlewoman 
entrusted with the carr)'ing out of the work. But 
this division of labour, of course, had its drawbacks ; 
in the struggle between intention and realisation, 
between invention and execution, many of those 
refinements were lost which ought to have given to 
a piece of work its artistic value, and so disappoint- 




EMBROIDERED panel. DESIGNED AND WORKED AT THE STAAT- 
LICHE KL'NSTGEWERBE-SCHULE, HAMBURG (F. DELAVII.LA AND 
MARIA BRINKMANN's CLASS) 




O oi 



Ho 


O aJ 




W 


> 


ffi 


i-H 


a 




> 


Q 


H 


a 


H 


2 


M 


O 


:a 






00 


35 


Q 






^ 








3 




H 


5 cj 


a 


W 


Q 


X 




u 


O 




Di 


N 


CO 


H 


s 


U 



Modern Gcniiaii limbroidcry 




HLACK SILK BAG. WORKKU IIV TOM MET-iCIIER 
(KUNSTGEWKRBE-SeHri.K, BIELEFELH) 



ments were more numerous than successes. An 
immense amount of time and labour was spent on 
the discovery of new forms and colour-combinations, 
on the simplification of ornamental accessories and 
the testing of new technical methods, and yet the 
practical results were quite meagre. And then the 
little really good and exemplary work that emerged 
from these efforts was appropriated by the trade in 
its eagerness for new patterns, and by senseless 
repetition worked up into those deplorable manu- 
factures which, under the domination of the so- 
called " Jugend-stil," have inundated the country. 

It was only when the women artists who had 
practised painting or sculpture began to turn their 
attention more and more to the long-despised 
field of industrial art, and especially to take up 
embroidery in the conviction that here lurked 
possibilities which would ever remain hidden from 
their male rivals, that really sound work — work that 
could truly be said to fulfil its purpose — made its ap- 
pearance as the result of this, for the most part, vain 
experimenting. In this branch of work, which for 
ages past had been the peculiar province of the 
female sex, men- might have suggestions and ideas 
to offer in matters pertaining to colour-schemes 







.<^'S\,. 



-yjit^ 




Modem German H.)ubroiaeyy 




WAI.L-HANGING, WORKED IX COLOURED STRINX.. DESIGNED BY THEA 
WITT.MAXN, EXECfTED BY FRAU F. DERI-WINTER 



and design, but after all the actual work, the 
enduring product, had always been reserved to 
women. If with the male artist the point of chief 
importance was the artistic effect, while technical 
perfection and durability were secondary matters, 



the female artist, familiar with the 
peculiarities of material and the 
diverse methods of manipulation, 
always had in view the wishes of the 
housewife and the requirements of 
daily use, and thus her work, in which 
the charm of novelty united with a 
certain simplicity and executive 
thoroughness, secured a more sym- 
pathetic reception than was accorded 
to the productions of her male com- 
petitor. 

And then, in addition to that, 
when the reorganisation of the 
schools and other institutions in which 
applied art was taught was set on 
foot, their backwardness ha\"ing 
quickly made itself apparent, drawing 
and designing fell more and more into 
the background and gave place to 
practical work, so far as was possible within the scope 
of the school administration Furniture-making and 
metal-work could not be carried on in all schools, 
but embroidery presented agreeable possibilities 
of familiarisine scholars with the fundamental 




EMBROU»EKlE.-> DLilG.Nl^D A.M. L.M.tLILU KV I.ERIRLJJ LOKENZ 



43 



Modern Gcniian Embroidcyy 




KMBKiMliKKKIi Sll K "ISlllONS 

principles of artistic handiwork, of introducing them 
to the discreet use of colour and form, and training 
them to perceive the value of a beautiful colour- 
scheme and the rhythmical interaction of line and 
surface. But the chief point of concern here was 
that the decorative designs elaborated in the 
drawing-class from the study of natural forms could 
be easily put into practice, and if a good deal of 
work that originated in this way failed to gain a 
lasting foothold in practical life and soon became 
out of date, the influence which the schools 



.Kkikrn i.iiRr.Nz 



exercised on this sphere of 
work, and still continue to 
exercise at the present day, 
when the embroidery sec- 
tions are almost everywhere 
under the direction of well- 
trained women artists who 
are thoroughly familiar with 
every kind of technique,* 
helped greatly to bring 
about that success at 
which we are now able to 
rejoice. 
Here, too, the initiative of Hermann Obrist had 
a decisive influence. He was convinced that our 
Schools of Industrial Art (Kunstgewerbe-Schulen) 
ought no longer to be for the most part drawing- 
schools in the academic sense, but ought to be 
transformed into places where an essentially prac- 
tical training in applied art should be given. Some 
ten years ago in conjunction with Wilhelm von 
Debschitz he founded an institution on these lines 
in Munich, the " Lehr- und Versuch-Ateliers fiir 
freie und angewandte Kunst," which soon became a 





EMCKOIllERlES 



DESIGNED BY OTTO LIETZ, EXECUTED BV BETTY BERGER 




HELLERAU EMBROIDERIES. DESIGNED BY ALEXANDER VON SALZMANN AND CHARLOTTE KRAUSE, EXECUTED BY 
THE DEUTSCHE WERKSTATTEN FUR HANDWERKSKUNST, DRESDEN-IIELLERAU 

45 



Moacru Cicriiiaii Eiubroiderv 




Al'l-LlMl t-EMBKulliKKKli HKE-SCREEN. BY EllliA WIEsE 

model for the Government schools and have trained 
many capable workers who are at the present time 
acting as teachers in the service of the State, and 
are thus exerting their influence on behalf of the 
rational methods of instruction inculcated in the 
Munich institution. Here the teaching was not 
according to certain fixed rules, and no "approved 



system " was thrust on the pupils, but they were 
trained rather than instructed — trained to create 
each according to his particular bent. Slumbering 
talent was awakened into activity, the pupils were 
induced to carry into execution their own ideas in 
whatever branch of work they felt most drawn to, 
and thus a real pleasure in work was fostered. 
This method taught them to discern the difference 
between thinking and doing, between design and 
execution, and also the possibilities of improvement. 
By the exchange of ideas and counsel the pupils 
were stimulated to seek and find the right way 
and the right means themselves, and encouraged 
to persevere as the essential condition to all sincere 
work. To-day these principles of training are 
generally recognised, but let it be noted that they 
emanated from this private school at Munich in 
which ^\'ilhelm von Debschitz has displayed his 
surpassing gifts as an educator. During the past 
decade many hundreds of students of both sexes 
have passed through the school, which has given 
them something more than manipulative skill in 
their various walks of life : it has instilled into 
them a pure feeling for the meaning and purpose of 
all industrial labour and that firmness of will which 
even under the ever-changing requirements of daily 
life enables them to find the right way. 

A striking testimony to the truth of this assertion 
is afforded by the embroideries of Frau Gertrud 




CERTRlIi I.ORENZ S EXHIBITION AM) SAl.E-RDOM AT DRESDEN 



46 





EMBROIDERIF.S PI 111 M Ii WUIMMllI I\ 



Modern Co'duvi ILiubroido'v 




^^at^iCi&Bi&iM 



WAI.I.-HANGI NG, WITH MOTIVES 
SELRCTEI) FKOM THE 1'ARABI.ES. 
WORKED BY ADK1.HEID WII.I.ICH, A 
PLTIL OF THE KlNSTOEWERBE-SCHfLE. 
BIEI.EKEI.I) 



Lorenz, who received her artistic training at this 
institution and has resided for the past few years at 
Dresden, where in addition to her own workshops 
she conducts a permanent exhibition and sale-room 
(see p. 46). A refreshing naturalness of invention 
is united in her work with a fine feeling for 
proportion and surface effects. But it is not so 
much the concordance of line and colour as the 
adaptation of the design to the particular technique 
whi(-h gives character and value to these em- 
broideries of hers. In her selection of motives 
she does not allow herself to be led into those 
extravagances which a lively fantasy is apt to 
engender, but in the design itself keeps in view the 
technical possibilities which confront her in working 
up her material for some specific purpose. And 
these possibilities she knows how to exploit not 
only with good taste but with a rare practical sense, 
for with her it is always a point of cardinal import- 
ance that her creations shall not be mere show- 
pieces or dazzling displays of colour, but things 
which, while pleasing as regards material and colour, 
shall serve for daily use. She therefore prefers 
material of the simplest character, such as coarse 
linen in every variety of tint, and the simplest 
technical method, that of the crank machine, and 
therewith achieves very surprising effects. 

The same spirit of educational thoroughness 
dominates the State School of Industrial Art at 
Hamburg, which has Prof Richard Meyer for its 
head. Here all traces of the meretricious ornament 
that was once in vogue, all imitative practices and 
all antiquated methods and systems of teaching, 
ha\e been swept aside with a broom of iron. Draw- 
ing from memory is practised, and not only drawing 
but the reproduction of street scenes, landscapes, 
human and animal figures, and plant-forms by means 
of coloured paper which the pupils cut out and paste 
down — a method which trains the eye to observe 
clearly, to grasp the essential characteristics of an 
object, and at the same time promotes the faculty 
of distinguishing the harmonies and dissonances of 
colour, and thus leads up to the formulation of 
effective decorative schemes that are neither artificial 
nor bizarre. Evidence of this is afforded by the 
work accomplished in the embroidery section 
conducted by Fraulein Maria Brinkmann. A lively 
fantasy is shown in the treatment of motives, and 
in such a work as the embroidered panel illustrated 
on p. 40, which was designed as a wall decoration, 
this fantasy is expressed with a quite personal note. 
At the Industrial Art School at Bielefeld the 
embroidery class has for some years been success- 
fully conducted by Fraulein Gertrud Kleinhempel, 



48 



Modern Ccnuaii lliiibroidcrv 







as may be inferred from 
the examples of work 
by two young pupils of 
hers which are here 
reproduced. The wall- 
hanging (p. 48), with 
its clever rendering of 
Biblical parables, is a 
particularly meritorious 
achievement, and one 
which, in the treatment 
of the ornamental ac- 
cessories, points to a 
special talent for adapt- 
ing natural forms to 
purposes of decoration. 




The use in orna- 
mental designs of con- 
ventionali-sed flowers in 
bright colours has been 
revived in all branches 
of decorative art 
recently, and examples 
of it are to be seen in 
the tasteful embroi- 
deries of Fraulein Maria 
Sinsteden and in the 
work executed for the 
Deutsche ^Verkstatten 
fur Handwerkskunst by 
the wives and daughters 
of their employes at the 






H 

„V » ■ 1 . .rill i-ii-^^B^^MJ 










^■LUjjjjii^ia-i^'^^ 




^^^^^^^ISkvBkfSI^ 





ANTKI'ICNIIIA 



DESIGNKD BV I'KOK. OTTO r.rSSMANN, WORKi:n 1!V FRAUI.KIN AKMi'.AKH 



;f.kmann 
49 



Modern German llinhroiderv 




symphonies. A fertile imagination here finds 
utterance in harmonies of line and colour without 
betraying any striving to achieve decorative effect 
by chance experiment, but also without any trace 
of cold calculation in the elaboration of the scheme. 
The linear ornamentation is developed on logical 
and natural lines ; at once clear and simple, it is 
free from capricious and meaningless flourishes. 



EMBKOIDEREI) TABl.E-COVER. .STAATLICHE KL'NSTC.E- 
WERBE-SCHl I.E. IIA.MBIKG (]■. HELMS' CLASS) 




AMI WHITE SIl.K CISHION WITH 

OF E.MIiROniEKKI) FLOWERS. BY 

SINSTEDEN 



garden city of Hellerau, founded by this firnh 
The designs are by artists like Alexander v<jn 
.Salzmann and Charlotte Krause, and as numerous 
replicas are made of each, the cost of these Hellerau 
embroideries is materially lessened, and they are 
thus brought within the reach of people of moderate 
means who have hitherto had no choice apart from 
the tasteless articles produced wholesale by " the 
trade." 

The embroideries executed by Fraulein Betty 
Berger, after designs by Otto Lietz, are true colour- 
5° 




EMHRniUKKK.Ii HAG 



BV MAKIMA MEYEK 




CENTRE I'ANEJ. OF SQUARE CUSHION EMBROIDERED IN 

I'Al.E <:KEEN AND GOLD THREAD ON BLACK SILK BV 

MARIA SI.NSTEDEN 



Studio- Talk 



and a healthy feeling for colour imparts a special 
charm to the design. 

The same intelligent co-operation of designer 
and executant is discernible in the ecclesiastical 
embroideries of Prof Otto Gussmann and Fraulein 
Armgard Angermann, of Dresden. The latter has 
so completely identified herself with the intentions 
and views of her partner during their many years 
of collaboration that the products of their joint 
efforts look like the work of a single individual. 

In her applique work Frau Edda Wiese has 
developed not only a technique of her own but also 
a quite distinctive style. Out of bright-coloured 
material she cuts patches and strips which she 
juxtaposes in various ways, here and there employ- 
ing a little embroidery to help the design. She is 
particularly successful in reproducing landscape 
effects, as in the screen reproduced among the ac- 
companying illustrations. 

A new and altogether 
peculiar technique has 
been employed in the exe- 
cution of the wall-hanging 
designed by Fraulein Thea 
W'ittmann and worked 
by Frau Deri-Winter 
(see p. 43). The design 
is here worked with 
coloured string on strands 
of pack-thread sewn to- 
gether, a very laborious 
process in view of the 
refractory nature of the 
material, and one neces- 
sitating a marked simpli- 
fication of form in the 
design. The way in which 
the space has been utilised, 
the effective use of a few 
bold colours and the in- 
troduction of bright- 
coloured flowers to enliven 
the ground — all this speaks 
of a well-trained and sure 
decorative feeling. 

This more or less chance 
selection of modem Ger- 
man embroidery may be of 
interest as showing the 
diversity of talent now 
engaged in producing, 
often with the very sim- 
plest materials, work that 
is at once individual in oil study of 



character and of artistic value, work that ranks far 
above those insipid productions on which femi- 
nine dilettantism continues to waste an infinity of 
energy, time, and material. L. D. 

STUDIO-TALK. 
(From Our Oivn Correspo>idents.) 

CDON. — ^V^e are reproducing^ herewith a 
study of a girl's head, by Mr. E. H. 
Thomas. The artist, who is a native of 
Cardiff, is the possessor of considerable 
skill in commanding a class of effect in "portraiture 
to which a monochrome reproduction cannot do 
full justice. 

Miss Anna Airy, reproductions of whose 'works 
we are here giving, is an artist of exceptional interest. 




KL S HEAD 



BY E. H. THOM.AS 




'THE KITCHEN'S QUEEN." 
ANNA AIRV, A.R.E., R.O.I. 



BY 



studio- Talk 



In addition to her considerable reputation as a 
painter, she is pre-eminent as a pastellist. We 
hardly know of another artist whose handling of 
that difficult medium is so instinctive. Lately she 
has turned to etching, and some exquisite plates in 
the manner of the fine tinted drawing of tree form 
which we reproduce are the result. We are inclined 
to think that the gifted artist has not quite found 
herself, as the saying is ; she seems embarrassed by 
her versatility. But we can only think of about 
one other contemporary English woman artist with 
the same resource of technique. When Miss Airy 
has the confidence to make it the vehicle for 
intimations of a more personal character, this gift 
of expression will place her as an artist very high. 
Her art is almost studiously impersonal at present ; 
she is passing through the stage with which all 
great executants begin, in which problems are 
chosen for their very difficulty as much as for any 
other reason. The picture High Noon is Passing 
was executed both in oil-pigment and in pastel. 
It is a work which in both mediums expresses 
artistic enjoyment, the theme and its execution 
matching each other in light-heartedness. It sug- 



gests a vein admitting ot the display of the gift 
for pictorial composition in which Miss Airy also 
excels. Miss Airy, who is a grand-daughter of Sir 
George Biddell Airy, K.C.B., Astronomer-Royal, 
was educated in painting at the Slade School of Art, 
entering in 1899 and leaving in 1903. She 
obtained the Slade Scholarship and all the Slade 
prizes in succession. She has been a regular 
exhibitor at the Royal Academy from 1905 onwards. 
In 1906 she was elected a member of the Pastel 
Society, and in 1907 associate of the Royal Society 
of Painter-Etchers. An exhibition of her work was 
held at the Carfax Gallery in 1907, and at Pater- 
son's Gallery in 191 1. The drawing Willow 
Pattern, after being well placed at the Royal 
Academy, was shown at the Franco-British Exhibi- 
tion, and invited to Rome. Purchases were made 
from her etchings by the Liverpool Corporation 
in 1908. 

The Director of the Tate Gallery is to be con- 
gratulated upon arranging there at the same time a 
Whistler and a Burne-Jones exhibition, both loan 
collections. The two artists were the most signifi- 




"THE WINE-SHOI' 



Sfiidio- Talk 




•■HIGH NOON IS I'ASSl.NL 



BY ANNA AIRY, A.R.E., K.O. 1. 



cant figures in art in this country towards the close 
of the nineteenth century. At this distance from 
the date when first the art of the one and then 
that of the other enjoyed a fashion it is possible to 
reconsider judgments then influenced by the bitter- 
ness of strife, ^\'histler's supreme achievements — 
the beautiful secrets of actuality of effect which, 
without professing realism, he discovered in paint- 
ing the Miss Alexander ; the realism of the sea- 
weather represented in his water-colours ; the frost- 
like clearness of the atmosphere apparent in all his 
out-of-door subjects, and brought twice home to us 
when his pictures are approached from the adjacent 
Turner rooms ; the absence of purely rhetorical 
play of colour such as Turner frequently indulged 
in — all these things impress the visitor. The 
limitations of his art reveal themselves only in 
details. There is, for instance, in the portrait of 
Miss Alexander the unlifelike child lips, while the 
muslin dress is so lifelike ! and in the Little White 
Girlihe incident of the bright red and blue suddenly 
vamped into an otherwise wonderful and elusive 
painting — details certainly, but showing in the one 
case incomplete sympathy and in the other triviality. 
But there is always the style that perhaps will never 
be rivalled for its intimacy with paint, the senti- 
ment for the medium that is the sign of the greatest 
art. It is this that is so sadly absent from the 
painting of Bume-Jones. With him a method un- 
pleasantly matter-of-fact has to work for an extrava- 
gant imagination. In early paintings he succeeded 
in presenting his subjects as imaginatively con- 
ceived, but in later ones purely formal schemes of 
colour are imposed. His art never regained what 
was lost to it when from being conscience-stricken 
54 



about his form and colour he became self-conscious 
in them both. The full worth of his inspiration is 
only to be realised from his early works, man)- of 
which are of high imaginative import and curiously 
dramatic. In the unfinished The Magic Circle 
there is almost a Maeterlinckian suggestion of im- 
pending fate. But all this was before his desire 
for a purely formal skill in execution deprived his 
art of spontaneity. 

EDINBURGH.— The banqueting hall of 
the Civic Chambers having now been 
fully decorated with pictorial representa- 
tion of incidents connected with the past 
history of Edinburgh, the work of embellishing the 
Council Chambers in like manner has been com- 
menced. The Guild Brethren have gifted one 
panel, which represents James III. bestowing a 
charter on the City Fathers of that period, and the 
artist, Mr. G. Ogilvy Reid, R.S.A., has executed 
a group in a brilliant scheme of colour. A second 
panel, which forms the subject of our illustration 
(p. 57), has been gifted by Councillor Inman, and 
the subject is the presentation by the same monarch 
in 1482 of the "Blue Blanket," a banner for the 
use of the craftsmen of the city. Though the pre- 
dominant note is decorative, the artist, Mr. Robert 
Hope, A.R.S.A., has given character to his figures 
and has succeeded in expressing the mediseval in 
all the details. From the dull red garb of the 
foreground figure on the right, the eye travels 
pleasingly to the blue gown of the aged leader of 
the craftsmen and then to the rich purple and 
gold garments of the royal couple, backed by the 
pale blue of the banner. The tapestry background, 




0^ 




(Decoration for the Council Chamber, 
Edinburgh, presented by Councilloi 
Inman) 



'JAMES III. PRESENTING THE 'BLUE 
BLANKET ' TO EDINBURGH CRAFTS- 
MEN." BY ROBERT HOPE, A.R.S.A. 



^~/ 



Sfiidio- Talk 




CH AFTER-HEADINGS 



^ COMPOSED BY II. 



little more than suggested, is a restful setting, and 
the vista -of corridor on the right with the palace 
guards is beautifully lit through the stained windows. 
The scheme is altogether 
well thought out. Mr. 
Hope has done a good deal 
of decoration in church and 
mansion, and by this, his 
latest work, he gives evi- 
dence of his versatility in 
the treatment of diverse 
themes. A. E. 



P.\RIS. — In the 
decorative draw- 
ings of H. S. 
Ciolkowski one 
recognises certain charac- 
teristics not uncommonly 
associated with Eastern 
Europe, which might give 
a clue to his nationality. I 
do not suggest that his art is 
national, as the only national 
quality about art is the in- 
herent expression of past 
or present associations and 
observances. I have heard 
some of his work dismissed 
S8 



as being imitative of Heardsley, and 
Keardsley's own work dismissed as being 
under the influence of Botticelli, Man- 
tegna, and the Japanese, all the praise 
due to his wonderful line and workman- 
ship, his creative ability and design, 
being withheld. To know Ciolkowski, 
the last thing one would condemn him 
for would be imitating any one but 
himself. In his head-pieces for a book 
dealing with the little Bavarian town of 
liamberg there is observable a quaint 
subconsciousness untrammelled by tra- 
dition, and his means of interpreta- 
tion are distinctly personal, the more 
national associations being seen in his 
decorative tail-pieces and the vigorous 
little drawing of La Bonne Petite 
Maison dans les Bois. Personally Ciol- 
kowski is an impulsive dreamer, and 
seeks the tangible expression of his 
dreams in those aspects of nature which 
others are so apt to pass by. His in- 
'lOLKowsKi terpretations are always spontaneous, 

and in his quiet little studio at Bellevue 
both personalities of the artist work together — the 
skilled draughtsman and the submerged unsleeping 
self — controlling the necessary labour in his many 




lE.N-.AND I.\K Dk.VWIN 



BY H. S. CIOI.KOWSKT 




'PERSPECTIVE ORNEMENTALE." A 
DECORATIVE COMPOSITION BY 
H. S. CIOLKOWSKI 



studio- Talk 




TAIL-PIECE 



CIOLKOWSKI 



drawings, never allowing it when completed to 
depart from the harmony of his vision. 



GENEVA.— The "Societe J. J. 
Rousseau," founded in 1905 
at the University of Geneva, 
and whose archives and 
annals have already rendered signal ser- 
vice to Rousseau students, was happily 
inspired in organising at the Rath Gallery 
an Iconographic Exhibition in connection 
with the recent bicentenary celebrations. 
The society, drawing upon its archives 
and receiving contributions from the 
museum, the university, and important 
public and private collections in the 
country, was able to open an exhibition not only 
of literary and historical interest, but of artistic 




"VIEW OF BAMKERO " (II.I.l'STRATION FOR " ILSE") 

Ciolkowski does not confine himself entirelyi,to 
pen-and-ink work : ofttimes he turns his attention 
to leaded-glass design, jewellery, and 
monograms, his monograms being 
specially remarkable for their excellent 
simplicity of design. To predict his 
future is to make no comparison of his 
work with that of others. Phil May 
and Aubrey Beardsley knocked away 
the props from the commonplace 
standard of black-and-white in England, 
and gave us their art. Ciolkowski, too. 
is producing his own, and we may look 
forward to a more complete variation of 
his art in the edition de luxe of "Use," 
by the Baronne Deslandes, which he is 
at present engaged in illustrating. 



BV H. S. CIOLKOWSKI 



value and significance. Before dealing with the 
exhibition, however, I propose to say something 




E. A. T. 



TAII.-MECfc 



LV :\. J. CIOLKOWSKI 



60 



studio- Talk 




PEX-ANU-IXK ILLUSTRATIONS FOR " ILSE " ( See Paris Stitdio-Talk, p. 6o) 



BY H. S. CIOLKOWSKI 



about Rousseau's relation, directly or indirectly, this, like other inclinations, was too much a passion 
to art. of the hour, vet it reveals artistic sensibilitv. 



There is a passage in the "Confessions " in which 
Rousseau makes reference to his taste for drawing. 
He says: " The coloured plates of our geometricians 
had given me a taste for drawing ; accordingly I 
bought colours and began by attempting flowers 
and landscapes. It was unfortunate that I had but 
little talent for this art, for my inclination was 
wholly disposed to it, and while surrounded with 
crayons, pencils, and colours I could have passed 
whole months without wishing to leave them. I 
was so absorbed in this occupation that they had 
to tear me away from it." Though, as he adds. 



But the observations on drawing in " Emile " 
go far to show that Rousseau was, in addition, 
endowed with the artistic temperament, that he 
could no more brook in art than in life the sub- 
stitution of the false for the true, of convention 
for nature, of a mere copy, the "imitation of an 
imitation," for the rendering of the spirit of the 
original. Elegance of line, lightness of stroke, 
perception of picturesque effect, these might or 
might not come later on, but the elementary ac- 
quirements of Emile in this branch of his instruc- 
tion were to be the correct eye, the sure and 

6i 



Studio- Talk 



supple hand, and above all fidtlily to Nature, who 
herself alone was to be his teacher. Of course this 
despatching of the drawing-master is far too sum- 
mary, but the reasons assigned for it are excellent, 
and if we cannot accept the letter of Rousseau's 
teaching the spirit of it is the same as that which 
animated Ruskin, who boasted that he was of 
Rousseau's school. 

Rousseau was a great artist in his own medium. 
While confessing his inability in the art of drawing, 
he was a master-painter of nature when wielding the 
pen, and may be fairly regarded as the precursor of 
all the eminent modern descriptive writers, many 
of whom, however, have carried word-painting far 
beyond the limits he would have assigned to it. 
Prof. Babbitt in his " The New I-aokoon " remarks 
with truth that no one before Rousseau had ever 
shown such preternatural keenness either in re- 
ceiving or recalling im- 
pressions. Describing a 
scene of his youth, Rous- 
seau himself writes : " Not 
only do I remember the 
time, the place, the per- 
sons, but all surrounding 
objects — the temperature 
of the air, its odour, its 
colour, a certain local im- 
pression felt only there, the 
vivid recollection of which 
carries me back anew." 
And Mr. Babbitt thinks 
that this sensitiveness to 
"local impression" in 
Rousseau "relates the 
whole tendency he repre- 
sents to that modern im- 
pressionism of which it is 
only one aspect." How- 
ever this may be, it reveals 
the intense artistic tem- 
perament of Rousseau 
himself. 

Then, too, the author 
of " La Nouvelle Heloise " 
and " Les Reveries du 
Promeneur Solitaire '' will 
always touch painter as 
well as writer by that pro- 
found feeling for nature 
which is the .spring of his 

' , , . ruKTK.MT OF ?F.AN lArijUES 

mspiration. I hrough hmi 
62 



the beauty of Switzerland and .Mpine scenery 
entered into literature, and in drawing man away 
from an artificial society and bringing him face to 
face with nature he prepared the human imagina- 
tion and eye for the great modern landscape- 
painter's appeal. Thus he was as truly the 
precursor of Turner as nf Ruskin. 



WIkii we turn to consider Rousseau's care for 
the productions of art we find that he had a genuine 
taste for prints and " adored les belles epreuves." In 
one of his letters, in which he writes with satisfaction 
of proofs of engravings sent him for the illustration 
of "Emile," he goes on playfully to remark : "Je suis 
comme les enfants fort jaloux des belles images." 
And in another note referring to prints he has in 
books and which he desires to have separately for 
his portfolio he shows a fastidious taste in his choice 
and insists on having " good proofs if possible." 




KOCSSEAr. KROM THE ENGKAVINC 
AFTER RAMSAY 



BY DK. MARTIN 



studio- Talk 




ductions, but they show 
the interest Rousseau has 
awakened in artists. 



rORTRAIT OK MME. D El'IXAY. FROM THE PASTEL BY LIOTARD IX THE MfSEE 
d'hISTOIRE ET d'aRT, GENEVA 



\Ve are aware also of the pain it gave him to be 
obhged to part with a valuable collection of prints 
when he was in England. 



All these considerations not only show that 
Rousseau is of interest from the point of view of 
art, but prepare us to appreciate the extraordinary 
interest which art has taken both in the man and 
his work. The Comte de Girardin in the intro- 
duction to his invaluable " Iconographie de Jean 
Jacques Rousseau ' says that of all the remarkable 
nienof the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries "the 
citizen of Geneva" is certainly, after Napoleon I., 
the one whose physiognomy has been the most 
frequently portrayed, Voltaire not excepted, the 
number of prints in which Rousseau's person alone 
IS depicted attaining the phenomenal figure of more 
than six thousand portraits. Of course these are 
neither all originals nor all equally good as repro- 



The Rousseau Society, 
then, did well to give so 
prominent a position in the 
bicentenary celebrations to 
its " Exposition Iconogra- 
phique," and it must be 
said that it was in every 
way worthy of the event. 
The exhibition occupied 
five tastefully arranged 
rooms in the Rath Gallery, 
and the contributions were 
so disposed that one was 
able to pass with ease from 
one phase to another of 
Rousseau's life and work. 
As regards the engravings, 
one was at once struck by 
the artistic conscience and 
the imaginative compre- 
hension which his illus- 
trators — Moreau le Jeune, 
Cochin Marillier, Le 
Grand, and others — 
brought to their task. In 
the scenes and episodes 
from the life of Rousseau 
suggested by or illustrative 
of " Les Confessions," and 
as evoked in the produc- 
tions of Le Barbier, 
Schall, Monsiau, Roqueplan, Soulange-Tessier after 
Duval-Lecamus, Gavami, Choffard, Boulanger, 
Bergeret, and Huot, one was fascinated by the 
charm and often inimitable grace of that eighteenth- 
century art of illustration, there was something fat 
once so quaint and persuasive about it. Nothing 
connected with Rousseau seems to have been 
forgotten. 

But the chief interest of the exhibition attached 
to the portraits. Here were to be seen the im- 
perious head and eagle-glance of Diderot looking 
out of Levitski's powerful portrait ; Tronchin, also 
the great Genevese gentleman of his time, as 
he is, painted in the portrait which adorns the 
Public Library at Geneva, or again in Liotard's 
"sanguine" as the author of the " Lettres de la 
Campagne," and the adversary and judge of 
the author of " Emile " and the " Lettres de la 

63 



Shidio- Talk 




^u:v 



• fif*^.t^^^/i/bm/f/>tr I influx /UtJa^f^ 







r.^ivS2)it&^iMMJr^^^t^e^^C'i0U^. 



"ROUSSEAU LEAVING GENEVA IN I72S" 

Montagne." Here, too, were Hume, Voltaire (in 
caricature and otherwise), Grimm, and the others, 
assuming an almost dramatic interest to the 
imagination as they recalled not only tragic 
moments in Rousseau's individual existence, but 
the parts which he and they played in a great 
movement of human 
thought and life. Then, 
coming into more intimate 
relation with the man, here 
were the portraits of the 
women who exerted such 
an influence on his life, 
among the most note- 
worthy contributions being 
Liotard's splendid and 
lifelike pastel of Mme. 
d'Epinay, from the Geneva 
Historical and Art 
Museum, \'yboud's beau- 
tifully executed engraving 
of Mme. d'Houdetot, and 
an admirable portrait of 
Mme. Boy de la Tour by 
Nonnote. 



pieces in which the figure 
and countenance of Rous- 
seau himself have passed 
into the sculpture and por- 
traiture of his time. In 
connection with the former, 
the great name of Houdon 
at once occurs, Houdon 
who boasted that the effigy 
of Rousseau was, so to 
speak, his special property, 
since he alone, according 
to public opinion, had suc- 
ceeded in moulding a per- 
fect likeness of it. The 
great sculptor's work was 
represented at the exhibi- 
tion by a fine plaster of the 
epoch after his Rousseau en 
per ru que and a cast from 
the original of his Rousseau 
a la handelette, besides other 
diminutive busts and small 
full-length statuettes, 
amongst the former the 
beautiful head in plaster 
here reproduced. Prominent was Pradier's bust 
of Rousseau, an admirable, pensive thing, in which 
the visage of the philosopher appears relieved of 
all that is accidental and perturbing. 



BV J. COCRVOISIER 



\\'e know that of the portraits of himself the one 



These served as an in- 
troduction to those master- 
64 




"SCENE FROM THE 01. 1) AGE OF ROUSSEAU." FROM A LITHOGRAPH BYE. HUOT 





it 



Studio-Talk 




HEAD OK ROl'SSEAU IX 1-OLYCHROME I'l.ASTEK BY HOUDOX 

(In the collection of Prof . Francois, Geneva. — Photo 

Boissonas ) 

Rousseau preferred was a pastel by La Tour, 
probably executed in 1764, and in which the 
philosopher is seen in American costume. La Tour 
executed several portraits 
in pastel of Rousseau, one 
of the most brilliant and 
striking being that in the 
Geneva Museum in which 
he is represented young 
and smiling, and which, 
according to M. de 
Girardin, is " d'une grande 
verite." The exhibition 
was peculiarly fortunate in 
having this, together with 
reproductions of replicas 
of La Tour's pastel at St. 
Quentin's Museum and an 
admirable collection of 
engravings after La Tour, 
Ramsay, and Houdon, by 
Littret, Cathelin, Ficquet, 
St. Aubin, Dr. Martin, 
Nochez, Kruell, Marillier, 
Langlois. The name of 
Ramsay reminds us of 
Rousseau's sojourn in Eng- 
land. Numerous are the 
engra\ings inspired by 
66 



Ramsay's poignant portrait, which tells its own 
tale of spiritual suffering. In the engraving by 
Dr. Martin, here reproduced, Rousseau appears, 
as in all Ramsay's portraits, en Imste, wearing the 
.Armenian cap and cloak. There was also another 
portrait of the sage, the teacher of the simple life, 
the promeneur solitaire with the bunch of periwinkles 
in his hand, that portrait by Mayer which the 
Societe J. J. Rousseau has taken for its device. 
Special mention deserves to be made of M. 
Courvoisier's highly interesting print representing 
Rousseau, the youth, taking leave of his friend 
Bernard and of his native city, also of M. Van 
.Muyden's admirable " sanguine " after Mayer. 
The exhibition was altogether a memorable event. 

R. MOBBS. 

VENICE. — How many men living in these 
turbulent times owe what peace of mind 
they enjoy to the high mountains I 
These mighty eternal monuments of 
nature, towering heavenwards high above the haunts 
of man, shed around them an air of dignity and 
calm which never fails to leave a deep impress on 
the minds of those susceptible to the majesty of 
nature, filling them with a sense of the insignificance 
of man and his works. True enough, of the 
thousands who nowadays, when " funiculars " and 




' OTTOBRE, SAVOIA 



BY GIUSEPl'E CAR0Z2I 




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Studio-Talk 



other modes of locomotion make transport so easy, 
throng the sides and slopes every season there may 
be many on whom the fascination of the mountains 
makes but a superficial impression, to whom they 
are but a distraction, one of the " sights " that, like so 
many others, have to be seen by all who can afford 
to travel. Far otherwise, however, is it with those 
poets who have given utterance to the sublime feel- 
ings of awe experienced in presence of these soaring 
heights, and those painters who with their brushes 
have endeavoured to express these same feelings 
on canvas. Thus is it with the Italian painter 
Giuseppe Carozzi, whose mountain landscapes form 
such a distinguished feature in modern Italian art. 



Carozzi is a native of Milan, and at this moment 
is at the full tide of manhood. He was originally 
destined for the medical profession, and later on 
embarked on the study of the law, but neither of 
these callings proved congenial, and finally his 
impulsive, manly nature bade him turn with enthu- 
siastic ardour to painting. At the outset of 
his career as an artist he used to paint 
genre pictures, finding his motives in the 
fishing village of Chioggia, which was 
then only just coming into repute as a 
centre for artists. Not much was being 
done there at that time ; the tastes of 
the purchasing public were held in too 
much esteem, and the " pretty " picture, 
the anecdotic subject, held the upper 
hand. Nor did Carozzi himself yield 
of his best, but as a talented pupil of 
the great Antonio Fontanesi (1818-82) 
he distinguished himself above the rest ; 
the pictures he painted at this period 
possess a peculiar charm of tone that 
was lacking in the work of these, and 
that even at this stage his excellence 
was recognised is shown by the pur- 
chase of one of these early works by 
the Modem Gallery of Rome in 1887. 



practice of achieving gradations of tone as it were 
by means of complementary colours instead of 
with the primaries. Thus by degrees he has come 
to develop his own method of painting, which, 
coupled with a poetic sensibility, proved of signal 
value to him when, turning his back on studio 
painting and all that was bound up therewith, he 
took wing and fiew to the highlands. 



Here it was that Carozzi found all those aspects 
of nature that really appealed to him — the lyrical, 
the sublime, the awe-inspiring. The mountains 
present some very remarkable effects : rosy-hued 
crests which when the sun is shining upon them 
radiate a gorgeous flood of light, gigantic rocks, 
abysmal ravines and gorges, snow of dazzling white- 
ness, and glaciers whose crystalline surface acts 
like a prism ; the spectacle changes with the change 
of atmospheric conditions, and oftentimes is not 
the same for two minutes together. Here amidst 
these mountain solitudes the artist feels free, and 
rarely or never does there escape from his lips any 



Besides Fontanesi there are two other 
painters who have exercised an influence 
on Carozzi — Filippo Carcano, still 
living, and the famous Segantini, who 
lies buried among the mountains he 
loved to haunt and depict. To the 
latter Carozzi owe.s a good deal in the 
way of technique, although it must be 
recorded that he has never accepted 
" divisionism " as a tenet of his creed 
as a painter, but has mostly made a 




111 A lOMANA 



'OTTO I.A LUNA (Ol 1> WELL 1> 
BY GIUSEPPE CAROZZI 



[ir.HT) 



69 




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studio- Talk 



regret at having left behind him the Hfe of the 
towns. Planting his easel in the open, he sets to 
work painting, and continues with unflagging energy 
until the last stroke for the day has been placed 
on the canvas. With that same emotion that he 
himself experiences and with an utter absence of 
anything in the shape of technical trickery he 
records the approach of a storm, the last streaks 
of sunlight as the sun goes down in the west, the 
cold, searching wind sweeping across a waste tract 
of country, or a stream of icy water winding its way 
down through the valley. 



Among the works of Carozzi depicting the 
weirder aspects of nature a notable example is 
Lo Stagno delF Obblio ("The Pool of Oblivion"), 
which was exhibited at the Venice International 
Exhibition of 1910; with its shadowy reflections 
of the ruins of deserted homesteads, it recalls Edgar 
Allen Poe's novel "The End of the House of 
Usher." There is something almost uncanny in the 
solitude of this night scene, in which the herbage 
seems to be all of a quiver and the mysterious 
shadows are made to appear transparent. The 
feeling of awe to which this work gives expression is 
characteristic of the artist's work, and we are con- 
scious of it especially in his pictures of the high 
mountains. The accom- 
panying reproductions of 
some of them will serve to 
show that the artist has not 
been content with a mere 
transcript of some scene 
which has passed before his 
eyes, or with baldly record- 
ing certain effects of light 
which he has encountered, 
but that he has striven to 
communicate some of that 
feeling which he himself 
has experienced in presence 
of the sublime, majestic 
aspects of nature. The 
introduction of figures, 
human and animal, into 
some of these paintings is 
always well considered. 
The figures, though usually 
small, are never placed in 
the composition as a piece 
of unimportant staffage : 
on the contrary, their in- 
troduction is dictated by a 
sense of rhythm ; they are '• 1 fioki hella nev 



never without character, and they serve by their 
proportions to accentuate the magnitude of the 
mountains as well as to give the picture the neces- 
sary feeling of space. At times the figures are 
placed boldly in the foreground, especially when 
they stand out against the light and are as it were 
enveloped in it. 

The works of Carozzi of which reproductions 
accompany these notes represent, of course, only 
a small part of his achievements as a painter, but 
they are sufficient to give the reader some idea of 
the qualities which, to repeat thewordsof Sgr. Vittorio 
Pica in his note on Carozzi's " individual " show at 
this year's Venice Exhibition of Art, now drawing to a 
close, make this Milanese artist " worthy of being 
singled out as one of the most confident, most 
conscientious, and most personal representatives 
at the present day of that Lombard school of 
landscape painting which possesses such noble and 
glorious traditions." L. Br. 

VIENN.A. — It is not generally known that 
some of Mr. Charles Mackintosh's best 
work is to be seen in Vienna. Among 
other examples a music-room which the 
emineiit architect and artist designed for Herr 




studio- fa Ik 



M'amdorfer some years ago has till now never been 
reproduced. The design came as an inspiration, a 
fitting setting to Maeterlinck's " Dead I'rinccss,'' 
whose story is told in the exquisite friezes designed 
and executed by Mr. Mackintosh, the MacNairs. 
and Mrs. Mackintosh which adorn the room and 
form the chief motive in the decorative scheme. 
The composition forms an organic whole, each 
part fitting into the rest with the same concord as 
do the passages of a grand symphony : each thought 
resolves itself as do the chords in music, till the 
orchestration is perfect, the effect of complete 
repose filling the soul. The colour-scheme is red, 
lavender, and white. Each object in the room has 
its due place. The accentuation always comes on 
the right note, and each note has been expanded to 
its right artistic compass. Mr. and Mrs. Mackintosh 
themselves came to Vienna at Mr. W'arndorfers in- 
vitation for the purpose of designing this interior, 
and spent six weeks in the city. They were given 
unfettered discretion, and thus their imagination was 
allowed full scope. Many pilgrimages have been 
made to this room, for connoisseurs find real 
pleasure and delight in it. A. S. L. 



BERLIN. — The German porcelain fac- 
tories hesitated a good deal before de- 
ciding to break with their traditions and 
pursue the new ideas and style inaugu- 
rated by Copenhagen. The greater the renown 
which their past productions had earned for them, 
the more difficult did it seem for them to enter on 
a change of technique and form without sinking to 
the status of mere imitators ; and the northern 
factories had already gained such a lead that there 
could hardly beany (juestion about imitation. Per- 
haps it was not unnatural that the chief supporters 
of historic tradition should have hesitated before 
making a new departure. The Sevres factory was 
a long time before it countenanced the principles 
initiated by the Danes, and Meissen did not follow 
till even later. In Germany, however, another 
factor — of a psychological nature — played its 
part. It must be admitted that porcelain has not 
in reality assumed the leading role in German 
ceramics. The more stable forms of earthenware are 
more in harmony with the German temperament, 
while porcelain, .so delicate and fragile by com- 
parison, has never quite fitted in with our mode of 




MUSIC-ROO.M AT THE VILLA \VARNI>ORFER, VIENNA 
72 



liESllJNED BV CHARLES MACKINTOSH 



Studio-Talk 




stimulus came from Denmark ; on the contrary, the 
beautiful Heron service with which Krohn in- 
augurated a new epoch at Bing and Grondal's Copen- 
hagen factory closely followed in form the greatly 
admired Swan service which Kiindler designed for 
Count Briihl. And before their complete adoption of 
under-glaze painting, the Meissen factory had revived 
this branch with a series of figures in the costumes of 
the people ; these were exhibited at Munich in 1888, 
but the artistic effect was not equal to the technical 
ability displayed in them. Use was made not only 
of under-glaze colours, but of coloured masses of 
substance, and it is just in this use of paste-paint- 
ing that lurks the temptation to emphasise the 
pictorial at the expense of the decorative. In the 
meantime the factory has brought its " sharp fire " 
palette to perfection, and after many failures the 
right artists and modellers have been found. In 
so far as figures are concerned it can add its 
modern productions to the series of those which 
made it famous in its early days without a shadow 
of fear that the name " Meissen Porcelain " will 
arouse merely the remembrance of an historic 
tradition. A. K. 



H 



rOKCELAIN KI(;UKE FKO.M THE ROV.AL SAXON PORCELAIN 
FACTORY AT .MEISSEN 



EIDELBERG. — During the summer 
months an interesting exhibition of 
Frankenthal porcelain has been held 
here in the upper rooms of the building 
containing the Municipal Collections. Collectors 
have of late paid considerable attention to the ware 



life ; it has, so to speak, 
too festal a character for a 
modern work-loving 
country. In Germany, so 
far as tableware is con- 
cerned, material is preferred 
to decoration, which is held 
in restraint as much as 
possible. The Meissen 
factory has therefore done 
well to revive in its 
modem practice one of the 
traditions which made it 
famous in its early days — 
the production of figures 
and groups, which com- 
mand so much esteem in 
the German household. 



It cannot be said that in 
this branch of work the 




PORCELAIN FIGURE FROM THE ROYAL PORCELAIN FACTORY XX MEISSEN 

73 



Stitdio-Talk 




FRANKENTHAL PORCELAIN FIGURE FROM A 
RECENT EXHIBITION AT HEIIlELKERG 



produced at this factory, which was founded by 
P. A. Hannong, under Royal auspices, in 1755, 
and after passing into the possession of the ruler of 
that part of Germany, and being administered as a 
State establishment, finally came to an end in the 
last year of the eighteenth century. The exhibition 
contained only the finest examples, and among 
them were many pieces owned by private collectors 
in Heidelberg of which nothing has been known 
hitherto. An exceptionally fine dinnersernce, 
made about 177 1 and said to have been a present 
from Hannong's Royal patron, the Elector Charles 
Theodore, to a Roman Cardinal, was a noteworthy 
item. Numerous figures representing plebeian 
types were shown, and two by J. \S . Lanz were of 
particular interest : one a beggar with his bundle, 
the other Die kiefende Biickersfrau, here reproduced 
— a very expressive representation of a scolding 
woman. The colouring of these pieces adds greatly 
to their charm. Among the newly discovered 
74 



pieces were some figures of Cavaliers, a group of 
Bacchantes, and three beautiful rocaille vases bearing 
sacred monograms and supposed on that account 
to have belonged to a church. The Heidelberg 
Municipal Collections contain many fine pieces 
which figured in the exhibition, and in addition to 
numerous figures and objects in colour there were 
some excellent pieces in plain white, as well as some 
imitations of Sevres porcelain executed in the 
time of Feylner. The female figure with a child 
at the foot, shown in the accompanying illustration, 
is a pendant to one of St. Carlo Borromeo recently 
accjuired by the Bavarian National Museum in 
Munich. V. C. H. 

W 1:1 MAR. —Mr. Ingwer Paulsen, a 
native of Kiel, has recently been 
devoting his attention to the art 
of the burin and the dry-point, after 
studying the masters of eau forte in France and 
Germany. Landscape is the keynote of his work, 




"DIE KIEFENDE BACKERSFRAU. BY .1. W. I.ANZ. 

FRANKENTHAI, PORCELAIN FIGURE FROM A 

RECENT EXHIBITION AT HEIDELBERG 




'THE CASTLE OF THE COUNT OF 
FLANDERS AT GHENT." FROM AN 
ETCHLNG BY INGWER C. PAULSEN 



Sfitdio- Talk 



landscape mostly of a character peculiar to the low- 
lands. It is the country of Paulsen's birth — the 
Sleswic-Holstein marshes on the flat, dreary coast of 
the North Sea, with their bleak houses and stern 
Frisian peasantry, whose character seem.<! to har- 
monise with their environment ; churches of ancient 
lore, and here and there a forlorn fisherm.in's hut 
among the sweeping sand-hills of the downs. The 
Stormy Landscape — Sleswic-Holstein (below) gives 
us a specimen of this native tone in the young 
painter's lines, of black and white and mezzotint. 
The air is of a half-tone brightness, the stifl" breeze 
bending the branches of the trees into rough 
clusters of weird, dramatic eloquence. The 
" survival of the fittest " seems to be written in 
bold silhouette upon the horizon of nature. 
Sometimes we find figure sketches of quaint folk 
from street or cabaret, singing or dancing to flute 
or violin. A certain dreariness and morbid humour 
seems also to pervade these little figure composi- 
tions of a chance meeting or a happy hour of 
bohemian life. 

Our other illustration (page 75) is from a plate 



of unusual size. It is the back entrance of an old 
Gothic castle at Ghent, the castle of the Count of 
Flanders. The high walls and stern turrets ot 
this feudal stronghold stand in fierce and gloomy 
uprightness against the sky of hazy clouds, telling 
a story of bygone days, with bygone strife and 
deeds of pluck and chivalry. The foreground of 
this large etching is peopled by a few indistinct 
figures on a bare, broad ground, adding by this 
contrast all the more to the force of the vertical 
lines of staunch mediaeval architecture. The plate 
was etched after a pencil sketch and enlarged, as it 
were, to its peculiar force by the blending of im- 
pression and fancy. W. S. 



A MSTERDAM.— In the last Winter Special 
/\ Number of The Studio, entitled " Pen, 
/ \ Pencil, and Chalk," we gave some ex- 
JL \. amples of pen drawing by Mr. Wencke- 
bach, who has long held a foremost position among 
Dutch draughtsmen. The drawing now reproduced 
is one executed to illustrate a volume, " Blonde 
Duinen," and exhibits the same sound draughts- 




"A STORMY LANl):>i.AH:., 
76 



.i.t;>WlC-HOI-STEIN 



KKQ.M AN ETCHl.Ni; BV INGWER C. PAII.SEN 




FROM A PEN DRAWING BY 
L. W. R WENCKEBACH. 



studio- Talk 



manship and fine feeling for line which we find in 
all his work with the pen. 



The bust of Josef Israels by Mr. Toon Dupuis, 
of which an illustration is here given, has been 
acquired by the Dutch Government and placed 
in the Rijks-Museum as a tribute to the memory 
of the distinguished 
leader of the modem 
Dutch School of 
painting. Mr. Dupuis 
was born at Antwerp 
in 1877 and is the 
son of Louis Dupuis, 
the well-known .sculp- 
tor and midailleiir. 
He studied at the 
Royal Academy of 
Fine Arts in Antwerp ; 
in 1898 he settled at 
The Hague and was 
appointed professor at 
the Academy there 
when only twenty- 
three. He has exe- 
cuted nu merous 
studies and busts of 
Dutch notabilities, as 
well as many medals, 
all these works being 
modelled from the life. 
Besides memorial and 
portrait subjects he 
has done a consider- 
able number of sym- bust ok josek israkls 
bolic and genre ( Recently ai quired by the K 

figures and decorative 

works, and quite recently the architects of the 
Palace of Peace at The Hague have commissioned 
from him a figure representing Authority, which is 
to be placed on the fagade of this building. X. 

CHEMNITZ.— In order to keep their 
annual exhibitions within reasonable 
limits the Deutsche Kiinstlerbund has 
deemed it advisable to set aside all black- 
and-white contributions and arrange separate shows 
for these. The one for this year at Chemnitz is 
the fourth instituted by the Deutsche Kiinstlerbund. 
Chemnitz is the Manchester of Saxony ; considerable 
wealth has been amassed there, and attention is now- 
being directed towards the Fine Arts. The town 
has built a fine general museum, part of which has 
been adapted to the holding of art exhibitions. 




As usual, drawings predominate in the present 
show, but no longer to the extent we have been 
accustomed to for the past decade. In the begin- 
ning of the eighties of last century, several strong 
etchers and engravers — notably Klinger — appeared 
and gave an impetus to the art of etching. 
Their example induced our best painters and 
sculptors to try their 
hand at the graphic 
arts, and so there was 
an important renas- 
cence during the 
nineties. But the in- 
terest in black and 
white waned very 
soon, and for the 
majority of practi- 
tioners all manner of 
etching, lithographing 
and woodcut was no 
more than an episode. 



The present show 
seems to indicate a 
change. It is with 
great satisfaction that 
we are able to note 
a general improve- 
ment in the field of 
etching. A number 
of young artists have 
entered the lists, with 
work that is most 
promising and al- 
BY TOON DUPUIS ready good enough 

iJks-Museum at Amsterdam) J,-, \ise\i. All of it 

bears upon its face 
the marks of true conviction and purpose. 



Hans Meid I consider to be a most important 
etcher. His plates look as if they had been worked 
in a whirl of passion. His line is almost feverishly 
nervous ; even the Une of Tiepolo, or Piranesi at 
his wildest, appears tame in comparison. Meid is 
distinctive to a degree ; you can pick out his etchings 
among a thousand at a glance. Some of this strong 
personality is still dependent upon the weirdness 
of his conception and a rather decadent style of 
draughtsmanship. But he might well sober down 
in both these directions, and his art would still 
remain thoroughly and distinctively his ow^n. 



Wilhelm Thielmann is very quiet compared with 
Meid. He owes his strength not so much to any 

79 



studio- Talk 



peculiarity of style as to the genuine depth of feel- 
ing evinced by his conception. Thielmann presents 
us an impressive picture of life among the Hessian 
country folk. He attacks the problem not from 
the ethnographical but from the psychological side. 
He is not an etcher of costumes and places, but of 
men and women. 

Ingwer Paulsen approaches more closely than 
either of the abo\e to the ideal established by the 
classic masters of English etching. He has a 
keener sense of style in black and white than the 
majority of his German confreres, and the art of 
presentment, not the subject presented, is of para- 
mount interest to him. Thus he abides by the 
themes which most of the English masters have 
remained satisfied with — topographical subjects, 
architecture, and landscape. It is not difficult to 
predict an important future as an etcher for 
Paulsen. 

Paul Paeschke etches Berlin subjects in a 
novel way. He combines dry-point with the 
bitten line, and it is characteristic of his work that 
he manages to set off very delicate tone values in 
contrast with his line. His 
atmospheric effects are 
most laudable, and in spite 
of its suavity his manner 
has lost none of the free- 
dom requisite to its being 
interesting. 



simply extend their plates without adapting the 
means to the new measurements. 



These are a few of the more prominent talents 
whose work was to be seen at Chemnitz. Other 
artists of recognised standing appeared also in full 
force. Among them Orlik and Fischer, two of our 
very best etchers; Liebermann, an interesting phe- 
nomenon, a sort of union between the impressionist 
and the Whistlerian ideal — about thirty new 
etchings of his were on view ; Corinth and Slevogt, 
who both handle dry-point in distinctive and 
fascinating manners ; and many others. 



The interest in lithography, it appears, has 
somewhat abated. There is scarcely anything new 
of primary importance to be seen. But woodcut 
is still being extensively and ably practised. 
Munich with its suburbs possesses a regular colony 
of able artists who produce woodcuts. Thielmann, 
Martha Cunz, and Staschus belong to the best. 
Klemm's colour-prints are splendid : unfortunately 
he has thought fit to imitate Renascence prints in 
his latest work, and he stoops to such tricks as 
copying cracks, wormholes, &:c. At Dresden Prof. 



Erich Wolfsfeld is one 
of the few artisfS who, like 
Brangwyn, can get away 
with a plate of large 
dimensions. In the case 
of Brang^vyn it seems to 
me that the tectonic quali- 
ties of the plate carr)' it to 
success. \\'olfsfeld has 
evolved a peculiar, ver)- 
robust, and large technique, 
which requires of itself a 
good-sized plate. Thanks 
to this fact, namely, that 
he handles a new line and 
not merely an enlarged 
one, his work really makes 
a monumental impression ; 
it does not merely look 
magnified, as does that of 
some other artists who 
So 




THE IIjOL 



BY EUGENIC PELLI.M 



studio- Talk 




THE rOET 



BY VLASTIMIL llOFMANN 



Panto's Hungarian, Bohemian, and Dalmatian 
types, and the colour-work of Dora Seifert, deserve 
the utmost praise. H. W. S. 



form the underlying character and soul, 
and have been able to give expression 
thereto. So it comes that M. Pellini 
enjoys in Italy the consideration of the 
most discerning critics, who have the 
greatest faith in his future. I have already 
written in these pages of Tranquillo Cre- 
mona, one of the vanguard of the new 
school of plastic art to which Pellini be- 
longs, and I have also remarked upon the 
influence which Cremona, though his efforts 
were to some extent paralysed by reaction- 
aries, has exercised in Lombardy. To-day 
we are gathering a flower, part of the 
harvest of that influence, in the productions 
of M. Pellini, whose graceful art responds 
to the delicacy of Cremona, his style to the 
marvellous nuances of this master, while we 
do not fail to recognise the sculptor's 
originality and freshness. This phenomenon 
of the influence of a painter upon a sculptor 
is by no means a new one,but this example of 
it from Lombardy which I now bring to your 
notice makes a very interesting chapter in the 
history of present-day sculpture in Italy. A. M. 



M 



ILAN. — Eugenio Pellini, a young 
sculptor who hails from the country 
near Milan, and who now lives in the 
city itself, has come to the 
front in these last few years. His work 
is modem in feeling, and he is espe- 
cially powerful in expressing maternal 
tenderness or infant ingenuousness. 
Among his notable achievements is a 
Gefhsematie, in the " Monumentale di 
Milano," the famous cemetery of the 
city. This work of noble lines and high 
inspiration attracts by reason of its fine 
presentment of the lofty ideal of which 
Christ is the sublime personification. 
Apart from the Gethsemane M. Pellini's 
auvre comprises a number of bronzes 
and marbles, all very poetic in concep- 
tion. Here we have the most lively and 
naive of the artist's productions, among 
which The Idol, now reproduced, is one 
of the most touching. In this group, as, 
indeed, in all his work, he convinces us 
that sincerity is his watchword, and that 
he is the heir of all those masters who 
have discovered for us in the human 



P' 



.RAGUE. — Vlastimil Hofmann, of whose 
work two examples are here given, is a 
Czech by birth but Polish by education 
and in his artistic tendencies. The charac- 
teristic of his work is a curious combination of 




MADONNA GAUDIOSA 



BY VLASTIMIL HOFMANN 
8l 



Art ScJiooI Notes 



refinement and robust realism, by virtue of which 
it possesses an indefinable charm. Both the 
paintings reproduced figured in one of the recent 
exhibitions of the " Manes " Society — a society of 
young Czech artists founded in 1877 for the 
purpose of releasing Bohemian painting from the 
shackles of the rigid academic manner then para 
mount. Hofmann is also a member of the Vienna 
Secession, at whose exhibitions his rustic Madonnas 
are a prominent feature. H. SrH. 



critic and the plain man. One could almost fancy 
a course of education in art beginning with the 
study of some of these works. Subtle atmospheric 
effects, the blaze of colour that inflames the land- 
scape of Pennsylvania in October, the grey " en- 
veloppe," relieved here and there with patches of 
pallid snow, of a winter scene, the gay sunshine of 
a midsummer's day, have been rendered here with 
a fidelity that carries conviction of the truth ably 
translated by a master hand. E. C. 



PHILADELPHIA.— Mr. Charles Morris 
Young's recent exhibition of more than 
sixty canvasesat the Pennsylvania Academy 
of the Fine Arts was one of the most 
significant evidences of the progress of the art of 
landscape painting in America. Seeking his subject 
from his immediate surroundings, he has treated it 
with a sincerity of purpose subjective in a way and 
yet with a truly artistic " facture " that is wonderfully 
satisfactoryand perfectly comprehensible to both the 



ART SCHOOL NOTES. 

I ON DON.— On .'\ugust 12 the tablet, of which 
an illustration is given on page 86, was 
unveiled in Blythburgh Church, Suffolk, 
-^ as a memorial to the late Keeper of the 
Royal Academy, Mr. Ernest Crofts, R.A., who had a 
residence in this place. A large number of past 
and present students of the Academy Schools sub- 
scribed towards this tribute to the memory of the 




THE SNOWSTOR.M 

82 



FKo.M IHE on. PAiNllNi, BY (.HARI.ba MOKRIS YOUNG 



Reviews and Notices 




II IZZARD 



FROM THE OIL rAINTI> 
(Sec Philadelphia Sliidio-Talk, p. 84) 



HAKIK^ MORRIS YOUNG 



deceased painter, who during his tenure of the office 
of Keeper was also ex officio head of the Schools. 
The memorial is the joint work of two past stu- 
dents who passed through the Schools of Sculpture 
and Architecture respectively during Mr. Crofts' 
keepership — Mr. Allan G. Wyon, sculptor, and Mr. 
Basil Oliver, architect, both now practising in 
London. 

The School of Art Wood-Carving, 39 Thurloe 
Place, South Kensington, has been reopened after 
the usual summer vacation, and we are requested 
to state that some of the free studentships in the 
evening classes maintained by means of funds 
granted to the school by the London County 
Council are vacant. The day classes of the school 
are held from g to i and 2 to 5 on five days of the 
week, and from 9 to i on Saturdays. The evening 
class meets on three evenings a week and on 
Saturday afternoons. Forms of application for 
the free studentships and any further particulars 



relating to the school may be obtained from the 
secretary. 

REVIEWS AND NOTICES. 

The Classic Point of View. By Kenyon Cox. 
(London : T. Werner Laurie.) 6.f. net. — Mr. Kenyon 
Cox tells us that his pages — forming the substance 
of the Scammon Lectures delivered last year at the 
Art Institute of Chicago — will be found to contain 
a statement, as clear as he can make it, of what 
one painter believes and hopes and fears with 
regard to painting ; of what he takes to be the 
malady of modem art, and of where he looks for 
the remedy for it. He speaks both to those young 
artists who have, to some e.xtent, the future of 
American art in their hands, and to the general 
public whose influence upon our art is exercised by 
its patronage or refusal. He defines the classic spirit 
well when he says it strives for the essential rather 
than the accidental, and he rightly dissociates it 

83 



Reviews and Notices 



from the so-called " classic school " founded by 
David on antique sculpture. But we might at this 
stage point out that the failure of that " classicism," 
to attain anything equivalent in beauty to the 
classic works of the antique, was more than 
anything else due to the method which the author 
proceeds to recommend to his readers of going to 
nature via the convention of a school instead of 
direct, as the Greeks themselves did, for inspira- 
tion. Mr. Cox proceeds to attack the naturalistic 
tendency in modem 
art, but appreciates 
that the classic spirit 
has more in common 
with it than with 
modem emotionalism 
and individualism : 
and to learn a thing 
rather than to merely 
copy it, he points out, 
is the only way to be 
able to distinguish the 
essential from the acci- 
dental. There follows, 
accompanied by thirty- 
two illustrations, an 
analysis of famous 
paintings from the 
author's point of view. 
He eloquently ex- 
presses the sympathy 
which a certain type 
of mind has with 
whatever is scholastic 
and traditional, but he 
does seem to us rather 
to lose sight of the fact 
that, after all, there is 
a great deal in the say- 
ing that the classicists 
themselves are dead 
romanticists, and that 

there is an eager spirit seeking expression to which 
expression would be denied along the lines which 
he would set down. 

The Sacred Shrine. By Vrjd Hirn. (London : 
Macmillan and Co.) 14?. net. — The author of 
this treatise, every^ page of which gives evidence of 
extensive study and erudition, occupies the Chair 
of .(fisthetic and Modem Literature at the Uni- 
versity of Finland, Helsingfors, and has already 
made a notable contribution to the literature of 
art in his work dealing with "The Origins of Art.'' 
The subject of his present inquiry is, to use his own 
84 



EkNlSl CROI IS. K 
8"! I. IS47 L)n<l ion kV,'|« 1- o((li<- 
l((.v<(l A( .HJornv'ISQ!' l<) 1,911 llii^ 
Mt nuirtjl K ti't^ctoti IQ his imniory 
bv tiio&t sliidenrs who knew HiiuVa 




words, " that state of mind which, unaltered in its 
main features through the ages, has lain at the 
foundation of the aesthetic life of believing 
Catholics," i.e. Roman Catholics. " Looked at 
from the point of view of an outsider," he truly 
remarks, " the manifestations of Catholic Art 
appear in many cases meaningless and uninterest- 
ing ; but the confusion becomes order, and the 
seemingly unimportant becomes interesting, if one 
makes oneself familiar with the world-philosophy 
which lies at the basis 
of the aesthetic pro- 
duction." He goes on 
to point out that " on 
the ground of the 
magical features in its 
ritual the Roman re- 
ligion has often, espe- 
cially in Protestant 
polemic, been repre- 
sented as a material- 
istic heathendom ; but 
in doing so the fact has 
been overlooked that 
the material and the 
visible comprises only 
one side of a Catholic 
ceremony " ; the doc- 
trine of a mystic union 
between the visible and 
the invisible is what 
gives the Catholic 
cult its characteristic 
quality, "and it is by 
reason of the same 
doctrine that Catholic 
art is more aesthetic 
than Protestant art, 
and more religious 
than heathen art." 
The author, in his ex- 
position, adopts a two- 
fold division ; first he devotes a series of chapters to 
the Mass ritual and the furniture and instruments 
associated with it — the altar and its appurtenances, 
the reliquary, the Holy of Holies, the monstrance 
and the tabemacle ; while the rest of the book, or 
more than 300 out of nearly 500 pages, is con- 
cerned with the manifold aspects of the Cult of 
the Madonna. The forms of art with which the 
chapters on the Mass ritual are concemed are 
architectural, decorative, and dramatic ; in those 
on the Madonna Cult the aesthetic subjects 
primarily treated are sculpture, painting, and 




TABLET IN BI.VTHBfRC.H CHIRCII, Sl'FFOl.K, TO THE 
MEMORY OK ERNEST CROKTS, R.A. , SUBSCRIBED FOR 
BY PAST ANl> I'KESENT STUDENTS OF THE ROYAL 
ACADEMY. BY ALLAN G. WYON, SCULPTOR, AND 
BASIL OLIVER, A.R.I. B.A., ARCHITECT. 
(See London Art School Notes, p. 84) 



Reviews and Notices 



poetry, in the representations of which must be 
sought " Catholicism's ideal type of physical and 
moral beauty, i.e. the human Virgin who by reason 
of her grace and her virtues was found worthy to 
be the Mother of God." Prof. Hirn's exposition, 
which is marked throughout by a tone of sincerity 
and respect, will enable the non-Catholic to under- 
stand and appreciate better that intimate associa- 
tion of art and religion which has enriched the world 
with so many magnificent works of architecture, 
sculpture, painting, and other forms of artistic 
creation. 

Canadian Pictures. By Harold Copping. De- 
scribed by Emily P. Weaver. (London : Religious 
Tract Society.) zis. net. — This handsome port- 
folio, upon the very artistic production of which 
the publishers are to be congratulated, contains 
thirty-six colour reproductions from drawings in 
water-colour or pastel, in which Mr. Harold Copping 
has depicted various scenes and phases in the life 
of that great Dominion which forms so important 
a part of the British Empire. Attached to each 
plate is an explanatory and historical note, in which 
the writer has supplemented in an interesting 
manner the artist's pictures, the subjects of which 
cover an extensive field, embracing the chief cities, 
Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, \\'innipeg, 
Victoria, Vancouver, Regina, the wheatfields of 
Manitoba, the Niagara Falls, the prairie in Saskat- 
chewan, and the Doukhobor country, besides 
various mountain, lake, and river views. Not the 
least interesting of the artist's drawings are the 
studies of a Doukhobor woman and some Black- 
foot Indian types. 

Greek and Roman Portraits. By Dr. Anton 
Hekler. (London : Heinemann.) Tfis. net. — 
Dr. Hekler's book contains considerably over 
three hundred large reproductions from Greek and 
Roman portraits, and the reproductions are 
triumphs of printing. The author devotes several 
pages in the beginning to an exhaustive analysis of 
the influences which determined the characteristics 
of ancient portrait-sculpture, and we have in his 
pages a very closely wrought history of the pre- 
dominant impulses of Hellenistic and Republican 
Roman portrait-art. The reader is enabled by the 
light of the illustrations to accompany the author 
in the search for the specifically Roman element in 
the portrait-art of Republican Rome. In an earlier 
portion of the essay the process of the growth of 
the art of portraiture is well put into words, words 
which still seem to contain a key to the progress in 
the direction of extreme individualism in art of 
every kind to-day. " The interest in individuals 



awakes in more advanced periods. Its first con- 
dition is a refinement of culture, which entails 
variety of facial expression ; not only do differences 
of class become marked, but man and woman are 
made more dissimilar. The individual becomes 
more and more pronounced in the community. 
The interest in personality then comes into play. 
The mighty impetus carries everything away with 
it, philosophy as well as art and letters." 

La Faience et la Porcelaine de Marseille. Par 
TAbbe Arnaud d'Agnel. (Paris : Lucien 
Laveur ; Marseilles : Jouvene ; London : Siegle 
and Co. Ltd.) Frcs. 60. — The manufacture of 
faience seems to have been carried on at Marseilles 
for at least two centuries, though no definite in- 
formation as to the precise date of its introduction 
exists: but the ware has not hitherto received much 
attention from writers, and such accounts of it as 
have been published are altogether meagre in pro- 
portion to the dimensons which the industry 
assumed in the course of its history. Ample 
amends for this scantiness are, however, made in 
the volume before us, a bulky quarto of more than 
500 pages of letterpress in addition to sixty plates 
hors texte in which several hundred objects are 
figured in colours or black. The author appears 
to have made a thorough study of the history of 
the manufacture, and although his researches have 
left several points connected with the earliest period 
still obscure, his account of the manufacture from 
the time when it became definitely established is 
comprehensive, embracing biographical notices of 
all the maitres faienders who carried on the pro- 
duction of the ware, a dissertation on the technical 
methods employed therein and the artistic qualities 
of the ware, in the course of which the influence of 
other centres of ceramic manufacture is alluded to, 
and lastly, an economic history of the industry, from 
which it appears that the ware was exported in 
considerable quantities to foreign countries and 
especially to French possessions. The only justifi- 
cation for the inclusion of the word " Porcelaine " 
in the title is an appendix concerning the produc- 
tions of Joseph Gaspard Robert, Honore Savy, and 
others, and a coloured plate showing six pieces 
made by Robert, the most notable of the group. 



We have received from Wengers Ltd., of Etruria, 
Stoke-on-Trent, a copy of their General Price List 
No. 50, giving particulars of a vast number of 
materials and implements manufactured by the 
firm for the use of potters, glass-makers, enamellers 
on metal, and others. They will be pleased to send 
a copy to any one interested. 

85 



The Lay Figure 



T 



HE LAY FIGURE: ON PRAC- 
TICAL ART TEACHING. 



" I WONDER whether we shall ever succeed 
in organising a really practical system of art educa- 
tion in this country," said the Art Critic. " I cannot 
see that our present methods have any right to be 
considered efficient or that they give anything like 
adequate results." 

" I do not at all agree with you," protested the 
Art Master. " Our modern methods .seem to me 
to be worthy of all respect. They represent the 
conclusions arrived at by the men who are acknow- 
ledged to have most experience in educational 
questions, and they are well adapted to the needs 
of students of art." 

"Still, if the results are inadequate the methods 
are not what they ought to be," broke in the Man 
with the Red Tie. "The educator may be ex- 
perienced and yet not infallible." 

" But I deny that the results are inadequate," 
cried the Art Master. " Look at the enormous 
number of students who are now working in our 
art schools and see how the standard of technical 
practice has risen in recent years. You cannot 
point to any previous period in our art history when 
so many brilliant young artists were available or 
when the general standard of artistic accomplish- 
ment stood so high." 

" Oh, I am quite ready to grant that the general 
practice of the painter's craft has considerably 
improved, and that there are quite a lot of modern 
painters who are admirably trained in all the tricks 
of their trade," replied the Critic. " But it is just 
for that reason that I say that our system of art 
education is unpractical. We are wasting all our 
energies in teaching— very efficiently, I admit — a 
vast number of men to paint pictures that nobody 
appears to want, and we are neglecting applications 
of art which are really of much more importance." 

" No, that is not a fair statement of the position," 
objected the Art Master. " We do not confine 
ourselves to training painters ; we are training an 
even greater number of students to become de- 
signers. There is a vast amount of attention being 
given at the present time to the development of 
the applied arts and to the encouragement of the 
artistic crafts." 

" What, then, becomes of all the designers you 
turn out ? " inquired the Man with the Red Tie. 
" We have not made any startling progress of late 
years in design ; indeed, we have in that branch of 
art fallen behind other nations. How do you 
account for it ? " 
86 



" I do not think we have fallen behind," returned 
the Art Master. " We are holding our own quite 
reasonably well. There are plenty of able designers 
in this country." 

" Yes, but how many of them can you claim as 
products of your system of education ? " interrupted 
the Critic. " If your teaching were so efficient 
there would be, not a few men prominent in design, 
but a mass of skilful designers who would raise 
perceptibly the whole standard of what one may 
call commercial art. Now, I complain that the 
bulk of commercial art is tawdry and pretentious, 
wanting in taste and lacking in esthetic quality. 
Why should that be ? " 

" \\'e train the designers, but if the manufacturers 
will not employ them that is not our fault," pro- 
tested the Art Master. 

"I am not so sure about that," replied the Critic. 
" I think it is your fault, because, as I have already 
said, your system is not practical. You teach the 
theory of design, but you pay no attention to its 
practice. You train students to design things about 
the making of which they are ignorant, and this 
ignorance you do nothing to enlighten. When 
your students leave school and seek for employment 
they cannot get it because they do not know how 
to apply the theories they have learned to actual 
production ; because, in fact, you have not made 
craftsmen of them. The manufacturers want men 
who can work, not theorists whose abstract imagin- 
ings have to be made workable by some one 
else." 

" But the art school is not meant to be a work- 
shop," objected the Art Master. 

" Is it not ? " commented the Critic. " I think 
it ought to be. Look at the Austrian schools of 
Applied Art and see what results they are achieving 
by making their students test theoretical knowledge 
by practical work. Look at the German schools and 
see how they are being remodelled on the same 
lines. Look at the few great craftsmen-designers 
we have, who know by practical experience just 
how a design should be made to suit perfectly the 
materials in which it is to be carried out. Why 
should not our art teachers learn a lesson them- 
selves and realise that our art schools — I mean 
especially those established and maintained by the 
public authorities — must become workshops if the 
training of the student is ever to be reorganised on 
practical lines ? When are we going to have the 
sense to admit our inefficiency ? " 

" Ah, I wonder ! " laughed the Man with the 
Red Tie. 

The Lav Figure. 



A)Hicrs Zorn 



ANDERS ZORN'S RECENT PAINT- 
j\ INGS AND SCULPTURE. BY 

iX. DR. AXEL GAUFFIN. (Translated 
by Edward Adams-Ray. ) 

It has fallen to the lot of Anders Zorn to have 
progressed through one of the most self-evident 
courses of development, and to have experienced 
some of the most rapidly won recognition known 
in the history of art. The whole of his work 
possesses something of that quality, captivating to 
the outward sense, which is spontaneous in its direct 
attractiveness and is founded on a phenomenal 
skill that fetters the beholder in chains of wonder 
and admiration. He is the Aladdin of art — I 
think the phrase has been employed before, for 
it springs unbidden to one's lips in the presence of 
this man. 

But Aladdin never reached old age. 
It is difficult, at least, to imagine that 
son of fortune with a wrinkled brow 
and venerable, silver-white beard. 
Zorn has passed his tenth lustrum 
but, in many respects, he is still the 
same as he was twenty years ago. 
In this fact lie both the greatness 
and the limitations of his art. With 
extraordinary vitality his brush still 
conjures forth new daughters of the 
land of beauty which he has laid 
beneath his sceptre. But this crea- 
tive act is repeated so often that I 
should not be surprised if a looker- 
on felt himself tempted to ask : 

"Well ?" And yet there is 

something so inherently natural in 
Zorn's art. This genius of the nude, 
who stands unparagoned in the realm 
of modern painting, has become 
what he is by the absolute honesty 
with which he has pursued his aim, 
the open worship he has practised of 
the naked woman. He can go to a 
painting with the resolution to make 
this time a great composition — " une 
grande machine," as they say in Paris. 
But when he sees his model before 
him in all her naked grace, he bends 
the knee once more at that in- 
exhaustible source of beauty, the 
human body. But it is not a bend- 
ing of the knee in the presence oi 
the unattainable. It is just a thanks- 
giving that this wonder exists, 
XLVIII. No. igo. — December 191 



that it is of the earth, tangible and attainable, 
a consolation and a source of enjoyment for 
man. And the beauty he reproduces is mundane. 
He models the torso with a marvellous solidity, as 
a symbol of the fullness and richness of life ; he 
touches caressingly the fine meshwork of the skin ; 
he falls into an ecstasy when he finds a new light, 
a new tone, some unimagined delicacy, where the 
sun-mist of the atmosphere, or the half-open door 
of the timbered house throws its shifting shadow 
of blue or green. 

At the exhibition of Zorn's pictures which opened 
about the middle of September in the rooms of the 
Konstforening at Stockholm, and in which he 
brought together a number of his canvases painted 
during the last few years, one of the most apparent 
features was the evidence it gave of his return to 
that blonde, open-air painting by which he first 




PORTRAIT OK C. F. LIIJEWALCH 



BY ANDERS ZORN 



Anders Zoni 



brought himself into prominence at the close of 
the eighteen eighties. And he has gained new 
laurels on the old well-known field. He has 
probably hardly ever painted anything more 
delicate than SJoblom's Scow ; Dagmar has been 
imagined mainly as a tone of soft, northern blond- 
ness, while Startled — a 
picture of this year showing 
three young women run- 
ning towards the water 
— must perhaps be ac- 
counted, from an artistic 
point of view, the richest 
in conception, with its de- 
Imeation of that typically 
-Swedish, obliquely trun- 
cated shore-motif which 
has so often served as the 
frame of his paintings of 
the nude. What is most 
worthy of our admiration 
in these things is the 
manner in which the 
atmosphere melts, as it 
were, into human figure 
and the landscape, and the 
natural, innate freedom of 
the movements. Simply 
astounding in the last- 
named picture is the way 
in which the artist has 
caught and reproduced in 
his canvas the light, un- 
constrained movement of 
the startled women in their 
hurry to seek shelter, and 
their careful stepping over 
the pine-needles that cover 
the slippery rocks. From 
a psychological point of 
view this rendering of 
movement is absolutely 
convincing. 

That feeling of subtilised 
French technique which 

one sometimes experiences in the presence of these 
pictures of the nude, appears to me to be less in 
evidence in Zorn's pictures of peasants in their 
dresses, and in his portraits. He seizes his peasant 
women (kullor) with a robuster northern hand 
when they stand dressed in their many-coloured 
bodices and caps. His Skerikulla is simply and 
solely a happy, healthy, peasant lass, and the artist 
has expressed her joy of life and her health in 
90 




AI.MA. STATUE 
RKI) CLAY BY 



every line of his brush, in every play of sunlight 
and each wrinkle on her face. In Sunday, both 
the model and the sfcimning, or mood, are 
different. Here we have a herd-girl, who, alone in 
her shealing high up among the fells, has dressed 
herself in her whitest shift and the best skirt she 
has at hand, and hears the 
clang of the Sunday bells 
from far away in the dales, 
whither the light, hard eyes 
look wistfully away from 
the terrifying loneliness of 
the forest. In ]]'atering 
the Horse, again, the artist 
carries us to Gopsmor, the 
old-time Dalecarlian farm 
to which he every now and 
then retires in order to be 
able to devote himself to 
his art without fear of in- 
terruption. There he him- 
self goes about, like the 
man in the picture, dressed 
in sheepskin jacket and 
knee-breeches, the ancient 
costume of Dalecarlian 
men. Last of all we have 
Matins on Christmas Dav, 
a poem full of the light of 
Christmas and the dawn 
of a new day. 

But it is, perhaps, as a 
portrait painter that Anders 
Zorn has won his proudest 
laurels and made his name 
most widely known. 
Amongst portraits of lesser 
interest, the exhibition 
offered us one of the state- 
liest things he has ever 
marked with his name and 
his genius. It is " the 
counterfeit presentment " 
of one of Sweden's most 
prominent business men 
and patrons ot art of late years — Mr. C. F. 
Liljewalch. It is a robust nature the artist has 
caught on his canvas ; one, it is true, that has 
already begun to lose its first vigour, but which still 
has strength and power of will enough to be able to 
gaze into the great shadow with eyes that look out 
undauntedly from beneath the gloom of the 
eyebrows. 

It is of peculiar interest to compare this last 



I TE MODELLED IN 
ANDERS ZORX 




^^^^//// 




"SKERIKULLA" (SWEDISH PEASANT 
GIRL). FROM THE PAINTING BY 
ANDERS ZORN 




SUNDAY." FROM THE PAINTING 
BY ANDERS ZORN 




" WATERING THE HORSE iDALECARLIAr' 
FROM THE PAINTING BY ANDERS ZORN 




'DAGMAR." 
PAINTING 



FKO.M THE OIL 
BY ANDERS ZORN 



Anders Zoyu 



phase of Zorn's art with the two magnificent 
paintings from 1889 which were also exhibited. 
One of them is an old acquaintance, the artist's 
celebrated portrait of Coquelin cadet, from Mr. 
Thorsten Laurin's collection, a genial, sketch-like, 
instantaneous picture of the great actor, revealing 
the shyness of genius and the complaisance of the 
man of the world. The other is a canvas which is 
as good as hitherto unknown, an interior with five 
figures, Baking in Mora. It was sold in France 
shortly after it was completed, and has only quite 
lately come to light again and been brought to 




PORTRAIT OF COQUELIN CAPET 

(In the collection of Thorsten I.aiiriii, Esq. 



Sweden by one of our most industrious younger 
collectors, Mr. Piltz. The intricate problem which 
here confronted the artist has been solved by him 
with astounding confidence ; the child in the fore- 
ground is the only thing that does not breathe the 
air of the cottage ; the other figures are full of life 
and activity, in spite of all the ruthless fore- 
shortening and reflected lights. 

In spite of that advertisement of his labours as a 
sculptor which is seen in his portrait of himself in 
the Uffizi Gallery at Florence (the picture shows 
him engaged in modelling his wife's bust), there 
are certainly many of 
Zorn's admirers who are 
not aware that the great 
artist and etcher is an ex- 
ceedingly skilful sculptor 
too. In his exhibition he 
had two items ; one, a 
woman's figure. Alma, and 
the other an equestrian 
statuette of a popular 
Swedish hero of medisval 
times, Engelbrekt, which 
would have been sufficient 
to have assured him a 
name in the province of 
Swedish sculpture. Alma 
is a female figure executed 
in red clay, which in its 
plastic form translates the 
sculptor's ideal of womanly 
beauty, such as we have 
learned to know it in his 
work with the brush : it is 
a miracle of graceful play- 
fulness. In character and 
in the movement-motif, the 
other work, Engelbrekt, has 
something in common 
with the artist's statue of 
Gustaf Vasa at Mora. In 
both instances the tension 
of soul has an unconscious 
reflection in the constrained 
extension of the muscles. 
Engelbrekt possesses, per- 
haps, a more delicate treat- 
ment of form than the first 
statuette: it awakens a 
desire to touch and 
caress the sinuous sur- 
face ; one can grasp with 
the eye the generous, 
95 



BV ANDERS ZORN 




oi O 

O N! 



David Miiiyhead 




"ENGELBKKKt" (a bWEDIill .MELil.li\ AL HERO). MODELLED B-Y ANDERS ZORN 



DAVID MUIR- 
HEAD, LAND- 
SCAPE AND 
FIGURE PAINTER. 
BY FRANK W. 
GIBSON. 

A STRONG love of the 
country is natural to many 
painters and also to those 
who patronise painting. 
There is a fellow-feeling 
with both for trees with 
their colour and shade, for 
distance and space in skies 
and clouds, or for sun- 
light on grass and water. 
Amongst landscape painters 
there are some who have 
had something to say, and 
encouraged by apprecia- 
tion and worldly success 
have ventured to state 
it as persistently as they 
can. Constable is a 
firm fullness of form of the magnificently modelled past example of this theory, and certainly justi- 
charger. Zorn has thought of the statue as erected fied himself in the end. Mr. David Muirhead is 
in monumental form in front of the Riksdag House a living example of one of those artists who have 
in Stockholm. Whether this idea will ever become shared Constable's love of landscape, with its 
a reality is more than un- 
certain ; unfortunately so, 
for, if this delightful piece 
of sculpture, as a monu- 
ment, fulfilled the promise 
of its present form — a 
thing which, of course, it 
is somewhat difficult to 
decide — then one of the 
most beautiful but puri- 
tanically unadorned open 
spaces in the world would 
be filled with a work 
•worthy alike of the spot 
itself and of Sweden's most 
celebrated artist. A. G. 

Mr. W. G. von Glehn's 
^^\zX.■\lx& New England, which 
was reproduced in colour 
in our June number, has 
been purchased under the 
Felton Bequest for the Mel- 
bourne National Gallery. "the avenue" by david muirhead 

97 




David Miiirlicad 



showery windy skies, trees heavy with midsummer 
foliage, and the wet sparkle and glitter of English 
landscape under such effects, all of which he ren- 
dered with so much truth and spirit and such 
freshness of style. These apparently are the 
qualities in the great landscapist's work that seem- 
ingly have attracted Mr. Muirhead : but it is an 
attraction that has made for good, for it has 
filled him with a high ambition, it has made him 
fastidious in his search for forms, but it has not 
made him in any degree a copyist of the great 
English landscape painter whose work caused such 
excitement when it was exhibited at the Salon of 
1824, and whose art, by its aspects and feeling, 
must undoubtedly have helped to plant firmly and 
vivify French landscape painting. In England his 
influence has been equally great, if one studies his 
contemporaries, David Cox and Peter de Wint, 
whose water-colours had the same feeling for air 
and freshness : and later Cecil Lawson showed in 
his work Constable's largeness and dignity of view ; 



whilst in our own generation the influence has 
come back from France in certain of Mr. 1*. Wilson 
Steer's landscapes. 

As a colourist Mr. Muirhead is entirely original ; 
his tones seem to be derived from the close study 
of nature's colour, and give the idea of reality — 
open-air reality — and also of decorative effect. It 
is one of the essentials in a painting that it should 
be decorative, otherwise its reason for hanging in a 
room is not very clear. Of course a painting may 
have other qualities, such as a feeling for character 
or for sentiment, like that which Millet possessed. 
Even in the work of artistswho have used symbolism, 
or those who have illustrated legends or historical 
events or everyday occurrences of their own time, 
it will be surely found that their work only lives by 
its possessing decorative qualities ; and bound up 
with this is that unity of purpose that the artist 
gets from selecting only such forms as he can weave 
into a decorative whole. 

Mr. Muirhead has gone very much his own way 




"THE Mn.L AT CERES " 



BY DAVID .MUIRHEAD 




(In the possession oj 
C. H. Moore, Esq.) 



"THE LOST PIECE OF MONEY' 
BY DAVID MUIRHEAD 




THE FEN BRIDGE." 
DAVID MUIRHEAD 



BY 



(In the collution of St> 
Charles Darling) 



^^'. 



'Jt£g3tgBgf 



"^■^^^.-w 



rm *9li!ii()^ f* 



-A WOODLAND POOL." 

FROM THE PAItJTIMG BY 

DAVID MUIRHEAD. 



David Mnirheaa 



in forming an original style of his own. He began 
his artistic career in Edinburgh, where he was born, 
and he says he had the usual school drawing at the 
Royal High School of that town, and after attend- 
ing the Royal Institution, which is the Government 
school, he tried for and was admitted a student at 
the schools of the Royal Scottish Academy, where he 
studied under Lawson Wingate, William Hole, and 
R. Alexander. After this he came to London and 
attended Professor Brown's class at the Westminster 
Art School for a little more than a year. Before 
taking up art altogether Mr. Muirhead had some 
training as an architect under Mr. Sydney Mitchell. 
He began to exhibit pictures at the Royal 
Scottish Academy and also at Glasgow : the first 
painting he showed in London was exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1895 — a portrait; at the 
same place in the following year another portrait. 
In 1896 he first showed a landscape at the New 
English Art Club. In 1898 to the British Artists' 
Exhibition he sent two harbour scenes ; the larger 
one was called Old Stonehaven, the other Evening ; 
and in the same year at the New English Art Club 
the most important landscape he had hitherto shown. 
The Village of Ceres, a fine pastoral, the sky of 
which is painted with such truth that the clouds 
really seem to float across it. The Mill at Ceres, 
which followed next year, also gives the feeling of 



sunlight and heat. From this date he has been 
faithful to the New English Art Club, of which he 
is a prominent member, and, with the exception 
of the Exhibition of International Art (where he 
showed at the first display they held in London, in 
1898, two portraits and a marine), he has exhibited 
nowhere else : thus his finest work has been seen 
there, consisting of such pictures as Autumn, which 
was a beautiful landscape, full of true sentiment of 
the grave kind which Mr. Peppercorn so often 
reveals in his scenes. Another very interesting 
work is The Fen Bridge, which belongs to Sir 
Charles Darling, a painting that has in itself much 
beauty of style and feeling for decoration and the 
qualities of paint. The Avenue is a canvas on 
which is shown most truthfully and most beauti- 
fully the brilliancy and sparkle of sunlight filtering 
into and through the recesses of a woodland land- 
scape. It was painted in 1902. Three or four 
years later came the Woodland Pool, a rather 
similar subject but a quieter effect of a sunlit 
natural scene, but none the less true. The Wind- 
mill at Cley is full of solemn sentiment quite in 
keeping with its grey tones. One of Mr. Muirhead's 
recent landscapes is The Cornfield, which was shown 
at the last Autumn Exhibition of the New English 
Art Club ; it is a successful attempt to suggest 
light and heat. Various as the artist's subjects in 



1 

1 

! 








E^^^^P^*^ 





' A CORNFIELD 



(The tiroperly Of Julian Lousada, Esq.) 



BY DAVID MUIRHEAD 
103 



David Muirheaii 



landscape are, they all have a definite personal 
spirit. 

Although Mr. Muirhead is generally better 
known by his landscapes to many, he deservedly 
merits recognition also as a figure painter. One 
of his most successful works is the picture called 
TTie Lost Piece of Money, here reproduced, which 
was seen at the New English .\rt Club some few 
years ago. The colour is subdued but rich, with 
its deep reds and greys ; the composition, which 
is skilfully planned and conceived, deservedly 
attracted much notice when it was shown. A 
somewhat similar work is The Sisters, which was 
seen at a later exhibition and in which the quiet 
dignity and perfect naturalness of the figures give 
the picture a haunting beauty. 

His latest essay of this kind is the picture called 
Night Piece, here reproduced in colour ; it was ex- 
hibited at the Xew English -Art Club this summer, 
and is destined by the generosity of Mr. Edmund 
Davis to adorn the new Salle .Vnglaise at the Musee 
du Luxembourg in Paris ; it is a work that Mr. 
Muirhead has conceived with Pre-Raphaelitish 
intensity. 

An exhibition of nearly fifty of his works at the 
Chenil Gallery in 1907 clearly revealed the beauty 
of his landscapes, so admirable in their design and 



cool schemes of colour, also showing at the same 
time the thoughtful tenderness of sentiment in his 
beautiful figure paintings. 

It is always interesting to learn how different 
artists have worked, and by what means they have 
built up their pictures. -Some painters have worked 
entirely out of doors, almost finishing their pictures 
on the spot. Others, again, have worked in the 
studio from the slightest notes, aided by memory. 
Mr. Muirhead employs both methods : the picture 
called The Fen Bridge was painted entirely in the 
studio, chiefly from memory and ^^ ith only the 
slightest sketch to help him, as the effect was but 
a fleeting one lasting only a few minutes. The 
Mill at Ceres, on the other hand, was painted out- 
side, and very little was done to it when it was 
brought back into the studio, but the effect was 
one which lasted some hours each day, and for 
many days in the summer. 

Mr. Muirhead thinks that the effect settles pretty 
much his method of working. If it is transitory 
he makes many sketches and notes and then works 
upon them in the studio. If it is a recurring effect 
he works on the spot as much as he can ; but 
sometimes he paints a landscape which is entirely 
composed, but then he works for some certain feeling 
and not for anv realistic effect. F. W. G. 



y^- 



"Mi- '^■ 




A nACKWATER OX THE OUSE" 
104 



BY DAVID MUIRHEAD 




(Bypcrmtsiiim s/ Edmund Davit. Etii.j 



-NIGHT PIECE.' FROM THE 

PAINTING EY DAVID MUIRHEAD. 




( The property of Percivai 
Fawcett^ Esq. ) 



THE WINDMILL AT CLEY 
BY DAVID MUIRHEAD 



Opcii-Air Museums in A'orn'ay 



T 



HE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
OPEN-AIR MUSEUM IN NOR- 
WAY. BY GEORG BROCHNER. 



It is with some satisfaction that the present 
writer can refer to an article of his pubhshed in 
The Studio some twelve years ago, its purport 
being a plea for the erection of an open-air museum 
for London. The suggestion met with warm 
approval in different quarters at the time, but more 
than a decade had to elapse before the question 
was taken up in earnest. Now that there seems 
ever)- likelihood of the plan approaching its con- 
summation a brief survey of the development of 
the open-air museum in other countries during 
recent years may not be considered inopportune. 
I say other countries, but as a matter of fact it is 
only in Scandinavia that the open-air museum has 
as yet become an institution — and a much-treasured 
and ever-growing institution — although a lively 
interest in the same is springing up in diverse 
directions. The director of the Skansen in Stock- 
holm, the far-famed forerunner and prototj-pe of 
open-air museums, inforrrrs me that even the town 
of Omsk, in once-distant Siberia, has been making 
inquiries as to how to set about forming a museum 
of this description ; and at Amhem, in Holland, a 



society has quite recently been founded for the 
same purpose. In Germany, too, a lively interest 
is taken in the matter. 

There is one feature common to nearly all open- 
air museums — as I will continue to call them — and 
their number has swelled materially of late years : 
they nearly all owe their origin to the fervent and 
unselfish enthusiasm and wise circumspection of 
one man, and that not a professional museum 
official, and most of them have sprung from a very 
modest first effort, afterwards, however, in many 
cases growing by leaps and bounds. 

Norway, to which country I propose to devote 
this first article, supplies an excellent and most 
striking illustration of this general rule in the 
Maihaugen Open-Air Museum, or the Sandvig 
collections as they are perhaps more frequently 
called, at the town of Lillehammer. M. Anders 
Sandvig may well be held up as an ideal organiser 
in this connection, and considering that he has only 
been able to devote to this work the spare time 
which his profession has left him, the admirable 
results attained become all the more astounding — 
and yet he himself does not by a long way look 
upon the Maihaugen as finished or complete. 

I should like to give M. Sandvig's own definition 
of his aim with Maihaugen. It was not, he says, 




THE LITTLE LAKE AT THE MAIH.\UGEN OPE.N-AIR MUSEUM, LILLEHAMMER, NORWAY 



I08 



.^^^F^'^iv 



r 



%/• > 




X < 




109 



Open- 



Ait' Miiscii>iis ill XoriiHiy 



to make a museum with scheduled collections, or 
only to gather what one accidentally came upon of 
half-forgotten articles from bygone days, m one 
place a house, in another a utensil. Nor was his 
aim to find what had been most excellent in work- 
manship from different ages, still less peculiar or 
exceptional variations. 

" No," says M. Sandvig, " as I in my mind's eye 
see the Maihaugen in its ultimate consummation it 
shall be a collection of koines where one, as it 
were, can walk straight into the homes of the 
people who have lived there, learn to know their 
mode of living, their tastes, their work. For the 
home and its equipment are a picture of the people 
themselves, and in the old hereditary homesteads 
it is not only the single individual who is mirrored, 
but it is the whole race, generation after generation. 
"Nor is it simply an incidental selection of 
isolated homes that, in Maihaugen, I wish to save 
from destruction or neglect. No, I want to place the 
entire village, as a complete whole, in this big 
picture-book ; not only what might be called the 
manor-house, with its many buildings and its 
equipment bearing witness to hereditary pride and 
affluence, but also the house of the humble peasant, 
the village craftsman's out-of-the-way cottage, and 



the Sater hut from the vast and distant forest. 
And from the top of the hill the old village church 
shall send forth the peal of its bells over these 
relics of bygone ages." 

M. Sandvig, who took up his residence at 
LiUehammer in the year 1885, soon began to 
collect old furniture, weavings, silver, weapons, &c., 
from historic Gudbrandsdale, the Valley of the 
\-alleysas the place is called, where for more than a 
thousand years a race of proud freeholders have 
had their home, the farm often remainmg in the 
possession of the same family for five or six cen- 
turies. The Gudbrandsdalers bow to no man, 
and not a few of them carry their lineage back to 
the kings of ancient Norway. 

If the place which had become M. Sandvig's 
home thus proved a fruitful field for his collecting 
propensity, he, on the other hand, made the best 
of the opportunities fate accorded him. No longer 
satisfied with cups and cupboards, he began to buy 
old houses in which to place his treasures, and 
altogether he purchased eleven venerable buildings 
froni different parts of the Gudbrand valley ; with 
great care they were removed to LiUehammer and 
re-erected in his private garden. Eventually the 
collection assumed such magnitude that it became 




THE MAIHAUGEN OPEN-AIR MUSEl 
1 10 



M : VIEW TROM THE ROAO TO THE " l-ER l.YNT STIE, 



LILLEllAMMER 



open- Air M/i senilis in A'or^vav 





THE MAIHALGEN OPEN-AIR MUSEUM: THE " LOKRE STUE " AND ITS LIVING-ROOM (see f. //^) 



Opcn-Air M/isciuiis in Xoncay 



a necessity to pro\nde more commodious quarters, 
and in the highly picturesque Maihaugen, with its 
glorious scenery, an ideal home was found for 
M. Sandvig's old-time treasures. Some eight years 
ago this most admirable open-air museum was 
ready, the Sandvig collections having in the mean- 
time been transferred to a local Welfare Societx', 
of which, however, M. Sandvig continues to be the 
leading spirit. 

The Maihaugen, as it now stands, and still bear- 
ing promise of yet further growth, is an almost 
perfect example of what an open-air museum 
ought to be, complete within its natural self- 
contained limits. Only at a future London open-air 
museum a Maihaugen would naturally become but 
a section and part of a vast whole. 

The oldest type of house at Maihaugen, the 
aarestue, takes one back many hundred years, 
some four or five centuries and beyond, and there 
is over these venerable buildings a saga-like sim- 
plicity, an almost Spartan frugality, though in lines, 
proportion, and workmanship they are possessed of 
a remarkable beauty and harmony, witnesses of 
ancient northern style (if this much-abused word 
may be used in this connection) and craftsmanship. 
But there were no windows, no fireplace, not even 
any flooring. In the midst of the large room (the 



accepted plan of the aarestue comprised a large 
and smaller room, siuen ajid kleveii, and an open 
gallery, the svale or svahgaiig) there was a hearth, 
the aare, and above it a'good-sized square hole 
(the //ore) in the roof, which was left open in fine 
weather, and otherwise covered with a wooden 
frame, over which was suspended a transparent skin. 
This frame, which was called the skjaa, was worked 
by a long pole, which was an indispensable utensil 
in the house, and when any one came on important 
business, more especially a-wooing, he had to hold 
on to this pole whilst he made known the nature 
of his errand. There were also, at different heights, 
two or more smaller holes or slits in the wall, which 
no doubt had the double vocation of producing a 
draught for the aare, when the door — and lowly it 
was — happened to be closed, and of enabling the 
inmates to keep a look-out, lest unwelcome strangers 
should come upon them unawares. 

Along the side-walls were benches, and on the 
end wall facing the entrance was the high-seat, the 
seat of honour, and in. front of this was the massive 
table, with the drinking-horn and other utensils. 
On this wall hung also the master's armour and 
shield, spear and bow. A well-known Norwegian 
writer says of the aarestue that when the big fire 
blazed at Yuletide, and the mead-horn and the 




THE MAIHAIGEN OPEN-AIR .MUSEUM : A GROUP OK " SKIAAKER HOUSES 



open- Air Mnseuuis in Nonvay 




'JOMFRUBUR OR MAIDEN S BOWER IN A "KAMI 



(jt;e pp. J 14, IlS) 




THE MAIHAUGEN OPEN-AIR MUSEUM: INTERIOR OF AN " AARESTUE " OR " HEARTH" HOUSE 



113 



Open-Air Muscmus in Xoncuiy 



beer-mug diligently went round, men drinking to 
each other across the fire, whilst merriness reigned 
on all sides, it must assuredly have been cosy in 
the old sooted aarestue. 

Were it necessary I would gladly, as far as I am 
able, affirm this assertion, for a peculiar charm, a 
feeling of trusty homeHness pervades these old-time 
wooden houses, such as one still may come upon 
in out-of-the-way places in Norway and Sweden, 
though modified through the ages. They may not 
appeal to you at first sight, rather the reverse, 
perhaps, but they soon seem to grow upon you, 
with their timeworn timber and scanty fitments. 
No wonder that these old houses have of late years 
been copied, or rather adapted, by not a few archi- 
tects and others, and that timber is again held in 
high repute as building material. 

liut I am digressing. Although it is out of the 
question to follow the ancient Norse house through 
the various stages of its evolution, I must cursorily 
mention some of the other old houses in M. 
Sandvig's wonderful Maihaugen. 

In Norway one formerly saw, and may still occa- 
sionally see, large clusters of separate houses all 
forming one homestead. I )etached from the often 
numerous outhouses — there were at places as many 



as two score or more of them — stood the dwelling- 
houses, not less than three and very frequently 
more, one for the summer, one for the winter, 
and one for festive occasions, the number of build- 
ings generally increasing from generation to genera- 
tion. The Lbkre sine* a good specimen of a 
Gudbrandsdale type, hails from Lorn parish, high 
up the valley. It is what is called a ramloft-slue, that 
is, a^house with a room {>-afn-/o/t) on the first floor, 
to which there is access up the outside staircase 
through a door in the loft gallery, or svale. The 
plan of this house is rather interesting. It is almost 
square, which does not clearly appear from the 
accompanying illustration (p. in). There is on 
the ground floor a large room, one might almost 
call it a hall, at the end of this a second, narrow 
room, about half the size of the former, above 
it is the ram/oft, and along this end of the house 
and the one longitudinal wall, but forming part and 
parcel of the house, runs a svale, which in this case is 

'■ Stue, which in Danish means a room, is the Nor- 
wegian and Swedish (s/iig-a) for a rural house. A'am — 
German f!aiim, lOom or space. The names Lokrc, 
I'igstad, Hjellai; and My/liiii; which occur later in this 
article in conjunction with slue, are apparently either 
n.-imes of places or names of persons. 




THE MAIHALllRN OPEN-AIR MUSEL M 



alcJktHOLbE 



open- Air M it scums in N^onuay 




THE MAIHAUGEN OPEN-AIR MUSEUM: THE " HJELTAR STUE" {see f. I iS) 




THE MAIHAUGEN OPEN-AIR MUSEUM: THE " VIGSTAD STUE " (see p. IlSf) 



"5 



Opoi-Air M/isciniis iu .Yonc'cry 









*"*" 1 




Kb'!; 




niH ,(nJ 


■ 





THE MAIHAUC.EN OPEN-AIK MUSEUM: THE "MYITINC. STUE " (see fi. ffg) 



completely panelled in on the outside, so it really 
becomes a corridor ; and the svak at the end, as 
already mentioned, has t\vo stories. The large 



room in the Lokre stue is 
20 feet by 23, and 13 feet 
high from the floor to the 
ridge-pole or roof-tree, there 
being no loft over the big 
room. It will be readily 
understood that this house 
has not sprung direct from 
the aarestue. Intermediate 
[phases had to be passed ; 
the first little leaden window 
has grown and multiplied, 
as has the furniture, though 
still by no means excessive ; 
the/m- (open fireplace) still 
foimd in many Norwegian 
houses, and now having again 
become a regular institution, 
has superseded the aare, its 
place being in the corner 
opposite the entrance. Also 
the " high-seat " has been removed to the wall in 
the corner opposite to the pels; but the long 
benches still run along the walls, and in one 




THE .MAIHAUGES Ol'EN-AIR MUSEUM! BEOROOM OK PAR:>0\AGE FROM VAAGE (iCe p. 1 3o) 



ii6 



open- Air Muse inns in Norivay 





maihal-i.e;, l'Ii.. 



AND KITCHEN IN PAKSONACE FROM VAAGE (jtV /. 120) 



Opcu-Aiy M/iscmiis in Noncay 




y'SS'..^:-- 



.EX OPEN-AIR Ml-SEUM : ONE OF THE BJORNSTAD CUSTER OF HOUSES 
NOW IN COURSE OF ERECTION 



corner is a bedstead. The aare was by degrees 
discarded everywhere, holding out the longest in 
some far-away Sater hut, but, as M. Sandvig says, 
the Ijore-hok at last closed, as a weary eye which 
for centuries had gazed heavenwards. 

The room above the kleven (the smaller room) 
was the maiden's bower, jomfruburet, which, as 
already stated, had its separate entrance by way of 
an outside staircase and through the upper svak ; 
there was no pels, but two 
small windows, and the 
door was ver)' low. A 

ijuaint and ancient custom ,' 

attaches to this sanctuary. 
Even if on other nights of 
the week the daughter 
slept in the same room as 
her parents or younger 
brothers and sisters, she 
repaired to her bower on a 
Saturday evening in order 
to receive her sweetheart. 
That night, the best of the 
week, when the lovers were 
allowed to hold sweet con- 
verse, she did not undress 
and decency was in no 
way outraged — was it not 
the eve of the holy day ? 
— -and although it was not 
considered good form for 
young people to show their 
iiS 



liking for each other in 
public or be seen too 
frequently together, these 
nocturnal week-end 
visits, at which the 
lovers could not even 
see each other and only 
spoke in whispers, 
gave no offence to any 
one. 

The \'igstad stiie was 
originally also a^ramloft- 
s/ue, but it was altered 
to its present shape in 
the year 1707. It is re- 
markable for its excellent 
workmanship ; but then 
the ^'igstad folk for 
many generations were 
famous for the dexterity 
with which they handled 
their axe and their knife. 
Though not in workmanship, this stue in other 
respects must yield to the Hjeltar stue, the climax 
of these three thoroughly typical houses, and a larger 
and more elaborate structure. It too is a ramloft- 
stue, and its roof-tree bears the date 1565. This 
and the Lokre stue are the only two fully preserved 
ramloft-stue in Norway. The Hjeltar stue is some- 
what broader and longer than the latter, but hardly 
so lofty, and the plan is very nearly the same, the 




•MHAUGEN OPEN-AIR MUSEUM: AN " AARESTUE ' IN THE BJORNSTAD CLUSTER 
OF HOUSES NOW BEING ERECTED 



open- Air Miiseinus in Nonvay 




HAMAR Oi'EN-AIR MISEI'M, NORWAY : ROOM IN A FARSONAGE FROM VANG 



svak, however, being open. The interior is decked 
out as for a fite, the floor, well scoured, covered 
with fresh juniper branches, and the walls are 
hung with the best weavings, the women of the 
Gudbrandsdale having always excelled in this craft. 
The colours are gay and manifold, as are the 
patterns, which comprise motifs in endless variety, 
human beings and animals, trees and flowers, often 
handled in the quaintest manner, as, for instance, 
the Three Wise Men on horseback, to mention one 
example amongst many. There are finely carved 
utensils for sundry purposes, and almost everything 
which this and the other venerable houses contain, 
chests and cupboards, spoons and drinking-vessels, 
and countless other objects, 
are not only possessed of 
great value either from their 
intrinsic merits or as a 
means of illustrating the 
mode of life and the habits 
of their former owners, but 
many of them have their 
own separate little story, 
droll or pathetic as the case 
may be, which it has been 
M. Sandvig's delight 
to hunt up and faithfully 
record. 

Although the stabur, the 
storehouse, was not in- 
tended to serve as a dwell- 
ing for men, it ranked above 
the outhouses, and by de- 
grees rose to a building of 



distinct architectural 
interest, with two stories 
and the highly decorative 
svak round all four, or more 
generally perhaps only the 
three, sides, the window then 
being on the fourth, the end 
wall, on the upper story. 
The stabur, which is still 
frequently seen in Norway 
and Sweden, rests on legs, 
so to speak, which again 
stand on stones so as to 
keep out vermin. Gar- 
ments, chests, and utensils 
were kept on the first 
floor, whilst the ground 
floor was given over 
to the storage of pro- 
visions, only the smoked 
hams and sausages being generally hung up in the 
svak for air's sake. 

The Mytting .t//^f (p. 119) hails from Ringebu and 
is probably rather more than two hundred years old. 
Although it tells of further development, its exterior 
has much in common with the Hjeltar and the 
Lokre houses, only the ram-loft of the latter has 
grown into a complete second story, like the ground 
floor with three rooms. The svale has been re- 
tained, one on the ground and two on the first 
floor. It is clear that whifiTs from foreign countries 
have by this reached the distant valley, for this 
stiie, amongst other outlandish innovations, contains 
a handsome stove, with ornaments and coats of 




-AiK MUSEUM, NORWAY: AN ALCo\ K IN A HOtSK 1 
RUD WITH LINEN-CHESTS, ETC. DATING FROM 1777 



119 



Opcii-Air Mil senilis in Ah^rway 




HAMAR on.: 



\IK \1IM,I \T, MIKWAY: 1-,\1UAN<1; H_> A HOI 



arms, bearing the date 1659. The long fixed benches 
and fixed cupboards have also had to give way 
to a more promiscuous and arbitrary order of things, 
but then it should be pointed out that the Mytting 
stue does not belong to the group of downright 
peasants' homes, but rather has been the residence 
of some official. 

The old parsonage from \'aage was the home 
of sixteen pastors prior to the year 1786 ; two years 
later it was transferred to the pastor, who under- 
took to keep it in repair, and since then it has 
passed from pastor to 
pastor until bought for the 
Sandvig collections. It 
was probably built about 
the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, and is a 
good-sized one-storied 
house, square in its plan, 
with four rooms, including 
a ver)' large kitchen and 
an open svak at the one 
end, which, however, does 
not proceed right to the 
side walls. As with the 
houses already described 
there is some fine work- 
manship in the timber, and 
the deviations from the 
ancient aarestue, at least 
in the exterior, are not of 
any .great moment. The 
interior, however, has be- 
come far more modern. 



and thu rooms as they now 
stand abound with regular 
furniture, though from past 
centuries : but the illustra- 
tions must speak for them- 
selves, although more 
especially the large kitchen 
well deserves some notice 
I)cing taken of it. It w^as 
tile realm of the pastor's 
wife, and hither all the 
parishioners were wont to 
come for help and ad- 
\ice, and on festive occa- 
sions sumptuous repasts 
were prepared there, as is 
demonstrated by some old 
annotations, one dinner 
,1: m;um i.RiMsKii) comprising two kinds of 

soup, two dishes with 
entrees and piitees (with oysters, cray-fish, &c.), 
four different joints, partridges, capons, half a 
dozen different sweets, and plenteous de.s.sert. 
Times, after all, had changed since the days of the 
ancient aarestue. 

The work M. Sandvig lias done at Maihaugen 
is beyond lauding, but if praise were needed a 
Swedish writer supplied it the other day, when 
generously comparing Sandvig's genius with that of 
Artur Hazelius, the creator of Skansen. 

It can be no matter of surprise that the results 




BVODO OPEN-AIR MUSEU.V, CURISTIANIA : " K AI-TIH'Si;: 
TIl.EMARKEN 



OR LOKT-HOUSES FROM 



Open-^r/ir Mnscniiis in Noricay 





BYODU OPEN-AIR MUSEl'M, CHRISTIAXIA : IHE M ARKET-l'I.ACE AND THE OSTERDALE HOMESTEAI 



ope )i- Air Mil senilis iii A'onvay 




BYGDO OPEX-AIR MUSEUM, CHRISTIANIA : THE ROI.STAl) 
GUDBRANDSDALE 



attained at Maihaugen -have ins])ired others to 
follow in M. Sandvig's stejj.s, and in scxeral 
Norwegian towns open-air museums have been 
farmed, as at Lillehammer, with a local limitation. 
At Hamar the first move was made some ten years 
ago, several gentlemen forming a committee, 
amongst them M. Didrik Gronvald, who is now the 
leader of the museum 
which in due course 
sprang into existence, he, 
like the other gentlemen, 
doing all the work gra- 
tuitously. Through con- 
tributions from different 
quarters, the State even- 
tually assisting with a very 
modest grant, it became 
possible to purchase 
several old buildings, of 
which the museum now 
boasts seven, and a 
society, comprising some 
two hundred members, 
has in the meantime been 
formed in the interest of 
the collections. A striking 
house with eight large 
rooms, dating from the 
latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, has re- 
cently been acquired, but 



not yet erected, and 
articles of interest are con- 
stantly being added to the 
museum. 

Another open-air 
museum, the scope of 
which is to be principally 
devoted to the Glomdale, 
was opened last year at 
Elverum, and was formed 
on the initiative, and 
thanks to the munificance 
of, some private gentlemen 
in the town. The plan is 
to bring together typical 
old houses from the 
different parts of the Glom 
valley, and to equip them 
in such a manner that 
they give a reliable picture 
■oFT-Hor.E FROM "*" "^6 life of the peoplc 

through the ages. Five 
houses are already in 
various stages of completion, but the programme 
is quite a comprehensive one. A large site has 
been given by the municipality, facing the Glommen 
and the Prastfos waterfalls, which form a highly 
picturesque frame round the museum grounds. 
M. O. Bull Aakrann is chairman of the committee, 
but a society representative of the different localities 




•AIll .NiLstl 



M, LIIKISTIAMA: THE GRIMSCAAI:: 
HOUSE FROM HAI.LINGDALE 



Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 




Wl i^j^ 



HOUSE IX LEXHAM GARDEXS, 



KENSINGTOX 

STAXLEY-BARRETT AXri DRIVER, ARCHITECTS 



in the district is in course of formation for the 
purpose of taking the matter in hand. 

With the Norsvegian Folke-Museum at Bygdo, 
outside Christiania, which has a national and not 
a local character, I have dealt in a previous article, 
but since then, thanks 
to M. Hans Aall's able 
management, it has 
gro^vn into a thoroughly 
representative museum. 
It now boasts twenty-eight 
old buildings and some 
twenty thousand articles. 
Space will not allow me 
to accompany the illus- 
trations with any ex- 
planatory letterpress, nor 
is such really needed, 
inasmuch as the reader 
without any difficulty will 
recognise similar types 
to those already de- 
scribed. The Bygdo 
Open-air Museum is ex- 
tremely interesting, but 
its location does not afford 
the same scope as does 
that of the Maihaugen 
and one or two others. 



RECENT DE- 
SI GN S IN 
DOMESTIC 
ARCHITECTURE. 

" The Tiled House," 
here illustrated, is adjacent 
to the " Studio House," 
of which an interior view 
was given in one of our 
recent numbers, and con- 
trasts strongly with other 
houses in the vicinity, 
which are mostly of an 
early or mid-Victorian 
type. But for the fact 
that it looks so clean and 
fresh by comparison with 
its smoke-toned neigh- 
bours, the house with its 
stone mullioned windows, 
leaded light casements, 
rough-casted walls, and 
roof covered with old 
tiles, might pass for a 
much older structure than these, but as a matter 
of fact it was only completed about a year ago. 
The hall, of which an illustration is given, has a 
polished, dark red quarried floor and beamed 
ceiling. At the farther end the fireplace, built in 




HOUSE I.X LEXHAM GARDENS 



THE HALL 

STAXLEV 



BARRETT AXD DRIVER, ARCHITECTS 
123 



Rccaif Designs /// Domestic Anhitccfiiye 



red bricks and tiles, is placed on a raised hearth, servants' hands, but have steel cores inside the 

A screen forms one side of the ingle-nook, behind leads. The leads are rounded in sections so 

which a few steps lead to the kitchen quarters : that the panes can be cleaned as easily as a plain 

a door opposite opens on to the dining-room — sheet of glass. ANhere the beams do not show, 

a quaintly shaped room fitting into one corner of the ceilings, instead of having dusty moulded cor- 

the site, which is triangular. The hall communi- nices, are simply rounded at the angle between 

cates by a few stairs with the sitting-room — a the wall and ceiling. The floors throughout are 



large room (32 feet by 1 5 feet), formed in the slope 
of the roof, the actual roof timbers being exposed. 
From this a door opens on to a large balcony 
with a red quarried floor and low parapet wall with 



polished. The floor of the kitchen is a novelty, the 
centre being formed in wood blocks for comfort 
when sitting or standing round the table, and the 
surround is paved in polished red quarries. The 



flat quarried top, and forms a pleasant place for walls are enamelled white with a washable enamel, 

serving tea in summer. 

Messrs. Stanley-Barrett 

and Driver, of Gray's Inn, 

the architects of the house, 

have paid special attention 

to economy of labour in 

the interior arrangements. 

.All woodwork and angles 

are rounded, and there are 

no dusty mouldings. The 

leaded lights have no 

saddle-bars to cut the 

^"'••f Til r 





"HOUSE AT BICKLEV, KENT 
124 



(Seep. i2y) 



C. H. B. IJUENNELL, K.R.I.B.A., ARCHITECT 



Recent Designs in Domestic Aychitectnre 




c5«/.-f.^ 



MORDEN HOUSE, BLACKHEATH : GROUND PLAN 



JOHN BELCHER, R.A., AMI J. J. JOASS, ARCHITECTS 



which is kept clean by simply sponging down. 
The hot-water supply is arranged on a similar system 
to the Thermos flask : by means of pulling a lever 
at night the hot water is botded up and a hot bath 
can be obtained before the kitchen fire is lighted. 

The house at Bickley, in Kent, which is shown in 
our next illustration (p. 124) has been erected from 
the designs of Mr. C. H. B. Quennell, F.R.I.B.A., of 
Westminster, and carries on the eighteenth-century 
traditions of domestic archi- 
tecture, simplicity being the 
keynote of the entire struc- 
ture, which in its reposeful 
character presents a marked 
contrast to the ostentatious 
kind of building so often 
met with in the outer Metro- 
politan districts at present 
in course of development. 
In planning the house on 
its present site a special 
point was made of the pre- 
servation of the fine old 
oak-tree shown in the illus- 
tration, this adding con- 
siderably to the interest of 
the exterior. Red hand- 
made bricks of various tints 



have been used for the walls, and hand-made tiles 
for the roofs. 

Morden House at Blackheath in Kent, of which 
we give an illustration in colour and a general 
ground plan, occupies a site adjoining the grounds 
of Morden College in a district which, in spite of its 
proximity to London, still retains much of that 
rural aspect which has always made it a favourite 
residential locality. As the illustration shows, the 




PLAN OF HOC> 



AT H.\R1'ENUEN 

(See next page and p. 



I. E. DLXON-SPAIN, ARCHITECT 
127 



Recent Designs in Domestic Anhitectnre 



house is a red-brick structure, the roof being covered 
with Westmorland slates, while Portland stone is 
used for the principal windows, which are glazed 
with leaded lights. The rooms are commodious, 
the largest of them, the drawing-room, being over 
twenty feet in both dimensions. A special feature 
has been made of the garden. Messrs. John 
Belcher, R.A., and J. J. Joass of Clifford Street, 
London, were the architects of this house. 

In planning the house at Harpenden in Hertford- 
shire, shown on p. 128, the idea of the architect, Mr. 
J. E. Dixon-Spain, was to produce an economically 
planned residence suitable for a gentleman of 
moderate means and one which should avoid the 
banal characteristics of the usual type of detached 
villa — that is, to ensure as much privacy as possible 
in the rooms occupied by the family and especially to 
prevent the intrusion of kitchen odours. Brindled 
stock bricks with red dress- 
ings for the external walls 
and red hand-made tiles 
for the roofs are the 
materials specified in this 
case. The dining-room 
and drawing-room, which 
are so arranged as to be 
converted into one large 
room if required, are pro- 
vided with French case- 
ments opening on to the 
garden on the south side 
of the house. The floor 
above contains five bed- 
rooms, a bathroom, and 
various offices. 

Herr Oskar Kaufmann 
of Berlin, of whose work 
as a designer of interiors 
we give some illustrations, 
will be remembered b)- 
many readers of The 
Studio as the architect of 
the Hebbel Theatre in 
Berlin, which was the sub- 
ject of an illustrated article 
published by us in May 
1908. That well-thought- 
out and monumental struc- 
ture established his repu- 
tation as an architect, and 
since then he has under- 
taken other commissions 
of a kindred character. 
One of them is for a a corner ok 



large theatre at Bremen, which has just been com- 
pleted, while a large Volkstheater and a " Kinema" 
are in course of erection in Berlin from his de- 
signs. Herr Kaufmann is a true modernist and 
though he is enamoured of Barock and Bieder- 
meyer, his solutions are always individual. He 
has a great ambition for planning on a big scale, 
and this ambition is now being gratified by a scheme 
for an entire " Platz " with large corner buildings 
surrounding the future " Volkstheater." But in 
spite of these monumental aspirations, he is far 
from disdaining such work as the arrangement 
of domestic interiors ; on the contrary, he takes 
keen pleasure in sohing the varied problems 
these present. In this branch of his work a 
penchant for grandeur is discernible. In particular 
he has a great \o\& for the finer varieties of wood 
and employs them with good judgment. In the 




MRSERY DESIGNED BV OSKAR KAIFMAXN, ARCHITECT 

129 



Recent Des/ij^us in Domes fie .Dr/iifeef/we 




l.lBKAkV WITH FITTl.NOS IX AFRICAN PEAK AND PALISANDER WOOD. DESK. NED FOR DK. EPbfEIN BY OSKAR 

KAIFMANN% ARCHITECT 
130 



I 

I 



I 




w 

r- ' 



Q< 

ah 



o ^ 
o ::: 

U en 



TJie IVondcr of JVork on flic Panama Canal 



{>anelling of the rooms he has fitted up for Dr. 
Epstein the general surface is pleasantly relieved 
by the introduction of inlays or carving. The pre- 
ference of his client for sculpture as the chief decora- 
tive feature of the rooms coincided entirely with the 
architect's ideas, but he has contrived to counteract 
any feeling of austerity arising in this way by using 
upholstery of rich colours. In the nursery oval pic- 
tures with fairy-tale subjects relieve the monotony 
of the white enamelled surface of the wainscot. 

THE WONDER OF WORK ON 
THE PANAMA CANAL. BY 
JOSEPH PENNELL. 

I WENT to Panama because I believed that, in 
the making of the greatest work of modem time, 
I should find the greatest inspiration. The desire 
to draw, to etch, to lithograph the Wonder of Work 
is no new thing with me — it is no new thing with 
artists who have always believed in work as a 
motive ; building, digging, constructing, demolish- 
ing, have from the earliest time been the subject 
of endless art. 

And the greater the artist the greater has been 
his interest in work — in the work going on around 
him^ — the work of his own time. As the Church 
gave up art, the artist turned to another patron, the 
State, and in the recording of great works under- 
taken by the State there are great motives. 

But the study of work for its own sake, for its 
grandeur, picturesqueness, mystery, or pathos, has 
always been a theme for artists ; specially those 
artists who have endeavoured to glorify the greatest 
work being carried out in their day. 

Rembrandt's best etchings are of the mills and 
dykes of Holland, the most important works, the 
most vital subjects, in his country and his time. 

\'elasquez's Spinners is of the same quality as 
the Meninas, yet the picture is but an interior filled 
with work-women. I do not call a painting like 
his Forge, or Vulcan, a painting of work, for this, 
fine as it is, is a machine — it is not a genuine 
thing, and in this connection I would dismiss all 
imaginative renderings of work from Cimabue to 
Watts, though the greatest painting by Watts's far 
greater contemporary, Mado.v Brown, is Work. It 
is far easier to be symbolic, imaginative, cubic, in 
one's studio than decorative, realistic, actual, at the 
mouth of a coal mine. It is easy enough to give 
a list of great artists who have glorified work, but 
it is difficult enough to keep it within limits. There 
is Claude, with his harbours ; Canaletto, Guardi, 
and Piranesi with the building and destruction of 
132 



^■enice and Rome ; Turner — though he got 
everything wrong — with his Carthage that never 
would stand up, and a locomotive that never would 
run. And it is really too funny to remember that, 
while Ruskin was writing and damning the changing 
character of England, Turner and Constable and 
Crome were painting it and immortalizing it. 

But in these last days work has become the 
greatest thing in the world, and more and more 
artists have turned to it, have devoted themselves 
entirely to it. Nearly every one of Meryon's 
etchings is of work. Whistler's Thames plates and 
Nocturnes are but the glorifying of work. Of the 
canvases and drawings of Millet and of Segantini 
this is equally true, and with their contemporaries 
we come to the greatest of all — I mean in that he 
devoted himself entirely to portraying work in 
sculpture, in drawing, in painting — Constantin 
Meunier. No one before in Europe had found 
subjects in the coal mines and iron furnaces of 
Belgium. Of course the sentimental toiler had 
been hauling canal boats and greeting his children, 
with mills and smoke faintly suggested in the 
distance, so as not to disturb the sensitive patron. 
But Meunier saw the real \\'onder of Work, \\histler 
its exquisite beauty, its endless mystery, its perfect 
decoration. And there are the Japanese to be 
taken into account. It is to these widely varied 
artists that I, in common with all others who care 
for the Wonder of ^^'ork, owe my inspiration. 

With me it is no new thing. The drawings of 
ships I made as a boy from my father's office were 
followed by sketches of houses being built, made 
from our home windows ; and when, still a boy, my 
father took me to the coal mines of my native 
State, I found and drew subjects that I went back 
to and drew again near forty years later — caring 
for the subjects I had cared for as a boy and 
seeing that I was right in the things I had then 
drawn. The first magazine article I ever illustrated 
was of work, and in it is a drawing of an oil refinery. 
The love of and interest in modem work is no late 
development. For years I have, with two or three 
other men, been scouring Europe and America for 
subjects ; you have to hunt for them, for not only 
can no one tell you where they are to be found, 
not only must you find them for yourself, but the 
composition you see one day never returns, it has 
got to be done then and there, either direct from 
nature or from memory. 

I have hunted these subjects from San Francisco 
to Sorrento, and the more I hunt the more I find, 
and the more I learn, for the first time I tackled a 
steel mill I made a sorry mess of it. There is as 



The Wonder of Work on the Panama Canal 



much character in mills and mines as in puddlers 
and miners. And unless one cares enough to study 
the anatomy, the construction of these huge works, 
as one studies the anatomy of the figure, it is useless 
to try to draw them. On the other hand, study 
them too much, or show too much, and the result 
is a mechanical rendering. Mills and harbours and 
docks are, as Rembrandt and Claude showed, as 
much governed by the laws of composition as any- 
thing else. And it is these two great facts, know- 
ledge and composition, that have got to be kept 
in mind when drawing the Wonder of Work. 

But the average painter, or etcher, or illustrator 
simply does, without thought or observation, save of 
the man he is prigging from, the subject he has to 
do, or thinks it is the fashion to do. Every gallery 
now, every exhibition — there are even decorations 
which are not decorative on public walls — reeks 
with the attempts of all those who have nothing to 
say for themselves or have or have not turned Post- 
Impressionists, to render work and workers, for work 
has become the subject of their thieving. But to 
those few who care and have proved by their work 
that they care, this is the day and the time of the 
Wonder of Work, because within a few years, 
even sooner, with the coming of electricity, the 
mystery of work, the smoke revealing, concealing 
mystery will have rolled away for ever. And also 
because to-day the greatest works that man has ever 
undertaken are in progress. 

There are the dams in Egypt and Arizona ; 
there are the sky-scrapers of New York. The 
wonderful railway stations are all disappearing ; the 
coal and iron mines becoming spick and span and 
unpaintable. Even the costume of work is vanish- 
ing and the workman's character along with it. 

But at the present moment the most stupendous 
work the world has ever seen is in progress ; and it 
was to find out if it was pictorial — in the hope it 
was — that I went to the Panama Canal. There 
was no one to give me a hint — it was not till I got 
to the Isthmus that I found some one had been 
there before me. I had never heard of him or his 
work and have only seen one of his drawings. 
Still I started on a trip of 1 5,000 miles in search of 
the Wonder of Work. 

The day I got ashore in Colon, I found it. I 
had seen great cranes at Pittsburg and Duisberg, 
but nothing like that which stretched its great arm, 
with great claws at the end, over the sad silent 
swamp at Mount Hope — the graveyard of de 
Lesseps's ambitions. I had seen in New York, as I sat 
on the thirtieth story of the Metropolitan Building, 
a chain come up from below with a man clinging to 



it. But I had never imagined anything hke the 
group of figures which rose out of Gatun Lock just 
as I reached it at dinner-time. I had looked into 
natural chasms and gulfs — though nothing like 
those I was to see later — but I never imagined 
anything so impressive as the gates at Pedro Miguel 
Lock. I have seen the greatest walls of the oldest 
cities, but I have never imagined anything so im- 
posing as the walls of Miraflores Ix)ck. I have 
seen the great aqueducts and great arches of the 
world, but I never imagined anything like the 
magnificent approaches to Gatun and superb spring 
of Pedro Miguel — made so by army officers and 
civil engineers mainly to save material. For there 
are no architects, no designers, no decorators 
employed on the Panama Canal — just ordinary 
engineers — and it might have been a good thing at 
the Victoria and Albert Museum if an architect 
had not taken over the work of an engineer. But 
the engineers at Panama are great designers, and 
great work makes great decoration. 

Almost before I left the Canal artists and 
decorators were on their way there. I hope it 
may interest them half as much as it interested me. 

I have tried in these lithographs of the Canal to 
show some of the things I saw as they were this 
spring, but even in the few weeks I was on the 
Isthmus many of them changed completely, or 
disappeared for ever. What I did is, at any rate, 
a record of what I saw. Not that I came any- 
where near exhausting any sort of subject — from 
every part of the lock new compositions may be 
evolved. I merely tried to draw the things I saw 
when I saw them — squatting on my sketching 
stool where I could, or when I could, or on an iron 
girder, in the cab of an engine, a telephone box, 
or on the top of a crane. I only remember refusing 
to be suspended in a bucket a hundred feet or so 
in the air over one of the locks, as I was invited. 

Had I not had my previous experience in trying 
to draw work, I could not have done even what I 
did, but the study of great architecture is a 
great aid, for these huge locks are architectural. 
The life of the Canal, the workmen, I hardly 
touched ; they are but details in the Wonder of 
Work they have created. \\Tiere often the work is 
fiercest, there the fewest workers are to be seen. 
It is only when the men knock off that you see the 
thousands who are at it. 

The landscape, the mountains crowned with 
strange trees, the long level lines of cloud — I 
always believed this to be an invention, or a con- 
vention, of the Japanese — that hang motionless 
before the hills, the impenetrable jungle, the native 

133 



The JFonder of Work on the Paiiaina Canal 



villages, are all subjects. Subjects without end, 
maybe only for nie, but for nie there they were. 

Panama City is as picturesque as a Spanish city, 
and as full of character : it has yet to be litho- 
graphed, etched, or drawn. There are churches, 
courtyards, balconied streets, forts, shops, gardens 
— all awaiting the artist who has not yet come, 
though, as I have said, he is on the way. I wonder 
\\'histler made no record of them on that un- 
explained trip of his across the Isthmus. But I 
went to draw the Canal ; I had no time for any- 
thing else, though some of the vistas under the 
royal palms on Ancon Hill, looking down on the 
town, the Pacific beyond, are as fine as the Bay of 
Naples. And from the sea Panama is very like 
Naples. 

But the Canal called me and I had scarce any 
time for any of these motives. 

In the Canal I found the subjects I wanted — 
subjects such as 1 shall never find again, and it 
will always be a delight to me that I went — went 
on my own initiative and not at any one's bidding. 
If my drawings have interested my own country 
and countrymen, and others' countries and country- 
men, it is the greatest honoiir I could claim, and to 
have done some little thing with, and for, great men 
like those who have made the Canal, to have done 
something to record what they have done is what 
I went for — and to have interested them is far 
more than I ever expected. I shall probably never 
see the Canal again, but I have seen it and drawn 
it — and that was worth doing, and I am glad I 
went, for it is the most wonderful \\'onder of 
Work. 

The problem was, however, to draw these 
wonderful, stupendous subjects. I had, before 
leaving Rome, from whence I came, settled my 
method. It was to be lithography. I meant to 
use it for two reasons — one, because I like it, and 
thought 1 could get what I wanted more directly 
with it ; the second, because I felt almost sure 
I could have my drawings printed in Panama — that 
there would be a government lithographic office on 
the Isthmus. 

1 took a large supply of paper — Scotch transfer- 
paper made up into blocks by Cornelissen's of 
London — and bought a large supply of Korn's 
chalks in New York ; a pocket-knife and a tee- 
square completed my outfit for lithography. I had 
also etching-plates and charcoal, water-colours and 
pastels. But I trusted to lithography. 

The first thing I found after I reached Panama 
was that there was no government lithographic 
press, no printer ; and I do not know if there is 
134 



one in the Republic of Panama ; that, therefore, if 
I could make the drawing.s, they must remain on 
the paper till I got to New York or San Francisco. 
As a matter of fact they were not put on the stone 
for nearly three months after, at Messrs. Ketterlinus's 
in Philadelphia, and not until after I had carried 
them some six thou.sand miles through hot and 
cold, damp and dry. Every authority on litho- 
graphy wrote me that I would never get any results 
after such treatment of the drawings — that they 
would never transfer — that they would all be stuck 
together in a solid block — and I don't know what 
other awful things. I was pretty well certain myself 
that they were done for, at least, if any one of the 
prophets was right. So in the first place I had 
some of those I did not care much for — which 
I had succeeded less well with — photographed, so 
as to preserve some record ; then I went to work 
at them with the printer, Mr. Gregor, every single 
one of them being transferred to stone, and, for me, 
Senefelder's prophecy, that for artists the most 
important part of his discoi'ery was the method of 
drawing on paper, was realised. I did this trans- 
ferring first in the manner in which it is done by 
Way in London. A little later, however, I tried the 
method of Goulding — the method, incredible as it 
sounds, by which you extract the grease from the 
paper, and transfer it to the stone, while the carbon, 
or whatever it is, remains on the paper. The artist 
by this method has his drawing and his print both. 

But I, or rather we — the printer, Mr. Gregor, 
and I — have discovered through these drawings 
something that Senefelder never thought of, that 
the same drawing can be transferred any number 
of times from the same original, and in this way my 
pilgrimage to Panama has been of technical value. 

As to making the drawings, the block kept the 
paper flat and in the windy gusty weather this was 
much. I used Kom's Blaisdell pencils — the only 
form of chalk I could have used without a crayon- 
holder, which I hate — for in the heat the chalk — 
the copal — got as soft as crayon estompe in my 
fingers. In fact the drawings were nearly all done 
with copal or number four. What they looked like 
can be seen in the prints, for every print in litho- 
graphy is an original. For illustrative purposes 
lithographs are most useful, as they reproduce 
perfectly, and did in this case. There is nothing 
special to remember or to learn about lithographic 
drawing, and it is quite a good thing to forget some 
of the things you are told. But after all, the subject 
was the thing, and I found the greatest subjects in 
the Wonder of ANork on the Panama Canal. 

Joseph Pennell 




■THE END OF THE DAY— GATUN LOCK. ' FROM 
A LITHOGRAPH BY JOSEPH PENNELL 




'APPROACHES TO GATUN LOCK. FROM 
A LITHOGRAPH BY JOSEPH PENNELL 




Vy^—lA. 



•LAYING THE FLOOR OF PEDRO MIGUEL LOCK' 
FROM A LITHOGRAPH BY JOSEPH PENNELL 







■THE GATES OF PEDRO MI3UEL LOCK. FROM 
A LITHOGRAPH BY JOSEPH PENNELL 




■THE CUT-LOOKING TOWARDS CULEBRA 
FROM A LITHOGRAPH BYJOSEPH PENNELL 




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The Grosvcnor Gallcrv 



T 



HE INAUGURAL EXHIBITION 
AT THE NEW GROSVENOR 
GALLERY. 



The directors of the new exhibition rooms at 
51A New Bond Street have certainly shown some 
courage in their choice of a name for the place. 
By calling these rooms the Grosvenor Gallery they 
have imposed upon themselves the duty of living 
up to a very high tradition and they have openly 
invited comparisons with a gallery which has a 
very important place in art history. That they 
should have done so is to be taken as a good 
augury for the future of their undertaking ; they 
have adopted a position from which they cannot 
well recede and they have by implication committed 
themselves to a policy which should lead to notable 
results. If this policy is properly maintained the 
new Grosvenor Gallery will be a very welcome 
addition to the London art centres : it will fill the 
gap which has been caused by the conversion of 
the New Gallery to baser 
uses and it will provide an 
appropriate home for many 
art societies which, lacking 
galleries of their own, are 
always more or less de- 
pendent upon chance for 
finding suitable places for 
holding their exhibitions. 

The new building is ad- 
mirably adapted to its 
purpose. There are four 
rooms and a long corridor, 
all well proportioned and 
pleasantly lighted and 
arranged so as to set off to 
good advantage the works 
exhibited in them ; and 
the place is decorated 
throughout with just that 
degree of sumptuousness 
which gives a satisfying 
impression without being 
over-insistent. The gallery 
is not so large as to require 
a wearisome number of 
works to be placed in it to 
fill it sufficiently, but it is 
certainly large enough to 
allow a society with a quite 
considerable members' list 
to do itself justice and to 
make its aims fully 



intelligible. The judicious limitation of the wall 
space should make the exhibitions which are held 
in it more in accordance with the modern de- 
mand, and more expressive of what is best in the 
art of our times. There will be no excuse for 
exhibiting bad things in rooms so discreetly 
planned, no reason for padding out a good show 
to make it spread over an excessive wall area ; 
an adequate collection of picked works can be 
displayed under the most favourable conditions 
and in the way that will bring out its good qualities 
most convincingly. 

If the inaugural exhibition can be taken as an 
illustration of what we are to expect at the 
Grosvenor Gallery, art-lovers have certainly ample 
reason to rejoice over so definite an addition to 
their opportunities of enjoying what is best in the 
art of the moment. The directors, it seems, from 
their " foreword '' to the catalogue, intended their 
choice of current British art for the opening show 
to be taken as a profession of faith and as evidence 




' KATHLEEN 



BY HARKlNGrON .MA.NN 



The Grosvciior Gn/lcrv 




"GIRL IX A SI'OTTEIi FROCK "' 

BV EDVTH S. RACKHAM 

of their desire to put before the puWic "the 
seasonal output of acknowledged and rising artists 
of this country " ; but at the same time they promise 
that forei£n art developments shall not be dis- 
regarded if they possess an ssthetic value and do 
not depend upon mere sensationalism for what 
interest they may have. The desire to draw upon 
ihe output of British artists is, however, justified in 
ihe "foreword" on the ground that "'this source 
affords more recent, interesting, and sincere material' 
than any of the present movements abroad." 

What an amount of truth there is in this con- 
tention could scarcely fail to strike any one who 
seriously studied the work in the gallery. Although 
there were certain gaps in the collection which to 
some degree dimini.shecl its representative character, 
the assertion it provided of the variety and value of 
contemporary British art was unusually convincing. 
Hardly any of the artists represented could be 
accounted as of not sufficient prominence to be 
144 



included in so ambitious a demonstration of 
the recent achievement of our native school. In 
its selection and arrangement, its sustained quality 
and its sincerity of purpose, the exhibition was 
specially memorable. 

In landscapes of importance the exhibition was 
exceedingly strong. Prominent among them was Mr. 
A\'. \V. Russell's brilliant study of open-air lighting, 
T/ie Sands, an exquisite rendering of a vivacious 
subject, very subtle in its tones and most attrac- 
tive in its freshness and luminosity of colour, 
l^jually worthy of consideration was Mr. Lavery's 
handling of a somewhat similar motive. The Lido, 
Veniie, a record of pervading sunlight treated with 
splendid confidence, while one of the most com- 
manding in its decorative significance and its power 
of statement was Mr. Hughes-Stanton's Fort St. 
Andre, I'il/eneiive, a very effective transcription of 
nature seen with true individuality and set down 
with the sincerest conviction. Mr. Grosvenor 
Thomas has shown few things in late years which 
illustrate better his admirable art than the Land- 
scape and the Sketch at St. Margarets Bay, with 
their most persuasive spontaneity and rare beauty 
of quiet, well-harmonised colour. 




"THE ABBl': I'ICHOT' 



BV IRANK CRAIO 




JEU DENFANT." BY 
F. CAYLEY ROBINSON 



The Grosvciwr Gallcrv 



Mr. Oliver Hall is one of the most consummate 
stylists in landscape whom the British school has 
ever possessed. The pictures he exhibited, Egdeari 
Wood &r\d Road through the Xeu' Forest, have a 
supreme interest as examples of dignified design 
from which all the other trivialities have been 
eliminated and in which the great, salient facts 
are stated with perfect appreciation of their value. 
His sense of colour, too, is as true as his feeling for 
form, so that there is no flaw in the harmony of his 
work, and there is no direction in which he fails to 
make his artistic intention perfectly intelligible. 
Mr. Peppercorn's sombre and impressive method 
was seen to advantage in his Ear/y Morning and 
The Path fiy the River, and Mr. Alexander Jamie- 
son's executive skill was displayed most agreeably 
in his picture of The Theatre of Marie Antoinette, 
Versailles, delightful in its vigorous directness and 
breadth of manner. 

There were included in the exhibition, too, a 
number of canvases by Buxton Knight and Mr. 
Walter Greaves. The examples of Buxton Knight's 
work were to be heartily welcomed because they 



gave us an opportunity of studying once more the 
achievement of a painter who ranks among our 
greater men, and whose practice was always guided 
by a noble singleness of aim. The masculine 
robustness, the earnest seeking after truth, the 
absence of affectation which distinguished the 
whole of his production, made the pictures worthy 
of the closer study. The contributions of Mr. 
Walter Greaves, notwithstanding the technical skill 
displayed in them, were less interesting because 
the source from which their qualities were derived 
was so evident. As a close imitator of Whistler, 
as a follower who has learned all the tricks of 
method and all the personal mannerisms of his 
master, Mr. Greaves is extraordinarily successful, 
but his productions are necessarily less authorita- 
tive than those of Buxton Knight because they are, 
after all, only reflections of what has been done — 
and better done — by a far greater artist, while 
Buxton Knight's works express at first hand the 
observations and beliefs of a man who went his 
own way. 

Among the figure pictures a very prominent 




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i;?24K::>-ct2aKs«^€ 



"THE SAMi: 
146 



BV WALTER W. RUSSF.I.l 




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5 < 

O "T-, 
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The Grosvoioy Callcrv 



place must be assigned to Mr. William Orpen's Th( 
Blue Hat, a charming picture of an Irish girl painted 
with consummate skill, and Mr. Glyn Philpot's 
character study. The S'cilian Actor, a note«-orthy 
example of the practice of a young painter who is 
rapidly forcing his way to the front rank by the 
sheer strength of his personality. A very different 
type of art was illustrated in The Coming of Spring 
by Mr. Charles Sims, an exquisite fantasy painted 
with extraordinary daintiness and delicacy of senti- 
ment, and full of subtle beauty. It is one of his 
most charming efforts, delightfully imagined and 
perfectly realised. Mr. G. W. I^mbert's Portrait 
Group with its quaintness of arrangement and a 
certain novelty of manner is a work displaying 
much executive ability and one that has an ad- 
ditional interest as embodying the portraits of some 
well-known artists : and Mr. Frank Craig's The 
Abbe Pich)t, though seen elsewhere recently, lost 
none of its interest in its new surroundings. 

Mrs. Rackham's Girl in 
a Spotted Frock claims 
particular mention as a 
painting which has- both 
soundness of technical 
treatment and definite grace 
of manner. Its lowness of 
tone was not unpleasant 
and its reticence hinted at a 
reserve of strength which is 
rather stimulating to the 
imagination. Mr. Spencer 
\\'atson's Study, too, was a 
picture which had a distinct 
measure of speculative in- 
terest ; and Mr. Maurice 
Greiffenhagen's Portrait 
was again quite as attractive 
for what it suggested as for 
what it made apparent. 
All these three canvases 
were valuable additions to 
the exhibition. 

Among the other works 
which well deserve the 
places given them in this 
excellent collection must 
be counted Mr. Von Glebn's 
agreeable colour note, The 
Garden Window, Mr. 
Spencer ^\■atson's Troop of 
Centaurs, Mr. Ludovici's 
Time and Tide, Mr. J. da 
Costa's skilful Sketch for 
148 



Portrait, Mr. \V. Graham Robertson's tender colour 
arrangement. Miss Kitty Cheatham, Mr. Harrington 
Mann's Kathleen, Mr. W. B. E. Ranken's The 
Bronze Group, Versailles, the admirable still-life 
study, Kggs, by Mr. H. M. Livens, and the charac- 
teristic composition, Jeu d'Enfant, by Mr. F. 
Cayley Robinson ; and there were two noteworthy 
compositions by Mr. Robert Anning Bell, The 
Fainting Nymph and The Two Marys at the 
Sepulchre, which represented excellently an artist 
of great distinction. 

Mrs. \'ox\ Glehn's portrait of Gladys Cooper, 
Mr. Muirhead Bone's pastels, Mr. PenncHs 
lithographs, and the sculpture by Mr. Derwent 
\Vood and Mr. R. F. Wells must by no means be 
overlooked ; they, and Mr. Hartrick's Weary, Mr. 
Crawhall's water-colour. The Cow, and the two 
lovely flower studies by Mr. Francis James, helped 
very appreciably to keep up the level of one of ihe 
best exhibitions seen in London for some time. 




liV 11. M. L1\K' 




"THE LIDO, VENICE." BY 
JOHN LAVERY, A.R.A. 



The Grosvcnor Gallcrv 




'THE I'ATH liV THE KHtK 



BY A. II. lEl'rERCORN 




•ROAD THROUGH THE SEW FOREST 
15° 



BY OLIVER HALL 




■•THE BLUE HAT. from the oil 
PAINTING BY WILLIAM ORPEN.A.R.A. 



The Grosvoior Gallery 




"THE TWO MARYS AT THK SKri'I.CHKK 



BV R. ANNIXG BELL 




>KETrll AT ST. MARGARETS BAY 



l;V '.ROSVENOR THOMAS 



153 




O =3 

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studio- Talk 



STUDIO-TALK. 
(From Our Own Correspondents.) 

LONDON. — A rumour was current during the 
late summer that the Council of the Royal 
Academy was thinking of making a new 
-V departure this year by holding an autumn 
exhibition consecrated to one of those departments 
of art which at present are very inadequately dis- 
played at the annual summer exhibition — that is, 
to what is commonly classed as " black and 
white " work, but as up to the time of going to 
press we have heard no more of this alleged 
intention we presume the idea, if it really exists, is 
not to take shape this year. We hope, however, 
that it will be persevered in, and we feel pretty 
certain that provided the scope of such an exhibition 
were made sufficiently comprehensive, it would 
prove to be popular among connoisseurs, collectors, 
and art-lovers generally. In the Black and White 
Room at the summer exhibition of the Academy 
as at present organised are to be found a number 
of etchings, drawings, and engravings — on the last 
occasion there were close on two hundred works 
fallmg within these categories, including a few 
colour prints ; but the exhibits are so crowded that 
it is practically impossible to appreciate them at 
their proper worth. That fault, as we all know, is one 
which mars the entire exhibition ; but while the 
accommodation remains as at present it is difficult 
to see how it can very well be remedied except 
by the holding of another exhibition in the autumn. 



If the scheme of an autumn exhibition of " black 
and white " at the Academy is ever realised we 
would suggest that it should be organised on as 
broad a basis as possible. Original colour prints 
should certainly be included, and as there is a great 
deal of good work now being done in this field, 
there would be no difficulty in arranging an attrac- 
tive display and one which would pleasantly relieve 
the monotony of purely black and white work. 
Original lithographs, too, should be represented, 
and here again there is no dearth of available 
material. " Black and White " would, of course, be 
a misnomer for an exhibition organised on these 
lines, as it is even now for the room at the Academy 
which bears this name, inasmuch as besides a few- 
colour prints it usually contains drawings in other 
than a black medium. The term generally em- 
ployed on the Continent — "Graphic Art." — seems 
to us a more appropriate one. ' .ij, ' ' 

The Royal Institute of Oil Painters" Exhibition 



gives a better impression this season than it has for 
a long time. Although there are fewer works, this 
is only to be discovered by a reference to the 
catalogue. If there are fewer pictures than usual 
there is more art. We are very glad to see this old 
society recovering a more influential position among 
exhibiting bodies. Works which should be referred 
to in a notice of the exhibition, which will remain 
open imtil Christmas, are The Dratviiig-room, by 
Mr. I.. Cambell Taylor ; Paddington Station, by 
Mr. Henry Bishcp ; The Fountain of Bacchus, 
Versailles, by Mr. Marius Forestier; A Critic, by 
Mr. W. Douglas Almond ; The Valley, Corfu, 
Greece,\yjWx.W. Hughes-Stanton; The Forest Pool, 
by Mr. A. Brantingham Simpson; Tlie Gipsy Camp 
and Siiver Morning by Mr. Algernon Talmage ; 
Midnight, by Mr. Louis Sargent ; Bathers — Lido, by 
Mr. John Lavery, A.R.A. : Aear Portel, Pas-de- 
Calais, hy Miss Evelyn Hicks; A Bunch of Floti'crs, 
by Miss M. I. Gloag ; Arundel Park, by Mr. C. 
Ross Burnett : A Swarm in June, by Mr. Harry 
Fidler ; Afternoon, by Mr. G. D. Davison ; Early 
Morning, by Mr. W^. Lee Hankey ; Purple Anemones, 
by Mr. W. B. E. Ranken ; May Bay, by Mr. A, 
Streeton ; Brewing Storm, by Mr. Julius Olsson : 
Seaweed Gatherers, by Mr. Terrick Williams : 
Spring, by Mr. F. AV. Le Maistre ; Emsworth, 
Sussex, by Mr. James S. Hill ; Isle of Mull, by Mr. 
Leslie Thomson ; and Girl at the Piano, by Miss 
Hilda Fearon. 

There have been autumns which have witnessed 
to more interesting exhibitions by the Royal 
Society of British Artists than the one now open. 
It is, perhaps, the smaller pictures that on this 
occasion claim most attention, such paintings for 
instance as the fantastic A Marked Passage, by 
Mr. R. J. E. Mooney ; In a Calm and Quiet 
Bay, by Mr. A. Carruthers Gould ; The Shallow 
River, by Mr. Hely Smith ; The little Valley, by 
Mr. Fred Milner ; /;/ Home IVaters, by Mr. 
A. H. Elphinstone ; Crossing the Etany, by Miss 
Dorothea Sharp ; At Low Tide, by Mr. Alfred 
Hartley : The Flooded Valley of the Ouse, by Mr. 
J. Muirhead ; The Miss Sahib, by Mr. Frederic 
Whiting ; and A Threatening Sky, by Mr. Walter 
Burroughs-Fowler. The President, Sir Alfred East, 
makes the most distinguished contribution to the 
oil paintings in his Autumn in Gloucestershire. 
And in the water-colour room the honours are 
his again with Slurry Mill, Kent, though here he 
is closely seconded by Mr. J. Muirhead, in A 
Corner of the Mill ; here also Mr. F. Whiting has 
an interesting drawing. Youth and Age, and the 



Sfiuilio- Fa Ik 



work of Messrs. R. G. Eves, A. M. Foweraker, 
Giffard H. I^nfestey, W. T. M. Hawksworth, 
C. Geofl'rey Holme, and D. Murray Smith assists 
in making this the strongest part of the exhibition. 
Mr. Joseph Simpson contributes a fine pencil 
drawing, and the miniatures of Miss Underwood 
deserve comment. 



At the conclusion of Mr. Val Davis's article on 
" The Art of Charles John CoUings " in our last 
issue, we expressed our intention of supplementing 
the reproduction then given of Mr. Collings's water- 
colour On the SJiuswap Lake by another from the 
drawings recently exhibited at the Carroll Gallery. 
We have now the pleasure of offering our readers 
a reproduction of The Trappers Line. 

Messrs. Ernest Brown and Phillips have been 
showing lately at the Leicester Galleries further 
designs, drawings, and models for "Hamlet" and 
other plays by Mr. Gordon Craig. Mr. Craig has 
not yet been given a full opportunity of proving 
the practicability of his designs ; but apart from 
any question of their practicability, it must be 



said of them they are at once ingenious, attrac- 
tive, imaginative, decorative and emotional. They 
succeed sometimes in being nearly all that a work 
of art should be. Their fault is a certain lack of 
definiteness, as if they could not be worked out in 
detail. Possibly this might prove the case were 
they used for the purposes of the stage ; it is 
certainly a characteristic of the drawings themselves. 
At the same galleries, Mr. George Clausen, R.A., 
has been having an exhibition of his works, thus 
affording students of his always interesting art 
every opportunity to follow his successes. Many 
of the small still-life pieces, such as The Chinese 
Pot and Carnations in Sunlight, were very beautiful 
in their learned appreciation of interior atmo- 
spheric effects. The artist has also, as is well 
known, followed these effects in the interiors 
of bams and sheds ; and another phase of his 
work, of which many fine examples were in 
evidence in the exhibition, is his interpretation of 
sunlight broken by the contours of thickly foliaged 
branches of great trees in country lanes and fields. 
The eminent painter still remains experimental, 
and wonderfully free from mannerism in technique. 




A KRENCH PASTORAL 



156 



FROM THE OIL I'Al NTI.S(; BV W. A. GIBSON 

(Sef (Glasgow .Studio- Talk, f. ijg) 



studio- Talk 



At the Stafford Gallery, a very effective exhibition 
has recently been held of the work of Messrs S. J. 
Peploe, J. D. Fergusson, Joseph Simpson, and 
George Banks, and the ladies, Miss Anne Estelle 
Rice, Miss Jessie Dismore, and Miss Ethel 
Wright. The work of these artists was seen to ad- 
vantage together. They cultivate the same quality 
of colour, and concentrate upon decoration rather 
than upon representation in the results they aim 
at. They represent the English wing of the Post- 
Impressionist school. It is possible that the vital 
elements of their work would not, upon analysis, 
be found to be those involved in their " profession 
of faith,'' but what is certain is that the school 
does not send such attractive exhibits from 
abroad as those brought together at the Stafford 
Gallery. 

The Directors of the Carfax Gallery have, during 
the last month, introduced to the public an artist who 
is quite unusually gifted as a colourist — Mina Loy 
(Mrs. Stephen Haweis), who descends, artistically, 
from Beardsley and Conder. Her work, which has 
many limitations, is carried through to success on 
the strength of a fine imaginative feeling for pattern 
and an indisputable sense of colour. 

The Fine Art Society has been exhibiting a series 
of water-colours of English Pleasure Resorts by Mr. 
H. Dawson Barkas. A considerable gift in com- 
posing and very dainty colour made the exhibition 



a success. At the same galleries an exhibition of 
landscapes by Mr. T. Stirling Lee was an interesting 
event. Mr. Lee, who is so well known as a sculptor, 
revealed a highly sympathetic treatment of land- 
scape in his paintings. 

C"> LASGOW.— An exhibition which Mr. 
Gibson held recently at Davidson's 
T Galleries attracted marked attention. 
-^ When two years ago the Corporation 
Committee recommended a Gibson landscape for 
the permanent collection, and when, presumably 
because the artist did not entirely endorse the 
opinion of the committee, the purchase was not 
completed, there was something like a sensation in 
art circles. The artist knew he was capable of 
higher flights, and in point of fact the picture in 
question has since been literally repainted and his 
art to-day more worthily represents his ideals. 
The rich fullness of quality in the Scottish land- 
scapes, the clear transparency of the French 
pastorals, of which an example is reproduced on 
page 156, and the grey harmonies in the Dutch 
seascapes admirably illustrated his genius and 
versatility. J. T. 

PARIS. — For the American and English 
artist Paris has an enthralling fascination. 
Some few years ago Mr. L. D Luard 
passed through its city gates with the 
intention of spending a few weeks. The few weeks 




THE SEINE IN WINTER 



I RO.M A I'A^TKI. IIKAWING liV I.. IJ. lAAKD 



Stiiiiio-Talk 




IKini A I II \I K AMI IA.-.I 1,1, nRA\Vl> 



UV 1.. li. I-LAKl' 



liave now become part of years and I doubt if any 
other place in the world would yield him those 
things in which he delights and which he finds here 
to aid him in the expression of- his art. He draws 
and paints the tragedy of the life of that city's 



working horses with an insight hardly equalled by 
those who use the same subjects in France. 



In Mr. Luard's studio in the Boulevard Arago 
one will find innumerable sketches and inimitable 




"ox THE TOP OF THE DANK" 

1 60 



IROM A GIIAI.K AMI PASTKL 1IRAWI.\(; BV L. 1). I.IARU 



Studio- Talk 




A LllAl.U AM- lAsIEl. lyKA,',. .., 1,, L. II. LUAKD 



notes, all of them little paramount 
truths, executed with vigour 
and excellent design, of animal 
life. He seldom if ever misses the 
character and action of the subjects 
that arrest his pencil, the essence of 
his power of detailed restraint being 
most notable in his On the Top of the 
Bank and The Seine in Winter. His 
chalk and pastel drawing Pulling is a 
typical example of an everyday occur- 
rence in the building and rebuild- 
ing of Paris and its surroundings. 
In it Mr. Luard has suggested the 
sound of the boisterous whip-cracking, 
as well as the energy of men and 
submissive beasts, which again is so 
well expressed in The Hai-roiv. 



It is in chalk and pastel that 
Mr. Luard seems to attain 
iiis most masterly achievements, 
both mediums lending themselves 
agreeably to the speed neces- 
sary in depicting the fleeting move- 
ments he so keenly observes. In his 
small oil croquis, the same vitality 
is never lacking, and many of them 
formed part of a recent interesting 
exhibition of his work held in the gal- 
leries of Georges Petit. Though Mr. 
Luard chiefly confines himself to the 
study and painting of horses, he in 
noway evinces narrowness of mind in 
dealing with the widely different, art of 




Bl'ST OF KING .NICHOLAS I. OF MONTE.N'EGRO 

(Sec f. 162) liV IKOF. RIDOLK VALUEC 

161 



Stuiiio-Tixlk 



(f^s^Cj' 



■c 



V 







\ 



y^ 



\>^^ 



PEN SKETCH BY SII.TAN ABPIL-AZIZ (slM.TAX OF TURKEY, 1861-1S76) 



Others. For some years he has devoted much 
thought to the training of the memory, and wiih a 
searching enjoyment he set himself the perhaps not 
easy task of collecting material for his translation of 
the notes and letters on the same subject by Lecoq 
de Boisbaudran. Its publication for the first time in 
English last year under the title of " The Training 
of the Memory in Art " was rapidly appreciated by 
teachers and students, and occasioned many diverse 
criticisms. Some day, perhaps, Mr. Luard will add 
to his translation some of his own methods and ex- 
periences, which I am sure will prove as helpful as 
those of the master he has translated. E. .\. T. 



and bronze and in larger works 
of sculpture. His bust of 
Bishop Strossmayer, a man of 
high culture who did much for 
art in Croatia and left his fine 
collection to his country, merits 
special mention as a work 
well conceived and admirably 
carried out. Another of King 
Peter of Servia is also a good 
work. Besides these he has also 
portrayed the chief statesmen, 
politicians, and men of note 
in Croatia. In all that he has 
done, Prof.\'aldec shows earnest 
search for the truths of art. 
He has been awarded many distinctions for the 
works he has exhibited in different lands, and in 
his own country he has met with well-deserved 
recognition. A. S. L. 



c 



A GRAM, CROATIA.— The portrait bust 
of the King of Montenegro of which 
an illustration rs given on page i6i, 
^ is by Rudolf Valdec (Valdets), one 
of the younger professors at the Art Academy 
i n Zagr eb, 
as Agram 
is called by 
the Croatians. 
He received 
his art train- 
ing under Pro- 
fessors Eberle 
and Kiihne in 
Munich. In his 
own country 
(he is a native 
of K rapi na 
in Croatia) 
Valdec has 
already gained 
fame both 
as a portrait- 
ist in marble 
162 



RACOW. — At the home in Cracow of 
the family of the late Polish artist 
Stanislaw Chlebowski, who was the 
court painter of the Sultan Abdul-Aziz, 
I found a simple album covered with grey linen, 
containing drawings by the Sultan — sketches of 
great worth. They are the work of a hand un- 
trained but bold. Only some crooked contour- 
lines which at first give one the impression of 
Turkish writing : some necks of horses and some 
uplifted swords, the outline of a rising dust-cloud, 
the straight lines of masts and swollen sails ; but 
in spite of this simple manner there exists such a 
feeling of life and movement, such an understand- 




\\fj^^ 




PES SKETCH BY SII.TAN ABDUL-AZIZ 



Stttdio- Talk 







'^O^'^-' 




the sketches 
almost im- 
mediately after 
their produc- 
tion. The album 
also contains 
a pencil-draw- 
ing by Chlebow- 
ski on which 
the Sultan has 
made corrections 
in red ink. 



t!%-^«k 



^JC^A? 



PEN SKETCH BV SULTAN .4BDUL-AZIZ 



ing of rhythm and such a surety of touch, that were 
it not for some few illogical details, only to be per- 
ceived by very experienced eyes, one could suppose 
the sketches were the work of a very practised 
artist. Abdul-Aziz was never taught to draw, and 
perhaps his most important artistic education was 
his journey to Paris and London in the year 1867. 



The album contains si.xty-eight drawings by 
the Sultan, done in red ink on separate pieces 
of paper, which have been pasted into the album. 
The drawing paper has the watermark : Joyn- 
son's improved extra, 1866. The date of their 
origin is roughly 1866-1870. Joined to the 
album is a letter of one of the officials of Abdul- 
Aziz, who wrote that Chlebowski "avait son 
atelier dans le Palais Imperial et il travaillait 



sous la direction et 
subscription is : 
Muzzafer, Mare- 
chal, Aide-de- 
camp de S.M. le 
Sultan, Gouver- 
neur General 
d u L i b a n . 
There is also 
a certificate of 
Prof. M. Soko- 
lowski who hap- 
pened to be at 
Constantinople 
at that very 
time and saw 
at Chlebowski's 



I'inspiration du Sultan." The derived. 



Abdul - Aziz 
used to come 
to the studio 
of his painter 
and during 
long artistic dis- 
cussions, sitting 
in "the Turkish manner," used to take a piece of 
paper and twisting it round his left hand draw on 
it with a roughly sharpened reed. The sketches 
are for the most part battle-scenes, attacks on 
fortresses, fast galloping legions, boats full of 
people or vessels with swollen sails, sometimes a 
study of some movement of a hand or of a flag. 
This album is the most distinct document of the 
temperament and of the individuality of Abdul- 
Aziz, a man who possessed an uncommon culture, 
a wnse ruler whose life was greatly disturbed by 
court intrigues which prevented him from carrying 
out many useful projects. M. Mieczyslaw Treter 
has published in the Polish magazine " Lamus," of 
which I am editor, some notes on this album of his 
drawings, with some reproductions, and it is from 
these notes that the foregoing information is 



M. Pawlikowski. 




PE.N SKETCH BY SfLTAX ABDIJL-AZIZ 



163 



Studio-Talk 




'BI:LGARIAN rF.ASANT WOMAN IN BRIDAL DRESS 

BY J. V. MRKVITCHKA 



M. Mrkvitchka arrived in Bulgaria while 
still very young, almost immediately after 
leaving the Munich School of Fine Arts. 
At the invitation of the Government of 
Eastern Roumelia he became professor 
of drawing at the lyw in Philippopolis, 
and settling down in that town remained 
there several years. Life in Bulgaria had 
not many attractions for the young artist 
in these days, particularly in Philip- 
popolis, which had no art gallery, no art 
collections, no exhibitions. Furthermore, 
the articles necessary for his work had to 
be got from abroad, and as the railways 
which now connect Bulgaria with the 
rest of Europe were not then laid, com- 
munication was a difficult matter and 
months would elapse before orders could 
be executed. But the greatest difficulty 
of all was to find models. Among the 
people there was a widespread super- 
stition to the effect that the person whose 



SOFIA. -- Bulgaria, 
like most Oriental 
countries, is a land 
of contrasts. Seven 
or eight centuries ago the 
arts flourished there, thanks 
to the Byzantine influence ; 
then, during five centuries 
of Turkish subjugation, 
they were so completely 
stifled that about the period 
of the Liberation, in 1878, 
there existed in Bulgaria 
neither arts nor artists. But 
in less than twenty-five years 
after that date the fine arts 
in that country had de- 
veloped to such an extent 
that work by Bulgarian 
artists attracted attention 
in the Universal Exhibi- 
tions of 1900 (Paris) and 
1904 (St. Louis). 



Foreign artists made their 
appearance in Bulgaria soon 
after the Liberation, as pro- 
fessors of drawing in the 
newly created lycees. Among 
them was a Czech, Jan 
Mrkvicka (Mrkvitchka). 
164 




BULGARIAN I'EASANl WOMEN DANCI.NG 



MRKVITCHKA 




' AT THE WELL." BY 
J. V. MRKVITCHKA 



Studio-Talk 



portrait was in the hands of 
another ran a great risk, for 
the possessor of the por- 
trait, it was believed, could 
injure the original in many 
ways, could kill him, indeed, 
simply by burying it 1 



Several artists from 
abroad who arrived in Bul- 
garia after Mrkvitchka found 
it impossible to put up with 
the miserable life they had 
to endure, and left it, never 
to return. But our young 
painter, full of energy and 
courage, was in no way dis- 
concerted. He soon be- 
came acclimatised, and 
began to get interested in 
the young country, so rich 
in natural beauty and in 
original types. •' At the 
school," he would often 
remark to his friends, " I 
tried my best to inspire my 
pupils with artistic taste and 
a love of art. ... As for 
myself, I lived a very quiet 
life. The splendid scenery 
around me and the charac- 
teristic faces 1 met at every 
step roused the artist within 
me, and made me long to ioktkah ..i mau. 

put all these things on 

canvas. I devoted myself to the study of nature 
and of types, and in so doing derived great pleasure. 
Nowhere can one find such varied types and 
costumes as are to be found here. Things have 
kept their natural imprint ; neither the barbers nor 
the fashion papers have yet succeeded here in 
giving the same appearance to every one, as is the 
case in your civilised countries. The homme du 
peupk has preserved his manner of wearing his 
clothes, of putting on his fur cap and belt, and of 
leaving, his chest bare. . . . All this has something 
individual about it, and makes a most picturesque 
ensemble. . . . Studies of this kind well repaid me 
for my solitude." 

The productivity of M. Mrkvitchka is truly 

astonishing. His works are many and various. 

He has produced studies, landscapes, portraits, 

genre pictures, historical compositions, and book 

i66 




Mi; .-5. 1)Y J. V. MKK\nCllKA 

illustrations. In a word, there is scarcely a branch 
of painting or drawing at which he has not tried his 
hand. From the walls of his studio dozens of 
pairs of eyes look naively at you. They are sketches . 
of Bulgarian types, mostly women ; on whatnots, 
in the corners, everywhere, are piled heaps of 
drawings and studies, representing landscapes, the 
inhabitants of the town, their costumes, their em- 
broideries — in fact, the whole country itself. Among 
the numerous portraits of men, women, and children, 
all marked by an external resemblance, and realising 
in characteristic manner the essentials of the person 
depicted, may be mentioned that of the Czar 
Ferdinand I., in State costume, painted when he 
was Prince ; the late Princess Marie Louise, 
Monsignor Simeon, Madame S., and other person- 
ages of prominence in the social life of this quarter 
of Europe ; also one of the famous Bulgarian monk 
Pais or Paiss}-. 



studio- Talk 



Mrkvitchka's most interesting works, however, 
are his genre pictures and his historical com- 
positions. All these pictures are marked with the 
characteristic imprint of the artist's talent — full of 
grace and poetry and sweetness. But the master has 
been no less successful in pictures of another kind, 
wherein he shows us tragic scenes full of horror, 
inspired by the sufferings of the Bulgarians and 
Macedonians under the Turkish heel. 



dress. All the other Bulgarian painters have, 
voluntarily or otherwise, come under his influence. 
Hence, partly at any rate, we can understand this 
peculiarity in Bulgarian art, namely, that it did not 
begin, as art begins everywhere else, by imitations 
of classical works, but went straight to realism, to 
the artistic reproduction of nature and social life. 



Mrkvitchka is known as " the first Bulgarian 
painter," or the " Father of Bulgarian painting." 
And either of these titles is quite accurate. No 
artist has depicted Bulgaria so completely or in a 
manner so varied ; none has represented more 
truly or more delicately the characteristic traits of 
its inhabitants, the expression of their faces, their 
gestures, and the original heaviness of their motley 




PORTRAIT OF Kl^ 



WD OF BULGARIA 



Mrkvitchka's remarkable works have won for him 
the sympathetic interest of Bulgarians of the highest 
class. He was in the good graces of the late 
Prince Alexander of Battenberg, who presented 
him with a brooch set with diamonds. But it is 
the present ruler of Bulgaria, Ferdinand I., who 
has shown most kindness to the painter. Soon 
after ascending the Bulgarian throne the Prince, as 
he then was, on arriving at Philippopolis, paid a visit 
to the painter's studio, and was agreeably surprised 
to find in that provincial 
town an artist of the true 
sort. He bought two pic- 
tures, and had them hung in 
his study over the desk at 
which he works. The late 
Princess Marie Louise, who 
was devoted to the arts, and 
something of an artist her- 
self, also had a high opinion 
of Mrkvitchka as a painter. 
She commissioned him to 
paint her portrait, intending 
to present it to her regiment. 
But when the portrait was 
finished it pleased her so 
much that she could not bring 
herself to part with it. After 
the Princess's death the artist 
did another — based on the 
first — in the old Bulgarian 
style. The Princess, founder 
of a new Bulgarian dynasty, 
is represented seated on an 
antique throne, under the 
protection of the Holy 
Virgin, the work being 
executed in old-style 
mosaics. 

After the annexation of 
Eastern Roumelia to the 
principality of Bulgaria, 
Mrkvitchka was appointed 
professor of drawing at the 
BY J. V. MRKVITCHKA lyccc \\\ Sofia, with the 

167 



Sfiidio-Talk 




BILGARIAN PEASANT STUDY. KV ). V. MRKVITCHKA 

special object of reorganising therein the teach- 
ing of drawing, which according to a ministerial 
report was much more advanced at Phihppopolis 
than in the capital. Sofia, already the centre of 
the political and intellectual life of the country, 
became, soon after Mrkvitchka's arrival, an art 
centre as well. By organising an exhibition of his 
pictures in the Salon of the "Gymnasium" — the 
first show of the kind held in Sofia— the painter 
excited wide interest in art, and from that date 
the artistic movement in Bulgaria may be said to 
have begun. In 1895, thanks to the energetic 
intervention of Prof. J. Chichmarroff, the Society 
of Artists and Art-lovers was founded at Sofia ; 
the illustrated journal " Isskoustvo " ("Art") made 
its appearance under the direction of Mrkvitchka 
and his friend A. Mitoff. Finally, in 1906, the 
then Minister of Public Instruction, M. K. 
VelitchkofT, poet and art-lover, established in Sofia 
a School of Fine Arts for the purpose of creating a 
foyer artistitfue, and thus promoting the develop- . 
ment of national art in the country. Mrkvitchka 
was made Director of the .school, and still holds 
that post. 

Several icons from the artist's brush have been 
168 



executed in'the old style, to show those students 
at the school who are specialising in iconography, 
which plays so large a part in the ritual of the 
1 Eastern Church to which Bulgaria as agnation 
adheres, how one can adapt modern painting to the 
' 'Id Bulgaro-Byzantine style. During the last few 
\ ears he has successfully attempted decorative' paint- 
ing. A little while ago he decorated the walls of the 
Agricultural Bank at Sofia, and more recently he 
has been occupied in adorning a mausoleum at 
Bucharest. Mrkvitchka received the gold medal 
at the Paris Exhibition in 1900 and at St. Louis 
in 1904, which proves that his works are as highly 
esteemed abroad as in Bulgaria itself. O. G. 

BERLIN.— The Salon Rabl has been 
having a show of new landscapes by Prof. 
Carl Langhammer. Italian scenery with 
thunderstorms, nocturnal night effects 
and picturesque architecture are among the motives 




BULGARIAN PEASANT STUDY 



J. \. MRKVITCHKA 




^ Pi 

o ^ 

o 

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o 






H 
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Pi a 



Stitdio-Talk 



which have fascinated this artist, who has also 
found some congenial themes in German parks and 
pastures. One could enjoy the decorator's love 
for clouds and classical accessories and also the 
realist's eye for air and trees and cattle. Sympath\- 
with the subject pervaded each picture and in 
contemplative and lyrical interpretation the in- 
fluence of the Bracht school was traceable. 

The Salon Schulte has been showing the coillec- 
tion of works grouped together under the title 
" Places of Labour " (Statten der Arbeit) which 
has been on view in several German towns. This 
homage to the modem spirit of industrialism has 
opened new fields for landscape and genre painting. 
Pictorial themes have been discovered by the artists 
of all countries in factories, harbours, steelworks, 
gla.ssworks, and timber-yards. Frequently these 
subjects are rendered with a social tendency, but 
more often, perhap.s, as purely pictorial exercises. 
Eugen Bracht evinced no decline of vigour in the 
rendering of prosaic scenes, and H. Heyenbrock 



maintained his reputution as a decorative ex- 
pressionist, although he does not sacrifice detail. 
It was delightful to feel convinced of almost 
dynamic energ}' in the labourers of Robert Sterl, 
who is also an exquisite colourist, and Walter 
Klemm proved his customary directness in some 
scenes of city life. Brangwyn, Pennell, Balu.schek, 
and Paeschke were prominent in the graphic 
section. |. J. 

BARCELONA.— In the .Sal6n Par^s the 
distinguished artist Santiago Rusifiol re- 
cently showed some of his latest work, 
executed during a sojourn in beautiful 
^'alencia, Aranjuez, and Gerona. Rusifiol has 
made a name for himself as the painter of the 
gardens of Spain, and every one of his works dis- 
plays so much tenderness that one finds it difficult 
in presence of a collection of his pictures to dis- 
cover any preference, such is the degree of perfec- 
tion achieved by the artist in his special field. If 
it cannot be said that these latest wcjrks were better 




"r.\ JARDIN DE VALENCIA' 

170 



St/tdio- Talk 




"VIETX FAUNE (aRANIUEZ) 



BY SANTIAGO KUSINOL 



than those which preceded them, that is simply 
because there was no room for improvement. But 
while technically of equal merit some of these 
pictures stand out from the rest on account of their 
subjects. The picture entitled Jardin de Valencia 
is a delightful piece of work, not only because of 
the beauty of the scene depicted, but also because 
of the masterly way in which the artist has over- 
come the difficulties presented by the contrast of 
light and shade. His sunshine communicates a 
feeling of warmth ; in a word, it is the real sun of 
Spain that is here depicted. The Vieux Faune is 
a scene from the royal gardens of Aranjuez, and 
this again is a beautiful work. J. G. M. 

TOKYO. — The fleeting springtime of 
Japan, replete with memories com- 
mingling charm and interest, culminates 
in the month of May ; the holiday spirit 
runs strong in young and old ; temple festivals, 
flower shows, exhibitions of various descriptions, 
expeditions to favourite spots in the near neigh- 
bourhood of the great cities afford a ready excuse 



for the casting aside of the cares of office by all 
classes of the community. Among other centres 
of attraction that caught the popular taste this 
year may be mentioned the Tenth Annual Art 
Exhibition held at Uyeno Park in Tokyo, which 
always appeals to the artistically-minded section of 
pleasure-seekers as well as to students and members 
of the " profession," printers, publishers, and others 
interested in the advance of art in Japan. Like its 
predecessors, it was open to all Japan, and com- 
prised exhibits of sculpture, water-colours, and block 
prints. 

It is more particularly in connection with the 
last branch of work that a word may be said. The 
exhibitors were two in number only, a Japanese 
and an American, the latter, Mrs. Bertha Lum, an 
artist whose name is well known in her own country 
in connection with block printing, on which she 
has been working for several years. Her work, 
which is full of charm, shows that she has been 
able to assimilate the methods of Japanese artists 
and printers to a remarkable extent, developing 

171 



Studio-Talk 



along lines suggested by her own genius in new and 
original directions while adhering to the procedure 
that has come down through generations of block 
printers from early days. 



At the present time block printing is practically 
obsolete save as a means of reproducing old prints. 
In that branch several houses are doing rare and 
wonderful work that cannot be too highly com- 
mended, but as a mode of expressing modem ideas 
the art may be said to be as good as dead. Block 
printing is employed for advertisement purposes and 
in the production of cheap prints as an economical 
and effective method of obtaining certain desired 
results, which, however, differ very considerably 
from those shown in the olden days. Printed on 
the unsuitable modem paper in colours that would 
not have been tolerated by the ancient masters of 
the art the productions of the twentieth- 
century block printer are generally poor in 
design and composition, and it is no wonder 
that they fail to find favour when compared 
with the old prints, excellent reproductions 
of which can now so easily be obtained. 
During the years Mrs. Lum has been 
engaged in this work, in close touch with 
artists and the art of block printing in Japan, 
little original work has been produced and 
no progress made : on the contrary, de- 
terioration may be detected if the results 
of the last five years are critically examined. 



Mrs. Lum possesses in an unusual degree 
that rare gift — priceless to the artist — good 
colour-sense, combined with an instinctive 
grasp of composition, and as a medium for 
their expression has cho-sen the process of 
block printing rather than water colour. 
Composition is the keynote of the old 
print. The wonderful faculty of seizing 
on the best combination of landscape and 
figure possessed by the master makers of 
the old-day prints would appear to have 
descended to Mrs. Lum, who, proceeding 
along lines both new and original, has pro- 
duced prints that for depth of tone and 
atmospheric effect can be compared only to 
some dreamy pastel rather than the flat and 
soulless print of modern Japan. 



surfiice to work on, the printer has to press so 
hard on the block that colour is rubbed off, pro- 
ducing a thin effect on the print. It has been 
reserved for Mrs. Lum, by paying the greatest 
attention to the laying on of colotirs, to obtain from 
the modern materials that depth of tone that is so 
truly an admirable feature of the old productions. 
By a process of reprinting with a good deal of 
water it has been found possible to produce the 
effect desired, the result being a depth of colour and 
warmth of tone that has delighted all lovers of block 
printing. Added to this technical skill are a grace of 
composition and an atmosphere all her own, instinct 
with the thought and inspiration of to-day, this 
combination serving to bridge the space separating 
block printing from the water-colour drawing. 

The block printing of olden times was a 



In the old days the paper was soft 

and of rather loose texture, allowing the 

colour to soak through in a manner that 

gave it depth. Nowadays, with a harder 

172 




'FISHERMEN 



1 ROM K WOOD PRINT BY BERTHA LUM 



Studio- Talk 




' KITE-FLVING 



FROM A WOOD PRINT BY BERTHA LUM 



handicraft, but a handicraft precious and full of 
beauty, which is fast becoming lost in this modern 
age, when the artists of Japan believe that they 
can only find expression and produce real works of 



art through the medium of the brush. Mrs. Lum's 
prints stand to-day as a bridge between, on the one 
hand, the prints of old Japan, from which she has 
learned the methods and secrets of the technical 




' WI.SD .\.Mj RAI.N 



FROM A WOOD PRINT BY BERTHA LUM 



Art School Notes 



>.^ 











FROM A WOoli I'KINT BY BERTHA LUM 



part of block printing, and, on the 
expression of the same thoughts 
water-colour. 



other hand, the 

and fancies in 

H. V. H. 



ART SCHOOL NOTES. 

LONDOX.— At the Royal Academy on De- 
cember 2, in his first lecture on chemistry. 
Prof. Laurie intends to make a new de- 
-^ parture that should be of considerable 
value in connection with the modem revival of a 
beautiful and ancient art. The lecture will be 
devoted to a consideration of the palette of the 
illuminators who practised from the seventh to the 
end of the fifteenth century and will be illustrated 
with lantern slides of illuminated manuscripts in 
their natural colours. In his remaining addresses 
Prof. Laurie will deal with the proper selection 
and use of modem pigments ; the various methods 
of wall-painting; media, varnishes, and tempera 
painting ; the theory of colour in its application to 
painting; and the chemistry of building materials. 
In view of the possibility that the professorships 
of painting, sculpture, and archit-ecture may be more 
or less in commission this winter, several members 
of the Academy have undertaken to give single 
addresses in January and February on subjects 
connected with these three branches of the arts. 

The autumn e.xhibition at the Birkbeck School 
174 



of Art contained some 
promising work in painting, 
modelling, and design. An 
admirable design for a 
garden fountain in cast 
lead was shown by Arthur 
E. Harvey ; and Arthur 
M. Boss, the winner in 
recent years of many prizes 
for drawing and painting, 
contributed a clever sketch 
in oil of a girl dancing. 
Good drawings from the 
nude by Branford Clarke 
were accompanied by some 
curious designs that 
showed the influence of 
Blake; and figure studies 
of interest came from 
William Howitt. Com- 
mentlable work wa.s also 
shown by Viola D. 
Dunkley, Gladys Hardy- 
Syms, Grace M. Hudson, 
and Alfred M. Shiner among others. \V. T. W. 

REVIEWS AND NOTICES. 

Mary the Mother of Jesus. An Essay by .\lice 
Mevnell. With 20 plates in colour after water- 
colour drawings by R. Anning Bell. (London : 
P. Lee Warner for the Medici Society.) 165. net. 
— It is part of Mrs. Meynell'sgift in the preparation 
of this book to select her illustrator with so much 
success as the results show in this case. One can 
imagine collectors many years hence searching 
for this edition for the sake of the frontispiece, a 
singularly fine piece of colour-reproduction. Mary 
in the House of Elizabeth is also a plate of great 
beauty, adapting the sharp colour-contrast of 
old missals to present-day conditions without any 
affected imitation of methods which were not in- 
fluenced as present methods must be by having to 
recognise the printing-press. The present- day pro- 
cesses, and the method they admit of, enable the 
artist to attain, as in the picture Mary ivith the 
Lady Saint Anne, atmospheric wealth of effect ; 
and Mr. Anning Bell does this without losing the 
precious qualities of finish which book-embellish- 
ment demands. In this last respect he achieves a 
success which few attain to. 

An Artist in Eg}'pt. By Walter Tvndale, 
R.I. (London: Hodder and Stoughton.) 20s. 
net. — Of the numerous books on Egypt which have 



S2 




Z Q 
> ° 




^;:. 







Reviews and Notices 



appeared during recent years none have given us 
more pleasure than Mr. Tyndale's latest work. The 
title is perhaps a little misleading, for -the author 
has not, as might be expected, attempted to deal 
with the many technical problems which present 
themselves to the artist who endeavours to depict 
the unique and wonderful beauties of the country, 
more especially of the atmospheric effects peculiar 
to it, but has given us, in an agreeable and chatty 
manner, an account of some of his experiences 
during a lengthy sojourn in the country. Many of 
his anecdotes are amusing, while his descriptions 
of the native life and customs are always interesting, 
for Mr. Tyndale knows his Egypt well. In his 
account of the journey to Kosseir, in some ways 
the most entertaining part of the narrative, he has 
given a wonderfully vivid description whkh will 
appeal to those who have experienced what the 
author calls "the charm of the desert." If we 
have any fault to find with this engaging volume it 
is that the writer should have introduced the 
gruesome details connected with the story of the 
Princess Zohra, and with the death of Abbas : or 
the vivid description of the horrors of the " dancing 
dervishes " and other barbaric practices which have 
now almost disappeared. These are not pleasant 
reading and seem out of place in such a delightful 
book. The twenty-seven illustrations are admirably 
reproduced in colour. The subjects are well chosen 
and varied, and are treated in the artist's usual 
sympathetic and attractive manner. 

The Heroes, or Greek Fairy Tales for my Childroi. 
By Charles Kingslev. Illustrated by W. Russell 
Flint. (London : P. Lee Warner, publisher to 
the Medici Society.) £,2 \zs. 6d. — Mr. Russell 
Flint's colour-books in the Riccardi Press editions 
have frequently called for praise in these columns, 
and we have formerly noted how the artist's style 
has with each book more perfectly accommodated 
itself to decorative colour-illustration. The present 
work surpasses any of his that we have already re- 
viewed in its thorough understanding of the problem 
of book-illustration. There is no sameness in Mr. 
Flint's pictures, although he rightly retains uni- 
formity of style. He has considerable inventive 
faculty, both in the conception of his subject and 
in the disposition of colour, in the latter obtaining 
a great variety of effect. The ordinary edition of 
" The Heroes " is limited to 500, and there are 
two other special editions restricted to a few copies 
at ^'3 3^- and ;^ 1 5 15.?. net. 

Co/our in the Home. By Ed\v.\rd J. Duveex. 
(London : George Allen and Co.) j[^2 2s. net. — It 
cannot, of course, be denied that there is still room 



for improvement in the taste of the British public, 
but in view of the great progress that has of late 
years been made in the decorative and industrial 
arts Mr. Duveen surely goes too far when he asserts, 
in his richly illustrated volume, that the houses of 
the middle and lower classes are far less artistic in 
their ornaments and furniture than the hut of the 
African savage. Moreover, it is scarcely fair to 
contrast to the detriment of his native land English 
and foreign modern aesthetic feeling, for, to quote 
but one case in point, nothing could be more 
blatantly vulgar than most of the residences in the 
new French seaside resorts, that compare most 
unfavourably with the many charming houses in 
the garden suburbs near London. Other sweeping 
assertions, such as that "in chiracter and expression 
both the Spanish and Venetian schools of painting 
are deficient, but no fault can be found with their 
colouring," provoke hostile criticism, but, due allow- 
ance being made for a certain want of balance of 
judgment and inadequacy of literary expression, the 
book — in which, by the way, scarcely any reference 
is made to the illustrations- — contains much useful 
suggestion. The analyses of colours and the defini- 
tions of their relations to each other, though they 
are scarcely likely to be of much use in educating 
the ordinary householder, display a considerable 
knowledge of the subject, and the remarks on the 
duties of municipal authorities might well be laid 
to heart by them. Mr. Duveen would have an official 
to control London streets and buildmgs, with powers 
similar to those of the Dean of Guild in Scotland, 
and he urges closer co-operation between architects, 
sculptors, and painters, who should together control 
the builder, the manufacturer, and the artisan, all 
working together for the common good. 

Zives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, 
and Architects. By Giorgio Vas.^rl Newly trans- 
lated by Gaston Du C. De Vere. (London : P. 
Lee Warner for the Medici Society.) Vol. II. 
255. net. — Thesecond volume of the new translation 
of Vasari's " Vite dei piu eccellenti Pittori, Scultori 
e Architetti," now appearing in ten volumes, well 
maintains the high level of excellence of the first, 
the fine printing and the beautiful plates, some 
in monochrome, others in colour, giving to it a 
distinction as great as that of its predecessor. 
.Specially well interpreted are the Madonna and 
Child Enthroned,h\ Bernardo Daddi,one of Giotto's 
most distinguished pupils ; The Death of the Virgin, 
one of the few surviving works of Spinello Aretino ; 
the Annunciation, by the gifted monk known as II 
Monaco; and the Madonna and Child 7vith Angels, 
by Masolino da Panicale, the master of the greater 

177 



Reviews and Ahtices 



Masaccio. The period covered in the new volume 
is tiie deeply important one that preceded the 
Golden Age of painting in Italy, during which, 
though Florence stnll took the lead, Padua, Venice, 
and Bologna rivalled that city in the number of 
masters of genius produced by them, and Ghiberti, 
Brunelleschi, Luca della Robbia, and Donatello 
were carrying on the work begun in the fourteenth 
century by Orcagna and paving the way for the final 
culmination in the work of Michael Angelo of all 
that was best in the plastic art of the Renaissance. 
Unspoiled by any notes or additions, this true 
masterpiece of literature retains the quaint savour 
of the original text, in which the chatty chronicler 
gives his impressions of the inner and outer lives 
of the mighty wielders of brush and chisel whom 
it was his privilege to know. 

Robin Hood. Illustrated by \V.\lter Crane. 
(Edinburgh and London: T. C. and E. C. Jack.) 
-jS. dd. net. — Mr. Walter Crane's pencil still retains 
its charm in illustrating for children, if not quite all 
its old delicacy and power ; and in the work under 
review he has had the advantage of methods of 
colour-printing which were not extant when his 
first books appeared. Mr. Crane, who is a survivor 
of the great romantic period of the last century, 
understands knights and friars and the back- 
ground of scenes indisputably reminiscent of Old 
England as only one who had shared in the 
romantic revival could. Every year his books link 
us to a past phase of art which this country cannot 
afford to forget. 

A Book of Beggars. By \\. D.\cres Adams. 
■(Lxjndon: William Heinemann.) 5j.net. — It will 
probably be something of a shock to Bishops and 
Lord Mayors, aristocratic ladies who give no 
■change at charity bazaars, militant suffragettes, 
members of the Salvation Army and Little Sisters 
of the Poor to find them.selves classed by Mr. 
Adams in his " Book of Beggars " with crossing- 
sweepers, hawkers, acrobats, gipsy fortune-tellers, 
begging-letter writers, and pavement artists. No 
respecter of persons, the caricaturist touches off 
with great skill the idiosyncrasies of typical 
examples of the multitude of those who endeavour 
to extract money from others, from selfish or 
unselfish motives. The sketches, which are all full 
of humour and are moreover well printed, are 
prefaced only by the old nursery rhyme : 

Hark ! Hark ! The dogs do bark 
Beggars are coming to town. 
Some in jags, some in rags 
And some in velvet gowns. 

— the idea suggested by the well-known refrain 
178 



being carried out by black-and-white drawings of 
dogs opposite each coloured picture, their attitudes 
expressing with rare felicity the feeling of the public 
towards the particular beggar in question. 

The Fables of .£sop. Illustrated by Edward J. 
Detmold. (London : Hodder and Stoughton.) 
i5.f. net. — Mr. Detmold's knowledge of animal life 
makes him a learned illustrator of .-l-^sop. If we 
have a complaint to bring it is not against the 
display of this knowledge, or his miraculous draw- 
ing of detail, and certainly not against his colour, 
but against an absence of humour, and emphasis 
upon the symbolical element of the story which he 
has set out to illustrate. After all the story should 
be the point with the illustrator of any book where 
the illustrations aim at being more than marginal 
embellishments or fanciful inventions off-shooting 
from the idea of mere embellishment. 

The Uffizi Gallery. By P. G. Konodv. M'ith fifty 
plates in colour. Edited by T. Leman Hare 
(London and Edinburgh: T. C. and E. C. Jack.) 
2\s. net. — To make a selection of fifty representa- 
tive works from the vast number of masterpieces 
in the L'fiizi Gallery, which, as far as Italian painting 
is concerned, contains the most important collec- 
tion in the world, must have been a task of no 
little difficulty, but it must be admitted that it 
has been performed with considerable tact and 
judgment. Although, as a matter of course, the 
greater number of reproductions are of Italian 
pictures, ranging in date from the time of the early 
Primitives to that of the late Eclectics, several 
e.xamples are also given of the Northern Schools, 
including Memlinc's Virgin and Child 7vith tivo 
Angels, Rubens's Portrait of Himself, and most 
notable of all the so-called Portman Altar-piece by 
Hugo van der Goes, one of the very few authentic 
works of its author. Amongst the best plates in 
this attractive volume, so far as accurate rendering 
of tone values is concerned, are Botticelli's Madonna 
of tlie Magnificat and Holbein's Portrait of Richard 
South'iVell, whilst of the scholarly essays accom- 
panying them perhaps the most interesting is that 
on the Goldsmith Painters of Florence, the writer 
displaying a very genuine appreciation of the 
groups of artists who interpreted so well their 
citizens' love of rich colour and wealth of detail. 

Germany. Painted by E. T. Compton and E. 
Harrison Compton. Described by Rev. J. F. 
Dickie. 20s. net. — Moscow. Painted by F. de 
Haenen. Described by Henry M. Grove. 7s. bd. 
net. (London: A. and C. Black). — It is rather 
difficult to understand why an entire book should 
be devoted to the City of Moscow while a volume 



Reviews and Notices 



only very little larger should be thought sufficient 
for the whole of that vast agglomeration of princi- 
palities, states, and kingdoms which are consolidated 
under the name of the German Empire. The 
Moscow book contains, besides its interesting 
historical and descriptive letterpress written by Mr. 
Grove, the British Consul at Moscow, a map of the 
■city and sixteen illustrations in colour and a like 
number in half-tone. Mr. F. de Haenen's pictures 
are attractive but at the same time one would have 
liked to see a more characteristic selection of 
subjects. Certain of the pictures given m colour 
seeiri to call less for this treatment than some of 
the subjects which are treated in black and white. 
To write a book under the title "Germany" must 
have been a somewhat imposing task and naturally 
the Rev. J. F. Dickie's account cannot do more 
than afford a very cursory survey of the subject. 
He takes the reader, however, for a rapid tour of 
the Fatherland from east to west, from north to 
south, but it is the series of seventy-five reproduc- 
tions all in colour which form the feature of the 
book. These, reproduced from water-colours by 
E. T. and E. H. Compton, give an excellent idea 
of the scenery and town architecture in different 
parts of Germany; and besides being, as far as one 
can judge from personal knowledge of a good many 
of the places depicted, topographically accurate, 
the artists have given proof of a very pleasant gift 
of colour and of composition. 

Whitman's Print-Collector's Handbook. Revised 
by Malcolm C. Salaman. (London : G. Bell 
and Sons, Ltd.) los. 6d. net. — The appearance 
of this new and greatly amplified edition of " Whit- 
man's Handbook " will be warmly welcomed by all 
collectors and connoisseurs of prints, among whom 
the work has always been held in high esteem not- 
withstanding the limited scope of its five earlier 
editions. The need for amplifying it and making 
its scope commensurate with the expansion which 
has taken place in print-collecting in recent years 
was, indeed, recognised by Whitman, but his death 
necessitated the delegation of the task of revision 
to other hands, and we do not think that any one 
who peruses the new edition will doubt the wisdom 
of the publishers in entrusting the work to Mr. 
Salaman. So thoroughly and conscientiously has 
he done his work that the usefulness and authority 
of the handbook will henceforth be far greater than 
hitherto. What he has done goes much beyond 
what one usually expects in a "new edition," and 
is, indeed, almost sufficient to constitute the book 
a new work. Nearly every chapter has been ex- 
tended ; new chapters on the old colour-prints, 



on French line engravings, and on contem- 
porary etchings have been added ; aquatint, wood- 
engraving, and lithography are treated in separate 
chapters instead of in brief sections ; and, what is 
of special importance to the man who spends his 
money on buying prints, the chapter on " The 
Money Value of Prints " has undergone very con- 
siderable extension, and Mr. Salaman's wide know- 
ledge is here placed at the service of collectors 
in the shape of trustworthy guidance. The new 
edition contains sixty full-page reproductions, well 
chosen, and like the rest of the book well printed. 
La Decima Esposizione d'Arte a Vetiezia, igi2. 
By Ugo Ojetti. (Bergamo : Istituto Italiano 
d'Arte Grafiche). 1 2 lire. — As one biennial ex- 
hibition succeeds another at Venice the event is 
always marked by the issue of a volume in which 
are reproduced a large number of the works 
exhibited in the various sections, Italian and 
foreign, and thus the series as a whole forms a 
valuable document in the history of modem art. 
The present volume, dealing with this year's 
exhibition which has just come to a close, contains 
over four hundred illustrations, and the admirable 
way in which they are here presented reflects the 
highest credit on the Italian Institute of Graphic 
Arts. Until two years ago the task of reviewing 
this international assemblage of works of art was 
discharged by Sgr. Vittorio Pica, who now holds 
an official position in connection with the exhibi- 
tion, but an able successor has been forthcoming 
in Sgr. Ojetti, who now, for the second time, 
assumes the role of historian of this notable event. 
Sgr. Ojetti is quite candid in his criticisms, and is 
especially outspoken in regard to the work of the 
painters of his own country, which, in his opinion, 
shows a general falling off this year by comparison 
with former years. It is interesting to note that, 
while he also considers the display of British 
paintings unequal to those of past years, he devotes 
special attention to the collection of lithographs 
sent over from England by the Senefelder Club. 



Messrs. George Pulman and Sons, Fine Art 
Publishers, of Thayer Street, Manchester Square, 
London, are issuing a series of excellent colour 
reproductions of pictures exhibited in the Paris 
Salons this year. The prints with their mounts 
measure 14 by 11 J inches, and the series comprises 
twenty-four subjects of a popular character. They 
are sold at \s. 6d. each. 



[A number of reviews of recent publications are 
unavoidably held over until next month. — Editor.] 

179 



The Lay Figure 



T 



HE LAY FIGURE: ON THE 
DISAPPEARANCE OF ART. 



' I HAVE been told that art is dying," said 
the Art Critic, " that it is on the verge of absolute 
extinction and that within a generation or two it 
will have ceased to exist. What do you think of 
the prospect ? "' 

" I think predictions of that sort are preposterous, 
and am surprised that any one should give utterance 
to such ridiculous nonsense!" cried the Young 
Painter. " Art was never so sound or so vigorous 
as it is at the present time. It is in a condition of 
splendid vitality, and it has endless possibilities of 
development. How could it cease to exist ? "' 

"Its \iulity may be deceptive, the last flicker of a 
dying flame,"' laughed the Man with the Red Tie. 
" Really, I do not think it is in a healthy state just 
now : it seems to me to have a tendency to suffer 
from convulsions, and at times it is certainly 
rather feverish. I am not altogether satisfied with 
its condition." 

" What you call feverishness is only exuberance 
of vitality," returned the A'oung Painter. " Art is 
breaking out in so many new directions that it can- 
not help appearing rather restless and unsettled. 
But that is not to be regarded as a symptom of 
ill-health, and certainly does not suggest an early 
decease." 

" But some people think this uneasiness is a sign 
of decay," said the Critic, " so there may be some- 
thing after all in the gloomy anticipations of the 
pessimists. One never knows I " 

" I don't care a rap what the pessimists say," 
declared the Young Painter : " it amuses them to 
imagine all sorts of horrors. But I do not believe 
that art will disappear until the human race 
vanishes off the face of the earth. The craving for 
art is one of the strongest of human instincts, and 
so long as there are human beings who have any 
instincts at all there will be art in some form or 
other." 

" Ah, yes, in some form or other," broke in 
the Man with the Red Tie. You are admitting the 
possibility that art as we know it now may die 
out. No doubt there would be something else 
to take its place, but would that be art as we 
understand it ? " 

" Perhaps not," replied the Voung Painter. 
" Not having the gift of prophecy, I do not profess 
to be able to say what the art of two or three 
centuries hence may be like ; but that there will be 
art, and art that will satisfy the popular demand, 
I feel perfectly convinced." 



" Then what the pessimists assume to be signs 
of decay are only warnings of a coming change," 
commented the Critic. " I think you are right. I 
am with you in the belief that art is one of the 
fundamental human instincts, and that the desire 
for artistic expression which was an attribute of the 
human race in the remote past when men were 
savages and lived in caves, will continue to be one 
of its attributes in the far future." 

" But the art of the future may be quite unlike 
what we now accept and believe in. That is pos- 
sible, is it not ? " insisted the Man with the Red Tie. 
"Of course it is possible," agreed the Young 
Painter. " I should even be inclined to regard it 
as probable. The human mind changes with the 
lapse of time, and therefore it is only reasonable 
to expect changes in the manner of expressing 
mental impressions." 

" The analogy of the past is against you," 
suggested the Critic. " The art of the Stone Age 
differed not at all in intention from the art of 
today, and it differed little enough in manner of 
expression. The savage artist, li\ing in a cave 
hundreds of thousands of years ago, really saw and 
interpreted nature in pretty much the same way as 
his present-day descendants. He had more limited 
materials, but such as they were he used them quite 
in the modern fashion." 

" Because a thing has not been, it does not follow 
that it never will be," objected the Man with the 
Red Tie. " As art has run for so many years along 
particular lines there seems to me to be all the 
greater probability that it will be shunted sooner or 
later on to other lines, ^\^^y should not this 
diversion be close at hand?" 

" For the simple reason that any real or definite 
diversion is, I believe, impossible," declared the 
Critic. Whatever may be the period of art that 
you examine, early or late, you will find that it has 
the same underlying motive, the same fundamental 
purpose. It is only the convention of expression 
that varies, not the art itself. We may be just now 
on the verge of a change of convention ; we may 
be going to hark back to one that has been out of 
favour for centuries, we may even be going to adopt 
a new one. There are fashions in art as there are 
in everything else ; new mannerisms are always 
being invented, played with, and dropped for 
something else ; there is no finality in any method 
of aesthetic expression. But behind the new 
mannerism there will be the same old art, just as it 
has always been — that will never change or die." 
" No, of course not," agreed the Young Painter. 
The Lav Figure. 



Harold and Laura Kitii^lit 



T 



HE ART OF HAROLD AND 
LAURA KXIGHT. BY NORMAN 
GARSTLX. 



It is always interesting to watch the work of 
intimate friends, and to note the effect of each 
upon the other, the unconscious collaboration of 
minds not occupied with the same work. In con- 
sidering the work of a husband and wife there are 
still more interesting points to observe. On the one 
hand, temperamental differences caused by sex and 
the divergencies, both of outlook and expression, 
which such differences produce : on the other, the 
constantly growing identity of experiences and the 
mutuality of criticism act as centripetal against 
centrifugal forces, and it would be as inconsequent 
to expect one of binary stars to move indepen- 
dently of the other, as to expect artists like Mr. and 
Mrs. Harold Knight to move in different orbits. 

Before entering upon the slight sketch of these 



painters I would like to say a few words of a some- 
what abstract character, whose significance seems 
to have a bearing on their careers. 

I think it was the late J. M. Synge who 
said that " All art is collaboration." The truth of 
this axiom is probably less patent to-day than in 
any other age, for the desire for personal self- 
expression is so strong in our time, and the segre- 
gating force which that implies is so imperious, 
that we are apt to look for and to see the trees 
before we catch sight of the forest. In other ages, 
artists fell into line with their immediate com- 
panions, apparently without fear of submerging 
their personality ; at least so it appears now to us, 
who may, however, be deluded by the perspective 
of time, which is for ever playing tricks with our 
judgments. Thus it is possible that the postponed 
impressionist of some century yet unthinkable will 
see in the pictures of to-day a likeness as close 
as we see in the schools of Umbria or of Siena. 




'THE SONNET 

XLVIII. No. 191. — January 1913 



FROM THE I'AINTING BY IIAROID KNIHHT 
- 183 



Harold and Laura Knight 



Still, whether the collaboration be masked or naked, 
whether we admit it humbly or deny it arrogantly, 
the fact remains that art is collaboration, that 
there is no such thing as an artist Melchisedek, 
and that originality is merely a relative term. 

All this is something of a platitude, applicable 
even more to all the other activities of man, 
and if I lay stress upon it now it is because the 
artist, constrained by temperament and training 
to look in upon the varying phases of his own 
emotions, is apt to overlook the sources from which 
these emotions sprang. Also that the portrayal of 
emotions demands a convention, and a convention 
implies a concession to other artists' diflferences of 
outlook and temperament. 

Art is in fact a language, constantly varying 
according to the emphasis laid upon those phases 
of nature that in turn appeal to the artist's per- 
ceptions. New phases require new treatment, an 
increased vocabulary to explain new points of view, 
but what is e\-ident is that the vocabulary must be 
illuminating and not bewildering, a point not 
grasped by some obscurantist artists of recent days. 
That an artist should pant for fresh fields is not 
only right but is a great part of his claim to be an 
artist, for if he loves only 
what has already been 
done, he is simply a con- 
noisseur. But if he should 
have the good chance to 
climb some peak and a 
new world " swims into his 
ken,'' it is no part of his 
business to send back his 
message couched in the 
language of the first savage 
tribe he meets. If he 
wants to thrill us with the 
emotions that thrill him, 
he must use the language 
that alone can thrill us — 
our common tongue. 

^^'hen we consider care- 
fully any artist's work we 
see two things. One is the 
compelling character, that 
which foredooms it to a 
certain mode of expression, 
which is style — and we 
know that U style c'est 
rhomme: while the other is 
found in those external or 
adventitious circumstances 
which bend it, as the -the ki.ack iacket' 



north-west wind bends the trees of some exposed 
upland. The modification of an artist's style by out- 
ward circumstances is of very great significance 
and is so strong and so insistent as to be often 
confused with the real inborn character : it is 
doubtful indeed if even the artist himself is able 
to disentangle and apportion the various forces 
that have combined to produce his performance. 

If we look back into the past we see in Italy 
each city developing a different style. This tells 
of a limited horizon, of difficulties of travel resulting 
in one dominating personality overriding the other. 

When we turn to our own time, we find eclec- 
ticism is the striking characteristic, the horizon 
is boundless, interchanging of ideas and im- 
pressions is the rule, added perhaps to something 
of an absence of the dominating personality. From 
the oligarchies of the past we have grown into tin- 
democracy of the present, as would be inferred from 
wide reading, knowledge, international galleries, and 
facilities of travel. 

All sorts of forces are at work, all sorts of ideas 
seething in the pot. The technical perfection of the 
great masters of the past has brought its reaction. 
Their criterions of beauty have been assailed and 




FROM llll. PAINTING l;V ilARrilJi KNlr.HT 




( By permission of Messrs. Enuil Brown 
and Phillips, the Leiiester Galleries) 



DAFFODILS." FROM THE PAINT- 
ING BY HAROLD KNIGHT 



Haro/d and Laura k'/iiis/it 



even more, artistic nihilists are not wanting who 
deny the right of beauty to reign at all as the 
supreme object of the artist's desire. The Futurist 
wants to destroy all continuity of artistic tradi- 
tion ; the Post-Impressionist wants to "but 

man is but an ass if he go about to expound this 
dream." 

What then is to be found in all this confusion ? 
AVhat moral may one draw from it, and whither 
is it moving ? Is it well with art or is it stricken 
with a babel of madness? On the whole I should 
say that it is well. It is escaping from the house 
of bondage, even if it should have forty years of 
wandering in the wilderness before it enters the 
Promised I^nd. Tradition and authority have lain 
sore upon art : the looming giant figures of the old 
heroes had obsessed academic souls all over the 
world, and these in their turn held the keys of 
failure and success : gradually these keys have 
fallen from their hands. The prison-house has 
been opened, and small wonder that the prisoners 



should make first use of their freedom to plunge 
into unlicensed orgies. 

These are days when every opinion is assailed, 
when the firm foundations of yesterday are the 
shifting sands of today, and may become the Dead 
Sea of to-morrow, when science is called on cease- 
lessly to reconsider her verdicts. What, then, 
should artists do ? Poor feeble folk I eternally 
oscillating between the extremes of irresponsible 
caprice and authoritative formute. Let us try and 
get on some sort of ground and look round us. 

Art may be said to be a sort of varying point, lying 
upon a line somewhere between personal preference 
and unpersonal nature. Pushed too near personality 
art becomes insanity; set too close to unassimilated 
nature it is banality. Here then, in short, are the 
Scylla and Charybdis, either of which inay wreck 
our bark. Imitation of nature is the foundation of 
all art, but it must never be regarded as the end. 
It is possible to figure to oneself an imitation of 
nature so exact and impersonal that it would be 




' .MUSIC 

1 86 



FROM THE PAINTING BY HAROLD KNIGHT 




( By permission of Messrs. Ernest 
Brown and Phillips) 



THE MIRROR." FRO:\I THE PAINT- 
ING BY HAROLD KNIGHT 



\'i\ 




KXITTING." FROM THE PAINT- 
ING BY HAROLD KNIGHT 



( By permission of Messrs. Ernest 
Brown and Phillips) 







( By permission of Messrs, Eitiest 
Brown and Phillips) 



MENDING STOCKINGS." FROM THE 
PAINTING BY HAROLD KNIGHT 



;^i 



Harold and Laura Km'elif 



like a mirror or the ideal photograph, and would 
leave as little impression or memory of itself behind. 
This, then, would be one extreme over which the 
commonplace reigns. The other extreme is the 
fantastic distortion of nature pushed to a point 
where only abnormality and insanity can abide. 

In considering the work of Harold and Laura 
Knight one cannot help feeling that whatever else 
may be said about it, it avoids all suspicion of 
abnormality. Sanity of outlook and lucidity of 
statement are the dominating factors of their work. 

Their collaboration has been singularly close, 
and began unusually soon, dating from their early 
days in the Nottingham Art School, where they 
studied under \\ilson Foster, himself a student in 
Antwerp and Paris, and from him they learnt the 
foundation of an art education — the capacity to imi- 
tate nature faithfully. Later Harold Knight went 
to Paris and studied under Jean 
Paul I^urens and Benjamin 
Constant. Here we see the 
international influences of 
modem art training. 

As their schooldays drew 
to a close, they both gradu- 
ally began to feel that the 
close imitation of nature was 
not the end ; and the per- 
plexity that comes on all artist 
natures fell on them. But 
Fate had an eye on them and 
led them to Staithes, where a 
group of very admirable artists 
were working at this time. 
Fred Jackson, H. S. Hopwood, 
James Charles, H. Mackie and 
Fred Mayor represented a 
band that would be calculated 
to rouse enthusiasm. Anyone 
familiar with the work of these 
artists would feel what a 
wonderfully stimulating atmo- 
sphere these young people came 
to breathe by the windy, sea- 
lashed, wholesome east coast 
with its fisherfolk and its eternal 
story of the elemental strife 
they wage. 

Times were hard, though 
this was only a disguise 
worn by Fortune resulting in 
good ; for amongst other ex- 
pedients of economy they were 
constrained to do without 
192 



regular models, training their memory systemati- 
cally to hold the necessary data, a discipline so 
valuable in enabling them to give a sense of move- 
ment and vitality to figures. Under these in- 
fluences they painted pictures having the story of 
the sea and the primitive life of its toilers and their 
families as their motive. One painted by Mrs. 
Knight in 1903, their wedding year, was her first 
Academy picture. It was called Mother and Child 
and was bought by Edward Stott, A.R.A. It is 
hardly possible to fancy anything more calculated to 
encourage and stimulate a young painter than the 
purchase by an artist so delicate and fastidious in 
taste and feeling. It was two years before they 
had another slice of good luck, when Frank 
1 )icksee bought ./ Cup of Tea by Harold Knight 
for Brisbane. 

Their next move was to Holland, which was 




THE GREEN FEATHER" FROM TIIK I \I\TIS' 

(Canadian National Ail Galliiy, Olia 



HV l.AlkA 

va) 




]v 



"THE BEACH." from the 
PAINTING BY LAURA KNIGHT. 



Harold and Laura Knight 



really a logical sequence to the influences already 
affecting them. This hollow land, banked and 
buttressed against the grey tumbling waters of the 
North Sea, has always been a land of artists and, 
strangely enough, considering its artificial nature, a 
land of landscape painters. Great clouds sweep 
up from the ocean and are mirrored in still canals 
bordered by stately rows of trees. The cities, too, 
built in old days by wealthy burghers and prosperous 
merchants from Batavia and the East Indies, 
duplicate themselves in bright, quivering reflections 
on waterways populous with slow- moving barges, 
radiant with the colour of a paint-loving people. 

Here in the land of Israels, of the brothers Maris, 
of Mauve, of countless names enshrined in the 
history of art, the Knights set themselves to study 
atmosphere and composition. The most obvious 
effect of the Dutch influence was in causing them 
to rely on a very reticent scheme of colour, discreet 
greys, and rich mysterious shadows. A certain 
lowness of tone both in colour and also in sentiment 
marks this period. Harold Knight painted a large 
picture called Grace which George Clausen, R.A., 



bought for the Cape in 1907 ; this was reproduced 
in The Studio last year. 

The next move was to Newlyn and another page 
is turned. The Newlyn group has always had the 
reputation of seeing through the grey fog that legend 
attributes to the west of Cornwall. Whether this 
is so or not, the effect upon the Knights has been 
the exact opposite for, with their advent, there came 
over their work an utter change in both their out- 
look and method : they at once plunged into a riot 
of brilliant sunshine, of opulent colour, and of sen- 
suous gaiety. This, of course, was not really due to 
their new environment, but rather to reaction — to a 
healthy desire to experience other sensations, and 
to test other methods. Their youth and strength 
demanded a wider horizon than was to be found in 
the poetic sadness of their low-toned realisations of 
the grave, serious lives of the poor. 

It is often an artist's fate to be bound to a style 
or even to a class of subject upon which the 
public, believing it to be his speciality, insists. 
Such insistence cramps the imagination, restricts 
the outlook, and finally condemns him to a 




' DAUGHTERS OF THE SON 



FROM THF, I'.AISTI.NG BY L.AURA KNIGHT 



Harohi ami Laura K}tiiilit 



mechanical repetition that is really fatal to progress. 
The English are particularh- sceptical of versatility : 
it is often the fate of what is called a successful 
artist — namely, one who sells his pictures — to have 
to repeat a worn-out theme long after it has lost 
for its creator all that emotion of invention which 
really makes it a work of art. 

Mr. and Mrs. Knight have wisely determined to 
avoid this form of paralysis and the work here re- 
produced shows an entire change not only in the 
technical problems of colour and handling, but in 
their ver)' choice of motive ; what one must call 
the human side is somewhat neglected in favour 
of subjects that give them an opportunity of express- 
ing their pleasure in bright sunshine, in pleasant 
rooms, in sun-dappled shade, peopled with graceful 
women. How long this phase will last we cannot 
prophesy, but the wisdom of extending one's 
experience and making excursions into all the 
realms of painting can hardly be denied. 

It might almost seem that in speaking as I have 
of Harold and I^ura Knight's pictures, I am 



regarding them as one thing, one artistic asset ; 
this is due to the following up of a train of thought 
and is not really so : for though the community of 
their experience has of necessity brought about 
much similarity, still each has a personality too 
strong to be absorbed by the other, as even a 
cursory study of their work will show. 

The difficulties that beset young artists' careers 
are beginning to clear away for the Knights ; 
fortune gives them of her benefits without the 
grim disguise that veiled her earlier kindliness of 
intention, and their pictures have been bought for 
quite a number of galleries. Besides the pictures 
of Harold Knight already named, Laura Knight's 
Flying a Kite was bought by Clausen for the Cape ; 
Sir Hugh Lane bought her Boys for Johannesburg ; 
and Tlie Green Feather has gone to the National 
Gallery of Canada. Mrs. Knight is an associate 
of the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, 
and her drawings are always amongst the most 
alive and stimulating works to be found in the 
Pall Mall galleries. N. G. 



:v.„e. ".> 




'FLYING A kite' 
196 



( Ptnrhasid hy tiu Caj--, (.'.Olfrnnullt) 1 KOM THE rAINTING BV LAL1-;A k.mght 




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UNTRODDEN SANDS." FROM THE 
WATER-COLOUR BY LAURA KNIGHT 



( Hy pn mission of Messrs. hi nest 
Brown and Fhillips) 




■LA MORT DU GYGNt. from 
k DRAWING BY LAURA KNIGHT. 





LA MORT DU CYGNE. ' from 
> DRAWING BY LAURA KNIGHT. 



M. Fernaiid Khnopff's Villa 



THE HOME OF AN ARTIST : M. 
FERXAND KHNOPFF'S VILLA 
AT BRUSSELS. BY HELENE 
LAILLET. 

To speak of the " Villa Fernand Khnopff " is to 
speak of one of the artist's greatest works ; it is the 
expression of his own personality which he has 
built for his own satisfaction ; it is his immutable 
"Self" which he has raised in defiance of a 
troubled and changing world. 

In the Avenue des Courses, on the outskirts 
of the Bois de la Cambre, in a magnificent rose- 
garden is situated this strange dwelling-place which 
mystifies many a passer-by — " A chapel probably," 
say some ; " A vault built by some eccentric person," 
guess others. Then they pass, but those who 
know what famous " eccentric " hides himself be- 
hind these walls stop and consider the perfectly 
proportioned house. They have no difificulty in 
guessing by what artist it was designed, for in its 
pure clear lines the cold yet noble festheticism of 
Fernand Khnopff is easily recognised. There are 
no complicated ornaments, only black 
lines and golden circles ; here and 
there a monogram in black on a golden 
background, very simply and delicately 
drawn, stands out against the pure 
whiteness of the panels. The front of 
the house has an air of reserve, almost 
of disdain. Above a black door, bare 
of any ornamentation, are the words, 
" Past — Future," and on the top of the 
gable is a statue of Aphrodite. One 
tries in vain to classify this house ac- 
cording to any definite style of architec- 
ture ; he who occupies it has set his 
own seal upon it. and in its singularity 
lies its style. 

If you are fortunate enough to gain 
admittance, the servant silently opens 
the door and shows you into an ante- 
room decorated entirely in white, with 
walls of polished stucco. From a 
position of pride, a superb stuffed Indian 
peacock watches from the corner of his 
eye; he is the haughty guardian of this 
austere dwelling-place. On a slender 
blue column stands a little Greek 
statue which, with a graceful gesture, 
invites you to silence, and on the white- 
ness of the walls hangs a little replica of 
a picture which the artist has entitled 
Um Aik hleue. This haught\- woman, 



standing upright behind the head of Hypnos, ab- 
sorbed in a reverie both sad and mysterious, holds 
in her slender fingers the veil which she has drawn 
between dreams and reality, and is indeed a sym- 
bolic figure. Above the picture are inscribed the 
three letters of the word "Soi" (Self). This 
ante-room is impregnated with the character of the 
artist. 

A silken hanging of a greyish blue, artistically 
faded, is raised, and Fernand Khnopff, man of the 
world, welcomes you. But he has hardly time to 
assume this wordly mask before it is laid aside ; on 
the other side of the silken curtain the personality 
of the " artist " alone exists, it imposes itself upon 
you and is found in all the slightest details of the 
harmonious surroundings. 

It hardly seems possible to realise that five 
minutes ago you were in the busy streets of Brussels, 
for here no sound from the outside world troubles 
the mind, no window placed too low brings you 
into contact with life ; your imagination carries you 
away, and }ou feel yourself to be far from all that 
is low, petty, mean, and worthless : you are in the 




TINTED MARBLE BUST. 



BY FERNAND KHNOI'l T 



Af. Fcruaiid Khuopfi's Villa 



kingdom of the beautiful and in this purified atmo- 
sphere you feel a compelling need of silence in 
order that you may attain for a moment something 
of the Ideal. Yes, silence is necessary in this long 
white corridor filled with a soft and restful radiance: 
daylight enters only through curious windows of 
stained glass on which the colours of blue and gold 
in combination form flames and fantastic figures. 
Valuable drawings hang on the walls : among others 
is an admirable portrait of Elizabeth of Austria — 
Empress of Solitude — and on the white partition in 
lettersof gold are inscribed the words: "Everything 
comes to him who waits" — words which are cer- 
tainly engraved on the persevering mind of the artist. 
Facing a beautiful white staircase is a logette in 
which an ivory mask is suspended from a slender 
column on the top of which, held in place as though 
by enchantment, is a vase of finest crystal. 

This white corridor leads into a white room, 
beautiful but severe and glacial : several chairs 
enamelled in white do not invite repose : in a comer 
stands a little table just big enough to hold a vase 
in which a single aster raises its delicate head : 



facing the window in a very fragile Venetian glass 
are two little branches with transparent leaves; the 
doorway is curtained with pale blue satin, and 
on the walls hang studies of the artist's most re- 
markable and attractive works. There is something 
vague and uneasy in the atmosphere of this room ; 
this same head that appears on each drawing has a 
disquieting influence — always the same regular 
features, haughty and reserved — yet this woman, 
so continually reproduced, seems to be different in 
each picture : her expression, though always search- 
ing and profound, seems at times to be disdainful, 
tender, cunning, voluptuous, hard, glacial, sad, 
mocking, or caressing, and when one seems to have 
guessed what the eyes are saying, one remains dis- 
concerted by the expression of the mouth. " The 
expression of the mouth is the truest," says Khnopff; 
"there it is impossible to dissimulate." One would 
like to remain, feeling instinctively a need to pene- 
trate the secrets of so complicated a mind, secrets 
that elude one just as they seem to be within one's 
grasp, but something in these faces, with their smiles 
sad and disillusioned, compels one to pass on and 





THE " WlllTK room"' (A DESCKIPTION OF THIS ROOM IS GIVKN ABOVEJ 



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fStc lie \l page) 



.M. KHNOPFF'S PRINCIPAL STUDIO 



.]/. Feniaiid KJniopff's J^illa 



leave them lo their dream of beautv and ul" sad- 
ness.'^ It seems that I-'emand Khnopff liad wished 
to illustrate the famoi\s words of Alfred de ^ igny 
— that singer of suflerings nobly born — " Silence 
alone is great, all else is weakness." The pessimism 
of the painter is as sincere as that of the poet. 

If the artist did not tell you so, you would not 
know that you were in the dining-room — how 
should you ? There is nothing to denote the fact. At 
meal-times a little table appears, only to disappear 
again almost immediately. Here again is shown 
the struggle between the ideal and the material. 

Several steps at the end of the corridor lead to 
the studio, where one feels more at ease than 
in the other room, although the sense of mystery 
is greater. Facing the door is an altar .sacred to 
Hvpnos. It is compo.sed of a crystal cabinet resting 
on a glass pedestal cast by Tiffany ; below are two 
chimeras of gilded bronze and these words stand 
out clearly : " On n'a que soi." The sun filters 
through stained-glass windows like those in the 
corridor, and their colours are reflected on the 
white mo.saic floor of the studio, in the middle of 
which is traced a great 
golden circle. On the ceil- 
ing, to correspond, there is . 
another, where is repre- 
sented the constellation of 
Libra (the Balance) under 
which Fernand Khnopff 
was born. A little fountain 
murmurs the eternal song 
of Life, which flows on 
stifling the swiftly passing 
Present, so that the Past 
and Future seem almost to 
meet. At the bottom of 
the white marble basin lie 
mother-of-pearl shells, their 
delicate colours shining 
through the clear trans- 
parent water. Beautiful 
objects are scattered about 
the room — a silken garment 
of shimmering hues, a rose 
shedding its petals, a branch 
of withered mistletoe, a 
beautiful cushion lying on 
the floor, several butterflies 
— one of so marvellous a 
blue that the most subtle 
combinations of colours 
could not produce its tint 
— and, on a bright piece of 
204 



embroidery by Lalique, a tortoise cast in bronze. 
Khnopff does not like animals : for a little while 
he tolerated this tortoise, then finding it too noisy, 
he put it in the garden ; it wandered away and he 
found it again dead. To-day — silent — it has re- 
gained its place in the studio and has been named 
by the artist " My remorse." In one corner of the 
room is a couch the pure Empire style of which 
harmonises with the cold beauty of the room ; here 
and there hang artistic draperies ; on a pedestal 
stands the first bust modelled by the artist — it is 
of marble slightly tinted and thus has an almost 
lifelike appearance — and near by there is a portrait 
of Mme. Khnopff, the artist's mother — a very fine 
study. 

There is not a single detail in this studio which 
does not denote the desire for complete harmony : 
this strained search after perfection is pleasing to 
certain sensitive natures. Those who are fascinated 
by his strange art seek to read the mind of Khnopff 
by means of the numerous drawings into which he 
has put something of himself, but though these 
works are complete to the slightest detail, it is very 




THE "BLiE room" ( see fage 2ob) 



.1/. Fernaud Khnopff's Villa 




ANOTHER VIEW OK M. FERN'AND KHNOPFF S PRINCIPAL STUDIO WITH THE ALTAR TO HYPNOS OPPOSITE THE STEPS 



difficult to interpret the artist's meaning. Looking 
at these drawings so admirably finished, one merely 
says : " They are very beautiful." What more could 
one say? But mentally one raises the mask of 
lofty reserve and before these eyes, sad, grave, or 
ardent, wide-open or half-closed, before these ex- 
pressive mouths with lips thin and compressed or 
half-opened and eager, before these smiles hopeless 
or tender, one experiences the most subtle emotions 
that the arts — sculpture, painting, or engraving — 
can produce when they express at the same time 
both sorrow and happiness. The face is always 
the same yet always different ; it is a face which 
exercises a powerful fascination because, though 
very human, it possesses something vaguely super- 
natural. A lady who visited the artist once asked 
him this question : " Should you meet this woman 
whose face seems to haunt you, would you marry 
her?" "On no account," was the artist's reply. 
" I know too well what she has in her mind." 



The adjoining room is a second studio and 
contains the works in course of execution. On an 
easel rests a ver)' fine portrait, already in an ad- 
vanced stage, of the Due da Br-abant, which the 
artist will finish when the young prince returns 
from his holidays. Two engravings on marble 
intended for the residence of M. Stoclet promise, 
by the perfection of the design, the attitude 
of the symbolic figures, and by the fineness 
of the workmanship, to rank among the artist's 
greatest works. In this room, too, are the cartoons 
which Khnopff in the role of " scene-painter " has 
made for the scenery of certain operas. Thanks 
to his refined and artistic taste there are in the 
Theatre de la Monnaie at Brussels costumes and 
stage-effects of the most remarkable beauty. He 
applied all his energies to the production of such 
works as " Le Roi Arthur " and " Oberon," and 
once more the directors of the theatre have ap- 
pealed to his brilliant imagination and his clever 

-°5 



M. Fcniami KIniopff's 11 //a 




ANTE-CHAMBER IN WHITE MARBLE (.'<</. 20l) 

pencil for the scenery of " Parsifal," which is to be 
given next season. 

Back through the studio one goes to the corridor 
and up the large staircase to a small ante- room 
which leads to the " Blue Room." In this 
" Chambre bleue " Femand Khnopff has placed 
some of the works of his favourite artists. There 
is a picture by Delacroi.x, a few reproductions of 
the works of Gustave Moreau, a kindred spirit, and 
a very beautiful portrait done in red chalk, which 
was given to the artist by Bume-Jones. In this 
" Chambre bleue " all the objects are precious 
and bear illustrious .signatures. Among others is 
the artist's portrait of his sister. In the bay- 
window, through which nothing but green foliage 
can be seen, a Malmaison exhales its delicate 
perfume. It is in this room, where all the blues 
are exquisitely in harmony, that the artist rests after 
his work, soothed by the sounds of the piano which 
float in through the open window from the room 
below, and here in this poetical atmosphere Femand 
Khnopff dreams and composes beautiful works. 

In his home, which is the expression of his ideal, 
far from the world, cut off from all outside in- 
fluences, alone in his haughty solitude, Femand 
Khnc^fT listens only to the voice of art, and he 
works methodically at the development of his , 
206 



conscious self. When young painters come to ask 
his advice he says : " Above all, be sincere ; if you 
have nothing to say, say nothing." "Art is not a 
necessity," he adds. 

In this house there is nothing to remind one of 
time or care ; desire and regret are banished. The 
artist follows the line of life he has laid down for 
himself and his attitude corresponds to that 
ICnglish motto which he has made his own : 
■' Make the best of everything." Born a Belgian, 
he has an English nature, for knowing himself to 
be but little understood he takes refuge in .solitude 
and silence. With a smile of mingled pride and 
satisfaction he often repeats these words : " Vraiment 
on n'a que soi." 

Pride in the form of a peacock guards the door 
and Hypnos sheds throughout the house the 
atmosphere of sleep, a sleep that leads to dreams. 
True to his conception of art, Femand Khnopff 
lias reached the noblest realisation of his best self; 
as Dumont-Wilden has said of this cold and beautiful 
house, it is indeed " the fortress of an individuality 
in perpetual defence against the \\'orld and Life." 




"logette in whhf. makhi.e, with a iapank^e 

embroidery panel and standard suitorting a 

bme class venetian vase and ivorv mask 

(see p. 202) 




VIEW OF M. FERNAND KHNOPFF'S 
STUDIO WITH WINDOW OPEN- 
ING ON TO THE "BLUE ROOM" 



GARDEN AND TERRACES AT 

THE HILL. HAMPSTEAD HEATH 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY H. X. KING 
(BY PERMISSION OF SIR WILLIAM HESKETH LEVER, BART.) 




EXTERIOR OF THE LOU.NGE 



208 




o 
z 

D 
O 




THE PERGOLA 




^^ 




A COLUMN OF THE PERGOLA 



A Vietuiese Exhibition of Arts and Crafts 



A 



VIENNESE EXHIBITION 
ARTS AND CRAFTS. 



OF 



For the first time since the opening of the 
Austrian Museum in Vienna nearly fifty years ago 
a summer exhibition of arts and crafts has been 
held within its walls. That this one was held was 
due to the fact that the members of the Deutscher 
^Verkbund held their annual meeting in Vienna 
this year, and naturally everybody concerned was 
anxious to show the very best in design and in work- 
manship which Austria could produce. For the 
Deutscher Werkbund is a society formed of artists, 
manufacturers, industrial employers, and ethers who 
take an interest in the promotion of the modern 
arts and crafts, good workmanship in execution and 
quality in material being as important as the 
designs themselves. Everything exhibited was of a 
high quality, and German, Austrian, and Hun- 
garian members were highly satisfied with the result 
of this exhibition, for it showed that " our curious. 



complex, aspiring age still abounds in subjects for 
esthetic manipulation, that the material for the 
artists and their motives of inspiration are not yet 
exhausted." It showed, moreover, that the bond 
between the designer and the craftsman who exe- 
cutes his design is becoming ever closer and more 
sympathetic, for the artist has dipped at the well 
of the craftsman and the craftsman into that 
of the artist ; both work in that unison and con- 
cord without which no true work of applied art 
can be created. Another point of interest is that 
the number of artists who execute their own 
designs is gradually increasing, for it must be 
remembered that many have learnt their trades and 
shown special talent for designing at the Craft 
Schools (Fachschulen) before entering the Vienna 
Imperial Arts and Crafts Schools. Some have 
even served apprenticeship in one or other of the 
trades concerned in decorative art. Another and 
most important factor in the success of the 
movement is the fact that the manufacturers 




IlINISa-KOOM Willi FTKNITIKK IN CAKVEl) AND POI.ISHIII) EBONV INLAID WITH MOTUER-OK rEARl., IlES-Ic.NKD 
BY PROF. JOiEF HOFFMANN, EXECUTED BY J. SOULEK. CARPET BY BACKHAUSEN AND SOHNE. HANDPRINTED 
SILK DESIGNED BY LOTTE FROMEL-FOCHLER, EXECUTED BY THE WIENER WERKSTATTE. ( See a! SO Chair on p. 220) 

217 



A Viennese Exhibition of Arts and Crafts 



were a coffee-house and a 
" one-family " villa, designed 
by architect Robert Orley 
and built on the new patented 
system, " Katona." The 
house was completely fur- 
nished, everything being of 
the finest workmanship and 
designed by architect R. 
Orley, at the cost of 2000 
kronen, that is, about ^^84, 
the cost of the villa without 
the ground being ^^375. 

Another attraction in the 
garden was the Parkhaus 
designed by architect Ernst 
Lichtblau. Here again ex- 
cellent taste combined with 
good workmanship was every- 
where perceptible, both as to 




CABINET (shown OPEN AND CLOSED) OF PALISANDER 

AND CEDAR WOOD RICHLY INLAID WITH OTHER 

WOODS. DESIGNED BY OTTO I'RUTSCHER, EXECUTED 

BY K. FRANTZ 



themselves are taking more and more interest 
in it. 

But in spite of all these interests the present 
exhibition would have been an impossibility had 
not the Ministry of Public Works (Arbeitsminis- 
terium) again given material help to make it possible ; 
and this is a proof of the great interest taken in the 
future of the Austrian arts and crafts. It is sig- 
nificant, too, that for the first time the Municipal 
Authorities of N'iennaalsodid much towards making 
the exhibition a success, for not only did the com- 
mune lay out the garden which, together with the per- 
gola, treillage, etc., was' designed by architect Cesar 
Poppovits, but they also have undertaken to keep 
it in order, for the garden is to remain permanent. 
When to this is added the fact that Westermann 
and Co. have presented the beautiful terrace, with 
the steps leading to the garden and the colonnades, 
also designed by Cesar Poppovits, to the museum, 
another proof is given of the growing interest taken 
in these exhibitions. The garden is very beautiful, 
and is ornamented with numerous attractive garden 
seats in white-lacquered wood, designed by architect 
Josef Zotti and executed by the Prag-Rudniker 
Korbwarenfabrication. Two other features of it 
218 





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A J'ic/nicsc Exhibition of .Irfs and Crafts 




GARDEN SEAT DESIGNED BY JOSEF ZOTTI, EXECUTED BY THE PXAG- 
RUUNIKER KORBWAREXFABRICATION 



'I'he back was formed of 
neavy hand-printed silk de- 
signed by Lotte Froniel- 
Fochler and executed in the 
\\'iener Werkstatte. The 
same material was used for 
the u[)holstery of the chairs. 
Nothing more beautiful in 
construction, design, and 
workmanship has been 
exhibited in Vienna. 

Another interesting in- 
terior was a ladv's boudoir 
designed by architect Otto 
Prutscher, the furniture 
being in while-lacquered 
poplai upholstered in deep 



the building itself and its furniture and 
decoration. 

Just behind the garden a small part \vas 
set aside for some headstones and grave 
monuments designed by A. Basel, L 
Forstner, Cesar Poppo^ts, and Michael 
Powolny. Some of these w-ere highly praise- 
Nvorthy, and showed how very earnest the 
artists are in their desire for the best that 
material, design and workmanship can pro- 
duce. Some of the tombstones were of 
stone or marble, with reliefs, others of 
wrought iron. There were, moreover, man\- 
other objects for the decoration of the 
cemetery. 

The interior of the e.\hibition was arranged 
by architect Carl Witzmann, who once more 
showed great fertility of imagination and 
invention, for the whole interior was again 
transformed so that it bore not the least re- 
semblance in the manner of decoration to 
the exhibition held six months previously, of 
which an account has already been given in 
The Studio. Whichever way one looked 
one was greeted by some real work of art, 
the same care being given to objects de- 
signed for and executed in cheaper materials 
as to those made of the most costly ones. 
The first attention, however, must be given 
to the interiors, and to Prof. Josef Hoff- 
mann in particular for his dining-room in 
carved and polished ebony. Each panel of 
the sideboard was formed of one piece of 
wood, highly polished and beautifully carved ; 
indeed, it was a joy to look on this object, 
which could well merit a place in a museum. 
220 




DINING-ROOM CHAIK IN CARVED AND POLISHED KBfiNY 

INLAID WITH MOTHER-OF-PEARL. DESIGNED BY PROF. JOSEF 

HOFF.MANN, EXECUTED BY J. SOULEK 




(Furniture by Carl Bamberger, Brick- 
work by Briider SehwaJron J 



GARDEN HALL. DESIGNED 
BY PROF. OSKAR STRNAD 



i-^i- 



.4 yiciiiicsc Ilxliibifion of Arts and Crafts 




WRITING-SET IN FAIENCE. DKSIGNED BY KRAU KROMEI 
BY THE WIENER Kl'NSTKERAMISCHE WERKSTAriB (bISC 



blue satin. There was something exceedingly dainty 
and attractive about this room. Even so another 
boudoir designed by architect Edward Wimmer. 
Here the walls were spanned with various squares of 
bright-hued embroidery, broad in design and treat- 
ment, all e.xecuted on black cloth by the designers, 
a number of lady artists, some of them members 
of the society of the late students of the Imperial 
School of Embroidery. The furniture was covered 
with china-blue hand-priiUed silk, which 
gave it a peculiar charm. A reception- 
room, designed by architect Carl \\'itz- 
mann, was worthy of all praise ; so also 
a dining-room by architect Adolf O. 
Holub, the veining of the wood (ash) 
being here singularly beautiful, and in 
artistic contrast to the headings of 
highly polished ebony. 

Herr Orley exhibited a garden hall, 
designed to show the use of artificial 
pebble-stones for wall-facings, the effect 
being very pleasing. This is known as 
" conglomerate," and the inventor is the 
architect himself. The great vases 
shown in the illustration are of majolica, 
deep lavender in tone. The furniture 
is also formed of a new material, known 
as " Press-stoff," a kind of compressed 
fibre. Another garden hall designed 
by architect Dr. Oskar Strnad showed 
great originality in the use of brickwork 
and in the construction of the furniture. 
A third hall was designed by architect 
Dr. Josef Frank, and disclosed souhd 
instinct for comfort and utility. 

Of the other e.xhibits those shown by 
the Wiener \Verkstatte were of exceed- 
ing beauty both as to design and work- 
man.ship. These included the plans, 
sketches, and drawings for the palatial 

222 



residence of Baron Stoclet 
in Brussels, about which 
more will be said at some 
future date. Among them 
is the marvellous mosaic 
frieze designed by the 
eminent painter Gustav 
Klimt, a work which will go 
to make history. The 
various designs for the Palais 
Stoclet have been elaborated 
by its builder. Prof. Hoff- 
mann, in conjunction with 
Prof. C. O. Czeschka, and 
other leading Austrian decorative artists. 

The cabinet designed by Prof. Otto Prutscher is 
highly characteristic of this artist's style, which in 
every way is individual. Here too every care 
has been taken in the choice of the woods. Many 
interesting pieces of furniture were also exhibited, 
all of a fine quality ; in every case good judgment 
in design was shown, and every manifestation of 
good-will on the part of artist and craftsman. 



KOCHI.ER, EXE( ITED 
H AND LUIIESCHEK) 




CLOCK I 
CARL 



N B'LACK AMI WliriK MOl II EK-OI I'ICAK 1 . M-Mi.NKD BY 
WITZMANN, architect: EXECUTED BY KAKL KKEHAN 



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EMBROIDERED WALL-HANGING 
DESIGNED AND EXECUTED BY 
FRAU MELITTA LOFFLER 



.7 / leiDicsc Exhibition of Arts and Crafts 




WOVEN BED-Sl'REAI 



. DESIGNEU BY REMIGIUS GEYLING, EXECUTED BY 
HBRRBURGER AND RHOMBERG 



It is remarkable how much attention is now 
being given to porcelain and ceramics generally ; 
it is in a way reviving a lost art, for ^'ienna was 
renowned of old for her porcelain. The artists show 
a real sense of beauty in design and ornament, 
combined with an exact knowledge of the materials 
in which they are executed. 
Some of the specimens shown 
were of great beauty — for in- 
stance, the black and white 
ceramic figures and vases de- 
signed by Profs. Michael 
Powolny and Berthold Loftier 
and executed by them in the 
Wiener Keramik - Werkstatte, 
or those designed by Frank 
Schleiss and his gifted wife Frau 
Schleiss-Simandl, and executed 
in their Keramik - Werkstatte 
in Gmunden, which city has for 
ages been celebrated for its 
ceramics. Thanks to the 
material help given to them by 
the Arbeitsministerium, three 
girls, past students of the 
Imperial School for Arts and 
Crafts, have opened another 
ceramic workshop known as 
the Keramische Werkgenossen- 
schaft,and are doing good work. 
They are Rosa Neuwirth, Ida 
Lehmann, and Helene Johnova. 
Other artists who specialise in 
224 



ceramics are Hugo Kirsch, Olga 
Sitte. Gertrud Dengg, Herr and 
Frau Johanna Meier, Fritz Pollak, 
and Frau Fochler, who all ex- 
hibited characteristic work. Fur- 
ther advance has also been made 
in the Serapis faience designed by 
the young architects Klaus and 
Gallc. They are highly original 
in their designs, have right feeling 
for ornament, and are in every 
way sincere in their work. Nor 
must the mosaics designed and 
executed by Leopold Forstner be 
left out, for they are of great 
beauty both as to design and 
workmanship. 

In the designing of crystal glass 
much individuality was also notice- 
able, some beautiful specimens 
being shown by Prof. Hoffmann, 
L. H. Jungnickel, Oswald Dittrich, and Wilfert 
Waltl. One felt instinctively that there was right 
feeling for the material on the part of the artist, 
everywhere a right understanding on the part of the 
craftsman. 

Among the embroideries shown were some of 




EMBROIDERED CL-.SHIOX. DESIG.NED AND EXECUTED EV IIEUWIG lOLLAK 



A Viennese Exhibition of Arts and Crafts 



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WOVEN CUSHION COVER DESIGNED BY FRI,. 

OSTERREICHER, EXECUTED BY HERRBURGER 

AND RHOM'BERG 

much beauty of design and colour and clever 
workmanship, most of the stitching having been 
done by the designers themselves ; and among 
the artists contributing were Frau Melitta Loffler, 
Helene Geiringer, Hedwig Pollak, Hermine Weiss, 
Milla W'eltmann, and the members of a society 
formed of past students of the Imperial School of 
Embroidery (Genossenschaft der Absolventinnen 
der K.K. Kunststickerei-Schule). 

Weaving is another subject which is drawing the 
attention of the artists of both sexes. The Imperial 
arms woven in gold, silver, and silk by Frau Sretna 
Vrankovic on an ancient Dalmatian hand-loom 
and other fabrics were beautifully executed, both 
sides alike, and excellent also were some curtains 
woven on the same primitive stool. 

Batik is also becoming more and more popula 
with women artists, some excellent work being 
done in this direction by Dora Wibrial, Dorothea 
Seligmiiller, Elsa Stiibchen-Kirschner, and Valerie 
Petter. 

Some good achievements were perceptible in 
textiles, many leading artists contributing to this 
branch of art, among them Profs. Hoffmann and 
Otto Prutscher, Frau Peller-Hollmann, Friiulein 
Osterreicher and Remigius Geyling. 

In jewellery and enamelling much inventive 
power has been shown and some good results 
obtained. Many women artists have made a 
speciality of designing jewellery, notable among 
them being Sofie Sander, whose career has been 
a very remarkable one. She has served an ap- 
prenticeship to a goldsmith, worked in a Paris 
workshop, studied all ancient methods, with the 
result that she has made a name for herself on the 



Continent as an expert in classifying ancient 
jewellery. She has lately been called to Holland 
and is now a teacher in the State Arts and Crafts 
School for metal-work and jewellery in Haarlem. 
The spirit of the true workman is revealed in all her 
work and was also observable in the jewellery and 
bijouterie exhibited by Fraulein von Stark, Mar- 
garete I'Allemand, Louise von Kalmar, Leopoldine 
Konig, Hans Bolek, Alfred Sachs, and other 
artists. 

It is impossible to detail all the different materials 
including tooled and other leather-work, note-paper, 
labels, menus, &c., to which the artists have turned 
their attention. Their work showed no lack of the 
inventive faculty, and was intelligently done. 

A few words must be said regarding the models 
of villas and other dwelling-houses designed by 
Prof. Hoffmann, Hartwig Fischel, Alfred Keller, 
Robert Orley, Freiherr von Krauss, and other 




CERAMIC FIGURE. DESIGNED BY FRANK SCHLEISS, EXE- 
CUTED AT THE GMUNDENER KERAMIK-WERKSTATTE 



Rudolf Bern 




K 



NOTE ON THE 
WORK O F 
THE CZECH 

PAINTER, RUDOLF 

BEM. 



CERAMIC VASES AND FRUIT STAND. DESIGNED BY MICHAEL POWOLNY, EXE 
CUTED AT THE WIENER KERAMIK-WEKKSTATTE OK POWOLNY AND LOFFLER 



prominent architects who of late years have been 
devoting earnest attention to this domain. Some 
of these habitations were quite unpretentious, 
others more imposing, but all showed sound know- 
ledge of construction and much right thought in 
planning, comfort and utility being kept well in 
view. 

Enough has been said to show how deep are the 
roots of modern decorative art in Austria, and that 
the branches of the tree are spreading in every 
direction. Nothing could help to make this fact 
more convincing than the recent exhibition of the 
work of the students, male and female, of the 
Imperial Schools for Arts and Crafts. But this 
must be left for a future occasion. Here it must 
suffice to say that, together with the Austrian 
Museum exhibition, it formed an organic whole. 
A. S. Levetus. 



The Czech painter, 
Rudolf Bem, whose work 
in landscape and figure 
painting is represented in 
the accompanying illustra- 
tions, is a member of the 
"Manes" association of 
artists in Prague. One of 
the most talented pupils of 
the academy under Prof. 
Hynais, and winner of many 
prizes, he made his debut in 
1893 with the exhibition of 
a Head of Christ, for which 
he was later awarded the Haag gold medal and the 
"Grand Prix." Bem very early turned his atten- 
tion to portrait-painting and soon gained repute 
as the painter of the highest Bohemian nobility 
and Prague society. He had no sooner gained 
for himself a reputation for portraiture than, having 



The Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, of which 
Mr. Walter Crane is president, is now holding its 
tenth exhibition at the Groivenor Gallery, sia New 
Bond Street, and the exhibition will remain open 
until the end of January. It has not been possible 
for us to review this display in the present number, 
and we have therefore been obliged to reserve our 
comments on it until next month, when we hope to 
give illustrations of many of the objects on view, 
as we have done on the occasions of previous 
exhibitions. We desire at the same time to thank 
those of the exhibitors who have been good enough 
to furnish us with authorisation to photograph their 
exhibits or have sent us photographs of these. 
226 




CHARCOAL PORTRAIT OP THE PAINTER 
RUDOLF BEM 




^'^ 



BEFORE THE MIRROR.' FROM THE 
PAINTING BY RUDOLF BEM 



Rudolf Bdm 



won some travelling scholarships, he was taken 
away to new fields of labour in Paris and Munich. 

It is said that an artist who is successful in por- 
traiture will surely be successful in other branches 
of art, and Mr. Bern has proved the truth of the 
saying by his work during the last few years. He 
belongs to those among the modem school of artists 
who do not specialise in any direction but seek 
and find beauty in all its manifestations. He is, 
on the contrary, always ready to respond to new 
ideas. Perhaps he himself thinks he has not yet 
found a style of his own, because he continually 
varies his work, from portraiture to nature and 
back to more decorative paintings. But one can 
always trace the intention of the artist to depict the 
effects of light and colour in his work. 

The pictorial problems of landscape-painting 
have always strongly attracted him and for a long 
time he devoted all his energy to it. The result of 
this was a great number of varied impressions of the 



countries which were the scenes of his labours. 
The Modern Gallery in Prague has acquired his 
picture called U Ally'iia (At the Mill), which is a 
beautiful example of an impressionist's conception 
of landscape. Notwithstanding his early success 
Mr. Bern has happily escaped the great danger of 
falling into the habit of repeating a few limited 
ideas mechanically. 

Lately Bern has turned his attention to the 
Moravian and Slovack peasantry, with their highly 
ornamental traditional garb. These have been the 
subject of numerous studies, one of which is here 
reproduced. I have heard that he thinks of 
settling in Moravia, so that he may indulge wholly 
in the impressions fostered by the Slav peasants 
and their love of colour which comports so well 
with modern methods of out-door painting. The 
thoroughness of this artist does much credit to his 
many-sidedness. He is a painter of great technical 
powers, a finished draughtsman and a fine colourist 




.Mtmk 



TrfiMW 



• A WIM.V DAY 



HE lAINTING BY Rl'DOI.F BEM 




•A SLOVACK PEASANT GIRL, a study 



Japanese Paintings 




FROM THE TAINlIXr, BY Kl-DOLK BEM 



to boot, and may be regarded as a worthy repre- 
sentative of modern Czech painting. 

H. SCHANZFR. 



T 



HE OLD AND NEW SCHOOLS 
OF JAPANESE PAINTING. 



A FEW months ago Hermann Sudermann's 
" Die Heimat," after a run of a week in Tokyo, 
under the auspices of the Bungei Kyokai, a literary 
and theatrical association, was suppressed by the 
Japanese Home Office mainly upon the ground 
that it was in a way a protest against filial piety, 
which constitutes so essential a part of our national 
ethics. The free, aggressive, and independent 
spirit of youth as e.xpressed in Magda is indeed 
incompatible with the old spirit as evinced by the 
dogmatic and obstinate nature of her father, and 
must lead to constant friction between the two. 
But such differences as these are inevitable in the 



life of a nation in a state of transition, and are 
apparent everywhere in Japan. Note, for example, 
the marked incompatibility, the constant and 
wearing friction between the two schools of artists 
known respectively as the " Old " and the " New " 
or " Progressive " school of Japanese painting. 

There has been constant contention and 
dissension between these two schools, especially 
in reference to the Mombusho Bijutsu Tenrankai, 
that is, the Annual Art Exhibition held under the 
auspices of the Department of Education. The 
Mombusho, in trying to do away with this friction 
between the two factions, has recently reorganised 
its jury system for Japanese painting, and the new 
rules come mto effect at the Autumn Exhibition 
this year. While the interdict against the fwo- 
duction of "Die Heimat" has been removed, as the 
result of some changes made in the text, the value 
of the recent change by the Mombusho in the jurv 
system is yet to be seen. 



Japanese Paintings 




'RAIN storm" 



BY MASUZU SHUNN'AN 



This friction dates back to the time when the 
Annual Art Exhibition was created by law with a 
government subsidy and placed under the Depart- 
ment of Education, Baron Makino being then at the 
head of the Department. From the very beginning 
the exhibition was generally recognised to be more 
or less in favour of the new movement then gaining 
ground in the art world of Japan. The great 
majority of the judges were members of the Tokyo 
School of Fine Arts. Opposed to this institution 
stood the Nihon Bijutsu Kyokai, an old and in- 
fluential art society which, under the leadership of 
Masao Gejo, a member of the House of Lords, 
champions the "Old" school. The feeling current 
among certain sections of Japanese painters against 
the Mombusho Exhibition may be judged by the 
fact that the Kokuga Gyokuseikai was organised in 



opposition, this association professing to encourage 
the " true " style of Japanese painting. The attitude 
of the committee of judges of the Annual Art 
Exhibition towards the artists of the " Old " school 
became so marked that the Minister of Education 
was recently questioned in the House of Lords on 
the subject. 

The contention between the two schools 
reached its climax at the time of the Fifth Annual 
Exhibition of Art in 191 1, when four of the judges 
sent in their resignations. They were Mochizuki 
Kimpo ; Masuzu Shunnan, whose Rain Storm is 
included among our illustrations ; Takashinia 
Hokkai, whose Landscape may also be found 
among our reproductions ; and Sakuma Tetsuen, 
all of whom profess to belong to the " Old " 
school and who have served on the committee for 
four consecutive exhibitions. According to their 
opinion, it is but a natural consequence of the 
tendencies of the present day that the greater 




L.-\-\L';lA1 E 



BY TAKASUIMA HOKKAI 



Japanese Paintings 







1 
1 

1 

i f 


1 

1 
1 








S: 




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■»*-"■ 


P-; 











"THE water" (sIX-I'ANEI.LED SCREEN) 

ra«r 



IIY OTAKE i.HIKUHA 




^\ 



W» ■ , sp 



IM V ltd 









"in THE YOUNG GRASS" (SIX-PAXELLED SCREEN) 




BV KONOSHIMA OKOKU 



number of high awards should go to the pro- 
ductions of the " New" school, but they maintain 
that the giving of these awards to experimental 
productions not worthy of the name of art must 
prove detrimental to the true spirit of art, and 
fearing that the present tendency will lead to 
destroying the best characteristics of true Japanese 
painting, they cannot look on calmly at the sad an.d 
inevitable end while on the committee. 

It is needless to say that they are denounced by 
their opponents, who insinuate that these " Old " 
school painters merely copy the skeleton of the 
productions of artists who worked in the latter 
part of the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) and can 
hardly be called the true Old Masters of Japanese 
art. They also claim that the adherents of the 



" New " school have in them the spirit of the real 
old masters to which they are trying to give new 
expression, and maintain that there is no danger 
of losing the best qualities of their national art. 

Putting aside the arguments of both parties, we 
reproduce here for our readers' judgment some of 
the more prominent works shown at the exhibition 
of 1 9 II. Two of them, /// the Young Grass, by 
Konoshima Okoku of Kyoto, and The Water, by 
Otake Chikuha of Tokyo, were awarded second 
prizes, the highest bestowed at any of the annual 
exhibitions. The Two Girls in a Shower, by 
Kitano Tsunetomi of Osaka, was one of the seven 
which received third prizes. 

The unfriendly feeling between the two schools 
was brought to the highest pitch when towards the 

233 



Japanese Paintings 



'• THE RAIN 

close of the exhibition of 191 1 a certain eccentric 
artist, who follows the Shijo style, defaced the 
works of five members of the committee by 
drawing a large black line across the pictures with 
a sponge saturated with ink. 
The works damaged in- 
cluded one by Sakuma 
Tetsuen, referred to above, 
whose subject was Shoki, a 
fierce-looking indindual who 
drives away evil spirits and 
ushers in happiness ; The 
Rain, by Takenouchi Seiho, 
here reproduced; and a 
landscape by Kawabata 
Gyokusho, which has already 
appeared in these pages. 

In order to secure a 
more harmonious coopera- 
tion for the unbiased judg- 
ment of art productions, the 
-Mombusho has divided the 
committee of judges for 
Japanese painting into two 
sections, each group con- 
sisting of a chairman and 
twelve members. A great 
majority of the judges in the 
first section are advocates 
of the " Old " school, while 
the second sectaon consists 
234 



chiefly of adherents of the 
" New " school. The four 
judges who tendered their 
resignation have been re- 
tained in the first section, 
while Viscount Tamemori 
Iriye, Mr. Masao Tanimori, 
and Yamamoto Baiso, a 
naitga artist of Handa, near 
Nagoya, have been newly 
appointed and added to 
the first section. This re- 
organisation has caused a 
great deal of discussion 
among the artists of Japan. 
Many are opposed to the 
change, while not a few 
lament the fact that politics 
seem to be playing a part 
in the matter. Whether 
any real benefit or evil will 
result from the changes re- 
mains, of course, to be seen. 
It is interesting to note that a rapidly increasing 
number of artists are taking up the Western style 
of painting. The number of students taking courses 
in European paintsing at the Tokyo School of Fine 




BY TAKENOll 




■TWO GIRLS IN A SHOWER 



BY KITANO TSUNETOMI 



Japanese Paintings 




" ON BENTEiNJIMA ' 



HL) 



( Kojiikai Exhibition) 



Arts is increasing out of all proportion to those in 
other courses, and the former now outnumber the 
students in Japanese painting by more than two to 
one. Furthermore, a few of our artists in oil seem 
to be assuming the right attitude towards Western 
art, and the local public is having an occasional 
glimpse of the aesthetic value of oil painting as seen 
in a real masterpiece. 

Two exhibitions of paintings in the Western style 
were recently held in Uyeno Park, Tokyo, by the 
Taiheiyogakai and the 
Kofukai, and most of the 
many pictures displayed 
there were painted in oils. 
They came from all parts 
of Japan, but the works 
of Tokyo artists pre- 
dominated. One could 
not fail to observe that 
the present tendency is 
towards strong and vivid 
colours. Judging from 
their work, most of the 
young artists consider 
brightness the prime re- 
quisite in oil painting. 
Apparently they are 
striving to follow the ten- 
dencies of a certain school 
in France, with which 
they are somewhat in 
touch through men who 
have studied in Paris and " low tide" (oil) 



are assuming the position 
of leaders here. The 
conservatives fear that the 
younger painters in oil 
are going astray, and, in 
consequence, are pessi- 
mistic about the future. 
However, the exhibitions 
were well attended and 
it would seem that the 
Western style of painting 
is becoming popular in 
Ja]5an. 

At the exhibition 
organised by the Tai- 
heiyogakai there were 
over five hundred pic- 
tures. The Taiheiyo- 
gakai is an influential 
society under the leader- 
ship of prominent artists, 
among them being Nakagawa Hachiro, whose Sp?-iiig 
Evening is reproduced among our illustrations. 
The society includes many promising young artists, 
and quite a number of pictures have been pur- 
chased by the Empress as well as by the Depart- 
ment of the Imperial Household. 

For some time the Taiheiyogakai was one of 
the two large rival societies of yogaka, as the 
artists who follow the Western style of painting are 
called. The other was the Hakubakai. Both are 



BY KOBAYASHl SHOKICHI 




( KoJuiMi E.xliibitioii) 



BY ATOMI TAI 

235 



Sf/idio- Talk 




^n of our painters who have adopted the Western 
' * J style have much to learn and a great deal to strive 
for. Harada JiRO. 



tVBNlNG ■' (oil). bV NAKAGAWA IIACHIRO 
( Taiheiyogakai Exhibition ) 



ofTshoots of the Meiji Bijutsukai, or Fine Art 
Society of Meiji. Towards the close of 1894, 
Kuroda Kiyoteru, Kume Keiichiro, and others who 
had studied painting in Paris withdrew from this 
society and founded the Hakubakai, or " \\'hite 
Horse Society," which gathered many promising 
aspirants to its fold. Five years later, "\'oshida 
Hiroshi, Mitsutani Kunishiro, Nagachi Hideta, and 
others broke away from the mother society and 
organised the Taiheiyogakai above referred to. 
The Hakubakai, however, having accomplished 
its mission, was disbanded about a year ago. 
Recently an exhibition was organised by the new 
society called " Kofukai," which was thought by 
many to be the "White Horse Society" resurrected, 
as the organisers were no other than seven of 
Mr. Kuroda's mortjin, once active members of 
the Hakubakai. It is asserted, however, that they 
have nothing to do with the disbanded society. 
The first exhibition of the Kofukai proved a 
success. There were about four hundred paintings, 
chiefly in oil, about a quarter of them being by 
the organisers of the society, including Atomi Tai 
and Kobayashi Shokichi, and there were also 
on exhibition some works by recognised masters. 
However, a visit to this exhibition as well as 
the other noticed above convinced me that those 
236 



STUDIO-TALK. 
(From Our Own Correspotidents.) 






ONDON.— Mr. W. J. Laidlay, whose death 
took place at Freshwater in the Isle of 
Wight on the 25th October, was a sincere, 
conscientious and sensitive painter, and a 
most interesting personalit)'. He was the actual 
founder of the New English Art Club, and throughout 
his artistic career worked incessantly in the some- 
what fruitless cause of the reform of the Royal 
Academy. He was the author of several books 
dealing with this and kindred subjects, including 
" The Royal Academy : its Uses and Abuses," and 
'Art, Artists, and Landscape Painting." For 
some years he was an exhibitor at the Royal 
.\cademy, and was also a frequent exhibitor at 
the Paris Salon and the New Gallery. Mr. Laidlay, 
after graduating at Cambridge, was called to the 
Bar in 1875, but his love of art triumphed, and in 
1879 he went to Paris, where for some years he 
was a pupil of Carolus Duran .nnd Bouguereau. 




'A SEA shore" (oil) 

( Taiheiyogaka 



BY KIMURA RVOICHI 
Exhibition) 



Studio-Talk 




BLUE HYDRANGEAS 



( Goiipil Gallety Salon J 



BY J. E. BLANCHE 



We also regret to record the death of Mr. E. J. 
van Wisselingh, the well-known expert and dealer. 
Mr. van Wisselingh often showed both insight and 
kindness in the early encouragement he gave to 
modern artists who have since risen to fame. 



The annual Salon of the Goupil Gallery in 
Regent Street is nowadays one of the leading events 
of the autumn season in London, and this year it 
fully maintains the high standard which the proprie- 
tors of the gallery always strive to attain. In one 
respect it is of especial interest, for just at a moment 
ivhen some of the first principles that have con- 
trolled the finest art of our time have been challenged 
in theory Mr. Wilson Steer reasserts them here in 
a work which must rank among the great land- 
scapes of the present, and not the less so on 
account of the fact that for Mr. Steer it is small in 
scale. We refer to the picture called Low Tide, 
with its sensitive silvery colour. Another work in 
this exhibition revealing its creator's art at its very 
best is Mr. James Pryde's The Utiknoivn Corner. 
No picture of a romantic street-corner could 



throw more of a spell over the right kind of 
spectator than this one, but as is the case with all 
very subjective art, Mr. Pryde's pictures must have 
the right kind of spectator — the " Pryde " spec- 
tator. M. J. E. Blanche is represented in the exhibi- 
tion by some of the still-life pieces in which he is 
such a master; his greatest success here is the 
Blue Hydrafigeas. Besides these works of M. 
Blanche there are some other contributions of a 
similar character to which this Salon owes not 
a little of its distinction, such as, for example, 
Mr. William Nicholson's Still-Life, Mr. W. B. E. 
Ranken's Flower Piece, and Mr. H. M. Livens's 
Sweet Peas and Roses and Still-Life. Mr. William 
Nicholson also exhibits landscapes which are in his 
finest vein, scenes in which sentiment is not con- 
cealed and which in their very simplicity are a 
lesson. That the problems of interior lighting 
continue to have a fascination for many painters is 
shown by various pictures in which these problems 
have been handled with much ability and at the 
same time with that kind of feeling which makes 
them something more than mere technical exercises. 

237 



Studio-Talk 



In this connection we would name especially the 
Breakfast in my Studio, by Mr. Patrick ^\'. Adam, 
R.S.A. ; and the Petit Appartement h Paris and 
Ze Salon Rose, by Mr. W. C. Gore. Mr. \A'illiam 
Orpen's An Arran Islander is one of the out- 
standing features of the exhrbition. A masterly 
piece of winter landscape is the Snow, Canada, by 
Mr. J. W. Morrice, a painter who holds a distin- 
guished position among the artists of the Dominion. 
A striking contrast to this is Mr. D. V. Cameron's 
TAe Peaks, pitched in a very low key — lower indeed 
than is his wont. In a brief notice such as this 
we cannot do more than indicate a few of the 
works which in our opinion call for special meiition, 
but besides those we have just named we must not 
omit to refer to Mr. Henry Bishop's From my Roof 
Terrace, Tetuan, Mr. Alexander Jamieson's Rye, 
The Port, Mr. T. C. Dugdale's The Little Pavilion, 
Trianon, Mr. J. B. Manson's Still-Life, M. Felix 
Vallotton's Fleurs, Miss Hilda Fearon's Afternoon 
Tea, and pictures by Mr. Algernon Talmage and 



Mr. Philip Connard. Post-Impressionism is not 
excluded from the exhibition, but the Post- 
Impressionists represented seem to only have one 
ideal for a picture : that of making it — especially 
if it is a still-life piece — as much like the pattern of 
a Victorian chintz curtain as possible. Many of 
the artists succeed, but we find it impossible to 
value this ideal of decoration and success as highly 
as its exponents would wish it valued. 



The Autumn Exhibition of the Royal Society of 
Painters in Watcr-Colours, which closes on the 1 6th, 
ranks high among those which this society has held. 
Its strength lies with the activity of a small group 
of members. Mr. H. Hughes-Stanton has never 
given us a water-colour more atmospheric or better 
composed than that of The Dunes lookin;:; totvards 
Hardelot, France. In its remarkable composition 
this is a completed picture, without losing the 
actuality that is secured to art by the artist being 
immediately in contact with nature while painting 




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(Goufit Gallery Salon.) 



-AN ARRAN ISLANDER." from the 
OIL PAINTING BY WILLIAM ORPEN. A.R.A. 






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it. Another artist to the fore this year, with 
work that in its colour seems more sincere and 
less artificial than sometimes heretofore, is Mr. 
Lamorna Birch. Mr. Robert Allan, in his Beccles 
Church and In from the Fishing, is also a very 
interesting contributor this year. Mr. Charles Sims 
exhibits two or three works vividly naturalistic for 
all their fantasy, and his powers are very much 
greater in this naturalistic presentment than in 
his frankly artificial The Pavilion. Mrs. Laura 
Knight's A Grey Day is a salient feature of the ex- 
hibition, and two drawings by Mr. A\'alter Bayes, The 
Panorama Platform and Elk a fair espagnol are 
admirable and rare instances of an artist success- 
fully fusing realism and decoration. A charming 
little work is A Barn in Dorset by Mr. Herbert 
Alexander. A fine instance of Mr. E. J. Sullivan's 
command of water-colour is present in his work 
The Golden Girl. Caerlaverock Castle is perhaps 
the best of Mr. Paterson's two contributions. Sir 



Ernest Waterlow, Mr. J. W. North, A.R.A., Mr. 
Alfred I'arsons, R.A., and Mr. Walter Crane are 
well represented, and the exhibition owes much to 
contributions by Mr. George Clausen, R.A., and 
Mr. A. S. Hartrick. 

The interesting drawing which we here reproduce 
in facsimile is by Mr. Ernest C. Bewlay, whose 
name may be familiar to our readers as a member 
of the firm of Cossins, Peacock, and Bewlay, 
architects, of Birmingham. This drawing and 
others of his which have come under our notice 
prove that in Mr. Bewlay we have an artist as well 
as an architect. 

The Black Frame Club's 191 2 exhibition was 
held in the Dore Gallery last month. In this ex- 
hibition Mr. E. Borough Johnson exhibited some 
smail interior pictures of unusual interest, reveal- 
ing his exceptionally skilful technique. Mr. Percy 




' THE LITTLE PAVILION, TRIANON " 
242 



( Goupil Gallery Salon) 



BY T. C. DUGDALB 




"NEAR ROTTERDAM." from a chalk 
DRAWING BY ERNEST C. BEWLAY. 



studio- Talk 



W. Gibbs, in a picture Black and Silver, was 
another exhibitor giving attractiveness to the walls. 
The late Mr. ^V. J. Laidlay's Off to the Fishing 
Ground, Mr. Septimus E. Scott's Sunday Morning, 
Walberswick, and exhibits by Mr. Benjamin 
Haughton and Mr. F. F. Foottet were also among 
the most notable features of the show. 



At the Stafford Gallery last month the Senefelder 
Club for the advancement of artistic lithography 
held its fourth exhibition. It included part of Mr. 
Joseph Pennell's remarkable series of Panama 
lithographs, fine prints by Miss Ethel Sabain, Mr. 
John Copley, Mr. Anthony R. Barker, Mr. G. 
Spencer-Pryse, Mr. A. S. Hartrick, Mr. T. R. Way, 
and also some prints by Mr. Brangwyn and Mr. 
Charles Shannon which had been seen before. 



Mr. Maxwell Armfield's exhibition at the Carfax 
Gallery in November sustained the reputation he 



has acquired as a master of decoration ; his pictures 
are always conceived in the spirit of decoration, 
form and colour aiming at this with him, and not 
at reality of representation. Mountain drawing is a 
feature of his work, and in this vein his realism is 
convincing, whilst no one knows better how to take 
advantage of the bold sweep of hill-lines so that 
they resolve themselves within a frame into rhythmic 
composition. 

TORONTO.— At the end of September the 
Canadian National Exhibition of 191 2 
closed its doors upon delighted visitors 
numbering nearly one million. It claims 
the attention of art lovers elsewhere on account 
of the excellent display of pictures by Canadian 
artists in the Gallery of Fine Arts, consisting of one 
hundred and thirty compositions in oil, water-colour, 
and pastel — the work of fifty-five artists. They were 
the pick of some hundreds of works sent in for 
approval from every part of the Canadian Dominion. 




"WATERFALL IN THE NORTH COUNTRY' 



FROM A W,\TER-i 



JLOUK BY K. H. BKIGDEN 



studio- Talk 



Prominent among ihem were the following, arranged 
tor method's sake in categories. 

Landscape and Figures. The President of the 
Royal Canadian Academy, Mr. William Brymner, 
exhibited two very excellent compositions, Feeding, 
Chickens and Autumn Days, both characteristic 
of Canadian environment. Mr. Brymner's strong 
points are simplicity of treatment, effective illu- 
mination, and harmonious colouring. One of the 
most effective pictures was Waterfall in the North 
Country a water-colour by Mr. F. H. Brigden, in 
which the purple-blues and graded greens peculiar 
to Canadian landscape are rendered with much 
charm. In the same category must be named two 
forest subjects by lady artists. The Edge of the Wood, 
by Mrs. Knowles, and Winter Morning, by Miss 
Wrinch — the former a characteristic summer 
symphony of sky and landscape in the boundless 
expanse of Canada's azure atmosphere, in which the 
red pine and the silver birch as well as the raw grass 
are well rendered ; the latter a harmonic score of sun- 
lit snow and shade, with great pine-trees, black and 
bare, for bars, for the La.ly of the Snows is arrayed 



in her flawless winter mantle, whilst the Northern 
Lights reflect their peculiar blues upon the snow. 
Mr. Homer Watson, who is known to the British 
public by his pictures shown this year in London, 
had a " bit " of Canada seen through the glasses of 
Rousseau and Diaz, whose works he loves so well 
— The Source, a delightful arrangement of nature's 
greens, deep in colour and high in finish. Another 
canvas. The Stronghold, was decorative in character, 
a dream of the painter's fancy. Four examples of 
the art of F. M. Bell-Smith, R.C.A., were also hung. 
Few men have the courage of this artist to approach 
the mammoth majesties of the peerless Rockies 
and pitch their easels full in the face of such 
mighty works of nature. He has dealt almost 
photographically with the problems of mass, 
distance, and depth. 

Marine Subjects. Mr. Robert F. Gagen stands, 
perhaps, at the head of Canadian painters of sea 
and river. To the exhibition he contributed three 
striking canvases— 77« Jiestless Sea, Surf and The 
Sunlit Kecf—aW painted on the coast of Maine. 
There is no British tone about these paintings : 




'THE RESTLESS SEA 
246 



r. GAGE.V, K.C. 




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"HOUSES, RICHMOND STREET, 
TORONTO." BV LAWREN S. HARRIS 




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studio- Talk 



sky, rock, and water are American in character. 
There is a boldness and tonality in Gagen's treat- 
ment of water which give distinction to his work. 
He is an adept, too, in rendering stretches of the 
glorious St. Lawrence River, with its emeraldine- 
topaz tones of water, its great indigo-purple bluffs 
— topped with green-russet downs, and weird 
deposits of prehistoric lacustrine sands of ruddy 
hue. Surf has been purchased by the Canadian 
Government. Mr. A. M. Fleming's The Moon and 
the Fading Day, painted off the coast of Maine, also 
revealed a master hand in the rendition of aqueous 
glories of the eventide. Mr. Farquhar McG. 
Knowles's Evening Glow — capriciously so styled — 
was of quite a different order. His good ship has 
weathered fearsome gales and now lies at anchor 
by the Quebec pier, her battered hull being the 
painter's looking-glass of the sun, reflecting the 



westering orb of day. Mr. Knowles is a past- 
master in ship-building and ship-sailing — he knows 
every detail from keel to mast-head. He has 
painted many admirable compositions of battleships 
of to-day. One of Canada's best marine painters, 
Mr. W. M. Cutts, was not well represented : he and 
his artist wife were away in England painting on 
the Devon-Cornwall coast. 




" THE CO.NFIDANTE' 



Street Scenes. Painters reveal their nationality 
in nothing more clearly than in their rendering of 
the sights of every-day life. Houses in Richmond 
Street, by Mr. Lawren S. Harris, could only have 
been painted in Toronto. This was one of the 
three finest canvases in the exhibition and attracted 
attention on account of its simplicity of composition 
and the wealth of its impasto. The shadows of 
the leaves of the yellowing maples, thrown by the 
vivid sun upon the white 
stuccoed walls and green 
jalousies, are splendidly 
worked up in secondary 
tones by a full brush. 
The effect is almost illu- 
sive, we have the shadows 
of shadows dipped in grey 
and gold. Craig Street, 
Montreal, by Mr. Maurice 
Cullen, also claimed 
general attention as a fine 
example of the effect of 
winter's meagre and 
solemn colouring on 
canvas. Mr. Cullen excels 
in the rendition of mists 
and shadows. In New- 
foundland — that dour 
land of ice and fog — he 
finds endless subjects for 
his sympathetic brush. 
Another painter of much 
promise in the same line 
of atmospheric effects is 
Mr. James E. H. Mac- 
Donald. His Early 
JVinter's- Evening has 
been purchased by the 
Canadian Government 
for the National Gallery 
at Ottawa. The picture 
of his, however, which 
caused the most interest 
was Tracks and Traffic, 
a tour de force of the 
249 



BY E. WVLY GRIER, R.C.A. 



studio- Talk 



effects of steam and snow. No such scenes may 
be beheld anywhere but in Canada, where every 
manufacturing and transporting enterprise is hustle- 
bustle evermore. The handling of such an in- 
artistic subject as a Canadian Pacific locomotive, 
and the tale Mr. MacDonald has made it tell of a 
nation's progress, are eloquent of his grasp of 
actualities and his imaginative interpretation of the 
things he sees and feels. In the same category was 
The Rag Market at Bruges, by Mr. James W. 
Beatty, done with very much of the fullness and 
soundness of the Dutch painters of to-day. 



Portraiture and Animals. That Canadian painters 
have acquired distinction in the art of portraiture 
was amplv proved by works in this year's exhibi- 
tion. Mr. E. Dyonnet's was the most forceful work 
of all. If An Old Inhabitant may not rank with 
the famous and strong-visaged men of Rembrandt 
and Franz Hals it is all the same a very capable 
work. Miss M. Shore, in her Sisters, exhibited a 
spontaneous piece of work. She is a disciple of 
Henri and has acquired his clever eye-glance ; her 
colour shows the influence of Whistler as well as 
Henri. The Confidante and The Huntress by Mr. 
Edmund Wyly Grier are the work of a romantic 



artist who paints in a city lane and lives in a 
country shack. He has the faculty of exciting the 
curiosity of his visitors. He is especially fond of 
transferring to his canvas personal idiosyncrasies 
of his sitters — such as passing the hand through 
the hair, twitching of the mouth, and so forth. 
Hence his effects are actual likenesses — not picture 
portraits only. Mr. George Agnew Reid's style is 
decorative, which he teaches in the highest ex- 
pression of painting. Forceful by nature, he is a 
poetic painter, and loves to delineate episodes of 
Canadian history. His panels, over-doors, and 
mantels are very beautifully designed and carried 
out. Mrs. Reid paints too, and paints well — still- 
life, flowers, nocturnes, and sunlit symphonies. 
Certain other contributions were highly praise- 
worthy — notably those of Mr. Gustav Hahn, Mr. 
Charles W. Jeffery, Mr. Herbert Palmer, and Mr. 
H. Britton. 

Enough, perhaps, has been said, although much 
more is worthy of communication, to show that 
Canadian art is flourishing, but it needs sympathy 
and encouragement. Canadians in general are not 
yet alive to the beauties of the Fine Arts. It takes 
generations of delvers and builders to prepare the 










^ TJMMl 

"THE CASTi. 
250 




(Sec , 



c, n:xt page) 



i-KANK BOtiGS 



Studio-Talk 




'THE CASTLE OF SAUMUR" 



BY FRANK BOGGS 



national edifice for painters and decorators. It is 
proposed to hold a representative exhibition of 
Canadian art in the capital of the Empire in the 
winterof 1913-1914. Art lovers in London will there 
have opportunities of appreciating and encouraging 
artists worthy of their consideration. The e.xhibi- 
tion will certainly strengthen the ties which unite 
the Mother Country and the great Dominion. 

E. S. 

PARIS. — Mr. Frank Boggs, whose name I 
have frequently had occasion to mention 
in connection with the Salons or certain 
choice exhibitions of water-colours, has 
recently shown an ensemble of his most important 
drawings in this medium at the Galeries Hauss- 
mann in the Rue la Boetie. This, therefore, affords 
me an excellent opportunity of saying a few words 
about the distinguished art of this painter and of 
calling attention to the place of honour he has 
achieved for himself 'vc\ modern water-colour. 



Frank Boggs was the friend of Jongkind, which 
of course implies that he is not a very young painter. 
He has, however, worked in silence, indifferent to 
success, and hence it arises that fame has come to 



him rather late in life, though it is not on that account 
any the less brilliant. Then, too, though Boggj 
worked with Jongkind one is certainly not justified in 
affirming that he was the pupil of the latter. There 
existed between them a certain similarity of inspira- 
tion and both have made use of methods which 
often showed a close kinship. Boggs is an ad- 
mirable painter of Paris. His water-colours reveal 
an impeccable draughtsmanship while they remain 
very broad and free in style. He bestows much 
care upon his skies, which are always treated most 
spiritedly, and upon waters with their myriad 
reflections which he paints with consummate skill. 



The most important among these works are those 
which form the unforgettable series depicting the 
castles of the I,oire. In these the artist has really 
achieved a profound mastery of his medium. He has 
rendered with rare ability all the fine contours of 
these calm landscapes and those chateaux which 
are among the marvels of French architecture, 
setting down their sombre note in his composi- 
tion and drawing the irregularities of their towers, 
their keeps and terraces. Amboise, Chenonceaux, 
Blois, Chambord, Saumur, Loches, Chinon, Azay- 
le-Rideau, Montreuil-Bellay — all these we find 

2SI 



studio- Talk 




and vice-president of the 
Berlin Secession, superin- 
tends the making and 
dressing of these dolls after 
her own designs, so that 
they all bear the impress 
of the artist, and one of 
their great recommenda- 
tions in the eyes of parents 
and other dispensers of 
gifts is that they are both 
unbreakable and washable, 
being made of a substance 
invented by Frau Kruse. 



" THE CASTLE OF MONTREUIL-BELI AV 

represented in first-rate ejcamples of this clever 
artist's work. H. F. 

Bl^RLIN. — The Royal Academy of Arts 
has made an effort to show by a finely 
arranged exhibition of East Asiatic Art 
the extent to which the best productions 
of Chinese and Japanese 
sculpture, painting, and 
applied art are represented 
in the leading German col- 
lections. Only a few choice 
pieces were admitted, and 
no attempt was made to 
fill gaps by inferior pro- 
ductions. With this most 
instructive show Prof. 
Arthur Kampf ended his 
unusually successful presi- 
dency of these Academy 
exhibitions. 



At the Keller and Reiner 
Salon recently attention was 
drawn to the unusual talent 
of the young painter, 
sculptor, and draughtsman, 
Fritz Gartner. A rising 
BY FRANK BOGGs German Meunier or 

Millet here announced 
himself, a lover of labour in all its various forms, 
in the fields, in gardens, mines, factories, and in the 
harbour. One saw here pictures painted in un- 
broken colours, jubilant or subdued, plastic works 
of robust form and rhythmic vitality, and etchings, 
drawings, and lithographs which grasped nature's 
aspects in lines at once simple and confident. A 



\\'hen on two previous 
occasions illu^rations were 
given in these pages of 
Frau Kathe Kruse's dolls 
lively interest was aroused 
in these really artistic pro- 
ductions. This talented 
woman, who is the wife of 
Prof. Max Kruse, sculptor 




WASHABLE AND UNBREAKABLE DOLLS 



DESIGNED BV KATHE KRt SE 



Studio-Talk 




' REST " BY FRITZ GARTNER 

( By permission of the Neue Photographische 

Gesellschaft, Berlin) 



realist of almost primitive vigour was here the pro- 
ducer, an artist whose best revelations spring from 
rural solitude. The humour of the socialist is 
missing in these plodding men and w^omen. How- 
ever trenchantly the burden of toil is expressed, its 
consequences are not made to appear degrading but 
salutary in health and structure. At times this 
painter of naturalism is seized with a Zolaesque 
enthusiasm for la grande fertilite or the devo- 
tional raptures of Breton or Millet in presence of 
his patient models in the peaceful fields. He sees 
with the modernist's eye and can render dazzling 
sunlight or dawn, summer and winter, with equal 
sureness. The decorative element forms a strong 
point in his selection, and he does not tie himself 
down to a limited range of subjects. His abilities 
appear of equal strength in painting, sculpture, and 
the graphic arts, and the indefatigable exercise of 
such versatile gifts keeps his productive qualities 
fresh. Fritz Gartner was born in 1882 at Aussig, but 
lives and works in the ^^'estphalian country, .\fter 



having studied in'Munich under Hackl, Lofftz, and 
Marr, he settled at Schloss Malinckrodt, where 
he has his open-air studio. He is a member of the 
different Secession groups and of the Deutscher 
Kiinstlerbund, and became known by his contribu- 
tions to " Jugend.'' His pictures and plastic works 
have been going the round of the chief towns in 
Austria and Germany and attracting a well-deserved 
attention. J. J- 

STOCKHOLM. — During the past summer 
the capital of Sweden was able to offer 
its citizens pleasures they seldom have an 
opportunity of enjoying, and its visitors 
some most effective attractions. In the wonder- 
fully beautiful Stadium, the genial creation of the 
architect Torben Grut, athletes from every quarter 
of the globe engaged in friendly rivalry for classic 
laurels and more modern medals, while else- 




\ 



" EVENING " BY FRITZ GARTNER 

( By permission of the Neue Photo- 
graphische Gesellschaft, Berlin) 



253 



Sfiidic-Talk 



where the Artists' Association (Konstnarsforbundet) 
opened one of the most important exhibitions of 
modem art that have been offered to the Swedish 
pubhc for a very long time. It is seven years 
since this society met in one common exhibition 
in the capital of Sweden, on which occasion it 
celebrated the twentieth anniversary of its foun- 
dation. The exhibition this year was of quite a 
different character. The golden age of Swedish 
" stiimning " painting — the painting expressive of a 
mood — is past. Eugen Jansson's night visions of 
Stockholm, Karl Nordstrom's gloom-filled west 
coast breakers, Thegerstrom's moonlight parks, 
which had replaced the transparent everyday 
pictures of the eighties, have had in their turn 
to make way for new and sunnier artistic ideals. 



Prince Eugen, whose work dominated the second 
largest room at the exhibition, still stands with one 
foot fast fixed on the ground where he has created 
so many delightful works of art. I lately had the 
opportunity of describing in the pages of this 
magazine the course of his artistic development, 
the stages of which were illustrated in this exhi- 
bition by a choice collection of his finest landscapes. 
Hut that which attracted the chief attention of the 



beholder was the great altar-piece for Kiruna 
Church. The very idea of choosing a landscape 
as the motif of an altar-piece is as new as it is 
remarkable. Its signification, at a time when the 
ability to give a new and simple, yet convincing, 
reading to old Biblical subjects seems to be almost 
entirely dead — the Danish artist Joakim Skov- 
gaard is the one brilliant exception — cannot easily 
be over-estimated, even if, as often enough happens 
perhaps, it is misunderstood and abused. It is 
hardly necessary to speak of the purely artistic 
value and the immense decorative qualities of this 
vast canvas. But no one who does not know what 
the Kiruna mining district is, no one who has not 
trodden these streets which begin at the point, so 
to say, where tree-growth ceases and which at no 
time during the year are entirely free from snow, 
can in full measure appreciate the geniality of the 
way in which the entire subject has been grasped. 
For the fertile central Swedish landscape depicted 
here, with its light, cool colours, its overflowing 
sunshine, its noble and magnificent form prompt- 
ing the imagination to flights far beyond the 
horizon, must, to a soul tortured by a weari,some, 
month-long winter night, be a veritable vision of 
the glades of Paradise. 




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'SNOW AND OlEN WATER, SANDll.Mi: 



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■^s 




'RETURNING FROM CHURCH." FROM THE 
OIL PAINTING BY CARL WILHELMSON 



Sfiuiio-Talk 



In the room thus filled by the Kiruna picture a 
wall was reserved for Acke. The sphere in which 
this talented but variable artist moves embraces 
both persons and places. Of the former, attention 
may be specially called to the portrait-group of the 
Bonnier family, which breathes of the intimacy of 
hsmie-life. But that which perhaps most strongly 
appeals to Acke is the strand where sea and land 
embrace and which, with its constantly varying 
character, is one of the most grateful fields of labour 
in Swedish landscape art. The breakers that wash 
the soft curves of the reef sing to him a clear, 
ringing melody ; in this translucent atmosphere the 
very bodies seem to have acquired something trans- 
parent, like a hand which is held with lightly closed 
fingers towards the sun. 



life. In the bathing scenes it is the aerial perspec- 
tive that creates the artistic transformation ; in the 
athlete and acrobat delineations he searches for 
the nerves and muscles lying beneath the surface. 



Rikard Lindstrom looks with darker and manlier 
gaze at the meeting-place of land and sea. The 
earth is more substantial, the water heavier, and the 
movement consequently stronger than in Acke's 
work. His masterpiece was Evening Gltnv, in which 
the colouring, difficult to reproduce, has reached 
an intensity that can hardly be surpassed. For Axel 
Sjoberg, again, the embrace of sea and land is not 
an expression of intoxicating ecstasy ; it is rather 
strife between two adverse forces that seek to 
annihilate each other. Ice covers the hard waters 
until there approaches a spring day when they 
break their bonds and, in the hour of deliverance, 
are transformed into a mighty, destroying force. 
Karl Nordstrom, the doughty leader of the 
Association in its polemic warfare ever since its 
formation, has outlived his artistic Sturm und 
Drang period. The skerries have become for him 
a pleasant summer resort which it is a delight to 
depict in new colours and with a fresh technique. 



At first sight there would seem to be little in 
common between the Eugen Jansson who ten 
years ago gave us the night views of Stockholm 
and the artist of the same name who, in the largest 
room of the exhibition, on vast fields of canvas, 
depicted the healthy, unfettered life of the Swedish 
sailor. Yet we recognise certain characteristics of 
former days. A\e still discover in every delineation 
of the human figure a disinclination to reproduce a 
clearly evident, material, tangible surface. The 
artist sometimes goes so far in his paraphrase of 
veritable consistency that illusion becomes almost 
delusion ; and although Jansson's chief interest is 
clearly being drawn more and more to the delinea- 
tion of the naked model, there is no realistic 
actuality to be expected in his pictures of moving 
256 



When Gosta von Hennigs carries us with him 
into the arena it is not to admire the muscle play 
of the acrobats, but to enchain our attention by 
the brilliant dresses and the display of purely 
physical feats of agility. He looks with an in- 
dulgent smile at the equilibristic performances of 
the human animal. His canvases posse.ss the 
uniform colouring and the thorough surface tech- 
nique of the modern hoarding picture. The drawing 
is summary, but often reproduces with con\nncing 
truth the impression of movement. His dazzling 




BRONZE STATUETTE OF THE LAP- 
LANDER JOHAN THUURI. BY CHRISTIAN 
ERIKSSON 



studio- Talk 




KJELUBERGbTi.NUEN, LOtODEN 



FROM THE PAINTING liY KIKAKl) LlNUbTkuM 



colours are combined with extraordinarj- bravura 
and intensity. 

I hardly know of any one besides Carl Larsson 
who could have as much right as Carl Wilhelmson 
to be entitled the most Swedish of our artists. 
Carl Wilhelmson alone has been able to express 
the open and independent, the mild yet storm- 
worn, the conscientious while gloomy traits of the 
national character. Take, for instance, the wonder- 
ful canvas, Returning from Church, a memorial 
to a race of people nourished and chastened by 
the sea and the clergy. There is about it some- 
thing of the simple and solemn tone of a confession 
of faith : " I believe in the bitterness of life ; I 
believe in the blessing of work, the cheering glory 
of colour, and the healing light of the sun." It is 
one of those creations to which an artist can gather 
his powers but once in his lifetime. And this he 
can do only if he be a great artist. No technique 
is cleaner and more transparent than Wilhelmson's, 
and here without doubt it celebrates one of its 
greatest triumphs. 



Wilhelmson's portraits, in spite of their excellent 
qualities, give us a hint of the limits of his powers. 
They show that this very clever observer is not 
possessed of an imagination mighty enough to 
fathom the depths of involved mentalities. His 
delineations of men and women have something 
dry and uninteresting about them when they re- 
produce individuals in whom culture is supreme. 
But this limitation has been of decided service to 
AVilhelmson ; it has preserved his delineations of 
peasant life from all exaggerated features, and has 
added to all their other wonderful artistic qualities 
that of documentary truthfulness. 



Richard Bergh is Wilhelmson's antipodes as a 
portrait painter. For him the exterior is merely a 
means of expression for the psychic ego of the sitter. 
His portrait of Dr. Ekman is a delightful canvas. 
Never has the technical ability of the artist been 
greater than here ; never has his eye been sharper. 
It is clear that it is delineation of personality that is 
the alpha and omega of Richard Bergh's art ; it is 
for him a problem the solution of which demands 

257 



Sfii(iio-Ta/k 




"HORSES IN movement" 



FROM THE PAINTING BY NILS KREIIGER 



almost as much concentration of thought as the 
purely technical details themselves. 



A contrast as great as that just noted between 
W'ilhelmson and Richard Bergh as depicters of 
men is that existing between the animal paintings 
of the first-named artist and Nils Kreuger. Both 
are excellent painters of the horse, but they see 
their model from altogether different points of view. 
For Wilhelmson the horse is the beast of burden, 
the faithful helper and comrade of man in each 
day's toil. Nils Kreuger, on the other hand, sees 
in the horse, not the most useful, but the noblest of 
animals. He loves the horse, not beneath a heavy 
yoke, but in proud and untrammelled freedom. 
He seeks for him on the expanses of (Dland and the 
sea-strand slopes of Halland. Here, in the open 
spaces where man's hand is hardly seen, he has 
caught the expressions for his sensitive and varying 
moods, which, with a mere degree of difference in 
the bearing of the head apd neck, can show all the 
scales of feeling between pride and humility, watch- 
ful unrest and confiding calmness. So rich is this 
theme for the artist that, beneath his hand, it is 
always new, however unimportant the variations of 
the motive may be. 

The sculpture division of the exhibition was 
dominated by two names — those of Christian 
Eriksson and Carl Eldh. In all the range of 
258 



Swedish sculpture there can scarcely be found such 
concentrated power as Eriksson's Archer, in whose 
iron muscles there is such a world of energy as 
promises that the arrow shall fly far and sure when 
the moment for action comes. The statue is a 
well-known one, however, like most of those in 
Eriksson's magnificent collection. But there were 
some new things, too, the most remarkable, un- 
doubtedly, being the statuette of Johan Thuuri, 
the celebrated Laplander. This is not merely a 
portrait, it is a whole race that the sculptor has here 
given us, with austere, slight forms, in the gleam- 
ing, shadowy bronze. The bearing and the very 
position of the body are so very characteristic of the 
race. Carl Eldh has a gentler and more lightsome 
nature. Sometimes it seems as if he wanted energy 
to pursue an artistic conception to its final issue. 
But feeling remains to the end, and this it is that 
ennobles his best work ; this it is that makes Voutk 
his masterpiece, which, thanks to the generosity of 
Zorn, will form part of the collection belonging to 
the National Museum, for which another of the 
sculptor's best w'orks, A Young Girl, has also been 
ac(|uired. A. G. 



M 



ADRID. — Eduardo Chicharro forms 

ont- of that small band of artists who 

do not thrust themselves and their 

productions before the public, but who 

wcjrk to satisfy their own private lesthetic ideals. 



Studio- Talk 



He lives isolated, aloof even from contemporary 
artistic movements. A Castilian, deeply attached 
to his country, he has transcribed that attachment 
in some magnificent pictures depicting the customs 
of Castile ; poet, he gives free rein to his poesy in 
certain fine decorative works ; and lastly, as a painter 
in the true sense of the word, as a lover of colour, 
he delights also in studies of light, impressions of 
movement and in various "effects." 

Chicharro does not paint the peasants of Castile 
because they are picturesque, but because he finds 
himself in the closest affinity with them, because 
their past is his own and because the soil over 
which they bow themselves and from which they 
draw their sustenance, this parched earth which we 
see in the background of his pictures, is the soil 
of his own fatherland, scorched by his own sun. 
All these Castilian works of Chicharro are intimately 
realistic ; but there is, so to say, an immediate 
realism, and there is a second realism infinitely 
more lofty than the first, which represents not only 
what is seen but what is felt. 



After the contemplation of these arid plateaux 
these immense horizons in which there is nothint 
to distract or rest the eye, 
Chicharro dreams of 
another nature where the 
vegetation is luxurious and 
abundant, where nothing 
offends or wearies the eye, 
where all the forms are 
beautiful not only with a 
beauty of character but 
also with a beauty of har- 
mony, for he is Latin in 
temperament despite all 
the appeal of atticism. 
From this aspiration to 
escape at times from the 
all-compelling love of his 
own land come no doubt 
certain landscapes in his 
decorative panels, such as 
L' Inspiration, with delicate 
tones and numerous con- 
tours to arrest the eye. 
These stand as the anti- 
thesis of his Castilian 
pictures in which he is 
preoccupied with the verity 
of his transcriptions of 
nature, and his decorative 



panels become thus symbolical works in which 
even the central idea is a figment of the artist's 
brain. Here we find him introducing figures, for 
he finds them the most apt to reproduce his 
thought ; but these forms are not there for them- 
selves alone — despite their corporeal appearance 
they do not exist as human beings, but are present 
as manifestations of passions, of eternal ideas of 
humanity. Chicharro makes use of no special 
mythology but employs the s\mbolism slowly 
created by mankind, symbols of everlasting import 
which he feels in himself and which are concordant 
with his artistic emotions, and which he re-creates 
in himself in the image of his own personality. 
Chicharro does not boast of his philosophy, and if 
his decorative works are so profoundly philosophical 
it is because they are the purest and truest ex- 
pression of his artistic sensibilities and thought. 
Hence their simplicity of line, hence that emotional 
quality which we find in still greater degree in the 
sketches which are the first essays towards their 
creation. All these panels, even to the mournful 
mediaeval triptych Les Trois Epouses, are of the genre 
of " inward " picturing, of " thoughtful " painting. 



Chicharro has been described as a " colourist," 




l-K IIIJSSU PK HI'KOO.NDK" 



BY KUl'AKDO ClllCHAKRO 



Sfiidio-Talk 




' I. INSriRATlON 1.1> Kk l> Rr.\H 



\ N I \ I A ! : 



BY KLII'AKDO i IIIUIIARKO 



and certain critics have thought with this appellation 
to define his character. This definition is, how- 
ever, very superficial, and first, because the term 
colourist is frecjuently misapplied. Many use it to 
denote the painter who achieves brilliant effects by 
the employment of extreme tones. In this .sense 
Chicharro is not a colourist, and despite the greyness 
of colour which he sometimes affects, he is classic 
in the best sense of the word, and remains always 
master of his drawing. However, if we imply by 
" colourist " a painter who affirms his individuality 
by the aid of paradoxically correct tones, then is 



Chicharro a powerful colourist. In his work the 
inspiration — the technique — all is naturiil. In each 
picture he renews his comprehension of his art, and 
each production is simply the logical continuation 
of his ffisthetic effort. Sober at times to the point 
of dryness, with unprecedented delicacy in the 
treatment of certain iiands, certain faces of women, 
he attains an almost .scientific boldness in the 
expression of movement, in dashing in a figure or 
suggesting a smile, or the rustle of gauze by a single 
stroke. His colour, at timesj so rich, at times so 
transparent, and so fluid, follows the form always 




' LES TROIS EPOUSEb 
260 



l:V ElllAKHO cmCUAKKO 



Art School Notes 



so closely that Chicharro's technique becomes an 
integral part of his subject and may not be 
separated therefrom. M. X. 

ART SCHOOL NOTES. 

tOXDON.— At the exhibition of the Royal 
College of Art Sketch Club, held last 
month in the iron building behind the 
-^ Natural History Museum, the most re- 
markable feature was the preponderance of land- 
scape. The figure studies and the designs in 
which the figure was used were few in number and 
in no single instance remarkable for quality : and 
the prizes offered for applied art brought forth few 
works of interest. In the landscape competitions 
all the students seem to have taken part, and the 
walls were covered with what appeared to be 
innumerable sketches of the sea-coast and the 
country-side. Some of them were very good, but 
it is unfortunate that nearly all the members of the 




1. ADOKATION DES EVAX(;ILES (SOUVENIR DE ORKCE) " 



sketching club should neglect figure composition 
and decorative design. It is a failing that has 
been remarked before in this column and one 
which the students should endeavour to remedy. 
Mr. L. Underwood gained two prizes for landscape 
and a third for a clever interior. The judges in 
the competitions included Sir George Frampton, 
R.A., Mr. P. Wilson Steer, Mr. John Lavery, 
A.R.A., Mr. I). Y. Cameron, A.R.A., and Mr. C. J. 
Watson, R.E. 

REVIEWS AND NOTICES. 

Hercules Brahazon Brabazon (1821-IQ06) : His 
Art and Life. By C. Lewis Hind. (London : 
G. Allen and Co.) 21J. net. — Mr. Hind once im- 
plied — vide his book " The Post-Impressionists " — 
that " Beauty " was a mere term, but he makes an 
extravagant reference to the beauty in Brabazon's 
art, and in this he is wise, for if we could take the 
"Beauty" out of it — the beauty of colour repre- 
senting atmosphere — 
nothing would be left. 
Brabazon's place in art 
will be kept by an un- 
rivalled quality of colour, 
and an impressionable- 
ness that made the artist 
one of the finest of the Im- 
pressionist school. For 
the rest Mr. Hind has 
drawn an extremely sym- 
pathetic portrait of the 
distinguished country 
gentleman about whom 
all this is to be said. The 
gift of sympathy, which in 
A- 'i^Sjft itself is a gift of under- 

'^f^ !^^H standing, is pre-eminent 

iflB&B^^I ill the biographical part of 

■^ ""^VvB ''^^ book. A lover of 

nature, Brabazon had the 
fervent art of a lover, and 
to have been the subject 
of a memoir by a writer 
incapable himself of fer- 
vour would have been an 
unfortunate climax to his 
career. This is the last 
charge that could be pre- 
ferred against Mr. Hind. 
The illustrations are en- 
titled to the very highest 
praise : it is a wonderful 
261 



BY EUIJARDO CHICHARRc; 



Reviews nt/d Notices 



thing to report, in the case of an art so peculiarly 
dependent upon its refinements as Brabazon's, that 
justice has been done in reproduction to some of 
its most elusive qualities. 

Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art. By EkNKsr 
F. Fenollosa. 2 vols. (London : W. Heine- 
mann.) 365-. net. — The lamented death of Ernest 
Fenollosa occurred before the completion of a 
vsork on which he had spent many years of studious 
labour and research. He left but a rough draft 
in lead pencil, in which some mistakes and many 
omissions were naturally discovered. Shortly 
before he died, when urged to correct and complete 
his manuscript he would say, " I cannot finish it 
until another visit to Japan. . . . There are cor- 
rections to be made, dates to be filled in, cer- 
uin historical facts to be verified, and all these 
can be done in Japan only." To rectify errors 
and make good omissions was a formidable 
ta.sk for his widow to undertake ; but after a 
special visit to Japan, and three years' work in 
which she has had the assistance of Japanese 
experts, she is at last able to give to the world 
these two sumptuous and valuable volumes — 
worthy monuments to her husband's memory. 
Materials for the adequate study of the painter s 
art in China and Japan have been most difficult to 
obtain by students in the West. It is only during 
the last few years, thanks to the illuminating articles 
in that excellent Japanese periodical, the " Kokka," 
and to the works of Anderson, Fenollosa, Binyon, 
iMorrison, Okakura, and one or two others, that the 
true genius of the great artists of the Orient has 
been made apparent. Not the least valuable of 
these works are the two volumes now before us. 
Their treatment of the subject is excellent and 
commands at once the sympathy of those who 
desire to fathom the Ksthetic motives of the artist 
rather than the historical or the merely technical 
side of art. Not that historical and technical 
questions are ignored by the author, but they do not 
form, as with so many writers, the main topics for 
consideration. The poetical qualities of landscape 
art as exemplified in the works of Kakei orof Sesshiu 
are such as to place them very high in the estimation 
of critics in the countries of their origin, and also of 
all lovers of art who have taken the trouble to 
acquaint themselves with their mysteries. The 
magnificent decorative paintings of Koyetsu, of 
Korin, of Sotatsu have a nobility of expression and 
execution which cannot fail to inspire the artist, be 
he Eastern or Western. Mr. Fenollosa treats of 
them with a keen appreciation of their true value, 
and all careful readers of his work will receive a 
262 



stimulus to their conceptions of the higher forms 
of the painter's art that will prove an excellent 
antidote to certain decadent tendencies now in 
evidence whic^ are an abnegation of all that is 
most desirable in the craft. 

Catalogue of the Etched Work of Frank Brangwyn. 
(London : The Fine Art Society, Ltd.) £^t, 3^-. 
net. — Those who have followed closely the develop- 
ment of Mr. Frank Brangwyn's work in etching 
cannot fail to have been impressed by two facts, 
namely, the remarkably high standard of his 
achievements and the extent of his output. When 
we consider the quality, the number, and the 
dimensions of the plates he has produced during 
the last ten years it is difficult to realise that this 
means of artistic expression is not the only one 
with which he has occupied himself. What he has 
accomplished as a decorative artist and as a painter 
of virile canvases has gained for him a unicjue 
position amongst leading contemporary artists, yet 
as an etcher he occupies an equally high place. 
Every new plate by him is awaited with interest 
and is eagerly sought after by an ever-increasing 
public. To understand the reason of his success 
we have only to examine this complete catalogue, 
which will be heartily welcomed by the artist's many 
admirers, by collectors and by students. The 
numerous illustrations (which include reproductions 
of practically all his etchings that have appeared 
since igoo) convey an excellent idea of the originals, 
though naturally the larger plates suffer in the un- 
avoidable reduction. It is interesting to trace in this 
long series of plates, numbering exactly two hundred, 
the sure and rapid development of Mr. Brangwyn 
as an etcher. His early work bears the stamp of 
his sturdy individualism, his dominating person- 
ality, and, as we are told in the introduction to the 
catalogue, " work so original and so vigorous 
compelled attention, and before long what had 
been begun by the artist purely as a relaxation for 
himself and a pleasure to his friends was followed 
up for an evergrowing public.'' His more recent 
plates, by their wonderful freedom of execution, 
show him the complete master of his medium, and 
display those splendid decorative qualities and that 
originality of conception which characterise his work 
in other mediums. The value of this admirable 
catalogue is not confined to the illustrations. Each 
plate is briefly described, and particulars of the 
various states are given where necessary. The 
volume is a worthy record of the work of a great 
artist. 

Architectural Drawing and Draughtsmen, By 
RjaiiNAi.j) Bi.o.Mi-iKi.u, A.R.A. (London : Cassell 



Reviews and Notices 



and Co.) \os. (3d. net. — Prof. Blomfield's in- 
teresting work, though intended mainly for students, 
deals with a subject which is of great importance 
to all who are interested in fine draughtsmanship. 
Many reproductions of excellent drawings ac- 
company the text, including some fine examples by 
Piranesi. At the present time there are a number 
of exceedingly accomplished draughtsmen and 
etchers both in this country and on the continent 
whose architectural drawings are well worth inclu- 
sion in a volume which might supplement this 
valuable one of Prof. Blomfield's by dealing with 
work by contemporary artists. 

Portrait Medals of Italian Artists of the Re- 
naissance. By G. F. Hill. (London : P. Lee 
Warner.) \bs. net. — The beautiful and delicate 
Italian medals of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries well deserve a volume devoted entirely 
to them, so great is their historic as well as their 
esthetic value, but few will be disposed to cavil 
with Mr. Hill for supplementing the examples he 
gives of them in his finely painted and charmingly 
illustrated volume with other portraits of the same 
period. True his reason for doing so, that the 
latter will be welcome to those who find objects so 
small as medals a trial to their patience, is, to say 
the least of it, inadequate, but Raphael's exquisite 
sketches of the head and hands of Bramante, the 
portraits of Titian from the Prado and Stockholm 
galleries, and Memlinc's Niccolo di Forzore 
Spinelli — the last, by the way, not even by an 
Italian master — are so fascinating that no con- 
noisseur could wish them away. In his selection 
of actual medals for reproduction, Mr. Hill explains 
that he has been guided solely by an iconographical 
intention, that is to say, he has given more thought 
to the accuracy of the likeness in them than to 
their technique, and he goes on to remark that 
" the Italian medal is a truly significant reflection 
of the Italian character, the art of striking them 
having been first developed in Italy because of the 
relation of that country to antiquity. To bring the 
great men of the past before their eyes was the 
main object of the collectors of the Renaissance, 
and the next step was obvious : to follow the 
example of those great men and have your own 
portrait put upon a coin." Hence the evolution of 
the profile likeness of the Italian medal, which was 
soon developed to a high degree of excellence. 

Die Ideate Landschaft. By Dr. Joseph Gr.amm. 
(Freiburg-ini-Breisgau : Herdersche Verlagshand- 
lung.) 2 vols. 36 mark. — With characteristic 
Cierman thoroughness, I)r. Gramm, who is one of 
the professors at the University of Freiburg-im- 



Breisgau, traces the evolution of landscape art from 
its first beginnings in classic times to the end of the 
sixteenth century, leaving its later developments 
for future consideration. He opens his most 
learned dissertation on the general principles of 
the interpretation of nature with Goethe's oft- 
quoted words : " Wir wissen von keiner Welt als 
im Bezug auf den Menschen ; wir wollen keine 
Kunst, als die ein Abdruck dieses Bezugs ist." 
Having thus as it were struck the key-note of his 
work, he proceeds to analyse the relations between 
nature and her intrepreters, to define the difference 
between the ideal and the real, to dissect the ele- 
ments of composition, and enumerate the materials 
employed by artists, leaving in the end, it must be 
confessed, a somewhat confused impression on the 
mind of the reader. Fortunately the actual history 
of landscape art is less profound, and the well- 
chosen illustrations which form the second volume 
serve as an excellent commentary on it, although 
the quaint supplementary designs, in which the 
compositions are intersected with lines purporting 
to indicate the preliminary conceptions in the minds 
of the painters, are not altogether edifying. 

The Bells and other Poems. By Edgar Allan 
PoE. Illustrated by En.MUND Dulac. (London: 
Hodder and Stoughton.) 15^. net. — One opens 
this book with some curiosity. Mr. Dulac has been 
one of our most successful illustrators of comedy and 
fairy-tale in colour, he has the lightness, gaiety, and 
sense of grace which make him very happy in the 
illustrating of everything where these qualities are 
required. He is very successful with an eighteenth- 
century setting, for there is a way in which it might 
be said that as an artist he descends from Watfeau. 
We find Mr. Dulac in this book departing from 
the styles most suited to book illustration ; and 
after the fashion of too many illustrators this 
season, he ventures into complication of colour 
which does not lend itself to the requirements of a 
book in the lap. It is strange, too, that this mis- 
take intrudes an air of commonplace in the illus- 
trations, most unexpected in work from this artist. 
Painting is one art, book embellishment another. 
Proof is not wanting here that Mr. Dulac is capable 
of a profound note in design, but few of his designs 
have a chance against the dye-like colours in which 
the refinement of his compositions is destroyed. 
The cover of this volume is delightful in its 
scheme of gold upon grey, if somewhat dainty for 
the sombre genius of the poetry it contains. 

Hours of Gladness. By M. Maeterlinck. Illus- 
trated by E. J. Detmolii. (London : George Allen 
and Co., Ltd.) 2\s. net. — We must confess that 

263 



Revteics mid A^oHcrs 



Nfr. Detniold, whose work we have always admired, 
does not seem quite the perfect illustrator of 
Maeterlinck. Maeterlinck has the very genius of 
indefiniteness, at every point in his essays and 
plays the concrete merges into the abstract and 
objective things lose their sharp contours. His 
ideal illustrator would have been Whistler, perha])s, 
as Debussy, the A\'histler of music, interprets him in 
another art. The drawings of Mr. Uetmold, whose 
work goes beyond Pre-Raphaelitism in precision of 
definition, are lacking in the suggestiveness required 
on this occasion. Taken upon their merits in the 
case of a book where the absence of " atmosphere '' 
would nor matter they would show a profound 
knowledge of plant form and the skill in interpret- 
ing it by line which have long given the artist a 
reputation. Perhaps many people may like to 
iiave this volume on that account. The volume 
has been prepared and, as to the cover, decorated 
with every regard to the best effects that can be 
obtained in .seasonal editions of this kind. 

S/inkespean's Romeo and Juliet. Illustrated by 
W. H.^THKRKi.L, R.I. (London : Hodder and 
."^toughton) io.y. M. net. — Mr. Hatherell's artistic 
interpretation of .Shakespeare is not a bit in the 
spirit of the interpretations that Mr. Granville 
Barker has been striving to put upon the works of 
the Elizabethan playwright at the Savoy Theatre. 
There the attempt has been successfully made to 
render Shakespearean drama in a remote and 
romantic setting, in a time which the costumes and 
architecture in the scenes do not specifically date. 
In Mr Hatherell's illustrations it is evident that 
great pains in the rendering of costume have been 
taken, the fantastic avoided, and the matter-of-fact 
point of view embraced. .Ml the out-of-door scenes 
are extremely naturalistic. 'I'he highly modern, im- 
pre.ssionistic handling of colour seems to bring the 
subject it treats of quite up to date, and for those 
who like their classics in this style no artist could 
serve them with more ability and invention than 
Mr. Hatherell. This book as a whole is very 
attractive. 

.^sop's FabUi. A new translation by \'. S. 
N'ernon Jones. With an introduction by G. K. 
Chesterton, and illustrations by Arthl-r Rack- 
H.\M. (London : \S . Heinemann ; New York : 
Doubleday, Page and Co.) 6.f. net.— In noticing 
another edition of .'Ksop which has appeared this 
season we commented on the lack of humour 
shown in the drawings of animals illustrating it, 
remarkable though these were in other respects. 
As may well be supposed, Mr. Rackham's drawings 
are not open to this criticism. Humour there is 
264 



in all of them, and occasionally one is prompted to 
ask if it is not carried too far, but -Ksop, of course, 
not being a natural history book, a certain licence is 
not only allowable but even called for. Mr. Rack- 
ham has made thirteen drawings in colour and a 
large number in line for the text of this attractive 
volume, and Mr. Chesterton has written an intro- 
duction in which he lays it down that " there can 
be no good fable w'ith human beings in it." 
U'hether this is true or not, some of the best of 
Mr. Rackham's drawings are those with human 
beings. 

While-Ear ami Peter. Ky Nl-ii.s Hkiiu;r(.. 
Illustrated by Cecil All UN. (London: Macmillan 
and Co.) 6.f. net. — Mr. Cecil Aldin is in his element 
in illustrating this tragi-comedy of animal life, to 
which he contributes sixteen plates in colour. The 
chief dramatis persoiur here are White-liar, a fox, 
and Peter, a fox-terrier, the villain and hero of the 
piece respectively, the rest of the cast being made 
up of sundry birds, beasts, and human beings. 
Needless to say the hero triumphs, and the villain 
suffers the penalty of his crimes, as does an eagle 
with whom he entered into a diabolical plot. The 
story is written in an entertaining vein and is 
attractively presented. 

She Stoops to Coitqiter. liy Olu i;k ( ioi.iisMnii. 
Illustrated by Hu(;h Thomson. (London : 
Hodder and Stoughton.) 155. net. — Mr. Thomson 
has executed some two dozen or more drawings in 
colour to illustrate this edition of Goldsmith's 
old favourite, besides a number of line drawings 
interspersed in the text. His colour drawings 
comport with the printed page as well as any we 
know, but delightful as they are for the most part, 
we cannot suppress our preference for the pen 
drawings in which he excels. In all his illustrative 
work Mr. Thomson shows a conscientious re- 
gard for historical accuracy ; hence it is rare to 
find an anachronism in his portrayal of old-world 
scenes. This volume has a very ornate cover. 

Parsifal, or the Legend of the Holy Grail. Re- 
told from antient sources, with acknowledgment 
to the "Parsifal" of Richard Wagner, by T. W. 
Roi.LESTON. Presented by AVii.lv Poganv. 
(London: G. G. Harrap and Co.) 15^. net. — 
We have from time to time when noticing books 
decorated and illustrated by Mr. Pogiiny remarked 
on the exuberance of his decorative fancy, which 
has at times threatened to run away with him. In 
" presenting " this rhymed version of Parsifal Mr. 
Pogany has restrained his fancy somewhat, but 
there is still quite enough decorative embellishment. 
As a draughtsman he displays marked ability, and 



Reviews and Notices 



this is accompanied by a lively feeling for colour. 
In this book the illustrations in colour are of two 
sorts ; some are printed separately and stuck on to 
grey mounts ; the others are printed direct on to 
the grey paper and have lost much of their brilliance 
in the process, so that the contrast between the 
two kinds is at times quite startlmg. 

Poems of Passion and Pkasi/iv. By Ella 
Wheeler Wilcox. Illustrated by Dudley Ten- 
N.\N'T. (London: Gayand Hancock.) 15j-.net. — The 
artist illustrating Miss Wilcox does not lack invention 
and considerable technical skill, but in his illustra- 
tions we seem to miss that note of poetry which 
is essential in illustrating poetry. This is another 
book bound and printed with remarkable care. 

The A/iigic World. By E. Nesbit. (London ; 
Macmillan and Co.) 6s. — The name E. Nesbit on 
a book has become something of a guarantee of 
excellence, and these stories by this popular writer, 
in which the fairy and magical element is skilfully 
interwoven with the ordinary life of her boy and 
girl heroes and heroines, should be much in demand 
this Christmas time. The illustrations are the work 
of H. R. Miller and G. Spencer Pryse, the latter 
contributing three clever drawings to a tale of " The 
Princess and the Hedge-Pig." 

Folk Tales 0/ Bengal. By the Rev. Lal Beharl 
Illustrated by Warwick Goble. (London : Mac- 
millan.) 15J. net. — Mr. Coble's book adds to the 
list of those prepared and illustrated with care for 
the season, having a very attractive cover and a full 
complement of illustrations in colour. 

This time last year Messrs. Bell and Son offered 
a treat to admirers of the late Sir AV. S. Gilbert's 
genius in the reprints of three of his famous Savoy 
Operas — Patience., The Pirates of Penzance, and 
The Mikado, each accompanied by eight full-page 
colour-plates by Mr. Russell Flint. This year they 
have added four more volumes to the series — 
Princess Ida, Ruddigore, The Yeomen of the Guard, 
and The Gondoliers, each containing the same 
number of coloured plates by the same artist, 
which form delightful accompaniments to the 
text. The volumes are bound in cloth covers 
specially designed for the series, and at the price of 
T,s. bd. net are sure to meet with public favour. 

Messrs. T. C. and E. C. Jack offer this season a 
group of books for juveniles which will prove as 
popular as those they have published in the past. 
Interesting to boys and girls alike is Mr. \\'. 1!. 
Synge's Book of Discovery {js. 6d. net) in which tlie 
author gives a brightly written narrative of explora- 
tion from the days of antiquity right down to the very 
days in which we live. The volume is very fully illus- 



trated, and some interesting old maps are repro- 
duced. Miss Steedman, who has a notable gift for 
entertaining the young, tells in Oitr Island Saints 
(■js. 6d. net) the story of SS. Alban, Augustine, 
Kentigern, Patrick, Bridget, Cuthbert, and others 
whose names and deeds are writ large in the history 
of the British Islands, and eight illustrations in 
colour are contributed by Miss M. D. Spooner. 
And then in A Nu?-sery History of E>igland {^s. 
net) Mrs. E. O'Neill unfolds in a series of short but 
connected stories, suited to the comprehension of 
little ones, the progress of the nation from the dark 
days of the Druids right down to our own wonder- 
ful times, Mr. George Morrow providing an unfail- 
ing source of entertainment in a series of a hundred 
pictures in colour and many drawings in black 
and white. The Story of Rome {-js. dd. net) will 
not perhaps be quite so popular with juvenile 
readers as the volume just referred to, but the 
narrative as told by Miss Mary MacGregor will 
certainly prove more palatable to them than the 
more recondite histories with which they are 
familiar in the schoolroom ; and the coloured illus- 
trations by Messrs Paul Woodrofile, W. Rainey, and 
Dudley Heath will make it additionally acceptable. 
Louisa Alcot's little Women has for many years 
been a nursery classic, and though its popularity 
can hardly be so great to-day as it was two or three 
generations back, the tasteful edition which the 
Religious Tract Society offers at 7^-. 6d. net will no 
doubt have the effect of reviving interest in what 
is a really charming story. Mr. Harold Copping has 
supplied a number of illustrations in colour which 
show good technical qualities. 



The latest of Mr. Edmund Hort New's series of 
Oxford drawings is one giving a view of the famous 
High Street, showing on the right of the spectator 
the front of Queen's College, the creation of AVren 
and his pupil Hawksmoor, and on the left the front 
of Univeristy College, while above the buildings at 
the farther end rises the spire of St. Mary's with its 
cluster of pinnacles. The drawing has been repro- 
duced by lithography by Mr. Way. 

The manufacturers of the popular Waterman 
fountain and safety pens are offering them in 
numerous choice styles suitable for presentation, 
those cased in silver or gold being admirably 
adapted to this purpose. The merits of these pens 
are too well known to need reiteration. Messrs. L. 
and C. Hardtmuth, who are the sole agents for them 
in Europe, also offer many dainty novelties in their 
famous " Koh-i-Noor " brand of pencils. 

26:; 



TJic Lay Figure 



T 



IIK LAV FIGURE: ON THE 
ART OI" ILLUSTRATION. 



1 )o you not think that book illustration 
has become a little inefficient of late years ? '' said 
the Plain Man. "The demand for illustrated 
literature has grown greater than ever and yet the 
artists are less able than they were formerly to 
make the best use of their opportunities. Illus- 
tration, as illustration, seems to me to have lost its 
spirit and character and to be generally lacking ii\ 
interest."' 

"That is rather a severe indictment," laughed 
tlie Man with the Red Tie : " and one that I find 
it a little difficult to endorse. Are you not for- 
getting what a number of clever men there are now 
who devote them.selves to illustrative work and 
what a high standard there is to-day of technical 
achievement ?" 

" Oh, I do not deny the cleverness of the 
modem illustrators," returned the Plain Man : 
"and I do not deny that there are some excep- 
tional men who are keeping up the best tradi- 
tions of their art. But -what about the others ? 
There are lots of them who can turn out remark- 
ably skilful drawings and whose work is as accom- 
|>lished as any one could wish it to be : but don't 
you think that you want something more than 
mere cleverness of execution in an illustrative 
drawing ? " 

" Vou have made rather a good point there," 
broke in the Art Critic. " Vou are right. Clever- 
ness of execution is, of course, as important in 
illustrative work as it is in all other forms of 
artistic production, but the true illustrator needs 
to be something more than a merely skilful crafts- 
man. He has to work under certain restrictions 
and he has to keep in view a certain jjurpose in 
everything he does. If the purpose of his work is 
missed its cleverness alone will not make it 
satisfactory." 

" But you will derive a vast amount of pleasure 
from looking at a really able piece of work — what 
more need you have ? " asked the Man with the 
Red Tie. '• Personally, I feel quite satisfied with a 
book which is full of memorable works of art : it 
is a real joy to me and it seems to me to have quite 
fulfilled its mission." 

" Because in your mind its only mission is to be 
a picture-ljook," a.sserted the Critic. " But that is 
where you miss the whole point of the argument. 
What is the use of filling a book with works of art 
which are obviously suitable only for places on 
the walls of a gallery ? The function of an illus- 
266 



iration is to illustrate, and an illustrated book is, 
or ought to be, a good deal more than a mere 
picture-book." 

" You mean th:U the illustrations in a book ought 
to have an intimate connection with the letter- 
press" interrupted the Plam Man ; "and that they 
ought not to be simply independent works of art." 

" Precisely, that is just what I do mean," replied 
the Critic, " the illustrations to a story must be 
pictorial explanations of what the author has written 
if they are to fulfil the purpose for which they have 
been brought into existence. They must not be 
extraneous and independent things, mere artistic 
abstractions. They depend for their meaning 
upon the text and it should not be possible to 
separate them from it or to assign to them any 
independent interest." 

" Do you really mean to say that if the illustrator 
does not merely repeat the ideas of the author his 
illustrations must be bad ? " asked the Man with 
the Red Tie. " Is he not to be allowed any 
opinion of his own ? '' 

" Ijnphatically he must subordinate himself to 
the writer of the book if his work is to be good of 
its kind and to have the right meaning,'' declared 
the Critic. "He must strictly respect the limita- 
tions which are imposed upon him by the very 
nature of the undertaking to which he is committed, 
but, of course, within these limitations he must 
strive to make the best display of his own capacities. 
In other words, he must handle artistically the 
material provided for him." 

■' \'ou would seriously cramp his liberty ©faction 
and freedom as an artist," complained the Man with 
the Red Tie. 

" I do not think so," returned the Critic. " 1 
would only ask him to have that thorough under- 
standing of his mission that is essential for success 
in all artistic effort, whatever may be the class to 
which it belongs. The illustrator, if he is to be 
efficient, must work in the closest sympathy with 
the author : he must never allow any of the details 
of his drawings to contradict, or to be out of con- 
nection with the details of the text. He must 
choose, too, to illustrate those episodes in the story 
which are most significant and best explain the 
spirit of what has been written. He must recognise 
the dramatic points of the letterpress and handle 
them with intelligence. He must strive to make 
more clear the purpose and intention of the 
author and the special aims of the book. In fact, 
he must understand what illustration really means, 
and what are its inevitable obligations." 

TnK L.w FK;rKi£. 



Philip Coiiuard 



T 



HE PAINTINGS OF PHILIP 
CONNARD. BY MARION HEP- 
WORTH DIXON. 



It was Theophile Gautier, if I remember aright, 
who divided mankind into two classes — the flam- 
boyant and the drab. Art obviously has its drab 
and flamboyant impulses, and we may deem our- 
selves lucky when fashion, the almighty arbiter, 
permits an artist to be something other than the 
adroit purveyor of a new sensationalism. For 
fashion, the desire for the strange and the bizarre, 
is so all-paramount at the present day that I marvel 
not at all that the Post-Impressionist, the Cubist, 
and the Futurist should have arrested the attention 
of our somewhat timid British critics. " It is new, 
it is strange and not a little incomprehensible," 
these good gentlemen appear to say, " let us hasten 
to praise what is new and strange and incompre- 
hensible lest we be convicted of old-fogeyism." 

Now in the attitude of 
both the critic and that 
section of the public which 
follows the newer criticism, 
the fundamental principle 
on which all serious art 
subsists is curiously and 
wantonly evaded. The 
real test is apt to go by 
the board. No one, for 
instance, questions the 
sincerity of the artist, yet it 
is by his sincerity in the 
last instance that he must 
stand or fall. "Have 
something to say before 
you sit down to write," 
George Meredith was wont 
to insist, and the maxim 
holds equally good in the 
sister art of painting ; for 
the artist who merely 
imitates or simulates is lost, 
there is no health in him. 
And it matters not if he 
imitates a cherished master 
or the most triumphantly 
successful of modern 
schools. If he be anything 
but himself his work will 
avail him nothing. It will 
be necessarily a reiteration, 
a thing which smells of the 
lamp. 



In the dominant personality of Mr. Philip 
Connard, the subject of this article, we have a 
healthy antidote to the something morbid which 
threatens to engulf our younger schools of 
painters. Life for him at any rate is no im- 
penetrable riddle. On the contrary, it is some- 
thing to portray and enjoy. At the same 
time it should be said that Mr. Connard is a 
painters' painter in the sense that his manifest 
delight is in his pigments. Indeed, so distinctive 
is the handling of this trenchant impressionist 
that his smallest still-life has a significance for 
those who distinguish artistry from mere picture- 
making. With Mr. Connard it is not the fascina- 
tion of the unknown, but rather the actual thing 
seen which haunts and preoccupies him. Others 
may seek the barren moor, the rock-bound coast, 
Mr. Connard's muse is the muse of the Great City. 
Not that he deals as a rule with any of the sterner 
realities of modern capitals or suggests the greater 




THE GUITAR 
( By permission of Mc: 



BY PHILIP CONNARD 
Ernest Brown and Phillifs, The Leicester Galleries) 



XLVIII. No. 192. — Febkiary 1913 



'^ C,'] — 269 



Philip Coiiuard 



issues and complex problems of a turgid twentieth 
century. Mr. Connard is not a Brangwyn. Let us 
confess at once he is a master dealing with small 
things — a summer day in Kensington Gardens, a 
little supper with a couple of masks for convives. 
or better still with the cherished family group in the 
shadowy house at Chelsea. 

With Mr. Connard the manner, not the matter, is 
the thing. In paint he seeks quality, in handling dis- 
tinction, and if he properly disdains the anecdote, he 
no less eschews the orthodox and obvious. Given 
the man, how could he do otherwise? Forceful 
is the adjective which best describes Mr. Connard's 
talent, a talent which in some extraordinary way 
communicates a stimulation to the spectator. No 
one without a strong individuality could so project 
himself over the footlights and hold us suspended 
in just the rare mood in which the artist himself 
conceived his subject. This .something compelling 
is an art in itself, and belongs only to the painter 
bom. " Put troublesome problems aside,'' this 
artist seems to say to us, " in a bowl of flowers, a 



dish of fruit, a face seen in a mirror — here in the 
simplest things are enough beauty and mystery to 
last us a life-time." For above all things Mr. 
Connard is an artist sure of himself. I do not 
think that it would be possible for him to alter his 
outlook on life or to convey a different message. 
As an accomplished writer and astute critic has 
recently said : " The artist who questions his own 
inspiration can hardly expect others to accept it un- 
questioningly." Of course. But Mr. Oliver Onions 
— the writer in point — seems to me to lay more 
than particular stress upon Mr. Philip Connard's 
materialism. 

As a plain-speaking realist he is busy delineat- 
ing his own world, the actual visual world around 
him. But I should grossly mislead the public 
if I labelled Mr. Connard a mere realist. As a 
matter of fact it is part of his artistic good manners 
to be reserved. Each picture of his is in a sense a 
synthesis, a study in elimination. In truth he 
seems to be heading towards that greater unification 
of expression which is the trend of the twentieth 




'summer" 
270 



rA>A 



sioii oj Messrs. Hi 



Marchant and Co. ) 



BY PHILIP CONNARD 




' Q 

W a, 
CO ^ 



1^1 




THE LITTLE BALLERINA" 
BY PHILIP CONXARD 



( By perniissioi: of Messrs. WiUiam 
Marchant and Co.) 



Philip Coiinard 




"STILL-LIFE." BY PHILIP 

CONNARD 

(In the possession of Dr. 

Rice-Oxky) 



century. "Few people," 
exclaims Mr. Chesterton 
in his emphatic way, " will 
dispute that all the typical 
movements of our time are 
upon the road towards 
simplification. Each sys- 
tem seeks to be more fun- 
damental than the other 
. . . each seeks to re- 
establish communication 
with the elemental, or, as 
it is sometimes more 
roughly and fallaciously 
expressed, to return to 
nature." Now the direct- 
ness of Mr. Philip Con- 
nard's art is as palpable as 
his strict economy of 
means. Each work would 
seem to be the outcome 
of a preliminary study so 
searching that the thing 
portrayed has (by some 
subtle brain process) been 
purged and simplified be- 
fore it is portrayed on 
canvas. The more con- 



sistently things are con- 
templated, the more they 
tend to unify themselves. 
Here in a nutshell is Mr. 
Connard's secret. 

The history of the artist 
can be told in a dozen 
lines. Born at Southport, 
Philip Connard began the 
serious business of his life 
when he won a National 
Scholarship at South Ken- 
sington. An additional 
scholarship, given by the 
British Institute, enabled 
the student to cross the 
Channel, where for six 
months he studied under 
Benjamin Constant and 
Jean Paul Laurens. 
The tuition, however, did 



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"FLOWERS OF Sl'RING " 

( By pennissiou of Me: 



BY PHILIP CONNARIl 
rs. Ernes! Hrou-n and Phillips) 

273 



Philip Connarii 



not include painting. Returning to London the 
student accepted a position as art master at the 
Lambeth School of Art, and began a series of 
black-and-white illustrations for the Bodley Head. 
It was, however, at the New English Art Club that 
Mr. Connard first attracted the attention of picture- 
lovers and won the suffrages- of an enthusiastic 
public of his own. From the New English Art 
Club to the Goupil Gallery is not a far cry, and at 
Messrs. Marchant and Co.'s, in Waterloo Place, 
some of Mr. Connard's finest paintings have since 
found a temporary home. Thus A May Morning, 
first exhibited at the New English Art Club, was 
seen at the Goupil Gallery before being pur- 
chased for the Musee du Luxembourg in Paris. 
So was the luminous and inspiring canvas called 
Below Toiver Bridge, a picture kindly lent for 
illustration in these pages. Calm, serene, yet pal- 
pitating with light and air. Below To'wer Bridge is 
one of the artist's finest //c//; air compositions. It 
has imagination in it, but also a wise restraint. 



Even more alluring in some of its phases is the 
kindred picture Barges Unloading, which we are 
also enabled to give in a black-and-white repro- 
duction. Indeed, much as I admire Belotv Tower 
Bridge, Barges Unloading seems to surpass it in 
the originality of its composition and the fine rhythm 
of its movement. AVho can say that London dock- 
yards are ugly in the presence of such a canvas ? 
The beauty as well as the dignity of labour could 
hardly be better emphasised. 

Conceived in another vein altogether is the 
picture called Summer, which boldly vindicates 
Monet's dictum that light is the only subject for a 
picture. Bathed in light assuredly is this brilliant 
impressionist study, which depicts a picnic-party 
scattered in the idle hours of a dazzling noonday. 
The Abbey Ruins, a canvas purchased by the 
Corporation of Bradford (who have kindly allowed 
its reproduction in this magazine), is another study 
of scintillating sunlight. But the subject is envisaged 
on larger lines. In it Mr. Connard's passion for 




1 



'THE FOLNTAIN 



( :■;, Uniiission of M, 



<:l PhiUips) 



BV PlilLir CONNARD 




^^^ 



( Ry permission of Messrs. Willian 
Marchant and Co. ) 



THE GUITAR PLAYER 
BY PHILIP CONNARD 



Philip CfliiJiard 



simplification or unification is seen in its happiest 
phase. Vet the theme is intensely modern both in 
its handling and in the disposition of its various 
groups of figures. Had Mr. Connard done nothing 
else he would have proclaimed himself an uncom- 
promising realist in the figures of a couple of 
faultlessly attired holiday-makers, who occupy the 
right-hand corner of the canvas. It is not often, 
if I remember aright, that the artist thus portrays 
the actual f;ishions of his day. Like many of his 
Chelsea brethren Mr. Connard aftects the wide 
hoop and fringed bodice of the mid-Victoriaai era. 
It comes therefore with no surprise to us when we 
find the arti.st's Guitar Player attired in a gown 
which might have been worn by the Empress 
Eugenie or a damsel in Frith's Derby Day. .\nd 
in truth the gracious pose of the lady seems in no 
way impeded by the hoops and flounces and fringes 
of an artificial costume, a costume which, viewed 
apart from prejudice, is perhaps neither more 
cumbersome nor more ungainly than that worn 
in a piquant eighteenth century. 

But I must hasten, if in the briefest way, to 
describe the Connard E.xhibition inaugurated by 
Messrs. Ernest Brown and Phillips at the Leicester 
Galleries last summer, where both The Supper 



and the canvas entitled Bayswater were first shown 
to the outside public. Kindly lent for reproduc- 
tion in colour by their owner, the canvases need 
no legend or foot-note to explain them. Joyous 
lightheartedness is their key-note, for whether the 
spectator is brought face to face with a masquerade 
in a Chelsea studio or with a white-robed woman 
dawdling in a boat near the splashing fountain of 
Kensington Gardens, the electrical and vivacious 
impression is the same. I know of no other artist 
indeed (with the sole exception of Mr. Sims) who 
.so imbues us with the fine hilarity of nature as 
does Mr. Connard. \\'hat can surpass the sunny 
warmth and glow of the little canvas entitled The 
Founlain ? Spontaneity is of its essence — scintil- 
lation radiates from every touch of the brush. It 
may seem an exaggeration to say that the small 
picture called Floivers of Spring — a picture depicting 
a simple little girl standing in the sunlight gazing 
at a bouquet of flowers — made me catch my breath 
with astonishment — yet all virile and compelling 
art has this note in it. For it is in the most 
elemental of themes, as I have already suggested, 
that Mr. Connard finds his chief inspiration. As a 
tour de force of mere painting it would be hard to 
beat the Still-Life. The round bellied water- bottle, 




'BARGES unloading" ( Jiy permission of Messrs. William MarchanI and Co.) Bv I'HILii' con.nard 

276 




Ti- 



(Byftnmaicn c/ 



■BAYSWATER. from the OIL 




( By permission of Messrs. Williant 
Marchant and Co. ) 



'BELOW TOWER BRIDGE 
BY PHILIP CONNARD 



^^'\ 



// '. Elmer Schoficld 



with its vivid black-and-white reflections, is a 
stroke of genius in itself. " It is only when we 
have seen a thing for the hundredth time that we 
see it for the first time," says the chief of modern 
paradoxical writers. Well, Mr. Connard is one of 
the artists who sees, that is what differentiates his 
work from that of other artists. 

Two of the painter's most characteristic canva.ses 
delineating the well-known interior with figures at 
Chelsea are also among our illustrations. The 
first (from the Leicester Galleries) is named The 
Guitar, and shows us, beyond the now familiar 
group of mother and children, the reflection of the 
artist at work in a long mirror. The second and 
larger black-and-white. The Little Ballerina, has 
even more distinction and felicity of composition. 
In it Mr. Connard touches on the true mystery of 
the interior. There is magic in the lighting. The 
canvas, indeed, is steeped in atmosphere, and 
conveys to the spectator that subtle mixture of 
intimacy and aloofness which only a master knows 
how to convev. M. H. D. 



A 



N AMERICAN LANDSCAPE 
PAINTER: \V. ELMER SCHO- 
FIELD. BY C. LEWIS HIND. 



A KKNOWNED marine and pastoral painter sat 
in a deep chair smoking a discoloured pipe and 
frowning. It was a winter evening ; we were 
gathered around the club fire, and one of the party 
— you may be sure that he was a figure-man — was 
readingaloud with glee passages from that egregious 
book by " Cosmos " on " The Position of Land- 
scape in Art." Suddenly the renowned marine and 
pastoral painter stirred, rose, and said with 
vehemence : " Look here I landscape painting is 
much more difficult than figure. The model is 
always moving, and if you do the right thing, and 
always paint in the open, you have to be as strong 
as an elephant to stand the exposure. I tell you 
landscape painting is much more difficult, and the 
sea is still more appallingly difficult.'' 

With that he stalked away. I moved apart 
also, for the discussion promised to be profitless. 




'OLD COVERED BRIDGE 
280 



Pitj^mKfki*:-Mr^VSin^^,:^y-rs*^i\^;3^^]^\^^^^^ik^-'.%\^i%7.1ltTI I XI 








( Purchased for Stale Mitstum 
of Uruguay) 



"FIRST DAYS OF SPRING" 
BY VV. ELMER SCHOFIELD 



//'. Elmer Schoficid 



Moreover I had promised to write an appreciative 
little article on the art and life of my friend Scho- 
field. and I didn't want to make myself angry ar- 
raigning a typical " Cosmos " foolish statement to 
the effect that one of the causes of the present 
chaotic condition of the art of the painter in England 
is " the undue importance given to landscape.' 
" Undue importance," I can hear the landscape 
painters of Great Britain murmur ; " what we suffer 
from is undue neglect." 

W. Elmer Schofield is not an Englishman. He 
is an American, bom in 1S67 at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, who spends much of his time in 
England, finding it pleasant and profitable. He 
cannot complain of neglect. " Who's Who " 
contains many lines of small type detailing a number 
of American public galleries which are the fortunate 
owners of his pictures, with a list of the gold and 
silver medals awarded to him. His recreation 
is not given. His recreation I should say is 
painting. At St. Ives, where we first met, I 
never encount-ered him on the golf links or on 
the tennis ground, but he was always to be found 



any day in any weather happy as a boy, vigorous 
as a footballer, painting the colour, movement, and 
majesty of some Cornish cove, such a wild, brilliant 
cove as is here reproduced in colour. 

He is an open-air man, wholesome, healthy, 
hearty, and his art, sane and straightforward, 
reflects his temperament. Were I to talk to him 
of Meryon's sense of guilty secrets in decaying 
buildings : of a dim and delicate inward dream 
by Matthew Maris : of the subtle decadency of 
moments with Gustave Moreau, Schofield would, 
I think, spring to the open door and start forth 
on a ten-mile tramp, or rush away to spla.sh on 
a si.N-foot canvas. He is for " the wind on the 
heath, brother," the free limbs of life, the big 
movement and the big line in nature, vast rivers 
and vaster spaces, the outlook of Walt Whitman 
and Adam Lindsay Gordon, not of Blake or W. B. 
Veats. Among his compatriots he is as near to 
the vigorous banner of Winslow Homer as he is 
far from the tenderly tinctured oriflamme of 
Twachtman. His art is virile and outstepping, 
crisp and candid, and I should not wonder if he 




"THE BASIN, BOl I 
282 



BY W. ELMER SCHOFIELD 




(In the colleclion of Dr. Woodward) 



'WINTER IX PICARDY." BY 
W. ELMER SCHOFIELD 



IV. Ehuey ScJioficld 



with Metcalf and Redfield, to mention but two 
others, became the founders of an American school 
of landscape, rooted and grounded in the soil, and 
expressing broadly and simply the rolling spacious- 
ness and clear atmosphere of their land. I re- 
member a few years ago at an exhibition of the 
Pennsylvania Academy a series of landscapes by 
Schofield, Metcalf, and Redfield. They have left 
a memory of spaciousness, of an open, unsophisti- 
cated landscape-land, with great rivers and thin 
sky-stretching trees, nature seen expansively, the 
pigment laid on in broad, simple strokes, the figure 
rarely or never introduced, nature as she is viewed 
by steady eyes, Paris trained, but remaining in- 
herently amd essentially American. 

The vigorous art of this orderly out-of-door 
school is well exemplified by Schofield's Old 
Covered Bridge on the Schuylkill river in mid- 
winter, when the snow tingles in the sunshine and 
the bare thin trees are silhouetted in the clear light. 
\'ou may note the same big, simple statement in 
another of his American pictures reproduced here, 
Firsf Days of Spring, and in the Winter Morning, 



Richmond. Here, as always, it is mass not detail 
that attracts him. Even when he chooses a scene 
such as The Channel Boat, Dieppe, bustling with 
detail, the numerous figures are subordinated to 
the broad general effect. So here is an art without 
mystery, never coy, rarely suggestive, not brooded 
upon, done on the spot, and carried through to 
success by sheer enthusiasm to represent scenes 
that have moved and subjugated the artist. 

Anent the vexed question as to whether a land- 
scape should be painted en plein air from start to 
finish, or reasoned out in the studio from sketches 
and memory, there can be but one answer. Each 
man must choose the method by which he wins 
the completest expression of himself. Unlike the 
marine painter mentioned in the opening paragraph, 
Schofiekl loves the fight against the discomfort of 
temperature and weather. It is part of the game, 
spurring him to tackle " the wonderful things out 
of doors." To quote his own words: "Zero 
weather, rain, falling snow, wind — all these things 
to contend with only make the open-air painter 
love the fight." 




'WINTER MORMN'J, RICHMOND (VORKn) '' 
284 



BY W. ELMER SCHOl lELD 




i( Metropolitan Museitiii 
of Art, New York) 



'SAND DUNES NEAR LELANT 
BY W. ELMER SCHOFIELD 



JV. Elmer Sclwfichi 



Had not Schofield been a painter he would 
certainly have chosen some kind of life in the open 
combined with travelling. Fate has been kind to 
him. He works under the sky, he travels, and he 
has the joy of knowing that all he sees ministers to 
the improvement of his chosen work. I suppose 
he would say that England is his adopted home, 
but he is often on the wing. Recent letters I have 
had from him come from places as far apart as 
Bedford and Polperro, some of the illustrations to 
this article show that Boulogne and Picardy are 
also among his painting grounds, and when I wrote 
to him in November last I had to address him at 
Washington where he was fulfilling his duties as 
one of the hanging committee of the Winter Exhi- 
bition of the Corcoran Art Gallery. 

I suppose a man becomes a painter because he 
must, because there is nothing else he wants to do. 
Young Schofield, being a Philadelphian, naturally 
spent his first year or so of study at the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts. Then Paris called him, 
she always does, and in 1892, at the proper age 



of twenty-five he was at Julian's under Ferrier, 
Bouguereau, and Aman-Jean, who had a class of 
his own apart from Julian's. He soon wearied of 
that useful but rather stuffy kind of teaching, and 
spent his hours out of doors by the Seine and in 
the forest of Fontainebleau. Rambles in Brittany 
followed, and in 1903 he came to England, to St. 
Ives, where he spent four years. Now, as I have 
said, he fluctuates between England and America, 
rarely able to resist the vigorous delight of a 
painting winter in his native land. There he is 
working at this moment, perhaps in zero weather, 
with rain and falling snow and tugging winds, 
enjoying it immensely. 

I sit by the club fire, trying to comfort the 
marine and pastoral painter, trying in the intervals 
of talk to read an article in an American magazine 
by Mr. Birge Harrison entreating Americans to 
paint their own land. That Schofield is doing, 
and I am not sure but that he is achieving his 
best work when he is painting at home in zero 
weather. C. L. H. 




"THE CHAN.NEL BOAT, DIEPIE ' 



286 



(The propaly of A. D. Marks, Esq.) 



BY \V. ELMER SCHOFIELD 




-v^l 



•'A CORNISH COVE." from the oil 
PAINTING BY W. ELMER SCHOFIELD 




MARCH SNOW." BY W. 
ELMER SCHOFIELD 



Tlic Arts mid Crafts Society's Exhibition 



THE ARTS AND CRAFTS 
SOCIETY'S EXHIBITION AT 
THE GROSVENOR GALLERY. 
(First Artick.) 
The last exhibition of the Arts and Crafts Exhi- 
bition Society was held in January and February, 
19 10, at the New Gallery in Regent Street, which 
at that time had already been disposed of by 
its original proprietors and was destined in the 
future to be used for purposes widely different 
from those for which it was originally designed. 
As soon as it was vacated by the Arts and Crafts 
Society the destruction of the New Gallery as a 
place of exhibition was commenced, and it was 
not long before the rooms in which so many in- 
teresting shows bad been held were turned into a 
restaurant. Galleries suitable for important ex- 
hibitions are comparatively rare in London, and 
the President of the Arts and Crafts Society in the 
preface to the catalogue of the exhibition of 1910 
expressed his misgi\ings as to the possibility of 
finding suitable headquarters in the future. Mr. 
Walter Crane, who is of a sanguine and hopeful 
spirit where art is concerned, hinted that it would 
not be amiss for the nation to provide some per- 
manent home for periodic exhibitions of art and 
craftsmanship which n>ight be some guide in taste 
to the public and also help to maintain a standard 
in workmanship. It was at the same time suggested 
in these, and I believe in other columns, that the 
London County Council, which owns and controls 



so many schools of arts and crafts, might give some 
aid in this direction or that the Royal Academy 
might lend some of their rooms for exhibition 
purposes. However, nothing was done and the 
Arts and Crafts Society might have been homeless 




SILVER PENDANT SET WITH PEARL BLISTERS AND TUR- 
ULOISE. BY KATE M. EADIE 




SILVER NECKLET SET WITH OPALS 
290 



BY KATE M. EADIE 



this year it it had not 
been for the establish- 
ment, exactly at the right 
time, of the new Gros- 
venor Gallery in Bond 
Street. 

This gallery cannot 
offer the Society the space 
it enjoyed at the New 
Gallery, or at the Grafton 
Gallery, where the exhi- 
bition was on one occa- 
sion held. Nevertheless 
there is space enough in 
the new quarters, and 
the rooms in which the 
present exhibition is held 
are as perfect as they can 
be in planning and light- 
ing. The favourable 



TIic Arts ana Crafts Society s ExJiibitioii 




' ROSE LATTICE : SILVER AND ENAMEL NECKLACE SET WITH OPALS AND PEARLS. BY ARTHUR AND G. C. GASKIN 




"KEY OF spring": SILVER NECKLACE WITH ENAMEL, 
CRYSTALS, AND AQUAMARINES. BY ARTHUR AND G. C. 



" BLUE peacock" : SILVER AND GOLD NECKLACE WITH 

OPALS AND FINE ORBEN PASTE. BY ARTHUR AND G. C. 

GASKIN 

291 



The Arts ami Crafts Society s ExhUntion 





GOLD AND SILVER I-KNOAVT SET WITH Ol'ALS AND 
EMERALD FASTE. BY FRANCES RAMSAY 



"LOVE"s garland" brooch by A. AND O. C. CASKIN 
GOLD PENDANT WITH OPALS, ETC., BY R. J. EMERSON 
BROOCH BV H. M. TRAVERS AND G. R. SEDDI'NG 




JEWELLED COLLAR : 
292 



'THE INSPIRATION OF WOMANHOOD 



BY R. C. PRICE 



The Arts and Crafts Society s Exhibition 



— ^^^^^_ 






i 


6 





SILVER NECKLET SET WITH MOONSTONES AND WHITE TOfRMALINES 
BY VIOLET RAMSAY 




GOLD AND SILVER -'XINE NKCKl.ViF. SKI Willi rARBrM I.KS 

BY VIOLET RAMSAY 



display, to which the present 
simple background of brown 
paper is in no way detrimental. 

In the interval that has 
elapsed between the closing of 
its last exhibition and the open- 
ing of the present one the Arts 
and Crafts Society has lost, by 
the death of Mr. Lewis Day, one 
of its earliest and most hard- 
working members. Mr. Day, 
to whose ability and energy Mr. 
Crane pays a tribute in his in- 
troductory notes to the cata- 
logue, was connected intimately 
with the foundation of the 
.Society, which originated in 
some informal meetings of 
artists and craftsmen held at 
various studios thirty years ago. 
It is interesting to recall at this 
moment that the first of these 
meetings was held at the house 
of Mr. Lewis Day. 

The exhibition at the Gros- 
venor Gallery resembles its pre- 
decessor of 19 to in its freedom 
from extravagance, and also, it 
must be confessed, in its lack 
of new motives. It gives a 
general impression of skilled 
craftsmanship following recog- 
nised and respectable lines, 
with a corresponding output 



impression that is given by the exhi- 
bition on first entering the gallery is 
due in some degree to the beauty of 
the rooms, but more to the way in which 
the various articles are grouped and dis- 
played. Some critics have found fault 
wiih the result of the labours of the 
committee of arrangement, but they 
cannot, I think, have made sufficient 
allowance for the extreme difficulty of 
placing with any degree of symmetry or 
order the great number of heterogeneous 
objects shown by the Arts and Crafts 
Society. The silk curtains which 
draped the walls of the Grosvenor 
during the time of the inaugural exhi- 
bition of pictures have been removed 
for the purposes of the Arts and Crafts 




FOR "THR SHRPHiEARDES CAl.RNDAR 
TRKSS). BY ALFRED DE SAUTY 



(KEI.M9COTT 



The .'Irts and Crafts Society's Exhibition 




lOR MRS. 11K0UM> 



•' iON.NEli 

BY GWLADYS EDWARIlS 



of good and frequently interesting woik, but 
all unstirred by any fresh emotion. There are 
many pleasant patterns and much dexterity of 
hand, but no great designer or craftsman rises 
above the ruck to lead the way into fresh fields 
of invention. In this there is nothing surprising, 




for the appearance of a genius in the applied arts 
is as rafre or rarer than that of a greet painter or poet. 
In looking at the large collection of jewellery at 
the Grosvenor Gallery it is curious to think that 
not a single piece was shown in the first exhibition 
..f the Arts and Crafts Society in 1888 : and only 
six pieces (all contributed by one craftsman) in the 
second exhibition of 1889. The standard of this 
work, which was very low at first, has risen steadily, 
and at the later shows of the Arts and Crafts Society, 
as well as at the exhibitions of the National Art 
("ompetition, some admirable jewellery has been 
seen. Most of the jeweller-craftsmen nowadays 




COMMON PRAYER, BOUND IN BLUE LEATHER, EMBROI- 
DERED. DESIGNED BY MRS. M. E. NOBLE, EXECUTED 
IS ST. veronica's WORKSHOIS, WESTMINSTER 

294 



C, FOR BI.ADES'S "ENEMIES OF BOOKS'' 

r.V ALFRED DE SAUTY 
( By {•cniiission of A. MiUkinay, Esq.) 



design their ornaments in such a fashion that they 
can be worn by the average woman, whereas 
many of their earlier efforts were only fit for the 
show-cases of a museum. The jewellery in the 
present exhibition is more individual in character 
than it was in 19 10, when a sort of family likeness 
in design and material, and even in colour, could 
be traced through many of the cases. 

The " Rose Lattice" necklace by Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur Gaskin is a very attractive example of their 
work, the setting of opals and pearls being very 
effectively designed and blending in a charming 
way with the silver and enamel. The " Love's 
Garland " brooch, of which an illustration is given 
in the group of three objects shown on p. 292, is 
a perfect posy of coloured stones arranged round 
an opal heart. Another piece by the same artists 




(By permission of the Provost 
of Eton College) 



ROLL OF HONOUR OF ETONIANS WHO SERVED IN 
THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. BINDING DESIGNED 
BY DOUGLAS COCKERELL AND EXECUTED BY 
E. W. MARCH AND J. IZZARD, ALL OF W. H. SMITH 
AND SON'S BOOKBINDING WORKSHOPS 



The Arts (11/ (i C raffs Socicfy's Ex/iibifioii 





THE RACh t.l- l.KA\h> ■ ( \ Al. i-, 1-Kb>.-. j. BOUM) 
BY MISS SYBIL PVE 



■'ClTlli AMI r>VCHF. ■' (\At.H PRESS). BOl:NIl BV 
MISS SYBIL I'YE 





LIFE OF BOLINGBROKE." BOUND BY SIR EDWARD 
SULLIVAN, BA-RT. 



296 



"rsEunoxiA epidemica." bound in brown morocco, 

WITH GOLD I'OINTILI.E DESIGN, BY KATHERINE ADAMS 



The Arts ami Crafts Society's Exliibition 




MIRROR FRAME, 



HE SCHOONER 
BV JOSEPH E. SOUTHALL 



in which colour has been a principal object in the 
design is the " Blue Peacock " necklace of silver 
and gold, opals, and fine green paste. A silver 
necklace, the " Key of Spring," is also shown by 
j\Ir. and ^Irs. Gaskin. Mr. 
R. J. Emerson's pendant, with 
its tiny nude figure in relief 
on a plaque of gold, is good 
alike in design and execution. 
The gold brooch in the same 
case by Mr. H. M. Travers is 
remarkable for the quaint 
charm of its little enamel pic- 
ture. Miss Frances Ramsay's 
gold and silver pendant set 
with opals ; her sister Miss 
\'iolet Ramsay's gold and 
silver Vine necklace and 
silver necklace ; Mr. R. (_'. 
Price's jewelled collar, " The 
Inspiration of Womanhood " ; 
and the pendants, necklaces, 
and clasps by Miss Kate M. 
Eadie are also to be com- 
mended in the jewellery 
.section. 

Mr. Alfred de Sauty's 
" Shepheardes Calendar," in 



dull green leather with a simple geometrical pat- 
tern of squares and circles, is one of the best of 
many good book covers at the Arts and Crafts 
Ivxhibition. Another interesting cover by Mr. de 
-Sauty is "The Enemies of Books " Mr. Douglas 
Cockcrcll's design in red and gold for the cover of 
the Etonians' Roll of Honour gives an impression 
of stately formality that is in keeping with the 
dignity and size of the volume : and the cover in 
brown morocco by Miss Katherine Adams of the 
" Pseudoxia Epidemica" has an unostentatious 
charm that appeals to the book-lover. Sir Edward 
Sullivan, in his green cover for the '' Life of Boling- 
broke," and Miss Gwladys Edwards, in the gold 
and grey binding for Mrs. Browning's Sonnets, are 
more individual than most of the designers ; but 
the boldest of them all is Miss Sybil Pye, who, in 
" The Race of Leaves" and " Cupid and Psyche," 
makes determined effort to break away from con- 
ventional patterns. Mrs. Noble's blue leather 
pr.iyer book, with a design of formal branches and 
foliage embroidered by Miss Jessie Bayes is a fine 
piece of colour. 

Furniture is less prominent in the exhibition 
than it was in 1910, perhaps because the smaller 
space forbids the display of many considerable 
pieces such as cabinets and sideboards. This 
may also account for the absence of bedsteads, of 
which there is not a single example. Edinburgh 
sends an unusually large proportion of the furniture. 




dik^lli 



PAINTED AND GHDED CABINET. EXECUTED BV JESSIE BAVES, 
F. STUTTIG, EMMELINE BAVES, AND KATH-l.EEN HGGIS 



297 



The Arts and Crafts Society's Exhibition 




MIRROR IN CARVED AND GtLDRD FRAME. BY 
JOSEPH ARMITAGE; GILDING BY EDGAR ARMITACE 

including many things designed by Sir Robert 
Lorinier. An upright book cabinet in kingwood, 
with a dull green marble top, and a music cabinet 
in Italian walnut are the most striking of these. 
Sir Robert is less happy with his leather waste- 
paper pails, which are heavy and clumsy and never 
likely to supersede the handy basket. Mr. George 
Jack's fireplace of oak and grey-green marble, in- 
tended for a new room at Dunsany Castle, is an 
imposing piece of work which is not seen to the 
best advantage at the Grosvenor. A good side- 
board in English walnut shown by Mr. Hamilton 
T. Smith : the book and print case in black-bean 
by Mr. Ambrose Heal ; and the arm-chair of walnut 
with a tall back and a buff leather seat by Mr. A. 
Romney Green, are all worthy of attention. The 
green painted chairs by Mr. Alfred Powell decorated 
with floral devices are described as from an old 
pattern, but it is one not worth reviving. The 
most remarkable of several examples of gilt and 
decorated furniture is the cabinet designed by 
Miss Jessie Bayes and executed by her with the 
assistance of Mr. F. Stuttig, Miss Emmeline Bayes, 
and Miss Kathleen Figgis. The design and draw- 
ing of the picture panels of the doors are a little 



weak, but the cabinet is upon the whole an able 
and creditable piece of design and workmanship. 
Another cabinet, simpler in shape but as elaborate 
in decoration, shown by Mrs. A. P. Trotter, is 
I)ainted in colour ground in varnish. The blazoned 
shieldswhich form such an interesting pattern on the 
gold doors are laid in with wax melted in copal and 
the whole is finished with numerous coats of copal 
applied in the manner of the old coach-painters. 
Equal p.iins have been lavished on the inner sides 
of the doors, which are adorned with allegorical 
painting? of Hope and Truth. The corner cup- 
board of painted mahogany by Mr. Joseph Armit- 
age is of greyish blue with a gilt decorative border 
of swans and foliage. The steel hinges (by Mr. 
Edward Spencer) add not a little to the effective- 
ness of this work by Mr. Armitage, who shows in 
addition, among other interesting things, a mirror 




CORNER CUPBOARD, MAHOGANY, CARVED, PAINTED, 
AND GILDED. BY JOSEPH ARMITAGE ; HINGES 
DESIGNED AND EXECUTED BY EDWARD SPENCER 




ENGRAVED AND PAINTED CEDAR SCREEN 
PANEL. BY ALLAN F. VIGERS 



The Arts and C raffs Socicfy's Exhibition 




POT-POURRI BOWI.-STAND AND COVER (WOOD), 

CARVED, PAINTED, AND GILDED BY JOiEl'H 

ARMITAGE 



in caned and gilded frame and a potpourri bowl 
and cover of original and aUractive design. 

Mr. J. E. Southall's mirror frame, The Sc/woner, 
is delightful in shape, and the little picture of the 
harbour with its white-sailed ship relieves the plain 
gold surface in a happy fashion. An excellent 
piece of work of its kind is an engraved and 
painted screen panel of cedar-wood contributed 



by Mr. Allan F. . \'igers. The panel is de- 
corated with an intricate incised and coloured 
design showing in the lower portion an arcade 
with quaint figures of heraldic animals. It 
is, however, in the frieze above the arcade 
that the best work of Mr. Vigers is to be 
found in the shape of a procession of fifteenth- 
century ladies and their attendants in robes and 
trains of gold and vermilion. .Miss de la Mare's 
panel for an overmantel illustrating The Marriage 
of Griselda is gay and bright in colour but seems 
too important as a decoration for the humble fire- 
place of red brick it is intended to surmount. Mr. 
Heywood Sumner's water-colour Thickets — Bury 
is a landscape treated decotatively but with a 
sufficient measure of realism to make it attractive 
as a picture. The subdued colour of the copses 
and water-meadows is at once pleasant and 
harmonious. 

A notable abstention from the furniture section 
of the present exhibition is Mr. Ernest W. Gimson, 
whose sole exhibit is a competitive design for the 
Federal Capital of Australia, whereas on the last 
occasion he was represented by more than a score 
of items. Mr. Gimson stands in the very front 
rank of our workers in wood, and the absence of 
any examples of his mature and agreeable crafts- 
manship detracts from the interest of this section 
at the Grosvenor Gallery. Mr. C. F. Voysey, who 




lANEI. FOR OVERMANTEL: "THE MARRIAGE OK GRISELDA' 
300 



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■/r's Ilxhibifioii 




1pi'i««^ 



CLItOAKlJ IN VtkMli loLlli (jlluWN OPEN AND CLOSEU) 

(Lent by Miss Cundred Trolley) 



KV MRS. ALVS TROTTER 



contributed work in metal and wood on the last 
occasion, sends nothing this time. 

The large gallery at the Arts and Crafts Exhibi- 
tion suffers from a superfluity of designs for stained 
glass. Some of these, however, are very good, and 
among the best are the cartoons for a window in 
Abbotsbury Church designed by Mr. Robert 
Anning Bell. 

There is only one contribution from the firm 
founded by William Morris but it ranks with the 
finest things in the exhibition. It is a large panel 
of Arras tapestry designed by Mrs. Adrian .Stokes 
and executed by Mr. B. J. Martin. Some good 



tapestry of a more modest kind is shown by Mr. 
Edmund Hunter. Mrs. M. Dibdin Spooner's 
unfinished panels for the altar-piece of St. 
Christopher's Church, Haslemere, are notable for 
the individuality of the heads in the designs. 
They look like portraits and are in any case a 
welcome departure from the conventionality of the 
heads in the ordinary church picture. 

In the next article reference will be made to the 
other classes of work on view at the Arts and 
Crafts Exhibition, such as pottery, glass, metal- 
work, &c., and a further series of illustrations will 
be given. W. T. Whitley. 



The La yard Collection 



T 



HE LAYARD COLLECTION 
IN VENICE. BY ALFREDO 
MELANI. 



Destined for the National Gallery in London 
by a long-standing bequest of Sir Henry Layard, 
the famous Assyriologist and Ambassador of his 
Britannic Majesty at Constantinople, a diplomat 
and a perfect gentleman, the Layard collection 
in Venice has been justly considered as among 
the most important private collections of " La 
Dominante," and in Italy it ranks as one of the 
most remarkable on account especially of five or 
six works of the very first order which the National 
Gallery will have reason to congratulate itself 
upon possessing. These works comprise the Por- 
trait of Mohammed II and the Adoration of the 
Magi by Gentile Bellini, three Carpaccios, in par- 
ticular that in which Saint 
Ursula is depicted taking 
leave of her parents, and a 
Portrait of an U/iknoivn Man 
formerly attributed to An- 
tonello da Messina, but to- 
day catalogued as a Luigi 
Vivarini. 

Besides these works, the 
importance of which can in 
no wise be questioned, the 
Layard Collection contains a 
series of pictures for the most 
part of the Venetian school, 
or, to speak more correctly, 
of the schools of ^"enetia. So 
we find Cima da Conegliano 
side by side with Bartolom- 
meo Montagna, the nervous 
painter of Vicenza ; here 
Paris Bordone gives utterance 
to his pictorial harmonies by 
the side of Francesco Bon- 
signori, the Veronese painter 
who betrays the influence of 
Mantegna in a group con- 
sisting of the Madonna and 
Child with various saints, the 
Virgin and infant Jesus typify- 
ing the maternal sentiment 
most admirably ; here also 
we find represented Sebastian 
Luciani, known as Sebastiano 
del Piombo, of the Venetian 
school, a pupil of Giambellino 
and of Giorgione, and after- "mohammed a' 



wards the friend of Michael Angelo ; Jacopo dei 
Barbari, who was influenced by Giambellino and 
Antonello da Messina ; Pierfrancesco Bissolo, the 
pupil of Giambellino ; and Andrea Previtali, another 
pupil of the same Giambellino, all belonging to the 
group of artists of Bergamo who, having established 
themselves in Venice, contributed to the progress 
of art in that city. 

Of eclectic taste. Sir Henry Layard did not by 
any means confine his acquisitions solely to the 
schools of Venetia ; he extended his range con- 
siderably, and the more so because it was not his 
wish merely to create a gallery, but rather to pro- 
vide himself with a refined home. This it is that 
gives to his mansion, the Palazzo Cappello on the 
Grand Canal, its smiling, cheerful, and even modern 
aspect, notwithstanding the presence of pictures of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and numerous 




(Photo. Aliitari ) 



BV CENTiLB BELLINI 



riic Lavani Collection 



archxological rema-n?. The various ohjds dart 
harmonise admirably with the pictures and charm 
the eye without undue insistence upon their num- 
ber or their preciousness. By this I mean to 
imply that the residence of Sir Henry Layard has 
none of that character which demands the hushed 
voice and silent tread as in a museum, but remains 
the home of a gentleman of good taste, to whom 
perhaps the great picture galleries do not give 
a sufficiently convincing pi oof of their utility. 
Nevertheless, Sir Henry Layard, as every one 
knows, b--quealhed his collection to the National 
Gallery in London, leaving the enjoyment of it and 
of his residence during her lifetime to Lady layard. 
By the recent death of this lady the bequest now 
becomes operative. 

I have referred to the most important works 
in the collection. Among these, especially from 
the historical point of view, the portrait by Gen- 
tile Bellini of Mohammed H is of quite excep- 



tional significance, and bears the value of a real 
treasure. It was painted by the younger son of 
Jacopo Bellini when on a visit to the Ottoman 
Court in 1479. The famous conqueror of Con- 
stantinople lives upon this canvas of Gentile, 
although the master-portraitist of the Layard 
Collection speaks here only with the voice of his 
first period ; but this is in truth a merit in a picture 
that will henceforward find a home in the National 
Gallery, for besides the portrait supposed to be 
of (iirolamo Malatini, this gallery at present pos- 
sesses no other example of the work of Gentile. 
Msitors to that great collection will be particularly 
impressed by the colour of this fine portrait, which 
Venice give? up with the greatest regret. This re- 
,L;ret is more than natural, for the Mohammed II of 
the Layard Collection has very intimate associations 
with the history of the localiiy, quite apart from its 
artistic value. 

In a similar degree the picture by Carpaccio, An 




"AN I.NXIDE.NT IN THE LIFE OF S. URSULA' 



(Photo. Alitiari) 



BY VITTORE CARI'ACCIO 



The Lava I'd Collection 




"THE MADONNA WITH THE DIVINE SON AND VARIOUS SAINTS" 



BY FRANCESCO BONSIGNORI 



Incidi nt in the Life of Saint Ursuia (to say nothing 
regarding the Adoration of the Magi by Gentile 
Belh'ni) causes a pang of regret in the hearts of all 
N'enetians, indeed of all Italians who think of its 
departure. For the most legitimate successor of the 



Bellinis, Vittore Carpaccio, the ravishing exponent 
of contemporary life and customs in Venice, painter 
of works harmonious in colouring, faultless in per- 
spective, and refined in detail — this Carpaccio, 
who should have accompanied Gentile to Constanti- 




■JOIIN THE liAllIil, A LUliur, AND A SAINT" 



{Photo. All liar I) 



liY BARTOI.OMMEO MONTAGNA 

3°S 



The Larnrd Collection 




'AI ORATION ur nil, MAi. 



[i; 



jKNTILi: r.El.l.lM 



nople, is a painter whom it is impossible to replace, 
and this picture in the I^yard Collection is exquisite. 
I'oetically conceived, the sea which stretches out 
before the group of^aint Ursula and her parents 
has all the grace and naivete of the Master of tlie 
Scuola degli Schiavoni so dear to John Ruskin. 
On looking at this picture in the Palazzo Cappello 
one experiences the most profound impression, an 
impression greater than that made by the two other 
Carpaccios belonging to the collection, an Assump- 
tion and a curious .lii^ustus and the Sibyl. 



A great deal of imjjortance at the present time 
is given to the Po?-trait oj an Unknoum Man, b) 
Luigi \'ivarini. And here, indeed, we have a 
jjicture which gives a very high idea of this master's 
work, and on looking at it one may well think of 
Antonello, save that there is rather less insistence 
upon detail. Energy, brilliant colour, sound 
modelling — these are the characteristics of this 
iconographic [tainting which is destined for a ])lacL- 
in the National Ciallery near to that grand Portrait 
of a Itf////^!,'- y)/rt;/, supposed to be the painter him- 




' CHRIST .NAILED TO THE CROSS ' 
306 



(Photo. Atinari) 



GERMAN SCHOOI, 



The Laxani Collection 



self, from the brush of Antonello da Messina, 
which I would not place second even to the 
Condoltiero of the Louvre. 

The Hellinis, the Carpaccios, the ^■ivarinis 
represent then the fine flowers of the Layard 
Collection, but for us certain other works, not from 
the hand of any of these masters, are equally 
important and interesting. Such is the Allegorical 
Figure nf Spring, by Cosimo Tura, that noble ^^aster 
of the School of Ferrara and Court Painter to the 
I )ukes of Este, a realist who, though dry and metallic 
in his drawing and always careful of details, displays 
considerable fantasy in this picture of the Layard 
Collection. The drapery of this Spring is finer 
and more striking than one could have expected 
from a master who was at times a little untamed 
in his style. I incline also greatly towards the 
beauty of a Montagna, Joh)i the 
Baptist, a Bishop, atid a Saint 
(the Saint supposed to be Saint 
Catherine), not forgetting also 
in this short notice two works 
by Cima which may be assigned 
to the school of the master who 
is usually so good a draughts- 
man, an excellent Knight in 
Adoration, by Palma \'ecchio, 
a beautiful Saint Jerome, by 
Savoldo, a remarkable Sodoma, 
and I would give prominence to 
a Botticelli, Portrait of Lorenzo 
de' Medici, by asking whether the 

Florentine painter can really be 

recognised in this portrait of 

the Layard Collection, and 

whether ' his name should not 

rather be replaced by that of 

Raffaellino del Garbo ? Our 

Botticelli (or .Sandro Filipepi, as 

they prefer to call him at the 

National Gallery) will not then 

greatly enhance the British Col- 
lection, which is already rich in 

several Botticellis. 

The Layard Collection con- 
tains, further, several poriraits by 

Moroni, by Moretto da Brescia, 

and in particular a Hugo van 

der Goes and a Gerardo van 

Haarl e m — a Mado?ina and Child 

by the former and Crucifixion 

by the latter, both of them 

pictures which, while giving an 

exotic varietv to the collection, 



at the same time augment its interest. Italy pos- 
sesses one fine work by Hugo van dcr Goes at 
Florence in the Hospital of S. Maria Novella — 
The Adoration of the Magi, a very large picture, 
with which this painting in the Layard Collection 
cannot bear comparison, though it represents fairly 
well the school of the Netherlands. We lament 
the loss of the other Dutch painting, Gerardo van 
Haarlem's Crucifixion, a picture of profound 
emotional qualities, of beautiful colour and original 
composition ; but even were it less interesting its 
value to us would be still increased by the fact that 
Italy is far from rich in Dutch works, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that many Dutch painters lived in this 
country in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 

It is well known that Italy has a severe law 
against the exportation of works of art, and so a 




PORTRAIT OF AN IINKNOWN MAN 

(PlwlO. Aim 



1)V I.CUU VIXARINI 





5o8 



Recent Designs lu Domestic Architecture 



question has been raised as to the rights the Govern- 
ment may have over the Layard Collection. I 
cannot go into the matter at length here ; suffice it 
to say that certain of the pictures have been released 
from restriction, among which number are the two 
Gentile Bellinis, the Carpaccio picture of St. 
Ursula, the portrait by Luigi Vivarini, the Spring 
byCosimoTura,the Sebastiano del Piombo,and one 
by Giambellino. These pictures came to Italy from 
England in 1875, ^"^d so the law does not impose 
its noli me tangere upon these masterpieces which 
have found a home at the Palazzo Cappello. An 
ingenious opposition urged that the question should 
be reopened in order to prove that the exportation 
of these works in the first case was illegally effected 
so that these pictures after returning again to Italy 
may not find their final home in England, although 
Sir Henry Layard's will leaves no doubt as to his 
intentions on this point. But this idea has not 
found favour with our Ministry of Public Instruction, 
which has decided to adhere to its former con- 
clusion as to the rights of England in the matter. 
As regards the other works which were not the 
subject of any discussion, the law regarding their 
exportation will be applied in very definite terms. 
Personally, both as an Italian and as an artist, I am 
all for liberty, and here, as I have elsewhere in my 
books and writings, I would encourage the idea of 
the most unrestricted indulgence from every point of 
victt-. We possess quan- 
tities of paintings by our 
masters which might well 
be exchanged with much 
benefit to the variety of 
our collections. For my- 
self, I would willingly give 
to England some of our 
Bernardino Luinis or 
Gaudenzio Ferraris, in ex- 
change for some works by 
Reynolds, Gainsborough, 
or Turner, and many 
artists and collectors are 
of my way of thinking in 
this matter. An idea is, 
however, afloat which may 
conciliate both Italy and 
England : it is that Eng- 
land — that is to say, the 
National Gallery — should 
enter into possession of 
the collection at the 
Palazzo Cappello, and for- 
getting London and the a small country 



fogs of the Channel, should open a section of its 
art treasures in the bright Italian sunlight — in brief, 
that the Palazzo Cappello should become a depen- 
dance of the National Gallery, a sort of English or 
Anglo-Italian oasis in Venice for the numerous in- 
tellectual colony of the biondi figli d' Allnone who 
visit Venice and Italy. A. M. 



R 



ECENT DESIGNS IN DOMESTIC 
ARCHITECTURE. 



"The country cottage, of which an illustra- 
tion is given below, has been designed by Mr. 
R. F. Johnston, architect, of London, and in 
plan is exceedingly simple and convenient, the 
accommodation consisting of a large living-room 
and a parlour of comfortable dimensions on the 









R. K. JOHNSTON, ARCHITECT 



Recent Designs in Domestic .-Jrc/iitectnre 





THE HOMESTEAIi. MARI.OW. Rti KS 



R. K. JOHNSTON, ARCHITECT 



ground floor, while on the 
floor above there are two 
bedrooms, a bathroom and 
offices with various con- 
veniences such as linen 
cupboards. The elevations 
have been simply treated in 
rough-cast with brick quoins. 
The roof is covered with old 
red tiles which harmonise 
well with the foliage of the 
background. 

A building of larger 
dimensions bv the same 
architect is illustrated on 








5° 

11. s 
X S2 




J 



J 



Recent Designs in Domes fie Areliiteetiiyc 



page 310, where a view of the garden front of 
"The Homestead" at Marlow in Buckinghamshire 
is shown. The materials employed in this case 
are small hand-mide red bricks of uniform colour 
but varying texture with a rough joint left free from 
the trowel, brick mullioned windows and lead case- 
ments. The roof is covered with rough hand-made 
red tiles. The design in this case also is simple 
and depends for its effect on the proportion of the 
various gables and chimneys. The accompanying 
ground-floor plan shows the simple arrangement 
of the various rooms, but omits the loggia adjoin- 
ing the drawing-room. On the first floor there are 
five bedrooms, bathroom, and usual offices, maids' 
bedrooms, housemaids' pantries, &c. The garden 
has been laid out in sympathy with the house. 

Ashford Chace, of which we reproduce a drawing 
in colour, was erected from designs by Messrs. 
Unsworth, Son & Inigo Triggs, of Petersfield, on a 
beautiful site in a fold of the wooded hills about 
two miles from that pleasant Hampshire town. 
It takes the place of an older house in the valley 
below, the gardens of which have been adapted 
and brought into relation with the new buildings by 
a long alley — which unfortunately could not be 
illustrated in the view. The house is approached 
(HI the north side through a picturesque old barn, 
leading into a quintagonal 
court. The entrance-hall 
has been planned on an 
axial line, which is a con- 
tinuation of the line of the 
alley, connecting the old 
gardens with the new 
house. The arcade on the 
first floor, above the patio, 
which is shown in the 
drawing, adjoins the nur- 
series, and is intended for 
the children's open-air 
playroom. A feature of this 
house is the patio and 
loggia, opening through a 
portico from the dining 
room, and available for 
meals, the service being 
equally well arranged for 
either. There is a fountain 
in the centre of the patio, 
and a double flight of steps 
leads down to a small en- 
closed Moorish garden, to 
which the overflow from the 
patio fountain is carried 



tlirough a wall fountain, thence going into an incised 
water maze, and on to a lily pond in the centre of the 
garden. From this point the flight of steps shown 
in the drawing descends. The view shows the but- 
tressed retaining wall of this garden, which became 
necessary owing to the distance of the old garden 
from the house and the exposed position of the 
neiv site. Mr. Unsworth made a special study of 
Moorish gardens with their wind-shelters and sun- 
traps with the idea of applying them to meet our 
great need of being able to live more comfortably in 
our gardens and enjoy an open-air life. We take the 
occasion to express our deep regret at his death, 
which took place in the early part of October. 

The great revolutionary movement in art with 
which the names of William Morris and John Ruskin 
will always be associated has made rapid progress 
on the Continent, and especially in Germany and 
Austria. In Bohemia the movement has mademuch 
headway, thanks to the efforts of men who, instead of 
blindly following tradition, have thought for them- 
selves and recognise that there can be no true pro- 
gress in architecture unless the needs of the times 
are kept in view. Among those who have figured 
prominently in espousing progressive ideas is Jan 
Kolera. Born forty years ago at Brunn, the capital 
of Moravia, he pursued his studies first at the 




VILLA AT CF.RNOSICK, BOHEMIA 



jn;KA, ARCHITECT 



Recent Des^igus hi Doniesfie Arcliitectiire 




CLUB-HOUSE AT FROSTEJOV, MORAVIA 



TROF. IAN KOTERA, ARCHITECT 



Bohemian townof Pilsen, and then went to Vienna, 
where his evident gift for architecture soon secured 
him the favour of Prof. Otto Wagner. Under the 
guidance of this eminent architect, whose teachings 
have had such far-reaching influence, not only in 
Austria but in Germany and other countries of 
Europe as well, Kotera soon took part in the modern 
movement in architecture, together with the late 
Josef Olbrich and Prof. HoflTmann. Returning to 
Bohemia, his home, the change of habitat naturally 
meant a turning-point in the development of his 
art. For some years his countrymen absolutely 
refused to recognise him. However, at the Spring 
exhibitions of "the Rudolfmum " (the Prague 
Sdlon) his work distinguished itself by its origin- 
ality and pronounced individuality, and he was 
awarded numerous prizes. The character of his 
work at that period showed perhaps a tendency 
towards the romantic, but a lively fancy is a 
national trait of the Czechs. Some of the exhibi- 
tion interiors arranged by him at this stage of his 
314 



career were illustrated in these pages at the time 
{see vol. 27, pp. 143-145, and vol. 31, pp.85, 86). 
The club-house at Prostcjov was built in 1906-7. 
The building comprises, besides club-rooms, a 
theatre, lecture halls, a restaurant and a coffee- 
room. It stands in an open space or park, and 
was carried out in an unpretentious commercial 
way. Thereafter his work entered on a new stage 
of development, beginning with the building of a 
"vodarna," or water-works, at Vrsovice, and a 
villa at Cernosice, the latter built to serve as a 
place of retirement in the recesses ot a forest. 
Amongst his latest works may be mentioned a 
music-publisher's premises at Prague ; a bank at 
Serajevo, in Bosnia ; the Hotel Urban at Konig- 
gratz, and the museum at Koniggriitz, which was 
started in 1908, and is being now finished. The 
chief part of this building is to be devoted to 
pedagogic purposes, such as lecture-rooms, work- 
shops, e.xhibition-rooms, library, and reading- 
rooms. A colony of houses for workmen at Laun 





3'5 



Sfiidio-Ta/k 




FRONT ELEVATION OF AN HOTEL AT HRADEC KRALOVE 
BOHEMIA. PROF. JAN KOTKRA, ARCHITECT 

has been started this year, and when finished it will 
represent a ton-n of about 500 workmen and their 
families, with all possible modem improvements 
within reach, such as swimming baths, club-build- 
ings, schools, storehouses, iVc. At present Kotera 
is engaged in the preparation of plans for the new- 
building of the Bohemian University at Prague : he 
is professor at the Academy of Art in that city, and 
both as teacher and as artist he is well capable of 
leading otliers. 

STUDIO-TALK. 
(From our Own Correspondents.) 

IONDOX.— The forty-eighth exhibition held 
by the New English Art Club came to a 
close at the galleries of the Royal Society 
-^ of British Artists a few days ago, and 
though it cannot, in our opinion, be regarded as 
quite so successful as some of the exhibitions held 
3'6 



by the Club in recent years, there was 
much in it that was quite worthy of ranking 
amongst the best efforts of the Club's 
members and guests. The list of absten- 
tions was rather considerable, including 
such prominent supporters as Mr. J. S. 
Sargent (who, however, is not an invariable 
contributor to the winter exhibitions), Mr. 
Muirhead Bone, Mr. Philip Connard, Mr. 
Cayley Robinson, Mr. \\". W. Russell, 
Prof. Tonks, Mr. F. H. S. Sheplierd, Mr. 
Max Beerbohm,and Mrs. Swynnerton. Mr. 
Augustus E. John's painting T/ie Mumpers^ 
a work of heroic dimensions scarcely justi- 
fied by the subject — a group o*" gipsies in 
various attitudes — drew a great many 
people to the galleries, some to extrava- 
gantly praise, others to deplore, for the 
immense canvas gave evidence alike of the 
genius and wilfulness of its painter. The 
source of the great vitality informing its 
affected incompetence may safely be 
ascribed to the realistic and not to the 
decorative elements of the jjainting. At 
all points there was proof of original and 
close observation of life, and it was this 
which imparted vitality and stirred the spec- 
tator, in spite of the deliberation with which 
it was cloaked in bizarre colour and ex- 
travagance of outline. Mr. William Orpen, 
in his picture Morning Breeze (an entirely 
appropriate name to give 10 it) and in his 
other picture called In the Tent, showed him- 
self peculiarly sensitive in the interpretation 
ol atmosphere, both the^e two small canvases being 
fragrant with fresh air — and this is the more remark- 
able as coming from the greatest painter of interior 
genre that we have. Like Rossetti, Mr. A. McEvoy 
has so much temperament, and imparts so much 
of it, and also so much poetry, to forms which in 
another artist's woik would assert incompetence, 
that one cannot use that word in relation to the 
works exhibited by him. Seeming to fail on the 
surface as judged by the readiest standards, his 
pictures impart something to our imagination ; even 
a portrait group of an everyday character is not 
presented to us by the painter without a glamour 
unconsiously transmitted to the theme. Another 
very interesting artist exhibiting on this occasion 
was Mr. J. 1). Innes. His landscapes perhajjs 
recall scenes from old jjaintings rather than from 
nature, but they are all the more romantic on this 
account, and the romance is sustained by a pro- 
found sense of colour. The exhibition contained 



Studio- Talk 



not a few really fine landscape paintings ; Prof. 
V. Brown's On the Thames, ^liss Alice Fanner's A 
Breeze off Ramsgate and A View of Southampton 
Water and the Solent from Hamb.'e, Mr. Fairlie 
Harmar's The Laurel JFalh, Mr. C. M. Gere's A 
Cotswold Holiday, and Mrs. Evelyn Cheston's 
Sedgemoor should be mentioned in this connection. 
Mr. Wilson Steer's successes, too, were entirely with 
his landscapes, chiefly with the picture With the 
Tide, a work full of silver light. There were many 
small pictures of great interest, such as a Study of 
Roses in tempera, by Miss M. Sargant Florence, 
At Home, by Mr. Maxwell Armfield, The Houses 
Opposite, by Mr. Alfred Hayward, The MagicWand, 
by Mr. Rudolf Ihlee, By the Sea, by Mr. Donald 
Maclaren, Fille a la Lanterne, by Mr. Alfred P. 
Allins"n, and A Barge, by Mr. Charles Stabb. The 
portrait by M. Antonio Mancini exhibited the 
painter's mannerisms in excess, for all its resource 
of technique and beautiful manipulation of black. 
With the exception of Near Rotherham, Professor 
Holmes seemed inclined to repeat himself, while, 
on the other hand, Mr. \\'illiam Rothenstein broke 



with great success into new ground with his Panei 
^or a hypothetical decoration to symbolise the religions 
of East and West ; and he was also represented by 
a remarkably fine portrait. Miss Ethel Walker's 
vivacious Decoration for Spring should be men- 
tioned. The work of Mr. David Muirhead was 
also interesting this year. Amongst the drawings 
and water-colours noticeable features were a por- 
trait study by Mr. W. Rothenstein, Bidston Hill, 
by Mr. E. G. Preston, Calderari, by Mr. A. E. John, 
" La Gosse," by Mr. A. Rothenstein, In the Garden 
of Images, by Miss Ethel Walker, Font cT Avignon, 
by Mr. Francis S. Unvvin ; the etchings of Mr. D. 
.S. MacLaughlan ; an etching. An Old Cart-shed, 
by Mr. C. .S. Clieston ; the water-colours. Crossing 
Rocks, by Miss U. Tyrwhitt, The Barn, by Mr. 
Wilson Steer, and those of Mr. A. W. Rich ; and a 
coloured wood print by M. Emilc Verpilleux, The 
Railway Station. 

Mr. Joseph Pennell, in the remarkable litho- 
graphs he exhibited at the Fine Art Society's 
galleries last month, discovers a genuine vein of 




■A BREMi: 111! KAMM.AIL 



( .\\u' E/ii'iis/i .-in dub) 



BY ALICE FAN.NER 
3'7 



studio- Talk 




'•A COTSWOLIi HOLIKAV 



(New English Art Club) 



BY CHARLES M. CERE 



poetry in industrialism, and his emotional assertions 
are profoundly satisfying when the emotional 
impulses which sustained achievement even in 
such a master as Rembrandt, for instance, are 
challenged as to their right of expression in the 
graphic arts by the theorists of Post-Impressionism, 
who purport to ofler us something so much more 
within the province of art in their place. In 
his exhibition Mr. Pennell included the famous 
Panama series of lithographs, of which some 
examples have already appeared in these pages, and 
others from Rome, Spain, Chicago, Belgium, the 
Yosemite \'alley and California in America, and 
England — notably the English manufacturing towns. 
Sometimes it is the mass of an immense cliff, at 
other times the great sweep of a modem bridge, or 
again a huge pile of modern masonry, but in all cases 
the artist contrasts with the energy and immensity 
of nature the still more feverish energy of man and 
the infinite subtlety of his invention. Mr. Pennell's 
lithographs present a picture of a great war going 
on all over the modern world, of beauty in a new- 
shape warring upon beauty in the old. 



The Camden Town Group, holding their third 
exhibition in December at the Carfax Gallery, have 
receded rather than advanced as an artistic society 
since their previous exhibitions. It is not very 
difficult to simplify nature's colours into the vivid 
flat colours which poster-artists rightly affect. This 
318 



sort of thing is often very interestingly achieved, and 
there are instances of this in the present exhibition. 
But there is nothing in this procedure to call for 
that solemnity of pose which is characteristic of the 
exhibitors in the Camden Town exhibitions. We 
prefer Mr. J. B. Manson's virility, and sometimes 
charm, and Mr. Spencer F. Gore's unconscious 
poetry in landscape to the pattern-making pure and 
simple of Mr. Ginnerand Mr. Drummond, for in the 
case of neither of these latter artists are the patterns 
always good — and when they are not that, we are 
bound to ask what else of value they are. Mr. 
W'yndham Lewis's Danse might, perhaps, be in- 
teresting were we in possession of the theory 
explaining the absence of all resemblance to any- 
thing in the nature of dancing figures ; without 
that key the title of his work merely indicates a 
picture-puzzle — something which we hope, in spite 
of every effort of the Post-Impressionist school to 
the contrary, will always be rated in this country 
below a picture. We are in saner regions with the 
art of Messrs. H. Lamb, R. P. Bevan, W. Ratcliffe, 
and Walter Sickert. The last-named artist has an 
uncanny gift in the interpretation of a depressing 
atmosphere, moral and physical, and in painting 
his touch is infinitely less sensitive than in his 
drawings, in which the brilliance of the execution 
enlivens the greyest themes. 



Last month we had to record in these columns 




^'^ 



N E W-Y t A R C A K D 
OR SURIMONO. A 
CHROMO-XYLOGRAPH 
AFTER HOKUSAI. 



Studio- Talk 



the passing of one of the founders of the New 
Enghsh Art Club, Mr. \V. J. Laidlay, who, how- 
ever, withdrew from the Club in 1892 and there- 
after became more closely associated with the Royal 
Society of British Artists. The foundation and 
early history of the New English are again recalled 
by the election of Mr. Henry H. La Thangue, 
A.R.A., to full membership of the Royal Academy, 
for Mr. La Thangue, too, was among those w-ho 
helped to start the Club on a career which has 
fully justified the aims of its promoters. He was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 
1898, his Man with the Sty the having been acquired 
under the Chantrey bequest two years previously. 
He resides in Sussex and it is from this county, 
so rich and varied in its scenery, that the artist has 
drawn many of the subjects of his pictures. The 
example we now reproduce formed part of a 
representative collection of pictures by British 



artists exhibited in Melbourne, Australia, some two 
or three years ago, and we believe has found a 
home in one of the public galleries in Australia. 



The first exhibition of the Society of Humorous 
Art in December provided good Christmas fare. 
Besides, it was an admirable idea on the part of artist 
humorists to link themselves in a society identified 
with the aim they all have in common, however 
various their styles. An exhibition of this kind 
also affords a good opportunity for distinguishing 
the characteristics of the individual members. Mr. 
Raven-Hill and Mr. Charles Pears penetrate 
furthest into reality, thus proving their ability to 
support the great traditions of " Punch," with which 
periodical their names are associated. At the 
other extreme in " farce " as opposed to " comedy " 
perhaps Mr. W. Heath Robinson must be admitted 
to be the most artistic in method and spontaneous 




'IN A SUSSEX ORCHARD 



BV U. 11. I. A TIIAM.I F, R.A. KlKi T 



Sfiidio- Talk 




..SLOAl.i.No llMiifck 



1 Ku;.: A WATLK-COLUUR URAWlM. 1;\ s. NmII SIMMONS 




MARCHE Al'X VEAl 



322 



FROM A WATRR-COLOUR liRWVI.NG BY S. NOEL SIMMONS 
( A'" feniiissicn of Messrs. Chas. Chen it and Co. , Ltd. ) 



studio- Talk 



in his conceits. The careful portraiture of " type " 
is the field in which Mr. George Belcher excels, 
while at the opposite pole to his method we have 
the extreme simplification and obviously " comic " 
intentions of Mr. Hassall. Mr. George Morrow 
seems possessed of an inexhaustible fund of humour. 
Mr. Rene Bull follows in England the method of 
the late Caran d'Ache ; Mr. Dudley Hardy, as this 
exhibition proved, cannot quite reconcile himself 
to the business of sheer humour ; in him the con- 
siderable artist and considerable humorist seem 
to struggle with each other rather than to combine, 
as with the artists above mentioned. These do not 
complete the list of exhibiting members, but they 
indicate sufficiently the scope and interest of the 
exhibition, which was held at Messrs. Manzi, Joyant 
and Co.'s Gallery in Bedford Street, Covent Garden. 



comprise a display of the sea pieces of Mr. Terrick 
Williams at the Leicester Gallery, sincere and 
accomplished impressions of harbour scenes, and 
the decorations by Mr. George -Sheringham at the 
Ryder Gallery in the style recently illustrated in a 
notice of his decorations in these columns. 



E 



The Chenil Gallery, Chelsea, recently exhibited a 
series of drawings by Mr. Noel Simmons. It will 
be evident from repro- 
ductions we have made 
from three of these that 
the artist is a draughts- 
man of exceptional talent 
and also that he does not 
work within a limited 
range of subjects. Nor 
does he shirk complica- 
tion of incident in liis 
compositions. His draw- 
ings are all the more 
admirable for a happy 
taste in colour in the 
instances in which they 
are comjjleted in water- 
colour. Here, it seems 
to us, is the very illus- 
trator some publisher or 
othsr must be in search 
of, if the artist can be 
brought to adapt his 
talent to the conditions 
of book-printing. The 
precision of his execution 
is fascinating at a time 
like the present when the 
impressionistic move- 
ment seems fading into a 
general content with mere 
sloppiness of drawing. 



1)INBURC;H.— Eight Scottish artists, for 
so one may still designate Messrs. Lavery 
and Harrington Mann, have formed them- 
selves into an exhibiting society and taken 
a lease of premises in Shandwick Place, Edinburgh, 
in which they propose to hold for short periods 
twice a year exhibitions of their work. These consist 
of one main gallery with an annexe and two small 
rooms on the flat above, all decorated in a scheme 
of light grey which gives that reposeful feeling so 
helpful in an exhibition. The new brotherhood 
does not spring from any antagonistic feeling 
towards the Academy or other large societies, but 




Other exhibitions of 
interest in December 



'•ROOF REI'AIRS'' ! FROM A WATER-COLOUR DRAWINC. liV S. NOEI. SIMMONS 

( liv feniiission of Messrs. C/ias. Chenil and Co.. Ltd.) 




L'ATTENTE." BY 
DAVID ALISON 



(Society Of Eight,'' Edinburgh ) 



Studio-Talk 



is the outcome of a desire by the members to have 
their work shown free from the restrictions which 
operate in general exhibitions. The members of 
the new society in addition to the two already 
named are Messrs. P. W. Adam, R.S.A., James 
Paterson, R.S.A., James Cadenhead, A.R.S.A., 
F. C. B. Cadell, David Alison, and A. G. Sinclair, 
and their first exhibition was held last month. 

In the large room each artist's work was groujied 
by itself, an arrangement satisfactory to both the 
artist and the public. Mr. Lavery's contributions 
were three figure subjects and two landscapes, the 
former a chic figure of a Marseillaise, a low-toned 
Diana returning from her morning ride, and Anna 
Pavlova as a Bacchante, opulent in its red and 
purple colour. Mr. Harrington Mann was repre- 
sented by portraiture ; his Little French Peasant, a 
group of a mother and child, and particularly 
Annabel, a picture of a chubby little girl in white, 



being remarkable for their beautiful simplicity of 
treatment and well-modulated colour. The lead- 
ing feature of Mr. Paterson's contribution was a 
panel of twelve small pictures in oil representing 
Highland scenery. • 

Mr. Adam has for many years now specialised 
in interiors, and this type of subject formed almost 
the whole of his contribution. His principal picture 
was Autumn, the interior of a drawing-room in which 
the leading colour-note was vases of Michaelmas 
daisies, a remarkable modulation of purple tones 
being carried throughout the apartment. Mr. Caden- 
head's work has never been seen to such advan- 
tage as in this exhibition. His art in its scholarly 
simplicity does not always reveal its full beauty 
in an ordinary e.xhibition surrounded by disturbing 
influences. The six landscapes had each a dis- 
tinctive note and yet they were so related that one 
could study them as a symphonic presentment of 




■ HOUSES NEAR FEKCH 



(Salon Sthiille, Berlin. — By permissioti of Herr Kan Ilabcrslock) 



y.-\ M I -I iircH 




y 
o 

D 

25 Q 
CO J 



Studio- Talk 



nature with a melodic beauty of form and colour 
m which there is no dissonance. The French 
influences which have gone far to mould Mr. 
Cadell's work were seen in some impressions of 

femininity that were convincing in their very 
audacity. 

The most important of .Mr. Alison's work was 
LAttente, a large picture which is reproduced— 
an ambitious work for an artist of his experience, 
but containing its own justification. Mr. Sinclair 
showed a good full-length portrait of Lady Dunedin 
and Dutch and Venetian landscapes, while in the 
other rooms most of the group were represented 
by water-colour or crayon drawings. A. E. 

BERLIN.— The Salon Schulte inaugurated 
the Berlin autumn season with a com- 
prehensive exhibition of works by Carl 
Schuch. This master, who died in 1903, 
was a member of the Liebl and Triibner circle, 
but was quite unknown to the wider public. Twice 
have posthumous collections of his works attracted 



notice at Schulte's, and the power and persuasive- 
ness of his talent have quickly ranged him among 
the German classics of the nineteenth century. 
The strong impression which emanates from his 
art results both from its pictorial and from its emo- 
tional qualities. A technique which has absorbed 
the teachings of Ruisdael, Courbet, and Manet, but 
which is alwa)-s remarkable for absolute sureness 
and saneness, and a pronounced spirituality make 
an immediate impression. Colour remained his 
ideal, and although he loved a limited palette his 
tones laugh and glow and his shading is wonder- 
fully rich. Local colour always dominates, but 
perspective and atmosphere are never neglected. 
Schuch's speciality was still-life. He arranged a 
few simple objects before a neutral background, 
but simple as they were they were mostly conceived 
througii a medium of grandeur, almost of majesty. 
The same spirit is \ividly revea-led in his landscapes. 
The artist studied under Halanska in Vienna, his 
native town, and after much travelling settled in 
Munich. He worked and travelled with his friend 
Triibner, lived for some years in \'enice and Paris, 




.MAIL-CO.ACH IN A STi 



(Sulon Schulle. Berlin) 



HV K.l r.KMO Ll-CAS THE EI.IigR 




< 

Q 
Pi 

< Q 

o 



y. 






Siiidifl- Talk 




■ RISING STORM NEAR TORBOLE 



( KdUr and Reiticrs Salon. Berlin) 



BY ZBNO DIEMER 



and died in Vienna when only fifty-seven. However 
old-masterly his art may seem, he fully assimilated 
modern teachings. 



Among a Spanish collec- 
tion at the Salon Schulte 
the newly discovered art of 
Eugenio Lucas the elder) 
who died in Madrid in 
1870, was a noteworthy 
introduction. The hand 
of a real painter was here 
mirrored in scenes from 
reality, of halcyon or 
dramatic character. ^\'e 
became aware of a lover 
of decorative grotesqueness 
as well as of amiable sim- 
plicity. A racy Spaniard 
of great versatility, he occa- 
sionally reminds one of 
Goya and Herrera, but also 
of the suave genre-man- 
nerists of his countrv. 



At Messrs. Keller and 
Reiner's Salon, Prof. Zeno 
Dienier, of Munich, has 



given his admirers an opportunity ot studying the 
fruits of his latest labours. The interest in this 
landscapist, who proves his ability to cope with the 
boldest tasks, is everywhere considerable. How- 




'■ I.NTERIOR 



( BuJapcsl 



KSAR KLNWALD 



studio- Talk 



ever truthfully he records, it is no meticulous 
topography that he presents to us ; we remain 
aware of the working of an almost romantic mind. 



Fritz Gurlitt's Salon has again claimed attention 
for Wilhelm Triibner, and a number of portraits, 
landscapes, mythoiogical and religious subjects, 
testified to this master's many-sidedness. A new 
feature of these rooms is an artistically arranged 
cabinet of prints placed 
under the management 
of Herr Wolfgang 
Gurlitt. Original prints 
by I^ibl and I.ieber 
mann, Munch, Matisse, 
and Pechstein, point 
to a broad policy. 



Z. The Salon Paul 
Cassirei recently in 
augurated a consider- 
ably enlarged gallery 
with a kind of retro- 
spective exhibition. All 
the artists who have 
enjoyed the favour of 
this firm since its loun- 
dation were represented 
among them, the lead- 
ing impressionists and 
neo-impressionists, \'an 
Gogh and Cezanne, and 
also living artists like 
Liebermann, Corinth, 
Slevogt, U. Hiibner, 
Beckmann, Brock- 
husen, W. Rosier, Gaul, 
and Barlach. -• The 
presence of Corot, 
Gericault, Delacroix, 
Courbet, Menzel,'Leibl 
and Triibner pointed to 

a compromise which can only be greeted as whole- 
some in these days of ultra-radicalism. 

J- J- 

BUDAPEST.— The exhibition at the Buda- 
pest Academy last spring was of less than 
usual interest owing to its being over- 
crowded with works which, however com- 
mendable as the efforts of students, fell far below the 
standard expected from an important society like 
this. That there is much movement in art in 
Hungary was everywhere apparent, but it was equally 
330 




STUDY OK A HEAD 

(Budapest Arademy ) 



apjiarent that though high ideals are being searched 
for, these have not yet been realised in any palpable 
form. More thought ought to be shown in the 
general arrangement of the exhibits : there should 
be less crowding, and above all there should be far 
fewer pictures hung. If, however, close search was 
necessary to find the really good work, how refresh- 
ing it was when found I Take, for instance, a land- 
scape by Baron Mednyansky pregnant with medita- 
tive feeling, or the fine 
animal drawings and 
portraits by Oszkar 
Glatz : here no parad' 
ing of originality, no 
undue striving after 
effect was to be dis- 
cerned. The portraits 
by ("lusar Kunwald 
likewise showed sim- 
plicity of treatment and 
right restraint. His 
Interior Portrait, here 
reproduced, conveys an 
idea of his methods, 
but a refreshing feature 
of his work is that he 
never repeats himself. 
The landscapes by 
Robert Nadler and Ede 
Aladar I lies were of 
much interest, and how 
lull of life and energy 
were those Hungarian 
scenes of village life 
which Miksa Bruck 
delights to paint ! Prof. 
Benczur sent some 
flower-paintings full of 
fragrance and of a liiu- 
coloration. From 
Gyula Conrad there 
were some fine paint- 
ings of ancient towns particularly happy in the 
treatment of the architecture and water ; romantic 
scenes from Andor Dudits ; still-life subjects by J. 
Pentelei Molnar and Jozsef Manyai ; from L. Kesdi 
Kovacs wood .scenes in which this artist showed his 
predilection for old copper and silver beeches, which 
are always well placed in their right setting and 
admirabh- rendered. Bela Ivanyi-Griinwald's village 
scenes betrayed his love for those strong colour- 
effects which Hungary offers in such abundance, and 
some good work was shown by Ferenczy, Istvan 
Zador, Rezso Kiss, Laszlo Tatz (a young artist of 



HV lANOS l-ASZTOK 




(Seepage 33^) 



HIS HOLI.\I';SS POPE PIUS X " 
BY DR. HORATIO GAIGIIER 



Studio- Talk 



great promise), and 
Gyula Clatter. There 
was little sculpture 
shown, but work of a 
high quality was ex- 
hibited by Ede Teles, 
1 )ezs6 I^nyi,and JJnos 
Fcisztor, whose study of 
a female head is here re- 
produced. A. .S. L. 



VIKNXA.- 
l)r. Hora- 
tio Gaigher, 
whose por- 
trait of His Holiness 
Pope Pius X is repro- 
duced on p. 331, is a 
native of Tyrol, and 
took his degree and 
practised in medicine 
before relinquishing it 
for art, to which his 
inclinations had been 
drawn since his earliest 
years. He was entirely self-taught until he went 
to Bushev to study under Prof. Herkomer. Later 




SIXTEENTH-CE.VTURY 
BEULE 



he studied under 
Fleury and Lefebvre 
in Paris, and afterwards 
accompanied Prof. 
Herkomer to Spain, 
where he made the 
best use of the oppor- 
tunities offered to him. 
On his return to his 
native country Dr. 
Gaigher settled in 
Meran. He has done 
some very good por- 
traits both in oils and 
in water-colours, in 
which medium he has 
been highly successful. 
It is chiefly in the 
autumn and winter that 
he paints portraits, in 
the spring and summer 
he gives himself up to 
studying the life and 
habits of the Italian 
peasants dwelling in 
South Tyrol. His 
work reveals the spirit of a true and searching 
artist. The picture of His Holiness Pius X, who 



CHATELAINE 
(GHENT) 




■MARKET-rl.ACE AT EBORO ' 



( BuJaHst Academy ) 



BY MIKSA BRUCK 



Studio- Talk 





"SXO\V-CI.AD birches' 



BY G. A. FJ.-ESTAn 



is shown in full canonicals, was painted in a hall 
of St. Peter's Church, Rome, where the Pope 
granted him four sittings. The lineaments of the 
sitter have been well studied — the artist has brought 
into prominence the chief characteristics of the noble 
features, the mild expression coupled with profound 
seriousness, the look of patient suffering. The 
drapery has been judiciously handled and always 
with due consideration for the main requirement, 
which is to give us a picture of His Holiness as he 
really is. A. S. L. 

GHENT.— The bust by M. de Beule, 
reproduced on page 332, is a fitting 
product of this old Flemish city, in 
which the spirit of the Middle Ages 
still lingers in spite of the ceaseless progress of 
modern industrialism. 

AMSTERDAM.— The chalk drawing, At 

/\ Kortenhoef, by Mr. Wysmuller, of which 

/ \ a reproduction is given in the form of 

1. \. a supplement, is an excellent example 

of his interpretation of Dutch landscape in a 



medium which he employs with much feeling. 
Other examples of his work were included in the 
recent Special Xumber of The Studio entitled 
" Pen, Pencil, and Chalk." 

STOCKHOLM.— Although Stockholm is 
one of the loveliest summer-cities of the 
world its inhabitants usually desert it at the 
end of May or beginning of June, when 
all the big theatres close and art exhibitions are 
discontinued. From this rule an exception was made 
last summer, when our two most important societies 
of artists, Konstnarsforbundet and Svenska Konst- 
narernas Forening arranged large and interesting 
exhibitions, which The Studio has already noticed. 
Gustaf Fjsestad, a well-known Swedish artist, 
following the e.xample of these societies, held a 
" one-man " show at the end of the summer in the 
galleries of the Swedish Art Union. 



Fjrestad's very original art is not quite unknown 
to the art-loving English public, as he sent some of 
his best landscapes as well as his tapestries to the 
Swedish Exhibition at Brighton in the summer of 

335 



studio- Talk 




'•SKI TRACKS IX THE WOOD' 



BY G. A. FJ.ESTAI) 



191 1, where so many of the best Swedish artists 
were well represented. In Germany, Austria, and 
Italy, Fjasstad has for several years been known as 
a painter of snow pictures, and leading art-critics 
have devoted long and enthusiastic articles to his 
work. At this last exhibition he showed some big 
snow scenes such as the Snow-dad Birches and Ski 
Tracks in the Wood, pictures with running water 
such as The River and Water and Rocks, and 
tapestries woven after his designs by his sisters ; 
also some paintings of the nude, but these must be 
considered as more or less failures. T. L. 

WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND. 
— Art in New Zealand has re- 
ceived a decided fillip this year 
through the exhibition held 
under the auspices of the New Zealand Academy 
of Fine Arts at Wellington, the capital city of the 
Dominion, in May and June last. In 191 1 the 
State made a grant of ^500 (for the purchase of 
336 



pictures) to each of the art societies in the four 
chief centres. The process by which a previous 
and similar grant had been expended being con- 
sidered to have been somewhat unsatisfactory, the 
Council of the New Zealand Academy of Fine 
Arts, the Wellington Society, then presided over 
by the late Mr. H. S. Wardell, decided to enlist 
the assistance of Mr. George Clausen. Mr. Clausen 
was therefore asked if he could induce some British 
artists of repute, more particularly those of the 
modern school, to send out a certain number of 
pictures from which a selection could be made, 
first by the Wellington Society, and later on by 
similar societies in other centres. Mr. Clausen 
called in the aid of Mr. John Baillie, of the well- 
known Baillie Galleries (himself a New Zealander 
by birth), and the latter took the project up with 
such enthusiasm that he offered to bring out a 
really represent ative collection of pictures and take 
charge of the whole arrangement. An agreement, 
on terms highly satisfactory to the Academy, was 




■ < 



Sfiidio- Talk 




^ 






(See Stockholm Studio- Talk) 



\. Ill ^TAI> 



concluded, and in May the exhibition, comprising 
over 500 oils, water-colours and etchings, was 
opened in a large building lent free of charge by 
the Wellington Harbour Board, and transformed 
with a little trouble and much good taste into 
an artistically decorated and well-lighted art gallery. 



The Council of the Academy, now presided over 
by Mr. H. M. Gore, a local amateur artist, to 
whose personal enthusiasm and unsparing industry 
much of the success attained by the exhibition has 
been due, started a public subscription fund, the 
Wellington City Council leading the way with a 
grant of ;^iooo and the Academy adding its own 
^500 grant. Leading citizens and wealthy men 
throughout the province contributed liberally, with 
the result that in all some ^7000 was raised, 
practically the whole of which was devoted to the 
purchase of pictures from the collection sent out 
from England. 

Amongst the pictures either purchased by the 
338 



Council of the New Zealand Academy or presented 
by various local clubs and private citizens were, 
amongst the oils. Melton Fisher's Rose Makers of 
the East End ^^350 ; Glyn W. Philpot's Girl at 
Her Toilet i^osdX Institute of Oil Painters, 1907), 
;^2 5o : George Houston's Spring in Ayrshire, 
jC^oo : R. W. Allen's Port Soy, ;£42o : George 
C\a.usens//ay/»akers, j£2oo ; J. h.G\o:ig's-Bair/iante 
and Fauns, £^\d,o; Frank Craig's Goblin Market, 
^^420 : Oliver Hall's Salter Moss, Cuml>erland, 
;^ioo ; Henry Moore's Hii^hland Pastures, ^^"350 ; 
David Farquhaison's Waiting for Darkness, ^"250 ; 
Mouat Loudan's />V//f and Gold, ^^250 ; Bertram 
Priestman's The Brook, ^£150 ; Mary Young Hun- 
ter's Gabrielk, ;^i75 ; E. A. Walton's Sunshine and 
Shade, ^^300 ; also examples of the art of 
H. Hughes-Stanton, Lee Hankey, Austen Brown, 
Charles Sims, Oswald Birley, Harold Knight, 
and others. From the water-colours, examples 
by, amongst others, Lucy Kemp-Welch, Lee Han- 
key, Nelson Dawson, H. S. Tuke, Terrick Williams, 
H. Teed, Fred Stratton, Spenlove-Spenlove, 



Siiiiilio- Talk 



G. Thomson and Sir Alfred East were chosen by the 
Council, and a selection was also made from a fine 
collection of etchings by Frank Brangwyn. 



It will be seen by the above that the ('ouncil 
has displayed that spirit of eclecticism which is ne- 
cessary to some extent when pictures for a public 
gallery are being chosen. The permanent collec- 
tion of pictures belonging to the Academy, which 
will be handed over later on to the trustees of the 
National Gallery when a suitable building is avail- 
able, include several pictures of outstanding merit, 
notably a fine Brangwyn, Santa Maria delta Satute : 
a Moffat Lindner (a nocturne, Amsterdam) ; an ex- 
cellent example of David Murray, also pictures bv 
G. C. Haite, Laura Knight, 
Bertram Priestman, 
Wilson Steer, Fred Hall, 
Lamorna Birch, and Mrs. 
Stanhope Forbes, besides 
some good examples of 
New Zealand and Aus- 
tralian art. When the 
National Gallery is 
erected, as we hope it will 
be within the next two 
years, it will contain the 
nucleus of what should, 
in course of time, become 
an institution worthy of 
the Dominion, one which 
will not only do good 
service to the community 
by instilling a taste for 
the beautiful in the minds 
of the people, but will 
also provide a stimulus 
to better work on tiie 
part of our local art 
students. 

The exhibition re- 
mained open for several 
weeks and was very largely 
attended by the public. 
As might have been ex- 
pected, many of the pic- 
tures, not being of the 
once conventional, mid- 
Victorian, anecdotal, or 
purely pictorial type, ex- 
cited a variety of criticism, 
some of which was not a 

'• CLAIR DK l.UNK 

little amusing. Mr. 



Frank Brangwyn's Card Players (purchased by a 
special commissioner sent over by the Melbourne 
Public Gallery authorities) was, in particular, the 
subject of much discussion. A vote as to " the 
most popular i>icture " being taken, this distinction 
was awarded to Mr. G. Young Hunter's portrait of 
his wife. 

Since the Wellington Exhibiton, Mr. Baillie has 
taken portions of his collection to other centres — 
Christchurch, Auckland, and Dunedin — where 
sales have been very satisfactory. In December 
1913, a Dominion Exhibition of Industries and 
Fine Arts is to be opened at Auckland. A special 
feature will be made of the Art Gallery, of whicii 




( rhi'aiclfhia Watcr-Colo) Citib) 



liV GASTON LE MAINS 



339 



Studio-Talk 



Mr. Bail lie has been appointed manager. It is 
probable that the pictures he will bring out to 
Auckland may be more pictorial and popular in 
their -ippeal than those he has shown here, but no 
doubt there will be a generous leaven of lliat 
purely modem an which constituted such a 
pleasant feature of the exhibition here. 



The Twenty-fourth Annual Exhibition of the 
New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts was opened 
early in October. The general quality of the 
work shown was voted somewhat disappointing, but 
it is just possible — indeed it would be well were 
it so in fact — that the public taste has now been 
educated to a higher standard and that local effort 
may be found just a trifle unsatisfying. Some 
good, strong, sincere work was shown by H. Linley 
Richardson, R.B.A., Owen 
Merton, R.B..\., Mina 
Amdt — the two last being 
young New Zealand artists 

now studying in Europe ^ 

— Mrs. Burge, Mrs. 'I'ripe, 
and others, and marked 
improvement was evi- 
denced in the work of some 
of the younger local artists, 
plein air studies being now 
more numerous than was 
wont to be the case. 

Ch.xklks Wilson. 



Pll I LA I) E L- 
I'H I A.- The 
competition for 
the Beck prize, 
awarded to the best work 
that has been reproduced 
in colour for the purpose 
of publication, gave to the 
tenth annual exhibition of 
the Philadelphia Water- 
Color Club, recently held 
in the galleries of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, a character 
quite unique and most in- 
teresting. The result was 
a display of the best work 
of many of the leading 
illustrators of the United 
States, and to the credit 
of the Academy it must 
be said that the greater 
34° 



part of them have received their training in its 
schools. Mr. N. C. Wyeth's illustrations of 
" Treasure Island '' were among the most effective 
works of this class. Mr. Thornton Oakley's /(7;/«r 
Market, Hathi, a.nd Water U'ojncn, Udaipi/r, gaxe 
one a good idea of the riot of colour that lends such 
a peculiar charm to the street-life of East Indian 
towns. Miss Jessie Willcox Smith exhibited a series 
of admirable illustrations of Dickens's works, and 
Miss Blanche Greer a number of drawings for 
Charlotte Bronte's "Tales of the Islanders." Mr. 
George Harding's Off Cape Race and T/ie Neiv- 
foiindland Coast were good examples of his art. 
Mrs. I'^lizabeth Shippen Green Elliott showed some 
of her popular pictures of child-life. Taking them 
all together tliey formed a comprehensive display of 
the best types of American illustration and showed 




"A STREET OF CAlfib " BY H. C. MERRILL 

( PhitaJelphia Watey-Colcr Club) 




(Philadelphia n\:t.i-Cohr Cluh) 



UP THE WILD HILL' 
BY LUCY S. CONANT^ 



studio- Talk 



marked progress in the attainment of the more 
serious qualities of art work. 



Of the easel pictures not necessarily meant for 
reproduction, and painted in any medium other 
than oil, Mr. H. C. Merrill's Street of Cafes com- 
manded attention as having most of the essentials 
of a genuine work of art. frankly attractive to the 
layman and lacking the sensational eccentricity- 
that so frequently mystifies him. Mr. Everett I.. 
Warners Broadway Tabernacle at Xis;/it, which was 
awarded the Isidor prize at the Salmagundi Club, 
was another highly successful effort to render tiie 
poetic charm that commonplace streets and build- 
ings assume under certain conditions of lighting 
and atmosphere. Mr. Albert H Sonns Fonte 
Vec:hio, Verona, showed that he is a colourist of the 
first order. Mr. Gaston le 
Mains exhibited Clair de 
Lune and Le Maiioir 
Ahandonne, works stimu- 
lating the imagination, and 
both of them fine examples 
of finished craftsmanship. 
Mr. Walter Gay contributed 
a number of works of very 
high degree of excellence, 
especially notable among 
them being his views of 
the interior of the Chateau 
du Breau. Two of the 
works of the late Thomas 
P. Anshutz were shown, 
Becky Sharp and A Bird, 
life-size figure subjects, and 
probably the last work of 
this talente)d painter, who 
died but a few months back. 
Mr. John McLure Hamil- 
ton's portrait of Mrs. 
Edward Hornor Coates 
showed the clever execu- 
tion of an artist sure of his 
method, and was withal an 
excellent likeness of his 
sitter. 

Some interesting portrait 
studies in chalk monotone 
by Miss Cecilia Beaux gave 
evidence of careful search 
for the individuality of the 
subject. Breton fisherfolk 

■" . . "LA BO.NNE MEXAGtRE 

and their cottage interiors 
342 



formed the materiel of a group of Miss Elizabeth 
Xourse's works, very successful as human docu- 
ments descriptive of the hard life of these sun-tanned 
toilers of the sea. Miss Alice Schille was repre- 
sented by a number of well-painted examples : among 
them siiould be ■ mentioned a landscape, Broken 
Clouds, and A Pig Market, particularly vibrating 
with colour and true in values. Miss Lucy S. 
Conant's group of water-colours of Alpine scenery 
were very convincing and showed close study of 
mountain features and atmosphere. Mr. Henry B. 
Snells Lighthouse was a capital bit of his work 
and absolutely realistic in effect. A group of Mr. 
Fred \\"agner's water-colours and pastels of near-by 
localities showed in a most conclusive way that it 
is not necessary for the artist to go far afield for his 
subjects. Mr. George Walter Dawson's group of 




(Philadelphia JVafer-Color Club) 



BY ELIZABETH NOURSE 




(Philadelphia Water-Color Cliih) 



GARDENIA ROSES." BY 
LILIAN WESTCOTT HALE 



Sf/idio- Talk 




•VORYU KWANNOn' (WOOD SCVLPTLRE). BY 
SEKl.NO SEIUN 



flower paintings gaYC an unusual note of distinc- 
tion to the exhibition, especially the careful studies 
of Water-lilies and Roses. A beautiful drawing 
in monotone entitled Gardenia Roses by Lilian 
Westcott Hale should be mentioned. 



One of the rooms \Yas devoted exclusively to the 
display of fifty -one etchings and lithographs by Mr. 
Joseph Pennell, quite a number of them being of 
localities in Philadelphia \vhich Mr. I'ennell has 
discovered. E. C. 



T' )KVO. — One of the most interesting ex- 
hibitions recently held in Uyeno Park 
was that of wood-carving by the members 
oftheNihon Chokokukai, a society com- 
posed of twelve more or less well-known sculptors 
under the presidency of Okakura Kakuzo, the art 
critic. It was particularly interesting, not only 
because it was the first independent exhibition of 
344 



the kind ever held in Japan, but also because it 
showed marked progress in Japanese wood sculp- 
ture as seen in some very excellent work. The 
general tone of the exhibition bespoke sincerity 
and earnestness of effort on the part of the artists 
to give the very best of which they were capable. 
.•\ few groups were shown, such as Yamazaki 
Choun's Yamasodachi, depicting an old woman of 
the mountains with a sturdy boy reared by her, and 
Mori Hosei's three laughing figures, Kokei Sansho. 
Single figures, however, predominated, more stress 
being laid upon the expression of the inward feeling 
than on mere beauty of line. AVith one exception 
all the work exhibited dealt with the human figure. 
This exception was a carving of the -Sacred Cow 
which furnished milk for Buddha, a work admirably 
executed in teak by Yamazaki Choun. Scarcely 
any of the figures exceeded two feet in height, as 
most of the pieces were designed as okiinono, 
ornaments for the tokonoma or post of honour in 
the guest-room of the Japanese house. 




' HACOROMO, THE MOON MAIDEN " (WOOD 
SCULPTURE). BY HAVASHI BIUN 



Studio- Talk 




"AX AITEAL TO THE MOON" (WOOD SCULPTURE) 
BY MORI HOSEI 



The rare gift of Japanese artists of making the best 
use of natural materials by taking every advantage 
of their characteristics was clearly shown at this 
exhibition in their use of wood. How cleverly the 
natural grain of the wood has been utilised to 
bring out special qualities and feelings was shown 
in The Pointing of a Finger executed by Hiragushi 
Denchu, showing the popular legendary Chinese 
personages, Kwanzan and Jittoku, pointing to a 
star they have just discovered ; Serene Music (a 
girl playing on the shd) an exceptionally clever 
work by Ishimoto Gyokai, and a representation of 
the homely looking Hotei, one of the seven gods ol 
fortune, by the same carver ; the graceful K'lvannon 
by Sekino Seiun ; also in Hosei's An Appeal to the 
Moon. In fact almost all the pieces showed this 
aptitude for utilising the grain of the wood most 
effectively, and adapting the style of carving to the 
quality of the wood. 

Formerly only a few kinds of wood, more or 
less costly in themselves, were used, but now ex- 
periments are being made with a larger variety 
drawn from different parts of the country. I3y the 



use of a new and comparatively little known species 
of wood from Hokkaido called domo, for his 
splendid piece Koan, a Chinese sage on a turtle, 
Voshida Hakurei has brought out an expression of 
delightful repose upon the face of the sage, whose 
heavy wet garment trails in the water, while the 
hard shell of an old turtle is partially submerged. 
l'>y taking tsiibaki, or camellia, for his Hakuzoshi, 
one of the performers in a No dance, Shimomura 
Seiji, a brother of Shimomura Kwanzan, the well- 
known Japanese painter, has very admirably 
expressed the texture of the robe worn. And 
again by using ho, or white magnolia wood, Naito 
Shin has been able to give most delicate colouring 
to his delightful and clever figures Punting and 
A Girl of the Fujiivara Period in the Nara style of 
carving. 

At the same exhibition were found a {&\s works 
by Hayashi Biun, who died recently at the age of 




IRENE MUSIC 



(WOOU SCUl.rTUKK) 
BY ISHIMOTO 



JVOKAI 

343 



/\!cr/e-ii's (Hid N^otices 




"IIOTEl" (WOOD SCII.ITIRE) 



BY ISHIMrvTd C.YOKAI 



fifty. While a mere boy he took lessons from 
Takamura Toun, and latei became a monjin of 
Tamaruka Koun, who is now the head professor 
in clay-modelling at the Tokyo School of Fine 
Arts. Biun did much in the way of making 
replicasof ancient wood sculpture, especially the old 
Buddhistic images of Nara, and a number of them 
are now kept in the Imperial Household Museum. 
At one time he was a teacher at the Art School of 
Kyoto, but for the last fourteen years of his life he 
taught woodcar\ing at the Tokyo School of Fine 
Arts. He was awarded a second prize at the Paris 
Exposition of 1900. H.\rad.\ Jiro. 

ART SCHOOL NOTES. 

EDINBURGH.— The College of Art 
Students Club, which numbers about a 
couple of hundred members, held an ex- 
hibition of paintings, water-colour and 
chalk drawings in the college at the end of 
November. The exhibits, one hundred and forty- 
346 



four in number, did not represent work done 
in the institution so much as the result of 
summer sketching expeditions and home- 
work in which individual characteristics had 
scope for expression. The result was a 
display of work which gave evidence of the 
soundness of the teaching, the good guidance 
of the student in craftsmanship withtmt at- 
tempting to lay down any conventional form 
of expression. The best feature was the 
feeling for colour, ever a distinguishing mark 
of the Scottish school, while the weakness 
was the lack of sufficient importance given 
to accurate draughtsmanship. The exhibi- 
tion as a whole showed a considerable 
advance over last year. .\. E. 

REVIEWS AND NOTICES. 
Ballads Weird and Wonderful. Drawings 
by ^'ER^•ON Hill. (London: John Lane.) 
2 IX. net. — Mr. Vernon Hill is not a super- 
ficial craftsman ; he has something better on 
hand than the search for a short cut to im- 
mediate effectiveness. He does not seek to 
evade difficulties of constructive drawing by 
resorting, wherever such difficulties occur, 
to those friendly if often trivial devices of 
pattern-making that can always afterwards 
be labelled "decoration." His work is very 
classical in feeling, very cold and sculp- 
turesque in result ; it expresses a great taste 
for the horrible — which always lies so very close 
to the ugly — but its horror is that of intellec- 
tual invention rather than that of feeling ; horror 
and ugliness are deliberately exploited, it seems 
to us, as a certain way of making an impression 
on the spectator. In its precision the drawing 
is almost Pre-Raphaelite, and at every point it is 
wholesomely certain in its intention. The illus. 
tration to " Hugh of Lincoln " does not betray the 
prevalent thirst for unpleasant form, but it in no 
point falls beneath the other illustrations, in fact it 
is an improvement on many, thus showing that the 
artist's range is not as narrow as one might at first 
suppose, not so limited to the repulsive as the first 
impression of his book conveys. The ballads 
illustrated are taken from ancient legendary collec- 
tions, and the volume is bound in grey leather with 
cover design in gold. 

The Life and Letters of Frederic Shields. Edited 
by Ernestine Mills. (London: Longmans, Green 
and Co.) \os. 6d. net. — The claim put forward by 
his latest biographer that Frederic Shields was 



Reviews and Notices 



' one of the greatest modern interpreters of the 
universal language of art," will scarcely be conceded 
by those most competent to judge, but this very 
fact adds pathos to the record of his long struggles 
against overwhelming odds. He had the nervous 
irritability that so often accompanies genius with- 
out the compensating mental strength that would 
have enabled him to rise above his bodily weak- 
nesses. Even the voices of nature, such as the 
songs of birds, that are a delight to many who share 
his hatred of the noises of the town, were abhorrent 
to him, and his whole life was spoiled by a super- 
sensitiveness for which even those who loved him 
best had constantly to make allowance. His treat- 
ment of his girl-wife, whom he left on their 
wedding-day, sent to a boarding-school soon after- 
wards, and lectured in his letters, scolding her for 
her spelling, and telling her " not to show self-will 
or disobedience because it would reflect shame on 
him if she did," alienates the sympathies of the 
reader, but that there must have been something 
very lovable about him in spite of his stern un- 
bending character is proved by the strong affection 
felt for him by many of his gifted contemporaries. 
Not the least interesting portions of a book that is 
full of psychological suggestions are the accounts 
of Shields' relations with Madox Brown, Rossetti, 
Morris, and Holman Hunt. Amongst the typical 
works reproduced some, including One of the Bread 
Watchers and Whistle and Answer, display con- 
siderable imaginative power. 

Stitches from Old English Embroideries. By 
Louisa F. Pesel. Portfolio No. i. (Bradford 
and London : Percy Lund, Humphries and Co. 
Ltd.) 1^,5. net. — At the request of the authorities 
at the Victoria and Albert Museum, South 
Kensington, Miss Pesel recently worked a set of 
diagrams of stitches which occur in Old English 
embroideries, and these having now been placed on 
exhibition in the textile section at the museum, 
she has been allowed to have them reproduced in 
colour for publication. Hence this little portfolio, 
which contains thirty-five diagrams of stitches 
selected from examples of seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth century work. The stitches are exhibited on 
a large scale in strongly contrasting colours, and both 
the finished side and the reverse side are shown, so 
that with the notes at the foot of each diagram the 
method of manipulation is made perfectly clear. 
We commend this portfolio to the attention of 
needleworkers, who will find in it many interesting 
varieties of stitch which are probably unknown to 
some of them. 

The English Fireplace. By L. A. Sml-ffrev. 



(London : B. T. Batsford.) £2 2s. net.— In this 
sumptuous and exhaustive treatise upon a subject 
which, though primarily of architectural interest, 
yet acquires a more general significance when it is 
remembered that the hearth has been from time 
immemorial the centre of the home and family life, 
Mr. Shuffrey traces the development of the 
chimney piece and firegrate with their accessories 
from the earliest times up to the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. As regards its architectural 
value, the fireplace, though originally constructed 
on a strictly utilitarian basis, grew in importance, 
during the Gothic and Renaissance periods, to 
such a point as to become the most prominent 
feature of the room, and henceforward we find it 
reflecting faithfully all the subsequent different 
styles in architecture. The volume is well indexed 
and contains two hundred illustrations in the text. 
The chief feature is, however, the series of one 
hundred and thirty excellent reproductions in collo- 
type after photographs, chiefly by Mr. W. Gals- 
worthy Davies, of some of the finest examples of 
fireplaces in England. 

A History of Painting in North Italy. By J. A. 
Crowe and G. B. C.w.\lcaselle. Edited by 
Tancred Borenius, Ph.D. (London : John Mur- 
ray.) 3 vols. jQt, 35. net. — Enriched with numerous 
excellent reproductions of characteristic works of 
the painters considered, and brought into line with 
the results of modern research by copious scholarly 
notes, this new edition forms a worthy supplement 
to the equally successful reissue of the same authors' 
companion publication recently brought out by 
Mr. Murray. But for a few necessary corrections, 
such as changes in the official names of galleries, 
&c., the editor has left untouched the original text, 
which even at this late day still ranks amongst the 
classics of art. That certain experts differ from 
the conclusions of the learned collaborators as to 
the authorship of some few pictures does not really 
detract from the value either of their technical 
criticism or of the historical data collected by them, 
so just is their estimate of the distinctive qualities 
of each artist, so unwearying was their patience in 
the collection of information. To (juote two cases 
in point, how clearly traced are the different cur- 
rents in Venetian art in the early fifteenth century, 
and how vividly realised is the struggle that took 
place towards its close between the Vivarini and 
Bellini, and their respective followers. No less, 
however, it must be added, has been the industry 
displayed by their last editor in sifting the vast mass 
of material that has accumulated during the last 
half-century. The list of authorities ijuoted from 

347 



Reviews atid Notices 



by Dr. liorcnius fills ten closely printed jxiges, 
but even this gives no adequate idea of the labour 
involved in his work as editor. In every case he gives 
the present location of the paintings mentioned in 
the text, involving long and tedious investigations, 
refers wherever possible to pictures from the hands 
of the painters criticised to which no allusion is 
made by the authors of the book, and here and 
there he proves on what slight grounds important 
conclusions have been based, as when he expresses 
his opinion that the much-quoted epitaph on the 
Barbarelli tomb, on which was founded the popular 
belief as to the origin of Giorgione, was wrongly 
reported. 

An Account of Medun'al Figure- Sculpture in 
England. By Kd\v.\rli S. Prior, M.A., F.S.A., 
and Arthur G.\rdner, M.A., F.S.A. (Cam- 
bridge : The University Press.) J[^t, 3^-. net. — 
The joint authors of a book that, even without its 
deeply interesting text, must be a delight to all 
lovers of the noble art of decorative figure-sculpture, 
on account of the vast number and the beauty of 
its illustrations, go to the very root of the matter 
under discussion. Not only do they describe and 
classify all the most characteristic examples of this 
delightful craft that still survive in England, and 
bring out clearly the close correlation between 
their style and that of the buildings they adorn, 
they realise the very spirit that animated those 
who executed them. "The maker of images for 
a medisval church," they say, " was in no hotbed 
of culture, was no sophist of the schools or 
champion of this or that artistic faith. But par- 
ticularly he had no power of choice in the message 
he had to deliver : the selection and discovery of 
the motives for sculpture had been made for him 
dogmatically by the verified creed of Christendom. 
... If, as working in stone he could not rival 
the marble artist in . . . perfection of finish, yet 
the spiritual forces which came to him from the 
tradition of the church make themselves evident. 
. . . He managed to embody in sculpture some- 
thing of the divine power which was moving the 
world of sculpture." A general survey of the 
materials and subjects of architectural sculpture is 
succeeded by a chronological histor)- of the art 
from Pre-Conquest to Gothic times, every page 
bearing witness to the enthusiasm of the writers, 
their highly developed critical faculties and in- 
timate acquaintance with the religious and political 
conditions of which the buildings of each succes- 
sive period were to a great extent a reflection. 
Of very special value are the chajHers bringing 
out the singular indifference to individual fame 
348 



that esjjecially in the Mid-Gothic era characterised 
the men who gave up their lives to the erection and 
embellishment of the glorious churches in which 
their genius found its fullest expression. The 
whole book is, however, full of appreciation of the 
personal element that is so important a factor in 
all good work and of recognition of the fact that, in 
sjjite of occasional slight influence from abroad, 
Knglish figure-sculpture was from first to last 
essentially national. 

Art in Egypt. By G. Maspero. (London ; W 
Heinemann.) ds. net. — This little volume belongs 
to the series of art histories in which it is intended 
to give a coup d'a:il or general sketch of the develop- 
ment of art in various countries, each volume being 
entrusted to a recognised authority. In the one 
before us the distinguished scholar, M. Maspero, 
whose writings on Ancient Egypt are held in high 
esteem by all archajologists, reviews the artistic pro- 
ducts of the remarkable people whose civilisation 
astonishes us more and more as our knowlege of it 
increases. The point emphasised by the author in 
regard to their art is the subordination of that art 
to religious utility throughout its entire history — 
and not only plastic and pictorial art, but industrial 
art as well. He remarks, too, that it was from the 
same cause that sculpture came to assume the 
leading r/jk in art of the Egyptians, whose religious 
ideas demanded the most durable medium for their 
embodiment. The blow which struck at the national 
religion, struck also at its art, and it disappeared — 
became, to use the author's words, " as extinct as the 
races of monsters we find embedded in the lower 
strata of our globe." Like the other volumes this 
one also is copiou.sly illustrated and well printed. 

The Story of a Hida Craftsman. From the 
Japanese of Rokujiuyen by F. Victor Dickins. 
(London : Gowans and Gray.) \os. hd. net. — 
The craftsman in Old Japan was an honoured 
personage. He was an artist, in some cases to be 
ranked with its greatest painters. This was only 
natural when we remember to what a high degree 
of artistic and technical excellence he at times 
attained. Rokujiuyen's romance deals with a 
worker in wood from Hida, who was invested with 
certain supernatural powers. The novel, written in 
the early days of the last century, is of interest as 
portraying some characteristics of Japanese life and 
legend in feudal times. The reproductions which 
accf)nipany the work are reduced from the wood- 
cuts of Hokusai, but while exhibiting something 
of the prowess of the great master of illustration, 
they suffer somewhat from over-reduction in size. 
Mr. Dickins's excellent translation is accompanied 



Reviews and Notices 



by notes which will be found of especial value to 
the general reader. 

Byzantine Churches in Coiislantinople. By 
Alexander Van Millingen; M.A., D.D., assisted 
by Ramsav Traquair, A.R.I. B. A., W. S. George, 
F.S.A., and A. E. Henderson, F.S.A. (London : 
Macmillan and Co.) 31 J. dd. net. — Displaying as 
it does a consummate knowledge of its subject, 
this study of the Byzantine Churches in Con- 
stantinople forms a valuable sequel to the author's 
earlier volume in which the Turkish capital is 
considered chiefly as a citadel. Enriched with 
numerous plans, reproductions of buildings as a 
whole, and of characteristic details of their structure 
it gives an exhaustive description of the evolution 
of the Byzantine style of ecclesiastical architecture 
with many most interesting accounts of notable 
events connected with the surviving examples of 
it. The one drawback militating against the full 
acceptance of the scholarly writer's conclusions is 
that he does not do full justice to the originality of 
the style under discussion, for he asserts that the 
various schemes in which the churches of the 
Byzantine Empire were planned were all derived 
from the three main types that prevailed in the 
Roman world in the early fifth century, namely, 
the basilican, the octagonal, and the cruciform. 
He even goes so far as to assert that there is 
"nothing either in the planning or construction of 
St. Sophia, in which the Byzantine style culminates, 
which cannot be derived from the buildings of the 
Roman Imperial period." By adding, however, 
the significant words " with the exception of the 
pendentive " he contradicts himself, for he admits 
" that it was a feature which had to be evolved 
before the dome could be used with freedom in any 
building plan on a square." It is the employment 
of the cupola roofing in a square central space with 
the aid of the pendentive that is the fundamental 
principle of the Byzantine style, differentiating it 
from every other, and fully justifying the claim that 
the architects who invented the admirable con- 
trivance owed little to their Roman predecessors. 
As a matter of fact Byzantine architecture, by its 
bold and original treatment of plan, roofing, and 
decoration, gave new life to an art that was sinking 
into decadence and exercising a most important 
influence in Western Europe, the Cathedral of St. 
Mark at Venice and the less ornate church of San 
Vitale at Ravenna owing their chief distinction to 
the adoption of the style of Byzantium. 

Austria : Her People and their Hotneiands. By 
James Baker, F.R.G.S., etc. (London: John Lane, 
The Bodley Head.) 2 is. net. — It is a very fascinating 



panorama that Mr. Baker and his artist collaborator 
Mr. Donald Maxwell present to us in this volume. 
In varietyofsceneryand population there is assuredly 
no more interesting country in Europe than that 
over which the venerable monarch, Francis Joseph, 
rules as Emperor. But in spite of its manifold 
attractions it remains to a large extent a terra incog- 
nita to the majority of tourists, nor can it be said 
that the literature concerning the country is over- 
abundant. Mr. Baker's book is written mainly 
from personal observation afforded by numerous 
journeys extending over nearly forty years, and he 
has wisely given prominence to the less familiar 
aspects of the country and the life of its inhabitants ; 
but he has interwoven a certain amount of histori- 
cal information which adds to the interest of the 
book. He has found an able collaborator in Mr. 
Maxwell, whose forty-eight drawings reproduced in 
colour give the reader some well-chosen glimpses 
of the varied urban and rural scenery of the Austrian 
dominions. 

Life in the JP'est of Ireland. — Drawn by Jack 
B. Yeats. (Dublin: Maunsel and Co.) 5.^. net. 
— Mr. Yeats does not draw in an accomplished 
professional sort of vvay ; his work rather reminds 
us of the frank disregard of academic precision 
drawing which was characteristic of illustrators 
of early \'ictorian time. But Mr. Yeats observes 
very closely, and informs all his pictures with the 
actuality which results only from a never-resting 
study of nature, and thus it is that though his 
work is sometimes, perhaps consciously, amateurish 
in style, it is never empty in feeling or mediocre 
in result ; it really does illustrate its theme, 
realistically as well as decoratively, giving a con- 
vincing impression of life in the West of Ireland, 
and with the aid of colour making an entertaining 
book. 

Little Songs oj Long Ago. The original tunes 
harmonised by Alfred Moff.xt. Illustrated by 
H. Willebeek Le Mair. (London : Augeners 
Ltd. and A. and C. Black.) y. net. — This 
charming book, uniform with " Our Old Nursery 
Rhymes " which was reviewed some little time 
back in these pages, contains a further series of 
old Nursery songs with musical accompaniment 
and a number of illustrations in colour by Miss 
Le Mair. We have nothing but praise for the 
delightful work of this clever young Dutch artist, 
and have seldom seen more attractive illustrations 
to a children's book. Miss Le Mair's figures are 
sympathetically and daintily drawn, and she pos- 
sesses a sense of colour and a feeling for decoration 
both quite remarkable. 

349 



The Lav Fii^itrc 



T 



HE LAY FIGURE: ON ART 
I, RAZES AND THEIR MEAN- 
ING. 



'• I WONDER whether there is any connection 
between the general increase of insanity and the 
irresponsible character of modem art develop- 
ments," said the Art Critic. " I see that lunacy 
experts declare that we are fast approaching the 
time when the world will be equally divided 
between mad people and sane." 

■' The art world has already passed that stage, 
I should say," asserted the Plain Man. " The 
majority of modern artists seem to me to be dis- 
tinctly unbalanced — I wish I could think that even 
half of them were still sane." 

"What standard of sanity do you set up?" 
inquired the Man with the Red Tie. " Do you call 
ever)- one mad who does not subscribe to common- 
place conventions, or do you admit that an artist 
can be markedly original and still be quite sane ? " 

"'Great wits to madness are allied,'" quoted 
the Plain Man. " Of course originality is not a 
symptom of insanity if it is properly balanced and 
under control, but when it gets out of hand it is 
rather apt to stray in the direction of irrational and 
extravagant eccentricity. If you lose the grip of 
your great wits you are in some danger of going off 
the rails altogether." 

" Ves, that is not a bad way of putting it," broke 
in the Critic. "Impatience of the commonplace, 
which is the stimulating cause of originality, is an 
admirable characteristic so long as it is guided by 
reason : but it is decidedly dangerous when it breaks 
away from proper restraints. Without discipline, 
the desire to be original leads to something which 
can not unfairly be called insanity." 

" As it has in modern art," commented the Plain 
Man. " We are now in the middle of a movement 
which, beginning, no doubt, in an honest desire to 
break away from the commonplace, has gone to 
such unreasonable lengths that it has ceased to be 
sane." 

"Quite so; a legitimate effort to find new forms 
of expression has thrown off all discipline and has 
degenerated into a craze," agreed the Critic. 

" But what you call a craze can surely be helpful 
to the progress of art," cried the Man with the Red 
Tie. " Does it not introduce new ideas and open 
up fresh points of view ? Does it not lead the way 
to better things ? " 

" If you look upon it merely as a temporary 
expedient, as a violent remedy the effects of which 
pass off quickly, it may quite possibly do no 
35° 



permanent harm. But the craze is always some- 
thing of a danger to the stability of art and it causes 
a great deal of trouble while it lasts," returned the 
Critic. " The point to consider is whether in the 
long run it does any real good." 

" While it lasts it is responsible for the produc- 
tion of a great deal of work which is artistically 
indefensible," argued the Plain Man. "That is 
what I complain of." 

"There, no doubt, you are right," replied the 
Critic. "In movements of this kind there are 
always some who go further than others in their 
craziness. The present craze in painting and 
sculpture is almost exactly parallel to the so called 
art nouveau craze in the region of design and archi- 
tecture over which so many people lost their 
heads, and which in its extreme developments was 
characterised by an utter disregard of the funda- 
mental principles of construction and by ignorance 
of the true meaning of decoration." 

" Still, if there were no vehement outbreaks there 
would be no art," decJared the Man with the Red 
Tie. " It would settle down into a condition of 
stupid somnolence and would finally die for want 
of exercise." 

" It might; I admit the danger," said the Critic. 
" The passing craze, violent, unreasonable, insane 
even, as it is, must be accepted as the means by 
which art is roused when it shows signs of becom- 
ing torpid. The remedy, to us who are brought 
into contact with it, may seem to be worse than 
the disease, but the patient derives some benefit 
from it, and after the shaking up is able to go 
about his business again in better health and with 
a definite renewal of vitality. Harking back again 
to the art ?iouveau craze, we know that in those 
places where it went to greatest extremes it has in 
the end given place to great respect for constructive 
principles and repugnance to meaningless decora- 
tion. We may therefore take heart and hope for a 
parallel result from this present craze." 

"Then it comes to this, that artists must go 
mad periodically for the good of art," exclaimed 
the Plain Man. 

" I am afraid so," answered the Critic ; " and I 
suppose as the insanity in the world increases 
they will get madder and at more frequent 
intervals. But you must credit them even in their 
most irrational exploits with an unconscious good 
intention to do the best they can for art." 

" That may be so in certain cases," retorted the 
Plain Man, "but I have often wondered whether 
some of them are not deliberately perpetrating a 
big practical joke on us." The Lav Figure. 



N 
1 
16 



International studio 



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