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58, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta 

I All rights reserved. 

' 1923. 

Prafulla Kumar Chatterjee 

66, Maniktala Street, Calcutta, 

\ 3 tf 










< • 



1. Food and Health 

2. Principles of Education 

3. Dyspepsia and Diabetes 

4. A Comparative Hindu Materia Medica 

5. A Study in Hindu Social Polity 

6. Endocrin Glands 

7. National Problems 

8. Infant Feeding and Hygiene 



46, Great Russell Street, Librarie Medical et 

London W. C. Scientifique, 

9-10, Rue Casimir-Delavigno, 
Paris (Vie) 

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New York City. 


I. — Anatomy 

(a) Osteology 

(b) Arthrology 

(c) Myology 

(d) The Vascular System • 
II. — Thysiology 

(a) Digestion 

(b) Circulation 

(c) The Nervous System • 
III. — PatJidlogy 

(a) Constitutional Pathogenesis 

(b) Mechanical Pathogenesis 

(c) Infections 

IV. — Diseases and their Diagnosis 

V. — Diseases and their Clinical Studies 

(a) Fevers 

(b) Diarrhoea 

(c) Diabetes 

(d) ^ Diseases of the Bladder 
(e)v^ Diseases of the Mouth 

(f) Tumors 

(g) Skin Disease ••• 
(h) Diseases of the Genital Organs 

( ii ) 

VI. — Therapeutics... ••• -v 429' 

VII. — Surgery ••• ••♦ «.. 491 

VIII. — Dietetics ••• ••• < ... 536 

IX. — Hygiene ••• ••• .•• 568- 



< • 

\ Foreword 

I started this Book with the idea of making- 
it a comparative study of the ancient Hindu and 
Greek systems of Medicine in the light of niodem 
knowledge. But I soon realized that the Hindu 
students for whom this book is chiefly intended, 
would not be interested in the Greek Medicine, 
and as there are excellent translations of the works 
of Hippocrates,^!: I live confined myself to the in- 
terpretation of the Ancient Hindu Medicinealonu. 

I was forced to the conclusion that the Ancient 
Greek Schools of Medicine were indebted to the 
Hindu Systems for the following reasons : — (1) 
Indigenous Indian drugs are found in the works 
of JlippoGrates as (a) Kardamomon from Sk. 
^kardama* ( cardamon ) as an emmenagogue in 

* I. E. Littre : Oevres Complete D' Hippocrate 


( Text and translation ) 10 Vols. J. B. Bailier et Fils, 
Paris, 1'839-1861. I have used this edition for my 

2/ Robert Fuchs : Hippokrates Sammtliche 
Werke, 3 Vols. Miinchen, 1895-1900. 

3. F. Adams : Genuine Works of Hippocrates 
( partial ), Sydenham Society. 

( iv ) 

Tol. VII. p 358 ; in dyspnea in Vol. VIII. p. 
80 ; (b) Amomon from Sk. ^eW ( Elettaria 
cardamomum ) as an emmenagogue in Voi. VII. 
p. 358 ; (c) Feperi from Sk. 'pippaW ( Piper 
longum ) as an expectorant, mixed with honey- 
water in Vol. II. p. 464 ; in nasal catarrh in 
Vol. V. p. 183 ; in gingivitis in Vol. V. p. 244 ; 
as an errhine in Vol. V. p. 328 ; as a drink with 
honey, vinegar and water in Vol. VII. p. 150 ; 
with wine and oil in a pessary in Vol. VII. p. 
364 ; in quartan fever in Vol. VIII. p. 654 ; 
Dia-trion piperidon, from Sk. trikatu,^ a 
preparation made from three species of ^Piper* 
(nigrum, longum and album ) ; (d) Kinnamomos 
from Sk. Hvak' (Cinnamomum zeylonacum) with 
myrrha, and safran in fumigation in Vol. VII. 
p. 372 ; simple fumigation in Vol. VIII. p. 364 ; 
(e) Akof'os from Sk. 'vacha' ( Acorus colamus ) 
with myrrha as antiseptic injection in Vol. VII, 
p. 368 ; made infusion with dry pomegranate 
skin in wine for astringent injection in Vol. VIII, 
p. 860 ; (f) Nardou from Sk. *jatmiiamsi^ . 
(Nardostachys Valeriana) as antiseptic fujriigation 
with cinnamon, myrrha and rose perfume in^VoI. 
VII. p. 372 ; as an astringent antiseptic wasti in 
lochia in Vol. VIII. p. 104 ; (g) Sesamon from 
Sk. Hila^ ( Sesamum indicum ) as a vulnerary in 

( V ) 

empyema — suppurative abscess in Vol. II. p. 518 ; 
in the treatment of adiposis in Vol. VI. p, 76 ;. 
as a plaster in long-standing catarrh in Vol. V. p. 
432 ; as' a fattening food in Vol. VI, p. 258. ;. 
as a nutritive food in Vol. VI. p. 544 ; as a 
substitute for cheese in Vol. VII. p. 78 ; in 
coughing of the children in Vol. VIII, 82 ; (h) 
Ziggiberis from Sk. ^rngavercC ( Zingiber 
officinale ) ; Kostos srom Sk. 'ktistha' ( Costus 
speciosus ) ; Sakcharon from Sk. ^sarkara^ 
( Saccharum officinarum ) ; Pepereos riza from 
Sk. *pippali'muW ( radix Piper longum ) ; 
Kupeiros from Sk. 'mtistaka (Cyperus rotundus);' 
BdelUon from Sk. *guggnla' ( Aquilaria 
agallocha ) ; etc. 

(2) Kumoral Fathology : In ^Feri Physios 
Atithropoy' ( On the Nature of Man ) Vol. VI, 
p. 32-69, Hippocrates advances arguments of 
supeiiorty of the principles of the four humors 
whose equilibrium in the body preserves the 
normal health and whose derangements are the 
etiological factors of disease, as the ^aima' (blood : 
Sk. 'rndhira '), 'phlegma' ( phlegm : Sk. ^slesmaf 
*chol(jn xanthen* ( yellow bile : Sk. 'pitta* ), and 
*choJ/n melainam' ( black bile : as a substitute 
for Sk. 'vayu' ), which he for the first time 
introduced into Greece over the ancient doctrine 

{ vi ) 

of *}iof ( from fire ) *colfV ( from earth ), 'dry* 
( from air ) and ^moisf ( from water ) qualities 
which were supposed to be the basic factors of 
healtli and disease, and whicli he also argues in 
his book 'Peri Archaies letriches' ( Ancient 
Medicine), Vol. I. pp. 570-637. In his 'Ferl 
Gones' ( Generation, 3 ), Vol. VII. p. 474, 'aima, 
chole, udor, phlegma* are mentioned as the four 
humors, using 'hile' without any qualifica- 
tion, and ill the place of one, 'udor'' ( Sk. 
ndaka = serous fluid ) is substituted, thus 
proving that the humoi-al question was 
still in transitional flux, and was not settled or 
fixed. In ^Peri Chymon'' ( Humors, 8, 14 ), Vol. 
V. p, 488, 496, seasonal changes are mentioned 
to cause the increase and the decrease of the 
humors, as the increase af the bile in the summer, 
and thus organisms are predisposed to certain 
diseases in particular seasons in which 
their controling humors are predominant, in 
a very strikingly similar language as described 
in Susruta (I. 6) on ^rtu-charyya''. In 'Pery 
Physios Anthropoy' (The Nature of Man, 7), 
Vol. VI. p. 46, it is argued that 'yhlegxtia' is 
dominant in the winter, for the reason that^m'an 
conforms to the laws of nature, and as every- 
thing is cold in the winter, and as pblegma is 

( vii ) 

"the coldest of all the humors " in tactile 
sensation, it naturally therefore is in excess 
over ot^er humors ; in tlie spring, the blood 
is dominant, as the phlegma is still strong, 
owing to the plenty of rain and sap in the soil 
and plant, but it becomes desiccated by the 
warm sun ; in the summer, the blood is still 
strong, but the bile is formed by the strong 
sun, and the phlegma is in the minimum owing 
to the hot, desiccant sun ; in the autumn the 
blood is in the minimum, but the black bile is 
formed in abundance, as the season is dry and 
the nature tends to cool itself. In 'Peri Noyson 
to Tetarton' (The fourth Book of Maladies, 33), 
Vol. VII. p. 5i2, it is described how the humors 
are in excess or in deficiency : *'I shall describe 
now, how the bile, the blood, the "udrops* 
(serons fluid) and the phlegma are in excess 
or in deficiency ; it is through the food and the 
drink, in this way : the full stomach is the 
source of all things ; but when empty, it 
profits at the cost of the body which it disin- 
tegrates.' f, Moreover, there are other four 
sources from which each of the humors can 
come to the organs ; they come to the stomach, 
and when the stomach is empty, they go to the 
organs (superficial), but they come back, when. 

( viii ) 

the stomach has something (ingesfca). The 

source for the blood, is the heart, for the phleg- 

ma — the brain, for the 'udrops' (serous /^fuid) — 

the spleen, and for the bile, the part tlat is in 

the liver (bile-duct)." And in the same book 

(34 — 38), it is mentioned that as the plant can 

select its food from the soil it needs, so each 

humor can get its nourishment from all kinds of 

food ; but phlegma is particularly increased by 

the ingestion of cheese, acrid substance, or 

phlegmatic food or drink ; the bile is increased. 

by bitter food and drink, or bilious substance ; 

^udrops' (serous fluid) is increased by the 

water one drinks, and is pumped by the spleen 

to itself and other parts of the body ; the blood 

is increased by the bloody food one takes, and 

which is attracted to all parts of the body, and 

especially by the heart. As the disease is caused 

by the excessive increment of one humor over 

the rest, its cure lies in bringing out the coction 

( paclicuia ) of the said humor, and cause its 

evacuation and expulsion from the body ; ' the 

crisis of a disease is the turning point .when the 
coction of the deransred humor bes^ins. aiid the 
coction produces the periods in fever ( Vol.\ I. p. 
617 ; Vol. 11. p. 635 ; Vol. IV. p. 469 ; Vol. V. 
p, 485 ; Vol. VIII. p. 651 ). 

(3) India is dii^ectly mentioned in association 

( ix ) 

loitJi some of the drugs : (a) "Echochchous eclilep- 
santa oson treis mdichoy pharmachoij tou ton 
opbthalmovn, o chaleetaipeperijCliai tou stroggyloy, 
tna tauta leia tribein,cbai oinopalaio chliero dieis, 
balanionperi pteron ornitbos titlienai,chai odeprosa- 
gein."(Anotber : three decorticated grains, Indian 
drug wbicb is for tbe eyes and is called 'pepper', 
tbe round grain — tbese three are to be pounded 
and moistened with warmed old wine, it is to be 
pasted round a plum, and to be introduced thus 
( as a pessary ). Gynaikeiioti JProton : ( Eemale 
Diseases, 81 ; Vol. VIII. p. 202 ). (b) "E 
ecblepsas chocbchous pentecbaidecha,esto de cbai 
indichoy poson" ( Or rather decorticate fifteen 
grains of Cnide, and add to it, tbe Indian 
preparation ; ibid 158 ; Vol. VIII. p. 336 ). (c) 
"Toyto to pharmachon odontas chathairei cbai 
euodeas .poieei chaleetai de indichoii pharmachon.'* 
( This preparation cleanses the teeth, and imparts 
to them a aroma ; it is called Indian prepara- 
tion ; ibid 185 ; Vol. VIII. p. 366 ). (d) *'Eteron 
prostheton ecblepsas chocbchous triechonta, to 
indichoth o'ohaleousinoi Persai peperi." (Another 
pessary .' thirty decorticated grains, and the 
Indian substance which the Persians call 'pepper'; 
ibid 205 ; Vol. VIII. p. 394 ). 

(4) Indirect Inference : Urine of cow 

( X ) 

{go-mutra) is recommended as a therapeutic agent 
in fistula, in Vol. VI. p, 453 ; as a disinfectant 
wash for the female genitals and in s^rility in 
Vol. VII. p. 365 ; in fumigation and lotion in 
female diseases in Vol. VIII. p. 211. Cow-dung 
( go-maya ) is recommended with aromatic sub- 
stances as a fumigation in female diseases in Vol. 
VIII. p. 119. ; bovine desiccated bile (go-rochana) 
as a vulnerary preparation for wounds in Vol. VI. 
p. 415 ; in a purgative compound in Vol. VI. 
p. 419 ; in pessary with myrrh and honey in 
Vol. VIII. p. 59,157,203,395 ; as a laxative drink 
with wine in Vol. VII. p. 425. The cow being 
regarded as the sacred animal of the Hindus, it 
can be imagined that her excretory products may 
be used in India as therapeutic agents, but their 
use among the Greeks who had no such passions, 
indicates their foreign importation. 

It may be said that all the writings that are 
now included in the Hippocratic Collection were 
not the genuine works of Hippocrates (460 — 377 
B. C. ). That may be so. We are not concerned 
with that problem. It suffices for our purpose 
to know that the Hindu thoughts influenced 
deeply the Greek medical literature in the fifth 
and the fourth century B. C. We do not yet 
definitely know how the Medical science reached 

( x! ) 

Hellas ; perhaps by the Persian intermediatories, 
or dir^tetly by the Hindu settlers in the Persian 
Empire. '\We know that in 606 B. C. the 
Median king Cyaxares conquered Assyria and 
annexed to it the territories up to the coasts in 
Asia Minor where there were many Hellenic 
settlers. Cyrus, ( 559 — 530 B. C. ) the great 
Persian nation-builder, defeats Astyages and 
conquers Media in 550 B, C, defeats Croesus, the 
Lydian king, and captures Sardis in 547 B. C, 
conquers Babylon and Greek cities of Asia Minor 
in 546—539 B. C. His son Cambyses ( 529— 
522 B. C. ) conquers Egypt in 527 B. C, by 
defeating the Egyptian ruler Psammetichus III 
or better known as Amasis, under whom were 
numerous Ionian and Cartan mercenaries. The 
empire of Darius I ( 522 — 486 B. C. ) extends 
from Macedonia to the Indus, and from the 
Danube and the Black Sea to Nubia; while in 512 
B. C. Darius invaded Scythia, to subdue the 
nomadic hordes, his general Megabazus reduced 
Thrace, and a few years later penetrated up to 
the river* ^ Peneus in Thessaly ; the lonians 
revolte/d against the Persian domination, and with 
the assistance of Athenians and Eretrians, burnt 
Sardis in 499 B. C, which led to the Persian 
invasion of Northern Greece in 492 B. C. under 

( xii ) 


the generalship of Mardonius, and of Attica in 
490 B. C, which ended with the defeat fl^f the 
Persians at the battle of Marathon on S/^t. 12 — 
490 B. C. 

Siddhartha Gautama ( the Buddha 563 — 483 
JB. C. ) entered into ^niroana' in 483 B. C. after 
a strenuous life of may years' preaching. In 
Mahavagga (1. 6 ; 1. 8 ) a very old Buddhist 
work of the fifth century B. C, we find descrip- 
tion of advanced medical treatment. 

But the Hindu influence over Greece even 
goes beyond that period. There is every reason to 
believe that the Dionysos orgies were the import- 
ed Soma-Siva cult from India. Dionysos is a 
Moon-god like Soma. He introduced wine-culture 
( and civilization ) into Hellas. The bull, the 
goat and the serpent are sacred to him. And he 
is represented like Siva, as accompanied by a 
leopard, and in Alexandrian time,riding on' a tiger 
{l^tiC2/c. Brit. Vol. VIII. p. 287). The Orphic reli- 
gion seems to be no less indebted to the same 
source. Abstinence from meat, fish etc., from ani- 
mal sacrifices, the wearing of a special, garment, 
the practice of austere asceticism, belief i% the 
transmigration of soul, and the soul will attain 
perfection, passing through various beings, and 
when it attains it, it will be free from rebirth — 

( xiii ) 


*the circle of generation' ( kyhlos geneseos ), as 
the I5y)dy is the bondage of the soul ( Ency Brit. 
Vol. XX. p, 328) — all these unmistakably indicate 
pre-Buddhistic Indian origin, whei^e these doc- 
trines have been indigenous, and are still 
believed by the multitude. Arthur Lille in his 
*Itama and Homer' argues that in the Ramay- 
ana, Homer found his theme for his great epics 
for the following reasons : (1) Like the two 
inseparable brotliers in the Ramayana, llama 
aTi'l Laksmana, in the story of Menelaus, 
thor<' are also two inseparable Greek 
brothers. (2) Rama and Laksmana liave been 
banislied by the conspiracies of a stepmother 
while the Greek brothers are banished from 
Argos by their usurping uncle Tliyestes. (3) 
Sita is born of a swan's e^^ ( Brahma's emblem ) 
in a furrow, Helen is also born from a swan's 
egg left by her mother, Leda, the swan, and 
Helen emerged from her egg in a 'yperwon' 
which means a furrow. (4) At tlie ^svaymvnra' 
Kama defeats all the competing princes, and 
Slta ohooses him as her husband, and in Greece, 
Men^laus is made to defeat all tiie competing 
prir/ces, and wins Helen, though neither a 
competing tournament for winning a bride, 
nor the choosing of a husband (svai/amvara) was 

( xiv ) 

customary in Greece, and tbey were time- 
honored institutions in India. (5) "Whilst E^ma 
is away, Sita is carried away to Laiika/across 
the sea ; likewise Helen is carried away across 
the sea to Troy. (6) Vibbtsana from a high 
hill points out to Rama the principal warriors- 
of the forces of RiLvana ; Helen points out to 
Priam tiie chief Greek captains, after nine 
years of war and who came to rescue her. (7) 
The arrows of E,avana and the arrows of Hector 
come back to their hand after their flight. (8) 
As Hanuman with a mighty shout daunts the 
whole of the army of Ravana, so Achilles with 
a mighty shout daunts the whole of the Trojan 
army. (9) The heavens rain blood as an omen 
of the coming death of Ravana, and when the 
favorite son of Zeus, Sarpedon, is about to die, 
Zeus and Hera see a shower of blood falling on 
the battle-field. (10) The Hindu besiegers 
fare badly in the early encounters and Kama 
proposes to bring the army back to India ; the 
Greek besiegers fare badly as well and 
Agamemnon proposes to carry the army back 
to Greece. (11) In the Ramayana the !lft,aksVsas 
are depicted to be as big as mountains ; M^ rs,, 
when thrown down by angry Pallus who flings 
a rock at him. covers seven acres with his 

( XV ) 



gigantic body. (12) In the Hindu epic, the 
gods aM the demons gather round to watch the 
crucial l)attles between the paramount 
chiefs E-ama and Ravana ; in the Iliad, the 
opposing gods also crowd round to watch the 
course of the battle, though the chiefs are not 
paramount, nor the encounter crucial. (13) 
Kuvera, the god of wealth, and ^iva, the god of 
death, throw dice ; in the Iliad, Jove suspends 
golden scales. (14) When Sita makes her 
determination to starve to death, Indra comes 
down and gives her the *amrta* — the immortal 
food ; when Achilles is of the same frame of 
mind, though he was not a Avronged party, Jove 
sends down Minerva with the ambrosia for him. 
(15) Vibhisana is the wisest denizen in Lanka ; 
Antenor has the same reputation in Troy. 
When Havana is about to kill Hanuman, the 
ambassador of Rama, Vibhisana remonstrates 
and saves his life ; when Menelaus and Odysseus 
came into Troy as ambassadors, they would have 
been killed, but for the intervention of Antenor. 
Vibhisana . advises Havana to give up Sita ; 
Antenc^ advises Paris to give up Helen. 
Vibhis'.Ana conspires against his country with 
the enemy, shows the enemies how to pass the 
sea, reveals the secrets of the ^chaitya^ of 

( xvi ) 

Nikumbhila ;A.nteaor also plots secretly against 
his own country, and advises Ulysses t6 seize 
the Trojan Palladium, and make the 'wooden 
horse. Vibhisana, after the death of his brother 
and the capture of the city, becomes the crowned 
king of Lauka ; Antenor founded a new 
kingdom out of the ruins of the old. (l6) E/araa 
is loaned by the supreme god, his chariot with 
the celestial charioteer — Matali, and the 
terrible missile ^Brahmasiras' which alone can 
kill the ravish er of Sita, and the fiend of the 
gods. Achilles, the avenging hero, not the 
wronged husband, is given the coat of arms 
from the anvils of Vulcan, the chariot with the 
deathless steeds of Jove, and the charioteer 
Automedon who alone can drive such steeds, 
but he lacks the terrible * arrow of Fhiloctetes' 
which alone can kill the ravisher of Helen, and 
instead of killing the foe, he is himself killed by 
that foe. (17) Inconsistency and the lack of unity 
of the Homeric plot, and the invulnerable 
logic and conclusion of Valmiki's story : cattle- 
stealing and wife-stealing being ^ Mien the 
prevailing custom in Hellas, and Helen^being 
carried off by a fop, and not a fiend of the^gods, 
it could hot have precipitated a war between 
two peoples. 

( xvii ) 

'JDhen the question arises as to the age of 
Sus'r^^ta and Charaka Sarnhitas, and that is very- 
hard to determine with any positive certainty. 
All that we know is that the great Buddhist 
scholar Nagarjjuna revised the old Sus'ruta, and 
added to it the supplementary section ( uttara- 
tantra ), IS agar jj una was a leading director 
-of Kaniska's Council that was held about 78 
A. D.. He salutes Susruta in the beginning of the 
work ( Susniia I. I ) with Brahma, Prajapati, 
the Asvins, Indra, and Dhanvantari. It must have 
taken centuries to have made Susruta a mythical 
figure, and to be classified with the gods. Charaka 
Is mentioned in the Chinese Buddhist chronicles, 
as the family-physician of the Indo-Scythian king 
Kaniska ( about first century A. D. ), and who 
attended at a difficult child-birth of his wife. 
But Charaka is a family name, and there is an 
old Tedic Charaka school, known as Kapisthala 
Charaka (I. 1. 3). The internal evidence of both 
"the works indicates . that they were composed in 
pre-Buddhistic times, though there are numerous 
interpolations of a later ase. The ' Sutra-sthana* 
( Section of General Principles ) and the metri- 
cal portions which are more or less explanatory, 
seem to be later additions. Not only do the prose 
versions resemble the Brahmanas in composition, 

(• • • • 

XVlll ) 

but all the gods also are post-Vedic, and the common 
use of meat, especially beef ( Charaka I. 2./<18 ; 
Susruta I. 46. 89 ), points out to apre-Buddhistic 
age. The osteological nomenclature used in 
Susruta is almost identical with that used in 
Atharva Veda (X. 2 ), and in the Satapatha 
Brahmana ( S. B. E. Vol. XLIV. p. 164 ). It is 
possible that the sage Yajnavalkya whose name is 
mentioned in the Brahmanas, and in association 
with the King Janaka, the reputed teacher of the 
'Vajasaneyi Samhita* ( the White Yajur-Veda), 
and the Law-book is the same person, and he 
lived about sixth century B. C. And the King 
Janaka of Mithila might have been known as 
^Kasi-raja* and Divodasa. It may be said that 
the Hindu medical science could not make such 
a rapid advancement from the primitive magic 
charms and sorceries of the Atharva-Veda period, 
which has been put at 1000 years B. C. It is 
true that the ^Ayu?'veda' (medical science) claims 
to be a branch of the Atharva-Veda, as the priest 
is the successor of the magician, and the medi- 
cine-man is a magician priest. But the Atharva 
Veda contains many of the oldest superstitions 
of the Indo-Dravidian masses, and they did 4iot 
become embodied in the E/g-Veda, simply because 
they represented the attitude of the masses rather 

( xix ) 

=than that of the nobility. And whenP^ disease 
hoary with age, they became entitlee^^^^^^^^y 

and became admitted in the sacred booP^" more 


raka is older than the Susruta, for in ^ ^^ ^^^^ 
description, physiological explanatior^®^^^^^ 
classification of subject-matter, in the i ^^ ^^ 
language and in the therapeutic techniqW;^ ic 
represents a more ancient school. As there are 
many passages that are common,it seems that they 
were borrowed by the latter from the former. 

In the following pages, I have tried to inter- 
pret and explain the Ancient Sindu Medicine 
principally based upon Charaka and Sus'ruta in 
modern medical terminology. Translation is an 
ungrateful task, especially of technical subjects, 
written nearly twenty-five centuries ago, their 
modes of expression being quite different from 
those of the present age. However, I have 
tried to be as careful and accurate as possible. 
The translation could be much improved bv 
transposition of words, or outstretching their 
meanings. I have preferred accuracy to dic- 
tion, ahfl I have often sacrificed, whenever it 
has ^ been necessary, a good literary form, to 
mai:e it as true to the original as possible and 
to reflect its meaning. 

Yet it is very likely that some of my inter- 

I ( XX ) 

pietations rray not find ready acceptance in 
inany ortlit^dox quarters. But sooner /it is- 
realized, ijj will be better for the communal 
* health, tlmt the ancient medical works can not 
S>':?rve us /to-day any other useful purpose than 
AtisuppKy rich materials for the cultural history 
^r-liib race. Its. prolific vocabulary might be 
also profitably utilized to create a National 
School of Medicine, for continuity of historic 
consciousness activates and acts as a stimulus for 
progress. And it is well to know and remember 
that many of the medical books before they 
come from the press need revision to be up-to- 
date, and most of them, before thev are ten. 
years old, are almost antiquated. Bacteriology, 
micro-biology, chemistry, bio-chemistry, non- 
irritant antiseptics, prophylaxis, serum-therapy,, 
organ o-therapy, skiagrapy and the mechanical 
appliances have completely revolutionized dur- 
ing the last generation in method and technique 
^the treatment and preventio7i of disease^'' which 
is the object of Medical Science {Susruta I. 1» 

12 ). Our very great achievements, 'in the 
past, which we have every reason to be pi'oud 
of, instead of inspiring us with the greatest eifyrts 
to lead in arts and sciences, should not mortgage 
our future to the Dead Fast. For a race that 
does not take the utmost care and the most 

( xxi ) 

advanced methods for the prevention of disease 
and the preservation of health, can not effectively 
compete in the struggle for existence, with more 
forward races, and succeed in the survival of the 
fittest. Health is tlie foundation of all wealth 
and progress. We can not afford to cling to an 
empty shell, carry the dead weight of the past 
on our back, sacrificing our future, unless we 
want to be counted with the extinct races. 

At the other extreme, there may be some 
who will contend that I have made a free ride 
on the wings of imagination, and there could 
not be such an advanced medical technique in 
the remote past. I want them to follow closely the 
original text. 1 suffer from no national 
hypnotism or megalomania. Exaggeration, on 
the other hand, I believe, is apt to lower the 
intrinsic value of a thing. Have I been sub- 
consciously influenced by the sense of the 
grandeur of the country, as an expression 
of suppressed or subdued patriotism ? I leave 
that for the readers to judge. I have always 
believed .that in ancientness — Egypt, in social 
polity T-China, in art — Greece, have nobler 
records of fundamental value than India can 
boast of. I admit, with all her faults, 
I love my country. I take pride and glory in 

( xxii ) 

her past achievements. Tremors of her new 
awakening from the slumber of centurifis, have 
sent me joyous thrills, made me vil^rant with 
emotions and intoxicating dreams. And I live 
to see that she will contribute her share, worthy 
of her past, promising of a bright and brighter 
future, to the advancement of Human Civiliza- 
tion, and take her leading place in science and 
culture, and in the Council of Nations. But 
when studying history, intellect should not and 
does not need to be influenced by a gamut of 
sentiments and feelinsrs. and can be left free to 
exercise its supreme prerogative to judge facts 
as they are on their own merit. I have tried to 
keep that attitude of my mind — not to corrupt 
my intellect with emotions. In studying the 
medical historv of India one should not be misled 

» 9 

by the prevailing pathetic condition, — lack of 
hygiene, vicious dietary of the rich and the poor 
alike, ignorance and ineptitude of the medical 
practitioners, and the credulity of the public, for 
progress is not always steady and continuous. 
Except in the application of the mechanical 
; developments and the appliances of machine 
power, modern nations have hardly made any 
further advancement in pure arts and literature 
than the Greeks. Medieval Europe, after the 

( xxiii ) 



destruction of the Greek States and the downfall 
of the^Roman Empire, sank deeper in superstition 
and ignorance. In medical science the name of 
Galen ( Claudius Galenus 130 — 201 A. D. ) 
remained as the only supreme authority in 
Europe up to the seventeenth century, and in 
the Saracen empire up to the fourteenth century. 
The Arabs formed an eclectic school of medicine 
out of the synthesis of the Greek and the Hindu 
systems. In India medical science had its 
highest expression under the Buddhist rule 
when the relief of pain, human as well as animal, 
was regarded as a state religious duty, and 
hospitals were built in every important locality 
for men as well as animals. In the famous 
Buddhist universities of Taksasila and Nalanda, 
there were thousands of students from all parts 
of India and Outer-India who went there to 
study medicine alone. With the downfall of the 
Buddhist states, and the dispersion of the monks, 
whose principal duties were to administer to the 
sick, the acquired knowledge virtually disappear- 
ed from India, and healing became the profession 
of the mendicants by magic charms and 
incantations, or of the quacks, charlatans and 

It is possible, however, that though I have 

( xxiv ) 

been careful in the selection of the equivalent 
scientific terms for the Sanskrit, a few/ minor 
ones may need revision. I have labored under 
great disadvantages. Though New York Libra- 
ries are splendid institutions, and grant liberal 
privileges and easy access to the books, there are 
very few books on Indian Medicine, and I have not 
been able to avail myself of any book on the 
subject. Moreover it is very hard to write 
competently for one individual on all subjects 
dwelt on in Charaka and Susruta Sarah itas, and 
as they are the product of a medical assemblage 
— the collected wisdom of the sages that gathered 
together from all parts of India, as the drugs 
clearly indicate, and Agnivesa and Susruta might 
have simply acted as secretaries (Charaka 
1. 1» 3), so their interpretation could be best 
done by a medical association with competent 
depaT'tmental heads on all subjects dealt with 
;in those works. Mine has been simply a 
pioneer attempt, knowing not whether this 
task has been undertaken by any efficient 
Indian medical organization, and I, have had 
to work single-handed, without any advice from 
any source. This, I understand, can te no 
excuse or justification for any misleading 
statement or false conclusion, and I shall be 

( XXV ) 

grateful to my readers to have them pointed, 
out. N 

Eor transliteration, I have used the following 
method : — 

3T=a ^=sk ^=d Jissm 

3rr=aora^=:kh s = dh ?T=ry 

5=1 *1 = g ^= n ?: s= r 

t = i i*, or i 51 =r gh ^ = t S = 1 

^=ru ;§:=n q=:th gs=v 

3»=uorugs=ch ^=sd ^=s 

I? =s e s ss chh ^=r dh ^ =s s 

^=ai 3T=:j ^ = n H=ss 

sftsrO 'Ksjh Tsrp ^=h 

sftsau 3T=rn <T;=rph *=ip 
3R[=r z=t ^=rb :=sh 

5S= 1 S = th ^= bh 

I regret very much that it will not be possi- 
ble for me to add an index to this book. This 
woris has already taken more than double of the 
time I anticipated it would require, and 
the pressure of other works does not permit 

( xxvi ) 

me to devote more time to it. Under these cir- 
cumstances, I beg leave to bring to a conclusion 
the arduous task, I so light-heartedly undertook. 

July 22—1922 
364 West 120th Street, C. CHAKRABERTY 

New York. 




The ancient Hindu physicians lacked pro- 
found and accurate anatomical knowledge. They 
have left more or less superficial, vague and 
imaginary description of the liuman anatomy, as 
found in their treatises, except in osteology. 
There is nothing astonishing in this. The Hindu 
medical science developed in the Buddhistic 
period for alleviation of physical sufferings. 
The Buddhists regarded all life as sacred. They 
naturally regarded with horror the idea of 
inflicting pain, and of depriving an animal of 
life for experimental medicine. In a tropical 
climate, as a hygienic measure, cremation of the 
dead has been ordained as a religious duty from 
misty antiquity. So there was no regular chance 
for human dissection and to acquire tlie exact 


knowledge of human anatomy. "Whatever tnow- 
ledge they acquired, they obtained it 
from personal observation and expSrience^ 
from caring for the wounded and disabled 
on the battle-tields, from a comparative 
study of the animal anatomy from the 
sacrificial animals in the pre-Buddhistic period. 
There is no record of the custom of human 
sacrifice, except the legend of Sunahsepa [Aitareya 
BraJimana, VII.3), as the act was repudiated by all 
presiding priests of the Kajastiya ceremony. If 
it was a mock-belief as a reminiscence of the 
remote past, it, however, clearly indicates that 
human sacrifice was no longer countenanced by 
the Vedic priesthood and was not practised in 
the post-Yedic Sutra period. Tlie students of 
siirgery were taught the technique of instrument- 
al operation on dead animals and vegetables, 
as water-melon, cucumber, pumpkin, gourds or 
skin-bags filled wdth water {Siimnita, I, 9. 2-5J. 
Under these circumstances, proficiency w^as not 

Neither in Greece Avas it better. In the time 
of Hippocrates, the anatomical kno.wledge was 
very defective and superfi.cial. No differentiation 
was yet made between the arteries and the Veins 
and both were called *phleps' — blood-vessels. 


Howe^ver, this distinction was made by Polybus^ 
but on the whole his anatomical and physiological 
knowleclge was erroneous. But Aristotle 
(B. C. 385-322) by his comparative study of 
animals, laid the foundation of positive anatomy 
and physiology. In his ^Ilistory of Animals,' he 
devotes two-fifths of the work, the first four 
books, to the structural constitution of animals. 
He synthesizes all the knowledge of the time on 
the subject and corrects many inaccurate and 
misleading impressions of his predecessors. But 
he confuses, like Charaka and Susruta, bones- 
with cartilage and ligaments. He had vague ideas 
about nerves {neura) and identified them with 
the tendons, arising from the heart and he 
regarded the aorta as tiie nervous vein {neurocles- 
phleps). And the human anatomy was not 
studied with experimental observation and 
dissection before the famous Alexandrian schools 
attracted the best intellects of the age under the 
patronage of Ptolemy Soter {B. C.323-282), 
Erasistratus and Herophilus were both celebrated 
anatomists of antiquity. They acquired a to- 
lerably soulid knowledge of the organs and 
their Junctions, not only by animal but also by 
human dissection and experimentation. Erasis- 
tratus found out that the nerves originated from 


the bTadn aad Heiophiliis distiiigtushed them' into 
those: of sKEisilioii and Tolantaxy motioii. Hero- 
philos also wrote a treadse on the liTer.^Trhich 
Galea has transaEuitled among his nmtmgs. Galen 
ilSO-200 JL J>,\ the reaUy accmate anatomist of 
■antiquilhr, went to Alexandria to stndy medicine 
under the fomous analomisit Heradianus, and 
Claiiii:. > us of Pergamum c»n be called 

th : - :v:ict medieal sdenoe by bis Tast 

^r V research and hk accoiate 

'w.„ _ . , - - . ; : j: < -1 :i - ii, :: i no wonder, for gen^a- 
f^^^-?. bis writings v ? held nncballenged 
-*ty both in E r ^ind Asia^ Tbe Arabic 
sc of medicine D^arded bim almost aa 


. odotos {£. C, ^^4-4^7) mentions in lis 
L. > :y IL S5, that the Egyptian medical pro- 
f essioiA WHS Tenr advanced and learned, and it 
specialiaed in dilfiarent diseases. But tbere is 
laothiQg 1^ bnt a fragment of paipjros of the 
sixt^entb centoiy B^ C. to indicate the extent of 
the medicil knowledge of the ancient Egyptians. 
J^si llnis papyrus^ it is found that the heart, 
ves^elSfe liTer, spleeo, kidneys, metezs and bladder 
wexe Fdoosniaed and the blood T^sek came fitom 
the bexrt. Ibesr Tassels are d^^bed, some 
^uriyiDg air, some mucus, while two to the 


right ear are mentioned to cnrrv tlie breatli of 


life iwd to the left ear, the hreath of deatli.. 
(Journal ofAnatomi/ and Physiology, vol. XXXIL 
P. 775). Even in tlie third millennium B. C. th& 
Babylooians possessed quite to a praise-worthy 
extent the knowledi^e of the liver which they 
regarded as the seat of life. The Chaldeans 
used the liver of the sacrificed sheep for the- 
divination of events. In tlie code of Hammurabi- 
about 1900 B. C. it seems that the Babvlonian 
medical art had already attained a marvellous^ 
efficiency, as the operation on the eye is men- 
tioned with bronze lancet as a regular profes- 
sional daily business. And a successful eye> 
operation is not possible without a thorough 
anatomical knowleds:e of its structure. 








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"With teeth, sockets of teeth and nails, there 
are altogether 360 bones in the whole of t\if.(htim(m}' 
body. As the following : — sockets of teeth 32 ; 
nails 20 ; long bones of hand and feet 20 ; their 
bases 4 ; bones of fingers 60 ; heels 2 ; bases of 
the feet 2 ; wrist bones 4 ; ankle-bones 4 ; in 
the fore-arms 4 ; in the leg 4 ; knee-caps 2 ; 
elbow-pans 2 ; in the thighs 2 ; in the arms 2 ; 
collar bones 2 ; shoulder-blades 2 ; palate bones 
2 ; the pelvic ring 2 ; ilium 1 ; sacrum 1 ; 
coccyx 1 ; back-bone 35 ; neck-bones 15 ; trachea 

1 ; jaw bones 2 ; bases of the jaw bones 2 ;, 
parietal 2 ; malar 2 ; nasal bones 3 ; ribs ; 24 ; 
thoracic ribs 24 and sockets of the ribs 24 and 
altogether on the sides 72 bones ; temporal bones 

2 ; frontal craniun 4 ; breast bones 17 ; altogether 
three hundred and sixty bones."Cha'raka IV.7.4.1 

1. Charaka IV. 7. 4 cfif^ ^ferf^^lf'T aRTT'^T^t ^f ^5^^^^,^^'*. 1 

^r<^qT?3r7rnjfT:, '^c^Mif^-^pf.^wt, =^^tk qifw^r^rl^, i5tf%^^- 
f^^^p^cf^ T?T%, i^^Tcrrm tTgr^'^w, i:i^^5n^i1% ^l^rat, f 


*• According to the medical men, there are 
360 bones, but in surgery 300 bones are enumer- 
ated. Qf these 300 bones, in the branches, 
that is in both the arms and feet, there are 120 ; 
in the pelvic region, back and the breast, there 
are 120 ; and above the trunk 63 : altogether 
there are 300 bones in the human body. 

"EoUowing are the 120 bones in the branch- 
es : — at every finger of the foot, there are 3 — 
so 15 ; the foot-support {77ietatarsus) ^ the ankle- 
bones and their base 10 ; heel 1 ; in the leg 2 ; 
in the knee-cap 1 ; in the thigh 1 ; so in one 
foot there are 30 bones : so in the other foot 
and arms. 

"In the pelvis 5 as coccyx, ilium, pubis 4 
and sacrum 1 ; ribs 32 one side and the same 
on the other ; back-bones 30 ; in the breast 8 ; 
shoulder-blades 2. 

•'In tlie neck 9 ; in the wind-pipe 4 ; jaw- 
bones 2 ; teeth 32 ; in the nose 3 ; palate 1 ; 
malar temporal and ear bones 2 each ; in 
the cranium G." Susruta III. 5. 17-20. '' 

Susruta III. 5. 17-'-^0 ^tf<!J ^R^1^p!?mcTTf^ t^^tTf^'Tf W^ff\ I 

^■^ II ^^ 

^^jii% vTeff^ I , q:^%cK^^f^5fi^ ^ ^\m\^ II \^ 


"The bones of the hand are 27 ; of th^ feet 
4 ; of the neck ujd to the grand {bach-hone — 
shoulder blades) 7 ; pelvis 5 ; back-bon'es 20 ; 
the head with eyes 8 ; in total 91 with the nails 
111. As to man, the hones we have ourselves 
learnt to know are : — the back-bones above 
collar-bones with the grand (shoulder-blades) 7 ; 
the back-bones as well as those of the sides {inbs 
12 ; the back-bones that go farther the ribs in 
the pelvis 5.") Hippocrates : The Nature of 
Bones, I. {Peri osteon physios). 

From the above comparative table, it is 
evident that the Hindu anatomists, especially 
the Susruta school, had a tolerably sound know- 
ledge of osteology. The discrepancies in the 
figures are due to the fact that the Hindus 
counted the processes, cartilaginous structures 
and the teeth as bones. But they classified the 
bones into five kinds according to their nature 
of constitution. {Susruta III. 5. SI). The nails — 
the epidermal formations were dismissed by 
Susruta as bones. If the teeth were counted 
in the skeleton, it is because the teeth are bone- 
like, hard and strong. Histology is '^a recent 
science and it could not be known in ancient 
times that tooth is a calcified papilla of the 
mucous membrane. If the cartilages, especially 


the V?ostal cartilages of the ribs have been 
counted as the bones, it is because in the 
embryo^aic state all the bones are in cartilagi- 
nous condition and in certain diseases, the 
costal cartilages become ossified. Sus'ruta counts 
30 as the dorsal and the lumbar vertebrae, for 
the reasons that the spinal column really consists 
of 33 irregular bony segments of wliich the 
upper 24i are separated during life by discs of 
spinous cartilaginous articular processes, and 
are therefore called "true" or "movable" 
vertebrae, in distinction from the lower 9 whicli 
are called the "false" or **fixed" vertebrae, for 
they become consolidated into the sacrum and 
the coccyx. The Hindu anatomists counted 
the constituent bones of the sacrum and the 
coccyx as separate bones as well as the spinous 
processes, belonging to the vertebrae. While 
the modern anatomists designate as vertebra 
the upper 24 loose bones, consisting of the 
*C(}rvicar 7, 'dorsal' or 'tlioracic' the succeeding 
12, and the 'lumbar' the lower 5. The Hindu 
anatomists enumerated the cervical vertibrae 
as the 'griya' or neck bones, adding also to it 
the hyoid bone. In the wind-pipe (kanthanal'i) 
tlie 'four cartilages — cuneiform, arytenoid, 
thyroid and cricoid, were counted as bones. The 


breast-bone is given by Susruta to be 8, f/>r be 
iucludes among the breast-bones the 2 collar 
bones and as the sternum really consi'sts of 
three parts, the 'manubritim* which usually 
remains separate throughout life from the rest 
of the bone, the cartilaginous 'metasternum* 
and the *corpus sterni' or 'mesosternum' which 
is formed by the fusion in early life of four 

So if we try to identify the nomenclature 
and designation of the ancient Hindu and the 
modern systems of osteology, it becomes clear 
that the Hindus had acquired a sound knowledge 
of the human skeleton. And the term 'skeleton' 
[from the Gr. sheletos = dried) is applied to 
the parts which remain after the softer tissues 
of the body have been disintegrated or removed 
and includes not only the bones ,but also the 
cartilages and ligaments which bind them 
together ( Cunningham : Ancdomy, p. 67). In 
tliis generic sense the Hindus described their 
bony frame-work, but classified the bones 
into five kinds according to their composition 
as fiat (kapcUa)^ tooth (7'iichaka)^ tende^r (tmnma), 
strong {halaya] a,nd liollow (nala/ca) bones. 

(3) "Tliese bones are of five kinds as thefo*ilow- 
ing: — 'flat' bones, 'tooth' bones, *tender' bones, 


J^strong' bones and 'hollow' bones. The bones of 
the kn^e, pelvis, shoulder, malar, palate and the 
head are flat bones. The teeth are ot' 'tooth' bones ; 
the nose, ear, neck and tlie eyesockets are of 
'tender' bones. Those of the hand, foot, sides, back 
and breast are of 'strong' bones. The rest of the 
bones are 'hollow'." SusriUa III. 5. 21. ^ 

11. Arthiiology. 

In Arthrology^ that is, in the description of 
the articulations or joints ( Sandhi ), Susruta 
shows also remarkable accuracy. "Joints are 
of two kinds — 'movable' {diarthroses) and un- 
movable (amphiarthroses.). In the four branch- 
es (hands and feet)^ in the jaw-bones and the 
loin, the joints are movable and the rest of the 
joints, the wise should regard as permanent (that 
is, of partial or incomplete movement). 

"There are 200 joints in the body. Of them 
68 are in the four extremities, 59 in the trunk 
and 83 above the shoulder (that is, in the neck 
and the head). 

— » . ■■ — ■-- — — ' 

'B'^I^ II ^l Susruta III. 5, 21« 



"In every toe there are 3,except the grekt to© 
(correspondino;- to the thumb) which has two jo- 
ints, thus 14(4 X ?, + 2 = 14). The knee, ankle and 
hip has eacli a joint. So one foot has 17 joints ; 
the other foot likewise, as well as both the arms. 

"In the pelvis 3 ; in the spinal column 24 ; 
in the sides {ribs) 54 ; in the breast 8 ; in the 
{vertehral-cervical) neck 8 ; in the trachea 3 ;. 
in the conjunction joints of the heart and lungs 
lS{hrdai/aklomanibacIdha); in the sockets of teeth 
32 ; 1 in the thyroid cartilage {kakalaka) and one in 
the nose ; 2 bettveen the eye-sockets and the eye- 
balls {dvauvartmamandalau netrasrayaii). In the 
malar, temporal and the ears 6 ; in the jaw bones 
2 ; on the top of tlie brows 2 ; in the craniun 5 
and 1 in the forehead. 

"These joints are of eight kinds as: — gynglym- 
oid (kora — a hinge joint), enarthrodial (tidukhala = 
mortar-like in shape ball-and-socket joint)^ 
enarthrodial {samudgarzcu^-\\\ni), costo-vertebral 
(|>ra^<2ra= raft-like), circular (mandala)^ sutural 
{ttmnasevan'l= ^^^\\ng) and ^^vci'^hy^io, {conch-shell 
like) joints. Intcrphalangeal {gynglymns-&{m^\Q 
hinge joints, surrounded by a capsule), radio- 
carpal {condyloid-ellypsoidal), the ankle-joint 
{gynghjmus), the knee-joint {c)ynglymus)y the elbow- 
joint {gynglymus) are all 'kora'\ the shoulder-joint 


{enarth7'odial-ball-and-socket-joinf), the hip-joint, 
(enartlirodiar), teeth-sockets [sy fiarthrodial-imm ov~ 
able ?)^aYea,lViidukhala ; the sterno clavicular joint 
{diai'th'odial'fveely movable), sacro-iliac joint (Ji- 
arth7'odial)^sjm])hysis pubis {amphidiarthrodiul-^ 
a combined gliding and hinge joint), and lumbo- 
sacral joints {amphidiarthrodial) are ?i\\{sdmudga) \ 
cervical, dorsal and lumbar vertebral joints 
(limited amphidiarthrodial) are ^pratara' ; the tem- 
poral and the cranium joints (sutural) are tutma- 
sevanl ; trachea, heart, eye and lung-joints are 
mandala ; the ear and the nose joints (symphysic) 
are sankhavartta. According to the shape of the 
joints nomenclature has been fixed. Only the 
joints of the bones have been described. The 
joints of the muscles, nerves and arteries are 
countless". Susruta III. 5. 23-29^* 

3a. 3nw^ ^^ ^R^r^ =C^T^^^ ^^^\ I 

«yi<94ici1 II lai 



III. Myology 

In myology, the muscular system, thougli 
Susruta at first appears to be fantastical and 
vague, yet by comparative study, it can be easily 
seen that notwitlistanding imperfection and 
clumsiness, there is some fundamental truth in 
the statement. Sasruta mentions 500 muscles 
{pesL) wliile Steadman's Medical Dictionary 
gives the names of 427 muscles. It is possible 
that Susruta duplicates many continuous 
muscles and omits many deep-underlyingmuscles, 
especially of the upper part of the body. 

Muscles accoi'ding Muscles according to 

to Susruta. Cunningham's 


I, The Lower Exremity 
Toe 3x5 = 15 3^ 

Pore foot 10 7 

Ankle & Sole 10 9 

Heel 10 2 tendons and 

2 ligaments. f 25 

Leg 20 12 

Knee 5 3 tendons and - 

4 ligaments. J 

■ Leg and foot 



Thigh • 






Groin "* 



and 2 lio-a- 



II. The Trunk of the Bodv 

Pelvic region 3 

Spermatic cord 1 

Testes 2 

2 Ischio-coccygeus anp 
Levator Ani ; but the 
'Levator ani' is divisible 
into 4 parts. 
1 Erector 1~] Perineum 12 

1 Spermatic cord passing 
i throus'h 'cremaster*^ 









. 7 




Thorax "j 


Dartos muscle in 


Compressor TJrethrae 

!> Anterior muscles of 
3 I the Trunk 19 


16 There are 16 super- 
ficial and and 15 deeper 
muscles in the back. 



Heart and Colon 2 

3 myocardium and mas- 
culi papillares tunica 
muscularis (colon). 

in. The Neck and the Head. 

The back n 




eck 4 
2x4 = 8 




Front neck 





and Steruo-hyoid. 
or 8. The'extrinsic mus- 
cles' : genio-glossus,hyo- 
glossus, styloglossus and 
palato-glossus. The 'in- 
trinsic muscles' : supe- 
^rior lingualis, inferior 
lingualis, transverse fi- 
bres andvertical fibres. 
The mouth 11 (eleven) 

The top of the 

he;)d 1 


Ear 2 


2-1-2=4 10 

1x2 — 2 7 in the orbit and 4 in the 

4 Eront- \ 
alis 1 

2 Occipi- 
talis and 

Trapezius2 ^ 

The scalp 6 

Epicranial Aponeurosis 



)lY. The Female Reproil active Organs 

Mammae 5x2 = 10 5 Pectoralis major, serra- 

tus magnus, liga- 
ments of Cooper, apo- 
neurosis and recto 
abdominis muscles. 

Vagina 2 + 2 = ^ 2 + 3 = 5 Tunica muscularis, 

rugae vaginales, and 
(common bulbo caver- 
nesus, sphincter ani, 
extern eus levator ani 
and erector clitoridis 
^ erector penis). 

Uterus 3 3 Ligamentum latnmi 

uteri (broad ligament), 
ligamentum teres 

uteri (round ligament) 
and the muscular 
'corpus uteri'. 

Pallopian tube 3 3 Tunica muscularis, 

ligamentum ovarium 
proprium and meso- 

"adhere are 500 muscles [pesl]. 400 of them 
are in the 4 extremities, 66 in the trunk, and 34 
^bove the shoulder (in the neck and the head). 


**Tlie toes { imdahgull ) of each foot have 15 
muscles, having 3 muscles for each toe ;, 10 in 
the fore-foot {padagre) ; 10 in the heel {hurch- 
cJia) ; in the ankle and the sole (gulpha-talayoh) 
10 ; between the ankle and the knee {gulpha- 
janvantare = Ieg) 20 ; 5 in th^ knee (janu) ; 20 in 
the thigh {uru) ; 10 in the groin (vanJcsana) : 
thus in one foot there are 100 muscles ; so in 
the other foot and the two arms. 

*'In the j)elvis {payn) 3 ; in the penis {medhre) 

1 ; in the spermatic cord {sevcm'i) 1 ; in the 
testes (vrsmi)' 2 ; in the buttocks (spJiicha) 5 
each ; in the upper part over the bladder 
{vasti-sirasi) 2 ; 5 in the stomach (udara) ; 
in the navel {nabhi) 1 ; in the upper back {prsth- 
ordha) 5 longitudinal {muscles) on each side ; in 
the sides(of the spinal column =parsvci)Q ; 10 in the 
breast (Vaksa) ; in the shoulder (aJcsahamsa) 7 ; 

2 in the heart and colon {hrdayamasaya) ; 6 in 
the spleen, liver and the lower intestine {yahft- 
pllha-imdul'a = abdomen). 

*'In the back part of the neck {grlvct) 4 ; 8 
in the jaws {hamt) ; in the thyroid .cartilage 
{kakalaJca) 2 ; in the palate {tahi) 2 ; in the 
tongue {jihva ) 1 ; in tlie cheeks 2 ; in the ^nose 
(ghona) 2 ; 2 in the eyes {netra)-^ in the front 
neck {gan a) 4 ; in the two ears {karna) 2 ; 4 in 



tlie forehead {lalata) , and 1 {one) on the top of 
the head {mrasi). 

*'A woraan has 20 more muscles than man : 
10 in the two mammse {sterna) at 5 each, which 
are developed in adolescence ; in the vagina 
{apatyapatha) 4. two in the entrance and two in 
the interior ; in the uterus {garhha-cchidrd) 3 
and in the fallopian tuhes {sukrm'ttava-pravesa)^^ 
the muscles are 3. 

"According to the position, the muscles are 
grouped together {oahula), isolated {pelava), 
thick {sthula)^ thin {stihsma), extensive {prthii)^ 
glohular {vrtta= tendon), short (/^r«s?;a), long- 
cylindrical {dlrgJia), hard {sthira), soft {mfdu), 
smooth {slahsm = nn^tYmted, that is primitive 
involuntary muscles), striated (lY^^'A-^sa-^oluntary 
muscles with transverse stripes), and they cover 
the joints, bones, arteries and nervous fibres 
according to their respective needs. 

"The muscles that have been mentioned 
of men in their penis and testicles, cover in 
women their interior reproductive organs." 

: Susrtffa til. 5. 37-45/ 

4. TT^ ^T^hjfiTf^ vr^f^ I cfT€t ^c^rft 5TcfT(% ^jw^ I ^"s ^s^^fe: i 


Tlie difference betu'een Sus'ruta's 500 muscles 
and Stedman's 427 muscles, which if counted 
separately like Susi'uta on both sides of the 
body Avould amount to nearly 800 muscles, 
can be easily accounted for by the fact that 
not only the modern classification and nomen- 
clature of tlie muscles are different from the 

"^ ^T<«IIcft II ^c 


^^T^i§sT Trrs\if{ xf,^^7^il^ f% cfi: ii ay^ ii 



vancicn't Hindu system, but Susruta did not 
include^the tendons {mamsa-rajj ii) and ligaments 
{s'imanta) in the muscular order. It is evident 
from close comparative study that the Susruta 
school ot anatomv had tolerablv sound know- 
ledi^e of the human muscular system for all 
practical purposes. 

Sns'ruta mentions 14 joints of more than 2 
bones {samghata) which are held together by 
a band or sheet of fibrous tissue, which he calls 
*siincmta that is ligament. He enumerated 
them in the following junctions : — "Three are 
in each foot at the ankle ( a joint of iihia^ 
flbida and astragalus, held together by, — anterior 
tvbio-jibular ligament^ posterior tihio-fihular lig., 
taXo-iihulare anterias, calcaneo-jibulare, talo- 
fihidare 'posterius and ligamentnm deltoidenm)^ 
at the knee (a joint of i\\Q femur, tibia, capped 
by the patella, lield together by ligamentum 
patellae, lig. Posticum JVinsloioii, lig. collater- 
ale tibiale, lig. collaterale jibulare and ligamenta 
eruciata genii), at the hip-join t (of ^\^ femur, ilium 
and pubi>s, held together by lig. Transversum 
ncetabuli, 'lig. iiio-femorale, lig. fuhofemorale^ 
lig. fischlo-capsulare, and lig. teres femoris) ; 
so in th(} arns at the wrist (a radiocarpal 
articulation between the radius and the 


scapJwid^ semilunar and cuneiform hones; held 
toi^etlier by the external lateral ligament, 
internal lateral ligament, anterior and i^osterior 
ligaments), at the elbow ( a joint of 
Jaimerus, radius and ulna, held together 
by the ante7Hor and poste^nor ligaments, lig. 
collaterale ulnar and lig. collaterale radiale\_ 
and at the arm-pit (the slioulder-joint 
of tlie head of tlie humerus, glenoid fossa of 
scapula and the coracoid iwocess, held together 
by labrumglenoidale, capsula articularis and liga- 
mentum coraco-liumerale). Accoding to others, 
there are 18 (ligaments). The above-mentioned 
14, one at the pelvis (sacro-iUac joint of sacrutn^ 
ilium and pubis, held together by lig. sacro-iliaC' 
um anterus, lig. saerb-iliacum postonis hreve^ lig. 
sacro-iliacum posterns longu^n, lig. ilio-lumhale, 
lig. sacro-tiiberosum . lig. sacro-spinosu7n, lig. 
pubicum posteri7is,an terius,superius and inferius^^^t 
the upper-breast (sterno-claviciilar \pm\. of the ster- 
num -da^di clavicles held together by Zi^. stei'no-clavi- 
C7flaris and lig. rhomholdale) and the lower-breast 
{steimo-costal ]Qmi^ of the sternum and the seven 
costal cartilages held together by lig.' costo-ster- 
nalium radiatum, ligg. sterno-costalia interarticu" 
laria) and at the neck (scapulo-clavicular joint 
held together by lig. coraco-claviculare, lig^ 



^onoicleum and lig. trajoezoideum). Susruta III. 
5. 15-1@= 

It is very likely that Susruta by 'simanta* 
means only the synovial capsule and the mem- 
brane which are usually found at the joint of 
more than two bones and which he calls 'sam- 
ghdta\ By tlie general term 'saudhi' he has 
designated the articular joint and which he has 
enumerated as 210 and tlie fibrous band which 
binds the bones at the joints together (ligament) 
and the muscles to the bones {tendons,) whether 
it is ligamentous or tendonous, he calls by the 
common designation 'snayu*-'io bind' and which 
he describes to be nine hundred (///. 5. 30,) 
And the large and strong tough fibrous longi- 
tudinal bands and chords are called ^Jcandara\ 

^^Kan^aras are 16 : 4 in feet {tendo acMli^ in 
the leg and semimarbransus tendon in the thigh), 
4 in the arms {supinator longus tendon in the 
forearm, and the semilunar or hiceptial fascia 
tendon in the arm,) 4* in the neck {sterno-oleido- 
mastoid tendon^ memhrana tectora^ memhrana 
atlanto-oecipitalis posterior^ lig .cruciatam atlantis 



with cms siiperius and infejnns), 4 in the 
spinal column (lig. lorigitucli'.iale anterms^ li(j. 
lonyitudinale posterms, Iki.flavum^ and lig. 
supraspinale). The terminals of the "kandaras of 
the hand and feet are in the nails ; tliose of the 
neck passing through the heart terminate in the 
sexual organ (medhra) and those of the spinal 
column passing through the pelvis terminate in. 
the pubis." Susruta III. 5. 10. '^ 

c ' . Ligameuts 

Susruta nT ■, 


1. The Extremities. 

Toe 5x6-30 27 + 5 = 32 Palmar hand 

lig collateralia and svno- 
vial membrane at each 
interphalangeal joint, 
2 in each toe and 1 in the 
large toe(^ x 4 + i = 5)and 
5 dorsal extensor tendons. 
5 Four ligaments and one 

svnovial membrane 
5 Pive tendons. 
28 18 intratarsal ligg. and 
10 s. membrane. 


Leff 30 28 


Thidi 40 34 


Hip-joint 10 8 + 1 = 9 
Knee-joint 10 7 + B = ]0 
150x4 = 600 

«»-■ . ■ — — — ■ ■ ■ 





The Trunk. 






71 Lig. 


lig. siipra-spinalia, lig. 
flava— vel subflava and 
synovial membrane for 
each of the 12 thora- 
cic and 5 lumbar verte- 
brae and 3 common lio^a- 
ments for all. 
Sides 60 72 Lig. capituli costae radia- 

(24 ribs) turn, lig. capituli costae 

interarticulare and syno- 
vial membrane for each 
of the 24i costo-vertebral 
SO 56 Lig. costo-sternalium 
radiatum, lig. costo- 
xiphoidea, lig, sterno- 
costal ia interarticularia 
and the posterior costo- 
' sternal ligament for each 

of the l4 ribs (7 pairs) 




III. The Neck and the Head. ^ 

Neck 36 52 4 Ligaments for ''each of 

the 7 cervical vertehrae, 
sterno-clavicular 1 2 and 
acromo-clavicular liga- 
ments 12. 

Head 3l< 31 Occipito-atloid joints 2 

and each is provided with 

70 8 ligaments, membrana 

atlanto occipitalis anteri- 
or, membrana occipitalis 
posterior, membrana 
tectora, lig. cruciatum 
atlantis, lig. alaria, lig. 

apicis dentis, capsular 

Total 900" ligament and synovial 

membrane ; atlo-axoid 
joints are three, eacli 
supplied with 5 liga- 
ments, lig. trans ver sum 
atlantis, capsular, anteri- 
or and posterior atlo- 
axoid ligaments and 
synovial membrane. 

Susnita III, 5, 30— 32« 



It will be noticed that there is a marked dis- 
crepancy between the two figures. And it may- 
be due to the different methods of calculation 
and classification, or it is possible that by 'snayu* 
Charaka and Sus'ruta meant something entirely 
different from the ligament and the tendon. The 
general tendency of the Sanskrit scholars is to 
regard ^snayiC as nerve. But this is contradicted 
by its etymological derivation from *sm' or *si\ 
to bind and the Susruta mentions 210 joints, 
but does not say anything anywhere else 
of the binding material that holds them 
together excepting of 14 *simanta^ at the junc- 
tion of more than two bones (samghata). He 
could not possibly omit to mention the binding 
material of the rest of the joints, when he has 
been minute in every other detail. And more- 
over the internal evidence tends to prove that 
he meant by ''snayu\ ligaments and tendons as 
he says : — *'Smi/tis are of four kinds — branching 
(pratmiavatt), globular (vrtta), extensive (prthti) 
and perforated (susira.) The 'snayns' in the four 
branches aijd joints are branching ; 'kandm^as' 
(the large snayus) are globular; the ^siiayus' of the 
anterixir parts of the stomach, intestine and the 
bladder are perforated ; the *snaytis' of the sides, 
breast, back-bone and the head are extensive. 



"As a boat of wooden planks well tied by 
many knots, can bear the weight of aninials and 
goods in water, so a man can carry weight as his 
joints are knotted together by *S7iayus\ The body 
does not suffer as much by the destruction of the 
bones, muscles or joints as by the destruction of 
^snayus*. The physician that knows well the 
internal and superficial ^snayus' can only extract 
from the body, the deeply impregnated missiles", 
"Susmta III. 5. 34r36."' 

"The flesh (of the body) being tied to the 
bones by vascular system and *snayt{s\ do not 
tear out and fall down". Susruta III. 5. 22. ' 

^T*Hi<*'iaiiii«%i wt ^ ^fro: ^^ I 

HKW?TT *?%q,l ^m ^?TTt%cTT II 

^:^% sif^Tsf^jR ^■[^ri\•. ^73m\ ^^', \ 
wT^fiT^fk'V^T vrR^r?T ^Tj\ II 

w. ^ra : irf%3irfTrfcf ^raww^rKreM i 

€ '^^' ai^JTm TfT^^tf^ tf%^ 11^^ 

8. iTt^psm fiT^^Tf^ famfk: ^igf^T^Hn I 



IV. — The Vascular System. 

The vascula7^ system (^im = tubular vessel) is no 
less difficult, rather more so, as it defies all hu- 
man ingenuity to describe it in tabulated figures 
Eor the arteries bifurcate into branches and 
twigs, and spread out all over the body in infinite 
shape and size ; the veins commence at the ter« 
minations of the capillaries and as they converge 
towards the heart, they form larger and still 
larger vessels, uniting with one another until 
finally seven large trunks empty their contents 
into the auricles of the heart ; likewise the lym- 
phatic and the nervous networks. Hardly two 
vessels are of equal length, size, shape and di- 
mension in two different parts of the body. 
Therefore any comparison is necessarily to be 
more or less of guess-work. In the following table 
only the large and distinctive longitudinal vessels 
have been counted from the * Atlas of Applied 
Topographical Anatomy^ of Karl von Bardeleben 
and Heinrich Haeckel and the *Begional Ana- 
tomy* of George Mo Clellan. It seems that Sus'ruta 
includes'the nervous net-work in the vascular 
system which he divides into four classes, nervous 
( Voita — air ), venous ( pittaAdWQ ), lymphatic 
( /feapAct-phlegm ) and arterial ( raHavaha-sira- 
blood-carrying vessel ). The identification of the 


^vata^ pitta, kapha and raktavaha sb^as* wu-h the 
■nervous, venous, lymphatic and arterial systems 
is not far-feclied and fanciful. For Sus'ruta 
says : — "Tbe'yaifa'-carrying vessels are of tawny 
or light-golden-brown ( mnma) colour, and are 
tilled witli air; */)?'^/a '-carrying vessels are all 
warm and of blue {n'ila) colour ; 'kapha^ bearing 
vessels are cool and of white ( sveta ) colour ; the 
blood-carrying vessels are of red ( lohita ) colour 
and are neither warm nor cold." III. 7. 13*''. 

"There are seven hundred tubular vessels : as 
gardens by water-conduits and fields by canals are 
irrigated and nourished, so by the irrigating 
and draining action of the 'siras* the body is 
nourished and sustained. As the midrib of a 
plant -leaf gives off laterally countless veins, so 
from the main (siras) small and smaller branches 
spread out." Susruta iii. 7, 2\ 

Sa. cT^re'nr ^m^i: ^^ ^^ fsro: i 





n:j ' — < 

•^ • •v • 


O ^ r-< 


•^ ^^ 


•^ 5^. 


CB ~ -fcb 

o •— "te 

r:3 o 
vT'c:) c! 
o =; 

3 -i-j ■ "^ 

• 1— 1 cc aj 

?; g o 

-t-^ ^ 

7 c^ o 

8 bo 




o S g 

•73 U ^ 



m O 


o ce f*^ 






'7* -'-' 


'=4-1 .^ C3 
+^ "H 



^2 6C 


<4— • 

• 1— 1 

C/3 r- O 

^ •IT' c3 

S Sg IXh 







'"' CO rf 


a; P2 :h 


r— I 






s Arteries 

The Four 








f-i "^ ^ xO 

'-5 cc 



I— 1 



>^ 1^ CO 

52 a 






l>- CO 



i-l -^ CO ^ 


!:! 5h 



U C 





C5 ■ 


rH ^ !>• O 





u • 














fH c^«C C5 

r ; Veins 
: arteria 










2^ w 

4) O 

-g 2 

<4 O) 

• I-H 

1— H 






^ <D bo 

O t- CO p 

CU c3 O O 




H^ ^ 


"The nervous {vdta), the venous ( jol/^« ), 
lymphatic (kapha) vessels are 175 each as well as 
the arterial (blood-carrying slras) passing the liver 
and the spleen. Thus seven hundred 'siras^ 
spread out all over the body. In one foot, there 
are 25 nerve-vessels ; likewise in the other foot 
and each of the arms. There are 3i nerve-vessels 
in the trunk of the body : in the pelvic region 8, 
in the sides 2 each, in the back 6, and in the 
breast 10, above the shoulder, there are 45 : 
in the neck 14, in the two ears 4, in the 
tongue 9 and both the eyes 8. Thus l75 nerve- 
vessels are described. And this description also 
corresponds to that of the venous, lymphatic and 
the arterial (blood-carrying) vessels, with this 
exception that instead of 8 nerve-vessels in 
the eyes and 4 in the ears, there are 10 (in 
the eyes) and 2 (in the ears) of the venous, 
lymphatic and blood-carrying (arterial) vessels." 
Susrttta III. 5. 7. 5-7 ^^ 



Thut the heart was the centre of the circu- 
latory Jtystem, of the hlood, was well understood 
by Susnita (1. 14. 3-()) and according to Charaka 
it has 10 out-going {a?'ferlal) and in-coming 
{venous) trunk-vessels (1. 30. 1). 

"Though chyle [rrtsa] circulates all through- 
out the body, its principal centre is tlie heart 
{hrdaya). That chyle in 24 tubular vessels, 10 
upwards, 10 downwards and 4< sideways, enters 
into every part of the body, irrigates and main- 
tains its growth, vitalizes and supports life 

Though chyle is aquatic in nature but in its 
passage through the liver and the spleen, it be- 
comes blood. Susruta 1. 14. 3-5.^^ 

^T^ %gqt: 1 ir^ctfr iT^^^sif^^ajct ^TcRlTTt fw^t siT^TfW IK 

^^ i^ fwni: ^T^T^tf^ I f^^ci^ fqrT^^ %^?'5i, ^'n'qlf i 

Tli, ?:^^T: *i*=<^I^ I ^^cTlf^ ^TT f3!TT3raTf*T ^raHTITf^ aTT^^ncnr^T ll-Q 

^fiprgrT^ra^'n: m({4 w\TM%v^m^f?[ ^^% v(\T^m ?iFraf^ 

40 ANCIENT hin;du medicine 

*'Iii the heart there are ten great out-going: 



[mahamida] and in-coming [mahaphalalftu.h\xlar 
vesseles [dhamam].'' Charaka 1. 30. l^^''. The ten 
great vessels are the seven main trunk veins and 
three arteries as follows : (l) superior vena cava, 
[2] interior vena cava, [S] coronary sinus, [i-7] 
vena jiulmonalis ; [8] left pulmonary artery, [9] 
aorta, [10] right pulmonary artery. 

"Below the heart, on the left side the liver 
and the lung, and on the right side, the spleen and 
the lung, are situated.'^ S^ismta III. 4. 30^-. 

According to Charaka the skin consists of six 
strata (IV. 7. 2)^" hut Susruta more accurate- 
Iv describes them to be seven. III. 4. 3^*. 

w^f^H ^^ip:iiTriT ^^^^rf% ^r^r^^riiTTf^ ^% q^ -^^ ^mv, 

14. c?^ W'i'^lfFri^ TS*aiir<Uci4f<|{iR=gjfri5ra =fi^<^ ^^f^l^T: «Tf 


Siu'ruta Strata of the skin according to 

Modern anatomy 

Avbhasini f Stratum corneum 

Lohita m^ I Stratum intermedium! Stratum 

Sveta S I Stratum disjuuctum i lucidum 

Tamra ^ •{ Stratum granulosum 

Vedini ^ 

Rohini P^ 


Stratum mucosum 
Stratum germinativum 

Erom the foregoing comparative charts, it 
will be seen, that though tlie ancient Hindu 
anatomical school erred in some details, hut in 
fundamentals, their l^nowledge was remarkably 
accurate, minute and thorough, especially when 
we take into consideration the dim and distant 
age, in which these medical treatises were 
composed. The study of anatomy was regarded 
essential in the medical education and practice. 
Charaka says ; — '*In the medical science, know- 
ledge of anatomy is necessary ; one can only 
understand principles of hygiene, when be has 

^sfV^T^ I <lffTfT 5WT^' f^f^'^e rT5|Tt^^g=ITTO5 ; ^T ^mt WT- 


studied Ijodily sciences ( anatomy and physio- 
logy ) IY.6.V'\ r 

Susruta recommends dissection. He says S 
"The parts and the parcels (of the body) that 
have been mentioned up to the skin, can not at 
all he described without dissection. So if a 
surgeon wants to aquire positive (doubtless) 
knowledge, he should analyse thoroughly all the 
parts and organs of a body, after disinfecting it. 
Occular observation easily supplements studies 
and adds to knowledge. (The way a corpse should 
be taken for observation is described thus). The 
corpse should possess all the organs and not be 
deceased of any long illness or of poisoning, 
nor should it be of a man of a hundred years 
of age. The contents of its viscera (urine and 
feces) should be removed and it should be kept 
in a stream without current to rot. A plat- 
form should be made in the water to lay the 
corpse on it and cover the whole body with hay, 
grasses and leaves, so that fish can not eat it, 
and it is not put out of its place. In seven 
days, it will decompose sufficiently and then 
rub it irentlv from the skin to the interior with 


grass, ;iaiL' or bamboo-skin and observe minutely 
every Morgan and every part of the body. 
Smruta, III. 5. 49-50''. 

In the Hippocratic collection of writings, 
though there is no systematic presentation of 
muscles, ligaments, blood-vessels and glands, yet 
their knowledge and position are clearly indi- 
cated in the books *^eri arthron' (articulations) 
*peri osteon physios' (the nature of bones), 
^jperi adenon' (glands), *pe7'i sarkon" (flesh) and 
*mochaikos\ However their description is very 
vague and meagre, as being mentioned indirect- 
ly in connection with the treatment for dislo- 
cation and fracture of bones. 

Galen was undoubtedly, par excellence, the 
greatest of ancient anatomists. The manner 

^^fjf^T f^cT ^k^Jis^y^qtSTf^f^^JC II 


^TiracT^ijwf' ^^ ^Hf^iT?7iia^. 


and methods of his narration, the style/i of his 
language, the accuracy of his descriptiorr, make 
the anatomical study, not only instructive, but 
captivating and refreshing. He divides his 
monumental work, *^The Utilities of the Muman 
Body'* which became the classic and the stand- 
ard authority in human anatomy in Europe 
and the Saracen empire for more than fourteen 
centuries, into 17 books or chapters as follows: 
— I. Hand ; II. Hand, fore-arm and the arm ; 
III. Abdomen ; IV. Alimentary organs and 
their auxiliaries ; Y. Alimentary organs and 
their auxiliaries ; VI. Respiratory organs ; VII. 
Vocal organs ; VIII. The head, brain and the 
senses ; IX. The cranium, the brain and the 
cranial nerves ; X. The eves and their auxiliar- 
ies ; XI. The face, especially the jaw-bones ; 

XII. The neck and the rest of the spine ; 

XIII. The pelvic structure ; XIV. Genital 
organs ; XV. Genital organs ; XVI. Nerves, 
arteries and veins ; XVII. Epilogue — Difference 
between function and utility. On every organ 
and every part of the body, Galen gives a 
comparative review of the similar structure of 
other animals and philosophic generalisations 
as to the origin and development of organs, 
which he ascribes to functional utility and 


adaptai\ioa as a means of self-preservation and 
reproduction and thereby anticipating Lamarck 
(17ti!l-1829) by nearly seventeen centuries. 
Below is given a short translation of his intro- 
ductory general remarks on the 'genital organs', 
as a sample, believing that it will interest more 
readers than any other part of the body. 

*'Nature has three objects in view in the 
structural formation of the animal ; she has 
created them really, either for preservation of 
life as the brain, heart and the liver, or for the 
convenience of life as the eyes, ears, nose and 
hands, or for the perpetuation of the race as 
the external genital parts as the testicles and 
the matrix ; now we have previously demon- 
strated in detail, that any of the parts, either 
created for (preservation of) life, or for its 
embellishment, could not be better devised 
than what they are actually. It still remains 
for us to explain in, this book, the parts, destined 
for the perpetuation of race among us. 

"First of all, nature would have desired, if 
it were possible, to create her work immortal. 
Nature not permitting it, she has invented the 
expedient she could to obtain immortality for 
it (her creation), as a clever founder of a city, 
who not only cares that his city is actually 


peopled, but takes all precautions tha^ it lasts 
for ever, at least as long as possible. However 
it does not appear tbat any city has been 
fortunate on that point, to have lasted so long 
that time has completely effaced the memory 
of its founder. But works of nature have 
lasted for thousands of years and shall live 
still, by the admirable means, she has invented 
to substitute always a new animal for a dead 

"What is then the means adopted among 
animals and man, so that no race perishes, on 
the contrary each race remains intact and immor- 
tal ? That is what I propose to explain in this 
book, in commencing with my exposition. Nature 
has given to all animals organs of conception and 
she has associated with those organs a special 
impulse of pleasure of generation and filled the 
soul with such an irrestable desire, quite un- 
explainable with their functional uses, that the 
animals erotically excited and impassioned, 
especially the adolescent, though deprived of 
reason and understanding, attend to the per- 
petuation of the race, as if they were completely 
reasonable. One should think that nature really 
knowing that the objects she has created, being^ 
not susceptible of perfect wisdom, has given the 


anim&ls, as a substitute for that wisdom, the 
allurement of intense pleasure, associated with 
the usage of those organs to assure the salvation 
and conservation of the race. 

"It is just to admire, first, the ingenious 
device of nature and then the structure of the 
organs which naturally correspond for each 
animal to its bodily form. You would learn 
from us one day, concerning other animals when 
we fill the gap, left by Aristotle. Por the human 
species, all the world knows and understands, to 
what degree of utility, the external genitals by 
their convenient situation, their dimension, their 
figure and their entire conformation, have 
attained. When you will know the utility of 
each organ, profoundly hidden, organs which are 
revealed by dissection, you will admire, I am 
sure, the art that has created them. 

"In fact, nature has placed the matrix beneath 
the stomach, the region she has recognized as the 
most favourable for copulation, reception of the 
sperm and especially for the growth of the 
embryo so ^hat the fetus can attain to a perfect 
state. You could not find, in fact, in any part 
of the animal, another region more suitable, for 
any of the purposes above-mentioned ; this is 
the best (place)for copulation, being fav removed 


from the facial organs ; most favourable for; the 
growth of the fetus, being capable of consider- 
able distension without difficulty and finally, the 
most convenient for the child-birth, as it is the 
easiest for the baby to slip off downwards to the 
inferior parts and the legs. In fact, the mouth of 
the matrix, which nature has formed as a passage 
for the entrance of the sperm and the departure of 
the embryo when it has reached its complete de- 
velopment, opens in the vagina. When the ani- 
mal has conceived, the mouth(of the matrix)closes 
so firmly, it will not permit the least thing either 
to escape or to penetrate ; during copulation, it 
dilates and extends in such a way that the 
«perm has an easy and large passage to the 



Anna^ (food) supplies the body with *dhatii* 
(elements) for its up-building and preservation." 
Siisi'uta 1. 14. 11 ^'. Food is converted in the 
alimentary tract into *ra8a' (chyle) by 'antaragni* 
(internal fire or combustion, that is oxidation). 
Oxidation takes place by the natural warmth of 
the 'pitta^ (bile = sanguinary principle) of the 
body. "As fire in a hearth converts rice and 
water of a cooking pot into food and foam, so 
the digestive-fire {pachatyagni) converts the 
ingested food and drink into chyle and 'mala' 
(excreta = feces and urine)." CharakaVl. 15. 6**. 
The bile-duct being situated above the alimen- 
tary receptacle, digestion is facilitated by the 
favourable situation as that of the sun and 
the moon. (The idea being that as cooking 
easily takes place when the cooking-pot is placed 
upon the fire and not below it or sideways, so 
the stomach being situated above the bile-duct, 
which was regarded as the fire-principle, easy 

17. %l^ q-RTW +ird*HMMKI^I^Mdr'!icT: I 

18. vri VS*\^W\'AM\m<^M^:f^r^'. I 



digestion was tlie natural consequence). Due to 
the rich aquatic content of the place, ingested 
food and drink are easily softened, favouring 
digestion. Susriita 1, 21. 16.*° 

*'Now the question is whether the (digestive) 
fire is a different thing from 'pitta* (the bile) or 
the bile is the fire ? The answer is that due to 
its caloric quality, 'pitta* acts as fire in its action 
of cooking (pachatia) and oxidation (dahana) and 
therefore, the bile is called the 'internal fire* 
(oxidase). Siisruta 1, 21. 9 ■-'^. 

"The chyle (rasa) though aquatic, becomes 
red during its passage through the liver and the 
spleen. In the radiant heat of the body, the 
qualified chyle becomes red, and is called the 
'rakta* (blood)." Siisruta 1. 14. 5-6."-^ 

20. cT^ fg!=3M', f¥ ftm3Eff^^?^sftn, ^«Tr»1[%?T fq^i^^rni: 
?f?T I "^#^^,— f ^ri rqTi«ifff^qfT^sfwm«i?f, Niyyc<4m ftrif 

T^T^jftlf^ II <t 

21. ^ Ts^\^ r^ vM-r^:"^ w^ xm^^f^ n 


"Chyle is transformed into blood, blood into 
flesh, flesh into fat, fat into bone, bone into 
marrow and marrow into semen." Susruta 
1. 14. 10.^* 

'*Because the chyle is transformed into 
*dhatu' (elements or bodily substances), and it 
constantly circulates in the body, it is called the 

"This *rasa' remains in each ^dhdtu' 3500 
moments (that is, the chyle is formed the same 
day, but it takes five days for the chyle to be 
transformed into blood and blood into flesh etc.) 
and thus in one month it is converted into the 
semen of man and 'di^ftava' (the rupture of the 
Graafian vesicles with the ripeness of the ova, or 
the menstrual blood which is associated with the 
occurrence) of woman." Susruta 1. 14. 11-12" \ 

Semen "circulates in every part of the body 
of all living beings ; as fat in the milk, sugar in 
the sugar-cane juice, so is the semen [suhra) 

22. WT5^' fT^ Tig" Tt^T^^: ^mw^ I 
^<i^^s% fWt ?T^T *rfr: ^mm ^pw^: iK° 

23. cT^ T^ 5Tc^ ^^TgT^t;^^^si^ ^: iiU 


present in the human body." Susruto, III. 4. 20- 
21-*. It is not manifest in the children for it is 
present in a small quantity as the sweet aroma 
and delicate fragrance of a flower is not per- 
ceived in a young bud before time develops and 
ripens it, though its presence can not be doubted 
in an elementary state. Susruta I. 14. 15'^*^. 

**In the living body, there are as many cir- 
culations as are present in the body like the 
chyle and the blood etc, for in the living body 
without circulation, they can not be produced or 
reduced." C/im^aka III. 5. 1"^. 

*'The centre of the vitalizing (prdnavaha) cir- 
culation is the heart and the great trunks {maha- 
srota) of arteries and veins). Charaka III. 5. 3^'. 

5T^5 cT^r ^ ^^ ferr^fir^: w^\ 
24(a). gqj fl H^gii^mt 1=^ ^ 3I^f«TfMlffI ^ ti TMl^?J^wn%, 

^11% ai^: ar^: ^Rwrani^t^fifffi^f^ IK a. "^ 

25. ^T^w. g:^ ^ftf'T'^ >4H[^5im<dr«<5Ti t?^f«f^ ^cret ^nrrr- 

?T^t^ I 



As the fibres of the water-lily and lotus 
stalks are naturally perforated, so in the tubular 
vessels, there are minute pores in the tubular 
vessels {dhamani) throuch -wliigh the 'rasa' 
circulates." Susruta IV. 9. 9.:, 

I. Digestion. 

From the above quotations, it can be seen 
that the ancient Hindu school of medicine 
grasped the essential fundamentals of digestion 
and circulation, though the intricate and complex 
process of their mechanism was not and could 
not be understood by them. Physiological 
chemistry is of but very recent development and 
growth. A few years ago, it was not even sus- 
pected that the digestion and absorption were 
due to the fermentative action of the glandular 
secretions. The digestive ferments or enzymes 
reduce the ingested food particles by cleavage 
into their elemental compounds by creating 
molecular instability through their electro- 
chemical action and in proportion as the food- 
stufPs are altered thus in the alimentary canal 
and transrQ;fmed from insoluble into soluble sub- 
stances, from such as are not diffusible into such 

27. ^rar ^«T^ff: wrf^ 'jito f^ =^ i 


as are easily diffused, and they are absorbed by 
the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal mucous 
membrane and are synthetized into chyle during 
the passage through the restitutive secretion of 
the cells. The reaction of the enzymic activity 
upon the ingested food-particles, is the reduction 
and cleavage into their component elements, 
which is the same thing as oxidation. The 
Hindus understood that digestion was con- 
commitant with oxidation (anta7'agni), but did 
not know that the oxidation was caused by the 
digestive ferments. 

*JRasa' has been translated as the chyle, for it 
is the most appropriate available term. But Vasa' 
is more than chyle. ^Rasd' is the whole of the 
soluble and diffusible solution of the digested 
food which being partially regenerated and 
synthetized during its passage through the 
mucous membrane by the anabolic restitutive 
secretions of the living cells, either enters into 
the lymph sinuses of the mucosa, or are absorbed 
by the solitary and agminated follicles and by 
the lymph-glands interposed along the lacteals or 
are taken up by the blood capillaries of the 
mucous coat, especially in the villi of the small 
intestine. Whether the 'msa' forced into the 
lymph torrent is carried along the thoracic duct 



which pours its contents (lymph and chyle) into 
the left subclavian vein or absorbed in the blood 
capillaries of the villi, travel by the venous 
portal system, it has to pass through the hepatic 
cells for further synthetic transformation, before 
it is driven to the heart for general circulation. 

The blood is red in color, for it is caused by 
the mass of red-corpuscles (erythrocytes) held in 
suspension in the plasma. The blood is composed 
of a liquid part, the *plasma', in which float a 
vast number of microscopical bodies, the red 
corpuscles {erythrocytes), the white corpuscles 
{leucocytes) and the blood plates or platelets 
{ hematohlast ). The red corpuscle has the 
shape of a biconcave disk with bevelled edges 
with a diameter of 0.0075 millimeter in man 
and for each cubic millimeter of blood, there are 
red corpuscles in man from 4 to 5 millions, in 
goat 9 to 10 millions, in sheep 13 to 14 millions, 
in birds 1 to 4 millions and in fish quarter 
million to two millions. The chief function of 
the red corpuscle is to carry oxygen, which it 
owes to its principal ingredient — haemoglobin and 
which possesses the special quality of chemically 
combining with oxygen and yielding up the same 
oxygen, whenever there is decrease in the con- 
centration of oxygen in the solvent. In perfor- 


mance of this important function, the red cor- 
puscles soon lose their vitality, deteriorate and 
are disintegrated in the liver. The liver elimi- 
nates the wastes and the pigments as an excretory 
product, which thus receives the golden brownish 
tinge. The bile is essentially the excretory 
product of the metabolic wastes which are formed 
in the hepatic cells as a result of their detoxi- 
cating and metabolic activities, but the bile has 
adapted in the economy of the system, to the 
functional utility of zymo-exciters, particularly 
of the lipolytic enzymes. The red corpuscles are 
newly formed again in the red bone marrow and 
the spleen, where special cells are provided for 
their reproduction. But it is probable that the 
spleen plays a more important role in the inte- 
gration and synthesis of the haemoglobin mole- 
cules, for iron is its important component element, 
having special chemical affinity for oxygen, and 
iron is principally metabolized in the spleen. 

It is tlierefore a delightful surprise to read in 
Charaka and Susruta that they attributed to the 
liver and the spleen of transforming ^^asa* into 
blood, and heart was the centre and medium of 
the blood circulation to irrigate, feed, nourish 
and sustain tissues and life. Of course it was 
a fanciful speculation that the blood is trans- 


formed in five days into flesh and in a month 
into semen. But the blood supplies the nutrient 
materials for the cellular sustenance, growth 
and upbuilding. And it is a fact, though *spermin', 
the special substance of the semen, is found in 
concentrated form in the testes and prostate, it 
is found in a considerable quantity in the thymus, 
milt, ovaries and the blood and plays an im- 
portant role in the general oxidation of the 
tissues and in the metabolic reduction of the 
intermediate regressive albuminous substances 
as leucomines into harmless products as urea. ^< 

'Rasa' contributes to health, pleasant 
countenance and nourishes the blood ; the blood 
contributes to . the brightness of the skin, 
nourishment of the flesh and keeps one alive ;, 
fat contributes to the adipose tissues, perspiration, 
hardihood and health of the bone ; the bone 
keeps the bodily frame and nourishes the bone- 
marrow ; the bone-marrow contributes to the 
pleasant countenance, adipose tissues, strength 
(of the body), increase of the semen and fills 
the bone ; the semen contributes to the personal 
bravery, • resistance to disease ( cJiyavana ), 

* (A. Poehl : EinivirJcung des Spermins civfden Staffiimsatt. Ziiit. 
fur klin. Med.. 1894, p. 135) 


inclination to pleasure, physical strength and 
reproductive power. Susruta 1.15. 6 '. 

**^i^lesma' (lymph) is produced in the intestine, 
sweet and cool ; from the sweetness, viscosity, 
and humidity from the digested food." Susruta 

1. 21. l7»^ 

**'^lesma* is white (chyle in the lacteal, es- 
pecially after the heavy ingestien of fat), heavy 
and cool ; when it is unoxidized (avidagdha in 
the lacteal and in the thoracic duct, still in the 
condition of chyle), it is sweet, hut when oxi- 
dized, it is alkaline." Susruta I. 21. 19'**. 

^lesma *'lubricates joints (snovia)^ is fattening, 
liealing, flesh-giving, causes growth, refreshing 
through moistening, strengthening, adds to the 
thickness of the subcutaneous fat, and thus 'slesma' 
doing five functions according to the position, 
benefits the body.'* Susruta I. 15. 5"^. 

f^m^' '?^: H^^ I 'i^^ ^^ €■? ^ Tm^ ^*^M*ii\m ^Tttf?T i 
29. 5RTWr?t ftrf^^^T^ ^iR f^c^ -m^ ^ I 

20. $^T ^^ T5'. f'ng: ftrf^^; sitci q^ ^ I 


That by ^slesma* or 'kapha^^ lymph was under- 
stood, is proven by the fact that Susruta describes 
in tlie vascular system (III. 7. 1-13) the tubular 
lymph-vessels with arteries, veins and nerves and 
that his *5/^s»za' corresponds to the synovial lymph, 
is corroborated by this passage : — "As it works 
well, if oil or fat is applied to the axle of a 
carriage wheel, so the 'slesma* acts in the joints 
of the living beings." III. 4. 15' ^ 

IT. Circulation 

The lymph is a colorless liquid found in the 
lymph vessels as well as the extravascular parts 
of the body, having almost the same constituents 
as the blood-plasma. The lymph is at least in 
part the mediator in the exchange of constituents 
between the blood and the tissues. Throughout 
the entire body, there is a rich supply of blood 
vessels penetrating every tissue with the excep- 
tion of the epidermis and epidermal structures 
as the nails and hair. In the ground-work of the 
tissue, there is space and this interstitial space 
is filled with lymph and thus all the tissue 
elements, in fact, may be regarded as being bathed 

32. #f i«r?f ?jsrT era "^ ^TH ^^^ ' 


in lymph. From this fluid the cell takes th& 
necessary nutrients dissolved in it, and into it 
the cell discharges its waste products. In the 
interstitial space, the lymph freely intercommuni- 
cates, finally connecting with a number of fine 
tubes — the lymphatics, through which excess of 
fluid, tissue wastes, pathogenic germs and their 
products are drained ofl^. The lymphatics like 
the blood-vessels freely anastomose, thus forming 
large trunks which finally empty their contents 
in the main venous trunks at both the junctions 
of the jugular and subclavian veins» In the 
course of the lymphatics, there are numerous 
adenoid structures (lymph-glands) which act as a 
filter as the fluid passes through them, retaining 
all the pathogenic germs, their deleterious 
products as well as various excretory products, 
which the lymph-glands either destroy or make 
them comparatively harmless. 

The flow of the blood-plasma into interstitial 
space, where it is known as the lymph, is 
governed by the principles of pressure, filtration, 
diffusion, osmosis and the relative permeability 
of the capillary walls. The intracapillary 
pressure tends to filter the plasma through the 
endothelial cells composing the walls of the 
capillaries ; the force of diffusion arises from 


the inequality of the chemical composition of the 
blood-plasma and the interstitial fluid ; osmosis 
from different molecular concentration and 
relative permeability according to the regional 
capillary structure. 

Though lymph lacks any central heart system 
as the blood vessels, the flow of its circulation is 
perhaps regulated by the relative pressure-level 
from the higher tensien in the capillaries to lower 
in the lymphatic space and in the minute vessels 
considerably much greater than in the larger 
ones as in the veins, and as this difference of 
pressure is the cause of the flow of venous blood 
from the capillaries to the heart. This flow may 
be accelerated by other factors. The lymphatics 
are provided with muscular wall of automati- 
cally oscillating tanus under the influence of 
special vascular nerves and as with each systolic 
efflux, there is an increased pressure of the 
arterial flow, muscular and nervous dilation 
which make the perivascular lymphatic valves 
act like tiny pumps, accentuating the momentum 
of the centripetal evacuation of the contents. 
Perhaps inspiration also exerts a sucking action 
by positively lowering the pressure at the sub- 
clavian vein in which the thoracic duct 
empties its contents. 


The lymph fluid is not uniform m composi- 
tion in every part of the body. The lymph 
originates from three sources : (a) by filtering 
from the blood through the capillary wall; 
(b) from exudation of the tissues with their 
anabolic and catabolic wastes ; (c) the digested 
nutrient solution which is absorbed by the 
lymphatic roots of the intestinal villi and which 
is known as the chyle. 

The composition of the lymph, therefore, is 
variable. In the lacteals, the lymph mixed 
with the chyle has often after the ingestion of 
heavy fat and protein, a milky white appearance 
and contains a good deal of sugar. The lymph 
which flows from the fistula of the thoracic duct, 
is a watery, slightly opalescent fluid. In the 
capillary lymph-space and in the large serous 
cavities as the peritoneum, pleura, pericardium,^ 
tunica vaginalis of testicles, where there is 
always a sufiicient quantity of the lymph to 
keep the walls lubricated and moistened, it is a 
colorless liquid, almost like water, but decidedly 

The lymph does not coagulate as easily as the 
blood. But it contains fibronogen and in case 
there is any rupture of the lymphatic, it 
readily clots so that no serious damage be done 


to the tissues. But unlike the blood, the lymph 
contains a very few corpuscles. Platelets and 
functions {thrombocytes) are always absent ; 
the red-corpuscles {erythrocytes) are met with on 
very rare occasions ; but the leucocytes — the 
wandering cells, are always found, though 
smaller in size and fewer in number. Perhaps 
the leucocyte through its ameboid movement 
traverses through the capillary membrane and 
enters into the lymph-stream and acts as useful 
scavenger and devourer of any pathogenic germ 
that might have gained access in the tissues ; 
or the leucocyte may be produced in the lympha- 
tic glands and enter into the arterial circulation 
when the lymph trunks empty their contents at 
the junctions of the jugular and subclavian veins 
and are carried to the heart. In the blood the 
leucocytes are seen larger and with developed 
phagocytic power for the reason that the blood 
contains opsonin and alexin which sensitize the 
pathogenic micro-organisms, thus facilitating 
phagocytosis. The destroyed germs are dissolved 
in the biood, increasing thus the protein content, 
which is a* nourishing food to the leucocytes. 

So lymph glands not only filter and purify 
the lymph stream, they are ever watchful senti- 
nels to catch and retain any dangerous marauder 


that may be in the lymph torrent^ but also are 
active synthetic laboratories for the origin and 
development of the leucocytes. In this vital 
work with the lymph-glands in the lympha- 
tics, all the lymphoid adenoid bodies as the 
spleen, bone-marrow and the thymus have their 
important share. In malarial fever, it is a well 
known fact that the spleen is enlarged. This 
only means that the spleen is hyperactive, 
destroying the minute protozoa that are attacking 
the red-blood corpuscles and producing an excess- 
ive number of leucocytes for the bodily defence. 
This also explains that with the ablation or 
total extirpation of the spleen, there is no serious 
consequence or there is any marked reduction of 
the leucocytes in the blood. The task of the 
spleen is supplemented and functioned by the 
bone-marrow and the numerous lymph-glands 
which are numerous and are scattered either 
single or in cluster all throughout the lympha- 

On the whole the flow of the lymph is very 
sluggish and much slower not only than the 
arterial, but also than the venous blood. 

Susruta also mentions twenty-four 'dhamanV 
and passage of some other liquids in the 
body. But he does not confound 'dhamauV 



with 'slra* (vascular system) like Charaka (I. 30. 
10). He says : "There are some who say that 
dhctmam and si'ota are not different from the 
sh'a (vascular system). But this is not just ; 
dkamam and srota are difPereiit from the 
*sira. For the characteristics of the ^srota' 
and ^dJiamam, differ from those of ^sira* How ? 
Eor the 'siras* have main central trunks and 
their action is also otherwise. In the medical 
science, they are mentioned separately. Only 
because they are situated close to each other,, 
they are minute and there is some similarity in 
their action, therefore in spite of their dissimilar 
activities, they are often confounded with each 
other. Smruta III. 9. 2^^. 

''There are two vital streams — S7'0ta : their 
main bearers {mTdasthana) are the heart and 
chyle-carrying tubes (lacteals and thoracic duct);, 
if they are penetrated (by any wound), involun- 
tary cries, syncope, hallucination, illusion and 
trembling appear and death might even take 

33. =^gf^"3i^w^ 'nfiwT^ ^f^cTT: i cm ff^f : fs!!?:!^?^^- 
'^^T^rf^vrFi:, 'f^i^^TT 'j^ >?^t^*. ^tcTtftf =^f?n cmfj t^^ws 



place. AUmeatary canals are two and their 
bearers are the intestine and the lacteals : if 
they are penetrated, pain, loss of appetite, vomit- 
ing, thirst, blindness or immediate death take 
place. Serous {udaka) tubes are two and their 
bearers are 'talu' (between the meningeal mem- 
branes surrounding the central nervous system) 
and the 'hloma' {plem^a) ; if they are penetrated, 
thirst and immediate death take place. Chyle- 
carrying tubes are two and their main bearers 
are the heart and the chyle-carrying vessels 
(the lacteals and the thoracic duct) ; if they are 
penetrated, there is edema or immediate death 
with symptoms the same as if the heart and the 
main arteries are wounded. The blood-vessels 
are two (the hepatic artery and the portal vein) 
and their main bearers are the liver and the 
spleen, and the blood-vessels ; if the sources of 
the two vessels (the liver and the spleen) are 
penetrated, there are paleness of the skin or 
jaundice, fever, burning sensation, bleeding and 
redness of the nose. Streams of circulating 
protein [mamsaoaha) are two and their main 
sources are ligaments, skin and the blood-vessels; 
if their main sources are penetrated, edema, 
emaciation, vascular obstruction and even death 
might take place. The urine-bearing tubes are 


two, the bladder and the penis ; if their main 
sources are penetrated, there are suppression of 
the urine in the bladdea.', anuria and paralysis 
(insensibility) of the penis. The feces-carrying 
tubes are two ; their sources are the intestine 
and the anus ; if they are penetrated, there are 
constipation, offensive odor, and the tying down 
of the entrails (ant?^a-ihe bowel). The seminal 
tubes are two : their sources are the mamma 
and the testicles ; if they are penetrated impo- 
tence, difficulty in seminal discharge take place. 
The ovarian {m-'ftava-vaha) tubes are two : their 
sources are the matrix and the ova-carrying 
tubes (the ovi-ducts — Fallopian tubes) ; if they 
are penetrated, sterility, pain in copulation and 
amenorrhea take place." Susruta III. 9. 12^*. 

34. cfTf^T g ^TWt^^'^':^>'n^Ct^^H^^^^^^Tf^. ^f^wR 
Tj^^t ^.fH I ^i^Ejt M^iT ^^•. I cm irmw t, cT^'^ f ??i' ^^• 

^5^ C crqt^^?n3!^S^Tff^^ V[?W. ; cTW f^^F^TTsf ^^rraw '^ 

■^^!^\ ; cT^ ^W^ ^^: iRiii^f Fii;^^ 'T'^a' cif^TTf^ ^ \ ^m^^ fy 


Here of course Susruta has used 'srota' in 
the generic sense of what are described in 
modern anatomy as tubes, ducts, canals and 

III. — The Nervous System 

*'The normal 'vai/?t' (nervous system) is the 
regulator of the physical mechanism. The 
nerves are of five kinds, 'Prana^ apana^ samana^ 
ndana and vymta* It carries out the physical 
attempts (muscular contractions), 'reveals the 
senses and is the carrier of the sense-perceptions 
as the impression, taste, smell, touch and hear- 
ing. It is the strengthener of the bodily ele- 
ments {dhatu) and the co-ordinator of the bodily 
organs. It activates speech, bases of sound and 
hearins? and is the main cause of the consciousness 

^ ^, cT^t^^' ««ii1eai =^ ; fTW f^Fir^ ^^FRT'i 1%'mFrfTT flT^^: 
'^ ; cT^ far^^ WkcTT f^m fl^^ T^^^kIT "^ i ^^^ f, cTqt- 


of sound and touch. It is the source of pleasure 
and cheerfulness. It increases the digestive 

fire and eliminates from the body all the waste- 
products." Clmrcika 1. 12. 7^". 

"The *prana* nerves {cerehrosinncW) are locat- 
ed in the brain^ thorax, ears, tongue, face and 
nose. Spitting, sneezing, vomiting, respiration 
and digestion are the functions of the *prana- 
vayu'. ^Udana' nerves (cervical, thoracic and 
brachial plexus) are located in the umbilicus, 
thorax and in the neck ; speaking, exertions, 
heat, strength and complexion are its activities. 
*Samana* nerves {vasodilator) are located in the 
sudoriferous glands and ducts, and in the 
lymphatics ( animt. ) It beiug situated by the 
side of the digestive fire (bileduct ?), it increases 
digestive fire. 'VyamC (motor) nerves are spread 
over the entire body. Their conduction is very 
rapid. By ^vyZtna' nerves, walking, extension, 
movements of the hands and feet, contraction 


(of muscles), the twinkling of the eyes and other 
activities are accomplished. Apana (automatic 
or sympathetic) nerves are located in the testi- 
cles, bladder, reproductive organs, umbilicus 
(abdomen), knee, hip and the anus. The apana 
nerves residing in the bowels, cause the elimi- 
nation of semen, urine and feces and the expul- 
sion of the ova and the fetus." Chai^aka VI. 
28. 4-9^ ^ 

"The brain is the centre of the senses." 
Susriita III. 3. 18 *'. 

"The ten nerves {dhamam) of the upper. 

36. ^5^ ^\^mi 5ffjqt^:^'!i''^¥rer^Tf%^T: i 
^FrR^g ^\4,■m', ^'tHi snr^^^: ii 

'^snqrtf^i*^ '^ f^Ti ^i^fwra % II 

37. r3Kt^[^T^f fe^rr'UT^ i 


extremities, by activating sound, touch, impres- 
sions, taste, smell, respiration^ sighing, yawning, 
hunger, laughing, speech, and crying, maintain 
the body. •••Two (auditory) carry sound; two 
(optic) carry impressions ; two (lingual) carry 
taste and two (olfactory) carry smell. By two 
man speaks, by two makes (vocal) sound, by two 
he is asleep and by two he is awakened." 
Susruta III. 9. 4^^ 

'*Man sleeps when sense-organs cease to 
operate, being tired by the fatigue of the mind." 
CharaJca 1. 21. S5'\ 

"Memory is caused by the following eight 
causes : — Erom the cause of impressions, (their) 
similarities and dissimilarities, co-ordination of 
the mind, practice, consciousness, concentration 
(of attention), what is remembered from repeti- 

38. gjfiTT: ?I^*q^*PK€'T3\^5f^IHt^ T^iT^fw^lf^fral^iKr^f^cn^^ 

3y. g^ ^^T^ wt^ w^lm^: «R^Tf^m: i 


tion of sight, hearing or perception (as tasting or 
smelling ), is called the memory." Charaka 
IV. 1. 117-I18*\ 

"The side-way four ( cutaneous ) nerves, 
branching into hundreds and thousands, they 
have become countless. They open in the hair 
follicles by which they carry the sweat {sveda) 
and sebaceous secretion {rasa). By these secre- 
tions the internal and external body is moistened 
and refreshed... By them the pleasure and pain 
of touch are felt." Susruta III. 9. 8*\ 

l^^T^ifrTTSTt ^T^TfT ^»3f??^^^ Ill 

ct't^f^fcRfsi" ^^ JIcH 5T y«1<l'lMT: II 
^^ H^^T^M+Jci«^^^ ^WW'. I 

^i^tfTw': ^m^ ^^'^'Tf'^^ =^ra^ II 
«iT«^mT: IF 


"The waste-products {mala) of digested e«li- 

ment, are the feces and the urine ,of lymph 

mucous exudation, of blood, the bile, of flesh, 
as the wax in the ear-tube (sebaceous secretions), 
of fat the sweat, of bones the nails and hair, of 
bone-marrow wax in the eye-pits, and of the skin 
oil (sebaceous fatty secretion). SusrutalA^.b^O*"^. 

Kapha ( lymph ), pitta ( bile = oxidation ) and 
^ayu (air = nerves) maintain the body as the moon, 
the sun and the air vitalize the earth by their 
activities of humidity (of the moon), heat (of the 
sun) and the conduction of heat and cold ( by 
the air current). SiisnUa 1.21. 8^^, 

The above quotations tend to prove that the 
ancient Hindu schools of medicine believed that 
the body was nourished by the lymph and the 
blood formed out of the chyle during its passage 
within the liver and the spleen, was the medium 
of circulation and the nerves acted as the conduc- 
tor of sense-perceptions of which the brain was 
the centre. 

In the Hippocratic writings we find almost 

42. ■^^\ fqTT ?T^: % #^: ^I^IsTOT =^ I 

43. ft^JiT^Hf^^q : €t*T^|5rrr*i^ ^^^^\ i 


similar views, though with less clearness and 
positive assertions. In 'peri physios mithropoy*' 
4-5( = the nature of man), there are four ground 
principles — the hlood (aima), phlegm {phler/ma), 
yellow bile {cholen xanthen) and black bile 
{cholen melainan)^ which are described to be mixed 
and to circulate in the body. In the *peri noison 
to tefarton=t\ie fourth book of the Maladies 33), 
only bile is mentioned without any qualification 
and for the othes bile^ water {iidrops) is substituted. 
"The sources for the blood are the heart, for 
the phlegm the brain, for the water the 
spleen, for the bile a section of the liver.*' 33. 
They are introduced into the system with 
the ingested food and drink, containing 
these principles ( per^i noisoji IV. 35-38). Many 
glands {peri r^c?(?;^o^^ = glands 1-10) as the 
tonsil, mamma, lymphatic ganglions in the neck, 
arm-pit and groin as well as the brain, have been 
mentioned but not the pancreas, testicles or 
ovaries. The function of the glands is to absorb 
the superfluous liquid in the body and thus to 
preserve the bodily equilibrium. The largest 
and the most important gland par ^excellence 
was supposed to be the brain and its func- 
tion was to pump and distribute the liquid in all 
.parts of the body according to the organic needs. 


Galen distinguished between the arteries and 
the veins. According to him the blood was 
formed in the liver and it was sent to the heart 
for the distribution in all parts of the body after 
the YolsLtWized 'pnetima' (air = the spirit = the soul) 
has been separated. The 'pjieuma' mixed w^ith 
the air brought from the lungs, becomes the 
vital essence of life (animal spirit) and from th& 
brain, circulates to all parts of the body with the 
nerves. Before Galen it was believed that the 
vital spirit (pnettma = a,[r) circulated in the 
arteries, for arteries are always found empty 
after death. 

According to Charaka (IV. 7. 8) there are 
eight handfuls {anjali) of blood and six of lymph 
in a normal healthy human body. (Because the 
body fluid constantly increases, or decreases, any 
calculation by the 'anjali* measure can be but 
conjectural). There are ten handfuls of water, 
according to each individual's own measure — the 
water that after absorption, becomes mixed with 
feces, urine, blood and other materials of the 
body ; which circulating in the system, nourishes 
the outer skin ; which entering into the abscess 
under the skin, is known as 'las'lkcl^; which being 
evaporated by the heat of the body, is eliminated 
as perspiration ; that water (udaJca = serovs fluid) 


is ten liaiidfuls. The material that is first formed 
out of the digested food and which is known as 
the chyle, is nine handfuls. The blood is ei^ht 
handful, feces seven, lymph six, bile five (or the 
venous blood), urine four, 'vasa'' (serum of the 
flesh) three, fat two, bone-marrow one, brain (or 
brain-serum) half handful, semen half handful 
and 'ojas' (prostate gland secretion) half handful." 
Char aha IV. 7. 10**. 

According to Foster {Physiology^ p. 49), "the 
total quantity of blood in the human body is 
about one thirteenth of the body weight." Howell 
(Fhysiology, p. 458) says : "The ratio of weight 
of blood to weight of body is in the dog 7. 7 per 
cent ; rabbit and cat 5 p. c. ; birds 10 p c. ; in 
man we have upon record two determinations 
on guillotined criminals made by Bischoff, which 

W^:, 'Rfe^^ ^tiWf%:, ■531^ flT^ IWP'I*, cTT^^ -«,1TWM'« 


gave 7. 7 and 7. 2 per cent. Haldane and 
Smith however have devised a modification of 
Grehant's caibon monoxide method, which they 
have applied to living men. The results of 
some 74 experiments gave them an average 
value of only 5 per cent per man. The distri- 
bution of this blood in the tissues of the body at 
any time has been estimated by Ranke from 
experiments on freshly killed rabbits, as follows : 
spleen, 0. 23 p. c. ; brain and cord, 1. 24 p. c.;. 
kidneys, 1. 63 p. C; skin, 2. 10 p. C; intestines, 
6. 30 p.C; bones, 8. 24 p. c.;lieart, lungs and great 
blood-vessels, 22. 76 p. c; resting muscles, 29. 20 
p. c. ; liver, 29. 30 p, c." 

The blood circulates in the tubular closed 
vessels, for thereby the pressure is increased and 
the time for completing the circulation is 
reduced. "If we take 180 grams, as the quantity 
in man, ejected at each stroke at a pressure of 
250 mm. of mercury, which is equivalent to 
3. 21 meters of blood, this means that the left 
ventricle is capable at its systole of lifting 180 
grams 3. 21 m. high, i. e. it does 578 gram- 
meters of wt)rk at each beat. Supposing the j 
heart to beat 72 times a minute, this would give 
for the day's work of the left ventricle nearly 
60,000 kilogram meters. Calculating the work 


of the right ventricle at one-fourth of the left, 
the work of the whole heart during the day 
would amount to 75,000 kilogram-meters." 
Poster's Tliysiologij, p. 218. 

The blood is the medium through which every 
cell of the body is supplied with its nutritive 
needs. In blood circulate the synthetized ele- 
ments of the ingested food. In the capillaries, 
the blood-plasma filters through and fills the 
interstitial space, bathing every tissue in the 
lymph-fluid, from which the cells extract the 
nutritive materials they need for their sustenance 
and growth and to which they discharge tlieir 
waste products. Without blood-circulation there 
can be no supply of the lymph fluid for the pre- 
servation of the tissues. This is easily seen in 
the occlusion of the main artery of the extremity 
when putrefactive fermentation takes place of an 
animal tissue still attached to the body, known as 
tbuQ 'gangrene' with the production of gases as 
sulphuretted Iiydrogen and volatilized fat, which 
o"ives the bad odor and the iron-content of the 
hemoglobin is precipitated into sulphide of iron 
which imparts to the limb a range of colors com- 
mencing in green and terminating in black. 

In addition to supply the nutritive fluid to 
the cells, the chief fimetion of the blood is to carry 


oxygen with hemoglobin, hormones and glandular 
secretions for tissue respiration, oxidation, and 
stimulation and in the intercellular oxidation, 
heat of the body is generated. When the 
oxygen of the blood is reduced and it comes back 
to the heart through the veins to be sent to the 
lungs, to be charged with oxygen, it is of purple 
color, but wlien it is loaded with oxYE^en. it is 
sparkle bright-red. The venous blood contains 
many waste products of the cells, dissolved in it 
as the amonium carbonate, urea, urates, xanthin 
bases, carbonic acid as carbonates, cholesterin 
and other substances. 

Charaka and Susruta formed right conception 
of the function of the blood and the lymph in 
broad general outlines. Of course it was not 
possible for them to know their complex func- 
tional utilities in detail. Nor do we yet know. 
But they thought that the nexves were also 
tuberal vessels, through which flowed the 
vital force of life, something too fine for the eyes 
to see and which brought the sensory impressions 
to the ceiatral nervous system for co-ordination 
and carried* the motor impulses to the 
, was invisible but mighty like the air which brings 
heat and cold waves, storms and tempests {Charaka 
1* 12. 6 ) or like blowing with bellows which in- 


tensifies the fire of the furnace and which it was 
compared to and identified with. But the exact 
nature of the nerve impulse and the mode 
of its conduction, is not yet completely understood. 
It is usually compared with the electric current. 
But the sensory and the motor nerves are differ- 
ent, the sensory fibres only bring impressions to 
the nerve-centre, while the motor only carry 
them from the centre to the periphery. Yet his- 
tological or chemical examination hardly reveals 
any structural differentiation. Moreover the 
propagation and the velocity of the nerve-force 
depends on the nature and locality of the nerve- 
fibre, the temperature and the pressure. The nerve- 
fibre is one of the units of a nerve-trunk : it is 
the axis-cylinder process of a neuron and is either 
medullated, that is, surrounded by a white sub- 
stance called myelin, or non-medullated ; either the 
medullated or the non-medullated may or may not 
be surrounded by the primitive sheath or neuri- 
lemma, so that there are four forms of nerve-fibres^ 
The neuron is the cell unit of the nerve-fibre and 
the neurons propagate their impulse by contact 
of the dendrites, the terminal arborization round 
the axon. The neurons also differ greatly in size, 
shape and internal structure and they are general- 
ly classified as the bipolar and multipolar cells. 


This structural variation explains the differ- 
-ence in speed of nerve impulstion. Helmholtz 
found that the motor nerve of a frog travels with 
the velocity of 28 to 30 meters per second and the 
researches of Piper indicated that the motor nerve 
of a man travels at the velocity of 117 to 125 
meter per second. There does not seem to be 
^ny structural difference between two afferent or 
efferent nerves, as for an example, between audi- 
tory and olfactory, and in their mode of conduc- 
tion and speed, and if they carry different impres- 
sions and impulses, it is because their terminal 
-endings have been developed to catch particular 
impressions and the lobe in the brain has been 
specialized as an economy to the system to receive, 
co-ordinate and react only to special impulses. 
It is just like two electric wires one of which 
has been connected to ring the bell and the other 
to make light. 

By the specially adapted peculiar structure of 
the retina, the vibrations of light (color-images = 
rupa) can be focussed upon it, setting up nerve- 
impulses that are transmitted by the fibres of the 
optic nerve and optic track to the visual centre in 
the cortex in the brain, which is situated in the 
occipital lobes, for co-ordination, color-conscious- 
ness and response to the stimuli. Total blindness 


follows the removal of both occipital lobes. Bufc 
if only one lobe is ablated or injured, there is a 
partial blindness, affecting the symmetrical halves 
of both eyes known as 'hemipicC ; the right one 
influencing the two right halves of the eyes, and 
the left one, the two left halves of the retinas. 

The outer ear is so .constituted that whert 
the vibrations of matter, the rapidly alternating 
variations of pressure, what is commonly known 
as the 'waves of sound', forced through the- 
accoustic apparatus, strike against the auditory 
e]>ithelium, richly supplied with the nerve-fibres^ 
of the cochlear branch, and the sensory impulse- 
thus generated is carried over the auditory 
nerve (eighth cranial nerve) and track to the^ 
auditory centre in the first convolution of the 
'temporal auditory lobe,'; where auditory con- 
sciousness is developed. 

The taste {rasa) nerve-fibres are distributed 
to parts of the buccal cavity and especially the 
tongue, of which the most sensitive parts are the 
tip, the borders, and the^ posterior portion of tha 
dorsum in the circum vallate papillae, Xhe anterior 
two-thirds of the tongue'are supplied with sensory 
fibres from the lingual nerve ( a branch of the 
fifth nerve) and the posterior third from the 
glossopharyngeal. The nerve track has not 


yet been definitely known, but it is supposed 
to terminate in the hippocampal convolution^ 
posterior to the olfactory lobe. The gustatory 
sensation is possibly complex. There are but 
four fundamental taste sensations, —namely,, 
sweet, bitter, acid, and salty and the rest are but 
the combinations of these primary tastes, for 
the experience of which we are dependent on 
the terminal organs which are chiefly present 
in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. 
And there are so many complex and multiple 
junctions between the fifth nerve, the seventh 
nerve and the glossopharyngyal nerve, by way of 
the Vidian nerve, petrosal nerves, tymphanie 
plexus, the otic and the splenopalatine ganglia, 
that it is hard to determine, how the taste 
sensation travels, but perhaps through the 
chorda tympani nerve. 

In the 7iasal septum and a portion of the 
upper turbinate bone, the area corresponding 
to about 250 square millimeters in each nostril^ 
there is a profuse distribution of the fibres of 
the olfactory {gcmclha) nerve, in the shape of 
elongated, epithelial like cells, each of which 
bears on its end a tuft of six to eight hair-like 
processes. And there are tiny glands which 
keep the mucous always humid and moist. 


Particles of odoriferous matters, carried in a 
gaseous medium, namely the air, to the olfactory 
epithelium, become dissolved in the thin layer 
of fluid that keeps the nasal membrance moist- 
ened and this peicoitues through and stimulat- 
es the nerve-endings. But if the membrane be 
too dry or the secretion be too abundant or 
altered in quality, the power of smelling is 
diminished and even may be wholly suspended. 
The olfactory nerve terminates in the cortex 
of the brain in the *cornu Ammonis and hippo- 
campus.' The animals with highly developed 
sense of smell possess a large ^limbic lobe.* 
Some of the substances retain their odoriferous 
quality even in minute dilution as camphor 
1 : 400,000 ; musk 1 : 8,000,000 ; vanilin 1 : 
10,000,000 parts. 

The touch (sparsa) is a compound sensation 
of pressure, warmth, cold and pain, through 
ioar distinct kinds of nerve-fibres which are 
not only richly distributed over the general 
cutaneous surface, but also in the buccal and 
rectal membranes. But the alimentary mem- 
branes, or the superfacise in the interior of the 
body are supplied with nerve-fibres of pain and 
devoid of those of touch and temperature 
sensations. Application of cocaine on the eye 


or throat paralyzes the feeling of pain and 
pressure, but the sensations of heat and cold are 
not influenced, • which proves that their nerve- 
fibres are different and mediate through different 
channels. It has been clinically observed that 
the compression of the cords of the brachial 
plexus, resulted in the insensiblity of the arm 
to pressure and temperature, but not of pain. 
And it is supposed the nerve-endings of pain 
lie deeper than the tactile senses, which are- 
superficial ; the former mediating through the 
spinal cord and the latter through the posterior 
funiculi, together with some of the fibres of the 
muscle sense and they do not cross until after 
tliey reach the medulla and perhaps they are 
represented in the rolandic area. 

The vocal sound or voice (ghosa) is distinct 
from speech, which is an articulate sound to 
express definite ideas. The apimals are endow- 
ed with vocal power, but not with speech. And 
there may be speech without voice as in whisper- 
ing and voice without speech as in singing a 
musical tone. The vocal organ, the larynx, 
resembles ^to a great extent the siren in the 
production of tone. The larynx is a framework 
of cartilages, connected with elastic ligaments, 
which are vocal cords, and it opens above into- 


the cavity of the pharynx and below into the 
trachea or windpipe. With respiration, the 
lung acts as bellows, pressing ti blast of air 
through the thin tube of the windpipe and the 
escaped air is modulated by the movable liga- 
ments into various tones. The voice has three 
characteristics, (1) 'loudness' which depends on 
the force of the expiratory blast; (2) * fitch' 
which depends on the rapidity of vibrations and 
(3) the 'quality* which depends on the capacity 
of the resonance chamber and the muscular 
strength and pliability of the laryngeal liga- 
ments (vocal cords). The alternate expansion 
and contraction of the ligaments and muscles 
of the larynx {glottis) are made by the bulbar 
and recurrent laryngeal nerves. If any of 
these nerves is destroyed, the rythmic widening 
and narrowing automatically cease and the 
glottis remains immobile and no voice (vocal 
sound) can be produced. 

There are four speech (bhascl) centers^ situat- 
ed along the Sylvian fissure, in the left hemi- 
■sphere for the right-handed and in the right 
hemisphere for left-handed individj.ials. The 
motor center for pronouncing and articulating 
words, occupies the foot of the third frontal 
convolution (left), immediately in front of the 


centers of phonation, "utilized in speech. The 
destruction of this center produces motor 
aphasia (aphemia). In aphemia one is able to 
hear and to understand when spoken to, and 
is able to emit sound, to move the tongue and 
the lips, hut he has lost his vocabulary, in other 
words, the faculty to articulate words. But 
if the injury is not complete, that is, in partial 
aphemia, the patient can utter a few incoherent 
words and syllables according to the nature of 
the lesion. The center for auditory images, 
that is, for comprehending spoken words, 
occupies the posterior fourth of the first tempo- 
ral convolution (left). The destruction of this 
<;enter causes sensory aphasia (word-deafness). 
In sensory aphasia, one can hear the voice, as 
the faculty of hearing is not affected, but he 
can not understand the spoken words, and the 
words are to him mere sounds and do not express 
any idea. The center for visual graphic images, 
that is, for distinguishing written or printed 
words, occupies the left angular gyrus(posterior 
inferior ,part of the left parietal lobe). The 
destruction of this center causes alexia (word- 
blindness). In alexia, one can not read even 
his own writing, although his vision and intelli- 
gence are not affected and he can see the form 


of the letters, but has lost the faculty of 
comprehending ideas, expressed through those 
words. The center for the faculty of writing, 
is situated at the foot of the second frontal 
convolution and the destruction of this center 
produces the inability to write {agraphia). In 
agraphia, one has lost his faculty of expressing 
his ideas in writing or any graphic form. 
Agraphia is usually associated in clinical 
experience with motor aphasia (aphemia). 

Sleep {nidra) is evidenced by the cessation 
of sensory-motor reaction. Various hypotheses 
have been advanced to explain the causation 
of sleep. (1) Cerebral anemia was suggested 
by the old writers ; but it is rather the effect 
than- the cause of it. (2) Hyposecretion of the 
thyroid due to the inhibitive action of the 
accumulative waste products during waking 
hours and the hyper-secretion of the pituitary 
body ; but in myxedema, drowsiness is not 
constant, nor is there any proof that in hypnotic 
or epileptic somnolence, there is any increased 
secretion of hypophysis, or diminished secretion 
of the thyroids. (3) Osmotic theory of Devaux, 
which tries to explain sleep due to the increased 
viscocity of blood, through dehydration, is not 
bsustantiated by observation, as in privation of 


water — in thirst, the nervous system is rather 
irritated. (4) Chemico-toxic theory enjoys a 
hotter reputation. The accumulated tissue- 
waste products as lactic acid, cholesterine, 
leucomaine, exercise an inhibitory action on tho 
cerebral activity, either paralyzing the centre 
directly, through intoxication or indirectly by 
reflex vaso-constriction. (5) Accumulation of 
carbonic acid which has an extreme avidity for 
oxygen, reduces the minimum ratio of free 
oxygen, necessary for the central nervous activi- 
ties. (6) Consumption of the intramolecular 
oxygen causes cerebral asphyxia, which is 
expressed as sleep, as during the waking hours,, 
the brain cells use up their store of oxygen more 
rapidly than it can be replenished by absorption 
from blood ; the consequence is that for lack of 
respiration, the brain-cells can not react to th& 
sensory stimuli and gradually losing conscious- 
ness, store up sufficient oxygen through the- 
anabolic process to be awakened up again. (7) 
The neuron theory tries to explain sleep on the 
histological principle that the nerve track is 
not contiguous like the electric wire, but 
composed of the cell-units (neuron) which, 
transmit their impulse from one to the other by 
their contact through the interlacings of dendrid- 


ed and terminal arborizations, and when tliere 
is sufficient accumulation of fatigue products, 
the dendrides contract and retract, so that the 
nerve-path being broken and the brain being 
automatically relieved from sensory stimulation, 
sleep is mechanically produced. But it has not 
yet been proved that the dendride processes are 
contractile enough as to lose all connections with 
the neighborly cells. (8) A central nervous 
mechanism produces sleep, not* as a result of 
asphyxiation, toxins or neuro -toxins {Bouchard,)^ 
but to prevent them and to protect the brain- 
cells from the evil effect of their further 
accumulation, so that during enforced involun- 
tary rest, the obnoxious products can be elimina- 
ted and the brain-cells can be refreshed and 
revitalized through the anabolic process (the 
income of energy being more than its expendi- 
ture) — as an economic accommodation to self- 
preservation. If the sleep is deep, profound and 
undisturbed, it will take less time than other- 
wise to oxygenate, tonicize, recuperate and 
vitalize the brain-cells for the resumption of 
their activities of sensory-motor co-ordination 
and reaction. 

B-unger and thirst {Jcsut-pipasa) sensations 
are mediated, probably through the nerve endings 


in the stomach and pharynx. Normal hunger is 
^ known as the appetite and it is not yet definitely 
determined whether this impression is conveyed 
by sensory fibres, distributed to the mucous 
membrane of the stomach or of the muscular 
coat. When the stomach is empty, these peri- 
pheral nerve-endings are excited. That it has 
nothing to do with nutritive needs of the orga- 
nism, is evidenced by the fact that when water 
or indigestible substances are taken in to fill the 
stomach, the hunger sense is allayed. Prom this, 
it can be concluded that hunger is agastric sense. 
Of course, when there is a general tissue hunger 
for lack of nutrition, a general nervousness and 
discomfort are experienced, due to the resultant 
nervous excitation. The water needs of the body 
are experienced through the fibres of the glosso- 
pharyngeal nerve as an end organ of thirst, for 
we know, that if the pharynx is dried up either 
by salty or saccharine food, dried air or dust, at 
once there is a sensation of thirst, though there 
may be no bodily need for it and it can be ap- 
peased by removing the irritant substances and 
moistening, the spot. It is possible that when 
the tissues give up their storage of reserve- water 
to compensate the loss of the blood, it constantly 
incurs through respiration, perspiration and 


urination, there is a general call for supply of 
water, and it first expresses the demand through 
the excitahility of the glossopharyngeal nerve,, 
and if it is extreme through general nerve excita- 
tion and irritation, as in tissue hunger. 

Sweat ( sveda ) is the secretion of the sudori- 
pareous glands, of which, there are nearly two- 
millions ( Krause ), distributed all over the cuta- 
neous surface, except the glans penis, prepauce 
and the deeper portion of the external auditory 
meatus. It is known that with vaso-dilation, their 
secretion is increased. But it can he also produced. 
independently, directly through the excitation of 
the nervous mechanism, as is seen in strong^ 
emotion, cold-sweat of phthisis and other diseases,, 
when the skin is in anemic state. The stimula- 
tion of the sciatic nerve in cat, has been demon- 
strated to produce profuse sweating on the 
hairless balls of the feet. But when an animal with 
sciatic nerve divided on one side, is made dyspenic^ 
no sweat appears on the hind limb of that side,, 
though there is abundance in the other, thus- 
clearly proving a central nervous mechanism, 
regulating sweat-glands as vaso-d.ilation. It 
seems that picrotoxin and strychnia induce 
sweating action by influencing the central 
nervous system while nicotin induces perspira- 


tion by acting both centrally and peripherally. 
As histologically and anatomically the nerve-fibers 
i)f the sweat glands and the vaso-constrictors 
resemble very closely, it is reasonable to 
presume, that like the latter, the central nervous 
regulator of the sweat glands is in the medulla. 

Sebum {rasa) a semiliquid oily material, that 

Is secreted by the sebaceous glands, distributed 

all over the cutaneous surface, chiefly associated 

with the hair follicle, but also without it as in 

the glans penis, lips and the deeper portions of 

the external auditory meatus, is meant possibly 

to protect the skin from bacterial invasion, and 

to prevent the hair from being brittle. Sebum 

on exposure to air forms a waxy cheesy mass as 

is seen in the comedones from the occlusion of 

the ducts, or in the glans penis ( Smegma 

preputti ) or in the auditory meatus (cerume?i = 

ear-wax ) and it contains fats, soaps, cholesterin, 

albuminous material ( casein like ), remnants of 

epithelial cells and inorganic salts. As the 

sebaceous secretive activites are associated with 

vaso-dilation, it is presumed that their nervous 

^nechanism is the same, although sebum by its 

oil coating over the skin prevents the undue loss 

of heat as well as prevents the undue absorption 

of moisture. Vaso-dilation and vaso-constriction 


are regulated by the nerve-fibres belonging to 
the sympathetic or automatic nervous system. 

Meat { iisma ) is produced as a reaction of the 
intracellular oxidation or vital process and 
absorbed in the blood, it is conveyed to every 
part of the body to preserve the temperature 
equilibrium of the hot-blooded animaL Eor heat 
is being constantly lost from the body through 
radiation (conduction), evaporation (perspiration 
from the skin), respiration ( vaporization of water 
through lungs ), and with urine and feces. If 
there is excess of heat, it is conducted to the 
periphery and is radiated with sweat by vaso- 
dilation. If on the other hand, the surrounding air 
is cold and the body needs to conserve its heat, 
there is vaso- constriction so that the escape of 
heat is reduced, as well as the production of heat 
is stimulated by increased oxidation. In cold- 
blooded creatures as fish, amphibia, reptiles or 
in the hibernating animals ( poikilothennos ), 
either the oxidizing process is not yet intense 
as in the former, or the heat-regulating mechanism 
is absent or poorly developed as in the latter, 
and the consequence is that their body tempera- 
ture fluctuates with that of the surroundings. 
While the hot blooded animal ( homoiotherinotis ) 
keeps relatively a constant temperature 


independent of the surroundings. There is 
every reason to believe that the heat-regulating 
mechanism ( tissue-oxidation for the prduction 
of heat, conservation of heat through vaso- 
constriction, and radiation of heat through 
vaso-dilation ) is controlled bj^ a nervous center, 
which perhaps is situated either in the pons or 


*' Whatever causes pain, is a disease (vt/adhi). 
Diseases are of four kinds : accidental or 
mechanical (agcmtti), physical {sarira ), mental 
(manasa)^ and natural (svdbhavika). Diseases 
caused by injuries are ^agantu' ; of alimentary 
origin and by the derangement of the nervous, 
venous, lymphatic and arterial systems, ^mr'ira^ ; 
through anger, sorrow, fedr, joyousness, sadness, 
jealousy, concentration of mind, misery, 
haughtiness, greed, envy, desires and longings, 
'mdnasd' ; hunger, thirst, senility, sleep and 
death, are 'natural' diseases". Susrutal.l. 20*** . 

"Again, the diseases originate from seven 
sources as follows: hereditary (adivala), maternal 
(janniavala), alimentrry (dosavala), mechanical 
(samghatavcda), physical ( kdlavala = seasonal ), 


contagious {daivavala), and natural (svahhavavala) 
Susruta I, 24j. 4*'. 

*'The diseases that are transmitted througli the 
lesion in the sperm or the ovum of the parents, 
are hereditary, as *ktistha' ( leprosy — there is 
every reason to belive that the syphilic eruption 
of the skin and ulceration were regarded as 
varieties of leprosy) and'am^' (hemorrhoids). The 
hereditary diseases are of two kinds and might 
come either from father or mother's side. 

"The diseases that are produced through the 
improper regimen (cifpacA«r« = wrong food and 
injurious exercise ) of the mother ( during the 
intra-uterine life of the fetus) are called maternal 
as born — lame, blind, deaf, mute, ^minmina' (one 
who speaks with a hissing nasal accent, due to 
overgrowth of adenoid tissue in the rhino- 
pharynx) and the dwarf. These diseases 
( acquired during the intra-uterine life ) are 
caused by either) mother's (defective) circulation 
{rasakrta) or miserable living. 

"The diseases that are produced through 
impropeu food and living, or (reacting through 

^iR't^M j Tti sinict^H^T i i ^q^^rjfwm: b'^ct^^itiitit: ^^^^n^tii 


digestion) anxiety, are ^alimentary\ Alimentarj 

diseases are of two kinds — gastric and intestinal 
occasioned by physical causes (as improper food 
and living) or mental causes (as anxiety, fear or 
nervous excitement). 

"(The diseases occasioned by) the injuries 
struck with force on the weak, are *mechanicaV 
whether by instruments or by ferocious 

"The diseases that are producd by cold, heat, 
wind and rain, are ^physicaV , whether (they) 
are natural or unnatural. 

*'The diseases that are produced by the 
tyranny of the gods (through thunder and 
lightning), through curses ( phobia ), sorceries 
of the Atharva-veda ( infectious diseases ), and 
through contagion ( syphilis ) are ddiva-vala 
(god-sent, i. e. beyond human control ). These 
diseases are of two kinds as occasioned by 
thunder-lightning or by demons ( infectious 
diseases as cholera or small-pox ). And again 
they are of two kinds — through accident ( as 
thunder-lightning ) or through contact ( as 
syphilis ). 

"Hunger, thirst, senility ( old-age ), sleep and 
death etc. are natural diseases. They are of two 
kinds — timely or untimely. They can be cured 


■vyhen they are untimely ( i. e. if there is hunger, 
thirst or premature senility, when there is no 
reason for it, they are proper subjects for treat- 
ment ), but not so when they are timely." 

Stisruta 1, 24, 5-7*'. 
"In addition to ( parasitic ) animalcules ( that 
cause disease), there are twenty kinds of microbes 
( hrimi ) divided into four classes." Charaka III, 

7. 6*^ 

**The origin of the microbes of the blood- 
vessels ( veins ), is like that of leprosy. Their 

46. cT^if^^fwm t ipT^tf<Uci<^mHiii: irw^in'^cra: ; tsftr f^ff^: 
^^csn^, H'T^ f^f^i: ^nt\x[ tpwt^ i '??i ^sfi^if^^: iia, 

^*TT^^^WFf?T: =5rrf^WT5Wf^t^T?TiR^^: ; ^sft f^f^: <*i'Ji9ifiT '^rara- 


habitat is the hlood-vessels. They are very- 
minute, globular and without feet. Many of 
them are so minute that they are invisible." 
Charakalll. 7. 7*^ 

Pathology or the science of disease, has up to 
the last century, been rather vague owing to 
the complexity of reaction of the pathogenic 
agents upon the living matter. Bacteriology is 
entirely a modern science. A few years ago it 
was not even suspected that infectious diseases 
are due to the intervention of morbific microbic 
agents. Their very existence was not even 
known. Microscopy and chemical reagents have 
but recently revealed the most interesting 
teeming world of animalcules, which though 
invisible to the naked eye, are no less potent 
adversaries of the living beings, and there is a 
constant struggle between life and these invisible 
foes, to which it ultimately succumbs, and in 
spite of the relentless war of science for the last 
generation, it has not been able, but partially, 
to conquer and to control them. Even the 
diseases that we call organic, as tbe cardiac 

48. aHHiiri^i'ii'*! lit: wm^ *iiitm'\M i ^srnff ?:s«iir?^ >nT^: 


affection, or metabolical as gout, may be the 
manifestations of the accumulated reactions of 
pathogenic germs, which have disappeard long 
ago, as pueumococci and gonococci respectively. 
This is clearly seen in tabes dorsalis, as a sequel 
of syphilis, after twenty or thirty years of infec- 

The ancient conception of disease was based 
more or less on humoral pathology, i. e. disease 
originated from the derangement of the humors 
and it was the function of the diet and medicine 
and proper living, to bring them back to their 
normalcy and equilibrium. According to the 
Hindu schools of medicine, there were three fun- 
damental humors {vayu^ pitta^ kapha), according 
to the Greek, four (blood, phlegm, bile and water 
by some, yellow and black biles by others) in the 
human body. ^VayiC is the active principle 
like the wind, which brings hot and cold M^aves ; 
*pitta^ is the heat principle like the sun ; and the 
*kapha^ is the cold principle like the moon, whose 
beams were reputed to exercise a very soothing 
and beneficial influence on plant life, in 
contradistinction of the sun's rays which were 
supposed to have a scorching effect, as it usually 
happens in an arid tropical climate. {Snsruta 1. 
21. 8 ). As for the luxuriant vegetable life and 


growth, all these three elements in their right 
proportion are necessary, and excess of either, 
heat, cold or wind, is injurious to the plant, as 
in the animal kingdom. 

However fanciful and grotesque this appears 
at the first glance to the moderner, it is not 
really so when it is seen with clear perspective 
and sharp analysis. It is true that concrete facts 
and statements appeal more to reason than 
vague generalization and abstract philosophy. 
But by close observation it will be easily observed 
that their *myu^ pitta, kapha' correspond, to what 
is expressed in vulgar terminology, as *nervous, 
sanguine and phlegmatic temperaments and 
which can be translated into medical nomencla- 
ture as ^hypermetabolism, normal metabolism 
and hypometabolism/ The following citations 
tend to lead to the aforesaid conclusion : — 

*'Tlie bodily oxidation ( agni) is classified into 
four kinds according to its activities as follows : — 
hyper-( tlksna ), hypo-( manda ), normal (sama) 
and abnormal ( visama ). Of them ( one 
of ) hypermetabolism is able to bear all abuses 
( i. e possesses a great resisting power against 
infection ) ; hypometabolism has its opposite 
qualities ; normal metabolism becomes ( easily ) 
upset by abuse, but without abuse, remains 


natural ; abnormal metabolism has the opposite 
>qi|alities of the normal,." Charaka III. 6. 6*'. 

"These four kinds of oxidation pertain to man. 
Those who have vayu, pitta, kapha, in propotion 
( equal ), enjoy normal oxidation. In the case of 
those who have predominance of vata ( nervous 
temperament ), oxidation beomes abnormal 
by association with vai/ti. In those who have 
predominance of pitta ( sanguine temperament ), 
oxidation becomes accentuated by its 
association (hyper-oxidation). In those who have 
predominance of * slesma' ( phlegmatic tempera- 
ment ), their oxidation becomes lowered by its 
association ( hypo-oxidation )." Charaka III. 6. 

**The dominant qualities at the time of union of 

twn vR'rij^: I ftHMT^pg f^Tiifk*?^ n^ftt^i^ ^Nut *{^^i^: i 
i^rami^ tiiT^jj^t "§r^rrfw% t^t »t^^^: i =^T^€"%fTr, ^^m- 


the sperm with ovumj are inhorn (with the baby), 
as temperament {prakrti). Stisruta III. 4. 48 ^^ 

"The man of nervous ( vata ) temperament, 
is sleepless ( jagaruka ), sensitive to cold, ill- 
tempered, exclusive ( s^<?wa = thievish ), haughty, 
unmannerly («w^r?/« = un-arian), fond of music,, 
songs, dance and arts ( gandharvachitta ), whose 
hands and feet are long, whose beard, hair and 
nails are very dry, who is excitable (Jcrodhalu— 
angry) and strike people with hand and nails. That 
person is impatient, whose friendship is unstable, 
( who is ) ungrateful, thin, violent, whose veins 
show out throughout his body, (who is) garrulous, 
who walks fast, is fond of walking and is fickle- 
minded." Stisnifa III 4. 59^". 

"The man of sanguine temperament ( pitta ) 
perspires freely, smells come from his body (from 
volatile oil ), his body has the yellowish color 

^FW, 8, V=^ I 


ScHlfeiii'l^i'mr^clloHT fel^R l^fff ^'«rt^ W- II 'Q^fT^'f^^TT,- 


and is relaxed ; and his nails, eyes, forehead, 
tongue, cheeks, and palms of hands and soles of 
feet are copper-colored ( indications of good 
circulation of hlood ) ; he becomes repugnant 
when he gets wrinkled ( vali ), gray-haired 
( palita ) and bald-headed ( hhcilitya ) : he is a 
voracious eater, sensitive to heat and he becomes 
easily angry and easily satisfied ; his strength 
and longevity are medium. A man of sangui- 
nary temperament is brainy {medhavi), clever 
and is an authoritative speaker ; in combat he is 
brave and irresistible." Snsriita III. 4. 61^^. 

"The complexion of a man of phlegmatic 
(slesma) temperament, is like the grass, blue 
lotus blossom or wet ai^ista (soap-tree), sharpen- 
ed sword or the shaft of an arrow (i. e. fat and 
bright.) He is pleasant to look at, fond of 
eating sweet things (it is well-known that in 
myxedema or cretinism there is a great fondness 

53. ^^ ^: Tftd Rir^^l^-^W'i <gl^^' 1c1 l ^r a1^1^qTfil^TK?T^ 


for sugar and high tolerance for carbohydrates), 
obliging, lazy, patient, without desires, heavy, 
indifiPerent and thick-bodied." Siwmta III. 4. 

One can see here almost the true clinical 
picture of hyper-thyroidism in an advanced 
state, in the primary stage and hypo-thyroidism. 
Thyroid influences metabolism. With metabolsim 
is inter-locked the automatic bodily mechanism 
of self-defence against infection. It is well- 
known that our integuments and mucous mem- 
branes swarm with innumerable pathogenic 
germs which almost live a harmless, vegetative 
parasitic life, but if the organism is devitalized 
by overwork or malnutrition, if its immunizing 
resisting power is lowered, in other words, if its 
defensive mechanism has been weakened, then 
infection takes place. We inhale almost with 
every inspiration plenty of bacillus tuberculosis 
and they lodge in our nostrils and lungs, we 
harbour in our intestine enough of coli-group^ 
but they can not do any harm as long as our 
metabolic activities have not been . lowered 

54. -^ ^^Tf^fe'siT^Tft^aK^TWTTm'^rrnFrw^*: ^^nr: fir^^nHt 


beyond the danger point. So far pathogenesis, 
vitality of the organism, is the important factor. 
This vitality classification, coefficient with 
metabolism and oxidation, is practically synony- 
mous with vayu ( = air) as a conductor of hot and 
cold waves, pitta{ = heat principle), kapha ( = cold 
principle)^ which we are justified to translate 
as the nervous (hypermetabolism), sanguine 
(normal metabolism) and phlegmatic (hypometa- 
bolism) temperaments, and on which the whole 
system of the Hindu medicine is based. If 
there are points in which the picture drawn by 
Charaka varies from modern clinical observation 
(as bad smell and premature senility in sanguine 
temperament, and strength in phlegmatic type), 
it should not be forgotten that, there have been 
evolutive changes with time both in the patho- 
genic agents and our system, from the time of 
the ancients and consequently reactions have 
been partially modified. Moreover, it is good 
to remember that for the age in which Charaka 
and Susruta lived, their studies strike our ad- 
miration 'from the comparative historical point of 
v|ew, but for modern practical needs, they are 
nothing but crude and vague generalizations. 


I. Constitutional Pathogenesis 

We can quite agree with Susruta (I. 120) 
that 'whatever causes pain, is a disease*. But 
the definition will be more logical and correct 
if we say, "Disease is the state of body and mind, 
produced in the organism, by a morbific agent 
and the organism reacting against it." 

It is yet controversial whether infections are 
transmitted by heredity (adivala). According to 
Weissmon ( gemules of Darwin and plastidules 
of Haeckel are now practically discarded as 
bearers of heredity) the germplasm is a bridge 
between the past and the present, linking man to 
the first-developed unicellular existence. The 
germplasm or the germinative cell assures the 
continuity of life and progress. In the lowest 
step of the ladder in animal life, among 
protozoa, reproduction takes place by fission, 
budding or both combined when the mother cell, 
through excess of nutrition divides into two as 
a relief of cellular tension. With the growth of 
organic life and specialization of cells as an 
economy for functional utilities, special cells 
{garnets) have been developed for reproduction. 
In further evolution, gamets have been differen- 
tiated into female garnet {ovum) and male gamet 


(spermatozoon). Their amphimixis tends to 
<jause variation, while the germ plasm tries to 
conserve the type. Hence inspite of infinite 
Tariety, never two beings being the same, there 
is a fundamental unity of the species, as modifi- 
cations are very slow. 

The germplasm — the bearer of heredity, is the 
"chromatin' substance of the reproductive cell- 
nucleus. The chromatin divides into chromosomes 
(idants) and when they break up again, the 
smaller units are called chromomeres {ids)and each 
chromomere or Hd* contains all the dynamic poten- 
tialities — generic, specific, individual, which under 
appropriate nutrition and temperature, forms the 
organism. , Each Hd' is surrounded by hypotheti- 
cal units, called the ^determinants^ and determin- 
ants by *hiphores' which are supposed to exercise 
the directing infiuence in the development of 
phylogenic evolutive transformations. Though 
immortality of the germ-plasm can be maintained 
without amphimixis, as in parthenogenetic eggs or 
by artificial parthogenesis in normal ova as de- 
monstrat^ed by J. Loeb, in higher plants and ani- 
mals however, sexual conjugation is the normal 
process. Conjugation or fertilization means the 
reducing division of the chromosomes and the 
restoration of the normal bulk in the fertilized 


ovum by equal contribution from both the parent 
cells. The stimulus which activates the fertiliza- 
tion is a chemotactic substance liberated by both 
the cells, but it seems that if the ovum is strong- 
er as in the final stage, there is a protoplasmic 
outgrowth towards the spermatozoon. The proto- 
plasm contains nutritive materials for the embryo. 

Inheritance of heredity is complicated by two 
factors. Somatic characteristics are not transmit- 
ted — but only germinal. Yet the germinal mate- 
rials are influenced by somatic behaviour or f unc* 
tional uses. One might lose his limbs and his 
children would not be born without them. The 
Jews have been practising circumcision for the 
last four thousand years, yet the Jewish male ba- 
bies are born with prepuce. But according to the 
experiments of Brown Sequard, if the sciatic nerve 
of a guinea pig be cut, the animal becomes epi- 
leptic and if mated, brings forth offsprings that 
are epileptic, though the sciatic nerve is there 
and has not been severed, but its functional 
disturbance has been fixed by heredity. 

Somatic cells undergo the evolutionary modi- 
fications of the functional exercise of an organ, 
by which its development is regulated. Th erf ore 
the hereditary transmissions are of two kinds, ger- 
minal and epigenetic, i. e, the germplasmic ma- 


terial becomes influenced and modified by the 
somatic behaviour, that is, by external conditions. 
And though the amphimixis takes place, the 
characteristics of both the parents are not equal- 
ly blend d in the offspring. It might receive the 
prepotent characteristics of one as in a cross be- 
tween a Negro with a White, pigment and hair 
etc., or the recessive charcteristics of the other. 
The sex of the offspring, according to some, depends 
on the maturity of the ovum, and if the fertilisa- 
tion takes place in the beginning, it is male and if 
at the terminating period of the catamenia, it is 
fema'e. If the twins are not of the same sex, it is 
because two ova have been fecundated at two 
different periods. Consanguineous marriages 
produce evil effects, for heredity fixes and accen- 
tuates the weak characteristics of both the parents. 
If a blind man marries a blind woman, there is a 
possibility that the offsprings of the mating would 
have defective eye-sight, if they are not born to- 
tally blind, but if a blind man marries a woman ■ 
with good eye-sight, the negative characteristic 
of one would be counterbalanced by the other and 
children born of that marriasre would not be 
affected probably in their eye-sight. Of course, 
the laws of heredity are not so simple. According 
to some biologists, one does not inherit more than 


50 p. c. from the parents, i. e. half from the 
father and the mother, each one of the parents 
cotributing about one-fourth, and each one of the 
grand-parents one-eighth and so on according to 
the geometric regressive proportion. But there 
may be also sudden reversion to the ancestral 
type and what is known as 'atavism.^ So no fixed 
rules of heredity can be determined. But it is cer- 
tain that the parents transmit to their offspring 
their psychic and bodily impressions. Eor germ- 
plasms must be certainly very sensitive to the 
somatic impressions and transformations. 

We have no definite proof that the pathogenic 
germs are directly transmitted with the germ- 
plasms. Eor if really the ovum or the spermato- 
zoon be infected, then they would be incapable of 
fertilization, growth and development, lacking 
impulsive momentum, vitality and nutrition, 
necessary for amphimixis and embryonic forma- 
tion. The frequent abortion that takes pla,ce in 
the primary state of syphilis, is not probably due 
t@ the presence of treponema pallidum in the 
germplasras, but due to their low vitality and 
exhausted condition of nutrition or the inva- 
sion of the embryo by the pathogenic germs 
through the placenta. Of course, there are 
cases known in medical history where the 


offspring has been born with all the stigmata of 
syphilis, acquired from the father, while the 
mother has acquired immunity from its infection 
from the fetus through gradual elaboration of the 
antibodies, as a reaction of the organism. But it 
does not necessarily imply that the spermatozoon 
that fertilized the ovum and caused conception, 
had living syphilic germ in it, or it might have 
been simply saturated with attenuated syphilic 
virus — mild enough not to interfere with embryo- 
nic and fetal growth, yet a sufficient cause to bring 
forth immunizing reactions in the maternal or- 
ganism, witliout infecting her. In the matter of 
hereditary transmission of infectious diseases, the 
question is whether the germplasms can be car- 
riers of infective microbes ? In this the father 
is concerned only at the time of conception. Of 
course at the time of copulation and conception, 
the father's state of health and condition, are 
reflected in the offspring. If the father i& 
youthful, healthy and in happy mood, the 
offspring acquires a gay and cheerful disposition 
of mind. JX on the contrary, the father is aged, or 
suffers from* dyspepsia, malaria or liver troubles, 
which naturally create a melancholy frame of 
mind, the children inherit the appearance of pre- 
mature senility. The children of youthful parents 


usually inherit a mobile and agile nervous 
system, as in youth nerves are very sensitive and 
responsive to impressions. The children of 
goaty, tubercular or hemophiliac parentage 
aquire a diathetic predisposition to these diseases. 
In an arthritic family often are seen manifesta- 
tions in different members of the family of gout, 
€czema, nervous affections, hepatic and renal 
lithiasis, diabetes and Bright's disease. But 
there is no conclusive evidence that the germ- 
plasm is a carrier of infectious germ. 

But the mother's influence is much more 
preponderant. The fetus lives and grows in 
the mother's womb as a parasite for eight to ten 
months. Por its nutrition it is dependent on 
the maternal circulatory system. Spermatozoon 
practically acts simply as a stimulant and gives 
the momentum to the ovum to start its anabolic 
evolutionary course. The child is really formed 
of the mother's nutrition. So her psychical 
and physical life vitally reflects in the formation 
and growth of the fetus, during the long period 
of gestation. If she has any infectious disease, 
it is very unusual, if she does not tr^ansmit it to 
the fetus through the placenta. 

Nutritional (dosavala) disturbances are 
many and varied, and are known as metabolic 


diseases. Nutrition is the function of every 
living cell, consisting in the taking in and 
'assimilation through fermentative changes, 
whereby tissue is nourished and built and 
energy is liberated : its successive stages are 
known as digestion, absorption, assimilation, 
disassimilation and excretion. 

Anabolism is the assimilative synthetic 
process, while catabolism is the retrograde 
disassimilative metabolism. For both these 
functions a liquid medium is necessary in which 
the nutritive substances can be in a soluble 
state, so that by osmotic pressure, it can per- 
colate through the capillary wall and enter into 
interstitial space, from which the cells extract 
their food needs by endosmosis, and by exosmo- 
sis, throw out the metabolic v»^aste products 
formed in the organic synthesis into the lymph 
stream. If any of the waste products be allowed 
to accumulate, the organism would die out of 

So nutrition comprises various functions. 
(1) Transmission and transformation of food in the 
alimentary canal by the digestive enzymes, from 
insoluble into soluble products so that they become 
dialyzable: starches are saccharified, albumines 
are peptonised and fats are partly emulsified 


and partly split up into fatty acids and glycerine. 
,(2) Absorption of the digested soluble nutrients. 
(3) Detoxication, synthesis and fixation of the 
nutrients in the liver, especially the glucose, 
which is converted into glycogen. (4) Trans- 
portation of the nutrients with the blood-circula- 
tion to every tissue of the body for the food- 
supply of the cells, the extraction of the food- 
material from the plasma by the cells, and ejec- 
tion into it of the waste-production of catabolism. 
(5) Regressive metamorphosis and reduction of 
harmful disassimilative products into harmless 
substances, chiefly in the liver as the conversion 
of the nitrogenous end-products into urea. (6) 
Elimination of the metabolic wastes through the 
kidneys, lungs and the skin. It has been esti- 
mated that an adult voids daily 250 grams of 
iarbon and 18 grams of nitrogen. This must be 
replaced to preserve the equilibrium between the 
cncome and the expenditure of the bodily energy, 
or it will slowly starve to death. 

Death takes place through starvation, when 
the body has lost nearly 45 per -cent of its 
weight. When food is withdrawn,^ the orga- 
inism performs its multifarious functional activi- 
ties, as the pulsation of the heart, • metabolism,, 
respiration, mainteaance of the body tempera- 


ture, muscular contraction and excretion of 
waste products, by consumption of the body fat 
and protein, sacrificing the less useful to the 
more useful in the economy. Death is postpon- 
ed if plenty of water is taken, for it maintains 
the integrity of the circulatory system and aids 
in the transportation of tlie metabolic wastes 
for expulsion from the body. Without suffici- 
ent consumption of water, the increased viscosity 
of blood and the retention of the toxic excretory 
substances hasten death. However, death 
through absolute starvation is very rare. But 
death through malnutrition — insufficiency or bad 
quality of food, especially during famine — is very 
common, indirectly or directly. Malnutrition 
weakens the vital resisting power of the organ- 
ism and clears the way for the invasion of 
epidemics, which is usually the case, or death 
is slowly preceded by gradual emaciation, anemia, 
dropsy, cardiac and cerebral disturbances, especi- 
ally delirium. 

If the aliments are too abundant or of bad 
quality, the undigested food falls an easy prey to 
microbes that swarm in the alimentary canal, 
provoking fermentation and putrefaction, thus 
causing dyspepsia, lientery auto-intox icationn 
41atation and catarrh of the digestive tube. In 


the children, it is manifest hj gradual emaciation, 
nervous irritability and erethema of the buttocks, 
vulva and thighs. But even if it be digested and 
absorbed, overnutrition is liable, with excess of 
carbohydrate consumption to engender glycosuria^ 
if it be coupled with hepatic and pancreatic in- 
sufficiency, with excess of protein consumption 
into peptonuria and albuminuria with heptal 
insufficiency under certain pathological condi- 
tions. The evil effects of over-nutrition did not 
escape Charaka. Eor he says : *'If any one 
accustomed to day-sleep and the comforts of 
bed ( i. e. does not take sufficient exercise ) 
indulsre in excess of oilv. sweet and slimv 
substances, new rice, new wine, meat, fish, milk, 
butter, and cakes, he becomes subject to many 
diseases. If he does not reduce ( the excessive 
consumption ) of restorative dishes, he will 
suffer from diabetes ( prameha = gljcosuvia, 
and albuminuria), cutaneous irritation ( katidu), 
pain {gouty), eczema ( hotha ), jaundice, fever^ 
leprosy, alimentary diseases, strangury ( mutra- 
krchchhi^a ), loss of appetite, lassitude ( tan- 
dra)^ impotence, emaciation, lethargy, heaviness 
of the body, burdening the circulatory system with 
waste products, dullness of sense-impressions, 
mental cloudiness, drowsiness ( p^amilaka )y 


edema ( sotha ), and other diseases." Charaka 
I. 23. l-5'\ 

II. Mechanical Pathogenesis. 

Mechanical (adhibhautika) agents can be the 
means of causing bodily suffering and death in 
various ways under different circumstances. If a 
man falls from a tree, the in jury would depend on 
the pressure of contact, based on force ( weighty 
height of the position and the gravitation of the 
earth, as well as the nature of the ground). Even 
one can suffer fatal injury, especially to the ner- 
vous system, by the rapid vibration of air, as near 
the passage of a high-speed projectile, of which 
there have been numerous victims in the recent 
war and it is known as ^shell-shocks*. Whatever 
may be the injury, it is due to the conflict of power 
and resistance. When one falls from a tree, he is- 
the body in motion : when a sword or a bullet 
strikes him, he is the resistance. The injury on 
the wound depends on their mutual relation. One 
misrht strike another with a sword, lacking force 
without causing more than a bruise, but the same 


sword can cut him in twain, if struck with vigor. 
The nature of a wound depends on the instrument 
and the force with whichit is struck. With sharp- 
pointed intruments as the needle, pin, cannula 
of hypodermic syringe, sting of certain insects 
and scorpions, any wound is called the 'puncture^ 
and puDcture is usually harmless. Even the heart 
can be punctured without any serious consequen- 
ce Neither is tlie puncture of the nerve serious, 
unless the vital centres are penetrated which 
might cause sudden death. A bruise in the soft 
parts without a break in the skin is called *con' 
tused wound' which heals very quickly. A clean 
cut with a sharp instrument is called the '"incised 
wound' and though there is profuse bleeding as 
long as the incised parts are not tightened togeth- 
er, it heals rapidly usually without infection. 
Lacerated wounds are those which are inflicted 
with a blunt instrument or by biting of animals. 
They generally take a longer time to heal, as it is 
very hard to keep the torn out tissues in aseptic 
condition. The seriousness of a gun-shot wound 
depends on three factors, namely, the point of 
-entrance, the tract and the point of exit. When 
the bullet has lodged in the tissues of the body, 
the tract is known as 'blind'. The wound at the 
point of entrance is always smaller, due to the 


'Contractibility of the tissue than the aperture of 
the exit, as it is more subjected to pressure and 
distension and is consequently more or less lace- 
rated whether the tract of the bullet is direct or 
tortuous. When a buUiet lacks a great velocity, 
it slunts by, if it meets a bone and becomes tor- 
tuous, but if it be driven with a great force, it 
might drill clear through a bone or cause a frac- 
ture and impart to the fragments sufficient mo- 
mentum to act as glancing missiles and aggravate 
the lesion. The wounds caused by explosives 
are more serious, as aside from the mechanical 
effect, the tremendous sudden increase of press- 
ure and temperature, as well as the liberation of 
toxic gases cause a very severe nerve shock. In 
any gun-shot or explosive wound, it is the nerve- 
shock, that is the serious matter. Otherwise in 
a simple wound not affecting any vital part in 
the econom\, if there is no introduction of any 
septic matter, and bleeding can be arrested and 
suppuration prevented, there need not be any 
fatal consequence. 

The physical {kala-vala) agents are many as 
heat, cold,* air-pressure, sudden seasonal changes, 
dazzling light, the sun (sun-stoke), sound and 
electricity. It seems that the human organism 
can stand cold much easier than heat. Of course 


with the rising temperature, metabolism is 
slovA ed up and the consequence is less oxidation,, 
■which means in other words, less production of 
heat. And there is vaso-dilatation, and the blood 
rushing to the periphery loses part of its heat by 
radiation in the surrounding atmosphere, and 
with the evaporation of perspiration, there is not 
only further loss of heat, but also a noticeably 
cooling sensation. However, when the evaporation 
from the skin is not rapid as in humid heat, it 
is more unpleasant. The dog or the cat whose 
body is covered with hairy coating and can not 
perspire freely, put out their tongue, execute 
rapid respiratory movements and thus facilitate 
evaporation through their gustatory organ. But 
when due to excessive consumption of alcohol, 
the vaso-motor mechanism does not react, or due 
to burn, perspiration is interfered with, or in the 
close overheated chamber near a furnace or 
boiler, prostration comes with high fever, rapid 
pulse, stertorous respiration, hot and dry skin 
and delirium. Perhaps this symptoms-complex 
is due to the chemical change in tbe nerves, 
brought about by excessive heat and riot to the 
coagulation of myosin as it was supposed before. 
Exjposure to the strong sun for a long time, 
principally the unprotected head, affects the 



nervous mechanism directly, especially in one 
who has not been gradually accustomed to it, by 
the penetrating actinic rays, creating perhaps 
molecular changes in the nerve-cells. The pros- 
tration is extreme, rapid and sudden, but often 
the high temperature is missing, though in other 
ways, the symptoms are those of heat-stroke. 
Though cold can be better borne than heat, yet 
after heavy consumption of alcohol, which 
causes vaso-dilatation and consequently loss of 
heat, one can be easily frozen to death. The 
action of cold is intensified by humidity which 
absorbs a good deal of heat and wind which 
drives away the warm layer of air surrounding 
the body. Even a healthy person with prolonged 
exposure to cold and sudden fall of temperature, 
might get a frost-bite. The frost-bite is manifest 
in the first stage by erythema and rubefaction, 
in the second stage by ulceration and finally by 
eschars, entailing the loss of the organ. Even 
when it does not directly cause any lesion, in» 
directly in a weak, debilitated or undernour- 
ished organism, it causes the development of 
various germs as pneumococci ; or there is an 
irresistible tendency to sleep from which one, 
hardly wakes ; or the physical and mental 
apathy may be interrupted by cerebral derange- 


ment and delirium, and one dies of heart-failure. 
The influence of the variations of the atmos- 
pheric pressure is not very negligible. At the 
sea level, the air exerts a pressure of 1.03 
kilogramme per square centimeter, that is, about 
18,000 iiilogrammes for the human body. When 
a man makes an abrupt ascent to a high altitude 
in an aeroplane or makes a descent as a sea- 
diver, the sudden pressure variation is apt to 
cause various disturbances. At the sea level, 
at zero altitude, there is a barometric pressure 
of 76 centimeter of mercury ; in Cashmere at 
the altitude of 7,000 feet, 56 ; at Mt. Everest at 
the altitude of 29,000 feet, 24.8. If a deep-sea 
fish is brought to the surface, it bursts from the 
expansion of the gas contained in the fish, so a man 
by a sudden high ascent not only finds it hard to 
breathe owing to the rarefaction of the air and 
consequent diminution of oxygen, but also the 
intestinal gases expand and cause tympanites 
and the blood rushing towards the periphery 
provoke diverse disorders from the results of 
anemia of the internal organs. At the altitude 
of 2000 meters, the oxygen diminishes 13 per 
cent ; at 3000,21 per cent ; at 6500,43 per cent 
and at 8500,50 per cent. To counteract this 
influence, the aeronauts are supplied with 



oxygen tanks, and the deep sea divers with 
compressed air to two or three atmospheres. The 
benefit of a mountain resort is in the purity of 
air and its higher ozone content. But above 11,000 
feet, one who is not accustomed to high- 
mountain climbing, mountaineering may provoke 
'mountain sickness* with a symptom-complex 
of giddiness, nausea, dyspnea, headache, thirsty 
malaise and a slight rise of temperature, almost 
like the sea-sickness, and with weakness of heart 
may prove fatal. But when a deep-sea diver 
comes to the surface, he feels a buzzing sensa- 
tion in the ears, due to the difference of pressure 
between the two surfaces on the tympanum, and 
this difference may be sufficiently great to- 
cause rupture of the membrane, and there is a 
complaint of great fatigue and tendency to 
fainting. If the reduction of pressure is rapid,, 
there is hemorrhage from the nose, ears and 
lungs and on the skin in puntiform shape, 
which the divers designate as '^flea bites.' 

Light is visible between 497,000,000,000 and 
728,000,000,000 vibrations per second. Below 
or above this figure, there is no sensory impres- 
sion. Yet within this narrow limit of our visibi- 
lity, we can see that light plays an important 
part in stimulating our nervous system and 


general metabolism and killing many of the 
microbes exposed to it. It is well known how 
the sun light activates plant growth. Under 
its influence, carbonic acid — a waste product 
of the cellular metabolism, is made to unite 
with water — and thus reconstituting a hydrate 
of carbon — which is the principal mainstay of 
energizing food supply of human beings and 
herbivorous animals. And though light is 
used very effectively as a valuable therapeutic 
agent in dermatosis, a strong light might cause 
erythema and reflected light, either from sand 
as in the desert or snow, might provoke opthal- 
mia and blepharitis. The harmfnl effects of 
light can be avoided by using blue or black 
glasses over the eyes, and covering the body, 
especially the head with black or blue cloth 
through which the ultra-violet rays can not 
penetrate and to which the irritation is due. 

Sound is only audible within the close range 
of 30 and 30,000 vibrations per second. Pro- 
longed harsh sounds may cause mechanical 
lesion, even perforation of the timpanum and 
reflexibly ne/vous irritation. The soothing and 
restorative effect of the mountains and country 
places is often in the freedom from noise. And 
music which is nothing but the harmyon of 



isound, is now well recognised as an important 
therapeutic agent for calming and soothing 
nervous irritation and in various other nervous 

The nature of electricity is not fully under- 
stood. Life itself possibly is an electro-chemical 
reaction, brought about and maintained by the 
interchange of the intercellular fermentative 
activities. And the human body is a compli- 
cated electrical apparatus : the lungs are the 
battery and the nerves are the wires insulated 
with sheaths of modulated and lipoid coatings. 
If the nerve current propagates at the rate of 
120 meters per second only, while electricity at 
8000 miles, it is because the nerve is not a 
homogenous wire, but interrupted by thousands 
of sympathetic junctions. It is now recognised 
that the insignificant quantity of minerals in 
the diet plays a vital role in the economy. 
It is very likely that they are intimately connect- 
ed with the generation of electric current. 
And like vibrations of light and sound waves, 
the human organism can only adjust within a 
limited range. Beyond that, it provokes death 
by molecular change in the nervous system as 
in electricution. The alternative current 
of 200 voltage kills a dog within 30 seconds, 700 


a horse and about 2000 a human being. 
This also proves that the human body is a better 
electrical machinery, withstanding the shocks of 
2000 voltage, while the horse though superior 
to man in body weight and muscular strength, 
succumbs to shocks of 700 voltage. 

Infectious (daiva-vala) agents are of various 
kinds as a sporozoid in malaria (plasmodium 
malaria)^ a high fungus akin to streptothrix 
actinomyces in tuberculosis (bacillus tuberculosis) 
or a bacterium like gouococcus in gonorrhea, vlt 
seems that the pathogenic microbic agents are 
almost ubiquitous. They are in the soil, water 
and the air. They find themselves upon our skin 
from all sources. But they usually live there a 
harmless saprophytic life, as the horny epidermis 
underlined by a layer of fat offers resistance ta 
their penetration. With each inspiration count- 
less bacteria get admission in the respiratory 
passage, but tliey are retained by the hair in the 
nasal orifices and by the vibratile cilia of the 
mucous membrane. Those who penetrate farther, 
are either expelled with the mucous secretions, 
or by the germicidal mucus they are disinfected 
and pasted on the walls of the nasal orifices. The 
microorganism invade in large colonies the alimen 
tary canal with the ingestion of food and drink^ 


but the hydrochloric acid content of the gastric 
juice possesses a considerable germicidal power. 
The intestine unquestionably is a fovorable placa 
for their growth, as sufficient humidity, warmth 
and nutrition from the residue of the food ara 
found ideally combined, ^d there is hardly any 
antiseptic secretion there to arrest their develop- 
ment. In the gastric cavity are found nearly 
50,000 microbes, in the mouth of duodenum 
30,000, in the cecum 25,000 and in the lower 
intestine about 100,000 per cubic millimeter. 
On the whole, on the same basis of computation 
there are about 412,000,000,000 microbes in the- 
whole of the alimentary canal and every day 
with the feces from 12 to 15 billions are evacuat- 
ed. That they do not increase usually more 
than that, is due to the fact that the fermenta- 
tive bacterial colony counteracts the luxuriant 
growth of the putrefying germs which cannot 
flourish in the acid medium and thus they 
preserve a mutual balance against each other 
so that they can not easily become obnoxious 
to the economv. But in case the vesretative 
microbic flo'ra become active and virulent, they 
reach the lymphatic glands and the liver, where- 
they are destroyed. Of course the toxins 
liberated by the pathogenic micro-organism 


can be absorbed, but they are more or less 
attenuated, modified and made innocuous in the 
hepatic cells and other mechanisms of the body. 
Though the vulva and vagina swarm with 
pathogenic germs, infection through the genito- 
urinary passages is very rare except in venereal 
diseases as gonorrhea, soft chancre and syphilis, 
where even an abrasion, wound or cut is neces- 
sary which generally takes place through the 
sexual congress by the sharp edges of the hair, 
so that the venereal disease-producing germs 
can find a safe lodging place to develop in vita- 
lity and virulence, as they are partly disinfected 
by the germicidal mucous secretion and washed 
away by the force of urination. When the 
morbific agents as streptococcus are introduced 
in the vaginal canal, they are all destroyed 
within forty-eight hours (Meuge) by the abun- 
dant vaginal secretions. 

But even when the pathogenic germs force 
through and invade the economy, the body is 
not defenceless. When their morbific action 
is not very virulent, the leucocytes rush up to 
the locality and destroy them ; if complete 
destruction is not possible for the phagocytes, 
the lesion is circumscribed by the leucocytes 
and the exudation. However, if the morbific 


invading micro-organisms are very virulent, 
then of course the leucocytes are repelled by 
the negative chemotoxic action of their secretory 
toxins. And then they invade the economy 
by the lymphatic or venous path. For blood 
has a considerable germicidal power due to its 
opsonic content. But even in case the microbes 
enter by way of the stomach or the intestine 
and reach the portal vein, they have to pass 
through the formidable fortresses of the bodily 
defensive mechanism — the liver and the lungs 
which exercise a tremendous germicidal action, 
before they can enter into the left heai^t to be 
thrown into the general circulation. And 
whether the microbes enter into the circulatory 
system by the portal vein or penetrating through 
the capillaries, any way in blood they have but 
short-lived existence, for either they are destroy- 
ed or driven into the capillaries, within less than 
ten to fifteen minutes. 

Life is indeed a continuous struggle with 
the micro-organisms to preserve its integrity. 
Even when there is a general invasion, the body 
does not give up the task of self-preservation 
hopelessly. The body enjoys more or less various 
immunities — racial, ancestral, seasonal, inocula- 
tionary, acquired and passive as a natural 


reaction of the organism to counteract the toxia 
products of the disease germs. We know that 
tlie Negro races possess a remarkable immunity 
against yellow fever while they are very suscept- 
ible to tetanus and tuberculosis. The Mongolian 
race is very predisposed to small-pox, but not 
to tuberculosis. It is well known that the 
offsprings of a gouty family are almost immune 
against tuberculosis. And syphilis runs in 
Europe a benign form, which when introduced 
among savages, rages like an epidemic and 
exterminates the population. Seasonal prefer- 
ence for diseases is also well marked as the 
typhoid and the gastro-intestinal diseases in 
the summer, malaria in the autumn, thoracic 
disorders in the winter and pneumonia in the 
spring. It is the Chinese who first noticed 
about four thousand years ago that certain 
diseases like the small-pox gave an immunity 
to its victim against its recurrence. On this 
principle, vaccination has driven away small- 
pox practically from all civilized countries. As 
a prophylaxis against infectious diseases, serum 
therapy is being built up on the sa'me basis, 
inoculating an animal with the virus and thus 
gradually attenuating the virus through a few 
successive animals, a serum can be obtained 


which contains enough of antibodies, but not 
strong enough to cause any malaise, in the 
human system. The inoculation of the attenu- 
ated serum is not only a prophylaxis against 
the disease, but even when the infection takes 
place, it stimulates the resisting power of the 
organism by its bacteriolytic {lysoyenic), agglu- 
tinative and opsonic action. Various sera 
have been made and tried as that of typhoid, 
pneumonia, cholera, but yet only the vaccine 
of small-pox has given completely satisfactory 
result. But undoutedly with the improvement 
of technique and with better knowledge of 
bio-chemistry and bacteriology, modified bacteri- 
al sera promise great results in therapeutics 
in no distant future. 

134j ancient HINDU MEDICINE 



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All infectious diseases are now ascribed to 
microbic agents and they have been all identified 
except in some eruptive fevers as the scarlatina, 
measles, small-pox, varcella {chicken pox) and 
ere long, it is expected they will be isolated. 
The parasytic diseases can be classified this way» 

Diseases due to pyogenetic micrococci : — 
Suppuration, septicemia, erysipelas and gonorrhea. 

Acute diseases due to specific bacilli : — 
Cholera, diphtheria, influenza, meningitis, plague, 
pneumonia, tetanus, typhoid, yellow-fever. 

Chronic diseases due to tissue bacilli : — 
Glanders, leprosy, tuberculosis, mycetoma^ 
{Madura foot). 

Diseases due to protozoa : — Dysentery, filaria- 
sis, kala-azar, malaria, sleeping sickness, syphilis. 

But the same morbific agent may cause local 
or general pathogenesis as for example, when 
pyogenic streptococcus is inoculated subcutane- 
ously, only a local lesion — erysipelas is produced, 
but when it is injected into the veins, it causes 
general infection — septicema. 

The microbes (Icrimi) in the feces originate in 
the same way as those in the lymphatics. Their 
habitat is the intestine. If some of them {krimi) 
travel towards the stomach, then in the breath 
and in the vomiting, there is bad odor. They 


are minute, globular ( micrococci ), white-com- 
piexioned, long (rod-like bacteria as that of the 
anthrax), and like the lamb-hair ( leptothrix )." 
CharakallL 7. 9''. 

Detital caries : "In this disease the microbes 
{krimi)y orginating from corrupt blood, blacken, 
perforate and loosen the teeth." Susruta II. 16, 

The disease-producing germs are introduced 
into the system either through the air as tuber- 
culosis, food and drink as in cholera, through 
soil as in tetanus, personal contact as in gonor- 
rhea, or through an intermediatory as in malaria 
{itnopheles). As long as the microbes remain in 
vegetative state, they simply live as parasites, 
but sparing the host and doing the least harm to 
the economy, as they take only the minimum 
food for their maintenance. It is only when the 
organism is devitalized due to over- work, fatigue. 


malnutrition, or undernutrition that they become 
virulent and by their toxic secretion cause func- 
tional disturbances and reactions. 

Plies deposit microbes in the ulcer and 
when the ulcer is eaten up by those microbes, 
( local ) edema is produced. Snsruta IV. 
1. 103^«. 

Chemical (Msa) agents are many, but they 
can be divided into two classes as endogenous 
and exogenous. The endogenous toxins are those 
that are produced autogenously in the cells as 
metabolic wastes or engendered by the microbes 
that live on tlie body as parasites. The exogen- 
ous toxins may be introduced with rotten, poison- 
ous, indigestive or disharmonious combination of 
food and drink, bites of venomous snakes and 
insects, occupations in lead, copper, corrosive 
chemicals, sulphur, arsenic, quick-silver mines or 
ovens, especially of coke-coals where in addition 
carbon monoxide may be absorbed. 

"Toxins are of two kinds : stable (vegetable 
and metallic ) and mobile ( of animal origin ). 


Stable toxins are divided into ten classes and the- 

mobile toxins into sixteen classes. Eoot, leaf, 
fruit, flower, skin, exudation, juice, extract, 
*dliatu^ {chemical principle or metal) and bulb are 
the sources of sthavara {stable) poisons.'* Susruta 
y. 2.2-3* ». 

**iletention of feces and urine (through absorj)- 
tion of their poisonous contents), day-sleep, keep- 
ing vigil at night, drinking of liquor, exposure to 
cold and wind, sexual excess, exposure to foul 
odor, dust, smoke, wind and the sun, ingestion of 
( excessive quantity of ) foods that are hard to 
digest, acid or vegetables (5^ ^^a= leaves of plants)^ 
drinking of very cold water, receiving a wound in 
the head, acidity due to indigestion, weeping, reten- 
tion of tear, cloudy weather, extreme depression, 
some misfortune to the country and untimely 
season, derange the nerve, venous and lympha- 
tic svstems and vitiate the blood of the brain and 

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thus cause headache with varied symptoms/' 
Charaha 1. 17. 4'^ 

"Foods that are turned into poison by (dishar- 
monious ) combination, are being mentioned ' 

Do not eat meat or fish with the grains of sprout- 
ing rice, fat, honey, milk, molasses or with bean 
( masa-paseolus racUatus ). Do not take clarified 
butter, if it has been kept more than ten days in 
a brass vessel." Susruta 1. 20, 12-13 ^\ 

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"Poison is not the only toxin; unpurified 
copper ( that has not been incinerated and 
calcinated ) is a terrible poison." Rasendra-Sara- 
mragraha 1. 136^*. 

*'Unpurified sulphur (that has not been incin- 
erated and calcinated) produces fever, eczema, 
delirium and bilious disorders." Rasendra-sai^a- 
samgraha 1. 50^^. 

Purified mercury ( that has been incinerated 
and calcinated ) is like real ambrosia, but faulty 
( i. e. incompletely purified or unpurified ) is 
harmful like venom.'* Rasendra-sara-samgraha 
1. 7'^ ' 

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Poisoning miglit also take place from the in- 
gestion of some fish-eggs at the breeding season, 
some fish and molluscs which live on putrefied 
matter, from the cooking earthen vessels that are 
varnished with substances containing lead, arsenic 
or Vermillion, foods that are colored and flavored 
with aniline products or jn-eserved with an 
excessive dose of salicylic acid. 

All the snakes are not poisonous however, for 
though they are provided with a venom gland, 
all of them do not possess an excretory duct, so 
that the venom can not be poured out. 

But all poisons do not act immediately on the 
organism. Some poisons especially the metallic 
ones as arsenic, mercury, lead, sulphur have 
cumulative effect. Though they may be taken 
in small doses, they may be accumulated in the 
liver and the osseous system and after months or 
even years, they might express in violent reac- 
tion of their cumulated effect. But in other 
poisons as that of morphine, alcohol and tobacco, 
the harmful reaction ceases more or less after a 
while when the organism aquires the habit of 
neutralising the noxious substances of those poi- 
sonings. Tobacco not only harms the organism 
by the partial absorption of nicotine, but also by 
the inhalation of carbonic acid, carbonic oxide. 


sulphuretted hydrogen, hydrocyanic acid and 
pyridic bases, which the tobacco smoking pro- 

According to Charaka (III. 6. 4), the diseases 
are innumerable, but Susruta (VI. 66. 6.) calcu- 
lates them as eleven hundred. 


"The physician in order to make a prognosis, 
must examine hj direct (p7'afi/aksa), indirect 
{ amimana = inference ) and differential diagnosis, 
the color [ of the skin % lemon-yellow tint in 
pernicious anemia, waxy pallor in nephritis, 
bronzing in Addison's disease, greenish hue in 
chlorosis, blue skin ( cyanosis ) in conjenital 
heart disease, brownish-yellow coloration in 
jaundice, grayish tinge in the long-continued 
therapeutic ingestion of silver nitrate, yellow 
tint in cancer and a permanent pallor in malarial 
cachexia, tuberculosis, leucemia, syphilis, chronic 
mercurial, lead and arsenic poisoning ], voice 
[ whispering voice ( aplionia ), coarse or harsh 
quality of the voice that is generally known as 
''lioarseness'' ( dijsplionia ) are due to the inflamma- 
tion of the larynx, or disease, or pressure upon 
the recurrent laryngeal nerve ; chronic aphonia 
( hysterical aplionia is only temporary ) is said 


to be prodromal of leprosy and chronic hoarseness 
that of cancer ; deep, hoarse voice and brassy 
cough indicate interference with the superior 
laryngeal nerve and if there is aphonia without 
cough or dysphonea, it may be due to paralysis 
of all the laryngeal muscles ; a flat and toneless 
voice results form one-sided paralysis of a cord 
and a falsetto voice from paresis of the tensors 
of the cords ; the open nasal tone is indicative 
of the paralysis of the soft palate or destruction 
of the soft palate by ulceration, usually syphilitic 
or of congenital cleft of the palate, and the 
closed nasal voice is often suggestive of coryza, 
hay asthma, hypertrophic rhinitis, nasal polypus, 
postnasal adenoids, enlarged faucial tonsils, 
suppurative tonsilitis, acute pharyngitis and 
retropharyngeal abscess ; the varied forms of 
aphasia, motor ( apJwniia, agraphia ), sensory 
( visual, auditory ), conduction, are the sympto- 
matic expressions of the focal cerebral lesion, 
occurring in the left hemisphere in the right 
handed and the right hemisphere in the left- 
handed, but might also occur in cerebral 
hemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism, abscess, 
tumor, gumma, depressed fracture of the skull 
and more rarely in hysteria, neurasthenia and 
immediately after epileptic convulsion ], odor 


[ an unpleasant odor of breath is usually present 
in the mouth of those whose teeth are not 
cleansed and food particles are allowed to 
accumulate on them and to cause decomposi- 
tion and fermentation ; a foul odor in stomati- 
tis and glossitis ; a stale and musty odor 
with the accumulation of sordes upon the 
teeth as in typhoid ; caries of the teeth, necrosis 
of the jaw, pharyngeal or tonsillar diphtheria, 
follicular tonsilitis and locunar concretions 
also produce bad odor ; bat the most fetid 
odor attends the mercurial and gangrenous 
stomatitis and less so scurvy ; in uridrosis 
occurring with diseases in which the action of 
the kidney has been impaired, the sweat has a 
urinous odor, and deposits white scales or 
crystals of urinary solids upon the skin ; there is 
volatile fatty emanation from the sebaceous 
secretion and mixed with perspiration, the odor 
varies in health and sickness, according to age 
and race : among the Negroes, it is the most 
pronounced and in the Mongolian race, it is the 
least ], taste [ a bitter taste is felt in jaundice ; 
a coppery taste in gastro-duodenal catarrh 
( biliousness ) ; diversified taste sensations as 
sweetish, sour, foul are felt when the tongue 
is coated and furred from whatever cause ; 


abnormal taste with the long continued use of 
certain drugs as potassium bromide, iodide or 
tartar emetic ; perversions of taste in hysteria ; 
absence of taste ( ageusia ), if it is unilateral is 
indicative of the disease of the glosso-pharyngeal 
nerve, and if it is bilateral, of the diseases of the - 
nose as coryaa or polypus ; partial impairment 
of taste ( hemiageusia ) may be due to the facial 
paralysis, or due to local conditions of the mucous 
membrane of the tongue, involving the taste 
buds and end-organs of the gustatory fibers, as 
in thickly furred or coated tongue, or due to the 
irritating(as of piperine)or blunting(as of bromides) 
action of the drugs or condiments ), touch (sparsa) 
comprises tactile sense ( esthesic ), pain sense 
( algesic ), temperature sense ( the?'mesthesic ), 
muscle sense ( myesthesic ) i the loss of tactile 
sensibility ( anesthesia ) is indicative of cerebral 
lesions ( causing hemiplegia ), hysteria, traumatic 
neuroses, diseases of the spinal cord, especially 
locomotor ataxia, neuritis and leprosy ; hemi- 
anesthesia, the loss of sensibility confined to one 
side of the body or to lower extremities or of 
unequal distribution, are mainly due to hysteria ; 
an excessive sensibility (hyperesthesia) is gener- 
ally met with in hysteria, chiefly in the hystero- 
genic zones, which are in the breasts and below 


them in the central part of the chest, in the 
pelvic region and the back ; in neurasthenia, 
there are localized hypersensitive tender spots- 
along the spine, scalp and the chest ; in meno- 
pause and gouty diathesis, there are also tender 
points on the scalp ; a general hypersensitiveness 
may be present in influenza, typhoid fever, and 
in alcoholic intoxication , disturbances in the 
heat and cold sensation {thermaesthesic) are due 
to syringomyelia and to a less extent to the 
lesions of the medulla and locomotor ataxia ; 
disturbances of the pain sensation — either hyper- 
— or hypo-sensibility are due to syringomyelia, 
Morvan's disease, hysteria and syphilic chord 
disease ; loss of muscular sensation is characteris- 
tic in locomotor ataxia, paramyoclonus multiplex^ 
myeletic disease, and the lesions in the medulla 
and the pons ; transference of sensation {alio- 
chiria) so that a touch, on one side of the bodv is 
felt on the other, is symptomatic of hysteria,, 
locomotor ataxia, disseminated sclerosis, myeletis;,, 
delayed conduction so that a tactile or pain 
sensation requires 5 seconds or more, instead of 
one-tenth of a second, is characteristic of locomo- 
tor ataxia and peripheral paresis), the eye (edema 
of the eye-lid, particularly the lower one, is. 
usually symptomatic of renal 'disease ; morning. 


puffiness "with bloated face is also seen after a 
night of debauchery or in cases of profound 
anemia, chlorosis or in neurotic adoloscents ; 
in erysipelas, glanders, severe coryza, hay fever^ 
measles, variola and occasionally in varcella, as. 
well as the prolonged use of arsenic and iodine^ 
may induce the swelling of the eye-lids ; ptosis — 
the dropping of the eye-lid — is either congenital 
or due to the paralysis of the third nerve ;. 
lagophthalmos — imperfect closure of the lids^ 
follows paralysis of the orbicularis muscle, either 
due to lesions of the portio dura of the facial 
nerve or leprosy ; blepharospasm — spasmodic 
closure of the lids is due to the reflex excitability 
of the fifth nerve in photophobia, in ocular 
disorders and is symptomatic of meningitis^ 
cerebral tumors, typhus, measles in certain, 
stages of their evolution and may be also present 
without actual inflammation of the membrane in 
hysteria and in chorea in children ; hordeolum — 
a sty or minute boil on the palpebral margin,, 
if small and single may be of local origin or 
indicative of the over-use of defective eves or- 
more frequently of digestive or genital disorders ;. 
blepharitis — inflammation of the margin of the 
lids which become thick, reddened and crusted 
with cheesy secretions, is indicative of scrofula or 


of minute ulceration, resulting from a previous 
oplithalmia or measles, anemia or in tuberculous 
diatliesis ; verruca — warts upon the eye-lids, are 
usually found in the old people, indicating the 
possibility of commencing epithelioma ; syphilic 
ulceration is generally deeply indurated and 
accompanies other stigmata of the tertiary stage ; 
a dusky color of the lids and under the eyes is 
«eea in women during menstruation, in menorrh- 
agia, long-continued leucorrhea and early in 
pregnancy : it may also accompany anemia, 
loss of sleep and in exhausting diseases ; dark 
circles round the eyes are symptomatic of the 
abuses of masturbation ; the yellow color of the 
sclera of the eye is symptomatic of jaundice ; 
bluish- white or pearly sclerotic is seen in anemia, 
pthisis and nephritis ; inflamed conjunctiva is 
usually caused by gonorrheal infection, though 
it may be present in lesser degree in diphtheria, 
measles, hay fever, coryza and influenza of the 
catarrhal type ; the eye may be dry and glazed 
in collapse or the typhoid status ; an increased 
secretion of the watery fluid of the eye {lachry' 
mation) accompanies conjunctivitis, irritation of 
any kind and in alcoholism : inflammation of the 
cornea (keratitis) is mainly of syphilic origin, 
while the ulceration of the cornea — a reddened. 



painful, photopliobic eye may be in relation- 
with exophtlialmic goitre ; protrusion of tlie- 
eye-ball (exophthalmos) is symptomatic of exoph- 
thalmic goitre and may be also present in lesser 
degree in spasmodic asthma or other conditions, 
attended by dyspnoea ; recession of the eye-ball 
or the sinking of the eye-ball into the orbit 
(enophthalmos)ma,j be provoked by any wasting 
disease as consumption, malaria, cancerous- 
cachexia, by absorbing the cushion of fat of 
the orbital cavity ; dimness of vision may 
be provoked by uremia, diabetes, excessive 
abuse of tobacco, hysteria and migrane ;, 
light appears yellowish in jaundice, and 
reddish after nervous irritation, fatigue 
and in wasting diseases), eai' (unusally promi- 
nent, long or misplaced ears with absence of 
helix, antihelix, or lobule, are degenerative 
stigmata ; tophi — small, hard, gritty accretions- 
of chalky masses of sodium urate, seen as- 
nodules in the external ear alons: the marc^in 
or in the depressions, is of gouty diathesis ; a 
very thin, waxy and bluish ear may indicate- 
general anemia or chlorosis; but a thickened and a 
deformed ear with the effusion of blood between 
the cartilages and the perichondrium (hematoma 
auris\ is a trophoneurosis of the general 


paralytic and the insane ; the flow of pus 
{otorrhea) from the meatus, which is very 
common among children and often associated 
with intense pain, due to inflammation of the 
tympanum (otitis media,) caused hy tonsilitis, 
influenza or measles, is usually without serious 
consequences, deafness is indicative of the 
disease of the tympanum, eustacian tuhe or the 
auditory nerve : it can be easily found out by 
placing a watch at a varying distance from the 
car and if its ticking sound is not audible by 
aerial conduction, and then if the same watch 
is placed upon the mastoid process and the 
sound becomes audible by bone conduction, 
then it clearly indicates that there is no nervous 
lesion and the deafness is due to local hindranc- 
es : the auditory nerve and its cortical center 
may be affected by syphilis, which is usually 
the case or by tuberculosis by injuring the 
nerve endings : quinine, salicylic acid or the 
salicylates may also provoke temporary deafness 
by causing labyrinthine hyperemia ; hypersen- 
sitiyeness of hearing (oxyacoia) and the buzzing, 
roaring, hissing sound {tinnitus auriiim)^ are 
due either to nervous irritability or to rhino- 
pharyngeal catarrh, with involvment of the 
eustacian tube or the middle ear), nose [a coarse 


and broad nose is symptomatic of myxedema 
and cretanism ; a depressed and sunken nose 
is syphilitic unless there is traumatic fracture 
of the bone ; a pinched and distorted nose may 
"be due to obstruction of polypus, tumor or 
adenoid growth ; a chronic redness of the nose 
with dilated capillaries is indicative of alcoholism, 
otherwise of chronic digestive disorders or 
amenorrhea ; an intense pain in the nose is 
symptomatic of syphilic lesion and a burning 
pain, to catarrhal inflammations ; a sensation of 
dryness is felt in the preliminary stages of 
coryza ; sneezing — the spasmodic expiration, is 
due to the direct (presence of any foreign body 
or the inhalation of irritant substances as pep- 
per, snuff and in the early stage of coryza, 
mesales, pertussis, hay fever, asthma) or reflex 
{as in hysteria) irritation of the sensory nerves 
of the nose; nasal stenosis — difficulty of brea- 
thing through the nose, if acute, is symptomatic 
of an acute coryza, diphtheria, hay fever or 
prodromal of typhus fever, glanders and variola, 
and if chronic, it is either due to the obstruction 
to lymphoid growths as in children or to congeni- 
tal syphilis ; ulceration of the mucous mem- 
brane is usually a manifestation of tertiary 
syphilis or tuberculosis and might be followed 


"by necrosis and caries of the bones ; the ulcera- 
ted surfaces of syphilic origin is covered with 
a dry, greenish crust and the stench of the 
breath is sickening ; non-offensive, watery 
discharge from the nose marks tlie beginning 
of acute coryza, hay fever, pertussis, measles, 
typhus fever, catarrhal form of influenza and 
iodism ; offensive discharge accompanied with 
greenish -gray crusts and its foul odor impercep- 
tible to the subject, is symptomatic of syphilic 
necrosis or of atrophic rhinitis ; a discharge of 
blood from the nose (epistaxis) may have varied 
causes as alcoholism which renders the vessels 
to rupture, adenoid growths, ulceration in the 
nose, suppressed menstruation, chronic nephri- 
tis, cerebral thrombosis, and may be prodromal 
of typhoid or other eruptive fever infection ; 
loss of sense of smell (anosmia) may be due to 
local obstruction as polipi or adenoid growths, 
or chronic rhinitis and if it be only temporary, 
it may be of neurotic origin as hysteria or 
neurasthenia, and if it be permanent, the 
olfactory anesthesia may be caused by nasal 
necrosis of the bone, supporting the tract, or a 
tumor involving the nerve ; hypersensitiveness 
to smell {hypei'osmia)^ hallueinary smell {paros- 
mia) and an offensive smell (kahosmia) 


without any physical basis, are all of neurotic 
origin], tongue [the colour of the tongue, 
the only mucous membrane of the body, 
except the oral and the faucial, that is open to 
naked eye inspection, changes according to 
health, digestion and especially to tlie gastric 
condition to which it is closely related : it is 
pallid in anemia, bluish in cyanosis, reddish in 
gastric hyper-acidity, bright-red in the first stage 
of scarlet fever and in the inflammation of the 
tongue ( glossitis ), and greyish in nigrities ; a 
great enlargement of the tongue takes place in 
acromegaly and myxedema, but the tongue also 
swells considerably in variola, salivary calculus 
and in angina Ludovici ; the coating of the 
tongue consists of the accumulated epithelium, 
micro-organisms and food detritus : a thin -white 
coated tongue may be normal among the smokers 
or those who are accustomed to breathe through 
the mouth, but it usually accompanies mild 
gastro-intestinal disorder, nasopharyngeal catarrh 
or light fevers ; a flabby, swollen, indented 
tongue, covered with a yellow, pasty fur, is 
symptomatic of catarrhal gastritis, gastro-duode- 
nitis or febrile conditions ; a narrow tongue with 
a deep median fissure on each side of which 
there is a rough, thick, brownish fur, or if it be 


dry, red and glazed, is characteristic in typhoid 
status in its early and late stages ; a covered 
tongue with white fur through which project 
swollen and bright-red fungiform papilla, is 
indicative of measles and other eruptive fevers ; 
if one side of the tongue is higher than the other, 
this is due to the unilateral lingual paralysis 
and associated with hemiplegia ; if the tongue lies 
motionless in the floor of the mouth and the 
•subject is unable to protrude it and the functions 
of speech, mastication and deglutition are serious- 
ly impaired, it is due to' the total lingual 
paralysis, caused by thrombosis or sypbilic lesion], 
skin [ dryness of the skin {anidrosis) is observed 
in cholera, myxedema, diabetes, Bright's disease, 
dropsy and in the first stage of many acute 
diseases, attended by high fever ; moist skin 
and increased perspiration {hyperidrosis) occurs 
in typhoid fever, tuberculosis, trichinosis, tetanus 
and in rheumatism, but the rheumatic sweat is 
strong in odor and acid in reaction ; in many 
acute diseases ^critical sweats* suddenly break 
out with the fall of temperature as in pneumonia 
with the termination of paroxysm as in malaria, 
or the night sweats of tuberculosis and other 
wasting diseases ; partial or localized sweating is 
caused by the deranged innervation of the 


^aso-motor nerves and by the local vaso-motor 
paresis : this is particularly marked in rhachitis 
and in which disease, which usually occurs 
among children, the sweat is confined to the head 
and the patient rolls his head at night and the 
liair on the back of the head is rubbed off ; 
sweating of the hands and feet are seen in gener- 
vhI debility ; unilateral or one-sided sweating of 
the head and face may arise from destructive 
pressure on the sympathetic nerves, causing 
paralysis of the dilator fibers of the ciliospinal 
branches, as in thoracic aneurism, suppurative • 
parrotities, migrane, neuralgia ; unilateral 
sweating of the body (hemodrosis) occurs in 
liembplegia : eccymosis and petechiae — purple 
patches caused by extravasation of blood into 
the skin, appear in many diseases and drug 
poisonings as in acute yellow atrophy of the 
liver, pernicious anemia, in advanced stage of 
cancer of the liver and the stomach, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis (epidemic), cyanosis, diphtheria, 
jaundice (in severe forms), old age ( in the extre- 
meties ), poliosis rheumatica, pyemia, advanced 
cirrhosis ( hepatic or renal ), septicema, tuber- 
culosis (with extreme debility), typhoid fevers, 
ulcerative (malignant) endocarditis, yellow fever, 
and the rashes may be caused either by idiosyn- 


crasy or by poisoning with antipyrine, arnica, 
arsenic, atropine, belladonna, cannabis indica^ 
capsicum, chloral, copper, croton oil, digitalis, 
iodine, ergot, lead, mercury, morphine, opium, 
potassium iodide and bromide, quinine, salicylat- 
es, santonine, silver, sulphur, tar, tartar emetic ,. 
inflammatory eruption in cerebro-spinal fever, 
dengue, glanders (acute), erysipelas, syphilis ; 
exanthematous eruption in measles, rubella, 
scarlatina, varicella, variola ], mi/^c? (dullness of 
mind is seen in cerebral inflammations, scleroses 
of the brain, and in brain tumors), concentration 
of mind, pui^ity (hygienic conditions), disposition^ 
behavior^ memory [ memory is impaired (amnesia) 
in paralytic dementia, epilepsy, neurasthenia, 
the over-use of bromides and in old age], shape 
and general configuration of the body {aJcTti — tall, 
thin subjects with slender ribs, and a long 
narrow thorax are predisposed to tuberculosis of 
the lungs ; short, stout, thick-boned persons 
with florid face are predisposed with sumptuous 
living to obesity and gouty diathesis), tempera- 
7nent ( irritability of temper is often associa- 
ted with gout, rheumatism, jaundice and 
neurasthenia ; change of temper is seen in 
pregnancy, typhoid fever, menopause and at 
the early stage of the exophthalmic goitre ; melan- 


choly mood is marked in hepatic lesions), perver- 
sions ( abnormalities of shape result from the 
following diseases as rachitis, acromegaly, my- 
xedema, pulmonary osteo-arthopathy, osteitis de- 
formans, osteomalcia), strength, endurance, in- 
telligence, cheerfulness, leanness ( as in consump- 
tion), obesity, lassitude^ beginning of the disease, 
acuteness (of the disease), lightness (of the disease) 
physical characteristics, dietary, habits^ quantity 
of food (that is consumed), the prevention of the 
disease ( prophylaxis ), the cure of the disease, 
the pi'eliminary symptoms of the disease, pain 
(pain is caused by the lesion of the peripheral, 
or the central nervous system, or indirectly by 
affecting the general economy; *acute pain'' is 
characteristic of acute inflammations of the serous 
and synovial membranes as in pleurisy or in joint 
inflammations ; *dull pain* is characteristic of the 
inflammation of the mucous membranes and the 
parenchymatous viscera ; *paroxysmaV or remit- 
ting pain^ is characteristic of neuralgias and 
colics; ^shifting pain' is charcteristic of rheumat- 
ism, hysteria, locomotor ataxia, trichinosis ; 
^gnawing or boiling pain' is charcteristic in the 
diseases of the spinal column, thoracic and abdo- 
minal aneurism, periosteal inflammations, gastric 
carcinoma, and occasionally in gouty and lithemic 


lesions ; ^cramp' — the sudden painful spasm of 
certain muscles, aside from the occupation ••ramps, 
from the over-use of fingers as in writer's 
cramp, whether it is of the calf, toes or the abdo- 
men is usually characteristic of gastro-intestinal 
diseases and flatulence by causing an excessive 
tension to the muscular wall of the stomach and 
the intestine ; diffuse pain as in fever ; pain in 
the vertex — the crown of the head, is characteristic 
in neurasthenia, diseases of ovaries, uterus^ 
bladder, epilepsy, hysteria, anemia, chlorosis 
in the frontal and the temporal region of the^ 
head, in nephritis, uremia, eye strain, iritis, glau- 
coma, dyspepsia, constipation, syphilic nodes, 
lithemia, rheumatism of the scalp ; in the 
occipetal and cervical region : spinal irritation, 
diseases of the cervical vertebrae, dyspepsia, 
constipation, syphilis (very frequent), uterine 
lesions, eye strain, carous teeth, nephritis, uremia, 
cerebellar tumor, meningitis, adenoids of pharynx,, 
naso-pharyngeal diseases, middle ear diseases, 
rheumatism ; in the parietal region : dysmenorr- 
hea, diseases of ear and bone, cancer of tongue, 
hysteria, lithemia ; in the eye-balls : ophthalmo- 
plegia internaa inflammation of conjunctiva, iris, 
cornea, coryza, neuralgia of the fifth nerve, as- 
thenopia (eye strain) ; in the nose : acute rhinitis 


diphtheria, glanders, primary syphilis ; aural 
region : ottitis media, furuncle of meatus^ mas- 
toid abscess, polypus, carous teeth, alveolar ab- 
scess, cancer of tongue, aneurism of innominate 
dentition, temporo-maxillary rheumatism, syphi- 
litic or carous lesion of maxillary or temporal 
bones ; in the front neck : myalgia, cervical caries 
or abscess, sprains, inflamed lymph glands, aneu- 
rism of innominate ; nape of neck : rheumatism, 
neurasthenia, laryngitis, cerebrospinal meningitis^ 
tetanus, cervico-occipital neuralgia; throat: tonsi- 
litis, pharyngitis, scarlatina, diphtheria, cascinomaj^ 
laryngitis, irritant poisoning ; jaw : dental affec- 
tions, salivary calculus, neuralgia of maxillary- 
nerve, parotitis, actinomycosis ; shoulder : rheu- 
matism, synovitis, diaphragmatic pleurisy, dilated 
stomach or colon, duodenitis, colitis, neuritis, 
gallstone colic, hepatic diseases ; sternum : gas- 
tric diseases, bronchitis, epidemic influenza, tabes,, 
spinal apoplexy, angina pectoris, mediastinal ab- 
scess or tumor; breast : uterine and ovarian lesions, 
hysteria, menstruation and diseases of mamma -^ 
umbilicus : gallstone, hernia, carcinoma of omen- 
tum, tumor or ulcer of stomacli ; chest : pleurisy,^ 
acute pneumonia, pericarditis, phthisis, medias- 
tinal tumor; hysteria; flatulence, pericarditis ; 
right hypocondrium gall stones ( particularly )^. 


liepatic diseases; carcinoma of stomach, 
pancreas or duodenum ; movable kidney, 
uremia, pleurisy ; left hypochondrium ; 
gastritis, colitis, uremia, peritonitis, enlarged 
spleen ; precordia : functional disorders of heart, 
endocarditis, thrombosis of pulmonar artery, 
gout, hysteria, locomotor ataxia, angina pectoris, 
pyrosis ; Interscapular : flatulence, gastric in- 
flammation or ulcer, rheumatism ; lumbar : 
lumbago, fatigue, flatulence, appendicitis, hernia, 
dysmenorrhea, kidney lesions, prostatis ; epigas- 
trum : gastric lesions, appendicitis, gallstones, 
ulcer of duodenum^carcinoma of pancreas,cholera 
asiatica ; uremia, hepato-optosis, enteroptosis ; 
abdomen : gastralgia, especially hyper-acidity, 
arsenical, mercurial or lead poisoning, peritonitis, 
hernia, intestinal tuberculosis, flatulence, tabes, 
pancreatic lesions, leucemia, dysmenorrhea, 
diabetes ; right iliac : appendicitis, ovaritis, 
impactedcecum, colitis hernia, varicocele ; left 
iliac : colitis, impacted sigmod, hernia, ovaritis, 
varicocele; pubic region: cystitis, uterine or 
ovarian lesions, ectopic pregnancy, pyelitis, 
carcinoma of the bladder ; sacral region : 
uterine, ovarian, or testicular lesions, excessive 
venery, ulcer of rectum, sciatica; spine : 
iiysteria, neurastiienia, carcinoma of the liver. 


rachitis, scurvy, febrile affectations, spinal 
curvature, mediastinal tumor ; anterior thigh : 
ovarian or uterine diseases, pregnancy or displaced 
uterus, dysmenorrhea, renal colic, impacted 
feces ; posterior thigh : sciatica, locomotor 
ataxia, impacted feces ; leg : rheumatism, perios- 
titis, leucemia, locomotor ataxia, spinal meningi- 
tis ; calf : cramp due to nephritis, gout, diabetes, 
hysteria and over exertion ; heel : gout, neuras- 
thenia, ovarian lesion, achilodinia ; sole of foot : 
plantar neuralgia, disease of prostrate, erythro- 
imelalgia, ; in the articular joints : rheumatism, 
gonorrheal arthritis, synovitis, syphilis, tubercu- 
.losis, scurvy, neuralgia, pyemia, rachitis ; 
testicle : orchitis, or epididymitis ; penis and 
perinium : vesical calculus, or the passage 
of the uric acid crystals (gravel), inflammation or 
ulceration of the bladder, or irritation of the cal- 
culus in the ureter or urethra ; diffuse pain in the 
extremities : multiple neuritis, muscular rheuma- 
tism, spinal meningitis, influenza, rachitis, trichi- 
nosis), complaints^ gracefulness (of the body), com- 
jplexion (a dull, muddy complexion in hepatic 
lesion, constipation and digestive troubles), dreams 
(dream as a diagnostic aid has not yet been 
thoroughly evaluated, as the phenomenon of 
•dream is complex and it is hard to analyze it, 


but it is well kaown that nightmares are usually 
caused by indigestion, and it is probable tliat the 
dream images are formed by the digestive 
activity, action of the heart and the peripheral 
impressions or the indirect pressure of the full 
bladder or impacted feces during sleep, reacting 
on the central nervous system, awaking the 
memory centers which for lack of co-ordination, 
become distorted and fragmentary), messenger's 
countenance, disturbances on the road^ the condi- 
tions of the sick-room, medicines, the reactions 
of the medicines {[\\)on. the patient), and advice 
about the medical prescriptions'' Charaka 

V. 1. 1«^ 

Predispositions (to diseases) are of six kinds : 
racial^ (Negroes are predisposed to tuberculosis, 
the Mongolian race to small-pox, Whites to yellow- 
fever, Jews to diabetes and insanity), ancestral 
( congenital syphilis, arthritic diatliesis ), geo- 

65. T% ^g "m ^ ^l^ ?wg ?q^^ "^Wi "^^ "^T^sra T^i^m "fm^m 
^^^m Mm^ ^N^ jft^f^i^pirg ^rf^raiyif^^ n§ff?rg f^wm ^^^ f^\Wi 
%«?T =^ '^^'^^ ^^ #=?^ cT^ '^\v^^^ ^\<^^ ^rr^g ^^i-^k^ ftw^rar- 


graphical (malaria localized in marshy places, 
where anopheles — a genus of mosquitos — an 
intermediatory of its infection can grow and 
thrive ), periodical ( epidemics — pneumonia is 
usually prevalent in the spring, influenza in the 
winter), according to age ( there are particular 
diseases of infancv. vouth, middle-aii^e and old- 
age) and individual (idiosyncrasy as susceptihility 
of certain persons to milk, oysters, strawberries 
etc. producing eczema, diarrhoea etc.) Charaka 
V. I. 3'«. 

"So the respiration (the respiration rate of 
the ne«'born is 44? ; at five years, 26 ; in the 
adult, 16 to 20 ; in health it is faster standing 
than lying, during the day than at night, after 
meals than when fasting, in spring than ia 
autumn, and during exercise, emotional and 
mental excitement than when at rest ; and there 
is about four pulse beats for one respiration ; 
rapid respiration is observed in pulmonary 
lesions, in lobar pneumonia and also in fever^ 
especially in children by the indirect influence of 
the heated blood on the medulla ; slow respiration 
is observed in coma, collapse and poising with 


opium, chloral, chloroform or antimony ; jerking 
inspiration is indicative of asthma, hysteria, 
liyclrophohia ; jerking expiration in acute pleurisy 
and fractured rib ; stertorous respiration (snoring) 
is observed in apoplectic, uremic, diabetic coma, 
narcotic poisoning and paralysis of the soft 
palate, aside it is also observed in otherwise 
healthy individuals, especially children who have 
adenoids or enlarged tonsils and in grown-ups who 
are very tired and consequently there is muscular 
relaxation or are accustomed to mouth breathing, 
for the snoring sound arises from the vibration 
from the soft palate when breathing from the 
mouth and the nose at the same time ; stridulous 
or harsh respiration is due to some obstruction 
of the air passage through the larynx, caused 
through tumor, inflammation or any foreign 
body ; wavy or uneven respiration is symptomatic 
of pneumonia) ; neck ( a long, scrawny neck with 
projecting larynx is indicative of tuberculous 
diathesis and is usually correlated with the 
pthisinoid chest, while a short and thick neck 
with apoplectic predisposition ; rigidity of the 
neck, if chronic, may arise from the lesion of the, 
cervical vertebrae, caused by syphilic necrosis, 
arthritis or the affectation of the cervical muscles 
by rheumatism and if acute, through the inflam- 


mations of cervical glands, tumors or boils inter- 
fering with movements of the neck ; nodes upon 
the clavical bones, resembling the callus, but 
not caused by trauma, indicate tertiary sypbilie 
lesion ; but tumefaction above the clavicles- 
occur in amphysema and myxedema ; temporary 
swelling of the thyroid takes place during men- 
struation, or after sexual union, especially in 
women after first connubial embrace ; but a. 
chronic enlargement is generally symptomatic 
of exopthalmic goitre, but may be also due to 
adenoma, cancer, tuberculosis or gumma of 
the gland : an atrophied and depressed thyroid 
is observed in myxedema and cretinism ; ten- 
derness of the neck may be caused by the 
inflammation of the lymphatic glands of the 
region from any cause as cervico-occipital 
neuralgia, cervical myalgia or cervical caries),, 
teeth (a baby should have six teeth when one year 
old, twelve when a year and half old, sixteen 
when two years old, twenty when two and half 
years old ; milk teeth : 2 lower central incisors 
appear between six to nine months ; 4 upper 
incisors between eight to twelve months ; 2: 
lower lateral incisors and 4 anterior molars 
between twelve to fifteen months ; 4 canines 
between eighteen to twenty-four months ; four 


posterior molars between twenty-four to thirty 
anonths ; permanent teeth : 6 first molars 
appear between six and seven years ; 
8 incisors between eight to nine years ; 8 bicus- 
pids ( 'premolars ) between 9 to 11 years ; 
4 canines between II to 14 years ; 2 second 
molars between 12 to 15 years ; 4 third molars 
between 17 to 25 years ; premature eruption of 
teetli is indicative of congenital syphilis or tuber- 
cular diathesis while delayed dentition that of 
rachitis or cretinism ; if the permanent upper 
central incisors are dwarfed, narrowed, short, 
peg-like or somewhat rounded, tapering from 
gum to edge, with a single, shallow and discolor- 
ed notch in the edge, it is a sure sign of conge- 
nital sypliilis, especially if it be associated with 
keratitis and middle-ear disease ; dentated or 
furrowed teeth originate from malnutrition or 
an acute illness during infancy, sufficiently severe 
to interfere with the nutrition ; looseniog of the 
teeth in their sockets is associated with the 
ulcerated, spongy or bleeding gums and there- 
fore it can be ascribed to mercurial or gangren- 
ous stomatitis, pyorrhea alveolaris, scurvy or 
phosphorus poisoning ; a collection of sticky, 
dark-brown paste ( sordes ) upon the teeth, 
gums and the lips, sometimes stained with biood 


oozing from the gums, is very often present in 
typhoid and other low fevers ; gritting or grind- 
ing of the teeth among the children is usually 
associated with gastro-intestinal disorders ; erosion 
of the teeth takes place in gouty suhjects, with 
loss of polish of tlie labial surface, followed by 
■grooves which extend into the gums, causing 
inflammation, necrosis, formation of calculi 
( tartar ), loosening of the teeth and pyorrhea 
alveolaris ; early, excessive or rapid dental caries 
may be due to rachitis, but also takes place in 
pregnancy, diabetes or chronic phosphorus 
poisoning ; dyspepsia, chronic gastritis, constipa- 
tion, diarrhoea, persistent aural, nasal, opthalmic 
affections, nervous irritability, neuralgias or 
jnigraines may be easily caused by the carous 
teeth or pus sockets by the absorption of the 
toxin and the ingestion of microbes with the 
mastication of food ), liver and the spleen 
( |;«ta= sides S the liver is the largest gland 
of the body and lies beneath the diaphragm in 
the right hypocondrium and the upper part of 
the epigestrurn, about the size of 3 by 5 inches 
and weiajhios: between two and half to three and 
half pounds ; enlargement of the liver which can 
be felt through palpation, occur in chronic malaria, 
hypertrophic cirrhosis, leucemia, hydatids, fatty 


infiltration, abscess, tumor, gummata or cancer ; 
progressive lessening ( atrophy ) of the liver 
takes place in cirrhosis ; displacement of the 
liver upward may be due to pressure from below 
by large abdominal tumors, meteorism or ascites, 
and by downward pressure on the diaphragm by 
emphysema, spasmodic asthma, large right 
pleural effusion, large intrathoracic tumor, a 
dilated heart or a pericardial effusion^; abnormal 
rough, hard and resistant surface is indicative of 
cirrhosis, carcinoma, amyloid or syphilic lesion : 
the spleen is of oval, flattened shape and lies 
in the left hypocondriac region between the 
stomach and the diaphragm, of almost the same 
size as the liver ; the rapid enlargement of the 
spleen takes place in any acute infection, as in 
typhoid, malaria and other fevers, tuberculosis,, 
small pox, diphtheria, pneumonia, cerebro-spinal 
meningitis, puemia or general scepticemia; 
chronic enlargement of the spleen occurs in 
pernicious malaria, in splenic anemia, hepatic 
cirrhosis ), eyes^ hairs, [ kesa = \oug hairs as of 
the head and the beard; /oma = small and fine 
hairs of the other parts of the body : the hair 
is luxuriant, bright, oily and wavy in hyper- 
secretion of thyroid as in Grave's, Basedow's 
diseases and the hair is dry, coarse, stiff and 



sparse in hypo-secretion of tlie thyroid as in 
myxedema, cretinism ; early gray hair before- 
forty is usually associated with the premature 
arterial degeneration ( enderteritis ) but it 
is said that the sudden loss of pigmentation of 
the hair may take place at times under the 
influence of terrible fright, anxiety or deep 
emotion ; tendency to premature grayness of the 
hair may be hereditary ; circumscribed grey 
patches of hair may be due to trophic clianges^ 
brought about by the lesion of the fifth nerve 
and its branches ; undue and rapid loss of hair 
( alopecia ) is indicative of syphilic lesion, but 
this must not be confounded with the excessive 
falling out of hair which takes place during 
convalescence from acute diseases, as typhoid, 
malaria, nor with that following an attack, 
of gout or erysipelas, for in syphilis the hair 
can be easily pulled in large masses without 
causing pain and the hair does not usually 
reappear ; in anemia, phthisis pulmonalis, 
myxedema, hydrocephalis, and the severe 
neuralgias of the fifth nerve, the hair is 
usually thinned ; premature loss of hair may 
be a hereditary family trait], abdomen [by in- 
vspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation, 
abdomen can be utilized of a great diagnostic^ 


value : smooth, shining and stretched skin (in 
the abdomen) is observed in abdominal disten- 
sion ; whitish stricks or striae are indicative of 
previous long-continued distension as in ascites, 
fat or pregnancy, and in extreme case, the 
whitish stricks {Ihieae alhioantes) may be observed 
also on the buttocks and the upper portions of 
the thigh ; copper-colored, scaly, somewhat 
circular spots upon the abdomen are indicative 
of secondary syphilis, as well as the brownish or 
yellowish macular areas of cloasma, which may 
be also present ; enlarged glands in the groins 
-signify either venerial infection or bubonic 
plague and their retracted cicatrices of their past 
lesions ; enlarged superficial abdominal veins, 
radiating from the umbilicus, appear in portal 
obstruction, through hepatic cirrhosis or tumor, 
ascites of long duration or greatly dilated sto- 
mach ; the navel (umbilicus) ia deeply retracted 
in stout people ; if projecting it may be due to 
portal obstruction, pregnancy or hernia ; it is 
flattened or protruding in excessive ascites, or 
abdominal distentions ; fixation of the umbilicus 
is significant of hepatic malignant cancer ; the 
abdominal wall may be thick from the deposit of 
fat or edema and if it be thin with shrivelled skin, 
it may be due either to old age, wasting disease. 


repeated pregnancies or as a reaction of long- 
standing distension from ascites ; the abdomen 
may be distended by the accumulation of fat in 
the abdominal wall, or fluid in the perital cavity 
or gas ill the alimentary canal or the presence of 
a large tumor ; swelling in the gastric area may 
be due to tumor, abscess or cancer on the gastric 
wall, hepatic cancer or pancreatic cyst or scler- 
osis or tlie distension of the gall-bladder either 
with concretions or pus ; swelling in the hepatic 
area may be due to tumor, cancer, hypertrophic 
cirrhosis, hydatid cyst or passive congestion of 
the liver or sympathetically from the distended 
gall-bladder stuffed with concretions and pus ; 
-swelling in the splenic area may be due to mov- 
able or prolapsed spleen, perinephritic abscess, 
or congested movable kidney, or cancer of the 
stomacli ; the swelling of the appendical area is 
symptomatic of acute appendicitis ; swelling in 
tlie pelvic area may be due to distended bladder, 
or by the distended uterus by tumor or detained 
menstrual fluid {imperforate hymen) ; swelling 
in the sigmoid area may be due to the impaction 
of feces, tuberculous or cancerous peritonitis, 
ulcer of colon, ovarian tumor or cyst of broad 
ligament], nails (curving of the nails with clubbed 
fingers, occur only in chronic diseases as phthisis 


emphysema, aneurism or chronic cardiac 
diseases ; malforraaLion, frasjilitv. dryness or 
cracking of the nails may be due to injury, 
syphilis or due to trophic defects, resulting from 
nerve lesion, neuritis, syringomyelia or pul- 
monary osteo-arthopathy ; arrested gro\Yth of 
nails may be due to hemiplegia from cerebral 
apoplexy or acute infantile paralysis ; enlarge- 
ment of the nails with thickening and sometimes 
twisting occurs in the course of syphilis, sclero- 
dactyly and typhoid fevers ; the nails in some 
cases of Raynaud's disease, become dry, scaly 
and cracked or hypertrophied ; ecchymoses and 
ulcers at the bases of the nails may be due to 
chloral habit, but in a child {onychia) to syphi- 
lis or scrofulous diathesis ; white marks or 
transverse grooves on the surface of the nails 
may indicate, unless due to injury, the period 
of recovery from a recent acute illness ; 
the growth of the nail from the matrix to 
the end requires about six months and as the 
white marks develop at the root of the nail and 
with the growth of the nail, the transverse 
goooves also ascend higher and so a rough esti- 
mate can be made from their position of the 
time that has elapsed since the convalescence set 
in ; hard, brittle, and longitudinally striated 


nails are observed in gouty subjects), finger 
(distorted fingers are due to gout, arthritis defor- 
mans and less frequently to chronic rheumatism ; 
hard, white, glissening masses {tophi) may be 
present in the joints or along the tendons, on 
account of the accumulation of the sodium urate 
in gout and consequently in gout and rheuma- 
tism, the joints of the fingers are enlarged 
and painful , the tophi is more prominent on 
the dorsal surface of the joints and it sometimes 
breaks through the skin, so that the chalk-like 
concretion exudes ; knobby enlargements of the 
proximal ends of the terminal phalanges (end- 
joint arthritic nodes ) may be due either to gout 
or arthritis deformans and small crab-eye cysts 
may be formed over the nodes ; the tips of the 
fingers may be bulbous or club-shaped in 
chronic lung diseases as phthisis or chronic heart 
affection ; the claw hand occurs in consequence 
of atrophy and paralysis of the interossei and 
lumbrical muscles due to neuritis of the median 
and ulnar nerves ; the spade hand with large, 
coarse, thick fingers and broad nails is observed 
in myxedema, but in which only the soft parts 
are affected, while in acromegaly, the bones are 
enlarged ; the hand of the individual of a 
nervous temperament is firm, fine, delicate and 


dexterous ; of sanguine temperament, broad, 
heavy, strong and energetic ; of plilegmatic 
temperament soft and clammy ; coldness of the 
hands and feet, with or witliout tendency to 
sweating, if persisting for a long time, is due to 
neurasthenia, anemia, chronic digestive disorders^ 
gout, cardiac or pulmonary diseases, interfering: 
with the circulation) should be observed." 

Charaka V. 3. 5'^ 

*'When he does that (vomits), the physician 
should examine the expectorated matter from the 
spittoon with attention." Charaka I. 15. 16® \ 

Urine was examined for its color, consistence, 
taste and smell, only in genito-urinary diseases. 
{Charahi II. 4 ; Susruta II. 6) but sputum, 
feces and semen as a vitality test and as a 
prognosis in diseases : "According to the 
sayings of the wise, his life is at an end, whose 
sputum, feces and semen sink, when thrown into 
water." Charaka V. 9. 14*". Susruta gives 
elaborate details of the prognostic symptoms : — 

67, cfm^'^W'^'^TK'^q^'^^'.^Sl^'Tt^^^ITF^^a^ ^=^?t_l \^fl- 

68. cT^s^ %Tn sifh^i'^iiciHt^cf I =^^€'i%cTT, ^5^^pm, u ^: II 


"He whose complexion is changed into pale- 
brownisli (in Addison's disease), reddish (hypere- 
mia ; chlorosis rubra), yellowish (jaundice or 
icterus) or i)lue-purplish (cyanosis), he is near 
his death. He who suddenly loses his modesty, 
beautiful appearance, ability to hold himself 
upright and personal charms (in apoplexy, asudden 
loss of consciousness is followed by paralysis, due 
to cerebral hemorrhage or blocking of an artery 
of the brain by an embolus or thrombus), he can« 
be regarded as dead. Wliose loioer lip hangs down 
(the lips are loose and pendulous in diphtheretic- 
paralysis or chronic bulbar palsy), upper Up 
twitches up (twitching or trembling of the lips is 
index of general paralysis or bulbar palsy),or both 
the lips have the colour of ripe plums (the colour 
of the ripe plum is dark bluish, that is cyanotic : 
in diseases of the heart or the lungs, especially 
the chronic forms, owing to dyspnoea, the 
lips are open, dry and cyanosed), his life is 
hard to save. He whose teeth are reddish (stained 
with blood — sordes — in typhoid prostration),^ 
or pale brownish ( stained from the deposit of 
foul matter in jaundice on the tongue ), or like 
polished collyrium (dark black deposit is found 
on the tongue in Addison's disease or nigritis ),. 
or have fallen ( loosening of the teeth in their 


sockets may be due to pyorrhea alveolaris, 
scurvy, purpura hemorrhagia, and extensive 
and rapid dental caries is common in diabetes or 
rachitis ), can be regarded as dead. He whose 
tongue is black ( in Addison's disease or nigrites) 
paralyzed ( in basal meningitis, syphilic lesion, 
tumor or cerebral hemorrhage ), swollen 
( glossitis may occur in various diseases as 
variola, erysipelas or sceptimia ), or dry and 
fissured ( in the typhoid status ), is near his 
death." Susnda I. 31. 2-6' ^ 

He whose hair looks oily (in hyperthyroidism), 
though not smeared with oil, does not live long. 

■ 70. W^ ^tff fcT^ ^m if^^ ^ *TR^ I 


and knowing this, the wise ( physician ) should 
give him up. CharaJca V, 8. 7^^ 

Susruta says^^, *'Nervous diseases, 'prameha^ 
( diahetes and gonorrhea ), leprosy, hemorrhoids 
( piles ), anal fistula, calculus, 'mudhagarhha* 
( transverse or scapulo-posterior presentation 
of the fetus during hirth ) and ahdominal 
maladies — these eight are naturally hard to 
€ure ; but if these are also complicated with 
the developments of enervation, emaciation, 
dyspnea, thirst, ^sosa* (desiccation of the body or 
pulmonary consumption ), vomiting, fever, un- 
consciousness, diarrhea, hiccup and other compli- 
cations, then the wise physician, desirous of suc- 
cess, should not untertake their treatment. If 

72. e^M«i<i(vf: vi^r^ ir^jRf ^tt^: i 

^^^ ifffcq^ ^f^fei^ ^T^R^: 11^ 
ni<j]*ii*i-5ii<'sra-(3:^^Mf?i3^: i 

^^^'Tkr f^^ii f»T^3rr ftrf^Ri^dr ii8 


in nervous diseases, there are complications of 
edema, insensibility to touch, paralysis of the 
hody, tremor, tumor and pain in the abdomen, 
the patient dies. If in urinary diseases these 
complications develop, and with the urine 
much substances ( albuminuria) are discharged 
and boils appear on the body, that patient dies. 
In leprosy, if the nodules ulcerate, eyes become 
red, the voice broken and the five kinds of 
treatment as vomiting and purgation do not 
succeed, the death of the patient is near. In 
hemorrhoids ( piles ), if there are complication 
of polydipsia, loss of appetite, pain, excessive 

^1^ =^q?T«n^ fg^jKrisq^if^m 111° 


bleeding, edema and diarrhoGa, the patient dies. 
The anal fistula throui^h which the intestinal seas. 
urine, feces, microbes and semen are discharfred is 
deadly. In the diseases of hard calculus {asmar'i)^ 
soft calculus {sarkcif^a) and gravel {sikata-iiric acid 
sands), if there appear edema in umbilical region, 
testicles, ischuria (retention of urine), and shoot- 
ing pain, the patient dies quickly. In the trans- 
verse presentation, if there is paralysis of the 
uterus, dull pain {mahkalla) and spasmic contrac- 
tion of the vagina, the gravida dies. In abdo- 
minal diseases, if there is deplegia, aversion for 
food, edema, diarrhea and inspite of purgation, 
the intestine remains inflated, then give up 


(treatment). In fevers, if the patient is delirious, 
unconscious, and is absolutely confined to bed, 
and while the outside of his body (skin) is cold 
and inside ( in the internal organs ) there is 
hyperaemia, then he dies. In fevers, if there 
is horripilation, eyes become red, there is an 
acute shooting pain in the heart, and respiration 
takes place only through the mouth, the patient 
is killed by the disease. And in fever, if the 
patient has hiccup, dyspnea, polydipsia, delirium 
and wandering eyes, he goes to the abode of 
death. In fever, if the patient has clouded 
vision, delirium, paroxysmal somnolence, hydre- 
mia (thinness of blood) and emaciation, the fever 
kills the patient. In diarrhea, if there are the 
complications of dyspnea, pain, polydipsia, ener- 
vation, emaciation and fever, the aged patient 
never lives, though an infant once in a while 
might survive. In phthisis, if the patient has glazed 
«yes, aversion for food, jerky respiration, and 
hyperalgia in seminal discharge ( in prostatic cal- 
culus), any of these complications is to be regard- 


ed critical. In abdominal tumor, if the patient 
has dyspnea, pain, polydipsia, anorexia, rupture 
of the tumor and enervation, death takes place. 
In a deep-seated abscess {vidradhi), if there is 
abdominal tumescence, anuria, vomiting, hiccup^ 
polydipsia, throbbing pain and dyspnea, he does 
not live. In icterus (jaundice), the patient dies 
if his teeth, nails and eyes turn yellowish, and he 
sees everything yellowish. In gastrorrhagia 
(hemorrhage from the stomach), if the patient 
repeatedly vomits blood, his eyes become reddish 
and he sees everything reddish, he perishes.'* 
Siisruta I. 33. 3-22. 

Pains : "Boring ( todana = as caused by 
the penetration of sewing needle ), terebrant 
{ vedana = to tear out ) lacerating ( tadana = 
concussion as a blow from a rod ), lancinating^ 
( chhedana = cutting with a sharp instrument ), 
dilating ( ay a^m<xwa -radiating ), tensive ( man- 
thana=a>s fire is made by friction of two sticks), 
expulsive ( viksepana = to throw out ), sucking. 
( chumuchumayana = as a magnet or mustard 
poultice draws by suction), hurning{ nirdahana = 


burning), grinding {avahhanjana = ^\x\.Yexizm^), 
Julguraat ( spohtana = bursting ), shooting 
(»irZ«rcK?za = penetrating), eoulsive ( utpatana = to 
pull up ), throbbing ( kampana = tremulous ), 
dully sharp ^ acute, itching, ir?Htant, premonitoi^y 
or after pain { vividha-sTda-vislesana = Ya.vio\x3 
degrees of pain), shifting {vikirana = which, shifts 
from place to place as in hysteria ), C7'amp or 
spasmodic ( pUrana = which fills up ), pai^alyzing 
(stamhhana = which causes insensibility in the 
adjacent area), wtHnging {avaktiiichana = to 
press out ), foi^mication or itching {aiikiisika = 
sprouting, a sensation as of ants or similar ob- 
jects crawling over the body). By the derange- 
ment of nerves, these pains manifest in the 
*V7'anas* (abscess, tumor, pustule, boil, carcinoma, 
eczema, etc.) and if for any reason withot (appar- 
ent) cause, different kinds of pain appear, or in 
certain localities they appear repeatedly, they are 
to be ascribed to nervous origin. 

Unilateral eruption (osa), cutaneous inflamma- 
tion (chosa), diffuse eruption {paridaha), oppress- 
ed feeling ( dhumai/ana = a,s in smoke suffoca- 
tion), the sensation as if burning coal were 
sprePod over the body with the increase of the 
subiective sensation of heat, and the similar 
sensation that is felt if a caustic were applied to 


^ wouud, — the pains experienced in these sensa- 
tions, are of * pitta' origin ; pains of the abscesses, 
/originating from the vitiation or poisoning of 
the blood, are the same. 

Pruritus (X^«.^# = itching), lieaviness {gurutva 
= heaviness or Aveight is felt in the chest in 
hemoptysis, spasmodic asthma, chronic gastritis ; 
in the head in neurasthenia, hypocondrisis and is 
occasionally a premonitory symptom of apoplexy ; 
in the abdomen or pelvis, due to tumors in those 
regions ), somnolence ( sitjjtatva ), tumescence 
{upadelia), numbness {alpa-vedana = '^?ixi\dl 
anesthesia ), paresis ( siamhha ) and chilliness 
{saitya ) are of phlegmatic origin." Susruta I. 

"The physician should examine first mtalitif 
( c^yw = durability of life ) of the patient. Even, 
if there is ( good ) vitality (signs of long life, 
manifest in the physical organs ), malady 

73. fft^^?5lcfT^^^^=TT5R^f5!^q'3I^^5^ra^r5T^l^fn^^^'=T^3'I- 


{etiology and the natiu'e of the pathological mani- 
festation ), season ( of the year in its relation to 
the disease and its reaction against it), metabolism 
( of the patient ; «5^;^^ = internal combustion, that 
is oxidation ), age^ pliysioal strength, nervous 
mtality^ predispositions^ characteristics ( of the 
patient ), remedies (available and their reaction 
against the disease ) and the region ( desa t 
marshy or dry, altitude, low or high land, plain 
or hilly, salubrity of the climate, prevalence of 
endemic diseases and of epidemics within the 

Signs of longevity : He enjoys long life, who 
lias large hands, feet, sides, back, nipple ( papilla 
mamma ), teeth ^ face, shoulder and forehead ; 
long phalanx, breath (or respiratory organ ), eyes 
and arms ; wide brows, precordial region 
{stanantara = t\\e space between the two nipples), 
and breast; short crus {jangha^the leg, 
especially the segment between the knee and the 
ankle), penis and neck ; deep breath ( or spiritual 
force ), voice and umbilicus ; the mamma not 

liigh but firm ; fleshy, large and hairy ears ; 

whose joints, veins ( vessels ) and tendons are 
hidden, all the bodily parts are healthy and 
strong, all the senses are steady, and the health 
lias persistently improved, that person will have 


a long life. He who has never had any sickness 
from birth and whose body, intelligence and 
comprehension have progressively been deve- 
loped, will enjoy a long life. Snsruta I. 35. 

"Life is (divided) into three periods : infancy,, 
middle-age and senility. Of them, childliood is 
up to fifteen years ( one minus sixteen ), divided 
( further into three sub-divisions ) as sustaining 
on milk ( liquid nourishment ), milk mixed with 
other nourishing substances ( in liquid or semi- 
solid form as barley concoction ) and ( solid ) 
nourishment. A baby up to one year old sustains 
on milk, up to two years, milk mixed with 
other substances, and above two years on ( solid ) 

era TfNTfW^P? -?^-^5iN-^3i^-^?5T-^^-^^rr?:' ^TT^feq^- 

'Tg^4l'5H^f^JT^Tft'?3I^' q^^T^fe^ ^Tc[ig%ff' ^T^^IT f^T^l' 

'^^tt^in^^ ^: ^ ^^[3*i^«) II 
wffT ^ffsff^nt ?i: 55^: ^5T€t?»t I 


food. From sixteen up to seventy years of age, 
is regarded as the middle-age : middle-age is 
composed of four periods as pubescence ( vrcldhi 
= growth ), adolescence ( yaucana = jo\ii\\ ), 
adultness ( sampurnata = coxn^lQiion of growth ), 
senescence ( M;^^ = declining period ) ; up to the 
age ©f twenty, is the period of growth, up to 
thirty — youth, up to forty full development or 
maturity, and from forty to seventy, it slowly 
and gradually declines. ( The skeleton reaches 
its limit very nearly at the same time as the 
whole frame reaches its maximum of height, the 
coalescence of various epiphyses being completed 
by about the twenty-fifth year. Similarly the 
mascular system in its increase tallies with the 
weight of the whole body. The brain, in spite 
of its increasing complexity of structure and 
function to wliich it continues to attain, even in 
middle life, early reaches its limit of bulk and 
weight. At about seven years of age it 
attains what may be considered as its first limit 
for though it may increase somewhat up to twenty, 
thirty, or even later years, its progress is more 
slow after, than before seven. The vascular and 
the diicestive orG:a7is as a whole mav continue to 
increase even to a very late period ( Foster's 
Physiology^ p. 1151). After seventy, elements 


( constituent ), sense, strength, courage and 
enthusiasm dailv fall off ; at this a^e, one becomes 
grey-haired and bald-lieaded and being subject 
to dyspnea, bronchitis and other complications, 
becomes incapacitated for all activities (as before) 
and becomes like a dilapidated cottage, exposed 
to the fury of rain, storm and tempests. This is 
called old age." Susrutal, 35. 26' '. 

"Infancy is phlegmatic, youth sanguinary and 
old-age nervous." Susmta 1, 35. 27'^. 

The following diseases may be congenital : 
malformations, syphilis, idiocy, hydrocephalus, 
hemophilia, infantile hemiplegia, osteomata, nevi, 
sclerema, pemphigus, dermatitis neonatorum, 
tetanus neonatorum, ichthyosis, acute fatty 

f%^^'^ 8i%??f^ 'a^^'cTT =^if^ftf^ I fimr^^^?T^<ir4ai<i1 ^'l^'WT- 

76. ^ f^t^ ^^T ??'<^^ fqTii^^ g I 

^ws ^f^ ^TH^t cifm i^^%\ \\\^ 


degeneration, myotonia congenita, progressive 
muscular atrophy, icterus neonatorum, atelectasis, 

J3.ereditary diathesis : rheumatism, gout, 
hepatic disorders, renal disorders, renal calculus, 
respiratory lesions, diabetes, obesity, adiposis 
dolorosa, acne, eczema, leprosy, arthritis 
deformans, hernia, hereditary cerebellar ataxia, 
hemophilia, alcoholism, pseudo-hypertrophic 
paralysis, progressive muscular atrophy, 

Diseases peculiar in infancy and childhood : 
cretinism, infantile paralysis, measles, roseola, 
scarlatina, cerebro-spinal meningitis, chorea, 
rachitis, hemophilia, infantile scurvy, hypertro- 
phic cirrhosis of the liver, diarrhoea, adenoids, 
bronchitis, broncho-pneumonia, spasmodic 
laryngitis, noma, endocarditis, primary renal 
sarcoma, eczema, pemphigus, seborrhea, ringworm, 
diphtheria, hydrocephalus, nodding spasm. 

Tihberty and adolescence : acne, seborrhea, 
anemia, chlorosis, chloroma, myxedema, exoph- 
thalmic goitre, catalepsy, trance, myoma,myolema^. 
typhoids, meningitis, myocarditis, endocarditis, 
hysteria, cerebral embolism, epilepsy. 

Uarly adult age: acute tuberculosis, pulmo- 
nary phthisis, gastralgia, gastric ulcer,syringomy- 


-elia, cerebral abscess, cerebral embolism, myoma, 
periodic paralysis. 

Middle age : exophthalmic goitre, myxedema, 
diabetes, chronic nephritis, cysts of kidney, myo- 
cardial diseases, endocarditis, aneurism, leucemia, 
pernicious anemia, angina pectoris, ataxic para- 
plegia, dementia paralytica, paralysis agitans, 
intraspinal hemorrhage, myelitis, locomotor 
ataxia, psychosis polyneuritica, carcinoma, gout, 
cirrhosis of liver, gallstones, mollities ossium. 

Old age : pruritus, ecthyma, gout, pephigus, 
epithelioma, carcinoma, gout, arteriosclerosis, 
cataract, gangrene,bronchitis,broncho -pneumonia, 
aneurism, prostatic disease, myocardial disease,, 
angina pectoris, cerebral apoplexy, paralysis agi- 
tans, melancholia. 

Diseases special or predominant in females : 
chlorosis, osteomalcia, chorea, floating kidney, 
lupus erythematosus, gallstones, constipation, 
chorea, hysteria, neurasthenia, catalepsy, goitre, 
myxedema, adiposis dolorosa, gastralgia, anemia. 
In addition to the above-mentioned constitu- 
tional, metabolic or infectious diseases, there are 
of course countless other infectious diseases which' 
can attack all ages and can bring about by slow 
or rapid process the cessation of vital activities 
and their co-ordination of the organism. 


But though death is inevitable to multicellu- 
lar life, Ssuruta emphasizes that natural death 
through degeneration of senescence is a very rare 
phenomenon: "According to Atharva-veda scho- 
lars, deaths are of one hundred and one kinds, of 
which the natural death (through old age) is one 
while the rest one iiundred are accidental (inclu- 
ding infection)." Susruta I. 34. 5''. It is 
an undeniable fact, that protoplasm — the living 
substance, living a particulate life in unicellular 
existence and community life in mullicellular 
existence, under favorable conditions, has not 
necessarily any limitation of its life, and as 
every living organism, comes into existence as 
a protoplasm of a pre-existing living organism 
protoplasm is potentially immortal. Ptepro- 
duction among tho unicellular creatures is 
by fission, so in a sense they never die as 
long as proper conditions are maintained. But 
life can, also, be preserved under adverse circum- 
stances with arrested vitality as in hibernation of 
many animals in wiuter. Even suspended vitali- 
ty is not incompatible with life as many microb- 

77. q^triT ^jr^sicirra^iii: w^^ I 


es, or their spores, can be completely desiccated 
and kept in that state for many years, and after 
that if they find a favorable medium, they show 
their full activities again ( anabiosis ). Grains 
which have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs 
which have been lying there in a desiccated state 
for more than one hundred ceturies, have been 
found to germinate. And many fish can be frozen 
with water and made an ice block and kept in 
that condition for any length of time and if it be 
thawed slowly, the fish can be revivified. Only 
when protoplasm is coagulated, it loses its vita- 
lity. Many trees are known, which according to 
reliable tradition, have lived more than a thou- 
sand years. Death comes to a tree by storm, light- 
ning, fungi and parasitic diseases, improper nu- 
trition from the soil either by the exhaustion or 
excess of some of the salts or the insoluble combina- 
tion of others, improper moisture or sunlight ; but 
these are all accidental and are avoidable. It is 
asserted that there are authenticated cases of men 
who have lived more than 152 years. Old age 
is certainly a disease, brought about by the dege- 
nerative changes, caused by microbic infection, 
absorption of their toxins and unhygienic living. 
But this will be in future more or less controllable 
with better knowledge of prophylaxis, dietary. 


rational living and hygiene. And very few people 
really die of senile degeneration. What actually 
happens is this : in the debilitated condition when 
the resisting power of the organism has been re- 
duced, some infection takes place. Preventive 
medicine in future will possibly eliminate many 
of the virulent infections, but it can not impl 
that death, will be preventible. Death is probab- 
ly nature's economy of life. It eliminates those 
who are no more capable of reproduction or can 
not contribute materially to the support and pro- 
vision of offspring, thus releasing the food-supply 
to the new-generation for growth, development 
and progress. Old age {senility) is the effect of 
the cumulative auto-intoxications. Organism in 
its very functioning — in the metabolic process, 
produces various toxic products, which, if not 
thoroughly eliminated, can accumulate in the or- 
ganism bringing about degenerative changes. 
According to Metchnikoff toxins are principally 
absorbed from the putrefactive products of thelarge 
intestine and to counteract the activities of the pro- 
teolytic bacilli, which can only thrive in alkaline 
reaction, he proposed the introduction into the 
large intestine of the most active lactic acid pro- 
ducing bacilli (bacillus Biilgaricus or maya fer- 
ment) in the form of soured and curdled milk. 


It is true that the large intestine serves no vita!- 
function in the economy of life, and it has been 
simply developed in animals as an accommodation, 
so that animals are not compelled to slow the 
speed and wait for defecation, while running-. 
And animals with comparatively short intestine 
live relatively longer than the animals with larger 
intestine. And all the organs of the body do not 
equally show the signs of senile degeneracy. But 
the human body is a complex, intricate and deli- 
cate machinery. If any of the vital organs is 
seriously affected, it interferes with the integrity 
of the organism as all the organs are intimate- 
ly related and interdependent. A diseased organ 
like the heart or the kidney can not be 
replaced like a broken or worn-out part of an 
auto or aeroplane machinery. They can be only 
slowly and gradually improved by a regenerating^ 
process of relieving them of the burden and 
tension by proper dietary and rational living. 
But every disease leaves an indelible mark, every 
shock an impression and every healed wound a 
cicatrix. And the effect is cumulative. If all 
the infections could be controlled, still there 
would be old age and death brought about by 
the slow b. t (iimulative effect of the partial 
jetention i/ tlxe metabolic wastes, defective 

194j ancient HINDU MEDICINE 

liereditary inheritance, mental, emotional, and 
physical shocks and excitements. 

Buff on calculated that the duration of life 
was six to seven times to that of growth, but 
Plourens estimated it about five times. As the 
epiphysis closes about twenty five in man, so it 
■can be calculated that the longevity of man 
should average from 125 years upwards. This is 
certainly a respectable age compared to the pre- 
sent standard, though someof theanimals,lacking 
intelligence and control over the environment 
are reputed to live longer as some authenticated 
records show : salmon one hundred years ; in the 
case of a carp one hundred and fifty years ; pike 
two hundred years ; crocodile one hundred years ; 
tortoise two hundred years ; eagle one hundred 
years ; parrot eighty years ; swan eighty years; 
ducks and geese fifty years ; falcons one hundred 
years. In the records of zoological garden in 
confinement, the rhinoceros is known to have 
lived longer than thirty-seven years, and the 
average duration of the life of horses, asses and 
zebras from fifteen to thirty years, domestic 
cattle from twenty-five to thirty years, sheep, 
goats and antelopes from twelve to fifteen years, 
llama seventeen years, hippopot?^ 'iius thirty- 
seven years, domestic swine twenty years, ele- 


f phants thirty to forty years, lions, tigers, bears 
about 25 years, domestic cats from twelve to 
twenty-three years, dogs from sixteen to eighteen, 
years, hares and rabbits about ten years, mice 
and rats from five to six years, bats about seven- 
teen j^ears, monkeys eight to thirty years 
( Ency. Brit. Vol XVI. p. 975 ). 


*'Ailing ( vycidhi ), disease ( amaya ), sickness 
( gada ), terror ( cttcmka ), consumption {yaksma) 
fever ( jvara ), indisposition ( vikdra ), and 
malady {roga) are synonyms. Miology (niddna), 
prodi'ome {purvarTipa), symptoms [linga)^ remedy 
( npasaya ) and sequel ( samprdpti ) are the 
diagnostics of a disease. That *etiology^ means the 
causes of disease has heen previously mentioned. 
The premonitory symptoms that are observed 
before the development of a disease, ar termed as 
"iwodromes*. The symptom of a developed disease 
( the disease might stay in a latent stat^^ and the 
incubation of many infections may last for many 
years in a resisting organism ) is called the *linga\ 
Characteristic {dkrti), indication {laksmcma)^ sign 
(cliihm), lineament (saonsthdna)^ trait {vyanjana)^ 
feature ( rlipa ) are synonymous terms with 
symptom ( llhga ). Remedy is called that 
combined 'action of medicine ( ausadha ), diet 
( dhdra ) and hygienic living ( vihd?'a ), which 
cures the disease by counteracting either its- 


causes or symptoms. Sequel ( samprapti ), out- 
come ( agath ) aud after-developmeuts ( jatl ) 
are syuonymous." Charaka IT. 1. 2"^ 

^'Fevers are being mentioned in the beginning 
of the book of pathology, for fever is tlie first 
expression of all physical diseases." Charaka 

n. 1. 6^^ 

Feter ( pyrexia ) in which the normal tempe- 
rature is markedly exceeded for any length of 
time above about 37 degree Centigrade or 98. 6 
degree Fahrenheilit, is caused by the disturbance 
of the heat-regulating mechanism. Whatever 
stimulates the thermogenetic centre or unduly 
constricts the vaso-dilators so that the excess of 
keat can not be dissipated, provokes fever. In 
sun-stroke, the peripheral nervous mechanism is 

78. cm sufwT^ T^ ^m^ 5i=^r 5^t f^^i^t ^ ?«i«((y|Ti<*i, i 


paralyzed and consequently the body temperai- 
ture is considerably raised. But when a toxin 
is introduced into the blood, the auto-defensive 
mechanism of the body — adrenals and thyroids — 
are stimulated and their oxidase-secretions are 
poured into the blood stream, the heat-generating 
centre is also excited by reflex and sympathetic 
stimulation, so that by the enhanced metabolism, 
the toxic products and their agents can be made 
comparatively harmless to the organism, if not 
destroyed. Adrenal secretion raises the blood 
pressure by constricting the vessels so that tlle^ 
toxins and their pathogenic agents are subjected 
forcibly to the immunizing action of the blood. 
Thyroid secretion dilates the blood vessels so that 
the attenuated toxins can be eliminated by sweat- 
ing to relieve the kidney of its heavy burden, 
if it has not been equal to the task imposed upon 
it. Eever is the i)hysiological expression of the 
severity of the struggle between the invading 
enemies and the host for self-defence, that is, 
the reaction that has been set up in the body to 
make innocuous the toxins and thehuicro-organisms^ 
that produce them. Eever is the index of the 
resisting power of the organism against the 
virulence of the infection. It is the nature's 
healing process, and indicates that the auto- 


protective meclianism of the "body is active. 
Absence of fever in a toxemia of any kind proves 
the inability of the body to react, owing to defici- 
ent sensitiveness of opsonin of the blood and the 
immunizing glands, either inherited or acquired, 
or to the fact that the toxin is itself a very power- 
ful paralyzant or anesthetic of the sensory impres- 
sions. Hyperpyrexia ( fever above 105° E. ) on 
the other hand indicates the hyper-excitation of 
auto defensive mechanism and the consequent 
over-production of the immunizing principles, 
and if long continued, might lead to the proto- 
plasmic destruction of the red-corpuscles and the 
endothelial cells by hemolysis and autolysis. 
This excessive disintegration of the protoplasm 
is indicated bv the increased excretion of nitro- 
gen, sulphur and phosphorus and in extreme 
cases, acetone, aceto-acetic and E-oxybutyric 
acids with the urine. And this is attended with 
many functional derangements. The activity of 
the digestive glands is diminished, hence loss of 
appetite and inanition. On hepatic cells is 
imposed the heavy task of reducing excessive 
metabolic wastes, especially the vast number of 
red-corpuscles, and the consequence of the 
hepatic hyper-activity is the greatly increased 
production of the hepatic excretory product — the 



bile. And if it is contiaued lon2r, it causes 
^bilious remittentfever or malarial liemoblogiuuric 
fever' {paittika jvara^ Susruta VI. 39. 12) in. 
which the urine is brownish yellow in color, 
containing a good deal of urobilin, less of urea, 
but more of ammonia, as the excessive quantity 
of sulphur and phosphorus — the disintegration- 
productions of abnormal destruction of red 
•corpuscles, become oxidized into sulphuric and 
phosphoric acids and readily combine with 
ammonia which otherwise would have been 
changed into urea. There is of course pronounced 
jaundice. The liver becomes fatigued and 
sluggish in its activity. Gradually com- 
mences the fatty and granular degeneration of 
its cells. The kidney also shows its terrible 
strain by fatty and fibrous infiltration, \ 

I, Fevers. 

**Fever is caused by lesions of the body or 
the mind ; for fever otherwise can not be 
developed in a person without injury.'* Charaha 
VL 3. 10«\ 


"Excessive use or abuse of *snehadi'' [Sneha 
= unguents, svecla = sweating through Turkish 
bath or other sudoriferous means, vamana — xo- 
miting, virechaua =^ i^nrgaiion : absorption, re- 
tention (of any toxic matter) or exhaustion 
fever], traitmata {aJjhig/iata = shock or wound 
fever), development of disease {rogotthana= symp- 
tomatic fever as a reaction against the patho- 
genic germs and the toxins elaborated by them), 
tumesce}ice {p7Yqjaka = coct\on of tumefaction, 
that is inflammatory fever), fatigue {srama=fa,ti- 
gue fever), inamtion (/j.<?a?^flr= consumption, that 
is consumptive or famine fever), indigestioti 
(<(5/ir/za = dyspeptic fever), toxin {visa=ioxem\db) 
ruental derangement[satmyarttuparyc(ya = hysteri- 
cal fever), smell of poisouotis flowers {psadhl- 
puspa'ga}idha= coyzn, or hay fever), worry 
(so /jrt= depression fever), sudden seasonal changes 
{uaksat/'a-prap'idana = stellar vexations = spring 
or autumnal fever), hyimotism {ahhicharas- exor- 
cism : hypnotic fever), enervatio^i {ahhisapa 
= execration : nervous fever), desire ov passion 
(manas or y^(YWia = unreciprocated and ungratified 
sensual passion : erotic fever), hallucination 
-{bhWabhisankasiie'Ar of ghosts: hallucinary 
fever ), the unhygienic living of a woman that 
has miscarried or has given normal birth 


{puerperal fever^^ the establisliment of the 
secretion of milk following childbirth {stanyava- 
tarana=m.i\k fever) — these causing lesion of 
the nerve etc. produces /6'y^?" in human beings." 
Susruta VI. 39. 8.'^ 

"Excessive consumption of astringent, dry 
or cold food and drinks , excessive use of vomit- 
ing, purgation, sweating and snuffs ; and over- 
exercise, retention of feces and urine, fasting, 
traumata, venery, anxiety, sorrow, vigilance-^ 
excess of these things irritate the nerves." 
Oliaraha II. I. 8^". 

"In the erotic fever, there is a good deal of 
contemplation (of the beloved object) and 

81. ft^fftg^^^fq ^ %'^\ ^'JlfeWff I 

3!r?TrfT =^r^^^T^ f^qm 7fi(?Tr^q%<TTfT i 
^'sfRcfT^ =1^ ^t ■^\^\ im % iic 

82. ^^Mg:ftcI^Tr^fqv^'^r^Tq^f3!ftf^T^^Tf?T^^«fWT7lf ij^es^R'irT'- 


sighing ; in the fever of sorrow, tears ; in the 
fever of fear, anxiety ; in the fever of anger, 
excitement ; in tlie hallucinary fever, delusion ; 
and in toxemia, unconsciousness, illusion, intoxi- 
cation and enervation." Chaixiha VI, III. 115.'^ 
*'In the gastro-intestinal fever, there are 
anorexia, indigestion, heaviness of the stomach, 
the irregularity of the heart ( beat ), semi-con- 
sciousness, lassitude, continued fever, unchange- 
ability of the lesion, nausea, salivation, lack of 
hunger, sliminess of the mouth, fatigue, somno- 
lence and heaviness of the body, polyuria, loose 
feces and enervation — these are the symptoms, 
in the gastro-intestinal fever." Charaha VI. III. 


*' Lassitude, watery eyes, yawning', heaviness 
of the body, fatigue, inclination and disinclina- 
tion by turn for fire ( to sit by the fire side ), 
sun (sun-bath), breeze and water (bath), indiges- 
tion, foul taste in the mouth, gradual change of 
the (physical) strength, complexion and temper- 
ament — these are the prodromal symptoms of 
fever." ChamkaYl. 111. 25' ^ 

^'Excessive internal heat (hyperaemia), thirst, 
delirium, quick respiration, illusion, pain at the 
joints, cessation of the perspiration and consti- 
pation — these are the symptoms in hyperpyrexia 
(at the onset of malarial fever the blood is driven 
from the peripheral to the internal organs, 
where there is excessive congestion, and while 
the surface of the body shivers with chills, there 
is increased high temperature)." Charaka VI. 
III. 35^\ 

85. ^m^' T?T^ ^T^ ?_.»iiiF* ^i ^w: I 

86, ^'rTffftsf^^^^T w^w. ^^^^ -^w. I 


Thougli the principle of Hindu medicine is 
based basically on humoral pathology, it seems- 
Susruta formed a vague relationship of malaria 
with mosquito bites and swampy localities, 
where mosquitoes are developed. And it was 
ascribed to a particular kind of mosquito, and 
not to all classes of them. 

"There are five types of mosquitoes {masaka 
belonging to the 'CiiUcidae* family, consisting 
nearly of one hundred genera' and eight hundred 
species), namely ^marine' (samiidr a£ist?i\ mos- 
quitoes ), 'globular' {parimandala = ^i^\i\i2^^^ the 
mosquitoes belonging to the genus '"migarliininad 
which has strongly curbed proboscis), culex ele- 
phanti ( hastimasaka), 'dark' {ki^sna = taeniorhyn- 
chus) a,n.dL ^mountainous' {parvvatii/a = ano^hel&sy 
The biting of the * mountainous' mosquito (ano- 
pheles) produces an effect like that of deadly 
insects." Susruta V. 8. 18**^. 

''If the part bitten by a spider becomes swoll- 
en, A7hite, black, red or bronzed (cyanotic or de- 
generative changes), and there are symptoms of 


fever, burning pain, dyspnea, hiccup and head- 
ache, the prognosis is usually bad." Charaha 
VI. 23. 45««. 

"There is a kind of mountainous mosquito 
whose bite causes symptoms like the bite of 
deadly spiders {luta — aranea)"^*^. 

According to medical experts, tQri\?in{trt'iya'ka) 
and quartan {oJiaturthaka) fevers ( of malarial 
origin ) are produced by nervousness ; while the 
valley or the marsli aupattjaha — at the foot-hill 
of the mountains, that is the swampy Tarai of the 
Himalayas where anopheles is found in large 
numbers and malaria is endemic ), and drink or 
intoxication ( madyasamudbhava — produced by 
wine ) fevers are ascribed to blood-pollution 
( ^i^^«^-XT^a = corruption of the bilious principle, 
which is the blood ). Pneumonia {pralepalca) and 

88. ^^m'. ^m\ ^m ^mv. ^m ^\ fw^fni^^.' ii 

88. (a) cR'w.fiT^^ «T3fi^Ci^=^iqi: ^psi'^^^'t: i 


influenza (vatavalasaJca) fevers are said to be of 
phlegmatic origin. Susruta VI. 39. 25^ ^ 

It has now been definitely proved that the 
mosquito of the genus of anopheles transmits the 
deadly malaria germ from man to man. It may be 
possible, however, that there are other carriers of 
malarial pathogenesis. And anopheles is not the 
only genus that is guilty. Yellow fever is trans- 
mitted by Stegmia calopus, dengue fever by 
Culex fatigans, tilaria bancrof ti by Culex fatigans. 
But all anopheles do not carry malarial protozoa. 
Anopheles has nearly one hundred species (Culex 
two hundred), of which only forty species have 
been proven experimentally to be the hosts in 
malaria and in India there are onlv ten of them 
as follows : Myzomyia culicfactes, Myzomyia lis- 
tonii, Myzomyia turkhundi, Pyretophorus jey- 
porensis, Myzorhynchus barbirostris, Myzorhyn- 
chus sinensis. Nyssorhynchus theobaldi, Nysso- 
rhynchus stephensii, Nyssorhynchus f uliginosus 
and Nyssorhynchus maculipalpis. According 
to Theo])ald none of the anoplielinae species 


of Eeltinella, Bironella, Aldrichia, Chagasia^ 
Chrystia, Kerteszia, Myzorhynchella and Lepho- 
scelomyia have been found to be the bearers 
of malarial germs. 

But the protozoan parasites of the red blood- 
corpuscles that cause remittent or intermittent 
malarial fevers, (ire not the same, and they appear 
under four chief forms : tertian is caused by 
Plasmodium vivax, quartan fever by plasmodium 
malaria, estivo-autumnal fever or subtertiau 
malarial fever by plasmodium falciparum {laver- 
nia malaria^ plasmodium 'precox ), quotidian 
fever by plasmodium falciparum quotidianum. 

These four kinds of blood-parasites produce 
different reactions in the organism according to 


thsir characteristics. Plasmodium ^ ivax re 
quires forty-eight hours to complete the cycle of 
schizogony and sporulates principally in the 
spleen, liberating toxins which are hemolytic, 
pyrogenous and hemozoanous, and will provoke 
an attack of fever with single brood in the human 
host every forty-eight hours, that is on the third 
day and accordingly it is called 'tertian* {tvt'iyaka)^. 
and in the intervening period there is remission 
of fever. Plasmodium malaria needs seventy-two 
hours to complete its schizogon, and it principally 
sporulates in the peripheral blood, and the liber- 


ated toxiti causes a severe constriction of cutane- 
ous vessels, thus provoking shivering chills on 
the surface and chattering teeth, though 
tlie temperature of the blood is rising rapidly, 
and driving the blood centripetally, causing 
congestion of the internal organs ; as it takes 
seventy-two hours for the cycle, that is, the fever 
appears every fourth day with a single brood 
of infection, it is called ''quartern'' {chatnrthakd). 
Laverania malaria is irregular in its sporulation 
and needs about from thirty-six to forty-eight 
hours for schizonomy, and as it sporulates in the 
red corpuscles of the blood, it causes an immense 
destruction of them, and as the pathogenic 
protozoon needs high temperature for its 
development, the fever takes place in the autumn, 
and is therefore called ^estivo-autumnaV (mradiija). 
This is the most malignant of malarial fevers, 
for it not only causes a heavy destruction of the 
red corpuscles of the blood, and it is calculated 
that there are nearly 25, 000, 000, 000, 000 red 
corpuscles in an adult human being, and it needs 
about 3, 000, 000, 000 of them to be affected to 
cause an acute fever, and if it be below 250, 000, 
000, the malarial fever does not manifest and 
remains in a latent state ; but it can also provoke 
serious lesion in the brain, pancreas, liver, spleen. 


and othei' internal organs by forming thrombi 
through blocking the capillary passage by the 
accumulation of plasraodia, swollen endo- 
thelial cells laden with hemozoan and sporules. 
The bilious remittent fever ( bilious hemoglo- 
binuric or blackicater fever =pitta-jvm^a) 
is also caused bv it by the excessive destruction 
of erythrocytes which necessarily imposes a 
heavy labor on the liver, with the consequent 
production of excessive quantity of bile, vvhich 
produces jaundice of the tissues and also appears 
in the urine with other pigments ( hemozoan ) 
and the urine looks from brownish yellow to 
blackish in color. The quotidian ( anyedyusha ) 
fever may be produced by plasmodium falsi- 
parum quotidianum which takes twenty-four 
hours for schizogony, or by three broods of 
Plasmodium malaria, triple quartan fever, the 
parasites coming to maturity on three successive 
days ), two of plasmodium vivax { double tertian 
fever ), or two of laverania malaria {double estivo- 
mtfttmnal or double subtertiafi fever). 

At the onset of malarial fever, all these 
types tend to be irregular, for the simple reason 
that the pathogenic sporozoa are of different 
n»es and inoculated at different times, and only as 
the disease proceeds, the fever becomes regular^ 


possibly because the parasites that can not 
conform to the age period of the majority in 
their schizogony, when the organism offers 
least resistance) overwhelmed by the combined 
attack of the parasites and tiio toxins liberated 
bv them becomes exterminated by the anti- 
toxins of the blood) produced as a reaction. 

"The fever that lasts for seven, ten or twelve 
days without interruption, is called 'smitata' 
( simple continued fever, produced by a bacillus, 
resembling coli communis, or the remittent fever 
produced by spirocheta carteri, known also as the 
relapsing fever or typhus recurrens) ; the fever 
that appears twice in day and night, is called 
\mtata* {doitle-quotidian or Kala acar, produced 
by a protozoan parasite Leishnmiia donovan\ 
and it grows in large numbers by fission, and i^ 
principally found in the liver, spleen, bone- 
marrow, ■ lymphatic glands and to a less extent^ 
in the pancreas, kidneys, suprarenals, lungs and 
testicles) ; the fever that appears on every third 
day, is called 'trtiyaha* {tertian) ; and which 
appears on every fourth day, is called tho 
*chaturthaka' {quartan):* Smritta VI. 89. 31"* . 


'*Tlie unhygienic living after the relief from 
(the primary onset of) the fever, aggravates the 
lesion, and owing to the low vitality (of the 
organism) deranges nerves and phlegma, and 
causes the development of double-quotidian 
{satata = kala-azar), quotidian {auyedyuska)^ ter- 
tian (trtlyaka)^ quartan (chaturthaka) and pneu- 
monic (^raZ5/?aA;a ) acute fevers." Susniia YI. 
39. 22»\ 

*'Tremor, irregular onset of fever, congestion 

of neck, face and lips, insomnia, suppression of 

sneezing, desiccation of the body, pain especially 

in the head and the heart, foul taste in the 

mouth, constipation, flatulence (adhmana = swell- 

ing) and yawning are the symptoms of 'vata' 

( cerebro-spinal estivo-autumnal pernicious ) 

Onset of fever with rigor, diarrhoea, diminished 

sleep, vomiting, tumescence of the neck, face, 

lips and nose, sudoresis, delirium, bitter taste in 

91. "^mm <^<ii^T^\ ffl^^rm^fTft'iim i 

^ir^'rfWFR ?IWI'3*'?l' ^ffl f% II 


the mouth, semi-consciousness, hyperpyrexia, 
intoxicated state, polydipsia, the yellowish tinge 
of the feces, urine and the eyes, and vertigo are 
the symptoms in 'pitta' fever {bilious remittent 
fever : known also as malarial heraoglobinuric or 
black water fever). 

Heaviness of the body, chills, expectoration, 
horripilation, excessive sleep,sluggish circulation, 
mild onset of fever, salivation, sweet taste of the 
itioutli, low fever, vomiting, lassitude of the body^ 
indigestion, acute coryza (pr«/is^a?/a = profuse 
xticretion of the watery mucus from the nose), 
loss of appetite, and whiteness of the expectora- 
tion and the eyes are the symptoms of *slesma* 
(influenza) fever." Snsruta VI. 39. 11-13'' ^ 

92. ^q^r^wt tT. ^'^5^3Tt^iJ?T I 

f^RTsj; ^^^nfr i\]nm ^j^ ^^ ii 

h^n: ^jcrr ^^7 'g;;^! ^ifr ?t?^i i 

> «••» ..•/i*;'i|»» 


M'upiive Feve?'s : "Feverishness or cliilliness 
by turns ; pains in the bones, joints and tlie 
head (headache) ; watery, glazed or reddish, 
dilated or contracted eyes ; hissing sounds and 
pain in the ears ; neck as if covered with grains 
{siika =eruTpt\ve typhoid papules); somnolence; 
illusion ; delirium ; coughing ; dyspnea ; loss of* 
appetite (anorexia) ; delusion ; the tongue is 
rough and has the color of burnt coal (dry, 
brown, thickly coated, iissured and tremulous) ; 
inertia of the body ; nasal discharge mixed with 
blood (nose-bleed) ; bilious sputum (vomiting) ; 
agitation of the head; insomnia; angina pectoris ; 
scanty perspiration, urination and defecation ; 
the patient does not look emaciated ; sound in 
the neck (sonorous or sibilant rales indicating 
bronchitis) ; appearance of rose-red rxanthem 
{kotha) and rashes (mandala); ii\)\iixsm {mukatva) ; 
lesion in the circulatory system, heaviness of the 
epigastrium (flatulence) ; and the delay in the 
coction of the deranged humors (the long dura- 
tion of the disease and convalescence from 
it ) are the symptoms ef the typhoid fever." 
Charaka, VI. 3. 85". 

93. «%ira^^tt*mt ^^irr»T ^r^inT^ i 


'* Altogether through (varied) lesion, there 
are thirteen kinds of typhoid fevers^ Charaha 
I. 17. W\ 

It is very probable that all the eruptive 
fevers have been classified by Charaka, as 
typhoid fevefs (smmipdta jvara)^ including in the 
category typhus, paratyphoid, cerebrospinal 
meningitis, measles, mumps, erysipelas, diph- 
theria, toxemia, septicemia, pneumonia,puerperal 
fever and small pox. Charaka and Susruta both 
mention smallpox as 'masTcrika.* 

*'Due to lesion of the phlegma and the biles 
(circulatory blood), tiny rashes, anorexia, exuda- 
tive vesicles, called *romantV (varicellaa or chicken. 

1^^ qi^»^ ^W^\ gfWff^grisfirfT: 11 

94.. ^^"^ ft^ncM «RiMiciii^4it^^ 11 


pox) appear with fe^er, itching and polydipsia, 
Erom bile and phlegma (corruption of), the 
tumescence of the pustules that appear all over 
the body like lentils (ervum lens : ervum menus), 
is called the I'ariola or small pox ( masurika )."' 
Charaka VI, 12. 73' ^'\ 

"The painful, copper-colored, bronzed pustule 
that appears all over the body and within the 
mouth with burning fever, is called the variola 
( masurika )." Suirnta II. 13. 30' ^ 

**'rhe typhoid fevers after passing through a 
crisis on the seventh, tenth or twelfth day, either 
become relieved or kill the patient." Susruta 
VI. 39. 18'^ 

As it was believed that disease was due to the 
derangement or the disharmonious combination 
of the humors of the body, the cure lay in their 

w. ^^^5 iT^in^ ^^^v. fqTj^qfrH nf^T: i 

95, ^i^'^'c^sTm^^wr: wi^r: ^q^cTflRr: i 
Trig -^ '^r^r^^TT^T 'T^f^^r: \\\^ 

96. grm f^^t ffiK ^t ^T^sfq ^T I 
H^^'Ccrtt ijpr nfm <rrf^ ^f^ ^ u^c 


proper combination by coction. Tlie internal^ 
Leat that was supposed to cause coction of tho- 
liumors and thus to preserve the balance of the 
liumors, requisite for normal health, was suppos- 
ed to be dissipated to the peripheral organs hy 
morbid agents and thus to produce fever. Cure 
from a disease only took place wdien the internal 
combustion ( metabolism or oxidation ) wa!§ 
normalized again. This was brought about by 
lnygienic living and dietary regulation. Medica- 
tion was but supplementary. It is well known, 
that quinine, the bitter alkaloid of the cinchona 
hark is a powerful remedy against the malarial 
Plasmodia. Though cinchona is a native of 
the South American Andes, it belongs to the 
llubiaceous family of which there are many 
members in India. Charaka in the treatment 
of malarial fever mentions a bitter ( tiktaka ) 
juice of leaves or bark, or concoction of a dry 
bark, but it is very hard now to identify what 
he meant by it : 

*'In new fever, fasting, sweating, time, 
barley water and bitter extract (fiktako rasa) 
cause the coction of raw humors (that is, bring 
about the cure). 

*''In the cerebro-spinal remittent fever and 
influenza, when the patient is thirsty, give him 


liot water to drink. In the bilious remittent 
fever, cook bitter (bark or root) in water and 
when it is cooled, give it to drink. Such a 
concoction is stimulating (d'ipana = digestive), 
oxidising {pacha im = which, causes coction of 
the humors), (febrifuge (jcaraghna ), blood-puri- 
fying (srotasam 6-6»f?/mwam = purifier of the 
streams, as the blood, lymph, urine), vitalizing 
{valya)^ appetizing (ritcJd-kara), sudorific {ghar- 
ma-kara) and is beneficial." Charaka VI. 3. 

That this treatment was only meant for 
malarial fevers, is clearly indicated by the 
following passage : "At the onset of the (mala- 
rial) fever fasting is proper. But it should not 
be followed in consumptive, nervous, phobia, 
excitement, depression and fatigue fevers. By 
fasting pathogenic agents {dom) are destroyed 
a?id when metabolism is stimulated, the body 

y7. ^Tf^ ^?^ ^5)Mt q^r*ir«drtt*t T^: t 


becomes light and hunger appears. But fasting 
should not lower vitality (that is fasting for a 
longer period than is necessary is injurious), for 
recovery depends on the vitality of the patient, 
and the object of treatment is recovery." 
ChamkaW. 3. 128^'. 

**In all kinds of fever, treat it by counter- 
acting the causative factors. In fatigue, 
consumption and wound (abhighata=\^o\mdiOY: 
traumatism) fevers, treat the original disease." 
Smruta YI. 39. 73 '\ 

*'As long as the fever patient does not regain 
his strength (i. e. does not completely recover), 
he should not indulge in shower-bath {pariseka), 
plunge-bath (avagaha), beverages, vomiting etc. 
{smmodhana)^ inunction, day-sleep, exposure to 

«#^-^«i ^^ ^ ^ ^?5m^s^ I 



cold, exercise and sexual intercourse." Sasrutw 
VI. 39. 68 ^"^ 

"If a fever patient suffers from indigestion, old 
wine and barley broth is beneficial to him. If 
a fever patient suffers from coryza and anorexia 
(influenza), let him drink whey mixed with 
^trikatu' (a mixture of mntM — ginger, 'mar'ioha 
black pepper, plppala — longpepper ; Gr. *dia trion 
piperidon' made of the same ingredients, piperis 
longura, piperis nigri, and zingiberis). In an 
exhaustive continuous fever, if the patient is ema- 
ciated, on tlie road to recovery, mentally depress- 
ed, in cerebro-spinal or bilious remittent fever, 
or if the pathogenesis is not well-marked, if the 
patient is desiccated, has polydipsia and burning 
sensation, drinking of milk will benefit him. But 
in new fever, milk should not de drunk, as it 
miglit even cause death:" Susruta VI. ^^9. 63^'''. 

100. tjR^^NJir?!^ #?i^^ €^^5nfH "^ i 

101. ^^' H^^ fn^^j^'^i^Mf^ci f%?f?^ I 


'^In a long-standing continuous or remittent 
lever, if the patient becomes emaciated, he 
should be treated by light and easily-digestible 
food for his fever. Broth of a bean {mudga = 
phaseolus munffo), red lentil (masura = ervum hirsK- 
turn ), gram pea ( chanaka = cicer arietinum)^ 
plantain {musa paradisaica) , and dolichon 
biflorum. The fever patient that likes meat, 
can take the partridge {perdicum cheninensium), 
perdicum francolinorum, black antelope {anti- 
,opariim nigrarum ), hystricum, small deer, hare 
{leporimi), black-tailed deer; golden-colored deer 
and antiloparum albarum. The crane (gruidce)^ 
heron (ardeidce), peacock {pavo), chicken (gallos 
doniesticos) and heath-cock {fefraoninnco), are 
hard to digest and very excitant ; for this reason 
they are not prescribed by many physicians. 
But when the fever patient is nervous, it can 
be given in a moderate quantity." Susruta VI. 
39. 67'"^ 

1 C2. v[m f^w Wl '#^f^ ^MtfwcW I 

^ 5g'«t5i^: W^^r«: <j*iMM^ ii 


But Charaka only recommends uieir brotli 
and not their flesli : liowevrrr 

can be a little acidulated with &m* "ti mixta re 
of pomegranate (punica irianatufn) to make it 
more palatable VI. 3. 165'" \ 

"Milk boiled together with ginger, raisins 
and dried dates, and mixed witli honey or sugar 
relieves thirst and fever. Or the milk might 
be diluted with water four-fold imd cooked to- 
gether; this is beneficial in old fever, and the 
drinking of hot milk is good in bilious remit- 

103. 'm^ ^fq^^fi^rq^lrrgq^sf^i^ i 

liwrsT ^WH'*!^ fft^r^^ 1^: ^mr^^ ii 


tent fever. Milk is restorative in all consumptive 
fevers ; it always produces good result whether 
drunk hot or cold with whatever medicine 
prescribed for the particular fever." Chamka 
VI. 3. 196»«*. 

"The embrace of maidens that are pretty 
and well-shaped, relieves the chilis of (malarial) 
fevers, by imparting the natural warmth of 
their body." Charaka VI. 8. 2081*^*. 

"In old pneumonic or nervous fever, if the 
patient suffers from chills, heat should be ap- 
plied to warm him up, which is very beneficial 

in such a case (drinking o\\ hot concoction, 

liot wine, warm bath, hot salve and fomentations 
are recommended).... The body should be covered 
with warmed cotton or silken clothes. If the 

104, m^wi wii'm v^'^'^am^ i 

105, ^mqf^cTHT^ra cre^ 41^'»f<iiT i 
'^^>r^wEi'«!n 5w?fT: M^ *«rw ii 


patient feels fatigued anoint the body witli 
aloes {aqullaria agallocko ). And well- 
breasted, pretty and artful maidens in the first 
inflorescence of their youth, should massage 
:5ently his debilitated body. And the maidens 
with the face like the autumnal moon, eyes like 
the blue lotjis, long-curved tremulous brows, 
complexion like molten gold, bright-red lips 
(like the himha fruit = memordica monadelpha)^ 
narrow abdomen (slender waist) but. broad ex- 
pansive pelvic region, body anointed with delicate 
.fragrance {croco sativa and aquilaria agallocko), 
firm, round and elevated breasts, dressed in fine- 
smelling, washed and white loose dress, as a 
wild-creeper (entwines round a tree), should 
embrace him closely. But when the patient 
seems to be enlivened, then the maidens should 
be removed. When by the delightful contact 
of the maidens, the chills have disappeared, the 
patient should take pleasant and beneficial diet." 
Smruta VI. 39. 131^ "^ 

106. ^T^^wt^q^^ifq ^^gt: 55lcTXTtf^?i^ I 

=wi^§tJi =^T«?i=: ^-jsm^ f%^,??^ I 


Prophylaxis in malarial fever can be isuku* 
raed up in these words: (a) destruction of 
mosquitoes ; {h) the prevention of the entrance 
of the parasite into the human body; (<?) increas- 
ing resistance of the body against the parasite. 

As the mosquitoes require shallow, stagnant 
water for breeding and development of their 
larvae, the first requisite for a determined fight 
against malaria, is the awakened public senti- 
ment against this pernicious and malignant 

»?^g: M^^\ arm; alkit^Nfrf^fvf: ii 

3?|i?^i^ f^trra fir. ?pfktpT^rf H^: II 


disease. Eor without communal co-operation, 
it can not be accomplished. There should 
be complete surface and subsoil drainage and 
the ground should, be so levelled by filling 
up the ditches and the natural depressions that 
there can not be any accumulation of water 
for the breeding of the mosquitoes. All the 
ponds, lakes, canals and water-ways should be 
deepened, and the water-plants that usually 
float on the surface as safe breeding place for 
mosquitoes, protecting the larvae from the fish 
must be regularly and systematically removed. 
Pish should be cultivated in every pond, lake 
or canal, especially the ^giradinus poeciloides^ 
which is a voracious feeder on eggs, larvae and 
pupae of mosquitoes. All trees on the bank 
of the water or near the dwelling house which 
takes away sunshine or interferes with free current 
of air, should be felled, for the mosquitoes need 
a dark place to hide in the day time. Laveran 
recommends the plantation of castor oil plants 
{Prophylaxie du paludism, p. 134), the odor of 
which he believes drives away mosquitoes. 
However the promise held by the Eucalyptus 
tree has been rather deceptive. Bats appear to 
be voracious feeders of mosquito larvae. 

The next thing is to protect the inhabitants 


tigainst the mosquito bites. Mosquitoes can fly- 
nearly a mile's distance from the breeding place, 
and many of them go out and bite only in the 
evening and at night. And it is the females that 
do the biting. The males live on vegetable and 
fruit juice. The life of a female mosquito is 
about a month. It bites any vertebrate it might 
come across in order to get blood which it needs 
as nourishment for its eggs. But it is only by 
biting a malarial patient, it can be infected with 
the malarial plasmodium, which it transmits to 
others when biting again. Therefore to prevent 
the spreading of malaria, it is necessary that the 
inhabitants be protected from mosquito bites, for 
in a malarial region, almost every one might har- 
bor malarial germ in the blood, though the disease 
is in a latent form and there is hardly any appar- 
ent symptom, excepting a little malaise and lassi- 
tude. The mosquito bite can be easily prevented 
by using mosquito wire netting in the windows, 
which does not prevent the circulation of air. 
Where it can not be done, mosquito-nets must be 
used in the bed. And if it is necessary to go out 
at night, one should take care to wrap the body- 
in clothes or smear the body witJi carbolated 
vaseline and to use a fine-gauze net round the 
lace and neck. . ^ 


Quinine is the best prophylactic and curatire 
agent against malaria. In the endemic malarial 
region, it is a wise policy to take 2 to 4 grains of 
quinine daily, as a preventive medicine, which 
seems to be much more effective than larger do- 
ses at longer intervals. Chlorhydrate of quinine 
is preferable in an irritant stomach, or Sulphate 
of quinine can be given which is much cheaper^ 
During the acute stage of the malarial fever, it 
is better that quinine be administered in doses 
not smaller than one gram, nearly four hours 
before the expectation of the chills, as 
quinine takes nearly four hours to act, and ife 
should act energetically at the time of the 
sporulation — when the young broods are liber-- 
ated and w^hich provokes the chill, and the sporu- 
les then should be destroyed, for it is very doubt- 
ful how far the old garnets are affected by quinine. 
Quinine should be given every day, preferably 
by mouth and in powder form or in solution, and 
the bitter taste can be covered and neutralised 
by addition of syrup glycyrrhizae ( syrup of lico- 
I'ice) every day when the attack is expected, un- 
til the disease is broken, as it may be due to 
doilble infection by the tertian, estivo-autumnal 
and quartan parasites or to the treble infection 
of the quartan. And with the exception of rein- 


fection, relapses can be usually prevented by 
giving quinine once a week for four weeks from 
iXie occurrence of tlie last cbill. 

During tlie paroxysm, treatment needs simply 
iio be symptomatic : in chills hot drink, warm co- 
vers and hot fomentations can be applied to relieve 
the sliivering cold sensation, and during the suc- 
ceeding hot period cold application on the head to 
relieve headache and cold drink to relieve thirst. 
But the sweating period should not be shortened 
"by antipyretics as it might harm the organism by 
retaining the malarial toxins which perspiration 
tends to eliminate, and that is why the sweat of 
a malarial patient has a peculiar odor. 

It goes without saying that nourishing food 
and hygienic living strengthens the resisting 
power of the organism against any infection, 

II.- Diarrhoea. 

"Excessive consumption of indigestible ( ali- 
'fiientary diarrhoea provoked by the irritation of 
the intestinal mucosa through the indigestible 
residue ), fatty (fatty d. or d. adiposa, caused by 
the splitting of the fat into irritant fatty acids, 
or as in jaundice with the deficiency of the bile, 
by the evacuation of the undigested fatty sub- 


stances), drj-' (mechanical or serous d. caused by 
an augmentation of pressure within the alimen-- 
tary canal with exaggerated serous transudatioia 
into the intestine), hot {inflammatory d.), liquid 
{asthenic d. caused by the fermentation brought 
by the dilution of the digestive enzymes by an 
exceedingly large quantity of liquid), coarse {lin- 
terio d. in which the undigested or half-digested 
food particles are contained in the dicbarges ), 
ice-cold {congestive d. is induced by mechani- 
cally stimulating the peristalic contractions and 
possibly glandular secretions by a large quantity 
of cold water, thereby increasing the amount and 
fluidity of the intestinal contents, and by diluting 
the gastro-intestinal secretions which interfering 
with digestion, provokes fermentation ; the 
drinking of ice-cold v/ater and beverages cause 
loose movements for they mechanically bring 
about contraction of the superficial vessels of the 
mucosa, followed by reaction and congestion of 
the membrane, and if long continued to intesti- 
aal catarrh ), and improper foods [diarrhoea is 
provoked by all kinds of food poisoning, hroma- 
totoxismus either putrefactive, fermentative or 
infective with all toxemic symptoms : meat-poi- 
soning or kreototoxismus arises from decomposed 
meat ( proteus group alone or associated witlt 


colon bacilli), meat of diseased animals or infected 
animals ( as tuberculosis ) ; fish-poisoning or= 
ichthyotoxismus arises from eating fisli that is 
venomous, or only at the spawning season or' 
from feeding upon putrefactive substances or 
from its decomposed ptomaine poisoning as in' 
rotten egg ; milk-poisoning or galactotoxismus 
arises from taking contaminated or spoilt milk r 
milk may be contaminated from various sources 
as it is one of the best culture mediums of patho- 
sjenic germs, as from tuberculosis from a diseased 
animal, dust on the animal, filthv hand of tha 
milker, unclean receptacle, or, washed with 
polluted water, or from exposure when left 
uncovered for a considerable period, and milk 
usually contains myriads of bacteria, and in it 
are frequently observed colon bacilli and bacillus 
enteritidis, and to a lesser extent bacillus enteri- 
tidis sporogenes, staphilococci, paratyphoid and 
occasionally typhoid germs ; grain-poisoning or 
sitotoxismus arises from using spoilt, contaminated 
or sprouting grains, as pellagra in the use of 
diseased maize, or in the spoilt pea, paraplegia, 
or lathyrism ( lupinosis ) in the admixture of the 
grain with the seeds of the Hathyrus' ; it is well 
known that sprouting potatoes contain at the 
mouth of the sprouts or the greenish surface of 


the skin exposed to the sun, a glycerid 
alkaloid-solanine, wliile many of the mushrooms 
contain another toxic alkaloid-rauscarin], mi- 
cooked food (uncooked food is not only hard to 
digest as cooking softens the tissues, but many 
<yf the vegetables and fruits might contain fungi, 
amoeba and the eggs of many intestinal worms 
which are thus introduced into the alimentary 
■canal where they make their habitat, and pro- 
i?oke diarrhoea either by irritating the mucusa, or 
causing ulceration or impaction), disharmonious 
cmtibination of foods (as milk and acid, or sugar 
and acid which is apt to cause fermentation in 
a weak or debilitated stomach), repeated eating 
before the former meal has been digested {adhya- 
^a»a=sd.ab ingluvie), miiv^estioxi {dyspeptic d.) 
excessive use or abuse of purgation, vomitinj^ 
and sweating (d. cathartica), poisoning (m. chronic 
mercurial poisoning perhaps due to the corro- 
ding action of its salts, there is an extensive 
ulceration of the alimentary canal, followed 
by fetid diarrha3a, anemia, foul breath, falling 
out of the hair, brittleness of the nails, 
salivation, stomatitis, buccal ulcers and entero- 
clitis '^ in acute or chronic arsenic poisoning, 
there is pronounced epigastric and abdo- 
minal pain, followed by vomiting and diarrhfjea 


of rice water and often bloody and offensive 
stools, suppression of nrine or bloody urine, 
neuralg-ie pains and paralysis ; in lead poisoning, 
the gums have a bluish black tinge, progressive 
anemia., nutritive disturbance, constipation, but 
often alternating with diarrhoea), anxiety {emo- 
iional d.) depression (nervous or neu7'otic d:) 
polluted toater (water containing dysenteric 
germs or large amount of earthly alkali as 
magnesium or sodium, calcium or potassium car- 
bonates, dissolved from the soil) excessive drink- 
ing of spirituous liquor (in chronic alcoholism 
diarrhoea results from the thickened, inflamed, 
congested and often ulcerated intestinal mucosa, 
imperfect gastro-intestinal indigestion, inter- 
ference with colonic absorption, disturbance of 
the biles due to congestion and cirrhosis of the 
liver, and the effect of alcohol upon the local 
and cerebro-spinal nerve-centres controlling intes- 
tinal nutrition, secretion and motility, thus pro- 
voking diarrhoea alternating with constipation), 
mental derangement {neurogenic d.), sudden 
seasonal changes (thermic or summer d. of the hot 
season : it may be also induced by sun or 
heat stroke accompanied by enervation, 
dizziness, cramp, disturbed vision, dry skin, 
rectal and vesical irritability ; in exposure to 


cold and dampness, the surface of the body is 
suddenly chilled with the lowering of the surface 
temperature, which causes the contraction of the 
cutaneous blood-vessels, leading to congestion of 
the internal organs, chiefly the intestine and 
viscera, and reflexly irritating the motor and 
secretory nervous mechanism — thus leading to 
evacuations ; in sudden change of climate, 
diarrhoea may be, also, induced as hill or spruce 
d. ), excessive use of lavage ( ^nechanical d. \ 
obstructive ( due to carcinoma, tumor, calculi, 
fecal impaction or obstruction of the passage with 
the tapeworms as tenia solium which is intro- 
duced with incompletely cooked pork and might 
grotr from 6 to 12 feet, tenia saginata, from incom- 
pletely cooked beef varying in size from 10 to 25 
feet, tenia lata from half- cooked fish varying in 
size from 5 to 25 feet, and tenia nana (dwarf tape) 
from one-fifth to one and one-fourth inches in 
length ; diarrhoea is provoked by them either 
because the formed feces can not pass through 
the obstructed passage and only watery liquid 
can ooze through, or due to irritation from the 
mucosa caused by them ), and by "krimis' [worms 
uncinariasis or hookworm, ascaris lumbricoides 
or round worms, oxyuris vermicularis or thread- 
worm, tricuris trichiura or whipworm, trematodes 


or flukeworms and strongyloides intestinalis ; 
microbes : entaroebazer rhizapodes in amebic 
dysentery, flagellates ormastigophores in flagel- 
late dysentery, ciliates ( balandium coli, infuso- 
ria ) in ciliar dysentery, bacillus dysenterise in 
bacillary dysentery, spirillum cbolera asiatica in 
cholera, bacillus typhosus in typhoid fevers, 
gonococcus among the pedestrians with extensive 
lesion of the anal mucosa, plasmodium in bilious 
remittent fever ] these causes produce 
dirrhoea." Susriita VI. 40. 2^^*. 

**Slow-moving (cya?;a = ascaris). agile {vijava 
= flagellates), creeping (^^^j^^/cr = trematodes or 
flukeworm), stealing (/^•ipy6»= uncinariasis or 
hookworm), knotted-feet (ffandi(,-pada = tenia), 
thread-like (chnru = oxyuris vermicularis or 
thread -worm) and two mouthed ((:/i;mw/(;^« = trichu- 
ris trichiura or whipworm) are the *krimV (para- 
sites) of the feces ; they are whitish and minute ; 
they move in the lower intestine and cause (bor- 

107. 5^^f^^^^'i!r-5^^^nffi5^ci^: I 



I ' 

ing pain ; and among them there are some that 
have flagella puchcua as in flagellates) and they 
are Tjroad. These fecal 'h'imi' (worms and other 
microbic parasites) bring about colics, dyspepsia, 
jaundice, intestinal obstruction, weakness, over- 
flowing of the watery discharges, heart lesion 
and non-formation of the feces." 

SmrutaYL 54.4'"'. 

"The prodromes of diarrhoea are boring 
pains in the heart, umbilicus, coccygeal region, 
abdomen and the groin, lassitude of the body, 
flatulence, constipation, tympanites and indiges- 
tion." Susruta VI. 40. 4^ " \ 

* 'Abdominal pains, oliguria, sounds in the 
alimentary canal, prolapsus ani, lassitude of the 

108. ^5?cn T^^m: ^T^mfmm ^m ^m^ i 

t^^^p^^ H"^*: ^^^^ *f^^ 1% II 

109. '^^fiTqR^5^f%eii'?-sii^rTOr?rf^9m^^: i 


srroin, tln'gh and the knee and the evacuation of 
raucus-covered (saphena^' frothy) dark-brownish, 
hardened scybla in small quantities with gas — 
these are the symptoms of nervous ( dysenteric) 

"Dark-yellowish ( in biliary obstruction ), 
greenish (due to the presence of unchanged bili- 
verdin in the discharges as in acute enteritis), or 
reddish (tarry stools may be due to cancer or 
ulcer of the intestine or dysentery), unformed, 
serous (like the juice of pressed meat), foul-smell- 
ing and steamy discharges rush forth in bilious 
diarrhcEa (cholera asiatica) ; in this disease the 
patient becomes exhausted and becomes over- 
powered by polydipsia, vertigo and hyperemia of 
the internal organs. ' 

"Whitish (rice-water, or containing undigested 
fat) and pasty stool appears noiselessly, mixed 
with mucus in phlegmatic diarrhoea ; in this 
disease the patient suffers from collapse, somno- 
lence, lassitude and repeated evacuations ; and 
the patient becomes irritable and there is horripi- 
lation (contraction of the peripheral vessels). 

**In the typhoid fevers, the above mentioned 
symptoms appear, but the color of the evacuation 
is varied and the patient suffers from polydipsia ; 
it is very, hard to cure and the prognosis is especi- 


ally unfavorable for the infants and for the 
aged." Susruta VI. 40. 5-8 » ^ \ 

"If in cholera asiatica (visuchtka) and tym- 
phenites {alasaka), the teeth (the gum), lips and 
nails become cyanotic, there is a comatose state, 
active vomiting, orbits of the eyes are sunk in 
the sockets, the voice becomes vreak and the 

110. JCfjjfiw^: ^^^s^^ 


joints become relaxed, then the prognosis is very 
unfavorable." SusrutaNl. 56. 8^^^ . 

**In acute diarrhoea, if the feces is formed or 
shows symptoms of being formed, and the vitali- 
ty of the patient is not very low, there has not 
been much emaciation of flesh nor blood much 
thinned, appetite and digestion have returned, 
then the patient can be cured with difficulty. 
But if the patient has the following symptoms, 
notwithstanding the above-mentioned presenta- 
tions, he is to be regarded as incurable. Incur- 
able symptoms are being mentioned : if the stool 
has the color of concoction (dark-brownish), redd- 
ish, like that of the spleen and fat ; or is (in con- 
sistency ) like water in which meat has been 
washed, curdled milk (semi-fluid), clarified but- 
ter, bone-marrow, oil, butter, milk, condensed 
milk, or deep bluish (with the development of 
indican in pronounced putrefaction ), reddish, 
lilackish ( in bilious remittent or black- 
water fever ), or transparent like water or the 
brownish-black color of the banana flowering- 
stem (clay or chocolate color stool appears in 

111. W. ^ST^'^^'HeHi-rMy'^'^W^S*^'*''^^^^^' I 


absence in urohilin^ that is in the deficiency of 
the biliary secretion in the intestine ), very 
fatty, pale-greenish or dark-greenish ( due to 
unchanged biliverdin ), or multi-colored ^ or 
is turbid, lubricous or mixed with threadlike 
substance ( oxyiiHs vermiculaHs or thread- 
worms), mucus or like the ocellate spots on the 
tail-feather of a peacock (flakes) ; the odor is like 
that of a decomposed corpse (cadaverous), putrid, 
pyogenous or like raw fish (fishy) ; if the feces 
attracts quickly the flies, or various viscid sub- 
stances are observed in it (the stool may contain 
undigested food, blood, mucus, pus, membranes, 
fat ; calculi from the gall-bladder, intestines, sto- 
mach, salivary glands ; intestinal parasites, exfo- 
liated polypi and nerotic sloughs), or the dischai-ge 
contains very little feces (a normal stool should 
have hard but flexible consistency, golden-brown- 
ish in color, cylindrical in form, nearly an incli 
in diameter, three to four inches in length ; but 
if it is of small calibre, it is indicative of prolapr 
sus ani or an annular stricture of the rectum ;., 
ribbon-shaped or flattened stool of stricture or 
cancer of the rectum ; roundish masses of liard- 
ened feces {scyhala) may shoot out in dysentery 
or is indicative of the gastric ulcer, gastric dila- 
tation, cancer of the rectum or chronic coiistipa- 


tion) or is free from it {serous) and the patient 
suffers from polydipsia, hyperemia of the intern- 
al colics or its insensibility to pain ; if there is 
anal fistula or ulceration, or hemorrhage of the 
pile or the pile does not go back to its own place, 
stricture of the anus, emaciation of the body, 
■thinning of the blood (anemia due to the reduction 
of the red corpuscles), pain in the lumbar region, 
anorexia, morbid delirium and coma, or the 
diarrhoea suddenly ceases, that patient is to be 
regarded as incurable." Charaka VI. 19. 11^^-. 
"In the first stage sf diarrhcsa, fasting is bene- 
ficial. After fasting, for relief from diarrhoea 
barley water should be given with (astringent) 
concoction ( paohana ). If patient still suffers 

112. M'%\ ^fWM aiW^fq^T q^nfT^=^'5?lt^5ftf%c[^ W^^- 



from colics and flatulence, give him an emetic 
with piper longum (which is carminative) and 
rock salt, dissolved in water. After vomiting 
light food can be given, barley water and piper 
longum. But if this does not relieve diarrhoea 
then everv mornin» a concoction of turmerics 
{curcuma longum) or sweet flag {acorum calamum) 
should be given to drink." Siisruta VI. 40.16^^^. 

**In morbid diarrhoea (dysentery) and stran- 
gury, a (rectal) enema (»as(^i= clyster) of con- 
coction of liquorice root {glycyrrJiiza glabra) 
and blue lotus ( nyphaea cacriilea) mixed with 
milk, clarified butter and honey (for irrigation) 
should be given ; hemorrhagia proctica, aesus 
and fever are also relieved by this enema; If 
there is bloody stool an oily enema of soothing 
and honeyed herbs should be given daily either 


at day or at night. An oily enema relieves the 
nervous irritation where it is administered ; and 
if the nerves are subdued, ti»e dysentery is also 
cured/' Stisruta Y I. 4.0. 90'' \ . i 

Ilectal irrigation uitli sootliing oil or steri- 
lizing: medical solution or their combined emul- 
sion is certainly one of the best means known 
to combat pernicious, ulcerated and resistant 
diarrhoea and is very effectively utilized in :ad- 
vanced modern treatment, Enemata serve to 
dislodge or to prevent fpcal impaction where 
ulcers have healed and a stenosis has formed in 
the lower bowel, and for evacuating gas, putre- 
fying matter, toxic discharges and other irritants 
within the rectum. Aq enema is generally givea 
in constipation. And in an enema the fluid 
administered has to be limited to two to three 
quarts or it might cause distension, pain, ptosis 

111'. 5fr?ret ^(?§< ^ f«w^ v^^T^Hi 


or paresis of the intestine and in severe cases 
even the rupture of its membrane. While in 
irrigation, there is no limit to the quantity of 
fluid, for the solution is allowed to flow into and 
out of the gut through a double or return-flow 
tube (J,rrigator) or by making the fluid flow into 
the bowel by way of an artidcial opening 
(appendiceal or cecal) and making it flow out at 
the anus through a proctoscope or a pipe intro- 
duced for the purpose, thus escaping as fast as 
the solution enters into the bowel. Therefore 
irrigation serves by the soothing and antiseptic 
properties of its content to heal the local 
ulcerated lesions, prevent the formation of 
impacted fecal masses, to wash out the sores and 
to neutralize the toxins, to remove toxins, irrita- 
ting pus, blood, mucus, tissue debris and feces, to 
dislodge and wash away parasites, and to relieve 
enterospasm, colics and tenesmus. By vastl 
is meant to include the functions of an enema 
and irrigator according to the needs. 

Improvement invariably follows daily irriga- 
tion of the intestine. But it is not so much due 
to the medicaments as to the dissolvent and 
cleansing quality of water and washing away the 
toxins, so that the organism does not suffer so 
ioauch from their absorption. IJniloubtedly 


aniiseptic, deodorant, soothing and stimulating 
medicaments exert beneficial influence, especially 
in inflammatory, ulcerative and obstructive lesions 
of the intestine, but they are only of secondary 
value. The only thing that is important is to 
irrigate the intestine as often as possible with 
body temperature of the solution. Positive good 
result is obtained by daily irrigation with 
warm saline solution, camomile, flax-seed, 
oak-bark tea, pinas canadensis ( 1 p. c. ), 
borolyptol, potassium permanganate, glyco- 
thymolin or listerin (3 p. c. ), salicylic acid, 
alum, zinc sulphate or silver nitrate ( 1 p. c), 
boric acid or Carlsbad salt ( 2 p. c. ) or thymol 
( I : 2000 ). In advanced cases of deq)-seated 
ulceration and erosions, it is better to use the 
above solutions a little stronger or ichtliyol or 
balsam of Peru ( 2 to 5 p. c. ), salicylate of soda 
( 3 to 5 p. c, ) and bisulphateof quinine (1 :1000) 
especially in entamebic and bacillary dysentery^ 
Oils named according to the degree of tlieir 
proven usefulness, olive, sesame, sweet almond, 
cotton seed, liquid vaselin and neutralol, either 
alone or in emulsion with the above-mentioned 
medicaments, can be used witli marked residt. 

Propyhlaxis : As water seems to be the 
principal source of infection of cholera asiatica. 


typhoids and dysentery, and in water spirillum 
cholera asiatica, bacillus typhosus and pathoge- 
nic agents of dysentery ( entameha dysenteria^ 
hacillus dysenteria, halantidium coli ) can all live 
and thrive for a long time, it is essential that all 
drinking water must be thoroughly boiled and 
filtered. Milk also must be boiled before it is 
drunk, as it is often contaminated by water 
from suspicious sources. All dejecta from the 
victim of any of these diseases must be dis-in- 
f ect<3d with a five per cent solution of carbolic 
acid, one per cent of chloride of lime or one- 
fortieth per cent of corrosive sublimate, so that 
all the pathogenic microbes be destroyed and 
they can not enter into the soil, especially if it be 
saturated with moisture where they can multiply, 
and retain their vitality and virulence for j^ears. 
This also applies to urine and sputum. Nor 
should any vegetable or fruit be eaten raw or 
not tlioroughly cooked which might have grown 
on the soil or fallen upon it, where there is the 
least possibility that the soil has been fertilized 
by human feces. And all coarse vegetables 
and unripe fruits which might leave a good 
deal of irritant residue, should be avoided. It 
is true that these germs have been found living 
in harmless, inert vegetative state without 


provoking any lesion in the gastro-intestiual 
tract where they have been harboured, and the 
predisposing cause of their development is the 
malnutrition, fatigue, over-work and exhaustion 
of the organism. Yet it must be admitted that 
it is very dangerous to sustain such potential 

In the treatment of typhoid and cholerale 
diarrhosa, there Skve two fundamentally opposed 
theories. One is the destruction and removal 
of the vibrios and to neutralize the toxins by 
s, powerful antiseptic purgative like calomel 
( 3 to 5 grains with 6 to 12 grains of sodium 
bicarbonate ) and after this initial dose to 
administer small doses ( one-tenth to one-twen- 
tieth grain ), every half or quarter hour until 
the symptoms improve or the patient passes 
into algide stage. Some strongly recommend 
the administration of castor oil ( half an ounce 
emulsified with chloroform ) before giving 
calomel. And to inject saline solution (1.25 
per cent solution of salt, prepared by dissolv- 
ing 2 drachms of salt in one pint of water ) 
at blood temperature, ten to fifteen ounces 
every half an hour to counteract the circulatory 
disturbance through the evacuations. 

The other theory is to spare the vitality of 


the patient wbicli is seriously dissipated by 
repeated evacuations, and for this purpose a 
strong astringent like tannic acid ( kino, cateclm^ 
rhatania are to be preferred to pure tannic acid ) 
should be introduced into the rectum one to 
two litters daily in one per cent solution at a 
little above the body temperature. This seems, 
to have shown good result. And if there are 
evidences of toxic accumulation and fecal reten- 
tion, calomel is to be given every two hours 
in doses of 0.03 to 0.05 gram. The patient must 
be confined to bed; The body should be kept 
warm by fomentation. To quench thirsty 
sterilized water should be given, preferably 
acidulated with the juice of pomegranate, but 
any other fruit juice or milk under no circum- 
stances. During convalescence pigeon, dove 
or chicken broth with rice, with aromatic but 
non-irritant spices is to be preferred, but all 
coarse and irritant food should be avoided. 

In puerperal dlarrhcBa (sutika) which is usual- 
ly caused by the invasion of the blood by the 
streptococci, staphilococci, united with gono- 
cocci, coli bacilli and other micro-organisms 
through a wound of the uterus at child-birth or 
in miscarriage by careless, septic handling and 
spreading of the germs, treatment should be 


more or less confined to increase t)ie resisting, 
power, bacteriolytic and agglutinative functions 
of the blood by dietary and hygienic regulations. 
The symptom-complex of septicemia (suHka) 
commences usually within a week after infection. 
At the onset there is chilliness with low and 
moderate fever, but which rises and tends to be- 
come of continued type with decided daily 
remission. If however pyogenic germs have 
also got admission into the blood, tlie fever sets 
in with rigor, there is high temperature with 
steep curve and daily remission with sweating, 
like malarial remittent fever. However, the 
fever runs an irregular course. But it may be 
complicated by previous or post malarial infec- 
tion. As compared with septicemia, pyemia 
exhibits recurring chills, deeply remitting fever 
and sweats, rapid wasting and moderate icterus ;.-. 
while in septicemia the chilliness is only felt at 
the onset of the fever which runs a mild conti- 
nuous type with no sweats and jaundice is much 
lighter. Headache, marked anorexia, nausea and 
diarrha3a are the usual symptoms of septicemia 
{satikd). The pulse is rapid, small and compressible. 
The spleen may be palpably swollen ; petechial 
spots are not uncommon ; rashes or herps might 
also appear. Slight toxemic jaundice is alsa 


usually seen. The urine usually contains 
albumin, leucocytes, red-cells and tube casts. 
The leucocytes are increased and there is an 
immense destruction of the red-corpuscles of the 
blood, leading often to hemoglobinemia and 
liemoglobinuria. Loss of appetite is very 
pronounced and there is no desire to partake of 
any kind of food and there is a special disgust to 
meat. The stool is emptied with severe tenesmus 
and consists of mucus mixed with blood. Often 
the joints become painful and swollen, and the 
skin of those parts reddish. Respiration is rapid 
but there is no dyspnea. But there may be 
complications of broncliitis or pneumonia. 

Prognosis is not very favorable except in 
cases where within 6 to 8 weeks the temperature, 
respiration and pulse slowly tend to be normal. 
The treatment should chiefly consist ef hygiene 
and dietary. The patient must be confined to 
bed. All movements should be restricted as much 
as possible, as movement tends to spread the in- 
fection. Even after convalescence has set in, the 
patient shall remain in bed, at least for four 
weeks and all physical motion and mental 
excitement should be forbidden. However it is 
Tery desirable that the room is airy, bright and 
■cheerful, so that there is no oppressive dullness 


and niouotony. Eood should be varied, easily 
digestible, appetizing and nutritious. However, 
all irritating spices must be avoided though 
aromatic and sweet-smelling substances can be 
added with advantage, with only exception to 
old wine which is very well tolerated in 'sutikd'. 
Meat broth of: pigeon, dove, chicken, tender 
goat or lamb ( from lamb, fat should be taken 
out ) is very useful in fighting this tragic malady 
which pitilessly transforms the long-dreamt 
happy motherhood into painful suffering and 
sad struggle for life. Lean, light fish can be 
given in any appetizing way, but fatty and heavy 
fish should be avoided. 

Antistreptococcic serum which is calculated 
to destroy the bacteria either by producing 
agglutins or phagocytosis can be injected three 
times daily with promising result unless there is 
pyomia, in wliich case it is apt to do positive 
harm according to Menzer whose serum has 
good reputation for its efficacy. The inunction 
of unguentum is claimed by Crede'to be beneficial. 
But none of these preparations have given 
completely satisfactory results. They are more 
or less empirical. The antipyretics are recommend- 
ed by some. 

But as fever is the expression of the bodily 


reaction against the toxic products of the in- 
vading micro-organisms, suppression of fever is- 
apt to do rather more harm than good unless 
absolutely necessary to reduce the temperature 
and relieve certain nervous symptoms. More- 
over all tlie antipyretics — antipyrin, phenacetin, 
acetanilid, malakin, kryofene, lactophenin and 
others are all coal-tar products. And the use of 
these drugs is followed by depression and some- 
times serious collapse. Therefore its repeated 
use in continued and prolonged fever might 
endanger the life of the patient by heart failure 
which is seriously damaged by this disease^ 
thougli the temperature of fever is thereby 
reduced. Quinine of course in non-malarial 
septicemia, is hardly of any value. Only it is. 
very us^'ful when 'suHka' is complicated by 
malarial iifection. 

Frophylaxis in 'sutika' is the absolute aseptic 
handliiiu at every child-birth, for otherwise 
with le;js wound or abrasion of the female genital 
organs w'nicii is inevitable, circulatory system 
may be invaded by pathogenic micro-organism& 
through lymph channel or veins. All the instru- 
ments must be thoroughly sterilized, and 
sterilized irlove should be used. Genital organ 
also should be carefully examined before delivery 


for any infections disease, especially gonorrhea. 
in case of gonorrhea all precautions must ho 
taken and the baby's eyes should he waslied with 
one to two per cent silver-nitrate solution, or 
better still — Argyrol in 1-50 to 1-20 solution to 
prevent the affection of the eyes with its virus 
{ophthalmia neonatorum). 


**The causes, lesions and the organs tliat are 
affected which provoke temporary (alimentary) 
diabetes are as follows : too often an excessive 
consumption of various kinds of new cereals, 
bean-broths (of new pisum sativum and phaseolus 
roxhurghi) seasoned with clarified batter, meat 
of animals and amphibious creatures, vegetable- 
leaves, sesame-seeds, rice or wheat cakes, rice- 
pudding, rice and lentil curry, pulf-corn, sugar- 
cane-juice, milk, fermenting milk, fluid-food, 
sweet-meats and the intemperate eating of other 
products which are phlegmatic (reduces meta- 
bolism), fattening and diuretic — they are etiologic 
factors of diabetes (that is, the excessive consump- 
tion of carbohydrates in various forms above the 
assimilative power of the organism). Excessive 
liquid phlegraa is the pathological production 
and abnormal accumulation of fat, flesh, per- 


spiration, (production of) semen, blood, marrow,, 
lymph, chyle and lecithin (oja) are the predispos- 
ing causes ( become affected ) "C/iarctka II. 4, 

There are various kinds of diabetes : "The 
urine is whitish, painless (micturition) and 
aquatic in ^udaka-meha' [diabetes Insipidfis, in 
which the quantity of urine is enormously 
increased ( 10 to 30 pints), it is light-pale in color 
and the specific gravity is low (1.002 to 1.007) ; 
the total urea output is slightly increased, but it 
does not contain albumin, sugar or casts ; only 
inosite ( muscle-sugar ) is met with on rare 
occasions. Except excessive thirst and loss of 
fluid, the patient otherwise might be in apparent 
good health. This disease is supposed to be of 
nervous origin] ; the urine is (sweetish) like the 


sugar-cane juice in ^ikm-meha' ( diabetes mellitiis 
or glycosuria in which tlie urine contains one to 
ten per cent of glycose, is pale, acid and has a 
sweetish odor ; the quantity of urine is greatly 
increased (5 to 20 pints) and is usually of high 
specific gravity (1.030 to 1.045) ; urea is in- 
creased and in advar)C<^d stage of the disease 
acetone, diacetic and B-oxybutyric acid may be 
present. This disease is due to the lesion of the 
pancreas which seews to control the carbohybrate 
metabolism) ; the urine is like spirituous liquor 
in *siira-meha'' [acetonuria in which a large 
amount of acetone is excreted with the urine, 
indicating incomplete oxidation of albumiaes 
and fats, especially in absence of carbohydrate 
which is needed for their complete combustiono 
Acetonuria is met with in inanition, typhoid 
fever, pneumonia, acute miliary tuberculosis, 
acute rheumatic fever, cancerous cachexia 
intestinal auto-intoxication, septicemia and in 
diabetes, especially when sugar is completely 
withdrawn from diet fur some time or susrar 
metabolism is disturbed. Acetone is a colorless 
mobile liquid of pleasant odor, produced commer- 
cially by the destructive distillation of acetates 
(whence the name ^pyroacetic spirit')^ and of 
sugar, cellulose and varioub organic compounds. 


Acetone is the simplest representative of the 
aliphatic ketones and is known as '^demethyl- 
i'-etone\ It has some anesthetic quality and 
smells as etlier. Pure alcohol when ingested 
in excess or under certain pathological condition 
of the alimentary canal passes with the urine (A. 
E,onchese : L"* analyse desurins, p. 306) ; urination 
is painful and the urine contains sand-like minute 
but hard and angular crystals (uric acid sands) 
in 'slkata-meha' {[/ravel — very small concretions, 
usually of uric acid, calcium oxalate or phos- 
phates, are formed in the kidney and pass through 
ureter with the urine) ; repeated micturition of 
phlegmatic (colorless, jellylike) and viscous 
substance in mnairmeha^ [ fibrinuria in which a 
colorless sticky sediment {coagulum)^ or if much 
febrin is present, the conversion of the urine 
into a jellylike mass upon standing takes place. 
It is due to the presence of fibrinogen and a 
ferment capable of forming fibrin. It occurs in 
cases where the plasma of the blood enters some 
portion of the urinary tract, as in chyluria, crou- 
pous inflammation of the tract, villous growths 
in the bladder] ; the urine is clear and saline in 
'lavanameha* ( chlorides are normally present 
'in the urine and are daily excreted from 8 to 
10 grams ; but a persistent increase of 15 to 30 


grams occurs in the prodromal stage of general pa- 
resis and diabetes insipidus, during convalescence 
from lobar pneumonia and post convulsive stage 
of epilepsy) ; there is horripilation ( peripheral 
contraction) and the urine is whitish like thick 
rice-paste water {albuminuria occurs in acute 
nephritis, chronic parenchymatous nephritis and 
urethritis) ; the dispharge is turbid and thick in 
*sandra-meha^ {gleet in chronic urethritis causes 
a thin whitish discharge, but becomes, also, thick 
and yellowish under various causes. The origin 
of the discharge is the numerous mucous follicles, 
lining that portion of the urethra correspond- 
ing to the site of the chronic inflammation. 
When congested, granular or abraded patches 
exist, there is a constant hyper-secretiou of mucus 
or muco-pus with exfoliation of the epithelium 
upon the surface of the lesion. In this condi- 
tion tlie current of urine, as it passes over 
the diseased portion of the canal, rolls up into 
strings or threads the desquamated epithelium 
and muco-purulent deposit upon the surface and 
this appears in the urine as the delicate thready 
filament which is a familiar occurrence in chronic 
gonorrhea ) ; the discharge is like the semen, 
in 'sukra-meha^ ( spermatorrhea is indicative of 
self-abuse, excessive coitus, sexual neurasthenia 



as cause or consequence, and prodrome of loco- 
motor ataxia. Sedentary habits, an habitually 
loaded rectum, asearides, and the too free use of 
condiments and liquors may be responsible for 
the slighter degree of the symptom. In a 
continent individual involuntary emissions 
during sleep, if occurring at intervals of 2 to 6 
weeks, are quite normal. But if it be much more 
frequent and if the emissions occur without 
erection, unconsciously to the patient, in the 
day time or while straining at stool, their 
pathological character is marked. Sper- 
matozoa are found in the first urine 
passed after emission in men. • They occur 
also in some cases of injury or disease of the 
spinal cord. Occasionally a small amount of 
semen is expressed from the vesiculae seminales 
by the pressure of hard fecal masses, during 
severe expulsive efforts accompanying obstinate 
constipation. The persistent presence of sper- 
matozoa in the urine is symptomatic of sperma- 
torrhea ) ; scanty foamy urine in ^phenameha^ 
( in renal congestion, the urine is scanty, acid, 
of high specific gravity and usually cloudy with 
urates ). 

The urine is frothy, transparent and bluish 
{ indiccmm'la in which indican is found in large 


quantitj. When albuminous substances under- 
go ])acterial p'utrefaction in the intestine, or are 
rapi(31y decomposing in any part of the body, as 
in the putrid pus of septic peritonitis, or in 
empyema, indol is formed. When the indol is 
absorbed, it is oxidized, forming indoxyl, and the 
latter combines with, the preformed potassium 
sulphate to become the conjugate potassium 
indoxyl-sulphate, or as it is more commonly 
termed 'indican*. If indican which is itself 
colorless comes in contact with acids or oxidizing- 
agents, it is decomposed with the formation of 
indigo blue. An excessive formation of indican 
is indicative of abnormal intestinal putrefaction* 
As a rule, it is usually associated with hypo- 
chloro-hydria, as hydrochloric acid exerts restrain- 
ing influence on proteolytic bacteria. An excess 
of indican is found in gastric cnncer and perito- 
nitis ) 5 the micturition is painful and the urine 
has the color of turmeric (curcuma has yellowisli- 
brown color ) in ^haridra-meJia* {choluriain which 
the urine is yellowish-brown or greenish-yellow 
due to the presence of bilirubin in the urine. Ifc 
occurs in many diseases in which an excessive 
quantity of bile is excreted as bilious remittent 
fever and part of it appears unchanged in the 
urine ) ; sour odor and sourish taste in ^amla» 


meha' ( oxaluria in which there is a persistent 
excretion of oxalates. Normally oxalic acid is 
excreted daily from 0. 010 to 0. 020 gram ( one- 
sixth to one-third grain ), but exists in combina- 
tion as calcium oxalate, and is held in solution 
by the acid sodium phosphate of the urine, and 
when the latter is deficient, the oxalates ave 
precipitated. Oxalic acid is increased by certain 
foods, as cabbage, rhubarb, tomato, and to a 
lesser extent by asparagus, spinach, carrots, 
string beans and celery. Oxalic acid may also 
result from oxidation of uric acid or an incom] 
plete oxidation of carbohydrates, in which case 
the intermediate product is oxaluric acid. A 
persistent increase in the excretion of oxalates 
is usually associated with the disorders of 
the gastro-intestinal tract or neurasthenia ) ; 
the urine is like pressed alkaline water from 
( laundry ) cloth, in smell, color, taste and touch 
in ^hsara-^nelicC ( phosphaturia in which a con- 
siderable amount of earthy phosphates mixed 
•with fixed alkali is excreted with the urine. It 
is found in dyspepsia and neurasthenia. Occa- 
sionally the fixed alkali and the earthly phos- 
phates deposit their sediments in the bladder, and 
the few whitish drops passed at the end of 
urination like semen, may be their symptomic 


expression. The urine is decidedly alkaline. 
Normally phosphoric acid is daily excreted from 
2 to 3 grams ( 30 to 45 grains ) in combination 
as alkaline and earthly phosphates, the alkaline 
salts predominating. It is derived from the 
food and partly from the decomposition of lecithin 
and nuclein. The excretion is greatly increased 
in leucemia, pernicious anemia, uervous dyspepsia 
and considerably diminished in intermittent 
malaria, pulmonary tuberculosis with high 
temperature, typhoid, nephritis, chronic rheumat- 
ism and yellow atrophy of the liver ) ; the 
urine is like the water of Indian madder {manjis- 
tlia=7mhia ynunjista, which has bright red color 
in ^manjistha-meha' ( hemoglobinuria in which 
tlie urine contains the blood- coloring matter 
'hemoglobin' and its oxidation product *methemo- 
globin*. Hemoglobinuria occurs in cases where- 
tbere is such an extensive destruction of the 
erythrocytes that it exceeds the power of the 
hepatic activity to transform the whole of the 
liberated hemoglobin into bilirubin, and the 
excess escapes by way of the kidney with the 
urine. It is found in pernicious bilious remittent 
malarial fever, especially after excessive doses of 
quinine, syphilis, yellow fever and severe form of 
jaundice) 5 and the urine is like the blood in 


*sonitcMneha' {hematuria in which the red-corpus- 
cles of the blood appear in the urine. It occurs 
in cases where there is an acute congestion of the 
kidney and the number of erythrocytes indicates 
the severity of the lesion. Bloody urine may be 
voided in leucemia, hemophilia, purpura, and in 
renal cancer, tuberculosis, abscess and lithiasis). 

The discharge is like clarified butter in 
*sarpi-meha' {pyuria in yxXnoXv the pus appears 
in the urine. It may be due to different causes, 
but often it is associated with the gonorrheal 
urethritis. The urine contaiuing tbe pus from 
any renal lesion is usually acid and from the 
bladder alkaline); the urine is fatty in 'vasa-meha* 
{lipuria in which the fat is present in the urine 
in such quantities as to enable its identification 
by the unaided eye. The fat may appear in the 
urine due to the ingestion of excessive amounts 
of fat (fat meat, or in cases of fracture involving 
the bone marrow and causino^ fat embolism, in 
long-continued suppurative processes, in the 
lipemia of diabetes mellitus, from the fatty 
degeneration of the renal epithelium in chronic 
nephritis, of pus cells, in pyonephrosis or 
neoplasm along the urinary tract, or in the fatty 
degeneration in phosphorus poisoning. If the 
urine is so crowded with minute fat globules as 


to present a milky appearance to tlie naked eye, 
it is called 'chyhiria' or 'galactiiria\ Chyluria is 
usually due to parasitic origin, especially due to 
the presence of 'filaria, sanguinis hominis'}; the 
urine is in taste and color like honey-sugar 
{hsaiidra = fruit-sugar, that is levulose) in hsaudra- 
meha'' {levidosuria in T^'hich levulose appears in the 
u:ine. It seems that the pancreas does not re- 
gikte the metabolism of levulose, for when there 
is intolerance for dextrose as in glycosuria, a 
g3od deal of fruit sugar can he assimilated. Pro- 
lahly the liver synthetizes the fruit sugar and in 
tie severe hepatic lesion or in the presence of 
bxias in the blood which causes irritation to the 
nuscles, which possess a considerable power to 
uiiize sugars, levulose is abnormally excreted 
wth the urine, though its permeability through 
tb kidney is nearly four times less than that of 
mdtose); the urine flows like that of a mad ele- 
ph,nt in ^hasti meha' {polyuria or the diahetes 
inspidus in which 10 to 20 quarts of pale urine 
is eschar ged daily). Susruta 11. 6. lO*^*^. 

f^^ «i^<5:?pi}* ^ti^l, ^"^^j fq^^g^' fq^^ft-, ^ift^' 5aT?* 
m^^% ^Rig^" ^^ft, '^w ^^^ ^st ^i^f( -^m ii^o 


*'Any one who repeatedly urinates ink-colored 
(blackish) warm urine, suffers from ^kala-meha' 
(cilkaptoniiria in which the urine darkens on 
standing, due to the presence of alkaptoa 
(glycosuric acid) or related oxyacids, or melanin 
from melanotic cancer; or in hemoglobinuria as 
in pernicious remittent bilious fever, duo to tte 
destruction of large amounts of erythrocytes, 
the blood-pigment may undergo change ai^d 
appear in the urine as brownish-black or blackish ^ 
and for this reason the fever is called ''blacU 
water-fever'):' Charaka II. 4. 17.'^'. j 

"Prognosis: "If one has acquired diabet© 
mellitus {madhu-meha) by hereditary transmit 
sion, he is incurable. It is not only hereditar/' 
glycosuria that is incurable, but all hereditaA' 

^■^ ^' wmf^Tir^^ ^^im: I ^fq':nwrsi ^f^^'^ft ^Rt;Wt- 
117. iT€t^ »^5^^' ^t ^'^g'^ ^i^f?f I 


predispositions are hard to remedy." CharaJca 
YI. 6. 4P^». 

*'As birds easily take shelter in low trees, so 
glycosuria rapidly attacks those who are addicted 
to gluttony, but averse to bathing and walking 
(physical exercise and exertion). Glycosuria 
proves fatal fot* one who lacks energy, is very 
fleshy, fat and extremely corpulent. He who 
eats only to cover his metabolic needs, recovers 
his health." CharaJca IT. 4. 32. ^^\ 

"If the diabetes lasts for a long time, then 
there are complications of polydipsia, fever, 
diarrhoea, hyperaemia, weakness, anorexia, indi- 
gestion and putrefying boils, abscesses and 
gangrenes." Charaka II. 4. 30'''". 

lis. 5fTcT^^ 'I^Mt ^ 

^ =^f^ ^f%(T li^i^T f^^m 
120. ^q^^^T^^irg iRtf%^ (f^T^^TTf^igi^rfft^^Kt^^r^i^:) 


*'If a diabetic has boils tlien an expert surgeon 
shall treat him by cleaning and restoring 
{cicatrizing) them by his instruments. Chai^aka 
VI. 6. 42^ ^\ 

JProphi/laxis: la diabetes mellitus, it is neces- 
sary to know whether the disease is acquired 
or inherited. In lesions affecting the pons 
medulla, cerebellum, liver, thyroid and especially 
the pancreas, diabetes may be provoked. But in 
other diseases which do not seriously damage 
the pancreas, as in syphilis, acute infection, trau- 
matic and surgical neurasthenia, physical and 
mental excesses, there usually exists a predis- 
po->ing cause. Tlie predisposing cause consists 
of metabolic deficiency of assimilating carbohy- 
drates. It might lie in some inherent weakness 
of the hepatic and principally the pancreatic cells 
or that of the organism to burn the carbohy- 
drates or that of the nervous mechanism control- 
ling the process. Susruta did not fail to distin- 
guish them. He says : 

121. KOTi^'jit <^i: fq^^T «^"4twt: 


**Dial)etes is either inherited or acquired 
(alimentary). Inherited diabetes is due to 
improper dietary. The hereditary diabetic is 
very lean, dry (skin), has weak appetite (anorexia)^ 
polydipsia and is very nervous ; the alimentary 
diabetic is fleshy, has voracious appetite {hulimid), 
adiposis and is addicted to sedentary habits 
(fond of bed, seat and sleep. The lean diabetic 
should be treated by dietetic regulation, and the 
fat diabetic by ^ a'pata^^'pana^ (exercise and fasting). 
Smruta IV. 11. 2'-". 

Prophylaxis should begin with children, 
especially wlien children of hereditarily predis- 
posed parents are found with tendencies to 
neurosis, goat or obesity, , and tbey should not 
intermarry with families of the same diathesis, 
iior over-indulge in sugars or excess of carbohy- 
drates. Adults with hereditary tendencies 
should avoid taking sugar and should not exceed 
in the carbohydrate diet beyond the physiologic 

fqqT^37 qf^€^^^Qi^ x^'m I ^^tii ^€t 'f^wt f^'Ei: si^re^^i^i'Jt: 
intern I cm s5i^^5^»T;jf?ig'^mfvr: f5Pi[fwf^f%?i^c[, ^j^ciq ^- 


and metabolic needs. Rather it would be wise 
to partly replace the carbohydrates with fat and 
protein. Tendency to obesity should be com- 
batted by regular exercise and frugal diet. When 
obesity has developed, it should be reduced by 
a slow process of moderate daily outdoor exercise 
and a slight undernutrition, especially in car- 
bohydrates and fat. 

Treatment : Glycosuria can be successfully 
fought only by rational dietary. It is a safe policy 
in the beo-inning: of the treatment to eliminate 
all carbohydrates from the diet. It may be said 
against this, that the excretion of sugar in the 
urine is but a symptom of the lesion, and the 
elimination of the sugar can not remedy tli& 
cause of the lesion, and moreover even in a sugar- 
free diet, sugar is synthetically prepared and 
excreted out of the protein and fat molecules. 
This may be all true, but the clinical experience 
shows that in a sugar-free diet, the patient soon 
develops carbohydrate tolerance. And the 
presence of an excessive quantity of sugar in the 
circulation and tissues which can not be meta- 
bolized, causes various pathological changes and 
manifestations. Von Noorden finds the use of 
oatmeal gruel once a week proves very benefi- 
cial. But on the oatmeal day he forbids the 


^se of any protein, even not egg or milk. Only 
a little butter is permitted. And the day be- 
fore the oatmeal diet, be gives only vegetables 
and fat. Levin e finds that potato is just as 
efiicacious as the oatmeal. Fruits containing 
minimum of glucose like the lemon and orange 
can be given, as there is certain tolerance 
for levulose. The alternating constipation and 
diarrhoea which is symptomatic of diabetes due 
to gastro-intestinal disorders, should be remedied 
by laxative and constipative food according to 
the needs. Strong purgatives should be avoided. 
If this is not sufficient, in constipation Carlsbad 
or Epsom salts can be given and in diarrhoea 
irrigation should be applied. Special attention 
should be given to the cleanliness of the skin, 
as many skin lesions are apt to take place in. 
glycosuria. Mild antiseptic neutral soaps, con- 
taining tar, boric acid or eucalyptus have proved 
beneficial. When an infective process has 
already begun, great care should be taken that 
the surrounding tissues or other parts do not 
1 become infected and for local use, iodoform, 
iodol or aristol can be used with advantage. 

Diabetes insipidus : The pathology of this 
tlisease is not yet well understood. It occurs 
in cases where tliere is lesion in the pons. 


medulla or tlie cerebellum. It may be caused 
by many diseases, but syphilis is the principal 
cause. And in that case its principal remedy 
is antisyphilic treatment. 

IV. — Diseases of the Bladder. 

'There are twelve kinds of lesions of the 
bladder as follows : — annular swelling {vata- 
kundalikd=peric2/stis ), hard globular tumor 
{mutrasthUd=»mt/oma)i swelling oi: the mouth of 
the bladder (vdtavasti=p7'0static hypertrophy)^ 
difficult and scanty repeated urination {mTttrat'ita 
= vesical tenesmus ), abdominal bladder ( mTdra^ 
j at har a = oveY'distensioii and hypertrophy of 
the bladder with contraction aiid obstruction of 
the cavity), obstruction to the passage of urine 
{mutrotsanga = urethritis), uremia (mutra^l-saya), 
fibroma {mutra-granthi), spermatorrhea iTrmtra- 
mkra)^ cystitis (usna-vdta) and gangrenous or 
suppurative cystitis {mutraiikasdda). 

"If the urine is concentrated and is not eva- 
cuated (in time), the humor 'e;«y«^' becomes vitia- 
ted and it circulates at the mouth in circular 
form (that is causes annular infiammation). 
This causes much pain and there is repeated 
painful scanty micturition. This difficult disease 


is known as *vata-hundaliJca {pericystitis, which 
implies iuflammation ot* tlie tunica advenitia of 
:}lie bladder. Inflammation of tlie bladder {cystitis) 
may be provoked by various causes as follows : 
(«) Cystitis may occur during tlie course of 
many acute infectious diseases as acute arti- 
cular rheimiatism, typhoid fever, small-pox, 
measles, influenza, cholera, diphtheria. This 
complication may set in during the height of the 
disease, or may appear during convalescence. 
Toward its cause, a number of factors probably 
contribute. The chemical constituents of the 
urine are often profoundly altered : the urine 
is concentrated ; it contains abnormal substances of 
disturbed metabolism which are more or less irritant 
and moreover may contain the pathogenic germs 
of specific infections. The tissues of the bladder 
are deprived of proper nutrition and lack their 
full power of resistance, (b) In constitutional 
■ diseases as gout and diabetes in which the urine 
is irritant, (c) In general septicemia as pyemia 
or internal suppuration of any organ in which 
the suppuration foci may be brought to the 
bladder, (d) Prom irritating food and drink as 
excessive consumption of strong and irritant 
pepper and alcoholic drinks, (e) Infections 
from the adjacent organs as the kidney and the 


urethra. Tlie bladder may be affected by the 
kidney either directly by the urine, or by the 
lymph channel or by contiguity of the tissues. 
Urethritis is a common cause of which gonorrhea 
is an important factor. In acute gonorrhea 
the passage of gonococci is favored through 
spincter vesicae in its ascent during vesical 
congestion under sexual excitement or under 
the stimulation of alcohol or irritating spicy 
food. Chronic prostatic hypertrophy is also 
often a causative factor of the congestion of 
the base of the bladder. The cystites are of 
two kinds — simple aseptic and septic. The 
simple aseptic inflammation may be provoked 
by the irritating substances in the urine, 
metabolic or ingested, by the disturbances in the 
function of micturition or by the disturbances 
in the circulation incident to vascular or nervous 
conditions. It is well known tliat ammonia, 
oxalates, urates and sugar, if they are concen- 
trated in the urine are active irritants of the 
bladder. And tlie primary role of the irritants 
can be ascribed to the uric acid sands and calculi. 
They by their mechanical irritation cause con- 
gestion and inflammation and if the patho- 
genic germs are present, ulcerous gangrenes. 
Disturbances in the functions of the urine 


cause more or less hyperemia and inflammation.. 
Over-distension of the bladder either voluntary 
or pathological, the too frequent and too forceful 
contractions in the act of urination bring about 
this condition. When the causes of the over- 
distension, retention and obstruction are organic^ 
septic infection takes place. Various micro- 
organisms have been found to be related with the 
suppurative process as the staphylococcus 
pyogenes aureus, albus and citreus which can 
decompose urea, streptococcus pyogenes, bacteri- 
um coli, proteus vulgaris (which possesses the 
power of decomposing urea with the production 
of ammoniacal reaction), gouococcus and tubercle 

*'Unusual frequency of micturition is present 
in all cases, except in the beginning and in mild 
cases when the urine remains acid. The causes of 
frequency are threefold. The reflex influences of 
an inflammation of the vesical mucous membrane 
are alone able to provoke frequent urination. In 
an analogous manner, the irritation of ammonia- 
cal urine and of precipitated salts effects contrac- 
tion of the organ. In cases of obstruction, the 
partial retention of the irritant urine powerfully 
excites the detrusors. Thus the condition of the 
frequent micturition is usually worse in the 


contracted bladder of prostatic obstruction. In 
calculous cystitis, violent movement usually 
aggravates the condition. Tenesmus is frequent- 
ly present. In some cases it becomes so ex- 
aggerated and remains almost constant, that the 
patient in order to get relief from the exasperat- 
ing pain, constantly attempts to urinate, to force 
a few drops, though the bladder may be almost 

'*'Vdyu' causes in the intermediate region of 
the lower intestine and the bladder, a hard, 
immovable and tough tumor. This causes the 
obstruction of the passage of the feces, urine and 
intestinal gas. This provokes tympanitis and 
pain. This (disease) is known as *vatastMla* 
{myoma is usually a hard interstitial tumor, 
producing a globular induration of the bladder 
wall. It is generally located at the orifice of 
the bladder, and it has been noted from the size 
of a cherry up to such dimension as fill half 
of the cavity. The tumor is divided into 
lobules bv connective tissue ; its main bulk 
is composed of unstriped muscle-cells, in some 
places arranged in fasciculi, in others irregularly 

"In any one who retains urine, the 'vayu* of the 
bladder becomes vitiated and closes the mouth of 


the bladder, and consequently the urine is 
obstructed. And this vitiated *vayiC remains 
in the bladder and the prostrate {kuksi= groin) 
as an oppressor (in intumescence). This disease 
is very hard to cure and it is called ^mta-vasti* 
(pbstrttotive hypertrophy of the prostate which 
may range in size from an orange to that of a 
cocoanut. The hypertrophy may be general, 
affecting the whole organ symmetrically or the 
enlargement is confined within the capsule of 
the gland and may extend a considerable distance, 
pushing the capsule and remain only connected 
with the prostate by a glandular and fibrous 
tissue. As the internal spincter may be considered 
as an integral part of the prostate, hence any 
alteration of the structure of the latter would 
be followed by the interference of the function 
of the former. In addition, as the prostate is 
limited in front and below by dense fascia, it 
tends to grow upward and backward as it hyper- 
trophies, elongating and narrowing or deflecting 
the urethra, according to whether the enlarge- 
ment is symmetrical or irregular, but always 
raising the vesical outlet to a higher level than 
normal. The urine therefore left after each 
micturition (residual urine) settles at the bottom, 
causing the formation of calculi by precipitation 


and sedimentation of the mineral constituents. 
And an early effect of the prostatic hypertrophy is 
congestion and later inflammation of that portion 
of the mucous memhrane of the bladder in 
contact with the tumor. The inflammation 
spreads in time, aggravated by the sluggish 
venous return. And as the passage of the urine 
is reduced, the bladder can only be incompletely 
evacuated and a small quantity at a time by 
slow dribbling from the distended bladder. And 
in this condition, the mucous membrane offers 
but slight resistance to microbic invasion). 

"If for a long time the urine is retained, then 
when an attempt is made for its evacuation, there 
is no micturition, or it appears but slightly. If 
strained, the urine appears with slight pain and 
in small quantities. This disease is caused by 
the suppression of the urine, and is called 'mutrct' 
Ufa* {vesical tenesmus). 

**If the urine is suppressed, it causes distension ; 
distension vitiates ^vai/u* and provokes painful 
tympanites. This is called 'mutra-jathara* and 
this disease contracts the do-wnward channel 
{hypertrophy of the bladder with contraction of 
the cavity and obstruction of the passage). 

"In the disease in which the flow of the urine 
::s interfered with either at the neck of the urethra 


or near the glans penis, or under tenesmus bloody 
urine appears with pain, or without pain it 
dribbles little by little, this is known as ^mutrot- 
sang a' {urethritis). This disease is caused by a 
qualified (special) 'vayu\ 

'*In an emaciated and tired body, 'pitta' and 
^myit absorb the urine. It causes hyperemia and 
pain. This disease is called 'mutraksaya^ (uremia) 
This is very troublesome. (Uremia occurs in 
the course of acute or chronic nephritis, 
puerperal eclampsia, some cases of obstructed 
renal calculus, and occasionally in patients 
with pronounced vascular changes. The symp- 
toms are general malaise, nausea, vomiting, 
insomnia, amaurosis, mania, delirium, dyspnea, 
increased arterial tension. In complete uremia, 
the patient lives about 10 to 12 days). 

"The tiny, globular and firm tumor that is 
formed at the interior part of the neck of the 
bladder, is called 'mutra—granthi (^fibroma gene- 
rally occurs ia the adult and is usually located 
single upon the base and trigonum. The size is 
like that of a nut. It may be sessile or predi- 
culated, hard or soft. The surface is lobulated 
and covered with normal or inflamed mucous 
membrane, which may or not be firmly attached 
to the growth. On section tlie tumor is white 


and glistening, and there may be patches of 
myxomatous or areas of calcification). This 
tumor is painful, nonulcerative and narrows the 
mouth of the bladder. It resembles pain like- 
that of calculus. 

**If any one indulges in sexual intercourse 
with full bladder, then the semen is displaced 
and becomes mixed with urine, and pale watery 
semen appears just before urination or after it. 
It is called ^mutra-sukra^ {prostatorrhea). 

^** Pitta' becomes vitiated in heavy exercise, 
long journey or exposure to the sun, and mixed 
with the *vayu'' brings about the inflammation 
of the bladder, urethra and the pelivic region: 
(sympathetic) and causes discharge. In this 
yellowish, slightly reddish (pinkish) or pure 
reddish urine is excreted with tenesmus. This 
disease is called by the specialists as ^ttsiia-vata* 
(in non-suppurative cystitis^ the urine is pale 
yellow, or according to the extent of bleeding, 
the color will vary from the faintest pink to a 
deep dark-red). 

"The disease in which the urine is excreted 
with burning sensation, is turbid, dark-brownish 
and concentrated, and if dried (by the sun or 
evaporated), leaves a residue like powdered' 
granite, is called the bilious 'mutrankasadd' 


{suppurative cystitis^ in wliich the urine is turbid, 
containing tenacious flocculi of altered pus and 
there is a large amount of precipitated salts and 
detritus. On standing, a heavy sediment forms, 
but the supernatant urine does not become 
clear. The crystalline sediment consists of a 
moderate amount of amorphous phosphates, 
amorphous ammonium urates and large 
quantities of triple phosphates. The crystals of 
ammoniun urate are dark balls which may be 
spiculated ; the triple phosphate commonly 
appears in the form of slab-shaped crystals ; 
there may however, be needles, squares and 

many forms of irregular crystallization). The 
disease in which the urine is whitish, concentrat- 
ed and appears with tenesmus, and when dried, 
it is pale>colored like the conch-shell powder and 
is slimy, is to be known as phlegmatic 'mutrati' 
Jcasada" ( cystitis and tumor of the bladder in 
which the urino is pale- whitish, opalescent, with 
a heavy deposit of pus, phosphates and detritus. 

It is alkaline in reaction. The benign tumors 
are in themselves quite compatible with long 
life: in several carefully observed subjects, they 
existed, ten, twenty or more years. The course 
of papilloma is largely determined by the hemor- 
rhage and the complications. The malignant 


tumors are usually fatal within one or two years, 
particularly of the base or the neck. The fatality 
of the disease of course depends upon the site 
affected, the variety of growth present, the 
clinical course, and complications of cystitis and 
nephritis. The causes of death are indirect. 
Barely profuse hemorrhrge has been the direct 
cause. In the cachectic debility which follows 
prolonged hemorrhage, the system becomes 
vulnerble, and any intercurrent disease may 
prove fatal). ''Charaha VI. 58, 2-13 1'\ 

^^€T^1 1^ '^[fq -^m WT^ =(iir<i<ii: H « 
^i «T^ "^fh f^'pi: fw^ficr: ii 


**In these thirteen kinds of urinary troubles 
use remedial medicines which will relieve 
strangury. In all these lesions bougie and 
irrigations are applicable. 

The cylinder of the bougie is to be made of 

^«rs?iT ^f%g# F^s^: t%T '?:^ =^ i 

€ ^^r^^fe^w^ t^^r^fir: 11 i« 
c[^ ^^ tfi: ^'?^ ^'i?^^ II 


gold or silver. The aperture of the cylinder 
made of gold should be like that of the jasmine 
flower stem, and that of the silver like a mustard 
seed. It should have the shape like a cow's tail 
(slightly curved and graduated in dimension)^ 
with two rings (so that it can not be pushed 
farther than is necessary, or it might wound the 
bladder) and twelve digits long." Charaka VIII. 
9. 28-29 1*^*. 

^^?T ^fT^^ 51^^^^ ^f^ <W, It 11 

V^ ^t^ ^' ^^rf ^^ «T^ I 

"^ VRf?T ?^m THtT^ 'U^f^WT I 

^^^Ntht? ft r<i<ji5tlji ftTigffi i^: II 

T|P^* »Tgf?r J^^rft ahsR ^'iHTT'!? TM^ I 

ftrf%^' ^'f ^ ^tt o^t r^' Tirat I 

124. ^"NrfV^i^t^^fTR ^^fr^^^^ I 


The underlying principles in the treatment 
of acute or chronic cystitis are (a) to render 
the urine bland and slightly antiseptic ; (b) to 
put the bladder at rest and to relieve pain 5 (c) 
to lessen pelvic congestion. With healthy kidney 
and in non-suppurating cystitis of the bladder, 
the urine may be made bland by drinking a> 
good deal of whey or butter-milk or plenty of 
pure water. Hot baths, particularly hot sitz- 
baths are revulsive and counter-irritant. They 
relieve pain and congestion. To relieve conges- 
tion leeches may also be applied to the perito- 
neum and above the pubis. To make the urine 
slightly antiseptic, salol can be administered 
three times a day, in small doses of five 

But in chronic cystitis, irrigation is the 
best curative means known. Irrigation removes 
mechanically decomposing discharges, diminishes^ 
the quantity of pus and mucus, renders the 
urine bland and unirritating, lessens the severity 
of the inflammation, lessens further fermentation 
and decomposition, and exerts a stimulating 
and healing influence upon the diseased 
membrane. The main symptoms of cystitis, 
frequency, urgency, tenesmus and strangury 
are chiefly dependent upon inflammation located 


about the vesical neck. Thous:li irrigation 
can not disinfect the entire diseased and 
suppurating tissues, this part can be easily 
reached, and the healing influence of a disin- 
fectant and soothing lotion can be easily exerted 
on it. This can bo accomplislied by irrigations, 
instillations or drainage, or all these combined. 
For irrigation, a weak, non-irritating, antiseptic 
solution is preferable as silver nitrate 1: 5000 to 
500, potassium permanganate 1 ; 5000 to 2000, 
carbolic acid 1 : 500^ boric acid 1 : 50, normal 
saline solution 0. 7 per cent. Irrigation is 
only recommended when the patient urinates 
easily and empties his bladder completely. But 
bladder should not be distended to the point of 
causing pain and spasm. Usually one daily 
irrigation is sufficient, but in severe cases, it can 
be repeated. When urination is extremely 
painful, irrigation can be done by a soft catheter. 
The catheter is attached to a fountain syringe. 
The lotion is allov/ed to flow through and while 
it is flowing, the catheter is slowly passed into 
the bladder. Three to five ounces are injected 
and the tube leading to the fountain syringe is 
discontinued, and the injection is allowed to 
flow out. 

Instillations are applied by means of an 


instiliator, which is a silver or hard rubber 
cylindrical catheter about 13 Er. caliber, 
provided with a fine canal. To the end of the 
shaft of the catheter is fitted a hypodermic 
syringe with a capacity for forty minims and is 
filled with a choice lotion, silver nitrate 1 to 
5 per cent in gonorrheal cystitis, iodoform 
emulsion in tubercular cases with ten per cent 
glycerine. The catheter is lubricated with 
glycerin or boroglyceride, and is introduced into 
the urethra until its tip is within the grasp of 
the compressor urethrae muscle. The piston of 
the syringe is then driven down, causing the 
injection to flow along the membraneous and 
prostatic urethra into the bladder. 

The simplest and the safest form of drainage 
is that by continuous catheterization. A soft 
catheter of medium caliber should be selected. 
Important points to observe are that the eye of 
the catheter lies just within the bladder and 
that the instrument thoroughly and continually 
drains this viscus. To determine the eye of the 
catheter in relation to the neck of the bladder, 
the instrument is introduced and the bladder is 
emptied. Four to six ounces of boric acid 
solution are then injected, and the catheter is 
withdrawn until the fluid ceases to flow. It 


is then passed in until the fluid hegins to flow, 
and is held in this position until the bladder is 
empty. This continuous catheterization may 
be kept up from one to three weeks. It usu- 
ally causes a mild traumatic urethritis. This 
is treated by withdrawing the catheter slightly at 
each irrigation until its end lies without the 
compressor urathrse muscle. By forcing an anti- 
septic solution into the catheter, it will then 
flash out the entire anterior urethra. In case 
of intense pain, suprapubic drainage can be 
also performed with advantage. 

The method adopted by the Charaka School 
is as follows : — 

**The patient after his bath, shall take meat 
-broth or milk. And he shall be seated on a 
soft, easy and comfortable cushion, after he has 
evacuated his bladder when there is natural call. 
Then his penis should be massaged with oint- 
ment. After that a sound ( salaka ) should 
be introduced for the urethral exploration. If 
the sound passes without any obstruction, then 
it should be withdrawn, and the eye of the 
bougie introduced. All the regulations recom- 
mended for anal irrigation {enema) are to be 
observed. If the lotion is allowed to flow at 
great speed, it causes inflammation of the base. 


and if it be not sufficient, it does not spread 
all over the surface, so with a steady hand (not 
trembling ), the bougie is to be introduced 
and withdrawn," Charaka VII. 9.3^ = *. 

Trodrome of lithiasis : "Bladder-irritability, 
anorexia, strangury, lacerating pain at the neck 
of the bladder, scrotum and the urethra, fever, 
lassitude, and the goat-smell of the urine are 
the prodromes of lithiasis. Moreover, before the 
calculus formation, the color of the urine be- 
comes unnatural and micturition is painful. 
The urine is concentrated and cloudy ( with 
urates ). The urine becomes corrupt with 'vai/u' 
( ammoniacal decomposition ). 

Symptoms : — With the calculi formation, 
there are pains in the umbiculus,bladder,scrotum, 

J 25. ^m^ »j?s*ra^ \%^ q:5rerTfq ^ \ 

^^^^^f\^i\*ii 'fit 5!ig^ ^ u 
ar^fnr^r^^ ifH 5EraRftf?cfT ^tf^ II 

cm: ^tRiflTT^sf 3«ti^^ utaitH I 
■ g^Jtnr (wm'^ iT^t^ %'<i^^ 11 


urethra aud their adjacent regions at the time 
of micturition, sudden interference with the 
flow of the urinal stream (by the spasmodic 
closinor of the veluntarv muscles when a small 
stone is forced into the vesical oritice), bloody 
urine (the blood is invariably present in the 
vesical calculus, though the hemorrhage from 
the bladder is never profuse ; the quantity of 
blood and the degree of pain depends on the 
nature of ulcerated surface and the contour 
of the stone ), splashing urine, the color of the 
urine like that of a gem (reddish), clear urine 
containing sand ( uric acid crystals) and pain is 
much increased by running, jumping, riding 
and long journeys (violent movements are apt 
to cause friction of the stone with the vesical 
surface )," Susnita II. 3. 4-6^-* 

^^f^T^[^ T^^M^iT^^ JTlt^opraTSmsiTf^a' HftRTcT f^5ll% ><l«41t!(f »!- 


**As gallstone is formed in a cow by desicca- 
tion of the bile, so calculus is formed. Calculi 
are formed in various shapes like that of the 
flower of 'nuclea cadamba* ( the oxalate-of-lime 
calculus is the hardest, often orange-dark in 
color, more or less spherical in form and studded 
with nodules, whence it derives its name as 
mulberry calculus ); like stone ( finely laminated 
stones are often found among th^ vesical 
calculi, with alternate layers of distinctly crystal- 
line oxalates and urates ; the urates are yellow- 
reddish in color ) ; smooth ( pure uric-acid stones 
are the softest, are yellow, red or brown in 
color and generally present a smooth surface); 
like pea (custin) or soft (amorphous phosphates). 
If the calculus is pushed against the vesical 
orifice, then the passage of urine is obstructed, 
and it provokes great pain ( the stone is grasped 
and forced against the sensitive neck either by 
the flow of urine or in violent motion as jolt- 
ing over a rough road or riding ). This exas- 
perates the patient and he makes repeated 
attempts to urination. There is defecation with 
tremor. There is lancinating pain in the scro- 
tum, urethra and the bladder, and if the urethra 
is wounded, the urine comes mixed with blood. 
But when the calculus is dislodged from the 


vesical neck, the urine again flows with ease. 
If the calculus is split into fragments, it passes 
through the urethra and is called *sarkara* 
(gravel)." Charaka VI. 26. 2 1 ^ ' ^ 

^* Gravel (sarkard), sand (sikata — uric acid brick 
dust, a fine yellow reddish sediment ) and amor- 
phous phosphates {bhasmakhya-meha) are varieties 
of lithiasis. The symptoms and pain of gravel 
resemble that of calculus. If the calculi (con- 
cretions) are tiny, they are excreted with the 
urine, with favorable 'vayu\ If the calculus 
is split up into minute fragments by *vayu\ it is 
called the gravel. The gravel causes heartache, 
fatigue of the thighs, pain in the perineum, 
tremor, polydipsia, nausea, cyanosis, anemia, 
weakness, anorexia and indigestion, if the gravel 
be obstructed in the passage through the 

127. ^^\ cT;?P5r^cT5TT??^ g ^^if fq^f^^ ^=^T ^Tt: II 

j^^ '^in%f f?i 51^ ^' ^5ft ere? ^itt^ ^ » 


**The Madder is situated in the midst of umbi- 
licus, back-boue, pubic bones, scrotum, rectum, 
groin and the urethra. The bladder has only one 
orifice or outlet (urethra) and its base is down- 
ward, its skin (muscular coating) is thin. The 
bladder is like bottle-gourd (alabu-lagenarm 
vulgaris ser) in shape and is covered with nerves, 
arteries and veins. The bladder is situated in 
the pelvis, between the pubic bones in front and 
the rectum (in woman, the uterus) behind. 
During the fetal and infantile life, it is usually 
situated above the pubes. It is a flattened, mora 
or less horizontal body, when empty, but when 
distended, it becomes an oval bag and rises so as- 
to occupy more or less the hypogastrium. It is 
attached below, but free to expand above. It is 
essentially a muscular organ, lined with mucous 
membrane and covered except in its lower 
portion with a loosely attached peritoneal coat. 
Into its lower and posterior portion, the ureters 
empty, and from its neck the urethra arises. 
When not over-distended, it holds about a pint 
of urine — somewhat more in woman than in man. 
It is a hollow organ, serving as a receptacle for 
the urine and has a strong muscular investment 
of unstriped muscles in several layers, which are 
innervated by branches from the sacral nerves). 


The bladder, the bladder-neck, (perhaps including 
the prostates) urethra, testicles and rectum are 
all united in one system (genito-urinary ) 
and is situated within the pelvis. The other 
name of the bladder is the ^receptacle for the 
excretory product* (malddhara)^ and it is a vital 
organ. As rivers discharge their waters into 
the ocean, so the tubules in the digestive canal 
{the kidneys are bean-shaped organs, about, 4J 
inches in length and 2 inches in width and li 
inches in thickness, lying on either side of the 
spinal column, behind the peritoneum, about 
opposite the twelfth thoracic and first three 
lumbar vertebrae. At the inner edge of each 
kidney is a concave depression, the *hylus\ where 
the vessels and the nerves enter and leave the 
organs and where the ureter emerges. The 
kidney is enclosed in a fibrous envelope, the 
^capsule', which dips into the sinus at the hylus. 
The substance of the organ is divided into cortex 
and medulla. The former is darker colored and 
more granular in appearance than the latter ; 
it contains the Malphigian corpuscles and most 
of the convoluted tubules. The medulla is lighter 
in color and striated and contains the majority 
of the straight tubules ; it is formed of the 
pyramids whose bases rest in the cortex and 


whose aspices are the renal papillae at which 
point the central collecting tubule opens into a 
calyx, this in turn emptying into the pelvis of 
the kidney from which the water with the waste 
products of metabolism dissolved into it passes 
into the ureter and thence into the urinary 
bladder, discharges the urine into the bladder. 
These tubules are thousands in number and be- 
cause of their minuteness, they are invisible. 
Awake or asleep they trickle down by osmosis 
{nisyanda) and fill up the bladder, as a new 
earthen pot (porous) is filled up by the surroun- 
ding water, if pressed down into it up to its 
neck." Susruta II. 3. 13-14 ^=^«. 

"Calculus is hard to cure and is dangerous. 

128. ^X[ ftRRTT ^¥t ><t«l^i»i.*<RlfKW, I 

'*i<l-^'*iP<Mi*1' g si^'O'^ vRf^ =^ I 

294j ancient HINDU MEDICINE 

When it is young (tender), it may be controllable 
by medicines, but when it is mature (hard), it 
lias to be extracted by operation. 

"In the preliminary stage of lithiasis 
oleaginous potions are beneficial and remove the 
cause of its formation, A decoction of Plectran- 
thus scutellaroides, Aeschynomene grandiflora, 
Pothus officinalis, Oxalis, Asparagus racemosus, 
Placourtia cataphracta, Solanum jacquini, 
Placourtia sapida, Columba domestica, Solanum 
melon gena, Barleria caerulia, Pentaptera arjuna, 

^fe^fefs?^''^ ^m 'iWt 5^ II 

tr^t 'WT fWT ft% ^fefl^'i ^^ II 18 


Andropon muricatus, Trapa bisponosa, Hedysa- 
Tum gangeticum, Bballuca, Capparis trifoliata, 
Tectonae grandis fructus, Hordeum hexastichon, 
Dolichos biflorus, Zizyphus jujuba and Strychni 
potatorum fructus,seasoned witb clarified butter, 
and sprinkled with alkabne earth, if drunk in. 
proper doses, causes fracture of the calcuH, 
And in addition, in this treatment alkalies, barley- 
water, soup, astringents and milk should be 
drunk for the amelioration of *vata\ Suiruta 
IV. 7. 3'^^ 

129. ^»i^ ^T^'Tl senfyifi^ufd+it tct: i 

^«w^?re^: m^: u^^'^^^fh ii '^ 
ere? ^^ ^g ^^r^m'R ^^ I 

?^T^ *T^^^rg ^^^: sii^iit" ^^ II 
m\: w^m\': ^^fsf «*ti«*i^ tfiwrfsr '^ i 
^R^rf^^N^i^f iTO?'^ skth; ii 
fwKf% ^Tcw^ <ii*ia*i<T f^H^ g i 


Spontaneous fracture of stone has been 
observed by many in the bladder {Ord, Debouf 
d' ^strees, Femcick^ Martin^ etc),either by radical 
cleavage from the centre to the periphery or by 
splitting in concentric laminae. It has been 
demonstrated that spheres of carbonate of lime, 
which had formed in solutions of gum, split 
radially and disintegrate, if placed in a solution 
of different specific gravity. It is possible that in 
a similar way, the urinary calculi split and 
disintegrate under the influemce of varying 

specific gravities and reactions of the urine, 
"which causes molecular tension and cleavage, 
and consequently spontaneous cure takes place 
at some famous springs (as Carlsbad or Contrexe- 
ville) which enjoy special reputation for this 
curative property. Uric acid or oxalate of lime 
calculi can be formed only in strongly acid urine 
while in the alkaline urine phosphates of 

ammonia and magnesia are precipitated. There- 
fore if in the uric acid or oxalate of lime 
calculus, the urine can be made and kept alka- 
line for some time, it is likely to create molecular 
instability of the calculi and split them into frag- 
ments, gravel or brick dust. And vice versa 
in phoshate calculi. Carbonate of potash, ace- 
tate of potash, piperine, common and lithia 


salts are also reputed to exercise a solvent ac- 
tion upon uric acid crystals in the urine. 

"If emulsion, alkalies ( carbonate of potash )^ 
astringent infusion, milk and bougie do not 
relieve the calculi, then operation is the only 
remedy. Susruta IV. 7. ll'•"^ 

'Tlace the patient upon the lap af a strong 
man (to hold in position) seated on a knee-high 
table. The patient with courage and deter- 
mination stretches his upper part on his back 
and his pelvis raised by a cushion underneath 
it ; the legs are to be flexed (to about a right 
angle with the table ) and supported by a 
man (on each side), or held in position by a 
cloth crutch. Then the umbilical region should 
be massaged and pressed with unguents by 
hands as iong as the calculus does not come 
below the umbilicus. Next after manicuring, 
and lubricating the fingers with oil, the fore 
and the middle-fingers of the left hand should 
be introduced in the rectum towards the raphe 
scroti. When the calculus has been found, it 
should be carefully forced down between the 

130. ^'. ^\ ^^^ 'fir. ^Irfjc^ftrrfii: i 


middle of pubis and the urethra, and placed 
in an even, medium^ized and polished staff, 
and pressed so hard that the calculus appears 
like a tumor.* ••Incision should be made about 
third of an inch to the left of the raphe scroti 
( and an inch and half from the anus ) of the 
«ize of the calculus. According to some (autho- 
rities ), if it facilitates the operation, incision 
can also be made at the right side. But care 
should be taken that the calculus be not broken 
( into fragments ) by the instruments or pulve- 
rized, for if even a minute fragment remains 
{ in the bladder ), the calculus grows ( round 
it as nucleus ). Therefore for extracting cal- 
culi, use forceps with curved blades ( serrated 
and concave in the inner side ). 

"In woman, the uterus is situated by the 
bladder, therefore do not make long incision, 
nor deep incision, as it might wound the 
sphincters ( mutra-sram ). If the incision is 
made at the proper place ( by distending the 
bladder upward and forcing the calculus down- 
ward ), it might also result in the incontinence 
of urine in man by severing the sphincters ( by 
the lateral perineal incision ). Without litho- 
tomy, there cannot be any break in the blad- 
der, but if it does (in rupture by over-disten- 


«ion ), the patient dies. If however in the 
extraction of the calculus, the bladder is 
penetrated, the patient might survive, for the 
medicines that are used for the healing of 
the incision wound, can be also applied for 
the cicatrization of the other wound. And 
the penetration of the bladder ( sphincters ? ) 
is not in violation of the ( medical ) code. 
Moreover, the urine causes the formation of the 
c/ilculus, and the little incontinence of the urine 
can not do much harm, and though the barley- , 
water is diuretic, it is found beneficial (in lithi- 
asis). After the extraction of the calculus, 
the patient should be given hot sitz bath ( hip 
bath ), for in hot water, the bladder can not be 
filled witli blood. But if it takes place, the 
bladder shall be irrigated with astringent effusion 
of Ficus g\oma,vdit?e ** Susruta IV. 7. 13-15^^*. 
'Trostatolith or phosphatic crystals ( prosta- 

ilf| ^$^<^^'^^;^^'ic^<a l j^^i^^^ ^. vmf^ \ m: ^m^i^ ^;,H^?rwfW(tfi^- 
w^ qi^ i?i^!n?T?TTg §«<*?1*<i^i?i TOcR^n'^rt m^?T'!T^:'THk f'r^T^^- 


tic calculi are of two kinds — those formed in the 
kidney or bladder and lodging in the prostatic 
sinus, and those which originate in the gland 
itself ), if they are dislodged from their own 
cavities and are locked up in the passage through 
the urethra, they should be extracted (by forceps) 
through the urethral passage. If it can not be 
done then an incision should be made in the 
urethra ( median perineal urethrotomy ) and the 
calculus extracted by hook-forcep. And though 
the wound is cicatrized for a year, sexual 
intercourse, riding horses and elephants, tree- 


climbing, mountaineering, charioteering and 
swimming should not be indulged in ; heavy 
indigestible food should also be avoided. 

Make incision so that the prostate, vesicula 
seminalis, vas deferens, ureter, raphe scroti, 
vagina, rectum or the bladder are not hurt. If 
the prostates are severed, death takes place by 
the accumulation of urine in the bladder (the 
passage for the discharge of the urine into the ure- 
thra being blocked by the tumorous or hypertro- 
phic growth of the prostate ); by the severance 
of the vesicula seminalis, death or eunuchism 
takes place ; by the severance of vas deferens, 
impotence ; by the severance of the ureter, 
dispersion of the urine ( to the contiguous tissues 
by percolation ) ; wound in the raphe scroti 
causes intense pain ; and if the bladder and the 
rectum are wounded, all the symptoms due to 
their penetration, mentioned before, appear. 
SmrutalY,1. 19-20^ 3\ 

Modern lithotomi hardly differ^ much from 
that of the Sus'ruta school, especially when lateral 


132- ^^^^^pi^^w^^^^f%^t^^^fH^i#^ tTfTiT?T_i erg 


incision is made, except that before operation, 
the bladder is drained off and distended by hot 
boracic lotion, and kept ia that condition during 
operation by plugging the spigot of the silver 
catheter by which the injection has been intro- 
duced. But generally now-a-days supra-pubia 
operation is preferred, but below the peritoneum, 
as higher up serous membrane is met. After 
the bleeding has stopped, the wound is closed 
by sutures. 

However, litholapaxy seems to be the favorite 
means adopted for the removal of vesical calcu- 
lus. And when the urethra is not roomy enough 
to admit an instrument of adequate calibre, or the 
stone is very large or hard (oxalate of lime 
calculus), and if under these circumstances, litho- 
lapaxy can not be practised, lithotomy is adopted 
for the removal of the stone. Lithotrity consists 
of crushing the stone within the notched and 
fenestrated inside surface of very hard steel 


blades undev a severe and continuous pressure 
into a very fine powder, and the removal of the 
detritus by flushing out through a full-sized 
hollow metal catheter and an India-rubber wash 

V, Diseases of the mouth. 

"There are sixty-five diseases of the mouth. 
The centers of their origin are seven, namely, 
lips, gum, tooth, tongue, palate, throat and the 
buccal cavity. Of these the lips have eight kinds 
of diseases, gum fifteen, teeth eight, tongue five, 
palate nine, throat seventeen, and the buccal, 
cavity three". Susruta II. 16. 2-3^ ^^ 

"In the ''DcM affections, the lips are aspe- 
rous ( herpes upon the lips are common in mala- 
ria, fevers, pneumonia, acute coryza as well as 
other febrile diseases ; cracks or fissures 
— rhagades — or the scars resulting from them, if 
occurring in infants or children, are indicative 

133. Tc\ ciftTT: ^^^\ ^H^ii<d%^ I cT^T?itT^=?fB^ ^T ^rrf^ ^^ \ 


of congenital syphilis ; the vertical crack in the 
middle of the lower lip, as occasionally seen, 
may be due to defective nutrition or may be 
associated with stomatitis ), dry ( associated with 
herpes or gastro-intestinal disorders, numb 
( labial paralysis or bulbar palsy ), blackish 
( cyanosis associated with open and dry lips is 
indicative of dyspnea, due to disease of the heart 
or lungs, especially the chronic forms as 
emphysema or failing compensation in valvular 
lesions ; otherwise it may be associated with 
the associated local diseases of the mouth as 
stomatitis, glossitis, cacrum oris, phlegmonous 
tonsilitis, or some form of nasal stenosis), pressed 
and heated ( loose and pendulous lips are 
suggestive of diphtheritig paralysis, chronic 
bulbar palsy ; and associated with open lips it 
is observed in various conditions of prostration, 
in idiocy and in cases of insanity ). 

**In the 'pitta' affections of the lips, the lips 
are bluish ( cyanosed ), bronzed ( in Addison's 
disease ), and are covered with many vesicles 
like mustard seeds which give burning sensation, 
rupture and exudate ( in aphthous or follicular 
stomatitis, small vesicles appear on the inner 
surface of the lips, or cheeks or edges of the 
tongue and soon rupture, leaving small and 


Tery sensitive superficial grayish ulcers with 
red areolae ). 

"In the ^kapha' affections of the lips, the lips 
are covered with mucous patches like the color 
of the skin, and they are painless, pruritic, 
edematous, slippery, tepid and heavy ( flattened, 
warty outgrowths, strictly delimited, coated with 
a gray matter, and found at the angles of the 
mouth, are the mucous patches of the secondary 
atage of syphilis ; congenital hypertrophy 
— macrocheilla — is caused hy distension of the 
lymphatic space ). 

*'In the vitiation of the three humors, the lips 
are sometimes blackish ( cyanosed ), sometimes 
bronzed ( in Addison's disease ), or pallid { in 
anemia ), and are covered with various kinds 
of eczemas. 

•*In the labial diseases, originating from the 
derangement of the blood ( vessels ), the lips 
are covered with tumors which hcxve color like 
dates ( reddish brown ), and they contain blood 
and bleeding takes place from them {angioma). 

**In the labial diseases, from the corruption 
of flesh, the lips become heavy and swollen, and 
the tumors appear like meat balls and germs 
from the edges enlarge the ulceration ( a some- 
what irregular ulcer, usually upon the lower lip, 


gradually enlarging, recurrently scabbing over 
and becoming denuded, is probably an epitbe- 
lioma ). 

**In the adipose labial affection, the lips are 
pruritic, nurnl), soft and heavy, and tliey are 
bright like the outer layer of clarified butter ; 
and from them there is a clear exudation 
like clear crystal ( congenital hypertrophy^ 
macrocheilia^ is caused by distension and 
dilatation of the lymphatic spaces, the lower 
lip being frequently affected ). 

*'In the traumatic lesions of the lips, there is 
a terebrant pain, or like that of a wound from 
an axe, and it becomes like the color of blood 
( inflamed ), tumorous ( inflammatory swelling ) 
and pruritic/* Susruta II. 16. 5-12 '3*. 

9§i<T?r^ ^i?pitf^ ^fr^ci^ «m^ ^ I 
^^q^ ^M w^\ 35)p5<nnft it < 


Diseases of the Gum. 

In 'sitadci tlie gums are bleeding, ulcera- 
tive with fonl-snielling exudation, and soft 
( spongy ) ; tin's disease is due to the vitiation 
of the blood and the 'kayha* ( gangrenous 
stomatitis ). 

In *d'rnta-pupputaka* there is an intense 
pain and swelling at the root of one or two teeth 
for a time ; this is due to the vitiation of the 
'kapha* and the blood. (Gum boits are usually 
formed round a foreign particle, especially with 
the tartar deposit encrusted with the pyogenic 
bacteria, but their outlet of discharge being 
closed ). 

The disease in which the teeth become loose, 
and from the tooth sockets blood and pus come 
out, is called 'danta vestaka* ( in pyorrhea 
alveolariSy the feeth l^ecorae loosened as the gum 

•q?T^i»^ f4?'^% tn^f^ "mfv^Wd: I 


recedes or the pus socket causes neerosis of the 
tissues at the root. The affection is probably 
due to streptococcal infectioQ of tlie periosteum 
of the alveoli. Usually it is associated with an 
excess of tartar deposit or the carious condition 
of the teeth ). 

The disease in wliich the gum has a pruritic 
and painful inflammation, and salivation, is called 
the 'muslra* ( gingiviUs ). 

The disease in which the teeth are loose in 
their sockets, the palate is falling ( uvula 
descendens ) and ulceration in the gum and 
pain in the buccal cavity, is called tlie ^maha- 
mu^ra { gangrenous gingivitis ) . 

The disease in which there is ulceration and 
bleeding of the gum, is called the 'paridara^ 
( phlegmonous gingivitis ). 

The disease in which there is necrosis of the 
tissues in the sockets, and for this reason the 
teeth become loose, there is bleeding at the 
slight pressure of the teeth, but slight pain, 
and with the bleedinsr the mouth becomes foul- 
smelling, is called the ^upakusa' ( chronic 
hyper rophic gingivitis ). 

If strong inflammation follows the trauma- 
tism of the gum, and tlie teeth become loose, it 
is called *vaidarbha* .traumatic interstitial ulitis). 


If an extra tootli appears due to the influence 
of *vayu* with intense pain, it is called the 
^varddhana* ( wisdom tooth or dens serotinus, 
the most posterior of the molar teeth appear 
about the eighteenth year ). The pain ceases 
after the tooth comes out. 

"The disease in which in the gum of the 
lower posterior tooth, tliere is a large neo- 
plasm with intense pain and salivation, is called 
the 'adhimartisa' (epithelioma or epulis. Epulis 
is a fibrous growth and develops in the peri- 
dontal membrane ; it is often found near a 
decayed tooth, grows slowly and forms a more 
or less pedinculated tumor of the same color as 
the gum ). 

The tumors of the gum are of five kinds 
with symptoms similar to those that have been 
described of the tubular vessels, by the corrup- 
tion of 'vayu, pitta^ kapha, their morbid combi- 
nation or infection' and they are known as 
^panchanadt {aloeolar abscesses are nearly always 
due to sepsis originating in a decayed tooth. 
(1) The pus may be limited to' the margin of 
the gum, forming a tumor. (2) The pus may 
be slow in forming and there may be a great 
inflammatory infiltration of the cheek with the 
edema of the face and spasm of the masseter 


and pterygoid muscles. (^.) The pus may ex- 
tend widely beneath the periostenum and 
cause necrosis of the jaw. (4) A persistent 
sinus or sinuses may be present if the abscess 
has burst spontaneously or has been opened 
externally ; there is either a dead tooth, a 
portion of a fang or a piece of necrosed bone 
whicli keeps open tlie sinus. (5) The pus may 
burst into the antrum of the upper jaw or 
extend deeply and widely in the neck)". Suiruta 
11. 16. 14.2i,^^'. 

135. 3flPo<T ^^^»3l 41«l«*t«T<T ITTHt 1 1 

■zi[^^ ^»H5ifi! IJ^^fiT V^^ 'g H 

■ ^^ftfera^ ^ ?rej 'j^^: ^^r^ '^''t I 
^^fire: ^ r?m ^ ^srtfticw»JT^: ii t< 

^"Tii^^fjfl ^^^Ji^Tg ^l^^#«?f'^ I 


Diseases of the Teeth. 

**The disease in which the tooth becomes 
Wackened and perforated by microbes, due to 
the vitiation of the blood, and the tooth becomes 
loose accompanied by inflammation of the gum, 
pain and salivation, is called the 'krimi-dantaha' 
•dental caries : it is a fact of common observation 
that caries begin only at spots protected from 
friction or left uncleansed as (a) pits, grooves 
and fissures in the enamel ; (b) proximal 
surfaces just above the contact points ; (c) 
surfaces which for any cause are habitually 

'«ir«T?i'^ «^% ^ gT# 'jfff "^ anq^ I 
^? ?^q^ 9*^ sira^ ??^rs[ I 


unclean ; (d) necks of the teeth at or near 
the junction of the cementura and the enamel. 
In these localities, the oral bacteria, protected 
from friction, attach themselves to the enamel, 
forming microbic plaques which are sufficiently 
adherent to attach themselves, obtaining their 
food supply from the carbohydrate and the 
albuminous particles that adhere to those spots 
and are not thoroughly cleansed. From car- 
bohydrate fermentation, lactic acid is produced 
and this is prevented from being diluted and 
washed away ; the slightly alkaline salivary 
secretion by the bacterial plaques and added 
to it, the enzymes secreted by the bacteria, 
attack the inorganic matter of the enamel 
following first the interprismatic cement sub- 
stance between the prisms, later dissolving 
the transverse cement substance of the globules. 
The effect is to 'produce an irregular and 
roughened surface, and in the process of enamel 
dissolution and decalcification, the bacteria enter 
into the crevices and gradually gain access to 
the dentine. The leptothrix buccalis maxima 
is invariably associated with more or less 
streptococci and bacillus buccalis maximus 
in rapid dental caries). 

The diseale in which the teeth are very 


sensitive to cold or heat (paroxysms of pain 
induced by thermal stimuli ), is called the 
''danta-harsa^ (hyperemia of the dental ptilp : the 
most common cause of active hyperemia, of the 
pulp is a lessening of the non-conducting cover- 
ing of the organ — enamel and dentine, tlirough 
abrasion, erosion, fracture or caries, leading to 
an increased response and continued irritation 
of the pulp tlirough the thermal stimuli ). 

The disease in which the face becomes mis- 
shaped ( either by caving in through necrosis 
of the jaw-bone or with odontomes which are 
neoplasms composed of dental tissues in vary- 
ing proportions and different stages of deve- 
lopment X the teeth become eroded and painful, 
is called the bhanjanaka ( necrosis of the jaw 
with odontones and erosion of the teeth ). 

If the solids ( mala ^ihe mineral constitu- 
ents and the mucus of the saliva ) are dried 
up and become sugar-like hard on the teeth, 
by *vayu and pitta' it is called the 'sarkara* 
( salioary calculus or tartar : the deposition 
of the tartar is perhaps activated by the bac- 
terial fermentation, causing the precipitation 
of the mineral salts, chiefly calcium phosphate 
enclosing with them the epithelium and the 
bacteria, especially the leptothrix forms ). 


If this tartar scales out with the dentine, 
it is called the kapalika (large tartar formations) ; 
it is very destructive to teeth. 

If by the vitiated blood and the *pitta\ the 
enamel of the teeth become burnt ( stained ) 
dark-brownish or greenish, it is called the 
*ayava'da7itaka' {the green stain of the enamel : 
these most common green deposits upon enamel 
occur upon both the temporary and the 
permanent teeth, particularly of young persons ; 
the deposits usually have a concentric form 
and are mainly upon the labial faces of the 
anterior teeth. The green stain is usually 
preceded by a lack of oral hygiene and super- 
ficial decalcification of the enamel, as it is 
found slightly roughened, indicating the action 
-of the acids upon it by fermenting food 
particles sticking to it. The green stain is 
the more advanced stage of the dark-brownish 

If tlie jaw is fractured by the source of *myu* 
througli loud talking, chewing of hard substances 
^r yawning, it is called ^hann-molcsa' (fracture of 
the jaw ) ; it gives all the symptoms of 
tetanus ( the fracture of a healthy jaw is only 
possible through traumatism. But if it it 
-eaten up by necrotic process as in the tertiary 


«tage of syphilis, tubercular caries, phosphorus 
poisoning or lecal sepsis, and made very brittle, 
it may be easily fractured by any slight 
sudden tension as chewincj any hard substance 
or movement). Susruta II. 16. 27-S3*^'. 

Treatment : *'Without injuring the gum, 
all the tartar deposits have to be carefully 
scaled out ( by scalers ) ; then those parts of 
the teeth are to be polished with the powder of 
Butea frondosa (laksa) mixed with honey. ( The 
modern treatment for the tartar is just the 
same, except that to secure the smoothness of the 


scaled surface, so that no nucleus is left for 
the new tartar deposit, pumice-powder on a 
piece of wood is used, instead of the powder 
of Butea frondosa with honey)." Susruta IV. 
22-23' ^^ 

"The alveolar abscesses should be treated in 
the same way, as an ordinary abscess, with this 
difference, that the tooth with the sepsis of 
which the abscess has been formed, must be 
extracted. If it can not be done, then after 
cleansing ( an incision is made, large enough 
to open the abscess cavity fully, inside the 
mouth, all the pus is thoroughly drained off,. 
And the abscess cavity is repeatedly washed 
with antiseptic and astringment infusion or 
decoction ), the abscess cavity should be cau- 
terized either by caustic or cautery. If the 
alveolar abscess is neglected, it is sure to cause 
necrosis of the jaw. Therefore the tooth should 
be uprooted ( thus cure may be effected in 
light cases, by causing the abscess drainage 
through the tooth socket ). If the bone has 


been affected ( necrosized ), it should be also 
scraped off." Susruta IV. 22. 18^'\ 

"The disease in which the teeth seem to be 
rent asunder with pain, is called ^dalana' 
(odontalgia of neuralgic cliaracter or due to 
caries or periodonitis)." Susruta II. 16. 26*^^. 

The Diseases of the Tongue. 

**The disease in which the tongue becomes 
inflamed, due to tlie derangement of *vayu\ 
loses its sensibility to taste, and becomes fissured 
like that of the leaves of Hecion(E\ is the *X)ata^ 
disease of tl)e tongue ( glossitis desiccans or 
chronic superficial glossitis may be induced by 

138. -^^^^ ^ Trft'rr f^^'^m ^ 55'n^ i 

139. ^^3F% ^'^m ^cTT ?lf^^'^lf^fTi: I 


persistent and excessive use of tobacco, spirits 
and liiglily spiced foods ; it is characterized 
hy the slow form ition of a number of deep 
fissures and indtn rations, in the depth of which, 
there are ulcers and excoriations). 

**The tongue is dark-yellowish, congested and 
is convered with blood red fissures in the 'pitta' 
disease of the tongue ( the raspberry tongue 
has a pale-red surface, from which project 
greatly swolle i and bright-red fungiform 
papillae, as it appears in the first stage of th© 
scarlet fever or in other acute specific infec- 
tions ). 

*'The tongue is s^;^oUen, heavy and is covered 
with a fur, resembling the thorns of ^BombacU 
heptaphyllV in the *kapha* derangement of the 
tongue ( the tongue is flabby, swollen, indented 
and covered witlj a uniform, yellow pasty fur 
in catarrhal gastritis or gastro-duodenitis ). 

"The severe inflammation that is caused in the 
tongue by the corrupt 'kapha* and the blood, is 
called the *aldsa' (glossitis) ; in severe cases 
paralysis of the tongue and ulceration at its root, 
{cellulitis or parenchymatous inflammation of the 
tongue is due to the infection of streptococcus ; 
while acute glossitis may be the result of a 
burn or wasp-sting ), 


The disease in which the tongue is inflamed 
and on the tip of the tongue, there is a saliva- 
ting, pruritic and painfully congestive tumor^ 
is called *upajihvika* ( secondary syplilliiic sore, 
usually as condylomata, accompanied hy sub- 
acute glossitis, arising from the primary hard 
or tender ulcerating nodule that is seen on the 
tip of the tongue in a syphilitic lesion j or it 
may be carcinoma of the tongue.)" Su§ruta 
n. 16. 37^*". 

The Diseases of the Palate. 

"The elongated tumor that develops and 
spreads from the bottom of the palate like a 
leathern bag filled with air, is called galasun- 
dika* (angioma of the palate) ; it causes poly- 
dipsia, bronchitis and dyspnea ( in uvulutis ). 

*'The tumor that develops at the hottom of 

Wr gsfi q|^ f^ =g ??tHt^: !Ul«r*^f^*Jii*m: tl ^V 

f^ ^ 3 FcW^wrfli 3T|^ ^% fer ^5ui)fd tt^ ii H 

Hl^lil^^: ^^?^ff rjiil4i"iW4 5rRi: 4>'W-*4ini: I 


the palate ( an acute abscess from a carious 
tooth in tlie upper jaw may spread inwards 
and raise tlie rauco peristeum of the hard palate) 
like tlie ( fruit of ) 'Memordlca monadelpha' ; 
it causes pricking pain and hyper<Bmia and it 
suppurates {septic tumor of the palate). 

"The reddisli and the benumbing tumor that 
develops in the palate, is called the ^adhrusa^ 
( the peritonsila?' abscess is liable to burrow in 
the soft palate ) 5 it causes high fever and 
intense pain. 

"The slightly painful and pale tumor that 
dievelops slowly for a long time like tlie tortoise 
shell, due to the corruption of 'phlegma' is 
called the 'mamsa-kachchhapa ( endothellomal 
tumor of the palate ). 

* Tho tumor that appears in the palate like 
the lotus bud, is called the 'arvouda'' {angioma) ; 
it has ail the characteristics of the angioma as 
mentioned before. 

"At the base of the uvula, the malignant and 
painless carcinoma that grows, is called the 
*mamsa-sanghata' {papilloma of the uvula). 

*'The painless and the chronic tumor that 
grows in the palate like a plum, due to the 
corruption of tiie *phlegma andfat\ is called the 
^talu pupputa' {cyst or gumma of the palate). . 


There is much edema and lacerating pain in 
the palate, and dyspnea, due to the derangement 
of pitta associated with vayu which causes talu' 
sosa'' when the syphilitic guramata hreak, septic 
infection follows, and thus there is usually much 
edema of the surrounding tissues. 

There is malignant ulceration of the palate 
due to the derangement of *pitta\ which causes 
Halu-paka"^ {syphilitic ulceration of the palate 
which may lead to its perforation, usually 
circular or oval in shape, and finally to its 
necrosis and destruction of its major part )**. 
Susruta 11. 16. 39-47' *\ 

141. 3:i^W5^*=^ 3(^«i^Tg ^i^> 



The Diseases of the Throats 

'The gummata that are produced in the 
pharynx, causing its stricture, due to the 
vitiated action, either individual or collective, 
of *vayu, pitta, kapha and the hlood^ are called 
the *rohint {syphilitic gummata) ; due to the 
pharyngeal stenosis, life is lost (unless it is 
treated by the regular passage of bougies for 
the rest of the patient's life, and in some 
intractable cases gastrostomy may be necessary). 

The painful gummata, causing stricture of 
the pharynx, also appear at the dorsum of the 
tongue in the *vata^ gummatous affection of 
the pharynx ; and it has all the complications 
of the ^vata\ 

The gummata appear and ulcerate rapidly 


with liigh fever in, the *pitta' affection of the 

The gummata (or syphilitic nodes) are hard 
and ulcerate freely in the 'kapha* affection of 
the disease, and they cause stricture of the 

The gummata ulcerate deeply and are very 
mtrac table and have all the triple complication 
lathe 'sdtiuipata* (acute) affection of the disease. 

The gummata have all the symptoms of 
the *pitta' affection of the disease, and are 
covered with the abscesses in the blood lesion 
of the 'rohinC ; it is incurable, 

A plum-stone like (zizyphus jujubse), rough 
and hard tumor that develops and causes 
terebrant pain, is called 'kantha-saluka* {carci- 
noma of the 'pharynx) ; it is curable by operation. 
SmrutaW. 16. 49-55^* ^ 

142. n^sf^: fqrr^ ^ ^fedl 

5?^;^ TITO *w<)fM«ils^?T^ 


If a tumor ( syphilitic or tuberculous cancer ) 
appears at the root of the tongue due to the 
vitiation of the *kapha and the blood* as it 
appears on its tip, it is called *adhi-jihva' 
{cancer of the tongue) ; aDd if it suppurates, it 
is incurable. 

The tumescence that develops like a bracelet 
and causes the stricture of the esophagus, is 
called the ^valaya^ ( hypertrophic thickening in 
the phreno-cardiac portion of the gullet) ; it is 
intractable and incurable. 

The inflammation that causes dyspnea, 
pain and devitalising, due to the derangement 
of ^hapha and vayu' is the *valasa* ( stenosis of 
the trachea^ caused by acute edematous inflam- 
mation from diphtheria and specific fevers, 
sometimes leading to perichondritis and erysipe- 

cftsr?^^ fqrirsff^ci: tF«ng u k\ 


las spreading down tbe throat or spreading to 
the mucosa through a tracheal wound) ; this 
is hard to cure. 

The globular, elevated, congestive, pruritic, 
slightly suppurative, sweetish and heavy- 
inflammation that is developed in the tonsils, due 
to the vitiation of *kapha and the blood', is 
called the *eka-vriida' (phlegmonous or suppura- 
tive tonsilitis). 

The elevated and the globular inflammation 
that develops with high fever and 'hyperaemia' ; 
is called the *vrnda' (follicular or lacunar 
tonsilitis ) ; if it be of ^vata' origin, it causes 
pricking pain. 

The hard tumor that develops causing 
stricture of the esophagus, due to the corruption 
of the humors, resembling ^^ataghn/i* which is 
a stone covered with iron pikes, and likewise 
the tumor that is covered with papillae, is called 
the ^sataghnt {'papilloma) ; it is an incurable 
disease, and it has all the complications of the 
three corrupt humors ( malignant papilloma of 
the esophagus ). 

The hard and slightly painful tumor that 
develops in the esophagus, causing dysphagia, 
and resembles in appearance and shape the 
stone of *EmhliG myrobalan\ is called the 


'gildyu\ benign fibroma of the esophagus ). It 
is curable by operation. 

The tumescence that develops throughout 
the throat, due to the corruption of the three 
humors, is called the 'gala-oidf^adhi' ( paren- 
chymatous goitre in which there is a general 
and uniform enlargement of the tliyroids and 
the vesicles are over-distended with colloid 
secretion, which however does not escape 
freely into the lymphatics) ; it causes all kinds 
of pain of the corrupt humors, as pricking 
pain, hypersemia and pruritis, and has all the 
complications of an acute abscess (parenchy- 
matous goitre may be provoked by septic 
absorption from a local septic lesion as carious 
tooth, an ulcer, suppurative tumor or drinking 
water from a contaminated source). 

If such a large turner develops in the 
esophagus, due to the corruption of the 
*kapha and the Uood,' as to cause aphagia, 
dyspnea and high fever, it is called the 
Ujalaugha^ ( a large epithelioma that causes 
the stricture of the esophagus and the trachea ). 

The disease in which, due to the stenosis of 
the trachea, the patient suffers from dyspnea 
and falls into a swoon, the voice is broken, the 
throat becomes dry and the patient collapses, is 


called the ^svaraghna* ( stenosis of the trachea 
may be caused by many diseases as : (l)enlarge- 
ment or neoplasm of the thyroids ; (2) enlarge- 
ment and the tumor of the thymus ; (3) media- 
stinal tumors or abscesses ; (4) pressure stenosis 
by aneurism ; (5) tertiary syphilitic lesions ). 

The disease in which there is an extensive^ 
very painful and continuous inflammation which 
gradually causes stenosis of the throat, is called 
^mmnsa'tana^ {syphilitic ulceration of the throat)',. 
it is deadly and arises from the corruption of the 
three humors. 

The disease in which there is a bleeding 
inflammation with pricking pain and hypersemi^ 
and which ulcerates with cadaverous odor, especi? 
ally on the side the patient sleeps, is called the 
*vidar'i* ( syphilitic gangrenous ulceration of the 
throat ). Susnita II. 16. 56-67'*^ 

143. Bffnr^: ^^: ^TH^ 3 rii^l«=<«-ylMR ^fil^T: I 

cT ^I3^'4mfd<4K=n'W<* f^^F?3RW ^^ "^^^Htl II V^ 
^ ^ RT^R 1^: yt<l '^^Trfeu '9T<^<5^MM**< I 

w^^s^ f^d<i)d^i^%T^^' f^35n ^mm, II v^ 

sfTrt^jf?^: MR+r^4d1s^ °^lM(Hl^T^dsriMM rT: II i(5: 


Diseases of the Buccal Cavity. 

The buccal cavity is covered with ulcers with 
pricking pain in the 'vata sarvva-sara* ( ulcera- 
tive stomatitis or putrid sore of the mouth occurs 
in oral sepsis, especially associated with carious 
tooth or pyorrhea ). 

The buccal cavity is covered with small 
reddish or dark-yellowish vesicles ( small, slight- 
ly raised whitish plaques starting as vesicles, 
surrounded by a red areola) in 'pitta sarvixxx-sara' 
{aphthous or follicular stomatitis, which is very 


common in infants and young children associat- 
ed chiefly with indigestion, but also prevails 
in adults when the general health is impaired ). 

The buccal cavity (especially on the tongue 
and the inner margins of the lips) is covered 
with pruritic, slightly painful and skin-colored 


patches in *Jcapha sarvva-sara^ ( mycotic or para- 
sitic stomatitis in which small, slightly elevated, 
pearly white spots are developed through 
*saccharomycss (pidinm) albicans* in debilitated 
children and old people ). 

All the symptoms of aphthous stomatitis 
appears in stomatitis from blood vitiation, and 
by many authorities, it is called the 'mukha- 
j)aka* ( acute or catarrhal stomatitis in which 
the mucosa membrane of the mouth is more or 
less extensively reddened, dry and hot, with 
associated salivation and swelling of the tongue,, 
due to gastro-intestinal disturbances or due to 
irritants as alcohol or tobacco )" Sus?mta II. 16. 

144. ^=^ ' ^^li^i'i y+iTii5 


VI. Tumors. 

"Tumor (granfhi)y abscess (vidradhi), neoplasm 
{alaji perhaps means edema, as arvvuda has 
heen definitely defined as neoplasm), all develop 
from inflammation ( Sotha ). They have all their 
own individual charateristics, and tumors are 
of various kinds. The swelling that is extensive,, 
slightly elevated, of even or uneven surface, in 
the skin ( including mucous membrane ) and the 
tissues, confined to a part of the body due to a 
lesion, is called the 'sotha' ( inflammation )." 
Susruta I. 17. 2»*\ 

'"^otha' is of three varieties, 'vai/u, pitta and 
hapha\ Either they originate from internal 
causes ( in the process of eliminating toxins 
produced as a metabolic reaction, or, introduced 
into the economy) or external lesions (as trauma- 
' tism, microbic invasion or local irritants ). 
Cutting, penetrating, crushing, lacerating, press- 
ing, beating, binding and all kinds of wound and 
oppression of the tissue cause inflammation ; as 
well as the contact of the ( toxic or irritant sub- 

145. ^ Mv^j^ci^ RT ?lf^Rl;f^'4^^'iy<^^: ^TF^ 5?mPTt- 
sf ^iH4«Ti ^^'j^ltd^ :, ife^rar: ^^'f«ra: mt ^WT ^ 


stances ) flower, fruit or juice of ^Semecarpus 
afiacardium\ sting of insects ( mucuna pruritus ) 
and ( penetration ) of microbes ( krimi ), at the 
contact of injurious leaves, vines and bulb ( as 
that of the poison ivy, Bhus radicans ), the per- 
spiration, or excreta of a poisonous creature, a 
wound of a poisonous or non-poisonous creature 
by tooth, horn or nail, poisonous gas ( visa vata ) 
and fire — all these cause inflammation." Charaka 
I. 18. V'\ 

''Vomiting, tympanites, cholera, dyspnea, 
asthma, diarrhoea, tuberculosis, anemia, gastro- 
intestinal troubles, menorrhagia, fistula-in-ano, 
and piles by osmosis («^^-Z:«rs«^ia=excessive pres- 
sure ) cause (edematous) inflammation." Charaka 
I. 18^ 4^*^ 

When the tissues are injured by mechanical 

146. =527: ^^ VF^-?? ^Rrftra^5'lif5?^lTTT: I ^ gsiftf^vSTT: 


agents, or, by chemical, thermic or bacterial 
irritants or their toxins, inflammation sets in as 
a restorative process of the tissue repair. 

When a mechanical agent has produced a cut, 
the edges of the wound are slightly separated, 
and the open vessels are bleeding. The first 
reactions will arrest the hemorrhage. On the 
one hand, the calibre of the vessels will contract 
in consequence of the direct excitation of the 
nonstriated muscular fibers entering into the 
structures of their walls, and on the other hand 
as the result of reflex constriction. The blood 
flowing with less force, will coagulate ; fibrine 
will be formed, and its effect will be to occlude 
the vessel, to assure hemostasis and to unite the 
edges of the wound, and then serve as a nutri- 
tion and as a guide to cells which will insure 
reparation. This commences when the cellular 
elements lining the wound begin to proliferate 
and form a cicatrix. To facilitate the work, the 
leucocytes rush in, some to take part in the 
formation of the tissues and others t@ carry away 
the dead cells. This causes inflammation » 

The same phenomenon occurs, with a chemi- 
cal irritant or toxin ; if it be weak and diluted,^ 
it might be absorbed and neutralized without 
any perceptible local reaction. But if it is 


strong enough to destroy a few cells, then 
there is a vaso-dilatation, a serous exudation 
( edema ) to dilute the toxin and to prevent 
its absorption. 

But if these wounds are not kept in aseptic 
condition, the ubiquitous pus coccus {staphy- 
lococcus or sh'eptococctis ), finding favourable 
medium, starts a colony. It not only multiplies 
•rapidly, but also engenders toxins which cause 
death of the cells of the region, thus creating 
a necro-biotic area, surrounded by a prolifera- 
tive zone of the healthy tissues. Struggle now 
begins between the invading hosts and the 
•healthy tissues. If the victory is quick with 
the latter, then the inflammation gradually 
subsides. But if the tissues lack the resisting 
power and the bodily defensive mechanism 
is not powerful or prompt in its response, then 
leucocytes circumscribe the infection, round 
the dead cells, so that the general economy 
<ian not be affected, and they can fight more 
conveniently against the microbes and replace 
the fallen defenders. Coincidently the nervous 
terminations are aroused by the microbic toxins 
and their excitation gives rise to a series of 
reflex acts which ending in the active dilatation 
of the vessels of the invaded area, are follow- 


€d by migrations of the leucocytes and the 
formation of the serous exudate. If the pus 
cocci gain the upper hand, the cells that are 
killed undergo liquefaction and are converted 
into the pus^ so that an abscess results. This 
soon coagulates and a creamy substance is 
formed which softens towards the centre. And 
if it be not now evacuated, the softened area 
increases in size, the skin over it is thinned 

, and mortified, and a small slough is formed, 
through which the pus escapes and the tension 
is relieved. If the pus cavity contains a ropy 
fi.brile core, as in a boil or carbuncle, it indi- 
cates that the cells have been destroyed in 
mass by a virulent agent, and of the dead 
cells, the core is composed. After the escape 
of the i)us, a space — the abscess cavity, is left, 
the walls of which are lined with vascular or 
granulation tissues, which escaped destruction, 
and which slowly fill the contracting cavity and 
obliterate it by forming interstitial soar-tissues. 
But if the abscess be deeply situated and be 
not able to open on to a free surface, thus 
allowing the pus to be drained off, the phago- 
cytes mobilize all their forces, surround the 
necrotic area and make an advance from all 
sides. The vanguard of the advancing army is 


composed of a more or less compact layer of 
the mono-nuclear phagocytes {yolyhlasts) accom- 
panied by numerous new vessels which bring 
the food-supply for the phagocytic scavengers 
who voraciously ingest all the enemy microbes 
as well as the injared and dead cells, and carry 
out their removal from the fighting zone. They 
also drain off the toxic fluid of the disintegra- 
ting cells. Behind the polyblasts, are seen in 
mighty battle array, the fibroblasts or connecting 
tissue cells in active proliferation, and with 
their fibrous laminae shut off the abscess from 
the healthy tissues, and with the absorption of 
the pus, encroach on the pus area. With the 
absorption of the pus, the abscess cavity is 
replaced by the fibrous tissue, forming the 
cicatrical scar. But in case the phagocytes lack 
the necessary vitality for the operation, the 
abscess burrows through and forms a dangerous 
fistula ( visarpa na4l ). 

Tumors are developed in these eight places : 
skin (pustular inflammations : acne, ecthymoses, 
variola ; subcutaneous inflammation : erysipelas, 
eczema; vesicular lesions ( herpes ) or bullae 
varicella, pempigus ), flesh ( myxoma = tumor of 
mucous tissue ;^6rom« = tumor of fibrous tissue; 
lipoma = tumor of adipose tissue • myoma = tumor 


of muscular tissue ), vessels ( angioma — tumor 
composed of blood vessels ; endothelioma — tumor 
originating from the endothelium or lining cells 
of the vascular tissue ; hemangioendothelioma 
= tumor of endothelium of the blood-vessel; lym- 
phcmgioendothelioma = tumor of the endothelium. 
of the lymphatic vessel ; endothelioma = tumor 
composed of both endothelial and muscular 
elements ; lymphangioma^ tumor of the lymph- 
atic vessels ; aneurism = a blood-containing- 
tumor connecting directly with the lumen of the- 
artery or formed by circumscribed enlargement 
either axial or lateral, of an artery ) ligament 
{snayu perhaps included soft cartilage: chondroma 
= cartilaginous tumor), bone { osteoma =hox\.Y 
tumor; odontoma = tumor of dental structure),, 
joints (^ arthromeningitis = m^?cci\vci2Xmxs. of the 
joints; synovitis = inflammation of the synovial 
membrane, especially that of a joint ), nerve 
{snayu: neuroma = i\xv[\ov in connection with, 
nerves; glioma = neuroglial tumor), viscera 
( papilloma, adenoma = epithelial tumors ; carci- 
noma is maligant ) and in vital organs." Susrutct 
I. 22. 2^*« . 

148. c^t^w RRTCTF^^^i^^tg^Trkftc^ 5I^P[^^, 



''Now we shall describe the exudation of 
tumors. If the skin is bruised or lacerated, or 
in skin-tumors ( varicella, acne, eczema etc. ), 
whether spontaneously or when lanced, an aquatic, 
slightly acid-smelling and light-yellowish exuda- 
tion (serous fluid mixed with sebaceous secretion) 
comes out. The evacuation of an abscess in the 
flesh, is like clarified butter, thick, whitish and 
slimy {caseous or cheesy pus — a very thick, almost 
solid pus resulting from the absorption of the 
liquor puris). In a recent incision of a blood vessel 
there is an excessive bleeding from the vascular 
swelling ; if it suppurates, the pus flows from it 
as from a water-pipe {toya-nadl), thin, unmixed, 
viscous, flaky (caseous flakes consisting of necrosed 
or sphacelated cells and fatty acids, floating upon 
the serous fluid) and has a pale brownish color 
{serous or curdy pus). The exudation from a 
*snayu* ( nerve or ligament tumor ) is creamy, 
thick, mixed with blood and is like the mucous 
from the nose {phlegmonous or laudable pus 
which is a yellowish-white, creamy, thick and 
odorless liquid ). If a bone is wounded or 
fractured, a kind of pearly white exudation comes 
out ; but that of an osseous tumor is mixed with 
bone-marrow, blood and fat ( the pus of osseous 
origin contains fat and often small splinters of 


%one ). If an inflammatory joint (tumous joint) 
is pressed, no exudation comes out ; but on 
contraction, extension,standing on the toes, sitting 
low, pressure sitting, spasmic tension brings out 
an exudation which is viscous, flaky, foamy and 
is mixed with blood and pus (suppurated synovia). 
Prom the visceral tumors, are evacuated blood, 
urine, fecal matters, pus and serous fluid (there 
•may be found in pus foreign bodies, tissue frag- 
ments, elastic fibers, animal or vegetable 
parasites, hydatids, actinomycets, organic liquids, 
bile, milk, urine, fecal matters and alimentary 
fragments. Their finding is of great importance 
from a semiological standpoint, indicating as to 
the origin of pus and as to the possibility of 
organic fistula). As to the exudations of the 
tumors of the vital organs, nothing is mentioned, 
for they belong to the same category of tumors 
of the skin and flesh (mucous membrane and the 
muscular and adipose tissues ). Susruta I. 22. 

149. ^3 ^^' ^m^il^ g^TH: I S^ ^5T§ f^gj^^ ^ 


The color of the pus is no less variable {Szisnitc» 
IV. 1. 8-17 ). Usually yellowish, it may be of 
orange, brownish red or greenish color. There is 
no suppuration presenting blue color, but it is 
occasionally seen due to the pigment produced by 
bacillus pyocyaneus which is not pyogenic by 
itself. However, there is no relation betw^een 
the color of the pus and the cause which develops 
it, but on the locality where it is formed and 
imbibe the coloring matter, with the only 
exception of the suppuration of the pneumococcic- 
origin, which is thick, greenish and rich in 
fibrine, often having the aspect of the false 
membrane. In subcutaneous or pleural collections 
the pus is phlegmonous, thick ; in meningeal 
membranes of tlie brain, it is greenish ; in the 
liver, of the chocolate color ; and reddish in the 


lung. When it is of osseous origin, it of ten contains 
fat and small splinters of bone. If it takes origin 
in tlie glands of the skin, it produces a furuncle 
or a carbuncle--lesion, remarkable for the presence 
of sphacelated fragments of the cellular tissue, 
which constitutes the core. 

Fyogenic agents : Pyogenic agents wliich can 
<jause suppuration are numerous. (1) Bacteria 
habitually pyogenic : Staphylococcus aureus 
and albus, streptococcus, pneumococcus, colon 
bacillus and micrococcus tetragons are normally 
encountered upon our integuments and though in 
healthy condition of the tissues they usually live 
a harmless saprophatic or vegetative life, yet 
when the tissues are damaged or injured, and 
therefore are incapable of offering natural resist- 
ance to encroachment, they are particularly 
apt to provoke suppuration. Of them staphylococci 
are the most common pathologic agents, but 
take nearly 250,000,000 to 1,000,000,000 of 
them to provoke an abscess. (2) Specific 
pyogenic bacteria are yet recognized to be only 
three, namely : gonococcus, the bacillus of soft 
chancre and the bacillus glanders. (3) Bacteria 
accidentally pyogenic are those which cause 
specific and well differentiated lesions of their 
own, but may, also, cause suppuration under 


certain conditions, as the tubercle bacillus causes- 
cold abscess, and typhoid bacillus pus in the 
bone. (4) Pyogenic fungi are the strep tothrix^ 
pergillus and odium. (5) The animal pyogenic 
parasites are the amcebas of dysentery which not 
only provoke ulcerations of the intestinal mucous 
membrane, but also abscesses in the liver, and the 
syphilitic spirocbeta which may cause gumma 
and its ulceration. Gangrene is the morbid 
process charcterized by the mortification (uecrobi' 
osis) and the putrefaction of the tissues. The 
microbes causing gangrene act upon the altered 
tissues by interrupted circulation, by humoral 
changes or by the interference of the arterial 
circulation, especially in the extremities exactly 
as they would act upon the tissues of the cadavers. 
But between gangrene and the cadaveric putre- 
faction, there is this difference, that in the 
gangrene, the aftected parts are still the seat of 
certain biotic reactions, as all the cells are not 
equally attacked by the bacteria and quite a few 
survive ; and moreover, there is partial influx 
of serum, lymph, venous blood and blood pigments 
and the bacteria attacking the exudate produce 
new fermentations therein. 

"The ingestion of heavy, unsuitable, dry, 
rotten, or disharmonious combinations of foods,. 


venery, excessive exertion (fatigue), retention 
of the feces and the urine, and inflammatory 
beverage provoke bulbous abscess like an ant- 
hill, either by particular lesion or by their 
combined elfects. In the anus, neck of th& 
bladder, abdomen, axilla and the groin ( bubo-&n 
inflammatory swelling of the lymphatic gland,, 
usually leading to suppuration), kidneys (vrkka), 
spleen, liver and the lung abscesses are formed 
with the symptoms of superficial abscesses 
{fw^uncles or boils )" Susnita II. 9. 13-14'^**. 
"In abortion or injurious delivery, a woman 
suffers with fever 'hypersemia' from dangerous 
blood-abscess {ralda-vidradhi = septico-pyemia : if 
the entire organism is invaded by bacteria which 
are usually introduced through the septic 
handling of the genital puerperal wounds, it is 

150. jj°4^lci-^-<R^l'8T -^sg^f^^-M)^«^ld [ 


called septicemia ; but if the purulent foci are 
developed as tlie abscesses in the liver, kidney, 
lungs, heart etc. which are known as meta- 
static abscesses, it is called pyemia. In the 
transitory stage of both these morbid processes, 
it is often called septico- pyemia. However 
septicemia and pyemia are both usually attended 
by fever, diarrhoea and other symptoms of 
malaise according to the virulence of the infec- 
tion and the bodily reaction)". Siisruta II. 9. 

"If any one neglects a suppurated abscess, 
it burrows through to an interior organ, and as 
it proceeds like a tube, it is called ^nadl-vrana' 
{fistula?' abscess)" Susruta II. 10.9^^'. 

152. ^ ^ q^f^T?^ qs^q^ ^ 
^f'J'tr irferf^ !i%f4 ^^ 


"When a rounded and knotted swellings is 
developed by tlie corruption of the *'cata^ flesh, 
blood, serous Jluid and the fat\ it is called 
^granthi^ (cyst). 

In the *vata-grantM {aneurism)^ pains are 
felt with the sensation that the cyst is being 
elongated by a gravitating force ( expulsive 
paiu), that it is being torn (terebrant p.), that it is 
being penetrated by needles (boring p.), as if 
dashed out ( tensive p.), as if being lancinated 
( lancinating p. ) or lacerated ( lacerating pain ) ; 
it is dark and shaped like the bladder, and if it 
bursts, pure blood comes out of it ( cmeiirism is 
a blood-containing cyst formed by circumscribed 
enlargement of an artery through which the 
blood circulates. Such cysts are distinguished 
by their expansive pulsation with each systole 
of the lieart, by a thrill to be felt on pulpation 
and by a 'bruit' heard on auscultation. As they 
increase in size, they produce absorption of 
adjacent structures and give rise to distressing 
pain by their pressure on nerves, and their final 
tendency is to burst, and if a large artery is the 
seat of the cyst, to cause death ). 

In 'pitta-granthV ( hemangioma ), there is 
hyperemia, and the pain seems to be like that 
of the application of caustics and cautery : the 


cyst is of reddish or dark -yellowish color, and if it 
bursts, very hot blood comes out ( hemanyioma 
is a blood swelling or cyst due to the dilatation 
of the blood vessels ). 

The *Kap7ia granthis' {tubercles) are cold, pale, 
slightly painful and are hard like stone, and 
take a long time for their growth (suppuration) ;. 
when they burst, a thick whitish pus comes out 
of them ) ; tubercles are called cold abscesses or 
they arouse no local or general reaction. Tubercles 
appear under three different aspects ; gray 
granulation, Laenneck's tubercle and caseous 
mass. Gray granulation is a small, hard and 
non-nuclear nodule, surrounded by a reddish 
vascular zone and their dimensions vary from 0.5 
millimeter to 2 or 3 millimeters, Laenneck's 
tubercle is more voluminous ; it is a round, gray 
or yellow mass, having the volume of a pea, a 
hazelnut or a walnut. The caseous masses are 
greenish-yellow deposits and look like Roque- 
fort cheese. The tubercular abscess may also 
arise from the breaking down of a tubercular 
lymphatic vessel }. 

The ^ Meda-granthi* {lipoma) is bright, volumi- 
nous, slightly painful, but pruritic ; it grows 
with the adiposity of the body, and declines with 
its decrease : if it bursts, fat like that of the 


kernel of the sesame or like clarified butter- 
comes out ( lipoma is a tumor of the fatty tissue, 
and grows in the subcutaneous tissues, especi-^ 
ally in parts subjected to pressure — the shoul- 
ders and the buttocks, the abdominal wall and 
the breast, though it may be present in tissues 
containing very little fat as the dura matter, 
submucous tissue of the intestine, as a single- 
or multiple flattened, rounded or pendiculated 
growth. When large it is always lobulated. The 
yellowish tissue of the lobules is usually softer 
and more plastic than the ordinary fatty 
tissue ). 

The *Shxt-grmithi\cirsokl aneurism) \s developed 
by the derangement of ^vayu* in a weak person- 
through wrestling which causes arterial disten- 
sion, distortion or contortion and elevates them^ 
( the arteries ) like lotus stems, and makes of 
tliem roundish tumors ; if these tumors are pain- 
ful and temporary, they can be cured witb 
difficulty, but if they are painless, permanent,, 
voluminous or developed in the vital organs, 
they are incurable ( cirsoid aneurism is a tumor- 
like collection of dilated and elonsrated arteries. 
In the majority of cases, aneurisms are due to 
weakening of the arterial walls by arteriosclero- 
sis. If the latter is diffuse, the dilatation 


is generally fusiform and irregular ; if circum- 
scribed, the yielding is succular. Of the causes 
of the sclerotic changes, syphilis is the most 
important in producing aneurism. Prolonged 
high arterial tension as in laborious muscular 
work, cardiac hypertrophy, a great and sudden 
strain as in heavy lifting, violent coughing or 
'Straining may initiate the dilatation if, the coats 
are weakened by previous disease ). 

At the maxillary, clavicular, axillary.humero- 
ulnar ( and radial, i. e. elbow ), scapulo-clavi- 
cular ( back-neck ), and hyoid-thyroid-cartila- 
ginous ( front neck ) joints, due to the accumu- 
tion of fat, a solid and rounded tumor ( exosto- 
■^'ts 07" osteoma ) or causes slightly painful fatty 
and serous inflammation ; if the tumor resembles 
the stone of myrobalan or the fish-roe, or 
any such similar substance and has the color 
of the skin, it is called 'apacJiC ( exostosis ) 
because of its swelling. Exostosis is pruritic 
and slightly painful ; some of them (exostosises) 
exudate when torn ( or incised ). It lasts for 
a long time, its nodules being destroyed and 
renewed. This disease . develops from ^fat and 
kapha* and is very hard to cure ( osteomas and 
osteomatoid conditions, in which there is loca- 
lized or general overgrowth of the bone, are of 


common occurrence. Both groups are found 
chiefly at the point of junction of a bone and 
its cartilage, fasciae, periosteum, tendons and the 
ligaments, in the pia matter and the dura matter 
in the choroid and sclerotic coats of the eye 
at the apex of the lungs, in the sldn and the 
mucous membrane, and sometimes even in the- 
penis and in muscular tissues. They are usually 
divided into two groups, the exostosis, or those 
growing from the surface of the bone, and 
enostoses or those growing within the bone.. 
And again they may be divided according to- 
their structure, into eburnated exostosis intense- 
Iv hard like that of tlie cement of the tooth 
and spongy or cauliflower exostosis ). 

Due to some lesion, the tissues become affect- 
ed, and a rounded, solid neoplasm slightly 
painful, voluminous, and deep-seated but with 
slender base, grows without suppuration ; it 
is called arvvuda ( tumor ^ neoplasm or cancer). 

Due to contraction of the blood-vessels and. 
the blood, owing to a papuliferous, slightly 
ulcerative and exudative meat-ball {neophxsm) 
is ferm whicli, grows rapidly ane causes inces- 
sant bleeding. This is c?i\\Qi\.'rakta-arvvuda^ {papil-^ 
loma). Due to the complications ( sequels ) 
arising from the loss of blood, the papilloma 


victim becomes anemic. It is an incurable 
disease ( papilloma is any abnormal excrescence 
having a villous structure, but more properly 
a tumor of the skin or of the mucous membrane, 
either sessile or pedunculated, consisting of 
hypertrophied or new-formed papillae, covered 
by an envelope of the epithelial cells separately 
on each papillae, so as to produce a villous or 
filiform appearance. Papilloma is usually benign 
but if neglected, it may form the starting point 
or be converted into benignant ^epithelioma'. 
Also a destructive papilloma is known which 
is probably a carcinomatous form, and which 
is ulcerative and in which the papillary growth 
upon the surface extends into and destroys the 
subjacent tissues. 

If any part of the body is lacerated by a blow, 
there is developed a painless, bright, skin-colored, 
non-suppurative, stone-hard and fixed tumor, 
due to the lesion of the tissues ; and it is 
called mamsa arvvuda, ( myxoma usually occur 
in submucous, subcutaneous or other connective 
tissues in the intermuscular septa between the 
bundles of nerves, in periosteum and in sub- 
serous fat, and has the general character of 
tumors of this group ). If a myxoma victim 
partakes of moat, this tumor becomes thickened 


and incurable. And of the benign-symptomatic 
tumors those which are infiltrative ( or malignant 
breast tumors ) are incurable. 

Of the above-mentioned tumors those which 
are exudative or develop in the vital organs or 
in the vessels ( arterial, venous, lymphatic or 
nervous ) or those which do not move ( suppu- 
rate ? ) are incurable. If a new tumor deve- 
lopes on another, it is called *adhyarvvuda* 
( secondary or proliferation tumors that develop 
adjacent to each other as pairs are called 'dvir- 
urvvuda' ( double tumors ). It is also incurable". 
''Susruta 11. 11. 2-15.^ ^^^ 

f^^Tf*If%rg ^'S^^^f?[W: ^^'^^SF^ ^WJ^ U ic 


"A neoplasm or tumor is a new formation 
of tissue, which is atypical in structnre, serves 
no useful purpose in the whole economy and 
the growth of which has no typical termination." 
Accordins: to Cohnheim there remains in the 
adult enough of unappropriated embryonic 
residues which if activated by any mechanical 
or microbic irritant outstrip the normal calcu- 
lus growth and form a tumor possessing an 
unutilized and consequently an exaggerated 
power of proliferation. But the cells of the 
malignant neoplasms are themselves capable of 
starting new growths {metastases) if carried to 

spit^rH^S^q^: irf^raTT: ^5rf% 5T3:2Tf^^ ^5rf5?! ^F^ I 


distant parts by circulation, as a malignant tumor 
of the breast may start new cancers far removed 
from the original lesion into the Jungs, ribs, 
brain and the abdomen through the lymphatic 
current. No microbic agent has yet been definite- 
ly identified with the tissues of the malignant 
tumor, though * micrococcus neoforfans^ has been 
found in both benign and malignant neoplasms. 
However, the probability is that there is a specific 
pathogenic cancerous agent. Fortunately all 
neoplasms are not dangerous. The benign tumors 
are entirely harmless unless they are situated in 
a sensitive position, where by their growth they 
might cause pressure on the nerves or displace 
the vital organs. And they never reproduce 
themselves in distant parts by grafting like the 
malignant growths. And the fundamental 
difference between the two types, though the 
process of their growth has the same tendency of 
exxaggerated, abnormal proliferation and multi- 
plication of their own cells, lies in the fact that 
-the benign tumor does not eat its way into the 
surrounding tissues, but remains closed in its 
own fibrous capsule. While a malignant tumor 
infilters into the neighboring tissues, causes 
destruction of the healthy cells, creates an ulcera- 
tive zone and therein transplants a new colony. 



But only sarcoma, endothelioma and carcinoma 
are malignant. However, between benign adeno- 
ma and malignant epithelioma there exist numer- 
ous transitions, and under certain circumstances, 
a benign tumor may turn into the malignant 
type as 'destructive papilloma'. And though 
tumors may be observed in all ages, yet their 
frequency and nature vary considerably at 
r different periods of life. In the defective develop- 
ment of the embryo, angiomata are frequently 
met. During early life sacromata are observed, 
located chiefly in the kidneys. At puberty 
exostoses are frequent. In women at a later 
period, ovarian cysts belonging to the group of 
adenomata and epitheliomata are encountered. 
From th.e age of fourteen onward, epithelioma 
becomes more and more common, reaching its 
maximum of frequency between the age of fifty 
and fiftv-five vears. A!2:e exercises no less in- 
fluence upon tlso localization than upon the 
nature of the tumors. In children, they affect, 
in order of frequency, the eye where melanotic 
sjircoma is met with, the kidney, testicles and 
spleen. In adults tlie part of the body most 
frequently attacked is the stomach, uterus, liver, 
mamma and tiie intestine in the order mention- 
ed. It is certain that the irritation alone,. 


microbic or mechamcal,is not sufficient to develop 
tumor unless the organism is predisposed to it by- 
heredity, or has aquired this characteristic 
through some morbid process of pathogenesis 
which is not vet understood. 

The abscess {Vrana^furuncle^oW or carbun- 
cle, differs fromthe furuncle or the boil in various 
points. ( I ) It generally occurs singly and 
usually appears at the back of the neck, the 
back or the buttocks. ( 2 ) It is very large in 
size like a hen's q^^ or even larger. ( 3 ) It 
contains more than one core ( necrotic tissue or 
suppuration points as in furuncle ), due to 
( corruption ) of the ^vayu, pittcf, kapha and the 
blood', produces intense burning, throbbing, 
tremulous and pricking pain, hyperf^mia^ sup- 
puration, redness, swelling and hyperesthesia ; 
and it causes various kinds of pain and exuda- 
tion." Susruta IV. I. 20^'^ 

"There are sixty treatments of 'vrancC (sup- 
purative tumor, especially furuncle) as folloAvs: 
fasting {apatarj)ana) to facilitate the elimination 
of the toxic and the effete matter circulating in 

154. P tj ^« iPl44 J ii WF^Wcft^^ qT^-?TTr-?.iI|^?:5in eipft 5TR\> 


the blood which predisposes the tissues to pyoo-e- 
nic infection ), epithem ( alepa, to spread over 
the boil to releive pain, congestion, to focalize 
the inflammation and to bring out suppuration), 
lotion ( pariseha, to wash the inflamed part for 
asepsis and to relieve pain ), salve ( abhyanga to 
smear over as an antiseptic and analgesic ), 
fomentation ( sveda^ as an analgesic and sup- 
purantia ), emollient ( vimlapana^ to soften and 
beat the boil ), cataplasm ( upanaha^ as a sup- 
purantia ), suppurantia ( pachana, to cause 
early suppuration ), leeching ( visrdvana, to apply 
sucking leeches to relieve congestion ), emulsion 
( snelia, as a stimulating nourishment ), emetic 
( vamana, to remove gastric irritants ), dissection 
( chhedana^ to remove the ulcerative parts of a 
non-suppurative tumor ), incision ( vedana= 
lancing to cause the drainage of the pus ), sca7^i- 
jication ( darana^ to softer the skin so as to 
cause spontaneous bursting of the abscess in the 
timid women and children who are afraid of 
lances and incision ), evacuation ( lekhana, to 
scratch and to wipe out the impacted caseous 
pus from the abscess cavity ), exploration (esana 
to find out the nature of the abscess cavity in a 
fistula ), exti^action ( aharana, to extract any 
foreign body from an abscess),pww(?^wr^ {vyadhana. 


exploratory puncture of a cavity or a tumor 
with a hollow needle to determine the presence 
or absence of fluid or gas, and its nature, if 
present ), suction ( vidravana, to suck the liquid 
pus and exudation from an abscess cavity or 
serous fluid from hydrocele or ascites through a 
tube by exhausting the air in the front ), suture 
( sivana, to reunite by stitching a wide gaping, 
non-suppurative wound with a silk-thread), appo- 
sitional reunion ( sandhana, to put the wounded 
and operated parts in their proper place and to 
unite them together ), compi^essive epitliem 
( p'idana^ an epithem that draws the pus to the 
surface ), hemostatic ( sonitasthapana, to arrest 
bleeding of a wound ), lenitive ( nirvvajjana, to 
soothe and to relieve irritation ), medicinal 
fomentation ( utkcbHka, to provoke suppuration ), 
antiseptic astringent ( kasaya^ to cleanse the 
wound-cavity ), collyrium ( vartti^ as disinfect- 
ant \mucilaginous paste {katka, as a disinfectant), 
ointment ( ghrta^ as depurant ), oit ( taila^ as 
depurant ), chemical action [rasakriya^ of sesame 
decoction, thickened and made into paste with 
the mixture of iron sulphide ( swastrajam 
sakas'isam ), arsenic disulphide ( manahsila ) and 
arsenic trisulphide ( haritala )] to be applied to 
tlie abscess — Susruta IV. I. 59 ], fine bland 


po/vder ( avachu7^naiia, as a deodorant ), fumiga- 
tion {mmna-dhupana, to expose tlie abscess cavity 
to medicinal gases \ vulnerary ( ul^adana, to 
promote liealing and cicatrization ), inimctioii 
{ avasadana^ to promote tissue formation and 
normal circulation in the cicatrized area ), emol- 
lient ( mrdu'harma, to soften the skin ), tissue- 
hardener ( daruna karma^ to harden the tissues 
with tannic astringents ), caustic ( ksara-Jzai^ma, 
destroy a lonuj standinsr ulcer which is hard to 
cure ), cautery ( agni-karma^ to scar the ulcerated 
tissues which do not easily cure, especially in 
the bladder and tlie joints ), pigmentaj^y ( krsna- 
kar}na, to promote pigment cells in tlie pale 
cicatrised area), plgmento-lysin {pandu-karma^ to 
destroy the pigment, in order to bleach the dark- 
ened area), plgment-normalixer {pratisaram, 
to normalise the skin- color of the affected area ), 
hair-grower {roma->]ahjanana, to promote the 
growth of hair, where the hair follicles have been 
destroyed), depilatory {lomapaharavha^ to cause 
the falling out of hair where it is not desirable, 
or by shaving ), clyster ( vaf-ti-kainna^ as an 
antiseptic injactiou in a deep-seated a1>3cess), 
irrigation (uttara-vasti, to wash out the purulent 
deep seated abscess cavity ), bandage ( vanda, to 
protect the wound from microbic infection ), 


plastei^ ( patra-dmia, as a pepastic). gef'micide 
{krmighna, as a destructive agent of the micro- 
bes ), detoxicauts ( visaghna ), stimulants 
(vrmhana, to a-ctivatethe orsranisra to fi«]itao:aiTist 
the disease, to throw off the toxins and to restore 
health ) sedatives ( siro-vlrechana , to remove^- 
congestion from the upper parts of the body, 
in case of abscesses there ), snuff ( uasi/a, as a 
sedative ), mouth-tva'sh ( havala-dharana^ as a 
disinfectant in stomatitis), fitniigation ( dhuina, 
exposure to the action of a disinfectant smoke ), 
analeptic ( madhu-sarpi^ a restoration), operation 
( yantra, to operate where there is a foreign 
body in the wound and its mouth is narrow ), 
dietai^y (ahara^ light and stimulating foods), and 
hygiene {raksa-vidhana^ as curative and preven- 
tive). "Susruta IV. 1. 22. ; 59^ "^ 

^rfq^^ ^Hfer^rasiir^'f £mr|«4w^dy K^Ji-^r^T^ '2|^fw ^tw^ 

^ K<*4.«?fiT^ t»'^*'^ TRII^P^t !Tfe!RW' HW^i^^^RSf h1-M(M- 
f^' ^?!^J:?ThR^fe!^!JWT ^^^: ^'^^^^ ^fif3* l"f^' f^^' 


"After the above-mentioned treatment, if 
the inflammation is found to be of a suppurative 
kind, then by the application of a pustulant, 
it has to be made to suppurate, then lanced 
and disinfected." Susnita IV. 16. 4,''\ 

Etiology : Furuncle or boil is not possible 
without the infection of staphylococcus pyoge- 
nes aureus which is invariably found in the 
pus. This gives rise to acute inflammation 
and exudation, leading to necrosis of the tissue. 
The infection of the staphylococcus pyogenes 
aureus is favored by the impairment of the 
tissue vitality, which is the natural consequence 
if the blood contains toxic, irritant or effete 
matters. In that case, the tissues are not only 
ill-nourished, and therefore incapable to offer 
natural resistance to microbic invasion, but 

fFrre^^TT y<+w1yi ^^rrarrfif ??'!:f^Rn^ \ 

SWd^f^dl, Rlf+frHd<r«TRJ3^, \ V 

156. ^mK: ۤj5k: ^^'w\ ^\mw^\ i 

#?^fT ^cm^lfq fT^T^Tft? S^ftjcl^ II ^ 


especially when the kidney fails to eliminate 
the effete and the toxic substances in the blood, 
the burden falls on the skin as an eraunctory 
organ. This naturally irritates the skin and 
predisposes it to the infection of staphylococ- 
cus which is ubiquitous causing furuncles, boils 
and carbuncles. And they are usually associat- 
ed with the diseases, especially ii the renal 
functions have been impaired, as in chronic 
dyspepsia, gout, rheumatism, scrofula, tuber- 
culosis, diabetes and albuminuria. It is frequent- 
ly met with in dyspepsia in which there is 
insufficiency or deficiency of the pepsin and' 
the trypsin, especially tlie latter, leading to 
albuminous putrefaction, whose toxic products 
are absorbed into the blood, and are thrown 
over to the skin for elimination when the kidney 
alone is not equal to the task. 

Therefore special attention should be paid 
to dietary and cleanliness. Fresh, healthy, whole- 
some light and easily digestible food should be 
taken in restricted quantity, especially of the 
afbumins. All irritant foods, drinks and spices 
must be avoided. Wliey or butter-milk which 
by its lactic acid producing content ( lactose ) 
counteracts putrefaction by changing the culture 
medium of the proteolytic bacteria is a verjr 


preferable addition to the diet, or an exclusive 
diet for a few days. 

"A ^slesma* tumor which has not been reme- 
died by any application, and which has not grown 
in any vital organ, should be dissected, extirpa- 
ted, in its premature state, the wound caute- 
rized and treated as an}?- fresh wound. Susruta 
IV. 18. 8^^\ 

"A tumor in its premature state ( that is, 
it should ])e operated as early as possible ) 
should be excised and cauterised. Or as accord- 
ing to the previous insrtuction, it should be 
scratched out, aud the caustics should be applied 
to the wound. ''SmrutalY, 18. 16^^^ 

*'ll: the neoplasm is not deep-rooted, then 
with a ( wire ) of tin ( trapu ), copper, lead or 
silk (cord) it should be surrounded, and carefully 

157. '?!q9v^3fT7i r,?T^TJ^T(T^qW^^xrfTf^^F4 I 

158. 'jTgl^ffj^jjsnT^Tiitrai^ eg =^1?^" f^^ici ^^\c\ i 


the physician should use the knife, cansftc or 
cautei'v, accordinf): to the strength of the patient. 
SusriUa lY. 18w29^•■■«^ 

"If any paHfof'tlie neoplasm remaiiis and 
is not completely tfiirpated, then from the 
remnant the neoplasm reappears, as fire can 
grow fr;>ni a small spark left-over ; therefore 
all the growth ( of the neoplasm ) n^t he extir- 
pated". Susruta IV. 18. 33^^^ 

There is no question that the complete 
extirpation of either the benign or the malignant 
neoplasm is tlie best remedy, wherever possible, 
that is whei) they have not developed with a 
deep base in any vital organ. 

VII — Skin Disease. ^^ 
Prodromes of Leprosy : — "The thickening of 

158:1. q^^^^p; ^H^R^i^-qf: ^^Tq'ej cT^TS[^^^t II 

159. ritstCi^if^ 1% ^s^^if^ ^'om m^m ^h^r? i 

* The writer regrets that lie lacks the clinical ex- 


the skin, sudden horripilation, pruritus, liyperi- 
drosis or anhydrosis, anesthesia of the skin, the 
extension of ulceration if any wound takes place, 
and the dark color of the blood are the prodromes 
of 'KiistJia' {leyrosy )." Susruta II. 5. 2i«°. 

"In the *vata* leprosy, the lepromes are 
browny and slender with boring pain and anesth- 
esia ; it is called ^aruna* sun-colored ^lepra flava* 
In the 'pitta^ leprosy, tlie nodosities are like the 

perience of skin disease, especially the tropical derma- 
tosis, and the diseases of the genital organs. His 
knowledge is limited to the studies of authorities on^ 
these subjects. And moreover as the cutaneous mani- 
festations are hard to identify without the associated 
symptoms, and both Charaka and Sus ruta have given 
vague description of them, only those diseases will be 
mentioned which have a direct bearing on the history 
of syphilis in ancient India. It is very likely that 
the papulo-squamous syphilide, pustulo-crustaceous 
syphilide, tubercular syphilitic dactylitis, exostoses,, 
osteo-periostitis, nodes, gummata and ulcerations have 
been classified as leprous manifestations or varieties 
of leprosy. 

160. cm ^^^ c^\m*i'HM^^ri\w?i: ^'^j ^^fif^fr^^'^ 



ripe fruit of ^Jicus glomarata* ; this is called 
'audamvara* leprosy ( lepra nodosities^ rounded, 
lieiiiispherica], varying in size from a pin's head 
to a hazel-nut, hard and elastic to the touch, 
pale-red or hrown in color, may appear from the 
beginning without any antecedent patches,scatter- 
ed over the body, especially on the face, forehead, 
elbows, knees and legs ). In the ^rsya-jihvicC 
leprosy, it ( the lepra erythematous patch ) has 
the size and the roughness of antelope's tongue. 
Black scales appear in 'kapdla' ( scabby leprosy : 
psoriasis ). Black-red patches like those of the 
fruit of *abrus precatorius' appear in *kdkanaka* 
( lep7'a nigricuns^ black in the centre and reddish 
at the edges as in the ^kdhanaka' fruit ). Heat, 
tensive pain, hypersemia and cloudy sensation 
( disturbances of the cutaneous nerves ) are felt 
in these four kinds of leprosy. With microbes 
bullae appear, burst and ulcerate. 

'Faundarika' (nodes) are shaped like the 
lotus leaves ; 'dadtm' is copper-colored or like 
that of the flower of Hinum usitalloslmum'' (dark) 
and the nodes continue to grow covered with 
herpes. The nodes of both 'paitndarika and 
dadru' are elevated, globular and pruritic and 
they take a long time for their growth. These 
are their general symptoms. 


Minor 'kiistha' : Hard, broad-based, tliick 
and dry nodules develop at the joints in ^sthula- 
ruhsd' ( dry leprosy ). There is contraction of 
the skin ( the skin thickens by infiltration and 
forms deep sulci by folding on itself ), borioo^ 
pain and anesthesia in 'malia-kiistha ( anesthetic 
leprosy). The disease in wbicli the skin becomes 
dark-brown ( bronzed ) is called 'eka-kustha 
( Addison's disease ) ; tliis is incurable. In 
^charmadala-kustluC ( tinea albigena ? ) there 
are pruritus, tremor, tensive and burning pain 
in the palms of the liands and soles of the feet. 
The leprosy in which the skin, blood and the 
flesh become affected, and spread over the body, 
like erysipelas ( visarpa ), and which causes 
swooning, burning sensation, nervousness, prick- 
ing pain and ulceration, is called "visarpa-kusiha* 
( cutaneous leprosy ). The leprosy i'.i which 
exudative bullie repeatedly spread over the body 
is called 'j^arisarpa' ( macular lepi^osy ). The 
skin lesion, in wliich there is pruritic, wliitish, 
painless and scattered ( tanu—thin ) eruption in 
the upper part of the body, is called 'sidhma- 
kustha'. The skin lesion in which very pruritic, 
painful and dry patches appear over the entire 
body, is called 'vlcharehika^ ; if tliis very pruritic 
and painful manifestation appears only on the 


foot, it is called ^mpadika' { psoriasis ). The 
skin lesion which is exudative, alobular, super- 
ficial, very pruritic, shiny and dark, is called 
'kitima' ( acne keloid ). If exudative, pruritic, 
inflammatory and tiny pustule appears over the- 
entire body, it is called 'pama' ( ecsema ). If the 
'pama' becomes suppurative, it is called 'kachchhu\ 
*pyosis tropica'*. Pruritic but non-exudative 
pustules that appear over the entire body, are 
called 'rakasa' ( dry eczema ). Snsruta II. 5. 


"When the microhes begin to eat up the skin 
etc., various symptoms appear according to the 
nature of the lesion. Due to ^vata\ ( lepromas ) 
become pale-white or sun-colored, rough and dry, 
and there are boring pain, emaciation, piercing 
pain, tremor, wrinkles of the skin, horripilation, 
lassitude, paralysis, anesthesia, gangrene and 
mutilations ( of extremities ). Due to *pitta^ the 
following symptoms manifest, as burning 
sensation, sweating, effusion, decomposition ( of 
the tissues ), exudation, ulceration and bloody 
color ( of the sores ). Erom 'slesmct* the following 
symptoms manifest as chilliness, whiteness ( of 
the macular patches ), pruritus, hardness ( of the 
nodes ), heaviness, elevation ( of the nodes, 
thickening and folding of the skin ), fattiness 
( fatty infiltration ) and ( ulcerous ) crusts. 

-sj^: ^x xi\^w\: ^^'T^: ^qT^fi ?n^ qft^^'Trf. i 
^^ fs^cT ^cwqrra fn^ f^?jifT erg Tira^ ^^i§ ii 


''When the microbes eat up slowly the four 
( layers ) of the skin (epidermis, corium, muesum 
and corneum ), vessels and nerves ( Mm ), ten- 
dons and tender bones, then there are other com- 
plicating leprous symptoms as exudation, gan- 
grene, deformations, polj^dipsia, fever, diarrhoea 
hypertiemia, debility, anorexia and indigestion, 
in which it becomes incurable". Charaka II, 

Leprosy is caused by Hansen's ^bacillus 
lepr<2' which morphologically has a very striking 
resemblance to the tubercular bacillus, but 
according to Jamanito, the tubercular bacillus is 
stained black by the silver nitrate method, while 
the 'bacillus leprae remain transparent. However, 
a large percentage of the lepers are found either 
tubercular or syphilitic. And these three diseas- 
es are very alike in their evolution and it is 
very hard often to diagnose one from the other 
; without differential diagnosis. The 'lepra bacilli* 
are found in all diseased tissues, in nasal, sali- 
vary, vaginal and urethral secretions, tears. 




Sputum, semen, macular scales, exudation 
or discharges from the sores. It seems that the 
lepra bacillus takes a loug period for the evolu- 
tion of leprosy and incubation is very slow lasting 
from 2 to 20 years. The lepra bacillus is in* 
fectious, but its contagion is not of a virulent type, 
as is demonstrated by the fact that usually the 
attendants at the leper asylums with cleanliness 
of the body, hygienic living and nutritious die- 
tary, escape from this loathsome malady. On the 
other hand it is undeniable that the segregation 
of the lepers in Norway, Hawaii and the Philippine 
Islands have shown a very promising result, in 
not only arresting the spread of leprosy, but 
also tending to uproot the disease entirely as it has 
been done in Europe. However, the mode of its 
infection is not yet known. It seems the lepra 
germs find a favorable medium for growth, like 
tubercular bacilli, in an organism devitalized by 
malnutrition, un cleanliness and unhygienic living. 
And that perhaps explains how with improved 
living and hygiene, it has practically died out of 
Europe. It is usually found in the East among 
the poorer classes wlio suffer from chronic 
malnutrition and live in unhygienic surround- 
ings in the midst of iiith and misery. The 
tissues therefore lack the resisting power against 


the invasiou of the * lepra bacilli' though they 
possess but feeble virulence. 

There are three froms of leprosy : (I) Huher- 
cular leprosy, ( 2 ) muculo-anestlietiG leprosy and 
( 3 ) mixed leprosy. In the tubercular form, 
there are repeated attacks of fever as a reaction 
of the organism against the invasion of the lepra 
bacilli. There may bo pruritus and hyperesthesia 
of the skin with neuralgic pain in all locations. 
In most cases there is a premonitory eruption 
of vesicles or bullse, affecting tlie extremities 
chiefly. These bullae appear rapidly, are usually 
painless^ break spontaneously, and often heal as 
ulcers, leaving behind a pigmented spot, brown, 
black, or white. Spots gradually make thus their 
appearance in various parts of the body, and the 
macular eruption is more frequent as the disease 
progresses. This may continue for months or 
years according to tlie resisting power of tlie 
organism. The small tubercles appear, grow in 
size and become confluent. They may simj)]y 
ulcerate, without marked destruction of tissue^ 
leaving small superficial ulcers, covered with 
greenisli or brown crusts, destroying by degrees 
the adjacent tissues, tendons, ligam.ents, 
and finally the bones. If treated, they 
cicatrize and produce deformities ; but if 


neglected, they suppurate, and cause amyloidosis 
or gangrene. Almost from the heginning the 
senses are disturhed. 

In the maculo-anesthetic or tropho-neurotic 
form of' leprosy, the infiltration principally 
takes place into the nerves, causing their 
gradual irritation, inflammation, degeneration 
and destruction. In the first inflammatory 
stage, there is hyperesthesia, sensory, vaso-motor 
and motor disturbances manifested by burning 
numbness, formication {sensory)^ flushings of 
the face, glossy skin {vaso-motor")^ twitchings of 
the muscles (motor) particularly of the face, 
paroxysms of neuralgic pain and cutaneous 
manifestation. This is gradually succeeded 
by a period of nerve degeneration, marked 
clinically by anesthesia, paralysis, atrophies 
and distinct trophic disturbances. "With the 
anesthesia, there appears a muscle-atrophy which 
first of all attacks the muscles of the liand 
(causing contraction), the extensors and flexors 
of the forearm, causing the charecteristic 
'claw-hand''. There is loss of power, sense of 
touch, of heat and cold, even of pain. The 
muscles of the feet are likewise affected. There 
is a variety of trophic disturbances at this stage 
—shedding of the nails, loss of pigment, loss of 


hair, loss of teeth, ulceration, followed by dry 
gangrene, necrosis and absorption of the bone 
with the resultant mutilation. 

The "mixed' is really the typical form of leprosy, 
combining the tubercular and tropho-neuroti'c 
manifestations, and the symptoms of botli types 
are present. Of course lepra bacillus is found 
in all cases in all leprous lesions, whether 
located in the skin, mucous membranes, nerves 
or internal organs. Malnutrition, uncleanliness, 
infections of tuberculosis or syphilis which are 
found among a large percentage of the lepers, 
not only predispose the organism to leprosy, 
but also accelerate the progress of this malignant 
disease and hasten death. 

Treatment : — *'Eor a pious leper who wishes 
to live and for whom the five methods of 
treatment have not been effective, the wise 
physician should treat him in the following 
manner : — Ripe fruits should be collected, in 
the rainy season of the HuharcC {Faraetogenos 
Ktirzii:chatdmiigra) tree which grows on the 
southern sea-coast ( Arahan ) and whose 
branches are agitated by the wind, raised by 
the ocean waves ; the kernel of the fruits is 
to be taken out, dried and made ifito fragments. 
And then they should be pressed in a mill like 


the sesame-oil press, or the oil extracted in a 
basin as with the saffron flower ( crocus sativus ). 
This should be put on lire (in a kettle ) and 
when all the water has been evaporated from 
the oil, it ought to be taken out and placed 
( in a flask ) in dried cow-dung for a fortnight. 
When the patient has been fattened by the 
treatment of oils, sweated by diaphoretics, 
cleansed ( internally ) by purgatives and emetics, 
then in a lunar auspicious evening, he should 
drink the oil, consecrated with the hymn that 
the essence of the kernel is the antidote of all 
poisons, etc. The Huhara^ {chaulmugra) oil causes 
repeated evacuations of the toxin ( of the 
leprous lesion ) through the upper and lower 
channels ( chaulmugra oil is very irritant, 
and causes vomiting and purgation. It should 
be given in a capsule, or better still, to be 
effective, ethyl ester preparations of the fatty 
acids of the ^cJiaulmugroj oil' can be administer- 
ed intramuscularly with the hypodermic syringe 
with marvellous results ). After tliis cold barlev 
water should be drunk without any salt ( which 
provokes vomiting ) and fat (which stimulates 
peristalsis ). Thus he shall drink for five days 
the oil, and for a fortnight giving up all injuri- 
ous habits as anger etc., shall live on rice and 


the broth of ^inudga* (phaseolus mungo, both of 
them are constipative ). If thus for five days 
the patient drinks the oil, he gets cured of all 
kinds of leprosy. If this Hiibard ©il is cooked 
together as before with three times the quantity 
of the decoction of hJiadira {Mimosa f err iiginacm) 
and he untiringly drinks it for a month, all 
leproma become destroyed, with the inunction 
and imbibition of the oil, together with proper 
dietary, and hoarseness of voice, red-eyes and 
ulcers eaten by bacteria are cured soon." Susruta 
IV. 13. 8-91^^ 

163. TT^^%1!mltT ^^TfR^" f5T^%?T 1 

^Ji«11^«1 ^1%?TT^ ^JT^^cT irfe^T ^TM \\ 

tT=ssf -q'^t ^\ q^^i (Tt^T^'^^ITfT II 

f%^: %ft fcwri: ^m'^^' W'^«(i"'t ' 


*'If one eats the kernel of the Hiibara^ fruity 
his body becomes cleansed of all impurities ; it 
is very potent, and is the best medicine for 
leprosy." Susruta IV. 13. lO^^S 

Tubara or cliaulmugra ( TaraMogenos 
kurzii), by whicli name it is better known, is 
certainly the best medicine known yet in the 
treatment of leprosy. A few intramuscular 
injections of the etliyl esters or intravenous in- 

T^fiK ir?Tf)^ v[^^^ >=rT^^ U^^ I 

^#^^ra'4rf ^TS(* 4l^T3T^a1cMt ftftfT II 
■ q^T^' i?!qtff ^*{^ farf^^IT ^^l I 

q^wf^'^^T^ H^irtf^g=^ II e 

fiTf fjfi igpj^rf ^m fq?1IT^RcI%ci: II 

fvra^T T^^' f^'u" f^nf^flfl II 
'H^ra ii^5f«j! m^^([ iif^^ ^^ \ 

164. ^t^f^ ^i qtcTT TI^H^^ *TT^?TT I 


jection of tlie salts — cliaulmoogric and h jdnocar- 
pic acids, result in the destruction of the lepra 
bacilli in the tissues, followed by the disappear- 
ance of the nodules and healini^ of the ulcers. 
The oral administration of the chaulmugra ,oil 
is not so successful, for the reason that it is- 
nauseating and offensive to the stomach, and 
vvlien injected intramuscularly, it is extremely 
painful and very slowly absorbed. Its fatty 
acids — cliaulmoogric acid and hydnocarpic acid, 
being solids, are unsuited for hypodermic admi- 
nistration. But the ethyl esters of these acids,, 
being thin fluid oils, are well suited for infection 
and are well absorbed. And tliey have given 
remarkable result within a short time. These 
ethyl ester derivatives have been in use at the 
United States Public Health Service leprosy 
investigation station at Kali hi in the Hawaiian 
Islands only for three years with a very limi- 
ted supply of the oil, and within this short 
period 110 lepers have been paroled and return 
ed to their families, the disease appra-ently 
arrested, if not totally cured. From the joint 
report of J. T. McDonald of the leprosy inves- 
tigation, and A. L. Dean, President of the 
University of Hawaii, the following conclusion 
may be summarized : (1) The intramuscular 


injectioa of the ethyl esters of the fatty acids 
■of the chauImooi;'i-a oil usually leads to rapid 
improvement in the clinical symptoms of leprosy. 
In many cases the lesions disappear, except for 
scars and permanent injuries, and the leprosy 
bacillus can no longer be demonstrated. (2) 
When combined with iodine, the fattv acids of 
cliaulmoogra oil and their esters give good 
result, but there is no adequate experimental 
proof that it causes any increase in the elfect- 
-iveness of the materials used. (3) Although 
conclusive evidence is not at hand, it is probable 
that the oral administration of chaulmoogra oil 
'derivatives is of minor importance compared 
with the injections. (4) In treating leprosy, it is 
important to ma,ke use of all auxiliary agencies 
to build up and maintain bodily vigor. (5) It 
■has been sufficiently established that the chaul- 
moogi'a oil contains one or more agents which 
exert a marked therapeutic action in leprosy. 
"We can not as yet say the disease is cured, 
•since we have no test adequate to establish such 
n verdict. Whether oi' not the apparent cures 
are real and permanent, it is evident that we 
have a valuable agent at our disposal for the 
■control of the disease. 

In Burma and Assam, four varieties of 


Cbaulmugra trees iSydnocarjius castancCy Hydno- 
carpus anthelmiiitica in Siam where it is known 
as Maikrabao tree. Gynocai^dla odoraita and 
Tarahtocjenos kurm, spoken of by the Burmese 
as ^kalaiv' ) are seen together, and they^ can not 
be easily distinguished one from the other 
without accurate botanical description. The trees, 
leaves, fruits and the oils are very similar. Only 
the genuine chaulmoogra Taraktogenos kurzii 
lacks the double testa on the fruit of the other 
varieties, and the oil derivatives of the '■Taralzto- 
genos kurzii^ have the potent therapeutic value. 
Others only possess it to a lesser extent.-x< 

VIII. Diseases of the Genital Organs. 

'^Vrddhi {oscheonms) h the vascular swelling 
of the sac (scrotum) containing the testes, due 
to various lesions. Pain in the bladder, groin, 
testes and the penis are its prodromal symptoms. 

The scrotum is distended and rough like 
a bladder filled with gas, and without any 
apparent cause there is pain due to the gas, in 

* The vivid description of the Chaulmoogra tree is 
given with illustrations in the March content of the 
National Geographic Magazine, Washington, 1922, by 
J. F. Rock who was sent hj the U. S. A. Department 
of Agriculture to secure the seeds of Chaulmoogra. 


vatavo'ddhi {emphysema may be classified under 
two divisions : (1) benign, where the gas is intro- 
duced into the tissues through a local wound 
or wliere its source is from some distant wound 
which communicates with the air-passages or 
bowels ; and (2) malignant, where gas is genera- 
ted in connection with bacterial fermentation. 
The benign form gets well spontaneously. Eor 
the malignant form, incision, drainage and 
thorough disinfection are necessary). 

The scrotum has the color of the ripe fruit 
of *ficus glomeratcC and it ( inflammation ) grows 
and suppurates rapidly, in 'pitta-vrddhi' (epidi- 
dymo-orchitis^ in which the symptoms somewhat 
differ according to whether the epididymis or the 
testis is more affected. On the whole the symp- 
toms are more severe with the latter than with 
the former, though suppuration is more frequent 
in epididymitis. Premonitory symptoms are 
fever, headache and general malaise, followed by 
tenderness and pain in the affected parts. This 
disease might arise from the extension of the 
chronic gonorrheal inflammatory process or 
secondary manifestation of syphilis in interstitial 
or gummatous forms. The patient must be 
put to bed and have the scrotum raised and 
supported with a pillow and ice-bag. The bowels 


are to be opened with a purgative to remove 
internal congestion and light liquid food should 
be given as milk. After the inflammation has 
subsided, hot lead-lotion dressings or hot fomen- 
tations can be used advantageously to increase 
the vascularity of the part, thus aiding in the 
removal and absorption of the inflammatory 
products. If suppuration takes place, the abscess 
must be incised, drained off and the abscess 
cavity disinfected. If the lesion is of syphilitic 
origin, antisyphilic treatment is very beneficial ). 
It is tense, slightly painful, cold and pruritic 
in ^slesina-vrddhi* ( edema is common as the 
scrotum being elastic and distensible, is especially 

liable to be invaded by general dropsical 
effusions ). 

The scrotum encloses a dark tumor and has 

all the symptoms of epididymo-orchitis in *rakta- 

vrddhV (Jiematooele which is a tumor caused by 

collection of blood in the cavity of the tunica 

vaginalis. It differs from hydrocele in that it is 

not transparent. It is usually associated with 

some traumatism, and is accompanied by in- 

flamiT'.atory symptoms. Any variety of hj^'drocele 

or spermatocele may rapidly refill with blood, 

after being tapped, thus forming hematocele or 

by filaria. Hemorrhage also may take place into 


the loose tissues about the cord, forming- a tumoi\ 
sometimes called, diffused hematocele of the 
cord. Eor treatment, the sac sliould be incised 
antiseptically, the clot removed, the cavity 
irrigated, and drainage established and continued 
until such time as the obliteration of the sac by 
igranulations has been accomplished ). 

It is boggy, glistening, pruritic, slightly pain- 
ful and looks like the fruit of the palmyra tree 
( Borassus flabelliformis ) in 'medo-vrddho 
( elephantiasis, the Scrotum is a favorite seat 
of this affection. The growth is slow, j)ainless 
and progressive and may reach the weight of 
150 pounds or more, and is caused by the block- 
ing of the afferent lymph ducts by the adult 
worms and the eggs of Eilaria bancrofti. The 
disease is confined to high temperature region 
and the e2:.';' of the Eikiria bancrofti is introduced 
into the body by tlie bite of the mosquito, 
belonging to different species which are known to 
be its carrier as Culex fatigans, Mansonia unifor- 
mis, Mansonia pseudotitillans, Pyretophorus 
costalis, Myzomia rossii, Myzorhynchus nigerri- 
mus, Cellia albimana. The only effective treat- 
ment of the disease is operative removal which 
is vei'y ea^y and successful, if special attention 
is paid to antisepsis, so that there can be no 


septic absorption from the stump. To keep the 
skin clean and aseptic, and to choose the parts 
of the skin as flaps are rather important factors 
of a successful operation. The pedicle is clamped 
and the scrotal tissue removed, care being taken 
to leave the testicles and penis and ligaturing, 
the vessels as they are exposed. The exposed 
testicles become covered by granulation and 
cicatrization ). 

Due to the retention of urine, the scrotum- 
palpitates like a leather-bag filled with water ; 
it is boggy and in this disease, there are stran- 
gury, pain in the testes and edema of the 
scrotum ; it is called. ^mTUra-vrddhi'' [urinary 
extravasation or hydrocele^ possibly the latter. 
Urinary extravasation invades the scrotal 
tissues, causing a tumefaction as in simple edema 
{slesma-vrddhi hydrosscheocele). The urine 
however excites greater irritation than serous 
effusion, and consequently the scrotal tissues 
speedily become infiltrated by inflammatory 
exudates. If it be not relieved with a puncture- 
needle, trocar or incisiou, it usnally results in 
abscess formation. Vaginal hydrocele on tlie 
other hand, consists of a collection of fluid, 
more or less serous, in the cavity of the tunica 
vaginalis. Perhaps by 'slesma-vrddhi' (osche- 


dema) hydrocele was meant. But according 
to the tradition, *mJltra-vrddhV is taken for 
hydrocele. The etiology of vaginal hydrocele 
is yet obscure. In the tertiary st'age of syphilis, 
there is diffuse gummatous infiltration or the 
formation of localized gumma in the testes 
accompanied usually by a small hydrocele. In 
infancy the hydrocele is generally connected 
with gastro-intestinal fermentation ; in childhood 
and early adult life, it is very often associated 
with some abnormal condition of the testicle or 
spermatic cord ; later in life it is perhaps 
concerned with the vascular changes that take 
place with the degenerative involution of the 
testes]. "Susrufa II. 12. 2-5' 


cTi^ *TR^cTkt ^^qif<ij ^ra^'.w ^^%^^ %nT ^r^tTf^^i: wf^- 
■^^^]Wi^Tc[ ii « 

'i^ra^i' qfw ^ff.?i^^^5^r cn^cR^sprait ^fi^f^Tj ^^j^t^'u^^^ 


Treatment : '''In ^vata-vrddhi' (emphysema) 
apply soothing salve and emplasterum {anila- 
pakana - veliei of 'va?/u^ = soothing) ; in case it 
is of a suppurative type (malignant emphysema), 
use a pustulant and after it has suppurated, 
incise (and drain) it without hurting the raphe, 
and treat it according to the prescribed rules 
in these cases. 

In ^pitta-vrddhi' ( epidldymo-orcliitis ), the 
treatment of aneurism is beneficial ; if it 
suppurates, incise it and disinfect it with (antisep7 
tic ) ointment ( hsaudra-sarpi = honied fat ) 
and then apply vulnerary oil and mucilaginous 

In 'rahta-vrddhV {hematocele)^ a,pply leeches 
for withdrawal of blood, or give as a sedative 
(diuretic) honey and sugar ; in suppurative or 
nonsuppurative form, hematocele should be 
attended to. 

In 'slesma-vvddhi* (hydroscheocele or vaginal 
hydrocele), apply emplasterum of calorific 
substances as (cow) dung and urine, drink the 
infusion of Circuma aromatica (or pinus longi- 
folia) mixed with urine ; except compression, 
all other treatments of 'slesma-granthV are 
beneficial. If it suppurates, incise it, and as a 
tulnerary of the wound, the restorative oil 


concocted with Tritico estivo, Semicarpo 
anacardia, Alangio hexapetalo and Echite 
scholari, should be applied. 

In ^medovrcldhi' (elephantiasis), use an 
emplasterum of a gum-resinous substance as^ 
myrrha or any other sedative, warmed with 
cow*s urine to soften the scrotum, and when 
it is done, it should be bandaged (as antisepsis). 
Then with encouraging words to the patient, 
it should be incised with a leaf-shaped instrument, 
sparing the testes and the raphe, and all the 
fats removed (Filaria bancrofti and the larva 
which block the lymph-channels and cause the 
inflammation of the scrotal tissue), then green 
vitriol ( /:asi."s^(3^ = sulphate of iron ) and rock salt 
( as disinfectant ) should be applied and the 
wound sutured properly. As vulnerary, oil 
cooked with arsenic disulphide, arsenic sulphide, 
sodium chloride and semicarpus anacarda is 
to be applied. 

In *mutra-v7'ddhi* ( u?Hnaiy extravasation or 
vaginal hydrocele ), fomentation should be 
applied to the scrotum (to make it tense ) and 
then have it bandaged ( as antisepsis ). By 
the raphe downward, an instrument like the 
sharp point of a grain ( trocar ) should be intro- 
duced, and therebv a double-barrelled cannula 


( through the one cannula air is passed to cause 
pressure so that through the other tlie fluid 
content may he completely drained off ), the 
urine ( fluid ) is evacuated. Then the cannula 
is to be withdrawn and ligature applied. If the 
wound remains clean (non-suppurated or granu- 
lated ), the vulnerary is to be applied. (The 
only difference^ in the modern method of tapping 
in hydrocele, is that after the fluid is evacuated, 
the cannula is not withdrawn usually, but a 
svrinsre which fits it. is filled with half a drachm 
of a solution of ten parts of carbolic acid to one 
of glycerine, and is injected into the cavity. 
This causes but slight pain. However the sac 
refills partially due to the inflammatory reaction 
caused by the carbolic acid, but the inflammatory 
exudate is gradually reabsorbed after the inflam- 
matory process giving rise to it has subsided. 
However, tapping is but a palliative measure. 
It has to be done once or twice a year. But 
perhaps because it causes so little inconvenience 
and discomfort, it is preferred to operation by 
excision of a portion of the sac especially in old 
hydroceles with thickened walls due to sclerous 
and calcerous changes in the subserous tissues, 
which gives a more satisfactory result. However, 
whether in tapping or in operation, care has to 


be taken to avoid wounding the testes or scrotal 
vessels). Susruta IV. 19. 3-8^®®. 

166. ^ir^piift ii^iw iTt¥t^f*T^N¥i^, II 

fqTl^r*2iSi«t liQjkT^ ^ =^ ^^^ II a. 

ft^raTT?^ ^rf^ ?^^i>2Ri^ f%fT: ii 
t^rai^t^ qf 1 ^irrgra ?j 'Tpr^iT i 

T%H iRt f ^1^ ft^Cf^'tJ ^I'C^ II 


"Carriage of a heavy burden, wrestling with 
a strong man, fall from a tree — all these strain* 
increase 'vayu' wliich enlarges the viscera and 
which in its downward course makes a tumor- 
like formation in the groin ( inguinal hernia ). 
If it be not attended to, it descends to the 
scrotum ( osceocele ) and causes the inflammation 
of the testes. This causes the distension of the 
scrotum like that of the bladder, and if it be 
pressed, gas ascends with noise, but descends 
again when left. This is called 'antra-vrddW 
(inguinal hernia). It is an incurable disease. 
''Susmta II. 12. 6''\ 

*'The hernia that has reached the groin, to 

^%fWf!?T'. iifi^: sil'^ *T^f?T ^s?^»T^f%tv€;i ^^^nr, f^^rg ^''^m- 


obstruct its passage, should be cauterized by a 
semilunar-shaped cautery. Susruta IV. 19. 10' *% 

Hernia is the protrusion of the abdominal 
viscera through weak spots in the abdominal 
wall, which develop either due to congenital 
deficieney of muscular or tendonous development 
or due to their degenerative changes. It is met 
with in two extremes of life. In infancv when 
the inguinal rings are as yet imperfectly formed, 
uncontrolled crying, coughing or any other form 
of severe strain may subject the tissues to give 
way. In old age tissues begin to degenerate, 
while the weight of the viscera is heavier, and 
under severe straining as in asthmatic paroxysm, 
the vver.k spots in the parietes are easily apt to 

"If the prepuce has been forcibly drawn 
back ( over the glans, and its return ia prevented 
by the arrest of the narrow opening behind the 
corona), during coitus with narrow vagina, mastur- 
bation, accident, play or detumescence, it is called 
*avapdtika^ ( pai^aphimosis ; if this condition is 
left unrelieved, the circulation in the parts 
beyond may be interfered with sufficiently to 

168. fiw m "^j-w^i cit ^t^'^^irar i 


make them swell, as to render retraction very 
•difficult even when the preputual orifice is not 
very tight ). 

In *niruddha-prakasa'' {phimosis) the prepuce 
adheres to the glans penis, and therefore also 
contracts the meatus. But if it be not complete, 
the urine flows drop by drop with pain, ballooning 
the prepuce but without rupturing the glans 
penis. ( The best remedy of phimosis is circum- 
cision with lateral incision as the dilatation of 
the preputial opening by any method is only a 
half measure, involving as much pain as cutting 
or operating. Phimosis should be corrected as 
early as possible, as the abdominal pressure 
exerted in the straining to evacuate the urine 
and in the crying whicli often accompanies the 
effort in such children, is sufficient to prevent 
the firm closure of the natural hernial openings 
and to cause yielding of those which have 
already closed. Another consequence of the 
mechanical obstruction is the obstacle which it 
offers to cleanliness, resulting in a balano-posthitis 
induced by the retention of the smegma which 
■consists of the secretion of the glands of the 
lining membrane of the prepuce together with 
the dead epithelial cells from those surfaces, the 
decompositiou of which is hastened by the 


admixture of urine. This inflammation react& 
on the nervous system and causes its irritability 
which is expressed in the peevishness of the 
child, and urinary disturbances such as frequent 
micturition, involuntary micturition especially 
at night, and spasmodic and painful micturition. 
The acrid and irritable decomposition product 
also provokes pi-i.apism in children and for the 
relief of this they learn and gradually habituate 
themselves to the pernicious practice of mastur- 
bation. In the adult the sexual erethism causes 
self-abu5*e, veuery, spermatorrhea, premature 
ejaculation, backache and their various reactions. 
Circumcision is a great hygienic measure, especi- 
ally in a tropical country ). Susruta II. 13. 

169. ^^1??:^ ^\ i^Tfivir T^cT^ f^' ^: i 



"Application of 'suka' for the enlargement of 
the penis, causes eighteen kinds of diseases. 
Siwmta II. 11 2^-". 

Traditionally *mJca' is taken as a pruritic 
water insect and used externally as an aphro- 
disiac. As 'sTtka^ is used in the plural, it i» 
possible that it includes some species of the 
insects, belonging to the *Coleoptera' order as 
*Lytta or Cantharus corulea' (blue blistering 
fly of Bengal ) or 'Lytia nepaleuvsis' ( Nepal 
blistering fly, a black species liaving filiform 
attense and elytra broadened toward the apex ), 
having its active irritating principle 'cantJiaridm^ 
and which is used as an aphrodisiac. When 
dried powder or its active principle is applied 
to the skin, it causes burning sensation and 
hyperemia, to which in the course of a few hours^ 
succeeds the formation of vesicles. If the appli- 
cation is continued, it forms a blister, and if it 
goes on like that for a long time, sloughing and 
ulcerating result. If it is applied to the penis, 
it causes a voluminous swelling and engorgement 
of corpus cavernosum, and violent erection. 


**Due to the undue application of 'sTiJca\ vesicl- 
es develop like the mustard seed, and are called 
'sarsapika' (canthai^idal vesicles). 

Due to the application of poisonous ^sTika\ a 
stone-hard unsymmetrical tumor develops which 
is called *asthilika\ osteoma or chondroma 
of the penis : ossification and calcification of the 
penis have been reported in many cases. The 
parts involved are the sheaths of the corpora 
cavernosa and the septum pectiniform. Ossifica- 
tion which is partial takes place usually in the 
plates very insiduously and without pain, and 
the patient first hecomes aware of its existence 
by the impediment it offers to coitus or the 
•curvature which it causes to the organ. Tuffier 
reports a case in which he found a bean-sized 
<;hondroma growing on the external surface of 
one of the corpora cavernosa, near the middle of 
the organ and which he removed by operation). 

If the penis is repeatedly engorged by the 
"mha*, the vesicles that are developed like 
neoplasm, are called *grathita' {soft vegetations 
of succulent warts of the mucous membranes 
and muco-cutaneous junctions, especially found 
in the coronal sulcus and near frenura). 

Darkish vegetation that develops like the 
«eed of ^Bugen(B jambu' .'is called 'kumbhiJca 


( corneous vegetations, consisting of brown or 
dirty-brown, sessile, roundfed growths, quite firm 
in structure, growing in the penis, scrotum, 
crural fields and anus in the male, on the 
labia majora, perineum and anus in woman). 

Ophthalmia ( alaj'l ) is similar to that of 
gonorrhea ( prameha ; it is probable that by 
alaji is here either meant the gonorrheal con- 
junctivitis of the eye, or syphilitic gumma of 
the conjuctiva or sclera or parenchymatous 

If tlu'ough derangement of ^myiC the penis 
is pressed and beaten ( lacking the power of 
erection and is pendulous ) and on it appears 
vesicles with edema, it is called ^mrdita' 
{syphilitic edema of the penis'). 

The vesicles that develop, in masturbation, 
are called sammicdha ( herpes progenitalis which 
is very pruritic appears about the glaas and the 
foreskin, accompanied with a little moisture. 
When the parts are inspected in the early stages, 
small pin-head vesicles will be seen at the edge 
of the foreskin, in the neicjliborhood of the corona 
•or near the meatus. When the vesicles have 
broken, they leave superficial erosions surround- 
ed by minute circular or crescentric areola). 

Numerous elongated growths appear, breaking 


in tlie middle, causing pain, and horripilation^ 
and are c?d\ed'avamanlha' ( hoimsofpenk, wliicH 
are usually dark-brown or green in color, in 
texture resembling the nails, but rough on the 
surface, arising from the coronal sulcus, especi- 
ally near the freuum, and may attain a length 
of three inches. They possibly are papilloma- 
tous growths, and when protected from the air, 
remain moist, soft and pinkish, and when exposed 
become dry, hard and dark brow n is h in color. 
On removal, usually a wart is found at their 
bases, and they are found in persons of careless 
habits and advanced life). 

Due to the ( corruption of ) 'hlood and pitta^ 
the sore that develops in the shape of the petal 
of lotus, surrounded by pustules, is called 
^pushariha' {chanc7'oid : it is very hard sometimes to 
distinguish from syphilitic initial lesion-chancre 
and the pyogenic ulcer-chancroid. Chancroid 
is contagious, its secretions being always auto- 
inoculable, but it is essentially a local lesion, in 
contradistinction to chancre which is an expres- 
sion of syphilitic constitutional affection. Chan- 
croid is due to Ducrey*s streptobacillus and does 
not usually appear single, is not sharply circum- 
scribed and is not indurated like the syphilitic 
sore. The ulcer is surrounded by minute pustules 


on the rugged edge, which is slightly inflamed, 
and i'roTu which if pressed, appears a thin 
brownish pus, for the streptobacillus is pyogenic, 
while the spirochete pallida is not. Differential 
diagnosis is very important before treatment is 
given, for if the chancroid is treated with mer- 
cury or iodoform ointment, it may sf^rioUvsly 
complicate the case, wliile with thorough cleans- 
ing and antisepsis, it can be easily cured ). 

If due to the lesion of *suka\ the ( corrupt ) 
blood causes anesthesia, it is called 'sparsahani* 
{syphilitic anesthesia of the penis and impotence). 
Due to the indigestion, caused by *suka* 
( taken internally as an aphrodisiac ), Hhe blood 
and pitta* become deran^^ed, and the growths 
that appear thereby like Phaseolus mungo and 
Phaseolus radiatum are called ^uttama' ( milia, 
resembling millet seeds, usually benign growths, 
are not infrequently found in the cutaneous 
inyestment of the penis ). 

If due to the (corruption of) 'vayu and blood\ 
the penis is covered with perforating tissues like 
a sieve, it is called 'sata-ponahcC ( tuberculosis 
of penis occurs in two forms. The majority of 
cases are examples of chronic tuberculous ulcera- 
tion of the skin or the mucous membrane, the 
ulcers having the same irregular worm-eaten 


shape, blue undermined edges and slowly slough- 
ing 01* granulating cases. The other form 
which is rarer, appears to begin in the depth of 
the erectile tissue, producing a necrotic mass,, 
closely resembling the tabei-culoiis sequestra seen 
in a spongy bone. The latter form is perhaps 
indicated by 'mta-ponaka'). 

If due to * pitta and hlood\ the skin of the 
penis ulcerates, with burning and fever, it is 
called 'toak'paka'' ( erysipelas or cantharidal 
nlce?'ation, due to its excessive and concentrated 
application ). 

The dark, blood-tumor covered with very 
pruritic vesicles, is called sonitm^vvuda' {angioma : 
though angima is more frequent than other 
benign tumors, it does not attack the penis so 
commonly as the female organs of generation. 
Angioma is generally seen in children, forming 
a superficial flat tumor, giving rarely any 
symptoms, unless a considerable part of the 
organ is involved and in that case troublesome 
priapism has been observed. 

Due to the lesion of the tissues, develops 
a neoplasm, called 'mamsa7'vuda' ( epithelioma or 
cancer of the j^jewis : cancer almost invariably 
originates ontlie prepuce, glansor both combined 
and is a disease of advanced life. The most 


common mode of origin of epitbelioma of the 
penis is in warty growths, which may promptly 
or after the lapse of months or years, degenerate 
into a malignant type. The etiology of the disease 
is obscure. Beside the unknown factor — 
tissue susceptibility, chronic irritation caused by 
phimosis, balanitis, venereal ulcer, especially 
a chronic ulcer of syphilitic origin seems to 
be the chief cause of cancer of the penis. It 
may be grafted from the cancer of the uterus 
where it is commoner than in man. durinof 
coitus. If the diagnosis is correct, amputation 
or extirpation according to the severity of the 
lesion, is the only safe remedy. For in many 
cases, destruction of tissue is marked as well as 
growth, and the malignant growth consists of 
an ulcer which may be very deep in the center 
with greatly thickened and indurated borders, 
the induration preceding the spread of the ulcer 
on all sides, and often the urethra is perforated 
so that the urine can only pass through the 
soft sloughing tissues, thus producing extensive 
ulceration ). 

When ulceration takes place ( of the epithe- 
lioma ), it is called malignant ^mamsa-pakcC 
( ulceration of the cancer ). 

All the symptoms of complicated tumor,. 


mentioned before ( Smnita II. 9 ) are the same 
in the case of the ^mdradJii' ( sarcoma of the 
penis, like the sarcoma of the other parts of the 
body, may be found at any time of life from 
childhood to old age, and is chiefly found in the 
tissues of the corpora cavernosa, running a 
rapid and insidious course, forming a tumor 
without any painful sensation, but enlarging and 
distorting the penis. If the tumor is extirpated, 
there is always great danger of the return of 
the morbid process ). 

If the poisonous black or multicolored ^mha' 
is used, then the tissues ulcerate with dark 
pigmentation and fall off ; this disease originates 
from the ( corruption ) of the three humors and 
is called Hila-kalaka' {gangrene \ Gangrene of 
the penis is observed in young, but more 
commonly in elderly, subjects. In some cases 
balanitis, phimosis, paraphimosis, chancre, or 
chancroid has been, the starting point. Cases 
have been reported in which gangrene of the 
penis was said to be due to ingestion of ergot 
and cantharides). ^^ 

(Of these diseases), epithelioma {mamsarcvuda), 
ulceration of the cancer ( mamsa-paica ), sarcoma 

* R. W. Taylor : Genito-urinary and Venereal 
Diseases, p. 270. 


( mdradhi ) and gangrene ( tilakalaka ) of the 
penis are incurable." Susrata II. 14. 3-32^ ^\ 

"Masturbation, manipulation or traumatism 
of the penis causes the derangement of the 
*vayu\ which corrupts the ( mucous membrane 
of ) prepuce and causes intumescence, of the 
glans ; it is called 'parl-vartikd' ( balanitis ) 
and being of 'vayu' and infectious origin, it is 

171 3fi?:g^'qg?sir g ^^^Hiifg^ i 

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qrf'wf w^'gXf ^"^^^^T vi^fT II ,t 
^^T ^¥T^ ^f^ ^^^5^ ^^c\^ m: I 
€is^?T'^: ^qn^wjt ts^Ktfl'?^ §kt ii i^ 

5pT^^^iTFr5g slim' ^^^^ftcr^r ii ^i 

'Sr-rm^T g f^'^^TT ^^mH f^?^Tl3lT II ^3 

^ra^f'UcT^ KTTt^r^^if: sic^Ti^^if: h ^g 



painful, causes burning and occasionally 
suppurates. If it originates from *slesmci\ it 
is bard and pruritic ( papilloma or any otber 
vegetation/' Susnita II. 13. 89^"-. 

fqrir^iatim ^^f^^JWt ^^l^H II ^a, 

ii'iirefiti:: ^^^f?i: f^Tf^Tm '^f^<\■^^ i 

172. JTf^^rcT qi^^r^TR cfl^rsjfimTfm: i 

^^^ *r?T ^15^51% ^^rra^: ii 

TT'^r^^'^n^ ^i't^i^ ^F'^i^^ ^"^^ II 
^?^^: ^.^T?=i qr^^ ^^ sfiH«^ I 


Balanitis is the inflammation of the mucous 
membrane of the glans, or of the prepuce 
(posthitis), or to both conditions combined. The 
two surffices are generally attacked simultane- 
ously, except in chronic processes which are 
limited to small areas. The predisposing cause 
to inflammation ol these parts is the diinculty 
or impossibility of cleansing them, especially 
when tiie foreskin is long and narrow. The 
active cause may be the retained pus or irritat- 
ing substances of gonorrhea, chancroid, secretions 
of primary or secondary syphilitic lesions, or the 
decomposition of the accumulated smegma mixed 
with urine and perhaps leucorrheal discharge 
added to it in coitus. The existence ofvei?eta- 
tions under tlie prepuce provokes balanitis 
especially when the lodgment of the gonorrheal 
pus excites the inflammation. Balanitis may 
occur also in diabetic patients, on account of 
the ready decomposition of their sugar-laden 
urine, and a certain fungus, for it is found in 
the smegma under the prepuce. The treatment 
of balanitis consists chiefly in the establishment 
of cleanliness, and if the prepi*ce can be retract- 
ed, this will usually suffice to cure. Parts may 
be washed with warm water of mild boric acid 
solution, but strong antiseptics are not desirable 


as before they can exert their germicidal effect, 
they are apt to provoke further irritation of 
already inflamed surfaces and cause the necrosis 
of the delicate cells, thus postponing, their recu- 
perative power. 

"Excess in coitus ( simple urethritis rnay be 
provoked, especially in gouty diathesis ), contin- 
ence ( herpes progentitalis and reflex nervous 
irritability ), coitus Tvith a nun or one who has 
had no sexual intercourse for a long time 
{ urethritis if the vagina is not kept clean ), with 
a menstruating woman ( menstrual blood has 
been regarded as an etiological factor of 
urethritis from remote antiquity in diverse 
lands. The menstrual fluid, unless decomposed 
or mixed with the products of bacterial evolution 
of one .kind or another, whether the germs be 
autogenetic or heterogenetic, is inconsequential — 
can nob possibly produce urethritis. Apparent 
contradictions are due to the autogenesis of 
urethritis in a previously damaged urethra, or to 
the washing down of the products of an old 
infection from the upper portion of the female 
sexual tract by^ the out-flowing menstrual 
secretion ) or coitus with a woman whose vulva 
is long-haired, coarse-haired, thick-haired or 
there is hair in the vulvar orifice(abrasions, excoria- 


tions, fissure or fine cuts made by sharp edges of the 
hair at certain angles by the copulative paroxysm- 
al movements when the genital organs are in 
intumescent state, are the necessary and favor- 
iible conditions for the venereal germs when 
deposited there, to grow and multiply. Chan- 
croidal, syphilitic or gonorrheal germs can not 
cause a lesion unless they can find a lodgment 
and form a colony, otherwise they will be wash- 
ed away by the mucous and the urinal discharges. 
It is only when there is an abrasion, cut, wound, 
tear, rent or solution of any kind of the mucous 
membrane, that they can find an entrance, and 
in the delicate epithelium, with its warmth and 
moisture, they find it very favorable to multiply 
to destroy the cells, and invade the economy in 
syphilis ), with a woman of narrow or large 
vulvar orifice ( strain and injuries may be caused 
by narrow orifice and a flabby large vaginal 
passage is indicative of some disease or the reac- 
tion of the diseased condition of the genitals, as 
otherwise in the normal state there should be 
vs^inal muscular contraction by the sexual 
stimuli and the passage of tli^ penis ), with an 
unpleasant or repulsive woman ( venereal diseas- 
es, especially syphilis causes many disfigurements 
of the body), with a woman who makes lavation 


oi: lier vaafina with contaminated water, or one 
who does not make any lavation of her vagina 
at all, or a woman who has a genital disease, or 
who has a chronic lesion in lier genitals, or nnna- 
tnral intercourse ( sodomy does not necessarily 
cause anv lesion unless there is an infection in 
either party, or venery ; excess might cause 
ene.vation and its reflex reactions on the orga- 
nism, thus predisposing to any infection ), 
injury to the penis by nails, teeth, toxic cantha- 
rides, compression, masturbation or bestiality 
( no infection can take place unless there is , 
contact with some venereal pathogenic virus, 
except it might cause local injuries and pyogenic 
infection ), ablution of the penis with contami- 
nfited water, or its strangulation, or retention 
of urine or semen, or non-lavation ( uncleansing) 
of the penis after coitus — all these causes produce 
the derangement of the 'vaim\ and provoke 
the inflammation of tlie penis, whether it has 
been wounded or not ; this is called *upadamsa\ 

There are five kinds of 'upadamsa, eacli 
infection oriariuf^tinsr from five different kinds of 
contagions of women. 

Scaliness (roughness), ulperation of the skin, 
torpor of the penis and inflammation with in- 
duration takes place in 'vata'Upaclamsa\sf/phUiHc* 


ehaucre : The initial lesion is first seen as a 
papule, varying in size from a pea to a bean, 
pinkish-brown in color, dry and scaling, impart- 
ing a slight resistance to the touch, which 
appears after an incubation of two to four weeks 
in syphilis, three to seven days in cliancroid 
(which is of diagnostic value in distinguishing 
chancre frem chancroid) after suspicious coitus 
or contact, and wh.icli slowly ulcerates with 
slightly inflamed and indurated, circumscribed 
or oval edges, leaving a superficial or eroded 
depression, haviilg a thin serous or sero-purulent 
secretion, or it may be covered with a thin 
grayish pellicle). 

Fever (as a reaction of the organism against 
the invasion of syphilitic ^Spu'ocheta pallida*) 
and intumescence like the color of *Flcus 
glomerata* (which is pinkish-brown, the color of 
chancre) develop, and which rapidly ulcerates 
with *pitta* pain in 'piita-ttpadaiiisa* (Ulcerating 

Intumescence is pruritic, hard and shiny 
with slight {slesma) pain, in slemsa-iipadmsa) 
(chancre in the first stage). 

A dark tumor which bleeds excessively with 
fever, burning, and emaciation with all 'pitta* 
symptoms, and which sometimes (spontaneously) 


cures, is called 'rakta ujjadamsa' (angioma of 
the penis on a large artery). 

The intumescence ulcerates with the develop- 
ment of germs, which might bring about death, 
with all the symptoms of the corruption of the 
three humors in ^sarcva-upadamsa* (syphilitic 
sore)." SnsnUa II. 12, 7-13 ^'\ 

*'The contagion (syphilitic ' Spirocheta pallida*) 
infecting the tissues and the blood, causes their 

173. cT^rrcTfTg^T^wa^^^t^r crgr Wai^^^f f^ftfi^^ <^*^^\ 
^^^r ^aj^?^t ^^^''ctflt f*i^^*TTfi'?T^Kt *r?rfKmfjraT*i^rmi- 

-=iici5<^«ii: II «;i 


pruritis ; from pruritis develops sore ; in 
the sore malisrnant nodules are formed^ 
enveloped in a film-like membrane, and from it 
exudates a viscous serous fluid (when the syphi- 
litic process dips down into the subcutaneous- 
tissue, and is complicated with indurating edema, 
the chancrous erosion becomes covered with 
Hndarated nodules\ while if the sore remains- 
superficial and compact, the induration is spread 
out into a disk-like mass and is called parchment^ 
like chanC7'e. Parchment-like chancres are mostly 
found on the integument of the penis and some* 
times on the vulva. ^Indurated chancres' are 
mostly found in the sulcus coronarius, parti- 
cularly near the frenum. When, owing to- 
excessive cell-increase, the chancrous erosion 
becomes salient above the level of the parts, it 
is called 'idctts elevatum\ Ulcus elevatum be- 
comes covered with a film -like membrane^ 
bavins: a color which is a mixture of cream, 
with a light-green tint which degenerates into 
brownish black, if the membrane is not shod 
and exists for a long period. But if an antiseptic 
or iodoform is used, it melts away, leaving an 
erosive chancrous surface. This is known as 
*chancre with the cream and the green-colored 
membrane). This (chancrous nodule) kills 

4j10 ancient HINDU MEDICINE 

virilit}^ and destroys the penis (phagedenio 
chancre) ; the lesion infecting the vulva of 
woman produces soft, foul-smelling, umbrella- 
like (circumscribed) nodular chancre from which 
a viscid serous fluid exudates; and this contagion 
ascending upward, produces gummata in tlie 
ear, eye, nose and throat. Tlie gummata of the 
ear cause deafness, otalgia and suppuration ot* 
the ear (gumma of the auricle leads at times to 
deep ulceration and destruction of cartilage ; 
gummata on the membrane tympani occasionally 
cause the destruction of tlie membrane with 
ulceration ; condylomata of the meatus causes 
severe pain with tension and fullness and deaf- 
ness may be produced merely by the mechanical 
closure of the meatus, but the drum membrane 
occasionally becomes inflamed and may 
suppurate. Suppurative inflammation (Otitis 
media suppurativa) occurs in syphilitic subjects 
as the direct result of the syphilitic manifesta- 
tions in the naso-pharynx, and also from other 
causes, but the syphilitic dyscrasia is a serious 
complication). Iti the (gummatous syphilitic) 
affection of the eye there is obstruction of the 
palpabra (Tarsitis syphilitica = gummatous infil- 
tration of the tarsus ; ulcerated syphilitic 
mucous patches on the free margin of 


the lower eyelid is commoner ), ofthalmagifc*., 
lippltiide ( ill Iritis gummosa, the exudation 
is gelatinous, m.ade up of fine filaments 
wbicli may be absorbed witbout alterations 
in appearance or may be changed into a bluish- 
white homogenous mass ), and blindness ( ambly- 
opia = partial loss of vision, amaurosis = complete 
loss of vision in syphilis of the optic nerve, which 
is marked by visible ■ changes in the papilla 
through : ( 1 ) choked disk or papillitis as a 
symptom of various intracranial processes ; 
( 2 ) neuro-retinitis descendens, accompanying 
the various changes in the bnxin and its menin- 
s:es wliicli have extended alonar the sheath of tlie 
optic nerve, or due to gumma ; ( 3 ) atrophy 
of the optic nerve may take place either as a 
result of choked disk, neuritis descendens or 
inflammatory degeneration ). Nasal (syphilitic) 
affection causes catarrh ( the pituary membrane 
Vnay be the seat of eiytheraa, superficial ulcera- 
tions and mucous patches which give rise to 
symptoms of ordinary catarrh ), excessive sneez- 
ing ( as a reflex excited by the irritation of the 
nasal mucous membrane by syphilitic erythema, 
mucous patches, condylomata, gumraata or 
ulcerations ), dyspnea ( difSculty in breathing 
results from mechanical obstruction, caused 


by the swollen folds or in the development of 
adenoids stopping up the nasal passages as may 
be seen in congenital syphilis ), ulcer of the 
septum ( if a gumma on the septum breaks down 
and ulcerates, plugs or casts of inspissated 
mucous, mixed with blood and pus of a very 
disagreeable appearance and an almost into- 
lerable odor are discharged, especially if the 
necrosis of the bone has occurred. Should the 
lesion involve the vomer extensivelv, character- 
istically syphilitic flattening of the nose may be 
produced by the falling in of the bridge. The 
sense of smell is impaired by the failure of the 
odorous particles to reach the olfactory tract, 
owing to the obstruction of crusts and plugs of 
putrefying inspissated mucous ), nasal voice- 
( owing to the obstruction of the eustachian tube 
and nasal passages by swollen folds, gummata or 
condylomata ) and headache ( syphilitic neural- 
gia, the headaches being due to the lesion of the 
meninges which are supplied by the ramification 
of the trigeminal nerve : it is a very character- 
istic symptom of syphilis ). Affections in the 
pharynx, larynx and palate, cause hoarseness of 
voice ( huskiness of the voice is found in the 
syphilitic erythema of the larynx, and the pho- 
nation is interfered with, ranging from slight 


hoarseness to complete aphonia according to the 
extent of ulceration ), ageusia ( loss of taste 
-occurs with the ulceration and destruction of 
the gustatory nerve or the nerve endings on the 
tongue ), and the ulceration of buccal cavity 
( mucous patches, gummata, etc. )". Susruta 
II. 2. 15 ''\ 

"In 'udavarta' ( dysmenorrhea ) foamy (mens- 
trual) blood is discharged with colicky spasm 
{colicky dysmenorrhea results from the attempt of 
the uterus to expel foreign bodies as squamous 
pellicles, epithelial cells, blood clots, mucous 
membrane and exudations, originating either 
from neoplasms or inflammation, which is pre- 
vented from freely flowing out with the menstrual 


blootl, by some obstruction as a tamor of the 
cervix or an atresia, caused by inflammation, 
following clnld-liirtli). 'Nasfartava*{ovi\viRn lesion) 
causes sterility. In *vipluta' ( hysterahjia ), tlie 
( female ) genital region is always painful. In 
*paripluta'' ( dyspareimia ), coitus is very painful 
(coitus may be painful to a woman due to (1) va- 
ginismus ; (2) tender carunculoe myrtiforraes, or 
soreness from the laceration of the hymen in 
a newly married woman ; ( 3 ) iuflammation of 
the vagina or the vulva ; ( 4 ) disproportion in 
size of the penis and the vaginal orifice, especi- 
ally osteum vaginre ; ( 5 ) prolapsed ovaries or 
iiterus ; ( 6 ) pelvic peritonitis, even in multi- 
parous women ). In ^vataW {vaginitis dissecans, 
in vvliich the vaginal mucous membrane becomes 
dry in most instances and the superficial squa- 
mous epitlielium undergoes ^cornijication^ and 
if the venereal vaginitis persists, a formation of 
'acuminated condylomata' may take place in the 
vagina). In 7'ahta.hsarct {infiammatory idceration 
of the internal genital organs ), tlie menstrua- 
tion flows with burning sensation ( burning 
sensation is felt as the blood flows over the 
inflammatory ulcerated surfaces, due generally 
to gonorrhea or syphilis). In 'vamint {carcinoma 
uteri ) sanious mucous discharge appears 


"with gas ( leucorrliea or flour albus, a wliitish 
discharge of a more or less viscid fluid, 
mucous or pus cells, is due to, ^chronic cei'vlcitu^ 
and known by another name 'sveta-p^'adarci'). 
Ivt. prasramsln't {colpitis emphysematosa) the 
vagina is tremulous and tumorous ( colpitis 
emphysematosa is distinguished by small-celled 
in ^^iltration and hyperemia in the vicinity of 
numerous bubbles in and beneath the epithelium 
of the vaginal mucosa, formed perhaps by a 


gas-forming anaerobic bacterium ). In 'piitra gli- 
nt {endometritis) ^ though there are conceptions,, 
abortion takes place with hemorrhage (recurrent 
abortion is usually either syphilitic in origin, or 
due to endometritis from any cause or retroflex- 
ion of the uterus). In 'jnttalcl' {gonorrheal 
acute salpangitis) there are intense burning 
pain, suppuration and fever (gonorrheal inflam- 
mation and the degenerative changes of the 
oviducts — salpingitis, is responsible for the fre- 
quent cases in which pregnancy, happening 
shortly after marriage, terminates by an abortion 
or so called * one- child- strerilit if). In 'ati/ananda' 
{senile vaginitis) coitus is not enjoyed ( due to 
gonorrheal degenerative changes, the .mucosa, 
especially in the upper part of the canal, sheds 
its epithelium in patches, becomes here and there- 


studded with papillary granulations, shows a 
tendency to cicatrical contractions, and during 
coitus turgesceuce and voluptuous sensations are 
missing ). In karnin'i {neoplasms)^ due to 'slesma 
and the blood' growths are formed ( in vagina 
myomata, fibromata, Sf^rcomata, carcinomata, 
and cystomata are seen ; in the uterus 
diffuse adenomata, polypoid adenomata, 
fibromaca, fibroid polypuses, carcomata and car- 
cinomata are more common ). In ^acharano^^ 
{vaginismus)^ there is a repulsion against coitus 
"(vaginismus is an abnormal sensitiveness of the 
external genitalia which may occasionally 
develop to spasmodic contraction of the constric- 
tor, cunni, the levator ani and the muscles of 
the entire pelvic floor ; nervous virgins on the 
wedding night might l)e its subjects if brutal 
attacks are made bv inconsiderate husbands, if 
they have got leathery hymen or especially in 
women in whom the vulva extends far forward, 
so that the urethral and hymenial orifices lie upon 
the symphysis or tlie ligamentum and arquatium 
and such women are mostly sterile,even if cohabita- 
tion in spite of the pain is enforced). * Atichcumna 
:yom' (female sexual apparatus habituated to 
excessive copulation) due to excesstve coitus, 
is neither capable of concejDtion (it is well known 


that courtesans and prostitutes who have not 
contracted venereal diseases are also usually 
sterile ). In 'slesmald* (pruritus vulvae)^ the 
vulva is gummy, pruritic and chilly (vulvar 
pruritis may originate from various causes, as acne,, 
eczema, acrid gonorrheal discharges from the 
vagina, or the high uric acid containing or sugar- 
laden urine may exercise a cotinuous irritation,, 
the decomposed and stagnated secretion makes 
the genital apparatus sticky, and it should be 
removed as in all other local lesion hy frequent 
irrigations with weak antiseptic solutions as 
lysole one per cent, thymol one-tenth of a per 
cent, or sublimate one-twentieth of a per cent). 
In ^sand'i* a woman does not menstruate, her 
breasts are very little developed and during 
coitus, the vagina appears rough {infantilismus^ 
genitalium in which the uterus and the ovaries 
are incompletely developed, or androgynous 
masculine pseudohermaphroditism in which the 
penis is rudimentary and perforate, the scrotum 
fused and empty, and the central resembling 
the labia majora, together with the absence of 
testicles and the development of large breasts 
all conspire to convey the impression of the 
female sex). If a maiden with a narrow vaginal 
orifice has copulation with a man of very large 



penis, and a fruit-like tumor is formed, it is 
called 'phalini' (cervicitis ; it may be also pro- 
voked by tbe repeated use of nodular condom )". 
Susruta VI. 38. 5-8^^% 

It has been often questioned whether the 
hipadamsa^ of Charaka and Susruta is really 

175. m ^f^g^iTtif ^: §1=^11 ^KT 11 

qfti mm *T^fiT ^i^q^ ^55n ww ii 

n^'f^^ «T^ g ^^tr^fTT ^:ifni=g ?jt ii 

%^ f^<T =ff^ W H^¥t 'CW^'^i^ II 
§^MT fqf%^ ^f^r: ^'ijpTTfeflcMT II 

^ffrtT^^^T ^'¥) w^^m ^ ^^s^ II 


syphilis and whether the disease was known in 
ancient India before it was introduced into India 
by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century and 
is described graphically in Bhdva-PraJcdsa^ a 
work of the same age, as ^phi7'anga-roga\ the 
disease of the Franks, by which name Europeans 
were known in India, identical with the 'mat 
Francais or morbus gallicus' by which it was 
known all over Europe. 

It is well known that during- the return 
voyage of Cristoval Colon (Cristopher Columbus) 
from West Indies to Spain, many of the sailors 
who had intercourse with the Indian women of 
the Islands, developed specific lesions of syphilis, 
and they were treated on landing by Pi/uy Diaz 
de Isla who has left clinical pictures of the 
lesions, typical of syphilis as known to-day. In 
the year 1492 Cristoval Colon sailed across the 
Atlantic and discovered some of the outlying 
islands of Central America. On the fourth of 
January, 1493, he sailed from the West Indies 
on his return to Spain wliich was reached in the 
following March. Many of the sailors were 
treated on landing for a new disease, which is 
now identified with syphilis, and the symptoms 
of Vv^hich appeared on the shipboard before their 
landing. On the fourteenth of June of the yeat 


following, Nicholas Scyllatius reported an 
epidemic of syphilis. Soon after this Gonzalez 
^Fernandez de Cordova, left Spain for Italy, 
where in a second campaign, his troops were 
"brought into contact with those of the Erench. 
The Erench army numbering about 8 to 10 
thousand soldiers, recruited from all parts of 
Europe, crossed into Piedmont on the eighth of 
December, in an expedition against Naples. 
According to the fashion of the day both the 
Spanish and the Erench army were accompanied 
by numerous courtesans and prostitutes for the 
entertainment of the soldiery. Nor was this 
enough. It is said that when the French 
soldiers reached Naples, in the intoxication of 
victory and unrestrained license of the age, they 
pillaged the convents and the homes of the rich,, 
and spared neither the nuns nor the virgins. 
The army quartered in many important Italian 
and Erench cities on its return journey, left 
behind always in its track the 'fearful scouy^ge 
of God* as it was called by the Church, and 
•with the dispersal of the army, as the soldiers 
returned to their homes in all parts of Europe, 
the disease began to spread lilce a plague, spaiing 
neither the cardinals, royalties nor the laity. It 
was known by different names, as the 'malady of 


the Neapolitans^ Portugtiesse, or Spainards^^ but it 
was 'par excellence^ known as the disease of the 
Erench ( morbus gallicus ). And one thing 
is clear that the history of modern syphilis can 
be traced step by step to the Neapolitan expedi- 
tion of the Erench monarch Charles VIII. 
Bones have been exhumed of the ancient Indians, 
in scattered parts of America, as Colorado and 
Lima, exhibitini^ syphilitic exostosis and the 
results of periositis, osteitis, sclerosis, caries and 
other morbid processes .-"< 

All this definitely proves that syphilis was 
endemic in America, and the sailors of Columbus 
contracted the disease in their sexual intercourse 
with the Indian women, and on their return, 
home, from tlieir contact, it spread gradually to 
the rest of Europe and the modern world. But 
this can not warrant the assumption that syphi- 
lis in some other modified or attenuated form 
was not known to the ancient world. The Old 
Testament, the ancient Chinese medical work's, 
and especially Charaka and Susruta have left 
incontestable testimonials of the pathogenesis, 
evolution and the malignant course of this 
fateful disease. The initial lesion with chancre, 

* Peabody Museum of American Archeology and 
Ethnology, Cambridge, Mass. 


cutaneous manifestations, laryngeal symptoms,, 
caving in of the nasal bridge, condylomata, 
gum.mata in the nose, ears and eyes, exostoses 
of the bones {apach'i), all these make a complete 
picture of syphilis {Susruta II. 11. 15 ). But 
it may be said that if 'liiigarsa or iipadarasa'' 
were really syphilis, there would have been no 
need of writing a chapter on *phiranga' malady 
(morbus gallicus) u- ith clear and systematic clinical 
picture of typical syphilis, by Bhava-Mis'ra 
in his well-known ' Bhava-Prakasa' after the 
Portuguese had introduced it in India, in addition 
to that of \ipadamsa\ thus artificially adding a 
disease without reason, if both were indeed 
identical. Strangely, ^Madhava-Nidana\ a work 
of pathology, composed between the seventh 
and eighth centuries, gives its seventy-seventh 
chapter to 'phiranga roga' and the language of 
both *MadhavaNidancC and *Bhava'P7'akasa* 
is the same. It seems clear that this must have 
been a later interpolation, for in Madhavakara's 
time, the word 'phiraiiga^ was not known. 
Whatever may be the case, whether the passages 
are spurious or ^ Madhava-nidana' is a much 
later work than it is generally believed, it must 
not be forgotten that the pathogenic micro- 
organisms do not possess the same virulence 


under all circumstances. As the seeds of a plant 
sown in different soils— marshy, sandy, fertile, 
rocky or desert wastes, and according to the 
mineral contents of the soil, sunshine, humidity 
and temperature — will vary in their folliage, 
growth, size of the plant and the fruit, and in 
course of time would evolve into suh-species, so a 
disease p^erm in the history of its evolution 
passes through an eventful career of exuberant 
growth and vitality or arrested development,, 
its life being conditioned by the nourishment it 
receives and the environmental influences it is 
subjected to. Disease is the expression of the 
reactions of the organism in the struggle that 
ensues between the invading pathogenic germs 
and the host at whose expense the specific germs 
want to live and multiply. Two organisms are 
never the same. The American Indians were 
virtually nomads who lived by hunting. Their 
civilization was crude and primitive. They 
lacked personal and communal hygiene. They 
knew not the comforts of advanced ^social Oi'gani- 
■zations' — progressive and well-ordered States and 
Empires — in which life was settled, peaceful 
and regulated, and there was plenty of nutrition^ 
medical attention and hospital facilities for all. 
So there is no wonder that syphilis ran a very 


virulent course with them. While in Asia, it 
became controlled and its virulence was 
attenuated. Moreover, in course of time a disease 
becomes milder as the race becomes partially 
immunized by the antibodies that are elaborated 
by the organism as a reaction of the disease and 
those characteristics are transmitted from 
generationto generation, thus developing a partial 
or complete racial immunity against a specific 
disease. A new disease is always virulent, for the 
body has not yet developed antibodies as a defensive 
mechanism against its attack. In the fifteenth 
century, after its introduction by the sailors of 
Columbus, syphilis overran Europe as a terrible 
epidemic. Now the European races have been 
partially immunized against it, and it usually 
runs a very mild course, even milder than what it 
was fifty years ago, as descriptions left by 
reliable medical writers unmistakably show the 
horrible syphilitic ravages which are almost 
unknown to-day. Possibly better nutrition and 
hygiene have been not unimportant factors. 
When syphilis was first introduced in the 
Sandwich Islands, more than half the population 
was exterminated by it within a short time as 
by a plague. 80 it is very likely that when the 
Portuguese introduced the. virulent type of 


European syphilis, it appeared almost like a new 
disease in the severity of the symptoms and 
malignant sequela. The etiology of the disease 
became more definite and certain, and therefore 
all the primary and tertiary manifestations of 
the lesion became united and related together, 
and not as descrilied before as separate diseases. 

"Because in the land of the Prank(European), 
this disease (syphilis) is very prevalent, it is 
called by the pathologists, ^phiranga^ (Frank's or 
European) disease. This disease is developed by 
the physical contact of a Erank or coitus with 
a Frankish woman. Its another name is ^gandha- 
roga? (the disease thab smells). It is contagious. 
After the incubation of the disease, the ''mta^ 
becomes aUected, and according to the symptom, 
the lesion of the 'mtcC is to be determined. 

"Syphilis manifests itself in three ways, exter- 
nally, internally, or both combined. External 
syphilis manifests as a slightly painful papule 
which ulcerates like a tumor, but is easily cur- 
able. Internally gumma appears like tumescence 
at the joints with pain and inflammation and is 
very difficult to cure. 

"Emaciation, loss of strength, caving in of the 
nasal bridge, anorexia, osteitis and osteocampsia 
are the symptoms of (tertiary) syphilis. 


External syphilitic eruption and uncompli- 
cated condylomata are curable. Internal mani- 
festation {gummata) of syphilis is very hard to 
cure. But the internal complications of syphilis 
in a debilitated person are incurable. 

Treatment : The ancient therapeutists have 
said that the application of ( calcinated and inci- 
nerated ) mercury ( Jcarpurarasa ) positively 
controls ( the progress of ) syphilis. And if the 
mercury is given in the following manner, it 
does not cause ulceration of the mouth : Press 
wheat flour with water and make a cup ( out 
of the paste ); place into the cup four ^gunjas' 
( the berries of Abrus precatorius, weighing 
about a grain and a half each ) of mercury and 
make such a capsule of it that no mercury can 
be seen on the surface. Then rolling the capsule 
( enclosing mercury ) on clove-powder, swallow 
it carefully with water, so that it does not come- 
in contact with the teeth. Later, betel-nut should 
be chewed, and vegetables (consisting of leaves),^ 
acids and sodium chloride should not be indulged 
in. Especially fatigue, exposure to the sun,, 
exertion and coitus must be avoided. About 
one-fourth of an ounce of mercurv, one-fourth 
of an ounce of Acacia catechu, half an ounce 
of 'akctra-karabha (Echinopea echinatus f) and 


tliree-fourtlis of an ounce of honey pounded to- 
gether in a mortar should be made into seven 
pills. Syphilis is destroyed by taking eacli of 
the pills every morning: with water. After taking 
the pill, acids and sea-salt should be avoided. 

Fumigation : Mercury one ounce, sulphur 
one ounce and Embelia ribes one ounce should 
be pounded together and made into a paste, 
and seven pastils are to be made out of it. If 
the syphilitic is subjected to the fumigation 
for seven days, by putting a ball into fire eacli 
day, then syphilis is certainly cured. 

Inunction : One-fourth of an ounce of mercury 
is to be rubbed over the body with the juice of 
Michelia champaka and Barleria pubifiora byi 
hand, as long as mercury does not entirely/ 
disappear. The fomentation is to be applied 
(to facilitate absorption) and if thus avoiding 
acids and sea salt, inunction is applied for seven 
days, syphilis is cured." Bhava-praMsa 
IV. 50. 1-20^ ^^ 

176. fti^l=€"=^ ^^ ^I^^^ qif%T I 

c\m-({ t^F ^t^'^t s^lTfVsair^R^lTl: II I 

firsT^sf^r^RJIT^ — 'WtlT: f^Kw]^' m^^ fff^ ^^^[ 


S%^m^' fqiTFl^^T ^<fT II o 

^^.11 ^TT?TTcTqT(^T^ Piirsim 5^fiT^q^PT, II ?o — ^8 

^^ncn: f^w li^cT ^^rat?7 II c^^tt: ¥5r^: ^iMi-rirfvpyfr' jwtsr^r i 


"The agent that normalises a diseased function 
is called Hherapeutics' and the application of 
it is the duty of the physician. That the 
principles of the body remain normal and do not 
become abnormal, is the object of Hhsrapeutics'' 
Charaka I. 16. l8'■^ 

Disease is frequently caused directly and 
by certain states of the blood. If certain princi- 
ples in the blood are diminished, due either to 
faulty dietary or pathogenesis, as iron or thyroid 
secretion which are necessary fur metabolic 
processes, morbid conditions of health result from 
these causes, known as anemia ( olir/ochromemia, 
lacking sufficient iron for the formation of 
hemoglobin ), or myxedema (due to deficiency of 
thyroid secretion). They can be easily remedied by 
giving iron in an assimilable form as milk, meat 
or spinach, or thyroid glands or sea-weeds contain- 

177. JiTfir. farqrfwi^i'^^ si^,^ ^cf?: ^wr. i 


jng iodine ?iS Durvillae utilis^ Lamian7^ia sacarina 
etc., so that the thyroid glands may manufacture 
the necessary colloids from them. The blood 
being faulty, the tissues are ill-nourished and 
lack the necessary resisting power against the 
invasion of pathogenic micro-organisms. (2) 
There may be also disorders due to the excess 
of substances in the blood as 'glucose' in glyco- 
suria, or uric acid in gouty diathesis. If diabetes 
is due to defective carbohydrate metabolism, 
it can be cured by withholding carbohydrates 
from the diet, if begun when the case is not 
too advanced. Colchicum seems to remove the 
pain symptoms of gout. (3) There may be 
foreign bodies in the blood and their abnormal 
secretions, as the germs of malaria {Plasmodium 
malctrice), leprosy {Bacillus leprcc) or syphilis 
(Spirocheta pallida). Quinine kills the malarial 
spores of plasmodia, chaulmoogra and its deri- 
vatives the lepra bacilli, and mercury the syphi- 
litic spirocheta. 

It is very likely that a majority of the drugs 
that have found place in the 'Hateria Medica* 
of various countries, have very little positive 
value. They are more or less empirical. If 
tliey cure at all, it is but symptomatic, if not 
psycho-therapeutic, and can not be radical. 


Many people subconsciously, as in various other 
superstitions, feel assured against a disease, if 
they have taken some kind of medicine. Lack- 
ing faith in religion, they confide in pseudo- 
science, for the word 'science* has a magic charm 
and the people are swayed by it, as by religion 
in the past, and the medicine-man is but a suc- 
cessor of the priest. That is why, the list of 
drugs has swelled in volume and a new drug 
is being added every day. The fact is that 
a medicine can not destroy the pathogenic germs 
lodged in the tissues or blood-corpuscles without 
destroying the tissues, or, the corpuscles. If the 
chemical is strong enough to kill the pathogenic 
micro-organisms, it might cure the disease, but 
it is apt to kill the patient. Of all medicines in all 
'Materia Medlcas*, only quinine, chaulmoogra 
and mercury have proved to be of some value in. 
the treatment of malaria, leprosy and syphilis. 
Yet the sequela of their treatment are many and 
are injurious to the organism. If the organism 
needs iron or phosphorus, it is not only useless, 
but liarmful, to give inorganic ferric or phoshor- 
ic salts or compounds, for the body is incapable 
of assimilating them and they throw additional 
burden upon the over- worked kidney to elimi- 
nate them. 


However, fron. tUi. ";vUl be "«:-^^ J- 

medication is concerned, '* ^ .„ i„telU- 

,,solete, as the people ar JO- ^^ ^^_^ 


., „ cnrwrv and antisepsis, 
opotherapy, smgery 

• t Hindu Medicine was justified m 
Ancient S">du J ^^ ^^^^.^^^ „a 

emphasizing thec^^^^ ^,,^^,,,^ ,y p.omotinS 
dietary m the treatnae t„ ,„aWe it 

«,e resisting power « "-^.enesis. Ch.raka 
to cure Itself oi ttie p '^ „j drugs 

tested : — 

• „. suffers if <3wS^ «''*' S^'^'"' 
.•The organism ^uffeis = ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

wl>ose names, "^^^ ^ot heen properly 
well-known, or if tnown, M ^^...dose). 

gi.en (cUeiiiical jcorn «^^^ ^ 

By proper cliemical comnin 

!;' a'deadly poison can hecome a go d^^^^.^^ 

cine, while a good drug hy ^^^^^^l^.^n can 
(chemical incompatibility) and PP .^^^^^._ 

l,e venomously injurious Thet y ^.^^^ 

gent person who wishes cvie an 


should not take an improper medicine. Charakco 
I. 1. 48i'«. 

"Medicines are derived from three sources — 
animals, minerals and vegetahlcs." Charaka I. 1. 

"Of animals, honey, milk and milk-products, 
bile, fat, bone-marrow, blood, flesh, excreta, 
urine, skin (including membrane), semen, bone, 
tendon, horn, claw, hoof, hair, down and gall-stone 
are used in medicine. 

Gold, five metals (silver, copper, tin, lead and 
iron) and their oxides, sand, carbonate of lime, 
arsenous disulphide, arsenous sulphide, precious 
stone (diamond), sea-salt, ferric carbonate of 
calcium and antimony ( are used in medicine 
of the minerals ). 

Vegetable drugs are from four sources : h:anas- 

178. ^^ inrfiram* ^T5i^;T:n5'w'r?cfr*F; i 

qllT^ f^^* ^'^* W^M W{7l* *T^rf \ 

179. fi(t3^%f^ '^^ snwwff^qit^^'T. 1 


pati^ {gymnosper^ns), *vanaspatya^ {angiospeo^ms), 
'osadhi' {Jierhs) and *virudh* {archegoniates)^ 
Those who have fruits without flowers are 
called ^vanaspati* {gymnospei'ms). Those whose 
fruits develop from flowers, are called vanaspatya- 
{angiosperms). Those who only persist for the 
development of seeds are called 'osadhi' {herbs). 
Those which expand {pratcina^ by climbing, 
as the fern Lygodium pahnatum ) are called,. 
^viriuW ( arcliegonlates, )." Charaka I. 1. 
36-38 '^'^ 

"Root (iuTda)^ bark (tvaJc), pith (sara), gum- 
resin (niryyasa), culm (nada)^ juice {svarasa)^ 
leaves and flowering top (pallava), vegetable 
alkali {ksara\ milky exudation {ks'ira), fruit 
iphala), flower ^puspa)^ ash ( bhasma ), oil {taila\ 

180. ^^'^ f^TMW f^ ^€T JT^n^TTfWT II 

^^T^iTra^T fN:.^^^^^^'srfi?: ii 


thorn (kantalza^ for opening superficial cutaneous 
abscess), leaf {patra)^ flower-bud (mfiga), rhizome 
and hiilb (kanda)^ and bud (pr«roA«= undevelo- 
ped shoot) of plants are used as medicines.'^ 
C'haraka I. 1. 38^*^\ 

"Tlie fluid tliat is extracted by pressing any 
(vegetable or animal) substance in a machine, 
is called juice {svarasa). Anything that is 
beaten into semi- solid consistency in a mortar, 
is called paste (kcdka). The liquid preparation 
of any (vegetable) drug, obtained by boiling: 
with water, is called by the therapeutists. Decoc- 
tion {srta). The preparation that comes out by 
steeping a (crude) drug in cold water, and passing 
it through a sieve after exposing it to the dew- 
drops of the night (that is the crude drug is to 
be kept soaked in water at least for 12 hours), 
is called Infusion {mta). If any ground drug is 
poured into boiling water, and the preparation is 
passed through a sieve, it is called, Tea {phauta).^^ 
Charaka 1. 4). 8' ^^ 

181. ^'5i«<* ^iTf*T5?T^-'rrf-^';€q^T: i 
"^KV. 'i\i W W ^T^ ^^rfsT -^w^'. I 

182. ^^v^-^m^w^i'Z^', ^m ^^ I 


Cerebral Sedatives : 'Tructus Acbyranthes 
aspera {apamarga), Piper longum {pippali)^ Piper 
nigrum {maricha\ Embelia ribes ( vidaiiga ), 
IVIoringa pterjgosperma {sigra)^ Sinapis alba 
(s«s/xr/>a), Xantboxylon alatum {tumhuru\ Nigella 
sativa {ajdj'C)^ Ocymuin gratissimum {ajagandhd), 
Salvadora persica {p'ilu)^ EUetaria major (<?/a),Piper 
^urantiacum ( harenuka ), cardamomi semina 
( prthv'ika ), Ocimum basilicura {surasd) Clitoria 
ternatea (sveta)^ Ocimum sanctum (kutheralca) 
Ocimum villosum {pha?iijjhaka\ fructus Albizzia 
lebbek ( sh^'isa ), Allium sativum {lasuna)^ Cur- 
cuma longa and Berberis asiatica {haridra and 
darti-haridrd ), sodium cbloride and rock-salt 
{ lavana-dvaya ), Cardiospermum balicacabum 
{jyotismat'i) y-<\ridi zingiber officinale {)idgard) tliese 
are Cerebral Sedatives. Tliese are also used in 
migraine, cephalalgia, catarrh, helmet-headache, 
syphilitic gumma (^;-imiyy«(i^i-bacterial lesion ?), 
apoplexy, anosmia and epilepsy. 

Emetics : Randia dumetorum (madatia)^ Gly- 


eyrrliiza glabra {madJmhd)^ Azadiraclita indica 
(mm5a),Acbyraiit!ies aspera(;*i'wi^^a),Achyrantbes 
fruticosa {krta-vedana), Piper longum (pippal'i), 
Mallotus pbilippinensis (kutaja)^ CitruUus colo- 
cyntbis {iksvdhu), EUetaria major (ela) and Acby- 
rantbes obtusifolia {dhamai^gava) are to be used 
as Emetics in proper doses, in intestinal, *pitta^ 
and 'Mesma* diseases witliout causing any injury 
to tbe organism. 

Purgatives j Ipomoea ( Convolvulus ), tur- 
petlium {trivrt), Terminalia cbebula, Terminalia 
belerica ( Myrobalan ) and Emblica (Phyllantbus) 
officinalis (tri-phald), Baliospermum montanum 
(danti), Ipomoea caerulea {nUin'i'y Abrus preca- 
torius {saptala)j Acorus calamus {vacha), Mallotus 
pbilippinensis {kampillaka\ Clitoria ternatea 
(gavaksl), Mimusops kauki (ksirini), Luffa amara 
{udak'ir7/i/ka)jSa\\adoYa. persica {pilu)y Cassia fistula 
{aragvadha), Uvae passa? (draksa)^ Baliospermum 
indicum {dravant'i) and Barringtonia acutangula 
(nichula) are to be used as JPurgatioes in intesti- 
nal diseases, Sterospermum suaveolens {patali)^ 
Premna serratifolia {agnimantha), Aegle marmelos 
( vilva ), Oroxylum ( Calosantbus ), indicum 
(it/omka), Gmelina arborea {kasmaryya)^ Desmo- 
dium triflorum {salaparm)^ Uraria logopodioides 
(prsnipaimt), solanum xantbocarpum (nidigdhika)^ 


Sida cordifolia [cala), Tribulus lanuginosus 
{asvadmnstra) Solanum indicum {vrhati), Rici- 
nus commuDis {eranda), Boerhaavia procumbens 
( punarnavd ), Hordeum hexastichura ( yava ), 
Doliclios uniflorus {kulattha)^ Zizyphus jujuba 
{kola), Tinospora cordifolia {giiduchl)^ Randia 
dumentorum {madana), Butea frondosa (paldsa), 
Andropogon citratum {karttrna), oils and salts 
are to be used ( as purgatives) in constipation 
and in the formation of the feces." Charaha 
I. 2. 2-5^ ^\ 

183. '^iqmiw wt^rf^T fq^tr^ ^rf^ifir ^ i 

fsfft^s^lWI^q^F^ "^TOsTm K»ft?% II 

fl^^ M"^ fff^ ^^ fKr^^w I 

fq^ili^^r'^Iir^^'lt ^?Wmi1% '^ II 

^■^^^ qg^lci fv{^■^[ t^f^rf^^'r ii 


Antiparasitics : Cassia fistula {aragvadhd), 
Cassia tora {aidagaja)^ Laffa amara, Justicia 
adhatoda (vasa)^ Tinospora cordifolia, ilandia 
dumentorum, Curuma longa, Berberis asiatica. 
Acacia gvimraifera (s?yahva\ Cedrus deodara 
{suraJiva)^ Acacia catechu (khadira\ Toraentosa 
latifolia {dhava), Azadirachta indica, Embelia 
indica, Nerium odoratum {haravlraka), Betula 
bhojpattra (blim^jja). Allium sativum, Albizzia 
lebbek, Laurus cassia ilomasa), Balsamodendron 
pubescens igugg^dii)^ Moringa {zeylanica) ptery- 
gosperma {krimagmidha), Ocimum villosum, 
Mallotus pliilippinensis, Alstonia scbolaris, 
Salvadora persica, Saussurea lappa {kustha\ 
Jasminum grandiflorum (sumaua), A.corns calamus. 
Piper angustifolium {remika)^ Ipomoe turpethum, 
Baliospermum montanum, Acaju officinalis 

^I'l ^^m\\ -^Mf^ 1?^=^ 'T^'TTf^T =^ II 


{bhallataka)^ ferric calcium carbonate {gairika)^ 
antimonious siilplude ianjana), arsenous sulphide 
(ala), arsenous disulphide (inanahsila)^ faliginis 
alcalina {grha'dhT(7na = ^ complex empyreumatic 
substance, deposited from smoke, made up 
chiefly of a resinous substance combined 
•with lactic acid, carbonous matters and creasote, 
besides various mineral salts), Elletaria major 
iela), ferric sulphide ikaslsa), Symplocos racemosg. 
(lodh7'a), Terminalia arjuna {arjjuna\ Achyran- 
thes aspera {must a) and Sliorea robusta {sarjja] 
are kept together with the bovine gallstone for 
seven days, and then having crushed the gall- 
stone, the linimenta is mixed with oleum sinapis, 
and applied over the body as an unguent, then, 
obstinate psoriasis, leucoderma, alopecia, keloid, 
tinea imbricata, scrofulide, fistula-in-ano and 
€Czema are cured within a short time. 

Saussurea lappa, Curcuma longa, Berberis 
asiatica, Ocimum basilicum, Trichosanthes 
dioica, Azadirachta indica, Withania somnifera 
{asvagandha), Cedrus deodara, Moringa pterygo- 
sperma, Sinapis alba, Xanthoxylon budrunga 
{tumvuni), Coriandri fructus, Scrapus capsularis- 
{vanya) and Andropogon acicularis (ohatida) 
are to be ground in equnl proportion and mixed 
"with w^hey, and if then it be rubbed over the 


body as an unguent, pruritus, eruption, urti- 
caria and tumescence become cured. 

Saussurea auriculata, Cocculus cordifolius 
( amrta ), Hydrocarpus kurzii or copper-sulphide 
( asanga ), Berberis asiatica, ferric sulphide^ 
gummi Rotieria tinctoria ( kampillaha ), Acliy- 
rantbes aspera, Symplocosracemosa, Andropogon 
sboenantbus ( saufjandhUca ), Sborea robusta, 
gummi Vateria indica ( sarja-7'a8a ), Embelia 
indica, arsenous disulpbide, arsenous sulphide, 
and Nerium odorum — relieve tinea imbricata, 
pruritus, keloid, eczema and scrofulide, if these 
are ground and rubbed over the body, smeared 
with unguents.'* Charaka I. 3. 2-4 ^®*. 

184. "^1^^^: ^^515!: ^wi ■sm\ -^^ ^^^ ift? i 

^nw: ^^i: ^f^^ ^^^ t^rf^ f^Ti'* ^^H^^^^ ii 

?lf5^^ MV0. ^T^'. fairlisc Wl«=l^ »J?l5^§i'^JI5^ I 

^^^^ g'^^^'f^T^'^ =^wi^ '^'HTf^ ^'iif^ ^^ u 


' Anodynes : "Radix Nympliaea lotus, Cedrus 
deodara, Saussurca lappa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, 
Elletaria major, Nelumbium speciosum {kamala ) 
Nyphaea stellata ( iitpala ), Aquilaria agallocha 
( lolia ), Typlia angustifolia ( eraka ), Nymphaea 
lotus ( padmaka ), Andropogon acicularis — if 
these are used as a liniment, headache is relieved. 
Aerides tessalatum { rasna ), Curcuma longa, 
Berberis asiatica, Valeriana dioica, Poeniculum 
vulgare and Anisi fructus, Cedrus deodara, Saccha- 
^rum officinarum andCselogyne OYalk{j'ivanH = ccBla) 
if compounded and mixed with clarified butter 
and oleum sesami, and applied as a liniment 
after warming it, pain is relieved. 

Demulcefils : Musci ( saivala ), Nymplia^a 
lotus, Nymphiiea stellata, Calamus rotang 
{ vetra ), Calophyllum ino}>hyllum ( tiiiiga ), 
radix NymplmBa lotus, Andropogon muricatum, 
Symplocos racemosa, Aglaia edulis, Pterocarpus 

^^TM ^'^i N?^r: ^^^r: ifsifT s^t^fi^ "m ^^rnfi h 


«antalinus, if applied as a liniment, after pasting 
and mixing them with clarified butter, the irri- 
tation of a burn is relieved. Ipomoea digitata 
( sita ), Rubia cordifolia, Calamus rotang, radix 
Nymphsea lotus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrullus 
<jolocynthis ( aindri ), Nymphsea lotus, Panicum 
frumentaceum ( dnrvva ), radix Hedysarum 
alhagi ( yamsa-mula ), Poa cynosuroides, Saccba- 
rum spoutaneum ( kasa ), and Typha angustifo- 
lia, if applied as a liniment, irritation of the skin 
is relieved. Lichen ( suileyam ), Elletaria major, 
Aquilaria agallocha, Saussurea lappa, Andropo- 
gon acicularis, Tabernajmontana coronaria {nata) 
Cinnamonum zeilanicum {tvalc), Cedrus deodara, 
Aerides tessellatum, Albi^izia lebbek and Mimosa 
indica, if applied as a plaster on a venous bite, 
the burning irritation is relieved. 

Dictphoi^etics : Albizzia lebbek, Mimosa 
indica, Mesua speciosa ( hema ), and Symplocos 
racemosa, if rubbed upon the skin in the powder 
form, it relieves skin-lesion and causes perspira- 
tion." Charaka I. 3. 16-21i * ' . 

185. Wi^l^ i^P5 ii«" ?remi^^ ^ii^t^ =w i 


Analeptics : "Celtis orientalis minor ( j'ivaha ) 
Vitis vinifera ( 7'savaJca ), Leptadeiiia reticulata 
( meda ), Leptadenia spartium ( mahameda ),. 
Gymnema balsamic am ( kakoVi ), Gymnema 
lactiferum ( hsira-kalcoVl ), Phaseolus trilobus 
( mudga-parm ), Teramnua labialis ( masaparni ), 
Cselogyne ovalis and Glycyrrhiza glabra — these 
ten are vitalizing astringent drugs. 

Tonics : Mimusops kauki ( Jcsirini ), Oxy- 
stelma esculentum ( rajaksavaka ), Cordia latifo- 
lia ( valet ), Gymnema balsamicum, Gymnema 
lactiferum, Cordia officinalis, Cordia myxa, Hibis- 
cus vitifolius, Batatas paniculata and Ipomose 
Latatas — these ten are tonic astringents. 

JSpispastics : Cyperus rotundus, Saussurea 
lappa, Curcuma longa, Berberis asiatica, Acorus 
calamus, Aconytum heterophyllum, Picrorrhiea 

?f^re^^" ii3i2fiR?Tg f'T^^'Ji: ^RT^^rsrt^^T =g ii 


3;urioa, Plumbago zeylanica, Pongamia glabra 
and Ipomooe indica — these ten are reductive, 

Pustulants : Convolvulus turpethum, Ascle- 
pias gigantea^ Eicinus communis, Gloriosa 
superba, Kubia cordifolia, Plumbago zeylanica, 
Pongamia glabra, Andropogon acicularis, Picro- 
rrhiza kurroa and Cleome felina — these ten. 
cause suppuration. 

Fulneraries : Glycyrrliiza glabra, Tinospora 
cordifolia, Uraria logopodioides, Stephania 
herandifolia, Mimosa pudica, Bombex malabar- 
<jum, Grislea tomentosa, Symplocos racemosa, 
Aglaia edulis, and Myrica sapida — these ten 
promote the healing of wounds.. 

Irritants : Piper longum, radix Piper longum. 
Piper chava, Plumbago zeylanica, Zingiber offi- 
cinale, Riimex vesicarius, Piper nigrum, Pimpi- 
nelJa saxifraga, Semecarpus anacardium and 
Ferula asafoetida — these ten are rubefacient. 

Tonics : CitruUus colocynthis, Carpopogon pru- 
riens, Asparagus sarmentosus, Phaseolus trilobus. 
Convolvulus paniculatus, Withania somnifera, 
Desmodium triflorum, Picrorrhizza kurroa, Sida 
cordifolia, and Sida rhombifolia — these ten are 
tonics ( strengthening ). 

Rubefacients : Pterocarpus santalinus, Cal- 
phyllum inophyllum, Nymphaea lotus, Andropo- 


gon muriculatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia 
cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Convolvulus- 
paniculatus, Panicum f rumentaceum and Pani- 
cum dactylon — these ten bring redness to the 

Expectorants'. Hemidesmus indicus, radix 
Saccharum ofHcinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper 
longum, TJvie passae. Convolvulus paniculatus, 
Myrica sapida, Hydroctyle asiatica, Solanum 
indicum, and Solanum xanthocarpum — these ten 
stimulate bronchial (mucous membrane). 

Se art-Stimulants : Mangifera indica, Spon- 
dias mangifera, Artocarpus lakoocha, Carissa 
carandas, Tamarindus indica, Rumex vesicarius, 
Prunus acida, Prunus acacia, Punica granatium, 
and Citrus medica — these ten stimulate the 

jRefrigerants : Zingiber officiniale, Plum- 
bago zeylanica. Piper chaba, Embelia ribes^ 
Saussurea zeylanica, Tinospora cordifolia, Acorns- 
calamus, Cyperus rotundus, Piper longum and 
Trichosanthes — these ten allay thirst. 

hemostatics : Holarrhena antidysenterica, 
Aegle marmelos, Plumbago zeylanica, Aconitum 
heterophyllum, Terrainalia chebula, Alhagi 
maurorum, Berberis asiatica, Acorus calamus, 
and Piper chava — these ten cure piles. 


Antiparasitics : Acacia catecjhu, TermiDalia. 
chebula, Phyllanthus emblica, Curcuma longa, 
Semescarpum anacardium, Alstonia scholaris^ 
Cassia fistula, Nerium odorum, Embelia ribes, 
and Jastniauna guandiflouura, Pterocarpus santa- 
linus, Nardostachys jatamansi, Cassia fistula, 
Pongamia glabra, Azadiracbta indica, Holarrbena 
antidysenterica, Sinapis alba, Glycyrrhiza glabra,. 
Berberis asiatica and cyperus rotandus cure tbe 
skin diseases. 

Counter-irritants : Pterocarpus santalinns,. 
Nardostachys Jatamansi, Cassia fistula, Pongamia 
glabra, Azadiracbta indica, Holarrbena antidys- 
enterica, Sinapis alba, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ber- 
beris asiatica and cyperus rotundus relieve pruri- 
tus (by dilating the superficial vessels). 

Anthelmintics : Moringa pterigosperma,. 
Piper nigrum, Tithymalus antiquorum, Colocasia 
antiquorum, Vitex negundo, Embelia ribes^ 
Achyranthes aspera, Tribulus terrestris, Clero- 
dendron serratifolium and Salvadora persica are 
vermifuge (cause the destruction or expulsion 
of the intestinal worms). 

Antidotes : Curcuma longa, Kubia cordi- 
folia, Aerides tessallatum, Ichnocarpus frute- 
scens, Pterocarpus santalinus, Strychnos potato- 
rum, Albizzia, lebbek, Vitex negundo and 


Cordia myxa — these ten destroy ( neutralize ) 

Galactogogues : Andropagon muricatuin, 
Oryza sativa, a sub-species of Oryza sativa, 
Saccharum officiiiarum, Saccliaruin cylindri- 
cum, Poa cynosuroides, Saccharum spontaneum, 
Tinospora cordifolia, Ahelmoschus moschatus, 
and Hemionetis esculenta — these ten increase 

Anti galactogogues : Stephania hernandifolia, 
Zinsfiber ofiBcinale, Cedrus deodara, C/vnerus 
rotundus, Saussurea zeylanica, Tinospora cordi- 
folia, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Agathotes 
cherayfca, Picrorrhiza kurroa, and bemidesmus — 
tliese ten reduce the production of milk. 

Aphrodisiacs : Celtis orientalis, Vitis vini- 
fera, Gymnema balsamicum, Gymnema lacti- 
ferum, Phaseolus trilobus, Teramnus labialis, 
Leptademia spartium, Asparagus racemosus, 
l»^ardostachys jatamansi and Rhus succedania — 
these ten increase semen. 

AnapJivodisiacs : Saussurea auricuh-ia, Pero- 
nia elephantum, Myrica sapida, os sapiae, Nauclea 
cadamba, saccharum purificatum, Hygrophila 
spinosa, Ruellia longifolia, Sesbania grandiflora 
and i.ndropogon muiicatum — these ten reduce 
semen (diminish sexual desire and power). 


Adipogenous agents : — TJvae passoe, Gly- 
'Cyrrhiza glabra, Tinospora cordif olia, Leptademia 
spartiura, Convolvulus paniculata, Gymnema 
balsamicum, Gymnema lactifenim, Celtis orien- 
talis, Caelogyne ovalis and Des medium triflorum 
— these ten cause the for mation of fat (in the 

Diaphoretics : — Moringa pterigosperma, Rici- 
nus communis, Asclepias gigantea, Boerhaava 
diffusa, Boerhaava procuhens, Hordium hexa- 
stichum, Sesamum indicum. Dolichos biflorus, 
Phaseolus trilobus, and Zizyphus jujuba — these 
ten increase perspiration (by stimulating the 
sudoriparous glands). 

Emetics : — Mel, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Bauhi- 
nia varieg;vta, Bauhinia acuminata, Nauclea 
cadaraba, Calamus fasciculatus, Cephalandra 
indica, Crotalaria verrucosa, Asclepias gigantica 
and Achyranthus aspera — these ten cause vomit- 

JPurgatives : — Uvae passae, Gmelina arborea, 
Grewia asiatica, Terminalia cliebula, Phyllan- 
thus emblica, Terminalia belerica, Zizyphus 
laccifera, Zizyphys jujuba, Zizyphus napeca and 
Salvadora persica — these ten are purgatives. 

JEnemata : — Ipomoea turpethum, Aegle 
marmelos, Piper longum, Holarrhena antidysen- 


terica, Sinapis alba, Acorus calamus, fructi 
Holarrhena anticlysenterica, Peucedanum graveo- 
lens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and fructus Kandifv 
dumefcorum — these ten »re (suited) for enema. 

Oily-enemata : — Vanda roxburgbii, Cedrus 
deodara, Aegle marnielos, Eandia dumetorum^. 
Peucedanun guaveolens, Boerhavia diffusa alba, 
Boerbavia diffusa rubra, Tribulus terrestris, 
Premna serratifolia and Oroxylum indicum — 
these ten are (fitted) for oily-enemata. 

Cerebral sedatives : — -Cardiospermum halica- 
cabum. Sinapis nigra, Piper nigrum, Piper lon^ 
gum, Embelia ribes, Acliyranthes aspera, Sina- 
pis alba, Moringa pterogospermura, Clitorea 
ternatea, and Clitorea mariana — these ten are 
Cerebral sedatives (possibly an errhine is meant). 

Antiemetics : — Eugenia jambolana, Mangi- 
fera indica, Citrus medica, Zizyphus jujuba^ 
Punicum granatum, Hordeum hexastichumi 
Andropogon muricatum, diatomacious earth, and 
pop corn — these ten are anti-emetics (by allaying 
the irritablity of the gastric nerves or the vomit- 
tins: centers or neutralizinsc the toxins which 
irritate those centers). 

Refrigerants : — Cyperus pertenuis, Alhagi> 
maurorum, Cyperus rotundus, Oldenlandia her- 
bacea, Pterocarpus santalinus, Agathotes chira- 


yata, Tinospora cordifolin, Pavonia odorata, 
coraudrum sativum and Tricliosantbes dioica — 
these ten aliay thirst. 

Pulmonary sedatives : Curcuma zerumbet 
Costas speciosas, Zizyphus jujuba, Solanum 
xanthoaarpum, Sohinum indicum, Cymbidium 
tessaloides, Termlnalia chebula, Piper longum, 
Alhagi maiirorum and Hhus succedania — these 
ten relieve hiccup (by allaying irritability of 
the respiratory center or the terminal fibers of 
the nerves distributed to the bronchi and lungs). 

Laxatives : Aglaia roxburghiana, Hemi- 
desmus indicus, fructus Mangifera indica, Colo- 
santhus indicus, Symplocus racemosa, gummi 
Bombax malabaricum. Mimosa pudica, Grislea 
tomentosa, Clerodendrura indicum, and fructus 
Nymphaea lotus — these ten cause the formation 
(evacuation) of feces. 

Cholagogiies : — Eugenia jambolana, Eoswe- 
llia serrata,Mucuna pruriens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, 
Bombax malabaricum, Pinus longifolia, edible 
diatomacious earth (containing oxide of iron 
which gives it a red-yellowish color), Balatas 
paniculatus, Nymphaea stellata, and fructus 
Sesamum indicum — these ten give color to the 
feces (by causing the increased secretion of the 
bile). . 

f '. ^. 


Urinary diluents : — Eugenia jambolana, 
Mangifera indica, Ficus infectoria, Ficus Benga- 
lensis, Spondias mangifera, Ficus glomerata, 
Ficus religiosa, Semecarpus anacardium, Oxalis 
acetosella and Acacia catechu — these ten in- 
crease the quantity of urine. 

Urinary antacids or antieeptics : — Nelumbian 
speciosum, Nymph cea stellata, Nymph sea alba, 
Nymph sea rubra, Nyraphgea odorata, Nymphgea 
lotus, Nymphsea pubescens, Glycyrrhiza rubra, 
Aglaia roxburghiana and Grislea tomentosa — 
these ten purify the urine. 

Ditireiics : — Costus speciosum, Tribulus 
terrestris, Sesbania grandiflora, Cleome viscosa, 
Colcus amboinicus, Imperata cylindrica, Poa 
cynosuroides, Saccharum spontaneum, Panicum 
frumentaceum and Saccharum sara — these ten 
increase the excretion of urine. 

Pulmonary sedatives : — Uvae passae, Termi- 
nalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica, Piper 
longum, Alhagi maurorum, Rhus succedania, 
Solanum xanthocarpum, Boerhavia diffusa rubra, 
Uoerhavia diffusa alba, and Phyllanthus nirury — 
these ten relieve coughing (expectorants ?). 

Respiratory stimulants : — Curcuma zerum- 
bet, Costus speciosum, Rumex vesicularis, EUe- 
taria cardiamomum, Ferula assafoetida, Ocitnum 


sanctum, Phyllantbus niruri, Caelogue ovalis^ 
and Andropogon — these ten relieve dyspnea. 

Styptics : — Stereospermum suaveolens, Prem- 
na serratifolia, Aeg-le marmelos, Colosantbes 
indica, Gmeiina arborea, Solanum xantbocarpum,. 
Solanum indicum, Desmosium trilobum, Uraria 
logopodioides, and Tribulus terrestris — tbese ten 
reduce inflammation. 

Antipyretics : Hemidesmus indicus, rock 
candy, Stephania rotunda, E/ubia cordifolia, Uv8& 
passse. Salvadora persica, Grewia asiatica, Termi- 
nalia cbebula, Phyllantbus emblica and Terrui- 
nalia bellerica — these ten relieve fever, 

Sphial stimulants : Uvse passes. Phoenix 
sylvetris, Buchananii latifolia, Zizyphus jujuba^ 
Punica granatum, Picus glomerata, Grewia asia- 
tica, Saccbarum officianarum, Hordeum hexa- 
sticbum and a variety of Oryza sativa — these- 
ten remove fatigue. 

Vascular sedatives : Pop corn^ Santalnum 
album, fructus Gmeiina arborea, Glycyrbiza 
glabra, rock-candy, Nympbsea stellata, Andro- 
pogon muricatum, Hemidesmus indicum, Tinos- 
pora cordiColia and pavonia odoi'ata — these ten 
relieve 'septus' (internal congestion), by modera- 
ting the cardiac excitement, and rendering the 
heart's action more slow or less forcible. 


Vascular stimulants : Cassia auriculafca (Tab- 
•ernaemontana coronaria ? ), Aqiiilaria agalloclia, 
Coriandrum sativum. Zingiber officinale, Carum 
ajowan, Acarus calamus, Solanum xautliocarpum, 
Paeraiia serratifolia, Colosanthus indica, and 
Piper longum — these ten relieve the chilly sensa- 
tion ( by accelerating the circulation, actin,g on 
the heart and the blood-vessels ). 

Emollients : Diospyros glutinosa, Buchanania 
latifolia, Zizyphus jujuba, xlcacia catechu, Acacia 
bombolah, Alstonia scholaris, Shorea robusta, 
Terrainalia arjuna, Terminah'a tomentosa, and 
Acacia farmensiana — these ten relieve ( the 
burning sensation ) of erysipelas. 

Antirheumatics : Besraodium trilobum, Ura- 
ria logopodioides, Solanum iudicum, Solanum 
xanthocarpum, Ricinus communis, Gymnema 
balsimicum, Santalanum album, Andropogon 
muricatum, Eleteria cardamamum, and Glycyr- 
rhiza glabra — these ten relieve rheumatic (gouty) 
pain (by dissolving uric acid deposits), 

Counter-irritants : Piper longum, radix 
Piper longum, Piper chaba, Plumbago zeylanica, 
Zingiber ofPicianale, Piper nigrum, Pimpinella 
involucrata, Seseli ubanotis, Cuminum cyrainum, 
and Achyranthes repens — these ten relieve 


Stf/ptics : Mel, Glycyrliiza glabra, Crocus 
■sativus, Bombax malabaricum, diatomacious 
earth ( coutaining oxide of iron ), ferric Crilcium 
carbonate, Syniplocos racemosa, Aglaia roxbur- 
ghiana, rock candy, and pop corn — these teti. 
arrest the flow of blood (by vascular contractioii). 

Anodijnefi : — Shorea robusta, Myrica sapida, 
Nauclea cadaniba. radix Nymphaea lotu9, Calo- 
phyllum, inophyllum, Bombax malabaricum, 
Albizzia lebbek, Calamus rotung, Feronia ele- 
phantum and Saraca indica — these ten relieve 

Anaesthetics : Perula assafoetida, Melia azeda- 
rach, Acacia farnesiana, A.corus calamus, Andro- 
pogon acicularis, Herpestis monieria, Corydalis 
cava, Nardostachys jatamansi, Saraca indica, and 
Picrorrhizah kurroa — these ten abolish conscious- 
ness (by inhibiting the functions of the higher 
cerebral centers). 

Apht'odisiacs : CitruUus colocynthis, Herpe- 
stis monieria, Panicum dactylon, Panicum 
frumentaceura, Steriospermum suaveolens, Ter- 
minalia chebula, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Sida cordi- 
folia, and Aglaia roxburghiana — these ten 
increase the reproductive powers. 

Analeptics : Tinospora cordifolfa, Termina- 
lia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica, Vanda roxbur- 


gliii, Panicum dactylon, Caelo^yne ovalis, Hemi- 
desmus indica, Hydi-ocotyle asiatica, Desmodium 
trilobum, and Boerliaavia asiatica — these ten 
prolong life." Charaka I. 4. 12-62' ^«. 

^^> T§^ff?7f?i 'riiHTr^ ^^"i<ni% *r^f^ i 

^ft^ ?:r5i^^^ w^r ^r^t^ '^i^wi^l^ ^i^ra^ vrff^^) »ttt?t^ 

^■^^ i7^€f ?f%w*q^^ ^^T■\ »ft=^^g >?m^ 


1, Pectorals : "Dcsmodium trilobum, Ba- 
tatas paniculata, Sida cordifolia, Sida spinosa, 
Tribulus terrestris, XJraria logopodiodes, Aspara- 

^feiT m\^\^ -^wnf^ ^^T^mpff vf^fiTi I 


gus racemosus, Ichnocarpus fratescens, Hemidis- 
mus indiciis nigra, Celtis orientalis minor, 

Tmv^^ fq^?t1 lis W"?^^! ^^RT'Ti^ aicig'^qr- 

^1m^^=^^^ ?TR=grq^^ifq^-r fti^ ^q*qTqffli^?T«^ ^- 

*flT^[ ffcT ^3T^[r*T ^f^'^pRll^Wlfsf *Tqf^<T I 

aispg^t^^sr^q)^ qj^^Hqrr if^if=^^m?nfq<q^- 

q^T q^^^.^i^tfci ^5? ?iTf^ H'flq'&*'?€l<?Tr5T *Tqf?fr i 
■5i*q3i^iqTic^qT w^"?;r iT^^ »m^ ^'^^^ w^ 


Vitis vinifera, Teramnus labialis, Phaseolus 

trilobus, Solanum inclicum, Solatmm xauthocar- 

pum, BcEi'haavia diffusa, Ricinus communis, 

qiftfc?f;i irf^^ii^ ^^JT'Tf*^^ B"?^ ?CT^(55rg^- 


Clitorse ternata, Tragui involacrata, and AIucLmar 
( Carpopogoa ) prui-iens. These are called 
'vida7'i' and they relieve the derangements of 
'vayiC and ^pitta\ consumption, tubercles, gouty- 
pains, dyspnea and other bronchial troubles. 

II. Antiseptics : Cassia fistula, Randia 
dumentorum, Placourtia ramontclii. Holarrhena 
antidysenterica, Stephania capilata, Acacia 
catechu, Stereospermum suaveolens, Sauseviera 
zeylanica, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Alstonia 
scholaris, Azadirachta indica, Barleria prionitis, 
Barleria buxifolia, Tinospora cordifolia, Pluin- 

wof?fr^ 1 for ^$?Trf^ srlMri'piq^iR vraf^ i 
^^MtairifiSire?^ql?zTT'rlgr5?mi mrft^T ^Fii^^ft- 


h{\go zeylanica, Pongamia glabra, Carissa 
caranda, Trlchosaathes dioica, Opiielia chirayta, 
and Moraordica cliarantia are called ^afagdhadi', 
and they are disinfectants in catarrh, toxemia, 
gonorrhea, skin disease, and abscess cavities, 
and relieve fever, vomiting and pruritus (as 
•symptomatic expressions of the former lesions). 

III. HiEmatiuiGfi : Cratseva religiosa ; 
Barleria cserulea, Morunga plerygosperma, 
Hyperanthera morunga, Sesbania aculeata, 
Gymnema sylvestris, Guilandina bonducella» 
Pongamia glabra, Sanseviera zeylanica, Premna 
serratifolia, Barleria cristata, Momordica 
monadelpha, Coccinea indica, Calotropis gigan- 
tica, Pothos officinalis. Plumbago zeylanica, 
Asparagus racemosus, Aegle marraelos, Gym- 
nema sylvestris, Imperata cylindrica, Solanum 
indicum and Solanum xanthocarpum are called 
'varimadi\ and they relieve (the derangements 
of) 'kapha* and adiposis, headache, adenoncosis 
and adenitis. 

IV. Lithontriptics : Pentaptera arjuna, 
Barleria caerulea, Barleria cristata, Imperata 
cylindrica. Vanda roxburghii, Cyperus pertinens, 
Arundo indica latifolia, Poa cynosuroides, 
Saccharum spontaneum, Coleus aromaticum, 
Premnti serratifolia, Sanseviera zeylanica. 


Calotropis gigantea, Sciudapsus officinalis^ 
Calosantlies indica, Burleria prioriitij^, Nympheea 
stellata, Herpestis monieria, and Tribulus 
terrestris are called ^virataj-vvlkli and they 
relieve stranguary, gravel and urinary calculus. 

V. Oxidizer : RQsin^ Shorearobusta, Termi- 
nalia alata tomentosa, Acacia catechu, Acacia 
arabica. Diospyros embr^^osteris, Areca catecliu,, 
Betulabhojapatra, Gyranerna sylvestris, Ougenia 
dalbergisides, Santalurn album, Pterocarpus 
santaliuus, Dalbergia sissoo, Albizzia lebbek, 
Terminalia tomentosa, Anogeissus iatifolia, 
Terminalia arjuna, Borassus llabelliformis, 
Tectona grandis, Pongamia glabra, Guilandina 
bonducella, Shorea robusta, Aquilaria agallocha, 
and Santalaum xanthocarpum are called ^scila- 
saracU\ and these relieve phlegma, ediposis,. 
and skin-diseases, gonorrhea and anemia. 

VI. AsbHngent disinfectants \ Symplocos 
raceraosa, Symplocos alstonia, Butea frondosa, 
Calosanthes indica, Clerodendron siphoanthus, 
Myrica sapida, Myrica rubra, Boswellia serrata, 
Rubia cordifolia, Shorea robusfca and Musa 
sapientam are called ^rodhradi\ and they 
relieve phlegtuat/ic disposition and adiposis, 
and vaginal diseases, arrest diarrhoea, disinfect 
abscess cavity and neutralize toxins. 


VII. Disinfectants : Caloti-opis gigantica^ 
Calotropis gigantica alba, Pongainia glabra, 
Guilandenia bonducella, Heliotropiurn indicum,, 
Acbyranthes aspera, Clerodeiidnirn, ( siphonan- 
thus, Vandra roxbarghii, Gloriosa superba. 
Batatas panicalata Batatas epulis, Tragia 
involacmta, rock salt, Balanites roxburghii 
are called ''arkadV and they relieve phlegmatic- 
disposition, adiposis, iritestina, worms, skin 
diseases, neutralize toxins and disinfect 
abscess cavity. 

VIII. JPeotorals : — Ocimum sanctum, Oci- 
mum hirsitum, Ocimum frutescens, Andropogon 
shoenanthus, Andropogon martiny, Andropogon 
muricatum, Andropogon iwaraneusa, Cassia escu- 
lenta, Acbyranthes aspera ; Hygrophylla spinosa^. 
Embelia ribos, Myrica sapida, surasi, Vitez 
negundo, Celsia carom andeliana, Salvinia cu- 
cullata, Clerodendron siphonanthus, Kuta 
graveolens, Solanum nigrum and Strycbnos nux- 
vomica are called "surasadl^ and they relieve 
phlegmatic disposition, bacterial Horn, catarrh, 
anorexia, dyspnea and cough and disinfect abscess 

IX. Lithontriptics : — Bignonia indica, Butea 
frondosa, Grislea tomentosa, Plumbago zeylanica,. 
Handia dumetorura, Dalbergia sissoo, Euphorbia 


neriifolia, Terminalia, cliebula, Terminalia belerica 
and Phyllantliiis embelica are called Unushadi* 
and they relieve adiposis, urethral diseases, 
gonorrhea, ciiancre, anemia (symptomatic of the 
other lesions), gravel and urinary calculus. 

X. Stomachics : Piper longum, radix 
Piper longum, Piper chaba, Plumbago zeylanica. 
Zingiber officinale. Piper nigrum, Scindapsus 
officinales, Piper auriinticum, Elettaria cardamo- 
mum, Pimpinella involucrata, fructus Holarrhe- 
na antidysenterica, Stephania hernandifolia. 
Cuminum Cyminum, Sinapis alba, fructus 
Melia azadaroch, Perula assafoetida, Cleroden- 
dron siphonanthus, Sanseviera zeylanica, 
Aconitum heterophyllum, Acorus calamus, 
Embelia ribes and Picrorrhiza kurroa are called 
pippahjadV and tliey are appetizing, stomachic 
and dessicant, and they relieve catarrh, flatule- 
nce, anorexia, glandular swelling and pain. 

XI. Carminatives: Elettaria cardamomum, 
Tabernsemontana coronaria, Saussurea auraticu- 
lata, Nardostachys jatamansi, Andropogon shoe- 
nan thus, Cinnamomum zeylanicnm, Cinnamo- 
mum tamala, Mesua ferrea, Agraia roxburgiana. 
Piper aurantiacum, operculum of Purpura, 
Tamirindus indica,(s?<Hi = pearl-oyster), *sthaune- 
mica* (a yellowish fragrant plant), Canscora 


decussata, Pinus longifolia, Cinnamomum pauci- 
floruna, Andropogoa acicularis, Sida cordifolia, 
Balsamodendron mukula, Shorea Vvobusta, Liqui- 
dambar orientalis, Boswellia seratta, Aquilaria. 
agallocha, Trigonella corniculata, Andropogon 
rauricatum, Cedrus deodara, Crocus sativus, and 
Calopbyllum inopbyllum are called 'elacW and 
tiiey relieve flatulence, pblegnaatic disposition, 
pruritus and urticaria. 

XII-XIII. Stomachics : Acorus calamus, 
Cyperus rotundus, Aconitum beteropbyllum 
Terminalia cbebula, Cedrus deodara, Mesua 
ferrea. Curcuma longa, Berberis asiatica, Uraria 
logopodioides, Holarrbena antidysenterica, and 
Glycyrrhiza glabra are called vachadi and Jim^i- 
dradi and they are galactogogue, antidysenteric 
and particularly stomachic. 

XIV. Laxatives : Hemidesmus indicus, Ich- 
^ocarpus-frutescens,Tpomoeaturpethum Baliosper- 
mum montamum, Canscora decussata, Symplocos 
racemosa, Mallotus philippenensis, Trichosanthes 
dioica, Areca catechu, Salvinia cucullata, Citrul- 
lus colocynthis, Cassia fistula, Pongamia glabra, 
Guilandina bonducella, Tinospora cordifolia, 
Stereospermum suaveolens, Argyreia speciosa, 
Eupholia neriifolia and Cleome felina are called 
sydmddi and they relieve tympanites and ascites. 


XV. Diureties : Solanum indicum, Sola- 
num xanthocarpum, Holarrhena antidysenterica, 
Stephania hernandifolia, and Glycyrrhiza glabra 
are called ^vrhatyad'C and they relieve the 
excess of the humors, anorexia, eructation and 

XVI. Disinfectants : Trichosanthes dioica, 
Santalum album, Pterocarpus santalinus, Sanse- 
viera zeylanica, Tinospora cordifolia, Stephania 
hernandifolia, and Picrorrhiza curroa are called 
patalddi and they are beneficial in anorexia, 
fever, pruritus, and particularly in the asepsis of 
the abscesses. 

XVII. Analeptics : Gymnema balsamicum, 
Gymnema lactif crura, Celtis orientalis, Vitis vini- 
f era, Pliaseolus trilobus, Teramnus labialis, Lepta- 
denia spartinum, Leptadenia reticulata, Tinospora 
cordifolia, Rhus succedama, manna Bambucae, 
Prunus padus (r), Nymphsea lotus, Nymphaea 
odorata, Nyrapha3a pubescens, Mirausops kauki 
and Glycyrrhiza glabra are restorative, stimulant, 
tonic uj ilactogogue and phlegmatic. 

XVIII. Lithontriptics : Alkalies, rock salt, 
Bitumen, iron sulphide, Assafoetida and copper 
sulphide are called usakidi and thfiy relieve 
phlegmatic disposition and adiposis, and urinary 
calculus, gravel and strangury. 


XIX. Vascular Sedatives : Iclinocarpus 
frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Santalum album, 
Prerocarpus santalinus, Prunus padus, Gmelina 
arborea, Bassia latifolia, and Andropogon muri- 
<;atum are called sdrivadi and they relieve poly- 
dipsia, hemorrhage, bilious fever and especially 

XX. Hemostatics : Sulphate of antimony, 
incinerated antimony, Mesua ferrea, Aglaia 
roxburghiana, Nympbaea stellata, Andropogon 
muricatum radix, Nelumbium speciosum, and 
Glycyrrhiza glabra are called anjanddi and they 
relieve hemorrhage, toxemia and internal con- 

XXI. Carminatives : Grewia asiatica, Uvae 
passae, Myrica sapida,Punica granatum,Mimusops 
indica, Strychnos potatorum, Tectouia grandis, 
Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and 
Phyllanthus emblica are called paruskadi and 
they relieve flatulence, urinary troubles, poly- 
dipsia, and are appetizing and cardiac stimulants. 

XXII. Antiseptics : Aglaia roxburghina. 
Mimosa pudica, Woodfordia floribunda, Calo- 
.phyllum inophillum, Pterocarpus santalinus, 
Csesalpinia sappan, Bombax malabaricum, 
antimony sulphide, diatomacious mixture of 
antimony (?), Nelumbium speciaosum, RubJa 


cordifolia, and Iclmocarpus frutescens are called' 
*priyaiigvadi' and they are beneficial in ulcerative 
dysentery, for rejoining the fractured bones and 
as pustulants for the tumors. 

XXIII. Pustulants : Stephania hernandifolia, 
Woodfordia floribunda, Mimosa pudica, Calo- 
santbes indica, Glycyrrbiza glabra, Aegle 
marmelos, Symplocos racemosa, Symplocos 
alstonia, Butte frondosa, Nerium coronarium, 
and Nelumbium speciosum are called amhasthadi 
and tbey are pustulant, and are beneficial in 
fractured bones. 

XXIV. Pustulants : Ficus bengalensis, Eicus 
gloremata, Eicus religiosa, Eicus infectoria, Bassia 
latifolia, Spondias mani,nfera, Terminalia arjuna, 
Mangifera indica, Mangifera sylvatica, Andro- 
pogon acicularis, Cinnamomum tamala, Eugenia 
coryrabosa, Buclmnania latifolia, Glycyrrbiza 
glabra, Picrorrbiza kurroa, Mimusops elengi, 
Nauclea cadamba, Zizypbus jujuba, Diospyros 
embryosterus, Boswellia serrata, Symplocos 
racemosa, Symplocos alstonia, Semicarpus 
anacardium, Butea frondosa, and Cedrela toona 
are called 'nyagrodhddi' and they are pustulants 
and beneficial in the reunion of the fractured 
bones and are vaginal disinfectants. 

XXV. Antijjyretics : Tinospora cordifolia. 


Azadirachta indica, Coriandrum sativum, Santa- 
num album and Prunus padus are called 
*gmluohyckW and tbey are febrifuge, stomacbic 
and relieve eructation, anorexia, polydipsia and 

XXVI. Refrigerants : Nyrapbasa stellata, 
Nympb^a rubra, Nympbasa alba, Nympbsea 
odorata, Nympbsea cierulea, Nelumbium spe- 
ciosum and Glycyrrbizaglabra are called *«</!paZac?i* 
and are refrigerant, antitoxic, bematinic, anti- 
emetic, and relieve heart diseases and epilepsy. 

XXVII. Oxidizers: Cyperus rotundas, 
Curcuma longa, Terminalia cbebula, Pbyllantbus 
emblica, Terminalia belerica, Saussurea aurica- 
lata, Acorus calamus, Stepbania hermanifolia, 
Picrorrbiza kurroa, Pongamia glabra, Aconitum 
heteropbyllum, Elettaria cardamomum, Semicar- 
pus anacardium and Plumbago zeylanica are 
called ^mustddi^ and tbey are oxidizing agents 
(reducing pblegma) stimulating digestion,increas- 
ing the secretion of milk ( in woman ) and act 
as disinfectants in vaginal diseases. 

XXVIII. Astringent antiseptics : Terminalia 
cbebula, Terminalia belerica, and Pbyllantbus 
embelica are known as trlphala and they are 
benelicial in gonorrhea, skin-diseases, in some 
eye-troubles and they are stomachic. 


XXIX. Stomaohics : Piper longum, Piper 
nigrum and Zingiber zerumbet are called triJcatu 
and they are oxidizing agents and are beneficial 
in phlegmatic disposition, adiposis, diabetes, skin- 
diseases, glandular swelling, and anorexia. 

XXX. Stomachics : Phyllanthus emblicay 
Terminaliachebula, Piper longum and Plumbago 
zeylancia are called amalahyadi* and they are 
tonic, stimulating, febrifuge and beneficial to 
the eyes. 

XXXI. Metallic salts : Tin, lead, silver, iron 
and gold (salts), and iron-oxide are called t7'apadi 
and they are bacteri-cidal, antitoxic and beneficial 
in anemia and gonorrhea. ( Tin compounds 
are no more used in modern medicine except as 
filings though in former times stannum oxidatum 
and butyrum stanni, were popular. Lead oxide, 
unguentiim plumbi iodidi, and various other salts 
and preparations of lead are in use, usually for 
external application. Copper likewise has various 
external therapeutic uses. The oleate of copper 
is an admirable astringent, antiseptic and anti- 
parasitic prepartion, especially valuable in various 
forms of tinea trichophytesis ; copper sulphate 
in solid stick is effectively used as a surperficial 
caustic in indolent ulcers, exuberant granulations, 
and in syphilitic and other sores in the mouth 


and the throat. Silver nitrate in weak solutions;: 
has been used externally as an astringent caustic 
and internally in nervous disorders with marked 
benefit. But as it leaves a : dark stain on the 
skin, argentum Crede is preferred by many, 
as the lactate and citrate of silver is claimed to 
possess the power of penetrating the entire 
organism and effecting a general disinfection of 
the entire organism.. Argonin, an organic combi- 
nation of silver with casein, soluble; in water, but 
non-irritant, has been lately introduced in the 
market and is claimed to be antidotal to the 
gonococcus. Argyrol, another non-irritant combi- 
nation, is used in 2 p. c. solution in gonorrheal 
eye-diseases. Various iron preparations ?ive still in 
vogue and administered internally to supply iron 
to hemosrlobin in its deticiencv as in anemia. 
Gold and sodium chloride has marked bactericidal 
powers, resembling mercuric chloride and 
internally in very small doses it acts upon the 
ijflandular structures of the stomach and the 
liver, stimulating nutrition and assimilation ; 
but in larger doses it produces violent gastro- 
enteritis without salivation or ulceration). 

XXXII. Antiparasitics : Lac, Cassia fistula, 
Holarrhena antidysenterica, Nerium odorum, 
Myrica sapida, Curcuma longa, Berberis asiatica, 


Azardirachta indica Alstouia, scbolaris,Jasminum 
grandiflorum and Ficus hefcerophylla are called 
*lahsacU* and they are of astringent, bitterish 
sweetish taste and are antiparasitical. 

XXXIII. Tonics : The roots of Trilobus 
terrestris, Solanum indica, Solanum xanthocar- 
pum, Uraria logopodiodes, Desmodium trilobus, 
are known as 'pancha-mTda* and they are of 
astringent sweet-bitterish taste and are restora- 
tive tonics. 

XXXIV. Stomachics : The roots of Aogle 
raarinelos, Premna serratifolia Calosanthes indica, 
Stereospermum suaveolens and Gmelina arborea 
are called large ^pancha-mJila' and they are 
stomachics of slightly bitter-sweetish taste. 

XXXV. Oxidizers : The five snaall roots and 
the five large roots, are called together 'dasa- 
mula' and they are stomachic and febri-f uge. 

XXXVI. Antiseptics : The roots of Batatas 
paniculata, Iclmocarpus frutescens, Curcuma 
longa, Tinospora cordifolia, and Gymnema 
sylbestre are called ^vall'i-panchamula\ The 
roots of Carissa carandas, Tribulus terrestris, 
Barleria cristata, Asparagus racemosus and 
Hygrophila spinosa are called ^kantaka pancha- 
Qiiula'. These two ^pavbohoimulm'' relieve inflam- 
mation and gonorrhea. 


XXXVII. Diuretics : The roots of Poa 
cynosuroides, Saccharum spontaneum, Phragmi- 
tes communis, Imperata cylindrica and Saccha- 
rum officinarum are called *trna pcmcha-miila' 
and if given with milk, they are diuretic and 
cure urinary troubles." Susruta I. 38. 2-36 ^'\ 

187. ^^t^^ ^^f^'^^^^m *r^f^ i '^mi — f^t^f^j^T U'^\<\ 


Emetics : *'Randia dumetorum, Wrightia 
antidysenterica, Andropogoa serrata, CitruUus 

^rar: ^^# '^'f^ i 


colocyntliis, Luffa pentandra, Luffa amara, 
Sinapis alba, Embelia ribes, Piper longum, 

^MrT^-^TT^^-^^^-gH^r^i^r^l^^i; ^'5 =€Kt ifer i 
n<\M^H'\\ wM'^V'^fwq^: II i^ 


Pongamia glabra, Cassia tora, Bauliiuia varie- 
gata, Cordia niyxa, Melia azadraclita, Withania 

^ft^f^: fqqr^^ 'CWfq^Tfft 1"!: I 
f^^STTRt ^r# f^f^^W^'T cT?TT II Ro 

'^remfft ^r?-^fl'^ ^Tf^fiqig II '^^ 


somnifera, Rumex vesicarius, Pentapetes 
phoenicea, Clitorea ternatea, Crotolaria verru- 

'?ir»ra^Tf^ft^^ arm; ^^5^Tq?'. i 


cosa, Coccinea indica, Acorus calamus, Pyro- 
theca lagenaria and Plumbago zeylanica are 
emetics. And of them, fruits are to be used of 
the plants mentioned above up to Cassia tora, 
and from Crodia myxa roots are to be employed. 

^cTSf* fqxiaii^sT i"^' ^^t^ II ^'^ 

i^^ig^g^''^ q^^ TffT ^1 II ^^ 

^m^ ^^^^^ ^^^^rf^sTTar^: ii ^« 
^^^'^^fr "^^ ^^%t^U'\m'T\ II ^at 

"^m: ^gW: =€)^ 5fiw^^ f^R^cf II \^ 


Purgatives : Iporaoea turpetliura, Ipomoae 
nil, Baliospermum montanum, Salvinia cucul- 
lata, Jasminum sambac, Andropogon acicularis, 
Gymnema sylvesre, Lagenaria vulgaris, Argy- 
reia speciosa, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cleome 
felina, Plumbago zeylanica, Achyranthes aspera, 
Poa cynosuroides, Saccharum spontaneum, Sym- 
plocos racemosa, Mallotus philippenensis, Tri- 
chosanthes dioica, Stereospei'mum suaveolens, 
Areca catechu, Terminalia chebula, Pliyllanthus 
emblica, Terminalia belerica, Indigofera tincto- 
ria, Cassia fistula, E-icinus communis, Guilan- 
dina bonducella, Euphorbia neriifolia, Alstonia 
scholaris, Calatropis gigantea and Cardiosper- 
mum halicacabum are purgatives. And of 
them roots should be used of the plants up to 
Saccharum spontaneum, the bark from symplo- 
tjos racemosa to stereospertnum suaveolens, 
the pigmented granules of the fruit of mallotus 
philippenensis, the fruits from Areca catechu to 
E-icinus communis, the leaves of Guilandina 
bonducella and Galotropis gigantica, and the 
gum-resins ( milky exudations ) of the rest. 

Einetios and purgatives : Luifa araara, 
Stereospermum suaveolens, AnJropOii^on acicu- 
laris, Lufffi pentandra, and Memordica Oharan- 
tica are emetics and purgatives combined. 


En^liines : Piper longara, Embelia ribes, 
Acliyrantlies aspera, Moriiiga pterygosperma, 
Sinapis alba, Albizzia lebbek, Piper nigrum, 
Neriuni oclorum, Coccinea iudica, Clitorea terna- 
tea^ Achyranthes fruticosa, Acorus calamus^ 
Cardiospermum halicacabura, Poagamia 

glabra, Calotropis gigantea, Calotropis procera. 
Allium sativum, Aconitum lieterophyllum, 
Zingiber officioale, Pinus webbiana, Gar- 
cinia xantliocbymus, Ocimum sanctum, Oci- 
mum album, Balanites roxburgliii, Gymuema 
sylvestre, Citrus raedica, Salvadora oleoides, 
Salvadora persica, Jasminura grandiflorum^ 
Shorea robusta, Borassus flabelliformis, Bassia 
latifolia, lac, assafoetida, sodium chloride, wine, 
cow's urine and extract of cow's dung (ammoni- 
um) are errhines. Of these fruits should be taken 
from Piper longum to Piper nigrum, roots from 
Nerium odorum, bulbs from Allium sativum to 
Zingiber officinale, leaves from Pinus webbiana 
to Ocimum album, the bark from Balanites 
roxburghiana to Gymuema sylvestre, tlie flowers 
of the next three plants and the extracts of the 
following next three ; lac and assfoetida are 
resinous exudates, sodium chloride an earthly 
matter ( mineral substance ), and tlje cow's- 


urine and the dung are excretory products." 
Susnital. 39. 2-5' '\ 

Saccharine drugs : The Asclepias ( the JcakoU 
group, Susruta I. 38. 17 led by Gymnema 
balsimicum), milk, butter, fat, bone-marrow, 
Oryza sativa, Oryza praecox, Hordeum hexa- 

^^ II ^l 

WKm ?m II 8 




stichon, Triticum aestivum, phaseolus radiatus, 
fructus Trapa bispinosa, Scrypus kysoor, 
•Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo, Cucumis 
anguinus, Lagenaria vulgaris,Cucumis utilismus, 
Strychnos potatorum, Citrus aurantium, Bucha- 
nania latifolia, Nelumbium speciosiim, Gmelina 
arborea, Biissia latifolia, Vitis vinifera, Phoenix 
sylvetris, Mimusops indica, Borassus flabelli- 
formi, Cocos nucifera, Saccharum officinarum, 
Sida cordifolia, Mucuna pruriens, Batatas pani- 
■culata,Oxystelma esculeBtum, Tribulus terrestris, 
Sanseviera zeylanica, Eoenicum vulgare and 
Cucurbita pepo contain saccharine substances. 

Acids : Punica granata, Phyllanthus embe- 
lica, Citrus raedica, Spondias raangifera, Peronia 
^lephantum, Carissa carondas, Peucedanum sowa, 
Zizyphus jujuba, Tamarindus indicus, Mangifera 
^alvatica, Diospyros embryosterus, fructus 
Calamus rotang, Artocarpus lakucha, Rumex 
vesicarius, Citrus bergamia, curdled milk ( lactic 
acid content ), whey, sour wine, sour gruel, 
fermented rice and barley water and other 
acetous fermentation products belong to the 
acid group. 

Salines : Rock-salt, carbonate of lime (from 
incinerated shells and the salt is recovered by 
lixiviation), soda, potash, ^raumaka' ( salt made 


from the Wcxter of the Roma lake, now known 
cis Sambar ), sea-salt, 'pakrlma' ( salt obtained 
from the ashes of the grain spikes of barley ), 
caustic soda, magnesia, alkaline earth ( contain- 
ing sodium carbonate ) etc. belong to the 
saline class. 

Pimgents : Piperacea) ( led by Piper longum 
of the 'pippaW group 1. 38. 10 ), the Ocimum 
group ( I. 38. 8. ), vitex negando, Moringa 
pterygosperma, Allium sativum, Ciiinamomum 
camphora, Datura fastuosa, Cedrus deodara. 
Piper auranticum, Vernoniu anthelminthica, 
•Canscora decussata, Balsamodendron mukula, 
Cyperus rotund us, Gloriosa superba, Calosanthes 
indica, Sesbania grandiflora, Salvadora persica, 
•etc. and the gum- resins of tlie Shorea robusta 
-group ( 1. 38. 5 ) are pungent. 

Bitters: The Cassia fistula ( I. 38. 3 ) and 
Tinospora cordifolia (I. 38. 21- ) groups, and 
Hydroctyle asiatica, tops of Calamus rotang, 
•Curcuma- longa, Berberis asiatica, Holarrhena 
antidysenterica, Capparis trifolia, Placourtia 
<jataphracta, Alston ia scholaris, Solanum indicuna^ 
Solanum xanthocarpum, Canscora decussata, 
Salvinia cucuUata, Ipomoea tarpethura, Luffa 
amara, Momordica myxta, solanum melongena, 
Oapparis aphylla, Nerium odorum, Jasminum 


grandiflorum, Andropogon acicularis, Acliyran- 
thes aspera, Ficus heterophyllum, Saraca indica, 
Herpestis raonieria, Boerhaavia diffusa, Tragia 
involucrata, and Cardiospermum halicacabum 
are bitter. 

Astringents : The groups led by Picus 
bengalensis ( I. 38. 23 ), Aglaia roxburghiana 
( I. 38. 21 ), Stapbania hernandifolia ( 1. 38. 
22 ), Symplocos racemosa, Terminalia chebula, 
Terminalia belerica, Pbyllantbus embelica, 
Boswellia serrata, Eugenia jambu, Mangifera 
indica, Mimusops elengi, Diospyros embropteris, 
Strycbnos potatorum, Stereospermum suaveolens, 
Earleria cristata, Bauhinia variegata, Caelogyne 
ovalis, Symplocos racemosa, Beta maritima, Marsi- 
lia quadrifolia etc., Oryza montana etc., Pbaseo- 
lus mungo etc., these in brief belong to the 
astringent class. "Susruta 1.42. 15-20^^^ 

Alkalies : Alkalies are obtained from the ashes 

of the following plants. *'Holarrhena antidysen- 
terica, Butea frondosa, Shorea robusta, Eiythrina 
fulgens, Terminalia belerica, Cassia fistula, 
Symplocos racemosa, Asclepia gigantea, Eu- 
phorbia antiquorum, Achyranthes aspera, Bigno- 
nia suaveolens, Methonica superba, Justicia 
ganderussa, Musa paradisiaca, Plumbago zeyla- 
nica, Guilandina bonducella, Jasminum augusti- 
folium, Nerium odorum, Alstonia scholaris, 
Prerana spinosa,Abrus precatorius and Trichosan- 
thes dioeco." Susriita I. 11. 7^°^. 

wi^^ sRi^^'^i^'Ji l-'F^M(i^^^^T^T^T'f^w^1f*T ^ra^Kif^^ insist: 

WZ-^ ^•. 11 X"^ 

^pr g^Tit^T fcrat ^: II K 

^^tfw'fxnrtiriTgfH^^^^^r^ ^?ni:wT^gt ^?t^^ ^'^^^J^ ^«tt^ 


Antiparasital Oils : "The oils of Azadira- 
chta iiidica, Linum usitatissimum, Carthamus 
tinctorius, Kaphanussativus, Andropogon serrata,. 
Holarrbena antidj-senterica, Luffa amara, Calo- 
tropis gigantea. Mallotus philipenensis, Butea 
frondosa, Elettaria cardamomum, Salvadora 
persica, Pongamia glabra. Balanites roxburghii, 
Moringa ptervirospermuni, Sinapis alba, Cleome 
viscosa, Embelia ribes and Cardiospermum I 
halicacabum are acrid, irritant, pungent and 
they are beneficial in ^vayu, kapha\ parasital ( or 
intestinal worms ), or syphilitic skin lesions and 
headache." Siisrutal. 45. 101^"'. 

Ijiuretic and laxative oils : "The oils of 
Ophelia chirayta, Eugenia dalbergioides, Termi- 
nalia belerica, Cocos nucifera, Zizyphus jujuba,^ 
Salvadora persica, Caelagyne ovalis, Buchanania 
latifolia, Bauhinia variegata, Gynandropsis^ 
pentaphylla, Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo, 
Cuciirbita pepo, and Benicassa cerifera are 
sweetish, sedative, non-irritant, diffusive, laxative, 
diuretic and dyspeptic. 


Tlie oils of Bassia latifolia, Gmelina arborea 
and Butea frondosa are sweetish astringent 
and they remove the excess of *kapha and 

Bactericidal emetics and purgatives : The 
oils of Hydrocarpus kurzii ( tuvara is popularly 
known as ^chaidmoogi'o' ), and Seraicarpus ana- 
cardium are of astringent sweetish bitter taste, 
are calorific, emetic, purgative and bactericidal^ 
and are specific in leprosy, adiposis and syphilis- 
( sypliilitic cutaneous manifestations ). 

Oxidizing oils : Tlie oils of turpentine- 
obtained from oleoresins ( by distillation ) of 
Pinus longifolia, Cedrus deodara, Tithymallus 
antiquorium (?), Dalbergia sissoo and Aquilaria 
agallocha are of astringent bitterish pungent 
taste and are beneficial in indolent ulcers, intes- 
tinal worms, catarrhal affection ( of the respira- 
tory tract ) and scrofula. 

Antiaeptic Oils : The fruit-oils of Lagena- 
ria vulgaris, Mangifera sylvetica, Baliospermum 
montanum, Salvinia cucullata, Vernonia anthel- 
minthica, Stereo'spermum suaveolens, Vitex 
negundo, Mallatus philippenensis and Andropo- 
gon aciculatus are of bitterish-pungent astringent 
taste, are purgative and are beneficial in intesti- 


nal worms, skin lesions and indolent ulcers." 
Susrutal. 45. 106-110^ ^^ 

The therapeutic value of these drugs is also 
significant. Many of them are of unquestioned 
effectiveness in the symptomatic treatment of 
the diseases for'which they have been described. 
It is not possible here to go into details as to the 
chemical principles contained in them, for it will 
not only encumber the book with an extraneous 
subject, but many of them have not yet been 
analized in a modern laboratory. However, in 
the popular pragmatic test, they have shown 
their fitness of survival in competition with the 
foreign drugs which unmistakably demonstrates 

192. f^'CIcTf?m^TSf%51i^-f^"icM-5TlKtT--€i^r^^#^'T^^ 
"^ffT II ^o^ 


their therapeutic worth. * Opotheraphy was 
known in its crude form ( Charaka I. 
1- 35 ). Of course it is too much to expect 
that it was known that the activating principles 
of the glands — the hormones, were not destroyed 
by gastric digestion or boiling at ordinary tem- 
perature, or they knew to extract chemically 
pure thyroidin, adrenalin, pancreatin or spermin, 
but they prescribed, never-the-less the testicles 
of goat and cock as potent aphrodisiac ( Charaka, 
YII. 2. 13.'^^ ; YII. 2. 28. i«* ). It is very 

* Those who are further interested in the subject, 
will find in 'A Comparative Hindu Materia Medica* 
which is under preparation, and which contains their 
synonyms, expressions in the vernacular provincial 
dialects, Arabic, Persian, Latin, Greek, English, French 
and German, their botanical order and classification, 
chemical analysis when known and their popular 
therapeutic uses, as well of the allied genera in other 

193. \^^ ^^-m gw* •^TssT^'cwTTi?: i 

194. clH ^'^'[^ T^^ cTW^ ^TWr*TfWT I 

^ ?^'^^^^' TOii' 151^^ «t: II 


likely that the biliary calculus ( rochana ) was^ 
given in intestinal putrefaction, in case of in-^ 
sufficiency of biliary salts, and the cow's urine was 
used in cooking the alkalies in order to add the 
ammonium to the alkalies to make them more 
caustic ( SusriUa I. 11. 6 ), and the dessiccatcd 
cow's dung was either used as a fuel for cautery 
or as heat-absorbent in which some liquid prepa- 
rations were kept for ripening. 


*'There are eight kinds of surgical operations, 
namely, excision ( chhedya ), incision ( hhedya ) 
scarification ( lekJiya ), puncturing ( vedya )^ 
exploration {esya)^ extraction {aharya)^ drainage- 
( visrdvya ) and suturation ( s'ivya ). Eor any 
of these operations, the surgeon must have- 
the following materials ready at hand and 
at his disposal, namely the hlunt surgical 
instruments (yantra), sharp instruments {sastra)^ 
caustics ( ksara ), cautery ( agni ), prohes (salaka),. 
speculum {srnga)^ bottle- gourd (alam)^ bougie 
{jamvavaustha)^ cotton (pichu)^ pad or lint (plota)^ 
silkworm gut {sutra), sponge (^«^r« = leaf ? ),, 
bandage ( patta ), honey, clarified butter, fat, 
milk, oils, irrigator {tarpana)^ disinfectants 
(kasaya), liniments {alepana)^ paste or ointment 
{kalka) and other auxiliary requisites." Susruta 
I. 5. 3 ''\ 

195. cTM si^^ffJir^r^^^T I ff?qsfT — t?j' W3,' %w ^^^^flr?Taf 


"There are one hundred and one kinds of blunt 
instruments [yantra)^ of which the hand is the 
most important, for the hand controls the appli- 
cation of all the (surgical) instruments and without 
it (an adept hand), they can not he manipulated. 
Whatever (foreign body) causes pain to the body 
and the mind, is called 'salya' and the instru- 
ments tbat are necessary to extract the 'salt/as* 
are called '■yantras*. Yantras are of six kinds, 
namely (1) Cruciform forceps {svastika yantra), 
(2) piucer-like forceps (sandamsa yantra), (3) 
pick-lock forceps {tala yantra), (4) cannula {nd(U 
yantra), (5) probes isalaka yantra) and (6) acces- 
sory appliances {iipayantra). Of them the cruci- 
form forceps are of forty kinds, pincer-like 
forceps of twenty kinds, pick-lock forceps two 
kinds, cannulata twenty kinds, probes twenty- 
eights kinds and accessory appliances are of twen- 
ty-five kinds. They are usually made of (steel) 
iron, but, (if it be^ not available, they can be 
also made; of similar (hard) metal. Their blades 
are shaped like those of the carnivorous animals, 
deer, or birds. Therefore likewise they should 
be manufactured, or according to the rules in 
the surgical text-books, or according to the in- 
struction of an expert of surgical instruments. 
They should be of normal size, and according 


to the needs, either with sharp edges or with 
polished curbed ends, of firm structure, pleasant 
appearance and with a good handle. 

Swastika Forceps : — The swastika forceps^ 
should be eighteen fingers' breadth long (about 
12 inches) and their blades shaped like the jaws 
of a \ion(swiJta : 1. Perguson's lion-jawbone-hol- 
ding forceps — osteophore — with strong blades and 
teeth to crush and divide bone) ; tiger {vyaghra : 
2. A bone-gnawing forceps with double-jointed, 
short, concave blades, having sharpened edges) ; 
wolf {vvTia : 3. Eerguson's bone-holding forceps, 
having long, strong handles, and short, straight 
or curved jaws serrated on their internal faces) ;, 
hyena {faraJcsii : 4. Parabeuf's forceps with 
strong grasping teeth all along the inner surface 
of each blade) ; bear {bhalluka : 5. Bulldog for- 
ceps with sliding catch, concave, expanded and 
fenestrated extremities and at the tips, fine 
teeth) ; panther {dv'ljp'i : 6. Gross's bullet for- 
ceps with one blade hooked and the other fene- 
strated and toothed) ; cat {mclrjmxc : 7. Mouse- 
tooth forceps, with one or two fine points 
at the tip of each blade, fitting into hollows 
between the points on the opposite side) ; jackal 
{srgala : 8. Bone forceps, used for seizing and 
tearing away fragments of bone) ; deer {fiarvna ;, 


"9. Bedford's obstetric forceps, short-handled^ 
movable-jointed and having? lo^oj curved, fene- 
strated blades) ; stag [ervvariika ; 10. Bullet- 
forceps, single-jointed, having long delicate 
blades, the tips being expanded and concave on 
their internal side to correspond to the spherical 
shape of the bullet, or the tips are hooked, so 
that they may be forced into the bullet) ; crow 
(kaka), heron (kaskn), osprey {kiirara), golden jay 
(ohasa)j vulture (bhasa)^ hawk {sasaghcit'i), owl 
{liika)^ kite (chllU), black vulture {si/ena), falcon 
igvdhi^a)^ crane {kraiubcha) , ''vrngaraja, anjali- 
karna, avabhailj</na^ nandimukha' etc. (Dental 
forceps, double-jointed, having long handles of 
various curves, and s'lOrt jaws set at various 
angles and shapes to hold and extract different 
teeth in the upper and the lower jaw, resembling 
-the beak of birds ). The blades ( of the swastika 
forceps ) should be joined by a lentil-like 
( Ervum lens ) joint, and the handles should be 
curved like the elepliant-driver's hook. The 
'swastika forceps' are used in extracting foreign 
bodies impacted in bones ( foreign bodies were 
usually shar{)-pointed iron-arrows, used in ancient 
Indian warfare, and though the comparative 
forceps, mentioned above, may be similar, they 
•can not be the sauie, as it needed different kinds 


>of forceps to extract sliarp-poiuted, possibly 
thin-plated steel-arrows, impacted in bones ; the 
•comparison has only been made to give an idea 
of the similarity of the construction of the 
forceps, used in ancient and modern surgery ). 

PlnoerUke Forceps : The pincer-like forceps 
( smidamsa yantra ) are of two kinds, jointed and 
with sliding catcli-spring. They should be 16 
fino^ers' breadth long ( about 10 inches ) and 
they are used in extracting foreign bodies in 
the skin, tissues, vessels and nerves ( sira ) 
and tendons. 

Picklock Forceps : Pick-lock forceps should 
be made 12 fingers' breadth long ( about 8 
■inches ), like the jaw of tish ( dolphin ), serrated 
either on one blade or both the blades and they 
are used in extracting foreign bodies from the 
^ural and nasal passages ( Alligator forceps, 
having delicate, straight or curved wide-opening 
jaws, for use in narrow canals ). 

lubiilar instruments : Tubular instruments 
( uadi yantra ) are many and they serve various 
purposes. Some of them have opening at one 
end, and others at both ends ( or some are single- 
barrelled, and others are double-barrelled ). They 
are used for the extraction of foreign bodies 
from vessels ( Tubul ir forceps, with long and 


slender blades, intended for use through a cannu- 
la or other tubular instrument ), for the explora- 
tion of ( internal ) lesions ( Bougie, a cylindrical 
instrument, resembling a Sound, usually more 
or less flexible and yielding, and which is 
employed in the diagnosis and treatment of 
stricture of tubular passages, such as the urethra 
or the rectum ; 'Probe ^ a slender rod of silver or 
other flexible metal, with blunt bulbous tip, and 
which is used for exploring sinuses, fistulas or 
other cavities ; Sound, an elongated, cylindrical, 
usually curved instrument of metal and which is 
used for exploring the bladder or other cavi- 
ties of the body, or for dilating strictures 
of the urethra or other canal ; with the 
general use of electricity, many devices have 
been perfected, by introducing a tiny incandes- 
cent bulb at the end of the tube and a reflector 
at the top, which projects the exact condition of 
the internal organs as larynx, pharynx or 
urethra, through laryngoscope, pharyngoscope 
and urethroscope ), for suction of fluids ( as 
Catheter^ for draining away urine from the blad- 
er, in case of its retention from any cause ; 
or Trocar for withdrawing fluid from any cavity, 
as in hydrocele ), and for facilities for other 
operations ( as Director in lithotomy ). The 


l)readth and the length of the tubular instrument 
should harmonize with the narrow canal ( in 
which it is to be used ). The tubular instruments 
that are used in fistula-in-ano, gummata, tumors, 
abscesses, for injection, irrigation, in hydrocele, 
ascites, for fumigation, in stricuture of urethra, 
and stricture of the rectum, and other instru- 
ments such as 'alavu yantra^ ( bottle-gourd ? ) 
and speculum will be mentioned later. 

Frobes : The pi.obes ( salaka yantra ) have 
various uses ; their dimension and their length 
are dependent on their requirements. They h^.ve 
their ends shaped like an earthworm, the feathered 
part of an arrow, the hood of a snake, or a fish- 
hook, and there are two varieties of each kind. They 
are used for exploration ( esana, such as Bougie, 
probe or sound ), retraction ( vyuhana^ as by a 
E<etractor ), grafting ( chalcma ) and extraction 
(^aharana, by a tubular forceps ). Eor extraction 
of foreign bodies from vessels, two salaka forceps . 
{ Haemostatic forceps ) are used, whose ends are 
slightly flattened like those of a lentil ( Ervum 
lens ). Six are used for the drainage of pus 
having ends covered with cotton. For the 
application of caustics, three kinds are used 
whose ends are shaped like a spoon with a conical 
-cavity. Por cautery six kinds are used of which 


the orifice is shaped like the fruit of Eugenia 
jambolama, and the other like that of the ele- 
phant-driver's goad. For the removal of the 
nasal polypi, one kind is used whose orifice is- 
shaped like half the stone of Ziziphus jujuba, of 
conical formation with sharp edges (Meyer's ring 
knife or Luc's forceps ). One kind is used for 
the application of ointment ( in the narrow aural 
or nasal passages ) whose both extremities are 
shaped like a pea or a flowering-bud (as in Tilley's 
Burr ). Por the urethral passage one kind is 
used whose circumference is like the flower-stalk, 
of Jasminum grandiflorum. 

Accessory Appliances : — The accessory appli- 
ances are thread, twine, bandage, skin-gloves, 
(^charmmanta), birch-skin ( «;aZZ;aZa = bark ),. 
( tendril of ) creeper ( for gently dislocating 
foreign bodies from delicate sensitive organs or 
abscess cavities ), lint, a large rounded stone, 
hammer ( for loosening foreign bodies impacted 
in bone ), the palm of the hand, the sole of the 
foot, finger, tongue, tooth, nail, mouth ( for 
suction of the fluid as in ascites ), hair, horse-hair 
( for suturation ), a branch ( of a tree, for extrac- 
ting foreign bodies, from superficial wounds ), 
expectoration, fluxing ( causing discharge in the 
eyes or throat to remove foreign bodies ), cheer- 


fulness, loadstones ( used for finding out whether 
there are iron fragments in the wounds, as 
loadstones possess polarity and are attracted by- 
iron ), caustics, cautery and medicines ( including 
disinfectants ). 

These instruments can be applied all over the 
body, any of the limbs, joints, viscera and vessels 
( including nerves ). 

Extraction ( of foreign bodies with pulling : 
nirghatana), injection (of disinfectants in the blad- 
der or enema in the rectum, purana) : bandaging 
( vandhana ), retraction (of the lips of the wound 
by a ^Retractor' for inspection, extraction of the 
foreign body and dii^miQQiioii, {vyuhana) : replace- 
ment ( of the lips of the wound in their proper 
place : varttana), grafting (principally cutaneous, 
to cover the wounded scar : Chalana), wrenching 
( of a foreign body, with a forceps to facilitate its 
extraction : vivarftana), dilatation (of any canal or 
cavity by a 'speculum' for exploration : vivarana)^ 
pressing ( of the wounded parts to loosen the 
foreign body, or for the drainage of the pus, if 
suppuration has taken place : p'idana), dihrnieciiQU 
( of the wound, canal or cavity : visodhana ), 
extraction ( with force : viJcarscma ), pulling out 
( aJiarana ), pulling gently to and fro ( to loosen 
the foreign body : anchhana ), elevation ( of the 


foreign body, in order to loosen it : unnamana ), 
depression ( of the fereign body : vinamana ), 
pressure ( by manipulation of neighboring tissu- 
es : hhahjana ), suction ( by a tube of the fluids, 
as in hydrocele or ascites : acJiTisana ) explora- 
tion ( of canal or sinus : esana ), splitting up 
(a foregn body, to facilitate its removal : darana)^ 
straightening ( of the foreign body, in order to 
loosen it : rjiiharana ), irrigation (of the wound 
with an ''Irrigator' : praksalana ), blowing dis- 
infectant powders, vulneraries or errhines to 
deep seated wound, narrow canal or nasal pas- 
sage : pradhamana ), and rubbing ( with hair- 
brush any wound cavity : 'pramarjjana ) — these 
twenty-four are the uses of the 'yantra* ( blunt 
instruments ). 

As the foreign bodies can be of infinite varie- 
ties, so a wise surgeon must intelligently choose 
his instrument for each individual case. 

Defects in Instruments : Too cumbersome or 
light, long or short appliances, the blades lacking 
the power of grasping, or grasping it badly, bent, 
shaky, too-high-jointed or loose-jointed, loose- 
bladed or loose-tipped appliances are the twelve 
defects in ^yantra* ( blunt instruments ). 

The instrument that is free from these de- 
Infects, and which is eighteen fingers' breadth long, 


is the only proper one, which the surgeon must 
select in surgic;^.! operations. The surgeon shall 
extract, according to the surgical code, the visi- 
ble missile ( salya ) by the ^ Lion jaw forceps* and 
the invisible missiles by ^Jcanlca-mukha'' ( hei^on- 
heahecl forceps = dental forceps ). 

Among the ^yantras\ ^heron-heahed forceps^ 
is the best, as it can be easily introduced every- 
where, and easily withdrawn with the extracted 
missile". Susruta\. 7. 2-18 ^'\ 

qf^'Jir ^^^^rf^T ^i^^m ^T^rai: ^r^airfsT ci^frf ct?reT^t5fii|iii?Ti^qt^i^5?f- 
l??Tf^ 'g^qif'i ^»r?Tf% =^ ^i^?f ii a. 


Sharp Instruments : Sharp instruments 
( sastra ) are of twenty kinds. They are as fol- 
lows : ( 1 ) Cij'cular knife ( mandalagra ) ; 

■ aj^r^ra^i^fq ^Hrn^Rif'!! ^5TTwr5!5Trf% <T5TratJiqfTirT¥lt^r'5i 

ir5fiRqffTl!qf^?T'!I^r«TrcT 11 \° 

^^ ^^ ^^^x^ <i^\^i[ m^^^ h u 


( 2 ) Saw ( hara-patra^ resembling hand, that is, 
consisting of u thin blade with sharp teeth in 
the edge, as the hand has fingers ) 5 ( 3 ) 
Lancet ( vrddhi-patra^ a short, wide, sharp-poin- 
ted and two-edged blade, resembling the leaf of 
^vrddhi' — Batata edulis ) ; ( 4 ) Ca?ialicular 
Jcnife ( nakha-sastra, resembling nail-j)arer ) ; 
( 5 ) Gum lancet ( mudriJca, a short lancet of the 
size and shape of the last phalanx of the index 
finger ) ; ( 6 ) Thumb lancet ( utpala-patra^ re- 
sembling the petal of Nymphsea stellata ) ; ( 7 ) 
Amptitating knife ( arddha-dara, a single- edged 


cuttiog instrument ) ; ( 8 ) Needle ( sucM^ ?t 
slender, sharp-pointed instrument, used for punc- 
turing tbe tissues, for guiding the thread in su- 
turing or for passing a ligature round an artery); 
( 9 ) Bistotu^y ( kusa-patra^ a long, narrow-bladed 
knife, shaped like the 'kusa' grass — Eragrotis 
cynosuroides ) ; (10) Hawk-hill scissor {ati-mukha, 
an instrument with two blades, held together by 
a rivet, moving on the pivot and cutting against 
each other, resembling the bill of 'at'i'' bird — Tur- 
dus Ginginianus ) ; (11) Scissor {sarain-mukhaf 
resembling the long and slender beak of heron ) ; 
{ 12 ) Concave bistoury ( antaramukha, having 
curved blade inside ) ; (13) Trocar [trikurchchaka^. 
an instrument for withdrawing fluid from a cavity 
or for use in paracentesis, consisting of a metal 
tube — 'camiula', open at both ends, in which fits 
a rod with a sharp three-cornered tip, which is 
withdrawn after the instrument has been pushed 
into the cavity ; trocar is derived from Prench 
Hrois^ — three, -f- 'carre' — side, having the same 
meaning of ' tri-kurchchaka'' ) ; (14) Lenticular 
knife ( kutharika, an axe-like knife, resembling- 
cow's tooth ) : ( 15 ) Aspirating needle ( vr'ihi' 
mukha, a hollow needle, used for withdrawing 
fluid from a cavity, an aspirator tube being 
attached to one end, the other end, shaped like 


the rice grain, being thrust into the cavity) ; (16) 
Iredectomy knife ( am, an arrow-headed knife, 
resembling an owl) ; (17) Scalpel {vetasa-patra) 
a pointed, long and slender knife with convex 
edge, resembling the rattan leaf ); (18) Hook 
(vadisa^ an instrument curved or bent near its tip, 
used for fixation of a part or traction ) ; ( 19 ) 
Scale?' ( danta saiikii^ an instrument to remove 
tartar from the teeth ) ; (20) Fine-pointed probe 
( esam, used for dilating contracted lacrymal 
puncta or examining the lacrymal canals). 

Uses : Of them, the Circular Knife and 
the Saw can be used for excision and scarifica- 
tion ; Lancet, Canalicular Knife, Gum Lancet, 
Thumb Lancet and the Amputating Knife for 
excision and incision ; Needle, Bistoury, Hawk-bill 
Scissor, Scissor, Concave Bistoury and the Trocar 
for drainage ( of the fluid cavities ) ; Lenticular 
Knife, Aspirating Needle, Iredectomy Knife and 
the Scalpel for puncturing ; the Needle can also 
be used for puncturing ; Hook and the Scaler 
for extraction(scraping of tartar from the teeth 
etc. ) ; Eine-pointed Probe for finding out the 
passage and the direction of a sinus ; and Needles 
for suturation. In these eight kinds of action 
the use of 'sash^a' ( sharp instruments ) are 


The way these instruments shall be handled, 
shall be described now. The lancet and other incis- 
ing instruments should be held by the top and 
the middle of the handle. For scarification, the 
Lancet and the Circular Knife should be held 
with slightly bent hand. All the drainage 
instruments should be held by the top of the 
handle. J?or the drainage of the fluid cavities, 
children, the aged, the delicately constituted, the 
timid, women, kings and the princes, the Trocar 
should be employed. Of the Aspirating needle, 
the Aspirator should be held in the palm of the 
hand, and the needle between the thumb and the 
index finger. The handle of the Lenticular knife 
should be held in the left hand, and the index 
and middle fingers of the right hand should be 
pressed upon it during operation. Iredectomy 
Knife, Saw and the Fine-pointed Probe should be 
held by the root ( middle of the handle ). The 
rest of the instruments should be held properly 
( as to give the most effective result ). 

The shapes of these instruments are indicated 
by their nomenclature. And the Canalicular 
Knife and the Eine-pointed Probe are eight 
fingers' breadth long ( about 5 inches ). Needles 
shall be described later. The extremity of the 
Hook and the Scaler is slightly curved, and it is 


«harp like the thorn or fine like the young leaf- 
blade of Hordeum liexastichum. The orifice 
of the Fine-pointed Probe is like that of an 
earthworm. The Gum Lancet is of the size of 
the top phalanx of the forefinger. The Scissor 
is ten fingers' breadth long ( about 6 inches ). 
And the rest of the instruments are about 6 
fingers' breadth long ( about 4 inches ). 

Good Instrument^ : The instruments which 
have good handles, are made of good iron (steel), 
are sharp, well-formed, and whose edges are fine 
and even, and without indentation, are the best. 

Defective Instruments : The instruments that 
are bent, blunt, broken, jagged, too cumbersome, 
too light, too long or too short, are defective (these 
are the eight defects in sharp instruments ) . The 
sharp instruments that have the opposite quali- 
ties of these, are to be used, excepting that of 
the Saw, where the jagged sharpness is necessary 
for sawing bones, for which it is used. 

Edges of the Instruments : The edge of the 
incising instruments should be like the thickness 
X)f the tip of Ervum lens, of the scarifying instru- 
ments, half the thickness of that of Ervum lens, 
of the puncturing and the draining instruments 
like that of hair, and of the excising instrument 
half the thickness of the tip of hair. 


Sterilization of the Instilments : Steriliza- 
tion {payana ) of the instruments can be accom- 
pliblied in three ways : (1) by caustics ; (2) by 
water ( by boiling the instrument in water) ; (3) 
by oils (by immersing the instruments in antiseptic 
oils ). The instruments that are used in the 
excision ( extirpation ) of missiles, foreign bodies 
and bone ( saw ) should be sterilized by caustics. 
The instruments for the excision and incision of 
the tissues should be sterilized in water. The 
instruments that are used for the excision of 
vessels and tendons, should be sterilized in 
( antiseptic and boiling ) oils. Eor sharpening 
the instruments, pale, polished stone should be 
used, and to prevent the dullness of the edge 
( and rusting ), they sliould be incased in a box, 
made out of the wood of silk cotton tree ( Bom- 
bax heptaphyllum ). 

The instruments that are very sharp and 
bright, and supplied with good handles and are 
of proper size, should only be used in operation." 
Susnita I. 8. 2-W\ 

A ^S »^ /^ 


Lesions that need Excision Operation : 
■''Excision ( or extii-pation ) should be performed 

iTTf*{I^T W^ ^f5?ts^^^ I sRIlC f^r^^Tf^ I fmWZ ^Mf^- 

m wi^ffi ^^ I w{\T^ g q'f 1= ^i^ ii a, 

cfl-R ^^¥lf^ ^^TfsT ^^Klf^ ^'Wf^ ^^*TtI%cr^^R1^55\^Kfir*T ^m 
aii^^Pq^ II ^ , 

f^^I^r^' ^^fsi^T Tiq^'QT, ^RRi^R^^' aiT'SI^qi^^fflffT II <t 


in fistula-in-ano, tubercles, suppurative tumors^ 
non-suppurative tumors, gummata, wart, foreign 
bodies in bones and tissues, hairy moles, Sarcoma, 
tonsillitis, sloughing tendons-muscles and vessels, 
tumor of the palate, condylomata, myxoma of 
the gullet, chancre, fibroma and myoma. 

Lesions that need Incision : Incision (lancing) 
should be made in all ( suppurative ) tumors, 
except those caused by the derangement of the 
three humors ( non-suppurative tumors ), erysipe- 
las, oscheopyedema, bubo, diabetic boils, carbun- 
cle, galactoposterma ( or mastosyrinx ), pustules 
of the penis, stye, pustules of the foot, fistula, 
suppurative tonsillitis, suppurative eruption of 
the penis, gumma of the cornea, pustular abscess- 
es, abscess on the palate, gum-boils, the tumors 
or sinuses that develop after suppuration, cyst 
formed round tiie nucleus of a calculus, or 
any other kind of suppurative tumor. 

Lesions that need Sca7nfication : Scarification 
should be made in the four forms of throat 
inflammation,leucoderma, ranula, inflammation of 
the gum, tubercles, lachrymal fistula, epiglottitis. 


gummata of the throat, psoriatic patches, and 


Lesions that need JPunctures : Punctures 

should be made in cirsoid aneurysm, hydrocele 

and ascites. 

Lesions that need Probing : Probing should 

be made in fistulas, fistulas with foreign bodies, 

or those extending sideways. 

Lesions that need Extraction : Extraction 

should be made in three kinds of gravel, tartar 

on the teeth, wax in the ears, calculi, foreign 

bodies ( missiles ), mal-presentation of the fetus 

and the impacted feces in the rectum. 

Lesions that need Lrainage : — Drainage 

should be performed in all kinds of (suppurating) 
tumors except those that develop by the- 
derangement of the three humors (non-suppura- 
tive tumors), lepromata, painful abscess, car- 
buncle, otorrhea, elephantiasis, toxic blood (blood 
in the infected region), furuncle, erysipelas, 
cysts, three kinds of chancres (hard, mixed, and 
soft chancres), breast-abscess (or fistula), suppura- 
tive bubo, pyorrhea, abscess and gummata of the 
palate, dental caries (causing suppuration in the 
gum), gingivitis, epulis, ulocase, gumboil, 
chancre of the lips, and pustules. 

Lesions that need Suturation ; — Suturation 


should only be made in those places which have 
been opened and been completely drained off 
(the foreign matter), or the fresh woundsnear the 
movable joints. 

Woimds that are not fit for svturation: 
Sutures should not be applied to those wounds 
caused by caustics, cautery and toxins, or in 
those where there is discharge of gas, or in the 
interior of which there is sanies or foreign body. 
Tliese should be at first disinfected ; dust, hair, 
nails, fragments of bone (any foreign body), 
when ^ound in a wound, should be removed 
before sutures are applied, as otherwise they are 
likely to provoke suppuration and pain. There- 
fore they should at first be disinfected. The lips 
of the wound then should be raised and placed in 
proper apposition, and sutures applied slowly 
with the fine cotton thread, or the bark fiber of 
Caesalpinia digynia, flax, catgut (smyw = tendon), 
hair (horse hair), fibers of Sanseviera zeylanica, 
or Tinospora cordifolia, in any of these sutures, 
(1) Twisted suture {vellitaka)^ (2) Quilled suture 
igoplmikd), (3) Continuous suture {tunna-sevam)^ 
(4) Interrupted suture ivji^-granthi) or any other 
kind best suited to the requirement, and after 
the suturation is over, the sewed parts should be 
gently pressed by the finger and levelled, In 

SURGERY . 513 

parts of the body covered with little flesh, or 
over joints, a full-curved suture needle, of two 
fingers' width long, should be used. Eor fleshy 
parts, a straight, three-edged, suture-needle, { 
three lingers' breadth long, is proper. In the vital 
parts, scrotutn and the abdomen, a half-curved 
suture-needle (curved like a bow) is good. These 
three varieties of needles should be sharp-pointed, 
their body rounded like the flower-stalk of 
Aganosma cargophyllatum, and should be cap- 
able of easy handling. Sutures should not be 
made either too far off or too close to the edges 
of the wound. In the former case, lips of the 
wound will become painful, and in the latter 
case, they may be torn off. Then the stitched 
part should be covered with cotton (as a surgical 
dressing) or linen (as a lint), and a powder com- 
pound of Aglaia roxburghii, antimony sulphide, 
Glycerrhiza glabra, and Symplocos racemosa, or 
the powder of Boswellia serrata or the ashes of 
burnt linen, should be sprinkled over it ( as 
antisepsis). Then after proper bandaging, the 
patient shall be told the hygienic rules, he will 
have to observe." Susruta I. 25. 2-12^^ \ 

198. #5jT wi'^^ T^\ tfi?^%^^^r^: I 


Cmistics : — 'Tor particular purposes, of all 
sharp or accessory instruments, caustics are the 

^rf^ ^ T^^^^ If??: gf^^if?:^!; ii 

l^iwnanft^i^ i^ H'^rf^i^^ II 
iTi^rai: 'isftJii^ H^ z\ cTi^^ I 
gfefift fji^iij^ ^^' ^ ^ MMinftii: I 

^fe^mwlf^^t^'lT t "^ f ^T II « 

^j^ir^cmt ^f%^: f^T€T qfarf^^ i 
t^# ?irll^ ^fs^nfirff^fa^fi^T II 
^3^t% ?iw^ 'it^-w'^ TiretsfRT^im II » 

twi: faiTT ^f f^^T ^Hf %|^^^^ II a^ 

ap3iTf% ^^Tivrfg ^^ f^rf^cT ^t ii ^ 
^[^T f^^: ^^ »Ttg: ^^^tti^ i 

^i^r^T ^: tre^T: ^CRT ^rg'^^aisi: II 
cf]<5?Jl??m; ^^^Tf*T f^q^^^ 55^^^ I 
^^'^TH f^qk ^^^iRd*^ ^ II 

^ftft 1^"^^^ ^^^t: ?ifii^'T^^: H'. 


best (when alkalies in concentrated form (caus- 
tics) are brouf?ht into contact with the animal 

^^^: €\^^^'. ^■;cTT^ ^'^w^ z\ i 
«?a1^^t^ % '? ^ =^^5^5gqTl%fn: ii ^ 
•qra^*T^=rgr^tf% =^jt% ?t?w ^rt h 

tl^ W^* ^T ^^ ^IN^^T ?I^I%cfl I 
^^goi ^'^•s^^ ^fxT JI^^3l?Tmfq ^ II 

?^cn1^f^T: ^=^€t^Ri: ^^?^T%cn: ii .\ 

^TT^a?^ wbI^^ «rs§)^ J^,^»f?T^ II ^ ? 


tissues, they enter into chemical combination 
with the oxygen present, and thus give rise to an 
active necrosis or destructive inflammation ; 
alkalies are likewise solvents of albumin ; these 
physical and chemical properties render the 
caustic alkalies active in producing counter-irri- 
tation, and their escharotic effects have been 
made use of in the destruction of morbid tissue, 
whether of neoplastic or inflammatory origin, and 
chronic synovitis). Due to the escharotic pro- 
perty of the (concentrated) alkalies, they are 
<;alled caustics (ksa}'a). They are acrid, irritant, 
pungent, (and their external use causes) destruc- 
tion of the tissues ( eschars ), corrosion, disin- 
fection, granulation, desiccation, hemostatis, 
scarification, ( and their internal administration 
cures), intestinal worms, hyperacidity, eructation, 
cutaneous lesions, auto-intoxication ; but their 
excessive use induces impotence. 

Alkalies are of two kinds (concentrated which 
is strong, and non-concentrated which is mild), 
for external application (strong) and for internal 
administration (mild). Their external application 

sunaEEY 517 

is indicated in lepromes, keloid, ringworm, leuco- 
derma, psoriasis guttata, fistula-in-ano, tumors, 
indolent ulcers, fistula, condyloma, mole, impe- 
tigo, lichen planus, warts, external sores, dermato- 
phyte, poison-bites, and gummata ; besides these, 
the application of caustics in seven kinds of 
mouth diseases (tumor of the tongue, stomatitis 
ulcerosa, chancres of the lips and the tongue, 
etc.) and three kinds of throat-neoplasms, is 
appropriate. Internally alkalies may be adminis- 
tered in auto-intoxication, adenitis, tympanites, 
indigestion, dyspepsia, anorexia, constipation, 
gravel, calculus, abdominal tumors, intestinal 
worms, poisoning and gummata. However its 
(internal) use is counter-indicated in persons 
who have a tendency to hemorrhage, biliousness, 
in children, the aged or weak persons, or those 
who are suffering from giddiness, delirium, epi- 
lepsy and amaurosis." Susruta I. 11. 2-5^^^*. 

198 (a). ^r^Tgw «f: '^r: wT^Tcw^^-^-%^-^nMfT m- 
^jftr^^m,^^^^^^: ^v^ \^^^^\ im^ ^^w. ^w^\ w^ 


Cautery : "Cautery is more potent in its action 
than caustics. For once cauterized, lesions lose 
their sepsis, and even those which defy the medi- 
cinal, operative and caustic treatments, become 
hereby amenable." Susruta I. 12. 2^^^ 

Leeches : "By leeches ( Hirudo ), bleeding (or 
removal of cong-estion ) can be accomplished in 
the easiest way of kings, wealthy personages, 
women, children, the as-ed, timid, weak or deli- 
cately constitutioned individuals.** Susruta 
I. 13. 2. = "\ 

Enema : "As enema ( vasti ) serves multifari- 
ous purposes, according to the medical experts, 


it is the best of all analeptic ( sneha ) remedies. 
If it be properly applied, it makes the weak 
strong ( Stimulating enema ), the lean stout 
(enema nutriens), the stout lean (enema purgans), 
strengthens eye- sight ( by removing the decom- 
posing materials from the intestine, the toxic 
products of which are absorbed in the system, 
and provoke reflexably various maladies ) and 
prolongs youthf ulness. It promotes the general 
health of the body, adds to its vigor, brightens 
complexion, is a restorative of health and con- 
duces to the logevity of life ; and its use in fever 
(enema purgans), diarrhoea ( enema adstringens ), 
amaurosis, catarrh, cephalalgia, ophthalmia, 
hemiprosoplegia, mimic convulsion, apoplexy, 
general paresis, tympanites, hemiplegia, flatu- 
lence, gravel, hyperalgia, oschitis, syphilis, 
constipation, strangury, bubo, hemorrhage, 
hydrothionuria, fecal impaction, aspermia, meno- 
stasia, galactozemia, cardipalmus, lockjaw, torti- 
collis, piles, calculus and abortion, is appro- 

Fountain-syringe : Eor a boy one year old 
the tube ( netra ) shall be six fingers' breadth 
long, having the dimension of the little finger, 
and . at the extremity of which, the nozzle 
(Jcarnika) should be fixed, one and a half fingers* 


breadth long ; the orifice at the mouth of the 
tube should be like that of a heron's feather, and 
at the end, like Pliaseolus mungo. For a boy of 
eight years of age, the tube shall be eight fingers 
breadth long having the dimension of the ring- 
finger, and at the extremity of it, the nozzle 
should be fixed two fingers' breadth long ; the 
orifice at the mouth of the tube shall be like the 
feather of the vulture, and at the end like 
Phaseolus radiatum. And for a person, sixteen 
years old, the tube shall be ten fingers' breadth 
long, liaving the dimension of the middle finger, 
and at the extremity of it, the nozzle should 
be three and a half fingers' breadth long ; the 
orifice at the mouth of the tube shall be like 
the peacock's feather, and at the end like that 
of a pea. The reservoir {asthapana) for the enema, 
for persons, one, eight or sixtean years of age 
shall be the size of their two handfuls, four 
handfuls, and eight handfuls of their individual 
hands respectively ( the modern fountain-syringe 
is an apparatus, consisting of a rubber reservoir 
for holding fluid for the enema, to the bottom 
of which is attached a rubber tube, provided 
with a suitable nozzle usuallv made of 
vulcanized rubber ; and it is used for rectal or 
vaginal injections, irrigating wounds, etc., the 


force of the flow being regulated by the height 
of the reservoir above the point of discharge ). 

The size of the tiabe and the reservoir is not 
only to be graduated according to the age ( of 
the patient ), but also in addition to it, his 
physical condition and vigor. 

For a person, above twenty five years of age, 
the tube shall be twelve fingers' breadth long, 
having the dimension at the mouth like the 
thumb, and at the end like the little finger, and 
the nozzle shall be three fingers' breadth long ; 
the orifice of the tube at the mouth should be 
like the feather of a female vulture, and at the 
end like the stone of plum. The tube should be 
firmly fixed with the reservoir. And the reservoir 
should be capable of holding twelve handfuls of 
enema. After seventy, the tube shall remain just 
the same, but the quantity of the enema should 
be reduced to that of a person of sixteen years 
of age. 

The tube should be made of gold, silver^ 
copper, bronze, ivory, horn, glass or wood,, 
polished, strong, shaped like the bovine tail with 
gradually reducing dimension, straight and with 
globular orifice. And the reservoir is made out 
of the bladder of the matured cow, bufPalo, boar, 
goat or sheep, and it should be flexible, even. 


strong aud of the required size.*' Susruta 
IV. 35. 2'7'^\ 

?sT^rniii?3«iiifjp!j?ngi:^ff^rf^^^ vm^^ 'ef'»j<ft u^ ^ '^c^^ts^'t 

su;rgery/' 523v 

Fractures : *'One suffering from fractures, 
should avoid salt (sodium chloride), pungents, 
alkalies, acids, sexual indulgence, exposure to 
the sun, exercise and desiccant food. He should 
take cooked fine rice, meat-broth, milk, milk- 
fat, pea soup, and stimulative foods and drinks. 
The bark of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Eicus 
glomerata, Eicus religiosa, Butea frondosa, 
Terminalea arjuna, Bambusae, Shorea robusta 
and Eicus iiidica for splint {ktisa). Eor lini- 
ment, Rubra manjista, Glycyrrhiza glabra, 
Pterocarpum santalinum, and buttered rice- 
paste which has been repeatedly washed in. 
water (that is ftit lias been washed out from 
the surface of the rice paste) should be used. 
The wound should be bandaged every seventh 
day in the wintry season, every fifth day in 
the temperate season, every third day in the 
hot weather, or according to the urgency of 
the needs. But if the bandage (splint) is loose, 
reparation of the joints does not take place, 
and if too tight, it is apt to cause inflammation 
of the tissues, pain and suppuration ; therefore 


it should be properly bandaged (The reparation.' 
of the bone in fractures depends on two factors : 
(1) The fragments of the fractured bone are ta- 
be placed in apposition to one another in the 
normal position, and kept in that condition 
from a week to eight weeks, according to the 
needs of the case, so that the bone can be 
repaired and consolidated. (2) The reparation 
principally takes place in the soft tissues 
surrounding the bone, and from the torn 
periosteum granulation tissue is formed, which 
when calcified forms callus and which by 
ossification is converted into bony structure ;. 
therefore if the splint has been put on before 
the bones have been properly set, or if the 
bandage is loose, or due to movement, the 
fragments change their place, then of course 
reparation can not take place, and after three 
months time, they lose their recuperative 
power ; if on the other hand, [the fragments of 
the bones are very rigidly fixed, face to face, 
without leaving any space between them, and 
the bandage is very tight, there will be then 
minimum of callus formation. Therefore for 
successful reparation, both these extremes are 
to be avoided, and this can be only faithfully 
determined by X ray examination. In children 


aiormally, the reparation is rapid, especially 
in cancellous tissues)." Susruta IV. 3. 2-8^^''. 

Fractures of the Phalanges or dislocation of 
the Metacarpo-Fhalatigeal joints : "Whether 
the phalanges are fractured or the joints are 
dislocated, they should be placed in the normal 
apposition and bandaged (Wyeth's finger- 
bandage or roller-bandage), and upon it (vul- 
nerary) butter should be applied. 

Metatarsal fractures : In the fractures of 

202. W(^' ^Z^ '^\<*\*^' ^^^M{<\HM I 

■J s3 > 

^ra ^ ^m fi'JllI^^tq^^^T ^T 11 »a 


the metatarsus, (vulnerary) liniment should be 
applied, then bandaged, and upon it splint 
should be placed (to prevent motion and 
displacement of the bones). 

Fractures of fibula and femur : In fractures 
of the fibula (tibia) and the femur, the parts 
should be massaged with a liniment and the 
fragmented bones brought to apposition ; then 
after fixing a sphnt, they should be bandaged.. 
If the neck of the femur project, or the frag- 
ments of the bone tear out through the flesh, 
it should be given a circular bandage. 

Fractures of the hipbone : In the fracture 
of the OS innominatum (usually in the neck), 
the raised part of the bone should be lowered, 
and the depressed part raised, and thus it should 
be bandaged. When the hip-joint has been 
put in its normal place, it should be irrigated 
(with a vulnerary or an antiseptic). 

Fractures of the Ribs : If the ribs are 
fractured, they are to be rubbed with a salve,, 
and then after placing a pin (kavalika), the 
ribs are to be fixed by Hwisted suture^ 
{nivandhanl)^ and then bandaged ; later the 
patient is to be laid in an extension splint, 
simple {droiit) or filled with (vulnerary) oil 


Dislocation of the scapulo-humeral joint : In 
the dislocation of the scapulo-humeral joint, the 
humerus is raised, by using a hammer at the 
axilla, and when the hones are in their normal 
apposition, affixed by the 'spica bandage for the 
shoulder^ (svastika-vandhana). 

Dislocation of the ^Ibow-joint : If the el- 
bow joint is dislocated, it should be massaged, 
and then put in the normal position through 
extension and flexion movements ; when it is 
done, it should be salved. The same treatment 
is applicable in the dislocation of the knee-joint, 
ankle-joint and radio-carpal joints (wrist-joint). 

Fractui^es of the metacarpus : In the frac- 
tures of the metacarpus after proper bandaging, 
it should be moistened with a (vulnerary) oil ; 
then to find out the strength of reparation, it 
should be gradually tested by holding upon the 
palm of the hand, a dried cow-dung ball (very 
light), clay-ball, and at last a stone. 

Dislocation of the acromio-clamcidar joint : 
In the dislocation of the acromio-clavicular joint, 
if the (outer end of the) clavicle be displaced 
upwards, or downwards (from the acromion), 
after fomentation, it should be raised in the 
former case bv a hammer, and in the latter case, 
depressed, and bandaged with a strong support 


(Dessault's bandage : in obstinate cases, if the 
displacement persist and cause discomfort, the 
bones should be held together by wiring). 

Fracture of the JELumerus : In the fracture 
of the humerus, the treatment is similar to that 
of the femnr. 

Spj'aiii of the Cervical vertebral articulations : 
If the neck is bent or depressed, it should be 
brought to apposition by pressure upon the cer- 
vical vertebrae and (with the traction- aid of) 
maxillary bones ; it should then be bandaged, 
after splint, and the patient laid to bed on his 
back for a week. 

Dislocation of the Temporo-Maxillary joint : 
In the dislocation of temporo-maxillary or tem- 
poro-mandibular joints, the bones should be put 
in proper apposition and held together by five- 
tailed {panchaiigi) bandage ( used as four-tailed 
bandage now-a-days), and there should be nasal 
injection of errhine, made of a sedative drug- 
cooked in butter. 

Pyorrhea alveolaris : If in young people, the 
teeth become loose, associated with bleeding gum, 
without any external injury, it should be treated 
by antiseptic cold wash and injections ; and the 
patient shall drink milk (during the treatment) 
with the (tubular) stem of Nymphaea stellata. 


In case of old men, the loose teotln sliould be ex- 
tracted (by a forceps). 

Injuries to the Nose : If tbo nasal bone 
•caves ill or is bent (by traumatistn or syphilitic 
lesion), then it should be raised and straightened 
(by a speculum) and then for respiivition, in two 
nasal cavities, two double-mouthed tubes should 
l3e inserted. When it is done, it is to be ban- 
daged, and the bandage to ))e kopt moistened by 
a (vulnerMry) ointment. 

Injuries to the Ear : If the (ossicles of the) 
eai-s are broken, they should l)e put in their 
opposition, then after an applic ition of a (vul- 
nerarv) ointment, thev should be bandaged and 
treated like ordinarv wounds. 

Injuries to the Cranium : — -In the fracture of 
the frontal bone, if the brain matter has not 
vcome out (if the dura matter has not been pene- 
trated or hurt), after liniment, the wound shall 
be bandaged, and the patient shall take clarified 
butter (?) for a week. 

Inflammation : If due to an accidental fall 
vor traumatism, any part ol' tlie body becomes 
inflamed without any (apparent) injury, it shall 
be treated by cold application and fomentation 

Iractures of the Femur and the leg hones : 


In the fractures of the leg-bones (tibia and 
patella) or of the thigh ( femur ), the patient 
has to be lain in wooden extension bed, and 
for the maintenance of the steady traction 
( until the consolidation of the bone has 
taken place, and to prevent the tension of the 
muscles which prevents the reparation of the 
fracture), the leg or the thigh has to be fixed 
with five nails ; thus in the fracture of the leg 
bones, there should be two nails on each side of 
the leg, and against the sole, upon the wooden 
frame (to prevent movement, which interferes 
with consolidation of the fractured bones) ; in 
case of the fracture of the femur, two nails on 
each side of the thigh, and at the hip joint 
should be fixed. (This treatment in the fractures 
of the femur or the leg bones, is very similar to 
the modern practice by Hod gen's nail extension 
splint). This is also applicable in the fractures or 
dislocations of the pelvis, vertebrae and the clavicle. 
If the dislocation is old, this treatment is to be 
preceded by embrocation to soften the ligaments. 
Fractures of Patella : If the fractured pa- 
tella {kanda) has consolidated in wrong apposi- 
tion, it has to be broken up (artificially) and then 
to begin treatment, after putting it in the normal 


Amputation of a dried bone : If the flesh 
has retracted from a protruded bone, leaving it 
dry, then the hone lias to be amputated (by saw) 
carefully up to the fleshy part, and then it has 
to be treated like a fresh wound ( by a recurrent 
bandage)." Susruta IV. 3. 23-42 ";«\ 

203. *rJit WT ^r^f^iir ^i ^i^mra^i^;,^ ^wr i 

^pq^raw^wf 11^^ ^?tt%t: I 

^rofe^f fqf^cT^Tfq ^■^\mr\ ij^^q^ ii \^ 
^sn^^'^ ^fq w€l*rqig ^\^^^ i 
cm: ^pfi%^ ^5^ ^f%f*r: '^gqrw ii 'lyi 

^ijt^^ ^T ^+<i4$i«j*i^ f*i^»?^: II 

^^i^ ^3rt ^T t\m\ m 5irat*^WT II 5^^ 

^'^^ cTWI ^iq»TF;^«'1l^*1T^'^H\ 

^gf^ m: ^f«? q^«T fq tt^ici?^ i 
n^F^rif^^tsf t^t^T^ ^rqtfi II ^^ 


lUiinoplasty : The portion of the nose to be 
covered over, is to be measured (exactly) with a 

^ ci^ ^^ fjMT c[^vf»T^ t^sr; 1 

«Rt*^f! q^f^ Wl^fT?T^ ^ 11 ^l 

^^r^ sn^^^^i ^HTrg^mt^eT: ii ^^ 

l^f^Ht gfiTsfi^ l^^^l f^^ 1^ I 

^TcT¥*T^f : ^f^\ f%f* ^ ^ ^T^(cm^ ii ^a 

cre^^ *T^^?^ ^^MI%q^%; II 

^rm €*it ftrtit ^i ^^It ii^r sMi^m i 
<ifi: itif 5f 13't^ '?ji%^ R^Tq^n It ^^ 


leaf ; and a flap of the required size is to be 
taken from the Uganda* (goitre or the cheek), to be 
ijrafted there, and to support it a metallic 
frame is to he inserted \^it}l two tubes in the 
nostrils to hoUl it in position, and then scraping 
the border (to which the grafting is to be joined). 

^T^ iT^r^T %^m fww tT^ra=^[^<T II ^e 

^W 51f^'5*r^r«Tt Wqr3Jr«i5T f%cT^^ I 
^jQ^W?!^ fl ^ cl% 4-3!(Y^ T\m<^\ II 
'^fil^^if^giir^ fw^\\ %-'^3! s?^§kTF[ I 


and making the surface fresh (to make the graft- 
ing successful), the flap is to be carefully sutur- 
ed. When the grafting has heen properly made, 
a powder made out of Ptercarpus santalinus, 
Glycyrrhiza glabra and sulphate of antimony 
should be sprinkled over the part, and then it 
should be covered with a lint, which is to be kept 
moistened with oleum Sesamura (until the com- 
plete grafting has taken place. The modern 
method of rhinoplasty is almost the same, except 
the two tubes inserted in the nostrils ; to hold the 
metallic frame in position, the metallic frame is 
made to fit tight the scraped pocket in the nasal 
bone, and it is provided with a few nodules 
which are inserted into the nasal bony frame. 
As to the grafting, the English method consists in 
taking a flap from the cheek, as devised by Syme, 
who borrowed it from India ; the Italian and 
the German methods consist of taking the flap 
from the arm ; in osteoplastic rhinoplasty, there 
is a transplantation of a cartilaginous flap to 
replace the septum nasi. The very recent me- 
thod in nasal prosthesis consists of subcutaneous 
injection of a mixture of solid and liquid para- 
ffin, as introduced by Gersuny in 1910. But as 
it might partially melt in the body temperature, 
and thus emigrate and provoke embolism, it has 


l3een improved upon by Eckstein who uses pure 
paraffin, which melts only at 60 degree centigrade 
and solidifies after injection, which can be 
easily performed by Brockaert or Lermoyer*s 
syringe. This has given very satisfactory results). 
Susrutal^ 16. 23= "\ 

204. siWnmF!!' ?f5?^¥TW qci wl^T ^^^i^fM II 


"It is apparent that food and drink act as 
fuel, in tlie p?'oce!>s of metabolism. Vital process 
is sustained wiieu metabolism is fed by this 
fuel. Proper dietary uoiuisbes all the bodily 
element!?, improves complexion and enlivens the 
senses. On the other hand improper dietary 
provokes disease." Charaka I. 27. 2"-"*. 

"Vigor, health, longevity and life itself is 
based on oxidation, Food and drink increase and 
balance the oxidizing process." Charaka I. 27. 
165 =°% 

"The physician that does not know the prin- 
ciples of ^Liefefics\ can not cure diseases." 
Susputa I. 4.6. 3 -''*. 

205. ^(^i^^qT^^^jfio^efi^^iTm.^^^: f^rf^r; I m ^r{^^^'^, 

206. ^^*IRi^?{l§5f^ HI'^ya.^^T^T lTft?fl5cIT: i 

207, sj^iiag^igwT^iT fivrn: ^w^^'^H fr>if^^<5jg aF'w ^m^\ \\\ 



"Evei'V Offifauic bodv contains live substaiicea 
as (1) Minerals and Nitrogenons compounds 
{prfMv'l), (2) ¥7ater (r/p), (3) Hydro-carbons 
{tejas), (i) Carl)o-]iydrates (?w/?i) and (5) Ethet-s. 
{akasa) ; but ifc may be called 'pa'Pthica, iqrf/a, 
ioijasa, vayavya or dhMiya according to the 
predominance of the substance contain(^.d in it. 

Minerals and Nitrofienous Compoimds {pro- 
fein) : The substance tliat is gross {st/mla), dense 
(mra), has a high specific t,n-avitY {sctndra), non- 
pungent {manda), inert {sthira), rough {khara = 
sharp-edged crysials by the different inclination 
of tlieir axes), heavy if/nru), hard {kafhma\ odori- 
ferous {g an dhavo hula = extmctiYe substances of 
tiie meat-protein), slightly astringent i;ls'.d kasaya) 
and sweetish {madJmra), is 'pdrthwa' (organic 
mineral bodies, and protein which contains about 
10 p. c. of nitrogen). This produces firmness (of 
the bony structure by the minerals), physical 
vigor (by protein), hardness (of the bony structure 
by the minerals) muscular tissue-growth (by pro- 
tein), and particularly it has a high specific 

Aquatic substance : The substance that is 
cool {&ita)y moistening {stimlta)^ soft isnigdha)^. 
liquid {ma7ida\ heavy {gurv), fluid i c (so-ra), dense- 
{sdndra), smooth (wrf/-?/), viscous ipichchhila), savo- 


ry ( ram-vahula ), slightly astringent, acid or 
saline {kasaya-amlalavana) and sweetish (madhu- 
ra)^ is apya' (juice of vegetable or meat). It is 
fattening, refreshing, moistening, adhesive (by 
nature), and excretory (diuretic or sudorific in 

Hydrocarbons : The substance that is calo- 
rific {iisnaY penetrative iUksna), fine-textured 
(sUksma), desiccant (ruksa), escharotic {khara)^ 
light [laffhu, in mole6ular weight), transparent 
{visada, particularly liquid oil, having forms and 
containing active principles (rupagtmcwahula), 
slightly acid and saline ( isad amla lavana ) and 
pungent (katu-rasa), is 'tejasa^ (hydrocarbon, that 
is fatty bodies which generate heat. It is very 
likely that the pungent spices were also regarded 
calorific, as the congestive phenomenon with its 
concomittant redness, heat and the hurning sen- 
sation, provoked by its excessive uses, was mis- 
taken for calorific energy). It causes combustion 
(oxidation), digestion, cleavage (of the food par- 
ticles in the alimentary tube), heat, radiation (of 
heat), round face (corpulency) and bright com- 

Carhohydrates : The substance that is fine, 
desiccant, rough (in tactile sensation, by different 
inclinations of the axes as in sugar crystals), 


crystalline, tactile, slightly bitter (?), and astrin- 
gent, is ^vayavya' ( energy-producers, that is 
carbohydrates). It causes corpulence, agility 
(muscular energy), relaxation, desiccation (by 
external application), and motion (as manifesta- 
tion of muscular energy). 

Ethers : The substance that is tenuous, 
rarefied, non-resistant { when a body passes 
through it), diffusive (a solid body has both size 
and shape ; a liquid body takes the shape of the 
vessel in which it is kept : therefore it lacks 
shape, but quantitatively it does not lack size : 
but a gaseous body has neither size nor shape, as 
it diffuses itself in the surrounding atmosphere, 
if it be not confined in a closed container), trans- 
parent, made of diffused particles, tasteless, 
and soniferous, is 'akasiya' ( ethers, volatile oils 
and gas ). It causes pliancy, distension and light- 
ness." Susrutal.4^\.2-1"''\ 


J. — Carhohy Urates. 

Rice : "Tlie autumrial rice (Oryza sjitiva) is- 
sweetisl), produces energy witbout (mucli) heat 
(a gram of carbohydrate or protein produces 4. I 
Calories, ^vliih^ a gram of fat liberates 9. 3 
Calories ), easily digestible, strengthening (dyna- 
mogenesis is due to glYCoq:en, T\'iiicli can be 
raost economic;illy produced in tl»e liumau 
system by the carbohydrate portion of the diet, 
and for glvcogenesis, carbobvdratc in one form 
or another is the staple indispensa1}le faod of 
almost all the human beings, except a fe^^ 
Eskimoes who mostly live on seal-meat and fat, 
and the primitive Indians of Tierra del Faego 
^'ho mainly subsist on shell fish and hunting), 
sedative, causes slight flatulence (in case of 
fermentation), fattening (excess of glycogen, 
produced by the habitual consumption of 

f^ II X 


-tiavljoliydrate more tiian the hodilj^ requirement, 
is at lir«t deposited in the ]»epatic and (lie 
muscle cells; hut if it he not used, it is con- 
verted into adipose tissvies. a.s a stored eiierf>:y 
in case oi future needs), is coustipative, and 
leaves very little lesidue (rice is poor in 
"CsUnlose ; husked rice contains ahout 12. 
water, 7. 12 protein, 1. fat, 76. 8 carholiydrates, 
1. cellulose and 1. p. c. minerals)." Smruta 
I. 46. r> ^«^ 

"■Barley : Barley (Hordeum distichon) is 
astring^-nt sweetish, produces energy without 
much heat generation, acidifyiuii^ (by fermen- 
tation), removes 'kaylia and pUta\ acts as 
vulnerary like the sesame (oil) and in abscesses 
{by external application), a daily food, dimi- 
nishes urinary secretion (oliguria), produces 
flatulence (iu fermentation), hixative iiaving a 
large residue (3. 8 cellulose), promotes longe- 
vity, enhances metabolism, improves memory, 
voice and complexion, viscous (when barley 
powder is dissolved or cooked in water), reduces 
corpulency, adiposis (by iuci'eased metabolism). 

209. fi^^i ^i^<i: ^m ^i^i^r ^T'^i: i 


refrigerent (when drunk internally as a decoc- 
tion), desiccant (by external application) and 
is a purifier of blood and of bilious secretion 
(barley contains about 12. 3 p. c. water, 10. 1 
protein, 1. 9 fat, 3. 8 cellulose, 2. 4 mineral 
matter).'" Svsrutal. 46. 40"^^". 

TFheat : Wheat (Triticum sativum) is 
sweetish, heavy to digest (when not properly 
cooked ), energizing, promotes vigor, aphrodisiac, 
appetizing, fattening, produces energy without 
much heat generation, sedative, vulnerary in 
fractures, diuretic and laxative (wheat contains 
about 12. p. c. water, 11. protein, 1. 7 fat, 
71. 2 carbohydrates, 2. 2 cellulose and I. 9 
mineral matter.)'* Siisrutal. 46. 42^ ^^ 

210. 5fi: ^^i^ '1^^ r^rg 

imK«i'. sltf^imfqrfr^^ ii «o 

^^-^ f%crT, ij^^pw , »^ I 

211. 3fra?T 'gwt *rgtt ^I^^ 


II. — Legumes. 

Legumes : , "Phaseolus mungo (mudga), 
Pbaseolus lobatus {vaua-mudga), Pisum sativum 
{kalaya)^ Phaseolus aconotifolius (mahfsta), 
Ervum lens ( masTa^a), Cicer lens {mangalya ), 
Cicer arietinum {chanaka), Pisum arvense 
{satma), Convolvolus turpethum album {Mputa), 
Lathyrus sylvestris (Jiaremi), Cajan cajan 
{udak'i), etc. are the legumes. They are 
astringent- sweetish, energizing without produc- 
tion of heat, acidifying (in fermentation), 
productive of flatulence, constipation and 
oliguria (Legumes hold an intermediate place 
between carbohydrates and proteids, having 
nearly 18 to 25 p. c. of vegetable protein- 
legumin, (soy bean of Sola soja has about 32. 9 
p. c. of protein, 18. 1 of fat, 28. 7 of carbohy- 
drates, 4. 9 of minerals), half to one and half 
per cent of fat, 50 to 60 p. c. of carbohydrates. 
But unfortunately much of this rich food 
contents can not be absorbed, as they are 
confined in the cellulose, and the human 
stomach lacks sufficient enzymic potency to 


burst open the cellulose shell. However, if it 
be taken in the pure form, enough of it can 
be assimilr>ted to make it a valuable addition 
to the dietary)/' Smmta I. 46. 25-26'^^ = . 

III. — Proteids, 

Meat : j\[eat can be had from 8ix classes 
of animals — (I) Aquatic (jalesat/a), (2) Marshy 
{cinupa)^ (o) Domesticated igmmya), (4) Carni- 
vorous {hravyadd), (5) Perissodactyla {eka- 
kipha, distinguished from arisodactyla), and 
(6) "Wild {jahgala ). (Meat supplies the protein 
needs of tlie oriranism which is about from 
lialf to one gram for each kilo body weight per 
diem, in the most assimi]able,tonic and appetizing 
manner)," Susntta I. 46. 53"-^^. 

Domesticated Animcds : *'The meat of doraes- 
tic^ited animals, relieve flatulence, is nourish- 
ing, produces 'kapha and pitta', is sweetisli 
in taste, non acidifying in reaction, enhances 
metabolism and is stimulating. 

212. ♦jJi^^gS ^^^'^li^ - ?l^?:?^F^^1I^T^€lsTre}J^K^rS^(WcT5t 

213. %%wi\ ^i^qr iii'Rif; jr^jrj^i ^:^■VM wj-^^'^f^ ^pi^r^^Jif: i 


Goat : Goat-meat is oxidized wit 
generation of excessive heat, is lieav 
tougli or fatty), fattening, moderates ' 
hapha*^ cures constipation and catar 
meat is not liked by some for its per 
due to 'hircme\ otherwise if the anim? 
and the meat is not fatty, it is easily di^.^. .,^,. 

liutton : Mutton is nourishing, produces 
'pitta and slesma\ is hard to digest (especially if 
it be of tough fiber or fatty, as the mutton fat 
has a very high melting point). 

Mutton : The mutton of the broad-tailed 
sheep (medajypuchcliha) is a muscle-builder, and 
in other characteristics, it resembles the (ordinary) 

Beef: The beef cures tuberculosis, respira- 
tory diseases, catarrh, and typhoid ; it is very 
beneficial to the hard-workers and for those who 
have good digestion ; it is purifying and relieves 
flatulence." Susruta I. 46. 45-89 ^^\ 

214. [m-m ^ci'fTT: ^^^ ^'f^i: ^risf^Ti^T: i 
^n^^siftf^i^ %qt q^'w^isisT: II c^ 

fill" m^l^ ftraf'?!!^" ^ II c-Q 




isou : The venison is astringent-sweetish^ 

■gestible, relieves flatulence and bilious- 

idizes Avith rapid lieat production, is a 

imulant, and relieves vesical troubles." 

t. 46. 5^"-'\ 

} meat : "Boar's (Sus scrofa) meat is 
..iiic, nourishing, muscle-builder, refrigerant 
(reflex reaction of perspiration ), appetizing^ 
hard to digest (especially fatty and coarse meat) 
fattening, relieves fatigue, flatulence, and is 
strength enini:?." Susruta I. 46. 102- ^^ 

"The meat of boar and pig is fattening, sti- 
mulating, tissue-builder, tonic (removes lassitude), 
carminative, strengthening, appetizing, sudorific 
and heavy." 2. 27. 32 -^'\ 

Folds : "Partridge (perdix chinensis) is 

215. ^ttt: -^^m■\ ^^■^\ ^i^iT ^Tcfftrii^n^^T 's?jt ^%- 

216. ^e*r ^^1!* ?izi" sftci^ c.q'^' 5^ 1 

2l6.(a) i^ t'^^' W =g?ra5Tr5i^Tq'?iT^ I 
^TiTTqfai'", ^^' ti^5f ^^ ^ II 


restorative, enhances metabolism, astringent- 
sweetish, is oxidized with pungency, and is a 
good diet (during convalescence) in acute compli- 
cated cases. '^ Susruta I, 46-59"^'. 

"Snow-partridge (Tetraogallus himalayaensis) 
is slightly heavy, is oxidized with excessive 
heat production, sweetish, is a muscle-builder, 
improves memory (by accelerated circulation} 
and enhances metabolism, tonicises the entire 
system, is laxative and improves the complexion. 
Particularly its white variety cures hiccup,, 
respiratory lesion and flatulence." Susruta I. 46. 

''Chicken is fattening, is oxidized with exces- 
sive production of heat, relieves flatulence, 
builds muscles, improves voice, is strengthening 
and stimulating ; the domesticated chicken is- 
heavier than its wild variety, and is beneficial 
in (fermentative) flatulence, consumption, (acid) 

2! 7. \,n\% ^v;^■^^ ^^^\^^^^ ^i: i 
218. t^5^'^Tigrt 1^1 ^^fti^: I 


vomitings, and (chronic malarial) intermittent 
fever." Sasruta I. 46.63"- ^^ 

**Pigeons etc. are astringent-sweetish, desic- 
cant, frugivorous, provoke flatulenee, pitta and 
Mesma, are oxidized without much heat, produce 
oliguria and leave a very scanty residue. Of 
them, hheda§i causes all kinds of disturbances 
and intestinal decomposition. The wild pigeon 
is astringent sweetish-saline (in taste) and is 
heavy. The domesticated pigeon is beneficial 
in gastrorrhagia, is astringent, stimulating, non- 
acidifying in reaction, and is heavy. The wild 
sparrow is sweetish, fattening, increases 'kapha^ 
and is aphrodisiac. The garden sparrow is 
beneficial in gastrorrhagia, and is a strong aphro- 
disiac.'' Susruta I. 46. 65-69"-^ 

219. %i>rr'€tsrT^r?T ?^; ^^^r^^n^: I 

220. =htiiy*j^r ^^: i^rfi^r 't^^w: I 

*MWMl'i'!f«<*»it ^: ch|<ll«hMtd=h: II ^^ 


"Goose, crane, heron, ruddy goose, osprey, 
teal, duck, pheasant, a variety of crane (Ardea 
nivea), small crane, duck (Pelicanus fusicallus), 
heron, drake, bar-headed goose (Anser indicus), 
Chinese goose (Cygnopsis cygnoides), Turdus 
ginginianus, Corvus aquaticus, 4 members of 
the xlntidse family, water cock, Cocculus melano- 
leucus and the wild goose are called *plava* 
(aquatic floating birds) and they are gregarious. 
They are beneficial in gastrorrhagia, are oxidized 
without the production af excessive heat, fatten- 
ing, muscle-builder, relieve flatulence, laxative 
and diuretic, sweetish, and non-acidifying in 
reaction. But of them the goose is hard to 
digest, is oxidised with the production of an 
excessive heat, sweetish, fattening, improves voice 
and complexion, strengthening, stimulating, 
aphrodisiac and carminative." Susruta I, 46. 105- 


Mollusca : Conch (Strorabus gigas), mussel. 


oyster, snail (Helix pomatia), and large-shelled 
snail or cockle are called 'kosastha' (mollusca). 

Amphibia : Turtle, crocodile, red crab (cancer 
pagurus), shore crab (carcinus moenus), and 
porpoise ( Delphinus gangeticum ) are called 
*padt' (footed). 

They are sweetish, non-acidifying in reaction, 
carminative, are oxidized without the production 
of much heat, fattening, sedative, laxative and 
increases kapha:' Susruta I. 46.108-110^^-. 

Fish : "Fishes are of two kinds— fresh-water 
and marine. ^'Susruta 1. 46.112 2='^ 

'Tresh-water fishes are sweetish, heavy, 

j^w. ^^m^^j i-€[ ^mfwT^ ii \ e'o 
222, ajtaJt'l<slHjRtiai*^5Hi3f5(^cra: ^aj^: n \oz: 

^ku: f^['>JT ffcn: fq^ ^im: %%^i^: \\ x\o 


carminative, hemorrhagic, are oxidized with 
production of excessive heat, aphrodisiac, fatten- 
in£f, and leave little residue. *'Susruta 1.46. 

''Sea-fishes are heavy, fattening, sweetisb, do 
not increase 'pitta' excessively, are oxidized with 
an excessive production of heat, carminative, 
muscle-builder, and increase 'slepna'." Susruta 
I. 46.120" "-^ 

Milk : "There are eight kinds of milk 
(available for general uses, viz. : cow's milk, 
goat's milk, camel's milk, sheep's milk, buffalo's 
milk, mare's milk, woman's milk and elephant's 
milk. As these animals eat various kinds of 
food-stuffs, and their milk is the essence of the 
product of their metabolism (during lactation), 
therefore the milk is vitalizing, heavy (?), sweet, 
viscid, refrigerant, fattening^ emollient, laxative 
and demulcent ; so the milk is regarded as the 
vital fluid (product) of the animal. 

224, iTlfqi T^^l *Io5IT 5!I^€t ?n^cITxr?7: I 

-25. ^ig?jr 31^: ^r^\ wiKi ^Tifcrrq^^r: i 


As milk is beneficial to the (young) animal' 
(for growth and development), so all kinds of 
milk are good for the animal life. Only it is 
counter-indicated in the derangements of 'vata^. 
pitta, Mood and mind'. It is beneficial in 
chronic fever, bronchitis, dyspnea, consumption, 
tuberculosis, cancers, insanity, tymphanites, 
epilepsy, vertigo, intoxication, hypersemia. 
polydipsia^ cardiac troubles, vesical lesions, 
anemia, chronic dysentery, piles, colic, ascites, 
diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, diseases of the female 
genital apparatus (gonorrhea), abortion, gastror- 
rhagia, fatigue, and pleurisy. Milk is depurant, 
strengthening, muscle-builder, oxidizer, fattening, 
restorative, analeptic, delays senility, promotes 
longevity, vitalizing, stimulating, emetic, laxa- 
tive, and having the same quality of the bone- 
marrow, it increases hematogenesis. It is a 
good diet for the children, the aged, wounded, 
emaciated, starved, or those exhausted by sexual 

Cotv*s milk : Cow*s milk is non-salivant, 
fattening, heavy (?), oxidizer, beneficial in 
gastrorrhagia, refrigerant, sweetish, non-acidify- 
ing in reaction (?), vitalizing and very hypoten- 

Goafs milk : Goat's milk possesses the same- 


properties as cow's milk ; but it is specially 
beneficial in tuberculosis, is light, restorative 
and cures dyspnea, bronchitis and gastrorrhagia ; 
as the goats are of small size, feed upon pungent- 
bitter substances, drink little water and take 
constant exercise, their milk is good in all 

Gamers milk : Camel's milk is desiccant (?), 
calorific, slightly saline, of pleasant taste, light, 
and is beneficial in inflammation, cancers, 
ascites, piles, intestinal wornis^ skin lesions and 

Eice^s milk : Ewe*s milk is sweetish, fatten- 
ing, heavy (fat : 6.18), and moderates ^'kapha 
and pitta' ; it is a good diet in rheumatism and 
hebetic cough. 

Buffalo's milk : Buffalo's milk is salivant, 
sweetish, lowers metabolism (?), somnifacient 
and induces chills (as the buffalo abounds in 
marshy places, where the malaria is rampant, 
the symptoms-complex, especially the chills and 
the metabolic derancjements of malaria have 
been mistakenly attributed to the buffalo's milk); 
the buffalo's milk contains more fat than the 
cow's milk, and is heavier. 

Mare^s milk : Mare's milk is strengthening, 
beneficial in the rheumatism of the extremitieSv 


of acidulated sweetish saline taste, desiccant 
and lififht. 

IVoinait's milk : Woman's milk is sweetish, 
astringent, refrigerant, can be used for irrigation 
of the nose and the eye-lids, promotes health, 
is light and oxidizing, 

Elephanfs milk : Elephant's milk is sweetish, 
astringent, muscle-builder^ heavy, fattening, 
increases vigor, is beneficial to the eyes and is 

The milk, milked in the morning, due to the 
cooling influence of the night, and lack of 
exercise of the animals, is heavy, constipative 
and refrigerant ; the evening milk, on the other 
Jiand, as the animals are warmed by the sun, 
exercise and respiration, relieves rheumatism 
and fatigue and is beneficial to the eyes. 

Raw milk is salivant and heavy, but if it be 
boiled, it becomes lighter ( milk if exposed, 
especially in a tropical country, becomes soon 
contaminated, and it is a good precaution to 
boil it before using it ) ; but this does not apply 
to woman's milk, where it is beneficial when it 
is fresh. Milk becomes contaminated, if after 
milking, it be exposed to cool itself ; but if it be 
too much boiled, it becomes heavy, but retains 
its tissue-building property. 


The milk that is foul-smelling, sourish, dis- 
<;olored, or of perverted taste, or if it be mixed 
with salt, or coagulated, should not be used, 
Susruta I. 45. 44-57'" ^ 

226. JiswTaT' ^m =^?^lf^# *flf%q^ ?IfT I 

^^ift^r' cm ^icT-fqTi?r* q^?T '^cm ii a^ 

^^^* ^w^' f%f%^^* ■^\^\^ ^-f I 
5ltqi^€r^^wf¥* T%rFni«r^rtr?^^ II ac 


Sour-milk : "Sour milk of cow is fattening, 
sweet in reaction (lactic acid in reaction) oxidi- 
zer, carminative, depurant ( anti-putrefactive ), 
and appetizing," Stisruta I. 45. 61-*'^. 

sf^ia^cisRV: qi^zi" ^^^ ^ ^■^^\^ w sir 


^fswT fejiT: ^i€ffn3T^^ f% cii%cT«^ II «i.yL 

ctt^lfcT^Jcf ^e^" ^ 1['=?^5^^ II a.€ 
227. %»^' f^qili fl^ ?1q^ g^l^t^JT I 


Whey : "Whey is acidulated sweetish 
astringent, is oxidized rapidly, light, pungent, 
oxidizer, antitoxic, is beneficial in ( intestinal ) 
inflammation, diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, piles, 
splenitis, tumors, intermittent fever, polydipsia, 
vomiting, stomatitis, colic, adiposis, catarrh and 
flatulence ; it is non-acidifying in reaction (?), 
cardiac stimulant, beneficial in strangury, 
adipositis, and is not a tissue builder. Susruta 
I. 45. 77''^ 

III. — Fats. 

Gutter : "Fresh-churned butter is energizing, 
calorific ( d'ipana ) and cardiac stimulant, and is 
benefical in chronic dysentery, piles, trismus 
and anorexia." CharaJca 1, 27. 100'^'. 

Oil ; Sesame oil is slightly astringent, of 
pleasant taste, minute ( of minute fat globules ), 
calorific, diffusive, increases ^pitta' ( pitta is 
regarded as the humor and the seat of com- 

228. -m ^'^w^' '^WiWMW^^'^ ^ ^^^f^r#pr* ^Rs^qncft- 

229- ^Vi"f% ftxTFT f^* ?T^^* ^^?T, I 


bustion energy and li eat -metabolism), is laxative 
and diuretic. It does not increase plilegma, 
but is tbe best carminative ; it is energizing, 
beneficial to the skin, increases fat {inedas) and 
beat ( agnivaoxldJma )/' ' Chciraka I. 27, 137 -^'^ 

IV. — Vegetahles. 

Vegetables : ''The cucumber, ( Cucumis 
sativus ), field cucumber ( Cucumis utilissimus ), 
gourd (Benincasa cerifera), water-melon etc. are 
indigestible, retards digestion ( of other foods ), 
refrigerant, savorous, phlegmatic, laxative, 
diuretic, contain potash and are sweetish./^ 
Susruta I. 46. 221 -''''. 

"The lotus root, the lotus, esculent root of 
the lotus, fibers of the stalk of the lotus, root 
of Scripus kysoor, Trapa bisponosa and water 
weeds are indiirestible, arrest dioestion and are 

231. ^glr5^^-c}f^kw55li!V^iTO#rff 11 'iR^ 


refriged-ant ; the stall:, flower and fruit of wbite 
and blue water lilies ( Nymplu'ea esouienta and 
Nymph sea stellata ) are savorous, astringent, 
refrigerant, and provoke ^iMegma" and flatulence. 
Oharaka I. 27. 54' 3^ 

Fruits : "Fomegranate is astringnt, non- 
calorific, oxidizer, appetizing, refreshing and 
constipative. bum^uta I. 46. 144"^". 

''Frune provokes excessive flatulence, is 
laxative and reduces 'kapha and yiltd !^ Susruia 
I. 46. 169=^'*. 

"Fiff retards digestion, is sweet, fattening, 
refreshing and indigestible." Sus^'uta I. 46.. 

^'Cocoa-nut is indigestible, fattening, moderates 
*pitta% sweetish, refrigerant, energizing, refresh- 

232. or^sr^g^f<yi^-^^l<^»ioh^^w II 

233. ^^^T^?:^* ^^j ^if^* ^ftftfi^w i 

^^^^ ^f^< i?j ^iff^^i^fST?T II 

234- '5is?lf ^Tctvi 'ifTf^ sn?^* ^qifqrlfsi^ II ^^e 


ing, stimulatiDg and diuretic." Susrnta I. 46. 

Grape is laxative, improves voice, sweet, 
fattening, refrigerant, and relieves gastrorrhagia, 
febricula, dyspnea, polydipsia, hyperemia and 
emaciation." Stisruta I. 27. 146"^'^. 

V. — Stimulants. ' 

Salt is appetizing, digestive, laxative and 
carminative.'' Charaka I. 27. 146-^^. 

Spices : "Eoeniculum Nigella indica, Ptycho- 
tis ajowan, Cumminum cyminum, Coriandrum 
sativum and the leaf of Piper longum are 
digestive, oxidizing, carminative, antitoxic 

( relieves 'kapha* ) and is deodorant." Charaka 
I. 27. 148^39^ 

236. ^]K%^' ^"^ fw^' ftxi^* ^^ S^lcf^W.. ! 

'•.TtiN-n^Kji.^l^-iVJlKl^T^liliij^l 11 ^cc 

^^d-y r^cil, ♦ic)^M*1^, 8^ 1 


^^< 'j\di<\i ^o=i mfch <^ ^^r-itjim^+i ji 


^K^: iii^^i^i3{) ^w T^Wfj<^<% 1 

<t=^«i ^^'\ «<m*qi^1jW'iiaj»i*iji 

^^5*1-^ r^dT, ''^^i^HfTv, R^o 1 


Liquors : "All acidulated wines cause bili- 
ousness, increase digestive power, are appetizing^ 
emetic, desiccant, carminative, cardiac stimulant^ 
vesical disinfectant ( ? ), easily oxidized, irritant, 
are oxidized with liberation of excessive heat^ 
pungent, excitant of the senses, exhilarant,. 
laxative and diuretic." Susriita I. 45. 155 ''*". 

"Neto Wine is salivant, heavy, provokes 
flatulence, has disagreeable flavor, non-savorous,, 
non-refreshing and irritant. 

Old Wine has fine aroma, stimulates digestion ^ 
is refreshing, ai^petizing, antlielmintic ( or 
bactericidal ), depurant ( ? ), quickly oxidized,, 
desiccant and carminative." Susnita I. 45. 

240. ^^' fqTl^^ ?T?jW ^tq*lT:t=g*1T, I 

21-1. i4 ^R^^Trn'i^ir^ 1^ ^TcTff^'-i.tq'i^, I 


"The wine that is opaque, irritant, malodor- 
ous, insijjid, with yeast fermentation, heavy, non- 
enlivening, new, sharp ( with a high percentage 
of alcohol), oxidized with a great amount of heat, 
which has been kept in a foul vessel, which has 
been made with insufficient materials, which has 
been kept exposed in an open bowl over night, 
colorless, should not be taken, as well as the 
wine left over from another person." Susruta 
I. 45. 185-^^\ 

"Wine is prescribed in emaciation, strangury, 
chronic dysentery, or for the person who has 
lost blood ; it is a carminative and a galactago- 
gue. It is beneficial in hiccup, dyspnea, catarrh, 
bronchitis, constipation, anorexia, vomiting, 
tympanites, fecal impaction, and flatulence. 
''Susruta I. 27. 93" *^ 

242. ^T^* f^^rff ^^ f^^* %f«^' ^I^ I 
24-3. iiaiFrr ^rm^^T'nt ^^f^sjwff^ft'JiT'T, i 


VL- Water. 

"The water falling from the clouds is tasteless 
( without any distinct taste ), vitalizing ( acts as 
an ambrosia ), beneficial to life, refreshing, sus- 
taining, circulatory ( entering into every tissue 
metabolism ), and removes lassitude, fatigue, 
thirst, intoxication, vertigo, somnolence, sleep 
and hyperemia. 

The water-vapor of the sky falling upon the 
earth takes the taste of the place where it falls, 
and the water of the river, rivulet, lake, pond, 
dam, well, pool, fountain, vegetable sap, sub- 
terranean stream, field inundation, and pond in a 
swampy region covered with algae and filled 
with water-weeds, is swee^iish." Susruta I. 45. 

**The water vapor of the sky falls upon the 
earth in different ways, viz. : as ( 1 ) rain ; { 2 ) 
hail ; ( 3 ) dew ; and (4) snow. Of them, the 
rain-water is the best for its lightness. The rain 


also comes from ( the vapor of ) two sources — 
Gangetic ( sweet ) diid oceanic (saline)." Siisrttfa 
1. 45. 5'^^ 

"Of them, rain from the Gangetic ( vapor ) 
is the best." Susriita I. 45. 5**^ 

JPolluted Walter : "The water swarming with 
bacteria, polluted by their toxins, or by (human )> 
excreta, decomposed egg or dead body, covered 
with grasses and ( fallen ) leaves, contaminated 
or poisoned, or the inundation water of the first 
rainy season, if bathed in, or drunk by a person, 
makes him suffer soon from external lesioHj. 
( skin-diseases for bathing ) and internal troubles 
( intestinal disorders for drinking ). 

The water that contains slime, mud, oris 
covered with algae, water- weeds and lotus-leaves 
etc. and in »vhich (the rays of) the sun, (the beams 
of ) the moon, and air ( aeration can not take 
place ) can not penetrate, and which is distin- 
guished by any smell, color or taste, that water 
is to be regarded as contaminated. 

The contaiTiinated water is marked by six 

24 G. ^]w g'l; v<^\^^\ 


faults — in ^oucli, appearance, taste, smell, action 
and reaction Roaghness ( due to the presence of 
sand or grit ) viscosity ( bacterial decomposition 
especially of the vegetable matter ), warmth 
( due to carbonic acid gas ), tooth-sensibility 
{ due to hstringency or any other chemical agent 
or bacterial product ) are the touch-faults of con- 
taminated water. Mud, sand, slime and colorings 
( chloropLyl ) are the appearance faults. Any 
pronounced taste is the taste-fault. Poul-smelling 
is the smell-fault. If, when drunk, the water 
causes thirst, heaviness ( in the stomach ), colic, 
and expectoration, it is due to its action-fault. 
If when drunk, the water takes a long time for 
its digestion ( passage, absorption and excretion ) 
and is retained in the alimentary canal, it is the 
reaction fault. These faults are not found in the 
water ( that falls upon the earth from conden- 
sation of the water- vapors ) of the sky. 

SterilizatioH of Water : Water should be 
sterilized, if of contaminated source, by boiling, 
warming in the sun, or by throwing into it, 
red-hot iron-balls, sand and stones, For its 
deodoi-ization, flowers of Rotleria tinctoria, 
Michelia champaca, Nymph sea cerula, and 
Bignonia suaveolens should be kept in water 


Tue water saturated with tlie fragrance of 
the flower, should be drunk in a gold, silver, 
copper, bronze, crystal or earthen bowl. Pollut- 
ed water, or untimely rain water should be 
always avoided. He who drinks water not 
sterilized by boiling etc. , is apt to suffer from 
inflammation, anemia, diseases, indigestion, 
bronchitis, dyspnea, catarrh, colic, tumor, 
ascites and other malignant diseases." Susriita 
1, 45. 6-lP*^ 

247. ^s^gfl^T^-ai^HfTf^fqcm. I 
^T ^ f^TT^^q ffcr I cT q% ^^ft% 1 ^f^ II <£ 

mm T.m^ cTW ^m irf'irfrasfq ^ i 

H^T^?f'^' -fl^t ^T ^f«? ^f%^ fqtfT II 


Fure water : "The water that is without 
smell, distinct taste, that 'juenches thirst, 
that is pure, cool, transparent, h'ght and 
refreshing-, is to be regarded as 'pure loater'."^ 
Susrutal, 45. 13'* \ 

^^■\\ IT f^WR^ ^^ii'T ^\7^ji\7[ T^^^^ ^\\\\ 


Hospital : "By an expert architect, a large 
5iouse should be built ; it should be strong, 
but not drafty, except the current of air shall 
pass in one direction ; it should be so built 
that one can easily move about within it ; it 
should be built on an elevated place (having 
nothing higher than it in the locality), and 
within, it should be free from smoke, sun 
(exposure to the sun was regarded injurious ; 
its disinfectant and sterilizing property was not 
understood), dust, noise, (sensual) touch, (excit- 
ing) ocular impressions, (spicy) taste, and 
(penetrating) smell (that is, whatever excites 
the nerves and disturbs the nervous quietude) ; 
and it should be provided with stair- 
case, mortar, pestle, toilet, bath-room and 

There attendants (interns) for nursing the 

sick, should be appointed, who are of good 

character, are pure (free from any disease), 

obedient, clever, kind-hearted, fit for any kind 

'Of work (associated with nursing hospital 


duties), expert in cooking, in bath-attendance, 
massage, capable of lifting and putting the 
sick into bed, and who do not show unwilling- 
ness for any kind of work. There experts 
should be enErasred who are well-versed in 
singing, music, (in recitation of) prayers, poems, 
hymns, stories, history and contemporary 
events [(for the distraction of the mind and 
entertainment of the sick). 

There should be also kept (in the enclosure) 
Tetraoperdix himalayensis, Galloperdix spadi- 
ceus, hare, stag (Cervus elaphus), black deer, 
black-tailed deer (Cervus cashmirianus), Dama 
platyceros, and sheep. As well as gentle, 
milking cows with calved, free from diseases 
should be kept, and for them feed, sleeping 
places (stable) and drinking water should be 

There should be also cistern, pail, tub, 
cask, keg, pitcher, jar, ewer, platter, dipper, 
cooking-pot, double-boiler, bandage, thread, 
cotton, animal thread (horse-hair for sutu ration), 
a comfortable bed with all accessories, jug, 
spittoon, and all that are necessary for leaning 
(easy chair), sitting, (for the application of) 
ointment, sweating, massage, emplastrum, 
fomentation, embrocation, emetics, sedatives. 


vulnerary enemata, oily enemata, errliines, 
urination and purgation/' Cliaraka I. 15, 5-9' *^ 
Qualifications of a Surgeon : "For the 
practice of operative surgery, a physician has 
to get the license from the king, and for this 
h^ has to acquire a thorough knowledge of the 
medical science and surgery, must have keen 
observation and experience of operations (under 
a licensed preceptor or in a hospital) ; and 
before an operation, he has to pair his nails 
(to prevent sepsis, and to carry pathogenic 


germs and spread infection from patient to 
patient), to cut short Iiis hair (shaving for the 
same purpose), become purified (free from any 
disease, and disinfected) and shall put on 
(washed, disinfected) white robeL, (and shall go 
to the operation) with umbrella (on his head),, 
stick in his hand, sandals (in his feet), robes 
not highly raised (gracefully attired), having 
pleasant speech, uprighteous conduct, friendly 
to all living beings, and succor of the good."" 
Susruta I. 10. 2- ^ . 

I. — Dietetic JSygeine. 

''Desiccated (for losing flavor and savor), or 
decomposed meat (to prevent ptomaine poison- 
ing), or meat from a deceased animal ^to pre- 
vent the infection of the pathogenic germs of 
the disease from which the animal has died), 
or killed by poisoning, or by a venomous snake, 
or by an instrument which has been covered 


i\atli poisons, too old (the meat of an old animal 
is not only tough and unsavorous, but it also 
contains an excessive amount of metabolic 
wastes, due to the deficiency of glandular 
secretions and incomplete oxidation), or too 
young ( the meat of a young animal contains an 
excessive amount of purine bodies, and extract- 
ives are not yet formed, which exert a tonic 
effect on the organism)/' Susruta I. 46. 129 "'^. 
Evil Effects of Over-Nutrition : Any one 
who with sedentary habits, indulges in fatty, 
•sweet, heavy, viscid foods, new rice, new wine, 
meat of animals of marshy region, or aquatic 
creatures, milk, and milk-products, sugai-prepa- 
rations, and cakes excessively, is subject to diathe- 
sis of various lesions, and if he does not take 
precautionary measures against them, he suffers 
from diabetes, pruritus, eczema, impetigo, jaun- 
dice, fever ; skin diseases,hyperacidity, stran- 
gury, anorexia, somnolence, impotence, adiposis, 
lassitude, foul-emanation from the body, encrust- 
ing ( calcification ) of the vascular system, 

251. ■g^snftf^^^qitrr^^f^^giisi^^i^iJTgi^Tr^rft'ut ^\m^- 


intellectual fatigue, enervation, ascites and othep 
diseases." Charakal. 23. 2 -■'". 

"A stimulant taken in proper dose increases 
the strength and weight of the body, but taken 
excessively, it reduces the body-weight (by induc- 
ing hyper-metabolism )." Chai^aka I. 22. 
25 -'^. 

Seasonal diefetic variations : "He who un- 
derstands and follows the hygienic and dietetic 
regulations for each season, by his seasonal vari- 

252. ^Jfiq'tiffi g[: feiV ^^^Jr^fqf^'rr : I 
l^ra'^'T^JI^''^ ?lt%^T5Tq^Tf<5f : II 

253. q^* -g^g^^q^^^ ^T3?f ft^r??^^ ^*T J 


ation of diet improves his complexion and increas- 
es his visror." CharaTca I 6. 2 ^^'a. 

Seasonal variation of food is conducive to 
health and vitality. In the summer one does not 
need so much fat as in the winter, as the caloric 
needs of the organism is much less, owing to the 
less radiation of heat from the hody surface to 
the surrounding atmosphere. And as the cold 
air contains more oxygen, the increased oxygen- 
intake naturally enhances metabolism, and there- 
fore one has in the winter better appetite, and 
can digest a large quantity of meat and other 
nitrogenous food, which in the summer may 
easily cause gastro-intestinal troubles. Carbo- 
hydrate needs of the body are also increased, as to 
keep the body warm, one is apt to move and to 
take exercise, which naturally consumes more 
glycogen than in the summer, and therefore an 
increased intake of carbohydrates becomes neces- 
sary. "Due to the contact of the cold air, digest- 
ive fire is confined, and consequently its vitality 
( metabolism ) is increased ; for this reason in 

253. (a) cT^fajcTrar^T^Krf^* ^'^ ^t^ I 


winter, one can digest much more heavy stuffs 
( than in the summer )." Charaka I. 6. 9 '^*. 

Not to eat rapidly : Do not eat too rapidly. 
For if eaten too rapidly, the ingesta does not give 
adequate savor, nor is it properly fixed ( masti- 
cated and saturated with salivary ferments), and 
is abnormal in its course in the alimentary canal, 
and its normal reactions are not perceived ; there- 
fore one should not eat too rapidly.'' Charaka 

III. 1. 19 ^^^ 

A lean person has more vitality than a fat 
person : "To make a fat person lean, indigest- 
ible food (which is insufficiently assimilated, but 
only given to satiate hunger ) and fasting should 
be prescribed. And to make a lean man fat, 
easily digestible food to satiation should be given," 
Charaka I. 21. 16 ''^ "But though both lean- 
ness and fatness have their inconvenience, be- 
tween them, leanness is preferable, for in a 

254. 3|,^ stlcTlfiT^Wf^^'^it ^f^Tt ^# I 

255. ^Tf^tfcffi^sim I ^fe^^ f% ^wym m^^'{*^\^'^^^m^m\- 

256. 5^ '^Tciq''!!^^* ^^rfft ^^^' flf^ I 


disease, a fat individual suffers more ( accumu- 
lation of fat in tlie body is due to fundamentals : 
( 1 ) Eitlier excess of food is taken, especially 
carbohydrates, beyond tlie bodily ):eeds, and with 
good digestion, tlie surplus of converted glycogen 
above the current expenditure is stored in the 
body as fat ; to a moderate extent, this is very 
becoming, as it beautifies the form of the body ;, 
but in excess it is apt to interfere with the action 
of the heart and other vital orsrans bv pressure 
as well as fatty infiltration. However, the dys- 
peptics do not get fat and remain lean with 
excessiv^e amount of food, for the ingesta can be 
only partly absorbed, due to deficiency, quanti- 
tatively and qualitatively, of digestive enzymes^ 
( 2 ) Patty accumulation and degeneration takes 
place in hypo-metabolism, due to glandular defici- 
ency as in myxedema. On the other hand, hyper- 
metabolism causes gradual emaciation. As vita- 
litv is related with metabolism, so leanness not 
associated with nutritional insufficiency or wast- 
ing diseases, has more resisting power against 
pathogenic micro-organisms )." Charaha I. 21. 

Z56. (a) ^I^^TS^ -^i. s^^w €??ttT^i;^rT f% cH I 


Mental excitement interferes with Digestion : 
**Worry, sorrow, fear, anger, sadness, perplexity 
and vigilance ( sleeplessness ) interfere with 
digestion, even if the food be good and taken in 
right quantity ( mental excitement arrests the 
digestive secretions, and by raising the blood 
pressure by excessive secretion of adrenalin, the 
sympathetic nervous system becomes irritated y 
Charaka III. 2. 6-'^ 

Mouth Bygiene : "After eating, one should 
repeatedly gargle, and wash out the mouth ( to 
wash out the food particles tliat may be in the 
buccal cavity, to prevent their harboringof micro- 
organisms which cause decomposition and foul 
odor of the mouth)." Susruta I. 46. 620^' \ 
"Food particles sticking in or within the (crevices 
of) teeth, should be taken out slowly with tooth- 
picks ; for otherwise they cause foulness of the 
mouth ( The negligence of these two simple oral 
hygienic rules, is spreading fast in India, as in 

257. T[raa[Ttg«i^^cT w^' =^t^" ^ #^f?T i 

258. iraratr^fp:!^* mT^^ W^T' » 


Europe, the Dental Caries )." Susruta I. 46„ 

Foods to he avoided : "The food that is dis- 
colored, contaminated, left over ( from the plate 
of some one else ), mixed with pebbles, grass or 
similar substances, repulsive in appearance, kept 
over night, insipid, or decomposed, should not be 
taken ; nor the food that is cooked for a long 
time ( vitamine is destroyed by over-cooking or 
cooking at a high temperature ), is hardened 
( digestive ferments can not penetrate through 
hardened masses ), cold ( the injesta has to be 
heated to the body temperature before the 
digestive ferments can act energetically upon 
them and they can be absorbed ), cooked again, 
porridge having uneven cooked grains, and what 
is cooked at a high temperature.'* Susruta I. 46. 

II. — General Hygiene 

Not to interfere with the natural call of 
Nature : "An intelligent person should not 

259. ^'ripri^iim^m' s^t^^^'^i^A; I 

260- ^=^^* ^tif^'n' qT^I1!(?Wl?^^ I 


retain (interfere with the passage by the voluntary 
contraction of the muscles) feces, urine, intestinal 
gas, vomiting, sneezing, yawning, hunger, thirst, 
tears, sleep or the fatigued breath ( carbon 
dioxide)." CJiaraka 1. 7. 2''\ 

Periodic Cleaning of the System : *'Ia the 
spring, in the rainy season, and the autumn, one 
should cleanse his system. First he should use oint- 
ment, then sweating, and after that emetics and 
purgatives. Later enemata and errhines should be 
given ( The periodic flushing of the intestines by 
enemata or purgatives, is now recognized by all 
as a good hygienic prophylaxis. In weakness 
of the kidney, Turkish bath twice or thrice a year 
is also very desirable, to throw out of the system 
the accumulated toxins through the skin, which 
the kidney has failed to eliminate or as a relief to 
the over- worked kidneys )." Charaka I. 7. 35"^-. 

26 1 . ^ %J[\^ ^TT^TIH STTrfrsT ^^H'^^ I I 

262. ??m^Tra^ ?TTf% Tff^ TTwt h't: I 
€=f^ ^^^^ "^A ^i^^^€^^»T II 


Physical Exercise % Exercise is the exerti 
to invigorate and to increase the strength of the 
body ; one should take physical exercise 
measuredly. Eor it induces lightness, agility, 
vigor, endurance,vemoves flatulence, and increases 
metabolism. But if it be doo e in excess, it 
brings about lassitude, fati?" spermatorrhea, 

gastrorrhagia, dyspnea, b^ onchitis, fever and 
vomiting". Charaka I. 7. 24-26''^ 

Excess to be avoided : "An intelligent person, 
even if necessary, should not indulge in excess of 
exercise, laughing, speaking, travelling, sexual 
intercourse and vigilance.*' Charaka 1. 7. 27"®*. 

'*A person who takes regular exercise, and 
■eats after his previous meal has been digested, 
and takes barley and wheat, does not suffer from 

263. 5r^=C^T ^J =C^ ^""^d^r! ^^^f^^ I 

ffoq|yH*i'?gJTcTT ^T^?IT cTi" ^fn=^T<i II 

^ir: WW. =^2i^^r ^^f^Ti hctt^^: i 
'^RTsiramfi: ^T#t ^^r^ff ^ ^T^ II 

"264. aiFlTTf l^VTT^I^^'fn^^R^lT'Kr^ i 

^f^fTprfq %tcT I%in5TRT»TTg?n II 


over-eating, and he loses his adiposis. ^'Charaha 
I. 23. 10'''. 

Viirgatives and Purgation : "The best of root 
purgatives is Ipomcea turpethum, of the barks — 
Symplocos racemosa, of the fruits — Terminalia 
chebula, of the oils — ^Ricinus communis ( castor 
oil ), of the juice — Cleome pentaphylla, and of 
the milky exudations — that of Euphorbige anti qu- 
orum." Susruta I. 44. 2"^^ 

"The effectiveness of purgation is marked by 
subsidence of weakness, emaciation ( loss of body 
weight ), fatigue and the course of the disease, 
the improvement of the heart's action, clearness 
of complexion, normal appetite and thirst, 
normal inclination for evacuation of feces and 
urine, improvement in the sense perceptions and 

265. stiramfH^ ^'BTsfi sf^ift^wTtsT^; i 

266. ^re'nnT Trj^-^^ ^■^' ^fkT.'^^ \ 
5n?T5t fti^^wi w^^f^ '^fT^ II 


the mind, passage of the intestinal gas, and the 
increased metabolism." Charaka I. 16. 3^*''^. 

Do not sneeze before covering your mouth : 
"'Without covering your mouth, do not yawn, 
sneeze or laugh ( to prevent the spreading of 
pathogenic germs, especially the Bacilli 
tuberculosis)." Charaka I. 8. 17"''^. 

Treatment against Poisoning : In the j&rst 
poisoning, the patient should be made to vomit 
( the poison that has been ingested by an emetic ) 
and then after giving cold water ( to dissolve the 
poison that may be sticking to the wall of the 
alimentary canal ), a detoxicant mixed with 
butter and honey should be given ( to neutralize 
the toxins, and to make them comparatively 
innocuous by chemical combinations )" Susruta 
V. 2. 25'^ ^ 

Treatment against venomous snake-hite : 

267. ^wm ^rra4 ^if^sgf^m^fcfT ^f%: I 

268, TT^'lcT^^ 5»iTt '^T^ =fl^' ^ U^^cT I 


■^'If the arm or leg is bitten by a snake ( if it be 
subcutaneous, the poisoning is slow, but if 
intravascular, it is rapid ), a tiglit ligature should 
be made about four fingers' breadth above 
the wound, to prevent the poison flowing 
upward ( with the. blood or lymph ) by cord, 
leather-band or tree bark ( tourniquet, to com- 
press tlie blood and the lymphatic vessels). 
Where tight ligature is not possible, free inci- 
sions should be made near the bite ( to drain out 
the poisoned blood and the lymph) and the affect- 
ed area cauterized (preferably by a liquid caustic, 
permanganate of potash — 3 p. c. solution — 
which can penetrate deep into the tissues quickly). 
Suction ( by hygroscopic calcined stones which 
suck the fluid with the poisonous principles ), 
incision ( to drain out the poisoned blood and 
the lympth ) and cauterization ( to destroy the 
poisonous principles and the poisoned area ) are 
always applicable ( after tight ligature ). 
Susruta V. 5. 2*^°. Injection of polyvalent 
antivenom serum has proved very promising. 

269, imt fwwi g ^T^" altcn^tr^cwj 

270. €^%Tr^ci: ^q': sii^r^^^ tf%*ii i 

584j ancient HINDU MEDICINE 

III. Sexual Hygiene. 

Physical JIaturify • "An intelligent physi- 
cian should know that man at 25 years of age 
and woman at 16 attain at their ( physical ) 
maturity with full ( organic ) development.'* 
Susrutal. 35. 9-'^ 

'*He who cares for longevity should not have 
sexual intercourse, before he is 16 years old, or 
after he is 70 ( Though a hoy at 16 has his sper- 
matozoa developed and is capable of reproduction, 
yet he needs to conserve and utilize the spermin 
up to the age of 25 for the development of his body 
and mind ; in old age, the tension of copulation 
is liable to cause rupture of the calcified and 
friable blood-vessels )." Charaha VI. 2. 60-^^. 

271. qgfi't cTtfr ■^^ ^^\\ srncl g ^Tf^ ! 

272. -im" ^" qtf nT^^TfT ^hsit: qr^ t "^ i 


Tuberculosis increases sexual desire : "If 
a tuberculous patient ( consumptive ) gradually 
loses his strength, and his expectorations in- 
crease, yet he is fond of sexual intercourse, the 
disease will lead him to his death ( It is well 
known that the tubercular patients become very 
sexually inclined ; it is very probable that the 
rich phosphorus contents of the Bacillus tuber- 
culosis become liberated in the disintegration 
process as a reaction of the organism, and this 
circulating with the blood acts as an aphrodi- 
siac, and consequently sexual erethism is one 
of the most distinguished characteristics of this 
disease)." CharakaYl. 3. 5^'^. 

Sexual ifitercourse forbidden : "Do not 
have sexual intercourse with a menstruating 
woman (there seems to be a universal prejudice 
against intercourse with a menstruating woman ;^ 
it is possible that the presence of blood has been 
regarded by the primitive man as impure, or 
unesthetic ; it is probable, however, that the 
motive is more utilitarian, as many of the 
religious observances, regulations and injunc- 
tions are certainly based on principles of 

273. -^^ i\^^ ^^ ^f^mT^^ ^t% i 


hygiene or economic considerations ; in apparent- 
ly cured and neglected old gonorrhea, the 
gonococci might still live in the upper tract, 
and may be dislodged with the ^ow of the 
menstrual blood, and cause urethritis to the 
man with whom she may have copulation, 
while in other times it might remain entirely 
innocuous ; a menstruating woman on her part 
is rather sexually inclined during that period, 
and would be much relieved of turgescence by 
the embrace), with a diseased, or unclean woman 
(for hygienic reasons) or with one whose vagina 
is narrow (vaginismus), whose beauty does not 
appeal (rouse the senses), or whose conduct is 
repulsive or who is artless, homely, or one who 
goes with other men (thus can be infected and 
spread the disease) ; nor go with another man's 
wife ; nor practise bestiality, or unnatural vices 
(sodomy and pederasty)." Charaka I. 8. 

ApJirodisiccc : "A pretty, youthful, well-form- 
ed, charmingly attired, willing and well-educated 

274. ST ^ra^T iigrt ^m'<^t f[mm ^Tf^^'i^'^Rtq^TTt *tt^ 
■'TMI'lt Ti^^Wt 5ii*«ire??j" IT'tl^Tr't ^wl^ ^wr^fi I 


woman (wife) is the best aphrodisiac (in impo- 
tence)." CharahaYll. 2. 5"'% 

Impregnation : "In the (sexual) congress 
of man and woman, by the nervous tension 
heat (tumescence) is generated. The heat and 
(vaginal) secretion provoke the discharge of the 
semen, and which unites with the ovum {arttava 
is a vague expression ; but it is certain that it 
meant more than menstruation blood, as it 
could not exist after menstrual flow ceased ; 
perhaps it was an indistinct conception of the 
ovule which when it becomes ripe, ruptures 
the Graafian follicle in which it is enclosed and 
causes menstruation). Then the united sperm 
and the ovum (the fecundated ovum) reach the 
uterus." Susruta III. 3. 3^'\ 

"As the germination (of a seed) takes place 
by the combination of proper season, field, 
moisture and seed, so pregnancy is developed 

275, ^%^[ ^ftspT^T ?TT ^ra^^srf r^«j[f^cIT 1 

276. ci^ wh"€^: ^''^^ ^\ w^<\^\^h^\'^^ i cm^^sf^- 


by their proper combination ( ?'^«* = proper 
season standing for the first 12 days after 
menstruation ; kseh^a = field for uterus- amvu=s 
moisture for ovum ; vija = seed, for sperm, i. e. 
for spermatozoon)." Susrnta III. 2. 33^^'. 

Heredity : "The child inherits the charac- 
teristics of the parents acquired by them under 
the influence of diet, behaviour and (physical and 
mental) exertions, during their copulation (in 
which the impregnation takes place. Though 
hereditary transmission can not be explained 
by such a simple formula, yet it is undeniable 
that the germplasms must be under profound 
impression of the physical and the mental state 
of the parents in the time of fertilization. An. 
irritable spermatozoon either by alcohol, or by 
the morbid condition of blood, is very apt to 
create the same diathesis in the offspring)."' 
Susruta III. 9. 63-^\ 

"He who abstains from meat and wine, and 

277. '^^ =ggiQT* ^Tf^^T^w; '^ifwf*^^^: i 

278. ^r^?n^K=€^rfvf?TT?ai)fvi: ^^f^fft i 


takes only beneficial food, and leads a pure 
(bygienic) life, be and bis descendants do not 
suffer from insanity." Charalza VI. 9. 63 *^^ 

"If a man copulates witb a menstruating 
woman on tbe first day of her course, be shortens 
his life, and there is embryonic abortion of the 
fruit of conception ; if on the second day, there 
is still-birth ; if on the third day, the child is 
of incomplete development and becomes short- 
bved ; but if on the fourth day, the child is well- 
developed and possesses good vitality (a long life). 
As a thing (floating substance) thrown in a river 
can not ascend up-stream against the course 
of the current, so when the menstrual blood 
flows, the seed (spermatozoon) can not enter in 
and become active (during the copulative act, 
the forward and the backward movement, 
especially of the glans-penis, acts almost like a 
valve of the suction-pump, creating a kind of 
vacuum state, widening the mouth of the 
womb, deflating it and drawing it forward, so 
that when the semen is discharged, it shoots like 
a jet of spray and is sucked by the womb with 


the ovum ; in case the vagina is filled with 
menstrual hlood or fluid, this suction can not but 
be incomplete ; the vaginal secretions at the 
entrance of the penis or in strong sexual desire 
serve simply to lubricate the passage, so that the 
delicate mucous membrane can not be hurt ). 
Therefore one should not indulge in the sexual 
union during the first three days of menstruation^ 
nor (after twelve days) in the month (in the second 
week the ovum begins to degenerate, and either 
it is incapable of fertilization, or if fecundated, it 
is apt to reproduce a weakling )." Susruta III. 2. 


Sex-determination of the offspring : "If a male 
child is desired, the husband should practise 
continence for a month ( to increase sexual 
erethism and vigor ), and after fattening himself 
with clarified butter, milk-fat, milk and rice, 
shall copulate with his wife after music, endear- 
ments ( to excite the senses ) and assurance of 

280. cT^ T{^ f^^ ^giiHjr v^^^r^wTrg^' g*^ «^fti » ^ 

Tf^flT% ^ ftsi' irf^^* 5^^T vr^fir, ^jm i?rt sif^^cr: 3t1% '^ 
irf^* jfftTr*T^^ ^" I'^fcT cTft^ ^^5jm \ ciB?Tfi'ST?m^ f^rm* 


love to her, on the fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth or 
twelfth day of menstruation, and she likewise 
should have lived a continent life for a month, 
fattened herself with clarified hutter and fed on 
oily and nitrogenous foods. 

If the conjugal duty is performed on these 
days, it conduces to ( the promotion of ) wisdom, 
lonsjevity, health, increase of population, wealth 
and strength. 

If a girl is desired , sexual union should take 
place on the fifth, seventh, ninth or eleventh day. 
Prom the thirteenth day ( up to the new 
monthly cycle ; from the second week after 
menstruation, the ovum begins to deteriorate and 
is usually incapable of impregnation ) cohabita- 
tion is blameworthy ( as the union is fruitless, 
it is only for the sensual gratification and 
indulgence, and not for the welfare of the race)". 
Susruta III. 2. 28-30=^' \ 


Sex-determination is still speculative. It was 
believed a few years ago that there were two 
lands of ovum, male and female, the former 
produced by the right ovary and the latter by 
the left. By animal experimentation and 
human ovariotomy, it has . been found to be 
erroneous. The egg produced by the ovary is 
still bi-sexual, hermaphroditic in nature, and its 
sex is not determined like all its mono-cellular 
prototypes, before it phylogenetically ascends 
the scale of evolution, that is before amphimixis 
is started through the process ef fertilization by 
the male reproductive cell. That is the starting 
point of sexual differentiation which begins with 
the impregnation of the ovum. The question then 
arises whether the sex determinant resides in the 
spermatozoon or in the ovum. In the Hymenop- 
tera an accessory chromosome has been found 
in neai'ly half the spermatozoa, and it was 
regarded by McClung as the sex determining 
factor. It may be simply an Hdatif — bearer of 
arrested hereditary trait. But the experiments of 
Loeb have demonstrated that the spermatozoon, 
at least in the lower scale of evolution, only acts 
^s a stimulant to start the amphimixis, and it can 
be substituted by artificial chemical stimulus. 
And in the aphids, partbenogenetic generations 



alternate with the sexual reproductions, yet both 
the males and the females develop from the 
unfertilized eggs, thus proving clearly that the 
male sperms are not essential as sex-determinants 
and which must therefore lie in the ovum 
at the time of conception. As the females are 
anabolic and the males catabolic, it has been 
supposed that the anabolic condition of the ovum 
at the time of the conception is apt to reproduce 
the female, and the catabolic the male. On this 
hypothesis, some have advanced the theory that 
over-nutrition during gestation is likely to reproduce 
the female. Though overnutrition is a condition 
of anabolism, it is certainly a misconception to 
base the conclusion that somatic behavior could 
change the characteristics of the germ-cell. It 
is very likely that menstruation is the process 
of getting rid of the female organism of the 
reproductive anabolic surplus, as periodical 
nocturnal emission in man, which can be only 
utilized, in case of conception, for the fetal 
nutrition ; as likewise during lactation the nurs- 
ing mother does not menstruate, as the anabo- 
lic surplus is being transformed as an extra- 
uterine nutrition for the nursing baby in the 
form of milk. But anabolism is a condition of 
le over-nutrition, it is only so in the dynam^'^ 


sense. Over-feeding the female before concep- 
tion or daring gestation can not make a catabo- 
lic ovum anabolic, nor can under-nutrition cliange 
an anabolic ovum into catabolic. The anabolic 
or the catabolic state of the ovum depends on 
its internal vitality and the age of its maturity 
after ovulation. So the determination of sex, 
depending on so many delicate factors, as the 
relative age of the mother on which depends 
the vitality of the ovum, the age of the ovum 
at the time of impregnation on which depends its 
anabolism or catabolism, (the fourth day and 
the fifth day after menstruation being catabolic, 
from the fifth to eighth day anabolic, from eighth 
to fifteenth catabolic and later degenerative 
changes begin to take place), and the relative 
asre of the father to the mother on which 
depends the vitality of the spermatozoon and 
which is sure in process of impregnation by its 
momentum to cause molecular changes in the 
ovum, can not positively with any certainty be 
calculated beforehand. And to this may be 
added the general anabolic and catabolic condi- 
tion of health. Reed emphasizes particularly 
on the point. Life having originated in the 
sea as ^gymnooytoda' or 'lapocytoda^ from which 
must have developed nucleated cell, the germ- 



plasm, the primitive ancestral cell, wbicli it 
closely resembles, and which in its embryonic 
process of growth unfolds in quick recapitula- 
tion all the stages of evolution from the simple 
mono-cellular cell to the multi-cellular highly 
complex and well-differentianted human being, 
which must have taken in nature countless 
millions of years. Our cells still must not only 
live in an aquatic medium, but it must be a saline 
solution (blood and the lymph) like the sea- 
water. Menstruation is still regulated by the 
lunar cycle, whose tides diurnal, fortnightly 
and monthly (lunar month of 28 days) affected 
the primitive cell-life on the sea-coast for 
many millions of years, before it acclimatized 
to the land habitation. Life on the sea has 
been of infinitely longer duration than on the 
land. Vertebrata developed in the sea, as is 
represented in the fish. Menstruation is closely 
related with the ovulation — the liberation of 
the germ-cell which has retained all its primi- 
tive ancestral characteristics and is very likely, 
therefore, to be influenced by the lunar tide 
cycle. It is well known that diseases pass 
through crises at these lunar tidal periods, 
daily, fortnightly or monthly. Accordingly, it 
can be concluded that when the tide is high. 


the germ-cell is likely to be in the catabolic 
tendency, being subject to the tension due to 
the cell-memory, and when the tide is low, it 
is in the anabolic state. The ovum impregnated 
therefore during the low-tide period, if it has 
not irretrievably passed into the catabolic state 
due to old age of the cell or of the devitalized 
condition of the parent, is likely to be a female 
and during the high tide in the catabolic trend 
of the germ cell, male. 

Fhysical Fitness : "Copulation with a woman 
with full stomach, or with one who is hungry, 
thirsty, terrified, distressed, angered, or who 
desires some other person during the coitus, or 
suffers from nymphomania, is unproductive. 
Nor should one cohabit with a female that is 
too young, too old, or valetudinarian. This 
is also applicable to man. Only men and 
women who are free from all defects should 

Desirous of sexual embrace, mutually inclin- 
ed, the husband and the wife after taking 
delightful and stimulating refreshments, 
shall ascend the bed, perfumed, broad and 
comfortable, the husband by the right foot and 
the wife by the left foot, (and praying the 
gods to give them a heroic son ) they shall 


engage in connubial mysteries." Gharaha V. 8. 

Signs of Fregnancy : "The following are 
the signs of conception : relaxation (as a pleasure- 
able reaction of the coitus), lassitude, thirst, 
fatigue of the tJiighs, amenorrhea, and the 
engorgement of the vulva, (It is not easy to make 
a certein diagnosis of pregnancy before the fetal 
heart sounds are heard,or fetal movements felt in 
the fifth or the sixth month. But it is claimed 
that some muciparous women can fix the exact 
time and the copulation that results in conception 
by the intense voluptuous sensation they experience 
at the time of orgasm of the coitus. Usually 

281(a). cf^rsrfartTT 'ft^m fqwiftfcTT ^m f^w^i: ^^nrrf siir 

^I^^f^ 5Tr«f«T^'# flW% =^f?T^Rr ^T Tift W T >ff %'!lt ^\ U^ft 

ui#fT, ^f^r% ^rg^fe fT^cr: JTf?i^Tf% ^m\ c^i^rg fWfiT ^i^ig 


menstruation ceases after the conception takes^ 
place. About two weeks after conception some 
women experience occasional qualm, even nausea 
or vomiting, when trying to make erect posture 
in the morning. Increased frequency of micturi- 
tion is a very common accompaniment of early 
pregnancy, due to the congestion of the vesical 
trigone, coincident with the physiological 
hyperemia of the uterine. The pigmentation 
and the enlargement of the areola is noticed 
about the sixth week of gestation, accompanied 
by a tingling sensation of weight, fulness and 
firmness in the breasts, greater prominence of the 
nipples and the enlargement of the sebaceous 
follicles, and the appearance of blue veins round 
the darkened areola. Bluish circles are also ob- 
served round the eyes which become a little humid 
and deep-set. Digestive disturbances in many cases 
are noticed and there is salivation, heartburn or 
eructation accompanied by abnormal appetite or 
craving for acid, charcoal or earth. On separating 
the labia the vaffina is found unusuallv moist 
and covered with whitish shreds of desquamated 
epithelium, and the anterior vaginal wall just 
under the urethra shows a dusky, purplish 

"The signs of pregnancy are the pigmentation 


of the areola, the development of the (sebaceous) 
follicles, particularly the (spasmic) contraction 
of the eye-lids, nausea, vomiting, irritability 
even at the pleasant smells, salivation and 
lassitude ( linieae albican tes~ white streaks of 
pigmentation round the navel, are sometimes 
noticed in the third month of pregnancy, and 
later they are observed in the breasts, lower 
abdomen and flanks )." Susi'uta III. 3. lO-ll"^". 

Tni<; END. 

'?ff%q^if^ ^^t^^t: ^#^31^ f^wr: ii 


Works By Chandra Chakraberty 

1. Food and Health— Contents : I.~Elementary 
Composition of Foods, Principles of Nutrition, The 
Albuminous Foods, Vegetable Proteids, Carbohydrates, 
Fats, Vegetables, Fruits, Condiments and Stimulants, 
Water, Minerals, The Advantages and Disadvantages 
of a Vegetable Diet. II. — The Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, 
Kidney, Thyroid, Adrenals, Sexual Glands. 1 1 1. — Malaria, 
Cholera, Sutica. IV. — Principles of Immunity, Immu- 
nity and Serum-therapy, Organo-therapy, Fasting Cure. 
Influence of Faith and Optimism. 21^ pages. Re. 1-8 

"The chapters on food are well-written and they contain a 
large amount of useful information regarding all kinds of 
daily food. The essay on "Sexual Glands" will repay perusal. 
The last five chapters on Immunity, Serum-therapy, Organo- 
therapy, Fasting Cure and Psyco-therapy give useful infor- 
mation within a short compass." — The Modern Review 
(Sept. 1922). 

"x^s an Indian he (the author) deals with the problems of 
food and dietetics not only from western but also from the 

estern point of view will be found useful to whom more 

expensive treatises are generally inaccessible." — The Hindus- 
tan Review (Oct. 1923). 

"This is a useful guide to one who wants to understand the 
principles of dietetics and the food value of the various articles 
of diet used in this country. The author displays a fund of 
information on the subject and the book contains very valu- 
able materials gleaned from several sources which should serve 
to help the reader, so far can be of any use, in his attempts 
of fixing upon a proper dietary based upon scientific facts and 
rational principles. The first part of the book deals with the 
principles of nutrition, the elementary composition of foods, 
the different kinds and qualities of food, and their comparative 
advantages and disadvantages. The subject is so handled as 
be easily understood by the lay reader and the book is written 
with particular reference to Indian needs and conditions of 
life." The Hindu (March 7, 1923). 

"The book gives a description of the different kinds of 
food articles showing their chemical , composition and their 
nutritive value. The book will prove of interest to the medical 

2 Susruta Sangha -. 177, Raja Dinendra Street^ Calcutta. 

practitioners and tiie general public."— The Indian Medical 

Journal (Sep. 1924). 

2. Principles of Education — Contents : I. What 
is Education, Educative Process, Recapitulation and its 
significance in Education, Intelligence and Memory, 
Physical Education, Intellectual Fatigue, Sexual 
Education, Female Education. II. — Elementary Edu- 
cation, Preparatory School, University Education, 
National University, Girls' School, Foreign Universities, 
112 pages. Re. 1 

"In this booklet the author has sounded a note on the 
problems of Education that confront the modern intellectuals. 
We cannot but admire the deep insight herein displayed 
in touching over a wide range of principles underlying the 
oriental and occidental knowledge and instruction. The 
author — Mr. Chakraberty — it seems has dived deep into the 
ocean of learning and viewed with circumspection and care 
\ the various phases of the so-called Western education. His 
■| chapters on "Intellectual Fatigue," "Sexual Education," and 
! "Female Education" are both delightful and instructive. On 
"Foreign Uuniversities" he supplies information of very great 
interest to Indians who may be thinking of prosecuting their 
studies in Europe and America. The book is intensely . 
national in its character and tone and is eminently fitted to 
give a pleasurable sensation and stimulus to both male and 
female readers. The whole crux of the ideals advocated in 
the book lies in the adaptation, and a happy combination of 
what is good and virtuous in the East and the West. For 
instance, the author recommends dancing as calculated to 
develop cadence of body and soul but depreciates the society 
where youth, beauty and natural gifts are bartered in the name 
of self-determination. An object lesson is afforded by the 
allusions made here and there to heroes and heroines of 
the world whose lives have left ineffacable impressions on the 
sand of time. The book is worthy of being in the hands of 
every educationist in this country." — The United India and 

Indian States fjan. 17, 1923J. 

"The theoretical and practical aspects of education are 
ably and analitically treated in the book by the author. The 
chapters on Girls' Education, Sexual Education, National 
University are really thoughtful and deserve the attention of 
the readers."— The Mahratta (Dec. 27, 1923). 

Works By Chandra Chakraberiy 

' J 

"In this little book of fourteen chapters the author deals 
with the question of education in both its theoretical and 
practical aspects. He takes, a comprehensive view of the 
subject and observes — "To make the best of life, not simply 
in the crude sense of the enjoyment of material pleasures, 
but in its broadest application, should be the aim and object 
of education."— The Prabuddha Bharata (P. 315, 1923). 

"This httle book is well-written. Our author's sugsies- 
tions about 'Sexual Education' are worth considering. The 
subject should not be ignored." — The Modem Review fDec. 

"This is a useful contribution to the educational literature." 

— The Indian Review. 

"The author does not follow the beaten track and in many 
places challanges the orthodox methods. But he does that 
with the sole object of improving his fellow beings, culturally 
and physically. The book deserve well at the hands of the 
Education Department."— The Indian Daily News (Sep. 5, 

3. Dyspepsia and Diabetes— Contents : — I. 
Digestion, Salivary Ferments, Alimentary Absorption. 
II. — Liver, Pancreas. III. — Hereditary Predisposition, 
Dyspepsia. IV. — Diabetes, Polyglandular Theory, Lesion 
in Pancreas in Diabetes, Treatment. 8^ pages. Re. 1 

"Dyspepsia and diabetes are both very common in India 
and the greatest pity is that educated men, brain-workers, 
the backbone of the nation and the noblest of the race, suffer 
mosdy from these in the best period in their intellectual 
activities and resourcefulness. It is therefore highly necessary 
and opportune to let these gentlemen know the true causes 
and best preventive measure for those lethal diseases. The 
booklet before us gives all the general principles, the funda- 
mental facts of dietetics and the personal and social hygiene 
in a clear and intelligent manner and a study of it will help in 
preparing a man for his self-defence against their invasion. 
All educated men will read the book with great profit and 
interest."— The Practical Medicine (Oct. 1923). 

"The book is written by the author for the educated 
middle-class brain-workers who generally suffer from dyspep- 
sia ; it deals with the prevention and treatment of Dyspepsia 
and Diabetes and will prove useful to the public." — The 

Indian Medical Journal (Sept. 1924). 

4 SuSPUta Sangha : 177, Raja Dimndra Street^ Calcutta. 

4. A Study in Hindu Social Polity— Contents : — 
Physical Geography of India, Ethnic Elements in Hindi 
Nationality, Hindu Myths, Hindi Languages, Hindi 
Scripts, Caste, Social Organisation. 20? pages. Rs. 3-6 

"The sketches of ancient cultural history of India are 
interesting and valuable. The book is divided into seven 
chapters and the subjects treated in them are as follows : 
Physical Geography of India, Ethnic Elements in Hindi 
Nationality, Hindu Myths, Hindi Languages, Hindi Scripts, 
Caste, Social Organisation. This is a book which may interest 
Ethnologists, Philologists, Sociologists, and students of 
Comparative Religion. If is a store-house of historical 
materials".— The Modern Review (July, 1924). 

5. An Interpretation of Ancient Hindu Medicine — 

Contents :— Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Diseases- 
and their Diagnosis, Diseases and their clinical 
studies, Therapeutics, Surger}-, Dietetics, Hygiene. 
62^ pages. Rs. 7-8. 

"The author is well known as a writer on diverse subjects, 
such as Medicine, Education, Social Polity, Pohtics, Health, 
Food, etc., and in the present volume of 625 pages, he has 
made an attempt to place before the medical profession and 
the general reader carefully selected materials for a compara- 
tive study of the ancient Hindu and Greek systems of medicine 
in the light of modern knowledge. His contention that the 
ancient Greek Schools of Medicine were indebted to the 
Hindu system deserves careful consideration and the proofs 
aduced in its favour are not without foundation. The subject 
matter of the book deals with different departments of 
Medicine, such as Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Diagnosis 
and clinical studies of diseases, Therapeutics, Surgery, Diete- 
tics and Hygiene. They have been dealt with from the point 
of view of cofnparative study and the author has liberally 
quoted original Sanskrit texts in support of his views. He has 
successfully shown that not an inconsiderable part of our 
present-day knowledge of the structure and functions of the 
human body and of the nature and methods of treatment of 
surgical diseases were known to the ancient physicians of India. 
Such knowledge, to our regret, has, to a large extent, passed 
away from among the present-day practitioners of the Aurvedic 
Medicine for want of study and practice, and this, more than 
anything else, has brought discredit on the Hindu System of 

Works By Chandra Chakraberty 

Medicine which is looked down upon and often made the 
subject of ridicule by the votaries of Modern Medicine, 

"The study of a book like the one under review is bound to 
create a feeling of reverence and admiration in the mind of 
4:he Indian reader for the great Teachers of Medicine of anci- 
ent India who could arrive at so much truth by the simple 
process of study, observation and intuition without the aid of 
modern scientific resources at their command. 

"The author has done a service to his country by writing 
.'this, useful book."— The Modern Review (August, 1924). 

"This book deals exhaustively with the principles and 
practice of Ancient Hindu Medicine and affords facilities for 
a comparative study of its system with the modern medical 
school of thought with a view to bring them into closer 
relationship with each other. This much abused and woefully 
reduced Hindu Medical Science had on account of the step- 
motherly attitude of Government on the one hand, and for 
want of scientific researches and experiment of the system 
on the other, been left all along in the back ground, but 
■^thanks to the recent renaissance, we are having quiet a crop 
of literature on the subject of Ancient Hindu Medicine, for 
which no little credit is due to the author of this book. 

"We heartily recommend its use to those who are interes- 
ted in the revival of the indigeneous system of medicine in 
India and to research scholars who may find in it good food 
for reflection." — The Anticeptic (March, 1924). 

"The book has been published at an opportune moment 
when efforts are being made for the revival of the indigenous 
Hindu system of Medicine. The author has collected a mass 
of infor.mation in the literature on Aurveda. We recommend 
the book to those who are interested in the subject." — Indian 

Medical Record (April, 1924). 

"The author's original intention was to make the book a 
comparative study of the ancient Hindu and Greek systems 
of medicine in the light of modern knowledge, but he later 
modified his purpose and has endeavoured simply to interpret 
and explain the Ancient Hindu Medicine, principally based 
upon Charaka and Susruta, in modern medical terminology. 
He has compiled a fascinating and informative volume of 600 
pages, which cannot fail to appeal to Hindu students and 
others who are interested in Indian medical lore." — The 
Medical Times, London, (May, ig24). 

"We had the pleasure of reviewing some works of the 
.learned author and are glad to say now that he is one of the 

6 Susruta Sang^ha : 177, Raja Dimndra Street^ Calcutta. 

great medical writers of the day. In the present book, attempt 
has been made to interpret and explain the Ancient Hindu 
Medicine, principally based upon Charaka and Susruta, in the 
light of modern knowledge ; and though the task of transla- 
tion is an ungrateful one, specially of technical subjects of 
centuries back, the author has been successful in his endea- 
vour to an appreciable extent. We are pleased to read his 
book and have no hesitation in recommending it to all 
practitioners in general and particularly to those versed in 
western systems of medicine but desirous of learning of what 
great men of their own country have already done." — The 
Practical Medicine (Dec. 1923). 

"In his "Foreward" as well as in the text the author makes 
an excellent scholarly review of contemporary and correlated 
historical facts and events, which is very interesting reading. 
In the text he has, we see, gone very largely beyond 
his premised idea, for more often than not he was described 
modern advancement taking a considerable space of the book... 
We congratulate the author sincerely for his great painstaking 
labours. The book is specially worth perusal by all students 

of history of medicine."'— The Calcutta Medical Journal 

(Sept. 1924). 

6. A Comparative Hindu Materia Medica — It 

contains the botanical description of about more than 
800 Indian medicinal plants, their Indian and European 
names, their chemical analyses and their therapeutic 
uses. I gS pages. Rs. 3-12 

"A most erudite treatise and contains a vast amount of 
information regarding Indian drugs, some of which are of 
real value, though mostly unknown in this country. We 
recommend this book to all those interested in Indian drugs." 
—The Medical Times, London (April, 1924). 

"The book describes more than 190 genera and 800 
species of Indian medicinal plants in relation to their geo- 
graphical distribution, morphology and therapeutic appli- 
cation. It is a valuable, and is a singular book on the 
subject. {^Translation). Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der 
Medizin und der Naturwissenscaften, Band XXIII, 
Heft 2. 

"It is a valuable production — a handy volume for ready 
reference for students of Botany. Those interested in the 
comparative study of the subject will find it especially useful 
for It gives Bengali and Hindi names of the Botanical 

Works By Chandra Chakraberty 

species. Indian botanists, herbists, and medical practition- 
ers will find it to be a trustworthy and useful attempt on the 
part of the author."— The Vedic Mag"azine (Sept, 1924). 

"This book contains botanical description and therapeutic 
uses of the indigenous Indian medical plants. The drugs 
have been arranged alphabetically for ready reference. The 
book will be useful to the Indian botanists and medical 
practitioners interested in the indigenous herbs." — Indian 

Medical Record (April, 1924). 

"In these days when strenuous efforts are being made 
to revive the indigenous systems of medicine, throughout 
India, this book will prove an opportune and welcome publi- 
cation. The charge is generally levelled against the Hindu 
medical system that it has no Pharmacopoeia to boast of and 
that the therapeutic value of most of the drugs available in 
India is in the range of doubt and uncertainty. This publi- 
cation will help, to a great extent, to remove that mist. The 
author has taken immiense pains in compiling this work, for 
which there will be neither sufficient material nor facilities 
for research. We congratulate him on his successful enter- 
-prise."— The Antiseptic (P. i8t, 1924). 

"The book contains description of over 800 plants, alpha- 
betically arranged under their native names, with their 
European names, properties. The book will be useful."— 
Liizac's Oriental List and Book Review (April, 1924). 

7. Infant Feeding and Hygiene — Contents :— 
Breast feeding, Breast-milk substitutes, The diet 
after weaning, Vitamines and nutrition, Hygiene. 
32 pages. As. 8 

"It is an excellent account." — Medical Times, London 
(April, 1924). 

"The object of this pamphlet is the diffusion of knowledge 
on the feeding of infants and on the hygienic methods of 
their upbringing. In a country where thousands of babies die 
from lack of knowledge of the simple rules of hygiene, any 
book of this nature is a welcome publication, and we recommend 
it to the English knowing Indian parents for whom it is 
intended."— Indian Medical Record (April, 1924). 

"Lack of knowledge on the part of parents, coupled with 
growing poverty of the masses, is mainly responsible for the 
frightfully heavy mortality among infants in India. A diffusion 
of the right kind of knowledge, therefore, on the feeding of 
infants and on the hygienic methods of their upbringing will 

8 SuSPUta Sangha : 177, Raja Dinendra Street, Calcutta. 

meet the solution of the problem of infantile mortality in our 
country half way at least This booklet which treats about 
infantile feeding and Hygiene fills a sad want in this direction 
and written, as it is, in a clear, readable and non-technical 
style will be very much appreciated by the parental public, 
especially, womenfolk. We congratulate the author on his 
successful propaganda work which he has aimed at, in the 
matter of Child Welfare, through the medium of this nicely 
got-up booklet."— The Antiseptic (March, 1924). 

"Infant mortality in India is the highest of all other 
countries of the world and there can be no denying the fact 
that this is mostly due to the lack of right knowledge of the 
parents and their inability to take proper care of their children. 
The present pamphlet aims to provide them with healthy 
information on some essential points to be always kept in 
mind in rearing children, such as breast-feeding, substitutes 
of breast milk, diet after weaning, vitamines and nutrition and 
the hygienic life of the child. We hope it will prove helpful 
to many parents in taking better care of their beloved ones," — 

The Practical Medicine (Dec. 1933). 

8. National Problems — Contents : — Introduction, 
Industry, Religious Reforms, Social Reforms, Educa- 
tional Reforms, Hygiene, Growth of Nationalism. 
IIS P^ges. Re. 1 

"Mr. Chakraberty deals with the following important 
subjects in this little book: (i) Industry, (2) Religious 
Reforms, (3) Social Reforms, (4) Educational Reforms, (5) 
Hygiene, and (6) Growth of Nationalism. 

He (Mr. Chakraberty) possesses, the wide experience 
that travelling brings and that wide culture which 
personal contact with advanced western nations is bound 
to produce and is, therefore, entitled to a respectable hearing. 
His patriotism is neither blind nor narrow; he is quite 
conscious of the drawbacks of his country and is prepared 
to set them right. "One ought not to think", he says, 
"my countrymen first whether he is a fit man in the proper 
place or not. But if my country is right I shall make her 
better, but if not right, I shall make her right. Indian nation- 
alism should not be a self-contained goal by itself, but a 
transitional phase, that of bringing co-operation and love of 
all mankind. Indian Nationalism must not be like Western 
States, an agressive or self-sufficient entity, but a stepping 
stone to Humanity."— Calcutta Review (Jan. 1924). 

Works By Chandra Chakraberty 

"His introductory survey of the present political situation 
in India is by no means just to the British side, and the 
political reforms that he suggests are obviously impractical. On 
the other hand, he is not sparing in his criticism of the moral 
and social weakness by which India is afflicted. In commen- 
ting upon conditions of morals, hygiene, and education, 
he has a good deal to say that will be very unpalatable to his 
countrymen, and on several points he indicates the right 
lines along which reform should proceed ; but he does not 
show how India is to be induced to follow those lines. Edu- 
cation, as he says, is urgently needed by India ; but anyone 
who knows will smile when he reads Mr. Chakraberty's 
statement that "for internal order, the ordinary police force is 
sutificient. The enormous military expenditure ought to be 
utilised for education and hygiene". In short, the book 
points out some weaknesses of India, but it does not consider 
them from the standpoirjt of practical administrator." — Luzac'S 
Oriental List and Book Review (March, 1924). 

"The author — Mr. Chandra Chakraverty has discussed 
the problems necessary for National Progress and is of opinion 
that the growth and progress of nationalism does not depend 
merely on political activities but upon the bed-rock of Industry, 
Religious, Social and Educational Reforms, combined with 
hygienic principles, and that due to lack of these qualities, a 
good deal of enthusiasm and sacrifice for the country has 
proved fruitless. He also recommends abolition of caste 
barrier and is in favour of intercaste marriage. The book is 
ably written and carefully arranged and is sure to make an 
interesting reading for all well-wishers of the country, who 
must devote special attention to the useful suggestions made." 
—The Muslim Outlook (August 10, 1924). 

"Mr. Chakraverty points out that the National Progress 
depends not merely on political activities but also on educa- 
tion, industry, hygiene etc. The author has liberal views as 
regards social questions, He favours inter-caste marriage on 
eugenic principles and gradual abolition of caste and creed 
barrier."— The Indian Review (May, 1924). 

"In this book the author deals with the many social, 
economic, industrial and educational problems of vital import- 
ance to India. He has discussed them from the standpoint 
of national unity and his views are thos.e of an advanced 
radical thinker. Though it may not be possible to agree with 
some of his views, yet they deserve careful and serious consi- 
deration by all who have the good of their country at heart. 

lo Susruta Sangha : 177, Raja Dinendra Street, Calcutta, 

The author has been inspired by an intense sense of patriotism 
to give out his views to the public and the pubHc, we hope, 
will accord him a warm reception."— Amrita Bazar Patrika 
(Dec. 23, 1923)- 

9. Endocrine Glands— (In Health and in Disease) 
Contents : — The Suprarenals, Thyroids, Parathyroids, 
Hypophysis cerebri, Thymus Gland, Pineal Body, The 
Pancreas, the Generative Glands (The Testes, The 
Ovaries). 150 pages. Rs. 2-4 

10. Malaria— Contents :— Etiology of Malaria, 
Malarial Plasmodia, Mosquitoes, Infection and Incuba- 
tion, The Quartan Fevers, The Tertain Fevers, The 
Aestivo-autumnal Fevers, Pathology, The Complications 
and Sequelae of Malaria, Diagnosis and Prognosis, The 
Treatment of Malaria, Prophylaxis. 176 pages. Rs. 2 

"The writer has written comprehedsively on the subject 
The book will prove useful to medical students and general 
public."— The Indian Medical Journal (Sept. 1924). 

11. The United States of America— Contents : — 
Physiography of the U. S. A., Historical Background, 
Government, People, Industries, Education, Social 
Organization. 208 pages. Re. 1-8 

"We are not aware of any other Indian publication giving 
in a concise form, such comprehensive information about the 
United States. Beginning with the physiography of the 
country, the writer introduces us to nature's gigantic marvels, 
which impress the visitor. He then summarises the history 
of the nation and has informative chapters on its Government, 
people, industries, education and social organisation. These 
are packed with- facts and figures. The book can be strongly 
recommended as a very useful handbook about the United 
States."— United India And Indian States, (nth October, 

"The volume is informative and hence useful." — Current 
Thoug-ht (October, 1924). 

12. Race Culture— Contents : -Racial Elemenlrs in 
India, Principles of Heredity, Selection of Mate, 
Birth Control, Contraceptives, Sexual Hygiene. 100 
pages. Re. 1-4 

"It is a well-executed piece of work and would amply repay 
perusal."— The Modern Review (Sept. 1924). 

Works By Chandra Chakraberty ii 

"It is an excellent book and will be very useful in the 
hands of all. Books of Eugenics are new in India though 
old works on the same are as old as the hills. Pruriency 
must be sacrificed at the alter of the welfare of the country 
and safety values must be supplied. The author has lighted 
the lamps of knowledge he was in possession of and though 
some of his views are too advanced, yet one cannot but be 
delighted to read the book from cover to cover." — Sahakar 
(Sept. 1924). 

Works By Swami Satyananda 

13. The Origin of Christianity— Contents :— L 

Historical relation between Buddhism and Christianity. 
II. — The life of Jesus. III. — The Canonical Parallels. 
272 pages. Rs. S 

"There have been many books issued purporting to 
describe the origin of Christianity. All have been more or 
less interesting and useful in their way ; but there is still a 
place for such a radical work as is here presented to readers of 
a rationalistic turn of mind. 

"Our author divides his fascinating essay into three parts 
which he names : I, Historical Relation Between Buddhism 
and Christianity ;II, The Life of Jesus, and, III, The Textual 

"In the first part he discusses such questions as follows :. 
The Age of the Buddhist Canons, Who were the Essenes ? 
Was John the Baptist a Buddhist ? Objections to the Theory 
of Christianity Borrowed from Buddhism answered, The 
Egyptian Influence on the Jews, The Persian Influence on 
the Jews. This learned discussion which covers some ninety 
pages of this engaging book, seems to us very convincing in 
its conclusions. There is not the slightest doubt of the fact 
that Christianity is essentially an eclectic religion. There is 
absolutely nothing original about it ; and that it borrowed very 
extensively from Buddhism, is as plain as the associated fact 
that it owes much to Judaism for both its theology and its 
moral precepts. 

"The second part, dealing with the Life of Jesus, constitutes 
the unique feature of this very uncommon . treatise. The 
argument covers here more than a hundred pages and is 
engrossingly interesting. It is, in fact, the fullest and most 
discriminating analysis of the mental and moral characteristics 
of the Prophet of Nazareth that we have ever met with in a. 
single volume. 

1 2 Susruta Sangfha : 777, Raja Dinendra Street, Calcutta. 

"He first speaks of Jesus' "Racial Heredity", in which he 
considers {a) Morals of the Jews, {b) Gonorrhoea and Syphilis 
among the Jews, (^) Insanity Among the Jews and (^) Jesus 
and His Life. The reader will find in this part of the work 
some things that may be new to him, and seemingly improb- 
able ; but if he will read on carefully, he will find each 
statement made by the writer verified in the Scripture textual 
criticism which follows. 

"The author then goes on to speak of the Physical 
Constitution of Jesus, his education, his ignorance, anger and 
hatred, hallucinations, incoherence of ideas, anxieties and 
fears of persecution, vaso-motor derangement of Jesus, insani- 
ties, trial and crucifixion, and Jesus according to the 
Manuscript found by Nicholas Notovitch. He supports every 
position he takes by quotations from the Bible ; and the result 
is, that we have here presented one of the most critical and 
well-reasoned portraits of Jesus published in modern 

"The third part of this attractive dissertation concerns 
itself with some textual parallels between certain sayings or 
circumstances reported in connection with Jesus, and like 
things related concerning Gautama the Buddha. There are in 
all fifty-one parallels, which virtually cover the most important 
elements in the life of Jesus, Each one of these carries an 
interest all its own, and gives the reader a very instructive" 
insight into the essential nature of the personality of the man 
whom millions of human beings look upon as the Eternal Son 
of God ; and let us into the secret of their true origin. 

"This work consists of 272 pages of text, apart from twenty 
pages of introductory matter, including a valuable bibliography. 
The bibliography is divided into five portions as follows : 
{a) Jesus Christ treated as a human being, but an idealist, 
{h) Jesus Christ treated critically, {c) Jesus Christ treated as 
insane, id) Jesus Christ treated as myth, (<?) Relationship of 
Christianity to Buddhism. There are three illustrations, one 
being a photograph of a Byzantine mosaic of Jesus made in the 
eleventh century. It offers a nearer approach to the likeness 
of Jesus than any we have heretofore seen. 

"We cannot speak too highly of this thought-provoking 
book. It is rich in facts and so very entertaining that one 
quickly becomes absorbed in its narrative, just as if it were a 
romance with a purpose, as it undoubtedly is when made into 
a reality by believers. The reader fortunate enough to obtain 
a copy of this edifying book, has in prospect a real intellectual 

Works. By Chandra Chakraberty 13 

treat, and at a very moderate cost."— The Truth Seeker» 
New York, (March i, 1924). 

"The author reveals an extensive scholarship in the study 
he has proposed to give us in the pages of this book. The 
treatment is fairly exhaustive and in the chapter on Relation- 
ship of Christianity with Buddhism he is thoroughly convincing. 
The social picture of the Jews as drawn by the author is 
gloomy indeed, but facts are facts and historical references 
support them. The book will throw a flood of light on the 
early history of Christianity and the immense debt of gratitude 
that this religion owes to other systems of thought." — The 

Vedie Mag-azine (Sept. 1924). 

"There are three parts in the book. In the first part the 
author describes the historical relation between Buddhism 
and Christianity. His conclusion is "that John the Baptist was 
a Buddhist and if Jesus took baptism from him, he also 
became initiated thereby and converted into Buddhistic 
doctrines." P. 36. 

"The second book is on the "Life of Jesus." In this book 
the author tries to prove that the Jews were "a coarse, vulgar 
and licentious race," and Jesus was born and brought up as a 
Jew. He has quoted many passages from the Bible to prove 
the ignorance, anger and hatred, hallucinations, anxieties and 
fearS, and insanities of Jesus. 

"In the third part the author quotes many parallel passages 
from the Buddhist scriptures to prove "that Christianity owed 
its origin to Buddhism." 

"There was a time when Christian missionaries used to 
hunt after the weak points of popular religion and their 
preaching meant notliing but the vilification of Hinduism. 
The Christian missionaries always acted on the offensive and 
the Hindus were on the defensive. But now the tables have 
been turned."— The Modem Review (Dec. 1923). 

"That there is an intimate relation between Buddhism and 
Christianity is evident from the researches made into the 
ancient documents. A striking similarity in tenets, rites and 
rituals lends probability to the theory that Christianity has 
borrowed extensively from Buddhism, The book "Christia- 
nity" has traced the history of the early faiths and the probable 
reaction of Buddhistic influence on Christianity. The author 
enters upon the task in a spirit of delicious detachment that 
pervades the whole work and it amply justiQes the author's 
claim that it is not the outcome of any religious passion. In 
detailing the growth of Christianity, it gives a vivid account of 

14 Susruta Sangrha : 177^ Raja Dinendm Street, Calcutta. 

the battle of conflicting faiths, the falls, fumblings and rebuffs 
which Christianity had to bear in its combat against Mithraism. 
Translations from the books of Apostles and utterances of 
Gautama are given side by side to suggest the remarkable 
agreement of sentiments. It is a profoundly interesting book — 
illuminating, eleyating and thought-provoking." — The Servant 
(Oct. 24, 1924.) 

14. The Orig-in of the Cross 

Contents : Sex-Worship in Egypt, Assyria, 
Phoenicia, Syria, Armenia, Persia, Greece, Italy, India, 
among the Jews, Druids, Cabbalists and Gnostics, 
Serpent, Bull, Goats, Tortoise, Dove, Tree, River, Stone 
and the Breast-Worship as sex-symbols. The Origin 
of the Cross from the sex-symbols, 206 pages. Rs 3. 

"There have been many books published of late years on 
the subject of Phallic Worship. The result of these has been 
that men have developed a growing sense of the fact that 
the worship of the generative organs, as simbolizing the 
creative power in Nature, was a rudimentary feature in all the 
ancient religions, and still lingers in some of the symbols 
and practices of Christianity as it is seen to-day. 

"The writer of the present works deals fully with the subject 
of Sex- Worship, taking as a title of his book, "The Origin of 
the Cross." He divides his undertaking into seventeen chapters, 
every one of which bears an attractive designation. In nine 
chapters he gives this history of the primitive worship in the 
best known countries of the world, and also among such 
people as the Druids, Kabbalists and Gnostics. 

"In the remaining chapters he considers fully the various 
objects and creatures which were looked upon as sex-symbols 
among the ancients, and which still allow of the same interpre- 
tation even at the present time. Among these living creatures 
were the serpent, the tortoise, goat, bull and dove ; and among 
inanimate objects, the tree, river, stones and other objects which 
became conspicuous in the symbolizing of the sex idea. This 
treatment of the subject by the author leads him up to his 
important conclusion that the Cross of Christianity took its rise 
in the Phallic conception of what was most worshipful in the 
economy of ^Nature, and how best to express it in a con- 
venient form, a-s a symbol of a great truth. 

"This book of 2c6 pages is, in some respects, the most 
satisfactory work on the subject that we have met with in a 

Works By Chandra Chakraberty 15 

long time. Coming from India, and by a writer who shows 
every evidence of being perfectly familiar with his subject — 
familiar as one who saw daily the worship mentioned performed 
before his very eyes — the work can be thoroughly relied on as 
being a true exposition in every respect. 

"Among the countries and the nations he treats, we would 
name Egypt, Phoenicia, Persia, Greece, Italy, India, and the 
people called the Jews. His chapter on the "Sex-Worship 
among the Jews" is one of the most interesting and instructive 
to be found in this very useful volume. Too little is known of 
the history of the Jews by persons who esteemed themselves 
as educated. And when it comes to a question of the Jewish 
religion, the general ignorance is so striking, that it amounts 
to little more than the popular knowledge of the Shinto 
religion, with the secret ceremonies of which, the Crown 
Prince of Japan was recently married. 

"Jehovah was a tribal divinity, "a jealous deity who wanted 
the monopoly of all the sacrifices made by the Jews. But the 
Jews, finding the worship of other deities, as Aslarte, Baal, 
Moloch, more interesting and enjoyable, often preferred them 
to Jehovah ; and Jehovah would swear and curse, and brag 
of his own prowess. The history of Judaism is nothing but a 
continual struggle for supremacy between Jehovah, Baal, 
Astarte and Moloch. There wa6 no question of monothestic 
principles or doctrines involved— but one Phallic god was 
trying to oust other F t iallk: gods, \yho were encroaching upon 
his own fovorite territory. "^^,c'tifc;{'^S»' 

"Speaking of the Bible our author says : "There is neither 
idealism in that vast literature, nor poetry, execept in Solo- 
mon's song, which is entirely erotic. But let us be to the 
point, so as to find out the Phallic symbolism of Jehovah and 
the' nature of Sex-Worship in which the Jews indulged." He 
then goes on .0 quote at considerable length some of the 
numerous texts in the Old Testament which unquestionably 
exhibit Jehovah as a Phallic divinity, and original Judaism as a 
sexual type of worship. 

"Want of space forbids a more extended review of this 
excellent manual on the philosophy of sex as applied to the 
so-called religious instinct. As a work dealing with religion, it 
is so intensely interesting that one will desire to read it through 
without a single break. It is illuminating on every page. It is 
plain of speech without morbidity of thought. All the facts are 
given in a clear and attractive way ; and it seems to us that the 

1 6 Susruta Sangfha : 177, Raja Dinendra Street, Calcutta. 

author has left nothing unsaid that would illustrate the truth 
that in Phallicism, or Sex-Worship, as it was later called, are 
to be found the seeds of the spirit of adoration which in recent 
years developed into the religion of the Synagogue, the Church 
and the Mosque 

"This is a book of permanent value, and should be read by 
every Freethinker."— The Truth Seeker, New York (March 
8, 1924). 

"The students of Mythology and believers in the common 
origin of the various myths will find ample food for 
thought in the present volume. The author has taken pains to 
collect the material before him. He has succeeded in tracing 
Sex-Worship in Egypt, Assyria, Syria, Persia, Greece, Italy 
and India with a view to show parallels of thought in various 
countries. He has also attempted to trace the origin of the 
sex-symbols and find the origin of the Cross to be present in 
these symbols."— The Vedic Magazine (Sept. 1924). 

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mines) W\, ^tR^ ^ R^TW, ^t^tC^^ ^T^^T, nf^^t^, ^^- 

:^v^ I ^7^ (Bengal Fevers). ^ 2— -sqitrf^fl, ^1^- 
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Ih' I ^^^S^t'*?^^ C^i"*^ (Infectious Diseases). 
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Susruta Sangha 

PuBLi^ERs OF Scientific and Medical Books, 
777, Raja Dine72dra Street, Calcutta. 


^urja^Press, .'33 Gc^ibari Lane Calcutta. 

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R Chakraberty, Chandra 
135 An interpretation of 
C4.3 ancient Hindu medicine 

& Medical