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AN 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANY: 



A SYSTEMATIC VIEW 

OF THE ^S^ 

ORGANIZATION, NATURAL AFFINITIES, AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

OF THE WHOLE 

VEGETABLE KINGDOM; 

TOGETHER WITH THE USES OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SPECIES IN MEDICINE, THE 
ARTS, AND RURAL OR DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



By JOHN LINDLEY, F. R. S., L. S., G. S. 

MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY NATURiE CUHIOSORUM ; 

OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF RATISBON ; OF THE PH YSIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF LUND; 

OF THE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY OF BERLIN ; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK, &C. &C. 

AND PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 



FIRST AMERICAN EDITION, WITH AN APPENDIX. 

BY JOHN TORREY, M. D., 

Professor of Chemistry and Botany in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the City of 

New York, Member of the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh, Fellow of the 

Mineralogical Society of Jena, Member of the Physiographical 

Society of Lund, Sweden, &c, &c. 



" C'est ainsi que sont formees les families tres naturelles et g6neralement avoutfes. On extrait de tous 
les genres qui composent chacune d'elles les caracteres communs a tous, sans excepter ceux qui n'appar- 
tiennent pas a la fructification, et la reunion de ces caracteres communs constitue celui de la famiile. Plus 
leg resemblances sont nombreuses, plus les families sont naturelles, ct par suite le caractere general est 
plus charge. En procedant ainsi, on parvient plus surement au but principal de la Science, qui est, non de 
nommer une plante, niais de connoitre sa nature et son organization entiere." — J ussikc. 



NEW YORK: 

G. & C. & H. CARVILL, 108, BROADWAY 

1831. 






" Entered aceording toActoi Congress, in the yeai ls~3l, by G. & C. & H. CarviB, 
in the Office of the I'leik ui the Southern District, of New York." 



HLEIGHT AND ROBINSON, PRINTERS. 



ADVERTISEMENT 



TO THE AMERICAN EDITION. 



The Introduction to the Natural System of Botany, was published 
in London last autumn, and a copy of the work was shortly after obli- 
gingly sent to me by the author. I at once perceived that a desidera- 
tum in British and American Botany, long felt and lamented, was at 
length supplied. In France, the natural or philosophical method has 
for many years past taken the place of the artificial or sexual system of 
Linnaeus, and recently by the labours of Brown, Lindley, Hooker, Gre- 
ville, and others, it has begun to be employed in England and Scotland, 
The principal obstacle, however, to the use of the natural system in 
Great Britain and North America, has been the want of an elementary 
work on the subject ; for, with the exception of Sir J. E. Smith's Gram- 
mar of Botany, no treatise on the natural classification in the English 
language had been published until the " Introduction" of Mr. Lind- 
ley, the distinguished Professor of Botany in the University of London, 
made its appearance. It therefore occurred to me that I could not do a 
more acceptable service to the friends and cultivators of Botanical Science 
in the United States, than by preparing an American edition for the press 
forthwith. Accordingly, an arrangement was made with the enterprising 
Messrs. Carvill of this city, to have it printed in the course of the en- 
suing summer ; but various circumstances had delayed its publication 
until the present time. 

In this edition I have taken the liberty of making a few additions 
(chiefly references to treaties published since the Introduction was 
written,) which are included in brackets ; and also of substituting a few 
terms for others employed by the author, and which might be thought 
objectionable in a work that will doubtless become popular in this country. 
I have also prefixed to the principal work a small but very valuable 
treatise, by the same author, entitled, An Outline of the First Princi- 
ples of Botany, and published by him in a separate form. This is an 
epitome of modern philosophical Botany, and will be found highly useful 
to those who wish to obtain an accurate knowledge of (he Natural < la -si 
fication of the Vegetable Kingdom. 



IV ADVERTISEMENT. 

The Appendix, which is added to the whole, consists of a catalogue 
of North American genera of plants arranged according to the order in 
the text, with the number of species belonging to each genus as far as 
they are at present determined, besides several tables exhibiting the rela- 
tive proportions of the different families, &c, and an index. The first 
and only work of this kind, before the present was by the late distinguished 
Abbe Correa, who prepared it for the use of a botanical class to which he 
lectured in Philadelphia, in 1815.* It is entitled li Reduction of all the 
Genera of Plants contained in the Catalogus Plantarum Americce 
Septentrionalis of Dr. Muhlenberg, to the Natural Families of Jus- 
sicii." At that time our Botany was but little known, and the Natural 
System itself was in a very imperfect state. 

The catalogue which 1 have prepared, embraces a considerable num- 
ber of genera and species which are not described in the latest general 
Floras, but it is by no means asserted to be complete. There are exten- 
sive districts in North America which have never been visited by a Bo- 
tanist, and even in the United States there are large spaces which are but 
little known or very imperfectly explored. There are also many plants 
collected by Douglass, Richardson, Drummond, Scouler, Nuttall, and 
others, which have not yet been published, so that it is probable that North 
America, excluding the Mexican states, contains not less than 5000 pheno- 
gamous plants. 

In preparing the list of cryptogamous genera, I have been kindly as- 
sisted by my friends A. Halsey, Esq. and the Rev. L. D. Schweinitz. 
The latter gentleman kindly alowed me to copy the genera of the Fungi 
from his manuscript work on the North American species of this tribe, 
which he lately offered to the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, for 
publication in their transactions. 

The mark (§) prefixed to a name in the catalogue signifies that the 
plant has been introduced. A note of interrogation expresses a doubt 
whether the genus is referred to the right natural order. The numbers 
following the orders refer to the pages of the Introduction. J. T. 

New York, November 4, 1831. 

* It was published without a name in a pamphlet form, and was afterwards re- 
printed in the American edition of Smith's Grammar of Botany, where it is incor- 
rectly stated to have been written by Dr. Muhlenberg. 



TO 



THE COURT OF EXAMINERS 



OP 



THE SOCIETY OF APOTHECARIES, 

LONDON. 

GENTLEMEN, 

As Guardians of the education of a very consi- 
derable part of the Medical Profession, the subject of the 
following pages cannot be otherwise than interesting to you. 
If a knowledge of the Plants from which medicinal substances 
are obtained, is in itself an object of importance, as it most 
undoubtedly is, the Science which teaches the art of judging 
of the hidden qualities of unknown vegetables by their external 
characters is of still greater moment. To what extent this can 
safely be carried, it is not, in the actual state of human know- 
ledge, possible to foresee ; but it is at least certain, that it 
depends entirely upon a careful study of the natural relations 
of the Vegetable Kingdom. 

Measures have lately been taken by the Society of Apothe- 
caries, which cannot fail to exercise a most beneficial influence 
upon Botany, and, which must have been viewed with feelings 



IV DEDICATION- 

of deep interest by all friends of the Science. As a humble 
individual, whose life is devoted to its investigation, J am 
anxious to take the present opportunity of expressing my 
sentiments upon the subject, by very respectfully offering for 
your acceptance a Work, tchich it is hoped will be found 
useful to the Student of Medical Botany. 

I have the honor to be, 
Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient Servant, 

JOHN LINDLEY 

Univertity of London, 
August, 1830. 



CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. 

Page xxx line 8 for " af," read of. 

xxxi 11 for " ralation," read relation, 

xxxi 20 from bottom, for " arrises," read arises, 

xxxii 12 for " envolucrum," read involucrum. 
xxxiii 28 for " onagrarLjE," read onagrarije. 
Page 5 line 2 for " Araliacac," read Araliaceffi. 

9 for " Renunculaceae," read Ranunculacese. 
11 28 for " apparantly," read apparently. 
13 9 for " in a monocotyledon," read is a, &c. 

24 7 from bottom, for " polyadalphous," read polyadelphous. 

25 10 for " Hibertia," read Hibbertia. 
31 for " filaform," read filiform. 

26 1 for " polypytalous," read polypetalous. 
6 for " declinous," read diclinous. 

40 for " conic," read tonic. 
28 6 from bottom, for " Monimese," read Monimieee. 

32 25 for " cincrescens," read cinerascens. 

33 12 for " coherant," read coherent. 

35 11 for " sapals," read sepals. 

20 for " Streptiferous," read Septiferous. 
22 for " convulute," read convolute. 

36 after line 15, add, Examples. Bombax, Matisia, Montezuma, 

Eriodendron. 
35 for " pumula," read plumula. 
39 10, and p. 40, line 4, for - ; DiooNosis,"read Diagnosis. 

43 7 for " Hypericenese," read Hypericineee. 

44 8 for " savauge," read sauvage. 

87 8 for " Charmichelia," read Carmicheelia. 

91 16 for " Betalineae," read Betulineee. 

97 26, after "discoverer," add M. Leroux. 

112 13 for " darrhcea," read diarrhoea. 
157 bottom line, for " Monsia," read Montia. 
176 3 for " hopogynous," read hypogynous. 

280 25 for " Drabo," read Draco. 
283 4 from bottom for " Decancolle," lead Decandolle. 
317 3 for " Heterenomea," read Heteronemea. 

344 9 for " Ternstromeriace^b," read Ternstromiace^. 

345 20 for " Cladrastris," read Cladrastis. 

346 36 for " Iresene," read Iresine. 

38 for " Piloxerus," read Philoxerus. 

34 and 35, for " PodostomejE and Podostomum," read 

Podosteinea) and Podostcmum. 
bottom line, for " Execaria," read Excaecaria. 

347 47 for " Tetragonatheca," read Tetragonotheca. 

348 13 for " Villarasia," read Villarsia. 

349 15 for " ENDOGYN.E," read ENDOGEN^E. 

351 6 from bottom, for " Variolara." read Variolaria. 
7 from bottom, for " Duforea," read Dufourea. 

352 for " Arractobalus," read Atractobolus. 

.. for " Lecangium," read Lcangium. 

for " Erisiphe," read Erysiphe. 

17 from bottom, for " Myscotriclnun," read Myxotrichum. 



Vlll CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. 

361 for " Pennicetum," read Pennisetum 

368 38 for " Calyptrenthus," read Calyptranthua. 

369 6 from bottom, for " Ceibera," read Cerbera. 
373 23 for " Droceraceee," read Droseraceee. 

376 6 from bottom, for " Herpiridese," read Hesperideee. 

377 11 for " Hirpocrateacese," read Hippocrateacese. 
369 14 for "88," 288. 

A few other errors may be found, but the above, it is believed, are all 
which are worth noticing. 



AN OUTLINE 



/: 



THE FIRST PRINCIPLES 



BOTANY. 



CONTENTS. 



I, Elementary Organs ...... xv 

II. Compound Organs - xvi 

III. Root 

IV. Stem - . . ... 
V. Leaf-buds ....... 

VI. Leaves - - . . . .. 

VII. Hairs 

VIII. Food and Secretions - 

IX. Flower-buds 

X. Inflorescence ........ xx j v 

XI. Floral Envelopes xxv 

XII. Stamens 

XIII. Disk . . . . _ 

XIV. Pistillum ........ xxviii 

- - XXX 

xxxi 



XV. Ovulum - 

XVI. Fruit - 

XVII. Seed 

XVIII, Flowerless Plants 



XVII 

xvii 
xx 

XX 

xxii 
xxii 
xxii 



xxvi 
xxviii 



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PREFACE. 



The want of some English work on Botany, at once of a mere ele- 
mentary character and comprehending all the more important points of 
the science, has given rise to the publication of the following pages. The 
propositions which they contain are such as it is of the most indispensa 
ble importance for a student to understand ; and they all appear to be 
strictly deducible either from the facts recorded by observers worthy of 
confidence, or from the experience of the author. They form the Ixisis of 
the Lectures delivered by him in the University of London, and are pur- 
posely divested of illustrative or explanatory matter; his only object 
having been to reduce the first principles of Botany to their simplest form. 

No person can be considered a Botanist who is unacquainted with the 
nature of the evidence upon which such of these propositions as are indis- 
putable, are founded ; or by which it is supposed that others, which are less 
certain, can be disproved. Acquiring this kind of knowledge constitutes 
the study of Vegetable Comparative Anatomy, or Organography ; a cu- 
rious and interesting subject, upon which Systematic Botany entirely 
depends. 

Whatever value may attach to this little work would have been essen- 
tially diminished by the introduction of theories unsupported by what may 
be reasonably considered satisfactory evidence. They have, therefore, been 
avoided as far as the nature of the subject, in which much is incapable of 
direct demonstration, would permit. 

The wish of the author has been to sketch a slight but accurate outline, 
the details of which are to be filled up by the reader himself, who for this 
purpose cannot do better than consult the " Organographie Vegetale" of 
Decandolle, or the " Elementa Philosophise Bolanicae" of Link ; two 
works of the highest reputation, in the general accuracy of which the stu- 
dent may place confidence. He will easily see what parts of either are 
merely hypothetical, and what are founded upon direct observation ; and 
he will find that it is chiefly the latter class which applies to the proposi- 
tions introduced into this book. 

Each paragraph has a separate number ; and in all cases in which 
allusion is made in one paragraph to a subject of importance incidentally 



Xiv PREFACE. 

adverted to in another, the number of that other is quoted. For instance 
take paragraph 51. 

51. The compound organs are the axis (52) and its appendages 
(158). 

Here the numbers after "axis," and "appendages,"' show in what 
paragraphs an explanation of the meaning of these words is to be found. 






AN OUTLINE OF THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF BOTANY. 



1. Plants are not separable from animals by any absolute character ; the sim- 
plest individuals of either kingdom not being distinguishable by our senses. 

2. Animals are for the most part ^incapable of multiplying by mechanical or 
spontaneous division of their trunk. 

3. Plants are for the most part congeries of individuals, multiplying by sponta- 
neous or artificial division of their trunk or axis. 

4. Generally speaking, the latter are fixed to some substance from which they 
grow, are destitute of locomotion, and are nourished by absorption through their 
cuticle (38). 

5. Plants consist of a membranous transparent tissue, formed by a combination 
of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, to which azote is occasionally superadded. 

6. Their tissue appears under four forms, viz. cellular tissue, woody fibre, spiral 
vessels, and ducts. These are called elementary organs. 

I. ELEMENTARY ORGANS. 

7. Of these Cellular Tissue (Tela cellulosa, hat. ; Tissu cellulaire, Fr. ; Pulp 
and Parenchyma, of old writers ; Zellgewebe, Germ.) is the only form universally 
found in plants ; the other forms are often either partially or entirely wanting. 

8. Cellular tissue is composed of transparent vesicles, the sides of which are not 
perforated by visible pores (17). 

9. Each vesicle is a distinct individual, cohering with the vesicles with which 
it is in juxtaposition. 

10. Therefore, the apparently simple membrane that divides two contiguous 
cells is in fact double. 

11. If the adhesion of the contiguous cells be imperfect, spaces will exist be- 
tvveen them. Such spaces are called intercellular passages. 

12. The vesicles of cellular tissue, when separate, are round or oblong ; when 
slightly and equally pressed together, they acquire an hexagonal appearance ; 
stretched lengthwise, they become prismatical, cylindrical, or fusiform. 

13. Cellular tissue, the vesicles of which fit together by their plane faces, is 
called parenchyma. 

14. Cellular tissue, the vesicles of which are elongated and overlie each other at 
the extremities, is called prosenchyma. 

15. Parenchrjma constitutes all the pulpy parts of the medulla or pith (82), 
the medullary rays (113), a portion of the bark (102), and all that is interposed 
between the veins of the leaves and of other appendages of the axis. 

16. Prosenchyma is confined to the bark and wood, in which it is mixed with 
woody fibre (19). 

17. The function of the cellular tissue is to transmit fluids in all directions ; 
the membrane of which it is composed is, therefore, permeable, although not fur- 
nished with visible pores (8). 

18. It has been supposed that the cellular tissue is self-productive, one vesicle 
giving birth to many others. 

19. Woody fibre (Vasa fibrosa, Lat. ; Tissu cellulaire allonge, Fr. ; Clostres, 
Fr. ; Bastrohren, Germ.) is tissue consisting of elongated tubes tapering to each 
end, and, like the vesicles of cellular tissue, imperforate to the eye. 

20. It may be considered a form of the cellular tissue, itself, to which it is fre- 
quently referred. 

21. It is found in the wood, among the parenchyma of the liber (104), and in the 
veins of leaves, and of other appendages of the axis. 

22. Its functions are to give strength to the vegetable fabric, and to serve as a 
medium for the passage of fluid from the lower to the upper extremities. 



XVI FIRST PRINCIPLES 

23. Spiral vessels (Vasa 'spiralia, Lai. ; Trachees, Fr. ; Spiralgefasse, 
Germ.) consist of elastic tissue twisted spirally into the form of a cylinder, and 
capable of unrolling. 

24. They are found in the medullary sheath (86), and in all parts that emanate 
from it in an ascending direction ; viz. the veins of the leaves, and every thing 
that is a modification of them. 

25. They are not found in any part which is formed in a downward direction ; 
and are consequently absent from the wood, bark, and root. 

26. The function of the spiral vessels is unknown. 

27. They only exist in plants propagated by the agency of sexes. 

28. Hence the two primary divisions of the vegetable kingdom ; viz., Vasculares, 
or plants furnished with spiral vessels and propagated by the agency of sexes ; and 
Cellulares, or plants destitute of spiral vessels and not propagated by the agency 
of sexes. 

29. Ducts (Fausses trachees, Fr.; Saftrohren, Germ.) are transparent tubes, the 
sides of which are marked with dots, or bars, or transverse streaks. 

30. Sometimes they have the appearance of spiral vessels, from which they are 
known by not being capable of unrolling. 

31. Their sides are not perforated by visible holes or pores, except in Coniferae, 
and Cycadeae, in which perforations are supposed to exist. 

32. They are found among the woody fibre, exist in great abundance in the wood, 
and their ends are in immediate connexion with the loose cellular tissue occupying 
the extremities of the fibres of the roots. 

33. Their functions have not been accurately determined. It is probable that 
they serve for the passage of air. 

34. The mode in which the different forms of tissue are developed is unknown. 

35. There are no other elementary forms of tissue. Air-vessels, Reservoirs of 
oil, Lenticular glands, Proper vessels, are all either distended intercellular pas- 
sages, or cavities built up with cellular tissue. 

36. When such caviiies are essential to the existence of a species, they are 
formed by a regular arrangement of cellular tissue in a definite and unvarying figure ; 
Ex. Water-plants. When they are not. essential to the existence of" a species, 
they are mere irregular distensions or lacerations of the tissue ; Ex. Pith of the 
Walnut Tree. 

. 37. All these forms of tissue are enclosed within a skin called the cuticle. 

38. The Cuticle is an external layer of parenchyma, the cells of which are 
compressed, and in a firm state of cohesion. 

39. The spaces seen upon the cuticle, when examined by a microscope, represent 
these cells. 

40. It is, therefore, not a peculiar membrane, but a form of cellular tissue. 

41. It is spread over all parts of plants, except the stigma (345). 

42. The mass of cellular tissue lying beneath the cuticle of the bark is called 
the epidermis. 

43. The cuticle is often furnished with stomata. 

44. Stomata are oval spaces lying between the sides of the cells, opening into 
intercellular cavities in the subjacent tissue, and bordered by a rim, the nature of 
which is not well known. 

45. It is not improbable that this appearance of a rim is due to the juxtaposition 
of two elastic vesicles, closing up or opening the aperture on which they lie, 
according to circumstances. 

46. Stomata are found abundantly upon leaves, particularly on the lower surface 
of those organs ; occasionally upon all parts that are modifications of leaves, espe- 
cially such as are of a leafy texture ; and on the stem. 

47. Stomata have not been found upon the roots, nor on colourless parasitical 
plants, nor the submersed parts of plants, nor on cellular plants destitute of ducts ; 
they are rare, or altogether absent from succulent fruits, and from all parts in a state 
of anamorphosis. 

48. Any part in which there is an unusual degree of cellular dcvelopemcnt, is said 
to be in a state of anamorphosis. 

49. The function of stomata is to facilitate evaporation. 

II. COMPOUND ORGANS. 

50. From peculiar combinations of the elementary organs are formed the com- 
pound organs. 



OF BOTANY. XVU 

51. The compound organs are the curia (52) and its appendages (158). 
53. The axis may be compared to the vertebral column of animals. 

53. It is formed by the developement of an embryo, or of a Leaf-bud. 

54. An embryo is a young plant, produced by the agency of the stamina and pistil.-, 
and developed within a seed. 

55. A leaf-bud is a young plant, produced without the agency of the stamina and 
pistils, and either enclosed within rudimentary leaves called scales, or naked. 

56. Seeds propagate the species. 

57. Leaf-buds propagate the individual. 

58. All the phenomena connected with the growth of plants arc caused by an in- 
herent vital action. 

59. When the vital action of a seed or bud is excited, the tissue devclopes in 
three directions, the one upwards, the other downwards, and the third horizontal. 

60. That part which developes downwards is called the descending axis or root ; 
that upwards, the ascending axis or stem ; and the part from which these two a.\c» 
start is called the collet or neck. 

61. This elongation in opposite directions takes place simultaneously: hence it 
follows that all plants must necessarily have an ascending and descending axis, or 
a stem and root. 

62. The only apparent exceptions to this are vesicular Alga?. 

III. ROOT. 

63. The root is formed by the descending and dividing fibres of the stem. 

64. Anatomically it differs from the stem in the absence of spiral vessels (~3), of 
pith (15), and of buds, and in the want of stomata (11). 

65. The functions of the root are to fix plants in the earth, and to absorb nu- 
triment from it. 

66. This absorption takes place almost exclusively by the extremities, which 
consist of a lax coating of cellular tissue lying on a concentric layer of woody fibre, 
in the midst of which is placed a bundle of ducts. 

IV. STEM. 

67. The stem is produced by the successive developement of leaf-buds (142), 
which elongate in opposite directions. 

68. If an annular incision be made below a branch of an Exogenous planl 

the upper lip of the wound heals rapidly, the lower lip does not : the pari above tlie 
incision increases sensibly in diameter, the part below does not. 

69. If a ligature be made round the bark, below a branch, the part above the liga- 
ture swells, that below it docs not swell. 

70. Therefore the matter which causes the increase of Exogenous plants in 
meter descends. 

71. If a growing branch is cut through below a leaf-bud, that branch nevei 
creases in diameter between the section and the first bud below it. 

72. The diameter of all Exogenous stems increases in proportion to the num 
of leaf-buds that are developed. 

73. The greater the number of leaf-buds above a given part, the greater tin 
diameter of that part ; and vice versa. 

74. In the spring the newly forming wood is to be traced to the form of fibres de- 
scending from the leaf-buds ; that which is most, newly formed lying on the outside, 
and proceeding from the most newly developed buds. 

75. Therefore the descending matter, by successive additions of which Exi 
nous plants increase in diameter, proceeds from the leaf-buds. 

76. Their elongation upwards gives rise to new axes, with the appendaj 

same; their elongation downwards increases the diameter of that part of the axis 
which pre-existed, and produces roots. 

77. Hence, while the stem is formed by the successive evolution of leaf-buds, the 
root, which is the effectofthat evolution", lias i" 1 1 laf-buds. 

78. The leaf-buds thus successively de\. firmly connected by the cellu- 
lar tissue of the stem, which proceeds from th< m\ ards, or from the circumfe- 
rence to the centre. 

79. The stem varies in structure in three principal modes. 

80. In vascular plants il is eithei formed by successive additions to the outsid 
the wood, wken it is called Exogenous; or by successive additions lo il • • entre, 



XY111 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

when it is called Endogenous. In cellular plants it is formed by the union of the 
bases of the leaves, or by simple elongation or dilatation where no leaves or buds 
exist. 

81. The stem of Exogenous plants may be distinguished into the Pith, the Me- 
dullary Sheath, the Wood, the Bark, the Medullary Rays, and the Cambium. 

82. The Pith consists of cellular tissue, the vesicles of which are in a slightly 
compressed state ; it occupies the centre of the stem. 

83. It never alters in diameter after it is once formed. 

84. It is produced by the elongation of the axis upwards. 

85. It serves to nourish the young buds until they have acquired the power of pro- 
curing nourishment for themselves. 

86. The Medullary sheath consists of spiral vessels and ducts. 

87. It immediately surrounds the pith, projections of which pass through it into 
the medullary rays (113). 

88. It is in direct communication with the leaf-buds and the veins of the leaves. 

89. It carries upwards the fluid absorbed either immediately from the earth, or 
through the intervention of the alburnum (101), and conducts it into the leaves. 

90. The Wood lies upon the medulllary sheath, and consists of concentric 
layers. 

91. It is formed by the successive adhesion of the descending axes of the buds, and 
by the distention or increase of the cellular tissue of the medullary rays. 

92. The first concentric layer lies immediately upon the medullary sheath and 
pith, and consists of woody fibre and ducts. 

93. Each succeeding concentric layer consists of an interior stratum of cellular 
tissue, and an outer stratum of woody fibre and ducts. 

94. Therefore, all the concentric layers that succeed the first may be considered 
to consist of wood and pith, and to be the same as the first, with the exception of 
the absence of a medullary sheath. 

95. A concentric layer, once formed, never alters in dimensions. 

96. Each concentric layer, which is distinctly limited, is the produce of one 
year's growth. 

97. Therefore, the age of an Exogenous plant may generally be known by the 
number of concentric circles of the wood. 

98. The secretions of plants are deposited first in the oldest concentric layers ; 
while those layers which are most recently formed are either empty, or contain but 
a slight deposit. 

99. When the tissue of the concentric layers is filled with secretions, it ceases to 
perform any vital functions. 

100. The dead and fully formed central layers are called the heart-wood. 

101. The living and incompletely formed external layers are called the alburnum. 

102. Upon the outside of the wood lies the Bark, which, like the wood, consists 
of concentric layers. 

103. Each concentric layer is composed of woody fibre and ducts, covered exter- 
nally by a layer of cellular tissue. 

104. The woody fibre and ducts constitute the liber. 

105. The exterior cellular tissue constitutes the cellular integument or ejiiih rmis . 

106. The concentric layers of the wood and bark arc the reverse of each other, 
the former increasing externally, the latter internally ; the former having a zone of 
cellular tissue inside, and of woody fibre and ducts outside; the latter having a 
zone of woody fibre with a few ducts inside, and of cellular tissue outside. 

107. The concentric layers of the bark are formed at the same period, and under 
the same circumstances, as those of the wood. 

108. Therefore, the number of concentric layers in the one or the other is the 
same. 

109. But while the concentric layers of the wood are imperishable except from 
disease, those of tin; bark arc continually destroyed by the distension of the stem : 
and hence the bark is always perishing naturally, while the wood sustains no 
loss. 

110. The secretions of a plant arc often deposited in the bark in preference to 
any other part. 

111. Hence chemical or medicinal principles are often to be sought in the hark 
rather than in the wood. 



OF BOTANY. XIX 

112. The immediate ftwctions ol" the bark are to protect the young wood from 
injury, and to serve as a filter through which the descending elaborated juices of a 
plant may pass horizontally into the stem. 

113. The Medullary Rays or Plates consist of compressed parallelograms of 
cellular tissue (muriform cellular tissue). 

114. They connect together the tissue of the trunk, maintaining a communica- 
tion between the centre and the circumference. 

115. They act as braces to the woody fibre and ducts of the wood. 

116. Cambium is the viscid secretion which, in the spring, separates the albur- 
num from the liber. 

117. It is supposed to be destined to afford a proper pabulum for the descending 
fibres of the buds. 

118. I believe it exclusively gives birth to the new medullary rays. 

119. As Exogenous plants increase by annual addition of new matter to then 
outside, and as their protecting integument or bark is capable of distension in any 
degree, commensurate with the increase of the wood that forms below it, it follows, 
taking all circumstances into consideration, that there are no assignable limits 
to the life of an Exogenous tree. 

120. The stem of endogenous plants offers no distinction of Pith, Medullary 
Rays, Wood, and Bark. 

121. It is formed by the intermixture of bundles of vascular tissue among a mass 
of cellular tissue, the whole of which is surrounded by a zone of cellular tissue and 
woody fibre, inseparable from the stem itself, and therefore not bark. 

122. It increases by the successive descent of new bundles of vascular tissue 
down into the central cellular tissue. 

123. The vascular bundles of the centre gradually force outwards those which 
were first formed, and in this way the diameter of a stem increases. 

124. The diameter of the stem of an endogenous plant is determined by the 
power its tissue possesses of distending, and on its hardness. 

125. When the external tissue has once become indurated, the stem can in- 
crease no further in diameter. 

126. When the tissue is soft and capable of continual distension, there is no 
more certain limits to the life of an Endogenous than of an Exogenous tree. 

127. Generally, the terminal bud only of Exogenous plants is developed ; but 
very often a considerable number develope ; Ex. Asparagus. 

128. When a terminal bud only of an Endogenous plant developes, the stem is 
cylindrical ; Ex, Palms ; when several develope, it becomes conical ; Ex. Bam- 
boo. 

129. In cellular plants no other stem is formed than what arises from the simple 
union of the bases of the leaves to the original axis of the bud from which they 
spring, and which they carry up along with them. This subject is but ill under- 
stood. 



130. The ascending direction of the stem, upon its first developement, is fre- 
quently deviated from immediately after. 

131. It often burrows beneath the earth, when it is vulgarly called a creeping 
root. Sometimes the internodia (137) become much thickened, when what are 
called tubers are formed ; or the stem lies prostrate upon the earth, emitting roots 
from its under side, when it is called rhizoma. 

132. If it distend underground, without creeping or rooting, but always retaining 
a round or oval figure, it is called a cormus. 

133. All these forms of stem are vulgarly called roots. 

134. No root can have either scales, which are the rudiments of leaves, or nodi, 
which are the rudiments of buds. A scaly root is, therefore, a contradiction in 
terms. 

135. The ascending axis, or stem, has nodi and internodia. 

136. Nodi are the places where the leaves are expanded and the buds formed. 

137. Internodia are the spaces between the nodi. 

138. Whatever is produced by the evolution of a leaf-bud (142) is a branch. 

139. A spine is the imperfect evolution of a leaf-bud, and is therefore a branch. 

140. All processes of the stem win. 1 , are not the evolutions of leaf-buds, are mere 
dilatations of the cellular integument of the bark. Such are prickles. {Aculei, 
Lat.) 






XX FIRST FUINCIPLi. 

V. LEAF-BUDS. 

141. Buds arc of two kinds, Loaf-buds and Flower-buds. 

142. Leaf-buds (Bourgeon, Fr.^) consist of rudimentary leaves surrounding a 
itaJ point, the tissue of which is capable of elongation, upwards in the form of 

stem, and downwards in the form of wood or root. 

143. Fxowee-btjdb (Bouton, Fr.) consist of rudimentary leaves surrounding a 
point, whicrTdoes not elongate after it is once developed, and assumes, when fully 

doped, the form of reproductive apparatus. 

144. Notwithstanding this difference, a leaf-bud sometimes indicates a tendency 
to become a flower-bud ; and flower-buds frequently assume the characters of leaf?' 
buds ; Ex. Monstrous Pears. 

145. Leaf-buds are of two kinds, the regular and the adventitious. 

146. Regular Leaf-buds are only found in the axillae of the leaves. 

147. They exist in a developed or undeveloped state in the axilla; of all leaves, 
and of all modifications of leaves. 

148. Therefore, they may be expected to appear at the axilla: of scales of the- 
bud, of stipulae (183), of bractero (229), of sepals (290), of petals (291), of stamens 
(302), and of carpclla'(354) ; in all of which situations they are generally undc->. 
vcloped. 

149. They are frequently not called into action, even in the axillco of leaves. 

150. As regular buds are only found in the axilla; of leaves, or of their modifica- 
tions ; and as branches are always the developement of buds, it follows that what- 
ever may be the arrangement of the leaves, the same will be the disposition of the 
branches ; and vice versa. 

151. This corresponding symmetry is, however, continually destroyed by the 
developement of the buds. 

152. Leaf-buds, whicli are formed among the tissue of plants subsequently to the 
developement of the stem and leaves, are called latent, adventitious, or abnormal. 

153. Adventitious Leaf-buds may be produced wherever there is an anastomosis 
of woody fibre. 

154. They arc formed in the root, among the wood, and at the margin, or on the 
surface of leaves. 

155. They are constructed anatomically, exactly as regular buds, having pith in 
their centre, surrounded by spiral vessels, and coated over by woody fibre and cellu- 
lar integument. 

150. llence, as adventitious buds, containing spiral vessels, can be produced 
from parts such as the root or the wood, in which no spiral vessels previously 
< dsted, it follows that this form of tissue is cither generated spontaneously, or is 
produced by some other tissue, in a manner unknown to us. 

157. Leaf-buds have been sometimes confounded with roots by old botanists. A 
bulb is a leaf-bud ; a bulbous root is a contradiction in terms. 

VI. LEAVES. 

158. A leaf is an expansion of the bark immediately below the origin of a regu-. 
lar leaf-bud, and is an appendage of the axis (51). 

1 59. Whenever a regular leaf-bud is formed, a leaf, either perfect or rudimentary, 
is developed also ; and vice versa. 

100. IiCaves are developed alternately, one above and opposite the other, around 
their common axis; but in consequence of the internodia of the axis being une- 
qually developed, leaves are often opposite or verticillate. They arc never produced 
side by : ide. 

161. In Exogenous plants, the primordial or seed-leaves (cotyledons) arc oppo- 
site; hence, in such plants the non-developement of the axis takes place during 
the original formation * » t' the embryo. 

162. There is a constant tendency in opposite or verticillate leaves to become 
alternate. 

163. This law applies equally to the arrangement of all parts that are modifica- 
tions of leaves. 

104. A leaf consists of a petiole, a lamina, and a pai* of stipulse. 

1G5. The petiole is the channel through which the vessels of the leaf are con- 
nected with those of I he stem ; it is formed of one or more bundles of spiral vessels 
and woody fibre, enclosed in a cellular integument. 



% 



L66. Tito spiral vessels of the leaf of Exogenous plajits derive\heir origin fromtlio 
medullary sheath ; those of Endogenous plants from the bundles »fva cular tissue. 

167. The cellular integument of the petiole is a continuation of that of the 
bark. 

108. When the petiole is leafy and the lamina is abortive, it is called phylloiium. 

169. When the petiole becomes dilated and hollowed out at its upper end, the 
lamina being articulated with and closing up its orifice, it is called a.Sa>itcher or 
otcidium. -• 

170. Sometimes the petiole has no lamina, or is elongated beyond the lamina, 
and retains its usual cylindrical or taper figure, but becomes very long, and twists 
spirally ; such a petiole is called a tendril, (Vrille, i'V.) 

171. The lamina of a leaf is an expansion of the parenchyma of the petiole, 
and is traversed by veins which are ramifications or extensions of the bundles of 
vascular tissue of the petiole, or, when there is no petiole, of the stem. 

172. The veins either branch in various directions among the parenchyma, anas- 
tomosing and forming a kind of net-work, or they run parallel to each other, being 
connected by single transverse unbranched veins. 

173. The former is characteristic of Exogenous, the latter of Endogenous plants. 

174. The principal vein of a leaf is a continuation of the petiole, and runs in a 
direct line from the base to the apex of the lamina ; this vein is called the midrib. 

17~». Conifer<B and Cycadea, tribes the stem of which has an Exogenous struc- 
ture, have the same arrangement of their veins as Endogensa. 

176. There are two strata of veins, the one belonging to the upper, and the other 
to the under surface. 

177. The upper stratum conveys the juices from the stem into the lamina, for 
the purpose of being aerated and elaborated ; the under returns them into the bark. 

178. The lamina is variously divided and formed ; it is usually thin and mem- 
branous, with a distinct upper and under surface ; but sometimes becomes succu- 
lent, when the surfaces are often not distinguishable. 

• ' 17!). The upper surface is presented to the sky, the lower to thn oarlh ; this posi- 
tion is rarely departed from in nature, and cannot be altered artificially except by 
violence. 

180. A leaf is simple when its lamina is undivided, or when, if it is separated 
into several divisions, those divisions are not articulated with the petiole ; Ex. 

ILime Tree, Palm. 

181. A leaf is compound when the lamina is articulated with the petiole ; Ex. 
Orange, Mimosa. 

182. The modes in which leaves are divided are distinguished by particular 
names, such as pinnated, pinnatifid, bipinnated, bipinnatifid , and very many 
others. These terms apply to the mode of division, and arc equally applicable to 
simple and compound leaves. 

183. Stipule are attached to each side of the base of the petiole. Tbey have, 
if foliaceous, veins, the anatomical structure of which is the same as of the veins 
of the leaves. 

184. Stipula: are sometimes transformed into leaves ; they sometimes have buds 
in their axilla' ; and may be, therefore, considered rudimentary leaves. 

185. Whatever arises from the base of a petiole, or of a leaf if sessile, occupy- 
ing the same place, and attached to each side, is considered a stipula. 

186. The stipula; must not be confounded with celhdar marginal appendages of 
the petiole, as in Apocynere. 

187. Stipula?, the margins of which cohere in such a way that they form a mem- 
branous tube sheathing the stem, are called ochrccc ; Ex. Rhubarb. 

18H. All leaves are originally continuous with the stem ; as they grow, an inter- 
ruption of their tissue at their junction takes place, by which a more or less com- 
plete articulation is formed sooner or later. 

L89. As soon as the articulation between a leaf and stem is completed, the Fall 
of the Leaf takes place. The cause of this articulation is unknown. 

190. All leaves ultimately fall off; evergreen leaves later than others. 

191. The mode in which leaves are arranged within their bud is called vernation, 
or gemmation. 

192. Leaves have, under particular circumstances, the power of producing leaf- 
buds from their margin (154) ; Ex. Bryophyllum, Malaxis paludosa, and proliferous 
Ferns. 



\xn GENERAL PRINCIPLES 

VII. HAIRS. 

193. Hairs are minute expansions of transparent cellular tissue proceeding from 
the surface of plants. They are of two kinds, lymphatic and secreting. 

194. Lymphatic hairs are formed by vesicles of cellular tissue placed end to end, 
and not varying much in dimensions. 

195. Secreting hairs are formed by vesicles of cellular tissue placed end to end, 
and sensibly distended at the apex or base into receptacles of fluid. 

196. Lymphatic hairs are for the protection of the surface on which they are 
placed, and for the control of evaporation through the stomata (44). They always 
proceed from the veins, while the stomata occupy the interjacent parenchyma. 

197. Secreting hairs are receptacles of the fluid peculiar to certain species of 
plants, such as the fragrant volatile oil of the sweet brier, and the acrid colourless 
secretion of the nettle. 

VIII. FOOD AND SECRETIONS. 

198. Plants are nourished by the absorption of food from the earth, in conse- 
quence of which they grow, and produce their peculiar secretions. 

199. The growth of plants is very rapid ; that of the leaves is such that they often 
acquire six or seven times their original weight per hour. 

200. The food of plants consists of water, holding various substances in solu- 
tion. The roots have the power of separating these substances, and selecting such 
only as are congenial to the nature of the species. 

201. As soon as it is absorbed, it begins to ascend into the stem. 

202. The ascending fluid is called sap ; it consists chiefly of water, mucilage, and 
sugar, mixed with a small quantity of such peculiar secretions of the plant as it 
may dissolve in its course. It does not alter its nature materially until it is dis- 
charged into the leaves. 

203. It is put in motion by the newly developing leaf-buds, which, by constantly 
consuming the sap that is near them, attract it upwards from the roots as it is 
required. Therefore, the movement of the sap is the effect, and not the cause, of 
the growth of plants. It depends upon a vital irritability, and is independent of 
mechanical causes. 

204. This irritability is indicated not only by the motion of the sap, but by seve- 
ral other phenomena of vegetation ; such as, 

a. The elasticity with which the stamens sometimes spring up when touched, and 
the sudden collapsion of many leaves when stimulated : 

6. The apparently spontaneous oscillation of the labellum of some Orchideous 
plants : 

c. The expansion of flowers and leaves under the stimulus of light, and the col- 
lapsion of them when light is withdrawn. This phenomenon in leaves is called the 
sleep of plants : 

d. By the effects of mineral and vegetable poisons being the same upon plants as 
upon animals. Mineral poisons kill by inflammation and corrosion ; vegetable 
poisons by the destruction of irritability. 

205. After the sap has been distributed through the veins of the leaves, it be- 
comes exposed to the influence of air and light, and undergoes peculiar chemical 
changes. In this state it is called the proper juice. 

200. When the proper juice has been once formed, it flows back along the lower 
stratum of veins, and descends towards the roots, passing off horizontally into the 
centre of the stem. 

207. Hence the great importance of leaves to plants, and the necessity of ex- 
posing them to the full influence of light and air, for the purpose of securing a due 
execution of their natural functions. 

203. Hence also the impropriety of mutilating plants by the destruction of their 
leaves. 

209. In Exogenous plants (80) the upward course of the fluids is through the al- 
burnum, their downward passage through the bark, and their horizontal diffusion 
takes place by the medullary r i 

210. Hence the peculiar principle of such plants are to be sought either in the 
bark or the heart-woo,-] (10(1.) not in the alburnum (101.) 

211. As they are the result of the growth of a plant, they will be found more 
abundantly in annual plants at the end than at the commencement of their growth. 



OF BOTANY. XX ill 

212. In Endogenous plants (80) it is probable that the upward and horizontal 
course of the fluids is through the cellular tissue, and that the downward passage 
takes place through the bundles of vascular tissue. 

213. The precise direction of the sap in cellular plants (80) is unknown. 

214. Besides mucilage, water, and sugar, plants contain several other principles 
either proximate or accessory. 

215. The proximate principles are formed by the vital powers of the plant acting, 
in conjunction with air and light, upon the fluids introduced into its system. 

216. Many accessory or foreign principles are also found in plants, such as silcx, 
phosphate of lime, phosphorus, &c. 

217. As it has been ascertained, by experiment, that these are formed in plants 
the aliment of which did not contain them, it is inferred that the presence of such 
principles also depends upon the operation of the vital powers of vegetation. 

218. The most important chemical phenomenon connected with the growth of 
plants, is the property possessed by their leaves, or green parts, of absorbing oxy- 
gen and parting with carbonic acid gas in the dark ; and of parting with their oxy- 
gen under the influence of the sun. 

219. The alternate action of this phenomenon is supposed to cause, in conjunc- 
tion with the peculiar vital powers of particular species, all the variety of proximate 
and foreign principles found in vegetables. 

220. No plants can long exist in which an alternate absorption and expulsion of 
oxygen does not take place, except Fungi. 

221. The expulsion of oxygen is determined by the quantity of light to which a 
plant is exposed. Light causes the decomposition of the carbonic acid gas, and the 
accumulation of solid matter. 

222. Hence, if a plant is exposed to too strong a light, it perishes, from the ex- 
cessive expulsion of oxygen. 

223. And if it is not exposed to the influence of light, it dies from the accumula- 
tion of that principle. 

224. If there is too great an accumulation of oxygen, an attempt will always be 
made by a plant to reach the light, for the purpose of parting with the superfluity ; 
as in seeds, which, in germination, shoot from darkness into light. 

225. If this cannot be effected, etiolation first takes place, which is caused by 
the accumulation of oxygen, and the consequent non-deposition of carbon; and 
death succeeds. 

226. Seeds will not germinate in the light, because light decomposes their car- 
bonic acid gas, expels the oxygen, and fixes the carbon, whence all the parts become 
hardened. 

IX. FLOWER-BUDS. 

227. The FihOwer-bud (143) consists of imbricated, rudimentary, or metamor- 
phosed leaves, the external or inferior of which are usually alternate, and the inter- 
nal or superior always verticillate, or opposite ; the latter are called^/foraZ envelopes 
and reproductive organs. 

228. As every flower-bud proceeds from the axilla of a leaf, either fully developed 
or rudimentary, it therefore occupies exactly the same position with respect to the 
leaf as a leaf-bud. 

229. The leaf from the axilla of which a flower-bud arises, is called a bractea, 
or floral leaf; and all rudimentary leaves, of what size or colour soever, which ap- 
pear on the peduncle between the floral leaf and the calyx, are called bracteolce. 

230. But in common language, botanists constantly confound these two kinds, 
which are, nevertheless, essentially distinct. 

231. Although the buds in the axilla of bracteee are often not developed, yet they 
have the same power of developement as those in the axillae of leaves ; they are 
generally flower-buds, very rarely leaf-buds. 

232. When a single bractea is rolled together, highly developed, and coloured, 
and is placed at the base of the form of inflorescence called a spadix (259,) it is 
named spatha; Ex. Arum. 

233. When several bracteee are verticillate or densely imbricated around the 
base of the forms of inflorescence called the umbel, or capituluin (261,) they receive 
the name of involucrum; Ex. Carrot, Daisy. 

234. When the bracteee of an involucrum form a single whorl, and cohere by 
their margins, it is impossible to distinguish them from the calyx by any other 



XXIV FIRST PRINCIPLES 

mark than by their position, and by their usually surrounding more flowers than 
one. 

235. The minute or colourless bractea? at the base of the florets of a capitulum 
(261) are called palece. 

236. Small imbricated bractea? are often called scales. 

237. Bractea?, when placed immediately below the stamina and pistils, as in apeta- 
lous flowers, are only distinguished from the calyx by being alternate with each other, 
and not verticillate ; hence the glumes and palea of grasses are bractea? and not calyx. 

238. The axis of the flower-bud in its natural state does not elongate beyond 
those upper series of metamorphosed leaves which constitute the stamina and pistils. 

239. The elongation of its axis, from the point of its connexion with the stem, 
as far as the floral envelopes, is called the peduncle. 

240. When the several peduncles spring from the axis at short distances from 
each other, the axis receives the name of rachis, and the peduncles themselves are 
called pedicels. 

241. There is never more than one flower to each peduncle, strictly speaking ; 
therefore, when we speak of a two-flowered peduncle, we only mean that two flow- 
ers, each having its peculiar pedicel, terminate the axis, which is then considered 
a peduncle common to each pedicel. 

242. Every flower, with its peduncle and bractcola?, being the developomcnt of a 
flower-bud, and flower-buds being altogether analogous to leaf-buds, it follows, as a 
coroliary, that every flower, with its peduncle and bracteola?, is a metamorphosed 
branch. 

243. And further, the flowers being abortive branches, whatever the laws arc of 
the arrangement of branches with respect to each other, the same will be the laws 
of the arrangement of flowers with respect to each other. 

244. The flower-buds, however, being much less subject to abortion than leaf- 
buds, flowers are more symmetrically disposed than branches, and appear to possess 
their own peculiar order of developement. 

245. As flower-buds can only develope from the axilla of a bractea, it follows, 
that while a pedicel without bractea? can never accidentally produce other flowers, 
any one-flowered pedicel, on which bractea? are present, can, and frequently does, 
bear several flowers. 

246. In consequence of a flower and its peduncle being a branch in a particular 
state, the rudimentary or metamorphosed leaves which constitute bractea), floral 
envelopes, stamina and pistils, are subject to exactly the same laws of arrangement 
as regularly formed leaves. 

247. The modes in which the flower-buds arc arranged are called forms of in- 
florescence : and the order in which they unfold is called the order of expansion. 

X. INFLORESCENCE. 

248. Inflorescence is the ramification of that part of the plant intended for repro- 
duction by seed. 

249. The greater developement of some forms of inflorescence than of others, is 
owinw to the greater power one plant posseses than another of developing buds, 
latent in the axilla? of the bractea 1 . 

250. A flower-bud may either develope into a (single flower, or may follow t lie 
laws of increase of leaf-buds, and give birth to many other flower-buds. 

251. In consequence of flower-buds obeying the laws which regulate leaf-buds, 
all forms of inflorescence most of necessity, be axillary. 

252. Those forms which are called opposite the leaves, extra-axillary, petiolar, 
or epiphyllous, and even the terminal itself, are mere modifications of the axil- 
lary. 

253. The kinds of inflorescence which botanists more particularly distinguish 
are the following : 

254. When no elongation of the general axis of a plant takes place beyond the 
developement of a flower-bud, the flower becomes what is called terminal ami 

tar I) ; Ex. Paxmy. 

255. When a single fiower-ln i<1 unfolds in t In- axilla of a leal', and the general axis 
continues to elongate, and the leaf undergoes no sensible diminution of size, the 
flower which is developed is said to be solitary undaxillary. 

256. If all the buds of a newly formed elongated branch develope as flower-buds, 
and at the same time produce peduncles, a raceme i& formed. 



OF BOTANY. XXV 

257. If buds, under the same circumstances, develope without forming pedun- 
cles, a spike is produced. 

258. Hence the only difference between a spike and raceme is, that in the former 
the Mowers are sessile, and in the latter stalked. 

259. A spadix differs from a spike in nothing more than in the Bowers bi 
packed close together upon a succulent axis, which is enveloped in a spatha (232). 

200. An amentum is a spike, the bracteai of which are all of equal size, and 
closely imbricated, and which is articulated with the stem. 

201. When a bud produces flower-buds, with little elongation of its own axis, 
cither a capilulum or an umbel is produced. 

202. The capitulum bears the same relation to the umbel as the spike to the ra- 
ceme ; that is to say, they differ in the flower-buds of the capitulum being sessile, 
and of the umbel having pedicels. 

203. The dilated depressed axis of the capitulum is called the receptacle. 

204. A raceme, the lowest flowers of which have long pedicels, and the upper- 
must short ones, is a corymb. 

205. A panicle is a raceme, the flower-buds of which have, in elongating, deve- 
loped other flower-buds. 

200. A panicle, the middle branches of which are longer than those of the base or 
apex, is called a thyrsus. 

207. A panicle, the elongation of all the ramifications of which is arrested, so that 
it assumes the appearance of an umbel, is called a cyme. 

208. In all modes of inflorescence which proceed from the buds of a single branch. 
the axis of which is either elongated or not, the flowers expand first at the base of 
the inflorescence, and last at the summit. This kind of expansion is called centri- 
petal. 

209. When the uppermost or central flowers open first, and those at the base or 
the circumference last, the expansion is called centrifugal. 

270. The centripetal order of expansion always indicates that the inflorescence 
proceeds from the developement of the buds of a single branch. 

271. When inflorescence is the result of the developement of several branches, 
each particular branch follows the centripetal law of expansion, but the whole mass 
of inflorescence the centrifugal. > 

272. This arises from the partial centripetal developement commencing among 
the upper extremities of the inflorescence instead of among the lower. 

273. Consequently, this difference of expansion will indicate whether a particular 
form of inflorescence proceeds from the developement of the buds of a single branch, 
when it is called simple, or not, when it is called compound. 

274. Whenever the order of expansion is centripetal, the inflorescence is to be 
understood as simple; when it is centrifugal, it is compound, although in appear- 
ance simple. This difference is often of great importance. 

275. When the order of expansion is irregular, it indicates that the mode of de- 
velopement of the flowers is irregular also, either on account of abortion or other 
causes. 

270. Sometimes all the flowers of the inflorescence are abortive, and the ramifi- 
cations, or the axis itself, assume a twisted or spiral direction ; when this happens, 
a tendril is formed ; Ex. the Vine. 

XL FLORAL ENVELOPES. 

277. The Floral Envelopes are the parts which immediately surround the stamen 
and pistils. 

278. They are formed of one or more whorls of braclea?, and arc therefore modi 
tied leaves (229). 

2T9. In anatomical structure they do not essentially differ from the leaves, far- 
ther than is necessarily consequent upon the peculiar modilications of size or deve- 
lopement to which they are subject. 

280. When the floral envelopes consist of but one whorl of leaves, they are called 
calyx. 

281. When two or more whorls are developed, the outer is called calyx, the inner 
corolla. 

282. There is no other essentia] difference between the calyx and enroll;!. Then 
fore, when a plant has but one floral envelope, thai one is calyx, whatever may bi 
its colour or degree of developement , 

4 



XXVI FIRST PRINCIPLES 

283. It is necessary, however, to be aware, that sometimes the calyx is reduced 
to a mere rim, either in consequence of lateral compression, as in the pappus 
{aigrette, Fr.) of many Composite, or from other unknown causes, as in some 
Acanthaceae. 

284. If the floral envelopes are of such a nature that it is not obvious whether 
they consist of both calyx and corolla, or of calyx only, they receive the name of 
perianthium or perigonium. 

285. Plants have frequently no floral envelopes ; in that case, flowers are said to 
be naked or achlamydeous. 

286. When the floral envelopes are deciduous, they fall from the peduncle, as 
leaves from a branch, by means of an articulation ; if they are persistent, it is be- 
cause no articulation takes place. 

287. When the margins of floral envelopes are united, the part where the union 
has taken place is called the tube, and that where they are separate is named the 
limb. It frequently happens that in the calyx an articulation forms between the 
limb and the tube. 

288. Botanists generally consider that the tube of the calyx is invariably formed 
by the union of the margins of the sepals. It is, however, probable, that it is in 
some cases a mere dilatation and expansion of the pedicel itself, as in Esch- 
scholtzia. 

289. When the calyx and corolla are readily distinguishable from each other, 
they exhibit the following peculiarities : 

290. The calyx consists of two or more divisions, usually green, called sepals, 
which are either distinct, when a calyx is said to be polysepalous, or which unite 
by their margins in a greater or less degree, when it is called monosepalous or mono- 
phyllous. 

291. The corolla consists of two or more divisions, called petals, usually of some 
bright colour, different from that of the sepals, than which they are frequently 
more developed. When the petals are distinct, a corolla is said to be polypetalous ; 
when they are united by their margins, it is called monopetalous. 

292. If the union of the petals or sepals takes place in one or two parcels, the 
corolla or calyx are said to be one or two lipped. These lips are always anterior 
and posterior with respect to the axis of inflorescence, and never right and left. 

293. If the sepals or petals are of unequal size, or unite in unequal degrees, the 
calyx or corolla is said to be irregular. 

294. When the petals are so arranged that of five the uppermost is dilated, the 
two lateral ones contracted and parallel with each other, and the two lower also 
contracted, parallel with each other, and coherent by their anterior margins, a flower 

s said to be papilionaceous. 

265. When a petal tapers conspicuously towards the base, it is said to be unguicu- 
late ; its lower part is called the unguis, its upper the limb. The former is ana- 
logous to the petiole, the latter to the lamina of a leaf. 

296. The petals always alternate with the sepals, a necessary consequence of 
their following the laws of developement of leaves. 

297. If at any time the petals arise from before the sepals, such a circumstance is 
due to the abortion of one whorl of petals between the sepals and those petals which 
are actually developed. 

298. As petals always alternate with sepals, the number of each row of either 
will always be exactly the same. All deviations from this law are either apparent 
only, in consequence of partial cohesions, or if real, are due to partial abortions. 

299. Whatever intervenes between the bracteffi and the stamens belongs t<> the 
floral envelopes, and is either calyx or corolla ; of which nature are many of the 
organs vulgarly called nectaries. 

300. The dilated apex of the pedicel, from which the floral envelopes and ita- 
mens arise, is called the torus or reccytacle. 

301. The manner in which the floral envelopes are arranged before they expand 
is called their aestivation or pra-Jloration. 

XII. STAMENS. 

302. The whorl of organs immediately within the petals is composed of bodice 
called stamens, which are considered the fecundating apparatus of plants. 



OP HOT A NY XXVII 

ili.'j. Tliey consist of a bundle of spiral vessels surrounded by cellular tissue, 
• ailed the filament, terminated by a peculiar arrangement of the cellular tissue in a 
case, finally opening and discharging its contents, called the anther. 

304. There are many instances in which no limits can be traced between the 
petals and stamens ; Ex. Nymphaea. 

305. In such cases it is found that the limb (295) of the petal contracts and be- 
comes an anther, while the unguis assumes the state of a filament. 

306. Now as there are no limits between the petals and sepals (282), nor between 
the sepals and bracteae (278), nor between the bracteae and leaves (229), it follows 
that the stamens are also a modification of leaves. 

807. And as the limb of a petal is analogous to the lamina, and the unguis (295) 
to the petiole of a leaf, it also follows that the anther is a modification of the lamina, 
and the filament of the petiole. 

308. The stamens follow the same laws of successive developement as leaves ; 
and consequently, if their arrangement be normal, they will be either equal in num- 
ber to the petals, and alternate with them, or, if more numerous, some regular mul- 
tiple of the petals. 

309. If they are twice the number of petals, two whorls arc considered to be de- 
veloped ; and so on. 

310. If they are equal in number to the petals, and opposite them, it is to be un- 
derstood that the innermost only of the two whorls is developed, the outermost being 
abortive. 

311. All deviations from these laws are due to the abortion of some part of the 
stamens; Ex. Lamium, Hippuris. 

312. When the stamens do not contract any union with the sides of the calyx, 
they are hypogynous ; Ex. Ranunculus. 

313. When they contract adhesion with the sides of the calyx, they become pe- 
rigynous ; Ex. Rose. 

314. If they are united both with the surface of the calyx and of the ovarium, 
they are epigynous ; Ex. Umbellifera?. 

315. The filaments (303) are either distinct or united by their margins. If they 
are united in one tube, they are called monadelphous ; Ex. Malva: if in two par- 
cels, diadelphous ; Ex. Pea : if in several, polyadelphous ; Ex. Hypericum. 

316. When they are united in a solid body, along with the style, they form what 
is called a column, and are said to be gynandrous. 

317. The filament is not essential to a stamen, and is, in fact, often absent. 

318. The anther is the limb of the stamen, forming within its substance, and 
finally emitting, a matter called pollen. 

319. The two sides of the anther are called its lobes ; and the solid substance 
which connects them, and which is in fact a continuation of the filament, as the mid- 
rib of a leaf is of the petiole, is named the connectivum. 

320. The cavities of the anther containing the pollen are the cells, and the 
place by which the pollen is emitted is the point or line of dehiscence ; the mem- 
branous sides of the anther are named the valves. 

321. Dehiscence usually takes place along a line, which may be considered to 
indicate the margin of the limb out of which the anther is formed ; Ex. Rose. 

322. Sometimes a portion only of this line opens, and then the anther is said to 
dehisce by pores ; Ex. Azalea. 

323. If the line of dehiscence occupies both margins of the connectivum, and not 
1he centre of the lobes, the anther opens by one valve instead of two, which is then 
hinged by its upper edge ; Ex. Berberry. 

324. The cells of the anther are usually two in number : sometimes they are 
four ; Ex. Tetratheca : rarely one ; Ex. Epacris : and still more rarely several ; 
Ex. Raffiesia. 

325. The number of cells appears to be determined by no certain rule. 

326. The anthers frequently grow together by their margins ; Ex. Composites. 
Such anthers are called syngenesious. 

327. The Pollen is formed by a peculiar modification of the cellules of the paren- 
chyma of the anther. 

328. That part of the central cellular tissue of the anther which is not converted 
into pollen, serves to connect the granules together, in the form of a tenacious 
-fibrous web ; Ex. Oenothera, Orchis. 



XXV111 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

329. Pollen consists of vesicles or granules of cellular tissue, enclosing a mucous 
substance, in which an iniinite number of exceedingly minute molecular bodies, 
having a power of active motion, is contained. 

330. The function of the pollen is to vivify the ovula (344). 

331. For this purpose a granule of pollen which has fallen upon the stigma bursts, 
and emits the mucus it contains, along with the active molecules floating in it. 

332. This mucus passes down the intercellular passages of the stigma and style, 
and is finally conducted into the ovulum, through its foramen (408). 

333. In plants the ovula of which have no pericarpial covering (425), as Coni- 
fers?, the molecules of the pollen are communicated to the ovulum without the inter 
vention of any form of tissue. 

334. Each molecule produces one embryo, and usually but one is developed in 
each ovulum ; but sometimes two or more accidentally develope, and then a seed 
contains several embryos, as the Orange, the Onion, the Mistletoe. 

XIII. DISK. 

335. Whatever intervenes between the stamens and the pistillum receives the ge- 
neral name of disk. 

336. It usually consists of an annular elevation, encompassing the base of the 
ovarium, when it is sometimes called the cup ; Ex. Peeony. 

337. Or it appears in the form of a glandular lining of the tube of the calyx ; Ex. 
Rose : or of tooth-like, hypogynous (312), processes ; Ex. Gesneria, Cruciferss : 
or of a fleshy mass, upon which the ovaria appear to be seated ; Ex. Lamium. 

338. It is certain that the disk is sometimes a non-developement of an inner row 
or rows of stamens, as is proved by the Moutan Peeony ; and it is probable that 
such is generally its nature. 

339. But it is also probable that the disk is sometimes a mere cellular expansion 
of the torus (300), as in Nelumbium. 

340. The disk is one of the parts which Linnsean botanists call nectary. 

XIV. PISTILLUM. 

341. The organ which occupies the centre of a flower, within the stamens, and 
disk, if the latter be present, is called the pistillum. 

342. It is the fruit-bearing apparatus of flowering plants. 

343. It is distinguished into three parts, viz. the ovarium, the style, and the 
stigma. 

344. The ovarium is a hollow case, enclosing ovula (354). It contains one or 
more cavities, called cells. 

345. The stigma is the upper extremity of the pistillum. 

346. The style is the part that connects the ovarium and stigma. 

347. The style is frequently absent, and is no more essential to a pistillum than a 
petiole to a leaf, or a filament to an anther. 

348. Sometimes the style is thin, flat, and membranous, and assumes the form of 
a petal, as in Iris. 

349. The style is either articulated with the ovarium, or continuous with it. It 
usually proceeds directly from the apex of the ovarium ; but in some cases arises 
from the side, or even the base of that organ ; Ex. Alchemilla, Chrysobalaneae. 

350. Nothing is, properly speaking, stigma, except the secreting surface of the 
style. Nevertheless, the name is often inaccurately applied to mere divisions of the 
style, as in Labiata? : or to the hairy surface of undivided styles, as in Lathyrus. 

351. Sometimes the stigmas grow to the face of the anthers, which form them- 
selves into a solid mass ; Ex. Asclepias. In this case the styles remain separate. 

352. The pistillum is either the modification of a single leaf, or of one or more 
whorls of modified leaves. 

353. Such modified leaves are called carpella. 

354. A Carpellum is formed by a folded leaf, the upper surface of which is 
turned inwards, the lower outwards, and the margins of which develope one or a 
greater number of buds, which are the ovula. 

355. When the carpella are stalked, they arc said to be seated upon a theca- 
phore, or gynophore ; Ex. Cleome, Passiflora. Their stalk is analogous to the 
petiole of a leaf. 

356. The ovarium is the lamina of the leaf. 



OF HOT A \ \ . WIS 

357. The style is an elongation of the midrib (174). 

358. The stigma is the denuded, secreting, humid apex of the midrib. 

350. Where the margins of the folded leaf, out of which the carpellum is formed, 
meet and unite, a copious developement of cellular tissue takes place, forming 
what is called the placenta. 

.'WO. Every placenta is therefore composed of two parts, one of which belongs to 
one margin of the carpellum, and one to the other. 

361. As the carpella are modified leaves, they necessarily obey the laws of ar- 
rangement of leaves, and are therefore developed round a common axis. 

362. And as they are leaves folded inwards, their margins are necessarily turned 
towards the axis. The placenta, therefore, being formed by the union of those 
margins, will be invariably next the axis. 

363. So that if a whorl of several carpella unite and constitute a pistillum, the 
placentae of that pistillum will be all in the axis. 

364. The normal position of the carpella is alternate with the innermost row of 
stamens to which they are also equal in number ; but this symmetry of arrangement 
is constantly destroyed by the abortion or non-developement of part of the car- 
pella. 

365. The carpella often occupy several whorls, in which case they are usually 
distinct from each other; Ex. Ranunculus, Fragaria, Rosa. 

366. Sometimes, notwithstanding their occupying more than one whorl, they all 
unite in a single pistillum ; Ex. Nicotiana multivalvis > Monstrous Citrons. In these 
cases the placenta; of the innermost whorl of carpella occupy the axis, while those 
of the exterior carpella are united with the backs of the inner ones, as must neces- 
sarily happen inconsequence of the invariable direction of the placenta? towards the 
axis. 

367. When the carpella are arranged round a convex receptacle (263), the exte- 
rior ones will be lowest ; Ex. Fragaria. 

368. But if they occupy the surface of a tube, or are placed upon a concave re- 
ceptacle, the exterior ones will be uppermost ; Ex. Rosa. 

369. This law will explain the structure of some anomalous pistilla, in which the 
carpella are united into a confused mass ; Ex. the Pomegranate. 

370. Notwithstanding the formation of the placenta out of the two united margins 
of a leaf, it often does not indicate any trace of such an origin ; but, in consequence 
of non-developement, is sometimes reduced to a single point, bearing a single 
ovulum. 

371. When the placentiferous margin is fully and regularly developed, it occu- 
pies a line running down the inside of the cavity of a carpellum, and bears two dis- 
tinct rows of ovula. 

372. If that part of the margin which is placentiferous is so small as to bear but 
a very few ovula at or towards the upper part of the line of union, the ovula will 
hang downwards within the cavity of the carpellum, and be either pendulous or sns- 
pended. 

373. And if the placentiferous part of the margin be only at the lower part of the 
line of union, the ovula will take a direction upwards into the cavity, and be either 
erect or ascending. 

374. Whenever two carpella are developed, they are invariably opposite each 
other, and never side by side. This happens in consequence of the law of alternate 
opposition of leaves (160). 

375. When carpella unite, those parts of their sides which are contiguous grow 
together, and form partitions between the cavities of the carpella. 

376. These partitions are called dissepiments. 

377. Each dissepiment is therefore formed of two layers. But these often grow 
together so intimately as to form but one layer. 

378. Such being the origin of the dissepiments, it follows that, 

a. All dissepiments are vertical, and never horizontal: 

b. They are uniformly equal in number to the carpella out of which the pistillum 
is formed : 

c. Thny proceed directly from the placentas : 

d. They are alternate with placenta; formed by the cohesion of the margins of the 
same carpellum, and' opposite placenta? formed by the cohesion of the contiguous 
margins of different carpella: 

e. A single carpellum can have no dissepiment whatever. 



XXX FIRST PRINCIPI.i 

379. It will also be apparent, that as the stigma must bear the same relation to 
the dissepiments as the point of the leaf to the sides of the lamina, the stigma will 
always be alternate with (between) the dissepiments. 

380. When the dissepiments of a many-celled pistillum are contracted so as 
not to separate the cavity into a number of distinct cells, but merely project into a 
cavity, the placentae, which occupy the edges of these dissepiments, become what 
is called parietal ; Ex. Poppy. 

381. If the dissepiments af a many-celled pistillum are abortive or obliterated, 
the placenta? remaining unaltered in the axis, a free central placenta is formed. 

382. A one-celled ovarium may also be formed out of several carpella, in conse- 
quence of the obliteration of dissepiments ; Ex. Nut. 

383. All dissepiments whose position is at variance with the foregoing laws are 
spurious. 

384. Spurious dissepiments derive their origin from various causes, and may 
have either a vertical or horizontal position. 

385. When they are horizontal they are called phragmata, and are formed by the 
distension of the placenta ; Ex. Cathartocarpus Fistula. 

380. If vertical, they either are projections from the back of the carpellum, as 
in Amelanchier and Thespesia ; or they are caused by modifications of the pla- 
centa 1 , as in Martynia, Didymocarpus, Cruciferre. 

387. Sometimes the apex of the pedicel extends beyond the base of the carpella, 
rising up between them, and either forming an adhesion with the styles, as in Gera- 
nium, or a central distinct axis as in Euphorbia. 

388. This elongation of the apex of the pedicel is more apparent in the fruit 
than in the pistillum. It is analogous to the cellular apex of the spadix (259) of 
Arum. 

389. The styles of different carpella frequently grow together into a solid cylin- 
der ; Ex. Lilium. There are various degrees of union between the styles. 

390. The style is incorrectly said to be divided in different ways, in consequence 
of this adhesion. 

391. If the ovarium adheres to the sides of the calyx it is called inferior, and 
the calyx is said to be superior ; Ex. Apple. 

392. If it contracts no adhesion with the sides of the calyx, it is called superior, 
and the calyx inferior. 

XV. OVULUM. 

393. The Ovulum is a body borne by the placenta (359), and destined to become 
a seed (409.) 

394. It is to the carpellum (353) what the marginal buds are to leaves (154). 

395. It does not, however, appear to bear any other analogy to a bud than what 
is indicated by its position. 

390. The ovulum is usually enclosed within an ovarium (344) ; but in Conifera? 
and Cycadeaj it is destitute of any covering, and is exposed, naked, to the influence 
of the pollen. 

397. It is either sessile, or attached by a little stalk called the funiculus, or »o- 
dosperm. The point of union of the funiculus and ovulum is the base of the lat- 
ter, and the opposite extremity is its apex. 

398. It consists of two sacs, one enclosed within the other, and of a vvch <us 
within the sacs. 

399. These sacs arc called the primine and secundine. 

100. The primine, secundine, and nucleus, arc all connected with each other by 
a perfect continuity of tissue, at some point of their surface. 

401. When the parts of the ovulum undergo no alteration of position during 
their growth, the two sacs and the nucleus are all connected at the base (397) of the 
ovulum. 

402. And then the base of the nucleus and that of the ovulum are in immediate 
connexion with each other. 

403. But the relative position of the sacs and the base of the ovulum are often 
entirely altered during the growth of the latter, so that it frequently happens that 
the point of union of the sacs and the nucleus is at the apex (397) of the ovulnm. 

404. And then the base of the nucleus is at the apex of the ovulum. 



OF BOTANY. XXXI 

405. In such cases, a vascular connexion is maintained between the base of 
the ovulum and the base of the nucleus, by means of a bundle of vessels called a 
raphe. 

406. The normal position of this raphe is on the side of the ovulum, next the pla- 
centa. 

407. The expansion of the raphe, where it communicates with the base of the 
nucleus, gives rise to the part of the seed called the chalaza (491). 

408. The mouths of the primine and secundine usually contract into a small 
aperture called the foramen of the ovulum, or the exostome. 

409. The apex of the nucleus is always applied to this foramen. 

410. In consequence of the ralation the base of the nucleus bears to the base of 
the ovulum, the foramen will be at the apex of the ovulum when the two bases 
correspond, and at the base of the ovulum when the two bases are diametrically op- 
posite. 

411. It is through this foramen that the impregnating molecules of the pollen are 
introduced into the nucleus (332). 

412. The foramen indicates the future position of the radicle of the embryo (492) ; 
the radicle being always next the foramen. This is a fact of great importance in 
practical Botany. 

413. From some recent observations, it appears that the nucleus consists of 
three coats ; the outer called the tercine, the next the quart hie, and the most inte- 
rior the quintine. 

414. But these are not always distinguishable, and part of them is usually ab- 
sorbed during the advance of the ovulum to the state of a seed. 

415. The tercine and quartine are finally converted into albumen (494) ; the quin- 
tine becomes the sac of the embryo (501), whenever that sac is distingishable ; Ex. 
Nympham. 

416. The nucleus contains a pulpy mass called the liquor amnios, which is sup- 
posed to be the substance from which the embryo absorbs its nutriment during its 
growth. 

XVI. FRUIT. 

417. The Fruit, in the strictest sense of the word, is the pistillum arrived at 
maturity. But the term is also applied to the pistillum and floral envelopes taken 
together, when they are all united in one uniform mass. 

418. Hence, whatever is the structure of the pistillum, the same should be the 
structure of the fruit. 

419. But in the course of the advance of the pistillum towards maturity, many al- 
terations take place, in consequence of abortion, non-developement, obliteration, and 
union of parts. 

420. Whenever the fruit contains any thing at variance with the laws that govern 
the structure of the pistillum, the latter should be examined for the purpose of elu- 
cidation. 

421. Sometimes a pistillum with several cells produced a fruit with but one ; 
Ex. the Hazel-nut and Cocoa-nut. This arrises from the obliteration of part of the 
cells. 

422. Or a pistillum, consisting of one or two cells, changes to a fruit having 
several : the cause of this is a division and doubling of the placentary divisions ; 
Ex. Martynia : or the expansion of portions of the placenta ; Ex. Cathartocarpus 
Fistula. 

423. As the fruit is the maturation of the pistillum, it ought to indicate upon ils 
surface some traces of a style : and this is true in all cases, except Cycadeae and 
Conifers?, which have no ovarium. 

424. Hence the grains of corn, and many other bodies that resemble seeds, hav- 
ing traces of the remains of a style, cannot be seeds, but are minute fruits. 

425. That part which was the ovarium in the pistillum becomes the pericarpium 
in the fruit. 

426. The Pericarpium consists of three parts, the outer coating called the epi- 
carp, the inner lining called the endocarp or putamen, and the intermediate sub- 
stances named the sarcocarp. 

427. Sometimes these three parts are all readily distinguished ; Ex. the Peach , 
frequently they form one uniform substance ; Ex. a Nut. 

428. The base of the fruit is the part where it is joined to the peduncle. The 
apex is where the remains of the style are found. 



XXX11 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

429. The axis of the fruit is often called columella; the space where two car- 
pella unite is named the commissure. 

430. All fruits which are mere modifications of a single carpellary leaf (354) have 
always a suture corresponding with the junction of the margins, or with the placentae, 
and often another corresponding with the midrib of the carpellary leaf: the former 
is called the ventral, the latter the dorsal suture. 

431. If the pericarp neither splits nor opens when ripe, it is said to be indehis- 
cent ; if it does not split or open, it is said to dehisce, or to be dehiscent ; and the 
pieces into which it splits are called the valves. 

432. The dehiscence of the pericarp takes place in different ways. 

433. If it takes place longitudinally, or vertically, so that the line of dehiscence 
corresponds with the junction of the carpella, the dissepiments are divided, the cells 
remain closed at the back, and the dehiscence is called septicidal; Ex. Rho- 
dodendron. 

434. Formerly, botanists said that in this kind of dehiscence the valves were 
alternate with the dissepiment : or, that the valves had their margin turned 
inwards. 

435. If it takes place vertically, so that the line of dehiscence corresponds with 
the dorsal suture (430), the dissepiments remain united, the cells are opened at 
their back, and the dehiscence is called loculicidal ; Ex. Lilac, Lily. 

430. Formerly it was said that in this kind of dehiscence, the dissepiments were 
opposite the valves. 

437. When a separation in the pericarpium takes place across the cells horizon- 
tally, the dehiscence is transverse ; Ex. Anagallis. 

438. If the dehiscence is effected by partial openings of the pericarpium, it is 
said to take place by pores ; Ex. Poppy. 

439. Sometimes the cells remain closed, separating from the axis, formed by the 
extension of the peduncle (387) ; Ex. Umbellifene, Euphorbia. 

440. Or the cells open and separate from the axis, which is formed by a cohesion 
of the placentae which separate from the dissepiments ; Ex. Rhododendron. 

441. Sometimes the dissepiments cohere at the axis, and separate from the valves 
(431) or back of the carpella; Ex. Convolvulus. 

442. All fruits are either simple or multiple. 

443. Simple fruits proceed from a single flower ; Ex. Pu3ony, Apple, Nut, Straw- 
berry. 

444. Multiple fruits are formed out of several flowers ; Ex. Fir, Pine-apple, Fig. 
They are masses of inflorescence in a state of adhesion. 

445. Simple fruits are either the maturation of a single carpellum (354), or of a 
pistillum formed by the union of several carpella (363). 

446. Of fruit formed of a single carpellum, the most important are the Follicle 
(447), Legume (448), Drupe (451), Akenium (452), Caryopsis (454), and Utricle 
(455). r 

447. The Follicle is a carpellum dehiscing by the ventral suture, and having no 
dorsal suture ; Ex. Pscony. 

448. The Legume is a carpellum having both a ventral and dorsal suture, and 
dehiscing by both, either, or neither; Ex. Pea. 

449. The two sutures of a legume sometimes form what is called a replum; Ex. 
Carmichselia. 

450. When articulations take place across the legumen, and it falls into several 
pieces, it is said to be lomentaccous ; Ex. Ornithopus. 

451. The Drupe differs from the follicle in being indeliiscont, and in its pericar- 
pium having a distinct separation of cpicarp (426), sarcocarp, and endocarp ; Ex. ;i 
Peach. 

452. The Akenium is an indehiscent, bony, one-seeded pericarpium, which does 
not contract any degree of adhesion with the integrnent of the seed ; Ex. Straw- 
berry. 

453. It is a drupe, the pericarp of which docs not separate into three layers. 

454. The Caryopsis is an indehiscent, membranous, one-seeded pericarpiun), 
which adheres firmly to the integument of the seed ; Ex. Corn. 

455. Utricle is a caryopsis, the pericarpium of which has no adhesion with the 
integuments of the seed ; Ex. Eleusine, Chenopodiiun. 



OF BOTANY. XXXtii 

456. Of fruit formed of several carpella, the principal are the Capsule (457), Sili- 
nua (458), Nut or Gland (460), Berry (461), Orange (462), Pome (463), and Pepo 
(464). 

457. The Capsule is a many-celled, dry, dehiscent pericarpium ; Ex. Poppy, 
Lychnis. 

458. The Siliqua consists of two (or four V) carpella fastened together, the pla- 
centae of which are parietal, and separate from the valves, remaining in the form of a 
replum (449), and connected by a membranous expansion; Ex. Brassica. 

459. When the siliqua is very short, or broader than it is long, it is called a 
Silicula. 

460. The Nut or Gland is a dry, bony, indehiscent, one-celled fruit, proceeding 
from a pistillum of three cells, and enclosed in an envolucrum called a cupula; Ex. 
the Hazel, Acorn. It is a sort of compound achenium. 

461. The Berry is a succulent fruit, the seeds of which lose their adhesion when 
ripe, and lie loose in pulp ; Ex. a Gooseberry, a Grape. 

462. The Orange is a berry having a pericarpium separable into an epicarp, 
an endocarp, and a sarcocarp, and the cells filled with pulpy bags, which are cellular 
extensions of the sides of the cavity. 

463. The Pome is a union of two or more inferior carpella, the pericarpium being 
fleshy, and formed of the floral envelope and ovarium firmly united ; Ex. an Apple. 

464. The Pepo is composed of about three carpella, the sides of which do not 
turn far inwards, nor the margins unite. It is a one-celled, fleshy, indehiscent fruit, 
with parietal placentae ; Ex. Cucumber. 

465. The most remarkable modifications of multiple fruits are, the Cone (466), 
Pine-Apple (467), and Fig (468). 

466. The Cone is an indurated amentum (260) ; Ex. Pinus. When it is much 
reduced in size, and its scales firmly cohere, it is called a Galbulus ; Ex. Thuja. 

467. The Pine-Apple is a spike of inferior flowers, which all grow together into 
a fleshy mass. 

468. The Fig is the fleshy, hollow, dilated apex of a peduncle, within which a 
number of flowers are arranged, each of which contains an achenium. 

XVII. SEED. 

469. The Seed is the ovulum (393) arrived at maturity. 

470. It consists of integuments (482), albumen (494), and embryo (502), and is 
the result of the reciprocal action of the stamina and pistils. 

471. As all seeds are matured ovula, and as all ovula are originally enclosed within 
an ovarium, it is obvious that naked seeds cannot exist. 

472. Cycadeae and Coniferae are the only exceptions to this (396). 

473. But some ovula rupture the ovarium soon after they begin to advance towards 
the state of seed, and thus become naked seeds ; Ex. Leontice. Others are imper- 
fectly protected by the ovarium, the carpella not being perfectly closed up ; Ex. 
Reseda. 

474. The seed proceeds from the placenta (359), to which it is attached by the 
funiculus (397). 

475. Sometimes the funiculus, or the placenta, expands about the seed into a 
fleshy body ; Ex. the Mace of a nutmeg, Euonymus. This expansion is named 
arillus. 

476. It is never developed until after the vivification of the ovulum, and must not 
be confounded with tumours or dilatations of the integument of the seed. 

477. Sometimes there are tumours of the testa near the hilum or at the opposite 
end ; such are called Strophiolee or Caruncula. 

478. The precise nature of these is unknown ; sometimes they are dilatations of 
the chalaza ; Ex. Crocus : or they are caused by a fungous state of the lips of the 
foramen ; Ex. Ricinus : or they arise from unknown causes. 

479. The scar, which indicates the union of the seed with the placenta, is called 
the hilum or umbilicus. 

480. The hilum represents the base of the seed. The apex is determined by the 
point where the vessels or tissue of the integuments concentrate. 

481. Hence, in curved seeds the apex and base are frequently contiguous ; Ex. 
Mignonette. 



XXXIV FIRST PRINCIPLES 

482. The integuments are called collectively testa, and consist of membranes, 
resulting from the sacs of the ovulum (399). 

483. Sometimes the testa is covered by hair-like expansions of its whole surface ; 
as in the Cotton ; or these hairs occupy one or both ends, when they constitute 
what is called the coma. This must not be confounded with the pappus (283). 

484. Some of these occasionally grow together, so that seeds are sometimes 
apparently enclosed in but one or two membranes. 

485. In the seed these membranes are called by various names, of which the 
most frequently used are spermoderm or testa, for the primine ; mesosperm, for the 
secundine ; and endopleura for the other. 

486. All that existed in the sacs of the embryo is to be found in the integuments 
of the seed, but in a more developed stale. 

487. The mouth of the foramen (408) is often distinctly visible, and is named the 
micropyle. Ex. Pea. 

488. The raphe (405) occupies one side of the seed in all cases in which it pre- 
existed in the primine ; but it frequently becomes much ramified. 

489. The raphe is in no way connected with impregnation ; its functions being 
apparently confined to maintaining a vascular connexion between the placenta and 
the base of the nucleus, for the purpose of nourishing the latter. 

490. Spiral vessels are found in the raphe and its ramifications. 

491. Where the vessels of the raphe expand into the mesosperm (485), the cha- 
laza (407) appears as a discoloured thickening of the integuments. 

492. The micropyle always indicates the point in the circumference of a seed 
towards which the radicle (412) points. 

493. And the chalaza is as constant an indication, when it is present, of the situ- 
ation of the cotyledons (503) ; it being always at that part of the circumference 
opposite the radicle. 

494. Between the integuments and the embryo of some plants lies a substance 
called the albumen or perisperm. 

495. It consists of a peculiar substance deposited during the growth of the ovu- 
lum among the cellular tissue of the nucleus (398). 

496. Care must be taken not to confound a thickening of the endopleura (485), 
with the real albumen ; Ex. Cathartocarpus Fistula. It is probable that this is 
often done by botanists, especially in regard to plants belonging to tribes usually 
destitute of albumen. 

497. When the cellular tissue of the nucleus combines with the deposited matter 
so completely as to form together but one substance, the albumen is called solid. 
Ex. Wheat, Euphorbia. When a portion of the tissue remains unconverted, the 
albumen is ruminated. Ex. Anona, Nutmeg. 

498. Albumen is usually wholesome, and may be frequently eaten with impunity 
in the most dangerous tribes. Ex. Euphorbiaceae. 

499. The organized body that lies within the seed, and for the purpose of protect- 
ing and nourishing which the seed was created, is the Embryo. 

500. The embryo was originally included within the most interior membrane of 
the ovulum. 

501. This is usually absorbed or obliterated during the advance of the embryo to 
maturity ; but it sometimes remains surrounding the ripe embryo, in the form of a 
sac, which is called Vitellus. Ex. Saururus, Piper. 

502. The embryo consists of the cotyledons (503), the radicle (505), the plumula 
(504), and the neck (506). 

503. The cotyledons represent the undeveloped leaves. 

504. The plumula or gemmula, is the nascent ascending axis (60). 

505. The radicle is the rudiment of the descending axis (60). 

506. The neck (Collet, Fr.) is the line of separation between the radicle and the 
cotyledons. 

507. The space that intervenes between the neck and the base of the cotyledons 
is called the cauliculus (Tigelle, Fr.) 

508. The embryo is usually solitary in the seed, but occasionally there are two or 
several (334). 

509. When several embryos are produced within a single seed, it sometimes hap- 
pens that two of these embryos grow together, in which case a production analogous 
to animal dicephalous monsters is formed. 



OP BOTANY. XXXV 

510. The number of cotyledons varies from one to several. The most common 
number is either one or two. In the latter case, they are always directly opposite 
each other. 

511. Plants that have but one cotyledon, or if two, then the cotyledons alternate 
with each other, are called Monocotyledonous. 

512. Plants that have two opposite each other, or a greater number placed in a 
whorl, are called Dicotyledonous. 

513. Endogenous plants are monocotyledonous. 

514. Exogenous plants are dicotyledonous. 

515. Plants that have no cotyledons are said to be Acotyledonous. But this 
term is usually applied only to cellular plants, which, having no stamina and pistils, 
can have no seeds (470,393). Those seeds of flowering plants, which appear to have 
no cotyledons, owe their appearance to the cotyledons being consolidated ; Ex. 
Cuscuta, Lecythis, Olynthia. 

516. The plumula is very often latent, until it is called into action by the germina- 
tion of the seed. Sometimes it is undistinguishable from the cotyledons ; sometimes 
it is highly developed, and lies in a furrow of the cotyledon ; Ex. Maize. In the 
monocotyledonous embryo it frequently happens that the plumula is rolled up in the 
cotyledon, the margins of which grow together, so that the whole embryo forms one 
uniform mass ; but as soon as germination commences the parts separate. 

517. The radicle elongates downwards, either directly from the base of the em- 
bryo, or after previously rupturing the integument of the base. Plants with the 
first character are called Exorhiz.e ; with the second, Endorhiz^:. 

518. The endorhizous embryo is very common in monocotyledons ; the exorhizous 
in dicotyledons. The characters of the radicle are, however, far from being con- 
stant in those great divisions of the vegetable kingdom. 

519. The direction of the embryo, with respect to the seed, will depend upon the 
relation that the integuments, the raphe, chalaza, hilum, and micropyle, bear to each 
other. 

520. If the nucleus be inverted, the embryo will be erect, or or thotropous. Ex. 
Apple. 

521. If the nucleus be erect, the embryo will be inverted, or antitropous. Ex. 
Nettle. 

522. If the micropyle is at neither end of the seed, the embryo will be neither 
erect nor inverted, but will be in a more or less oblique direction with respect to the 
seed ; Ex. Primrose ; and is said to be heterotropous. 

523. When the seed is called into action, germination takes place. The juices 
of which before were insipid, immediately afterwards abound with sugar ; Ex. Bar- 
ley ; and growth commences. 

524. This growth is in the first instance caused by the absorption of water by the 
seed, and by the expulsion of superfluous carbon by the cotyledons, in the form of 
carbonic acid gas. 

XVIII. FLOWERLESS PLANTS. 

525. Many plants, not being increased by seeds, the result of the mutual action of 
the stamina and pistils (470), are flowerless, or destitute of organs of fructification. 

526. Such are propagated by what are called organs of reproduction, which have 
no other analogy with the organs of fructification than that both perpetuate the 
species. 

527. The reproductive organs of flowerless plants vary according to the tribes of 
that division of the vegetable kingdom, and have so little relation to each other, 
that each principal tribe may be said to have its own peculiar method of propa- 
gation. 

528. The principal tribe are Ferns, (529), Mosses (535), Lichens (541), Alga 
(542), and Fungi (543). 

529. Ferns are increased by little bodies called sporules, enclosed within cases 
named thecce, which often grow in clusters or sori, from the veins of the under 
sides of the leaves, or from beneath the cuticle. The latter, when it encloses the 
thecce, is termed the indusium. 

530. The indusium separates from the leaf in various ways, in consequence of 
the growth of the thecae beneath it. 

531. The thecal have frequently a stalk which passes up one side, and finally, 
curving with their curvature, disappears on the opposite side. 



XXXVI FIRST PRINCIPLES OF BOTANY. 

532. The part where the stock of the theca is united with its side is called the 
annulus. 

533. These theca? may be considered minute leaves, having the same gyrate 
mode of developement as the ordinary leaves of the tribe ; their stalk the petiole, 
the annulus the midrib, and the theca itself the lamina, the edges of which are 
united. 

534. They would therefore be analogous to carpella, if it appeared that they were 
influenced by the action of any vivifying matter. 

535. Mosses are increased by sporules (529), contained within an urn or theca, 
placed at the apex of a stalk or seta, bearing on its summit a kind of loose hood,- 
called a calyptra, and closed by a lid or operculum. 

536. The inside of the theca has a central axis or columella, and the orifice be- 
neath the operculum is closed by teeth-like processes, or a membrane, called the 
peristomium. 

537. The number of the teeth of the peristomium is always some multiple of four. 

538. The calyptra originally grew from the base of the stalk ; but when the stalk 
elongated, the calyptra was torn away from its base, and carried up, surrounding the 
theca. 

539. The calyptra may be understood to be a convolute leaf; the operculum, 
another ; the peristomium, one or more whorls of minute flat leaves ; and the theca 
itself to be the excavated distended apex of the stalk, the cellular substance of which 
separates in the form of sporules. 

540. There are also in mosses organs, called anthers by some, which do not ap- 
pear analogous to the stamina of flowering plants, and the nature of which has 
not been demonstrated. 

541. Lichens are propagated by sporules, included within little membranous 
cases, which lie within a denuded portion of their own central substance, called the 
scutellum, apothecium, or shield. 

542. Alg^: increase by sporules, which are usually formed by a separation of cel- 
lular tissue, within the substance of the plants themselves. 

543. Fungi have a similar mode of propagation. In some of the most highly de- 
veloped of the tribe, the part in which the sporules lie is distinct in appearance from 
the rest, and called the hymenium. 



INDEX TO THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF BOTANY. 



N. B. The Numbers refer to the Paragraphs. 



Accessory principles, 215 
Acotyledons, 515 
Achlamydeous, 285 
Aculei, 140 

Advcntitous leaf-buds, 153 
^Estivation, 301 
Aigrette, 283 
Air-vessels, 35 
Akenium, 452 
Albumen, 415, 494 
Alburnum, 101 
Alchemilla, 349 
Alga;, 62, 542 
Amentum, 260 
Amelanchier, 386 
Anagallis, 437 
Anamorphosis, 48 
Annulus, 532 
Anona, 497 
Anther, 303, 318 
Antitropous, 521 
Apex oi seed, 480 
Apex of fruit, 428 
Apex of ovulum, 397 
Apple, 391, 443, 463, 520 
Arillus, 475 
Arum, 232, 388 
Ascending - , 373 
Ascidium, 169 
Asclepias, 351 
Apocynea;, 186 
Apothecium, 541 
Asparagus, 127 
Axillary, 255 
Axis, 52 

Axis of fruit, 429 
Azalea, 322, 433 
Azote, 5 
Bamboo, 128 
Bark, 102 
Barley, 523 
Base of ovulum, 397 
Base of seed, 480 
Base of fruit, 428 
Bastrohren, 19 
Berberry, 323 
Berry, 461 
Bourgeon, 142 
Bouton, 143 
Bracteola;, 229 
Bractea, 229 
Brassica, 458 
Bryophyllum, 192 
Bulbous root, 157 
Bulb, 157 



Calyptra, 525 
Calyx, 280, 290 
Cambium, 116 
Capitulum, 261 
Capsule, 457 
Carbon, 5 
Carpellum, 354 
Carmichrelia, 449 
Carrot, 233 
Caruncula, 477 
Caryopsis, 453 
Catnartocarpus Fistula, 385 

422 
Cauliculus, 507 
Cells, 320 
Cellular tissue, 7 
Cellular tissue, muriform, 

113 
Cellulares, 28 
Centripetal, 268 
Centrifugal, 269 
Chalaza,"491, 407 
Chenopodium, 454 
Chrysobalanea?, 349 
Citrons, monstrous, 366 
Clostres, 19 
Cleome, 355 
Cocoa-nut, 421 
Collet, 60, 506 
Cotton, 483 
Column, 316 
Columella, 429, 536 
Cone, 466 
Conifers;, 31, 175, 333, 396, 

423 
Cormus, 132 
Corn, 453 
Corolla, 281, 291 
Corymb, 264 
Connectivum, 319 
Convolvulus, 441 
Coma, 483 
Commissure, 429 
Composite, 326 
Compound, 273 
Compound leaf, 181 
Compound organs, 50 
Cotyledons, 503 
Crucifera:, 337, 3S6 
Creeping root, 131 
Cucumber, 464 
Cup, 336 
Cupula, 460 
Cuscuta, 515 
Cuticle, 38 



Cycadew, 31, 175, 396, 423 
Cyme, 267 
Daisy, 233 
Dehiscence, 321 
Dehiscence of fruit, 431 
Diadelphous, 315 
Dicotyledons, 512 
Didymocarpus, 386 
Dissepiments, 376 
Dorsal suture, 430* 
Drupe, 451 
Ducts, 29 
Eleusine, 454 
Embryo, 54, 499 
Endocarp, 426 
Endogenous, 80 
Endorhiza, 517 
Endopleura, 485 
Epacris, 324 
Epicarp, 426 
Epidermis, 42, 105 
Epigynous, 314 
Epiphyllous, 252 
Erect, 373 
Eschscholtzia, 288 
Etiolation, 225 
Euphorbia, 387, 439, 497 
Euphorbiaceae, 498 
Exogenous, 80, 81 
Exostome, 408 
Exorhiza;, 517 
Extra-axillary, 252 
Expansion, 247 
Fall of the leaf, 189 
Fausses trachees, 29 
Ferns, 529 
Fig, 444, 468 
Filament, 303, 315 
Fir, 444 
Floral leaf, 229 
Floral envelopes, 227, 277 
Foramen, 408 
Folwer-bud, 143, 227 
Food, 198 _ 

Foreign principles, 216 
Fragaria!, 365, 367 
Fruit, 417 
Follicle, 447 
Fungi, 543 
Funiculus, 397 
Galbulus, 466 
Gemmula, 504 
Gemmation, 191 
Geranium, 387 
Gesneria, 337 



XXXV111 



IN HEX. 



Gland, 460 
Glumes, 237 
Gooseberry, 461 
Grape, 463 
Gynandrous, 316 
Gynophore, 355 
Hairs, 193 

Hairs, lymphatic, 194 
Hairs, secreting, 195 
Hazel, 431,460 
Heart-wood, 100 
Heterotropous, 522 
Hilum, 479 
Hippuris, 311 
Hydrogen, 5 
Hypericum, 315 
Hypogynous, 312 
Hymenium, 543 
Indusium, 529 
Inferior calyx, 392 
Inferior ovarium, 391 
Inflorescence, 247 
Iris, 348 
Irritability, 204 
Intercellular passages, 1 1 
Internodia, 137 
Involucrum, 233 
Labiatse, 350 
Lamina, 171 
Lamium, 31 1, 337 
Lathyrus, 350 
Leaves, 158 
Leaf-b ids, 55, 142 
Lecythis, 515 
Legume, 448 
Lenticular glands, 35 
Leontice, 473 
Liber 104 
Lichens, 541 
Lilac, 435 

Lilium, 389, 435 
Limb, 287, 295 
Lime-tree, 180 
Liquor amnios, 416 
Lobes, 319 
Loculicidal, 435 

Lomentaceous, 450 

Lychnis, 457 

Maize, 516 

Malaxis, paludosa, 19? 

Malva, 315 

Martynia, 386, 422 

Medullary rays or plates, 
113 

Medullary sheath, 86 

Mesosperm, 485 

Micropyle, 487 

Midrib, 174 

Mignonette, 481 

Mimosa, 181 

Mistletoe, 334 

Monadelphous, 31 5 

Monocotyledons, 511 

Monopetalous, 291 

Monophyllous, 290 

Monosepalous, 290 

Moutan, 338 

Mosses, 535 

Mucilage, 214 

Multiple fruit, 442 

Naked, 285 

Naked seeds, 471 

Neck, 60, 506 

Nectaries, 299, 340 

Nettle, 521 



Nelumbium, 339 
Nicotiana multivalvis, 366 
Nodi, 136 
Nucleus, 398 
Nut, 382, 427, 443, 460 
Nymphs, 304 
CEnothera, 328 
Olynthia, 515 
Onion, 334 
Operculum, 535 
Opposite the leaves, 252 
Orane-e, 181, 334, 462 
Orchis, 328 
Ornithopus, 450 
Orthotropous, 520 
Ovarium, 344 
Ovulum, 354, 393 
Oxygen, 5 

Pseony, 254, 336, 443, 447 
Palm, 128, 180 
Palea;, 235, 237 
Panicle, 265 
Pappus, 283, 483 
Parenchyma, 7, 13, 15 
Parietal, 380 
Papilionaceous, 294 
Passiflora, 355 
Pea, 315, 448, 487 
Peach, 427, 451 
Pear, monstrous, 144 
Pedicel, 240 
Peduncle, 239 
Perianthium, 284 
Pericarpium, 426 
Perigonium, 284 
Peristomium, 536 
Perisperm, 494 
Peno, 464 
Petals, 291 
Petiole, 165 
Petiolar, 252 
Perigynous, 313 
Pendulous, 372 
Phragmata, 385 
Phyllodium, 168 
Pine Apple, 444, 467 

Pinus, 466 
Piper, 501 

Pitcher, 169 

Pistillum, 341 

Pith, 82 

Placenta, 359 

Plumula, 504 

Podosperm, 397 

Pollen, 318, 327 

Pome, 463 

Pomegranate, 369 

Polyadelphous, 315 

Polypetalous, 291 

Polysepalous, 290 

Poppy, 380, 433, 457 

Pores, 322 

Prickles, 140 

Primrose, 522 

Primine, 399 

Praifloration, 301 

Proper juice, 205 

Proper vessels, 35 

Proliferous Ferns, 192 

Prosenchyma, 14, 16 

Proximate principles, 
215 

Pulp, 7 

Putamen, 426 

Quartine, 413 



Quintine, 413 

Rachis, 240 

Radicle, 505 

Rafflesia, 324 

Ranunculus, 312, 365 

Raphe, 405, 488 

Raceme, 256 

Reseda, 473 

Receptacle 263, 300 

Regular leaf-buds, 146 

Replutn, 449 

Reservoirs of oil, 35 

Rhizoma, 131 

Rhododendron, 440 

Rhubarb, 187 

Ricinus, 478 

Root, 63 

Rose, 313, 321. 337, 365, 

368 
Ruminated, 497 
Sac of the embryo, 415 
Saftrohren, 29 
Sarcocarp, 426 
Saururus, 501 
Scutellum, 541 
Scales, 236 
Scaly root, 134 
Secretions, 198 
Secundine, 399 
Seeds, 54, 56, 469 
Sepals, 290 
Septicidal, 433 
Seta, 535 

Shields, 541 

Silicula, 459 

Siliqua, 458 

Simple, 273 

Simple fruit, 442 

Sleep of plants, 204 c. 

Sori, 529 

Solitary, 254, 255 

Spadix, 259 

Spatha, 232 

Spermoderm, 485 

Spike, 257 

Spine, 139 

Spiral vessels, 23 

Spiralgefasse, 23 

Sporules, 529 

Spurious dissepiments, 384 

Stamens, 302 

Strawberry, 443, 452 

Stem, 67 

.Stigma, 345 

Stipulae, 183 

Stomata, 44 

Strophiolse, 477 

Style, 346 

Superior calyx, 391 

Superior ovarium, 392 

Sugar, 214 

Suspended, 372 

Syngenesious, 326 

Tela cell ulosa, 7 

Tendril, 170, 276 

Terminal, 252, 254 

Tctratheca, 324 

Tercine, 413 

Testa, 482, 485 

Thccaphore, 355 
21, Thespesia, 386 

Theca:, 529 

Thuja, 466 

Thyrsus, 266 



INDEX. jQcrix 

Tigelle, 507 Unguis, 295 Vine, 276 

Tissu cellulaire, 7 Unguiculate, 295 Vitellus, 501 

- — cellulaire allonge, 19 Utricle, 454 Vrille,170 

Torus, 300 Valves of fruit, 431 Water-plants, 36 

Trachees, 23 Vasa fibrosa, 19 Walnut-tree, 36 

Tube, 287 Vasa spiralia, 23 Wheat, 497 

Tuber, 131 Vasculares, 28 Wood, 90 

Umbel, 261 Ventral suture, 430 Woody fibre, 19 

Umbelliferse, 314, 439 Vernation, 191 Zellgewebe, 7 
Umbilicus, 479 



AN INTRODUCTION 



THE NATURAL SYSTEM 



BOTANY. 



PREFACE 



The materials from which the following pages have been prepared 
were originally collected for the private use of the Author, to remove the 
inconvenience he constantly experienced from a necessity of referring 
daily to rare, costly, and extensive publications, often to be found only in 
the libraries of the wealthy. A belief that what was indispensable to 
himself might also prove useful to the public, afterwards led to the com- 
mencement of the present Work, the appearance of which has been acce- 
lerated by the growing want of some Introduction to that method of inves- 
tigating the productions of the Vegetable Kingdom, which, under the 
name of the Natural System, has gradually displaced more popular classi- 
fications, well adapted indeed to captivate the superficial inquirer, but 
exercising so baneful an influence upon Botany, as to have rendered it 
doubtful whether it even deserved a place among the sciences. 

When the printing was commenced, we had no English Introduction 
whatever to the subject of which it treats ; but, soon afterwards, a transla- 
tion was published by Dr. Clinton, of the fourth edition of Richard's 
Nouveaux Elemens dc la Botanique, in which much information is to 
be found. Had this work appeared calculated to answer the purpose of 
even a temporary Introduction, the matter now made public would have 
still remained in the cabinet of the Author ; but the plan of M. Richard, 
independently of other considerations, did not admit of so much detail as 
seemed desirable, and was scarcely adapted to render the Natural System 
of Botany popular in a country like Great Britain, where it has to contend 
with a great deal of deeply-rooted prejudice. 

Two principal objects require to be kept in view, in a scientific work 
intended for common use : in the first place, there must be no sacrifice of 
science to popularity ; but secondly, it is desirable that as much facility 
be afforded the student as the nature of the subject will admit. In recon- 
ciling these two apparently contradictory conditions lies the difficulty of 
rendering an arrangement in Natural History which is not merely super- 



lxiv PREFACE. 

ficial, generally intelligible. To be understood by the mass of mankind, 
it must be freed from all unnecessary technicalities, and must be essentially 
founded upon such peculiarities as it requires no unusual powers of vision, 
or of discrimination, to seize and apply : on the other hand, it is found by 
experience, that unless it depends upon a consideration of every point of 
structure, however numerous or various, however obscure or difficult of 
access, it will not answer the end for which all classifications ought to be 
designed, that of enabling the observer to judge of an unknown fact by a 
known one, and to determine the mutual relations which one body or 
being bears to another. 

In attempting to steer a middle course, the Author is by no means satis- 
fied that he shall be found to have attained the end he has proposed to 
himself. Botany is a most extensive science, involving a hundred thou- 
sand gradations of structure, with myriads of minor modifications, and 
extending over half the organic world ; the anatomical structure of the 
beings it comprehends is so minute, and their laws of life are so obscure, 
as to elude the keenest sight and to baffle the subtlest reasoning : so that 
to render it as easy of attainment as the world, misled by specious fallacies, 
is apt to believe it to be, is hopeless. There are, however, no difficulties 
so great but they may be diminished ; and even a determination of the 
relation which one part of the animated world bears to another, may be 
simplified by analysis, and an exposition of the principles upon which 
such relations are to be judged of. 

With this view, in the first place, the value of the characters of which 
botanists make use are here carefully investigated, for the sake of pointing 
out the relative importance of the principal modifications of structure in 
the vegetable kingdom. In the second place, the characters of the orders 
are analyzed by means of tables, in which the distinctive characters of each 
are reduced to their simplest denomination. It is true that this kind of 
analysis is attended by the evil of distracting attention from that general 
and universal study of organization which the science demands, thus 
having a manifest tendency to render the Natural System artificial ; and 
that it is also apt to mislead the inexperienced or incautious observer, in 
consequence of the many exceptions to which distinctive characters arc 
frequently liable. But such evils are nothing compared with the confusion 
and perplexity an unaided inquirer must experience in disentangling the 
distinctions of orders for himself. It should also be borne in mind, that 
analytical tables are mere artificial aids in investigation, to be abandoned 
as soon as they cease to be indispensable. Many variations in the form 
of such tables may be easily made ; and, in fact, the student cannot exer- 
cise himself better than in contriving them for himself, as he may readily 
do by beginning from some other point than that commenced with 
here. 



PREFACE. Xlv 

The mode in which the tables of this book are to be employed will be 
best explained by an example, the reader being supposed to be in j)osses- 
sion of the preliminary knowledge which is afforded by the Introduc- 
tion. Let a Cistus be the subject of inquiry. Upon examining the tables, 
the first question which tbe student must ask himself is, Whether it belongs 
to Vascular or Cellular plants, to Dicotyledons or Monocotyledons : the 
structure of the leaves tells him this, and he decides for Dicotyledons. He 
next inquires if it has the seeds naked or in a capsule ; and ascertaining 
that the latter is the case, ha knows it belongs to Angiospermae. He then 
finds it to be polypetalous, and that the stamens are hypogynous, or those 
of the division called Thalamiflor*. Having proceeded thus far, he is led 
to inquire whether the carpella are in a state of combination, or distinct ; 
and finding the former to be the case, he sees that his plant is referable to 
what are called Syncarpae, among Polypetalous Dicotyledons with hypo- 
gynous stamens. Now the artificial divisions of this section are seen to 
depend, in the first instance, upon the structure of the ovarium : that organ 
is examined, and is found to be 1-celled, with the ovules parietal. Among 
plants of this nature, the placentae are either linear and contracted, or 
branched all over the surface of the valves ; there is no difficulty in ascer- 
taining this point, and it is found that the plant in question has the former 
character. Then comes an inquiry whether the sepals are 2, or invaria- 
bly 4, or 5 (occasionally varying to 4, 6, or 7) ; they are found to be 5 ; 
and here the analysis is reduced to the decision between whether the ovules 
have a foramen at the extremity opposite the hiluin, or next the hilum ; 
the former being ascertained to be the case, no doubt can remain of the 
plant belonging to the natural order Cistinece. This operation may appear 
rather tedious, but after a little practice it is gone through quickly ; and 
when the conclusion sought for is attained, the station of the plant is not 
only ascertained, but also that all vegetables having the same characters 
are herbaceous or shrubby plants, with gay ephemeral flowers, usually 
growing in rocky places, and possessing no known qualities except that 
of secreting, in some instances, a sort of resinous substance used as a 
stomachic and tonic. 

Examples need not be multiplied, one instance showing what the 
method of analysis is, as well as more. 

The plan adopted, independently of the part now adverted to, is this : 
To every collection of orders, whether called class, division, subdivision, 
tribe, section, or otherwise, such remarks upon the value of the characters 
assigned to it are prefixed as the personal experience of the Author, or 
that of others, shows them to deserve. To every order the Name is given 
which is most generally adopted, or which appears most unexceptionable, 
with its Synonymes, a citation of a few authorities connected with each, 
and their date : so that, from these quotations, the reader will learn at 



xivi PREFACE. 

tvhat period the order was first noticed, and also in what works he is to 
look for further information upon it. To this succeeds the Diagnosis, 
which comprehends the distinctive characters of the order reduced to their 
briefest form, and its most remarkable features, without reference to excep- 
tions. The latter are adverted to in what are called Anomalies. Then 
follows the Essential Character ; a brief description of the order, in 
all its most important particulars. This is succeeded by a paragraph 
styled Affinities, in which are discussed the relations which the order 
bears to others, and the most remarkable circumstances connected with 
its structure in case it exhibits any particular instance of anomalous orga- 
nization. Geography points out the distribution of the genera and 
species over the surface of the globe : and the head Properties compre- 
hends all that is certainly known of the use of the species in medicine, 
the arts, domestic or rural economy, and so forth. A few genera are 
finally named as Examples of each order. 

The arrangement of the orders is not precisely that of any previous 
work, nor indeed do any two Botanists adopt exactly the same plan ; a 
circumstance which arises out of the very nature of the subject, the im- 
possibility of expressing affinities by any lineal arrangement (the only one 
which can be practically employed), and the different value that different 
observers attach to the same characters. This is, however, of no practical 
importance, so long as the limits of the orders themselves are unchanged ; 
for the latter are the basis of the system, to which all other considerations 
are subordinate. Such a collection of orders as that here given cannot 
certainly be called " the Natural System" of the Vegetable Kingdom, in 
the proper sense of those words ; but it is what Botanists take as a sub- 
stitute for it, until some fixed principle shall be discovered upon which 
combinations can be formed subordinate to the first great classes of Vascu- 
lares and Cellulares, of Exogenoe and Endogenae. It is also certain, that 
in the actual state of Botany we are more usefully employed in deter- 
mining the characters of natural groups by exact observation, than in 
speculating upon points which we have not yet the means of discussing 
properly. 

In conclusion, the Author has only to add, that this Work must not be 
viewed as an Introduction to Botany. Those who would understand it, 
must previously possess such an elementary acquaintance with the science 
as they may collect from his Outline of the First Principles of Botany, 
or some other work in which the modern views of vegetable organization 
are explained. This, and the following introductory sketch of the princi- 
pal modifications of structure, will be found to convey as much information 
as is absolutely required with reference to the immediate subject of the 
Work. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The notion of classing species according to the likeness they bear to 
each other, which is the foundation of the Natural System, must have 
originated with the first attempts of man to reduce natural history to a 
science. When our forefathers spoke of " grass, and herbs yielding seed, 
and fruit trees yielding fruit, of moving creatures that have life in the 
water, of fowl that fly above the earth, and cattle and creeping thing," 
they employed the very same principles of arrangement which are now 
in use, — rudely sketched, indeed, but not more so than the imperfection 
of knowledge rendered unavoidable. At that time no means existed of 
appreciating the value of minute or hidden organs, the functions or even 
existence of which were unknown ; but objects were collected into groups, 
characterized by common, external, and obvious signs. From such 
principles no naturalists except botanists have deviated ; no one has 
thought of first combining, under the name of animal kingdom, quadru- 
peds and birds, insects and fishes, reptiles and mollusca, and then of sub- 
dividing them by the aid of a few arbitrary signs, in such a way that a 
portion of each should be found in every group — quadrupeds among birds 
and fishes, reptiles amongst insects and mammalia ; but each great natural 
group has been confined within its own proper limits. Botany alone, of 
all the branches of natural history, has been treated otherwise ; and this 
in modern times. 

The first writers who acknowledged any system departed in no degree 
from what they considered a classification of plants, according to their 
general resemblances. Theophrastus has his water-plants and parasites, 
pot-herbs and forest trees, and corn-plants ; Dioscorides, aromatics and 
gum-bearing plants, eatable vegetables, and corn-herbs ; and the succes- 
sors, imitators, and copiers of those writers retained the same kind of 
arrangement for many ages. 

At last, in 1570, a Fleming, of the name of Lobel, improved the vulgar 
modes of distinction, by taking into account characters of a more definite 
nature than those which had been employed by his predecessors ; and 
thus was laid the foundation of the modern accurate mode of studying 
vegetation. To this author succeeded many others, who, while they dis- 
agreed upon the value to be ascribed to the small number of modifications 
of structure with which they were acquainted, adhered to the ancient plan 
of making their classification coincide with natural affinities. Among 
them the most distinguished were Ceesalpinus, an Italian who published 
in 1583, our countryman John Ray, and the more celebrated Tournefort, 
who wrote in the end of the seventeenth century. At this time the mate- 
rials of Botany had increased so much, that the introduction of more pre- 
cision into arrangement became daily an object of greater importance ; and 
this led to the contrivance of a plan which should be to Botany what the 
alphabet is to language, a key by which what is really known of the 



xlviii INTRODUCTION*. 

science might, be readily ascertained. With this in view, Rivinus invented, 
in 1690, a system depending upon the conformation of the corolla ; 
Kamel, in 1093, upon the fruit alone ; Magnol, in 1720, on the calyx 
and corolla ; and finally, Linnaeus, in 1731, on variations in the sexual 
organs. The method of the last author has enjoyed a degree of celebrity 
which has rarely fallen to the lot of human contrivances, chiefly on account 
of its clearness and simplicity; and in its day it undoubtedly effected its 
full proportion of good. Its author, however, probably intended it as a 
mere substitute for the Natural System, for which he found the world in 
his day unprepared, to be relinquished as soon as the principles of the latter 
could be settled, as seems obvious from his writings, in which he calls the 
Natural System primum et ultimum in botanicis desideratum. He 
could scarcely have expected that his artificial method should exist when 
the science had made sufficient progress to enable botanists to revert to 
the principles of natural arrangement, the temporary abandonment of 
which had been solely caused by the difficulty of defining its groups. 
This difficulty no longer exists ; means of defining natural assemblages, 
as certain as those employed for limiting artificial divisions, have been 
discovered by modern botanists ; and the time has arrived when the in- 
genious expedients of Linnaeus, which could only be justified by the state 
of Botany when he first entered upon his career, must be finally relin- 
quished. We now know something of the phenomena of vegetable life ; 
by modern improvements in optics, our microscopes are capable of revealing 
to us the structure of the minutest organs, and the nature of their combi- 
nation ; repeated observations have explained the laws under which the 
external forms of plants are modified ; and it is upon these considerations 
that the natural system depends. What, then, should now hinder us 
from using the powers we possess, and bringing the science to that state 
in which only it can really be useful or interesting to mankind 1 

Its uncertainty and difficulty deter us, say those who, acknowledging 
the manifest advantages of the Natural System, nevertheless continue to 
make use of the artificial method of Linnaeus. I do not know of any 
other objections than these, which I hope to set aside by the following 
remarks. 

First, as to its uncertainty. That it is not open to this charge, no one 
will, I think, assert ; on the contrary, it is admitted on all hands that it 
fully participates in those imperfections to which human contrivances are 
subject, particularly such as, like natural history, are from their nature not 
susceptible of mathematical accuracy. But while no claim is advanced 
on its behalf to superiority in this respect over artificial methods, it may 
be safely stated, that it is not more uncertain than the celebrated sexual 
system of Linnaeus, the only one with which it is worth comparing 
it. By uncertain, I mean that the characters of the classes and 
orders of the Natural system arc not more subject to exceptions than 
those of the Linnean, as perhaps may be proved from documents in 
the hands of every English reader. We are so accustomed to believe that 
the certainty of the sexual system is equal to its simplicity, that this opinion 
has acquired the nature of a fixed prejudice, and Ave are perhaps not pre- 
pared to assent to the truth of a contrary proposition. Without, however, 
travelling out of the way, or seeking for proofs of it among books or plants 
with whichthe reader is unacquainted, the following tableof exceptions to tbe 
sexual system, taken from Smith's Compendium of the Flora Britannica, 
may possibly carry some weight with it : 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlix 



Linnean Class or Order. 


Total number of Genera in 
Smith's Compendium. 


Number of Genera which 

contain Species atvariance 

with the Characters of the 

Classes and Orders. 


Monandria, _____ 

Triandria Monogynia, - 

Tetrandria, _____ 

Pentandria Monogynia, - 
Pentandria Digynia, excluding Umbellatae 
Pentandria Trigynia, - 
Pentandria Hexagynia, - 
Hexandria Trigynia, - - - - 

Hexandria Polygynia, - 

Octandria, ------ 

Decandria, ------ 

Dodecandria, - 

Monoecia, ------ 

Dioecia, __--._ 


5 

9 
21 
41 

8 

5 

1 

5 

1 
12 
21 

6 
24 
14 I 


3 

2 
5 
5 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
5 
8 
2 
4 
2 


173 ] 


43 



From this it appears, that out of 173 genera belonging to fourteen 
Linnean sections, no fewer than forty -three genera, or nearly one quarter, 
contain species at variance with the characters of the classes and orders in 
which they are placed. Were general works on Botany examined in the 
same manner, it would be found that the proportion of exceptions is at 
least as great as that indicated by the foregoing table, which comprehends 
only those species, the variations of which are constant and uniform, and 
does not include mere accidental deviations, such as the tendency of 
Tetrandrous flowers to become Pentandrous, of Pentandrous to become 
Tetrandrous, or of both to become Polygamous. 

Although this is not stated for the purpose of extolling the Natural 
System at the expense of the Linnsean, but rather, as has just been re- 
marked, for the sake of doing away with a vulgar prejudice, yet I cannot 
forbear expressing my doubt whether any fourteen natural orders can be 
named in which the proportion of exceptions is so considerable as this, 
namely, more than one in five. 

Upon the supposed peculiar difficulties of the Natural System I have 
elsewhere made some general remarks (Synopsis, p. x.), which need not 
be repeated here. It will be better now to inquire more particularly in 
what the difficulty consists. 

It is said that the primary characters of the classes are not to be ascer- 
tained without much laborious research ; and that not one step can be 

7 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

advanced until tins preliminary difficulty is overcome. Those who hold 
a language of this kind must be so unacquainted with the subject, that their 
arguments, if they can be called by such a name, scarcely deserve a reply. 
The objection has, however, been made, and must be answered. 

In natural history many facts have been originally discovered by minute 
and painful research, which, when once ascertained, are readily to be 
detected by some more simple process, of which Botany is perhaps the 
most striking proof that can be adduced. The first question to be deter- 
mined by a student of Botany, who wishes to inform himself of the name, 
affinities, und uses of a plant, appears to be, whether his subject contains 
spiral vessels or not, because the two great divisions of the vegetable king- 
dom, called Vasculares and Cellulares, are characterized by the presence 
or absence of these minute organs. It is true, we have learned by careful 
observation, and multiplied microscopical analyses, that vascular plants have 
spiral vessels, and cellular plants have none ; but it is not true, that in prac- 
tice so minute and difficult an inquiry needs to be instituted, because it has 
also been ascertained that all plants that bear flowers have spiral vessels, 
and are therefore Vascular ; and that vegetables which have no 
flowers are destitute of spiral vessels, and are therefore Cellular ; so that 
the inquiry of the student, instead of being directed in the first instance to 
an obscure but highly curious microscopical fact, is at once arrested by the 
two most obvious peculiarities of the vegetable kingdom. 

Among vascular plants two great divisions have been formed; the 
names of which, Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons, are derived from the 
former having usually but one lobe to the seed, and the latter two, — a 
structure much more difficult to ascertain than the presence or absence of 
spiral vessels, and more subject to exceptions. But no botanist would 
proceed to dissect the seed of a plant for the purpose of determining to 
which of these divisions it belonged, except in some special cases. We 
know that the minute organization of the seed corresponds with a peculiar 
structure, stem, leaves, and flowers, the most, highly developed, and most 
easily examined parts of vegetation ; a botanist, therefore, prefers to exa- 
amine the stem, or the leaf of a plant, to see whether it is a Monocotyledon 
or a Dicotyledon, and does not find it necessary to anatomize the seed. 

The presence or absence of albumen, the structure of the embryo, the 
position of the seeds or ovula, the nature of the fruit, the modifications of 
the flower, will, I presume, be hardly brought forward as other difficult 
points for the student of the Natural System, because, whether the one 
system or the other be employed, he must make himself acquainted with 
such facts, for the purpose of determining genera. The common Toad- 
flax cannot be discovered by its characters in any book of botany, without 
the greater part of this kind of inquiry being gone through. 

In the determination of genera, however, facility is entirely on the side 
of the Natural System. Jussieu has well remarked, " that whatever trouble 
is experienced in remembering or applying the characters of natural 
orders, is more than compensated for by the facility of determining genera, 
the characters of which are simple in proportion as those of orders are 
complicated. The reverse takes place in arbitrary arrangements, where 
the distinctions of classes and sections are extremely simple and easy to 
remember, while those of genera are in proportion numerous and com- 
plicated." 

Let me not, however, be misunderstood in what I have been saying of 
the supposed difficulties of the Natural System. Far bo it from me to 



INTRODUCTION. li 

state that there are no difficulties for the botanical student to overcome ; 
on the contrary, there is no science which demands more minute accuracy 
of observation, more patient research, or a more constant exercise of the 
reasoning faculties, than that of Botany. But no subject of human in- 
quiry can be pursued loosely and usefully at the same time ; for we may 
rest assured, that that which can be studied superficially is little deserving 
of being studied at all. 

It may perhaps be urged, that the Natural System is still in so unsettled 
a state, that botanists disagree among themselves about the limits and rela- 
tive position of the orders; an argument to which some weight undoubt- 
edly attaches. But, at the same time, it must be remarked, that all sciences 
of observation proceed towards a settled state by slow degrees ; that Botany 
is one upon which there is at least as much to learn as is at present known ; 
and that the differences of opinion, just alluded to, affect the orders themselves 
but little, and the principles of the science not at all, but apply rather to 
the particular series in which the orders should stand with relation to each 
other — a point which is not likely to be settled at present, and which is of 
very little importance for any useful purpose. 

The last kind of difficulty, and the only one of which I admit the force, 
is the want of an introductory work upon the subject; and this, I presume 
to hope, will be diminished by the appearance of the present publication. 

The principle upon which I understand the Natural System of Botany 
to be founded is, that the affinities of plants may be determined by a con- 
sideration of all the points of resemblance between their various parts, 
properties, and qualities ; and that thence an arrangement may be deduced 
in which those species will be placed next each other which have the 
greatest degree of relationship ; and that consequently the quality or struc- 
ture of an imperfectly known plant may be determined by those of another 
which is well known. Hence arises its superiority over arbitrary or arti- 
ficial systems, such as that of Linnaeus, in which there is no combination 
of ideas, but which are mere collections of isolated facts, not having any 
distinct relation to each other. 

This is the only intelligible meaning that can be attached to the term 
Natural System, of which Nature herself, who creates species only, knows 
nothing. It is absurd to suppose that our genera, orders, classes, and the 
like, are more than mere contrivances to facilitate the arrangement of our 
ideas with regard to species. A genus, oider, or class, is therefore called 
natural, not because it exists in Nature, but because it comprehends species 
naturally resembling such other more than they resemble any thing 
else. 

The advantages of such a system, in applying Botany to useful pur- 
poses, are immense, especially to medical men, with whose profession the 
science has always been identified. A knowledge of the properties of one 
plant is a guide to the practitioner, which enables him to substitute some 
other with confidence, which is naturally allied to it ; and physicians, on 
foreign stations, may direct their inquiries, not empirically, but upon fixed 
principles, into the qualities of the medicinal plants which nature has pro- 
vided in every region for the alleviation of the maladies peculiar to it. To 
horticulturists it is not less important : the propagation or cultivation of one 
plant is usually applicable to all its kindred ; the habits of one species in an 
order will often be those of the rest ; many a gardener might have escaped 



lii INTRODUCTION. 

the pain of a poisoned limb, had he been acquainted with the laws of affi- 
nity ; and, finally, the phenomena of grafting, that curious operation, which 
is one of the grand features of distinction between the animal and vegeta- 
ble kingdoms, and the success of which is wholly controlled by ties of 
blood, can only be understood by the student of the Natural System. 

In every kind of arrangement, which has the natural relationship of 
objects for its basis, there are are two principal inconveniences to overcome. 
The first is, that as objects resemble each other more or less in a multitude 
of different respects, it is impossible to indicate all their affinities in a lineal 
arrangement ; and yet no other arrangement than a lineal one can be 
practically employed. The consequence of this is, that while the orders 
themselves are really natural, the same title often cannot be applied to the 
arrangement of them in masses. For example, Cupuliferae and Betulineae 
are obviously connected by the most intimate relationship, and, as collec- 
tions of species, each of them is perfectly natural ; yet one of them stands 
among Apetalous plants, the other among Achlamydeous ones ; hence 
the two latter groups are artificial. In fact it appears from what we at 
present know, that no large combinations of orders are natural which are 
not founded upon anatomical differences ; thus, Cellulares and Vasculares, 
Exogenae and Endogenae, Gymnospermous and Angiospermons Dicoty- 
ledons, are natural divisions ; but Apetalae, Polypetalae, Monopetalae, 
Achlamydeae, and all their subordinate sections, are entirely artificial. 

The second inconvenience is, that the characters which vegetables 
exhibit are of such uncertain and variable degrees of importance, that it is 
often difficult to say what value should be attached to any given modifi- 
cation of structure. As this is a practical question, which requires to be 
well understood, I shall endeavour to explain in some detail the nature 
and relative value of those peculiarities of which botanists make use in 
determining vegetable affinities ; repeating, as a general rule which is 
not open to exception, that characters which are purely physiological, — 
that is to say, which depend upon differences of internal anatomical struc- 
ture, — are of much more value than varieties of form, position, number, 
and the like, which are mere modifications of external organs. 

It is a maxim of the Linnsean school, that the parts of fructification should 
be employed in characterizing classes, orders, and genera, to the exclusion 
of all modifications of the leaves or stem. This, although theoretically 
insisted upon, was practically abandoned by Linnaeus himself, and is to 
be received with great caution. The organs of fructification are only enti- 
tled to a superior degree of consideration, when found by experience to be 
less liable to variation than those of vegetation. 

All plants are composed of what are called elementary organs, that is to 
say, of a vegetable membrane appearing under the form of parenchyma 
or cellular tissue in different states, of spiral vessels, and of ducts, or tubes : 
these organs enter into the composition of plants in various ways, and are 
not all even necessary to their existence : sometimes spiral vessels disap- 
pear, and again both these and the ducts cease to be developed, — cellular 
tissue, which is the basis of vegetation, alone remaining. Upon the pecu- 
liar arrangement of these minute organs, external form necessarily 
depends ; and as it is found by experience, that while the anatomical 
structure of plants is subject to little or no variation, it is difficult to define 
their external modifications with accuracy, the reason of the superior im- 
portance of physiological characters will be apparent. 



INTRODUCTION. lili 

Some, and by far the greater part of, plants are propagated by produc- 
tions called seeds, which are the result of the mutual action of the 
stamina and pistils ; others are multiplied by bodies called sporules, of 
the real nature of which little is yet known, further than that they do 
not appear to result from the action of the stamina and pistils. Hence 
plants are naturally and primarily divided into two great divisions, called 
Phenogamous and Agamous. 

Physiologists have discovered that these peculiarities are connected with 
others in anatomical structure of no less importance. For instance, plants 
propagated by seeds, and possessing distinct stamina and pistils, have spiral 
vessels ; while those which are increased by bodies not depending upon the 
presence of these organs, are universally destitute of spiral vessels. To the 
latter statement there is no known exception, — species to which spiral 
vessels have been ascribed being found to possess nothing more nearly 
related to those organs than ducts, or false tracheae. The former character 
is not absolutely without exception ; the singular genus Rafflesia being 
described both by Brown and Blume as without spiral vessels, Caulinia 
fragilis not having them according to Amici, and Lemna being destitute 
of them according to the evidence of others. But these exceptions are not 
regarded of much importance. 

It therefore appears that two great divisions, established upon different 
principles, agree in the kind of plants they comprehend ; Vasculares, 
or those which have spiral vessels, being the same as Phenogamous 
plants, and Cellulares, or those which have no spiral vessels, answering 
to Agamous plants. 

Stamina and pistils being considered essential to a flower (no apparatus 
whatever from which they are absent being understood to constitute one), 
two other unexceptionable characters belong to these same divisions ; all 
Vasculares, or Phenogamus plants, bear flowers, and all Cellulares, Aga- 
mous plants, are flowerless. 

Two great but unequal divisions being thus established, upon both 
anatomical and external characters, botanists have inquired whether simi- 
lar differences of a secondary character could not be discovered among each 
of them. Observations upon Cellulares have led to the establishment of 
three groups of unequal importance, which are not, however, universally 
received. Vasculares have been found to comprehend two great but 
unequal tribes, differing essentially in the laws which govern their growth. 
It has been ascertained that a large number of them grows by the addition 
of successive layers of new matter to the outside, and that another, but 
smaller number, increases by additions to the iuskb ; the youngest or 
most newly formed parts being in the one case on the outside, and in the 
other case in the inside. For this reason, one of these divisions has been 
called Exogenous, and the other Endogenous. It is difficult to conceive 
how the external increase of Exogenee could take place without some 
adequate protection to the young newly formed tissue from the atmosphere 
and accidental injury, and, accordingly, the substance called bark is created 
by nature for that purpose, within which the new deposit takes place : as 
this last is formed annually, the age of an Exogenous plant is indicated 
in the trunk by imaginary lines called concentric circles, which are in fact 
caused by the cessation of growth in one year, and the renewal of it in 
another. The centre of this system is a cellular substance caHed pith. 



liv INTRODUCTION. 

Therefore, a section of the trunk of an Exogenous plant exhibits bark on 
the outside, pith in the centre, and concentric deposits of woody matter 
between these two, all connected in a solid mass by plates of cellular tissue, 
radiating from the centre to the circumference, and called medullary rays. 
Endogenae, the addition to which is internal, have no need of an external 
coating to protect their newly formed matter from injury, and are there- 
fore destitute of bark ; moreover, as the layers of new matter are not con- 
centric, but irregular, and do not either correspond with particular seasons 
of growth, nor commence round any distinct centre of vegetation, there is 
no distinction of bark, woody concentric deposits, and pith ; the connecting 
tissue by which the parts are all tied together is mixed up with the sub- 
stance of the whole, and does not radiate regularly in plates from the 
centre to the circumference, and consequently there are no medullary rays. 
Nothing can be more clearly made out than the existence of these two 
modes of growth in vascular plants ; and the nature of them will be at 
once understood by an inspection of a section of an Oak branch, and of a 
Cane. 

Upon Exogenae I do not know that any remarks need be made, they 
being exceedingly uniform in the great features of their structure ; except 
in Coniferse and Cycadeae, which, without deviating from the mode of 
growth of Exogenae, exhibit a peculiar modification of the woody tissue. 
But Endogenee are perhaps divisible into two subordinate forms, which 
have been pointed out by Agardh. First, Grasses, which, as this distin- 
guished writer well remarks, are the least monocotyledonous of all ; they 
have a distinct pith, hollow branched stems like Umbelliferee, and buds at 
the axillae of the leaves ; but they have no bark, no medullary rays, and 
their direction of increase is inwards : and, secondly, Palms, which are 
endogenous in the strictest sense of the word. 

From this it appears, that Vasculares. or Flowering plants, are distin- 
guished into such as are Exogenous and such as are Endogenous ; and 
that while the former are incapable of any further anatomical division, 
the latter contain perhaps two different forms. It must, however, be borne 
in mind, that a great deal is yet to be learned upon this subject. Vegeta- 
ble anatomy has not yet been studied sufficiently with a view to generali- 
zation, and is, besides, a subject yet in its infancy. Nothing can be more 
probable than that differences in the tissue, or in the relative position or 
structure of vessels, will one day be found to accompany external differ- 
ences far beyond what has yet been observed. 

Anatomical differences in plants having been apparently exhausted, 
inquiry has been turned to the degree in which modifications of the com- 
pound or external organs are capable of being employed to determine 
natural affinities ; and it has been found that these, although of secondary 
importance only, nevertheless deserve the utmost attention, as they fre- 
quently afford the only characters of which it is practicable to make use. 

The Root, properly so called, offers no characters that have been found 
uniform in particular families ; in fact, the modifications of which it is 
susceptible are so few, that it is difficult to conceive in what way they can 
be applied. Certain forms of root-like stems and buds have, however, been 
observed, to which some attention should be paid. In the first place, 
neither bulb nor rhizoma is known in Exogenous plants, while in Endo- 
genae they are sometimes characteristic of particular orders. Thus, all 
Marantaceee and Scitamineee, and most Iridese, have a rhizoma in one 



INTRODUCTION. lv 

form or other, and bulbs are a usual character of Asphodeleae and Amaryl- 
lideae ; in the former, however, the bulb is often represented by a rhizoma, 
orcormus, as in Brodiaea, Leucocoryne, and their allies, or by those succu- 
lent fibres called fasciculate roots, as in Asphodelus itself; and in the latter 
the bulb is sometimes entirely absorbed by succulent perennial leaves, as 
in Clivia. 

External variations in the figure of the stem are sometimes available 
as distinctions of orders. Thus, a twining stem is almost without excep- 
tion in Menispermese, a square stem is universal in Labiate, and an angular 
oneinStellatie ; but more frequently its figure affords no indication whatever 
of affinities. — Texture of the stem is of scarcely more value. Cacteac, it 
is true, have always the cellular tissue in excess, and derive by that circum- 
stance one of their great distinctions from Grossulaceae ; but even in Cacteae 
the Pereskias are scarcely more succulent than other plants ; and Euphor- 
biacere and Asclepiadeae exhibit instances both of the most decided slate of 
anamorphosis, and of the normal condition of stems in general. — In the 
internal arrangement of the layers of Exogenous stems, I am not aware 
of any character which distinguishes orders besides those to which I have 
already adverted ; except in Calycantheae, which are distinctly known by 
the presence of four incomplete centres of vegetation surrounding the 
principal one, and so forming four angles which are visible externally. 
(See MirbeFs figure, in the Annales des Sciences, vol. xiv. p. 367.) But 
as I have before observed, very little is really known upon this subject. 

The Leaves are subject to modifications not less important in deter- 
mining the mutual relations of plants, than the functions which they 
perform in the vegetable economy. Their characters depend upon their 
relative position, their degree of division, their venation, and the presence 
or absence of pellucid dots within their substance. — All Cinchonacese 
(Rubiaceae) have opposite entire leaves ; in Labiatee, Apocyncse, Gentia- 
neae, Monimieae, and many others, they are also uniformly opposite ; but 
in the genus Fuchsia, in which they are usually opposite, species exist 
in which they are not only alternate, but both the one and the other on 
the same plant ; and alternate-leaved species exist in Compositae, Scro- 
phularineae, and Malpighiaceae, orders the leaves of which are generally 
opposite. In Cupuliferae, Umbelliferae, Ternstisemiaceae, Hamanielideae, 
and Urticea?, they are uniformly alternate ; but in Combretaceae and 
Leguminosae, orders usually having alternate leaves, they are occasionally 
opposite ; and Haloragea?, Ericinea?, and Ficoidea?, are orders in which 
the genera have their leaves arranged in no certain manner. I do not 
know how far this irregularity is connected with the following observa- 
tions of Schlechtendahl, which, however, deserve attention. " Those 
leaves," he says, " which are connected either by their base, or by the 
intervention of a stipula, I call opposite, and those which are not so con- 
nected, spuriously opposite (pseudo-opposita). Opposite leaves are never 
disjoined, as in Rubiaceaj and Caryophyllere ; spuriously opposite ones, 
which are much more common, being easily disjoined, readily become 
alternate. Branches obey the same laws as leaves." Linncca, 1. 207. — 
All Spondiaceae, Rhizoboleae, &c, have compound leaves ; in many others 
they are always simple; and in such orders as Acerineae, Aurantiaceae, 
Geraniaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae, both simple and compound leaves 
are found. This character, therefore, is not considered of so much value 
as many others. — Neither is the degree of division of the margin usually 



lvi INTRODUCTION. 

important, toothed and entire leaves being often found in the same order. 
Nevertheless, there is no instance of toothed leaves in Cinchonaceae, Gen- 
tianeae, Guttiferae, or Malpighiaceae ; and they are very rare in Endoge- 
nous plants. Characters derived from the arrangement of veins are known 
to be in many cases of the utmost importance ; and it is probable, that 
when this subject shall have been more accurately studied, they will be 
found of even more value than has been yet supposed. The great obstacle 
to employing characters derived from venation, exists in the want of words 
to express clearly and accurately the different modes in which veins are 
arranged. I have endeavoured to remove this by some observations in 
the Botanical Register ; and I am persuaded the subject deserves the par- 
ticular attention of botanists. It is already known that the internal 
structure and peculiar growth of Exogenae and Endogense are externally 
indicated by the arrangement of the veins of their leaves, — those of Exo- 
genae diverging abruptly from the midrib, and then branching and anas- 
tomosing in various ways, so as to form a reticulated plexus of veins of 
unequal size ; while those of Endogenae run straight from the base to the 
apex, or diverge gradually from the midrib, not ramifying in their course, 
but being simply connected with each other by transverse bars, examples 
of which are afforded on the one hand by the Rose, and on the other by 
the Iris and Arrow- root. Although a few exceptions exist to both these 
laws, yet the grand characters of the leaves of those classes are such as I 
describe. But, independently of this, many other orders are distinguished 
without exception by modifications of venation. Thus, all Melastomaceae 
have three or more collateral ribs connected by branched transverse bars, 
something in the way of Endogenae ; all Myrtaceae have one or two fine 
veins running parallel with the margin, and just within it ; all Cupuliferae 
have the principal lateral veins running straight out from the midrib to the 
margin ; Betulineae are distinguished by this among other characters from 
Salicineae; and the same peculiarity separates the genuine genera of 
Dilleniaceae, called Delimaceae by Decandolle, from those of which Hib- 
bertia is the representative. — Leaves which contain reservoirs of oily secre- 
tions, indicated by the presence of pellucid glands within their substance, 
are almost always universal in a given order. Thus, Myrtaceae, properly 
so called, (with the exception of the paradoxical pomegranate;) are distin- 
guished by these glands from Melastomaceae ; in one genus of which, 
however, (Diplogenea,) slight traces of them are to be found : they are 
present in all Aurantiaceae ; by this character Wintereae are distinguished 
from Magnoliaceae, Amyrideae from Connaraceae, &c. &c. In the orders 
Phytolacceae, Petiveraceae, Labiatae, and Zygophylleae, there are, however, 
genera with and without pellucid dots. 

At the base of some leaves are frequently found little membranous or 
foliaceous appendages called Stipule, which are in fact leaves in an 
imperfect state of developement. Their presence may therefore be under- 
stood to indicate a peculiar degree of composition in the leaves to which 
they belong, and they really indicate affinities in a very remarkable man- 
ner. In studying them, however, care must be taken not to confound 
genuine foliaceous appendages, to which alone the name of stipulae properly 
appertain.-, with dilatations, or membranous or glandular processes of the 
petiole, such as are found in Ranunculaceae, Grossulaceae, Apocyneae, 
Umbellifcni', and others. The presence of stipulae is universal in Cincho- 
naceae, which are thus distinguished from Stellatoe, in Betulineae, 



INTRODUCTION. 



lvii 



Salicineae, Magnoliaceae, Artocarpese, and many others : a particluar modi- 
fication of thein, called the ochrea, is the peculiar distinction of Polygoneae; 
and they are universally absent in Myrtaceae properly so called, Guttifera?, 
Gentianes, Malpighiaceee, and many others. The orders Cistineae, Saxi- 
frages, and Loganies, are among the very few cases in which genera 
exist both with and without stipulae. (See Von Martius Nov. Gen. et Sp. 
2. 135.) 

The little starved leaves found at the base of many flowers, and techni- 
cally called Bracte.^e, are rarely employed as distinctions of orders, offer- 
ing scarcely any modifications of importance. In Cruciferae they are never 
present, and in Marcgraaviaceae they are usually hollow, being folded 
together by their two edges, like the leaves of which carpella are formed. 

Forms of Inflorescence are occasionally, but not often, found cha- 
racteristic of particular tribes. Thus all Composite, Calycereae, and 
Dipsaceae, have their flowers in heads ; all Umbelliferae bear umbels ; all 
Labiates have axillary cymes called verticillastri ; all Plantagineae, Cype- 
racete, and Gramineae, have dense simple imbricated spikes ; all Betulineae, 
Cupuliferae, and Salicinea 1 , bear amenta or catkins ; and most Coniferae 
have a strobilus or cone ; in the latter, however, the flowers are sometimes 
solitary, as in Taxus, and then the usual form of inflorescence is departed 
from. 

The outer envelope of the flower, called the Calyx, is used in a variety 
cf ways to distinguish orders ; but the characters it affords are far from 
being of equal or uniform importance. Its absence implies the absence of 
the corolla also, which cannot possibly be present when the calyx is away, 
unless, as in Compositae, it is obliterated by the pressure of surrounding 
bodies. By its absence all the orders called Achlamydeous are character- 
ized, such as Salicineae, Piperaceas, Saurureas, &c. ; but in Betulineae it is 
present in the male flowers, and in Euphorbia itself, among Monochla- 
mydeae, it is wholly wanting. These exceptions do not, however, affect 
the general importance of characters derived from its presence or absence. 
If it is unaccompanied by the corolla, plants are said to be Monochlamy- 
deous ; and this is a point of very uniform value. I know of no true 
Monochlamydeous orders in which the presence of a corolla forms an 
exception, unless the faucial scales of Thymelaeaeare considered tie rudi- 
ments of a corolla. — The sepals or leaves of which it is composed are 
either distinct or combined ; and from this circumstance characters are 
sometimes advantageously derived. Thus, in Sclerantheae the calyx is 
always monosepaious, and in Chenopodeae it is as regularly polysepalous ; 
but in Caryophylleae both forms are observable. — The number of sepals is 
sometimes a character of importance, as in Cruciferae, in which they are 
always 4, in Papaveracea-, which have never more than 2, and in the 
greater part of Endogenous plants, which have usually 3. This character, 
however, requires to be used with circumspection, as there are many more 
instances of the number of sepals being variable than regular. Thus in 
Lineae and Malvaceae they are 3-4-5 ; in Guttiferae they vary from 2 to 6; 
in Homalineee from 5 to 15 ; and in Samydeae from 3 to 7. — The aestiva- 
tion of the calyx is always to be well considered, as certain forms are 
often among the best known indications of affinity. Malvaceae, Tiliacea?, 
Elaeocarpeae, Tremandreae, Sterculiaceae, and Bombaceae, have it exclu- 
sively valvate among polypetalous dicotyledons with hypogynous stamens; 
Temstrbmiaceae have the sepals constantly imbricated in a particular way ; 

8 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

Vites have the lobes of the calyx distinct and wide apart from a very 
early period of their existence : but in Penaeaceae both valvate and imbri- 
cate aestivation exists. — In some plants the sepals are all of equal size ; in 
others they are very unequal either in form, direction, or texture; in ihe 
former case they are said to be regular, in the latter irregular, and by this 
difference certain orders are characterized. Thus Sapindaceae and Poly- 
galeee have a calyx constantly irregular ; many orders are constantly regu- 
lar; but it frequently happens that both regular and irregular calyces 
co-exist in the same order, as in Rosacese, Labiatae, Leguminosae, and a 
great many others. In most orders the sepals occupy one series of verti- 
cillus only ; others have them in two series, and this has not been found to 
be connected with any material differences otherwise ; but when the num- 
ber of series is increased much beyond two, they cease to be separably dis- 
tinguishable, and form an imbricated calyx, which is frequently confounded 
with the corolla, as in Calycantheae and Wintereas. I know of no order 
in which genera with an imbricated calyx of this kind and a calyx of the 
common kind co-exist. It is one of the principal points which separate 
Calycantheae from Rosaceae. — The most important character connected 
with the calyx is, however, its cohesion or non-cohesion with the ovarium; 
or, as botanists incorrectly call it, its being superior or inferior. Many 
orders are positively characterized by this, as Compositae Umbelliferae, 
Caprifoliaceae, Orchideae, and very many more ; and, as it usually happens 
that it exists without exception, it becomes one of the most useful means 
of distinction of which we are in possession. Pomaceae are, for instance, 
by this means at once known from Rosaceae, Scaevoleee from Brunoniaceae, 
and Cinchonaceae from Apocyneae. No instance of a superior calyx has 
been found in Ranunculaceae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae, Rutaceae, and a 
number of others. But there are some singular exceptions to this law. 
Thus, among Anonaceae, an order with indefinite superior ovaria, we find 
Eupomatia, in which they are inferior. In Anacardiaceae, which have 
almost universally a superior ovarium, a genus is said by Mr. Brown to 
exist in which it is inferior ; in Melastomaceae all degrees of cohesion take 
place between the calyx and the ovarium ; and in Saxifrages this uncer- 
tainty of structure is still more remarkable. It should, however, be ob- 
served, that in the two latter orders the tendency to cohesion between the 
calyx and ovarium may be almost always ascertained by careful dissection ; 
and even in Parnassia, an anomalous genus which is referred to Saxifra- 
geae, usually having an ovarium completely superior, there exists a species 
in which it is partially inferior. I have said that the difference between a 
superior and inferior calyx consists only in the cohesion of that organ with 
the ovarium in the one case, and its separation from it in another; and 
this is the view which is always taken of it, all that part which intervenes 
between the segments and the pedicel being considered the tube of the 
calyx. But I strongly suspect that we have yet to learn that theory has 
in this case carried botanists too far, and that there are cases in which 
the apparent origin of the calyx is the real origin. Upon this supposition, 
what is now called the tube of the calyx may be sometimes a peculiar 
extension or hollowing out of the apex of the pedicel, of which we see an 
example in Eschscholtzia, and of which Rosa and Calycanthus, and per- 
haps all supposed tubes without apparent veins, may also be instances. In 
this case the whole of our ideas about superior and inferior calyxes will 
require, modification. But upon this subject I cannot enter here : I have 



INTRODUCTION. 



lix 



in the following Work spoken of these points of structure according to the 
received opinions of botanists. 

The second floral envelope we call the Corolla. It consists of a number 
of leaves equal to those of the calyx, and alternating with them ; in addi- 
tion to which they are usually coloured. — If the corolla is present, a plant 
is said to be dichlamydeous, and much importance is attached to this pecu- 
liarity ; far more, I think, than it deserves. It constantly separates plants 
having much natural affinity, as Euphorbiacese far from Rhamneae, Ama- 
rantaceae widely from Illecebreae ; and it is also one to which there are 
numberless exceptions. This is, however, not the case with monopetalous 
dicotyledons, Primulaceae and Oleaceae being almost the only instances of 
orders among those which are truly monopetalous, containing apetalous 
genera. — The difference between a monopetalous and a polypetalous corolla 
is this, that in the one the leaves out of which the corolla is formed are 
distinct, and in the other united. Great value is attached to this, and it 
is in fact a difference of first-rate importance : thus, all Ranunculaceae, 
Rosacea^ Cruciferae, Papaveraceae, Terebintaceae, and a multitude of 
others, are, without exception, polypetalous ; and all Boragineae, Labiatae, 
Scrophularineae, and Bignoniaceae, are equally, without exception, mono- 
petalous : but in the polypetalous orders of Crassulaceae, Diosmeae, Poly- 
galeae, Ternstromiaceee, &c, there are many monopetalous genera ; and 
monopetalous Caprifoliaceae are usually associated with Hedera and Cor- 
nus, which are as much polypetalous as any other plants. — The aestiva- 
tion of the corolla rarely furnishes characters connected with the natural pro- 
perties of plants ; nevertheless, Compositae are essentially distinguished by 
their valvate, and Asclepiadeae and Apocyneae by their contorted aestivation, 
an exception to the one existing only in the genus Leptadenia, and in the 
other in Gardneria. The aestivation of both calyx and corolla has as yet 
received too little attention for its value to be judged of generally. — The 
regularity or irregularity of the corolla is most commonly important : thus, 
Orchideae, Polygatleae, Bignoniaceae, Fumariaceae, are irregular without 
exception ; the regular flowers of Boragineae will almost distinguish them 
from Labiatae, which have as frequently irregular ones ; yet Echium in 
Boragineae is irregular, and Caprifoliaceae exhibit all the gradations from 
a corolla of the most irregular form to one of the most perfect symmetry. 
In Compositae both are found continually in the same head ; and Lobe- 
liaceae, which may be almost always distinguished from Campanulaceae by 
their irregularity, become nearly regular in Isotoma. — The venation of 
the petals is scarcely ever employed for distinction, little being at present 
known of it. Compositae are distinguished by the peculiar arrangement 
of the veins of their corolla ; and they are always oblique in Hypericineae. 

From within the corolla arise certain metamorphosed leaves, which are 
called the stamina and pistils. From the manner in which they are com- 
bined, good characters may sometimes be derived, but frequently no cha- 
racters at all. Thus, Xanthoxyleae are known from Diosmeae and Tere- 
bintaceae by their diclinous flowers; all Euphorbiaceae, Begoniaceae, 
Amentaceae, Coniferae, Myriceae, are diclinous. But Vites, Gramineae, 
Cyperaceae, Chenopodeae, Umbelliferae, and even Ranunculaceae contain 
monoclinous and diclinous genera ; and it is familiar to every one, that 
flowers of both these kinds stand side by side in Compositae. 



lx INTRODUCTION. 

The Stamens are undoubtedly the apparatus by means of which vivid- 
cation is communicated to the ovula or eggs. They either arise immediately 
from below the ovarium, having no adhesion to the calyx, when they are said 
to be hypogynous, or they contract an adhesion of greater or smaller extent 
with either the calyx or corolla, when they become perigynous, or, finally, 
they appear to proceed from the apex of an inferior ovarium, in which case 
they are named epigynous ; but it is usually now understood that all sta- 
mens take their origin from below the ovarium ; and if this opinion be 
well founded, there will be no material difference between those which are 
perigynous and those which are epigynous ; and these two modifications 
are accordingly confounded together by most modern botanists. M. Ad. 
Brogniart, however, conceives epigynous stamens to be essentially distinct 
from perigynous, founding his opinion upon the genus Raspailia, which 
has a superior ovarium, from the top of which arise the stamens ; but it is 
possible perhaps to explain this apparent anomaly. To the difference be- 
tween perigynous and hypogynous stamens the French school attaches 
the greatest value, not being willing to admit any genus with hypogynous 
stamens into an order with perigynous ones, and vice versa ; and there is 
somewhere an observation, that of such primary importance is this distinc- 
tion, that while poisonous orders are to be known by their stamens being 
hypogynous, all in which they are perigynous are wholesome. Setting 
aside, however, this hypothesis, which has not the general application that 
has been ascribed to it, there is no doubt that insertion of stamens does 
very often go along with essential differences of other kinds ; for example, 
it distinguishes with precision Rosacea? from Ranunculacece, Violaceae from 
Passifloreae, Reaumurieae from Nitrariaceae, Aurantiaceae from Bursera- 
cese. But, on the other hand, there is not only frequently, as may be well 
supposed, so slight a degree of adhesion between the stamens and calyx 
as to render it difficult to say whether the former are perigynous or hypo- 
gynous, as in Galacineae, Tamariscineae, an} many others ; but there are 
orders which do really exhibit instances of both modes. Thus Eschscholtzia 
has decidedly perigynous stamens, and yet it is undoubtedly a genus of 
Papaveraceae, the character of which is to have them hypogynous ; and 
all kinds of gradations, from the one form to the other, are observable in 
Saxifrageae. The stamens of Macrostylis, among the hypogynous order 
Diosmeae, are manifestly perigynous. In Gcraniaceae the genus Geranium 
has the stamens hypogynous, and Pelargonium perigynous. Caryophyllca? 
are arranged among genera with hypogynous stamens, yet some of them 
(Larbrea and Adenarium) are perigynous ; in Ulecebrese part of the 
genera are perigynous, ami part hypogynous. The perigynous 
stamens of Turneraceae divide them from Cistineae, to which they 
are closely allied. — The manner in which the stamens cohere is some- 
times an indication of affinity; for instance, they are monadelphous in 
Malvaceae and Meliacea?. diadelphous in great numbers of Leguminosae, 
polyadelphous in Hypericineae ; but more commonly this character is un- 
important, as in Malvaceae themselves, which have sometimes distinct 
stamens ; Leguminosae, which have very often such ; in Tcrnstromiaceae, 
which have both united and disunited ones. — It not unfrequently occurs 
that the conversion of the petals into stamens takes place imperfectly, in 
which case a part of the stamens are said to be sterile, and this is sometimes 
a useful character for detecting affinities. Thus, in many Biittneriaccae 



INTRODUCTION. lxi 

one-fifth are sterile and petaloicl, in Galacinerc every other one, in Aqui- 
larineee two-thirds, in Bignoniacerc tlie uppermost of 5 is rudimentary. — 
A peculiarity of a similar nature is the want of symmetry which sometimes 
exists between the petals or sepals, and stamens. Supposing the flower to 
be formed without abortion of any kind, and by a regular alternation of 
metamorphosis, as is usually the case, the petals will be always some mul- 
tiple of the sepals, and the stamens of the petals ; and of course any irre- 
gularity in this respect will destroy the supposed symmetry. This is often 
a point of much importance to observe; for example, in Boraginese the 
stamens are always equal to the segments of the corolla, and the flowers 
of that order are consequently symmetrical ; in Labiatte, on the contrary; 
one at least of the stamens is constantly missing, and the flowers are there- 
fore regularly unsymmetrical, a character by which these orders may be 
constantly known, when the form of their corolla will not distinguish them. 
In Phytolaccece there is a constant tendency to a want of symmetry ; and 
this is one of the characters by which that order is known from Che- 
nopodeae. 

That part of the stamen which contains the fertilizing matter or pollen 
is known by the name of the Anther, and is a case usually consisting 
of two parallel or slightly diverging cells, containing pollen, and opening 
by a longitudinal fissure ; but from this plan many deviations take place, 
wdiich are of great value in determining affinities. Thus, all Malvaceae, 
properly so called, and Epacrideae, have but one cell ; in Laurineae and 
Berberideae the valves are hinged by their upper margin ; in Ericeae the 
pollen is emitted by pores ; in Melastomaceae the same takes place, along 
with a peculiar conformation of the lower part of the anther ; in Hamame- 
lideae dehiscence is effected by the falling off of the face of the anthers : 
but in Solaneae, the genera of which have usually their anthers bursting 
longitudinally, the genus Solanum itself opens by pores. The mode in 
which the anther is united with the filament is sometimes taken into 
account, as in Anonaceae, Nymphaeaceoe, Humhiaceae, and Aroideae, or 
Typhaceae, in which they are always adnate ; and Gramineae, in which 
they are as regularly versatile. But this modification appears of no great 
moment, nor indeed does any peculiarity of the connectivum, all kinds of 
forms of which are found in Labiatae ; and even in the small order of 
Penaeaceae we have anthers with the connectivum excessively fleshy, and 
in the ordinary state. 

Pollen rarely affords any marks by which affinities are to be traced. 
The most remarkable deviations from it exist in Asclepiadeae and Orchideae, 
the former having it always in a state of concretion, resembling wax, by 
which they are known from Apocyneae, and the latter having it frequently 
so, but also containing numerous genera, the pollen of which is scarcely 
distinguishable from its ordinary powctery state. 

Immediately between the stamens and the ovarium is sometimes found 
a fleshy ring or fleshy glands, called a Disk, and supposed for very good 
reasons to represent an inne'; row of imperfectly developed stamens. The 
presence of this disk is constant in Umbelliferae, Compositae, Labiatae, 
Boragineae, Rosaceae, and many others, while its absence is equally uni- 
versal in others. It is not, however, much used as a principal mark of dis- 
tinction, its real value not having been yet ascertained. There are some 
highly curious modifications of it in Rhamneae and Meliaceae. It is a very 
remarkable fact, that in Gentianeae and their allies, which have the peri- 



txii INTRODUCTION. 

carpial leaves right and left with respect to the common axis of inflores- 
cence, it is never truly present ; while in Scrophularineae and their allies, 
the pericarpial leaves of which are anterior and posterior, it is as uniformly 
present in one shape or other. 

The last modification of leaves in the fructification consists in their con- 
version into what is called the pistillum, or Ovarium ; that is to say, 
into the case which contains the young seeds or ovules. Now that the 
structure of this part is well understood, we know that an ovarium either 
consists of one or several connected pericarpial leaves, called carpella, ar- 
ranged around a common axis, or of several combined into a single body. 
Upon this difference the distinction depends of what I call apocarpous 
ovaria, or those of which the carpella are distinct ; and syncarpous are those 
of which the carpella are compactly combined. These differences appear 
to me of much importance, and subject to as few exceptions as any modi- 
fications that botanists make use of. Thus Berberideae are distinguished 
from Papaveraceae, Nelumboneae from Nymphaeaceae, Amyrideae from 
Burseraceae, Boragineae from Ehretiaceae, and the like. But, at the same 
time, it will be seen that cases exist of both forms being found in the same 
natural order, as Zanthoxyleae. This, however, is rare. — The cohesion 
of the ovarium with the calyx, or its separation from it, has been already 
treated of in speaking of the calyx. — An ovarium may be either one-celled, 
in consequence of its consisting of a single carpellum, in which case it will 
belong to the apocarpous division ; or it may consist of several carpella 
strictly cohering, and therefore syncarpous, but nevertheless one-celled, in 
consequence of the obliteration of the dissepiments. Peculiarities of this 
latter nature are almost always of ordinal importance, at least if the pla- 
centa are parietal ; for instance, the latter is the structure of Papaveraceae, 
Homalineae, Flacourtiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Papayacae, and Violaceae, to 
which there is no exception ;. but Caryophylleae and Bruniaceae, the usual 
structure of which is to be one-celled, have the placentae in the centre ; 
and in both these orders there are genera, the ovarium of which contains 
several cells. — Another point that deserves particular attention is the rela- 
tion borne to the axis of inflorescence by the pericarpial leaves, of which an 
ovarium is formed. What the exact value of this character may be, is 
not yet known ; but it is certain that Gentianeae and their allies have their 
principal leaves right and left of the axis, while Scrophularineae and their 
allies, which are sometimes to be distinguished with difficult}', have the 
pericarpial leaves anterior and posterior with respect to the axis. Rosaceae 
and Leguminosae differ in a nearly similar way. — Connected with the 
apocarpous or syncarpous state of the ovarium is the union or separation 
of the styles, which, therefore, scarcely require distinct mention. It is as 
well, however, to remark, that the separation of styles is commonly a sign 
of the apocarpous state of the ovarium, provided the latter is not very 
apparent otherwise ; and the cohesion of the styles is constantly an evidence 
to the contrary ; and in this view the Elder and Hydrangea tribes may be 
justifiably separated from Caprifoliaceae. 

The Stigma seldom offers any good characters. In some cases, how- 
ever, advantage is taken of it, as in Lineae, the capitate stigmas of which 
distinguish them from Caryophylleae, in which they occupy the whole 
inner face of the styles ; and in Goodenoviae, Scaevoleae, and Brunoniaceae, 
there is a peculiar membranous appendage enveloping the stigma, and 
called an indusium, which distinguishes those orders from all others. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixiii 

The number of the Ovula (that is to say, whether they are definite or 
indefinite) is frequently an important difference, as, for example, between 
Campanulacese and Compositae, Goodenoviae and Scaevoleae ; but while 
I think considerable value usually attaches to this, it must not be forgotten 
that there are exceptions to it in several instances, especially in Caprifolia- 
ceae, if Hydrangea really belongs to that order, and Fumariaceae and Cru- 
ciferae. — The position of the ovula is much more essential than their num- 
ber, and may be considered as one of the most valuable forms of structure 
that can be taken into account. It is uniform in Compositae, Valeria- 
neae, Umbelliferae, and others, and it constitutes an absolute distinction be- 
tween Artocarpeae and Urticeae; but in Sanguisorbeae, Pedalinese, and Sty- 
raceae, both erect and suspended ovules co-exist ; this union of the two 
positions occurs in a most remarkable degree in Penaeaceae ; and among 
Violaceae, the genus Conohoria offers, according to M. A. St. Hilare, (PL 
Usuelles, No. 10,) an instance of three kinds of direction in as many spe- 
cies; in C. Lobolobo, the ovula are ascending; in C. Castaneaefolia, they 
are suspended, and in C. Rinorea one is suspended, one ascending, and 
the intermediate peritropal, or at right angles with the placentae. — The 
situation of the foramen of the ovulum is a circumstance which should 
always be taken into account, because it indicates with certainty the future 
position of the radicle, which it is of first rate importance to ascertain, but 
which will be more properly spoken of in considering the value of distinc- 
tions drawn from that source. 

The ripened ovarium is the Fruit. The differences in its structure 
are of the same nature as those of the ovarium, and need not be repeated. 
Its texture and mode of dehiscence are the principal sources of distinctions, 
but they perhaps deserve as little attention as any of which botanists make 
use. It is true that the fruit of all Grossulaceae is baccate, of all Labiatae 
indehiscent, and of all Primulaceae capsular; but Marcgmaviaceae, Mela- 
stomaceae, Myrtaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Rosacea?, and a crowd of other 
orders, contain both baccate and capsular, dehiscent and indehiscent 
genera. 

The characters obtained from the position of the Seed are of the same 
value as those from the position of the ovula ; in addition to which, the 
peculiarities of the testa are made use of. In some Monocotyledonous or- 
ders, as Asphodeleae and Smilaceae, the texture is employed as a mark of 
distinction ; its being winged or otherwise distinguishes Meliaceae from 
Cedreleae, and the presence of a fungous swelling about the hilum is a 
good characteristic of Polygaleae. Linnsean botanists make a distinction 
between naked and covered seeds, attributing the former character to La- 
biatae, Boragineee, &c. ; but the sense in which they use the term is so 
manifestly erroneous, that botanists were at one time led to believe that 
no such things as naked seeds existed. It is now, however, known, from 
the accurate observations of Mr. Brown, that certain tribes of plants do 
exist in which the seeds are really naked, that is to say, susceptible of im- 
pregnation and maturation without the intervention of any pericarpial 
covering. These are Coniferae and Cycadeae, orders exceedingly remarka- 
ble in other respects, especially in the structure of their vascular tissue. In 
consequence of these peculiarities, they have been distinguished by A. 
Brogniart as a class of the same dignity as Dicotyledons and Monocotyle- 
dons. Without assenting to this proposition, to which I think there are 
great objections, it is impossible to doubt that the naked seeds of these or- 



lxiv INTRODUCTION. 

ders constitute a secondary character of as much importance as any of 
which botanists have knowledge. 

The substance which surrounds the embryo is called the Albumen, 
and its absence or presence constitutes a valuable mark of distinction. 
There can be no doubt that when it exceeds the bulk of the embryo very 
considerably, as in Ranunculaceee, Papaveraceee, Umbelliferae, Grasses, and 
the like, it is of such importance, that no plant destitute of albumen is 
likely to be found appertaining to such orders ; but, on the other hand, I 
doubt very much whether its presence or absence deserves much attention 
in orders which are called by German botanists subalbuminous, — that is 
to say, where the embryo and albumen are of nearly equal bulk ; for it 
should be remembered, that it always exists in seeds at some period of 
their existence, and that its remains may very well be expected to be found 
in almost any seeds ; thus, in fact, both albuminous and exalbuminous 
seeds are found in Proteacere (Brown in Linn. Trans. 10. 36) ; and even 
in Rosaceee, which are as free from remains of albumen as any order, it 
is said to be distinctly present in Neillia, and in others traces are to be seen 
adhering to the inner membrane of the testa. — The texture of the albu- 
men is frequently consulted with advantage ; in all Rubiacese it is horny 
or fleshy; Euphorbiaceee, oily ; Grasses, Polygonese, Chenopodeae, mealy ; 
in Annonacese, it is ruminated, &c. ; but among Apocyneee, which have 
solid albumen, it is ruminated in Alyxia. 

The direction of the Embryo within the testa, which is indicated in the 
ovulum by the foramen, is one of the very few characters to which we 
know of no exceptions ; and if it were a less obscure point of structure, it 
would consequently be one of the most useful. For example, in all Cis- 
tinese, Urticeae, and Polygoneee, the radicle is not turned towards the hi- 
lum, as in other tribes, but takes an opposite direction ; and these orders 
are distinguished from their allies by this, better than by any other known 
character. 

The number of Cotyledons is generally believed to be one of the 
most important means of distinguishing the great natural divisions called 
Monocotyledons, Dicotyledons, and Acotyledons ; and it is a most curious 
fact, that this goes along with anatomical structure. There are, however, 
plants among Monocotyledons with two cotyledons, as the common 
"Wheat ; and among Dicotyledons with only one, as Pena3a and some 
Myrtacese ; and even none, as Cuscuta and Utricularia ; or several, as 
Schizopetalon in Cruciferse, Benthamia in Boragineoe. Ceratophyllese, and 
most Coniferae. — To the relative position of the cotyledons there are not 
the same objections, whence the character of Dicotyledons has been found 
to consist in the cotyledons being opposite to each other ; of Monocotyle- 
dons, in their being alternate with each other, if there is more than one ; 
and of Acotyledons, in germination taking place from no particular point, 
rather than in their number. 

The only remaining character of vegetation which I find it necessary to no- 
tice is a singular and very uncommon one, which distinguishes a few small 
families of planLs. This consists in the presence of theremains of the Amni- 
os around the embryo in its perfect state : the amnios always surrounds the 
embryo in an early state, but is most commonly absorbed before the forma- 
tion of the embryo is completed ; but in Saurureac, Pipercese, and Nym- 
phaeacese, its remains surround the embryo in the form of a sac, which 
was mistaken by Richard, who did not understand its nature, for a pecu- 



INTRODUCTION. lxv 

liar appendage of the embryo, or rather for a particular form of the radi- 
cle, — an hypothesis which that distinguished botanist supported with great 
skill, but which is now generally abandoned. 

I have now gone through the whole of the characters of which bota- 
nists make use in distinguishing and determining the affinities of plants, 
and I think it must be apparent that the difficulties connected with the sub- 
ject are neither slight nor easily to be overcome. If these observations are 
properly attended to, no one can be at a loss to understand, that to define 
any group of plants, of what rank soever, is impracticable; that differ- 
ences of structure are of an uncertain and unequal value ; and that the 
affinities of plants are never to be absolutely made out by solitary charac- 
ters, but depend upon more or less intricate combinations, the power of 
judging of which, is the same test of a skilful botanist, as an appreciation 
of symptoms is that of a physician. 



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ARTIFICIAL ANALYSIS 

OF 

THE ORDERS. 

Class T— VASCULARES, or FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Plants having distinct flowers, furnished with stamina and pistils. 

Sub-class I— EXOGENjE, or DICOTYLEDONOUS 
PLANTS. 

Leaves reticulated. Stem trith wood, pith, bark, and medullary rays. 
Flowers with a quinary division Cotyledons 2 or more, opposite. 

Tribe I — ANGIOSPERMiE 

Seeds enclosed in a pericarpivm 

* PoLYPETAL/E. 

Petals distinct. 

| ThalamiflorjE. 

Stamens hypogynous, or adhering to the sides of the ovarium (Some 
Diosmee perigynous.) 

J Apocarp-e. 

Carpella more or less distinct, sometimes solitary. 

Flowers diclinous .... 23. Menisperme*. 

Flowers monoclinous 

Fruits immersed in a fleshy disk - 6. Nelumbone^. 

Fruits not immersed in a fleshy disk. 

Anthers bursting by valves curling 1 backwards 22. Berberideje. 

Anthers bursting by longitudinal slits. 
Stipulse present. 

Leaves with transparent dots 17. Wintereje. 

Leaves without dots 15. Magntoliaceje. 

Stipula? absent. 

Albumen ruminated - - 13. Anonace*. 

Albumen solid. 

Seeds with an arillus 16. DiLLENiACEiE. 

Seeds without an arillus. 

Ovarium solitary 8. Podophyi.le.e. 

Ovaria more than one 

Leaves sheathing at the baer 3. RanunculacejE. 

Leaves with a taper petiole 7. Hydropeltide-e. 

Albumen none. 

Leaves with pellucid dots 111 Amvride*. 

Leaves without pellucid dots. 

Stigmas capitate or terminal 11(1. Connarace.k. 

Stigmas linear. Petals sepaloid 117. Cortarieje. 



lx\ 






INTRODUCTION. 



J| Syncarpje. 

Carpella cohering in a solid (nudtiloculw) pericarpium. 

TF Ovarium many-celled, with (he ovula attached to the face i , -kt 

of the dissepiments - \ 5 ' Nymph*ace*. 

HIT Ovarium 1-cellcd, with the ovula parietal. 
Placenta linear, contracted. 
Sepals 2. 

Corolla regular ... 

Corolla irregular ... 

Sepals invariably 4. 

Stamens tetradynamous. Disk glandular, or 0. 

Ovarium sessile 
Stamens indefinite. Disk continuous, enlarged. 
Ovarium stalked 
Sepals 5 (occasionally varying to 4, 6, or 7). 

Ovula with the foramen at the extremity opposite ) 10/1 /-,.„„. __ 
the hilum - - W \ 134 - Cistine*. 

Ovula with the foramen at thecxtremity next the hilum 



4. Papaveraces. 

10. FuMARIACEJE. 



9. Cruciferje. 
11. CArrAiuPE^E. 



Stamens indefinite 
Stamens definite. 

Vernation circinate 
Vernation straight. 

Capsule with loculicidal dehiscence. 
Stipulffi present. Sepals distinct. 

Seeds naked 
Stipuke absent. Sepals combined. 
Seeds comose 
Capsule with septicidal dehiscence. 
Stipulsc 0. Sepals concrete 
Placenta; branched over the surface of the valves 

1T1IH Ovarium 2- or more-celled, with the ovula attached to 
the axis; or only 1-celled, with the ovula adhering to a 
placenta in the centre. 

^Estivation of the calyx valvate. 
Anthers bursting by pores. 

Petals lacerated, imbricated in aestivation 
Petals entire, involute in aestivation 
Anthers bursting longitudinally. 

Filaments distinct. Disk glandular 
Filaments connate. Disk 0. 
Anthers bilocular 
Anthers unilocular. 

Stamens monadelphous 
Stamens penta- or polyadelphous 
^Estivation of the calyx imbricate or open. 
Stamens indefinite. 
Styles several. 

Seeds smooth ... 
Seeds villous - 
Style single. 

Stigma peltate, petaloid, persistent 
Stigma not dilated, withering. 

Anthers subulate, opening by a linear 

pore at the apex 
Anthers opening longitudinally. 
Leaves with stipulas 
Leaves without stipule. 
Leaves compound 
Leaves simple. 

Leaves opposite 
Leaves alternate. 
Seeds indefinite 
Seeds definite 
Stamens definite. 

Flowers unsymmetrical. (That is, the segments 
of the calyx, the petals, and the stamens, not 
i egularTnultiples of each other.) Anisomeria. 
Sepals very unequal. Stamens irregulai ly 
arranged upon n hypogynous disk. 
(Petals usually with some interior ap- 
pendage.) 

Ovules definite, erect. 
Fruit dehiscent 



135. 



137. 



BlXINEJE. 

Dboserace;e. 



130. Violace*. 
142. Tamariscineje. 



141. Frankeniaceje. 
12. Flacourtiace*. 



30. 
128. 



29. 
27. 



24. 
26. 



Elkocarpeje. 
Tremandre*. 



Tiliace-k. 
Sterculiace*. 



Malvaceae. 
Bombace*. 



3<5. 
37. 

136. 

31. 

25. 

99. 

34. 

35. 
32. 



hvpericine^. 

Reaumueie*. 

Sarracenieje. 

Dipterocarpe.*. 

Chlenaceje. 
Rhizoroi.e*. 

( rUTTIFEHJC, 

IMarCCRAAVIACEjE. 

Ternstromiaceje. 



100. SapINDacejb 



98. IIippocastane*. 



INTRODUCTION. 



lxxi 



Fruit, indchiscent. 
Stamens distinct 
Stamens cohering al iii> base J 
in a fleshy cup - \ 

Ovules definite, pendulous 

Ovarium 1-oelled, with a central 
columna placenta. 
■ Stamens monadelphous. Fruit ? 
dehiscent - - S 

Stamens distinct. One of the ) 
sepals spurred - - \ 

Ovules indefinite 
Flowers symmetrical. (That is, the segments 
of the calyx, the petals, and the stamens, 
regular multiples of each other.) Isomeric*,. 
Embryo coiled round mealy albumen 
Embryo straight, or a little curved; albu- 
men, if present, not mealy. 

Stamens combined in a long tube ; 
anthers subsessile. 

Seeds definite, not winged ; an- ) 
thers all fertile - -J 

Seeds indefinite, winged ; anthers ) 
partly sterile - - \ 

Stamens distinct, except at the base ; 
anthers with long filaments. 
Seeds indefinite. 

Embryo minute, in fleshy al- > 
bumen - - S 

Embryo in the axis of fleshy ) 
albumen - $ 

Embryo destitute of albu- 
men. 
Fruit drupaceous. Trees 
Fruit capsular. Herbs 
Seeds definite. 
Ovarium deeply lobed, with the style arising from the base of ) 
the carpella, which are seated on a succulent receptacle $ 
Ovarium not seated on a succulent receptacle. 

Ovula erect - - 

Ovula pendulous. 

One of the sepals spurred 
None of the sepals spurred. 
Leaves with pellucid dots. 

"Fruit succulent - - - - 

Fruit capsular or drupaceous. 
Flowers unisexual 
Flowers hermaphrodite. 

Endocarp not separable from the sarco- 

carp - 
Endocarp separating from the sarcocarp as ) 
a 2-valved coccus - - - S 

Leaves without pellucid dots. 
Fruit 1-celled 
Fr uit many-celled. 

Stamens arising from hypogynous scales. 
Leaves opposite, with stipulw 
Leaves exstipulate 
Stamens immediately hypogynous. 
Cotyledons shrivelled 
Cotyledons flat. 

Styles distinct. Stigmas capitate 
Styles concrete, or nearly so. 

Seeds without albumen. Connec- t 

tivuin small - 5 

Seeds with albumen. Cbnnectivum ) 

dilated - - S 



101. 


Al KlilNE.E. 


94 


HlPFOCBATBACE.fi, 


(58. 


Olacine.*. 


129. 


Polyoalea:. 


124 


'YB.OP&QLEJE.. 


126. 


Ualsaminea:. 


141). 


C'AUYOPHVLLEiE. 



105. 
IOC. 



121. 

123. 



95. 
143. 



Meliacea:. 
Cedreleje. 



PtTTOSl'OllEvE. 
OxALIDEJE. 



Bkexiaoeje. 
Elatineje. 



118. Ochnaceje. 



104. 
125. 

108. 
114. 

116. 
115. 



VlTES. 
HyDROCEKEjE. 

aurant1ace.*. 
Xanthqxyleje. 

RuTACEjE. 
DlOSMEjE. 



102. ERYTHROXYLE.E. 



119. 

120. 

122. 
139. 

103. 
107. 



Zygophylle*. 

SlMAKUBACEiE. 

Geraniaceje 

LlNEJE. 

MalPIGHIACEjE. 

Humuuaces. 



lxxii 



INTRODUCTION. 



|| Calyciflor^e. 

Stamens perigynous ; distinct from the corolla when it is monopetalous. 
J Apocarpa;. 
Carpella distinct. In Pomaces they cohere more or less; but the styles are 
distinct. 



38. Saxifrage*. 

39. Cunoniace*. 



40. Baueracex. 
74. PomacejE. 



73. Rosaceje. 

77. Leguminosje. 
76. Chbysobalane*. 
75. Amygdaleje. 

18. Calycantheje. 

113. Anacardiaceje. 



Citlyx adhering more or less to the ovaria. 
Stamens definite. 

Herbaceous plants (without stipulae) 
Shrubs with opposite leaves (and interpetiolar stipulas) 
Stamens indefinite. 

Fruit capsular. Seeds indefinite 
Fruit pomaceous. Seeds definite 
Calyx distinct from the ovarium. 
Leaves with stipute. 

Ovaria several - - 

Ovaria solitary. 

Ovula peritropal. Fruit a legume 
Ovula erect .... 

Ovula suspended .... 
Leaves without stipulae. 

Sepals numerous, imbricated 
Sepals in a single whorl. 

Seeds definite, without albumen 
Seeds indefinite, with albumen. 

Ovarium with hypogynous scales. Vegetation ) u? Crassulaceje . 

succulent - S 

0v ^^ thouih yP ^ aous ^ les \ Vc S eiati ^^ 38 - ^AXtFRAGE* («*) 

|J Syncarp-E. 

Carpella combined into a midiiloctdar pericarpium. 

H Ovarium superior. 
Ovarium 1-cellcd, with parietal placentas. 
Embryo in the midst of fleshy albumen. 
^Estivation of the corolla twisted. 

Throat of the calyx with a membranous corona 132. 

Throat of the calyx without a membranous corona 1 33. 
^Estivation of the corolla imbricated - .- 131. 

Embryo without albumen. Flowers rather irregular 28. 

Ovarium 1-celled, with the ovula not parietal, but either pen- 
dulous, or attached to a free central placenta. 

Sepals 2. Stamens opposite the petals - 144. 

Sepals 5. Stamens opposite the sepals - - 150. 

Ovarium with several cells. 

Calyx tubular, covering the fruit - 52. 

Calyx deeply divided or polysepalous. 
Flowers regular. 

Ovarium deeply lobed. Style lateral - 92. 

Ovarium undivided. Style terminal 
Disk not developed. 
Ovula indefinite. 

Stamens all fertile. Petals 

(Succulent.) 
Stamens alternately barren - 146. Galacinf.^.. 

Ovula definite - - 149. Nitrariace*. 

Disk developed. 
Disk glandular 
Disk annular. 

Stamens equal in number to the petals 
Stamens opposite the petals 
Stamens alternate with the petals. 

Leaves simple, without stipuhc 93. 
Leaves compound, with stipulae 97. 
Stamens some multiple of the num- 
ber of the petals. 
Ovula in pairs - - 112. 

Ovula solitary - - 109. 

Flowers irregulai - - 127. 



MalesherbiacejE. 

turnebace*. 
Passifloreje. 
moringe.s. 



Portulaceje. 

IlLECEBREjE. 



Salicari*. 
Stackhouse*:. 



concrete. > 145. Fouquieraceje. 



69. Chailletiace*. 



96. Khamneje. 



Celastrine*. 

STAPHYLEACEiE. 



burserace.s. 
SpondiacejE. 
Vochyaceje. {bis.) 



INTRODUCTION. 



ixxiii 



70. 

46. 
45. 



727. 
56. 



148. 



53. 
54. 



HOMALINE.fi. 

Cacti. 

GROSSULACEiE. 



"V~OCHYACE.fi. 

MyrtacejE. 

FlCOIDEiE. 

Memecyleje. 
Melastomace*. 



LeCYTHIDEjE. 
PHILADELPHE.fi. 



Escalioneje. 
Onagrarl.e. 



49. CiBC.fiACE.fi. 



50. Hydrocaryes. 



HIT Ovarium interior. 

Ovarium 1-celled, with parietal placentae. 

Stamens partly sterile. Petals and sepals dissimilar - 51. Loaseje. 

Stamens all fertile. 

Petals and sepals alike. 

Vegetation normal - 

Vegetation succulent ... 

Petals and sepals different - - . 

Ovarium with several cells, and the placenta; in the axis ; or 
if with only one cell, then with the ovula not parietal, but 
erect or pendulous. 

Sepals with a spur .... 

Sepals without a spur. 

Leaves with pellucid dots (opposite and entire) 
Leaves without pellucid dots. 

Embryo lying on the outside of (mealy) albumen 
Embryo in the axis of the seed. 
Anthers inflexed in aestivation (long-.) 

Leaves 1-ribbed. Cotyledons convolute, i 
Seeds few - - ) 

Leaves 3- or more ribbed. Cotyledons fiat, j 
Seeds numerous - - - ( 

Anthers not inflexed in aestivation (roundish.) 
Ovula indefinite. 
Stamens indefinite. 

Seeds without albumen 
Seeds with albumen 
Stamens definite. 
Divisions of the calyx 5 (rarely 4) 
Divisions of the calyx 4 - 
Ovula definite. 

Ovula erect - 

Ovula pendulous. 

Stamens equal to the sepals, or 
fewer. 
Albumen wanting-. (Cotyle- ) 
dons unequal) \ 

Embryo in the axis of albumen. 
Sepals depauperated, with an > 
open ssstivation - \ 

Sepals imbricated. Ovarium ) 
half superior - $ 

Embryo minute in the base of 
albumen. 

Cells of ovarium 2 
Cells of ovarium more > 
than 2 - $ 

Stamens some multiple of the sepals. 
Stipulae present. 

Leaves alternate. 

deciduous) 
Leaves opposite, 
interpetiolar) 
Stipulae absent. 

Cotyledons convolute 

oblong) 
Cotyledons flat. (Petals linear) 
** Apetal*. 

Petals usually absent. 
V Ovula indefinite. 
Ovarium with several cells. 

^Estivation of the calyx valvate - 62. Aristolochi*. 

^Estivation of calyx imbricate. 

Flowers regular. Leaves exstipulate. Ovarium 

superior .... 

Flowers irregular. Leaves with large membranous 
stipulae .... 

Ovarium with 1 cell, and parietal placentas. 

Fruit indehiscent - - . - 63. Cytineje. 

Fruit dehiscent. 

Flowers diclinous or deformed. 

Embryo straight - - - 90. 

Embryo reniform - - - 89. 

Flowers monoclinous. 

Stamens perigynous. Leaves dotted - 71. Samydeaje. 

10 



(Stipulae ) ^ 
(Stipulae > ro 

(Petals ) g- 

58. 



Halorage*. 

BRUNIACEiE. 

UMBELHFER.fi. 
Araliaceje. 

HAMAMELIDE.fi. 

Rhizophore.e. 

CoMBRETACEjE. 
ALANGIE.fi. 



138. 

157. 



Nepenthes. 

BEGONIACE.fi. 



DATISCE.fi. 

Resedace*. 



lxxi\ 



INTRODUCTION. 



Stamens hopogynous, unilateral 
HIT Ovula definite. 

Their point of attachment at or near the apex of the cell. 
Valves of the anthers curling upwards 
Valves of the anthers bursting- longitudinally. 
Ovaria several, distinct in each calyx 
Ovaria single, sometimes lobed or spiked, dicli- 
nous. Ovula two or more in each cell. 
Flowers amentaceous. 
Ovarium inferior. Albumen 
Ovarium superior. Albumen fleshy 
Flowers collected upon a fleshy receptacle. ) 
Ovula always single in each cell - \ 
Flowers (solitary,) with loose inflorescence. 
Ovarium 4-celled 
Ovarium 2-celled, indehiscent 
Ovarium 3- or many-celled 
Ovarium 1-celled. 
Calyx many-parted 
Calyx tubular. 
Calyx superijr 
Calyx inferior. 
Fruit 2-valved 
Fruit indehiscent. 

Leaves with stipula: 
Leaves without stipula;. 
Flowers naked 
Flowers in an in vol u- j 
cellum - - J 

Their point of attachment at or near the base of the cell. 
Valves of the anthers curling upwards 
Valves of the anthers bursting longitudinal. 
Calyx superior - 

Calyx inferior. 

Stamens combined in a cylinder 
Stamens distinct. 

Embryo a homogeneous solid mass - 
Embryo with distinct radicle and cotyledons. 
Radicle at the end remote from the hilum. 
Stipula; distinct - 
Stipula; ochreate - 
Radicle next the hilum. 

Stamens hypogynous 

Stamens perigynous. 

Calyx tubular. 

Embryo curved round albumen 
Embryo straight. 

Stamens opposite the sepals 
Stamens alternate with the ' 



161. Lacistemeje. 



21. 
19. 



82. 
81. 



La URINES. 

Monimeieje. 



Cupuliferje. 
Stilagineje. 



80. Artocarpeje. 



61. 
79. 



165. 

64. 

67. 

72. 

65. 
66. 

20. 
87. 
14. 
61. 



78. 
156. 



Penjeace^ (bis.) 
Ulmace.e. 

EuPHORBIACEjE. 

Ceratophylleje. 

Santalaceje. 

Aquilahineje 

Sanguisorbeje 

Thymeljeje. 
Hernandieje. 

Atherospermeje. 

JuGLANDEiE. 

JMyristice*. 
Pen^ac (bis.) 



URTICE.E. 
PoLYGONEjE. 



158. Nyctagieje. 



152. 

60. 
59. 



SCLEHANTHEJE. 

PROTEACE.E. 
EL2EAGNE2E. 



Calyx of several leaves, or deeply 
divided. 

Embryo without albumen - 155. Petiveraceje. 
Embryo curved round albir'ien. 
Stamens opposite the sepals. 

Albumen mealy - 154. PhytolaccejE. 
Stamens alternate with the 
sepals. 
Calyx scarious, bracteo- j m Amabantacm . 

Calyx herbaceous,ebrac- 
teatc 
Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen 91. Empetre.e. 



153. Chenopode^e. 



*** AcHLAMYDEjE 

Cahjjo and corolla both absent, at least in Ike pistilliferous floivcrs 

Ovarium 2- or more-celled; or if 1-celled, with 2 placenta;. 
Seeds indefinite. 

Flowers solitary . . - ltj3. Podostemeje. 

Flowers amentaceous - - 84. Salicineje. 

Seeds definite. 

Seeds pendulous - - - 83. Betuline*. 

Seeds peltate - - 164. Calmthiciune.e 



INTROI>i\'Tin\ 



Ixxv 



Seeds ascending 
Ovarium 1-cellcd, with but 1 placenta. 
Ovules pendulous. 

Leaves opposite. Flowers spiked 

Leaves alternate. Flowers amentaceous 
Ovules erect. 

Embryo naked. Flowers amentaceous 

Embryo enclosed in a sac 

**** MoNOPETALvE. 

Petals cohering; in a tube. 



159. Saururee. 



160. Chloranthee. 
85. Platanee. 



86. Myricee. 
162. Piperacee. 



IT Ovarium more or less inferior. 
Ovarium with parietal placenta;. 

Placenta; 2. Corolla irregular. Albumen 
Placenta; 3. Corolla regular. Albumen 
Ovarium with the placenta; cither in the axis, or at the apex, 
or the base. 

Flowers gynandrous - 

Flowers npt gynandrous. 
Stigma with an indusium. 

Seeds indefinite - - - 

Seeds definite • 

Stigma naked. 

Ovarium 1-cclled, with a definite number of ovules. 
Ovules erect. Anthers connate 
Ovules pendulous. 

Stamens alternate with the lobes of the 
corolla. 
Anthers partly connate. Filaments mona- 

delphous ... 

Anthers distinct. 

Seeds with albumen 
Seeds without albumen - 
Stamens opposite the lobes of the corolla - 
Ovarium 2- or more-celled ; or 1-cellcd, with in- 
definite ovules. 
Leaves opposite. 
With stipuke 
Without stipulae. 
Seeds definite. 

Radicle inferior - - - 

Radicle superior 
Seeds indefinite 
Leaves alternate. 
Ovules definite 
Ovules indefinite. 

Corolla plaited, many-lobed - 
Corolla with not more thnn 5 lobes. 
Flowers irregular 
Flowers regular. 
Fruit capsular 
Fruit succulent 
TIT Ovarium superior. 
Jjp Flowers regular. 
Ovarium deeply 4-lobed 
Ovaria 2, cohering by their stigma 
Ovarium entire. 

Ovarium 1-celled, without incomplete dissepiments 
Placenta; 5, parietal 
Placenta free, central, single. 
Fruit indehisccnt 

Fruit dehiscent - - 

Placenta; 2, parietal, or at the bottom of the cavity oi 
the ovarium. 
Stigma with an indusium 
Stigma naked. 

Ovulum solitary, pendulous from the tip "t an < 
umbilical cord - - - j 

Ovula several, attached to two placenta; 
Ovarium 2- or more-celled ; or, if 1-celled. with incomph te 
dissepiments. 
Ovula definite. 



209. Gesneree. 
181. Cucurbitacee. 



177. Styli^ee. 



176. Goodenovie. 

178. ScEVOLEE. 



186. Composite. 



187. Calyceree. 

184. Dipsacee. 
1S5. Valeeianee. 

192. LOKANTHE*. 



190. ClNCHONTACEE. 

189. Stellate. 

191. Caprifoliacee. 

203. CoLUMELLIACEE. 

167. Styracee. 

168. Belvisiacee. 

175. Lobeliacee. 

174. Campanulacee. 
172. Vacciniee. 



222. Boraginee. 
196. Apocynee (bis.) 



ISO. Papayacee. 



206. iYTyrsinee. 

207. Primulacee. 



179. Brunoniacee. 
L.83. 1'lumbaginee. 

226 IIVDROPHYLLEE. 



lxxvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



205. 
204. 
182. 



223. 
225. 



202. 
> 166. 



169. 
200. 



Anthers 1 -celled - 

Anthers 2-celled. 
Stamens 2. 

Seeds pendulous ... 

Seeds "erect - - - - 

Stamens 4 ; corolla scarious 
Stamens 3, or 5, or more. 

Seeds peltate - - - - 

Seeds pendulous. 

Seeds without albumen. 

Cotyledons plano-convex - 
Cotyledons plaited longitudinally 
Seeds with albumen. 

Calyx and corolla, 5-lobed 
Calyx and corolla, 3-6-lobed. 

Stamens some multiple of the lobes 

of the corolla - - 

Stamens equal in number to the 
lobes of the corolla 
Seeds erect or ascending. 

Corolla imbricated in aestivation. Coty- 
ledons plano-convex. 
Seed-coat bony, with a long scar on 

one side - - - 

Seed-coat membranous 
Corolla plaited in aestivation. Cotyle- ^ 
dons shrivelled - $ lyy 

Ovula indefinite. 

./Estivation contorted. 

Corolla not agreeing in the number of its} 
divisions with the calyx. Seeds peltate, 
sessile - - ■ " 

Corolla agreeing with the calyx in the number of 
its divisions. Seeds attached to the placenta by 
a little cord. 

Pollen waxy. Stigma greatly dilated 
Pollen powdery. Stigma simple 
^Estivation imbricated, plaited, or valvate. 

Styles 'several ."-■-.- 
Style 1. 

Anthers 1-celled 
Anthers 2-celled. 

Cells of the anther hard and dry, with ap- 
pendages. . 
Seeds apterous. Embryo in the axis of ? 

albumen. (Shrubs.) - - 5 I7 °- 

Seeds winged. Embryo minute, at the ) 
base of albumen. (Herbs.) - S l '"'• 

Cells of the anther succulent, without 
appendages. 
Ovarium 3-celled 
Ovarium 2- or 4-celled. 
Filaments flaccid. Pericarp mem- 
branous, dehiscing transversely 
Filaments rigid. Pericarp hard 
or fleshy. 
Leaves alternate 
Leaves opposite. 

JEstivation valvate 
Estivation imbricate or 
convolute. 

Stipules between the 

petioles 
Stipule absent 

f£^> Flowers irregular. 
Ovarium deeply lobed 

Ovarium entire. , . 

Fruit indehisccnt, or not opening by valves. 
Fruit 1-celled - " 

Fruit 2- or 4-celled ; the cells all normal. 
Radicle inferior 
Radicle superior. 
Ovules erect - 

Ovules pendulous "....' ■ " » i 

Fnait with several cells, all of which beyond 2 are £ 215 
spurious 
Fruit dehiscent. 



171. Efacrideje (bis.) 



OLEACE.E. 

Jasmine*. 
Plantagineje (bis.) 



194. Loganiace.e (bis.) 



Heliotropicee. 
Cordiace.e. 



224. Ehretiace;e. 



Ebenaceje. 
Ilicinee. 



Sapotee. 
Polemoniacee (bis.) 

CONVOLVULACEE. 



193. Potaliacee. 



195. 
196. 



201. 
171. 



asclepiadee. 
apocyne.e. 

Hydroleacee. 

Epacrideje. 



Ericeje. 






200. 



182. 



213. 
198. 



[194. 
197. 

221. 

188. 
220. 

219. 

218. 



Pyrylaceje. 

Polemoniace.e. 
Plantaginee. 

solaneje. 
Spigeliacee. 

loganiacee. 
Gentianee. 

Labiatje. 

globularine.e. 

Verbenacee. 

Selaginee. 
Myoporinee. 

Pedahnee (bis). 



INTRODUCTION. 



lxxvii 



Ovarium 1-celled, with a central placenta 
Ovarium 2-celled, or 1 celled, with two opposite pa- 
rietal placentae. 
Albumen none. 
Seeds attached to rigid hooked processes 
Seeds adhering - immediately to the placenta;. 
Seeds winged ... 

Seeds apterous. 
Fruit siliquose, 1-celled, or spuriously 

2-celled 
Fruit woody, short, spuriously 4- or 6- 
celled - - ' - 

Albumen present. 

Radicle pointing' to the hilum. 
Ovarium 2-cclled 
Ovarium with more cells than 2 
Radicle pointing to the extremity of the seed 
which is most remote from the hilum. 
Embryo in the axis. Ovarium 2-celled 
Embryo minute in the apex. Ovarium j 
1-celled i 



208. Lentibularije. 

214. AcANTHACEJE. 
217. BlGNONIACEJE. 

216. Cyhtandace-e. 

215. Pedalineje. 



211. ScROPHULARINEJE. 

170. Ericeje (bis). 

212. Rhinanthace.k. 
210. Orobanche.k. 



Tribe II.— GYMNOSPERMLE. 
Seeds destitute of a pericarpium. 



Resinous. Leaves simple, Trunk branched 
Mucilaginous. Leaves pinnated, Trunk unbranched 



228. Conifer*. 
227. Cvcade*. 



Sub-class II. ENDOGENiE, or MONOCOTYLEDONOUS 

PLANTS. 

Leaves with parallel veins. Stem with no distinction of wood, bark, and pith. 
Floxvers with a ternary division. Cotyledon 1 ; or, if 2, alternate. 



Tribe I— PETALOIDEiE. 

Calyx and corolla both developed, in 3 or 6 divisions ; or, if absent, then the 
stamens and pistils naked. 



*Tripetaloide^. 

Calyx herbaceous. 



Corolla petaloid. 



Ovarium superior. 

Placentae covering the whole lining of the carpella 
Placentae occupying the inner suture of the carpella. 
Carpella several, distinct - ■ 

Carpella concrete. 

Capsule 3-celled, 3-valved - - - 

Capsule 1-celled, with parietal placenta. (Flowers 
capitate) - 

Ovarium inferior. 

Embryo exalbuminous. (Water plants) 
Embryo albuminous. 
Stamens 6 - 
Stamen 1. 

Anther 2-celled, terminal - 

Anther 1-celled, lateral - 



230. Butomeje. 
229. Alismace*. 

232. Commeline.k. 

233. XYBIDEiE. 

231. Hydrocharide*. 

234. Bromeliace*. 

211. ScitaminejB. 
242. Marantace*. 



Ixxviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



**Hexapetaloide#:. 

Calyx and corolla nearly equal in size, and uniform iu colour ; both fully 
developed and petaloid ; (the number of divisions usually 3 or 6.) 



Ovarium inferior. 

Stamens and style concrete ... 

Stamens and style distinct. 

Stamens 3, opposite the sepals. 

Anthers turned outward, bursting lengthwise 
Anthers turned inwards, bursting transevcrsely - 
Stamens 5-6, or more ; or if 3, opposite the petals. 
Flowers monoclinous. 

Veins of the leaves diverging from the midrib 

towards the margin 
Veins of the leaves~parallel with the midrib. 
Perianthium deeply parted, the sepals equitant 
with respect to the petals. 

Seeds rostellate, with a hard black coat. 

Flowers regular 
Seeds with a membranous, or soft spongy 
coat. Flowers more or less irregular 
Parianthium tubular, the sepals not equitant 
Flowers diclinous. Perianthium short, spreading 
Ovarium superior. 

Anthers turned outwards - - - 

Anthers turned inwards. 

Pariauthium irregular, involute after flowering 
Parianthium regular. 

Fruit drupaceous, or fibrous. Albumen cartila- 
ginous, or fleshy. Embryo included, remote from 
the hilum. Leaves divided 
Fruit capsular, or succulent. Embryo next the 
hilum. Leaves undivided. 

Perianthium subglumaceous. Testa pale and 

soft. Style 1. - 
Perianthium coloured. Testa black and brittle. 
Style 1. 

Flowers from the axilla; of solitary bractCEe 
Flowers surrounded by petaloid bractere 
Perianthium dilated and coloured. Testa soft 

or spongy. Style 1 . 
Styles 3 or 1, trifid. Testa membranous. Leaves 

broad. Stem often twining or branching 

Fruit capsular. Embryo external, remote from 

the hilum. Flowers glumaceous, capitnte 



240. Orchide*:. 



239. 
236. 



Irideje. 

BuRMANNATEJE. 



243. Musaceje. 



235. Hypoxide^. 
238. Amaryllideje. 



237. 
250. 



245. 
246. 



H.KMODORACE.E. 
DlOSCOREJE. 



Melanthace*:. 

PONTEDEREjE. 



.252. PaLMJE. 



244. Junceje. 



Asphodeleje. 

GlLLIESIEvE. 




*** Sfadice^. 

Calyx and corolla absent, or imperfectly developed in the form of herba 



ceous scales, which are equal in size, and uniform in colour 
ber of scales usually 2 or 4.) 



(the inn, i 



257. Balanophore*:. 



Pandaneje. 



Ovarium inferior - 

Ovarium superior. 

Flowers on a spadix. 

Fruit consisting of fibrous drupes, collected in par- ) 
eels into many-celled pericarpia S 

Fruit simple, succulent or dry. 

Spadix iu a spatha. Anthers subsessilo, cordate. ) ^ An01DE ^_ 

Segments of the perianthium -sessile > 

Spadix naked, or nearly so. Anthers cuneatc. ^ 
Filaments long; lax. SegmeBts of perianthium ^255. Tvphace*. 
in the staminiferous flowers unguiculate 5 

Plowers on a rachis, or solitary. 
Leafy and caulescent. 

Ovules pendulous - 258. Ftuvi ai.es. 

Ovules erect - - - 259. Juncagine*. 

Leafless and stemleas 26 0- Pistiace*. 



INTRODUCTION lxXlX 



Tribe II.— GLUMACEiE. 

Flowers destitute of true calyx and corolla, but enveloped in imbricated 

br acted. 

Leaf sheaths entire. Embryo undivided, included within the t .,..., , ■____ . __ _, 

albumen. Stein angular S 

Leafsheaths slit. Embryo lenticular, on the outside of the al- ) 9 g. r; RAMINEjE 

bumen, with a naked plumula. Stem cylindrical J 



Class tt.— CELLULAEES. 

Neither stamens, pistils, flowers, nor spiral vessels. 

* FlLICOlDEiE. 

A distinct axis and vascular system. 

Reproductive organs in terminal cones - - 263. Equisetaceje. 

Reproductive organs dorsal, in theca; or naked - 264. Eilices. 

Reproductive organs in axillary theca; - - 265. Lycopodjace.e. 

Reproductive organs in theca; enclosed within indehiscent ) 2„6 Mahsileaceje 
involucra ----■-• y " 

** MuscOIDEjE. 

A distinct axis, but no vascular system. 

Theca closed by an operculum - - 267. Musci. 

Theca dehiscing without an operculum - 263. Hepatioe. 

Theca indehiscent, deciduous. Branches leafless and verticillate 269. CHAaACE.E. 

*** APHYLLiE. 

Neither distinct axis nor vascular system. 

Aerial; always growing exposed to the air. 

Sporules lying in superficial receptacles - 270. Lichenes. 

Sporules internal - - - - 271. Fungi. ' 

Aquatic ; always growing under water - - 272. AlgjE. 



THE 



NATURAL ORDERS OF PLANTS. 



Class I. VASCULARES, or FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Cotyledones, Juss. Gen. p. 70. (1789.) — Embryonat>e, Richard. Anal. p. 50. (1808.) — Vas- 
culares, Dec. Fl. Fr. 1. 68. (1815); Lindl. Synops. p. 3. (1829.)— Phanerogamous or 
Phjenogamous Plants of authors. 

• Essential Character. — Substance of the plant composed of cellular tissue, woody fibre, 
ducts, and spiral vesseb. Leaves composed of parenchyma, and of veins consisting of woody 
fibre and spiral vessels. Cuticle with stomata. Flowers consisting of floral envelopes, sta- 
mens, and pistilla. Seeds distinctly attached to a placenta, covered with a testa, and contain- 
ing an embryo with one or more cotyledons ; germinating at two fixed points, the plumula 
and radicle. 

The presence of flowers, of spiral vessels, and of cuticular stomata, will at 
all timesjiistinguish these from Cellulares, or flowerless plants, in which ducts 
sometimes exist, but which never have spiral vessels. Vasculares approach 
Cellulares by Podostemeae, some of which resemble Azolla in habit, by Flu- 
viales, which are near Algee, especially by Coniferae and Cycadese, which are 
closely akin to Lycopodiaceae and Filices, and also by Casuarina, which must, 
in any natural ordination, stand near Equisetaceae. Besides the more obvious 
points of difference just adverted to, Vasculares differ from Cellulares in their 
embryo ; not, however, in the number of the cotyledons, as is generally sup- 
posed in consequence of the common names of Dicotyledones, Monocot^le- 
dones, and Acotyledones, but in the germination of the seeds of the two former 
always taking place from two fixed points, and in the latter from no fixed point. 

Vasculares are divided into the sub-classes Exogenae or Dicotyledonous, and 
Endogence or Monocotyledonous plants. 

Sub-Class I. EXOGENAE, or DICOTYLEDONS. 

Dicotvledonef, Juss. Gen. 70. (1789) ; Desf. Mem. Inst. 1. 478. (1796.) — Exorhizeje and Sy- 
norhizeje, Rich. Anal. (1808.) — Dicotyledones or Exogenje, Dec. Theor. p. 209. 
(1813.) — PhanerocotyledonejE or SeminiferjE, Agardh. Aph. 74. (1821.) 

Essential Character.— Trunk more or less conical, consisting of three parts, one within 
the other ; viz. bark, wood, and pith, of which the wood is enclosed within the two others ; in- 
creasing by an annual deposit of new wood and cortical matter between the wood and bark. 
Leaves always articulated with the stem, often opposite, their veins branching and reticulated. 
Flowers, if with a distinct calyx, often having a quinary division. Embryo with two or more 
opposite cotyledons, which often become green and leaf-like after germination ; radicle naked, 
i. e. elongating into a root without penetrating any external case. 

Their reticulated leaves, distinctly articulated with the stem, usually distin- 
guish these plants from Endogense, from which they are also known by the 
following points : Exogenae have a distinct deposition of pith, wood, and bark ; 
Endogenae have all these confounded : Exogenae, if trees, are conical and 
branched (example, an Oak) ; Endogenae are cylindrical and simple-stemmed 

11 



2 

(example, a Palm). Besides which, the following characters, although far 
less absolute, deserve attention ; Exogenae in germination protrude their radicle 
at once ; while in Endogenae it is contained within the substance of the embryo, 
through which it ultimately bursts : Exogenae have two or more cotyledons ; 
Endogenae have but one. Exogenae approach Endogenae by Grasses and 
Asphodeleae, winch branch like themselves, and by Smilaceae and Aroideae, 
which have foliage resembling that of many Exogenae. The number of divi- 
sions of their flower is hardly ever ternary, but usually some multiple of two, 
or four, or five. In this country the trees and shrubs, and larger herbaceous 
plants, are nearly all Exogenous ; while our native Endogenee are chiefly con- 
fined to grasses, sedges, orchises, bulbs, and submerged water-plants. 

Exogenous plants have their seeds either enclosed in a pericarpium (Angio- 
spermce), or naked (Gymnospermce.) . 

TRIBE I. ANGIOSPERM^E. 

These comprehend all Exogenous plants, the seeds of which are enclosed 
within a pod, or shell, or coat proceeding from the ovarium ; in short, the 
whole of that sub-class, with the exception of Cycadece and Coniferae. They 
are all fecundated through the medium of a stigma and style ; while Gymno- 
spermae, having no stigma or style, have the vivifying influence of the pollen 
communicated directly to the seed through its foramen. The latter must not 
be confounded with the naked-seeded plants of Linnaeus, which all belong to 
Angiospermae, and winch are either minute fruits, or divisions of a compound 
pistillum : they are always known by the presence of a style and stigma. 

This tribe is divided into Polypetalous, Apetalous, Achlamydeous, and JVLono- 
pefalous plants ; of which the first three may be considered extremely artificial 
divisions if taken separately, but forming together a tolerably natural whole ; 
while the Monopetalous division is also, in a great measure, natural. I shall 
therefore treat of Exogenae under two heads only. 

1. POLYPETALOUS, APETALOUS, AND ACHLAMYDEOUS 

PLANTS. 

Polypetalous plants have both a calyx and corolla ; Apetalous plants have 
only a calyx, without a corolla ; and Achlamydeous ones have neither : but 
these distinctions are merely artificial, and even in that point of view very 
imperfect, — Polypetalous orders constantly containing Apetalous genera, and 
orders with the strictest natural affinity differing in the absence or presence of 
floral envelopes. Even Decandolle himself suggests (JWtmoire sur les Com- 
bretacies, p. 2), that it is doubtful whether the division of Monochlamydeae 
(which are the same as Apetalffi) is not entirely artificial. 

While, therefore, I have availed myself of these differences in framing the 
diagnoses, and forming the artificial table, I have, in the following detailed 
account of the orders, thrown the three divisions together, so that the mutual 
relations of the orders may be obscured as little as possible. In using the 
artificial tables, if an Apetalous plant cannot be referred to any order of Ape- 
talse, its place should be sought for among Polypetala?, to some order of which 
it will probably be found to be an exception : it is very little likely to belong to 
Monopetalae, the Apetalous genera of which are extremely rare. There arc 
no plants of Achlamydeoe with a calyx except some Betulinea?, the flowers of 
which have a membranous veinless covering, of the nature of a cahyx. 

These orders pass into Monopctake through Cn prifoliaceee, among which 
Hedera is nearly allied to Araliacea;, and through Salicariae which are very 
near Labiatae, Meliaccae which touch upon Styraceae, and Passifloreae which 
stand next to Cucurbitaceee. 



LIST OF THE ORDERS. 



1. Araliaceae. 

2. Umbelliferae. 

3. Ranunculaceae. 

4. Papaveracese. 

5. Nympheaceae. 

6. NelumbqneEe. 

7. Hydropeltideae. 

8. Podophyllete. 

9. Cruciferae. 

10. Fumariaceae. 

11. Capparideae. 

12. Flacourtianeae. 

13. Anonaceae. 

14. Myristiceae. 

15. Magnoliaceae. 

16. "Dilleniaceae. 

17. Wintereae. 

18. Calycantheae. 

19. Monimiete. 

20. Atherospernieae. 

21. Laurineae. 

22. Berberideap, 

23. Menispermeae. 

24. Malvaceae. 

25. Chlenaceae. 

26. Bombaceae. 

27. Sterculiaceae. 

28. Moringeae. 

29. Tiliaceae. 

30. Elaeocarpeae. 

31. Dipterocarpeffi. 

32. Ternstromiaceae. 

33. Lecythideae. 

34. Guttiferae. 

35. Marcgraaviacea?. 

36. Hypericineae. 

37. Reaumuriea?. 

38. Saxifragea;. 

39. Cunoniaceae. 

40. Baueraceae. 

41. Bruniaceae. 

42. Hamainelidea?. 

43. PhiladelpheaB. 

44. Escallonieae. 

45. Grossulacea?. 

46. Cacti. 

47. Onagrarias. 

48. Halorageaa. 

49. Circaaaceae. 

50. Ilydrocaryes. 

51. Loaseae. 

52. Salicariae. 

53. Rhizophoreae. 

54. Melastomaceae. 

55. Memecyleae. 



56. 

57. 

58. 

59. 

60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 



Myrtacese. 

Combretacese. 

Alangieae. 

Elaeagneae. 

Proteaceae. 

Penasaceae. 

Aristolochiae. 

Cytineae. 

Santalaceae. 

Thymelaeae. 

Hernandiese. 

Aquilarinere. 

Oiacineae/* 

Chailletiaceae. 

Homalineae. 

Samydeae. 

Sanguisorbeae. 

Rosacea?. 

Poinaceae. 

Amygdaleae. 

Chrysobalaneae. 

Leguminosae. 

Uticeae. 

Ulmaceae. 

Artocarpea?. 

Stilaginea?. 

Cupuliferae. 

Betulineae. 

Salicineae. 

Plataneae. 

Myriceae. 

Juglandeae. 

Euphorbiaceae. 

Resedaceaa. 

Datisceae. 

Empetreae. 

Stackhouseae. 

Celastrineae. 

Hippocrateacea:. 

Brexiaceae. 

Rhamneae. 

Staphyleaeese. 

Hippocastaneae. 

Rhizoboleae. 

Sapindacea?. 

Acerineae. 

Erythroxyleae. 

Malpighiaceae. 

Vites. 

Meliacea;. 

Cedreleae. 

Humiriaceae. 

Aurantiacea?. 

Spondiaceae. 

Connaraceae. 



111. Amyrideae. 

112. Burseraces?. 

113. Anacardiaceap. 

114. Xantho.\ylea\ 

115. Diosmea?. 

116. Rutaceae. 

117. Coriarieae. 

118. Ochnaceae. 

119. Zygophylleae. 

120. Siinarubaceo?. 

121. Pittosporeae. 

122. Geraniaceae. 

123. Oxalideae. 

124. Tropaeoleae. 

125. Ilydrocereae. 

126. Balsamineae. 

127. Vochyacea?. 

128. Tremandrese. 

129. Polygalese. 
180. Violaceae. 

131. Passifloreae. 

132. Maleshcrbiaceae. 

133. Tumeraceae. 

134. Cistineae. 

135. Bixineae. 

136. Sarracennieae. 

137. Droseraceae. 

138. Nepentheae. 

139. Lineae. 

140. Caryophylleae. 

141. Frankeniaceae. 

142. Tamariscineae. 

143. Elatineae. 

144. Portulaceas. 

145. Fouquieraceae. 

146. Galacineae. 

147. Crassulaceae. 

148. Ficoidea?. 

149. Nitrariaceos. 

150. Illecebrese. 

151. Amarantacere. 

152. Sclerantheee. 

153. Chenopodea^. 

154. Phytolaccea>. 

155. Petiveracea?. 

156. Polygonea?. 

157. Begoniacea 1 . 

158. Nyctaginca'. 

159. Saururece. 

160. Chloranthea?. 
101. Lacistemea?. 

162. Piperacea?. 

163. Podostemea?. 

164. Callitricl)inea\ 

165. Ccratophyllesei 



I. ARALIACE^E. The Aralia Tribe. 

Arali.2E, Juss. Gen. 217. (1789.) — Aealiaces, A. Richard in Dictionnaire Classique d'His- 
toire iXaturelle, 1. 506. (1822.) [Dec. prod. 4. 251. (1830.) J 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of several cells, pendulous solitary ovula 
leaves sheathing at the base, umbellate flowers, and embryo in the base of 
fleshy albumen. 

Anomalies. None. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, entire, or toothed. Petals definite, 5 or 6, decidu- 
ous, valvate in aestivation. Stamens definite, 5 or 6, or 10 or 12, arising- from within the bor- 
der of the calyx, and from without an epigynous disk. Ovarium inferior, with more cells 
than 2; ovula solitary, pendulous ; styles equal in number to the cells; stigmas simple. Fruit 
succulent, or dry, consisting of several 1-seedecl cells. Seeds solitary, pendulous ; albumen 
fleshy, having a minute embryo at the base, with its radicle pointing- to the hilum.— Trees, 
shrubs, or herbaceous plants, with, in all respects, the habit of Umbelliferse. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Umbelliferae solely by their many-celled 
fruit and more shrubby habit. Connected with Caprifoliaceffi through Hedera. 

Geography. China, India, North America, and the Tropics of the New 
World, are the chief abodes of the species of this small order. 

Properties. The Ginseng, which is the root of Panax quinquefolium, is 
much valued by the Chinese for its beneficial influence upon the nerves, and 
for other supposed properties. It is, however, discarded from European prac- 
tice. Ainslie, 1. 154. [Bigelow, 1. 82.] There appears to be no reasonable 
doubt that the Ginseng has really an invigorating and stimulant powerwhen 
fresh. The virtues that are ascribed to it by the Chinese, although perhaps 
imaginary to a great extent, are nevertheless founded upon a knowledge of its 
good effects : which, after the statements made by Father Jartoux, cannot rea- 
sonably be called in question. An aromatic gum resin is exuded by the bark 
of Aralia umbellifera, and others. 

Examples. Aralia, Gastonia, Panax. 



II. UMBELLIFERA. The Umbelliferous Tribe. 

U MBELLIFER.E, Juss. Gen. 218. (1789); Koch in N. Act. Bonn. 12. 73. (1824): Dec. and Duby 
p. 213. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 111. (1829) ; Dec. Memoire (1829.) [Prod. 4. 55. (1830.) ] 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with five perigynous stamens, con- 
crete carpella, an inferior didymous ovarium with two styles and solitary pen- 
dulous ovula, leaves sheathing at. the base, umbellate flowers, and a minute 
embryo in the base of fleshy albumen. 

Anomalies. Sometimes there are three carpella 

Essential Character.— Calyx superior, either entire or 5-toothed. Petals 5, inserted on 
the outside of a fleshy disk ; usually inflcxed at the point ; aestivation imbricate, rarely val- 
vate. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals, incurved in aestivation. Ovarium inferior, 2- 
cellcd, with solitary pendulous ovula: crowned by a double fleshy disk; styles 2, distinct; 
stigmata simple. Fruit consisting of 2 carpella, separable from a common axis, to which 
they adhere by their face (the commissure) ; each carpellum traversed by elevated ridges, of 
which 5 are primary, and 4, alternating with them, secondary; the ridges are separated by 
channels, below which arc often placed, in the substance of the pericarp, certain linear recep- 
tacles of coloured oily matter, called ritta. Seed pendulous, usually adhering inseparably to 
the pericarpiurn, rarely loose. ; embryo minute, at the base of abundant horny albumen ; radi- 
cle pointing to the hilum.— Herbaceous plants, with fistular furrowed stems. Leaves usually 
divided, sometimes simple, sheathing at the base. Flowers in umbels, white, pink, yellow, or 
blue, generally surrounded by an involucrum. 



5 

Affinities. It is unnecessary to insist upon the relation of this order and 
Araliacae, which scarcely differ. With Saxifrages it agrees in habit, if Hydro- 
cotyle is compared with Chrysosplenium, and if the sheathing and divided 
leaves of the two orders are considered. To Geraniaceae, Decandolle remarks 
that they are allied, in consequence of the cohesion of the carpella around a 
woody axis, and of the umbellate flowers which grow opposite the leaves, and 
also because the affinity of Geraniaceae to Vites, and of the latter to Araliacea, 
is not to be doubted. To me it appears, that the most certain affinity of Umbel- 
liferae is with Renunculacea?, with which they agree in habit, in properties, in 
the presence of a large quantity of albumen, of solitary seeds in the carpella, 
a minute embryo, and distinct styles ; and from which they differ in their infe- 
rior fruit and definite perigynous stamens, rather than in any thing else of real 
importance. The arrangement of this order has only within a few years ar- 
rived at any very definite state ; the characters upon which genera and tribes 
could be formed were for a long while unsettled : it is, however, now generally 
admitted, that the number and development of the ribs of the fruit, the pre- 
sence or absence of reservoirs of oil called vittae, and the form of the albumen, 
are the leading peculiarities which require to be attended to. Upon this sub- 
ject see Koch's Dissertation, Lagasca in the Otiosas Espanolas and Decan- 
dolle's JHemoire, — especially the last. I do not give the characters of the sub- 
orders or tribes, because they are rather to be considered artificial divisions than 
natural groups. 

Geography. Natives chiefly of the northern parts of the northern hemis- 
phere, inhabiting groves, thickets, plains, marshes, and waste places. Accord- 
ing to the investigation of M. Decandolle, the following is the proportion of 
the order found in different parts of the world : 

In the Old World . ... 663 ) f 

In America 159 f \ In the northern hemisphere 679 

In Australia 54 i \ In the southern ditto 205 

In scattered islands . . 14 ) ' 

Properties. The properties of this order require to be considered under 
two points of view : firstly, those of the vegetation ; and, secondly, those of the 
fructification. The character of the former is, generally speaking, suspicious, 
and often poisonous in a high degree ; as in the case of Hemlock, Fool's Pars- 
ley, and others, which are deadly poisons. Nevertheless, the stems of the Ce- 
lery, the leaves of the Parsley and Samphire, the roots of the Skirret, the Car- 
rot, the Parsnep, and the tubers of CEnanthe pimpinelloides and Bunium bulbo, 
castanum, are wholesome articles of food. The fruit, vulgarly called the seeds, 
is in no case dangerous, and is usually a warm and agreeable aromatic, as Cara- 
way, Coriander, Dill, Anise, &c. From the stem, when wounded, sometimes 
flows a stimulant, tonic, aromatic, gum resinous concretion, of much use in me- 
dicine ; as Opoponax, which is procured from Pastinaca opoponax in the Le- 
vant, and Assafoetida from the Ferula of that name in Persia. Gum ammoniac 
is supposed to be obtained from Heracleum gummiferum. It is a gum resin of 
a pale yellow colour, having a faint but no unpleasant odour, with a bitter, 
nauseous taste. Internally applied, it is a valuable deobstruent and expecto- 
rant. It is said by Dr. Paris to be, in combination with rhubarb, a useful me- 
dicine in mesenteric affections, by correcting viscid secretions. Ainslie, 1. 160. 
The substance called Galbanum is produced by some plant of this order, which 
is supposed to be what botanists call Bubon Galbanum. It is a stimu- 
lant of the intestinal canal and uterus, and is found to allay that nervous 
irritability which often accompanies hysteria. Ainslie, I. 143. /Ethusa 
Cynapium has been found by Professor Ficinus, of Dresden, to contain a pe- 
culiar alkali, which he calls Cynopia. Turner, 654 The fruit of Ligusti- 



6 

cum ajawain of Roxb. is prescribed in India in diseases of horses and cows. 
Jiinslie ) 1. 38. 

Examples. Chserophyllum, Pastinaca, Eryngium, Hydrocotyle, &c. 



III. RANUNCULACEiE. The Crow-Foot Tribe. 

Ranunculi, Juss. Gen. (1789.)— Ranunculaceje, Dec. Syst. 1. 127. (1818.) Prodr. 1. 2. 
(1824.) Landl. Synops. p.7. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, anthers 
bursting by longitudinal slits, several distinct simple carpella, exstipulate 
leaves sheathing at their base, solid albumen, and seeds without arillus. 

Anomalies. In Garidella and Nigella the carpeha cohere more or less. 
In Thalictrum, some species of Clematis, and some other genera, there are no 
petals. Pffionia has a persistent calyx. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-6, hypogynous, deciduous, generally imbricate in aesti- 
vation, occasionally valvate or duplicate. Petals 5-15, hypogynous, in one or more rows, 
distinct, sometimes deformed in correspondence with metamorphosis in the stamens. Sta- 
mens indefinite in number, hypogynous : antlicrs adnate, in the true genera turned outwards. 
Pistilla numerous, seated on a torus, 1-celled or united into a single many-celled pistillum ; 
ovarium one or more seeded, the ovula adhering to the inner edge ; style one to each ova- 
rium, short, simple. Fruit either consisting of dry nuts or caryopsides, or baccate with one 
or more seeds, or follicular with one or two valves. Seeds albuminous ; when solitary, either 
erect or pendulous. Embryo minute. Albumen corneous. — Herbs, or very rarely shrubs. 
Leaves alternate or opposite, generally divided, with the petiole dilated and forming a 
sheath half clasping the stem. Hairs, if any, simple. Inflorescence variable. 

Affinities. This is an order which has a strong affinity with many 
others, some of which are widely apart from each other. Its most imme- 
diate resemblance is with Dilleniaces, Magnoliacere, and their allies, to which 
it approaches in the position, number, and structure of its parts of fructifica- 
tion generally, differing however in an abundance of particulars ; as from 
Dilleniaceaj, in the want of arillus, deciduous calyx, and whole habit ; from 
Magnoliacea?, in the want of stipulee, and sensible qualities ; from Papavera- 
cese and Nymphaacea?, in the distinct, not concrete, carpella, watery, not 
milky, fluids, acrid, not narcotic, properties. More distant analogy may be 
traced with Rosacea, with which they agree in their numerous carpella, the 
number of their floral divisions and indefinite stamens ; but differ in those 
stamens being hypogynous instead of pcrigynous, in the presence of large 
albumen surrounding a minute embryo, want of stipulaj and acrid properties. 
With Umbelliferre they accord in the last particular, and also in their sheath- 
ing leaves, habit, and abundant albumen, with a minute embryo ; but those 
plants differ in their calyx being concrete with the ovarium, and in their 
stamens being invariably definite ; no doubt, however, can be entertained, 
that in any really natural arrangement Ranunculacea? and Umbelliferas 
should be placed near each other. Another analogy has been indicated 
by botanists between this order and Alismacere, with which it agrees in its 
numerous ovaria, and in habit ; but that order is monocolyledonous. A great 
peculiarity of Ranunculaceae consists in the strong tendency exhibited by 
many of the genera to produce their sepals, petals, and stamens, in a state 
different from that of other plants ; as, for example, in Delphinium, Aquile- 
gia, and Aconitum, in which they are furnishedwith a spur, and in Ranuncu- 
lus itself, which has a nectariferousgl and at the base of the petals. An in- 
stance is described of the polypetalous regular corolla of Clematis viticella 



being changed into a monopetalous irregular one, like that of Labiatae. Nov. 
Act. Acad. N. C. 14. p. 642. t. 37. 

Geography. The largest proportion of this order is found in Europe, 
which contains more than l-5th of the whole ; North America possesses about 
]-7th, India l-25th, South America l-17th ; very few are found in Africa, ex- 
cept upon the shores of the Mediterranean : eighteen species have, according 
to Decandolle, been discovered in New Holland. They characterize a cold, 
damp climate, and are, when met with in the Tropics, found inhabiting the 
sides and summits of lofty mountains : in the lowland of hot countries they are 
almost unknown. 

Properties. Acridity, causticity, and poison, are the general characters of 
tins suspicious order, which, however, contains species in which those qualities 
are so little developed as to be innoxious. The caustic principle is, according 
to Krapfen, as cited by Decandolle, of a very singular nature ; it is so volatile 
that, in most cases, simple drying, infusion in water, or boiling, are sufficient to 
dissipate it : it is neither acid nor alkaline : it is increased by acids, sugar, 
honey, wine, spirit, &c, and is only effectually destroyed by water. The 
leaves of Knowltonia vesicatoria are vised as vesicatories in Southern Africa. 
Ranunculus glacialis is a powerful sudorific ; Aconitum Napellus and Cam- 
marum are diuretic. The Hepatica, Aetata racemosa, and Delphinium conso- 
lida, are regarded as simple astringents. Dec. The roots of several Helle- 
bores are drastic purgatives ; those of the perennial Adonises are, according to 
Pallas, emmenagogues ; and those of the several Aconitums, especially Na- 
pellus and Cammarum, are acrid in a high degree. Ibid. The root of the 
Aconitum of India, one of the substances called Bikh, or Bish, is a most viru- 
lent poison. Trans. Med. and Phil. Soc. Calc. 2. 407. Authors are, how- 
ever, not well agreed what the precise plant is which produces this Bikh, al- 
though all agree in referring it Ranunculaceae. In India, it seems there are 
three principal kinds of Bish, varying from each other in their properties, but all 
belonging to a genus which Dr. Hamilton refers to Caltha. According to this 
author, the Bishma, or Bikhma, is a strong bitter, very powerful in the cure of 
fevers : the Bish, Bikh, or Kodoya Bikh, has a root possessing poisonous pro- 
perties of the most dreadful kind, whether taken into the stomach, or applied 
to wounds : the Nir Bishi, or Nirbikhi, has no deleterious properties, but is 
used in medicine. Brewster, 1. 250. For some important information on this 
Bikh, Vish, Visha, or Ativisha, which Dr. Wallich considers his Aconitum fe- 
rox, see Plant. As. Par. vol. 1. p. 33. tab. 41. The root of Pseony is acrid 
and bitter, but is said to possess antispasmodic properties. Ranunculus flam- 
mula and sceleratus are powerful epispastics, and are used as such in the Heb- 
rides, producing a blister in about an hour and a half. Their action is, how- 
ever, too violent, and the blisters are difficult to heal, being apt to pass into ir- 
ritable ulcers. Ed. Ph. J. 6. 156. Beggars use them for the purpose of 
forming artificial ulcers, and also the leaves of Clematis recta and flammula. 
From the seeds of Delphinium staphysagria, the chemical principle called Del 
phine was procured by MM. Lassaigne and Fenuelle ; it exists in union with 
oxalic acid. Ibid. 3. 305. The root of Hydrastis canadensis has a strong 
and somewhat narcotic smell, and is exceedingly bitter ; it is used in North 
America as a tonic, under the name of Yellow root. Barton, 2, 203. The 
root of Coptis trifolia, or Gold-thread, is a pure and powerful bitter, devoid of 
any thing like astringency ; it is a popular remedy in the United States for 
aphthous affections of the mouth in children. Ibid. 2. 100. The wood and 
bark of Xanthorhiza apiifolia are a very pure tonic bitter. The shrub contains 
both a gum and resin, each of which is intensely bitter. Ibid. 2. 203. The 
seeds of Nigella sativa were formerly employed instead of pepper ; those of 



s 

Delphinium Staphisagna are vermifugal and caustic ; those of Aquilegia are 
simply tonic. Dec. 

M. Decandolle makes the following division in this order : 

I. TRUE RANUNCULACEjE. 

Anthers bursting outwardly. 

§ 1. Clematide.^. 
Dec. Sijst. 1. 131. (1818); Prodr. 1.2. (1824.) 
JEstivation of the calyx valvate, or induplicate. Petals none, or plane 
Carpella indehiscent, 1-seeded, terminated by a bearded tail (which is the in 
durated style). Seed pendulous. Leaves opposite. 
Examples. Clematis, Naravelia. 

§ 2. AnemonejE. 

Dec. Syst. 1. 168. (1818); Prodr. 1. 10. (1824.) 

Aestivation of calyx and corolla imbricated. Petals none, or plane. Car- 
pella 1-seeded, indehiscent, usually terminated by a tail or point. .Seed pendu- 
lous. Leaves radical, or alternate. 

Examples. Anemone, Thalictrum. 

§ 3. RaNUNCULEjE. 

Dec. Syst. 1. 228. (1818) ; Prodr. 1. 25. (1824.) 

Aestivation of calyx and corrolla imbricated. Petals 2-lipped, or furnished 
with an interior scale at the base. Carpella 1-seeded, dry, indehiscent. .Seed 
erect. Leaves radical, or alternate. 

Examples. Ranunculus, Myosurus. 

§ 4. Hellebores. 

Dec. Syst. 1. 306. (1818) ; Prodr. 1. 44. (1824.) 

Aestivation of calyx and corolla imbricated. Petals either none, or irregu- 
lar, 2-lipped, and nectariferous. Calyx petaloid. Carpella capsular, dehiscent, 
many-seeded. 

Examples. Eranthis, Trollius, Aconitum. 

II. SPURIOUS RANUNCULACE^E. 

Anthers bursting inwardly. 

Examples. Acteea, Xanthorhiza, Pseonia. 



IV. PAPAVERACE^E. The Poppy Tribe. 

Papaveraceje, Juss. Gen. 236, (1789) in part; Dec. Syst. 2. 67. (1818) ; Prodr. 1. 117. (1824) ; 
Lindl. Synops. 16. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, con- 
crete carpella, a 1-celled ovarium, narrow parietal placenta^ 2 sepals, and a re- 
gular corolla. 

Anomalies. Bocconia has no petals, and a monospermous capsule. Hy- 
pecoum has the inner petals 3-lobed. Eschscholtzia has perigynous sta- 
mens. 

Essential Chabacter.— Sepals 2, deciduous. Petals hypogynous, either 4, or some mul- 
tiple of that number, placed in a cruciate manner. Stainens hypogynous, cither 8, or some 



multiple of 4, generally very numerous, inserted in 4 parcels, one of which adheres to the 
base of each petal ; anthers 2-celled, innate. Ovarium solitary; style short, or none ; stigmas 
alternate with the placentre, 2 or many ; in the latter case stellate upon the flat apex of the 
ovarium. Fruit 1-celled, either pod-shaped, with 2 parietal placentae, or capsular, with several 
placentre. Seeds numerous ; albumen between fleshy and oily ; embryo minute, straight at 
the base of the albumen, plano-convex cotyledons. — Herbaceous plants or shrubs, with a milky 
juice. Leaves alternate, more or less divided. Peduncles long, 1-fiowered ; Jlowers never 
blue. 

Affinities. The siliquose-fruited genera, such as Glaucium and Esch- 
scholtzia, indicate the near affinity of this order to Cruciferre, from which they 
differ in the want of a dissepiment to the fruit, in the stamens being indefinite, 
and in the presence of copious albumen. Through Papaver they approach Nym- 
phaeaceae, and through Sanguinaria Podophyllum, from all which they are dis- 
tisguished with facility. Their relationship to Fumariace* is more obscure, 
and is only to be understood by considering Cruciferae to be their connecting 
link. The anomalies in the order are of little importance, with the exception 
of Eschscholtzia, which has its stamens arising from the throat of a flatly 
campanula te calyx, instead of being hypogynous: this plant, however, may, in- 
stead of being an exception to the character, be considered as affording a proof 
that all is not calyx which intervenes between the base of the sepals and the 
base of the ovarium. I conceive that it would be more natural to understand 
the apparent base of the calyx of Eschscholtzia as a hollow apex of the pe- 
duncle ; but if this be admitted, it will become doubtful whether many sup- 
posed tubes of the calyx are not hollowed peduncles also ; as, for example, Caly- 
canthus, Rosa, Scleranthus, Margyricarpus, &c. I have already made some 
remarks upon this subject in the Introduction, which see. A comparison 
of the structure of Papaveracece and Cruciferre, by Mirbel, is to be found in the 
Ann. des Sc. 6. 266. o 

Geography. Europe, in all directions, is the principal seat of Papaveraceas, 
almost two-thirds of the whole order being found in it. Two species only are, 
according to Decandolle, peculiar to Siberia, three to China and Japan, one to 
the Cape of Good Hope, one to New Holland, and six to Tropical America. 
Several are found in North America, beyond the tropic ; and it is probable that 
the order will yet receive many additions from that region. Most of them are 
annuals. The perennials are chiefly natives of mountainous tracts. 

Properties. Every one knows what narcotic properties are possessed by 
the poppy, and this character prevails generally in the order. Their seed is 
universally oily, and in no degree narcotic. The oil obtained from the seeds of 
Papaver somniferum is found to be perfectly wholesome, and is, in fact, con- 
sumed on the continent in considerable quantity. It is also employed exten- 
sively for adulterating olive oil. Its use was at one time prohibited in France 
by decrees issued in compliance with popular clamour ; but it is now openly 
sold, the government and people having both grown wiser. See Ed. P. J. 2. 
17. Meconopsis napalensis, a Nipal plant, is described as being extremely poi- 
sonous, especially its roots. Don Prodr. 98. The Sanguinaria canadensis, 
or Puccoon, is emetic and purgative in large doses, and in smaller quantities is 
stimulant, diaphoretic, and expectorant. Barton, 1. 37. The seeds of Arge- 
mone mexicana are used in the West Indies as a substitute for ipecacuanha ; 
and the juice is considered by the native doctors of India as a valuable remedy 
in ophthalmia, dropt into the eye and over the tarsus ; also as a good applica- 
tion to chancres. It is purgative and deobstruent. Ainslie, 2. 43. The Bra- 
zilians administer the juice of their Cardo santo, Argemone mexicana, to per- 
sons or animals bitten by serpents, but, it would appear, without much success. 
Prince JVIax. Trav. 214. The narcotic principle of opium is an alkaline sub- 
stance, called Morphia. The same drug contains a peculiar acid, called the 

12 



10 

Meconic ; and a vegetable alkali, named Narcotine, to which the unpleasant 
stimulating properties are attributed by Magendie. Turner, 6. 47. 
Exajviples. Papaver, Chelidonium, Eschscholtzia. 



V. NYMPILEACEiE. The Water Lily Tribe. 

Nymphjeaceje, Salisbury, Ann. Bot. 2. p. r 69.r(1805) ; Dec. Propr. Med. ed. 2. p. 119. (1816) ; 
Syst. 2. 39. (1821) ; Propr. 1. 113. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 15. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, con- 
crete carpella, a many-celled ovarium, and ovula attached to the face of the 
dissepiments. 

Anomalies. None. 

Essential Character. — Sepals and petals numerous, imbricated, passing gradually into 
each other, the former persistent, the latter inserted upon the disk which surrounds the pistil- 
lum. Stamens numerous, inserted above the petals into the disk, sometimes forming-, with the 
combined petals, a superior monopetalous corolla ; filaments petaloid ; anthers adnate, burst- 
ing inwards by a double longitudinal cleft. Disk large, fleshy, surrounding the ovarium 
more or less. Ovarium polyspermous, many-celled, with the stigmata radiating from a common 
centre upon a sort of flat urceolate cap. Fruit many-celled, indehiscent. Seeds very nume- 
rous, attached to spongy dissepiments, and enveloped in a gelatinous arillus. Albumen farina- 
ceous. Embryo small, on the outside of the base of the albumen, enclosed in a membranous 
bag ; cotyledons foliaceous.— Herbs, with peltate or cordate fleshy leaves, arising from a pros- 
trate trunk, growing in quiet waters. 

Affinities. There exists a great diversity of opinion among botanists as 
to the real structure of this order, and, consequently, as to its affinities. This 
has arisep. chiefly from the anomalous nature of the embryo, which is not naked, 
as in most plants, but enclosed in a membranous sac or bag. By some, among 
whom was the late M. Richard, this sac or bag was considered a cotyledon, 
analogous to that of grasses, and enveloping the plumula ; and hence the order 
was referred to Endogense, or Monocotyledons, and placed in the vicinity of 
Hydrocharidese. By others, at the head of whom are Messrs. Mirbel and De- 
candolle, the sac is considered a membrane of a peculiar kind ; and what Rich- 
ard and his followers denominate plumula, is for them a 2-lobed embryo, where- 
fore they place the order in Exogenee, or Dicotyledons. I do not think it worth 
citing all the arguments that have been adduced on each side the question, 
as botanists seem now to be generally agreed upon referring Nymphsacese to 
Dicotyledons. I observe, however, that Dr. Von Martius adheres to the opinion 
that Nymphaeaceae are monocotyledonous, and nearly related to Hydrocharide*. 
See Hortus Regius Monaccnsis, p. 25. (1829.) Those who are curious to in- 
vestigate the subject are referred to M. Deeandolle's Memoir, in the first 
volume of the Transactions of the Physical and Natural History Society of 
Geneva. In this place it will be sufficient to advert briefly to the proof that is 
supposed to exist of their being Dicotyledons. In the first place, the structure 
of the stem is essentially that of Exogense. See Mirbel's examination of the 
anatomy of Nuphar luteum, in the Annates de Museum, vol. 16. p. 20 ; and of 
Nelumbium, the close affinity of which with Nymphreaeeee no one can possibly 
doubt, in the same work, vol. 13. t. 34. In both these plants the bundles of 
fibres are placed in concentric circles, the youngest of which are outermost ; 
but they all lie among a great quantity of cellular tissue : between each of 
these circles is interposed a number of air-cells, just as is found in Myriophyl- 
Ium and Hippuris, both undoubted Dicotyledons in the opinion of every body 
except Link, who refers the latter to Endogenae (see Geivachsk. 6. p. 288). 
Secondly, the leaves are those of Dioctyledons, and so is their convolute verna- 
tion, which is not known in Monocotyledons, and their insertion and distinct ar- 



11 

ticulation with the stem. Thirdly, the flowers of Nymphaeaceaj have eo great 
an analogy generally with Dicotyledons, and particularly with that of Magno- 
hace«, and their fruit with Papaveracere, that it is difficult to doubt their belong- 
ing to the same class. ^Fourthly, the reasons which have been offered for con 
sidering the embryo monocotjdedonous, however plausible they may have 
appeared while we were unacquainted with the true structure of the ovu- 
lum of plants, have no longer the importance that they were formerly supposed 
to possess. The sac, to which I.Jaave already alluded, to which so much unne- 
cessary value has been attached, and which was mistaken for a cotyledon by 
Richard, is no doubt analogous to the sac of Saururus and Piper, and is nothinr 
more than the remains of the innermost of the membranous coats of the ovulum, 
usually indeed absorbed, but in this and similar cases remaining and covering 
over the embryo. Mr. Brown {Appendix to King's Voyage) considers it the 
remains of the membrane of the amnios. M. Decandolle assigns a further 
reason for considering Nymphseaceee Dicotyledons, that they are lactescent, a 
property not known in Monocotyledons. But in this he is mistaken ; Limno- 
charis, a genus belonging to Butomeaa, is lactescent. Independently of the 
peculiarities to which I have now alluded, this order is remarkable in some 
other respects. It offers one of the best examples which can be adduced of 
the gradual passage of petals into stamens, and of sepals into petals : if atten- 
tively examined, the transition will be found so gradual that many intermediate 
bodies will be seen to be neither precisely petals nor stamens, but both in part. 
The development of the disk, which is so remarkable in Nelumboneae, takes 
place here in various degrees. In some, as in Nuphar, it is merely an hypogy- 
nous expansion, out of which grow the stamens and petals ; in others, as Nym- 
phaea, it elevates itself as high as the top of the ovarium, to the surface of 
which it is adnate, and as the stamens are carried up along with it, we have 
these organs apparantly proceeding from the surface of the ovarium : in another 
genus, the Barclaya of Dr. Wallich, the petals are also carried up with the 
stamens, on the outside of which they even cohere into a tube, so that in this 
genus we have a singular instance of an inferior calyx and a superior corolla in 
the same plant. Supposing this order to be exogenous and dicotyledonous, a 
fact about which there appears to me to be no doubt, its immediate affinity will 
be with Papaveraceae, with some genera of which it agrees in the very 
compound nature of the fruit, from the apex of which the sessile stigmas radiate, 
in the presence of narcotic principles and a milky secretion, and in the great 
breadth of the placentae. They are also closely akin to Magnoliaceae, with which 
they agree in the imbricated nature of the petals, sepals, and stamens; to 
Nelumboneae their close resemblance is evident ; with Ranunculaceae they 
are connected through the tribe of Preonies, with which they agree in the dilated 
state of the discus, which, in Pasonia papaveracea and Moutan, frequently rises 
as high as the top of the ovaria, and in the indefinite number of their hypogynous 
stamens ; but in Ranunculaceae the placentae only occupy the edge of each of 
the carpella of which the fruit is made up ; so that in Nigella, in which the 
carpella cohere in the centre, the seeds are attached to the axis, while in Nym- 
phaeaceae the placental occupy the whole surface of each side of the individual 
carpella of which the fruit is composed. But if such are the undoubted imme- 
diate affinities of Nymph aeaceaj, it is certain that some strong analogies exist 
between them and Hydrocharideae, to the vicinity of which they are referred 
by those who believe them to be Monocot_yledonous. Taking Nelumboneae 
for a transition order, they have some relation to Alismacere, the only monoco- 
.tyledonous order in which there is an indefinite number of carpella in each 
flower, and to FtydrocharideaB, with which they agree in the structure, though 
not the vernation, of their leaves, and their habit. An analogy of a similar 
nature with this last may be also traced between them and Menyantheae. 



12 

Geography Floating plants, inhabiting the whole of the northern hemi- 
sphere, occasionally met with at the southern point of Africa, but generally 
rare in the southern hemisphere, and entirely unknown on the continent of 
South America. 

Properties. The whole of this order has the reputation of being anti- 
aphrodisiac, sedative, and narcotic — properties not very clearly made out, but 
generally credited. Their stems are certainly bitter and astringent, for which rea- 
son they have been prescribed in dysentery. J^fter repeated washings they are 
capable of being used for food. Dec. — A. R. 

Examples. Nympheea, Nuphar. 



VI. NELUMBONE.E. 

Nymhhjeaces, § Nelumboneae, Dec. Syst. 2. 43. (1821) ; Prodr. 1. 113. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, distinct 
simple carpella immersed in a fleshy 'dilated torus, and floating leaves. 
Anomalies. None. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5. Petals numerous, oblong, in many rows, arising 
from without the base of the disk. Stamens numerous, arising from within the petals, in 
several rows ; filaments petaloid ; anthers adnate, bursting inwards by a double longitudinal 
cleft. Disk fleshy, elevated, excessively enlarged, enclosing in hollows of its eubstance the 
ovaria, which are numerous, separate, monospermous, with a simple style and stigma. Nuts 
numerous, half buried in the hollows of the disk, in which they are, however loose. Seeds 
solitary, or rarely 2 ; albumen none ; embryo large, with two fleshy cotyledons and a highly 
developed plumula, enclosed in its proper membrane. — Herbs, with peltate fleshy leaves arising 
from a prostrate trunk, growing in quiet waters. 

Affinities. Closely related to Nymphceacese, with which they were 
usually united. They differ entirely in the structure of their fruit, but agree in 
their foliage and flowers. The order consists of a single genus. See Nym- 
pheeaeeae. 

Geography. Natives of stagnant or quiet waters in the temperate and tro- 
pical regions of the northen hemisphere, both in the Old and the New World ; 
most abundant in the East Indies. They were formerly common in Egypt, but 
are now extinct in that country, according to Delile. 

Ppoperties. Chiefly remarkable for the beauty of the flowers. The fruit 
of Nelumbium speciosum is believed to have been the Egyptian bean of Py- 
thagoras. The nuts of all the species are eatable and wholesome. The root, 
or, more properly, the creeping stem, is used as food in China. 

Example. Nelumbium. 



VII. HYDROPELTIDE.E. 



Cabombe/e, Rich. Anal. Fr. (1808,)— Podophyllace*, § Hydropeltidea, Dec. Syst. 2. 36. 
(1821); Prodr. 1. 112.(1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, anthers 
bursting by longitudinal slits, several distinct simple carpella, exstipulate float- 
ing leaves not sheathing at the base, solid albumen, and seeds without arillus. 

Anomalies. None. 

Essential Character.— Sepals 3 or 4, coloured inside. Petals 3 or 4, alternate with the 
sepals. Stamens definite or indefinite, hypogynous, arising from an obscure torus; anthers 



13 

linear turned inwards, continuous with the filament. Ovaria 2 or more, terminated by a 
short style. Fruit indehiscent, tipped by the indurated style. Seeds definite, pendulous ; em- 
bryo fungilliform, seated at the base of firm, somewhat fleshy albumen. — Aquatic plants, with 
floating leaves. Flowers axillary, solitary, yellow or purple. 

Affinities. Their nearest relation is to Nymphamceae, from which they 
are known by their definite seeds and distinct carpella. From Podophylleae, 
to which they are united by Decandolle, they differ in their floating habit, de- 
finite seeds, and numerous ovaries. In the affinities of both these orders they 
otherwise partake. According to Richard, Cabomba in a monocotyledon : Hy- 
dropeltis is clearly related closely to Caltha. 

Geography. American water-plants, found from Cayenne to New Jersey. 
The whole order consists of but two species. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Hydropeltis, Cabomba. 



VIII. PODOPHYLLEAE 



Popophvllace* § Podophyllese Dec. Syst. 2. 32. (1821); Prodr. 1. 111. (1824); Von Mar- 
tius H. Reg. Monac .(1829) ; a sect, of Papaveracece. 

Diagnosis. Polypetaloug dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, anthers 
bursting by longitudinal slits, a solitary simple carpellum, extipulate leaves, 
solid albumen, and seeds without arillus. 

Anomalies. None. [In Jeffersonia, according to Dr. Hooker, the cells 
of the anthers are valvular.] 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3 or 4, deciduous or persistent. Petals in two or three rows 
each of which is equal in number to the sepals. Stamens hypogynous, 12-18, arranged in 
two, three, or more rows ; filaments filiform ; anthers linear or oval, terminal, turned inwards, 
bursting by a double longitudinal line. Torus not enlarged. Ovarium solitary ; stigma 
thick, nearly sessile, somewhat peltate. Fruit succulent or capsular, 1-celled. Seeds inde- 
finite, attached to a lateral placenta, sometimes having an arillus ; embryo small, at the basa 
of fleshy albumen.— Herbaceous plants. Leaves broad, lobed. Flowers radical, solitary, 
white. 

Affinities. Very nearly allied to the herbaceous genera of Berberidea?, 
from which they scarcely differ, except in the dehiscence of their anthers. 
From Papaveracece, to which they have been recently referred by Von Mar- 
tius, they are known by their watery, not milky, juice, by their solitary unilate- 
ral placentae, and by their fleshy, not oily, albumen. From Ranunculacea; 
they are divided, among other characters, by their anthers bursting inwardly ; 
in which, however, they agree with Decandolle's spurious genera, which that 
author suspects might be better even referred to Podophyllese. Hj^dropelti- 
deae, which are joined to them by that learned botanist, are here considered a 
distinct order. 

Geography. All inhabitants of the marshes of North America. 

Properties. The root of the May Apple, Podophyllum peltatum, is one 
of the most safe and active cathartics that is known, Barton, 2, 14. Jeffer- 
sonia is also purgative. Dec and. 

Examples. Podophyllum, Jeffersonia. 



14 
IX. CRUCIFER^E. The Cruciferous Tribe 

Crucifeb*. Juss. Gen. 237. (1789); Dec. Memoire sur les Cruciferes (no date) ; Syst.2. 139. 
(1821) ; Prodr. 131, (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 20. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous tetradynamous 
stamens. 

Anomalies. Schizopetalum has 4 cotyledons; sometimes the petals are 
abortive. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4, deciduous, cruciate. Petals 4, cruciate, alternate with 
the sepals. Stamens 6, of which two are shorter, solitary, and opposite the lateral sepals, oc- 
casionally toothed ; and four longer, in pairs, opposite the anterior and posterior sepals ; gene- 
rally distinct, sometimes connate, or furnished with a tooth on the inside. Disk with various 
green glands between the petals and the stamens and ovarium. Ovarium superior, unilocular, 
with parietal placentje usually meeting in the middle, and forming a spurious dissepiment. 
Stigmata two, opposite the placenta. Fruit a siliqua or silicula, 1 -celled, or spuriously 
2-celled ; 1- or many-seeded ; dehiscing by two valves separating from the replum ; or inde- 
hiscent. Seeds attached in a single row by a funiculus to each of the placentse, generally pen- 
dulous. Albumen none. Embryo with the radicle folded upon the cotyledons. — Herbaceous 
plants, annual, biennial, or perennial, very seldom suffruticose. Leaves alternate. Flowers 
usually yellow or white, seldom purple. 

Affinities. This order is among the most natural that are known, and its 
character of having what Linneean botanists call tetradynamous stamens is 
scarcely subject to exception. It has a near relation to Capparideee, Papave- 
raceee, and Fumariaceee. With Capparideee it agrees in the number of the 
stamens of some species of that order, in the fruit having two placentse and a 
similar mode of dehiscence, and in the quaternary number of the divisions of 
the flower. To Papaveraceee, it approaches in the number of the petals, an 
unusual number to prevail in dicotyledonous plants, and again in the structure 
of the fruit of some genera of that order, such as Glaucium and Chelidonium. 
With the siliquose-fruited Fumariacese it has much analogy, and even with 
the whole of that order in the number of its petals, supposing the common 
opinion of the nature of the floral envelopes of Fumariaceee to be correct, or 
in the binary division of its flower, from which the quaternary is only a slight 
deviation, upon the hypothesis I have suggested in speaking of that order. 

Cruciferee may be said to be characterized essentially by their deviation from 
the ordinary symmetry observable in the relative arrangement of the parts of 
fructification of other plants, — deviations which are of a very interesting na- 
ture. Their stamens are arranged thus : two stand opposite each of the ante- 
rior and posterior sepals, and one opposite each of the lateral sepals ; there 
being 6 stamens to 4 sepals, instead of either 4 or 8, as would be normal. 
Now in what way does this arise ? is the whorl of stamens to be considered 
double, one of the series belonging to the sepals, and one to the petals, and, of 
these, one imperfect 1 I am not aware of any such explanation having been 
offered, nor do I know of any better one. It appears to me that the outer series 
is incomplete, by the constant abortion of the stamens belonging to the anterior 
and posterior sepals. But it is in their fruit that their great peculiarity consists. 
I transcribe the following observations upon this subject from the Botanical 
Register, fol. 1168, in which I have entered in some detail into the inquiry. 

" It is well known, that in regularly-formed fruits the style or stigma univer- 
sally and necessarily alternates with the placenta, for reasons which it would 
be superfluous to insist upon in this place. But in Cruciferae the stigmata are 
opposite to the placenta?, terminating a sort of frame or replum, the two sides 
of which are often connected by a membranous septum, on the outside of 
which latter the ovula are arranged in a single row on each side ; so that in 



15 

many of the more highly developed plants of the order there are four placen- 
tae opposed to each other by pairs, and forming the inner edge of each side of 
the replum, which itself terminates in the stigmas. To this replum is attached 
on each side a deciduous plate, or valve as it is called, which has no vascular 
connection with either the replum, stigmata, or pedicel. In consequence of 
this singular arrangement of parts, it has been found extremely difficult to un- 
derstand the exact nature of the Cruciferous pist ilium, or to reduce it to the rules 
which are known to govern the formation of other compound pistilla. 

" According to Mr. Brown, and, after him, to M. Decandolle, the pistillum of 
Cruciferae is to be understood to consist of two confluent ovaria, united by their 
placenta?, two lamella? from each of which project into the cavity of the ova- 
rium, and, meeting in the centre, coalesce and form the septum. This, how- 
ever, does not remove the difficulty of the stigmata being opposite the placen- 
ta?, instead of alternate with them. I am not aware that any explanation of 
this point has been published by Mr. Brown ; but M. Decandolle {Thtorie EU- 
mtntaire, ed. 1. p. 133) accounts for it thus. He assumes that there are seve- 
ral kinds of simple pistilla, some of which are not to be found in an isolated 
state, but the possible existence of which he conceives to be demonstrated by 
certain compound pistilla, that cannot be reduced to their simplest state without 
the admision of such a position. Among these supposititious simple pistilla, 
is one called the Siliqnelle, ' which is formed originally of three pieces, the two 
lateral producing ovula on their inner surface, and the outer (intermediate) 
one bearing no ovula ; pistilla of this description make up the fruit of Nym- 
phaeaceae, Papaveraceae, and Cruciferae. When two pistilla of this kind are 
united by the external edge of their lateral pieces, they form those fruits which 
are said to have intervalvular placenta? ; each of these double placenta? is 
elongated into a style or stigma, simple in appearance, but in reality formed by 
two half styles grown together.' 

" To maintain this theory, it is necessary to assume, in the first place, the ex- 
istence of a simple pistillum, of structure not only entirely hypothetical, but op- 
posed to all we know of vegetable organization ; and, in the next place, that 
the stigmata of the order, although so simple in appearance that no trace what- 
ever of composition can be found in them, are, nevertheless, each composed of 
two half stigmata in a state of cohesion. 

" To us this explanation has always been unsatisfactory. It was difficult to 
believe that rules of structure, well ascertained to be uniform in other plants 
should be deviated from in Cruciferae, especially when the irregularity obser- 
vable in the arrangement of other parts of their flower was taken into account. 
It always appeared more probable, that the anomalous nature of the pistillum 
depended upon some irregularity corresponding to that of the stamens, than 
upon peculiar laws appertaining to Cruciferae alone. 

" This seems to be at length proved by Eschscholtzia, the fruit of which is 
so similar to that of Cruciferae, that the uniformity of the laws under which 
they are both formed is not likely to be disputed. In this plant the pistillum is 
unilocular, with four stigmata, of which the two opposite ones are smaller than 
the two others. Upon opening this pistillum we find that there are two parietal 
placentae corresponding with the smaller stigmata, and that there are no pla- 
centa? opposite the larger stigmata ; in other words, that it is formed of four 
simple pistilla, two of which are opposite and ovuliferous, with their placenta? 
in the usual place, alternating with themselves ; and two nearly abortive, des- 
titute of placenta?, consequently not ovuliferous, and so nearly suppressed by 
the superior energy of their two neighbours, that their existence would have 
been unknown but for the sigmata which indicate their presence. This is one 
way of understanding Eschscholtzia ; but as the ovula are not inserted in the 
placenta? in a double row, but rather confusedly arranged in several rows, it 



16 

may also be assumed that the lateral, imperfect, half-obliterated stigmata have 
a line of placentas, with ovula appertaining to themselves, but so confounded 
with the placenta? of their lateral and more powerful neighbours, that, in con- 
sequence of their close approximation, they cannot be distinguished. We, 
however, incline to the former of these two opinions. Let this be as it may, 
upon either supposition, the structure of Cruciferous pistilla is, we think, sus- 
ceptible of explanation. We shall for convenience, reason upon the former of 
the two hypotheses. 

" If we compare the fruit of Eschscholtzia and Cruciferas, we shall at first, 
perhaps, be led to believe that while they have a certain degree of resemblance 
in some points, they nevertheless differ widely in others of more importance : 
we find both of them with two opposite parietal placenta, connected with a 
quaternary arrangement of the other parts of the flower, and that in both in- 
stances their placentae are opposite to stigmata. But we also see that in Cru- 
ciferae dehiscence takes place by the separation of two valves from the sides of 
the siliqua, leaving the placentas undivided ; while in Eschscholtzia it takes 
place through each placenta, half of which, therefore, adheres to each edge of 
the two valves into which the fruit finally separates. But if we look into their 
structure a little more narrowly, we shall perhaps find that these differences 
are not only capable of reconciliation, but that they explain each other. 

" The fruit of Cruciferas is separable into four parts ; that is to say, into two 
valves without stigmata, and two double placentas without valves : in Esch- 
scholtzia there are two valves with placenta? and stigmata, and two stigmata 
without valves or placentas. But suppose that the two valves of Cruciferas had 
stigmata, as they should have (and a tendency to produce which actually ex- 
ists in Iberis umbellata), and that the two stigmata of Eschscholtzia had valves, 
as would be regular, what would then be the difference between the two 1 It 
would be reduced to nearly this : that in Eschscholtzia the two placentiferous 
pieces would occupy the greater part of the pericarpium, the two sterile valves 
being very small ; while in Cruciferas the two placentiferous pieces would be 
very small, the chief part of the pericarpium being occupied by the sterile 
valves." 

Such was the idea I was led, by the curious structure of Eschscholtzia, to 
entertain in 1828, upon the fruit of Cruciferas. I am aware that it is possible 
to explain the peculiar economy of the replum of Cruciferas by that of Carmi- 
chaelia, and that the line of dehiscence in fruit is no evidence of the plan upon 
which it has been constructed. I also know that a less paradoxical way of 
understanding the structure of the Siliqua, is to take two confluent carpella, 
each of which has a 2-lobed or 2-horned stigma, for the type of such a fruit ; 
upon which supposition each apparent stigma of the siliqua will be made up of 
two halves : and moreover I have been shown by Mr. Brown some instances 
of monstrous formation, which seem to confirm such an opinion. Neverthe- 
less, I wish to record, in this book, my view of the subject, whether it shall be 
ultimately found to be accurate or inaccurate, for the following reasons. In 
the first place, it will show young botanists how narrowly it is necessary for 
them to observe the structure of plants, and how indispensable it is to bear 
constantly in mind the analogies that exist between the formation of one plant 
and another ; in the second place, by pursuing the discussion, I hope to induce 
some one to set the question at rest, by means of such demonstration as it is 
capable of receiving ; and thirdly, I still retain my opinion, notwithstanding 
what I have seen and heard since it was formed ; relying chiefly upon the pe- 
cubarities of Eschscholtzia, which seems to me to be so intimtely connected 
with the question at issue, and so obviously formed upon the same plan as 
Cruciferas, whatever that plan may be, that what can be shown to be true of 
one must be true of the other. 



17 

Almost all Crucifene have the calyx imbricated in aestivation ; but Mr. 
Brown has noticed (Denkam, p. 7.) that in Savignya and Ricotia it is valvate. 

It is a very common character of Cruciferse to be destitute of bractece. 

Geography. An order eminently European ; 166 species arc found in 
northern and middle Europe, and 178 on the northern shore or islands of the 
Mediterranean ; 45 are peculiar to the coast of Africa, between Mogador and 
Alexandria; 184 to Syria, Asia Minor, Tauria, and Persia; 99 to Siberia ; 
35 to China, Japan, or India ; 16 to New Holland and the South Sea Islands ; 
6 to the Isle of France and the neighbouring islands ; 70 to the Cape of Good 
Hope ; 9 to the Canaries or Madeira ; 2 to St. Helena ; 2 to the West Indies ; 
41 to South America ; 48 to North America ; 5 to the islands between North 
America and Kamtchatka ; and 35 are common to various parts of the world. 
This being their general geographical distribution, it appears that, exclusive of 
species that are uncertain, or common to several different countries, about 100 
are found in the southern hemisphere, and about 800 in the northern, or 91 in 
the new, and the rest in the old world. Finally, if we consider them with le- 
gard to temperature, we shall find that there are, — 

In the frigid zone of the northern hemisphere 205 

In all the tropics (and chiefly in mountainous regions) 30 

In the temperate zone \ °j ^ £8S £»■**?■ ■ «g J 6M 

Such were the calculations of Decandolle in 1821 (Syst. 2. 142). Although 
requiring considerable modification, especially in the Siberian and North Ame- 
rican numbers, which are much too low, they serve to give a general idea of 
the manner in which the order is dispersed over the globe. 

Properties. The universal character of Crucifera? is to posses anti-scor- 
butic and stimulant qualities, combined with an acrid flavour. These are so 
uniform, that I shall only offer some very general remarks tipon them; for which 
I am chiefly indebted to Decandolle's Essai sur les Propriety's JVIedicales des 
Plantes, to which I refer those who wish for more information. Crucifera? con- 
tain a great deal of azote, to which it is supposed is due their animal odour 
when rotting. Mustard, Cress, Horseradish, and many others, are extremely 
stimulating and acrid. The seeds of Sinapis chinensis are considered by Hin- 
doo and Mahometan practitioners as stimulant, stomachic, and laxative. Jlins- 
lie, 1 . 230. The seeds of one species of Arabis (chinensis Iioltler) are pre- 
scribed by the Indian doctors as stomachic and gently stimulant ; but they 
apprehend its bringing on abortion if imprudently given. Ibid. 2. 12. When 
the acrid flavour is dispersed among an abundance of mucilage, various parts 
of these plants become a wholesome food ; such as the root of the Radish and 
the Turnip, the herbage of the Water-cress, the Cabbage, the Sea-kale, and 
the stems of various plants of the cabbage tribe. Prince Maximilian, of Wied 
Neuwied, relates that the Brazilian Indians use a kind of cress, which in taste 
resembles that of Europe, as a good remedy for asthma. Travels, 1. 35. 
Their seeds universally abound in a fixed oil, which is expressed from some 
species, as the Rape, for various economical purposes. 

Linnaeus divided this order, which is the same as his Tetfadynaihia, by the 
form of the fruit, under two heads, bearing the names of Siliquosa and Silicu- 
losa. More recently, divisions have been founded upon the nature of the pli- 
cature of the cotyledons, and the position of the radicle with respect to them. 
It is difficult to say what degree of importance really deserves to be attached 
to these characters, which are however in general use, and which will probably 
continue to be employed for the purpose of distinction. 

The following are the modifications used by Decandolle 

1. The cotyledons arc flat, with the radicle lying upon their edges. (Pleu- 
rorhizeee.) 

Examples. Cheiranthus, Arabis, Alyssum. 

13 



18 

2. The cotyledons arc flat, with the radicle lying upon their back. (JVolor- 
hize(B.) 

Examples. Sisymbrium, Erysimum, Lepidiuin. 

3. The cotyledons are folded lengthwise. (Ortlwploceee.) 
Examples. Brassica, Sinapis, Vella. 

4. The cotyledons are coiled up spirally. (Spirolobea.) 
Examples. Bunias, Erucaria. 

5. The cotyledons, instead of being coiled up spirally, or folded lengthwise, 
are bent double. (DiplecolobecB.) 

Examples. Heliophila, Subularia. 



X. FUMARIACEiE. The Fumitory Tribe. 

Fumariace^e, Dec. Syst. 2. 105. (1821.) ; Prodr. 1. 125. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 18. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with a definite number of hypogy- 
nous diadelphous stamens, concrete carpelia, a 1 -celled ovarium, narrow parie- 
tal placentae, 2 sepals, and an irregular corolla. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Sepals 2, deciduous. Petals 4, cruciate, parallel; the 2 outer, 
either one or both, saccate at the base; the 2 inner callous and coloured at the apex, where 
they cohere and enclose the anthers and stigma. Stamens 6, in two parcels, opposite the outer 
petals, very seldom all separate ; anthers membranous, the outer of each parcel 1-celled, the 
middle one 2-celled. Ovarium superior, 1-celled ; ovula horizontal ; style filiform ; stigma 
with two or more points. Fruit various; either an indehisccnt l-or2-seeded nut, or a 2- 
valved polyspermous pod. Seeds horizontal, shining', with an arillus. Albumen fleshy. Em- 
bryo minute, out of the axis ; in the indehiscent fruit straight; in those which dehisce some- 
what arcuate. — Herbaceous plants, with brittle stems and a watery juice. Leaves usually al- 
ternate, multifid, often with tendrils. Mowers purple, white, or yellow. 

Affinities. The following are M. Decanrlolle's remarks upon this subject 
(Syst. 2. 106.) : " Fumariacese are very near Papaveraceae, on account of their 
2-leaved deciduous calyx, of the structure of the fruit of such species as 
dehisce, and of their fleshy albumen ; but they differ, firstly, in then juice 
being watery, instead of milky ; secondly, in their petals being usually irregu- 
lar and in cohesion with each other ; thirdly, in their diadelphous stamens, 
which bear indifferently 1- and 2-celled anthers." The same learned writer 
also points out the affinity that exists between them and Cruciferae, which 
differ chiefly in the arrangement of their stamens, in the number of the leaves 
of the calyx, in their regular petals and exalbuminous seeds. I am, however, 
inclined to suspect, that the floral envelopes of Fumariaceae are not rightly de- 
scribed. I am by no means sure that it would not be more consonant to ana- 
logy to consider the parts of their flower divided upon a binary plan ; thus 
understanding the outer series of the supposed petals as calyx, and the inner 
only as petals ; while the parts now called sepals are perhaps more analogous 
to bracteae ; an idea which their arrangement, and the constant tendency of the 
outer series to become saccate at the base, which is not uncommon in the calyx 
of Crucifera?, but never happens, as far as I know, in their petals, would seem 
to confirm. Of this, some further evidence may be found in the stamens. 
These are combined in two parcels, one of which is opposite each of the divi 
sions of the outer series, and consists of one perfect 2-celled anther in the mid- 
dle and two lateral 1-celled ones : now, supposing the lateral 1-celled anthers 
of each parcel to belong to a common stamen, the filament of which is split 
by the separation of the two parcels, an hypothesis to which I do not think 
any objection can be entertained, we shall find that the number of stamens of 



19 

Fumariaceae is 4, one of which is before each of the divisions of the flower ; 
an arrangement which is precisely what we should expect to find in a nor- 
mal flower consisting of 2 sepals and 2 petals, and the reverse of what 
ought to occur if the divisions of the flower were really all petals, as has been 
hitherto believed. 

The economy of the fructification of Fumariaceae is remarkable. The 
stamens are in two parcels, the anthers of which are a little higher than the 
stigma ; the two middle ones of these anthers are turned outwards, and do not 
appear to be capable of communicating their pollen to the stigma ; the four 
lateral ones are also naturally turned outwards, but by a twist of their filament 
their face is presented to the stigma. They are all held firmly together by the 
cohesion of the tops of the flower, which, never unclosing, offer no apparent 
means of the pollen being disturbed so as to be shed upon the stigmatic surface. 
To remedy this inconvenience, the stigma is furnished with two blunt horns, 
one of which is inserted between and under the cells of the anthers of each par- 
cel, so that without any alteration of position on the part of either organ, the 
mere contraction of the valves of the anthers is sufficient to shed the pollen 
upon that spot where it is required to perform the office of fecundation. 

This order offers every gradation, from monospermous to polyspermous fruit, 
and between indehiscence, as in fumaria itself, and dehiscence, as in Corydalis. 

Geography. Their principal range is in the temperate latitudes of the 
northern hemisphere, where they inhabit thickets and waste places. Two are 
found at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Properties. The character of Fumariacere is, to be scentless, a little 
bitter, in no degree milky, and to act as diaphoretics and aperients. Dec. 
The root, of Fumaria cava and Corydalis tuberosa has been found to contain a 
peculiar alkali called Corydalin. Turner, 653. 

Examples. Fumaria, Diclytra, Corydalis. 



XI. CAPPAPJDE^E. The Caper Tribe. 

Capparide*, Jilss. Gen. 242. (1789) ; Ann. Mus. 18. 474. (1811) ; Dec. Proclr. 1. 237. (1824). 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, con- 
crete carpella, a 1-celled pedicellate, ovarium, narrow simple parietal placenta*, 
a continuous enlarged disk, reniform seeds. 

Anomalies. Some species of Niebuhria, Mserua, Boscia, Cadaba, and 
Thylacium, have no petals. The stamens are occasionally tetradynamous, 
according to Decandolle. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4, either nearly distinct, equal, or unequal, or cohering- in 
a tube, the limb of which is variable in form. Petals 4, cruciate, usually unguiculate and 
unequal. Stametis almost perigynous, very seldom tetradynamous, most frequently arranged 
in some high multiple of a quaternary number, definite or indefinite. Disk hemispherical, or 
elongated, often bearing glands. Ovarium stalked; style none, or filiform. Fruit either 
podshaped and dehiscent, or baccate, 1-celled, very rarely 1-seeded, most frequently with 2 
polyspermous placenta;. Seeds generally reniform, without albumen, but with the lining of 
the testa tumid, attached to the margin of the valves ; embryo incurved ; cotyledons fohaceous, 
Qattiah.— Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or even trees, without true stipula;, hut sometimes with 
spines in their place. Leaves alternate, stalked, undivided, or palmate. Flowers in no parti- 
cular arrangement. 

Affinites. Distinguished from Cruciferae by their stamens being often in- 
definite, if definite never tetradynamous, or scarcely ever, and by their reniform 
seeds. They are related to Passiflorere in their stipitate ovarium, and fleshy 
indehiscent fruit with parietal polyspermous placentae ; to Flacourtiaceae in the 



20 

structure of their fruit, parietal placentae, and indefinite stamens : from these 
last they are known by their narrow placentae, exalbuminous seeds, and pecu- 
liar habit ; and from the former by a number of obvious characters. Mr. 
Brown remarks, (Denham, 15,) that some species of Capparis, of which C. 
spinosa is an example, have as many as 8 placentae. 

Geography. These are chiefly found in the tropics and in the countries 
bordering upon them, where they abound in almost every direction. Of the 
capsular species, a single one, Cleome violacea, is found in Portugal ; another, 
Polanisia graveolens, occurs as far to the north as Canada ; and one or two 
others are met with in the southern provinces of the United States. Of the 
fleshy-fruited kinds, the common Caper, Capparis spinosa, a native of the 
most southern parts of Europe, is that which approaches the nearest to the 
north ; Africa abounds in them. 

Properties. M. Decandolle compares Capparideaj with Cruciferae in 
regard to their sensible qualites ; and they no doubt resemble each other in 
many respects ; for instance, the Capers are stimulant, antiscorbutic, and 
aperient ; the bark of the root of the Caper passes for a diuretic ; and several 
species of Cleome have a pungent taste, like that of mustard. The root of 
Cleome dodecandra is used as a vermifuge in the United States. Cleome 
icosandra acts as a vesicatory, and is used in Cochin China as a sinapism. 
Dancer states that the bark of the root of Crateva gynandra blisters like Can- 
tharides. Ainslie, 2. 88. But there is an exception to this in a plant called 
Fruta de Burro, which is found in the neighbourhood of Carthagena, the fruit 
of which is extremely poisonous. It is supposed to be a species of Capparis, 
nearly allied to theCapp. pulcherrima of Jacquin ; and must not be confounded 
with the Fruta del Burro of Humboldt, found in Guiana, which is a valuable 
medical plant, belonging to Anonacese. 

This order is divided into Cleome^e, or the genera wiih herbaceous stems 
and capsular fruit, and CapparejE, or true Capers, which have shrubby stems 
and fleshy fruit. 

Examples. Cleome, Capparis. 



XII. FLACOURTIACEjE. 

Flacourtiace*:, Richard in Mem. Mus. 1. 366. (1815 ;) Dec. Prodr. 1. 255. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, concrete 
carpella, and a 1 -celled ovarium, with parietal placentae branching all over the 
surface of the inside. 

Anomalies. Ryania, Patrisia, Flacourtia, Roumea, and Stigmarota, that 
is to say, more than half the .order, have no petals. 

Essential Character.— Sepals definite, from 4-7, cohering slightly at the base. Petals 
equal to the latter in number and alternate with them, seldom wanting 1 . Stamens hypogy- 
nous, of the same number as the petals, or twice as many, or some multiple of them, occa- 
sionally changed into nectariferous scales. Ovarium roundish, distinct, sessile or slightly 
talked ; .s/y/e either none or filiform; stigmas several, more or less distinct. Fruit 1-celled, 
either fleshy and indehiscent, or capsular, with 4 or 5 valves, the centre filled with a thin pulp. 
■SlvyAs few, thick, usually enveloped in a pellicle formed by the withered pulp, attached to the 
BUrface of (he valves in a branched manner, not in a line as in Violca: and Passiflorese ; 
albumen fleshy, somewhat oily; embryo straight in the axis, with the radicle turned to the 
hilum, and therefore usually superior; cotyledons flat, foliarcous.— Shrubs or small trees, 
leaves alternate, simple, on short stalks, without stipula;, usually entire, and coriaceous. 
Peduncles axillary, many-flowered. Flowers sometimes monoclinous. 

Affinities. The unilocular fruit, over the whole of the inside of which 
the placenta spread, is, according to Decandolle, sufficient to distinguish them 



21 

from all other Dicotyledons. They resemble the Capparidese with fleshy fruit 
in a number of particulars ; and M. Decandolle indicates an approach to Pas- 
sifloreae : this chiefly depends upon both orders having parietal placentae, and 
the presence of a series of barren stamina, analogous to the corona of Passi- 
floreoe. They have also some relation to Samydeee. 

Geography. Almost all natives of the hottest parts of the East and West 
Indies, and Africa. Two or three species are found at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and one or perhaps two in New Zealand. 

Properties. Nothing is known of their sensible qualities. The fruit of 
some of the Flacourtias is eatable and wholesome ; that of Hydnocarpus 
venenata is used in Ceylon for poisoning fish, which afterwards become so 
unwholesome as to be unfit for food. 

Decandolle has the following tribes (prodr. 1. 255.) ; 

1. Patrisieje. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, apelalous. Sepals 5, coloured inside, persistent. 
Stamens indefinite. Fruit capsular or berried. Dec. It is to be suspected 
that this tribe really belongs to Passifloreae, on account of its affinity to Smeath- 
mannia ; but their seeds are smooth, not pitted, and the placentae do not occupy 
lines, but are spread over the whole surface. Ibid. 

Examples. Ryanaea. Patrisia. 

2. Flacourtie;e. 

Flowers dioecious, apetalous. Stamens indefinite. Fruit baccate, inde- 
hiscent. Dec. 

Examples. Flacourtia, Roumea. 

3. Kiggelarie^;. 

Flowers dioecious, Petals 1 5, alternate with the sepals. Stamens definite. 
Fruit somewhat baccate, finally dehiscing. Dec. 
Examples. Kiggelaria, Melicytus. 

4. ErYTHROSPERME.SE. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Petals and stamens 5-7. Fruit indehiscent, some- 
what baccate. 

Example. Erythrospermum. 



XIII. ANONACEiE. The Custard Apple Tribe. 

Anonjb, Juss. Gen. 283. (1789.)— Anonace*, Rich. Anal. Fr. 17. (1808); Dunal Monogr. 
(1817); Dec. S'jst. 1. 462. (1818); Prodr. 1. 83. (1824.)— Glyptospermve, Vent. Tubl. 3. 
75.(1799). 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, anthers 
bursting by longitudinal slits, numerous distinct simple carpella, exstipulate 
leaves, and ruminated albumen. 

Anomalies. Monodora has a solitary carpellum. In Anona palustris the 
ovaria are not distinct. Rollinia has the petals united. Stamens and carpella 
definite in Bocagea. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-4, persistent, usually partially cohering. Petals 6, hypo- 
gynous, in two rows, coriaceous, with a valvular {estivation. Stamens indefinite, covering - a 
lare-e hypogynous torus, packed closely together, very rarely definite. Filaments short, more 
or les3 angular. Anthers adnate, turned outwards, with an enlarged 4-cornered connecti- 
vum, which is sometimes nectariferous. Ovaria usually numerous, closely packed, separate 
or cohering, occasionally definite. Styles short ; stigmata simple ; omda solitary, or a small 
number, erect or ascending. Fruit consisting of a number of carpella, which are either 
succulent or dry, sessile or stalked, 1- or many-seeded, distinct or concrete into a fleshy mass. 
Seeds attached to the suture in one or two rows; testa brittle ; embryo minute, in the base of 
hard, fleshy, ruminate albumen. -'Frees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, almost always 
entire, without stipube. Floicers usually green or brown, axillary, solitary, or 2 or 3 together, 
shorter than the leaves; the peduncles of abortive flowers sometimes indurated, enlarged, 
and hooked. 



2% 

Affinities, No doubt can be entertained of the close affinity of this order 
to Magnoliacere, from which, however, it differs in the want of stipulae, in the 
form of the anthers, and in the peculiar condition of the ovarium : agreeing in 
the ternary division of the parts of fructification, and their indefinite stamens 
and ovaria. An affinity has been pointed out between them and Menisper- 
meae ; but it appears to me to be very weak. The great feature of the order 
is tts ruminated albumen, to which there is no exception, and scarcely any 
parallel. The parietal insertion of ovula, ascribed to this order by Decandolle, 
is not universal. The ovula are erect in Anona, Guatteria, and Anaxagorea. 
A. St. H. in PI. Usu. 33. A remarkable plant is described by Mr. Brown, in 
the Appendix to Flinder's Voyage, under the name of Eupomatia laurina, in 
which the stamens are manifestly perigynous, and the tube of the calyx cohe- 
rent with the ovarium. This genus is referred by its learned discoverer to 
Anonacese, with which there can be no doubt that it has a very striking ana- 
logy ; but its structure is nevertheless so peculiar, that I hesitate, with M. De- 
candolle, in absolutely identifying it with Anonacere. I have remarked in 
Anona laurifolia that the pollen is arranged in two distinct rows in each cell of 
the anther, and that when that organ bursts, the grains of pollen fall out, 
cohering in a single row, so as to have the appearance, of a necklace. Sup- 
posing Wintereae not to be stipulate, as St. Hilaire asserts, this order will be 
more nearly related to them than to Magnoliaceae. Connected with Berbe- 
rideae through Bocagea. 

Geography. The tropics of the old and new world are the natural land 
of these plants : thence they spread, in a few instances, to the northward and 
the southward. 

Properties. The general character is, to have a powerful aromatic taste 
and smell in all the parts. The bark of Uvaria tripetaloidea yields, being 
tapped, a viscid matter, which hardens in the form of a fragrant gum. Dec. 
The flowers of many species, especially of Artabotrys odoratissima and 
Cananga virgata, are exceedingly fragrant. The dry fruits of many species 
are very aromatic ; those of Uvaria aromatica are the Piper rcthiopicum of the 
shops. Xylopia sericea, a large tree found in forests near Rio Janeiro, where 
it is called Pindaiba, bears a highly aromatic fruit, with the flavour of pepper, 
for which it may be advantageously substituted. Its bark is tough, and readily 
separated into fibres, from which excellent cordage is manufactured. Plantes 
Usuelles, no. 33. Of other species the fruit is succulent and eatable, contain- 
ing a sugary mucilage, which predominates over the slight aromatic flavour 
that they produce. Of this kind are the Custard Apples of the East and 
West Indies, the Cherimoyer of Peru, and others. In Asimina triloba an acid 
is present of a very active nature, according to Duhamcl ; but this is not cer- 
tain. The Anona sylvatica, called Aralicn do mato, in Brazil, has a light 
white wood, very fit for the use of turners, and for the same purposes as the 
lime-tree of Europe. Its fruit is described as good for the dessert. Plantes 
Usuelles, 29. The wood of the root of A. palustris is employed in Brazil for 
corks. lb. 30. The Indians on the Orinoco, particularly in Atures and May- 
pura, have an excellent febrifuge, called Frulta de Burro, which is the fruit of 
Uvaria febrifuga. Humboldt, Cinch. Forests, p. 22. Eng. ed. 

Examples. Anona, Unona, Guatteria. 



23 
XIV. MYRISTICEiE The Nutmeg Tribe. 

Myhistice*, R. Brown, Prodr. 399. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with dioecious flowers, a 3-lobed calyx, 
ruminated albumen, and columnar stamens. 
Anomalies. 

Essential CHARACTER.-i^/owcrs dioecious witli no trace of rudimentary organs. Calyx trifid, 
with valvular estivation. Stamens. Filaments completely united in a cylinder. Anthers 3-12, 
definite, 2-celled, turned outwards, and bursting longitudinally; either connate or distinct. 
Fertile fl. Calyx deciduous. Ovary superior, sessile, with a single erect ovulum ; style very 
short ; stigma somewhat lobed. Fruit baccate, dehiscent, 2-valved. Seed nut-like, enveloped 
in a many-parted arillus ; albumen ruminate between fatty and fleshy ; embryo small ; cotyle- 
dons foliaceous ; radicle inferior ; plumida conspicuous. — Tropical trees, often yielding a red 
juice. Leaves alternate, without stipule, not dotted, quite entire, stalked, coriaceous ; usually, 
when full grown, covered beneath with a closedown. Inflorescence axillary or terminal, in 
racemes, gtomerules, or panicles ; the Jlowers each with one short cucullate bractea. Calyx 
coriaceous, mostly downy outside, with the hairs sometimes stellate, smooth in the inside. — R. 
J3r. chiefly. 

Affinities. Usually placed, on account of their apetalous flowers, in the 
vicinity of Laurineae, from which they are distinguished by the structure of 
their -calyx, anthers, and fruit; perhaps more nearly allied to Anonaceae, on 
account of their 3-lobed calyx, — a remarkable peculiarity in Dicotyledons, — 
their ruminated albumen, minute embryo, and sensible properties. Mr. Brown 
places them between Proteaceee and Laurineae', remarking, that they are not 
closely akin to any other order. 

Geography. Natives exclusively of the tropics of India and America. 

Properties. The bark abounds in an acrid juice, which is viscid and stains 
red ; the rind of their fruit is caustic : the arillus and albumen, the former 
known under the name of Mace, and the latter of Nutmeg, are important aro- 
matics, abounding in a fixed oil of consistence analogous to fat, which, in a 
species called Virola sebifera, is so conspicuous as to be extracted easily by im- 
mersing the seeds in hot water. The common Nutmeg is the produce of 
Myristica moschata ; but an aromatic fruit is also borne by other species. 
The Nutmeg of Santa Fe is the Myristica Otoba. Humb. Chinch. For. p. 29. 
Ettg. ed. 

Examples. Myristica, Knema. 



XV. MAGNOLIACEiE. The Magnolia tribe. 

Magnolije, Juss. Gen. 280.(1780); Magnoliace^, Dec. Syst. 1. 439. (1818); Prodi: I. 77. 

(1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, anthers 
bursting by longitudinal slits, numerous distinct simple carpella, and stipulate 
leaves without transparent dots. 

Anomalies. The flowers of Mayna are dioecious. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-6, deciduous. Petals 3-27, hypogynous, in several rows. 
Stamens indefinite, distinct, hypogynous. Anthers adnate, long. Or aria numerous, simple, 
arranged upon the torus above the stamens, 1-ccllcd; orides either ascending or suspended; 
style short; stigma simple. Fruit cither dry or succulent, consisting of numerous carpella, 
which are either dehiscent or indehisccnt, distinct or partially connate, always numerous, and 
arranged upon an elongated axis, sometimes terminated by a membranous wing. Seeds soli- 
tary, or several, attached to the inner edge of the carpella. Embryo minute, at the base of 
fleshy albumen.— Fine frees or shurbs. Leaves alternate, not dotted, coriaceous, articulated 



24 

distinctly with the stem ; with deciduous stipulse, which, when young, arc rolled together like 
those of Ficus. Flowers large, solitary, often strongly odoriferous. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Dilleniaceas, from which they are chiefly 
distinguished by the ternary, not quinary, arrangement of the parts of the 
flower ; from Anonacea:, to which they also approach, their stipulae and solid 
albumen separate them. Their stipulation points out their affinity with Urti- 
ceee ; their imbricate petals and sepals, and numerous ovaria, with Calycan- 
theffi, and through them with Monimieae. 

Geography. The focus of this order is undoubtedly North American, 
where the woods, the swamps, and the sides of the hills, abound with them. 
Thence they straggle, on the one hand, into the West India Islands, and, on 
the other, into India, through China and Japan. Mr. Brown remarks (Congo, 
465), that no species have been found on the continent of Africa, or in any of 
the adjoining islands. Twenty-eight species are all that M. Decandolle enu- 
merates. 

Properties. The general character of the order is, to have a bitter tonic 
taste, and fragrant flowers. The latter produce a decided action upon the 
nerves, which, according to Decandolle, induces sickness and headach from 
Magnolia tripetala, and, on the authority of Barton, is so stimulating on the 
part of Magnolia glauca as to produce paroxysms of fever, and even an 
attack of inflammatory gout. The bark has been found to be destitute of tan- 
nin and gallic acid, notwithstanding its intense bitterness. The bark of the 
root of Magnolia glauca is an important tonic. Barton, 1. 77. [Bigclow, 2. 67.] 
The same property is found in the Lirioden/hon tulipifera, which has even been 
said to be equal to Peruvian bark. [Barton, 7. 92. Bigelow, 2. 107.] Mi 
chelia Doltsopa is one of the finest trees in Nipal, yielding an excellent fra- 
grant wood, much used in that country for house-building. Don. Proclr. 226. 
Magnolia excelsa has a valuable timber, called Champ, at first greenish, but 
soon changing into a pale yellow ; the texture is fine. Wallich. Tent. 7. The 
cones of Magnolia acuminata yield, in Virginia, a spirituous tincture, which is 
employed with some success in rheumatic affections ; and the seeds of most 
species are remarkable for their bitterness : those of M. Yulan are employed in 
China as febrifuges, under the name of Tsin-y. Dec. No Magnoliaceee are 
aromatic. 

Examples. Magnolia, Liriodendron. 



XVI. DILLEN1ACE/E. 

Djlleniaceje, Dec. St/at. 1. 395. (1818) ; Prodi: 1. G7. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, anthers 
bursting with longitudinal slits, distinct simple carpella, exstipulate leaves, solid 
albumen, and arillate seeds. 

Anomalies. In several genera of the section Delimaceae there is but one 
carpellum ; and in Dillenia and Colbcrtia the carpella partly cohere. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, 2 exterior, 3 interior. Petals 5, deciduous, 
hypogynous, in a single row. Stamens indefinite, hypogynoufl, arising' from a torus, either 
distinct or polyadalphous, and either placed regularly around the pistilluin or on one side ol it. 
Filaments dilated either at the base or apex. Anthers adnate, 2-celled, usually bursting longi- 
tudinally, always turned inwards. Ovaria definite, more or less distinct, with a terminal style 
and simple stigma ; ovules ascending. Fruit consisting cither of from 2 to 1 5 distinct unilocu- 
lar carpella, or of a similar number cohering together ; the carpella cither baccate or 2-valved, 
pointed by the style. Seeds fixed in a double row to the inner edge of the carpella, either 
several or only 2, occasionally solitary by abortion ; surrounded by a pulpy arillus. Testa 



25 

hard. Embryo minute, lying - in the base of fleshy albumen. — Trees, shrub.':, or imdcr-shrubs. 
Leaves usually alternate, almost always without stipuke, very seldom opposite, most commonly 
coriaceous!, with strong - veins running straight from t ho mid rib to the margin, entire or toothed, 
often separating from the base of the petiole, which remains adhering to the stein. Flowers 
solitary, in terminal racemes or panicles, often yellow. 

Affinities. These are nearly akin to Ma gnoliacea?, from which they are 
distinguished by their want of stipulae and quinary arrangement of the parts 
of fructification ; and to Ranunculacea?, from which their persistent calyx, sta- 
mens, and whole habit, divide them. They are universally characterized by 
the presence of arillus ; a peculiarity which certainly exists in Hibertia, not- 
withstanding M. Decandolle's definition of that genus. The most genuine 
form of the order is known by the veins of the leaves running straight from 
the midrib to the margin. 

Geography. According to Decandolle, 50 of this order arc found in Aus- 
tralasia, 21 in India and its neighbourhood, 3 in equinoctial Africa, and 21 in 
equinoctial America ; but since the publication of the Sy3lema several have 
been added, both to the Indian and South American species. 

Properties. Dilleniaceae are generally astringent. The Brazilians make 
use of a decoction of Da villa rugosa in swellings of the legs and other parts, very 
common maladies in hot and humid parts of South America. PI. Usuelles, no. 
22. Da villa elliptica is also astringent, and furnishes the vulnerary called 
Cambdibinha in Brazil. Ibid. 23. In Curatella Cambai'ba the same astrin- 
gent principle recommends its decoction as an excellent wash for wounds. Ibid. 
24. The young calyces of Dillenia scabrella and speciosa have a pleasantly 
acid taste, and are used in curries by the inhabitants of Chittagong and Ben- 
gal. Wallich. Almost all Delimaceee have the leaves covered with asperi- 
ties which are sometimes so hard that the leaves are even used for polishing. 

Two tribes are distinguished in this family : 

1. § Delimaceee. 

§ Delimacere. Dec. Sijst. 1. 396. (1818) ; Prodr. 1. 67. (1824.) 
Filaments filaform, dilated at the apex, and bearing on each side a round dis- 
tinct cell of the anther. Ovaria from 1 to 5. Styles filiform, acute. Carpella 
capsular, bladdery, or baccate, usually 1 or 2-seeded. — Trees or shrubs, Which 
sometimes twine. Dec. 

Examples. Tetracera, Delima. 

2. § DlLLENEiE. 

Dilleneaj. Salis. Parad. Lond. n. 73. (1806) ; § Dec. Sijst. 1. 411. (1818) ; 
Prodr. 1.70. (1824.) 

Filaments not dilated at the apex, anthers elongate, adnatc. Ovaria usually 
from 2 to 5, distinct, rarely solitary ; or from 5 to 20, partially connate. — Trees 
or shrubs, very seldom twining. Dec. Floioers often fragrant or foetid. 

Examples. Dillenia, Hibbertia. 



XVII. WINTERED. The Winter's Bark Tribe. 

Winteue*, R. Brown in Dccand. S>/s(. 1. 548. (1818.)— Illicie^e Dec. Prodr. 1. 77. (1S24.) a 

section of Magnoliacea;. 
14 



26 

Diagnosis. Polypytalous aromatic dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, 
anthers bursting by longitudinal slits, distinct simple carpella, and stipulate 
leaves with transparent clots. 

Anomalies. The flowers of Tasmannia are dioecious or polygamous, and 
the carpella solitary. 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoclinous or declinous. Sepals 2-6, sometimes not 
distinguishable from the petals, either deciduous or persistent. Petals 2-30, in several rows 
when more than 5. Stamens short, indefinite, hypogynous, distinct. Anthers adnate. Ova- 
ria definite, arranged in a single whorl, 1 -celled, with several suspended ovules, which are at- 
tached to the suture. Stigmata simple, sessile. Fruit either dry or succulent, consisting of 
a single row of carpella, which are cither dehiscent or indehiscent, and distinct. Seeds solitary 
or several, with or without arillus. Embryo very small, straight, in the base of fleshy albu- 
men — Shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate, dotted, coriaceous, persistent, with convolute 
deciduous stipulre. Flowers solitary, often brown or chocolate colour, and sweet-scented. 

Affinities. Closely related to Magnoliacese, from which they differ chiefly 
in their dotted leaves and aromatic qualities. They are also closely allied to 
Calycanthese, from which their hypogynous stamens, alternate stipulate leaves 
and albuminous seeds, sufficiently distinguish them. They also partake of 
the affinities of Magnoliacess, with Anonacese, &c. According to St. Hilaire, 
the supposed stipulee of Wintereee are only imperfectly developed leaves which 
enfold the buds. PI. Usuelles, no. 26 — 28. But what are stipules except 
starved leaves ? The same author remarks, that Bonpland considered the em- 
bryo as destitute of albumen, which was, however, a mistake, it being undoubt- 
edly as it is here described. For several good remarks upon Drimys, see the 
PI. Usuelles as quoted. 

Geography. A very small order, with an extensive range. Of the 10 
species enumerated by Decandolle, 2 are found in New Holland, 2 in the hot- 
ter parts of America, 2 in the southern and 2 in the northern territories of the 
same continent, 1 in China and Japan, and 1 in New Zealand. 

Ppoperties. All that writers have stated about the aromatic stimulant 
properties of Magnoliacese should be applied to this order, formerly confounded 
with them. The seeds of Illicium anisatum are considered in India to be 
powerfully stomachic and carminative. A very fragrant volatile oil is also ob- 
tained from them. Ainslie, 2. 20. The Chinese burn them in their temples, 
and Europeans employ them to aromatize certain liquors, such as the Anisette 
de Bordeaux. Dryrnis Winteri yields the Winter's Bark, which is known for 
its resemblance to that of cinnamon. A. R. A bark called Melambo 
Bark, possessing similar properties, is described by M. Cadet in the Journal de 
Phannacie, 1815, p. 20. The bark of Drimys granatensis, called Casca 
(TJlnla in Brazil, is much used against colic. It is conic, aromatic, and stimu- 
lant, and resembles, in nearly all respects, the Drimys Winteri, or Winter's 
Bark. Planles Usuelles, 26 — 28. 

Examples. Illicium, Wintera. 



XVIII. CALYCANTHESE. The Carolina Allspice Tribe. 

Calycantheje, Lindl. in But. Reg.fol. 404 (1819); Dec. Prodi: 3. 1. (1828.)— Calycan- 
thinje, Link. Enum. 2. u(i. (1822.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
numerous imbricated sepals, ovaria enclosed in a fleshy tube, convolute albu- 
men, anthers turned outwards, opposite exstipulate leaves, and stems with 5 
axes of growth. 

Anomalies. 



27 

Essestial Character.— Sepals and petals confounded, indefinite, imbricated, combined 
in a fleshy tube. Stamens indefinite, inserted in a fleshy rim at the mouth of the tube, the 
inner sterile. Anthers adnate, turned outwards. Ovaries several, simple, 1-celled, with one 
terminal style, adhering 1 to the inside of the tube of the calyx ; ovula solitary, or sometimes 
2, of which one is abortive, ascending-. Nltta enclosed in the fleshy tube of the calyx, 1- 
seeded, indehiscent. Seed ascending ; albumen none ; cotyledons convolute, with their face 
next the axis ; radicle inferior. — Shrubs, with square stems, having 4 woody imperfect axes 
surrounding the central ordinary one. Leaves opposite, simple, scabrous, without stipula?. 
Flawers axillary, solitary. 

Affinities. It is not very clear to what order this is most nearly related. 
Jussieu originally placed it at the end of Rosacea; (Gen.) ; he subsequently 
referred it to Monimieae ; and I afterwards formed it into a particular family. 
With Monimieae it is less nearly related than it appears to be, the principal 
points of resemblance being the disposition of several nuts within a fleshy 
calyx in both orders ; for Calycantheae can scarcely be considered apetalous, 
as Monimieae are, on account of the obvious petals of Chimonanthus. The 
imbricated sepals, in Calycanthus chocolate-coloured and becoming confounded 
with the petals, the fragrance of the flowers, and the plurality of ovaria, seem 
to indicate an affinity with Wintered, especially with Illicium ; but the de- 
cidedly perigynous stamens and fleshy calyx enclosing the ovaria in its tube, 
the highly developed embryo, and want of albumen, are great objections to 
such an approximation. Combretaceae agree in having an exalbuminous em- 
bryo with convolute cotyledons ; but with this their resemblance ceases. Myr- 
taceae also agree in this same particular, in the case of Punica ; and their 
opposite leaves, without stipulae, frequent fragrance, and perigynous stamens, 
strengthen the affinity indicated by the embryo. Rosaceae, to which Jussieu 
originally referred Calycanthus, agree in the perigynous insertion of their 
stamens, in the peculiar structure of their calyx, the tube of which in Rosa is 
entirely analogous to that of Calycantheas, in the superposition of their ovules 
when two are present, and in the high developement of their exalbuminous 
embryo : upon the whole, therefore, no order appears to have so much affinity 
with Calycantheae as Rosacea? ; and the sagacity of Jussieu, in originally 
referring Calycanthus to that order, is completely confirmed by the discovery 
recently made by the Rev. Mr. Lowe, that the cotyledons of Chamaemeles, a 
genus of Pomaceaa, which Jussieu includes in Rosacea?, are convolute. This, 
I think, fixes the station of Calycantheae in the neighbourhood of Rosacere, 
Pomaceae, and Myrtaceaa, to which it is nearly equally allied, and from which 
it is distinguished by its imbricated sepals, and anthers, partly fertile and partly 
sterile, being turned outwards. This order is also characterized by the singular 
structure of the wood, a peculiarity originally remarked by Mirbel in one 
species, and which I have since ascertained to exist in all. In the stems of 
these plants there is the usual deposit of concentric circles of wood around the 
pith, and, in addition, four very imperfect centres of deposition on the outside 
next the bark ; a most singular structure, which may be called, without much 
inaccuracy, an instance of exogenous and endogenous growth combined in the 
same individual. A good figure of this interesting fact has been given by 
Mirbel in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles, vol. 14. p. 367. 

Geography. Natives of North America and Japan. 

Properties. The aromatic fragrance of the flowers is their only known 
quality. 

Examples. Calycanthus, Chimonanthus. 



28 



XIX. MONIMIEiE. 

Monimieje, Juss. in Ann. Mus. 14. 130. (1809); Dec. Ess. Med. 265. (1816.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite pendulous ovula, nume- 
rous distinct ovaria, and anthers bursting longitudinally. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Mowers diclinous. Calyx tubular, toothed or lobed at the apex, 
with valvular aestivation. Stamens indefinite, covering all the inside of the calyx ; anthers 
2-celled, bursting 1 longitudinally. Oraria several, superior, distinct, enclosed within the tube 
of the calyx, each with its own style and stigma; ovule pendulous. Fruit consisting of 
several 1-seeded nuts, enclosed within the enlarged calyx. Seed pendulous ; embryo in the 
midst of an abundant albumen ; radicle superior.— Trees or shrubs, without aroma. Leaves 
opposite, without stipulse. Hairs stellate. Flowers axillary, in short racemes. 

Affinities. Allied to Urticea?, from which they differ in the presence of 
several ovaria within each calyx, in their pendulous ovula, in the radicle being 
turned towards the hilum, and in the presence of abundant albumen ; also to 
Laurinese, from which they particularly differ in the dehiscence of their 
anthers, and in the number of their ovaria ; and to Atherospermese, which 
agree in sensible qualities, and in the number of their ovaria, but which differ 
in the dehiscence of the anthers, and in the erect position of the ovules. With 
Calycanthere they have also a good deal of relation. Mr. Brown considers 
that what is here called a calyx is more properly an involucrum. Flin- 
ders, 553. 

Geography. All natives of South America. 

Properties. All the parts of the bark and leaves exhale an aromatic 
odour, which is compared by travellers to that of Laurels or Myrtles. Decand. 

Examples. Monimia, Ruizia. 



XX. ATHEROSPERMEiE. 

Atherosperme.e, R. Brown in Flinders, 553. (1814.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous aromatic dicotyledons, with definite erect ovula, 
and anthers bursting by recurved valves. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers diclinous or monoclinous. Calyx tubular, divided at 
the top into several segments, usually placed in two rows, the inner of which is partly peta- 
loid ; to these are superadded some scales in the pistilliferous and perfect flowers. Stamens 
in the sterile ones very numerous in the bottom of the calyx, with scales among them ; in the 
monoclinous fewer, and arising from the orifice of the calyx; anthers adnate, 2-cclled, burst- 
ing with a valve which separates from the base to the apex. Ovaria more than one, usually 
indefinite, each with a single erect ovulum ; styles simple, arising cither from the side or the 
base ; stigmas simple. Nuts terminated by the persistent styles become feathery, enclosed in 
the enlarged tube of the calyx. Seed solitary, erect; embryo short, erect, at the base of soft, 
fleshy albumen ; radicle inferior. — Trees. Leaves opposite, without Btipulse. Flcwers axil- 
lary, solitary. 

Affinities. The anthers of this order are the same as those of Laminae 
and Berberidea 1 , from the latter of which they differ entirely, but with the 
former of which they agree in their aromatic odour. The order is nearly re- 
lated to Monimerp, with which it is even combined by Jussieu ; but it differs in 
the position of the ovula, and in the structure of the anihers. 

Geography. Natives of New Holland and South America. Only two 
genera are known. 

Properties. Aromatic shrubs. 

Exa3IPLes. Pavonia, Atherosperma. 



2*> 



XXI. LAURINE/E. The Cinnamon Tribe. 

Lauri, Juss. Gen. 80. (1789); Laurineas, Vent. Tab!. (1799); 7?. Brmcn Prodr. 401. (1810). 

Diagnosis. Apetalous aromatic dicotyledons, with definite suspended 
ovules, and anthers bursting by recurved valves. 

Anomalies. Cassytha is aphyllous and parasitical. 

Essential Character.— Calyx 4-6-cleft, with imbricated aestivation, the limb sometimes 
obsolete. Stamens definite, perigynous, opposite the segments of the calyx, and usually twice 
as numerous •• the 3 innermost, which are opposite the 3 inner segments of the calyx sterile or 
deficient; the 6 outermost scarcely ever abortive; anthers adnate, 2-4-celled ; the cells burst- 
ing by a longitudinal persistent valve from the base to the apex; the outer anthers valved 
inwards, the inner valved outwards. (Hands usually present at the base of the inner fila- 
ments. Ovarium single, superior, with a single pendulous ovulum ; style simple ; stigma 
obtuse. Fruit baccate or drupaceous, naked or covered. Seed without albumen; embryo 
inverted ; cotyledons large, plano-convex, peltate near the base !; radicle very short, included, 
superior ; plumula conspicuous, 2-leaved.— Trees, often of great size. Leaves without stipu- 
le, alternate, seldom opposite, entire or very rarely lobed. lvjloresccnce panicled or umbelled. 
Sometimes leafless twining under shrubs or parasitical herbs, with spiked flowers, each having 
3 bractcre. JR. Br. 

Affinities. Distinguished from all apetalous dicotyledons, except Athe- 
rospermeae, by the peculiar dehiscence of their anthers, and divided from that 
order by the ovulum being pendulous, not erect. In sensible qualities they 
resemble Myristiceae, which are at once known by their diclinous flowers and 
columnar stamens. The genus Cassytha, a parasitical leafless plant, is 
remarkable for differing from the order in nothing whatever, except its very pe- 
culiar habit. 

Geography. Trees inhabiting the tropics of either hemisphere ; in a very 
few instances only, straggling to the northward in North America and Eu- 
rope. No genus is known to exist in any part of the continent of Africa, ex- 
cept the paradoxical Cassytha. This is the more remarkable, as several spe- 
cies of Laurus have been found both in Teneriffe and Madeira, and some other 
genera exist in Madagascar, and in the Isles of France and Bourbon. Broum, 
Congo, 464. 

Properties. It would be difficult to name another order at once so impor- 
tant and uniform in its qualities as this, the species being universally aro- 
matic, warm, and stomachic. Cinnamon and Cassia are the produce of various 
species ; the most genuine are yielded by Laurus Cinnamomum and L. 
Cassia ; but L. Culilaban and Malabathrum can both be substituted for these 
spices : the Cinnamon of the Isle of France is Laurus cupularis, that of Peru 
is L. duixos. The Cinnamon of Santa Fe is produced by Laurus Cinnamo- 
moides. Humb. Cinch. For. 27. Eng. ed. The Sassafras nuts of the London 
shops are the fruit of the Laurus Pucheri of the Flora Peruviana. Ibid. 
Camphor is yielded by Laurus Camphora and other species ; even by the 
Cinnamon tree itself. The properties of all these are due to the presence of a 
volatile oil ; but they also contain in many cases a fixed oil, which is supposed 
to constitute the principal part of the fruit of Persea gratissima, so much 
esteemed in the West Indies under the name of the Avocado Pear ; the same 
oil appears in the form of a greasy exudation in the fruit of Litsea sebifera. 
A species of Laurus in Sumatra, called by Dr. Jack, Parthenoxylon, yields an 
oil useful in rheumatic affections ; and an infusion of the roots is drank as sas- 
safras, the qualities of which it resembles. Ed. P. J. 6. 398. The bark of 
Laurus Benzoin is highly aromatic, stimulant, and tonic, and is extensively 
used in North America in intermittent fevers. The oil of the fruit is said to be 
stimulant. Barton, 2. 95. A plant of this family found in the forests of Spa- 
nish Guiana yields a volatile oil, with a warm and pungent taste and aromatic 
smell. It is employed externally as a discutient, and internally as a diapho- 



30 

retic, diuretic, and resolvent. Ed. P. J. 12. 417. The volatile oil obtained 
from some species of Laurus found in vast forests between the Oronoko and 
the Parime, is produced in great abundance by merely making an incision into 
the bark with an axe as deep as the liber. It gushes out in such quantity, 
that several quarts may be obtained by a single incision. It has the reputation 
of being a powerful discutient. For further information, see Brewster 's Jour- 
nal 1. 134. In addition to these qualities, there is present in some species an 
acrid, red, or violet juice, like that found in Myristiceae ; it is particularly 
abundant in L. parvifolia, globosa, fcetens, and caustica. 

Examples. Laurus, Cinnamomum, Tetranthus, Cassytha. 



XXII. BERBERIDE^E. The Berberry Tribe. 

Behberide2e. Vent. Tabl. 3. 83. (1799) ; Dec. Syst. 2. 1. (1821); Prodr. 1. 105. (1824); Lindl. 

Synops. 14. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens equal 
in number to the petals and opposite them, anthers opening by recurved valves, 
and a single simple carpellum. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-4-6, deciduous, in a double row, surrounded externally 
by petaloid scales. Petals hypogynous, either equal to the sepals in number, and opposite to 
them, or twice as many, generally with an appendage at the base in the inside. Stamens 
equal in number to the petals, and opposite to them ; anthers generally with two separated 
cells, opening elastically with a valve from the bottom to the top. Ovarium solitary, 1-cellcd ; 
style rather lateral ; stigma orbicular. Fruit berried or capsular. Seeds attached to the 
bottom of the cell on one side, 1, 2, or 3 ; albumen between fleshy and corneous ; embryo 
straight in the axis; cotyledons flat. — Shrubs or herbaceous perennial plants, for the most part 
smooth. Leaves alternate, compound, without stipulce. 

Affinities. Botanists appear of one opinion in considering Menispermeae 
the nearest order to this, agreeing in having the stamens opposite the petals, 
the floral envelopes regularly imbricated, 3 or 4 in each row, never 5, the fruit 
usually baccate, and fleshy albumen. These, however, differ in their habit, 
the separation of the sexes in distinct flowers, and the presence of several dis- 
tinct carpella, while in Berberidere there is never more than one, which is per- 
fectly simple, as is demonstrated by the position of the placentae, the single 
style, &c. With Podophyllea? they are connected through Leontice and 
Diphylleia, which have a near relation to Jeffersonia and Podophyllum itself. 
In the singular structure of their anthers there is a striking analogy with Lau- 
rinere, Atherospermea3, and Hamameliderc, orders not otherwise akin to Ber- 
beridese. Leontice thalictroides offers one of the few instances of seeds being 
absolutely naked, that is to say, not covered by any integument originating in 
the pericarpium. In this plant the ovarium is ruptured in an early state by 
the expansion of the ovulum, which, having been impregnated, continues to 
grow, and ultimately arrives at maturity, although deprived of its pericarpial 
covering. The spines of the common Berberry are a curious state of leaf, in 
which the parenchyma is displaced, and the ribs have become indurated. 
Thoy, as well as all the simple leaves of ordinary appearance, are articulated 
with the petiole, and are therefore compound leaves reduced to a single foliole ; 
whence the supposed genus Mahonia does not differ essentially from Berberis 
in foliage any more than in fructification. Berberidcaa are related to Anona- 
ceo3 through the genus Bocagea ; their ovarium is generally like that of Ano- 
nacea;. Aug. St. llilaire remarks, that the opposition of the stamens to the 
petals, and the erect ovules, place them in alliance with Vitcs. Fl. Braz. 1.. 



31 

47. [Achlys, which doubtless belongs to this Order, was placed by Decan 
dolle, with a mark of doubt, among the Podophyllcre. He having taken, as 
Dr. Hooker thinks, (Flora Boreali Amer. 1. 30.) for petals, what must have 
been stamens, from which the anthers had fallen.] 

Geography. Natives chiefly of mountainous places in the temperate parts 
of the northern hemisphere. Some have, however, been found in South 
America as far as the Straits of Magellan ; none in Africa, Australasia, or in 
the South Sea islands. Dec. There are several species of Berberry in Chile. 

Properties. The berries of Berberis vulgaris and other species are acid 
and astringent, and form with sugar an agreeable refreshing preserve. Their 
acid is the oxalic. The stem and bark of the Berberry are excessively astrin- 
gent, and are employed for that reason by dyers. Dec. The root yields a 
yellow dye. A. Rich. 

Examples. Berberis, Leontice, Achlys. 



XXIII. MENISPERMEiE. The Cocculus Tribe. 

MENisrERMEiE, Juss. Gen. 284. (1789); Dec. S>jst. 1. 508. (1818.)— Menispermaceje, 
Dec. Prodr. 1. 95. (1S24.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens oppo- 
site the petals, distinct simple carpella, minute diclinous flowers, and twining 
shrubby stems. 

Anomalies. In Agdestis, a doubtful genus of the order, the flowers are 
hermaphrodite. Cissampelos, Stauntonia, Pselium, and Schizandra, have no 
petals in their male flowers. Schizandra is scarcely a twiner. 

Essential Character. — Flowers (by abortion 1) diclinous, usually dioecious and very 
small. Sepals and -petals confounded, in one or several rows, each of which is composed of 
either 3 or 4 parts, hypogynous, deciduous. Stamens monadelphous, or occasionally distinct, 
sometimes opposite the petals and equal to them in number, sometimes 3 or 4 times as many. 
Anthers adnate, turned outwards or proceeding immediately from the point of the filament. 
Ovaries sometimes numerous, each with one style, cohering; slightly at the base, sometimes 
completely soldered together into a many-celled body, which is occasionally in consequence 
of abortion 1-celled. Drupes usually berried, 1-seeded, oblique or lunate, compressed. Seed 
of the same shape as the fruit ; embryo curved, or turned in the direction of the circumfer- 
ence; albumen wanting, or in very small quantity ; cotyledons flat, sometimes lying face to 
face, sometimes distant from each other and lying in separate cells of the seed ; radicle 
superior, but its position is sometimes obscured by the curvature of the seed. — S/irubs, with 
a flexible tough tissue, and sarmentaceous habit. Leaves alternate, entire or occasionally 
divided, mucronate. Flowers small, usually racemose. 

Affinities. The relation that is borne by these plants to Berberideae has 
been pointed out under that order : some Anonaces agree with them in having 
a twining habit, and the whole resemble them in the ternary division of their 
flowers ; they are, however, abundantly distinct : M. Decandolle points out a 
resemblance with Sterculiaceas, consisting in the monadelphous stamens and 
peltate leaves ; but it is of little moment. The ternary and quaternary arrange- 
ment of the flowers is very remarkable among Dicotyledons. According to 
Aug. St. Hilaire, this order is related to Euphorbiaceaj through Phyllanthus, 
the male flowers of which are in certain species absolutely the same as those 
of Cissampelos. It also approaches Malvaceae by those genera which, like 
Caperonia, have stipulate leaves, and distinct caducous petals separated from 
the calyx by the gynophore. Fl. Braz. 59. The position of the seed is 
altered materially from that of the ovulum in the progress of the growth of 
the fruit. According to Aug. St. Hilaire, the ovulum of Cissampelos is 
attached to the middle of the side of a straight ovarium, which after fecunda- 



32 

tion gradually incurves its apex until the style touches the base of the peri- 
carp, when the two surfaces being thus brought into contact unite, and a drupe 
is formed, the seed of which is curved like a horse-shoe, and the cavity of 
which is divided by a spurious incomplete dissepiment, consisting of two plates : 
the attachment of the seed is at the top of the false dissepiment, on each side 
of which it extends equally. PL Usuelles, no. 35. The whole order requires 
careful revision by means of living plants, and is well worth the especial at- 
tention of some Indian botanist. 

Geography. The whole of this order consists of fewer than a hundred 
species, which are common in the tropics of Asia and America, but uncommon 
out of those latitudes : all Africa contains but 5, North America 6, and Siberia 
1. The species are universally found in woods, twining round other plants. 

Properties. The root of several species is bitter and tonic, and the seeds 
of some of them narcotic. The root of Menispermum palmatum Lam. or 
the Columbo root, is esteemed highly on account of its powerful antiseptic, 
tonic, and astringent properties. See Bot. JVfag. fol. 2970. Menispermum 
cordifolium of Willd., called Gulancha in Bengal, is used extensively in a 
variety of diseases by the native practitioners of India, especially in such as 
are attended by febrile symptoms not of a high inflammatory kind, and in 
fevers of debility . the parts used are the root, stems, and leaves, from which a 
decoction called Pdchana is prepared. A sort of extract called Palo is obtained 
from the stem, and is considered an excellent remedy in urinary affections and 
gonorrhoea. Trans. M. $ P. Soc. Calc. 3. 298. Cocculus platyphyila is 
used by the Brazilians in intermittent fevers and liver complaints. Its pro- 
perties, like those of Cocculus cinerescens, are highly esteemed, and appear 
to be due to the presence of a bitter and tonic principle. In the seed of Coc- 
culus suberosus the bitter crystallizable poisonous principle has been detected, 
called picrotoxia. PL Usuelles, 42. The roots of the Orelha de Onca of 
Brazil, Cissampelos ovalifolia, are bitter, and their decoction is employed with 
success in intermittent fevers. Ibid. no. 34. Cissampelos ebracteata, also 
called Orelha de Onca, is reputed an antidote to the bite of serpents. lb. no. 
35. The root of Cissampelos pareira and Abuta amara is both diuretic and 
aperient, and known under the name of Pareira brava. Dec. The Abuta 
candicans of Cayenne, where it is known by the name of Liane amere, is 
extremely bitter. Ibid. The drug called in the shops Cocculus indicus is 
the seed of Menispermum Cocculus, and is well known for its narcotic pro- 
perties, especially in poisoning fishes. Nevertheless, according to Decandolle, 
the berries of Menispermum edule Lam. are eaten with impunity in Egypt ; 
but they are acrid, and a very intoxicating liquor is obtained from them by 
distillation. The bitter poisonous principle of Cocculus indicus is the above- 
mentioned vegetable alkali, picrotoxia. It has been supposed that a peculiar 
acid, called the menispermic, also existed in the same plant ; but this is now 
known to have been merely a mixture of sulphuric and oxalic acids. Turner, 
653. 

Examples. Cocculus, Menispermum, Cissampelos. 



XXIV. MALVACE^. The Mallow Tribe. 

Malvace*, Juss. Gen. 271. (1789) in part.; Brown in Voi/. to Congo, p. 8. (1818); Kuntk 
Diss. p. 1. (1822); Dec. Prodr. 1. 429. (1824); Lindl. Synops.pAO. (1829); Malvace*, 
§ Malvea;, Aug. St. Hit. Ft. Bras. mer. 1. 173. (1827.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous raonadelphous 
stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells, uud the placentae in 



33 

the axis, a calyx with valvate aestivation, 1 -celled anthers bursting longitudi- 
nally, no disk, crumpled cotyledons, and alternate stipulate leaves with stellate 
pubescence. 

Anomalies. In Malope the carpella are numerous, and distinct, not 
arranged in a single row, as in the rest of the order. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, very seldom 3 or 4, more or lesa united at the base, 
with a valvate aestivation, often bearing external bracteae forming' an involucrum. Petals of 
the same number as the sepals, hypogynous, with a twisted aestivation, either distinct or 
adhering to the tube of the stamens. Stameiis usually indefinite, sometimes of the same 
number as the petals, hypogynous; filaments monadelphous ; anthers 1-celled, reniform, 
bursting transversely. Ovarium formed by the union of several carpella round a common 
axis, either distinct or coherant ; styles the same number as the carpella, cither united or dis- 
tinct; Stigmata vrriable. fruit either capsular or baccate, its carpella being either mono- 
spermous or polyspermous, sometimes united in one, sometimes separate or separable ; dehis- 
cence either loculicidal or septicidal. Seeds sometimes hairy ; albumen none, or in small 
quantity ; embryo curved, with twisted and doubled cotyledons. — Herbaceous plants, trees, or 
shrubs. Leaves alternate, more or less divided, stipulate. Hairs stellate. Peduncles usually 
axillary. 

Affinities. The relation of Malvaceae with Sterculiacere, Tiliace*, Bom- 
bacese, and Eloeocarpeae, is clearly indicated by their general accordance in 
structure, and especially by the valvate aestivation of their calyx. With other 
orders they also agree in numerous points ; as, with Ranunculaceee in the 
indefinite stamens and distinct aggregated carpella of Malope ; with Tern- 
stromiaceae in their monadelphous stamens ; with Chlenaceae in the presence 
of an involucrum below the flower, and monadelphous stamens ; with Linear 
in their mucilaginous properties, definite seeds, many-celled fruit, and un- 
guiculate petals ; and through the medium of this last order with Caryo- 
phylleee. 

Geography. These plants are found in great abundance in the tropics, 
plentifully in the hotter parts of temperate regions, but gradually diminishing 
to the north. Thus in Sicily they form - 8 V of the flowering plants (Presl), in 
France T £ T (Humboldt), in Sweden ^ (Wtihl), in Lapland unknown, in the 
temperate parts of North America T ^, in the equinoctial parts of the same 
continent T ' 7 ; or, taking into account only the vegetation of the valleys, they, 
according to Humboldt, form ^V of the flowering plants in the tropics, j{ 7 in 
the temperate zone, and are not found in the frigid zone. But these calcula- 
tions no doubt include at least Bombaceea and Sterculiacese. 

Properties. The uniform character is to abound in mucilage, and to be 
totally destitute of all unwholesome qualities. The use to which Mallows 
and Marsh-mallows are applied in Europe is well known. Similar properties 
are possessed by extra-European species. Sida cordifolia mixed with rice is 
used to alleviate the bloody flux. Emollient fomentations are prepared from 
Sida mauritiana by the Hindoo doctors. Ainslie, 1. 205. The flowers of 
Benqao de Deos, Abutilon esculentum, are used in Brazil as a boiled vege- 
table. PI. Usuelles, 51. A decoction of Sphaaralcea Cisplatina is adminis- 
tered in the same country in inflammations of the bowels, and is generally 
employed for the same purposes as the Marsh-mallow in Europe. lb. 52. 
Pavonia diuretica is prescribed in Brazil as a diuretic ; it is supposed to act 
rather as an emollient. Ibid. 53. The wood is always very light, and of 
little value. Rocket-sticks are obtained from the light straight stems of Sida 
micrantha. Ibid. 49. The chewed leaves of another species, S. carpinifolia, 
are applied in Brazil to the punctures of wasps. lb. 50. The bark is often 
so tenacious as to be manufactured into cordage. Malva crispa was found by 
Cavanilles to be fit for this purpose ; and several species of Hibiscus are 
employed in like manner in tropical countries. From the fibres of the bark of 
Hibiscus arboreus the whips are manufactured with which the negro slaves 

15 



34 

are lashed in the West India Islands. The plant is called Mohoe or Mohaut, 
Hamilt. Prodr. 49. The petals of. some are astringent; this property exists 
in Malva Alcea {Dec.) and in Hibiscus Rosa sinensis, of which the Chinese 
make use to blacken their eyebrows and the leather of their shoes. lb. The 
leaves of Althea rosea are said to yield a blue colouring matter not inferior to 
indigo. Ed. P. J. 14. 376. A decoction of the root and stem of Urena 
lobata is employed in Brazil as a remedy in windy cholic ; the flowers are 
used as an expectorant in dry and inveterate coughs. The bark furnishes 
good cordage. PI. Us. 56. A few species, such as Hibiscus Sabdariffa and 
surattensis, &c, are slightly acid. The unripe fruit of the Ochro, or Hibiscus 
esculentus, is a favourite ingredient in soups, which are thickened by the 
mucilaginous quality of this plant. The musky seeds of Hibiscus Abelmos- 
chus are considered cordial and stomachic, and by the Arubians are mixed 
with coffee. Jlinslie, 2. 73. The root of Sida lanceolata is intensely bitter, 
and is considered a valuable stomachic. Ainslie, 2. 179. It has been sup- 
posed that the root, of Althaea officinalis contains a peculiar alkaline principle 
called Mthein ; but it has since been stated by M. Plisson that it does not 
exist ; what was taken for it having been Asparagin. Brewster, 8. 359. The 
Cotton of commerce is the hairy covering of the seeds of several species of 
Gossypium. 

Examples. Malva, Lavatera, Hibiscus. 



XXV. CHLENACE.E. 

Chlenacejs, Thouars Hist. Veg. Afr. Austr. 46. (1806); Dec. Prodr. 1. 521. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous indefinite morra- 
delphous stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium with several cells, and sus- 
pended ovules, an imbricated calyx enclosed in an involucrum, stipulate leaves, 
and round anthers bursting longitudinally. 

Anomalies. Leptolaena has definite stamens. 

Essential Chabacter. Involucrum 1-2-flowered, persistent, of variable form and texture, 
Sepals 3, small ; ajstivation imbricated 1 Petals 5 or 6, hypogynous, broader at the base, 
sometimes cohering' there. Stamens either very numerous, or sometimes only 10 ; filaments 
either cohering at the base into a tube, or adhering to the tube of petals; anthers roundish, 
adnate, or loose, 2-cellcd. Ovarium single and 3-celled; style 1, filiform ; stigma triple. Capsule 
3-cellcd, or 1-celled by abortion. Seeds solitary or numerous, attached to the centre, sus- 
pended ; embryo green, central ; albumen fleshy according to Jussicu, or horny according to 
Du Petit Thouars: cotyledons foliaceous, wavy. — Trees or Shrubs. Leaves alternate, with 
stipulte, entire. Stipuloc deciduous. Flowers in panicles or racemes. Dec. 

Affinities. The monadelphous stamens and involucrated flowers indicate 
an affinity with Malvaceae But Jussieu refers them rather to the vicinity of 
Ebenaceffi, considering the order monopetalous, and the seeds albuminous. 
Very little is, in fact, known of these plants. 

Geography. They are only eight certain species, which are all natives of 
Madagascar. 

Properties. Handsome shrubs, with fine flowers, often red ; but nothing 
is known of their qualities. 

Examples. tSarcoloena, Leptolrena, Rhodolsena. 



35 
XXVI. BOMBACEvE. The Cotton Tree Tribe. 

Bo-mbace-k Kunth, Diss. Malv. p. 5. (1822) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 475. (1824) ; A St. Hilaire Ft. Br. 
merid. 1. 257. (1827) ; a section of Malvaceae. 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous polyadelphous 
stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the placentae in 
the axis, a calyx with valvate aestivation, 1 -celled anthers bursting longitudi- 
nally, no disk, flat cotyledons, and alternate stipulate leaves with stellate pu- 
bescence. 

Anomalies. In Cheirostemon there are no petals, and the stamens are 
united in a 1 -sided 5-lobed body. 

Essential Character. Sapals 5, cohering in a campanulate or cylindrical tube, which 
is either truncate, or with 5 divisions : at the base of this, on the outside, arc sometimes a few 
ininute bractese. Petals 5, regular ; or sometimes none, but in that case the inside of the 
calyx is colored. Stamens 5, 10, 15, or more ; filaments cohering at the base into a tube, which 
is soldered to the tube of the petals, divided at the apex into 5 parcels, each of which bears 
one or more anthers, among which are sometimes some barren threads ; antkers 1-celled, 
linear, reniform or anfractuose. Ovarium consisting of 5 carpella, rarely of 10, either partly 
distinct or cohering strictly, and dehiscing in various ways ; styles as many as the carpella, 
«ither distinct or more or less coherent; ovula2, or many more. Fruit variable, capsular,or inde- 
hisccnt, usually with 5 valves, steptiferous in the middle. Seeds often enveloped in wool or pulp ; 
sometimes albuminous, with flat cotyledons ; sometimes exalbuminous, with shrivelled or con- 
vulute cotyledons. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, with stipulas. Pubescence of the 
herbaceous parts stellate. 

Affinities, So near Malvaceae, that they may perhaps be considered 
rather a section than a distinct order. They are however, often possessed of a 
peculiar habit, being chiefly large trees, with broad umbrageous leaves, and fine 
showy flowers. Their calyx is thick, and has not the regular valvate aestiva- 
tion of true Malvaceae ; they are also known by their pentadelphous stamens. 
The Hand plant of Mexico (Cheirostemon) owes its name to this latter cir- 
cumstance ; its five bundles of stamens being thick, coloured, and all turned to 
one side, so as to resemble a paw with five claws. 

Geography. The station seems to be the hottest parts of the world ; for the 
Plagianthus of Forster, referred here by M. Decandolle, probably does not 
belong to the order. The principal part of the species are South American or 
West Indian ; a few Helicteres, one Eriodendron, one Bombax, and the Durio, 
being all that are recorded from the East Indies, and Adansonia and Ophelus 
being the only African plants of the order. 

Properties. These, like Malvaceae, are mucilaginous plants, having no 
known deleterious. Bombax pentandrum, the Cotton Tree of India, yields a 
gum, which is given in conjunction with spices in certain stages of bowel 
complaints. Jlinslie, 2. 97. The largest tree in the world is the Adansonia, 
or Baobab Tree, the trunk of which has been found with a diameter of 30 feet ; 
but its height is not in proportion. " It is emollient and mucilaginous in all its 
parts. The leaves dried and reduced to powder constitute Lalo, a favourite 
article with the Africans, which they mix daily with their food, for the purpose 
of diminishing the excessive perspiration to which they are subject in those 
climates ; and even Europeans find it serviceable in cases of diarrhoea, fevers, 
and other maladies. The fruit is, perhaps, the most useful part of the tree. Its 
pulp is slightly acid and agreeable, and frequently eaten ; while the juice is 
expressed from it, mixed with sugar, and* constitutes a drink, which is valued 
as a specific in putrid and pestilential fevers." Hooker Bot. Mag. 2792. The 
dried pulp is mixed with water, and administered, in Egypt, in dysentery. It 
is chiefly composed of a gum, like Gum Senegal, a sugary matter, starch, and 
an acid which appears to be the malic. Delile Cent. 12. The fruit of the 
Durian is considered one of the most delicious productions of nature ; it is re- 



36 

markably fetid, and therefore disagreeable to those who are unaccustomed to 
it, but it universally becomes in the end a favourite article of the dessert. It is 
found in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, where it is cultivated extensive- 
ly ; see Hort. Trans. 5. 106. The seeds of many of the species are enveloped 
in long hairs, like those of the true Cotton : it is found, however, that the}' can- 
not be manufactured, in consequence of no adhesion existing between the 
hairs. This is said to arise from the hairs being perfectly smooth, and destitute 
of certain asperities found upon the hairs of the true Cotton, to which that 
plant owes its valuable properties. The woolly coat of the seeds of the Ar- 
vore de Paina (Chorisia speciosa), and several species of Eriodendron and Bom- 
bax, is employed in different countries for stuffing cushions, and for similar do- 
mestic purposes. PI. Us. 63. Helicteres Sacarolha, called by the latter name 
only in Brazil, is used against venereal disorders : a decoction of the root is ad- 
ministered. It is supposed that its effects depend upon its mucilaginous pro- 
perties. Ibid. 64. 



XXVII. STERCULIA CEiE. 



Sterculiaceje, Vent. Malm. 2. 91. (1799.)— Hermanniaceje, Juss. — Bvttne!)iace*, Brown 
in Flinders, 2. 540, (1814); Kunth. Diss.p.6. (1822); Dec. Prodr. 1. 481. (1824); Aug. 
St. Hit. Ft. Bras. mer. 1. 139 (1827) ; a section of Malvaceae. 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous monadelphous 
stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells, and the placentae in 
the axis, a calyx with valvate aestivation, 2-celled anthers bursting longitudi- 
nally, no disk, and alternate stipulate leaves with stellate pubescence. 

Anomalies. The carpella of Sterculia and Erythropsis are distinct, and 
their flowers have no petals. True Biittneriaceae have five abortive stamens. 
Waltheria has but one carpellum, four being abortive. 

Essential Character. — Calyx either naked or surrounded with an involucrum, consist- 
ing- of 5 sepals, more or less united at the base, with a valvular aestivation. Petals 5, or none, 
hypogynous, convolute in aestivation, often saccate at the base, and variously lengthened at 
the apex. Stamens definite or indefinite, monadelphous in various ways, some among- them 
being- often sterile ; anthers 2-celled, turned outwards. Pistillum. consisting of 5, or rarely 3, 
carpella, either distinct or cohering- into a single ovarium ; styles equal in number to the car- 
pella, distinct or united ; orula erect. Fruit capsular, with 3 or 5 cellc Seeds with a stro- 
phiolate apex, often winged ; albumen oily or fleshy, rarely wanting 1 ; embryo straight, with an 
inferior radicle; cotyledons cither foliaceous, flat, and plaited, or rolled round the pumula, or 
else very thick, but this only in the seeds without albumen. — Trees or shrubs. Pubescence 
often stellate. Leaves alternate, simple, often toothed, with stipula;. Peduncles cymosc. 

Affinities. I lake this order as it is understood by Kunth and Decandolle, 
without being at all certain that Buttneriacece, as proposed by Mr. Brown, are 
not really distinct. As it now stands, it comprehends plants very variable in 
some of their characters, as will appear from the distinctions of the sections 
enumerated further on. Differing as these do from each other, they are all dis- 
tinguished from their nearest allies, Malvaceae, by their 2 -celled anthers, and 
from Tiliacere and Elaeocarpere by their monadelphous stamens. Their valvate 
calyx is the great mark of combination which unites them with these last-men- 
tioned orders. The fruit of Sterculia often exhibits beautiful illustrations of the 
real nature of that form of fruit which botanists call the follicle, and helps to 
demonstrate that it, and hence all simple carpella, are formed of leaves, the 
sides of which are inflexed, and the margins dilated into placenta;, bearing 
ovula. In Sterculia platanifolia, in particular, the follicles burst and acquire 
the form of coriaceous leaves, bearing the seeds upon their margin. But, not- 
withstanding this peculiarity of the distinct carpella, on account of which 



3r 

■Sterculia would, as the type of an order, be referable to another artificial sec- 
tion, it is impossible to doubt that Reevesia, a remarkable Chinese plant, having 
the habit and peculiar conformation of anthers found in Sterculia, along with 
the petals and fruit of Pterospermum, completely identifies the genus with 
polypetalous syncarpous orders. 
The following are the sections : 

§ 1. True Sterculiaceje. 

Biittneriaceae, § Stercutiacea?, Kunth 1. c. (1822). § Sterculiere, Dec. Prodr. 
1. 481. (1824.) 

Flowers frequently diclinous. Flowers with or without petals. Stamens 
often connected in a long column, bearing the anthers at the apex. Fruit either 
deeply lobed, or concrete. — Trees. Leaves simple, entire, or lobed ; petioles 
with a swelling at both their base and apex. 

Examples. Sterculia, Heritiera, Reevesia. 

§ 2. DoMBEYACEJE. 

Biittneriaceae, § Dombeyaceae, Kunth, 1. c. (1822). Dec. 1. c. (1824.) 
Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5, rather large, unequal-sided, convolute in aestiva- 
tion. Stamens some multiple of the number of the petals, in a single row, 
monadelphous, rarely all fertile, usually some sterile, thread- or strap-shaped ; 
some (usually 2 or 3 between each sterile stamen) fertile, and more or less 
combined. Styles from 3 to 5, combined or distinct. Ovula 2 or more in each 
cell, in two rows. Embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen. Cotyle- 
dons leafy, often bifid, crumpled or flat. Dec. 
Examples. Pentapetes, Astrapa?a, Dombeya. 
§ 3. WallichiejE. 

Biittneriaceae, § Wallichiese, Dec. Mem. Mus. 10. 102. (1823) ; Prodr. 1. 
501. (1824.) 

Calyx 5-lobed, surrounded by an involucrum, consisting of from 3 to 5 
leaves, and distant from the flower. Petals 5, flat. Stamens numerous, with 
long monadelphous filaments, of which the outermost are the smallest, arranged 
in a column like those of Malvaceae. Anthers erect, 2-celled. Dec. 

Examples. Eriolaena, Wallichia. 

§ 4. Hermanniace.32. 

Hermanniaceas, Juss. ex Kunth, Diss. p. 11. (1822) ; Nov. Gen. 5. 312. 
(1821) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 490. (1824) ; a section nf Buttneriaceae. 

Flowers monoclinous. Calyx 5-lobed, persistent, either with or without 
an involucrum. Petals 5, twisted spirally before expansion. Stamens 5, 
monadelphous in a slight degree, all fertile and opposite the petals, with ovate 
2-celled anthers. Carpella concrete. Albumen between fleshy and mealy. 
Embryo included ; radicle inferior, ovate. Cotyledons flat, leafy, entire. Dec. 
— Shrubs, or herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, simple, entire, or variously 
cut. Stipules 2, adhering to the petioles. Peduncles axillary, or opposite the 
leaves, or terminal, with 1, 3, or many flowers, which are usually in umbels. 
Kunth. M. Decandolle assigns these plants a curved embryo ; but all Iler- 
manniaceffi have it not. 

Examples. Melochia, Hermannia, Riedleia. 

§ 5. True ButtneriacejE. 

Buttneriaceae, JR. Brown, 1. c. ; Kunth, 1. c. p. 6. — Biittnerieae, Dec. Prodr. 
1.484. 

Petals usually hollowed out at the base, and expanded at the point into a 
sort of strap. Filaments 5, sterile, ligulate, opposite the petals ; others fertile, 
alternate, solitary, or pentadelphous in trees, or with but a single anther. Ova- 



38 

rium 5-celled, the cells usually 2-seeded. Seeds sometimes without albumen, 
with thick cotyledons ; sometimes albuminous, with foliaceous, plane, or con- 
volute cotyledons. Dec— Trees, shrubs, or very rarely herbaceous plants. 
Leaves alternate, entire, sometimes cut. Stipules twin. Peduncles axillary, 
opposite the leaves, and terminal, with 1 or many flowers. Kunth. 
Examples. Theobroma, Guazuma, Commersonia, Buttneria. 

<§ 6. LasiopetalejE. 

Lasiopetalese, Gay. Mem, Mus. 7. 431. (1S21). — Biittneriaceae, § Lasiope- 
talea-, Kunth, 1. c. (1822) ; Dec. 1. c. (1824.) 

Calyx 5-parted, petaloid, persistent, or withering. Petals minute, like scales, 
or wanting. Filaments subulate, connate at the base ; sometimes 5, opposite 
the petals ; sometimes 10, alternately barren and fertile. Anthers incumbent, 
with contiguous lobes. Ovarium with from 3 to 5 cells, each of which con- 
tains from 2 to 8 ovules. Carpella 5, 2-valved, usually closely concrete, or 
partially distinct. Seeds strophiolate at the base. Albumen fleshy. Embryo 
erect. Cotyledons flat, foliaceous. Dec. — Shrubs. Leaves alternate, usually 
in threes, simple, entire, or lobed. Stipules twin (or perhaps none.) Inflore- 
scence cymose, corymbose, or racemose, opposite the leaves, very rarely pro- 
duced within the leaves. Pedicels with bractea^, sometimes articulated above 
the middle. Kunth. 

Examples. Lasiopetalum, Seringia. 

Geography. India, New Holland, the Cape of Good Hope, and South 
America, with the West Indies, are the chief countries inhabited by this order, 
taken collectively ; but its various sections are each characterized by peculiari- 
ties of geographical distribution. Thus : 

SterculiacecB are principally found in India and equinoctial Africa ; 5 or 6 
only have been discovered in Mexico and South America. 

DombeyacecR are all African or East Indian, mostly the latter, with the ex- 
ception of Pentapetes ovata, found in New Spain. 

JVallichiece are half Indian and half South American ; but 4 species only are 
on record in the whole. 

Of Hermanniaceaz two thirds are found exclusively at the Cape of Good 
Hope ; the remainder are chiefly West Indian and South American ; about 
one tenth are natives of the East Indies, and two or three are found in the 
South Seas. 

The Biithieriacecc are principally natives of South America and the West 
Indies ; about one seventh is found in the East Indies, a similar number in 
New Holland, and a single species, Glossostemon Bruguieri, in Persia. 

Lasiopetalece, are exclusively from New Holland. 

Properties. These, like the orders most nearly related to them, are chiefly 
remarkable for the abundance of mucilage they contain. The seeds of Ster- 
culia acuminata afford the Kola spoken of by African travellers, which, when 
chewed or sucked, renders the flavour of water, even if half putrid, agreeable. 
The seeds of the Chicha, Sterculia Chicha, are eaten as nuts by the Brazilians. 
PI. Usuelles, 46. The Gum Tragacanth of Sierra Leone is produced by a spe- 
cies of Sterculia (St, Tragacantha Milii.) The pod of Sterculia fcetida is, ac- 
cording to Horsfield, employed in gonorrhoea in Java. The leaves are con- 
sidered repellent and aperient. A decoction of the fruit is mucilaginous and 
astringent. Jlinslie, 2. 119. The bark of a species of Sterculia is employed 
in the Moluccas as an emmenagogue ; and the seeds of all that genus are filled 
with an oil, which may be expressed and used for lamps. There is a slight 
acridity in the seeds of Sterculia. The Waltheria Douradinha is used in Brazil 
as a remedy for venereal disorders, for which its very mucilaginous nature ren- 
ders it proper. PI. Usuelles, 36. The fruit of Guazuma ulmifolia is filled 



39 

with a sweet and agreeable mucilage, which the Brazilians suck with much 
pleasure. In Martinique the young bark is used to clarify sugar, for which the 
copious mucilage it yields when macerated qualifies it. In the same island the 
infusion of the old bark is esteemed as a sudorific, and useful in cutaneous 
diseases. Ibid. 47. The buttery, slightly bitter substance, called Cocoa, is 
obtained from the seeds of Theobroma Cacao, and from this Chocolate is pre- 
pared. 



XXVIII. MORINGEiE. 

Moringe-s:, R. Brown in Dcnkam, p. 33. (1826.) 

Diognosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens, concrete 
carpella, a superior 1-celled ovarium with parietal placentae, a 3-valved capsule, 
somewhat irregular flowers, and embryo without albumen. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx consisting of 5 nearly equal divisions (deciduous Dec.,) the 
tube lined with a fleshy disk ; astitation slightly imbricated. Corolla of 5 nearly equal pe- 
tals, the uppermost of which is ascending, btamens 10, arising from the top of the tube of the 
calyx ; 5 opposite the sepals, sometimes sterile ; .filaments slightly petaloid, callous and hairy 
at the base; anthers simple, 1-celled, with a thick convex connectivum. Ovarium stipitate, 
superior, 1-celled, with 3 parietal placenta; ; style filiform, terminal, not obliquely inserted ; 
stigma simple. Fruit a long pod-like capsule, with 3 valves, and only 1 cell ; the valves bear- 
ing the seeds along their middle. Seeds numerous, half buried in the fungous substance of 
the valves, sometimes winged ; embryo without albumen ; radicle straight, very small ; cotyle- 
dons fleshy, plano-convex. — Trees. Leaves pinnate, with an odd one. Flowers in panicles. 

Affinities. Confounded with Leguminosae, until separated by the autho- 
rity of Mr. Brown, who does not, however, point out the real affinities of the 
order. M. Decandolle, who did not overlook its anomalous structure as a Le- 
guminous plant, accounted for the compound nature of its fruit upon the sup- 
position, that although unity of carpellum is the normal structure of Legumi- 
nosae, yet the presence of more ovaria than one, in a few instances in that or- 
der, explained the constantly trilocular state of that of Moringa. To this, how- 
ever, there are numerous and grave objections, which cannot fail to strike every 
botanist. To me it appears very near Bignoniaceee, notwithstanding its polype- 
talous corolla, agreeing with that order in its compound fruit, winged seeds, 
irregular uowers, and compound leaves. It may be also compared with Mal- 
vaceae, on account of its nearly valvate sepals, or rather with Biittneriaceae on 
the same account, and because of its sterile stamens alternating with the fertile 
ones ; its habit is, however, against the approximation, and it is probable that 
these coincidences indicate analogy rather than affinity. 

Geography. Natives of the East Indies and Arabia. 

Properties. The root of the Hyperanthera Moringa has a pungent odour, 
with a warm, biting, and somewhat aromatic taste ; it is used as a stimulant in 
paralytic affections and intermittent fever ; it is also employed as a rubefacient, 
Ainslie, 1. 175. The nuts (seeds) of this plant, are called by the French pois 
qutniques and chicot. Ibid. 

Example. Moringa. 



40 



XXIX. TILIACE.E. The Linden Tribe. 

Tiliaceje, Juss. Gen. 290. (17S9) in part. ; Kunth. Malv. Diss. p. 14. (1822) ; Dec. Prodr. 
1. 502. (1824); Lindl. Coll. p. 54.(1829.) 

Diognosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous distinct stamens, 
concrete carpella, an ovarium with several cells, and the placentae in the axis, a 
calyx with valvate aestivation, anthers bursting longitudinally, and hypogynous 
glands between the petals and ovarium. 

Anomalies. Petals sometimes absent. Diplophractum is remarkable for 
having an extremely anomalous fruit, with several spurious cells, and with the 
placentae apparently in the circumference instead of the axis. Apeiba has 
sometimes as many as 24 cells in the fruit. Mr. Brown notices the existence 
of an African genus of this order (Christiana, Dec.,) remarkable in having a 
calyx of 3 lobes, while its corolla consists of 5 petals ; the fruit composed of 5 
single-seeded capsules, connected only at the base. Cong. 428. 

Essential Character.— Sepals 4 or 5, with a valvular aestivation, usually with no involu- 
crum. Petal* 4 or 5, entire, usually with a little pit at their base; very seldom wanting; 
most commonly the size of the sepals. Stamens generally indefinite, hypogynous, distinct ; 
anthers 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally; in Sparmannia the outer stamens are barren. 
Disk formed of glands, equal in number to the petals, at the base of which they are placed, 
adhering to the stalk of the ovarium. Ovarium single, composed of from 4 to 10 carpella; 
style one ; stigmata as many as the carpella. Fruit dry, of several cells. Seeds numerous ; 
embryo erect in the axis of fleshy albumen, with flat foliaceous cotyledons. — Trees or shrubs, 
very seldom herbaceous plants. Leaves simple, stipulate, toothed, alternate. Flowers axillary. 

Affinities. These resemble Sterculiaceee, Malvaceae, and the orders allied 
to them, in most respects, and especially in the valvate aestivation of their 
calyx. They are known by their glandular disk and distinct stamens, with 2- 
celled anthers. 

Geography. The principal part of the order is found within the tropics 
all over the world, forming mean weed-like plants, or shrubs, or trees, with 
handsome, usually white or pink, flowers. A small number is peculiar to the 
northern parts of either hemisphere, where they form timber-trees. 

Properties. They have all a mucilaginous, wholesome juice. The 
leaves of Corchorus olitorius are used in Egypt as a pot-herb. The berries of 
some of them are succulent and eatable. The species are more remarkable for 
the toughness of the fibres of their inner bark, which are used for various eco- 
nomical purposes. Fishing lines and nets are made in India of Corchorus cap- 
sularis ; and the Russian mats of commerce are manufactured from the Tilia. 
The bark of Luhea paniculata is used in Brazil for tanning leather. The 
wood of Luhea divaricata, which is white and light, but very close grained, 
makes good musket-stocks, and wooden soles for shoes. The Brazilians call 
all such Acjoita cavallos, because the sticks they use for driving their cattle are 
generally obtained from them. PI. Us. 66. 

Examples. Tilia, Sparmannia, Corchorus. 



XXX. ELyEOCARPEiE. 

Eleocarpej:, Juss. Ann. Mus. 11. 223. (1808); Dec. Prodr. 1. 519. (1824.) 

Diagnosis, Polypetalous dicotyledons, with numerous hypogynous distinct 
stamens, concrete carpella, a many-celled ovarium with the placentae in the 
axis, a calyx with valvate aestivation, anthers bursting by pores, and lacerated 
imbricated petals. 



41 

Anomalies. Nome, if Decadia, a genus of winch little is known, with 
vound anthers and 10 slightly .serrated petals, be excluded. 

Essential Character.— Sepal* -1 or 5, with a valvular activation, and no involucruirt. 
Petals 4 or 5, hypoo-ynous, lobed or fringed at the point. Disk glandular, somewhat project- 
ing. Stamens from 15 to 20 ; filaments short, distinct; anthers long, filiform, 4-OOrnercd, 
2-celled, the cells opening- by an oblong pore at the apex. Ovarium many-celled ; style one. 
Fruit variable, either indehiscent, dry, or drupaceous, or valvular. Seeds 2 or more in each 
-cell; albumen fleshy; embryo erect, with flat, leafy tfotyUdens.— Trees or snrubs. Leaves 
alternate, entire or serrated, simple, with deciduous stij/ula: Mowers racemose. 

Affinities. These differ from Tiliacca- only in their fringed petals, ami 
anthers opening by two pores at the apex. Dec. M. Kunth combines them 
with that order. Diss. Mate. p. 16. 

Geography. Of the described species, 10 are found in the East Indies, 4 
in South America, 2 in New Holland, and 2 in New Zealand ; several more, 
however, exist in India. 

Properties. Nothing mofe is known than that the fruit of some is eata- 
ble. They are handsome trees or shrubs, with showy flowers ; and the fur- 
rowed, sculptured, bony fruit of the Elaeocarpi, being freed from its pulp, forms 
handsome necklaces, which are not uncommonly set in gold, and sold in the 
shops. 

Examples. Elreocarpus, Vallea. 



XXXI. DIPTEROCARPEyE. The Camphor Tree Tribe. 

DipterocarpejE, Blume Bijdr. p. 222. (1825); Fl. Java (1820). 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous indefinite stamens, 
•subulate anthers opening towards the apex, concrete carpella, an ovarium of 
several cells with pendulous ovules in pairs, a tubular calyx with imbricated 
•aestivation, and a fruit surrounded by the dilated unequal foliaceous calyx. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx tubular, 5-lobcd, unequal, naked at the base; aestivation 
imbricated. Petals hypogynous, sessile, combined at the base; aestivation contorted. Sta- 
mens indefinite, hypogynous, distinct, or slig-htly and irregularly polyadelphous; anthers 
innate, subulate, opening longitudinally towards the apex; filaments dilated at the base. 
'Ovarium superior, without a disk, few-celled ; ovules in pairs, pendulous; style single; sii%- 
ma 3imple. Fruit coriaceous, l-celled by abortion, 3-valved or indehiscent, surrounded by 
the enlarged calyx. Seed single, without albumen ; cotyledons twisted and crumpled, or unc- 

2ual and obliquely incumbent; radicle superior. — Elegant frees, abounding in resinous juice. 
jeaves alternate, involute in vernation, with veins running out from the midrib to the mar- 
gin ; stipules deciduous, oblong, convolute, terminating the branches with a taper point. Pe- 
duncles terminal, or almost so, in racemes or panicles ; flowers usually large. 

Affinities. Very near Elaeocarpeae, but also allied to Malvaceae in the 
contorted aestivation of the corolla, and the crumpled cotyledons : they differ 
from the latter in having the stamens either distinct or partially combined, long 
narrow 2-celled anthers, and pendulous ovules ; and from the former in their 
petals not being fringed, and in want of albumen. Their resinous juice, soli- 
tary superior ovarium, drupaceous fruit, numerous long anthers, irregular 
coloured calyx, and single exalbuininotis seed, ally them, as Blume remark.-, 
to Guttiferae, from which their stipulae and the aestivation of the corolla abun- 
dantly distinguish them. The enlarged foliaceous unequal segments of the 
calyx, while investing the fruit, point out this family at once. 

Geography. Only found in the eastern islands of the Indian Archipelago, 
where, according to Blume, they form the largest trees of the forest. 

Properties. Here belongs the famous Camphor tree of Sumatra, Dryo- 
balanops Camphora, which is no doubt a species of Dipterocarpus. The carn- 

16 



42 

phor is found in a concrete state in the cavities and fissures in the heart of 
the tree. It is less volatile than the common camphor of commerce. Ed. P. 
J. 6. 400. See remarks upon this tree in Blume's Flora Java. Shorea 
robusta yields a balsamic resin used in the temples of India. The fruit of Va- 
teria indica (Piney Tree) is boiled for the sake of a tallow, which rises to the 
surface of the water, and forms a hard cake when cool. In this state it is 
whitish, greasy to the touch, with rather an agreeable odour. It is extremely 
tenacious and solid, but melts at a temperature of 97J-° Fahr. Brewst. 4. 186. 
Examples. Dipterocarpus, Dryobalanops. 



XXXII. TERN^TROMIACEiE. 

TernstromiacEjE, Mirb. Bull. Philom. 381. (1813.)— Tehsntromiaceje, Dec. Mem. Soc. 11. 
N. Genet, vol. 1. (1823) ; Prodr. 1. 523. (1824) ; Cambesscdcs Memoirc (1S28.)— Theaces, 
Mirb. Bull. Phil. (1813.)— Camelliea:. Dec. Theor. Elem. ed. 1. (1813); Prodr. 1. 529. 
(1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous, indefinite, mona- 
delphous, or polyadelphous stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several 
cells, with the placentae in the axis, a persistent, imbricated, many leaved 
calyx, alternate simple leaves, and definite seeds. 

Anomalies. Cochlospermum has the ovarium 1-celled, with imperfect 
septa, to the margins of which the ovula are attached. Leaves very rarely 
opposite. Cambesstdes. 

Essential Character. — Flowers very rarely polygamous. Sepals 5 or 7, imbricated in 
{estivation, concave, coriaceous, deciduous, the innermost often the largest. Petals 5, 6, or 9, 
equal in number to the sepals, often combined at the base. Stamens very numerous; fila- 
ments iAiiorm, monadelphous, or polyadelphous; anthers versatile or actuate. Ovarium 
superior, with several cells; styles from 3 to /, filiform, more or less combined; ovules pen- 
dulous, or erect, or peltate. Capsule 2-7-cellcd and capsular, with the dehiscence taking place 
in various ways; sometimes coriaceous and indchiscent; usually with a central column. 
Seeds large, attached to the axis, very few ; albumen none, or in very small quantity ; embryo 
straight, bowed or folded back, the radicle turned to the hilum ; cotyledons very large, often 
tilled with oil, occasi. tnalfy plaited lengthwise ; an arillus sometimes present.— Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves alternate, coriaceous, without stipulce, usually undivided, now and then with pellucid 
dots. Peduncles axillary or terminal, articulated at the babe, /''lowers generally white, sel- 
dom pink or red, very rarely (in Cochlospermum) yellow. 

Affinities. This order originated in 1813, with M. Mirbel, who separated 
some of its genera from Aurantiacea:, whore they had been placed by Jussieu, 
and at the same time founded another closely allied order, under the name of 
Theaceaj. These opinions were substantially adopted by Messrs. Kunth and 
Decandolle, the latter of whom, moreover, formed several sections among his 
Temstromiacese. It is, however, certain that no solid difference exists between 
this last order and Theaceas, or Camelliese as they were called by Decandolle ; 
and Cambessedes, after a careful revision of the whole, has come to the con- 
clusion, that even the sections proposed by De< lolle among Ternstrbmiaccae 
are untenable. I shall profit by M. Cambessedes' ol nervations in all I have to 
say upon the order. Ternstrbmiaceee may be con p red, in the first, place, with 
Guttiferte, with which they accord more closely than with any thing else, and 
in the affinities of which they entirely participate. They differ thus : in Tern- 
strbmiacete the leaves are alternate, to which there are scarcely any exceptions ; 
they are always opposite in Gutlifera. In the former the normal number of 
the parts of the flower appears to be 5 and its multiples ; in the Guttiferae it is 
evidently two. In the former the calyx is always perfectly distinct from the 
corolla ; these two organs are usually confounded in the latter. Ternstrb- 
miaceaj have the petals generally united at the base, and a twisted aestivation ; 
in Guttiferee they arc distinct, with a convolute aestivation. The seeds of the 



43 

former are almost always cither destitute of albumen, or furnished with a mem- 
branous wing ; the latter have neither the one nor the other. The first have 
the radicle always near the hilum; the second have it either near the hilum 
or turned in an opposite direction. Finally, in Guttiferae the cotyledons are 
very thick, and firmly glued together; and this character, which is not ob- 
served in Ternstromlaceae, is the more important, as it is not liable to any 
exception Ternstrdmiacefce are allied to Hyperecincae through the medium of 
< 'arpodontos, a genus which, with the foliage of the latter order, has the fruit 
of the former ; and also of certain plants of Ilypericinea-, which, according to 
Cambessedes, have a definite number of seeds. With Marcgraaviaceae they 
agree through Norantea, which has the stamens slightly adherent to the base 
Of the petals, and fixed anthers ; but that order is entirely different in habit, 
and is well marked by its singular cucullate bractea?, its fruit, and its wingless 
exalbuminous seeds. Many genera of Temstromiaceae, such as Kielmeyera 
and others, have the habit of Tiliaceae, while the fruit of Laplacea is strikingly 
like that of Luhea ; hut the aestivation of the calyx and many other characters 
distinguish them. 

Geography. Although the plants of this order which are known in 
European gardens are chiefly from China or North America, these form but an 
inconsiderable part of the whole : 7 or 8 are all that are contained in the first 
of these countries, and 4 in the latter ; while between 60 and 70, all beautiful 
trees or shrubs, are natives of the woods of South America ; about a score are 
known in the East Indies, and one in Africa. 

Properties. These are ill understood, but little being known of the greater 
part of the species. The tea which is so extensively consumed by Europeans 
is produced by different species of Thea and Camellia. An excellent table oil 
is expressed from the seeds of Camellia oleifera. The different species and 
varieties of Camellia japonica are the glory of gardeners. The fruit of a species 
of Saurauja is said to be acidulous, and to resemble Tomatoes in flavour. Dec. 
The leaves of Kielmeyera speciosa are employed in Brazil for fomentations, 
for which they are well adapted, on account of the mucilage with which they 
abound. PI. Us. 58. It. is believed in Brazil, that a decoction of the roots of 
a plant called Butua do curro (Wittelsbachia insignis Mart., Maximilianea 
regia Ibid., Cochlospermum insigne Aug. St. H.) has the power of healing 
internal abscesses. The Brazilians take it for all kinds of internal bruises. 
PL Us. 57. 

Examples. Thea, Gordonia, Saurauja, Ternstromia. 



XXXIII. LEGYTHIDE7E. 



Lecythides, Richard MSS. Poiteau Mem. Mus. 13. 141. (1825); Dec. Prodr. 3. 290. (1828); 
a sect. of. Myrtacesei Ach. Richard in Ann. des Sc. 1. 321. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of several cells, round anthers, indefinite 
ovula, and exalbuminous seeds. 

Anomalies. Ovula sometimes definite. 

Essential Characteh. — Calyx superior, 2- t" 6-leavcd, or urceolate, with a divided limb; 
EesUvation valvate or imbricated. Corolla consisting of 6 petals, sometimes cohering- at the 
l>:i*p, with an imbricated restivation. Stamens: indefinite, epigynous, either connected into a 
pctaloid cucullate unilateral body, or monadclphous at the base. Ovarium inferior, 2- to 
/-celled; orula indefinite, or definite attached to the axis; stigma simple. Fruit a woody 
capsule, cither opening with a lid, or remaining closed. Seeds several, covered by a thick 
integument; embryo without albumen, cither undivided or with two large plaited leafy or 
fleshy cotyledons, sometimes folded upon the radicle, which is next the hilum.— Large trees, 
with alternate entire or toothed leaves, with minute deciduous stipulsc, and without pellucid 
dots. Floxcers large, showy, terminal, solitary, or racemose. 



11 

Affinities. Combined by Decandolle and others with Myrtaceae, from 
which the}' differ most essentially in their alternate, often serrated leaves, with* 
out pellucid dots. To me they appear, notwithstanding the perigynous station 
of their stamens, to be more nearly allied to Temstrdmiaceae. For an account 
of the germination of Lecythis, see Du Petit Thonars, Ess. 3. 32. 

Geography. Natives of the hottest parts of South America, especially of 
Guiana. 

Properties. The fruit of Couroupita guianensis, called Jlhricot savauge 
in Cayenne, is vinous apd pleasant. The most gigantic tree in the ancient 
forests of Brazil is that called the Sapucaya. It is the Lecythis ollaria, the 
seeds of which are. large and eatable, Pr. Max. Trav. 83. The fleshy seeds 
of all the species of Lecythis are ealabje, but they leave a bitter unpleasant after- 
taste in the mouth. The bark of L. ollaria is easily separable, by beating the 
liber into a number of fine distinct lawyers, which divide so neatly from each 
other, that, when separated, they have ihe appearance of thin satiny paper. 
Poiteau says he has counted as many as ] 10 of these coatings. The Indians 
cut them in pieces, as wrappers for their cigars. The well-known Brazil nuts 
of the shops of London are the seeds of Bertholletia excelsa. The lacerated 
parts of the flowers of Couroupita guianensis become blue upon exposure 
to the air. The Gustavia urceolata is called bois puunl, because its wood be-, 
comes, after similar exposure, excessively foetid. Poiteau, 1. c. 

Examples. Bertholletia, Lecythis, Gustavia 



XXXIV. GUTTIFERyE. The Mangosteen Tribe. 

Guttife?^, Juse. Ge: .243. (1789); Dec. Prodr. 1. 557. (1824); Cambessedes Mi moire (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous indefinite un- 
equal stamens, adnate anthers, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells 
with the placenta 1 in. the axis, a persistent imbricated many-leaved calyx, oppo- 
site simple leaves without stipulae, and resinous juice. 

Anomalies. Havetia has the anthers immersed in a fleshy receptacle 
The ovarium of Calophyllum is 1 celled, and the petals opposite the sepals. 

Essential Character.*— F/oirers monoclinous, or diclinous. Sepals from 2 to 6, usually 
persistent, round, membranous, and imbricated, frequently unequal and coloured. Petals 
hypogynous, from 4 to 10, passing" insensibly into sepals. Stamens numerous, either distinct, 
or combined in one or more parcels, hypogynouB, rarely definite ; filaments of various lengths ; 
anthers adnate, bursting inwards, sometimes very small, occasionally bursting outwards, 
sometimes 1-celled, and sometimes opening- by a pore. Disk fleshy, occasionally 5-lobcd. 
Ovarium solitary, superior, 1- or many-celled ; ovules solitary, erect, or ascending, or numc- 
rpus ajid attached to central placentae ; sfyZenone, or very short; stigma peltate, or radiate. 
Fruit either dry or succulent, 1- or many-celled, 1- or many-seeded, dehiscent or indehiscent. 
Seeds frequently nestling in pulp; their coat thin and membranous, always apterous, very 
frequently with an niillus; albumen none; embryo straight; cotyledons thick, inseparable ; 
radicle either turned to or from the hilum.— Trees or sh rubs, occasionally parasitical, yielding 
resinous juice. fjeaves without stipulje, opposite, very rarely alternate, coriaceous, entire, 
with a strong midrib, and often with the lateral veins running through to the margin. Flow- 
ers usually numerous, axillary, pr terminal, white, pink, or red, articulated with their pedun- 
cle. 

Affinities. In treating of Ternstromiacese 1 have made use of the excel 
lent memoir of < Jambessedes for the purpose of explaining the affinities of that 
order with this; and 1 draw the following comparisons from the same source ; 
premising only, that European botanists are much in want of good observa- 
tions upon living plants of < ruttiferse, and that there is no order that is more in. 
need of elucidation from some skilful Indian botanist than this. M. Combes-. 



st'des remarks that Guttiferae differ from Hypericinett in their branches, their 
leaves, and their articulated peduncles ; in the normal number of the parts of 
their flowers, which appears to be two and its multiples, instead of three or 
four, which obtains in Hypericineae; in their anthers united the whole length 
with the filament, and not articulated at the summit ; in their seeds, which of- 
ten have an arillus, and are solitary in each cell of the ovarium, a character 
found in no Hypericineae (the monospermous cells of the fruit of some Vismias 
is due to abortion) ; finally, in the structure of the embryo, which is different 
in the two orders. Marcgraaviaceae are distinguished by their alternate leaves, 
the singular form of their lower bracteae, their petals frequently united, and by 
their seeds being very small, and exceedingly numerous. 

Geography. All natives of the tropics, the greater part of South Ameri- 
ca ; a few are from Madagascar, none from the continent, of Africa. They 
generally require situations combining excessive heat and humidity. 

Properties. The species all abound in a viscid, yellow, acrid, and purga- 
tive gum-resinous juice resembling Gamboge. According to some, the Sta- 
lagmitis Gambogioides yields the gum-resin called Gamboge, which is obtained 
by removing the bark or by breaking the leaves and young shoots. This sub- 
stance, or something approaching it very nearly, is also obtained from Garci- 
nia celebica, and a plant named Gambogia gutta. The powerful drastic ca- 
thartic properties of Gamboge are well known. If dissolved in water, and ex- 
amined beneath a very powerful microscope, this substance will be found to. 
consist entirely of active molecules. According to Dr. Hamilton, there is no 
ground for supposing the Gamboge to be produced by Garcinia Cambogia, as 
some have believed. L. Tr. 13. 485. In the West Indies the juice of Mam- 
mea is employed to destroy the chiggers, little insects which attack the naked 
feet, introducing themselves into the flesh below the toe-nails. The bark of 
many kinds is astringent and slightly vermifugal. The berry of Garcinia 
Mangostana is believed to be the most grateful to the palate of all the fruits 
that are known. The Butter and Tallow-tree of Sierra Leone, which owes 
its name (Pentadesma butyracea) to the yellow greasy juice which its fruit 
yields when cut, belongs to this order. 

Examples. Garcinia, Calophyllum, Clusia. 



XXXV. MARCGRAAVIACEAE. 

Marcgra aviaceje, Jusb. Ann. Mas. 14. 397. (1809) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 565. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous indefinite sta- 
mens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the placentae in the 
axis, a persistent imbricated many-leaved calyx, alternate simple leaves and in- 
definite seeds. 

Anomalies. The corolla is calyptriform in Antholorna and Marcgraavia. 

Essential Character. — Sepals from 2 to 7, usually coriaceous and imbricated. Corolla 
hypogynous ; sometimes monopetalous, calyptriform, entire, or torn at the point, sometimes 
consisting - of five petals. Stamens indefinite, inserted either on the receptacle or on a hypo- 
gynous membrane ; filaments dilated at the lias*-; anthers long', innate, bursting inwards. 
Ovarium single, superior, usually furrowed, many-celled, many-seeded ; style single; stigma 
single or capitate; orvla numerous, attached to a central placenta. Capsule coriaceous, con- 
sisting of several valves which separate slightly; dissepiments proceeding from the middle 
of the valves, but not meeting- in the centre, so that the fruit is 1-celled. Seeds, very minute 
and numerous, nestling in pulp. — Shrubs, having sometimes a scrambling habit. Leaves al- 
ternate. Flowers in umbels or spikes. Peduncles naked, or furnished with either simple or 
cucullate hollow braciece. 



46 

Affinities. The station of this order is uncertain; it approaches Ebeno- 
eeae in its monopetalous corolla cut round at the base, in the anthers attached 
by their base, and the alternate leaves : Ericese in the anthers and disk of the 
genus Antholoina: Hypericineae and Guttiferae in the hypogynous stamens, the 
polypetalous corolla of some genera, placentation and numerous seeds ; where- 
fore Jussieu stationed the order near Clusia. Dec. Proclr. 1. 565. (1824.) M. 
Turpin has somewhere remarked, that the bracteae of this order offer a clear 
explanation of the conversion of a degenerated leaf into an ovulum. 

Geography. All found in equinoctial America, except Antholoma, which 
is a native of New Caledonia. 

Properties. Handsome and curious plants, remarkable for their singular 
cucullate braeteee. Nothing is known of their qualities. 

M. Decandolle distinguishes 

Sub-order I. Marcgraavie;e. 

Corolla calyptriform. Stamens inserted in the receptacle. 

Sub-order IT. Noranteje. 

Petals 5. Stamens pressed close to the corolla, and as if inserted into it. 
Examples Noiantea, Marcgraavia. 



XXXI. HYPERICINEiE. The Tutsan Tribe 

Hyperica, Juss. Gen.254. (1789)— Hypericineje, Chois. Prodr. Hyp. 32. (1821) ; Dec. Prodr. 
1. 541. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. p. 41. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous indefinite sym- 
metrical polyadelphous stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells 
with the placentae in the axis, an irregular calyx with imbricate aestivation, in- 
definite seeds, resinous yellow juice. 

Anomalies. Laneritia has 10 monadelphous stamens. Some species of 
Vismia have solitary seeds, according to Cambessedes. 

Essential Charactp.b. — Sepals 4-5, either more or less cohering-, or wholly distinct, per- 
Bistent, unequal, with glandular dots. Petals 4-5, hypogynous, with a twisted estivation and 
oblique venation, often having black dots. Staynens indefinite, hypogynous, in three or more 
parcels; an Ihers versatile. Ovary single, superior; styles severed, rarely connate; stigma 
simple, occasionally capitate. Print a capsule or berry, of many valves and many cells; the 
■edges of the former being curved inwards. Seeds minute, indefinite, usually tapering, 
attached to a placenta in the axis or on the inner edge of the dissepiments; embryo straight, 
with an inferior radicle and no albumen.— Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees with a resinous 
juice. Leaves opposite, entire, dotted, occasionally alternate and crcnated. Flowers generally 
yellow. Iiijlorescence variable. 

Affinities. Nearly allied to Guttiferse, from which they chiefly differ in 
their small round and versatile anthers, numerous styles, and polyspermous 
capsides. To Cistineae they approximate in many points, differing principally 
in their fruit, polyadelphous stamens, and dotted leaves. With Saxifrageee 
they appear to me to have a strong relation, through the medium of Pamassia, 
the fringed "hinds of which are analogous to polyandrous fascicles of Hype- 
ricum. The leaves of Hypericineae are very commonly marked with dots, 
which are either transparent, or black and opaque. 

Geography. These are very generally spread over the surface of the 
earth, inhabiting mountains and valleys, marshes and dry plains', meadows and 
heaths. The following is the distribution of them, according to M. Choky : — 
Europe, 19 ; North America, 41 ; South America, 21 ; West Indies, 1 : Asia, 



47 

24 • New Holland, 5 ; Africa and the neighbouring islands, 7 ; Azores and 
Canaries, 5 ; common to Europe and Asia, 4 ; common to Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, 1. {Choisy, Prodr. 1821.) 

Properties. The juice of many species is slightly purgative and febrifu- 
gal ; it is most copious in the Vismias, and is analogous to Gamboge, has a 
resinous smell, and gives out to spirit of wine, or oil, a red colour, which may 
be employed in dyeing. Hypericum hircinum is fcetid. A gargle for sore 
throats is prepared in Brazil from Hypericum connatum, commonly called 
Ortlha de Gato. PI. Us. 61. A decoction of the leaves of another species, 
Hypericum laxiusculum, or Alkcrim brabo, is reputed in the same country 
as a specific against the bites of serpents. lb. 62. 

Examples. Hypericum, Vismea, Elodea. 

The following sections are employed by M. Choisy : 

Sub-order I. True Hypericine*. 

Seeds taper. Styles usually from 3 to 5. 

Tribe 1. Vismieje. Fruit a berry. Flowers in distinct leafless, racemose, 
or corymbose panicles. Trees or shrubs. Leaves stalked. 

Tribe 2. Hyperice;e. Fruit a capsule. Flowers terminal or axillary. 
Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs. Leaves usually sessile. 

Sub-order II. Anomalous Hypericine.e 

Seeds flat, winged. Styles more than 5. 



XXXVII. REAUMURIEiE. . 

Reaumurieje, Ehrenberg in Ann. des Sc. 12. 78. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an imbricated calyx, an ovarium of several cells, several 
styles, and villous seeds definite in number. 

Anomalies. 

K.-sen-tial Character.— ( 'nly.v 5-partcd, surrounded externally by imbricated bracteae. 
Petals 5, hypogynous. Stamens definite or indefinite, hypogynous, with or Without an hypogy- 
nous di.sk; anthers peltate. Ovarium superior ; styles several, filiform, or subulate. Fruit 
capsular, with 2 to 5 valves, and as many cells', and a loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds definite, 
villous, erect; embryo straight, surrounded by a small quantity of mealy albumen; radicle 
next the hilum. — Shrubs. Leaves fleshy, scale-like, or small, alternate, without stipula;. 
Flowers solitary. 

Affinities. Dr. Ehrenberg suggests {Ann. des Sc. 12. 72.) that Reaunm- 
ria and Hololachna, both of which have, according to him, hypogynous sta- 
mens, may constitute a little group, to be called Reaumuriere. To me the 
order appears more nearly related to Hypericinea: than to either Ficoidea? or Ta- 
mariscinea:. From the former it chiefly differs in its succulent habit , a nd definite 
\illous seeds, agreeing, in Reaumuria at least, even in the obliquity of the veins 
of the petals, and in the leaves being dotted. From Ficoideae its hypogynous 
stamens and seeds distinguish it ; from Tamaiiscineae its plurilocular ovarium 
and distinct styles ; from Nitrariacere its erect villous seeds, distinct styles, and 
hypogynous stamens. 

Geography. Natives of the Mediterranean and the middlei parts of 
Northern Asia. 

Properties None except the presence of saline matter in great abun- 
dance. 

Examples. Reaumuria, Hololachna 



413 
XXXVlII. SAXIFRAGES. The Saxifrage Tribe 

Saxifragje, Jus. Gen. 308. (1789); Vent. Tabl. 2. 277. (1799).— Saxifrage*:,. Dec. atid 
Duby, 207. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 66. (1829.) [Dec. Prod. 4. 1, inpart (1830.)] 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous definite stamens, 
(2) ovaria adhering more or less to the calyx and to each other, indefinite seeds, 
and no stipule. 

Anomalies. Parnassia has 4 parietal placentae opposite the lobes of the 
stigma. Petals sometimes absent. Adoxa is a doubtful genus of the order, 
\vith a berry of several cells. In Heuchera the flowers are irregular. 

Essential Character. — Calyx either superior or inferior, of 4 or 5 sepals, which cohere 
more or less at their base. Petals 5, or none, inserted between the lobes of the calyx. Sta- 
mens 5-10, inserted either into the calyx (perigynous), or beneath the ovarium (hypogynous) ; 
anthers 2-celled, bursting- longitudinally. Disk either hypogynous or perigynous, sometimes 
nearly obsolete, sometimes annular and notched, rarely consisting of 5 scales. Ovarium in- 
ferior, or nearly superior, usually consisting of 2 carpella, cohering more or less by their faces 
but distinct at the apex ; sometimes 2-celled with central placenta ; sometimes 1-celled with 
parietal placentae ; rarely 4- or 5-celled. Styles none. Stigmata sessile on the tips of the lobes 
of the ovarium. Fruit generally a membranous 1- or 2-celled capsule witli 2 bractea? ; rarely 
a 4-celled 4-valved capsule ; sometimes a 4-celled berry. Seeds numerous, very minute ; 
usually with long hexagonal reticulations on the side of a transparent testa. Embryo taper, 
in the axis of a fleshy albumen, with the radicle next the hilum. — Herbaceous plants, often 

f rowing in patches. Leaves simple, either divided or entire, alternate, without stipulae. 
lower-stems simple, often naked. 

Affinities. Most nearly allied to Rosacea?, with the herbaceous part of 
which they agree in habit, and from which they differ in their polyspermous 
partially concrete carpella, albuminous seeds, and want of stipule. From 
Cunoniaceae they are divided rather by their habit, and by the want of stipulae 
than by any thing very positive in their fructification ; the principal charateris- 
tic feature of which consists in the more perfect concretion of the carpella. 
Baueraceae are known by their habit, indefinite stamens, and peculiar dehiscence 
of the anthers. To Caryophylleae their habit allies them ; but they differ in the 
insertion of I heir stamens, their placentation, the situation of their embryo, and 
otherwise. Portulaceae, which may be compared with them, particularly on ac- 
count of the situation of their stamens, want of stipules, and albuminous seeds, 
differ essentially in the structure of the embryo, in the want of symmetry in 
the parts of the flower, and in placentation. Grossulaceae, however different 
they are in habit, agree very much in the general structure of flowers ; they 
differ in the ovarium being completely concrete and inferior, with two parietal 
placentae, in the seeds being attached to long umbilical cords, in the albumen 
being corneous, and the embryo extremely minute. Chrysosplenium and 
Adoxa are both remarkable for want of petals ; and Parnassia, which I think, 
upon the whole, is a genuine genus of this order, exhibits the singular anomaly 
of placentae being opposite the lobes of the stigma, a unilocular ovarium, the 
shell of which consists of two distinct plates connected by an intervening loose 
substance, and a peculiar development of an hypogynous disk, which assumes 
the form of 5 fringed scales, alternate with the stamens, and of a highly curious 
structure. Adoxa, which has a berry of several cells, and which is always 
referred here, appears to me far more anomalous than Parnassia. Drummon- 
dia has the stamens equal in number to the petals and opposite them, thus indi- 
cating some analogy with the monopetalous Primulaceee. 

Geography. Little elegant herbaceous plants, usually with white flowers, 
cesspitose leaves, and glandular stems ; some of the species have yellow flowers, 
others have red, but none blue. They are natives of mountainous tractsin Europe 
and the northern parts of the world, frequently forming the chief beauty of that 
rich turf which is found near the snow in high Alpine stations. Some grow on 
rocks and old walls, and in hedge-rows, or near rivulets, or in groves. 



49 

Properties. According to Decandolle, the whole order is more or less 
astringent. The root of Heuchera americana is a powerful astringent, whence 
it is called in North America Alum root. Barton, 2. 162. Otherwise they pos- 
sess no known properties ; for the old idea of their being lithontriptic appears to 
have been derived from their name rather than their virtues. 

Examples. Saxifraga, Robertsonia, Adoxa, Parnassia. 



XXXIX. CUNONIACE.E. 

Cunoniace^:, R. Br. in Minders 548. (1814). [Saxifragace^e § Cunoniacece Dec. Prod. 4. 

7. (1S30.)] 

Diagnosis. Poljpetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
separate carpella, a more or less inferior ovarium, shrubby stem, and interpe- 
tiolar stipule. 

Anomalies. Petals sometimes wanting. 

Essential Character. Calyx 4 or 5 cleft, half superior or nearly inferior. Petals 4 or 5, 
occasionally wanting - . Stamens perigynous, definite 8-10. Ovarium 2-celled ; the cells hav- 
ing- 2 or many seeds ; styles 1 or 2. Fruit 2-celled, capsular, or indehiscent. Embryo in the 
axis of fleshy albumen. Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, compound or simple, usually with 
interpetiolar stipules. 

Affinities. More readily distinguished from Saxifragese by their widely 
different habit than by any very important characters in the fructification. 
Brown in Flinders, 548. The shrubby habit and remarkable interpetiolar sti- 
pules are their principal character. Baueraceae are known by their indefinite 
stamens, porous anthers, and want of stipulae. 

Geography. Natives of the Cape, South America, and the East Indies. 

Properties. A Weinmannia is used in Peru for tanning leather, and its 
astringent bark is employed to adulterate the Peruvian bark. The Indian 
Weinmannias appear to possess similar astringent qualities. Dec. 

Examples. Cunonia, Weinmannia. 



XL. BAUERACEAE. 



A section of Cunoniacese R. Brown in Flinders, 584. (1814). [Saxifragaceje. s Baueracese 

Dec. Prodr. 4. 13. (1830.)J 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite perigynous stamens, 
ovaria adhering more or less to the calyx and each other, anthers bursting by 
two pores, indefinite seeds, and no stipuke. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 8, foliaceous, inferior. Petalsthe same number, alternate 
with them, arising' from the base of the calyx. Stamens indefinite, obscurely perigynous • 
anthers oblong, bursting- by two pores at the apex. Carpella 2, a little inferior, coherent each 
1-cclled, with numerous ovula attached to a common central axis ; style one, filiform, to' each 
ovarium. Fruit capsular, opening at the apex. Seeds indefinite, attached to a central pla- 
centa; embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen, with a long taper radicle, pointing to the hilum. 
— Shrubs. Leaves toothed, ternate, opposite, without stipula?. Flowers solitary, axillary. 

Affinities. I distinguish this small order both from Saxifrageee and Cu- 
noniaceee by its indefinite stamens, anthers dehiscing by pores, and by its pecu- 
liar habit. It has always been considered an anomaly, with whichsoever 
of those two orders it has been combined, and is now convenientlv separated 

17 



so 

fiom them. The origin of the petals and stamens appears at first sight to be 
hypogynous. But if a flower be carefully cut through vertically, it will be 
found that the ovarium coheres slightly with the calyx, and that the petals 
and stamens take their origin from above the point of cohesion. They are 
consequently perigynous, and not hypogynous. 

Geography. Native of New Holland. 

Properties. None that are known, except beauty. 

Example. Bauera only. 



XLI. BRUNIACE^E. 



Bbuniaceje, R. Brown in Abel's China (1818); Dec. Prodr. 2. 43. (1825); Ad. Brongniart in 
Ann. des Sc. Nat. (1826). 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens equal in 
number to the petals, concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of from 1 to 3 cells, 
containing definite pendulous ovules, imbricated sepals, and embryo in the axis 
of albumen. 

Anomalies. Berzelia has a single carpellum .Raspailia has the ovarium 
superior. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-clcft, imbricated, occasionally nearly inferior. 
Petals alternate with the segments of the calyx, arising from its throat, imbricated. Stamens 
alternate with the petals, arising: from the same point, or from a disk surrounding the ova- 
rium ; anthers turned outwards, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovarium half inferior, 
with from 1 to 3 cells, in each of which there is from 1 to 2 suspended collateral ovula; style 
6imple or bifid ; stigma simple. Fruit dioecious or indchiscent, 2- or 1-ccllcd, crowned by the 
persistent calyx. Seeds solitary or in pairs, suspended, sometimes with a short arillus ; albu- 
men fleshy ; embryo minute at the base of the seed, with a conical superior radicle, and 6hort 
fleshy cotyledons. — Branched, heath-like shrubs. Leaves small, imbricated, rigid, entire, with 
a callous point. Floicers small, capitate, or panicled, or even terminal, and solitary ; either 
naked, or with large involucrating bractese. 

Affinities. Nearly allied to Hamamelidere, which are known by their 
habit, stipules, and deciduous valves of the anthers, and also by their valvate 
sepals and petals. Brongniart indicates an affinity with Myrtaceae through 
Imbricaria, which is very nearly constructed as true Bruniacese, but has the 
stamens opposite the petals, and dotted leaves. The genus Raspailia is re- 
markable for having the stamens arising from the top of a superior ovarium ! 
and Thamnea is perhaps a solitary instance of a 1-celled ovarium with the 
ovules adhering to a central columnar axis. This order appears to me to ap- 
proach Penreacere in several points. 

Geography. All found at the Cape of Good Hope, with the exception of 
a single species inhabiting Madagascar. 

Propertifs. Unknown. 

Examples. Brunia, Linconia, Raspailia. 



XLII. HAMAMELIDE^E. The Witch-Hazel Tribe. 

Hamamelideje, R. Br. in Abel's Voyage to Chma, (1818) ; A. Richard Nouv. Elem. 532 
• (1828.) [Dec. Prod. 4. 267. (1830.) ] 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens twice the 
number of the petals, concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of 2 cells with 
solitary pendulous ovules, alternate leaves, deciduous stipulae, valvate calyx, 
linear valvate-involute petals, and deciduous valves to the anthers. 

Anomalies. Fothergilla is apetalous. 



51 

teeeEWTiAL Chabacteh.— Calyx superior, in 4 piecee. Petals 4, linear, with a valvular 
astivation. StmnensS, of which 4 are alternate with the petals; their anthers turned inwards. 
2-celled each cell opening by a valve which is finally deciduous, and 4 are sterile, and placed 
at the 'base of the petals. Ovarium 2-celled, inferior; ovules solitary, pendulous or sus- 
pended; styles 2. Fruit half inferior, capsular, usually opening with two septiferous valves. 
Seeds pendulous ; embryo in the midst of fleshy albumen ; radicle superior. — Skrubs. Leaves 
alternate, deciduous, toothed, with veins running hum the midrib straight to the margin. 
Stipulce deciduous. Mowers small, axillary. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Saxifrages by the deciduous valves of the 
anthers, definite seeds, and shrubby stem bearing alternate leaves and decidu- 
ous stipule. In the latter respect related to Cupuliferse, from which the petals 
and calyx divide them. According to Mr. Brown, their affinity is on the one 
hand with Bruniaces, from which they are distinguished by the insertion and 
dehiscence of the anthers, the monospermous cells of the ovarium, dehiscence 
of the capsule, the quadiifid calyx and habit ; and on the other with Cornus, 
Marlea, and the neighbouring genera ; in some respects also with Araliacese, 
but differing in their capsular fruit, the structure of the anthers, and other 
marks. See Abel's Voyage, Appendix. 

Geography. Natives of North America and Japan, or the north of China. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Hamamelis, Fothergilla. 



XLIII. PHILADELPHEiE. The Syringa Tribe. 

Phii.adelphe^, Don in Jameson's Journal, 133. {April 1826) ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 205. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite perigynous stamens, 
•concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of several cells, round a^'hers, indefinite 
ovula, and albuminous seeds. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Calyx superior, with a persistent limb, having from 4 to 10 divi- 
sions. Petals alternate with the segments of the calyx, and equal to them in number, with a 
convolute- imbricate aestivation. Stamens indefinite, arising in 1 or 2 rows from the orifice of 
the calyx. Styles cither distinct, or consolidated into one; stigmas several. Capsule half 
inferior, with from 4 to 10 cells, many-seeded. Seeds scobilorm, subulate, smooth, heaped in 
the angles of the cells upon an angular placenta; arillus? 1< ose, membranous. Albumen 
fleshy ; embryo inverted, about as long' as the albumen ; cotyledons oval, obtuse, flatfish ; radi- 
cle longer than the cotyledons, superior, straight, obtuse.— Shrubs. Leaves deciduous, oppo- 
site, toothed, without dots or stipulaj. Peduncles axillary or terminal, in trichotomous-cymes. 
Flowers always white. 

Affinities. The genera of this order were formerly referred to Myrtaces ; 
and I think there is a dissertation by the late President of the Linnean Society, 
in which he endeavoured to show the difficulty of distinguishing Leptosper- 
mum even generically from Philadelphus, — so little did his school at that time 
know of the method of pursuing botanical inquiries. The affinity of the order 
has, however, been very properly shown by Mr. Don to be not so much with 
Myrtaceae as with Saxifrages, to which latter Philadelpheee do in fact closely 
approach, differing widely in habit, but in fructification distinguished chiefly 
by the numerous cells of the fruit and the indefinite stamens. Decandolle 
points out an approach to Hydrangea ; and if that genus does not actually 
belong to this order, it is at least probable that it is a fink connecting it with 
Viburnum, agreeing almost equally with Philadelpheee and Viburneae in habit 
and fructification. Deutzia of Thunberg, which is not included in the order by 
Decandolle, certainly belongs to it ; as I first learned from Mr. Brown's notes 
in Dr. Wallich's Herbarium, and as I since find stated by Mr. Don. 



52 

Geography. Deciduous shrubs, inhabiting thickets in Europe, North 
America, the North of India, and Japan. 
Properties. Unknown. 
Examples. Philadelphus, Deutzia. 



XLIV. ESCALLONIE^. 



Escallonie-e, R. Broun in Franklin's Voyage, 766. (1824.) [Saxifragaceje. § Escallonica?. 

Dec. Prod. 4. 2. (1830.)] 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of several cells with indefinite ovula, 5 
sepals, and petals cohering in a tube. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-toothed. Corolla consisting of 5 petals, alternate 
with the segments of the calyx, from within which they arise, forming- by their cohesion a tube, 
but finally separating- from eacli other ; aestivation imbricated. Stamens arising from the ca- 
lyx, alternate with the petals; anthers bursting longitudinally. Disk conical, epigynous, 
plaited, surrounding the base of the style. Ovarium inferior, 2-celled, with two large poly- 
spermous placentas in the axis; style simple ; stigma 2-lobed, Fruit capsular, 2-celled, sur- 
mounted by the persistent style and calyx, splitting by the separation of the cells at their base. 
Seeds very numerous and minute; with a transparent membranous inteeument ; embryo mi- 
nute, in the apex of oily albumen, its radicle at the opposite extremity of the hilum.— Shrubs 
with alternate, toothed, resinously glandular, exstipulate leaves, and axillary conspicuous 

Affinities. Distinguished from Grossulaceae by the cohering petals, and 
by the radicle of the embryo being at the extremity most remote from the hilum ; 
the albumen t^also oily, not horny, and the placentae are not parietal. From 
Philadelpheaa they are known by their glandular leaves and minute embryo ; 
from Vaccmieae by the final separation of the petals, and by the anthers. 

Geography. All found in the temperate parts of South America, particu- 
larly Chile. 

Properties. Unknown. Handsome shrubs, with evergreen leaves. 

Example. Escallonia. 



XLV. GROSSULACE.E. The Currant Tribe. . 

Grossularre.e, Dec. Fl. Fr. 4. 406. (1804); Kunth Nov. G. et Sp.6. 58. (1823) s Dec. Prodr. 
3.477. (1828).— Ribesi*, Ach. Rich. Bot. Med. 2. 487. (1823).— Grossulacejb, Mirb. Elem. 
2. 897. (1815) ; Lindl. Synops. 106. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with 5 perigynous fertile stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium with one cell and parietal placentae, bac- 
cate fruit, and distinct petals and sepals. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4- or 5-parted, regular , coloured. Petals 5, minute, 
inserted in the throat of the calyx. Stamens 5, inserted alternately with the petals, very short. 
Ovarium 1 -celled, with 2 opposite parietal placentas ; ovules numerous ; style 2-3-4-cleft. Berry 
crowned with the remains of the flower, 1-celled; the cell filled with pulp. Seeds numerous, 



53 

suspended among the pulp by long filiform funiculi ; testa externally gelatinous, adhering 
firmly to the albumen, which is horny ; embryo minute, excentrical, with the radicle next the 
hilum. — Shrubs, either unarmed or spiny. Leaves alternate, lobed, with a plaited vernation. 
Flowers, in axillary racemes, with bractea: at their ba3e, very rarely diclinous. 

Affinities. Formerly confounded with Cacteae, to which, notwithstanding 
the dissimilarity of their appearance, they are indeed most closely related ; the 
principal differences between the two orders are, that in Cacteae the stamens 
are indefinite, the seeds without albumen, and the calyx and corolla undistin- 
guishable ; while in Grossulacere the stamens are definite, the seeds albumi- 
nous, and the calyx and corolla distinct. There are spines in both orders, and 
some of the Cactere have distinct leaves. From Onagrarire, Grossulaceae are 
distinguished by the minute embryo, parietal placenta?, and the quinary divi- 
sions of the floral envelopes ; from Homalineae by the want of glands at the 
base of the sepals and petals, which are also undistinguishable from one another 
in the latter ; and from Loasere by habit, number of stamens and petals, and 
various other characters. 

Geography. Natives of the mountains, hills, woods, and thickets, of the 
temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and America, but unknown in Africa, the tro- 
pics of either hemisphere, or the South Sea Islands. In North America they 
are particularly abundant, and on the mountains of Northern India they 
contribute to give a European character to that remarkable region. 

Properties. The properties of the Gooseberry and Currant are those of 
the generality of the order, except that in other species a mawkish or extremely 
acid taste is substituted for the refreshing and agreeable flavour of the former. 
Some are emetic. The black Currant, which is tonic and stimulant, has fra- 
grant glands upon its leaves and flowers ; these reservoirs are also found upon 
some other species. Malic acid exists in Currants- and Gooseberries. Tur- 
ner, 634. 

Example. Ribes. 



XLVI. CACTE^. The Indian-Fig Tribe. 

Cacti, Juss. Gen. 310. (1789) in part.— Cactoioeje, Vent. Tail. 3. 289. (1799).— Opuntiace.e, 
Juss. Die. Sc. 35. 144. (1825) in part.; Kunth Nov. G.et Sp. 6. 65. (1823).— NopalejB, 
Dec. TheorieElem. 216. (1819).— Cacteje, Dec. Prodr. 3.457. (1828) ; Mem. Mws.(1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous succulent dicotyledons, with indefinite perigy- 
nous fertile stamens, concrete carpella, an inferior ovarum with one cell and 
pareital placenta?, baccate fruit, and imbricate petals and sepals. 

Anomalies. The calyx and corolla are distinguishable in Rhipsalis, which 
is also said to have its seeds attached to a central placenta. 

Essential Character. — Sepals numerous, usually indefinite, and confounded with the 
petals, either crowning the ovarium, or covering its whole surface. Petals numerous, usually 
indefinite, arising from the orifice ©f the calyx, sometimes irregular. Stamens indefinite, 
more or less cohering with the petals and sepals ; filaments Ion" 1 , filiform ; anthers ovate, 
versatile. Ovarium fleshy, inferior, 1- celled, with numerous ovula arranged upon parietal 
placenta;, equal in number to the lobes of the stigma ; style filiform ; stigmata numerous, 
collected in a cluster. Fruit succulent, 1-cellcd, many-seeded, either smooth or covered with 
scales, scars, or tubercles. Seeds parietal, or, having lost their adhesion, nestling in pulp, 
ovate or obovate, without albumen ; embryo either straight, curve'!, or spiral, with a short 
thick radicle ; cotyledons flat, thick, foliaceous, sometimes almost obsolete (in the leafless 
species.) — Succulent shrubs, very variable in form. Stems usually angular, or two-edged, 
or foliaceous. Leaves almost always wanting ; when present, fleshy, smooth, and entire or 
spine-like. Flowers either showy or minute, usually lasting only one day or night, always 
sesaile. 



64 

Affinities. It has been already remarked, on more than one occasion, in 
this work, that the state of anamorphosis, or, in other words, that remarkable 
distension or increase of the cellular tissue of vegetables, from which the name 
of succulent is derived, is no indication of natural affinity, but rather to be con- 
sidered a modification of structure which may be common to all tribes Hence 
the immediate relationship of Cactese is neither with Euphorbiaceas, nor Lau- 
rineae, nor Asclepiadeae, nor Ficoideae, nor Portulacese, nor Asphodeleee, all of 
which contain a greater or less number of succulent genera ; but with Gros- 
sulaceffi, in which no tendency whatever to anamorphosis exists. The dis- 
tinction between the two orders is mentioned under Grossulaceae. Through 
Rhipsalis, which is said to have a central placenta> Cactese are connected with 
Portulaceaa, to which also the curved embryo of the section of Opuntiaceae 
probably indicates an approach. Decandolle further traces an affinity between 
these plants and Ficoidese. For an elaborate account of this order, see his 
memoir above quoted. 

Geography. America is the station of the order; no species appearing to 
be natives of any other part of the world ; in that country they are abundant 
in the tropics, extending a short distance beyond them, both to the north and 
the south. Decandolle states that 32° or 33° north latitude is the northern 
limit of the order ; but it is certain that a species is either wild or naturalized 
in Long Island, in latitude 42° north, and that there is another somewhere 
about 49°, in the Rocky mountains. The species which are said to be wild 
or naturalized in Europe, Mauritius, and Arabia, have been introduced from 
America, and having found themselves in situations suitable to their habits, 
have taken possession of the soil like actual natives : in Europe this does not 
extend beyond the town of Final, in 44° north latitude. There is no reason 
for supposing that the modern Opuntia is described in Theophrastus, as Spren- 
gel asserts ; the description of the former writer applying, as far as it applies 
to any thing now known, rather to some tree like Ficus religiosa. Hot, dry, 
exposed places are the favourite stations of Cacteee, for which they are pecu- 
liarly adapted, in consequence of the small quantity of evaporating pores 
which they possess, as compared with other plants ; a circumstance which, as 
Decandolle has satisfactorily shown, will account for the excessively succu- 
lent state of their tissue. 

Properties. The fruit is very similar in its properties to that of Grossu- 
laceee, some being refreshing and agreeable to the taste, others mucilaginous 
and insipid ; they are all, however, destitute of the excessive acidit}^ of some 
gooseberries and currants. The fruit of Cactus opuntia has the property of 
staining red the urine of those who eat it. The juice of Cactus mammillaris 
is remarkable for being slightly milky, and at the same time sweet and insipid. 

Decandolle has the two following sections, the characters of the last of 
which are not, however, very certainly ascertained to be correct : 

1. Opuntiace^. 

Ovula and seeds parietal. 

Examples. Cactus, Opuntia, Mammillaria. 
II. Rhipsalide^:. 

Ovula and seeds attached to a central axis. 

Example. Rhipsalis. 



55 
XLVII. ONAGRARLE. The Evening Primrose Tribe. 

Onagr-b, Juss. Gen. 317. (1789.)— Epii.obiace.s2, Vent. Tabl. 3. 307. (1799.)— Onagrarije, 
Juss. Ann. Mus. 3. 315. (1S04) in part. ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 35. (1828); Lindl, Synops. 
107. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of several cells, with indefinite ovula, 4 
divisions of the calyx, and roundish anthers erect in aestivation. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Calyx superior, tubular, with the limb usually 4-lobed ; the lobes 
cohering in various degrees, with a valvate aestivation. Petals generally equal in number to 
the lobes of the calyx, into the throat of which they are inserted, regular, with a twisted 
aestivation. Stamens definite, inserted into the calyx ; Jila men t.s distinct ; pollen triangular, 
usually cohering by threads. Ovarium of several cells, generally crowned by a disk; 
style filiform; stigma either capitate or 4-lobed. Fruit baccate or capsular, many-seeded, 
with from 2 to 4 cells. Seeds numerous, without albumen ; embryo straight ; radicle long 
and taper ; cotyledons very short. Herbaceous plants or shrubs. Leaves alternate or oppo- 
site, simple, entire, or toothed. Flowers red, purple, white, blue, or yellow, axillary, or 
terminal. 

Affinities. Onagrarise differ from all the orders allied to them in the 
length of the radicle ; they are particularly distinguished from Salicariae by 
their inferior calyx ; from Haloragese by their filiform style, and by their exal- 
buminous seeds not being pendulous ; from Myrtaceae by the want of pellucid 
dots, and by the definite number of their stamens. Dec. For the distinc- 
tions between them and Hydrocaryes, Callitrichinea3, and Circreaceae, see 
those orders. 

The following sections of Decandolle appear worthy of being adopted : 

1. MoNTINIEiE. 

Fruit capsular. Seeds with a membranous wing, imbricated, erect. — Trees 
or shrubs, with alternate leaves. 

2. FUCHSIE.E. 

Fruit baccate. Tube of the calyx elongated beyond the ovarium. — Chiefly 
American trees or shrubs, with opposite leaves. 

3. Onagre.e. 
Fruit capsular, with many- seeded cells, and seeds without wings. Tube of 
the calyx extended beyond the ovarium. Stamens twice as many as the 
petals. — Herbaceous plants, sometimes slightly shrubby at the base. 

4. JussijE.e. 

Fruit capsular, with many-seeded cells. Calyx persistent, but not tubular. 
— Herbaceous plants, rarely under-shrubs. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of the temperate parts of the world, and 
especially of America : a good many are found in India, and a large number 
in Europe. In Africa they are scarcer, being mostly confined to the Cape, 
and to a few Jussireas inhabiting other parts of that continent. 

Properties. Few, or unknown. CEnothera biennis is cultivated for the 
sake of its eatable roots ; and the leaves of Jussisea peruviana form an emol- 
lient poultice. Dec. 

Examples CEnothera, Epilobium, Jussiaea, Fuchsia. 



56 



XLVIII. HALORAGE.E. 

Halorage*, 7?. Brown in Flinders, 17. (1814) ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 65. (1828) ; LAndl. Synops. 110. 
(1829).— Hygrobie-e, Rich. Anal. Fr. (1808).— Hippurideje, Link Enum. 1. 5. (1821); 
handb. 1. 288. (1829).— Cercodianje, Juss. Diet. Sc. Nat. (1817.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium with pendulous definite ovula, a depau- 
perated calyx, and embryo in the midst of fleshy albumen. 

Anomalies. Petals often wanting. Hippuris has the habit of an Equi- 
setum. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, with a minute limb. Petals minute, inserted into 
the summit of the calyx, or wanting. Stamens inserted in the same place, equal in number 
to the petals, or occasionally fewer. Ovarium adhering inseparably to the calyx, with 1 or 
more cells ; style none ; stigmata equal in number to the cells, papulose, or pencil-formed ; ovula 
pendulous. Fruit dry, indehiscent, membranous, or bony, with 1 or more cells. Seeds soli- 
tary, pendulous ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight, in the axis ; radicle superior, long and 
taper ; cotyledons minute. — Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs, often growing in wet places. 
Leaves either alternate, opposite, or whorled. Flowers axillary, sessile, occasionally monoe- 
cious or dioecious. 

Affinities. Placed by Link among Monocotyledons, but inseparable from 
Dicotyledons, and especially related to OnagrariEe, from which the minute 
calyx and albuminous solitary pendulous seeds chiefly distinguish them. Very 
closely akin also to Circaeaceee and Hydrocaryes, both which see. The affinity 
of Callitrichinese is probably not very great, although M. Decandolle has con- 
sidered it a mere section of the order. 

Geography. Damp places, ditches, and slow streams, in Europe, North 
America, Southern Africa, Japan, China, New Holland, and the South Sea 
Islands, are the favourite resort of this order. 

Properties. Of no importance. Many are troublesome weeds. 

Examples. Haloragis, Hippuris, Myriophyllum. 



XLIX. CIRC^EACEiE. The Enchanter's Nightshade Tribe. 

Circ^eaceje, Lindl. Synops. p. 109. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of 2 cells, with definite erect ovula. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Calyx superior, deciduous, tubular, with a two-parted limb. Pe- 
tals 2, alternate with the lobes of the calyx. Stamens 2, alternate with the petals inserted into 
the calyx. Disk large, cup-shaped, filling up the whole of the tube of the calyx, and projecting 
beyond it. Ovarium 2-celled, with an erect ovulum in each cell ; style simple, arising out of 
the disk; stigma emarginate. Fruit 2-celled, 2-valved, 2-seeded. Seeds solitary, erect; acu- 
men none; embryo erect; radicle short, inferior.— Herbaceous plants. Leaves opposite, toothed, 
stalked. Flowers in terminal and lateral racemes, covered with uncinate hairs. 

Affinities. This order differs from Onagrariee in its large fleshy disk, 
which fills up the tube of the calyx, in its solitary erect ovula, and in the binary 
division of the flower. It is connected with that order through Lopezia, with 
which it cannot, however, be absolutely associated ; and bears about the same 
relation to Onagrarias as is borne by Haloragea?. 



57 

Geography Natives of the northern parts of the world, inhabiting groves 
and thickets. 
Properties Unknown. 
Example. Circoea. 



L HYDROCARYES. The Water Chestnut Tribe. 

Hvdrocabyes, Link Enum. Ilort. Bcr. 1. 141. (1S21.)— Onaguarije, § Hydrocaryes, Dec. 

Prodr. 3. 63. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium with definite pendulous ovules, no albu- 
men, and very unequal cotyledons. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Caty.r superior, 4-parted. Petals 4, arising from the throat of 
the calyx. Stamens 4, alternate with the last. Ovarium 2-celled ; ovules solitary, pendulous; 
style filiform, thickened at the base ; stigma capitate. Fruit hard, indehiscent, 1-celled, 
1-seeded, crowned by the indurated segments of the calyx. Seed solitary, large, pendulous; 
albumen none : cotyledons 2, very unequal.— Floating plants. Lower leaves opposite, upper 
alternate; those under water cut into capillary segments; petioles tumid in the middle. 
Flowers small, axillary. 

Affinities. Closely akin to Onagrarise, from which they are distinguished 
by their solitary pendulous ovules ; more closely allied to Haloragese, from 
which they are divided only by their very large seeds with unequal cotyledons, 
developed calyx, and want of albumen ; agreeing with them, especially with 
Myriophyllum, in habit. 

Geography. Found in the South of Europe, the East Indies, and China, 

Properties. The great seeds are sweet and eatable. 

Example. Trapa. 



LI. LOASEiE. 

Loaseje, Juss. Ann. Mus. 5. 18. (1S04); Diet. Sc. Nat. 27. 93. (1823); 
Sp. 6. 115. (1823) ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 339. (1828.) 



Kunlh in Nov. Gen. et 



Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens, part of 
which are sterile, concrete carpella, an inferior 1-celled ovarium with parietal 
placentae, and dissimilar petals and sepals. 

Anomalies. Ovarium sometimes almost superior. Seeds definite in Ment- 
zclia and Klaprothia. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior or inferior, 5-partcd, persistent, spreading in aesti- 
vation. Petals 5 or 10, arising from within the recesses of the calyx, cucullate, with an in- 
tlcx valvate aestivation ; the interior often, when present, much smaller than the outer, and 
truncate at the apex. Stamens indefinite, in several rows, arising from within the petals, either 
distinct or adhering in bundles before each petal, within the cavity of which they lie in {esti- 
vation ; filaments subulate, unequal, the outer ones frequently destitute of anthers. Ovarium 
inferior, or nearly superior, 1-ccilcd, with several parietal placenta;, or with one free central 
lobed one ; style single; stigma 1, or several. Fruit capsular or succulent, inferior or supe- 
rior, 1-cclled, with parietal placenta; originating at the sutures. Seeds numerous, without aril- 
lus; embryo lying in the axis of fleshy albumen, with the radicle pointing to the hilum, and 
flat small cotyledons. — Herbaceous plants, hispid, with pungent hairs secreting an acrid juice. 
Leaves opposite or alternate, without stipula, usually more or less divided. Peduncles axilla- 
ry, 1 -flowered. 

18 



58 

Affinities. Distinguished from Onagrariae by their unilocular ovaria and 
indefinite Btamens, part of which are sterile ; and perhaps by the latter cha- 
racter, and the additional 5 petals, connected with Passiflorese, with which they 
also sometimes accord in habit. Their rigid stinging hairs, cbmbing habit, and 
lobed leaves, resemble those of some Urticea?, with which, however, they have 
nothing more of importance in common. On the same account they may be 
compared with Cucurbitaceae, with which they further agree in their inferior 
unilocular fruit, with parietal placentae, and in the very generally yellow colour of 
their flowers. This, indeed, is the order with which, upon the whole, Loaseae 
must be considered to have the closest affinity. Eschscholtzia, referred here 
by Decandolle, belongs to Papaveraceae. 

Geography. All American, and chiefly from the more temperate regions, 
or the tropics, of either hemisphere. 

Properties. Excepting the stinging properly which resides in the hairs 
of some species, nothing is known of the qualities of these plants. 

Examples. Loasa, Mentzelia. 



LII. SALICARLE. The Loosestrife Tribe. 

Salicaki*!, Juss. Gen. 330. (1739); Lindl. Synops. 71. (1829.)— Calycanthemje, Vent. Tab.3. 
298. (1799).— Salicarin^, LinkEnum. 1. 142. (1821).— Lythbari^e^uss. Diet. Sc. i\at. 
27. 453. (1823) ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 75. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens, concrete 
carpella, a superior ovarium with several cells, and a tubular short-toothed ca- 
lyx, which covers the capsule. 

Anomalies. Occasionally apetalous. 

Essential Character. — Calyx monosepalous, the lobes with a valvate or separate aestiva- 
tion, their sinuses sometimes lengthened into other lobes. Petals inserted between the lobes 
of the calyx, very deciduous, sometimes wanting'. Stamens inserted into the tube of the 
culyx below the petals, to which they are sometimes equal in number ; sometimes they are 
twice, or even thrice, and four times as numerous; they arc seldom four; anthers adnate, 
2-cellcd, opening' longitudinally. Ovarium superior,2- or 4-celled ; style filiform ; stigma usual- 
ly capitate. Capsule membranous, covered by the calyx, usually 1-celled, dehiscing either 
longitudinally or in an irregular manner. Seeds numerous, small, without albumen, adher- 
ing to a centra] placenta; embryo straight; radicle turned towards the hilum : cotyledons 
flat and leafy. — Herbs, rarely shrubs. Brandies frequently 4-cornercd. Leaves opposite, seldom 
alternate, em ire. without cither stipula; or glands. Flowers axillary, or in terminal spikes or 
racemes, in consequence of the depauperation of the upper leaves. 

Affinities. Very near Onagrarire, from which their superior ovarium and 
many-ribbed calyx distinguish them ; also Melastomacea;, from which their 
superior ovarium, the veining of their leaves, and the aestivation of the sta- 
mens divide them. With Labiates they have often a striking resemblance in 
habit, but this goes no further. 

M. Decandolle admits the two following tribes : 

1. § Salicariae, Mem. Soc. II JY. Gcncv. 3. p. 2. 71.: Prodr. 3. 75. 

(1S28.) 

Lobes of the calyx more or less distant in aestivation, or somewhat val- 
vate. Petals several, alternate with the lobes of the calyx, and arising from 
between them at the orifice of the tube; sometimes wanting. Stamens aris- 
ing from lower down the tube. Seeds apterous. — Shrubs or herbaceous plants. 
Dec. 



5y 

2 § Lagershomicftv The. 1. c. p. 70.; Prodi'. 3. 92. (1828.) 

Lobes of the calyx exactly valvate in aestivation. Petals several, alternate 
with the lobes of the calyx, and arising from between them in the apex of the 
tube. Stamens two or three times as numerous, and arising from lower down 
the tube. Seeds with a membranous wing. — Shrubs or trees. Dec. 

Geography. The Lagerstromias are all Indian oi South American. The 
true Salicaria! are European, North American, and natives of the tropics of 
both hemispheres. Lylhrum Salicaria, a common European plant, is singular 
for being found in New Holland, and for also being the only species of that or- 
der, yet described from that country. 

Properties. Astringency is a property of the Lythrum Salicaria, which 
is reputed to have been found useful in inveterate diarrhosas ; another species 
of the same genus is accounted in Mexico astringent and vulnerary. The 
flowers of Lythrum 1 Hunteri are employed in India, mixed with Morinda, 
for dyeing, under the name of Dhawry. Hunter Jls. Res. 4. 42. Heimia 
salicifolia, a plant remarkable, in an order with red or purple flowers, for its 
yellow corolla, is said to excite violently perspiration and the urinary secretion. 
The Mexicans consider it a potent remedy for venereal diseases, and call it 
Hanchinol. Dec. Lawsonia inermis is the plant from which the Henne 
of Egypt is obtained. Women in that country stain their fingers and feet 
with it. It is also used for dyeing skins and maroquins reddish yellow, and for 
many other purposes. It contains no tannin. Ed. P. J. 12. 416. The leaves 
of Ammannia vesicatoria have a strong muriatic smell; they are extremely 
acrid, and are used by the native practitioners of India to raise blisters, in rheu- 
matism, &c. : bruised and applied to the part intended to be blistered, they per- 
form their office in half an hour, and most effectually. Ainslie, 2. 93, 

Examples. Lythrum, Lagerstromia, Ammannia. 



LIII. RHIZOPHOREiE. The Mangrove Tribe. 

ItinzoriionE*:, /.'. Brown Gen. Rem. in Minders, p. 17. (1814) ; in Congo, p. 18. (1818) ; Dec. 
Prodr. 3. 31. (1828.)— Paletuviers, Savigny in Lam. Diet. 4. 696. (1796.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens twice the 
number of the petals, concrete carpclla, an inferior ovarium of 2 cells wiih 
pendulous ovules, and opposite leaves with interpetiolar stipulse. 

Anomalies. The leaves of Baraldeia have pellucid dots. In Cassipourea 
the ovarium is superior, and the seeds have albumen. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, very rarely nearly inferior, with the lobes vary- 
ing 1 in number from 4 to 13, occasionally all cohering 1 in a calyptia. Petals arising from the 
calyx, alternate with the lobes, and equal to them in number. Stamens arising from the 
same point as the petals, and twice or thrice their number ; filaments distinct ; anthers erect, 
innate. Ovarium 2-celled, each cell containing 2 or more pendulous ovules. Fruit indehis- 
cent, crowned by the calyx, 1-celled, 1-seeded. Seed pendulous, without albumen; radicle long; 
cotyledons 2, flat. — Coast trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, opposite, entire or toothed with sti- 
puke between the petioles. Peduncles axillary. 

Affinities. From a consideration of the structure of Carallia and Legnotis 
Mr. Brown has been led to conclude that we have a series of structures con- 
necting Rhizophora, on the one hand, with certain genera of Salicaria?, parti- 
cularly with Anthcrylium, though that genus wants the intermediate stipules ; 
and, on the other, with Cunoniaceee, especially with the simple-leaved species, 



60 

of Ceratopetalum. Congo, 437, This order agrees with Cunoniacese in its 
opposite leaves and intermediate stipulse, and with great part of them in the 
aestivation of its calyx, and in the structure and cohesion of ovarium. JR. Brown, 
Flinders, 549. Decandolle points out its relation to Vochjaceas and Combre- 
tacese, and even to Memecyleae through the genus Olisbea. The genera were 
comprehended in Lorantheae by Jussieu. Cassipourea, mentioned as an anoma- 
lous plant, is probably the type of a distinct order. 

Geography. Natives of the shores of the tropics, where they root in the 
mud, and form a dense thicket down to the verge of the ocean. 

Properties. The bark is usually astringent ; that of Rhizophora gymno 
rhiza is used in India for dyeing black. Dec. 

Examples. Rhizophora, Bruguiera. 



LIV. MELASTOMACEiE. 

Melastomb, Juss. Gen. p. 328. (1789); Diet. Sc. Nat. 29. 507. (1823).— Melastomaceje, Don in 
Mem. Wcrn. Sue. 4. 281. (1823) ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 99. (1828) ; Memoirc (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of several cells, long inflexed anthers, in- 
definite seeds, and opposite ribbed leaves without dots. 

Anomalies. Traces of pellucid dots in Diplogenea. Ovarium more or less 
superior in several. Leaves sometimes not ribbed in Sonerila. 

Essential Char acteh. — Calyx divided into 4, 5, or 6" lobes, cohering' more or less with the 
angles of the ovarium, but distinct from the surface between the angles, and thus forming a 
number of cavities, within which the young anthers are curved downwards. Petals equal to 
the segments of the calyx, arising from their base, or from the edge of a disk that lines the 
calyx ; twisted in aestivation. Stamens usually twice as many as the petals, sometimes equal 
to them in number ; in the former case, those which arc opposite the segments of the ealyx are 
alone fertile ; filaments curved downwards in aestivation ; anthers long, 2-celled, usually burst- 
ing by two pores at the apex, which is rostrate, and elongated in various ways beyond the in- 
sertion of the filament ; sometimes bursting longitudinally ; before flowering, contained with- 
in the cases between the ovarium and sides of the calyx. Ovarium more or less coherent with 
the calyx, witli several cells, and indefinite ovules; style 1 ; stigma simple, either capitate or 
minute; a cup often present upon the apex of the ovarium, surrounding the style. Pericar- 
pium either dry and distinct from the calyx, or succulent and combined with the calyx, with 
several cells ; if dehiscent, bursting through the valves, which therefore bear the septa in the 
middle ; placenta: attached to a central column. Seeds innumerable, minute, with a brittle 
testa, and no albumen ; usually with appendages of some kind ; embryo straight, or curved, 
with equal or unequal cotyledons. — TVecffj shrubs, or herbaceous plants. Leaves opposite, undi- 
vided, usually entire, without dots, with several ribs. Mowers terminal, usually thyrsoid. 

Affinities. " The family of Melastomaceae," remarks M. Decandolle, in 
an excellent memoir upon the subject, " although composed entirely of exotic 
plants, and established at a period when but few species were known, is so well 
characterized, that no one has ever thought of putting any part of it in any 
other group, or even of introducing into it genera that do not rightly belong to 
it." These distinct characters arc, the opposite leaves, with several great veins 
or ribs running from the base to the apex, something as in Monocotyledonons 
plants, and the long beaked anthers, to which combined there is nothing to be 
compared in other families. Permanent, however, as this character undoubt- 
edly is, yet the cause of no uncertainty having been yet found in fixing the 
limits of the order, is rather to be attributed to the small number of species that 
have been examined, than to the want of connecting links : thus Diplogenea 
has traces of the dots of Myrtaceoa, which were not known to exist in Melasto- 
macere until that genus was described ; and several genera are now described 



CI 

with superior ovarium, a structure which was at one time supposed not to exist 
in the order ; and, finally, in the remarkable genus Sonerila, the leaves are 
sometimes not ribbed. 

The greatest affinity of Melastomaceae is on the one hand with Salicariae, on 
the other with Myrtaceae ; from the former they differ in the aestivation of their 
calyx not being valvate, from the latter in having the petals twisted before ex- 
pansion and no dots on the leaves, and from both, and all others to which they 
can be compared, in their long anthers bent down parallel to the filaments in 
the flower, and lying in niches between the calyx and ovarium ; with the ex- 
ception of Memecyleae, in which, however, the union between the calyx and 
ovarium is complete, and which have leaves destitute of the lateral ribs that so 
strongly point out Melastomaceae. The structure of the seeds of Memecyleae is 
also different. 

From differences in the" dehiscence of the anthers, Decandolle forms two 
sub-orders, viz. : 



UWUIUUO, tUl. ■ 

1. True Melastomas. 

Anthers opening by pores at the apex. 
Examples.. Melastoma, Rhexia. 



2. Chariantheje. 

Anthers opening by 2 longitudinal fissures. 

Examples. Charianthus, Astronia. 

Geography. Found neither in Europe nor Asia in the temperate zone, nor 
in Africa north of the desert of Zahara, nor south of Brazil in South America, 
nor in extra-tropical Africa to the south. Beyond the tropics, 8 are found in the 
United States, 3 in China, and 3 in New Holland. Of the remainder, it ap- 
pears that 78 are described from India or the Indian Archipelago, 12 from Africa 
and the adjacent islands, and 620 from America. Dec. 

Properties. A slight degree of astringency is the prevailing character of 
the order, which is, although one of the most extensive known, entirely desti- 
tute of any unwholesome species. The succulent fruit of many is eatable, some 
of which dye the mouth black, whence the name of Melastoma. Blakea trip- 
linervia produces a yellow fruit, which is pleasant and eatable, in the woods of 
Guiana. Hamilt. Prodr. 42. 



LV. MEMECYLEAE. 

Memecyleae, Dec. Prodr. 3. 5. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium with several cells, 1 -ribbed leaves without 
dots, a few seeds, an exalbuminous embryo with convolute cotyledons, and long 
inflexed anthers. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4- or 5-lobed, or 4-5-toothed. Petals 4-5, inserted 
into the calyx, and alternate with its lobes. Stamens 8-10 ; filaments distinct, anthers in- 
curved, 2-cclled. Style filiform; stigma simple. Berry crowned by the limb of the calyx, 
2-4-celled. Seeds few, pendulous, without albumen ; cotyledons foliaceous, convolute ; radicle 
straight. — Shrubs. Leaves opposite, simple, entire, without stipuke or dots, almost always 
without more than one central rib. Flowers axillary, pedicellate. 

Affinities. Very near Myrtaceae and Melastomaceae, and in some respects 
almost intermediate between them. They agree with the former in the single 



G2 

rib of their leaves, and with the latter in the want of dots and in the peculiar 
form of the anthers ; their cotjdedons are those of Punica among Myrtaceae. 

Geography. All natives of the hottest parts of the East Indies and of the 
Mauritanian Islands, with the exception of the Mouririas, which are West In- 
dian, if they belong to the order; but this is uncertain. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Memecylon, Mouriri. 



LVI. MYRTACEAE. The Myrtle Tribe. 

Myrti, Juss. Gen. 323. (1789).— Myrte^e, Juss. Diet. Sc. Nat. 34. 79. (1825).— Myrtoideje, 
Vent. Tabl. (1799).— Myrtixeje, Dec. Theoric, Elcm. (1819).— Myrtaceae, R. Broun in 
Flinders, p. 14. (1814) ; Dec. Diet. Class, v. 11. (1826) ; Prodr. 3. 207. (1829) ;— Granate^, 
Don in Ed. Phil. Journ. p. 134. (1826); Dec. Prodr. 3. 3. (1829) ; Von Martins H. Reg. 
Monac. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium with several cells, ana opposite entire 
leaves with pellucid dots. 

Anomalies. Chamselauciese have a 1-celled fruit, with erect ovula. A 
species of Sonneratia is apetalous. The leaves of Barringtonia are alternate 
and not dotted. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4- or 5-cleft, sometimes falling off like a cap, in 
consequence of the cohesion of the apex. Petals equal in number to the segments of the ca- 
lyx, with a quincuncial aestivation ; rarely none. Stamens either twice as many as the petals, 
or indefinite; filaments either all distinct, or connected in scYeral parcels, curved inwards 
before flowering; anthers ovate, 2-cellccl, small, bursting lengthwise. Ovarium inferior; 
2- 4- 5- or 6-celled ; styles simple; stigma simple. Fruit cither dry or fleshy, dehiscent or 
indehiscent. Seeds usually indefinite, variable in form ; embryo without albumen, straight 
or curved, with its cotyledons and radicle distinguishable or conferruminated into a solid 
mass. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, entire, with transparent dots, and with a vein run- 
ning parallel with their margin. Inflorescence variable, usually axillary. Flowers red, 
white, occasionally yellow, never blue. 

Affinities. One of the most natural among the tribes of plants, and the 
most easily recognised. Its opposite exstipulate clotted entire leaves with a 
marginal vein, are a certain indication of it, with the exception of a few plants, 
which probably do not belong to the order, although at present placed in it. It 
is closely allied to Rosacea?, Salicaria>, Onagrariae, Combretacea 3 , and Melasto- 
macea?, but cannot well be confounded cither with them or any other tribe. It 
offers a curious instance of the facility with which the calyx and corolla can 
take upon themselves the same functions and transformations. In Eucalyptus, 
as is well known, the sepals are consolidated into a cup-like lid, called the oper- 
culum. In Eudesmia, a nearly-related genus, the calyx remains in its normal 
state, while the petals are consolidated into an operculum. Punica is usually 
referred to this order ; but the descriptions that have been published of it have 
been founded upon so imperfect a view of its structure, that I may be permitted 
to dwell upon it at some length, especially as I hope to show that it not only 
does not differ from the order essentially, but that it does not require to be dis- 
tinguished from true Myrlaccre even as a section. A consideration of the real 
structure of this plant comes the more properly within the scope of the present 
publication, because the genus has been considered the type of a particular 
order (Granaterc) by Mr. Don, in which he is supported by the high authority 
of Decandolle and Von Martins. The fruit of the Pomegranate is described 
by Gartner and Decandolle as being divided into two unequal divisions by a 



(53 

horizontal diaphragm, the upper half of which consists of from 5 to 9 cells, 
and the lower of 3 ; the cells of both being separated by membranous dissepi- 
ments ; the placentae of the upper half proceeding from the back to the centre, 
and of the lower irregularly from their bottom ; and by Mr. Don as a fleshy 
receptacle formed by the tube of the calyx into a unilocular berry, filled with 
a spongy placenta, which is hollowed out into a number of irregular cells. In 
fact, if a Pomegranate is examined, it will be found to agree more or less per- 
fectly with both these descriptions. But it is clear that a fruit as thus de- 
scribed is at variance with all the known laws upon which compound fruits 
are formed. Nothing, however, is more common than that the primitive con- 
struction of fruits is obscured by the additions, or suppressions, or alterations, 
which its parts undergo during their progress to maturity. Hence it is always 
desirable to obtain a clear idea of the structure of the ovarium of all fruits 
which do not obviously agree with the ordinary laws of carpological composi- 
tion. Now, a section of the ovarium of the Pomegranate in various directions, 
if made about the time of the expansion of the flowers before impregnation takes 
place, shows that it is in fact composed of two rows of carpella, of which three or 
four surround the axis, and are placed in the bottom of the tube of the calyx, 
and a number, varying from five to ten, surround these, and adhere to the upper 
part of the tube of the calyx. The placentae of these carpella contract an 
irregular kind of adhesion with the back and front of their cells, and thus give 
the position ultimately acquired by the seeds that anomalous appearance which 
it assumes in the ripe fruit. If this view of the structure of the Pomegranate 
be correct, its peculiarity consists in this, that, in an order the carpella of which 
occupy but a single row around the axis, it possesses carpella in two rows, the 
one placed above the other, in consequence of the contraction of the tube of the 
calyx, from which they arise. Now, there are many instances of a similar ano- 
maly among genera of the same order, and they exist even among species of 
the same genus. Examples of the latter are, Nicotiana multivalvis and No- 
lana paradoxa, and of the former Malope among Malvaceae ; polycarpous Ra- 
nunculaceae as compared with Nigella, and polycarpous Rosacea? as compared 
with Spiraea. In Primus I have seen a monstrous flower producing a number of 
carpella around the central one, and also, hi consequence of the situation, upon 
the calyx above it ; and, finally, in the Revue Encycloptdique (43. 762.), a per- 
manent variety of the Apple is described, which is exactly to Pomaces what 
Punica is to Myrtacea?. This plant has regularly 14 styles and 14 cells, 
arranged in two horizontal parallel planes, namely, 5 in the middle, and 9 on 
the outside, smaller and nearer the top ; a circumstance which is evidently to 
be explained by the presence of an outer series of carpella, and not upon the 
extravagant hypothesis of M. Tillette de Clermont, who fancies that it is due 
to the cohesion of 3 flowers. The anomaly of the structure of the fruit of Pu- 
nica being thus explained, nothing remains to distinguish it from Myrtaceae but 
its leaves without a marginal vein, its convolute cotyledons, and pulpy seeds. 
There are, however, distinct traces of dots in the leaves, and the union of the 
vena? arcuatse, which gives the appearance of a marginal vein to Myrtaceae, 
t ;ikes place, although less regularly, in Punica; the convolute cotyledons of 
Punica are only in Myrtacea? what those of Chamsemeles are in Pomaceae, a 
curious but unimportant exception to the general structure; and the solitary 
character of the pulpy coat of the seeds will hardly be deemed by itself suffi- 
cient to characterize Granateae. The place of Punica in the order will be pro- 
bably near Sonneratia. There is no instance of a blue flower in the order. 

Geography. Natives of hot countries both within and without the tropics ; 
great numbers are found in Suutb America and the East Indies, not many in 
Africa, and a considerable proportion <>t the order in New Holland and the 
South Sea Islands ; but the genera of those countries are mostly peculiar to 



64 

them. Myrtus communis, the most northern species of the order, is native of 
the south of Europe. 

Properties. The pellucid dotting of the leaves and other parts indicates 
the presence of a fragrant aromatic or pungent volatile oil, which gives the 
principal quality to the products of the order. To this are due the grateful 
perfume of the Guava fruit, the powerful aroma of the flower-buds of Caryo- 
phyllus aromaticus, called by the English Cloves, and the balsamic odour of 
the eastern fruits called the Jamrosade and the Rose Apple. Along with this 
is frequently mixed an astringent principle, which sometimes predominates, to 
the suppression of any other property. The following are some of the less 
known instances of the existence of these and other qualities. The fruit of 
various Eugenias are found by travellers in the forests of Brazil to bear very 
agreeable fruit. Pr. Max. Trav. 75. A fruit of Brazil, called Jaboticabeiras, 
brought from the forests to the towns of St. Paul and Tejuco, belongs to this 
order ; it is said to be delicious. PI. Usuelles, 29. The young flower-buds 
of Calyptranthes aromatica have the flavour and quality of Cloves, for which 
they might be advantageously substituted, according to M. Auguste St. 
Hilaire. Ibid. no. 14. The volatile oil of Cajeputi is distilled from the leaves 
of Melaleuca leucadendron, and is well known as a powerful sudorific, and 
useful external application in chronic rheumatism. Ainslie, 1. 260. It is 
considered carminative, cephalic, and emmenagogue, and is, no doubt, a highly 
diffusible stimulant, antispasmodic, and diaphoretic. It has also the power of 
dissolving caoutchouc. Ibid. The root of Eugenia racemosa (Stravadium) 
has a slightly bitter, but not unpleasant taste. It is considered by the Hindoo 
doctors valuable on account of its aperient, deobstruent, and cooling properties; 
the bark is supposed to possess properties similar to Cinchona. Ibid. 2. 65. 
A kind of gum Kino is yielded by Eucalyptus resinifera, which is occasionally 
sold in the medicine bazars of India. Ibid. 1. 185. Other species of Euca- 
lyptus yield a large quantity of tannin, which has been even extracted from 
the trees in New Holland, and sent to the English market. The efficacy of 
the bark of the root of the Pomegranate as a remedy for tape-worm is well 
established in India. Ibid. 2. 175. The leaves of Glaphyria nitida, called 
by the Malays The Tree of Long Life, (Kayo Umur Panjang,) "probably 
from its maintaining itself at elevations where the other denizens of the forest 
have ceased to exist," afford at Bencoolen a substitute for tea ; and it is known 
to the natives by the name of the Tea Plant. Linn. Trans. 14. 129. 

The following are the sections of this order : 

1. Cham^laucie-s:. 

Dec. Diet. Class, v. 11. (1826) ; Prodr. 3. 208. (1829.) 
Lobes of the calyx 5. Petals the same number. Stamens in a single row, 
distinct or somewhat polyadelphous, sometimes partly sterile. Fruit dry, 
1-celled ; ovula numerous, erect, attached to the centre, or a central placenta. — 
Heath like New Holland shrubs. Bracteola 2, under the flower, distinct, or 
combined, or even operculiform. 

Examples. Chamaelaucium, Calytrix. 

2. Leptosperme.s:. 

Leptospermese, Dec. Diet. Class. 11. (1826) ; Prodr. 3. 209. (1829.) 
Lobes of the calyx 4 or 6. Petals the same number. Stamens distinct, 
or polyadelphous. Fruit dry, many-celled. — Shrubs or trees, natives of New 
Holland and the neighbouring countries. Leaves opposite or alternate. 
Inflorescence various ; the flowers sometimes almost immersed in the stem. 
Examples. Lcptospermum, Melaleuca, Eucalyptus. 



65 

3. Myrteje. 
Myrteae, Dec. Did. Class. 11. (1826) ; Prodr. 3. 230. (1829.) 
Sepals 4 ov 5. Petals the same number. Stamens distinct. Fruit fleshy, 

many-celled. — Trees or shrubs, mostly intra- tropical, very few from New 

Holland. 

Examples. Myrtus, Eugenia. 

4. Barringtonieje. 
Barringtoniea?, Dec. Diet. Class. 11. (1826) ; Prodr. 3. 288. (1829.) 
Lobes of the calyx from 4 to 6. Petals as many. Stamens very nume- 
rous, in several rows, equally and shortly monadelphous. Fruit berried or, 
dry, indehiscent, with several cells. Cotyledons large, fleshy. — Trees. 
Leaves not dotted, alternate, or almost opposite or whorled, entire or serrate. 
Flowers in racemes or panicles. Probably not belonging to the order. 
Examples. Barringtonia, Stravadium. 



LVII. COMBRETACEjE. The Myrobalan Tribe. 

foMBncTAcE*, R. Brown Prodr. 351. (1810), incidentally without a character ; A. Rich. 
Diet. Class. 4. 353. (1823); Dec. Prodr. 3. 9. (1828) ; Mcmoirc (1828.)— Myhobola.nejb, 
Juss. Diet. Sc. Nat. 31. 458. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens double 
the number of the petals, concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of one cell, 
with pendulous ovules hanging from the apex of the cavity, no stipulae, oblong 
petals, and convolute cotyledons. 

Anomalies. Often apetalous. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, with a 4- or 5-lobed deciduous limb. Petals 
arising from the orifice of the calyx, alternate with the lobes ; sometimes wanting. Stamciis 
arising from the same part, twice as many as the segments of the calyx, very rarely equal to 
them in number, or 3 times as many ; filaments distinct, subulate ; anthers 2-celled, bursting 
longitudinally. Ovarium 1 -celled, with from 2 to 4 ovules, hanging from the apex of the 
cavity; style 1 ; stigma simple. Fruit drupaceous, baccate, or nut-like, 1-celled, by abortion 
l-seeded, indehiscent, often winged. Seed pendulous, without albumen; embryo with tho 
radicle turned towards the hiluin; plumu/a inconspicuous ; cotyledons leafy, usually convo- 
lute, occasionally plaited. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate or opposite, without stipulas, 
entire. Spikes axillary or terminal. 

Affinities. " These may be placed indifferently in the vicinity of Sanla- 
laceee and Elamgnere, or of Onagrariae and Myrtaceee, approaching the former 
by the apetalous genera, and the latter by those which have petals." Dec. 
To Myrtaceae and Melastomacese they are related through Memecyleae, and 
, especially to the former, by Punica, with which they agree in the structure of 
their embryo. In the latter respect they also accord with Rhizophoreae and 
Vochyaceaa ; and with Alangieas and Onagrariae in the general structure of the 
flower. With Santalaceae and Elaeagneae the apetalous genera agree in many 
important particulars. 

Decandolle has two sections.: 

1. TERMINALIE.E. 

Embryo cylindrical, elliptical. Cotyledons rolled spirally. Calyx 5-cleft. 
Petals often wanting. Stamens 10. 

19 



2. CombretejE. 

Embryo cylindrical, elliptical, or angular. Cotyledons thick, plaited irre- 
gularly and longitudinally. Calyx 4 -6-cleft. Petals 4-5. Stamens 8-10. 

Geography. All natives of the tropics of India, Africa, and America. 
No species is extra-tropical. 

Properties. Mostly astringents. Bucida Buceras yields a bark used for 
tanning. Terminalia Vernix is said to furnish the Chinese varnish, the juice 
and exhalation of which are poisonous ; but this is at least doubtful. The bark 
of Conocarpus racemosa, one of the plants called Mangroves in Brazil is used 
greatly at Rio Janeiro for tanning. Pr. Max. Trav. 206. The fruit of the 
Terminalia bellerica, or the Belleric Myrobalan, is an astringent, tonic, and 
attenuant. Ainslic, 1. 236. That of the Terminalia Chebula is much more 
astringent. The bark of Terminalia alata is astringent and antifebrile. Ibid. 
2. 193. The fruit of Terminalia Chebula, as well as the galls of the same 
plant, are very astringent, and highly valued by dyers : with alum they give a 
durable yellow, and with a ferruginous mud an excellent black. Ibid. 2. 128. 
The root of T. latifolia is given in Jamaica in diarrhoea. Ibid. 

Examples. Combretum, Bucida, Terminalia. 



LVIII. ALANGIE.E. 

Alangieje, Dec. Prodr. 3. 203. (1828.) 



Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with numerous perigynous stamens* 
concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium with several cells, definite pendulous 
ovula, exstipulate leaves, flat cotyledons, and linear petals. 

Anomalies. None. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, eampanulate, 5-10-toothed. Petals 5-10, linear, 
reflexed. Stamens long-, exserted, 2 or 4 times as numerous as the petals ; filaments distinct, 
villous at the base ; anthers adnatc, linear, 2-celled, turned inwards, often empty. Disk fleshy 
at the base of the limb of the calyx. Drupe oval, somewhat crowned by the calyx, fleshy, 
slightly ribbed, and downy; nucleus 1-celled, bony, with a foramen at the apex. Seed 1, or 
according to Rheedc 3, inverted, ovate ; albumen fleshy, brittle ; embryo straight ; radicle 
long, ascending ; cotyledons flat, foliaceous, cordate-ovate. — Large trees. Branches often 
spiny. Leaves alternate, without stipulre, entire, without dots. Flowers fascicled, axillary. 
Pru.it eatable. 

Affinities. " Differ from Myrtacese in their more numerous petals, adnate 
anthers, 1-celled fruit, and pendulous albuminous seeds. Agree with Combre- 
tacese in the contracted tube of the calyx, 1-celled fruit, and pendulous seeds ; 
but differ in the number of the petals, adnate anthers, albuminous seeds, and 
flat cotyledons. The order disagrees entirely with Melastomaceae and Ona- 
grarice, in the form of the anthers, and 1-celled fruit. It in some measure . 
approaches Halorageae in the structure of the seed, but recedes from them in 
habit, 1-celled fruit, and single style." Dec. Prodr. 3. 203. 

Geography. Natives of the East Indies. 

Properties. Alangium decapetalum and hexapetalum are said by the 
Malays to have a purgative hydragogic property. Their roots are aromatic. 

Example. Alancrium. 



67 



LIX. ELiEAGNE^E. The Oleaster Tribe. 

EljEAONI, Juss. Gen. 75. (1789.)— Eljeagnejr, Ach. Rich. Monogr. (1823); lAndl. 
Synopsis, 20a (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite erect ovula, a tabular 
inferior calyx with the stamens alternate with its segments, and leprous leaves. 
Anomalies. None. 

Essential Character. — Blowers dioecious, rarely monoclinous. Stamens : Calyx 4« 
parted; stamens 3, 4, or 8, sessile; anthers 2-cclled. Pistil: Calyx inferior, tubular, per- 
sistent; the limb entire, or 2-4-toothed. Ovarium superior, simple, 1-celled; ovulum solitary, 
ascending, stalked; stigma simple, subulate, glandular. Fruit crustaceous, enclosed within 
the calyx become succulent. Seed erect ; embryo straight, surrounded by very thin fleshy 
albumen; radicle short, inferior; cotyledons fleshy. — Trees or shrubs, covered with leprous 
scales. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, without stipula?. Flowers axillary, often fragrant. 

Affinities. Its leprous leaves, superior fruit, and apetalous flowers, will at 
all times distinguish the Oleaster tribe, which touches at one point Thymeleeae, 
from which it is known by the position of its ovulum ; at another Proteaceae, 
known by their valvate irregular calyxes and dehiscent fruit ; at a third Santa- 
laces, which have the ovarium inferior ; and also at a fourth Combretacea?, 
which have petals, convolute cotyledons, and a superior calyx. 

Geography. The whole of tire northern hemisphere, as far as the equator, 
is occupied more or less by this family, from Canada and Japan to Guiana and 
Java : they are not known south of the line. 

Properties. The berries of Hippophre rhamnoides are occasionally eaten ; 
the fruit of Elaeagnus orientalis is almost as large as a Jujube, and is known in 
Persia as an article of the dessert, under the name of Zinzeyd ; that of E, 
arborea and conferta is eaten in Nipal. 

Examples. Elreagnus, Hippophse, Shepherdia, Conuleum, 



LX. PROTEACEAE. 

Pboteaceje, Juss. Gen. (17S9); R. Brown, in Linn. Trans. 10. 15. (1809); Prodr. 363. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite erect ovula, dehiscent 
fruit, a tubular inferior calyx with the stamens opposite its segments, and a 
valvate aestivation. 

Anomalies. The aestivation of Franklandia is induplicate, according to 
Mr. Brown. 

Essential Character. Calyx 4-leaved, or 4-cleft, with a valvular aestivation. Stamen* 
4, sometimes in part sterile, opposite the segments of the calyx. Ovariuvi simple, superior ; 
style simple ; stigma undivided. Fruit deliiscent or indehiscent. Seed without albumen; 
embryo with two, or occasionally several cotyledons, straight; radicle inferior. — Shrubs or 
small trees. Branches usually umbellate. Leaves hard, dry, divided or undivided, opposite or 
alternate, without stipulce. 

Affinities. There is no difficulty in distinguishing this order ; the hard 
woody texture of whose leaves, and irregular tubular calyxes having a val- 
vate aestivation, stamens placed upon the lobes, along with a dehiscent fruit, 
at once characterize it. By these characters it is known from Elaeagneae, and 
all other orders. The most complete systematic monograph that has ever been 



68 

written in Botany, is Mr. Brown's upon these, in the Linaean Society's Trans- 
actions, from which I find much to extract. According to this botanist, " the 
radicula pointing towards the base of the fruit in all Proteaceae, is a circum- 
stance of the greatest importance, in distingushing the order from the most 
nearly related tribes ; and its constancy is more remarkable, as it is not accom- 
panied by the usual position or even uniformity in the situation of the external 
umbilicus." Linn. Trans. 10. 36. Mr. Brown has also remarked, with his 
usual acuteness, that in consequence of the presence of hypogynous squamae, 
we may expect to find octandrous genera belonging to this family. See Flin- 
ders, 2. 606. The same writer observes (Flinders 568), that there is a pecu- 
liarity in the structure of the stamina of certain genera of Proteaceae, namely 
Simsia, Conospermum, and Synaphea, in all of which these organs are con- 
nected in such a manner that the cohering lobes of two different anthers form 
only one cell. Another anomaly equally remarkable exists in Synaphea, the 
divisions of whose barren filament so intimately cohere with the stigma, as to 
be absolutely lost in its substance, while the style and undivided part of the fila- 
ment remain perfectly distinct. In another place he remarks : " A circumstance 
occurs in some species of Persoonia, to which I have met with nothing similar 
in any other plant : the ovarium in this genus, whether it contain one or two 
ovula, has never more than one cell ; but in several of the 2-seeded species, a 
cellular substance is, after fecundation, interposed between the ovula, and this 
gradually indurating, acquires in the ripe fruit the same consistence as the puta- 
men itself, from whose substance it cannot be distinguished ; and thus, a fruit 
originally of one cell becomes bilocular ; the cells, however, are not parallel, as 
in all those cases where they exist in the unimpregnated ovarium, but diverge 
more or less upwards." Brown in Lin. Trans. 10. 35. This is subsequently 
explained, by the same author (King's Appendix), by the cohesion of the outer 
membranes of the two collateral ovula, originally distinct, but finally constituting 
this anomalous dissepiment, the inner membrane of the ovulum consequently 
forming the outer coat of the seed. 

Geography. " The favorite station of Proteaceae is in dry, stony, exposed 
places, especially near the shore, where they occur also, though more rarely, 
in loose sand. Scarcely any of them require shelter, and none a good soil. A 
few are found in wet bogs, or even in shallow pools of fresh water ; and one, 
the Embothrium ferrugineum of Cavanilles, grows, according to him, in salt 
marshes. Respecting the height to which plants of this order ascend, a few 
facts are already known. The authors of the Flora Peruviana mention, in gen- 
eral terms, several species as being alpine ; and Humboldt, in his valuable 
Chart of Equinoctial Botany, has given the mean height of Embothrium 
emarginatum about 9300 feet, assigning it a range of only 300 feet. On the 
summits of the mountains of Van Diemen's Island, in aboxit 43° south lat., at 
the computed height about 4000 feet, I have found species of Embothrium, as 
well as other genera, hitherto observed in no other situation. Embothrium, 
however, as it is the most southern genus of any extent, so it is also, as might 
have been presumed, the most alpine of the family. Two genera only of this 
order are found in more than one continent : Rhopala, the most northern genus, 
though chiefly occurring in America, is to be met with also in Cochin China, 
and in the Malay archipelago ; and Embothrium, the most southern genus of 
any extent, is common to New Holland and America. It is remarkable, that. 
Proteaceaj are almost entirely confined to the southern hemisphere. This ob- 
servation originated with Dr. Dryander ; and the few exceptions hitherto known 
to it, occur considerably within the tropic. The fact is the more deserving of 
notice, as their diffusion is very extensive in the southern hemisphere, not 
merely in latitude and longitude, but also in elevation ; for they are not only 
found to exist in all the great southern continents, but seem to be generally, 



69 

though very unequally, spread over their different regions : they have been ob- 
served also in the larger islands of New Zealand and New Caledonia ; but 
hitherto neither in any of the lesser ones, nor in Madagascar. As in America 
they have been found in Terra del Fuego, in Chile, Peru, and even Guiana, it 
is reasonable to conclude that the intermediate regions are not entirely destitute 
of them. But with respect to this continent, it may be observed, that the num- 
ber of species seems to be comparatively small ; their organization but little 
varied ; and further, that they have a much greater affinity with those of New 
Holland than of Africa. Of the botany of South Africa scarce any thing is 
known, except that of the Cape of Good Hope, where this family occurs in the 
greatest abundance and variety ; but even from the single fact of a genuine 
species of Protea having been found in Abyssinia by Bruce, it may be pre- 
sumed that in some degree they are also spread over this continent. With the 
shores, at least, of New Holland, under which I include Van Diemen's Island, 
we are now somewhat better acquainted ; and in every known part of these, 
Proteaceae have been met with. But it appears, that both in Africa and New 
Holland the great mass of the order exists about the latitude of the Cape of 
Good Hope, in which parallel it forms a striking feature in the vegetation of both 
continents. What I am about to advance respecting the probable distribution 
of this family in New Holland must be very cautiously received, as it is in fact 
chiefly deduced from the remarks I have myself made in Captain Flinders' 
Voyage, and subsequently during my short stay in the settlements of New 
South Wales and Van Diemen's Island, aided by what was long ago ascertained 
by Sir Joseph Banks, and by a transitory inspection of an herbarium collected 
on the west coast, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Shark's Bay, by the bota- 
nists attached to the expedition of Captain Baudin. From knowledge so 
acquired, I am inclined to hazard the following observations : The mass of the • 
order, though extending through the whole of the parallel already mentioned, 
is by no means equal in every part of it ; but on the southwest coast forms a 
more decided feature in the vegetation of the country, and contains a far greater 
number of species, than on the east ; and in that part of the south coast which 
was first examined by Captain Flinders, it seems to be more scanty than at 
either of the extremes. On the west coast also, the species, upon the whole, 
are more similar to those of Africa than on the east, where they bear a some- 
what greater resemblance to the American portion of the order. From the 
parallel of the map, the order diminishes in both directions ; but the diminution 
towards the north is probably more rapid on the east than on the west coast. 
Within the tropic, on the east coast, no genera have hitherto been observed, 
which are not also found beyond it ; unless that section of Grevillea, which I 
have called Cycloptera, be considered as a genus : whereas, at the southern 
limit of the order several genera make their appearance, which do not occur in 
its chief parallel. The most numerous genera are also the most widely diffused. 
Thus Grevillea, Hakea, Banksia, and Persoonia, extensive in species in the 
order in which they are here mentioned, are spread nearly in the same propor- 
tion ; and they are likewise the only genera that have as yet been observed 
within the tropic. Of such of the remaining genera as consist of several 
species, some, as Isopogon, Petrophila, Conospermum, and Lambertia, are found 
in every part of the principal parallel, but hardly exist beyond it. Others, as 
Josephea and Synaphea, equally limited to this parallel, have been observed 
only towards its western extremity ; while Embothrium (comprehending, for 
the present, under this name all the many-seeded plants of the order), which is 
chiefly found on the east coast, and makes very little progress towards the 
west, advances to the utmost limit of south latitude, and there ascends to the 
summits of the highest mountains. Genera consisting of one or very few 
species, and which exhibit generally the most remarkable deviations from the 



70 

usual structure of the order, are the most local, and are found either in the 
principal parallel, or in the highest latitude. The range of species in the 
whole of the order seems to be very limited ; and the few cases which may be 
considered as exceptions to this, occur in the most extensive genera, and in such 
of their species as are most strictly natives of the shores. Thus Banksia inte- 
grifolia, which grows more within the influence of the sea than any plant of 
the order, is probably also the most widely extended, at least in one direction, 
being found within the tropic, and in as high a latitude as 40°. It is remarka- 
ble, however, that with so considerable a range in latitude, its extension in lon- 
gitude is comparatively small : and it is still more worthy of notice, that no 
species of this family has been found common to the eastern and western shores 
of New Holland." Brown in Lin. Trans. 10. 

Properties. Handsome evergreen shrubs much prized by gardeners for 
the neatness of their appearance, and beauty or singularity of their flowers ; 
but of no known use, except as fire-wood, for which they are commonly em- 
ployed at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Examples. Protea, Banksia, Dryandra, Grevillea. 



LXI. PENiEACE^E. 



Pzkxacbje, /?. Brown, verbally (1820); Guillcmin in Diet. Class, 13. 171.(1823); Marlius 

Hart. Monac. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite ovula, a 4-celled ovarium, 
and a solid homogeneous embryo. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, with 2or more bracteoeat its base, hypocrateriform, 
with a 4-lobed limb valvate in aestivation, or deeply 4-parted imbricated in aestivation. Sta- 
mens either 4, arising from below the recesses of the limb, with which they alternate, or 8, 
arising from near the base of the calyx ; anthers 2-celled, turned inwards, usually with 
membranous valves lying on the face of a thick fleshy connectivum, sometimes with 
fleshy valves, and an obliterated connectivum. Ovarium superior, 4-celled, with a simple 
style and 4 stigmas ; ovules either ascending, collateral, in pairs, or solitary and suspended ; 
the foramen always next the" placenta. Fruit capsular, 4-cellcd, dehiscent or indehiscent? 
Seed erect or inverted : testa brittle ; nucleus a solid fleshy mass, with no distinction of albu- 
men or embryo ; radicular end next the liilurn ? hilurn fungous. — Shrubs. Leaves opposite, 
imbricated, without stipulae. flowers terminal and axillary, usually red. 

Affinities. According to an observation of Jussieu, this order is allied to 
Epacridere ; but I confess I am unable to perceive on what account. To me it 
appears related in the first degree to some apetalous dicotyledons, such as Pro- 
teaceae, with some of which the species agree in habit, and in the case of 
Penaea fuiticulosa even in the thickened connectivum and the structure of the 
lobes of the stigma, each of which is strikingly like that of a Grevillea. To 
Bruniaceae they must be compared, notwithstanding the presence of petals in 
that order, for the sake of Linconia, in which the pendulous ovula agree with 
P. marginata (Geissoloma m.) and the thickened connectivum of the anthers, 
which is common to several species, although not present in Geissoloma. The 
fungous hilum of ihe seed is similar to that of Poly gales, with which, however, 
Penneacese have no other apparent relation. 

This order exhibits a singular instance of two distinct kinds of aestivation 
and attachment of ovula among species which it is impossible to separate from 
each other. In true Penaea the aestivation is valvate, and the ovula ascending, 
while in Geissoloma the former is imbricate, and the latter suspended. Penaea 



71 

has also tetrandrous flowers, with peculiarly fleshy anthers, while Geissoloma. 
has octandrous flowers, with no peculiar fleshiness in the anthers. 

Geography. Evergreen shrubs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Properties. A subviscid, sweetish, somewhat nauseous gum-resin, called 
Sarcocolla, is produced by Penaea mucronata (and others). It was supposed by 
the Arabians to possess, as its name indicates, the power of agglutinating 
wounds. Ainslie, 1. 380. It contains a peculiar principle, named Sarcocollin, 
which has never been detected in any other vegetable matter, and having the 
property of forming oxalic acid, being treated with nitric acid. Dec. 

Examples. Penaea, Geissoloma. 



LXII. ARISTOLOCHI.E. The Birthwort Tribe. 

Aristolochi.e, Juss. Gen. (1789) ; R. Brown Prodr. 349. (1810); Lindley's Synopsis, 224. 
(1829)— Pistolochinje and Asabinje, Link Handb. 1. 367. (1S29.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite ovules, a many-celled 
ovarium, and a valvate calyx. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers rnonoclinous. Calyx superior, tubular, with 3 seg- 
ments which are valvate in aestivation, sometimes regular, sometimes very unequal. Stamens 
5 to 10, epigynous, distinct or adhering to the style and stigmas. Ovarium inferior, 3- or 
6-celled ; Ovules numerous, horizontally attached to the axis ; style simple, siigmas radiating, 
as numerous as the cells of the ovarium. Fruit dry or succulent, 3- or 6-celled, many-seeded. 
Seeds with a very minute embryo placed in the base of fleshy albumen. — Herbaceous plants 
or shrubs, the latter often climbing. Leaves alternate, simple, stalked, often with leafy stipu- 
la;. Flowers axillary, solitary, brown or some dull colour. 

Affinities. These are usually stationed upon the limits of monocotyle- 
dons and dicotyledons, agreeing with the former in the ternary division of the 
flower, and in some respects in habit ; with the latter in the more essential 
points of their structure. Their affinity to Cytinese, an order itself upon the 
limits of the vascular and cellular divisions of vegetables, is undoubtedly very 
intimate. Decandolle, in the Botanicon Gallictivi, places them between 
Elaeagneee and Euphorbiaceae, to the former of which they approach through 
Asarum, but -with the latter of which their relation is not obvious. To Passi- 
floreae they may be compared, on account of the twining habit, alternate leaves, 
and leafy habit of many species ; and Cucurbitaceae, on account of their 
twining habit, and inferior ovarium. 

Geography. Very common in the equinoctial parts of South America, 
and rare in other countries ; found sparingly in North America, Europe, and 
Siberia ; more frequently in the Basin of the Mediterranean, and in small 
numbers in India. 

Properties. These are in general tonic and stimulating ; Aristolochia is, 
as its name implies, reputed emmenagogue, especially the European species 
rotunda, longa, and Clematitis. An infusion of the dried leaves of Aristolo- 
chia bracteata is given by native Indian practitioners as an anthelmintic ; fresh 
bruised and mixed with castor oil, they are considered as a valuable remedy in 
obstinate psora. The root of Aristol. indica is supposed by the Hindoos to pos- 
sess emmenagogue and antarthritic virtues ; it is very bitter. Arist. odoratissima, 
a native of the West Indies, is a valuable bitter, and alexipharmic. Jlinslie, 
2. 5. The Aristolochia fragi - antissima, called in Peru Bejuca de la Estrella, 
or Star Reed, is highly esteemed in Peru as a remedy against dysenteries, ma- 



72 

lignant inflammatory fevers, colds, rheumatic pains, &c. The root is the 
part used. See Lambert's Illustration of Cinchona, p. 150, &c. The power 
of the root of Aristolochia serpentaria in arresting the progress of the 
worst forms of typhus, is highly spoken of by Barton, 2. 51 . [Bigelow 3. 62.] 
It has an aromatic smell, approaching that of Valerian, with a warm, bitter- 
ish, pungent taste. Asarum canadense, called Wild Ginger in the United 
States, is nearly allied in medical properties to the Aristolochia serpentaria. 
Barton, 2. 88. [Bigelow, 1.49.] The root of Asarum europium, or Asa- 
rabacca, is used by native practitioners in India as a powerful evacuant : they 
also employ the bruised and moistened leaves as an external application round 
the eyes in certain cases of ophthalmia. Ainslic, 1. 24. The leaves and roots 
of the same plant are emetic ; but this quality is lost, according to Decandolle, 
by keeping or by steeping in vinegar. 

Examples. Aristolochia, Asarum, Trichopus. 



LXIII. CYTINE^E 



Cvtine-e, Adolphe Brongn. in Ann. des. Sc. Nat. 1. 29. (1824). — Pistiaceje Agardh. Aphor, 
Bot. p. 240.(1826). — Khizanthe.e, Blume in Batav. Zcitung, (1825); Flora Java:, 
(1829).— Aristolochije, § Cytinese, Link Handb. 1. 368. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous leafless dicotyledons, with indefinite ovules, a 1-cel- 
led ovarium with parietal placentae and indehiscent fruit. 
Anomalies. No spiral vessels exist in these plants. 

Essential Character. — Flowers dicecious, monoecious, or monoclinous. Calyx superior, 
with a limb divided into several divisions, which are imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 
cohering in a solid central column, from the apex of which arise some horned processes ; 
anthers adnate, either bursting longitudinally and externally, or having their inside cellular, 
and discharging their pollen by orifices at the apex. Ovarium inferior, 1- or many-celled, 
with broad parietal placentse, which are covered with an indefinite number of minute ovules. 
Fruit an inferior pulpy berry. Seeds extremely minute, (their nucleus consisting of a mass 
of grumous matter. Blume.) — Parasitical brown or colourless plants, without spiral vessels. 
Stem simple, covered with a few leaves in the form of scales. Flou-crs in spikes or heads, or 
solitary. 

Affinities. These very curious plants are all parasitical, with scales in 
room of leaves. Among them is the very remarkable plant described by Mr. 
Brown in the 13th vol. of the Linnaaan Society's Transactions, under the name 
of Rafflesia, to which I refer those who are desirous either of knowing what 
is the structure of one of the most anomalous of vegetables, or of finding a 
model of botanical investigation and sagacity, or of consulting one of the 
most beautiful specimens of botanical analysis which Mr. Bauer has ever 
made. The affinity of these plants appears to be greater with Aristolochia^ 
than any other phaenogamous tribe. But the most interesting circumstance of 
their organization is, that they exhibit in some degree the structure both of 
flowering and flowerless, or of vascular and cellular plants. Like flowering or 
vascular plants, they have a distinct floral envelope, and distinct sexual organs, 
not essentially, or in fact very, different from those of ordinary vegetables. 
Like flowerless or cellular plants, they are destitute of all trace of spiral 
vessels, and their seeds appear to be composed of a homogeneous mass of 
grumous matter, in which no radicle or cotyledons, no ascending or descending 
extremity, no definite points of vegetation, can be distinguished. 

Geography. Natives of the south of Europe, and the East Indies. 



73 

Properties. Probably all astringents. Cytinus contains Gallic acid ; 
and, according to M. Pelletier (Bull. Pharm. 1813. p. 290.) it has the sin- 
gular property of precipitating gelatine, although it does not contain tannin. 
Rafflesia is used in Java as a powerful astringent, for certain purposes. 

Example. Cytinus. 



LXIV. SANTALACEiE. The Sanders- Wood Tribe. 

Santalacejs, JR. Brown Prodr. 350. (1810); Juss. Diet, des Sc. Nat. 47. 287. (1827) ; hind. 
Synops. 207. (1829.)— Osyride^, Juss. in Ann. Mas. vol. 5. (1802).— Nyssace^e, Juss. 
in Diet, des Sciences, 35. 267. (1825.)— OsyrinjE, Link Handb. 1. 371. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite pendulous ovules, solitary 
flowers, and a 1-celled ovarium, with a tubular superior calyx. 

Anomalies. Osyris differs in its dioecious flowers, in having a trifid calyx 
with only three stamens, and, according to the younger Gartner, an erect seed 
with an embryo curved and lying a little out of the axis of the albumen, with 
its radicle superior, and therefore turned away from the lrilum. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4- or 5-cleft, half-coloured, with valvate aestiva- 
tion. Stamens 4 or 5, opposite the segments of the calyx, and inserted into their bases. 
Ovarium 1-celled, with from 1 to 4 ovules, fixed to the top of a central placenta near the sum- 
mit ; style 1 ; stigma often lobed. Fruit 1-seeded, hard and dry. and drupaceous. Albumen 
fleshy, of the same form as the seed; embryo in the axis, inverted, taper. — Trees or shrubs, 
sometimes under-shrubs or herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, or nearly opposite, undi- 
vided, sometimes minute, and resembling stipulre. Flowers in spikes, seldom in umbels, or 
solitary, small. R. Br. 

Affinities. Closely allied to Elreagnere and Thymelaea. Mr. Brown 
observes (Flinders, 569.) that one of the most remarkable characters of this 
tribe consists in its unilocular ovarium containing more than one, but always a 
determinate number of ovula, which are pendulous, and attached to the apex 
of a central receptacle. This receptacle varies in its figure in the different 
genera, in some being filiform, in others nearly filling the cavity of the ova- 
rium. It appears, from the botanical Appendix to Captain Flinders' Voyage, 
that there is a very remarkable species of Exocarpus (a genus belonging to 
this tribe,) which bears its flowers upon the margins of dilated foliaceous 
branches, analogous to those of Xylophylla. I refer Nyssace* to this, with- 
out any doubt. According to Jussieu, who is the only botanist that has 
noticed that tribe, it contains but the single genus Nyssa, differing from Elae- 
agnea? in its inferior ovarium, albuminous pendulous seed, and superior radicle. 
It is more nearly allied to Santalacea? ; but its ovarium contains, instead of 
three ovules adhering to a central placenta, one only, which is pendulous, and 
its embryo is not cylindrical, but has enlarged foliaceous cotyledons. It has been 
long since remarked by Mr. Brown, that Anthobolus and Exocarpus differ 
from Santalacere in having a superior ovarium : Jussieu, in his last observa- 
tions upon this tribe, does not absolutely separate those genera, but he suggests 
the possibility of their forming a new family along with Cervantesia of the 
Flora Peruviana. 

Geography. Found in Europe and North America, in the form of little 
obscure weeds ; in New Holland, the East Indies, and the South Sea Islands, 
as large shrubs, or small trees. 

Properties. Sanders-wood is the produce of Santalum album. In India 
it is esteemed by the native doctors as possessing sedative and cooling 

20 



74 



qualities, and as a valuable medicine in gonorrhoea. It is also employed as 
a perfume. Jlinslie, 1. 377. The Thesiums are scentless and slightly astrin- 
gent. Dec. 

Examples. Santalum, Nyssa, Thesium. 



LXV. THYMELJE^. The Mezereum Tribe. 

Thymel^je, Juss. Gen. 76. (1789) ; B. Br. Prodr. 358. (1810)'; Landless Synopsis, 208. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with .definite pendulous ovula, a single 
1 -celled superior ovarium, indehiscent fruit, and exstipulate leaves. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, tubular, coloured ; the limb 4-cleft, seldom 5-cleft, 
■with an imbricated aestivation. Corolla 0, or sometimes scale-like petals in the orifice of the 
calyx. Stamens definite, inserted in the tube or its orifice, often 8, sometimes 4, less fre>- 
quentlv 2 ; when equal in number to the segments of the calyx or fewer, opposite to them ; 
anthers 2-celled, dehiscing lengthwise in the middle. Ovarium solitary, with one solitary 
pendulous ovulum; style 1 ; stigma undivided. Fruit hard, dry, and nut-like, or drupace- 
ous. Albumen none, or thin and fleshy ; embryo straight, inverted ; cotyledons plano-convex ; 
radicle short, superior ; plumula inconspicuous. — Stem shrubby, very seldom herbaceous, 
with tenacious bark. Leaves without stipulre, alternate or opposite, entire. Flowers capitate 
or spiked, terminal or axillary, occasionally solitary. B. Br. 

Affinities. Closely akin to Santalacere, Elsagnese, and Proteacese, from 
all which they are readily known by obvious characters ; especially from the 
two latter by the pendulous ovula, and from the former by the inferior calyx. 
Aquilarine*, placed by Decandolle near Chailletiacea?, among polypetalous 
orders, differ from Thymelreae chiefly in their 2-valved fruit ; the scales in the 
throat of several genera of Thymelseas being of the same nature as the bodies 
wrongly called petals in Aquilarinese. 

Geography. Natives sparingly of Europe, and the northern parts of the 
world, common in the cooler parts of India and South America, and abundant 
at the Cape of Good Hope and in New Holland. 

Properties. The great feature of this order is the causticity of the bark, 
which acts upon the skin as a vesicatory, and causes excessive pain in the 
mouth if chewed. A decoction of it is said to have been found useful in vene- 
real complaints. The berries of D. Laureola are poisonous to all animals 
except birds. Dec. The bark is composed of interlaced fibres, which are 
extremely tough, but which are easily separable ; in Jamaica a species is 
found which is called the Lace Bark Tree, in consequence of the beautifully 
reticulated appearance of the inner bark : cordage has been manufactured 
from several species. A very soft kind of paper is made from the inner bark 
of Daphne Bholua, in Nipal. Dec. Prodr. 68. Daphne Gnidium and Pas- 
serina tinctoria are used in the south of Europe to dye wool yellow. 

Examples. Daphne, Passerina, Struthiola. 



LXVI. HERNANDIEiE. 

HernandiejE, Blume Bijdr. 550. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior tubular deciduoug 
calyx, a single pendulous ovulum, no albumen, lobed cotyledons, and a caly- 
cine involucelhun to the pistillifcrous or monoclinous flowers. 

Anomalies. 



75 % 

Essential Character* — Flower* monoecious or monoclinous, with a calyeine involu- 
ceilum to the pistilliferouB or monoclinous. Calyx petaloid, inferior, tubular, 4-8-parted, decidu- 
ous. Stamens definite, inserted into the calyx in two rows, of which the outer is often sterile ; 
anthers bursting longitudinally. Ovarium superior, 1-celled ; orulum pendulous; style 1, or 
none; stigma peltate. Drupe fibrous, 1-seeded. Seed solitary, pendulous; embryo without 
albumen, inverted; cotyledons somewhat lobed, shrivelled, oily. — Trees. Leaves alternate, 
entire. Spikes or corymbs axillary or terminal. 

Affinities. Adopted from Blume. It appears very near Thymeljeae, dif- 
fering almost solely in the fibrous drupaceous fruit, lobed cotyledons, and the 
presence of a sort of involucrum to the pistilliferous or monoclinous flowers. 
Hernandia has been hitherto referred to Laurinere or Myristicea^, from both of 
which it is obviously very different. Blume refers lnocarpus to the same 
order ; but this measure appears questionable. 

Geography. Natives of the Indian archipelago and Guiana. 

Properties. The bark, seed, and young leaves, are all slightly purgative. 
According to Rumphius, the fibrous roots of Hernandia sonora, chewed and 
applied to wounds caused by the Macassar poison, form an effectual cure. 
The juice of its leaves is a powerful depilatory ; it destroys hair wherever it is 
applied, without pain. The wood appears to be very light. According to 
Aublet, that of H. guianensis takes fire readily from a flint and steel, and is 
used as amadou. 

Example. Hernandia. 



LXVII. AaUILARINE^E. The Agallochum Tribe. 

Aquilarineje, R. Brown Cong. p. 25. (1818) ; Dec. Prodr. 2. 59. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite suspended ovula, a soli- 
tary superior 1-celled ovarium, tubular calyx, and stamina alternately fertile 
and scale-like, arising from the throat. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Calyx turbinate, coriaceous, 5-lobed. Petals 0. Stamens mona- 
delphous, 10 fertile, 10 sterile; the former inserted between the latter, which are petaloid or 
scale-like; anthers innate, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovarium superior, 1-celled, 
ovate, crowned by a short simple stigma ; ovules 2, parietal, suspended, with their foramen in 
their apex, which is tapering and turned to the bottom of the cell. Capsule pyriform, 2-valved 
1-celled, with the valves bearing the seed. Seeds solitary, with an arillus or tail, (probably 
suspended, with the same form as the ovulum, and with the radicle at the opposite extremity 
to the hilum.) — Trees. Leaves alternate, entire. 

Affinities. M. Decandolle places this order between Chailletiacea^ but 
with indications of doubt, and an erroneous character ; and Mr. Brown seems 
willing (Congo 444.) to consider the order a section of Chailletiaeere, adding, 
that it would not be difficult to show its affinity to Thymelseae. In this [ fully 
concur, after an examination of a specimen of Aquilaria Agallochum, for 
which 1 am indebted to the East India Company ; in fact, Aquilarinese chiefly 
differ from Thymetaae in their dehiscent fruit, and probably also in the direction 
of their radicle. In both orders the ovarium is superior and 1-celled, both have 
similar scale-like bodies at the orifice of the calyx, and no petals, both sus- 
pended ovula, a single style, and capitate stigma. 

Geography. Natives of the East Indies. 

Properties. Aloes wood, a fragrant resinous substance, of a dark colour, 
is the inside of the trunk of the Aquilaria ovata and A. Agallochum. It is 



70 

considered a cordial by some Asiatic nations, and has been prescribed in Europe 
in gout and rheumatism. Jlinslie, 1. 479. 
Example. Aquilaria. 



LXVIII. OLACINEiE. 

Olacineje, Mirb. Bull. Philom. n. 75. 377. (1813); Dec. Prodr. 1. 531. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons; with hypogynous definite stamens, 
concrete carpella, an ovarium of 1 cell with a columnar placenta in the axis, 
an imbricated calyx, unsymmetrical flowers, definite (3) pendulous ovules, and 
bifid petals with appendages. 

Anomalies. According to Decandolle and others, the ovarium of some 
consists of several cells, but this is doubtful. Ximenia has entire petals, but it 
is not certain that it belongs to the order. 

Essential Character. — Calyx small, entire, or slightly toothed, finally becoming', in many 
cases, enlarged. Petals, definite, hypogynous, valvate in aestivation, either altogether sepa- 
rate, or cohering in pairs by the intervention of stamina. Stamens definite, part fertile, part 
sterile ; the former varying in number from 3 to 10, hypogynous, usually cehering with the 
petals, and alternate with them ; the latter opposite the petals, to which they in part adhere, 
their upper end resembling an appendage ; filaments compressed; anthers innate, oblong, 
2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovarium superior, l : ceiled, with 3 ovules pendulous from the 
top of a central coluimi or placenta. P. Br. (Style' filiform ; stigma simple. Fruit some- 
what drupaceous, indehisoent, frequently surrounded by the enlarged calyx, 1-celled, 1-seeded. 
Seed erect ; albumen large, fleshy ; embryo small, in the base of albumen, its radicle near the 
hilum. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, entire, without stipulse; occasionally 
wanting. Flowers small, axillary. 

Affinities. M. Decandolle places this' order near Aurantiacese, with which 
it agrees in many respects, differing, however, in the structure of the ovarium, 
the want of a disk, the unsymmetrical flowers, &c. Jussieu, on the contrary, 
regards the affinity as strongest with Sapotese, considering the corolla as mo- 
nopetalous. But the obvious affinity of Olax with Aquilarineae and Samydese 
induces me to concur with Mr. Brown in considering the order nearly akin to 
Santalacese, among Monochlamydese. In the meanwhile its artificial charac- 
ters place it among Thalamiflorae. 

Geography. A small order, consisting of 'tropical or nearly tropical 
shrubs, chiefly found' in the East Indies, New Holland, and Africa. One only 
is known in the West Indies. None have been described from any part of 
South America, south of Dutch Guiana. 

Properties. The wood of Heisteria coccinea is the Partridge wood of the 
cabinet-makers. 

Examples. Olax, Fissilia. 



LXIX. CHAILLETIACE.E. 

Chailletije, R. Brown Cong. p. 23. (1818).— Chailletiace*:, Dec. Prodr. 2.57. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, a superior ovarium with 2 or 3 cells and 5 hypogynous glands 
and alternate stipulate leaves. 

Anomalies. 



77 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, with an incurved valvate aestivation. Petals 5, alter- 
nate with the sepals, and arising from the base of the calyx, usually 2-lobed. Stamens 5, alter- 
nate with the petals, and combined with them at the base ; anthers ovate, versatile. Glands 
usually 5, hypogynous, opposite the petals. Ovarium superior, 2- or 3-cc lied : ovules twin, 

rjndulous ; style simple; stigma obsoletcly 3-lobcd. Fruit drupaceous, rather dry, 1- 2- or 
celled. Seeds solitary, pendulous, without albumen; embryo thick, with a thick superior 
radicle and fleshy cotyledons. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, with two stipule, entire. 
Mowers small, axillary, their peduncle often connate with the petiole. 

Affinities. Whether what are here called petals are not rather abortive 
stamina is doubted by botanists, and hence the station of the order is by one 
referred to Dichlamydea?, and by another to Monochlamydese, and is compared, 
on the one hand, with Terebintacese or Rosacea?, and, on the other, with Sa- 
mydeae and Amentacere. To me it seems that what appear to be petals are so ; 
a fact which it is difficult to doubt, when it is remembered that both organs are 
mere transformations of one common type, and that it is in appearance and po- 
sition only that they differ. Decando'lle stations it between Homalineae and 
Aquilarineae, to the latter of which it has probably most affinity ; it agrees 
with the former in the presence of glands round the ovarium, but differs in its 
superior ovarium with the placenta in the axis, and many other characters. 

Geography. Of the few known species belonging to this order, 2 are 
found in Sierra Leone, 2 in Madagascar, 2 in equinoctial America, and 1 in 
Timor. 

Properties. The fruit of Chailletia toxicaria is said to be poisonous. 

Examples. Chailletia, Leucosia, Tapura. 



LXX. HOMALINEiE. 

Homalineje, R. Brown in Congo, (1818) ; Dec. Prodr. 2. 53. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens, concrete 
carpella, an inferior ovarium of 1 cell with parietal placentae, and petals and 
sepals resembling each other, with glands at their base. 

Anomalies. It is said there are no glands in Napimoga. Astranthus is 
said to have a superior ovarium ; but this requires confirmation. 

Essential Character. — Calyx funnel-shaped, superior, with from 5 to 15 divisions. Petals 
alternate with the segments of the calyx, and equal to them in number. Glands present in 
front of the segments of the calyx. Stamens arising from the base of the petals, either singly 
or in threes or sixes ; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovarium half inferior, 1-celled, 
with numerous ovula; styles from 3 to 5, simple, filiform, or subulate; ovules attached to aa 
many parietal placenta; as there are styles. Fruit berried or capsular. Seeds small, ovate, 
or angular, with an embryo in the middle of fleshy albumen. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alter- 
nate, with deciduous stipulffi, toothed or entire. Flowers in spikes, racemes, or panicles. 

Affinities. According to Mr. Brown, related to Passiflorea, especially to 
Smeathmannia," from which, however, their inferior ovarium distinguishes them, 
to say nothing of their general want of stipulse and glands on the leaves, of the 
presence of glands at the base of the floral envelopes, and of their erect and 
very different habit. With Malesherbiaceee they agree and disagree much, as 
with Passiflorere. From Rosacea^, Bixinea, and Flacourtianeas, to all which 
they have a greater or less degree of affinity, they differ in many obvious par- 
ticulars. Decandolle places them between Samydere and Chailletiaceas, de- 
scribing them as apetalous, but classing them with his Dichlamydeee ; Mr. 
Brown also understands them as without petals ; but I confess I cannot com- 
prehend what petals are, if the inner series of the floral envelopes of these plants 
are not so ; an opinion which their supposed affinity with Passifloreee would 



78 

confirm, if analogy could be admitted as evidence in cases which can be decided 
without it. I may remark, that the statement of M. Decandolle, that the sta- 
mens are opposite the sepals (Prodr. 3. 53.) is inaccurate ; they are, as Mr. 
Brown describes them (Congo) opposite the petals. 

Geography. All tropical, and chiefly African or Indian. Four or five 
species are described from the West Indies and South America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Astranthus, Blackwellia, Homalium. 



LXXI. SAMYDE.E. 



Samydeje, Vent. Mem. Ins. 2. 142. (1807) ; Gcerln. fil. Carp. 3. 238. 242. (1S05) ; Kunth. Nor. 
Gen. 5. 360. (1821) ; Dec. Prodr. 2. 47. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite ovules, a 1-celled ova- 
rium with parietal placentae, dehiscent fruit, monoclinous flowers, perigynous 
monadelphous stamens, and leaves with a mixture of round and oblong dots. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Ch akacter. — Sepals 3, 5, or 7, more or less cohering- at the base, usually coloured 
inside ; aestivation somewhat imbricated, very seldom completely valvate. Petals 0. Stamens 
arising from the tube of the calyx, 2, 3, or 4 times as many as the sepals ; filaments monadel- 
phous, either all bearing anthers, or alternately shorter, villous or ciliated, and alternately 
bearing ovate 2-celled erect anthers. Ovarium superior, 1-celled; style I, filiform; stigma 
capitate, or slightly lobed ; orula indefinite, attached to parietal placenta. Capsule coriaceous, 
with 1 cell and from 3 to 5 valves, many-seeded, the valves dehiscing imperfectly, often some- 
what pulpy inside, and coloured. Seeds fixed to the valves, without order, on the papillose or 
pulpy part, with a fleshy arillus and excavated hilum ; albumen fleshy ; embryo inverted, mi- 
nute ; cotyledons ovate, foliaceous ; radicle pointing to the extremity remote from the hilum. 
— Threes or shrubs. Leaves alternate, often somewhat distichous, simple, entire or toothed, 
evergreen, with stipulse, usually with pellucid dots, which are most frequently oblong. Pe- 
duncles axillary, solitary, or .numerous. 

Affinities. Placed in Dichlamydea^ by Decandolle, who, however, de- 
scribes them as apetalous, " unless the petaloid layer covering the inner sur- 
face of the sepals be considered a corolla," a proposition which it is impossible 
to admit.- This order appears to be of very uncertain affinity. Its fruit ap- 
proximates it to Bixinere, its dotted leaves to Terebintacere, near which Decan- 
dolle stations it, and its perigynous stamens to Rosacea^, with which its alter- 
nate stipulate leaves also ally it. Mr. Brown observes, that Samydere are 
especially distinguished by their leaves having a mixture of round and linear 
pellucid dots, which distinguish them from all the other families with which 
they are likely to be confounded. Congo, 444. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of the West Indies and South America ; a 
very few only are described from India. 

Properties. Unknown. The bark and leaves are said to be astringent in 
a slight degree. Dec. 

Examples. Samyda, Casearia. 



LXXII. SANGUISORBEiE. The Burnet Tribe. 

Rosaceje, § Sanguisorbca:, Juss. Gen. 336. (1789) ; Dec. Prodr. 2. 588. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 

102. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite suspended ovula, an in- 
ferior tubular indurated calyx, with perigynous stamens, indehiscent fruit, and 
alternate stipulate leaves. 



70 

Anomalies. The stipulae of Cliffortia cohere with the leaves. Alchemilla 
arvensis has simple 1-celled anthers bursting transversely, and ascending ovula. 

Essential Character. — Flowers often diclinous. Calyx with a thickened tube and a 3 
4- or 5-lobed limb, its tube lined with a disk. Petals none. Stamens definite, sometimes fewer 
than the segments of the calyx, with which they are alternate, arising from the orifice of the 
calyx ; anthers 2-celled, innate, bursting longitudinally, occasionally 1-cclled, bursting trans- 
versely. Ovarium solitary, simple, with a style proceeding from the apex or the base ; ovulum 
solitary, always attached to that part of the ovarium which is next the base of the style ; stigma 
compound or simple. Nut solitary, enclosed in the often indurated tube of the calyx. Seed 
solitary, suspended or ascending; embryo without albumen; radicle superior ; cotyledons large, 
plano-convex. — Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs, occasionally spiny. Leaves simple and 
fobed, or compound, alternate, with stipule. Flowers small, often capitate. 

Affinities. This order, usually combined with Rosacese, appears to me to 
demand a distinct station, on account of its constantly apetalous flowers, its in- 
durated calyx, and the reduction of carpella to one only ; it is, however, not, as 
far as I know, distinguishable by any other characters. The presence of petals, 
a character assigned to Acsena, I have shown, in the Botanical Register, to 
have no existence. Usually the ovulum is suspended, the style arising from 
below the apex of the carpellum ; but when the style proceeds from the base 
of the carpellum, the ovulum is ascending, in all cases adhering to the ovarium 
immediately over against the origin of the style. A genus usually referred to 
this order, the Cephalotus of Labillardiere, offers a remarkable exception to the 
usual characters, in having a coloured calyx, in the senary division of its flower, 
and in the presence of ascidia, or pitchers, among its leaves, resembling those 
of Nepenthes. It is, however, by no means well ascertained that this is the 
station of Cephalotus, its seeds being unknown. Various kinds of adhesion be- 
tween the leaves and the stipules take place in the genus Cliffortia, and have 
given rise to a number of errors ; for an explanation of which, see M. Decan- 
dolle's remarks in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles, 1. 447. 

Geography. Natives of heaths, hedges, and exposed places in Europe, 
North and South America beyond the tropics, and the Cape of Good Hope j 
in which latter country they represent the Rosacea; of Europe. 

Properties. Their general character is astringency. A decoction of 
Alchemilla vulgaris is slightly tonic. This is asserted by Frederick Hoffmann 
and others, to have the effect of restoring the faded beauty of ladies to its 
earliest freshness. Sanguisorba officinalis, or common Burnet, is a useful 
fodder. A. R. 

Examples. Acaena, Sanguisorba, Margyricarpus. 



LXXIII. ROSACEA. The Rose Tribe. 

Rosace*, Juss. Gen. 334. in part (1789); Dec. Prodr. 2. 525. in part (1825); Dec. ane Duby 
Botan. Gall, in part (1828); Lindl. Synops. p. 88. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with lateral styles, superior simple 
ovaria. regular perigynous stamens, exalbuminous definite seeds, and alternate 
stipulate leaves. 

Anomalies. Stipulae absent in Lowea. Albumen present in Neillia, 
according to Don. The fruit of Spirrea sorbifolia (Schizonotus m.) is cap- 
sular. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4- or 5-lobed, with a disk either lining the tube or sur- 
rounding the orifice ; the fifth lobe next the axis. Petals 5, perigynous, equal. Stamens 



80 

indefinite, arising from the calyx, just within the petals, in aestivation curved inwards; 
anthers innate, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovaries superior, either solitary or several, 
1-celled, sometimes cohering into a plurilocular pistillum ; ovula 2, or more, suspended, very 
rarely erect ; styles lateral ; stigmata usually simple, and emarginate on one side. Fruit 
either 1-seeded nuts, or acini, or follicles containing several seeds. Seeds suspended, rarely 
ascending. Embryo straight, with a taper short radicle pointing to the hilum. and flat coty- 
ledons. Albumen usually almost obliterated when the seeds are ripe ; if present, fleshy. — 
Herbaceous plants or shrubs. Leaves simple or compound, alternate, with 2 stipukc at 
their base. 

Affinities. The genera of this order are uniform in their structure and 
sensible qualities. Neuradea 3 , at present included, will probably be hereafter 
removed to a more appropriate station. Distinguished from Pomacere by their 
superior fruit and usually suspended seeds ; from Leguminosa? by their regular 
petals and stamens, and especially by the odd segment of the 5-lobed calyx of 
that order being anterior, not posterior, as in Rosacea? ; from Chrysobalanea? 
by their styles proceeding from the side of the ovarium near the apex, and not 
from the base, by their regular petals and stamens, and by their fruit not being 
a drupe. Amygdaleai, often combined with Rosacea, are particularly charac- 
terized by their terminal styles, drupaceous fruit, and lrydrocyanic juice, along 
with which is a formation of gum. Sanguisorbere are apetalous, with definite 
stamens alternate with the segments of the calyx. Related in many points 
to Saxifrages. 

Geography. Natives chiefly of the temperate or cold climates of the 
northern hemisphere ; a very few are found on high land within the tropics, 
and an inconsiderable number in the southern hemisphere. Only one species 
is found in the West Indies, viz. Rubus jamaicensis ; thirteen are natives of 
high land in the East Indies, within the tropics, viz. Potentilla Leschenaul- 
tiana, and twelve species of Rubus ; the South American species chiefly 
consist of a few kinds of Rubus ; at the Cape of Good Hope the order is 
unknown. 

Properties. No Rosaceous plants are unwholesome ; they are chiefly 
remarkable for the presence of an astringent principle, which has caused some 
of them to be reckoned febrifuges. The' root of Tormentilla is used for tan- 
ning in the Feroe Isles. Dec. Potentilla anserina has been used by tanners ; 
P. reptans as a febrifuge. Ibid. Geum urbanum and rivale have been com- 
pared, for efficacy, to Cinchona. Ibid. The fruits of many species of Fra- 
garia (Strawberry) and Rubus (Raspberry and Blackberry) are valuable 
articles of the dessert. The leaves of Rubus arcticus and Rosa rubiginosa 
have been employed as substitutes for Tea. Ibid. The roots of Gillenia 
trifoliata and stipulacea are emetic, and perhaps tonic. Barton, 1. 69. They 
are used in the United States as Ipecacuanha. Dec. The root of Spirrea 
ulmaria has been used as a tonic. A. R. Agrimonia eupatoria yields a 
decoction useful as a gargle. Ibid. The root of Rubus villosus is a popular 
astringent medicine in North America. Two or three teaspoonsful of the 
decoction, administered three or four times a-day, has been found useful in 
cholera infantum. Barton, 2. 157. One of the most powerful anthelmintics 
in the world belongs to this family. It is an Abyssinian plant, known to 
botanists by the name of Brayera anthehnintica. Upon the authority of Dr. 
Brayer, after whom it is named, two or three doses of the infusion are sufficient 
to cure the most obstinate case of taenia. Sec Brayer's JYotice upon the sub- 
ject. The various species of Rosa form some of the greatest beauties of the 
garden. The fruit of R. canina and other allied species is astringent, and 
employed in medicine against chronic diarrhoea and other maladies. The 
petals of R. damascena yield a highly fragrant essential oil, called Attar of 
Roses ; those of R. gallica are astringent when dried with rapidity, and are 
sometimes found useful in cases of debility, such as leucorrhcea, diarrhoea, 
&c. A. R. 



81 

The following divisions have been established among Rosaceous plants : 
1. § PoTENTiLLEiE. Cinque/oils. 

§ Potentilhe, Juss. Gen. 337. (1789.)— § Dryadeae, Vent. Tabl. 3. 349. (1799) ; 
Dec. Prodr. 2. 549. (1825.)— Fragariacea;, Rich, in JYestl. Potentill. 
(1816) ; Lindl. Synops. 90. (1829.) 

Fruit consisting either of small nuts or acini, arising from a common recep- 
tacle, and invested with a dry permanent calyx. Calyx either 4- or 5-cleft, 
sometimes bearing- bracteolce on its tube equal in number to the segments, and 
alternate with them. Petals 5. Seed solitary, erect, or inverted. — Mostly 
herbaceous plants, very seldom shrubs; leaves usually compound; stipules 
adhering to the petiole. 

Examples. Potentilla, Fragaria, Geum. 

2. § RosevE. True Roses. 
§ Rosa;, Juss. Gen. 335. (1789.)— § Rosa?, Dec. Prodr. 2. 596. (1825) ; Lind. 

Synops. 99. (1829.) 

Nuts numerous, hairy, terminated by the persistent lateral style, and en- 
closed within the^fleshy tube of the calyx, which is contracted at its orifice, 
where it is surrounded by a fleshy disk. Seed suspended. Sepals 5. Petals 
5. Stamens indefinite. — Shrubs, with prickly or naked stems. Leaves pin- 
nate. Flowers red, white, or yellow, usually fragrant. 

Examples. Rosa, Lowea. 

3. § Spir^ace^e. Spiraas: 

§ Spirteae, Juss. Gen. 339. (1789.)— § Ulmaria?, Vent. Tabl. 3. 351. (1799.)— 

§ Spiraeaceae, Dec. Prodr. 2. 541. (1825.) ; Lindl. Synops. 89. (1829.) 

Follicles several, invested by the calyx. Seeds from 1 to 6, suspended from 
the inner edges of the follicles. — Shrubs or herbaceous plants. 
Examples. Spiraea, Gillenia, Schizonotus. 

? 4. § NeuradejE. Neuradus. 
§ Neuradeae, Dec. Prodr. 2. 548. (1825.) 

Calyx 5-cleft, with a short tube adhering to the ovarium, the lobes some- 
what incumbent or valvate in aestivation. Petals 5. Stamens 10. Carpella 
10, combined in a 10-celled compressed capsule. Seeds solitary, obliquely pen- 
dulous. — Herbaceous plants, native of sandy plains, suffrutescent at the base, 
and usually decumbent. Leaves with 2 stipulae, downy, sinuate-pinnatifid, or 
bipinnatifid. Seeds germinating in the capsule. 

Example. Neurada. 

Is not this rather a tribe of Ficoideae, as has been suggested by M. de Jus- 
sieu ? to which, however, the want of albumen, the form of the embryo, and 
the texture of the leaves, are objections. Dec. Prodr. 2. 548. 



LXXIV. POMACE^E. The Apple Tribe. 

Rosacbje, § Pomaceae, Juss. Gen. 334. (1789) ; Dec. Prodr. 2. 626. (1825.)— Pomaces, Lindl. 
in Linn. Trans. 13. 93. (1821) ; Synops. 103. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous indefinite stamens, 
ovaria adhering more or less to the calyx, and alternate stipulate leaves. 

21 



82 

Anomalies. In Araelanchier, the simple ovaria are spuriously 2-celled. In 

Crataegus the ovaria are very rarely solitary. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-toothed ; the odd segment posterior. Petals 
5, unguiculate, inserted in the throat of the calyx ; the odd one anterior. Stamens indefinite, 
inserted in a ring in the throat of the calyx. bisk thin, clothing the sides of the limb of the 
calyx. Ovaria from 1 to 5, adhering more or less to the sides of the calyx and each other ; 
ovules usually 2, collateral, ascending, very rarely solitary ; styles from 1 to 5 ; stigmata sim- 
ple. Fruit a pome, I- to 5-celled, seldom spuriously 10-celled ; the endocarpium either carti- 
laginous, spongy, or bony. Seeds ascending, solitary. Albumen none ; embryo erect, with flat 
cotyledons, or convolute ones in Chamtcmeles, and a short conical radicle. — Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves alternate, stipulate, simple, or compound. Flowers in terminal cymes, white or pink. 

Affinities. Closely allied to Rosaceae, from which they differ in the ad- 
hesion of the ovaria with the sides of the calyx, and more or less with each other. 
Their fruit is always a pome ; that is, it is made up of a fleshy calyx adhe- 
ring to fleshy or bony ovaria, containing a definite number of seeds. Poma- 
ceae are peculiarly distinguished by their ovula being in pairs, and side by side ; 
while Rosaceae, when they have two or more ascending ovules, always have 
them placed one above the other. Cultivated plants of the order are very apt 
to produce monstrous flowers, which depart sometimes in a most remarkable 
degree from their normal state. No order can be more instructively studied 
with a view to morphological inquiries ; particularly the common Pear when in 
blossom. A remarkable permanent monster of this kind, with 14 styles, 14 
ovaria, and a calyx with 10 divisions in two rows, is described in the Revue 
Encycloptdique, (43. 762.) ; it exhibits a tendency, on the part of Pomaceae, 
to assume the indefinite ovaria and double calyx of Rosacea^. I have seen a 
Prunus in a similar state. Amygdaleea are known by their superior solitary 
ovarium and drupaceous fruit, and by the presence of Prussic acid, which, 
however, exists in Cotoneaster microphylla, a plant of the order Pomaceae. 

Geography. Found plentifully in Europe, Northern Asia, the mountains 
of India, and North America ; rare in Mexico, unknown in Africa, except on 
its northern shore, and in Madeira, and entirely absent from the southern 
hemisphere ; a solitary species is found in the Sandwich Islands. 

Properties. The fruit as an article of food, and the flowers for their 
beauty, are the chief peculiarities of this order, which consists exclusively of 
trees and bushes, without any herbaceous plant. The Apple, the Pear, the 
Medlar, the Quince, the Service, the Rowan Tree or Mountain Ash, are all well 
known, either for their beauty or their use. The wood of the Pear is almost 
as hard as Box, for which it is even substituted by wood engravers ; the tim- 
ber of the Beam Tree (Pyrus Aria) is invaluable for axletrees. The bark of 
Photinia dubia is used in Nipal for dyeing scarlet. Dec. Prodr. 238. Malic 
acid is contained, in considerable quantity, in apples ; it is also almost the sole 
acidifying principle of the berries of the Mountain Ash (Pyrus aucuparia). 
Turner, 634. 

Examples. Pyrus, Crataegus, Cydonia. 



LXXV. AMYGDALEjE. The Almond Tribe. 

Amygdaleje, Juss. Gen. 340. a % of Rosacea (1789).— Drupacex, Dec. Fl. Francaise, 4. 479. 
(1815) ; Prodr. 2. 529. (1825) o § of Rosacea ; Ltndl. Synops. 89. (1829) o § of Rosacea;. . 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with a superior solitary simple ova- 
rium having a terminal style, regular perigynous indefinite stamens, a drupa- 



83 

ceous fruit, an exalbuminous suspended seed, and alternate stipulate simple 
leaves yielding hydrocyanic acid. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Chabacteb. — Calyx 5-toothed, deciduous, lined with a disk ; the fifth lobe next 
the axis. Petals 5, perigynous. Stamens 20, or thereabouts, arising from the throat of the 
calyx, in aestivation curved inwards ; anthers innate, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Orary 
superior, solitary,simple,l-celled ; ovula 2, suspended ; styles terminal, with a furrow on one side, 
terminating in a reniform stigma. Fruit a drupe, with the putamen sometimes separating 
spontaneously from thesarcocarp. Seeds mostly solitary, suspended, in consequence of the cohe- 
sion of a funiculus umbilicalis, arising from the base of the cavity of the ovarium, with its 
side. Embryo straight, with the radicle pointing to the hilum ; cotyledons thick ; albumen 
none. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, usually glandular towards the base: sti- 
pules simple, mostly glandular. Flowers white or pink. Hydrocyanic acid present in the 
leaves and kernel. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Rosaceae and Pomacese by their fruit be- 
ing a drupe, their bark yielding gum, and by the presence of hydrocyanic 
acid ; from Leguminosae by the latter character, and also by their regular pe- 
tals and stamens, and especially by the odd segment of the 5-lobed calyx of 
that order being inferior, not superior ; from Chrysobalanea? by their hydrocy- 
anic acid, terminal styles, and regular petals and stamens. I have seen a 
monstrous Plum with an indefinite number of ovaria arising irregularly from the 
tube of the calyx, and therefore exhibiting a tendency, on the part of this 
order, to assume one of the distinguishing characters of Rosacea?. 

Geography. Natives exclusively of the northern hemisphere, where they 
are found in cold or temperate climates. One species, Cerasus occidentalis, is a 
native of the West Indies ; a kind of Almond, Amygdalus microphylla, inha- 
bits hot arid plains in Mexico : and another, A. cochinchinensis, is reputed to 
grow in the woods of Cochinchina. 

Properties. The astringent febrifugal properties of Rosacea?, with which 
order these are usually combined, are also found in Amygdalea? ; as in the bark 
of Cerasus virginiana, which is prescribed in the United States, and of the C. 
capollim of Mexico. They are, however, better known for yielding an abun- 
dance of prussic, or hydrocyanic, acid, a deadly principle residing in the leaves 
and kernel ; in consequence of which some of the species are poisonous to cat- 
tle which feed upon them : as, for example, the Cerasus capricida, which kills 
the goats of Nipal ; and the C. virginiana, which is known in North America 
to be dangerous. [The leaves of C. caroliniana are highly poisonous, and fre- 
quently destroy cattle that feed on them.] They all of them, also, yield a gum 
analogous to gum tragacanth. Notwithstanding, however, the poisonous prin- 
ciple that is present in them, their fruit is, in many cases, a favourite food ; that 
of the Amygdalus (peach and nectarine), Prunus (plum and apricot), and Ce- 
rasus (cherry), are among the most delicious with which we are acquainted ; 
the seed of Amygdalus is familiar to us under the name of almonds, and its 
oil under the name of oil of almonds. The bark of the root of Cerasus capol- 
lim is used in Mexico against dysentery. Dec. The leaves of Prunus spinosa ■ 
(sloe), and Cerasus avium (wild cherry), have been employed as a substitute 
for tea. Ibid. The former are well known to afford one of the means used in 
Europe for adulterating the black tea of China. Prunus domestica, or the com- 
mon plum, yields those fruits sold in the shops under the name of prunes, which 
are chiefly prepared in France, from the varieties called the St. Catherine and 
the green-gage ; and in Portugal from a sort which derives its name from the 
village of Guimaraens, where they are principally dried. They contain so 
large a quantity of sugar, that brandy is distilled from them when fermented, 
and it has even been proposed to manufacture sugar from them. A. R. The 
kernel of Prunus brigantiaca yields a fixed oil, called Huih des Marmottes 
which is used instead of olive or almond oil. Ibid. The bark of Prunus spi- 



81 

nosa is one of the substances that has been reported to resemble Jesuits' bark 
in its effects. Ibid. Prunus cocomilia yields a bark, the febrifugal properties 
of which are spoken of very highly. According to M. Tenore, it is a specific 
for the cure of the dangerous intermittent fevers of Calabria, where it grows. 
A variety of Cerasus avium is used for the preparation, in the Vosges and the 
Black Forest, of the liqueur known under the name of Kirschenwasser. The 
flowers of Amygdalus persica (peach) are gently laxative, and are used advan- 
tageously for children. The kernel of Cerasus oceidentalis is used for flavour- 
ing the liqueur Noyau. [The wood of C. virginiana is much employed in the 
United States for cabinet work. It is nearly equal to the inferior kinds of ma- 
hogany.] 

Examples. Prunus, Amygdalus, Cerasus. 



LXXVI. CHRYSOBALANEvE. The Cocoa-Plum Tribe. 

Chrysobalaneje, R. Broun, in Tuckey's Voyage to the Congo, App. (1818); Dec. Prodr. 2. 
525. a sect, of Rosacea? (1825); Reichenb. Conspectus, 171, a sect, of Onagrarise (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with a superior solitary ovarium, 
having a style proceeding from its base, irregular perigynous petals and sta- 
mens, a drupaceous fruit adhering obliquely to the calyx, exalbuminous definite 
erect seeds, and alternate stipulate simple leaves. 

Anomalies. Hirtella has fleshy albumen and leafy cotyledons, according 
to Gsertner ; and one species of the same genus is described as apetalous. 
Cycnia has a semipetaloid irregular calyx and no petals. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-lobed, sometimes bracteolate at the base. Petals more 
or less irregular, either 5 or none. Stamens either definite or indefinite, usually irregular 
either in size or position. Ovarium superior, solitary, 1- or 2-cclled, cohering' more or less on 
one side with the calyx ; ovula twin, erect ; style single, arising' from the base; stigma simple. 
Fruit a drupe of 1 or 2 cells. Seed usually solitary, erect. Embryo with fle3hy cotyledons, 
and no albumen. — Trees or Shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, with no glands, and 
veins that run parallel with each other from the midrib to the margin. Floiccrs in racemes, 
or panicles, or corymbs. 

Affinities. The obvious affinity of this order is with Amygdalea*, from 
which it differs in having irregular stamens and petals, and a style proceeding 
from the base of the ovarium. With Rosacea?, to which Chrysobalanese have 
a strict relation, they agree in the same manner as Amygdalea?, excepting the 
characters just pointed out. To Leguminosas, with drupaceous fruit, they 
approach closely in the irregularity of their stamens and corolla, and especially 
in the cohesion which takes place between the stalk of the ovarium and the 
sides of the calyx ; a character found, as M. Dccandolle well remarks, in Jo- 
nesia and Bauhinia, undoubted leguminous plants : they are distinguished 
from this latter order by the position of their style and ovula, and by the rela- 
tion which is borne to the axis of inflorescence by the odd lobe of the calyx 
being the same as is found in Rosacese. Brown remarks (Congo, 434), that 
the greater part of the order has the flowers more or less irregular, and that the 
simple ovarium of Parinarium has a dissepiment in some degree analogous to 
the moveable dissepiment of Banksia and Dryandra ; but we now know, from 
the more recent observations of this learned botanist upon the ovulum, that this 
dissepiment arises differently. The analogy of structure, as to the dissepiment 
of Parinarium, is to be sought in Amelanchier. 



85 

Geography. These plants are principally found in the tropical regions of 
Africa and America : none are recorded as natives of Asia ; but there is reason 
to believe, from specimens of large trees seen in the forests of India, without 
flowers or fruit, by Dr. Waltich. that one or two species of Parinarium are indi- 
genous in Equinoctial Asia ; and my genus Cycnia, founded upon a spiny 
plant from Nipal {Wall. Cat. Herb. Intl.), is apparently referable to this order. 
One species of Chrysobalanus is found as far to the north as the pine barrens 
of Georgia in North America ; a climate, however, as in all the regions bound- 
ing the Gulf of Mexico on the norfh, much more heated than that of most 
other countries in the same parallel of latitude. 

Properties. No medicinal properties have been ascribed to Chrysoba- 
laneae. The fruit of Chrysobalanus Icaco is eaten in the West Indies, under 
the name of the cocoa-plum ; another is brought to market in Sierra Leone 
(C. luteus) ; and the Rough-skinned, or Gray, plum of the same colony is the 
produce of Parinarium excelsum. The kernel of Parinarium campestre and 
montanum is said by Aublet to be sweet and good to eat. 

Examples. Chrysobalanus, Parinarium, Hirtella. 



LXXVII. LEGUMINOSiE. The Pea Tribe. 

Leguminosje, Juss. Gen. 345. (1789) ; Brown Diss. (1822) ; Dec. Prodr. 2. 93. (1825) ; Lindl. 

Synops. 75. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with a terminal style and solitary 
simple superior ovarium, perigynous definite stamens, exalbuminous seeds, peri- 
tropal ovula, leguminous fruit, and alternate stipulate leaves. 

Anomalies. The Detariurns are apetalous and drupaceous. Ceratonia, 
Copaifera, and five or six other genera, are also apetalous. Some Mimoses 
are monopetalous ; the latter section and Swartzies have usually also hypo- 
gynous stamens. Diphaca and a species of Ceesalpinia have regularly 2 ova- 
ria. Ormosia has 2 stigmas. Dec. Sophora, Myrospermum, and some others, 
have no stipulre. Some have opposite leaves. 

Essential Chahacter. — Calyx 5-parted, toothed, or cleft, inferior, with the odd segment 
anterior ; the segments often unequal, and variously combined. Petals 5, or by abortion 4, 3, 
2, 1, or none, inserted into the base of the calyx, either papilionaceous or regularly spreading-; 
the odd petal posterior. Stamens definite or indefinite, perigynous, either distinct or monadel- 
phous, or diadelphous ; very seldom triadelphous ; anthers versatile. Ovarium simple, supe- 
rior, 1-celled, 1- or many-seeded; style simple, proceeding from the upper margin; stigma 
simple. Fruit either a legume or a drupe. Seeds attached to the upper suture, solitary or 
several, occasionally with an arillus ; embryo destitute of albumen, either straight or with the 
radicle bent upon the cotyledons ; cotyledons either remaining under ground in germination, 
or elevated above the ground, and becoming green like leaves.— Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or 
vast trees, extremely variable in appearance. Leaves alternate, most commonly compressed; 
petiole tumid at the base. Slipulce 2 at the base of the petiole, and 2 at the base of each leaflet. 
Pedicels usually articulated, with 2 bracteolai under the flower. 

Affinities. The most common feature is, to have what are called 
papilionaceous flowers ; and when these exist, no difficulty is experienced in 
recognizing the order, for papilionaceous flowers are found no where else. 
Another and a more invariable character is to have a leguminous fruit ; and by 
one of these two characters all the plants of the family are known. It is 
remarkable, however, for the complete obliteration of one or the other of these 
distinctions in many cases. Mimosa and its allies have, instead of the irregular 
arrangement which characterizes a papilionaceous flower, its parts of fructifi- 



86 

cation disposed with the utmost symmetry ; and Detarium, instead of a legume, 
bears a fruit not distinguishable from a drupe. This last circumstance is 
easily to be understood, if we bear in mind that a legume and a drupe differ 
more in name than reality, the latter being formed upon precisely the same 
plan as the former, but with this modification, that its pericarpium is thickened, 
more or less fleshy on the outside and stony on the inside, 1-seeded, and inde- 
hiscent. Hence some of the regular-flowered genera with distinct stamens may 
be said to be Rosaceous in flower, and Leguminous in fruit. Simple, there- 
fore, as the diagnosis of the order usually is, Mr. Brown is perfectly correct in 
asserting that, until he indicated the difference of the position of the odd lobe 
of the calyx in Leguminosa? and Rosacese (Amygdaleas), no positive character 
had been discovered to distinguish the one order from the other. The presence 
of stipule at the base of the leaflets of the compound leaves of Leguminosse 
is a character in the vegetation by which they may be known from Rosaceae. 
Myroxylon agrees with Samydea; in the remarkable glandular marking of the 
leaves, in which the pellucid spaces are both round and linear — a very singular 
and uncommon character, which was first pointed out by Mr. Brown. Congo 
444. Very few double flowers are known in this order : those of Spartium 
junceum and Ulex europreus are the most remarkable : the nature of the latter 
I have described in detail in the Trans, of the Hort. Soc. vol. 7. p. 237. Two 
ovaria are common in Wisteria sinensis ; and the same phenomenon is to be 
seen, according to Decandolle, in Gleditschia : it appears also to be normal in 
Diphaca and Cresalpinia digyna. M. Aug. St. Hilaire is said (Dec. Mem. 52) 
to have found a Mimosa in Brazil with 5 carpella : on account of these, and 
other circumstances, M. Decandolle assumes the carpellum of Leguminosee to 
be solitary by abortion, and that a whorl of 5 is that which is necessary to 
complete the symmetry of the flowers. Of the accuracy of this view I am sa- 
tisfied ; but I think it might have been proved as satisfactorily from analogy, 
without the aid of such instances. In consequence of the highly irritable 
nature of the leaves of many of the plants of this order, and of the tendency 
to irritability discoverable in them all, some botanists have placed them at the 
extremity of their system, in contact with the limits of the animal kingdom. 
See Jlgardh Classes, p. 4, and Martins, H. R. M. p. 176. For observations 
upon the nature of this irritability, see Diitrochet sur la Motility, Paris, 1824, 
in which the author endeavors to show that the motion is the effect of galvanic 
agency ; and the same writer's JYouvelles RechercJies sur V Exosmose, <£c, in 
which he alters the explanation of the manner in which galvanism produces 
the motion, adhering, however, to his opinion of that subtle principle being the 
real agent. This ingenious naturalist might have been satisfied with attri- 
buting the phenomenon to an inherent vital action, without puzzling himself with 
a vain search after first causes, which always leaves the most successful inquirei 
exactly where he set out. For remarks upon the order in general, see M. De- 
candolle's valuable Memoire, published in Paris in 1825-6, in one thick 
volume 4 to. The relation that is borne by this order to Chrysobalaneas and 
Amygdalere has been already explained under those orders. To the tribes for- 
merly included under the name of Terebintacere, Leguminosaj are nearly allied 
in many important circumstances, but are distinguished by their stipules, which 
nevertheless exist in Canarium among Burseraceee, and which do not exist in 
Sophora, a genuine, and Myrospermum, a spurious Leguminous genus. The 
affinity of the latter to Amyridea? is, however, so great, that it appears to me 
very questionable whether it ought not to be absolutely referred to that order 
rather than to Leguminosae. With Xanthoxyleae they are allied through 
Ailanthus. The monadelphous stamens, irregular flowers, occasional simple 
ovarium, style, and stigma of Polygaleae, are all so many points of affinity 
with Le/niminosae. 



87 

In many respects this order is one of the most important which the botanist 
can study, but especially as it serves to show how little real importance ought 
to be attached to dehiscence of fruit in determining the limits of natural orders. 
What may be called the normal fruit of Leguminosae is a legume, that is to 
say, a dry simple ovarium, with a suture running along both its margins, so 
that at maturity it separates through the middle of each suture into two valves; 
but every conceivable degree of deviation from this type occurs : the Arachis 
and many more are indehiscent ; Detarium is drupaceous ; in Charmichaelia 
the valves separate from the suture, which remains entire, like the replum of 
Cruciferae ; in all Lomentaceous genera, such as Ornithopus, the valves are 
indehiscent in the line of the suture, but separate transversely; in Entada a 
combination of the peculiarities of Carmichaelia and Lomentaceas occurs ; and, 
finally, in Haematoxylon the valves adhere by the suture and split along the 
axis. The divisions which have been proposed in this extensive order are of 
unequal value ; it is possible that two of them, namely, Mimosas and Caesalpi- 
nieae may deserve, as Mr. Brown seems to think, the rank of independent 
orders ; for they really appear to be of the same importance with reference to 
Papilionaceae, as Amygdaleae and Pomaceae are with respect to Rosaceae, or 
as Amyrideae, Connaraceae, Anacardiaceae, and Burseraceae, with respect to 
each other. I give them, however, as I find them in Decandolle. 

His first and most important division depends upon the form of the embryo, 
out of which arise the divisions called Curvembriae and Rectembriae ; viz. 

CURVEMBRIJE. 

Radicle bent back upon the cotyledons. 

These are distinguished into two tribes by the structure of their flowers, 
viz. 

Tribe 1. Swartzieje. 

Calyx bladdery, with indistinct lobes. Stamens hypogynous. Corolla none, 
or petals only 1 or 2. 

Examples. Swartzia, Baphia. 

Tribe 2. Papilionaceae. 

Calyx with distinct lobes. Stamens perigynous. Corolla papilionaceous. 

Examples. Vicia, Pisum, Sophora. 

The germination of this tribe varies thus : — some of the species push their 
cotyledons above ground, which become green, resembling leaves ; arid of these 
none bear seeds which are eaten by man or animals ; others germinate with 
their cotyledons under ground, and it is among these only that all the kinds 
which bear what we call pulse are found ; the former Decandolle calls Phyllo- 
lobece, and they are divided by him into sections, viz. 1. § Sophoreae, 2. § Lo- 
teae, 3. § Hedysarea? ; the latter he designates as Sarcolobece, which compre- 
hend, 4. § Vicieae, 5. § Phaseoleae, 6. § Dalbergiese. 

RECTEMBRIJE. 

Radicle of the embryo straight. 

The tribes are known by the position of their stamens and the aestivation of 
their petals. 

Tribe 3. Mimose^e. 

Sepals and petals valvate in aestivation. Stamens hypogynous. 
Examples. Acacia, Mimosa, Inga. 

Tribe 4. CjesalpiniejE. 

Petals imbricated in aestivation, and stamens perigynous. 
Examples. Arachis, Ceesalpinia, Cassia. 



Of the genera comprehended in this tribe, those which have petals, and their 
stamens variously combined, are called § Geoffrieae ; such as have petals, the 
stamens being distinct, are § Cassieee ; and a couple of genera, with drupa- 
ceous fruit and no petals, constitute § Detariese. 

The reader is referred to the 2d volume of Decandolle's Prodromus for fur- 
ther information upon these divisions. 

Geography. The geographical distribution of this order has been consi- 
dered with great care by Decandolle, from whom I take the substance of what 
follows. 

One of the first things that strikes the observer is, that if a number of genera 
of Leguminosae have as extensive a range as those of other orders, there is a 
very considerable number of which the Geographical limits are clearly denned. 
Thus the genera of New Holland are in most cases unknown beyond that vast 
island ; the same may be said of North and South America, and the Cape of 
Good Hope; and there are between 14 and 15 genera unknown beyond the 
limits of Europe and the neighbouring borders of Asia and Africa. About 92 
genera out of 280 are what are called sporadic, or dispersed over different and 
widely separated regions, such as Tephrosia, Acacia, Glycine, and Sophora. 
The species are found more or less in every part of the known world, with the 
exception, perhaps, of the island of Tristan d'Acugna and St. Helena, neither 
of which do they inhabit ; but they are distributed in extremely unequal pro- 
portions ; in general they diminish sensibly in approaching the pole, especially 
the Rectembriae, which are unknown in northern regions. This will be appa- 
rent from the following table : 



Europe, with the exception of the Mediterranean 

Siberia 

United States . 

China, Japan, and Cochinchina .... 
Levant ........ 

Basin of the Mediterranean 

Canaries 

Arabia and Egypt 

Mexico 

West Indies 

East Indies 



Curvembr. 

184 

128 

167 

64 

247 

466 

21 

78 

90 

134 

330 



Equinoctial America 246 

Equinoctial Africa 

New Holland 

Isles of Southern Africa 

South America beyond the tropics . . . 

Cape of Good Hope 

South Sea Islands 



81 
154 

29 

18 
334 

11 



Rectembr. 



1 
16 
13 

3 

2 



9 
62 
87 
122 
359 
49 
75 
13 
11 
19 

2 



This distribution, if condensed, will give the following results : 



Equinoctial zone 

Beyond the trophies to the north 

— - south 



910 
1277 
417 



692 

35 

107 



Properties. This order is not only among the most extensive that are 
known, but also one of the most important to man, with reference to the objects 
either of ornament, of utility, or of nutriment, which it comprehends. When 
we reflect that the Cercis, which renders the gardens oY Turkey resplendent 
with its myriads of purple flowers ; the Acacia, not less valued for its airy 
foliage and elegant blossoms than for its hard and durable wood ; the Brazi- 
letto, Logwood, and Rosewoods of commerce ; the Laburnum ; the classical 
Cytisus ; the Furze of the Broom, both the pride of- the otherwise dreary 
heaths of Europe ; the Bean, the Pea, the Vetch, the Clove, the Trefoil, the 
Lucerne, all staple articles of culture by the farmer,are all species of Legumi- 



S9 

nosae ; and that the Gums Arabic and Kino, and various precious medicinal 
drugs, not to mention Indigo, the most useful of all dyes, are products of other 
species, — it will be perceived that it would be difficult to point out an order with 
greater claims upon the attention. It would be in vain to attempt to enume- 
rate all its useful plants or products, in lieu of which I shall speak of the most 
remarkable, and of those which are least known. 

The beauty of Dr. Wallich's Amherstia nobilis, a large tree bearing pendu- 
lous racemes of deep scarlet flowers, is unequalled in the vegetable kingdom. 
The general character of the order is to be eminently wholesome ; but there 
are some singular exceptions to this. The seeds of Lathyrus Aphaca are said 
to produce intense headach if eaten abundantly : the seeds of the Laburnum 
are poisonous ; they contain a principle called Cytisine. The root of a species 
of Mimosa, called Spongia, is accounted a poison in Brazil. Ed. P. J. 14. 
267. The leaves and branches of Tephrosia are used for intoxicating fish ; 
the leaves of Omithopus scorpioides are capable of being employed as vesica- 
tories. The juice of Coronilla varia is poisonous. Dec. The powerful pur- 
gative effects of Senna are possessed also by other species, even by Colutea 
arborescens and Coronilla emerus. Cassia marilandica is found in North 
America a useful substitute for the Alexandrian Senna. Barion,l. 143. [Bige- 
low, 2. 166.] The Senna of the shops consists, according to M. Delile, of 
Cassia acutifolia, Cassia Senna, and Cynanchum Argel. He says the Cassia 
lanceolata of Arabia does not yield the Senna of commerce. The active prin 
ciple of Senna is called Cathartine. It was discovered by MM. Lassaigne 
and Fenuelle. Ed. P. J.7. 389. Purgative properties are also found in the 
pulp within the fruit of Cathartocarpus fistula and Ceratonia siliqua, of Mimo- 
sa fagifolia, and also of the Tamarind, the preserved pulp of which is so well 
known as a delicious confection. Malic acid exists in the Tamarind, mixed 
with tartaric and citric acids. Turner, 634. The same may be said of Inga 
faeculifera, or the Poisdoux, of St. Domingo, that bears pods filled with a sweet 
pulp, which the natives use. Hamilt. Prodr. 62. The roots of the liquorice 
contain an abundance of a sweet subacrid mucilaginous juice, which is much 
esteemed as a pectoral ; similar qualities are ascribed to Trifolium alpinum 
roots. The root of Abrus precatorius possesses exactly the properties of the 
liquorice root of the shops. .Sinslie, 2. 79. In Java it is found demulcent. 
The seeds are considered by some as ophthalmic and cephalic, externally ap- 
plied. The roots of Beans, Genistas, Ononis, Guilandina Nuga and Moringa, 
Anthyllis cretica, &c. are diuretic. Dec. Those of Dolichos tuberosus and 
bulbosus, and Lathyrus tuberosus, are wholesome food. Some are reported to 
produce powerfully bitter and tonic effects. Various species of Geoffrasa, the 
bark of iEschynomene grandiflora and of Caesalpinia Bonduccella are of this 
class. The kernels of Guilandina Bonduccella are very bitter, and are sup- 
posed by the native doctors of India to possess powerful tonic virtues. When 
pounded small and mixed with castor oil, they form a valuable external appli- 
cation in incipient hydrocele. Ainslie, 2. 136. The leaves area valuable discu- 
tient, fried with a little castor oil, in cases of hernia humoralis. Ibid. The 
bark of Acacia Arabica is considered in India a powerful tonic ; a decoction of 
its pods is used as a substitute for that of the seeds of Mimosa saponaria for 
washing. Ibid. 2. 142. The root of Hedysarum sennoides is accounted in 
India tonic and stimulant. Ibid. 2. 53. These powers are probably connected 
with the astringent and tanning properties of several others. Some of the 
Algarobas or Prosopises of the western part of South America bear fruit, the 
pericarp of which consists almost wholly of tannin. The bark of some of the 
species of Acacia abound to such a degree in tanning principles as to have be- 
come objects of commercial importance. In 1824 some tons of the extract of 
Acacia bark were imported from New South Wales for the use of tanners. 

22 



90 

JEd. P. J. 11. 266. The pods of Cassia Sabak and Acacia nilotica are used in 
Nubia for tanning. Delile Cent. 10. The valuable astringent substance, 
called Catechu, or Terra Japonica, is procured by boiling and evaporating the 
brown heart-wood of Acacia Catechu, or Khair Tree : it is obtained by simply 
boiling the chips in water -until the inspissated juice has acquired a proper con- 
sistency ; the liquor is then strained, and soon coagulates into a mass. Breiv- 
ster, 5. 349. Gum Kino is the produce of Pterocarpus erinacea R. Br., Gum 
Dragon and Sandalwood of Pterocarpus Draco and Santalinus, Gum Lac of 
Erythrina monosperma, Gum Anime of Hjmenaea Courbaril Dec, Gum Arabic 
is yielded by Acacia senegalensis and some others, Gum Tragacanthby Astra- 
galus creticus and similar species. According to Mr. Don (Prodr. no. 247.), 
the Manna of Arabia is produced by several species of Hedysarum, related to 
H. Alhagi. The Dalbergia monetaria of Linnaeus yields a resin very similar 
to Dragon's Blood. Mnslie, 1.115. A similar juice is yielded by Butea fron- 
dosa and superba. Dec. Among the woods of trees of this order, the most 
important is that of the Locust Tree, Robinia pseudacacia, which is a light 
bright yellow, hard and durable,but brittle. The Brazil wood of commerce is ob- 
tained from Csesalpinia Braziliensis. The fine Jacaranda, or Rosewood of com- 
merce, so called because when fresh it has a faint but agreeable smell of roses, 
is produced by a species of Mimosa in the forests of Brazil. Pr. Max. Trav. 69. 
Among dyes are Indigo, produced by all Indigoferas and some Galegas, Log- 
wood, the wood of Hsematoxylon campeachianum, and the red dye yielded by 
several Cffisalpinias. The colouring matter of Logwood is a peculiar princi- 
ple, called Haematin. The wood of Pterocarpus santalinus yields a deep red 
colouring matter ; it is known in commerce under the name of Saunders Wood. 
Mnslie, 1. 386. All the species of the genus Copaifeia, and 16 are known, 
yield the Balsam of Copaiva ; but it is not in all of them of equal quality. C. 
multijuga is said by Von Martins to afford the greatest abundance. Hayne in 
Linuoza, 1826, 418. The Balsam is known in Venezuela under the name of 
Tacamahaca. Dec. Prodr. 2. 508. Myroxylon peruiferum, the Gluinquino 
of Peru, produces a fragrant resin, in much use both for burning as a perfume, 
and for medicinal purposes, called the Balsam of Tolu. Lamberts Illustration, 
95. Both it and the Balsam of Peru are also yielded, according to Ach. Rich- 
ard, by M. toluiferum. Jinn, des Sc. 2. 172. The root of Clitoria Ternatea 
is emetic. Mnslie, 2, 140. The seed of Psoralea corylifolia is considered by 
the native practitioners of India stomachic and deobstruent. Ibid. 141. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Horsfield, the Acacia scandens of Java is classed among the 
emetics. Ibid. 2. 108. The roots and herbage of Baptisia tmctoria have 
been found to possess antiseptic and subastringent properties. They have 
also a cathartic and emetic effect. Barton, 2. 57. The seeds of Cassia au- 
riculata are considered by the Indian doctors as refrigerant and attenuant. 
Mnslie, 2. 32. The leaves of Coronilla picta are highly esteemed among the 
Hindoos, on account of the virtues they are said to possess in hastening & sup- 
puration when applied in the form of a poultice, that is, simply made warm, 
and moistened with a little castor oil. Ibid. 2. 64. The seeds of Parkia afri- 
cana are roasted as we roast coffee, then bruised, and allowed to ferment in 
water. When they begin to become putrid, they are well washed and pounded : 
the powder is made into cakes, somewhat in the fashion of our chocolate ; 
they form an excellent sauce for all kinds of meat. The farinaceous matter 
surrounding the seeds forms a pleasant, drink, and they also make it into a 
sweetmeat. Brown in Dcnham, 29. The irritating effects of the hairs which 
clothe the pods of Dolichos pruriens, or Cowhage, are well known. A strong 
infusion of the root of the same plant, sweetened with honey, is used by the 
native practitioners of India in cases of cholera morbus. Mnslie, 1. 93. The 
native practitioners in India prescribe the dried buds and young flowers of Bau- 



91 

hinia tomentosa in certain dysenteric affections. Ibid. 2. 48. A decoction of 
the bitter root of Galega purpurea (Tephrosia) is prescribed by the Indian 
doctors in cases of dyspepsia, lientery, and tympanitis. Ibid. 2. 49. The 
powdered leaf of Indigofera Anil is used in hepatitis. Ibid. 1. 179. The 
volatile oil of the Coumarouma odorata, or Tonka Bean, has been ascertained 
to be a peculiar principle called Coumarin. It was mistaken by M. Vogel for 
Benzoic acid. Turner, 660. It may be found in a crystallized state between 
the skin and the kernel, and exists abundantly in the flowers of Melilotus offici- 
nalis. Ed. P. J. 3. 407. It has been found that a peculiar acid, called Carba- 
zotic, is formed by the action of nitric acid upon Indigo. Turner, 641. Sul- 
phur exists in combination with different bases in peas and beans. Ed. P. J. 
14. 172. The leaves of the Phaseolus trilobus (called Sem, or Simbi) are 
considered by Indian practitioners cooling, sedative, antibilious, and tonic, and 
useful as an application to weak eyes. Trans. M. and P. Soc. Calc. 2. 406. 



LXXVIII. URTICEiE. The Nettle Tribe. 

Ubtice-e, Jus. Gen. 400. (1789) ; Lindley's Synopsis, 218. (1829).— Cjenosanthe.b and Cam- 
nabinje, Blume Bijdr. (1825.) both sections of Urticese. 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite erect ovula, an inferior 
calyx, distinct stipule, and an embryo with the radicle remote from the hilum. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoecious or dioecious, scattered or clustered. Calyx 
membranous, lobed, persistent. Stamens definite, distinct, inserted into the base of the calyx, 
and opposite its lobes ; anthers curved inwards in aestivation, curving backwards with elasticity 
when bursting - . Ovarium superior, simple; ovule solitary, erect; stigma simple. Fruit a 
simple indehiscent nut, surrounded either by the membranous or fleshy calyx. Embryo 
straight, curved, or spiral, with or without albumen ; radicle superior, and therefore remote 
from the hilum ; cotyledons lying face to face. — Trees, or shrubs, or herbs. Leaves alternate 
with stipuke, hispid or scabrous, often covered with pungent hairs. 

Affinities. The position of the ovulum, the want of milk, the flowers 
being arranged in loose racemes or panicles, not in fleshy heads, and their ha- 
bit, distinguish Urticea from Artocarpere. From Polygoneae they are known 
by their want of stipula?, from Chenopodeae and Scleranthese by their stinging 
or scabrous surface, the position of the radicle, and their elastic stamens ; and 
from Euphorbiacere by the simplicity of their ovarium ; from Betalinese by the 
presence of a calyx, and from Cupuliferse by their superior simple ovarium. 
They agree with the two latter orders remarkably in stipulation. 

Geography. Widely dispersed over every part of the world; appearing in the 
most northern regions, and in the hottest climate of the tropics ; growing now 
upon dry walls, where there is scarcely nutriment for a moss or a lichen, and 
inhabiting thedampest recesses of the forest. 

Properties. The tenacity of the fibres of many species is such that cord- 
age has been successfully manufactured from them. The leaves of Hemp 
are powerfully narcotic. The Turks know its stupifying qualities under the 
name of Malach. Linnaeus speaks of its vis narcotica, phantastica, dementens, 
anodyna, and repellens. Even the Hottentots use it to get drunk with, and call 
it Dacha. The Arabians name it Hashish. Ainslie, 2. 189. A most power- 
fully narcotic gum-rcsin, called in Nipal Cheris or Cherris,is supposed to be ob- 
tained from a variety of Cannabis sativa. Ibid. 2. 73. The effects of the 
venomous sting of the common nettles, Urtica dioica, urens, and pilulifera of 



92 

Europe, are too well known. Their effects are, however, not to be compared 
for an instant with those of some Indian species. M. Leschenault (M&m. Mus. 
6. 362.) thus describes the effect of gathering Urtica crenulata in the Botanic 
Garden at Calcutta : — " One of the leaves slightly touched the first three fingers 
of my left hand : at the time I only perceived a slight pricking, to which I paid 
no attention. This was at seven in the morning. The pain continued to in- 
crease ; in an hour it had become intolerable : it seemed as if some one was 
rubbing my fingers with a hot iron. Nevertheless, there was no remarkable 
appearance ; neither swelling, nor pustule, nor inflammation. The pain rapidly 
spread along the arm, as far as the armpit. I was then seized with frequent 
sneezing and with a copious running at the nose, as if I had caught a violent 
cold in the head. About noon I experienced a painful contraction of the back 
of the jaws, which made me fear an attack of tetanus. I then went to bed, 
hoping that repose would alleviate my suffering ; but it did not abate ; on the 
contrary, it continued during nearly the whole of the following night ; but I 
lost the contraction of the jaws about seven in the evening. The next morning 
the pain began to leave me, and I fell asleep I continued to suffer for two days; 
and the pain returned in full force when I put my hand into water. I did not 
finally lose it for nine days." A similar circumstance occurred, with precisely 
the same symptoms, to a workman in the Calcutta Garden. This man de- 
scribed the sensation, when w r ater was applied to the stung part, as if boiling 
oil was poured over him. Another dangerous species was found by the same 
botanist in Java, (U. stimulans,) but its effects were less violent. Both these 
seem to be surpassed in virulence by a nettle called daoun setan, or devil's leaf, 
in Timor ; the effects of which are said, by the natives, to last for a year, and 
even to cause death. 

The common Hop, Humulus lupulus, is a rather anomalous genus of this 
order, remarkable, as is well known, for its bitterness ; the active principle of it 
is called by chemists, Lupulin. [Dr. A. W. Ives, in Silliman's Jour.] 

Examples. Urtica, Parietaria, Bohmeria. 



LXXIX. ULMACE.E. The Elm Tribe. 
Ulmaceje, MrbelElem. 90S. (1815); Lindl. Synops. 225. (1829.)— Celtjdeje, Rich. 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite suspended ovula, solitary 
or loosely clustered flowers, a 2-celled indehiscent fruit, and alternate stipulate 
scabrous leaves. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Chad acter. — Flowers monoclinous or polygamous. Calyx divided, campanu- 
late, inferior. Stamens definite, inserted into the base of the calyx ; erect in aestivation. Ova- 
rium superior, 2-celled ; ovules solitary, pendulous ; stigmas 2, distinct. Fruit 1- or 2-celled, 
indehisceat, membranous or drupaceous. Seeds solitary, pendulous; albumen none, or in 
very small quantity ; embryo with foliaceous cotyledons ; radicle superior.— Trees or shrubs, 
with scabrous, alternate, simple, deciduous leaves, and stipula:. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Urticere, from which they are only distin- 
guishable by the 2-celled fruit, pendulous seeds, and radicle turned towards the 
hilum ; from Artocarpeae they are known by their inflorescence, dry fruit, and 
double ovarium. 

Geography. Natives of the north of Asia, the mountains of India, China, 
North America, and Europe ; in the latter of which countries they form valua- 
ble timber-trees, 



93 



Properties. The inner bark of the Elm is slightly bitter and astringent, 
but it does not appear to possess any important quality. The substance which 
exudes spontaneously from it is called Ulmin ; it is also found in the Oak, 
Chestnut, and other trees, and according to Berzelius, is a constituent of most 
kinds of bark. Turner, 700. 

Examples. Ulmus, Celtis. 



LXXX. ARTOCARPE^E. The Bread-Fruit Tribe. 

ArtocabpejE, R. Brown in Congo (1818); Blume Bijdr. 479; and Pholeosanthe-e, 435, 
both sections of Urticeae (1825.)— Sycoidej:, Link Handb. 1. 292. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous lactescent dicotyledons, with flowers in fleshy 
heads, definite suspended ovula, alternate stipulate leaves, and radicle turned 
towards the hilum. 

Anomalies. Antiaris has solitary flowers, and the ovarium cohering with 
the involucrum. 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoecious, in heads or catkins. Calyx with an uncer- 
tain number of divisions, which are often membranous ; sometimes tubular, or entire. 
Stamens uncertain in number, either solitary or several, straight. Ovarium 1- or 2-celled, 
superior, rarely inferior; ovulum suspended; style single, filiform; stigma bifid. Fruit 
usually a fleshy receptacle, either covered by numerous nuts, lying among the persistent 
fleshy calyxes, or enclosing them within its cavity ; occasionally consisting of a single nut, 
covered by a succulent involucrum. Seed suspended, solitary ; embryo inverted, with its 
radicle pointing to the hilum, straight or curved, with or without albumen. — Trees, shrubs, 
or herbs. Leaves alternate, toothed or lobed, or entire, smooth or covered with asperities ; 
stipules membranous, deciduous, convolute in vernation. 

Affinities. The Fig may be taken as the type of this order, which 
agrees with Urticeae in its apetalous flowers, scabrous alternate leaves, and 
membranous stipulae ; but which differs in its habit and milky juice, and in the 
position of the ovulum, which is constantly suspended, not erect. Mr. Brown, 
indeed, in his Appendix to the Congo Expedition, says that in Artocarpeae 
" the ovulum, which is always solitary, is erect, while the embryo is inverted 
or pendulous." But this statement must be an oversight : I have constantly 
found the ovulum suspended in Artocarpus incisa, Maclura aurantiaca, Ficus 
Carica, and other species, and in all the Dorstenias, in the whole of which 
there is a very conspicuous foramen immediately against the point of attach- 
ment of the ovulum. 

Geography. Natives of all parts of the tropics, particularly of the East 
Indies ; a few species, in the form of Morus and Maclura, and the cultivated 
Fig, straggle northwards as far as Canada and Persia. Dorstenias are 
remarkable for being herbaceous Brazilian weeds, in an order composed other- 
wise of trees or shrubs. 

Properties. The Fig, the Bread-fruit, the Jack, and the Mulberry, are 
all found here, and are a curious instance of wholesome or harmless plants in 
an order which contains the most deadly poison in the world, the Upas of 
Java ; the juice, however, of even those which have wholesome fruit, is acrid 
and suspicious ; and in a species of Fig, Ficus toxicaria, is absolutely venom- 
ous. The juice of all of them contains a greater or less abundance of 
caoutchouc, and the Cecropia peltata is reported to yield American caoutchouc. 
But Humboldt doubts whether this is the fact, as its juice is difficult to inspis- 
sate. Cinch. For. p. 44. The seeds of a plant nearly allied to Cecropia, 



94 

called Musanga by the Africans of the Gold Coast, as well as those of Arto- 
carpus, are eatable as nuts. The famous Cow Tree, or Palo de Vacca, of 
South America, which yields a copious supply of a rich and wholesome milk, 
belongs to this order : it is supposed to be related to Brosimum. Brosimum 
alicastrum abounds in a tenacious gummy milk ; its leaves and young shoots 
are much eaten by cattle, but when they become old they cease to be innocu- 
ous. The roasted nuts are used instead of bread, and have much the taste of 
Hazel nuts. Swartz, 1. 19. A kind of paper is manufactured from Brous- 
sonetia papjnrifera. The bark of the Moms alba contains moroxylic acid in 
combination with lime. Turner, 640. Fustick, a yellow dye, is the wood of 
Moms tinctoria. [The Madura aurantiaca of Nuttall, (Osage apple of 
Lewis and Clark,) bears a globular compound fruit as large as a middle sized 
orange, but it is not eatable ; the wood is much esteemed by the Osage Indians 
for making their bows : it aiso dyes yellow, and much resembles the Fustick of 
the West Indies.] The seeds of Ficus religiosa are supposed by the doctors 
of India to be cooling and alterative. Ainslie, 2. 25. The leaves of Ficus 
septica are emetic. Ibid. The Cochin-chinese consider that plant caustic 
and anthelmintic. The bark of Ficus racemosa is slightly astringent, and 
has particular virtues in hematuria and menorrhagia. The juice of its root 
is considered a powerful tonic. Ibid. 2. 31. The white glutinous juice of 
Ficus indica is applied to the teeth and gums, to ease the toothache ; it is also 
considered a valuable application to the soles of the feet when cracked and 
inflamed. The bark is supposed to be a powerful tonic, and is administered by 
the Hindoos in diabetes. Ibid. 2. 11. Gum lac is obtained from the Ficus 
indica in great abundance. The tenacity of life in some plants of this family 
is remarkable. A specimen of Ficus australis lived and grew suspended in 
the air, without earth, in one of the hothouses in the Botanic Garden, Edin- 
burgh, for eight months, without experiencing any apparent inconvenience. 
Ed. P. J. 3. 80. The celebrated Banyan Tree of India is Ficus religiosa. 
Prince Maximilian, of Wied Neuwied, says that the colossal wild Fig-trees 
" are one of the most grateful presents of nature to hot countries : the shade 
of such a magnificent tree refreshes the traveller when he reposes under its 
incredibly wide-spreading branches, with their dark green shining foliage. 
The Fig-trees of all hot countries have generally very thick trunks, with 
extremely strong boughs, and a prodigious crown " Travels, p. 104. Is it 
possible that the Indian poison with which the Nagas tip their arrows, of the 
tree that produces which nothing is known, can belong to this tribe 1 See, for 
an account of the effect of this poison, Brewster' 's Journal, 9. 219. The 
poisonous property of the Upas has been found to depend upon the presence 
of that most virulent of all principles, called strychnia. Turner, 650. 
Examples. Artocarpus, Morus, Madura. 



LXXXI. STILAGINE.E. 

Stilagineje, AgardKs Classes, 199. (1824) ; Von Martius Hort. Reg. Monac. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with diclinous spiked flowers, colla- 
teral pendulous ovules, solitary ovaria, 2-lobed anthers bursting vertically, and 
1 -seeded fruit with an albuminous seed. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Flowers diclinous. Calyx 3- or 5-parted. CorollaO. Stamen* 
2, or more, arising from a tumid receptacle; f laments capillary; anthers innate, 2-lobed, 



95 

with a fleshy conncctivum and vertical cells opening- transversely. Ovarium superior; 
stigma sessile, 3-4 toothed. Fruit drupaceous, with 1 seed and the remains of another. 
Seed suspended; embryo green, with (oliateous cotyledons, lying- in the midst of copious 
fleshy albumen. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, with deciduous stipula?. 

Affinities. An obscure order, of the limits of which nothing has been 
well made out. Judging- from the genera Stilago and Antidesma, it is very 
near Cupulifera*, from which it differs chiefly in its superior ovarium and 
copious fleshy albumen. 

Geography. Natives of the East Indies. 

Properties. 

Examples. Stilago, Antidesma. 



LXXXII. CUPULIFERiE. The Oak Tribe. 

Cupulifehje, Rich. Anal, du Fr. (1808); IAndl. Synops. 239. (1829); Blume Flora Java. 
(1829).— CoRYLACEiE, Mirb. Elem. 906. (1815.)— Q.uehcinejs. Juss. in diet. Sc. Nat. vol. 2, 
Suppl. 12. (1816.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite pendulous ovules, 2 or 
more in each cell, amentaceous flowers, single inferior ovaria enclosed in a 
cupule, and alternate stipulate leaves with veins proceeding straight from the 
midrib to the margin. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. Flowers diclinous; stamniferous amentaceous, pistilliferous 
aggregate or amentaceous. Stamens 5 to 20, inserted into the base of the scales or of a mem- 
branous calyx, generally distinct. Pistils: Ovaries crowned by the r diments of a superior 
calyx, seated within a coriaceous involucrum (cupule) of various figure, and with several cells 
and several ovules, the greater part of which are abortive ; ovules twin or solitary, pendulous; 
stigmata several, sub-sessile, distinct. Fruit a bony or coriaceous 1-celled nut, more or less 
enclosed in the involucrum. Seeds solitary, 2 or 3, pendulous ; embryo large, with plano-con- 
vex fleshy cotyledons, and a minute superior radicle.— Trees or shrubs. Leaves with stipulas, 
alternate, simple, with veins proceeding- straight from the midrib to the margin. 

Affinities. These are known among European trees by their amenta- 
ceous flowers and peculiarly veined leaves ; from all other plants they are dis- 
tinguished by their apetalous superior rudimentary calyx, fruit enclosed in a 
peculiar husk or cup, and nuts containing but 1 cell and 1 or 2 seeds, in conse- 
quence of the abortion of the remainder. They are nearly akin to Salicineae 
and Betulinese, from which the presence of a calyx, and, in the former case, the 
veining of their leaves, distinguish them. To Urticese they are nearly allied, 
but differ in their many-celled ovarium, pendulous ovula, and superior calyx. 

Geography. Inhabitants of the forests of all the temperate parts of the 
continent both of the Old and New World ; extremely common in Europe, 
Asia, and North America ; more rare in Barbary and Chile, and the southern 
parts of South America ; and unknown at the Cape. The species which are 
found within the tropics of either hemisphere are chiefly Oaks, which abound 
in the high lands, but are unknown in the valleys of equatorial regions. 

Properties. An order which comprehends the Oak, the Hazel Nut, the 
Beech, and the Spanish Chestnut, can scarcely require much to be said to a 
European reader of its properties, which are of too common a use to be un- 
known even to the most ignorant. Gallic acid exists abundantly in the Oak. 
The leaves of Quercus falcata are employed, on account of their astringency, 
externally in cases of gangrene; and the same astringent principle, which 



96 

pervades all the order, has caused them to be employed even as febrifuges, 
tonics, and stomachics. Cork is the bark of Gtuercus suber ; it contains a pe- 
culiar principle called Suberin (Turner, 700), and an acid called the Suberic 
(Ibid. 641). The galls that writing ink is prepared from are the produce of 
the Oak, from which they derive their astringency. The acorns of a species 
known in the Levant under the name of Velonia (Gluercus eegilops) are im- 
ported for the use of dyers. 

Examples. Gluercus, Corylus, Fagus. 



LXXXIII. BETULINE^. The Birch Tribe. 

Amentaceje, Juss. Gen. 407. (1789) in part; Lindl. Synops. § 228. (1829). — Betulinejb, L. 
C. Richard MSS. A. Richard. Elem. de la Bot. ed. 4. 562. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Achlamydeous dicotyledons, with a 2-celled ovarium, definite 
pendulous seeds, and amentaceous flowers. 

Anomalies. The staminiferous flowers have occasionally a distinct calyx. 

Essential Character. — Mowers diclinous, monoecious, amentaceous; the stamniferoua 
sometimes having' a membranous lobed calyx. Stamens distinct, scarcely ever monadcl- 
phous ; anthers 2-celled. Ovarium superior, 2-celled ; ovules definite, pendulous ; style sin- 
pie, or none; stigmas 2. Fruit membranous, indehiscent, by abortion 1- celled. Seeds pen- 
dulous, naked ; albumen none; embryo straight ; radicle superior. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves 
alternate, simple, with the vena primarire running straight from the midrib to the margin; 
stipula deciduous. 

Affinities. This order approaches more near to Urticeae and Cupuliferae 
than either Plataneae or Salicinese, which may be considered dismemberments 
of it. In the male flowers of several species there is a distinct membranous 
calyx, very like that of Ulmus ; the seeds are definite and pendulous, and the 
leaves have the same venation as Cupuliferae. It is distinguished by the 2 dis- 
tinct cells of the fruit, by the want of a calyx to the female flowers, and by its 
solitary pendulous seeds. 

Geography. Inhabitants of the woods of Europe, Northern Asia, and 
North America, and even making their appearance on the mountains of Peru 
and Colombia. 

Properties. Fine timber-trees, usually with deciduous leaves ; their bark 
astringent, and sometimes emploj^ed as a febrifuge ; but chiefly valued for their 
importance as ornaments of a landscape. Their wood is often light, and of 
inferior quality, but that of the Black Birch of North America is one of the 
hardest and most valuable we know. 

Examples. Betula, Alnus. 



LXXXIV. SALICINE.E. The Willow Tribe. 

Amentaceje, Jvss. Gen. 407. (1789) in part; Lindl. Synops. § 229. (1829).— Salicinejb, L. C 
Richard MSS. ; Ach. Richard. Elem. de la Bot. ed. 4. 560. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Achlamydeous dicotyledons, with a 1- or 2-celled ovarium, 
indefinite comose seeds, and amentaceous flowers. 
Anomalies. 



97 

Essential Character. — F'loircrs diclinous, either monoecious or dioecious, amentaceous. 
Slamens distinct or monadelplious; anthers 2-cellcd. Ovarium superior, 1- or 2-celled ; 
ovules numerous, erect, at the base of the cell, or adhering - to the lower part of the sides ; style 
1 or ; stigmas 2. Fruit coriaceous, 1- or 2-celled, 2-valvcd, many-seeded. Seeds either ad- 
hering' to the lower part of the axis of each valve, or to the base of the cell, comose ; albumen 
0; embryo erect ; radicle inferior. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, with deliques- 
cent venae primarire, and frequently with glands ; stipula deciduous or persistent. 

Affinities. The hairy seeds, and polyspermous 2-valved fruit, distinguish 
this from Betulineae, the only order with which it is likely to be confounded. 
It is usually combined with that order and Cupulifera?, under the name of 
Amentaceee ; but it is more consonant with modern views of division to keep 
them all separate. 

Geography. Natives, generally, of the same localities as Bctulinese, but 
extending further to the north than the species of that order. The most 
northern woody plant that is known is a kind of Willow, Salix arctica. They 
are found sparingly in Barbary, and there is a species of Willow even in Se- 
negal. 

Properties. Valuable trees, either for their timber or for economical pur- 
poses ; the Willow, the Sallow, and the Poplar, being the representatives. 
Their bark is usually astringent, tonic, and stomachic ; that of Populus tre- 
muloides is known as a febrifuge in the United States ; the leaves of Salix 
herbacea, soaked in water, are employed in Iceland for tanning leather. Wil- 
low bark has been found by Sir H. Davj' to contain as much tanning principle 
as that of the Oak. Ed. P. J. 1. 320. It has lately acquired a great reputation 
in France as a febrifuge. [Its active principle is a vegeto-alkali, analogous to 
Q.uinia, and called Salicine by its discoverer, M ] 

Examples. Populus, Salix. 



LXXXV. PLATANE.E. The Plane Tribe. 

Plataxeje, Lestiboudois according to Von Marlius. Hort. Reg. Monaccnsis, p. 46. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Achlanvydeous dicotyledons, with a 1-celled ovarium, pendu- 
lous ovules, alternate leaves, amentaceous flowers. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers amentaceous, naked; the stamens and pistils in distinct 
amenta. Stamens single, without any floral envelope, but with several small scales and ap- 

Eendages mixed among them; anthers linear, 2-celled. Ovaria terminated by a thick style, 
aving the stigmatic surface on one side ; ovules solitary, or two, one above the other, and 
suspended. Nuts, in consequence of mutual compression, clavate, with a persistent recurved 
style. Seeds solitary, or rarely in pairs, pendulous, elongated ; testa thick ; embryo long, taper, 
lying in the axis of fleshy albumen, with the radicle turned to the extremity next (opposite A. 
Rich.) the hilum. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, palmate, or toothed, with scarious 
sheathing stipula:. Amenta round, pendulous. 

Affinities. Formerly comprehended in the tribe called Amentaceae, this 
order is particularly known by its round heads of flowers, its 1 -celled ovarium, 
containing 1 or 2 pendulous ovula, and its embryo lying in fleshy albumen, by 
which it is distinguishable from both Betulineae, Myriceae, and Artocarpea?, 
with all which, especially the latter, it has a close affinity. From the latter, 
indeed, it is chiefly known by the want of calyx, by the presence of albumen, 
and the absence of milk ; the habit of the two orders being much the same. 
According to Gaertner, the radicle is next the hilum ; according to Achille 
Richard, (Diet. Class. 14. 23.,) it is at the other extremity. 

23 



98 

Geography. Natives of Barbary, the Levant, and North America. 

Properties. Noble timber-trees, the wood of which is extremely valuable ; 
the bark of Platanus is remarkable for falling off in hard irregular patches — a 
circumstance which arises from the rigidity of its tissue, on account of which it 
is incapable of stretching as the wood beneath it increases in diameter. 

Example. Platanus. 



LXXXVI. MYRICEiE. The Gale Tribe. 

Mybiceje, Rich. Anal, du Ft. (1808) ; Ach, Rich. Elem. de la Bot. ed. 4. 561. (1828); Lindl. 
Synops. 242. (1829).— Casuaeineje, Mirbel in Ann, Mus. 16. 451. (1810); R. Brown in 
Flinders, 2. 571. (1814.) 

Diagnosis. Achlamydeous dicotyledons, with a 1 -celled ovarium, erect 
ovules, a naked embryo, and amentaceous flowers. 
Anomalies. Casuarina is leafless. 

Essential Chakacteh. — Flowers diclinous, amentaceous. Stamens 1 or several, each with 
a hypogynous scale. Anthers 2- or 4-celled, opening- lengthwise. Ovarium 1-celled, sur- 
rounded by several hypogynous scales ; ovulum solitary, erect, with a foramen in its apex ; 
stigmas 2, subulate. Fruit drupaceous, often covered with waxy secretions, formed of the hy- 
pogynous scales of the ovarium, become fleshy and adherent ; or dry and dehiscent, with the 
scales distinct. Seed solitary, erect; embryo without albumen; cotyledons 2, plano-convex; 
radicle short, superior. — Leafy shrubs, with resinous glands and dots, the leaves alternate, sim- 
ple with or without stipula? ; or leafless shrubs or trees, with filiform branches bearing 
membranous toothed sheaths at the articulations. 

Affinities. The nearest approach made by these plants is probably to 
Ulmacea? and Betulinere, from the former of which they are readily known by 
their amentaceous flowers and want of a perianthium ; from the latter they are 
distinguished by their erect ovula, aromatic leaves, and 1-celled ovarium. In 
the latter respect they resemble Piperacea 3 , from which, however, they differ 
materially in other points. The only anomalous genus is Casuarina, which 
has the habit of a gigantic Equisetum, and which can scarcely be compared 
with any other dicotyledonous tree. Mr. Brown, in the Appendix to Flinders' 
Voyage, has the following observations on the structure of this remarkable 
genus, from which it will be seen that he does not consider it achlamydeous, as 
I do. 

"In the staminiferous flowers of all the species of Casuarina, I find an envelope 
of four valves, as Lalillardiere has already observed in one species, which he 
has therefore named C. quadrivalvis. Plant. Nov. Holl. 2. p. 67. t. 218. But 
as the two lateral valves of this envelope cover the others in the unexpanded 
state, and appear to belong to a distinct series, I am inclined to consider them 
as bractese. On this supposition, which, however, I do not advance with much 
confidence, the perianthium would consist merely of the anterior and posterior 
valves ; and these, firmly cohering at their apices, are carried up by the anthera, 
as soon as the filament begins to be produced, while the lateral valves or brae- 
tea^ are persistent ; it follows from it, also, that there is no visible perianthium 
in the pistilliferous flowers ; and the remarkable economy of its lateral bractese 
may, perhaps, be considered as not only affording an additional argument in 
support of the view now taken of the nature of the parts, but also as in some 
degree again approximating Casuarina to Conifers, with which it was formerly 
associated. The outer coat of the seed or caryopsis of Casuarina consists of a 
very fine membrane, of which the terminal wing is entirely composed ; between 



99 

this membrane and the crustaceous integument of the seed, there exists a stra- 
tum of spiral vessels, which Labillardiere, not having distinctly seen, has de- 
scribed as an ' integumentum arachnoideum ;' and within the crustaceous in- 
tegument there is a thin proper membrane, closely applied to the embryo, which 
the same author has entirely overlooked. The existence of spiral vessels, par- 
ticularly in such quantity, and, as far as can be determined in the dried speci- 
mens, unaccompanied by other vessels, is a structure at least very unusual in 
the integuments of a seed or caryopsis, in which they are very seldom at all vi- 
sible ; and have never, I believe, been observed in such abundance as in this 
genus, in all whose species they are equally obvious." 

Geography. Found in the cold parts of Europe and North America, the 
tropics of South America, the Cape of Good Hope, India, and New Holland ; 
in the latter country the order is chiefly represented by Casuarina. 

Properties. Aromatic shrubs, or trees of considerable size. Comptonia 
asplenifolia possesses astringent and tonic properties, and is much used in the 
domestic medicine of the United States, in cases of diarrhoea. Barton, 1. 
224. [Rafinesque, Med. Bot. 1. 115.] The root of Myrica cerifera is a 
powerful astringent, and wax is obtained in great abundance from its berries. 
The fruit of Myrica sapida is about as large as a cherry, and, according to 
Buchanan, is a pleasant acid and eatable in Nipal. Don, p. 56. It has a 
pleasant, refreshing, acidulous taste. Wall. Tent. 60. 

Examples. Myrica, Nageia, Casuarina. 



LXXXVII. JUGLANDE^!. The Walnut Tribe. 

Juglandejb, Dec. Theorie, 215. (1813) ; Kunth in Ann. des Sc. Nat. 2. 343. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with ascending definite ovules, amen- 
taceous flowers, and a superior calyx. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers diclinous. Calyx in the staminiferous flowers oblique , 
membranous, irregularly divided, attached to a single bractea ; in the pistilliferous superior, 
with 4 divisions. Petals in the staminiferous ; in the pistilliferous occasionally present, and 
4 in number, arising; from between the calyx and the styles, and cohering - at the base. Stamens 
indefinite, (3-36,) hypogynous ; filaments very short, distinct ; anthers thick, 2-celled, innate, 
bursting 1 longitudinally. Disk 0. Ovarium inferior, 1-cellcd ; ooulum solitary, erect; styles 
1 or 2, and very short, or none; stigmas much dilated, either 2 and lacerated, or discoid 
and 4-lobed. Fruit drupaceous, 1-celled, with 4 imperfect partitions. Seed 4-lobed ; embryo 
shaped like the seed; albumen ; cotyledons fleshy, 2-lobed, wrinkled; radicle superior. — 
Trees. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnated, without pellucid dots or stipuke. Flowers 
amentaceous. 

Affinities. These have usually been mixed with Terebintacea?, to which 
they, however, do not appear so closely allied as to Corylacere, with which 
they accord in their amentaceous monoicous flowers, and superior calyx. 
Among apetalous orders, their pinnated resinous undotted leaves particularly 
distinguish them. 

Geography. Chiefly found in North America ; one species, the common 
Walnut, is a native of the Levant and Persia ; another, of Caucasus ; and a 
third, of the West India Islands. 

Properties. The fruit of the Walnut is esteemed for its sweetness and 
wholesome qualities. It abounds in a kind of oil, of a very drying nature. 
The rind of the fruit, and even the skin of the kernel, are extremely astringent. 
Juglans cathartica and cinerea are esteemed anthelmintic and cathartic ; the 



100 

fruit of several kinds of Hickory is eaten in America. The timber of all is 
valuable ; that of J. regia for its rich deep brown colour when polished, and 
that of Carya alba for its elasticity and toughness. 
Examples. Juglans, Carj^a. 



LXXXVIII. EUPHORBIACEiE The Euphorbium Tribe. 

Euphorbia, Juss. Gen. 335. (1739.)— Euphorbiaceje, Ad. de Juss.Monogr.nS2A); Lindl. 

Synops. 220. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite suspended ovules, a 3- 
celled ovarium, diclinous flowers, and embryo in the midst of oily albumen. 
Anomalies. Carpella occasionally 2, or more than 3. 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Calyx lobed, inferior, with 
various glandular or scaly internal appendages ; (sometimes wanting.) Sterile Jlowers : Sta- 
mens definite or indefinite, distinct or monadelphous; anthers 2-celled. Fertile jlowers : 
Ovarium superior, sessile, or stalked, 2- 3- or more celled ; ovules solitary or twin, suspended 
from the inner angle of the cell ; styles equal in number to the cells, sometimes distinct, some- 
times combined, sometimes none ; stigma compound, or single with several lobes. Fruit 
consisting of 2, 3, or more dehiscent cells, separating with elasticity from their common axis. 
Seeds solitary or twin, suspended, with an arillus; embryo enclosed in fleshy albumen; coty- 
ledons flat; radicle superior. — Trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, often abounding in acrid 
milk. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, rarely compound, usually with stipula;. Flowers 
axillary or terminal, usually with bracteaj, sometimes enclosed within an involucrum. 

Affinities. If the group of apetalous orders be considered a natural one, 
Euphorbiaceas will stand by the side, or in the vicinity, of Urticese, with 
which, however, they have few points in common, except the want of a 
corolla ; or near Myristiceae, with which the columnar stamens of many 
species, and the acridity of their juice, may be said to accord. But it is pro- 
bable that the real relationship of the order is of a very different kind. 
Jussieu long ago perceived a resemblance between Euphorbiacere and Rham- 
neae, a resemblance which A. Brongniart has since adverted to, (J\tonogr. des 
Rhamn. p. 35,) and which chiefly depends upon a similarity in habit, an em- 
bryo with flat foliaceous cotyledons, solitary seeds, a great reduction in size of 
the petals of Rhamnere, as if the order was tending towards an apetalous 
state, and a frequent division of the fruit into three parts. Auguste St. Hilaire 
(PL Usuelles, no. 18.) inquires whether they are not intermediate between 
Menispermea; and Malvaceae. There can be no doubt of their relation to the 
latter, that is to say, to the orders of polypetalous dicotyledons with lvypogy- 
nous stamens and a valvate calyx, if we consider their general habit, espe- 
cially that of the Crotons, the presence of abundance of stellate hairs, and 
their definite seeds ; but these points are not sufficient to approximate the 
orders very nearly : in fact, the true affinities of Euphorbiacea) cannot be said 
to be at present well understood. Ach. Richard suggests some affinity with 
Terebintacere, as well as Rhamneas. Eldmens, ed. 4. 558. 

Geography. This extensive order, which probably does not contain fewer 
than 1500 species, either described or undescribed, exists in the greatest 
abundance in equinoctial America, where about 3-8ths of the whole number 
have been found ; sometimes in the form of large trees, frequently of bushes, 
still more usually of diminutive weeds, and occasionally of deformed, leafless, 
succulent plants, resembling the Cacti in their port, but differing from them 
in every other particular. In the Western world they gradually diminish as 
they recede from the equator, so that not above 50 species are known in North 



101 

America, of which a very small number reaches as far as Canada. In tho 
Old World the known tropical proportion is much smaller, arising probably 
from the species of India and equinoctial Africa not having been described 
with the same care as those of America ; not above an eighth having been 
found in tropical Africa, including the islands, and a sixth being perhaps about 
the proportion in India. A good many species inhabit the Cape, where they 
generally assume a succulent habit; and there are almost 120 species from 
Europe, including the basin of the Mediterranean : of these, 10 only are found 
in Great Britain, and 7 in Sweden. 

Properties. The excellent monograph of M. Adrien de Jussieu contains 
the best information that exists upon this subject ; and I accordingly avail my- 
self of it, making a few additions to his facts. The general property is that of 
excitement, which varies greatly in degree, and consequently in effect. This 
principle resides chiefly in the milky secretion of the order, and is most power- 
ful in proportion as that secretion is abundant. The smell and taste of a few 
are aromatic ; but in the greater part the former is strong and nauseous, the 
latter acrid and pungent. The hairs of some species are stinging. The bark 
of various species of Croton is aromatic, as Cascarilla ; and the flowers of some, 
such as Caturus spiciflorus, give a tone to the stomach. Many of them act 
upon the kidneys, as several species of Phyllanthus, the leaves of Mercurialis 
annua, and the root of Ricinus communis. Several are asserted by authors to 
be useful in cases of dropsy : some Phyllanthuses are emmenagogue. The 
bark of several Crotons, the wood of Croton Tiglium and common Box, the 
leaves of the latter, of Cicca disticha, and of several Euphorbias, are sudorific, 
and used against syphilis ; the root of various Euphorbias, the juice of Com- 
mia, Anda, Mercurialis perennis, and others, are emetic ; and the leaves of Box 
and Mercurialis, the juice of Euphorbia, Commia, and Hura, the seeds of Ri- 
cinus, Croton Tiglium, &c. &c, are purgative. Many of them are also dan- 
gerous, even in small doses, and so fatal in some cases, that no practitioner 
would dare to prescribe them ; as, for example, Manchineel. In fact, there is 
a gradual and insensible transition in this order, from mere stimulants to the 
most dangerous poisons. The latter have usually an acrid character, but some 
of them are also narcotic, as those Phyllanthuses, the leaves of which are 
thrown into water to intoxicate fish. Whatever the stimulating principle of 
Euphorbiacefe may be, it seems to be of a very volatile nature, because appli- 
cation of heat is sufficient to dissipate it. Thus the root of the Jathropha Mani- 
hot or Cassava, which, when raw, is one of the most violent of poisons, be- 
comes a wholesome nutritious article of food when roasted. In the seeds the 
albumen is harmless and eatable, but the embryo itself is acrid and dangerous. 
Independently of this volatile principle, there are two others belonging to the 
order, which require to be noticed : the first of these is Caoutchouc, that most 
innocuous of all substances, produced by the most poisonous of all families, 
which may be almost said to have given a new arm to surgery, and which has 
become an indispensable necessary of life ; it exists in Artocarpere and else- 
where, but is chiefly the produce of species of Euphorbiaceee. The other is 
the preparation called Turnsol, which, although chiefly obtained from Crozo- 
phora (Croton) tinctoria, is to be procured equally abundantly from many other 
plants of the order. 

The properties of Euphorbiaceaj are so important, that I do not think I should 
fulfil the object of this work, if I did not, in addition to the foregoing general 
view of the order, add a detailed list of the qualities of the most important 
species named by writers. 

Acalypha Cupameni, an Indian herb, has a root which, bruised in hot wa- 
ter, is cathartic ; a decoction of its leaves is also laxative. Rheede, 10. 161. 
The nut of Aleurites ambinux is eatable and aphrodisiac, but rather indigesti- 



102 

ble. Commers. according to Ad. de J. The nuts of another species are eaten 
in Java and the Moluccas : but they are intoxicating, unless they are roasted. 
Humph. The Anda of Brazil is famous for the purgative qualities of its seeds, 
which are fully as powerful as those of the Palma Christi. The Brazilians 
make use of them in cases of indigestion, in liver complaints, the jaundice, and 
dropsy. The rind, roasted on the fire, passes as a certain remedy for diarrhoea 
brought on by cold. According to Marcgraaf, the fresh rind steeped in wa- 
ter communicates to it a narcotic property which is sufficient to stupify fish. 
JVIartius Amcen. JWonac. p. 3. The seeds are either eaten raw, or are prepared 
as an electuary ; they yield an oil, which is said, by M. Auguste St. Hilaire, to be 
drying and excellent for painting ; in short, much better than nut oil. PI. Usu- 
elks, 54. The bark of Briedelia spinosa, an Indian shrub, is, according to Rox- 
burgh, a powerful astringent ; the leaves are greedily eaten by cattle, which, 
by their means, free themselves of intestinal worms. The leaves of common 
Box are sudorific and purgative ; according to Hanway, camels eat them in 
Persia, but they die in consequence. Ad. de J. The flowers of Caturus spici- 
florus are spoken of as a specific in diarrhcea, either taken in decoction or in 
conserve. Burin. Ind. 303. The succulent fruit of Cicca disticha and race- 
mosa is sub-acid, cooling, and wholesome. Its leaves are sudorific, and its seeds 
cathartic. The capsules of Cluytia collina are poisonous, according to Rox- 
burgh. The root and bark of Codiaeum variegatum are acrid, and excite a burn- 
ing sensation in the mouth if chewed ; but the leaves are sweet and cooling. 
Rumphius. The juice of Commia cochinchinensis is white, tenacious, emetic, 
purgative, and deobstruent. Cautiously administered, it is a good medicine in 
obstinate dropsy and obstructions. Lour. 743. The duina Blanca of Vera 
Cruz is produced by the Croton Eluteria of Swartz, and is probably the Cas- 
carilla of Europe. Schiede in Ann. des Sc. 18. 217. The drastic oil of Tig- 
lium is expressed from the seeds of Croton Tiglium, formerly known in Europe 
under the name of Grana molucca. It is said, by Dr. Ainslie, to have proved 
in a singular manner emmenagogue. J\Iat. J\ted. 1. 108. A decoction of 
Croton perdicipes, called Pe de Perdis, Alcamphora, and Cocallera, in different 
provinces of Brazil, is much esteemed as a cure for syphilis, and as a useful 
diuretic. PI. Us. 59. The root of another species, called Velame do Campo, 
C. campestris, has a purgative root, also employed against syphilitic disorders. 
lb. 60. The leaves of a species of Croton (C. gratissimum, Burchell,) are so 
fragrant as to be used by the Koras of the Cape of Good Hope as a perfume. 
Burch. 2. 263. Crozophora tinctoria yields the preparation called Tiirnsol ; 
the plant itself is acrid, emetic, and drastic. An abundance of useful oil is ob- 
tained from two species of Elreococca ; it is, however, only fit for burning and 
painting, on account of its acridity. Ad. de J. Six sorts of European Euphor- 
bias are named, by Deslongchamps, as fit substitutes for Ipecacuanha, the best 
of which he states to be E. Gerardiana, the powdered root of which vomits 
easily in doses of 18 or 20 grains. Ainslie, 1. 123. The root of Euphorbia 
Ipecacuanha is said, by Barton, to be equal to the true Ipecacuanha, and in 
some respects superior ; it is not unpleasant cither in taste or smell. Barton, 
1. 218. [Bigelow, 3. 109.] Various species of fleshy Euphorbia, especially 
theEuph.antiquorum and canariensis, produce thcdrugEuphorbiumof the shops, 
which is the inspissated milky juice of such plants. In India it is mixed with 
the oil expressed from the seeds of Sesamum orientale, and used externally in 
rheumatic affections, and internally in cases of obstinate constipation. It is 
little used in Europe. Orfila places it among his poisons. Ainslie, 1. 121. 
Euphorbia papillosa is administered, in Brazil, as a purgative ; but is apt, if 
given in too strong a dose, to cause dangerous superpurgations. PI. Usuelles, 
18. The juice of the leaves of Euphorbia nereifolia is prescribed by the 
native practitioners of India, internally as a purge and deobstruent, and exter- 



103 

nally, mixed with Margosa oil, in such cases of contracted limb as are induced 
by ill-treated rheumatic affections. The leaves have, no doubt, a diuretic qua- 
lity. Jlinslie, 2. 98. The leaves and seeds of Euphorbia thymifolia are given, 
by the Tamool doctors of India, in worm cases, and in certain bowel affections 
of children. lb 2. 76. The same persons give the fresh juice of Euphorbia 
pilulifera in aphthous affections. The fresh acrid juice of Euphorbia 
Tirucalli is used in India as a vesicatory. lb. 2. 133. The Ethopians are 
said, by Virey, to form a mortal poison for their arrows from the juice of 
Euphorbia heptagona. Hist, des Mtdic. 299. The juice of Excrecaria Agallo- 
cha, and even its smoke when burnt, affects the eyes with intolerable pain, as has 
been experienced occasionally by sailors sent ashore to cut fuel, who, according 
to Rumphius (2. 238.), having accidentally rubbed their eyes with the juice, 
became blinded, and ran about like distracted men, and some of them finally 
lost their sight. The famous Manchineel tree, Hippomane Mancinella, is said 
to be so poisonous, that persons have died from merely sleeping beneath its 
shade. This is doubted, indeed, by Jacquin, who, however, admits its ex- 
tremely venomous qualities ; but it is by no means improbable that the story 
has some foundation in truth, particularly if, as Ad. tie Jussieu truly remarks, 
the volatile nature of the poisonous principle of these plants is considered. 
The juice of Hura crepitans is stated to be of the same fatal nature as that of 
Excaecaria ; its seeds are said to have been administered to negro slaves as 
purgatives, in number not exceeding 1 or 2, with fatal consequences. Ad. de J. 
The powdered fruit of Hysenanche globosa is used in the colony of the Cape of 
Good Hope to poison hysenas, as nux vomica to poison stray dogs in Europe. 
From the seeds of Jatropha glauca the Hindoos prepare, by careful expres- 
sion, an oil which, from its stimulating quality, they recommend as an external 
application in cases of chronic rheumatism and paralytic affections. Jlinslie, 
2. 6. The seeds of Jatropha Cufcas are purgative and occasionally emetic ; an 
expressed oil is obtained from them, which is reckoned a valuable external ap- 
plication in itch and herpes ; it is also used, a little diluted, in chronic rheuma- 
tism. The varnish used by the Chinese for covering boxes is made by boiling 
this oil with oxide of iron. The leaves are considered as rubefacient and dis- 
cutient ; the milky juice is supposed to have a detergent and healing quality, 
and dyes linen black. Ibid. 2. 46. The roots of the Jatropha Manihot, or 
Mandiocca, yield a flour of immense importance in South America : this is ob- 
tained by crushing the roots, after the bark has been removed, and then straining 
off the water ; after which the mass is gradually dried in pans over a fire. 
The seeds of several species of Jatropha are purgative, but they sometimes 
act so dangerously as to require extreme caution in administering them. Mer- 
curialis perennis is purgative and dangerous. According to Sloane, it has 
sometimes produced violent vomiting, incessant diarrhoea, a burning heat in the 
head, a deep and long stupor, convulsions, and even death ; jet this very plant, 
when boiled, has been eaten as a potherb. The leaves of Maprounea brasi- 
liensis, or the Marmeleiro do Campo of Brazil, yield a black dye, which is, 
however, fugitive. A decoction of" its root is also administered in derange- 
ment of the stomach ; — a most remarkable circumstance, if we consider the 
close relation that is borne by it to Manchineel and other most poisonous trees. 
According to M. Auguste St. Hilaire, the Maprounea is destitute of the milky 
juice of Sapium, Excoecaria, Hippomane, and other dangerous genera. PI. 
Us. 65. The seeds of Omphalea are eaten safely, if the embryo is first re- 
moved ; if this is not done, they are cathartic. Both Pedilanthus tithymaloides 
and padifolius are used medicinally in the West Indies : the former, known un- 
der the name of Ipecacuanha, is used for the same purposes as that drug ; the 
latter, called the Jew Bush, or Milk plant, is used in decoction of the recent 
plant as an antisyphilitic, and in cases of suppression of the menses. Hamilt. 
Prodr. Fl. Ind. 43. The root, leaves, and young shoots of Phyllanthus Niruri 



104 

are considered, in India, deobstruent, diuretic, and healing. The leaves are 
very bitter, and a good stomachic. Jiinslie, 2. 151. Some other species, par- 
ticularly Ph. urinaria, are powerful diuretics. The fruit of the Phyllanthus 
Emblica is frequently made into pickle ; it is acid, and, when dry, very astrin- 
gent. Ibid, 1. 240. The bruised leaves of Phyllanthus Conami are used for 
inebriating fishes. Aubl. 928. The boiled leaves of Plukenetia corniculata 
are said to be an excellent potherb, for which purpose it is cultivated in Amboyna. 
Rumph. The purgative quality of Ricinus, the Castor oil plant, is well known ; 
the root is said to be diuretic. The juice of Sapium aucuparium is reputed poison- 
ous. A case is mentioned by Tussac (Journ. Bot. 1813. 1. 117.) of a gardener 
whose nostrils became swollen and seized with erysipelatous phlegmasis, in con- 
sequence of the fumes only of this plant. The root of Tragia involucrata is 
reckoned by the Hindoo doctors among those medicines which they conceive 
to possess virtues in altering and correcting the habit in cases of cachexia, and 
in old venereal complaints attended with anomalous symptoms. Jiinslie, 2. 62. 
There is reason to believe that the timber imported from the coast of Africa, 
under the name of African Teak, belongs to some tree of this order. From a 
species of a tree, stated by Mr. Brown to be an unpublished genus, it is said 
that a substance resembling caoutchouc is procured in Sierra Leone. Congo, 
444. 

Examples. Euphorbia, Croton, Buxus, Jatropha. 



LXXXIX. RESEDACEiE. The Mignonette Tribe. 
Resedaceje, Dec. Theor. ed. 1.214. (1813)? Lindl. Synops. 219.(1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite ovules, a 1-celled ova- 
rium with parietal placentae, dehiscent fruit, irregular flowers partly sterile, and 
a reniform embryo. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Florets included within a many-parted involucrum, neuter on 
the outside, perfect in the centre. Calyx 1-sided, undivided, glandular. Stamens of the 
sterile florets linear, petaloid. Stamens of the fertile florets perigynous, definite ; filaments 
erect; anthers 2-cellcd, opening- longitudinally. Ovarium sessile, 3-lobed, 1-celled, many- 
seeded, with 3 parietal placenta;. Stigmata 3, glandular, sessile. Fruit dry and membranous, 
or succulent, opening at the apex. Seeds several, reniform, attached to 3 parietal placenta;; 
embryo taper, arcuate, without albumen ; radicle superior.— Herbaceous plants, with alternate 
leaves, the surface of which is minutely papillose ; and minute, gland-like stipulee. 

Affinities. The character which is here assigned to Rcsedaceae is in 
conformity with an opinion I published some years ago, that the part called 
calyx by botanists is an involucrum, the supposed petals neutral florets, and 
the disk or nectary a calyx surrounding a fertile floret in the middle. The 
reasons I assigned for this opinion were, firstly, " That there is a difference in 
the time of expansion of the neutral florets and of the stamens of the fertile 
one ; the former being quite open in very many capitula, before one anther of 
the latter has burst in a single flower. Secondly, That there is an evident ana- 
logy between the appendages of the neutral florets and the stamens of the per- 
fect florets ; inasmuch as in Reseda odorata those of the upper sterile florets 
are nearly of the same number as the real stamens ; because in Reseda alba, 
and some others, in which a union of filaments takes place in the perfect floret, 
there is a corresponding but more complete union of the sterile appendages ; 
and because occasionally in Reseda odorata, stamens are changed into bodice- 



105 

altogether similar to the sterile appendages ; and in Reseda Phyteuma the 
same appearance is always assumed by the perfect stamens after the anthers 
have performed their functions. Thirdly, That there is an equal analogy 
between the calyx of the neutral florets and that of the perfect floret ; because 
both have a peculiar glandular margin, the same form, both produce their 
stamens from the surface ; and because the upper edge of the calyx in the 
sterile florets has the same relation to the axis of each particular head as that 
of the perfect floret has to the axis of the whole inflorescence. In Reseda 
Phyteuma, which has the margin of its neutral florets rolled back, the same 
thing occurs in the perfect floret. Fourthly, That there is no instance of the 
same analogy existing between the disk and petals of other plants." Coll. Bot. 
no. 22. Hence I inferred that the genus must be excluded from even the 
vicinity of Capparidece, with which it is usually placed. This view of the 
structure of Reseda, however paradoxical it may appear, has been adopted by 
M. Decandolle ; but Mr. Brown, in the Appendix to Major Denham's Narra- 
tive, has advanced various arguments in opposition to it. By these I was at 
first induced to believe that I was mistaken in my theory ; but upon reflection, 
and a subsequent repetition of the observations I originally made, I have been 
led to decide that Mr. Brown's arguments, strong as they undoubtedly are, do 
not carry conviction with them, and are, in fact, less weighty than they seem 
to be. In the first place, this learned botanist does not attempt to invalidate 
some of the arguments upon which I was led to my original conclusion ; and 
secondly, those which he has advanced in support of the contrary opinion 
appear to me to be open to objection. Mr. Brown's arguments in favour of the 
popular mode of under standing the structure of Reseda are: 

1st. That the presence and appearance of the hypogynous disk, the anoma- 
lous structure of the petals, and the aestivation of the flower, all occur in a 
greater or less degree in Capparideas, and have been found united in no other 
family of plants ; and, 

2d. That the appendages, (which I consider abortive stamens,) being formed 
before the part upon "which they rest, (and which I have called calyx,) are con- 
sequently to be referred to the corolla rather than the stamens : this, at least, is 
how I understand the chief argument employed by Mr. Brown. I hope I do 
not misunderstand. 

3d. That the processes of the supposed petals are analogous to those of 
Dianthus, Lychnis, and Silene. 

To the first of these arguments I reply that, without meaning in the slightest 
degree to doubt the accuracy of Mr. Brown's observations, which I know are 
beyond question, I have not been able to discover any Capparideous plants 
which are in my judgment analogous in the conformation of their parts to 
Reseda ; and that, even presuming appearances of analogy to exist more une- 
quivocally than Mr. Brown states that they do, such a fact would not by itself 
shake the evidence I have produced to the contrary. To this I may add, that 
analogical evidence in support of my position, fully as powerful as that said to 
exist against it in Capparidese, is furnished by Datisca, a genus I think evi- 
dently very near Reseda, which is unquestionably apetalous, and of which 
the calyx of the pistilliferous flowers may without difficulty be compared with 
that of Reseda, except that it is adherent to the ovarium. ' 

To the second objection it may be answered, that in organs of so anomalous 
a structure as those of Reseda, there can be no difficulty in supposing that 
anomaly to overcome the ordinary laws of successive formation ; that, more- 
over, the argument is founded upon an assumption that the petals are always 
formed before the stamens : a point with no proof of which am I acquainted, 
and which I think open to considerable doubt ; for instance, are the petals of 
Illecebreae developed before the stamens or subsequent totfiem? and how is 

24 



100 

the existence of apetalous species in polypetalous genera to be reconciled with 
such a theory ? Besides this, is not the circumstance described by Mr. Brown 
of the stamina not being covered by the supposed petals in the slightest degree 
in any stage of development, an admission that in Reseda itself the formation of 
the stamens is anterior to that of the corolla ? and if this is true of perfect sta- 
mens, why should it not be true of sterile ones ? Mr. Brown also states that 
at the period when what he calls the unguis of the petals (but what I call the. 
calyx of the neutral florets) is scarcely to be detected, that part which is com- 
monly called the disk (but which I consider the calyx of a sterile floret) is 
hardly visible also. Is not this a proof of the identity of the two parts ? and if 
so, they must be either all disks, which is absurd, or all calyxes, which is that 
for which I contend. 

With regard to the third objection, that the processes of the supposed petals 
of Reseda are analogous to those of Silene, Lychnis, &c, I entertain a different 
opinion, for the following reasons : The coronal processes of Silene consist of 
cellular tissue only, without any trace of vessels, and are analogous to the crests 
or lamellae upon the labellum of Orchideee, the anomalous subulate processes 
of Gilliesia, the scales of the orifice of some Boragineas, the hump on the calyx 
of Scutellaria, and perhaps also the ligula of grasses. But in Reseda each of 
the processes has a central vascular axis, and is anatomically undistinguisha- 
ble from the filament of the fertile stamens ; being thus analogous to the ligu- 
late or subulate processes of Blittneriaceas, or the coronal processes of 
Schwenkia, Brodisea, and Leucocoryne, all of which are notoriously abortive 
stamina. I know of no instance of mere processes arising from the surface of 
a petal having a vascular axis : for Polygala, after the explanation that has 
been given of its structure by Auguste ' St. Hilaire, will hardly be considered 
an instance : neither am I acquainted with any case of sterile stamens being 
destitute of such an axis, unless they are in a very rudimentary state, which 
those of Reseda are not. 

To conclude, I would beg those who still entertain doubts upon this subject 
to examine Reseda Phyteuma, and to set out in their inquiry from that species, 
in which, according to Mr. Don, (Ed. Neiv Phil. Journ. Oct. 1828,) one of 
the sterile stamens occasionally bears an anther ; a statement which, if there 
is no mistake, sets the question at rest for ever. Viewing the structure of 
Reseda in the usual way, its affinity would be obviously with Capparideae, with 
which it entirely agrees in its seeds ; but in the light in which I see it, its 
proximity will be to Euphorbiacere and Datiscea?, particularly to the latter.; 
and if to them, also to Corylacese and Ulmaceae, with the calyx of which, espe- 
cially that of the staminiferous flowers of Fagus, the calyx of Reseda has 
much in common. I consider that Resedacea? bear about the same relation to 
Euphorbiaceas, as Campanulaceaa to Composite, as Cinchonaceae to Stejlatae, 
or as Hydrangeaceae to Viburnum. 

Geography. Weeds inhabiting exclusively Europe, the adjoining parts of 
Asia, the basin of the Mediterranean, and the adjacent islands. 

Properties. Nothing further is known of them than that Reseda luteola 
yields a yellow dye, and that the Mignonette (R. odorata) is among the most 
fragrant of plants. 

Examples. Reseda, Ochradenus. 



107 
XC. DATISCEiE. 

Datisce;e, R. Brown in Denham, 25. (1826.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite ovules, a 1-celled ova- 
rium with parietal placentae, dehiscent fruit, regular dioecious flowers, and a 
straight embryo. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers, dicecioup. Calyx of the staminiferous flowers divided 
into several pieces ; of the pistilliferous, superior, toothed. Stamens several ; anthers 2-ce\\ed 
membranous, linear, bursting longitudinally. Ovarium 1-ccllcd, with polyspermous parietal 
placenta; ; stigmas equal in number to the placenta?, recurved. Fruit capsular, opening" at 
the vertex, 1-ccllcd, with polyspermous parietal placenta;. Seeds enveloped in a membranous 
finely reticulated integument ; embryo straight, without albumen, its radicle turned towards 
the hilum. — Herbaceous branched plants. Leaves alternate, cut, compound, without stipulie. 
Flowers in axillary racemes. 

Affinities. Mr. Brown is of opinion that this order differs widely from 
Reseda ; but it strikes me that there is no group of plants to which it bears 
a greater affinity, if the flowers of Reseda are considered apetalous, which Mr. 
Brown, however, does not admit. Their habit is very similar. The structure 
of the fruit is absolutely the same, except that the calyx of one is superior, and 
of the other inferior ; both are destitute of albumen ; their anthers are also es- 
sentially alike. I consider Datisceaj a connecting link between Resedacea^ and 
Urticere. 

Geography. The very few species of which this order consists are scat- 
tered over North America, Siberia, northern India, the Indian archipelago, and 
the southeastern corner of Europe. 

Properties. Datisca is bitter. 

Examples. Datisca, Tetrameles. 



XCI. EMPETREyE. The Crowberry Tribe. 

Empetre.e, Nutt. Gen. 2.233.; Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. (1826); Lindley's Synop 

sis, 224. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite ascending ovules, infe- 
rior distinct imbricated sepals, distinct stamens, and an embryo in the axis of 
fleshy albumen. 

Anomalies. 

Essentia!. Character. — Mowers dioecious. Sepals hypogynous imbricated scales. Sta- 
mens equal in number to the sepals, and alternate with them ; anthers roundish, 2-celled, the 
cells distinct, bursting longitudinally. Ovarium superior, seated in a fleshy disk, 3- 6- or 
9-celled; ovules solitary, ascending; style 1 ; stigma radiating, the number of its rays corres- 
ponding with the cells of the ovarium. Fruit fleshy, seated in the persistent calyx, 3-6- or 
9-celled ; the coating of the cells bony. Seeds solitary, ascending; embryo taper, in the axis of 
fleshy watery albumen ; radicle inferior. — Small acrid shrubs with heath-like evergreen leaves 
without stipukc ; and minute flowers in their axilla;. 

Affinities. Although the institution of this order is attributable to Mr. 
Nuttall, the final determination and characterizing it is due to the exactness of 
Mr. Don, who has made numerous remarks upon it in the work above quoted. 
According to this gentleman, the order holds a kind of intermediate place be- 
tween Euphorbiacese and Celastrinea?, agreeing in habit with the former, espe- 



108 

cially with Micranthea, and some species of Phyllanthus, more than with the 
latter. 

Geography. A very small group, comprising a few species from North 
America, the south of Europe, and Straits of Magellan. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Empetrum, Corema, Ceratiola. 



XCII. STACKHOUSEiE. 

Stackhouse;e, R. Br. in Flinders, 555. (1814.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with 5 perigynous stamens, concrete 
carpella, a superior deeply lobed ovarium with several cells and lateral styles, 
and regular flowers. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Chabactee. — Calyx 1-leaved, 5-cleft, equal, with an inflated tube. Petals 5, 
equal, arising from the top of the tube of the calyx ; their claw3 combined in a tube longer than 
the calyx ; their limb narrow, stellate. Stamens 5, distinct, unequal (2 alternately shorter), 
arising from the throat of the calyx. Ovarium superior, 3- or 5-lobed, the lobes distinct, each 
with a single erect ovulum ; styles from 3 to 5, sometimes combined at the base ; stigmas sim- 
ple. Fruit of from 3 to 5, indehiscent, winged, or wingless pieces ; column central, persistent. 
Embryo erect, in the axis of and almost as long as, the fleshy albumen. — Herbaceous plants. 
Leaves simple, entire, alternate, sometimes minute. Stipulce lateral, very minute. Spike ter- 
minal, each flower with 3 bractea?. 

Affinities. Between Celastrineae and Euphorbiacese, according to Mr. 
Brown ; from the latter of which they differ in the presence of petals, in the 
structure of their fruit, and in the position of their seeds, besides other charac- 
ters ; from the former in the presence of stipulse, in the cohesion of the petals 
in a tube, in the want of a fleshy disk, in the deeply lobed ovarium, and so on. 

Geography. A few New Holland shrubs compose all that is known of the 
order. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Example. Stackhousia. 



XCIII. CELASTRINEAE. 

Celastiuneje, R. Brown in Flinders, 22. (1814) ; Dec. Prodr. 2. 2. (1825) ; Ad. Brongniart 
Memoire sur les Rhamnees 16. (1826) ; Ldndl. Synops. 74. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with 4 or 5 perigynous stamens 
alternate with the petals, concrete carpella, a superior ovarium with several 
cells surrounded by a large fleshy disk, ascending ovules, and alternate simple 
leaves without stipulse. 

Anomalies. Flowers diclinous in Maytenus. Petals none in Alzatea. 

Essential Character.— Sepals 4 or 5, imbricated, inserted into the margin of an expanded 
torus. Petals inserted by a broad base, under the margin of the disk, with an imbricate esti- 
vation. Stamens alternate with the petals, inserted into the disk, either at the margin or 
within it ; anthers innate. Disk large, expanded, flat, closely surrounding the ovarium, cover- 
ing the flat expanded torus. Ovarium superior, immersed in the disk and adhering to it, with 
3 or 4 cells ; cells 1- or many-seeded ; ovules ascending from the axis, attached to a short funi- 
culus. Fruit superior ; either a 3- or 4-celled capsule, with 3 or 4 septiferous valves ; or a dry 



109 

drupe, with a 1- or 2-celled nut, the cells of which are 1- or many-seeded. Seeds ascending", 
seldom inverted by resupination, either provided with an arillus, or without one ; albumen 
fleshy ; embryo straight ; cotyledons flat and thick, with a short inferior radicle. — Shrubs. 
Leaves simple, alternate or opposite. Flowers in axillary cytnes. 

Affinities. Formerly confounded with Rhamneae, this order was first 
separated by Mr. Brown, who distinguished it particularly by the relation 
which its stamens bear to the petals. It also differs in its imbricated calyx, and 
in its disk being hypogynous. According to Brongniart, Celastrineae have 
more relation to several orders with hypogynous stamens than to any with pe- 
rigynous ones, especially to Malpighiaceae, to which they are related through 
Hippocrateaceae, which are in fact, according to Mr. Brown, scarcely distinct 
from Celastrineae. Brongn. M6m. p. 15. Related to Euphorbiaceae. 

Geography. Natives of the warmer parts of Europe, North America, and 
Asia, but far more abundant beyond the tropics than within them ; a great 
number of species inhabit the Cape of Good Hope. Some are found in Chile 
and Peru, and a few in New Holland. 

Properties. I find nothing recorded about the properties of the species of 
this order, except a remark by Decandolle, that a decoction of the young 
branches of Maytenus is employed in Chile as a wash for swellings produced 
by the poisonous shade of the tree Lithi. Essai, 123. ed. 2. 

Examples. Euonymus, Celastrus, Alzatea. 



XCIV. HIPPOCRATEACEAE. 

HippocbaticEjE. Juss. Ann. Mus. 18. 483. (1811.)— Hippocr ate ace«, Kunth in Humb. N. G. 
Am. 5. 136. (1821) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 567. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite lyrpogynous stamens 
(3) cohering at the base in a fleshy cup, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several 
cells with the placentae in the axis, an imbricated calyx, unsymmetrical flowers, 
erect ovules, undivided petals without appendages, and indehiscent apterous 
fruit. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, very seldom 4 or 6, very small, combined as far as the 
middle, persistent. Petals 5, very seldom 4 or 6, equal, hypogynous? somewhat imbricated 
in Eestivation. Stamens 3, very seldom 4 or 5 ; filaments cohering almost as far as the apex 
into a tube dilated at the base, and forming about the ovarium a thick disk-like cup ; anthers 
1-celled, opening transversely at the apex, 2- or even 4-celled. Ovarium concealed by the 
tube, 3-cornered, distinct ; style 1 ; stigmas 1-3 ; ovula erect. Fruit either consisting of 3 
samaroid carpella, or berried with from 1 to 3 cells. Seeds in each cell 4, or more, but definite, 
attached to the axis in pairs, some of them occasionally abortive, erect, without albumen ; 
embryo straight; radicle pointing towards the base; cotyledons flat, elliptical oblong, some- 
what fleshy, cohering when dried.— Arborescent or climbing shrubs, which are almost always 
smooth. Leaves opposite, simple, entire or toothed, somewhat coriaceous. Racemes axillary, 
in corymbs or fascicles. Flowers small, not showy. 

Affinities. The ternary number of the stamens, along with the quinary 
number of the petals and sepals, is the prominent characteristic of this order, 
which was formerly included in Acerinece by M. de Jussieu, which is placed 
between Erythroxylece and Marcgraaviaceae by Decandolle, but which is, to 
all appearance, much more nearly related to Celastrineae, as Mr. Brown has 
remarked ; for " the insertion of the ovula is either towards the base, or is cen- 
tral ; the direction of the radicle is always inferior." Brown, Congo, 427. In 
Hippocratea ovata, the testa and cotyledons are furnished in the inside with 



110 

innumerable trachea-like threads ; the same economy has been remarked by 
Du Petit Thouars in the pericarp of Calypso. Dec. Prodr. 1. 567. The 
only similar cases of this curious structure with which I am acquainted are 
in Collomia, in which I have detected it {Bot. Reg. fol. 1166.), and in Casua- 
rina, in which it has been described by Mr. Brown ; plants having no apparent 
affinity with Hippocrateaceae. 

Geography. The principal part are South American, about 1-seventh are 
natives of Africa or the Mauritian Islands, and the same number has been 
recorded as East Indian. 

Properties. The fruit of Tonsella pyriformis, a native of Sierra Leone, is 
eatable. It is about the size of a Bergamot Pear ; its flavour is rich and 
sweet. Hort. Trans. The nuts of Hippocratea comosa are oily and sweet. 
Swartz. 1. 78. 

Examples. Hippocratea, Anthodon, Salacia. 



XCV. BREXIACE^E. 



Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
a hypogynous disk, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the pla- 
centae in the axis, an imbricated calyx, symmetrical flowers, indefinite exalbu- 
minous seeds with a straight embryo, and drupaceous fruit and arborescent 
stems. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, small, persistent, 5-parted ; aestivation imbricated. 
Petals 5, hypogynous, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 5, hypogynous, alternate with the 
petals, arising from a narrow cup, which is toothed between each stamen ; anthers oval, 
innate, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally, fleshy at the apex ; pollen triangular, cohering by 
means of fine threads. Ovarium superior, 5-celled, with numerous ovules attached in two 
rows to'placenta? in the axis; style 1, continuous; stigma simple. Fruit drupaceous, 5-celled, 
many-seeded. Seeds indefinite, attached to the axis, with a double integument, the inner of 
which is membranous; albumen 0; cotyledons ovate, obtuse; radicle cylindrical, centripetal. 
— Trees, with nearly simple trunks. Leaves coriaceous, alternate, simple, not dotted, with 
deciduous minute stipulse. Flowers green, in axillary umbels, surrounded by bractere on the 
outside. 

Affinities. The solitary genus upon which this order is founded does not 
exhibit any very obvious affinities, for which reason it is probable that other 
genera remain to be discovered, which will establish the connexion that is at 
present wanting. Its habit is that of some Myrsineae, especially Theophrasta, 
from which it differs in being polypetalous, in the stamens being alternate with 
the petals, and in many other circumstances. With Rhamneae and Celastri- 
neae its relation is no doubt strong, but its stamens are hypogynous, not perigy- 
nous, and its seeds indefinite. Some resemblance may be traced between it 
and Anacardiaceas, especially in the resinous appearances visible upon the 
young shoots, and also in habit ; but its fructification is entirely at variance 
with that order. With Pittosporeae it agrees in its Irypogynous definite sta- 
mens, its polyspermous fruit, its alternate undivided leaves, and habit ; but it 
disagrees in a number of important particulars. Upon the whole, however, I 
think it approaches more nearly to Celastrineae than to any other order. The 
fruit is well described by Dr. Wallich in the Flora lndica. 

Geography. Madagascar trees. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Example. Brexia. 



Ill 



XCVI. RHAMNEvE. The Buckthorn Tribe. 

Rhamni, Juss. Gen. 376. (1789) ; RhamnEjE, Dec Prodr. 2. 19. (1825) ; Brongniart Memoire 
&ur les Rliamnecs, (1826); Lindl. Synops. 72. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Poljpetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous definite stamens 
opposite the cucullate petals, concrete carpella, a superior ovarium with seve- 
ral cells surrounded by a fleshy disk, solitary erect ovula, valvate calyx, and 
alternate simple leaves with minute stipules. 

Anomalies. Sometimes the ovarium is inferior. Leaves opposite in Col- 
letia and Rctanilla. Stipules and petals often wanting. 

Essential Character. — Calyx monophyllous, 4-5-cleft, with a valvate aestivation. Petals 
distinct, cucullate, or convolute, inserted into the orifice of the calyx, occasionally wanting - . 
Stamens definite, opposite the petals. Disk fleshy. Ovarium superior, or half superior, 2- 3- 
or 4-celled; ovules solitary, erect. Fruit fleshy and indehiscent, or dry and separating - in 3 
divisions. Seeds erect; albumen fleshy, seldom wanting - ; embryo almost as long - as the seed, 
with large flat cotyledons, and a short inferior radicle. — Trees or shrubs, often spiny. Leaves 
simple, alternate, very seldom opposite, with minute stipulcc. Flowers axillary or terminal. 

Affinities. Under this name have been for a long time confounded four 
orders, very different in characters, and even in natural affinities, the peculiari- 
ties of three of which have been pointed out by M. Ad. Brongniart in his me- 
moir upon the subject, and a fourth has been distinguished by myself. These 
orders are Rhamnea? properly so called, Celastrinea?, Ilicineae, and Staphylea- 
cese, the respective affinities of which will be found under each. M. Brong- 
niart indicates the relation that Rhamnea; bear, thus : if we take the insertion 
of stamens as the most important distinction of plants, it will be found that 
among polypetalous orders with perigynous stamens, Pomaceoe are those to 
which Rhamneae have the closest relation, agreeing with them in the ovarium, 
the cells of which are determinate in number, in the ascending ovules, and in 
their alternate leaves usually having two stipule at their base ; the number and 
position of their stamens, and the structure of their seeds, separate them wide- 
ly. But if the insertion of the stamens is left out of consideration, they will 
be found to have many characters in common with Biittneriaceas (Brown in 
Flinders, 22.) ; such as, the aestivation of the calyx, the form of the petals, 
the position of the stamens in front of those petals, the structure of the ova- 
rium and seeds in many important points ; the principal differences between 
them are, in fact, the stamens being turned outwards in Biittneriacere, which 
are also destitute of a disk, have hypogynous stamens, and always two or 
more ovules. Euphorbiaceas are allied to Rhamhese ; but the constant separa- 
tion of stamens and pistils in the former family, hypogynous stamens and 
suspended ovules, are all important marks of distinction. Nitrariaceas may 
be compared with Rhamneaj in several points. 

Geography. Found over nearly all the world, except in the arctic zone ; 
the maximum of species is said to be dispersed through the hottest parts of the 
United States, the south of Europe, the north of Africa, Persia and India in 
the northern hemisphere, the Cape of Good Hope and New Holland in the 
southern. Some of the genera appear to be confined to particular countries, as 
all the true Ceanothuses to North America, Phylicas to the Cape, Cryptandra 
and Pomaderris to New Holland. 

Properties. The berries of various species of Rhamnus are violent pur- 
gatives, and have been highly spoken of in dropsy. They also yield a dye, 
varying in tint from yellow to green ; the ripe berries of R. catharticus, mixed 
with gum arabic and lime-water form the green colour known under the name 
of Bladder-green. The French berries of the shops (Graines d' Avignon, Fr.) 



112 

are the fruit of Rh. infectorius and saxatilis, and amygdalinus. The fruit of 
Zizyphus is destitute of these purgative qualities, and, on the contrary, is often 
wholesome and pleasant to eat, as in the case of the Jujube and the Lote, the 
latter of which is now known to have given their name to the classical Loto- 
phagi. The peduncles of Hovenia dulcis become extremely enlarged and suc- 
culent, and are in China a fruit in much esteem, resembbng in flavour, as it is 
said, a ripe Pear. Some species are astringent. Sageretia theezans is used 
for tea by the poorer classes in China ; an infusion of the twigs of Ceanothus 
americanus has been named useful [as an astringent injection, {Raf. JVfed. 
Bot. 2. 205.) and the leaves of the same plant were substituted for tea, in some 
parts of the United States, during the war of the revolution] . It is said, by 
Rumphius, that in the Moluccas the bark of Zizyphus Jujuba is employed as 
a remedy for darrhoea. Brongn. 

Examples. Rhamnus, Phylica, Hovenia. 



XCVII. STAPHYLEACE^E. The Bladder-Nut Tribe. 

Celastrineje, § Staphyleacece, Dec. Prod. 2. 2. (1825).— Staphyleace.e, Lindl. Synops. 75. 

(1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with 5 perigynous stamens alter- 
nate with the petals, concrete carpella, a superior ovarium of .several cells sur- 
rounded by a fleshy disk, erect ovules, and opposite pinnated leaves with com- 
mon and partial stipule. 

Anomalies. Flowers, diclinous, in Turpinia. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, connected at the base, coloured, with an imbricated 
Estivation. Petals 5, alternate, with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens 5, alternate with 
the petals, perigynous. Disk large urceolate. Ovarium 2- or 3-celled, superior ; ovula erect; 
styles 2 or 3, cohering at the base. Fruit membranous or fleshy, indehiscent or opening in- 
ternally, often deformed by the abortion of some of the parts. Seeds ascending, roundish, 
with a bony testa ; hilum large, truncate ; albumen none ; cotyledons thick. — Shrubs. Leaves 
opposite,pinnate, with both common and partial stipulre. Flowers in terminal, stalked racemes. 

Affinities. Combined with Celastrinere by Decandolle, but distinguished 
by Ad. Brongniart (JWem. stir les Rhamntes, p. 16.), this order appears to me 
to be essentially characterized by its opposite pinnated stipulate leaves, and to 
indicate an affinity between Celastrinese and Sapindacea;. 

Geography. The very few species which belong here are irregularly scat- 
tered over the face of the globe. Of the genus Staphylea, 1 is found in 
Europe, 1 in North America, 1 in Japan, 2 in Jamaica, 1 in Peru ; and of Tur- 
pinia, 1 is Mexican, and 1 East Indian. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Staphylea, Turpinia. 



XCVIII. HIPPO-CASTANET. The Horse-Chestnut Tribe. 

Hippocastane.k, Dec. 'Fheorie, ed. 2. 244. (1819); Prodr. 1. 597. (1824.)— Castaneace*, 
Link Enum. 1. 354. (1821.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous definite stamens, 
concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the placentae in the axis, 



113 

an imbricated calyx, unsymmetrical flowers, definite erect ovules, undivided 
petals without appendages, dehiscent fruit, and compound palmate leaves. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx campanulate, 5-lobcd. Petals 5, or 4 by the abortion of 
one of them, unequal, hypogynous. Stamens 7-8, distinct, unequal, inserted upon a hypogy- 
nous disk; anthers somewhat incumbent. Ovarium roundish, 3-cornered, 3-celled ; style 1, 
filiform, conical, acute ; ovula 2 in each cell. Fruit coriaceous, 1- 2- or 3-valved, 1- 2- or 
3- celled, 1- 2- or 3-seeded. Seeds large, roundish, with a smooth shining- coat, and a broad pale 
hilum ; albumen none ; embryo curved, inverted, with fleshy, very thick, gibbous, cohering 
cotyledons, germinating under ground; plumnla unusually large, 2-lcavecf; radicle conical, 
curved, turned towards the hilum. — 'Trees or shrubs. Learn opposite, without stipidce, 
compound, quinate or septenatc. Racemes terminal, somewhat panicled ; the pedicels with 
an articulation. 

Affinities. The want of symmetry in the parts of the flower, and their 
compound leaves, approximate Hippocastanere to Sapindaceas ; the same 
character brings them near Acerineee, from both which they are distinguished 
by the structure of their fruit and seeds. They also approach Rhizobolese, as 
is stated in speaking of that order. 

Geography. The north of India and North America contain the few 
species that belong to this order. 

Properties. Handsome trees or small bushes, chiefly remarkable for their 
large seeds, with an extensive hilum. These seeds contain a great quantity 
of starch, which renders them nutritive for man and many other animals. 
They also contain a sufficient proportion of potash to be useful as cosmetics, 
or as a substitute for soap ; they are bitter, and have been employed as a 
sternutatory. The bark of the common Horse Chestnut is bitter, astringent, 
and febrifugal. 

Examples. yEsculus, Pavia. 



XCIX. RHIZOBOLESE. 



RhizobolejE, Dec. Prodr. 1. 599. (1824) ; Cambessedes in Aug. St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. 

1. 322. (1827.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous indefinite sta- 
mens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells : with solitary peltate 
ovules, an imbricated calyx, exstipulate compound leaves, and round anthers 
bursting longitudinally. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, more or less combined, imbricated in aestivation. 
Petals 5, thickish, unequal, arising along with the stamens from a hypogynous disk. Sta- 
mens extremely numerous, slightly monadelphous, arising in a double row from a disk, the 
innermost being shorter and often abortive ; anthers roundish. Ovarium superior, 4-celled, 
4-seeded ; styles 4 ; stigmas simple ; ovula peritropal. Fruit formed of 4 combined nuts, 
part of which are sometimes abortive; each nut indehiscent, 1-seeded, 1-celled, with a thick 
double putamen. Seed reniform, without albumen, with a funiculus which is dilated into a 
spongy excrescence ; embryo very large, constituting nearly the whole of the almond-like 
substance of the nut, with a long 2-edged cauliculus, having two small cotyledons at the top, 
and lying in a furrow of the radicle. — Trees. Leaves opposite, stalked, compound, without 
stipule. Flowers racemose. 

Affinities. A very distinct order, related on the one hand to Anacardi- 
aceae, and particularly to Mangifera, but perhaps rather to be associated with 
Sapindaceae, in consideration of its hypogynous flowers and its fruit ; in some 

25 



114 

measure also related to Hippocastaneae on account of its opposite compound 
palmate leaves ; but in Hippocastaneae the radicle is small, and the cotyledons 
very large, while in Rhizoboleae the radicle is enlarged, and the cotyledons 
small. In both orders the albumen seems to be absorbed by the various parts 
of the embryo. Decand. Prodr. 1. 599, 

Geography. Six large trees found in the forests of the hottest parts of 
South America constitute the whole of the order. 

Properties. Some of them are known for producing the Souari (vulgS 
Suw arrow) Nuts, of the shops, the kernel of which is one of the most deli- 
cious fruits of the nut kind that is known. An oil is extracted from them not 
inferior to that of the Olive. 

Example. Caryocar. 



C. SAPINDACEiE. The Soap-Tree Tribe. 

Sapindi, Juss. Gen. 246. (1789.)— Sapindaceje, Juss. Ann. Mus. 18. 476. (1811); Dec. Prodr. 

1. 601. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous definite stamens 
irregularly arranged upon a disk, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several 
cells with the placentae in the axis, an imbricated calyx, unsymmetrical 
flowers, petals usually with some interior appendage, and very unequal sepals. 

Anomalies. In Tina the flowers appear to be symmetrical. Stadmannia, 
Amirola, and Dodonaea, have no petals. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5, either distinct or cohering- at the base ; (estivation 
imbricate. Petals generally equal in number to the sepals, occasionally one less, very rarely 
none, hypogynous ; sometimes naked, sometimes villous or glandular in the middle, some- 
times with an interior petaloid scale. Stamens irregularly arranged, distinct, double the 
number of the petals, inserted on a hypogynous glandular disk. Ovarium roundish ; style 1 
or 3 ; ovula arising from the middle of the axis, definite (collateral), ascending. Fruit dru- 
paceous or capsular, 3-celled, or by abortion 1- or 2-celled. Seeds solitary, attached to the 
axis, without albumen ; embryo with the radicle pointing towards the base of the cell ; coty. 
ledons more or less curved upon the radicle, occasionally straight. — Erect or climbing trees 
or shrubs, very seldom herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, often compound, having fre- 
quently pellucid lines or dots. 

Affinities. Very near Meliaceae, which agree in habit and in their pin- 
nated leaves, but which are known by their monadelphous stamens and sym- 
metrical flowers. To Polygaleoe they are no doubt akin in the singular com- 
bination of 8 stamens with 5 unequal sepals, and an uncertain number of 
petals ; and also in their arillus, which may be compared to the caruncula of 
Polygaleas, although somewhat different in its origin. The dried leaves 
resemble, as Decandolle remarks, those of Connaracece. Their climbing habit 
and tendency to produce tendrils indicate a relation to Vites, which, however, 
is not very near. Mr. Brown remarks, that although in the far greater part of 
this family the ovulum is erect and the radicle of the embryo inferior, yet it 
includes more than one genus in which both the seeds and embryo are 
inverted. Congo, 427. (1818.) 

Geography. Natives of most parts of the tropics, but especially of South 
America and India ; the tribe called Paullinieae is most abundant in'the former, 
and Sapindeaj in the latter region. Africa knows many of them, but they are 
wanting in the cold regions of the north. None are found in Europe or the 
United States of America, Dodonaeas represent the order in New Holland. 



115 

Properties. It is singular that while the leaves and branches of many of 
these plants are unquestionably poisonous, the fruit of others is valuable as an 
article of the dessert. Thus the Longan, the Litchi, and the Rambutan, fruits 
among the most delicious of the Indian archipelago, are the produce of different 
species of Euphoria. The fruit of Schmidelia edulis is known at desserts in 
Brazil under the name of Fruta de parao ; it is said to have a sweet and 
pleasant taste. PL Us. 67. That of Sapindus esculentus is very fleshy, and 
much esteemed by the inhabitants of Certao, by whom it is called Pittomba. 
Ibid. 68. Some species of Paullinia are stated, upon various authorities, to be 
poisonous, especially the P. australis, to which principally M. Auguste de St. 
Hilaire attributes the poisonous quality of the Lecheguana honey. Ed. P. J. 
14. 269. The arillus of Paullinia subrotunda and of Blighia sapida is eata- 
ble. The leaves of Magonia pubescens and glabrata, called Tinguy in Brazil, 
are used for stupifying fishes : their bark is employed for healing sores in horses 
caused by the stings of insects. A. St. Hil. Hist, des PI. 238. The fruit of 
Sapindus saponaria is saponaceous. The root of Cardiospermum halicaca- 
bum is aperient. Ainslie, 2. 204. 

Examples. Sapindus, Blighia, Paullinia. 



CI. ACERINEiE. The Sycamore Tribe. 

Acera. Juss. Gen. 50. (1789); Ann. Mus. 18. 477. (1811).— Acerine-e, Dec. TTieorie, ed. 2. 
244. (1819); Prodr. 1. 593. (1824); Lindl. Synops. 55. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polype talous dicotyledons, with distinct hypogynous definite 
stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the placentae in the 
axis, an imbricated calyx, unsymmetrical flowers, definite erect ovules, undi- 
vided petals without appendages, and indehiscent winged fruit. 

Anomalies. The leaves of Negundium are compound. 

Essential Character. — Calyx divided into 5, or occasionally from 4 to 9 parts, with an 
imbricate activation. Petals equal in number to the lobes of the calyx, inserted round a hy- 
pogynou3 disk. Stamens inserted upon a hypogynous disk, generally 8, not often any other 
number, always definite. Ovarium 2-lobed ; style 1 ; stigmas 2. Fruit formed of two parts, 
which are indehiscent and winged; each 1-celled, with 1 or two seeds. Seeds erect, with a 
thickened lining to the testa; albumen none; embryo curved, with foliaceous wrinkled cotyle- 
dons, and an inferior radicle. — Trees. Leaves opposite, simple, rarely pinnate, without stipu- 
he. Flowers often polygamous, sometimes apetalous, in axillary corymbs or racemes. 

Affinities. Related closely to Malpighiaceae in their winged fruit, to Sa- 
pindaceae in the pinnate leaves of two species, and the unsymmetrical flowers 
of the whole. 

Geography. Europe, the north of India, and North America, are the sta- 
tions of this order, which is unknown in Africa and the southern hemisphere. 

Properties. They are only known for the sugary sap of Acer sacchari- 
num and other species, from which sugar is extracted in abundance. [For 
other properties see Raf. Med. Bot. 2. 185.] 

Examples. Acer, Negundium. 



11G 

CII. ERYTHROXYLEiE. 

EEYTHBOXYLEiE, Kunth in Humb. N. G. Am. 5. 175. (1821); Dec. Prodr. 1. 573. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of 1 cell, an imbricated calyx, symmetrical 
flowers, definite pendulous ovules, distinct sessile stigmas, and drupaceous 
fruit. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Sepals 5, combined at the base, persistent. Petals 5, hypogynous. 
broad at the base, with a plaited scale there, equal, the margins lying upon each other in aesti- 
vation. Stamens 10; filaments combined at the base into a cup; anthers innate, erect, 
2-celled, dehiscing lengthwise. Ovarium 1-celled, or 3-celied, with 2 cells spurious; styles 2, 
distinct; stigmas 3, somewhat capitate, or united almost to the point; orulum solitary, pendu- 
lous. Fruit drupaceous, 1-seeded. Seed angular ; albumen corneous ; embryo linear, straight, 
central ; cotyledons linear, flat, leafy ; radicle superior, taper, straight ; plumula inconspicu- 
ous. Shrubs or trees; young shoots often compressed and covered with acute imbricated 
scales. Leaves alternate, seldom opposite, usually smooth ; stipules axillary. Mowers small, 
whitish or greenish. Peduncles with bractcre at the base. 

Affinities. Separated from Malpighiaceae by Kunth on account of the 
appendages of the petals, the presence of albumen, the fruit being often 1-celled 
by abortion, and their peculiar habit. Dec. Mr. Brown suggests that Ery- 
throxylon belongs to Malpighiaceee, or at least that it approximates very closely 
to that family. Congo, 426. 

Geography. Chiefly West Indian and South American. A few are found 
in the East Indies, and several in the Mauritius and Madagascar. 

Properties. The wood of some is bright red ; that of E. hypericifolium 
is called in the Isle of France Bois d'huile. A permanent reddish brown dye 
is obtained from the bark of Erythroxylum suberosum, called in Brazil Gal- 
linha choca and Mercurio do campo. Pi Us. 69. 

Examples. Erythroxylum, Sethia. 



CIII. MALPIGHIACEvE. The Barbadoes Cherry Tribe. 

Malpighiaceje, Juss. Gen. 252. (1789) ; Ann. Mus. 18. 479. (1811) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 577. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledon?, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, a nearly entire ovarium of 3 cells, a glandular imbricated 
calyx, symmetrical flowers, definite pendulous ovules, a single stjlc, cxalbumi- 
nous seeds, fruit without a woody axis, unguiculate petals, and leaves without 
pellucid dots. 

Anomalies. Styles sometimes distinct. Leaves in an African species 
alternate. Petals occasionally wanting. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, slightly combined, persistent. Petals 5, unguiculate, 
inserted in a hypogynous disk, occasionally rather unequal, very seldom wanting. Stamens 
10, alternate with the petals, seldom fewer, occasionally solitary ; filaments either distinct, or 
partly monadclphous; anthers roundish. Ovarium 1, usually 3-lobcd, formed of 3 carpella, 
more or less combined; styles 3, distinct or combined; omnia suspended. Fruit dry or ber- 
ried, 3-celled or 3-lobcd, occasionally 1- or 2-celled by abortion. Seeds solitary, pendulous, 
without albumen'; embryo more or less curved, or straight ; radicle short ; lobes leafy or thick- 
ish. — Small trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing. Leaves opposite, scarcely ever alternate, 
simple, without dots, with stipula; mostly. Flowers in racemes or corymbs. Pedicels articu- 
lated in the middle, with 2 minute bractccc. 



117 

Affinities. Distinguished from Erythroxyleae by the structure of the ova- 
rium ; and from Acerinere by the unguiculate petals, the glandular calyx, and 
the symmetrical flowers. Mr. Brown remarks, that the insertion of the ovulum 
is always towards its apex, or considerably above its middle ; and the radicle 
of the embryo is uniformly superior, in which point Banisteria offers no excep- 
tion to the general structure, although Gartner has described its radicle as in- 
ferior. Congo, 426. 

Geography. Almost exclusively found in the equinoctial parts of America; 
of 180 species enumerated by Dccandolle, only 5 are East Indian, 1 is found 
at the Cape, 1 in Arabia, and 5 in equinoctial Africa, or the contiguous 
islands. 

Ppoperties. Little is known of this subject. The wood of some kinds is 
bright red. The fruit of many is eaten in the West Indies ; the hairs of a few 
species are painfully pungent. The bark of Malp. Moureila, according to Au- 
blet, is employed in Cayenne as a febrifuge. 

The following sections are employed by Decandolle : 

1. MaLPIGHIE-ZE. 

Styles 3, distinct or cohering in 1. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent. — Leaves op- 
posite. 

Examples. Malpighia, Bunchozia. 

2. HlPTAGE-E. 

Style 1, or 3 combined in 1. Carpella of the fruit dry, indehiscent, 1-seeded, 
often variously expanded into wings. — Leaves opposite or verticillate. 
Examples. Hiptage, Thryallis, Aspicarpa. 

3. Banisterieje. 

Styles 3, distinct. Carpella of the fruit dry, indehiscent, monospermous, va- 
riously expanded into wings. — Leaves opposite, rarely whorled. 
Examples. Hirasa, Banisteria. 



CIV. VITES. The Vine Tribe. 

Vites, Juss. Gen. 267. (1789). — Sarmentace*, Vent. T'abl. 3. 167. (1799). — Viniferje, Juss. 
Mem. Mus. 3. A A A. (1817).— Ampelideje, Kunth in Humboldt, K G. et. Sp. 5. 223. (1821) ; 
Dec.Prodr. 1.627.(1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of 2 cells, a small almost entire open calyx, 
symmetrical flowers, definite erect ovules, baccate fruit, tumid joints, and a 
climbing habit. 

Anomalies. Leea and Lasianthera are monopetalous ; but it is doubtful 
whether they belong to the order. 

Essential Character. — Calyx small, nearly entire at the edge. Petals 4 or 5, inserted on 
the outside of a disk surrounding the ovarium ; in aestivation turned inwards at the edge, in 
a valvatc manner. Stamens equal in number to the petals, inserted upon the disk, sometimes 
sterile by abortion ; filaments distinct, or slightly cohering at the base ; anthers ovate, versa- 
tile. Ovarium superior, 2-cellcd ; style 1, very short ; stigma simple; ovula erect, definite. 
Berry round, often by abortion 1-cellcd, pulpy. Seeds 4 or 5, or fewer by abortion, bony, 
erect; albumen hard; embryo erect, about one half of the length of the albumen; radicle 
taper; cotyledons lanceolate, plano-convex. — Scrambling, climbing shrubs, with tumid sepa- 
rable joints. Leaves with stipuUe at the base, the lower opposite, the upper alternate, simple 



118 

or compound. Peduncles racemose, sometimes by abortion changing to tendrils. Flowers 
small, green, [in the North American species of Vitis, polygamous.] 

Affinities. The tumid joints, which separate from each other by an articu- 
lation, along with the many other points of agreement in their fructification, 
approximate them to Geraniacere. Their compound leaves, and their evident 
relation to Leea, which is itself possibly Meliaceous, indicate their affinity to the 
latter order ; and their habit and inflorescence to Caprifoliaceae, through He- 
dera. The tendrils of the order are the branches of inflorescence, the flowers 
of which are abortive. 

Geography. Inhabitants of woods in the milder and hotter parts of both 
hemispheres, especially in the East Indies. 

Properties. Acid leaves, and a fruit like that of the common grape, is 
the usual character of the order. The sap or tears of the. vine are a popular 
remedy in France for chronic ophthalmia, but they are of little value. The 
leaves, on account of their astringency, are sometimes used in diarrhoea. But 
the dried fruit and wine are the really important products of the grape ; pro- 
ducts which are, however, yielded by no other of the order, if we except the 
Fox-grapes of North America, which scarcely deserve to be excepted. The 
acid of the grape is chiefly the tartaric ; malic acid, however, exists in them. 
The sugar contained in grapes differs slightly from common sugar in composi- 
tion, containing a smaller quantity of carbon. Turner, 682. 

M. Decandolle has 2 tribes, the last of which is doubtful. 

Tribe 1. VinifeRjE, or Sarmentace^. 

Corolla polypetalous. Stamens opposite the petals. Peduncles often with 
tendrils. 
Examples Cissus, Vitis. 

Tribe 2. Leeaceje. 

Corolla monopetalous. Stamens alternate 1 with the petals, often monadel- 
phous. Fruit and seeds scarcely known. Tendrils wanting. 
Examples. Leea, Lasianthera. 



CV. MELIACEiE. The Bead-tree Tribe. 
Meli.e, Juss. Gen. 263. (1789) ; Mem. Mus. 3. 436. (1817) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 619. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens 
combined in a long tube, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the 
placental in the axis, an imbricated calyx, symmetrical flowers, definite exalbu- 
minous apterous seeds with straight embryo, and sub-sessile anthers. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5, more or less united. Petals the same number ; hy- 
pogynous, conniving at the base, or even cohering, usually having a valvate aestivation. Sta- 
mens twice as many as the petals (occasionally equal in number, sometimes 3 or 4 times as 
many) ; filaments cohering in a long tube ; anthers sessile within the orifice of the tube. Disk 
frequently highly developed, surrounding the ovarium like a cup. Ovarium single, with 
several cells ; style 1 ; stigmas distinct or combined ; ovules 1 or 2 in each cell. Fruit berried, 
drupaceous or capsular, many-celled, often, in consequence of abortion, 1-celled, the valves, if 
present, having the dissepiments in their middle. Seeds without albumen, not winged ; cm- 
bryo inverted. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, without stipules, simple or compound. 



119 

Affinities. This order is not well understood. It is apparently akin to 
Sapindacerc, with which it agrees in habit, but from which it is distinguished 
by its stamens and symmetrical flowers. To Cedreleee it is most closely allied, 
and therefore connected with Rutaceae through Flindersia. Humiriaceae are 
principally distinguished by their highly developed connectivum and partially 
united stamens. Styraceoe are very nearly akin to Meliaceee, but they are 
monopetalous. 

Geography. Found principally in the hotter parts of the East and West 
Indies, South America, and Africa. The common Bead-tree, Melia Azeda- 
rach, has the most northern position, in Syria. 

Properties. The false Winter's Bark, a good tonic and stimulant, not 
much known, is yielded by Canella alba ; it is aromatic, and used as a condi- 
ment in the West Indies. The bark of Guarea Trichilioides is, according to 
Aublet, purgative and emetic. The root of Melia Azedarach is bitter and 
nauseous, and is used in North America as anthelmintic ; the pulp that sur- 
rounds the seeds is said to be deleterious ; but this is denied by M. Turpin, 
who asserts that dogs which he has seen eat it experienced no inconvenience ; 
and children in Carolina eat thern with impunity. Ach. R. [The fruit of 
this tree is said to yield, by destructive distillation, a large quantity of inflam- 
mable gas, fit for illumination and free from any disagreeable smell] It is 
supposed that the Melia Azedarachta, or Neemtree of India, possesses febri- 
fuge properties. See Trans, of the M. and Ph. Soc. of Calcutta, 3. 430. 
A kind of Toddy, which the Hindoo doctors consider a stomachic, is obtained 
by tapping this, which is also called the Margosa-tree. Ainslie, 1. 453. From 
the fruit of the same plant an oil is obtained, which is fit for burning and for 
other domestic purposes, and, as Ach. Richard well observes (Bot. M£d. 70S.), 
is another instance, after the Olive, of the pericarp yielding that substance 
which is usually obtained from the seed. This oil is said to possess antispas- 
modic qualities. Dec. A warm pleasant-smelling oil is prepared from the 
fruit of Trichilia speciosa, which the Indian doctors consider a valuable exter- 
nal remedy in chronic rheumatism and paralytic affections. Ainslie, 2. 71. 
Some delicious fruits of the Indian archipelago, called Langsat, or Lanseh, 
and Ayer Ayer, are species of the genus Lansium ; they have a watery pulp, 
with a cooling pleasant taste. Milnea edulis is another plant of the order, 
with eatable fruit. 

M. Decandolle has the following sections (Prodr. 1. 619.) : 



1. Melie^e. 



Cotyledons flat and leafy. 
Examples. Melia, Turrsea. 



2. TrichiliejE, 



Cotyledons very thick. 
Examples. Ekebergia, Guarea. 



CVI. CEDRELE.E. 

Cedbele.s:, Brown in Flinders, 64. (1814.)— Meliace*, § Cedrelca;, Dec. Prodr. I. 

624. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypctalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogjnous stamens 
combined in a tube, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the 



120 

placentae in the axis, an imbricated calyx, symmetrical flowers, indefinite 
exalbuminous winged seeds with a straight embryo, and subsessile anthers. 
Anomalies. Flindersia has dotted leaves. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-cleft, persistent. Petals 5, sessile, inserted at the base 
of a staminiferous disk, imbricated in restivation. Stamens 10, inserted on the outside, 
below the apex of a hypogynous disk ; those which are opposite the petals sterile ; anthers 
acuminate, attached near the base; their cells side by side, bursting' longitudinally. Disk 
hypogynous, cup-shaped, with 10 plaits. Ovarium superior, 5-cellcd ; style simple ; stigma 
deeply 5-lobed, peltate. Capsule separable into 5 pieces, which are combined at the base, 
before bursting, with a short central axis, which is finally distinct and persistent. Placenta 
central, with 5 longitudinal lobes, which occupy the cavities of the capsule, and therefore 
alternate with the pieces, dividing each cavity in two ; finally becoming - loose, and having 2 
(or more) seeds on each side. Seeds erect, or ascending, with their apex terminated in a 
wing; testa coriaceous, thickened at the base and sides; albumen 0, (a little, Dec); cotyle- 
dons flat, transverse; radicle transverse, very short, distant from the hilum, (embryo erect, 
Dec.) — Leaves alternate, without stipula;, compound. Inflorescence terminal, paniclecf. R. Br. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Meliacere, in whose affinities they partici- 
pate. Chiefly distinguished by their winged and indefinite seeds. Flindersia, 
a genus established by Mr. Brown in the Appendix to Captain Flinders' Voy- 
age, differs from Cedreleae both in the insertion of its seeds, which are erect, in 
the dehiscence of its capsules, and also in having movable dissepiments : these 
last, however, Mr. Brown considers as segments of a common placenta, hav- 
ing a peculiar form. Flindersia is also distinct from the whole order, in having 
its leaves dotted with pellucid glands, in which respect it serves to connect 
Cedreleae with Hesperideae (Aurantiaceee,) and, notwithstanding the absence 
of albumen, even with Diosmeae. See the Jljypendix and Alias to Flinders 7 
Voyage. 

Geography. These are common to America and India, but have not yet 
been found on the continent of Africa, nor in any of the adjoining islands. 
Brown Congo, 465. 

Properties. The bark of Cedrela is fragrant and resinous : that of C. 
Toona, and of Swietenia Mahagoni, is also accounted febrifugal. The maho- 
gany wood used by cabinet-makers is the produce of the last-mentioned plant. 
The bark of Swietenia febrifuga, called on the Coromandel coast the Red 
Wood Tree, is a useful tonic in India in intermittent fevers ; but Dr. Ainslie 
found that if given beyond the extent of 4 or 5 drachms in the 24 hours, it 
deranged the nervous system, occasioning vertigo and subsequent stupor. 
Oxleya xanthoxyla, a large tree, is the Yellow-wood of New South Wales. 

Examples. Cedrela, Flindersia, Oxleya. 



CVII. HUMIRIACEiE. 

Humiriaceje, Adrien dc Jussicu in Aug. dc St. Hil. Flora Bras. Mcrid. 2. 87. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of 5 cells, an imbricated calyx, symme- 
trical flowers, definite pendulous ovules, a single style, albuminous seeds, fruit 
without a woody axis, a dilated connectivum, and leaves without pellucid dots. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx in 5 divisions. Petals alternate with the" lobes of the 
calyx, and equal to them. Stamens hypogynous, 2-celled, 4 or many times as numerous as 
the petals, monadelphous ; anthers with a fleshy connectivum, extended beyond the 2 lobes. 
Ovarium superior, usually surrounded by an annular or toothed disk, 5-ccllccJ, with from 1 to 



121 

2 suspended ovules in each cell ; style simple; stigma lobed. Fruit drupaceous, with 5 or 
fewer cells. Seed with a membranous integument ; embryo straight, oblong, lying in fleshy 
albumen; radicle superior. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, coriaceous, without 
stipulse. Flowers somewhat cymose. 

Affinities. These are not well made out : they differ from Meliacese very 
much inhabit, and in many respects in fructification, especially in having 1 the 
aestivation of the corolla quincuncial, not valvate, and the stamens sometimes 
indefinite • the anthers also of Humiriacere. as Yon Martius observes, ( Nov. 
Gen. fyc. 2. 147.,) are very different from Meliaceaj in the great dilatation of 
their connectivum ; their albuminous seeds and slender embryo are at variance 
with Meliacese. In the latter respect, and in their balsamic wood, they agree 
better with Styracinere, as also in the variable direction of the embryo. Besides 
these points of affinity, Von Martius compares Humiriacea? with Chlenacea?, 
on account of both orders containing definite and indefinite monadelphous sta- 
mens, several stigmas, partially abortive cells, inverted albuminous seeds, and 
a singular complicated vernation, by which two longitudinal lines are impressed 
iipon each leaf. To me it appears, that the real affinity is with Aurantiacere ; 
an affinity indicated by their inflorescence, the texture of their stamens, then- 
disk, their winged petioles, and their balsamic juices. 

Geography. All Brazilian trees. 

Properties. Humirium floribundum, when the trunk is wounded, yields 
a fragrant liquid yellow balsam, called Balsam of Umiri, resembling the pro- 
perties of Copaivi and Balsam of Peru. JWartius. 

Examples. Humirium. 



CVIU. AURANTIACE.E. The Orange Tribe. 

AuEAN-TiACEiE, Corr. Ann. Mus. 6. 376. (1805) ; Mirb. Bull. Philom. 379. (1813) ; Dec. Prodr. 

1. 535. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of several cells, an open calyx, symmetri- 
cal flowers, definite pendulous ovules, a single style, a pulpy fruit without a 
woody axis, exalbuminous seeds, and compound dotted leaves. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx urceolate or campanulate, somewhat adhering to the disk, 
short, 3- or 5-toothed, withering. Petals 3 to 5, broad at the base, sometimes distinct, some- 
times slightly combined, inserted upon the outside of a hypogynous disk, slightly imbricated 
at the edges. Stamens equal in number to the petals, or twice as many, or some multiple 
of their number, inserted upon a hypogynous disk ; filaments flattened at the base, sometimes 
distinct, sometimes combined in one or several parcels ; anthers terminal, innate. Ovarium 
many-celled ; style 1, taper; stigma slightly divided, thickish ; Fruit pulpy, many-celled, with 
a leathery rind replete with receptacles of volatile oil, and sometimes separate from the cells ; 
cells often filled with pulp. Seeds attached to the axis, sometimes numerous, sometimes soli- 
tary, usually pendulous, occasionally containing more embryos than one ; raphe and chalaza 
usually very distinctly marked; embryo straight ; cotyledons thick, fleshy ; plumula conspicu- 
ous. — Trees or shrubs, almost always smooth, and filled every where with little transparent re- 
ceptacles of volatile oil. Leaves alternate, oftenicompound, always articulated with the petiole, 
which is frequently winged. Spines, if present, axillary. 

Affinities. Readily known by the abundance of oily receptacles which 
are dispersed over all parts of them, by their deciduous petals, and compound 
leaves with a winged petiole. They are nearly related to Amyriderc and Con- 
naraceffi on the one hand, and to various genera of Diosmes on the other, but 
are distinguished from them all by a variety of obvious characters. The raphe 

26 



122 

and chalaza are usually distinctly marked upon the testa, and sometimes beau- 
tifully. Decandolle considers the rind of the Orange to be of a different origin 
and nature from the pericarpium of other fruit, and more analogous to the torus 
or disk of Nelumbonese ; but if the ovarium and ripe fruit are compared, it will 
be readily seen that this hypothesis is untenable, and that there is no difference 
between the rind of an orange and an ordinary pericarpium. 

Geography. Almost exclusively found in the East Indies, whence they 
have in some cases spread over the rest of the tropics. Two or three species- 
are natives of Madagascar ; one is described as found wild in the woods of Es- 
sequebo ; and Prince Maximilian of Wied Neuwied speaks of a wild Orange of 
Brazil, called Caranja da terra, which has by no means the debcious refreshing 
qualities of the cultivated kind, but a mawkish sweet taste. Travels, 76. 

Properties. The wood is universally hard and compact ; they abound in 
a volatile, fragrant, bitter, exciting oil ; the pulp of the fruit is always more or 
less acid. Dec. The Orange, the Lemon, the Lime, and the Citron, fruits 
which, although natives of India, have now become so commom in other coun- 
tries as to give a tropical character to a European dessert, are the most remark- 
able products of this order. . If to this be added the excellence of their wood, 
and the fragrance and beauty of their flowers, I know not if an order more in- 
teresting to man can be pointed out. The fruits just mentioned are not, how- 
ever, its only produce. The Wampee, a fruit highly esteemed in China and 
the Indian archipelago, is the produce of Cookia punctata. The berries of Glyc- 
osmis citrifolia are debcious ; those of Triphasia trifobata are extremely agree- 
able. The productiveness of the common Orange is enormous. A single tree 
at St. Michael's has been known to produce 20,000 oranges fit for packing, ex- 
clusively of the damaged fruit and the waste, which may be calculated at one- 
third more. The juice of the Lime and the Lemon contains a large quantity of 
citric acid. Turner, 632. Oranges contain malic acid. lb. 634. A decoc- 
tion of the root and bark of iEgle Marmelos is supposed, on the Malabar coast, 
to be a sovereign remedy in hypochondriasis, melancholia, and palpitation of 
the heart ; the leaves in decoction are used in asthmatic complaints, and the 
fruit a little unripe is given in diarrhoea and dysentery. Roxburgh adds, that the 
Dutch in Ceylon prepare a perfume from the rind ; the fruit is most debcious to 
the taste, and exquisitely fragrant and nutritious, but laxative ; the mucus of 
the seed is a good cement for some purposes. Ainslie, 2. 87. The leaves of 
Bergera Konigii are considered by the Hindoos stomachic and tonic ; an infu- 
sion of them toasted stops vomiting. The green leaves are used raw in dysen- 
tery ; the bark and root internally as stimuli. Ibid. 2. 139. The young leaves 
of Feronia elephantum have, when bruised, a most delightful smell, very much 
resembling anise. The native practitioners of India consider them stomachic 
and carminative. Its gum is very like gum arabic. Ibid. 2. 83. 

Examples. Citrus, Limonia, Bergera. 



CIX. SPONDIACEjE. The Hogplum Tribe. 

Sfondiaceje. Kunth in Ann. Sc. Nat. 2. 362. (1824).— TeuebintacejE, trib. 3. Dec. Prodr. 2. 

74. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with 10 perigynous stamens, con- 
crete carpella, a superior ovarium of several cells, regular flowers, an annular 
disk, solitary pendulous ovula, and alternate pinnated leaves with pellucid dots. 

Anomalies. 



123 



Kssential Character.— Flotcers sometimes diclinous. Calyx 5-cleft, regular, persistent 
or deciduous. Petals 5, inserted below a disk surrounding - the ovarium, somewhat valvate or 
imbricate in aestivation. Stamens 10, perigynous, arising- from the same part as the petals. 
Disk annular, in the sterile flowers orbicular, with 10 indentations. Ovarium superior, sessile, 
from 2- to 5-cellcd ; styles 5, very short ; stigmas obtuse; ovulurn 1 in each cell, pendulous. 
Fruit drupaceous, 2-5-celled. Seeds without albumen ; cotyledons plano-convex ; radicle su- 
perior, pointing" to the hilum (inferior in Spondias, according to Gazrtner). — Trees without 
spine*. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, without pellucid dots, a few simple leaves occa- 
sionally intermixed. Stipules 0. Injlorescence axillary and terminal in panicles or racemes. 

Affinities. Very near Anacardiacese in the structure of their fruit which 
is almost that of Mangifera, except that it is compound and not simple ; desti- 
tute, however, of the resinous juice of that order. They are remarkable for 
the great development of their disk. 

Geography. Natives of the West Indies, the Society Islands, andthe Isle 
of Bourbon. 

Properties. The fruit of the several species of Spondias is eatable in the 
West Indies, where they are called Hog Plums. 

Example. Spondias. 



CX. CONNARACE^E. 



Terebintaceje, Juss. Gen. 368.(1789.) in part. — CoNNARACEiE, R. Brown in Congo, 431. 
(1818); Kunth in Ann. Sc. Nat. 2. 359. (1824.)— Terebintace*, trib 7. Dec. Prodr.2. 
84. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
anthers bursting by longitudinal slits, distinct simple carpella, exstipulate leaves 
without pellucid dots, no albumen, and terminal stigmas. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoclinous, rarely diclinous. Calyx 5-parted, regular, 
persistent; aestivation either imbricate or valvular. Petals 5, inserted on the calyx, imbri- 
cated, rarely valvate in aestivation. Stamens twice the number of petals, hypogynous, those 
opposite the petals shorter than the others; filaments usually monadelphous. Ovarium soli- 
tary and simple, or several, each with a separate style and stigma ; ooula 2, collateral, ascend- 
ing - ; styles terminal ; stigmas usually dilated. Fruit dehiscent, single or several together, 
splitting lengthwise internally. Seeds erect, in pairs or solitary, with or without albumen, 
often with an arillus ; radicle superior, at the extremity opposite the hilum ; cotyledons thick 
in the species without albumen, foliaceousin those with albumen. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves 
compound, not dotted, alternate, without stipuke. Flowers terminal and axillary, in racemes 
or panicles, with bracteae. 

Affinities. Connarus can only be distinguished from Leguminosffi by the 
relation the parts of its embryo have to the umbilicus of the seed, {Brown in 
Congo, 432.) ; that is to say, by the radicle being at the extremity most remote 
from the hilum. This observation must, however, be understood to refer only 
to some particular cases in Leguminosse, and also to the fructification ; the want 
of stipulaj and regular flowers being usually sufficient to point them out. From 
Anacardiacere and other Terebintaceous orders they are at once known by the 
total want of resinous juice. 

Geography. All found in the tropics of Asia, Africa, and America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Connarus, Omphalobium. 



124 



CXI. AMYRIDE^E. 

Terebintaceje, Juss. Gen. 368. (1789) inpart.— Amyride*, R. Brown in Congo,43l. (1816); 
Kunth in Ann. Sc. Nat. 2. 353. 1824).— Terebintaceje, trib. 5. Dec. Prodr. 2. 81. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
anthers bursting by longitudinal slits, distinct simple carpella, exstipulate dotted 
leaves, and no albumen. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx, small regular, persistent in 4 divisions. Petals 4, hypo- 
gynous, with imbricated aestivation. Stamens double the number of the petals, hypogynous. 
Ovarium superior, 1-celled, seated on a thickened disk ; stigma sessile, capitate ; ovules 2, 
pendulous. Fruit indehiscent, sub-drupaceous, 1-seeded, glandular. Seed without albu- 
men ; cotyledons fleshy ; radicle superior, very short.— Trees or shrubs, abounding in resin. 
Leaves opposite, compound, with pellucid dots. Inflorescence axillary and terminal, panicled. 
Pericarpium covered with granular glands, filled with an aromatic oil. 

Affinities. The general structure of this order is that of Anacardiacere, 
but in qualities it more nearly resembles Burseraceae. M. Kunth suggests in 
relation to Aurantiacese, to which its dotted leaves, capitate stigmas, and peri- 
carpia filled with reservoirs of oil, appear to approximate it. 

Ceography. Natives exclusively of the tropics of India and America, 
with the exception of one species found in Florida. 

Properties. Fragrant resinous shrubs. The Gum Elemi Tree of Nevis 
is, according to Dr. Hamilton, a plant related to the genus Amyris, which he 
calls A. 1 hexandra. Prodr. Fl. hid. 35. The gum resin, called Bdellium, is 
probably produced by a species of Amyris, the Niouttout of Adanson, accord- 
ing to Virey. Hist. Nat. des Mtd. 291. The layers of the liber of a species 
of Amyris were found by M. Cailliaud to be used by the Nubian Mahometans 
as paper, on which they write their legends. Delile Cent. 13. Amyris toxife- 
ra is said to be poisonous. Dec. Resin of Coumia is produced by A. ambro- 
siaca. Ibid. 

Example. Amyris. 



CXII. BURSERACEAE. 

TerebintacejE, Juss. Gen. 368.(1789) inpart. — Burseraceje, Kunth in Ann. Sc. Nat. 2. 333. 
(1824).— Tehebintaceje, trib. 4. Dec. Prodr. 2. 75. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with 2 or 4 times as many peri- 
gynous stamens as petals, concrete carpella, a superior ovarium of several 
cells, regular flowers, an annular disk, collateral ovules, and pinnated alternate 
leaves without pellucid dots. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Floroers monoclinous, occasionally diclinous. Calyx persistent, 
somewhat regular, with from 2 to 5 divisions. Petals 3-5, inserted below a disk arising from 
the calyx ; (estivation usually valvate. Stamens 2 or 4 times as many as the petals, perigy- 
nous, all fertile. Disk orbicular or annular. Ovarium 2-5-celled, superior, sessile ; style 1 or 
; stigmas equal in number to the cells ; ovula in pairs, attached to the axis, collateral. Fruit 
drupaceous, 2-5 celled, with its outer part often splitting into valves. Seeds without albumen ; 
cotyledons either wrinkled and plaited, or fleshy ; radicle superior, straight, turned towards the 
hiluin. — Trees or shrubs, abounding in balsam, resin, or gum. Leaves alternate, unequally 
pinnate, occasionally with stipulcc, usually without pellucid dots. Flowers axillary or ter- 
minal, in racemes or panicles. 



125 

Affinities. Differ from Anacardiacese, to which they are closely allied in 
their compound ovarium and pinnated leaves, and also in the very generally 
valvule aestivation of the calyx. 

Geography. Exclusively natives of tropical India, Africa, and America. 

Properties. They have all an abundance of fragrant resinous juice, which 
is, however, destitute of the acridity and staining property of Anacardiacere. 
The resin of Boswellia is used in India as frankincense, and also as pitch. It 
is hard and brittle, and, according to Dr. Roxburgh, is boiled with some low- 
priced oil, to render it soft and fit for use. The native doctors prescribe it, 
mixed with ghee, (clarified butter,) in cases of gonorrhoea, and also in what they 
call Ritta Kaddapoo, which signifies flux accompanied with blood. The wood 
is heavy, hard, and durable. Ainslie, 1. 137. The Boswellia serrata, called 
Libanus thurifera by Colebrooke, produces the gum-resin Olibanum, a substance 
chiefly used as a grateful incense, but which also possesses stimulant, astrin- 
gent, and diaphoretic properties. Ibid. 1. 267. A kind of coarse resin is 
obtained from Boswellia glabra, and is used boiled with oil for pitching the 
bottoms of ships. Ibid. The Bursera paniculata, called Bois de Colophane in 
the Isle of France, gives out, from the slightest wound in the bark, a copious 
flow of limpid oil of a pungent turpentine odour, which soon congeals to the 
consistence of butter, assuming the appearance of camphor. Breivster, 2. 182. 
The gum 'of Canarium commune has the same properties as the Balsam of 
Capaiva ; the three-cornered nuts are eaten in Java both raw and dressed, 
and an oil is expressed from them, which is used at table when fresh, and for 
burning when stale. The raw nuts, however, are apt to bring on diarrhoea. 
Jlinslie, 2. 60. Balsam of Acouchi is produced by Icica acuchini, Gum elemi 
by Icica heptophylla, Balm of Gilead by Balsamodendron Gileadense, Opobal- 
samum, or Balsam of Mecca, by B. opobalsamum, a substance like Gum elemi 
by Icica Icicariba and Carana, and a yellow concrete essential oil by Bursera 
acuminata. 

Examples. Boswellia, Bursera, Balsamodendrum. 



CXIII. ANACARDIACEiE. The Cashew Tribe. 

Terebintaceje, Juss. Gen. 368. (1789) in part. Cassuvieje or Anacardiete, Brown in 
Congo, 431. (1818).— Terebintace-k, Kunth in Ann. des Sc. Nat. 2. 333. (1824.) Trib. 1 
and 2. Dec. Prodr. 2. 62. tf-c. (1825) ; Juss. Diet, des Sc. Nat. v. 53. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens, a su- 
perior simple ovarium, solitary exalbuminous seeds, and alternate exstipulate 
leaves without pellucid dots. 

Anomalies. There is according to Mr. Brown (Congo, 431.) an unpub- 
lished genus of this order, with ovarium inferior. The stamens of Melanorhaea 
are indefinite and hypogynous. 

Essential Character. — Mowers usually diclinous. Calyx usually small and persistent, 
with 5, or occasionally 3-4, or 7 divisions. Petals equal in number to the segments of the 
calyx, perigynous, (occasionally wanting,) imbricated in aestivation. Stamens equal in num- 
ber to the petals, and alternate with them, or twice as many or even more, equal or alter- 
nately shorter, or partly sterile ; filaments distinct, or in the genera without a disk cohering at 
the base. Disk tleshy, annular or cup-shaped, hypogynous,_ occasionally wanting. Ovarium 
single, very rarely 5 or 6, of which 4 or 5 arc abortive, superior, (very rarely inferior,) 1-cclled ; 
styles I or 3, occasionally 4", sometimes none ; stigmas as many ; ovulum solitary, attached by 
a cord to the bottom of the cell. Fruit indchisccnt, most commonly drupaceous. Seed with- 
out albumen ; radicle either superior or inferior, but always directed towards the hilum, 
sometimes curved suddenly back ; cotyledons thick and flesny, or leafy. — TVees or shrubt, 
with a resinous, gummy, caustic, or even milky, juice. Leaves alternate, simple, or ternate 
or unequally pinnate, without pellucid dots. Flowers terminal or axillary, with bractesc. 



126 

Affinities. The order called Terebintaceae by Jussieu and many other 
botanists has been broken up into several by Brown and Kunth, but preserved 
entire by Decandolle, who does not, however, appear to have devoted particular 
attention to the subject. I follow the former botanists, abandoning .altogether 
the name Terebintace?e, which is about equally applicable to either Anacar- 
diacea?, Burseraceas, Connaracese, Spondiacese, or Amyridea?, the five orders 
which have been formed at its expense. All these are nearly related to each 
other, and whatever affinity is borne by one of them will be participated in by 
them all in a greater or less degree. They are distinguished from Rhamneas by 
their resinous juice, superior ovarium, imbricated calyx, and stamens not op- 
posite the petals ; from Celastrineaa by several of the same characters, and 
want of albumen : from Rosacea? and Leguminosre by their definite stamens, 
dotted leaves, very minute stipulre if any, resinous juice, solitary ovula, or by 
some one or other of these characters. To Diosmese they approach very nearly, 
and also to Xanthoxylea?, from which some of them differ in their perigynous 
stamens. Melanorham is remarkable for its indefinite stamens, and especially 
for its hypogynous petals becoming enlarged, foliaceous, and deep red as the 
fruit advances to maturity. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of tropical America, Africa, and India ; a few 
are found .beyond the tropics,both to the north and the south. Pistacias and some 
species of Rhus inhabit the south of Europe ; many of the latter genus occupy 
stations in North America and Northern India, and also at the Cape of Good 
Hope ; Duvaua and Schinus inhabit exclusively Chile and the adjacent dis- 
tricts. 

Properties. Large trees, with inconspicuous flowers, abounding in a 
resinous, sometimes acrid, highly poisonous juice, are the ordinary repre- 
sentatives of this order, to which belong the Cashew nut, the Pistacia nut, and 
the Mango fruit. Some trees are celebrated for yielding a clammy juice, which 
afterwards turns black, and is used for varnishing in India. One kind is from 
the common Cashew nut. The varnish of S3dhet is chiefly procured from 
Semecarpus anacardium, the marking-nut tree of commerce ; and the varnish 
of Martaban from a plant called by Dr. Wallich Melanorha?a usitatissima. 
All these varnishes are extremely dangerous to some constitutions ; the skin, 
if rubbed with them, inflames, and becomes covered with pimples that are diffi- 
cult to heal ; the fumes have been known to produce a painful swelling and 
inflammation of the skin, which in a case recorded by Dr. Brewster extended 
from the hands as far as the face and eyes, which became swelled to an alarming 
degree. I have known an instance of similar effects having been produced by 
roasting the nuts of Anacardium occidentale. But there are some constitutions 
that are not affected in any degree by such poisons. These varnishes are at 
first white, and afterwards become black. This has been ascertained by Dr. 
Brewster to arise from the recent varnish being an organised substance, consist- 
ing of an immense congeries of small parts, which disperse the sun's rays in all 
directions, like a thin film of unmelted tallow ; while the varnish which has 
been exposed to the air loses its organised structure, becomes homogeneous, 
and then transmits the sun's rays of a rich, deep, uniform red colour. Brew- 
ster, 8. 100. The same is probably the substance mentioned by Dr. Ainslie 
(1. 190.) as the Black Lac of the Burmah country, with which the natives 
lacker various kinds of ware. A valuable black hard varnish is obtained from 
Stagmaria vemiciflua in the Indian archipelago ; this resin is extremely acrid, 
causing excoriations and blisters if applied to the skin. Ed. P. J. 6. 400. A 
black varnish well known in India is manufactured from the nuts of Semecar- 
pus anacardium and the berries of Holigama longifolia. Ibid. 4. 450. The 
leaves of some species of Schinus are so filled with a resinous fluid, that the 
least degree of unusual repletion of the tissue causes it to be discharged ; thus 



127 

some of them fill the air with fragrance after rain ; and S. Molle and some 
others expel their resin with such violence when immersed in water as to have 
the appearance of spontaneous motion, in consequence of the recoil. Schinus 
Arroeira is said by M. Auguste St. Hilaire to cause swellings in those who 
sleep under its shade. Ibid. 14. 267. The fresh juicy bark of the Arueira 
shrub (Schinus Molle) is used in Brazil for rubbing newly made ropes, which 
it covers with a very durable, bright, dark brown coating. The juice of the 
same plant is applied by the Indians in diseases of the eyes. Pr. JMaxim. 
Trav. 270. This last plant, and also Rhus coriaria, possess .acid qualities. 
The fruit of Cassuvium occidentals and Anacardium orientale is said to exer- 
cise a singular effect upon the brain. Virey Bull. Pharm. 1814, p. 271. Mas- 
tich is the produce of Pistacia atlantica and Lentiscus ; Scio turpentine is 
yielded by Pistacia Terebinthus ; a substance like mastich is exuded by 
Schinus Molle, and the Peruvians use it for strengthening their gums. The 
juice of many species of Rhus is milky, stains black, and is sometimes ex- 
tremely poisonous, [particularly R. vernix and R. toxicodendron. Big. J\>Ied. 
Bot. 1. 96. Raf. Med. Bot. 2. 256.] Rhus coriaria is used by tanners. [R. 
glabrum and typhinum arc employed in the United States for tanning morocco.] 
The bark of Rhus glabrum is considered a febrifuge, and is also employed as 
a mordant for red colours. Several Comocladias stain the skin black. Dec. 
Decandolle distinguishes 2 sections of this order (Prodr. 2. 62.), viz. 

1. ANACARDIEiE. 

Cotyledons thick, folded back upon the radicle. 
Examples. Anacardium, Iloligarna, Mangifera. 

2. SumachinejE. 

Cotyledons foliaceous. Radicles bent back upon their line of union. 
Examines. Rhus, Mauria. 



CXIV. XANTHOXYLE^E. 

TerebintacejE, Juss. Gen. 368. (1789) in part. — Xanthoxylej;, Aces and Marlins in Nov. 
Act. Bonn. 11. (1823) ; Adricn de Jussicu Rutacees, p. 114. (1825.) — PteleacejE, Kunth 
Ann. des Sc. 2. 354. (1824.)— Terebintace^, trib. 6. Dec. Prodr. 2. 82. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypog3 r nous stamens, 
partially concrete carpella, an imbricated calyx, symmetrical diclinous flowers, 
definite pendulous ovules, capsular or drupaceous fruit, and exstipulate dotted 
leaves. 

Anomalies. Many species have distinct carpella. 

Essential Character. — Flowers diclinous, regular. Calyx in 3, or more commonly in 4 
or 5 divisions. • Petals the same number, very rarely none, usually longer than the calyx ; 
aestivation generally twisted, convolute. Stamens equal to the petals in number, or twice as 
many, arising from around the base of the stalk of the abortive carpella ; in the pistilliferous 
flowers wanting or imperfect. Ovarium made up of the same number of pieces as there are 
petals, or of a smaller number, either altogether combined, or more or less distinct; ovules 
in each cell 2, collateral, or one above the other, very seldom 4 ; styles more or less combined, 
according to the degree of cohesion of the carpella. Fruit either berried or membranous, 
sometimes of from 2 to 5 cell3, sometimes consisting of several drupes or 2-valved capsules, 
of which the sarcocarp is fleshy and partly separable from the endocarp. Seeds solitary or 
twin, pendulous, usually smooth and shining, with a testaceous integument; embryo lying 
within fleshy albumen; radicle superior; cotyledons ovate, fiat. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves 
without stipula?, alternate or opposite, either simple, or more commonly abruptly or unequally 
pinnate, with pellucid dots. Flowers axillary or terminal, gray, green, or pink. The various 
parts bitter or aromatic. 



128 

Affinities. This is one of the families which comprehend genera with 
both distinct and concrete carpella ; the latter are often entirely distinct, even 
in the ovarium ; but most frequently there is a union, or at least a cohesion, of 
the styles, by which their tendency to concretion may be recognised. In a 
few instances the carpella are absolutely solitary. " The place originally 
assigned, and for a long time preserved, for most of the genera of Xanthoxyleae, 
proves sufficiently how near the affinity is between them and Terebintaceae. 
If, with Messrs. Brown and Kunth, the latter are divided into several orders, 
Xanthoxyleae will be most immediately allied to Burseraceae and Connaiaceae, 
agreeing with the former in the genera with a simple fruit, and with the latter 
in those with a compound one. Notwithstanding the distance which usually 
intervenes in classifications between Aurantiaceae and Terebintaceae, there are 
nevertheless many points of resemblance between them ; Correa has pointed 
out a passage from one to the other through. Cookia ; Kunth, in new-model- 
ling the genus Amyris, and in considering it the type of a distinct order, sus- 
pects its near affinity with Aurantiaceae ; we cannot, therefore, be surprised at 
the existence also of relations between the latter and Xanthoxyleae. A mix- 
ture of bitter and aromatic principles, the presence of receptacles of oil that are 
scattered over every part, which give a pellucid dotted appearance to the 
leaves, and which cover the rind of the fruit with opaque spaces, — all these 
characters give the two families a considerable degree of analogy. This has 
already been indicated by M. de Jussieu in speaking of Toddalia, and in his 
remarks upon the families of Aurantiaceae and Terebintaceae ; and it is con- 
firmed by the continual mixture, in all large herbaria, of unexamined plants of 
Terebintaceae, Xanthoxyleae, and Aurantiaceae. The fruit of the latter is, 
however, extremely different ; their seeds resembling, as they do, Terebinta- 
ceae, are on that very account at variance with Xanthoxyleae, but at the same 
time establish a further point of affinity between them and some Rutaceous 
plants which are destitute of albumen. Diclinous flowers, fruit separating 
into distinct cocci, seeds solitary or twin in these cocci, enclosing a usually 
smooth and blackish integument, which is even sometimes hollowed out on its 
inner edge, a fleshy albumen surrounding an embryo, the radicle of which is 
superior, are all points of analogy between Xanthoxyleae and Euphorbiaceae, 
particularly between those which have in their sterile flowers from 4 to 8 sta- 
mens inserted round the rudiment of a pistil, and in the fertile flowers cells 
with 2 suspended, usually collateral, ovules. Finally, several Xanthoxjdeous 
plants have in their habit, and especially in their foliage, a marked resem- 
blance to the .Ash. The dioecious flowers of Fraxinus, its ovarium, the two 
cells of which are compressed, having a single style, 2 ovules in the inside, 
and scales on the outside, and which finally changes into a samara which is 
1-celled and 1-seeded by abortion, all establish certain points of contact be- 
tween Ptelea and Fraxinus." Ad. de Juss. 

Geography. Most of the species belong to America, especially to the 
tropical parts ; some are found in temperate regions ; they arc rare in Africa ; 
some exist in the Isles of France and Madagascar, many are natives of India 
and China, and 1 is found in New Holland. 

Properties. Nearly all aromatic and pungent. The Fagaras are popu- 
larly called Peppers in the countries where they arc found. Xanthoxylum 
Clava and fraxineum are powerful sudorifics and diaphoretics ; they are 
remarkable, according to Barton, for their extraordinary power in exciting sali- 
vation, whether applied immediately to the gums or taken internally : these 
two plants are reputed to have been used successfully in paralysis of the 
muscles of the mouth and in rheumatic affections. [Bigelow, 3. 156.] Xan- 
thoxylum caribaeum is held to be a febrifuge. Dec. A plant called Coen- 
trilho in Brazil (Xanthoxylum hiemalc) is employed as a remedy for pain in 



129 

the ear, for which purpose the powder of its bark is made use of. Its wood is 
very hard, and valuable for building. PL Usuelles, 37. The fruit of Ptelea 
has a strong, bitter, aromatic taste, and is said to have been used with some 
success as a substitute for hops. Dec. The bark of a species of Brucea is 
stated by Dr. Horsfield to be of a bitter nature, and to possess properties 
similar to those of Quassia Simarouba. Mmlie, 2. 105. The Brucea anti- 
dysenterica contains a poisonous principle called Brucia, which is similar in its 
effects to Strychnia, but 12 or 16 times less energetic than that alkali. 
Turner, 652. 
Examples. Xanthoxylum, Toddalia, Blackburnia. 



CXV. DIOSMEZE. The Bucku Tribe. 

Diosmeje, R. Brown in Flinders, (1814.)— Rutaceje, Dec. Prodi: 1. 709. (1824) chiefly.— 
Diosmeje, Ad. dc Jussieu Rutacees, 1. 83. (1825.)— Fraxinelleje, Nees and Mariius 
Nor. Act. Bonn. 11. 149. (1823.)— Cusparieje, Dec. Mem. Mus. 9. 141. (1822); Prodr. 
1. 729. (1824,) a%of Rutacea?. 

• Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of several cells, an imbricated calyx, sym- 
metrical monoclinous flowers, 2 ovules, endocarp separable from the sarcocarp 
as a 2-valved coccus, and exstipulate dotted leaves. 

Anomalies. Some of the genera are monopetalous, others have the car- 
pella in great part distinct. Empleurum has no petals. Dictamnus and some 
others have irregular ' flowers and more ovules than 2. According to Mr. 
Brown, there is a New Holland genus, with perigynous stamens, 10 segments 
of the calyx, 10 petals, and indefinite stamens. 

Essential Character.— Flowers monoclinous, regular or irregular. Calyx in 4 or 5 
divisions. Petals either as many as the divisions of the calyx, distinct, or combined into a 
kind of spurious monopetalous corolla, or occasionally wanting ; aestivation for the most part 
twisted-convolute, very rarely somewhat valvular. Stamens equal in number to the petals, 
or twice as many, or even fewer in consequence of abortion, hypogynous, very rarely perigy- 
nous, placed on the outside of a disk or cup surrounding the ovarium, and either free or com- 
bined with the base of the calyx, or sometimes obsolete. Ovarium sessile or stalked, its lobes 
equal to the number of petals, or fewer ; ovules twin and collateral, or one above the other, 
very rarely 4 ; style single, occasionally divided towards the base into as many parts as there 
are lobes of the ovarium ; stigma simple or dilated. Fruit consisting of several capsules, 
either cohering firmly or more or less distinct; the endocai-p separating entirely from the 
sarcocarp, which is 2-valved ; the former 2-valved also, the valves dividing at the base, but 
connected by a membrane which bears the seeds. Seeds twin or solitary, with a testaceous 
integument ; embryo with a superior radicle, which is either straight or oblique, and cotyle- 
dons of variable form ; albumen none.— Trees or shrubs, very rarely herbaceous plants. 
Leaves without stipulaj, opposite or alternate, simple or pinnate, covered with pellucid resin- 
ous dots. Flowers axillary or terminal. All the parts aromatic. 

Affinities. M. A. de Jussieu, from whose excellent memoir upon Ruta- 
cese I have borrowed the greater part of my remarks upon Rutacerc, Zygo- 
phyllere, Xanthoxylere, and Simarubaceae, speaks thus of Diosmese (M&n. 
p. 19.): 

" Diosmere are the group to which Mr. Brown gives that name, with the 
exception, however, of some of the genera which he refers to it ; and they 
are that by the characters of which botanists have generally defined Rutacea?. 
It is not necessary to describe the floral envelopes, the stamens, the disk, or 
the structure of the seed, because these parts vary according to the sections, 
which are in part characterized by their differences, and they will be better 
examined in their respective places. But it is important to understand the 

27 



130 

ovaria, and especially the pericarp, the structure of which is very character- 
istic. The ovaria, whether combined by their central axis, or more or less 
distinct, always contain 2 ovula ; if 4, or sometimes but 1, are found, this 
occurs only in genera stationed at the extreme limits of the group. They are 
collateral, or more frequently placed one above the other, and then one is 
usually ascending, and the other suspended. This position, which at first 
sight appears singular, is very natural ; for the ovary is usually pierced by 
the vessels of the style only in the middle, and it is at that point that the two 
ovules are inserted, both at nearly the same height. If, therefore, they are 
placed one above the other, it is indispensable that one should ascend, and the 
other descend. These ovules may be considered peritropal, rather than either 
ascending or suspended, or, in other terms, attached by their middle rather 
than by either extremity." — " If the ovarium of a Diosmea is divided across, 
its coat will be found to consist of two layers, the outer rather the most fleshy, 
and the inner thin or almost absent on the side next the axis, the side which is 
traversed from bottom to top by the vessels of the peduncle. These vessels, 
at a certain height, meet those of the style, either at the point of its insertion 
or below it ; united to these, they penetrate the cavity of the cell, the shell 
of which they pierce, and there form funiculi, to which the ovula are attached. 
Thus far the structure of Diosmese is little different from that of other Ruta- 
ceous plants. But this becomes modified as the ovarium advances towards 
the state of fruit. The endocarp hardens by degrees, and at the same time 
separates from the sarcocarp. Its form resembles that of a bivalve shell, and 
may be more especially compared to that of a muscle ; it presents two extre- 
mities, one superior, the other inferior, two lateral faces which are more or less 
convex, and two edges more or less acute, which unite them, the one external, 
the other internal. The two valves are woody and touch at the edges, except 
perhaps at a part of their inside where they are separated ; this space is filled 
by a membrane which passes from one to the other : it is either slightly fleshy, 
or, which is more common, extremely thin, thickened in the middle by the 
passage of the vessels of the seed which penetrate it ; and as, after having 
pierced it, they are almost immediately inserted into the seed, the latter appears 
to be actually borne by the membrane itself. When the fruit is perfectly ripe, 
the sarcocarp of each cell opens from above inwards, following a longitudinal 
furrow, which had become visible some time previously. Its inner surface is 
seen to be covered by projecting lignified vessels, which are directed obliquely 
from the inner edge towards the outer, and are indicated externally by some 
transverse projections. The endocarp is loose in the inside of the shell, unless 
at its membrane, by means of which it continues to preserve some degree of 
adhesion with the other parts ; but it soon opens, the two valves separate in 
different directions, and force out the seeds. When this separation takes place, 
the membrane is torn all round, and either falls away or sticks to the seed. 
In the latter case it is found attached to the hilum, if one seed only has 
ripened ; but then in removing it, the remains of the abortive ovule may be 
found on one side. If both seeds have arrived at maturity, they are usually 
seen one resting on the other by their contiguous flattened extremities, and the 
membrane extends along their inner edge, being enlarged at their point of con- 
tact, where two transverse prolongations are perceptible." 

M. A. de Jussieu then proceeds to point out the inaccuracy of calling, with 
some, this endocarp an arillus, — a name which, as Auguste St. Ililaire some- 
where remarks, has been applied to as many different things as the Linnaean 
term nectarium ; or, with others, applying the same name to the persistent 
membrane. 

Diosmece are nearly related to Rutacese, from which they differ in the re- 
markable structure of their fruit , and in having two ovula in each cell ; with 



131 

Humiriacere they have an analogy through the tribe called Cusparieae, some of 
which have monadelphous stamens ; with Aurantiacere they agree in their 
dotted leaves, definite stamens, occasional production of double embryos, fleshy 
disk, and sometimes in habit in the tribe of Cusparieae. Xanthoxyleae and Si- 
marubacese accord with them in a multitude of points. 

Geography. One genus, Dictamnus, is found in the south of Europe. 
The Cape of Good Hope is covered with different species of Diosma and nearly 
allied genera ; New Holland abounds in Boronias, Phebaliums, Correas, Erioste- 
mons, and the like ; great numbers inhabit the equinoctial regions of America. 

Properties. The Diosmas, or Bucku plants, of the Cape, are well known 
for their powerful and usually offensive odour ; they are recommended as an- 
tispasmodics. The American species possess, in many cases, febrifugal pro- 
perties. There is an excellent bark of this nature, used by the Catalan Capuchin 
friars of the missions on the river Carony in South America, called the GLuina de 
la Guayna, or de la Angostura, or Angostura, bark: this, which has been succes- 
sively ascribed toBrucea ferruginea and twospecies of Magnolia, isnow known to 
be the produce of Cusparia febrifuga (Bonplandia trifoliata W.) a plant of this 
family. Humb. Cinch. For. p. 38. £«g. ed. Evodia febrifuga, one of the Q.ui- 
nas of Brazil, has a bark so powerfully febrifugal as to compete with that of 
Cinchona. A bark much spoken of by the miners of Brazil, under the name 
of Casca de larangeira da terra, and in which Cinchonine was detected by Dr. 
Gomez, probably belongs to this tree. PL Usuelles, no. 4. One of the Q,uinas 
of Brazil is the Ticorea febrifuga : its bark is a powerful medicine in the inter- 
mittent fevers, ibid. 16. Hortia Braziliana possesses similar properties, but 
in a less degree. Ibid. 17. An infusion of the leaves of Ticorea jasminiflora 
is drank in Brazil as a remedy for the disease called by the Brazilian Portu- 
guese Bobas, and by the French Frambresia. A. St. Hil. Hist. 141. Dictam- 
nus abounds in volatile oil to such a degree, that the atmosphere surrounding it 
actually becomes inflammable in hot weather. Its root was formerly employed 
as a sudorific and vermifuge. 

A. de Jussieu divides the species of this order geographically, and, what is 
very singular, he finds their fructification in accord with their geographical dis- 
tribution. His sections are : 

1. European. 

One from the south of Europe. 

2. Cape. 

All from the Cape of Good Hope, and scarcely extending beyond the colony. 

3. Australasian. 

Inhabitants of New Holland, within or without the tropics, and Van Die- 
rnen's Island. 

4. American. 

Sect. I. South America, New Zealand, the Friendly Islands, Mexico. 
Sect. II. (Cusparieae, Dec. Fraxinellae, Nces and Martins chiefly.) South 
America, West Indies. 

Examples. Diosma, Adenandra, Agathosma, Monniera, Ticorea. 



132 
CXVI. RUTACE/E. The Rue Tribe. 

Rutje, Juss. Gen. 296. (1789) in part. Rutace.e, Dec. Prodr. 1. 709. (1824) in part.— Ru- 

teje, Adrien de Juss. Rulacees 78. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of several cells, an imbricated calyx, sym- 
metrical monoclinous flowers, capsular fruit, endocarp not separable from the 
sarcocarp, and exstipulate dotted leaves. 

Anomalies. Cyminosma differs in habit from the rest. 

Essential Character.— Floicers monoclinous, regular. Calyx with 4 or 5 divisions. Pe- 
tals alternate with the divisions of the calyx, with a twisted-convolute aestivation, rarely con- 
volute, or twisted separately. Stamens 2 or occasionally 3 times as many as the petals, in- 
serted round the base of the stalk of the calyx, which is sometimes disciform. Ovarium di- 
vided more or less deeply into 3 or 5 lobes, with from 3 to 5 cells ; ovules in each cell 4, or 
from 4 to 20, pendulous, or attached to the axis ; style simple, or often (in the ovaries which 
are deeply lobed) separated at the base; stigma 3- or 5-cornered, or furrowed. Capsule either 
with 3 loculicidal valves, or with from 4 to 5 lobes, which open internally at the apex ; the sar- 
cocarp not separable from the endocarp. Seeds often fewer than the ovules, pendulous or ad- 
nate, reniform, pitted, with a testaceous integument ; embryo lying within fleshy albumen, 
white or greenish; radicle superior; cotyledons flat. Ad. J.— Herbaceous plants, or small 
shrubs. Leaves without stipula; (with one exception), alternate, simple, deeply lobed, or pin- 
nate, commonly with pellucid dots. Flowers often with a centrifugal inflorescence, white, or 
more frequently yellow. 

Affinities. Allied to Zygophylleae by Peganum, which A. de Jussieu ac- 
tually places with Rutacea?, although its stipulate leaves destitute of pellucid 
dots appear to determine its greatest affinity to be with Zygophyllere. From 
Diosmeoe they differ in scarcely any thing except the dehiscence of their fruit. 

Geography. Found in the south of Europe, whence they extend in our 
hemisphere as far as the limits of the Old World, following the southern part 
of the tempeiate zone, and very rarely advancing within the tropics. Ad. 
de J. 

Properties. Their powerful odour and their bitterness characterize them ; 
they act principally on the nerves. Common Rue, and another species, are 
said to be emmenagogue, anthelmintic, and sudorific. 

Examples. Ruta, Peganum. 



CXVII. CORIARIE^E. 

CoRiAniEiE, Dec. Prodr. 1. 739. (1824.) 



Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 

anthers bursting by longitudinal slits, 5 distinct simple carpella surrounding a 
fleshy axis, exstipulate leaves without pellucid dots, no albumen, filiform stig- 
mas, and sepaloid petals. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers either monoclinous, or monoecious, or dicecious. Calyx 
campanulatc, 5-parted, ovate. Petals 5, alternate with the lobes of the calyx, and smaller 
than they are, fleshy, with an elevated keel in the inside. Stamens 10, arising from the torus, 
5 between the lobes of the calyx and the angles of the ovarium, 5 between the petals and the 
furrows of the ovarium ; filaments filiform; anthers oblong, 2-cclled. Ovarium seated on a 
thickish torus, 5-cclled, 5-angled; style 0; stigmas 5, long, subulate; ovula solitary, pendu- 
lous. Carpella 5, when ripe close together but separate, indchiscent, 1-seeded, surrounded 
with glandular lobes. Seed pendulous; albumen none; embryo straight; radicle superior; 



133 

cotyledons 2, fleshy. — Shrubs, with opposite square branches, often 3 on each side, 2 of them 
being secondary to an intermediate principal one. Leaves opposite, simple, 3-ribbed, entire, 
ovate, or cordate. Buds scaly. Racemes terminal, simple, leafy at the base ; pedicels often 
with two little bractea; in the middle. 

Affinities. Placed by M. Decandolle immediately after Ochnaceae, with 
which the order no doubt agrees, in having its ovaria distinct, and surrounding 
a fleshy axis ; but the stigmata in Coriariese are long, linear, and distinct, with 
no style, while Ochnaceae have a single style connecting the carpella and mi- 
nute stigmas; the former, therefore, are apocarpous, the latter syncarpous. 
Coriarieaa are also certainly allied to Rulaceae, but they differ from them as they 
do from Ochnaceae ; and besides, the carpella are in Rutacea; connate. With 
Connaracere they agree in several points, while they are different in others. 
Upon the whole, their exact affinity may be considered unsettled. 

M. Decandolle understands Coriaria as apetalous, but I do not see upon 
what principle, either of structure or analogy. In his Essai sur les Proprittes 
Midicales he referred it to the vicinity of Rhamneae, p. 350. Jussieu referred 
it to Malpighiaceae. 

Geography. 4 from Peru, 1 from the south of Europe and North of 
Africa, 1 from New Zealand, and 1 from Mexico. 

Properties. Coriaria myrtifolia is used by dyers for staining black. Its 
fruit is poisonous. It is said that several soldiers of the French army in Ca- 
talonia were affected by eating it ; 15 became stupified, and 3 died. Dec. 

Example. Coriaria. 



CXVIII. OCHNACEiE. 

Ochsace-k, Dec. Ann. Mas. 17. 398. (1811); Prodr. 1. 735. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous stamens, and a 
deeply lobed ovarium, the style arising from the base of the concrete carpella, 
which are seated upon a succulent disk ; anthers opening by pores. 

Anomalies. Stamens definite or indefinite. 

Essential Character.— Sepals 5, persistent, imbricated in aestivation. Petals hypogy- 
nous, definite, sometimes twice as many as the sepals, deciduous, spreading, imbricated in 
aestivation. Stamens 5, opposite the sepals, or 10, or indefinite in number, arising from a 
hypogynous disk ; filaments persistent ; anthers 2-celled, innate, opening by pores. Carpella 
equal in number to the petals, lying upon an enlarged, tumid, fleshy disk (the 'gynobase) ; 
their styles combined in one ; ovula erect. Fruit composed of as many pieces as there were 
carpella, indehiscent, somewhat drupaceous, 1-seeded, articulated with the gynobase, which 
grows with their growth. Seeds without albumen; embryo straight; radicle short; cotyle- 
dons thick.— Very smooth Trees or shrubs, having a watery juice. Leaves alternate, simple, 
entire, or toothed, with 2 stipuke at the base. Flowers usually in racemes, with an articula- 
tion in the middle of the pedicels. 

Affinities. Very near Rutaceoe, from which they are distinguished by 
their erect ovula, the dehiscence of their anther?, and many more characters. 
They are to Polypetala; what Labiatae and Boragineae are to Monopetalae. 

Geography. All found in tropical India, Africa, and America. 

Properties. Walkera scrrata has a bitter root and leaves, and is em- 
ployed in Malabar, in decoction in milk and water, as a tonic, stomachic, and 
anti-emetic. The bark of Ochna hcxasperma is used in Brazil as a cure of 
the sores produced in cattle by the punctures of insects. It probably acts as 
an astringent. PL Usuelles, 38. 

Examples. Ochna, Gomphia. 



134 



CXIX. ZYGOPHYLLEiE. The Bean Caper Tribe. 

Zygophylleje, R. Brown in Minders, (1814); Dec. Prodr. 1. 703. (1824); Adrian de Juss. 

Rutacces, 67. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of several cells, an imbricated calyx, sym- 
metrical flowers, pendulous ovules, stamens arising from hypogynous scales, 
and opposite stipulate leaves without pellucid dots. 

Anomalies. Ovules occasionally erect. Tribulus has the fruit separated 
into spiny nuts, with transverse phragmata, and no albumen. Melianthus has 
very irregular flowers. 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoclinous, regular. Calyx divided into 4 or 5 pieces 
with convolute aestivation. Petals unguiculate, alternate with the segments of the calyx and 
a little longer, in activation, which is usually convolute, at first very short and scale-like. 
Slamens double the number of the petals, dilated at the base, sometimes naked, sometimes 
placed on the back of a small scale, hypogynous. Ovarium simple, surrounded at the base 
with glands or a short einous disk, more or less deeply 4- or 5-furrowed, with 4 or 5 cells ; 
ovula in each cell 2 or more, attached to the inner angle, pendulous, or occasionally erect; 
style simple, usually with 4 or 5 furrows ; stigma simple, or with 4 or 5 lobes. Fruit capsu- 
lar, rarely somewhat fleshy, with 4 or 5 angles or wings, bursting by 4 or 5 valves bearing the 
dissepiments in the middle, or into as many close cells; the sarcocarp not separable from the 
endocarp. Seeds usually fewer than the ovules, either compressed and scabrous when dry, or 
ovate and smooth, with a thin herbaceous integument. Embryo green ; radicle superior ; co- 
tyledons foliaceous ; albumen whitish, between horny and cartilaginous, in Tribulus want- 
ing. Ad. J. — Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees, with a very hard wood, the branches often 
articulated at the joints. Leaves opposite, with stipula;, very seldom simple, usually une- 
qually pinnate, not dotted. Flowers solitary, or in pairs or threes, white, blue, or red, often 
yellow. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Oxalideee, from which, however, they are 
distinguished by a multitude of characters. With Simarubacere they accord 
in the stamens springing from the back of a hypogynous scale ; a structure 
well worth more attentive consideration than it has yet received. Something 
analogous to it will be found in Caryophylleffi. M. Adrien de Jussieu also 
observes that the petals are remarkable for their being, in an early state, minute 
and hidden by the calyx, which they only exceed about the time of flowering, 
while in other Rutaceous orders the petals are always larger than the calyx. 
The distinguishing characters in its vegetation or habit are, the leaves being 
constantly opposite, with lateral or intermediate stipule, being generally com- 
pound, and always destitute of the pellucid glands which universally exist in 
true DiosmeK. Brown in Denham, 26. It is also a very common character 
of the order to have the radicle at that extremity of the seed which is most 
remote from the hilum ; but this, which is of great importance in many natural 
families, is of less value in Zygophylleae. (See many good remarks upon this 
subject in Mr. Brown's Appendix to Denham, p. 27.) 

Biebersteinia, appended to this order by A. de Jussieu, is a genus that requires 
further examination. 

Geography. Guaiacum, Porlieria, and Larrea, are peculiar to America. 
Fagonia is distributed over the south of Europe, the Levant, Persia, and India. 
Zygophyllum inhabits the same regions, and also the south of Africa, and is 
represented in New Holland by Ropera. Tribulus is found in all the Old 
World within the tropics, or in countries bordering upon them. Ad. de J. Me- 
lianthus, a most anomalous genus, is remarkable for being found both at the 
Cape of Good Hope and in Nipal, without any intermediate station. 

Properties. Zygophyllum Fabago is sometimes employed as an anthel- 
mintic. The ligneous plants of the order are remarkable for the extreme hard- 
ness of their wood. All the Guaiacums are well known for their exciting pro- 



135 

pcrties; the bark and wood of Guaiacum sanctum and officinale have a somewhat 
bitter and acrid flavor, and are principally employed as sudorifics, diaphoretics, or 
alteratives ; they contain a particular matter often designated as resin or gum- 
resin, but which is now considered a distinct substance, called Guaiacine. Dec. 
The wood of Guaiacum officinale, or Lignum vita;, is remarkable for the direc- 
tion of its fibres, each layer of which crosses the preceding diagonally ; a cir- 
cumstance first pointed out to me by Professor Voigt. 
Examples. Zygophyllum, Tribulus. 



CXX. SIMARUBACEiE. The Quassia Tribe. 

Simarcbaceje, Rich. Anal, dc Fr. 21. (1808.)— Simarubeje, Dec. Diss. Ochn. Ann. Mus. 17. 
323. (1811) ; Prodr. 1. 733.(1824) ; Adriende Juss. Rutacees, 129. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of several cells, an imbricated calyx, sym- 
metrical flowers, solitary pendulous ovules, stamens arising from hypogynous 
scales, and exstipulate leaves without dots. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Flowers monoclinous, or occasionally diclinous. Calyx in 4 or 
5 divisions. Petals the same number, longer, either spreading or combined in a tube ; (Estiva- 
tion twisted. Stamens twice as many as the petals, each arising from the back of a hypogy- 
nous scale. Ovarium 4- or 5-lobed, placed upon a stalk from the base of which the stamena 
arise, 4- or 5-celled, each cell with one suspended ovulum ; style simple ; stigma^ 4- or 5-lobed. 
Fruit consisting of 4 or 5 drupes arranged around a common receptacle, indehiscent. Seeds 
pendulous, with a membranous integument ; embryo without albumen ; radicle superior, short, 
drawn back within the thick cotyledons. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves without stipulaj, alternate, 
occasionally simple, most usually compound without dots. Peduncles axillary or terminal. 
Mowers whitish, green, or purple. The different parts bitter. 

Affinities. Akin to Zygophylleee in their stamens inserted upon hypogy- 
nous scales, and to Ochnacese in their deeply-lobed ovarium, or nearly separate 
ovaria ; from these latter they are distinguished by their want of a succulent 
disk, their suspended not erect ovules, and their anthers bursting by longitudinal 
slits, not by terminal pores. A. de Jussieu says, " They are known from all 
Rutaceous plants by the co-existence of three characters ; namely, ovaria with 
but one ovulum, indehiscent drupes, and exalbuminous seeds, the membranous 
integument of the embryo and the radicle being retracted within thick cotyle- 
dons." 

Geography. All natives of tropical America, India, or Africa, with the ex- 
ception of 1 Nipal plant. 

Properties. All intensely bitter. The wood of Quassia is well known. 
A plant called Paraiba in Brazil, the Simaruba versicolor of St. Hilaire, pos- 
sesses such excessive bitterness that no insects will attack it. Specimens of it 
placed among dried plants which wereentirely devoured by the larvre of a species 
of Ptinus, remained untouched. The Brazilians use an infusion in brandy as 
a specific against the bite of serpents, and also employ it with very great suc- 
cess to cure the lousy diseases to winch people are very subject in those coun- 
tries. PI. Usuelles no. 5. 

Examples. Quassia, Simaruba. 



136 



CXXI. PITTOSPOREiE. 

Pittosporeje, R. Brown in Minder's Voyage, 2. 542. (1814); Dec. Prodr. 1. 345. (1824); Ach. 
Rich, in Diet. Class. 13. 643. (1823.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
distinct at the base, concrete carpella", an ovarium of several cells with the pla- 
centae in the axis, an imbricated calyx, symmetrical flowers, indefinite seeds with 
a minute embryo in fleshy albumen, and simple leaves. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, deciduous, cither distinct or partially cohering 1 ; aesti- 
vation imbricated. Petals 5, hypogynous, sometimes slightly cohering' ; aestivation imbricated. 
Stamens 5, hypogynous, distinct, alternate with the petals. Ovarium single, distinct, with the 
cells or the placenta 2 or 5 in number, and many-seeded ; style 1 ; stigmas equal in number 
to the placentae. Fruit capsular or berried, with many-seeded cells, which are sometimes in- 
complete. Seeds often covered with a glutinous or resinous pulp ; embryo minute, near the 
hilum, lying in fleshy albumen ; radicle rather long ; cotyledons very short. — Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves simple, alternate, without stipuhe, usually entire. Flowers terminal or axillary, some- 
times polygamous. 

Affinities. Mr. Brown in establishing these as an order, remarks that 
they are widely different from Rhamneee or Celastrineae, but without pointing 
out their real affinity ; Decandolle places them between Polygaleee and Fran- 
keniacese; according to Achille Richard they are very near Rutaceae, to 
which he thinks them allied by a crowd of characters. 

Geography. Chiefly New Holland plants. A few are found in Africa and 
the adjacent islands, and 1 in Nipal. Mr. Brown remarks that Pittosporum 
itself has been found not only in New Holland, but also in New Zealand, Nor- 
folk Island, the Society and Sandwich Islands, the Moluccas, China, Japan, and 
even Madeira. Flinders, 542. 

Properties. The wood of Senacia undulata is handsomely veined, whence 
it is called in the Mauritius Bois de joli coour. Dec. The berries of Billardiera 
are eatable. The bark of Pittosporum Tobira has a resinous smell. Nothing 
is known of the properties of any. 

Examples. Billardiera, Pittosporum, Bursaria. 



CXXII. GERANIACE/E. The Geranium Tribe. 

Gerania. Juss. G'cn. 208.(1789).— Geraniaceje, Dec. Fl. Ft. 4. 82S. (1805); Prodr. 1. 637. 
(1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 50. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite monadclphous hypo- 
gynous stamens, concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of several cells, an imbri- 
cated calyx, symmetrical flowers, solitary pendulous ovules, and carpella 
adhering to a woody axis, separating with elasticity and curling back. 

Anomalies. Petals none in Rhyncothcca, which also has albumen. Flowers 
sometimes irregular. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, more or less unequal, with an imbricated 
aestivation ; 1 sometimes saccate or spurred at the base. Petah 5, seldom 4 in consequence of 
1 being abortive, unguiculate, equal or unequal, either hypogynous or perigynous. Stamens 
usually monadelphous, hypogynous, twice or thrice as many as the petals ; some occasionally 
abortive. Ovarium, composed of 5 pieces placed round an elevated axis, each 1 -celled, 
1-sceded; ovula pendulous ; styles 5, cohering round the elongated axis. Fru it formed of 6 
pieces, cohering round a. lengthened indurated axis ; each piece consisting uf 1 cell, contain- 



13? 

itig 1 seed, having a membranous pericarpium, and terminated by an indurated style, which 
finally curls back from the base upwards, carrying the pericarpium along with it. Seeds soli- 
tary, pendulous, without albumen. Embryo curved ; radicle pointing to the base of the cell ; 
cotyledons foliaccous, convolute, and plaited. — Herbaceous plants or shrubs. Stems tumid, and 
separate at the joints. Leaves either opposite or alternate; in the latter case opposite the pe- 
duncles. 

Affinities. In many points nearly related to Oxalideae, Balsamineae, and 
Trop.eoleae, with which they are by some botanists associated. They are, 
however, distinguished by the peculiar dehiscence of the fruit, their stems with 
tumid joints, their convolute plaited cotyledons, and habit. In the arrangement 
of their carpella about an elevated axis, they agree with all those orders for- 
merly comprehended under the common name of Rutacere, from which the 
length of that axis, and many other characters, distinguish them. Their ana- 
logy with Vites is pointed out in speaking of that order. In many respects they 
border close upon Malvaceae. 

Geography. Very unequally distributed over various parts of the world. 
A great proportion is found in the Cape of Good Hope, chiefly of the genus Pe- 
largonium ; Erodium and Geranium are principally natives of Europe, North 
America, and Northern Asia, and Rhyncotheca of South America. It is re- 
markable that Pelargonium is found in New Holland. 

Properties. An astringent principle and an aromatic or resinous flavour 
are the characteristics of this order. The stem of Geranium spinosum burns 
like a torch, and gives out an agreeable odour. The root of Geranium macu- 
Iatum is considered a valuable astringent in North America, where it is some- 
times called Alum root. Barton, 1. 155. In North Wales Geranium Rober- 
tianum has acquired celebrity as a remedy for nephritic complaints. Ibid. 
Some of the Pelargoniums are acidulous, but this genus is chiefly known as 
an object of garden culture, for which its great beauty, and the facility with 
which the species or supposed species intermix, render it well adapted. 

Examples. Geranium, Monsonia, Erodium. 



CXXIII. OXALIDEAE. The Woodsorrel Tribe. 

Oxalidejb, Dec. Prodr. 1. 689. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 59. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens 
distinct except at the base, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with 
the placentae in the axis, an imbricated calyx, symmetrical flowers, indefinite 
exalbuminous seeds with a straight embryo, and compound leaves. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Sepals 5, sometimes slightly cohering at the base, persistent, 
pqual. Petals 5, hypoyynous, equal, unguiculate, with a spirally-twisted aestivation. Stamens 
10, usually more or less monadelphous, "those opposite the petals forming an inner series, and 
longer than the others; anthers 2- celled, innate. Ovarium with 5 angles and 5 cells; styles 
5, filiform; stigmata capitate or somewhat bifid. Fruit capsular, membranous, with 5 cells, 
and from 5 to 10 valves. Seeds few, fixed to the axis, enclosed within a fleshy integument, 
which curls back at the maturity of the fruit, and expels the seeds with elasticity. Albumen 
between cartilaginous and fleshy. Embryo the length of the albumen .with a long radicle 
pointing to the hilum, and foliaceous cotyledons.— Herbaceous plants, under-shrnbs or trees. 
Leaves alternate, compound, sometimes simple by abortion, very seldom opposite or somewhat 
whorled. 

Affinities. Formerly included in Geraniaces, from which, in the judg- 
ment of many, they are not sufficiently distinct. According to M. Decandolle 

28 



138 

they are rather allied to Zygophyllea: ; an opinion in which I am inclined to 
concur, and which their compound leaves appear to confirm. Averrhoa differs 
from the rest in its arborescent habit. They are generally described with an 
arillus ; but, according to M. Auguste St. Hilaire, the part so called is nothing 
but the outer integument of the seed. PI. Us. 43. 

Geography. Natives of all the hotter and temperate parts of the world, 
most abundantly known in America and the Cape of Good Hope, and most 
rarely in the East Indies and equinoctial Africa. 

Properties. Averrhoa Bilimbi and the pinnated Oxalis called Biophytum 
have sensitive leaves. Their foliage is generally acid, so that they are fit to 
supply the place of sorrel. Some of the species are astringent, and have been 
employed in spitting of blood. Oxalis acetosella contains pure oxalic acid. 
Turner, 623. Several species of Oxalis are used in Brazil against malignant 
fevers. PI. Usuelles, 43. The fruit of Averrhoa is intensely acid. A species 
of Oxalis found in Columbia bears tubers like a potato, and is one of the plants 
called Arracacha. 

Examples. Oxalis, Biophytum, Averrhoa. 



CXXIV. TROPiEOLEiE. The Nasturtium Tribe. 

Tbop.eoleje, Juss. Mem. Mus. 3. 447. (1817) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 683. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous distinct 
stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of 3 cells with the placentae in the axis, 
an imbricated calyx with 1 of the sepals spurred, unsymmetrical flowers, de- 
finite pendulous ovules, and indehiscent fruit. 

Anomalies. Magallana has winged fruit, 1-celled and 1-seeded by abor- 
tion. In Trop. pentaphyllum, according to Aug. St. Hilaire {PI. Us. 41.), the 
calyx is valvular, and the petals only 2. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, the upper one with a long distinct spur; (estivation 
quincuncial. Petals 5, unequal, irregular, the 2 upper sessile and remote, arising from the 
throat oi the calyx, the 3 lower stalked and smaller, sometimes abortive. Stamens 8, perigy- 
nous, distinct; anthers innate, erect, 2-cclled. Ovarium 1, 3-cornered, made up of 3 carpella. 
style 1 ; stigmas 3, acute ; ovula solitary, pendulous. Fruit indehiscent, separable into 3 pieces 
from a common elongated axis. Seeds large, without albumen, filling the cavity in which 
they lie ; embryo large ; cotyledons 2, straight, thick, consolidated together into a single body; 
radicle lying within projections of the cotyledons.— Smooth herbaceous plants, of tender texture 
and with an acrid taste, trailing or twining. Leaves alternate, without stipulaj, petiolate, with 
radiating ribs. Peduncles axillary, 1-ilowcred. 

Affinities. Very near Geraniaceee, with which they agree even in then- 
spur (which in Pelargonium is often present, but adnate to the pedicel), and 
also Balsamineae, and Hydrocereae, from which they differ chiefly in the struc- 
ture of their fruit. 

Geography. All natives of South America, mostly upon high land. 

Properties. The fleshy fruit of Tropa;olum niajus is acrid, and possesses 
the properties of Cress ; and M. Decandolle remarks, that the caterpillar of 
the Cabbage butterfly feeds exclusively upon Cruciferse and Tropaeolum. The 
root of Tr. tuberosum is eaten in Peru. Tropaeolum pentaphyllum is used in 
Brazil as an antiscorbutic, under the Portuguese name of Chaffas da Miuda. 
PL Usuelles, 41. 

Example. Tropaeolum. 



139 
CXXV. HYDROCEREiE 

Hydrocere«, Blumc Bijdr. 241. (1825.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of several sepals with placentae in the axis, 
an imbricated calyx, one of the sepals of which is spurred, symmetrical flowers, 
definite pendulous ovules, and a drupaceous fruit. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, deciduous, coloured, unequal; the lowermost elongate t 
into a spur. Petals 5, hypogynous, unequal ; the upper arched. Stamens 5, hypogynous, 
connate at the apex ; anthers slightly connate, 2-cellcd, bursting at the apex. Ovarium, 
5-celled, 5-angled, with 2 or 3 ovula in each cell ; stigmas 5, sessile, acute. Fruit succulent 
with 5 cells, each of which has a bony hard lining, and contains a single seed. Seeds solitary, 
without albumen ; cotyledons plano-convex ; radicle superior. — Herbaceous. Stems angular. 
Leaves alternate, without stipula;, serrated. Peduncles axillary, many-flowered. 

Affinities. Closely related to Balsamineae and Tropreoley, from which 
they are only distinguished by their symmetrical flowers and drupaceous fruit. 
Geography. A single species, native of marshes and wet places in Java. 
Properties. Unknown. 
Example. Hydrocera. 



CXXVI. BALSAMINEiE. The Balsam Tribe. 

Balsamin-eje. Art,. Rich. Diet. Class. 2. 173. (1822) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 685. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 

59. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an ovarium of 5 cells with the placentae in the axis, an im- 
bricated calyx, unsymmetrical flowers with one of the sepals spurred, and 
indefinite ovules. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — SepalsS, irregular, deciduous, the two inner and upper of which 
are connate, the lower spurred. Petals 4, hypogynous, united in pairs, so that apparently there 
are only 2 petals; the fifth wanting. Stamens 5, hypogynous ; f laments subulate; anthers 
2-celled, bursting lengthwise. Ovarium single ; stigma sessile, more or less divided in 5 ; cells 
5, many-seeded.^ Fruit capsular, with 5 elastic valves, and 5 cells formed by membranous 
projections of the placenta, which occupies the axis of the fruit, and is connected with the apex 
by 5 slender threads. Seeds numerous, suspended ; albumen none; embryo straight, with a 
superior radicle and plano-convex cotyledons.— Succulent herbaceous plants. Leaves simple, 
opposite or alternate, without stipuhe. Peduncles axillary. 

Affinities. So nearly related to Geraniacefe, of which it is, in the opinion 
of many, a mere section, that it is only distinguishable by the spurred calyx, 
polyspermous fruit, and unsymmetrical flowers. Tropaeolese differ in their fruit, 
OxalideEe in their compound leaves and symmetrical flowers. M. Kunth, in a 
memoir printed in 1827, was the first to point out the true structure of this 
family, which had been more or less misunderstood by all previous observers. 
I had overlooked this memoir at the time of the publication of my Synopsis of 
ihe British Flora, whence the old erroneous character is given in that work. 
The following is the substance of M. Kunth's remarks : Linnaeus attributed to 
the Impatiens Balsamina a calyx of 2 leaves, 5 unequal petals, a nectary, a 



140 

single ovary, a sessile stigma, and a unilocular polyspermous capsule, opening 
in 5 valves. M. de Jussieu describes it nearly in the same way, with the ex- 
ception of considering the capsule as having 5 cells, and the corolla as consist- 
ing of 4 petals, the lower of which is spurred. These erroneous characters have 
been reproduced by most authors. Dr. Hooker alone refers the part which has 
the spur to the calyx, which he consequently makes to consist of 3 pieces. 
M. Achille Richard has come nearest the truth in the Dictionnaire Classique, 
where he describes the calyx as consisting of 4 pieces, and the 4 petals united in 
pairs. The fact is, that the structure is usually this : the centre of the flower 
is occupied by an ovarium, surmounted by a stigma divided into 5 acute lobes. 
Around this stand 5 hypogynous stamens, placed in a single row and at equal dis- 
tances from each other. Hence the normal number of the parts of the flower 
should be 5. The corolla, however, consists of 2 bifid petals placed right and 
left, with a wider space between their upper than their lower edges. Upon 
comparing the position of these with the stamens, it appears that each occupies 
the place of 3 stamens, whence it is impossible to doubt that they each consist 
of 2 soldered together. On the other hand, the space between them, which 
answers to 2 stamens, is an equal proof of the abortion of a fifth petal. And 
this view of the structure is confirmed by the sepals, Thus on the outside of 
each pair of petals, at their base, is found a leaflet, the situation of which is 
opposite a stamen ; and opposite the space left by the abortion of the fifth petal 
is a large broad leaflet, made up by the union of 2 sepals. The position of the 
fifth sepal, which is that which is spurred, is between 2 petals and opposite a 
stamen. 

Geography. Natives of damp places among bushes in the East Indies ; 
1 is found in Madagascar, 1 in Europe, 2 in North America, and 1 in Russia 
in Asia. 

Properties. Chiefly remarkable for the elastic force with which the valves 
of the fruit separate at maturity, expelling the seeds. For a supposed expla- 
nation of this phenomenon, see Dutrochet Nouvelles Recherches sur FEvosmose 
et Endosmose. According to Decandolle, they are diuretic : [also emetic. Ruf. 
Med. Bot. 2. 231.] 

Example. Balsamina Impatiens. 



CXXVII. VOCHYACEiE. 

Vochyaceje, Mart. Nov. Gen. 1. 123. (1824).— Vochysie*, A. St. Hit. Mem. Mus. 6. 266. 
(1820) ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 25. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens 
concrete carpella, and irregular flowers with a spurred calyx. 

Anomalies. Ovarium either superior or inferior. The leaves of Salvertia 
have no stipuke. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4-5, combined at the base, imbricated in aestivation, the 
upper one calcarate. Petals 1, 2, 3, or 5, alternate with the segments of the calyx, and in- 
serted into their base, unequal. Stamens 1-5, usually opposite the petals, rarely alternate with 
them, arising from the bottom of the calyx, for the most part sterile, 1 of them having an ovate 
fertile 4-celled anther. Ovarium superior, or partially inferior, 3-celled ; ovules in each cell 
solitary or twin, attached to the base of the axis ; style (and stigma 1. Capsule 3-cornered, 
3-celled, 3-valved, the valves bursting along their middle. Seed without albumen, erect ; em- 
bryo straight, inverted ; cotyledons large, foliaceous, convolute, plaited ; radicle short, superior. 
— Trees. Branches opposite, when young 4-cornered. Leaves opposite, sometimes towards 
the extremities of the branches alternate, entire, with 2 stipulffi at the base. Floiccrs usually 
in terminal panicles or racemes. 



141 

Affinities. " An order at present but ill understood, in habit and flower 
somewhat allied to Guttiferae or Marcgraaviacene, but distinct from both in the 
stamens being inserted into the calyx ; perhaps more directly connected with 
Combretaceae, on account of the convolute cotyledons and inverted seeds ; and 
even perhaps allied to some Onagrariae, on account of the abortive solitary sta- 
men." Dec. Prodr. 3. 25. Is not the order nearer Violaceae 1 an affinity 
strongly pointed out by the irregular flowers, 3-locular ovarium, and stipulas, 
but impeded by the perigynous insertion of the stamens. 

Geography. Natives of equinoctial America, where they inhabit ancient 
forests, by the banks of streams, sometimes rising up mountains to a considera- 
ble elevation. They are often trees with large spreading heads. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Vochya, Amphilochia. Erisma. 



CXXVIII. TREMANDRE.E. 

TbemandrEjE, JR. Brown in Flinders, p. 12. (1814) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 343. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with 8 or lOhypogynous distinct 
stamens, concrete carpella, a 2-celled ovarium with a definite number of pen- 
dulous ovules, a calyx with valvate aestivation, anthers bursting by pores, and 
entire petals involute in aestivation. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5, equal, with a valvular aestivation, slightly cohering 
at the base, and deciduous. Petals equal in number to the sepals, with an involute aestivation, 
enwrapping - the stamens, much larger than the calyx, and deciduous. Stamens hypogynous, 
distinct, 2 before each petal, and therefore either 8 or 10; anthers 2- or 4-celled, opening by a 
pore at the apex. Ovarium, 2-celled ; ovules from 1 to 3 in each cell, pendulous ; style 1 ; stig- 
mas I or 2. Fruit capsular, 2-celled, 2- valved; dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds pendulous, ovate, 
with a thickened appendage at the apex, but with no appendage about the hilum ; embryo cy- 
lindrical, straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen ; the radicle next the hilum. — Slender heath- 
like shrubs, with their hairs usually glandular. Leaves alternate or whorled, without stipulte, 
entire or toothed. Pedicels solitary, axillary, 1 -flowered. 

Affinities. Not very certain ; many genera probably still remain to be 
discovered. According to Decandolle, they are related to Polygaleae ; from 
which they differ in a number of points, especially in their distinct stamens and 
regular flowers ; agreeing with them in having a remarkable tumour, called 
a caruncula, at one end of the seeds, which are also definite and pendulous in 
both orders. 

Geography. All natives of New Holland. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples, Tetratheca, Tremandra. 



142 



CXXIX. POLYGALEiE. The Milkwort Tiube. 

Polygaleje, Juaa. Ann. Mus. 14. 586. (1809); Mem. Mus. 1. 385. (1815); Dec. Prodr. 1. 321. 
(1824); hindl. Synops. 39. (1829); Aug. de St. Hilaire and Moquin-Tandon Mem. Mus. 
17.313.(1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens 
in one parcel, concrete carpella, an ovarium of 2 cells with the placentae in the 
axis, an imbricated calyx, unsymmetrical flowers, definite pendulous ovules, 
and dehiscent fruit. 

Anomalies. Sepals 4, and all petaloid in some Kramerias. Flowers ge- 
nerally monopetalous. Ovarium sometimes 1-celled by abortion. Fruit inde- 
hiscent in Mundia, Monnina, Securidaca, and Krameria. The latter has also 
no albumen. Stamens distinct in Krameria. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, very irregular, distinct, often glumaceous ; 3 exterior, 
of which 1 is superior and 2 anterior ; 2 interior (the wings) usually petaloid, and alternate 
with the upper and lower ones. Petals hypogynous, usually 3, of which 1 is anterior and larger 
than the rest, (the keel,) and 2 alternate with the upper outer, and latteral inner sepals, and 
olten connate with the keel ; sometimes 5, and then the 2 additional ones minute and between 
the wings and the lower sepals. Keel sometimes entire, and then either naked or crested; some- 
times 3-lobed, and then destitute of a crest. Stamens hypogynous, 8, usually combined in a 
tube, unequal, and ascending ; sometimes 4, and distinct ; the tube split opposite the upper 
sepal ; anthers clavate, innate, mostly 1-celled and opening at their apex, sometimes 2-celled ; 
very rarely the dehiscence is longitudinal. Disk either absent or present, regular or irregular. 
Ovarium superior, compressed, with 2 cells, which are anterior and posterior, the upper one 
occasionally suppressed ; ovules solitary, very rarely twin, pendulous; style simple, curved, 
sometimes very oblique and cucullate at the apex, which is also entire or lobed ; stigma simple. 
Fruit usually opening through the valves ; occasionally indchiscent, membranous, fleshy, co- 
riaceous, or drupaceous, winged or apterous. Seeds pendulous, with a caruncula next the 
hilum, naked or enveloped with hairs; the outer integument crustaceous, the inner membra- 
nous ; albumen abundant, fleshy, rarely reduced to a thin gelatinous plate, very seldom want- 
ing; embryo straight, or slightly curved, with the radicle next the hilum. — Shrubs or herba- 
ceous plants. Leaves generally alternate, sometimes opposite, mostly simple, and always des- 
titute of stipules. Flowers usually racemose, very often small and inconspicuous, but showy 
in many Polygalas. Pedicels with 3 bractere. 

Affinities. The structure of this order has been admirably explained by 
Messrs. Aug. de St. Hilaire and Moquin-Tandon, from whose memoir above 
quoted, the foregoing character and almost all that is said here is extracted, 
and to which I refer those readers who wish to study the subject more inti- 
mately. Before adverting to the affinities of this order, it will be useful to con- 
sider what is the nature of the irregularity of the flowers ; an irregularity 
which is such as to obscure, in a great measure, the relative position of the 
sepals and petals. The calyx apparently consists of but three pieces, which 
are usually green, and like sepals in their common state ; but their real num- 
ber is 5, the two coloured lateral petal-like bodies, sometimes lying within the 
apparent sepals, being in reabty part of the series of the calyx. The corolla 
is mostly monopetalous, and, if carefully examined, formed of 3 pieces ; namely 
the keel and two petals, all soldered together. We have, therefore, an abor- 
tion of two petals, according to the laws of alternation : but this is not all ; 
there is not only an abortion of two petals, but of those two which would, if 
present, be found right and left of the keel. The monopetalous corolla is, 
therefore, formed by the cohesion of the two posterior and the one anterior petal 
of a pentapetalous corolla, of which the two lateral petals are suppressed. The 
keel has an appendage of an anomalous character, called technically a crest, 
and often consisting of one or even two rows of fringes or divisions, originating 
not from the margin but from within it, and sometimes cohering in a common 
membrane at their base. M. de St. Hilaire has satisfactorily shown that this 
crest is nothing more than the deeply-lobcd middle segment of a keel, with these 



143 

lobes in such a state of cohesion that the central lobe is pushed outwards, while 
the lateral ones cohere by their own margins and with its back. The stamens 
are only 8, two therefore are suppressed ; or in Krameria 4, one being sup- 
pressed. I may remark, in addition, that the relative position of the fifth sepal 
and petal respectively, was first indicated by Mr. Brown. Denham, 31. 

Polygaleee are stationed by Decandolle between Droseraceae and Treman- 
dreae, and in the immediate vicinity of Violacere. With the latter they are re- 
lated on account of their hypogynous stamens, irregular flowers, and cucul- 
late stigma ; and with Tremandreae on account of the caruncula of their seed. 
To Fumariacea3 they approach in the general aspect of their flowers ; but if 
my theory of the structure of that order be admitted, their resemblance would 
not be so great as it appears to be. Legurninosee are perhaps, notwithstand- 
ing their perigynous stamens, the order with which Polygalere have the great- 
est affinity : the irregularity of corolla is of a similar nature in. both ; there is 
in Leguminosae a tendency to suppress the upper lateral petals, in Erythrina, 
as in Polygala ; the ascending direction of the style and a cohesion of stamens 
are characters common to both orders. That part of the JWtmoires du JVLustum 
in which the second part of the paper above referred to is to appear, not having 
reached this country when the present sheet is sending to press, I have no 
means of knowing what the views of St. Hilaire and Moquin-Tandon are of 
the affinities of the tribe. 

Geography. Most of the genera are limited to one or two of the five parts 
of the globe ; thus Salomonia is only found in Asia, Soulamea in the Moluc- 
cas, Muraltia at the Cape of Good Hope, Krameria and Securidaca in the two 
Americas, and finally Monnina and Badiera in South America. Comesperma 
is found both in Brazil and New Holland, and, what is very remarkable, there 
is in the former country a species of the Cape genus Mundia. Polygala itself 
is found in four of the five parts ; under the torrid zone and in temperate cli- 
mates, at Cayenne, and on the mountains of Switzerland ; it is, however, very 
unequally distributed. This genus inhabits almost every description of station, 
—dry plains, deep morasses, woods, mountains, cultivated and barren soils. 
Comesperma is only known in Brazilian woods, and Monnina and Krameria 
in open places. 

Properties. Bitterness in the leaves and milk in the root are their usual 
characteristics ; but the order has not been well investigated with respect to 
its qualities. Polygala senega root is stimulant, diuretic, sialagogue, expecto- 
rant, purgative, emetic, and sudorific, and also emmenagogue. It has been 
used with great success in croup. Barton, 2. 116. P. sanguinea, according 
to the same writer, possesses similar qualities. A peculiar vegetable principle, 
called Senegin, has been discovered by Gehlen in the root of Polygala senega, 
and M. Reschier is also said to have procured a principle called Polygaline from 
the same plant ; but it is not known whether these two substances are the same. 
Stephens and Church, no. 103. The bark of Monnina polystachya, called Yall- 
hoy in Peru, is stated to be extremely useful in cases of dysentery. It also 
possesses detersive properties in a great degree. The ladies of Peru ascribe 
the beauty of their hair to the use of its infusion, and the silversmiths of Hua- 
naco employ it for cleansing and polishing their wrought silver. Lambert's 
Must. Cinch. 132, &c. Krameria, a genus of an extremely anomalous struc- 
ture, which, although most likely really belonging to the order, differs from it 
in many important points, is also remarkable for its tonic and excessively as- 
tringent qualities. Its root is sold in Europe under the name of Ratanhia, and 
is one of the substances which, in conjuction with gum kino, is used for adul- 
terating port wine in England. According to M. Cadet, this root contains 
gallic acid, but neither tannin nor resin. 

Examples. Polygala, Krameria, Monnina, Securidaca. 



144 



CXXX. VIOLACEAE. The Violet Tribe. 

Violarieje, Dec. Fl. Ft. 4. 801. (1805.); Juss. Ann. Mus. 18. (1811) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 287. 
(1824).— Violacejs, Lindl. Synops. 34. (1829). 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, a 1 -celled ovarium with narrow parietal placentae, 5 distinct 
sepals, an erect embryo, stipulate leaves, and a capsule with loculicidal de- 
hiscence. 

Anomalies. The berry of Pentaloba is 5-lobed, but there is only one style. 
The plants called Sauvageae, if they really belong to the order, have a septici- 
dal dehiscence. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, with an imbricate aestivation, usually elon- 
. gated at the base. Petals 5, hypogynous, equal or unequal, usually withering-, and with an 
obliquely convolute aestivation. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals, occasionally opposite 
them, inserted on a hypogynous disk, often unequal; anthers bilocular, bursting inwards, 
either separate or cohering-, and lying close upon the ovarium ; filaments dilated, elongated 
beyond the anthers; two, in the irregular flowers, generally furnished with an appendage or 
o-land at the base. Ovarium 1-celled, many-seeded, or rarely 1-sceded, with 3 parietal placen- 
ta opposite the 3 outer sepals ; style single, usually declinate, with an oblique hooded stigma. 
Capsule of 3 valves, bearing the placentae in their axis. Seeds often with a tumour at their 
base ; embryo straight, erect, in the axis of fleshy albumen. — Herbaceous plants or shrubs. 
Leaves simple, usually alternate, sometimes opposite, stipulate, entire, with an involute verna- 
tion. Inflorescence various. 

Affinities. Mr. Brown, in speaking of Violaceae, mentions, in his Appen- 
dix to the Congo Voyage, a genus, at that time unpublished, called Hymenan- 
thera, having 5 scales alternating with the petals, with a bilocular berry, in 
each cell of which is a single pendulous seed. It appears very paradoxical to 
associate such a plant with an order otherwise well defined ; and Mr. Brown 
himself seems to think it should be placed between Violeae and Polygaleae. 
The structure of this genus points out strongly the relation of Violaceae to Po- 
lygaleae, to the latter of which, however, it rather appears to me to be refera- 
ble. These two orders differ from each other, in the latter having a 2-celled 
not 1-celled ovarium, leaves without stipulae, and 1-celled anthers. Drosera- 
ceae are known from Violaceae by their numerous styles, minute embryo, circi- 
nate leaves, and want of stipulee. Passifloreae, to which the baccate genera 
of Violaceae, and especially Corynostylis, (Calyptrion, Dec), which has a twi- 
ning stem, undoubtedly approach, are distinguished py a multitude of charac- 
ters. The irregular flowers, dilated filaments and sepals, and stipulate leaves, 
of Violaceae, usually indicate them at once ; but the regular-flowered fruticose 
genera, which constitute the tribe of Alsodineae, are not to be recognised by a 
combination of such characters. 

Geography. Of these tribes, Violeae chiefly consist of European, Siberian, 
and American plants ; a few only being found within the tropics of Asia. 
They are abundant in South America, the forms of which are, however, mate- 
rially different from those of the more temperate pans of the world, most of 
them being shrubs, while the northern Violets are uniformly herbaceous, or 
nearly so. Alsodineae are exclusively South American and African, with the 
exception (?) of Pentaloba, which, upon the authority of Loureiro, is Cochin- 
chinese. Sauvageae are exclusively South American or African. 

Properties. The roots of all Violaceae appear to be more or less emetic, a 
property which is strongly possessed by the South American species, and in a 
less degree only by those of Europe. Hence they form part of the herbs 
known under the name of Ipecacuanha. Ionidium parviflorum is used by the 
Spanish Americans, and I. Poaya by the Brazilians, as a substitute for Ipeca- 
cuanha. PI. Us. 9. and 20. The root of another species, called Poaya, 



145 

Poaya da praia, and Poaya branca, the Ionidium Itubu of Kunth, is commonly 
sold as true Ipecacuanha, to which it approaches very nearly in its properties. 
At Pernambuco it is esteemed the very best, remedy that can be employed in 
dysentery ; and the inhabitants of Rio-Grande-do-Norte consider it a specific 
against gout. Ibid. no. 11. The foliage of the Conohoria Lobolobo is used in 
Brazil for the same purposes as Spinach with us. Boiled, it becomes mucila- 
ginous. Ibid. 10. Viola canina is reputed a powerful agent for the removal 
of cutaneous affections ; and Anchietea salutaris is accounted by the Brazilians 
not only a purgative, but also a remedy against similar maladies. M. A. St. 
Hilaire remarks, that this notion deserves attention, as connected with the depu- 
rative properties ascribed in Europe to Viola canina, to which, although Anchi- 
etea is botanically related, there is nothing in its appearance which would have 
led the Portuguese settlers to attribute the virtues of the one to the other 
Ibid. no. 19. Sauvagesia erecta is very mucilaginous, on which account it has 
been used in Brazil for complaints of the eyes, in Peru in disorders of the 
bowels, and in the Antilles as diuretic, or rather in cases of slight inflammation 
of the bladder. 

The sections adopted by Decandolle are these : 

1. Violet. 
Petals unequal. Sepals 3 outer and broader, 2 interior. Fruit with a loculi- 
cidal dehiscence. Stamens alternate with the petals ; filaments dilated, ex- 
tended beyond the anthers, distinct (approximated or contracted), or occasion- 
ally connate ; cells of the anthers finally 2-valved. 
Examples. Calyptrion, Viola, Glossarrhen. 

2. Alsodine^. R. Brown Congo, p. 21. (1818.) 
Petals unequal. Stamens usually either connected at the base, or adhering 
to the inside of an elevated cup, situated between the petals and stamens. 
Examples. Conohoria, Rinorea, Ceranthera. 

3. Sauvage^:. 

Dehiscence of the capsule septicidal. Stamens 5, fertile, opposite the pe- 
tals, distinct ; filaments neither dilated nor extended beyond the anthers. 
Scales 5, petaloid, alternate with the stamens. Intermediate between Viola- 
ceae and Frankeniaceae. 

Examples. Sauvagesia, Lavradia. 



CXXXI. PASSIFLORE^:. The Passion-Flower Tribe. 

Passifloreje, Juss. Ann. Mus. 6. 102. (1805) ; Id. Diet, des Sciences Nat. 38. 48. (1825) ; Dec. 
Prodr. 3. 321. (1828) ; Ackille Richard Diet. Class. 13. 95. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
filamentous or membranous processes upon the tube of the calyx, concrete car- 
pella, a superior 1 -celled ovarium with parietal placenta?, corolla with an imbri- 
cated aestivation, glandular leaves, arillate seeds, and embryo in the midst of 
fleshy albumen. 

Anomalies. Some apetalous. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, sometimes irregular, combined in a tube of variable 
length, the sides and throat of which arc lined by filamentous or annular processes, apparently 
metamorphosed petals. Petals 5. arising from tnethroatof the calvx, on the outside of the fila 

29 



146 

mentous processes, occasionally wanting - , sometimes irregular, imbricated in aestivation. Sie- 
mens 5, monadelphous, rarely indefinite, surrounding the stalk of the ovarium ; anthers turned 
outwards, linear, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovarium seated on a long stalk, superior. 
1-celled; styles 3. arising from the same point, clavate; stigmas dilated. Fruit surrounded 
by the calyx, stalked, 1-celled, with 3 parietal polyspermous placentae, sometimes 3-valved. 
Seeds attached in several rows to the placenta, with a brittle sculptured testa surrounded by a 
pulpy arillus ; embryo straight, in the midst of fleshy thin albumen ; radicle turned towards 
the hilum ; cotyledons flat, leafy.— Herbaceous plants or shrubs, usually climbing, very seldom 
arborescent. Leaves alternate, with foliaceous stipulae, often glandular. Mowers axillary or 
terminal, often with a 3-leaved involucre. 

Affinities. The real nature of the floral envelopes of this remarkable- 
order is a question upon which botanists entertain very different opinions, and 
their ideas of its affinities are consequently much at variance. According to 
Jussieu (Diet, des Sciences, 38. 49.), the " parts taken for petals are nothing 
but inner divisions of the calyx, usually in a coloured state, and wanting in 
several species ;" and therefore, in the judgment of this venerable botanist, the 
order is apetalous, or monochlamydeous. Decandolle adopts the same view of 
the nature of the floral envelopes as Jussieu ; but he nevertheless considers the 
order polypetalous ; a conclusion which I confess myself unable to understand, 
upon the supposition of the inner series of floralenvelopes being calyx. Other bota- 
nists, and I think with justice, consider the outer series of the floral envelopes as the 
calyx, and inner as the corolla, for two principal reasons. In the first pl£ce, 
they have the ordinary position and appearance of calyx and corolla, the outer 
being green, and the inner coloured : and, in the second place, there is no 
essential difference between the calyx and corolla, except the one being the 
outer, and the other the inner of the floral envelopes. And if the real nature 
of these parts is to be determined by analogy, an opinion in which I do not, 
however, concur, the great affinity, as I think, of the order with Violaceae would 
confirm the idea of its being polypetalous rather than apetalous. The nature 
of the filamentous appendages, or rays as they are called, which proceed from 
the orifice of the tube, and of the membranous or fleshy, entire or lobed, flat or 
plaited, annular processes which lie between the petals and the stamens, is am- 
biguous. I am disposed to refer them to a peculiar form of petals, rather than 
to the stamens, for the reasons which I have assigned in the Hort. Trans, vol. 
6. p. 309, for understanding the normal metamorphosis of the parts of fructifi- 
cation to be centripetal. There can, at least, be no doubt of their being of an 
intermediate nature between petals and stamens. With regard to the affinity 
of Passiflorea?, Jussieu, swayed by the opinion he entertains of their being ape- 
talous, and Decandolle, who partly agrees and partly disagrees with Jussieu in 
his view of their structure, both assign the order a place near Cucurbitaceae : 
but when we consider the stipitate fruit, occasionally valvular, the parietal pla- 
centae, the sometimes irregular flowers, the stipulate leaves, and the climbing 
habit of these plants, it is difficult not to admit their affinity with Capparideoe 
and Violacea?, the dilated disk of the former of which is probably analogous to 
the innermost of the annular processes of Passiflora. That the fleshy covering 
of the seeds in this order is a real arillus, is clear from the seeds of a capsular 
species nearly related to Pass, capsularis, but apparently unpublished, a draw- 
ing of which, by M. Ferdinand Bauer, exists in the Library of the Horticultural 
Societj-. In this plant the apex of the sculptured testa is uncovered by the 
arillus. 

Geography. These plants are the pride of South America and the West 
Indies, where the woods are filled with their species, which climb about from 
tree to tree, bearing at one time flowers of the most striking beauty, and of so 
singular an appearance, that the zealous Catholics who discovered them, 
adapted Christian traditions to those inhabitants of the South American wilder- 
nesses ; and at other times fruit, tempting to the eye and refreshing to the pa- 
late. One or two extend northwards into North America. Several are found 



147 

in Africa and the neighbouring islands ; and a few in the East Indies, of which 
the greater part belong to the genus Modecca. 

Properties. Nothing is known of the properties of this order further than 
that the succulent arillus and pulp that surround the seeds are fragrant, juicy, 
cooling, and pleasant, in several species. 

Example. Passifiora, Tacsonia, Murucuja, Smeathmannia. 



CXXXII. MALESHERBIACE.E. 

%Uleshekbiaceje. Don in Jameson's Journal, 321. (1826).— Passiflore.e. § Malesherbicic, 
Dec. Prodr. 3. 337. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous stamens, 
a membranous ring at the mouth of the tube of the calyx, concrete carpella, a 
superior 1 -celled ovarium with parietal placentae, styles widely apart at the 
base, corolla with a twisted aestivation, exstipulate glandless leaves, exarillate 
seeds, and an embryo in the midst of fleshy albumen. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx tubular, membranous, inflated, 5-lobed, the lobes with an 
imbricated aestivation. Petals 5, alternate with the segments of the calyx, persistent, with a 
convolute aestivation arising- from without a short membranous rim or corona- Stamens 5 or 
10, perigynous ; filaments filiform, distinct, or connected with the stalk of the ovarium ; anthen 
versatile. Ovarium superior, stipitate, 1-celled with the placentas at the base, from which 
the ovules arise by the intervention of umbilical cords ; styles 3, filiform, very long-, arising- 
from distinct points of the apex of the ovarium; stigmas clavate. Fruit capsular, 1-celled, 
3-valved, membranous more or less, many-seeded. Seeds attached by umbilical cords to 
placentae arising- either from the axis of the valves, or from their base ; testa crustaceous, 
brittle, with a fleshy crest, and no arillus ; embryo taper, in the midst of fleshy albumen, with 
the radicle next the hilum.— Herbaceous or half-shrubby plants. Leaves alternate, lobed, with- 
out stipuke. Floioers axillary or terminal, solitary, yellow or blue. 

Affinities. According to Mr. Don, by whom these plants were first con- 
sidered the rudiments of an order, " they agree on the one hand with Passifio- 
rese, and on the other with Turneraceas ;" and I am persuaded that this is their 
true position. From the former they differ in the insertion of their styles, in 
versatile anthers, in their short placenta?, membranous fruit, taper embryo, want 
of arillus and of stipules, and altogether in their habit: fromTurneraceae,to which 
their habit quite allies them, they differ in the presence of a perigynous mem- 
brane, in the remarkable insertion of the styles, and in the want of all trace of an 
arillus ; agreeing with that order in the aestivation of the corolla, and in the 
principal other points of their structure. I have modified the essential charac- 
ter of the order, in consequence of the inspection of a Chilian plant, of which 
specimens are in my possession. 

Geography. Natives of Chile. 

Properties. Unknown, except as objects of erreat beauty. 

Example. Maleshorbia. 



148 



CX XXIII. TURNERACE.E. 

Loaseje, § Turneracea?, Kunth N.G. et Sp. 6. 123. (1S23).— Tuknerace^;. Dec. Prodr. 3. 345. 

(1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with 5 perigynous stamens, con- 
crete carpella, a superior 1 -celled ovarium with 3 parietal placentae, corolla with 
a twisted aestivation, and embryo in the midst of fleshy albumen. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, often coloured, with 5 equal lobes, imbricated in 
aestivation. Petals 5, inserted into the tube of the calyx, equal, with a twisted aestivation. Sta- 
mens 5, inserted into the tube of the calyx below the petals, with which they are alternate ; 
filaments distinct ; anthers oblong, erect, 2-celled. Ovarium superior, 1-celled, with 3 parietal 
placentas ; ovules indefinite ; styles 3 or 6, cohering 1 more or less, and simple branched or mul- 
tifid at the apex. Capsule 3-valved, 1-celled, opening' from the point about as far as the mid- 
dle, the valves bearing the placentas in the middle. Seeds with a thin membranous arillus on 
one side, crustaceous, reticulated ; embryo slightly curved, in the middle of fleshy albumen ; 
radicle turned towards the hilum ; cotyledons somewhat plano-convex. — Herbaceous plants, 
having sometimes a tendency to become shrubby, with a simple pubescence, which does not 
sting. Leaves alternate, simple, without stipules, with occasionally 2 glands at the apex of the 
petiole. Flowers axillary, their pedicel either distinct or cohering with the petiole ; with 2 
bracteolae. Petals yellowish, rarely blue. 

Affinities. Placed by Decandolle between Loaseae and Fouquieracea?, 
chiefly, it should seem, on account of its manifest relation to the former, and its 
perigynous stamens. To me it appears that those botanists are right who 
place it in the vicinity of Cistineae, from which it differs more in the insertion of 
the stamens, and in the approximation of the radicle to the hilum, than in any 
other character, agreeing with them very much in habit. With Malvaceae 
they agree in the twisted aestivation of the corolla, and in habit. With Loaseae 
and Passifloreae they have also much in common ; and the circumstance of 
their certain relationship to Cistineae gives great weight to the ingenious ap- 
proximation, by M. Du Petit Thouars, of Passifloreae to Violaceae. The pre- 
sence of glands upon the ends of the petioles of Turneraceae is a confirmation 
of their affinity to the former. They are distinguished from Loaseae by their 
fruit being superior and 1-celled, with parietal placentas, and by their definite 
stamens ; the former character is, however, weakened by the nearly superior 
fruit of some Loaseae. 

Geography. Natives exclusively of the West Indies and South America : 
[with the exception of Turnera cistoides, which extends as far north as Savan- 
nah.] There seems no good reason for supposing Turnera trioniflora to b 
native of Japan. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Turnera. Piriqueta. 



CXXXIV. CISTINE.E. The Rock-Rose Tribe. 

Cisti, Juss. Gen. 294. (1739).— Cistoideje, Vent. Tabl. 3.219. (1799).— Cistinej;, Dec. Prodr- 
1. 263. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 36. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, a 1-celled ovarium with narrow parietal placentae, 5 sepals, 
and an inverted embryo. 

Anomalies 



Essential Character.— Sepals 5, continuous with the pedicel, persistent, unequal, the 
three inner with a twisted {estivation. Petals 5, hypogynous, very fugitive, crumpled in aesti- 
vation, and twisted in a direction contrary to that of the sepals. Stainens indefinite, hypogy- 
nous distinct ; anthers innate ; stigma simple. Ovarium distinct, 1- or many-celled ; ovu/a with 
the foramen at their apex ; style single. Fruit capsular, usually 3- or 5-valved, occasionally 10- 
valved, either 1-celicd with parietal placenta; in the axis of the valves, or imperfectly 5- or 
10-celled with dissepiments proceeding from the middle of the valves, and touching each other 
in the centre. Seeds indefinite in number. Embryo inverted, either spiral or curved in the midst 
of mealy albumen. — Shrubs ur herbaceous plants. Branches often viscid. Leaves usually en- 
tire, opposite or alternate, stipulate or exstipulate. Racemes usually unilateral. Flowers 
white, yellow, or red, very fugacious. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Violaceoe, with which they were formerly 
confounded, by their indefinite stamens and inverted embryo ; from Bixinese 
by this last character, by their mealy albumen, habit, and not having the leaves 
ever dotted ; from Hypericinese by the latter character, and the structure of their 
fruit. 

Geography. S. Europe and the north of Africa are the countries that Cis- 
tineae chiefly inhabit. They are rare in North America, extremely uncommon 
in South America, and scarcely known in Asia. 

Properties. None, except that the resinous balsamic substance, called 
Labdanum, is obtained from Cistus creticus. 

Examples. Gistus. Helianthemum. 



CXXXV. BIXINESE. The Arnotto Tribe. 
Bixineje, Kunth Diss. Malv. p. 17. (1822) ; Dec. Prodr. 1. 259. (1824.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite hypogynous sta- 
mens, concrete carpella, a 1 -celled ovarium with narrow parietal pfacentEe, 4-7 
sepals, and an erect embryo. 

Anomalies. Corolla often wanting. 

Essektial Character.— Sepals 4-7, either distinct or cohering at the base, with an imbri- 
cated aestivation. Petals 5, like the sepals, or wanting. Stamens indefinite, distinct, inserted 
upon a receptacle at the base of the calyx ; anthers 2-celled. Ovarium superior, sessile, 1-celled ; 
ovula proceeding from 4 to 7 parietal placentae ; style single, or in 2 or 4 divisions. Fruit cap- 
sular, or berried, 1-celled, many-seeded. Seeds attached to parietal placenta, and enveloped 
in pulp; albumen either fleshy or very thin; embryo included, either straightish or curved, with 
leafy cotyledons; radicle pointing to the hilum. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, 
entire, usually with pellucid dots; stipules deciduous; peduncles axillary, 1- many-flowered, 
with bracteas. 

Affinities. The carpological characters of this order are very much those 
of Cistinese and Homalineai ; from the former, Bixinese differ in the position of 
their radicle, and in many other particulars ; from the latter they are distin- 
guished by their hypogynous stamens, and consequently superior fruit, by the 
distinct nature of the sepals and petals, when the latter are present, &c. Their 
dotted leaves are remarkable among all the neighbouring orders, and would 
alone suffice to characterize them, if they were constant, but they are occa- 
sionally not dotted. Some of the genera were formerly referred to Rosaceae : 
but the affinity of this order with that is very weak ; the plants which were for- 
merly placed in it were imperfectly known. 

Geography. All natives of the hotter parts of America, or of the islands of 
the Mauritius. 

Properties. Bixa yields the substance known to the English by the name 
of Arnotto. and to the French by that of Rocou. It is the pulp that envc- 



150 



lopes the seeds, and which is slightly purgative and stomachic. Farmers use 
it to. stain their cheeses, and dyers for a reddish colour. The bark of Ludia is 
said to be emetic : but it is uncertain whether that genus does not belong to 
Homalinese. 
Examples. Bixa, Prockia. 



CXXXVI. SARRACENIEiE. 

Sarbacenie.e, Turpin in Diet, des Sc. c. ie. ( ? ) ; Dc la Pylaie in Ann. Linn. Par. 6. 388 t 
13. (1827) ; Hooker Ft. Boreal. Am. p. 33. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with hypogynous indefinite distinct 
stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the placentae in the 
axis, a regular calyx with imbricate aestivation, and a peltate petaloid persistent 
stigma. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, often having 1 a 3-leaved involucrum on the 
outside ; (Estivation imbricate. Petals 5, hypogynous ; unguiculate, concave. Stamens inde- 
finite, hypogynous ; anthers oblong, adnate, 2-celled, bursting internally and longitudinally. 
Ovarium superior, 5-celled, with polyspermous placentae in the axis; style single; stigma 
much dilated, peltate, with 5 angles. Capsule crowned by the persistent stigma, with 5 cells 
and 51oculicidal valves. Seeds very numerous, minute, slightly warted, covering 5 large pla- 
centa, which project from the axis into the cavity of the cells ; albumen abundant ; embryo 
cylindrical, lying near the base of the seed, with the radicle turned to the hilum. — Herbaceous 
perennial plants, living in bogs. Roots fibrous. Leaves radical, with a hollow urn-shaped 
petiole, at the apex of which is articulated the lamina, which covers the petiole like a lid. 
Scapes each having one large flower, of a more or less herbaceous colour. 

Affinities. These are not well made out. It is usual to refer Sarracenia 
to the vicinity of Papaveraceae, on account of its remarkably dilated stig- 
ma, which is compared to the radiant stigma of Papaver, its indefinite stamens 
and small embryo lying at the base of copious albumen ; and there can be no 
doubt that these points of resemblance are important. But I believe it is also 
akin to Droseraceae, or at least to that order, whatever it may be, which shall 
finally comprehend Dionaea. With this genus no one has suspected the analo- 
gy of Sarracenia ; a circumstance which has arisen, I presume, chiefly from 
attention having been turned to the fructification rather than the vegetation of 
those genera. If we compare the foliage of Dionsea with that of Sarracenia, 
we shall find that the pitcher of the latter is represented by the dilated foot- 
stalk of the former, which only requires its margins to cohere to be identical 
with it, and that the lid of the pitcher of the latter is analogous to the irritable 
lamina of the former. In both genera the staAens are hypogynous ; both have 
a single stigma, which in Sarracenia is petaloid, in Dionaea is merely fringed ; 
both have an embryo lying at the base of copious albumen, and both have po- 
lyspermous placentae. In the internal arrangement of the fruit the two gene- 
ra are dissimilar ; but the differences depend upon peculiar modifications of 
structure, which cannot be considered to affect affinities otherwise so strongly 
indicated. In the remarkable structure of the leaves this order agrees with 
Nepenthe*, which are probably not so distantly related as they are usually 
supposed to be, and also with a single genus of Rosacea? (Cephalotus). 

Geography. They are exclusively confined to the bogs of North America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Example. Sarracenia 



151 



CXXXVII. DROSERACE/E. The Sundew Tribe. 

Droseraceje, Dec. Theorie, 214. (1819) ; Prodr. 1. 317. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 38. (1S29). 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, a 1 -celled ovarium with narrow parietal placent*, 5 sepals, 
an erect embryo, and circinate vernation. 

Anomalies. The anthers of Byblis and Roridula open by pores. Verna- 
tion not circinate in Dion*a. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, equal, with an imbricate [estivation. Petals 
5, hypogynous. Stamens distinct, withering, either equal in number to the petals and alter- 
nate with them, or 2, 3, or 4 times as many. Ovarium single ; styles 3-5, either wholly dis- 
tinct, or slightly connected at the base, bifid or branched. Capsule of 1 or 3 cells, and 3 or 5 
valve3, which bear the placenta? either in the middle or at the base. Seeds either naked or fur- 
nished with arillus. Embryo straight, erect, in the axis of a fleshy or cartilaginous albumen. 
Cotyledons rather thick. — Delicate herbaceous plants, often covered with glands. Leaves alter- 
nate, with stipulary cilia and a circinate vernation. Peduncles, when young, circinate. 

Affinities. Nearly allied to Violace*, from which their circinate vernation, 
several styles, minute embryo, and exstipulate leaves, distinguish them. They 
are also no doubt related to Saxifrage*, to which order it is possible that one 
of the genera referred to Droseraceae by Decandolle (Romanzovia), actually 
belongs. The most material circumstance that separates them from Saxifra- 
ge* is their hypogynous, not perigynous stamens. But when we consider how 
difficult it frequently is, to determine whether the point of origin of the stamens 
in Saxifrage* is from the calyx or from below the ovarium, this distinction will 
cease to have much value. Besides the line of origin of the stamens, these 
two orders are also distinguished by their vernation and placentation ; but in 
the latter respect Parnassia among Saxifrage* accords with Droserace* ; and 
in the former Dion*a among Droserace* accords with Saxifrage*. It is not, 
however, quite certain that this last-mentioned genus is actually referable to 
Droserace*, from which it differs remarkably in the structure of its ovarium, in 
its style, and in its foliage. I am persuaded that Droserace* are fully as nearly 
related to Saxifrage* as to Violace* ; and this fact shows how much the artifi- 
cial distribution of orders is at variance with natural affinities. Droserace* 
are also allied to Sarracenie* : see that order. 

Geography. At the Cape of Good Hope, in South America, North Ameri- 
ca, New Holland, China, Europe, Madagascar, the East Indies, wherever 
there are marshes or morasses, these plants are found. Drosophyllum lusita- 
nicum is remarkable for growing on the barren sands of Portugal. 

Properties. The leaves of Dion*a muscipula are irritable, and collapse 
when touched. The common Droseras are rather acid, slightly acrid, and, ac- 
cording to some, poisonous to cattle. The Drosera communis of Brazil is said 
by M. A. St. Hilaire to be poisonous to sheep. PI. Usuelles, no. 15. 

Examples. Drosera, Drosophyllum. 



CXXXVIII. NEPENTHEiE. The Pitcher-Plant Tribe 

Aristolociiix, § Nepcnthinte, Link Handb. 1. 369. (1829). 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with a4-celled ovarium, indefinite 
ovula, a regular imbricated calyx, and pitcher-shaped leaves. 
Anomalies. The direction of the radicle uncertain. 



15-2 

Essential Character. — Flowers dioecious. Calyx 4-leaved, inferior, oppositely imbricated 
in aestivation. Stamens cohering- in a solid column, bearing- at the apex about 16 anthers, col- 
lected in various directions in one head; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally and exter- 
nally. Ovarium superior, 4-cornered, 4 celled, with an idefinite number of ascending ovules 
attached to the sides of the dissepiments; siigma sessile, simple. Fruit capsular, 4-celled, 
4-valved, with the seeds sticking to the sides of the dissepiments, which proceed :iom the mid- 
dle of the valves. Seeds indefinite, very minute, fusiform, with a lax outer integument ; Al- 
bumen oblong, much less than the seed, lying about the middle of the outer integument ; em- 
bryo in the midst of fleshy albumen, with 2 cotyledons placed face to face ; (radicle turned 
towards the hilum, Ad. Brongn. Nees von Esenbeck ; turned to the extremity opposite the hi- 
lum, Richard). — Herbaceous or half-shrubby caulescent plants. Leaves alternate, slightly 
sheathing at the base, with a dilated foliaceous petiole, pitcher-shaped at the end, which is ar- 
ticulated with a lid-like lamina. Racemes terminal, dense, many-flowered. 

Affinities. The relation that is borne by the highly curious plants which 
this order contains was not even guessed at until M. Adolphe Brongniart 
pointed out a resemblance between them and Cytineae, which had not before 
been suspected, but which he considered so important as to justify him in placing 
it in the same order. While we admit the ingenuity with which this opinion is 
sustained, it is impossible to agree with M. Brongniart in the conclusion at 
which he has arrived. To say nothing of the extreme dissimilarity in habit 
between these plants, the structure of their fruit appears to me essentially dif- 
ferent ; and the seeds of Cytinus being unknown, the resemblance between it 
and Nepenthes is reduced to a similarity in the arrangement of the anthers, 
which cannot in the present case be considered of much importance, as it in 
some degree depends upon the unisexuality of the flowers of both genera. It 
appears to me that, in the existing state of our knowledge, there is no order to 
which Nepenthes can be safely approximated ; it has a remote affinity with 
Droseraceae, but a number of connecting links is required to fill up the space 
between them. The best account of the structure of Nepenthes will be found 
in the Ann. des Sc. 1.42. and 3. 366. The structure of the pitcher- shaped 
leaves is analogous to that of Sarracenieae, and Cephalotus among Rosaceae. 
The water contained in the unopened pitcher of a plant which flowered in the 
the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, was found by Dr. Turner " to emiT, while 
boiling, an odour like baked apples, from containing a trace of vegetable matter, 
and to yield minute crystals of superoxalate of potash on being slowly 
evaporated to dryness." B. Mag. 2798. There is a good account of the ger- 
mination of Nepenthes, in Jameson's Journal for April 1830, from which it 
may be concluded that the long loose tunic of the seed is intended to act at first 
as a buoy, to float the seed upon the surface of the water, and afterwards as an 
anchor, to keep it fast upon the mud until it can have struck root. 

Geography. All natives of swamps in the East Indies and Chinn 

Properties. Unknown. 

Example. Nepenthes. 



CXXXIX. LINE^E. The Flax Tribe. 

Like*, Dec. Theorie, ed. 1.217. (1819) ; Prodr. 1.423. (1824); Lindl. Synops. 53. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens ; 
concrete carpella, an entire ovarium of several cells with placentae in the axis, 
an imbricated regular calyx, symmetrical flowers, definite pendulous ovules, 
distinct style, capitate stigmas, stamens immediately hypogynous, flat cotyle- 
dons, and a capsular many-celled fruit. 

\ MOM A LIE? 



1.3.3 

Essential Ch An a.ct lb. — ScpaL -3-4-5, with a, n imbricated xstivatiuii, continuous with the 
peduncle, persistent. Petals equal in nunjber to the sepals, hypogynous, ung-uiculate, with a 
twisted aestivation. Stamens equal in number to the petals, and alternate with them, united 
at the base in a hypogynous ring, from which proceed little teeth opposite to the petals, and in- 
dicating abortive stamens ; anthers ovate, innate. Ovarium with about as many cells as petals, 
seldom fewer ; styles equal in number to the cells ; stigmas capitate. Capsules generally pointed 
with the indurated base of the 3tyles, many-celled ; each cell partially divided in two by an 
imperfect spurious dissepiment, and dehiscing with two valves at the apex. Seeds in each cell 
single, compressed, inverted ; albumen usually absent ; inner lining of the fcstatumid ; embryo 
straight, fleshy, with the radicle pointing towards the hilum ; cotyledons flat. — Herbaceous 
plants, or s^all shrubs. Leaves entire, without stipula:, usually alternate. Petals very 
fugitive. 

Affinities. It is remarked by Decandolle, that these are intermediate, as 
it were, between Caryophyllese, Malvaceae, and Geraniacea?, from all which, 
however, they are obviously distinguished. 

Geography. Europe and the north of Africa are the principal stations of 
this order, which is, however, scattered more or less over most parts of the 
globe. Several are natives of North and South America, 2 only are found in In- 
dia, 1 in New Zealand, and none in New Holland; for the L. angustifolium men- 
tioned by Decandolle as having been sent him from that country, had probably, 
as he suggests, been introduced from Europe. It is stated by Dr. Richardson, 
that the most northern limit of this order in North America is 54° N. Ed. P 
J. 12. 209. 

Properties. The tenacity of their fibre, and the mucilage of their diure- 
tic seeds, are the striking characters of Lines, which are also usually remarka- 
ble for the beauty of their flowers. The leaves of L. catharticum are purga- 
tive. Linum selaginoides is considered in Peru bitter and aperient. Dec. 

Examples. Linum, Radiola. 



CXL. CARYOPHYLLESE. The Chickweed Tribe. 

CahyofhyllejE, Juss. Gen. 299. (1739) ; Dec. Predr. 1. 351. (1824 ; Lindl. Synops. p. 43. 

(1329.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, an ovarium of 1 or several cells with placentas in the axis, 
an imbricated calyx, symmetrical flowers, an embryo coiled round mealy albu- 
men, and opposite entire leaves with herbaceous stems. 

Anomalies. Some are apetalous ; others are accidentally unsymmetrical 
in their fructification. 

Essential Character.— Sepals 4-5, continuous with the peduncle ; either distinct, or cohe- 
ring in a tube, persistent. Petals 4-5, hypogynous, unguiculate, inserted upon the pedicel of 
the ovarium ; occasionally wanting. Sta7nens twice as many as the petals, inserted upon the 
pedicel of the ovarium along with the petals; filaments subulate, sometimes monadelphous ; 
anthers innate. Ovarium stipitate on the apex of a pedicel (called the gynophorus) ; Stigmata, 
2-5, sessile, filiform, papillose on the inner surface. Capsule 2-5-valved, either 1-celled or 2-5- 
celled, in the latter case with a loculicidal dehiscence. Placenta central, in the 1-celled cap- 
sules distinct, in the 2-5-celled capsules adhering to the edge of the dissepiments. Seeds in- 
definite in number, rarely definite ; albumen mealy; embryo curved round the albumen; ra- 
dicle pointing to the hilum.— Herbaceous plants, occasionally becoming suffrutescent. . Stems 
tumid at the articulations. Leaves always opposite and entire, often connate at the base. 

Affinities. On the one hand these plants are allied to Frankeniaceae, with 
which they agree in their unguiculate petals, bearing processes at their orifice, and 
in some measure in habit ; and on the other to Linear, from which they are prin- 
cipally distinguished by their unilocular, or. if plurilocular. several-seeded cap- 

30 



154 

sules, and oibuaainious seeds. Geraniaceae, Oxahdeae, Violaceae, and Portuiu- 
cese, are all also allied in many particulars, but they are readily distinguished. 
Elatineae differ in their exalbuminous seeds and capitate stigmas. Bartling 
combines in one order Caryophylleae, Paronychia^ Amarantaceae, Phytolac- 
ceae, and Chenopodeae ; and all these orders, although artificially separated 
widely, do in fact concur in a number of essential points ; but the rest may be 
readily known from Caryophylleae by their want of petals ; their combining 
character is the embryo curved round the albumen, in which particular Poly- 
goneae also agrees with them. Macraea, a genus of mine, which Mr. Don 
states to be the same as Viviania, a neglected genus of Cavanilles, (see 
Jameson's Journal, Jan. 1830, p. 170.), if really belonging to the order, differs 
remarkably in the curved embryo lying, according to Dr. Hooker, in the midst 
of fleshy albumen, in its dry persistent petals, and in the vernation of both the 
calyx and petals ; but I incline to think that this remarkable genus indicates 
the existence of an order allied to Frankeniacese or Geraniaceae more closely 
than to Caryophylleae. Hydropityon, doubtfully referred here by Decandolle. 
belongs to Scrophularineae, as I learn from Mr. Bentham. 

Geography. Natives principally of the temperate and frigid parts of the 
world, where they inhabit mountains, hedges, rocks, and waste places. Those 
which are found within the tropics are usually natives of high elevations and 
mountainous tracts, almost always reaching the limits of eternal snow, where 
many of them exclusively vegetate. The Mollugos are the most tropical 
form of the order. A little plant, called Physa, is found in Madagascar ; and 
some Silenes are scattered in many different parts of the globe. According to 
the calculations of Humboldt, Caryophylleae constitute ¥ V 0I * the flowering 
plants of France, ~ of Germany, T \ of Lapland, -^ of North America. 

Properties. Remarkable for little except their uniform insipidity. A few, 
such as the Dianthuses and Lychnises, are handsome flowers ; but the greater 
part are mere weeds. Saponaria officinalis, Gypsophila Ostruthium, Lychnis 
dioica, and L. chalcedonica, have saponaceous properties : Saponaria has been 
used in syphilis. Arenaria peploides, having been fermented, is used in Ice- 
land as a sort of food. A decoction of the root of Silene virginica is said to 
have been employed in North America as anthelmintic. Dec 

Decandolle admits two sections (Prodr. 1.) 

1. SlLENEiE. 

Sepals united in a cj'lindrical tube. 
Examples. Lychnis, Dianthus. 

2. Alsine^:. Dec. Fl. Franc. 4. 766 
►Sepals distinct, or only cohering at the base. 
Examples. Stellario. Alsine. 



CXLI. FRANKENIACE/E 

1'kanK£Niac±:jE, Aug. St. Ililaire Mem. Plac. Ccntr. 39. (1815); Dec. Prodr. I. 349. (1824;; 
lAndl. Synops. 38. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite, hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, a 1-cclled ovarium with narrow parietal placentae, 5 connate 
sepals, an erect embryo, cxstipulate leaves, and a capsule with septicidai 
dehiscence. 

A-nomaxies v.,,. Luxembursia be excluded 



1 .3.-, 

Essential Character — Sepal*- 4-5, united in a furrowed tube, persistent, equal, Petai 
alternate with the sepals, hypogynous, unguiculate, with appendages at the base of the limb. 
Stamens hypogynous, either equal in number to the petals, and alternate with them, or hav- 
ae a tendency°to double the number; anthers roundish, versatile. Ovarium superior ; style 
tilfform 2-fid or 3-fid. Capsule 1-celJed, enclosed in the calyx, 2- 3- or 4-valved, many-seeded ; 
dehiscence septicidal. Seeds attached to the margins of the valves, very minute ; embryo 
straight, erect, in the midst of albumen (divided into two plates, Gcertn. fl.)— Herbaceous 
plants or undcr-shrubs. Stems very much branched. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, with a 
membranous sheathing base ; often revolute at the edge. Floucrs senile in the division? ol 
the branches, and terminal, embosomed in leaves, usually pink. 

Affinities. Allied on the one hand to Caryophylleae, from which they 
are distinguished by their different placentation, and by the form of their 
embryo ; to Linese, from which they are known by their unilocular fruit ; and 
on the other to Violaceae, which differ in having a loculicidal, not septicidal, 
dehiscence. Their habit is that of Amarantaceee and Illecebreae, from which 
their petals and compound fruit divide them. 

Geography. This order is chiefly found in the north of Africa and south 
of Europe. Two species are natives of the Cape of Good Hope, 1 of South 
America, 4 of New Holland, and 3 of temperate Asia. None have been 
found in tropical India or North Amerigo 

Properties. Unknown. 

Example ' Frankenia. 



CXLII. TAMARISCINE/E. The Tamarisk Tribe 

T MfAUBClnmB. Desvaux, in a Dissertation read before the French Institute (in 1815,) accord- 
ing- to the Ann. Sc. Nat. 4. 344. (1825); A. St. Hil. Mem. Mus. 2. 205. (1816); Ehrenb. 
in Annates des Sciences, 12. G8. (1827); Dec. Prodr. 3. 95. (1828); Lindl. Synops. 
61. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous stamens, 
concrete carpella, a 1-celled ovarium with placentae at the base, no stipulae. 
shrubby stems, comose seeds, and a 4- or 5-parted calyx. 

Anomalies, 

Essential Character.— Calyx 4- or 5-parted, persistent, with an imbricated aestivation. 
Petals inserted into the base of the calyx, withering, with an imbricated aestivation. Sta- 
mens hypogynous, either equal to the petals in number, or twice as many, distinct or mona- 
delphous. Ovarium superior ; style very short ; stigmata 3. Capsule 3-valved, 1-celled, many- 
seeded ; placentas. 3, either at the base of the cavity, or along the middle of the valves. -Scecfs 
erect or ascending, comose; albumen none; embryo straight, with an inferior radicle. 
Shrubs or herbs, with rod-like branches. Leaves alternate, resembling scales, entire, t lowers 
in close spikes or racemes. 

Affinities. According to Decandolle (Prodr. 3. 95.), who places the 
order among those with perigynous stamens, related to Portulaceae (or Illece- 
breae,) on account of the resemblance between their flowers and those of Tele- 
phium ; but they differ in their parietal exalbuminous comose seeds. Also 
allied to Lythrariae and Onagraria?, but differing from the former in the imbri- 
cated aestivation, the petals arising from the bottom of the calyx, and parietal 
seeds ; and from the latter in their superior ovarium, and the imbricated aesti- 
vation of the calyx. Dr. Ehrenberg asserts the order to have hypogynous 
stamens (Ann. des Sc. 12. 77.), and this agrees with my own observations. 
The same botanist, in separating the Tamarix songarica of Willdenow from 
Tamariscineae, and referring it to the vicinity of Reaumuria, establishes the 
affinity of Tamariscineae to the order of Reaumurieee. Its true station appears 
to me to be next Frankenia.cc;>' 



150 

< itoGRAPHY. Exclusively confined to the northern hemisphere, and even 
to its eastern half, that is, to the old world, on which they extend as far as the 
Cape de Verds. They usually grow b}* the sea-side, but occasionally by the 
edges of rivers and torrents. The maximum of species and of individuals also 
is found in the basin of the Mediterranean. The order appears bounded on 
the south by the 8° or 9° parallel of N. lat., and on the north by that of 50° 
and 55° in Siberia, Germany, and England. Ehrenb. 

Properties. The bark is slightly bitter, astringent, and probably tonic. 
T. gallica and africana are remarkable for the quantity of sulphate of soda 
which their ashes contain. Dec. Dr. Ehrenberg found that the Manna of 
Mount Sinai is produced by a variety of Tamarix galhca. This substance, 
being analysed by M. Mitscherlich, was found to contain no crystallisable 
Mannite, but to consist wholly of pure mucilaginous sugar. Ann. des Sc. 1. c 

Examples. Tamarix, Myricaria. 



fr 



CXLIII. ELATINE/E. The Water-Pepper Tribe. 

Elatineje, Cambessedes in Mem. Mus. 18. 225. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite hypogynous distinct 
stamens, concrete carpella, an ovarium of several cells with the placentae in 
the axis, an imbricated calyx, S3uumetrical flowers, indefinite exalbuminous 
seeds with a straight embryo, capitate stigmas, a fruit with the valves alter- 
nate with the septa, and a persistent axis and herbaceous stems. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-5, distinct, or slightly connate at the hase. Petals hypo- 
gynous, alternate with the sepals. Stamens. hypogynous, usually twice as numerous as the 
petals. Ovarium with from 3 to 5 hypogynous cells, an equal number of styles, and capitate 
stigmas. Fruit capsular, 3-5-celled, with the valves alternate with the septa, which usually 
adhere to a central axis, but in Merimea to the valves separating from the axis. Seeds nume- 
rous, with a straight embryo, whose radicle is turned to the hilum, and no albumen. — Annuals, 
found in marshy places. Stems fistulous, rooting. Leaves opposite, without stipulte. 

Affinities. This little order has been recently established by M. Cambes- 
sedes, who distinguishes them from Caryophylleas, with which a part of them 
had been confounded, by their capitate stigmata, by the dehiscence of their 
fruit, and by their want of albumen. They agree wilh Hypericineae in many 
respects, even in the presence of receptacles of resinous secretions ; but differ 
in having a persistent central axis in the fruit, definite stamens, and so forth. 

Geography. Found in marshes in the four quarters of the globe. The 
Elatines are natives of Europe, Bergias of the Cape of Good Hope and the 
East Indies, and Merimea of South America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Elatine. Bergia. Crypta, Merimea. 



157 



CXLIV. PORTULACEAE. The Purslane Tribe. 

Pohtplaceje, Juss. Gen. 313. (1789) in part; A. St. Hit. Mem. Plac. Cent. 42. (1815) ; Dt 
Prodr. 3. 351. (1828); Lindl. Synops. 62. (1829) ; Dec. Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de 
Paris, {Aug. 1827.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with unsymmetrical perigynous 
stamens, concrete carpella, a 1-celled ovarium, herbaceous stems, stamens 
opposite the petals or twice as many, 2 sepals, and naked seeds with the em- 
bryo curved round the albumen. 

Anomalies. Sepals 5 in Trianthema and Cypselea. Petals sometimes 
wanting. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 2, seldom 3 or 5, cohering- by the base. Petals generally 
5, occasionally 3, 4, or 6, either distinct or cohering in a short tube, sometimes wanting. Sta- 
mens inserted along with the petals irregularly into the base of tin calyx, variable in number, 
all fertile, sometimes opposite the petals ; filaments distinct ; anthers versatile, with 2 cells, 
opening lengthwise. Ovarium superior, 1-celled; style single, or none; stigmata several, 
much divided. Capsule 1-celled, dehiscing either transversely or by 3 valves, occasionally 
1-seeded and indehiscent. Seeds numerous, if the fruit is dehiscent; attached to a central 
placenta ; albumen farinaceous ; embryo curved round the circumference of the albumen, 
with a long radicle. — Succulent shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, seldom opposite, entire, 
without stipule, or sometimes with membranous ones on each side at the base, flowers axil- 
lary or terminal, usually ephemeral, expanding only in bright sunshine. 

Affinities. Related in every point of view to Caryophyllese, from which 
they scarcely differ except in their perigynous stamens, which are opposite the 
petals when equal to them in number, and two sepals ; the latter character is 
not, however, very constant. The presence of scarious stipule in several 
Portulaceae, although perhaps an anomaly in the order, indicates their affinity 
with Illecebreae, from which the monospermous genera of Portulacese are distin- 
guished by the want of symmetry in their flowers, and by the stamens being 
opposite the petals instead of the sepals. So close is the relationship between 
these orders, that several of the genus Ginginsia in Portulaceae have been referred 
to Pharnaceum in Caryophylleae, and several Portulaceae have been described 
by authors as belonging to genera of Illecebreae. Decandolle remarks, that 
his Ginginsia brevicaulis resembles certain species of Androsace, and that Por- 
tulaceae have been more than once compared to Primulaceae (Mem. p. 14.) ; 
and the same author remarks, in another place (Prodr. 3. 351 .), that the genera 
with indefinite stamens and hairy axillae approach Cacteae, while the apetalous 
genera tend towards apetalous Ficoideae. 

Geography. A fourth of the order inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, 
rather more than another fourth is found in South America, 1 only in Guinea, 
2 in New Holland, 1 in Europe, and the remainder in various parts of the 
world. They are always found in dry parched places, [except Claytonia and 
Montia.] 

Properties. Insipidity, want of smell, and a dull green colour, are the 
usual qualities of this order, of which the only species of any known use are 
common Purslane and Claytonia perfoliata, which resemble each other in 
property. 

Examples. Portulaca. Monsia, Talinuni 



[58 

CXLV. FOUQUIERACEiE. 

Fouqxjierace*, Dec. Prodr. 3. 349. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Succulent polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous sta- 
mens, concrete carpella, a superior ovarium with several cells, and a terminal 
style, regular flowers, the petals of which cohere in a tube, indefinite ovula, 
and no disk. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, imbricated, ovate, or roundish. Petals 5, combined in 
along tube, arising from the bottom of the calyx or torus, regular. Stamens 10 or 12, arising 
from the same line as the petals, but distinct from them, exsei tod ; anthers 2-celled. Ovarium 
superior, sessile ; style filiform, trificl at the apex ; ovules numerous. Capsule 3-cornered, 
3-celled, 3-valved ; valves bearing the dissepiments in the middle. Seeds in part abortive, 
compressed, winged, affixed to the axis ; embryo straight, in the centre of thin fleshy albumen ; 
cotyledons flat. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves entire, oblong, fleshy, clustered in the axilla of a 
spine or a cushion. Flowers scarlet, arranged in a terminal spike or panicle. 

Affinities. Separated from Portulaceee by Decandolle, as he tells us 
(J\l€m. Porhd. 4.), for the following reasons : 1. because their petals cohere 
in along tube of the same nature as that of gamopetalous Crassulaceae ; 2. 
because their capsule consists of three loculicidal cells, that is to say, which 
separate through the middle, forming three septiferous valves ; and, 3. be- 
cause their embryo is straight, with flat cotyledons, and stationed in the centre 
of fleshy albumen. They approach the monopetalous Crassulaceae in the 
structure of their flower ; and Turneraceae and Loaseae in the form of their 
fruit. Dec. 

Geography. All Mexican. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Fouquiera, Bronnia. 



CXLVI. GALACINEvE. 

CLaxacine-E, DoninEdinb. New Phil. Journal, Oct. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous definite stamens 
which are alternately sterile, concrete carpella, a superior ovarium of several 
cells, several sepals, and indefinite ovules. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4-6-parted, persistent. Petals equ^l in number to the seg- 
ments of the calyx, into the base of which they are inset ted. Stamens perigynous, twice or 4 
times as many as the petals, alternately barren ; monadelphous or distinct ; anthers 2-celled 
nr 1-celled. Ovarium 3- or 4-celled, superior, with numerous ovula attached to the axis; 
stigma sessile, 3-4-lobed. Capsule 3-4-celled, with 3 or 4 valves, bearing the septa in their 

middle. Seeds indefinite — Herbaceous plants. Leaves radical, simple or ly- 

rate, without stipula:. Flmcers in terminal racemes. Pedicels with a bractea at the base. 

Affinities. This obscure order has been lately defined by Mr. Don ; but 

its affinities can scarcely be determined, until something- is known of the seeds. 
According to this botanist, it should be placed near Philadelpheae and Saxifra- 
geae ; but, in the opinion of Adrien de Jussieu, it, or at least Francoa, is akin to 
Crassulaceae. The latter considers the stamens perigynous, the former de- 
scribes thorn as hvpogvnous, [The Abbe Correa referred <"4alox to Ericeae ' J 



i .;'.* 



Geography. Natives of the temperate parts of North and South Ame- 
rica. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Galax, Francoa. 

Obs. This order requires to be reconsidered. 



CXLVII. CRASSULACEiE. The House-leek Tribe. 

Semperviv*:, Juss. Gen. 207 (1789).— Succulent*, Vent Tabl. 3. 271. (179 1 *).— Crassul*:, 
Juss. Dict.des Sc. Nat. 11. 369. (1818).— Crassulace-k, Dec. Bull. Philom. n. 49. p. 1. 
(1801) ; Fl. Fr. ed 3. v. 4. p. 271. (1805) ; Memoirc (1828) ; Prodr. 3. 381. (1828) : LindL 
Synops. 63. (1829).— Sede^e, Sprcng. 

Diagnosis. Succulent polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous 
stamens, superior distinct ovaria surrounded at the base by hypogynous scales, 
indefinite albuminous seeds, sepals in a single row, and exstipulate leaves. 

Anomalies. Penthorum is not succulent. This genus and Diamorpha 
have the ovaria concrete. Some are monopetalous, particularly the genus Co- 
tyledon. Petals and stamens often almost hypogynous. TiLtea has definite 
ovules. 

Essential Character-.— Sepals from 3 to 20, more or less united at the base. Petals in- 
serted in the bottom of the calyx, either distinct or cohering- in a monopetalous corolla. Sta- 
mens inserted with the petals, either equal to them in number and alternate with them, or 
twice as many, those opposite the petals being shortest, and arriving- at perfection after the 
others ; filaments distinct, subulate; anthers of 2 cells, bursting lengthwise. Hypogynous 
scales several, 1 at the base of each ovarium, sometimes obsolete. Ovaria of the same num- 
ber as the petals, opposite to which they are placed around an imaginary axis, 1-celled, taper- 
ing into stigmata. Fruit consisting of several follicles, opening by the suture in their face. 
Seeds attached to the margins of the suture, variable in number ; embryo straight in the axis 
of the albumen, with the radicle pointing to the hilum.— Succulent herbs or shrubs. Leave* 
entire or pinnatifid ; stipulce none. Flowers usually in cymes, sessile, often arranged unila- 
terally along the divisions of the cymes. 

Affinities. These are all remarkable for the succulent nature of their 
stems and leaves, in which they resemble Cacteae, Portulacea-, and certain ge- 
nera of Euphorbiacea?, Asclepiadea?., and Asphodeleee ; but this analogy goes 
no further. Their real affinity is probably with Saxifrages?, through Pentho- 
rum, and with Illecebrere through Tillaea, as Decandolle has remarked. In 
both those orders the hypogynous scales of Crassulacese are wanting. Are 
not these bodies analogous to the scales out of which the stamens of Zygo- 
phyllese spring % If so, an unsuspected affinity exists between these orders. 
Decandolle observes {Mdmoire, p. 5.) that there is no instance of a double 
flower in the order, although this might have been expected from their analogy 
in structure with Caryophyllea?. Sempervivum teclorum exhibits almost con- 
stantly the singular phenomenon of anthers bearing ovules instead of pollen. 

Geography. It appears from Decandolle's researches, that of the 272 
species of which the order consists, 133 are found at the Cape of Good Hope, 
2 in South America beyond the tropics, 2 in the same country within the tropics, 
none in the West Indies or the Mauritian Islands, 8 in Mexico, 7 in the United 
States, 12 in Siberia, 18 in the Levant, 52 in Europe, 18 in the Canaries, 1 in 
southern Africa beyond the limits of the Cape, 9 in Barbary, 3 in the East 
Indies, 4 in China and Japan, and 2 in New Holland They are found in the 
driest situations, where not a blade of grass nor a particle of moss can grow, 
on naked rocks, old walls ; sandy hot plains, alternately exposed to the heaviest 



160 

dews of night, and the fiercest rays of the noon-day sun. Soil is to them a 
something to keep them stationary, rather than a source of nutriment, which in 
these plants is conveyed by myriads of mouths, invisible to the naked eye, but 
covering all their surface, to the juicy beds of cellular tissue which lie beneath 
them. 

Properties. Refrigerant and abstergent properties, mixed sometimes with 
a good deal of acridity, distinguish them. The fishermen of Madeira rub their 
nets with the fresh leaves of Sempervivum glutinosum, by v hich they are ren- 
dered as durable a;-- if fanned, provided they are steeped in some alkaline liquor. 
Malic acid exists in Sempervivum tectorum combined with lime. Turner, 634. 

Examples. Sempervivum, Crassula, Cotyledon. 



CXLVIII. FICOIDE^ 

Ficoidejs, Juss. Gen. 315. (1789) j Diet. Sc. Nat. 16. 528. (1820) ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 415. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Succulent polypetalous dicotyledons, with definite perigynous 
stamens, concrete carpella, an inferior ovarium of several cells, and indefiijite 
seeds with the embryo lying on the outside of mealy albumen. 

Anomalies. Tetragonia and Miltus have no petals, and definite seeds 
Sesuvium and Aizoon have no petals. 

Essential Character. — Sepals definite, usually 5, but varying from 4 to 8, more or less 
combined at the base, either cohering with the ovarium, or nearly distinct from it, equal or 
unequal, with a quincuncial or valvate aestivation. Petals indefinite, coloured, opening- be- 
neath bright sunshine, sometimes wanting, but in that case the inside of the calyx is coloured. 
Stamens arising fiom the calyx, definite or indefinite, distinct; anthers oblong, incumbent. 
Ovarium inferior, or nearly superior, many-celled; stigmata numerous, distinct. Capsule either 
surrounded by the fleshy calyx, or naked, many-celled, often 5-celled, opening in a stellate 
manner at the apex. Seeds definite, or more commonly indefinite, attached to me inner angle 
of the cells; embryo lying on the outside of mealy albumen, curved or spiral. — Shrubby or her- 
baceous plants. Leaves succulent, opposite, simple. Flowers usually terminal. 

Affinities. The embryo curved round mealy albumen, along with the 
superior calyx, and distinctly perigynous stamens, characterizes these among 
their neighbours, independently of their succulent habit. With Crassulacea?, 
Chenopodeee, and Caryophyllere, they are more or less closely related. Reau- 
murieae and Nitrariacea 3 , combined with Ficoideae by Decandolle, are families 
different in affinity. 

Geography. The hottest sandy plains of the Cape of Good Hope nourish 
the largest part of this order. A few are found in the south of Europe, north of 
Africa, Chile, China, Peru, and the South Seas. 

Properties. The succulent leaves of a few are eaten, as of Tetragonia 
expansa, Mesembryantheinum edule, and Sesuvium portulacastrum ; others 
yield an abundance of soda. Mesembryantheinum nodiflorum is used in the 
manufacture of Moroquin leather. 

Examples. Mesembryantheinum, Tetragonia. 






161 



CXLIX. NITRARIACEjE. 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens, concrete 
carpella, a superior ovarium of several cells, a deeply-divided calyx, regular 
flowers, an inflexed valvular aestivation, a terminal single style, pendulous ex- 
albuminous seeds, and a straight embryo. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, 5-toothed, fleshy. Corolla of 6 petals, which arise 
from the calyx, with an inflexed valvular aestivation. Stamens 3 times the number of the pe- 
tals, perigynous; anthers innate, with 2 oblique longitudinal lines of dehiscence. Ovarium su- 
perior, 3, or more celled, with a continuous fleshy style at the apex of which are as many stig- 
matic lines as there are cells ; ovula pendulous, by means of a long- funiculus. Fruit drupaceous, 
opening by 3 or 6 valves. Seeds solitary, with no albumen, and a straight embryo, with the 
radicle next the hilum. — Shrubs with deciduous succulent alternate leaves, which are sometimes 
fascicled. F'lowers in cymes, or solitary. 

Affinities. I take Nitraria to be the type of an order related on the one 
hand to Ficoideae, and on the other to Rhamneae, agreeing with both in a multi- 
tude of characters, and with the latter in habit. Decandolle includes Nitraria 
and Reaumuria among his Ficoideae spuriaa, at the same time expressing a 
doubt whether they belong either to that or the same order. To me it appears 
that the affinities of Reaumuria are greater with Hypericum, and I accordingly 
adopt Dr. Ehrenberg's proposed separation of that genus along with Hololachna, 
the Tamarix songarica of Pallas, into a little order to be called Reaumurieae. 
The affinity of Nitraria with Ficoideae is undoubtedly great, especially with Te- 
tragonia ; but its very different embryo, and the peculiar aestivation of the pe- 
tals, which is much more like that of Rhamneae, remove it from that order. 

Geography. Natives of western Asia and the north of Africa. One spe- 
cies is described from New Holland. 

Properties. Slightly saline. Otherwise unknown. 

Example. Nitraria. 



CL. ILLECEBRE^E. 



HernIabijE, Cat. Hort.Par. (1777).— IllecebrejE, R. Brown Prodromus, 413. (1810); Lindt. 
Synops. 60. (1829).— Paronvchieje, Aug. St. Hit. Mem. Plac. lib. p. 56. (1815) ; Juss. Mem, 
Mils. 1. 387. (1815) ; Dec. Prodr. 3. 365. (1828) ; Memoire sur les Paronych. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Polypetalous dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens opposite 
the 5 sepals, minute petals, concrete carpella, a 1-celled ovarium, and leaves 
with scanous stipuke. 

Anomalies. Petals very often wanting. Stamens sometimes hypogynous, 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, seldom 3 or 4, sometimes distinct, sometimes cohering 
more or less. Petals minute, inserted upon the calyx between the lobes, occasionally wanting. 
Stamens perigynous, exactly opposite the sepals, if equal to them in number, sometimes fewer 
by abortion ; filaments distinct; anthers 2-celled. Ovarium superior ; styles 2 or 3, either dis- 
tinct or partially combined. Fruit small, dry, 1-celled, either indehiscent, or opening with 3 
valves. Seeds either numerous, upon a free central placenta, or solitary and pendulous from 
a funiculus originating in the base of the cavity of the fruit ; albumen farinaceous ; embryo 
lying on one si3e of the albumen, curved more or less, with the radicle always pointing to the 
hilum j cotyledons small. — Herbaceous or half-shrubby branching plants, with opposite or al- 
ternate, often fascicled, sessile, entire leaves, and scarious stipule. Flowers minute, wifh sca- 
rious bracteae. 

31 



162 

Affinities. Very near Portulaceae, Amarantaceae, and Caryophylleae, 
from which they are distinguished with difficulty. By excluding Sclerantheae, 
which I consider, with Mr. Brown, a distinct order, their scarious stipulae will 
distinguish them from the two last ; and there is scarcely any other character 
that will ; for there are Caryophyllese that have perigynous stamens, as Lar- 
brea and Adenarium, and Illecebreae which have hypogynous ones, as Poly- 
carpaea, Stipulicida, and Ortegia. From Portulaceae they are scarcely to be 
known with absolute certainty, except by the position of the stamens before 
the sepals instead of the petals. With Crassulaceae, particularly Tillaea, they 
agree very much in habit, but their concrete carpella will always distinguish 
them. Decandolle comprehends in the order various plants which have not 
stipulae ; but as the latter organs seem to be an essential part of the character, 
I should exclude his dueriaceee, and Minuartieae, which will be found else- 
where. The remaining tribes will be : 

1. TeLEPHIEjE. 

Calyx 5-parted. Petals and stamens 5, arising from the bottom of the ca- 
lyx. Styles 3, distinct, or slightly cohering at the base. — Leaves alternate. 
Examples. Telephium, Corrigiola. 

2. IlLECEBRE.E VERjE. 

Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, or none. Stamens from 2 to 5, arising from the 
calyx. Styles distinct, or partially cohering. Capsule indehiscent, 1 -seeded ; 
an umbilical cord arising from the bottom, and bearing a somewhat pendulous 
seed upon the apex. — Herbs, rarely under-shrubs. Leaves acute, opposite. 

Examples. Illecebrum, Herniaria, Gymnocarpum. 

3. Polycarp.e.e. 

Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, or none. Stamens from 1 to 5, arising from the 
bottom of the calyx. Styles 2 or 3, either distinct down to the base, or com- 
bined. Capsule 1-celled, many-seeded. Seeds attached to a central placenta. 
— Herbs or under-shrubs. Leaves opposite. 

Examples. Polycarpaea, Stipulicida. 

4. Pollichie.2E. 

Calyx 5-toothed, with an urceolate tube. Stamens 1 or 2, arising from the 
throat. Petals none. Stigma bifid. Utriculus valveless, 1-seeded. Brac- 
teae (and perhaps also the calyx) enlarged after flowering, fleshy, and resem- 
bling a berry. — A suffruticose herb. Leaves opposite, somewhat whorled. 

Example. Pollichia. 

Geography. The south of Europe and the north of Africa are the great 
stations of the order, where the species grow in the most barren places, cover- 
ing with a thick vegetation soil which is incapable of bearing any thing else. 
A few are found at the Cape of Good Hope ; and North America, including 
Mexico, comprehends several. 

Properties. A trace of astringency pervades the order, and is the only 
sensible property that it is known to possess. 









163 
CLI. AMARANTACEjE. The Amaranth Tribe. 

Ajcabaxthi, Juss. Gen. 87. (1789.)— Amaranthaces, R. Brown Prodr. 413. (1810) ; Von 
Martius Monogr. (1826) ; Lindley's Synopsis, 213. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with erect seeds, an embryo curved 
round mealy albumen, radicle next the hilum, hypogynous stamens, and 
scarious bracteolate calyxes. 

Anomalies. Stamens sometimes perigynous. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 3- or 5-leaved, hypogynous, scarious, persistent, occa- 
sionally with 2 bracteolae at the base. Stamens hypogynous, either 5, or some multiple of 
that number, either distinct or monadelphous, occasionally partly abortive ; anthers either 
2-celled or 1-celled. Ovarium single, superior, 1- or few-seeded; the ovules hanging from a 
free central funiculus ; style 1 or none ; stigma simple or compound. Fruit a membranous 
utricle. Seeds lentiform, pendulous ; testa crustaceous ; albumen central, farinaceous ; em- 
bryo curved round the circumference; radicle next the hilum; plumula inconspicuous. — 
Herbs or shrubs. Leaves simple, opposite or alternate, without stipulse. flowers in heads or 
spikes, usually coloured, occasionally diclinous, generally monoclinous. Pubescence simple, 
the hairs divided by internal partitions. 

Affinities. Different as this order appears to be from Chenopodese in habit, 
especially if we compare such a genus as Gomphrena with Chenopodium itself, 
it is so difficult to define the differences that distinguish the two orders, that, 
beyond habit, nothing certain can be pointed out. Mr. Brown remarks 
(Prodr. 413.), that he has not been able to ascertain any absolute diagnosis 
to distinguish them by ; for the hypogynous insertion attributed to their sta- 
mens is not only not constant in the order, but is also found in some Chenopo- 
dese. Dr. Von Martius, in a learned dissertation upon the order, describes 
Chenopodeae as being apetalous, and Amarantaceae as polypetalous, consider- 
ing the bracteolae of these latter as a calyx, and that which I call a calyx a 
corolla. But it seems to me that this view of their structure is not bome out 
by analogy, and that it is impossible to believe the floral envelopes of the two 
orders to be of a different nature. I am certainly unable to indicate any better 
mode of distinguishing them than has been pointed out by those that have 
gone before me ; and at the same time I cannot hesitate to keep asunder 
orders which it is evident that nature has divided. Bartling combines these 
plants in a single class, along with Caryophylleee, Phytolacceae, Scleranthe*, 
and Illecebreae ; and there is no doubt of the near affinity borne to each other 
by all these, as is pointed out by their habit and by the structure of their seeds. 

Geography. These plants grow in crowds or singly, either in dry, stony, 
barren stations, or among thickets upon the borders of woods, or a few even 
in salt marshes. They are much more frequent within the tropics than 
beyond them, and are unknown in the coldest regions of the world. 53 are 
found in tropical Asia, 105 in tropical America, but 5 in extra-tropical Asia, 
and but 21 in extra-tropical America; 5 are natives of Europe, 28 of New 
Holland, and 9 of Africa and its islands. See Von Martius Monogr. 

Properties. Many of the species are used as potherbs, on account of the 
wholesome mucilaginous qualities of the leaves. Amaranthus obtusifolius is 
said to be diuretic. Several are objects of interest with gardeners for the 
beauty of their colouring and the durability of their blossoms. Gomphrena 
officinalis and macrocephala have a prodigious reputation in Brazil, where 
they are called Para todo, Perpetua, and Raiz do Padre Salerma : as the first 
of these names imports, they are esteemed useful in all kinds of diseases, 
especially in cases of intermittent fevers, colics, and diarrhoea, and against the 
bite of serpents. Plantes Usuelles, nos. 31 and 32. 

Examples. Amaranthus, Gomphrena, Celosia. 



164 
CLII. SCLERANTHEiE 

Sclebakthe^, Link Enum. 417. (1821); Dec. Prodr. 3. 377. (1828) [a section of Parony- 
chiece;]a § of Illecebrese, Lindlex/s Synopsis, 217. (1829.) — Q,ueriaceje, a % of Illece- 
brese, Dec. 1. c. (1828.)—? Minuartieje, ibid. 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with a single seed attached to a cord 
arising from the base of the cell, an inferior tubular indurated calyx, perigy- 
nous stamens, and an embryo curved round mealy albumen, with the radicle 
next the hilum. 

Anomalies, 

Essential Character. Flowers monoclinous. Calyx 4- or 5-toothed, with an urceolato 
tube. Stamens from 1 to 10, inserted into the orifice of the tube. Ovarium simple, superior, 
1-seeded. Styles 2 or 1, emarginate at the apex. Fruit a membranous utricle enclosed 
within the hardened calyx. Seed pendulous from the apex of a funiculus, which arises from 
the bottom of the cell ; embryo cylindrical, curved round farinaceous albumen. — Small herbs. 
Leaves opposite, without stipules. Flowers axillary, sessile. 

Affinities. Referred by Decandolle to Illecebreae, from which they differ 
in absence of petals and stipules, these plants appear to me to constitute a dis- 
tinct order, more nearly related to Chenopodere, from which they chiefly differ 
in the indurated tube of the calyx, from the orifice of which the stamens pro- 
ceed, and in the number of the latter exceeding that of the divisions of the 
calyx. The tribe of Minuartias is probably not distinguishable from Scleran- 
theffi, notwithstanding the supposed presence of petals, which would perhaps 
be more properly called abortive stamens. 

Geography. Natives of barren fields in Europe, Asia, and North America, 
and in sterile places in countries of the southern hemisphere beyond the tropics. 
A single species is described from Peru. 

Properties. Uninteresting weeds, of no known use. 

Examples. Mniarum, Scleranthus. 



CLIII. CHENOPODEiE. The Goosefoot Tribe. 

Atriplice?, Juss. Gen. 83. (1789). Chenopodes, Vent. Tabl.2. 253. (1799); R.Brown 

Prodr. 405. (1810); Lindley's Synopsis, 213. (1829). 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with erect seeds, an embryo curved 
round mealy albumen, radicle next the hilum, perigynous stamens, and herba- 
ceous ebracteate calyxes. 

Anomalies. Stamens sometimes hypogynous. 

Essential Character. — Calyx deeply divided, sometimes tubular at the base, persistent, 
with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens inserted into the base of the calyx, opposite its seg- 
ments, and equal to them in number or fewer. Ovarium single, superior, or occasionally ad- 
hering to the tube of the calyx, with a single ovulum attached to the base of the cavity ; style 
2 or 4 divisions, rarely simple ; stigmas undivided. Fruit membranous, not valvular, some- 
times baccate. Embryo curved round farinaceous albumen, or spiral, or doubled together 
without albumen ; radicles next the hilum ;' plumula inconspicuous. — Herbaceous plants or 
undcr-shrubs.. Leaves alternate without stipula;, occasionally opposite. Flowers small, 
sometimes polygamous. 

Affinities The difficulty of distinguishing these from Amarantacese has 
been discussed under the latter order. They are distinguished from Phytolac- 
ceae, independently of the simplicity of the structure of their ovarium, by their 
stamens never exceeding the number of the segments of the calvx, to which 



165 

they are opposite : in Phytolaccea?, if they ate not more numerous than tho 
segments of the calyx, they are alternate with them. 

Geography. Weeds inhabiting waste places in all parts of the world, but, 
unlike Amarantaccge, abounding least within the tropics, and most in extra-tro- 
pical regions. They are exceedingly common in all the northern parts of Eu- 
rope and Asia. 

Properties. Some of these are used as potherbs, as Basella, Spinage, Gar- 
den Orach ( Atriplex hortensis), and Chard Beet ; the roots of others form valu- 
able articles of food, as Beet and Mangel Wurzel. Many of them possess an 
essential oil, which renders them tonic and antispasmodic ; such are Chenopo- 
dium ambrosioides and botrys. Chenopodium quinoa is a common article of 
food in Peru. But the most important of their qualities is the production of 
soda, which is yielded in immense quantities by the Salsolas, Salicornias, 
and others. The essential oil of Chenopodium anthelminticum, known in 
North America under the name of Worm-seed Oil, is powerfully anthelmintic. 
Barton, 2. 187. The seeds of Atriplex hortensis are said to be so unwhole- 
some as to excite vomiting. M. Chevallier has remarked the singular fact, that 
Chenopodium vulvaria exhales pure ammonia during its whole existence. This 
is the only observation upon record of a gaseous exhalation of azote by vege- 
tables ; and the facility with which this principle is abandoned by ammonia 
may perhaps explain the presence of azotic products in the vegetable kingdom. 
Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1. 444. [M. Meyer has given a full synoptical table of this 
family in the Flora Altaica of Ledebour, published at Berlin in 1829. See 
Ferrusacs Bull. No. 6. June 1830.] 



CLIV. PHYTOLACCEiE. The Virginian Poke-Tribe 

Phytolacce^:, R. Brown in Congo, 454. (1818). 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite erect ovula, an inferior 
many-leaved calyx, distinct perigynous stamens, a multilocular ovarium, an 
embryo rolled round mealy albumen, with the radicle next the hilum, and ter- 
minal stigmas. 

Anomalies. Rivina has only 1 carpellum. 

Essential Character. — Calyx of 4 or 5 petaloid leaves. Stamens either indefinite, or, if 
equal to the number of the divisions of the calyx, alternate with them. Ovarium of from 1 to 
several cells, each containing 1 ascending ovulum ; styles and stigmas equal in number to the 
cells. Fruit baccate or dry, entire or deeply lobed, 1- or many celled. Seeds ascending, soli- 
tary, with a cylindrical embryo curved round mealy albumen, with the radicle next the hilum. 
— Under-shrubs or herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, entire, without stipula;, often with pel- 
lucid dots. Flowers racemose. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Chenopodese and Polygonea?, from the first 
of which they are distinguished hy their multilocular ovarium, and by their 
stamens exceeding the number of divisions of the calyx ; a circumstance 
which never occurs in Chenopodese. From Polygoneae they are known by 
the radicle being turned towards the hilum, and the want of stipulse. Rivina, 
which has the albumen very much reduced in quantity, and a unilocular fruit, 
connects Phytolaccere with Petiveriaceae. Mr. Brown remarks (Congo, 455) 
that these two orders, widely as they differ in the structure of the ovarium, are 
connected by a species of Phytolacca related to P. abyssinica, in which the 5 
cells are so deeply divided that they merely cohere by their inner angles ; and 



166 

also by Giselria, which has 5 distinct ovaria. But I do not think that the exist- 
ence of these gradations of structure in the ovarium neutralizes the remarka- 
ble differences that still exist between these two orders in the embryo and sti- 
pule. 

Geography. Natives of either America, within or without the tropics, 
Africa and India. None have been found wild in Europe ; but Phytolacca de- 
candra is naturalized in some of the southern parts. 

Properties. A tincture of the ripe berries of Phytolacca decandra seems 
to have acquired a well-founded reputation as a remedy for chronic and syphyli- 
tic rheumatism; and for allaying syphiloid pains. By some it is said to be more 
valuable than Guaiacum. Its pulverized root is an emetic. Barton, 2. 220. 
And a spirit distilled from the berries is stated to have killed a dog in a few 
minutes, by its violent emetic effects. According to Decandolle, this plant is 
also a powerful purgative. The leaves are extremely acrid, but the young 
shoots, which lose this quality by boiling in water, are eaten in the United 
States as Asparagus. 

Examples. Phytolacca, Rivina. 



CLV. PETLVERIACE^E. 

Petivebie*, Agardh Classes, (1825).— Petivehiaceje, Link Handb. 1. 392. (1829.)] 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite erect ovula, an inferior 
many-leaved calyx, distinct perigynous stamens, an exalbuminous embryo with 
spiral cotyledons, and the radicle next the hilum. 

Anomalies. 

Esssential Character. — Calyx of several distinct leaves. Stamens perigynous, either 
indefinite, or, if equal to the segments of the calyx, alternate with them. Ovarium superior, 
1-celled; styles 3 or more; stigma lateral; ovulum erect; Fruit 1-celled, indehiscent, dry. 
(Seed erect, without albumen; embryo straight; cotyledons convolute; radicle inferior. — JJn- 
der-shrubs, or herbaceous plants, with an alliaceous odour. Leaves alternate, entire, with dis- 
tinct stipule, often with minute pellucid dots. Flowers racemose. 

Affinities. Obviously akin both to Phytolaccere and Polygonea^, with the 
former of which Mr. Brown combines them. They are, however, distinguished 
from Phytolaccese by the presence of stipulee, and by their straight embryo des- 
titute of albumen, and spiral cotyledons. From Polygonea^ they are known 
by the same characters, and also by the radicle being turned towards the hilum, 
and the stipuleenot having the form of Ochrere. 

Geography. West Indian or tropical American plants ; for the Seguiera 
asiatica of Loureiro probably does not belong to the order. 

Properties. Nothing is known of their qualities, except that Petiveria 
alliacea yields a strong smell of garlic. 

Examples. Petiveria, Seguiera. 



167 



CLVI. POLYGONE.E. The Buck-wheat Tribe. 

Polyoonm, Juss. Gen. 82. (1789); R. Brown, Prodr. 418. (1810) ; Lindl. Synops.209. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite erect ovula, ochreate sti- 
pulae, and a radicle remote from the hilum. 
Anomalies. Eriogonum has not ochreate stipulse. 

Essential Chahacteh. — Calyx divided, inferior, imbricated in {estivation. Stamens defi- 
nite, inserted in the bottom of the calyx ; anthers dehiscing 1 lengthwise. Ovarium superior, 
with a single erect ovulum ; styles or stigmas several. Nut usually triangular, naked, or pro- 
tected by the calyx. Seed with farinaceous albumen, rarely with scarcely any ; embryo in- 
verted, generally on one side; plumula inconspicuous; radicle at the end remote from the 
hilum. — Herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs. Leaves alternate, their stipule cohering round the 
stem in the form of an ochrea j when young, rolled backwards. Flowers occasionally dicli- 
nous, often in racemes. 

Affinities. Mr. Brown remarks, that " the erect ovulum with a superior 
radicle together afford the most important mark of distinction between Polygo- 
neae and Chenopodes, a character which obtains even in the genus Eriogonum, 
in which there is no petiolar sheath, and scarcely any albumen, the little that 
exists being fleshy." Generally speaking, however, the cohesion of the sca- 
rious stipulae into a sheath, technically called an ochrea, or boot, is sufficient to 
distinguish Polygonese from all other plants. For their relation to Begonia- 
ceffi, see that order. 

Geography. There are few parts of the world that do not acknowledge the 
presence of plants of this order. In Europe, Africa, North America, and 
Asia, they fill the ditches, hedges, and waste grounds, in the form of Docks 
and Persicarias ; the fields, mountains, and heaths, as Sorrels and trailing or 
twining Polygonums ; in South America and the West Indies they take the 
form of Coccolobas or sea-side grapes ; in the Levant, of Rhubarbs ; and even 
in the desolate regions of the North Pole they are found in the shape of Oxyria, 

Properties. Sorrel on the one hand, and Rhubarb on the other, may be 
taken as the representatives of the general qualities of this order. While the 
leaves and young shoots are acid and agreeable, the roots are universally nau- 
seous and purgative. To these two qualities is to be superadded a third, that of 
astringency, which is found in a greater or less degree in the whole order, but 
which becomes in Coccoloba uvifera so powerful as to rival Gum Kino in its 
. effects. Some of the Polygonums are extremely acrid, as the P. Hydropiper, 
which is said to blister the skin. There is a species of Polygonum, called Ca- 
tayain the language of the Brazilian Indians, an infusion of the ashes of which 
is used to purify and condense the juice of the sugar-cane. It has a very bit- 
ter peppery taste, and is employed on the Rio St. Francisco with advantage in 
the disease called O Largo, which is an enlargement of the colon, caused by 
debility. Pr. Max. Trav. 71. The stem of the Rheum has been supposed # to 
contain a peculiar acid called the rheumic, but this is now known to be the ox- 
alic. Turner, 641. Rumex acetosa contains pure oxalic acid. Ibid. 623. 
The principle in which the active property of Rhubarb exists is supposed to be 
a peculiar chemical substance called Rhubarbarin. Ibid. 701. Some infor- 
mation may be found upon the Rhubarbs of India in the Trans, of the Med. 
and Phys. Soc. of Calcutta, 3. 438. by Dr. Royle ; but nothing certain had been 
collected by him with regard to the plant producing the true officinal substance. 
Many species of Polygonum are used in dyeing. The seeds of P. fagopyrum 
and tartaricum are used as food, for the sake of their mealy albumen ; those of 
P. aviculare are said to be powerfully emetic and purgative ; but this is doubted 
by Meisner. Mon, 49. The seeda of Polygonum barbatum are used as me- 



168 

dicine by Hindoo practitioners, to ease the pain of griping in the colic. Ains- 
lie, 2. 2. The leaves of P. hispidum are said by Humboldt to be substituted, 
in South America, for tobacco. JV. G. and Sp. 2. 178. 
Examples. Rheum, Rumex, Coccoloba. 



CLVII. BEGONIACE^. 

BEGONiACfijE, R. Brown in Congo, 454. (1818) ; Link Hanb. 1. 309- (1829) ; Martius H. Reg 

Mon. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with a 3-celled winged ovarium, inde- 
finite ovules an irregular imbricated calyx, and membranous stipulae. 
Anomalies. 

Essential CilARACTEft. — Flowers diclinous. Sepalssupcrior coloured ; in the staminiferous 4, 
2 within the others and smaller ; in the pistilliferous 5, imbricated, two smaller than the rest. Sta-i 
mens indefinite, distinct or combined into a solid column ; anthers collected in a head, 2-celled 
continuous with the filaments, clavate, the connectivum very thick, the cells minute, bursting 
longitudinally. Ovarium inferior, winged, 3-celled, with 3 double polyspermous placentae in 
the axi9 ; stigmas 3, 2-lobed, sessile, somewhat spiral. Fruit membranous, capsular, winged, 
3-celled, with an indefinite number of minute seeds ; bursting by slits at the base on each side 
of the wings. Seeds with a transparent thin testa marked by reticulations, which are oblong 
at the sides and contracted at either extremity ; embryo very cellular, without albumen, with 
a blunt round radicle next the hilum. — Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs, with an acid juice. 
Leaves alternate, toothed, oblique at the base. Stipulce scarious. Flowers pink, in cymes. 

Affinities. It is not easy to fix with precision the relative position of this 
order : I formerly thought it related to Hydrangeas, chiefly on account of the 
striking resemblance in the areolations of the seeds, and the irregularity of the 
flowers. It is probable, however, that more importance should be attributed to 
the acid juice and membranous large stipule, in which case Begoniacese are 
most nearly related to Polygoneae, many of which have a coloured calyx and 
3-cornered fruit from which they differ in the structure of the fruit and seed. 
Link places them near Umbelhferae ; but I know not upon what grounds. 

Geography. Common hi the West Indies, South America, and the East 
Indies. Mr. Brown remarks, that no species has been found on the continent 
of Africa, though several have been found in Madagascar and the Isles of 
France and Bourbon, and 1 in the Island of Johanna. Congo, 464. 

Properties. The roots are astringent and slightly bitter. Those of 2 
species are used in Peru with success! in cases of a flux of blood, or in other 
visceral diseases in which astringents are employed. They are also said to be 
useful in cases of scurvy, and in certain fevers. 

Example. Begonia. 



CLVIII. NYCTAGINEiE. The Marvel of Peru Tribe, 

Nyctaqines, Juss. Gen, 90. (1789); R. BfownProdr. 421. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite ascending ovula, an infe- 
rior tubular (often coloured) calyx hardening at the base, hypogynous stamens, 
and embryo surrounding floury albumen. 

Anomalies. 



169 

Essential Character. — Calyx tubular, somewhat coloured, contracted in the middle; its 
limb entire or toothed, plaited in aestivation, becoming indurated at the base. Stamens defi- 
nite, hypogynous ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary superior, with a single erect ovulum ; style 1 ; 
stigma 1. Fruit a thin utricle, enclosed within the enlarged persistent tube of the calyx. 
Seed without its proper integuments, its testa being coherent with the utricle ; embryo with 
foliaceous cotyledons, wrapping round floury albumen ; radicle inferior ; plumula inconspicu- 
ous. — Stem either herbaceous, shrubby, or arborescent. Leaves opposite, and almost always 
unequal ; sometimes alternate. Flowers axillary or terminal, clustered or solitary, having an 
involucrum which is either common or proper, in one piece or in several pieces, sometimes 
minute. 

Affinities. The tubular calyx, the limb of which is plaited in aestivation, 
and the base of which becomes hardened round the ovarium, so that it resem- 
bles a woody pericarp, will, if taken with the curved embryo and farinaceous 
albumen, at all times distinguish Nyctaginese ; add to which, the articulations 
are tumid, as in Geraniaceoe. Its nearest affinity is perhaps with Polygonese, 
from which it, however, differs so much that it need not be compared with 
them. 

Geography. Natives of the warmer parts of the world in either hemis- 
phere, scarcely extending far beyond the tropics, except in the case of the Abro- 
nias found in Northwest America. 

Properties. In consequence of the generally purgative quality of the 
roots of species of this family, one of them was supposed to have been the true 
jalap plant, which is, however, now known to be a mistake. The flowers of 
several species of Mirabilis are handsome, as are those also of some of the 
Abronias ; but the greater part of the order is composed of obscure weeds. 
The genus Pisonia consists of trees or shrubby plants. 

Examples. Mirabilis, Boerhaavia, Oxybaphus. 



CLIX. SAURUREiE. 



SAURURE.E, Rich. Anal. (180S) ; Meyer dc Houttuynia alque Saururcis, (1827) : Martins Hort 

Monac. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Achlamydeous dicotyledons, with 4 carpella, ascending ovules, 
and embryo in a sac. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers naked, seated upon a scale, monoclinous. Stamens 6 
clavate, hopogynous, persistent ; filaments slender ; anthers continuous with the filament cu- 
neate, with a thick connectivum and 2 lateral lobes bursting longitudinally. Ovaria 4 each 
distinct, with I ascending ovulum and a sessile recurved stigma, or connate into a 3- or 
4-celled pistillum, with a few ovula ascending from the edge of the projecting semi-dissepi- 
ments. Fruit either consisting of 4 fleshy indehiscent nuts, or 3- or 4-celled capsule, opening 
at the apex and containing a few ascending seeds. Seeds with a membranous integument ; 
embryo minute, lying in a fleshy lenticular sac, which is seated on the outside of the hard 
mealy albumen at the end most remote from the hilum. Herbaceous plants, growing in marshy 
places, or floating in water. Leaves alternate with stipula. Hairs jointed. Flowers growing 
in spikes. 

Affinities. Very near Piperaceae, with which they agree in habit, but 
from which they differ in the compound nature of their ovarium, and their nu- 
merous stamens. From repeated examination of the embryo of Saururus, I 
have no doubt whatever that the embryo has no kind of vascular connexion with 
the sac that contains it ; and hence I adopt the opinion of Mr. Brown, that this 
sac is in reality nothing but the remains of the amnios surrounding the em- 
bryo. For the opinions of Mirbel and Richard upon this subject, see the 
figures and remarks of the former in Ann, Mtis. 16. 449., and of the latter in 

32 



170 



Humboldt and Bo npl. A". Gen. el Sp. 1. 3. ; the latter being unquestionably 
wrong in considering the sac a portion of the embryo. This order is one of 
those which tend to destroy the distinction between Monocotyledons and Dico- 
tyledons. Its affinity with Fluviales is indicated by the floating habit and 
general appearance of Aponogeton, and with Typhineee by its anthers ; but its 
foliage and supulse are those of Dicotyledons, and the structure of the seed and 
the position of the embryo in a fleshy sac demonstrate its vicinity to Pipera- 
cese. [Saururus, though always growing in water, is by no means a floating 
plant.] 

Geography. Natives of North America, China, the north of India, and 
the Cape of Good Hope, growing in marshes or pools of water. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Example. Saurums, Aponogeton. 



CLX. CHLORANTHEiE. 



Chloranthe.s;, R. Brown in Bot. Mag. 2190. (1821) ; Lindl. Collect. Bot. 17. (1821); Meyer de 
lloutluynia clique Saururcis, 51. (1827) ; Blume Mora Java, (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Achlamydeous herbaceous dicotyledons, with a 1-celled ova- 
rium, a pendulous ovulum, opposite leaves, spiked flowers, and an embryo not 
enclosed in a sac. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers naked, spiked, monoclinous, or diclinous, with a support- 
ing scale. Stamens lateral ; if more than 1, connate, definite; anthers 1-celled, bursting lon- 
gitudinally, each adnate to a fleshy connectivum, which coheres laterally in various degrees 
(2-celled, according to some) ; filaments slightly adhering to the ovarium. Ovarium 1-celled ; 
stigma simple, sessile •- ovule pendulous. Fruit drupaceous, indehiscent. Seed pendulous ; 
embryo minute, placed at the apex of fleshy albumen, with the radicle inferior, and consequent- 
ly remote from the hilum ; cotyledons divaricate. — Herbaceous plants or undcr-shrubs, with an 
aromatic taste. Steins jointed, tumid under the articulations. Leaves opposite, simple, with 
sheathing petioles and minute intervening stipulce. Flowers in terminal spikes. 

Affinities. Nearly allied to Saururere and Piperaceae, from both which 
they differ in the want of a sac to the embryo, and in the pendulous ovule, 
and opposite leaves with intermediate stipulre. Their anthers consist of a 
fleshy mass, upon the face of which the cell lies that bears the pollen : 
whether these anthers are 1- or 2-cclled, is a matter of doubt ; one botanist 
considering those which have 2 cells to be double anthers, another understand- 
ing those with 1 cell to be half anthers. Dr. Bluine describes a calyx as 
being sometimes present in a rudimentary state, adhering to the ovarium, and 
hence he suspects some affinity between these plants and Opercularineaj. But 
I am persuaded that no such rudiment exists ; it is not represented in Dr. 
Blume's figures. 

Geography. Natives of the hot parts of India and South America, the 
West Indies, and Society Islands. 

Properties. The whole plant of Chi. officinalis has an aromatic fragrant 
smell, which is gradually dissipated in drying ; but its roots retain a fragrant 
camphorated smell, and an aromatic, somewhat bitter, flavour. They are 
found to possess very nearly the properties of Aristolochia serpentaria, and in 
as high a degree. There seems to be no doubt that it is a stimulant of the 
highest order. See Blume Fl. Jav. 

Examples. Chloranthus, Ascarina, Hcdyosrnum. 



171 

clxi. lacisteme/e. 

Lacistemeje, Marlins N. G. ct Sp. PI. 1. 151. (1821.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with indefinite ovules, a 1-celled 
ovarium with parietal placenta, dehiscent fruit, amentaceous monoclinous 
flowers, and hypogynous unilateral stamens. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx in several narrow division.?, inferior, covered over by a 
dilated bractea. Corolla wanting-. Stamens hypogynous, standing on one side of the 
ovarium, with a thick 2-lobed connectivum, at the apex of each of which lobes is placed a 
single cell of an anther, bursting- transversely. Ovarium superior, seated in a fleshy disk, 
1-celled, with several orula attached to parietal placenta: ; stigmas 2 or 3, sessile or on a style. 
Fruit capsular, 1-celled, splitting into 2 or 3 valves, each of which bears a placenta in its 
middle. Seed usually, by abortion, solitary, suspended, with a fleshy arillus ; integument 
crustaceous ; albumen fleshy ; embryo inverted, with plane cotyledons and a superior straight 
cylindrical radicle. — Small trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, with stipula?. Flowers 
disposed in clustered axillary amenta. 

Affinities. Dr. Von Martius, the founder of this order, which he divides 
from Urticeee, speaks of it thus : " The peculiar character consists in the 
presence of a distinct perianthium, while the amentaceous inflorescence is an 
indication of an affinity with apetalous orders of a lower grade." The same 
botanist indicates their affinity with Chloranthere in the structure of the fila- 
ment, and with Samydere in that of their fruit, " the monadelphous stamens 
of both which may be perhaps considered a higher kind of evolution of the 
fleshy disk in the bottom of the flower of Lacistema." In habit they are 
something like Piperacese, but more arborescent. 

Geography. Natives of low places in woods in equinoctial America, 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Lacistema. 



CLXII. PIPERACE/E. The Pepper Tribe. 

Piperace^, Rich, in Humb. Bonpl. ct Kunth N. G. ct Sp. PL 1. 39. t. 3. (1815); Meyer de 
Houttuynia atquc Saururcis, (1827.) 

Diagnosis. Achlamydeous dicotyledons, with a 1-celled ovarium, erect 
ovules, and an embryo enclosed in a sac. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Floiccrs naked, monoclinous, with a bractea on the outside. 
Stamens definite or indefinite, arranged on one side or all round the ovarium, to which tiny 
adhere more or less; anthers 1- or 2-cclled, with or without a fleshy connectivum ; pollen 
smooth. Ovarium superior, simple, 1-celled, containing a single erect orulum; sti 
sessile, simple, rather oblique. Fruit superior, somewhat fleshy, indehiscent, 1-celled, 1-seeded. 
Seed erect, with the embryo lying in a fleshy sac placed at that end of the seed which is oppo- 
site the hilum, on the outside of the albumen. — Shrubs or herbaceous plants. J^cavcs opposite. 
verticillatc, or alternate in consequence of the abortion of one of the pair of leaves, without 
stipules. Flowers usually sessile, sometimes pedicellate, in spikes which are either terminal, 
or axillary, or opposite the leaves. 

Affinities. As we approach the Monocotyledonous division of vegetables, 
we find the distinction between them and Dicotyledons, as derived from their 
anatomical structure, becoming weaker and weaker ; but at the same time it 
appears to me that sufficient distinctions are still visible between these two 
modes of growth. Of this Piperacere arc an instance According to Richard, 



172 

they are Monocotyledonous ; an opinion in which Blume concurs, after an 
examination of abundance of species in their native places of growth. See 
Ann. des Sc. 12. 222. But if the medullary rays constitute the great anato- 
mical difference between these divisions of the vegetable kingdom (and I know 
of no other which is absolute), then Piperaceae are surely Dicotyledonous, as 
is shown by Meyer (Dissertatio tie Hoiithtynia, 38), and as may be ascer- 
tained by any one who will look at an old stem of any Pepper ; add to this, 
the veins of their leaves having a distinct articulation with the stem, and the 
2-lobed embryo ; and it seems to me impossible to doubt their being properly 
stationed among Dicotyledons. In this view they are closely related to Poly- 
gonere, Saururese, and Urticeee, from all v/hich, however, the_y are distinguished 
by obvious characters ; and also to Chloranthese, from which they differ in 
the point of attachment of the ovule, and in the distinct existence of the 
remains of the amnios in the form of a sac around the embryo. In the 
opinion of those who believe Piperaceae to be Monocotyledons, their station is 
near Aroideae, with which, indeed, they must be considered in any point of 
view to be closely connected. 

Geography. Exclusively confined to the hottest parts of the world. 
They are extremely common in tropical America and the Indian archipelago, 
but, according to Mr. Brown, are very rare in equinoctial Africa. Only 3 
species have been found on the west coast ; several exist at the Cape of Good 
Hope. Congo, 464. 

Properties. Common Pepper, so well known for its pungent, stimulant, 
aromatic quality, represents the ordinary property of the order, which is not 
confined to the fruit only, but which pervades all the parts in a greater or less 
degree. The Cubebs of the shops, remarkable for their extraordinary power 
of allaying inflammation in the urethra and in the mucous membrane of the 
intestinal canal, are the dried fruit of Piper cubeba. Ainslie, 1. 98. The 
chemical principle called Piperin has been found in Black Pepper. Turner, 
700. Piper anisatum has a strong smell of Anise, and a decoction of lt^p 
berries is used to wash ulcers. Betel, an acrid stimulating substance, much 
used for chewing by the Malays, is the produce of Piper Betel, and Siriboa. 
Finally, P. inebrians possesses narcotic properties, of which the South Sea 
islanders avail themselves for preparing an intoxicating beverage. Dec. 

Examples. Piper, Peperomia. 



CLXIII. PODOSTEM$fc. 

POD0STEME.E, Richard and Kunlh in Humb. N. G. et Sp. 1. 246. (1815) ; Martius Nov. G. et 

Sp. 1. 6. (1822.) 

Diagnosis. Achlamydeous herbaceous dicotyledons, with a 2-celled poly- 
spermous capsule, and solitary flowers. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers naked, monoclineus, bursting - through an irregularly 
lacerated spatha. Stamens hypogynous, varying from 2 to an indefinite number, either 
placed all round the ovarium or on one side of it, monadelphous, alternately sterile ; anthers 
oblong-, 2-cclled, bursting longitudinally. Ovarium 2-cellcd, with numerous ovula attached 
to a fleshy central placenta ; styles or stigmas 2 or 3, and sessile. Fruit slightly pedicellate, 
ribbed, capsular, opening by 2 valves, which fall off from the dissepiment, which is parallel 
with them. Seeds numerous, minute, their structure unknown, or, according to Von Martius, 
entirely simple.— Herbaceous branched floating plant3. Leaves capillary, or linear, or lacer- 
ated irregularly, or minute and densely imbricated, decurrent on the stem, with which 
they are not articulated. Flowers axillary or terminal, inconspicuous. 



173 

Affinities. Little is at present known of the real characters of this 
curious order. Only 2 of its genera, Mniopsis and Lacis, have been well 
described, and even these are still but imperfectly understood. Dr. Von Mar- 
tius has the following remarks upon it : " It is very doubtful in what part of 
the natural series Podostemere should be arranged ; for they are connected 
with so many other orders, in so various and complicated a manner, that it is 
highly probable that several genera, the affinities of which will be more appa- 
rent, still remain to be discovered. Nothing can be more singular than the 
mixture of different characters which they exhibit. Thus, the structure of 
their spathes, and the want of a true calyx and corolla, approximate them to 
Naiades (Fluviales) and Aroideaa, while the character of their stamens and 
fruit is very much that of Juncaginese ; the former of these, however, differ in 
their lower degree of organization, and the latter in the presence of a more or 
less perfect perianthium, and in the composition of their capsule. Lemna, a 
genus closely allied to Aroideaa, seems to be more related to them in its spatha, 
hypogynous stamens, habit, and mode of life, but is distinguished by its less 
highly developed few-seeded fruit. Again, Mniopsis, in its ramification, in the 
form and position of its leaves, and in its stipule, and Lacis and Podostemum 
in the character of their spatha and the emersion of their pedicels at the time 
of flowering, call remarkably to mind the habit of Jungermanniae ; so that we 
should probably not be far from the truth, if we were to say that this order 
forms a transition from Naiades (Fluviales) to Juncaginea?, on the one hand 
touching upon Aroidese, thus being, as it were, a sort of noble analogy of 
Hepaticse among monocotyledons." Nov. G. el Sp. 1. 7. Upon this it is 
difficult to make any additional remarks, without being in possession of a more 
complete knowledge of their structure. I must, however, observe, that it 
appears to me clear that Podostemeae are not monocotyledons, as Von Mar- 
tius, Kunth, and Richard, suppose, but dicotyledons ; for which I have to offer 
the following reasons : In the first place their habit is that of dicotyledons, 
and not of monocotyledons' ; Podostemon being very like a starved Pepper, 
and Hydrostachys having its flowers in spikes resembling those of Saururus. 
Tristicha has minute scale-like leaves, imbricated in 3 rows, like which there 
is nothing among monocotyledons. To this may be added the binary division 
of the ovarium, which is analogous to that of many dicotyledons, but a very 
rare structure among monocotyledons. Finally, the vernation of the leaves of 
Mourera of Aublet (t. 233), and of Marathrum, which is perhaps not distinct, 
is entirely that of dicotyledons, rather than of monocotyledons. I incline to 
place the order in the neighbourhood of Piperaceae, to which it probably 
approaches more nearly than to any plants hitherto discovered. 

Geography. Natives of still waters and damp places in South Ame- 
rica and the islands off the east coast of Africa ; 1 species is found in North 
America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Lacis, Podostemum, Hydrostachys. 



CLXIV. CALLITRICHINEiE. 

Callithichineje, Link Enum. 1. 7. (1821); Dec. Prodr. 3. 71. (1828); a sect, of Haloragea?. 
Lindl. Synops. 242. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Achlamydcous herbaceous dicotyledons, witha4-celledovarium, 
and solitary peltate seeds. 
Anomalies. 



174 

Essential Character. — Movers usually diclinous, moncecious, naked, with 2 fistular 
coloured bractese. Stamens single ; filament filiform, furrowed along the middle; anther 
reniform, 1-celled, 2-valved; the valves opening fore and aft. Ovarium solitary, 4-cornered, 
4-celled ; otmles solitary, peltate ; styles 2, right and left, subulate ; stigmas simple points. 
Fruit 4-celled, 4 seeded, indehiscent. Seeds peltate ; embryo inverted in the axis of fleshy 
albumen; radicle very long, curved, superior; cotyledons very short. — Small aquatic herba- 
ceous plants, with opposite, simple, entire leaves. Flowers axillary, solitary, very minute. 

Affinities. I have remarked in my Synopsis, that " the affinity of this 
order to other dicotyledons appears to be of precisely the same nature as that 
borne by Lemna to monocotyledons : they each exhibit the lowest degree of 
organization known in their respective classes." Mr. Brown considers it allied 
to Halorageae ; an opinion in which I concur, without adopting Decandolle's 
explanation of the structure of the flowers ; but at the same time I confess 
that this affinity is less strong than could be wished ; is it not rather an ano- 
malous form of a reduced Euphorbiacea, or is it related to Podostemese 1 All 
this is still a problem. 

Geography. Natives of still waters in Europe and North America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Callitriche. 



CLXV. CERATOPHYLLE^E. 

CERATOPHYLLEa:, Dec. Prodr. 3. 73. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 225. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Apetalous dicotyledons, with definite pendulous ovula, solitary 
flowers, a 1-celled ovarium, and many-parted calyx. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoecious. Calyx inferior, many-parted. Stamens 
from 12 to 20 ; filaments wanting; anthers 2-celled. Ovarium, superior, 1-celled ; ovule 
solitary, pendulous ; stigma filiform, oblique, sessile. Nut 1 celled, 1-seeded, indehiscent, 
terminated by the hardened stigma. Seed pendulous, solitary ; albumen ; embryo with 4 
cotyledons, alternately smaller ; plumula many-leaved ; radicle superior. (Dec.) — Floating 
herbs, with multifid cellular leaves. 

Affinities. These are not at all made out. In consequence of the num- 
ber of its cotyledons, Richard placed it near Coniferre, with which it seems to 
have no kind of affinity. Decandolle urges its relation to Hippuris and Myrio- 
phyllum, among Haloragea; from which it differs in its superior ovarium j and 
he inquires whether Naias, which according to some is dicotyledonous, does 
not belong to the same order. Can this family have any relation to Podoste- 
meae ? Agardh places it among Fluviales. 

Geography. Found in ditches in Europe. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Example. Ceratophyllum. 



175 



2. MONOPETALOUS PLANTS. 

The character by which this division of Dicotyledons is distinguished from the 
last (p. 2,), is the cohesion of the edges of the petals into a tube ; whence the 
name Monopetalous, the petals forming together a single floral envelope. Ge- 
nerally it is easy to recognise this character, and the orders thus distinguished 
are individually perfectly natural ; but occasionally certain genera in Polype- 
talous orders have flowers with a Monopetalous corolla, as in Crassulaceffi ; 
these cases are, however, rare, and are to be considered exceptions to the rule. 
For the most part, in Monopetalous plants belonging to Polypetalous orders, 
the petals are readily separable from each other, which is not the case in 
genuine Monopetalee ; but this is not always so. Apetalous exceptions are 
exceedingly uncommon : Glaux, among Primulaceae, is a rare instance of 
this. 

Monopetalous orders approach those which are Polypetalous, Apetalous, or 
Achlamydeous, at many points besides such as are adverted to at p. 2, espe- 
cially by Ilicineae, which are nearly allied to Rhamneae. 

LIST OF THE ORDERS. 



166. Ilicineae. 

167. Styraceae. 

168. Belvisiaceae. 

169. Sapoteae. 

170. Ericeae. 

171. Epacrideae. 

172. Vaccinieae. 

173. Pyrolaceaa. 

174. Campanulaceaa. 

175. Lobeliacese. 

176. Goodenoviae. 

177. Stylideae. 

178. Scaevoleae. 

179. Brunoniaceae. 

180. Papayaceae. 

181. Cucurbitaceae. 

182. Plantagineae. 

183. Plumbagineae. 

184. Dipsaceae. 

185. Valerianeae. 

186. Compositae. 



187. Calycereae. 

188. Globularineae. 

189. StellatK. 

190. Cinchonaceae. 

191. Caprifoliaceae. 

192. Lorantheae. 

193. Potaliaceas. 

194. Loganiaceae. 

195. Asclepiadea?. 

196. Apocyneas. 

197. Gentianeae. 

198. Spigeliaceaa. 

199. Convolvulaceae. 

200. Polemoniaceae. 

201. Hydroleaceae. 

202. Ebenaceae. 

203. Columelliaceae. 

204. Jasmineae. 

205. Oleaceae. 

206. Myrsineae. 



207. Primulaceae. 

208. Lentibulariae. 

209. Gesnereae. 

210. Orobancheae. 

211. Scrophularineae. 

212. Rhinanthaceae. 

213. Solaneae. 

214. Acanthaceae. 

215. Pedalineae. 

216. Cyrtandraceae. 

217. Bignoniaceae. 

218. Myoporineae. 

219. Selagineae. 

220. Verbenaceae. 

221. Labiatae. 

222. Boragineae. 

223. Heliotropiceae. 

224. Ehretiaceae. 

225. Cordiaceae. 

226. Hydrophylleae. 



CLXVI. ILICINEAE. The Holly Tribe. 



Ilicin-eje, Ad. Brongniart Memoire sur les Rhamnccs, p. 16. (1826) ; Lindl. Synops. p. 73. (1829.) 
Aciuifoliace.e, Dec. Thcorie, ed. 1. 217. (1813); a sect, of Celastrinese, lb. Prodr. 2. 11. 
(1825) ; Martius H. R. Mon. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with a superior 2-6-celled ovarium, 
regular flowers, definite pendulous ovules, a 4-6-lobed corolla, with the sta- 
mens equal to the number of its lobes, and albuminous seeds. 



176 
Anomalies. Flowers diclinous in Prinos and Nemopanthes. 

Essential Characteh. — Petals 4 to 6, imbricated in estivation. Corolla 4- or 5-parted, 
hopogynous, imbricated in estivation. Stamens inserted into the corolla, alternate with its 
segments ; filaments erect; anthers adnate. Disk none. Ovarium fleshy, superior, some- 
what truncate, with from 2 to 6 cells; ov ula solitary, pendulous from a cup-shaped funiculus ; 
stigma subsessile, lobed. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent, with from 2 to 6 stones. Seed suspended 
nearly sessile ; albumen large, fleshy; embryo small, 2-lobed, lying next the hilum, with mi- 
nute cotyledons, and a superior radicle. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate or opposite, 
coriaceous. Flowers small axillary, solitary or fascicled. 

Affinities. Included in Rhamneas by most botanists, but well distin- 
guished by Ad. Brongniart, who remarks that the suggestion of M. de Jussieu 
in his Genera Plantarum, that Ilicinese ought probably to be placed among 
Monopetalee, near Sapoteae or Ebenaceaa, will probably be adopted. From 
Celastrineaa, with which they are combined in most modern works, they differ 
in the form of their calyx and corolla, in the disposition and insertion of their 
stamens, and especially in the structure of then ovarium and fruit. In these 
respects they are found by M. Brongniart to agree so completely with Ebena- 
cese, that that order does not, in fact, differ essentially from Ilicineae, except in 
characters of a secondary order, such as the calyx and corolla less deeply di- 
vided, the stamens often double the number of segments of the corolla, the 
style being sometimes divided, the cells of the ovarium usually containing 2 
collateral ovula, and finally in the cells of the fruit not becoming bony, as in 
most Ilicineae. Von Martius places them near Polygalese. 

Geography. Found in various parts of the world, especially in the West 
Indies, South America, and the Cape of Good Hope. Several are found in 
North America ; but 1, the common Holly, in Europe. 

Properties. The bark and berries of Prinos verticillatus possess, in an 
eminent degree, the properties of vegetable, astringent, and tonic medicines, 
along with antiseptic powers which are highly spoken of by American practi- 
tioners. Barton, I. 208. [Bigelow, 3. 141.] Prinos glaber and Ilex Para- 
guensis are used as tea ; the latter yields the famous beverage called Mate in 
Brazil. Myginda Gongonha is diuretic. Dec. 

Examples. Ilex, Prinos. 



CLXVII. STYRACE.E. 



Styrace«, Rich. Anal, du Fr. (1808) ; Von Martius N. Gen. ct Sp. PI. 2. 148. (1R26).— Ebe- 
naces, a%qf Styrac.ee, Dec. and Duby, 320. (1828). — Symplocine*, Don Prodr. tfep. 
144. (1825.)— Styracin*, Rich, in Humb. K G.et Sp. 3. 256.(1818); Syno]7s. 2. 315. 
(1823).— HalesiacejE, Don in Jameson's Jour. (Dec. 1828); Link Ilanb. 1. 607. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous, dicotyledons, with an inferior ovarium of seve- 
ral cells, definite ovula, and alternate leaves. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior or superior, with 5 divisions, persistent. Corolla 
hypogynous, monopetalous, the number of its divisions frequently different from that of the 
calyx; with imbricated estivation. Stamens definite or indefinite, arising from the tube of the 
corolla, of unequal length, cohering in various ways, but generally in a slight degree only ; 
anthers innate, 2-cellcd, bursting inwardly. Ovarium superior, or adhering to the calyx, with 
from 3 to 5 cells ; ovules definite, the upper persistent, the lower pendulous, or vice versa ; style 
simple ; stigma somewhat capitate. Fruit drupaceous, surmounted by or enclosed in the ca- 
lyx, with from 1 to 5 cells. Seeds ascending or suspended, solitary, with the embryo lying in 
the midst of the albumen ; radicle long, directed towards the hilum ; cotyledons fiat, foliaceoug. 



177 

- '1 rees or shrubs. L*eaces alternate, without stipulu', usually toothed, turning- yellow in dry- 
ing' ; Mowers axillary, either solitary or clustered, with scale-like bracteie. The hairs often 
stellate. 

Affinities. The plants comprehended under this name require a careful 
examination and settlement. They have been at one time combined with Ebe- 
naceae, or divided into the two orders of Styraceee and Symplocaces, from both 
which Halesiacere have been again separated by Don and Link. From Ericea; 
they differ in habit, in the definite number of their seeds, and their inferior ova- 
rium ; from Ebenacea in the latter character, in the perigynous insertion of the 
stamens, in the peculiar circumstance of part of the ovules being erect and 
part inverted, and in the style being simple. Von Martius considers Styraceae 
as gamopetalous rather than monopetalous ; but what is the real difference in 
the meaning of these two words ? Mr. Don says that Halesiacea? are a group 
widely different from Styracece. Jameson's Journ. 1828. Dec. The genus 
Symplocos is rather different in habit from Sty rax and Halesia, turning yellow 
in drying. Jussieu refers Styrax to Meliacere, with which family the order 
has no doubt much affinity. Decandolle considers them nearly akin to Tern- 
strcemiacea?. Essai Medic. 203. 

Geography. Found in North and South America within and without the 
tropics, and in tropical Asia and China. 

Properties. Some of the genus Symplocos are used in dying yellow ; 
others, as Alstonia theiformis, are employed as tea, on account of a slight as- 
tringency in their leaves. Storax and Benzoin, two fragrant gum-resins, com- 
posed of resin, benzoic acid, and a peculiar aromatic principle, are the produce 
of two species of Styrax. 

Examples. Styrax, Halesia, Symplocos. 



CLXVIII BELVISIACEiE. 

BEi.visiE.fi, /?. Brown, in Linn. Trans. 13. 222. (1820.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior ovarium, a plaited 
inany-lobed corolla, alternate leaves, and indefinite ovula. 
Anomalies. Unknown. 

Essential Character.— Calyx of 1 piece, persistent, with a divided limb. Corolla? mo- 
nopetalous, plaited, (many-lobed or undivided, simple or double), deciduous. Stamens either 
definite or indefinite, arising from the base of the corolla. Ovarium inferior ; style 1 ; stigma 
lobed or angular. Fruit berried, many-seeded. Shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire, without 
stipula;. Flowers axillary or lateral, solitary. R. Br. 

Affinities. Little is known of this obscure family, except that it is not re- 
ferable to any order at present established. In fixing it near Styracea*, it can 
only be said to resemble that order as much as any other. 

Geography. African shrubs or trees. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Example. Belvisia. 

33 



178 
CLXIX SAPOTEiE. The Sappodilla Tribe. 

Sapotje, Jusb. Gen. 151. (1789).— Sapoteje, R. Brown Prodr. 258. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with a superior several- ceiled ova- 
rium, regular flowers, definite erect ovules, an imbricated corolla, with seeds 
having- a bony seed-coat and a large scar occupying the whole of one of their 
sides. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Flowers rnonoclinous. Calyx divided, regular, persistent. 
Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, regular, deciduous, its segments usually equal in number 
to those of the calyx, seldom twice or thrice as many. Stamens arising from the corolla, 
definite, distinct, the fertile ones equal in number to the segments of the calyx, and opposite 
those segments of the corolla which alternate with the latter, seldom more. Anthers usually 
turned outwards ; the sterile stamens as numerous as the fertile ones, with which they alter- 
nate, sometimes absent. Ovarium 1, with several cells, in each of which is 1 erect ovulum. 
Style 1. Stigma undivided, occasionally lobed. Fruit baccate with several 1-seeded cells, or 
by abortion with only 1. Seeds nut-like, sometimes cohering into a several-celled putamen. 
Testa bony, shining, its inner face opaque and softer than the rest. Embryo erect, large, 
white, usually enclosed in fleshy albumen. Cotyledons, when albumen is present, foliaceous; 
when absent, fleshy and sometimes connate. Radicle short, straight, or a little curved, turned 
towards the hilum. Plumula inconspicuous. — Trees ar shrubs, chiefly natives of the tropics, 
and abounding in milky juice. Leaves alternate, without stipula;, entire, coriaceous. Inflo- 
rescence axillary. 

Affinities. This order is certainly near Ebenaceae, with which it agrees 
in habit, arborescent stem, alternate entire leaves, and axillary inflorescence ; 
and moreover in its monopetalous regular hypogynous corolla, the absence of 
a hypogynous disk, an ovarium with several cells, and definite ovules and 
stamens. They, however, differ in several points. Sapotere have usually a 
milky juice, and therefore their wood is among the softer kinds ; their flowers 
are always rnonoclinous, the segments of the calyx and corolla are often 
placed in a double row ; their stamens are always in a single row, the fertile 
ones rarely more numerous than the segments of the calyx, and opposite the 
divisions of the corolla ; their style is undivided ; the cells of the ovarium are 
always 1-seeded, with erect ovules ; the testa is thick and bony ; the embryo 
is large with respect to the fleshy albumen, which is sometimes deficient ; the 
radicle is very short, and inferior. In Ebenaceae there is no milk, and the 
wood is very hard ; the flowers are usually diclinous, the segments of the 
calyx and corolla are almost always in a single row ; the stamens are usually 
doubled, and either twice or four times as numerous as the segments of the 
corolla, or, if equal to them, alternate with them; the style is generally 
divided, the cells of the ovarium sometimes 2-seeded, the ovules always pen- 
dulous, the testa thin and soft, the embryo middle-sized or small in respect to 
the cartilaginous albumen, which is always present ; the radicle is of middling 
length, or very long and superior. It. Brown Prodr. 529. It is worth 
remarking, that the woody shell of the seed of Sapotea; is certainly testa, and 
not putamen, as is proved by the presence of the micropyle upon it. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of the tropics of India, Africa, and America; 
a few are found in the southern parts of North America, and at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Properties. The fruit of many is esteemed in their native countries as an 
article of the dessert : such are the Sappodilla Plum, the Star Apple, the 
Medlar of Surinam, the Mimusops Elengi, and others ; they are described as 
having generally a sweet taste, with a little acidity. The seeds of Achras 
Sapota are aperient and diuretic ; those of some others are filled with a con- 
crete oil, which is used for domestic purposes. A kind of thick oil, like butter, 



179 

is obtained from the fruit of Bassm butyracea, the Mahva or Madhuca Tree. 
The flowers of the same tree are emploj^ed extensively in the distillation of a 
kind of arrack. Ed. P. J. 12. 192. The juice of the bark of Bassia longi- 
folia is prescribed by the Indian doctors in rheumatic affections. Ainslie, 2. 
100. The Butter Tree of Mungp Park was also a species of Bassia. The 
bark of 4 species of Achras is so astringent and febrifugal as to have been 
substituted for quinquina. The Cow Tree of Humboldt has been sometimes 
supposed to be referable to this order ; but there seems no reason now to doubt 
its belonging to Artoearpeae. The Tingi da Praya of Brazil, with which the 
Indians destroy fish, is the Jacquinia obovata. The branches are bruised and 
thrown into the water. It must not be confounded with another fish poison, 
called Tingi only, which is a species of Paullinia. Pr. .Max. Trav. 166. 
Examples. Achras, Mimusops. 



CLXX. ERICEiE. The Heath Tribe 

Eric*, Juss. Gen. 150. (1789.)— Ericeje, R. Brmcn Prodr. 557. (1810); IAndl. Synops. 172. 
(1829.)— Rhododendra, Juss. Gen. 158. (1789.)— Ericin-eje, Desv.Journ. Bot. 28. (1813.) 
— Rhodorace^e and Ericace.s:, Dec. Fl. Fr. 3. 671. and 675. (1815.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous shrubby dicotyledons, with regular flowers, a 
superior many-seeded ovarium, a single style, 2-celled dry anthers with appen- 
dages, apterous seeds, and embryo in the axis of albumen. 

Anomalies. Azalea, Rhododendron, &c, having an irregular corolla, but 
their stamens are symmetrical. The petals of Ledum scarcely cohere. In 
Arctostaphylos the seeds are definite. There is a species of Erica with broad 
winged seeds, according to Mr. Brown. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4- or 5-cleft, nearly equal, inferior, persistent. Corolla 
hypogynous, monopetalous, 4- or 5-cleft, occasionally separable into 4 or 5 pieces, regular or 
irregular, often withering, with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens definite, equal in num- 
ber to the segments of the corolla, or twice as many, hypogynous, or inserted into the base of 
the corolla ; anthers 2-celled, the cells hard and dry, separate either at the apex or base, where 
they are furnished with some kind of appendage, and dehiscing by a pore or cleft. Ovarium 
surrounded at the base by a disk, or secreting scales, many-celled, many-seeded ; style 1, 
straight; stigma 1, undivided or toothed. Fruit capsular, many-celled, with central pla- 
centa? ; dehiscence various. Seeds indefinite, minute ; testa firmly adhering to the nucleus ; 
embryo cylindrical, in the axis of fleshy albumen ; radicle opposite the hilum. — Shrubs or 
tinder-shrubs, heaves evergreen, rigid, entire, whorled, or opposite, without stipula;. Inflo- 
rescence variable, the pedicels generally bracteate. 

Affinities. Formerly separated into two by Jussieu, who distinguished 
Ericece and Rhodoracese by the dehiscence of their capsule ; a character 
which is not now esteemed of ordinal importance, and which is consequently 
abandoned. They differ from Vaccinieae and Campanulacere in their superior 
ovarium, from Epacridece in the structure of their anthers, from Pyrolacese in 
the structure of their seeds and in habit, and from all the orders of which Scro- 
phularineae and Gentianea? may be considered the representatives, in the num- 
ber of cells of the ovarium agreeing with the lobes of the calyx and corolla. 

Geography. Most abundant at the Cape of Good Hope, where immense 
tracts are covered with them ; common in Europe and North and South 
America, both within and without the tropics ; less common in northern Asia 
and India, and almost unknown in Australasia, where their place is supplied 
by Epacrideae. 



180 

Properties. Their general qualities are, to be astringent and diuretic ; 
Azalea procumbens, Rhododendron ferrugineum and chrysanthemum, and 
Ledum palustre, being examples of the former, and Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi 
of the latter. This, Decandolle observes, has been confounded with Vacci- 
nium Vitis Idea by some practitioners, but most improperly, the chemical 
composition of the two plants being extremely different. See Essai M.ed. 
194. An infusion of the leaves of Uva Ursi has been employed with success 
in cases of gonorrhoea of long standing. Ibid. [Bigelow 1. 66.] The berries 
of the succulent- fruited kinds are usually grateful, and sometimes used as food. 
Gaultheria procumbens and Shallon, Arctostaphylos alpina, and Bross»a 
coccinea, are examples of this. In the island of Corsica an agreeable wine 
is said to be prepared from the berries of Arbutus Unedo. Ed. P. J. 2. 199. 
Gaultheria procumbens possesses stimulating and anodyne properties. In 
North America an infusion of it is used as tea. Barton, 1. 178. An infusion 
of the berries in brandy is taken in small quantities, in the same way as com- 
mon bitters. Ibid. [Bigeloiv, 2. 27.] The fruit of Arbutus Unedo, taken 
in too great quantity, is said to be narcotic, and a similar quality no doubt exists 
in several other plants of the order ; Ledum palustre renders beer heady, when 
used in the manufacture of that beverage ; Rhododendron ponticum and maxi- 
mum, Kalmia latifblia, and some others, are well known to be venomous. 
The honey which poisoned some of the soldiers in the retreat of the ten 
thousand "through Pontus was gathered by bees from the flowers of Azalea 
pontica. The shoots of Andromeda ovalifolia poison goats in Nipal. Don 
Prodr. 149. It is stated by Dr. Horsfield that a very volatile heating oil, 
with a peculiar odour, used by the Javanese in rheumatic affections, is obtained 
from a species of Andromeda. Jlinslie, 2. 107. 

Examples. Erica, Andromeda, Ledum, Rhododendron, Azalea. 



CLXXI. EPACRIDEiE. 

Epacrideje, R. Brown Prodr. 535. (1810) ; Link Handb. 1. 601. (1829), a%of Ericese. 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with regular flowers, a superior 
several-celled ovarium, an imbricated corolla, a single style, and dry 1 -celled 
anthers. 

Anomalies. Monotoca has but 1 cell in the ovarium. 

Essential Chabacteb. — Calyx 5- parted (very seldom 4-parted), often coloured, persistent. 
Corolla hyposrynoua, monopetalous, either deciduous or withering-, sometimes capable of be- 
ing separated into 5 pieces, its limb with 5 (rarely 4) equal divisions, sometimes, in consequence 
of the cohesion of Hie segments, bursting- transversely; the aestivation valvular or imbrica- 
ted. Stamens equal in number to the segments of the corolla, and alternate with them ; very 
seldom fewer in number. Filaments arising- froms the corolla, or hypogynous. Anthers simple, 
with asinglc receptacle of pollen, which formsa complete partition sometimes having aborder; 
undivided, opening longitudinally. Pollen either nearly round or formed of 3 connate grains. 
Ovarium sessile, usually surrounded at the base with 5 distinct or connate scales; with seve- 
ral, rarely a single, cell ; ovules solitary or indefinite ; style 1 ; stigma simple, or occasionally 
toothed. Fruit drupaceous, baccate, or capsular. Seeds with albumen. Embryo taper, 
straight, in the axis, more than half as long as the albumen. — Shrubs or small trees, their hair, 
when present, being simple. Leaves alternate, very rarely opposite, entire or occasionally ser- 
rated, usually stalked; their bases sometimes dilated, cucullate, overlapping each other and 
half sheathing the stem. Flowers white or purple, seldom blue, either in spikes or terminal 
racemes, or solitary and axillary ; the calyx or pedicels with 2 or several bractea?, which ate 
usually of the same texture as the calyx. 

Affinities. This order differs from Ericere solely in the structure of the 
anther ; but that organ being one of the principal features of Ericere, any 



181 

material deviation from it acquires a peculiar degree of consequence. In Eri- 
ceae the anther consists of 2 cells, usually furnished with peculiar appendages ; 
in Epacrideae it is simply 1 -celled, with no appendages whatever. The 
order is remarkable for containing species with both definite and indefinite 
seeds. 

Geography. All natives of Australasia or Polynesia, where they abound 
as Heaths at the Cape of Good Hope. It is remarkable that only 1 or 2 of 
the Heath tribe are found in the countries occupied by Epacridese. 

Properties. The fruit of Lissanthc sapida, called the Australian cranber- 
ry, is eatable. Chiefly remarkable for the great beauty of the flowers of many 
species. 

Examples. Epacris, Styphelia, Leucopogon, Sprengelia. 



CLXXII. VACCINIE.E. The Bilberry Tribe. 

Vaccinie-k, Dec. Theor. Elem. 216. (1813); Dec. and Duby, 315. (1818); Lindl. Synops. 134. 

(1829.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior ovarium, a regular 
corolla, succulent fruit, indefinite ovules, alternate leaves, and calcarate an- 
thers. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, entire, or with from 4 to 6 lobes. Corolla mono- 
petalous, lobed as often as the calyx. Stamens distinct, double the number of the lobes of the 
corolla, inserted into an epigynous disk ; anthers with 2 horns and 2 cells. Ovarium inferior, 
4- or 5-oelled, many-seeded ; style simple ; stigma simple. Berry crowned by the persistent 
limb of the calyx, succulent, 4- or &-celled, many-seeded. Seeds minute; embryo straight in 
the axis of a fleshy albumen ; cotyledons very short ; radicle long, inferior. — Sfn~ubs, with alter- 
nate coriaceous leaves. 

Affinities. Formerly combined with Ericese, from which it differs in its 
inferior ovarium and succulent fruit. It is confounded by Achille Richard with 
Escalloniese, which are essentially distinguished by their flowers being polype- 
talous and the anthers bursting lengthwise. Myrtacese are obviously separated 
by being polypetalous, by the leaves being opposite and marked with transpa- 
rent dots, &c. 

Geography. Natives of North America, where they are found in great 
abundance as far as high northern latitudes ; sparingly in Europe ; and not un- 
commonly on high land in the Sandwich Islands. 

Properties. Much the same as those of Ericese ; their bark and leaves 
are astringent, slightly tonic, and stimulating. The berries of many are eaten, 
under the names of Cranberry, Bilberry, Whortleberry, &c. All the species 
are choice subjects of the gardener's care. 

Examples. Vaccinium, Oxycoccus. 



182 



CLXXII PYROLACE.E The Winter Green Tribe 

Pyrolejb, Lindl. Coll. Bot.t. 5. (1S2I) ; Synops. 175. (1829.)— Monotropeje, Nutt. Gen. 1.272. 
(1818); Dec. and Duby, 319. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with regular flowers, a superior 
many-seeded ovarium, a single declinate style, 2-celled dry anthers with appen- 
dages, winged seeds, and a minute inverted embryo in fleshy albumen. 

Anomalies. The style is not always declinate. There is a shrubby spe- 
cies of Pyrola. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-leaved, persistent, inferior. Corolla monopetalous, hypo- 
gynous, regular, deciduous, 4- or 5-toothed, with an imbricated {estivation. Stamens hypogy- 
nous, twice as numerous as the divisions of the corolla; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudi- 
nally, and furnished with appendages at the base. Ovarium superior, 4- or 5-cellcd, many- 
seeded, with a hypogynous disk ; style 1, straight or declinate ; stigma simple. Fruit capsu- 
lar, 4- or 5-celled, dehiscent, with central placentae. Seeds indefinite, minute, winged ; embryo 
minute, inverted, at the extremity of a fleshy albumen. Herbaceous plants, rarely imder-shrubs, 
sometimes parasitical and leafless. Stems round, covered with scales ; in the frutescent spe- 
cies leafy. Leaves either wanting or simple, entire or toothed. Flowers in terminal racemes, 
rarely solitary. 

Affinities. However different the tribes of Ericere and Orobanchese may 
seem, they are completely connected with this, which, with the regular corolla, 
having a slight tendency to irregularity in its declinate style, the 5 cells, 
and hypogynous dry spurred anthers of the former, combine the habit and pe- 
culiar structure of seed of the latter. They are known from Ericere by'their 
winged seeds, minute embryo, often declinate style, and herbaceous often leaf- 
less habit. The latter character will not, however, alone point out the order ; 
nor is it even universal in particular genera ; for Pyrola itself, which has visually 
round bright green leaves, contains a species destitute of leaves, and having 
the habit of Pterospora. 

Geography. Natives of Europe, North America, and the northern parts 
of Asia, in fir woods, or in similar situations. 

Properties. Chimaphila umbellata is a most active diuretic ; it is also 
found to possess valuable tonic properties. The leaves, applied to the skin, 
act as slight vesicatories. It is remarkable enough that C. maculata, a very 
closely allied species, should be asserted by American practitioners to be wholly 
inert. See Barton, 1. 28. [Bigeloiv, 2. 15.] 

Examples. Pyrola, Chimaphila, Monotropa, Pterospora, Schweinitzia. 



CLXXIV. CAMPANULACEiE. The Campanula Tribe. 

Campanula, Juss. Gen. 163. (1789) inpart.— Campanulace*, R. Brown Prodr. 559. (1810) ; 
Lindl. Synops. 135. (1829.)— Campanuleje, Alph. Dec. Monogr. (1830.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous milky dicotyledons, with an inferior ovarium, 
a regular corolla, capsular fruit, indefinite ovules, alternate leaves, and round 
pollen. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, usually 5-lobed (3-8), persistent. Corolla mono- 
petalous, inserted into the top of the calyx, usually 5-lobed (3-8), withering on the fruit, regular. 
^Estivation valvate. Stamens inserted into the calyx alternately with the lobes of the corolla, 
to which they arc equal in number. Anthers 2-celled, distinct! Pollen spherical. Ovarium 



183 

Inferior, with 'I or more polyspei mous cells opposite the stamens, or alternate with them j style 
simple, covered with collecting hairs; stigma naked, simple, or with as many lobes as there 
are cells. Fruit dry, crowned by the withered calyx and corolla, dehiscing by lateral irregu- 
lar apertures or by valves at the apex, always loculicidal. Seeds numerous, attached to a pla- 
centa in the axis ; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen ; radicle inferior. — Herbaceous 
plants or wider-shrubs, yielding a white milk. Leaves almost always alternate, simple, or 
deeply divided, without stipula?. Flowera single, in racemes, spikes, or panicles, or in heads, 
usually blue or white, very rarely yellow. 

Affinities. While this work was going through the press, an excellent 
Monograph of the present order reached me from M. Alphonse Decandolle. I 
gladly avail myself of the valuable remarks of this skilful botanist in explain- 
ing the affinities of Campanulacese. He considers that they differ from Lobe- 
liacese chiefly in their regular corolla, their stamens being almost always dis- 
tinct, their pollen spherical (not oval), their stigmas generally long, and velvety 
externally, in the abundance of collecting hairs on the style, and finally in their 
capsules usually opening laterally. " It is not only in the form," he proceeds, 
"but also in the number of the parts, that the flower of Campanulacese is more 
regular than that of Lobeliacese. Thus, in several Campanulas the cells of 
the ovarium are equal in number to the stamens and the divisions of the corolla 
and calyx, which points out the natural symmetry of the flower. In the Lo- 
belias abortion is more frequent. In both groups the innermost organs are 
abortive more frequently than the outermost. Thus, the number of cells is 
often smaller (never greater) than that of the stamens ; the number of stamens 
is sometimes smaller (but never larger) than that of the lobes of the corolla ; 
and the same is true of the lobes of the corolla with respect to the calyx.- 
Finally, LobeliaceBe have sometimes a corolla of a fine bright led, a colour un- 
known among Campanulas ; nine-tenths of the species of the latter have blue 
flowers ; and those in which the colour varies, and into which a little red enters 
(as Canarina), are far from having the brilliancy of Lobelia cardinalis for in- 
stance. After Lobeliacese, the natural groups with which Campanulacese 
have the most relation are, no doubt, Goodenovise and Stylidiese, which formed 
part of the Campanulacese of M. de Jussieu. The regular corolla of Cam- 
panulacea? distinguishes them, at first sight, from both those groups, as well as 
from Lobeliacere. Besides, Campanulas have not the fringed indusium which 
terminates the style of Goodenovise, and surrounds their stigma. Although 
this organization approaches that of Lobeliacese, and so Campanulacese, it is 
not less true that it affords an important mark of distinction, and that it is con- 
nected with essential differences in the mode of fecundation. Mr. Brown has 
also remarked, that the corolla of Goodenovise is sometimes polypetalous, which 
it never is in Campanulaceae or Lobeliaeeee ; that the sestivation of their corolla 
is duplicate, not valvate ; that its principal veins are lateral, or alternate with 
the lobes, as in Compositse ; that in the species of Goodenovise with dehiscent 
fruit, the dehiscence is usually septicidal, while in the two other groups it is 
always loculicidal ; finally, that Goodenovise have not the milky juice that 
characterizes Campanulacese and Lobeliacae." Notwithstanding their poly- 
spermous fruit and different inflorescence, these approach very closely to Com- 
posites ; their milky juice is the same as that of Cichoracese ; their species 
have, in many cases, the flowers crowded in heads ; their stigma is similar to 
that of many Compositse ; they have the same collecting hairs on the style, in 
both cases intended to clear out the pollen from the cells of the anthers ; and, 
finally, their habit is very like. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of the north of Asia, Europe, and North 
America, and scarcely known in the hot regions of the world. In the mea- 
dows, fields, and forests of the countries they inhabit, they constitute the most 
striking ornament. Some curious species are found in the Canaries, St. Helena, 
and Juan Fernandez. M. Alphonse Decandolle remarks, that " it is within. 



184 

the 36° and 47° N. lat. that in our hemisphere the greatest number of species 
is found ; the chain of the Alps, Italy, Greece, Caucasus, the Altai range, are 
their true country. In whatever direction we leave these limits, the number 
of species rapidly decreases. In the southern hemisphere, the Cape of Good 
Hope (lat. 34° S.) is another centre of habitation, containing not fewer than 63 
species. This locality has a climate so different from that of our mountains, 
that it may be easily imagined that the species capable of living there differ 
materially from those of our own hemisphere : in fact, they belong to other 
genera." Of 300 species, only 19 are found within the tropics. 

Properties. The milky juice is rather acrid, but nevertheless the roots 
and young shoots of some, particularly of Campanula Rapunculus, or Ram- 
pion, of Phyteuma spicata, of Canarina Campanula, &c, are an occasional 
article of food. The chief value of the order, however, is its beauty. 

Examples. Campanula, Wahlenbergia. 



CLXXV. LOBELIACEiE. 

Campanulaceje, § 2. R. Brown Prodr. 562. (1810).— Lobeliace*, Juss. Ann. Mus. 18. 1. 
(1811) ; Dec. and Duby, 310. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 137. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous milky dicotyledons, with an inferior ovarium, an 
irregular corolla, syngenesious stamens, indefinite ovula, alternate leaves and 
oval pollen. 

Anomalies. Clintonia has a triangular 1-celled ovarium, with 2 parietal 
placentae. Some have 5 petals. One species of Lobelia is dioecious. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-lobed, or entire. Corolla monopetalous, ir- 
regular, inserted in the calyx, 5-lobcd, or deeply 5-cleft. Stamens 5, inserted into the calyx al- 
ter nately with the lobes of the corolla; anthers cohering; pollen oval. Ovarium inferior, 
with from 1 to 3 cells ; ovula very numerous, attached either to the axis or the lining; style 
simple ; stigma surrounded by a cup-like fringe. Fruit capsular, 1- or more-celled, many- 
seeded, dehiscing at the apex. Seeds attached either to the lining or the axis of the pericar- 
pium ; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen ; radicle pointing to the hilum. — Herba- 
ceous plants or skrubs. Leaves alternate, without stipula;. Flowers axillary or terminal. 

Affinities. Yet more nearly related to Composite even than Campanula- 
cere, especially in their cohering anthers and in the irregularity of their corolla, 
which consists in its being split, so that the segments cohere towards one side 
just like the 5 segments that make up the ligulate floret of a Composita. The 
stigma is surrounded by hairs, which are properly analogous to the indusium of 
Goodenovia:, to which order Lobehaceaj approach closely. Of course they par- 
ticipate in any and all the affinities of Campanulaceae. M. Alphonse Decan- 
dolle criticises, with much justice, the character assigned to Lobeliacere in my 
Synopsis of the British Flora , particularly in regard to the cup or fringe as- 
signed to their stigma : this was a misprint for cup-like. He is also, perhaps, 
right in considering Jasione more properly a Campanulaceous than a Lobelia- 
ceous plant. The genus, however, seems to me to stand upon the limit be- 
tween the two orders. 

Geography. Unlike Campanulacea?, these seem to prefer countries within 
or upon the border of the tropics to such as have a colder character. We find 
them abounding in the West Indies, Brazil, the Cape of Good Hope, and the 
Sandwich Islands ; they are not uncommon in Chile, and New Holland. 

Properties. All dangerous or suspicious, in consequence of the excessive 
acridity of their milk. Lobelia tupa yields a dangerous poison in Chile. The 



185 

most active article of the North American Materia Jltfedica is said to be the Lo- 
belia inflata ; it is possessed of an emetic, sudorific, and powerful expectorant 
effect, especially the first. When given with a view to empty the stomach, it 
operates vehemently and speedily ; producing, however, great relaxation, de- 
bility, and perspiration, and even death, if given in over-doses. Barton, 1. 189. 
[Bigelow 1. 177.] The anti*yphilitic virtues ascribed to Lobelia syphilitica 
are supposed to have resided in its diuretic property ; they arc, however, gene- 
rally discredited altogether. Ibid. 2. 211. Lobelia longiflora, a native of some 
of the West India Islands, is one of the most venomous of plants. The Spanish 
Americans call it Rebenta Cavallos, because it proves fatal to horses that eat it, 
swelling them until they burst . Taken internally, it acts as a violent cathar 
tic, the effects of which no remedy can assuage, and which end in death. The 
leaves are an active vesicatory. Lobelia cardinalis is an acrid plant which 
is reckoned an anthelmintic. Ibid. 2. 180. 
Examples. Lobelia, Isotoma. 



CLXXVT. GOODENOVIiE. 

Campanula, Juss. Gen. 163. (1789) in part.— Goodenovi-e, K. Brown Prodr. 573, (1810). 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with a 2-4-celled inferior ovarium, 
an indusiate stigma, and indefinite seeds. 

Anomalies. This order offers the singular anomaly of genera having, at 
the same time, an inferior calyx and a superior corolla ; a circumstance which, 
it has been well observed by Mr. Brown, points out the real origin of both or- 
gans. 

Essential Character. — Calyx usually superior, rarely inferior, equal or unequal, in from 
3 to 5 divisions. Corolla always more or less superior, monopetalous, more or less irregular, 
withering ; its lube split at the back, and sometimes capable of being separated into 5 pieces, 
when the calyx only coheres with the base of the ovarium ; its//m6 5-parted, with 1 or 2 lips, 
the edges of the segments being thinner than the middle, and folded inwards in aestivation. 
StaTiiens 5, distinct, alternate with the -.annuls of the corolla ; anthers distinct or cohering, 
2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Pollen simple or compound. Ovarium 2-celled, rarely 
4-celled, with indefinite ovules, having sometimes a gland at its base between the 2 anterior 
filaments; style 1, simple, very rarely divided; sti&ma fleshy, undivided, or 2-lobed, sur- 
rounded by a membranous cup. Fruit a 2- or 4-celled capsule with many seeds, attached 
to the axis of the dissepiment, which is usually parallel with the valves, rarely oppo- 
site to them. Seeds usually with a thickened testa, which is sometimes nut-like \ albumen 
fleshy, enclosing an erect embryo; cotyledons toliaceous ; plumula inconspicuous. Herba- 
ceous plants, rarely shrubs; without milk, with simple or glandular hairs, if any are present. 
Leaves scattered, often lobed, without stipula;. Inflorescence terminal, variable, flowers 
distinct, never capitate, usually yellow, or blue, or pink. 

Affinities. The strict relation of these to Campanulaceae and Lobeliaceae 
cannot be doubted, from which they differ in the aestivation of the flower, and 
in the peculiar indusium of the stigma, a trace of which is to be found in Lo- 
beliacese, and which exists in a remarkable degree in Brunoniaceas. Scaevoleae 
differ only in their definite seeds. Upon the nature of the indusium of the stig- 
ma Mr. Brown makes the following observations. 

" Is this remarkable covering of the stigma in these families merely a pro- 
cess of the apex of the style % or is it a part of distinct origin, though inti- 
mately cohering with the pistillum 1 On the latter supposition, may it not be 
considered as analogous to the glandular disk surrounding or crowning the 
ovarium in many other families ? And, in adoptinc the hypothesis I have for- 

34 



186 

merly advanced respecting the nature of this disk in certain families, — namely, 
that it is composed of a series of modified stamina, — has not the part in ques- 
tion a considerable resemblance, in apparent origin and division, to the stamina, 
of the nearly-related family Stylideae % To render this supposition somewhat 
less paradoxical, let the comparison be made especially between the indusium 
of Brunonia and the imperfect anthers in the pistilliferous flowers of Forstera. 
Lastly, connected with this view, it becomes of importance to ascertain whether 
the stamina in Stylidese are opposite to the segments of calyx or of corolla. The 
latter disposition would be in favour of the hypothesis. This, however, is a point 
which will not be very easily determined, the stamina being lateral. In the 
mean time, the existence and division of the corona faucis in Stylidium render it 
not altogether improbable that they are opposite to the segments of the corolla." 
R. Brown in Lin. Trans. 12. 134. I am rather inclined to consider the indu- 
sium analogous to the collecting hairs of Campanulacese. Tn these they oc- 
cupy the surface of the greater part of the style ; in Lobelia they are ar- 
ranged in a whorl, forming a cup-like fringe ; and in Goodenoviae the hairs, 
being still whorled, are consolidated into a uniform substance by their mutual 
cohesion. 

Geography. Natives of New Holland, and other islands of the South Pa- 
cific Ocean. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Goodenia, Velleia, Leschenaultia, 



CLXXVII. STYLIDlEiE 

Stylideje, R. Brown Prodr. 565. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous gynandrous dicotyledons. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Calyx superior, with from 2 to 6 divisions, bilabiate or regular, 
persistent. Corolla monopetalous, falling- offlate ; its limb irregular, rarely regular, with from 
5 to 6 divisions, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 2 ; filaments connate with the style into a 
longitudinal column; anthers twin, sometimes simple, lying over the stigma ; pollen globose, 
simple, sometimes angular. Ovarium 2-celled, many-seeded, sometimes 1-cellcd, in conse- 
quence of the contraction of the dissepiment, often surmounted with a single gland in front, or 
two opposite ones ; style, 1 ; stigma entire or bifid. Capsule with 2 valves and 2 cells, the dis- 
sepiment between which being- sometimes either contracted or separable from the inflexed mar- 
gins of the valves, the capsule becomes as it were 1 -relied. Seeds small, erect, sometimes stalked, 
attached to the axis of the dissepiment; embryo minute, enclosed within a fleshy, somewhat 
oily albumen. — Herbaceous plants or binder-shrubs, w ithout milk, having a stern or scape, their 
hair, where they have any, simple, acute, or headed with a gland. Leaves scattered, some- 
times whorled, entire, their margins naked or ciliated, the radical ones clustered in the species 
with scapes. Flowers in spikes, racemes, or corymbs, or solitary ; terminal, rarely axillary, 
the pedicels usually with three bracteae. 

Affinities. Nearly allied both to Cainpanulaceee and Goodenoviae, from 
both of which they are distinguished by their gynandrous stamens, and from 
the latter by the want of an indusium to the stigma. The structure of the 
organs of fructification is highly curious ; the stamens and style are closely 
combined in a solid irritable column, at the top of which is a cavity, including 
the stigma, and bounded by the anthers. A singular blunder was committed 
by Labillardiere, who mistook the epigynous gland for the stigma ; and another 
by L. C. Richard, who considered the labellum to be the pistilliferous organ. 



187 

Geography. Chiefly found in New Holland. Species have been disco 
vered both in Ceylon and the South Sea Islands. 
Properties. Unknown. 
Examples. Stylidium, Forstera. 



CLXXVIII. SCiEVOLEiE. 

GoodenovijE, § Scsevolese, R. Brown Prodr. 582. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with a 1-4-celled inferior ovarium, 
an indusiate stigma, and definite erect seeds. 

Anomalies. A Molucca species of Scaevola exists, with opposite leaves. 
R. Br. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, equal or unequal, in 5 divisions, sometimes 
obsolete. Corolla superior, monopetalous, more or less irregular, withering - , or deciduous ; 
its tube split at the back ; its limb 5-parted, with 1 or 2 lips, the edges of the segments being- 
thinner than the middle, and folded inwards in activation. Stamens 5, distinct, alternate with 
the segments of the corolla ; anthers distinct or cohering-, 2-celled, bursting- longitudinally ; 
pollen simple. Ovarium 1- 2- or 4-celled, with 1, seldom 2, erect ovula in each cell ; style 1, 
simple; stigma fleshy, surrounded by a membranous cup. Fruit inferior, indehiscent, dru- 
paceous, or nut-like. Seeds with a thickened testa; albumen fleshy, enclosing an erect em- 
bryo ; cotyledons foliaceous ; plumula. inconspicuous. — Herbaceous plants or sft.ru 6s, without 
milk, with simple or stellate hairs, if any are present. Leaves scattered, undivided, without 
stipule. Inflorescence axillary or terminal. Mowers distinct, never capitate, white, blue, or 
yellowish. 

Affinities. Combined, on account of their indusiate stigmas, by Mr. 
Brown, with Goodenovia and Brunoniaceee, from the former of which they 
differ in habit, indehiscent fruit, and definite seeds ; from the latter, in their in- 
ferior ovarium and habit. 

Geography. Natives of the South Seas and the islands of the Indian 
archipelago. The species are abundant in New Holland, 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Scaevola, Diaspasis, Dampiera. 



CLXXIX. BRUNONIACEvE. 

Goodenovia, § 2. R. Brown Prodr. 589. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with regular flowers, a superior 
entire ovarium, a single erect ovulum, capitate flowers, and a stigma with an 
indusium. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Calyx inferior, in 5 divisions, with 4 bractese at the base. Corolla 
monopetalous, almost regular, 5-parted, inferior, withering. Stamens definite, hypogynous, 
alternate with the segments of the corolla ; anthers collateral, slightly cohering. Ovarium 
1-celled, with a single erect ovulum ; style single ; stigma enclosed in a 2-valved cup. Fruit 
a membranous utricle enclosed within the indurated tube 6f the calyx. Seed solitary, erect, 
without albumen ; embryo with plano-convex fleshy cotyledons, and a minute inferior radicle. 
— Herbaceous plants, without stems, and simple glandless hairs. Leaves radical, entire, with 
no stipulse. Flowers collected in heads, surrounded by enlarged bracteaj, blue. 



188 

Affinities. Placed hy Mr Brown as a section of Goodenoviae, from which 
they, in my judgment, differ essentially in their superior 1 -celled ovarium and 
capitate flowers, thus approaching some species of Dipsaceae, from which they 
differ in the want of an involucellum, their erect ovulum, superior ovarium, and 
peculiar stigma. With reference to this, Mr. Brown says : " Brunonia agrees 
with Goodenovire in the remarkable indusium of the stigma, in the structure 
and connexion of the anthers, in the seed being erect, and essentially in the 
aestivation of corolla. It differs from them in having both calyx and corolla 
distinct from the ovarium, in the disposition of vessels in the corolla, in the fila- 
ments being jointed at top, in the seed being without albumen, and in its re- 
markable inflorescence, compatible, indeed, with the nature of the irregularity 
in the corolla of Goodenoviae, but which can hardly co-exist with that charac- 
terizing Lobeliaceoe. With Compositae it agrees essentially in inflorescence, in 
the aestivation of corolla, in the remarkable joint or change of texture in the 
apex of its filaments, and in the structure of the ovarium and seed. It differs from 
them in having ovarium liberumorsuperum,in the want of a glandular disk, in the 
immediately hypogy nous insertion of the filaments, in the indusion of the stigma, 
and in the vascular structure of the corolla, whose tube has five nerves only, 
and these continued through the axis of the laciniae, either terminating simply, 
(as is at least frequently the case in Brunonia sericea,) or (as in B. australis) 
dividing at top into two recurrent branches, forming lateral nerves, at first sight 
resembling those of Compositae, but which hardly reach to the base of the la- 
ciniae. It is a curious circumstance that Brunonia should so completely differ 
from Compositae in the disposition of vessels of 'the corolla, while both orders 
agree in the no less remarkable structure of the jointed filament; a character 
which had been observed in a very few Compositae only, before the publication 
of M. Cassini's second Dissertation, where it is proved to be nearly universal in 
the order. In the opposite parietes of the ovarium of Brunonia two nerves or 
vascular cords are observable, which are continued into the style, where they 
become approximated and parallel. This structure, so nearly resembling that 
of Composite, seems to strengthen the analogical argument in favour of the 
hypothesis advanced in the present paper, of the compound nature of the pistil- 
lum in that order, and of its type in phaenogamous plants generally; Brunonia 
having an obvious and near affinity to Goodenoviae, in the greater part of whose 
genera the ovarium has actually two cells with one or an indefinite number of 
ovula in each ; while in a few genera of the same order, as Dampiera, Dias- 
pasis, and certain species of Scaevola, it is equally reduced to one cell anda single 
ovulum." R. Brown in Linn Trans. 12. 132. The habit of this order is very 
much that of Globularineae. 

Geography. Natives of New Holland 

Properties. Unknown 

Example. Brunonia 



CLXXX PAPAYACU/i: The Papaw Tribe. 

Papav.k, Agardh Classes. (1824).- Carkek, Thurpin in Atl.dit Diet, des Sc. Nat. (7)— 
Papayaceje, Von Vlartius H. R M. (1829.) 

Diagnosis Monopetalous dicotyledons, with regular diclinous flowers, and 
a superior 1-celled ovarium with 5 parietal placentae. 



189 

Essential Character. — Flowers diclinous. Calyx inferior, minute, 5-toothed. Corolla 
monopetalous ; in the staminiferous tubular, with 5 lobes and lOstamens, all arising from the same 
tine, and of which those that are opposite the lobes are sessile, the others on short filaments ; 
anthers adnate, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally ; in the pistilliferous divided nearly to the base 
into 5 segments. Ovarium superior] 1-cclled, with 5 parietal polyspermous placentae ; stigma 
sessile, 5-lobcd, lacerated. Fruit succulent, indchisccnt, 1 -celled with 5 polyspermous parie. 
tad placentae. Seeds enveloped in a loose mucous coat with a brittle pitted testa ; embryo in the 
axis of fleshy albumen, with flat cotyledons and a taper radicle turned towards the hilum. 
— Trees without branches, yielding an acrid milky juice. Leaves alternate, lobed, on long 
taper petioles. Flowers in axillary racemes. 

Affinities. It was the opinion of Jussieu that the genus upon which this 
order is founded held a sort of middle station between Urticeae and Cucurbita- 
cese. Auguste St. Hilaire has, however, well remarked upon this subject, that 
the only relation that it has with the Urticeae consists in the separation of stamens 
and pistils, its milky juice, its habit, which is like that of some species of Ficus, 
its foliage, which is not very different from that of Cecropia, and the position of 
its stigmas : and to these he wisely attaches very little importance. Its fruit 
brings it near Cucurbitaceae ; but its true place is probably in the vicinity of Pas- 
siflorea*, with which it altogether agrees in appearance of its testa, in its unilocu- 
lar fruit with parietal polyspermous placenta 1 , and in its dichlamydeous flowers ; 
differing, however, widely in its habit and monopetalous flowers. 

Geography. Natives of South America ; unknown, except as objects of 
cultivation, beyond that continent. 

Properties. The fruit of the Papaw is eaten, when cooked, and is es- 
teemed by some persons ; but it appears to have little to recommend it. Its 
great peculiarities are, that the juice of the unripe fruit is a most powerful and 
efficient vermifuge, the powder of the seed even answers the same purpose, and 
that a principal constituent of this juice is fibrine, a principle otherwise sup- 
posed peculiar to the animal kingdom and to fungi. The. tree has, moreover, 
the singular property of rendering the toughest animal substances tender, by 
causing a separation of the muscular fibre ; its very vapour even does this ; 
newly killed meat suspended among the leaves, and even old hogs and old 
poultry, becoming tender in a few hours, when fed on the leaves and fruit. See 
an excellent account of the Papaw by Dr. Hooker, in the Bol. J\Iag. 2898. 

.Example. Carica. 



CLXXXI CUCURBIT ACEiE The Gourd Tribe. 

Cucurbitaceje, Jusa. Gen. 393. (17S9); Aug. St. Ml. in Mem. Mus. 9.190-221.(1823); Dec. 
Prodr. 3.297. (1S28) ; Line/!. Synops. 319. (1829).— Nandhirobeje, Aug. de Si. Hil. I. c. 
(1823) ; Turpin Did. des Sc. Alias. (?) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior ovarium, parietal 
placenta?, succulent fruit, a regular corolla, and no albumen. 

Anomalies. The ripe fruit is divided into 3 or 4 cells in some Momordicas, 
and is occasionally dry, opening by valves at the apex. 

Essential Character. — Flowers usually diclinous, sometimes monoclinous. Calyx 
5- toothed, sometimes obsolete. Corolla 5-partcd, scarcely distinguishable from the calyx, very 
cellular, with strongly marked reticulated veins, sometimes fringed. Stamens 5, either distinct, 
or cohering in 3 parcels ; anthers 2-celled, very long and sinuous. Ovarium inferior, 1-celled, 
with 3 parietal placenta; ; style short ; stigmas very thick, velvety or fringed. Fruit fleshy, 
more or less succulent, crowned by the scar of the calyx, I-celled, with 3 parietal placentae. 
Seeds flat ovate, enveloped in an arillus, which is either juicy, or dry and membranous; testa 
coriaceous, often thick at the margin ; embryo flat, with no albumen; cotyledons foliaceous, 
veined ; radicle next the hilum. — Hoots annual or perennial, fibrous or tuberous. Stem succu- 
lent, climbing by means of tendrils formed by abortive leaves (stipuls, St. Hil). Leaves pal- 
mated, or with palmate ribs, very succulent, covered with numerous asperities. Flowers 
white, red, or yellow. 



190 

Affinities. Placed by Auguste de St. Hilaire and Decandolle between 
Myrtaceae, to which they appeal to me to have little affinity, and Passifloreae, 
to which they are so closely allied, that they scarcely differ, except in their mo- 
nopetalous corolla, sinuous stamens, diclinous flowers, and exalbuminous seeds, 
the habit of both being exactly the same. By the former of these two writers 
a very particular account of the structure of the order has been given in the 
JWLemoires du Museum. He adopts the opinion of Jussieu, that the apparent 
corolla of these plants is really a calyx, considering the apparent calyx to be 
merely certain external appendages. This view I cannot follow, any more 
than the notion of Passifloreae being apetalous : however ingenious the reason- 
ing may be upon which such theories are founded, they appear to me to be 
overstrained, and entirely at variance with both analogy and actual structure. 
In discussing the affinities of the order, which he does much at length, he re- 
marks, that Carica (now the type of the order Papayaceae) should be ex- 
cluded ; that the tendrils of Cucurbitaceae are transformed stipules, but scarce- 
ly analogous to the stipulae of Passifloreae ; that there is an affinity between 
the order and Campanulacea^ manifested in the perigynous insertion of the 
stamens, the inferior ovarium, the single style with several stigmas, the quinary 
division of the flower connected with the ternary division of the fruit, and, 
finally, some analogy in the nature of the floral envelopes. He, however, 
chiefly insists upon their affinity with Onagrariae, with which, including Com- 
bretaceae, they agree in their definite perigynous stamens, single st3 r le, exalbu- 
minous seeds, fleshy fruit, and occasionally in the diclinous flowers and climb- 
ing stem, being connected in the latter point of view with Onagrariae through 
Gronovia, a climbing genus of that order. He also points out the further con- 
nexion that exists between Cucurbitaceae and Onagrariae through Loaseae, 
which, with an undoubted affinity to the latter, have all the habit of the former. 
With regard to the supposed affinity of Cucurbitaceae to Myrtaceae, this is 
founded upon the characters of a small group, called Nandhirobe^, consist- 
ing of plants having the habit of Cucurbitaceae, but some resemblance in the 
form of their fruit to that of Lecythideae, which, as is well known, border close- 
ly upon Myrtaceae : but beyond this resemblance in the fruit, which appears to 
be altogether a structure of analogy rather than of affinity, I find nothing to 
confirm the approachment. Indeed, I agree with Decandolle in estimating 
Nandhirobeae no higher than a mere section of Cucurbitaceae. 

Geography. Natives of hot countries in both hemispheres, chiefly within 
the tropics ; a few are found to the north in Europe and North America, and 
several are natives of the Cape of Good Hope. India appears- to be their 
favourite station. 

Properties. One of the most useful orders in the vegetable kingdom, 
comprehending the Melon, the Cucumber, the Choco, and the various species 
of Gourd, all useful as the food of man. A bitter laxative quality perhaps per- 
vades all these, which in the Colocynth gourd, is so concentrated as to become 
an active purgative principle. The Colocynth of the shops is prepared from 
the pulp of Cue umis Colocyn this : it is of so drastic and irritating a nature as 
to be classed by Orfila among his poisons ; but, according to Thunberg, the 
gourd is rendered perfectly mild at the Cape of Good Hope, by being properly 
pickled. Jlinslie, 1. 85. The bitter resinous matter in which the active prin- 
ciples of Colocjmth are supposed to exist, is called by chemists Colocynthin. 
A waxy substance is secreted by the surface of the fruit of Benincasacerifera. 
It is produced in the most abundance at the time of its ripening. Delile 
Descript. The leaf of Feuillea cordifolia is asserted by M. Drapiez to be a 
powerful antidote against vegetable poisons. Ed. P. J. 4. 221. The fruit of 
Trichosanthes palmata, pounded small and intimately blended with warm 
cocoa-nut oil, is considered a valuable application in India for cleaning and 



191 

healiiiff the offensive sores which sometimes take place inside of the ears. It 
is also supposed to be a useful remedy, poured up the nostrils, in cases of 
ozama. Jiinslie, 2. 85. The root of Bryonia possesses powerful purgative 
properties, but is said to be capable of becoming wholesome food if properly 
cooked. The perennial roots of all the order appear to contain similar bitter 
drastic virtues, especially that of the Momordica Elaterium, or Spirting 
Cucumber. An extremely active poisonous principle, called Elatine, has also 
been found in the placenta of this plant. It exists in such extremely small 
quantity, that Dr. Clutterbuck only obtained 6 grains from 40 fruit. Ed. P. J. 
3. 307. An ingenious explanation of the cause of the singular ejection of 
the seeds of this plant will be found in Dutrochet Nouvelles Recherches sur 
I'Exosmose, The root of Bryonia rostrata is prescribed in India internally, in 
electuary, in cases of piles. It is also used as a demulcent, in the form of 
powder/ That of Bryonia cordifolia is considered cooling, and to possess 
virtues in complaints requiring expectorants. Jiinslie, 2. 21. The root of 
Bryonia epigaea was once supposed to be the famous Colombo root, to which 
it approaches very nearly in quality. The tender shoots and leaves of Bryonia 
scabra are aperient, having been previously roasted. Ibid. 2. 212. The seeds 
of all the species are. sweet and oily, and capable of forming very readily an 
emulsion; those of Joliffia africana, an African plant, are as large as chest- 
nuts, and said to be as excellent as almonds, having a very agreeable flavour ; 
when pressed . they yield an abundance of oil, equal to that of the finest 
Olives. Decandolle remarks, that the seeds of this family never participate in 
the property of the pulp that surrounds them. 

Examples. Cucurnis, Biyonia, Cucurbita, Luffa. 



CLXXXII PLANTAGINE^E. The Rib-Grass Tribe. 

Plant agines, Juss. Gen. 89. (1789).— Plantagine.e, R. Brown Prodr. 423. (1810); Lindl. 

Sr/nops. 169. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous tetrandrous dicotyledons, with a regular corolla, 
a superior 2-4-celled ovarium, a simple filiform stigma, spiked flowers, flaccid 
filaments, and a membranous pericarp dehiscing transversely. 

Anomalies. In Littorella the flowers are solitary. 

Essential Chabacter. — Flowers usually monoelinous, seldom diclinous. Calyx 4-parted, 
persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, persistent, with a 4-parted limb. Stawc7is4, 
inserted into the corolla, alternately with its segments ; JUdments filiform, flaccid, doubled 
inwards in aestivation ; anthers versatile, 2-celled. Ovarium sessile, without a disk, 2-, very 
seldom 4-celled ; ovula peltate or erect, solitary, twin, or indefinite ; style simple, capillary; 
stigma hispid, simple, rarely half bifid. Capsule membranous, dehiscing transversely. 
,V, , ds sessile, peltate, or erect, solitary, twin, or indefinite ; testa, mucilaginous ; embryo in the 
axis of fleshyalbumen; radicle inferior ; ■plumida inconspicuous.— Herbaceous plants, usually 
stemless, occasionally with a stem ; hairs simple, articulated. Leaves flat and ribbed, or 
taper and fleshy. Flowers in spikes, rarely solitary. 

Affinities. By Jussieu this is considered apetalous, the corolla being 
called calyx, and the calyx bractea?. But this appears so contrary to all 
analogy, that it is impossible to adopt the opinion. The order seems to be 
more near Plumbagineae than any other, agreeing with them in habit, and 
also in the general structure of the flower, but differing in having a 1-celled 
ovarium, with a solitary ovulum, and several stigmas. Mr. Don (Jameson's 



192 

Journal, Jan. 1830, p. 166.) refers Glaux to Plantagineae, " where it will form 
the connecting link between that family and Primulacese." 

Geography. Scattered over the whole world, in almost every quarter of 
which they are found in one situation or another. 

Properties. The herbage is slightly bitter and astringent, and they have 
even been reckoned febrifuges. Their seeds are covered with mucus. Accord- 
ing to Decandolle, those of P. arenaria are exported in considerable quantities 
from Nismes and Montpellier to the north of Europe, and are supposed to be 
consumed in the completion of the manufacture of muslins. The seeds of 
Plantago Ispaghula are of a very cooling nature, and, like those of Plantago 
Psyllium, form, with boiling water, a rich mucilage, which is much used in 
India in catarrh, gonorrhoea, and nephritic affections. Jliiislie, 2. 116. 

Examples. Plantago, Littorella. 



CLXXXITI. PLUMBAGINE.E. The Leadwort Tribe. 

Plumbagines, Juss. Gen. 92. (1789).— PlumbaginejE, R. Brown Prodr. 425. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with regular flowers, a superior 
1-celled ovarium containing a single ovuhun suspended from the apex of an um- 
bilical cord, and a naked stigma. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character.— Calyx tabular, plaited, persistent, Corulla monopetaloos or 
5-petalous, regular. Stamens definite; in the munopetalous species hypogynous ! inthepoly- 
petalous arising from the petals ! Ovarium superior, single, 1-seeded ; oeulum inverted, pen- 
dulous from the point of an umbilical cord, arising from the bottom of the cavity ; styles 5 ! 
seldom 3 or 4 ; stigmas the same number. Fruit a nearly indehiscent utriculus. Seed in- 
verted ; testa simple ; embryo straight ; radicle superior. — Herbaceous plants or under-shr-ubs, 
variable in appearance. Leaves alternate or clustered, undivided, somewhat sheathing at the 
base. Flowers either loosely panicled, or contracted into heads, flowering irregularly. 

Affinities. Distinguished from all other monopetalous orders by their 
plaited calyx and solitary ovulum, suspended from the apex of a cord which 
arises from the base of a 1-celled ovarium, with several stigmas. From Plan- 
taginere they are otherwise chiefly known by their inflorescence not being sim- 
ply spiked, and their albumen not fleshy. The economy of the ovulum is 
highly curious ; before fecundation it is suspended from the apex of a cord, or 
rather strap, which lies over the foramen or orifice through which the vivifying 
influence of the pollen has to be introduced ; this foramen is presented to th< 
summit of the cell immediately below the origin of the stigmas, but has no 
communication with that part of the cell, from contact with which it is further 
cut off by the overlying strap : but as soon as the pollen exercises its influence 
upon the stigmas, the strap slips aside from above the foramen, which is enter- 
ed by an extension of the apex of the cell, and thus a direct communication is 
established between the pollen and the inside of the ovulum. This phenome- 
non is obscurely hinted at by several writers, but was first distinctly shown me 
by Mr. Brown, and has lately been beautifully illustrated by Mirbel Nouvelles 
Rccherches stir tOmde, tab. 4. Nyctagineac are distinguished by their curved 
embryo, want of petals, and coloured calyx, the base of which hardens and 
contracts an adhesion with the pericarp, which is finally absorbed. 

Geography. Many arc inhabitants of the salt marshes and sea coasts of 
the temperate parts of the world, particularly of the basin of the Mediterranean 
and the southern provinces of the Russian empire ; others grow from Green- 



193 

land and the mountains of Europe, to the sterile volcanic regions of Cape Horn. 
A few are found within the tropics ; of these Plumbago zeylanica extends 
from Ceylon to Port Jackson, and iEgialitis grows among the Mangroves of 
northern Australasia. 

Properties. This order contains plants of very opposite qualities ; part are 
tonic and astringent, and part acrid and caustic in the highest degree. The 
root of Statice caroliniana is one of the most powerful astringents in the vege- 
table materia medica. Bigelow, 2. 55. The bruised fresh bark of the root of 
Plumbago zeylanica acts as a vesicatory, and is applied in India to buboes in 
♦heir incipient state. Ainslie, 2. 77. Plumbago europasa is employed by beg- 
gars to raise ulcers upon their bodies to excite pity ; and Plumbago scandens 
is remarkably acrid. Plumbago europsa is said by Duroques to have been 
used with considerable advantage in cases of cancer, for which purpose the ul- 
cers were dressed twice daily with olive oil in which the leaves had been infused. 
Ibid. 2. 78. Plumbago scandens is called, on account of these properties, Herbe 
du Diable in St. Domingo. As garden plants, nearly the whole of the order is 
much prized for beauty, particularly the Statices, many of which are among 
the most lovely herbaceous plants we know. 

Examples. Statice, Armeria, Taxanthema, Plumbago, iEgialitis, Vogelia, 
Theta. 



CLXXXIV. DIPSACEtE. The Scabious Tribe. 

Dipsacej;, Juss. Gen. 194. (1789); Dec. et Duby Bot. Gall. 255. (1829); Lindl. Synops. 139. 
(1829) ; Coulter Mem. in Act. Genev. 2. 13. (1823). [Dec. Prod. 4. 643. (1830.)] 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior 1-celled ovarium, 
capitate flowers, distinct anthers, and albuminous pendulous seeds. 
Anomalies. Ovarium sometimes partly superior. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, membranous, resembling - pappus ; surrounded by 
a scarious involucellum. Corolla monopetalous, tubular, inserted in the calyx ; limb oblique, 
4- or 5-lobed, with an imbricated activation. Stamens usually 4 or 5, alternate with the lobes 
of the corolla; anthers distinct. Ovarium inferior, 1-celled, with a single pendulous ovulum ; 
style 1 ; stigma simple. Fruit dry, indehiscent, 1-celled, crowned by the pappus-like calyx ; 
embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle superior.— Herbaceous plants or 
under-shrubs". Leaves opposite or whorled. Flowers collected upon a common receptacle, and 
surrounded by a many-leaved involucrum. 

Affinities. The relation of this family is obviously in the first degree with 
Composite, from which it differs in its distinct stamens and its pendulous albu- 
minous seeds; and next with Calycereas, which have connate anthers and alter- 
nate leaves. But if we compare it with Caprifoliaceee, different as it is in 
habit, we shall find very little beyond the capitate flowers and the presence of 
an involucellum to distinguish it absolutely. The same character of the capi- 
tate flowers, and the presence of albumen, forms the distinction between Dipsa- 
ceae and Valerianeee. What is called the involucellum is a curious organ, re- 
sembling an external calyx, and is to each particular flower of the head of 
Dipsaceae what the partial involucrum of Umbelliferse is to each partial umbel ; 
and, accordingly, we ought to expect to find instances of more flowers than one 
being enclosed within this involucellum ; and this is said by Coulter actually 
to take place in the genus Gundelia. This is, however, not the only peculia- 
rity of the order. Mr. Brown has the following curious remarks : 

35 



194 

" M. Auguste Saint Hilaire, in his excellent memoir on Primulaceae, while 
he admits the correctness of M. Decandolle's account with respect to great 
part of Dipsacere, has at the same time well observed, that in several species 
of Scabiosa the ovarium is entirely united with the tube of the calyx. But 
neither of these authors has remarked the curious, and I believe pecuhar, cir- 
cumstance, of the base of the style cohering with.the narrow apex of the tube 
of the calyx, even in those species of the order in which the dilated part of the 
tube is entirely distinct from the ovarium. This kind of partial cohesion be- 
tween pistillum and calyx is directly opposite to what usually takes place, 
namely, the base of the ovarium being coherent, while its upper is distinct. It 
equally, however, determines the apparent origin or insertion of corolla and 
stamina, producing the unexpected combination of ' flos auperus' with ovarium 
'liberum.'" Linn. Trans. 12. 138. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of the south of Europe, Barbary, the Levant, 
and the Cape of Good Hope ; not affecting particular stations in any striking 
degree, except that they generally shun cold, and do not attain much eleva- 
tion above the sea. Coulter. 

Properties. Unimportant. The Teasel used by fullers in dressing cloth 
is the dried head of Dipsacus fullonum. Some of them are reputed febrifugal. 
Scabiosa succisa is said to yield a green dye, and also to be astringent enough 
to deserve the attention of tanners. Ghnel. Fl. Bad. 1. 319. 

Examples. Dipsacus, Scabiosa, Knautia. 



CLXXXV. VALERIANE.E. The Valerian Tribe. 

Valerianeje, Dec. Fl. Fr. ed. 3. v. 4. p. 232. (1815); Dufr. Valcr. Monogr. 56. (1811); Ldndl. 
Si/nops. 137. (1829). [Dec. Prod. 4. 623. (1830).] 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior 1-celled ovarium, 
distinct stamens, and exalbuminous pendulous seeds. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior; the limb either membranous, or resembling 1 
pappus. Corolla monopetalous, tubular, inserted into the top of the ovarium, with from 3 to 
6 lobes, cither regular or irregular, sometimes calcarate at the base. Stamens from 1 to 5, 
inserted into the tube of the corolla, and alternate with its lobes. Ovarium inferior, with 1 
cell, and sometimes 2 other abortive ones ; ovulum solitary, pendulous ; style simple , stigmas 
from 1 to 3. Fruit dry, indehiscent, with 1 fertile cell and 2 empty ones. Seed solitary, 
pendulous; embryo straight, destitute of albumen; radicle superior. — Herbs. Leaves opposite, 
without stipukc. Flowers corymbose, panicled, or in heads. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Dipsacea^ by their flowers not being in 
heads, by the want of albumen, by sensible properties, and the absence of an 
involucellum. 

Geography. Natives of most temperate climates ; sometimes at consider- 
able elevations. They are abundant in the north of India, Europe, and South 
America, but uncommon in Africa and North America. 

Properties. The roots of Valeriana officinalis, Phu, and celtica, are tonic, 
bitter, aromatic, antispasmodic, and vermifugal ; they are even said to be feb- 
rifugal. The scent of these roots is not agreeable to a European ; and yet 
those of some species are highly esteemed as perfumes. Eastern nations pro- 
cure from the mountains of Austria the Valeriana celtica to aromatize their 
baths ; the V. Jatamansi, or true Spikenard of the ancients, is valued in India, 
not only for its scent, but also as a remedy in hysteria and epilepsy. The 



195 

young leaves of the species of Valerianella are eaten as salad, under the 
French name of Mache, or the English one of Lamb's Lettuce. Red Valerian 
is also eaten in the same way in Sicily. Dec. 
Examples. Valeriana, Valerianella, Patrinia. 



CLXXXVI. COMPOSITE. 



CouposiTiE, Adans. Fam. 2. 103. (1763); Kunth in Humb. N. G. et Sp. vol.4. (1820); Lindl. 
Synops. 140. (1829).— Synantherej:, Rich. Anal. (1808); Cassini Diet. Sc. N. 10. 131. 
(1818); ibid. 60. 563. (1830). — CobymbifebjE, Cynabocephal*, and Cichobace-k, 
Juss. Gen. (1789.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with a 1-celled inferior ovarium, 
capitate flowers, syngenesious stamens, and erect ovula. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, closely adhering 1 to the ovarium, and undia- 
tinguishable from it: its limb either wanting-, or membranous, divided into bristles, palea, 
hairs, or feathers, and called pappus. Corolla monopetalous, superior, usually deciduous, 
either ligulate or funnel-shaped ; in the latter case, 4- or 5-toothed, with a valvate aestivation. 
Stamens equal in number to the teeth of the corolla, and alternate with them ; the anthers 
cohering into a cylinder. Ovarium inferior, 1-celled, with a single erect ovulum ; style sim- 
ple ; stigmas 2, either distinct or united. Fruit a small, indehiscent, dry pericarpium, 
crowned with the limb of the calyx. Seed solitary, erect ; embryo with a taper, inferior 
radicle ; albumen none. — Herbaceous plants or shrubs. Leaves alternate or opposite, without 
stipulffi, usually simple. Flowers (called Jlorets) diclinous or monoclinous, collected in dense 
heads upon a common receptacle, surrounded by an involucrum. Bractcce either present or 
absent ; when present, stationed at the base of the florets, and called palcae of the receptacle. 

Affinities. One of the most natural and extensive families of the vege- 
table kingdom, at all times recognised by its syngenesious stamens and capitate 
flowers. Calycereea and Dipsaceaa, neighbouring orders, are readily dis- 
tinguished by their pendulous ovulum, and by the anthers being either wholly 
or partially distinct. In proportion to its strict natural limits, depending upon 
the uniformity of its characters, is the difficulty of separating it into sections 
or subordinate divisions, a measure absolutely necessary, on account of the 
vast number of species referable to the order. Jussieu has three ; Corymbiferae, 
the florets of which are flosculous in the middle, and ligulate at the circum- 
ference ; Cichoraceae, the florets of which are all • ligulate ; and Cynaroce- 
phalffi, all whose florets are flosculous : to which has since been added a tribe 
called bilabiate. Linnaeus divided them according to the stamens and pistils of 
the florets of different parts of the same head. The former has been found un- 
exceptionable, as far as it goes ; the latter wholly unmanageable. Neither, 
however, have satisfied the views of modern botanists, who have divided the 
order into a considerable number of sections, to which each has given his own 
name ; so that this order has become a perfect chaos to all who have not 
devoted years to its exclusive study. The most important of those who have 
undertaken to remodel Composite, are M. Cassini, who has written much 
upon them in the Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, and elsewhere ; M. 
Kunth, whose arrangement will be found in Humboldt's Nova Genera et 
Species Planlarum ; Mr. Don, who has written several detached papers upon 
them ; and Link, who has an arrangement of his own in his Handbuch, vol. 1. 
p. 685. The most profound writers upon their general structure are M. 
Cassini and Mr. Robert Brown, whose paper in the 12th volume of the 
Transactions of the Linncean Society is a masterpiece of careful investigation 
and acute reasoning, from which I extract the following remarks : 



196 

" The whole of Composite agree in two remarkable points of structure of 
their corolla ; which, taken together at least, materially assist in determining 
the limits of the class. The first of these is its valvular estivation ; this, 
however, it has in common with several other families. The second I believe 
to be peculiar to the class, and hitherto unnoticed. It consists in the disposi- 
tion of its fasciculi of vessels or nerves ; these, which at their origin are 
generally equal in number to the divisions of the corolla, instead of being 
placed opposite to these divisions, and passing through their axes as in other 
plants, alternate with them ; each of the vessels at the top of the tube divid- 
ing into two equal branches, running parallel to and near the margins of the 
corresponding laciniae, within whose apices they unite. These, as they exist 
in the whole class, and are in great part of it the only vessels observable, may 
be called primary. In several genera, however, other vessels occur, alternating 
with the primary, and occupying the axes of the laciniae ; in some cases these 
secondary vessels being most distinctly visible in the lacinie, and becoming 
gradually fainter as they descend the tube, might be regarded as recurrent, 
originating from the united apices of the primary branches ; but in other cases, 
where they are equally distinct at the base of the tube, this supposition cannot 
be admitted. A monopetalous corolla not splitting at the base is necessarily 
connected with this structure, which seems also peculiarly well adapted to the 
dense inflorescence of Composite, the vessels of the corolla and stamina 
being .united, and so disposed as to be least liable to suffer by pressure." 
JR. Brown Linn. Trans. 12. 77. 

Geography. All parts of the world abound in Composite, but in very 
different proportions. According to the calculations of Humboldt, they con- 
stitute | of the phenogamous plants of France, \ of Germany, T j of Lap- 
land, in North America £, within the tropics of America \ ; upon the autho- 
rity of Mr. Brown, they only form T \ of the Flora of the north of New 
Holland, and did not exceed ~ in the collection of plants formed by Dr. Smith 
upon the western coast of Africa in Congo. Congo, 445. In Sicily they 
constitute rather more than ■*■ (Presl.) ; the same proportion exists in the 
Balearic Islands (Cambesstdes) ; but in Melville Island they are rather more 
than Jg (Broion), a proportion nearly the same as that of the tropical parts of 
New Holland. It does not, therefore, appear that Composite, as an order, are 
subject to any very fixed ratio of increase or decrease corresponding with 
latitude. But much remains to be learned upon this subject. It is certain 
that Cichoracee are most abundant in cold regions, and Corymbifere in hot 
ones ; and that while in the northern parts of the world Composite are uni- 
versally herbaceous plants, they become gradually frutescent, or even arbo- 
rescent, as we approach the equator ; most of those of Chile are bushes, and 
the trees of St. Helena are chiefly Composite. 

Properties. I shall extract the substance of Decandolle's excellent 
remarks upon the properties of this family, with some additions. See Essai 
sur les Propri£t£s, §c. 177. 

They are best considered under the three principal heads of classification. 

CoRYMBIFERiE. 

There is a bitterness peculiar to all Composite, which in this section assumes 
a particular character, being combined with a resinous principle. If this latter 
exists in an inconsiderable quantity, and mixed with a bitter or astringent 
mucilage, we find tonic, stomachic, and febrifugal qualities, as in Tussilago 
Farfara, Camomile, Elecampane, Golden Rod, Matricaria Parthenium, the 
Stevia febrifuga of Mexico, and Eupatorium perfoliatum. The Inula Hele- 
nium, or Elecampane, has a root which is aromatic and slightly fetid. It is 
said to be of little value as a stomachic ; the French prepare from it a medi- 



197 

cinal wine they call Vin d'Aulnee. JiinsUe, 1. 120. Eupatoriurn perfoliatum 
is known in North America under the name of Boneset. It possesses very 
important tonic and diaphoretic properties ; it is also slightly stimulant. See 
Barton, 2. 133. upon this subject. In proportion as this resinous principle 
increases, the stimulating properties are augmented. Some become anthel- 
mintics, as Artemisia, Tansy, and Santolina ; others emmenagogues, as Matri- 
caria, Achillea and Artemisia. The seeds of Vernonia anthelmintica are 
accounted, in India, a very powerful anthelmintic. Ainslie, 2. 54. Artemisia 
chinensis and other species yield the Moxa of China, a substance which is 
used as a cautery, by burning it upon parts affected by gout and rheumatism. 
The leaves of A. maderaspatana are esteemed by the Indian doctors a valuable 
stomachic medicine ; they are also sometimes used in antiseptic and anodyne 
fomentations. Ibid. 1. 482. Artemisia indica is considered in India a power- 
ful deobstruent and antispasmodic. Ibid. 2. 194. Some are sudorifics, like 
Eupatoriurn, Achillea, Artemisia, and Calendula ; others diuretic ; and some 
possess both these qualities. A species of Conyza is highly esteemed in 
Mendoza as a diuretic. Erigeron philadelphicum and heterophyllum are both 
used in the United States as diuretics. They are commonly sold under the 
name of Scabions. Barton, 1. 234. The roots of several species of Liatris 
are active diuretics. Ibid. 2. 225. A decoction of the leaves and roots of 
Elephantopus scaber is given on the Malabar coast in cases of dysuria. 
Ainslie, 2. 17. A decoction of Cacalia sonchifolia is antifebrile. Ibid. 2. 213. 
The leaves of Cacalia alpina and sarracenica are recommended in coughs. 
Ibid. Many are sternutatories, as Rtarmica and Arnica ; others excite saliva- 
tion powerfully, as Spilanthus, Siegesbeckia orientalis, Anthemis pyrethrum. 
Coreopsis bidens, and Bidens tripartita : some are emetic. A decoction of 
Anthemis cotula is a strong and active bitter ; in the dose of a teacupful it 
produces copious vomiting and sweating. Barton, 1. 169. Others are tonic 
and antispasmodic, such as Achillea, Camomile, Wormword, Tansy, Eupato- 
riurn, &c. Many have been celebrated for their power of curing the bites of ser- 
pents, especially Eupatoriurn Ayapana, the leaves of which also form, in infu- 
sion, excellent diet drink ; when fresh bruised, they are said to be a most use- 
ful application for cleaning the face of a foul ulcer. Ainslie, 2. 35. An infu- 
sion of another species is used by the Javanese in fevers. Ibid. A valuable 
antidote against the bite of serpents, Vijuco del guaco, much esteemed in 
Spanish America, is produced by Mikania guaco. Humboldt Cinch. Forests, 
p. 21. Eng. ed. But the power of this Mikania is denied in the most positive 
terms by Dr. Hancock (Quarterly Journ. Jidy 1830, p. 334.), who suspects 
that the real Guaco antidote is some kind of Aristolochia. The peculiar and 
agreeable flavour of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) is well known. A 
vinegar, not distinguishable in flavour from it, is prepared in the Alps from 
Achillea nana, as well as from several dwarf species of Artemisia. The seeds 
usually abound in a fixed oil, which, in some cases, has the reputation of being 
anthelmintic : it is extracted in abundance from Madia sativa, Verbesina sativa, 
and even Helianthus, the grains of which are made into cakes by the North 
American Indians. The genus Helianthus contains a species remarkable for 
its eatable, wholesome tubers (H. tuberosus, or Jerusalem Artichoke,) while 
the roots of the Dahlia are extremely disagreeable. It is stated by M. Payen, 
that benzoic acid exists in the Dahlia. Brewster, 1. 376. A principle called 
Inulin is obtained from the roots of Inula Helenium. Turner, 700. The pith 
of the Sunflower has been stated by John to be a peculiar chemical principle, 
which he calls Medullin. 

ClNAROCEPHAL.E. 

Characterized by intense bitterness, wdiich depends upon the mixture of 
extractive with a gum which is sometimes yielded in great abundance. On 



198 

this account some have been accounted stomachics, as Carduus benedictus ; 
others slightly febrifugal, as Carduus marianus, Centaurea calcitrapa ; the 
Artichoke and others sudorific and diaphoretic, as Carduus benedictus and 
Arctium Bardana. The modern Arabians consider the root of the Artichoke 
(Cynara scolymus) an aperient : they call the gum of it Kunkirzeed, and 
place it among their emetics. Jlinslie, 1. 22. This bitterness is not, however, 
found in the unexpanded leaves or receptacles, on which account they are, 
in many cases, used as wholesome articles of food ; as the leaves of the Car- 
doon, and the receptacle of the unexpanded flower of Artichoke, the Carlina 
acanthifolia, and others. The flower of Echinops strigosus is used in Spain 
for tinder ; the corollas of the Artichoke, the Cardoon, and of several thistles, 
are employed in the South of Europe for curdling milk ; and those of Cartha- 
mus tinctorius yield a deep yellow dye, resembling Saffron. Their seeds are 
all oily and slightly bitter ; some are purgative, as those of Carthamus ; others 
diaphoretic, as Carduus benedictus ; and, finally, some partake of all these 
qualities, as Arctium Bardana, whose seeds pass for diuretic, diaphoretic, and 
slightly purgative. 

ClCHORACE.E. 

These are very much like Campanulaceae in their medical and chemical pro- 
perties, as might have been expected from the close affinity they bear that order 
botanically. Their juice is usually milky, bitter, astringent, and narcotic, as is 
well known to be the case in Succory, Endive, and even the common Lettuce, 
but more especially in Lactuca virosa and sylvestris, both of which yield an ex- 
tract resembling Opium in its qualities, but less likely to produce the inconve- 
nient consequences that often attend upon the use of that drug. Before this 
narcotic bitter secretion is formed, many of the species are useful articles of food ; 
the Succory and Endive, for instance, when blanched, and the roots of Scorzo- 
nera and Tragopogon, or Salsafy. 

Examples. Leontodon, Bellis, Carduus. 

Since the foregoing was set in type, the last volume of the Diclionnaire des 
Sciences Naturelles has reached me. In that work M. Cassini has at length 
given the differential characters of his tribes, and a complete Index of the places 
in which his observations are to be found. This will render the study of the 
genera and divisions of this very accurate and learned botanist more accessible 
than it has hitherto been. I do not extract the names of the tribes and their 
characters, as they would, in the first place, occupy more space than could be 
conveniently afforded, and, secondly, because they cannot be considered suf- 
ficiently settled. 



CLXXXVII. CALYCEREiE. 

Calyceheje, R. Brmi-nin Linn. Trans. 12. 132. (1816) ; Rich, in Mm. Mm. 6. 76. (1820).— 
Boopide-e, Cassini in Diet, des Sc. 5. 26. Supp. (1817.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior 1 -celled ovarium, 
capitate flowers, half syngenesious stamens, and pendulous ovula. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, of 5 unequal pieces. Corolla regular, funnel- 
shaped, with a long slender tube and 5 segments, each 01 which has 3 principal veins ; glandu- 
lar spaces below tlic stamens and alternate with them. Stamens 5, monadelphous ; anthers 
combined by their lower half in a cylinder. Ovarium, inferior, 1-cellcd ; ovulvm solitary, 
pendulous ; style simple, smooth ; stigma capitate. Fruit an jndchiscent pcricarpium, crowned 



199 

by the rigid spiny scgmentsof the calyx. Seed solitary, pendulous, sessile ; embryo in the axis 
of fleshy albumen ; radicle superior. — Herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, without stipulte. 
Mowers collected in heads, which are either terminal or opposite the leaves, surrounded by an 
involucrum. Florets sessile, monoclinous, or neuter. 

Affinities. A very small and curious tribe, differing from Composite in 
nothing but their albumen, pendulous ovulum, and half distinct anthers, and 
from Dipsaceae in their filaments being monadelphous and their anthers partly- 
connate. They may therefore be considered to hold a middle station between 
these two families. Richard's monograph, in the work above quoted, is worthy 
of the high reputation of that distinguished botanist. 

Geography. All natives of South America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Acicarpha, Boopis, Calycera. 



CLXXXVIII. GLOBULARINEiE. 

tiLOBULABiNEfi, Dec. Fl. Fr. 3. 427. (1815) ; Cambessedes in Ann. des Sciences, 9. 15. (1826) ; 
Link Handb. 1. 675. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with irregular capitate flowers, 
and a superior 1 -celled indehiscent fruit. 
Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx persistent, 5-cleft, usually equal, sometimes 2-lipped. Co- 
rolla hypogynous, tubular, bilabiate, rarely 1-lipped, made up of 5 petals. Stamens 4, the up- 
permost being wanting, arising from the top of the tube of the corolla, somewhat didynamous ; 
anthers reniform, bursting longitudinally, the 2 cells confluent into 1. Ovarium superior, 
1-celled, with a single pendulous ovulum. ; style filiform, emarginate at the apex. Fruit small, 
indehiscent, pointed with the persistent style. Albumen fleshy ; embryo straight, in its axis; 
radicle superior, about as long as the ovate cotyledons. — Shrubs, or small low under-shrubs, 
or perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, often fascicled, turning black in drying. Flowers col- 
lected in small heads, upon a convex paleaceous receptacle. 

Affinities. These were placed near Primulacese both by Jussieu and De- 
candolle ; but their closest affinity is now known to be with Dipsaceae, with 
which Globularinese agree in a multitude of particulars, especially in habit, but 
differ in having a superior ovarium, and in so little besides, that it may be 
doubted whether, considering the peculiar nature of the cohesion of the calyx 
and ovarium of Dipsaceae, they and Globularineee are not the same family. 
They were united by Lamarck in the same order as Proteaceae. 

Geography. Natives of the hot and temperate parts of Europe ; Dantzic 
is their most northern station. 

Properties. Bitter, tonic, and purgative herbaceous plants. 

Example. Globularia. 



200 



CLXXXIX. STELLATiE. The Madder Tribe. 

Rubiaces, Sect. I. Juss. Gen. 196. (1789).— Stellatje. Linn.; R. Brown in Congo, (1818) ; 
Lindl. Synops. 128. (1829).— Galieje, Turp. in Atlas du JSouv. Dict.des 80.(1) [Rubi- 
acejE,' tribe xii.— Stellate, Dec. Prod. 4. 343. (1830.)] 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior didymous fruit, 
solitary erect ovula, angular stems, and verticillate scabrous leaves without 
stipulae. 

Anomalies. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4- 5- or 6-lobed. Corolla monopetalous, rotate or 
tubular, regular, inserted into the calyx ; the number of its divisions equal to those of the ca- 
lyx. Stamens equal in number to the lobes of the corolla, and alternate with them. Ovarium 
simple, 2-celled ; ovules solitary, erect ; style simple ; stigmata 2. Fruit a dry indehiscent peri- 
carpium, with 2 cells and 2 seeds. Seeds erect, solitary ; embryo straight in the axis of horny 
albumen ; radicle inferior ; cotyledons leafy. — Herbaceous ^ plants, with whorled leaves, destitute 
of stipulcB ; square stems ; roots staining red ; flowers minute. 

Affinities. There can be little doubt that the inconspicuous weeds of 
which this order is composed have as strong claims to be separated from Cin- 
chonacese as that order from Apocynese or Caprifoliaceae. It is true that no 
very positive characters are to be obtained from the fructification, but the want 
is abundantly supplied by the square stems and verticillate leaves without sti- 
pule, forming a kind of star, from which circumstance the name Stellatse is de- 
rived. Properly speaking, the appellation Rubiaces should be confined to this 
group, as it comprehends the genus Rubia ; but that name has been so gene- 
rally applied to the larger mass now comprehended under the name of Cincho- 
naceee, that I find it better to abolish the name Rubiaceae altogether. 

Geography. Natives of the northern parts of the northern hemisphere, 
where they are extremely common weeds. 

Properties. First among them stands Madder, the root of Rubia tincto- 
ria one of the most important dyes with which we are acquainted ; a quality 
in which many other species of Stellate participate in a greater or less degree. 
The roots of Rubia Manjista yield the Madder of Bengal, (Ainslie, 1. 203.) 
The torrefied grains of Galium are said to be a good substitute for coffee. The 
flowers of Galium verum are used to curdle milk. An infusion of Asperula 
cynanchica has a little astringency, and has been used as a gargle. Asperula 
odorata, or Woodruff, is remarkable for its fragrance when dried ; it passes for 
a diuretic. Rubia noxa is said to be poisonous. Ed, Phil. Journ. 14. 207. 

Examples. Galium, Rubia, Asperula, Sherardia, Crucianella. 



CXC. CINCHONACE^E. The Cinchona Tribe. 

Rubiaceje, Juss. Gen. 196. (1789)>r the most part ; Ann. Mus. 10. 313. (1807); Mem. Mus. 
6. 365. (1820) ; Diet, des Sciences, 46. 385. (1827). [Dec. Prod. 4. 341. (1830), with, the ex- 
ception of Tribe xii.] — Opercularine-e, Juss. Ann. Mus. 4.418.(1804.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior ovarium, and op- 
posite entire leaves, with intermediate stipule. 

Anomalies. Opercularia has but one cell and 1 seed, and the number of 
stamens is incongruous with the lobes of the corolla. 



201 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, simple, with a definite number of divisions or 
none, and connate bracteoe at its base. Corolla superior, tubular, regular, with a definite 
number of divisions, which arc valvate or imbricated in aestivation and equal to the segments 
of the calyx. Stamens arising' from the corolla, all on the same line, and alternate with its 
segments ; pollen elliptical. Ovarium inferior, surmounted by a disk, usually 2-ccllcd, occa- 
sionally with several cells; ovula numerous and attached to a central placenta, or few and 
erect or ascending; style single, inserted, sometimes partly divided ; stigma usually simple, 
sometimes divided into a definite number of parts. Fru.it inferior, either splitting into 2 
cocci, or indehiscent and dry or succulent, occasionally many-celled. Seeds definite or inde- 
finite; in the former case erect or ascending, in the latter attached to a central axis; embryo 
small, oblong, surrounded by horny albumen; cotyledons thin; radicle longer, turned towards 
the hilum. — Trees, shrubs, or herbs. Leaves simple, quite entire, opposite or verticillate, with 
interpetiolar stipules. Flowers arranged variously, usually in panicles or corymbs. 

Affinities. This well-marked and strictly limited order is nearly allied to 
Composite, from which its distinct stamens, bilocular or plurilocular ovarium, 
and inflorescence, distinguish it ; a'nd consequently it participates in all the re- 
lationship of that extensive group. From Apocyneoe the aestivation of the 
corolla, the presence of stipuke, and the inferior ovarium, distinctly divide it ; 
yet, according to Mr. Brown, there exists a genus in equinoctial Africa which 
has the interpetiolary stipules and seeds of Rubiacese, and the superior ovarium 
of Apocyneae, thus connecting these two orders. Congo, 448. The close 
proximity of Caprifoliaceoe has been adverted to in speaking of that order. A 
tribe called Opercularinere, referred here by Mr. Brown, {Ibid. 447.) and others 
(A. Rich. El£m. ed. 4. 483), is remarkable for having but 1 seed, and the num- 
ber of stamens unequal to the lobes of the corolla, and occupies an interme- 
diate position between genuine Cinchonacere and Dipsaceae. A good mono- 
graph is much wanted of this extensive order, a very large proportion of the 
species belonging to which remains still unpublished. I have been constrained 
to alter the name of Rubiacese, because the genus Rubia does not belong to 
the order, as I limit it. 

Schlechtendahl and Chamisso divide the order thus : 

Linnxa, 3. 309, &c. (1828.) 

§ 1. ANTHOSPERME.a3. 

Fruit capsular, 2-celled, 2-seeded, usually splitting into 2 pieces, rarely 
indehiscent. Leaves somewhat whorled, with a simple stipula between the 
leaves. 

Examples. Anthospermum, Ambraria, Galopina, Phyllis. 

§ 2. Spermacoce^:. 

Fruit capsular, 2- 3- or 4-celled ; cells 1-seeded. Leaves opposite, connected 
by a bristly ciliated stipula. Flowers in regular cymes, branched bi- or tri- 
chotomously. 

Examples. Spermacoce, Borreria, Mitracarpum, Psyllocarpus, Richard- 
sonia, Diodia, Staelia. 

§ 3. PSYCHOTRIACE.E. 

Ovarium generally with 2 cells, each containing 1 ovulum. Fruit drupa- 
ceous or berried. — Shrubs, usually with opposite leaves. 

Examples. Declieuxia, Psychotria, Ixora, Coffea, Chiococca, Machaonia, 
Palicurea, Tetramerium. 

§ 4. Cephaelide^:. 

Flowers in capitate fascicles. Berry 2-seeded. 
Examples. Cephaelis, Geophila. 

§ 5. Coccoctpseleje. 

Flowers in capitate fascicles. Berry 2-celled, many-seeded. 
Examples. Coccocypselum, Burchellia. 

36 



202 

§ 6. Cephalanthe.e. 
Flowers in round heads. Fruit variable. 
Examples. Cephalanthus, Nauclea, Morinda. 

§ 7. HEDYOTIDE.dE. 

Capsule 2-ceIled, with a loculicidal dehiscence (indehiscent in DenteHa) 
Cells many-seeded. 

Examples. Dentella, Hedyotis, Gerontogea, Kohautia, Kadua, Xantho- 
phytum, Metabolos, Rondeletia, Sipanea. 

§ 8. Manettie^e. 
Capsule 2-celled, with a septicidal dehiscence. Cells many-seeded. Sta- 
mens 4. 

Example. Manettia. 

§ 9. ClNCHONE-E. 

Capsule 2-celled, with a septicidal dehiscence. Cells many-seeded. Sta- 
mens 5, or more. 

Examples. Cinchona, Buena, Exostemma, Augusta. 

§ 10. GUETTARDE.E. 

Drupe either with a stone and many seeds, or with several 1-seeded stones. 
Examples. Guettarda, Chomelia, Burneya. 

§ II. HAMELIACE.E. 

Berry many-celled ; cells many-seeded. 

Examples. Hamelia, Sabicea, Axanthes, Gonzalagunia. 

§ 12. GaRDENIACEjE. 

^Estivation contorted. 

Examples. Gardenia, Hillia. 

This last section is intermediate between Cbinconacese and Strychnacea?, 

Geography. Almost exclusively found in the hotter parts of the world,, 
especially within the tropics, where they are said to constitute about l-29th of 
the whole number of flowering plants. In America the most northern species* 
is Pinckneya pubens, a shrub inhabiting the southern states of North Ame- 
rica : the most southern is Nerteria depressa, a small herb found in the Straits 
of Magellan. The order is represented in northern regions by Stellate. 

Properties. Powerful febrifugal or emetic properties are the grand fea- 
tures of this order, the most efficient products of which, in these two respects, 
are Quinquina and Ipecacuanha. The febrifugal properties depend upon the 
presence of a bitter, tonic, astringent principle, which exists in great abundance 
in the bark ; those of Cinchona are known to depend upon the presence of two 
alkabes, called cinchonia and quina, both of which are combined with kinic 
acid ; two principles which, though very analogous, are distinctly different, 
standing in the same relation to each other as potassa and soda. Turner, 648. 
Dr. Sertiirner has obtained some other vegeto-alkalies from Cinchona, one of 
which he calls chinioidia. Brande 12. 417. JV. S. But the existence of this 
is denied by MM. Henry and Delondre. Ibid. July 1830, p. 422. A detailed 
account of the qualities, synonymes, and commercial names of the species of 
Cinchona is given in Mr. Lambert's Illustration of the Genera Cinchona^ 4to. 
London, 1821. In the same work is a translation of Baron Humboldt's ac- 
count of the Cinchona forests of South America. Three species of Cinchona, 
the C ferruginea, Vellozii, and Remijiana, are found in Brazil, where they are 

[* Professor Lin6>y doubtless made this remark inadvertently, as several Cinchonaceae extend consi- 
derably farther north than the Pinckneya. The Cephalanthus" is found even in Canada.] 



203 

used for the same purposes as the Peruvian bark, to which, however, they are 
altogether inferior. PI. Usuelles, no. 2. The bark of French Guiana, pos- 
sessing properties analogous to those of Cinchona, is obtained from Portlandia 
hexandra, Coutarea speciam, of Aublet. Hinub. Cinch. For. 43. Eng. ed. 
The Quinquina Piton and Quinquina des Antilles are produced by species of 
the genus Exostemma, and a reremarkable for possessing properties similar to 
those of true Quinquina, but without any trace of either cinchonine or quinine. 
PI. Usuelles, no. 3. A kind of fever bark is obtained at Sierra Leone from 
Rondeletia febrifuga. Besides these, a great number of other species possess 
barks more or less valuable : Pinckneya pubens is the fever bark of Carolina ; 
Macrocnemum corymbosum, Guettarda coccinea, Antirhea and Morinda Royoc, 
are all of the same description. A lightish brown, bitter, and powerfully astrin- 
gent extract, called Gambeer, is obtained at Malacca by boiling the leaves of 
Nauclea Gambeer ; it is sometimes substituted for Gum Kino. Ainslie 2. 106. 
A decoction of the leaves as well as root of Webeva tetrandra is prescribed in 
India in certain stages of flux, and the last is supposed to have anthelmintic 
qualities, though neither have much sensible taste or smell. The bark and 
young shoots are also used in dysentery. Ibid. 2. G3. Among the emetics, 
Ipecacuanha holds the first rank : it is the root of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, a 
little creeping-rooted, half-herbaceous plant, found in damp shady forests in Bra- 
zil. Similar properties are found in the roots of other Cmchonacese of the 
same country, as in Richardsonia rosea and scabra, Spermacoce ferruginea and 
Poaya, &c. A peculiar alkaline principle called Emetia is found in Ipecacu- 
anha, which contains 16 per cent, of it. Turner, 653. The Raiz Preta, 
which is celebrated for its power in curing dropsy, and in destroying the dan- 
gerous consequences of bites of serpents, is said to be related to Ipecacuanha. 
Ed. P. J. L 218. Several species of Psychotria, as emetica and herbacea, 
are substitutes for Ipecacuanha. The spurious barks called Quinquina Piton 
are capable of exciting vomiting. The powdered fruit of Gardenia dumetorum 
is a powerful emetic. An infusion of the bark of the root is administered to 
nauseate in bowel complaints. Ainslie, 2. 186. According to Roxburgh, 
the root bruised and thrown into ponds where there are fish intoxicates them 
as Cocculus indicus. Ibid. Psychotria noxa and Palicourea Marcgraavii, 
both called Erva de rata, are accounted poisonous in Brazil ; but nothing very 
certain seems to be'known of their properties. Ed. P. J. 14. 267. The leaves 
of Oldenlandia umbellata are considered by the native doctors of India as ex- 
pectorant. Ainslie, 2. 101. Coffee is the roasted seeds of a plant of this order, 
Coffea arabica, and is supposed to owe its characters to a peculiar chemical 
principle called Caffein. Turner, 699. The part roasted is the albumen, 
which is of a hard horny consistence ; and it is probable that the seed of all 
Cinchonacere or Stellatse whose albumen is of the same texture would serve as 
a substitute. This would not be the case with those with fleshy albumen. The 
fruit of some species of Gardenia, Genipa, and of Vangueria, the Voa Vanga 
of Madagascar, are succulent and eatable. 
Examples. See above. 



204 



CXCI. CAPRIFOLIACE.E. The Honeysuckle Tribe. 

Caprifolia, Juss. Gen. 210. (17S9) in part. — Caprifol :.e.e, Dec. and Duby, 244. (1828); 
Lindl. Synops. 131. (1829.) [Dec. Pro*. 4. 321. (1830.)] 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior many-celled ova- 
rium, pendulous ovula, and opposite leaves without stipulse. 

Anomalies. Hedera, a doubtful citizen, is polypetalous. Hydrangea is 
both polypetalous and polyspermous. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, usually with 2 or more bractere at its base, entire 
or lobed. Corolla superior, monopetalous or polypetalous, rotate or tubular, regular or irre- 
gular. Stamens equal in number to the lobes of the corolla, and alternate with them. Ova- 
rium with from 1 to 5 cells, 1 of which is often monospermous, the others polyspermous; in 
the former the ovulum is pendulous; style 1 ; stigmas 1 or 3. Fruit indehiscent, 1 or more 
celled, either dry, fleshy, or succulent, crowned by the persistent lobes of the calyx. Seeds 
either solitary or pendulous, or numerous and attached to the axis; testa often bony; embryo 
straight, in fleshy albumen; radicle superior.— Shrubs or herbaceous plants, with opposite 
leaves, destitute of stipulcc. Flowers usually corymbose, and often sweet-scented. 

Affinities. Whether this order comprehends the rudiments of four, name- 
ly, Hederacese, Hydrangeacece, Sambucineae, and Lonicerese (the true Caprifo- 
liaceas), or whether these are mere forms of one and the same order, it is not 
easy to say. They are usually combined ; and yet the different habits of those 
sections, the separation of the petals in Hedera and Hydrangea, and some hints 
that have been thrown out by Mr. Brown, render it probable that there are 
weighty grounds for their disunion. In the mean while it is most advisable to 
retain the order in its present state until some skilful botanist shall have taken 
the subject up, especially as there can be no doubt that, whether distinct or the 
same, they are very nearly related to each other. Taking Lonicereae, or the 
Honeysuckle tribe, for the type of the order, we find a striking affinity with 
Cinchonaceee, in the monopetalous tubular corolla, definite stamens, inferior ova- 
rium, and opposite leaves, an affinity which is confirmed by the corolla of the 
latter being occasionally regular or irregular. With Apocyneae they will have, 
for the same reasons, an intimate alliance, differing chiefly in their qualities, in 
the non-connivence of their anthers, the aestivation of the corolla, and the struc- 
ture of the ovarium. To Lorantheaa they also approach, but differ in the rela- 
tion of the anthers to the lobes of the corolla, and in other points. But if we 
consider the tribe called Sambucineae, our view of the affinities of the order will 
take a different turn, and we shall find an approach to an order the relationship 
of which would hardly have been suspected, viz. Saxifrageae : this is established 
through the intervention of Hydrangea, a genus usually referred to Saxifrageae, 
but which it appears more advisable to station by the side of Viburnum, from 
which it is undistinguishable in habit, and with which it accords in inflo- 
rescence and in the constant disposition of its flowers to become radiant, but 
which differs in being polypetalous and polyspermous. Besides these points of 
affinity, Caprifoliaceae probably tend towards Umbelliferae through Sambu- 
cineae. 

The following are the characters of the sections, if they be sections, of this 
order : 

1. Lonicere^e. The Honeysuckle Tribe. 
Lonicereae, Ach. Rich. EUm. de la Bot. ed. 4. 484. (1828). — Caprifoliere, Dec. 
and Dubij, 244. (1828.) 
Corolla tubular. Berry 2- to 4-celled, with 1 or many-seeded cells. Style 
1. Leaves opposite. 



205 

True Caprifoliacese are said by Mr. Brown to be distinguished from the other 
genera hitherto associated with them, in the raphe being on the outer instead of 
inner side of the ovulum. Brown in IValluh. PI. As. p. 15. 

Examples. Caprifolium, Lonicera, Linnaea, Abelia, Triosteum, Diervilla, 
Schopfia. 

2. Sambucine.e. The Elder Tribe. 

Sambucineae, A. Rich, Diet, Class. 3. 173. (1823); Dec. and Duby, 244. 

(1828) ; Link Handb. 1. 662. (1829.) 

Corolla rotate. Ovarium 3- or 4-celled, with solitary pendulous ovules. 
Styles 3 or 4. Flowers in cymes, the lateral ones often radiant. Leaves op- 
posite. 

These pass into Lonicereas through Viburnum davuricum, which has the 
tubular corolla of a Lonicera, and into Hydrangeaceas through the radiant- 
flowered species of Viburnum. With Hedera they are connected through 
Comus. 

Examples. Viburnum, Sambucus. 

3. Hederace^e. The Ivy Tribe. 

Hederacese, Ach. Rich, Bot. Med. 2. 449. (1823) ; Dec. and Duby, 244. 

(1828).— [Cornea;, Dec. Prod. 4. 271. (1830) in part.] 

Corolla polypetalous. Disk epigynous. Style 1. Drupe or berry with 
1-seeded cells. Leaves opposite or alternate. 

• Ach. Richard considers this a distinct order, on account of its polypetalous 
corolla and epigynous disk. 

Examples. Hedera, Comus. [Hedera is placed in Araliaceos by Decan- 
dolle.] 

4. Hydrangeace^e. [Saxifrageee, tribe 4. Dec. Prod. 4. 13.] The Hydran- 
gea Tribe. 

Corolla polypetalous. Style 2 to 5. Fruit succulent or capsular, 2- to 
5-celled, many-seeded. Leaves opposite. Flowers in cymes, the lateral ones 
often radiant. 

The characters of this tribe are so strongly marked as to justify its being 
established as an independent order ; but the habit of the species is so entirely 
that of Viburnum, that I am not willing to separate them without absolute 
necessity. There is a remarkable resemblance between their seeds and those 
of Begonia. 

Examples. Hydrangea, Adamia. 

Geography. Natives of the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America, 
passing downwards within the limits of the tropics ; found very sparingly in 
northern Africa, and almost unknown in the southern hemisphere. 

Properties. The fragrance and beauty of plants of the Honeysuckle tribe 
have been the theme of many a poet's song ; but independently of such recom- 
mendations, they possess properties of considerable interest. Their bark is ge- 
nerally astringent ; that of Lonicera corymbosa is used for dyeing black in 
Chile. The flowers of the Elder are fragrant and sudorific, its leaves foetid, 
emetic, and a drastic purgative ; qualities which are also possessed by the 
Honeysuckle itself, and the fruit of the Ivy. The fruit of the Viburnum is 
destitute of these properties, but has, instead, an austere astringent pulp, which 
becomes eatable after fermentation, and is made into a sort of cake by the 
North American Indians. Cornus mascula, or the Cornel tree, yields a fruit 
which is sometimes eaten, but which does not deserve much praise. The 
bark of Cornus florida and Cornus sericea is stated by Barton to be worthy of 
ranking among the best tonics of North America ; nothing having been found 
in the United States that so effectually answers the purpose of the Peruvian bark 



206 

in the management of intermittent fevers. Barton, 1. 51. It is a remarkable 
fact, that the young branches of Cornus florida, stripped of their bark and 
rubbed with their ends against their teeth, render them extremely white. Ibid. 
From the bark of the more fibrous roots the Indians obtain a good scarlet 
colour. Ibid. 1. 120. Triosteum perfoliatum is a mild cathartic; in large 
doses it produces vomiting. Its dried and roasted berries have been used as a 
substitute for Coffee. Ibid. 1. 63. 
Examples. See above. 



CXCII. LORANTHE.E. 



Loranthejj, Juss. and Rich. Ann. Mus. 12.292. (1S08) ; Dec. and Duby, 246. (1828); Lindl. 
Synops. 133. (1829.) [Dec. Prod. 4. 276. (1830.)] 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with an inferior 1-celled ovarium, 
a single pendulous ovulum, a naked stigma, and stamens opposite the lobes of 
the corolla. 

Anomalies. Sometimes polypetalous. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, with 2 bractcse at the base. Corolla with 4 or 8 
petals, more or less united at the base. Stamens equal in number to the petals, and opposite 
to them. Ovarium 1-celled ; ovulum pendulous ; s/y/e 1 or none ; stigma simple. Fruit suc- 
culent, 1-celled. Seeds solitary, pendulous; testa membranous; embryo cylindrical, longer 
than the fleshy albumen ; radicle naked, clavate, superior. — Parasitical half-shrubby 
plants. Leaves opposite, sometimes alternate, veinless, fleshy, without stipul». Flowers often 
monoecious, axillary or terminal, solitary, corymbose, or spiked. 

Affinities. Very near Caprifoliacere, from which they are readily known 
not only by their universally parasitical habit, but also by their stamens being 
opposite the lobes of the corolla, and not alternate with them. Viscum seems 
to bear about the same relation to Loranthus that Cornus does to Lonicerea^. 
Mr. Don has expressed an opinion that a connexion is established between this 
order and Araliacea?, by means of Aucuba (Jameson's Jour. Jan. 1830, p. 
168) ; but this does not seem clearly made out. Mr. Brown (Flinders, 549) 
suggests their relation to Proteacere. The anther of Viscum is remarkable for 
having its substance broken up into a number of hollow cavities containing 
pollen, and not divided regularly into 2 lobes, each of which has a cavity con- 
taining pollen, and a longitudinal line of dehiscence. A good figure of this will 
be found in the Ann. du Museum, vol. 12. t. 27. fig. E. The germination of 
Viscum is exceedingly remarkable. It has afforded a subject for some curious 
experiments upon the nature of the vital energies of vegetables. See Dulro- 
chet sur la Motility, 1 14. 

Geography. Judging from the collections of systematic botanists, it would 
appear that the tropics of America contain a greater number of species than all 
the rest of the world ; but we now know, from the extensive researches of Dr. 
Wallich, that the Flora of India contains at least as large a proportion : the or- 
der would therefore seem to be equally dispersed through the equinoctial regions 
of both Asia and America ; but on the continent of Africa to be much more 
rare, only 2 having been yet described from equinoctial Africa, and 5 or 6 from 
the Cape of Good Hope. Two are named from the South Seas, and 1 from 
New Holland : but this number requires, no doubt, to be largely increased. 

Properties. The bark is usually astringent, as in the Misletoe of the Oak. 
Tne berries contain a viscid matter like birdlime, which is insoluble in water 
and alcohol. The most remarkable quality that they possess, however, is the 



207 

power of rooting in the wood of other plants, at whose expense they live. The 
habits of the common Misletoe give an idea of those of all, except that in the 
genus Loranthus the corolla is tubular and usually richly coloured with scarlet. 
Examples. Loranthus, Viscum. 



CXCIII. POTALIACEiE. 

PoTALiiiiE, Martius N. G. et Sp. 2, 91. and 133. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with a superior simple ovarium, 
regular flowers, peltate sessile seeds, and a corolla with contorted convolute 
segments which are unequal to the number of lobes of the calyx. 

Anomalies. 

Essential CHARACTER.^-Catyr inferior, with 4, 5, or 6 partitions. Corolla regular, with" 
from 5 to 10 divisions, which are therefore not symmetrical with the segments of the calyx ; 
the aestivation contorted, convolute. Stamens arising from the corolla, all upon the same line ; 
pollen simple, elliptical. Ovarium superior; style continuous; sligm a simple. Fruit succu- 
lent, with from 2 to 4 cells, and central placentae. Seeds numerous, peltate ; testa double ; 
embryo supposed by Von Martius to be hetcrotropous (that is, to have its radicle not turned to- 
wards the hilum), lying in cartilaginous albumen. — Trees or shrubs, quite smooth. Leaves 
opposite, entire, united by interpetiolar sheathing stipulae. Mowers terminal, with bracteaj 
in panicles or corymbs. 

Affinities. According to Von Martius, this lies between Loganiea: and 
Apocynea?. Its chief characteristics are the inequality of the segments of the 
calyx and corolla and the stamens, and a 4-lobed placenta, which produces in 
Fagraea obovata, according to Dr. Wallich, a 4- celled berry. With that part 
of Apocyneaa to which Strychnos belongs they very nearly agree, differing prin- 
cipally in the above-mentioned character, the aestivation of the calyx, and the 
embryo not being foliaceous, agreeing in their peltate seeds and corneous albu- 
men. 

Geography. Natives of the tropics of Africa, America, and India. 

Properties. An infusion of the leaves of Potalia resinifera is slightly mu- 
cilaginous and astringent, and is used in Brazil as a lotion for inflamed eyes. 
Von Martius, 2. 90. Potalia amara is bitter like the Gentians, and acrid and 
emetic like Apocyneae. Dec. Prodr. J\l£d. 217. 

Examples. Potalia, Fagraea, Anthocleista. 



CXCIV. LOGANIACE.E. 

Loganieje, R. Brown in Flinders, (1814) ; Von Martius N. Gen. et Sp. PL 2. 133. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with regular flowers, a superior 
2-celled ovarium, convolute corolla, and opposite leaves with interpetiolar sti- 
pules. 

Anomalies. Stipulae absent in some Loganias. 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, 5-parted. Corolla regular or irregular, with con- 
volute aestivation. Stamens arising from the corolla, all placed upon the same line, 5 or 1 
therefore not always symmetrical with the divisions of the corolla; pollen with 3 bands. Ova- 



208 

rium snperior, 2-celled; style continuous ; stigma simple. Fruit either capsular and 2-ceDed 
with placenta finally becoming loose; or drupaceous, with 1- or 2-seeded stones. Seeds pel- 
tate, wit h a finely reticulated integument, sometimes winged ; albumen fleshy or cartilaginous ; 
embryo with the radicle turned towards the hilum.— Shrubs, herbaceous plants, or trees, heaves 
opposite, entire, usually with stipula which are combined in the form of interpetiolary sheaths. 
Flowers racemose, corymbose, or solitary. 

Affinities. It is not clear, from the remarks upon Logania by Mr. Brown 
in his Prodromus, whether he intended to establish this order or not. He 
states that he has placed Logania at the end of Gentianea;, on account of some 
affinity between it and Exacum and Mitrasacme, and also because it does not 
answer ill to the artificial character of that order ; adding that it, however, 
might have a still closer connexion with Apocynese and with Usteria among 
Rubiaceee (Cinchonacese.) He further points out the close relation of Genios- 
toma to Logania, and concludes by inquiring whether those 2 genera do not, 
with Anasser, Fagreea, and Usteria, form an order intermediate between Apo- 
cyneae and Rubiacese. This view has been adopted by Von Martius, with 
the exception of Fagraa, which he places among his Potalieae ; he founds the 
distinction of the order upon the want of symmetry between the parts of the 
calyx, corolla, and stamens, upon the aestivation of the corolla being convolute> 
not contorted, and in the presence of stipulee combined in interpetiolary sheaths. 

Geography. Found in tropical India and Africa, and in the temperate 
parts of New Holland. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Examples. Lo°;ania, Gcertneria, Pagamea. 



CXCV. ASCLEPIADEiE. 

Apocyneje, Juss. Gen. 143.(1789) in part; Dec. and Duby Bot. Gall. 323. (1828).— Asclepia- 
deje, R. Brownin Wern. Trans. 1. 12. (1809) ; Prodr. 458. (1810.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with a superior double ovarium, 
the apex of which is connected by a common tabular dilated stigma, regular 
fiowers, waxy pollen, and contorted corolla. 

Anomalies. Periploca and some others have granular pollen. Corolla 
vilvate in Leptadenia. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-dividcd, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynons, 
5-lobed, regular, with imbricated, very seldom valvular, aestivation, deciduous. Stamens 5 
inserted into the base of the corolla, alternate with the segments of the limb. Filaments 
usually connate. Anthers 2-celled, sometimes almost 4-cellcd in consequence of their disse- 
piments being nearly complete. Pollen at the period of the dehiscence of the anther cohe- 
ring in masses, cither equal to the number of the cells, or occasionally cohering in pairs and 
svicking to 5 processes of" the stigma either by twos, or fours, or singly. Ovaria 2. Styles 2, 
closely approaching each other, often very short. Stigma common to both styles, dilated, 
5-cornered, with corpusculiferous angles. Follicles 2, 1 of which is sometimes abortive. Pla- 
centa attached to the suture, finally separating. Seeds numerous, imbricated, pendulous, 
almost always comose at the hilum. Albumen thin. Embryo straight. Cotyledons foliace- 
ous. Radicle superior. Plumida inconspicuous. — Shrubs, or occasionally herbaceous plants, 
almost always milky, and often twining. Lcarcs entire, opposite, sometimes alternate, or 
■whorled, having cilia; between their petioles in lieu of stipulaj. Flowers somewhat umbelled, 
fascicled, or racemose, proceeding from between the petioles. R. Br. 

Affinities. So closely are these plants allied to Apocynese, that the affi- 
nities of the one are precisely the same as those of the other ; I shall there- 
fore, in this place, speak of the difference between those two orders, and of the 
peculiarities of that more immediately under consideration. Mr. Brown, who 
distinguishes them, admits (Flinders, 564) that they differ solely in the pecu- 



209 

liar character of their reproductive apparatus ; but this is of so unusual a kind 
in Asclepiadeae, that it justifies a deviation from the general rule, that orders 
cannot be established upon solitary characters. In Apocyneae the stamens are 
distinct, the pollen powdery (that is to say, in the ordinary state), the stigma 
capitate and thickened, but not particularly dilated, and all these parts distinct 
the one from the other. But in Asclepiadese the whole of the reproductive ap- 
paratus is consolidated into a single body, the centre of which is occupied by a 
broad disk-like stigma, and the grains of pollen cohere in the shape of waxy 
bodies attached finally to the 5 corners of this stigma, to which they adhere by 
the intervention of peculiar glands. For a long time this structure was mis- 
understood ; but Mr. Brown, in a dissertation in the Transactions of the Wer- 
nerian Society, placed its true nature beyond doubt. I subjoin the explanation 
given by this celebrated botanist, who thus describes the flower of Asclepias 
syriaca : 

"The flower-bud of this plant I first examined, while the unexpanded 
corolla was yet green and considerably shorter than the calyx. At this period 
the gland-like bodies which afterwards occupy the angles of the stamen were 
absolutely invisible ; the furrows of its angles were extremely slight, and, like 
the body of the stigma, green ; the antherae, however, were distinctly formed, 
easily separable from the stigma, and their cells, which were absolutely shut, 
were filled with a turbid fluid, the parts of which did not so cohere as to sepa- 
rate in a mass ; of the cuculli, which in the expanded flower are so remarka- 
ble, and constitute the essential character of the genus, there was no ap- 
pearance. 

"In the next stage submitted to examination, where the corolla nearly 
equalled the calyx in length, the gland-like bodies of the stigma were become 
visible, and consisted of 2 nearly filiform, fight brown, parallel, contiguous, and 
membranaceous substances, secreted by the sides of the furrow, which was 
now somewhat deeper. Instead of the filiform processes, a gelatinous matter 
occupied an obliquely descending depression proceeding from towards the base 
of each side of the angular furrow. 

" In a somewhat more advanced stage, the membranes which afterwards 
become glands of the stigma were found to be linear, closely approximated, 
and to adhere at their upper extremity. At the same time the gelatinous 
substance in the oblique depression had acquired a nearly membranaceous 
texture and a light brown colour ; and on separating the gland from its fur- 
row, which was then practicable, this membrane followed it. At this period, 
too, the contents of each cell of the anthera had acquired a certain degree 
of solidity, a determinate form, and were separable from the cell in one mass ; 
the cuculli were also observable, but still very small and green, nearly scutelli- 
form, having a central papilla, the rudiment of the future horn-like process. 
Immediately previous to the bursting of the cells of the antherae, which takes 
place a little before the expansion of the corolla, the cuculli are completely 
formed, and between each, a pair of minute, light green, fleshy teeth are 
observable, the single teeth of each pair being divided from each other by the 
descending alse of the antherae. The glands of the stigma have acquired a 
form between elliptical and rhomboidal, a cartilaginous texture, and a brown- 
ish black colour ; they are easily separable from the secreting furrow, and on 
their under surface there is no appearance of a suture, or any indication of their 
having originally consisted of two distinct parts : along with them separate 
also the descending processes, which are compressed, membranous, and light 
brown ; their extremity, which is still unconnected, being more gelatinous, 
but not perceptibly thickened. The pollen has acquired the yellow colour, and 
the degree of consistence which it afterwards retains. On the bursting of the 
cells, the gelatinous extremity of each descending process becomes firmly 

37 



210 

united with the upper attenuated end of the corresponding mass of pollen. 
The parts are then in that condition in which they have been commonly 
examined, and are exhibited in the figures of Jacquin, who, having seen them 
only in this state, naturally considered these plants as truly gynandrous, 
regarding the masses of pollen as the antherae, originating in ihe glands of the 
stigma, and merely immersed in the open cells of the genuine antheras, which 
he calls antheriferous sacs ; an opinion in which he has been followed by Rott- 
bcell, Kcelreuter, Cavanilles, Smith, and Desfontaines. The conclusion to be 
drawn from the observations now detailed is sufficiently obvious ; but it is 
necessary to remark, that these observations do not entirely apply to all the 
plants which I have referred to the Asclepiadeag ; some of them, especially 
Periploca, having a granular pollen, applied in a very different manner to the 
glands of the stigma : they all, however, agree in having pollen coalescing 
into masses, which are fixed or applied to processes of the stigma, in a deter- 
minate manner ; and this is, in fact, the essential character of the order. Dr. 
Smith, in the second edition of his valuable Introduction to Botany, has noticed 
my opinion on this subject ; but, probably from an indistinctness in the commu- 
nication, which took place in conversation, has stated it in a manner some- 
what different from what I intended to convey to him ; for, according to his 
statement, the pollen is projected on the stigma. The term projection, how- 
ever, seems to imply some degree of impetus, and at the same time presents 
the idea of something indeterminate respecting the part to which the body so 
projected may be applied. But nothing can be more constant than the man- 
ner in which the pollen is attached to the processes of the stigma in each 
species." 

This order is one of those which contain indifferently what are called suc- 
culent plants, and such as are in the usual state of other plants ; this excessive 
developement of the cellular tissue of the stem, and reduction of that of the 
leaves, is in its greatest degree in Stapelia and Ceropegia ; it is diminished in 
Dischidia, the succulence of which is confined to the leaves ; and it almost 
disappears in Hoya, the stem of which is in the usual state, but the leaves 
between fleshy and leathery. 

Geography. Africa must be considered as the great field of Asclepiadese, 
especially its southern point, where vast numbers of the succulent species 
occupy the dry and sterile places of that remarkable country. In tropical 
India and New Holland, and in all the Equinoctial parts of America, they all 
abound. Two genera only are found in northern latitudes, one of which, As- 
clepias, abounds in species, and is confined apparently to the eastern side of 
North America ; the other, Cynanchum, is remarkable for extending from 59° 
north latitude, to 32° south latitude. 

Properties. The roots are generally acrid and stimulating, whence some 
of them act as emetics, as Cyanchum tomentosum and Periploca emetica ; 
others are diaphoretic and sudorific, as the purgative Asclepias decumbens, 
which has the singular property of exciting general perspiration without in- 
creasing in any perceptible degree the heat of the body ; it is constantly used 
in Virginia against pleurisy. Dec. Their milk is usually acrid and bitter, and 
is always to be suspected, although it probably participates in a slight degree 
only in the poisonous qualities of that of Apocynere, if we can judge from the 
use of some species as articles of food. Asclepias lactifera is said to yield so 
sweet and copious a milk, that the Indians use it for aliment ; and Pergularia 
edulis, Periploca esculenta, Asclepias aphylla and stipitacea, are all reported to 
be eatable. Dec. The Cow Plant of Ceylon, or Kiriaghuna plant, Gymnema 
lactiferum, yields a milk of which the Cingalese make use for food ; its leaves 
are also used when boiled. But very little is known about the real qualities of 
such plants. The root and tender stalks of Asclepias volubilis L. sicken and 



211 

excite expectoration. Ainslie, 2. 155. Asclepias tuberosa, or Butterfly weed, 
is a popular remedy in the United States for a variety of disorders; its properties 
seem to be those of a mild cathartic, and of a certain diaphoretic attended with 
no inconsiderable expectorant effect. Barton, 1. 244. The root of Diplolepis 
vomitoria has a bitterish and somewhat nauseous taste. The Indian doctors 
prize it for its expectorant and diaphoretic qualities. It possesses virtues some- 
what similar to those of Ipecacuanha, and has been found an extremely useful 
medicine in dysenteric complaints. Ainslie, 2. 84. A decoction of Asclepias 
curassavica is said to be efficacious in gleets and fluor albus. Lunan, 1. 64. 
The root and bark, and especially the inspissated milk, of Calotropis gigantea, 
the Akund, Yercum, or Mudar plant of India, is a powerful alterative and pur- 
gative ; it is especially in cases of leprosy, elephantiasis, intestinal worms, and 
venereal affections, that it has been found important. A variety of cases are 
mentioned in books upon Indian medicine ; and there seems no doubt that this 
will form one of the most important of all the articles of the Materia Medica. 
See, for information upon this point, JLinslie's Materia Medica, 1. 486. ; Trans, 
of the Med. Chir. Soc. vol. 10. ; Edinb. Med. Chir. Trans. 1. 414. 

Examples. Asclepias, Cynanchum, Stapelia, Pergularia, Gomphocarpus, 
Caralluma. 



CXCVI. APOCYNE.E. 



ApocynEjE, Juss. Gen. 143. (1789) in part; R. Brawn Prodr. 465. (1810); Lindl. Synops. 176. 
(1829).— Contorts, Z/nm.— Strychneje, Dec. Theorie, ed. 1. 217. (1813).— Vinceje, Dec. 
and Duby Bot. Gall. 324. (1828), a § of Apocyneae. Strychnaceje, Blume Bijdr. 1018. 
(1826); LinkHandb. 1.439. (1829.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous dicotyledons, with a superior double ovarium, 
the apex of which is connected by a common simple stigma, regular flowers, 
powdery pollen, and a contorted corolla. 

Anomalies. Corolla valvate in Gardneria. Leaves subalternate in succu- 
lent species. 

Essential Character. — Calyx divided in 5, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogy- 
nous, regular, 5-lobed, with contorted aestivation, deciduous. Stamens 5, arising from the 
corolla, with whose segments they are alternate. Filaments distinct. Anthers 2-celled, open- 
ing lengthwise. Pollen granular, globose, or 3-lobed, immediately applied to the stigma. 
Ovaria2, or 1 2-celled, polyspermous. Styles 2 or 1. Stigma 1. Fruit a follicle, capsule, or 
drupe, or berry, double or single. Seeds with fleshy or cartilaginous albumen ; testa simple ; 
embryo foliaceous; plumida inconspicuous ; radicle turned towards the hilum. — Trees or 
shrubs, usually milky. Lcares opposite, sometimes whorlcd, seldom scattered, quite entire, 
often having cilia? or glands upon the petioles, but with no stipulae. Inflorescence tending to 
corymbose. 

Affinities. These are strongest with Asclepiadeae, in which they have 
already been discussed ; otherwise they lie between Cinchonacere and Gentia- 
neffi. From Cinchonacea? they are distinguished by their superior ovarium, 
contorted flowers, and absence of stipula; ; in room of which are, however, 
sometimes produced certain cilire, or other appendages of the petiole, which the 
inexperienced observer may mistake for stipule. The same characters divide 
them from Gentianere ; and I think the combination of these peculiarities is suf- 
ficient to destroy all doubt about the limits of any of these orders. From Pota- 
liese and Loganieae they are distinguished almost entirely by the perfect sym- 
metry of the calyx, corolla, and stamens, and the want of true stipulae. 



212 

I agree with Von Martins, Brown, and other botanists, who consider Strych- 
neae a mere section of Apocyneee, rather than a distinct order : it differs chiefly 
in its peltate naked seeds and simple succulent fruit. In consequence of its 
ciliated petioles, I am unwilling to refer Gardneria to Loganieee. 

Plumieria is the most succulent genus of the order. 

Geography. Natives of nearly the same localities as Asclepiadeee, with 
the exception that they are less abundant at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Properties. Not very different from those of Asclepiadese, but perhaps 
rather more suspicious. The order contains species with the same purgative, 
the same acrid, the same febrifugal qualities. The bark of Cerbera Manghas 
is purgative ; that of Echites antidysenterica is astringent and febrifugal. The 
leaves of Nerium Oleander contain an abundance of gallic acid ; the Vahea of 
Madagascar and Urceola elastica a notable quantity of caoutchouc. The fruit 
of the succulent-fruited genera is emetic ; and yet that of Carissa edulis is eaten 
in Nubia. Delile Cent. 11. The bark of the root and the sweet-smelling 
leaves of Nerium odorum are considered by the native Indian doctors as power- 
ful repellents, applied externally. The root, taken internally, acts as a poison. 
Ainslie, 2. 23. It would seem, from an examination by Mr. Arnott of flower- 
buds of a milk-tree called Hya-hya in Demerara, that this remarkable vegeta- 
ble production belongs to this order. It is described by Mr. Smith, its Euro- 
pean discoverer, to yield a copious stream of thick, rich, milky fluid, destitute of 
all acrimony, and only leaving a slight clamminess upon the lips. A tree which 
was felled on the banks of a small stream had completely whitened the water 
in an hour or two. Mr. Arnott calls it Tabernffimontana utilis. Jameson's 
Journal, Ap. 1830. The milk has been analyzed by Dr. Christison, who finds 
it to consist of a small proportion of caoutchouc, and a large proportion of a 
substance possessing in some respects peculiar properties, which appear to place 
it intermediate between caoutchouc and the resins : it probably, therefore, has 
no nutritive qualities. Ed. JV*. Ph. Joum. June 1830, p. 34. The Cream fruit 
of Sierra Leone belongs here ; birdlime is obtained in Madagascar from the 
Voacanga ; and the caoutchouc of Sumatra is produced by the genus Urceola. 
Brown in Congo, 449. The root of Plumeria obtusa is used as a cathartic in 
Java. Ainslie, 2. 137. The Conessi Bark of the British Materia Medica, the 
Palapatta of the Hindoos on the Malabar coast, is the produce of Wrightia an- 
tidysenterica : it is a valuable tonic and febrifuge. On the Coromandel side of 
India it seems chiefly to be given in dysenteric affections. The milky juice of 
the tree is used as a vulnerary. Ibid. 1. 88. The Wrightia tinctoria is ex- 
tremely valuable as a dyer's plant,- the blue colour it yields equalling Indigo. 
The Sarsaparilla of India is chiefly the root of Periploca indica : a decoction of 
it is prescribed by European practitioners in cutaneous diseases, scrofula, and 
venereal affections. Ibid. 1. 382. An infusion of the leaves of Allamanda ca- 
thartica is a valuable cathartic. Ibid. 2. 9. The leaves of Cynanchum Argel 
are used in Egypt for adulterating Senna. A powerful poison is yielded by the 
kernel of the Tanghin tree of Madagascar, (Cerbera Tanghin,) a single seed 
being sufficient to destroy twenty persons : see the Botanical Magazine, folio 
2968, for an excellent account of this plant. The Strychnos colubrina is used 
in Java in intermittent fever, and as an anthelmintic. According to Horsfield, 
the Malays prepare from it an excellent bitter tincture. Virey says, in an 
over-dose it occasions tremors and vomiting. Ainslie, 2. 203. The St. Igna- 
tius's bean, (Strychnos St. Ignatii,) called Papeeta in India, is prescribed by 
the native practitioners of India in cholera with success : it is mixed with Je- 
hiree or Durreoaye Narriol (Cocos maldivica.) If given in over-dose, vertigo 
and convulsions come on ; but they are easily cured by lemonade drank largely. 
Trans. M. and P. S. Calc. 3. 432. The seeds of Strychnos Nux vomica are 
well known, under the latter name, for containing a dangerous narcotic pro- 



2(3 

perty, which modern chemists have ascertained to depend upon the presence 
of a peculiar principle called strychnia. Small quantities of the extract have 
been given with uncertain success in cases of mania, gout, epilepsy, hysteria, 
and dysentery, and also in paraplegia and hemiplegia, .'liiistie, 1.321. This 
strychnia is one of the most violent poisons hitherto discovered : its energy is 
so great, that half a grain blown into the throat of a rabbit, occasioned death 
in the course of five minutes. Its operation is always accompanied with symp- 
toms of locked jaw and other tetanic affections. Turner, 651. A peculiar acid, 
called by MM. Pelleticr and Caventou the Igasuric acid, occurs in combination 
with strychnia in nux vomica and the St. Ignatius bean ; but its existence, as 
different from all other known acids, is doubtful. Ibid. 641. It is remarkable 
that one of the most valuable febrifuges of Brazil belongs to this order. The 
bark of the Strychnos Pseudo-quina is fully equal to Cinchona in curing inter- 
mittent fevers ; it appears to possess some of the dangerous properties of nux 
vomica ; but according to the analysis of Vauquelin, it contains no strychnia 
whatever. PL Usuelles, no. 1. The pulp of the fruit of S. pseudo-quina, and 
even of S. nux vomica, is eaten without inconvenience. Ibid. no. 1. M. Cail- 
liaud found a species of Strychnos in Nubia, the fruit of which is sweet and not 
unwholesome ; and M. Delile remarks, that the venomous species are always 
bitter. Delile Cent. 11. 

Examples. Nerium, Wrightia, Apocjmum, Tabemaemontana, Cerbera, 
Carissa, Gardneria. 



CXCVII. GENTIANEiE. The Gentian Tribe. 

Gen-tiane.k, Juss. Gen. 141. (1789) ; R. Brown Prodr. 449. (1810) ; Lindl. Synops. 177.(1829); 
Von Martius Nov. Gen. cf-c. 2. 132. (1828.) 

Diagnosis. Monopetalous bitter dicotyledons, with regular flowers, a su- 
perior 1- or 2-celled ovarium, an imbricated withering corolla, indefinite seeds, 
capsular fruit, and opposite exstipulate entire leaves. 

Anomalies. Menyanthes and Villarsia have alternate leaves. 

Essential Character. — Calyx monophyllous, divided, inferior, persistent. . Corolla mono- 
petalous, hypogynous, usually regular, withering' or deciduous; the limb divided, equal, its 
lobes of the same number as those of the calyx, generally 5, sometimes 4, 6, 8, or 10, with an 
imbricated twisted aestivation. Stamens inserted upon the corolla, all in the same line, equal 
in number to the segments, and alternate with them ; some of them occasionally abortive. 
Pollen 3-lobed or triple. Ovarium single, 1- or 2-celled, many-seeded. Style 1, continuous ; 
stigmas 1 or 2. Capsule or berry many-seeded, with 1 or 2 cells, generally 2-valved ; the mar- 

fins of the valves turned inwards, and in the genera with 1 cell, bearing the seeds; in the 
-celled genera inserted into a central placenta. Seeds small ; testa single; embryo straight 
in the axis of soft fleshy albumen ; radicle next the hilum. — Herbaceous plants, seldom shrubs, 
generally smooth. Leaves opposite, entire, without stipuls, sessile, or having their petioles 
confluent in a little sheath. Flowers terminal or axillary. 

Affinities. Very near Apocynere, from which they differ in their herba- 
ceous habit, withering corolla, entire ovarium, imbricated, not contorted, aesti- 
vation, want of milk, and capsular fruit without naked seeds. Mr. Brown re- 
marks, that this order is better known by its habit than by any particular 
character ; being, on the one hand, allied to Polemoniacese and Scrophulari- 
neae, from the latter of which it is distinguished by its regular flowers, the 
stamens of which are equal tothe lobes of the corolla, and from the former by 
the dehiscence of the capsule and the placentation of the seeds ; and on the 



214 

other hand, to certain Apocyneae. From Scrophularineae it is frequently 
difficult to distinguish this order, especially if the flowers are absent ; Loga- 
nieas and Spigeliaceas are also very closely allied. For remarks on the three 
last, see those orders respectively. Von Martius, however, points out some 
differences between Gentianeae and Scrophularineae, and their allies, which will 
further assist in distinguishing them. No Gentianeae, except Taenia, have a 
hypogynous disk ; and the two carpellary leaves of which the fruit is formed 
are lateral, or right and left with respect to the common axis of the inflorescence, 
their placental being consequently anterior and posterior; but in Scrophularineae, 
Gesnere33, Bignoniaceas, Acanthacere, and their allies, a hypogynous disk is very 
common in the shape of a fleshy ring, or of glands, or teeth, and the two carpel- 
lary leaves are anterior and posterior, the dissepiment being consequently in the 
same transverse line as separates the upper from the lower lip. Menyanthes 
and Villarsia are probably the type of a small order distinguished by their alter- 
nate and sometimes compound toothed leaves,