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Full text of "International Trade in Marine Shells"

The International Trade in Marine Shells 

A Report to TRAFFIC (International) 
by Susan M. Wells 



I980 

Species Conservation Monitoring Unit 

219c Huntingdon Road 

Cambridge UK 






INTixODUCTlUN 1 
UNWORKED SHELLS - EXPORTING COUNTRIES 5 

USA 5 

Philippines 6 

Mexico 6 

Indonesia 6 

Japan 7 

Haiti 7 

South Korea 7 

Solomon Islands 7 

Australia 7 

Other Countries 8 

UNWORKED SHELLS - IMPORTING COUNTRIES 9 

Japan 9 

France 10 

USA 10 

South Korea ... 11 

West Germany 11 

Hong Kong 11 

Spain 11 
Other Countries . , ..._ 12 

UNWORKED MOTHER-OF-PEARL 13 

Pearl Shell 13 

Trochidae or top shell 14 

Green snail shell 15 

Other species 15 

WORKED SHELLS 16 

Exporting Countries I6 

Importing Countries 17 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND DISCUSSION 18 

Countries involved 18 

Mother-of-pearl 21 

Other species 27 

'Rare' shells 29 

Legislation 31 

Conclusion 33 



LIST OF TABLES 

1 . Exports of Unworked Coral and shells 

2. Imports of Unworked Coral and shells 

3. Exports of Worked Coral and shells by weight 

4. Exports of Worked Coral and shells by value 
b. Imports of Worked Coral and shells by weight 

5. Imports of Worked Coral and shells by value 

7. Exports of unworked shells 

8. Estimated exports of shells 

9. US Exports of marine shells 

10. US Re-exports of shells 

11. Philippines - Exports of 'other shells* 

12. Philippines - Exports of 'scrap shell' 
15a. Exports of shells from Mexico 

13b. Estimated exports of shells from Mexico 
1^, Indonesia - Exports of 'other shells' 
15a. Japan - Exports of shells of shell fishes 
15b. Japan - Exports of similar substances to coral and shells 
and powder and waste 

16. Estimated exports from Haiti 

17. Soloman Islands - Exports of 'other sea shells' 

18. Australia - Exports-of shells other than mother-of-pearl 

19. Tanzania - Exports of corals, shell, their powder and waste 

20. Kenya - Exports of corals, shells, their powder and waste 
21a. India - Exports of marine shells 

21b. India - Exports, of otl\er corals and_shells 

22. Malaysia - Somestic Exports ci Coral and shells 

23. Malaysia - Re-exports 

24. Imports of unworked shells 

25. Japan - Imports of 'other shells' 

26. Japan - Imports of substances similar to coral and shells; 

powder and waste 

27. France - Imports of unworked shells 

28. US - Imports of unworked shells 

29. South Korea - Imports of 'other shells' 

30. West Germany - Imports of 'other shells' 

31 . Hong Kong - Imports of Mollusc Shell 

32. Spain - Imports of 'other shells' 

33. Italy - Imports of unworked coral and shells 

34. Australia - Imports of coral and shells 

35. Singapore - Imports of coral and shells 

36. Malaysia - Imports of coral and shells 

37. Kenya - Imports of coral and shells 

38. Exports of unworked pearl shell 

39. Indonesia - Exports of unworked mother-of-pearl 

40. Philippines - Exports of unworked mother-of-pearl 

41. Australia - Exports of unworked pearl shell 

42. Imports of unworked pearl shell 

43. Japan - Imports of Pinctada margaritifera 

44. Japan - Imports of Pinctada maxima 

45. US - Imports of mother-of-pearl and Trochus 

46. Exports of unworked Trochus 

k7 . Indonesia - Exports of ' troca or lola' 

48. Solomon Islands - Exports of 'trocas' 

49. Philippines - Exports of 'trochea' shell 

50. Imports of unworked Trochus 

51. JapEin - Imports of ' Tectus niloticus ' 

52. Indonesia - Exports of 'Burgos' or Green snail 

53. Solomon Islands - Exports of Green snail 

54. Papua New Guinea - Exports of unworked shells 



55. South Korea - Imports of Abalone Shell 

56. Philippines - Exports of capiz shells 

57. India - Trade in cowries and chanks 

58a. Exports of worked mother-of-pearl by weight 
58b, Exports of worked mother-of-pearl by value 
59a. Imports of worked mother-of-pearl by weight 
59b. Imports of worked mother-of-pearl by value 

60. Philippines - Exi)orts of woi'ked shell 

61 . Taiwan - Exports of worked mother-of-pearl 

62. South Korea - Exports of worked mother-of-pearl 

63. Japan - Exports of worked mother-of-pearl 
64a. Hong Kong - Exports of pearl buttons 
64b. Hong Kong - Re-exports of pearl buttons 
65a. Japan - Imports of worked mother-of-pearl 

65b. Japan - Imports of mother-of-pearl for button making 
66a. West Germany - Imports of worked mother-of-pearl 
66b. UK - Imports of worked mother-of-pearl 
66c. France - Imports of worked mother-of-pearl 
66d. Spain - Imports of worked mother-of-pearl 
66e. Italy - Imports of worked mother-of-pearl 

67. US - Imports of articles of shells 

68. US - Imports of shell or pearl buttons 

69. Hong Kong - Imports' of sPiell buttons 

70. FAO statistics for catches and landings of shells 



Figures 

1. US exports of marine shells 1960-1978 

2. Philippine exports of 'other shells' 1970-1978 

3. Japan - Imports of 'other shells' 1970-1979 

4. US imports of marine shells 1960-1978 

5. US Imports of Articles of shell 1961-1978 



International Trade in Marine Shells 

INTRODUCTION 

One of the main characteristics of the Mollusca, the second 
largest invertebrate plylum, is the presence in most species of 
a protective shell into which the animal can withdraw as a 
defence against predation, dessication or wave action. The 
shell, secreted by the mantle which is a sheet of skin covering 
all or part of the body, is composed mainly of calcium carbonate 
with a small percentage of a protein-like material called 
conchiolin. 

Mollusc shells come'in an infinite variety of colours, 
patterns, shapes and sculpturing, which usually reflect the life 
style of the species, Gastropbds have a single coiled shell with a 
small aperture o Shells with low spires are most stable and tend 
to be found in species which move on the vertical surfaces of rocks 
and vegetation. Long spires are usually dragged along and are 
found in species living in soft sediments. Many species have 
developed spines for strengthening, protecting or stabilising the 
shell; others such as abalones and limpets have become secondarily 
straightened out and can be clamped tightly to wave-swept rocks. 
Bivalves have a shell in two parts which fit together tightly to 
enclose the animal completely. Their shape is less variable than 
gastropod shells, although burrowing forms tend to have very 
stream-lined shellso 

Many shells have an inner layer of nacre or mother- 
of-pearl which is made up of tiny blocks of crystalline calcium 
carbonate arranged in layers. Pearls are formed when sand grains 
or other particles get lodged between the mantle and the shell, 
and concentric layers of nacre build up around them. Although 
pearls can be produced by many species, only certain molluscs 



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produce commercially valuable ones, such as Pinctada margaritifera 
and P. mertensi . 

Prehistoric man discovered that the soft parts of 
molluscs provided an easily accessible, nutritive source of food, 
and since then this group of animals has been exploited heavilyo 
The shell part also gradually came to be valued for a 
number of reasons, not least of which was its beauty. Shells have 
been used by many races and cultures as holy objects, 
currency, jewelry and to decorate clothing and household articles. 
Calcined shells make the fines.t lime which is used for pottery 
glazes and betel chewing, and also for toothpaste and poultry 
food. Dead shells washed ashore in large quantities or dredged 
if they occur in large banks may be used for these purposes and 
include oysters, Meretix, Area , Vellorita , Katelysia (Durve, 
1975: Saul, 197^). Building blocks are made from crushed shells 
and coral, bound together with cement, and where large quantities 
of empty shells can be dredged they are used in road-makingo A 
detailed history of man's use of shells is provided by Saul (l97^)o 

This report hov/ever is concerned mainly with the extensive and 
escalating trade in tropical shells which are sold as curios and 
souvenirs to decorate homes, shopsj^ restaurants, for jewelry and for 
other ornamental articles. These come mainly from tropical coral 
reefs, now recognised as among the most highly productive marine 
ecosystems. The large scale commercial collection of shells in 
many areas has led to fears that populations may be being depleted 
and coral reefs damaged during collection. 

Unfortunately foreign trade statistics do not record 



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1 



tropical shells for the curio trade under a separate tariff 
heading from those which are dredged or mined for industrial uses. 
They also do not separate shells collected from the wild from 
those obtained from shell fish culturing enterprises or from molluscs 
collected from foodo The statistics used in this report are taken 
from two tariff headings: unworked or raw coral and shells 1(05 o 12 
BTN (Brussels Tariff Nomendature) ; 291 «1 5 SITC (Standard International 
Trade Classification)] and worked or carved coral and shells (95.05 
BTN; 899.11 SITC) <, Some countries lump coral and shells together 
in each section under one tariff heading; other countries separate 
them under different tariff headings and in the unworked section 
may have a further heading for "powder and waste of coral and 
shells; and similar substances" o A few countries break their 
statistics down according to different species or types of shell; 
for example mother-of-pearl is often recorded separately under the 
BTN heading 95. 02., 

In view of the problem of shells not always being recorded 
separately in trade statistics, an overview of world trade in both 
corals and shells is given in the following paragraphs. The rest 
of this report is concerned with the shell trade only, and the 
coral trade is analysed and discussed in Wells (1980). 



Tables 1-5 list all the countries which according to 
foreign trade statistics were involved in the international coral 
and shell trade between 1976 and 1978. In these tables figures for 
corals and shells have been added together for the countries where 
they were recorded under separate tariff headings. In Table 1 



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the export figure given by a country was used where this could be 
obtained; for countries where statistics were not available exports 
were estimated from figures produced by importing countries o Tables 
2-6 list only those countries recording their own imports and exports. 

Denmark and the Netherlands recorded the highest exports 
of unworked coral and shells. These were probably mainly shells 
for industrial uses, dredged in the North and Baltic Seas, and will 
not therefore be discussed further in this report. The Philippines 
and the US were the second major exporters; many of their exports 
include shells and corals from^ tropical reefs« Other major 
exporters include Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Haiti, Australia and 
a number of Pacific islands. Apart from the Europeain countries, 
the major exporting countries are in the tropics. 

The main importers of unworked coral and shells are the 
northern European countries, Singapore, Japan, South Korea and the 
US, Imports into Europe and Singapore are probably mainly shells 
for industrial purposes (the bulk of Singapore's imports come 
from Malaysia (Table 35)). 

Trade figures for worked coral and shells can be misleading 
as the items recorded under these tariff headings may include 
other materials such as wood, metal etc. However it is clear that 
the Philippines is the major exporter, in terms of both weight 
and value, followed by Taiwan. Exports from Italy have a high value; 
this country is traditionally the centre of the cameo and coral 
carving industry. Japan, West Germany and Thailand are also 
major exporters of worked coral and shells. The main importers are 
W. Germany, the US, Japan, Spain and Italy. 



^ 



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Pricesof shells are very variable and are not discussed 
in this report. Abbott (1980) reviews current trends „ 

UIWORKED SHELLS -EXPORTING COUNTRIES 

Countries recording exports of shells are given in Table 7 with a 
breakdown according to species. Table 8 gives the 'estimated' 
exports from all countries involved, calculated from figures 
produced by importing countries, and including all types of shell o 
This latter table shows that the Netherlands and Denmark are the 
main exporters (see p. 4 )., and, are followed by the US, the Philippines 
Mexico and Indonesia, which are discussed below in more detail. 

USA 

Exports of shells from the US increased rapidly in the 
1960s reaching a peak in 1965 (Table 9 and Fig. 1). Subsequently 
exports dropped, averaging about 5 . 000 tonnes between 1970 and 
1978. Between I960 and 1967 over 50^ of exports went to Japan 
and a large proportion continues to do so; (these are probably 
freshwater mussels (Abbott, 1980) although since 1965 the tariff 
heading has specified marine shells). Large quantities also went to 
Canada. Since 1970 exports to South Korea have been increasing; 
these are. probably mainly abalone shells (see p. 14), 
The US recoras re-exports of small quantities of marine shells 
(Table 10), and since 197i an increasing number have been destined 
for South Korea. According to Abbott(l980) the US re-exports 
Haitian shells, especially conches, to the Bahamas, The Bahamas 
recorded imports of 3 555 conch shells from the US in 1976 and 
710 in 1977 (Table 2A). 



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The Philippines 

Philippine exports of pearl shells and trochus are 
discussed later in the section on mother-of-pearl. The main 
shell exports from the Philippines are recorded under the tariff 
heading 'other shells ' (Table 7) which covers species destined 
for tVie curio trade. From 1970 to 1973 exports rose rapidly 
to a peak (Table 11 and Figure 2) and they have remained fairly high 
since then. Between 197^ and 1978 the average annual export was 
3 451 tonnes. Just under 509^ went to the US; about 600 tonnes 
were exported to Japan annually, and other important countries 
of destination were Hawaii, Italy, Spain, the UK, the Netherlands 
and' Hong Kong. A small but variable quantity of scrap shell was 
exported, most of which went to Taiwan and the US. In 1978 
exports were considerably higher than in previous years (Table 12). 

Mexico 

Shells from Mexico are probably used mainly by the curio 
trade since they are recorded by importing countries under the 
category 'other shells'. Actual recorded exports are slightly 
lower than estimated exports, and were destined mainly for Japan 
and the US in 1976. (Table 13a). Imports from Mexico into South Korea, 
Japan and the US increased between 1976 and 1978 (Table 13b). 

Indonesia 

Most of Indonesia's shell exports are of mother-of-pearl 
and are discussed later. Exports of 'other shells' reached a peak in 
1973 but have declined since then (Table 14). They were destined mainly 
for Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong, 



\ 



Japan 

Exports of 'shells of shell-fishes' probably includes the 
shells of cultured pearl oysters. Exports increased six-fold 
between 1976 and 1979 (Table 15a), the biggest increase being in 
exports to South Korea. Exports to the US declined. Japan also 
exported powder and waste of shells and coral to a number of 
countries including Taiwan, W. Germany, the US and the Netherlands 
(Table 15b). 

Haiti . 

Between 1976 and 19.78 imports from Haiti were recorded 
by the US, Japan, Spain and Taiwan (Table 16). They were recorded 
under the tariff heading for 'other shells', and so were probably 
destined for the curio trade. Estimated annual exports averaged 
925 tonnes. 

South Korea 

Most of South Korea's exports of shells are oysters and 
are discassed in the mother-of-pearl section. Exports of 'other 

shells were recorded in 1977 and 1978 (Table 7), and went to 
Japan, with a small quantity to Hong Kong (7 300 kg) in 1977. 
Powder and waste of shell was also destined for Japan (Table 7). 

Solomon Islands 

Most exports were for the mother-of-pearl trade. A small 
quantity of 'other shells' was exported between 1976 and 1978 
(Table 17). 

Australia 

Exports of shells other than mother-of-pearl were destinei 
mainly for Hong Kong and South Korea (Table 18). 



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Other Countries 

It has not been possible to carry out detailed analyses 
for each country. 

A number of countries are known to be important 
exporters of shells but trade statistics do not separate shells from 
corals, e.g. Kenya, Tanzania, India and Singapore. Between 1974 
and 1978 Tanzania recorded higher exports of coral and shells 
than Kenya (Tables 19 and 20), and most were destined for the US, 
Europe (especially the UK and Italy) and Japan. Kenya's exports 
were also destined mainly for. the US, Italy and the UK. In 1978 
exports from Kenya were the highest since 1974; this may have been 
in anticipation of the ban on shell exports in 1979 (see discussion). 
Japan recorded imports of 'other shells' from both countries, 
imports from Tanzania being higher than those from Kenya (Table 25), 
The US recoi'ded more imports from Tanzania in the early 1970s but 
between 1976 and 1978 recorded more from Kenya (Table 28). No 
countries recorded imports of mother-of-pearl from East Africa. 

Indian exports of cowries and chanks ( Turbinella pyrum ) 
are described later, Indian exports of marine shells have increased 
since the beginning of the 1970s and by 1979 reached almost 500 
tonnes (Table 21cO . Exports to the US increased noticeably, 
from AOkg in 1969 to nearly 105 tonnes in 1979o Other countries 
of destination were Hong Kong, Japan and Europe and in 1979 large 
quantities went to Oman, Bahrein and Kuwait. Foreign trade 
statistics record exports under the heading 'other corals and shells'. 
Most were destined for the USA and Europe, and in 1977 large 
quantities went to Nepal as well (Table 21b). A number of countries 
recornea imports of shells from India; for example in 1978 Japan 



-9- 



imported Tectus niloticus , Pinctada maxima and other shells from 
IndiaJ South Korea and the US imported shells; and Spain imported 
mother-of-pearl . 

Malaysia recorded huge domestic exports of coral and 
shells to Singapore (Table 22) and smaller quantities to other 
countries. The former were probably for building or industrial 
purposes. Malaysia also re-exports corals and shells (Table 23). 



UN WORKED SHELLS-IMPORTING COUNTRIES 
' ■ I. 



Countries recording imports of shells are shown in Table 24 o Other 
major importers are Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, 
Australia and other European countries (see Tables 9 and 11 )„ A 
number of countries increased their imports of shells between 
1976 and 1978 (see below), 

Japan 

Japanese imports of mother-of-pearl are discussed in 
the next section. Over three quarters of imports of shells into 
Japan come under the heading 'other shells' (Table 24), and imports 
increased nearly two-fold between 1970 and 1979 (Table 25 and 
Fig. 3). Over 505^ came from the US and were presumably 
freshwater pearly mussels (see p. 25). South Korea became an 
increasingly important supplier throughout the 1970s. Imports from 
Mexico also increased up to 1978 but in 1979 were half those of 
previous years. Other major suppliers were the Philippines, Indonesia, 



-10- 



Taiwan and Haiti, 

Japan also records imports under the tariff heading 
'substances similar to coral and shells; and powder and waste of 
shells'. These came mainly from the Philippines, South Korea 
and Taiwan (Table 26) and averaged A02 tonnes a year between 
1970 and 1979. 

France 

French imports came mainly from the Netherlands and 
Denmark (see p, 4), Turkey and other European countries. In 1976 
and 1978 nearly 100 tonnes came from Madagascar (Table 27), 

USA 

Imports into the US have increased noticeably since the 

1960s when average annual imports were 1 483 tonnes (Table 28, 

Fig 4). The biggest increase has been in imports from Mexico, 

which became the major supplier in 1977 and 1978, having usually 

supplied less than 100 tonnes a year in the 1960s. The Philippines 

was the main source between 1970 and 1976, imports from this country 

also having increased since the 1960s. Haiti is now the third major 

supplier; imports from this country increased rapidly at the end 

of the 1960s but decreased between 1977 and 1978. In the 1960s there 

were major imports from the Bahamas and Jamaica (Table 28), but 

although a detailed breakdown of countries of origin is not available 

for the years 1974-1977, there is evidence that imports from these 

countries have declined. In 1978 only 3 tonnes came from the Bahamas 

compared with an annual average of 25 tonnes between 1970 and 1973. 

Imports from Jamaica totalled 12 tonnes in 1973 compared with an annual 

average of 323 tonnes between I960 and 1964, 

Imports from Australia have decreased slightly since the 



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1960s. Imports from Japan have also decreased; these figures parallel 
the decrease in exports to the US recorded in Japan's trade 
statistics (Table 15) (although the actual quantities do not agree) o 
No imports were recorded from Taiwan until 1968 but in 1978 this 
country was the fourth major supplier; highest imports from Taiwan 
were in 1976c East Africa (i^e, Kenya and Tanzania) was an 
important supplier most years. Since 1964 imports from the two 
countries have been recorded separately. Until 1971 higher exports 
were recorded from Tanzania than from Kenya, but between 1976 
and 1978 imports from Kenya were higher. 

South Korea 

South Korea's imports of oyster, pearl and abalone shell 
are discussed in the following section. In 1977 and 1978 large 
quantities of 'other shells' were also recorded (Table 24), 
Over 90^ of these came from Japan, with smaller amounts from 
Indonesia, the Philippines, India, the US and other countries 
(Table 29). 

West Germany 

West Germany imported large quantities of 'other shells' 
in 1976 and 1977. Most came from Denmark and the Netherlands (Table 
30, see p. 4 ) <, 

Hong Kong 

Imports into Hong Kong increased between 1976 and 1978, 
the main increase being in imports from Australia (Table 31 ). 

Spain 

70^ of Spanish shell imports came from the Philippines 



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(Table 32) and lO^e from Haiti, Italy, Madagascar and the US were 
also regular suppliers. 

Other Countries 

A number of countries which do not separate coral and shells in 
their foreign trade statistics are also major importers. 

Italy imports from a very large number of countries; a detailed 
breakdown of countries of origin is available for 1976 (Table 33). A 
large proportion came from Denmark but the main suppliers of tropical 
corals cind shells were Indonesia, the Philippines, the Sudan, the US, 
Malaysia, Haiti, Australia and New Caledonia, Many of these imports 
were probably mother-of-pearl and helmet shells or conches for the 
carving and cameo industry. The US, the Philippines, Indonesia and 
Australia all recorded exports of shells to Italy (see Tables 9, 11, 
14 and 18). 

Australian imports of coral and shells increased between 1975 and 
1978, and about 50^ came from the Philippines. Japan, Taiwan, Mexico and 
the US were also major suppliers, and in 1978, Haiti and the Solomon 
Islands as well. (Table 3^). The Philippines and the Soiorron Islands 
recorded exports of 'other sea shells' to Australia, and Japan recorded 
exports of 'shells of shell fishes', 

Singapore imported large quantities of coral and shells from Malaysia 
(Table 35 and see p. 4), and imports also came from the Philippines, 

New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea and a number of other countries. 

a 

Malysian imports came mainly from Taiwan, the Philippines and Singapore 

(Table 36). Kenyan imports of coral and shells fluctuated between 
197A and 1978, but came regularly from Somalia. In 1977 and 1978 
imports also came from Tanzania (Table 37), 



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UNWORKSD MOTHER-OF-PEARL 

Some countries record all types of mother-of-pearl shell under a 
single heading; others separate 'pearl shell' (i.eo pearl oyster 
shells) from green snail shells and trochus or top shells (Table 7). 

Pearl Shell ( Pinctada ) 

Although this section refers mainly to pearl oyster 
shells the figures given may include green snail shell and trochus 
as from some countries it is not known exactly which species are 
recorded under the tariff, heading 'pearl shell'. Between 1976 
and 1978 the main exporters were Indonesia, Australia and the 
Philippines (Table 38)„ Exports from Indonesia increased markedly 
between 1970 and 1978 (Table 39), and were destined largely for 
Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea. Exports from the 
Philippines fluctuated and v;ent mainly to Japan and South Korea 
(Table kO) . Exports from Australia were destined for the US and 
Europe (Table h^) , 

The main importers of pearl shell between 1976 and 1978 
were Spain, Japan, South Korea and West Germany (Table 42). Many 
more countries are probably involved but their trade is recorded 
under the general heading of coral and shells. Japan gives details 
of imports for two particular species, Pinctada margaritifera and 
P. maxima . Japanese imports of Po margaritifera came mainly 
from the Philippines and Indonesia and smaller quantities have 
come regularly from the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Fiji and 



-14- 



more recently the Cook Islands (Table A3), Imports of £» maxima 
have also come mainly from the Philippines and Indonesia, although 
at the beginning of the 1970s comparatively small quantities were 
coming from the latter. Australia and Burma have supplied this 
species to Japan regularly and Papua New Guinea was another 
important source up until 1973 (Table 44). 

Until 1963, the US recorded imports of mother-of-pearl 
and trochus under a separate tariff heading from other shells. 
Between 196O and 1963 most imports came from Australia (c. 60^) , 
and from Japan (20-30:^o) CTabl^ 45), Since 1963 these imports have 
been included in 'marine shells'. 

Trochus or top shell (Tectus niloticus and Trochidae ) 

The main exporters of Trochidae shells are Indonesia, 
Pai)ua New Guinea, the Philippines and a number of the small 
South Pacific islands: viz Solomon Islands, Marshall, Mariana, and 
Caroline Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Hebrides. (Table 46). 

90/^« of all Indonesian shell exports are Trochidae, over 
1 000 tonnes being exported annually (Table 47). Exports have 
fluctuated but slightly fewer were being exported annually at the 
end of the 1970s than at the beginning, mainly due to a decline in 
exports to European countries. Exports went mainly to Japan and 
Singapore in 1978. 

Exports from the Solomon Islands were destined mainly for 
Japan; exports decreased between 1976 and 1978 (Table 48). 
Philippine exports of Trochidae decreased between 1970 and 1978j-most 
were sent to Japan (Table 49). 



-15- 



The main importers of Trochus are Japan and Singapore 
(Table 50) „ Japanese imports come mainly from Indonesia and the 
South Pacific islands (Table 51). 

Green snail shell (Turbo marmoratus) 

This species is recorded separately only by Indonesia, 
the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. Exports went mainly 
to Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore and West Germany (Tables 52, 53 
and 5^). 

UNWORKED SHELLS-OTHER SPECIES , 

S. Korea records imports of abalone shells o Imports increased 
from just over 1 000 tonnes in 1976 to nearly 2 000 tonnes in 
1978, and dO"/^ came from Mexico. Other major suppliers were the 
US, Australia and Japan (Table 55). 

The Philippines recorded exports of P lac una placenta , 
the window pane oyster or capiz shell until 1972. Between 1970 
and 1972 exports decreased drastically (Table 56) „ 

India recorded trade in cowries and chanks ( Turbinella 
pyrum ) in 1976 and 1977 (Tables 57) « Cowries were imported from 
the Maldives and were exported (domestic exports) to the USo 
Exports of chanks were lower in 1977 than in 1976; they were 
destined for Italy and other European countries and in 1y/7, lor 
the US. 

The Bahamas recorded imports and exports of conches in 
1975 and 1977. In 1976, 3 535 conch shells were imported from the 



-16- 



US and in 1977, 710. Exports were not recorded in 1975 but in 
1977 13 575 were exported of which 11 180 went to Italy and 
2 595 to the US (Bahamas Foreign Trade Statistics). 

WORKED SHELLS 

The only worked shell recorded regularly in trade statistics is 
mother-of-pearl. Quantities recorded under the tariff heading 
for worked materials include other materials which may be part 
of the items concerned and so the weights give only a rough 
estimate of the actual quantities involved. 

- ■ • 

The main exporters of worked mother-of-pearl are the 
Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan and Thailand (Tables 
58 a and b). The Far East has traditionally been the centre of 
the carving industry for a number of wildlife products including 
coral, shells, ivory and tortoiseshell. In Europe, Italy and 
West Germany are the only countries which record substantial 
exports; Italy is famous for its carved cameos and coralSo 

Trade statistics show the main importers of worked shell, 
including articles made of shell, to be the US, Japan and Europe 
particularly France, West Germany, Spain, Italy and the UK. 
(Tables 59 a and b). 

Mainland China is also an important exporter; a number of 
countries imported from there, and estimated exports for Mainland 
China in 1975 were 20 517 kg. 



Exporting Countries 

The Philippines record worked shell and articles made 



) 



-17- 



of shell under a number of headings which include handbags, 
lampshades, buttons, capiz shell, mother-of-pearl and 'other 
shells' (Table 60) o The main destinations,were the Ub, Mawaii, 
Japan, Australia and Europe but exports v;ent to many other 
countries as well. Taiwan also exported a variety of types of 
worked mother-of-pearl (Table 61) which went to many countrieSc 



Exports from South Korea went mainly to Japan and the 
US, although exports to these two countries decreased betv/een 
1976 and 1978; exports to Hong Kong and Middle Eastern countries 
increased however (Table 62). Japanese exports increased 
between 1976 and 1978 and went mainly to Spain and the US (Table 63). 
Exports from Thailand also increased (Table 58a). Hong Kong recorded 
exports and re-exports of pearl buttons; both increased rapidly between 
1976 and 1978 particularly to Australia and Taiwan (Table GU a and b) . 

Importing countries 

Most Japanese imports of worked mother-of-pearl came from 
South Korea, the Philippines and Mainland China (Table 65a) „ Large 
quantities of mother-of-pearl for buttons vect imported from South 
Korea (Table 65b). Imports into France, West Germany and the UK 
of worked mother-of-pearl came primarily from the Philippines 
(Table 65 a, b and c). Spanish and Italian imports came from a 
number of countries of which Japan was the main source (Tables 
66d and e) „ 

US imports of worked shell were recorded under two 
tariff headings: "Cut cameos and coral for jewelry" and "Articles 
of shell" o Imports of the former increased dramatically in the 
1970s and are discussed in Wells (I980)o Values of annual imports 



-18- 



of articles made from shells also increased rapidly between 
1972 and 1976, mainly as a result of increased imports from the 
Philippines, which is the major supplier (Table 57 and Fig. 5). 
The US imports shell or pearl buttons but statistics were only 
obtained for 1969 and 1975; in 1969 the Philippines was the 
main supplier and in 1975, Japan (Table 68)0 

Imports of shell buttons into Hong Kong increased 
three-fold between 1976 and 1978. Over 75f° came from Japan 
(Table 69), 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND DISCUSSION 

Countries involved 

The trade statistics analysed in the preceding sections 
suggest that the demand for tropical sea shells and articles made 
fi^omthem increased throughout the I970so The US and Japan, the 
two major consumers of ornamental shells have shown marked increases 
in imports of unworked shells, as has South Korea. The US in 
particular has shown a huge increase in imports of worked shello 
The extent to which these statistics refer to ornamental tropical 
shells can be gauged from information available on the retail 
and wholesale end of the trade » 

Abbott (1980) carried out a detailed analysis of the 
shell trade in Florida, which has a greater number of shell dealers 
than any other state in the US„ He found that 85?^ of the whole- 
salers obtained their shells in bulk from overseas, and according 
to the dealer's, the main countries of origin (in descending order 
of importance) are the Philippines, Mexico, Haiti, India, Taiwan, 



9 

-1p- 



Japan and East Africa, with fewest coming from domestic waters and 
other countries. The trade statistics confirm this (ignoring 
European soui'ces which almost certainly provide shells for 
industrial purposes) „ 

Abbott identified some 300 species on sale in Florida, 
with another 4 700 species likely to appear from time to time,, 
The most popular selling species are: the Pink Conch ( Strombus 
Rigas ) , the tiger cowrie (C ypraea tigris ) , the Pink Mexican 
murex ( Phyllonotus erythrostomus ) , the Chambered Nautilus 
( Nautilus p_oiT-,p i.lius ) , scallops^ large clam shells ( Hlppopus and 
Tridacua ) and large showy gastropods such as Voluta, Tonna, 
Syrinx and Pleuroploca o Other studies (e.g. Evans et alo, 
1977) have also shown that the most popular species are the large 
colourful ones found on tropical reefs, rjhich explains the major 
trade which has developed with tropical countries such as the 
Philippines, Mexico and Haiti. 

Mexico has recently become one of the main suppliers of 
shells, especially for the US, Japan and South Korea. FAO 
statistics show that it was a major producer of shells other than 
mother-of-pearl between 197^ and 1977 (Table 70c)« (FAO statistics 
are included for comparison but their f iguresclearly do not include 
all the countries involved in shell exploitation) „ It was also 
shown to have exported large numbers of abalone shells to South 
Korea (st~e Table 55), which may be a by-product of the abalone 
meat industry. There is little information on the areas in 
Mexico where shells are collected, but the increase 
in exports may be due to stepped up off-shore fishing for Murex , 
Oliva, Strombus and abalone (Abbott, 1980). 



-35- 



in the mid 1970s the Philippiri' s was easily the major 
supplier and it is still one of the main exporters. Philippine 
collectors tend to collect anything and sell in bulk without 
discriminating between species (Webster, 1977 in litto)o 
Haiti's large export trade is due to orginised wholesalers on La 
Gonave island, where labour is cheap; the meat is used for food 
(Abbott, 1980) o 

There is clear evidence that exports of shells from 
India are increasing rapidly. Recently some of its off-shore 
beds have been exploited for the first time (Abbott, 1980) <, 
Large specimens of ornamental shells were being collected round 
Rameshwaram and the Andaman and Nicobar islands at the beginning 
of the 1970s (Durve, 1975) . Currently large quantities are being 
collected along the south Indian coast, especially off Tuticorin, 
south of Madras and Rameshwnran. Nearly two dozen species are 
involved and they are exported through Bombay, (Kannan 1980 in litt.). 

There is little information on the export trade from 
East Africa although both trade statistics and FAO figures confirm 
that Kenya and Tanzania are important producers » Studies on the 
souvenir shell trade within Kenya showed that the main collecting 
areas are now the more inaccessible areas on the north and south 
coasts, such as Lamu and Shimoni; popular species are relatively 
rare near the tourist resorts, probably as a result of over- 
collecting. At least one firm is known to export shells from 
Mombasa, (the Naushad Trading Co), including Cassis rufa destined 
for the cameo industry in Italy (Evans et al., 1974; Wells, 1978), 

Ornamental shells are generally sold in seaside curio and 



■21- 



and souvenir shops, which in the past probably sold souvenirs decorated 
with local shells* In many placeshowever, colourful local species 
may now be hard to find, especially in tourist resorts bordered by 
coral reefs such as Florida, Hawaii and the Caribbean islands^ 
and because of their relative rarity, may also be more expensive 
than exotic shells imported in bulk. In Hawaii, where tourism 
has increased rapidly since 1972, nearly 60?i of several hundred 
shops in Lahaina on Maui had some trade in molluscs in 1977, 
most of which were imported from all over the Indo-Pacif ic, 
especially from the Philippines and India (Mills, 1977) « The 
Philippines exported over, 115 .tonnes of shells to Hawaii in 1978 
(Table 11). The largest wholesale enterprise for shells in Hawaii 
in 1976 was 'Exotic Shells' and most of their stock was imported 
from countries including Taiv/an and Mauritius. Shells were imported 
by the crateload in such quantities that the owner, Bremont, had 
little iaea 01 zne size of his stock or the species involved at 
any one time (Taylor, 1976) « 

In the UK in 1977, Leslie Sarogny-Frye was importing 10 
tonnes of assorted corals and shells from the Philippines every two 
months, his main sales being to hotels and sea side gift shops 
(Anon, 1977). In 1978 Barry Lonsdale of Tropical Sea Shells in 
Rochdale in the UK was selling about 3 tonnes of shells a week, 
imported from the Philippines, East Africa and the Seychelles 
(Anon, 1978)0 

Mother-of -Pearl 

Mother-of-pearl is one of the few types of shell for which 
fairly detailed trade statistics are available. Four species are 
commonly fished for their nacre, aiid provide the best mother-of-pearl. 



-22- 

Pinctada marp;aritifera Black-lip pearl shell 

Pinctada maxima Gold-lip pearl shell 

Tectus niloticus Trochus or top shell 

Turbo marmoratus Green snail or turban shell 

A number of other Pinctada species, abalone shells, chanks and 
freshwater mussels are also used. Mother-of pearl has been used 
for centuries for decorative inlay work, buttons and jewelry as it 
is hard and can be cut precisely and polished to a rich sheen. 
The pearl button industry reached a peak in the late 19th century 
when the UK alone imported at .least z OuU xons of pearl sneli a year 
(Saul, 1974). Pearl buttons have to be made by hand and with the 
escalation of labour costs in Europe and the US, and the development 
of the plastics industry the trade declined (Saul, 197^+: Travis, 
1959). There now appears to be a revival of interest in mother- 
of-pearl as a fashionable material for buttons and jewelry, 
probably as part of the general trend away from plastics and 
the return to the use of natural products in the developed 
countries; the tortoiseshell trade has undergone a similar revival 
(Mack, Duplaix and Wells, 1980) „ Export statistics show that most 
manufactured articles come from the Far East where labour is 
still cheap, 

Pinctada margaritif era , which purportedly produces the 
world's finest pearls, was formerly not in demand for its nacre 
(Major, 197'^). Japan now imports large quantities of this species 
from the Philippines and Indonesiao In 1931 it was common and 
widely distributed in the Sulu Archipelago, and the Philippines 
exported about 20 000 kg of shell a year (Talavera, 1931); in 1979 
Japan imported 209 805 kg a year -(Table 30ao) 



-23- 



Po maxima has always been in demand for its shell, 
particularly for the button industry, Japanese imports in 1979 
were coming mainly from the Philippines and Indonesia although 
Australia used to be a major supplier. In 1931 this species 
was reported to be very abundant in the Philippines and almost the 

whole of the Sulu Archipelago was said to be one extensive pearling 

2 
bank, 35 000 km . The growth rate of this species is rapid, it is 

sexually mature in two years, and most va able when 3-^ years 

old and so it may be able to support a fairly large takeo The 

Philippines exported just over 200 000 kg a year in 1927 and 

1928 to the US, Europe, Hong Hong, Japan and the British East 

Indies (Talavera, 1931). In 1979 Japan imported 169 046 kg 

of this species from the Philippines. 

FAO records catches and laindings of Pinctada spp o (Table 
70a) • Between 1974 and 1977, highest catches were recorded for 
Australia . Japan and Fiji were also recorded but not the 
Philippines or Indonesia. 

Traditionally there has been an extensive pearl 
oyster fishery in the Red Sea (Harrison Matthews, 1975) » Few 
countries have recently recorded imports specifically of unworked 
pearl shell from this area (39 000 kg were imported from the Sudan 
in 1978 by Spain ), but the Sudan, Somalia, Saudia Arabia 
and North and South Yemen are known to be involved in the coral 
and shell trade (see Table 1). Between 19bO and 1963 the US 
regularly imported pearl shells from Aden and Arabia (Table 45). 

Tectus nlloticus is the largest of the top shells 



-24- 



and is most in demand for its mother-of-pearl although other 
top shells such as T. maxJmus may also be used (Talavera 1931, 
Saul 1974). The main exporters of Tectus , appear to be Indonesia 
and the South Pacific islands (Table 46), (according to FAO 
statistics highest catches are obtained in the Solomon Islands 
and Fiji (Table 70b)J. According to Dance (1976) the principal 
Tectus beds are of f the coasts of New Caledonia and Queensland and 
amongst the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The trade statistics suggest 
that exports from Indonesia, the Philippines and the Solomon 
Islands are declining. Unlike pearl oysters, this species never 
occurs in large numbers oyer a^ limited area, but is usually 
found scattered singly near the outer edge of coral reefs. 



Over fishing of this species has been recorded a number 
of times as the following figures giving the tonnage fished legally 
may indicate (Dance, 1976). 

Queensland New Caledonia Andamans and Nicobar 

191b 1 048 1913 1 004 1930 450 
1922 265 1930 180 1935 50 

(figures in tons) 

According to Dance (op cit) , approximately 4 000 specimens 

comprise a ton and it takes more than 3 years to grow to a 

marketable size. Dance believed that had the plastics industry 

not replaced the need for this species it would have been on the 

verge of extinction c 

In Papua New Guinea legislation had to be introduced to 
control fishing for Tectus niloticus o At the beginning of this 
century production dropped substantially from 1 000 tonnes in 
1913 to 358 tonnes in 1928. During the Second V/orld War, 
fishing stopped and the stocks had a chance to recuperate. 800 



-25- 



tonnes were taken in 195'^+ when fishing was resumed, but by 1956 
the catch had already decreased to 402 tonnes. A moratorium was 
introduced for a year and since then commercial fishing has been 
permitted, provided a minimum size limit of 10 cm. diameter is adhered 
to and fishing zones are rotated (Barletta, 1976). In 1978 Papua 
New Guinea was about the fourth largest exporter of Tectus « In 
1927 and 1928, the Philippines exported about 100 000 kg annually 
to China, Japan and the Bj^itish East Indies; in 1978 the Philippines 
exported nearly 127 000 kg mainly to Japan, Spain and Italy (see 
Table 49) « It is not clear what controls exist currently in 
this cind other exporting countries to prevent over exploitation. 

Green snail shells Turbo marmoratus were once used as 
festive drinking cups in Scandinavian countries, and they have 
also been used for buttons and other decorations o The surface 
can be treated and polished to reveal a greenish pearly nacre 
(Saul, 1974). This species is found at greater depths than other 
pearl shells, on the edges of reefs and it is usually collected 
by skin divers. Currently the Solomon Islands and Papua New 
Guinea are the major suppliers. In 1931 the Philippines exported 
11 666 kg (T.-.^ivera, 19?l) and in 1930 it was being fished off the 
Seychelles and Chagos (Tr^.vis, 1959). FAO recorded production 
of 400 tonnes a year between 1974 and 1977 in Sabah, 

The mother-of-pearl trade is subject to the influence of 
trade in mother-of-pearl from fresh water molluscs 
(Unionidae) which in the US have provided a major source of mother- 
of-pearl since the last century. Pearl buxtons began to be 
manufactured from them on a commercial scale in 1891, but by 
early this century depletion of the mussel beds was apparent, and 



-26- 



production declined. During and after the Second World War many 
of the commercial beds underwent a mild recovery as a result of 
the low level of exploitation along with attempts to clean up 
the rivers and decrease pollution. 

In the 1950s the Japanese turned to North America for 
supplies of freshwater mussels as these are crushed and used to seed 
cultured pearl oysters » Previously they had been able to obtain 
supplies from the Yangtse River in China „ Since the export trade 
with Japan has been opened up, North American rivers have been 
successively depleted as boats, move on to new ones having 
exhausted others. In 1971 it was stated that it seemed unlikely 
that the industry could continue for another decade at the same 
rate of exploitation (Stansbery, 1971), and a symposium on rare 
and endangered molluscs in the US recommended that trade should 
be restricted to licensed collectors (Jorgensen and Sharp, 1971 )<, 
However, according to FAO statistics an average of 1 U3S tonnes were 
caught annually bet\-/een 1974 and 1977o Trade statistics show that 
exports of shells to Japan from the US are still high, although 
lower than in the 1960s. A number of the rare Unionidae species 
are now listed on the US Endangered Species Act and are on Appendix I&II 
of CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered 
Species of Fauna and Flora) . Clamming i..; forbidden in some areas 
to allow stocks to build up and some species are protected by state 
as well as federal laws (Fitzpatrick, 1963) but detailed up to date 
information on current legislation has not been obtained. 



-ZJ- 



Other species 

Capiz shell or the window pane oyster ( Placuna 
placenta ) has been used in the Far East, especially in China, 
for many years as glass for windows^ as its valves are thin and 
translucent. In the Philippines they have been used for the same 
purpose during the past 100 years. The pearls produced by this 
species are small arid soft and are used only for medicinal 
purposes. The shells are found in large beds which may yield 
substantial crops regularly. They are collected by wading 
and many of the shells taken are in fact deado They need a muddy 
or sandy substrate and are most successful in shallow water, 
although they may occur as deep as 40 m. 

In 1951 the shells were still used in Philippine houses, 
but were increasingly used for shell crafts which is their main 
use now. Artificial cultivation was being successfully carried out 
in 1931, in combination with oyster farming, and since only large 
shells were of real value it was thought that wild populations 
were unlikely to be fished out. Manufactured articles were 
exported to Europe, China, the US, Hong Kong and the British and 
Dutch East Indies, and it was presumed that the export trade would 
continue. Raw shells were also exported in small quantities to 
the US and Hong Kong: 552 kg in 1927, 612 kg in 1928 and exports 
increased three-fold in 1929 (Talavera, 1931). 

At the beginning of the 1970s unworked capiz shell was 
still being exported from the Philippines but there was a big 
drop in exports in 1972 and subsequently exports were not recorded. 



-28- 



An apparently unknown ecological disaster may have caused the 
failure of the beds (Kline, 1977), Worked capiz shells are still 
exported in large quantities however, and capiz shell articles 
from the Philippines can be seen in gift shops and department 
stores in the UK used in lampshades, boxes and aolian harps 
(pers. obs). A sizeable fishery for capiz shells existed in 
India along the Bombay and Goa coasts (uurve, 1^/5)0 

India recorded exports of cowries ( Cypraea ) and chanks 
( Turbinella pyrum ) under separate tariff headings. An average 
tiger cowry ( C . tigris ) , which, is one of the most popular species, 
probably weighs no more than 100 gms; Indian exports in 1977 
therefore represented well over 45 million specimens, and probably 
many more as other species such as the tiny ring and money 
cowries ( C. moneta and C. annulus ) were probably included in 
these export figures. A dealer in the UK supiilied three quarters 
of a million cowries to a firm in 1977 which was marketing a game 
which required cowries, (Anon, 1977) » Cowries are now frequently 
carved, or sliced and turned into knapkin rings, or used in 
jewelry; money cowry necklaces are sold in most major cities of 
the world o 

The Sacred Chank has a special holy significance in 
India and has been collected for centuries for use as trumpets and 
libation vessels in temples, and they are also used for buttons and 
bangles. Chank beds are found on the west coast, in the Gulf of 
Kutch and the Arabian Seaj^ on the east coast. The most productive beds 
are mainly in the Gulf of Mannar near Tuticorin, Kilakari and in 
the Palk Bay area. Durve (1975) recommended that they should be 
carefully monitored to ensure that depletion does not occur 



-29- 



through over fishing. A survey of the chank has also been carried 
out in Sri Lanka (Abbott, 1980). 

The valves of the Giant clam. ( Tridgtcna and Hippopus ) 
have been much in demand and have been used as fonts in churches, salad 
bowls in restuarants and wash basins in hotels among other things. One 
shell shop in London has them in stock but a pair may cost £300. The 
main threat to clams is not collection for the shell, but the 
Taiwanese who fish them for the meat of the adductor muscles, and throw 
the valves away. Considerable depletion has occured in Australian 
waters but a 200 mile economic, zone has been enforced and Taiwanese 
fishing vessels are no longer seen (Pearson, 1977) o 

The Pearly Nautilus ( Nautilus pOy^mpilius) has been 
collected in large numbers although it is a deep sea rather than a 
reef species. Their use is very varied and apart from being used 
whole as ornaments (usually sectioned), 800 pearly nautilus were 
used in the chandelier of the Senate chambers in the State Capitol in 
the US (Taylor, 1976); currently there is a vogue for handbags inlaid 
with pieces of pearly nautilus, imported from the Philippines, and 
Abbott (1980) recommends that a survey should be carried out to see if 
tnis species is being overfished in Philippine waters. A number of 
scientists are studying Nautilus at present and so such research would 
not be too difficult to implement. 

"Rare" shells 

Certain species have been greatly sought after over the 
centuries for their rarity alone. The:;e generally command very 
high prices and are collectors items. In many cases their rarity 
is due to the fact that they are deep water species and in the past 



- 30- 



were difficult to obtain. With the development of new techniques 
of deep sea fishing and diving, such species are becoming more 
common, and their value will naturally drop as more come onto the 
market. However, there are fears that populations 
could be damaged, as demand is still high. 

A business has recently started in London under the name 
of Rare Shell Investment Services which advises people on investing 
in rare shells (TRAFFIC (International) files). Their brochure 
maintains that values have increased with remarkable consistency 
and that shells are a better investment than, for example, carpets, 
firearms or Chinese ceramics, as 'there is little that can go 
wrong when investing in a disappearing rare commodity'. Investing 
in rare shells is particularly popular in the US and is becoming 
increasingly so in the Middle East. In 1980 it was recommended that 
investment in the following species would be profitable: Lambis 
violacea (Mauritius), Harp a costata (Mauritius), Cypraea nivosa 
(Indian ocean) and some of the Australian volutes (Lee, Rare 
Shell investment Services, in litt., 1980) „ These species are listed 
among the fifty rarest shells in the world (Dance, 1969). The 
Australian volutes could be threatened by over collection (Taylor, 
I960 in litt.) and although many specimens of H. costata are now 
in collections large fine specimens are still rare (Dance, 1969). 

The Shell Collector magazine in Florida noted that deep 
water gill nets of Philippine fishermen had now made a number of 
rare species available such as Conus gloriamari3( Glory of the Sea - 
once thought to be extinct, but over 100 specimens now known 
Dance, 1969), C. dusaveli (Mauritius, but according to Dance (1969) 
only one specimen ever found) and Augaria sphaerula . An article 



■31- 



in the 'Carfell Philippine Shell News' (Anon, 1979) mentioned that 
high monetary returns for rare shells have encouraged fishermen 
to give up fishing for shelling. A fine nylon net is used, 
about 1m wide and 150m long, which is cast to lie 60-120 
fathoms or deeper overnight and then pulled in., Obtaining rare 
shells is still a difficult business, so the fact that it is more 
worthwhile tlian fishing further emphasizes a big boom in collecting. 

Legislation 

Many countries have legislation to control fishing for 
edible molluscs. In the US all coastal states have some form 
of control limiting size, quantities taken or times of the year 
that fishing may be carried out (Abbott, 1980), and many 
European countries have similar controls (Barletta, 1976) . In 
many cases such legislation was drawn up only after it was realised 
that local depletion of populations was taking place^ 

A number of countries now indirectly protect molluscs 
through the establishment of marine parks, within the boundaries 
of which collection of marine organisms is usually forbiddeno 
Such parks exist off the coasts of Australia, Florida, Kenya, 
Sri Lanka and many other countries (SS Coral Reef Group, 1979). 
These areas p ovide protected populations from which migration may 
occur to repopulate depleted areas. 

Relatively few countries specifically control trade in 
ornamental shells. Japan and Australia have apparently recently 
implemented restrictions on commercial shell collecting (Abbott, 
1980). In Kenya export of shells was previously permitted provided 
a license or permit was obtained. This legislation was poorly 
enforced though and shells could be freely taken out of the country 



32- 



(Wells, 1978), In 1979 however, a complete ban on export was 
introduced (Anon, 1979); the increase in exports in 1978 (see 
Table 20) may have been due to traders getting rid of their 
stocks in anticipation of the ban. However apparantly the 
legislation is confusing and poorly understood and shells are 
probably still leaving thiS- country (Burton, 1980 pers. commo) 

In Papua New Guinea commercial shell collecting is 
controlled by the government. Collectors are instructed as to 
which species will sell well, and how they should be packagec to 
avoid damage and consequent wastage, and collecting areas are 
changed at regularly intervals (Anon, 1977a) „ No information is 
available on the effectiveness of this system, 

A few countries have legislation for particular species. 
In Bermuda collection of the following species is prohibited: 
Queen and harbour conches ( Strombu s gigas ) , Bermuda cone, 
Bermuda and Calico scallops ( Acquipecten gibous) , Atlantic pearl 
oyster, netted olive ( Oliva reticularis ) and all helmet and 
bonnet shells ( Cassidae ) (Anon, 1976) » There has also been 
a curb on the export of conch shells from the Bahamas (Anon, 
1977) although they were still being exported in 1977 (see p.l'Oo 
This curb has forced dealers to find new suppliers in Hawaii 
(Anon, 1977). The export of the Golden cowry ( Cypraea aurantium ) , 
one of the most sought after and valuable rare shells, is 
forbidden from Fiji (Piatt, 1949) o Florida limits the collection 
of the Queen conch ( Strombus gigas ) to 10 per person per day to 
prevent commercial exploitation (Abbott, 1980). In 1971, 
legislation was introduced in South Australia to control exploit- 
ation of Cypraea thersities since populations had been considerably 



-33- 
reduced by collectors (Coleman, 1972) „ 

Conclusion 

A great many observers including biologists, amateur shell 
collectors and conservationists are cone- rned about the possible 
decline of molluscs particularly on coral reefs and the damage 
which may occur through careless methods of collection, but further 
studies must be carried out to determine quantitatively the effect 
that collecting on a commercial level has on shell populations., 
It is unlikely that human exploitation could lead to the 
extinction of any one species pf marine mollusc in view of their 
life history. Most marine molluscs have a huge reproductive 
capacity and produce planktonic larvae which may ensure wide 
dispersal, and account for the fact that many of the species in 
the ornamental shell trade have very wide distributions through- 
out the Indo-Pacif ic. Furthermore, for many species, it would 
be very dii'ficult to find and collect every single specimen in 
a given area. Abbott (1980) points out that habitat disturbance, 
pollution and dredging are just as damaging as over collecting. 
A study by Rao in 1937 (Abbott, 1980) showed that the living 
population of Trochus in the Andaman Sea could number 300 
million specimens; if this is correct, and Trochus reaches 
maturity and a collectible size in 4-5 years, it might be feasible 
to collect 10-20 million specimens a year. 

However, in a number of cases there is evidence that 
over collection has led to local depletion and on occasions to 
economic , if not biological, extinction. In the 

Caribbean and off the coast of Florida a number of species are 
now uncommon through over collecting including the Pink Conch 



•34- 



( Strombas gigas ) , the Queen Helmet ( Cassis madagascariensis ) , the 
Florida Horse Conch ( Pleuroploca gigantea ) , Triton's Trumpet in 
Haiti ( Charonia variegata ) , the Angel Wing ( Cyrtoplenra costata ) , 
the Flamingo Tongue ( Cyphoma gibbosum) , and the King's Crown 
( Melongena corona ) , although they cannot be considered as 
endangered (Abbott, 1980) „ A number of dealers have mentioned that 
they are making money less easily than previously (Abbott, 1980) 
and a dealer in the UK was losing deals as a result of Philippine 
traders sending poorer quality shells that he had paid for 
(Anon, 1977). However demand for shells seems to be as high 
as ever, and with the increase in controls on coral exploitation, 
a number of dealers are expanding the shell side of their businessses 
to counteract the anticipated decline in the coral business (CNA, 
1979). 

Data from a preliminary study to look at the effect of 
shell collecting on mollusc populations in Kenya suggests that 
shell populations in unprotected areas may have a smaller mean 
length and less variation in size than those, within marine 
parks (McClanahan and Muthigo, 1979). Since experience has 
shown that overcoiiection can have serious effects on edible 
mollusc populations, it is to be expected that the same may apply 
to the ornamental species. 

At a preliminary meeting of the proposed Indian Ocean 
Alliance for Conservation in the Seychelles it was recommended 
that the problem of sea shell collecting should be considered at 
a national level and that protected areas should be established to 
provide breeding nuclei of marine molluscs (Anon, 1980). The 
Pacific Science Association at the XIV Congress in Khabarovsk 



-35- 



(USSR) in 1979 went further and included in their second 
resolution an appeal to all nations to stop the international 
trade in reef corals and molluscs for ornamental purposes. 
Barletta (1976) recommended that trade in the species used for 
the cameo industry ( Cassis madagascarensis , Cypraecassis rufa, 
and Stombus ^igas ) should be restricted by law. 

Molluscs are an important economic resource in many 
countries, and a well organised ornamental shell trade could 
provide much needed income in developing countries. As pointed 
out by Abbott (198O) trade data can tell one little about the 
extent of over exploitation unless the ecology of the species 
is understood. Field studies urgently need to be carried out on 
species neavii.y involved m the trade to determine optimum 
yields or conservation measures that should be taken. In the 
Philippines such a programme is being undertaken for corals 
which are being collected for ornamental i-urposes, and since this 
country is one of the main shell exporters the programme should be 
extended to include molluscs as well. Abbott (198O) suggests a 
survey of the Pearly Nautilus should be carried out in these waters 
to determine if it is being overfished. Data is also needed on 
the extent to which both the meat and shell of different species 
are utilised; in a number of countries the meat of Cassidae, 
Stombidae and abalone is eaten and the shells exported but there 
are possibly a number of other species which could be used in this 
way. 



Biblio.rraphy 

Abbott, R.T. 1980 The Shell and Coral Trade in Florida Report to 

TRAFFIC USA 

Anon 1976 Marine Protection in Bermuda Oryx XV (l):23 

Anon 1977 Shelling Out Sunday Times Business News 20/2/77 

Anon 1977a Sea Shells as a Business Department of Business 
Development Papua New Guinea 

Anon 1973 Ke sells sea shells - 35 miles inland Guardian 21/7/78 

Anon 1979 Report of Marine Working Group Minutes of East 
African Wildlife Society Meeting 31/10/79 

Anon 1979a Editorial Carfell Philippine Shell News "I (i):2-r) 

Anon ']'^oo Coasxal States recommendations lUCN Bulletin (NS) 11(6):58 

Barletta, G. 1976 I molluschi e la legge Conchiglie 12 (9-10) : 59^-398 

CNA (Center for Natural Areas) 1979 Draft Fishery Management Plan 
for Coral and Coral Reef Resources Report to the Gulf 
of Mexico and South Atlantic Fishery Management Councils 

Coleman, N, 1972 Closed season for Cypraea therslties ^ The 
Australian Newsletter N.S. 18 

Dance, P.S„ I969 Rare shells Faber & Faber, London 

Dance, PoS. 1976 Sea shells Hamlyn, London 

Durve, V.S. 1975 Commercial marine molluscs of India and the need 

for their survey. Rec. Zool. Surv. India 
58: A23-A29 

Evans, So, Knowles, G„, Pye-Smith, C, and Scott, R. 1977 

Conserving shells in Kenya Oryx XIII (5): 480-485 

Fitzpatrick, F.L. 1963 Our Animal Resources Holt, Rhinehart 
and Winston"! Inc . , New York 

Harrison Matthews, L. 1975 Man and Wildlife Croom Helm, London 

Jorgensen, S.E. and Sharp, R.W. 1971 Rare and Endangered Molluscs (Naia( 
( Naiads) of the US Proceeding of Symposium USDI, Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sports Fisheries and 
Wildlife, Region 3 

Kline, Otto (Ed) 1977 Marine Ecology Vol. Ill Cultivation Part 3 

John Wiley and Sons 

Mack, D., Duplaix, No and Wells, So 1979 The international trade 

in sea turtles products Report to TRAFFIC (International) 
and TRAFFIC (USA) 



Major, Ao 197'4 Collecting World Sea Shells John Bartholomew and 
Son Ltd. Edinburgh 

McClanahan, To and Muthigo, N. 1979 Shell collecting on the Kenya 
coast and its effect on shell size Unpub, 
ms. for Durham Univ. expedition to Leopard Reef. 

Mills, S.F. 1977 Report on the shell trade in Hawaii Unpub report 

Pearson, R,G. 1977 Queensland Barrier reef study - Impact of 

foreign vessels poaching giant clams 
Australia Fisheries 36 (7):8-11, 23 

Piatt, R. 19A9 Shells take you over world horizons National 
Geographic Magazine XCVI (l):33-84 

Saul, M. 1974 Shells Country Life, London 

SSC Coral Reef Group 1-979 Census of Existing Coral Reef Parks 

Newletter 2:8-l6 

Stansbery, D.H. 1971 Rare and Endangered Molluscs in the Eastern 

Unite_d States Ij}: Jorgensen and Sharp 

Talavera, F« and Faustine. L.A. 1931 Industrial shells of the 

Philippines The Philippine Journal of Science 
45 (3): 321-350 

Taylor, L. 1976 He sells sea shells Star-Bulletin, Honolulu 23/7/76 

Travis, W. 1959 Beyond the Reefs Allen and Unwin London 

Wells, S.M. 1978 The Kenyan Shell Trade Unpub Report to TRAFFIC 

(international) 

Wells, S.M. 1980 The In ternational Trade in Corals Unpub. Report to 

TRAFFIC (international) 



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Table 2 



Imports of Unworked coral and shells kg. 





1976 


1977 


1978 ! 


Europe 








Sweden 


17 165 000 


15 897 000 


16 63^+ 000 


Belgium 


9 782 700 


10 027 900 


9 826 600 


France 


7 765 000 


7 516 000 


8 891 000 1 


West Germany 


7 365 f)00 


7 622 600 


6 198 000 1 


Netherlands 


5 021 000 


7 05^+ 000 


5 1^5 000 ; 


Italy 


5 ^2'f 669 


5 if 11 'too 


if ^+15 500 


UK 


h 509 ^+69 


3 999 '+9^ 


h 257 000 




Switzerland 


2 208 k^^ 


2 163 622 


2 637 kjik 




Spain 


1 604 663 


1 589 966 


1 675 270 


Portugal 


1 673 800 


1 558 500 


1 914 500 ! 


Norway 


66 000 


556 000 


836 000 


Denmark 


57 200 


9k 300 


5 if 200 


Yugoslavia 


35 ^68 


ifl 068 


if6 209 


Greece 


70 000 








Asia 


•■ 


• 






Singapore 


10 685 782 


13 162 561 


10 757 376 




Japan 


8 068 343 


9 771 6^0 


11 060 525 




Rep. Korea 


2 59^ 000 


if 028 582 


6 464 485 




Hong Kong 


755 ^06 ' 


1 067 275- 


1 512 968 




Taiwan 


557 037 


if63 550 


556 868 




India 


62 360 


17 876 






Peninsular Malaya 


33 930 


108 881 






Sab ah 


h3 920 


23 792 






Sarawak 


37 ^55 


37 ^85 






Tliailand 


3 ^51 


2 750 


k lh3 




Indonesia 


2 if83 





20 010 




Philippines 


937 


117 


10 if 56 




Other Countries 










USA 


4 t)90 671 


5 053 352 


5 053 220 




Mexico 


18 522 




21 336 




Barbados 


'+3 G9k 


3 103 






Brazil 


7 368 


k 297 






Colombia 


1 239 








Guyana 


190 








Australia 


80 797 


109 427 


152 461 




'?imisia 





21 950 


41 700 




Kenya 


72 900 


71 900 


31 400 





Source: Published government statistics 



Table 3 



Exports of Worked Coral and Shells by Weight kg 





1976 


1977 


1978 


Philippines 


548 380 


2 447 426 


2 369 064 


Taiwan 


479 525 


474 264 


638 205 


South Korea 


109 214 


58 704 


59 324* 


Japan 


31 794 


35 048 


36 341 


Italy 


33 024 


30 200 


24 500 


West Germany 


6 560 


15 161 


1 488 


Thailand 


4 239 


7 414 


38 326 


Belgium 


12300 • 


4 400 


1 200 


UK 


3 742 


3 337 


14 789 


Mexico 


15 106 






Netherlands 


1 000 


3 000 


11 UUO 


France 


2 44:p 


ti 3yb 


boO 


Spain 


2 099 


6 429 


5 729 


Denmark 


1 200 





1 100 


Indonesia 


710 





6 


India 


199 


162 




Nontfay 




1 000 




Switzerland 


235 


203 




Brazil 


35 







* Jan-Nov 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 4 



Exports of Worked Coral and Shells by Value US $ 





1976 


1977 


1978 


Philippines 


15 141 642 


11 757 208 


12 028 187 


Taiwan 


6 788 763 


8 618 526 


18 716 583 


Italy 


5 969 054 


6 738 692 


7 983 063 


Japan 


3 331 568 


4 159 963 


4 721 187 


South Korea 


2 031 142 


1 306 923 




West Germany 


881 250 


1 075 238 


978 889 


Thailand 


87 388 


95 443 


131 866 


France 


63 800 


189 574 


102 381 


Netherlands 


14 000 


16 087 


182 000 


Belgium 


107 500 


54 667 


18 438 


Switzerland 


91 995 


96 605 




Spain 


11 129 


24 722 


54 522 


UK 


12 403 


9 500 


63 912 


Mexico 


30 743 


115 




Denmark 


12 931 


1 552 


3 922 


Norway 




7 500 


2 600 


India 


2 834 


6 589 




Sabah 


1 615 


3 725 




Indonesia 


995 





17 


Malay. Penin 


180 


665 




Singapore 


19 


550 





Brazil 


691 







Source: Published government statistics 



Table 5 



Imports of Worked Coral and Shells by Weight kg 





1976 


1977 


1978 


Japan 


88 480 


98 463 


111 642 


Fed, Rep. Germany 


52 684 


100 063 


7 342 


France 


81 335 


130 239 


44 387 


Spain 


31 716 


8 2 054 


4l 665 


Italy 


55 514 


44 200 


7 800 


Netherlands 


18 000 


26 000 


3 000 


Norway 


4 000 


19 000 


18 000 


Belgium 


7 200 • 


11 700 


16 400 


UK 


19 905 


30 064 


3 949 


Sweden 


13 000 


2 000 


not recorded 


Switzerland 


1b 498 


4 595 


not recorded 


Thailand 


8 927 


9 711 


2 208 


Denmark 


3 800 


4 900 


3 200 


Taiwan 


2 196 


3 804 


2 713 


South Korea 


180 


148 


252* 


Finland 


117 


' 648 


not recorded 


Philippines 




67 


30 


Indonesia 





43 


244 


Portugal 


500 


2 600 




Yugoslavia 


46 


2 


3 


Barbados 


11 


29 




Brazil 


25 






Mexico 


2 







Source: Published government statistics 
* Jan-Nov 



\ 



Table 6 








Import 


s of Worked Coral 


and Shells by Value US $ 




1976 


1977 


1978 


USA 


1A 776 000 


10 784 000 


10 604 000 


Japan 


2 488 473 


3 613 471 


7 657 050 


West Germany 


3 481 250 


4 793 810 


5 373 333 


France 


2 302 400 


2 794 468 


1 525 476 


Italy 


556 264 


1 233 838 


2 343 061 


Spain 


912 845 


1 435 735 


958 245 


Netherlands 


402 400 


815 217 


935 500 


Belgium 


169 611 


202 182 


325 729 


Denmark 


85 690 


104 655 


102 353 


Norway 


25 192 


110 000 


99 000 


UK 


115 932 . 


178 6Q5 


90 578 


Switzerland 


97 839 


84 691 




Sweden 


89 756 


20 426 




Yugoslavia 


73 074 


13 978 


5 690 


Greece 


49 351 






Sab ah 


30 659 


12 734 




Portgual 


7 365 


27 920 




Australia 


28 315 


24 146 




Taiwan 





31 289 


10 921 


Indonesia 





17 413 


88 575 


Thailand 


12 484 


14 324 


6 021 


New Zealand 


14 481 


13 006 


7 174 


Malay Penin. 


6 344 


4 214 




Mexico 


558 


2 869 


15 386 


S.Korea 


1 815 


7 205 


3 648 


Finland 


2 593 


7 230 




Barbados 


5 662 


1 556 




Singapore 


570 


2 630 


2 806 


Brazil 


1 147 






Philippines 




635 


50 


Sarawak 


80 


20 





Source: Published government statistics 



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KstininI r- J rx;n>r t s 



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r;7(' 



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Caroline Islmids 



Nc'thorl.uxd.4 

US 
ML'xico 

Indonesia 

Soiitli l>.'>rea 

JjlJKlU 

lloiti 

Turkey 

Austral ia 

Fi-ujice 

Solonon Islamln 

Marshall , Mari u. 

New Caledonia 

Greece 

Tuiviui 

i'iji 

r«iniQ Ni'w (Tuiiioa 

Bcl^iiun 

Siiijrn|M>re 

Nev Hebrides 

India 

Madapuscar 

Thailand 

Kenj'Q 

Tanzania 

Malaytiia 

Italy 

Yugoslavia 

ILont; Konii 

Mainland Cliiau 

nv 

Syria 

Torlusal 

Mozaiubi que 

Ituliiaria 

Macau 

Cook Isliuids 

United Arab litiirates 

Haldivcy: 

Nev 7enl. and 

Ecuadei- 

Norili r.orea 

Afars Issas 

Federal Kcpublic of Germany 

Spain 

Angola 

Yemen 

Central Africa 

South Africa 

Austria 

llahaiuas 

Green! and 

Canada 

Costa liica 

Pan anta 

Turks if- C.iicoa Islands 

Cayman Islands 

Qatar 

Tonga 

Manrit ins 

Reunion 

Coma 1*0 s 

French Oceanic Territories 

llurina 

llomania 

Tiui i s i a 

Chile 

Vietnam 

Sudan 

Guinea 

Saudi AialtiH 

Us Pacii'ic Islmids 

Ilri ( i s!i rufi fir Tsl unds 

Ai'^en I I na 

I'ariininiy 



8 0G9 


8I)'I 


'1 51') 


2'H( 


T no 


'■'(7 


2 (ii«) 


371 


3 135 


'.r, 


1 in 


080 


881 


-)')-. 


82;-) 


<)(.! 


873 


7-'.< 


68'i 


o;iu 


755 


181 


23] 


837 


51') 


(m 


280 


20', 


213 


ot;(. 


178 


000 


195 


2ull 


163 


0(.l) 


116 


973 


173 


200 


95 


523 


95 


321 


93 


728 


169 'illU 


10 


9'i(. 


1511 


5<)'i 


152 


385 


178 


57'. 


83 


380 


8'i 


ouo 


72 0'i6 


'ill 


133 


43 290 


39 


000 


18 


510 


'.9 


700 


32 


000 


40 


6'i2 


27 


332 


25 


000 


17 


780 


15 050 


3 


535 


6 


2'i0 


108 


787 


2 


70U 


3 


000 



7 536 



5 100 

50 011(1 

25 71.2 

90 

'. 510 



77- 
88I1 



111) 
i72 -ir; 

13'.- 890 



I'l') 

7i.;i 
029 
350 



8'iM 
200 
571 

.,ia 
]oo ivi 
8')'-. 000 

8I1IJ 7!I0 

50 '1 'i>2 

'llll '.'ll'J 

398 J83 

112 08'i 

105 OIKI 

162 55"i 

119 151 

187 yy.'. 

639 'lOO 

108 5iO 

139 vr, 
98 87' I 

8 l.(!l) 

ll'i 035 
83 66b 
15 3>.i. 
7'l 0111 

■-h? '117 
50 000 
80 081 

105 800 
52 020 

37 000 
52 595 
32 700 

93 795 
21 2G0 

5 081) 

998 

) J'lO 

2 015 

13 000 

5 9()8 

]flO 

56 800 
8 100 
1 000 
■1 252 
1 250 



'1 OO'i 020 

3 321 -):,?. 

'1 3 50 098 

3 '>',9 'i57 

22'i 62e 

087 688 

ISh "'.'■•' 

31.3 77'. 

802 280 
153 000 
007 656 
206 093 
236 515 
2ii2 769 
852 202 
172 O'JO 
111 072 
I'll 763 
196 962 

296 liUG 

209 22'i 

212 601 

116 'i27 

lO'i 187 

89 729 

21 277 

165 300 

608 928 

7'i 000 

87 672 

'18 900 

325 396 

51 000 

15 000 

49 000 

12 '165 
23 940 

15 512 

12 071 
280 

587 
1 146 



22s 760 

7 000 

2 956 
19 996 

1 028 

66 

445 

24 834 

465 

1 426 
585 
495 

3 139 

8 513 
214 277 

30 200 
21 000 
52 000 

2 000 

10 350 
39 000 

2 000 



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Table 13 a 

Exports of shells from Mexico 
( Obtained from official trade statistics (1976) and British Embassy in 

Mexico (1978-79) ) 



Country of 
Destination 



USA 

Japan 

China 



1976 



280 277 

911 365 

6 OGO 



1977 



not 
obtained 



1978* 



1979 



Total 



1 197 e^o 



2 7A2 892 



2 175 519 



* Imports went mainly to the US, secondly to Japan 
and also to West Germany, Italy and Hong Kong 



Table 13b 



Estimated Exports of Shells from Mexico kg 



Importing 
Countries 


1976 


1977 


1978 




USA marine shells 


1 


13A 415 


1 648 273 


1 670 545 




Japan other shell 


s 


929 300 


1 471 193 


1 296 670 




Hong Kong shells 




12 095 


26 129 


6 120 




Portugal 




1 000 








S. Korea pearl, 
oyster, abalone < 
other sh 


603 %1 * 
ells 


781 399 


959 122 




1 
Spain other shells 


- M 


2 000 


17 000 




Taiwan 






6 000 






Thailand 






850 






Total 


2 


680 ?71 


3 93^ 844 


3 949 457 





Figures from official statistics of importing countries 



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Tqble 15a 



Japan Exports* Shells of Shell Fishes (kg) 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


197S 


South Korea 


819 036 


2 328 526 


3 9'^'! 865 


7 048 25C 


Taiwan 


206 784 


178 529 


198 730 


325 145 


USA 


122 492 


117 449 


97 866 


78 523 


Canada 


21 281 


24 731 


34 445 


33 597 


Portugal 


16 000 


20 000 


24 500 


22 880 


Egypt 






9 525 


21 500 


Spain 


14 272 


13 057 


3 550 


16 695 


Hong Kong 


2 500 


1 150 


3 341 


10 496 


West Germany 


16 876 


22 564 


18 630 


10 432 


Italy 


11 504 


1 794 


5 633 


6 640 


South Africa 


6 8^6 


9 950 


8 351 


2 808 


Australia 


9 881 


8 865 


8 180 


9 217 


Other countries 


20 223 


18 790 


17 852 


17 iBi 


Total 


1 267 695 


2 745* 405 


4 430 508 


7 603 344 



Source: Published Government statistics 



\. 



Table 15b 



Japan Exports of Similar Substances to Coral and 
shells,- powder and waste (kg) 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


1979 


Taiwan 


9 600 


23 450 


40 000 


56 500 


West Germany 


50 245 


39 308 


44 176 


42 618 


Netherlands 


31 347 


11 212 


9 626 


25 245 


USA 


37 973 


30 863 


35 916 


17 084 


Italy 


4 271 


10 475 




11 305 


Australia 


6 483 


7 686 


4 023 


10 405 


Other countrie 


s 44 674-- 


• 40 395 


20 087 


26 085 


Total 


184 593 


163 389 


153 828 


189 242 


Source: Publi 


shed Governraent 


statistics 







Table 16 



Table 17 



Estimated Exports from Haiti kg 

Figures taken from statistics for 
importing countries 



Importing 
Countries 


1976 


1977 


1978 


USA 

Japan 
Spain 
Taiwcin 


763 195 
61 533 
49 000 


964 798 
43 373 
92 000 


578 718 

124 738 

88 000 

10 824 


Total 


873 728 


1 100 171 


802 280 



Solomon Islands - Exports of 'other sea shells' kg 



Countries of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Australia 

Papua New Guinea 

New Zealand 

Japan 

USA 


400 

2 186 

285 


119 
100 


25 467 
413 


Total 


2 871 


219 


25 880 



Souice: Published government statistics 



Table 18 










Australia Exports of 


Shells other than 


Mcther- of- Pearl 








(kg) 




Countries of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 




Hong Kong 


189 004 


1 257 348 


391 349 




South Korea 


182 621 


150 480 


193 859 




Japan 


30 770 


10 867 






UK 


3 


97 299 


4 205 




Italy 


16 245 


28 






USA 


780 


10 688 


26 




West Germany 


7 371 • 


8 018 


40 




Spain 


5 575 


48 


250 




France 


1 799 


1 514 






Papua New Guine 


a ■ 242 " 


i44 


2 685 




New Caledonia 


84 


70 


179 




Indonesia 




5 497 






North Korea 




3 875 






Taiwan 




1 075 






Singapore 




526 






Netherlands 


18 


32 






Mauritius 


266 








South Africa 




17 






Polynesia 




9 






Belgium 


1 








Fr. Atl. Territ 


s. 


1 






New Zealand 


2 386 








Total 


457 165 


1 547 53b 


592 593 





Source: Published government statistics 



Table 19 



Tanzania - Exports of Corals, Shells, blieir Powder and Waste kg 



Civ^try f-l -^joKa^Hvc-, ' 


197^ 


1975 


1976 


USA 


kh 900 


150 300 


164 300 


Canada 


6oo 


9 8oo 


3 800 


UK 


70 000 


6h 700 


57 200 


France 


'■ 27 7f)0 


16 000 


18 900 


Italy 


3k 100 


27 900 


18 i+OO 


Netherlands 


^k 500 


5 ifOO 


11 600 


Fed. Rep. Germany 


8 100 


9 900 


20 500 


Spain 


3-600 


3 300 


- 1 900 


Belgium 


1 500 


1 900 


2 300 


Greece 


2 i+OO 




1 400 


Israel 




8 ifOO 


if 400 


: Norway 






300 


j Australia 


2 700 


2 700 


1 900 


1 Japan 


2'4 000 


h6 900 


26 100 


Pakistan 


: 31 600 




1 000 


Singapore 




2 200 


300 


i India 


1 000 


62 ^(00 


15 800 


iMauritius 
1 




300 


500 


JTotal 


266 700 


h^^ 100 


350 600 



Source: published government statistics 



Table 20 



Kenya - Exports ol' Coi'als, Shells, Powder and Waste (kg) 



fc.^-iUi, rf- Av-.WrtSt.t ^ 


i';'7'i 


1975 ' 1976 1 1977 ' 


1978"" 


USA 






20 100 


25 500 


Italy 


35 700 


11 300 


k-\ 600 


29 800 


UK 


16 200 


k 000 • 


17 900 


23 700 


Fed. Eep. Germany 


1 000 


22 900 


1 500 


8 500 


Netherlands 


2 300 








2 000 


France 








^tOO 


500 


Belgium 


1 








200 i 


Spain 










2 200 


Greece 










^tOO 


Norway 








100 




Australia 


- M 






800 


800 


Japan 


3 200 






3 'too 


1 7001 


Pakistan 


9 000 






2 000 


6 000! 


'Singapore 


' 








1 600 1 


India 








300 




iSaudi Arabia 








900 


3 800 


Uganda 








100 


200 


iZaire 










200 


j ctt\f/ fM.wh-.VS 










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Total 


, 67 'lOO 


38 200 i 


89 100 


107 500 



Source: I\iblished Government statistics 



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Table 21b 



India - Exports of other Corals and Shells kg 



• - "t 

Country of j 


1976 [" 


1977 


destination 






Spain 


20 7-^1 


52 625 


Italy 


15 000 ; 


8 177 


Fed. Rep. Germany 


2 257 1 


11 866 


France 


2 756 : 


8 329 


UK 


3 593 : 


9*700 


Netherlands 


98 1 


6 885 


Czechoslovakia 




5 090 


Norway 


1 655 




Belgium 


2-655 


• " 5^+5 


USA 


20 0^7 


21 328 


Canada 


195 


200 


Nepal 


6 '450 


108 695 


Japan 




7 ^95 


Korea Rep. 




h 000 


Hong Kong 


n't 908 


9 567 


Singapore 




§ l^rPr, 


Kenya 




2 000 


Saudi Arabia 




250 


Omsm 


50 


15 641 


Kuwait 




99 667 


Syria 


1 


1 000 


Total 


90 i+05 i 


375 810 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 22 



Malaysia Domestic Exports of Coral and Shells kg 



Countries of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


Singapore 


1 180 759 


10 713 234 


Hong Kong 


184 807 


7 751 


Japan 


10 


2 Oil 


Australia 




508 


S. Korea 


1 615 


508 


Philippines 


34b 

* 




Total 


1 367 537 


10 724 012 



Table 23 



Malaysia Re-Exports of Coral and Shells kg 



Countries of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


Sin.u;apore 
Hong Kong 
Philippines 


48 569 
7 822 


23 802 

406 

41 


Total 


56 391 


24 249 



All re-exports are recorded from Sabah and Sarawak 



Source: Published government statistics for West Malaya, 
Sabah and Sarawak 



T.iMi- 



liiir»i rlM i. r Pn w.irt.f il Sh.-I U I,,; 



CiMiiii I y 


T> it<'/''^i'^^' ^*^^ 


I'lTIi 


I "77 


1978 


Japan 


Tine Latin rimr{.':ari L i fcra 
r. inaxi:iia 
Tfitua niloticu3 
IKlior hIicUs 


302 'i51 

297 l.')2 

1 (.13 810 

5 'I'o 'll><' 


27'i 'iS9 

2'i3 odii 

1 HI13 5')3 

7 105 295 


353 931 

333 13'. 

2 579 301 

7 020 35a 




Total 


7 037 'il9 


9 '.31 2S3 


to 2Ua 72'. 


France 


Shells 


7 oo'i ooo 


7 'i'i2 000 


8 70'. 000 


USA 


Mai-iiic Fhclla 


;, ot'i 'is'i 


', 1,21 237 


'. 2')7 096 


S Korru 


Oyster 
Pearl shell 
Green abnlone 

Other shells 


la7 929 

37'. 77'. 

1 oyo 280 


162 217 

98Ci 372 
1 300 '.75 
1 '.37 379 


153 737 

900 '1O3 

1 990 oiG 

3 282 '.39 




Tutal 


1 (i5fl MS 3 


3 S8I1 Ii'i3 


3H0 OOO 


Weal Genuiuiy 


Mother of pearl 
Other shells 


107 800 
7 197 800 


2'.1 100 
7 581 500 


nut {4 i veil 




Total 


7 305 600 


7 022 Ooo 




llony; Kong 


Shell 


732 'oO 


1 001 093 


1 505 791 


Srain 


• 

^lotl'er of pearl 

Oilier shells 

(could include cornl) 


7 9? 000 
7'iO 005 


039 000 
320 8'.3 


821 000 
50 1 236 




To till 


1 5'i5 0ij3 


1 'i39 8'i8 


1 382 230 


Swi tzcrland 


SlicUs 

Other (could include coral) 


not hroke 


I down 


2 350 68'. 
80 750 




To til I 






2 037 '.3'. 


Poriu;;al 


Shells 

Uihoi- (crni'.d include coral) 


783 'lUD 
b9il oUO 


B95 300 
0'.3 200 


not acailahlo 




Total 


1 (.73 son 


1 33rt 500 




Taivan 


Sliell 
Shell vaste 


270 'iii(, 
272 0911 


213 1.92 
2'.'. 378 


283 295 
270 '.10 




Total 


5'i8 502 


'i58 070 


555 705 


Yugoslavia 


Shells 


2H OO'i 


27 592 


21 229 


Mexico 


Shells 


18 522 


not ..htnined 


21 055 


Inaia 


Cove I 03 
L'hauks 


50 2')1 
1) 


5 7'.0 
130 


not avuilaolo 




lolril 


5I1 291 


5 890 




Brazil 


Sholls 


7 3''H 


'1 289 
(waste) 


not available 


Thuiliuid 


Shells 

l'e\*'dcr t': waste 


2 5'i2 


2 327 
322 


'1 3'. 3 

392 




Total 


2 5'i2 


2 (.'.9 


'1 0'i3 


Ifiiliiucsia 


Shells 

I'owdor & vaste of shells 


2 '.73 


lion..' leco tiled 


10 
20 000 




I'olal 


2 ',73 




20 010 


nii 1 ii)]iines 


Shell 

Scrap i: waste of yheil 


937 


117 


10 '.M 
15 




Total 


T. ; 


117 


10 '.50 


Ikih.iiLM-* 


Coinh shells (No.) 3 ■y^3 


71'.' 





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Table 27 



France Imports of Unworked Shells kg 



Countries 
of Origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Netherlands 


2 157 000 


2 142 000 


2 901 000 


Denmark 


3 301 000 


2 898 000 


2 632 000 


Turkey 


684 000 


893 000 


1 153 000 


Greece 


178 000 


195 000 


171 000 


Yugoslavia 


84 000 


59 000 


74 000 


Madagascar 


91 000 




89 000 


Philippines 




55 000 


65 000 


Syria 


39 000 • 


37 000 


51 000 


New Caledonia 


135 000 






Bulgaria 


32 000 




49 000 


Indonesia 


• • n 


37 000 




Japan 




20 000 




UK 






251 000 


Austria 






7 000 


Italy 

Tunisia 
Romania 
Other countries 


903 000 


1 106 000 


28 000 

52 000 

21 000 

1 220 000 


Total 


7 604 000 


7 442 000 


8 764 000 



Source: Published government statistics 



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Table 29 



South Korea Import of 'other shells' kg 



Country 
of origin 


1977 


1978 


Japan 


1 066 992 


2 58 190 


Indonesia 


194 416 


229 691 


Philippines 


24 802 


72 939 


India 


31 000 


44 783 


USA 


44 827 


32 909 


Thailand 


27 248 


7 500 


Singapore 


15 000 


182 337 


New Hebrides 


10 000 


1 000 


Australia 


7 954 


30 760 


Fapua New Guinea 


1 5 000 


6 500 


Malaysia 


4 888 ' 


10 090 


South Africa 


4 252 




Central Africa 


1 000 




Solomon Islands 




2 000 


Mainland China 




39 900 


Hong Kong 




6 820 


Burma 




5 200 


UK 




3 000 


Mexico 




10 900 


Guinea 




2 000 


Other countries 




13 920 


Total 


1 437 379 


3 282 439 



Source: puolisnea government statistics 



Table 30 



West Germany Imports of 'other shells ' 



Country 
of origin 


1976 


1977 


Netherlands 


5 911 800 


k 631 500 


Denmark 


633 700 


1 229 700 


France 


226 500 


537 500 


Belgium 


173 200 


639 400 


Philippines 


I5Z1 400 


175 400 


Japan 


5A 500 


33 100 


Italy 


12 800 


9 800 


Taiwan 


2 600 


6 100 


Other countries 


28 300 


119 000 


Total 


7 197 800 


7 381 500 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 31 



Hong Kong Imports of Mollusc Shell kg 



Country 
or origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Australia 


271 287 


316 195 


704 529 


Indonesia 


Mk 789 


199 346 


148 678 


Singapore 


58 366 


49 823 


74 438 


Philippines 


47 A01 


117 540 


91 845 


Fiji 


35 852 


50 627 


37 217 


Macau 


40 642 

• 


93 795 




Mainland China 


27 027 


104 266 


2 607 


Solomon Islands 


11 232 






Malaysia 


10 287. . 


5 013 


11 795 


Mexico 


12 095 


25 129 


6 120 


Papua New Guinea 




13 918 


1 500 


Thailand 


1 930 


16 377 


33 789 


USA 


939 


43 018 


104 001 


Japan 


2 499 


13 563 


6 610 


India 


1 479 


1 502 


19 045 


South Korea 




6 923 


6 514 


South Africa 






200 381 


Burma 

Other countries 


^ 5'i6 
33 061 


3 060 


2u OUO 

36 72? 


Total 


732 450 


1 061 095 


1 505 791 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 32 



Spain Imports of 'other shells' kg 



Country 
of origin 



1976 



1977 



1978 



Philippines 

Haiti 

Madagascar 

Italy 

USA 

France 

Portugal 

Japan 

Taiwan 

UK 

Mozambique 

Mexico 

Kenya 

Tanzania 

Netherlands 

Indonesia 

India 

Australia 

Fed. Rep. Germany 

Other countries 

Total 



577 000 
k9 000 
20 000 
27 000 

14 005 
4 000 

15 QOO 
9 000 
2 846 

" 2 000 
10 000 



360 

1 000 

80 

1 000 

16 

260 

14 096 

746 663 



573 000 
92 000 

7 000 
25 061 
10 001 
25 120 
50 000 
15 600 

8 000 
6 019 

2 000 





931 


3 


000 




43 




68 


3 


005 


820 


848 



375 


000 


88 


000 


18 


000 


19 


000 


8 


577 




366 


15 


000 


3 


420 


5 


000 


2 


000 


17 


000 


5 


000 


4 


000 



279 

7 

587 

561 236 



Table 33 



Italy Imports of Uiworked Coral f-: Shells kg 



Country of Origin 


197^' 


1977 


1978 


Denmark 


2 239 22(.) 






Japan 


5'i3 5('5 


301 300 


14 800 


Indonesia 


426 677 


405 800 




Philippines 


419 476 






Sudan 


312 022 






USA 


178 2fa9 






Malaysia 


167 702 






Netherlands 


124 350 






Haiti 


117 493 






Australia 


115 692 






New Caledonia 


115 040 




814 000 


Ulv 


97 519 






France 


95 002 






Fiji 


58 607 


• 




Mozambique 


46 706 






New Zealand 


45 740 






Portugal 


37 415 






W. Germany 


30 594 






Kenya 


2S 916 ' " 




"~ 


India 


26 306 






Singapore 


25 237 






Papua New Guinea 


22 917 






Tanzania 


21 170 






Mexico 


20 000 






Taiwan 


17 316 


315 600 


55 000 


Ecuador 


10 595 






Madagascar 


10 000 






Txmisia 


4 731 


6 700 


3 600 


Algeria 


3 765 


5 100 




Spain 


3 393 




8 200 


Otlier countries 


59 168 


4 376 900 


3 519 900 


Total 


5 424 (if)<) 


5 411 400 


4 415 500 



Other coiuitrios in 1976 weie: 



Ireland 

Austria 

Yugoslavia 

Greece 

Romania 

Albania 



Somalia 
Seychelles 
S. Africa 
N&S Yemen 
Polynesia 
S. Korea 



Honduras 

Bahamas 

Colombia 

Thailand 

Cliina 

I'ui'key 



Source: I'ublished goveriuiiont statistics 



Table 54 



Australian Imports of Coral and Shells kg 



Country 
of origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Philippines 


49 825 


70 714 


75 080 


Japan 


^z 956 


21 130 


7 709 


Taiwan 


1 369 


3 876 


4 325 


Indonesia 


84 


3 




Mainland China 


20 


10 


7 


India 




1 


294 


Thailand 


'23 • 






Hong Kong 




11 


14 


Singapore 




7 




Mexico 


4 624 


4 618 


4 536 


USA 


5 487 


2 655 


2 793 


Haiti 




1 424 


4 393 


Solomon Islands 


575 


203 


25 000 


New Hebrides 


200 






Fiji 






190 


Polynesia 


3 






Papua New Guinea 


485 


930 


105 


New Zealand 


36 


65 


307 


France 


2 453 


758 


1 094 


Italy 


408 


391 


854 


Denmark 


811 


896 


200 


UK 


13 


43 


228 


South Africa 


300 


94 


1 592 


Tanzania 


745 


325 


3 340 


Kenya 




1 008 


400 


Sudan 




255 




Total 


80 427 


109 417 


132 461 



Source: Published government statijtic: 



Table 35 



Singapore Imports of Coral and Shell s kg 



Country 
of origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Malaysia 


10 537 152 


13 13A 340 


10 670 289 


China 


20 679 






Philippines 


30 900 


395 


11 511 


Papua New Guine< 


a 9 A73 


3 400 


10 160 


Burma 


5 082 




138 


Thailand 


5 726 






India 


-1 


12 750 


10 912 


Japan 




1 000 


5 000 


Mozambique 




2 330 


500 


New Caledonia 


• H 


2 000 


30 000 


Kenya 




2 000 


3 370 


Australia 




3 597 




Other Countries 


78 ^C^8 


749 


15 496 


Total 


10 685 781 


13 162 561 


10 757 376 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 36 



Malaysia Imports of Coral and shells kg 



Country 
of origin 


1976 


1977 


Philippines 


4y y20 


24 361 


Taiwan 


30 578 


101 587 


France 


1 940 


5 150 


Fed, Rep. Germany 


J 1 016 




India 


406 


132 


Singapore 


37 445 


34 570 


Indonesia 


• 


1 605 


Tj^ailand 




1 676 


USA 


• )» 


142 


Total 


121 305 


169 223 



Source: Published government statistics for West Malaysia, 
Sabah and Sarawak 



Table 57 



Kenya Liiports ol' Corals and Sliolls k^ 



Country of origin 


i^nh 


1975 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Somalia 


57 100 


21 200 


15 000 


18 800 


1^ 900 


Tanzania 








51 500 


5 500 


Madagascar 


200 








500 


South Yemen 


• 




21 900 






Saudi Arabia 






15 100 






R'ance 






100 






UK 


■ n 


700 


- 






Italy 


100 










USA 


500 








200 


(Ither countries 


5 500 


1 200 


22 800 


1 600 


10 500 


Total 


61 000 


23 100 


72 900 


71 900 


51 400 



Soui'ce: Published goveriuiient slaListics 



Table 38 



Exports of Unworked Pearl Shell kg 





1976 


1977 


1978 


Indonesia 


504 598 


446 223 


587 975 


Australia 


338 A41 


417 960 


318 462 


Philippines 


2Ui^ 062 


214 715 


466 932 


Malaysia 


(161 819) 


(57 000) 


(138 000) 


Taiwan 


(133) 






Fr. Ocesinic Ter 


Po (100 000) 


(197 000) 


(194 000) 


Madagascar 


(57 000 ; 






India 


(40 000) 


(19 000) 


(57 000) 


Cook Islands 


(27 332) 


(17 097) 


(12 485) 


Fiji 


18 388 


8 064 


(17 088) 


Spain 


15 000 . 


76 000 


34 000 


Solomon Islands 


11 057 


6 466 


5 930 


Japan 


(110 122) 


(565 431) 


(297 352) 


Papua New Guine. 


a 10 191 " 


(7 168) 


(32 725) 


New Zealand 


(10 056) 




(13 000) 


Hong Kong 


(10 002) 


(1 250) 


(11 665) 


Thailand 


(9 000) 


(2 000) 


(3 700) 


W. Germany 


82 500 


130 900 




Afars Issas 




(13 000) 




Singapore 


(5 229) 


(12 257) 


(8 421) 


Sudan 






(39 000) 


USA 






(26 000) 


Burma 






(5 000) 


Mexico 






(2 000) 


UK Ocean Terr. 


(10 000) 







Source; Published government statistics 

Figures in brackets are estimated from other countries imports, 

* 1975-1976 



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Table 41 



Australia Exports of Unworked Pearl Shell kg 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


USA 


134 532 


117 878 


117 381 


W. Germany- 


106 430 


Ti^y 017 


51 789 


UK 


23 283 


35 986 


109 823 


Italy 


33 623 


59 114 


3 500 


Japan 


27 673 


40 785 


20 422 


Israel 


5 000 




1 188 


Hong Kong 


7 900 


15 180 


2 706 


S. Korea 






11 653 


Total 


333 441 


^417 960 


318 462 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 42 








Imports of UnworV 


:ed Pearl Shell kg 




1976 


1977 


1978 


Spain 


799 000 


639 000 


821 000 


Japan 


600 143 


520 395 


689 065 


W. Germany 


167 800 


241 100 


(76 973) 


S. Korea 


374 774 


986 572 


960 468 


Hong Kong 


(67 706) 


(138 495) 


(175 262) 


Singapore 


(176 623) 


(164 567) 


(195 933) 


USA 


(146 029) 


(120 782) 


(118 997) 


Israel 


(15 000) 


(117 500) 


(9 188) 


Italy 


(42 055) 


(63 204) 


(11 500) 


UK 


(23 283)^ . 


(60 581) 


(115 823) 


Taiwan 


(300) 


(2 000) 


(28 000) 


Haiti 


(189) 






France 




(51 500) 





Source: Published government statistics 

Figures in brackets estimated from export statistics 

of other countries 



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Table ^5 



USA Imports of Unworked Mother of Pearl and Trochus 













Country 
of origin 


I960 


1961 


1962 


Jan/ Aug 
1963 


Australia 


372 Oil 


378 614 


213 107 


140 070 


Japan 


141 894 


192 566 


135 785 


11 006 


New Zealand 


17 085 


2 600 


14 284 


3 048 


Fr. Pac. Isla 


nds 17 020 


4 096 


826 


3 061 


Arabia 


28 565 


8 150 






Aden 


9 868 


13 206 


7 156 


6 095 


Panama 


746 








Saudi Arabia 


9 095 








W. Germany 


2 835 ' 


893 


18 288 




Italy 


932 






3 999 


Burma 


6 095 








Philippines 


21 896 


1 640 - 


3 919 


676 


Hong Kong 


1 288 








Br. W. Pac. I 


s. 3 161 








Sudan 


9 998 








Fr. Somalia 


2 000 








Br. Somalia 


2 032 








India 




1 800 






Iran 




5 136 






Thailand 




1 016 






Singapore 






45 


2 055 


Indonesia 






4 925 




New Guinea 






8 180 




Total 


646 521 


609 71? 


406 515 


170 010 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 46 



Exports of Unworked Trochus kg 



1976 



1977 



1978 



Indonesia 

Solomon Islands 

M.M.Car.* 

Papua New Guinea 

Fiji 

Philippines 

New Caledonia 

New Hebrides 

Taiwan 

Australia 

Mainland China 

Thailand 

Hong Kong 

India 

Singapore 

Fr. Oceanic Terr 



1 379 601 
566 497 
(280 204) 
227 600 ' 
217 651 
154 950 
(78 086) 
(89 734) 
(18 000) 
(16 912) 
(12 060) 



1 205 049 

400 576 

(398 183) 

(144 491) 

477 558 

124 736 

(102 043) 

(102 437) 

(35 800) 



(59 010) 

(19 750) 

(9 000) 

(810) 



1 588 511 
265 979 
(242 769) 
(127 008) 

(87 400) 

126 967 

(852 202) 

(191 252) 

(2 500) 



(30 400) 

(14 570) 

(5 000) 

(9 000) 

(20 277) 



* M.M.Car. - Marshall, Mariana & Caroline Islands 
** 1975-1976 






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1 


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si t; 






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to 
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Table 48 



Solomon Islands - Exports of 'Trocas' kg 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Hong Kong 


8 665 


- 


— 


Singapore 


13 714 


14 079 


- 


Japan 


492 366 


341 116 


211 197 


UK 


- -. 


- 


4 072 


Fed. Rep Germany 


51 752 


45 381 


50 710 


Total 


566 497 


400 575 


265 979 



INiblishoil 
Source: Govertiment stnti sties 



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Table 50 



Imports of Unworked Trochus kg 



1976 



1977 



1978 



Japan 

Singapore 

Hong Kong 

W. Germany 

Italy 

Spain 

UK 

Switzerland 

France 

Taiwan 

New Zealand 

W. Samoa 

S. Korea 

Malaysia 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Arrf:entina 



1 613 810 

(918 969) 

(177 076) 

(149 859) 

(130 878) 

(115 673) 

(10 160> 

(10 159) 

(10 000) 

(5 110) 



(775) 



1 805 595 
(554 05A) 
(160 825) 
(171 503) 
(386 489) 
(25 862) 
(3 500) 

(35 018) 

(1 000) 

(91) 

(2 000) 



2 579 301 

(752 788) 

(54 459) 

(110 710) 

(65 462) 

(16 919) 

(4 072) 

(20 000) 
(5 000) 



(15 820) 

(3 680) 

(10 000) 

(5 000) 



Source: published government statistics 



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\ 



Table 53 



Solomon Islands - Exports of Green Snail kg 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Hong Kong 


516 






Singapore 


2 125 


551 


- 


Japan 


19 «08 


9 378 


12 99A 


W. Germany 


621 


889 


2 386 


Total 


23 070 


10 818 


15 380 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 54 



Papua New Guinea Exports of Unworked Shells kg 
July 1975 - June 1976 



Country of 
Destination 


Trochus 


Green Snail 
Shell 


Mother of 
Pearl 


Others 


Japan 


91 701 


26 630 


8 788 


b24 


tipain 


5^ :)uy 


25 UUO 






W. Germany 


Ai 979 


218 


914 




Italy 


2U 341 






349 


UK 


10 160 








Taiwan 


5 110 — 


■- 


300 


881 


Singapore 




8 277 






Haiti 






189 




Australia 








100 


Belgium 








5 


Bulgaria 








360 


Netherlands 








11 


Total 


227 600 


60 125 


10 191 


2 330 



Source: published government statistics 



Table 55 



South Korea Imports of Green Abalone Shell kg 



Country 
of Origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Mexico 


588 736 


778 451 


946 222 


USA 


125 747 


72 430 


753 783 


Australia 


172 971 


220 118 


115 276 


Japan 


156 816 


206 691 


167 565 


Indonesia 


23 871 • 


18 245 




Philippines 


10 139 


2 290 


7 170 


Hong Kong 


12 000 . 


1 000 




Malaya 


6 000 






Austria 




1 250 




Total 


1 096 280 


1 300 475 


1 990 016 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 56 



Philippines Exports of Unworked Capiz Shells kg 



Country of 
Destination 


1970 


1971 


1972 


Hong Kong 


59 999 


10 935 




Japan 


71 






Switzerland 


11 048 






Spain 


5 347 






Belgium 


1 045 • 






Fed. Rep. Germany 


700 






Sweden 




- . ._ 


969 


USA 


1 900 




118 


Total 


80 110 


10 935 


1 087 



Source: Published official statistics 



Table 57 



India Trade in Unworked Co'lVTios and Clianks ka 



Covries - Imports 



('owi'ies - lirijorts 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


1977 


Maldives 
Tanzania 
UK 


17 780 
22 591 
15 290 


5 080 
660 

^5 7^+0. 


Total 


56 291 



Country of 
destination 



USA 
UK 

Netherlands 
Fed. Rep. Germany 



]I1 



•Total 



1976 : 1977 



38 392 '12 224 

927 , 8lif 

' 1 099 

936 

ko 2hG \ ^5 073 



Chanks - Imports 



Chanks - Exports 



Country of 
origin 

Singapore 

Total 



1976 ' 1977 "■ 

150 ; 
150 



Country of j 1976 
destination 


1977 


Italy 

Spain 

France 

Fed. Rep. Germany 

USA 

Malaysia 


2£) 000 
20 000 
15 076 

35 


13 956 

80 
3 808 


Total 


55 111 


17 ?>hk 



Soiuxe: l\jblislied gnveiiuuent statistics 



Table 58a 



Exports of Worked Mother- of -Pearl by Weipjht kp; 



1976 



1977 



1978 



Taiwan 

S Korea 

Japan 

Thailand 

W. Germany 

Italy 

Spain 

France 

Netherlands 

Denmark 

Indonesia 

Mexico 

Switzerland 

Belgium 

UK 

India 

Brazil 



461 487 
109 214 
29 271 
4 239 
6 087 
9 989 
. 33.. 

980 

1 000 

1 000 

710 

15 093 

235 

:>o2 

199 
35 



456 213 

58 704 

32 767 

7 414 

14 738 

11 400 

p 

3 000 







203 
50U 
185 
162 



609 355 
59 324 * 
34 686 
38 326 



5 724 



* Jan-Nov 



Source: published government statistics 



Table 58b 



Exports of Worked Mother- of-Pearl by Value US 





1976 


1977 


1978 


Taiwan 


2 S'^O 263 


2 862 105 


4 260 167 


S Korea 


2 031 142 


1 506 923 


1 832 930 


Japan 


686 301 


836 129 


1 198 032 


Thailand 


87 3.88 . 


95 443 


131 866 


W. Germany 


512 917 


329 524 




Italy 


129 447 


125 930 




Spain 


337 





52 382 


France 


17 600 


57 234 




Netherlands 


6 400 


435 




Denmark 


11 207 







Indonesia 


995 




17 


Me>cico 


4 751 






Switzerland 


91 995 


96 6o5 




Belgium 


361 


13 485 




UK 


12 403 


9 500 




India 


2 834 


6 587 




Brazil 


691 






Singapore 


19 


550 




Hong Kong 


165 594 HKS5 


404 396 HK$ 


1 134 199 / K.'^, 



Table 59 a 



Imports of Worked Mother-of-Pearl by VJei g ht k 



Includ 


ing mother-of-pearl for button m 


aking 




1976 


1977 


1978 


Japan 


87 259 


96 560 


108 552 


France 


71 667 


100 092 




W. Germany 


48 995 


96 236 




Spain 


29 582 


81 081 


40 946 


Italy 


2k 682 


42 400 




UK 


14 623 


18 000 




Switzerland 


10 498 


4 595 




Thailand 


8 927 " 


9 71-1- 


2 208 


Netherlands 


5 000 


6 000 




Belgium 


4 200 


4 000 




Norway 


4 000 


4 000 




Denmark 


3 400 


3 700 




Taiwan 


2 185 


2 117 


2 695 


Portugal 


500 


2 500 




Finland 


117 


648 




S Korea 


180 


148 


252 * 


Brazil 


25 






Barbados 


11 


29 




Indonesia 




43 


244 


Yugoslavia 




1 


3 



* J an -Nov 

Source: published government statistics 



Table 59b 



Imports of IVorked Mother of Pearl by Value US $ 





1976 


1977 


1978 


Japan 


780 461 


1 081 479 


2 064 743 


France 


656 000 


934 2:?5 




W Germany 


5b5 417 


1 118 571 




Spain 


318 138 


820 556 


815 350 


Italy 


236 535 


395 856 




UK 


115 932 


178 600 




Switzerland 


97 839 " 


84 691 




Thailand 


12 484 


14 324 


6 021 


Netherlands 


47 200 


39 565 




Belgium 


55 417 


93 879 




Norway 


25 192 


23 462 




Denmark 


75 862 


53 103 




Taiwan 


4 000 


9 500 


7 222 


Portugal 


7 270 


26 566 




Finland 


2 593 


7 230 




S Korea 


1 815 


7 205 


3 t)48 


Barbados 


5 662 


1 556 




Brazil 


1 147 






Indonesia 


- 


17 413 




Yugoslavia 


- 


13 978 


252 


Singapore 


570 


2 630 


2 806 


Greece 
Australia 


10 243 

(Julv- 

Dec)28 315 


24 146 


21 704 


Malaysia 


36 991 


16 968 




Hong Kong 


1 611 549 HK^ 


4 024 159 m$ 


9 427 894 HK$ 



Table 60 



Philippines Exports of Worked Shell 





1976 


1977 


1978 


Shell handbags (No) 


2 363 ^22 


1 700 


63 465 


Shell lampshades (kg) 
Light fittings 


545 057 


633 913 


958 561 


Worked Capiz shells (No) 


1 219 432 


2 499 200 


2 349 484 


Worked Mother of 
Pearl (No) 


*5 750 


117 837 


140 140 


Shell buttons (kg) 


3 323 


4 877 




Shell lanterns (No) 


■ - 


235 


85 


Other worked shells (kg) 




1 808 636 


1 400 503 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 61 



Taiwan Exports of Worked Mother-of -Pearl kg 



1976 



1977 



1978 



Ornamental articles 
Rings, bracelets etc 
Powder cases 
Plates & rods 
Unmounted beads 
Tobacconist sundries 
Articles for religious use 
Others 



193 717 

49 986 

6 221 

2 235 

2 067 

1 518 

614 

205 129 



165 281 

45 866 

16 856 

4 025 

6 427 

3 304 

1 238 

213 216 



154 078 
87 620 
30 030 
92 908 

2 673 
1 257 

3 888 
236 901 



Total 



461 487 



456 213 



609 355 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 62 



South Korea Exports of Worked Mother- of-Pearl kg 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Japan 


^5 927 


22 006 


16 060 


USA 


37 720 


13 051 


10 176 


Hong Kong 


12 754 


16 429 


19 371 


Singapore 


7 005 . 


200 


805 


W Germany 


2 231 


1 932 


609 


Indonesia 


9A9 . . 






Spain 


913 


491 


5 305 


France 




320 


1 433 


Kuwait 






1 960 


United Arab Emirat 


es 


1 330 


1 120 


Other Countries 


1 715 


2 945 


2 483 


Total 


109 214 


58 704 


59 324 



Source: published government statistics 



Table 63 



Japan Exports of Worked Mother-of -Pearl kg 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


USA 


14 480 


6 403 


3 377 


Spain 


11 089 


17 546 


24 106 


France 


72 


2 232 


4 171 


Netherlands 




2 100 


507 


Taiwan 




1 233 


471 


Other Countries 


3 630 • 


5 253 


2 054 


Total 


29 271 ' 


32 767 


34 686 



".ource: published government statistics 



Table 64a 



Hong Kong Exports of Pearl Buttons (1 000 buttons) 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 




Singapore 

Australia 

Taiwan 

USA 

UK 

Mauritius 

Portugal 

S. Korea 

Thailand 

Cttier countries 


1 289 

94 

162 

260 

• 

10 


826 
1 237 
1 964 

202 

201 
23 

234 

39 
230 


201 

5 759 

3 585 

522 

202 

126 

1 461 

1 044 

1 050 

'* ? f" 




Total 


1 915 


4 956 


14 405 





Source: pvjblished government statistics 



Table 64b 



Hong Kong Re-exports of Pearl Buttons (l OOP buttons) 



Country of 
Destination 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Taiwan 

Australia 

Singapore 


22 

115 


515 


257 

1 255 

7A7 


Total 


137 


515 


2 259 



Source; Published government statistics 



Table 65a 



Japan Imports of tforked Mother^ of-Pearl kg 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


S, Korea 


43 274 


35 162 


34 501 


Philippines 


18 898 


18 792 


20 323 


Mainland China 


7 468 


16 787 


7 537 


Taiwan 


692 


1 515 


761 


Other countries 


128 


146 


919 


Total 


70 460 


72 402 


64 041 



Table 65b 



Japan Imports of Mother- of-Pearl for Buttonmaking kp; 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


S. Korea 
Philippines 


16 799 


23 953 
205 


44 511 


Total 


16 799 


24 158 


44 511 



Source: published government statistics 



Table 65a 



¥♦ Germany Imports of Worked Mother- of -Pearl kg 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


1977 


Philippines 

Hong Kong 

Italy 

Japan 

Other countries 


42 293 

1 763 

443 

815 

184 


83 078 
1 099 

831 
1 510 

128 


Total 


48 995 


96 236 



Table 66b 



UK Imports of Worked Mother- of -Pearl kg 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


Philippines 


10 095 


Mainland China 


3 430 


Hong Kong 


435 


Italy 


139 


Thailand 


201 


S. Korea 


118 


Japan 


111 


Other countries 


94 


Total 


14 623 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 66c 



France Imports of Worked Mother-of -Pearl k^ 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


1977 


Philippines 


55 309 


64 702 


Italy 


3 590 


2 302 


Belgium 




9 938 


Singapore 




4 000 


Other countries 


IZ 758 


19 150 


Total 


71 667 • 


100 092 



Source: Published government statistics 



Table 66d 



Spain Imports of Worked Mother- of -Pearl kg 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Japan 


26 006 


68 020 


22 079 


Philippines 


1 081 


1 759 


9 283 


Hong Kong 


826 


5 782 


1 294 


Taiwan 


731 


955 


1 894 


Italy 


465 


481 


4 404 


Switzerland 


167 


47 


9 


S Korea 


-125 . 


156 


57 


Thailand 


92 


351 


200 


Mexico 


44 




85 


USA 


40 - 




5 


W. Germainy 


5 


8 


163 


Mainland China 






1 or 


Other countries 




3 522 


458 


Total 


29 582 


8-1 081 


40 9-' 



Source: Published government statistics 



I\ 



Table 66e 



Italy Imports of Worked Mother-of-Pearl k^ 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


1977 


Philippines 


19 244 


18 500 


W. Germany 


1 814 




Mainland China 


1 179 




Japan 


998 




Thailand 


780 




Hong Kong 




13 000 


Other countries 


667 


10 900 


To^al 


24 682 


42 400 



Source: Published government statistics 



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Table 68 



US Imports of Shell or Pearl Buttons (l 000 buttons) 



Country of 
origin 


1967 


1975 


Philippines 


357 696 


88 115 


Japan 


274 320 


333 936 


Italy 


5 328 




W. Germany 


2 880, 




France 


288 




Mexico 




364 


Other countries 


4 608 


4 604 


Total 


645 1 20 . 


427 01_9 



Table 69 

Hong Kong Imports of Shell Buttons (1 000 buttons) 



Country of 
origin 


1976 


1977 


1978 


Japan 

USA 

Italy 

W. Germany 

Taiwan 

Mainland China 

Philippines 

UK 


32 832 

2 016 

28 


69 984 

720 

7 

1 584 

72 

84 

30 


115 620 

1 671 

22 

1 061 

7 283 

450 

300 

238 


Total 


34 876 


72 481 


126 645 



Source: Published government statistics 



' \ Table 70 



FAQ Statistics for Catches and Landings of Shells 
Metric Tonnes 



a) Pearl Oyster Shells Pinctada spp 




1 




1974 


1975 


1976 


1 
197'i 


Australia 

Japan 

Fiji 


205 
30 
15 


247 
30 
10 


292 
34 
10 


190 
39 
17 


Total 


250 


287 


336 


246' 

1 


b) Trochus 


> 










1974 


1975 


1976 


1977 


Solomon Islands 
Fiji 

Australia 
New Caledonia 


317 

256 

2 




534 

168 

21 




480 

255 






40C 

274 





1 


Total 


575 


723 


735 


674! 



c) Marine shells not elsewhere included 



Mexico 
Tanzania 
Kenya 
Yugoslavia 



Total 



1974 



61.2 

268 

100 

58 



1975 



2 089 

558 

72 

61 



4 538 



3 280 



1976 



2 349 
351 

49 
176 



3 425 



FAG Yearbook of Fishery Statistics Vol 44 Catches & Landings Table B< 



81 



Fig 1. I'S Exports of Marine Sliellj, I96O-I978 






(29 152) • 



(23 308) , i^ » 



•• Total exports 
-A Exports to Japan 




f I 1 1 J 1 1 1 r 

bO Gl b2 63 (>4 55 b() ()7 6 



I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 

8 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 



A 



p. r, Philii)pine exports ol' 'other shells' 1970-78 







Total expoi'ts 



Tonnes 



D ° Exports to USA 



4 000 . 



3 500 



3 000 - 



2 500- 



2 000 - 



:> 



1 500 



1 000 . 



500 




-I 1 1 r 

70 71 72 73 



— I 1 s 1 1 

Ik 75 70 77 78 



^ 



Pig 3. Japanese Imports of 'other shells' l')70-78 



Tonne s 
7 000 



6 000 



5 000 



k 000 



3 000 



2 UOO 



1 000 



a— __H Total imports 
D n Imports from USA 




_, , 1 — — — ^ 1 I 1 1 1 ' 1 — 

71 72 73 Ti 75 7() 77 78 79 80 



A 



Fia 4 



US IMPORTS OF mRINE SHELLS 



19(>0-1978 



Total imports •' 

Imports from Mexico d- 

Impoi-ts from Philippines a~ 

Impoi'ts from Haiti O- 



— • 

— D 

A 

O 



(data from published foreign trade 
statistics) 




I'^g 5 



US Imports of Ai-ticles of Shell 19()1-1978 



S ^ 1 000 



000 . 



000 . 



000 



000 



000 . 



• — — — • Total imijorts 

A— — A Imports from Philippines 



/ \ 




•— >.,_^» •' 






I'fe"^ 6'3 (,/i (?^ ?6 (^7 {'8 (^) 70 71 H 75 ^4 ^5 76 7^ 7^"