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THE INTERNATIONAL 

YEAR BOOK 



A COMPENDIUM OF THE WORLD'S PROGRESS 

DURING THE YEAR 

1902 



EDITOR 


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FRANK MOORE COLBY, M.A. 




CONSULTINQ EDITOR 


>•- 


HARRY THURSTON PECK, Ph.D., L.H.D. 




Professor In Columbte University 


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ASSOaXTE EDITOR 


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EDWARD LATHROP ENQLE, B.A. 


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NEW YORK 




DODD, MEAD & COMPANY 




PUBLISHERS 








Copyright, 1903 

BY 

DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY 



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PREFACE. 



Ik the preparation of the International Year Book constant effort has been 
made not only to state fact accurately and reflect comment fairly, but, what is more 
difiBcult, to set forth both fact and comment in their true perspective. The present 
volume, covering the year 1902, shows, without sacrifice, the editors believe, a 
greater degree of compression than its predecessors; in concise and logical treat- 
ment an advance has been made that renders the book especially useful. Though 
the plan originally adopted for this series of annuals has been virtually adhered to, 
each succeeding volume in various particulars has shown some improvement in 
presentation and scope. Two such departures that may be pointed out in the volume 
for 1902 are the grouping of Congressional Representatives under that sub-head in 
the article United States, rather than placing them with their respective States, 
and the itemizing of the State revenues and expenditures, by. which the sources and 
purposes as well as the volume of State moneys are readily seen. The editors are 
desirous of increasing the usefulness of the work and will welcome suggestions to 
that end. 

A preface cannot be an adequate guide to the numberless topics of interest 

treated in a volume of this nature. There may be mentioned, however, a few of 

the more important events of 1902 ; and these, in some degree, will serve to show 

how conspicuous a position that year holds in contemporary history. In the United 

States the subject of keenest general interest was the Anthracite Coal Strike, 

provoking Presidential intervention, which in the future may be turned to as an 

important precedent, and drawing more general attention both to Trade Unions 

and to Trusts. Further thought concerning the problems of organized labor 

and of organized capital was occasioned by other Strikes of the year and by the 

progress of Socialism and the accomplishment of the Shipping Merger. The year 

was notably a prosperous one. The articles Banks and Financial Review show 

the most important financial conditions and movements, while industry is treated, 

aside from the articles on the States, under Manufactures and such special titles 

as Iron and Steel, Cotton, Sugar, etc Agricultural production, as well as the 

progress in cultural methods, is treated under Agriculture, Dairying, Horticul- 

TUVE, and in the articles on the various crops. The year 1902 saw the establishment 

of civil government in the Philippines, and, at home, in the sphere of MuNiapAL 

Government, the disclosure of most vicious corruption. 

In international affairs there was a marked development of already existing 
tendencies. International Arbitration was more firmly established. The Anglo- 
Boer War came to an end and British power in the Transvaal and other parts of 
South Africa increased. There were concluded an Anglo-Chinese treaty of com- 
merce affecting China proper, and an Anglo- Japanese treaty of alliance designed 
to maintain generally the prestige of Great Britain and Japan in China and Corea, 
while in menace to such prestige was the attitude of Russia in MANC^^IA. Rus- 
sian designs against Persia and British interests there continued to manifest them- 
selves, as well as those of France against Siam. While Russia and France prac- 
tically reaffirmed their alliance, as an answer to the Anglo- Japanese treaty, France 
and Italy and France and Spain noticeably furthered their cordial relations. The 
ill-feeling between the English and German peoples showed little abatement 
in 1902, although at the end of the year the British and German governments were 
allied in coercing Venezuela. The troublesome question of the Triple Alliance 
was settled by a renewal of that pact. Ominous troubles in the Balkan Peninsula, 



and especially in Turkey, continued. Conspicuous in 1902 was the effective posi- 
tion assumed by the United States. 

In the internal affairs of foreign countries there were many events worthy of 
note — some for passing but compelling interest, others for far-reaching significance. 
Edward VII. was crowned and Alfonso XIII. enthroned; in Great Britain the 
most vigorously debated question of the year was the quasi-denominational Educa- 
tion Bill, whidh was enacted, and in Spain the proposed anti-clerical reforms, which 
failed of achievement. In France, however, under the direction of a new ministry, 
anti-clerical legislation was rigorously enforced. In Germany the Tariff Bill, 
and in Austria-Hungary the renewal of the Ausgleich were the prominent features. 
The threatening cry of united labor was heard in France^ Spain, Italy, Belgium, 
Austria-Hungary, Sweden, and even Russia. Russia, indeed, saw bloody as- 
saults upon the established regime, but in Finland the government's policy of 
''Russification" went steadily on. Almost simultaneous with Alfonso's enthrone- 
ment was the establishment of his lost colony, Cuba, as an independent republic 

The progress of educational institutions in 1902 and of the science of education 
itself is shown in the articles on many of the leading colleges and in those under 
the headings Universities and Colleges and Education in the United States, 
while a statistical treatment of schools is given under Schools, Normal Schools, 
and Professional Schools. A comprehensive treatment of religious progress has 
been subdivided under the titles of the various denominations, while missionary 
work in particular is treated under Missions. 

In science must be noted the stellar researches of Kapteyn and the light-pressure 
theory of Arrhenius, in Astronomy; in Physics, the study of radio-active sub- 
stances, which involves many problems for the further investigation of scientists; 
the advances made in Chemistry, MEDiaNE, and Biology; the continued effort to 
solve practically the problem of Aerial Navigation ; and the remarkable progress 
of Wireless Telegraphy. Among the notable engineering topics is the great Dam 
at Assuan and the Galveston Sea Wall. The articles on Arch.£OL0GY and 
Anthropology have features of unusual interest. The year 1902 was unique in the 
number and severity of its volcanic and seismic disturbances. A treatment of 
these may be found under Volcanoes and Earthquakes and in the articles on the 
countries where they occurred, especially Martinique, St. Vincent, and Guat- 
emala. 

Especial care has been taken in preparing the department of biography. The 
names of many living men who were prominent in 1902 are included. Among 
the scores of notable dead may be mentioned Cectl Rhodes, Koloman Tisza, Lord 
DuPFERiN, Thomas Brackett Reed, Rudolf Virchow, Frederick Temple, Eugene 
Augustus Hoffman, T. De Witt Talmage, William Thomas Sampson, Bret 
Harte, and Emile Zola. 

To this Year Book is appended an index of the titles in the five volumes 1898-1900. 

Frank Moore Colby. 

Edward Lathrop Engle. 
New York, April 28, 1903. 



mAps. 



China, Manchusia, and Corea, 

Panama Canal^ 

Pexsia and Afghanistan, 

Burma, Siam, and French Indo-China, 

SoTTTH Africa^ ... 

TUIEEY AND TH£ BaLKAN StATES, . 

West Indies, .... 



PAGE 
156 

616 

668 
682 

734 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The New White House Buildings, 
Luxemburg Budge, ..... 
New Law School Building, Uniyersity of Chicago, 
ToMAS Estrada Palma, .... 
The Damming of the Nile, .... 

SiGNORA DUSE and MrS. FiSKE, 

Richard Mansfield, as Brutus, 

Four British Statesmen, .... 

The Coronation of King Edward, 

The Coloneal Premiers, .... 

Elephant Procession at the Delhi Durbar, 

Scenes on the Panama Canal, 

The Campanile, ..... 

Memorial Church, Leland Stanford, Junior, University, 

Authors 'who Died in 1902, .... 

Liberal Arts Building, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 

Mont Pel^e in Eruption, .... 

St. Pierre after the Eruption, 

President Roosevelt at the West Point Centennial, 

Thomas Brackett Reed, .... 

Cecil Rhodes, ..... 

The Rochambeau Statue, .... 

WiLLLAM Thomas Sampson, 

King Alfonso, ..... 

The Anthracite Coal Strike, 

The Fuller ("Flat Iron") Building, 

Foreign Diplomats, ..... 

Oliver Wendell Holmes and Horace Gray, 

The Venezuelan Trouble, 

Rudolf Virchow, ..... 

Emile Zola, ...... 



page 

52 
116 

150 
200 
210 
222 
224 
306 
308 
312 
352 

374 
380 

402 

406 

418 

434 
436 
448 
576 
S8o 

584 
602 

634 
642 

656 

698 

710 

722 

728 

748 



The 



International Year Book 



EDITOR 

FRANK MOORE COLBY, M.A. 

CONSULTING BDITOR 

HARRY THURSTON PECK, Ph.D. 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

EDWARD LATHROP ENGLE, B.A. 



OFFICE EDITORS 

f United States Government 
( and Poutics 

WALTER TALLMADGE ARNDT. A.M. - - Foreign Affairs 



♦MANSFIELD ALLAN, B.S. 



RENWICK WYLIE ABBOTT, B.A. 



Biography 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



HAROLD JACOBY, Ph.D. - 

Professor of Astronomy, Colombia University. 

ALFRED CHARLES TRUE, Ph.D. 

United States Department of Agriculture. 

EDWIN WEST ALLEN, Ph.D. 

United States Department of Agriculture. 

CHARLES S. HILL, CE. 

Associate Bditor Engineering News^ New 
York. 

M. N. BAKER, Ph.B. 

Associate Editor Engineering News^ New 
York. 



ASTRONOMT 



Agricxtltxtrs, Dairying, 
AND Crops 



Civil, Sanitary, and 
Elhctricai, Enginbbr- 

ING 



HERBERT T. WADE, B.A. 

ALBERT WARREN FERRIS, A.M., M.D. - 

Assistant in Medicine, New York University and Bellevue 
Hospital Medical College; former Assistant in Neurol- 
ogv, Colux 
cat Critic. 

DAVID GILBERT YATES, M.D. 
MARCUS BENJAMIN, Ph.D. - 

United States National Museum. 
^Deceased Pcbniary 25, 1903. 



Manufactures 



ogy, J2olumbia University; Associate Bditor T7ie Medi- 
al ^ 



Mbdicinb 



Chemistry 



RODNBY M. HEGGIB. A.M. - - - - Rsugiotts Bodibs 
FREDERIC TABER COOPER, Ph.D. J ^nuK^rmB ^'^^"^ 

^^y??^^^^/^^^.^^'^-^-. .' f VOLCANOBS. EarTHQUAKSS, 
Editonal Stan Engineering and Mining 1 MTKru'vATc 
Journal. New York. I MINSRAM 

JAMES MORTON PATON, Ph.D. - - - - ARCHiEoi^OGY 

Associate Professor of Greek, Wesleyan UniTersitj. 
W T McGES I AmBRICAN ArCH.£OIX)GT 

J ^^^^ I ^j^ Anthropology 

Ethnologisb-in-Charge, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

JAMES MOONEY Indians 

United States Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

ROYAL MEEKER, A.M. - - f American Affairs and Politi- 

Honorary Fellow in Finance, Columbia i CAI, ECONOMY AND SOCIOLOGY 
UiiiTersity. '^ 

HUBERT I,YMAN CLARK, Ph.D. - - Biowgy, Zoology 

Professor of Biology, Olivet College. 

ALBERT WHITE VORSE. B.A. - - { ^^ VpSKATro^" 

GEORGE SANDS BRYAN, B.A. - - - - ^ 

JOHN ALEXANDER PIERCE. B.A. ... I Biography 

WILLIAM PECK BANNING, Ph.B. ... J 

SIMEON STRUNSKY, B.A. - . . - - Cech. Rhodbs 

H. T. PARKER - . • Drama 

PAUL MONROE, Ph.D. . . . - -j 

Professor in Teachers College, Colombia University. I EDUCATION AND 

ROBERT ARROWSMITH, Ph.D. ... J Colleges 
JUDAH A. JOFFE, B.A. Music 

A. D. F. HAMLIN, A.M. Fine Arts 

Adjunct Professor of Architectnre, Columbia University. 

HEINRICH RIES, Ph.D. Geology 

Professor of Economic Geology, Cornell University. 

WIWRID lay, Ph.D. Psychology 

THOMAS GAFFNEY TAAFFE, Ph.D. - - - Societies 

JAMES WILFORD GARNER, Ph.D. - - Foreign Politics 

Lecturer in History, Colombia University. 
W. B. KAVANAGH - - Military and Naval Mancbuvres 
JOHN WIIvLIAM RUSSELL, M.A. - Canada and Biography 
RENWICK WYLIE ABBOTT, B.A. . . . . Sports 

WALTER HARRISON EVANS, Ph.D. . . - Forestry 

United States Department of Agricoltnre. 



ELWOOD MEAD, M.S., C.E. Irrigation 

United States Department of Agricnltnre. 

CI.ARENCE BEAMAN SMITH, M.S. - - Horticui,turb 

United States Department of Agricultore. 

GEORGE B. PEGRAM Physics 

Tutor in Physics, Colmnbia University. 

THOMAS CAMPBEI<I^COPELAND - - - Stat« PouTics 
STUART HENRY, A.M. Emii,b Zola 



The 



International Year Book 



1902 



ABEL, Sir Fbedebick Augustus, English chemist, died in London, September 6, 
1902. He was bom in London, July 17, 1827, and after study at the Royal Poly- 
technic became a student at the Royal College of Chemistry which was opened 
in 1845 under the direction of A. W. Hofmann, in the endeavor to establish in 
Lond^ a counterpart of Liebig's famous school at Giessen. In 185 1 Abel suc- 
ceeded Faraday as professor of chemistry at the Rc^al Military Academy, and 
in 1854 he was appointed to the newly created office of Ordinance Chemist, later 
styled Chemist to the War Department. During his long tenure of this office 
(until 1888), which was identical with the development of the British artillery and 
rifle systems, he effected marked improvements in the manufacture and application 
of gun cotton; and as president of a special committee on explosives (18^-91), he 
conducted investigations which resulted in the patenting, with Professor Dewar, 
of the substance known as "cordite." At various times he was president of the 
British Association, the Chemical Society, the Society of Chemical Industry, the 
Institute of Chemistry, and the Institute of Electrical Engineers; and at the 
foundation of the Imperial Institute in 1887 he was made organizing secretary 
and general director. He was awarded a medal in 1887 by the Royal Society, of 
whidb he became a fellow in 1860, and in 1897 he received the Bessemer medal 
from the Iron and Steel Institute. In 1883 he was knighted and ten years later 
was created a baronet. Among his publications are Gun Cotton (1866) ; The Modern 
History of Gunpowder (1866) ; On Explosive Agents (1872); Researches in Ex- 
plosives (187s) ; Electricity Applied to Explosive Purposes (1084). 

ABRASIVES. See Mineral Production. 

ABYSSINIA, an independent country of eastern Africa, separated from the sea 
by British, Frendi, and Italian territory. The capital is Adis Ababa. 

Area and Population. — The estimated area of Abyssinia proper, including the 
four provinces of Tigre, Shoa, Amhara, and Godjam, is about 100,000 square miles, 
and dependent territories are estimated at about 50,000 square miles. On May 15, 
1902, agreements were signed determining the boundaries of Abyssinia with the 
Egyptian Soudan and Eritrea. The estimated number of inhabitants, who in 
large part profess a perverted form of Christianity, is about 3,500,000. 

Government, etc, — ^The present emperor, Menelek II., who as kin^ of Shoa 
became ruler of all Abyssinia in 1889, maintains a sort of feudal political system 
with the rases, or princes, under whom are governors of districts and chiefs of 
villages. Besides territorial troops and irregulars there is an army of 150,000 
men made up of provincial contingents. Revenue is derived chiefly from tithes and 
taxes on commodities. Menelek has a monopoly of the ivory trade and keeps 
the greater part of the gold output. There is also a revenue h'om import and 
export duties. 

Industries and Commerce. — ^The principal industry of the inhabitants is the 
raising of cattle and sheq). The greater part of the imports consists of cotton 
goods manufeictured in the United States; other imports are woollen goods, 
cotlery, glassware, provisions, matches, and arms. The exports include coffee, 
dvet, wax« gold, and ivory. For the fiscal year 1900 the trade of Harar and Adis 
Ababa was estimated at 6,799,650 dollars for imports and 4,947,000 dollars for ex- 
ports. (The Abyssinian silver dollar in 1902 was worth about forty-seven cents in 
United States money.) 



AkyMlnla* o 

AcademTt British. ^ 

In the summer of 1902 it was reported that Menelek had sold to an English 
syndicate for £2,000,000 the Baro gold mines, which it was believed he had promised 
to grant to French companies, and that he then determined to grant no more 
concessions to Europeans. The gold-mining grants extend for about 200 miles on 
both banks of the Baro River. 

Communications, — The railway which is under construction from Jiboutil, on 
the coast of French Somaliland, to Harar, 186 miles distant, was completed to the 
125th mile at the end of 1901. It is thought that this line may be extended to 
Adis Ababa and ultimately to the projected Soudan section of the Cape-to-Cairo 
railway. (See Somauland.) There are telegrraph and telephone connections be- 
tween Adis Ababa and Harar. The telephone Ime, which is much used, was at 
first frequently cut, but such mischief was stopped by a proclamation of Menelek 
that any person offending thus would be punished by having his hand struck off, 
and the district in which injury was done condemned to pay a heavy fine. Early 
in 1902 it was reported that Menelek had ordered the rapid completion of telegraph 
and telephone lines between Adis Ababa and Massowah, on the coast of Eritrea. 

It is highly probable that were it not for the vigor and shrewdness of Menelck's 
statesmanship European influence, which is maintained at Adis Ababa by repre- 
sentatives of Great Britain, France, Italy, and Russia, would be a far more positive 
element in Abyssinian politics than it is at present. The country is of especial 
interest to Great Britain as one of the sources of the Nile; to France it is the goal, 
by way of French Somaliland, of commercial enterprise, which if ever the oppor- 
tunity offers will develop into political activity for the territorial unicm of her 
eastern and central African possessions, while Russia, in perhaps not too positive 
and open a manner, stands ready to second France in such a confounding of the 
British pro^^ramme in Africa; and Italy, though unforgetful of Menelek's check 
to her colonial aspirations in 1896, seems to crave Abyssinian influence and privileges. 
In 1902 documents published through the indiscretion, it was believed, of Signor 
Martini, governor of Eritrea, revealed unexpected relations between Italy and 
Abyssinia. In the preceding year it appears the Eritrean government secured rights 
to open to Italian enterprise the Abyssinian country south of the Mareb River; 
and it was also stated that certain lands bordering the eastern Soudan, rights in 
which Menelek had formerly granted to the Anglo- Egyptian government, had 
been given over to the Italian authorities. But notwithstanding these disclosures 
or the special embassy, including the governor of Adis Ababa and the chief of 
the exchequer, sent by Menelek to St. Petersburg in the summer of 1902, the 
emperor's relations with Great Britain seemed to continue very friendly. An 
Anglo-Abyssinian treaty concluded at Adis Ababa on May 15, 1902, was ratified 
October 28. It obtains for the Anglo-Egyptian government the lease of territory 
near Itang on the Baro River, as a commercial station, and the permission to con- 
struct through Abyssinian territory a railway connecting the Soudan with Uganda. 
Of most importance, however, as insuring a continued water supply to Egypt, was 
the engagement of the signatory parties "not to construct, or allow to be constructed, 
any work across the Blue Nile, Lake Tsana, or the Sobat which would arrest the 
flow of their waters into the Nile." In 1902 it was reported that Menelek was 
preparing to make certain civil service reorganizations, to open schools for the 
teaching of European languages, and to build a new city a few miles from Adis 
Ababa. 

ACAD£MIE FRANCAISE, founded by Cardinal Richelieu in 1635 and reor- 
ganized in 1810, is the first in order and most eminent of the five academies 
which constitute the Institute of France. The membership of the Academic 
Frangaise is limited to forty (known as the "Forty Immortals"), who are elected 
for life and represent literature, science, the fine arts, etc. There was no election in 
1902. The members receive an annual stipend of 1500 francs and in addition, the 
six members of the dictionary committee receive each 1000 francs annually. The 
Academic distributes 12,000 francs annually in prizes alternately for poetry and 
eloquence, besides a number of smaller prizes. Permanent secretary, Marie Louis 
Antoine Gaston Boissier. 

ACADEMY, BRITISH, founded in 19Q2 by King Edward VII. in London, has 
for its object the promotion of historical, philosophical, and philological studies. 
Lord Reay, chairman of the London school board and president of the Royal 
Asiatic Society and of University College, was made the first president. The 
fellows of the academy are as follows: Lord Reay; the Earl of Rosebery; Vis- 
count Dillon, president of the Society of Antiquaries ; Arthur Balfour, M. P. ; John 
Morley, M. P.; James Bryce, M. P.; W. E. H. Lecky, M. P.; Sir William Anson, 
warden of All Souls* College, Oxford; Sir Frederick Pollock, Corpus professor of 
jurisprudence, Oxford; Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, director and principal 
librarian, British Museum; Sir Henry Maxwell-Lyte, deputy keeper of the public 



^ Academyy British. 

3 Acton. 

records; Sir Courtenay Ilbert, parliamentary counsel to the treasury; Sir Richard 
Jebb, M. P., Re^us professor of Greek, Cambridge; Dr. Monro, provost of Oriel 
G>Uege and vice-chancellor of Oxford University ; Dr. A. W. Ward, vice-chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge; Dr. Edward Caird, master of Balliol College, 
Oxford ; Dr. H. F. Pelham, president of Trinity College, Oxford ; Dr. John Rhys, 
principal of Jesus College and professor of Celtic, Oxford; Rev. Geofge Salmon, 
D. D., provost of Trinitjr College, Dublin; Dr. J. B. Bury, Regius professor of 
Greek, University of Dublin; S. H. Butcher, professor of Greek, Edinburgh Univer- 
sity; Ingram Bjrwrater, Regius professor of Greek, Oxford; E. B. Cowell, professor 
of Sanskrit, Cambridge ; Rev. William Cunningham, D. D. ; Rhys Davids, professor 
of Pali, University College, London; Albert Dicey, K. C, Vinerian. professor of 
English law, Oxford ; Rev. Canon S. R. Driver, D. D., Regius professor of Hebrew, 
Oxford; Robinson Ellis, Corpus professor of Latin, Oxford; Arthur John Evans, 
keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; Rev. A. M. Fairbairn, D. D., principal 
of Mansfield College, Oxford; Rev. Robert Flint, D. D., professor of divinity, 
Edinburgh; J. G. Frazer, fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; Israel Gollancz, 
university lecturer in English, Cambridge; Thomas Hodgkin; S. H. Hodgson 
(metaphysician) ; T. E. Holland, professor of international law and diplomacy, 
Oxford ; F. W. Maitland, Downing professor of English law,- Cambridge ; Alfred 
Marshall, professor of political economy, Cambridge; Rev. J. E. B. Mayor, professor 
of Latin, Cambridge ; Dr. J. A. H. Murray, editor of the Oxford English Dictionary; 
W. M. Ramsay, professor of humanities, Universit3r of Aberdeen ; Rev. Canon 
William Sanday, D. D.; Lady Margaret professor of divinity, Oxford; Rev. W. W. 
Skeat, £lrington and Bos worth professor of Anglo-Saxon (Celtic scholar), Cam- 
bridge; Sir Leslie Stephen; Whitley Stokes; Rev. H. B. Swete, D. D., Regius 
professor of divinity, Cambridge; Henry Fanshawe; Rev. H. F. Tozer; Robert 
Yelverton Tyrrell, University of Dublin ; and James Ward, Cambridge. 

ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, AMERICAN. 

See PoLmcAL and Social Science^ American Academy of. 

ACRE. For the Acre dispute see Bolivia (paragraph History). 

ACTINOTHERAPYi. See Phototherapy. 

ACTON, Sir John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton^ eighth Baronet and first 
Baron Acton of Aldenham (County Salop), eminent English scholar, died at 
Tegemsee, Bavaria, on June 19, 1902. He was born at Naples, Italy, in i8j^ 
studied at the Academy of St. Nicholas du Chardonnet, France, and at the school 
of Oscott, near Birmingham, during the presidency of Dr. (later Cardinal) AVise- 
man. Having been refused admission to Cambridge on account of his religion 
(Roman Catholic), he became a private pupil of Dr. Dollinger at Munich, and 
there characteristically introduced his more serious studies by reading in a few 
wedcs the forty-five volumes of Michaud's Biographic Universelle. In i8j7 he 
travelled with Dollinger in Italy, and shortly afterward visited the United States. 
He sat in Parliament for Carlow in 1859-65, was returned for Bridgnorth in 1865, 
but in the year following was unseated. In 1869 he was raised to the peerage and 
entered the House of Lords, but his legislative career was inconspicuous. He took 
no part in Parliamentary affairs, he once said, because he agreed with no one and 
no one agreed with him. It has been asserted, however, that his advice had great 
influence over Mr. Gladstone. From 1862 to 1864 he edited the noteworthy Home 
and Foreign Review, which was discontinued because of the offence given to the 
anthorities at Rome by its opposition to Ultramontanism and support of Liberal 
Catholicism. Subsequently he published the North British Review — ^which, rather 
oddly, had once appeared under the auspices of the Scottish Free Church — in the 
interests of ecclesiastical and political liberalism. He was at Rome in 1870, and 
stoutly contested the promulgation of the dogma of papal infallibilitpr. In 1874 
he seconded Mr. Gladstone m the well-known controversy on "Vaticanism" by 
the publication in the London Times (November 9, 24, 30; December 12), of four 
letters presenting the most effective arguments against Ultramontanism ever ad- 
vanced within so brief a compass. He received the appointment of lord-in-waiting 
in 1892, and in 1895 that of Regius professor of modem history at Cambridge in 
succession to Sir John Sceley.^ Lord Acton was often termed the first scholar of 
Europe. His erudition was little short of marvelous. He collected a working 
library of 80,000 volumes, read an octavo a day when in harness, possessed an 
impeccable memory, and developed an extensive system of notes. In brilliant 
and learned talk he is declared the equal of Macaulay. Yet he was a notable 
example of what has been called "the reticence of learning." He wrote compara- 
tively little, and always obscurely. His uncollected writings include a brief 
list of important articles, such as those on German schools of history and the 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew, and his Cambridge inaugural, published in 1895 under 
the title of The Study of History, He also furnished the introduction to L. Arthur 



Aetmi* 



Bird's edition of the // Principe of Machiavelli, published by the Clarendon Press. 
His incumbency of the Regius chair gave a marked stimulus to historical studies 
in the university. 

ADAMSy Chasles Kendall, an American historian and educator, died at Red- 
lands, Cal., on July 26, 1902. He was bom in Vermont, at Derby, Januaipr 24, 
1835, was educated at the University of Michigan and in Europe, was assistant 
professor of history at Michigan in 1863-67, occupied the chair of history in 
that institution from 1867 to 1885, and held the position of dean of the sdiool 
of history and political science after its organization. In 1885 he succeeded Andrew 
D. White (q.v.) as president of Cornell University, and in 1892 became presi- 
dent of the University of Wisconsin, retaining the latter position until shortly 
before his death. In 1890 he was president of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation, in whose organization he had taken prominent part Through the founda- 
tion of the historical seminary at Michigan in 1869, he was the first to introduce 
into the United States the Grerman seminar method of instruction. He con- 
tributed numerous papers on topics of history and education to various magazines, 
was editor-in-chief of Johnson's Universal Cyclopedia (1892), and published 
Democracy and Monarchy in France (1872; in a German version, 1873); a 
Manual of Historical Literature (1882); British Orations (1884); and Christopher 
Columbus, his Life and Work (1892). 

ADAMSON, Robert, a Scottish philosopher, died at Glasgow in February, 1902. 
He was bom m 1852, the son of Kobert Adamson, a writer of Edinburgh, and 
received his education in his native town. When he was twenty-four years of age 
he succeeded Prof. Stanley Jevons in the chair of logic and mental philosophy at 
Owens College, Manchester. In 1893 he was elected to the chair of logic in the 
University of Aberdeen, and two years later accepted the professorship of logic 
and rhetoric in Glasgow University. He was the author of the article on "Logic" 
in the Encyclopedia Britannica; a volume on Fichte (1881), which appeared 
originally in the Blackwood Philosophical Series; The Philosophy of Science in the 
Middle Ages (1876) ; On the Philosophy of Kant (1879). He had in preparation 
at the time of his death a History of Psychology, and Kant and the Modem 
Naturalists. He held the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Laws. 

ADDICKS, John Edward, a Delaware politician, again attempted, in 1902, to 
obtain control of the Republican element in the State legislature which would 
assure his election to the United States Senate. He was bom in Philadelphia, 
Penn., November 21, 1841, and after receiving a high school education began his 
remarkable business career as clerk in a wholesale dry goods house. After four 
years he entered the employ of a flour and feed firm in which he was made a 
partner by the time he was twenty-one. Early in the 8o's he branched out for 
nimself, and his sharp business sense, assurance and persistence brought him 
success and a reputation as a promoter of business corporations and combines. 
His first and greatest success was his organization and control of the Bay State 
Gas Company in Boston. As the scope of his activities extended and his wealth 
became greater the desire for political power seems to have taken possession of 
him, and he removed to Delaware, whose legislature he had found tractable in 
connection with securing control of the Wilmington ^s supply. He was laughed 
at when he first broached his ambition for senatorial honors in 1888, and the 
Republican majority gave the election to Anthony Higgins. The State went Demo- 
cratic again in 1892, and it was not until 1894 that he had another opportunity. This 
time his ambition was thwarted by the Republicans, who supported Col. H. A. Du- 
Pont, and there was no choice for the vacancy. The fight disrupted the party, the 
Addicks faction being known henceforth as "Union Republicans." In 1896 a 
Democratic legislature sent Richard R. Kenney to the Senate for the last four 
years of the term. In 1898 the expiration of Senator Gray's term left a vacancy 
which the split in the Republican party made it impossible to fill. In 1900 there 
was a repetition of the struggle of former years, but the regular Republicans again 
prevented Addicks's election. From that time to the close of 1902 Delaware was 
unrepresented in the Senate. For the renewal of the struggle in 1902 see Delaware 
(paragraph Politics). 

ADEN, a British dependency in southwestern Arabia, about 100 miles east of 
Bab-el-Mandeb. The area, including the small island of Perim, is stated at 80 
square miles; the population (1901), 41,222. Aden, which is administered by a 
political resident under the Bombay government, is invaluable to Great Britain as a 
coaling station and a point d'appui for the Indian trade. The commerce is almost 
entirely in transit. In the fiscal year 1900 imports and exports amounted to 44,264,556 
rupees (324 cents each) and 35f244.5i5 rupees respectively; in 1901, 38,363,909 and 
33»554»8ii respectively. 

Some friction occurred in the fall of 1902 between Great Britain and Turkey on 



SAdra* -— . 

AdTaneement of Soteaeeb 

acooant of the encroachment of Turkish troops in the disputed Aden hinterland. 
The Porte held that the troops should remain until the frontier questions were 
settled, hut in November acceded to the British demand that they be withdrawn 
pending the decision of the Anglo-Turkish boundary commission. 

ADRENALIN. See Suprarenal Extract. 

ADULTERATION. See Food. 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 
THE» organized 1848, includes in its membership the best known scientists of the 
country. A number of leading scientific societies are affiliated with the association, 
which serves as a centre for their meetings. The association meets in sections, 
which are: (a) Mathematics and Astronomy; (b) Physics; (c) Chemistry; (d) 
Mechanical Science and Engineering; (e) Geology and Geop^raphy; (f) Zoology; 
(g) Botany; (h) Anthropology; (i) Social and Economic Science; (k) Physiology 
and Experimental Medicine. The annual meetings of the association are held each 
time in a different city. The association held its fifty-first annual meeting at Pitts- 
burg, Pa., June 28-July 3, 1902, under the presidency of Professor Charles S. 
Minot, of Harvard University, who delivered file opening address on The Problem 
of Consciousness in Its Biological Aspects. Professor Asaph Hall, also of Harvard, 
was the retiring president. The total number of members in attendance was 431, 
which number included an unusual proportion of the leading American men of 
science. The papers read and the addresses and lectures delivered numbered 
nearly 350. Among these were a lecture on The Prevention of the Pollution of 
Streams by Modern Methods of Sewage Treatment, by Dr. Leonard P. Kinnicutt; 
an illustrated lecture on the Martini<}ue eruption, by Mr. Robert T. Hill, U.S. Geological 
Survey; The Group Velocity and Wave Velocity of Light, by Prof. D. B. Brace; 
Fre-Historic Porto Rico, by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes ; and a paper on Applied Botany, 
Retrospective and Prospective, by Dr. B. T. Galloway. The financial report showed 
a balance in the treasury to the credit of the association amounting to $12,285.83. 
Seventy-three new members were elected at the meeting. The fifty-second annual 
meeting of the association was held at Washington, D. C, December 29, 1902- 
January 3, 1903, under the presidency of Dr. Ira Remsen, of Johns Hopkins 
University, and was the first neld during the newly arranged convocation week as 
agreed to by 54 prominent American educational institutions. The membership of 
the association at the close of the Pittsburg meeting showed a total of 3,473. This 
was augmented by the election of 392 members at the Washington meetmg. The 
association is now the largest and most representative body of scientific men in 
America. Amon^ the scientific societies affiliated with it are: The American 
Mathematical Society, the Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America, the 
American Physical Society, the American Chemical Society, the Society for the 
Promotion of Engineering Education, the Geological Socie^ of America, the 
Botanical Society of America, the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, 
the American Forestry Association, the Association of Economic Entomologists, 
the American Psychological Association, the American Anthropological Associa- 
tion, and the American Society of Naturalists, with its special societies. Among 
the resolutions offered was one urging upon Congress the duty of making full 
provision for the support of the family of the late Major Walter Reed, surgeon 
m the United States Army, in appreciation of his far-reaching and invaluable 
services in solving the problem of the mode of spread of yellow fever and the 
discovery of methods, already successfully tested in Cuba, of eradicating the 
pestilence. The next meeting will be held December 28, 1903- January 2, 1904, in 
St Louis, Mo., under the presidency of Hon. Carroll D. Wright, U. S. commissioner 
of labor. Permanent secretary, Dr. L. O. Howard, Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. 
See ZoouxacAL Soqeties. 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE, 

founded in 1831, held its annual meeting at Belfast, September 10, 1902, and follow- 
ing days. President James Dewar, in his opening address, discussed exhaustively the 
efitorts that have been made to investigate the effects of extreme low temperatures 
upon gases. In section A (Mathematics and Physics) Professor Schuster, president 
of the department of Astronomy and Cosmical Physics, called attention to the 
waste of power displayed by investigators in meteorology and other sciences by 
devoting dieir energies almost exclusively to the collection of observations. As a 
resulL undigested data are accumulating to too great an extent. In the discussion 
that followed. Dr. Shaw, head of the Meteorological Office, suggested as a remedy 
the establishment of professorships in meteorology in some of the universities. 
The question whether motion through the ether causes double refraction of light 
in transparent bodies was discussed by Lord Rayleigh. In section B (Chemistry) 
considerable interest was taken in the discussion of two monographs on Hydro- 
Aromatic Compounds and Aromatic-Diazo Compounds by Dr. A. W. Crossley and 



AdTaneement of Soienoe. /; 

AdTentist*. ^ 

Dr. G. F. Morgan. These monographs are to be published at length in the annual 
report A paper on the Alkylation of Sugars, by Prof. T. Purdy and Dr. J. C. 
Irvine was also presented. In section C (Geology) President C. A. McMahon, 
F. R. S., dealt with the general principles of rock metamorphism ; a paper by Mr. 
George Barrow on The Prolongation of the Highland Border Rocks into County 
Tyrone, and a lecture by Professor Grenville A. J. Cole on The Structure of 
Ireland, were warmly discussed. A number of other interesting papers in the same 
line were also presented. In section D (Zoology) President Howes traced the ad- 
vances made in the knowledge of the animal kingdom and the inter-relationships of 
its various groups through the application of the morphological method. Papers of 
great practical importance were presented by Professor Mcintosh and Mr. C^arstang 
on the international scheme for the protection and development of the North Sea 
fisheries. The introduction of more scientific methods in geographical work, 
especially in the work of exploration, was the theme discussed by Sir Thomas 
Holdich, president of section E (Geography). His views were in a great measure 
sustained in papers read by Professor Libbey, Dr. Herbertson, Professor Watts, 
Mr. Lloyd Praeger, Mr. R. B. Buckley, and others. The address of President 
Cannan (section F, Economical Science and Statistics), was an application of the 
theory of rent to the question of municipal housing and other muniapal ventures. A 
paper was also presented from an opposite point of view, which condemned unhesi- 
tatingly all productive municipal enterprises. The discussion, however, was not 
sufficiently long or representative to cover the ground adequately. The possibilities 
and future of commercial education also came in for a considerable share of dis- 
cussion. In section G (Engineering and Mechanical Science) the president, Pro- 
fessor John Perry, F. R. S., dealt with the subject of the education of the engineer, 
insisting on the continual use of experiment by the student himself as distinguished 
from oral lecture or demonstration by the professor. The address was subsequently 
made the subject of discussion at a joint meeting of the engineering and educational 
sections, under the presidency of Professor Armstrong, during which the subject 
The Science of the Workshop was debated. In section H (Anthropology) the 
discussions evoked by the quality and variety of the papers presented were un- 
usually interesting. The president's address was devoted to the much-debated 
question of the nature and origin of totemistic observances among uncivilized peo- 
ples. A number of archaeological papers were presented and read. In the meetings 
of section I (Physiology) experimental and morphological contributions received 
attention and criticism. Professor Halliburton's presidential address emphasized 
the importance of chemical physiology. A paper on color-vision by Dr. Edridge- 
Green was read and discussed. A morphological and physiological paper by Dr. 
John Turner was presented and caused considerable discussion. Prof. J. R. Green 
in his presidential address (section K, Botany) emphasized the study of vegetable 
physiology, not merely on account of its intrinsic value in special botanical 
problems, but as a subject of fundamental economic importance in relation to 
agriculture. The papers read in this section were of considerable interest. The 
president of section L (Educational Science) took for the subject of his discourse 
The Scientific Use of the Imagination. In eloquent and forcible language he pre- 
sented the view that the domination of the schools by the classic and the cleric has 
led to a serious disuse of the imagination, and he laid down a doctrine of education 
and an ideal of the function of the school that are far removed from those at 
present accepted by the great body of schoolmasters. A paper on Recent Reforms 
in Irish Education was presented by Dr. Starkie and caused considerable discussion. 
A valuable paper presented by Mr. P. J. Hartog on The Teaching of English drew 
attention to the method of teaching style in composition adopted in the principal 
French schools, and condemned the existing assumption that the only method of 
teaching English composition and style must be through the medium of Greek and 
Latin, of which the average schoolboy has not obtained a real grasp. An event of 
the meeting was an address by Prof. C. S. Minot, president of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, in which he extended an invitation to 
the members of the British association to attend the meeting of the former associa- 
tion at Washington, D. C, in December, 1902, which was accepted by Professor 
Dewar on behalf of his association. See Zoological Societies. 

ADVENTISTS, popularly known also as Miller ites, a name derived from that 
of their founder. Varying doctrinal views are held by the six divisions that form 
the denomination : Evangelical, Advent Christians, Seventh Day Adventists, Church 
of Ck)d, Life and Advent Union, and Church of God in Jesus Christ. In the 
United States the Adventists number 98,487, with 2402 churches and 1554 ministers. 
The Seventh Day Adventists, organized in 1844, constitute the most numerous 
branch of the denomination, having 78,188 communicants, of whom more than 
63,500 are in the United States, 201 1 churches, and 553 ordained ministers. Under 
the auspices of this body there are 8 colleges and 15 academies and industrial 



7AdTeiitlBta« 
Afffhanlstan. 

schools, and ii publishing houses, its headquarters being at Battle Creek, Mich. The 
next session of the general conference will be held in California, March 27 to 
April 13, 1903. Next in numerical strength after the Seventh Day Adventists are 
the Advent Qiristians with a membership approximating 25,000, and churches and 
conferences in nearly all of the States. They have about 900 organized churches 
and 1000 ministers. The Advent Christian Publication Society has headquarters in 
Boston, where the World's Crisis is issued, and there are three other denominational 
publishing houses. Two ministerial training schools, in Boston and in Mendota, 
IlL, are maintained ; and foreign missionary work is conducted through the American 
Advent Mission Society in China, India, and the Cape Verde Islands. 

AERIAL NAVIGATION. Attempts to solve the problem of aerial navigation 
were notably fewer in 1902 than for several years previous. Mr. Santos-Dumont, 
whose successful efforts at sustained flight in dirigible balloons have signalized 
the work of previous years, accomplished little if anything new during igo2. In 
fact, his visit to the United States, with one of his balloons, from which much was 
expected by enthusiasts in this particular mode of navigating the air, proved for 
various causes a sad failure, not a single excursion being made. Another serious 
diedc vras given to the art by the frightful accident to the Severo aerostat in 
Paris, whidi resulted in the death of the inventor and his assistant. Despite its 
tragic conclusion this experiment was in some respects the most noteworthy of any 
undertaken during the year. In all of the later balloons designed by Santos- 
Dumont the motor keel has been suspended some distance below the body of the 
baUoon proper. By this construction greater safety from possible ignition of the 
gas in the balloon by the gasoline motor or from other causes was secured, but 
it was had at the expense of several disadvantages in the dirigibility of the balloon. 
Mr. Severo proposed to overcome these disadvantages by propelling the balloon 
from its axis, by building the driving and stiffening keel within the Balloon. The 
aerostat constructed by him on this principle had the form of an elongated spheroid 
with a length of 108^ feet, a maximum diameter of 39^ feet, and a capacity of 
2200 cubic meters. Two gasoline motors formed the propelling machinery. One 
motor weighing 220 pounds and developing 16 horse-power was carried on a light 
bed formed of steel strips at the front end of the keel. The crank shaft was 
geared by bevel gearing to two vertical rods, one rising to the axis of the balloon 
where it transmitted power to the horizontal shaft carrying a displacement pro- 
peller, and the other driving two vertical fans placed longitudinally underneath 
the balloon for steering. At the rear end of tlie keel there was a 24 horse-power 
motor arranged in exactly the same way for operating the driving propeller, a second 
pair of steenng fans, and a small compensating propeller at the end of the keel. At 
the trial the aerostat rose to a height of 1500 feet, with all machinery working well, 
but soon afterwards the propeller was seen to slacken in speed and the aerostat 
began to drift with the wind. What happened then to cause the accident can never 
be known, but suddenly a sheet of flame was seen to envelop the balloon and the 
ruins of the keel fell to the ground with the bodies of the aeronaut and his 
assistant entangled lifeless in its wreck. On November 2, 1902, an air ship made 
by Lebaudy Brothers, of Paris, received its first test, when at a height of 60 feet it 
was propelled against the wind, making, it is stated, a speed of 25 miles per hour. 
The machine was restrained by a rope trcMn ascending higher. The Lebaudy balloon 
is similar to the Santos-Dumont, but larger, it being 33 feet in diameter and 193 feet 
long. The car is 165^ feet long and holds three persons. A 40 horse-power motor 
drives the propeller. The record of the year for successful flight is, however, due 
to the air ship of Mr. Stanley Spencer, an English aeronaut which ascended from 
the Crystal Palace, in London, on September 19, 1902, and made a trip of nearly 30 
miles seemingly under perfect control as to direction. This aerostat is 75 feet 
long, with a blunt nose and tail, and has its propeller in front and is driven by a 30 
horse-power motor. It carries only one person. 

AFGHANISTAN. A monarchy lying east of Persia and between British India 
and the central Asian states under British domination. The capital is Kabul. 

Area and Population. — The estimated area of Afghanistan, which extends about 

600 miles east and west and about 500 miles nortn and south, is somewhat over 

215,000 square miles. The inhabitants, who comprise several races or tribes, 

number about 4,000,000, most of whom belong to the Suni sect of the Mohammedans. 

Government, etc. — ^At the head of the government, which is loosely organized, 

is the ameer, an hereditary ruler whose will theoretically is absolute. The ameer in 

1902 was Habibullah, who succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father, 

Abdurrahman, October i, 1901. The provinces are administered by governors 

hrgdy through the medium of feudal nobles. Afghanistan, which is practically 

ander British influence, has no foreign relations except with the government of 

British India. The annual revenue, the amount of which cannot be determined, is 



AfkliaiilstaB* Q 

AIMcm. O 

derived mainly from taxation on production, and its collection is attended with 
dishonesty and extortion. From the Indian government the ameer receives an 
annual subsidy of i8 lakhs of rupees {$583,200). The strength of the regular army, 
which is supplied with arms and ammunition from the factories established by 
Abdurrahman at Kabul, is estimated at 44,000 men, but in 1902 it was stated that the 
ameer purposed to increase this number to 80,000. 

Industries and Commerce. — Considerable attention is given to agriculture and the 
raising of live-stock. The important products include cereals, lentils, fruits, and 
asafoetida. These commodities, together with horses and other live-stock, and raw 
wool, make up the bulk of the exports, which also include a few manufactures such 
as silk, carpets, and articles made of camels' and goats' hair. The leading imports 
include cotton goods, dyeing materials, sugar, and tea. No accurate figures are 
available for the total trade. In the fiscal year 1901 the commerce of Kabul and 
Kandahar, the principal trade centres, with British India were valued at 5,133,670 
rupees in imports and 5,408,310 rupees in exports. (The rupee equals one-fifteenth of 
a British sovereign, or 324 cents.) The total trade with Bokhara is estimated at 
nearly 8,000,000 rubles. (The ruble is worth 51.5 cents.) 

History. — ^The chief characteristic of Afghan affairs in 1902 was uncertainty. 
Rumors of plots and counterplots in the court and among the nobles were rife, but 
on the whole it could not be diarged that the new ameer snowed himself incompetent 
or, from the eastern standpoint, of bad intent. In February, 1902, unrest at Kabul 
was fomented by the reported ascendancy in influence over the ameer of the Hadda 
Mullah, who, it will be remembered, played a considerable part in bringing about 
the troubles that necessitated the frontier expeditions of 18^. The ameer Abdurrah- 
man kept the power of the mullahs within clearly definite limits, and it was thought 
that Habibullah's cordiality toward the Hadda Mullah was due to the assistance 
that he. might render in combating the reported designs of Mahommed Ismail upon 
the Afghan throne. Ismail is the son of Abdurrahman's old opponent Ishak Khan. 
In order so far as possible, however, to avoid trouble, Habibullah asked the Hadda 
Mullah to defer his proposed visit to Kabul until after the royal installation on the 
Afghan New Year's day, about March 20, 1902. The Hadda Mullah, having made 
his visit and returned to the Indian frontier, in June was removed, together with 
Mullah Syed Akbar, to Paghman, a town near Kabul, by Habibullah, whose action 
seemingly sprung from a desire to show friendship to the British government. In 
the accounts of the court intrigues during 1902, Bibi Halima, mother of Mohammed 
Umar Khan, a brother of the ameer, was a prominent figure. She opposed, and 
seemingly had considerable power in her opposition, a number of administrative 
policies favored by Habibullah. In March it was reported that the troops, havixig 
received no pay since the accession of the new ameer, were dissatisfied, but in 
June he was engaged in bringing about army reform. Besides improving the 
uniforms and preparing arms and ammunition, he made definite plans for the 
disposition of the Afghan forces. The border troops were to be kept separate from 
the regular army, which should comprise 80,000 men. 

Although in September, 1902, it was reported that the ameer was giving not a 
little dissatisfaction to the Indian government, he nevertheless, as seen in the follow- 
ing month, was evidently desirous of maintaining the status quo as to foreign 
relations. It had been reported that in lune the ameer regarded with some 
favor the request of the Russian governor of Tashkent for a Russian representative 
at Kabul, but in the fall, replying to a Russian communication, he pointed out that 
Afghanistan may maintain foreign relations only with the Indian government. On 
October 22, 1902, Lord Cranborne, the British under-secretary for foreign affairs, 
said in the House of Commons, that in a similar note the Russian government had 
proposed to Great Britain that direct relations be established between Russia and 
Afghanistan with regard to frontier matters. Although Russia denied that these 
relations would have any political character and stated her intention to maintain her 
foreign engagements and regard Afghanistan as outside the sphere of Russian 
influence, it was feared in some quarters that she was designmg to repeat the 
intrigues successfully carried out in northeastern Persia. 

AFRICA. The area and population of Africa, most of which is unsurveyed and 
much practically unknown, are necessarily matters of conjecture. Among the latest 
estimates about 11,500,000 square miles appears for area and about 157,000,000 for 
population. 

Among the more noteworthy events and developments in Africa during 1902 are 
the following: The end of the Anglo-Boer war, May 30 (see Transvaal) ; political 
unrest in Cape Colony ; the continued economic progress of Egypt under British ad- 
ministration, the completion of the great Nile dam at Assuan (see Dams), and 
the opening of Gordon College at Khartum; the tribal outbreaks in Morocco and 
finally the attempted overthrow of the sultan; the partly political and partly 
religious "Senussi" movement, involving Mohammedan natives from Tripoli to 



9AfMea« 
Affrlcnltare* 

Fraich Central Africa (sec French Soudan) ; the recurrence of insurrectionary 
moremeiits on the part of the ''Mad Mullah" in Somaliland; the administrative 
Roiganization of French West Africa; trouble with the natives in Nigeria and 
progress in the British organization of that country; advance of the Cape-to-Cairo 
Railway {q.v.) and of the Jiboutil Railway (see Somaliland) ; and continued ad- 
mimstrative outrages in the Congo Free State. With varying detail these and 
many other subjects pertinent to 1902 are treated in the separate articles on the 
independent countries, the colonies, and the protectorates of Africa. 

In the extension of European sovereignty over Africa little apparently was done 
in 1902 except in the work of establishing actual control in regions already admitted 
to be within the "sphere" of oncpower or another. Abyssinia, Liberia, and Morocco 
maintain their independence. Tne first named is strong and jealous of her rights; 
Liberia is weak and unpromising; Morocco, at the end of the year rent with 
rebellion, is coveted by the French. The most successful dependencies in Africa, as 
also in other parts of the world, are British; and on the whole the success of the 
dependencies is real from both the British and the native points of view. In 1902 
the extension of British administrative activity was particularly noteworthy in 
the former Boer republics, the Egyptian Soudan, and Nigeria. Effective French 
control is steadily working eastward from Senegal and northward from the Guinea 
colonies and the Congo; indeed, what France is attem()ting to do in the western and 
central Soudan is what Great Britain is doing, or in some respects has accom- 
plished, in the Egyptian Soudan. In both regions the European has encountered the 
courageous and ranatical powers of Islam, whose activities are always a combination 
of politics and religion. It must be pointed out that while French political influence 
is undoubtedly advancing in the central and western Soudan so also is Moham- 
medanism as a religion; Islam is encroaching upon pa^n Africa, westward to the 
coasts of Senegal and Gambia and southward into the French Congo. 

Far less successful than the British and French are the German dependencies. In 
all German Africa there were in 1901 less than 5600 white residents, and no German 
dependency in Africa, or indeed in any part of the world, is self-supporting. At 
hoime the emperor's policy of koloniale politik encounters not only popular dis- 
favor but a strong and active opposition in the Reichstag. In 1902 a German anti- 
colonial organ said: ''The government has no other alternative except to sell its 
African possessions to Great Britain. It is useless to waste any more money on 
these colonies. Great Britain has tremendous resources and will bring them to 
play upon its African territory. Germany has no other alternative except to 
evacuate," But the supporters of the colonial policy "turn their eyes confidently to 
the Kaiser." Portuguese and Italian progress in Africa is slow, though Italy is 
striving to increase her influence in Tripoli (Turkish) ; and Spanish progress is nil, 
though Spain still claims peculiar rights contingent upon any change of the 
status quo in Morocco. 

The most conspicuous African explorations in 1902 were in the Somali and Galla 
regions south of Abyssinia proper and^ in the regions lying between the basins of 
the Congo, Lake Tchad, and the Benue. The former were visited by the Austrian 
traveler. Count Wickenburg, and the latter by a number of French explorers. 
Lieutenant Kieffer and later Lieutenant Loefier visited the Shari system, and 
Loefler confirmed the existence, rumored since the time of Barth, of the connection, 
at least in the rainy season, of the Logone with the Benue. The region of the 
Upper Sang^, a tributary of the Congo, was explored by M. Kerremans, another 
French official, and a western branch of the Sanga, the Ja, was explored by Baron 
von Stein, the governor of Southeast Cameroon. A number of boundary lines were 
run in 1902. An important addition to the knowledge of Africa was made in 1902 
by the publication of Sir Harry H. Johnston's comprehensive two-volume work on 
The Uganda Protectorate. 

AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. See Colored Methodists. 
AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL ZION CHURCH. See Colored 

MCTBODISTS. 

AGRICULTURE. A|^culture shared the general prosperity of the country 

during 1902. The production of most of the staple crops was enormous, new records 

being made in the case of several crops. This was true, although the season in many 

parts of the country was abnormal, the excessive rains during summer, in place of 

the drought of the previous summer, being quite unfavorable to some crops. The 

com crop, which was unusually poor in 1901, amounted to two and a half billion 

Imsbeis, one of the very largest on record. The quality, however, was poor in 

restncted sections, owing to the rainy season. While the production of wheat was 

less than in 1901, which was a record year, it was much above the average and 

nearly equalled the previous record crop of 1898. The price was notably good. 

Oats and barley produced the largest crops ever recorded. The yield of barley ex- 



Affrienlt«re« 



10 



ceeded the record crop of 1901 by 25 million bushels and was nearly double the 
average for several years past. The permanent damage to the oat crop from the 
heavy rains during the period of growth was less than anticipated, the main effect 
being apparent in the quality. The crops of hay and of potatoes were among the 
very largest recorded, tne average yield of hay per acre being unusually heavy. (See 
the articles on the various crops.) The total farm value of the cereal crops of 1902, 
as estimated by the United States Department of Agriculture, was $i,82i3o5»745- 
The addition to this of the estimated value of the other staple crops (potatoes, hay, 
tobacco, buckwheat, and flaxseed) gives a total of $2,617,895416, exclusive of the 
cotton crop of 10417,000 bales, which would bring the estimated value of the leading 
farm crops well up toward three billion dollars. The census of 1900 makes the 
SiggTCgsXe value of farm products (animal and vegetable) five billion dollars, an 
increase of two billion in the decade. The terrible drought in Australia which has 
lasted for over four years has operated favorably on American export trade. Not 
only has the Australian wheat trade in Asia fallen into American hands, but 
Australia itself has been compelled to buy wheat from the United States. As a 
result wheat sold in San Francisco at the close of 1902 at a higher price than at any 
time within the past four years, and for some months it had not been necessary 
to consign a single cargo to Liverpool, making the Pacific coast wheat grower 
independent of the Liverpool market. 

The year 1902 was a prosperous one for live-stock and dairy interests as well. 
The prices for cattle and hogs were unusually good for the most part, and milch 
cows were in demand at high figures. The prices for beef reached a higher level 
in the early summer than for twenty years. Steers sold for $8 to $8.75 a hundred 
pounds. The close of the year, however, found the Chicago market glutted with 
cattle, and prices ruled very low. The value of the exports of animals and animal 
products for the year ended June 30, 1902, amounted to the large sum of $244,733,062. 
There was an increase of about three million dollars in the amount of animal 
products exported, but the value of the cattle shipped decreased nearly eight million 
dollars, due to the sharp demand for beef cattle at home. Our total agricultural 
exports for the year ended June 30, 1902, had a value of about $860,000,000, and our 
agricultural imports amounted to $410,000,000. The number and value of farm 
animals in the United States on January i, 1903, as compared with the same date 
in 1902, is thus stated by the statistician of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture : 



H0BBB8. 

1908 

1909 

1908 

1908 

mXiOB OOWB. 

1908 

1902 

OTHKB GATTLS 
1903 

1903 

1908 

1903 

BWIITK. 

1908 

1903 



Number. 



16,657.378 
16.631,234 



3,728,088 
3,767,017 



17,106.327 
16.696,803 



44.669.306 
44,727,797 



63.964,876 
62,039,091 



46,922.624 
48,688,890 



Ave. price 
per head. 



$62.35 
68.61 



73.40 
67.61 



80.31 
29.23 



18.45 
18.76 



3.68 
3.66 



7.78 
7.08 



Value. 



$1,030,706,960 
968,986.178 



197,768.827 
186^411.704 



516.711,914 
488,180,834 



834,064.903 
889,136.073 



168.816,760 
184.446,091 



864.978,688 
842.130,780 



Plant Production. — One of the most noteworthy features of the work in plant pro- 
duction is the attempt to improve cultivated fruits and crops by systematic plant 
breeding. All our common fruits and agricultural plants have been brought to their 
present stage of perfection by selection and cross-breeding. While this has long been 
practiced by seedsmen and others, much interest has been aroused in recent years in 
conducting such work on a scientific basis and with a definite aim. In some cases 
the object sought is a strain or variety of greater resistance to drought or cold, or 
some specific disease, in others one of shorter growing period or greater productive- 
ness or greater richness in composition. The work is of great variety and is being 
prosecuted enthusiastically by a large number of workers in this country and in 



Europe. The large interest in this subject was shown by an International Congress 
of Plant Breeding and Hybridization, the second of its kind, which was held in 
New York City at the end of September, 1902. About eighty delegates were in 
attendance, including several from Canada and abroad. A long programme of papers 
was presented which dealt with the principles of plant breeding and their appfica- 
tion, and reported the results attained in various lines. The fundamental principles 
underlying plant selection and breeding, and the fixation of desirable qualities, are 
but imperfectly understood as yet, so that the element of chance enters largely into 
the work and retards progress. Some very valuable results have already been 
obtained in this country with a number of crops, and the systematic work that is 
beizig carried on by the United States Department of Agriculture and many of the 
agricultural experiment stations promises much for agriculture and horticulture, in 
providing varieties of special adaptation to locality and purpose. 

The search for new plants and varieties better adapted to particular sections of 
the country, and the introduction of old plants into new sections, go steadily on with 
encouraging progress. Macaroni wheat has become an established crop in the drier 
regions of the Northwest, and yields from one-third to one-half more than the other 
standard wheats in the same localities. It is estimated that about two million 
bushels were harvested in the season of 1902, an amount that is inadequate to meet 
the increasing demand. The growth of emmer or spelt, a grain somewhat like barley, 
is extending in the semi-arid regions. It is grown in Europe where com cannot 
be raised, and is used principally as a feed for sheep, pigs, and other farm animals. 
It is hardy and resists drought and hot summers. The results with it experimentally 
have been encouraging, and its growth as a forage crop in regions to which it is 
adapted is extending. Such leguminous crops as alfalfa, cowpea, and soy bean are 
spreading more widely every year, and are being grown in the East to save buying 
such large quantities of expensive feeding stuffs. In Delaware it has been shown 
that maximum crops of alfalfa yield an amount of protein per acre equivalent to 
that in one and a half tons of cotton-seed meal, and that a crop of crimson clover 
and of cowpeas, which could be grown on the same piece of ground during the 
season, would produce an equal amount. The New Jersey Experiment Station lound 
that alfalfa hay and crimson clover hay each took the place of the grain ration for 
milch cows, and resulted in a considerable saving in cost, showing the practical way 
in which, under a system of intensive farming such as is followed at the station 
farm, leguminous crops may be used to take the place of purchased feeds. The 
Illinois Experiment Station has shown that the bacteria necessary to enable alfalfa 
to assimilate the nitrogen of the air are usually lacking in the soils of that State, 
and that even the rich black prairie soil does not contain sufficient nitrogen for 
maximum crops of alfalfa. The application of nitrogenous fertilizer increased the 
yield of alfalfa hay from two to tour times, and inoculation of the soil with the 
proper bacteria gave equally as large crops as the use of fertilizers. In the South 
the velvet bean is being widely introduced as a forage and renovating crop. It makes 
a luxuriant growth, covering the ground with a heavy mass of vines, leaves, and 
pods. The vines may be either pastured, cut and fed green, or cut and made into 
hay. The beans may be ground and fed as a grain ration. All parts of the plant 
make rich feed and are much relished by animals. The stubble and roots enrich 
the soil and improve its physical condition. This increasing growth of numerous 
kinds of leguminous plants is a most important step in the direction of better farm- 
ing, resulting in the production of larger amounts of feed on the farm, and in 
increasing the fertility of the land. Aside from the saving in expense for con- 
centrated feeds, it is also relieving the farmer of a portion of the expense for com- 
mercial fertilizers, which is a heavy burden in many sections and especially in 
the South. 

Cassava is another crop that has been tried in the South experimentally, and is 
now being grown to an increasing extent in the Gulf States as a fodder crop. It is 
raised as a root crop, giving an enormous yield of starchy tubers which are relished 
by cattle and hogs; and, supplemented with velvet bean, is said to produce beef of 
excellent flavor, economically. A new method for preserving sweet potatoes has 
been worked out and tested at the South Carolina Experiment Station, which con- 
sists essentially in boiling the tubers before evaporating them. The evaporated 
product will keep indefinitely and bear transportation to any part of the world at 
any season. Several varieties yielded from 3000 to 5000 pounds to the evaporated 
product per acre. Hemp growing is being undertaken in Nebraska, where a new 
and important step has been taken in cutting the crop with an ordinary mowing 
machine. A simple attachment, which bends the stalks over in the direction in whi(£ 
the machine is going, facilitates the cutting. The cost of cutting hemp in this 
manner is 50 cents per acre, as compared with $3 to $4 per acre, the rates paid for 
catting by hand in Kentucky, where more than nine-tenths of the hemp produced in 
the United States is now grown. By the methods that can be practiced in Nebraska, 



12 

honp tow, it is said, can be produced nearly eanal in valne to Kentucky roogh hemp, 
and at a total cost» exclusive of rent of land, of about $20, instead of $45, per ton. 

There was a considerable extension of sugar beet culture in this country in 1902, 
the estimated area being 259,513 acres, against 137*92; in 1901 and i^zfioo in 1900. 
The most notable increases were in Michigan, Odifomia, Colorado, sind Utah, 
which are credited with about 88 per cent of the aggregate acreage, Michigan lead- 
ing California in that respect. The production ofbeet sugar for 1902-03 is esti- 
mated by Willett and Gray at 195^00 tons, which, with the production of sugar from 
cane (250,000 tons) gives a total of 445^00 tons, an amount equal to about 17 1-2 
per cent, of the total sugar consumption of the United States. See Sugar Industry. 

The growth of Sumatra tobacco under shade in the Connecticut Valley greatly 
increased during 1902, ad>out 700 acres being grown in this manner in that season, 
as compared with a total of less than 40 acres the preceding year. The season was 
quite unfavorable to tobacco in New England, owing to the unprecedented rainfall 
and the unusually severe wind and hailstorms; but the crop under cover was 
apparently not injured, and the quality is said to be better than m the previous year. 
It is estimated that the yield of cured Sumatra tobacco will be about 1,000,000 
pounds ; and the success of the industry is considered assured. 

Considerable interest has been aroused among the grape growers of Austria, Italy, 
France, and a number of adjoining countries, in a method for protecting crops 
against hail by means of cannonading. The method consists essentially in sending 
up vortex rings of smoke and air toward approaching hail clouds, by means of 
explosives in cannon of special construction. Those who have actually put the 
method into operation testify with remarkable unanimity as to its effectiveness, the 
loss from hail being declared much less than before the system of cannonading 
was introduced. The most systematic organization of cannonading stations is found 
at Denied, where 52 cannon, covering an area of 2500 acres, are operated. The 
movement has attained great importance among practical men, and the installation 
of the system is rapidly extending, especially m the grape>growing regions of 
Eurooe. The idea has been scouted by some scientific men, while others, although 
unable to explain the action, are impressed with the practical results. An interna- 
tional congress of those interested in the subject was held at Vienna, Austria, in the 
autumn of 1902, under scientific auspices. 

Animal Production.-^Tht year 1902 witnessed a further passing of the scrub and 
an increased appreciation of well-bred stock. A considerable percentage of farmers 
hitherto unconvinced of the pecuniary advantage of using good blood in producing 
market stock have been converted, and purchased pure-bred bulls. On the range 
there was an evident movement in the direction of better-bred animals such as the 
market demands; and this, coupled with the shortage of com, the drought in some 
sections, and other influences, forced upon the market an unusual number of poorly- 
bred and inferior cattle. This interest in better stock is evidenced by the auction 
sales of pedigreed beef cattle during 1902, which amounted to more than two and 
a half million dollars, an increase of nearly three-quarters of a million over 1901, 
and by the large private sales. The prices were a matter of much satisfaction to 
breeders. At 26 auction sales in Chicago, 1789 head of pure-bred cattle were sold 
at an aggregate sum of $611,876, a general average of $342 each. Among the sensa- 
tional sales of the year was that of the Hereford bulls Crusader and Perfection at 
$10,000 and $9000, respectively; the cow Dolly 2d, of the same breed, for $7000; 
the imported Aberdeen-Angus bull Prince Ito at $9100, and a yearling heifer of the 
same breed for $6300. Many more Shorthorns were sold than of any other breed, 
and these brought a general average of $260 each, being only exceeded by the Here- 
fords at $265. The report of the Union Stock Yards at Chicago shows a remark- 
ably heavy year, the total valuation of the stock received reaching the stupendous 
sum of $312^84^386, over 30 million dollars more than in 1901, and 50 millions more 
than m 1900. These receipts included nearly three million head of cattle, 250.000 
calves, about eight million hogs, four and one-half million sheep (a large increase), 
and over 100,000 horses. At both the Kansas City and Omaha sto<i yards, the 
receipts of cattle, calves, and sheep were the largest ever recorded for those places. 
^ lUe question of how to produce beef more economically is one of the most vital 
importance to the Middle West. The advance in value of farm lands, the competi- 
tion of the range country, and the higher price of corn and other feeding stuffs have 
materially changed conditions; and it is often questioned whether the feeder can 

^ilf ^ I '""^ ^ P5°^^ /""^tl? *^^^'"? *=°™ at 55 or 60 cents a bushel. One of the 
most extensive and valuable experiments bearing on this point ever made was 

^?;;;:k v.!*" l^ \ '^li^^^ Experiment Station, in cooSiorwith^a la^e 
stock feeder at the Broolanont Farms, comprising over 7000 acres. Eleven lots 

for ThI?^S ^ T^ ^"'^ ^'^ '°^"' r'^ ^ ^^"^ty °^ ^ther feeds added, ^d foish^ 
for the market The price received ranged from $7 to $7.65 per hundredT The 
largest net profits per steer, $17.60 and |i8, were iLide on mtW of ^m ^ 



J ^ Affriealtare* 

gloten meal or feed, and these lots gave the best results in the slaughter test. The 
price received for the com which was fed to the different lots ranged all the way 
from 70 cents to $1.04 per bushel, 93 cents bein^ realized when the com was fed 
without other Rrain. The results show that with proper management there are 
good profits in feeding corn at the prices received for the steers; and that the selec- 
tion of feeds to be gfiven with the com is a most important one. 

The leading live-stock event of 1902 was the third International Live-Stock 
Exposition, held at Chicago, November 29 to December 6, inclusive. It surpassed 
its predecessors in map^itude and in the character of the exhibits. The educational 
value of these shows is very great, and they attract very large numbers of persons 
interested in various kinds of stock, who study the progress in animal breeding as 
exhibited by the specimens of pedigreed animals presented and follow the work of 
the judges. The Aberdeen-Angus cattle were the leaders at the fat stock show, 
whereas in 1901 it was the Herefords. Never has a breed accomplished such sweep- 
ing victories at a fat-stock show. Two out of three of the breed championships by 
ages, the grand championship of the show, the grand champion herd and reserve 
for the herd, fell to the blacks, and the carload lots made almost as sweeping a 
victory. In the slaughter test, five of the ten prizes for carcasses fell to the blades, 
including the championship. Several of the agricultural collep^es made fine showings. 
The Iowa Agricultural College carried off the grand championship of the fat-stock 
show, and the herd championship, with its Aberdeen-Angus cattle. The showing 
of carload lots of beef animals surpassed any previous display, no less than 120 
carload lots of fancy-fed cattle competing. There was also an unusually fine show- 
ing of sheep; but the horses proved the most attractive feature of the exhibition. 
There was an enormous exhibit of Percherons, and a fair one of Shires and Clydes- 
dales. The contest of draft horses was extraordinary, and evoked the keenest 
interest The show called attention again to the merits of the dairy-bred steer for 
beef, which have also been brought out in trials at several of the experiment stations. 
These combined results have shown that the dairy-bred steer may profitably be 
turned to beef, and in many cases makes a very creditable showing as a beef animal. 
In the slaughter test at the show a Jersey steer three years old occupied fourth place 
among seventeen animals slaughtered, all the others being of recognized beef type. 
The present discrimination of the market against the dairy-bred steer is regarded by 
many as unjust. 

A noteworthy event of the year 1902 was an outbreak of the foot-and-mouth 
disease among cattle in New England during the fall. This disease is quite 
common in Europe, but has seldom ^occurred in this country. It is extremely con- 
tagious and on this account especially is much feared. It is characterized by 
eruptions of ulcers or blisters in the mouth, upon the heels, or between the toes, 
and upon the teats or udder. The appetite is depressed, the milk-fiow diminishes, the 
animal loses condition and becomes lame. After a day or two the ulcers break, 
peel off, and leave a raw surface that may heal in a few days, or, especially upon the 
feet and teats, may remain sore for a long time and lead to serious complications. 
The death-rate is very low, but the disease attacks the whole herd, and many animals 
are seriously damaged, so that the loss to a herd owner is heavy. A strict quaran- 
tine was established, and Congress promptly made an emergency appropriation of 
$500,000 to check the outbreak. This work was in the hands of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture, assisted by local 
authorities. Some 2500 head of cattle were killed, the owners of which received an 
indemnity amounting to 70 per cent, of their appraised value. The disease was 
brought under control by the close of the year, and infected premises were then 
thoroughly disinfected and in some cases bumed. It is thought possible entirely to 
stamp it out, as the area of infection was quite restricted and the prompt action 
prevented its spread 

A most important discovery bearing on the relation of human and bovine tuber- 
culosis was reported during 1902. It has resulted in a method for immunizing cattle 
to tuberculosis by means of a vaccine prepared from the sputum of human con- 
sumptive patients. The disease in man and cattle is usually held to be due to the 
same organism, but the bacillus from man is less virulent in its action on animals 
than that from cattle. Dr. von Behring of Marburg, Germany, announces that cattle 
passing through the mild attack induced by the human tubercle bacilli are thereafter 
immune to bovine tuberculosis. Experiments in immunizing cattle have been carried 
on by him for five years, and have shown the best methods of preparing and admin- 
istering the vaccine. The immunization has held for a number of years, and Dr. 
von Behring believes the method as worked out by him is entirely practical. Similar, 
but less extensive, results have more recently been announced by Dr. Pearson, of 
Philadelphia. The method of immunizing cattle to this dread disease, if the expecta- 
tions of the authors are realized, offers a practical means of controlling its ravages 



Affricvltare* j^ 

in animals and constitutes one of the most important discoveries in animal 
pathology. 

Agriculture in the Philippines. — In the report for 1902 of the United States Philip- 
pine Commission, Dean C: Worcester, secretary of the interior, reviews the present 
state of agriculture in the islands and outlines some of the opportunities for develop- 
ment. Up to the present time agriculture has been carried on in a very primitive 
fashion, with rude implements and antiquated machinery, and without the use of 
fertilizers or the emplo3mient of suitable methods of cultivation and management. 
The results that have been obtained under such conditions afford proof of the 
favorable character of the climate and the natural richness of the soil. Only a small 
part of the soil suited to the production of sugar, hemp, and tobacco on a large 
scale is at present under cultivation. The method of extracting sugar leaves approx- 
imately so per cent, of the sugar in the pressed cane, and hemp is cultivated in a 
haphazard way, where it is not allowed to grow practically wild. Though the 
fibre is extracted by hand, hemp constitutes 621/2 per cent, of the total exports of 
the island. No systematic and sustained effort has ever been made to improve the 
quality of Philippine tobacco, and the methods of curing it are very primitive. There 
are large areas of Government lands admirably suited to the cultivation of cocoa- 
nuts, and the demand for copra (dried cocoanut meat) and cocoanut oil exceeds the 
supply. At present there is no true cacao plantation in the archipelago, and the 
methods practiced are very primitive and wasteful. The cacao now produced in the 
island of Mindanao is of superior quality and brings an especially high price. There 
are thought to be unusually fine opportunities for developing the culture of this 
crop, and also of vanilla in numerous re^ons. With the exception of the mango, 
the fruits of the region have been practically neglected in the past, although 9ie 
conditions of the soil and climate are generally adapted to the growth of bananas 
and pineapples, and, in selected localities, oranges and other citrus fruits. An espe- 
cially fine coffee is grown in the mountain regions of Benguet and Bontoc and in 
the province of Lepanto. The bushes yield heavy crops, and the unhulled coffee at 
present sells readily in Manila at 35 dollars (Mexican) per cavan (nearly three 
bushels). Coffee bushes come to bearing in Benguet in three years. The secretary 
says: "There is no region in the United States which has a more healthful or 
delightful climate than is afforded by the Benguet highlands, where a white man 
can perform heavy field labor without excessive fatigue or injury to his health." 
One of the greatest drawbacks to agriculture in the Philippines at present is the 
lack of draft animals. Rinderpest has been very prevalent among the carabao (water 
buffalo) and cattle, and surra among horses. The supply of these animals is so 
short in some sections that farm work has been entirely abandoned. Efforts 
are being made through the provincial governments to restock the islands with draft 
animals, and the Serum Institute is turning out an anti-rinderpestic serum in large 
quantities. The production of milk and beef offer great opportunities for profitable 
development, provided disease can be controlled. Milk is very scarce and dear in 
Manila, and native beef cattle are very high. Fresh meat to the value of over 
$6oo,ocx) a year is being imported into Manila, exclusive of that used by the array 
and navy. There are excellent ranges for cattle and a great variety of fodder plants 
which grow luxuriantly. The secretary is confident that properly conducted cattle 
ranches would yield very large returns. 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Owing to increased financial resources, the work of the department was materially 
enlarged during 1902. Its efficiency was also increased by the partial reorganization 
effected during the year, which involved the establishment of the bureaus of plant 
industry, soils, chemistry, and forestry, and the rearrangement of the work of the 
office of experiment stations on the same basis as that of the bureaus. The annual 
appropriation for the department for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, is $4,503,- 
960 (as compared with $3,862420 the previous year), exclusive of the regular appro- 
priation of $720,000 for the State agricultural experiment stations. On July i, 1902, 
the number of its paid employees was 3789, of whom 2081 were classed as scientists 
and scientific assistants. During the fiscal year 1902 it issued 757 publications, 
aggregating 10,586,580 copies, of which 6,i50,cxx) copies were Farmers' Bulletins. 
It is estimated that the cost of printing and transporting these publications was 
about $i,ooo,cxx). Among the important features of the work of the department 
during 1902 are the following: The Weather Bureau extended the distribution of 
daily forecasts through the rural mail delivery as far as its funds would permit, and 
continued experiments in wireless telegraphy with a good degree of success. Ante- 
mortem inspection of animals by the Bureau of Animal Industry aggregated nearly 
60,000,000 animals, and the meat inspection stamp was affixed to over 23,000,000 
packages of meat products. An inspection of dairy products offered for export 
was inaugurated under an act of Congress, passed March 20, 1902. Over 1,500,000 



. ^ Affriealtnre* 

doses of black-leg: vaccine were distributed during the year, and reports show that its 
use reduced the loss of cattle to 0.51 per cent, of those vaccinated. Near the end 
of the year, as stated above, the bureau was active in preventing the spread of the 
foot-and-mouth disease in New England. Special efforts were made by the Bureau 
of Plant Industry to extend the ^exports of fruits and vegetables. Important prac- 
tical results were obtained from studies of pear blight and the 'little peach' disease. 
The development of a variety of cotton resistant to wilt disease is now believed 
to be an assured fact, and a variety of cowpea was discovered resistant to wilt and to 
root knot. Several varieties of long staple cotton of good quality and productive- 
ness were produced, and it is believed that these can be made permanent. A simple, 
cheap and satisfactory method of growing and distributing root-tubercle bacteria for 
all the important leguminous crops was perfected. Encouraging success was 
attained in efforts to extend the growth of alfalfa in the Northern States, where a 
substitute for clover is desired. Successful efforts were made to reduce the cost 
of tea production on the experimental plantations at Summerville, S. C, and better 
grades of tea were produced by improved factory methods. Nine thousand pounds 
of commercial tea were produced, most of which ranks with the high-grade imported 
lands. The success of the experiments with macaroni wheat has already been men- 
tioned Extensive experiments were inaugurated to determine the best methods 
of fruit storage, and methods were discovered by which the injury through 'scald' in 
storage may be materially lessened. Agricultural explorations were continued in 
India, China, Japan, and other countries. Among the valuable recent introductions 
are hardy Russian varieties of winter wheat, Egyptian or berseem clover, and the 
Jordan almond. The Bureau of Forestry furnished working plans for nearly 400,000 
acres of private lands, and has become the official adviser of the secretary of the 
interior in matters of forest policy for the national forest reserves covering over 
60,000,000 acres (see Forestry). A less injurious method of turpentine orcharding 
than that hitherto employed was discovered. The Bureau of Soils surveyed and 
mapped during 1902 over 14,500 square miles, or about 10,000,000 acres. Over 
14,500,000 acres have been surveyed in all, the work having been done in twenty-five 
States and Territories and in Porto Rico, at a total cost of less than $3 per square 
mile- The methods of analyzing soils in the field have been perfected. The contin- 
ued success of the experiments in growing Sumatra tobacco under shade has already 
been mentioned. The Bureau of Chemistry continued the study of adulterated foods 
and undertook an elaborate investigation to determine the effect of borax and other 
preservatives on the nutritive value and healthfulness of foods by digestion experi- 
ments with human subjects. The Division of Entomology studied the San Jose 
scale in Japan and China, with special reference to the importation of its ladybird 
enemy. Other important investigations were those on the Mexican cotton-boll weevil, 
codling moth, and forest insects. The culture of the Smyrna fig in California with 
the aid of the fig-fertilizing insect, has proved successful. Silk culture is again 
being systematically investigated. Work under the Lacey act, for the protection and 
preservation of game, was continued by the Biological Survey. Studies on the 
nutritive value of cereals, meats, and fruits, and experiments with men in the 
Atwater-Rosa respiration calorimeter, with special reference to the relation of diet 
to muscular energy, were continued by the Office of Experiment Stations. The same 
office enlarged its studies on irri^tion. (See Irrigation.) It also began investiga- 
tions on drainage, the use of vanous kinds of power in agriculture, farm machinery 
and other subjects included in agricultural engineering. The Office of Road Inquiry 
was active in its propaganda to stimulate public interest in the building of good 
roads in different parts of the country. 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

The most important feature in the progress of agricultural education in the United 
States during 1902 was the successful institution of a graduate school of agriculture, 
which held its first session during July at Columbus, O., under the auspices of the 
Ohio State University and in cooperation with the United States Department of 
Agriculture and the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
ment Stations. Dr. A. C. True, director of the United States Office of Experi- 
ment Stations, was made dean of the faculty, which consisted of thirty-five instruc- 
tors, of whom twenty-six are professors in agricultural colleges, seven are leading 
officers of the Department of Agriculture, and two are officers of the New York 
State Experiment Station. The seventy-five students drawn from twenty-eight 
States and Territories included twenty-seven professors or assistant professors in 
Mfricultural colleges, and thirty-one assistants in colleges or experiment stations. 
CSurses were given in agronomy, zootechny, dairying, and breeding of plants and 
Uiixaals, and conferences were held on important topics connected with the more 
definite formulation of the science of agriculture and agricultural pedagogics. It is 
bdieved that the influence of this school will be felt throughout our whole system of 



i6 

agriailttira] education and researdi, and it is hoped to make it a permanent feature 
oi the American system of education in agriculture. 

Among the agricultural colleges there was considerahle prom- e ss during 1902 in 
streiuthening and specializing the courses in agriculture. At the University of Illinois 
the College of Agncnlture has a faculty of twenty-six instructors and investigators 
in agronomy, horticulture, zootedmy, dairying, and veterinary science, and there 
are special courses in farm madiinery, drainage, soil bacteriology, breeding, etc The 
Minnesota College has added a new line of work — ^instruction and laboratory exer- 
cises in cutting and curing meat Courses in a^cultural economics have been ipven 
at the University of Wisconsin and in rural sociology at the University of Midiigan. 
College extension work, lari^ely through correspondence courses, is receiving in- 
creased attention at the agricultural colleges. These institutions are also issuinjg 
a constantly increasing number of popular bulletins, press bulletins, leaflets and peri- 
odicals. The State legislatures meeting in 1902 made unusually liberal appropriations 
for maintenance and new buildings at these colleges. Universities and colleges 
receiving the benefits of the acts of Congress of July i, 1862, and August 50, 1890, 
are in operation in all the States and Territories, except Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto 
Rico. The total number of colleges maintaining courses in agriculture is sixty-three ; 
the aggregate value of the permanent funds and equipment of the land-grant institu- 
tions in 1902 was $67,544;^, of whidi $3,484,200 was added in 1902; their income 
was $9,166,272. Out of a total attendance of 4i5,699 students, 6299 were in courses in 
agriculture. 

Interest in the movement for the establishment of secondary agricultural schools 
and courses continues to increase. In Wisconsin the law passed by the legislature 
in 1901, authorizing county boards "to appropriate money for die organization, 
equipment and maintenance of county schools of agriculture and domestic science," 
has already borne substantial fruit. Two schools, established under this act, opened 
their doors to students in October, 1902. One is located at Menomonie in Dunn 
County. It is equipped with a substantial brick main building, erected by the county 
for the joint use of this school and the county teachers' training school, and a frame 
building for shopwork, which with the grounds surrounding the school cost $5,000. 
The farm work is done on the county asylum farm, one mile away. The regular 
course of farm study occupies two years, and, besides many of the subjects ordinarily 
pursued in high schools, includes the following : For boys — soils, fertilizers, plant life, 
horticulture, neld crops, animal husbandry, dairying, poultry, economic insects, farm 
accounts, blacksmithing and other metal work, carpentry and rural architecture; for 
girls — sewing, cooking, home economy and management, drawing, domestic hygiene, 
chemistry of foods, dairying, poultry, farm accounts, and horticulture. About fifty 
students were in attendance at the first session, coming with few exceptions from 
the country schools. The other agricultural school is located at Wausau in Mara- 
thon County. The buildings and equipment for this school cost $20,000, and the 
school grounds cover six acres. Over sixty students are in attendance. 

The agrricultural high schools connected with the agricultural colleges in Minne- 
sota and Nebraska continue to be largely attended. At Winona Lake, Ind., an agri- 
cultural and technical institute of high school grade has been opened, and at Groton, 
Mass., a school of horticulture and landscape gardening for women has been estab- 
lished. The BriarcliflF School of Practical Agriculture and Horticulture has been 
moved to a farm of 415 acres near Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Instruction in agriculture 
was ^iven in the three normal schools of Missouri in 1902 to about 300 students. 
Practical courses in agriculture are being given with increased efficiency in a number 
of institutions for negroes in the Southern States, notably at Hampton, Va., and 
Tuskegee, Ala. The course of study for the Indian schools conducted by the United 
States government has been changed to include the teaching of the theory and 
practice of agriculture in all the grades. The committee on methods of teaching 
agriculture of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges has published a 
report (Circular 49, U. S. Office of Experiment Stations), in which tentative agricul- 
tural courses for the public high schools are outlined. 

Marked progress has been made in the movement for the consolidation of the rural 
common schools, and along with this there is much agitation for the introduction 
of simple lessons on agricultural subjects in these schools whenever the employment 
of competent teachers makes it possible to enrich the course of study. S<mool gar- 
dens are beinjp established in many places, but more especially in towns and cities. 
The United States Department of Agriculture is making a special distribution of 
seeds for such gardens. The University of Illinois has organized a number of 
young people's clubs to cooperate with the college of agriculture in various lines of 
agricultural practice and experimentation. In 1902 these clubs tested seed com and 
growing corn or flowers, m competition for premiums. The records of these tests 
are sent to the college for tabulation and report. 

Farmers' institutes were held during 1902 in forty-four States and Territories 



jy Affrlonltiire* 

indndiiig Hawaii. In all, about 2700 institutes were held, with a total attendance 
of about 800,000 persons. A successful meeting of the American Association of 
Fanners' Institute Workers was held at Washington, D. C, in June, 1902, the pro- 
ceedings of which were published by the Department of Agriculture. A central 
agcnqr for the promotion of the interests of the Institutes has been established in 
the United States Office of Experiment Stations. 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

The Office of Experiment Stations published in 1902 a bulletin containing accounts 
of about 720 agricultural experiment stations, and kindred institutions in fifty coun- 
tries outside of the United States. This demonstration of the world-wide extent 
of the experiment station movement is especially interesting in view of the fact that 
during the same year the station at Moeckem. Germany, which was the first regu- 
larly organized under government auspices, celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its 
foundation. These scientific agencies for the promotion of agriculture, which for 
the most part are government institutions, are now in operation in every country 
of Europe except Greece and Turkey. In Asia there are stations in Russian 
territory and in Japan and British India. Africa has a rather large number in the 
British, French, and German colonies. In South America there are stations in 
Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and British Guiana. There are none in Mexico 
or in Central America, except in British Honduras, where a botanic garden is 
located. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the British West Indies, have a con- 
siderable number of stations. The United States has sixty stations, including those 
recently established in Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico. The largest number of sepa- 
rate agencies for experimentation in agriculture are found in Russia, where there 
are over 100 such establishments. Many of these, however, consist chiefly of small 
demonstration fields, for the instruction of the peasants or the introduction of new 
agricultural industries. Germany has eighty stations, France seventy-one, Austria 
forty-one, Sweden twenty-six, Belgium fifteen, but in all these countries the work of 
a number of the stations is confined to the control of fertilizers, seeds, etc. In the 
British Isles there are twelve institutions that may be regarded as experiment sta- 
tions, seven botanic gardens, and ten other institutions that conduct some agricul- 
tural experiments. 

The Deparment of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, organized 
under the act of Parliament of 1899, has begun to issue reports of its operations. 
These show that, in addition to a variety of duties pertaining to technical education, 
lands, fisheries, control of animal diseases, etc., the department is directly promoting 
education and research in agriculture, largely in cooperation with the different 
counties and boroughs. In England the Aynsome Agricultural Experiment Station 
has recently been established at Grange^over- Sands as a private enterprise. Other 
new enterprises are the seed-control station for forest seeds at Eberswalde, Prussia; 
an agricultural experiment station at Augustenberg, formed by the union of the 
demical and botanical stations formerly located at Karlsruhe; a dairy station at 
Gembloux, Belgium; and an agricultural physiological station at Prague, Austria. 
The initial number of a year book summarizing the work of the Russian experiment 
stations has been issued by the ministry of agriculture and imperial domains of that 
country; and the British imperial department of agriculture for the West Indies 
has b^^un the publication of a fortnightly review, entitled Agricultural News. 

In the United States during 1902 the sixty stations employed 710 persons in the 
work of administration and inquiry, of whom 344 did more or less teaching in the 
agricultural colleges. The total income of the stations was $1,328,847, ot which 
^20,000 was received from the national government and $608,847 from State govern- 
ments, fertilizer analysis fees, sales of farm products, etc. In addition, the Office 
of Experiment Stations had appropriations from Congress amounting to $139,000. 
The value of additions to the permanent equipment of the stations in 1902 is 
estimated at $262^29, including $175*7^3 for buildings. The station in Porto Rico 
has been permanently located at Masraguez, on a farm of 235 acres, purchased with 
funds granted by the insular government and the municipalitv of Mayaguez. A new 
station has been established in the Copper River region in Alaska, where there are 
large tracts of land believed to be suitable for agriculture. The Kansas Experiment 
Station has recently come into possession of 3500 acres of the Fort Hays Reserva- 
tion, and has established there a sub-station, supported by State funds. In a similar 
way new sub-stations have been established at Troupe, Tex., and McNeill, Miss. An 
interesting enterprise of a novel character is the experiment station conducted by the 
company publishing tht Agricultural Epitomist, on a farm of 500 acres near Spencer, 
Ind. Evidences of the influence of station work in improving the agricultural prac- 
tice of the country continue to multiply. A few examples, selected from a large 
namber recently collated by the Department of Agriculture, may serve to illustrate 
the importance of these research institutions as factors in the economic progress 



Acrie«Uar»» tQ 



of the United States. The origination and introduction of improved varieties of 
cereals through the agency of 3ie stations in the chief grain-growing regions, co- 
operating with the department, is resulting in a great increase in the grain-produang 
capacity of this country. For instance, a single variety of oats, imported by the 
department and improved by the Wisconsin Station, has been widely distributed, with 
results whidi indicate that its general introduction will be followed by an average 
increase of yield amounting to from three to five bushels per acre. One of the 
results of the successful work of the Illinois Station in breeding com so as to vary 
its content of protein, oil, and starch, according to the requirements of different 
industries, has led to the formation of the Illinois Seed G>m Breeders' Association, 
pledged to select and grow their seed corn according to definite rules formulated 
by the station, and thus far the demand for these improved varieties of com has 
far outrun the supply. The influence of the station investigations is also being 
widely shown in the grain-growing region by the introduction of rotations of 
crops, to conserve soil fertility, a matter of immense economic importance, in view 
of the rapid depletion of the soils of that region through the ccmtinuous grain crop- 
' ping heretofore generallv practiced. The beneficial effects of the work of the stations 
I in the older States on fertilizers are every year becoming more apparent, as shown 
in the economical purchase and intelligent use of fertilizers by formers. The home 
mixing of fertilizers in accordance with instructions issued by the stations is becom- 
ing an important factor of progress in this line. The recent introduction of the 
inspection of feeding stuffs under station auspices is proving an effective means 
of protecting farmers against fraud, and is increasing their attention to the eco- 
nomical purchase of concentrated feeds and the balancing of rations with the 
cheaper home-grown products. The rapid extension of the use of silage and the 
very general adoption of the round silo are directly traceable to experiment station 
influence. Through the efforts of the department and the stations, the application 
of insecticides and fungicides, as means of protection against injurious insects and 
plant diseases, has become general, and the benefits and profits resulting from this 
practice are no longer questioned by intelligent farmers. In Wisconsin, for example, 
a method of formaldehyde treatment of oat smut, proposed by one of the stations, 
was almost immediately put into use by over 25,000 farmers in that State alone. 
The demonstration by the Utah station that certain lands lying above the irrigation 
ditches could, by careful methods of tillage, be made to produce crops without irriga- 
tion, has led to a system of 'dry farming' on large tracts formerly regarded as fit 
only for grazing and this, together with the studies now being made by the stations 
in the West and in the Ofiice of Experiment Stations regarding the amounts of 
water actually required by various crops, will be an important ractor in the agri- 
cultural development of the arid region. 

The first report of the Bureau of Agriculture of the Philippine Islands has recently 
been published by the War Department at Washington. The bureau is under the 
direct management of Prof. F. Lamson-Scribner, formerly agrostolog^st of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. With him are associated experts in 
botany, soils, plant culture and breeding, farm machinery and farm management, 
fibres and tropical agriculture, and investigations along these lines have been 
begun. Seed distribution has been undertaken, and a station for the testing of seeds 
and the growing of introduced plants and trees, has been established at Manila. 
Experiments with cocoanuts, abadi, manila hemp and cacao have been undertaken at 
San Ramon farm, in the district of Zamboanga, Mindanao, with a view to demon- 
strating that the island lands may be profitably used for growing staple crops. In co- 
operation with General Bell in Batangas province, demonstration experiments are 
being made in the use of American machinery and farm methods for the growth 
of alfalfa, teosinte, cotton, tobacco, sugar, and other staple crops. At Bagnio, pre- 
liminary experiments with American vegetables are being made with reference to the 
desirability of establishing a station there, since the climate is said to be suited to 
a great variety of tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate zone plants. An experiment 
station for nee will be established near the centre of the great rice-producing 
region, extending from Manila to Dagupan. The publication of bulletins in both 
English and Spanish has been begun. 

AIR-SHIP. See Aerial Navigation. 

ALABAMA, one of the Gulf States of the United States, has an area of 
52,250 square miles. The capital is Montgomery. Alabama was organized as a 
territory March 3, 181 7, and admitted as a State, December 14, 1819. The population 
in 1900 was 1328,697, while in June, 1902, as estimated by the government actuary, 
it was 1,894,000. The population of the three largest cities in 1900 was: Mobile, 
58469; Birmingham, 38415; Montgomery, 30.346. 

Finance.—The balance in the treasury, at the close of the fiscal year ending Sep- 
tember 30, 1901, was $501,359.30. The receipts for the fiscal year 1902 were $3,9^,- 



714.37, and the disbursements $2,680,721.81, leaving a balance of $72^,351.86. The 
nain hems of revenue and the amounts derived therefrom were: State taxes of 
19DI, $2,171,^680.46 ; other State taxes of former years, $259,638.81 ; solicitors' fees, 
$39,277.92; insurance fees, $66,98148; a privilege tax on express, telegraph, and 
sleeping car companies, $11,339.32; from the secretary of state, $161,367.53; license 
fees on railway companies, $12,205.14; and from the hiring out and earnings of con- 
victs, $194412.58. As the cost of maintaining the convict department was only $94,- 
388wi2, a balance of $100,02446 remained, applicable in accordance with a legislative 
act of 1901 to the uses of the State treasury. At the end of the year, the bonded 
debt of Alabama was $9,357,600, bearing annual interest of $448,680. 

Agriculture and Industries. — This State, known as the "Cotton State," showed 
during 1902 a greater development in its manufacturing, mininp^, and commercial 
industries, than in the production of cotton and other agricultural products. 
The cotton crop, however, with apparently poor prospects, reached a produc- 
tion estimated at 1,200,000 bales, as compared with 1,07^,000 in 1901. The acre- 
age of com was 2,764,717, with a total production of 23,223,623 bushels. Oats 
at 10.9 bushels per acre, amounted to 2,320,141 bushels, being about 80 per 
cent, of the average crop. The Department of Agriculture estimated the value 
of the State's farm animals on January i, 1903, as follows: Cattle, 
$7«347>67o; sheep. $330,558; swine, $5,102,500. Other industries showed considerable 
development. The construction of new railway lines opened up*new mining terri- 
tory in the north. With new iron-ores available and a good market for iron and 
steel products, new mills were speedily erected and coal mines were called upon for 
increased output. The coal mines were worked steadily during the summer of 1902, 
except for a short strike of two weeks' duration in July, and the output for 1902 
exceeded 10,000,000 tons. In coke production Alabama was exceeded only by 
Pennsylvania. The iron-ore mined amounted to 3,^00,000 tons, and the normal 
increase in production of pig-iron was doubled. The city of Mobile increased greatly 
in importance as a commercial centre. The Mobile, Jackson and Kansas City Rail- 
road pushed north to Hattiesburg, Perry county. Miss., and considerable new timber 
and mining territory was opened up thereby. If the line is continued farther west, 
quantities of grain will soon be exported via Mobile. Three new ocean steamship 
lines were established in 1902, with Mobile as a terminal port. Fruit was a prin- 
cipal item in Mobile's imports, over 300 cargoes entering in 1902. The textile in- 
dustry continued to expand, and the manufacture of cloth is rapidly superseding 
that of yam. Five new cotton mills and several new knitting mills were built in 
1902. &nployment of children in these mills is more and more decried, and many 
employers say they would welcome its prohibition, if made general throughout the 
South. (See Child Labor.) In Alabama, the manufacture of steel rails was begun 
on a large scale in 1902, as well as that of several small iron products formerly manu- 
factured only in the North and East. Three furnaces, with a capacity of 300 tons 
of pig iron a day, were started, and the Republic Iron and Steel Company began 
the constmction of a furnace, the capacity of which will be 1000 tons a day. The 
latest improved machinery was installed in many plants and the cost of labor 
reduced 20 per cent, in all. The Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company ex- 
pended $1,000,000 for new machinery, and $1,500,000 for a modem street-car system 
in Birmingham. The sum of $2,000,000 was invested in the large power plant on 
the Alabama River, near Montgomery, and $3,000,000 in new cotton mills at Hunts- 
ville. The Alabama Steel and Wire Company expended $10,000,000 in the construc- 
tion of a new steel plant at Gadsden, and $250,000 in a furnace at Valley Head. The 
iron and steel industry was very active in the Birmingham district, the payrolls of 
the district having increased 15 per cent, over 1901, and the volume of wholesale and 
retail trade fully as much. 

The miners employed at Blockton by the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railroad 
Company, about 3000 in number, struck on October 6, 1902, because the company 
would not discharge certain members of the Miners' Union, who had refused to pay 
$1 per month toward the support of the Pennsylvania Anthracite strikers. The com- 
pany also refused to take that amount from the wages of the men, as demanded 
by those who were willing to pay. The strikers were strongly condemned in many 
quarters for their action, and finally returned to work without gaining their point. 

Political. — ^Under the suffrage provisions of the new State constitution, a great 
change has been wrought. The State contains nearly as many negroes as whites, 
bat in the August registration about 180,000 white voters registered, and only 2500 
blacks. In Montgomery County, with 52,000 negro inhabitants, only 27 negroes 
registered. Ex-Govemor Joseph F. Johnston endeavored to obtain the Democratic 
nomination for Governor on a platform that opposed negro disfranchisement, but 
was badJy defeated by Governor William D. Jelks, who represented the sentiment in 
^vor of the new constitution. One of the most significant events of 1902 was the 
(odoTScmeDts in effect, by the white Republicans, of the suffrage provisions of the 



20 

« 

new constitution. The Republicans held a meeting on August 4^1, at which they 
resolved that "Only those shall be permitted to participate in the State and County 
Conventions who are duly qualified voters under the new G>nstitution of Alabama. 
In September, at the Republican State Convention, this resolution was approved and 
accepted. In November, President Roosevelt appointed Josq>h O. Thompson, col- 
lector of internal revenue for the District of Alabama, to take the place of Julian 
H. Bingham, removed for activity in organizing the "Lily White" Republican party, 
whose State Convention excluded negro delegates, supposedly only on accoimt of 
their color. Postmaster-General Payne, in draning the President's attitude in this 
case, said that "Neither the administration nor the Republican party in the North 
will stand for the exclusion of any section of our people because of their race or 
color." 

Conventions and Platforms. — The Democratic primaries were held on August 25th, 
the majority of Jelks over Johnston being 20,000. The Republicans nominated J. A- 
W. Smith for governor. The Republican platform indorsed the President and 
urged his renomination; favored the organization of labor for its legitimate pro- 
tection and the enactment of laws for the peaceable and fair settlement of disagree- 
ments by arbitration. The convention favored legislation regulating the labor of 
children in cotton mills; condemned the "spirit which seeks to arouse a prejudice of 
the people against the railroads" ; advocated the "enactment of laws so regulating 
the railroads as to adequately protect the interests of the people," but expressed 
opposition to any drastic measures ; endorsed the Dingley tariti law ; advocated legis- 
lation to secure an inter-oceanic canal, and praised the bravery and heroism of our 
soldiers and sailors in the Philippines. 

Elections. — At the regular quadrennial State election held August 4, 1902, a full 
Democratic State ticket was elected. For governor, Jelks (Dem.), received 67,763 
votes; and Smith (Rep.), 24,342. The State legislature in 1902 was overwhelmmgly 
Democratic. The legislature for 1903 consists of 138 Democrats and two Repub- 
licans, both members of the lower house. 

Other Events. — Fire in the wholesale business section of Mobile, on January 25, 
1902, destroyed property to the value of $300,000. The State suffered from the effects 
of the great storm that swept over the South in February; winds and floods did an 
immense amount of damage. Gadsden and vicinity were visited in March by the 
severest storm known in years. Some sections of the city were completely under 
water, the power-house was flooded, and the city thrown into utter darkness. At 
Tuscumbia, on April 6th, Will Reynolds, a negro, was killed after shooting nine of 
the sheriff's posse. His body was then burned. An excursion train on the Southern 
Railway, near Birmingham, going at the rate of thirty miles an hour, on September 
I, was derailed and plunged down an embankment ; twenty-one men were killed and 
eighty injured. During the session of the National Negro Baptist Convention at 
Birmingham, at which Booker T. Washington was speaking, on September 19th, 
a panic and stampede caused the death of 115 persons and injuries to a much larger 
number. At Littleton, on October 19th, a race riot, in which eight negroes and three 
whites were killed, occurred. 

State Officers.— For 1902: Governor, William D. Jelks; secretary of state, R. P. 
McDavid; treasurer, J. Craig Smith; auditor, T. L. Sowell; attorney-general, C. G. 
Brown; superintendent of education, J. W. Abercrombie; commissioner of agricul- 
ture, R. R. Poole; commissioner of insurance, E. R. McDavid — ^all Democrats. For 
1903: Governor, William D. Jelks (elected for four years, term ending January, 
1907) ; lieutenant-governor, R. M. Cunningham; secretary of state, J. T. Heflin; 
treasurer, J. Craig Smith; auditor, T. L. Sowell; attorney-general, Massey Wilson; 
superintendent of education, I. W. Hill; commissioner ot agriculture, R R Poole; 
commissioner of insurance, E. R. McDavid — all Democrats. 

Supreme Court in 1902, and until November, 1904: Chief justice, Thomas N. 
McClellan; associate justices, Jonathan Haralson, John R. Tyson, Henry A. Sharpe, 
and James R. Dowdell — ^all Democrats. 

For congressional representatives, see United States (paragraph Congressional 
Representatives) . 

ALASKA, an incompletely organized Territory of the* United States acquired by 
purchase from Russia in 1867, and governed under a civil code passed by Congress 
'", ^?°°- ,^^ *°^^^ ^^^ of Alaska is approximately 599446 square miles, or one-sixth 
of the whole territory of the United States. The population in 1890 was 32,142, and 
in 1900, 63,592, of whom 25,536 were natives. In June, 1902, the population was 
estimated by the government actuary at 73,ooo. There were, in 1900, four cities of 
more than 1000 inhabitants; namely, Nome, 12486; Skagway, 3117; Juneau, 1864; 
and Sitka, 1396. Alasla constitutes, by act of 1900, a federal judicial district with 
three divisions. No dele^te is sent to Congress, neither is there any local legisla- 
ture. The seat of administration is Sitka. 



21 

AgricMliure, etc, — ^Experiments carried on during 1902 showed that rye, flax, and 
wheat can be grown successfully in Alaska. Potatoes and garden vegetables mature 
well Hardy varieties of apples, pears, and small fruits thrive well. The' United 
States government has introduced the reindeer into Alaska as a draft and food 
animal, and the Eskimos have been taught to care for them properly. The total 
number of domestic reindeer in Alaska, June 30, 1902, was about 7000. 

Mining. — ^The gold-mining industry in Alaska made steady progress during 1902, 
although the working season was dry and the lack of water for sluicing was a consid- 
erable handicap. Pumping plants have been installed, and a small canal, 22 miles in 
length, to cost about $1,000,000, was surveyed, to carry water to the diggings on 
Ophir Creek. Placer grounds of great importance were discovered on the tribu- 
taries of the Copper and Nazina rivers, and at Rampart, a settlement on the Yukon. 
Reports from all parts of the country were favorable, and it was estimated that the 
gold output for the year 1902 would amount to $7,823,793. The gold quartz lodes in 
the Nome region, in the district around Dawson and on Douglas Island, are being 
successfully developed. See Gold. 

Valuable deposits of copper have been discovered, and during 1902 a large number 
of new claims were developed on Prince of Wales Island. Bodies of rich copper ore 
have been discovered beyond the coast range, especially in the Copper River Valley, 
but their development is not likel^r to be undertaken until after the construction of a 
railroad through the region, as it would be impossible at present to haul the ore 
to a place of shipment. Tin ore has been discovered near Cape York on the Seward 
peninsula. Deposits of coal are well distributed through the territory, but are not 
mined to any extent as yet. Petroleum has been discovered on Comptroller's Bay 
and in the region around Lake Iliamna on the Alaskan peninsula, and prospects 
for its becoming a valuable product are said to be good. In his annual message for 
1902, Governor Brady recommended the establishment of a department of mines 
for the Territory, with a commissioner and staff of mineralogists and assayers, in 
order that exact and comprehensive information regarding the mineral deposits of 
the Territory may be obtained. 

Other Industries. — One of the most important industries of the Territory is its 
fisheries. The salmon pack for 1902 exceeded in value the amount of the original 
purchase price of Alasloi. Much attention was given to the breeding of salmon in 
order that the numbers may not be depleted. On the fur seal islands, St. George and 
St. Paul, 22,304 seals were killed in 1902. The great growths of timber in Alaska 
are hemlock, spruce, yellow cedar, and red cedar. In the southeast the hemlock and 
the spruce grow everywhere on the mainland and upon the islands. Only a small 
percentage of the lumber which is now used in Alasloi is cut in the Territory. The 
total value of the skins — bear, otter, mink, fox, lynx, beaver, and wolf — taken an- 
nually, is large. Fox farming is tried in many places, but the blue fox is the only 
one which can be domesticated. 

Public Lands. — ^The difficulty of securing titles to land is hampering progress in 
general, and is a great check to the development of agriculture. Even railroad com- 
panies hesitate to build, as no encouragement is given to people for settling on the 
lands. The homestead laws of the United States apply only to lands which have 
been surveyed, and thus far not an acre has been marked out for settlement In 
1901 the sum of $5,000 was apportioned to Alaska for public surveys. The law 
fixes the maximum price for this kind of work, but no surveyor who is acquainted 
with the conditions in that part of the country felt that he could afford to undertake 
the survey even at the highest rate allowed. The coal-land laws were extended in 
June, 1900, but, like homesteads, coal must be located upon surveyed lands. At 
Cook Inlet coal fields, and at Comptroller's Bay and elsewhere, large amounts have 
been invested in the development of mines and the building of wharves, railway 
tracks, etc., but there is no assurance of title nor security of tenure. In reference to 
the homestead laws, it is the governor's opinion that there is no reason why a man, 
who is enterprising enough to strike out to Alaska should be limited to eighty acres, 
when everywhere, since the homestead laws were created, a settler has been allowed 
at least 160 acres. According to statistics, 50,000 people from Minnesota and the 
Dakotas have emigrated into Manitoba — ^people who might have gone to Alaska had 
the laws oflFered any security of title. 

Communications. — General corporations were formed in 1902 for the construction 
of railroads. Preliminary filings were made with the secretary of the interior under 
the law of May 14, 1896, providing for right of way for railroads in Alaska. One 
company selected Valdez as one terminal, and proposes to build a standard-guage 
road with branches along the Copper River Valley and across the divide to Eagle 
City. Preliminary work was begun during the season of 1902 by surveyors and 
engineers. Another company has projected a road from Resurrection Bay on the 
soathem coast of Kenai Peninsula cutting across toward the Yukon. Two rival 
companies made arrangements to start in at Iliamna Bay near the entrance of Cook 



Alaskan Boandary Qaesttoa. ^^ 

Inlet and run lines in a northwesterly direction toward Nome and Bering Strait- 
The railroads will be a great factor in the development of Alaska. At present tnc 
charges "by pack trains from supply depots on the coast to interior camps, run as u^£^ 
as $1.25 per pound A military telegraph system connects the principal towns ana 
posts in the Territory. 

Education.—Thc schools in the incorporated towns during 1902 were doing ijreli, 
as the law provides sufficient money to conduct tliem up to a certain standard. There 
are twe«ty-eight public schools in the Territory. The school work was placed under 
the care of the United States Bureau of Education and Congress made appropnaticMis 
each year for their maintenance until 1901, when the House Committee on Appropria- 
tions refused any more money for this purpose. The civil code, approved June, igco, 
provided that license fees should be exacted from the various business concerns 
operating in the Territory. Outside of incorporated towns, one-half the amount of 
these Hcenses minus the expenses for the maintenance of their courts was to be used 
for educational purposes. This has hampered the schools outside of the incorporated 
towns owing to the uncertainty of the amount of the license money. The economical 
policy has been discouraging, and the bureau has had to turn a deaf ear to all Peti- 
tions for new school buildings and teachers for distant communities where children 
are sadly in need of instruction. 

Needs of the Territory,— The most urgent need of Alaska is the granting of gen- 
eral land laws so as to encourage the homeseeker and the industry of agriculture 
This would bring the base of food supplies within Alaska's own borders instead of 
1000 miles away, as is at present the case. The great majority of the people believe 
that Alaska should be represented by a delegate to Congress to persist in bringing 
measures for Alaska's welfare before the committees, look after the interest of her 
citizens before the Department of the Interior, and occasionally enlighten the House 
when it has Alaskan matters before it. The governor strongly advises a commission 
to settle the titles at Sitka. There has been no accurate survey from any initial point 
since the date of the transfer. The people are holding their possessions upon cer- 
tificates which were signed by the commissioners twenty-five years ago, and which 
they had no authority to sign. The growth of the town is thereby naturally 
hampered. 

The work of the coast and geodetic survey needs to be extended, and more aids to 
navigation, furnished by the lighthouse board, are imperatively demanded. Railways, 
wagon-roads, and trails are much needed, and the people are anxious to have the 
government open new roads. What the government has already done through the 
War Department in the making of the Trans- Alaskan military road from Port Valdez 
to the crossing of the Tanana River, a distance of 265 miles, has been an immense 
help to all prospectors, miners, and traders in that region. 

Judiciary Scandal. — The scandal in which Judge Noyes was involved in 1901 was 
ended on January 6, when he and others who entered into a conspiracy with Alex- 
ander McKenzie, president of the East Alaska Gold Company, to take possession of 
the richest Nome mine were sentenced. The fine imposed on Judge Noyes for con- 
tempt was $1,000. District- Attorney Joseph K. Wood was sentenced to four months' 
imprisonment, and his assistant, C. A. S. Frost, was sentenced to imprisonment for 
one year. 

Other Occurrences. — During April and May there were several eruptions of the 
Mount Redoubt volcano, which is situated to the northwest of Cook Inlet. The 
ashes were carried to a distance of 50 miles. Mount Blackburn also became active. 
Earthquakes resulting from this cracked the surface of the Muir Glacier. During the 
summer, the remains of a mammoth were found at Keewalik, 300 miles northwest of 
Nome; the tusks were 12 feet long and weighed 170 pounds each. 

ALASKAN BOUNDARY QUESTION. Reports, in December, 1902, of the 
renewal of negotiations at Washington between John Hay, secretary of state, and 
Sir Michael Herbert, the British ambassador, looking toward a settlement of the 
long-standing dispute over the Alaskan boundary, foreshadowed the probable early 
signing of a treaty satisfactory to both Canada and the United States. The conflict- 
ing claims of Great Britain and the United States as to the boundary line between 
Canada and the Alaskan territory centre in the interpretation of two clauses in a 
treaty entered mto between Russia and Great Britain in 1825. These articles- 
numbers 3 and 4 of the treaty— defined the boundary between the Russian and British 
possessions m America, article 3 describing the course of the line, and article 4 con- 
taining a more explicit statement as to the interpretation of article 3. It is upon 
the interpretation of this interpretation that the whole question rests. The article 
reads as follows: 

"Article IV.— With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the pre- 
ceding article. It is understood-First, that the island called the Prince of Wales 
Island shall belong wholly to Russia. Second.— That wherever the summit of the 
mountains, which extend m a direction parallel to the coast, from the 56th degree 



^^ Alaskan Bovndary QvestloB* 

23 Albert. 

of north latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree, shall prove to be 
at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the limit between 
the British possessions and the line of coas': which is to belong to Russia as above 
mentioned, shall be formed by a line parallel to the windings of the coast, which 
shall never exceed the difference of ten marine leagues therefrom." 

In 18S7 Alaska was purchased from Russia by the United States, who thereby as- 
sumed, in regard to the boundary, the position formerly occupied by Russia. Up to 
that time there had never been any suggestion of a difference of opinion as to the 
boundary line, a situation possibly due to some extent to the fact that the region 
was then but little known. Very soon after the purdiase by the United States, how- 
ever, steps were taken looking toward a demarcation of the boundary line. In 1872 
the legislative assembly of British Columbia passed a resolution requesting the 
Dominion goverrmient to take steps toward starting a survey of the line, and in 
December of the same year President Grant, in his annual message, recommended 
the appointment of an international commission to define the boundary. No action 
was taken on either the legislative resolution or the President's recommendation, 
however. In 1886 a joint commission was a^ain proposed, and in 1888 conferences 
were held between representatives of the United States and Canadian governments, 
and finally, in 1892, a convention was entered into for a joint survey in order to 
ascertain the data necessary for the permanent delimitation of the boundary line. 
The surveys were completed, but no recommendations made as to the boundary line. 
It was not until after the rush to the Klondike gold fields in 1896, that the matter 
appeared of enough importance to the Canadian authorities to call for a formal 
protest against the American occupation and control. By the protocol of May, 1898, 
the matter was one of the subjects referred for settlement to the Joint High Commis- 
sion, which, however, adjourned without coming to any agreement. On December 
20, 1899, a modus vivendi was agreed upon providing for a temporary boundary line. 
By the terms of this agreement which was, on the whole, to the advantage of the 
United States, the line was placed at 22^ miles above Pyramid Harbor, which shut 
off the Canadians from a shipping point on the Lynn Canal, and made no concessions 
for a free port or free transfer of Canadian goods through American territory. On 
this modus vivendi of 1899, the matter has rested. 

The dispute turns principally on the interpretation of the words "a line parallel 
to the windings of the coast," contained in article 4 of the Anglo-Russian Treaty of 
1825. The United States claim rests upon a literal interpretation of the words, 
assuming that the treaty gave Russia control of all the coast of the mainland, and 
that the coast* line followed the windings of the coast, even to the head of the longest 
inlets. And this contention seems to be borne out by a perusal of the existing ac- 
counts of the negotiations preceding the Treaty of 1825, by both British and Russian 
maps of the region, and by the complete acquiescence of the British and Canadian 
authorities in the American occupation until after the opening of the Klondike. The 
British and Canadian contention is based on their assertion that the line as desig- 
nated in the Treaty of 1825, was not meant to follow the actual windings of the 
coast, but rather to follow the general trend of the coast, cutting across the head- 
lands of some of the bays and inlets, particularly the Lynn Channel, and thus giv- 
ing them access to the tide-water. The Canadian government has pressed for a 
settlement of the question by arbitration, in which they were willing to make the 
concession that arbitration should be based on the same principle as that in the 
Venezuelan case — namely, that title should be considered as being made good bv a 
proof of fifty-year holding, the term "holding" to be regarded as meaning political 
administration whether the region was actually settled or not. The United States 
has consistently refused to arbitrate, declaring that the Venezuelan and Alaskan 
questions were not comparable, and furthermore that it was against the policy of 
the United States to arbitrate a question involving territory that had been so long 
occupied by American citizens and tacitly acknowledged as belonging to them. 

ALBANIA, a region of European Turkey lying between Macedonia and the 
western coast. See Turkey (paragraph Albania). 

ALBATROSS EXPEDITION. See Zoological Expeditions. 

ALBERT, Friedrich August, King of Saxony, died at Dresden on June 19, 1902. 
He was bom April 23, 1828, at Dresden, and began his military career at fifteen years 
of age as an ensign. Afterwards he entered the University of Bonn, and was a 
diligent student, especially of military science, until 1848, when he rejoined his 
regiment. In 1849 he took part in the Danish war, and won high praise for bravery. 
Upon the accession of his father, John, in 1854, he became crown prince and 
president of the council. As commander-in-chief of the Saxon forces he took the 
field in the war between Prussia and Austria in 1866. when Saxony allied with 
Aastria, and commanded with distinction at the battles of Miinchengratz and Konig- 
gratr. On the formation, the same year, of the North German Confederation, Sax- 



24 



ony was included, and the army formerlv commanded by the Prince Albert became 
the twelfth corps in the army of the confederation. In the Franco- Prussian war his 
services were highly important. At the battle of Gravelotte he led a brilliant and 
successful attack upon a difficult French position and commanded the army of the 
Meuse, which cooperated with the two other German armies in closing upon Sedan. 
In 1873 he succeeded his father as King of Saxony, and throughout his reign was as 
ardently devoted to the interests of peace as he had formerly been vigorous and 
active in the field. He married Caroline, daughter of Prince Gustav of Vasa in 1853. 
He was succeeded in the kingdom by his brother George (q.v,). 

ALCOHOL continued in 1902 the subject of much experimentation, chiefly in 
the direction of determining its food value in health and disease. The consensus of 
opinion seems to be that while alcohol possesses a certain value in retarding tissue 
waste, in febrile or wasting diseases, its use in health is unnecessary. Dr. A. Ott« of 
Germany, after studying its effects in tuberculosis, concludes that alcohol in fever, 
as in health, tends to decrease the destruction of albuminous tissue to a degree equal 
to that of iso-dynamic amounts of carbohydrates, and that it is not a satisfactory 
food-stuff because we have better at our command; but when used in moderate 
amounts in febrile subjects it has no unfavorable effect, and particularly in chronic 
diseases of the lungs, when associated with depression, may do good. Arthur Clo- 
patt, of Berlin, conducted some experiments to show the effects of alcohol assimila- 
tion and found that it consumed nitrogenous materials, and that it had no appreciable 
effect upon the absorption of food in the intestines. F. S. Bennett, of England, finds 
that alcohol does not influence nitrogenous metabolism when given in moderate 
amounts any more than does fat, that it frequently protects the body proteids and fat 
from consumption, and that in moderate doses it retards many vital processes. 
Ch. Valentino shows that alcohol acts on the organism as (i) a fluid, (2) a 
poison, and (3) a dehydrant. As a fluid, it causes a rise in blood pressure and 
acute dilatation of the heart; as a poison, it is toxic (as shown by Rabuteau, Du- 
jardin-Beaumetz, and Audig^) in proportion to the number of CHs groups contained; 
its dehydrating action is particularly manifested in acute alcoholism, drunkenness 
being the result of its toxic and coma of its dehydrating action. He concludes that 
it is much more dangerous to drink a given amount of alcohol without water than 
well diluted. R. W. Jones, of England, as the result of his investigations into mental 
dissolution in relation to alcohol, finds that the forms of insanity that result most 
frequently from drinking are: (i) amnesic; (2) delusional; and (3) chronic varieties 
which end in dementia. 

ALEXANDER, Mrs. Annie, the pen-name of Annie Alexander Hector (q.v.). 

ALFONSO XIII., King of Spain, was enthroned on May 17, 1902, having at- 
tained his majority on that day. He was bom May 17, 1886, six months after the 
death of his father, Alfonso XII. His education, under the supervision of his 
mother. Queen Christina, who acted as regent during his minority, was thorough, 
and he began his reign under the political tutelage of Senor Sagasta, the veteran 
statesman whose last term as prime minister was in large part devoted to smoothing 
away the .initial difficulties of the young ruler. His self-control during the enthrone- 
ment festivities, when several anarchists were arrested for plotting against him, and 
also during the excitement of the attempted assassination of his grand chamberlain 
in a royal procession, produced a reassuring impression that has done much to 
discredit stories about his eccentricities. Since his accession there has been much 
political agitation, not only because of the industrial difficuhies of Spain resulting 
from the Spanish- American war, but on account of popular dislike of the religious 
orders. Thus far the popular unrest has not produced any apparent designs against 
the throne and person of the young kin^ or diminished his popularity. Until the 
last few years Alfonso's health was delicate, but since coming to the throne his 
appearance has indicated a more robust constitution. In manner he is frank, though 
somewhat imperious, and his disposition is said to be kindly. Of his mental 
capabilities the tests thus far have not been adequate to warrant an opinion as to 
whether he has the shrewdness and decisive character to deal wisely and fairly with 
the troubled conditions in Spain ; but the presumption afforded by the excellent man- 
ner in which he has conducted himself in his youth is altogether in his favor. After 
his enthronement he visited a number of the Spanish cities. 

ALGERIA, a country of northern Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, between 
Tunis and Morocco, is usually regarded as a colony, but is administratively a prov- 
ince of France. The capital is Algiers, with 120,000 inhabitants. The three organ- 
ized departments, Gran, Algiers, and Constantine, comprising Algeria proper, have an 
estimated area of about 184.474 square miles, but the southern boundary is not 
well defined and a part of the Sahara, with an area of something like 125,000 square 
miles, IS, for the purposes of administration, attached to Algeria. The total popula- 
tion of the three distncts was, in 1901, 4,774,042, divided as follows: Algiers, 1,631,- 



or AlfferlA* 

25 Altceld. 

4^; Onn, i,iQ3,ioB; Constantine, 2,039458. The population of Algiers, the prin- 
opal town, was 120,000 (1900); Oran, 85,081 (1896); and Constantine, 51,997 (1896). 
The French population in 1896 numbered 318,137, but has increased very rapidly since 
that ume. In that year there were also resident in the country 446,343 natives of 
other foreign nations. The population of the Sahara region numbered about 50,000, 
comprising practically independent nomad tribes. The native population is entirely 
Mohammedan. 

The government is administered by a dvil governor-general (M. Paul Revoil since 
1901), acting in constant communication with the French ministry. He is assisted by 
a ccmsnltative council and a superior council, composed of delegates chosen by eadi 
of the departmental councils, which discusses and votes the annual colonial budget. 
The legislative power is exercised by the French parliament, in which each depart- 
ment is represented by a senator and two deputies. The colonial revenue, derived 
largely from customs, direct taxes, and monopolies, amounted, according to the 
ba^^et estimate for 1902, to 56470,947 francs, and the expenditure, excluding that 
for war and marine, to 54,384,6J£2. 

The country is largely agricultural, the acreage of the principal crops in 1900 bein^ 
as follows: Barley, 3,635»995; wheat, 3,293»55o; vines (looi), 375»i36; oats, 97,836. 
There are 695,058 acres of cork forests belonging to the State. Silk culture is in a 
thriving condition, the weight of cocoons produced in 1899 being 25,688,250 pounds. 
Other unportant products are olives, esparto, dates, and flax. There are valuable 
mines of iron, zmc, lead, silver, copper, and coal. 

The commerce of the country is largely in the hands of the French. The special 
commerce in 1900 reached a value of 313,330,000 francs for imports, and 229,304,000 
francs for exports. The chief export is wine, the value of which exported to France 
in 1900 was 50433,000 francs. In the same year France took cereals to the value of 
37,844/xx> francs. In 1901 there were 1818 miles of railway open for traffic, and 99 
miles of tramway. 

History. — ^The anti-Semitic feeling which, in 1901, resulted in considerable rioting, 
seemed to have died down considerably during 1902, but a writer in the NouveUe 
Revu€ declares that as a purely political movement, it is gathering force. At the 
same time the Jewish population is increasing at a much greater rate than the French. 
Elections to the legislative assembly took place on April 27 and May 11, 1902, and 
resulted in a Republican victory, thus assuring a continuation of the present policy 
which controls rrench- Algerian relations. A decree of March 31 marked a step 
toward a reorganization of local administration by the establishment of rural agri- 
caltural boards, with varying and peculiar powers, elected on a classified suffrage 
indnding women. During the year 1902 there was considerable discussion in official 
circles of the proposal to divide Algeria into a northern (civil) and a southern (mili- 
tary) division, allowing the latter practical autonomy. During June a punitive 
expedition was undertaken against the Tuaregs in southern Algeria, whose depreda- 
tioiis had been causing considerable loss to merchants and traders. 

ALLMERS, Hermann Ludwig, a Frisian poet and well-known figure in the 
"marshland," died March 9, 1902, at Rechtenfleth, on the lower Weser, where he was 
bom February 11, 1821. His artistic inclinations led him to abandon the approved 
farming life of the region, and at an early age he left home to study in Berlin, 
Monich, and Nuremberg, and to travel later in Switzerland and Italy, as well as in 
Germany. On his return to Rechtenfleth the fostering of local art and history 
became his chief care, and his ancient homestead gained renown for the patriarchal 
hospitality there dispensed. His Marschenbuch (1858) depicts his native region. 
Others of his works are: Dichtungen (i860); Romische Schlendertage (1869); 
Electro^ a drama (1872) ; Dichtungen su von Dombergs kulturgeschichtlichen Bil- 
dem aus dem Nordsee-Marschen (1882); and Fromm und Frei, religious poems 
(1SS9). A complete edition of his works was published in 1891-95. 

ALTGBLD, John Petes, ex-govemqr of Illinois, died at Joliet, in that State, 
March 12, 1902. He was bom near Berlin, Germany, December 30, 1847, and when 
three years of age was brought by his parents to the United States. After a child- 
hood spent on a farm near Mansfield, Ohio, with but meagre education, he enlisted as 
a volunteer in the Union Army, in 1864. At the close of the war he obtained enough 
education to secure him a teacher's certificate, after which he removed first to St. 
Louis, and then to Savannah, Mo., where he taught school and studied law at the 
same time, being admitted to the bar of the State in 1870. In 1874 he became the 
prosecoting attorney for Andrew County, Mo.^ and in 1875 removed to Chicago. 
There he worked obscurely aS a lawyer for nine years before his name was first 
brought out in a political nomination. In 1884 he was the Democratic candidate for 
Congress in the Fourth Illinois district, but was unsuccessful. Two years later he 
was elected a justice of the Cook County Superior Court. In 1890 he became chief 
Jostioe of that court, and in 1892 left the bench. In the meantime the radical sec- 



Altseld. ^/r 

Amerloan Board. <«0 

tiqn of the Democratic party in Chicago had fixed upon him as a promising leader. 
His advocacy of their views brought him the Democratic nomination for the gov- 
ernorship of Illinois, to which office he was triumphantly elected in 1892. His term 
as governor was one of the most notable in the history of Illinois, owing to the 
attention attracted by the application of his doctrinaire principles. During the Chi- 
cago railroad strike of 1894, the holding up of trains by the strikers interfered with 
transmission of the mails, and he refused tacitly to suppress the mob. President 
Cleveland's decision to send, federal troops into Illinois to prevent stoppage of the 
mails evoked from Governor Altgeld a long and elaborate protest, which, however, 
was disregarded. The pardon of three condemned anarchists, who were undergoing 
sentences for their connection with the murder of policemen caused by the bomb- 
throwing in Hasrmarket Square, Chicago, on May 4, 1886, raised a storm of indig- 
nation against Altgeld throughout the country. To this the reply was that the 
pardon was granted exclusively on legal and technical grounds. He held that the 
pardoned men had not been justly convicted. At the convention which nominated 
William Jennings Bryan for the Presidency in 1896, he was able substantially to 
influence the character of the party platform, and the planks denouncing judicial 
injunction, interference with State rights, and advocating the free coinage of silver 
were in large part due to his activity. In 1896 he was again a candidate for governor, 
but was defeated by John R. Tanner, the Republican candidate, by a plurality of more 
than lcX),ooa Three years afterward he sought election as mayor of Chicago on an 
independent ticket, but was defeated by Carter Harrison. The later estimate of 
Altgeld, while it denounces him as governor, yet recognizes the honesty and marked 
ability of the man, as well as the moral earnestness which accompanied his political 
idealism. 

ALUMINUM. See Mineral Production. 

ALVES, Francisco de Paula Rodriguez, was elected president of Brazil, in 
March, 1902, as successor to President Campos Salles, and was inaugurated on 
November 15, the anniversary of the proclamation of the country's independence. 
Dr. Alves is a lawyer by profession as well as a capable financier, and at the time 
of his election was governor of the state of Sao Paulo. He is said to be a safe and 
conservative republican, of excellent administrative ability, and has for several years 
been prominent in politics and recognized as a probable president. His election is 
said to have strengthened the position of Brazil in European financial circles. See 
Brazil (paragraphs on History.) 

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. 

See Political and Social Science, American Academy of. 

AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MIS- 
SIONS, the oldest foreign missionary society in the United States, founded 1810 
and incorporated two years later. Its first missionaries, to India, were sent out in 
1 81 2, and since that date, the board has commissioned 2384 persons. There are now 
20 missions, including loi stations and 1301 out-stations, in Africa, Turkey, and 
Bulgaria, India and Ceylon, China, Japan, Hawaii, Micronesian Islands, Mexico, 
Spain, Austria, and the Philippines. During 1902 y; persons were added to the 
missionary force; 19 new churches were established; and the board entered the 
Philippines, where, probably, the work will be centralized in Mindanao. The 
churches, under the auspices of the American Board number 524, with 55,645 mem- 
bers, an increase of 5609 during the year; there are 1266 educational institutions of 
various grades, having 60,964 pupils, 167 being students for the ministry. The 
873 Sunday-schools are attended by 60,321 scholars. The missionary force in- 
cludes 4130 workers — 549 missionaries from the United States and 3581 native 
laborers. Native contributions, so far as reported, aggregated $167,512. The Aineri- 
can Board is supported by voluntary contributions of churches and individuals and by 
legacies ; it began the fiscal year 1902 without debt, and its total receipts were $845,- 
ic^. Through the state department $57»933 was received, this sum being 25 per cent, 
of the total award made to the board for property losses during the Boxer outbreak 
of 1900 in China. Miss Ellen M. Stone, whose capture by brigands in Macedonia, Sep- 
tember 3, 1901, excited much interest, was released on February 2^^ 1902, on payment of 
a ransom of $68,200, contributed by friends in America, the amount originally demanded 
having been $110,000. The hostile criticism aroused by Miss Stone's action in pub- 
lishing the story of her experiences and in entering the lecture field was met by the 
statement that she hoped to devote the money received to reimbursement of those 
who assisted in raising her ransom, and to missionary work. In Hawaii, the 
missions, though still aided by the board, will probably be soon transferred to the care 
of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association, which in 1902 assumed a part of the 
expense. It was voted at the annual meeting of the board to allow the Prudential 
Committee to transfer the Micronesian Mission, excepting Guam, where a new sta- 
tion has been successfully opened, to the London Missionary Society, which possesses 



^^ American Board. 

^/ Ananiy or Annam* 

a missionary vessel, or to a German society, since the islands belong to Germany. 
Tbe ninety-third annual meeting of the American Board, held October 14-17 at 
Obcrlin, Ohio., was signalized by the laying of the corner-stone of a memorial arch 
to the eighteen missionaries who lost their lives in China in 1900. Several of these 
missionaries were educated at Oberlin College. One of the interesting features of 
the session was an account of the deputation that visited the missionary fields in 
India during igoi. President, Samuel B. Capen, LL.D.; district secretaries. Rev. 
Charles C. Creegan, D.D., Fourth Avenue and Twenty-second Street, New York 
City, and Rev. A. N. Hitchcock, Ph.D., 53 La Salle Street, Chicago. Headquarters, 
Congregational House, Boston, Mass. 

AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION. See Economic Association, 
.\miican. 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. See Federation of Labos, Amer- 
ican. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. See Library Association, Amer- 
ican. 

AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION. See Missionary Association, 
American. 

AMERICAN SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION. See Sunday School Union, 
American. 

AMHERST COLLEGE, Amherst, Mass., founded 1821. The attendance during 
igoi-02 was 404, under a faculty of 35 instructors. The income for the year was 
increased to $109,000, during which period gifts to the amount of $100,000 were 
received. The college now owns property to the value of $2,800,000. Plans were 
completed in 1902 for the erection of an astronomical observatory, costing $50,000. 
Students may complete the course in three years by having two term credits at 
entrance and taking six courses a year, and in three years and a half by taking six 
courses a year after the Freshman year. President, George Harris, D.D. 

ANJESTHESIA. Investigations into this subject during 1902 were chiefly in 
the direction of improving the technique andperfecting the use of spinal anaesthesia. 
This method, suggested in 1885 by Dr. J. L. Corning, of New York, has only recently 
been generally adopted by the medical profession, in cases in which on account 
of cardiac or pulmonary disease general anaesthesia is contra-indicated. Medullary 
narcosis is obtained by injecting the anaesthetizing substances into the spinal canal 
between the second and third or the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. More or less 
complete anaesthesia is thus secured in the lower extremities and lower portion of the 
trunk, and obstetric, gynecological, and other operations are thus made possible with- 
out loss of consciousness on the part of the patient. In place of cocaine, which was 
originally used, eucaine and tropa-cocaine have lately been employed, with the object 
of avoiding certain disagreeable manifestations of the former drug. Friedrich 
Netigebauer, of Vienna, who has used tropa-cocaine in a large number of operations 
upon the lower portions of the body, reports favorably on its action. The longest 
operation lasted one and a quarter hours, and the drug had to be repeatedly injected. 
That this procedure is not without danger is pointed out by different observers, who 
mention sudden death, atttacks resembling apoplexy, syncope, profound weakness, 
severe vomiting, and headache, as results of tne operation, independent of the drug 
used. For new local anaesthetics, see the following article and Nervocidine. 

ANASTHESIN (Ritsert's) is the para-amido benzoic acid ethylester. It is 
a white, odorless, and almost tasteless powder, and causes, when applied to the 
skin, a transitory burning sensation. While the substance is a local anaesthetic, it is 
not intended to be used like cocaine, since its anaesthetic properties are slighter; but 
when it is applied to wounds or raw surfaces, it diminishes the pain, and, accord- 
ing to Speiss, promotes rapid healing. Its main usefulness, however, is for irritative 
affections of the mucous membranes, and accordingly it is of value in whooping 
cough and particularly in coryza. Von Noorden has given it for gastric hyper- 
xsthesia, angina, dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing), laryngeal hyperaesthesia, pain- 
ful hemorrhoids, irritation of the bladder, and pruritus. Leg ulcers also are bene- 
fited by it 

ANAM , or ANNAM, a French protectorate on the China Sea, extending from 
Tonquin on the north to Cambodia and Cochin-China on the south, forming a part 
of the French colony of Indo-China. The area is about 52,100 square miles, and the 
estimated population (1898) 6,394,250. The capital is Hue, with a population of 50,- 
00a The administration of internal affairs, nominally in the hands of the native 
king (Than Thai) and his officials, is in reality managed by the French resident. 
The customs and finances are in charge of French officials. The local budget in 1901 
balanced at 2,081,416 piastres, and the expenditure of France on Anam and Tonquin 
combined, amounted (budget of 1901) to 1,084,913 francs. (The franc is worth 19.3 



Ananii or Annam* ^Q 

Anffola* or Portsffaeee Weit Afirlea. ^^ 

cents and the piastre about 24 francs^ The principal products are rice, maize* 
spices, tobacco, sugar, bamboo, and coffee. There are native manufactures of raw 
silk, coarse crepe, and earthenware, and valuable deposits of coal, iron, copper, zinc, 
and gold, still very little developed. The imports m 1899 were valued at 4,173,567 
francs, and the exports at 6,567491 francs. Since that date the customs department 
has been combined with that of Cochin-China (q.v.). A railroad, 65 miles in 
length, from Hue to the seaport of Turan, is projected. See Indo-China. 
ANARCHY. See Unfted States (paragraph Anarchy). 

ANDRADE, Jose, a prominent Venezuelan diplomat, died in New York City, 
March 20, 1902. He was born in the state of Losandes, Venezuela, in 1858, and 
some years after entering public life became speaker of the Venezuelan Congress. 
From 1893 to 1899 he was minister to the United States, representing his country 
at the time of the Venezuelan boundary dispute in 1895. He accompanied President 
Harrison to England and assisted him in conducting the negotiations which ulti- 
mately secured a settlement of the difficulty by arbitration. Seiior Andrade was at 
different times the representative of his country at Paris, Madrid, Rome, and 
Berlin. 

ANDREW AND PHILIP, BROTHERHOOD OP, established in 1888 for 
"the spread of the kingdom of Christ among men," is an interdenominational order, 
having members in some 20 denominations. The brotherhood is found in 35 States, 
where its enrollment includes 550 chapters, with a membership of 15,000. It is 
officially represented by the Brotherhood Star, published monthly in New York 
City. President, Rev. Rufus W. Miller, D.D.; general secretary, Rev. J. G. Hamner, 
Jr., 189 Garside Street, Newark, N. J. 

ANDREWS, Charles Bartlett, former governor of Connecticut, died Septem- 
ber 12, 1902, at Litchfield, in that State. He was born November 4, 1834, ^t Sunder- 
land, Mass., graduated at Amherst College in 1858, and received the degree of LL.D. 
from Amherst, Wesleyan, and Yale. In 1863 he settled in Litchfield and became 
active in politics as a Republican. He served in the State senate in 1868 and 1869, in 
the house in 1878, and was governor from 1879 to 1881. He was chief justice of the 
supreme court of Connecticut from 1889 until he resigned on account of failing 
health in 1901. His eminence as a jurist and the esteem in which he was held 
were attested by the constitutional convention, held in Connecticut, January, 1902, 
in choosing him unanimously for presiding officer. 

ANEURISM. A new treatment has been proposed and carried out with success 
in cases of aneurisms of the large arteries, particularly of the thoracic and abdominal 
aorta, that are not amenable to operation. These huge blood tumors have hitherto 
been treated by the introduction of foreign bodies such as wires and needles, in the 
hope of promoting clot formation and gradual solidification of the tumor with, how- 
ever, but indifferent results. Recently advantage has been taken of the hemostatic 
properties of gelatin in the treatment of this condition. This substance is dissolved 
in an artificial serum and injected into the loose tissue of the thigh at intervals 
of two or more days. After from three to twelve injections are given, over a period 
of one or two months, the aneurism diminishes in size and becomes hard, while pain, 
discomfort, and inability to make any exertion disappear. Cases of complete cure by 
this method have been reported by K. Barth, of Germany, Surgeon-General Dusolier, 
of France, and others. The operation is called after Lancereaux, who first sug- 
gested it. 

ANGLICAN CHURCH, or the Anglo- Catholic Church, a term applied in par- 
ticular to the Church of England, but, in a wider sense, including also the churches 
derived from the established church of England. See England, Church of; Ire- 
land, Church of; and Protestant Episcopal Church. 

ANGOLA, or PORTUGUESE WEST AFRICA, a dependency of Portugal 
on the Atlantic between the Congo Free State and German Southwest Africa, has 
an estimated area of 484,800 square miles and an estimated population of 4,119,000. 
The seat of government is St. Paul de Loanda, where the administration is carried 
on by a governor and his subordinate appointed by the crown. The estimated 
revenue and expenditure for the fiscal year 1901-02 was 1,844,075 milreis and 
1,994,072 milreis respectively; for 1902-03, 1,743413 and 2,026,212 respectively. The 
value of the gold milreis and the face value of the paper milreis are $1.06. 
The most important product is rubber, but production is impeded by la<i of 
internal communications. In 1899 imports and exports in milreis amounted 
to 6,314,846 and 7,035414 respectively; in 1900, 7.267,239 and 5,369,818 respectively. 
The imports, principally textiles, are largely of British and German manufacture; 
the exports, chiefly rubber and coffee, are in great part sent to Portugal. 
Economic conditions are unfavorable on account, to a considerable extent, of the 
customs tariff favoring Portuguese trade. The Ambaca Railway, which is in opera- 
tion from St. Paul de Loanda to the Lucalla River, 225 miles, will be extended, it is 



^^ Angola, or Portv ffvese West Aflrlea* 

•^y Antarctic Ezploratlini. 

hoped, to Malange, about 124 miles farther. A line about 20 miles long connects 
Benguella with Katuxnbella, and a project has been approved for building a railway 
from Benguella to a point in the interior about 500 miles distant. In the summer of 
1902 the Portuguese had considerable difficulty in curbing several native revolts. 

ANTARCTIC BXPLORATION. Excellent progress was made by the three 
scientific expeditions that worked in the Antarctic regions during 1902;. and in addi- 
tion a fourth expedition, also for scientific purposes, started to the far south in 
the summer of that year. The investigation of magnetic problems is, of course, 
the main object of all these enterprises, and all the expeditions are thoroughly 
cqntpped with apparatus to this end. They are also provided with equipment for other 
scientific observations, but in this matter there has been some specializing among the 
▼arioos parties. The Swedes, for example, were fitted to do specialized work in geol- 
ogy, and the new Scottish expedition, which meant to remain at sea, was provided with 
a fine set of apparatus for meteorological and oceanographic investigation. Magnetic 
stations have been established all around the world. The series of stations con- 
sisting of the Bristol observatory in Victoria Land, the Argentine station in Staten 
Island, and the German station in Kerguelen has been supplemented by a second 
German station at Samoa. The observations in all these stations will be continued 
until March i, 1903. 

The National Antarctic Expedition. — At the end of 1902 nothing had been h^rd of 
the British ship Discovery since she left Port Chalmers, New Zealand, for Victoria 
Land, December 24, 1901 ; but during 1902 reports of defects in her construction con- 
tained both in letters from members of the advance party who accompanied her to 
the far south, and in reports from members of the Royal Geographical Society who 
left the ship at New Zealand, were published in various periodicals. Accordmg to 
these reports the Discovery not only leaked badly but also rolled heavily in the slight- 
est seaway. Meanwhile, in 1901-02 the Royal Geographical Society collected £23,000 
for a relief expedition. The ship purchased was the whaler Morning of Tonsberg, 
Norway. The vessel displaces 450 tons, is 140 feet long by 3iJ/^ feet beam, and 
draws about 19 feet of water. The commander of the expedition was Captain Wil- 
liam Colbeck of the Royal Naval Reserve. He was captain of the Montebello, a 
Wilson line steamer, and was a member of the Southern Cross expedition under 
Mr. Borchgrevinck in 1900. The other officers of the Morning were Rupert Eng- 
land, E. K. Y. Evans, Gerald S. Doorly, George A. Mulock; J. S. Morrison was 
engineer and George Adams Davidson was surgeon. The Morning had a crew of 
eight petty officers, nine seamen, and three firemen. The relief party set sail July 
9, 19GS, for Ljrttleton, New Zealand, to refit and take in supplies. It arrived in that 
pOTt November 16. Captain Scott of the Discovery had planned to leave records 
m zinc cylinders at Cape Adare, Possession Island, Cushman Island, Wood Bay, 
Franklin Island, C^pe Crozier, and at the spot in the ice barrier at which Borch- 
grevinck landed in 1900, and from which he pushed across the ice to the farthest 
sooth (78® so'). The Morning was instructed to visit all these places. Should the 
Discovery be found. Captain Colbeck was to work under the orders of Captain Scott 
onti] the two vessels shall return to Lyttleton, where they were expected in the 
spring of 19Q3. Should the Morning not meet the Discovery the relief party is in- 
structed to lay down depots of supplies at Cape Adare, at Wood Bay, and at Cape 
Crozier, before returning to New Zealand. If no trace of the Discovery shall be 
found the assumption is that she has passed beyond the great ice barrier to the 
eastward of the 164th meridian, and the Morning is instructed not to search for her. 
The German Antarctic Expedition under Dr. Erik von Drygalski, which left Kiel, 
August II, 1901, on the Gauss, and arrived at Cape Town November 23, was de- 
tained there longer than was anticipated. The ship was somewhat foul and leaked 
badly; she was therefore recaulked. The ventilating arrangements had to be ampli- 
fied, and laboratory and other breakable articles were replenished. On October 12, 
19D1, a supply ship, the steamer Tanglin, left Sydney for Kerguelen carrying coal 
and supplies for the Gauss, as well as for the Kerguelen party, and the Siberian dogs, 
a private gift to the expedition. Two of the scientific members of the expedition, 
Herr J. J. Enzensprenger and Dr. Luyken, were aboard the Tanglin. On November 
9, 1901, after a hard trip, Kerguelen was sighted. Beri-beri broke out among the 
crew, which was composed mostly of Chinese; two of them died, and others were 
more or less affected. The crew then mutinied and the captain and the scientific 
staff had to do the work of landing supplies and building houses. It was also found that 
the theodolite and other magnetic instruments had been left behind, so no observa- 
tions could be taken before the arrival of the Gauss with instruments. The Gauss, 
meanwhile, had left Cape Town December 9, and reached Kerguelen January 2, 
1902. In spite of bad weather she had taken thirteen soundings in this region where 
no soundingrs had before been made. Instead of finding the Tanglin at Three Island 
Hait)or in Royal Sound, as had been agreed^ Dr. von Drygalski found a letter direct- 



Antaretlo Sxploimtlon. ^q 

ing him to the station that had been established in Observatory Bay near the posi- 
tion occupied by the English transit of Venus expedition. There the party landed 
by the Tanglin was found in poor quarters. The vessel had already gone, leaving 
the coal and supplies on the beach. When the Gauss arrived at Kerguelen, she was 
again leaking so badly that the sound of the water slopping about under the plates 
of the engine-room floor could be plainly heard ; this leak was repaired, however, and 
on January 31, 1902, the Gauss sailed for the far south leaving a party of five at the Ker- 
guelen Station, consisting of Mr. J. J. Enzensprenger, Dr. Luyken, Dr. Werth (the 
biologist), and two sailors. They were to remain there until March 20, 1903, for the 
purpose of carrying on meteorological and magnetic observations in cooperation with 
the stations at Staten Island, Samoa, Victoria Land, etc.. 

The Gauss was provided with food to last until 1904. She had 400 tons of coal 
aboard. The condition of the ship was satisfactory to the leader, and the dogs were 
in good condition, only three having died on the way to Kerguelen. The first 
destination of the party was Termination Island, seen by Wilkes m 1840, which the 
Challenger party failed to find, however, in 1874. The expedition will then follow 
the ice barrier westward until it finds open sea and is able to penetrate to the south. 
The leader will attempt to discover whether there is any connection between Vic- 
toria Land, Kemp, and Enderby Lands. If there is no connection he expects to 
emerge in the South Atlantic. After the sailing of the Gauss the plans of the 
expedition were enlarged. It was then estimated that the expedition would cost 
i75,ooo instead of £60,000 as was first planned. These figures do not include the 
work of the Kerguelen Station. Complete official reports of the work of this station 
to April 2, 1902, as well as the vovage of the Gauss from Kiel to Cape Town and 
thence to Kerguelen, were published in the VerofFentlichungen des Instituts fur 
Meeres Kunde und des geographischen Instituts, Berlin. 

The Swedish Expedition. — After leaving Buenos Ayres on December 20, 1901, Mr. 
Otto Nordenskj old's party on the Antarctic sailed for the Falkland Islands. They 
arrived at Port Stanley on December 31 and thence went to the Argentine Ob- 
servatory on Staten Island for the purpose of comparing instruments. They arrived 
January 6, 1902, but were unable to make comparisons, as they found the observatory 
uncompleted. The first Antarctic land sighted (January 11) by the expedition was 
King George Island of the Shetland Group, and the party made their first far 
southern landing at Harmony Cave, Nelson Island. The Antarctic sailing westward, 
proceeded to the mainland and ascertained that the coasts of Louis Philippe Land 
and Graham Land are connected. The previous supposition had been that Louis 
Philippe Land was an island. On February 12, 1902, the supplies for the winter 
party were unloaded at Cape Seymour, on the east side of Graham Land, Admiralty 
Inlet, near Great Snow Hill Glacier. The wintering party comprised Dr. Nordens- 
kj old; Dr. G. Hodman, meteorologist and magnetician; Lieutenant Sobral, who 
joined the Antarctic at Buenos Ayres, assistant magnetician; Dr. E. Ekelaf, physi- 
cian and biologist; and two sailors. Sledge journeys were to be made during the 
fall and spring as far south as possible. The Antarctic, under Mr. T. G. Andersson, 
the geologist, as acting scientific leader, left Cape Se3miour February 21, 1902, for 
the Falkland Islands, and reached Port Stanley, March 26. The wintering party 
Was to be called for about January i, 1903. Dr. Nordenskj old had made plans for a 
winter's trip by the Antarctic party to South Georgia for hydrographical and zoologi- 
cal work. For this purpose the Antarctic left the Falklands April 11, and arrived 
at Cumberland Bay, South Georgia, on the 22d. Soundings were taken, the last one 
showing a deep sea between Shay Rocks and South Georgia and no connecting 
marine ridge. On May i Mr. T. G. Andersson, Mr. Dure, Mr. Scotsberg, and one 
of the crew landed to investigate the country while the Antarctic made a two weeks' 
cruise across to Possession Bay and the Bay of Isles. On May 12 the vessel re- 
turned and remained in Cumberland Bay until June 14, making daily trips to 
sound and dredge the bay. During the expedition's stay in Cumberland Bay a 
surrounding area of 300 square miles was surveyed and mapped. On June 15 the 
Antarctic sailed for the Falklands and arrived July 4. It was Dr. Nordenskj old's 
intention to remain a second winter in the south. 

The Scottish Expedition.— The fourth important Antarctic expedition in the field 
m 1902, the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, also called the Bruce-Robertson 
Expedition, under the leadership of Dr. W. C. Bruce. Captain Robertson being in 
command of the vessel, sailed in the steamer Scotia from Troon, Norway, Novem- 
ber 2, 1902. The expedition reached Funchal, Madeira, November 20, where the 
coal given the expedition by the Union Castle Line was taken aboard; it then left 
for the Falkland Islands, November 23, where more coal and supplies were to be 
shipped. From Port Stanley the Scotia was to sail eastward 1000 miles, investigate 
the Sandwich Islands, and then turn southward. The only other explorer who has 
visited this Antarctic region is Capt. James Weddell, also a Scotchman, who 



^ T Antarctic Sxploimtlon. 

O '*' Anthropolovy In America 

sailed from Leith in 1823 and in the following year, in an open sea, made a higher 
soothing than any one before the day of Ross, and saw open water before him. 
Great care will be used in the investigation of the region in 68° 34' S., 12'' 49' W., 
where Ross got the sounding 4000 fathoms and no bottom. The Scotchmen wil! also 
ascertain whether the "deep" reported by the Valdivia between the Bouvet Islands 
and Enderby Land extends far toward the westward. The ship used for the expedi- 
tion, the Scotia, was formerly the whaler Hecla, She was thoroughly overhauled 
by ^e Ailsa Shipbuilding Company at Troon under the supervision of Mr. G. L. 
Watson. The Scotia is a barque-rigged, auxiliary screw steamer, of about 400 tons, 
140 feet long by 29 feet beam, drawing 15 feet of water. She was equipped with 
new engines and boiler and it was expected that her speed would be seven knots 
an hour. A special deck-house amidships was provided for scientific work, the 
after part of which forms the galley. A large laboratory designed for zoological 
work lies below the deck-house, and a very complete dark room adjoins it. AVhile 
sdentific researches of all kinds are to be carried on, the party is especially equipped 
for oceanographic and meteorological work. The vessel carries two large drums, 
each containing 6000 fathoms of cable, for trapping and trawling at great depths. 
The cable is led up on deck to a specially constructed 40-horse-power steam winch. 
There is also a specially constructed motor engine for reeling in the large kites, 
whidi carry meterological instruments to great heights in the air. Besides this, 
there are nets of all kinds for taking plant and animal life from the sea, as well 
as apparatus for procuring seals and whales. Hourly meteorological observations 
will be taken during the entire time. 

The master of the vessel is Capt. Thomas Robertson, of Peterhead, who has al- 
ready been in the Antarctic regions and has had twenty years' experience in the 
Arctic The scientific staff consists of six men. The leader, Mr. W. S. Bruce and 
Mr. Wilton, will carry on the zoological work; Mr. R. N. Rudmore-Brown is botan- 
ist; Mr. R. C. Mossmann, meteorologist and magnetist; Dr. Y. H. H. Pirie, geologist 
and medical officer; a taxidermist and artist also accompany the expedition. The 
Scotia sailed with thirty-seven people all told, aboard. Dispatches received from 
Madeira said that she had proved herself a good sea boat and economical of coal, but 
that she rolled heavily. Mr. Bruce does not intend to allow the Scotia to be frozen 
in the ice if it can be avoided, for in his opinion his purposes can be better accom- 
plished if the ship sails free. There will be no landing party, as not sufficient funds 
were contributed. The length of time that the Bruce-Robertson party remain in the 
far south wiU depend entirely on what provision the Scottish Geographical Society 
may be able to make for it. 

Rumors of Expeditions. — Mr. C. £. Borchgrevink took out citizenship papers in 
the United States in 1902, and according to rumor was to lead an expedition under 
the patronage of various authorities in the Smithsonian Institution, to explore the 
Antarctic regions. It was said that Capt. Adrien de Gerlache, who headed the ex- 
pedition of the Belgica in 1897-99, was planning to lead another expedition into the 
Antarctic regions. 

ANTHROPOLOGY IN AMERICA. The year 1902 witnessed a steady in- 
crease of interest in various departments of anthropologic science, especially in the 
United States. This interest was manifested partly in growing activity among insti- 
tutions devoted to the science. The most noteworthy movement was the founding of 
the American Anthropological Association as a national organization designed to 
promote investigation and publication, and by these means, as well as by meetings, 
to bring the anthropologists of the country and the world into closer union. The 
initial steps were taken at Chicago during the Convocation Week of 1901-02; the 
association was formally founded at Pittsburg on June 30^ 1902; and the first 
regular meeting was held in Washington during the Convocation Week of 1902-03. 
The timeliness of the movement and the recognized need for such an organization 
are sufficiently indicated by the fact that all the leading anthropologists of the 
country were practically united in its support. The officers chosen comprise W J 
McGee, of Washington, president; F. W. Putnam, of Cambridge, Franz Boaz, of 
New York, and W. H. Holmes and J. W. Powell, of Washington, vice-presidents; 
Geoige A- Dorsey, of Chicago, secretary; Roland B. Dixon, of Cambridge, treasurer; 
and F. W. Hodge, of Washington, editor. At the Washington meeting an arrange- 
ment was effected whereby the publication of the American Anthropologist, the 
leading journal of its class in the western hemisphere and one of the foremost 
in the world, was turned over to the association. Other voluntary organizations 
have continued in vigorous activity both in this country and abroad. The Anthro- 
pological Society of Washington held bi-weekly meetings during 1902, except in the 
summer months, closing the year by the election of Miss Alice Cunningham Fletcher 
as president, Joseph p. McGuire and Walter Hough as secretaries, and P. B. 
Pierce as treasurer, with a strong corps of vice-presidents. The American Ethno- 
logical Society, domiciled in New York, held frequent meetings during the winter 



ABKhropolonr Ib Ameriea* ^ ^ 

months at which numerous ps^ers and addresses were presented; the officers at the 
end of the year were Morris BC Jesup, president; General James Grant Wilson and 
Professor Franz Boas, vice-presidents; Livingston Farrand and M. H. Saville, 
secretaries, and George H. Pepper, treasurer. The section of anthropology in the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science held important meetings at 
Pittsburg June 30-July 3, 1902, and at Washington December 29, 1902, to January 2, 
1903; in both meetings the American Folk-Lore Society cooperated, and in the second 
the American Anthropological Association also; and at them opportuni^ was 
given for the presentation and discussion of more than a hundred contributions to 
the various branches of the science of man. The Pittsburg meeting was held under 
the chairmanship of Dr. Stewart Culin, of Philadelphia, with Dr. George A. Dorsey 
as secretary; at the Washington meeting Dr. Dorsey was chairman, and Dr. Roland 
B. Dixon, of Cambridge, secretary. One of the notable events of 1902 was the 
session of the International Congress of Americanists held in New York October 
20-25, primarily at the instance ot the Due de Loubat and under the special support 
of Mr. Morris K. Jesup. The committee on arrangements for the meeting included 
the leading American anthropologists, with Prof. F. W. Putnam as chairman, and Dr. 
M. H. Saville as secretary. The congress brought representatives from about a score 
of countries as well as from all sections of the United States; and some eighty 
communications relating to the anthropolo^ and early history of the western hemi- 
sphere were presented and discussed. While Mr. Jesup was president and the Due 
de Loubat honorary president of the congress, the international character was 
emphasized by having vice-presidents from difTerent countries preside at the daily 
sessions. These vice-presidents were Juan B. Ambrosetti, for Argentina • Alfredo 
Chavero, for Mexico; Leon Lejeal, for France; Karl von den Steinen, for Germany; 
Hjalmar Stolpe, for Sweden; and F. W. Putnam, for the United States. Out of 
compliment to the country of meeting, most of the communications and dis- 
cussions were in English (though French is the official language of the congress), 
while Spanish, German, and Swedish were used also, especially in the informal 
discussions which formed the most attractive, if not the most useful, feature of the 
congress. 

The chief unofficial anthropologic serials in this country remain the American 
Anthropologist (New York), the American Folk-Lore Journal (Cambridge), the 
American Antiquarian (Chicago), and the Proceedings of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science (Washington) ; but it is a sign of the times 
that an increasing number of articles prepared by anthropologists are produced in 
the standard magazines. The leading organizations and publications in which the 
science is fostered abroad are, as dunng past years, the Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland, with its quarterly Journal and the excellent journal Man\ 
the Berliner Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologic, Ethnologic, und Urgeschichte, with its 
two serials, viz., Verhandlungen, and Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie; and the Societe 
d* Anthropologic de Paris, witn its Bulletin and MSmoires. 

The leading official institution devoted to researches concerning mankind in this 
country is the Bureau of American Ethnology, which has continued field researdies 
among Indian tribes and concerning related antiquities in a number of States and 
Territories as well as in portions of Canada and Mexico. Noteworthy expeditions 
were those of Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, early in 1902 to Porto Rico and in the autumn 
to the same island and Haiti where interesting aboriginal remains abound and 
where certain aboriginal customs and institutions have been preserved; also that 
of Dr. Frank Russell, who in June brought to an end a residence of nearly a year 
among the Pima Indians of Arizona, in the course of which he gained important 
information concerning the industries, social organization^ and beliefs developed 
under conditions of extreme aridity. The bureau has continued the publication of 
annual reports and bulletins, of which several volumes were distributed through the 
year. It remains unique among official institutions, though scientific men of both 
the British and German empires have striven for years to have similar work 
undertaken in their colonies and dependencies. Its nearest analogue was developed 
during 1902 under the title, Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes in the Philippine 
Islands ; the office being modeled after the American Bureau by the Philippine Com- 
mission, and entrusted to the direction of Dr. David P. Barrows, formerly of 
California. During the year the bureau suffered the great loss, by death, of its 
founder and director, Major J. W. Powell. The important ethnologic and 
archaeologic researches of the Jesup North Pacific expeditions have been continued 
vigorously. These expeditions, supported by Mr. Morris K. Jesup in connection 
with the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and conducted under 
the general direction of Prof. F. W. Putnam and the more immediate supervision of 
Professor Franz Boas, were designed primarily to trace evidences of ethnic relation 
between the peoples of northwestern America and northeastern Asia; but, in 
addition to throwing much light on the subject of immediate inquiry, they have 



^ ^ Antliropolovy in Ameriea* 

yielded abundant data relating to the characteristics of various more primitive 
tribes. Among the important contributions may be noted the records of observation 
by Professor Waldemar Bogoras; certain of his observations on ceremonies and 
traditions are startling, in that they seem to indicate conclusively a migration in 
relatively early (i. c,, pre-Eskimo) time from America to Asia. Although these 
indications are directly counter to prevailing suppositions, they are in harmony with 
varioas other determinations; thus, our most definite knowledge of human migration 
across Bering Strait is that of the westward passage of a branch of the Eskimo 
daring late prehistoric times; while several migration routes of birds cross the 
strait from breeding grounds in Alaska to wmter feeding grounds stretching 
soathward from Kamdbatka. These indications are also in striking accord with 
ceruin inferences made during 1902 bv Prof. O. F. Cook, of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, concerning the origin and distribution of cultivated plants, 
including the banana and perhaps the cocoanut; he finds evidence (not yet con- 
clusive though highly suggestive) that the original home of these plants was in 
South America, and that they must have come under cultivation there before they 
were transported across the Pacific, where they were afterward brought under still 
higher cultivation. Some of the material obtained through the Jesup expeditions 
is published in the American Anthropologist, but the greater part appears in the two 
senals {Memoirs and Bulletins) issued by the American Museum of Natural 
History. Under the guidance of the head of the Department of Anthropology (Dr. 
George A. Dorsey), the Field Columbian Museum, of Chicago, has recently made 
important studies of the ceremonial life as well as the sacred objects of several 
tnbes, notably, the Pawnee, Cheyenne, and Arapaho; those in the first named tribe 
being a continuation of researches previously carried forward by Miss Fletcher with 
the support of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Dr. Stewart Culin, of the 
Free Museum attached to the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), also made 
important researches in connection with strictly museum work; many of his 
observations relating to games and gaming devices, which play so prominent a role 
in the lives of the more primitive peoples. Among the more notable advances of 
recent years is the establishment of a clepartment of anthropology in the University 
of California through the benefactions of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst; and especially 
notable among the events of 1902 in anthropology are some of the results of the 
work in this department, including that of Dr. A. L. Kroeber and Dr. Roland B. 
Dixon on the distribution and characteristics of the aboriginal languages of the 
Pacific region, and that of Dr. Max Uhle on the antiquities of South America. The 
studies of Kroeber and Dixon throw much light on one of the more inferesting prob- 
lems connected with the development of our aborigines. It has long been known 
that while some four-fifths of the area of North America north of Mexico was 
occupied by tribes of only half-a-dozen linguistic stocks, the remaining one-fifth 
along the Pacific coast was occupied by tribes of fifty or more distinct stocks. 
Ethnologists were long at a loss to explain the singular persistence of the Pacific 
coast languages, and, while McGee three years before had detected an important 
factor growing out of the use of speech as the ostensible basis of social organiza- 
tion in many of the tribes, it remained for the authors named to discover linguistic 
evidences of actual differentiation of the stocks, presumably due (at least in part) to 
the abandonment of words connected with deceased individuals of the tribes. 
Professor Frederick Starr, of the University of (Chicago, continued his researches 
in Mexican anthropolo^ during 1902, and conferred a boon on critical students 
by the issue of an immense album of aboriginal types found in Mexico; 
the album being made up of photomechanically reproduced portraits, in 
full face and section, of carefully selected types, all on the natural scale, 
L e., life size. The year witnessed also another notable contribution to the anthro- 

S>logy of the neighboring republic in the two-volume work Unknown Mexico, by 
r. Carl Lumholtz. Primarily this is a record of five years' exploration in the less 
known districts of Mexico, yet it contains one of the fullest and most sympathetic 
accounts ever written of the social customs and ceremonial observances of primitive 
peoples. A large body of material for a prospective contribution to knowledge of the 
aborigines of Mexico was ^thered during 1902 by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka in the course 
of extensive joumeyings m which he visited several surviving tribes, collecting 
anthropometric data as well as photographs and osteologic material. 

The recognition of anthropology in the higher institutions of learning continues to 
make satisfactory progress. Most universities begin with the introduction of 
special branches, usually those connected with social and economic problems, less 
conunonly with those connected with physical anthropology and hence with biology ; 
but several leading universities now have more or less definitely established depart- 
ments of general anthropology. Prominent among these are Harvard, Columbia, 
California, and Chicago, all of which have become centres for active diffusion of 
the science. 



ANTIGUA. See Leeward Islands. 

ANTIMONY. The mining of antimony ores in the United States received a 
severe check during 1902 by a tariff decision that placed crude antimony (partially 
refined sulphide) on die free list. Following this decision the single producer of 
refined antimony from domestic ores in the United States dosed its works, and it is 
probable that operations will not be resumed so long as the present conditions 
continue. The supplies of antimony are derived from imports of the metal and from 
foreign ores that are smelted and refined in this country. See Mineral Production. 

ANTITOXIN. Since the benefits of antidiphtheritic antitoxin (the first to be 
employed) became known, several other serums have been prepared. Among these 
are serums for dysentery, scarlet fever, snake bite, pneumonia, exophthalmic goitre, 
typhoid fever, bubonic plague, whooping cou^h, erysipelas, and streptococcic infec- 
tions. The value of antidiphtheritic antitoxin in saving life is now universally 
admitted, and during 1902 much fresh testimony as to its worth was gathered. 
Thierry and Bertail, of France, report a series of 79 cases of diphtheria treated 
with the serum, with only 2 deaths ; and in Berlin its use resulted in the lowest 
death rate from this disease ever recorded. Professor Behring's serum is employed 
in all but one hospital. Prior to its use the number of deaths from diphtheria was 
from 1300 to 2600 a year, while in 1901 the number was only 469. Antitoxin has 
also been tried in other diseases. In croupous (lobar) pneumonia reports as to its 
effects have been conflicting, but on the whole favorable. In whooping cough, it has 
been tried by I. K. Konarzsherski, of Russia, who found that two or three injections 
of 1000 units each limited the disease to two weeks' duration, and prevented severe 
paroxysms of coughing. The antitoxin was found in addition to be a certain 
prophylactic against infection. See Serum Therapy. 

ANTIVIVISECTIONISTS. See Vivisection. 

ANTOKOLSKI, Mark Matveyevitch, a Russian sculptor, died July 9, 1902, 
at Hamburg, Germany. He was bom in 1842, in the ghetto of Vilna of poor parents, 
and received only meagre education. When a child he evinced wonderful skill in 
making clay images, and although the Jewish religion does not encourage this form 
of art he was apprenticed to a marble cutter. At the age of twenty-two he was 
admitted as a free "listener" to the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg. He 
soon produced the original studies including "The Jewish Tailor" and "A Dispute 
over the Talmud," which won him a gold medal and the means to study in Italy 
for three years. "Ivan the Terrible" was completed in 187 1 and raised him to the 
rank of an academician. Among his other great pieces may be mentioned "Peter 
the Great" (1872), "(Hirist Before the People" (1874), "The Death of Socrates" 
(1876), "Spinoza" (1882), "Yermak" (1900), and one of his earlier works, "The 
Inquisition, representing the appearance of an inquisitor among the Spanish Jews 
observing a secret holiday. He was reco^ized not only as a national, but as the 
first of Russian sculptors. Realism was his fundamental principle, and he followed 
neither school nor master, but was always absolutely original. He suffered much 
from neglect in Russia, and the anti-Semitic press was vei^ hostile to him, but at 
his death his genius was fully acknowledged, and all the leading newspapers and 
societies of St. Petersburg were represented by committees at his funeral. 

ARABIA, a peninsula in southwestern Asia, has an area estimated at from 
1,000,000 to 1,230,000 square miles, and a population from 4,000,000 to 12,000,000, the 
lower estimates for inhabitants being probably more nearly correct. Politically the 
peninsula may be divided in four parts: Turkish territory, comprising the vilayets 
of Hedjaz and Yemen on the Red Sea, while a strip along the Persian Gulf as far 
south as Oman is nominally under Ottoman authority ; the sultanate of Oman in the 
southeast, independent but under British influence; Aden (q.v.); and the interior, 
which has not been annexed by any country and is largely unknown. 

The estimated area of Hedjaz is about 96,500 s(juare miles and its estimated 
population about 300,000; of Yemen, 77,000 square miles and 750,000. A railway is 
under construction from Damascus to Mecca. 

The insurrectionary movements in Yemen, headed by Essid Hamid Eddin, con- 
tinued against the Ottoman authorities in 1902. 

The Red Sea Piracies. — Piracy in the Red Sea, which for some time had been 
of frequent occurrence, led to vigorous action on the part of Italy in the fall of 
1902, while Great Britain entered protest against the neglect of the Turkish 
authorities to suppress this form of outrage. Italy's interest was aroused by a 
number of piracies in the vicinity of Massawah (Eritrea), and a naval demonstra- 
tion at Hodeida followed. In the latter part of October three Italian warships, with 
a number of Turkish troops aboard, appeared off Midi, an island near the Yemen 
coast, whither the pirates had fled. A number of Italian dhows were attacked by 
the pirates and the Italian Commander Arnone shelled the island. Finally, on 
November 11, the Turkish authorities agreed to destroy or to hand over to Amone 



^ p. Armbla. 

00 Arbitration* Interaatlonal* 

all of the blockaded pirate dhows ; to punish those pirates who were Turkish sub- 
jects; within two months to deliver at Massawah such Eritrean pirates as Com- 
mander Amone should designate; to suppress piracy in the future; to pay an 
indemnity of 15,000 francs to the families of two Italian sailors killed at Midi and 
one of 19,600 francs to Eritreans who had suffered loss from piracy ; and to accord 
the same treatment to Eritrean dhows as to the most-favored foreign vessels. It 
was asserted that prior to the shelling of Midi the Turkish officials had connived 
at the crimes of the pirates, who were both robbers and procurers for the slave 
trade. Perhaps the most important phase of the whole matter was that Italy treated 
directly with the so-called rulers in Arabia rather than with the imperial authorities 
at Constantinople. 

Koweyt. — ^During 1902 there was continued interest in the status of Koweyt as an 
important foctor in the general question of the Persian Gulf. Koweyt, a town near 
the head of the gulf, is the capital of a small autonomous territory under the rule of 
Sheikh Mubarakh. Though claimed by the Turkish Sultan as a part of his domain , 
Koweyt is practically, though not technically, under the protection of the British 

fovermnent. In order to aid her in maintaining the political neutrality of the 
^ersian Gulf and her supremacy in the trade of southern Persia, Great Britain has 
striven to preserve the existing status of Koweyt. Turkey is desirous of exercising 
administrative authority over the territory in the interest of her own revenue and, 
as seems probable, in order to make Kowe3rt a possible terminus for the projected 
Bagdad railway, which is largely a German enterprise. Russia also, in furthering 
her Persian policy, wants the port of Kowe3rt, and in 1902 two Russian consuls, on 
Russian ships, visited Mubarakh ; he, however, seemed to stand firm in his preference 
for British friendship and protection, which according to British writers alone 
keeps the shores of the Persian Gulf from lapsing into anarchy. The feud between 
Mubarakh and Ibn Rashid, the ruler of Nejd (in the interior) continued during 1902. 
Against the latter also in that year arose Abdul Aziz bin Feysul, a descendant of 
the old Wahabi ameers, who with about 2000 men captured by strategy the town 
of El Riad in February. A number of inter-tribal conflicts followed. In November, 
1902, it was stated that the success of his Wahabi allies secured Mubarakh's position 
from invasion by Ibn Rashid, while he had little cause to fear any direct aggression 
from the Ottoman government so long as British ships remained in the vicinity of 
Koweyt. The chief danger at this time seemed to be in conspiracies fomented 
against Mubarakh in the neighboring Turkish territory. An attempted raid was 
stopped by a British warship in September. Although it is practically certain that 
this expedition was or^nized on Turkish territory, the Turkish authorities took 
no measures for punishm^ the offenders ; indeed, the obstructive attitude of the vali 
of Basra seemed due to mstructions from the Porte. 

Oman. — In 1902 the ruler of Oman was the Sultan Seyyid Feysal bin Turki, who 
succeeded his father in 1888. A British political agent resides at Muscat, the 
capital. The annual revenue amounts to about 250,000 dollars. (The dollar is 
about equal to the Mexican dollar.) In the fiscal year 1901 the imports, chiefly 
rice and other provisions, arms and ammunition, and cotton goods, were valued at 
3^65,883 dollars, and the exports, largely dates and mother-o'-pearl, 1,359,893 
dollars. The trade is principally with India and Great Britain. 

ARBITRATION, INTERNATIONAL. The year 1902 was a notable one in 
the history of international arbitration. This was manifested in the more general 
acceptance of the theory that arbitration is a practical means of settling international 
disputes; in the recognition of the principle of arbitration by the incorporation of 
clauses in several treaties negotiated, providing for its use in cases of dispute; in 
the large number of disputes decided by, or referred to, arbitration during the year ; 
and, perhaps of the greatest importance of all, the utilization by some of the great 
world powers of the International Court of Arbitration at The Hague for the settle- 
ment of their difficulties and misunderstandings. It is significant that it was not 
until two American republics, the United States and Mexico, had set the example 
that the Old World powers, who have looked on the international court which they 
tiiemselves helped to create with lack of confidence if not actual distrust, agreed to 
submit their differences to its decision. No purely European dispute was sub- 
mitted to the arbitration, either of the Hague tribunal or other arbitrator, but before 
the end of the year (jermany, France, and Great Britain had all recognized the court 
by agreeing to the submission to it of cases in which they were interested. Aside 
from this movement toward the utilization of the international tribunal, by far the 
most interesting development was the movement that found expression in numerous 
inflaential societies and organizations favorable to the conclusion of a permanent 
treaty of arbitration between Great Britain and France. During the year died one 
of the world's foremost advocates of international arbitration, M. Jean de Bloch 
{q.v,), of Warsaw, Poland. 

The Pious Fund Decision.^~On September 15, 1902, hearing was begun at The 



ArMtnuloBt latematloBal* 



36 



Hague on the first case to be referred for adjudication to the International G)urt of 
Arbitration. The question at issue was that arising between the governments of the 
United States and the republic of Mexico over what is known as the "Pious Fund of 
the Califomias." The history of the matter in dispute is as follows: The "Pious 
Fund" was established in the seventeenth century for the support of the Jesuit 
missions in both Upper and Lower California. When, at the close of the eighteenth 
century the Pope attempted to suppress the Jesuits, the administration of their 
estates and the mission fund was taken in hand by the existing Mexican govern- 
ment After the establishment of the republic in Mexico, the new national govern- 
ment continued in possession, and agreed with the church authorities to pay them 
interest on the fund at the rate of 6 per cent, annually. As a result of the war 
between Mexico and the United States the Mexican province of California ws^ 
divided, Mexico retaining the lower peninsula and the United States securing what is 
now the present state of California. After the restoration of peace the Mexican 
government, holding that the annual 6 per cent, interest which it owed should 
be paid only to the Catholic Church in Lower California, refused to continue pay- 
ments for the support of such missions and congregations as lay in the region 
acquired by the United States. The United States government, on behalf of the 
Roman Catholic Church in northern California, contended that the payments should 
be continued to the church in that section, irrespective of the fact that the sov- 
ereignty of the region had been transferred. No agreement was reached until 
1868, when a formal claim for a distribution of the accumulated interest was made 
bjr the Catholic diocese of California to the United States-Mexican Mixed Claims 
Commission, and by them referred to Sir Edward Thornton, British ambassador 
at Washington, for arbitration. In 1869 he gave his award declaring that the 
Mexican government was bound in justice and equity to pay to the United States 
the arrears of twenty-one years' interest upon one-half of the property in question. 
In accordance with this finding Mexico paid the sum of $904,700 (Mexican), but 
after that refused to make further payments, denying that the ^ward bound 
it for the future. |The American contention has been that the award rendered the 
question at issue res ad judicata and settled once and for all the justice of their 
claim to one-half the property originally left to the Jesuits. After years of futile 
negotiations a protocol was finally signed at Washington by representatives of the 
two governments on Majr 22, 1902, by the terms of which the case was submitted 
to the Hague tribunal. The protocol provided that the arbitrators should first decide 
whether or not as a consequence of the former decision the claim was governed by 
the principle of res ad judicata. If it was, the contention of the United States was 
established. If not, the whole matter would have to be dealt with as though no 
decision had ever been reached in regard to it. The United States named as 
arbitrators M. de Martens, of St. Petersburg, probably the greatest living authority 
on international law, and Sir Edward Fry, formerly lord justice of the British 
Court of Appeal. The choice of Mexico fell upon Dr. Asser, the famous Dutch 
jurist, and Dr. Savornin Lohman, former minister of justice in the Netherlands. 
These arbitrators met in September and chose a fifth member in the person of 
Dr. H. Matzen, president of the Danish Landsthing. Hearing was begun on Sep- 
tember 15, the American case being presented by William L. Penfield, solicitor for 
the United States State Department, and Jackson H. Ralston, the Mexican case by 
M. de Beemaert, an eminent Belgian international lawyer, and Senor Pardo. The 
decision announced on October 14, 1902, was unanimously in favor of the United 
States, the finding of the tribunal being: (i) that the case was governed by the 
principle of res adjudicata in virtue of Sir Edward Thornton's decision ; (2) that in 
conformity with that decision Mexico must pay to the United States the sum of 
$1420,682.67 (Mexican currency) to cover the arrears of interest from 1869 to 1902; 
and (3) that Mexico shall pay to the United States the sum of $43,050.99 (Mexican) 
annually forever. 

Other Cases before the Hague Tribunal— The appearance of Mexico and th/s 
United States before the Hague tribunal seemed to give the nations renewed con- 
fidence in this new medium for the settlement of disputes, and it was announced at 
Paris on October 28, 1902, that Great Britain, Germany, France, and Japan had 
agreed to refer to the Hague tribunal the treaty clauses relative to perpetual leases 
under which foreigners are allowed to possess property in Japan. On November 12 
it was announced that Germany had assented to the proposal made by the United 
States and accepted by other nations, to submit to the Hague tribunal the question as 
to whether the Chinese indemnity shall be paid in gold or silver. Both of these, 
however, it will be noted, concerned non-European disputes. Just at the end of 
1902, what threatened to be the most serious international complication of the year, 
gave promise of a peaceful settlement, when Italy, Great Britain, and Germany 
agreed to submit their claims against Venezuela to the Hague court, a proposal to 
which President (Tastro of Venezuela consented on December 31. Late in Decendier 



.^ Arbitration* Intemailonal. 

3/ Arbltrmtlon, Ijabor. 

a London paper stated that as many as seventeen cases would be submitted to the 
ooart in the near future, at least six of which were South American disputes. 

American'Russian Sealing Dispute. — The award in the American-Russian sealing 
dispute was announced at Washington on July i, 1902. The arbitrator, Dr. Asser, 
the eminent Dutch authority on international law, gave his decision in favor of the 
American contention. The United States asked indemnity from Russia for the 
seizure of five sealing vessels in 1891 and 1892, and an agreement arranging for the 
submission of the dispute to Dr. Asser was signed at St. Petersburg in 1900. Dr. 
Asser's award declares that the annual average catch should form the basis on 
which damages should be assessed, which was the exact contention of the United 
States. The exact amount of damages due from Russia was left for future deter- 
mination. The dispute, although decided in accord with the code of the Hague 
tribunal, was not submitted to that body. 

Other Awards, and Arbitration Treaties. — ^Among other awards of importance 
daring 1902 were those of King Oscar, of Sweden and Norway, in the Samoan 
damage suits (see Samoa) ; the award of a British commission in the Argentine- 
Chilian boundary dispute (see Chile). Arbitration treaties were signed or ratified 
between Argentina and Paraguay, Argentina and Chile, and Bolivia and Peru. 
Articles providing for the settlement of disputes by arbitration were included in 
treaties negotiated during the year between the Netherlands and Germany, and be- 
tween Denmark and the United States. 

The ^Pan-American Conference. — At the Second International Conference of 
American States, generally spoken of as the "Pan-American Conference," which 
was held in the City of Mexico from October 22^1901, to January 22, 1902, action 
of considerable importance was taken in regard to international arbitration, to which 
a greater part of the time of the session was given up. Of the twenty-three measures 
of various sorts passed, one providing for the compulsory arbitration of international 
disputes, incorporated in the form of an arbitration treaty, was signed by representa- 
tives of Argentina, Bolivia, Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador, Santo Domingo, 
and Uruguay. A protocol declaring the adherence of the signatory states to the 
Hague conventions was signed by Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guate- 
mala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador, Santo 
Domingo, Uruguay, and the United States. See Mexico (paragraph Pan-American 
Conference) . 

Central American Arbitration. — ^A convention was signed at Corinto, Nicaragua. 
on January 20, 1902, by the presidents of Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, ana 
Salvador, for the maintenance of peace in Central America, and the establishment of 
a permanent court of arbitration, to which the contracting states bind themselves to 
std>mit all difficulties and disputes that may arise between them. See Central 
Ajcebica. 

Lake Mohonk Conference. — ^The eighth annual conference on international arbi- 
tration was held at Lake Mohonk, N. Y., at the end of May, 1902. The conference 
was the lar^^est in point of numbers thus far held, and the greatest interest was 
manifested m its sessions. Particularly noteworthy was the large attendance of 
prominent business men, who participated actively in the sessions, and discussed at 
length, the ways and means of enlisting commercial, mercantile, and industrial 
organizations in the movement for international arbitration. John W. Foster, 
former secretary of state, presided at the conference and delivered an address in 
whidi he reviewed the growth of the arbitration idea, and predicted its further de- 
velopment. 

ARBITRATION, LABOR. The long continuance of the miners' strike in 
Pennsylvania in 1902, stopping the production of anthracite coal for some five 
months and causing widespread fear of a winter coal famine, brought about a 
renewal of the discussion in the United States as to the advisability, or, more 
correctly, as to the necessity of devising some method by which employers and 
employees might be compelled to adjust their differences. Mainly the argument in 
lavor of this was expediential and ethical, and not of a kind recognized in the 
principles of Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence. It was said that the anthracite industry, 
like that of transportation, was basically of a qtiasi public nature; it had been built 
up and was sustained by the public, who bought and used the coal. The stoppage 
of production, like the holding up of trains or of the mails, affected the dependent 
public as much as, or more than, it affected either the employees or the capitalists 
concerned. 

In other words, there were not two parties to the strike, but three, and the 
third party ought to be enabled, in its own interest, to declare a form of settlement 
binding upon the other two. But as to just what form this settlement should take 
there seemed to be no substantial agreement. Voluntary arbitration, whether con- 
ducted by the representatives of the employers and employees or by disinterested 
outside arbiters, would be open to the objection that it was likely to break down 



ArMcnutoBv lAkor. 



38 



precisely when most needed, and compulsory arbitration would seem, among other 
things, to violate the right of freedom of contract. Assuming, however, that by 
constitutional amendment or otherwise, the legal difficulty of compulsory arbitration 
could be overcome, there would still remain the rooted dislike to it of both employers 
and employees and the practical impossibility of forcing employees to work when 
they do not so choose, or of making employers hold capital invested against their 
will. Where great vested interests already obtained, as in the anthracite mdustry or 
in the large trunk line railways, no immediate discernible action by capitalists would 
probably result from a compulsory decree against their interests. Nevertheless fear 
of a recurring unfavorable decision would operate gradualljr to withdraw, or at least 
to prevent, an increase of the capital invested, and this action would be accelerated 
if the decision should operate to reduce returns below that in other industries. From 
the point of view of the employees, compulsory arbitration would, in the first 
place, tend to freeze out the non-union workers ; for it would inevitably occur that 
the labor union leaders would come to represent all the employees and that the 
non-union workers, as isolated units, would have even less standing than at present 
with their employers, the latter being subject, as it were, to an arbitration board, 
before which only two bodies could naturally appear, that is to say, the employers 
and the organized representatives of the laborers. But a further objection and a 
much more germane one, especially in extensive strikes, involving great bodies of 
men, where alone presumably compulsory arbitration would be resorted to, would 
lie in the lack of hold that any decree would have upon a body so volatile at will as 
a labor organization. Unless the union were incorporated and were liable to legal 
dissolution, or suit for damages, or both, it might in case of acute irritation, and 
undoubtedly would, break with impunity an unfavorable ruling. But as was officially 
stated on a very opportune occasion by labor leaders, the unions are unanimously 
opposed to incorporation. The nominal reason given for this was that the judiciary 
by inheritance and training is prejudiced against labor and favorable to capital. 
The real reason, however, seems undoubtedly to lie deeper and to consist in the 
fact that in normal circumstances intimidation and the boycott are necessary to 
the successful issue of union strikes. But such intimidation and boycott, whether or 
not ethically justifiable, are unquestionably illegal and would uniformly so be held. 
Therefore if unions should incorporate they would not only.throw away their most 
effective weapon in labor disputes, but would at the same time be obliged, as they 
are not at present, to fein acquiescence in the unfavorable arbitration ruling. The 
alleged but nevertheless doubtful success of the compulsory arbitration law in New 
Zealand, enacted in 1894, has even been brought forward as an example that the 
United States should follow. As the United States Industrial Commission, however, 
point out in their final report in 1902, the effect of such laws in a country of low 
mdustrial development can by no means be taken as indicative of their action in a 
country of highly complex and fully organized industries, running as a usual thing 
upon a comparatively narrow margin of profits. A further objection to arbitration 
ex-cathedra, whether compulsory throughout or whether both sides agree voluntarily 
to accept the decision rendered, follows from the ignorance of the arbiters of the 
subject matter in dispute. Where, as often happens, the questions raised relate to 
the interpretation and fulfilment of existing agreements or contracts, this ignorance 
of the industrial conditions affecting the dispute is not usually of moment, since the 
premises are clearly outlined; but where, as more frequently happens in strikes of 
considerable magnitude, the questions to be settled relate to future conditions of 
labor, and require for their determination a thorough understanding of all sides of 
the business, the arbiters lack the prime qualification of adjudicators. Neither side 
is likely to have confidence in the equity of any decision rendered ; and the side de- 
feated is fairly sure to protest against it. It has been noted, furthermore, as a rule of 
general application, that the weaker party to a trade dispute — ^the one that would 
naturally be picked out as the loser either because of relative weakness or on the 
merits of its contentions — is, in nearly all cases the only party that demands arbitra- 
tion. In such an event the hope is relied upon that the arbitration board, out of 
general good feeling toward all concerned, will "split the difference" ; that is to say, 
will grant part of the demands of the weaker party and effect a compromise greatly 
to the advantage of that party. A noteworthy example of the demand of this one- 
sided form of arbitration was that made by Mr. John Mitchell, president of the 
United Mine Workers of America, in 1902. For under conditions of the dispute, 
which were that definite and extensive concessions be made to the miners by the 
operators, the operators might lose and could not win by any decision rendered, 
and the miners might win and could not lose ; hence the strategic plea of one party 
for the determination of the pending dispute by a body of disinterested men, and 
the sullen contention of the other party that there was "'nothing to arbitrate." 
To a certain extent, the result that has attended the establishment of boards of 



^^ Arblcratlont Ijabor. 

3y ArchKoloffical Inatttnte. 

aiintratioo in various other States may be taken as indicative of the difficulty of 
devising any generally acceptable system of ex-cathedra arbitration. It is true that 
some of the boards have been poorly paid, appointed for political reasons, and vested 
with insufficient powers. Nevertheless their nearly uniform inefficiency is significant. 
Boards of arbitration have been created in the States of New York, Massachusetts, 
Calif omia, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Montana, Minnesota, Ohio, Utah, 
Wisconsin, New Jersey, Michigan, Connecticut, and Indiana. These boards usually 
consist of three members : one an employer, one an employee, generally appointed 
on the recommendations of labor organizations, and the other, a ''citizen,' i. e., a 
non-partisan. The board may act on its own motion and it may be invoked by 
authority of both parties to the dispute. Where both parties agree to submit their 
differences to the board, the decision is usually made binding. Generally the board 
has authority to summon witnesses, and if no settlement is reached, to publish a 
statement of the case fixing the blame for the dispute and indicating a proper basis of 
adjustment. In six other States — Pennsylvania, Maryland, Iowa, Kansas, Texas, and 
Missouri — ^which have no central boards, laws have been enacted authorizing the 
establishment of either temporary or permanent local and trade boards of arBitra- 
tion. And in these six latter States, as stated by the Industrial Commission, the 
law seems to be a dead letter, and ''in several of the States, whose laws provide for 
State boards of arbitration, they have never been actually appointed, while several 
other States have been almost absolutely inactive." Only in Massachusetts, New 
York, Illinois, and Indiana, the boards appear to have acted in a number of con- 
troversies with more or less success, ancf even in these States, the work of State 
boards of arbitration consists in practice, almost entirely, of mediation and concilia- 
tion—of uniformly conferring with the parties to disputes and influencing them to 
an amicable^ agreement between themselves. Very rarely are laws submitted to 
formal arbitration. In most cases, moreover, the intervention of the State board 
takes place on its own initiative without application of the parties, while in nearly 
all the remaining instances the application comes from one party only. It follows 
that the board can take steps towards mediation only after a strike or lockout has 
actually b^un. And the Industrial Commission goes oh to sa^ that these limitations 
in the work of the State boards are to a considerable degree inherent, and that they 
cannot take the place of boards established within the trades themselves, readily 
acceptable, representing the employers and employees directly familiar with the 
prevailing conditions. The apparently utter failure of the State boards of arbitration 
would seem to indicate that the only feasible way of settling labor disputes is along 
the familiar line of joint conferences by the parties in dispute. An arbitrarily 
imposed tribunal with power to enforce its decrees would mean the annihilation of 
individual liberty, the enslavement of laborers, or the socialization of capital. Any 
of these is equally bad. Professor John B. Clark, of Columbia University, however, 
favors compulsory arbitration. In an article, "Authoritative Arbitration," in the De- 
cember (1902) number of the Political Science Quarterly, he said: "If the question 
whether or not arbitration shall be insisted on is to be decided on broad grounds of 
equity, and if the rights of the public are to be considered, the reasoning which 
proves that we must have such arbitration is short and conclusive. The people have 
a right to continuous service. In enforcing this right they must see that justice is 
done between employers and employed. . . . We must provide every needed 
safeguard for the interests of employers and employed, but we must no longer allow 
them to rend society by their quarrels. . . . Wages kept down by the hardest 
action of competition we shall not tolerate. Wages sustained by crude force we are, 
within limits, tolerating. As between courts and mobs we are relying on mobs, but 
this is only because we have not ourselves proved the efficacy of courts. The 
evidence is in favor of their efficacy and there is little doubt that we shall ultimately 
have them." See Strikes. 

ARCHiEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA. The regular annual 
meeting of the council was held in New York, May 10, 1902, and as usual the two 
preceding days were occupied with the meetings of the managing committees of the 
schools at Athens and in Rome. At that time the total membership of the institute 
was 1052, of which 135 were life members. Two members of the council, Professor 
James C. Van Benschoten, of Wesleyan University, and Professor J. Henry Thayer, 
of Harvard University, died in 1902. Two new societies, at Washington, D. C, and 
in Iowa, were organized, so that there are now twelve of these local subdivisions. 
The three schools affiliated with the institute in their annual reports show successful 
years, though the Roman school was seriously hampered by lack of funds, and the 
Athenian school greatly needed a permanent endowment for the continuance of its 
work. The School for Oriental Study and Research in Palestine had not yet had 
time to develop any settled policy, or to attract many students, but its success seemed 
assured, and it promised to prove of decided value to those who intend to 
specialize in Old Testament languages and related fields. 



Areli0ol«s7. 4P 

The fourth general meeting of the institute for the reading of papers was hdd 
during "Convocation Wedc" at Princeton, N. J., and proved thorough^ successful 
from every point of view. Thirty-one papers were presented, dealing n>r the most 
part with highly specialized topics from many different fields of archaeological study. 
Special mention may he made of Dr. Peters' account of the painted tombs at 
Marissa visited by him in July, 1902 (see Archaeology, paragraphs on Syria and 
Palestine) and Mr. Weller^s report of his investigations on the Acropolis of Athois, 
which had enabled him to add much to our knowledge of the great gateway which 
preceded the present Peridean Propylaea. 

The officers of the institute for 1902-03 are as follows : President, Professor John 
Williams White, of Harvard University; honorary presidents, Professor Charles 
Eliot Norton, of Harvard University, and Hon. Seth Low, of New York; vice- 
presidents, Charles P. Bowditch, of Boston; President Daniel C. Gilman, of the 
Carnegie Institution; Prof. W J McGee, of the Bureau of American Ethnology; 
Martin A. Ryerson,^of Chicago; and Professor Thomas D. S^mour, of Yale 
University ; secretary. Professor Francis W. Kelsey, of the University of Michigan ; 
treasurer, James H. Hyde, of New York ; editor-in-chief of the American Journal of 
Archaology, Professor John H. Wright, of Harvard University. The American 
School at Athens has the followinj^ officers : Chairman of the managing committee. 
Professor James R. Wheeler, of Columbia University; secretary. Professor Horatio 
M. Reynolds, of Yale University; treasurer, Gardiner M. Lane, of Boston. For the 
American School in Rome the ^chairman of the managing committee is Professor 
Andrew F. West, of Princeton University; the secretary. Professor Samuel B. 
Platner, of Western Reserve University; and the treasurer, Cornelius C. Cuyler, of 
New York. The officers of the American School in Palestine are: Chairman of 
the managing committee, Professor George F. Moore, of Harvard University; 
acting secretary. Professor Charles C. Torrey, of Yale University. 

ARCHiEOLOGY. The year 1902, like its immediate predecessors, was charac- 
terized by the active prosecution of exploration and excavation in the east as well 
as in classic lands. In the latter the work for the most part was on a comparatively 
small scale, and the results, though often of great interest to ardueologists, were not 
remarkable. An exception is of course found in the discoveries on Crete, so long 
closed to scientific exploration, where every report brings new evidence of the 
civilization and power of the rulers of the island more than three thousand years 
ago. In the east, the undertakings are more striking, as the discoveries are more 
likely to modify accepted views, and deal with persons and places better known by 
name. The most important single undertaking is perhaps the German exploration of 
Babylon, but Egypt still continues to occupy the largest number of excavators, and 
to yield the most generous returns. The results obtained or made public during 
1902 can be most conveniently described in geographical order. 

Babylonia and the East. — ^The chief place is naturally taken by work of the 
German Orient-Gesellschaft, for whom Dr. Koldewey is excavating the mounds that 
cover the site of ancient Babylon. Near the village of Jumjuma, in a group of 
mounds called by the Arabs Nischan-el-aswad, the Black Hills, was found a temple 
of Ninib or Adar, the patron god of the Babylonian physicians. This building, 
called E-sibatila. the House of the Shepherd of Life, was restored by Nabopolassar, 
father of Nebuchadnezzar, who deposited in it four copies of an inscription in which 
he refers to his revolt from Assyria, and ascribes his success to the special favor 
of Merodach. At El-Kasr the uncovering of the palace of Nebuchadnezzar showed 
that it consisted of a great number of small courts surrounded by rooms, united with 
each other and the great courts by corridors and doors. On one side of a large 
court was the great hall of the palace with three doors on the side of the court 
and a recess in the opposite wall. The decorations were peculiar in that they 
represented a row of columns with large volute capitals, though in the whole 
palace there is not a single occurrence of the column as an architectural member. 
Of course they were known to the Babylonians of the seventh and sixth centuries 
B. C, but for some reason they evidently preferred to use doors. Amonff the most 
striking results of the excavations are the reliefs in enamelled brick which formed 
the chief decoration of the walls. A large number of these ornaments including 
lions and other animals as well as merely decorative patterns had been put 
together from fragments, and at last a wall of twenty courses has been found with 
the glazed tiles still in place. The excavations have shown that the great palace 
was part of a plan for raising the general level of that part of the city as well as 
the great street of processions which led to the east. The palace was to cover 
the entire southern part of the city including the superseded palace of the king's 
father. The last report relates the discovery of the great gate of Ishtar, a 
strongly fortified post with towers, court and double gates. The walls are still 
12 metres high, and covered with animals in relief. Excavations undertaken at 
Fara some distance to the south of Babylon led to the discovery of a very early 



settlement, yielding stone knives and other primitive objects, including a number 
of tablets with a very ancient form of Babylonian writing. The place was evidently 
deserted early, as nothing belonging to the. later civilization was found. The 
interest aroused in Germany by these discoveries has been increased by a lecture 
delivered in the presence of the emperor by Professor Delitzsch on BaheX and Bible, 
in which he expressed very radical views as to the influence of Babylonia in the 
formation of the Hebrew religion. The publication of the lecture excited naturally 
a sharp controversy and the views expressed were vigorously attacked by the more 
conservative critics. 

The University of Pennsylvania's excavations at Nippur were temporarily sus- 
pended, but the director, Dr. Hilprecht, was presented by the sultan with a jpreat 
part of the tablets from the temple library which will now form part of the 
university's collection. The decipherment and publication of the thousands of 
documents here contained will occupy Assyriologists for many years. The* gift 
was made in appreciation of Dr. Hilprecht's services in cataloguing the Babylonian 
antiquities in the museum at Constantinople. 

The French excavations at Susa, conducted by de Morgan, brought to light many 
relics of the early time when Elamite invaders plundered Babylonia and brought the 
spoil to their capital. Among the booty was a stele which King Hammurabi, a con- 
temporary of Abraham, had erected in Sippora, containing a long code of laws for 
the government of the Babylonians. They show in general an advanced civiliza- 
tion and well-established legal forms, and furnish many interesting parallels to the 
Mosaic code; in particular the lex talionis is most rigorously enforced. The ex- 
tensive trade and long journeys of the Babylonian merchant are indicated by the 
numerous provisions relating to the rights and duties of his wife and heirs in 
event of his failure to return within a reasonable time. A German version of the 
code was published by Dr. Winckler, and an English translation has appeared. 

Susa has also yielded some interesting relics of the wars between the Persians 
and Greeks. A bronze astragalos contained a Greek dedication to Apollo in the 
alphabet of Miletus, and it can scarcely be doubted that it was part of the plunder 
of the famous sanctuary of Didsrma, which Herodotus says was burned by the 
Persians under King Darius about 494 B. C. To the invasion of Xerxes seems 
due the presence of a Greek vase of the early fifth century, apparently a product 
of the time between the battle of Marathon and the capture of Athens, which may 
well have formed part of the booty of a Persian soldier. 

Syria and Palestine. — The Palestine Exploration Fund after a year's delay at 
length obtained its firman from the Turkish government, and Mr. R. A. Stewart 
Macalister be^n work at Tell-ej-Jezari, long ago identified by Clermont Ganneau 
with the Biblical Gezer. The first campaign showed that the place was inhabited 
from very early times. Four strata were distinguished, of which the first is 
neolithic, while the other three belong to the bronze age. The fortifications of the 
town during these three periods can be definitely fixed, for on each occasion the 
circuit was extended, though the details of alteration and repairs cannot as yet be 
stated with certainty. Two places of burial were found. The first seems to have 
been used by the neolithic population for burnings their dead, and the charred 
bones point to a non-Semitic race. Later the Semites of the bronze age used the 
cavern for interments. The other sepulchre was an old cistern, containing fifteen 
bodies and "the finest deposit of bronze weapons yet found in Palestine." Other 
remains belong to a megalithic structure in which human sacrifices of children 
seem to have been offered. Thus far the indications of date are confined to some 
scarabs and impressions belonging to the Middle Empire of Egypt about 2000 B. C. 

At Taanach not far from Joppa the Austrians uncovered a Canaanite fortress and 
place of worship with a number of columns for sacrifice and some images, ap- 
parently of about the same period as the remains of Gezer. To a later period be- 
longs a fortress of the type commonly attributed to King Solomon, in which 
were also idols and other objects connected with religion, including what is 
described as "an earthenware altar in the form of a throne adorned with cherubim 
and lions." The detailed account seems to show that the cherubim bear a strong 
resemblance to sphinxes. Still later this fortress was replaced b^ another, and 
finally, about the time of Haroun-al-Rashid, an Arabian castle was built on the hill. 

Since August, 1900, a German expedition under the direction of Dr. Puchstein has 
been at work at Baalbek, where they have concentrated their attention very largely 
on the great temple of the sun, in whose court a Christian church and a Saracen 
fortress were later built. The greater part of this structure seems to be due to the 
Romans. The early centre of the worship was the great rock altar, around which 
the Romans built up platforms for a series of colonnades and courts. A flight of 
steps led to a great gatewa3r, bevond which lay an hexagonal court forming an 
appraach to the great court, in which stood the altar, with lustral basins on either 
side Around t£e court was a great colonnade, facing a series of chambers. 



Across the western end of the court rose the great temple, the excavation of 
which has not yet been reported. The so-called Temple of Jupiter has been 
repaired and secured against immediate danger of collapse, and the Round Temple, 
and a similar structure on Lebanon have been carefully studied with important 
results for the internal arrangements of these sanctuaries. 

One effect of archaeological activity in Palestine has not been wholly desirable. 
The natives have discovered that the objects found have a commercial value, and 
as a result a great deal of clandestine excavation, especially of tombs, is carried 
on. Needless to say, the objects found either find their way to the hands of 
dealers, who have every reason for concealing their provenience, or, if of no com- 
mercial value, are destroyed. At Tell-Sandahannah the excavations of Dr. Bliss 
have stimulated the natives to unwonted activity, and the^ have found the ancient 
necropolis containing many tombs of the Hellenistic period. Two of these were 
opened last summer just before the arrival of Dr. Hermann Thiersch, of Germany, 
and Dr. John P. Peters, of New York, who were thus enabled to examine and 
photograph or copy their decorations and inscriptions. Both tombs consisted of a 
sort of vestibule from which opened burial chambers, in which the dead were 
placed in niches or loculi. The inscriptions showed that one tomb contained at 
least six generations. Most interesting were the painted decorations, partly on 
stucco and partly on the stone itself. Prominent among them was a frieze of 
animals, in many cases with the names duly inscribed, showing an elephant, 
hippopotamus, crocodile, lion, lynx, and many others, for some of whidi the 
architect was indebted to mythology, while others seem to have been evolved 
from his inner consciousness. 

Egypt. — ^Among the numerous excavations of which Egypt is now the scene, the 
first place seems fairly taken by the work of the German Orient-Gesellschaft at 
Abusir. Here, a little south of the Pyramids of Gizeh, are the pyramids and temples 
of the kings of the Fifth Dynasty. Though much smaller than the huge structures 
of the preceding kings, they are marked by very elaborate reliefs belonging to the 
very best period of the early Egyptian art Moreover these kings were devoted 
worshippers of the Sun, and each regarded it as his duty to build a new temple 
to that deity, adorned with a great obelisk. One of these temples, erected by 
Ne-user-Ra (c. 2500 B. C), occupied Dr. Bochardt and his assistants from 
1898 to 1901. Their investigations resulted not only in the complete recovery of the 
plan of the sanctuary, in itself a novelty in Egyptian architecture, but in the dis- 
covery of an extremely interesting and valuable series of colored reliefs, of 
which some relate to the founding of the temple, others to the celebration of the 
thirtieth anniversary of the king's accession, when the great obelisk nearly two 
hundred feet high was built, and a third series to the seasons of the year and the 
occupations and scenes, both in human life and in the world of nature appropriate 
to each. In 1902, work was begun on the excavation of the pyramid and temple for 
the worship of the same king. The approach which led from the valley to the 
temple was first cleared, which led through a gate to a court paved with basalt, o 
either side of which lay storerooms. From this court a door led into another cor 
containing originally sixteen granite columns, made in imitation of the bund. 
of papyrus, of which fragments were found. Beyond the court was a long and nam 
room with a niche at one end from which led a narrow passage. The actual shri- 
and the pyramid itself are to form the subject of next season's work. The sm 
objects found are numerous and of great value for the history of Egyptian art 
Around the temple is a mass of graves, partly those of the nobles who wished 
to be buried near the king, partly from the Middle Empire (about 2100 B. C) 
belonging chiefly to priests and others connected with the temple service, and partly 
to later times. The latter are for the most part those of the poor inhabitants of the 
village near by. Later yet the Greek settlers used part of the graveyard. They 
followed the Eg>-ptian burial aistoms, but used Greek decorations and buried articles 
of Greek manutaciure with their dead. Here was found the most important 
classical ivipynis of the year — a strip containing six columns from the lost Persians 
of Timothous of Miletus, a poet of the early fourth century B. C, famed for his 
many musical novelties. More than two-thirds of the writing is well preserved, 
thoujih the scribe has not boon ver>' careful and the text offers many difficulties to 
the cv-jmrneniator. The ^wm was a Xonu^s or solo to be sung to musical accompani- 
ment. It deals with the defeat of the Persians at Salamis. and contains a cogiic 
element in a Phr^siian who begs for merc>- in exceedingly broken and incorrect 
Greek. At the close the pi-et appeals to Ap^Mlo against the Spartans in defense of his 
musical novelties, which incUuKd a cithara with eleven strings. The poem is the 
only work of the author and of its kind which we possess, and is also said to be 
the oldest Greek papyrus, belonging to the later founh century, and probably not 
much more than fifty years later than the original publication. 

For the Egj-pt Exploration Fund, Mr. Petric turned his attention from the tombs 



43 

of the early kings at Abydos to the ancient town, and especially the great temple 
of Osiris, which has been hitherto very imperfectly known. The work proceeded 
sjsteniatically, but by the close of the year only the level of the Eighteenth Dynasty 
lad been reached. The earliest structures are now under water till late in the 
spring, and their exploration promises to be very difficult and expensive. Two 
large tombs of the Twelfth Dynasty were also found containing huge sarcophagi 
of red granite; as they seem to have escaped the early plunderers, there is good 
reason to expect valuable discoveries when they are cleared. In fact the work of the 
past year was so promising that nine workers (an unusually large number) planned 
to take part in next season's campaign. The society's archaeological survey was 
continued by copying the scenes in the tomb of Aba, a Theban noble, at Luxor, and 
later by a very complete reproduction of the decorations in the tomb of Meryra, one 
of those to the north of Tell el Amama. These are important, as they belong to 
the reign of Khuenaten (Amenophis IV.), the "heretic" king, in whose reign 
Egyptian art shows such unique characteristics. 

For the Egyptian Research Account two new workers, Messrs. Giulfield and 
Christie, made a renewed study of the temple of Sety I. at Abydos ; a site chosen so 
that these novices could have the benefit of the advice of Mr. Petrie. The ex- 
cavations led to the discovery of the enclosing wall of the sacred precinct with a 
great pylon on the desert side from which a road led toward the tombs of tha early 
kings. This has led to the belief that the temple was really the chapel fo this 
cemetery, like the shrines in front of other royal tombs, and this view is confirmed 
by the long list of his predecessors which Sety inscribed on its walls. 

At Naga ed Deir Messrs. Reisner and Lythgoe continued their work for the Univer- 
sity of California by the careful excavation of a large necropolis containing a continu- 
ous series of graves from prehistoric times to the Eleventh Dynasty. At Bet Khallaf 
and Reqaqnah Mr. Garstan continued his study of early tombs of the Third and 
Fourth Dynasties with interesting results for the history of the architectural forms 
and burial customs. Near Thebes Messrs. Newberry and Titus have excavated 
the palace of Amenophis III. at Malgata, discovering a building not unlike in plan 
and decoration the celebrated palace of his successor at Tell el Amama. Unfor- 
tunately the walls were very poorly preserved, and the chief artistic results were 
the painted floors. 

For the later period the Graeco-Roman branch of the Egyptian Exploration Fund 
has been represented as usual by Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt, who report a successful 
search for Ptolemaic papyri, partly at some sites in the Fayum, and partly at 
Hibeh, a little further south on the east bank of the Nile, where in mummies of 
the third century B. C. papyrus was frequently found used as a substitute for cloth. 
The first volume of the Tebtunis papyri has been issued jointly by the University 
of California and the Fund; it contains very little that is literary, but a very large 
nimiber of interesting documents throwing much light on economic and social 
conditions during the later Ptolemaic period. A valuable appendix discusses the 
ratio of copper to silver during this time, and reaches the conclusion that, in the 
second century B. C, a copper drachma stood to a silver drachma in a ratio varying 
from I to 375 to i to 500; the old ratio had been considered i to 120. 

Asia Minor. — ^Dr. Belck has continued his exploration of Qippadocia, visiting 
little known sites and collecting information as to the Hittite monuments of the 
region. Especial attention was given to the ancient Comana Cappadocia, hitherto 
considered a Hittite sacred place, but which proved to have no Hittite monuments, 
and is believed by the explorer to be a foundation of the Indo-European Cim- 
merians, dating from about the eighth century B. C. It is, however, on the coast 
that the greatest activity has been manifested, and at sites which have already 
been explored ; Miletus, where Dr. Wiegand was still at work in 1902 for the Berlin 
Museum, Pergamum, where the German Archaeological Institute, with Professor 
Dorpfeld as director, has entered upon a thorough exploration of the lower city, and 
Rhesus, where the Austrians under Dr. Heberdey are still at work. 

At Miletus the excavations are beginning to show more satisfactory results than 
were possible at the outset, when the natural hindrances due to marshy soil and 
heaps of rubbish had to be overcome. The strong city walls with their towers and 
gates have been found in many places, and the road Imed, as usual near an ancient 
dty, with graves and sepulchral monuments has been traced on its way to the 
sanctuary of Apollo at Didyma. Within the city there seem to be two important dis- 
coveries. At the end of the Roman aqueduct has been found the great fountain on 
the Agora. It was two stories high, with elaborate architectural decorations and 
statues, of which many fragments have been found, enabling 14 to be restored in 
part It seems likely that at least 18 were originally used. The reservoir was 
above, and water poured in cascades over the facade into a great basin, and thence 
overflowed into a smaller basin from which it could be drawn by the people. This 
is the first example of the great Roman fountains, to which the name septizonium 



or nymphaum is sometimes given. The other discovery is that of a large A^ora 
south of the Bouleuterion. Its length is as yet uncertain, but its breadth is given 
as 120 m., and it was surrounded by a colonnade 14 m. wide, with a double row 
of marble columns from which open a series of large rooms, probably shops. The 
work here seemed likely to be suspended for a time, as the government did not 
propose an appropriation for 1903, preferring to support at present the more prom- 
ising work at Pergamum, a site for which, since their excavation of the Great 
Altar and the Acropolis, the Germans have rightly felt a special responsibility. 

For this place we now have a full preliminary report of the work which has been 
carried on during September, October, and November for three years. Starting 
at the great south gate in the city wall, which presents some unusual features 
due to its situation on a somewhat steep ascent, the excavators followed the course 
of the winding street which led up the hill toward the Acropolis. The street was 
well paved with large blocks, and beneath the surface were drains and water 
pipes. It led past an agora or market-place built on a terrace. The street passed 
along the substructures on the south and east sides, and here were stores in the 
basement. Entered on the upper level at the northeast was an open square sur- 
rounded by a colonnade behind which on the north, west, and probably east, 
were rooms for shops ; Dorpfeld believes that the south side was an open porch for 
promenading and enjoying the fine view over the valley. On. the north and west 
the buildings were two stories high, and from a rock-cut cistern further up the 
hill a tunnel brought water to a fountain on the north side. Three large rooms 
on the west are so well preserved that they have been roofed over and are now 
used as a local museum. Beyond the market-place the street was lined with 
buildings, which have not yet been excavated, and finally passed a large fountain, 
where the waters poured into a basin 21 metres long and 3.15 metres broad, and 
covered by a heavy roof supported by two rows of columns. Near by was a 
curious gateway in the form of a quadrant, from which two doors and steps led to 
higher terraces. These were obviously connected with the gymnasia of the city. 
The lower terrace seems to have contained the training school of the boys; on 
the second terrace was a Corinthian temple whose walls had contained many 
inscriptions; while on a third terrace above was the great gymnasium of the young 
men, built in Roman times, and already identified by Carl Humann. It is to this 
quarter that the next campaign is to be directed. Among the numerous inscriptions 
is one of peculiar interest. It is a copy of the royal ordinance which defined the 
duties of the Astynomi and of the public in regard to the public ways and places. 
The law requires the officials to see that the streets are not obstructed, and to 
enforce the regulations regarding repairs and cleaning. It seems that these 
charges were assessed upon the abutting property owners. The repair and use of 
party walls are regulated, and provision made to prevent injury to a neighbor's 
rights. The commissioners also had charge of the public fountains, and it is ex- 
pressly forbidden under heavy penalties to use them for washing or for watering 
cattle. In another inscription a Roman emperor, probably Hadrian, regulates 
certain disputes which had arisen between the traders and the city bank, which 
alone had the right of changing money, and fixes a definite commission. 

At Ephesus the work has centred on the system of streets in the part of the 
ancient city near the harbor and the theatre. About the latter very little has been 
reported, as a complete publication of the whole building is shortly to appear. The 
systems of streets investigated were late Roman, and satisfactory evidence that 
they were over the streets of the earlier city was lacking. The chief street, leading 
from the port to the theatre, is shown by an inscription to have been called the 
Arcadiane, and must have been named in honor of the emperor Arcadius (395-408 
A. D.). It was about 11 metres broad, and well paved. On either side were colon- 
nades about 5 metres wide, and back of them doors opened into shops. The 
testimony of an inscription shows that there were arrangements for lighting it at 
night Two streets seem to have run parallel to itj and a third crossed it at right 
angles. The building which has hitherto figured as the "large gymnasium" is now 
proved to have been the "Baths of Constantine." It was connected with the 
Arcadiane by a fine open place, with colonnades on three sides, and three doors 
opening on the street. Among the lesser objects discovered were some fine remains 
of Ionic architecture, apparently belonging to an altar, and with them a relief 
containing the upper part of the Amazon of Polyclitus. 

To Asia Minor may also be reckoned the islands immediately adjacent, and on 
two of them important excavations have been begun, though detailed reports have 
not yet appeared. At Cos, Dr. Herzog has at last found the celebrated sanctuary 
of Asclepios, scarcely second to Epidamus as a place of healing. The temple was 
30x17 metres, and it is said the architectural remains are sufficient to show all the 
details ; there are, however, no traces of the pediment sculptures. The complete ex- 



45 



Areh«>«losy« 



cavation of the sacred precinct Is likely to be a long task. At Samos the Greek 
Archaeological Society has secured permission to excavate the famous temple of 
Hera, and in the first season's work has satisfactorily determined that the temple 
was decastyle, and 109 metres long by 54.5 metres broad. It is also said that there 
were tibree rows of columns across the ends and two along the sides. 

An important publication of the year has been the first part of the Investigations 
at Assos, Plans, Drawings, and Photographs (Cambridge, 1902), made by the 
American expedition to Assos twenty years ago. Two earlier reports have been 
issued among the papers of the Archaeological Institute of America, but this at last 
shows in satisfactory form the important results of the first expedition of the 
institute. The brief text is by Francis H. Bacon, to whom many of the plans and 
architectural drawings are due. This part includes the agora, stoa, and bouleuterion, 
while four more parts will contain the account of tombs, baths, theatre, and walls, 
as well as the lesser objects. With this must be named the final and authoritative 
account of the long series of excavations at Troy, which closed in 1894. Troja and 
Jlion, by William jDorpfeld, with many collaborators (Athens, 1902), must always 
remain the official record of this work, though the interpretation of the results will 
doubdess continue to call forth discussion. 

Crett, — ^Thc chief excavations on the island have been those carried on by the 
English Cretan Exploration Fund at Cnossus, by the British School of Athens at 
Palaeokastro, and by the Italians at Phxstos. At the latter place the exploration of 
the Mycenaean palace has been continued with better results, so far as decorations 
and smaller finds are concerned. The palace was a large building extending over 
various terraces, with fine cut stone walls and broad staircases. The plan is 
naturally somewhat complicated, but shows analogies to the larger buildmgs at 
Cnossus. It was built over an earlier building, for beneath the floors were K>und 
walls and passages choked with rubbish, but showing through the characteristic 
pottery that they belonged to the pre-Mycenaean, "Kamarais or Minoan period. 
From this palace the Italians turned to the necropolis, which, however, turned out 
to be chiefly of the later geometric period, though their native superintendent did 
discover twelve tombs with a fine collection of bronze swords, vases, and other 
objects belonging to the very end of the Mycenaean period. Still later they turned 
their attention to another summit of the ridge on which Phaestos lies, near the 
modem chapel of Hagia Tnada, and here came to light another smaller Mycenaean 
palace, containing two shrines with many votive offerings, five inscribed tablets, many 
seals, and a very fine steatite vase with decorations in relief, representing a proces- 
sion with music and dancing, which has been variously interpreted as a triumphant 
return from war or a harvest home. Some of the rooms of the palace contain 
well preserved frescoes, representing animal life. 

At Palaeokastro, Mr. Bosanquet had a site in eastern Crete which for some reason 
was abandoned after the fall of the Mycenaean power. He was fortunate in discover- 
ing a Mycenaean town of some size, and near it a group of better houses, one of 
which was fully cleared. It was at first only one story high, but later a second 
story reached by two staircases was added and the lower rooms used in part for 
storage. Near by a cemetery was excavated, throwing much light on the burial 
customs of the people, which seem to have differed somewhat from those in vogue 
on the mainland. The bodies seem to have been disinterred after a time and the 
bones collected in clay chests, while in one place there was an enclosure surrounded 
by a wall and divided into compartments, each containing a mass of skulls, bones, 
and vases, apparently in complete confusion. The vases were of the Kamarais type, 
so that this seems to represent the pre-Mycenaean custom. 

At Cnossus the work of excavating the palace of Minos is still continuing, largely 
at the expense of Mr. Arthur Evans, as the subscriptions to the Cretan Exploration 
Fund are far short of what is required. The discovery of staircases and colonnades, 
which need to be supported or repaired, makes the work one of great difficulty, 
though the results more than pay for the trouble. This season has added a new 
series of rooms on the eastern side, but the end is not yet. The palace was provided 
with an elaborate system of drainage, including sanitary conveniences, with pipes for 
flushing, and stone shafts leading from upper stories to sewers below the surface. 
At last a shrine has also been found containing an altar with the sacred horns, 
between which was a small double axe, and a clay image of a goddess with a dove 
upon her head. As in the other images of this period, the lower part of the body is a 
cylinder. More frescoes have been found representing plants, and also a painting repre- 
senting fish swimming. A whole series of porcelain plaques contain a representation 
of a town, and though much damaged it is clear that there were houses with two or 
three stories, and windows containmg frames which must have contained some sub- 
stitute for glass. Ivory figurines of very graceful carving are a new form of Myce- 
nzan art. Man^ more inscribed tablets have been found, and Mr. Evans is confident 
that the nmnencal system is at last intelligible. The Oxford University Press has 



46 

had cast a set of types so that the inscriptions may shortly be printed in approximate 
facsimile. 

Greece, — ^The attention of the Archaeological Society and the foreign schools has 
been largely directed to works outside of Greece proper, and the most important of 
these undertakings have already been described. The Greek Society is very active in 
the establishment of local museums and the preservation of the local antiquities. The 
report (Praktika) published in 1902 shows that in 1901 work was earned forward 
at eleven different places, though in none on a large scale. The chief excavation now 
in progress is at the Heraeum on Samos, but a very extensive scheme for the restora- 
tion of ancient monuments is planned. The repairs on the Parthenon having been 
completed, the scaffolding has been moved to the Erechtheum, where it is proposed 
to rebuild the Ionic porch on the north, and replace the half-columns of the west 
front These portions of the temple were ruined during the War of Independence, 
and the material for the most part is now on the ground. New material, steel 
trusses and iron bolts, are to be used only when absolutely necessary. The principle 
involved is one already accepted, for a good deal of the present building is due to 
repairs made in 1844 and 1846, while the little temple of Athena Nike was entirely 
rebuilt from the material found in a Turkish bastion. The names of the committee 
who recommended the new work are a guarantee that nothing rash is proposed, and 
there seems no good reason why the results should not be satisfactory. The Ephor- 
General Kawadias has also begun the restoration of the temple of Apollo at Phigalia, 
where the walls, overthrown by earthquakes, can be easily rebuilt. The society 
intends likewise to reconstruct the great Lion of Chaeronea, which marked the spot 
where the sacred band of Thebes made their last stand against Philip of Macedon. 
The monument survived until the last century, but during the War of Independence 
was blown up by a Greek leader who believed it contained treasure. As the frag- 
ments lie almost where they fell, the work of restoration should be easy. Other works 
which the sode^ has in view are the complete excavation of the great temple enclos- 
ure at Athens sacred to Olympian Zeus, and the removal of the masses of earth 
which were thrown outside the walls of Mycenx during the excavation of the citadel. 
When these plans have been carried out, and the excavations at Samos and elsewhere 
completed, a great archaeological congress is to be held at Athens. 

The French School has now completed its work at Delphi, and is engaged in 
arranging the museum and clearing away the debris from the ruins. Members of 
the school, however, have been active at several places. At Delos the heaps of 
rubbish which were piled up in the sacred enclosure are being removed, and back 
of the "small portico" an agora, surrounded as usual by a colonnade on the other 
three sides, has been cleared. At Tenos H. Demoulin has found the temple of Posei- 
don and Amphitrite surrounded by many other buildings, and has in his first cam- 
paign secured a number of inscriptions and some interesting sculpture. More impor- 
tant apparently are the results at Argos, where the low hill anciently called Aspis 
(The Shield) has been explored, and remains of walls and houses of a very early, 
apparently pre- Mycenaean period, discovered. The pydopean walls, and also a Gredc 
wall forming part of the later fortifications of the city, have been traced. Tombs of 
the Mycenaean period have been found between the Aspis and the lofty Larissa, and 
there arc reports of a senate-house, and small temple with inscriptions relating to 
the worship of Apollo, as well as terra-cottas, vases, statuettes, and other small 
finds. 

Besides the work at Pergamum, Dr. Dorpfeld has continued his work at Leucas, 
which he regards as the Homeric Ithaca, and has at last found traces of a con- 
siderable prehistoric settlement, and an ancient conduit through which water was 
brought in earthenware pipes, recalling the fountain near the palace mentioned in 
the Odyssey. 

The chief excavations in Greece are, however, those of the American School at 
Corinth, where the campaign of 1902 has been better rewarded than that of the pre- 
ceding year. The work this season continued from the beginning of March to June 
14, an unusually long period, and cost $3200, for which, as usual, it was necessary to 
depend on private subscriptions. On the south side of the temple hill a Greek stoa, 
some 350 feet in length, was cleared. The back was formed by a retaining wall of 
the temple terrace, and in some places the rock was cut away to make room for it 
It was provided with a double row of columns, Doric in front, and half as many 
Ionic columns in the interior. The architectural remains are sufficient to make pos- 
sible a complete restoration on paper. In later Roman times a row of vaulted 
chambers opening on a new portico was built in front, and for these the remains 
of an old Greek building furnished a foundation. At the east of the temple hill was 
found another similar row of chambers, at right angles to those on the south, and 
back of them up the hill was an open space bordered by a very late stoa. Under 
this building were found the foundations of a much older Greek stoa of great size. 
Beneath these buildings were several conduits for water, and in one of them were 



47 



ATobsolosy^ 



{band alxmt aoo lamps, many of them with inscriptions. The small objects include 
bushels of early pottery, a large number of figurines, some of which are fine examples 
of ardiaic art, and a number of inscriptions, including one of the sixth century ac. 
in the local alphabet. As heretofore, these results have required enormously deep 
digging and the removal of large masses of earth. A trial trench at the theatre 
result^ in the discovery of a complicated series of walls at a depth of more than 
twenty-five feet. It is planned to attack this building as a part of the next season's 
work, provided the necessary funds can be secured. 

An earlier undertaking of the American School is recalled by the appearance of 
The Argive Heraum, by Charles Waldstein and others (Vol. i : Boston and New 
York, 1902), containing an account of the excavations on that site from 1892 to 
1S9S. This volume contains the general account of the excavations and detailed 
discussion of the geology of the region, and the sculpture in marble, the architecture 
and the inscriptions, with a large number of very fine plates. The second volume is 
to follow soon, and will contain the vases, terra-cottas, bronzes, and smaller 
articles generally. 

Italy and the West. — In this region the reports for 1902 are a decided contrast to 
those from the East, and to those of earlier years. Not that there has been any de- 
crease in activity, for the Notisie degli Scam of the Italian government bear witness 
to numerous undertakings, and the French, Germans, and English are not neglectful 
of ancient remains within their borders. The results, however, are by no means 
sensational, and very few striking discoveries have been made. In Italy the pre- 
historic period has received additional light by the opening of tombs at many places, 
notably at La Pretara, near Atri, where were found three groups containing objects 
of bronze and iron, and a series of rather poor vases, chiefly remarkable for their 
large number of handles. At Torre Annunziata, a coast suburb of Pompeii, excava- 
tions brought to light a portico and shops, with many small articles and a number 
of skeletons. The discovery of a fine bronze statue representing a seated Heracles, 
and probably to be referred to the time of Lysippus, has also been reported from 
this region. In Pompeii the houses recently opened, though containing some inter- 
esting paintings, have not yielded any very striking objects. In Rome itself the work 
at the Forum has continued, especially about the temple of Castor, which has proved 
to be peripteral, and in the Atrium Vestx, where more traces of the older house 
have been discovered. The earlier course of the Sacra Via has been further traced, 
and it now seems clear that its line was altered somewhat by Hadrian to make room 
for the temple of Venus and Rome. Much interest was aroused by the discovery 
between tiie temple of Antoninus and Faustina, and that of Romulus, son of Maxen- 
tius, of three prehistoric graves, the first ever found in this vicinity, and probably 
bekm^ng to the necropolis of the early settlers of the Palatine. The first found 
contamed a large urn or dolium, with a conical lid, and in this a "hut-urn" containing 
the ashes and several rude vases. The other graves were similar, and all resemble 
in ail essentials the early cemeteries of the Esquiline and the Alban mountains. 
There is nothing in these discoveries to cause any surprise, and the accepted views 
as to the early settlements on the Roman hills are merely confirmed, but not modified, 
by the finding of another necropolis. Two publications of interest in Roman archae- 
ology are the work of Maurice Besnier, L'lle Tiber ene dans VAniiquite (Paris, 
1902), and the first volume of the Annual of the British School at Rome. The 
former contains a very full history of the island where the Romans established their 
temple of ^sculapius, and of all its antiquities, together with a valuable bibliography. 
The latter contains a full discussion by Mr. Rusnforth, the director, of the Church 
of St Maria Antiqua, built about 600 a.d., and its ancient paintings, which are 
divided into groups, the earliest contemporary with the building, and the latest 
belonging to the end of the eighth century. The church is on the site of an earlier 
building, perhaps connected with the entrance to the Palatine, while the paintings 
show that they were executed when Rome was artistically a Byzantine city. In the 
same volume Mr. Ashby presents a monograph on the ancient roads through the 
Cami>agna and the monuments which line their sides. Of unusual importance is 
the publication of vol. I. of the Storia degli Scevi di Roma, by R. Lanciani (Rome, 
1902), in which the history of the excavations, discoveries, and of the plundering 
and destruction of the ancient monuments has been compiled from the original 
documents preserved in many public and family archives, by one who for twenty-five 
years has devoted himself to these researches. In the present volume the period 
from 1000- 1 530 A.D. is treated, and four more volumes are to bring the narrative to 
the overthrow of the Papal government in 1870. 

In Tunis the chief activity seems to have been at Carthage and Dougga (Thugga). 
At the former an early Punic necropolis has been found, yielding much information 
as to early Carthaginian burial customs; near by was a whole series of potters' 
ovms, one of which was almost entire, and made clear the methods used in pro- 
dadng the early vases. A later necropolis contained a series of burials from the 



Arek weoltr* a $^ 

ArchsoUffTt Ameiicaji* *r^ 

third century ac. to the capture of the dtv by the Romans (b.c 146). Here also 
the Odeum was excavated, and proved to be of very large size, wim a rectangular 
stage and semi-circular cavea for the spectators. Among the discoveries of artistic 
value are some marble sarcophagi, some adorned with paintings, and one said to be 
sculptured in the style of the best Greek art. In one case the coffin was nearly full 
of resin, in which the corpse had been preserved. The French government has pub- 
lished a systematic account of the ancient monuments in Algiers, written by S. Gsell, 
the very competent director of the Museum, and entitled Les Monuments Antiques 
de I'Algerie (2 vols., Paris, 1902). Its full descriptions and authoritative treatment 
of the whole subject make this the standard work for this field. 

ARCHJEOLOGY, AMERICAN. The year 1902 witnessed certain notable 
movements indicating a growing recognition of the importance of American archae- 
ology not only as a field of original research, but as a feature of general culture. 
Thus, the Archaeological Institute of America has provisionally established a fellow- 
ship for American work, and has introduced lectures on this theme in its general 
courses ; and, in connection with this expansion in its work, the Institute has enjoyed 
a decided development in activity, marked by the establishment of new branch soci- 
eties as well as by increase in membership. Another movement of note was that 
toward the establishment of an International Archaeologic Commission, designed to 
occupy the western hemisphere as its field. This movement originated at the Pan- 
American Conference held in the City of Mexico during the winter of 1901-1902. 
Largely at the instance of Dr. Alfredo Chavero, of Mexico, and Hon. Volney W. 
Foster, of Chicago, the conference adopted a resolution recommending to the several 
countries represented that such a commission be created on a basis analogous to that 
of the Bureau of the American Republics; the objects of the commission beinjg^ (i) 
to work for the unification of laws relating to the preservation of antiquities in the 
western hemisphere, (2) to obtain and diffuse accurate information concerning such 
antiquities, and (3), if practicable, to obtain provision for a museum of international 
character. The Mexican government took prompt action on the recommendation. 
President Diaz designated Dr. Chavero as the representative of that country in arrang- 
ing for the organization of the commission, and he visited Washington about the time 
of the International Congress of Americanists in order to confer with archaeologists 
and other learned men from different American countries; and, pursuant to his 
recommendations, the consummation of the plan on the i)art of the American repub- 
lics south of the United States was turned over to their several accredited repre- 
sentatives. Dr. W J McGee was designated through the secretary of state, as a 
similar representative for the United States. The plans of the^ commission were 
well advanced, though not matured, b]^ the end of 1902. A fresh impetus was given 
to archaeologic study by the International Congress of Americanists held in New 
York in October, 1902, and by the subsequent excursion of the participants to several 
points of archaeologic interest — notably, the imposing antiquity in Ohio known as 
Fort Ancient. While this organization is devoted to the early history of America 
as well as to the study of the surviving aborigines and antiquities, it usually happens 
that ardiaeolo^ receives the lion's share of interest ; this was conspicuously true of 
the congress m New York, where most of the students of archaeology in America 
were assembled, and where about half of the fuller communications related to 
American ardiaeology. The contributions concerning the antiquities of Mexico and 
Central America, as well as of Peru and Argentina, were especially rich and valuable. 

Instrumentalities. — The chief instrumentalities for archaeologic research are the 
public museums. The United States National Museum has continued collecting and 
classifying material from this and other countries, of which a large part relates to 
prehistoric man. Among the notable collections of 1902 were those made by Dr. 
Frai^ Russell in Arizona, in the course of his work as an officer of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, and the various interesting objects obtained by Dr. J. Walter 
Fewkes in Porto Rico under the same auspices. The latter collection comprises 
several carved stone "collars" or "yokes" of well-known type, but of which the use 
has never been adequately explained. Some of the Fewkes specimens are carved 
with serpent symbols, and one or two are shaped in manifest imitation of serpent 
bodies ; and this symbolism, agreeing as it does with devices on some of the "yokes" 
found in Mexico, aids in the interpretation of the objects. Many of the Mexican 
specimens are of the shape, and about the size, of an ox-bow (hence the designation 
'*yoke"), so that the object forms an open loop, symmetrically carved, of diorite or 
other stone ; the weight usually ranging from 25 to 75 pounds. The sur^ce is some- 
times plain, sometimes finely polished, sometimes carved with symbolic devices. The 
finest known specimen (in possession of Dr. Chavero, Mexico) is elaborately carved 
with the devices characteristic of aboriginal Mexican art, executed with such skill 
and delicacy as to give it rank among the finest products of native American sculp- 
ture. The Antillean specimens (including those collected by Dr. Fewkes) are 
usually closed, forming somewhat elongated annuli, whence the designation "collar," 



^Q ATo1i»ol«ffrt Amerlcaii. 

applied by early collectors. On putting together the various facts of s3rmbolism 
and the meagre items of information concerning the ceremonial use of the objects, 
it is found that they represent what may be called the occidental crescent, i.e., that 
their symbolic meaning is akin to that orig^inally underlying the oriental crescent, 
though the western symbol represents a somewhat earlier stage of development than 
the Indian and Arabian yoni and the crescent of the Turkish standard. Summarily, 
the object seems to be a symbol of fertility, or rather of fecundity, connected with 
com and other plants, rain, the sun, the serpent, life, maternity, and other ideas 
of a long series closely associated in the primitive mind. Accordingly the objects 
were analogous in meaning and use to the rings employed in various aboriginal 
games, to pie hair- whorls of Zuni maidens, and to various other mystical devices 
developed in the more arid districts of the western hemisphere ; doubtless they were 
used in ceremonial invocations for rain and for the growth of crops, though the most 
decisive evidence of use was in connection with girls' puberty feasts. During the 
year the United States National Museum collections were rendered more accessible 
by the installation of a series of galleries ; yet the building remains wholly inadequate 
— so that but a fraction of the material is accessible for study. The American 
Museum of Natural History (New York) has continued in rapid growth, and now 
stands among the foremost institutions of its class in the world. Among the notable 
archaeologic collections installed during 1902 were those of Dr. Saville, from Hon- 
duras, and of Dr. Pepper and others, representing the Hyde expedition in Arizona ; 
while the Jesup North Pacific expedition continued to yield abundant antiquarian as 
well as ethnic material. The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (Cam- 
bridge) maintained steady growth; the Carnegie Museum (Pittsburg) was enridied 
by the addition of notable archxologic material, including certain beautiful specimens 
of aboriginal carving obtained by the director. Dr. W. J. Holland, from Mexico ; the 
Field Columbian Museum (Chicago), through the efforts of Dr. George A. Dorsey, 
made particularly valuable collections of dbjects representing the transition from 
prehistoric to modem culture in California as well as among the plains tribes; the 
Free Museum (Philadelphia) gained rich collections under the direction of Dr. 
Stewart Culin; the Golden Gate Park Museum (San Francisco) continued the col- 
lection of ancient as well as modem Indian material ; while the nucleus of the Hearst 
Museum, connected with the University of California (Berkeley), afforded oppor- 
tunity for notable investigation as well as collection. Several State institutions ^ve 
attention to local antiquities, the surveys and examinations of mounds by Mills, 
under the auspices of the University of Ohio (Columbus), being especially valuable 
and si^ificant The Museo Nacional of Mexico increased its activity during 1902; 
Dr. Nicolas Leon, recently placed in charge of the department of archaeology, in- 
stalled a rich series of crania and other osteologic material (chiefly prehistoric) 
representing various districts of Mexico ; while early in December Dr. Alfredo Cha- 
vero, distinguished as an archaeologist no less than as a statesman and scholar, was 
made director of the institution. The museum connected with the department of 
education in Toronto (Canada), which is devoted chiefly to Canadian archaeology, 
continued normal growth under the direction of David Boyle. Other institutions 
ei^aged in archaeologic work are noted elsewhere. See Anthropology in America. 
Human Antiquity. — Various observations of the year 1902 served to renew dis- 
cussion of the question of the antiquitjr of man in America. The most widely dis- 
cussed discovery was that of the "Lansing man" in the bluffs of the Missouri River, 
near Lansing, Kan. Early in the year the Concannon brothers (farmers) found a 
human skull and other bones at a depth of over twenty feet from the surface, in a 
tunnel, or vault, excavated in a hillside to form a place of storage for vegetables and 
fruit The skull was at first broken up and thrown out with the debris; but the 
occurrence came to t)|e knowledge of Prof. J. H. Long, of Kansas City, who restored 
the cranium from the fragments, and afterward to that of Prof. S. W. Williston 
(then of the University of Kansas but now of the University of Chicago), Professor 
Haworth, and other geologists, who visited the locality and studied the associations. 
Professor Williston published a preliminary account, which led Prof. N. H. 
Winchell, State geologist of Minnesota, and Mr. Warren Upham, of Minneapolis, 
to make a more extended examination of the region about Lansing; and these 
geolc^sts published their interpretations. Later, Profs. T. C. Chamberlin and 
R. D. Salisbury, of the University of Chicago, with Prof. Samuel Calvin, of the 
University of Iowa, and Prof. W. H. Holmes, of the United States National 
Museum, made a critical study of the deposits; while Dr. Ales Hrdlicka and Dr. 
George A. Dorsey examined and measured the cranium and other bones. All 
aatfaorities are in agreement concerning the osteologic material ; none of the bones 
arc fossilized, and most of them are quite well preserved; and the skull is of the 
ordinary Plains Indian type in size, form, and other characters. The determinations 
of the age of the deposit by the geologists are, however, widely diverse; the dis- 
crepancy growing out of difference of opinion as to whether the deposit in which 



ATob»oloff7» Ameiiean. ^q 

the bones were found is original loess, undisturbed until the time of the excavation, 
or whether it is a secondary (redeposited) accumulation of material derived from 
the loess. The former view is strongly held by Winchell and Upham, who point 
out that, according to their determinations, the deposit agrees with undisturbed loess 
in chemical and mechanical constitution, and that it is continuous with the main 
body of that deposit as developed in the adjacent river bluffs; accordingly they 
correlate it with the dosing stages of the lowan epoch of the ice age — ^i.e., they 
assign it to about the middle of the Glacial Period. The chronology of the stages 
of this period is not, of course, measurable in years ; but most geologists would agree 
that this determination would give the "Lansing man" an antiquity of somewhere 
between 10,000 and 75,000 years. On the other hand, Chamberlin, Salisbury, and 
Calvin agree in regarding the deposit as a secondary accumulation perhaps only 
a few centuries old; they find the materials to effervesce under acid less easily than 
those of undisturbed loess, indicating a less abundant element of undecomposed 
carbonate of lime. They also note the presence of rock f rag^ncnts unlike those 
sometimes found in the base of the loess, and ascribe them to the agencies of 
redeposition ; and the first named especially discuss the mechanics and known history 
of the Missouri River and its bottomlands, as well as the local configuration of the 
bluffs, with the view of demonstrating not only the possibility but the probability 
that the deposit in question was laid down as a sort of delta by the streamlet heading 
in the adjacent hills and now embouching through a narrow gorge into the Missouri 
a short distance from the excavation in which the remains were found. Pending 
agreement between the principals in the discussion or corroboration of one view or 
the other by extended independent studies, opinion as to the antiquity of the "Lan- 
sing man" is>naturally held in abeyance; though the inertia of conservative thought, 
together with the harmony between the Qiamberlin interpretation of the deposit 
and the determination of the characters of the school, favor the view that the 
remains are of no great antiquity. See Geology (paragraph Glacial Geology). 

In connection with the congress of Americanists in New York, Professor Putnam 
brought together the human remains and artifacts collected at Trenton (N. J.) 
under his direction by Mr. Ernest Volk during several years of continuous work 
conducted through the munificence of the Due de Loubat and Dr. Hyde, of New 
York. These attracted much attention. The deposits in which they were found 
are either late aqueo-glacial accumulations or later accumulations produced by winds 
or storms ; while the depth at which most of the relics were found was so limited as 
to be within reach of surface disturbance. One of the relics, however, is of special 
significance because found at a considerable depth in apparently undisturbed deposits 
of later Glacial Age. This is a bone, apparently a human femur, which, although 
so far decomposed as to render the determination in some degree doubtful, appears 
to have been cut squarely across at one end, sharpened at the other end, and per- 
forated about mid-length. The whole appearance of the object suggests that it 
was artificially shaped for use as a handle for some sort of cuttmg implement, or for 
attachment to the shaft as a harpoon head or javelin point. The object is specially 
noteworthy as affording the most decisive bit of evidence of high human antiquity 
in America thus far recorded. The geologic associations indicate that it antedated 
somewhat the last, or Wisconsin ice invasion of the Glacial Period, an epoch com- 
monly estimated at from 6000 to 20,000 years in the past — 10,000 years being a fair 
average of the estimates. Certain of the human crania found at Trenton are of 
much interest by reason of small size and other primitive characteristics ; they were 
recently described and discussed by Hrdlicka, who shows that they do not correspond 
with the skulls of the tribes found in the same region by the earliest white settlers. 
On the whole the question of the antiquity of man in America must be regarded 
as far from settlement. So far as occurrences of human reli^ in geologic deposits 
of known age are concerned, the evidence of high human antiquity seems less 
decisive now than a quarter-century ago, chiefly by reason of the more critical 
weighing of details with increasing knowledge; yet it is significant that what may 
be called the ethnologic indications point to a greater antiquity of the American 
race than the geologic evidences thus far recorded. Thus (neglecting the Calaveras 
skull, which would, if the recorded associations could be verified, carry the peopling 
of America millions of years into the past), the most trustworthy geologic testimony 
— ^that of the Trenton femur— would carry man back not more than 10,000, or, at 
the maximum estimate, 20.000 years, and the extreme estimate of the age of the 
"Lansing man" is not much greater; while the conservative student of the native 
tribes, familiar with the slow advance of primitive peoples, finds it difficult if not 
impossible to conceive of the distribution of men over the American hemisphere, the 
development of a multitude of distinct tongues, the growth of industries adapted 
to every environment, the establishment of distinctive systems of social organization, 
and especially the development of numerous mythologic systems with attendant cere- 
monies and traditions running back through uncounted generations, within so short 



5« Archieoloffy> AmerlcaB. 

*■ Archlteotnre. 

a period as ten or twenty thousand years. Accordingly the condition of the question 
is snch as to encourage research on the part of ardiaeologists and geologists alike. 
See Anthsofology in America. 

ARCHITECTURE. In the architectural record of 1902 the event that attracted 
the most widespread attention was the fall of the historic Campanile of Saint Mark 
at Venice, on July 14. Its collapse was not wholly without warning, and no lives 
were lost The adjoining palace of the Library, Sansovino's masterpiece, was some- 
what damaged, but the church of Saint Mark was wholly uninjured. The disaster 
was not due to faulty foundations, but to defects of construction and inadequate 
repairs; and the architect in charge, Si^or Saccardo, who was promptly removed 
from office, declared that the responsibility for it lay with those officials who had 
ignored his warnings and refused to order the repairs he had persistently urged. 
The tower will be rebuilt in the form it has had ever since the alterations of the 
sixteenth century. 

In the United States the year was distinguished by an extraordinary activity in 
building. In New York there were contracted for or completed during the year 
business buildings and apartment-hotels alone aggregating over $75,000,000 in cost, 
while in other lines the record was almost equally remarkable. Never before were so 
many important buildings planned or erected in one year for the national govern- 
ment, both at Washington and elsewhere ; while in the building of all sorts of public 
buildings and private residences the activity was remarkable, especially in the 
eastern, middle, western, and Pacific coast States (see Building Operations). 
The general average of quality in all this architecture shows progress in taste, with 
iew or no especially brilliant achievements to record. In sharp contrast with present 
European tendencies toward a veritable anarchy of caprice in design, the tendency 
in the United States has been in the main towards classic models freely handled. 
There was in 1902 an increased activity in the agitation for the artistic remodeling 
of our cities, of which the most consi)icuous example is the Washington improve- 
ment scheme, projected in 1901, and vigorously urged in 1902 with fair prospect of 
official adoption. Indeed, the notable building for the Department of Agriculture 
(Lord and Hewlett) has already been assigned a site in accordance with the scheme 
reported by the commission, and steps have been taken for the removal of the 
Pennsylvania railroad tracks and station from the Mall to a new site, where a 
terminal, to cost $5,000,000, is to be built from plans by D. H. Bumham. The gover- 
nor of Ohio has appointed J. M. Carrere and A. W. Brunner, of New York, as 
experts to arrange for the planning of the new group of municipal buildings at 
Qeveland, O., in accordance with a somewhat similar project for municipal im- 
provement ; while in New York Mayor Low has consulted the Municipal Art Society 
with a view to appointing a commission to consider broadly the whole question of 
municipal improvement, and Bridge Commissioner Lindenthal has engaged a com- 
petent architect to collaborate with the engineers in the design of all the colossal 
new bridges across the East River now projected or under way. Important monu- 
ments have been erected or awarded in competition in many cities, notably in Phila- 
delphia, which is to erect a great monument to her soldiers and sailors from com- 
petitive designs by Lord and Hewlett. In New York the soldiers' and sailors' monu- 
ment on Riverside Drive, an ornate and dignified circular edifice, by C. W. and 
A. A. Stoughton, was dedicated May 30. An extraordinary number of public 
libraries have been projected or erected during the year in almost or quite all the 
States, the most conspicuous being the palatial New York Public Library, now 
actively under way on foundations laid in 1901 (Carrere and Hastings). The United 
States government has secured by competition under the Tarsney act several admir- 
able designs for federal buildings, while those emanating from the office of the 
supervising architect, Mr. J. K. Taylor, display the results of efficient administration 
and good taste. Architectural enterprises for 1902 in Washington include a new 
municipal building (Cope and Stewardson), city hospital (F. M. Day), public 
library, railway terminal and buildings for the Department of Agriculture and the 
Supreme Court. In New York, among structures not already referred to, we may 
mention the new custom house (Cass Gilbert), Stock Exchange (G. B. Post), City 
College buildings (G. B. Post), forty branch libraries, lady chapels for the cathedrals 
of Saint John the Divine (Heins and Lafarge) and Saint Patrick (C. T. Mathews), 
begun in 1902; new wing of Metropolitan Museum of Art (Hunt and Hunt), 
CSmbcr of Commerce (J. B. Baker), "Flatiron building" (D. H. Bumham), three 
great department stores, several large hotels, and several palatial residences completed 
or in progress. In Chicago the chief activity has been in commercial buildings and 
private residences. The dilatory construction of the Chicago postoffice has caused 
dissatisfaction. At St. Louis progress has been made in the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition (g.v.) » in the buildings for which, chiefly of steel, staff, and glass, classic 
treatment predominates. There has been continued progress in taste and achieve- 
meot io landscape gardening and formal gardening in the United States. The archi- 



Archlteetare* r.^ 

Arctic EjcploratloB« j^ 

tectural profession has lost in 1902 by death in Philadelphia the veteran J. M. 
Wilson, A.I.A^ and the talented Walter Cope (of G)pe and Stewardson), perhaps 
the ablest of Philadelphia architects; at Washington, Edward Clarke, aged eighty, 
architect in charge of the Capitol for many years ; and, at New York, James Brown 
Lord, architect of the Appellate Court and other important buildings. 

In England, the year's record has been less satisfactory, owing in part to the 
effects of the South African war. Indignation is felt in London at the adoption of 
an unworthy design for the Vauxhall bridge, soon to be erected. The Liverpool 
cathedral competition brought out no strikingly able designs, and the advisers, R. 
Norman Shaw and G. F. Bodley, selected six architects for the final competition 
on the basis of their professional achievements rather than of their competitive 
designs. The cathedral will cost $1,000,000, too small a sum for the best results. 
The new Roman Catholic cathedral at Westminster, by the late J. F. Bentley, has 
been externally completed and made ready internally for the decorators, at a cost 
of nearly $2,000,000. It is modeled in plan after the domical churches of 
Charente ; externally its architecture is strongly personal and eclectic, but the whole 
is admitted to be a noble monument to its lamented designer. The War office 
(Young) and Government Board buildings (Brydon) have not yet been completed. 
Competitions have been held for municipal buildings, or their erection begun, in 
many towns, as at Aldershot, Barry, Colchester, Creeve, Deptford, and Tottenham. 
The design of the Birmingham University buildings was awarded to Aston Webb 
and Ingres Bell, architects also of the Naval College at Dartmouth, and of Horsham 
Schools. The new Criminal Courts in the Old Bailey (E. W. Mountford), and the 
great electric station on Grove Road (Peach and Reilly), a strong and original 
design, were begun. Many important competitions were held, but often under con- 
ditions so unsatisfactory that a National Society was formed to promote their proper 
conduct and adjudication. The discussion as to the licensing and registration of 
architects has continued with no positive results. The annual gold medal of the 
Royal Academy in architecture was awarded to Mr. T. W. Collcutt. 

On the Continent of Europe the most noticeable feature in the architecture of 1902 
is the astonishing invasion of the so-called "Art Nouveau" into architectural design, 
producing results in most cases deplorably fantastic, and destitute of the fundamental 
qualities of repose, dignity and structural propriety. In the Dusseldorf exhibition 
(Hoffacker, Storck, and others) the vagaries of this freak architecture reigned 
supreme, and this was in a measure true of the exhibition at Olmiitz, and the im- 
portant Exhibition of Art and Industry at Turin, although here the work of Signor 
d'Aronco in the main building was sufficiently vigorous and thoughtful to save it 
from the charge of utter absurdity. In Paris, this species of anarchy in design has 
even been premiated in the annual award of prizes for the best fagades erected 
during the year, in the eccentric facade by M. Lavirotte on the Avenue Rapp. The 
other prizes were for designs of a less bizarre character. The new Paris building 
act has relaxed the restrictions upon projections from the plane of the fagade. The 
use of brick and concrete, reinforced by metal (brique armde and bSton armS) in 
architecture has greatly increased in Paris, to the detriment of elegance and solidity 
of design. Two new bridges have been projected to be built across the Seine at 
Paris in 1903, at a cost of $700,000. There have been no architectural enterprises of 
the first rank to be credited to the French in 1902. 

Among buildings planned or completed in 1902 in Germany may be mentioned 
Conrad's High School for girls, at Wiesbaden, in a well-studied late (jothic style ; at 
Munich the dignified and successful buildings for the new Northern cemetery, by 
Hans Grassel, in a modernized Byzantine style; and the new public baths by K. 
Hocheder, with an imposing swimming-hall. A competition for a monument to Bis- 
marck brought out some admirable and vigorous designs ; it was won by the archi- 
tect, E. Schandt. The new Berlin Electric City Railway reveals, in the well-designed 
details of its construction and in several of its stations, some of the best results 
of the free modern treatment applied to structures of metal and masonry, in pleasing 
contrast to the extraordinary vagaries of the "New Art" in many of the new resi- 
dences and public buildings. In Austria, the competition for the new Municipal 
Museum at Vienna resulted in the adoption of Schacher's design in preference to 
that of Professor Wagner. The announcement of a competition for a monument 
to the late Empress Elizabeth, and the Secessionist exhibition at Vienna, held in an 
extraordinary Art Nouveau building by Professor Hofmann, are worthy of mention. 
In Italy, the Turin Exhibition and the fall of the Venetian (Campanile have already 
been alluded to. Italy has only to a limited degree experienced the Art Nouveau 
craze, which has run to such extremes in France, Germany, and Austria. 

ARCTIC EXPLORATION. That vexed question as to which is the best route 
to the North Pole, the Smith Sound route or the Franz Josef Land route or the 
Bering Strait route, was not settled in 1902 after all. Expeditions were in the field 
to demonstrate the practicability of the Smith Sound route and the Franz Josef Land 






f,i 






S3 



Arq^o EavloimtloB* 



route, bat owing to conditions that had little to do with the routes themselves, the 
Pole still remains undiscovered. Neither route was fairly tested. Lieut, (now 
Commander) Robert E. Peary, who set forth to seek the Pole from the American 
side of the world, was prevented from accomplishing valuable results by the 
smallness of his party. On the other hand, Mr. Evelyn B. Baldwin, who attempted 
the adventure of the Pole by way of Franz Josef Land, was apparently hampered by 
bad material in his party and by insufficient equipment — although this item in his 
plan was supposed to be extraordinarily well cared for. In 1902 neither Mr. Peary 
nor Mr. Baldwin accomplished much in the way of adding to the world's information 
about the Arctic regions. The only explorer in the north who returned in 1902 with 
valuable discoveries to describe was Capt. Otto Sverdrup (q.v.), who was the com- 
mander of the Fratn during Nansen's drift across the Arctic Ocean in 1893-95, and 
had set forth in the same vessel in 18^ to make explorations in Greenland waters. 
Reports of Captain Sverdrup's discoveries are somewhat vague in one or two details, 
but it is certain that the Fratn party pushed through Jones's Sound to the west coast 
of Ellesmere Land and explored this coast north as far as the 8ist parallel. More- 
over, they discovered new islands of considerable extent lying above the Parry 
Islands, to the west of Ellesmere Land. The details of the expedition are as follows. 
The West Coast of Ellesmere Land. — Captain Sverdrup started in 1898 in the 
steamship Fram to circumnavigate Greenland by way of Smith Sound. There were 
sixteen men in the party, six of whom belonged to the scientific staff. Among them 
were Lieutenant Isaachsen ; Mr. Bay, zoologist ; Mr. Simmons, botanist ; Mr. Schei, 
geologist ; Mr. Svendsen, surgeon. The Fram was checked by the ice in Kane Basin 
and was seen there by Mr. Peary in the summer of 1899, but for two years thereafter 
no news of her was received. There was some apprehension that she might be lost. 
The alternative conjecture was that she might have abandoned the plan of 
exploring upper Greenland and given her attention to Jones's Sound, which bounds 
Ellesmere Land on the south; and this conjecture turned out to be accurate. On 
August 22, 1899, having found it impossible to penetrate the ice in Kane Basin, 
Captain Sverdrup turned his ship southward. He entered Jones's Sound, established 
winter quarters on the south side of Ellesmere Land, latitude 17** 29' North, longi- 
tude 84* 2±' West. He spent the fall in making preliminary boat journeys to the 
westward for the purpose of laying down depots of supplies to be used in a sledge 
journey in the spring. During the fall, in the absence of the captain, one of the 
party, Braskerud, caught cold while out hunting and died. On March 17 and 20, 
1900, a sledge journey in two parties consisting of nine men set forth along the 
southern coast of Ellesmere Land, and proceeded until the 31st of March, when they 
had covered 175 miles. Here the supporting party, consisting of five members, 
returned to Bjomeborg, which was the name that had been given to the main depot 
of supplies. The other four men, composing two parties, each with supplies for 
fifty days, continued westward. Opposite North Kent they discovered a bay 100 
miles broad, extending eastward into the coast of Ellesmere Land. The northern 
side of this bay was penetrated by deep fjords. Beyond the mouth of the bay, 
Ellesmere Land extends about fifty miles to the westward and then the coast turns 
north. At the 79th parallel, on April 16, the two parties separated; one, consisting 
of Isaachsen and Hassel, kept on to the west to explore new land that had been 
sighted. The explorers reached this land at the 98th meridian, whence they returned 
to the coast of Ellesmere Land and traveled southwards, discovering a system of 
Qords and exploring some of them. They returned to the ship on June 19, 1900. 
Meanwhile the other party, consisting of Sverdrup himself and Fosheim, had pro- 
ceeded northward along the Ellesmere Land coast, which they found much broken 
by fjords, as far as the 81 st parallel. They then returned to the ship, arriving on 
June 2. Also a third party, made up of Schei and Henriksen, had explored two 
minor islands lying north of Jones's Sound, and had made a journey to the northern 
end of North Kent During the absence of the parties, the awning of the Fram 
caught fire from the funnel and ignited the mainmast. Kayaks were stored under- 
neath the awning, as well as musk-ox skins and several bear skins, and these were 
burned. A water hole had been kept open alongside the vessel for such emergencies, 
and the fire was soon subdued. By the 9th of August the ice had broken up suffi- 
ciently to permit the moving of the Fram, and she proceeded westward as far as the 
8gth meridian and took up new winter quarters in a fjord (latitude 76** 48' North, 
longitude 89** West). The autumn was spent mainly in hunting. In the sledging 
season o{ 1901 two parties again set out : Isaachsen and Hassel westward, to explore 
the new land they had touched the preceding season ; Sverdrup, Fosheim, Raanas, 
and Sdiei to ascertain whether the northern coast which Sverdrup had investigated 
dnring the preceding spring was cut off from Ellesmere Land by a sound. The 
party that explored the islands to the westward discovered at about the 78th parallel 
a strait separating North Cornwall from the land situated to the north. They fol- 
lowed the southern coast of this land through the strait and northward to its limit 



Avette EavloimtleA* v^ 

at latitude 79® ac/ North, longitude io6' West FrcMn this point no land oould be 
seen either to the west or to the north. The party then turned eastward and, follow- 
ing along the northern coast of the new island, returned to Ellesmere Land and then 
to the ship, which they reached June 7, 1901. The new country is rather low as 
compared with Ellesmere Land — not more than 1000 feet at its highest point Mean- 
while Sverdrup's party became involved in fjords on the Ellesmere Land coast 
and reached only 80** 30' North. The Fram was not released from the ice during 
the summer of 1901, and in the season of 1902 Captain Sverdrup and Mr. Schei made 
a journey up the west coast of Ellesmere Land for the purpose of reaching the point 
that Lieutenant Aldrich of the Nares expedition had reached in 1876, but they failed 
to accomplish this aim by about fifty miles. The remainder of the sledging season 
of 1902 was spent in minor explorations. On August 6, the Fram left her anchorage 
and she reached Sweden August 29. The party was amply supplied with game during 
the whole time. Musk-ox, reindeer, and wolves and Arctic hares, abound in Elles- 
mere Land. Ice bears are numerous, and in the waterways walrus are abundant. 

The Peary Expedition. — Lieut, (now Commander) Robert E. Peary (q.v.) re- 
turned from Greenland in 1902 and, not content with having made the most extended 
series of Arctic explorations ever accomplished by any single leader, including the 
discovery of what is perhaps the spur of land nearest to the North Pole, announced 
his intention of making another attempt to reach the Pole itself, provided that 
funds could be procured for the maintenance of a party. Commander Peary still 
believes in the Smith Sound route. In his "dash for the Pole" in 1902, however, 
he found himself unable to proceed beyond latitude 84" 1/ North, mainly because 
of lack of men and the delay in starting across Uie sea ice, due to the fact that his 
headquarters were too far south of the Folar ocean. He spent the winter of 1901-02 
at Payer Harbor near Cape Sabine. On March 3, 1902, an advance party of six 
sledges, under the command of Mr. Peary's colored servant. Matt Henson, started 
to transport provisions to Fort Conger, and on the 6th eighteen more sledges left 
Cape Sabine. From Fort Conger it was necessary to carry supplies to the edge 
of the ocean at Cape Hecia, and thus a difficult preliminary journey^ of more than 
400 miles had to be accomplished before the explorer could leave the land — a journey 
ihat would have been unnecessary, had the explorer carried a party strong enough 
to establish a headquarters at the limit of solid ground. On April i, with Henson, 
four Eskimos, and six sledges, the leader set forth over the rough ice of the Polar 
sea. After fifteen days, confronted with small floes, of which the edges were 
crumpled into mounds sometimes fifty feet high by the pressure of the pack, he was 
forced to abandon further advance. He reached Cape Hecla on April 24 and con- 
tinued to Cape Sabine, where he arrived on April 29. The auxiliary steamer 
Windward, which had left Sydney, Cape Breton, on July 24, bearing Mrs. Peary and 
her daughter Marie Anneghito, reached Payer Harbor on August 5, 1902, took off the 
explorer and his party, and made way toward home the same afternoon. 

During the winter an epidemic ran through the tribe of the most northern Eski- 
mos, upon whom Mr. Peary relied as aids to his expedition. A large number of 
them died. Dr. Diedrick, who was released from the explorer's party in 1901, but 
remained in Etah on the Greenland side of Smith Sound so that the party might 
not be without the services of a physician, returned with the Windward, having 
lived with Eskimos during the winter. He announced that he had made one call 
on the explorer, and that xood had been refused to him. 

The plans for reaching the North Pole in future, as announced by Mr. Peary, are 
an evolution of schemes put forward at different times by various explorers : a head- 
quarters on the furthest attainable land, supported by a line of caches down to the 
limit of regular navigation ; a large supporting party to replenish the supplies of these 
caches and of the headquarters ; and a dash with a light party over the ice floes. The 
new features of Mr. Peary's plan are a light pioneer party to go in advance of the 
main party, for the purpose of mapping out a route, and the use of Eskimos in the 
preliminary work. In fact, the explorer has in mind the redistribution of the entire 
tribe of Whale Sound Eskimos in a series of settlements extending from Qipe 
Sabine in the south to Cape Hecla, the proposed point of departure of the "dash 
for the Pole." Commander Peary also plans to start on his Polar trip early in 
February, at an earlier date than any previously chosen by him. 

The Baldwin-Zicgler Expedition, — The flagship America of the Baldwin-Ziegler 
expedition, which left Norway July 17. 1901, to seek the North Pole with what was 
supposed to be the most elaborate equipment that was ever furnished to an Arctic 
expedition, returned to Honningsvaag, August i, 1902, with the report that nothing but 
preliminary work had been accomplished. The leader, Mr. Evelyn B. Baldwin, re- 
ported that during 1901 all the channels by which he hoped to reach by ship the 
northern island of the Franz Josef archipelago were blocked with ice. Repeated efforts 
to force the vessel north only depleted the coal supply. By means of sledge journeys, 
however, Mr. Baldwin transported depots of provisions from AJger Island, where he 



{< i« Avotle BxploratloB • 

made his headquarters, to Cape Claire, to Greely Island, and finally, to Prince Rudolf 
Land. These expeditions wore out most of his sledges, but demonstrated the use- 
fuhiess of a new element in Polar expeditions — ^the use of ponies instead of dogs as 
traction animals. One of Mr. Baldwin's ponies could do the work of a good-sized 
team of dogs, and the difficulty of keeping the dog team in order is obviated by this 
method of transportation. The sledge journeys lasted from January 21 to May 21, 1902. 
Of the sixty sledges with which the expedition was equipped, fift^ were destroyed. 
Of the 420 dogs that started with the expedition 150 died of an epidemic. Food for 
the remainder was running short, as well as food for the ponies, and as the coal 
supply had become meagre, the leader decided to return to Norway to procure fresh 
provisions. A dissension between Mr. Baldwin and his shipmaster, Capt. Johanssen, 
arose, moreover, during the winter, and Mr. Baldwin deposed the captain from 
command of the vessel. In Norway the captain took legal measures against the 
leader for this action, but was not sustained by the court According to the an- 
nouncements when the expedition started out in 1901, Mr. Baldwin was to receive 
the support of Mr. Ziegler for continued efforts to reach the North Pole, in case the 
attempt of 1901-02 should fail; but the patron of the expedition recalled the leader 
to America. It is rumored that Mr. Fiala, a photographer, who accompanied the 
expedition, has been selected by Mr. Ziegler to lead another expedition by way of 
Franz Josef Land, taking advantage of the caches that were placed by the Baldwin 
party. Meanwhile the steamship Frithjof, the auxiliary vessel of the expedition, 
had left Vardo for Franz Josef Land on July 7, 1902. She was unable to reach 
Alger Island, and returned to Norway. 

Baron Toll. — In addition to the three expeditions that were in the field in 1902 
for the purpose of discovering new lands, other explorers were in the north, filling 
in the details of lands already partly known and carrying out purely scientific re- 
search. Among these is Baron Edouard Toll, who in the ship Zaria has been in 
the Arctic waters since 1900. In the spring and summer of 1901, sledge parties set 
forth from the Zaria, which was ice-bound, for the purpose of exploring and sur- 
veying the Chelyuskin Peninsula and neighboring lands. Parties unsuccessfully 
attempted to discover the mouth of the Taimyr River. The Zaria was freed from 
the ice August 24, 1901, and cruised for a month in the waters near the New Siberian 
archipelago. On September 16 they met a relief party headed by K. A. Vollosovitch in 
Seal Bay, Kotelnyi, which remained with Baron Toll until February 27, 1902, and then 
returned to Irkutsk in safety. On May i, 1902, Dr. Birula, the zoologist, with three 
Promyschlenniks left the Zaria to summer in the New Siberian Islands, and on May 
27th, Baron Toll, Dr. Seeberg, the astronomer, and two sailors, with dogs and 
sledges, departed for Bennett Island, which has never been explored, and where only 
members of the Jeannette party landed. The Zaria got out of the ice July i, but the 
disquieting news was received that owing to the condition of the ice and lack of 
coal she had been unable to take off either of the summering parties. The Zaria 
put into the mouth of the Lena August 26, and was met by the supply steamer 
LtnOj August 30. The Zaria was laid up in a sheltered berth for the winter, and her 
party arrived at Irkutsk, September 30. A relief expedition under von Brusnew was 
to start in search of Baron Toll early in January, 1903. It was hoped, however, that he 
and Dr. Birula would be able to get to Irkutsk before the winter, or, at any rate, 
ibaX the two parties would meet. The expedition has made many meteorological 
observations and has surveyed and mapped land hitherto unsurveyed; and added 
much information to the comparatively little known districts of the New Siberian 
archipelago. The main object of the expedition, however, the location of Sannikoff 
Land, has not yet been accomplished. 

The Magnetic Arc Measurements, — ^During the summer of 1902 the magnetic arc 
was finished in Spitzbergen by the completion of the work of the Swedes who had 
left in 1901 two stations undone. The Swedes started for Spitzbergen July 26 on 
the steamer Laura, under the leadership of Dr. Rubin to take observations from 
Northeast Island to the most northern point of the Seven Islands, and returned 
September 14 to Tromso. Although hindered by bad weather, they completed their 
trian|nilation of the degree that fell to their share. By the observations of the 
Russians and the Swedes, Spitzbergen has now become a fairly well-known coun- 
try, and, indeed, topographical maps of the regions are promised that will bear 
comparison with similar maps of re^ons known for thousands of years. Careful 
examinations of the geological conditions — ^particularly observations of the move- 
ments of the inland ice — ^have been made, and the results have been published. 

Captain Bernier, the Canadian who announced, in 1900, his plans for drifting 
across the Pole after the manner of Nansen, has obtained £20,000 of the £30,000 he 
seeds for his expedition. His project has become more elaborate since he made 
public his original ideas. He means to avail himself of the latest devices in the 
way of equipment, including an apparatus for wireless telegraphing to civilization. 
He means to drift from Bering Strait as near the Pole as the current that sets 



Arctic Bjcpl«ratl«B* 



Arctic KJcpi«rati«B* p./: 

Arffentlna. 5^ 






; 



ii 



! 



across the Arctic Ocean will carry him, and then to make a sledge journey from the 
likeliest point reached by the ship to the Pole itself. His ship, which is to be 
j3 somewhat similar to the From, had not been built at the end of igo2. 

'* Captain Warneck, the Russian, who, on the steamer Pakltousov, made a journCTr 

in 1901 from Alexandrovsk to Novaya Zemlya through the Kara Sea to Archangel, 
i" set forth on a new expedition in June, 1902. This expedition was fitted out under 

' the direction of the Russian Hydrographical Society. Its members included Captains 

Sergueff and Morozoff, Lieutenants Yanoif, Brovtsyn, and Kozlaminoff, and Dr. 
Dalaloff. The purpose of the expedition was to explore and map carefully the un- 
surveyed portions of the Kara Sea and Murman coast and the eastern coast of the 
Yalmak Peninsula. 

The Expedition to the North Magnetic Pole. — Among the Arctic expeditions an- 
nounced for the future is that of Roald Amundsen, who has undertaken to add new 
» and sound information to the conjectures of scientific men as to the present location 

f of the northern magnetic pole. The location of the northern magnetic pole was fixed 

approximately by Sir John Ross in 1831, but its position has changed. Amundsen, 
who is a Norwegian, and was first officer of the Belgian expedition to the Antarctic 
. regions in 1897-99, has published his plans for fixint^ the northern centre of mag- 

^ netic force, for defining the area within which the dipping needle is perpendicular, 

1 for observing periods of high magnetic activity, and for furnishing in a certain meas- 

j ure a complement in the north to the magnetic work that forms so important a 

feature of the Antarctic expeditions now in the field. Captain Amundsen has bought 
a whaler called the Gjoa of only 48 tons, a craft 70 feet long by 20 feet beam, pro- 
pelled by sail or by a petroleum motor at the rate of four knots an hour. He thor- 
oughly tested this vessel, as well as his instruments in 1901, and he spent six months 
in her in the region between Novaya Zemlya and Spitzbergen, incidentally studying 
the polar currents. In June and July, 1902, he was in Wilhelmshavn having his 
instruments adjusted. In addition to an excellent equipment of meteorological and 
oceanographic instruments, he is fitted out with a fine set of instruments for the 
observation of magnetism. His plans, as announced by himself, are to leave 
Christiania in April, 1903; to put in at Godhavn, Greenland, for dogs, and to enter 
the North American waters by way of Lancaster Strait. His first base of observa- 
tion is to be Leopold Harbor in North Somerset. Here he will establish an observa- 
tory. His absolute house is to be a snow house in winter, and in summer a tent 
whose top will consist of transparent white silk. During the summer of 1904 a series 
of sledge journeys will be organized to make observations in the largest possible 
area around the magnetic north pole. Captain Amundsen will, moreover, try to push 
his ship to King William Land, and to construct there a new observatory, whence he 
will send out small expeditions to cover the immediate region of the magnetic pole. 
In the third summer (1906) he will move his base to Hershel Island. It is his plan 
then to return to civilization by way of the Northwest Passage. He will have eight 
men on his expedition, including Lieutenant Godfried of the Danish navy, who will 
make geological observations. 

The Russian Government is attempting to colonize Novajra Zemlya with Samo- 
yedes. Game abounds in these islands, whereas it is becoming yearly scantier in 
the peninsula inhabited by this tribe. In the summer between 2000 and 3000 Samo- 
yedes repair thither and become prosperous through the trapping of animals and of 
birds valuable for their feathers, which abound there. During the winter of 1900-01 
one hundred Samoyedes remained on Novaya Zemlya, where three permanent sta- 
tions have been established. Twice during the year a steamer from Archangel 
touches here. 

The Danish Government, through the agency of the Karlsberg fund, was enabled 
to send out two small expeditions to East and West Greenland. Dr. C. Kruuse left 
Copenhagen August 15, 1901, in the steamer Godthaab, and arrived at Angmagsalik 
September 5. Although the principal object of his expedition was botanical research, 
Dr. Kruuse visited the large fiords of Angmagsalik and Sermilik, and made many eth- 
nological observations. He was recalled September 2, 1902, and arrived at Copenhagen 
on the 28th of the month. The other expedition, led by Dr. Engell and Lieutenant 
Schjorring, went to Jakobshavn Fjord, which was reached June 19, 1902, after a 
seven weeks' voyage. The object of the expedition was to make surveys and a 
triangulation of this district and to observe the movements of the Jacobshavn 
glacier, which is the most rapid ice river known. Dr. Engell also surveyed the region 
lying south of Jakobshavn, which had not been adequately mapped. They returned 
to Copenhagen on October 22, having made the journey in five and a half weeks. 

ARGENTINA, a South American republic lying between Chile and the southern 
Atlantic coast. The capital is Buenos Ay res. 

Area, Population, etc.— Tht estimated area of the fourteen provinces and nine 
territories is 1,113,849 square miles. The population, according to the census of 1805 
was 3,954.91 1 and, as officially estimated on December 31, 1900, 4,794,149. Estimatesfor 



57 



ATsentlBA* 



the sercral provinces on the latter date were: Buenos Ayres» I,i40»o67 (exclusive of 
the dty, which numbered 821,291) ; Santa F6, 536,236; Cordoba, 419,072; Entre Rios, 
343J684; Corrientes, 277^)41 ; Tucuman, 249433; Santiago, 180,612; Mendoza, 141,431 ; 
Salta, 131,938; Catamarca, 99,827; San Juan, 94,991 ; San Luis, 91,403; Rioja, 77,783; 
and Jujuy, 54,405. The estimated population of the city of Buenos Ay res on June 
30, 1902, was 857,061. 

The immigrants to Argentina numbered 111,083 in 1899, 117,036 in 1900, and 125,- 
951 in 1901. Of the last number 58,314 were Italians, 21,788 French, and 18,066 
Spaniards. The adult males numbered 56,811 and the adult females 18,672; 35,824 
came b^ way of Montevideo. Of the total 42,747 were sent at public expense to their 
respective destinations ; over half of these settled in the provinces of Buenos Ayres 
and Santa Fe. In 1901 an increase was noted in the arrivals of Polish Jews and 
Roumanians. The excess of immigrants over emigrants in 1901 was about 48,000. 
Primary instruction is free, secular, and nominally compulsory. The reported num- 
ber of primary schools in 1899 was 4291, with an enrollment of 427,331 pupils. There 
are provisions for secondary and higher education. 

Government. — The chief executive authority is vested in a president, who is 
elected for a term of six years, and appoints a responsible ministry. The president 
in 190a was Senor Julio A. Roca, who assumed office October 12, 1898. 

The legislative power devolves upon a congress of two houses, the senate and the 
house of deputies. Except in matters affecting the republic as a whole, the states are 
autonomous, having their own elected legislatures and governors. 

The regular army numbers about 8600 officers and men, the effective army 29,500, 
and the national guard nearly 472,000. The Argentine navy is comparatively strong ; 
besides marines the naval complement comprises about 8400 men. In the spring of 
1902 the Argentine and Chilian governments concluded a protocol, one article of 
which provided for the equalization of their respective armaments. See Chile. 

Finance. — ^The monetary unit is the peso, which has a fixed gold value of 96.5 
cents ; the paper peso, however, is current at 44 per cent, of its face value. The most 
important sources of revenue are import duties and excise, while interest on the 
public debt is the largest item of expenditure. In 1901 the total customs duties 
amounted to 38,130,251 pesos gold and 138,615 pesos paper, of which 32,188,032 pesos 
gold were import duties. Revenue and expenditure are stated as follows, the figures 
for 1902 and 1903 being estimates: 





1809 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1908 


BBTKSUB. 

Phoc sold 


46.876.189 
61,419.990 

80.860.817 
108.887.458 


86.683.346 
68.962.000 

98.819.979 
94.271,310 


38.244.638 
62.341,306 

23.835,847 
91.160,225 


40.013.347 
64.290.000 

32.438.189 
96.198.813 


40.111.839 


Phoc. paper. 


61.820.000 


BXPSMDinniK. 

Pesos, gold 


29.496,179 
96,206.218 


Pesos, pftper. 







According to President Roca's message to the congress in May, 1902, the apparent 
foreign debt at the end of 1901 was 306451,295 pesos gold, but if certain amounts 
that do not properly constitute a debt are deducted the actual foreign debt stood at 
about 300.000,000 pesos gold. In addition, however, the government owed European 
bankers i2,55iB475. The consolidated internal debt at the end of 1901 amounted to 
17363.000 pesos gold and 83,610,983 pesos paper. 

Industries and Commerce. — As a producer of pastoral and a limited number of 
agricultural commodities — wheat, corn, and flax — Argentina is one of the most im- 
portant countries in the world. The following official figures for crop areas and 
production are based partly on actual returns and partly on estimates. (The hectare 
equals 2471 acres, and the metric ton 2204.6 pounds.) 



M»-ino. 
iMMn.... 
ifin-ei... 



Wheat. 



Hectares. 



3.167.283 
3.807.749 
3,221.066 



Tons. 



2.800.000 
1.964,437 
1,634,406 



Com. 



Hectares. 



1.244.182 
'l,4b6V806 



Tons. 



1.800.000 
'2.184.166 



Linseed. 



Hectares. 



366.329 
607.362 
782.880 



Tons. 



260.000 
389.951 
366.000 



The areas for 1902-03 were estimated at 3,254,641 hectares for wheat, and 955,873 
hectares for linseed. Alfalfa is an important crop. In 1901-02 the area under sugar- 
ane was 67,218 hectares ; vines, 45,533 hectares ; peanuts, 23,765 hectares ; and tobacco, 
12^ hectares. Sugar produced in 1901 amounted to 163,695 tons, and wine (largely 
inMendoza), i344«iq6 hectolitres (the hectolitre equals 26.417 gallons). In 190^ 
there were tinder cultivation 17,174,250 acres, as compared with 7478,700 acres in 



S8 



1880. Large areas of public lands in the territories may be purchased or rented 
from the government These, as officially stated in 1902, are as follows: Santa 
Cruz, 61,626,144 acres; Chubut, 55,687,983; Rio Negro, 37,266,057; Chaco, 32,182,861 ; 
Formosa, 21430,165; Neuquen, 15,249,923; Pampa, 7,718,261; Tierra del Fu^o, 
4340418; Misiones, 1,956,240; total, 237,788,343 acres. The price an acre ranges from 
16 to 40 cents. In 1902 there were probably about 30,000,000 cattle in Argentina, and 
between 110,000,000 and 120,000,000 sheep. Reports of unfavorable economic condi- 
tions in Argentina were current in 1902. Foreign capital, which is largely English, 
was said to have suffered severely. 

The gold values of general imports and exports, exclusive of specie, have been in 
pesos as follows : 





1898 


1899 


1900 


1901 


Importa. dutiable. 


03.988.546 
13,440.365 


102,080.738 
14,769,983 


96,502.462 
16,962,617 


96.262,275 


Imports, free 


18,707.474 






Total 


107,428.900 

71,472.647 
e2.866.8U 


116,860,671 

100.868.728 
84.049,106 


113,486.069 

66,160.377 
98.431,035 


118,969,749 


Exports, dutiable 


74.373,821 


Exports, tree 


08.342.581 






Total 


133,829,468 


184,917,881 


154,600,412 


167.716^102 







The gold values of the foreign commerce by countries of greatest trade importance 
have been reported in pesos as follows : 



Great Britain. 

Germany 

United States. 

Italy 

France , 

Belgium , 

Braril 

Spain , 



Imports from 


Exports to 


1900 


1901 


1900 


1901 


38.682.763 


36.460.806 


23.890.686 


20,020.760 


16,636.613 


16.724.549 


20.070.188 


21.470.883 


18,438.629 


15,683.639 


6.882.763 


0.296,464 


14,924.496 


14,736,108 


4.804.154 


4,818.060 


10.897,866 


9,969,541 


19.007,960 


28,637.121 


8.4S0.880 


8.688,667 


17.980,886 


13.467,731 


3,741.877 


4.886.047 


6,185,507 


0.702.488 


3,691,996 


3.912.636 




2.131.713 



The leading imports are textiles and wearing apparel (37,597,847 pesos in 1900) 
and iron and steel goods (19,054,051 pesos in 1900). The principal exi)orts reported 
for the calendar year 1901 include the following, the unit of quantity being the 
metric ton of 2204.6 pounds, and the unit of value the peso, worth 96.5 cents. Wheat, 
904,269 tons (1,929,676 in 1900), valued at 26,240,755 pesos; wheat, flour, and bran, 
160,396 tons, 4,165,726 pesos; corn, 1,112,290 tons (7i3,24j8 in 1900), 18,887,397 pesos; 
wool, 228,358 tons (100,913 in 1900), 44,666,483 pesos ; linseed, 338,828 tons (223,257 
in 1900), 16,515,263 pesos; hay, 95,120 tons (102,836 in 1900) ; sheepskins, 33,659 tons, 
7»339»8ii pesos; tallow, 25,744 tons, 3,902,909 pesos; ox-hides 3,504,068 in number 
(3,3591463 in 1900), 14,130,294 pesos, including the value of 261,360 horsehides; 
frozen beef 44,904 tons (24,590 in 1900), 4490447 pesos; frozen mutton, 63,013 tons 
(56412 in 1900) ; jerked beef, 24,29(5 tons (16449 in 1900), 2,879455 pesos; butter, 
3,322,391 pounds (2,322,663 in 1900) ; quebracho, 184,654 tons, 2440,199 pesos ; and 
119,189 cattle and 44,550 other live stock. The foreign shipping entered in 1900 ag- 
gregated 6,193,783 tons. 

According to the Revista Mensual, of Buenos Ayres, there entered the ports of the 
republic in 1901 51,284 vessels with an aggregate gross tonnage of 12,629,329, and 
cleared 51422 vessels aggregating 13,283,272 tons. 

Communications. — In May, 1902, President Roca in his message to the congress 
stated that there were 17,663 kilometres (10,975 miles) of railway m Argentina. The 
government lines comprise only about 2000 kilometres, with a capital at the end of 
1901 of about 54,959,000 pesos, which in that year realized an interest of 1.15 per 
cent. ; the private lines represent a capital of over 486,616,000 pesos, which showed an 
interest return in 1901 of 4.29 per cent. The government has sanctioned the con- 
struction of a railway from Jujuy, the northern terminal of the Argentine system, 
to La Quiaca on the Bolivian frontier, 291 kilometres distant. The line is to be open 
for traffic in 1904. A continuation of this railway is projected by the Bolivian 
government. In April, 1902, it was reported that the government had accepted a 
tender of the Creusot Company to build a harbor at Rosario for 53,000,000 francs 

($10,229,006). 

Labor Troubles. — In November, 1902, a general strike, declared by the labor 
unions, took place at Buenos Ajrres, and for a time business was practically sus- 



jy ArlKOBA. 

pended, resulting in heavy losses, especially to shippers, llie unions demanded com- 
plete recognition from the employers and insisted that only union men be employed. 
To force submission to the union demands, the stevedores gave notice that after 
November i they would handle no padcages exceeding a certain weight For this the 
trade was unprepared and though a four days' respite was granted to the shippers, 
most of the goods awaiting shipment had to be repacked at a great loss. As soon 
as this strike was settled another was ordered, including a number of trades, cart- 
men and even bakers. The large meat-freezing plants at Buenos Ayres appealed to 
the government for aid; the threatened spoiling of large quantities of meat would 
not only result in great financial loss, but would be a menace to the public health. 
Riots ensued and the strike was not broken until the government ordered out the 
troops and declared the city and the provinces of Buenos Ayres and Santa Fe in a 
state of siege. The strikes appear to have been in some degree fomented by an- 
archistic agitators, some of whom were expelled from the country. 

The Welsh Colony. — Discontent among the Welsh colonists in the Chubut Valley 
resulted in 1902 in an effort to transport about 500 of them to the Canadian North- 
west Territories, where large tracts of land had been offered them. The colony, 
whose centre of population is Trelew, about 25 miles from the mouth of the Chubut 
River, was founded in 1866. Trelew is connected by a railway 44 miles long with 
Puerto Madryn, on Bahia Negra, and steamers of the Hamburg- American Company 
afford communication with the outside world. The colony, with a reported popula- 
tkm of about 3800, is said to cover an area of 250,000 hectares. Authorities are in 
conflict concerning the character of the country and consequently, in some degree, the 
justification of the settlers in asking for deportation. According to a statement 
based on a report of a Canadian agent who visited the settlement, the district is "a 
sterile, rainless tract, without trees or rich soil," while Senor M. G. Merou, 
Aigentine minister at Washington, says that "at present (March, 1902} Chubut is 
enjoying prosperity" and he speaks of "the magnificent regions of the southern part 
of the Argentine Republic." The mean temperature of Chubut is 56.2® F., or 70 in 
January and 424^ in July. It is certain that of late years the colony has suffered 
severely from floods, especially those of July, 1899. But the discontent of the Welsh 
seems due largely to the interference of the Argentine government in their local 
administration and to the law of compulsory military service. Early in 1902 a 
deputation of the colonists, which, according to Senor Merou, was repudiated by a 
large majority of the Chubut inhabitants, went to London, seeking aid from the 
British government for transportation to Canada and for establishment there. Mr. 
Joseph Chamberlain, the British colonial secretary, ruled that, while imperial aid 
might be given to prospective settlers of a crown colony, such assistance could not 
be granted to persons going to a self-governing dependen(^. Some of the Welsh, 
however, succeeded in going to Canada, where they established the Llewelyn colony 
at Saltcoats, Assiniboia. At the end of 1902 it appeared from an oflicial Canadian 
report that remarkable progress had been made, though some poverty and a good 
dal of hardship were inevitable in the circumstances. The settlers had accomplished 
more than had seemed possible, and it appeared that they would probably get on 
well in their new home. 

Some friction with Great Britain occurred in 1902 over the apparent indisposition 
of the Argentine authorities to investigate properly the murder of a Mr. Barnett, a 
British subject, which was committed on April 26, by the son of a police official at 
Zuviria. Finally, however, the murderer was apprehended and in November was 
sentenced to eight years' imprisonment. For Argentina's relations with Chile and 
the boundary award, see Chile. 

ARIZONA, a southwestern territory of the United States, has an area of 
112,920 square miles. The capital is Phoenix. Arizona was or^nized as a territory 
February 24, 1863. The population in 1900 was 122,212, while in June, 1902, as 
estimated by the government actuary, it was 132,000. The largest dty is Tucson, 
with a population m 1900 of 7531. 

Finance. — The receipts of the treasury for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, 
were $385^17.91 and the expenditures were $373»436.66. The balance on hand July i, 
1901, was $106,180.19. The receipts during the year ending June 30, 1902, were 
$514,940.65; the expenditures were $479*167.22, leaving a balance in the treasury 
June 30, 1902, of $i43>953-62. The total valuation of property in the territory, as 
returned by the assessors in 1902, was $39,083,177.57, an increase over 1901 of $229,- 
346L2a The tax rate for 1902 was $1,137 per $100 of valuation, as against $0.85 in 
1901. The total bonded debt December 31, 1902, was $2,610,000, from which must 
be deducted county and city bonds amounting to $1,634,027.57, leaving the net tx)nded 
debt of the territory $97S,972.43- The floating debt was $119339.02, making the 
total territorial debt $1,095,81145- 

Industries and Agriculture. — Mining is the principal industry of the territory, and 
m 1902 there were 1641 patented mines valued for Uxation at $1,867325.08—3 figure 



Art] 



60 



much below their actual value and $2,915,6^23 less than the valuation in 1901. 
Improvements on patented and unpatented mines were valued at $1,789,237.76. The 

Principal metals mined in order of their importance are gold, silver, and copper. 
*he production of copper decreased slightly on account of the decline in price 
of that metal. The production of gold greatly increased, as did also the quantity 
of silver mined, though the value of the total output of silver was but little in- 
creased. Extensive preparations were made to improve the abandoned silver mines 
of Tombstone. Three extensive copper-gold ledges were uncovered on February 5, 
1902, at the Angell f^roup of mines in central Arizona. About the same date an 
immense deposit of silver-copper ore was discovered in the Casey group, Chiricahua 
Mountains, southern Arizona. The Exposition mine, the Trilby Bell gold mine, and 
the mines of the San Domingo group, eight miles east of Wickersburg, with about 
forty claims and prospects, were sold on April 23 to New York capitalists for 
$1,000,000. 

Stock raising, the second industry in importance in Arizona, has been greatly 
handicapped by the severe drought of the last five years. The assessor's rolls show 
a marked decrease in the number of live stock, especially cattle. This decrease was 
due to the difficulty of gettinjg^ feed and water and even more to the high prices, 
which induced ranchers to dispose of every available animal. Following are the 
assessor's returns of live stock in Arizona for 1902: Horses, 37392, valued at 
$722,972.80; cattle, 256,122, $2,726,969; sheep, 367,524f $735f048. The decrease in 
value of horses, cattle, and sheep since 1901 was $461,090. 

Arizona contains about 10,000,000 acres of irrigable land, of which about 1,000,000 
acres have been partly or wholly reclaimed. The federal irrigation law is of vital 
importance to the territory. Plans were made to construct a huge reservoir at the 
Tonto Basin site on the Salt River, near Phoenix. By building a wall of masoniy 
about 200 feet long, the largest artificial lake in the world will be formed. Reservoir 
sites were surveyed at San Carlos and The Buttes on the Gila River. Great interest 
was shown in the development of artesian wells. Many wells were put down in the 
San Simon, Gila, San Pedro, and Santa Cruz valleys. The wells are 300 to 400 
feet deep and cased with two-inch pipe. One well is sufficient to irrigate from 25 to 
^o acres, according to kind of soil and crop. Probably the most valuable crop in 
Arizona is alfalfa. Vegetables and small truits thrive well. The Eastern Sugar 
Company caused experiments in sugar-beet culture to be carried out in Arizona 
during 1902 with very satisfactory results both as to <iuantity and quality of beets 
grown. Experiments in the culture of the date palm indicate that this useful fruit 
can be grown profitably in Arizona. 

Forests and Lumber. — In the northern part of Arizona are large pine forests 
covering an almost unbroken area of 10,060 square miles. The manufacture of 
lumber for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902, was more than 23,000,000 feet. The 
making of boxes was the most important branch of the wood manufacturing industry. 
A number of forest reserves were established during the year, and efforts were made 
to re-forest denuded tracts, to extend tree planting, and to establish a scientific 
system of forestry. 

Communications. — Railway building during 1902 was more active than ever before 
in the history of the territory. The El Paso and Southwestern Railway was com- 

{>leted from £1 Paso to Bisbee, causing passenger and freight rates to be materially 
owered by its competition. Improvements and new construction were extensive on 
all lines. There were 1,052.11 miles of railroad in the territory in 1902, valued for 
taxation at $4,943,386. All roads report heavy gains in freight business during the 
year. 

Education.—Tht territory has an excellent educational system, extendinjg from 
the common schools up to the normal colleges and the university. A considerable 
increase in the attendance was reported for the year. The total number of teachers 
employed in 1902 was 457, and the total enrollment 25,259, as compared with 23,435 
in 1901. 

Needs of the Territory. — The subject of statehood was the all-absorbing question 
throughout 1902. The people of Arizona believe that they have met all the require- 
ments for admission into the Union although the population of the territoo' is less 
than two-thirds the population required in a single congressional district, and the 
total value of all property in the territory is less than that of Yonkers, N. Y. A 
much more obvious need of the territory is the construction of irrigation systems 
under the provisions of the federal law in order to reclaim the desert and make it 
possible to support a population large enough to make the demand for admission 
mto the Union effective. Capital is needed in all lines of industry to exploit more 
fully the resources of this vast region. Forceful measures on the part of the 
national government are needed to conserve the forest areas, and extend forest 
culture to the non-forest bearing regions. 

Political. — Benjamin Daniels, a Democrat, and formerly a member of the regiment 



/^T ArlBoiia. 

^^ Arkansas* 

of Roogfa Riders, was in January, 1902, appointed by President Roosevelt United 
States marshal of the territory. Governor Murphy, in April, announced his 
intention of resigning;. Alexander O. Brodie, lieutenant colonel of Rough Riders 
under Roosevelt, was announced as his successor, having been named by the 
President some time previously. His installation occurred in July. Governor 
Brodie is fully conversant with the affairs of the territory. He served with dis- 
tinction in the virar with the Apaches and in Washington in its territorial days. 
From 1878 to 1882 he managed a cattle ranch in Kansas, and for the next five years 
was engaged in mining in Dakota and Arizona. 

Territorial Officers, igo2. — Governor, Alexander O. Brodie; secretary, Isaac T. Stod- 
dard; treasurer, Isaac M. Christy; auditor and comptroller, W. F. Nidiols; attorney- 
general, Edmund W. Wells ; superintendent of public instruction. Nelson G. Layton ; 
adjutant-general, B. W. Leavell — ^all Republicans. Supreme Court: Chief justice, 
Edward Kent; associate justices, George R. Davis, Fletcher M. Doan, and Richard £. 
Sloan. 

ARKANSAS, a south central State of the United States, has an area of 53>228 
square miles. The capital is Little Rock. Arkansas was organized as a territory 
3Jarcfa 2, i8ig, and admitted as a State June 15, 1836. The population in 1900 was 
1,311,564, while in June, 1902, as estimated by the government actuary, it was 
i.348»ooo. The populations of the largest cities in 1900 were : Little Rock, 38,307 ; 
Fort Smith, 11,^7; Pine Bluff, 11496. 

Agriculture and Industries^ — The various industries of the State were more than 
ordinarily prosperous during 1902. This condition was the more marked because of 
the contrast with the ill-favored season of 1901. The general drought that pre- 
vailed throughout the southwest in July and August, 1901, was felt severely in 
Arkansas, and as a result the cotton crop, which, in general nearly equals in value 
all the other crops of the State, was very poor — the Department of Agriculture esti- 
mating it at 51 per cent, of a full crop. The corn crop was even more severely 
injured, the average for the State being but 8.1 bushels per acre. In 1902, however, 
the cotton crop was 4 per cent, greater than the ten-year average, and corn, as 
reported, was also above the average — ^2,378,171 acres yielding 50,655,042 bushels. 
The oat yield was 5,048,^ bushels, and wheat, 2,245,889 bushels. Apples were 
placed at 63 per cent., agamst an average of 49 per cent. In the northwestern part 
of the State fruit raising was undertaken in 1902 on a larger scale than ever before. 
Conditions in the mining region in the northern part of the State were reported as 
being most favorable. The output of the coal mines was increased to meet the 
unusual demand. Important phosphate deposits are bein^ developed in the north- 
central part of the State. Two railroads were pushed mto the field, one up the 
White Kiver from Batesville, the other southeast from Harrison. 

Railroads, — The total number of miles of railroads operating in the State of 
Arkansas during 1901 was 33^-4- The total income from passenger business was 
$2,175,738.06. The total freight earnings were $4,296,858.56. The total gross 
earnings, including earnings from other sources, were $6,744,588.12. According to 
the report of the Railway Commission of Arkansas, the operating expenses for the 
year 1901 were $7,669,705.06, leaving a net deficit from operations of $925,116.94. 
The fact that the lines operating m Arkansas made large profits on the total 
business of the entire lines in and out of the State would indicate that these figures 
are not to be relied upon. The total number of tons of freight shipped by rail in 
Arkansas for 1900 was 3,180,936 tons. For 1901 the total was 4,325,900 tons, a net 
increase of 1,144,964 tons. 

Negro Convicts. — Early in May, 1902, Governor Davis issued a statement requiring 
all applications for pardons for negro convicts to be accompanied by paid trans- 
portation to Boston or some other point in New England. Representative Toney, of 
Pine Bluff, bought a ticket for a negro forger and then applied for a pardon, which 
the governor declined to grant unless Toney would procure the services of an 
officer who would take the man to Boston and remain there until the negro 
established his citizenship. 

Political. — ^James K. Jones, who, as chairman of the Democratic National Com- 
mittee in 1896 and 1900, managed Mr. Bryan's two campaigns for the Presidency, 
was defeated in his campaign for re-election to the United States Senate in the 
spring of 1902 by ex-Govemor James P. Clarke. In Arkansas, the voters manifest 
their choice of a senator at the primary elections, the State legislature afterwards 
ratifying their decision. In this way Arkansas virtually elects her senators by popu- 
lar vote. Senator Jones is a close personal friend of Mr. Bryan, and has often 
expressed his antipathy to the trusts. His alleged connection, however, with the 
Round Cotton Bale trust, a monopoly that has caused some bad feeling in the 
South, contributed in some degree to his defeat. 

Conventions and Platforms, — ^The Democratic State convention was held at Little 
Rock on June ii» 1902. The Kansas City platform of 1896 was endorsed in a 



AraeBla. ^2 

general way; the Dingley tariff was protested against as encouraging monopolies; 
an increase of power was urged for the Interstate Commerce Q>mmission ; authority 
similar to that given to the Commission was asked for a State commission; the 
Panama route for the Isthmian canal was advocated; emphasis was placed on the 
necessity for proper representation of the State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition ; 
liberal support for public schools was insisted upon, also the taxation of public 
franchises. The convention endorsed the administration of Governor Davis. The 
vote of the convention in fevor of ex-Governor Clarke to succeed James K. Jones in 
the United States Senate was 420 to 70. Governor Jeff Davis, who carried 70 out 
of 75 counties in the primaries, was unanimously renominated, the name of CoL 
£. W. Rector of Hot Springs having been withdrawn. Governor Davis, in his 
speech of acceptance, announced himself as a candidate for the United States Senate 
to succeed James H. Berry, when the term of the latter expires in 1905. 

Owing to dissension in the ranks of the Republican party m Arkansas two separate 
Republican conventions were held at Little Rock on June 25, 1902. The Clayton 
faction adopted a platform that reaffirmed the Republican national platform of 1900; 
advocated Cuban reciprocity and an Isthmian canal; condemned the formation pif 
trusts; called for a liberal appropriation for the Arkansas exhibit at the St Louis 
world's fair; denounced lynching and every other form of lawlessness; urged the 
people of Arkansas to support law and order ; and indorsed the Administration in the 
followinf^ words: "We endorse the administration of President Roosevelt and 
pledge him support in the continuance of our national prosperity and the maintenance 
at home and abroad of the nation's honor. Should he be the Republican standard 
bearer in ISKH* we pledge an increase of Republican votes from Arkansas." The 
anti-Cla3rton Republicans also endorsed the President, and in a general way 
covered ground similar to that taken by the other faction. 

Elections. — At the regular biennial State election held September i, 1902, a full 
Democratic ticket was elected. For governor, Davis (Dem.) received 77,354 votes, 
and Myers (Rep.) 29,251. The State legislature for 1903 comprises 133 Democrats 
and 2 Republicans. 

Other Events, — ^The heirs of Villiot, a Frenchman, who, his descendants hold, re- 
ceived from Louis XVI. the grant of a square league of land now used as a govern- 
ment reservation at Hot Spnngs, filed suit in September, 1902, in the federal court 
at Little Rock, to recover the property. Lumber yards and dry kilns were burned at 
Kitson on January 16, 1902, resulting in the destruction of 4,000,000 feet of lumber. 
A terrific snow and sleet storm visited Little Rock in January, lasting several days 
and doing nearly half-a-million dollars' damage in the business section of that city. 
Seven men were killed and twelve seriously injured in February by tiie falling of a 
boulder upon a train on the Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf Railroad, thirty miles 
from Little Rock. 

State Officers, — For 1902: Governor, Jefferson Davis; lieutenant-governor, Robert 
L. Lawrence; secretary of state, John W. Crockett; treasurer, Thomas E. Little; 
auditor, T. C. Monroe; attorney-general, George W. Murphy; superintendent of 
education, J. J. Doyne, October, 1902; conmiissioner of agnculture, Frank Hill, 
October, 1902; commissioner of insurance and public lands, John W. Colquitt, 
October, i902---all Democrats. For 1903 : Governor, Jefferson Davis (elected for 2 
years, term ending January, 1905) ; lieutenant-governor (vacancy) ; secretary of state, 
John W. Crockett ; treasurer, H. C. Tipton ; auditor, T. C. Monroe ; attorney-general, 
George W. Murphy; superintendent of education, J. H. Hineman, until October, . 
ipo4; commissioner of agriculture, H. T. Bradford, until October, 1904; commis- 
sioner of State lands, F. £. Conway, until October, 1904— all Democrats. Supreme 
(Tourt in 1902 and 1903 — (Thief justice, Henry G. Bunn; associate justices, Bnrrill B. 
Battle, Simon P. Hughes, Carroll D. Wood, and James K Riddick— all Democrats. 
For congressional representatives, see United States (paragraph Congressional 
Representatives ) . 

ARMENIA and Kurdistan, Turkish territory in eastern Asia Minor, comprising 
the vilayets of Erzerum, Mamuret-ul-Aziz (KHarput), Diarbekir, Bitlis, and Van, has 
an estimated area of 72491 square miles and a population variously estimated at 
from 2,500,000 to 5,000,000 — ^probably the latter figure is considerably too large. 
The Armenian inhabitants are outnumbered by the Moslems, Kurds, and Turks ; in 
Transcaucasia (Russian) there are about 1,000,000 Armenians and others in Persia, 
European Turkey, and elsewhere, so that the Armenian race probably numbers up- 
wards of two and a half millions. The Armenians are Gregorian Christians. Per- 
secution and outrage, perpetrated by the Kurds and Turks at the connivance of the 
Sultan, continued in 1902, but since the great atrocities of 1804 and 1895 the policy . 
of the oppressor has been to supplant wholesale butchery, which might attract too 
much disagreeable attention in foreign chancelleries, with "massacre in detail." 
Thus Moslem outrage persists steadily without arousing western peoples to the 
point of formidable remonstrance. At the beginning of 1902 Kurdish outbreaks took 



63 



Araenla* 
Askmead-Baftlett* 



place in the vilayets of Erzerum, Diarbekir, and Bitlis. In addition to the general 
tiostility of the Kurdish soldiery the Armenians were suffering from excessive 
tasatioii imposed by the Turkish government. These conditions have led to a large 
cnugration, which has become a source of uneasiness to many wealthy Turks to 
whom a large part of the Armenian land belongs. Indeed in March, 1902, it was 
stated that the Armenians in the district of Erzerum, &iding the persecution in- 
tolerable, had determined to emigrate to Russia en masse. On August 2, 1902, the 
Annenian patriarch tendered his resignation on the ground that no satisfactory 
resalts had come from his protests against the exceptional measures taken by the 
Porte with regard to his co-religionists. The ministiy of public worship returned 
the resignation, assuring the patriarch that an investigating commission would be 
jippotnted, and on August 31 an irade was promulgated abolishing certain restrictions 
prejudicial to Armenian prosperity. Nevertheless in the summer and fall of 1902 
there were fears of another general massacre. British, French, and Russian consular 
agents were sent to Sassun, but apparently their presence had little effect on condi- 
tions there, which in October practically amounted to a state of siege. Turkish 
troops were stationed throughout the Mush Valley and the usual outrages were taking 
place. Already the United States government had advised its consul at Erzerum to 
use every means possible in the protection of American interests at Mush. It is not 
exactly dear what are American interests at Mush, but it is certain that every 
Armenian disaster has a direct effect in the United States ; for the Armenians there 
send funds to their oppressed brethren at home in proportion to the latter's mis- 
fortune, while after each massacre some of the survivors emigrate to America. 

An Armenian congress, attended by prominent people from various countries, was 
held at Brussels in July, 1902. It formally expressed the hope that the Powers would 
compel the Porte to conform to article sixty-one of the Treaty of Berlin, which 
guarantees certain rights and liberties to the Armenians but which has always been 
disregarded, and to carry out the reforms promised in 1895. I'he congress proposed 
that the Powers insist on the appointment of a governor of European nationality and 
the creation of a local non-Turkish militia. An international permanent committee 
was formed. Much pro-Armenian sentiment was aroused, but in some quarters it 
was held that the continued agitation in behalf of the Armenians would probably 
have no effect upon the Ottoman authorities and that a better way to mitigate 
existing evils would be a concerted effort for general reforms throughout all the 
Turkish dominions. 

G>incident with the growth of German influence in Mesopotamia is that of 
Russian in Armenia and other parts of northern and eastern Asia Minor. Russia has 
the exclusive right to build and operate all railways in the vilayets of Erzerum and 
Trebizond and the promise that only Turks will build railways in the vilayet of 
Sivas. Meanwhile Russian roads are being extended from the Caucasus. 

ARMIES. See articles on the various countries; also Manceuvres, Military 
AND Naval. 

ARRHENIUS, SVANTE, Swedish astronomer. See Astronomical Progress. 

ARSENIC. The manufacture of arsenical compounds is a new industry in this 
country. For several years a smelting company in Seattle, Wash., has conducted 
experiments for the purpose of utilizing its waste arsenical ores, and in 1901 began 
the manufacture of arsenic upon a commercial scale. The output in that year was 
300 short tons, but it increased in 1902, according to The Engineering and Mining 
Journal, to 2400 tons, valued at $144,000. Previous to 1901 the markets of the 
United States were supplied entirely by foreign material, largely produced in Corn- 
wall and Devon, England, and at Freiberg, Germany. As the domestic resources 
in arsenical ores are very extensive, it is probable that they will soon be utilized 
to sudi an extent as to supply the requirement of this country in the various products 
of arsenic. 

ART STUDENTS' LEAGUE of New York was founded in 1875 for the pur- 
pose of organizing and conducting classes in painting, drawing, modeling, and com- 
position. Membership, about 500 ; number of students, 1000. At the annual meeting 
held in April, 1902, four prizes of $50 each were awarded, one for the encourage- 
ment of the practical side of art, one for best composition in the illustration 
classes, one for drawing in the antique, and one for progress in portrait study. 
Advisory director, John La Farge; president, Samuel T. Shaw; secretary, Florence 
Cboats. Headquarters, 215 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York City. 

ASBESTOS. See Mineral Production. 

ASHANTL See Gold Coast. 

ASHMEAD-BARTLETT, Sir Elus, British statesman, died in London, Jan- 
uary 18, 1902. He was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1849, but was sent to England 
at an early age to be educated. Having graduated with first-class honors at Christ 



A Bkniead-Bartlett* c. m 

Astrenomical Protrem* ^4 

Church, Oxford, in 1872, he remained in England to enter political life, and was 
called to the bar in 1877. He renounced distinctively American ideas, became an 
ardent supporter of Lord Beaconsfield, and by his strong Tory views attracted con- 
siderable attention. Having been elected to Parliament, he defended the imperialist 
policy of which Lord Beaconsfield was the chief promoter and consistently main- 
tained that attitude during the remainder of his life. He sat in Parliament from 
1880 to 1SB5 and in 1886, 1892, and 1895; and was dvil lord of the admiralty in 
1885 and from 1886 to 1892. During the war in South Africa he served there in a 
subordinate capacity. A most notable phase of his political career was his violent 
opposition to the policy of the late Charles Stewart Pamell, the Irish home-rule 
leader, whom he attacked in his journal, England and the Union. He was knighted 
in 1892. In 1897 he published The Battlefields of Thessaly. 

ASIA. See articles on the various countries of Asia; with reference particularly 
to international relations, see Arabia, Chinese Empire. Corea^ Japan, Manchuria, 
Persia, Siam, and Turkey (paragraph Bagdad Railway). 

ASIA MINOR. See ARCHiEOLOGY (paragraph Asia Minor) and Turkey. 
ASPHALTUM. See Mineral Production. 

ASSEMBLY, GENERAL. See Presbyterian Church in the United States 
OF America and Presbyterian Church in the United States (South). 

ASSISE, Don Francisco d'. See d'Assise,, Don Francisco. 

ASSOCIATE REFORMED SYNOD OF THE SOUTH, a Presbyterian body, 
the only independent division of Associate Reformed Presbyterians. It includes 
151 churches, with 104 ordained ministers and 11,903 communicants, having congre- 
gations in all of the Southern States, except Louisiana, though its greatest strength is 
in North and South Carolina. The leading educational institutions of the denomina- 
tion, Erskine College and Erskine Theological Seminary, and Due West Female 
College, are situated at Due West, S. C. ; and there are several preparatory schools in 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Foreign missionary work is con- 
ducted in Mexico, in the states of Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz, and San Luis Potosi. 
The field is organized into 15 stations, and 19 missionaries are employed. The 
efforts of the denomination are being especially devoted to the Twentieth Century 
Fund of $60,000 for Erskine College and Due West Female College, the educational 
work in Mexico, and for home missions. The annual meeting of 1902 was held 
November 6-1 1, in Gastonia, N. C. At its next session (November 5-10, 1903) in 
Winnsboro, S. C, the synod will celebrate its centennial. Stated clerk. Rev. James 
Boyce, Due West, S. C. 

ASSOCIATED PRESS, an organizaticm for the collection and distribution of 
news, was first incorporated in Michigan, later in Illinois, and in 19OQ in New York. 
The Associated Press has its own leased wires, which form a network across the 
continent from St. John, N. B., to Seattle, Wash., and San Diego, Cal., and from 
Duluth, Minn., to New (Orleans, Galveston, and the City of Mexico. The total mile- 
age of this leased wire system is approximately 13400 miles for day wires and 18,900 
miles for night wires. At the annual meeting held in New York City, September 18, 
1902, the following directors were elected: Wlytelaw Reid, New York Tribune; 
C. W. Knapp, St. Louis Republic; Victor F. Lawson, Chicago Daily News; Stephen 
O'Meara, Boston Journal; A. J. Barr, Pittsburg Post; H. W. Scott, Portland 
Oregonian; George Thompson, St. Paul Dispatch; W. L. McLean, Philadelphia 
Evening Bulletin; Clark Howell, Atlanta Constitution; H. Ridder, New York Staatz 
Zeitung; T. G. Rapier, New Orleans Picayune; Frank B. Noyes, Chicago Record- 
Herald; C. H. Grasty, Baltimore Evening News; W. D. Brickell, Columbus Evening 
Dispatch; M. H. DeYoung, San Francisco Chronicle. The directors subsequently 
elected Frank B. Noyes president and Melville E. Stone secretary and general 
manager. 

ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES. See Universities, 
American Association of. 

ASTOR LIBRARY. See New York Public Library. 

ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS During the Year 1902. For 1902 there are 
no especially prominent advances in observational astronomy to record. Routine 
work of course went on regularly at the various observatories, but there were no 
brilliant new stars, like the one which in 1901 appeared suddenly in Perseus, and 
which is still visible. Nor did astronomers discover any remarkable naked-eye 
comets, Cjn the other hand, several theoretical researches of far-reaching importance 
were published, and some of these are explained below. Especial attention has 
been given to the light-pressure theory of Svante Arrhenius, of Sweden, and to the 
researches of J. C. Kapteyn, of Holland, upon the nature of the stellar universe. 

Statistical Study of the Stars. — During^ the last few years astronomers have given 
much attention to a method of sidereal investigation called by the foregoing name. 



65 



AMroBomlcal Provr^M. 



Tbt fundamental idea of this method is to collect from every source the isolated 
facts that have become known about the stars, and to deduce from these, if possible, 
some new facts affecting the universe as a whole. The method, of course, is not 
new; it has always been the object of scientific men to proceed from individual 
observations to generalizations of importance. But the plan, as applied very re- 
cently, has resulted in something more definite than mere speculation, and very 
important light has been thrown on existing theories as to the structure of the 
universe. It may be said that the statistical method was first applied to the sky 
by the elder Herschel, who made what he called a series of "star-gauges" near the 
beginning of the last century. These were simply separate counts of the number 
of stars visible in the field of view of his telescope. He made about 3400 of these 
counts, and thus came into possession of valuable statistical knowledge as to the 
apparent density of stellar distribution. His son. Sir John Herschel, extended this 
work to the southern hemisphere, and the net result was a rough table of ''stellar 
densities'* for the whole «ky, or, in other words, what may be called the "number 
of stars per square degree" in different parts of the sky. They found, of course, 
the greatest density in and near the galaxy^ or milky way, and a gradual thinning 
out towards the galactic poles, or those pomts of the sky furthest from the milky 
way. Upon these star-gauges Herschel founded his well-known theory of the 
stellar universe, making it consist of a comparatively thin disc or ring of stars 
within which our solar system is itself situated. Thus, Herschel said, when we look 
out in any direction in the plane of the disc, we must be looking through the thickest 
part of the stars, and see them projected as a ring or band on the sky. Such a 
band must be very thickly studded with stars, and those parts of the sky at right 
azigles to it should be comparatively star-poor. 

Herschel's results have of course been replaced by far more accurate counts 
based on both visual and photographic observations, but his principal conclusions 
are still accepted in the main. The very latest discoveries in this connection are 
doe principally to Kapteyn and Newcomb. Kapteyn has published his researches in 
three important memoirs entitled On the Mean Parallax of Stars of Determined 
Proper Motion and Magnitude, On the Distribution of Cosmical Velocities, and 
On the Luminosity of the Fixed Stars. These memoirs have been published by the 
Astronomical Laboratory of Groningen, Holland, and by the Scientific Section of the 
Royal Academy of Amsterdam. Newcomb's most recent discoveries and cosmical 
speculations were published in 1902 in the Astronomical Journal, Cambridge, Mass., 
ander the title Statistical Relations Among the Parallaxes and the Proper Motions 
of the Stars, To make these researches plain, it is necessary to point out the mean- 
ing of the astronomical terms occurring in the foregoing titles. The parallax of a 
star is in a certain sense merely another name for the star's distance. But stellar 
distances are so vast that astronomers prefer not to use for them our ordinary 
linear units, such as the mile or kilometre. They prefer to speak of the parallax as 
an angle; and it is defined as the small angle that would be filled up by the radius 
of the earth's annual orbit about the sun if seen b^ a supposed observer at the star. 
Great as is the radius of that orbit (about 92 million miles) it is always very small 
in comparison with stellar distances; and the parallax angles of even the nearest 
stars are always less than a single second of arc. The other technical term "proper 
motion" is used by astronomers to designate the changes in a star's position on the 
sky, caused by actual motions in space. If we measure the exact place of a star 
on two widely separated dates, we usually find a slight change. These changes are 
uniformly progressive in character; and astronomers measure them as angles. In 
other words, the small angle by which a star changes its place on the sky in a year is 
called its annual proper motion. 

The quantitative determination of stellar parallax is always a matter of the 
greatest difiiculty, on account of the extreme minuteness of the angles to be 
measured. We have already stated that parallaxes are always less than a second 
of arc, and they are therefore always near the limit which separates the measurable 
from that which is still beyond human observational powers; so that astronomers 
have as yet determined the parallaxes of only a comparatively small number of the 
vast assemblage of stars in the sky. In selecting objects for parallactic study 
they have in the past been guided by certain rather vague rules. Stars have not 
been picked out at random to be tested for parallax, but certain indications of pos- 
sible proximity have been given due weight in the selection. These indications are 
two in number: first, brightness of the star; second, large proper motion. It has 
been assumed with justice that, other things being equal, comparative brightness 
signifies comparative proximity. Furthermore, assuming the actual linear stellar 
motions in space to be probably equal or nearly so, it is legitimate to assume also 
that proper motions apparently lai^e are really due to comparative proximity, since 
the same quantity of actual motion would seem larger or smaller according to 
whether the moving star is near us or far away. Now Kapteyn has reduced these 



AstroBoalcal FroffreMU 



66 



rather vague considerations into a tangible law that must be accepted as a good 
first approximation at least to the real facts of nature. Collecting together all the 
existing actual measures of parallax possessing sufficient reliability, he has sub- 
mitted them to an elaborate discussion, and obtained a law expressing in mathe- 
matical form the probable relation between parallax, brightness, and proper motion. 
Measuring brightness by the usual astronomical scale of stellar magnitudes, we 
get from Kapteyn's law the following table showing the parallaxes of stars having 
various magnitudes and proper motions. These parallaxes are to be considered of 
course only as average values, not as the actual parallaxes of all the stars in ques- 
tion; and, as we have already stated, parallax is simply the small angle filled up by 
the radius of the earth's orbit around the sun, as seen from the star. 

TABLI op AVBBAei Stkllab Paballixm (Kaptktii). 



MAomrcDB of 


Stab. 


Proper Motion of Star. 


0.02 


0.06 


0.10 


0.90 


0.60 


1.0 


6 


O.OOB 
.004 
.008 


0.008 
.007 
.006 


0.017 
.014 
.011 


O.OW 
.024 
.020 


0.066 
.047 
.080 


O.OW 


7 


.061 


9 


.066 











The divergences of actual measured parallaxes from the average numbers in the 
table enabled Kapteyn to estimate the probability of any given star really having the 
tabular parallax. He found that it is always at least an even chance that the real 
parallax will fall between one-half and one and one- fourth times the tabular value. 
This is a surprisingly close agreement between the theoretical formula on which the 
table is based, and the actual observed facts of nature. 

Distribution of Stellar Velocities. — Kapteyn's researches concerning the distribu- 
tion of stellar velocities have not been put m quite as definite a form as those just 
described. The problem he undertakes to solve is this : "What proportion of the 
stars have velocities of motion equal to, double, treble, etc, one-half, one- third, etc, 
of the velocity of our sun in space ?" Adopting as the unit of stellar linear motion 
in space the velocity with which our own sun is moving, the problem is to find com- 
parative data for other stars. W? have an approximate knowledge of the sun's 
velocity, and we also know approximately the point in the sky towards which 
the solar motion is directed; and, as astronomers now consider our sun to be 
simply a star like other stars, it becomes a proper subject for stellar statistical 
inquiry to obtain, if possible, similar knowledge applicable throughout space. 

Kapteyn found it necessary to adopt certain assumptions about the stars. These 
are fundamental ; without them no progress at all would be possible in the problem 
under consideration. The first of these assumptions is that the actual motion of 
any star is just as likely a priori to take place in any one direction as is any other. 
All directions of motion are equally probable. The second assumption is that 
whatever may be the law of stellar velocities, it is the same at different distances 
from the solar system. In other words, our system is not a centre of space; and 
the proceedings and motions of other stars are quite independent of their position 
with respect to us. Both these assumptions are extremely plausible, and investi- 
gators are quite justified in making them; but assumptions they are, and as such 
affect pro tanto any conclusions that may be reached. Some of these conclusions we 
shall now summarize in the form in which they have been put by Newcomb in his 
last paper, to which reference has already been made. Newcomb adopts 4.7s 
kilometres per second as the unit of sidereal velocities, this being the rate of 
motion that would traverse the distance from the earth to the sun in one year. 
The rate of solar motion in space is just four times this unit; stellar statistics as to 
other stars are shown as follows — the first figure representing velocity in units and 
the second figure the number of stars having this velocity : 1—36 ; 10—59 '» 20 — i ; 
30 — I ; 40 — I ; 50—1 ; 60 — i. These figures show that the total number of visible stars 
having velocities vastly superior to that of our sun must be extremely small. 

Luminosity of the Stars. — In his study of this question, Kapteyn begins by forming 
a table showing how many stars there are of each stellar magnitude, or degree of 
luminosity. The reader will remember that astronomers divide all visible stars into 
classes according to brightness; the most brilliant ones are classed as first magni- 
tude stars, and those just on the limit of visibility by the unaided eye are classed as 
sixth magnitude. Theoretically each star of any class gives two-fifths as much 
light as stars of the class next above it; and by means of this fractional ratio the 
classification is extended to include telescopic stars below magnitude 6, and therefore 
invisible to the naked eye. Fractional numbers are used to designate degrees of 
brilliancy intermediate between the various magnitudes : thus, magnitude 1.5 would 



67 



AstroBoalcal Proffreos* 



be intermediate between the first and second magnitudes. The following is Kap- 
tqm's table : 



ICASXRVDCa. 


Approximate 

Average 

Magnitude. 


Nomber of 
Stars. 


Maomitudsb. 


Approximate 

Ayerage 
Magnitude. 


Number of 
Star& 


Bili^terthMft 1.6.. 


8.1 
4.1 
6.1 


18 

61 

146 

4M 

1.608 


6.6 to 6.6 


6.1 
7.1 
8.1 
9.1 


4.944 


ir6to9.6. 


6.6 to 7.6 


16,870 


1.6 to 1.6 


7.6 to 8.6 


46.680 


6.6 to 4.6 


8.5 to 9.6 


168,880 


4.6 to 6.6. 











Having thus obtained information as to the number of stars of each magnitude, 
Kaptejrn proceeds to use it in connection with his former table of average stellar 
parallaxes corresponding to various magnitudes and proper motions. He begins by 
defining and adopting an absolute unit of stellar magnitude; for the previous 
luminosity classification is merely conventional and arbitrary. In fact, it is not 
essentially different from the system in general use ever since the time of Hip- 
parchus. Of course the apparent magnitude of a star depends on its distance from 
OS. With a given absolute brilliancy, it will appear brighter or fainter according as 
to whether it is near us or far away. Kapteyn therefore defines the absolute 
magnitude of a star as the magnitude it would appear to have if placed at such a 
distance from us that its parallax would be one-tenth of a second of arc, or, in other 
words, at such a distance that the radius of our earth's annual orbit about the sun 
would fill an angle of exactly that size to a supposed observer at the star. Under 
this definition our sun, regarded as a star, is of the absolute magnitude 5.5. 

With the help of these considerations Kapteyn is now able t6 form a table showing 
the number of stars of given absolute magnitude situated between given limits of 
parallax or distance from us. From this he is finally able to deduce another 
table exhibiting the average number of stars of each absolute magnitude contained in 
a given section of cosmic s^ce. As an example of his final result, Kapteyn imagines 
a portion of space containing two million stars of the same absolute magnitude as 
our sun, and then gives the following figures for stars of various other absolute mag- 
nitudes that would be contained at the same time in the same region of space; the 
first figure represents the number of stars and the second figure the luminosity of 
each of them as compared with the sun: i — 100,000; 38—10,000; 1800 — 1000; 3600— 
100; 440,000—10; 2,000,000 — I ; 5,000,000—0.1 ; 7,500,000—0.01. 

The most immediate result of an inspection of these figures is that our sun, 
regarded as a star, is not such a little one as many suppose. Of the probable total 
of 15,000,000 stars contained in this region of space, only about one million are 
intrinsically brighter than our sun, and about 14 million are fainter than the sun. 
And the number of luminaries very many thousand times brighter than our sun is 
surprisingly small. We may, of course, take this region of space as a satisfactory 
specimen or sample of space, as a whole, for Kapteyn's results are averages, and 
he uses a sample portion of space of this size simply to visualize and make plain the 
results he has obtained. 

These results are extremely interesting and highly valuable, and for this reason 
we have explained them here in considerable detail ; but it would be unfair to close an 
account of Kapteyn's researches without emphasizing again that the conclusions 
reached are based in part on assumptions and hypotheses, and are therefore reliable 
only so far as these can be accepted. Some of these assumptions we have already 
mentioned, and have pointed out their great plausibility ; but in so doing we attach 
to the final conclusions also the characteHzation of great plausibility, and not the 
definite certainty usually ascribed to astronomical science. Furthermore, in addition 
to these assumptions, Kapteyn's results are doubtless affected somewhat by unre- 
liability or insufiiciency m his observational data. For instance, our knowledge 
of proper motions is not complete or altogether accurate in the case of the fainter 
stars, for these have not been observed long enough or with sufficient precision. 
Again, the number of measured parallaxes is very small, and even some of these 
are doubtless faulty. Still, as average results, Kapteyn's tables are reliable; they 
are far better than anything we have had before; and they will always stand as 
remarkable examples of most acute analysis applied to a problem of surpassing 
difficulty. 

Variation of Latitude. — ^Astronomers continuing in 1902 their measurements of 
changes in terrestrial latitude, brought to light a new fact of far-reaching importance. 
Kustner of Berlin was the first to demonstrate (1888) that observatories do not 
maintain an absolutely invariable distance from the North Pole of the earth. It 
is easy to understand the astronomical importance of this discovery, when we remem- 
ber that all observations, and theories based on observations, have always been 
treated on the supposition of absolute invariability as regards latitude. Conse- 



AatroBomleal Provreos. 



68 



quently it has become necessary to revise astronomical fundamentals throughout; 
and this revision is now in progress. Even ordinary geography needs modification. 
Many boundary h'nes are defined by treaty as being coincident with certain parallels 
of latitude; and if these are subject to changes, treaties and geographies will also 
need revision. 

Obviously the first and most necessary step has been the organization of a 
careful and systematic observational study of the problem, to be followed later 
by theoretical investigations into the mechanical causes of the effects observed. 
Kiistner's original announcement was of course at once followed by many series 
of observations undertaken at various observatories and detached stations. Much 
time passed before arrangements could be made for a really satisfactory observa- 
tional campaign ; but this has been finally accomplished by the so-called International 
Geodetic Association. This organization is composed of representatives of the 
civilized governments of the world, which have joined forces for a more complete 
attack on pending problems of geodesy. These include, of course, the mapping and 
charting of our planet's surface primarily; but maps and charts would be worth- 
less if longitude and latitude lines were not marked upon them, and since latitude 
lines are now recognized as subject to change, it naturally became the province of the 
association to study their variations. For this purpose observing stations have been 
established in Japan, California, Maryland, and Sicily, girdling the earth with a 
chain of latitude observers. The distributing of these stations was chosen most 
carefully: they are all on a single parallel of latitude (or very near it), a condition 
favorable astronomically to high precision in the results ; and they are so distributed 
in longitude as to divide the earth into four nearly equal quadrants. This last 
condition is of great importance; for it gives a criterion as to whether the changes 
of latitude are due to actual motions of the earth's pole. If that pole at any given 
instant be moving away from one observing station, it must at the same instant be 
approaching the station diametrically opposite in longitude. In other words, periods 
of extra large latitudes in any one station must occur simultaneously with corre- 
sponding periods of extra small latitudes in the opposite station, while the inter- 
mediate stations should for the time being occupy comparatively unvarying latitudes. 

Such were the supposed facts, as anticipated ; and up to 1902 there was no evidence 
of anything different having an actual physical existence. Nor is it to be expected 
that the minuter details of this phenomenon should reveal themselves easily or 
speedily. The entire variation, as observed, has never exceeded half a second of arc, 
a quantity corresponding to about 50 feet only on the earth's surface. And it is of 
course possible that almost the whole change may be such as had been anticipated, 
and only differs from what was expected by a very small portion. 

Kimura, observer at the Japanese station, was the first to suspect the reality of 
small variations of latitude not due to actual motions of the pole; and his sus- 
picions have been verified by the publication of results from all four stations. 
These have been discussed upon a uniform system by Albrecht at Berlin. He 
finds that there are times when a small but decided increase of latitude takes place 
at all four stations simultaneously, something that for the reasons stated above 
cannot be due to mere motion of our pole. If this discovery be credited to 
Kimura, it may perhaps be called the most important scientific discovery that has 
come out of Asia in modem times. No explanation has yet been offered as to the 
cause of this observation ; but the problem of latitude variation is entangled inex- 
plicably with the other problem of determining the so-called aberration of light. 
To "reduce" or compute our latitude observations we are compelled to assume 9iat 
we are in possession of a correct theory as to the phenomena of aberration: and 
it is not improbable that these new observations will compel us to revise that 
theory, as well as re-determine the observational quantities that enter into the 
theoretical formulae. The Kimura variation could be explained satisfactorily, and, 
indeed, be made to disappear, if we could find good theoretical grounds for applying 
at times a slightly varying "correction for aberration" to our latitude observations. 

Light Pressure as a Cosmic Force. — Notwithstanding the immense progress of 
astronomy during the nineteenth century, many unsolved problems have been left to 
astronomers of the present day. An ingenious theory lately propounded by Svante 
Arrhenius, of Sweden, seems to give a ready explanation for many mysteries of the 
heavens that for generations have puzzled scientists. Among these may be men- 
tioned: What are comets' tails composed of? and why do they always point away 
from the sun? What is the composition of the corona, the marvelous halo that at 
the time of a total eclipse is seen to surround the sun? and what the origin of the 
solar prominences? Again, what is the source of light by which the nebulae shine? 
What the origin and structure of meteor swarms? and what the aurora borealis? 
A theory that will solve these and half a dozen minor problems is of the greatest 
interest to every one. To make the idea of Arrhenius thoroughly intelligible, it is 
necessary to refer to certain work of J. J. Thomson, of England. He finds that 



69 



Actr«BoiBloal Provreas. 



the atosn is not the smallest possible subdivision of matter, even though it happens 

that in a cubic centimetre of gas there are ordinarily 20 million, million, million 

{,2 followed by nineteen ciphers) molecules of gas. Thomson, however, has shown 

that the smallest of these bodies, the hydrogen atom, is about a thousand times 

as large as the "corpuscle," or "ion," and he further has found that these ions, 

each bearing a charge of negative electricity, are discharged with high velocity: — 

(i) from the negative electrode in a Crookes tube (kathode rays) ; (2) from objects 

struck by kathode rays (Rontgen rays) ; (3) from hot bodies ; (4) from cold bodies 

under the influence of ultra-violet light; (5) from the radio-active substance, 

radium. This work of Thomson's, together with Maxwell's electromagnetic theory * 

of light, form the groundwork of the theory proposed by Arrhenius for the solution 

of so many interesting problems in cosmology. 

(a) Explanation of Comets* Tails. — Instead of pointing toward the sun in obedi- 
ence to the law of gravitation, comets' tails always point in the diametrically oppo- 
site direction. The only explanation heretofore given for this fact was in imagining 
the sun the seat of some repulsive force whose exact nature no one seemed to be able 
to conjecture. Arrhenius explains this force by the action of light on the small 
particles composing the comet s tail. Maxwell found that sunlight at the surface of 
the earth should exert a pressure of .592x10-*® grams on every square centimetre — a 
force too small to be detected, although it has been looked for — but at>the surface of 
the sun this pressure would reach the considerable amount of 2.75x10--' grams per 
square centimetre. A cubic centimetre of water weighing one gram at the surface 
of the earth would weigh 2747 grams at the sun's surrace, and consequently the 
attraction of gravity would be 10,000 times the light repulsion tending to drive it 
away. But let us make our cube smaller than a cubic centimetre in volume. The 
light pressure depends on the area of the surface exposed, and so diminishes as the 
square of the edge, while the weight depends on the volume and diminishes as 
the cube. Decreasing the size of the particle, the weight is diminished faster than 
the pressure of light, and as a result, if the particle were a cube of water measuring 
one-thousandth of a millimetre on a side, the repulsion would be about equal to 
the attraction. Particles of water larger than this would fall to the sun, while those 
smaller would be repelled from the sun. One-thousandth of a millimetre is called a 
micron, denoted usually by fi, so that the critical value of the edge of a cube of 
water, i. e., the value for which its weight is exactly neutralized by the pressure of 
light at the sun's surface, is approximately m* For a spherical drop, the critical value 
would be about 1.5 fu For other substances the critical value is inversely propor- 
tional to the specific gravity. This theory is in complete accord with that of 
Bredichin, who explained the cause of the curvature of different tails of a comet 
to be due to their being composed of substances of different specific gravities acted 
on by some repulsive force emanating from the sun, the hydrogen tail being less 
curved than the hydrocarbon tail. Arrhenius explains the nature of the repulsive 
force, and according to him the size of the drops in four particular cases investi- 
gated by Bredichin must have been o.i m« 0.59 a>» 0.94 m> and 1.25 m respectively. Many 
anomalous facts in the appearance of comets and the formation of their tails now 
receive a ready explanation. 

(b) The Prominences and the Corona. — ^The knowledge we have ^ined about 
the sun confirms the opinion that it is still in a gaseous condition. Radiation carries 
particles from the centre to the surface of the sun, and we are told by flash and 
prominence spectra that many vapors are projected into space. When these gases 
condense, the drops will, if larger than the critical size, fall back to the sun; and if 
smaller they will be thrown off into space, forming the streamers of the corona. 
Those particles that have approximately the critical diameter will float as clouds, 
giving rise to quiescent prominences. It has been difficult hitherto to explain how 
these prominences could exist without imagining an atmosphere about the sun, 
which would have to have the enormous extent of about half a million miles above 
the sun's surface. With Arrhenius's theory such an assumption is unnecessary, the 
prominences being sustained by the pressure of light. 

(f) The Zodiacal Light. — Not only is the sun the source of the gaseous matter 
that causes the prominences, but as it is an intensely hot body, it will, according to 
Thomson, emit negatively charged ions. These ions serve as the nuclei of ordinary 
matter. The small particles ejected from the sun, each with its negatively electrified 
ion, will, when they encounter a body such as the earth, charge its outer atmosphere 
negatively, and when this charge reaches a certain value they will be repelled. The 
oncoming rush of particles will be deflected, and stream past the earth on both 
sides, the earth screening off the space immediately behind her. If we could take 
oar stand on the moon and could look at the earth, we should see her with a sheaf 
of light projected from her towards the sun. This is probably the cause of 

zodiacal h^ht. 
(d) Aurora Borealis and Terrestrial Magnetism. — ^We are all familiar with the 



appearance of the aurora, its beautiful darting, scintillating lights making it one of 
the most wonderful of natural phenomena. The peculiar color of the light reminds 
us of a discharge from an electrical machine, and as a result it has been felt by 
astronomers for many years that the northern lip;hts are some electrical manifestation 
in the earth's atmosphere. The nature of this discharge, however, could not be 
determined satisfactorily until Arrhenius brought forward his theory. According to 
this the negative particles discharged from the sun must reach the earth most 
thickly over its equatorial regions. Before they reach an atmosphere dense enou^ 
to excite luminescence, they are caught by the lines of force of the earth's magnetic 
field. The particles follow these lines of force north and south, coming closer to 
the surface of the earth as they approach the earth's magnetic pole, over which the 
lines of force are vertical. Passing from the equatorial regions of the earth, the 
particles gradually reach lower layers of the atmosphere, and begin to give a dis- 
charge in appearance like that of a vacuum tube. But this discharge must be at 
the expense of energy, so that when they reach denser atmospheric layers, they 
have no more energy, and hence the dark circles around the magnetic poles. As 
these particles follow the lines of force, they ought to influence terrestrial mag- 
netism, and as they emanate from the sun, the appearance of the aurora ought to 
be dependent on solar activity. A fine test of the theory will therefore be obtained 
if it IS found that auroras, terrestrial magnetism, and solar activity vary together. 
It has been known for fifty years that the number of sunspots visible in a year, the 
amount of dip and declination of the compass needle, and the number of auroras 
all go through periods of ii.i years, so that when a great number of sunspots are 
visible in any year, there are also a great number of auroras and a great variation 
of the magnetic needle. In fact, many instances have been noted where the sudden 
outburst of a sunspot has been accompanied with a brilliant aurora and also a 
"magnetic storm," during which compass needles vibrated wildly from side to side. 

(e) Meteorites. — Negatively charged particles are ejected from the sun, and travel 
in all directions in inter-stellar space. Some of these particles moving with high 
velocity meet other particles from other suns, their high velocity overcomes the 
resistances to each other due to their similar charges, and the particles unite to form 
larger particles. Other particles are joined to this mass in the same way, giving 
an irre^larly formed body highly charged with electricity. These are the meteors 
which from time to time dash through our atmosphere. 

(/) Nebula. — ^When particles formed from smaller particles approach near the 
sun and have a diameter greater than the critical value, they will Kill into the sun, 
to be in tiim discharged into space. In this way there is an exchange of materials 
throughout the universe so that the stars are slowly becoming more and more alike 
in constitution. Countless millions of these particles, escaping from all visible suns, 
come into contact with nebulse, which the spectroscope tells us are masses of gaseous 
material. The difficulty hitherto experienced in explaining the light of the nebuls 
has come from the fact that these gases must be nearly at the intense cold of inter- 
stellar space. But how then do they become hot enough to be luminous? Arrhenius 
explains this anomaly, for according to his theory it is not necessary to suppose 
the mass heated throughout, but rather that the mass becomes luminous only on 
the outermost parts of the nebulx, which at the same time may be of excessively 
low temperature. 

New Gases in the Sun. — One of the most important lessons taught by the theory 
of Arrhenius is that particles of matter are continually beinp; scattered throughout 
the universe, starting from one heavenly body and reaching another, with the 
result that all bodies of the universe are gradually becoming more and more alike. 
As a particular phase of this general idea, gases in the sun's atmosphere ought to 
be found in that of the earth. Those who are familiar with the spectroscope know of 
the yellow Di line, which plays such a prominent part in the spectra of the promi- 
nences and chromosphere. Its appearance puzzled spectroscopists for more than a 
quarter of a century, till in 1895 the substance "helium," which gives rise to the Di 
line, was found in the terrestrial mineral clewte. By utilizing the extremely low 
temperatures produced by liquid air and liquid hydrogen, it was found that atmo- 
spheric air contained several new gases. Argon was found in 1895 by Rayleigh and 
Ramsay, and in i8g8 Ramsay discovered three other new gases, called neon, l^rpton, 
and xenon, present in air along with helium. As these five new ^ases are in 
atmospheric air, it would be interesting to see if they are also m the sun's 
atmosphere. Helium we know is in the sun, and it has lately been shown by 
investigations of spectra taken at the recent Sumatra eclipse, that neon and argon 
are certainly present in the neighborhood of the sun. It seems likely from certain 
theoretical considerations that krypton and xenon are also present, although none 
of their lines was detected in the photographic spectra. 

These researches (made by Mitchell, of Columbia University) are interesting, as 



pj I ABtroBoalcal ProffTeM* 

they tell OS something new about the sun, and also because they afford an inde- 
pendent Terification of the theory of Arrhenius. 

T^sttuhance \n the Solar Corona, — To the astronomer, the most interesting feature 

of the corona of the 1901 eclipse, as shown by all photographs, was a disturbance 

in the northeast quadrant, which appeared as if some violent eruption were taking 

place. Nothing like this had ever been noted before. It remained for Professor 

Perrine, of the Lick Observatory, to show during 1902, that at the time of the 

edipse a large sunspot was on the limb of the sun, directly under the disturbed 

region, the spot, by the rotation of the sun, being brought into view the next day. 

A thread-like prominence took its rise from the same region. Taking these 

observations in connection with the feet that the shape of the corona depends on 

the sunspot period, the corona being different in appearance when spots are a 

maximum and a minimum, we see that there is some intimate relation between the 

corona and prominences, and the activity of the sun as evidenced by spots. This 

again only bears further testimony to the correctness of the view of Arrhenius. 

New Star in the Constellation. Perseus. — Astronomers continued to devote much 
attention to this interesting object during 1902. First observed on February 22, 1901, 
by Anderson, of Edinburgh, it blazed up within a few hours until it almost equaled 
Sirins, the brighest star in the whole heavens. By February 24 it had begun to 
diminish in light, and by the latter part of March was only a rather inconspicuous 
telescopic star, quite invisible to the unaided eye. The latest observations of 1902 
made it of about the loth magnitude, so that it is now sending us light whose 
intensity is certainly not more than one three-millionth part of that which char- 
acterized the period of i^reatest brilliancy. In addition to its extraordinary mo- 
mentary lucidity and rapid fluctuations of light, this nova exhibited some startling 
dianges quite unique in the annals of astronomical observations. It was found on 
certain photographs that the star was surrounded by a nebula; and when pictures 
made on different dates were compared, this nebula was seen to be enlarging itself, 
widening out, as if the star were projecting matter outward into space with extraor- 
dinary velocity and almost incredible mechanical energy. It is possible that this 
phenomenon, though never previously observed in the case of any of the few bright 
nov^ so far recorded by astronomers, may nevertheless not really be unique. For 
we must remember that to the present object astronomers have applied a new and 
very efficient method of observation, photography, with long-continued exposure to 
the feeble nebular light. It is conceivable that similar nebular expansions may have 
occurred also in the case of other nova, but escaped detection by the older methods 
of observation. Even in the present case, the nebular observations were exclusively 
photographic, and nothing has been seen of these phenomena by eye and telescope 
alone. 

The rapid feding out of the new star has limited somewhat the possibility of add- 
iqg new knowledge of importance to our stock of facts about its nebular surround- 
ings. But the star itself remained bright enough to make possible observation 
throughout a lar;^ fraction of a year with instruments suitable for the determina- 
tion of stellar distances. The most accurate instrument for this purpose is the 
"heliometer," but existing instruments of this type do not permit the observation 
of stars fainter than about the 8th magnitude. Furthermore, to determine a star's 
distance it is theoretically necessary to observe it throughout six months at the very 
least But the new star, as we have said, remained bright long enough; and so 
we have this year come into possession for the first time, of reliable knowledge as 
to the ''parallax" of a "new star." In other words, we have obtained an approximate 
knowledge of the new star's distance. 

This is of course important in the last degree, if an effort is to be made to explain 
the expanding nebula. Since we have photographs covering a rather long period 
of time, we can by measurement of these ascertam how much the nebula expanded 
in a given time unit. In other words, we obtain the rate per second at which the 
nebula, as seen on the sky, was apparently growing bigger, but this apparent rate of 
increase would of course mean much more motion if the nebula were very far away 
than it would mean if the nebula were comparatively near us in space. A given 
linear motion of 100 miles per second, for instance, would appear 100 times as big 
when seen at a distance (say) of 100 million miles, as it would if seen at a distance 
of 10,000 million miles. 

Conscauently, while we can measure the apparent increase in size of the nebula per 
second from the photographs, we can learn nothing from this about the actual 
linear velocity of motion, unless we can obtain an estimate of the star's distance 
from ns. This estimate we now have from the parallax observations of at 
least two heliometers and one photographic telescope. The united evidence is con- 
cJosive that the star is so far away from us that its parallax is too small to be 
measurecL The most that can be done observationally in this direction is to fix 
a httut within which the star is certainly not situated But, as we have seen, the 



AstrenoiDlcal 
Atkletlca. 



72 



further away our star is, the greater must be the linear velocity of motion to 
make the apparent growth of the nebula per second as large as we have measured 
from the photographs. Using the limit of distance, as determined, we can thus fix 
a corresponding limit of actual linear velocity for the rate of growth of the nebula. 
We can say with certainty that the nebula moved outward a certain number of 
miles per second, or more than that, but certainly not less. 

Now the smallest linear velocity that will thus satisfy reasonably the parallax 
observations and those of the nebula itself is equal to the known velocity of light, 
about 180,000 miles per second. It is absolutely inconceivable that matter of any 
kind we know of, solid, liqujd, or even gaseous, should be projected with any such 
velocity. Therefore astronomers have been led to abandon the idea that the nebular 
expansion is really matter being thrown outward into space from the star. They 
have adopted the ingenious notion that the occurrence of the known velocity of 
light as a limit of speed is not a mere coincidence. It may indeed be a fact that 
the star is not sendmg out nebulous matter at all, but is really only distributing 
light. This light, as it travels outward, might meet with some nebular matter pre- 
viously dark, and while this was temporarily illuminated by the light, we should see 
it. Remembering that the star was extremely luminous for a short time only, we 
should naturally expect such illuminated nebular matter to be also visible tempo- 
rarily onlv. On the whole, we consider this explanation to be the most plausible 
one thus far advanced to account for the new star's extraordinary nebular attendant. 
Nor does this theory interfere in the least with the earlier explanation that the 
cause of the star's own outburst into luminosity was a collision between two masses 
of dark matter. For in that case also it would be quite reasonable to expect to 
find more dark matter in existence near the spot where the collision had occurred 
The whole theory fits together very well, and is to be regarded as a sufficienliy 
satisfactory explanation of a somewhat obscure phenomenon. 

Comets. — The first comet of 1902 was discovered by Brooks, April 15. No 
observations of it were obtained after April 19, as it passed to an unfavorable part of 
the sky. The second comet was discovered by Perrine, August 31, and independently 
by Borely the following day. It was easily visible to the naked eye in October 
when the moon was absent from the sky. A third comet is said to have been seen 
by Griggs on July 23, but no one else has observed it. 

Planetoids. — ^The following minor planets have been officially added to the list 
since No. 469, the last one mentioned in the Year Book for 1901. 



Number. 


Temporary 
Designation. 


Date of 
Diacorery. 


Dlecorerer. 


Name. 


470 


OJ 

GN 

GP 

GC 

GD 

HN 

GQ 

GR 

GD 

HJ 

GL 

HP 

HT 

HD 

HX 

HZ 

JB 

JL 


1901. April 21 
June 7 
July 11 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 18 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 17 
Aug. 2.3 
Sept. 21 
Nov. 12 
May 21 

1902. Feb. 12 
Mar. 3 
Mar. 4 
April 29 
May 7 


Camera 

Wolf 

Wolf 

Wolf 

Wolf 

Stewart 

Camera 

Camera 

Camera 

Camera 

Wolf-Camera 

Camera 

Wolf 

Wolf 

Wolf 


Kllia 


471 




472 


Roma 


473 




474 




476 


OopIo 


476 


Hedwig 


477 


478 




470 




480 




481 




482 




483 




484 




485 




486 


May 11 Camera 




487 


VAIMttA. 






^ « , 





ASYLUMS FOR INSANE. See Insanity. 

ATHERTON, Gertrude Frankun, an American author whose book The Con- 
queror, a novel having Alexander Hamilton as its central figure, was one of the 
popular successes of 1902, was bom in 1859, in Saa Francisco, Cal. She has been 
occupied with literary work since 1888, and since 1894 has lived abroad, chiefly in 
London, where her books have gained great popularity. Her Senator North { 1900) , 
a study of political and social life in Washington, D. C. received considerable 
critical attention, and The Aristocrats, which was published anonymously in 1901. 
was railed by many one of the cleverest books of the year. Among her other works 
are T/ie Doomswoman (1892) ; Before the Gringo Came (1894) ; A Whirl Asunder 
r^li'* J!^*^i^^J. 6'i^ar/wzfAr (1897); American Wives and English Husbands 
y^X'* ^f^^ Calif omians (1898); The Valiant Runaivays (1899), and The Splendid 
Idle Forties (1902). 

ATHLETICS, Track and Field. The year 1902 was notable in athletics, not 
trom any abundance of remarkable performances but from the fact that the one 



*.^ Atkletlcs. 

73 A a rora Borealls. 

record which had been considered by experts as likely never to be broken, was 
surpassed on May 31 at the intercollegiate games when Arthur F. Duff ey, of George- 
town University, ran 100 yards in 9 3-5 seconds. This performance occurred under 
perfect conditions, as to weather and timing, and marks Duffey as the greatest 
sprinter in the world. The previous record, of 94-5 seconds, was made by John 
Owen, Jr., in 1890, at Washmgton, D. C^ and was held subsequently by several 
others. Other world's records bettered durmg the year were : Throwing the discus, 
to 127 feet, 8>4 inches, by M. J. Sheridan ; and the relay race, 2 miles, lowered to 8 
minutes 4 4-5 seconds, by the Harvard team, Boynton, Adams, Du Boise, and Baer. 
There was no international meeting, but on July 5, at Stamford Bridge, Duffey won 
the English championship at 100 yards in 10 seconds. At the same meeting, S. S. 
Jones, of New York University and the New York Athletic Club, won the high- 
jump at 6 feet 3 inches. 

The twenty-seventh annual games of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association were 
held at Berkeley Oval, New York, on May 30 and 31, the winners being as follows : 
One hundred yards dash, A. F. Duffey, Georgetown, 9 3-5 seconds ; 120 yards hurdles, 
I. H- G>nversc, Harvard, 153-5 seconds; 440 yards dash, W. J. Holland, George- 
town, 491-5 seconds; one mile run, R. £. Williams, Princeton, 4 minutes 291-5 
seconds ; two mile run, A. C. Bowen, Pennsylvania, 9 minutes 57 seconds ; 220 yards 
hurdles, I. G. Willis, Harvard, 234-5 seconds; one-half mile run, H. E. Taylor, 
Amherst, 2 minutes 0:3-5 seconds; 220 yards dash, M. T. Lightner, Harvard, 21 3-5 
seconds ; putting 16-pound shot, F. G. Beck, Yale, 44 feet 8^ inches ; running high- 
jump, W. C. Low, Syracuse, 5 feet 11 inches; pole-vault, D. S. Horton, Princeton, 
II feet 3 inches; throwing 16-pound hammer, J. R. De Witt, Princeton, 164 feet 10 
inches; running broad-jump, A. T. Foster, Amherst, 21 feet 11 inches. On the 
basis of five points for first place, three for second, two for third and one for fourth. 
Harvard won the meet with 34 points. The other colleges scored as follows : Yale 30, 
Princeton 2rj, Amherst 11, Georgetown 10, Pennsylvania 9, California 8, Syracuse 8, 
G>Iumbia 3, Cornell 3. Later in the year, W. A. Schick, of Harvard, who had finished 
second in both the 100 yards and 220 yards dashes, was disqualified by the Association, 
thus giving first place to Yale. The specific protest against Schick was for violation 
of the one-year residence rule. The disqualification also reversed the result of the 
Yale- Harvard meet of May 24, 1902, which had been won by Harvard at (iV/2 points 
to 42^. The transfer of the 10 points won by Schick in the dashes made Yale the 
winner, 52^ to 51 J^. Other dual meets were: Yale 85-6, California 41-6 (only 
first place counted) ; California 7, Princeton 6 (firsts only) ; Princeton ^zVi* Amherst 
53 Ja; Cornell 'J7y Princeton 40; Pennsvlvania 82, Columbia 35; Cornell, 67, Penn- 
sylvania 50; Chicago 8, Calitomia 5 (firsts only) ; California 78^, Leiand Stan- 
ford 43H. 

The meeting of the New England Intercollegiate Athletic Association at Worces- 
ter, Mass., May 24, 1902, was won by Amherst with 36 points. Dartmouth was 
second with 28^ points and Brown third with 19. The Western Intercollegiate 
Association met at Chicago on May 31. Michigan won with 36 points, followed by 
Chicago 25, Wisconsin 19, Drake 10, Minnesota 9, Beloit 8, Illinois 6, Notre Dame 
5, Iowa 5, Northwestern 3. Abroad, on March 22, Oxford won from Cambridge by 
5 events to 4. 

The Amateur Athletic Union held its championships at Travers Island, N. Y., on 
September 13, 1902, but bad weather prevented any notable performances. The 
New York Athletic Club team won most of the events. 

At the Canadian championships held at Montreal, September 20, seven out of the 
eleven events were won by Americans, the best performer being A. Grant, of the 
Xcw York Athletic Club, who lowered the Canadian five-mile record to 27 minutes 
18 1-5 seconds. The all-around championship of the Amateur Athletic Union went 
to A. B. Gunn, of Buffalo, for the second time, by a score of 6260% points. The 
seventh annual Marathon road-race over the Ashland-Boston course (24 miles 1478.4 
yards) was held on April 19, 1902, and was won by S. Mellor, Jr., of Yonkers, 
X. Y., in 2 hours 43 minutes 15 2-5 seconds. 

ATOMIC WEIGHTS. See Chemistry (paragraph Atomic Weights). 

ATOXYL, a new arsenic compound, (ZeHaNHAsOa, designed to take the place 
of the more irritating preparations, when a high dosage is required. It is given hypo- 
dermically in solution for chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis, diabetic xanthoma, 
lichen ruber, chronic exfoliative dermatitis, etc., and for alopecia areata (baldness) 
and malignant growths. The best results have been obtained in skin troubles. The 
drag is a white, odorless powder, having a salty taste, and soluble in warm water. 

AUDUBON SOCIETIES. See Ornithology. 

AURORA BOREALIS. See Astronomical Progress. 



Amacrallat CominoBweaUli ef. $mM 

AUSTRALIA, COMMONWEALTH OP, a British colonial possession com- 
prising the five states of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, 
and Western Australia, on the Australian continent, and the island state of 
Tasmania. 

Area and Population, — The total estimated area of the commonwealth is 2,973^76 
square miles, and the population in 1901 was 3,767,443, an increase from 3>i74»253 in 
1891. The populations of the 'several states in 1901 were as follows: New South 
Wales, 1^52,297; Queensland, 496,596; South Australia, 362,604; Victoria, 1,200,918; 
Western Australia, 182,553; and Tasmania, 172,475. 

Government and Finance. — The commonwealth constitution was adopted by the 
several states in 1900 and went into effect on January i, 1901. The executive power, 
vested in the King of Great Britain, is exercised by a governor-general appointed 
by him and advised by an executive council of seven ministers responsible to the 
federal Parliament, in which the legislative power is vested. The Parliament, which 
meets annually, consists of two houses — the Senate, composed of 6 members from 
each state, elected for six years, and the House of Representatives, consisting of 75 
members, elected for a three-year term from the several states according to the fol- 
lowing apportionment: New South Wales, 26; Victoria, 23; Queensland, 9; South 
Australia, 7; Western Australia, 5; Tasmania, 5. The legislative powers of the 
Parliament are extensive, applying, among other things, to commerce, railways, 
shipping, finance, posts and telegraphs, immigration, banking, currency, industrial 
regulation, and defense. Powers not transferred by the constitution to the federal 
Parliament are reserved to the state legislatures. The House of Representatives has 
special powers in respect to appropriation bills. There is to be a federal judiciary — 
at the head of which is a high (supreme) court, which hears appeals from the 
lower federal courts and the supreme courts of the states (see paragraphs on His- 
tory). There is free trade between the states of the commonwealth, and a 
federal customs tariff is provided for. Further, the constitution provides that for 
ten years after January i, 1901, the annual federal expenditure must not exceed 
one-fourth of the revenue derived from federal customs and excise, and that the 
surplus thus created shall be returned to the states, or used for the payment of 
debts taken over by the commonwealth. 

The governor-general from the inauguration of the commonwealth up to July, 
1902, was the Rt. Hon. John Adrian Louis Hope, Earl of Hopetoun. (See para- 
graph Lord Hopetoun's Resignation.) On November 21, 1902, it was announced 
that Lord (Hallam) Tennyson, formerly governor of South Australia, had been 
appointed governor-general of the commonwealth to succeed Lord Hopetoun for 
a term of one year. The commonwealth ministry appointed in 1901 underwent no 
changes during 1902. It was constituted as follows: Premier and minister for 
external affairs, Rt. Hon. Edmund P. Barton, New South Wales; attorney-general, 
Hon. Alfred Deakin, Victoria; minister for home affairs. Sir William J. Lync, New 
South Wales; treasurer. Sir George Turner, Victoria; minister of trade and com- 
merce, Hon. Charles C. Kingston, South Australia; minister of defense, Sir John 
Forrest, Western Australia ; postmaster-general, Hon. James G. Drake, Queensland. 

The statement of federal finance for the year 1901-02, as submitted to the common- 
wealth Parliament in September, 1902, showed a revenue for the fiscal year 
amounting to ii 1,288,903. Of this amount customs yielded £8,894,819, and posts 
and telegraphs £2,364,873. The expenditure amounted to £3,926^06, the principal 
items of which were : Postoffice, £2,336,465 ; defense, £856400 ; and customs admm- 
istration, £262,092. This left a balance to be returned to the states of £7,368,418, 
which was £519,000 more than was anticipated in the estimates. The amount was 
divided among the several states as follows : New South Wales, £2,385,905 ; Victoria, 
£1,920,974; Queensland, £904,775; South Australia, ;^i6,i48; Western Australia, 
£1,225,076; and Tasmania, £315,540. The revenue for the year 1902-03 was esti- 
mated at £11,510,104, of which it was expected customs and excise would furnish 
£9,055,000, and the postofiice £2,444,400. 

Federal Defense, — The relations of the commonwealth to Great Britain, particu- 
larly in regard to provisions for federal defense, assumed during 1902 great impor- 
tance by reason of a rearrangement of the agreement between Australia and the 
imperial government as to naval defense and a proposed reorganization of the 
land forces. The existing agreement as to naval defense, entered into in 1887, 
provided for the equipment and maintenance in Australian waters of a fleet of five 
fast cruisers and two torpedo boats. It was provided at that time that the 
several Australian states and New Zealand should iwiy interest at the rate of 
5 per cent, on the original cost, and also the cost of maintenance which was not to 
exceed £91,000 annually. The total subsidy, including interest paid by the states, 
amounted in 1899- 1900 to £126,000. It was further provided that the squadron 
should not be withdrawn from Australian waters in case of war. The vessels are 
now growing obsolete and have little fighting value, and with the question of 



yr Aastrallm ComnDionwealtli of« 

replacing them has arisen the question as to whether the system is the most 
advantageous that can be devised for the commonwealth. During the first ]^eat 
oi the commonwealth's existence a strong movement manifested itself for a termina- 
tion of the old arrangement, and the construction and maintenance of a purely 
Anstialian fleet. To such a proposition the British admiralty is unalterably opposed. 
On the other hand the Barton ministry was supposed to be rather favorable to 
iht change. Mr. Joseph Qiamberlain, the British colonial secretary, declared at 
the conference of colonial premiers (see Great Biutain, paragraph Colonial Con- 
ference), which convened at London, June 30, 1902, that it was unfair that Great 
Britain should be forced to continue to supply such a disproportionate amount for 
im^Tial defense, which is as vital a question to the colonies as to the mother 
coontry. Later conferences were held between Lord Selborne, first lord of the 
admiralty, and Sir Edmund Barton and Sir John Forrest, by which the latter agreed 
that the conamonwealth (exclusive of New Zealand) should contribute £200,000 
annoally toward the cost of an improved Australian squadron to be maintained in 
Australian waters under an arrangement similar to the existing one, and for the 
establishment of a branch of the Royal Naval Reserve. The agreement, if ratified by 
the commonwealth Parliament, was to hold good for ten years, and although under 
its provisions the annual contribution of Australia was practically doubled. Lord 
Selbome pointed out that the effectiveness of the defense would be more than 
doubled by the increase in size and equipment of the new squadron, and that the 
money contribution amounted to only is. ofjd. per capita, or little more than i per 
cent of the charge for the navy borne by the taxpayers of the United Kingdom. 
In the same conference, the attempt to reach an agreement -on the suggestion of 
Mr. Brodrick, secretary of state for war, looking toward the establishment in all 
the colonies of a specially trained force that should constitute a part of the army 
reserve of the imperial forces, was opposed by the Australian representatives, who 
held with the Canadians that it would be better to raise the standard of training 
for the general body of the colonial forces, leaving it to the colony, in any emergency, 
to determine the diaracter and extent of its contribution to the imperial defense. 
In line with this position Premier Barton announced in November, 1902, that a bill 
would be introduced welding the separate military systems of the several states 
into a consistent organization on a more effective basis. The proposal provided for 
an increase of the field force from 14,000 to 28,748, making, with the garrison corps, 
a total of 44,218 men. 

The Federal Tariff. — The Commonwealth act which provided for inter-state 
free trade also provided that within two years from the date of the establishment 
of the federal government, a uniform system of tariff duties should be established. 
The federal parliamentary elections in March, iqoi, turned largely upon the question 
of the tariflf and resulted in the selection of a Senate in which the free-traders and 
k>w tariff advocates had a small majority and a House of Representatives in which 
the protectionists and moderate tariff party could count on a majority in favor of a 
moderately high tariff. The government tariff bill introduced in the House on 
October 8, 1901, was practically a protective measure. Realizing that in its 
origin&l shape the bill would stand no chance of acceptance by the Senate, the 
moderates joined with the free-traders in the House to effect a reduction. The 
bill was the principal subject of debate in the House for several months. By the 
end of March, 1902, the revision had been practically completed. In most cases 
a compromise between the government schedules and the alternative demands of 
the opposition was agreed upon, and tea, kerosene, and other staple articles of uni- 
versal consumption were put on the free list. A provision for the collection of 
duties on articles imported by the various states was added to the bill, in spite of 
the objection of the free-traders and states-rights party, who declared that the 
clause violated that section of the constitution which provides that state property 
be exempt from taxation. In this form the bill went to the Senate in April. Imme- 
diately the Senate majority set about a wholesale reduction of the House bill sched- 
ules, showing no disposition to listen to compromise. In vain the government 
leaders warned the free-traders that their action would provoke a quarrel with the 
House involving grave constitutional issues. Almost completely shorn of its pro- 
tective provisions the bill was at length sent back to the House. The Senate's 
powers over finance bills do not include amendment, but take the form of requests 
to the lower house to omit such provisions as it will not agree to. On August 14 
the House considered and rejected all the Senate's requests for reduction. A pro- 
longed deadlock with consequent dissolution was threatened, when the ministry 
determined that rather than face such a crisis they would accept a moderate tariff, 
trasting to future legislation to establish the protective system they had planned. 
They therefore called in consultation the government leaders in both houses, and 
proposed compromises on the disputed points which were accepted, although with 



AmstimllA* Cononwealth of. 



76 



rather bad grace. The bill as thus agreed upon was passed September g, aad 
assented to September 16. 

An Australian "Monroe Doctrine." — The insistence in Australia that Great 
Britain shall set bounds to the further extension of the territorial acquisition of 
Germany, France, or any other European country in the Australasian and South 
seas was shown during 1902 in the feeling aroused in the commonwealth by a report 
that Great Britain was contemplating giving up her share in the New Hebrides to 
France, with whom the islands are now jointly administered, in exchange for a 
withdrawal of the French claims to the Newfoundland fisheries. Although no 
official statement has been made in regard to such an agreement. Premier Barton 
took a hand and cabled to Mr. Chamberlain that the Australian commonwealth 
would never consent to the complete establishment of French sovereignty in the 
islands. 

The Drought and the Economic Situation, — The year 1902 was the seventh 
successive year in which a severe drought prevailed in Australia. The industrial 
and commercial life of the country has been greatly affected, and it is estimated 
that, in the year ending in September, 1902, the losses of sheep and lambs alone 
amounted to over 40,000,000 head. Many of the waterways in the interior have 
become unnavigable, and unemployed men are drifting into the cities by thousands. 
During 1902 there was a steady emigration to South Africa. In December it was 
stated that in a little more than three months 6350 adults with £200,000 had left 
for South Africa. Of these, 1670 went from Victoria alone, a state whose high- 
tariff and wages-boards represented more nearly the triumph of labor politics than 
any other state in the commonwealth. Prices for all necessities have advanced 
enormously, and the ranks of the unemployed are increasing daily. The opponents 
of state socialism and the labor legislation programme attribute the economic depres- 
sion to the application of these policies. A London Times correspondent declares 
that "the right to work is rapidly being expanded into a right to wages, with or 
without work. The state cannot invent work fast enough for the thousands who 
have been taught to look to it for emplojrment more remunerative and less onerous 
than can be ottered them by private enterprise; but it can, and is expected to, pay 
wa^es, and the wage-bill which the state has to meet is growing with alarming 
rapidity, and entirely out of proportion to the value and usefulness of the work 
it represents.". 

Lord Hopetoun's Resignation. — In May, 1902, Premier Barton on behalf of the 
ministry introduced a bill in the House providing for an annual allowance of iSooo 
for Lord Hopetoun, to enable him to recoup himself for the expense necessary 
for the maintenance of government houses in both Sydney and Melbourne, pending 
the completion of the new federal capital. The House refused a permanent annual 
grant, but voted the sum of iio.ooo toward the expense incurred by the governor 
during the visit of the Prince of Wales in 1901. After the refusal of the House to 
supplement his salary. Lord Hopetoun cabled to Mr. Chamberlain his resignation 
as governor-general, declaring that the demands on his private purse were greater 
than he could stand. It was semi-officially stated on May 20 that Lord Hopetoun 
considered that the federal government had broken faith with him. The refusal 
to grant the allowance asked had, it was said, the effect of practically cutting his 
salary to £6000, as his salary was only iio,ooo, and no provision was made for the 
payment of a staff or for state entertainments. He had already, it was explained, 
spent over £25,000 out of his private purse. 

The Immigration Question. — Toward the end of 1902 a serious difficulty arose from 
the enforcement of the provisions of the immigration restriction act passed late in 
1901. It was just such a difficulty as its opponents had pointed out would occur 
sooner or later. The law, which was designed to exclude Chinese, Japanese, and 
South Sea islander immigration, provided that every immigrant should be required 
to write out at dictation and sign m the presence of an immigration officer, a passage 
of fifty words in some European language. A further clause provided that con- 
tract laborers, unless skilled, should be excluded. Early in December, 1902, six 
British workmen, who had arrived on the steamship Orontes, under contract with 
a clothing manufacturer, were refused permission to land under this act After 
considerable exchange of communications between the premier and the British 
colonial office. Sir Edmund Barton decided, despite the remonstrances of the Labor 
party, that the men were skilled, and allowed them to land. The incident was 
looked upon as a warning that unless repealed the act would give rise to further 
friction between the commonwealth and imperial government, as the former will 
find it difficult to pacify the powerful labor element if it evades the act, as it 
unquestionably did m the present instance. 

Other Matters. — In April, 1902, the House committee on decimal coinage reported 
in favor of the adoption of a decimal coinage system based on the sovereign. In 
the same month, imperial penny postage was adopted for the commonwealth for 



^^ Anstralla* Commonwealth of^ 

// Aastria-Hnnffary. 

all ingoifig letters, although the outward rate was kept at 2^d. In March the 
House passed a bill for the establishment of a federal court of justice, as 
provided for in the constitution, but the measure was coldly received in the Senate, 
and up to the end of the year had not been accepted by them. See New South 
Wales, Queensland^ South Austraua, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western 
Australia. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, a constitutional monarchy of central Europe comprising 
the empire of Austria and kingdoai of Hungary, united under one sovereign. The 
capita of Austria is Vienna, and of Hungary Budapest. 

Area and Population. — The monarchy has a total area of 240,942 square miles, of 
which Austria comprises 115,903 square miles, and Hungary (including Croatia and 
Shvonia, 16,773 square miles) 125,039 square miles. According to the revised figures of 
the census of December 31, 1900, the population was as follows: Austria, 26,150,708; 
Hoogary, 16338,255; Croatia and Slavonia, 2416,304— total 45i405f267. The leading 
natioDalities in Austria and Hungary (including Croatia and Slavonia) respectively 
were as follows: Germans, 9,170,939 and 2,135,181; Magyars, 9516 and 8,724,301; 
Czechs, Moravians, and Slovaks, 5,955,397 and 2,019,641; Ruthenians, 3»375.576 and 
429477; Crotians and Servians, 711,380 and 2,730,749; Roumanians, 230,963 and 
2,799479; Italians and Ladins, 727,102 (in Austria). According to religion, there 
were in Austria and Hungary (including Croatia and Slavonia), respectively: Roman 
Catholics, 20,660,279 and 9,919,913; Greek and Armenian Catholics, 3,136,535 and 
1,854,143; Orthodox Greeks, 60(5,764 and 2,815,713; Evangelicals (Helvetian Confes- 
sion), 126,557 and 2441,142; Jews, 1,224,899 and 851,378; Evangelicals (Augsburg 
Confession), .365454 and 1,288,942. Vienna had 1,674,957 inhabitants and Budapest 
716476. Religious toleration prevails, but the emperor-king must be a member of 
the Roman Catholic Church. Elementary instruction is free and compulsory. 

Common Government and Finance. — The executive authority rests with the com- 
mon sovereign. Franz Josef I. has been emperor of Austria since December, 1848, 
and king of Hungary siilce June, 1867. Under the constitutional compromise of 
1867, known as the Ausgleich, the common administration is directed by the emperor- 
king, assisted by a ministry of three members, for foreign affairs, finance, and war, 
who are responsible to a common legislature called the Delegations. Each 'of these 
consists of sixty members, the one body representing Austria and the other Hungary, 
and they convene each year alternately at Vienna and at Budapest. The common 
government deals with foreign affairs, the army, the navy, finance relating to the 
monarchy as a whole, certain state monopolies, and the diplomatic, postal, and 
telegraphic services. The composition of the ministry in 1902 was: For foreign 
affairs. Count Agenor M. A. Goluchowski (since May^ 1895) ; for finance, Benjamin 
Kallay de Nagy-Kallo (since June, 1882) ; for war, Lieutenant-(jeneral von Pitreich 
(since December, 1902). 

The proportion of the common expense to be borne by Austria and Hungary was 
established by an agreement of 1867, renewable every ten years. This agreement, 
which together with a number of economic and customs measures was a part of the 
Ausgleich^ was not renewed in 1897 and two years later was dissolved. It was super- 
seded in 1899 by a reciprocity treaty (in force under certain conditions until 
December 31, 1907), which provides that the common expenses of the monarchy be 
paid in the proportion of 65.6 per cent, for Austria and 344 per cent, for Hungary. 
See paragraph Ausgleich. 

The monetary standard is gold and the unit of value the krone, worth 20.3 cents. 
According to the sanctioned estimates, the revenue and expenditure for 1900 balanced 
at 337,348,000 kronen; for 1901, revenue 364,337,000 kronen, and expenditure 337,- 
000,000 kronen; for 1902 they balanced at 365,181,966 kronen; 1903, 372438,000 
kronen. These estimates show receipts from customs as follows: 1900, 124,950,000 
kronen; 1901, 125,039,249 kronen; 1902, 110,541,299 kronen. The largest item of 
expenditure is for the army. 

Joint debts are not contracted. A debt, however, was assumed in common when 
the union of the monarchy was effected in 1867, and this in 1901 amounted to 5434,- 
428,306 kronen, the charges being 189,028,560 kronen for Austria and 60,577,662 
kronen for Hungary. 

Army and Navy, — The peace strength of the Austro-Hungarian army in 1901 is 
reported as follows: The common army, consisting of fifteen army corps, had 
304,293 officers and men ; the Austrian Landwehr, 27,729 ; the Hungarian Honveds6g, 
27356; total active army, 359,878 officers and men. On a war footing the army 
numbers about 1,872,000. 

The Austro-Hungarian fleet was reported to comprise in March, 1902, 3 second- 

dass battleships, 4 third-class battleships, 2 armored cruisers, 8 protected cruisers, 

7 port-defense vessels, 12 torpedo gunboats, 32 first-class torpedo boats, 32 second- 

dass torpedo boats, and 8 third-class torpedo boats. The fleet is being gradually 

f dcveioped and old vessels replaced by new ones. In 1902 the substitute battleships 



Aastria-UuisaiT* 



78 



Laudon and Drache were laid down. Each will have a displacement of 10,600 tons, 
indicated horse-power 14,000, and speed 19 knots. See Manceuvres, Milttaxy and 
Naval. 

Government and Finance of Austria. — The executive authority is vested in the 
emperor, under whom the administration is carried on through a ministry of ten 
members appointed by him and responsible to the legislative body, the Reichsrath. 
This consists of an upper house (Herrenhaus) and a lower house (Abgeordneten- 
haus) ; membership in the former is appointive and hereditary, and in the latter 
elective. In 1902 the premier and minister of the interior was Dr. Ernst von Koerber 
(appointed January 21, 1900). Each province has a representative diet (Landtag), 
which deals with matters not reserved for the Reichsrath. 

The revenue and expenditure in kronen (20.3 cents) have been estimated as 
follows, respectively: 1901. 1,641,997,585 and 1,641,163,344; 1902, 1,685,966,357 and 
1,685,117,944; 1903, 1,690,182,264 and 1,689,116363. The consolidated debt in 1901 
amounted to 3,608,140,700 kronen, and the floating debt 13,017,082 kronen— total, 
3,621,157,782 kronen. Interest and amortization amounted to I503i3»2i8 kronen. 

Government and Finance of Hungary, — As in Austria, the executive authority in 
Hungary, including Croatia and Slavonia, is vested in the sovereign, and under 
him the administration is directed by a ministry of nine members, whom he appoints 
and who are responsible to the parliament (Orsz4ggyiilcs). This body is bicameral, 
membership in the upper house being largely hereditary, appointive, and ex-oMcio, 
and in the lower house elective by popular vote. Though represented in the parlia- 
ment, Croatia- Slavonia has a separate diet. In 1902 the Hungarian premier and 
minister of the interior was Koloman de Szell (appointed in February, 1899). 

In 1900 the revenue and expenditure in kronen were 1,197,036,000 and 1,083,521,000, 
respectively. The estimate in kronen for 1901 was 1,050,582,297 for revenue, and 
15056,556,517 for expenditure; for 1902, revenue, 1.086,870,018, and expenditure 
1,086,749,083. In 1900 the consolidated debt amounted to 2,284,580,000 kronen and 
the total debt 5,180,323,000 kronen. 

Industries. — In both Austria and Hungary agriculture is the leading industry. 
Manufacturing industries, which are developing, have gained so much more impor- 
tance in Austria than in Hungary, that this difference affords one of the leading 
points of dispute between the two parts of the monarchy in the matter of establishing 
a new customs tariff. Valuable mineral deposits are worked in both countries, but 
not to the best advantage. In 1900 the production in hectolitres (2.838 bushels) of 
the leading crops in Austria was: Oats, 37,021,000; barley, 20,525,000; rye, 19,906,000; 
wheat, 14,741,000; while in metric centners (220^)6 pounds ) potatoes amounted to 
117,020,000; sugar beets, 52,282,000; other beets, 27,648,000. In Hungary production 
in metric centners in 1900 was: Potatoes, 48,622,000; sugar beets, 19^57,000; other 
beets, 43,794,000; wheat, 41,432,000; barley, 12,362,000; oats, 11,061,000; rye, 10,- 
793>ooo. Nearly half of the beets are raised in Bohemia. In 1900 the reported values 
of mining and furnace products in Austria were 233454480 kronen and 99,975JBoo 
kronen, respectively; in Hungry, 63,142,700 and 56,037,900, respectively. During 
1901 and 1902 serious economic depression, especially in the manufacturing indus- 
tries, prevailed in Austria-Hungary. This, augmenting the stress of competition, 
was doubtless an important factor in the formation of a kartel, or combination, of 
the iron and steel industries, comprising twenty-three separate establishments, with 
an aggregate capital of 280,000,000 kronen. After months of negotiations the forma- 
tion of this trust was announced in November, 1902. The trust, in fact, consists of 
two kartels, one of eighteen Austrian establishments and the other of five Hungarian, 
but the two are managed jointly by a central authority, which regulates output and 
fixes prices for the several separate establishments. Tne organization includes prac- 
tically every important iron and steel interest in Austria-Hungary, such as raw 
iron, bars, plates, rails, nails, and wire. The scheme is to remain in force until 
June 30, 191 2. 

Commerce. — The special commerce (imports for consumption and exports of 
domestic produce) of the customs territory, including Bosnia and Herzegovina 
iq.v.), has been as follows in kronen, the trade in specie and bullion being excluded: 





1896 


1809 


1900 


1901 


Imports....... 


i,689.eoa.ooo 

1.616,344,000 


1,608.870.000 
1,861.699.000 


1.096,868.000 
1.943.003,000 


1,662,643.000 
1,886,468.000 


Exports 





In 1900 imports and exports of specie and bullion amounted to 44,897,000 kronen 
and 66,546,000 kronen, respectively, and in 1901 to 173485,000 and 41,845,000, respec- 
tively. The values in kronen of the leading imports in 1901 were : Cotton, 142300,000; 
coal, 107,700,000; wool, 90,800,000; tobacco, 56,200,000; skins, 46,300,000; books, etc. 



79 



Aastrla«HniisaiTi 



43,9XMXX>; leather, 43,100,000; niachinery, 42,300,000; coffee, 41,000,000; silk, 38,- 
ooOipOD; cereals, 36,90O/x)o. The leading exports in 1901 included: Wood, 219,- 
400^000 kronen ; sugar, 176,700,000; cattle, etc, 120,600,000; coal, 105,800,000; eggs, 
96^00^000; cereals, 89,200,000; leather goods, 50,800,000; glass, 49,100,000; malt, 
46,200^900; woolen goods, 44,000,000; wooden wares, 43,000,000; skins, 39,000,000; 
jewelry, 33,9^,000; paper, 30,700,000. Imports from and exports to the countries 
of greatest commercial importance in 1900 and 1901 were valued in kronen as 
follows: 



CouMnnsBm 



Great Britain. 
Cidttd BtotM. 

Ita|7 

British India.. 

KoMia.^ 

TfaDcs.M......... 

Switaerlaiid.... 

SwTla. 

Boamaala. 

BimdL^ 



Imports. 



ExportB. 



1900 


1901 


1900 


1901 


686.875,000 


684,669.000 


1,016,840.000 


977,776.000 


148.942,000 


186.689,000 


901.260.000 


186,890.000 


1S2.828.000 


128,616.000 


87,986.000 


82.700.000 


114,297.000 


104.097.000 


146.987,000 


186.478.000 


84,242.000 


96,889.000 


46.660,000 


60.864,000 


89.149.000 


86,268.000 


71.661,000 


72.734.000 


68.864.000 


66,468.000 


68,490,000 


66.156,000 


66.299.000 


49.286.000 


68.680.000 


64.428.000 


42.218.000 


41.986,000 


24.174.000 


22.634,000 


82.227.000 


88,249.000 


48.211,000 


47.806.000 


48,489.000 


87,782.900 


6«864,000 


6.489.000 



Communications. — At the beginning of 1902 there were in operation in Austria 
19^270 kilometres (11,974 miles) of railway, and in Hungary 17,101 kilometres (10,626 
miles) — total, 36,371 kilometres (22,600 miles). The canal mileage navigable for 
steamers has been reported at 818 in Austria and 1923 in Hungary. In 1900 there 
were 7070 postoflBces in Austria and 4923 in Hungary, besides 31 foreign offices. In 
the same year Austria had 5463 telegraph offices, with 39405 kilometres (24485 
miles) of line, and 176,651 kilometres (109,766 miles) of wire, and Hungary 3256 
offices, with 22^24 kilometres (14,182 miles) of line, and 114,741 kilometres (71,293 
miles) of wire. 

HISTORY. 

The Austrian Parliament. — ^The lower house of the Reichsrath, which was elected 
in December, 1900, and January, 1901, comprises more than twenty separate parties 
or political groups ; these, however, in a general way, are divided into the Right and 
the Left. The principal elements composing the Right are the Poles, who are con- 
servative and Catholic ; the Clericals, who though of German blood prefer, on account 
of their conservatism, to stand with the Poles; and the Czechs of Bohemia, who, 
though liberal rather than conservative, make of greatest importance their apti- 
German propaganda. The Left, which includes most of the (jermans, is composed 
prindpially of the Liberals, the Radicals, and the Pan-Cjermans. 

It will be remembered that in 1901, after four years of parliamentary obstruction, 
the premier. Dr. yon Koerber, succeeded in getting the Reichsrath to adopt his 
economic bill providing for railways and canals. Disputes, however, upon the race 
and language question were resumed in all their bitterness in the autumn session of 
1901, and continued in the following session, which began on February 4, 1902. 
&rly in the year Dr. von Koerber was forced to hint for the second time at the 
possible suspension of the constitution unless the dilatory and disorderly tactics of 
the factions should cease. But the premier did succeed in persuading the Reichs- 
rath to adopt a number of measures, including the budget, the authorization of 
certain agricultural bodies, and amendments to industrial laws. This success was 
won from the various factions, each having a national and political programme, only 
by means of concessions to their financial demands. It appears that these demands, 
exacted at a time of economic depression, proceeded not so much from actual 
need as from the sense of equality dominant in each nationality. It may be said that 
to establish equality among the eight clamorous nationalities existing in Austria, 
in the courts, the schools, and the various public services, such as railways, posts and 
telegraphs, it would be necessary to decentralize the administration in many respects, 
a change that would entail upon the government greatly increased expenditure. With 
this the government is not prepared to cope; for during the four years when, on 
account of obstruction, the budget was not voted by the parliament, but was approved 
by imperial ordinance in virtue of paragraph fourteen of the constitution, the 
expenses increased by about 250,000,000 kronen, while the revenue did not expand 
proportionally. The industrial depression, moreover, that has existed for a number 
of years threatened in 1902 to become still worse from the application of the 
Brassels sugar convention (proposed to go into effect in September, 1903), so that 
a real difficulty begins to appear for maintaining the equilibrium of the budget. 

By the ever recurring language disputes between Czech and Ckrman, the spring 



8o 

session was frittered away. It is the Czech and German controversy in Austria that 
attracts greatest attention ; but there are other grave racial questions as well. Italian 
irredentism is discussed daily. The Poles, even when showing fidelity to Austria, 
which has |^iven them administrative autonomy, are dreaming of a new Poland, 
united and mdependent. The Ruthenians are restless. The Roumanians carry on 
a campaign for effecting a union with their mother country. The Slavs of the south, 
the Serbs, Slovenes, and Croats, look for the solution of the Balkan question in the 
reconstitution of the disparate Slav states. With these divers and conflicting ambi- 
tions dominant, there is small wonder that the members of the Austrian parliament 
serve Austria so meanly. In one thing the government pleased all parties. It gave 
its approval to a bill modifying the press law of 1867 by increasing the privileges and 
the legal protection of auUiors, publishers, and booksellers. The session adjourned 
on June 20. 

The fall session of the Reichsrath began on October 16, 1902. Before it were many 
important bills left over from the preceding session. But parliamentary action was 
destined to be once more stultified by Czech obstruction. Since 1897 this system of 
political ruffianism has continued practically without interruption, save the four 
months of conciliation in 1901 and a short period at the begmning of 1902. Its 
introduction into the Reichsrath came through the repeal of the Badeni ordinance, 
soon after its promulgation (1897), which granted to the Czechs certain rights in 
regard to language. For such rights the Czech members have been fighting, by 
nullifying other parliamentary business ever since, with the result that administrative 
activity and authority, public finance, the wonted prestige of justice, and the dignity, 
to say nothing of the efficiency, of parliament, are despaired of at home and ridiculed 
abroad. In general, measures are adopted, if at all, by unworthy concessions or 
unscrupulous political bargaining; and this probably applies even to the economic 
bill passed in ic^oi and the budget voted in 1902. In the latter year the govern- 
ment, firmly believing that the language question could be settled only by legislative 
enactment, would not, as in the Badeni case, issue an ordinance on the subject at 
the demand of the Czechs. On October 14, 1902, two days before the opening of 
the parliament, Dr. von Koerber called together the representatives of the two 
factions and submitted for their consideration a measure constituting the basis of a 
settlement for the official use of Czech and of German in Bohemia and Moravia. 
It was proposed to divide Bohemia into three zones, German being the official 
language in the first, Czech in the second, and the two languages in the third. Under 
this system, many details of administration were proposed. As might have been 
foreseen, the plan failed to please either the Germans or the Czechs. Although the 
former demanded simply modifications of the project, the Czechs refused even to 
gi^ it serious consideration, for they held that it was in contradiction to the tradi- 
ti(%s and rights of the kingdom of Bohemia, which could not approve the official 
establishment of any language except Czech, even in its German districts. Neither 
was any agreement reached m regard to Moravia. Upon the opening of the parlia- 
ment, the premier again attempted to pave the way for a legislative solution of 
the difficulty. ''Any ordinance," he said, "is a sheet of paper; a law is a table 
of bronze. An ordinance expresses the wish of an unstable ministry ; a law is the 
will of the empire. Law is a guaranty of peace." The Germans then submitted 
a plan for the settlement of the question in Bohemia, where about 37 per cent, of 
the population is German. These proposals were even more radical than those 
of the premier, and, like his and on the same grounds, were wholly rejected by the 
Czechs. So it was that from the opening to the closure of the session, on December 
18, 1902, the usual obstructionist tactics held full sway, notwithstanding the urgent 
need of harmony, in view of the Ausgleich negotiations then going on. Only two 
measures were enacted. The one prohibited dealing in futures in grain on Exchange, 
providing for its violation penaltfes of heavy fines and imprisonment; the other, 
inspired by a reactionary spirit of protectionism, forbade pedaling. 

At the end of the year, when the parties were thoroughly at variance and the 
general situation was most disconcerting, the premier was obliged to authorize the 
raising of revenue for the first six months of 1903 by imperial ordinance. 

Hungary. — Few measures of wide significance or importance were enacted by 
the parliament in the sessions of 1902. Indeed, the main interests of that year 
lay in the menacing growth of racial feeling in the kingdom, the increasing sentiment 
for a separation from Austria save in the person of a common sovereign, and the 
negotiations on the Ausgleich, which involved a far-reaching consideration of Hun- 
gary's economic condition. In the fall of 1902 it appeared that the race question 
was becoming in no small measure a disturbing factor to the government, and both 
M. de Szell, the premier, and Count Albert Apponyi, the president of the lower 
house of parliament, had fears of a recrudescence of race bitterness. The Magyars 
constitute a little over half the population, the remainder being for the most part 
Slav and Roumanian, chiefly the former. Probably much of the unrest in Hungary 



Q, Avstrla-UniisaiT* 

is doe to the pan-German propaganda, for though Germans constitute only a small 
part of the inhabitants, it is felt that they have behind them not only a large German 
dement in Austria but even the German empire itself. It is this feeling doubtless 
that has served to turn away to a noticeable degree Magyar favor from the Triple 
Alliance. Behind the Slavs is the ever suspected power of Russia, and it is likely 
tint even the Roumanian interests have some support, moral at least, from abroad. 
Thus the Magyars stand alone, and, as though trouble at home were not enough, 
they are constantly at odds with Austria. This was particularly evident in 1902 in 
respect to army administration, and, aside from the Ausgleich dispute, culminated in 
the popular resentment against Minister von Krieghammer's army bill. 

On March 4, 1902, M. Hegedues, the minister of commerce, resigned and was 
succeeded by M. Horansky; the latter died on April 9, and was succeeded on the 
30Ch by M. Lang. On September 19, 1902, the hundredth anniversary of the birth 
of Louis Kossu^ was celebrated with great popular demonstration and elaborate 
ceremony. 

The Ausgleich. — ^During 1902 the most prominent feature in the affairs of the 
monarchy as a whole was the negotiations between the premier of Austria, Dr. Ernst 
von Koerber, and the premier of Hungary, M. Koloman de Szell, looking toward the 
renewal of the economic and customs union, popularly known as the Ausgleich. 
This term properly signifies the constitutional compromise of 1867, which forms the 
basis of the dual monarchy, and as such includes the arrangements relating to the 
dynasty, army and navy, and foreign affairs — ^arrangements that under the existing 
constitutions are unalterable. The Ausgleich also contained an agreement con- 
cerning the financial and commercial relations subsisting between Austria and 
Hungary, and this was subject to revision every ten years. It is this financial and 
oommercial compromise, or customs union, that has been the subject of controversy 
since 1897. The compromise failed of renewal in that year, and in 1899 was formally 
dissolved. As a substitute for the customs union a reciprocity treaty was ratified 
by the Hungarian parliament in June, 1899, a^nd in Austria by the imperial ordinance 
of September 21, 1899. This arrangement did not fix the exact date at which a 
definitive customs union should be established. The imperial ordinance, however, 
provided that conferences for effecting such a union should be begun in 1901, and 
that the customs tariff should be replaced by a new tariff before the beginning of 
negotiations with foreign powers for the conclusion of treaties of commerce. From 
the latter provision it appeared that the existing customs arrangement should be 
brought to an end before January i, 1903, since at that time the treaties of commerce 
with Germany and several other states could be denounced. Finally, the imperial 
ordinance of 1899 provided that if by the end of 1903 a definitive customs and com- 
mercial union had not been concluded between Austria and Hungary, the existing 
economic union should continue only to 1907. The Hungarian parliament voted also 
that if by 1903 such a customs union had not been agreed upon, these treaties of 
commerce should not be prolonged after 1907. The Hungarian parliament also 
demanded that the definitive customs union should be ratified in Austria by parlia- 
ment and not, as was the provisional union, by imperial ordinance. Without the 
approval of the Reichsrath, Hungary would not agree to the conclusion with foreign 
states of treaties of commerce binding both parts of the monarchy. The purpose 
of this measure^ which has received the name of its author, Szell, is to reserve to 
Hungary the nght of fixing its economic relations with other states in case of 
continued obstruction in the Keichsrath. 

Discussions of the customs union by the two premiers, begun in 1901 in accordance 
with the agreement of 1899, continued through 1902. In May of the latter year 
serious difficulties presented themselves. On June 24 the Austrian government 
notified Hungary of its intention to denounce the treaties of commerce with foreign 
nations at the end of 1902. In order to carry out this measure it was necessary that 
some economic modus vivendi be established between the two parts of the monarchy, 
and to this end what amounted to a practical intervention on the part of the emperor- 
king, Franz Josef, in the negotiations between the dissident premiers took place 
on June 30. ^ The understanding reached at that time was only general and 
tentative, and it was recognized that the further negotiations necessary would prove 
long and laborious, thoup^h the great danger — a separate customs system for each 
half of the monarchy— disappeared, at least for the time being. In October it was 
reported that the negotiations had been broken off, but they were renewed and con- 
tinued throughout the month of December. On the evening of December 31, 1902, an 
agreement was reached at Vienna by Dr. von Koerber and M. de Szell with regard 
to the customs union, which up to the last moment had remained in doubt. It 
appeared that the premiers came to this aprreement only through mutual concessions, 
due laiigely to pressure brought upon them by the personal interference of Franz 
Josef and the heir-presumptive, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. In some quarters it 
was stated that the aged sovereign threatened to abdicate were the agreement not 

e 



82 

arrived at before the end of 1902 ; however this nay have been, it is certain that his 
personality, which during a reign of more than half a century had showed itself 
master in many a crisis, was the moving force that brought the two premiers to- 
gether. It remained for the parliaments of Austria and Hungary to ratify the 
arrangement thus concluded, and at the end of the year promise of such ratification 
was none too good. 

In their negotiations the crux of the difficulty before the two premiers, both of 
whom strove faithfully to support the interests of their respective constituents, had 
been the abiding conflict between industrial and agrarian peoples on the subject of 
the tariff. In the case of Austria and Hungary this conflict was augmented by a 
mutual indisposition to accept any equitable concessions. Austria is becoming mere 
and more an industrial country, while Hungary is distinctively agricultural. The 
demand of Hungary for high tariffs on cereals, wool, hemp, flax, jute, and other 
agricultural products was hotly contested by Austria, since such tariffs on raw 
materials would threaten the very existence of Austrian industry; on the other 
hand Hungary refused to increase the protective tariffs demanded by Austria on 
various manufactured products. In despair Austria pointed out that the existing 
tariffs on cereals and cattle had almost shut against her the Russian markets, as well 
as important trade outlets that she had won for herself in Roumania and the 
Balkan states; and even in Hungry, Austrian trade was on an unfavorable basis, 
since the Hungarians had established differential freight rates favoring their own 
goods. Both premiers were strengthened in their positions by parliamentary warn- 
ings against any sacrifices, and when, as was natural in these circumstances, confer- 
ence after conference during 1902 was barren of result, a popular desire developjed 
for economic separation, "divorce" becoming the rallying cry of the radical parties 
in both countries. But such a separation is more easily advised than adopted. 
Nevertheless, it is safe to say that if the Szell-von Koerber agreement, which was 
finally reached on December 31, 1902 (though its provisions are not yet available), is 
not of a decidedly agrarian character, that agreement will not receive the sanction 
of the Hungarian parliament, while in any case it can be ratified in Austria only 
through concessions to the various nationalities, involving great and unnecessary 
expense to the government. 

The Minister of War. — In the fall sessions of the Austrian and Hungarian parlia- 
ments, the minister of war, General Baron Edmund von Krieghammer, introduced 
bills for the reform of the artillery, including the purchase of new guns and the 
complete reorganization of the field and mountain artillery. Immediately the plan 
met with much public opposition, and partly on this account and partly on account 
of his age and consequent desire to be relieved of the burdens of office he resigned, 
December 18. It then became known that the government proposed to increase the 
annual Contingent of recruits from 103,000 to 125,000 for the infantry and to 140,000 
for the Landwehr in 1903. The bills were in the hands of parliamentary commis- 
sions at the end of 1902. General von Krieghammer, who was seventy years old, 
had passed fifty-three years in active military work, the last nine as minister of war. 
In Hungary he was said to be unpopular, by reason of his appointment of Austrian 
officers to Hungarian regiments. Late in December, 1902, he was succeeded, through 
appointment of Franz Josef, by Lieutenant-General von Pitreich. 

Pan-Germanism. — However fanciful it may seem, the popular movement for 
a greater Germany continues. The idea of a union with the German empire of all 
the German-speaking peoples of Europe, and, through the exigencies of geographical 
position, of some other nationalities has become in Austria an important political 
factor, and has even made itself felt in Hungary, where in 1902 it provoked not a 
little ^9[agyar indignation. The voice of pan-Germanism is heard not only in the 
Austrian press but in the Reichsrath, where on March 18, 1902, Herr Schoenerer, 
leader of the Pan-German party, concluded a speech with, "Long live the Hohen- 
zollems!" But the more prudent supporters of the movement, which had its pre- 
liminary activity at Sedan and Versailles, exercise their influence less noisily and 
more effectively by means of international societies. The Pan-German League, 
founded in 1894, had in the following year 7700 adherents ; in 1902 it had in Germany 
about 200 centres of propaganda, 20,000 active members, and in both Germany and 
Austria an unknown number of adherents. Its central doctrine is, "Germany is 
coextensive with the territory in which the German language is spoken" ; that is, the 
amalgamation with the German empire of all Austria west of Moravia and even the 
Teutonic cantons of Switzerland. Such a state would include over 70,000,000 inhabi- 
tants— 62,000,000 of German race and speech, 6,000,000 Czechs, and perhaps 2,000,000 
of Latin or mixed Slavonic stock. The large non-German element is recognized 
as a serious impediment to the movement, but an impediment that its supporters 
deem It worth while to overcome for gaining the political and commercial power that 
would accrue to a state extending from the North Sea and the Baltic to the Adriatic 



83 

and the navigable Danube.^ Interest in pan-Gennanism is au^ented by the com- 
mercial promise in the projected railways and canals in Austria, as well as by the 
German railway programme in Asia Minor. It is not believed that the pan-German- 
tsts will seek to realize their dreams before the death of Franz Josef, but when the 
time for action comes the pan-Germanists will encounter a vigorous opposi- 
tioo. There will undoubtedly be opposition on the part of the German- 
speaking supporters of the House of Hapsburg and among the Czechs 
of Bohemia, and it has been pointed out that the very antagonism of these 
races, the one fearing Slavic absolution and the other German, will lead them to 
stand together for the integrity of Austria. As a more hopeful solution of the 
intemal affairs of Austria, some have urged the principle of federalism, which is 
favored by probably half of the Austrian Germans. Against pan-Germanism will 
probably be arrayed the whole diplomacy of Europe. Naturally France would object 
to German expansion, and Russia would not allow without strong protest a German 
advance toward the near East, on which she has expended so large an amount of 
covetous eneray— an advance, moreover, that wouldf encompass large Slavic popula- 
tions—while I&ly would not sit idly by and see "Italia Irredenta pass hopelessly 
from her influence. Great Britain, furthermore, in view of the importance of her 
traffic in the Mediterranean and of the *'route to India/' could ill afford to witness 
passively the aggressive ascendancy of the German in those waters. 

The *Los von Rom" movement, which by attempting to win over to Protestantism 
the adherents of the state church, is regarded as a phase of the pan-German move- 
ment, continued to gain ground in 1902. As a counter agent a large contingent in the 
Austrian church raised in that year the cry ''Away from the Middle Ages," the idea 
being to reform the church from within by the substitution of evangelical methods 
for the dominant Ultramontane influences. 

The Heir Presumptive, — The Archduke Franz Ferdinand, nephew of Franz Josef 
and heir presumptive to the thrones of Austria and Hungary, has been conspicuously 
unfortunate in aggravating the bitter class feeling in the monarchy. In 1902 he 
ooatinued an active opposition to the "Los von Rom'* movement, which he charac- 
terized as anti-patriotic and anti-dynastic His clerical spirit was further attested 
in the spring of that year by his failure, when traveling in Italy, to visit the royal 
family, through fear of displeasing the Pope. And he anronted the German factions 
in Austria, as well as the Magyars, by choosing a Czech noble as companion at the 
coronation of Edward VII. An event that may involve far-reaching consequences 
bearing upon the dynasty of Austria-Hungary was the birth of a son and heir, 
Biaximilian Karl, to the Princess Hohenberg (Sophie, Countess of Chotkowa and 
Wognin), the morganatic consort of the archduke, on September 30, 1902. It will be 
remembered that upon her marriage (July 21, 1900) the countess renounced for her- 
self and heirs all nghts of succession. But it has been pointed out that at any time 
the Pope can absolve her from the oath of renunciation. For such absolution she 
is doubtless striving, and to this end is supported by manv Czechs and German 
dericals. Hungary, moreover, does not admit the validity of the oath in respect to 
that kingdom. In February, 1902, Franz Ferdinand made a visit to the Czar at 
Sl Petersburg. 

Foreign Relations. — For years it has been thought that the disruption of the dual 
monarchy might follow the death of Franz Josef, and it has been felt that the absorp- 
tion of the country, particularly Austria, by foreign states would be facilitated 
dirongh its diverse ethnic elements. To promote harmony within the monarchy, as 
the best safeguard a^inst eventual dismemberment, has been the main endeavor 
of the sovereign. With direct bearing on its foreign relations, the monarchy has 
the problems of pan-Germanism and pan-Slavism and of its ambitions in the Ballan 
states and along the Adriatic, involving not only the adverse interest of Turkey 
but doubtless of Russia and Italy as well. The actual relations, however, of Austria- 
Hungary with foreign powers, on the surface, at least, have continued friendly. In 
thu connection the most prominent event of 1902 was the renewal (June 28) of 
tiie Triple Alliance. Although in some respects, especially in Balkan matters, 
tiie aspirations of Austria-Hungary and Russia seem permanently in conflict, the 
friendly relations of the two powers, strengthened by the agreement of 1897, were 
farther improved by a raPfrocnement in 1902. Addressing the Delegations convened 
at Budapest, on May 7, Franz Josef said : ''Our continued friendly agreement with 
the Russian empire concerning events in the near East is particularly calculated to 
fortify peace and order in those C9untries." At the same time the minister for 
foreign affairs. Count Goluchowski, gave assurances that Austria-Hungary and 
Russia stood for the maintenance of the status quo in the Balkans. The minister 
also stated that the agreement of 1897 and the rapprochement of 1902 were purely 
verbal ; the former, he added, consists of a mutual exchange of views calculated to 
effect a more eaay understanding between the two powers in eadi case that may 
aflNL Coaat Goluchowski referred to the rapprochement (1901) between France and 



AtttoMoblUikff. ^4 

Italy, and the alliance (1902) between Great Britain and Japan, as being in the inter- 
ests of the world's peace. In December, 1902, Count Lamsdorfl, Russian minister for 
foreign affairs, visited the Balkan states, and on the 29th of the month arrived at 
Vienna. His seeming purpose, aside from gaining a more intimate knowledge of 
Balkan affairs, was to formulate an Austro-Russian note to the Porte, reiterating 
the demand for reforms in Macedonia, where conditions had become intolerable. 
A report which in some quarters received little credence became current in the 
summer of 1902, that Count von Btilow, the German chancellor, had come to sm 
understanding with Count Goluchowski, whereby the former would discourage in 
Germany the pan-German movement^ and the latter would endeavor to prevent the 
Poles of Galicia from rendering assistance to the Poles of Prussia. It must be 
remembered, however, that the pan-German movement had its beginning at Berlin, 
and probably has the approval of a large and influential element in Germany, while in 
Austria racial antagonism is already so keen that the government could hardly 
afford to aggravate it further. Whether the understanding between the two min- 
isters was true or not, one thing becomes more certain, and that is that German and 
Austrian interests, notwithstanding the Triple Alliance, are growing more and more 
difficult to reconcile. On December 30, 1902, the Austro-Hungarian ambassador at 
Rome officially denounced the commercial treaty with Italy, which will cease to be 
in force at the end of 1903. In 1902 the Austro-Hungarian and American legations 
at Washington and Vienna, respectively, were raised to the rank of embassies. The 
King of Roumania visited Franz Josef at Vienna in August, 1902. See Intek- 
NATioNAL Relations. 

Strikes. — In February, 1902, a strike, apparently fomented to some extent by 
anarchists, took place among the Lloyd stokers at Trieste, resulting in a general 
suspension of business. On the 14th and 15th of the month serious riots occurred, 
during which about a dozen persons were killed and nearly 100 injured. On the 
i6th martial law was proclaimed in the city. 

At the beginning of the harvest in July, 1902, a strike broke out among the agri- 
cultural laborers of eastern Galicia (in the Lemberg region), which soon involved 
about 200 villages and 100,000 laborers. The strikers were Ruthenians — who con- 
stitute the larger part of the population, most of the remainder being Poles — and 
their discontent appeared to be due to unfavorable economic conditions and espe- 
cially to nationalistic enthusiasm and prejudice. In general the landowners are 
Poles, betwen whom and the Ruthenian laborers there has long been serious frictidh. 
Upon the importation of laborers and reaping machines from Russian Poland, the 
strike subsided and ended on August 10. It appears that the Polish landlords, who 
were doubtless pressed by low prices, had reduced wages to an almost intolerable 
extent. An uprising of the Ruthenian peasants would embarrass the Vienna govern- 
ment, since they, it is held, are far more loyal to the House of Hapsburg than are 
the Polish aristocracy. The unrest in Galicia was one of the indications of the 
increasingly important problem of land tenure in central and eastern Europe — a 
problem to which the ignorant peasants of Kharkoff and Poltava attempted so violent 
a solution in the spring of 1902. 

AUTOMOBILING, in 1902, continued to attract a great deal of attention from 
the public, due quite as much to the number of fatal accidents as to any other feature. 
On account of the propensity of chauffeurs to drive machines alon|^ public highways 
at a dangerous rate, in violation of speed ordinances and in disregard of other 
vehicles and pedestrians, it became necessary for legislative bodies to fix heavy 
penalties for offenders. One public good due to the sport, however, is the marked 
impetus given to the cause of good roads. During 1902 the contests took the form of 
"reliability runs" and "endurance tests" at long distances over average roads, to a 
greater extent than in previous years, and became as distinct a feature of competition 
as track racing. In the run from New York to Boston and return, in October, 
seventy-five machines of all types started, of which all but seven finished in good 
condition, those of American manufacture showing the best results. Some of the 
more notable performances in 1902, with various styles of car, at one mile straight- 
away, were: P. Owen, i minute 173-5 seconds, gasoline, 1000 to 2000 pounds, 
Staten Island; G. C. Cannon, i minute $% seconds, steam carriage. Providence, 
R. I. (world's record) ; M. Augieres, 46 seconds, gasoline, over 2000 pounds. Dour- 
dan, France (world's record). At one kilometre (.621 of a mile), M. Augieres, 
29 seconds, gasoline, over 2000 pounds, Dourdan, France (world's record) ; P. 
Owen, 47 seconds, gasoline, 1000 to 2000 pounds, Staten Island; L. S. Thompson, 
59 seconds, gasoline, under 1000 pounds, Staten Island ; C. H. Metz, 43 3-5 seconds, 

fisoline motor cycle, Staten Island ; S. T. Davis, Jr., 46 1-5 seconds, steam carriage, 
taten Island ; W. C. Baker, 36 1-5 seconds, electric carriage, Staten Island (world's 
record). At one mile on a circular track: B. Oldfield, i minute i 1-5 seconds, 
gasoline, over 2000 pounds, Detroit ; P. Owen, i minute 1954 seconds, gasoline, 1000 
to 2000 pounds, Providence, R. I.; J. F. Duryea, i minute 3694 secondSi gasoline, 



Q f A ntOMoUllBir* 

^0 Baer. 

tmder looo pounds. Providence, R. I.; G. C. Cannon^ i minute 7Ji seconds, steam 
carriage, Brighton Beach, N. Y. Abroad, the most important of the long-distance 
races, from Paris to Vienna (825 miles) was won by M. Renault in 15 hours 22 
minutes. 

AYRES, Alfred, the pseudonym of Thomas Embley Osmun (q. v,). 

AZORES, a group of islands in the north Atlantic, forming administratively an 
integral part of Portugal, have an estimated area of 1005 square miles. The popula- 
tion, according to the provisional returns of the census of December i, 1900, 
was 316,615. 

BAALBEK. See Asch^sology (paragraphs on Syria and Palestine). 

BABCOCK, Joseph Weeks, congressman from Wisconsin and chairman of the 
national Republican congressional committee, has drawn the public attention to 
himself by his advocacy of a reduction of the tariff on articles that enter largely into 
American exports, or that are controlled in the domestic market by trusts or com- 
binations of capital. He was bom at Swanton, Vt., March 6, 1850, and was taken 
by his parents to Iowa when five years old. He received an academic education 
at Cedar Falls, la., and in 1881 removed to Necedah, Wis., where he engaged exten- 
sively in the lumber industry. He was elected to the Wisconsin State assembly as a 
Republican in 1888 and 1890, and was elected a member of the Fifty-third Congress 
from the third Wisconsin district in the fall of 1892. Since that time he has served 
continuously in Congress, and since 1895 ^s chairman of the committee on the 
District of Columbia, a position of great importance, the holder of which is possessed 
of peculiar powers in the government of the District. In 1895 he was also made 
chairman of the national Republican congressional committee, and has managed five 
successive congressional campaigns with conspicuous success. After the retirement 
of David B. Henderson as speaker was announced, in September, 1902, Congressman 
Babcock was looked upon as one of the strongest candidates for his place, but 
withdrew in favor of Joseph G. Cannon. 

BABYLONIA. See Archeology (paragraph Babylonia and the East). 

BACH, Leonhard Emil, German pianist and composer, died February 15, 1902. 
He was bom in Posen, Prussia, March 11, 1849, studied music under Liszt and 
KuUak, and became a teacher in the latter's Berlin academy in 1869. In 1874 he 
was made court pianist to Prince George of Prussia and later to the German 
emperor, and was raised to the Legion of Honor. Besides many pianoforte com- 
positions he composed the short operas Irmengarda (1892), The Lady of Longford 
(1894), and Des Konigs Garde (1895). 

BACTERIA. Several new microorganisms were discovered during 190^, and 
many investigations are under way. The bacillus of the summer diarrhoea of infants 
has been iso&ted by C. W. Duval and B. H. Bassett, students working under the 
direction of Prof. W. H. Welch, of Johns Hopkins University. This bacillus is 
stmibr to if not identical with the bacillus of dysentery discovered by Shiga, but its 
identity is still sub judice. J. Ferran, a Spaniard, has reported the discovery of a 
bacillus in the sputum of tuberculous patients which he believes to produce pre- 
tubercular lesions and has therefore named the phthisogenic bacillus. After growing 
for a time in the tissues this bacillus becomes converted into the bacillus tuberculosis. 
On the other hand, it has been found to be identical with the bacillus coli communis, 
as isolated from the intestine of the dog. The discovery is received with some 
reservation. Ghon, Pfei£fer, and Sederl nave studied the micrococcus catarrhalis. 
This organism is not found constantly in affections of the respiratory passages, but 
has been detected in a certain number of cases of influenza, and particularly in bron- 
chitis and broncho-pneumonia. Bacteria in relation to money have been the subject 
of investigations carried out at the Hospital du Bey, Algiers, and it was found that 
almost all varieties of bacteria occur upon currency. Metal, however, has an inimical 
influence upon them, gold having less than other metals. Typhoid bacilli lived from 
five to seven days on a gold piece, and less than eighteen hours on other metals. 
Scotch l»nks, unlike the Bank of England, reissue old banknotes again and again, 
regardless of the uncleanness of the practice. On one note 30,000 microbes have 
been counted in the space that a sixpence would cover. See Antitoxin, Tubercu- 
losis, and Vital Statistics. 

BAER, George Frederick, president of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, 
came into prominence during 1902 as the leader of the operators in the great anthra- 
cite coal strike. Mr. Baer was bom in Somerset County, Penn., September 26, 
1842, and was educated at Franklin and Marshall College. In 1861 he and his 
brother acquired the Somerset Democrat, which he edited for a year, meanwhile 
studying law. He served in the Civil. War from 1862 to 1863, but left the army 
after the battle of Chancellorsville and was admitted to the bar in 1864. His prac- 
tice brought him into connection with railroads, and he has been for many years 






dwln* 



86 



the confidential legal adviser of J. Pierpont Morgan in Pennsylvania. Thus in igoi 
he was elected president of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, in the reorganiza- 
tion of which he had been prominent in 1893, and of the Central Railroad Com- 
pany of New Jersey. The former road, as chief owner of the Philadelphia and 
Reading Coal and Iron Company, had the largest interest in the coal mines of the 
anthracite region, for which reason, after the rejection of the demands formulated 
by the Shamokin convention on March 18, Mr. Baer was chosen spokesman for the 
various operators. For his conduct iii this position he was harshly censured on 
account of his statement that there was "nothing to arbitrate" and his refusal 
to recognize the United Mine Workers of America, declaring that the operators 
would treat with their employees only as individuals. The result was that the 
strike lasted from May 12 to October 21, threatening to cause great suffering in 
the large cities not only by the prohibitive price of coal but by its actual scarcity. 
After numerous formal and informal protests by politicians and others and the 
interference of President Roosevelt, the operators consented to the appointment by 
the President of an investigating commission. See Strikes (paragraph Anthracite 
Coal Strike). 

BAGDAD RAILWAY. See Turkey (paragraph Bagdad Railway). 

BAHAMAS, a chain of 20 inhabited and many uninhabited islands in the 
Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern coast of Florida, constitute a British colony. 
Their area aggregates 5450 square miles, and the population in 1901 was 53,735, of 
whom four-fifths are negroes. Nassau, on New Providence Island, is the capital 
The administration is in the hands of a governor, Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter, since 
1897, assisted by executive and legislative councils, and an elected representative 
assembly. The revenue, accruing largely from customs, amounted in 1901 to £77,780, 
and the expenditure £81,135. The public debt at the end of that year amounted to 
£111,626. The imports in 1901 amounted to £324,720, and the exports, the value of 
which is increasing annually, to £176,884. The chief articles of export are sponges, 
valued at £100,118 in 1901 ; fruits, principally pineapples, sent mostly to the United 
States and valued in 1900 at £59,191 ; and sisal fibre, plantations of which covered 
22,341 acres in 1901. Mahogany, logwood, ebony^ and other woods, and tobacco, 
castor-oil plants and cotton are also produced, and the canning industry is of growing 
importance. The variety of its resources has kept the colony from falling into 
the poor industrial condition prevailing in the more southerly sugar-producing 
islands. 

BAILEY, Phiup James, the author of Festus, dic^ September 6, igo2, at Not- 
tingham, England. Bom at Nottingham, April 22, 1816, he was in residence for 
two sessions at Glasgow, from 1833 read law, in 1835 was admitted a member of 
Lincoln's Inn, and in 1840 called to the bar. He never entered professional practice. 
A versifier from the age of ten, he began in 1836 his monumental Festus, which, 
published in 1839, captivated the world of letters, drew from Tennyson and Browning 
unstinted praise, and lived through eleven English and thirty American editions. 
This dramatic epic of seven hundred closely packed pages was in theme and treat- 
ment most ambitious. Its twelve divisions expound the inter-relationship of God 
and man,' the benign power of the Deity, immortality, and a philosophy of conduct 
based on the combination of reason and faith. Its persona range from Festus himself 
— in career as in name akin to Faustus — ^to virtues, angels of varied ranks, cherubim, 
seraphim, Lucifer, and the Trinity. This pageantry is seldom clearly managed; the 
action shifts from earth to heaven and thence to "anywhere"; and later interpola- 
tions, deductions, and additions augmented the incoherency of the original volume. 
The "jubilee edition" of 1889 has good need of its explanatory preface. Yet the 
work is spadous, and does not want for such quotable lines as 

'* We live In deeds, not yean ; in thongbtB, not breatbs 1 
In feelings, not In figures on a dial. 
We shotud count time bj heart-throbs. He most Utos 
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best." 

It was satirized in Aytoun's Firmilian, and from the sixties has been little explored 
except by the special investigator. It remained, however, the isolated achievement 
of its author, whose Angel World (1850), Universal Hymn (1867), and other sub- 
sequent efforts are commonplaces which tend only to oppress the earlier poem. 

BALDWIN, Stephen Livingston, an American missionary, died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., July 28, 1902. He was born in Somerville, N. J., in 1835, *"^ when a young 
man went to China as a missionary in the service of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
His labors in the missionary field extended over a period of more than twenty years 
and were marked by valuable achievements in educational and religious work. The 
first movable metal type in China was introduced by him, and he rendered valuable 
assistance in the translation of the Bible into the Fu-Chan dialect. After returning 



Q^ Baldwin. 

O/ Balkan PenlttsnUu^ 

« 

to the United States he held pastorates in Newark, N. J. ; Nyack, N.Y., and Brook- 
lyn, and was a prominent figure in the Ecumenical Conference that assembled in 
New York in 190a In 1888 he became recording secretary of the Missionary Society 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and held that office until his death. His literary 
^orts included many lectures on Eastern questions and customs, and a volume 
entitled Foreign Missions of the Protestant Churches, 

BALFOUR, Rl Hon. Asthus Tames, who became premier of Great Britain in 
July, 1902, was bom in Scotland, July 25, 1848. He was educated at Eton and at 
Trinity Cbllege, Cambridge, and was elected to the House of Commons as a Con- 
servative in 1874. In Parliament he at first attracted little attention, except as a 
member of Lord Randolph Churchill's "Fourth Party" of dissentient Tories ; but he 
had valuable political experience as private secretary to his uncle, Lord Salisbury, 
with whom he went to the Berlin Congress of 18^. His publication of A Defence 
of Philosophic Doubt in 1879 gained him a reputation for literary and argumentative 
ability, but it was not until a crisis in the Irish question that his real character 
and parliamentary importance were discovered. Previous to his appointment as 
chief secretary for Ireland in 1887 he had been president of the Local Government 
Board and secretary for Scotland, but the state of Ireland in 1887 called for 
exceptional qualities, both to control the agrarian agitation in that island and to 
repel the attacks of Irish Nationalist members in the House. Mr. Balfour, by his 
remarkable display of energy and self-control, made futile the onslaughts of the 
Nationalists, and firmly enforced the laws in Ireland. But although an opponent 
of Mr. Gladstone's Home-Rule Bill, he was instrumental in passing measures to 
remedy the Irish agricultural distress. His legislation provided for drainage, light, 
railways, and a plan of land purchase. In 1891 he was chosen Conservative leader 
in the House of Commons. After the defeat of home rule and the overthrow of Lord 
Rosebery's government in 1895, he resumed the leadership of the Commons, his 
office being that of first lord of the treasury. In the administration his relations with 
the Liberal-Unionist members, especially Mr. Chamberlain, have been cordial. The 
resignation of Lord Salisbury on July 11, 1902, was followed immediately by the 
selection of Mr. Balfour for the premiership. The new premier has thus far filled 
his office with ability, though he was chiefly responsible for the British alliance with 
Germany in the attempt to discipline Venezuela, a union that was highly unpopular 
in England. In 1895 he published The Foundations of Belief. Personally he is one 
of the most popular of living British statesmen. 

BALIZE. See British Honduras. 

BALKAN PENINSULA is that part of southeastern Europe which lies between 
the Black and i^gean seas on the east and the Adriatic and Ionian on the west. 
Roumania, though not geographically a part of the peninsula, is usually regarded as 
one of the "Balkan states." 

As a general thing, local outbreaks and rumors of more widespread uprisings ap- 
pear each spring in the Balkans. This was true in 1902, but the outbreaks and 
rumors persisted during the year, so that at its close the chronic unrest was more 
disconcerting than at any time in a number of years. Although there is no doubt 
of Russia's ambition to extend her dominion southward, she arrived at an agreement 
with Austria-Hungary in the spring of 1902, in which both governments expressed 
their desire for the maintenance of the Balkan status quo. But Count Goluchowski, 
the Austro-Hungarian minister for foreign affairs, addressing the delegations in 
May, said this status quo could not be considered a final solution of the problem. He 
stated that Turkey had been warned that in the Near East "cruelty and indiscriminate 
violence could only make things worse," and, he added, the "permanent agitation" 
there might finally call forth in protest the "combined strength" of Austria-Hungary 
and Russia. Although Turkish outrages in Macedonia increased rather than 
diminished as the year advanced, it appeared that by the end of 1902 the Sultan 
realized that in his accustomed connivance at Mussulman outrages he could no 
longer play off against each other Russia and Austria-Hungary. This view was em- 
phasized when, late in December, Count Lamsdorff, the Russian minister for foreign 
affairs, visited Belgrade, Sofia, and finally Vienna (December 29) for the purpose of 
studying the Balkan question and then of drafting with the Austro-Hungarian gov- 
eniment a joint note of protest to the Porte. More difficult of solution even than the 
problem of Ottoman misrule in Macedonia and Albania are questions raised by the 
deep-seated antipathies existing between the Christian peoples of the Balkans. 
Senria and Bulgaria are ambitious of expansion, Albania wants autonomy, which in 
Iier case would probably mean even greater anarchy than obtains at present, while 
the people of Macedonia are divided between a desire for Bulgarian annexation and 
for self-fiTOvemment Italy, moreover, still hopes for dominion on the eastern coast 



Balkan PeikiBmila« 



88 

of the Adriatic, and Greece looks longingly at Epims. For the Macedonian G>m- 
mittee and the outbreaks in Macedonia and Albania, see Turkey; see also Bosnia 
AND Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Greece; Montenegro; Roumania; and Servia. 

BALLOONS. See Aerial Navigation. 

BALUCHISTAN, a country on the Arabian Sea between British India and 
Persia, has an estimated area of 134,000 square miles and a population of about 810,- 
000. The country is under British protection. Independent Baluchistan (population, 
about 460,000) comprises a tribal confederacy, at the head of which is the Khan of 
Khelat (Mir Mahmud since 1893), who, however, is amenable to the advice of the 
British political agent; various other territories are practically administered by Brit- 
ish officials; and in the northeast is British Baluchistan, which is directly under 
British rule. No part of Baluchistan has foreign relations except with the Indian 
government The annual revenue of the Khan of Khelat comprises a subsidy of 
100,000 rupees, a quit-rent of 34,000 rupees (for territories under British supervision), 
and 30,000 rupees in lieu of transit tolls on merchandise in the Bolan Pass, all 
granted by the Indian government ; in addition taxation in kind may sometimes reach 
a value of 500,000 rupees. (The rupee is worth 32.4 cents.) The leading exports 
include wool, hides, madder, dried fruit, bdellium, and dates. The trade is largely 
with British India ; this commerce, excluding that over the Sind-Pishin Railway, has 
been estimated, in rupees, as follows: 1900, imports 787,350, and exports iA5S>3^o; 
igoi, 660,930 and 1,152,970 respectively. Trade by the British road in the Nushki dis- 
trict increased about ten-fold from 1896 to 1901. In September, 1902, it was an- 
nounced that Lord (jeorge Hamilton, secretary of state for India, had sanctioned 
the construction of a railway, to cost about 7,000,000 rupees, from Quetta (which has 
rail connection with the Indian system) to Nushki, 82 miles distant This western 
railway extension on the part of the British, small though it is, called forth un- 
favorable comment in the Russian press. The Novoe Vremya (St Petersburg) in- 
sisted that "Russia must reply to the construction of this railway by immediately 
building lines of her own through Persia." 

BANKRUPTCY. Commercial failures for 1902, according to Dun's Review, 
wtre 11,615 in number with $117476,769 of defaulted liabilities. This is a sli^fht 
mcrease over 1901, with 11,002 failures, and $1 13^092,376 liabilities. In manufacturuig 
there were 2749 failures for $47,188,889, against 2441 in 1901 for $44,960,983. Trading 
failures numbered 8249, with liabilities of $56,181480, compared with 7965 for $52,- 
060,640 in 1901. Other failures numbered 617, for $14,206400, against 596 in 1901, 
for $16,070,753. Failures of banks and other financial institutions were 67, involving 
$31,910,507, compared with 74, with liabilities of $18,018,774 in 1901. With the 
growth m volume of business the ratio of bankruptcies to solvent payments through 
ctonng-houses has declined quite steadily since 1896. In 1902 the ratio of defaulted 
liabilities to the total solvent payments was $0.99 to $1000; in 1901 it was $0.95, and 
^^JyP9i^'^* these being the only years, since 1873, showing a lower "financial death 
rate than 1902. The amount of defaulted liabilities per firm has also declined dur- 
ing the past decade. The proportion of liabilities to the total number of firms doing 
business was for IQ02, $94.85.; for 1901, $94.33; for 1900, $119.63; for 1899, $78.62. 
ine years 1899 and 1901 again are the only years that show a smaller proportion 
than is shown by the record of 1902. It would seem from these figures that with 
the integration of industry, meaning greatly increased capitalization and volume of 
Dusmess for each individual firm, there has been a great improvement in the sound- 
ne^ ot business, manifesting itself not only in fewer failures, but, what is more im- 
portant, m a smaller proportionate total of liabilities. The failures for ig02 were 
considerably increased because of the short com and cotton crops of 1901, the de- 
fff^^t *." foreign exports, and the unprecedented labor disturbances. These evil 
able ^T/n'Sul," if fu P^i*^' overcome by the abundant crops of 1902 and the remark- 
booming Th. cL^^' ^T^^^?" '^^^'^'l^' i^^I^^inif P"ces high and keeping business 
I^T wh Jh .hn^'^'"^-^^' ^^"^ F^^bl^"^^ '^ especially favorable, excem lor Rhode 
^turallv th^lo^f^^ """ ""'''Tt °^ >^bilities of about 50 per cent In ^Pennsylvania 
-iSies be?nT.K^^^^^^ ^"^""'^l ^^^." the normal, on account of the coal strike 

iioi ffliS^ cent heavier Canadian defaults for 1902 numbered 

vears and tS^ l!i!f I ?^°,?34,777. The number is smaller than it has been for many 
thfamoum ^^^^ ^'^?r;^/ ^^e«»e for several years, though slightly above 

n i™nd f^f^^lkl^ST^^ ^°' W"'- ^^ ^classification of commercial failures 

NaHnnnl^^h according to Dun's Review, is given on the two pages following. 

to pJo^Tde^^nifo^^^^^ Bankruptcy Act of Ju^;, 1898, ena^ed 

United States n3J°»w.™P!^J_^^ \" ^" Peaces under the jurisdiction of the 



89 



Bankrapter* 



Btatai. 



Matiie 

Xev Hunpihix*. 



OoBBKtIcat...., 
SlMMtoUaad.. 



Hew Bnglaad 

Ktv Bngland, 190L. 



XcvToifc 

Pna^lTsala. 



IClddte 

Klddto.1901... 



XaiTlADd 

MavATO 

INiCrtet of Columbia.. 

TbginSa , 

W«rt Yliiglala. 

Rorth Carolina. 

Sooth CaroUna 

Florida. 

Oeoista. 



MlHlMipirt. 

Looldaaa.. 

Kcatoekj!! 



8onth 

Booth. 1901. 



TtUi. 

MlMOQri.. 



BonthwMt 

BoothvOTt, 190L. 



Ohio... 



Hie 

IDSi 



ehinn. 
iMm..... 



Omtral , 

CMitraI.U01. 



muiMota. 

Iowa 

Xebriflha... 



Indian TMTltory. 

Oklahoma. 

Ifotttana 

North Dakota..... 

Boath Dakota 

Colorado. 

Wyomlac 

Ktwlledeo 



1901. 



Utdi 

Idaho 

AfiBona , 

Wadiingtoa.. 

Onaon . 

Calffomla...... 



Pactte 

PadBe.1901 



Aoivigate, 1901. 



No. 



331 

94 

03 

1,003 

369 

144 



1,773 
1,868 



1,466 
187 
781 



3,878 
3,347 



189 

38 

48 

331 

89 

83 

113 

178 

393 

326 

181 

163 

377 

170 



3,148 
3,018 



363 
638 



1,178 
784 



436 
381 
106 
1.188 
184 



3.094 
3,819 



198 

374 

100 

383 

86 

186 

64 

13 

16 

138 

14 



1,388 
961 



78 

63 

7 

164 

134 

890 

7 



817 
887 



11,816 
11,003 



Total 1902. 






8831,049 
840,164 
140,601 

6,378,447 
998,176 
800,916 



88,374.343 
8,680.006 



88.783.886 
3.066,640 
6.367,066 



817,096.480 
18.098,939 



$1,919,317 

74.866 

989.394 

2,061,049 
181.839 
868.618 

1,067.408 
688,396 

1.743,801 
641,947 
394.736 
830.716 
996.678 
804,717 



813.886,940 
10.413.784 



8886,006 
1.867,411 
1,846,899 



$4,696,406 
8,136.383 



$3,677,848 

1,118,764 

933.163 

4.606.471 
768,483 



$10,076,738 
10.100,666 



$486 438 

1.099.891 

860.776 

846.340 

160,734 

401,486 

334,690 

97,643 

60.967 

1,334.667 

13,100 



$4,466,360 
6.300.808 



$176,687 

91.100 

81.060 

680.611 

198.306 

709.696 

61,360 



$1,848,400 
1,871,618 



866,739.667 
66,466,940 



LlablUtles. 



$1,600,404 

714,383 

363.160 

13.637.643 

1,843.697 

1,266,694 



$18,303,680 
33.790.161 

836.034.760 

8.614.606 

10.880.613 



$40,379,866 
86.986.690 



$2,994,763 

177.039 

969,861 

3,713,043 

860.909 

633.684 

1,489,761 

1,306.779 

3,796,306 

1,360.169 

689.606 

1.136.967 

3,000.099 

1.100,416 



$19,397,671 
16,131,616 



$1,367,786 
3,948.984 
3,783.380 



$7,064,060 
4,836,196 



$4,174,414 
1.437.036 
1.404.300 

11.631.614 
1.376,393 



$19,838,646 
19.426.471 



8839,679 

1,619.303 

1,004.436 

667.306 

309.769 

696,181 

360.207 

130.766 

96,634 

1,781.869 

38.400 



$7,301,918 
8,197,793 



$619,300 

178.060 

68,361 

1,001.437 

396,664 

8,366.686 

68.970 



$6,486,087 
4,776,661 



$117,476,789 
118,093,376 



Total 1901. 



No. 



193 

67 

43 

1,136 

334 

106 



1,866 



1,400 
183 
664 



3,247 



306 

19 
39 

174 
67 
146 
116 
103 
368 
173 
163 
146 
319 
303 



3,018 



333 
338 
374 



784 



478 
379 
196 
1,301 
170 



3,819 



304 

814 

48 

149 

47 

44 

63 

33 

18 

81 

4 

8 



981 



60 

40 

3 

144 

176 

433 

4 



837 



Liabilities. 



$1,360,716 
771,396 
806,766 

17.031,717 

3.806.303 

831.361 



$23,790,161 



$26,660,137 
8.016.318 
7.369.146 



$36,936,690 



$8,794,386 
184.306 
608,648 

1,383.477 
806,488 

1.117,183 
913.318 
648.873 

3.643.830 
784.746 
760.710 
967.133 

1,163,143 

1.333,313 



$16,131,616 



$1,044,896 
1.870.671 
1,930,637 



$4,888,196 



$8,811,460 
1.834.307 
1,606.938 

11.063.933 
1.186.860 



$19,437,471 



$8.483,661« 

1,609.648 

189.868 

663.866 

804.489 

388.110 

1,079.709 

141.469 

68.833 

674.468 

14,000 

7.300 



86.197,793 



$177,064 
111,060 

38.376 
1,306.886 
1,086.906 
2.146.686 

11.600 



$4,776,661 



Baakraptey* 



90 





CLASSIFIED FAILURES. 1003. 


Statbb. 


MAHrrACTUUNd. 


Tbadiho. 


Othkb Coif '!«. 


BAXKiiie. 




No. 


LlabUlttes. 


No. 


LiabiUtles. 


No. 


Liabilities. 


No. 


Liabilities 


llalne 


40 

18 

17 

883 

77 
80 


8630.107 

106.273 

63.840 

6.117.000 

1.050.601 

106.307 


175 
71 
84 
660 
173 
108 


$1,046,146 

400.780 

186.480 

6.363.410 

707.648 

1.040.570 


6 

6 

1 

70 

10 

6 


$16,161 

19.980 

4.881 

1,168.088 

76.668 

97.808 


••"ji 




New Hampslilre 




Termont .7 




MAMfichnfiettfl ........... . 




Gonnectlcut 


$6,061 


Bhode Idand 








Now Eiuriand 


664 

663 


$8,171,637 
9.887.066 


1.100 
1,176 


$8,730,807 
9,383.036 


08 
138 


$1,801,166 
8.870.160 


9 
6 


$6,881 


Mew EniriMid* 1^1. 


1,86$.910 


Mew York 


607 

67 

333 


$18,182,470 
1.068.088 
6.047.668 


738 
118 
463 


$9,188,803 
1.338.896 
4.108.386 


190 
19 
86 


$3,682,478 
917.179 

774.774 


9 
9 
8 


$90,861,886 


Mew Jersey 


97,906 


PenxuqrWania 


68.6tt 






Middle. 


807 
783 

46 

8 

14 

88 

6 

8 

13 

80 

86 

17 

8 

17 

96 

16 


$31,088,061 
10.080.766 


1.300 
1.803 


$14,686,488 
19.799.799 


187 
193 


$4,664,494 
6.046.096 


14 
11 


$ai,018,0T9 


Middle. 1901 


11.680,919 






Maryland 


$860,474 

146.100 

806.871 

663.778 

68.400 

160.460 

406.700 

830.031 

614.483 

00.841 

11,006 

107.176 

1.046.007 

180.138 


116 

18 

90 

170 

60 

74 

00 

138 

946 

907 

138 

183 

946 

146 


$1,884,096 

81.989 

886.966 

1.078.834 

991.310 

883.384 

996.803 

649.940 

1.468.330 

1.161.781 

578.409 

899.114 

999.908 

663.686 


8 

"* 6 
9 
8 

"1 

6 

11 

9 

"'i 

7 
10 


$340,698 


9 

• •••«•• 

"1 

"•'2 

9 
9 

""4 


$438,080 


Delaware 


District of Ck>lombia... 


937.614 

1.076,481 

6^100 




Tlrglnla 




West Vir^nla 




North Carolina 


iiow 


Booth Carolina 


748 

836.818 

830.446 

9.047 


Florida 


181,081 


Georgia 


86.000 


Alabama 


148,000 


MiflsiMippi 




T^qleiana 


819.667 

95.004 

966.756 




Tenneeeee 




Kentucky 


80,788 






Sontii 


360 
936 


$4,048,169 
5,060.483 


1.816 
1.790 


$11,081,388 
8.301.093 


64 
64 


$3,318,194 
1,980.911 


90 
91 


$837,806 


South. 1001 


9,080.844 






ArkaniMM...... .w 


18 
17 
64 


$176,338 

854,648 

1.385.734 


987 
606 

816 


$1,178,878 
3.670.063 
1,310.514 


9 

6 

14 


$3,895 

18.478 

977,099 


1 

9 
9 


$191,000 


Texas 


88.000 


MlMonri 


44.821 






Southwest 


04 
60 


$1,816,606 
686.311 


1.067 
660 


$4,060,156 
8.014.368 


99 
14 


$999,890 
986.837 


6 

1 


tsssim 


Southwest. 1001 


148.000 


Ohlo...» 

Indiana 


148 
48 
18 

856 

41 

606 
667 


83.106.797 

610.840 

970.088 

4.867.077 

467.566 


976 
170 
86 
608 
141 


$1,868,868 

813.400 

1,183.317 

8.001.087 

806.480 


17 

4 

1 

189 

9 


$834,839 
4.896 
1.000 

8,671.700 
6.948 


8 
8 
9 

e 
1 


t3,fffffl^.ff00 
901.000 


Michifran 


4.189.000 


Illinob .' 


1.988.000 


Wisconsin 


118.000 




* 


Central 


$8,433,083 
7.680,600 


1.375 
1.580 


$7,108,001 
8.370.341 


913 
918 


$4,307,473 
8.616.731 


16 
94 


$8,281,600 
1,846.907 


Central. 1001 




Minnesota. 


43 
48 
6 
80 
1 
1 
7 
1 

"16 


$170,561 

403.800 

8.438 

86.880 

9.500 

800 

106.748 

9.846 


143 

910 
00 

104 
83 

184 
47 
11 
15 

106 
14 


$683,740 
946.803 
880.408 
401.606 
966.960 
694.881 
964.469 
117.909 

96,684 
1,174.606 

98.400 


8 
7 

4 
9 
1 

•***8 


$77,969 
80,700 

116,500 
9.361 
1,000 


■••5 
9 




Iowa 


$1,178,860 
68^000 


Nebraska. 


Kansas 


Indian Territory 




Oklahoma 




Montana 






North Dakota 






South Dakota 




Colorado 


661.517 


66.386 


nikoijo 


Wyoming 

New Mexico 




















West 


163 
106 


$1,480,040 
• 1.300,411 


1.064 
848 


$6,489,808 
5.361.176 


83 
96 


$839,066 
1.686,306 


8 
8 


81.418.660 


West. 1001 


189.661 






Utah 


11 



3 

41 

38 

74 

9 


$306,700 
106.000 

10,608 
404.664 

78.168 
343.001 

66.600 


61 

43 

5 

116 

03 

808 

4 


$301,500 

68,060 

88.688 

669,683 

397.973 

9,898,799 

11,970 


1 

'•"j 

4 
8 

1 


$11,000 


""2 

'"i 




Idaho 




Arisona 






Washington 


37.300 

90,433 

96,646 

1.600 


$8,100 


Oregon 


California 


m.007 


Alaska 






Pacific 


167 
186 


$1,313,606 
1.607.638 


630 
631 


$4,066,663 
3.683.100 


91 
80 


$86,768 
636.783 


6 


«ia7.107 
460.818 


Pacific. 1001 




Aggregate 


3.740 
3.441 


$47,186,880 
44.060.083 


8.940 
7.066 


$56,081,480 
63.060.640 


617 
696 


$14,906,400 
16,070.768 


07 
74 


881.010.607 
18.018,774 


Aggregate. 1001 



Bankrv»tc]r« 



9 1 Bankii--Baiikliiff. 



obvioas, but the looseness of the statute was an incentive for dishonest debtors, by 
fraadttlent returns of property, to avoid paying their obligations. The abuses were 
so great that in the Fifty-seventh Congress a bill was introduced in the House by 
Mr. George W. Ray, of New York, amending the law in several points. The more 
impoilant amendments are briefly as follows: (i) In order to make the law more 
onifonn and equitable where insolvency is the question at issue, assets claimed to be 
exempt shall not be counted in ascertaining the amount of the debtor's property ; (2) 
payment made by the bankrupt in the ordinary course of business within iout 
months preceding bankruptcy are not classed as preferences, and are not required to 
be refunded by the creditor before the remaining portion of his debt can be con- 
sidered, as is the case under the existing law; (3) the bankruptcy law is extended 
to the three cases: (a) a general assignment, {b) a voluntary accounting of an 
rnsolvent partnership by action brought by one of the partners, (c) an application 
for a receivership of an insolvent corporation. (This will prevent "in-the-family" 
receiverships and accountings in the last two cases) ; (4) the application of the law 
to corporations and companies not before included is extended, and provision is 
made that no discharge of such corporation or company shall free the officials or 
stockholders from liability under State laws; (5) the meaning of the law is defined 
more clearly, and provision is made for four additional grounds for refusal of a dis- 
charge in bankruptcy: (a) obtaining property on credit on materially false state- 
ments, (&) making a fraudulent transfer of property, (c) having been granted or 
denied a petition in bankruptcy within six years, and (d) having refused to obey 
the lawful orders of the court or having refused to answer material questions ap- 
proved by the court ; (6) liabilities for frauds, etc, shall not be discharged by the 
law; (7) other amendments provide for greater expedition and accuracy in the 
operation of the law ; (8) section twelve provides that the claims of preferred credi- 
tors shall not be allowed unless such creditors shall surrender all preferences, con- 
veyances, transfers, assignments, etc., which they may have received. This bill 
passed the House June 17, 1902, and was referred to the Senate committee on judi- 
ciary, from which it was reported early in the second session with some minor 
amendments. The amended bill quickly passed the Senate. 

BANKS— BANKING. Banking Expansion. — In an address delivered on October 
31, 1902, Hon. Frank A. Vanderlip expressed his apprehension at the large expansion 
of banking credits within the last few years. It appeared, he said, from reports of 
the comptroller of the currency that deposits in all national banks aggregated at the 
beginning of 1899, $3,226,000,000, while in September, 1902, the deposits aggregated 
$4^27/300,000. Against these deposits the banks held in specie or legal tender $509,- 
000^000 in 1899 and $508,000,000 m September, 1902. In other words, there had been 
an expansion of credits amounting to $1,300,000,000 with no corresponding reserves. 
Now in the same time he estimated that the deposits of other banks — State banks, 
trust companies, savings banks, and private banks — ^had probably increased not far 
from $3,ooo/)oo,ooo, and there was little likelihood that their gold and legal tender 
reserve was materially larger than, if as large as, at the beginning of 18^. There 
was then in the last four years an increase in the total bank deposits of the country 
of over $4^000,000,000, accompanied by no increase in specie and legal tender holdings. 
In accounting for this dangerous tendency, Mr. Vanderlip believed that it was mainly 
caused by the formation of great industrial establishments out of smaller ones. For 
these industrial formations converted stocks of unincorporated properties, which were 
formerly largely held closely or as fixed investments, into marketable securities, 
which were then made the iNisis of loans, and therefore of increased deposits, and 
which in genera] entered actively into the system of financial operations. Another 
contributing influence he found m the large expenditures of corporations, and par- 
ticularly of railroads, for betterments and extensions. For these improvements new 
credits were commonly created while the capital representing them was converted 
into a fixed form of investment yielding comparatively small returns and then often 
only in future years. By this method much liquid capital was withdrawn, the corpo- 
rations resting and relying upon the future rather than upon the present. Owmg 
to these and other causes, the national banking reserve fell from 33 per cent, in 1899 
lo 21 per cent, in September, 1902. In commenting upon this address, the New York 
Journal of Commerce stated on November 6: "On the face of this record the fact 
stands out very clearly that the last four years have witnessed an inflation in bank 
credits without any parallel in our history. It is an elementary proposition that the 
only security whidi can be provided against the consequences of inflation is to be 
foond in specie redemption for all liabilities. But in the present case, obviously, no 
sadi security exists." 

Bond Security, — ^The action of the secretary of the treasury in October, 1902, in 
rafing that State and city bonds might be accepted by the government in lieu of 
national bonds as security for public deposits, was thought by many conservative 
finandal journals to constitute an untoward precedent. It was admitted that the 



92 

necessity of relieving the monetary stringency had been acute, and that the bonds 
accepted were unquestionably good ; but it was asserted that since the treasury's 
acceptance, or more properly endorsement of the bonds, aided their general invest- 
ment standing, there would be the strongest sort of pressure brought to have doubt- 
ful public bonds accepted and perhaps to have private securities similarly accepted. 
"Let once a monetary convulsion be imminent," said the Journal of Commerce, "and 
the precedent once established will be recalled with increasing force, and we may 
be hurried headlong to a note currency based upon bond security where the bonds 
have not even the merit of unquestionable soundness, and where the treasury will 
be charged with the onerous and ungrateful duty of discriminating between different 
kinds of corporation securities." 

Resources of Banks in the United States.— The statistics for banks of all kinds in 
the States, Territories, and insular possessions of the United States, as compiled by 
the comptroller of the currency from reports made to him on or about June 30, 1902, 
show aggregate resources of $13^63365^18, a gain over the preceding year of $1,006,- 
388,442. The population of the United States and its possessions, estimated by the 
government actuary on June i, 1902, was 88,003,000, so that the average per capita 
resources of all its banks was $151.86, as against $158.79 in 1901. For the United 
States proper, the per capita resources of all banks were estimated at $179.74 in 1901 
and $168.96 in 1902. As between the several classes of banks, the average per 
capita in 1902 was made up as follows: National, $76.20; State, $28.82; loan and 
trust companies, $25.16; savings, $36.70; and private, $22.08. The largest per capita 
resources of all banks were in the New England States, where the per capita was 
$354.86. The Eastern States followed with a per capita of $35i-37» and then came in 
order the Pacific States with $197.58, the Middle States with $128.72, the Western 
States with $89.94, and the Southern States with $36.88. The Southern States pos- 
sess, according to the number of inhabitants, less than one-half the banking resources 
of any other section of the country ; hardly one-tenth of those of the New England or 
Western States, and hardly more than one-fifth of the average banking resources of 
the country. Savings banks in the New England States possess by far the largest 
per capita resources, and national banks and loan and trust companies have the 
largest per capita resources in the Eastern States. Massachusetts leads all the 
States in the per capita resources of all its banks and its loan and trust companies. 
From the 4535 national banks and 7889 other banks in the United States and its 
possessions, according to the comptroller of the currency, it appears that the aggre- 
gate resources of all national banks were $6,008,754,975, and of other banks, $7,335,- 
110,843. It must be remembered, however, that the returns for national banks are 
complete in all respects, while the reports of State and private banks are very incom- 
plete, so the relative strength of national banks is really much less than is indicated 
by the figures given. The loans of all the 12424 banks reported were $7,189,109,761 ; 
United States bonds were held to the extent of $523,246,564; other bonds to the 
amount of $2,516,179,995; and cash to the extent of $848,103,695. The capital of 
these banks was $1,201,611,762; surplus and profits, $1,096,887,247; deposits, $9,226,- 
689,111 ; and aggregate resources, $13,363,865,818. Reports received from State banks 
showed an average dividend payment of 8.9 per cent, and an average rate of 8.97 
per cent, payment by loan and trust companies. By sections, the capital stock of all 
banks reported was: New England States, $152312,129; Eastern States, $429,276,989; 
Southern States, $I37,977»776 ; Middle States, $349*362,905; Western States, $61,- 
i97>o65; Pacific States, $65492,087; and the insular possessions, $5,492,811. Loan 
and trust companies were found only in the New England States, the Eastern 
States, and the Middle States. The total capital stock of all trust companies was 
$179*732,581, of which $116,022,892 was issued by New York and Pennsylvania com- 
panies. Private companies obtained most largely in the Middle States, their capital 
there aggregating $15,865404, as against $22,963,614 for the United States. With 
the exception of less than a million dollars, the entire qipital stock of savings banks 
was found in Iowa and California, the capital of such institutions in these States 
being, respectively, $10,311,600 and $7,879,205. In the ten years from i8ga to 1902, 
the loans of all banks in the United States increased from $4,337,000,000 to $7,169,- 
000,000; cash on hand, from $586,000,000 to $839,000,000; capital stock from $1,071,- 
000,000 to $1,198,000,000; and individual deposits from $4,665,000,000 to $9,082,000,000. 
The table on the following page, compiled from figures published by the comptroller 
of the currency, shows by States and by divisions of States, the per capita resources 
of each class of banks and of all banks in the United States and its possessions on 
or about June 30, 1902, and shows also the total resources of all banks in 1902, and 
the total resources in millions of dollars of all banks on or about June 30, 1901. 

For further details regarding each class of banks in the United States, as com- 
piled by States, see Loan and Trust Companies; National Banks; Privatb 
Banks ; Savings Banks ; State Banks. 



93 





1903. 


1901. 




Average Per Capita in— 


All Banks. 


^si 


BTATBi An Tbmmtopm. 




5^ 


•0 

ills 






Reeourcee. 


hi 


llli 


»W BBALiAirD STATBS. 
MftiM 


$67.54 
67.86 
76.41 

169.85 
98.44 

100.75 


'$6.'3i 


$28.68 


$109.36 
168.79 
181.30 
303.80 
170.18 
316.65 




$140,460,996 

101.138.010 

71.834.609 

1,333.133,895 
191.077.678 
836,145.588 


$300.87 
241.86 
207.61 
417.83 
437.46 
844.43 


$184.4 


Tfttv HaiBiMlif ra 




97.4 


Ttrmoat 


'si'.'iS 

155.86 
15.74 




69.0 


llMMrhq«f>ttfl. , 


"a.w 

11.88 




1,308.1 


IhodtliilaiHl 




183.3 


rmiiMf Ui nti 




814.7 








Total 


$123.33 

• 

$306.66 
09.78 

136.67 
63.31 
90.10 

103.31 


$3.47 

$48.16 

6.87 

19.38 

7.86 

9.08 


$45.14 

$143.04 
47.49 
68.03 
16.27 
16.42 
71.49 


$184.93 

$164.91 
38.60 
20.07 

7.66 
65.16 

6.32 




$3,061,780,786 

$4,103,261,876 

330.917.837 

1,470,149.631 

17.784,687 

309.198.864 

63.666.999 


$354.86 

$663.17 
163.34 
226.43 
94.09 
171.47 
180.03 


$3,000.7 


BASTBBs rrAvn. 
XavTork 


$0.40 
"l.W 


$4,065.0 


!f««r J«nt7 


373.6 


pfBi^^WanlA... 


1.289.3 


Ptiawan 


36.3 


tfarrlaad 


.76 


197.8 


DIstfftet of Columbia 


47.4 










TMal 


$160.38 

$37.86 
83.19 

9.36 

9.40 
18.36 
23.10 
18.21 

5.98 
80.77 
43.60 

6.43 
84.27 
22.66 


$39.01 

$30.98 
89.66 

7.41 
10.46 
19.99 
13.19 

8.19 
16.66 
23.48 


$00.88 


$81.47 


$0.78 


$6.282379,283 

$83,608,105 
78.781.640 
86.849.871 
37.381.441 
76.749.363 
19.101.733 
83.066.878 
86.181.773 
76,679.730 

144.738.686 
18,696.690 

139,443,767 
79,989,461 


$851.87 

$48.84 
78.43 
18.89 
19.86 
83.89 
84.39 
16.93 
33.64 
68.36 
44.83 
18.78 
58.63 
88.66 


$5,897.7 


Tbglnla 


$81.0 


Wiil Ttaslnla ....................... 




$0.09 
1.60 


"$0."73 


64.4 


5i>rtt Carolina 


•••••• ••• 


83.8 


i^itli Carolina 




25.7 


GCOrirla- , r,r.,r. 






.16 


71.4 








18.2 


Alabama 






.63 


26.7 


MlMlHliml 






31.2 


IimWaaa . , 








68.0 




■••••••«• 




3.83 

.36 

1.93 


139.5 




8.10 
22.48 
15.91 






14.9 


Kentaekj 






134.6 


^^^^^ 






73.8 












Total X 


$22.11 

$81.89 
48.33 
96.16 
89.48 
49.40 
68.63 
68.07 
76.66 


$18.96 

$43.13 
11.60 
61.99 
63.89 
82.09 
29.09 
26.62 
43.69 




$0.16 

$12.01 
8.09 


$0.66 

$6.31 
4.63 
6.69 
3.48 
6.31 
3.10 
9.67 
8.83 


$843,916,080 

$606,334,073 
191,186,338 
834.140.073 
363.673.038 
189.181.908 
186.498.046 
804.789.413 
606,633,318 


$36.88 

$143.38 
73.93 
163.74 
106.85 
88.06 
100.69 
133.55 
168.63 


$ni.6 


mSOLB ITATIBB. 

OUo 


$6.aB 


$647.5 


Indtana 


166.6 




733.3 


vvbtgaa. 






343.8 


vinroMin 




.86 

9.17 

43.89 


173 6 


WhiMMota M 




167.2 


lova 




271.3 


MlMmirl. 


84.84 


874.3 








Total 


$68.63 

$87.90 
34.96 
72.87 
40.43 
79.74 
72.21 

147.98 
86.42 
82.11 
86.05 


$42.11 

$84.40 
62.31 
42.68 
80.54 
57.78 
15.88 
16.41 
11.26 
20.51 


$6.36 




$7.40 


$6.33 


$3,071,134,096 

$36,049,481 

86,137.830 

133.806.361 

100.680.473 

86.306.149 

10.833.161 

93.731.033 

9,677,166 

34.260.373 

11.718.071 


$138.73 

$72.80 

87.36 

116.46 

73.86 

187.63 

104.86 

166.68 

47.67 

63.63 

37.06 


$3,666.8 


Mmih DakivfiA 


$16.9 


flnnth DakntA 








36.8 


N«hrMika 






"$3.»B 


113.8 








106.0 


IfiMtanA 






33.4 


WT<MB|1I« rr.r..r. 






16.83 
3.24 


8.7 








90.3 


Kcv HnrlcA 






8.0 


Oklahoma ,..,..Tr., 








18.4 


liuHAflft 1^p>l-».^%yw 






3.00 


8.7 












Tfitll] 


868.16 

$78.38 
68.61 
57.83 
41.43 
46.06 
14.81 
39.93 
3.96 


$80.28 

$29.06 
14.80 

120.10 
6.19 

144.12 
51.78 
86.16 






$1.61 

$0.70 

.99 

1.95 

1.06 


$480,033,417 

$66,774,966 

33.348,468 

475.610.940 

8,487.816 

56.149.538 

3,870.497 

8,693,041 

464,316 


$89.94 

$108.04 

74.30 

808.63 

47.67 

190.17 

68.36 

66.09 

6.36 


$139.1 


PACIFIC or ATB8. 

WMihln«f/«fi , 






$47.9 


Owaintii 






34.8 


CftlHnmla 




$138.76 


436.9 






7.5 


Utah 

!l«Twla 






60.4 






3.36 


8.0 


AflttifiA ....••...••••»•••• 






7.7 


AlAika 






3.41 


.7 










TotAl 


855.63 
$8.66 


$79.36 

$14.99 
5.36 
8.74 




$61.36 


$1.36 
$37.76 


8640.148,670 

$8,719,343 

6.369,189 

39.914.489 


$197.68 

$51.29 
6.36 
8.74 


$568.4 


nuAVsa. 




$5.8 


Poitn Rkio 






8.4 










34.6 


























$43,993,031 


$4.80 


$38.7 
















Total United States 


$76.30 


$98.83 


$35.16 


$36.70 


$3.06 


$13,868,866,818 


$161.86 


$12,857.6 



94 

Currency Reform, — ^The convention of the American Bankers' Association, which 
met at New Orleans, in November, was addressed by the comptroller of the currency* 
ex-Comptroller Dawes, C. N. Fowler, author of the Fowler Bill, C. A. Pugsley, and 
Horace White. They all spoke on the necessity of greater elasticity in the currency 
system, in order to avoid the spasms in the money market, which recur so regularly 
and so unpleasantly every autumn when cash is drawn from eastern banks to move 
the crops of the agricultural west. There was no agreement among the speakers as 
to a remedy, nor has any measure yet been devised which has met with sufficient 
approval to insure its passage by Congress, or even its acceptance by a majority of 
bankers. When the demand for money to move the crops declines, the country 
banker, being unable to reduce his circulation easily and readily, increases his balance 
in the reserve cities, especially New York, attracted by the interest he receives, 
A New York banker can do little with the money except to lend it on call. The 
plethora of money stimulates stock gambling, unsound promotion, and underwriting 
of all sorts of new enterprises on the most uncertain basis of these demand deposits 
from outside banks. Mr. William B. Ridgely, in Sound Currency for December, 
1902, says : "In the autumn when this money is wanted again, there is trouble to 
furnish it. This goes on year after year. Every one knows what is going to happen, 
and it always does happen. The annual recurrence of this perennial disturbance of 
the money market is a disgrace to our intelligence and a reflection on our business 
judgment and sense. . . . We have the greatest farms and the best farming 
machinery for producing the crops, the most extensive, best equipped, and most 
perfectly organized system of warehouses, elevators, lake vessels and railways, for 
storing, handling, and distributing these products, and yet year after year we go on 
using the obsolete financial machinerv without even an apparent effort to improve it. 
It is not so much a question for the banks and bankers nor of furnishing them 
additional privileges, but it is a matter of paramount importance to the people en- 
gaged in all lines of business, who have the right to demand that they be given the 
best business facilities which can be devised.*' 

The necessity for a more elastic currency was discussed throughout 1902, and much 
effort was made to arouse an intelligent popular interest in the subject. Almost all 
the plans for currency reform start with the -assumption that to give elasticity to the 
currency the issuance of bank notes must be made easier. The demands for asset 
currency, emergency circulation, and other disguised forms of credit money all pro- 
ceed upon this theory. More money, plenty of it, was the cry, as it was in the 
"Greenback" and the "Free-silver" days. The general demand has merely shifted 
from irredeemable paper and depreciated metal to "elastic" bank-note currency. To 
many it seemed that elasticity means power to expand but not to contract. Even 
financial writers generally spoke of the needs of more money to move the crops, and 
passed over in silence the equally urgent need of less money for inflating flimsy 
financial balloons. The advocates of currency reform proposed to secure elasticity by 
basing note issues upon bank assets and bv taxing emergency note issues. The 
Banker^ Magazine held that contraction can be assumed quite as efficiently and more 
cheaply by requiring gold redemption. A tax large enough to force the retirement 
of an emergency circulation, it says, "would be a considerable burden on business by 
making such notes unnecessarily costly." Such currency would be issued only when 
interest rates were high and the added tax of five or six per cent, would prevent the 
use of the notes in any legitimate business. This view was not generally accepted. 
The tax clearly would not actually be added to the interest rate, but when the inter- 
est rate should rise high enough to make it profitable notes would be issued. The 
point of issuance would be determined by the tax rate, the interest rate being affected 
only indirectly. In the main, however, the criticism is sound. 

The cry for more money was not universal. Many believe that the hi^h prices 
were caused by a redundant currency. The London Banker^ Magazine pomted out 
the fact that the United States had an amount of currency considerably in excess of 
the total volume of foreign trade. "As a purely monetary proposition there is no 
proof whatever that the United States has an insufficient currency. The official 
statistics indicate quite the reverse. It is inconceivable that over eighty millions of 
people should have real use for $2,336,000,000 of circulating medium. Or, if at 
exceptional seasons of the year, at the moving of the crops, for instance, it should 
be all needed, these emergencies are brief; they recur annually and can always be 
anticipated. Moreover, 'elastic' banking is required then, rather than 'elastic* cur- 
rency. A well-managed bank should always be able to finance the local crops by 
judicious use of its credit without reference to whether the total currency of the 
country be a few million dollars more or less." The writer bewails the "mag- 
nateered" state of the American people who, "having lost control of their iron, their 
coal, their beef, and nearly every other staple product of the soil, have still one 
anchor of individual liberty to hold on to, and that is their local banks." He ex- 
presses great satisfaction in the prospective defeat of the branch banking scheme. 



95 

In lus rqx>it. Secretary of the Treasury Shaw favored (1902) a law providing for 
the exchange of gold for silver, and when this shall have been done he suggests that 
national bank notes be made redeemable in gold. He thinks that the burden of 
providing gold for export and for domestic use would thus be transferred, in great 
part from the government to the banks. Mr. Shaw failed to notice that the banks 
coold easily shift the burden by presenting legal tenders and silver for redemption in 
gold. He did not advocate the retirement of the greenbacks. He recommended the 
repeal of the law limiting the total subsidiary coinage to $100,000,000, and the con- 
version of silver dollars and bullion into subsidiary coins whenever required. He 
did not favor branch banks, but suggested that banks be permitted to issue notes on 
their general credit, and expressed the opinion that with a proper tax — whidi he 
duMse to call an insurance premium — the notes so issued would be absolutely safe, 
even without being made a nrst lien upon assets. 

The Fowler Bills. — ^The most important provisions of the original bill introduced 
by Representative C. N. Fowler, of New Jersey, at the first session of the Fifty-seventh 
Congress were: (I) The establishment of a division of banking and currency in the 
treasury department to consist of three members exercisinp; all the authority of the 
present comptroller of the currency and such other authority vested in them by the 
bill; (H) any national bank that shall assume the current redemption of an amount 
of United States notes equal to 20 per cent, of its paid-up capital, shall have the 
right, without depositing United States bonds, (i) to issue an amount of bank notes 
equal to 10 per cent, of its paid-up capital by paying a semi-annual tax of one- 
eighth of one per cent, on the average amount of such notes in circulation ; (2) to 
issue an equal amount under like conditions during the first year. The tax was not 
to be increased so long as the United States notes were redeemed by the bank, but 
whenever any of the notes should be presented at the United States treasury for final 
redemption and retirement, the tax on a corresponding amount of the bank's circula- 
tion should be increased to five-eighths of one per cent, semi-annually. Further pro- 
visions allowed the banks to issue additional notes to an amount equal to 40 per cent, 
of their paid-up capital by paying a semi-annual tax of five-eighths of one per cent, 
on the amount issued, 20 per cent, more by paying a semi-annual tax of i^ per cent., 
and 20 per cent, more by paying a semi-annual tax of 2^ per cent. Under this bill, 
if a baiUc should assume the redemption of United States notes, it must present the 
same at the treasury for indorsement, and at the same time surrender an additional 
amount of United States notes equal to one-half of the notes presented for indorse- 
ment, receiving therefor gold coin. These additional notes were to be cancelled and 
destroyed. (Ill) When the banks should have issued United States notes to the 
amount of $130,000,000, and the United States had consequently retired $65,000,000 
of these notes, it was provided that only indorsed United States notes should be 
paid out by the banks, the unindorsed notes to be surrendered for gold to the treas- 
ury to be destroyed. Another section authorized the secretary of the treasury to 
deposit all money of the United States in excess of $50,000,000 in national banks, 
upon condition that the banks deposit United States bonds equal in amount at par. 
(IV) Section 20 provided for the establishment of branch banks. The principal 
object of the law was to substitute a safe and elastic bank currency for the ''green- 
backs," which are perfectly inelastic and form the links of the ''endless chain," so 
effective in depleting the treasury reserve in time of money stringency. The demand 
obligations of the government amount, all told, to more than $700,000,000. It was 
the intention to shoulder this vast burden upon the banks, and to make the banks 
entirely responsible for providing and protecting the commercial reserve and for 
furnishing all the gold needed for export. This would simplify and limit the gov- 
ernment's fiscal operations to the collection of revenues and the payment of ex- 
penses, precisely as the States and municipalities collect and disburse their revenues. 
The second great object of the measure was to give banking institutions the privi- 
lege of establishing themselves anywhere in the United States, its possessions, or 
other countries, thus lowering and equalizing the rates of interest in all parts of the 
country, and putting the farmers and merchants of small rural communities on equal 
terms with the borrowers in the great commercial centres. The bill passed the 
House but failed of consideration in the Senate. The Senate, and, indeed the 
country generally, were hardly ready for such a revolutionary measure. Mr. 
Fowler accordingly remodeled his bill, struck out the more radical features, and in- 
troduced what is really a new measure at the beginning of the second session of the 
Fifty-seventh Congress. This bill provides that a national bank may issue bank 
notes to the amount of 25 per cent, of its paid-up capital without depositing United 
States bonds, but shall pay a semi-annual tax of one-quarter of one per cent, on such 
issue. Much opposition was developed even to this mild reform and its passage 
seemed doubtful at the close of 1902. 
Braiuh Banking. — Briefly, the proposed branch banking system is a plan to 



Banks—Bmnkiaff. 



96 



authorize the national banks to establish branches wherever they wish. The ad- 
vantages alleged are: (i) Greater resources available in communities distant from 
financial centres; (2) uniform and lower interest rates throughout the country; (3) 
far greater power of concentration of capital at the point most in need of it, thus 
securing the much demanded "elasticity" of currency; (4) economy. The objections 
urged are : (i) Danger of a banking monopoly, which may exact almost any interest 
rates, and crush out independent bankers, and (2) insufficient banking facilities for 
rural districts. 

The Canadian system of branch banks has been held up as a model worthy 
of imitation, because it makes interest rates uniform throughout the country, pre- 
vents the sudden flurries at the financial centres when outside demand is heavy, 
and furnishes a currency of great elasticity. The Bankers' Magazine for De- 
cember, 1902, points out that while the Canadian system prevents the recurrence 
of money scarcity in the financial centres, it does so at the expense of the agricultural 
communities, which are very inadequately supplied with money at the harvest season. 
The Manitoba department of agriculture complained of the lack of banking facili- 
ties in moving the enormous wheat crop. At Winnipeg, the commercial centre of the 
Canadian Northwest, only twelve of the more than thirty chartered banks of the 
Dominion have established branches, and throughout the whole territory only some 
forty branches have been established. The Bankers' Magazine remarks : "Without 
ascribing to the Canadian banking managers any design of forcing the wheat at low 
prices into the hands of bank favorites, and allowing for the imperfect conditions for 
the collection and transportation of the grain, this instance of inability to care for 
a phenomenal crop indicates that the business instincts of the population are not 
stimulated under the chartered and exclusive system of Canada as they are under the 
independent competition of the free banks of the United States. . . . The more 
the practical operations of the Canadian chartered bank, through its brandies, are 
looked into closely, it will be found that while perhaps admirable for the concentra- 
tion of capital and for safety, they may either from design or from inherent imper- 
fection be very defective in the distribution of facilities. . . . The Canadian cen- 
tres of collection keep themselves free from these spasms, because they are in a 
position to refuse to strip themselves to meet even the most urgetit local needs." 

The system of independent banks of the United States supplies cash to the centres 
of trade more efficiently than does the Canadian system, and at the same time our 
local banks have the absolute power to demand the return of their deposits whenever 
the need arises. The defect in the American system is the lack of elasticity in note 
circulation, and insufficient power to enlarge cash reserves on the part of the great 
banks of the money centres in time of strong demand for money. The Bankers' 
Magazine concludes that the Canadian plan, while it has many excellent features, 
cannot be copied with advantage by the United States. 

The annual convention of the Wisconsin Bankers' Association unanimously 
adopted resolutions opposing the "Fowler Bill and all legislation tending to the sub- 
stitution of branch banks for our present independent system of banking^" ; also, "any 
law tending toward the substitution of asset currency for the present national bank 
circulation." It was urged in opposition to the Fowler Bill that it would "bring about 
a banking trust, with a $50,000,000 parent bank at New York with $500,000,000 in 
asset currency, the annihilation of every bank in every city of any importance in the 
United States and the substitution therefor of the branch bank, the abolishment of 
the United States treasury and the virtual withdrawal of the United States from 
managing its own affairs. It was also argued that branch banking would reduce 
interest rates until a monopoly was secured, and then raise the rates higher than 
before. 

Foreign Banks of Issue. — The condition of the principal foreign banks of issue 
on April i, 1902, as reported by the Bulletin de Statistique, is as follows, in millions 
of francs (the franc is worth 19.3 cents) : 



Barks. 



Imperial Bank of Germany .. 
Bank of Anstrtflk-Hunfirary.... 
National Bank of Belgium... 

Bank of France 

Bank of Italy 

Bank of Rnaela. 

Bank of Rpain 

Bank of England 



Capital. 



160.0 
317.0 
60.0 
182.6 
240.0 
133.4 
160.0 
867.0 



Specie Reeerres. 



Gold. 


Sliver. 


Total 
Specie. 






1,238.7 


1,110.4 


820.4 

'1,126.6 

66.4 

236.0 

492.2 


1.430.8 
117.4 


2,670.2 
818.4 

1,943.6 
864.1 
044.4 


8.096.0 
384.8 

2.179.6 
846.3 
944.4 



Glrcn- 
latlon. 



1.702.1 
1.643.4 

604.7 
4,041.0 

868.6 
1,469.6 
1,608.4 

769.0 



Depofllte 

and 
Aeconnts 
Current. 



707.6 
126.7 
68.9 
644.6 
176.2 
486.6 
6ia8 
1.106.1 



Bflnfmnm 

Rate of 

Dtocoont. 



Per Centw 
8 

8% 
8 
8 
6 

4% 
4 
8 



9/ Bapturronnv People's Union. 

BAPTISTS. The American Baptist churches ascribe their origin to Roger Wil- 
liaiiis, who, about 1640, became converted to the principles of the Baptist faith. 
There are thirteen divisions of Baptists, but the Regular (North, South, and Col- 
ored) Baptists are distinct onlv in organization, having no doctrinal differences. 
These three bodies, with a total membership, as reported by the American Baptist 
Year Book of 1902, of 4^269,063, constitute by far the largest part of the denomination, 
which includes more than 4,625,000 communicants and which ranks third among the 
denominational families of the United States. The various divisions of Baptists, 
according to the statistics of Dr. H. K. Carroll, in the Christian Advocate, are rep- 
resented as follows: Regular Baptists (North)--j^5i2 ministers, 8983 churches, and 
1^12,276 communicants; Regular Baptists (South) — 12,599 ministers, 19,894 
churches, and 1,702,324 communicants; Regular Baptists (Colored) — 10,726 ministers, 
15^3 churches, and 1,615,321 communicants; Six Principle Baptists---8 ministers, 
12 churches, and 828 communicants; Seventh Day Baptists — 107 ministers, 100 
churches, and 10,734 communicants; Free Will Baptists — 1360 ministers, 1518 
churches, and 84,436 communicants ; Original Free Will Baptists — 120 ministers, 167 
churches, and 12,000 communicants; General Baptists — 484 ministers, 423 churches, 
and 24,775 communicants; Separate Baptists — 113 ministers, 103 churches, and 6479 
communicants; United Baptists — 25 mmisters, 204 churches, and 13,209 communi- 
cants ; Baptist Church of Christ — 80 ministers, 152 churches, and 8254 communicants ; 
Primitive Baptists — 2130 ministers, 3530 churches, and 126,000 communicants ; Old- 
Two-Sccd-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists — ^300 ministers, 473 churdies, and 
12^51 communicants. In the Sunday-schools of the Regular Baptists, 27,211 in num- 
ber, are enrolled 201,102 officers and teachers and 1,843469 scholars. The value of 
church property aggregates nearly $90,000,000. Educational interests are represented 
by 9 theological seminaries, ib3 universities and colleges, and 91 institutions of lower 

The national anniversaries of the various societies of the Northern Baptists in 1902 
were held in St. Paul, Minn., May 19-27. The receipts for the year of the American 
Baptist Missionary Union were $680,518, the excess of this sum over the appropria- 
tions rcducinp^ the debt to $35,000, which is being raised by subscription. The 
society is desirous of obtaining an increase of $50,000 in order to send out a num- 
ber of new missionaries. Its work is carried on in Burma, Assam, Southern India, 
China, Japan, the Philippines, Africa, and in Europe. One of the features of the 
meeting was the address of Dr. Thomas S. Barbour, who had returned from an 
extended tour of the mission fields. A gain of nearly $24,000, the total bein^ $694,785, 
in the sales of the American Baptist Publication Society was reported. This organi- 
ation also conducts home missionary work, a notable department of which is the 
maintenance of Gospel wagons (26) and chapel cars (6) in the neglected regions of 
the West. Announcement was made of a gift of $40,000 for the missions of the 
society. The American Baptist Home Missionary Society now supports in the field 
1278 missionaries. Its receipts for the year aggregated $614,223. At the annual 
meeting were discussed special topics on the various peoples and districts in which 
the society is interested. The question of coordination or consolidation of the 
national societies continued to occupy a prominent place in the discussions of 1902, 
the matter having been agitated for some time. A committee of 15 is to review the 
whole situation and will make its recommendations at the next anniversaries in 
Buffalo. The anniversary of the Southern Baptist Convention was held in Ashe- 
ville, N. C, beginning May 9, 1902. Its foreign mission fields in Italy, Brazil, 
Mexico, Africa, China, and Japan include 127 churches, 166 out-stations, and 6773 
church members ; its home department, 2660 churches and stations, in which are em- 
pbyed 811 missionaries. The twenty-second annual meeting of the National Baptist 
Convention in Birmingham, Ala., about the middle of September, 1902, was the scene 
of a great disaster, more than a hundred lives, it was reported, being lost in the 
panic that attended a supposed alarm of fire. The session of the Baptist Congress, 
held in Boston late in the year, was noticeable chiefly for the argument that un- 
baptized persons should be admitted to membership in the church, one prominent 
speaker urginj^ that "baptism -is an expression of faith merely, an act of obedience 
only, and it is essential neither to salvation nor to the highest type of Christian 
character." 

BAPTIST YOUNG PEOPLE'S UNION OP AMERICA, founded in 1891, is 
an organization of all young people's societies in the Baptist churches of the United 
States and Canada. Its objects are the promotion of biblical and denominational 
education and the development of spiritual and missionary activity. The annual 
convention, held July 10-13, 1902, in Frovidence, R. I., was noteworthy particularly 
for the report of the board of managers that the debt of $20,000 that existed at the 
time of the last meeting, had been practically cancelled. The union now looks to a 
substantial expansion of its work, and a general secretary was elected. The con- 
▼cotson was attended by over 5400 delegates and visitors, representing forty-five 

7 



Baptist Toang Peoplo't Uaiaa. 
Barley. 



98 



States and Territories, and provinces, as well as China, Japan, India^ Burma, and 
Africa. The Baptist Union is the official publication of the society. President, John 
H. Chapman; general secretary, Rev. Walter CoUey; headquarters, 324 Dearborn 
Street, Chicago, 111. 

BAR ASSOCIATION, AMERICAN, was organized in 1878 as an association of 
leading lawyers in the United States, who meet annually for the purpose of discuss- 
ing matters of interest to the profession and to the community at large. Each State 
is represented by one vice-president. Membership, about 1750. At the twenty-fifth 
annual meeting, held at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., August 27-29, 1902, reports on the 
following and other subjects were presented by committees and discussed: Juris- 
prudence and law reform, commercial and international law, patent, trade-mark, and 
copyright law, classification of the law, uniform State laws, federal courts and federal 
code of criminal procedure, industrial property and international negotiation, title to 
real estate. The annual address was delivered by Hon. John G. Carlisle. The 1903 
meeting is to be held at Hot Springs, Ark. President. Francis Rawle, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; secretary, John Hinkley, 215 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Md. 

BARBADOS, a West Indian island constituting a British colony, has an area 
of 166 s<]uare miles and a population (1901) of 195,588. The capital is Bridgetown 
(population, in 1902, about 25,500). Le^slation is effected by an appointed council 
and an elected assembly. The governor m 1902 was Sir Frederic Mitchell Hodgson 
(since 1900). Revenue and expenditure in 1900 amounted to £185475 and £182366 
respective^; in 1901, £179,972 and £175,350 respectively. The public debt in 1901 
was £428,600. Total imports and exports in igoo were valued at £1,045,252 and 
£919,011 respectively; in 1901, £1,021,679 and £950,175. As in other West Indian 
islands economic conditions in Barbados are retrograde on account of the depres- 
sion in the cane sugar industry. The sugar question was the principal one discussed 
at the West Indian Agricultural Conference held in the island January 4-6, 1902. 
The general opinion was that adequate sugar factories with modem machinery and 
appliances are absolutely necessary to revive the industry. Owing to the low price of 
sugar the merchants in the following month refused to advance monev for the 
working of the estates, and upon petition the governor consented to bring oefore the 
secretary of state for the colonies the question of an imperial loan. Reduced wages 
in 1902 increased the general depression, and in the fall of the year a serious epidemic 
of smallpox aggravated the distress of the black population, who are exceedingly 
poor. 

BARLEY. As reported by the United States Department of Agriculture, the 
barley crop by countries, in 1901, was as follows : 



RU88l* , 

Gennanj 

Austria-Hunflrary «. 

United StatM 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Spain 

Japan 

France 

Algeria, Tunis, and Cape Colony 

Canada 

Ronmanla. 



BnstaelB. 



299,917.000 

10a,637.000 

118,816.000 

109,938,000 

09.886.000 

65.000.000 

44.000.000 

88,884.000 

43.800.000 

37.681,000 

M.222.000 



Denmark 

Sweden 

Bul^ria. 

Mexico 

Italy 

Belgium 

Netnerlanda. 
Australaaia. 

Total 



Bnahela. 



18,000.000 
18.888.000 
12,000,000 
9.000,000 
8,000,000 
4.866.000 
8.700,000 
S.868,000 



086,408,000 



The imports of barley into the United States in 1902 were 57,406 bushels (valued at 
$33,221), of which 56,475 bushels (valued at $^2,730) came from Canada. The 
amounts in bushels and the values of the exports in 1902 were : Great Britain, 6,377,- 
561, $2,837,169; Portuguese Africa, 1,034,158, $447,760; British Australasia, 481,404, 
$288^40; Belgium, 606,069, $271495; Mexico, 188323, $i37i863; other countries, 26,- 
253, $12,676— total, 8,714,268, $3,995,303. 

The Crop Reporter for October, 1902, states that "shipments of barley from 
Pacific ports, in response to rapidly increasing foreign demands, have resulted in 
such appreciation of the price of this grain as to render its growing in the Pacific 
Coast states more profitable than that of other cereals." The shipments of barley by 
sea from California increased from 1,129416 centals (too pounds each) in 1892, to 
4,381,682 centals in 1902. 

Remy, a German plant breeder, who devotes his attention largely to barley, has 
originated varieties of low-moisture requirements suitable for drv regions. This 
investigator is endeavoring to move the period during which the barley plant uses 
the greatest amount of moisture toward the winter so that the growing plant mav 
draw to a greater extent on the supply of winter moisture left in the soil, ne found 
for example, that a variety called Hanna produced a large total crop and a good yield 
of grain with a comparatively small moisture supply, and in addition did not prore 






TCiy sensitive to a supply of moisture above the normal ; while the variety goldthorpe 
fcaclied its maximum water consumption two weeks earlier, thus being able to use 
more of the soil moisture stored in the winter. The results of his selection experi- 
ments indicate that by selecting plants having a small number of intemodes, long 
upper inteniodes, and a high percentage of grain the productiveness of the variety 
can be increased. Fertilizer experiments by the same investigator showed that 
phosphoric acid and potash increase the yield with a proportional decrease in the 
protein content of the grain, but that phosphoric acid does not affect the size of the 
grain. Experiments by Bieler and Aso, of the University of Tokio, showed that 
barley has a smaller surface capacitv for phosphoric acid than either wheat or oats, 
and that the assimilation of plant food by barley is confined mainly to the earlier 
stages of growth, while in wheat and oats it is distributed through the period of 
vegetative activity. Stoklasa and Pietra, in Austria, found that muriate of potash 
combined in reasonable quantity with superphosphate and nitrate of soda is bene- 
ficial to the development of the plant and the quality of the grain. Gross, in 
Bohemia, found that slow-acting nitrogenous fertilizers, such as barnyard manure, 
in combination with mineral fertilizers materially increase the yield of barley. Von 
Scdhorst found that in general a good supply of plant food tends to produce a strong 
and well-developed root system with roots growing to greater depths than when 
the food supply is limited. For this reason generously manured barley shows a rela- 
tively high resistance to drought. 

BARNARD COLLEGE, New York City, organized 1889, a woman's college 
constituting an integral part of Columbia University (g.v.), 

BARNWELL, Robert Woodward, bishop-coadjutor of Alabama, died in Selma, 
Ala., July 24, 1902. He was bom in Beaufort, S. C, December 27, 1849, and was 
educated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. After additional study at the General 
Theological Seminary, New York, he was ordained in 1875, held a pastorate in 
Dcmopolis, Ga., from 1876 to 1880, became rector of St. Paul's Church, Selma, Ala., in 
1880, and on May 18, 1900, was elected bishop-coadjutor of the State. 

BAR OP THE CITY OP NEW YORK» The Association of the, organized 
in 1869 and incorporated in 1871, owns and occupies a commodious building at 42 
West Forty-fourth Street, New York City, in which is a valuable law library of 
53,000 volumes, the property of the association. President (1902-03), William G. 
Cboate ; recording secretary, S. B. Brownell ; treasurer, S. Sidney Smith. 

BARON DE HIRSCH PUND. A fund created in 1889 by Baron Maurice de 
Hirsch for assisting Jewish, Russian, and Roumanian emigrants to America in get- 
ting a start in the new country. The capital invested with this object in view was 
%2^loojooo, yielding an annual income of $100,000. An English day school is main- 
tained in the Educational Alliance Building, 193 East Broadway, New York; an 
evening school at the same address for Russian adults of both sexes who work dur- 
ing the day; a trade school in East Sixty-fourth Street, where young men are 
taught uscnil mechanical trades — machine-work, plumbing, carpentry, electrical con- 
struction, sign and house-painting, etc. The Jewish Colonization Society co- 
operates with the directors of the fund. Attendance at the English schools, both 
day and night, is about 650. President, Meyer S. Isaacs ; treasurer, Emanuel Leh- 
man ; general agent, A. S. Solomans. Headquarters, 45 Broadway, New York City. 

BAROTSELAND, a part of British Central Africa. See Rhodesia (paragraph 
Northern Rhodesia). 

BARROWS, John Hensy, president of Oberlin College, died at Oberlin, C, June 
3, 1902. He was bom at Medina, Mich., July 11, 1847. After graduating at Olivet 
College (Mich.) in 1867, he studied at the Yale, Union, and Andover theological 
seminaries and in Germany, and after holding pastorates at Lawrence and Boston, 
}A2Ss., occupied the pulpit of the First Congregational Church of (Chicago, 111., from 
1881 to 1896. From this church, of which he published a history in 1^3, he with- 
drew to lecture in India, China, and Japan. He was the organizer and president of 
the World's Congress of Religions at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, 
lectured at the Imion Theological Seminary in 1898, and was subsequently lecturer 
in comparative reli^on at the iJniversity of Chicago. In 1899 he became president of 
Oberlin. His published volumes include: The Gospels are True Histories (1891) ; 
/ Believe in God (1892) ; and Henry Ward Beecher, the Pulpit Jupiter (1893). 

BARYTES. See Mineral Production. 

BASEBALL. The professional season of 1902 saw the rise of the American 
League to a position of importance almost equal to that of the National League. 
This was accomplished by defections from the ranks of the major league's players in 
bvor of its rival, thereby raising the standard of the latter organization. There was 
constant warfare between the two leagues, which, however, did not diminish the 
popoiarity of the game, but rather increased attendance. In cities where both 



Baaeball. TOO 



leagues had teams, the American attracted larger crowds. The results follow. 
National : Pittsburg, won 103, lost 36; Brooklyn, won 75, lost 63; Boston, won 73, lost 
64 ; Cincinnati, won 70, lost 70 ; Chicago, won ^, lost 69 ; St. Louis, won 56, lost 7S ; 
Philadelphia, won 56, lost 81 ; New York, won 48, lost 88. American : Athletics 
(Philadelphia) won 83, lost 53; St. Louis, won 78, lost 58; Boston, won yy, lost 60; 
Chicago, won 74, lost 60; Qeveland, won 69, lost 67; Washington, won 61, lost 75; 
Detroit, won 52, lost 83 ; Baltimore, won 50, lost 88. 

In college baseball there is no championship except by comparison of scores. In 
1902 Harvard defeated Yale in their series, the games being (i) Yale 7, Harvard 
2; (2) Harvard 10, Yale 4; and (3) Harvard 6, Yale 5. Yale beat Princeton (i) 
Yale 10, Princeton 6; (2) Princeton 8, Yale 5; and (3) Yale 5, Princeton 4; 
and Princeton defeated Harvard 7—0, in the only game they played. Of the eastern 
colleges Harvard was conceded to have had generally the best team. The Uni- 
versity of Illinois team traveled east and defeated Princeton 3 — i, Yale 10—4, West 
Point 6—5, and Pennsylvania 11 — 3, and was in turn beaten by Harvard 2 — i. Others 
of the more important games resulted as follows: Pennsylvania 4, Yale 2; Penn- 
sylvania 4, Cornell 2; Harvard 8, Brown i; Yale 6, Brown 3; Pennsylvania 7, Brown 
i; Harvard 8, Pennsylvania 5; Harvard i, Pennsylvania o; Princeton 5, Cornell i; 
Princeton z, Brown i ; Harvard 11, Cornell i. 

The Tri-Collegiate League, composed of Amherst, Wesleyan, and Williams, was 
dissolved before the championship was decided, on account of difficulties arising in 
the case of Kane, an Amherst player, against whom charges of professionalism were 
made. He was declared a professional by the league authorities, but acquitted by the 
Amherst faculty committee, who insisted on their right to play him in non-league 
games. Relations with Amherst were abruptly severed by both Williams and 
Wesleyan. 

BASKETBALL. The basketball season extending through the winter of 1901-02 
was marked by a greatly increased interest in all quarters, especially among the 
college teams. The college championship was won by Yale, with a score of 5 games 
won and 3 lost. Harvard and Princeton followed each with 4 games won and 4 
lost, Columbia won 3 and lost 3, and Cornell won 2 and lost 4. Amherst stood at 
the head of the New^ England Intercollegiate Association with 4 victories and no 
defeats, followed by Williams and Dartmouth each with 2 games won and 2 lost, 
and Trinity and Holy Cross, each with i game won and 3 lost. In the Amateur 
Athletic Union the Seventeenth Separate Company of New York, won the Metro- 
politan Association championship with 7 victories and no defeats, and the Central 
Association championship (Chicago), was won by the Central Y. M. C. A. with 3 
games* won and none lost. 

BASUTOLAND, an inland British colony lying between eastern Cape Colony 
and the Orange River Colony, has an estimated area of 10,293 square miles. The esti- 
mated native population in 1901 was 263,500; Europeans, who are not allowed to 
settle in the country, numbered 647. The colony is administered by a resident 
commissioner under the high commissioner for South Africa. For the fiscal year 
1901 the revenue and expenditure amounted to £74,891 and £55486 respectively; for 
1902, £104,284 and £64,809 respectively. There is no public debt. The exports are 
largely grain, cattle, wool, and horses. In the fiscal year 1901 the dutiable imports 
were valued at £145474 and the total exports at £361,647; in 1902, £230,708 and 
£166,894 respectively. In July, 1902, the chief Joel Molapo was condemned to a 
year's imprisonment and to pay a fine of 500 cattle for high treason and for fighting 
against his brother Hiesen. Throughout the Boer war he was inclined to favor the 
Boers and was generally unwilling to obey the instructions of the resident com- 
missioner. 

BAUXITE. See Mineral Production. 

BEACH, John Wesley, seventh president of Wesleyan University, died at 
Middletown, Conn., January i, 1902. He was born at Trumbull, Conn., December 
26, 1825, and in 1845 graduated at Wesleyan. He taught for some years in the 
Amenia Seminary, was ordained a Methodist minister in 1884, ^nd held pastorates in 
New York City, Brooklyn, Bridgeport, and New Haven. In 1880 he was made 
president of Wesleyan, and held that position until 1887 when he resigned, and be- 
came presiding elder of the Brooklyn district. His college administration was 
marked by his liberal views and executive ability, while in religious circles he was 
known as a forceful and effective preacher. 

BEARDSHEAR, William Miller, an American educator, died at Ames, 
la., August 5, 1902. He was born in Dayton, O., November 7, 1850, and received 
his education first at Otterbein University, from which he later received the decrees 
of M. a. and LL. D., and at Yale University. From 1881 to 1889 he was president 
of the Western College in Toledo, la., superintended the public schools at Des Moines 
from 1889 to 1891, and then until his death was president of the Iowa State College 



T^T Beardshear. 

^^^ Belffliuu. 

of A|;riculture and Mechanical Arts. Among other offices held by him are president 
of the Iowa State Teachers' Association in 1894, president of the National Educational 
Association, member of the jury for educational awards at the Pan-American Expo- 
sition, and United States Indian commissioner from 1897. 

BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE, a British South African dependency, 
has an estimated area of 213,000 square miles and an estimated population of 200,000. 
Lying between German Southwest Africa on the west and Southern Rhodesia and 
the Transvaal on the east, it extends from the Molopo River, the northern boundary 
of the former Bechuanaland Colony (now a part of Cape Colony) northward to the 
Zambesi. The three great chiefs, Khama, Scheie, and Bathoen, continue to govern 
their own people under the protection of Great Britain, which is represented by a 
cofomissioner resident at Mafeking, who acts under the high commissioner for 
Sooth Africa. The people are peaceable and engage in cattle raising and to some 
extent in agriculture. No licenses are issued for the sale of spirituous liquors. 
About 4tx> miles of the Rhodesian (*'Cape-to-Cairo") Railway run through the 
eastern part of the protectorate. 

BEET SUGAR. See Sugar Industry. 

BEIT, Alfred, a South African capitalist, came into greater prominence by 
the death of Cecil Rhodes on March 26, 1902, which left him probably the wealthiest 
and most influential financier in South Africa. He was born of Jewish parentage 
at Hamburg, Germany, in 1853, and while still a young man went to South Africa 
and entered the diamond mining business. When the De Beers Consolidated Mines, 
Ltd, was formed in 1888 to exploit the chief South African diamond mines, Mr. 
Beit became a life governor. In iSq.s he was in the secret of the Jameson Raid and 
aftenvard gave testimony before the parliamentary committee that investigated the 
affair. From the time that Rhodes consummated his great consolidation of the 
diamond mines, he and Mr. Beit were in close business association, and the latter is 
one of the executors of the famous Rhodes will. The South African millionaire is 
also much the largest shareholder in the Rand Mines, Ltd. His wealth has been 
estimated at $375iOOO,ooo, but, unlike Rhodes, he has never been interested in politics 
of any kind that would not increase his wealth. 

BELGIUM, a constitutional monarchy of western Europe lying between France 
and the Netherlands, and bordering on the North Sea. The capital is Brussels. 

Area and Population. — The area of the nine provinces of Belgium aggregates 11,- 
^Z square miles, and the population, according to the census of December 31, 1900, 
was 6,687,651, an increase of 618,330 since 1890. The populations of the principal 
dties in 1900 were: Brussels (with suburbs), 561,782; Antwerp, 285,000; Liege, 
173.708; Ghent, 160,949; Mechlin, 56,013; Verviers, 52,203; Bruges, 52,867. The 
greater part of the population are adherents of the Roman Catholic Church, the 
Protestants numbering only about 10,000. The state supports a graded educational 
system. 

Government. — The executive power is vested in the king, succession being in the 
direct male line in order of primogeniture. The reigninp^ sovereign is Leopold IL, 
who succeeded in 1865. He is assisted by a ministry of eight members, appointed by 
himself and responsible to the chamber of representatives. The legislative power is 
exercised jointly by the king and parliament. Parliament consists of two houses, 
a senate elected partly by direct popular vote and partly by the provincial councils 
for a term of eight years, and a chamber of representatives, elected directly. There 
are universal suffrage, with plural voting on property and educational qualifications, 
and a system of proportional party representation. There are representative coun- 
cils in bioth provinces and communes. In 1902 the ministry was as follows : Premier 
and minister of finance and public works. Count de Smet de Naeyer; minister of 
interior and instruction, M. de Trooz; minister for foreign affairs, Baron P. de 
Favereau; minister of justice, M. van den Heuvel; minister of agriculture. Baron 
van den Bruggen; minister of war. Gen. Cousebant d*Alkemade; minister of rail- 
ways, posts, and telegraphs, M. Liebaert ; minister of industry and labor. Baron Sur- 
mont de Volsberghe until August 19, 1902, when he was succeeded by M. G. 
Francottc- 

Army. — ^The regular army, recruited on a system of conscription that permits 
substitution, numbers on a peace footing (1902) 51,522 officers and men. The annual 
contingent comprises 13,300, and the legal period of service is eight years in the 
active army and five years with the reserve. The war strength of the army is 143,- 
000, and there is a garde civique of 43,647. There is no navy. 

Finance. — ^The unit of value is the franc, worth 19.3 cents. The revenue, largely 
derived from state railways, customs, excise, and personal and property taxes, 
amoimted in 1901 to 488,429,760 francs, and the expenditures, in which the largest 
items were railways, public debt, army, and public works, to 488,047,973 francs. The 
budget for 1902 placed receipts at 489,040,050 francs and expenditures at 488,344403 



*•*■***— I02 

francs. The national debt on January i, 1902, amounted to 2,778^51^50 francs, the 
greater part of which was incurred in the construction of the state railways and 
other public works. 

Industries, — Manufacturing is the principal industry of the country, and although 
over 65 per cent, of the area is under cultivation, the greater part of Belgium's food 
supply luis to be imported. The principal crops are oats, rye, wheat, barley, hops, 
potatoes, and beets. Of the mineral products, coal is the most important, 22,073,740 
tons being mined in 1901, but the mining of iron, zinc, lead, and copper is also car- 
ried on extensively. The chief manufactures include iron and steel products, fire- 
arms, machinery, glass, leather goods, cottons, laces, linens, woolens, hosiery, paper, 
and beer. 

Commerce, — The special commerce of Belgium for 1901, as compared with 1900, 
shows an increase in imports and a decrease in exports, the imports having increased 
in value from 2,215,800,000 francs to 2,221,000,000 francs, and the exports fallen from 
1,922,900,000 francs to 1,^28,200,000 francs. The transit trade increased from 1,374,600,- 
000 francs in 1900 to 1,411,200,000 francs in 1901. The imports are largely food-stuffs 
and raw materials, the exports manufactured articles. The imports in 1901 were 
obtained principally from France, the United States, Germany, and England in the 
order named, and the exports were sent for the most part to Germany, France, 
Great Britain, and the Netherlands. The trade with the United States is growing 
annually, the imports increasing from a value of 266,674,000 francs in 1900 to 335,- 
700,000 francs in 1901, and the position of the United States among nations furnish- 
ing imports advancing in that year over Germany and Great Britain from fourth to 
second place. 

Communications. — The railways in operation at the end of 1901 amounted to 2646 
miles, of which 2516 miles were owned by the state. The gross receipts from the 
state roads in 1900 amounted to 209,194,311 francs, and the expenditure upon the 
same to 140428,195 francs. The navigable rivers and canals have a length of 1370 
miles. 

HISTORY. 

The Suffrage Agitation. — ^The reform of the suffrage continued to be throughout 
1902, as it had been during 1901, the most vitally important political problem of the 
day in Belgium. The agreement entered into in 1901 between the Liberals, Radicals 
(or Progressists), and Socialists in parliament in their attempt to force from the 
Clerical-Conservative majority some scheme of electoral reform, was strengthened 
during 1902 by an amalgamation of the forces of the parties at the polls at the spring 
elections. The basis of union was a programme of suffrage reform which included 
a demand for universal suffrage on the plan of "one man, one vote,'* and the general 
extension of the principle of proportional representation to the communal elections. 
With this went the demand for the abolition of plural voting, by means of which the 
Clerical party had so long been able to hold an artificial predominance in national 
affairs. The progress of the movement for reform was marked this year, however, 
by more activity outside of the halls of parliament than within it The Clericals have 
apparently come to a realization that unless they can disrupt the allied forces of the 
opposition they will not much longer be able to withstand their demands, and that 
compromise of some sort is the only alternative to a resort to force from the em- 
ployment of which they naturally shrink, and to which it is very unlikely that King 
Leopold, who knows his unpopularity and feels the insecurity of his crown would 
consent. Early in 1902 reports were current that the Qericals contemplated a coup 
of a most radical nature in case the opposition continued to make headway. This 
was no less than a consent to female suffrage, which is part of the programme of the 
Socialists, but is not acceptable to either the Liberals or the Progressists. By such 
a stroke the Clericals, so it was declared, could reasonably hope to detach the 
Socialists, for the time being, at least, from their alliance with the other two parties, 
and at the same time introduce into the suffrage an element which students of 
Belgian political conditions declare would give them a renewed lease of power for 
many years to come. Another cause for Clerical hopes of continuation in power, is 
said to be in the rather half-hearted acceptance of the demand for extension of pro- 
portional representation to the communes, by the Liberals who, by the existing system 
of plural voting, have been enabled to gain control of the city governments in Ghent. 
Antwerp, Brussels, and other centres of population in which a well-to-do burgher 
class exists. 

The Socialist Attitude. — The entire impracticability of the Clerical design, if such 
had existed, of detaching the Socialists from the other opposition forces, was shown 
early in 1902 by antagonism between the government and Socialist elements in 
parliament, which as the year progressed was strengthened by popular agitation and 
developed into the most serious opposition that the Clerical r^me has had to fece 
in several years. At the opening session of the chamber, January 14, the inherent 



jQ^ Belfftam. 

hostility of the Sodatists was made evident by a bitter contest between the forces of 
the premier, G>unt de Smet de Naeyer, and the Socialists, under the leadership of 
M. Neujeau, on account of the government's withdrawal of a bill regarding parlia- 
mentary salaries, which had already been passed by the chamber at a previous 
session, the Socialists declaring that withdrawal was illegal. It was believed that the 
struggle had been precipitated not so much because the Socialists considered the 
matter one of vital importance, as because it afforded an opportunity for them to 
serve notice on the government of their unalterable opposition to all parts of the 
ministerial programme, until their demands regarding suffrage reform had been 
acceded to. 

The Suffrage Riots. — ^The agitation of the Socialists in behalf of universal suffrage 
mlminated at length in rioting and bloodshed. The contest began in the lower house 
of parliament on March 19, 1902, with the defeat of two proposals submitted by the 
Socialists, one providing for universal suffrage without regard to sex, which was 
voted down by 92 votes to 24, and another providing for manhood suffrage, which 
iras rejected by 92 votes to 45. At once the leaders of the Socialists set under way 
an active propaganda of agitation. Every day mass meetings were held in the 
Maison du Peuple. The leaders hoped, by means of monster mass meetings, and 
processions, and petitions, to impress the government with the power of the public 
sentiment in their favor. The programme included the marshalling of armies of 
wofkingmen in different sections of the country, and marching them to the capital 
to overawe the legislators. These measures failing, the general strike was to be 
resorted to. This was voiced in the Peuple, the leading Socialist organ, which de- 
clared that "As we are not living in the year 1848, during which a revolutionary 
movement could still succeed, we must have recourse to the general strike." Riot- 
ing began on April 9, when Kin^ Leopold was almost mobbed at the Brussels rail- 
way station. The mob, gathermg in front of the Maison du Peuple, marched 
through the streets, singing revolutionary songs, and shouting "Vive la R6publi<;iue !" 
The leading factor in the riots was the organization known as Young Socialist 
Guards. On the following day (April 10) the debate in the chamber was exception- 
ally stormy, and resolved itself into a struggle between the Socialists and Minis- 
terialists over the question of whether the bill for a revision of the constitutional 
provisions relating to the suffrage should be considered before or after that voting 
provisional credits to the minister of finance. The government applied closure and 
carried its point. Rioting was particularly severe on the night of April 12, when 
the troops ordered to clear the streets fired upon the mob. The casualties for the 
night were reported at three killed and 100 wounded. On April 14 a general strike 
was declared, and between 200,000 and 300,000 workmen ceased work, and in the next 
few days the strike extended largely to the industrial communities. The firm meas- 
ures adopted by the government, taken together with the attitude of a large element 
in the population who, though not identified with the Clerical party, decried the 
hwless means adopted by the Socialists, served to bring the disturbances to an end 
and listened the return of the striking laborers to work. 

TJte Attitude of the Liberals. — Perhaps the most significant phase of the suffrage 
agitation was the attitude of the Liberal party. Hitherto the Liberals have been 
united with the Socialists and Progressists m the demand for universal suffrage, but 
during the April riots the Liberal members gave their support to the Clerical 
majority in the parliamentary struggle and the Liberal press generally supported the 
minssterial measures for the suppression of the disoi-ders. It is not at all likely that 
this refusal of the Liberals to participate in or len(i aid to the Socialistic agitation 
means anything more than a recognition that the success of the principles for which 
tbcy contend will be obtained sooner by a strict observance of the public order than 
hj riot and revolution. There is no likelihood that there will be any abatement of 
Liberal opposition to Clericalism. The chief Liberal organ, the Indipendance Beige, 
presents Uie following startling indictment of the party in power : "Instead of edu- 
cating the people — ^we have 25 per cent, of illiterates— the public schools have been 
dosed, and those schools developed in which religious instruction is given; instead 
of doing away with the unjust tax on food, it has been increased ; instead of reso- 
lutely opposing alcoholism, it has been tolerated, and indirectly encouraged; instead 
of estaUishing social juMice in the army, the power of money has, on the contrary, 
been increased, and the gulf separating rich and poor made wider ; instead of honor- 
ably applying the constitutional principle of the plural vote, it has been misused, and 
all fraudulent misapplications of it have been, if not encouraged, at least endured." 

The May Elections. — Elections for a partial renewal of the chamber, held May 26, 
igw, had a peculiar interest in view of the recent riots. The election resulted in the 
dwicc of 57 Clericals, 20 Liberals,^ 13 Socialists, and i Christian Democrat— a result 
wbidi would on its f^ce seem to indicate a Clerical victory, but it was pointed out 
that iDOSt of the elections occurred in Clerical constituencies where the success of 



Belslaiu. j^^ 

that party was to be expected. The new chamber is composed of 96 Qericals, 34 
Liberals, 34 Socialists, and 2 Christian Democrats. 

Anti-Gambling and Military Reform Bills, — ^Two measures that have caused pro- 
tracted discussion in the legislature for several sessions became laws in 1902. The 
first, a bill for the suppression of licensed gambling had passed back and forth be- 
tween the senate and chamber several times during 1901 without any sort of agree- 
ment being reached because of the insistence of the senate upon incorporating into 
the act provision for an indemnity to be paid to the notorious gambhng places at 
Ostend and Spa. The threatened deadlock was at length averted by the introduction 
of a new measure by the minister of finance (January 14), granting an indemnity 
of 7,000,000 francs for the suppression of these places, which was accepted by the 
chamber and passed by the senate. The military reform bill, which provided for an 
increase of the effective strength of the army by about 20 per cent., the abolition of 
substitution (remplacement) , the extension of the volunteer service and consequent 
curtailing of the conscriptive system, and the shortening of the term of active service 
was passed by the chamber on January 24 by a vote of 74 to 42 and by the senate 
on March 20 by a vote of 56 to 39. 

The Question of Sunday Labor, — Early in 1902 a bill was prepared by the Conseil 
Superieur du Travail for the abolition of Sunday labor. The mdustrial population 
of Belgium is one of the hardest worked in all Europe, and to a great proportion 
of the smaller shop-keepers, artisans, and mechanics observation of the fourth com- 
mandment is practically unknown. Even clerks and warehouse employees under the 
existing regime may be l^^ally held to a performance of their duties on Sundays as 
well as week-days. The measure did not aim at a reform in national customs or 
habits, but was intended only to provide that Sunday work be entirely optional. It 
is unlikely, indeed, that any legislation of this character would effect a radical 
change at once in the industrial life of Belgium. 

Working of the Old- Age Pensions Act. — After a year's trial the Old- Age Pensions 
Act, which went into effect on August i, 1901, had proved a source of considerable 
embarrassment to the government. There were 165,000 applications for pensions on 
file when the act went into operation, and during the year the demands for pensions 
unexpectedly increased by more than 30,000, thus completely upsetting the calcula- 
tions on which the minister of finance based his estimate for providing the necessary 
funds. The act provides an annual pension of 65 francs for indigent workmen who 
have attained the age of 65. An inquiry has revealed the fact that heads of local 
committees and the burgomasters who have charge of the recommendations in the 
communes have admitted a large number of applicants not entitled to the bounty. 
The act limits the pensions to bona fide laborers, but the pension lists disclose a 
large proportion of retired tradesmen, small property owners, and others of a simi- 
lar class. In view of these revelations, the govemmert determined to dissolve the 
local committees entirely and substitute a committee of inquiry in order to bring 
the lists within the strict meaning of the act. 

Death of the Queen and the Episode of Princess Stephanie. — Marie Henriette, 
Queen of the Belgians, died at Spa, Belgium, September 19. 1902. For years the 
greatest sympathy had been felt for the queen not only in Belgium but throughout 
Europe because of the outrageous treatment she received from King Leopold. The 
death of the queen was followed by an event that intensified the feeling of the Bel- 
gian people against a sovereign who long before had forfeited their respect. The 
second daughter of the king and queen is Princess Stephanie, who married, in 
1881, the Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria, whose mysterious death, in January, 
1889, shocked all Europe. For several years the king and the princess have not 
been on good terms, and when, in 1900, Princess Stephanie married Count L6nyay, 
a Hungarian nobleman, King Leopold disowned her. Upon hearing of her mothers 
death Princess Stephanie hastened to Belgium from England, where she has of late 
made her home. At the Villa Henriette, at Spa, where the body of the dead queen 
lay, the princess was received by her younger sister, the Princess Gementine, but 
when King Leopold learned of her arrival he declined to receive her, ordered her 
to leave the villa at once, and refused her permission to attend the funeral ceremonies. 
This action of Leopold brought forth expressions of reproach and resentment from 
the European press, and is said to have aroused the sympathy of the Emperor Franz 
Josef, of Austria, for his son's widow, whose re-marriage he has forgiven. 

Attempted Assassination of King Leopold. — An attempt to assassinate King 
Leopold was made November 15, 1902, by an Italian anarchist named Rubino, who 
fired three shots at him as he proceeded from his palace in Brussels to the cathedral 
to attend a Te Deum in memory of Queen Marie Henriette. None of the shots 
took eflFect, The would-be assassin was seized by the mob, from whom he was 
rescued by the police with considerable difficulty. On examination he admitted that 
he was an anarchist, and said he regretted that he had not been successfoL The 



^05 Blentadu 

lulian authorities identified him as a criminal who had been imprisoned in Italy 
for rolibcry in 1893 but had escaped to England. 

The Congo Free State, which is practically a Belgian colony, is treated under its 
own title. 

BELIZE. See British Honduras. 

BELOOCHISTAN, or BELUCHISTAN. See Baluchistan. 

BENJAMIN, Anna Northend, an American journalist and magazine writer, 
died January 20, 1902. She was horn in Salem, Mass., October 6, 1874, and in 
1893 graduated at St. Gabriel's School, Peekskill, N. Y. As a special correspondent 
during the Spanish-American War she attained considerable distinction for repor- 
torial exploits, and was in Santiago the day after its surrender. For six months she 
served in the Philippines as correspondent for the New York Tribune and the San 
Francisco Chronicle, traveled subsequently in China, Japan, and Corea, and made 
the hazardous overland journey through Siberia and Russia. On her return to 
America she contributed widely to periodicals and lectured upon her travels. 

BENJAMIN-CONSTANT, Jean Joseph. See Constant, Jean Joseph Ben- 
jamin. 

BERMUDA, a British colony consisting of 360 small islands in the Atlantic lying 
580 miles off the North American coast The total area of the group is 20 square 
miies, and the population (1901) 17,535. The chief town, Hamilton, on Bermuda, or 
Main Island, has a population of 2246. An imperial force of about 3000 troops is 
maintained, and the islands also serve as an important naval base and fitting station 
for the British North Atlantic and West Indian squadrons. The colony is admin- 
istered by a governor (Sir Henry LeGuay Geary, appointed 1902), assisted by 
executive and legislative councils, and a representative assembly. The revenue in 
1900 was £40,124, of which £32,394 accrued from customs, and the expenditure 
^7^532, The public debt is £49,600. In 1900 the exports amounted to £93,769 and 
the imports to £397,136. The trade is largely with the United States, and large 
quantities of potatoes and onions are grown for the early spring supply of the New 
York market. Lily bulbs are also extensively grown for export. The islands are a 
favorite winter resort for Americans, the recent development of the hotel and 
tourist business adding materially to the prosperity of the colony. 

BERNIER, Camille, a French landscape-painter, died in May, 1902. He was 
bom at Colmar in 1823, and was a pupil of Leon Fleury. His study of art was 
begun in middle life, and he exhibited at the Salon first in 1863. By 1873 he had 
become a member of the jury of the Salon. In 1868, 1869, and 1878 he received 
medals, and in 1872 became a member of the Legion of Honor. Nearly all his sub- 
jects arc drawn from Brittany. His works include: "Kerluce" (1857), "Rocks Near 
Plousgastel" (1859), "Village of Ploun^sur' (1863), "Heath Near Bannalec" (1867), 
-Heath of Kerbagadie," "Fountain in Brittany" (1869), "January in Brittony" (1872), 
"Woodenshoe Makers in the Woods of Quimerch (1877), "Mist and Sunshme" 
(1884), and "A Farm in Brittany" (1891). 

BERTRAND, Alexandre Louis Joseph, French archaralogist and art historian, 
died December 8, 1902. He was bom in Paris, June 28, 1820, and was educated at 
the Normal School and at the French College in Athens. In 1862 he was made 
director of the Museum of Saint Germain, to which at the foundation he had made 
valuable contributions, and in 1882 became professor of archaeology at the school 
of the Louvre. In 1885 he was made an omcer of the Legion of Honor. Besides 
contributions to the Revue archiologique, of which he was for a time editor, he 
published: Etudes de mythologie et d'archiologie grecques (1858), Les Voies 
romaines en Gaule (1863), Archiologie celtique et gauloise (1876), La Gaule avant 
Us Caulois, d'apres les monuments et les textes (1884), Etudes sur la peinture et 
la critique d'art dans fantiquiti (1893), Les Celtes dans les vallees du Po et du 
Danube (with S. Reinach, 1894). 

BIBLE SOCIETY, American, founded in 1816 for the gratuitous distribution 
of Bibles among the destitute and the poor. The issue for the fiscal year 1901-02 
amounted to 1,723,791 copies. During its eighty-six years of existence the society has 
distributed 70,677,225 Bibles, including those in foreign tongues and the languages of 
sfreral American Indian tribes. The society has received since its organization con- 
tributions exceeding $30,000,000. It issues an illustrated monthly. The Bible Society 
Record, besides thousands of leaflets annually. Secretaries, Rev. John Fox, D.D. ; 
Rev. William L. Haven, D.D., and Rev. E. P. Ingersoll, D.D., Bible House, New 
York City. 

BICYCLrING, as a sport, is treated under Cycling {q.v.). 

BIERSTADTy Albert, an American landscape-painter, died in New York City, 
February !& 1902. He was bom in 1830 at Diisseldorf, Germany, was brought to 



Biology. lOO 

the United States when a year old, received a common school education at New 
Bedford, Mass., and from 1853 to 1857 studied under Lessing at Diisseldorf, and 
also at Rome. In 1858 he made a sketching tour through the Rocky Mountains, prin- 
cipally in connection with the expedition sent out under Gen. F. W. Lander for the 
survey of an overland wagon route. He visited Europe in 1867, 1878, and 1883, and 
in i860 was elected to the National Academy. He received medals in Belgium, 
Austria, and Germany, and numerous foreign decorations. His studio was until 1882 
at Irvington, N. Y., and thenceforth in New York City. A follower of the Dussel- 
dorf school in landscape, he was expert in draughtsmanship, but in color somewhat 
dry and severe. He applied the Dtisseldorfian manner to a presentation of the heroic 
scenery of the Sierras and the Rockies, and with Thomas Moran and Frederick 
E. Church introduced into American art a panoramic method which was at the 
same time distinctly national. His study of nature was at first hand and careful; 
his interpretation of it always effective. Tuckerman, in his Book of the Artists 
(New York, 1867), asserts that no more sincere and noble work than Bierstadt's 
"Rocky Mountains" (1863) exists in American landscai^ art. Among Bierstadt's 
other pictures may be mentioned: "North Fork of the Platte" (1864), "Storm in 
the Rocky Mountains" (1866), "Valley of the Yosemite" (1866), now in the collec- 
tion of the Lenox Library, New York City; "Mount Corcoran, Sierra Nevada" 
(1878), in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D. C. ; and two historical pictures, 
"The Settlement of California" and "The Discovery of the Hudson River," in the 
Capitol at Washington. 

BILLIARDS. The National Association of Amateur Billiard Players held its 
tournament (14-inch balk-line) in Brooklyn, N. Y., in January, 1902. The winner 
was Edward Gardner, of Brooklyn, who won four games and lost none, made a 
high run of 52 and a grand average of 548. The other contestants finished as 
follows, with games won and lost, high run and grand average : J. Byron Stark, 
New York, 2, 2, 37, 5.15; A. R. ToMmsend, New York, 2, 2, 30, 5-a6; F. Poggenburg, 
New York, i, 3, 40, 5.88; F. C. Gardner, New Jersey, i, 3, ^, 5.13. The tournament 
of the Amateur Athletic Union (the parent body) at 14-mch balk-line took place 
in New York City, in February, when the championship was again won by W. P. 
Foss, of Haverstraw, N. Y. The standing of the players was : C. S. Norris, New 
York, 5, I, 62, 643 ; W. H. Sigoumey, San Francisco, 5, i, 64, 5.50 ; L. L. Mial, New 
York, 4, 2, 90, 7.28; C F. Conklin, Chicago, 3, 3, 45, 6.1 1; C G. Threshie, Boston, 
2, 4» 52, 597; A. B. Miller, New York, i, 5, 43, 474; J. A. Hendrick, i, 5, 34, 4.62. 
The tie was won by Norris, who in turn was defeated by Foss, 500 to 464 

BIOLOGICAL STATIONS. See Zoological Expeditions and Stations. 

BIOLOGY. Undoubtedly the most widely discussed question in general biology 
during 1902 was that of heredity, especially with reference to what is known as 
Mendel's law. Gregor Mendel, abbot of Briinn (Moravia), many years ago in the 
quiet of the cloister carried on experiments in the hybridization of plants and 
enunciated the law that now bears his name. But his work was soon forgotten and 
was brought to the notice of modern biologists only two years ago. EarTv in 1902, 
the well-known English biologist Bateson published a small but vigorously written 
pamphlet supporting Mendel's views, and soon afterwards published a larger work, 
mduding results of experiments. . Briefly stated Mendel's law is essentially this : In 
the second and later generations of a hybrid there occur all the possible combina- 
tions of the characters of the parents, and in definite proportions. So far most of 
the evidence in support of this law seems to have been derived from the hybridization 
of plants, although there is some evidence to show that the same law holds amon^^ 
animals. One of the most important contributions to the discussion was furnished 
by the well-known American cytologist £. B. Wilson, who late in 1902 called atten- 
tion to the fact that two students at Columbia University, one a zoologist and one a 
botanist, working independently, seem to have found in the normal phenomena of 
the maturation of the germ-cells an explanation, or at least a clue to the explanation, 
of Mendel's principles of inheritance. This explanation is dependent upon the separa- 
tion of paternal and maternal elements and their ultimate isolation in separate germ- 
cells. Should these investigations prove to be as important as they seem, tliey will 
very greatly influence biological opinion as to the laws of heredity. 

During the early part of 1902, Dr. G. Adlerz, a Swedish zoologist, called atten- 
tion to a very important law of variation in living organisms which seems to have 
been hitherto overlooked or at any rate neglected. He states it thus: 'TDuring the 
increase of a species, both the absolute and relative number of varying individuals 
as well as the amplitude of the variations are increased beyond what is usual." This 
evidence was drawn chiefly from observations made upon butterflies, but his con- 
clusions have been supported by other writers, notably Prof. W. M. Wheeler, of 
the University of Texas, who has clearly shown that ants "furnish a brilliant illustra- 
tion of the evolutionary factor to which Adlerz has called attention." Wheeler 



I07 S'lSff" 

farther shows that unfavorable conditions tend to inhibit variability, and he con- 
dudes that "the manifold and often wonderfully perfect morphological and psycho- 
logical adaptations which have made ants the dominant group among terrestrial 
ioYcrtebrates, have their origin in the variability so greatly enhanced by the produc- 
tion oi enormous numbers of individuals and the care and protection afforded, 
through a most important period of their lives, to the reproductive individuals of 
the colony." 

There continued throughout the year the discussion of the unsolved question of 
the determining factor in evolution, one side holding to the direct action of the 
en¥ironment, the other to the influence of natural selection working on congenital 
variations. The most important contribution to the discussion was made by Prof. 
James M. Baldwin, of Prmceton University, who has elaborated and fully explained 
his theory of othoplasy in his recent book (see Zoological Literature). Although 
this theory was originated some time ago by three independent workers, it is now 
set forth fully and cogently for the first time. It is impossible to do it justice in 
a few words, but it is in brief a sort of compromise between the two contending 
schools, since it holds that adaptations to environment, acquired by an individual, 
even though not inherited, protect it from destruction, and thus such individuals 
and successors similar to them are preserved until congenital variations occur 
upon which natural selection can work. It is possible that this theory may prove 
to be the key to the solution of the problem of organic evolution, but it will 
probably be a long time before the Neo-Lamarckians and the Neo-Darwinians will lay 
down their arms. 

At the meeting of the Corporation of the Marine Biological Laboratory, held 
August 12, 1902, the director, Prof. C. O. Whitman, read an important paper on 
A Biological Farm, in which' he set forth the great importance of an establishment 
for the experimental study of heredity, variation, and evolution, and for investiga- 
tions into life-histories, habits, instincts, and intelligence. He showed beyond doubt 
the great importance of such a "farm," and outlined it on such a broad scale that 
an endowment of one million dollars would be needed to start it in a satisfactory way. 
The foundation of such an establishment will be eagerly awaited and enthusiastically 
welcomed by all biologists, though it is doubtless true that many would dissent from 
Professor Whitman's conclusion that Woods Hole is the ideal location for it. 

An interesting experiment going on in the Pribilof Islands for some years past 
was called to the attention of biologists during 1902. The attempt is being made to 
increase the relative number of female blue foxes of Saint George Island, and 
change a naturally monogamous animal into a polygamous one. This is being done 
hj trapping the foxes and killing three-fourths of the males, but releasing all the 
females. This plan, it was thought, would result in a marked increase in the total 
namber of foxes and in the relative number of females. Thus it was estimated that 
at the end of four years there ought to be more than 2500 females to less than 400 
males. The statistics published in August, 1902, show, however, that at the end 
of the 1901 season there were only 690 females counted on the island, while there 
were 614 males. Explanations suggested are that more males than females are 
bom, and that the females are not so readily trapped, as they are known to be more 
wary than the males. There has been, however, a distinct gain in the number of 
females, though there is no evidence yet that the fox is becoming polygamous. See 
Zoological Lfferature; Zoological societies. 

BIRD PROTECTION. See Ornithology. 

BIRTH RATE. See Vital Statistics. 

BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO, a German protectorate lying east of New 
Guinea, has an estimated area of 19,200 square miles and an estimated population 
of 188,000. The protectorate is administered by an imperial commissioner, stationed 
at Herbertshohe, who also administers German New Guinea and the Caroline, Pelew, 
^iarianne, and German Solomon islands. In the fiscal year 1900 imports were valued 
at 1,240,925 marks, and exports 907,282 marks. Of the latter 651,141 marks repre- 
sented copra, and 1 10,634 marks trepang. The mark is worth 23.8 cents. 

BLOCH, Jean de (Russian form Ivan Stanislavovich Blioch), a Polish- Jewish 
financier, economist, and military critic, who died at Warsaw, Poland, January 7, 
1902, was best known as an advocate of universal peace. He was bom at Radom, 
Poland, in 1836, and studied at the Industrial High School of Warsaw. Becoming 
interested in the construction of Russian railways, he took part in the building of 
the Great Russian Company's lines, organized the company of the Southwestern Rail- 
roads, and built the Ivangorod Dombrova and Landvarovo-Romny roads. Railway 
legislation was furthered by him, and he held the presidency of various lines. His 
volumes on matters of railway enterprise won for him continental recognition and 
an appointment to the committee of scholars in the ministry of finance. He was also 
iOTcmost in the movement for Polish industrial advance, and almost constantly 



Bloch. 
BollTla. 



io8 



occupied with philanthropy or sdentiiic investigation among the poorer classes. A 
compendious publication m five volumes (with an atlas), comparing the general 
welare of the Vistula and Western Great Russian provinces, contained a history of 
the Jews in Europe, and examined the origin of anti-Semitism. As a peace propa- 
gandist, Bloch became known by articles in French, German, and English periodicals, 
his war-and-peace museum at Lucerne, and more particularly his Budushchaya 
Voina (7 vols. 1898), translated in a much abridged form into English by R- C. 
Long as The Future of War in Its Technical, Economic and Political Relations 
(1899; in England, as Is War Now Impossible f). This work, which is said to have 
influenced Czar Nicholas IL to the issuance of the peace declaration resulting in the 
Hague Conference of 1899, elaborates with a wealth of often ill-arranged or irrele- 
vant details the thesis that constant improvement in the art of warfare tends to the 
final impossibility of war. The principal argument holds that, under such conditions 
of improvement, any considerable war would result in the starvation of the hostile 
powers, and consequent revolution against, and destructicm of, the respective states. 

BOERS. See Tkansvaal. 

BOKHARA. See Central Asia, Russian. 

BOLIVIA, an interior republic of South America, lies between Brazil on the 
east and Peru and Chile on the west. The capital is La Paz. 

Area and Population. — The eight departments and two territories (Purus and 
Madre de Dios) comprising Bolivia have an estimated area of about 7^000 square 
miles. The boundary dispute with Peru was still pending in 1902. In that year 
announcement was made of the settlement of the Brazilian boundary question, pur- 
suant to which a large area was transferred to northern Bolivia. This area incor- 
porates in Bolivia the upper Jurua and the upper Purus with their affluents including 
the Irahuaca, Embira, Acre and Hyuacu. The actual demarcation, however, had not 
been made. In his message to the congress, August 10, 1902, President Pando stated 
that the boundary question with Argentina had been settled and that a mixed com- 
mission was then in charge of the survey. In 1902 the results of the Bolivian census 
of September i, 1900, were only partially available. The results published, however, 
indicated a population of about 1,853400, though the inhabitants have been officially 
estimated at 2,313,750. Probably over 80 per cent, are Indians and nearly 80 per 
cent, of the remainder mestizos. The population of La Paz has been reported at 
62,000; Cochabamba, 49,500; Sucre, 28,000. The state religion and that prevailing 
among the people is Roman Catholicism. Primary education is free and nominally 
compulsory. Some provisions are made for secondary and higher education. 

Government. — The chief executive is a president, who is assisted by a cabinet of 
five members. The legislative power devolves upon a congress of two houses, the 
senate and the chamber of deputies. The president in 1902 was Gen. Jose Manuel 
Pando, who assumed office October 26, 1899, having been elected by a national con- 
vention of sixty members.* The departments are administered by prefects. The 
regular army is reported to number about 2500, and the reserves about 80,000. 

Finance. — The monetary standard is silver and the unit of value the boliviano, 
worth 42.8 cents on October i, 1901, and 38.4 cents on October i, 1902. Revenue is 
derived mainly from customs, and the largest items of expenditure are for war and 
public works. 

Reports of actual receipts and expenditures are not available. The estimated 
revenue and expenditure for 1900 were 7,331400 bolivianos and 7,930,188 bolivianos, 
respectively; for 1901, 7,965,350 bolivianos and 8,152,359 bolivianos, respectively; for 
1902, 10,117,700 and 9,5^89,153. respectively. The total debt in 1901 was reported at 
17,861,872 bolivianos, of which 4,004,020 bolivianos represented the internal debt. 

Industries and Commerce. — Agriculture and mining are the principal industries, 
but each, in proportion to the capabilities of the country, is little developed. This lack 
of progress is due both to the character of the people and the difficulties of trans- 
portation. The chief vegetable product is rubber; others are cacao, cinchona, and 
coffee. Cereals and other foodstuff^ are grown for domestic consumption. The most 
important mineral products are silver, tin, and copper. The values in bolivianos 
of imports and exports are stated as follows : 



Imports. 
Exports. 



1896 



11,897,245 
27.466.677 



1899 



12.8.39.962 
27,966.747 



1900 



13.Sa.ll4 
85.667.690 



1901 



16.953.224 
37.578.211 



The principal imports are cottons, woolens, provisions, hardware and machinery, 
cattle, alcoholic liquors, and clothing. In 1901 the leading countries from which 
imports were received were : Germany, 3,243,090 bolivianos ; Great Britain, 2,291,851 ; 
France, 1,912,275; United States, 1,674,255; Chile, 1,663,907; Peru, 1,543^33; Belgium, 



I09 BpIlTla. 

i>305f95S; Italy, 679,368; Argentina 604^02. German imports are increasing. The 
exports for 1901 were classified as follows : Mining products, 26,8551426 bolivianos ; 
agrknhural products (including rubber), 9,688,513; manufactures (including stamped 
silver), S35f937; stock products, 373,503; miscellaneous, 124,832. The leading articles 
exported in 1901 were: Silver, 14,566,661 bolivianos; tin, 9,380,714; crude rubber, 
9,151324; bismuth, 1^463,088; copper, 1,112,599; stamped silver, 411,831; cacao, 

239.513. 

Communicatiofu. — Numerous railways are projected, but the only completed line 
is the Oruro, extending from that town to Antofagasta ((Thile), 575 miles distant. 
From Unguni, 379 miles from Antofagasta, a branch line extends 22 miles to the 
Huanchaca. mines. In the summer of 1902 track was laid to the 33d mile on the 
line building from (juaqui, on the Desaguadero River, to La Paz. Communication 
between western Bolivia and the northern river country is slow and difficult. 

History. — In Bolivia the most important events during 1902 concerned the great 
rubber producing region of Acre, in the northern part of the republic. The subject 
was of such apparent importance that it had a place in three presidential messages, 
moved the Bolivian government to appeal for the intervention of the United States, 
and culminated in the mobilization of Bolivian troops near the end of the year. It 
was announced early in 1902 that the Bolivian government, through the instrumen- 
tality of Sir Martin Conway, the English explorer, practically made over the Acre 
region to an Anglo-American syndicate, the concessionaire named being Mr. F. W. 
Whitridgc, of New York. The concession was approved by the Bolivian congress. 
The syndicate was to form a corporation, which would enjoy a large measure of 
autonomy, administering the country somewhat in the manner of the British char- 
tered companies. Almost immediately the validity of this contract was denied by the 
Peruvian government, which, on the ground that the concession included territory 
daimed by Peru, entered protest with the representatives of the S3mdicate and with 
their governments. Still more embarrassing opposition was made by Brazil. Though 
Brazil had received frcnn Bolivia an offer of 20 per cent, of the latter's interests 
in the syndicate for its good will in the matter of the concession, the Brazilian gov- 
ernment was uncompromising. It is fair to assume that in no small degree this 
opposition was based upon the commercial disadvantage that the consummation of 
the S3rndicate plan would have for Brazilians. The reasons stated to the Bolivian 
government, in a note dated April 14, 1902, were that a part of the territory leased 
was still a subject of contention with Peru, and that in effect Bolivia had agreed to 
give up her sovereign rights in the Acre region by permitting the syndicate the use 
of military force, a concession that the government of Brazil could not approve. It 
appears that the attitude of both Brazil and Peru was to some extent actuated by 
fears, common also to other South American countries, that the establishment of the 
foreign corporation with semi-independent rights was only preliminary to direct 
interference on the part of the United States in South American affairs. Moreover, 
since the boundary, though agreed upon by treaty, was not yet marked, Brazil 
regarded it as highly probable that in the syndicate concession Bolivia had 
encroached upon Brazilian territorial rights. The keen resentment of the Brazilian 
government is seen in a note of the same date, April 14, asking Bolivia to withdraw 
the treaty of commerce and navigation which the latter had submitted for approval ; 
while in June it was announced that Brazil had notified Bolivia that if the Acre 
concession were not rescinded, diplomatic relations would be broken off and inter- 
ference with the commerce of Acre, by way of the Brazilian rivers, would ensue. 
This action led Bolivia on July 10, 1902, to appeal for intervention to the United 
Sutes on the ground that American interests were endangered. The United States 
government replied that, while tendering its good offices, it would not interfere 
between Brazil and Bolivia, but would ask for all reasonable concessions with regard 
to the Americans forming a part of the syndicate. In his message to the Bolivian 
congress, August 10, 1902, President Pando, speaking of the Acre matter, said : "The 
government is convinced that it has acted correctly in this affair, and within the scope 
of its authority as a sovereign nation. Its first and principal object was to promote, 
subject to the principles of universal legislation, the organization of a corporation 
capable of developing those desert and unhealthful territories and of establishing 
a stable and just government for the benefit of the inhabitants of the same, without 
the participation of any foreign government in the plan, as has been falsely asserted, 
and without the preconceived intention of establishing only an American company." 
The president also stated that the syndicate had deposited a guaranty of £5000 
and lud a period of one year in whidi to form a company. 

From the commercial point of view the subject of contention was the immense 
rubber resources of the Acre region and other parts of northern Bolivia, and 
doubtless to no small extent the Brazilian government was actuated by the interests 
of the inhabitants of the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Many of these people, 
crossing over from Brazil, have made large profits in exploiting the Bolivian rubber 



BoIItUu f«Q 



forests and shipping the product down the rivers to the Amazon. The Bolivian gov- 
ernment (in 1902) has customs houses on two of these rivers; but, it is asserted, 
the Brazilians have shipped rubber down the other rivers and thus evaded export 
duties. The concession to the syndicate would probably result in the forcing of the 
Brazilians out of the country, and probably the syndicate would establish custom 
houses on the free rivers; hence the indignation of the people of Amazonas. The 
rubber shipped from the Acre River and its affluents amounts to about 3500 tons a 
year, and that from the other rivers to about 5000 tons. This product is of the 
first quality and is sold in Europe as Para rubber. 

During the last few years this little known and less developed part of South 
America has attracted considerable attention. In the summer of 1899, it will be 
remembered, a revolution was brought about among the Brazilians in Acre by a 
Spaniard named Galvez, who controlled the country until bought off, it is alleged, 
by the Brazilian government in the following December. At this time the so-called 
republic of Acre was set up, but its president, it is also alleged, was bought off by 
Bolivia just as Bolivian troops reached Puerto Alonso (August, 1900). In October, 
1902, the Brazilians in Acre, apparently influenced by the syndicate concession, again 
revolted against Bolivian authority. To operate against them the government in 
November organized an expedition of some 2000 men, who, it was thought, could 
not reach their destination until early in 1903. The expedition was commanded by 
President Pando. 

BOND, Sir Robert, premier of Newfoundland since 1900, took part in the con- 
ference of colonial premiers in London in July, 1902, and later in the year successfully 
negotiated a reciprocity treaty between Newfoundland and the United States, with 
Secretary of State Hay at Washington, which was signed on November 8. He was 
bom on February 25, 1857, ^^ St. John's, Newfoundland, where his father had been 
for many years a leading merchant. He was educated at Queen's College, Taunton, 
England and returned to Newfoundland, where he studied law and was admitted to 
the bar, but instead of practising entered political life and in 1882 was elected to 
the Newfoundland colonial assembly. In 1884-85 he was chosen speaker of the 
assembly, and in 1886 became the parliamentary leader of his party. In 1889 he 
entered the cabinet of Sir William Whiteway as colonial secretary, retaining the 
office until 1897, except for a short interval in 1894, when he was unseated and dis- 
qualified. Since his assumption of the office of colonial secretary he has been a 
stanch champion of Newfoundland's rights, has continually opposed all attempts to 
bring about its incorporation with Canada, and has consistently advocated closer rela- 
tions with the United States. In 1890 he went to England as a commissioner to 
readjust the "French Shore" treaty, and in the same year negotiated with James G. 
Blaine, at Washington, the treaty known as the "Blaine-Bond convention," which 
failed because of the opposition of Sir John McDonald. In 1892 he represented 
Newfoundland at the Halifax conference on fisheries, was chairman of the New- 
foundland delegation at the Ottawa conference in 1895* and was a delegate to the 
conference on the French fisheries treaties in London in 1901. 

BORAX. See Mineral Production. 

BORNEO, an East Indian island, has an estimated area of nearly 300,060 square 
miles and an estimated population of about 1,900,000. The northern part is under 
British protection ; the remainder, comprising over two-thirds of the total area, is a 
possession of the Netherlands. 

Dutch Borneo has an estimated area of 212,737 square miles, and an estimated 
population, exclusive of several districts as yet unexplored, of about 1,181,000. The 
mterior is not well known and is practically under the control of the natives. 

British North Borneo, a protectorate in the northeastern part of the island, under 
the jurisdiction of the British North Borneo G)mpany, has an estimated area of 
31,106 square miles and an estimated population of 175,000. In 1902 the British 
governor was E. W. Birch (since 1900). For the fiscal year 1900 the revenue and 
expenditure amounted to 587,226 dollars (Mexican) and 398,152 dollars, respectively; 
for 1901, 613,141 dollars and 364,468 dollars, respectively. Various tropical and sub- 
tropical products are exported, of which the most important is tobacco. Imports 
and exports in 1900 were valued at 3,178,929 dollars and 3,336,621 dollars, respec- 
tively; in 1901, 3,262,263 and 3.382,387. About no miles of railway were under con- 
struction in 1902. In June the main line had been completed for 92 miles from 
Brunei Bay through the interior to Jesselton, on Gaya Bay, and about 100 miles 
of earthworks finished. The completion of this railway promises considerable 
development in the tobacco industry. The imports and exports of Labuan, a small 
British island off the northwest coast of Borneo, were valued in 1900 at 1,112,184 
dollars, and 74^,931 dollars, respectively; in 1901, 1,836,000 and 1,093,000, respectively. 

Brunei, on the north coast, is under British protection, but internally is admin- 



W1 



^ ^ ^ Bonrke* 

istered 1^ a native sultan, Hassim Jalud Alam Akamadin, who succeeded in May, 
1885. The chief export is sago, but there is little trade and the revenue is small. 
Sarawak, a British protectorate on the north coast southwest of Brunei, has an 
estimated area of 50,000 square miles and an estimated population of 500,000. It is 
administered by Rajah Sir Charles Johnson Brooke, who succeeded his uncle, Rajah 
Sir James Brooke, in June, 1868. Revenue and expenditure in 1900 amounted to 
915,966 dollars (Mexican) and SX3i,i72 dollars, respectively; in 1901, 1,064,318 and 
953J818, respectively. The leading exports are pepper, sago, flour, gutta-percha, gold, 
and rubber. Imports and exports in 1900 were valued at 3,848,679 dollars and 
5^17,036 dollars, respectively; in 1901, 4404,644 and 5,900,925, respectively. 

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, lying south of Hungary between Dalmatia 
and Servia, although nominally provinces of the Ottoman empire, have been since 
the Treaty of Berlin (1878) occupied and administered by Austria-Hungary. The 
total area including the sanjak of Novi-Bazar, which is occupied by an Austrian 
force although under Turkish civil administrators, is 23,571' square miles. The 
population in 1895 was 1,568,092. The army of occupation nominally numbers about 
23,1000. Sarajevo, with a population of 38,083, is the capital and largest city. The 
inhabitants are largely Croats and Servians. Adherents of the Orthodox Greek 
durch numbered ^3,246 in 1895, of Mohammedanism 548,632, and of the Roman 
Githolic Church 334,142. The administration of the provinces is entrusted to the 
Austro-Hungarian minister of finance and exercised by him through a local pro- 
▼indal government. The revenue was estimated in the budget of 1902 at 44346,281 
kronen and the expenditure at 44,582,296 kronen. The krone is worth 20.3 cents. 
Although the country is largely agricultural, farming methods are old-fashioned and 
the productivity underdeveloped. The chief agricultural products are tobacco, 
a government monopoly, the output of which amounted to 3600 tons in 1900 ; cereals 
and dried fruits, of which 17,000 tons, valued at £210,000, were exported in 1900. The 
exports of cattle in 1900 were valued at £210,000. There are iron, coal, copper, quick- 
silver, and manganese mines, operated chiefly by the government. The output of 
coal in 1900 was 394,516 tons, and of iron 133454 tons. There are no separate trade 
statistics, the provinces being incorporated in the Austro-Hungarian customs union. 
In 1901 Uiere were 628 miles of railways in operation. In addition to a large number 
of sectarian schools, there is a graded system of government schools, including 
gymnasia in which education is free but not compulsory. 

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, Boston, Mass., leads the libraries of the United 
States in circulation. During 1902 it issued for home use about 434,000 volumes 
from the central library on Copley Square, and about 1,050,000 volumes from the 
branch libraries, representing an increase in circulation over the previous year of 
about 160,000 volumes. At the end of 1902 the library contained about 835,00c 
volumes; some 72,000 persons held borrower's cards, over 50,000 drawing from the 
branch libraries. There are ten branch libraries and twenty-one delivery stations, 
thirteen of which have a collection of periodicals and reference books. Deposits of 
books arc sent to 72 schools, 36 engine houses and 16 institutions. There were no 
notable gifts during 1902. Mr. Horace G. Wadlin is librarian in place of Mr. 
James L. Whitney, now chief of the statistical department. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OP AMERICA, a national scientific society or- 
ganized in 1893 as an outgrowth of the Botanical Club of the American Association 
tor the Advancement of Science. At the ninth annual meeting held in Washington, 
D. C, December 30, 1902, the society passed a resolution to set aside from its income 
every year the sum of $500, to be used in making grants in aid of scientific investiga- 
tions. An amended constitution was adopted. President, Charles Reid Barnes, 
University of Chicago; secretary. Dr. D. T. MacDougall, New York Botanical 
Society, Bronx Park, New York City. 

BOURINOT, Sir John George, clerk of the Canadian House of Commons, died 
at Ottawa, October 13, 1902. He was bom in Sydney, N. S., October 24, 1837, 
the son of a former Canadian minister, Hon. J. Bourinot. After studying in Trinity 
College, Toronto, and in Nova Scotia, he entered journalism as parliamentary 
reporter for various Canadian newspapers, and was for many years the editor of the 
Halifax Reporter, which he established in i860. In 1880 he became clerk of the 
Dominion House of Commons, and by many books, and contributions to magazines, 
won recognition as an authority upon the constitutional history and parliamentary 
practice of Canada. He was a prominent member of the Royal Society of Canada, 
of which he had been president, and after 1882 was honorary secretary. His best- 
kiu>wn works are: Canada (in "Story of the Nations" series), Parliamentary Pro- 
cedure and Government in Canada; How Canada Is Governed; and Cape Breton and 
Its Memorials of the French Regime. 

BOURKK, RofBERT, first Baron Connemara, a British statesman, died in London, 
September 3, 1902. He was bom at Hayes, County Meath, Ireland, June 11, 1827, 



Bovrke. , . ^ 

Bozlnff. 112 

was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and was called to the English bar in 1852. 
In 1868 he was elected a Conservative member of the House of Commons for Lynn 
Regis, and sat for that borough eight years. Disraeli, always on the lookout for 
promising subordinates, made him under secretary of state for foreign affairs in his 
administration in 1874. After the defeat of Disraeli's ministry (18&), Bourke was 
sent as a commissioner to settle the terms of Turkey's foreign debt, and in 1885, 
after the defeat of Mr. Gladstone's administration, he was again appointed under 
secretary for foreign affairs. During 1887-^1 he was governor of Madras. In 1887 
he was raised to the peerage as a reward for official service. 

BOWDOIN college; Brunswick, Me., founded 1794. The college had in 
1902 an attendance of 391, excluding names counted twice, 275 in the academic 
department and 124 in the medical school, an increase over 1901 of about 20 in each 
department The faculty numbers 40. The endowment was increased about $73,000 
by the receipt of gifts. The most noteworthy change in the college was the com- 
pletion of the new Hubbard Hall, a building which is to be devoted to the use of 
the library for books, for general reading rooms, and for conference rooms for 
students, and also for some of the administrative departments of the college. The 
library, which is excellently adapted to its purposes, was built at a cost of $300,000 
by Gen. Thomas H. Hubbard, of New York. It will be ready for occupancy in 
May, 1903. A large amount of money has recently been invested in college buildings 
by friends of the institution and its faculty and endowment have been doubled in the 
last ten years. The curriculum has been greatly enriched in the matter of electives. 
The gross income for 1900 was $60,745. 'fhe library contains 73,195 bound volumes. 
President, W. D. Hyde, D.D. 

BO WEN, Hebbert Wolcott, United States minister to Venezuela since 1901, be- 
came a prominent figure in international affairs in the closing weeks of 1902 by reason 
of his participation in the negotiations between Venezuem and the allied powers 
(Great Britain, Germany, and Italy). He was bom in Brooklyn, N. Y., February 
29, 1856, the son of Henry C. Bowen, editor and founder of the Indefendent, and 
Lucy Tappan Bowen, daughter of Lewis Tappan, merchant and abolitionist. He 
was educated in the Woodstock (Conn.) Academy, and at the Brooklyn Polytechnic 
Institute, and after spending two years traveling with a tutor in Europe, returned 
to America and entered Yale University with the class of 1878, of which William H. 
Taft, governor of the Philippines, and William H. Hunt, governor of Porto Rico, 
were members. Leaving before graduation, he passed a year in Italy, and then 
returned to enter Columbia Law School, where he j;raduated cum laude in 1881. In 
the same year he was admitted to the bar. He practised law in New York City 
until 1890, when he was appointed by President Harrison United States consul at 
Barcelona, Spain. From that time he has been continuously in the service of the 
State Department. In 1895 he was promoted by President Cleveland consul-general 
at Barcelona. Here he remained until April, 1898, being for several weeks previous 
to the outbreak of hostilities against the United States in constant danger of assassi- 
nation. He stayed in Barcelona until the day after the declaration of war, and was 
the last American official to leave the country. After the conclusion of peace, when 
he was on the point of returning to Barcelona, President McKinley appointed him 
minister-resident to Persia, to succeed his brother-in-law, Arthur Sherburne Hardy. 
In Persia he received marked expressions of regard from the Shah, and before he 
left his rank had been changed to that of envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary. In June, 1901, President McKinley transferred him to the post of min- 
ister to Venezuela to succeed Francis B. Loomis, who had become persona non grata 
to the Venezuelan government because of his action in the asphalt controversy. At 
Caracas he was able to render services of great value because of his having com- 
pletely won the confidence of President Castro. He is the author of several books 
of verse, and of an International Law (1898). See Venezuela (paragraphs on 
History). 

BOWLING. The second annual tournament of the American Bowling Congress, 
which is now considered the authoritative body in this sport, was held at Buffalo, 
N. Y., January 20-24, 1902. The individual championship was won by F. Strong, 
Cliicago, with 649 pins for three games. J. Koster, New York, was second with 
647 pins, and J. Berlin, of Chicago, third, with 643. The two-men team champion- 
ship went to McLain and Steers, Chicago, 1237 pins for three games. Dysinger and 
Krug, of Los Angeles, were second with 1220, and Elwert and Funke, Belleville, 
Ind., third, with 1169. The five-men team championship was won by the Fidelia 
team of New York City, with 2792 pins for three games. The second team was the 
National of New York, with 27^2 pins, and the third the Rosedale, also of New 
York, with 2724. In September, 1902, the New York Bowling Association was 
formed for the purpose of governing the game in the greater city. 

BOXING. The winners of the championship boxing contests of the Amateur 



113 



Bozl 



IT* 



Athktic Union held during 1902 were as follows : One hundred and five pounds, W. 
Scfaumaker; 115 pounds, Fred. Berg; 125 pounds, Toe McCann; 135 pounds, J. Dil- 
km; 145 pounds, Charles McCann; 158 pounds, William Rodenbach; heavy-weight, 
Emery Payne. In pugilism, James Jeffnes retained the championship of the world 
by knocking out Robert Fitzsimmons in the eighth round on July 25, 1902, at San 
Francisco. The bantam-weight championship was won by Harry Forbes at St. 
Louis, Mo., January 23, who defeated Dan Dougherty in four rounds ; and the light- 
weight championship by Joe Cans who defeated Frank Erne in one round at Fort 
Erie, Ontario, May 12. 

BOYNTON, James Stoodabo, thirty-third governor of Georgia, died December 
22, 1902. He was born May 7, 1833, in Henry County, Ga., where he was admitted 
to the bar in 1852. He settled in Monticello, removed to Jackson in 1858, and was 
elected ordinary of Butts County in i860. At the outbreak of the Civil War he 
entered the Confederate service as a private, and later rose to the rank of colonel of 
the Thirtieth Georgia infantry. After the war he resumed his legal practice at 
Griffin, Ga., of which he became mayor in 1869. He was president of the State senate 
from 1880 to 1884, and acting-governor after the death of Alexander H. Stevens in 
1883. In 1886 and 1890 he was elected judge of the superior court of Georgia, and 
in 1893 resigned to become division counsel of the Central Georgia Railroad, which 
office he held until the time of his death. 

BRAZIL, the largest republic in the world except the United States, occupies the 
central and eastern part of South America. The capital is Rio de Janeiro. 

Area and Population, — The area of Brazil has been estimated at about 3,218,000 
square miles. In 1902 announcement was made that the Bolivian boundary between 
the Madeira and Javari rivers had been determined ; this settlement decreased Brazil's 
area t^ many thousand square miles. According to the census of 1890 the population 
was 14,333,915. In 1900 a census was taken, but its results, showing a decrease in 
population, were not believed to be accurate and so were not adopted. According 
to a statement published in 1902 by the statistical bureau of the state of SSo Paulo, 
the population m 1900 was 21,565,000, distributed as follows : 



4.277,000 

8.336.000 

Uo PmIo 3.620.000 

PanMBboeo 2.0e9.000 

Bio Ormade do Bnl 1,360.000 

Bio de Janeiro 1.300.000 

1.000.000 



Alagoas 781.000 

Federal District 760,000 

Maranh&o 660.000 

Par* 662.000 

Parahjba 696.000 

Serglpe 460,000 

Piaahy 426.000 



Rio Grande do Norte 407,000 

Santa Gatharlna. 406.000 

ParanA 380,000 

Goyas 340,000 

Amasonas 240.000 

Espirito Santo 201.000 

Matte Qro880 167.000 



The prevailing religion is Roman Catholicism. Education, which is nowhere com- 
pulsory, is in a very backward condition. 

Government — ^The executive authority is vested in a president, who is assisted by 
a cahinet of six members who are appointed by and responsible to himself. The 
president for the four-year term ending November 15, 1902, was Senhor M. F. de 
Campos Salles; he was succeeded by Senhor Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves. 
The national legislative body is a congress of two houses, the senate and the chamber 
of deputies. The several states enjoy local self-government. 

The active army numbers about 15,000 officers and men. The navy is reported to 
comprise 2 third-class battleships, 2 second-class cruisers, 2 third-class cruisers, 
3 torpedo cruisers, 8 first-class torpedo boats, and a number of smaller or older craft. 

Finance. — The monetary standard is gold and the unit of value the milreis, worth 
54^ cents ; the value of the paper milreis in 1902 was about 24 cents. The chief 
source of revenue is duties on imports and the largest items of expenditure are for 
the departments of finance and public works. The estimated revenue and expenditure 
have been reported in milreis as follows : 





Beyenne. 


Expenditure. 




Gold. 


Paper 


Gold. 


Paper. 


1900 
1901 
1901 
1901 


63.976.643 
68.870,641 
42.876.667 
43.123.042 


312,968,000 
286.092.200 
267.461.000 
266.643,000 


86.973.646 
37.610.000 
33.666.000 
42.693.070 


263.162.276 
244.614.000 
224.616.000 
238.4S9.192 



In his last messap^e to congress, May 3, 1902, President Campos Salles contrasted 
the financial condition of the government at the time he assumed office, November 
I5> i8sA with its condition in 1902. At the earlier date gold payments were sus- 
pended ; paper money in circulation amounted to 788,364,000 milreis, with the milreis 
worth about 14-55 cents; Brazilian bonds were at 50 per cent, discount; the amount 
needed for redemption of the funding loan was iiS»997fiOO milreis; the amount due 

8 



114 



on the 1897 loan was £1,122,083; £274,6^ were due for war material; the treasury 
owed 11,000,000 milreis to the Bank of the Rqiublic; and treasury notes amottnting^ 
to 20,350,000 milreis were in circulation. Against this indebtedness there were only 
5,500,000 milreis in the treasury and £81,713 in the London agency. Gold payments 
on the foreign debt had been resumed in July, 1901; the paper circulation at the 
time of the message had been reduced to about 681,000,000 milreis, while the value 
of the milreis had risen to about 24.28 cents ; Brazilian bonds were worth about 85* 
all the treasury notes had been withdrawn, and the 1897 loan had been f>aid ; at die 
existing rate of exchange there was a surplus of about 80,000,000 milreis currency. 
In 1902 the government was still endeavoring to increase the value of the paper mil- 
reis by providing, through the 25 per cent, of customs collected in gold, for the 
prompt gold payment of interest on the public debt and by reducing the amount 
of paper money in circulation. Any advance in the value of the paper milreis 
means an increase in the actual value of the customs receipts. The government is 
trying to improve its finances also by buying railways, on which it had guaranteed 
interest charges, and leasing them at an advantage, and by curtailing expenses and 
imposing additional taxation. Throughout 1902 miancial and industrial conditions, 
though improved, as shown by the president's report, nevertheless continued un- 
satisfactory. 

The national debt, at the beginning of looi, is stated as follows : Foreign consoli- 
dated, 394,686,449 milreis; internal consolidated (gold), 27,259,000 milreis; total gold 
debt, 421,945,449 milreis ($230,382,215). The paper debt amounted to 1,398403,972 
milreis, composed as follows: Internal consolidated, 543^26,637 milreis; floating, 
165,577,335 milreis ; paper currency, 689,000,000 milreis. 

Industries and Commerce. — The principal industry is agriculture, though only a 
small part of Brazil's area, is under cultivation. The leading product is cofiee, while 
others of importance are rubber, sugar, tobacco, maize, yerba mate, cotton, cacao, 
beans, and nuts. In the coast districts factories, especially for the production of 
cotton ^oods, flour, and alcoholic beverages, are increasing. The estimated coffee 
production for the year ending June 30, 1902, was 16,000,000 bags of 60 kilogrammes 
(132^ pounds) ; of these 10,149,327 were received at Santos, and 4,971,686 at Rio de 
Janeiro. In recent years the fall in coffee prices, consequent upon overproduction, 
has been one of the most disturbing factors in Brazil's economic condition. At a 
meeting of the Agricultural Society of SSo Paulo, held in July, 1902, resolutions were 
adopted looking toward the relief of the coffee industry, including temporary restric- 
tion of the area planted to coffee, prohibition of the exportation of inferior coffee, 
and negotiation of commercial treaties reducing import duties on coffee. Rubber is 
the most important product of the Amazon Valley; for years ending June 30, the 
export has been : 1900, 26,881 tons ; is)0i, 27,680 tons ; 1902, 2g,ggf7 tons. Of this last 
amount 15,931 tons went to Europe and 14,066 tons to the United States; 14,668 tons 
came from ManSos, 13,925 from Pari, and 1404 from Iquitos (Peru). Mining is 
little developed, though gold and diamonds are produced to a considerable extent; 
from the state of Minas Geraes 4,012,221 grammes of gold were exported in 1901. 

The principal imports include cotton and woolen goods, iron and steel goods, pro- 
visions, alcoholic liquors, and coal. Among the leading exports, besides those 
mentioned above, are sugar, cotton, tobacco, and cacao. The currency values of 
imports and exports, exclusive of specie, in 1897 were 671,603,280 milreis and 831,- 
806,918 milreis respectively; in 1901, according to the SerzHgo de Estatistica Com- 
mercial of Rio de Janeiro, imports amounted to 415,053,516 milreis (about $95,- 
462,000), and exports 860,826,969 milreis (about $197,990,000). Commerce by coun- 
tries of greatest trade importance is reported in milreis (paper) as follows for 
1901: 



COXTNTBIXB. 



Great Britain and poeses- 

SiODS 

▲rgentina. 

Umted States. 



Imports 
from 



iao.378.411 
66.178.480 
61.686.666 



Exports 
to 



111.487.400 

19.218,778 

871.147.266 



ConKTBixa. 



Germany 
France.... 

Uragn>ay- 
Portugal 



Imports 
from 



89.080,606 
88.268.299 
27.066.441 
26,928.640 



Exports 
to 



126.749,984 

100.888.397 

9.909.657 

6.091,289 



In 1900 there were 9172 miles of railway in operation and 14,893 miles of tele- 
graph line, with 27,721 miles of wire. Of the telegraph lines the government owned 
12,769 miles, with 25,318 miles of wire. 

History.— On March^i, 1902, Senhor Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves and 
Senhor Silviano Brandao, as candidates of the Republican party, were elected presi- 
dent and vice-president, respectively. Senhor Alves was inaugurated November 
15, 1902; Senhor Brandao died in the preceding month. The new president, who was 
governor of SSo Paulo and had been a federal senator and minister of finance, is 



IT ^ BvabII* 

15 Bridse Bnlldlnff. 

re^rded as an able financier. He announced that in general he would adopt the 

poUdes of his predecessor. His cabinet, which came into power with him and 

which inspired genera) confidence, comprised: Senhor Rio Branco, minister for 

foreign affairs; Senhor Seabra, justice and the interior; Senhor Bulhoes, finance; 

Field-Marshal Argollo, war; Admiral de Noronha, navy; Senhor Mueller, com- 

immications, public works, and education. On the occasion of the departure of 

the retiring president, Senhor Campos Salles, from the capital on November 15, 

betous demonstrations took place against him and against some of the newspaper 

offices. Troops charged the rioters, with the result that one person was killed and 

several others injured, and numerous arrests were made. 

The treaty referring the question of the boundary between Brazil and British 
Guiana to the arbitration of the king of Italy and signed by Lord Lansdowne, 
British foreign minister, and Senhor Joaquin Nabuco, Brazilian minister at London, 
on November 6, igoi, was proclaimed January 28, 1902. The territory in dispute is 
bounded on the west by the Cotinga and Takutu rivers, which are confluent, and on 
the east by the Rupununi River; the northern limit is the watershed running east- 
ward from the source of the Cotinga to a point near Mount Ayangcanna, and the 
southern limit the line connecting the source of the Rupununi with that of the 
Takutu. 

For a number of years the large German populations in the extreme southern 
states, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, and Parana, have called forth much 
comment, of which the general purport is that they are destined to break away from 
Portuguese rule. Discussion continued in 1902, and was made especially prominent 
by the German colonial conference, convened in Berlin on October 10. Although 
the German government officially disclaimed any desire of acquiring territory in 
Brazil, it made no effort to check at the conference this sentiment voiced virtually 
by Dr. Robert Jannasch, the well-known geographer and commercial expert, and 
approved by many of his associates and a large part of the German press. It was 
urged that German emigration be directed to southern Brazil, apparently in the 
hope that the Germanized territory would declare itself a colony of the empire or a 
republic in strict alliance therewith. The former suggestion was regarded by many 
American supporters of the Monroe doctrine as purely visionary, and indeed in 1902 
there was a tendency in the United States to treat with lessening seriousness the 
question of the "German peril" in Brazil; at the end of the year, however, the 
Venezuelan imbroglio evoked considerable discussion of Emperor William's alleged 
designs upon South America. And it should not be overlooked that through the 
medium of steamship lines, railways, banks, factories, and other enterprises, Germany 
is not failing to take advantage of her commercial opportunities in southern Brazil. 

BRETTy John, an English seascape painter, died at Putney, England, January 7, 
1902. He was bom in 1831, and from 1856 to 1901 contributed one or more pictures 
to every exhibition of the Royal Academy. His early work, especially "The Stone- 
breaker^' (1858), was warmly admired b^ Ruskin for its brilliant coloring and 
delicate finish— characteristics of the majonty of his pictures. The most admired now 
of his paintings are views among the Cornwall and Channel Islands. Some of his 
better known pictures are: "Spires of Channel Islands" (1875); "Cornish Lions" 
{1877) ; "Carnarvon Bay" (1878) ; "Britannia's Realm, Sandy Shallows of Seashore" 
(1880) ; "Yellow Sands, Welsh Dragons" (1883). In 1881 he was elected an asso- 
ciate of the Royal Academy. 

BRIDGE BUILDING. The building of new bridges to replace those that have 
become too light for modem heavy traffic and for the purpose of opening up new 
routes for transportation |foes on so ceaselessly that one year possesses little more 
of note than another in this regard. In several respects, however, the year 1902 was 
a notable one even when compared with the remarkable records of preceding years. 
In the United States particularly the number of bridges of the first rank in size and 
importance which were projected or under construction during the year was un- 
usually large. The greater number of these structures were designed for railway 
purposes, but a few, and these including the very largest, were for street traffic. An 
enumeration of these structures shows examples of about every type of bridge that 
engineers now recognize as good practice. 

In suspension bridge construction the two great 1600-foot span structures now in 
process of construction across the East River, New York City, easily rank at the 
head. The older of these two bridges, formerly known as the New East River 
Bridge, was officially renamed the Williamsburg Bridge during the year, and at the 
same time the younger was named the Manhattan Bridge. The principal work done 
on the Williamsburg Bridge during 1902 was the spinning of the four steel wire 
suspension cables, and the close of the year would undoubtedly have witnessed the 
praaical completion of this work had it not been for the untoward accident of fire 
which occurred at the top of the Manhattan tower on November 11, 1902, and which 



Brt4«e Bnlldlav. jjg 

damaged two of the cables so much that quite extensive repairs were rendered neces- 
sary. Each of the four cables of this bridge is composed of 7,696 steel wires 3-16 inch 
in diameter. These wires are grouped m strands, there being 208 wires in each 
strand and 37 strands for each cable. In construction each strand was laid up as 
one continuous wire looped around two end pins just as a skein of 3ram would be 
looped on the hands held apart. When all die strands were completed they were 
bunched together into a cylinder and held in that position by circular steel damps 
which carry the suspender ropes. To permit of this work a pair of suspension foot 
bridges, one under each pair of main cables, was built between the two towers. At 
the time of the fire the spinning of all four cables had been completed and the sus- 
pender clamps were in place. Work had also been begun in placing the protective 
coating and the steel jackets designed to shield the cable wires from the weather. 
The fire occurred on the Manhattan tower just where the cables bend over the tower 
saddles, and resulted from the ignition of the timber shanties and other combustible 
materials used by the contractors at that point. It swept over the two southernmost 
cables heating and weakening the exposed wires. In one cable 500 wires were 
injured, and in the other 200 wires. Tests made on the injured wires showed that a 
loss of strength and elasticity had resulted, which made one cable 254 per cent 
weaker, and the other 654 per cent, weaker than before the fire. To repair these 
damages the enp;ineers proposed to cut out the injured portions of the wires and to 
splice in new pieces of wire. By doing this it was estimated that one cable would 
be only 0.25 per cent, weaker and the other only 2^ per cent, weaker than the 
original strength, and to make up this it was proposed to reenforce the cables by 
adding new wires. As repaired, it is estimated that the cables will be quite as 
strong as they were originally. Perhaps the most novel feature of the cable con- 
struction for the Williamsburg Bridge and the feature that distinguishes it from pre- 
vious cable building, was that of using a cloth wrapping and steel jacket to protect 
the cable from the weather. In previous parallel wire suspension cables the wrapping 
has consisted of fine wire wound tightly around the cable, like thread on a spool« 
and then painted. Besides the cable work, there was steady progress durinjg 1902 on 
the construction of the approaches and contracts were let for the construction of the 
suspension span. The work on the Manhattan Bridge during IQ02 was confined to 
the foundations for the Brooklyn tower, but contracts were let tor constructing the 
Manhattan tower foundations. This last foundation will consist of a timber caisson 
;^ X 144 feet in lateral dimensions, which is to be sunk by the compressed air process. 
The Brooklyn tower caisson was of substantially the same dimensions. Probably 
the most notable announcement made during: the year in connection with this work 
was that of Mr. Gustav Lindenthal, commissioner of bridges, of New .York City, 
that suspension cables of forged steel eye-bars would be employed. While this was 
a common form of cable construction in early suspension bridges, it has never before 
been proposed for a span of so great a length as 1,600 feet. 

For very long spans the cantilever bridge is the only t3rpe of bridge that is in any 
sense a rival of the suspension bridge, and the year 1902 saw a number of structures 
of the cantilever type in process of construction. The most notable of these, in all 
respects, was the 1,800-foot span in process of construction over the St Lawrence 
River about 654 miles upstream from Quebec, Canada. The river at the point where 
the bridge will cross it is 1,900 feet wide at low tide and 2,000 feet wide at high tide. 
The maximum depth of water in the channel is 180 feet, but the river shallows 
rapidly toward the banks, so that at the points where the two main piers are built, 
1,800 feet apart, it is only 10 feet deep at low tide. Besides the i^oo-foot centre span 
there are a 500-foot and a 210-foot span on each side of the river. The bridge will 
carnr a double-track railway between the main trusses 6254 feet apart, and a trolley 
track and roadway outside of these trusses on each side of the bridge. The depth 
of the main trusses at the centre is 120 feet, and at the piers is 336 feet. In con- 
sidering these figures it will perhaps aid to a full understanding of their significance 
if we remember that the main spans of the Forth Bridge in Scotland, hitherto the 
giant among bridge structures, are 1,710 feet long, or 90 feet shorter than the span of 
the Quebec Bridge. The Forth Bridge, however, has two spans of the great 
dimension stated, and is exactly 2,030 feet longer from end to end than its Canadian 
rival. At the end of 1902 the foundation structure for the Quebec Bridge was 
practically completed. It is, perhaps, of interest to note here, also, that the super- 
structure for this giant structure is to be built by a United Sates firm, the Phoenix 
Bridge Company, of Phcenixville, Pa. Another Canadian bridge enterprise of great 
magnitude is the proposed bridge across the Straits of Canso between Port Hastings 
and Cape Porcupine, Nova Scotia. ^ The general plans prepared during 1902, call for 
a double-track railway cantilever bridge of 1,800 feet clear span.^ In the United States 
there were four cantilever bridges of unusual spans approaching completion at the 
end of 1902. All but one of these were railway bridges and two of them were being 
built by one company, the Wabash Railroad, on the new extension of its line to 



1 1 7 BriOiik Central AMou 

Phtsbnrg, Pa. The lonffer of these two bridges crosses the Monongahela River at 
Pituburg, and is 1,504 feet long from end to end, and has an 800-foot main span; 
the shorter crosses the Ohio River, at Mingo Junction, O., and has a 700-foot 
centre span and two end spans each 2^^ feet long. In total length, both of these 
bridges are exceeded by the 2,750-foot bridge over the Mississippi River at Thebes, 
lU^ but the longest clear span of the Thebes Bridge is only 671 feet. The fourth 
bridge of the number mentioned above is a highway bridge across the Ohio River 
at Marietta, O., which has a main span of 650 feet Besides the four bridges 
which were drawing toward completion at the end of 1902, there remains to be men- 
tioned the cantilever bridge designed to cross the East River at Blackwell's Island, 
New York City. This structure is designed to have a main span of 1,131 feet, and 
daring the year work was in active progress on the foundations. 

The most notable bridges of the braced girder t3rpe included in the work of 1902 
were the Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge across the Allegheny River at Pittsburg, Pa., 
and the combination highway and electric railway bridge over the Missouri River at 
St Charles, Mo. The St Charles Bridge consists of four spans of the following 
lengths: 417 feet 7]^ inches; 41954 feet (two), and 301 feet 7J^ inches. The Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Bridge is a four-track, double-deck bridge with four lines of girders 
and a main span 337^ feet long. In India, the Godavari Bridge on the East Coast 
Railway, and notable chiefly because of its great length, was completed early in 1902. 
This bridge has fifty 150-foot braced girder spans; and a total length of 9,096 feet, A 
highway bridge having two channel spans of 380 feet each was also built across the 
Mississippi River at Dubuque, la., in 1902. Except for the fact that this structure 
adds another to the list of bridges crossing the Mississippi River it is of no particular 
importance. 

In steel arch bridge construction the most notable work of the year 1902, was 
famished by the republic of Costa Rica in the Rio Grande Bridge crossing the river 
of that name about 26 miles west of San Jose on the line of the Pacific Railway. 
This was a two-hinged braced arch structure of 450 feet span and was built by an 
American firm. In the United States several arch spans were mcluded in the year's steel 
bridge construction, but they were all of comparatively short span. Among these 
the two following perhaps deserve to be noted: A three-hinged arch of 207 feet 
span over the Menominee River on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway, 
near Iron Mountain, Mich. ; a three-hinged spandrel braced arch bridge of two 164- 
foot spans on the Cleveland, Elyria and Western Railway (electric), near Birming- 
ham, Ohio. In France, the Viaur Viaduct was formally completed during 1902, 
although its construction more properly belongs to the records of previous years. 
This is SI three-hinged steel arch of 721 feet span. 

In drawbridge construction the most notable enterprise of 1902 was the beginning 
of work on a 520- foot swing span across the Missouri River at Omaha, Neb. Some 
ten years ago a swing span of the same length was erected at this point and con- 
nected by temporary structures with the shore on each side of the river. When the 
first swing span was erected it was intended at some future time to replace its tem- 
porary shore connections with a permanent structure and this work was begun in 
1902. The novelty of the project consists in constructing a second swing span end 
to end with the first The purpose of this unusual plan was to cover the full width 
of the river by the swing spans so that no shifting of the channel would shut off 
navigation. The new span is much heavier than the old one, and several of its 
details are novel. No swing bridge span of greater length than 520 feet has ever 
been built Several bascule bridges were included in the work of 1902, but none of 
unusual length of span. There was also built at Duluth, Minn., a ferry bridge, 
consisting of two high towers, the tops of which are connected by a braced girder 
span. This span serves as a track for a carriage from which a platform or car is 
hung at the level of the streets approaching the bridge. This carriage with its car 
is moved back and forth along its track and thus carries the car to and fro between 
the river banks. The span of the bridge is 393^ feet. Similar bridges have been 
built at a number of places in Europe, but this is the first to be constructed in the 
United States. 

In masonry arch bridges built during 1902, lead is taken by the great 277- foot stone 
arch at Luxemburg, which was drawing toward completion as the year closed. No 
other stone arch bridge work undertaken during 1902 was of unusual character. In 
concrete-steel construction the most striking example of the year was the so-called 
Y-Bridge at Zanesville, Ohio. In plan, this bridge has the form of a letter Y. It 
has eight spans, three of 81 feet, one of 99 feet; one of 120.6 feet, and three of 122 
feet Each span is an arch of concrete embedding a metal skeleton. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

See Advakcbment of Science, British Association for the. 
BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA, a large territory in southern central Africa, ex- 
tending' ^totn the Zambesi northward to Lake Tanganyika, is administered, with the 



Brltlsk Central AfHca. * tQ 



exception of the British Central Africa Protectorate, by the British South Africa 
Company, under the name of Northern Rhodesia. See the following article, Rho- 
DESiA^ and Cape-to-Cairo Railway. 

BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA PROTECTORATE, formerly known as 
Nyassaland, and lying between Lake Nyassa and Northern Rhodesia, has an esti- 
mated area of 42^17 square miles and an estimated population of about 900,000. The 
protectorate is administered by an imperial commissioner, Mr. Alfred Sharpe, resi- 
dent at Zomba. In 1902 a high court was established by an order in council in and 
for the protectorate. Revenue and expenditure in the fiscal year 1901 amounted to 
£49,215 and £78,366 respectively. The principal export is coflFee, but sugar, cinchona, 
tobacco, and other products are also cultivated. Imports and exports were valued 
in the fiscal year at £146,063 and £38,723 respectively; in 1902, £135,842 and £21,739 
respectively. There is a considerable transit trade. It is expected that a railway, for 
the construction of which a contract was made in November, 1901, will connect 
Blantyre with Chiromo by the end of 1903. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA, a province of Canada, has an area of 383.300 square 
miles and a population of 178,657, according to the census of 1901, as compared with 
98,173 in 1891, showing 81 per cent increase, the largest of any Canadian province. 
Capital, Victoria, with a population of 20,821 in 1901, as against 3,980 in 1891. The 
public-school system is free and undenominational. In 1901 there was a total en- 
rollment of 23,615 pupils; the teachers numbered 528. 

Government and Finance. — A lieutenant-governor, aided by a responsible cabinet, 
administers the province. There is one legislative chamber of 38 members elected by 
manhood suffrage. British Columbia has 3 members in the Dominion senate and 7 
in the house of commons. The finances of the province do not seem to be in a very 
prosperous condition. The revenue for the year endingjune 30, 190 1, was $1,605,920, 
and the total expenditure $2407492 — a gross deficit of $801,572, and, with a deduction 
for sinking fund investment and loan redemption, a net deficit of $681,901. The 
chief sources of revenue were, in addition to $242,689 received from the Dominion, 

feneral mining receipts, $154,270; free miners' certificates, $93,510; revenue tax, 
101,196; real property tax, $121,707. The chief items of expenditure were interest 
on public debt, $255,393; civil government, $232,013; education, $313,507; public 
works, $754,637. The total assets of the province for the fiscal year 1901 were $3,377,- 
140, and the total liabilities $9,827,605. 

Industries and Commerce. — Mining is the chief industry of the province. The total 
value of the mineral output for the calendar year 1901 was $20,086,780, as com- 
pared with $16,344,751 for 1900. The chief minerals produced were gold, $S»3 18,703 ; 
silver, $2,884,745 ; lead, $2,002,733 ; copper, $4446,963 ; coal, $4.380,993 ; and coke, $(535,- 
405. British Columbia ranks next to Nova Scotia in the value of its fisheries. The 
trade of the province in the fiscal year 1902 was less than in the preceding year, 
the exports being $18,385,335, as compared with $21,648,191 in 1901, and the imports 
$10,391,256, as compared with $11,137438 in 1901. 

History. — In January, 1902, Premier James Dunsmuir, preparatory to appealing 
to the province in a general election, declared his policy to be chiefiy a demand for 
more subsidizing of railways by the Dominion. The provincial legislature was 
opened on February 20, and it was announced officially that a railway would be 
subsidized from Yellowhead Pass, on the eastern boundary of the province, to 
Bute Inlet, on the Pacific Coast, there to be connected with the Vancouver Island 
Railway. The chief questions that agitated the province after the legislative session 
were the bad financial conditions of the province, the increase of the public debt, 
which is now $6407,757, and whether better terms could be secured from the 
Dominion government. The disallowance of anti- Japanese legislation was effective 
in inducing the province to modify the provisions against Japanese immi^ants, and 
the treaty of alliance between Great Britain and Japan was instrumental m securing 
this result. Fourteen railway charters containing provisions hostile to the Japanese 
were changed. Some of the mines were closed during the summer by reason of 
strikes, but they were subsequently opened. At the general elections the Dunsmuir 
government was defeated, and Mr. E. G. Prior became premier. He announced a 
vigorous policy of railway building, the object being to construct a line from the 
Pacific Coast to join at Yellowhead Pass on the eastern boundary of the province, 
the Canadian Northern Company's line now being built from Lake Superior. 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA. See East Africa, British. 

BRITISH GUIANA, a colony of Great Britain on the northeastern coast of 
South America, has an estimated area of 120,000 square miles. The estimated popu- 
lation at the beginning of 1901 was 294,943, of whom the majority were negroes and 
East Indians. Immigration of the latter continues, the number for the year igoo-oi 
being 4,470. The capital is Georgetown. The colony is administered by a governor 
(Sir James Alexander Swettenham, since 1901), who is assisted by an executive 



TTrk British Guiana* 

119 Brown. 

ootmcil and committees (courts) of appointed and elected members. For 1901 the 
revenue and expenditure amounted to £509,950 and £505,542 respectively; for 1902, 
feiiSO^ and £522,631 respectively. The public debt in 1902 amounted to £922,120. 
The principal product is sugar, but of late increasing interest has been shown in the 
cultivation of other crops. Land grants in the fiscal year 1900 aggregated 10,925 
acres, and in 1901 11,314 acres. In the fiscal year 1901 the imports and exports were 
valued at £1,393,529 and £2,068406 respectively; in 1902, £1414,769 and £1,833,624 
respectively, llie leading export is sugar. Gold production in the fiscal year 1901 
yielded £393,083, and in 1902 £371492. About half of the total trade is with Great 
Britain and about two-fifths with the United States. There are about 94 miles of 
railway. 

BRITISH HONDURAS, or BELIZE, a crown colony of Great Britain lying 
east of Guatemala on the Caribbean Sea, has an area of 7,562 square miles. Accord- 
ing to the enumeration of 1901, the population was 37479. The capital is Belize. The 
colony is administered by a governor (Sir David Wilson, since 1897), assisted by an 
executive and a legislative council. Revenue and expenditure in 1900 were $289,728 
and $246^201 respectively; in 1901, $277,038 and $249,326 respectively. Imports and 
exports in 1900 were valued at $1,198,772 and $1,300,565; in 1901, $1,227,202 and 
$1*587,598. Included in these exports was a value of $323405 in transit in 1900 and 
$493430 in 1901. 

British Honduras was the only British colony in which the coronation festivities 
planned for June, 1902, were carried out. Through the lack of cable service, news of 
King Edward's illness did not reach the colony until after the date set for the 
coronation. This incident called attention to the small progress the colony has made. 
There is no railway, telegraph, telephone, cable, or, outside of the capital, even a 
cartroad. It is stated that the efforts of the inhabitants to construct a railway from 
Belize to the Guatemalan frontier, through a practically flat country, by providing 
£75,000 and making a land grant of 200,000 acres, are blocked by the crown agents 
for the colonies, who want to undertake it themselves at a cost of £700,000, a sum 
which the merchants and colonists cannot meet. 

BRITISH NORTH BORNEO. See Borneo. 

BROOKLYN INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, organized in 1824 
as the Brooklyn Apprentices' Free Library, was re-incorporated in 1843 under its 
present title. In 1890 the charter was amended. The lectures delivered on the arts 
and sciences in connection with the institute's twenty-eight departments during 1902 
exceeded 500 in number, and in addition there were instructive conferences, concerts, 
dramatic readings, etc Work on the museum building, which has been in progress for 
some time, was materially advanced during that year, when a contract for interior 
work, amounting to $274,500, was awarded by the city park department. The city board 
of estimate and apportionment also authorized the expenditure of $150,000 for the 
erection of a power-house and power-plant equipment for the museum. The presen- 
tations made to the institute m 1902 were numerous, the money donations alone 
amounting to over $80,000. During 1902 the total attendance at the lectures, ex- 
hibitions, exercises, etc., was 452,803 ; the total income, $146,077.52. The institute 
issues a comprehensive and instructive Year Book. President of the board of trus- 
tees, A. Augustus Healy; secretary, George C. Brackett, 502 Fulton Street, Brooklyn. 

BROOKS, Eldridge Streeter, an American author, died January 7, 1902, at 
Somerville, Mass. He was bom April 14, 1846, in Lowell, Mass., and studied at the 
Free Academy, now the College of the City of New York. As an author of books 
for boys he gained wide popularity. These works, mainly of a patriotic and his- 
torical nature, were produced with remarkable facility, aggregating about seventy 
titles. He was engaged in the book trade in connection with various publishing 
houses from the time he was nineteen, was editor of the St Nicholas Magasine 
from 1884 to 1887, of Wide Awake from 1891 to 1893, and later was literary editor 
for the Lothrop Publishing Company of Boston. 

BROTHERHOOD OF ANDREW AND PHILIP. See Andrew and Philip, 
Brotherhood of. 

BROTHERHOOD OF SAINT ANDREW. See Saint Andrew, Brother- 
hood OF. 

BROWN, George Douglas, a Scottish author who died in London August 29, 
1902, was best known to readers as "George Douglas," the pseudonym under which 
appeared his one book, the striking House with the Green Shutters. He was born 
in West Scotland in 1869, studied at Glasgow and Oxford, became a publisher's 
reader in London, and in addition to general newspaper work did sketches for the 
Speaker and reviews for the Illustrated London News. His The House with the 
Green Shutters {1901) became a "best-selling^' book in England and America. But 
it was more than that. It was a work of distinct merit, which evoked for its author 
from certain critics the title of "the Scotch Balzac." In its cruel arraignment of the 



Brewn. j^o 



Scot — ^thc "unspeakable Scot" of Crosland — it raised a sharp note of opposition to 
the sublimated portrayals of the Kailyard School. 

BROWN, John Appleton, an American landscape-painter, died January iS^ 1902. 
He was born July 24, 1844, in Newburyport, Mass., studied art in Boston under B. C. 
Porter, and was a pupil of Emile Lambinet in Paris. His first work to attract atten- 
tion was done while traveling in Switzerland. On his return to the United States 
he opened a studio in Boston, and later removed to New York. He had a talent for 
reproducing details with unusual accuracy, and under Lambinet learned to preserve 
this effect without sacrificing to composition. Some of his well-known pieces are: 
"View at Dives Calvados, France " (1875) ; "On the Merrimac"; "Storm at the Isles 
of Shoals"; "Glen Mile Brook, Byfield, Mass." (1881) ; and "Springtime" (1884). 
He was an associate of the National Academy. 

BROWN UNIVERSITY, Providence, R. I., founded 1764. In 1902 the faculty 
numbered 84, against 87 in 1901, and the attendance was 940, an increase of 41 over 
the preceding year. The income for the year was $$75,553, with gifts to the value of 
$395,306. The year was notable for building operations by which the university will 
secure the accommodations made necessary by its recent growth. Opposite the new 
library work was begun on a new clock tower, 100 feet m height, the gift of Paul 
Banjotti, of Turin. The Social and Religious Building given by John D. Rocke- 
feller, will be used by the social, athletic, musical, literary, and religious organizations 
of the university. Other buildings already undertaken or provided for are a new 
dormitory, a building for civil and mechanical engineering, and the new swimming 
pools given by Colgate Hoyt Brown steadily refuses to start professional schools, 
believing that its true function is that of an academic university. The courses have 
been generally stiffened. 

BROWNE, Junius Henri, an American journalist and writer of war stories, 
died in New York City, April 2, 1902. Born at Seneca Falls, N. Y., in 1833, and edu- 
cated in Cincinnati at St. Xavier College, he entered the field of journalism, and 
during the Civil War acted as war correspondent for the New York Tribune, in 
which capacity he attracted wide attention by his reportorial audacity and graphic 
descriptive powers. From May, 1863, to December, 1864, he was confined in several 
Confederate prisons^ but finally escaped with a few companions, and traveled 400 
miles on foot from Salisbury Prison to the Federal lines at Knoxville. Subsequently 
he contributed to various periodicals, and published Four Years in Secessia (1865), 
in which apear recitals of his prison experiences ; The Great Metropolis, a Mirror of 
New York; and Lights and Sensations in Europe, 

BRUNEI. See Borneo. 

BRUSSELS SUGAR CONFERENCE. See Sugar Industry. 

BRYAN, Charles Page, an American diplomat, was on September 26, 1902, 
transferred from his office as envoy extraordmary and minister plenipotentiary at 
Rio de Janeiro to assume similar duties in Switzerland. He was bom in Chicago in 
1856, and after studying at the University of Virginia and the Columbian Law Col- 
lege was admitted to the bar in 1878. In 1879 he removed to Colorado, where he was 
elected to the lower house of the legislature, served as colonel on the military staff 
of Governor Eaton, and for a time was connected editorially with the Denver Inter- 
Ocean and the Colorado Mining Gazette, Since 1883 he has been a resident of 
Illinois, where he was a member of the legislature for four terms, and an officer on 
the staffs of Governors Fifer, Oglesby, and Altgeld. In 1897 he was appointed min- 
ister to China by President McKinley, and in January, 1898, became minister to 
Brazil. 

BRYANT, John Howard, brother of William CuUen Bryant, died January 14, 
1902, at Princeton, 111. He was born July 22, 1807, in Cummington, Mass., and in 
1831 removed to Jacksonville, 111. In the following year, with his brother Cyrus, he 
went to Princeton, where he engaged in farming and also in building and contracting. 
He took a lively interest in politics, and was elected to several county offices and to 
the State legislature in 1842 and 1858. In 1847 he had edited the local Free Soil 
paper, and in 1852 ran for Congress unsuccessfully as a candidate of that party. He 
was a member of the convention at Pittsburg, Pa., that organized the Republican 
party (1856), and in i860 was a member of the National Republican Convention. In 
1862 he served as a collector of internal revenue. During the decade immediately 
preceding the Civil War his house was apparently a regular station for the under- 
ground railroad. In 1855 he published a volume of poems, which, of course, suf- 
fered from the inevitable comparison with his brother's works, but which is never- 
theless highly creditable, and interesting as indicating the temperament of a poet 
who busied himself chiefly with the practical affairs of life. 

BRYMNER, Douglas, archivist of Canada, died at New Westminster, B. C, 
June 19, 1902. Born at Greenock, Scotland, July 3, 1823, he received a common 
school education in the place of his birth and began a business career, but went to 



121 



bSuTdb'Oi 



Cimda ia 18^7 owing to til-health, and undertook fanning. After a time he entered 
the field ol loumalism and was connected editorially with the Presbyterian, the 
ot^an ol the Presbyterian denomination in Canada, and with the Montreal Daily 
Herald. In 1872 he was appointed ardiivist of Canada, a public office newly insti' 
tuled tor the collection and preservation of Dominion historical records, which he 
held until his death. In 1892 he received the honorary decree of LL.D. from Queen's 
Uiuversity, and was made a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada three years 
later. 

BRYN UAWR COLLEGE, at Bryn Mawr, Pa., an undenominational woman's 
college of a high type, opened in 1885, had in 1901-02, a faculty of 43 and a student 
attendance of 437, of whom 67 were graduate students and 6 hearers. Its income 
for the year from all sources was $226,352. Within the year Ig02 the money value of 
gifts received reached the amount of $572,149. A new lighting and heating plant 
has been installed at a cost of $153,000. A new dormitory and a new library build- 
ing in process of erection, cost $400,ooa The library was increased to about 39,000 
volumes. The college lost a dormitory by fire. 
BUBONIC PLAGUE. See Plague and Vital Statistics. 
BUCK, Alfked Eliab, United Stales minister to Japan, died at Tokio, December 
4. igoz. He was bom at Foxcroft, Me., in 1832, and graduated at Waterville (now 
Colby} College, in 1859. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War he raised a com- 
pany of volunteers, and was made a captain in the Thirteenth Maine Regiment, and 
afterward, having raised the Ninety-first Colored Regiment, was appointed, in 1864, 
to the command of the Fifty-first Colored Infantry, with the rank of lieutenant- 
coloneL He was brevetted colonel for gallant services at Mobile, and made division 
inspector-general of western Louisiana in June, 1865. After the war he engaged in 
turpentine manufacture at Mobile, but was burned out in 1867. He was a delegate 
to the reconstruction convention of Alabama, was a presidential elector in tS68, and 
was elected to Congress in 1869. He was a delegate to five Republican conventions, 
was chairman of the Georgia central Republican committee after 1882, and was ap- 
pointed minister to Japan m 1897. 

BUCKWHEAT. Three-fourths of this crop in the United States is raised in New 
York and Pennsylvania. There was a slight falling off in 1902 in the yield per acre 
in both of these States, but in most of the other States a slight increase was noted. 
The average yield for the whole country was 18.1 bushels, as compared with the ten- 
year averse of 17.2 bushels. The total crop of the year was 14.529,770 bushels, 
valued at ^8.654,704, as compared with 15.1^5,939 bushels valued at 3S.523J17 in igoi. 
Tlie production of this grain in Ontario, Canada, was 1,971.930 bushels in 1902. The 
exports of buckwheat from the United States during the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1902, amounted to 719,615 bushels, valued at $449>9I7- These exports were prin- 
dpally to the Netherlands and Germany. 

BUILDING OPERATIONS in the United States during 1902 show a gain over 
those for preceding years. Reports received from twenty of the leading cities of the 
oouDtry for 1902 bare been tabulated by Conttruclton News, and show the following 





j 


,v.re„t. 




Nc 


Co^ 


So. 


Cost. 


Q^„. 


i™. 


S«r Toi* <BoroQBha ol Uanhattan ami The 


*,10T 

a.D30 
u.uo 

6,01* 

em 

3.ica 
3.m 

3. SOB 


lB,M7,8tl5 

r.'.m,m( 

a.BM.4H 
4,281 .400 

a.-m.m 


4.wa 

4!eBa 

4;Bffi 

i.9t3 


4S.070.3m 

IliMsisM 
JD,34S,BK 

4,6«a.Wffl 

4, 601 .Ml 
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Btflgaria. 



122 



BULGARIA, an autonomous Balkan principality under the suzerainty of Turkey. 
The capital is Sofia. 

Area and Population. — The estimated area is 38,080 square miles. The population 
according to the census of 1900 was 3,744^283. Bulgars numbered 2^887,684, and 
Turks 530,2^5. Sofia had 67,920 inhabitants. The national religion is the Orthodox 
Greek, but it is not included in the Orthodox communion. 

Government and Finance. — The executive authority is vested in a prince, who is 
assisted by a cabinet nominated by himself and responsible to the Sobranje. Upon 
this body, a single chamber, devolves the legislative power. The reigning prince in 
1902 was Ferdinand I., youngest son of the late Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg and 
Gotha, who was elected by the national assembly July 7, 1887. The peace strength 
of the army in 1902 was placed at 2,500 officers and 40,555 men. The war strength is 
estimated at about 205,000. (See Manceuvres, Military and Naval.) The navy 
is inconsiderable. 

The unit of value is the lev, worth one franc, or 19.3 cents. Revenue is derived 
chiefly from direct and indirect taxation and the largest expenditures are for service 
of the debt and for war. The estimated revenue and expenditure for 190 1 were 95,- 
286,900 leva and 95i222,535 leva respectively; for 1902, 95»955»400 and <^,898,337 re- 
spectively; for 1903, 98,017,900 and 97,682,871 respectively. For the last year the war 
estimates amounted to 23.301,362 leva. In 1899 steps were taken toward converting 
the entire national debt into a new 5 per cent, loan of 260,000,000 leva. On July 8, 
1902, however, the Sobranje voted to issue a loan of 120,000,000 leva. 

Industries, Commerce, etc. — The leading industries is agriculture, and wheat is the 
most important product and export. Other products are wine, silk, tobacco, and attar 
of roses. The values of imports and exports in leva have been as follows : 



Imports. 
Exports. 



lS9e. 



7^.730.360 
66.637.007 



1899. 



60.178.079 
68.467,099 



1900. 



46.34a.100 
63,982.629 



1901. 



70.044.073 
82.760.769 



The principal imports are textiles (about 27,500,000 leva in 1901), metal wares and 
machinery, leather goods, and furniture. The leading exports are grain (about 51,- 
717,000 leva in 190O, live stock, and animal products, silk, and cocoons, and attar of 
roses. In 1901 British trade increased notably. The approximate values in leva of 
the imports from and the exports to countries of greatest trade importance were in 
1901: 



Imports. 
Exports. 



Great Britain. 



13.917.000 
16.876.000 



Turkey. 



Anstria- 
Hungaiy. 



10,062.000 
24.429,000 



17.228.000 
7.256.000 



Germanj. 



9.828.000 
8.799,000 



Bdginm. 



3.392.000 
10.970.000 



In 1900 there were 909 miles of railway in operation and 130 under construction. 

History.— The persistent hostility of the Sobranje to the pkm of the Karaveloff 
ministry to secure a loan of 125.000,000 francs from a foreign corporation, which was 
to exercise some degree of supervision over the revenues, brought about the ministry's 
resignation on December 16, 1901. The resignation was not accepted by Prince 
Ferdinand, but after its measure was definitely rejected by the Sobranje on Decem- 
ber 24 it again resigned on the 28th. On January 4, 1902, the Sobranje was dis- 
solved, and on the next day a ministry was formed as follows : Premier and min- 
ister for foreign affairs, M. Daneff; interior and finance, M. SarafofF; war, General 
Papnkoff; justice, M. Radeff ; public instruction, M. Kantcheff ; commerce and agri- 
culture, M. Ludskanoff. This was a Zankoffist, or Russophil, ministry. It secured 
a majority at the legislative elections of March 3, which resulted as follows : 97 Zan- 
koffists (ministerialists), 33 Stoiloffists, 17 Karaveloffists, 10 Agrarians, 9 Radoslaffists, 
8 bociahsts, 8 Stambuloffists, 7 independents. But on March 22, by order of Prince 
I'erdinand, the ministry was again reconstructed (from Zankoffist material) as fol- 
lows : Premier and minister for foreign affairs. M. Daneff ; interior, M. Ludskanoff : 
tmance, M. Sarafoff; war, General Paprikoff; justice. M. Radeff; public instruction, 
ij«off c^^iV • c9"^!J^erce and agriculture, M. Abrasheff; public works, M. Constan- 
llc?f;./ ^" ^^^" *" i902 there was a change of cabinet. In November the ministry 
r^^^cfrn^? 5^""°!}"^ ?iP^"°"5l differences among the members, and on the 17th was 
cS of M rntt ^\' ^'S'fXP'S^'^'^^^' P^ °"^y changes made were the sue- 
of M Radeff .nH M "x"S^ ^l ^^^^^""^""^ ^"d the exchange of portfolios on the part 
SLhc ins^rLlon • ^°d°^^.ff- On February 6, 1902, M. Kantcheff, the ministerof 
who Uml^l^ ? T assassinated by one Karandjuloff, a discharged schoolmaster, 
le^iTlS^^^^^ ^^"^-^^^^^ ^^'^'^^' It was not belie^d the crime was 

Of most conspicuous interest in 1902 were the activity of the Macedonian Com- 



T o ^ Bnlffarla, 

nattc e and the continued tendency of the government to draw towards Russia. The 
committee, which is formed for the purpose of freeing Macedonia from Turkish rule, 
is active in carrying on its propaganda Iwth in the principality and beyond the border ; 
and to its influence, in some measure at least, are attributed many of the Macedonian 
outbreaks. There is little doubt that the Bulgarian government is in sympathy with 
the aims if not the methods of the committee, but in 1902 affairs had reached so 
critical a point that, in the interest of international peace, and perhaps its own 
' existence, it was obliged to restrain, ostensibly at least, the Macedonian agitators. 
Indeed, on April 15 the government informed the committee of its resolution to dis- 
solve that body, but aside from the arrest of some of the leaders later in the year, 
practically nothing was done. A split occurred in the Macedonian Congress, which 
met at Sofia on August 10. One faction of the committee, in sympathy with the 
ill-reputed Boris Sarafoff, the former president, elected M. Stanicheff as president; the 
other faction chose as its president Colonel Zontcheff, an ex-officer, who, according 
to one authority, is "an enthusiast, touched with that zealous readiness for mar- 
tyrdom, that fiery exaltation of will, which is so characteristic of the Slavonic 
genius." The Zontcheff faction appeared to be working for the annexation of Mace- 
donia to Bulgaria, while the followers of Sarafoff frankly proclaimed their object to 
be Macedonian independence. Colonel Zontcheff was arrested, by order of the gov- 
ernment, on September 2, escaped, was again arrested, and again escaped on October 
8, when he went to Macedonia. M. Sarafoff was arrested on September 15. For a 
further account of the committee, the uprisings in Macedonia, and the relations of 
Bulgaria thereto, see Turkey. 

As to the relations of Bulgaria with Russia, it may be pointed out that during 1902, 
the government, supported by a majority in the Sobranje, was consistently Russophil. 
In June Prince Ferdinand visited the Czar, arriving at Peterhof on the loth and 
leaving on the 13th. His reception was cordial and clearly indicated the amicable 
relations existing between the two governments. On September 29 the battle of 
Shipka Pass was celebrated in Bulgaria, and speeches lauding Russian arms were 
made by Prince Ferdinand and the visiting Russian Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholai- 
vitdL At the end of 1902 it was more evident than ever that Russia is behind 
Bulgaria. 

In October, 1902, Michael Stavreff, known as Holju, was condemned to death for 
the murder in July, 1895, of Stefan StambulofF, the Bulgarian premier. Correspond- 
ezKe was then published by Holju's friends showing that he was only a tool in the 
hands of others and implicating, in the assassination of Beltcheff (minister of 
finance) and Vulkovitch (Bulgarian diplomatic representative at Constantinople), as 
well as in diat of StambulofF, many persons connected with the Bulgarian govern- 
ment of 1902, including the president of the Sobranje, the director of the national 
library, and M. Ludslanoff, the minister of the interior. The King of Roumania 
visited Prince Ferdinand in November^ 1902. 

BULOW, Bernard, Count von, chancellor of the German Empire, experienced 
in 1902 the difficulties of domestic and foreign statesmanship in a manner that 
severely tested his resources. In domestic affairs he was called upon to pilot the 
uriff bill through the Reichstag, a trying task when the number of German political 
parties, and especially the bitter conflict of Agrarians and Industrialists, are con- 
sidered. By effecting the enactment of the tariff bill, which increases duties espe- 
dally upon grain and meat and other food products, he stirred up the commercial 
hostility of Russia and Austria-Hungary, while exasperating the Socialists in restrict- 
ing debate in the Reichstag. As the Emperor's mouthpiece in foreign policy, he was 
only partly successful. His references to the British army and to Mr. Chamberlain 
angered the English ; but, on the other hand, he is credited with a share in the policy 
that brought about the joint blockade of the Venezuelan coast by British and German 
ships. He also had an important part in the renewal of the Triple Alliance in June. 
The chancellor was bom May 3, 1849, ^i"^ *^ '875 began diplomatic service as secre- 
tary of the German embassy at Rome, occupying the same office afterward at St. 
Petersburg and Vienna. During the Russo-Turkish war of 1877 he was charge 
d'affaires at Athens, and in 1878 served as a secretary at the Berlin Congress. After 
farther diplomatic service, in Paris and St. Petersburg, he was appointed minister to 
Roumania in 1888 and to Italy in 1893. He was made foreign secretary in 1897, and 
succeeded to the chancellorship in October, 1900. Von Biilow has been described as 
a striking: contrast to Bismarck in diplomatic manner and method. Polished and 
affile, he is apparently communicative, but in reality is secretive. He fully ap- 
proves Bismarck's policy of friendship with Russia, and is in sympathy with the 
Industrialists rather than the Agrarians ; but he has nevertheless advised and promoted 
measures that have gone far to alienate Russia commercially and to offend the 
Industrialists. With so masterful an emperor, his initiative is limited, and he has been 
an obedient opportunist ; but to all outward appearance he is not more than fairly 



Butler. 124 

launched upon his career as chancellor, and it remains to be seen how he will stand 
more prolonged tests of diplomacy. 

BUOL-BERENBERG, Rudolf, Baron von, German statesman and politician, 
died in July, 1902. He was born May 24, 1842, in Zigenhausen, Baden, studied law at 
the universities of Freiberg, Munich, and Heidelberg, entered the Baden civil service, 
and after becoming a judge at Mannheim in 1870 was made a judge of the supreme 
court. In iC^i he was sent to the Baden Landtag, and three years later to the Ger- 
man Reichstag, where he allied himself with the Ultramontane or Centre party. In 
1892 he was elected first vice-president of the Reichstag with Centre support, and in 
1895 succeeded Levetzow as president when the latter resigned at the Reichstag's 
refusal to notice officially the eightieth birthday of Bismarck. He was the acknowl- 
edged leader of the Clerical party in Baden and presided over the Baden Catholic 
Diet that assembled in 1890 and later over the German Catholic Diet. 

BURKE, Joseph, an American violinist, died in New York City, January 19, 1902. 
He was bom in Gal way, Ireland, in 181 5, and at an early age developed a remarkable 
talent for music and acting. When eight years of age he began to tour Europe as 
an infant prodigy and met with great applause in many Shakespearean parts; and 
after coming to America in 1830 continued his acting for several seasons. He then 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1840, but never practised. His study 
of the violin had continued and in 1850-51 he accompanied Jenny Lind as soloist on 
the American tour of her concert company. He was well known in New York 
musical circles as an instructor and performer of high ability until 1880, when he 
retired to country life at Batavia, N. Y. 

BURMA, a province of British India, lying to the north and east of the Bay of 
Bengal, is bounded on the north by Assam and on the east by China, French Indo 
China (for a comparatively short distance along the Mekong), and Siam. The 
estimated area of Upper Burma is 83473 square miles and the population, according 
to the revised census of 1901, 3,849,833; Lower Burma, 87,957 square miles with 
5»37i»328 inhabitants; the Burmese 5han states, about 40,000 square miles, with 1,228.- 
460 inhabitants; total, upwards of 211,000 square miles with 10449,621 inhabitants in 

1901. The people are mostly Buddhists. The chief city of Upper Burma is Mandelay 
(population 183,816), and of Lower Burma Rangoon (population 234,881). The 
province is administered under the Indian government by a lieutenant-governor ; to 
this position Mr. Hugh Shakespear Barnes was appointed in September, 1902, to 
succeed Sir Frederick W. R. Fryfir earljr in 1903. The money of account is the 
silver rupee, worth one-fifteenth of a British sovereign, or about 32.4 cents. In the 
fiscal year 1899 revenue and expenditure (in tens of rupees) amounted to Rx. 6,989,- 
040 and Rx. 4462,922 respectively; in 1900, Rx. 7,013,624 and Rx. 4,573,312 re- 
spectively. Imports and exports (exclusive of trade with other parts of India) were 
valued at Rx. 4,919,396 and Rx. 10,187,929 respectively in the fiscal year 1900, and 
Rx. 6,991,507 and Rx. 10,081,715 respective\y in 1901. By far the largest export is rice, 
which in 1901 amounted to Rx. 7,924,278. These fk^ures do not include the small 
overland trade with China. In 1899 there were 936 miles of railway in operation 
and since that time a considerable mileage has been completed. 

BURNETT, Charles Henry, a specialist in ear diseases, died January 30, 1902, 
at Br3m Mawr, Pa. He was born in 1841, graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1866, and studied diseases of the eye and ear at Vienna. He was a member 
of the College of Physicians, and the American Aurological Association. He pub- 
lished The Ear: Its Anatomy , Physiology and Diseases , and was the editor of an 
encyclopedia of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat, which was completed in 1901. 

BUTLER, Samuel, English author and composer, died in London, June 19, 1902, 
He was born in Langar, Nottinghamshire, December 4, 1835, and in 1858 graduated 
at St. John's College, Cambridge. After residing from i860 to 1864 in the Canterbury 
Settlement, New Zealand, he devoted himself to painting, music, and literature. In 
several works he assailed the Darwinian theory, and published translations of the 
Iliad and Odyssey, and classical studies, among them an attempt to prove that the 
Odyssey was written by a woman. The most widely read of his writings are 
Erehwon (1872; the inverted word order of "Nowhere") and Erehwon Revisited 
(1891), descriptions of a new-found Utopia, written in the vein of Swift's Gulliver's 
Travels, and marked by vigorous and clever satire upon contemporary society, though 
with an over-fondness for the paradoxical. He took a keen interest in painting 
and architecture and exhibited several of his pictures at the Royal Academy. (Thief 
among his musical productions is Narcissus^ a cantata composed in the style of 
Handel and written in collaboration with Mr. H. F. Jones. 

BUTLER, William Allen, a recognized authority on American admiralty law 
and the author of several well-known poems, died at Yonkers, N. Y., September 9, 

1902. Bom February 20, 1825, at Albany, N. Y., he graduated in 1543 at the 
University of the C*ty of New York (now New York University), and after 



T^c* Butler* 

Earop^n travel studied law, which he later successfully practised in New York. 
As senior member of the firm of Butler, Notman, Joline, and Mynderse. he became 
known among the emineut admiralty lawyers of the United States. In 1886 he was 
president of the American Bar Association. His satirical poem Nothing to Wear 
first published anonymously in Harper^s for November, 1857, won an inter-continental 
popularity and evoked a host of bogus claimants. His General Averages was a clever 
skit on sharp mercantile practices. His further publications include Martha Van 
Buren (1862) ; Mrs, Limber's RaMe, prose fiction (1876) ; Domesticus (1886) ; and 
two volumes of collected Poems (1871, 1898). 

CALIFORNIA, a Pacific coast State of the United States, has a land area of 
155*980 square miles. The capital is Sacramento. California was admitted to the 
Union September 9, 1850, widiout ever having been an organized territory. The 
population in 1900 was 1485,053, while in June, 1902, as estimated by the government 
actuary, it was 1,541,000. The populations of the four largest cities in 1900 were: 
San Francisco, 342,782 ; Los Angeles, 102479 ; Oakland, 66,960 ; Sacramento, 29,282. 

Finance. — ^The total receipts of the State treasury for the fiscal year ending July i, 
1902, amounted to $9,905,679.65 and the total expenditures $9,804,916.62. The balance 
and surplus on hand July i, 1902, amounted to $5*093,23944. The main items of 
revenue during the year and the amounts derived therefrom were : General property 
tax, $5,686435.22; poll-tax, $430,186.17; school loans, $171,887.13; collateral in- 
heritance tax, $287,05349; secretary of state, fees, $143,607.80; insurance collections, 
$51,000 ; San Francisco harbor collections, $813,9^.58 ; prisons, $300,730.88 ; reduc- 
tion of bonds, $266,124.80; railway taxes, $884,06242; United States government, 
$92^17.20; miscellaneous sources and transfers, $778,327.96. The total debt at the 
end of the year was $2,281,500. There was no change in the funded debt during the 
year, neither was any floating debt incurred. The entire funded debt of California 
is held in its own hands, and is therefore in the nature of a debt to itself. At 
the end of the year 1902, about a million dollars of school money, authorized to be 
invested in national. State, or county bonds, lay idle in the treasury. The interest 
on national bonds was so small and State and county bonds were so scarce that it 
was recommended by Governor Gage in his annual message that investments should 
be authorized in California municipal and school bonds. Owing to the fact that the 
State levy, applicable to the general State government, had been steadily reduced by 
the legislature for six years, the governor stated that either the levy must be 
increased again or the State would have to meet a deficiency. Complaint was made 
that under the general property tax, a great bulk of the personal property escaped 
taxation. The governor's message states that while from iS(5o to 1870 the assess- 
ment of personal property nearly equaled that on real property, the personal assess- 
ment in 1902 was hardly 15 per cent, of the assessment on real estate. The 
governor considered that as soon as feasible the direct tax for the maintenance of the 
State government should be abolished as it was being abolished in New York, and an 
indirect tax substituted, leaving to the counties and other political and civil divisions 
the exclusive right to tax real and personal property. 

Agriculture and Industries. — The crops for the season 1902 were large in quantity 
and excellent in quality. The production of wheat amounted to 22,374,201 bushels, 
being an average of 10.9 bushels per acre. The value of the barley crop was nearly 
twice that of any other State, 1,144,274 acres yielding a total of 29,751,124 bushels. 
The oat yield was 5,148,583 bushels. The fruit season of 1902 was unusually good. 
California is the first State in the production of grapes, statistical reports placing 
the 1902 yield at 98 per cent, of a full crop. Apples and pears were both considerably 
above the average. California is well supplied with live stock. According to the 
Crop Reporter the State had 1449.249 cattle and 2,365,884 sheep on December 31, 
1902. The year's wool-clip was estimated at 14,507,995 pounds. 

The industries of California were particularly prosperous in 1902. San Francisco 
became the centre of a number of new undertakings of unusual importance. The 
Commercial Pacific Cable Company, financed by John W. Mackay, began the laying 
of the first American trans-Pacific cable — from San Francisco via Honolulu to 
Manila. On December 26 the cable was landed at Ohua (see Pacific Cables). 
Since 1896 San Francisco's foreign shipping lines have increased in number from 
3 to 13. During 1902 a number of the largest sized steamers were added to the 
various Pacific merchant fleets. Within the State a number of costly enterprises 
for the supply of fuel for power were started or completed in 1902. The Pacific 
slope has long suffered from lack of coal, being obliged to obtain its supply from 
the eastern States. But the water power and oil fields of the Sierras are now begin- 
ning to be extensively utilized. There was a remarkable increase in the consumption 
of oil in 1902, about 12,000,000 barrels being used. The use of oil as fuel for railway loco- 
motives is rapidly increasing, the consumption for that purpose already being 7,000,000 
barrels a year. Over 100 steamships were granted permits in 1902 to use oil-fuel. 
Caiifomia oil refineries increased in number from 11 in 1901 to 2^ in 1902. Abundant- 



Callf«mia« Y26 

oil has stimulated nearly all branches of mining. The director of the United States 
mint estimates the gold output in 1902 at nearly $17,000,000, or about $1,250,000 
above the 1901 figures. According to his estimate, the silver production nearly 
doubled in 1902. Considerable prospecting and speculation were occasioned by 
reports of the discovery of rich deposits of nitre to the south and east of Death 
Valley in the southern part of the State. The Southern Pacific Railroad Company, 
the Southern Pacific Railroad Company of Arizona, and the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road Company of New Mexico were consolidated in March, 1902. The aggregate 
capital of the consolidated companies was reported to be $159445,000. The United 
Railway and Investment Company, of San Francisco, was incorporated in May under 
the laws of New Jersey. Its capital was increased from $2,500,000 to $25,000,000. 

Labor Movements. — Throughout 1902 a general movement for unionizing the 
trades in San Francisco was kept up with considerable success, especially among the 
street railway employees. The latter met with determined opposition from the 
owners of the leading line. In the spring of the year, however, they perfected their 
plans so completely that they were able to call a strike on April 19, paralyzing the 
main lines of transit. A demand was made for a ten-hour day, a minimum rate of 
25 cents an hour, and recognition of the union. The United Railroads Company, 
successors of the Market Street Railway, after a week's suspension of work made 
satisfactory concessions and traffic was resumed. The iron-workers of San Fran- 
cisco struck for a nine-hour day on May i, and on May 5 returned to work, having 
obtained slight concessions. 

Conventions and Platforms. — The primanr elections, under the new primary law, 
were held in the cities August 12, 1902. The Republican State convention met at 
Sacramento August 25-27 and adopted a platform indorsing the administration of 
President Roosevelt. Other policies advocated or endorsed were: the government 
policy in the Philippines; the civil service system; government ship-building in the 
navy yards; the construction of storage reservoirs for irrigation purposes; and the 
suppression of "trusts." In this latter connection the platform said: "We approve 
such legislation as will effectually restrain and prevent all such abuses, protect and 
promote competition, secure the rights of producers, laborers and all who are 
engaged in industry and commerce, and we approve and commend the efforts of 
President Roosevelt to enforce the laws against illegal combinations in restraint of 
trade, and pledge him our hearty support in all his efforts to protect the people from 
all oppressive combinations of capitalists." Among things condemned in the plat- 
form, Cuban reciprocity holds a prominent place. On this subject it says : "We de- 
clare our firm opposition to all reciprocity treaties inconsistent with protection to 
American labor and industry to which the Republican party stands pledged, and 
especially to any reciprocity arrangement with Cuba, or any other foreign country, 
as being destructive to the interests of the beet-sugar, raisin, citrous, and dried 
fruits industries of California, in which large amounts of capital have been invested." 

The Democratic State convention met at Sacramento September 2-3, 1902. The 
platform adopted favored a revision of the tariff laws ; the "securing to inhabitants of 
our insular possessions the same personal and property rights that are guaranteed 
to us ;" the complete exclusion of Chinese ; the speedy construction of an Isthmian 
canal; the construction of government vessels in government navy yards; direct 
legislation by initiative and referendum in State, county, and municipal affairs; 
and the just assessment and taxation of corporate property, including franchises. 
The platform denounced the existing protective tariff and condemned private 
monopoly in every form. 

The Union Labor party decided not to put a full State ticket into the field, but 
named candidates for the State legislature and for Congress. The leading feature 
of the Union Labor platform was the declaration in favor of all nominations for 
elective offices being made by petition, political parties not to be recognized in law. 
The platform also, advocated rigid enforcement of the eight-hour law and urged 
that all work for national, State, or city purposes be done by day's work and not by 
contract. 

The Socialist convention met at San Francisco on September 9, 1902. The plat- 
form adopted advocated the socialistic principles as set forth at the Indianapolis 
convention of 1901 ; advocated the ownership by the people of the means by which 
wealth is produced and distributed, protested against monopolies and trusts, and 
approved the organization of workingmen for self-protection. E. F. Loud, Re- 
publican member of Congress from the Fifth district, who had over 6000 majority in 
1900, was defeated by as large a total in 1902, owing chiefly to the hostility of trades 
unions to his views regarding working hours for postoffice employees. 

The platform of the Prohibition party adopted in 1902 included planks favoring 
the initiative and referendum, the public ownership of public utilities, and the 
election of President and Vice-President by direct vote. 

Elections.— At the regular quadrennial State election held November 6, 1902, a full 



t^pm California* 

127 Cambodia. 

Republican State ticket was elected. For governor Pardue (Rep.) received 145,332 
voles and Lane (Dem.) 143,782. The State legislature for 1903 comprises go 
Republicans, 22 Democrats, and 8 Labor Unionists. 

Other Events. — On January 2, 1902, the steamship Walla Walla, 3069 tons, bound 
for Puget Sound from San Francisco, was run down and sunk by the French bark 
Max off Cape Mendocino, 39 lives being lost. There were several severe earth- 
quake shocks in southern California July 27-31, especially in Santa Barbara County, 
where considerable damage was done to property. The town of Los Alamos was 
destroyed. 

State Officers. — For 1902 — Governor, Henry T. Gage; lieutenant-governor, Jacob 
H. Ncff; secretary of state, Charles F. Curry; treasurer, Truman Reeves; comp- 
troller, Edward P. Colgan; attorney-general, Tirey L. Ford; superintendent of 
education, Thomas J. Kirk; surveyor-general, M. J. Wright — ^all Republicans. For 
1903 — Governor, Dr. George C. Pardee, elected for 4 years, term ending January, 
1907; lieutenant-governor, Alden Anderson; secretary of state, Charles F. Curry; 
treasurer, Truman Reeves; comptroller, Edward P. Colgan; attorney-general, U. S. 
Webb; superintendent of education, Thomas J. Kirk; surveyor-general, V. H. 
Woods — ^all Republicans. Supreme Court — Chief justice, W. H. Beatty; associate 
justices, R. C. Harrison, C. H. Garoutte, F. W. Henshaw, J. Temple, T. B. Mc- 
Farland, and Waker Van Dyke — all Republicans except Temple and Van Dyke. For 
Congressional representatives see United States (paragraph Congressional Repre- 
sentatives). 

CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF, Berkeley, Cal., founded 1868. President, 
Benjamin Ide Wheeler. The students for the year ending June, 1902, numbered 3980, 
classified as follows: In Berkeley, graduate students, 230; undergraduate, 2248; 
total, 2470, of whom 1135 were women; in the university schools at San Francisco, 
677, of whom 148 were women; at the Lick Observatory, 4 men; in short dairy 
course, 35 men and 2 women; in the summer session of 1901, 799, of whom 452 were 
women. Officers and teachers numbered 481. The enrollment at Berkeley in 
November, 1902, was 2846. In the increased attendance these well marked tendencies 
are evident: (i) the proportionate increase is greatest in the professional schools; 
(2) a relative decrease in the number of women; and (3) a widening of the student 
constituency. The number of entering students from without the State had risen to 
14 per cent, in the fall of 1902. During 1902 a new department of political economy 
and finance was created under the headship of Professor Adolf C. Miller, formerly 
of the University of Chicago. The history department, from which the new depart- 
ment was separated, was reorganized under the headship of Professor H. Morse 
Stephens, formerly of Cornell University, who also is to direct the work in university 
extension. The department of physiology was reorganized under the directorship of 
Professor Jacques Loeb, formerly of the University of Chicago. A new department 
of irrigation was created under the direction of Professor Elwood Mead, formerly of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, while a beginning was made towards 
a new department of Slavic languages. The university has adopted a new, or rather 
reorganized the old, scheme of entrance and graduation requirements. Fifteen 
units of secondary work are now required for admission to each of the three colleges, 
10 of which are common to all of the schools, as follows : English, 2 ; mathematics, 
2 ; history, i ; Latin or modern languages, 4 ; physics, i. The other 5 units may be 
taken from a large list of recognized preparatory subjects, but two must be in Greek 
for admission to the college of letters. One hundred and twenty points are required 
for graduation ; and after the completion of at least 60 of these, which must include 
the 36 required points, there is given a certificate of admission into the advanced 
courses, many of which are of semi-professional nature. This plan recognizes a 
radical distinction between the work of the first two and of the last two years and 
also makes it possible for a student to graduate in three years. The preferred 
solution of the problem of the length of a college course is not a shorter course, but 
rather one emphasizing the changed character of the work after the sophomore 
year, which makes it possible for the fourth-year work to be distinctly professional. 
In this way the professional and the baccalaureate degree can be taken in six years. 
The gifts to the university for the past two years (the reports are biennial) reach 
$900,000, the largest amount ever received by the university in that length of time. 
The additional fund from State taxes made possible a number of improvements in 
the equipment and in the work of the institution. See Psychology, Experimental 
(paragraph University of California). 

CAMBODIA, a protected state on the Gulf of Siam between Cochin-China and 
Siam and forming one of the divisions of the French colony of Indo-China, has an 
estimated area of 37400 square miles and an estimated population of about 1,500,000. 
The capital is Pnom-Penh (population 50,000). The government, nominally under 
the control of a native king, is actually administered by the French resident, who 



Cambodia* t ^o 

Canada* Oomialon of; ^^^ 

presides at the state coundi and supervises the French officials in whose hands 
practically the entire control of internal affairs is placed. The budget for 1901 
balanced at 1,951,487 piastres. (The silver piastre is worth about the same as the 
Mexican dollar.) The chief products are rice, betel, tobacco, indigo, pepper, and 
spices. The foreign trade is carried on largely through the port of Saigon in 
Cochin-China (q.v.), with which the trade statistics are included. In the fall of 
1902 the French government contracted for a submarine cable from Saigon to Ponti- 
anak, Borneo. See Indo-China. 

CAMBON, Jules Martin, French ambassador ^o the United States since 1897, 
was transferred to Spain in the autumn of 1902 and was succeeded by M. Jusserand 
(q.v.). During the negotiations which concluded the Spanish- American war, M. 
Cambon represented Spain in drafting and signing the peace protocol. He was 
bom in Paris, April 5, 1845, &nd after receiving a university education studied law 
and was admitted to the bar. After meritorious service in the Franco- Prussian 
war, for which he was promoted captain, he entered the civil service in 1871 and in 
1874 went to Algeria, becoming civil director-general. Returning to France in 
1878, M. Cambon became secretary to the prefecture of police, Paris, holding that 
office until 1882. His subsequent positions until his promotion to the diplomatic 
service were: prefect of the department of the North, 1882-87; prefect of the de- 
partment of the Rhone, 1887-91 ; and governor-general of Algeria, 1891-97. M. Cam- 
bon is a man of literary taste and acquirements. 

CAMEROON, a German protectorate in West Africa lying on the Gulf of 
Guinea between French Congo and Nigeria and extending northward to Lake Tchad, 
has an estimated area of 191,130 square miles and an estimated population of 
3,500,000. In 1 90 1 the white inhabitants numbered only 548. The protectorate is 
administered by an imperial governor, assisted by a local council. A small army 
of about 900 natives officered by Germans is maintained to keep order. The seat of 
government is Buea and the chief town Duala (formerly Cameroon). Local revenue 
is derived mainly from import duties. For the fiscal year 1901 the actual revenue 
amounted to 1431,760 marks. (The mark is worth 23.8 cents.) Estimated revenue 
and expenditure for the fiscal year 1903 balanced at 4,236,600 marks, of which the 
imperial contribution comprised 2,205,100 marks. The most important products are 
rubber, palm kernels, palm oil, ivory, and woods. The leading imports are textiles, 
alcoholic liquors, and ironware. Imports and exports in 1900 were valued at 
14,245,014 marks and 5,886458 marks respectively. In September, 1902, it was 
announced that the imperial chancellor had granted a concession for the construction 
of a railway from the coast to a point about 250 miles in the interior. According 
to a report published in July, 1902, German military operations in Adamawa had 
resulted in bringing the whole of that district, including the German territory 
bordering Lake Tchad, definitely under German rule. 

CAMPANILE, at Venice. See Architecture and Italy (paragraph Fall of the 
Campanile). 

CAMPBELL, Mrs. Patrick, English actress. See Drama. 

CAMPBELLITES, or CAMPBELLITE BAPTISTS, a term popularly ap- 
plied to Disciples of CThrist iq.v.), 

CANADA, DOMINION OF, the largest British colony, comprising the northern 
part of North America, with the exception of Newfoundland and its dependency, 
Labrador. Ottawa, in the province of (Ontario, is the capital. 

Area and Population. — The total area, exclusive of the district of Franklin, which 
lies mostly within the Arctic circle, is estimated at 3,653,946 square miles, including 
605,253 square miles of water surface. The population* in 1901, according to the 
census of that year, was 5,371,051, as compared with 4,833,239 in 1891. The increase 
during the decade was 537,812. or nearly 11. 13 per cent. The provinces of the 
Dominion are Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick (the original members 
of the Confederation of 1867), Manitoba (admitted in 1870), British Columbia 
(admitted in 1871), and Prince Edward Island (admitted in 1873). Besides these 
there are the Yukon territory and the Northwest territories, divided into the districts 
of Keewatin, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Athabasca, Mackenzie, Ungava, and 
Franklin. The district of Franklin has not yet been surveyed. The question of 
increase in the population of Canada during 1902 was more hopefully discussed than 
at any previous period. The reason was that the emigration of American farmers 
into Manitoba and the northwest was unusually large^ and took place under con- 
ditions that promised a steady increase. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902, 
the immigration into northwest Canada from all sources was about 70,000, and of 
these 22,000 came from the United States, as compared with 17,987 in 1901, 15,500 in 
1900, and 11,945 in 1899. The indications are, however, that since June 30, 1902. the 
influx of American settlers has been very much larger, and estimates for the fiscal 



-^^ Canada* Oomlnlen •£» 

year 19Q3 vary from two to three times greater than the figures for 1902. See para- 
graph Religion and Education. 

Government. — In 1867 the provinces of Canada were united by parliamentary act 
into a confederation called the Dominion of Canada, and provision was made for 
the admission of additional provinces as need should arise. The Dominion is 
virtually autonomous, with a governor-general representing the British crown; his 
powers, however, are little more than nominal, bemg really exercised by the federal 
prime minister. In the dominion the apportionment of federal and provincial powers 
respectively reverses that in the American union. In the latter, the sovereign States 
surrendered spjccific powers to the federal government, reserving to themselves the 
unspecified residuum; in the Dominion specific powers were given to the provinces 
by the imperial authority, reserving the balance to the federal government The 
dominion constitution combines with the principle of federalism, borrowed from 
the United States, the principle of responsible or parliamentary government inherited 
from England. The virtual executive is the prime minister, who must always com- 
mand a majority of the House of Commons, and whose advice may be temporarily 
rejected or reserved for imperial consideration, but is never ultimately disregarded. 
The legislative power is vested in the King, Senate, and House of Commons. The 
Senate consists of 81 members, nominated for life on the recommendation of the 
governor-general in council ; members of the House of Commons are elected for five 
years. Representation is based approximately upon population, the unit of repre- 
sentation for the house being determined by the population of Quebec, whose 
representation is fixed at 65 members. Upon the basis of the 1901 census the mem- 
bers of the house will ultimately number 210; in 1902, however, there were 214 
members as follows: Ontario, 92; Quebec, 65; Nova Scotia, 20; New Brunswick, 
14; Manitoba, 7; British Columbia, 6; Prince Edward Island, 5; Northwest Terri- 
tories, 4 ; Yukon, i. ^ 

The provinces within their sphere are self-governing, according to the parlia- 
mentary system, and their executives, as well as the executive of the Northwest 
Territories are nominated by the governor-general in council. 

The Liberal administration of 1902 was returned to power at the general elections 
of 190a The ministry was as follows : Sir Wilfrid Laurier, premier and president 
of the council ; R. W. Scott, secretary of state ; Sir Richard J. Cartwright, minister 
of trade and commerce; Charles Fitzpatrick, minister of justice and attorney- 
general; J. R. F. Prefontaine, marine and fisheries; A. G. Blair, railways and 
canals; Sir Frederick W. Borden, militia and defense; W. S. Fielding, finance; Sir 
William Mulock^^ postmaster-general ; S. A. Fisher, agriculture ; James Sutherland, 
public works; Clifford Sifton, the interior; William Paterson, customs; M. C. 
Bemier, inland revenue; W. Templeman, minister without portfolio. 

Finance, — ^The financial condition of the Dominion continues exceptionally prosper- 
ous. The revenue and expenditure for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902, were 
$58,024,229 and $50,739,953 respectively, leaving a surplus of $7,284,276, one of the 
largest in the history of the country. The increase m revenue of $5,509,528 over 
that of the preceding year was due chiefiy to customs duties, which amounted to 
$32,191,978 in 1902, as compared with $28,425,284 in 1901. There were also increases 
in receipts from excise, posts, public works and railways. The official returns for 
the half year ending December 30, 1902, show a still greater prosperity. The revenue 
for that period was $31,262,862, as compared with $27,683^55 for the corresponding 
period of 1901, an increase of $3,579,007. The revenue exceeded ordinary expenditure 
alone by $11,713,174 and total expenditure, which was $23,673,663, by $7,589,199. The 
increase of ordinary expenditure during the six months ending December 30, 1902, 
was only $467457 in excess of the corresponding six months of 1901. The total gross 
debt of the Dominion in 1901 was $354,732432, an increase of $8,525453 over the 
previous year, and the total net debt was $268400,003, an increase of $2,^,197 over 
the previous year. The total assets were $86,252428. The rate of interest on the 
gross debt was 3.12 and the net rate was 2.60. 

Agriculture. — ^During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902, there was a large 
increase in the sales of land in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories for settle- 
ment. During the previous fiscal year there were 8162 homestead entries, represent- 
ing ^f3P5f920 acres, as compared with 7424, representing 1,188,160 acres in 1900. 
The homestead entries and sales since June 30, 1901, very much surpass all prececfing 
records. Of the homestead entries, 2351 were made by Canadians, chiefly from the 
province of Ontario, 2026 by Americans, 1056 by Austro-Hungarians, 659 by English- 
men, 255 by Germans, and 182 by Scotchmen. Crop statistics are given in the articles 
on the separate provinces; but some idea of Canada's agricultural importance may 
be gained from its domestic exports. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902, 
the exports of domestic agricultural products were valued at $37,152,688, of which 
wheat represented $18,688,092, hay $4413411, wheat flour $3,968,850, oats ^,052,559, 
fruits $1,922,304, seeds $1,309,322, and pease $1,582,764. The exports of animals and 

9 



Canada, Demlalen ef. ion 

their products amounted to $59,161,209; of this sum cattle represented $10,622,539, 
cheese $19,686,291, bacon $12,162,953, and butter $5,660,541. 

Mineral Production. — The total value of minerals raised in 1901 was $69,407,031, 
as against $64488,037 in 1900. The leading minerals produced were valued as follows 
for 1900 and 1901 respectively: Gold, $27,908,153 and $24462,222; coal, $13,290429 
and $14,671,122; copper, $3,065,922 and $6,600,104; nickel, $3,327,707 and $4»594.523; 
silver, $2,740,362 and $2,993,668; lead, $2,760,521 and $2,199,784. The export of 
domestic mineral products in 1901 was valued at $40,367,683, as against $24,580,266 in 
1900. The construction of large steel works at Sydney, Cape Breton, and at Sault Ste. 
Marie. Ontario, was well advanced at the end of 1902. 

Fisheries. — The total value of the Dominion fisheries for the calendar year 1900 
(the latest for which official statistics are available) was $21,557,639, being a de- 
crease of $334,067 as compared with 1899. The value of salmon caught was 
$3,893,217, cod $3,614,775. lobsters $3,055,350, herring $1,853,237, and mackerel 
$1,549448. In 1900 over 80,000 men were engaged in this industry, which represented 
a capital of $10,990,125. In 1900 bounties paid to the deep-sea fishermen of the mari- 
time provinces amounted to $158,802. The seal catch in 1901 numbered 24422, as 
compared with 35,523 in 1900. 

Commerce. — Trade for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902, was the best on record. 
The total aggregate trade was $423,910,444, of which the imports were $212,270,158 
and the exports $211,640,286. The total trade was $42,393,208 in excess of the pre- 
vious year. The imports were an increase of $21,854,633 over those of the preceding 
year and the exports were an increase of $15,152,654. Of the imports, $202,791,595 
were entered for home consumption, as compared with $181,237,988 for the previous 
fiscal year. Of these the United States contributed $120,814,750 ($110485,008 in 
1901} ; Great Britain, $49,206,062 ($43,018,164 in 1901) ; (Germany, $10323,169 ($7,021,- 
405 in 1901), and other countries, $21,947,614 ($20,713411 in 1901). The most 
notable inferences from these figures are the continued increase of imports from the 
United States, and the checking of the decline in British imports that had marked the 
last decade of the nineteenth century. In spite of the preferential tariff of 33 per 
cent, in favor of Great Britain, the percentage of increase from 46.37 to 60.75 in 
American imports during the last decade bids fair to be fully maintained in the next. 
Of the exports $117,320,221 went to Great Britain ($105,328,956 in 1901) ; $71,197,684 
to the United States ($72,382,230 in 1901 ) ; $3,2^,912 to the West Indies ($2,905,937 
in 1901) ; and $2,692,578 to Germany ($2,141,552 in 1901). 

Communications. — In 1901 there were in operation 18,140 miles of railway (as 
against 17,657 in 1900), with a total paid-up capital of $1,042,785,539. Passengers 
carried in 1901 numbered 18,385,722 and the freightage amounted to 36,999.371 tons. 
The total earnings were $72,898,749 and the workmg expenses $50,368,726. The total 
net revenue of the Postoffice Department for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902, 
excluding that from the Yukon and Atlin districts, was $33^,126, an excess over 
that of the previous year of $466,933. The total expenditure, excluding that of the 
same districts, was $3,883,016. The surplus of revenue over expenditure was 
$5109, the first time a surplus in this department has been recorded. The postoffices 
numbered 9958. The tonnage of vessels of all kinds passing through the Canadian 
canals in 1901 was 5,778496, and the tolls collected were $261,922, as compared with 
$276,658 for the previous year. 

Currency and Banking. — The total paid-up capital of the banks of the Dominion 
at the end of the fiscal year 1901, was $67,095,718, as against $64,735,145 at the end 
of the previous year. The total assets were $531,829,324, as against $459,715,065 for 
1900, and the total liabilities were $420,003,743, as against $356,394,095 for 1900. The 
notes in circulation were $50,601,205, as against $46,574,780 for 1900. 

HISTORY. 

Parliamentary Session. — The opening of Parliament by the governor-general, the 
Earl of Minto, took place on February 13, 1902. The strength of the Liberal 
majority in the House of Commons was increased slightly by bye-elections held 
during January. The speech from the throne expressed the regret of the Canadian 
people over the assassination of President McKinley, promised legislation for the 
punishment of anarchists and others who incite the commission of crimes commonly 
classed as anarchistic, referred to the assistance given Mr. William Marconi by the 
government in establishing stations for wireless telegraphy, and advocated additional 
commercial agencies and a line of steamers to South Africa. The debate on the 
address to the throne was vigorous and prolonged and brought out clearly the con- 
trasted positions of the government and the opposition on current political questions. 
Moreover, the small group of irreconcilables, headed by Mr. Henri Bourassa. a 
French-Canadian member, raised the discussion of questions that could be easily 
asked but that by reason of their far-reaching imperialistic complications could not 
be easily answered. Such, for example, were the following matters conUined m a 



y ^ y Canada, Demlnlen of* 

notification of resolutions made by Mr. Bourassa: The repeal of the Clayton- 
Bulwer treaty, the Alaskan boundary question, the Dominion's part in the South 
African war, and British Columbian legislation against the immigration of Chinese 
and Japanese. Most of these questions, as well as certain omissions from the 
govemor-generars speech, were discussed in the debate on the address. In regard 
to questions relating to imperial matters, the attitude of the Parliament, as expressed 
by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, was that reasonable patience and delay are necessary. Mr. 
F. W. Borden, the leader of the Conservative opposition, reiterated his criticisms 
upon the existing tariff, which, he alleged, does not secure the home market to 
Canadians. The session, which was unusually brief, was prorogued on May 15. The 
principal measures passed were railway bills. One of these authorized the well- 
known contractors, Mackenzie and Mann, to connect the lines built by them in 
Ontario, Manitoba, and the Northwest, and to extend their system across the 
continent by the Pine River Pass to Fort Simpson on the Pacific coast. Another 
measure granted a charter for a new trans-Canadian railway, reaching to the Pacific 
coast It may be noted here that in the latter part of 1902, the management of the 
Grand Trunk Railway announced its intention of building still another trans- 
continental line. The forced resignation on October 21, 1902, of Mr. J. I. Tartc, 
minister of public works in the Liberal cabinet, on the ground of his protectionist 
opinions, was a sensational episode of which the Conservative opposition made as 
much as possible. 

Imperial Relations. — The Dominion was represented by Sir Wilfrid Laurier at the 
coronation of King Edward, August 9, 1902, and at the conference of colonial 
premiers, held in London from June 30 to August 11. At the conference the premier 
was accompanied by Sir William Mulock, postmaster-general, and Mr. W. S. Field- 
ing, minister of finance. Sir Wilfrid Launer was not so pronounced in his support 
of imperialism as had been expected. Fearing an unnecessary increase in the burdens 
of militarism, the premier held that Canada should make use of her importance as 
the senior self-governing colony, in seeking to postpone rather than to promote a 
joint organization of imperial and colonial forces for defense. In regard to prefer- 
ential tariffs within the empire as a whole, the Canadian position, non-committal in 
some respects, virtually favored a dominion preference in the British market, but 
deprecated a radical disturbance of existing conditions. The British tarifF on bread- 
stuffs and grain, adopted as a war measure and going into effect on August i, 1902, 
met with much disapproval in Canada, especially since the law did not provide for 
preferential treatment of colonial produce. It may be noted that protective tariff 
sentiment for Canada herself gained ground in 1902. 

With regard to the South African war, the Canadian attitude remained firmly pro- 
British throughout 1902, and in April the House of Commons voted almost unani- 
mously against a resolution advising a universal amnesty to the Boers, which was 
moved by Mr. John Charlton. Sir Wilfrid Laurier headed the opposition against it. 
The terms of peace were heartily approved. The return of the Canadian troops who 
had taken part in the war was the occasion of much enthusiasm. Probably a result of 
sudi feeling on the part of the Canadians was the announcement in the House of 
Commons on April 10 by the minister of defense that the government had decided 
to increase the militia so that Canada's forces would number 100,000 men. 

The subject of new steamship lines as a means of trade expansion and of strength- 
ening imperial relations received much attention in 1902. On August 28 it was 
officially announced that the Dominion r;ovemment in cooperation with English 
capitalists had established a Canadian line to South Africa, with an annual govern- 
ment subsidy of $150,000 for five years. One of the requirements is that the ships fly 
the British flag. Of much greater importance is the project of a fast line to Europe 
ander the management of the Canadian Pacific Though definite official statements 
are lacking. Sir F. W. Borden, minister of defense, stated in an interview that the 
government had practically resolved upon such a service, which would receive an- 
nual subsidies from both Canada and Great Britain, the Canadian subsidy to be 
$750,000 and the British $375,000 a year. Canada's means of communication with the 
empire were increased in 1902 by the completion of the British Pacific cable (October 
30), as well as by the accomplishment, at the Marconi station in Cape Breton, of 
wireless trans-Atlantic telegraphy. A Canadian company was formed to put the 
wireless system upon a commercial footing. See Pacific Cable and Wireless 
Telegraphy. 

Religion and Education. — According to the census returns the numbers of the 
eighteen^ different religious denominations which composed the population of 
Canada in 1901 were as follows as compared with 1891 : Adventists, 8064 (6354 in 
1891); Anglicans, 680,346 (646,095); Baptists, 292,485 (257,449); Brethren, 8071 
(".637) ; Baptists (Free Will), 24,229 (45J16) ; Congregationalists, 28,283 (27.157) ; 
Disciples of Christ, 14,872 (12,763) ; Friends, 4087 (4650) ; Jews, 16432 (6414) ; 
Lutherans, 92>394 (63,982) ; Methodists, 916,862 (847,765) ; Presbyterians, 842,301 



CaBadOs Demiaioa of* ^^^ 

CaaaU. Ij^ 

(755.326); Protestants, iifior; (12^53); Roman Catholics, 2,226,997 (1,992,017); 
Salvation Army, 10,307 (13.949) \ Tunkers, 1531 (1274) ; Unitarians, 1934 {^777) \ 
Universalists, 2589 (3186) ; unspecified, 44,186 (89,355) ; various other sects, I4if474 
(33»776). The educational system of Canada is under provincial jurisdiction. The 
higher educational institutions include 17 universities, 20 colleges, 19 classical col- 
leges, 9 women's colleges and academies, and 5 agricultural colleges. 

Crime decreased in Canada during the year ending September 30, 1901, the number 
of indictable offenses being 128 less than during the previous year. The decrease in 
the number of criminals in proportion to the populations held good in Ontario, New 
Brunswick, Manitoba, Prince Edward Island, Yukon, and British Columbia, while in 
Quebec, Nova Scotia, and the Northwest Territories, there was a small increase. 
The decrease in the Yukon district from 35 to 14 per cent, is considered remarkable 
in view of the influx of miners and the immoral life usually associated with mining 
Xowns and camps. For an account of the religious sect in Assiniboia, whose fanati- 
cism compelled government interference in December, 1902, see Doukhorors. 

Gaynor-Greene Extradition Case. — Considerable comment was called forth in 1902 
by the Gaynor-Greene case, in which the extradition was sought of Colonel John F. 
Gaynor and Captain Benjamin D. Greene, American fugitives from justice, who 
were charged with complicity with Oberlin M. (barter, formerly captain of United 
States Engineers, in conspiring to defraud the United States government of funds 
amounting to more than $2,000,000 in connection with river and harbor improvements 
at Savannah, Ga., where Captain Carter was in charge. On May 14 an application for 
the arrest of Gaynor and Greene, made at Montreal by Mr. Marion Erwin, of Macon, 
Ga., who, as a special attorney-general had conducted the prosecution in the United 
States, in behalf of the American federal authorities, was granted by Police Magis- 
trate Lafontaine, the extradition commissioner. The men were arrested and taken 
from Quebec to Montreal, whereupon Judge Andrews, of Quebec, issued a writ for 
their return to the latter city. This action was opposed by the counsel for the Ameri- 
can authorities, who contended that on account of alleged political influence exerted 
in the prisoners' behalf there was more assurance of an impartial decision in Montreal 
than in Quebec. On July 4, however, Judge Caron, in Quebec, decided that the pro- 
ceedings should be held m that city. Meanwhile Mr. Erwin had informed the State 
Department at Washington that the fugitives' counsel were connected by professional 
and social ties with the Canadian officials who had power to grant extradition. 
Attorney-General Knox authorized a request to the State Department that it bring 
the matter to the notice of the British Foreign Office, but Secretary Hay was disin- 
clined to do so without fuller investigation, since Premier Parent of Quebec Province 
denied the truth of Mr. Erwin's charges. It was evident that the latter were based 
on the belief that large sums of money were being improperly used to influence 
Canadian officials to defeat the intent of the extradition act. In view of the 
technical objections made in behalf of the defendants, the Washington authorities 
gave notice that a new application for extradition would be made, framed precisely in 
accordance with the language of the treaty. When the case came up again at 
Quebec on August 13, Judge Caron decided that the warrant of arrest was illegal 
and released the prisoners on the ground that the offences charged were not within 
the terms of the extradition act. The decision excited much comment, even 
in Canada, and Attorney-General Knox said that no available means would be 
neglected to bring the fugitives to justice. The case illustrates the unsatisfactory 
character of the extradition treaty between Canada and the United States, and is be- 
lieved to have afforded conclusive reasons either for a new treaty or a more liberal 
interpretation of the existing one. Another case of a similar kind was decided at 
Montreal on August 18, 1902, when the extradition of George Clark, of Lynn, Mass., 
was applied for on a charge of issuing checks without si:fncient funds in the bank, 
but the defendant was released since the offence is not a felony in Canada. 

Other Events. — Canada was comparatively free from industrial disturbances during 
1902. There should be mentioned, however, the strike for higher wages of the 
Toronto street railway employees during the early part of the summer. On June 22 
a riot occurred through the attempt of the company to run its cars with non-union 
men. A compromise was eventually arrived at, which was regarded as a virtual 
victory for the strikers. A terrible accident occurred on the Grand Trunk Railway 
at Wanstead, in the province of Ontario, on December 26, in which 28 passengers 
were killed and about 40 injured. See the articles on the several provinces. 

CANALS. The canal work of 1902 was confined almost entirely to projects for 
future construction and these were notably fewer than for several years past The 
Illinois and Mississippi Canal, begun a number of years ago, was the only canal for 
navigation purposes under construction in the United States. The improvement of 
the New York State canal system either by enlarging the Erie canal or by building 
a barge canal from Lake Erie to the Hudson River was agitated in various quarters 



TOO Canals. 

^Oo Cano«r« 

daring the year, hat this agitation resulted in no action which comes within the 
yearns record. Isthmian canal questions were in the hands of the State Department 
and Congress and are reviewed in the article Isthmian Canal (q.v.). Of the projects 
for future canal construction in the United States and abroad the following deserve 
mention. Early in 1902 the Montreal, Ottawa and Georgian Bay Canal project was 
reported upon favorably by a committee of the Canadian Parliament. The estimated 
cost of the canal was set at ^0,000,000 by this report and the time of completion was 
set at 1910. As described in the report submitted by the committee, the surface 
water in Georgian Bay is about 564 feet above the St. Lawrence at Montreal. It is 
proposed to raise the water in Lake Nipissing 65 feet above Georgian Bay, maldng^ 
total fall of 650 feet from the summit level. The aggregate lift of all the locks will 
be about 650 feet Three locks would be used to reach Lake Nipissing from the bay 
and the summit level will be 69 miles long through a chain of connecting lakes. 
From the eastern end of this level to the junction of the Mattawa with the Ottawa 
there will be a fall of 137 feet and five locks in 143^ miles. From the juncture named 
to Fort William the fall is 145 feet in 81 miles, requiring seven locks. From Fort 
William to the head of Lake des Chats, 56 miles, the fall is 115 feet and five locks are 
required. To Lake Deschenes, 47 miles, there is a fall of 55 feet, requiring two locks, 
and thence to the river below Ottawa there is a fall of 72 feet, requiring four locks. 
From Ottawa to Montreal the route is by the existing waterways. The total distance 
from Georgian Bay to Montreal by this route is 425 miles, of which four miles will 
be taken up by locks ; 40 miles will be canal, 22 feet deep and 100 feet wide on the 
bottom ; 74 miles will be in improved river channel, 300 feet wide on the bottom, and 
307 miles will be in open lake and river suitable for 20 feet navigation without 
further improvement: The canal if constructed would bring Lake Huron and 
Georgian Bay ports 400 miles nearer Montreal than by the St Lawrence River. In 
May, 1902, a bill was introduced into Congress to incorporate the Lake Erie and 
Ohio Ship Canal Company to build a canal at least 15 feet deep from Lake Erie to 
the Ohio River with a total fall of not over 600 feet The canal would be 122 miles 
long and have 34 locks. A more important project of the year was the Taunton 
River and Boston Harbor Ship Canal, surveys for which were made by the board of 
harbor and land commissioners of Massachusetts. The total length of the canal as 
surveyed is 31.79 miles, of which 22.33 miles are straight line and 9.46 miles are 
curve. The canal was surveyed for a depth of 25 feet and a bottom width of 130 
feet There would be five locks. The estimated cost of the canal was set at 
$57,600,000, 

In Europe the ship canal begun in 1890 from the Gulf of Dantzig to Konigsberg 
was opened for traffic in 1902. This canal is 22 feet deep, 98 feet wide, and 18 miles 
long, and cost $3,500,000. Interest was also revived in the Mediterranean-Bay of 
Biscay Canal. This project was reported upon favorably by a committee of the 
French Chamber of Deputies. As proposed the canal would be 280 miles long, with 
27 lodes and a cross section capable of passing vessels of 3000 tons, and would cost 
$263,000,000. The committee estimated the annual income from this canal at 
$9300,000. The French canal legislation of the year 1902 was, moreover, made 
notable by a vote of the lower house to spend $128,045,850 in deepening, broadening, 
and connecting various French waterways. 

CANARIES, or CANARY ISLANDS, a group of islands off the northwest 
coast of Africa, constituting a province of Spain, have an area of 2808 square miles. 
The population, according to the census of December 31, 1900, was 358,564, of whom 
166,505 were males and 192,059 females. The seat of government is TeneriflFe and 
the most important town Las Palmas. The leading products and exports include 
potatoes, bananas, tomatoes, and almonds and other nuts. The annual export of 
nuts is valued at about $60,000. 

CANCER. Active investigations of this great scourge are being conducted in 
most civilized countries, with the object of discovering its cause and cure. Statistics 
seem to prove that the disease is on the increase. In 1902 an epidemic of cancer 
was reported in the Faroe Islands, and Dr. Charcot, of Paris, and a party of 
scientists went thither to study it. In Germany, according to Wutzdorff, the number 
of cases has increased in Hamburg, Posen, and Bavaria, and there is an increase, 
though less marked, in Hanover, Saxony, Westphalia, Hesse, and East Prussia. 
Cancer now occurs at a younger age than formerly. No satisfactory explanation of 
this increase has been offered. Increases are also noted in England, the Netherlands, 
Norway, Switzerland, and the United States. In Russia a collective investigation of 
the GLUse of cancer is being carried on by the statistical method under government 
auspices, the object being to compile a map showing that the disease is virtually 
confined to certain districts, and if possible, to demonstrate the principles of its dis- 
tribution. A committee for cancer research in Germany, headed by Dr. von Leyden, 
Dt. Kirchner, and Dr. Wutzdorff, is collecting statistics in that country. In England 



C&BCCTa f n A 

Cape Colony. -^04 

the Duke of Bedford has promised an annual subscription of iicoo for the next three 
years to the cancer research fund. The search for the direct cause of cancer has 
been very keen, and several observers believe they have discovered a micro-organism 
that is responsible for the growth. Max Schtiller, of Berlin, in Midecine Moderne 
(February 12, 1902) gives an analysis of his book upon the parasites of carcinoma 
and sarcoma. Careful experiments resulted in the discovery of parasites, hitherto un- 
known, which were not yeast, bacteria, or cocci. The second annual report of the 
Cancer Commission of the Harvard Medical School, published in the Journal of 
Medical Research for April, 1902, sums up as follows the claims of the adherents to 
the parasitic origin of cancer, which it was appointed to investigate: (i) that a 
proliferation of epithelial cells analogous to the lesions seen in cancerous tumors can 
be produced by certain well-known protozoa (nodules caused by coccidium ovi- 
forme) ; (2) that certain skin lesions characterized by epithelial-cell proliferation are 
due to the action of a so-called protozoon(molIuscum contagiosum) ; (3) that blasto- 
mycetes are constantly present in human cancers and are the cause of the lesion ; (4) 
that by inoculation with these blastomycetes true cancerous nodules can be pro- 
duced; (s) that the endocellular bodies seen in the protoplasm of cancer cells have 
a definite morphology, are "parasites," and are the cause of cancer. The conclusions 
of the committee, reached after a year of research, are unfavorable to the foregoing 
propositions. The committee hold that the lesions produced by the micro-organism 
named are either inflammatory or granulation tissue, and not cancerous. Stecker 
has collected an immense number of statistics upon cancer in the domestic animals. 
He finds that skin cancer is not rare in horses or dogs. Urogenital cancer occurs in 
56 per cent, of all cases in cattle, 23 per cent, of horses, and 8.7 per cent, of dogs. 
Cancer of the digestive tract occurs in 19.4 per cent, of all cases in cattle, 12.2 per 
cent, of horses, 14.2 per cent, of cats, and 4.1 per cent, of dogs. Cancer of the 
respiratory tract affects 23.3 per cent, of all cases in horses, 19 per cent, of cats, 10 
per cent, of cattle, and 2 per cent, of dogs. For the cure of cancer H. A. Beaver, of 
England, used thyroid extract in a case that was too far advanced for operation and 
obtained an apparently complete cure. Other new remedies are discussed under 
Cancroin, Rontgen Rays and Phototherapy. 

CANCROIN. Albert Adamkiewicz has isolated a serum from cancer juice which 
he calls cancroin. He reports several cases of cancer of the cesophagus, tongue, 
larynx, stomach, and eye cured by the injection of this substance into the blood. 
The substance is chemically like neurin (trimethylvinyl ammonium hydrate) in 
composition. 

CANNON, Joseph G., congressman from Illinois, whose election as speaker of 
the House in the Fifty-eighth Congress was made practically certain by the with- 
drawal of all other candidates in his favor during the fall of 1902, was born at 
Guilford, N. C, March 7, 1836. Four years later he was taken by his parents to 
Parke County, Ind. In 1858 he began the practice of law in Douglas County, 111. 
In 1861 he was elected district-attorney of his county and held office until 1868. In 
1872 he was elected to Congress as a Republican, and has been returned by his 
district, with one exception---i890— every two years since that time. In the Forty- 
sixth Congress he was appointed by Speaker Randall a member of the committee 
on appropriations, with which he has since been so prominently identified. At the 
opening of the Fifty-first Congress he was one of the principal rivals of Thomas B. 
Reed for the speakership before the Republican Congressional caucus, and after the 
latter's election was made chairman of the appropriations committee, which was the 
first in history to run the appropriations of a single Congress up to the billion dollar 
mark. Defeated in the Democratic landslide of 1890, he was again re-elected by his 
old district in 1892, and when the Republicans again obtained control of the House 
in 1894 once more became chairman of the appropriations committee, a position he 
has continued to hold ever since. Charged at first by the Democrats with being ex- 
travagant in his recommendations, he has now come to be looked upon by both 
parties as a veritable "watch dog" of the country's finances. He himself explained 
his policy in a pithy reply to an importunate seeker for an appropriation in the fol- 
lowing words : "You think because I am chairman of the committee on appropria- 
tions that it is my business to make appropriations. I tell you that it is rather my 
duty to prevent their being made." 

CAPE COLONY, a British possession, officially known as Cape of (k)od Hope 
Colony, occupies the southernmost part of Africa. The capital is Cape Town. 

Area and Population. — The area, including the various accessions that the colony 
has received, is estimated at 276,775 square miles, and the estimated population on 
December 31, 1901, was 2433,000. The population of Cape Town in 1902 was 75,563. 
The Dutch preponderate in the western and the English in the eastern districts. 
In 1901 the schools numbered 2549, with 111,539 pupils. The state expenditure on 



135 



Cape Colony* 



education in 1901 was £278,049. The leading religious denomination is the Dutch 
Refonned. 

Government and Finance. — By the constitution the executive authority is vested in 
a governor and a council appointed by the crown. The administration is carried on, 
under the governor, by a ministry responsible to the colonial Parliament. This body 
consists of two houses, the legislative council of 23 members elected for seven years 
and the assembly of 95 members elected for five years. The use of either English 
or Dutch is allowed in the parliament. The governor in 1902 was Sir Walter F. 
Hely-Hutchinson, who succeeded Lord Alfred Milner in 1901. See paragraphs on 
History. 

For fiscal years ending June 30 revenue and expenditure have been respectively 
as follows: 1899, £8,781,212 and £8,190,124; 1900, £6,565,752 and £7,773»23o; 1901, 
£8,578,076 and £10,161,043. The ordinary revenue and expenditure in the fiscal year 
1901 were £7,957499 and £7,990,161 respectively; the extraordinary, £620,577 and 
£2,170,882 respectively. The largest sources of ordinary revenue in 1901 were rail- 
ways, £3,688,028, and customs, £2,376,341 ; the largest ordinary expenditures were : 
Railways, £2,577,444; public debt, £1,429,231; justice and police, £884400; militia 
and defense, £534,224. The public debt, which has been almost wholly contracted 
for the construction of public works, amounted on December 31, 1 901, to £31,393435. 

Industries and Commerce. — The people are engaged principally in stock raising 
and agriculture and, at Kimberley, in diamond mining. For the year ending May 31, 
1899, the leading products included the following : Com, 2,857,809 bushels ; wheat, 
2^20^47 ; oats, 1^10,61 1 ; barley, 830,730 ; and Kafir corn, about 2,000,000 ; wine, 
4^26432 gallons; brandy, 1,107,344; wool, 35.i79»9a> pounds; mohair, 6,707,379; 
ostrich feathers, 278,167 ; butter, 2,869,719. 

Total imports and exports are stated as follows : 





1897 


1898 

• 


1899 


1900 


1901 


Imports 


£17,997,789 
21.660.210 


£10.682.438 
25.318,701 


£19,207.649 
23,662.638 


£19,678.336 
8,147,670 


£23.992.031 


Exp"rt» 


10.873,278 







In 1901 imports of foodstuffs were valued at £7,185,129; textiles, £5,065,843; and 
building materials, £1,858,129. In the same year the exports of minerals and metals 
amounted to £6,943,828, and animal and vegetable products £3,337,086. The leading 
exports in the three years 1899, 1900, and 1901 respectively were valued as follows : 
Gold, £13315.683, £336,795* and £1,226,000; diamonds, £4,i35»583, £3433332, and 
£4,930,000; wool, £2,183,904, £837,809, and £1489,000; ostrich feathers, ;^42,ooo, 
£876,801, and £839,000; copper ore, £446,985, £498,552, and £571,000; Angora hair, 
£779.899, £489,905, and £503,000; hides, £408,282, £346,800, and £451,000. The exports 
of gold mentioned above came from the Transvaal, but are not included in the Cape 
import figures. The imports of specie, included in the foregoing totals, amounted to 
£2,516,525 in 1900, and £2,575,871 in 1901. Great Britain sends over two- thirds of 
the imports and receives almost all of the exports. 

Communications. — On January i, 1902, there were 2161 miles of railway owned 
and operated by the state, 587 miles privately owned but worked by the state, and 
235 miles privately owned and worked; total, 2983 miles. There were also 139 
miles under construction for private companies. The line running north from Cape 
Town forms a part of the "Cape-to-Cairo" Railway (q.v.). Up to the beginning of 
1902 the capital invested by the government in railways amounted to £22469.389. In 
September, 1902, the premier stated that during the preceding ten years the railways 
of Cape Colony had yielded a surplus of over £10,000,000. The telegraph lines in 

1901 aggregated 7470 miles, with 23,431 miles of wire. The postoffices at the end 
of 1900 numbered 961; the postal revenue in that year was £342,431, and expenditure 

^346,779. 
History for igo2. — An account of the military operations in Cape Colony during 

1902 may be found in the article Transvaal. The most salient features of Cape 
politics during the year were the movement for a temporary suspension of the con- 
stitution and the conciliatory attitude of the Progressive premier. Sir J. Gordon 
Sprigg, toward the Africander Bond. It may be well to preface an account of affairs 
in 1902 with a resume of the relations of the Cape political parties. After the 
Jameson Raid (at the end of December, 1895), there was a rather extensive political 
readjustment. The groups that finally formed were: The Progressives (the govern- 
ment party), led by Sir J. Gordon Sprigg, and representing the extension of British 
influence ; the Opposition, consisting largely of members of the Africander Bond, a po- 
litical body organized primarily in support of Dutch interests ; and the Independents, 
led by Mr. J. Rose-Innes, a conservative party, but loyal to British supremacy. The 
Independent party virtually disappeared. In igo2 there were in the assembly 44 
Progressives, 44 supporters of the Bond, and 7 of uncertain political attitude, while 



Cape Ootony. 



136 



in the l^slative council the Bond had a majority of one. In June, 1900, Sir J. 
Gordon oprigg became premier, succeeding Mr. W. P. Schreiner, and he still held 
the position at the end of 1902. On October 13, 1900, the Cape parliament was pro- 
rogued and, on account of the bitter feelings engendered by the Boer war, it was 
not called together again until August 20, 1902. Meanwhile the administration was 
carried on by the tedmically illegal means of ministerial warrants, and in some of 
the districts of the colony and for varying periods martial law prevailed. 

Early in 1902 the Progressives (loyalists) openly expressed their fear that the 
opening of the legislature would mark a recrudescence of racial strife, and in 
February 42 members of the parliament signed a petition to the imperial authorities 
for the temporary suspension of the constitution, for an enactment by the imperial 
parliament of an indemnity bill for martial law procedure and expenditure, and for 
an alteration in the system of the Cape parliamentary representation. Although the 
Progressive ministry, with the exception of Dr. T. W. Smartt, commissioner of 
public works, frowned upon the movement, the agitation continued and in May 
the petition ,was presented to the governor, Sir Walter F. Hely-Hutchinson, who 
forwarded it to the imperial government. On May 29 Dr. Smartt resigned from the 
cabinet. The constitution, as a matter of fact, had been actually, though not formally 
suspended since July, 1901, when the parliamentary provisions for administration 
expired. Besides this the constitution had been violated in February, 1901, by the 
omission of the biennial registration of voters, and in October, 1901, by the failure 
of the governor to convoke the parliament The object of the petitioners in asking 
for a formal suspension of the constitution was to avoid what seemed to be an 
inevitable continuation of racial antagonism in the parliament should that body 
convene. They held that if the parliament were allowed to meet the battle between 
the English and the Dutch would be simply transferred from the field to the 
legislative hall. A temporary substitution ot the executive for the parliament, they 
argued, would obviate the necessity of any unreasonable concessions to the Dutch, 
would be the best means of pacification, thus making possible a wide measure of 
amnesty, and would hasten the movement for federation in South Africa. It was 
stated that many of the Dutch also approved temporary suspension; for, as they 
said, though desirous of supporting the government and though deprecating racial 
strife, they would feel obliged, in case such strife should appear, — and with the 
opening of parliament they admitted it would appear — to "stand with their own 
people." Before the middle of June, 1902, a popular petition for suspension had re- 
ceived 4500 signatures in Cape Town and over 20,000 in other parts of the colony, 
while at the end of the month the plan was opposed, it was said, by only four news- 
papers in South Africa. Lord Alfred Milner, high commissioner for South Africa, 
though careful not to commit himself officially on the subject, appeared to favor 
suspension, but Sir J. Gordon Sprigg, holding that the government was equal to any 
contingency, remained steadfastly in opposition. Commenting upon the controversy 
the London Spectator maintained that suspension should not be resorted to unless it 
were clearly in the interest of South Africa, and that this could not be determined 
until the experiment were made of submitting to the parliament measures necessary 
to secure British supremacy ; while if such an experiment should fail the constitution 
should be suspended only in certain districts of the colony dangerously antagonistic 
to British interests. On July 2, 1902, Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, secretary of state 
for the colonies, advised the governor of the Cape that the imperial government was 
not disposed to acquiesce in the petition. He pointed out that the parliamentary 
signers of the petition comprised less than one-third of the assembly and less 
than one-half of the council, that the ministers confident in a parliamentary majority 
were opposed to the measure, and that above all the formal suspension of the con- 
stitution in a self-governing colony would be an action of extreme gravity and one 
for which no precedent exists. The colonial secretary urged that the act of 
indemnity and other legislation necessary for the welfare of the colony be passed by 
the Cape parliament with the tacit recognition that "charges and recriminations with 
regard to the past can serve no good purpose among those who must in the future 
live together as members of the same community with common interests in the 
peace and prosperity of South Africa." 

The attitude of the loyalists was little modified by the imperial decision. The 
premier, Sir J. Gordon Sprigg, was virtually repudiated by the Progressives and 
his leadership of the party gave place to that of Dr. Leander S. Jameson and Dr. 
Smartt. While the Progressives were willing to support the premier in all matters 
of vital interest to the colony, they were not inclined to enter upon any compromise 
with the Africander Bond. Such a compromise, they held, the premier had made ; he 
had engaged to resist imperial suspension in order to gain the Bond's support of the 
act of indemnity, which was necessary to prevent his impeachment for exercising the 
functions of government without parliamentary warrant. 



\ 



f^»j Cape Colony. 

-^O/ Cape*to-Cairo Railway. 

The poirliament was prorogued on October 13, 1900. It was not reconvened until 
August 20, 1902. Then the governor. Sir Walter F. Hely-Hutchinson, announced 
that martial law would be repealed upon the enactment of bills indemnifying the 
governor and all others concerned for official acts performed under martial law 
(including unauthorized expenditures), and for their failure to summon the parlia- 
ment within the constitutionally prescribed period and to carry out the biennial 
registration of voters. Such bills were introduced, were subsequently passed, and on 
September 19, 1902, martial law was repealed throughout the colony. 

Among other bills introduced at the opening of the parliament were the following : 
For prohibiting the immigration of Asiatics except British subjects ; for segregating 
the natives; lor prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors to the natives; for 
numerous public works and for the contribution ox an additional £20,000 to the 
imperial navy. 

During the debates on the indemnity bills the "political apostasy" of the premier 
became more apparent, at least to the Progressives. In June, 1902, he had denied any 
imrigue with the Bond leaders for parliamentary support, and on September 22 he 
declared in the assembly that he had not come to any understanding with them and 
that his course had been only what he deemed the best way to maintain imperial 
authority. Nevertheless, soon after the meeting of the parliament in August he had 
the support of the practically dominant Bond and the antagonism of his own party 
and of many loyal Dutch. He proposed to further racial reconciliation through the 
appointment of a new and, as alleged, superfluous commission to investigate the work- 
ing of martial law — ^a commission that, according to the Progressives, would give 
the disaffected Dutch an opportunity for renewed rancorous discussion of their old 
grievances ; while he reproved the loyal Dutch for protesting against their wrongs — 
such as boycotting — ^which still persisted, and refused to support their petition for 
new legislation dealing with sedition and restricting the sale of arms and ammuni- 
tion. The relations of the parties with the government were peculiar ; the Bond did 
not always stand with the ministry or the Progressives against it, and much friction 
was common. Several times the ministry was defeated, but did not resign. By the 
opposition of the Bond a government bill for reorganizing the colonial forces was 
defeated on November 3, 1902; the Progressives supported the government. It 
cannot be said that the position of Sir J. Gordon Sprigg in 1902 was taken with 
conscious disregard for tne best interests of South Africa ; and it is too early to say 
it was even unwise. Indeed, some English writers lauded it as both patriotic and 
&r-seeing. But with the South African loyalists it was certainly unpopular. 

Much relief was felt throughout the colony upon the conclusion of the Boer war 
and the signing of peace. On June 2, 1902, the premier stated that the extraordinary 
expenditure due to the war (and the plague) amounted to about £3,000,000, and 
that the colonial government had raised for the British forces 31,000 men, of whom 
14,000 were doing permanent duty. On June 11, 1902, a proclamation was issued 
providing that all Cape rebels (excepting field-comets and officials) who should 
surrender by July 10 or who had surrendered or been captured since April 12 should 
suffer no punislunent beyond disfranchisement for life. Up to September 19, 1902, 
there had been convicted under this proclamation 3554 rebels, while 2434 were still 
awaiting trial. 

The trial, for murder, arson, and other crimes, of the Boer Commandant Scheepers, 
who was captured on October 11, 1901, began at Graaf Reinet on the i8th of the 
following December. He was sentenced to death, and shot on January 18, 1902. On 
April 6 Commandant Kritzinger, who was also captured and tried, was acquitted and 
was consequently held as an ordinary prisoner of war. On April 30 Princess 
Catherine Radziwill was convicted at Cape Town of forging promissory notes in 
the name of Cecil Rhodes, and was sentenced to two years' detention in a house of 
correction. 

At Cape Town on March 26, 1902, Cecil Rhodes died, and was buried on April 10 
in the Matabele Matoppos in the land of his making. 

CAPE-TO-CAIRO RAILWAY. This project of the late Cecil Rhodes, carried 
on by the British South Africa Company, progressed considerably in 1902. Aside 
from the extension of the main line north from Buluwayo, the chief features of the 
year were the projected line in the Congo Free State and the completion of the 
Salisbury-Buluwayo line. It was originally intended that the line from Buluwayo 
by way of Gwelo to Salisbury should form a part of the main line of the Cape-to- 
C^TO Railway, crossing the Zambesi near Kariba (jorge, but later explorations and 
an examination of the Wankie coal fields led to a change of plan, according to which 
the main line from Buluwayo is being built further west and will cross the Zambesi 
at Victoria Falls. Work on this line was under way in 1902 and it was expected 
that the coal fields would be reached early in 1903 and the Falls a year or more later. 
Here the river will be crossed by a steel bridge, one span of which will be 500 feet 



Cape-to^atro Railway. r ^Q 

Cardinals. 1 3^ 

long. The Falls are about 300 miles from Buluwayo, which is 1360 miles from Cape 
Town. Meanwhile the survey is being carried beyond the river. 

It will be remembered that in November, 1899, Cecil Rhodes obtained the consent 
of the German government to build his railway throuf^h its East African territory. 
But it appears that the line will pass to the west instead of the east of Lake 
Tanganyika. On April 14, 1902, an agreement was signed at Brussels by the King of 
the Belgians and Mr. Robert Williams, a well-known African mining engineer, 
according to which the latter was granted rights of railway construction between 
the Rhodesian frontier and Lake Kasali. This is the most southerly point on the 
navigable waters of the Lualaba, one of the head reaches of the Congo, and is 
about 700 miles from Victoria Falls. The railway is to be constructed by an Anglo- 
Belgian company, of which M. Heyvaert, of the Brussels court of appeal, is president, 
and Mr. Williams vice-president. It is understood that Mr. Williams possesses 
written permission from Cecil Rhodes to connect at the frontier the Congo line 
with the Rhodesian line. The projected railway, as a part of the Cape-to-Cairo 
system, called forth unfavorable comment in Germany. If, however, the Germans 
ever see fit to build their proposed line from Dar-es-Salaam, on the coast, to Ujiji, on 
Lake Tanganyika, it is not unlikely that connection will be made with the Cape-to- 
Cairo Railway. Advantage will be taken of the river communication between Lake 
Kasali and Stanley Falls, on the Upper Congo, whence a railway is projected to 
Mahagi, on the Albert Nyanza, about 480 miles distant. The completion of these 
lines will effect through communication by rail and water from Cape Town to Cairo. 

The Portuguese railway, running from Beira 222 miles to Umtali on the Mashona- 
land frontier and thence extended 158 miles to Salisbury, was connected with the 
Cape system on October 6, 1902, by the completion of the line between Salisbuiy 
and Buluwayo, 309 miles (by way of Gwelo). Thus there is uninterrupted rail 
communication, over the regular colonial gauge of 3 feet 6 inches, from Cape Town 
to Beira, a distance of 2049 miles. Of this mileage nearly 1500 miles were constructed 
through the instrumentality of the British South Africa Company. Communication 
with Beira will facilitate the northward progress of the Cape-to-Cairo line on 
account of the shorter freightage from the coast to the place of operation. 

CAPE VERDE ISLANDS, fourteen in number, constitute a Portuguese depend- 
ency aggregating 1480 square miles in area and lying about 350 miles west of Cape 
Verde. According to the census of December 31, 1900, the population was 147424, 
almost all of whom are negroes or colored. The colony is administered by a 
governor appointed by the crown and resident at Praia. For the fiscal year 1902 
the estimated revenue and expenditure were 419,200 milreis and 362,328 milreis 
respectively; for 1903, 443,740 and 345,960 respectively. (The face value of the 
milreis is $1.08.) In 1900 the imports and exports were valued at 2,843»3I4 milreis 
and 351498 milreis respectively. 

CARDINALS. The sacred college, in the Roman Catholic Church, is composed 
of the advisers and electors of the Pope, to whom only they are second in rank. 
The subjoined list gives the names and dates of consecration of the members of the 
College of Cardials : 

Cardinal Bishops: Antonio Agliardi (1896); Mario Mocenni (1893); Luddo 
Maria Parocchi (1877) ; Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano (1873) I Scrafino Vannutelli 
(1887) ; Vincenzo Vannutelli (1889). 

Cardinal Priests: Bartolomeo Bacilieri (1901) ; Giulio Boschi (1901) ; Alfonso 
Capecelatro (1885); Gian-Battista Casali del Drago (1899); Salvatore Casanas y 
Pages (1895); Francesco di Paola Casseta (1899); Pietro Geremia Michelangelo 
Celesia (1884) ; Pierre Hector Couille (1897) ; Serafino Cretoni (1896) ; Angelo di 
Pietro (1893) ; Andrea Ferrari (1894) ; Domenico Ferrata (1896) ; Giuseppe Fran- 
cica-Nava di Bontife (1899); Casimir Gennari (1901) ; James Gibbons (1886); 
Pierre- Lambert Goossens (1889); Girolamo (Jotti (1895); Antoine Joseph Grascha 
(1891); Jose Maria Martin de Herrera y de la Iglesia (1897); Georges Kopp 
(1893) ; Guillaume Joseph Laboure (1897) ; Benoit-Marie Langenieux (1^6) ; Vic- 
tor- Lucien-Sulpice Lecot (1893); Michel Logue (1893); Achille Manara (1895); 
Sebastiano Martinelli (1901) ; Gaetano Aloisi-Masella (1887, died November 22, 
1902);^ Frangois Desire Mathieu (1899); Patrick Francis Moran (1885); Jose 
Sebastiao Netto (1884) ; Adolphe-Louis- Albert Perraud (1893) ; Gennaro Portanova 
(1899) ; Giuseppe Prisco (1896) ; Jean de Kozielsko-Pyzyna (1901) ; Mariano Ram- 
polla del Tindaro (1887) ; Pietro Respighi (1899) ; Frangois-Marie-Benjamin Rich- 
ard (1889); Agostino Richelmy (1899); Ciriaco Maria Sancha y Hervis (1894); 
Giuseppe Sarto (1893); Francesco Satolli (1895); l/^n de Skrbensky (1901); 
Domenico Svampa (1894) ; Claude Vaszary (1893) ; Herbert Vaughan (1893) ; Alcs- 
sandro Sanminiatelli-Zabarella ( 1899) . 

Cardinal Deacons: Felice Cavaj?nis (1901) ; Francesco-Salesio Delia Volpe 
(1899); Luigi Macchi (1889); Raffaelle Pierotti (1896); Francesco Segna (1894); 



r^r\ Cardinals. 

139 Caroline Inlands. 

Andrea Steinhuber (1894); Luigi Tripepi (1901); Jose Calasanzio Vives y Tuto 
(1899). See Roman Cathouc Church. 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION, Washington, D. C, founded in January, 1902, by 
Andrew Carnegie. President, Daniel C. Gilman. Mr. Carnegie gave ten millions of 
dollars to establish an institution of which the main purpose should be the advance- 
ment of knowledge and the encouragement of exceptional men likely to be successful 
in important investigations. The first Year Book of the institution was published in 
February, 1902. From this it appeared that there would be no available income until 
the first of August, 1902, and no appropriations were made by the board of trustees 
umii their meeting in November, 1902. At that time the executive committee was 
authorized to expend during the year 1902^3 $200,000 in the encouragement of 
researches, $40,000 in publication, $50,000 in administrative and other various needs, 
and at the same time $100,000 was set aside for a reserve fund. The purchase of a 
site and the construction of buildings were considered by the board, and a conclusion 
was deferred for a year. Under this authority a large number of grants have been 
made. No complete list has been issued because many of the grants are on certain 
conditions, which may or may not be complied with by the persons to whom allow- 
ances are made, and also because in some cases the recipients do not wish their work 
to be prematurely announced. Among the grants in regard to which there is no 
uncertainty, there may be mentioned a liberal apprdpriation for the encouragement 
of the marine zoological station at Wood& Hole, Mass., a foundation in which the 
leading zoologists of this country are profoundly interested. Two tables, and pos- 
sibly more, have been engaged at the Marine Station of Dr. Dohrr at Naples, and 
Prof. £. B. Wilson of Columbia, a biologist of distinction, is the first to be selected 
as an occupant of one of these tables. A commission has been sent to Arizona to 
inquire into the conditions requisite for establishing a station in an arid region where 
observations and experiments may be made in respect to the conditions of vegetation 
in deserts. Inquiries have also been made with respect to the establishment of a 
zoological experimental station, on some inland site. To revive and continue the 
Index Medicus — ^suspended for lack of funds — a liberal appropriation has been made. 
In general, appropriations for experimental medicine and pathology are left to other 
organizations. Many of the geologists of the country have strongly urged the estab- 
lishment of a geo-physical laboratory — in which many of the problems concerning 
the formation of the earth's crust and its movements may be investigated. This 
subject is likewise made the object of very special inquiry, preliminary to action by 
the board. Several important astronomical works have been undertaken, one of the 
most noteworthy being the collection and publication of the astronomical researches 
of George W. Hill, an American mathematician of high rank. Other astronomers 
have received personal grants. In physics, chemistry, psychology, geology, botany, 
and other branches of science, some grants have been made. In comparative phil- 
ology, archaeology, and the humanities, little has as yet been done. A beginning will 
soon be made in respect to American history. Measures have been initiated for the 
preparation of lists of scientific men in the United States, or for a report on the 
leading scientific institutions of all countries. Great importance is attached to the 
study of economic and social problems. The Year Book contains the names of a 
large number of expert advisers or counsellors, upon whose judgment the trustees 
have relied in determining whom or what to help. Among the names are many of 
the foremost investigators of this country. Hon. Henry Hitchcock, of St. Louis, a 
member of the board of trustees, died in 1902 and was succeeded by his brother, 
Hon. Ethan A. Hitchcock, secretary of the interior. 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, a group of islands lying in the western Pacific to 
the north of New Guinea, together with the Pelew and Marianne (or Ladrone) 
islands, excepting Guam (^.v.), were ceded by Spain to Germany by a treaty of 
February, 1899, ratified by both governments in the following June. The considera- 
tion was the sum of 16,750,000 marks, or 25,000,000 pesetas, the value of 100 pesetas 
beix^ fixed at 67 marl^, so that the cost expressed in United States money was 
$3,986,000. The total area is estimated at 802 square miles (2076 square kilometres), 
of which the Carolines and Pelews comprise about 560 square miles and the Marianne 
Islands (without Guam) the remainder. The population, which is variously esti- 
mated, is probably not much above 50,000. Administratively the islands are divided 
into three groups (the eastern Carolines, the western Carolines and the Pelews, and 
the Marianne Islands) and form a part of the Kaiser Wilhelms Land protectorate. 
The islands demand an annual subsidy from the imperial government of about 
3S0/XX) marks, while their revenue is only about 33,000 marks. Industry and com- 
merce arc inconsiderable. In 1900 the imports to and the exports from the 
Carolines were valued at 459i224 marks and 263,481 marks, respectively. In 1902 
the official report "confirmed in every particular the pessimistic views of those who 
had originally been opposed to the purchase of these islands." 



Central America. ^4^ 

CASATI, Gaetano, Italian soldier and explorer, died at Como, Lombardy, March 
7, 1902. He was born at Monza in 1838, and at the age of twenty-one, after some 
study in the academy at Pavia, entered the Italian army, serving under Cialdini in 
1866 and becoming a captain in 1867. In 1879 he resigned, and in the service of the 
Societa d'Esplorasione Commerciale d* Africa began his African explorations. He 
visited the Bahr-el-Ghazal region, and the districts of the Niam-Niam and Monbuttu ; 
and in 1^3, with the Russian explorer, Dr. Junker, aided Emin Pasha at Lado in 
repulsing the Mahdi. He was subsequently imprisoned by King Kabarega, owing to 
Stanley's severe attacks upon the king's subjects while attempting to rescue the 
besieged at Lado, and, though he managed to escape, had almost perished from 
exposure and starvation when finally rescued by Emin Pasha. After returning to 
Italy he published Died Anni in Equatoria e Ritorno con Emin Pascha (1891}. 

CATHERWOOD, Mary Hartwell, an American novelist, died December 26, 
1902, at Chicago, 111. She was bom December 16, 1847, at Luray, O., graduated at the 
Female College, Granville, O., in 1868, and settled in Newburg, N. Y. She married 
James S. Catherwood, of Hoopestown, 111., in December, 1887. Her Craque-o'-Doom 
appeared in 1881, and was followed by a series of historical novels dealing with 
French Canadian life, among which the greatest success was attained by The 
Romance of Dollard (1889), The Story of Tonty (1890), The Chase of Saint Castin 
and Other Stories of the French in the New World (1894). Old Kaskaskia (1893) 
is a historical novel, in a similar manner, treating of Illinois. The Spirit of an 
Illinois Town (1897) deals with life in the west two generations ago. Her studies 
led her to write of the French occupation from 1673 to 1763, from a purely historical 
point of view, in the Heroes of the Middle West (1898). The Days of Jeanne D'Arc 
(1897) is also a careful historical study. Lasarre (1901) is based on the mystery 
shrouding the disappearance of Louis XVII. of France, and his alleged identity with 
Eleazar Williams, who passed the latter portion of his life as an Episcopal missionary 
in Wisconsin. Other well-known stories are: Little Renault (1897), Spanish Peggy 
(1899), The Queen of the Swamp, and Other Plain Americans (1899). 

CATHOLIC CHURCH. See Roman Cathouc Church. 

CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA, Washington, D. C, founded 
in 1887, is devoted exclusively to university training of college graduates. The 
chief developments of 1902 were the establishment of a college by the Dominican 
Fathers, adjoining the university but not affiliated with it, and the establishment 
of an Institute of Pedagogy in New York as a part of the university. This institute 
has about 150 students, all of whom are teachers in schools of New York or vicinity. 
The Apostolic Union has established an Apostolic College, which is about to erect 
its buildings on the university grounds. The university students in 1902 numbered 
129, and the faculty 28. The university has an endowment, $950,842, with an income 
in 1902 of $155,975. Gifts to the value of $56,236 were received during the year. 
The library contains 36,772 volumes. In 1902 Mgr. D. J. O'Connell was chosen 
president to succeed in 1903 the Rt Rev. T. J. Conaty, who was to assume the 
bishopric of Los Angeles. 

CELEBES. See Dutch East Indies. 

CEMENT, PORTLAND. The manufacture of Portland cement in the United 
States has undergone rapid development during the past few years, and the domestic 
supplies now nearly suffice for the entire consumption. The production in 1901 was 
12,711,225 barrels, valued at $12,532,360; the imports were 922,426 barrels, and the 
exports 417,625 barrels^ In 1891 the production was 4543i3 barrels, the imports 
were 2,988,313 barrels, and there were no exports. Cement of high grade is now 
manufactured in this country much more cheaply than in Europe. 

CENSUS. See United States (paragraph Census Office). 

CENTRAL AMERICA includes the five republics of Costa Rica, Guatemala, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Salvador, and the colony of British Honduras. These 
states are treated under their own titles. Figures based on recent estimates and 
censuses place the area at 184,238 square miles and the population at about 4,016,000. 

On January 20, 1902, a treaty of peace and arbitration was signed at Corinto 
(Nicaragua) by representatives of the governments of Costa Rica, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, and Salvador. This action was brought about through the initiative of Presi- 
dent Zelaya of Nicaragua. The treaty, whidi was subsequently ratified by the several 
governments, provides for the compulsoiy arbitration of all disputes that may arise 
among the signatory states-questions of boundary to be submitted to the arbitra- 
ment of a foreigner of American nationality, and all other questions to that of a per- 
manent tribunal consisting of one representative from each state. The government 
of Guatemala was invited to adhere to the stipulations of the treaty, and this at 
first it appeared ready to do, but it was not represented in the arbitration tribunal 
when that body convened at San Jos6 (Costa Rica), on October 4, 1902. Other 



rAT Central Amerlcs* 

provisions of the treaty looked toward the removal of any causes of friction between 
the republics. It may be remarked that, however good the intention of such treaties 
among Latin-American states, httle confidence can be placed in their real effect- 
iveness. 

In the spring of 1902 a decree of the Nicaraguan government established free trade 

with Guatemala and Salvador, except in articles constituting government monopolies 

—alcoholic liquors, tobacco, and firearms, explosives, and other munitions of war. 

B; the treaty of 1894 with Nicaragua, Honduras acquires equal commercial advantage 

with the other Central American republics. The Costa Rican government, which 

is inclined toward a high protective policy, did not accept reciprocity. 

CENTRAL ASIA, RUSSIAN, comprises nine provinces included in the Steppes, 
Turidstan, and Trans-Caspia, with an aggregate area of 1,548,825 square miles and 
z population (1897) of 7,721,684; and the vassal states of Bokhara, area ^,000 square 
nules, population upward of 2,000,000; and Khiva, area 22,320 square miles, popula- 
tion 800,000. The principal town and the seat ot government of the Turkistan 
provinces is Tashkent, with a population of 1 56414. The capital of Bokhara is 
Bokhara, with 7$,ooo inhabitants ; and of Khiva, Khiva, with 6000 inhabitants. Tech- 
nically the provmces are administered like other provinces of the Russian empire, 
but the rule in a greater part of the region is still military and not civiL There is 
a governor-general for Turkistan, and an army of occupation of 46,000 men is main- 
tained at his disposal. Bokhara and Khiva are ruled by native ameers, advised by 
Russian residents, and they enjoy autonomy as far as domestic affairs are con- 
cerned, only their foreign relations being under Russian control. 

The products of the country are various and include wheat, maize, hemp, wool, 
silk, tobacco, wine, fruits, and cotton. The hay crop of the Steppes (1899) amounted 
to 2,540493 tons and the wheat crop (1900) to 7,707,866 bushels. In Turkistan, Bo- 
khara, and Khiva cotton planting is one of the most important industries and is being 
rapidly extended. With the present transportation facilities it is impossible to get 
the entire crop out of the country, but this difficulty will be overcome by the comple- 
tion of the railways now actually under construction or projected. Ferghana, one 
of the Turkistan provinces, is the chief seat of cotton production, its estimated crop 
in 1900 being 144448,000 pounds. The central Asian exports of cotton to Russia 
by way of the Caspian Sea alone amounted in the year 1900-01 to over 214,000,000 
pounds. 

The railroad system, of which over 1300 miles are in operation, extends from 
Krasnovodsk on the Caspian, through Merv and Bokhara to Tashkent, and thence 
south and west to Andijan in Ferghana. There is a branch line 195 miles in length 
from Merv southward to Kushka on the Afghan frontier, only seventy miles distant 
from Herat. Work was begun on a line to connect Tashkent with the Russian and 
European railway systems at Orenburg on the Ural late in 1901, and in the summer 
of 1902 over 650 miles of track were laid on this extension, which when completed 
will open up an extensive new wheat and cotton region to the Russian markets. 

The completeness of Russian control in the vassal state of Bokhara was manifested 
during 1902 in an interesting episode. The reigning ameer, Sayid Abdul Ahad, who 
like his subjects is an ardent Mohammedan of the Sunni sect, prepared to go with 
a retinue of a thousand followers on a pilgrimage to Mecca. When he informed the 
Russian resident of his purpose, however, the official "advised" him very strongly not 
to undertake the journey. Although the reason given was the prevalence of various 
epidemics in the cities through which the ameer would have to pass, it was under- 
stood by every one, the ameer included, that the advice was practically a command, 
and the pilgrimage was reluctantly abandoned. It is very probable that the present 
ameer will be the last native ruler of Bokhara, though it is not likely that Russia 
intends to disturb the government before his death. Still, his own dissatisfaction 
with his position and the dissatisfaction of his subjects with his rule are said to 
have caused him seriously to contemplate giving up the cares of state and removing 
to Turkey, there to pass his remaining days with his wives and concubines, 
supported by funds derived from the sale of his family jewels. 

A serious earthquake occurred in the latter part of December, 1902, in Ferghana, 
the shocks recurring at intervals for a week, and laying in ruins the entire city of 
Andijan and the surrounding region. The official Russian figures for the extent of 
the casualties placed the number of deaths at 4714 and the number of houses de- 
stroyed at 33,112. A far less serious earthquake also occurred in Ferghana on 
April 19L In Eastern Turkistan (nominally Chinese territory) severe shocks con- 
tinued from August 22, 1902, till September 3. 

CER£BRINB, known also as cerebrinum-Poehl or opocerebrinum-Poehl, is 
described as a ccrebroside with the characteristics of a glycoside, having the formula 
CniinitN^tM. It is made in Dr. Poehl's laboratory. Dr. M. Lion, the Russian physi- 
cian in charge of the Sumara Insane Asylum, has reported astonishing results with 



Cerebtine. j m^ 

Charity Orvanlsatioii. ^^ 

this substance in twenty cases of essential epileps^r and in two cases of delirium 
tremens. Lion believes that the brain matter which is lacking in epilepsy is supplied 
by cerebrine, the epileptic symptoms disappearing and recovery naturally following. 
See Epilepsy. 

CEYLON, an island in the Indian Ocean south of British India, is a colony of 
Great Britain. It has a total area of 25^33 square miles and a population (1901) of 
3»S76,990, an increase of 567,529 since 1891. The largest racial elements in the popula- 
tion are the Singhalese (2,334,817) and the Tamils (952,237). There were 9,583 
Europeans. Over half the inhabitants are Buddhists. The capital, Colombo, a port 
on the west coast, had a population of 158,093. The government, grant-in-aid, and 
private schools had in 1900 a total enrollment of 208,274. There is a royal college, a 
technical college, and high and industrial schools in addition to the well organized 
elementary system. 

The administration of the colony is in the hands of a governor (Sir Joseph West 
Ridgeway, in 1902, since 1895) assisted by executive and legislative councils. The 
island is divided into nine provinces, presided over by government agents. The 
British troops in Ceylon number 2,982, and there is a colonial volunteer force of 2,112. 
The local monetary unit is the rupee, valued at 32.4 cents. The revenue in 1900 
amounted to 27,325,930 rupees, and the expenditure 254,321,988 rupees. The principal 
sources of revenue are customs (in 1900, 7,228,293 rupees), licenses, stamp tax, gov- 
ernment lands, and the salt monopoly. The public debt amounted (1900) to £3,419,- 
451, and the local silver debt to 3,239,585 rupees, both incurred entirely for the railway 
and other public works. 

About one-fifth of the island is under cultivation, the acreage under the leading 
crops being (1900) : Cocoanuts, 846,115; rice, 672,584; tea, 405,405; and grain, 109.095. 
The native industries include manufactures of gold, silver, ivory, and tortoise-shell, 
oil-refining, wood-carving, and pottery. The mining of precious stones and of plum- 
bago, and the pearl fisheries in the gulf of Manaar are also of considerable import- 
ance. The imports and exports for 1900 amounted to 122,339,758 rupees and 108,926,- 
257 rupees respectively. The principal articles of export in 1900 were tea, valued at 
53»735.257 rupees, cocoanut products, 16438,308 rupees; and plumbago, 9,792495 
rupees. The trade is largely with Great Britain and India. There are 298 miles of 
railway in operation, belonging to the government, and extensions of 215 miles have 
been surveyed. The Boer prisoners who were confined in prison camps in Ceylon 
during the war in the Transvaal were returned to South Africa after the declaration 
of peace. During their detention in the island their health was generally good and 
there were few complaints of ill-treatment, of insufficient food, or of bad quarters. 
The Boers in Ceylon numbered 4,913. The commander of the troops in Ceylon at 
the end of 1902 was Major-General Sir Hector Archibald Macdonald. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Sir Neville Bowles, a British field-marshal, died at South- 
ampton, England, February 17, 1902. He was bom in Brazil in 1820, and in 1837 
entered the Indian service. Throughout the Afghan war of 1839-42 he served with 
distinction and received many wounds; was military secretary to the governor of 
Bombay in 1846-47; participated in the Punjab campaign of 1848-49; and from 1854 
to 1857 was commandant of the Punjab Frontier Force. He was made adjutant- 
general of the Indian army in 1857, and took a prominent part in the siege and 
capture of Delhi until forced by wounds to retire from the field. His conduct during 
the Umbeyla campaign of 1863, which he directed, was likewise characterized by great 
personal gallantry. He was made commander-in-chief of the Madras army in 1876, 
serving in that capacity until 1881, was military member of the council of the gov- 
ernor-general of India, and headed a special mission to Shere Ali, the ameer of Cabul, 
which was stopped at Ali Masjid and could not prevent the war with Afghanistan 
that immediately followed. In 1900 he received the rank of field-marshal in recog- 
nition of his long and distinguished service. 

CHARITY ORGANIZATION. In 1902 there were 145 societies for organizing 

charities in different cities of the United States. The plan and scope of the work is 
similar everywhere, viz., to organize and systematize charity work so as to prevent 
indiscriminate giving, and the duplication of really helpful work. The societies for 
organizing charities throughout the country were active during 1902 chiefly in com- 
bating tuberculosis, establishing free public baths in the crowded tenement districts, 
suppressing street begging, establishing juvenile courts, and demanding more effi- 
cient child-labor laws. In several States legislation was secured, establishing com- 
missions to investigate the facts relating to tuberculosis. The objects of the socie- 
ties everywhere are: (i) To teach that tuberculosis is a communicable, preventable, 
and curable disease; (2) to teach the means to prevent it; (3) to provide special hos- 
pitals, sanatoriums, etc., for consumptive adults and scrofulous and tuberculous chil- 
dren among the poor; (4) to aid in the adoption of measures to prevent the develop- 
ment of scrofulous and other forms of tuberculous diseases. 



TA1 Charity Orsantsatlon* 

The Free Hospital for Consumptives in Philadelphia estimated that they had 

already lowered the death rate from consumption in Pennsylvania 33 1-3 per cent. 

With properly equipped sanatoriums sufficient to treat 5,000 patients yearly, the 

hospital reported that consumption can be completely eradicated in Pennsylvania in 

Mxeen years. The cost was estimated at $1,000,000 for equipment and $400,000 

yearly lor maintenance and treatment, making a total cost of but $15,000,000. This 

would be a very small sum to pay for ridding the State of this terrible and costly 

(hsease. 

The movement for free public baths was vigorously pushed. Twelve cities in the 
United States now have free public baths. The measures to suppress mendicancy, 
while producing most wholesome results in the cities where applied, for the most 
part merely drove the beggars to the towns and cities where no organization society 
exists, to feed on the misdirected charity of people who give without knowing for 
what Experience emphasized the necessity of a more complete organization of 
charitable work on national lines, so that concerted action may be brought to bear 
on the tramp and mendicant problem. The cities can never be rid of vagabonds so 
long as the smaller towns and rural villages pay the transportation of "sturdy beg- 
gars" to the cities. More was accomplished than ever before, however, not merely to 
suppress but to cure permanently the evil of mendicancy. 

New York City. — The Charity Organization Society of New York was founded 
June 30, 1882. The officers are Robert W. de Forest, president; Edward T. Devine, 
general secretary ; J. Pierpont Morgan, treasurer. The year ending June 30, 1902, is 
reported as "the most fruitful, and, from the standpoint of preventive and construc- 
tive charity, the most satisfactory in its entire history." The principal objects 
achieved were the creation of the Tenement House Department for enforcing the 
new tenement-house law, for the enactment of which the society was largely respon- 
sible ; the creation of a committee on the prevention of tuberculosis ; the further de- 
velopment of the school in philanthropic work; and the work of the committee on 
mendicancy to suppress street begging. Industrial conditions were exceptionally 
favorable to constructive social work. The unemployed were so mainly from choice 
or from physical disability. During January, February, and March, 1902, the pro- 
portion of union laborers reported out of employment was 6.2 per cent. In no recent 
year had it fallen below 10 per cent. The small number of applications for assistance 
radicates that equally favorable conditions prevailed in the ranks of unorganized 
labor. 

During the year ending June 30, 1902, there were 37,108 applications for relief to 
the Qiarity Organization Society of New York City. The society investigates every 
case coming to its attention and keeps a record of every applicant. It not only gives 
intelligent assistance, or directs the applicant where to go for the proper assistance, 
but it sifts out and prosecutes impostors in order to protect the charitable public. In 
emergency cases it is necessary to give relief immediately, leaving the investigation 
until afterwards. Nearly $31,500 was expended in this way during 1902. 

The appointment of Mr. Homer Folks as commissioner of charities, brings the 
society into closer relations with the department of public charities, since Mr. Folks 
had been for years a member of the committee on dependent children, associate 
editor of Charities, and closely connected with charity organization work. 

The work done to provide more and better free baths in the crowded districts was 
especially important. Contracts were let to supply nine of the public schools with 
shower baths. The experiment was looked upon doubtfully ; but the records of the 
number of children using the baths show that they are greatly appreciated. The city 
now has two permanent baths. During 1902, contracts were let for three more 
permanent baths for Manhattan and two for Brooklyn at a total cost of $435,895 for 
construction. Another bath is being erected for the city by Mrs. Elizabeth M. 
Anderson, so the city will soon have eight permanent baths. The success of the two 
now operating makes it certain that this form of public expenditure accomplishes 
much good. In addition to these a great floating bath to cost $200,000, at the foot 
of East Twenty-third Street was provided for. 

The fifth session of the summer school for charity workers was held June 16, to July 
26, 1902, with forty members registered. Plans were made to extend the work to a 
two years' course in the future. Much has been accomplished by this summer school 
in educating workers who carry the methods of organization elsewhere. 

Philadelphia. — The most important organization work of the year was the better 
sjrstematization of charity work. There were 1,286 separate charities, religious and 
secular, in the city in 1902, of which 755 give material relief to needy Philadelphia 
families. Much work and assistance has been duplicated in the past. The society for 
organization of charity, accomplished more than ever before during 1902 to diminish 
this demoralizing waste of effort, and indiscriminate distribution of aid. The society 
dealt with 6,664 different families during the year. A new "Wayfarer's Lodge" was 
opened May 28, 19^, to furnish clean and comfortable lodgings to homeless men, for 



144 

an equivalent in work. The distribution of fuel was systematized. New legislation 
for the punishment of wife deserters was drafted, and a special fellowship for the 
study of homeless men was established in conjunction with the University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Indianapolis. — ^The Charity Organization Society of Indianapolis was especially 
active in the suppression of street begginjg. To beggars is offered the opportunity 
of learning a trade by which to earn a living, or of free support in an institution 
without work, but not one accepted the proffered aid. Nearly all drink and live in 
the foulest homes. The great obstacles in the way of a complete reform are indis- 
criminate giving and the free mission and lodging houses which entertain tramps 
without an equivalent in work. The society dealt with 783 applications representing 
2808 individuals. The Dime Savings and Loan Association collected $45,007.60 dur- 
ing the year. A court for the trial of juvenile offenders was established. The better 
housing of the poor was seriously agitated. 

Hartford. — The Charity Organization Society received 2,709 applications during 
1902. Hartford enjoys the evil repute of having worse housing conditions than any 
other city of its size. Owing to the watchfulness of the society, new tenements 
erected were made more sanitary. 

Chicago. — The Bureau of Charities, at the invitation of the railroad companies, 
took charge of the investigation of applications for charitable concessions in railway 
fares. This arrangement prevents imposition by professional tramps and secures the 
benefits of low rates to those in real need of them. In the year ending May 20, 1902, 
1,320 persons were sent away from Chicago to more favorable localities. It was 
found that 25 per cent, of the inmates of the hospital, the poorhouse, and the insane 
asylum were not legal residents of Cook County. More than $150,000 a year was 
being paid by Cook County taxpayers for the care of persons who should have been 
cared for elsewhere. A fund was set aside for the purpose of deporting non-resident 
dependents. The bureau advocates a law compelling such dependents to return to the 
communities on which they have a rightful claim for support. Police stations were 
closed to lodgers and a municipal lodging house was opened on December 22, 1901, 
at No. 12 South Jefferson Street, where all homeless men may obtain lodgings for a 
limited time for a reasonable compensation in labor. The experiment was so bene- 
ficial that it has been continued. 

The National Conference of Charities and Correction. — This is composed of the 
State Boards of Public Charities of the several States, where they exist, of delegates 
appointed by the governors of other States, of charity organization societies and 
associated charities in the country, and of persons connected officially or unofficially 
with charity work. It has no formal constitution. Its tweny-ninth annual meeting 
was held in Detroit, Mich., May 28 to June 3, 1902. Its next session will be held in 
Atlanta, Ga., in May. Its officers are: President, Robert W. de Forest; secretary, 
Joseph P. Byers, Columbus, O. 

Legislation. — The volume of charitv legislation was very much less during 1902 
than for the preceding year, because few State legislatures met in 1902. 

Iowa. — ^The legislature appropriated $138,000 for completing and furnishing the 
Cherokee State Hospital and for the purchase of land. In addition to the regrular 
support appropriations for the various charity institutions, the legislature made 
special appropriations amounting to $716,577.50. A bill creating a reformatory for 
men after the Elmira plan, failed to pass. 

Kentucky. — An appropriation was made for improving the schools of reform at 
Lexington. The appointment of an inspector of labor at a salary of $1,200 a year and 
two assistants at $1,000 each, was authorized. These officials are to be under the 
supervision of the commissioners of agriculture, labor, and statistics. The same law 
provides a fine ranging from $25 to $250 for the employment of children under 
fourteen years of age in any factory, mine, or workshop. Three bills were attempted, 
but failed to pass: (i) To create a State Board of Charities. This was killed by 
the extravagance and political bearings of some of its provisions. (2) Providing for 
a central controlling board for the insane asylums in place of the local commissioners. 
(3) To establish an epileptic colony at the Central Asylum. 

Maryland.— The Maryland legislature passed more charity legislation than has 
been the case in many years. The school attendance law (applying only to Baltimore 
and to Alleghany County) went into effect on September i. It provides that all 
children between eight and twelve, physically and mentally fitted, must attend the 
public schools unless receiving adequate instruction elsewhere. Children from twelve 
to sixteen must also attend school unless legally employed at home or elsewhere. 
Such employment is forbidden if they cannot read and write, unless they attend 
school. The enforcement of the law is placed with twelve attendance officers. Penal- 
ties are provided for those employing children illegally, or preventing them from at- 
tending school. The child-labor law was amended by raising the legal working age 
from twelve to fourteen, except when a child is the only support of a widowed 



145 Cliemlatnr. 

modier, an invalid father, or is solely dei>endent on self for support. Special mans- 
tiales were created for the trial of juvenile cases. The Workman's Qjoperative In- 
surance Act aims to protect employees in dangerous trades. A free employment 
bureau to bring employers and laborers together was created for Baltimore, and 
usspcctors of sweat-shops and factories provided. A tuberculosis commission to be 
apDointed for two years by the governor was authorized. 

Massachusetts. — An appropriation of $130,000 was made for additions to the Mas- 
sachusetts School for Feeble-Minded. A bill was passed transferring the licensing 
of boot-blacks and newsboys under fourteen from the board of aldermen to the school 
committee. 

Montana. — ^Money was appropriated to build an addition to the Orphans' Home at 
Twin Bridges, and to double the size of the school for the blind and deaf at 
Boulder. These additions were completed in 1902. 

New York. — ^The legislation recommended by Governor Odell, (i) placing State 
insane hospitals under the control and management of the State Commission in 
Lunacy, and (2) centralizing in a single superintendent the work of the boards of 
managers of the State charitable institutions, was vigorously opposed by the society 
and all those especially interested in the welfare of the inmates of these institutions. 
The first recommendation was enacted into law, but with the opposition of the State 
Board of Charities the latter was prevented from passage, and a measure creating a 
fiscal supervisor of charities, with a $6,000 salary, was substituted. The economy of 
this measure is seriously doubted by those in position to know. An important act 
secured by the New York Charity Organization Society was the establishment of a 
court for juvenile offenders in the city of New York. To the court of special ses- 
sions of the first division was given jurisdiction in all such cases, and on September 
2, 1902, the court was opened m the Department of Public Charities. The vigorous 
attempts made by certain contractors and builders of Manhattan and Brooklyn, to 
secure the amendment of the tenement-house law amounting to a virtual repeal, were 
unsuccessful. 

Ohio. — A law empowering cities and villages to erect and maintain public bath- 
houses, was enacted. A commission to investigate tuberculosis and the feasibility of 
its treatment in sanatoriums was authorized. The gross misrepresentation as to ages 
of children employed in factories led to the enactment of a law empowering the 
State factory inspectors to administer oaths and take affidavits in matters connected 
with th: enforcement of the factory laws. A juvenile court law for Cleveland, mod- 
eled after the Illinois law, was passed. 

Rhode Island. — A bill was enacted providing for a State sanatorium for consump- 
tives. Some important legislation concerning the employment of children in facto- 
ries was enacted. This law requires that children up to the age of thirteen years and 
up to fifteen years, unless the child is working or has completed eight years of the 
school course above the kindergarten, shall attend school throughout the year. 

Virginia. — The legislature appropriated $180,000 for additions and improvements 
to the penitentiary. Liberal appropriations were made to the other State institutions 
for charity and correction. 

Porto Rico. — The control of the Director of Charities, who succeeded the former 
Board of Charities, extended over four institutions ; viz., the Insane Asylum with 200 
inmates. Boys' Charity School with 300 inmates, Girls* Charity School with 200 
' inmates, and the leper colony with 25 inmates. The legislature in 1902 authorized 
an asylum for the blind to accommodate 150 inmates. The island is too much of a 
pauper itself to be able to do much in charity for its inhabitants, but the budget for 
charities was increased from $83,000 in 1900 to $140,000 for 1902-03. 

CHAUTAUQUA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION, a plan of popular education 
organized in 1874. The sessions of the Chautauqua summer schools for the season 
of 1902 covered the period July 25 to August 15. There were 159 courses offered 
by 89 instructors. The total registration was 3,353, or 2,237 without duplicates, not 
including the clubs for boys and girls, which furnish systematic recreation and 
instruction for the younger residents of the Chautauqua colony. The Girls' Club 
re^stered 243, and the Boys' Club 346. An elementary vacation school, with 62 
children in 1902, takes care of the children between the kindergarten age and the 
time when they can enter the clubs. The Delsarte department registered 108. In addi- 
tion to the regular Chautauqua schools there is also held at Chautauqua a New 
York State Summer Institute open to teachers of the State. ' In 1902 13 instructors 
offered 26 courses. The registration was 537. Free nature-study courses were pro- 
vided in cooperation with Cornell University and were largely attended. The library 
school, inaugurated in 1901, was continued with increased efficiency. During 1902 an 
arts and craft school was organized and met with great success. 

CHEMISTRY. The presiding officers of the two greatest bodies of English 
speaking scientific societies in 1902 were both chemists. James Dewar, of the Royal 
Institution, was president of the British Association, and Ira Remsen, of Johns 

10 



146 

Hopkins University, was president of the American Association. Dewar said that 
science is advancing in so broad a front by e£forts of so great an army of workers that 
it would be idle to attempt within the limits of an address anything like a survey of 
chemistry alone. He therefore devoted his address to the results of his own splen- 
did efforts to find absolute zero, in the course of which he described the properties 
of liquid hydrogen and helium more fully than has ever been done before. Of 
special interest was his announcement of a belief that the upper atmosphere is 
composed of very light or difficultly condensable constituents, such as hydrogen, 
helium, argon, krypton, xenon, etc., which exist only in minute quantities in the 
lower regions of the air. As tending to support this belief he called attention to 
the fact that Pickering's spectrum of a meteor shows lines corresponding to hydro- 
gen and helium; and Stasano's collection of observations of the spectrum of the 
aurora gives many lines due to the more volatile gases of the atmosphere. Picker- 
ing's spectrum of a lightning flash gives nineteen lines, two of which correspond to 
nitrogen and oxygen, three to hydrogen, and eleven to argon, krypton, and xenon. 
Dewar also called attention to the fact that the Royal Institution, which was 
founded in 1799 by Count Rumford, an American citizen, and which had received 
considerable bequests from Thomas G. Hodgkins, also an American citizen, pos- 
sessed an average annual income of only $6,000, and yet the returns to science by 
his predecessors, Young, Davy, Faraday, and Tyndall, demonstrated the wisdom of 
endowing education. The Carnegie Institution will dispose in a year of as much 
money as the members of the Royal Institution have expended in a century upon 
its purely scientific work. 

Organizations. — ^The American Chemical Society, which has now a membership of 
2,188 persons distributed among fourteen local sections (the Cornell section having 
been established in November, 1902), held two meetings during the year, the first 
in Pittsburg, Pa., contemporaneously with the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science under the presidency of Ira Remsen during June 30-July i, 
when twenty-three papers were presented ; the winter meeting was held in Washing- 
ton during December 29, 1902- January 3, 1903, also at the same time as the American 
Association, when the titles of twenty-two papers were presented, and President 
Remsen delivered a retiring address on The Life History of a Doctrine, in which 
he discussed the development and present condition of the atomic theory, concluding 
with the statement that "the doctrine of atoms is still alive." The chemical section of 
the American Association met in Pittsburg under the presidency of Henry A. Weber, 
of the Ohio State University, who after delivering an address at the Washington 
meeting on Incomplete Observations, in which he indicated several cases where in- 
vestigators had failed to carry out their researches to a perfect conclusion, leaving 
later chemists to bring the subject to a satisfactory end, retired from the chair, 
giving place to Charles Baskerville, of the University of North Carolina. The New 
York section of the Society of Chemical Industry held eight general meetings from 
October till June, at which thirty-four papers were read, and during the year 130 
new members were added, making a total of 975 members in the United States. A 
general meeting of the entire society will be held in New York during 1903. On 
April 3, 1902, the American Electro-Chemical Society was formed in Philadelphia, and 
of the new organization Joseph W. Richards, of Lehigh University, was chosen presi- 
dent, and Charles J. Reed, 3313 North Sixteenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., secretary. 

Atomic Weights. — In igoo an international committee on atomic weights was 
organized, composed of more than forty representatives from chemical and other 
societies. This committee delegated its duties to a smaller body, consisting of F. W. 
Clarke (United States), T. E. Thorpe (England), and Karl Seubert (Grermany), 
who have recently submitted their report, giving a table of the atomic weights both 
on the oxygen standard (16), and the hydrogen standard (l). Their report 
further shows changes in antimony from 120 to 120.2; germanium from 72 to 72.5; 
hydrogen from i.oi to 1.008; lanthanum from 138.9, the average of recent results by 
Jones 138.77, and by Brauner and Pavlicek 139.04; for palladium 106.5 has been 
provisionally adopted; radium appears for the first time with 225 as its atomic 
weight; selenium from 79.1 to 79.2; tin is advanced from 118.5 to 119; uranium, 
according to recent researches by Richards and Merigold, is made 238.5; and for 
zirconium 90.6 is accepted as the most probable value. 

New Elements. — ^The discovery of new elements is made from time to time, but the 
corroboration of the announcement is often long delayed. Pribram reports the dis- 
covery of a new element in the mineral orthite from arendal, for which he proposes 
the name austrium, with the symbol At. It is said to show three characteristic lines 
in red, one each in blue and orange, and several in the ultra-violet portion of Uie 
spectra. The properties of its salts and studies as to its atomic weight seem to 
indicate that its place in the series of elements is between those of gallium and 
indium. In July, 1902, Marckwald announced before the Physical Society of Berlin 
that the so-called polonium, found in uranium ore, consists substantially of ordinary 



147 Che«l.try. 

bismndi and of a new element, in the proportion of a thousand to one. The new 
metal can be separated by electrolysis. The rays it emits are like those of radium, 
but differ in being almost completely absorbed by paper, as well as by glass. The 
chemical analysis of the new metal is difficult, as one ton of ore contains hardly 
one gram of the new element 

Physical Chemistry. — ^Lord Kelvin has recently reviewed the theoretical and ex- 
perimental work that has been done on the problem of absolute molecular dimen- 
skms, and he concludes that the number of molecules in i cubic centimetre of gas is 
not less than i6", and is probably greater; hence the weight of one molecule of 
hydrogen is calculated to be 0.9 X 10-" gram. The condition known as "the nascent 
state" which has long been accepted as an explanation of various facts in electro- 
chemistry should, according to C. J. Reed, be put aside as no longer needed, for he 
contends that the result may be traced to hydrogen. He claims that freed hydrogen 
has no special mysterious power of reduction, but simply transmits the energy or 
electric diarge that it has received from the electric circuit to another body; that is, 
it acts simply as an electric conductor and behaves not differently at a kathode than 
in any other part of the electrolyte. Frank W. Clarke announces as a new law in 
thermochemistry that in any class of compounds the heat of formation is proportional 
to the number of atomic linkings within the molecule, and seems to bear no relation 
to the masses of the atoms which are combined. The study of radio electricity has 
been zealously prosecuted and most successfully by E. Rutherford and F. Soddy, of 
Montreal, who devoted much attention to thorium, in which substance they find that 
the activity is confined to a very small fraction of the mass, which continuously 
changes. Ordinary inactive thorium is continually turning into the active form, and 
this again changes into a third form, which is also inactive. The substance thus 
keeps on losing energy by its radiation and will presumably in the course of mil- 
lions of years become entirely inactive. J. J. Thomson in a recent paper called at- 
tention to the fact that the study of the Becquerel rays in uranium and thorium had 
led to the discovery of radium, polonium, and actinium. Concerning the first, he said 
radium is self-luminous, shining with a bluish light ; it, like Rontgen rays, makes a 
sensitive screen phosphoresce ; it shows the bones in the hand, and is so vigorous that 
' it has produced sores on those who have incautiously carried it about their persons. 
The radium emits negatively electrified particles with a velocity in some cases 
approaching that of light. This continued emission of particles from the radium of 
course implies that the radium is losing mass and energy. The loss of mass is 
exceedingly small ; from the results given by Curie for the amount of negative elec- 
tricity emitted by the radium it follows that the loss of mass would only amount 
to about one-thousandth of a milligram in a million years for each square centimetre 
of surface. In consequence of the tremendous velocity with which the partides are 
projected, the amount of energy radiated is quite an appreciable amount, being suffi- 
cient, if converted into heat, to melt in a million years a layer of ice of the same area 
of the radium and more than a quarter of a mile thick. A practical application of 
the radiations from this rare element is thus described: a metallic screen held be- 
tween the eye and a vial containing radium does not prevent the healthy eye from 
seeing. If the retina of a blind person is healthy, it will be affected by radium rays. 

Inorganic Chemistry. — In addition to the remarkable work in connection with 
those elements that show radio activity already mentioned, much research has been 
made in the domain of inorganic chemistry. Jaubert has taken advantage of the 
property possessed by certain metals, such as sodium, potassium, and their alloys of 
absorbing oxygen when heated in a current of air and then yielding up the same 
when dissolved in cold water, and has prepared such compounds, to which he gives 
the name of oxyliths. These are sold in small pieces, and when placed in receivers 
of a convenient form and brought in contact with water furnish oxygen that is 
chemically pure, so that the chemist or physician is able now to readily produce the 
gas which formerly required for its transportation heavy cylinders. Urbain and 
Lacome have discovered a new volatile salt of glucinum which, owing to its pecu- 
liar physical properties, seems to confirm the belief that its base, i.e., glucinum, is di- 
atomic. Among its chemical properties is the fact that it is a basic salt which is 
formed in a solution that is extremely acid. Another salt that has created con- 
siderable interest is the lithium silicide which has been obtained as bright indigo blue 
crystals that arc very hydroscopic and are violently decomposed by water, acids, and 
the halogens. Moissan continued his interesting work with the electric furnace, and 
during 1902 obtained metallic tantalum by reducing tantalic acid with powdered car- 
bon after heating his mixture for ten minutes with a current of 800 volts and 60 
amperes. His reactions with the metal seem to class it as a metalloid rather than a 
metal. Orloff published some experiments made by him that served to indicate a 
belief in the existence of a peculiar modification of sulphur which has a blue or 
(when mixed with the yellow form) green color, and which is very unstable. The 
indications are that the molecule is analogous to that of ozone and has the formula 



ChMBlatnr. 



148 

Sfe As the result of the researches of M. Guichard there is reason to believe that 
the five blue oxides of molybdenum are simply mixtures of the trioxide. Camille 
Matignon has studied the salts of certain rare elements and has described his 
method of preparing and the properties of the anhydrous chlorides of samarium, 
3rttrium, and ytterbiiun. The rare earths of the yttrium group have been studied spcc- 
troscopically by L. M. Dennis and Benton Dales, of Cornell, who found in the min- 
eral sipylite from Virp^inia and Texas lines that correspond to yttrium, ytterbium, 
erbium, thulium, holmmm, samarium, dysprosium, and possibly did3rmium. Accord- 
ing to K. Feist, the crystalline constituent of Kermes mineral hitherto regarded as 
antimony oxide is shown to be sodium pyroantimonate. W. C Heraeus finds the 
melting point of manganese to be 1245° C. 

Organic Chemistry. — Nearly 900 pages in the Journal of the London Chemical 
Society are devoted to abstracts of papers on organic chemistry published during 
1902, and while the larger proportion are from German sources, still much good 
work is now being done in France and in the United States. Marcel Delepine de- 
scribed briefly before the French Academy his methods of preparing iminodithio- 
carbonic esters together with their properties. Carl Graebe discussed in the Berichte 
the various representations of the space formula of benzine, and suggests a new 
figure prepared by joining up by two edges three pairs of tetrahedrons joined by two 
apices. Theodor Posner continued his elaborate studies on the disulphones, and 
published the eighth section specially devoted to the mercaptoles and sulphones from 
diketones, and in the ninth paper he considers the derivation of unsaturated ketones 
containing sulphur. A new liquid hydrocarbon which boils at 142-145^ C, and 
named salvene, has been obtained from the German oil of sage by H. Seyler. Mois- 
san announces a new synthesis of formic acid by passing a rapid stream of pure dry 
carbon dioxide over crystalline potassium hydride which has been volatilized along a 
glass tube. The indefatigable Arthur Hantzsch continues to add to his many contri- 
butions, and during the year published Quinonoid Diajso-cotnpounds and the so-called 
Triazolens; Decomposition of Diazonium Salts by the Aid of Alcohol; Structurally 
Isomeric Cyanurates; and Desmotropism of Trimethylethylene Nitrosite, as well as 
A rotates of the Fatty Series, in the preparation of the last-named of which he was 
aided by M. Lehman. P. Sabatier and J. B. Senderens announced before the French 
Academy a new synthesis of methane by passing carbon dioxide and hydrogen oyer 
reduced nickel at a temperature of about 300° C. M. L Konowaloff , a Russian chemist, 
published the methods used by him in accomplishing the synthesis of tertiary alco- 
hols by means of organo-magnesium compounds. Saponarin is the name given by 
G. Barger to a new glucoside which he obtained from saponaria. C. Renz describes 
a series of compounds of thallic chloride with organic bases which he prepared. The 
production of acetone from crystallized egg-albumin by treatment with hydrogen 
peroxide and copper sulphate is announced by Arnold Orgler. An elaborate discus- 
sion on the Constitution of the Oxasine and Thiazine Coloring Matters and their 
Relationship to the Asonium Compounds was published by F. Kehrmann in the 
Annalen. Under the name of iminoxanthiodes L. TschugaeflF describes a new class 
of colored organic compounds most of which are red. Manneotetrose and mannitrose 
are the names of two new sugars found by C. Tauret in manna, the exudation of 
fraxinus omus, C. F. Mabery, of Cleveland, added much to our knowledge of the 
composition of petroleum in a paper in the American Chemical Journal, which had 
as its subtitle "Hydrocarbons in Pennsylvania with Boiling Point above 216° C." 

Industrial Chemistry, — It has been known for some years that it was possible to 
manufacture sulphuric acid from the gases obtained by burning pyrites, but it was 
not until the publication early in the year of a description of the method used that 
the details became known. The fact that the gases mentioned, when purified and 
carried to the laboratory, and then passed over a contact-mass containing finely 
divided platinum, the sulphur dioxide became completely oxidized to the trioxide or 
to sulphuric acid, and if water was present, appears to have inspired the improved 
process. At first all attempts to accomplish a similar result on a commercial scale 
failed, as the contact-mass quickly became inert. Small quantities of arsenic present 
proved to be the cause, and their removal by washing solved the difficulty, and the 
process became a success. The extraction of metallic calcium from lime and other 
salts by electrolysis has been successfully accomplished by Borches. The metal whidi 
now has a value of $2,000 a pound will be reduced in cost to less than 50 cents a 
pound. The special value of the new metal will be in chemical research and in the 
production of new organic compounds, for which purposes there has long been a 
demand for a reducing or deoxidizing agent stronger than aluminum, magnesium, or 
zinc, and weaker than sodium and potassium. It is also likely to be of great im- 
portance in the iron industry. At present aluminum is used to free iron from sul- 
phur and phosphorus, the result being an iron containing aluminum, which though 
less injurious than sulphur or phosphorus, is still undesirable. If calcium, as there 
is reason to believe, dissolves but sparingly in iron without injuring its strength and 



149 

tenacity, the iron industry will create an extensive demand for the new metal. Metal- 
lic strontium, it is said, has also been obtained by a similar method. A new alloy 
of unknown composition is announced by M. P. Grermain. Its density (20.5) is 
superior to bronze, and a little above that of gold, and it is less liable to fracture 
than steel, but is tempered exactly in the same manner as steel. The color is 
yellow, it is inoxidizable, and resists acids. It is also very elastic and is welded 
without being heated, by hammering. Its electric conductibility is 98. It has been 
found that when aluminum is alloyed with from 2 to 10 per cent, of magnesium, the 
metal obtained is hardly to be distinguished from aluminum; but when the alloy is 
passed several times through a flatting mill, heated each time toward 400-500° C., 
its principles are modified. The alloy cuts and files well, as though it were charged 
with magpiesium, while preserving the ductility and malleability of pure aluminum. 
Edmund O'Neill finds that he can produce potassium cyanide from the atmosphere. 
He uses simple apparatus, and by subjecting the vapor from petroleum or coal to the 
influence of an electric ore he obtains hydrocyanic add, which, when heated with 
potash, rapidly yields potassium cyanide. The cheapness of the materials and the 
simplicity of the apparatus combined with the saving in energy possible in this 
operation are factors that give the new process a tremendous advantage over all 
others now in use, and in consequence the new method will cause a great reduction 
in the cost of extracting gold by the cyanide process and in similar metallurgical 
operations. A process for using peat fibre has been discovered in Germany. The 
vegetable fibres are first isolated, and then treated with acids and alkalis, the result 
being a peat wool consisting of nearly pure cellulose, which is soft, elastic, and 
capable of being spun in the same way as sheep's wool. A new method of storing 
acetylene gas for lighting purposes has been introduced in France, which is abso- 
lutely free from danger of explosion. It is based on the solubility of acetylene in 
acetone, and makes it possible to obtain an accumulation of the gas in portable 
receivers at much less pressure than liquefaction necessitates, thus diminishing the 
dangers due to the liquefied gas whose pressure at 37° C. is 60 atmospheres. A new 
high explosive named marsurite has been invented, which possesses, it is claimed, 
special merit from the fact that it is insensitive to shock, concussion, heat, or cold, 
and can be exploded only by means of an electric fuse. 

Physiological Chemistry. — The theory that nervous action could be explained 
by electrochemical laws has received more favorable commendation from physiolo- 
gists than from electricians. In time, physiologists will discover the fundamental 
laws — ^perhaps very simple in character, but no doubt very complex in superposition 
— ^which underlie nerve action, and the objective side of consciousness. There can 
be no doubt that electricity takes a share in this action, because all the phenomena 
of life are phenomena of differentiated liquids separated by thin septa, and it would 
be practically impossible to assemble such a mechanism without originating electric 
and electrochemical actions. The recent studies of T. B. Aldrich seem to show that 
adrenalin is the active principle of the suprarenal gland. W. Jones and G. H. Whip- 
ple have shown that the nucleoproteid of the suprarenal is a thymonucleoproteid and 
probably not a nudeohistone. W. D. Halliburton in commenting on the recent 
rapid growth and great importance of chemical physiology cites among the more 
valuable of recent investigations the work of Loeb on the value of ions in fertiliza- 
tion, the knowledge gained of the constitution of the proteid molecule; the dis- 
coveries of Pawlow on the various digestive secretions ; and the theories of Ehrlich 
and his colleagues on the subject of immunity towards toxines. At the close of the 
year die announcement was made that the well-known antiseptic formalin had been 
successfully used as a cure for sepsis or blood poisoning. The so-called "holy 
shroud" or traditional winding sheet of Christ preserved in Turin, Italy, since 1353, 
was carefully examined by Professors Delage, Vignon, and Colson, who reported to 
the Academy of Sciences in Paris, their results essentially as follows : The winding 
sheet has on it certain markings printed in a brown color which when photographed 
give a white imprint, as does a ne^tive when printed from. These markings, there- 
fore, act as a true negative, and it was found by certain very careful experiments 
that cloth impregnated with oil and aloes, as was the winding sheet in question, will 
receive an impression when in contact with ammoniacal vapors such as would be 
given oflF from a sweat very rich in urea, as is the case in the sweat of a person 
dying a lingering and painful death. Concerning the sheet itself, they say: The 
impression of the head is excellent. The wounds produced by the crown of thorns 
and the marks of the blood drops are quite obvious. The wound in the side and even 
the marks of the stripes produced on the bade by the flagellation are also quite evident. 
Each of these stripes has at its end an enlargement such as would be produced by a 
oord with a ball of lead at the end. It is well known that this form of scourge was 
employed by the Roman soldiers, and such a one has been found at Pompeii. Finally, 
the marks of the nails in the arms are not in the palm of the hand, but show that the 
nails were driven through at the level of the wrist. This report is of peculiar interest, 



ChfcaffSluBlTenlty of. ^ 5^ 

as it presents a set of new phenomena, giving distinct indications of the existence of 
emanations hitherto not recognized from both animate and inanimate bodies. The 
discovery of these emanations has been due to the fact that they affect the sensitized 
silver film, but there is no doubt that there is a very large number of substances also 
which are affected in a similar way, though not to the same degree as silver in the 
presence of aluminous substances. 

The deaths among chemists have been many during 1902, and include Sir Fred- 
erick Augustus Abel (September 6), eminent for his researches on explosives, and a 
past president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; Albert 
Horatio Gallatin (March 25), long professor of chemistry in the New York Uni- 
versity; John Hall Gladstone (October 6), for many years professor of chemistry 
in the Royal Institution, and a past president of the London Chemical Society ; John 
Glover (May i), the inventor of the Glover tower used in the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid and other improvements in chemical processes; James Hartford 
(June 13), a large manufacturer of aniline colors and other chemicals in Buffalo; 
Robert Hasenclever (June 23), a German technical chemist of high standing, and 
the inventor of numerous improvements in the alkali manufacture; John James 
Hummel (September 13), an accepted authority on the chemistry of dyeing, and 
author of text-books on that subject; Robert Clark Kedzie (November 7), for forty 
years professor of chemistry in the Michigan Agricultural College; Albert Ripley 
Leeds (March 13), for thirty years professor of chemistry in the Stevens Institute 
of Technology; William Manuel Mew (September ig), for thirty years chemist to 
the medical department of the United States Army in Washington; and Henry 
Morton (May 9), president of the Stevens Institute of Technology, and author of 
researches in uranium salts. 

The first number of the Chemical Trade Review was published in Philadelphia in 
February, 1902. 

CHESS. There was the usual activity in chess circles during 1902 and the 
various tournaments were held with great success. The annual international cable 
match of ten games between the United States and Great Britain was won by the 
former with a score of 5^/^ games won and 41/2 lost. Of the seven cable matches thus 
far held, the United States has won four, Great Britain has won two, and one has 
resulted in a draw. Yale won the American intercollegiate tournament with 7I/2 
victories and 4J4 defeats, followed by Columbia with 6.V4 games won and 5I/2 lost. 
Harvard with sH won and 654 lost, and Princeton with 45^ won and 7^2 lost. The 
fourth annual international intercollegiate cable match between the American universi- 
ties, Harvard, Columbia, Yale, and Princeton, and the English universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge, was for the first time won by the Americans, who scored 3J4 of the 
6 games played. Of this series the English players have now won two, one has been 
won by the Americans, and one has been drawn. Cornell won the tournament of the 
Tri-Collegiate Cliess Association over the University of Pennsylvania, winning 4^4 
of the 6 games played. Brown, the other member, was unrepresented in 1902. The 
Oxford-Cambridge match resulted in a draw, each side winning 3^4 games. In Feb- 
ruary, 1902, the International Masters' Tournament was held at Monte Carlo. Herr 
Lasker did not attend, but nearly all of the other great experts participated, and 
the play was closely contested and brilliant. Maroczy, of Budapest, captured the first 
prize, winning 14^ out of the 19 matches, only J4 game more than Pillsbury, the 
American expert. The other contestants, with the number of games won, were as 
follows: Janowski, 14; Teichmann, 13^4; Schlecter, 12; Tarrasch, 12; Wolf, 12; 
Tschigorin, 11^2^ Marshall, 11 ; Gunsberg, 10^; Napier, 95/^; Mieses, 9J4; Mason, 9; 
Albin, 8^. The second masters' tournament of the year, held at Hanover during 
July and August, was won by Janowski, of Paris, with 1354 victories in the 17 rounds 
of play. Pillsbury finished second with 12 games won, and was followed by Atkins, 
1 1 54 games; Mieses, 11 games; Napier, 10 games; Wolf, 10 games; Tschigorin, 9 
games ; Olland, 8^4 games ; Marshall, 8 games ; Swiderski, 8 games. 

CHESTERTON, George K., author of The Defendant See Literature, Amer- 
ican AND Engush. 

CHICAGO, UNIVERSITY OF, at Chicago, 111., founded 1890. President, 
William Rainey Harper, LL.D. The year 1902 was one of notable expansion in the 
work and the organization of the university. The school of law was endowed, organ- 
ized, equipped, and opened for work. A three-years' course of study is provided 
with an entrance requirement equivalent to three years of collegiate study. This is 
a standard fully three years higher than that held by any other law school west of 
New York. Consequently a large attendance is not anticipated for some years, that 
for the opening quarter being 80. The work of this school will be carried on through 
the entire year. A sum of $300,000 was pledged for a building and the work of 
construction has been begun. A large and exceedingly valuable library was collected 
previous to the opening of the school. The medical school completed one year in its 



muTersity quarters. The standards of admission have been raised until they repre- 
sent approximately the completion of the freshman year in college. Within two years 
an additional year of preparation will be required, thus placing the medical school 
on the basis of the work of the Junior College, and fully two years in advance of 
any other school west of New York. The attendance in the two years of the medical 
school, given on the university campus, was 222 ; that of the entire medical school was 
622. The trustees of the Rush Medical College have proposed a complete amalgama- 
tion, offering to turn over the entire plant and privileges of the college to the 
trustees of the university and to furnish an endowment of $1,000,000 before July, 
1903. The school of education has been organized, consisting of the old department 
of education, the faculty of philosophy, and the faculties of the Laboratory Elementary 
school, the South Side Academy, and the Chicago Manual Training School. The 
vacancy occasioned by the death of F. W. Parker was filled by the promotion of Prof. 
John Dewey to the headship of the school. A plant and buildings costing $600,000 
?re in course of erection. The school of technology has received tentative shape, and 
the gift of $1,000,000 made by Mr. John D. Rockefeller at Christmas, 1902, is to be 
used largely as an endowment fund for this school. A separate faculty was con- 
stituted for the school of commerce, with the expectation that the work of this 
department would take a more definite form and a more technical character in the 
near future. The press building has been completed and occupied by the press divi- 
sion and temporarily by the library. The press division conducted a business of over 
$266^000 for the calendar year 1902. The decennial publications, originally announced 
as six volumes, have expanded into twenty-seven, and have begun to appear. Hitch- 
cock Hall was also added to the plant of the university, while the Commons, the 
Student Club House, and the Assembly Hall have been enclosed. The most dis- 
cussed action of the university in 1902 was the segregation of the women of the 
freshman and sophomore years in the women's quadrangle, and the giving of instruc- 
tion in distinct classes for the women and for the men in these two years. There 
was no abandonment of coeducation, and the limited action taken only affected the 
younger class of students. A scheme of faculty pension was announced. The total 
attendance for the year on the three-quarter basis, including all the schools, was 
4550- The total gifts for the year 1901-02 were $2,6(56,354. The gift of Mr. Rocke- 
feller of $1,000,000 at Christmas, 1902, was in addition to this. See Psychology, £x- 
PEtiMENTAL (paragraph University of Chicago). 

CHILD LABOR. The census reports return 168,624 children as employed in 
manufactures throughout the country, a gain of 39.5 per cent, over 1890. Child labor 
has increased in twelve of the factory States, remained stationary in two (Michigan 
and New Hampshire), and decreased in five States. The increase in Wisconsin was 
193-5 per cent.; in Washington, 103.8; in Illinois, 92; in New Jersey, 51.4; in Penn- 
sylvania, 47.8; and in Massachusetts, 44.9 per cent. South Carolina increased the 
number of children employed by 270.7 per cent. ; Alabama by 143.8 ; North Carolina, 
119.2; and Georgia, 81 per cent. Children number 17.5 per cent, of the factory work- 
ers in South Carolina and 14.6 per cent, of those in North Carolina. Private investi- 
gators put the proportion mudi higher. Professor Robbins estimating it at 25 per 
cent, for North Carolina, and somewhat more for the rest of the Southern States. 
The proportion is much larger for the textile industries. The census figures for 
cotton manufacturing put the proportion of children working in cotton mills in Ala- 
bama at 29.2 per cent, in South Carolina 26.8 per cent. The whole number of chil- 
dren employed in the cotton goods industry was 39,866, a gain of 70.1 per cent, over 
1890. Silk and jute manufacture in Pennsylvania have 20.2 and 26.2 per cent, of 
child laborers respectively. Tobacco manufacturing in the South employs a large 
percentage of children. In the glass industry of Pennsylvania and New Jersey 14 
and 15.7 per cent, of the workers are children. There is no uniformity in legislation 
in the different States. Thirty-six States and all the territories have imposed some 
restrictions on child labor. Only twenty-six of these, however, apply to factory work ; 
the rest merely restrict the employment of children in mines. Twelve States put the 
age limit at fourteen years, one makes the limit fourteen years for girls and twelve for 
bo)rs; two put it at thirteen, seven at twelve, and four (New Hampshire, Vermont, 
Nebraska, and California) permit employment of children ten years old. Most of 
the agricultural States and the States of the new "industrial South," have no limi- 
tations whatever on child labor, except Alabama, which prohibits employment of 
children under twelve in mines. In the southern factories children from eight years 
up are employed for eleven to twelve hours daily in the factories at from ten to 
forty cents a day, only the older and more experienced children earning thirty cents 
or more. In many instances actual earnings are far below these extremely low 
figures because of deductions made for various things, chiefiy transportation. The 
average wa^es of children have decreased from 32 cents to 29 cents a day. In 
some places in the South nine cents is the daily wage for twelve hours* work. One of 
the reformers in Alabama says that mills are run for thirteen hours with but twenty 



Child Iiaber. j q2 

minutes for dinner, and during the rush season are often run until 9.30 or 10 o'clock 
at night. The campaign for securing adequate factory laws to protect childhood was 
vigorously pushed during 1902. The Democratic platforms in hoth South Carolina 
and Texas demand the prohibition of factory labor for children under twelve. The 
Virginia legislature is considering a law prohibiting the labor of children under 
twelve and regulating that of children between twelve and fourteen. The Georgia 
legislature, however, which meets but once in four years, adjourned without taking 
any action. This will spur the reformers in Alabama to renewed exertions, as the 
legislature in that State also meets only once in four years. Some employers assert 
that the children are better employed in the mills, where they can earn something 
to help support the family, than they would be idling: about. Public opinion at the 
South is not favorable to restricting the labor of children. The selfishness of the 
manufacturer who wants to get cheap and abundant labor is not so culpable as the 
greed of fathers who lie and use every effort to force their little children into the 
factories. As the operatives are drawn mostly from the mountaineers and poor 
whites, even the barrenness and drudgery of the factory-town life arc a distinct im- 
provement, in some respects, over the old life. It is urged that a law compelling at- 
tendance at school for half a day and allowing work in the mills for a few hours per 
day would be the best solution of the problem. Apart from this indifference of pub- 
lic opinion in the South, northern capitalists and mill owners are largely responsible 
for this shameful exploitation of childhood. 

This state of affairs is not peculiar to the South. The appalling extent and dis- 
graceful conditions of child empIo3rment in mines, factories, and sweatshops through- 
out the country were repeatedly brought to public notice during the year. The coal 
strike commission discovered not only that very youpg children are employed in the 
mines and breakers, but that many children of miners are employed in silk mills on 
night shifts for a bare pittance. According to the reports of factory inspectors, 
which notoriously fail to give anything like full returns of the number of children 
actually employed, 9,000 children under fourteen years of age were employed in 
Massachusetts in 1902, 16,000 in New York, 20,000 in Illinois, and 35,000 in Pennsyl- 
vania ; the figures for Pennsylvania do not include boys employed in the coal mines. 
The inspectors for Illinois report that the number of children working in establish- 
ments under their inspection doubled from 1897 to 1891. Some manufacturers of 
high-priced candies in Chicago compel mere children to work from 7.30 a.m. to 9.30 
P.M. The New Jersey State Bureau of Factory Inspection reported that in 1900 
5,968 children under sixteen were employed in factories. The United States Census 
reported 8,042 for the same year and State in manufacturing industries alone. It is 
not to be supposed that the census figures include more than a large minority of 
the actual number of children employed, for the returns were made at the will of 
the manufacturer, who cannot known the facts, in many cases, and has a strong 
motive for concealing them if he does know them. In nine towns in which the 
factory inspectors could find no children employed, the census inquiries found 519, 
while in four towns, reported in the census as employing no children, the inspectors 
report 196. During the glass-blowers' strike, it was brought out that little children 
were habitually apprenticed to glass-blowers as helpers by so-called orphans' homes 
and child-placing societies of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and that a combination 
of the padrone system and veritable child slavery exists. The labor unions have 
taken the matter up, and it has been found that in the silk and textile mills of 
Passaic County, and the tobacco and cigar factories everywhere, children are em- 
ployed for long hours, frequently at night, and under most unwholesome sanitary 
conditions. The aroused public opinion has compelled the factory inspectors to make 
strong efforts to enforce the law. A special committee of the University Settlement 
in New York City investigated conditions of child labor in the city and discovered 
the most flagrant violations of the law and of common decency. The committee 
pointed out the following defects in the present child labor law in New York State : 
(i) The direct employment of children is prohibited; yet, if accompanied by an 
adult member of the family to whom the wages are paid, a child may be employed, 
though the child's name does not apear on the pay roll ; (2) children are required to 
attend school where certain branches are taught, but no study is prescribed; (3) the 
ten-hour law for children over fourteen allows any day to be lengthened provided a 
shorter day is made of Saturday; (4) vacation work is allowed to children over 
twelve, rendering it difficult to return them to school when it opens ; (5) the defini- 
tion of factory and mercantile work is incomplete. The law does not include the 
thousands of chilcjj-en employed as newsboys, bootblacks, peddlers, office boys, mes- 
sengers, telegraph boys, and delivery boys for express companies. The condition of 
the delivery boys seems to be the worst. The committee investigated the case of 
an express company which employed children of eleven years and upwards from seven 
in the morning till nine or ten at night. On Fridays and Saturdays they work until 
midnight, and, if all the packages are not delivered at midnight on Saturday, the boys 



t f ^ Child Laber. 

^:>3 Chile. 

mtist work on Sunday until everything is finished. The conditions of work, wages, 
and living are such that the Memphis Commercial' Appeal says : "Compared to Uiis 
the child slavery of the South is the greatest freedom. Both Kentucky and Kansas 
passed laws prohibiting the labor of children under fourteen years in factories. 

Foreign. — In Europe legislation to protect children has progressed far. England 
has had a half-time feictory and school law for children of nine and over since 1844, 
the half-time age having since been raised to eleven ; and a fourteen-year age limit for 
fnll-day work since 1874. In Germany, the limit for full-day work is fourteen, and 
for any factory work at all, thirteen years. In Holland, Belgium, France, Austria, 
Norway, and Sweden the limit is twelve; in Russia fifteen, half time being allowed 
from twelve up ; in Switzerland, fourteen ; in Denmark fourteen, with half time from 
ten up. In Italy the limit was nine years, but in 1902 it was raised to twelve years in 
most cases. The enforcement of the labor laws in European countries is much better 
than in America. Few violations are reported and these are usually dealt with 
promptly. 

CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY, of New York City, was organized in 1853 for 
the education of poor children, housing them in lodging houses, and procuring homes 
for them, when desirable, in rural districts. The following figures are for 1902: in 
the industrial schools 16,364 children were taught and partly fed and partly clothed ; 
19427 visits were made by the teachers and visitors to the homes of the children, and 
practical relief was given to poor families embracing 9452 individuals ; in the kinder- 
garten there was an average daily attendance of 2,105, sind in the classes for crippled 
children 224 helpless little ones were conveyed each day between home and school 
in wagonettes. The lodging houses sheltered 4,226 boys and ^irls; through the 
emigration and placing-out department 474 children were provided with country 
homes and 247 placed out at wages, and 242 runaway children were restored to their 
friends or relatives. Unemployed and destitute families, numbering 712 persons, were 
assisted to friends or employers in the country, 645 boys received training at the 
fann school, i486 children were aided through the sick children's mission, and the 
number benefiting by the fresh air fund was 21,374. Total number of beneficiaries 
during the year, 55,222 ; receipts and expenditures balanced at $543,109.97. President, 
William Church Osbom ; secretary, C. Loring Brace, United Charities Building, New 
York City. 

CHILE, a South American republic extending between the Andes and the Pacific 
from Peru to Cape Horn. The capital is Santiago. 

Area, Population, and Education. — The area of Chile, without taking into account 
the rectification of the boundary pursuant to the arbitration decision of November, 
1902, is estimated at about 267,000 square miles, and the population, at the end of 1900, 
about 3,128,000, exclusive of perhaps 50,000 Indians. The state religion is Roman 
Catholicism. Public instruction is free, but not compulsory. Secondary, higher, and 
professional schools are maintained. In 1900 there were 1,547 public primary schools 
with an enrollment of 113,863 pupils; in 1901, 1,700, with an enrollment of 124,265. 

Government. — The executive authority is vested in a president, who is assisted 
by a council of state and by a responsible ministry. The president for the five-year 
term ending September, 1906, is Schor Jerman Riesco. The legislative power de- 
volves upon a congress of two houses, the senate and the chamber of deputies. 

Army and Navy, — ^The standing army in 1901 was fixed at a maximum of 17,385 
men, while, under the military law of 1900, 400,397 were liable to service. The *leet 
has been reported to comprise 5 armor-clads, 2 second-class cruisers, 2 third-class 
cruisers, 15 first-class torpedo boats, 4 second-class torpedo boats, and ii gunboats. 
In 1902 three new torpedo boats were added and a battleship of 11,800 tons was near- 
ing completion. For the equalization of the Chilian navy with the Argentine, agreed 
upon in 1902, see the paragraph Chile and Argentina. 

Finance. — ^The nominal monetary standard is gold, and the unit of value the peso, 
worth 36.5 cents. On July 30, 1898, the president was authorized to issue 50,000,000 
pesos in paper, the conversion of which was to begin January i, 1902 ; but on Decem- 
ber ^i, 1901, a law was promulgated postponing the commencement of metallic con- 
version to January i, 1905. By the same law the president was empowered to coin, 
during a period of two years, not more than 4,000,000 pesos. Ordinary revenue and 
expenditure in pesos (36.5 cents) are reported at 94»79i.398 and 9343i»38o respec- 
tively for 1899, and 103,965,030 and 104,730,054 respectively for 1900. The budget for 
1902 showed estimated revenue and expenditure of 96,950,000 pesos and 95,850,000 
pesos respectively. The largest estimated receipts were: Nitrate (export) duties, 
48,000,000 pesos; import duties, 26,000,000; railways, 15,000,000— the largest estimated 
expenditures : Railways, I9375»624 pesos ; department of finance (principally interest 
on public debt), 19,625458; war, 13,033481; department of the interior, 11,585,327; 
marine, 11,120,326. The import and export customs receipts for 1900 are reported at 
784(^^1 pesos, and for 1901 69,560,333 pesos. On December 31, 1900, the external 



Okll*. 



154 



debt amounted to £i7;230,68o (229,742400 pesos), and the internal debt, including 
some municipal debts charged to the state, 75326488 pesos — total, 305,568^88 pesos. 
On December 31, 1901, the external debt was reported to stand at 227,234400 pesos, 
and the internal debt 75437,881 pesos. The figures given here for internal debt in- 
clude Chile's paper money. 

Industries and Commerce. — The principal industries are agriculture and mining, 
and the most important product is nitrate of soda. Practically the world's supply 
of nitrate comes from Chile. The industry is controlled by an association which 
was formed in November, 1900, to limit the output, maintain prices, and dispose of 
the product through one general agency. Although this association comprised, in 
1902, about 100 nitrate works, it distrusted the future of the industry, fearing that the 
establishment of new works, outside its control, would cause a disastrous increase in 
production. 

The total values of the imports and exports in pesos (36.5 cents) are stated as 
follows : 



Imports. 
Exports. 



1898 



103.262.068 
168.069.431 



1899 



106.360.368 
163,106.133 



1900 



138.638.143 
167.674,686 



1901 



189.800.766 
171.844.976 



The principal imports are coal, cotton, and woollen goods, iron and steel goods, 
paper, and (in 1901) wheat. The values in pesos of the principal exports in 1900 
and 1901 respectively are reported as follows: Mineral products, 147,783,276 and 158,- 
944,207; agricultural products, 5,831,098 and 4,684,318; animals and animal products, 
3»989t059 and 4,340,191 ; and manufactures, 3,297,902 and 3462,137. Next to nitrate 
the leading export is copper bullion. These exports in metric tons with values in 
pesos, are stated as follows : 





Nitrate Of Soda. 


Copper Bullion. 




Metric Tons. 


Pesos. 


Metric Tons. 


Pesos. 


1896 


1.394.237 
1.380.718 
1,465.936 
1.391.968 


90.676.397 

96,660.383 

109.945.156 

118.860.181 


30.600 
17.311 
30.840 
34,480 


18.760.488 


1899 


14.928.378 


1900 


17.899.300 
19,637.114 


1901 





Other important exports are iodide, coal, gold, silver, copper ore, barley, leather, 
wool, and honey. In 1901 the imports from and the exports to countries of greatest 
trade importance were (special commerce) : Great Britain, 42482,000 pesos and 123,- 
236,000 pesos respectively ; Germany, 34,322,000 and 20,227,000 ; United States, 12,099,- 
000 and 6,387,000; France, 9,290,000 and 7,970,000; Peru, 6,715,000 and 1,675,000; 
Australia, imports, 9,313,000. 

In 1902 there were reported 2,880 miles of railway in operation. 

Political. — During 1902 there were several changes in ministry. The new cabinet 
formed in the latter part of November had Senor Domingo Amunategui as minister 
for foreign affairs and Sefior Fernandez Albano as minister of the interior. Ap- 
parently the most noteworthy ministerial change in 1902 was the resignation of the 
Tocornal cabinet in April and its supersession by a cabinet formed under Senor Luco. 
The Tocornal ministry resigned on account of the general dissatisfaction with its 
action, alleged unconstitutional, in borrowing from the conversion fund to pay for 
newly acquired armaments. 

A drastic liquor law passed at the end of 1901 and going into effect in 1902, pro- 
vided for the licensing of distilleries, the prohibition of all alcohols that are not 
ethylic or vinous, for the severe restriction and supervision of the retail trade, and for 
punishment for drunkenness. 

Chile and Argentina. — A new boundary dispute with Argentina arose in the 
autumn of igoi. This concerned the region of Ultima Esperanza, in the far south, 
and did not fall within the jurisdiction of the British commission already appointed 
to settle an Argentine-Chilian boundary controversy in pursuance of agreements of 
April, i8q6. and September, 1898. Toward the end of 1901 not a little bitter feeling 
had developed between the two countries, but on December 25 a protocol was signed 
submitting the dispute to the arbitration of the British government. In January, 
1902, on behalf of the existing boundary commission. Sir Thomas Holdich went 
to Ultima Esperanra to examine the geographical conditions. Finally on May ^, 
ig02, a general arbitration treaty was signed at Santiago by Senor Jose Francisco 
Vergara Donoso. Chilian minister for foreign affairs, and Senor Jose Antonio Terry, 
Argentine minister to Chile. The treaty provided for the submission to arbitration 
of all questions arising between the two governments and impossible of direct 



155 



Chile. 



settlement^n so far as such disputes should not affect the constitution of cither 

country. The arbitrator named was His Britannic Majesty, or, in case either of the 

high contracting parties should sever its friendly relations with Great Britain, the 

govemment of the Swiss Confederation. The treaty was to remain in force for ten 

years from the date of exchange of ratifications and was to be renewable. At the 

same lime (May 28, 1902) two other agreements were signed by the plenipotentiaries 

namied above: tbc one provided for renouncing, on the part of both governments, 

the acquisition of war vessels in the inunediate future, and for negotiations looking 

toward a "prudent equilibrium" between the two fleets; the other agreement provided 

that the general arbitrator between the two countries (His Britannic Majesty) be 

requested to appoint a conunission to mark on the ground the boundary lines that 

the arbitral decision might establish. Ratification of these conventions by the two 

governments was completed by August 12, 1902. 

This consummation relieved a tension that had existed for many years. War 
or even continued unfriendly rivalry between the two countries would have been to 
the detriment of both. Aside from heavy indemnities, the military success of one 
over the other would probably mean the loss to Argentina of her Patagonian 
territories or the loss to Chile of the provinces acquired from Bolivia and Peru as 
the outcome of the war of 1879-82, as well as the loss of her southern territory. The 
development of both countries depends largely on the introduction of foreign 
capital Such capital amounting to nearly $600,000,000 has already been invested in 
Ar^^entina, and a smaller though still very considerable amount in Chile. The 
major portion in each case is British. It is highly probable that the assurance of 
peaceful relations between the two countries will attract much more foreign capital 
and serve as an effective aid to industrial progress. It should be pointed out, 
however, that, although the agreement for the limitation of naval armaments goes 
far to dispel doubt of the pacific intentions of the two governments, the exception 
from arbitration of questions "affecting the precepts of the constitution of one or the 
other country" leaves an opportunity tor future complications should either govern- 
ment wish to evade the spirit of the treaties. 

The boundaiT award of the British commission was made on November 20, 1902, 
in the name of King Edward. This closed a dispute which had existed for many 
years and upon which the arbitrators had been engaged for three years. Of the 
disputed territory Chile received about 55,000 square kilometres and Argentina about 
40x00 square kilometres, but Argentina got the larger share of fertile land. (The. 
square kilometre equals .586108 square mile.) The decision was received with* 
little apparent disfavor in both countries. The general boundary dispute arose 
from a treaty that defined the line of frontier as following the summits of the 
Andes and the continental water-divide. But in many cases the line of summits 
does not coincide with the line of water-parting : many rivers rise east of the Andes 
and flow westward through cuts in the mountains to the waters of the Pacific It 
was thus impossible for the boundary commission to follow either water-shed theory, 
and accordingly its decision was a compromise "between opposing views of physical 
geography and awkward accomplished facts of possession and occupation. Thus 
the new frontier is partly physical and partly political. The boundary report was 
submitted to King Edward by Lord Macnaghten, Sir John Ardagh, and Sir Thomas 
Holdich, members of the arbitration commission. The text of the King's award 
was as follows: 

'niie boundary in the region of the San Francisco Pass shall be formed by the 
line of water-parting extending from the pillar already erected on that pass to the 
summit of mountain Tres Cruces. The basin of Lake Lacar is awarded to 
Ar^^entina. From Perez Rosales Pass, near the north of Lake Nahuel Huapi, to the 
vicinity of Lake Biedma, the boundary shall pass by Mount Tronador, and thence to 
the River Palena by the line of water-parting determined by certain obligatory 
points which we have fixed upon the rivers Manso, Puelo, Fetaleufu, and Palena (or 
Carrenleufu) ; awarding to Argentina the upper basins of those rivers above the 
points which we have fixed, including the valleys of Villegas, Nuevo, Cholila, 
Q>lonia de 16 Octubre, Frio, Huemueles, and Corcovado, and awarding to Chile the 
lower basins below these points. From the fixed point on the River Palena, the 
boundary shall follow the River Encuentro to peak Virjen; thence to the line which 
we have fixed, crossing Lake General Paz; thence by the line of water-parting 
determined by the point which we have fixed upon the River Pico; from whence 
the boundary shall ascend to the principal water-parting of the South American 
continent at Loma Baguales, and follow that water-parting to the summit known 
as La Galera. From this point the boundary shall follow certain tributaries of the 
River Simpson (or Southern Aisen), which we have fixed, and attain peak 
Apywan, from whence it shall follow the water-parting determined by a point 
which we have fixed on a promontory from the northern shore of Lake Buenos 
Ayres. The upper basin of the River Pico is thus awarded to Argentina and the 



Chile. 



156 



lower basin to Chile. The whole basin of the River Cisnes (or Frias) is awarded 
to Chile ; also the whole basin of the Aisen, with the exception of the tract at head- 
waters of the southern branch, including the settlement Koslowsl^, which is 
awarded to Argentina. The further boundary is determined by lines which we 
have fixed across Lake Buenos Ayres, Lake Pueyrredon (or (^chrane), and LaJke 
San Martin, thus assigning the western portions of the basins of these lakes to 
Chile and the eastern portions to Argentina, the dividing ranges carrying Mounts 
San Lorenzo and Fitz-Roy. From Mount Fitz-Roy to Mount Stokes the frontier 
is already determined. From the vicinity of Mount Stokes to the fifty-second 
parallel of south latitude, the boundary shall first follow the continental water- 
parting defined by the Sierra Baguales, diverging from the latter southwards 
across the River Vizcachas to Mount Cazador, at the southeastern extremity of 
which range it crosses the River Guillermo and rejoins the continental water- 
parting to the east of Mount Solitario, following it to the fifty-second parallel, from 
which point the frontier has already been defined by mutual agreement between the 
respective States. A more detailed definition of the line of frontier will be found in 
the report submitted to us by our tribunal and upon the maps furnished by the 
experts of the republics of Argentina and Chile, upon which the boundary which we 
have decided upon has been delineated by the members of our tribunal and approved 
by us. Given in triplicate under our hand and seal at our Court of St. James s, this 
twentieth day of November, 1902, in the second year of our reign. 

"Edward, R. & I." 

CHINESE EMPIRE, an absolute monarchy of Asia lying between Siberia on 
the north, and French Indo-China and British India on the south. The capital is 
Peking. 

Area and Population, — No official records of either the area or population of the 
empire had been compiled for many years previous to 1902, but recent estimates 
placed the total area at about 4,234,910 square miles, and the population at about 399,- 
680,000. In 1902 an official re-census ordered by the imperial government, in order to 
facilitate the increase of taxes made necessary by the war indemnity, was completed. 
By the census of 1902 the area of the eighteen provinces of Cliina proper was placed 
at 1,532,817 square miles and the population at 407,737,305, and the area of the entire 
empire at 4,278,374 square miles with a population of 426447,325. The following 
table of the results of the census is taken from the Lloyd de I Extreme Orient: 



Pbotuicb. 



ChUI 

Bhantuiig .... 

Shanai , 

Honan 

Klangsu , 

An-hwai 

Kiangsi 

Cheklang 

FokteD 

Hope 

Hunan 

Kansu 

Shensl 

Sechwan 

Kwangtnng. 

Kwan^-fli 

Kwelcnaa.... 
Yunnan 



Total for 18 proylnces. 

Manchuria 

Mongolia 

Thibet. 

TurklBtan 



Total. 



Area in Square 
Kilometres.* 



aoo.ooo 

116.000 
213.000 
176.000 
100.000 
143,000 
180,000 
95,000 
130.000 
180,000 
216.000 
936.000 
196.000 
666,000 
269.000 
300.000 
174.000 
880,000 



8.970.000 
942.000 
3.643.000 
1.200.000 
1.426.000 



11.061,000 



Population. 



20.987.000 
38.247.900 
12.200.466 
86.816.826 
13,980.285 
28.672.314 
26.632.126 
11.680.692 
22,876,640 
86,280.676 
22.169.673 
10.885.376 
8.460.182 
68,724.890 
81.866.261 
6,142,330 
7,660.282 
12,721.674 



407.737,806 
8.600.000 
2.680.000 
6.430.020 
1,200.000 



426,447,835 



Population 
Per Square 
Kilometre. 



70 



67 

201 

140 

167 

M8 

122 

191 

191 

103 

32 

43 

121 

123 

26 

44 

84 



108 
9 

.9 
6 

.8 



87.7 



*A square kilometre equals .886106 square mile. 

The entire foreign population of China, according to imperial customs returns, 
was, at the beginning of 1901, only 16,811, including Japanese and other Asiatics. 
The bulk of the inhabitants are adherents of Buddhism, but Confucianism is the 
recognized state religion, the emperor being its supreme head. The two, with Tao- 
ism, constitute the principal religions of (%ina, but there are said to be 30,000,000 
Mohammedans, chiefly in the northeast and southwest. The Roman Catholic 
population is estimated at 1,000,000, and the Protestant population, of all sects, 
50,000. 



I ^M Chinese Empire* 

Government. — The supreme head of the Chinese government is the emperor. Suc- 
cession is not hereditary, but each emperor designates his successor. The present 
sovereign, KwansF Hsu, bom in 1872, was proclaimed emperor through the influence 
of the Empress IDowaser, Tszu-Hszi, in 1875, she acting as regent until 1887. The 
supreme direction of the imperial government, however, rests in the Chun Chi Ch*u, 
or grand council, through which it is exercised by the Nei-Ko, or cabinet, of four 
members. Under the cabinet the government is carried on through an extensive 
system of boards and councils, all being, in theory, organized with the greatest 
care for detail and exactness in respect to their powers and duties, but in fact this 
is bir otherwise. Each of the eighteen provinces of China proper is ruled by a 
viceroy, responsible to the imperial government The provinces are subdivided 
into departments and districts. 

Army and Naz/y. — ^The army of China comprises, principally (i) the national 
army (Ying Ping), known as the "Green Flags," consisting of eighteen corps, one 
for each province, and numbering nominally between 540,000 and 660,000 men, 
althoYigh no more than 200,000 are available; and (2) the "Eight Banners," an 
hereditary force nominally containing 300,000 men, mostly Manchus, and main- 
tained on a war-footing of about 100,000. In addition to these forces, mercenary 
troops, local militia, and Mongolian and other irregular cavalry, bring the total 
araiy strength on a war footing up to about 1,000,000. 

The navy of China comprised in 1902 nine cruisers of various sizes, none of them 
of the first class, four torpedo gunboats, twenty-one torpedo boats and a fleet of 
twenty-two river gunboats. A considerable extension of the navy, which will add 
to it a number of effective modem fighting ships, has been planned. 

Finance. — ^There are no official figures obtainable as to the finances of the Chinese 
Empire, but unofficial estimates, based on figures compiled by British consular offi- 
cials for the three years preceding the Japanese war ( 1894) showed that the amount 
of revenue and expenditure as accounted for by the provincial authorities balanced 
at about 89,000,000 haikwan taels (i haikwan tael valued in United States money at 
77.1 cents January i, 1901; 68 cents January i, 1902, and 594 cents January i, 1903). 
For the period 1902-10 the imperial authorities, in order to meet the increased 
expenditure on interest and redemption, of the new debt caused by the indemnity, 
have required the viceroys and governors of provinces to increase their annual 
contributions by 18,700,000 taels. The receipts of the imperial Chinese customs 
service, administered under the supervision of European and American officials 
under the control of Sir Robert Hart, by whom the system was organized, amounted 
in 1899 to 26,661490 haikwan taels, and in 1900 — ^the year of the Boxer uprising, 
which would account for the decrease — to 22,873,986 haikwan taels. In this service 
over 900 Europeans and Americans are employed. 

The land tax annually amounts to about 25,000,000 haikwan taels, and the salt 
duty and likin to about 14,000,000 haikwan taels. The foreign debt, including 
the Japanese indemnity, is about i55i755)000, or, including the indemnity due the 
Powers, £123,255,000. 

Commerce. — The condition of trade in China at the end of 1901 was vastly better 
than would be inferred from comparisons of the totals of exports and imports for 
that year with those of previous years ; for during a large part of 1901 conditions 
were not at all favorable to trade. The revival during the latter part of the year, 
after the restoration of order, was remarkably rapid and strong. The total export 
and import trade of China for 1901 was 437,959,675 haikwan taels, a larger amount 
than any other year except 1899, when it reached 460,533,288 haikwan taels. There 
was no rush of imports to escape the increased duty except at one or two southern 
ports, and trade was thoroughly healthy. The value of merchandise imports ex- 
ceeded the value of merchandise exports by 49,916,706 haikwan taels, and for the 
first time in many years there was a net export of silver amounting to 6,097,802 
haikwan taels, while the net export of gold amounted to 6,635,313 haikwan taels. 
The remaining balance against China is accounted for by the remittances from 
Chinese residents abroad, missionary contributions, expenditures by foreign coun- 
tries on troops and officials, and by investments of foreign capital in railroads 
and other enterprises, all of which swell the imports of the empire, but do not make 
necessary any exports to balance the account. The values of imports and exports 
for 1900 and 1901 by countries are shown in the table below. 

The total value of net imports for 1901 was estimated at 268,302,918 haikwan taels, 

an increase of 57,232496 haikwan taels over 1900, and more than 3,000,000 haikwan 

taels greater than in 1899, which surpassed every other year. The imports of opium 

increased but little because of the increase in the production of native opium. 

The imports of cotton goods increased by about 24,000,000 haikwan taels. American 

heavy goods were especially demanded. The imports of American drills were 

^5^A79 haikwan taels in 1900, and 4,834,87p haikwan taels in 1901 ; American sheet' 

Ings, 1^^336^55 haikwan taels in 1900, 7,630,714 haikwan taels in 1901. By far the 



Chlaeae Saiplre. 



158 



most important item in the cotton imports is Indian yarn, which increased from 
19^14,514 haikwan taels in 1900 to 35,937,651 haikwan taels in 1901. Japanese yam 
ranks next with values of 10,044,515 haikwan taels and 11,297,538 haikwan taels, 
respectively, for 1900 and 1901. Imports of other cotton goods from Japan also 
increased greatly. The imports of raw cotton nearly doubled because of the short 
crop in Giina. Imports ot cigars and cigarettes more than doubled. The demand 
for American fiour continued to increase. One of the chief arguments in the United 



COUNTBIKS. 



Great Britain 

Honor Konor. 

India 

Singapore and Straits 

Anotralia. New Zealand, etc 

South Africa and Mauritius 

British America 

United States 

Philippine Islands 

South America 

Continent of Europe (except Bussla) 

Rnesia Tia Odessa and Batoum 

Bussiaand Siberia Tia Kiakhta 

Russian Manchuria 

Japan and Formosa 

Macao 

Ck)chin-China, Tonkin and Annam 

Siam 

Java and Sumatra 

Turkfliy in Asia, Persia, Egypt, Algiers, Aden, etc 

Total foreign countries 

Oorea 

Grand total 



Imports from 
(in Haikwan Taels). 



1900 



45,487,409 

93,846,617 

16,816,029 

a,626,968 

617,884 

668.691 

16.704.493 
19,816 

'ioia78V406 

4.286,607 

ia6V966 

36,762.694 

2,286,288 

966,446 

6,669 

699,999 

1,237.413 



211,070,422 
1,188.638 



aU.268,960 



1901 



41,223,638 

120,829.884 

28.949.368 

8.828442 

674.902 

"'ii«S6.'467 

23,529.006 

13.616 

'i?,046,4SB 

8.004.816 

8.886 

346,979 

82,667,666 

1.868,066 

887,460 

141,994 

490.462 

698.494 



268,802,918 
613,616 



968316,424 



Exports to 
(in Haikwan Taels). 



1900 



9.366,428 

68.961.684 

2,866,846 

2,436,866 

861,020 

234.169 

467.680 

14.761.631 

U8.881 

16.068 

34.976.619 

6.390.273 

832.461 

6.161,382 

16,038.063 

4.710,360 

1,302,833 

716,076 

333,027 

3,604.610 



168,996,763 
804.060 



I6O3OO312 



1901 



8.661,046 

n.436,108 

3.148.360 

2.684.700 

173.434 

399,773 

181.348 

16,673.988 

88,674 

39.968.913 
4.830.683 
1.701314 
3.748364 

16,876.726 

6.339370 

1.466.377 

876.472 

406,714 

8.103,347 



160.666.767 
1478.608 



170336366 



States for Chinese exclusion is that they do not spend their earnings in this country 
hut send them hack to China. It has been overlooked that these remittances, amount- 
ing to more than $10,000,000 in gold annually, are made in the shape of American 
products, for which it is to be presumed the Chinese workmen in America have 
given a fair equivalent. American kerosene oil exceeded by 6,000,000 ^llons the 
record importation of 1894. Russian oil about held its own, while imports of 
Sumatra oil more than doubled in quantity and nearly doubled in value. Oil from 
Borneo and Japan appeared in the returns for the first time, suggesting the possi- 
bility of two new rivals for the Chinese oil market. Although woolen goods are not 
used extensively in China as yet, even in the colder parts, still the woolen trade 
showed a very satisfactory growth during 1901. Of metal imports slab tin is by 
far the most important, reaching a value of 1,906,658 haikwan taels in 1900 and 
2,832,446 haikwan taels in 1901. Nail rods and b^r iron come next in importance, 
with values of 414445 and 411,272 haikwan taels, respectively, for 1900; and 622,459 
and 698,987 haikwan taels for 1901. Machinery was almost the only item showing 
a decrease of imports — 1450,091 haikwan taels in 1900, and but 1,220,167 haikwan 
taels in 1901. 

The following table gives the principal imports for 1900 and 1901, with values in 
haikwan taels: 



Abticlbs. 


Imports. 


▲btiolbs. 


Imports. 


1900 


1901 


1900 


1901 


Opinm 


81.030.811 
76.606.360 
3.422.646 
9.178,462 
1,011,663 
6,388,416 
1,832,966 
3.391.338 
3,829,868 
2.134,827 

6,304.384 
6,148.037 


33.936.679 
99.661,999 
4,737,371 
10,428,682 
2.217.790 
8,362.832 
8,868,362 
4.274,600 
4.726,962 
2.963.631 

8.638,601 
4,276,141 


Oil. kerosene^ 


2,603,171 
11,876.676 

2.890,671 
1,022,636 
9.677.371 
1.474.800 




Cotton goods 


4,353.162 
7.060,887 


Woolen goods 


Rice 


Metals 




Cigars, etc 


4.825.482 
3.600.091 
6.438.907 
8,008.888 


Coal 


White 


Cotton, raw 


Refined 


Fish, etc 


Wines, beer, else 


Flour 


Total 


Matcbes (Jat>an) 


100.226.029 
60.846.898 


214.489.437 
68.868.481 


Oil, kerosene-^ 


All other 


American 


Grand total 




Bnssian 


2U.070.422 


268.302.918 





The total value of native exports for 1901 was 169,656,757 haikwan taels, an in- 
crease of 10,000,005 haikwan taels over 1900, but far below the record year i^ 



159 



Chlaese Saiplre. 



when exports amounted to 195,784332 haikwan taels. The necessity of collecting 
larger revenue to pay the indemnities makes it desirable to increase i)oth exports 
and imports. The building of railroads and the abolishing of some burdensome internal 
taxation in the shape of likin have facilitated the development of commerce, but the 
adulteration of products and the arbitrary exactions of provincial and local rulers 
prevent a normal growth of industry and commerce. Tobacco of excellent quality 
is produced in China, and in 18^ the exports were 371,137 piculs (£494^49) » but 
adulteration and fraudulent packing spoiled the excellent prospects of the industty, 
though it improved greatly during 1902. The export 01 feathers, once of great 
importance, was the smallest in 1901 since 1895, and will no doubt continue to 
decrease unless the Chinese merchants can be prevented from mixing in dirt and 
low-grade feathers with high-grade feathers. The same complaints of adulteration, 
dishonesty, and carelessness in preparing products for shipment were heard in every 
line of trade. Exports of tea fell oS, partly because of poor quality and partly 
because of a short crop, owing to heavy rains in April. Exports of blade tea 
were the lowest on record. Russia took more Indian and Ceylon teas, and the China 
teas have lost the Canadian and Australian markets because of deteriorated quality 
and the unreasonably heavy export duty and likin, which have raised the cost of 
low grade teas sometimes as much as 40 per cent. While these conditions continue 
the trade must continue to decline. It would be easy to relieve the tea trade from 
some of the burdens of the heavy export duty, as it is the only article of export 
upon which the duty is at all onerous. The silk trade was very satisfactory in 
19D1, the principal increase being in steam filature fibre. Raw silk exports increased 
more than exports of manufactured silk. The first table on the following page gives 
the principal exports for 1900 and 1901, with their value in haikwan taels. 

The total customs revenue for 1901 was 25,537,574 haikwan taels, which has been 
excelled only in 1899, when the collections amounted to 26,661460 haikwan taels. 
Collections from every source were greater than in I9cx>, and there were increases 
over 1899 in import duties, coast trade duties, tonnage dues, and transit dues. The 
total value, expressed in haikwan taels, of the trade of the ports under foreign 
supervision for 1900 and 190 1 is given below, together with the total revenues 
collected : 



TUATT POBT8. 



Xmcif 

CantoD 

Chlfa 

Ctvagklng. 

Fnehow 

Hi 
Hani 

letaaaf^. 

Kteo-diMi 

KinklMS 

Klansehou-fo 

KoDgoiim or Knmchuk. 

Kowloon 

Lapps 

LnoiT'ehoii-fa 

Menfftea-luton 

NMiklns 

Ntoeko 

Niochwaiig 

Pakhoi 

Sao-tcKM. 

Samalial 

Semao 

SbaaghaL 

Sliashl 

Soehow 

Swatow 

TIentflIn 

Wenebow-fa 

Waba 

Wmbow 

Toehov 



Total. 



Total Fonlffn and 
Domestic Trade. 


ReTenue Collected. 


1900 


1901 


1900 


1901 


18.M8.»8 


14.719.068 


665.829 


690,548 


6Q,406.17a 


59.990.264 


1.838.930 


2,150.627 


27.068,338 * 


37.660.610 


656.862 


764.999 


23,306.055 


27.389.216 


891.042 


991.628 


24.452.066 


24.268.728 


876.899 


514.949 


16,341.826 


14,432.616 


1.188.340 


1,040,001 


9.438.771 


12.105.667 


534,666 


618,128 


67.050,639 


62,219.698 


2.115.759 


2,067,668 


1.838.070 


2,688.966 


600.376 


869.706 


8,967.150 


8.730.920 


69,482 


107.414 


16.366.647 


16.863,211 


880.181 


828.201 


3,753.233 


4.429.866 


157.784 


178.238 


1,8U,06S 


2,329.737 


3 80.960 
9.433 


87.724 
28.318 


47.077,598 


49,128,622 


350.024 


404.450 


13,573,069 


14,606,412 


867.069 


378.605 


86.636 


164,494 


5.319 


6.994 


6.266.938 


6,815,278 


179.138 


924.186 


8.868,596 


4.620.077 


147.449 


200.893 


15.227.380 


16.964,365 


686.184 


674.973 


22.024.643 


42,202,209 


496,244 


751,621 


8.876,466 


4,221.897 


135.837 


156.939 


656.216 


1.247.039 


77.186 


140,282 


2,282,882 


2.607.466 


90,009 


113.664 


218,894 


244.649 


6,767 


9.008 


97,729.159 


118.425.776 


7.U7.887 


8.162.096 


560.759 


1.112.609 


6.620 


12.783 


1.173.945 


2.345.070 


85,654 


93.220 


43.244.520 


44.425.745 


1,604.609 


1.669.014 


81,920.658 


49,411.423 


516,706 


764.514 


1.459,630 


1.460.789 


44.978 


45.981 


18.060.948 


13.289.752 


894.126 


684.848 


6.626,603 


7,496.243 


308,839 


848.215 


143,827 


400,509 


790 


8.994 


467,707.140^ 


543.574,293* 


22.873,965 


25,587,574 



• FlgniM aro tho ram of foreign imports and native exports only, as native imports into one port 
•!• Axports from anotlier port. 

Shipping entries from foreign ports were 7757 vessels, aggregating 6,339,000 tons, 
as compared with 6948 vessels and 5,539,ooo tons in 1900. Coastwise entries were 



C1ilBeB0 Saiptre. 



i6o 



Abticlbs. 



Beancake 

Beans 

Cattle, Bheep, pi^ and 
goats 

Chinaware, etc 

Clothing, boots and 
shoes 

Cotton, raw 

Firecrackers, etc 

Hides, cow and buffalo 

Mats and matting. 

Medicines 

Oil, vegetable 

Paper 

Provisions and vege- 
tables. 



Exports. 



1900 



3,471,907 
3.996,179 

1.417.794 
1,637,368 

3.089.743 
9.860.969 
1.620.817 
4.147.633 
3,304,937 
1,478.170 
3.290.727 
3.606,323 

3.496,446 



1901 



4.704.684 
3.866.096 

1.768.617 
1,693,661 

1,860,601 
4.706,606 
1,979,719 
4,633,701 
8.467.160 
1,618,616 
3.796.689 
3.666,644 

3,783,686 



▲bticlbs. 



Silk, raw 

Silk, manofactured 

Skins, etc 

Straw braid 

Sugar 

Tea, black 

Tea, green 

Tea, brick, black 

Tea, brick, green 

Tobacco leu. prepared 
Wool 

Total 

All other 

Grand total 



Exports. 



1900 



39,783.631 
9,711.838 
3,874,780 
4,871,167 
3,963.816 

17,693,687 
4,717.739 
3.818.731 
367,647 
1.941,709 
1,616,600 



126,866.376 
83,640,476 



168.996,763 



1901 



60,097.383 

10,888,338 

4.036,098 

8,690,784 

8,007.246 

11,408,873 

4,897,886 

3.139,682 

483,073 

3,160,141 

1.609,130 



131,930.169 
87,796,696 



169.666,767 



24,438 vessels of 17,853,000 tons, as against 27,431 vessels of 14,850,000 tons in 1900. 
The total tonnage entries and clearances were 48416,000, and of this Great Britain 
contributed 54 per cent., Germany 16 per cent., China 13 per cent., Japan 11 per cent., 
France 2 per cent, America 2 per cent., Russia i per cent., and all others i per cent. 
The number of entries and clearances for 1900 and igoi by nationality of vessels 
is shown as follows, entries and clearances being about equal : 





1900 


1901 


Fi.Aa. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


American 


1,311 
44 

4 

33,818 

36.420 

7,709 

30 

49 

30 

978 

8,627 

2 


474.479 

77,643 

4,880 

38.062,469 

7,644,496 

819,721 

12.682 

48.886 

82.168 

664.987 

4,033.147 

1.916 


1,341 

71 

4 

36,013 

14.094 

7.931 

38 

80 

77 

1.208 

6.641 

10 

6,116 

600 

787 

3 

13 

839 

3 


896.068 


Austrian 


111,683 


Belgian 


6,164 


British 


36.161,333 


'Chinese shipping 


6.089.664 


Chinese Junks'. ....T. 


846,170 


Corean..'. 


21.684 


Danish 


108.330 


Dutch 


03.853 


French 


733.041 


(Sennan 


7,643,839 


Hawidian 




Italian 


834 


Japanese 


4,917 " 
612 
449 


8.871.669 

47.968 

393,378 


6.618,876 


Portttgueso 


46.900 


Russian 


407.989 


Siamese 


616 


Spanish 


12 
324 

4 


638 

838,628 

98 


890 


Swedish and Norwegian 


846,649 


Non-treat7 Powers.!^ 


1.873 






Total 


69,230 


40,807,242 


64,844 


48,416,668 







'Modem foreign built vessels owned bj Chinamen and sailed under the Chinese flag. 

Railways. — There were in 1902 three separate lines of railway in operation in 
China proper. Of these that known as the Chinese Imperial Railway, built by 
British capital, extends from Peking to Tientsin, 80 miles, thence to Tong-ku, 27 
miles, and to Shan-hai-kwan, 147 miles distant, on the Manchurian border, 247 miles 
in all. The other lines are the Peking-Pao-ting-fu Railway, of which the main line 
is 88 miles long, with a branch 10 miles long ; and the short Shanghai-Wusung line, 
which is only 12 miles long. The total length of these three lines is 364 miles. 
The two most important lines under construction are the Shantung Railway and the 
Peking-Hankow line. The Shantung line is being constructed by a German syndi- 
cate inland from Kiao-chau. At the beginning of 1902, 160 kilometres were reported 
as being completed, and it was expected that in three years the road would be 
completed as far as Chi-nan-fu, the capital of Shantung province. The first section — 
from Kiao-chau to Weihsien — ^was completed and opened for traffic on June i, 1902. 
Work on the Peking-Hankow line, which is being built by the Belgian syndicate 
that already controls the Peking-Pao-ting-fu line, was progressing rapidly. The 
two lines are to be united and run in connection with one another. The section 
of the road destroyed during the Boxer uprising in 1900 has been rebuilt, and the 
line carried as far as Cheng-ting- fu, 262 kilometres distant from Peking. Early in 
the year it was expected that trains would be running from Hankow 220 kilometres 
northward to Hsin-yang by May (1902), and that 100 kilometres more of trade 
would be laid to the north of Hsin-yang by the end of the year. Other impor- 
tant lines projected in China proper, but not begun, include a line to be built 



jgj Chlaeae Brnplr*. 

u^"^ American ssmdicate from Hankow to Canton, a British-built line from Shang- 
w ^*\^ ^^'^^'^K* and an American and British line to be run between Canton and 
Wu-chang. Contracts have been let for the construction by a French company of a 
Ime 291 miles in length to be run from Lao-kai to Yunnan-sen in south China, there 
to form a junction with the French Indo-Chinese railroad system (see Indo-China, 
Fiench). In Manchuria iq.v.) the Chinese Imperial Railway has an extension 193 
miles in length from Shan-hai-kwan to Niuchwang, where it connects with the Rus- 
sian-Chinese Eastern Railway. For other railways in Manchuria, see Manchuiua. 

HISTORY. 

7^ Rgtmrw of the Court. — ^Thc imperial court, which had been removed from 
Peking during the occupation by the Powers in 1900, had, by the end of 1901, reached 
in its return journey the city of Cheng-ting- fu — from which point it proceeded by 
rail to Peking, making a formal entrance on January 7, with great show and cere- 
mony. It became manifest at once that the empress dowager had learned a lesson 
from the occurrences of the last two years, and that hereafter an entirely different 
policy from that formerly prevailing would be adopted by the court toward foreign 
diplomats. On January 22 the emperor gave an audience to the foreign diplomatic 
representatives, and received their credentials. More significant, however, was a 
state reception given by the empress dowager herself on January 28, when both the 
empress dowager and the emperor informally shook hands with the ministers. On 
the following day an entirely new departure in court policy was inaugurated in a 
formal state reception given by the empress dowager to the ladies of the foreign 
l^^tions, at which Mrs. Conger, wife of the American minister, read a speech to 
which the empress dowager responded. 

Internal Disturbances. — In March a rebellion of serious dimensions was reported 
near the boundary of southern China. The imperial troops had been repeatedly 
defeated, and the viceroy of Canton was compelled to call for reinforcements. On 
March 21 it was reported that the whole army of General Su, on the southern border 
had deserted to the rebels. On the following day the rebels captured the town and 
imperial arsenal of Kan-chau. By the first of April the entire province of Kiang-se 
was in revolt, thirty towns and villages had been captured and pillaged and 50,000 
well armed troops were in the field, under the leadership of Dr. Sun-yat-sen, who 
was said to have studied at Harvard and graduated at a London medical school. 
The purpose of the rebels was declared to be the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty. 
For this purpose Dr. Sun and other educated Chinese had several years ago organ- 
ized a secret political organization known as Hing Chung Wooy (Chinese Pro- 
gressive Society). In May there was a renewal of the Boxer uprising, especially in 
Sechwan province. The missions and Christian converts were endangered, several 
Christian churches were sacked, and on August 6, in response to protests of the 
foreign ministers, the viceroy and other officials were suspended, but the new viceroy 
seemed unable to cope with the situation. On September 16 a Peking dispatch stated 
that between 300 and 1000 converts had been killed by the Boxers. A few days 
later they made an attack upon the capital, Cheng-tu-fu, but were repulsed, and four- 
teen leaders of the movement were captured and summarily executed. The uprisings 
it was said, were due apparently to the mingled hatred of foreigners and discontent 
at increased taxation. 

Evacuation of Tientsin and Shanghai. — ^By the terms of the protocol of September 
7, 1901, the Powers formally agreed that, by September 22 following, China having 
complied to their satisfaction with the conditions laid down by them, all the interna- 
tional troops shoul4 be withdrawn from Chi-li province, with the exception of 
certain localities where it was necessary to maintain small garrisons to ensure com- 
munication between Peking and the sea. Notwithstanding this agreement, however, 
it was not until August 15, 1902, that the evacuation actually took place. Again and 
again during these months of occupation, the Chinese government pleaded strongly 
for the restitution of the Chinese administration in the city and district of Tien- 
tsin and the restoration of the northern railways. There was nothing whatever 
in the protocol to justify this flagrant and open disregard of Chinese rights. Early 
in January, 1902, it was reported unofficially that the ministers had agreed in prin- 
ciple to accede to the Chinese request that the city be restored, but that the details 
of the restoration had not been worked out. After that weeks and months passed 
without any suggestion as to when the Powers proposed to fulfil their obligations. 
During February and March the British minister. Sir Ernest Satow, in reply to 
requests addressed to him by the anxious Chinese, replied several times that the 
British troops were ready to leave Tientsin the moment the other Powers agreed. 
Suddenly early in April an entirely new phase of the subject developed. The allied 
military commanders of the six Powers concerned in the occupation (Russia, Great 
Britain, Germany, France, Italy, and Japan) met on April 12, and, under the presi- 
dency of the British commander, looking at the question from a military point 

11 



Chinese Saiplre. 



162 



of view, decided unanimously not to restore the city until one month after China had 
agreed to accept an entire new set of twenty-four conditions, none of which were 
provided for in the original protocol. These conditions were incorporated in one 
agreement which was sent to the foreign ministers at Peking for approval, and, 
with some modifications, was accepted about the middle of June by the representa- 
tives of the six Powers whose commanders had joined in the new proposal. The 
British minister expressed his disapproval of the conditions, but voted for them 
for the sake of harmony. In commenting on this new check to the long delayed 
fulfillment of the treaty obligations, the Peking correspondent of the London Times 
voiced the almost universal feeling of disgust and disappointment, and declared that 
the hope was freely expressed that the United States would insist on such a modifica- 
tion of the conditions as would lead to a speedy evacuation. He rather facetiously 
concluded: "If she cannot do so, it is suggested, in order to prevent misunder- 
standing in the future, that final protocols between Chipa and foreign Powers 
should contain a clause that protocols are binding on China only." The Times 
correspondent's reference to the attitude of the United States was probably more 
than prophecy. The Chinese government did appeal to the United States to lend 
its influence toward securing the acceptance of the protocol's provisions, and Secre- 
tary of State Hay addressed notes concerning the matter to the home govern- 
ments of the various Powers. On June 28 the ministers of the six Powers con- 
cerned in the provisional government met at Peking to discuss the situation, and 
M. Lessar, the Russian minister, formally announced Russia's withdrawal from 
the government and her willingness to return Tientsin to Chinese authority uncon- 
ditionally. To this decision it was expected that France would give concurrence, and 
follow the example of Russia, thus leaving Great Britain, Germany, Italy, and 
Japan responsible. At this meeting the Japanese minister urged the modification of 
the conditions by the abandonment of the stipulation forbidding the viceroy to 
employ Chinese troops within thirty kilometres of Tientsin city, as likely to be the 
cause of great disorder and trouble in the future. On July 9 the representatives of 
the four Powers met again and formally agreed to the abandonment of this stipula- 
tion, together with some other concessions, and on July 17 the Chinese foreign 
office announced its acceptance of the terms. The previous unconditional withdrawal 
of Russia was looked upon as another stroke of policy on her part, as she had thus 
again placed herself in the position of a friend of China against the pretensions of 
Germany and Great Britain.The London Spectator heralded the settlement as another 
victory for the diplomacy of the United States, whose position, as in the Manchurian 
affair, had been practically adopted by the other Powers. 

In October Germany sent notes to France and Great Britain with whom she jointly 
occupied Shanghai stipulating the conditions upon which she would agree to a with- 
drawal from the city. These were ( i ) that China should undertake not to part with 
any of her sovereign rights in the Yan^-tse Valley ; (2) that China should agree not 
to grant to any Power preferential nghts opposed to the principle of the "open 
door;" (3) that the evacuation should be simultaneous on the part of the Powers; 
and (4) that Germany reserved the right to re-enter in case any other Power should 
again occupy the city. To these France and Great Britain offered no objection, 
Great Britain merely announcing that as to the first of the conditions the British 
government, not being a party to it, did not consider themselves affected by it one 
way or the other, but that their position as a champion of the "open door" policy 
was guarantee enough of their intentions. The ci^ was evacuated by the allied 
troops on November 23, 1902. 

The Indemnity. — The question of the amount and method of payment of the war 
indeinnity continued throughout 1902 as in the previous year to be one of the most 
puzzling and serious with which the foreign diplomats and Chinese officials had to 
deal. Up to the end of the year no satisfactory settlement had been arrived at. 
The principal difficulty seemed to have its origin m the indefiniteness and ambiguity 
in the wording of the peace protocol of 1901. According to the protocol the 
450,000,000 haikwan taels constituting the indemnity, represented a gold debt, calcu- 
lated at the rate of the haikwan tael to the gold currency of each country according 
to a table appended to the protocol which placed its value in United States currency 
at 74.2 cents. The original sum set as the indemnity was to bear interest at the 
rate of 4 per cent, per annum, and it was expressly provided that the principal was to 
be paid up in 39 years, and that both capital and interest should be payable in gold, 
or "at the rates of exchange corresponding to the dates at which the different pay- 
ments fell due." Since the acceptance of the protocol, however, the rapid and 
unlooked for fall in silver has resulted in a decrease in the value of the haikwan 
tael (594 cents on January i, 1903) of about 25 per cent., so that the total amount 
of the indemnity has increased to about 563,000,000 haikwan taels, and China will 
be compelled to pay an annual sum in interest equivalent to 5 per cent, instead 
of 4 per cent, with a corresponding addition chargeable to the sinking fund. China 



i63 



Cklneee Bmplrv. 



complained that such an increase was unjust When the February installment of the 
mdcmnity fell due. the International Bankers' Commission at Shanghai refused to 
accept it because it fell short of the amount which would have fallen due in accord- 
ance with the calculations of the commission at the prevailing rate of exchange. 
Before this matter could be acted upon the question of a scaling down of the total 
demands of the Powers was brought up and the United States presented a proposi- 
tion for a pro rata reduction of the claims. This proposal, after considerable 
opposition on the part of the British minister, was adopted in June. In the same 
month Mr. Conger, the United States minister, sign^ified the willingness of the 
United States to accept payment of the interest and principal of the indemnity 
¥rithout regard to the fluctuations in the price of silver. This view was opposed 
unanimously by the other ministers. At the same time a further suggestion, sup- 
ported by Mr. Conger, allowing China to collect customs duties on a gold basis was 
favorably looked upon, it being recognized that it would be unjust to make the 
depreciation of silver operate against Qiina both in payment of the indemnity and in 
the collection of revenues to meet it. No conclusion having been arrived at China 
refused to pay the July installment of the indemnity except at the rate of exchange 
prevailing at the time the protocol was signed. Thereupon the British minister 
offered a compromise provision agreeing that China should be allowed to pay the 
indenmity in silver until 1910. This was not looked upon with favor by the other 
ministers as being a practical admission of China's intention. The matter dragged 
along without further agreement until November 12, when the United States, 
having already obtained assurances of the support of Great Britain and Japan, 
submitted to the Powers a proposition for the submission of the question of the 
payment to the Hague Tribunal. To this Russia and France at once agreed, and 
Germany's assent was given late in December. Just at the close of the year the 
announcement was made at Peking that China would be willing to acknowledge her 
liability to make the payments due on a gold basis if some sort- of relief were 
granted during the present silver crisis. 

The Anglo-Chinese Treaty. — ^Toward the close of July, 1902, a treaty was 
negotiated at Wu-chang between the two Yang-tse viceroys, as representatives of the 
Chinese government, and Sir James Mackay and two British tariff commissioners, 
and was signed, after some delays, on September 5. The treaty consisted of 13 
articles, which constitute by far the most important commercial agreement that 
China has ever made with a foreign power. The first seven articles dealt with the 
registration of trade-marks, the e^blishment of a system of bonded warehouses, the 
navigation of the Yang-tse and? Canton Rivers, the equalization of the dues on 
junks and steamers, facilities for drawbacks, the establishment of a national cur- 
rency, and the liability of Chinese shareholders in joint stock companies. Article 8 
provided for the abolition of the likin, the internal customs tax. Article 9 agreed 
that within one year China shall revise her existing mining regulations on the model 
of the Indian mining regulations in order that no further impediment may be 
offered to the investment of foreign capital. Article 10 provided new regulations for 
the navigation of inland waters, which has never been a matter of treaty right, and 
further, for facilitating the erection of wharves, jetties and warehouses. Article 11 
provided for the appointment of a joint commission to settle disputes arising under 
the treaty, and the last two articles amounted to an expr^sion of Great Britain's 
willingness to support China's policy of reform and a praise to relinquish extra 
territorial rights as soon as the reform in the judicial system and the establishment 
of an effective administration shall warrant her in so doing. Article 8, providing for 
the most radical and far-reaching reform in the Chinese commercial system yet 
undertaken, is the keystone of the whole treaty. The likin tax, established shortly 
after the Tai-ping rebellion, has long constituted the greatest barrier to the opening 
up of China to the trade of the outside world. It is an arbitrary customs charge, 
levied at intervals along the inland trade routes, and by the frequency of its 
enforcement has amounted to an extortion that has practically rendered the develop- 
ment of internal trade impossible. By this section of the Mackay treaty it is 
provided, that in return for a surtax equivalent to one and one-half times the duty 
leviable in accordance with the protocol of 1901, which duty slightly exceeded 4 per 
cent, ad valorem, China shall abolish all likin dues, internal customs stations, and 
barriers, and every form of taxation on British goods, the article to become effective 
in January, 1904, subject to other Powers entering into similar engagements. The 
consent of the Powers, however, is not to be dependent upon any separate exclusive 
concessions by China. It is^ further agreed that four new treaty ports shall be 
opened — Chang-sha, Ngan-king, Wan-hsien, and Wai-chau. China is to be allowed to 
retain the right to tax salt, opium, and native produce for native consumption, but 
the collection of these charges will be taken out of the hands of the local and 
provincial authorities and placed, hereafter, in charge of the officials of Sir Robert 
Hart's service. To China was conceded the right to recast the existing export dues 



ChlBMM Sai»ir«* 



164 



at six months' notice, providing duties not exceeding 5 per cent ad valorem, a 
surtax of 25^ per cent, being leviable in lieu of all internal taxation. The treaty 
was generally conceded to be a striking proof of the real desire of the Chinese 
imperial government and of the Yang-tse viceroys in particular, to adopt radical 
measures of fiscal reform and establish a system of foreign trade on a basis similar to 
that recognized by other civilized nations. 

The Control of the Northern Railways. — An agreement was signed at Peking on 
April 29, 1902, by Sir Ernest Satow, the British minister, and Hu Yu-fen and Yuan 
Shi-Kai, providing for the restoration of the Peking-Shan-hai-kwan Railway to 
Chinese civil administration, and stipulating the regulations which should govern 
its control and extension in the future. The agreement was designed principally for 
the purpose of enabling the Chinese government itself to control and keep in its 
own hands all the railway lines and extensions in the metropolitan province. On 
May 20 China formally submitted the agreement to the foreign ministers and asked 
their consent. The terms of the agreement provided for the appointment of a 
commission of one British military official as director and two assistant directors, 
one German and one Japanese, and stipulated among other things that no foreign 
Power shall construct or control any railway line within 80 miles of the Peking- 
Shan-hai-kwan system. To these clauses both Belgium and Russia lodged 
objections. The protest of Belgium rested on an alleged promise of Li Hung Chang 
made, it was said, in 1901, allowing the Belgium syndicate controlling the Peking- 
Hankow line to construct and control the Peking- Pao-ting-fu extension. The 
Russian protest, lodged by M. Lessar the Russian minister, objected to the stipula- 
tion which would have the effect ot preventing Russia from controlling the line 
northward from Peking to the Great Wall on the ground that prior secret agree- 
ments entered into between China and Russia would be thereby violated. The other 
Powers, with these two exceptions, accepted the agreement, and an amicable adjust- 
ment of the differences having been arrived at by the abandonment of the plan for a 
military directorship, the British-controlled section of the Northern Railway was 
restored to Chinese authorities on September 29 and the Russian Kin-chow-Niu- 
chwang section on October 8. The agreement stood practically as originally adopted 
in April, and a difficulty that promised to be the source of considerable trouble was 
thereby overcome. 

Commercial and Industrial Affairs. — In June, 1902, a valuable mining concession 
in Yunnan province was granted to an Anglo-French syndicate. The concession 
was for a term of 60 years, and comprised 85 miles located on rich mineral lands 
bearing deposits of coal, copper, nickel, tin, and quicksilver, and covering in extent 
almost one-third of the entire province. The mines are all near the course of the 
projected railway from Indo-China to the city of Yunnan. A royalty of 5 per cent, 
is to be paid to the Chinese government, which is to receive also 25 per cent, of the 
net profits. An additional 10 per cent, of the net profits is payable to the provincial 
government. It was expected that two rival French and English syndicates, each of 
which is seeking similar concessions in Sechwan province, would effect a union of 
interests in the same manner that the Yunnan syndicate has done. In July an 
edict was issued providing for the ccxnpletion of the Canton-Hankow Railway, and 
authorizing the issue of $40,000,000 in gold bonds. It was stated that the completed 
railway would comprise 700 miles of trunk line and 200 miles of branch lines. 

The New Tariff. — During 1902 commissioners from Germany, Great Britain, 
Japan, and the United States negotiated with Chinese officials a new tariff which 
became effective on October 31. The negotiations had in view the compliance with 
the protocol of September 7, 1901, which provided that the tariff on imports should 
be increased to an effective 5 per cent, and that all ad valorem duties should be 
converted, as far as feasible and with the least possible delay, into specific duties. 
The basis upon which this conversion was to be effected was to be the average 
landing value of merchandise for the years 1897, 1898, and 1899 — i. e., the market 
price less the amount of existing import duty and incidental expenses. Upon this 
basis the tariff was arranged, it being provided that all imports not enumerated in 
the schedules should pay duty at the rate of 5 per cent, ad valorem. In sif^ning 
the draft of the tariff the United States, German, British, and Japanese negotiators 
submitted the following accompanying note: 

"We, the special commissioners of Germany, Great Britain, Japan, and the United 
States of America, in affixing our signatures to the new Chinese specific tariff, wish 
it to be clearly understood, in view of the fact that the special commissioners of 
other countries are only empowered to sign the tariff subject to reference to their 
respective governments and that other powers have' not appointed representatives 
to sign it, that no alterations can hereafter be made in the said tariff or rules 
appended thereto by agreement between China and any other power, unless the 
consent of our governments to such alterations shall first have been obtained." 

Other Political Matters. — New Chinese ministers to Russia, France, Italy, and the 



i6s 



ChrlMlaa BadeaTwr. 



Umted States were appointed. The new American minister was Sir Lian^ Chen, 
secretary to the British coronation embassy. The appointments seemed to mdicate 
that the empress dowager continued to regard the diplomatic service as of little 
importance since none of the new ministers held high rank or had served in high 
o&dal positions. On the other hand, it was said that they all were men of progres- 
sive views and accordingly were disliked by the Chinese official class. In February, 
1902, it appeared that the British government had definitely abandoned the idea of 
fortifying Wei-hai-wei. A civilian official, Mr. Stewart Lockhart, was appointed 
administrator and the territory was placed under the control of the British colonial 
office. It will be remembered that immediately after the Germans secured Kiao- 
Chau and the Russians Port Arthur, Great Britain obtained Wei-hai-wei in order 
to continue the traditional balance of power in northern China. It was proved, 
however, that the territory is strategically unfit for the purposes of a great naval or 
military station. It will probably be used by the British as a place for rifle practice 
and, it is thought, may in time become important commercially as a distributing 
centre. In August it was announced that Charles Denby, Jr., son of the former 
United States minister to China, had been appointed chief foreign adviser to 
Yuan-shi-kai, the viceroy of Chi-li proVince, which contains both Peking and Tien- 
tsin. As Yuan is considered the real successor of Li Hung Chang, jjiis appoint- 
ment was thought to mean an increased influence of the United States in Chinese 
affairs. 

CHOLERA. See Vital Statistics. 

CHRISTIAN AND MISSIONARY ALLIANCE, established in 1887 for the 
"wide diffusion of the gospel and the work of evangelization." It conducts mis- 
sions in both foreign and home fields. Its work in the United States is carried on 
through subordinate organizations. There is also an alliance in Canada. The 
total receipts for the year 1901-02 aggregated $185,162, not including some $40,000 
received from the Chinese government in settlement of the indemnity claim for 
losses during the Boxer insurrection of 1900. A notable advance in the number of 
foreign missionaries commissioned by the society was made, 70 having been sent 
out, of whom 32 were new missionaries. Of these workers, 18 went to China and 
an equal number to India, 21 to Africa, 6 to South America and the West Indies, 2 
to Palestine, I to Japan, 2 to Anam, and 2 to the Philippines. New fields were 
added to the territory of the alliance by the establishment of missions in Porto 
Rico, Anam, and the Philippines. The Christian and Missionary Alliance maintains 
a missionary training institute at Nyack, N. Y., which in ig02 had a student enroll- 
ment of i£B. The customary annual conventions were held. A sum exceeding 
|6o,000 was subscribed at the meeting in New York City in October. President, 
Rev. A. B. Simpson ; general secretary. Rev. A. £. Funk. Headquarters, 692 Eighth 
Avenue, New York City. 

CHRISTIAN CATHOLICS (Dowie), a sect, whose headquarters are in Chi- 
cago, composed of the followers of John Alexander Dowie, the apostle of 
"divine healing." Information as to the progress of the sect is declined, and there 
are no statistics later than those of 1900, which credited the body with 50 churches, 
55 ministers, and 40,000 members. Toward the close of 1901, Mr. Dowie became 
the defendant in a law suit with his brother-in-law, Mr. Samuel Stevenson, over 
the recovery of property of which Dowie had acquired possession, the charge 
asserted, through "undue influence." Judge Murray F. Tuley, in the circuit court 
of Cook County, 111., in January, 1902, rendered judgment in favor of Stevenson 
and appointed a receiver for the Zion lace industries, the concern involved, but 
the case was finally settled out of court. The court in handing down decision, 
denounced Dowie and his methods, an arraignment that has been termed the most 
severe indictment hitherto brought against Zion. Considerable attention was at- 
tracted to the Christian Catholic Church by the announcement of the accession of 
Mr. and Mrs. Booth-Clibbom and Percy Cfibborn, of the Salvation Army, who had 
been in charge of the army work in Italy, Holland, France, and Switzerland. In 
the fall of 1902 an order was issued by the Cook County probate court demanding 
the return of $50,000 to the heirs of the estate of a New Zealander who had become 
one of Dowie's adherents. This suit, together with the filing of others for small 
debts, gave rise to doubts of Dowie's solvency. An investigating committee, repre- 
senting several of the creditors, was appointed, which, after revising carefully 
Etowies estimate of his property, reported a net value over debts of more than three- 
quarters of a million dollars. Still Mr. Dowie thought it necessary to issue a wide- 
Siread appeal (October 8, 1902) to Zion in all lands for small loans at 6 per cent., 
e temporary embarrassment of Zion's finances being due to "general financial 
stringency" throughout the United States. 

CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR, United Society of, an interdenominational and 
international order, founded at Portland, Me., in 1881, to serve as a training school 



CkrtotUn SeleaasM. ^OO 

for young people in the duties of church membership. Thcke are now over 63,000 
societies with about 4,000,000 members, including over 16,000 junior societies, made 
up of children under fourteen years of age, and 1500 intermediate societies of boys 
and girls between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. Some 2000 new societies 
and 100,000 members were added during 1902. There are 43322 societies in the 
United States. National unions have been formed in all of the principal countries 
of the world; and Christian Endeavor constitutions are now issued in nearly every 
language. London, with more than 700 societies, is the first Christian Endeavor 
city of the world, though Philadelphia and Chicago are close rivals. The most 
notable event of 1902 was the European tour of the president. Rev. Francis £. 
Clark, D. D., who, in eight months, represented Christian Endeavor in twenty 
countries and everywhere found the outlook most encouraging. National unions 
were organized, and arrangements made for the translation of literature and the 
employment of field secretaries when needed. The next international convention 
will be held July 9-13, 1903, in Denver, Col. The general secretary of the society, 
John Willis Baer, has resigned to become assistant secretary of the Presbyterian 
Board of Home Missions. President, Rev. Francis E. Clark, D. D. ; treasurer, 
William Shaw; field secretary, Rev. Clarence E. Eberman. Headquarters, Tremont 
Temple, Boston, Mass. 

CHRISTIANS, a denomination of the United States, not to be confounded with 
that known as Disciples of Christ, originated early in the nineteenth century. It 
allows latitude of theological views and asserts the importance of fellowship of all 
followers of Christ, claiming the name Christians "not as a sect name ; but frater- 
nally, as a name of union." The two bodies called Christian Connection and Chris- 
tian Church (South), which became separated in 1854 through disagreement on the 
slavery question, are now in close affiliation. According to the latest statistics, the 
denomination has 1 12,395 members, 1239 ministers, and 1448 churches, with property 
valued at $2,385,000. There was no change in the number of educational institu- 
tions during 1902; but Palmer University, at Muncie, Ind., is being established, 
toward the endowment of which Hon. F. A. Palmer promised $100,000 on condition 
that the friends of the university raise an equal amount. He also contributed 
$100,000 to Palmer Institute (Starkey Seminary) at Lakemont, N. Y., and, condi- 
tionally, to Palmer College, Le Grand, la., $30,000; to Union Christian College, 
Merom, Ind., $30,000; to Elon College, North Carolina, $20,000. The Christians 
completed, with the year 1902, one of the most prosperous quadrenniums in their 
history. The session of the American Christian convention, which meets every four 
years, was held in October, at Norfolk, Va. This representative assembly, estab- 
lished in its present form in 1866, has charge of the general educational, missionary, 
and other interests of the denomination. The Herald of Gospel Liberty^ published in 
Dayton, O., is the official organ of the denomination ; it is owned and its editor is 
elected by the general body. There are also several smaller papers issued by in- 
dividuals or sectional organizations. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENTISTS, the members of a Christian denomination founded 
upon the interpretation of the Scriptures contained in Science and Health with Key 
to the Scriptures, by Mrs. Mary Baker G. Elddy. The discovery of Christian 
Science dates from 1866; the publication of its text-book from 1875; and the 
founding of the Church of Christ, Scientist, from 1879. The First Church of 
Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass., of which Mrs. Eddy is pastor emeritus, is the 
"Mother Church'' of the denomination, all others being branch churches. In 
January, 1902, there were 665 branch churches and societies (the latter not yet 
organized as churches) ; in January, 1903, there were 722, showing a gain of 57 
during the year. In each church and society, two "readers," generally a man and a 
woman, conduct the services, there being a total of 1410 throughout the body. In 
June, 1902, the membership of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, was 
24,2;^, a gain of 2784 members during the year then ended. The Christian Science 
Sentinel (weekly), the Christian Science Journal (monthly), and The Christian 
Science Quarterly are published under the auspices of the church. The annual 
communion service, held in Boston, draws thousands of (Christian Scientists from 
many parts of the world. A message from the pastor emeritus is read at this service, 
devoted to an exposition of the teachings of Christian Science as applied to the 
special needs of the hour. At the annual business meeting of the "Mother Church" 
in June, 1902, it was voted unanimously to contribute any portion of $2,000,000 that 
might be necessary to provide an auditorium in Boston, seating four or five thou- 
sand persons. Considerable attention was attracted to the resignation of several 
prominent "readers" of New York City, in conformity with a by-law adopted by the 
"Mother Church," which was recommended by Mrs. Eddy in the official organ of 
the Christian Scientists partly as follows: "The Mother Church by-law relative to 
a three-years' term for church readers was entitled to and has received profound 



T^«7 Chrisdatt ScUntlau. 

^^/ Civic Federation, National. 

attention. Rotation in office promotes wisdom, quiets mad ambition, satisfies justice, 
- ♦i^^^* noncst endeavors." Later in the year, the advice of Mrs. Eddy that 
rata public thought becomes better acquainted with Christian Science, the Christian 
oaenusts shall decline to doctor infectious or contagious diseases," attained much 
greater prominence, the decree being accepted by the opponents of Christian Science 
as an inherent contradiction, they claiming that the message essentially recognized 
V ^**^^"^* ^^ disease and moreover admitted two classes of diseases. It was be- 
• wv^***^ ^5 advice was prompted by the notoriety gained by the Quiraby case 
m White Plains, N. Y., where a prominent "healer" was declared by the coroner 
to be guilty of manslaughter in connection with the death of a /Jiild. In Philadel- 
phia, the application of a Christian Science Church for a charter was refused on 
the ground that the institution seeking incorporation was for business, not for 
religious purposes, and that the court had no power to grant a charter; and in a 
supplemental opinion, the reasons for the court's decision were set forth at 
greater length, the court, after reviewing Mrs. Eddy's Science and Health, declaring 
that the practice of Christian Scientists is the practice of the art of healing, and that 
'^when persons who make a business of practicing the art of healing with or without 
medicine are not regularly registered physicians, they violate the law which 
was intended to prevent the practice of medicine by non-qualified persons." Various 
opinions were elicited by the decision; a prominent periodical says that "judging 
from newspaper comment on the subject, it would appear that the decision of the 
court is generally held to be unfair." Christian Saence in Germany, during the 
early part of 1902, was a subject of discussion in the Reichstag and Emperor 
William issued notification that all persons connected with that faith would be ex- 
cluded from the imperial court; and permission to use public halls was withdrawn 
by the municipal authorities of Berlm. By adherents of Christian Science, their 
unpopularity in Germany was attributed largely to "the attempts that have been 
made to induce the Emperor to confound it with 'faith cure, 'spiritualism,' and 
'obscurantism' of various forms;" the imperial secretary of state said in the 
Reichstag, "I earnestly warn against using the power of the state against such 
things." Later in 1902 the agitation had subsided and it was reported that a new 
Christian Scientist Church had b«en opened in Berlin. 

CHRISTMAS, Walter, attained considerable notoriety in igc^, in regard to 
allegations of attempted bribery in the sale of the Danish West Indies iq.v.), 

CHROMIC IRON ORE. See Mineral Production. 

CHURCH OP CHRIST, SCIENTIST. See Christian Scientists. 

CIST, Henry Martyn, an American soldier and lawyer, died in Rome, Italy, 
December 17, 1902. He was bom in Cincinnati, O., February 20, 1839, and after 
graduating in 1858 from Farmer's College, studied law. In April, 1861, he enlisited 
as a private of the Sixth Ohio infantry and served throughout the Civil War, leaving 
the service in 1866 with the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers for his services 
at the battle of Stone River and in the campaign under General Rosecrans that 
terminated in the battle of Chickamauga. He resumed his legal practice in Cincinnati 
in 1866, and in 1869 became an officer of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland. 
He was an earnest advocate of the Chickamauga Park project. Besides several 
magazine articles on Civil War topics he edited a great portion of the Reports of 
the Society of the Army of the Cumberland (1868-85) and published The Army of 
the Cumberland, in the series "Campaigns of the Civil War (1882) ; and a Life of 
General George H. Thomas, 

CIVIC FEDERATION, NATIONAL. At the conference of employers and 
labor leaders held December 17, 1901, under the auspices of the National Civic 
Federation, a permanent board to settle differences between labor and capital was 
appointed. Its composition was as follows : 

On Behalf of the Public— Groyer Geveland, Cornelius N. Bliss, Charles Francis 
Adams, Ardibishop Ireland, Bishop Henry C. Potter, Charles W. Eliot, president of 
Harvard University; Franklin MacVeagh, James H. Eckles, John J. McCook, John 
G. Milbum, Charles J. Bonaparte, Oscar S. Straus, Ralph M. Easley. 

Representatives of Organised Labor. — Samuel Gompers, president of American 
Federation of Labor ; John Mitchell, president United Mine Workers ; F. P. Sar- 
gent, grand master of Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen ; T. J. Schaffer, president 
of Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers ; James Duncan, secretary 
of Granite Cutters' Association; Daniel J. Keefe, president of International Asso- 
ciation of Longshoremen; Martin Fox, president of National Iron Molders' Union; 
James M. Lynch, president of International Typographical Union ; Edward E. Gark, 
grand conductor Brotherhood of Railroad Conductors; Henry White, secretary of 
Garment Workers of America; Walter MacArthur, editor of Coast Seaman's 
Journal; James O'Connell, president International Association of Machinists. 



GItIo Fo40nttloit, Natloaal. j^ 

Representatives of Employers. — Senator Marcus A. Hanna, Charles M. Schwab, 
president Steel Corporation; S. R. Calloway, president American Locomotive 
Works; Charles Moore, president National Tool Company; J. D. Rockefeller, Jr.; 
H. H. Vreeland, president Metropolitan Street Railway Company; Lewis Nixon, 
Crescent Shipyard, N. J.; James A. Chambers, president American Glass Com- 
pany; William H. Pfohler, president National Association Stove Manufacturers; 
£. P. Ripley, president Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad; Marcus M. 
Marks, president National Association Clothing Manufacturers; J. Kruttschnitt, 
president Southern Pacific Railroad Company. 

The purpose of the board is to conciliate, to mediate, and only in rare cases, when 
requested by both sides, to arbitrate between capital and labor. The first dispute 
brought before the board was the threatened strike of the clothing cutters, involving 
40,000 workmen and large capital. This strike was announced to go into effect 
January i, 1902. On the board were the chief representatives of both the cutters and 
the manufacturers, and the difficulty was quickly adjusted by them. The next matter 
that claimed the attention of the board was the national cash register strike, which 
had then been running for nine months. It was speedily settled by the efforts of the 
board. Next it was asked to mediate in the union iron workers' strike in San 
Francisco. This strike had been on for six months and there seemed no prospects of 
a settlement. Owing to the good offices of the committee, the trouble was satis- 
factorily settled. The threatened strike of the paper workers was successfully ad- 
justed. In the Boston freight handlers' strike the mayor of Boston and the Massa- 
chusetts Board of Arbitration invited the Civic Federation to attempt a settlement 
A satisfactory settlement was reached for which the Federation deserves a large 
measure of credit. The trouble in the anthracite coal fields was early brought to the 
attention of the board, and the leading coal operators and the labor leaders were 
brought together in conference, but without result. The powers of the board of 
conciliation are purely voluntary. It has no legal status and does not assume author- 
ity for either capital or labor. Only when asked by both sides will it act as 
arbitrator. 

A convention under the auspices of the industrial department of the National Civic 
Federation was held in New York City from December 8 to 10. At the first session 
Mr. G. C. Sykes, secretary of the Street Railway Commission of Chicago, made a 
strong argument in favor of compulsory arbitration in cases of corporations con- 
trolling public utilities. Mr. Sykes referred to the labor clauses inserted in the 
franchise grants by European and Canadian municipalities and asserted that, if the 
city managed its own street railway system, the employees would be treated in such 
a manner as to prevent strikes, and, that the railway company operating under a 
franchise from the city should be required to treat its employees in like manner. 
Mr. Charles Francis Adams followed with a scheme for the formation of a tribunal 
to investigate and report on great strikes as soon as they occur. The tribunal 
should be dissolved as soon as the strike is settled, and a new one appointed when 
new troubles should arise. Mr. Adams thinks this will insure an important tribunal, 
acceptable to both parties, because it cannot become permanently unpopular with 
either. At the second day's session Professor John R. Commons read an illuminat- 
ing paper, showing that trade unions do limit output and restrict the use of 
machinery in some instances in order to keep members employed, but that this 
policy is usually followed only when the speeding of work is clearly unreasonable 
and means exhaustion, bad work, and loss of wages and the dismissal of older 
workmen. The discussion brought out strong protests from the labor union men 
against introducing piece work into shops where day work now obtains. They 
asserted that American laborers are rushed now and are discharged as too old at a 
much earlier age than is the case elsewhere. The employers tried without success 
to maintain that piece-work does not result in decreasing the piece rate as the 
product per man increases. Dr. W. S. Rainsford, a hearty friend of labor unions, 
showed that the unions limit the number of apprentices and thus restrict the education 
and opportunities of American boys. The last day of the convention was given to 
a discussion of the benefits of joint agreements between labor and capital reflating 
wages and conditions of work. Many employers testified that labor organizations 
kept their agreements with fidelity, and Senator Hanna agreed with Mr. John 
Graham Brooks that incorporation is not necessary to make unions keep their con- 
tracts, and that unions at present should not be forced to incorporate, thus exposing 
themselves to endless litigation. Senator Hanna and President Gompers, of the 
American Federation of Labor, were agreed that compulsory arbitration should 
never be resorted to. At that very time thousands were suffering from the dearth of 
coal due to the coal strike, so the assertion of the right of capital and labor to fight 
as long and as often as it seems good to them, did not awaken enthusiasm among the 
people at large. For Taxation Department of the National Civic Federation* see 
Taxation. 



169 



CItII Serrtce Itefsnn. 



CIVIL SBRVICR REFORM. Several important orders affecting the Civil 
^rvicc were made by the President during the past fiscal year. One of these dated 
November 19, 1901, revoked a previous order of President McKinley so as to restore 
to the classified service various offices in the War Department. By an order of De- 
cember 24, tbe President directed that in making appointments officers should con- 
fine themselves more closely to the list of eligibles. At the same time he directed 
that persons illegally vested with office should be denied compensation pending their 
disxmssal and that evasion of the civil service examinations should be diminished 
by a restriction of the system of transfers from one department to another. By an 
order of May 29, 1902, the President directed that all employees and officers in the 
classified service should be arranged in six classes on the basis of the amount of 
salary received. From this classification laborers and persons appointed to office 
with the consent of the Senate are excluded. The order directed that thereafter no 
laborer appointed without examination should be assigned to work of the same 
grade as that performed by classified employees. The purpose of the order was 
declared to be to break up the practice of appointing persons as "laborers" without 
examination and then assigning them to do clerical work. An order of July 5 
directed that no recommendation for the promotion of any employee should be 
considered unless made by the officer under whose supervision such employee is 
serving. Resort to outside influence to secure a promotion is made a sufficient cause 
for debarring the applicant, while its repetition is punishable by dismissal from the 
service. By an important order of May 29, the President interpreted the meaning 
of the term "just cause" in the provision of a former rule, which forbids removal 
except for just cause, and in regard to the construction of which misunderstandings 
had arisen. He held that the term meant any cause other than one merely political 
or religious which will promote the efficiency of the service. Various amendments 
of lesser importance were made to the civil service rules. The report of the United 
States Civil Service Commission for the year ending June 30, 1902, expresses grati- 
fication at the substantial progress made in the competitive system during the year 
and at the excellent manner in which the civil service law and rules have been 

fenerally observed throughout the various branches of the government. Since 
une 30, 1901, there have been added to the competitive system, either by executive 
order or act of Congress, the employees of the rural free-delivery service; a con- 
siderable portion of the field services of the War Department; the additional em- 
ployees made necessary by the war with Spain; and the clerks and employees of 
the Census Bureau, a total of 12456 employees. During the year 62,029 persons 
were examined for admission to the civil service, of whom 41,039 passed and 
14,999 received appointments. Compared with the previous year this shows an in- 
crease of 13,331 m the number examined, an increase of 7300 in the number that 
passed, and an increase of 2987 in the number appointed. 

In addition to the extensions enumerated above, the civil service rules were ex- 
tended to Porto Rico and the Philippines. In Porto Rico a newly organized board 
of examiners was established and the majority of federal positions were placed in the 
classified service. In the Philippines practically all official positions are now in- 
cluded within the classified service with the exception of teachers, and it is under- 
stood that these will be made subject to classification at an early date. The com- 
mission made an earnest recommendation to Congress that a law be enacted furnishing 
fecilities for determining the comparative qualifications of applicants for the consular 
service by means of open, competitive, non-partisan examinations. It also suggests 
that 0>ngress provide that the further admission to the classified service be based 
upon the condition that appointees shall provide against their own superannuation or 
other disability by adequate annuity insurance, the premiums to be deducted from 
their salaries. To this end the commission recommends the appointment of a com- 
mittee of experts to aid the President in preparing rules for the purpose. The 
twenty-second annual meeting of the National Civil Service Reform League was 
held at Philadelphia^ December 11 and 12. In spite of inclement weather the meet- 
ing was one of the best ever held. The absence of Col. John W. Ela, whose death 
occurred recendy, was regretted. He had been one of the leading members of the 
league and an able advocate of civil service reform. The council of which Mr. 
C J. Bonaparte was chairman made a report to the league on the condition and 
progress of the civil service reform movement for the year, paying a high tribute to 
President Roosevelt for the practical enforcement of the civil service law and for 
the general elevation of the moral tone of the public service. The reorganization 
of the Civil Service Commission, the extension of the rules to the rural free- 
delivery service, and the partial introduction of the merit system into the civil service 
of the District of Columbia, were acts of the President which received the heartiest 
approval of die council. The council reported that it had labored assiduously to pre- 
vent legislation hostile to dvil service reform and to enlighten and guide public 
opinion by the distribution of appropriate literature. Addresses before the meet- 



Clark*. I/O 

ing of the league were made by President D. C. Gilman, Prof. L. S. Rowe, Hon. 
Harry A. Garfield, Hon. Carl Schurz, Elliot H. Goodwin, and others. Th^ league 
passed several resolutions urging the extension of the merit system to the rest of 
the municipal service of the District of Columbia; to the consular service and 
Indian agencies, and to those cities of the country not now under civil service rules. 
It also expressed regret at the defects in the administration of the civil service sys- 
tem in New York City, and urged all Civil and Spanish War veterans to oppose the 
"veteran preference" bills. An interesting feature of the annual meeting was the 
report of the work being done in the insular territories of the United States toward 
the establishment of the merit system. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year are as follows: 

President, Daniel C. Gilman, Baltimore; vice-presidents, Charles Francis Adams, 
Boston; Joseph H. Choate, New York; Grover Cleveland, Princeton; Charles W. 
Eliot, Cambridge; Harnr A. Garfield, Cleveland; Arthur T. Hadley, New Haven; 
Henry Charles Lea, Philadelphia; Seth Low, New York; Franklin MacVeagh, Chi- 
cago; George A. Pope, Baltimore; Henry C. Potter, D,D., New York; P. J. Ryan, 
D.D., Philadelphia. 

The movement in the direction of civil service reform during the year was quite 
general and encouraging. In Congress an increasing interest was shown by the 
appropriation of the amount asked for by the Civil Service Commission without a 
dissenting vote and by the favorable report from the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations in favor of a salaried classification of the consular service and the assign- 
ment of positions by the President in accordance with the compensation. Among the 
States notable progress was made in California and Illinois. In the former State 
a proposition to amend the constitution so as to provide a civil service system was 
adopted by the assembly, and in the latter a commission was appointed by the gov- 
ernor to prepare a civil service law for the State. Movements were set on foot to 
introduce the merit system in several municipalities, notably Los Angeles and 
Detroit. A further evidence of increased popular interest was shown in the activity 
of the women's auxiliary clubs in behalf of the advancement of reform. 

CLARK, Edward, architect of the capitol at Washington, died January, 6, 1902, 
at Washington. He was born in Philadelphia in 1824, and received a common 
school education, afterward studying architecture under Thomas U. Walter, the 
architect of the extension of the national capitol, whom he succeeded in 1865. He 
was engaged on maxiy commissions for government work, among which were the 
construction of the Congressional Library and the completion of the Washington 
Monument. He was a fellow of the Clarendon Historical Society of Edinburgh, and 
a member of the American Institute of Architects. 

CLARK UNIVERSITY, Worcester, Mass., opened in i88g. President, G. 
Stanley Hall, Ph.D. In 1902 the teaching force numbered 13 and the students 50. 
There were about 23,000 volumes in the library. The university has aimed to sup- 
plement the work of other institutions, particularly by way of highly specialized 
research in biology, psychology, physics, and pedagogy. The scholarship both of 
faculty and of students ranks very high, but in numbers the student body has 
always been exceedingly small. A change was begun in the strictly university char- 
acter of the institution in ig02, when it was decided to establish a collegiate depart- 
ment. The public inauguration of this work took place in October of that year, 
when Hon. Carroll D. Wright was formally installed as head of the new depart- 
ment. It was stated that his active duties would not begin until after his retirement 
from his position as United States commissioner of labor. See Psychology, Ex- 
perimental (paragraph Clark University). 

CLARKE, Sir Andrew, agent-general for Victoria, Australia, died March 29, 
igo2. He was born July 27, 1824, in Hampshire, England, and was educated at 
King's School, Canterbury, and at Woolwich. In 1844 he entered the Royal 
Engineers and served in the New Zealand campai^ of 1867-68. for which he re- 
ceived a medal. In 185 1 he was a member of the legislative council of Tasmania, and 
two years later was appointed surveyor-general of Victoria. He became a member 
of the Australian Parliament and minister of lands, and later went on a special 
mission to the west coast of Africa. As director of works of the navy from 1864 to 
1873, he designed and constructed important extensions in some of the largest 
naval arsenals of the British Empire. From that time he held many public 
offices, including the governorship of the Straits Settlements, minister of public 
works in India, and was inspector-general of fortifications. His decorations were 
C.B., G.C.M.G., and CLE. He was the author of several works on engineering. 

CLARKE, Sir Campbell, an English journalist, died August 26, 1902, at Old- 
lands, England. He was born October 3, 1835, was educated at the University 
of Bonn and was a librarian in the British Museum from 1852 to 187a After 
traveling in Turkey and Greece as a special newspaper correspondent (1870-72), he 



171 



Clarke. 
Coal. 



^'^^^ans correspondent of the London Daily Telegraph. He was knighted in 
u ^ ^^a^s made an officer of the Legion ot Honor and received a number of 
other honorary decorations. In addition to his journalistic writing, he adapted a 
number of plays into English and wrote several songs. 

CLA.Y. See Mineral Production. 

COALf During the year 1901 the position of the United States as the chief 
coal producing nation of the world was nrmly established. The output of bituminous 
coal was 225,826,849 short tons and of anthracite 67471,667 short tons, making a 
total of 293,298,516 tons, an increase of 23,615,689 tons, or 8.8 per cent, for the year. 
This total represented about one-third of the world's product in 1901, and exceeded 
the output of Great Britain, the nearest competitor, by 47,965,938 tons. Since 1880 
the coal mining industry of the United States has made unprecedented progress; 
the output of anthracite coal increased about 240 per cent, during this period, while 
the bituminous industry increased more than 500 per cent. The production in 1901 
was distributed over 28 States and Territories, of which those within the Appalachian 
region contributed 210,743,774 tons, or about three-fourths of the total for the entire 
country. Nearly all of the States reported an increase, and in many the yield was the 
largest ever recorded. 

Pboovction of Goal in 1901. 



Statbs. 



AHTSRACITB. 

Pc&naylTania 

BITClilHOITB. 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

CaUforuia. 

Colorado 

<3«>i^a and North Carolina. 

lUlnois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory 

Iowa. 

Aianaas 

Kentaekj 

Maryland 

Mlchi^ran > 

Mlaaoari 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Orison 

P«*nn8yWanla 

Tenn es s ee 

Texas. 

rtah 

Virginia 

Waslilngton 

West Virginia. 

Wyoming 

Total 



Short Tons. 


Increase, 

1901. 
Per Cent. 


Valne. 


Value 
Per Ton. 


67,471,667 


17.6 


$112,504,020 


$1.67 


9,099.062 


8.4 


10.000,892 


1.10 


1,816,196 


25.4 


2,068,613 


1.14 


161.079 


12. 0» 


894,106 


2.60 


5.700.015 


8.7 


6,441.891 


1.13 


354.825 


6.4 


426.685 


1.20 


27.331,^2 


6.0 


28,163.937 


1.03 


6.918,225 


6.6 


7.017.143 


1.01 


2.421,781 


26.0 


3,915.268 


1.62 


6.617.499 


7.9 


7,822.805 


1.39 


4.900.528 


9.7 


5,991.599 


1.22 


5.469,986 


2.6 


6.213,076 


0.96 


5,113.127 . 


27.0 


5,046,491 


0.99 


1.241.241 


46.1 


1,753,064 


1.41 


8.802,088 


7.4 


4.707.164 


1.24 


1.396.081 


15. 9» 


2,009,316 


1.44 


1.086.546 


16. 3« 


1,546,652 


1.42 


166.601 


28.3 


214.151 


1.29 


20,943,807 


10.3 


20.928,158 


1.00 


69.011 


17.2 


173.646 


2.52 


82,305.946 


3.0 


81,397.686 


0.99 


8,633.290 


3.5 


4.067.389 


1.12 


1,107,953 


14.4 


1.907.024 


1.72 


1.322.614 


15.3 


1.666.082 


1.26 


2,725.873 


18.8 


2.353.989 


0.86 


2,578,217 


4.2 


4.271.076 


1.66 


24,068.402 


6.3 


20.848.184 


0.87 


4.485,374 


11.7 


6.060.462 


1.35 


293.298.516 


8.R 


$348,910,469 




* Decrease. 









The production of the United States in 1902 showed little change from the total 
of the preceding year. The strike on the part of the Pennsylvania anthracite miners, 
which lasted from the middle of May until late in October, curtailed the output in 
this region about 20,000,000 tons, but this shortage was made up by the increased 
jrield in the bituminous fields of Pennsylvania and other States. It is estimated 
by The Engineering and Mining Journal that the total production of the United 
States was about 293,000,000 short tons, of which total 45,000,000 tons were anthracite 
and 248,000,000 tons bituminous coal. In spite of the labor troubles, Pennsylvania 
continued to lead the States in the amount and value of its output, contributing 
about 140,000,000 tons in all, or 10.000,000 tons less than in 1901. In western Penn- 
sylvania, which supplies much of the coal for metallurgical purposes, operations 
were conducted on a very large scale; the increased yield of these mines for 1902 
ranged from 10 to 30 per cent. The shipments of both anthracite and bituminous 
coal from Pennsylvania mines are controlled by the principal coal-carrying railroads 
under a "community of interest" plan, by which scheduled prices have been estab- 
lished in the large markets, freight rates increased, and the territory divided among 
the railroads in such a way as to avoid competition. Illinois continued to hold 



CfBiioMopr* ^-/^ 

second place among the States, its output being considerably larger than that for 
1901. Operations in this field, as well as in Ohio, which ranked third in production, 
were unlmnipered by labor troubles, and the coal found a ready market owing to the 
short supplies from Pennsylvania and West Virginia. A reduced output was 
reported in the latter State as many of the mines in the Flat Top, Fairmount, 
Kanawha, and Pocahontas fields were closed during a part of the year by labor 
troubles. Among the other important coal mining States, increases were recorded 
in Alabama, Indiana, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Arkansas, and Indian Territory. 
The coal industry in Texas and California suffered from competition with fuel oil. 
The imports of anthracite to the United States in 1902 were 73,006 tons and of 
bituminous coal 2478,375 tons; the exports of anthracite were 907,977 tons and of 
bituminous 5,218,969 tons. 

Throughout the latter half of 1902 there was a shortage of coal in the eastern 
markets which draw their supplies from the Appalachian fields. The anthracite 
mines of Pennsylvania were closed down from the middle of May until late in 
October, and before the first of July the coal stocks in the large markets were 
depleted. This threw an increased burden on the bituminous mines and soft coal 
railroads to which they were not equal. The local ordinances in regard to smoke 
prevention were suspended temporarily in many of the cities and the enlarged use 
of bituminous coal raised the prices along the Atlantic seaboard to $5-oo per ton 
before the first of July. The conditions were made more acute by the car shortage on 
the eastern railways, and by speculative concerns which bought up the available 
supply. In September bituminous coal brought as high as $0.50 per ton in New 
York and New England, and in the following months even higher prices were 
obtained. Some coal was imported from Canada and England, but it did not 
materially affect the situation. In the anthracite trade the famine was the most 
acute ever experienced in this country. The supplies of the large cities were prac- 
tically exhausted before the strike had continued two months, while the prices rose 
steadily, reaching a maximum of $20 per ton. With the resumption of operations 
in the anthracite mines, there was an immediate improvement in the situation, 
although the supply throughout the year remained insufficient to meet the full re- 
quirements. See Strikes (paragrap)^ Anthracite Coal Strike). 

Foreign Countries. — There was no material increase in the output of Great 
Britain in 1902. Some of the mines in South Wales restricted their output in order 
to maintain prices, while in other localities a larger yield was reported than in 1901. 
The question of coal supply, in view of the high prices and the limited character of 
the British deposits, continued to receive widespread attention. Experiments were 
conducted by the Institute of Marine Engineers with a view to discovering some 
substitute material suitable both for heating and metallurgical purposes ; a prepared 
form of peat gave satisfactory trial results, but its high cost would not admit of its 
utilization at the present time. A decrease in output was recorded in France, owing 
principally to labor troubles, and in Austria which suffered from an industrial de- 
pression. In Germany the coal mining syndicates curtailed operations to avoid a 
reduction of prices. Russia and Belgium made little advance over 1901. The 
mines in eastern Canada were especially active, the output in Nova Scotia being the 
largest on record. New developments were reported in the State of Coahuila, 
Mexico, and in the province of An-hui, eastern China. 

COCHIN-CHINA, a name formerly applied to a greater part of the Indo- 
Chinese peninsula but now generally restricted to the southernmost division of the 
French colony of Indo-China. The area is about 22,000 square miles, and the popu- 
lation 2,323499, of whom about 4500 are Europeans. Saigon, the capital, has a 
population of 50,000. A lieutenant-governor and other French officials directly ad- 
minister the affairs of the country, which is subdivided into 21 provinces and 2 
municipalities, and is represented in the French Parliament by one deputy. In 
addition to the troops maintained in the colony by France, there is a local military 
force of 2400. There is a well organized school system with over 18,000 pupils 
enrolled. Revenue and expenditure balanced in the budget of 1901 at 4439,5CX} 
piastres, the contribution of the French budget in the same year amounting to 320,112 
francs. (The franc is worth 19.3 cents and the piastre about 24 francs.) The chief 
product is rice, exported in 1900 to the value of 89,225,000 francs. Fish, cotton, silk, 
pepper, spices, and hides are also exported. Coffee culture is advancing. The total 
value of exports (with Anam and Cambodia) in 1900 amounted to 107,350,000 
francs, and imports, chiefly metals, tissues, and agricultural implements, 121,670,000 
francs. There is a railroad from Saigon to Mjrtho (51 miles), a line connecting 
Saigon with Tan-linh (82 miles) is under construction and other lines are 
projected. See Indo-China, French. 

CCELIOSCOPY. This is a new method for examining the peritoneal cavity de- 
vised by a German surgeon named Kelling. It consists essentially in filling the 
peritoneal cavity with sterile air through a hollow needle, then plunging a trochar 



173 



Ciell«Msop7« 
Coins. 



'^^ u ^]t>doxninal wall and passing through the trochar a cystoscope. By this 
JJ^°^ "^^^^iaccnt peritoneal surface may be inspected. The method is designed to 
take the place of exploratory incisions into the abdomen. It has as yet been tried 
only on animals. 

COPP£)K. Accor<ling to L'Economiste Frangais the estimated world's crop of 
roncc m ig02 was 16,500,000 bags (of 132.28 pounds), as compared with 15460,000 
bags in igoi. The crop of Brazil, the chief coffee producing country, in 1902 was 
iiiOOO^xx) bags, as compared with 11,500,000 the previous year. The supply con- 
tinues to run ahead of the consumption. This was conceded to be the principal 
cause of the low price in the declarations adopted by the International American 
^Coffee CoMmmission, which met in New York Citv during the month of October, 
* 1902. This commission recommended that efforts be made to improve the varieties 
and methods of cultivation through public agencies, especially agricultural and 
botanical stations; "that prizes be offered in order to stimulate cultivations other 
than cofiEee; that effective propaganda be established to extend the use of coffee 
in new markets ; that governments aid this by requiring the use of coffee in armies 
and navies, establishing centres for the demonstration of pure coffee and prohibiting, 
or heavily taxing, the sale of adulterated coffee and all substitutes bearing the name 
of co£Fee.*' The government of Brazil was invited to convoke as soon as possible a 
second international conference of experts on coffee "for the purpose of concluding 
the conventions or treaties of international character, which may be derived from 
the measures recommended by this conference." Imports of coffee into the United 
States during the calendar year 1902 amounted to 955,283,919 pounds, valued at 
$64,157,664, as compared with 1,072,009,182 pounds, valued at $70,156,044 in 1901. 
In 1902 imports from Brazil amounted to 764,658,963 pounds, valued at $47,004453; 
other South America, 63^24,056 pounds, $4,616,897; Central America, 45,512,114 
pounds, $4,788443; Mexico, 30,719^00 pounds, $2,785,633; East Indies, 20,814403 
pounds, $2,385,100; West Indies, 20429,314 pounds, $1440474. 

Grafting coffee trees is receiving attention in connection with improving coffee 
plantations. This method of propagation is of primary importance in districts 
where nematodes are abundant. These severely affect Arabian coffee varieties, but 
Liberian tree roots are seldom attacked. The Liberian trees are therefore used as 
stock for Arabian and other better sorts of coffee. Another advantage is the in- 
creased yields obtained from the Liberian trees when grafted with the Arabian, 
Maragogipe, or other improved varieties, while the quality of the Arabian coffee does 
not seem to be in any manner seriously affected by growing on Liberian stocks 
A hybrid between Liberian and Arabian coffee is reported as having been obtained 
on the island of Reunion. The hybrid is said to resemble the Arabian tree most in 
the form of its leaves, flowers, fruits, and the quality of the berries, while on the 
other hand it is considered more resistant to insect attacks and fungus diseases 
than the Arabian coffee and in these respects resembles the Liberian tree. In 
fertilizer experiments carried on in Brazil, it was found that nitrogen was of value 
in coffee culture only when applied in quantities proportional to the phosphoric acid 
and potash in the soil. A complete fertilizer produced larger berries and grains than 
potash manures. Nitrogenous manures, on the contrary, diminished the size of the 
berries and grains. Shade in coffee culture is no longer regarded by all specialists 
as a general necessity. It is argued that the beneficial effects connected with shade 
result from the protection afforded the coffee tree and from the increase of soil 
fertility due to the leguminous species of trees used for shade rather than from the 
actual shading itself. The newly established Porto Rico experiment station has 
undertaken systematic investigations with reference to improvement of varieties and 
of methods of culture. 

COINS, Value of Foreign. The following tables show the valuation by the 
United States Treasury of coins of foreign countries having (A) fixed currencies, 
or (B) fluctuating currencies : 

A. — Countries With Fixed Currencies. 
Yalaationa do not Include "rates of exchange." 



OOUIITBXXS. 


Standard. 


Monetary 
Unit. 


Value in 
U.S. Gold. 


Coins. 


Aientine Republie. 

Aaatrift-Hungavy*. . . 
BfliciTini . . . r 


Gold and silver.. 
Gold 


Peso 


10.96,5 

.20,3 
.19.3 
.54,6 


Gold — argentine ($4.82,4) and \ ar- 
gentine; silver — peso and divi- 
sions. 

Gold— 20 crowns ($4.05,2) and 10 
crowns. 

Gold — 10 and 20 franc pieces: silver 


Crown 

Franc 

Milreis 


Gold and silver . 
Gold 


BiBsil 


— 5 francs. 
G^ld — 5. 10. and 20 nxili^i": ipilver^ 






\, 1, and 2 milreis. 



CoOKTBUa. 




Unit. 


U.8.gJ3. 


OoiD.. 


Biitiih North Amar- 
iea (e.Mi>t New- 




Dollar 


'.36.S 

.46,5 

.•2.0 

.2a,B 
.48,7 

4.94,3 

.10,3 

.1B,3 

.33.0 
4 80,61 

.19,3 

:!E;5 

.10,3 

■:»• 

.40.3 

■as 

3| 

.04.4 
1.03,4 
.19,3 










....do 








ColoD 






OoUaad^Tn . 


Gold— doubloon (M.01.7); «av«r— 




&.:■■:::: 

Pound < 100 pi- 

mS~'-..... 

Frano 

Mark 

PouDdMacliDR 

Dracbma 

g:S?.v.:::: 


EBypt 


....do 

....do 


Qold— 10 gucraa (Si.SMS); ailw— 




OddaodiUver . 






Gotd"5~iV™d"26 mark! 




ColdudBlTn . 












Gold— Bovareipi (»4,S686>; ulver— 




Q<ddudn]vBr . 










ooid^iiiw: 


&::::.■.■:: 
SS"";v.:;::: 


Gold— 10 florina; dnr— i. 1. and 
24 florina. 










SiSV;::::: 

Crown '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Piaat™ 








°^a^Eis,.'SS4"{.iJ°; 




SaST'.-"": 




Gold and ailver . 


GoU^^ wTcW. zoo, and 600 pUfr 
Gold-^^iaao; nlvei— p«ao and divi- 




do 




Gold and Blnr . 


Boliv«r 




ailvBi— 8 tolivara. 



■Tbe fold standard went into aSact Janui 
florin, wG'ch ia worth 2 crowni. 
{Gold ataodard adopt»l Ootober 1. 1897. 



1, 1900. Valuea sns itiU aom 

ICold nandud adopim m novai 
IGold nandard adopted October 



eiprened in the 



B.—CouHtriet IVith Flitetualing 


Citrren 


ies. 








""sr 


1001. 


1902. 


Jan.1. 


July 1. 


Jan. 1. 


Aprill. 


July 1. 


Oot.l. 


Bolivia 


Amoytaal 

lafkwuitael!! 
Ihanghaitaal .. 


*0 


48.S 
46.6 

1 
?§■" 

76.2 

1 




•0.41, a 

1: 
If 

M 
SI 


■ii 

■Si 
§5 
Sit 

.66.1 

!40l3 
.437 
.07:4 


•"IS- 

;r 

1° 

1 


"■^■1 




:62'* 

!g9!3 

■r,i 
f,-' 




.66,6 
.68.3 
.66.7 

& 
1 











•The "Britiah dollar" h 



w l(«al value aa tbe Mexican dolUr in Hon«konc, tha StniU Settle- 



T*7f Coke. 

COKEL The production of coke in the United States in igoi was 21,795^ short 

tons, valued at $44>445>923, against 20,553,348 short tons valued at $47>443»33i in 

1900, showing an increase in production of 6.15 per cent, and a decrease in value of 

t^ per cent, for the year. The extraordinary demand for coke in the iron and 

steel industries, which cha^icterized the trade in 1900, continued throughout 1901, 

bat prices revealed a tendency to return to a more normal level. Standard grades 

oi furnace coke were quoted at from $1.75 to $2.25 per ton, the higher prices being 

reached in the latter part of the year. There were 64,001 ovens in existence at the 

dose of 1901, and 5155 in course of erection. The introduction of by-product 

o?ens into the United States has been successful from a commercial standpomt, and 

a large increase in the number of plants using this type of oven may be expected in 

the near future. The by-products including tar, ammonia, and gas, are more valuable 

than the coke ; the value of the tar and ammonia recovered in the manufacture of 

1,179,000 tons of coke in 1901 was $1,029,876, while the gas was worth about 

$3,000,000. Coal-tar is the basis of a series of very valuable chemical compounds 

inducUng various organic acids, colors, and dyes that are now imported, principally 

from Germany. 

COLLEGES. See Universities and Colleges; see this article also for College 
Athletics and Gifts to Colleges. 

COLLIS, Charles H. T., a major-general in the Union amr^ during the Civil 
War, died May 11, 1902. He was bom February 4, 1838, in Cork, Ireland, and 
received an academic education in England. Having entered the Union service in 
1861, he participated in almost every battle in which the Army of the Potomac 
was engaged during the war, and rose from private to the rank of major-general of 
volunteers. After the war he acted twice as city solicitor of Philadelphia, was 
director of city trusts for fifteen years, and was commissioner of public works 
during the Strong administration in New York City, where he was en^ged in the 
practice of law from that time until his death. He was very active in local 
Republican politics. 

COLO MB I Ay a republic in the northwestern part of South America between the 
Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The capital is Bogoti. 

Area and Population, — The nine States, or departments, of Colombia have an 
aggr^;ate area estimated variously at from 455,ocx) to 513,000 square miles, the 
boundaries being in dispute on almost every side. Of the population, estimated 
(1895) ^t 4,000,000, about one-half are whites and half-castes. 

Government and Finance, — The executive power is vested in a president elected 
for a term of six years, and assisted and advised by a ministry of six members 
responsible to the congress. This body, in which the legislative power rests, con- 
sists of a Senate, composed of senators elected three from each of the States, and a 
House of Representatives, chosen for four years by universal suffrage. The chief 
executive in 1902 was Jose Manuel Marroquin (Conservative), who was elected vice- 
president in 1898, but succeeded President San Clemente (q.v,) as acting president 
by the coup d'itat of July 31, 1900. The size of the national army is determined 
annually by the congress, but in time of war the president may increase its strength 
t<^ sadi proportions as may be required. 

The monetary standard is silver, and the peso is the unit of value. The peso was 
worth 384 cents on October i, 1902, but the paper peso, which is in general circula- 
tion, is greatly debased. Owing to the rebellion, the extravagance and irregularity 
of the present executive's management, the financial condition of the country is 
wretched, and there are few signs of improvement. In the biennial period 1899- 1900 
the revenue and expenditure balanced in the official estimates at 29,918,640 pesos 
(paper). In the biennial period 1901-02 the estimated revenue had decreased to 
^6,963,640 pesos, and the estimated expenditure, due largely to the continued war, 
had increased to 40427,575 pesos. The revenue is derived largely from import and 
export duties, both of which are excessive, and from numerous monopolies. There 
is practically no coin in general circulation, except in Panama, where conditions are 
more favorable for trade. Gold is at a premium of 2500 per cent, and the govern- 
ment printing presses continue to turn out paper currency, which has been enor- 
mously increased since Au^st, 1901, when official figures showed 350,ooo,ocx) pesos 
to be in circulation. The mtemal debt amounting in 1899 to ii,359ji)74 pesos and 
the foreign debt of £3,514442 (1896) have both greatly increased during the dvil 
war. 

Industries and Commerce. — Mining and agriculture although the principal in- 
dnstries of the country are in a very backward and unsatisfactory condition. Tlie 
total output of gold and silver, the mining of which has been most developed, 
averages about $4,000,000 (in United States money). Mines of copper, lead, plati- 
mttn^ mercury, cinnabar, manganese, coal, iron, salt, and emeralds are worked to 
extent. Although much of the soil is fertile, only a small part of it is under 



CoUmMa. 



176 



cultivation and lack of transportation facilities in the interior renders its develop* 
ment difficult. Nevertheless coffee cultivation is being extended, and rubber, cacao, 
tobacco, sugar, vegetable-ivory, dyewoods, and various sorts of grain are produced. 
No recent trade statistics for the country at large exist, owing to the disorganized 
conditions, which, with the high export duties, have caused foreign commerce to ^1 
off considerably. The value of the foreign commerce for 1898 in gold pesos 
amounted to: imports, 11,083,028; exports, 19,157,788. The transit trade across the 
Isthmus of Panama is of considerable importance, aggregating, in 1900, 357,377 
tons. The trade of Colombia is largely with the United States, Great Britain, 
France, and Germany in the order named. 

Communications. — The total length of the railways in operation in Colombia in 
1901 was 402 miles. In addition 76 miles were under construction, and 330 miles 
projected, which it is scarcely probable will be undertaken at present On the 
Magdalena River, which is navigable 900 miles from its mouth, and on its tributaries 
215 miles of which are navigable, 42 steamers ply, and extensive improvements in 
dredging and canalizing have been undertaken. 

HISTORY. 

The Liberal Insurrection, — ^The insurrection of the Liberals against the Conserva- 
tive government in Colombia, which broke out in the fall of 1899, showed signs, 
under the energetic leadership of Uribe-Uribe and Herrera, of taking on new life at 
the beginning of the year 1902. Throughout 1901, it will be remembered, the action 
of President Castro, of Venezuela, in continually supplying arms, men, and ammuni- 
tion to the Liberals, brought the two countries to the verge of war. It was indeed 
asserted by Castro, in vindication of his action, which he made no attempt to deny, 
that troops raised and equipped by the Colombian government had several times 
crossed the Venezuelan line and engaged the forces he had set to watch the 
border. There is little doubt, despite the confusion and uncertainty, that the two 
governments were taking measures against each other that practically constituted 
a state of war. But there is also continued hostility between the Liberal and 
Conservative elements in Venezuela and Ecuador, so that a war between Conserva- 
tive Colombia and either of the two Liberal states mentioned would have more 
the character of a war of parties than of nations. 

Liberal Victories. — The year 1902 opened with the report that the insurgent gen- 
eral, Herrera, was planning the capture of Panama. The first conflict was a severe 
naval engagement between the rebel and government forces, which took place in 
the harbor of Panama on January 19 and 20. The result was a victory for the rebel 
fleet of three vessels, which sunk the government ship Lautaro. General Alban, the 
able governor of Panama, was killed and was succeeded by General Amaya. While 
Herrera was thus successful on the isthmus, Uribe-Uribe, who had been working his 
way across the Santander district toward the capital, Bogoti, was defeated and 
compelled to stop his advance. 

New Conservative Cabinet. — Little of importance from a military point of view 
occurred during February, 1902, the government forces on the isthmus were greatly 
reinforced, and Herrera attempted no advance. On February 11 the Colombian 
cabinet was reconstituted as follows: Home affairs, Perez; war, Fernandez; 
hacienda (finance), Lagas; treasury, Uribe; public instruction. Casus; posts and 
telegraphs, Revas. 

Death of San Clemente. — The principal event of interest in March was the death, 
on the 19th, of Dr. Manuel A. San Clemente, who was elected president of the 
republic in 1898 and was forced into retirement in 1900 by Vice-President Marroquin, 
who has been conducting the government, as acting president, on autocratic 
lines ever since. San Clemente, although a Conservative, had like other influential 
men of his party been driven to sympathize more or less openly with the Liberal 
movement by Marroquin's almost dictatorial policy. His death legitimatized Marro- 
quin's government. During March and April, 1902, the position of the forces re- 
mained about the same, victories seemed to be about evenly divided between the 
government and insurgents, and Uribe-Uribe was reported to be still "moving on" 
Bogoti and to have reached a point within fifty miles of that city. Toward the end 
of April the government sent reinforcements into Panama, to meet an expected 
advance of thte insurgents who had gathered in force at Bocas del Toro, west of 
Colon. The hostile forces continued to face one another throughout May, the few 
engagements reported being generally in favor of the Liberals. 

Waning of the Revolt.-^At the beginning of June the towns of Panama and 
Colon were reported as being the only places on the isthmus in government control, 
but on the 22d of the month, after a sharp conflict the government troops occupied 
Agua Dulce. Reports from the interior seemed to indicate that tiie strength of the 
revolution was waning, and toward the end of July it was rumored that Herrera, 
the Liberal leader, was willing to negotiate terms of peace. The comparative quiet 



r$m0m Colombia* 

•>>// C«l«rm4o« 

that iHTCvailed through August proved to be only the calm before the storm, as early 
in ^tember the rcvoh broke out with renewed activity. Early in the month 
Herrera recaptured Agua Dulce from the government, and was reported to be 
preparing to move on Colon and Panama. 

Intervention of the United States. — The renewal of hostilities on the isthmus 
brought with it the threat of an interruption of traffic on the Panama Railway, which 
the United States is bound by treaty to protect and keep open. In order to fulfil 
treaty obligations and preserve the neutrality and inviolability of the railroad prop- 
erty, the United States government dispatched the battleship Wisconsin^ to reinforce 
the Ranger already at Panama, and the cruiser Cincinnati was ordered at the same 
time to Colon. On September 17 Commander McLean of the Cincinnati placed 
United States marines on all trains leaving Colon for Panama and issued a set of 
regulations regarding transportation over the railroad, which were printed in 
Spanish and posted along the line. This act brought forth a storm of protest from 
papers both in Colombia and in other South American countries, who declared it to 
be an invasion of the sovereign rights of Colombia over its own territory. The 
Liberal reawakening, however, proved to be of but short duration, and on Septem- 
ber 22 Herrera after making an advance on Panama retired to Agua Dulce. 
Some days before, September 15, the Liberal power in the interior was reported to 
have been still further weakened by the surrender of the rebel forces under General 
Carreazo. The month of October saw a* still further decline in the Liberal hopes. 
Surrenders of insurgents were reported with increasing frequency during the month. 

Surrender of Uribe-Uribe.— On October 14, 1902, Uribe-Uribe and Castillo with the 
largest Liberal force in the field outside of Panama, were decisively defeated at La 
Cienaga by General Majarres and a strong government force, who followed them 
to Rio Frio, near Santa Marta, east of Barranquilla, where on October 28 they sur- 
rendered. The capitulation included 10 cannon, 2500 rifles, and 300,000 rounds of 
ammunition. By its terms Uribe-Uribe undertook to lend his influence toward 
bringing the insurrection to a close. The backbone of the revolt was broken and 
from this point hostilities were confined practically to Panama. 

Peace. — The United States battleship Wisconsin arrived at Panama on October 5, 
1902, and Admiral Casey at once undertook the role of peacemaker. He placed the 
Wisconsin at the disposal of the hostile leaders for the carrying on of negotiations, 
and at length, on November 21 on the deck of the battleship a treaty of peace was 
signed by representatives of the government and of General Herrera. The terms of 
peace included the immediate re-establishment of civil government, the liberation of 
prisoners of war, full amnesty to all participators in the revolt, and the promise on 
the part of the government to hold an election for a special congress to which 
would be submitted the following questions : the construction of the isthmian canal, 
the reforms proposed by President Marroquin in 1898, the reform of the monetary 
system, and the proposal to make the canal rentals inalienable. The insurgents 
agreed to give up their arms and munitions of war and the steamship Almirante 
Padilla. The government agreed to furnish transportation to disbanded rebels and 
to care for the sick and wounded. 

COLONIES. Colonies and other dependencies are treated under their own titles. 
See also Germany (paragraph Colonies) ; and Great Britain (paragraph (Colonial 
Conference). 

COLORADO, a western State of the United States, has a land area of 103,645 
square miles. The capital is Denver. Colorado was organized as a Territory 
February 28, 1861, and admitted to statehood August i, 1876. The population in 
1900 was 539,700, while in June, 1902, as estimated by the government actuary, it 
was 566,000. The populations of the two largest cities in 1900 were : Denver, 133,- 
859; Pueblo, 28,157. 

Finance. — The cash in the State treasury at the close of the biennial term ending 
November 30, 1900, was $1,881,716.20. The total receipts during the two-year 
period from December i, 1900, to December i, 1902, were $4,038,571.65, and the 
disbursements $3,833,294.27, leaving a balance on December i, 1902, of $2,086,994.58. 
For some years previous to 1901 the tax laws of Colorado had been insufficient to 
meet the expenses and a large floating deficiency had accumulated. In 1901 how- 
ever, Colorado passed a new tax providing, among other things, for corporation and 
liquor license taxes and for a collateral inheritance tax. (Dwing to this enactment it 
was estimated that there would be a surplus for the two years of approximately 
$20O4XX), whidi might be used in the further reduction of the floating debt, which had 
been decreased during the biennial term by some $300,000. The gross floating debt 
on November 30, 1902, was $2,968,762.68; the gross floating and bonded debt com- 
bined was $3,973482.68. Against this amount, however, there were collectable 
assets due the State, estimated at $1,531,311.87, thus reducing the net debt to 
$2442.170.81. The total assessed value of property in the State amounted to 
$465374>26B in 1901 and $354,002,501 in 1902. Of the valuation in 1902, agricultural 



C«l«rs<i*. 



178 



land was assessed at $26,696,729; grazing land at $I5*077>532; land improvements at 
$14454,238; town and city lots at $79,782,312, and cattle at $16,778474. Railroads, 
which in 1901 were assessed at $121,770,775 were in 1902 assessed at only $55*850,048, 
thus accounting in large part for the total reduction in assessments in 1902. Larger 
returns were derived from the corporation license tax of 1901 than were expected, 
and although $105,350 were derived from the new liquor license fees, the State 
treasurer stated that there were over 1500 persons selling liquor in the State who 
had not complied with the law. 

Agriculture. — Since the employment of irrigation on an extensive scale agriculture 
has advanced in Colorado until now the farm products are almost of equal im- 
portance with the products of the mines. (For statistics of production see articles 
on the leading cereal crops.) In the production of sugar beets Colorado ranks third 
among the States. The production of sugar in 1902 amounted to 29,643 tons. The 
first agricultural census of Colorado in 1870 showed 1738 farms. The census of 1900 
showed 24,700 farms of 9474,588 acres, valued at $106,344,035. The quantity of 
land actually under cultivation and in crops was given as 2,273,968 acres. The 
total value of farm property was placed at $161,045,111. As a sheep raising State 
Colorado ranks eleventh in the Union. The industry is one of great importance 
and is the chief source of wealth in several counties. The number of sheep in 1901 
was 2498,200 and the total clip 16,238,300 pounds, or 6.5 pounds a fleece. In 1902 
sheep were stated to number 1,917,300, yielding 12,590,720 pounds of wool, or 64 
pounds a fleece. This falling off was due to the drought and the heavy demand for 
mutton, which induced stockmen to sell every available animal. There were 
76 creameries and 27 cheese factories in the State in 1901 and the total value 
of the dairy products of the entire State was given at $5,581,134.80. The dairy 
interests have increased steadily in importance during the past five years. A 
large condensed milk factory was constructed at Fort Lipton in 1901. 

Mining. — The mining industry continues to be the leading one in the State. 
In 1901 the total value of the products of the metalliferous mines, gold, silver, lead, 
and copper, was $46,303,239.71, a falling off compared with the preceding year of 
more than $4,000,000. The production of each of the four metals was less than in the 
preceding year, except for copper, which showed an increase of $10,285.18. No offi- 
cial statistics for the year 1902 were available, but from unofficial sources it seems 
that there was a slight increase, as compared with 1901, except in the production of 
gold. More economic methods of production caused large deposits of low grade 
ore to be worked so that the tonnage of ore handled was greater in 1902 than ever 
before. The increased output of silver, however, was more than offset by the de- 
crease in price. Mining and smelting employed a far greater number of men than 
any other industry in the State. Wages in the mines vary from $2.50 to $4.00 per 
day. A little more than one-third of the entire mineral output of the State 
was mined in Teller County. In 1901, 37,260 men were employed in the mining 
and smelting industries, while in 1902 there were 35,118. Coal mining increased 
greatly in importance during 1902. During 1901 there were 98 coal mines operating 
in the State employing about 8000 miners and producing 5,978410 tons, of which 
64,580 tons were anthracite, 4,429419 tons bitummous, and 699,528 tons lignite. In 
1902 the total production was 7,522,923 tons, an increase of 25 per cent. ; 790,617 tons 
of coke were produced, an increase of 42 per cent, over 1901. The year 1902 wit- 
nessed extensive prospecting for oil throughout the western part of the State. 
No flow of any account was obtained, however, except in Boulder County, where 
small wells yielded perhaps 10,000 barrels during the year. The Florence oil-field 
continues to be the only one of importance, but the company in possession has 
made no attempt to increase the output, because, it is asserted, of a desire to refrain 
from encroaching on Standard Oil territory. The total production for 1902 was 
about the average (500,000 barrels), with an approximate value at the wells of 
$600,000. There was considerable activity in the transfer of mining properties during 
the year. Eastern capitalists have invested extensively in the Leadville district. 
An English syndicate purchased the Camp Bird mine for $3,500,000. The American 
Smelting and Refining Company obtained almost complete control of the silver, 
lead, and zinc smelting business in the State and erected new smelters at Pueblo and 
at Murray, Utah, with the result that the Philadelphia smelter at Pueblo, an inde- 
pendent concern, was obliged to shut down. The organization of labor unions in 
different parts of the State was accompanied with considerable distuihance of 
industry. A protracted dispute at Telluride resulted in considerable violence and 
some bloodshed. Non-union men, imported to take the places of the strikers, were 
fired on and compelled to surrender, and were then escorted to the county line by 
the union men. 

In 1902 the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company began an interesting experiment 
along the line of social betterment. The company, which employs between 16,000 and 
17,000 men in its mines, smelters, steel works, etc., scattered throughout Colorado, 



jjQ Colorado. 

• 
Wyoming, and New Mexico, established a "sociological department/* for the better- 
ment of the men in its employ and their families. The plan includes the organiza- 
tion and establishment of kindergartens, cooking schools, sewing schools, reading 
rooms, gjrmnasiums, night schools, boys' clubs, girls' clubs, traveling libraries, travel- 
ing art collections, and popular lectures. Arrangements were made during the 
year for the erection of a home for disabled workmen. At Redstone, where one 
of the principal plants is located, cottages were built for the workmen, and the erec- 
tion of a clubhouse was begun. A weekly paper. Camp and Plant, was started in 
order to give the news of the various settlements. John C. Osgood, chairman of 
the board of directors of the company, denied that the plan was merely a philan- 
thropic movement. He declared that it was one way of carrying out "common sense 
business ideas in the conduct of the business." Capt. J. D. Lifter, head of the 
Volunteers of America in Pueblo, was placed in charge of the entire scheme. 

Political Platforms. — The Republican party of Colorado in its platform endorsed 
the administration and called for the renomination of President Roosevelt in 1904. 
The plank regarding trusts and corporations declared that "the Republican party of 
Colorado recognizes in the growth of centralized corporate power evolution in 
business conditions which is the result of economic laws, but we recognize also that 
out of such consolidation are arising questions of great moment which must be faced 
and dtsiit with. We believe these questions should be solved along the line of 
regulations against abuses and not by radical legislation destructive of business 
interests. We pledge ourselves to enact such laws as will fully protect the interests 
of the people, and we strongly favor supplementing State legislation by national 
laws if found necessary." 

The platform of the Democratic party indorsed the Kansas City platform of 
1900 and the cause of bimetallism. It also favored the initiative and referendum. 
A declaration was made in favor of government ownership of all transportation 
systems. Xhe so-called banking trust was condemned. Henry M. Teller, United 
States sena.tor from Colorado, was endorsed to succeed himself. 

Legislatt^re. — ^A special session of the legislature was called on January 27, 
1902, to taike action in regard to the law passed April 5, 1901, providing for a 
general revenue and tax system. This act had been contested early in June by 
the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, and other railway and telephone com- 
panies, and the law remained in litigation and no revenue could be collected under 
it. Both the State District Court of Pueblo County, and the United States District 
Court, had held the law to be unconstitutional, and the cases were then pending in 
the State Supreme Court and in the United States District Court. The board of 
assessors created by the law were enjoined from further proceedings, and it was 
therefore necessary, in order to collect revenue for 1901, that the legislature sanction 
the raising of taxes under the previous law of 1901. This sanction, verifying the 
assessments made by the old State board of equalization in expectation of such an 
act of the Assembly, was given on March 22, 1902, and the legislature then proceeded 
to draw up another complete revenue and tax law which, it was believed, would 
meet the objections of the courts. 

Several extensive memorials were addressed by the legislature to Congress. These 
were, in general, in commendation of Rear-Admiral Schley, in advocacy of Filipino 
self-government, of the exclusion of Japanese labor, and in opposition to any retire- 
ment of the greenbacks, the redemption of silver in gold, the reducing of the currency 
or permitting banks in any way to regulate the currency. Opposition was also made 
to the admission of free sugar from Cuba. It was stated that four and one-half 
billion pounds of sugar were imported in 1901, of which one and one-fifth billion 
came from Cuba. Beet sugar, it was held, was supported by European governments. 
Free Cuban sugar would narrow Colorado's market, and the existing sugar tariff 
was the only one from which farmers and producers in the west directly benefited. 
As measuring in some degree the extent of this benefit, it was said that in 1899 the 
beet sugar product of California had been valued at $100,000; in 1900 at $1,125,000; 
in 1901 at $3,600,000; and for 1902 it was estimated at $6,000,000. 

By a law of 1901 a State irrigation canal was authorized in Montrose and Delta 
counties, to be known as State Canal No. 3, and to extend from the Gunnison 
River below the mouth, of the Cimarron River to the Enconpalyre River valley, 
and to have such laterals and branches as would irrigate the greatest amount of land. 
An amendment to this law was passed in 1902, giving the board of control who were 
to construct it more adequate power to issue certificates of indebtedness for money 
advanced, and in other ways to provide for its proper construction. 

Single-Tax Campaign. — The attention of students of political economy was drawn 
to Colorado during the autumn of 1902 by what was practically a campaign for 
the single-tax. The "Bucklin amendment" to the State constitution was the issue. 
The proposed amendment, framed by State Senator James W. Bucklin, after a visit 
to Australia and New Zealand, provided for the adoption of the system he found 



Colorado. _ . »Q--i 

in operation in some parts of Australia— local option in taxation. Each county and 
city in the State was to be given power to determine its own method of taxation. It 
took a strong fight by the friends of the measure to get the legislature to submit 
it to the people, and its foes induced the governor to call a special session of the 
legislature to repeal the submission act. The legislature, after an exciting debate, 
refused to repeal it, however, and the campaign went on. The amendment was 
indorsed by the Socialists and the State Federation of Labor, and it became clear 
that if the proposed home rule in taxation were granted many localities would adopt 
the single-tax. After an exciting campaign the amendment was defeated. 

Elections. — At the regular biennial State election held November 4, 1902, a full 
State ticket was elected, all but the superintendent of education being Republicans. 
For governor, Peabody (Rep.) received 87,512 votes, and Stimson (Dem.) 80,217, 
the Republican candidate having a plurality of 7295 votes. The State legislature for 
1903 comprises 53 Democrats and 47 Republicans. 

State Officers. — For 1902: Governor, James B. Orman (Dem.); lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, David C. Coates (Pop.) ; secretary of state, David A. Mills (Pop.) ; treasurer, 
J. N. Chipley (Sil. Rep.) ; auditor, Charles W. Cronter (Dem.) ; adjutant-general, 
G. F. Gardner; attorney-general, Charles C. Post (Dem.) ; superintendent of educa- 
tion, Helen L. Grenfel (Dem.). For 1903: (jovemoi^ James H. Peabody; lieutenant- 
governor, W. A. Haggott ; secretary of state, James Cowie ; treasurer, Whitney New- 
ton; auditor, John A. Holmberg; adjutant-general, G. F. (xardner; attorney-general, 
Nathan C. Miller; superintendent of education, Helen l^. Grenfel, all Republicans 
except the superintendent of education. 

Supreme Court, in 1902 and 1903: Chief justice, John Campbell (Rep.) ; associate 
justices, William H. Gabbert (Dem.), and Robert W. Steele (Fusion). 

For congressional representatives, see United States (paragraph Congressional 
Representatives) . 

COLORED METHODISTS, exceeding in number 1,500,000, constitute a con- 
siderable part of the denominational family of Methodism. They are included 
mostly in the several distinct organizations maintained by the African race, though 
some other Methodist bodies have negro members. The more important colored 
Methodist churches are the African Methodist Episcopal, dating from 1816, with 
6429 ministers, 5715 churches, and 728,354 communicants; the African Metfiodist 
Episcopal Zion, which was formally established in 1820, and now has 3310 ministers, 
2985 churches, and 542,422 communicants; and the Colored Methodist Episcopal, 
founded in 1870, which includes 2061 ministers, 1433 churches, and 204,972 communi- 
oints. Among the denominations of the United States, these bodies rank, respec- 
tively, tenth, thirteenth, and twenty-first, in numerical strength. The Methodist 
Episcopal Zion Church has a publishing house in Charlotte, N. C, and issues eleven 
denominational publications and periodicals. Under its auspices are six colleges and 
seventeen minor schools. Its church property is valued at $4,619,520. During 1902 
several new church edifices were built in Chicago, Kansas City, Boston, and in 
Louisville and other southern cities where the denomination is strongest. The report 
of Bishop Levi J. Coppin, of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, who returned 
to this country after a year in Africa, was of considerable interest. Bishop Coppin 
succeeded in organizing in South Africa a branch of the church, including some 
twenty places of worship, the first having been dedicated early in 1901 at Arensdale, 
Cape Colony. At Cape Town was established Bethel Institute, an institutional 
diurch whose objects are less denominational than Christian and generally educa- 
tional. The general conference of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church was held 
in Nashville, Tenn., in May, 1902. 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, New York City, founded 1754. The event of the 
year 1902 that overshadowed all others was the election and inauguration of 
Nicholas Murray Butler, Ph.D., LL.D., as president to succeed Seth Low, who 
resigned in October, 190 1. Dr. Butler, who had been acting-president since the open- 
ing of the 1901-02 session, was elected president on January 6, and was inaugurated 
on April 19 in the presence of a most distinguished assembly, including the President 
of the United States, governor of New York, mayor of the city, and the presidents 
of most of the American universities. President Butler's fitness for this position 
is especially marked, since he is recognized as one of the leading educational authori- 
ties in the United States. The immediate effect of this new leadership was seen 
in the marking out of a distinct educational policy for the university. The most 
important item in this policy is the proposition for the shortening of the collegiate 
course, a proposition discussed more fully in the article Universities and Colleges. 
The proposition is that the course for the B.A. degree be curtailed to two years, 
including the so-called "liberal studies" only and eliminating all the introductory 
professional courses that now in large part comprise the course of the senior year. 
The four-year course is also allowed to stand, but it is proposed that the decree 
of M.A. be given for this. 



tQt C«l«mbla UiiiTMnltF* 

lOl C!A«hflM. 



Com 

Colombia University did not commit itself to this policy in 1902, but the policy is 
definitely suggested as one probable in the course of a few years. The proposed two- 
year course would include all the studies now prescribed and would make it possible 
to require the possession of the baccalaureate degree before admission to the pro- 
fessional schools without entailing a hardship upon the students, as is now done in 
the majority of cases where such requirements are made. Four other points in the 
edncational policy, as outlined by the president in his first annual report, are: 
(i) The maintenance of educational efficiency, especially through the devotion of 
greater attention and support to undergraduate work ; (2) the promotion of research, 
since the best teacher is a constant sAident, and the student tends to become an 
investigator, and since the work of investigation is the express function of the 
university ; (3) the development of the social side of academic life, especially through 
a dormitory system, which is so much needed in a large city to preserve any com- 
mnnity life in the college; and (4) the better organization of the teaching of the 
natural sciences, a necessity due to the manner in which the study of the sciences 
has grown up at Columbia through the influence of the School of Mines, where 
organization has been effected somewhat to the neglect of similar organization in the 
college itself. Preliminary to any great advance in the educational efficiency of the 
university, many financial needs must be met. The president in his annual report 
sets these forth as follows : To pay the existing debt, $3,000,000 ; to purchase property 
upon which tlie university has an option until July, 1903, $2,000,000; to build and 
equip a college hall, $500,000; to complete and equip University Hall, $1,000,000; to 
build and equip a law school building, $400,000; to build and equip a building to 
accommodate departments temporarily in the Library Building, $400,000 ; for general 
university purposes, including the most pressing needs of the Schools of Applied 
Science and the Medical School, $2,700,000; a total of $10,000,000. The gifts to the 
institution for the scholastic year 1901-02 amounted to $1,082,581, divided as follows: 
To Columbia University, $421,^46; to Barnard College, $403,290; and to Teachers 
Collie, $257344- The bulk of the fund to the university proper and to Barnard 
Collie was for endowments, while that to Teachers College was for buildings. In 
addition to this, Mr. John D. Rockefeller gave in October, 1902, $500,000 to the 
endowment funds of Teachers College, conditioned upon the payment of the out- 
standing indebtedness of $190,000 and the securing of an additional $250,000 for 
endowments. These conditions at the end of the year were partially met and 
promised soon to be completely filled. The most important internal administrative 
changes of 1902 were the establishment of a school of fine arts, of which the depart- 
ment of architecture, formerly of the faculty of applied science, and the department 
of music, formerly of the faculty of philosophy, constitute the nucleus. Further 
changes separate anthropology from psychology, and education from philosophy, as 
independent departments. During the year the teaching staff increased to 425. 
Among the appointments were that of Felix Adler, Ph.D., as professor of social and 
political ethics; L. Emmet Holt, M.D., LL.D., professor of diseases of children; 
Frederick Hirth, Ph.D., professor of Chinese ; Walter B. James, M.D., professor of 
the practice of medicine; John D. Prince, PhD., professor of Semitic languages; 
Julius Sachs, Ph.D., professor of secondary education; Charles Thaddeus Terry, 
B.A., LL.B., professor of law; Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, M.A., professor of 
philosophy; Henry L. Moore, Ph.D., and Henry Rogers Seager, adjunct pro- 
fessors of political economy. 

The total registration in all departments of the university for 1901-02, including 
extension students, auditors, and students in the summer session, was 5134, as com- 
pared with a similar total of 4440 for the preceding year, this being a gain of 15 per 
cent Of these, 831 were unaergraduates, 508 were non-professional graduate stu- 
dents, 2509 were professional graduate students, 1902 were summer session, or 
extension, students or auditors. On November 7, 1902, the total registration in all 
departments, including extension students, was 4837, as compared with a similar 
total of 4499 at the same period of the preceding year. There was an increase of 
enrollment in every department except medicine, where the advanced admission 
requirements caused a considerable decrease in numbers. See Psychology^ Experi- 
mental (paragraph Columbia University). 

COMBES* Justin Louis Emile, who succeeded M. Waldeck- Rousseau as pre- 
mier of France in June, 1902, has assumed power with the responsibility of carrying 
out the policy of his celebrated predecessor. This means a vigorous enforcement 
of the new Associations law, requiring the registration of religious orders; the 
further weakening of clerical influence by repealing the laws which, in 1850, gave 
ecclesiastical institutions privileges not enjoyed by the national schools; the estab- 
lishment of pensions for the workingman, and of an income tax. This extensive 
Drogramme luis behind it a substantial Radical majority in the Chamber of Deputies. 
M. Combes, who was bom at Roquecombe, department of Tarn, September 6, 1835, 
did not gain wide political recognition until comparatively late in life, but had 



CoBf • Free State* 



182 



previously won distinction as a scientist, metaphysician, and opponent of clericalism. 
In his youth he was devoted to theological studies, and took orders in the Church. 
Subsequently he renounced the Church, and, having taken his degree in medicine in 
1867, began practice at Pons, of which town he became mayor in 1875. Henceforth 
he gave attention to politics, though continuing his literary and scientific studies. 
In 1879 he became a member of the Conseil Giniral, and in 1885 was elected to the 
senate, to which he brought a scholarship, culture, and practical efficiency in the 
conduct of business that gave him a solid reputation in that body. After serving as 
vice-president of the senate (1893-94), he was chosen minister of public instruction 
in the cabinet of M. Bourgeois in 1895, and, after the overthrow of that cabinet, 
renewed his parliamentary activity in regard to the educational question. In his 
early life he published Psychology of St, Thomas Aquinas, and contributed to the 
Revue Contemporaine. 

COMETS. See Astronomical Progress. 

CONGO FREE STATE, a country of central Africa under the sovereignty of 
Leopold II., king of the Belgians, has an estimated area of 900,000 square miles and 
a population variously estimated at from 14,000,000 to 30,000,000. The white inhabi- 
tants are few, numbering in 1902 only 2346, of whom about 500 were resident at 
Boma, the capital. 

Government and Finance. — Except as the administration is circumscribed by the 
provisions of the Berlin congress of 1885, the Congo Free State is an absolute 
monarchy. King Leopold at Brussels governs the country through a secretary of 
state, under whom are three secretaries-general for the departments of foreign 
affairs, finance, and the interior; at Boma the king is represented by a governor- 
general, and the fourteen districts into which the country is divided, are admin- 
istered by Belgian commissioners. Under an act of August 10, 1901, Belgium con- 
tinued her right to annex the country, at such time as the king might choose. The 
effective army numbers over 12,000 natives, commanded by European officers. 

Revenue accrues principally from the state domain, customs, and transport dues. 
Estimated revenue and expenditure in francs have been, respectively, as follows 
(the franc equals 19.3 cents) : 1900, 26,256,500 and 27,731,254; 1901, 30,751,054 and 
31,256,054; 1902, 28,709,000 and 32405492. The public debt is stated at 16(5,226,635 
francs; included in this amount is a loan of 50,000,000 francs issued in October, 
1901, for the construction of railways and other public works. The Belgian act of 
August 10, 1901, relieved the Free State from interest payments on the two Be^ian 
loans — one of 25,000,000 francs, made in 1890, and the other of 6,804415 francs, made 
in 1895 — until Belgium should renounce her right of annexation. 

Production and Commerce. — The most important products and exports are rubber, 
ivory, palm-nuts, and palm-oil. Tobacco, resin, coffee, and cacao are also pro- 
duced. It is stated that the number of coffee trees increased from 61,500 in 1895 
to 2,631,000 in 1901, and cacao trees from 13,800 to' 490,700. 

The special imports and exports in 1900 were valued at 24,724,109 francs and 
47»37740i francs, respectively; general imports and exports, 31,803,214 and 51,775,97^8, 
respectively. In 1901 the special imports and exports amounted to 23,102.000 francs 
and 50488,000 francs, respectively, and the general 26,793,000 and 54,008,000, respec- 
tively. The leading exports in the special trade in 1901 were: Rubber. 43,966,000 
francs ; ivory, 3,965,000 ; palm-nuts, 1,373,000; palm-oil, 802,000. The special imports 
to and exports from the Free State by countries of greatest trade importance were, 
respectively, in 1901 : Belgium, 16,716,000 francs and 47,064,000 francs ; Great Britain, 
2,881,000 and 228,000; Germany, 1,059,000 and 125,000; Portuguese dependencies, 
586,000 and 1,682,000. 

Communications. — The Congo River is navigable as far as Matadi, twenty-seven 
miles above Boma and 112 miles from the Atlantic. From Matadi to Stanley Pool 
(Leopoldville) there are numerous rapids, and communication is effected by a rail- 
way 247 miles long, which was opened to traffic July 2, 1898. There is also a railway 
twenty miles in length between Boma and Mayumbe. Above Stanley Pool there 
are about 1000 miles of navigable water. In 1902 a concession was granted for the 
construction of a railway to be eventually a part of the line from Cairo to Cape 
Town. See Cape-to-Cairo Railway. 

Administrative Outrage. — That the Congo State should be called "free" is an irony 
less amusing than tragic. For a number of years atrocities, attested by witnesses and 
other authorities who in large part must be regarded as trustworthy, have been 
perpetrated by the Belgian officials and their native troops. In the spring of 1902 
the Aborigines' Protection Society, in behalf of the Congo inhabitants, appealed for 
intervention to the British government as one of the signatories of the Berlin treaty, 
which gave the state existence, and, according to the terms of whidi. Great Britain 
has clearly the right to intervene. To some extent the excuse for the deplorable 
conditions in the Congo is found in the governmental system established there. When 
the sovereignty of the country was placed with King Leopold, the first necessity 



tQ<9 Cons* Free Btate. 

*'^6 ConsrevaUeiiallste. 

of the administration was revenue, but none of the usual sources of revenue was 
available and adequate. Accordingly all the wild land — ^probably nine-tenths of the 
whole area — was declared crown property : and for this small blame attaches to the 
Belgians; but in their manner of utilizing the property all the trouble has arisen. 
To various companies the government sold rubber monopolies, usually retaining for 
itself half the profits. But soon a difficulty arose : the natives had little liking for 
rubber gathering, and besides, as they would think, was not the rubber their own to 
use or not use as they chose? Then the government, resolved upon compulsion, 
called out the militia — savages and, in some instances, cannibals, provided with 
modem arms. "Their method was to surround a village, order out its adults on a 
rubber hunt, and, if resisted, or if the rubber brought in was insufficient, to kill, 
mutilate, or in some instances, as the [Aborigines' Protection] Society affinns, eat 
the de&ulters. II the natives fled they were hunted in the woods, and if they fought 
their heads or hands were brought into the stations in evidence that the resistance 
had been put down." In addition to this forced labor, amounting to practical slavery, 
many natives, it is said, have been sold into actual slavery, the worst crimes of the 
Arab slave-raiders being repeated. It is alleged that the occasional governmental 
reproof is directed only against minor officials, and that "so-called reforms are 
merely intended to throw dust in the eyes of the public." 

CONGRCGATIONALISTS are represented in every State of the Union, as 
well as in Ha>vaii, Cuba, Porto Rico, and in mission fields generally. The Congrega- 
tional Year Book of 1902 records the statistics of the denomination as follows: 
Ministers 5717, churches 5753, members 645,9^; Sunday school members 658405; 
members enrolled in various young peoples' organizations, such as the United Society 
of Christian Endeavor, 198,407; benevolent contributions $2,233,722; expenditures, 
17,580,665. The work of the church is conducted through seven societies. The 
American Board (see American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions) 
is the oldest foreign missionary society in the United States; and the American 
Missionary Association (see Missionary Association, American) is interested in 
the religious and educational improvement of several classes among the people of the 
United States. The Education Society controls one theological seminary, four 
collies, twenty-three academies, and ten mission schools, and assists 150 young men 
preparing: for the ministry. The total receipts for the fiscal year 1902 were $135,288. 
A notable event of 1902 was the establishment by the Educational Society of a 
seminary at Atlanta, Ga., intended chiefly for the ministers, and subsequently stu- 
dents, of the Congregational Methodist and Free Methodist churches in Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, and Louisiana, which recently affiliated with the Congregationalists. 
The work of the Church Building Society consists in lending aid to churches already 
organized by other societies of the denomination. Its income for the year aggregated 
$251,668. The Home Missionary Society is engaged in providing Christian education 
for the destitute and in helping congregations that are unable to support the gospel 
ministry. In the fiscal year 1902 it employed 1868 missionaries and expended 
$293,064, besides the amounts disbursed by the fourteen auxiliary soc