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Full text of "An introduction to the copper coins of modern Europe"

YOUNG COLLEC 



I OFFER CO! 



OF LlJ ROPE 



FRANKC.HIGGINS. 



. ONE SHILLING. 



E. SUMMER'S 

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THE YOUNG COLLECTOR SERIES.] 

AN INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

COPPER COINS 
OF MODERN EUROPE 



FRANK C. HIGGINS 



Profusely Illustrated ; -with many drawings by the Author from 
coins in his oivn collection 




i, onto on 

SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO 
PATERNOSTER SUARE 




w 

One kreuzer of Francis Joseph I., Austria. 1851 




PRE FAC E. 

THE author wishes to express, first his obligation to the 
comprehensive list of modern European copper coins com- 
piled by his friend Mr. Lyman H. Low, and published as the 
Official Catalogue of the Scott Coin and Stamp Company of 
New York. The lines of this valuable list have been followed, 
as representing the most convenient order, and at the same 
time guaranteeing that the coins treated of might readily be 
found on application to this and other excellent concerns, 
both in England and abroad. 

The filling in of the outline thus provided has been ac- 
complished, however, by reference to the author's own large 
collection, from which many of the illustrations are made, and 
to the excellent private numismatic library of an indefatigable 
London amateur, Mr. Thomas Pocock. To both of the fore- 
going gentlemen many thanks are therefore rendered. To 
young collectors desirous of embracing the entire range of 
modern copper coins, the two volumes of this series, entitled 
English Coins and Tokens, by Llewelyn Jewett, F.S.A., and 
Colonial Coins and Tokens, by I). F. Howarth, F.S.A., will 
give, with but few exceptions, notably those of American 
and foreign colonial coins, a complete master) 7 of this most 

fascinating topic. 

FRANK C. HIGGINS. 

London. 



2003142 



CONTENTS. 



AUSTRIA 


57,58 


ITALY (continued). 




Burgau . . . 


5*, 59 


Italy (United) . 


75 


Bohemia . . ' . 


. 60 


Naples and Sicily 


61-^5 


Goritz 


59 


Neapolitan Republic . 


65 


Hungary . . . 


59, 60 


Orbetello . . . 


. 65 


Poland . . . 


. 60 


Palma Nuova 


. 66 


Salzburg 


59 


Papal States 


66-68 


Transylvania 


. 60 


Roman Repul lies 


73 


Tyiol, The. . 


59 


Sardinia . . 


73 


BULGARIA 


9 1 


Tuscany . . 


74 


FRANCE 


9-14 


Venice 


75 


French Provinces 


14-16 


NETHERLANDS, THE . 


77, 78 


GERMANY 


27 


Belgium 


. 82 


Anhalt 


45 


Dutch and Flemish . 


So, 8r 


Baden 


35,36 


Holland . 


82,83 


Bavaria 


33, 34 


Luxemburg. 


. 84 


Bremen 


47 


Netherland Provinces . 


78-80 


Brunswick and Luneberg 


36-38 


PORTUGAL . 


24-27 


Frankfort . 


47 


POLAND 


. 89 


German Empire . 


. 48 


ROUMANIA . 


. 90 


Hesse- Cassel 


4 1 


RUSSIA 


84-89 


Lippe 


45,46 


Poland . 


. 89 


Mecklenburg 


43 


Russian Dependencies . 


. 89 


Nassau 


. 44 


SCANDINAVIA 


. 48 


Oldenburg . 


44 


Denmark . 


49, 50 


Prussia . . 


27-32 


Norway 


5 1 


Reuss . . .' , 


47 


Schleswig-Holstein . 


5 1 


Saxony . . -. 


38-40 


Sweden 


52-56 


Waldeck . . . 


. 46 


SERVIA .... 


. 90 


Westphalia . . * 


42 


SPAIN .... 


17-22 


Wurtemburg 


24,35 


Spanish Provinces 


22-24 


GREECE 


91,92 


TURKEY 


93 


ITALY .... 


. 61 


Cyprus 


94 


Corsica 


74 


Malta 


94,95 


Italian Provinces 


68-72 


Venetian Dependencies 


93 



AN INTRODUCTION 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



INTRODUCTORY". 

IT will not be out of place to preface a work treating exclusively 01 
copper coins, with a few words concerning the position occupied 
by that useful metal in the currency of nations, and the peculiar 
features which commend it to the attention of young collectors 
who, the writer at least, believes, will find the study of copper 
coins quite as interesting and more practical as a beginning 
in Numismatics than that of any other series. Copper and 
bronze, which latter is simply copper mixed with a certain 
proportion of tin or other alloy to render it of a hardness and 
fineness suitable to its employment for artistic purposes, have 
since the most primitive ages been accorded an intrinsic value 
which has secured their employment in matters of barter and 
exchange. Originally this value was real, because at an early 
period of the world's history, copper, tin, and malleable iron, 
were the sole metals with which mankind had become suf- 
ficiently acquainted to turn into weapons of war and implements 
of domestic utility. In the primitive ages, before the invention 
of coin, bronze served as currency by weight, or in the form of 
small implements such as were in common use, the same way 
as to-day knife blades and hatchet heads form the currency of 
the natives ot some parts of Central Africa. 

To the Romans, properly, belongs the credit of having first 
introduced a regular copper coinage. We owe our English 
word pecuniary, relating to a money consideration, to the fact 



6 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

that the Latin founders of Rome stamped or cast upon their 
huge pieces of copper the effigy of an ox. Hence the derivation 
from, pec us, meaning cattle. From this humble beginning the 
copper coinage of Rome and of Greece developed and spread 
over the entire ancient world, so as to bequeath to us in the 
variety of nations, conditions, and types represented, an inestim- 
able treasure of testimony to historical truths. The Imperial 
series of Roman bronzes stands to-day, in value, superior to the 
gold coin of its own or any other period. 

With the decadence and extinction of the Roman Empire, 
the once all-important copper coinage of Europe dwindled and 
disappeared without leaving a trace beyond a few meaningless 
bits of metal coming, perhaps, from the wreck of the Byzantine 
Empire. The small values for which it passed in early times 
were for centuries represented throughout Europe by minute 
scales of silver, so mean and insignificant as to hardly deserve 
the distinction of being called coins, and which most frequently 
were told by weight. Then came a period during which the 
lesser fractional values were represented by billon coins, a base 
mixture of a very little silver with a great deal of copper, and 
not until the twelfth century did pure copper or bronze make 
its reappearance in Europe as a distinct coinage, while its use 
in other than the merest localities was restricted until several 
hundred years later. The middle of the fifteenth century may 
be fairly given as the period of the renaissance of European 
copper coinage. 

The satisfaction to be derived by the collector from the /act 
that it is possible for him to reunite at slight expense a most 
creditable representation of almost every series which has 
appeared in the period intervening since that epoch, need not 
be dilated upon. The number of " curious " copper coins 
which have come to British shores in the pockets of her 
voyagers by sea and land, have counted up into the millions 
yearly ever since Britons have mingled freely with the outer 
world. There is no lack of hoards which the collector will 
encounter from time to time in divers places, and it only 
remains for him to select, classify, and study as becomes a true 
amateur. The home and colonial coinages of Great Britain, 
which of course deserve first attention, have been clearly and 
sensibly treated of in the two preceding volumes of this series, 
so that the contents of the present, its compiler hopes, will 
follow in pleasing natural sequence. 



HINTS ON COLLECTING. 7 

There are several points concerning the collection of coins 
which the collector, commencing, will soon find out for himself, 
after having committed a few errors of judgment, but which 
are well worth mentioning at the outset. 

HINTS ON COLLECTING. 

It does not do to go too fast at the beginning. The chief 
beauty of a collection lies in the number of actually perfect 
and undamaged specimens it contains, and a collection to 
possess any appreciable number of such coins must be the 
patient accumulation of a long period nor is it wise to 
search out rarities in preference to all others. Rare issues are 
very high priced when in the hands of dealers, and are the 
field of the advanced collector, who buys coins as one would 
buy old plate and china, knowing where to sell again, 
at a pinch. The young collector will, if he keeps his eyes 
open and carefully identifies each piece coming into his posses- 
sion, secure from time to time odd specimens which he could 
not buy in the open market for large sums. He should never 
lose sight of the fact that when he obtains a better specimen 
of a coin already in his possession, he must discard the latter, 
for which he may not readily find a purchaser. This should 
make him cautious about going to expense for a coin which he 
is not sure of retaining. If he acquires an indifferent specimen 
for a mere song, it may do to help fill a set with for a while, 
but it had better be left alone than over-paid for. Copper 
coins which have been long hoarded away, especially those of 
elaborate design, having a high relief, accumulate a great deal 
of dust and dirt which combines with the natural verdigris of 
the metal to discolour the piece and clog up every crevice. 
Ammonia or acid should not be employed to remove this, but 
the deposit may be loosened, without hurting the coin, by 
immersion in a strong solution of common soda in water, and 
cleared away by brushing out with a moderately hard brush. 
An old tooth brush is the best which could be recommended. 
The colour of the coin does not matter so long as it is clean, 
as old coins are all more or less oxidized. The surface of an 
uncirculated or proof coin should never be touched with the 
fingers, but the piece should be taken carefully and firmly by 
the "opposite outer edges, between the thumb and index finger, 
as a damp finger-mark leaves an almost indelible stain. 



8 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

It is a great mistake of the ignorant that only those coins 
are genuine which are more or less battered and show visible 
signs of age and wear. Coin collecting has been in vogue 
many hundred years, and old collections have brought down 
to our time plenty of very old pieces still in their mint fresh- 
ness. Counterfeits of modern European copper coins do not 
exist in any great proportion, as the originals have not reached 
a degree of rarity to warrant their being profitable to unscru- 
pulous persons. Copies of current copper coins have certainly 
been made at divers times in different countries to serve as 
tokens, but they are of such inferior execution, and badly 
struck on such thin planchets of copper, as to at once show 
what they are. Electrotypes of rare coins, or leaden copies 
washed with copper, may be detected by their failure to ring 
when balanced on the finger, and the excellent condition of 
such desirable coins as they will represent will at once lead to 
critical examination. Electrotyped counterfeits have each side 
manufactured separately, after which they are soldered together, 
An examination of the edges will detect this. It is a common 
trick of some coin dealers to improve the appearance of a worn 
and discoloured copper coin of value by giving it a bath of fresh 
copper. In this sort of coin the worn lettering and design 
will belie its apparent mint condition. The young collector 
will also do well to avoid the type of junk-shop dealer who has 
a few coins for sale about which he knows absolutely nothing, 
but which he invariably attempts to foist upon an inexperienced 
amateur at prices varying from five to fifty times their real 
value. A reputable coin or specimen dealer should alone be 
relied upon. Young collectors should endeavour to know 
others equally interested, so as to furnish each with an outlet 
for duplicate coins and exchange of experiences. The friend- 
ship of an advanced collector, and access to his cabinet for 
purpose of study, will be found invaluable if it can be com- 
manded. 

As I have already stated, a very few copper coins are extant 
which belong to an early period, subsequent to the final dis- 
appearance of the regular bronze coinage of the Roman and 
its successor, the Byzantine Empire. These belong principally 
to Italian provinces bordering upon the Mediterranean, such 
as Naples and Sicily, and are of such a nondescript order and % 
so irregular in sequence that they do not furnish an adequate* 
basis upon which to found a chronological account. They 



FRANCE. 9 

herefore will be touched upon in connection with their respec- 
tive countries, which in turn will be covered in the order o 
their importance. Our work dealing with such an immense 
variety of types, it is necessary in many cases to depend on the 
personal aptitude of the collector, who, when a single coin of 
a series, differing one from another in many minor points, is 
described or pictured to him, will identify the others by impor- 
tant details unmistakably common to all. 

As abbreviations constantly appear on coins t:o small to 
bear the entire inscription common to the series, the student 
will find it necessary to develop a familiarity with the latter, 
which will often prove of great aid. Dates given are those 
during which copper coins were issued. 



FRANCE. 

The first coinage of copper for use in modern France took 
place in the reign of Henry III. Le Blanc, in the quain 
French of his elaborate Traite Historiqiie des Monnoyes de 
France, published at Amsterdam in 1692, says, 

" I shall not say anything about the billon moneys (of Henry 
III.) because they were the same as of the preceding reign. 
In 1575 were made Doubles-deniers Tournois and Deniers 
Tournois of fine copper. Up to that time there had been no 
pure copper money in France, but as now billon was lacking 
wherewith to manufacture Doubles and Deniers they were 
obliged to use copper to make these little coins, which they 
have always done since." The type of these first French copper 
coins was destined to endure upwards of one hundred years, 




Henry IV., 1603. 

during which a great variety appeared not only bearing the 
effigies of the Kings of France, but of a large number of their 



10 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

princely vassals in the provinces. The obv. of these pieces 
contained invariably a small bust of the monarch in the high 
collar or ruff of the period, facing right, within an inner circle, 
which is surrounded in turn by his titles. The rev. bore 
usually three fleur-de-lis in a circle surrounded by DOVBLE 
TOVRNOIS and date, or two fleur-de-lis in the case of the smaller 
coins, with DENIER TOVRNOIS and date. These pieces were 
multiplied by thousands, and are not rare. They are to be 
found of HENRI in. 1575-89; the Cardinal de Bourbon, 
pretender as CHARLES x. 1590-95; HENRI mi. 1590-1610; 
LOVIS or LOYS xin. (Louis) juvenile head, LOYS xin. adult 




FIG. 2. Obverse of Double Tourno-s. Louis XIII. Adult head. 

head and LUD(OVJCUS) xin. undraped adult bust (latter facing 
left) 1611-43. The heads of course changing with advancing 
age. For Louis XIV. were struck, first Deniers and Doubles 
with a young head and L. xini. etc., and afterwards a series 




Fie. 3. Obverse of Liaid. Louis XIV. (Young head.) 

of Liards on the obv. of which was a crowned juvenile bust, 
titles and date, and on the rev. LIARD DE FRANCE, and three 
fleur-de-lis below. Later the Liard bore his well known 
adult head with flowing hair, uncrowned. There were also 
struck late in the reign of Louis XIV. pieces of two and four 
Deniers with bust, and six Deniers, bearing on olm. a triangular 
figure of three double 1's (JL) crowned, with a fleur-de-lis at 
each angle, the whole surrounded by titles. Rev. a cross 
surrounded by six DENIERS DE FRANCE and date. The 



FRANC K. 



I I 



period of the foregoing was from 1648-1713. The copper 
coinage of Louis XV. was in Liards, Sous and half Sous, with 
bust and LUDOVICUS xv. DEI GRATIA on obv., and on rev. 
the remainder of his titles and date surrounding the crowned 
arms of France. The dates are first coinage, young head, 
1719-23; second coinage, adult head, 1766-74. The first 



FIG. 4. Rev 




of Sou. Louis XVI., 



(Type of Louis XV. also. 



coins of the ill-fated Louis XVI., 1774-93, were a Liard, 
Sou and half Sou, precisely similar to those of his grandfather, 
whom he succeeded. On the destruction of the Bastille and 
subjugation of the king to the National Assembly, with which 
events the Revolution began, a new coinage was prepared and 
struck in both copper and brass, the values being two Sous, 
and three, six and twelve Deniers. The obvs. bear the draped 
bust of the King, who is styled LOUIS xvi., ROI DES FRANCOIS, 
with date below bust. The rev. bears an upright fasces sur- 
mounted by a liberty cap and within a wreath of oak leaves, 




while encircling this in turn appears LA NATION*, LA LOI, LE 
ROI above, and L'AN DE LA LIBERTE below. The value is 



12 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



expressed by a figure and letter in field. Slight varieties exist, 
but the general type of these coins is always the same. 

On the death of Louis XVI. by the guillotine, the coinage 
of the " Reign of Terror " commences, with pieces of |, one and 
two Sous in both copper and brass. Their type is, obr. a 
pair of scales surmounted by a liberty cap, and about which 
a wreath is entwined. Above are the words LIBERTE EGALITE, 




FIG. 6. Obverse of Sou. First Republic, 1793. (Reign of Terror. 

and below, the date, 1793, or a mint mark: the value is 
expressed within the wreath. Rev. a tablet surmounted by 
the All-seeing eye, and inscribed LES HOMMES SOXT EGAUX 
DEVANT LA LCI. To the left of the tablet is a bunch of grapes, 
and to the right a wisp of corn. The inscription is REPUBLIQUE 
FRANCHISE L'AN ii. In 1795, or the "year four of liberty" as 
the Republicans called it, the coinage was again changed. 
Pieces of five Centimes, and two Decimes were issued, bear- 




FIG. 7 .-Decim 



ing the head of Liberty coiffed with a Phrygian bonnet and 
surrounded by REPUBLIQUE FRAN^AISE. The ra 1 . of the 



FRANCE. 1 3 

smaller piece bears 5 CENTIMES, L'AX 4, and that of the larger 
2 DECIMES. This last piece was called in later, " UN " punched 
over the " 2," and the final " s " obliterated. 

The following year, however, larger planchets were used 
for the five Centime piece, while the Uecime retained the 
altered size, and a one Centime piece was issued, which is 
very common and plentiful in France up to the present day, 
although it was soon discontinued. The dates will be L'AN 
5-6-7-8-9. There are unhappily no French copper coins 
bearing the effigy of the great Napoleon, 1804-15. His reign 
is represented only by a Uecime bearing a large " N " within a 
wreath, with value and date, 1808, on rev. Louis XVIII. struck 
no copper coins except siege pieces. Neither Charles X. nor 
Louis Philippe are represented except by colonial coins of the 
value of five and ten Centimes, which bear beautiful busts. 
These circulated freely at home, and are common. On the 
overthrow of Louis Philippe and establishment of the second 
Republic with Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as President, 
the one-Centime piece of the first Republic was revived from the 
original obv. dies, and given a rev. differing only in the substi- 
tution of the dates, 1848-49-50 and 51 for the Republican 
year. The Prince-President on becoming Napoleon III. issued 
fine bronze pieces of one, two, five and ten Centimes, bearing 
his head within a circle of dots, and the legend NAPOLEON in. 




FIG. 8. Ten Centimes of Napoleon III., 1855. 

EMPEREUR, with date under bust, 1852-57. Rev. the Imperial 
eagle perched upon a thunderbolt within circle of dots, EMPIRE 
FRANC.AIS above, and value UN, DEUX, CINQ or DIX CENTIMES 
below. These are still the most common type current in 
France to-day. In 1861 a new bust of the Emperor was 
substituted with a crown of laurel, referring to his victory at the 



14 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

battle of Magenta, and the, since famous, waxed moustache. 
Dates of the latter issue 1861 to 1865. 

The coins of the present Republic are precisely similar in 
size, appearance and value, but the head of the Emperor has 
given place to one of Ceres, and the legend REPUBLIQUE 




FIG. 9. Ten Centimes of the "Third Republic," 1870- . 

FRANCHISE, with date below. On the rev. the value, i, 2, 5, 
or 10 CENTIMES within a wreath of olive and laurel, surrounded 
by the text of modern France, LIBERTE*EGALITE*FRATERNITE. 



FRENCH PROVINCIAL ISSUES. 

It has been noted that the little Doubles and Deniers 
Tournois were not only multiplied by the Kings themselves in 
France, but imitated by princely vassals and the governors of 
distant provinces. The general appearance of the original 
coin is always preserved, and in most cases the rer. type with 
the fleur-de-lis is unaltered. We meet, however, with " Doubles 
de Lorraine" " Liards de Boiiillon" etc., only departing from 
the series in matter of lettering and minor details, and others 
on which the arms of their issuers appear. The following is 
a list of the principal series and types of provincial issue which 
will be met with. 

BOUILLON. Double Tournois of Duke William Robert, 
with bust, 1587. 

BOUILLON and SEDAN. Double Tournois. Obv. Bust 
of Henry de la Tour. Rev. Arms and value, 1568-1614, also 
varieties of Liards, with bust, date and titles on obi<., and arms 
on rei'. Latterly one with crowned H; dates, 1613-14-15. 



FRAXCP:. 1 5 

Doubles Tournois with busts, F. Maurice, 1632-3, Godf(rey) 
Maurice, 1636-40; also Liard, 1681, with arms only on Obv. 




FIG. io. Double Tournois of F. Maurice of Bouillon, 1632. 

BURGUNDY. Liants. Philip II. (of Spain), 1559-1588. 
Albert and Elizabeth, 1616. Philip IV. (of Spain), 1636-65, 
and additional type of a crowned mantle answering for rulers 
from 1665 to 1752. 

CHATEAU-REXAL'I). Doubles Tournois. Bust and title 




FIG. ii. Double Tournois of F. de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, 1613. Chateau Renaud. 

of F. de Bourbon (Francois) Prince de Conti, 1613-14. LianI, 
with crowned arms, and titles, 1614. 

CUGNON. Double Tournois. John Theodore, 1634. 
Denier. Ferdinand Charles, 1655; rev. of latter, three roses 
or four fleur-de-lis. 

DOMBES. Doubles Tournois of Louis, 1582; Francis, 




FIG. 12.- Obverse of Double Tournois. Marie of Dombes, 1619-28. 

1585-89; Henry, 1595; Maria, 1619-28. There are two 
types of the foregoing. One with bust as usual, and other 



1 6 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

with simple initial crowned. Doubles and Denier s Tournois 
of Gaston d'Orleans, 1649-52, and Liards of Anna Maria 
Louisa, 1673, the latter bearing a crowned M (a tiny coin, often 
clipped). 

HENRICHMONT. Doubles Tournois of Max de Bethune, 
1597-1641, and Max Francis de Bethune, 1641-61. The 
arms on rev. consist of circle of eight fleur-de-lis encircling 
shield. 

LORRAINE. Doubles de Lorraine, Louis XIII., type of 
royal issues. Liards of Leopold, 1706-28. 

MONTBELIARD. Doubles Tournois, Louis XIII., 1638. 
Liards of Leopold Eberhard, D.W.M , 1710-15. 

NEVERS. Deniers and Doubles Tournois and Liards of 
Charles de Gonzaga, 1601-37. (Bust and Arms.) 

ORANGE (ARAUSIO, ORASICA). Doubles Tournois, Frede- 
rick Henry (FRED. HENR. D.G. PRI. AV.), 1636-46. Deniers 
Tournois of William Henry, 1650-4. 

PFALZBURG and LIXHEIM. Doubles Tournois ol 
Louis XIII., 1633-3. 

STRASBURG. Both Louis XVIII. and Napoleon I. here 
issued Decimes in 1815, bearing a crowned "L" or " x :> 
within wreath, with value and date on rev. 

With reference to the isolated letters which appear on almost 
all French coins as mint-marks, the following list will prove 
instructive. A. Paris ; A. A. Metz ; B. Rouen ; BB. Stras- 
burg; C. St. Lo ; D. Lyons; E. Tours; F. Angers; G. 
Poitiers ; G. and lion, Geneva ; H. La Rochelle ; I. Limoges ; 
K. Bordeaux ; L. Bayonne ; M. Toulouse ; M. A. Marseilles ; 
N. Montpelier; P. Dijon; Q. Chalons; R. Orleans; S. 
Troyes ; T. Nantes ; W. Lille ; X. Ville-franche ; V. Bourges ; 
Z. Dauphine ; &, Aix ; a cow, Pau : g, Bretagne. 



SPAIN. 

The transition from small pieces of base silver to larger 
coins of copper and bronze to represent the same values seems 
to have taken place in Spain early in the reign of Ferdinand 
and Isabella, at which time coins of those metals again began 
to be common in the South of Europe. The King of Arragon 
at this epoch was also King of Naples and Sicily, which states 
had always preserved a limited copper coinage. After the 
overthrow of the Byzantine rule in Naples by the Normans, 
the latter continued the issue of copper which they found in 
vogue, as did successively the German and Arragonese princes, 
bringing it to the time of Ferdinand I., who definitely intro- 
duced it into his Spanish dominions. Base silver had already 
become so bad in all Spain that commerce was nearly ruined 
by it, and specimens of the coinage before the time of Ferdi- 
nand seem almost pure copper ; but they were not legally so, 
and so escape being made subjects of our narrative. The 
coins of Spain almost invariably bear the Lion and Castle, 
by which they may be readily identified. The earlier copper 
coins have the Castle on the obv. and Lion on the rev., each 
in a cartouche or shield, surrounded by part of the inscription. 
Those of Ferdinand of Arragon and Isabella of Castille and 
Leon united,. 1474-1804, bear FERDINANDVS ET ELISABET 




FIG. 13. Obverse of Eight Maravedis. Ferdinand and Isabella, 

on obv., and CAS LE REX ET REGINA on rev. There are 
several copper coins of Ferdinand alone which bear a Gothic 
initial " F " on obv. The values expressed are Octavos, Cuartos, 
and Double Cuartos. The minority of Charles I., the eldest 
grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, during which his mother 



1 8 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

Joanna, the actual Queen of Castille, was hopelessly demented, 
is represented by a copper Cuarto, having a " Y " on the obi\ 
and the crowned pillars of Hercules on the rev. Dates, 1516- 
20. Charles I. alone (he became later the great Charles V. of 
Germany) issued a Cuarto and Double Cuarto, with the Castle 
and Lion obv. and rev, respectively. Title, CAROLVS . D.G. HIS- 
PANIARVM . REX. Dates, 1520-1556. Philip II. issued from 
1556 to 1598 pieces of two, four and eight Maravedis of the 
Castle and Lion type, with the values in the field. Title, 
PHILIPPUS n, Hisp(aniarum) REX. 

Philip III. coined values of one, two, four and eight 
Maravedis. The one Maravedi bore his monogram crowned, 
and the rest the Castle and Lion. Of the three larger pieces 
there are two types : one has the arms upon crowned shields 
with the inscription around Lion on rev, HlSPAN(iarum) ' REX 
and the date in field, while the other bears the arms in orna- 
mented cartouches, while he is styled HISPAN REGNORVM 




FIG. M.-Eight Maravedis of Philip III., 1602. 

REX with date following. The dates run from 159810 1612. 
Of Philip IV. there is a scarce 8 Maravedis of 1622, like those 
of the preceding reign ; but his regular coinages were exces- 
sively ugly coins of 4, 8, and 16 Maravedis value, bearing bust 
and titles on one side, and a crowned shield of complicated 
arms on the rcc. The workmanship of these coins is very 
crude, and the engraving looks more like the efforts of amateur 
die-sinkers than of artists. The coins all resemble each other, 
but the different heads or rather caricatures of Philip IV. are 
innumerable. The dates are all in the latter part of his reign, 
1660-65. 

The issue, however, seems to have been insufficient, as the 
old copper coinage, was repeatedly called in and counter- 
stamped with new dates and ever-decreasing values. These 



SPAIN. 



pieces exist in great numbers, and are sometimes very puzzling, 
as their surface presents a mass of battered remnants of the 
original design and the later additions. Pieces are punched 
successively with xn, vm, and vi, with a new date for each 




FIG. 15. Counterstamped Eight Maravedis of Philip II., with value raised and 
lowered in reign of Philip IV. 

counterstamp, and so on. This was called for by the constant 
clipping which went on ; for however little profit could be 
extracted from a clipped copper coin, there seemed to have 
been individuals who thought it worth their while to damage 
them. 

Of Charles II. we have only two pieces of two Maravedis 
value, both of which are scarce. The first struck from 1680 
to 95 are thick, mis-shapen pieces of copper, much clipped. 
They bear the Spanish arms and n on obv. and a lion on 
rev. The second type bears a rude bust, and on rev. a 
monogram c c n. 

With Philip V. the copper coinage of Spain again becomes 
attractive and artistic. Instead of the Lion and Castle on 




16. Four Maravedis of Philip V., 1719. 



opposite sides we have from now on, the full Spanish coat-of- 
arms always occupying the rev. The Castle and Lion together 



20 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

with the flettr de-lis of the French Bourbons, from whom this 
Philip sprung. He issued in copper pieces of i, 2, 3, 4, and 
6 Maravedis of several types. Several of the earlier issues may 
be recognised by large crowned " v "s, the value generally 
expressed within. The best and commonest type, however, 
has on obv. a Lion, crowned and seated, holding sword and 
sceptre, and guarding two globes. The legend is VTRUMQ + 
VIRT + PROTEGO, date following. Dates, 1710-46. 

During the reign of Ferdinand VI., 1746-59, coins of i and 
2 Maravedis were issued of the same type as the preceding. 
With Charles III. in 1772 we have the commencement of an 
issue of pieces of i, 2, 4, and 8 Maravedis of a type which 
continued, with merely changes of obv., as new rulers appeared, 
until 1833. The obv. presents the head of the king sur- 




FIG. 1 7. -Eight Maravedis of Charles III., 1773. 

rounded by his name and title of D o HISP (aniarum) REX 
and date. 

CAROLUS III, 1772-88; CAROLVS IIII (or IV), 1788-1808; 

JOSEPHUS NAP (oleon), 1808-13; and FERDIN (andus) vn 
(or 7), 1808-33. The rev. consists of the arms of Spain, 
quartered by an ornamental cross, of which the centre is an 
oval containing the three Bourbon fleur-de-lis, the whole sur- 
rounded by a wreath. There are various obv. of the coins of 
Ferdinand VII. They bear a small bare head from 1813 
to 1816, a small laureated head from 1817 to 1824, a large 
bare head from 1824 to 1827, and a large laureated head from 
1827 to 1833. On the accession of Ferdinand's daughter, 
Isabella II., in 1833, the foregoing type was slightly changed 
by reason of the length of her title, which continued from the 
obv. to the rev., where it displaced the wreath. In full it reads 

ISABEL 2 A FOR LA G ' (racia) DE ' DIGS Y LA CONST ' /itucion) 



SPAIN. 21 

RKVNA DE LAS ESPAXAS. This type in i, 2, 4 and 8 Maravedis 
continues until 1858. A variety of the 8 Maravedis of 1835-6 
has the value on rer. 




FIG. iS. Eight Maravedis of Ferdinand VII. (large laureated head), 1830. 

The first deviation was a Medio () Real struck in 1848. 

Then came a very handsome set of decimal parts of a Real 
struck from 1850 to 1853. They bear on ofrr. crowned arms 
on shields of a new and elaborate pattern, with usual inscrip- 
tion surrounding. The centre of the rev. is occupied by the 
value from " Medio Real " to " Media Decima de Real," four 
pieces in all. The value is surmounted by a tiny wreath, and 
the whole enclosed in a circle of buds, outside of which is 
the continuation of title from ob:'. The series of " Centimes 
de Real "run from 1854 to 1864. They bear a very plump 
and pretty portrait of Queen Isabella, surrounded by titles, 
with date below bust. On the rer., arms crowned in midst of 




Isabella II., 1867 



wreath; above, REYNA DE ESPAXA ; below, 5, 10 or 25 CF.XT 
(imos) DE REAL. These are the last Coppercom?.. In 1866 
began the Bronze coinage of " Centimes de Escudo," values 



22 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

i, i, 2\, and 5. These are much larger in proportion than 
the coins of the series preceding them, have a slightly older 
head within a circle of pellets, and the arms on rev. are in 
crowned oval in circle of pellets instead of shield. The value 
is expressed below. Last issue 1868. The i, 2, 5 and 10 
Centimes of the Republic which followed have : Obr. a Lion 
rampant, regardant, within a circle of pellets resting his fore- 
paws upon the arms of Spain. Above, inscription giving the 
rtumber of pieces to the kilogram (two pounds), and below the 
value. Rev., Hispania seated upon a range of mountains, with 
an olive branch in her hand, surrounded by circle of pellets. 
Above, the number of GRAMOS (grains) weight, and below the 
date 1870. Amadeus issued no copper coins during his brief 
reign. Alfonso XII. succeeded in 1874, and in 1877-8-9 
issued bronze pieces of five and ten Centimes. Obr. Head 
surrounded by ALFONSO xn FOR LA GRACIA DE DIGS, date 
in exergue. Rev. Crowned arms on shield in wreath. 
Above KEY CONST! DE ESPANA. Value below CINCO or DIEZ 

CENTIMOS. 

Of the Pretenders, "old" Don Carlos struck an 8 Maravedi 
piece with title of CARLOS v. in 1837, while during the "Car- 
list "war of 1875 wcre issued bronze 5 and 10 ''Centimes 




FIG. 20. F^ve Centimos "de Peseta" of the Pretender Don Carlos, 1875. 



de Peseta," imitating the coins of King Alfonso, with the 
laureated head and titles of CARLOS vn. 



SPANISH PROVINCIAL ISSUES 

Have all distinguishing features, which at once show the 
difference between them and national issues. 

BARCELONA. The capital of Catalonia has issued many 
copper coins, bearing her arms or name (IURCIXO in Latin) 



SPAIN. 23 

or the busts and titles of her rulers. Philip III., IV. and V. 
of Spain, and Louis XIII. and XIV. of France are represented. 
The values are in "Ardites," "Seisinos," and " Dinerillos," 
and nearly all may be readily identified. The French occupy- 
ing Barcelona from 1801 to 1814, struck pieces of , i, 2, and 
4 quartos without date. Obv. Arms, /te'. Value. In 1823 
were struck pieces of 3 and 6 quartos, with arms of Spain 
and titles of Ferdinand VII. on obv., and the arms of the 
Province of Barcelona on the rev. 

The BALEARIC ISLES (Majorca and Minorca) under 
Ferdinand VII. are represented by a piece of 12 " Dineros " 
of 1812. Obv. Bust, Rev. Arms. 

BELLEPUIG by a " Seisino " of Louis XIII., 1642, with 
bust. 

CATALONIA (Latin, CATHALUNA ; Spanish, CATALUXA) 
has an "Ardite" of Ferdinand VI., 1754-6, and a large 
coinage of different values bearing the arms and titles of 
Ferdinand VII., with 3 and 6 Cuartos of Isabella II., 1836-46. 

GERONA (Latin, GERUXDA). A " Seisino " of Louis XIII., 
1642, with bust. 

IVICA (Latin, EBUSIE). "Dineros," with busts of Charles I. 
(rev. Arms), and Philip II. and III. (rev. Castle), 6 "Dineros" 
of Philip IV. and Charles II. (rev. Castle and value) and 
" Sueldo " of the latter; date 1668-86, with arms on rev. 

MAJORCA (largest of the Balearic isles ; Latin, MAJORICA). 
"Doblers," with heads of Philip III., 1598-1621 ; Philip IV., 
1621-65; an d Charles II., 1665-1700, all with a cross on 
rev. ; pieces of i, 2, and 6 "Dineros" of Philip V. ; obv. 
Head, rev. Cross ; 6 " Dineros," 1724, Bust of Luis I. (Lud.), 
and 8 " Maravedis," 1823, with bust and arms of Ferdinand 
VII., and " P v for Palma (capital of Majorca). 

NAVARRE. This historic province has a long and in- 
teresting Numismatic record, illustrated by copper coins of its 
rulers. Up to the early part of the present century they are 
distinguished by combinations of figures and letters, and by 
the initials and monograms of rulers. The following is a 
concise list of such for identification : Philip II., " Dinero," 
1608, obv. P.II.N. ; rev. "P," between pillars of Hercules, 
"Cuarto," 1608-16, obv. PH. n, l \ l ; rev. Arms and P-A., 2, 4, 
and 8 Maravedis, 1647, same general types. 4 Maravedis, 



24 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

1650, "PHILIPPUS" in monogram. Charles II., 2 Maravedis, 
1655-1700, CAR. Philip V., 2 Maravedis with PH.V. and \ ri . 
Ferdinand VI., 1746-59, 2 and 4 Maravedis (square) with 
FERD vi and *!?. Charles III., 1783-9, square 2 and 4 Mara- 
vedis with CAR vi. 

From 1818 to 1826 were issued, in the various years, pieces 
of , i, 3, and 6 Maravedis of Ferdinand III. (VII. of Spain), 
which will be identified by the head and title above. The 
I Maravedi of 1832 is square, while i and 3 Maravedis of 
1830-3 have the date on rev. 

PAMPELUNA (in Navarre) Ferdinand VII., 8 Maravedis, 
cast in gun-metal with p-8. Isabella II., 1837, cast gun-metal. 
8 Maravedis with S-PP-M on rer. 

VALENCIA. Philip III., 1610-16 ; Philip IV., 1634-16, 
" Dinerillos," same type. Obi'. Bust. Jtev. Lily. 

REPUBLIC OF ANDORRA. This, the smallest inde- 
pendent territory in the world, possesses a piece of 10 Centimos 
inscribed, REPUHLICA DE LOS VALLS DE ANDORRA. Rev. value 
and date 1873. 



PORTUGAL. 

The copper coinage of this portion of the Iberian peninsula 
commenced almost simultaneously with that of Spain, that is 
during the reign of the fifth ruler of the house of Aviz, Dom 
Emanuel, 1495 to J 5 21 - T ne Portuguese had not only the 
example of Spain as a precedent, but were accustomed to the 
native copper coins of their Indian possessions. There is little 
chance of mistaking a Portuguese coin for one of any other 
series, for the arms are seldom absent. They are composed 
of two shields, one within the other. Arranged about the 
central shield are seven castles, while within it nre five smaller 
shields arranged in the form of a cross. In each of these, in 
turn, are five pellets ; above all, the royal crown. Of Emanuel 
and John III., 1521-57, we have "Ceitils " with arms on obv., 
and a three-towered castle rising from water, on rev. Of the 
latter King there are also pieces of one and two "Reals" bearing 
jo in, besides other details. The 10 "Real" pieces of John 
III. bear crowned arms on ebv., and on rer. a large " X.'" On 



PORTUGAL. 25 

one he is styled REX QVINTVS DECIMVS, and on the other, REX 

SEXTVS DECIMVS. 

Sebastian, 1557-78, is represented by a "Ceitil" with the 
three-towered castle, and the Real and its multiples, 3, 5, and 
10, which may be identified by the name of the King, 
SEEASTIANVS, the phrase REX SETVS DECIMVS, or in the case 
of the 3 Real pieces which bear crowned arms, the characters 
L-3 or III-L being on the rev. There are no copper coins 
of " Cardinal " Henry who succeeded during two years. Dom 
Antonio, the Prior of Crato, an illegitimate grandson of 
Emanuel, attempted to sit upon the throne in 1580 in opposi- 
tion to Philip II. of Spain, and having raised a small army, 
struck coins at Santarem. They are : a " Ceitil," obv. A, 
crowned, rev. a bird ; a " Real," obv. Arms, rev. IN HOC 
SIGXO VINCES ; 2 " Reals," obv. Arms, rev. a globe with 
IN . DEO ; 4 " Reals," obv. Arms, rev. A (Angra). Philip II. 
of Spain became king of Portugal in 1580, under the title of 
Philip I, of whom there is a 10 "Real" piece upon which 
he is styled REX OCTAVVS DECIMVS. Philip II. and III. of 
Portugal do not seem to have had a copper coinage, and the 
first King of the present dynasty, the house of Braganza, 
John IV., ignoring the brief Spanish rule, styles himself REX 
xvni on pieces of i^, 3, and 5 (v) Reis, 1640-56. 

Of Peter II. there is a long and interesting series of several 
types. From this reign to the end there can be no mistakes 
made, as the dates and inscriptions are both clearly given. 
Peter II., 1667-1706, is represented by p n, crowned on a few 




of Peter II., 7700. (Type of others. 



ot his coins, and John V., 1706-60, by j.v crowned. The 
values hereafter, are all expressed in Reis, sometimes by 
figures and sometimes by Roman numerals. Joseph I., 
1 75~77 ! Maria I. and Peter III. (conjointly), 1777-86; 
Maria I. (alone), 1786-1816, and the latter's son John, as 
Prince Regent (P. REGENS) are represented by four or five 



26 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



pieces each, of the common type. John, as Prince Regent, 
1792-1816, and later as John VI., 1816-26, put his bust on 




FIG. 22. Ten Reis of Maria I., 1799. (Type of other rulers.) 

thick brass pieces of 20 and 40 "Reis." Peter IV., 1826-8, 
issued a brass 40 "Reis" with bust. Michael I., 1828-34, 
and Maria II., 1828-53 ( a period of Revolution, with rival 
claimants), issued copper coins of the usual types. Maria 
struck in 1829-47 a thick piece of 40 "Reis," which is also 




FIG. 23. Forty Reis of John VI. (Similar coin, as Prince Regent. 

found counterstamped G. c. p. (Governo Civil, Porto). Louis I., 
1861-89, struck, first pieces of 3, 4, 10, and 20 " Reis" of the 
old type, and latterly of 5, 10, and 20 " Reis " with his bust on 
flint, surrounded by title. The words VTILITATI PUBLIC.*: will 
frequently be found on the rev. of the earlier Portuguese copper 
coins. Portuguese colonial coins must not be confounded 
with the home issues, to which they bear many points of re- 
semblance. Brazilian, African, and Indian issues exist, bearing 



GERMANY. 2J 

the names and titles of Portuguese monarchs back several 
hundred years. The type of their colonial issues, especially 
for Brazil, is that of a terrestrial globe with or without arms. 
References to Africa, Ethiopia, India, etc., in inscriptions, will 
indicate the difference. Coins for the Azores islands are 
inscribed PECVNIA IXSULANA, or value in Arabic numerals of 
floral design ; for Madeira, PECUNIA MADEIRENSIS, for Terceira 
ILHA TERCEIRA, and for St. Thomas and Prince's Islands the 
coins are exactly like those of Brazil, with exception of the 
value on rev., which is in Arabic numerals. These colonial 
issues are merely indicated to guard against errors, as they will 
at some future date be described in full. 



GERMANY. 

The copper coins of Germany, while not extending over a 
period of more than two centuries, present one of the most 
puzzling subjects with which one might well attempt to cope. 
Given first, the, up to recent times, division of that country 
into almost innumerable petty sovereignties, dukedoms and 
counties, which were independent of each other ; the existence 
of different expressions of value in each, the frequent changes 
of rulers, and the fact that but few of the coins bear other than 
the barest indications of their origin ; it becomes apparent that 
to be clear, the writer must go into a host of minute details, or 
be very brief. The dimensions of our present volume, how- 
ever, leave no choice but the latter. Under these circum- 
stances there is no possibility of observing other than the most 
convenient order in aiding to recognise, one by one, the 
different series. Where it would be necessary to quote different 
dates for every one of a long series of, similar coins, dates 
inclusive of all are given. 

PRUSSIA 

Is at present the most important of the German States. Her 
copper coinage began with that of 

BRANDENBURG under Frederick II., 1740-86, at a 
moment when bilhn had reached such a degree of baseness 
as to be practically worthless. The i and 3 Pfennings, and 



28 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



Stuber will be known by "F.R." scii(>t, date, and value. 
Frederick William II., 1786-97, is represented on \ Stuber 
pieces and Schillings as " F.R.W." or " F.W." in script, value, 
and date. Also a Grossus, 1799, Obv. head, Re-c. arms. 
Frederick William III., 1797-1840, issued, first "Pfennings" 
i " Stubers " and a " Schilling " of preceding type, between 
1810-16, i and 2 "Pfennings" having a sceptre in crowned 
oval on obi\, while from 1821 to 1840 his copper coins 
take the same type which they bear to the present day, 
a spread eagle in- a crowned shield, surrounded by inscription 
denoting the number of like pieces amounting to a " Thaler " 
on Obv. Value, date, and SCHEIDE MUXZE on Rev. The dates 




FIG. 24. Three Pfennings of Prussia, 1871. 



subsequently are Frederick William IV., 1840-61, William I., 
1861-73, a f ter which see German Empire. 

POMERANIA. Before the Prussian coinage begins, we 
have copper coins of the Swedish occupation under Gustavus 
III., 1776-92, 3 "Pfennigs" type, a Griffin, and K.S.P.L.M. ; 
Gustavus Adolphus IV., 1806-1808, similar. The town of 
STRALSUND, a " Witten " and "Sechsling" of 1763, with 




FIG. 25. One Groschen of Dantzic, 1812. 

three spear heads, and the town of WOLGAST, a " Witten " 
of 1691-2, bearing Griffin. DANTZIC (Latin, GEDAXKXSIS) 
has a " Solidus " of 1766 with S.A. ; a "Schilling," 1801, with 
F.w. ; and "Schilling" and Groschen of 1808-12, with arms 



GERMANY. 29 

which are two small crosses, crowned in shield supported by 
Lions. 

POSEN. One and three " Groschen," 1816-17, with Eagle 
in oval shield. 

SCHLESIEN. Frederick William II., 1786-97, Kreuzer 
F.W. script. " Solidus " and " Grossus " with F.W.R. on the 
latter in oval, and a " Grossus " with head on Obv., arms on 
Rci<. Frederick William III., 1797-1840, \ "Kreuzer," 1806, 
script. F.W., i "Kreuzer," 1810. An eagle in crowned oval. 

STOLLBERG. Coppers of i and \\ Pfennigs, through 
last century, bear a Stag. 




Fiu. 26. One Pfennig of Stollberj;, 1718-1801. 

ERFURT. 1621-2, Values n, in, vi, xn, " Scherf," Arms, 
a wheel. 

MULHAUSEN. Pieces of n Pfennigs, 2 varieties, 1737 
and 1767, with MVLHAVSER STADT MVNTZ. 

QUEDLINBURG. Coins from 1621 to 1662 bear in 
addition to Arms or other detail the letter " Q." Only the 
last two figures of date are usually given. 

SCHLEUSINGEN has a "Heller" of Moritz William, 
1705-26. Obv. "M.W." Rev. "SCHLEU'." 

SAYN - WITTGENSTEIN. " Pfenning " and quarter 
"Stuber" from 1752 have Arms in two oval shields. 

MUXSTER. "Pfenning" and multiples 1661 to 1787 
have Obv. St. Paul with Latin inscription, Rev. value in Roman 
numerals and date, i and 2 " Pfgs.," 1790, DOM CAPITUL. 

Copper coins of the Bishops, Obv. Script monogram, Rev. 
value in Roman numerals, r(red'k) c(hristian) 1703. r(ranz) 
A(rnold), 1712-16; c(lement), 1735-55. Coins of the city, 
1560-1758, bear STADT MUNSTER in addition to Arms and 
Roman numerals of value. 



3O COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

REINE. Arms and STADT REINE, ^(eller), m, IV , VI , V11 'j 
xn " Pfgs.," etc. 

PADERBORN (Bishopric). Coins usually bear Arms 
with mitre, sword, and crozier, sometimes STADT PADERBORN 




FIG. 27. Four Pfennigs of Paderborn, 1743. (Clement August. 



and Roman numerals of value. The Bishops from 1618 were 
Ferdinand I., to 1650; Theo(dore) Ado(lf), 1650-60; Fer 
dinand II., 1661-83 > Her(man) Wer(ner), 1685-1703 ; 
Fran(cis) Arnold, 1706-18; Clement Aug(ustus), 1743-8; 
SEDE VACANTE (no Bishop existing), 1761; William Anton, 
1766-7. Of the city there are "Pfennings" and multiples, of 

1605-22 with STADT PADERBORN. 

CORVEY. 1638, i and in "Pfgs." of io(hn) CH(ristoph) 
ABB(OU) CORB. Rev. s. viTvs ; i, in, mi " Pfgs." of Arnold, 
1640-48. Obv. Head of a steer. Riv. SAXCTVS VITVS. Florence, 
1696-1714; Maximilian, 1715-17, and a few successors are 
represented by similar coins. 

Values of following coins run i, n, in, nn, vi, and xn 
Pfennings. 

ALEN. Coins, 1584, bear STADT ALEX. Roman numerals. 

BECKUM. 1595-1622, Coins bear STADT BECKUM. Rev 
Roman numerals. 

BOCHOLT. Coins, 1616-1762, bear Arms, a tree and 
STADT BOCHOLT. Roman numerals. 

COESFELD. 1578-1663, Arms, head of steer, with STADT 
COESVELDT. Roman numerals. 

DORTMUND. 1744-60, \ "Stuber." Arms, an eagle. 
Roman numerals. 

DL'LMAN. 1590-1625, Arms, a cross, with STADT 
DVLMAN. Roman numerals. 



GERMANY. 31 

HALTERN. 1595-1624, Arms, a coiled cord, with STADT 
HALTEREN. Roman numerals. 

HAMM. 1618-1746, Arms, three checkered lines, with 
STADT HAMM, etc. Roman numerals. 




f Ham, 1717. 



HERVORD. 1636-70, STADT HERVORD. 

REITBERG (Province). 1654-1766, GRAFFSCHAFET REIT- 
BERG, or GR. RIDB. Coins of the city of Reitberg, 1617-51, 
STADT RITPE. Roman numerals. 

RHEDA. 1655-9, Lion crowned. Roman numerals. 

SOEST (Latin SUSATENSIS). Arms, a key. Roman 
numerals. 

TECHLENBURG-RHEDA. 1685, i, n, in, mi "Pfen- 
nings." Obr. Arms and date. Iter. G ,,' P , i, in, iv " Pfg." 
1760-1, Script monogram " M(oritz) C(asimir)." Roman 
numerals. 

WARBURG. 1622-3, i, in, in "Pfgs." Arms, two lilies, 
of which one inverted. 

WARENDORF. 1574-1613, "Heller" and i, 11, in, vi, 
xn "Pfg." Arms, a portcullis. 1690, i, 11, in, in "Pfg.," St. 
Laurence standing, with S-L. 

WIEDENBRUCK. --1596-1619, Coins bear a wheel. 
Value in Roman numerals. 

BERG. M(ax) J(oseph), 1802-5, i " Stuber," script mono- 
gram. J(oachim) M(urat), 1806-7, In "Stubers" mon. 

CLEVES. Coins are "Dritts," 1670-1753 (varieties) DV or 
DVC CLIVLE. \ and 2 "Stubers," 1753-8, CLEVISCHE MUNTZ. 

JULICH and BERG. All coins bear inscription GULICH 
UND r.ERGiscHE. There are \ "Stuber" of 1750-51, Charles 
Theodore with arms, \ and \ "Stuber;" 1765-94, same with 
" C.F." script and 3 "Stuber," 1792-4, with Arms. 



32 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

WIED. 1748-51, "Penning," Obr. monogram. Rev. 
SOLERTIA VINCIT. 1753, " Pfenning," monogram, Rev. value. 
1750-52, \ "Stuber," BERG MUNTZ. 

WIED-RUNKEL. Always crowned script monogram 
" G. W." i "Pfenning," 1751-52; i GVTER PFENNING, 1752; 
\ "Stuber," 1751-8. 

COLOGNE (German COLN). 1736-60, \ "Stuber," 
"C.A.C." script monogram. 1764-7, "I.M.F." value and date. 
1789, Obv. Double-headed eagle, BROUT PENNING. 1750-92, 
mi HELLER. 1793, 8 HELLER : both with double-headed eagle 
bearing Arms. 

TREVES (German TRIER). 1748-9, i, n, mi "Pfgs.," 
" F.G.C." script. 1757-64, i, n, in, mi, vi "Pfgs.," and i 
"Kreuzer," "J.P.C." script monogram. 1773, i "Heller." 




gs of Treves, 1757. 



Obv. Arms. Rev. value and mint mark " G." 1773-5, 1> b 
and i "Kreuzer" of " CLEM(ent) WENZEL." Obv. Arms, 1789, 
i, n, in "Pfgs.," " C. IV.C" script monogram. 

AIX LA CHAPELLE (German AACHEN). Varieties ot 
mi "Pfg." and xn "Heller," i8th century, bear Obv. Eagle 
and date ; Rev. value and REICHS STADT ACHEN. 

SCHONAU. 1755, Obv. double Eagle. Rev. HERRS- 
scHONAW-nn (" Hellers "). 

ELBERFELD. Famine tokens, 1747. Obv. a Lion. Rev. 



HOHENZOLLERN. 1842, i "Kreuzer," FURST HOHENZ- 
(ollern), etc., 1852. i Kr. Obv. An eagle, name in full. 



GERMANY. 33 

BAVARIA. 

(Arms as below). 

THE KINGDOM. Copper coins all bear Arms. Series 
and values are i "Heller," 1761-1808; i and n "Pfgs.," 




FIG. 30. Two Pfennigs of Bavaria (showing arms), 1871. 

1761-1805; i "Heller," 1807-71; i "Pfg.," 1807-56; 2 
"Pfg.," 1807-71 ; \ "Kreuzer," 1851-56 ; i " Kreuzer," 1806. 

CHUR-PFALZ. 1766, ZOLL-PFENNIG ; 1773-95, i and I 
" Kreuzer." Obv. Lion rampant in crowned oval, with C-P. 
Obr. value and dates. 

PFALZ-ZWEIBRUCKEN. 1759-69, n and in "Kreuz- 
ers," CP crowned, value and P-Z. 1788, "Heller," \ and i 
" Kreuzer." Obv. Lion and P-Z. Rev. Value and date. 

BAIREUTH. "Hellers," 1696-7, CE crowned. 1723-4, 
" GW." script. 1730, " G.F.C." script. 1738-53, "jr." script. 
1767, " C.F." script. | and i "Kreuzer." 1752, Obv. " F." 
script. Rn<. 28 and 14 STUCK MARCK. 

FUGGER. All 1622. i "Kreuzer" G. FF. L., 1-60 and 
1-120 GULDEN. Obv. " Jlf.F." in monogram i 160 GUL, 
" M.Q.F." in monogram. 

SPEYER. 1765, 2 "Pfg." and i "Kreuzer." Obv. 
Episcopal Arms and B-S. Rev. Value and date. 

WURZBURG (Bishopric). John Gottfried (Bishop), 1622, 
n and in " Pfg." and i " Krzr." Arms under " W." (Rev. of II 
"Pfgs." blank). Charles Philip Henry, 1751-53, \ "Pfg.,' 
" C.P" script, i and 4 " Kr." LEICHTEN-KREUTZER. Adam 
Frederick, 1760-64, |- "Pfg." 1760, " tf.A.F." script mono- 
gram, half " Kreuzer." Obv. Arms. Rev. " ^ K.," no date ; 
variety of same dated 17-62, |- " Pfg." 1763-4, Obv. Arms. 
Rev. value. Ferdinand, 1810-11, I-VIERTEL (I-)KRUZER and 
| KRUZER. 

c 



34 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

AUGSBURG. Arms, a Fir-cone. 1608-22, square coins 




FIG. 31. Two Pfennigs of Augsburg 



1621 22, \ and i " Kreuzer,'' Arms. 1661-1708, square 
"Heller."' "1740-72, octagon "Heller."' 1760-1805, varieties 
of " Pfenning" and a n " Pfg." with Arms. 

BAMBERG. Arms, a Lion rampant behind oblique bar. 
1662, I, n, in "Heller" and i "Kreuzer." Obi\ Arms. 1761, 

I-GVTER HELLER. 1761-86, I-HELLER. 1761, a LEICHTER- 
PFENNING. 1762-3, i I.EICHTER KREVZER. 

KEMPTEN. (1622), 1-240, "Gulden."' Ofo. Eagle. Ker. 
cc-xxxx. i " Kreuzer," 1622, Eagle with " K " on breast. 

UNDAU. 1663-94, Heller. Obr. A tree. Rev. Blank. 

NUREMBURG. Arms, a half eagle and three bars. 
1621, Jy "Gulden/' Obr. Arms. .tor. 84. 1622, i " Kreuzer," 
Arms with N above. 

RATISBON (German REGENSBURC,). 1677-1802, octagon 
" Heller." Obv. Crossed keys and R-H. Rev. Blank. 

SCHWEINFURT, 1622. Arms 
Rtr. 84, i " Kreuzer." Rev. value. 

WEISENBURG. 1622, i "Kreuzer."' Eagle between 
towers of castle below w. 

WURTEMBURG. 
THE KINGDOM. Arms, Three elk horns, later with 




FIG. 32. Hiilf-Krcuzcr of Wurtcmburg (showing arms), 



GERMANY. 35 

three lions. 1621-2, ^l^ ''Gulden.'' Obr. Arms and H. 
J\'er. ccc-xxx-vi. 1622-3, "Heller" and "Kreuzer." Obv. 
Arms. 1687, " Krzr.'' Obv. Arms. Rw. VI-EINEN-KREITZER. 
1840-71, \ and | "Kreuzer." Obv. Arms. Rev. Value and 
date. 

TEUTONIC ORDER. 1622, i, H, in " Kreuzers." Obv 
Cross and x.o. Rev. Value. 

ISNY. 1695-6, "Heller."' Obv. Eagle with horseshoe on 
breast. Rev. Blank. 

RAVENSBERG. Arms, Three chevrons. Coin i, n, in, 
vi, xii " Pfgs." bear Arms, and all or part of NVMIS RAVENS- 
BERG, dates and values. 

RAVENSBERG (City). Gateway of castle, "4" (Pfgs.) 
above, with or without date 1692-7. Rev. Blank. 

ULM. 1621, square ^\^ "Gulden."' Obv. Arms. Rev. 
cc-xxxx, vi, "Heller," STADT MVXTZ undated, i Kreuzer, 
1772-3, with Arms. 

BADEN. 

GRAND DUCHY. Charles Frederick, 1746-1811, |, J, 
and i "Krzr." 1766, F.B.L.M., ^, , and i "Krzr." 1802, 
Arms. Charles, 1813-17, i and i " Krzr.," c(ros) HERZOG- 
(thum) BADEX. Louis, i8i8"-3o, i and i "Krzr.," Arms \ and 




Fie. 33. One Kreuzer of Baden (showing arms), 1870. 

i " Krzr.," head. Leopold Charles, 1830-52, -J and i "Krzr.," 
Bust (large and small varieties) ; i "Krzr.," 1844, same. Rev. 
A statue. Frederick, 1852, ^- and i "Krzr."; 1856, Bust, i 
"Krzr."; 1857-61. Obv. Bust. Rev. Inscription. 1859-71, 
\ and i " Krzr.'" ; Arms below BADEX. 1871, variety of latter 
with inscription on rev. 

FURSTENBURG. -4 and i "Krzr.," 1772-3, Joseph 
Wenzel, Arms, i "Krzr.," 1804, Charles Joachim, Arms. 



36 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

LOWENSTEIN-WERTHEIM. 1765-81, i and 2 "Pfgs.," 
Arms and L-W ; i " Pfg." and i " Krzr., :> script monogram 
" C.F.Z.L." 1790-1802, i "Pfg." with crowned c and F.L.W.S.M. 
1791-1804, i "Pfg.," Arms, and ixvv. 



DUCHY OF BRUNSWICK AND LUNEBERG. 

(LATER-KINGDOM OF HANOVER.) 

DUKES. Frederick Ulrich, 1620-21, i, n, and in "Pfen- 
nings," in "Flitter." Obv. Horse. 1621, i and in "Flitter.'"' 
Obv. Helmet. 1621-2, in and vi "Flitter." Obv. Leopards. 
1621, i, 11, and in "Flitter," and i, n, and in "Pfgs." Obv. 
Lion. 

LINE OF CELLE. Christian, 1620-21, "Witten" and 
" Sechsling." Obi 1 . A Lion, i, n, and in " Pfgs.," GVD-PENX, 
value above, date below. George William, 1687-9, T an d ii 
"Pfgs." Horse and G.W. Varieties dated 1701-2-3, i and 
\\ "Pfgs.," 1691-9, monogram "G.W." 

"ELECTORS OF BRUN' LUN' AND HANOVER. 

Ernest August, i and i| "Pfgs.," 1691-4, script, "J5.A." 
George Ludwig (George I. of England), "Pfenning," 1699- 
1 709, script, G.L. C., 1 718-22, 1 1 " Pfg.," monogram of "G. W" 
Pfennings of 1717-23, "./?." script; 1725-6, St. Andrew and 
cross; 1724-6, Wild man and tree. George Augustus (II. ot 




FIG. 34. One Pfennig of liruns.vick and Luneberg, 1730. 

England), 1727-60, i and ij "Pfgs." with script " G.R." 
"Pfennings," 1729-39, St. Andrew and cross; 1730-60, Wild 
man and tree. George III., also of England (king from 1814), 
1760-1820, i, ii, n and 4 "Pfennings" various dates, 
" G.R." script, i and 4 " Pfgs." with St. Andrew, i " Pfg." 
Wild man and tree. 

KINGS. George IV., 1820-30, i, u and 4 " Pfgs.," "G.R." 
William IV., i, n and 4 " Pfgs.," script monogram " W.R.R." 



GERMANY. 



37 



I and 2 "PfgS.," 1835-7. HANNOVER SCHEIDE MUNZE. 

Ernest August. 1838-51, i and 2 "Pfgs.," monogram, "E.A.R." 




FIG. 35. Two Pfennigs of Hanover (George V., Duke of Cumberland), 1833. 

1839, variety ot i " Pfg." Rev. GLUCK AUF. George V., 
varieties i and 2 "Pfgs.," crowned script " G.R" 

LINE OF WOLFENBUTTEL. Anton Ulrich, 1704-14, 
" Pfenning." Obr. Galloping Horse, ANx(on)uLR(ich) D.G.D(UX) 
li(runswick) ET.L(uneberg). Rev. I-PFENNING SCHEIDE MUNTZ 
(all Pfennings with Horse this type to end). 1708-13, i 
"Pfgs.," Horse. August William, 1714-31, "Pfennings." 
Horse type and Wild man type. Louis Rudolph, 1731-5, 
" Pfennings." "L.R." script, and Horse type. Ferdinand 
Albert, 1735, "Pfenning," Horse. Charles, 1735-80, i, i| 
and ii "Pfgs.," Horse; i "Pfg.," Wild man and tree. 1758, 
a DENIER-HZ : BR : LU.-L.M. (latter an army token). Chas. 
William Ferdinand, 1780-1806, i and 2\ "Pfgs., Horse. 
"Pfenning," Wild man. Frederick William" 1813-15, "Pfen- 
ning," Horse ; n " Pfg.," script, "FIV." Charles, 1816-30, 
i and ii " Pfgs," Horse. (These coins bear also titles of 
Georges III. or IV. (of England) as guardians during minority, 
till 1823. Afterwards, Charles alone). William, 1831-34, 




FIG. 36. Two Pfennigs of Brunswick, 1860. 

i and ii "Pfgs.," Horse. 1851-6, i and 2 " Pfgs.," Horse, 
without inscription. 1839-60, i and 2 "Pfgs.," Horse, sur- 
rounded by HERZOGTH BRAUNSCHWEIG. 



38 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

VERDEN. Arms, a cross in crowned shield. 1621, i 
"Schware," i "Grote," and "Double Schilling," crowned mono- 
gram "S.P." 

SAXE-LAUENBURG, 1739-40. 4 "Dreiling" with script 
" G.R." above small "s." 1839, same" with Horse. 

EAST FRIESLAND. 1753-1803, \ "Stubers." Obr. 
Script monogram "F.R." A'ev. IIII-EINEN-STUBER (Fredk. II.). 
After 1763, Ra>. \ STUBER (Fredk. William). 1823-5, 
\ " Stuber," script "G.R" over iv. 

EIMBECK. 1620-21, i and in "Flitter" and i "Pfennig." 
Gothic "E"s, crowned. 

GOTTINGEN. Coins of seventeenth century bear name 
or a Gothic " G " crowned. 

GOSLAR. 1620, i "Flitter," 1734-8, i "Pfg." Both C^r. 
an eagle. 1737-64, Obr. the Madonna with MARIA MA -DOMINI. 
1749-58, similar Obr. Rev. i LEICHTER PFENNING. 

HILDESHEIM. 1620, i "Flitter," Arms. 1662-70, i 
" Pfg.," Obv. Upper half of eagle. Copper and brass grain 
token appeared 1626-58. Obv. Arms. Rev. ANNO i6( ). 

OSNABRUCK. Arms, a wheel. During nearly two hun- 
dred and fifty years appeared at various dates pieces of from 
i to xn "Pfennings," with Arms and STADT OSXABRVCK. 
(1570-1805). 

OSTERODE. 1621, ii "Flitter" with crowned "o." 
Variety, date only "-21." 



SAXONY. 

(DUCHIES, PRINCIPALITIES AND KINGDOM.) 

SAXE-WEIMAR. 1750-5, i "Heller," i, ij and n 
" Pfgs." "F.J.D.S." script (Francis Josias with Ernest August 
Constantine as guardian). 1750-5, same coins, "F.D.S." script 
(Frederick III., same guardian). Ernest August Constantine 
(independently), "Heller," I and n "Pfennigs," 1756-8, 
"E.A.C." script. Anna Amelia, 1759-75, "Heller" and i, 
2 and 3 CUTER PFEN(nigs), crowned Arms. Charles August, 
1790-1813, "Heller," Arms, i, ii, 2, 3 and 4 " Pfennings " 
S.W.U.E. 1821-6, same coins with S.W.E. Charles Frederick, 
1830. i, i. 1 ,. 2 and 3 " Pfgs." with S.W.E. 1840-51, i and 3 



GERMANY. 39 

' Pfgs." with SACHSEX W.E. Charles Alexander, 1858-65, 
i and 2 "Pfgs." with SACHSEN \v.i:. 
HENNEBERG. 1693-4, i '"Heller." Oh'. A hen. 

Rev. II.ME-NAUCH-HKI i 1 ;-'.. 




Fi.-;. i7.-One Hellei-of H 



GOTHA AND ALTENBURG. Frederick II., 1692-1730, 
" Heller." Oln: Arms. Rer. F.S.-GOTHA-U.-ALTENB-HELLER. 
1712-27, "Heller," and 1718, "Pfennig," both with "F.D.S." 
script. 1 729-32, i i " Pfg.," script "F" crowned. Frederick III. 
1 733-7, i i " Pfennigs, "-SY77/V "^" crowned. 1 744-50, "Heller," 
"Pfennig" and ii "Pfg." Obv. Arms. 1770, "Heller," 
"G. U.A." script. 1752-61, i?, and 3 "Pfg." Obv. Arms and 
inscription. 1753-70, i and ii " Pfennigs," script "^"crowned. 

SAXE-COBURG. 1680-99, i "Heller." Obv. "A" u.c. 
crowned. Rer. CO-BURGER-HELLER. 

SAXE-MEININGEN. Anton Ulrich, 1755-61, i and 2 
"Heller." Obv. Arms. Rer. i or 2-MEiNiNG-HEi.LER. 1761, 
i and 3 "Heller." Obv. "A.V." script niotiogratn. 1761-2, 
i " Heller." Obv. A hen. Rev, I-MEININ :-HELLER. Charlotte 
Amalia, 1768-9, two types "Heller." ist, A hen; 2nd, 
Arms. Revs, like foregoing. Bernhard Erich Freund, 1803- 
66. i " Heller," ], \ and i " Kreuzer," i and 2 " Pfennings," 
all with Arms. 1839-42, i and 2 " Krzrs." with Arms between 
"s M." 1860-69, I an( i 2 "Pfennings" with SCHIEDEMUNZE 

SAXE-HILDBURGHAUSEN. Ernest, 1703-14, "E 
crowned and HILD-BURG H-HELLER. Ernest Frederick (I. and 
II.), 1716-36, "Heller." Obr. script "E.F." Rci\ HII 
HELLER. Ernest Frederick Charles, 1759-66, "Heller. 
Obv. "E.F.C." script. 1761-78, same Obv., Arms and usually 
" H-H." 1759, "Pfennig" with Arms. 1763, 3 "Pfgs." with 
Arms and inscription. Frederick, 1781-1806, "Heller." 
Obv. Arms. Rev. H-H-HELLER. 1 808-18, same with Arms 
between s H. 1809-23, i " Kreuzer," similar type. 1823-6, 



40 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE 

"Pfg.," with Arms and inscription. 1820-25, i, \ and 
" Kreuzer," with script "F." 

SAXE-ALTENBERG. 1841-57, i and 2 " Pfennigs," with 
Arms and H. s. ALTENB(urg). 

SAXE-SAALFELD. John Ernest, 1688-1702, "Heller," 
SAAL-FELD-HELLER. 1 7 19-24, Obv. "/.." script. Rev. Arms. 
1730-63, "Heller," Arms (Chris. Ernest, to 1760). 1761-2, 
"Pfennig," "F.J. Z).S." script (Francis Joseph). Succeeding 
rulers, 1809-24, "Heller," Arms. 1809, Heller, script "." 
Various dates, 1770 to 1826, , i, i|, 3 and in "Pfennigs," 
Arms. 1809-20, i, 2, 4 " Pfennigs," with script "J5." (" H.s.c. 
S.S.M.") 

SAXE-COBURG- GOTH A. Various dates. 1834-56 
(Ernst.) i, ii, 2 and 3 "Pfennigs." Obv. Arms. 

THE KINGDOM OF SAXONY. Frederick August III. 
Between 1772 and 1806 appeared i "Heller," i and in 
" Pfennigs." Obi'. Arms of Saxony, with crossed swords. 
1808 to 1825 (different dates), i, 3, in and 4 "Pfennigs," with 
Arms only. Anton Clement, 1831-3, i and 2 "Pfennigs," with 
Arms. Successive Rulers, 1836-7, i and in "Pfennigs," 
Arms. 1841-61, i and 2 "Pfgs./'with Arms and "K.S.S.M." 
186272, i, 2, and 5 "Pfennings." Obv. Arms in oval with 
KOENIGREICH-SACHSEN. Rev. Value and date in circle, 

without SCHEIDEMUNZE. 




FIG. 38. Five Pfennigs of Saxony, 1862 



CAMENZ. 1622, i "Pfg." Oh'. Wing of eagle, no 
date, 3 " Pfg." BONO-PUBL-CAM. 



GERMANY. 4! 

HESSE-CASSEL. 

(Arms A Lion). 

Charles, 1723-4, " Heller." Obv. Lion. 1727-30, " Heller." 
1727, ii "Heller." Both having monogram "CL." 1726-8, 
in "Heller" with bust. Fred. I. bet. 1730-50, i and \\ 
"Hellers" script, mon. " F.R." 1730-43, "Heller" with 
monogram FR. 1733-51, n "Heller," monogram "F.F." 
1733, in "Heller," "IF." 1735-48, in "Heller," Bust and 
REX.-SUECIAE. William VIII. 1751-8, i and n "Heller," w 
between z H, L above. 1758-9, script monogram " W.L.L." 
J 755> In "Heller," Bust and HASS-LANDc(raf). Fredk. II., 
1760-85, i, in, mi, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 " Heller," with double 
" FL" script monogram. 1774-5, i "Heller," Lion. 2, 4 
and 8 "Heller," Lion with shield, and script " F.L." 1783, 
, \ and i " Kreuzer," Arms and HESSE-CASSEL. William IX., 
1788-94, 2 and 4 "Heller," script " /F.Z." 1791-1803, i 
and 3 "Heller," script monogram, " W" and "ZZ." 1790, 
i "Heller," Lion. 1801-3, i an d \ " Kreuzer," Arms HESSE 
CASSEL. 1803-4, \ " Kr.," Arms and KUR HESSEN. 1803-21, 
i, 2 and 4 " Heller," script monogram " IV. K." William, 
1822-31, i, 2 and 4 "Heller," similar to last. 1824-35, i> 
\ and i " Kreuzer," Arms and KUR-HESSEN. William and 
Fredk. Wm. (1847), 1843-66, i, 2 and 3 "Heller." Obv. Arms 
and 360, 1 80, or 120 EINEN THALER. Rev. KURHESSISCHE 
SCHEIDEMUNZE, value and date. 1859-72, i "Pfg." Arms and 
inscription. 

HANAU-MUNZENBURG. William VIII., 1739-46, i 
and n " Heller," script " W and ZZ." 1752-7, i "Heller." 
Obv. Z(;H. Rev. Value, SCHEIDE-MUNTZ. William IX., 
1768-73, "Heller," Arms and W.E.P-Z-H. 1773, "Kreuzer," 
Arms and HESS HANAU MUNTZEND. 

SCHAUMBURG. Arms, a Nettle-leaf. Ernest, 1620, if, 
in and vi "Pfgs," Arms and ERNST. 1769-85, "Pfennig," 
Arms " F.L." Rei 1 . OUTER PFENNIG. 1787-1803, same, Arms, 
"W.L." 1804-32 same, Arms, " WK." 

SCHMALK ALDER. 1720-8, "Heller" and if "Pfg." 
Obv. script " C.L." Rev. Value and ins. 173044, "Pfen- 
ning" and " Heller," script "F.R." 1730, i "Pfg." mon. "F.R." 
1754, same, script " \V. Z." 

FULDA, 1759, n "Heller," Obv. script " A.F.E" Rev. 
F.F.L.M. 1769, Pfennig, Obv. H.E.F. Rev. same as before. 



42 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

WESTPHALIA. 

(Arms similar to those of Bruns.' Lun.'). 

Ferdinand, 1619-20, in, vi and xn " Pfg." MO. DYC. WESTPH. 
undated, also xn " Pfg," dated. Jerome Napoleon (Bonaparte) 
1807-15, i and ii "Pfgs," i, 2, 3 and 5 centimes, with mono- 




FIG. 39. Three Centimes of Westphalia (Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte), 1809. 

gram HN. Rev. KOEN. v. WESTPH. FR. PR, and date, sunk 
on raised rim ; value, date and mint mark in field. 

HESSE-DARMSTADT. Ernest Louis, 1735, J > m > 
mi and vi " Pfgs." Obv. script ".!.." Rer. ANNO I.OMINI 
and date. Louis IX., 1773-90, coins bear on Ok-, a lion, 
and H-D. Varieties of " i Pfennig " and " n Pfennigs." Suc- 
ceeding rulers, 1791-7, "Pfg." Lion and HESSEN-DARMSI. 
1798-1806 "Pfennig," Lion and H-D. 1805 (Louis X.), ^ 
"Stuber" with script double "Z" and x. 1811-16, varieties 
\ and | " Kreuzer " with Arms and G.H. E.M., etc., or 
c;(rosherzogthum) HESS," etc. 1824-55 "Heller," Arms and 

" G.H K.M." 

MAYENCE (German MAINZ). Arms, a wheel. John 
Fredk. Charles, 1759-61, i, 2 and 3 "Pfgs.," with "J.F^C." 
script mon., surmounted by coronet, a small wheel below. 
1756-61, i "Heller," i, n, 2 and 3 "Pfgs." with Arms in 
elaborate cartouche, surrounded by long inscription commen- 
cing I.F.C.D.G., etc. 1760, 2 and 3 "Pfgs." Oh: Bust and 
titles. Emerich Jos., 1766, I, n and in " Pfgs." with Arms. 
1768-71, I, n and in "Pfgs." Arms and inscription. 1769-70, 
"Heller" and "Pfennig," with Arms and E-J., and "Heller" with 
script won., " E.J" Fredk. Chas. Jos., 1779-81, "Pfennig" 
with Arms, and "Pfennig" with F.C.J.K. 1795, \ and \ 
" Kreuzer." Obv. Bust and titles. Rer. Value, date and KVR. 



GERMANY. 



43 



MAINZER LAND MYNTZ. Charles Theod., 1 808 -i 2, i " Heller" 
(SCHEIDE MUNZ), Arms and ins. 

SIEGE PIECES. In 1793 the French besieging Mayence 
struck pieces of i, 2 and 5 " sols," with Obv. Fasces and lib. 




Fin. 40. Two Sols, struck by the French forces besieging Mayence, 1793. 

cap surrounded by REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, 1793 L'AN 2 F . Rer. 
MONOVE DE SIEGE DE MAYENCE around value. 



GRAND DUCHY OF MECKLENBURG. 
(Arms The Face of an Ox). 

MECKLENBURG-SCHWAREN. Adolf Fred'k., 1621-2, 
i, ii and in "Pfennigs," with Arms. Fredk. Wm., 1704, i| 
Pfennigs, man, " F.W." Chris. Ludwig., 17529, i, 3, in and 
6 " Pfennigs," with Arms. 1759, in and 6 Pfennigs with script 
" F" crowned. Fredk. Francis I., 1831, i and 2 "Pfennigs," 
script, "F.F." Fredk. Francis II., 1843-64, 3 " Pfgs," with 
script " F.F." 1872, i, 2 and 3 Pfgs, script " FF" with in- 
scription. 

MECKLENBURG-GUSTROW.- Hans Albrecht, 1621-2, 
i, ii and in "Pfennigs," Arms. Gustavus Adolphus, 1674-92, 
in " Pfennigs." Obv. Monogram " GA." Rev. LAND WITT. 

MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ. Adolph Fredk. III., 1747, 
in " Pfennigs," Arms. 1752,1 " Pfg." script " A.F." Adolph 
Fredk. IV., 1753-5, in "Pfennigs." Arms, 1760. 3 GVTE 
PFENNING, script "A.F." 1764-94, same, " A?." George, 
1838, i and i| "Pfennig." 1832-59, in "Pfennigs." All 
with Gothic (3 crowned. Fredk. Win., 1862-24, m "Pig/' 
with script "F.W." 1872, i, 2 and 5 "Pfennig" with same 
and inscription. 



44 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

ROSTOCK. Arms, a Griffin, on all coins. 1747-1858, a 
"Pfennig." 1710-64, in " Pfg." 1761, 2 " Pfgs." 1815-64,3 
" Pfgs." 

WISMAR. Arms, head of an Ox (profile). 1662, n " Pfg." 
Arms. 1621-1845, in "Pfg." Arms. 1762, 6 "Pfg." Arms. 1854, 
3 " Pfgs.," Arms under helmet. (Square necessity pieces in gun 
metal were struck in 1715 to values of 4, 8, 16 and 32 
" Schellings," 4 and 8 " Marks." M.N.W., on these coins re- 
presents " Moneta Nova Wismariensis "). 



DUCHY OF NASSAU. 

(GERMAN -HERZOGTHUM NASSAU.) 

(Arms A Lion Rampant.) 

WEILBURG LINE. Charles August, 1752, n and in 
" Kreuzer," script " C.A." between " F.-N." Fredk. Wm., 
1808-14, i, \ and varieties of i "Kreuzer," with Arms and in- 
scription. William, 1817-22, |and i "Kreuzer" with Arms, etc. 
1830-8, i "Kr." with Rev. EIN KREUZER. Adolph, 1842-56, i 
"Heller" and i "Kreuzer," with Arms. 1859-63, i "Pfg." 
and i " Kr.," Arms supported by Lions. 

ORANGE LINE. 1766-91, land n " Heller," script mono- 
gram " O.N.N" 

OLDENBURG. 

(Arms Two bars /., cross ;-.) 

PROVINCE. 1802-16, \ "Grote." Obr. Arms. Rev. 
Value and O.L.M. Paul Fredk. Augt., 1831-46, varieties \ 
"Grote" like preceding. 1846-52, \ "Grote" and i 
"Schwaren," with script "P.F.A." Nicholas Fredk. Peter, 
1853-69, i "Grote," i and 3 "Schwaren," all with script 
N.F.P. etc. 

OLDENBURG-BIRKENFELD. Paul Fredk. August, 
1848, i, 2 and 3 "Pfg.," script initials, etc. Nicholas Fredk. 
Peter, 1858-59, i, 2 and 3 " Pfg.," script initials, etc. 

JEVER. Fredk. Aug., 1764, "Heller" and "Pfennig." 
Obv. Bust. Rw. Arms. Paul I. (of Russia), 1799, \ " Stuber." 
Obv. Lion in crowned shield. 



GERMANY. 45 

ANHALT. 

(Arms A Bear walking on wall). 




FIG. 41. Coin of Anhalt Bernberg. 

ANHALT-BERNBERG. 1746-95, Victor Fredk. to Fredk. 
Albert, i, if and 2 "Pfennings," with Arms. Various details. 
Alex. Fredk. Christian, 1797-9, i "Pfg.," Arms. 1807-31, i 
and 4 "Pfennigs," script " A.F.C." Alex. Charles, 1839-40, 
i and 3 "Pfennigs" (280, and 96 EINEN THALER, respec- 
tively). 1856-62, i and 3 " Pfg." (360 and 120 EINEN THALER, 
resp.). All with arms. 

ANHALT-DESSAU. Leopold, 1836-7, i and 3 "Pfg.," 
similar to foregoing. 

ANHALT-ZERBST. 1760, i "Heller "and i "Pfennig.' 
Bust, Arms and F.A.Z.L.M. 

LIPPE. 
(Arms A heraldic Rose.) 

1621, in "Flitter," Arms. Undated, but early, |, i, if, 
n, in and vi " Pfennig." Arms and LIPP. LAND MUNTZ. 1763, 




FIG. 42. One Pfennig of Lippe, 1802. 

|, i and n "Pfg.," script man. " S.A." 1760, i "Heller," 
Arms. 1763-1840, varieties, n "Heller," i, if and n "Pfg.," 



46 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

Arms, etc. 1847-58, i and 3 "Pfennig," crowned Arms, 12 
and 4 EINEN SILBER GROSCHEX," resp. 

SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE. 1750, William Ernst, i "Pfen- 
nig," Arms. 1824-6, George William, i GVTER PFENNIG. 
Obv. Rose .'and nettle-leaf. 1858, i, 2, 3 and 4 " Pfennig," 
with crowned script man " G. IV." Rev. Parts of a Thaler. 

SCHWARZBURG-SONDERHAUSEN. 1846-58, i and 
3 " Pfennigs." 1852-66, \ and i " Kreuzer," all Arms. 

SCHWARZBURG-RUDOLSTADT. 1751-62, John 
Fredk., i, n and 3 " Pfg.," script "f.F" Rev. Inscription. 
1769-1783, Ludwig Gunther IV., " Heller," \ and i "Pfennig," 
with script " L.G." 1792, Charles Fredk.," ^ and i "Pfg.," 
script j"C.F." 1801-4, Ludwig Fredk., i and 3 "Pfg.," SCHWA RZ- 
RVD-L.M., etc. 1812-25, Fredk. Gunther, i, 2, 3 and 4 "Pfg.," 
script " F.G." 1840-56, |, \, \ and i "Kreuzer," Arms. 
1842, i, 2 and 3 "Pfennig," FURSTEXTH. SCHWARZBURG, R. 
1857-72, j and i " Kreuzer," SCHEIDE MUXZ. 

WALDECK. 
(Arms A Star of eight points.) 

1622, Christian and \Valrath IV., i, in, mi and vi "Pfg." 
Obv. WALDECK. Rev. LANT-MUNTZ. 1638, \Val. IV., Philip 
and Johann ; i and n " Pfg." Obi'. WOLR. PHIL. IOHAX. 
Rev. WALDE LAXTMV. 1693, Christian Ludwig, i, n, in, mi 
and vi. Arms (star and cross) in oval. 1730-61, Charles 
Aug., i, n, HI, mi and vi " Pfgs.," crossed "C."s 1773- 
1810, Fredk., i and in "Pfg.", script " F" 1779-1810, i and 




FIG. 43. Three Pfennigs of Waldeck, 1781. 

in " Pfg." and | "Groschen." Arms and ins. 1816-17, Geo. 

Henry, i " Pfg"," script " G.ff." 1816-25, i "Pfg." Arms 

and inscription. 1819-25, i, 3 and in " Pfg." Arms. 1821- 



GERMANY. 47 

25, i " Pfg." and | "M.(arien)Groschen." Arms of Waldeck 
and Pyrmont (Star and cross). 1842-5, i and 3 "Pfgs." 
Arms (Wai. -t- Pyr.). 360 and 120 EIXEN THALER, resp. 1855- 
67, George Victor, i and 3 "Pfgs.," similar. 

PYRMONT (separately) 1761, i, n and iv " Pfgs." Crowned 
cross. 

REUSS. 

UPPER GREITZ. 1760-89, Henry XL, i "Heller," 1, 
i and ii " Pfennigs." Obv. Arms (a Lion). Rev. c. (or F-) R. 

P.-CREIZER-L.M. 1760-!, I and II "Pfg.," REVSS-SCHEIDE- 

MVNZE. 1800-33, successive rulers, i "Heller," i and 3 "Pfg.'' 
Lion type as above. 

REUSS-GERA. 1 761, Henry XXX., i and 2 " Pfg. 1 ' Obv. 
Head of dog. Rev. G.R.P.-GERAISCHE-L.M. 

REUSS-SCHLEITZ. 1815-16, Henry XLIL, 3 "Pfg." 
Obr. Lion. Rev. F.R.P.-SCHLEIZER-L.M. 1841-7, Henry LXIL, 
i and 3 " Pfgs.,'' FURSTENTHURM REUSS-SCHLEIZ, etc. 

REUSS-LOBENSTEIN. 1812, Henry LI., i, 2, 3 and 4 
"Pfg." Obr. Head of dog. Rei\ F.R.P. EBERSDORF. I..M. 
1841, Henry LXXIL, \ "Pfg.," Lion without ins. 1841-4, i and 




Fiu. 44. One Pfennig of Reuss, 1864. 

3 "Pfgs.," Arms, FURSTENTH. REUSS. LOBENST. EBERSD. 1850 
-68, same, with IUXGERER LINE added to ins. 

FRANKFORT (on the Maine). 

(Arms An Eagle.) 

1 767-1863, " Hellers " and i and n " Pfennigs," with Arms, 
etc. Various dates, ins. " F(rei) STADT FRANKFURT." 

BREMEN (Hanse Town.) 

(Arms A Key.) 

1719-1852, i " Schwaren," Arms, etc. 1797-1866, 2\ 
"Schwaren," dj. 1841, | " Groten," do. 



48 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



GERMAN EMPIRE. 

1873, : an d 2 " Pfgs." (copper), 5, 10 and 20 " Pfgs." (nickel), 
Obv. Imperial Eagle. Rev. DEUTSCHES REICH and date. 




FIG. 45. Two Pfennings of the German Empire, 1874. 

value, large figure in field. The Emperor William II. has just 
slightly modified this series, substituting a new and very hand- 
some Imperial Eagle, which quite fills the Obverse, for the 
previous smaller one. 



SCANDINAVIA. 

The bold Norsemen have employed copper as a medium ot 
exchange from a very remote antiquity, but did not coin it 
into the convenient shape to which we are accustomed until 
the rest of Europe had begun to do so. Even then, it was 
some years before the old system ceased to hold its place by 
the side of the new. 

The old Norse copper coinage reminds strikingly of the 
early money of Rome as elsewhere alluded to, being composed 
of precisely similar blocks or slabs of pure copper, often many 
pounds in weight. These were first roughly stamped with an 
indication of weight or value in " Dalers," but later were marked 
by being punched hap-hazard from five to a dozen times with 
the impression of such circular dies as were used for striking 
small round coins. Klippe, or square coins, were also common 
at one time, a flat bar of copper being struck with one square 
impression after another on both sides, and then chopped into 
the squares thus indicated. 



SCANDINAVIA. 49 

DENMARK. 

(Arms Three lions on field interspersed with small hearts.) 

The substitution of copper for billon in small values occurred 
about the time of the reign of 

CHRISTIAN IV., 1588-1648, who issued a "Pfennig," with 
crowned "C" and date 1602, and in 1624 a " Sosling," 
with his bust and titles. 

FREDERICK III., 1648-70, is represented by "Soslings" of 
1651. Types, crowned " 3," or Arms on Obv. 

CHRISTIAN V., 1670-99, issued square pieces (Ktippe) of 
2, 4 and 8 " Skilling " value, with his cipher, " C5 " on 
Obv. They were probably siege pieces, struck at Christiania, 
Sweden. Also a very pretty little half " Skilling," Obv. his 
bust and CHRIST, v. DEI GRATIA. Rev. A crown surrounded by 
DAN, NOR, GOT, VAN, REX, and date. 

FREDERICK IV. issued pieces of i and \ SKILLING DANSKE, 




FIG. 46. -Half Skilling of Frederick IV., 1699. 

dated 1719. The Obv. containing a curious crowned script 
monogram of " 4/^/4," with wreath. 

CHRISTIAN VI. 1730-46, A "Skilling" bears crowned mon. 
" C6." 

FREDERICK V. 1746-56, A | "Skilling" has ci- owned 
mon. F5- 

CHRISTIAN VII. 1766-1808, \ and i "Skilling" bear 
crowned monograms, the \ "Cy," the i " 7CC7," date 1771. 




FIG. 47. Half Skillin- of Chris 



5O COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

FREDERICK VI. 1808-39. Pieces of i, 2, 3, 6 and 12 
"Skilling." Obv. Bust. Rev. Arms and date. 1809-12 
struck for Iceland, also "Skilling," 1812, crowned " Fvi " for 
Iceland. From 1813 to- 1818 were struck a large series of 
i, 2, 3, 4, 6 12, and 16 " Skillings," with Obv. Arms. Rev. 
RIGSBANKTEGN (State Bank Token). Value and date. In 
1818, \ and " i RB. SK." of this series exist. A \ "RB. SK." 
of 1838 has Obv. " Fvi." crowned. 

CHRISTIAN VIII. 1839-48, Represented by series of -, .}, 
i and 2 R.B.S. (Rigsbank Skillings). Obv. Head, name and 
titles. Rev. Crowned sword and sceptre, value and date. 

FREDERICK VII. 1848-67, \ "Skilling" (R.B.), with 
crowned " Fvn," and "Skilling." Obv. Head. Rev. Crowned 




FIG. 48.- One Skilling of Frederick VII. 



sword and sceptre, etc., (large or small head), dates. 1852, \ 
and i " Skilling," (brass), RIGSMONT " Fvn," crowned between 
1856-63. 
CHRISTIAN IX. 1867- , \ and i "Sk.," RIGSMONT, 1852 




FIG. 49. Five Ore of Christian IX., 1874. 



(brass), "Cix," crowned, i, 2, and 5 Ore, 1874. Obv. Crowned 
" Cix " and date. Rev. Value, dolphin, and spear of wheat. 



SCANDINAVIA. 



SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. 

CHARLES FREDERICK, 1706. T V" Schilling.'' Obv. Crowned 

"C.F." Rev. I2-EINEN-SCHILLING. 

CHRISTIAN VII., 1787. "Dreiling" ('), and "Sechsling" 
(-J-). Obi\ Crowned script won. " C.K." Ra\ Value, etc. 



NORWAY. 

(Arms A Lion treading on or wielding curved battle-axe.) 

As this state was associated with Denmark until 1814, when 
it was joined to Sweden, its coinage up to the reign of 
Frederick VI. is in most respects identical. However, pieces 
struck in or for Norway are usually distinguished by two tiny 
hammers, crossed, as a mint mark, i, 2, and 4 " Skillings," 
COURANT, with a crowned won. " F.R." on Obverse were the 
last copper coins of the last Danish king of Norway Frederick 
VI. The Swedish line begins with 

CHARLES XIII., of whom there is a "Skilling." Obv. Arms 
dividing C' XIII. Rer. I-SKILLING spECiES-i8i6. 

CHARLES XIV., JOHN (The French General Bernadotte) 
1818-44. i i, and 2 " Skilling" SPECIES. Same type as the 
former. Norwegian Arms dividing C$a v JOH. 

CHARLES XV., 1859-72. i and varieties \ "Skilling." 
Arms dividing, C 1 XV. 




One Skilling of Charles XV. 



OSCAR II, 1872- . i, 2, and 5 "Ore." Type Arms 
dividing O CR II. Rev. Value in wreath, date. 



52 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

SWEDEN. 

(Arms Three Crowns.) 

Besides the huge masses of copper hitherto alluded to, 
Sweden did not make use of that metal to express minor 
values till along in the i6th century. Her round copper coins 
of convenient size did not appear until about the time of 
Gustavus Vasa, and are not common until the reign of 

JOHN III., 1570-92, pieces of whose coinage bear the 
Arms on both faces. 

SIGISMUND, 1597-9, has left a half "Ore" with his initials 
" S-R " (Sigismund Rex) and Arms under. 

GUSTAVUS II., ADOLPHUS. Copper coins became very 
plentiful, both in Klippe form and round. Of the square 
pieces the values are i " Fyrk," |, i and 2 " Ore." Various 




FIG. 51. Klippe or Square Ore of Gus 



Adolphus. 



types usually the three crowns interspersed with " G-A-R " 
and date. Rev. Crowned Arrows (crossed) or Fasces and value. 
The round pieces i "Fyrk," J or i "Ore" have on Ofo. 
Arms or fasces. Rev. Crowned Arrows, Griffin, or Eagle. 
These early round coins appear to be cast, though finely done, 
and the "Ore" is from ii to 2 inches in diameter. The 
workmanship elaborate and inscriptions very long. The full 
inscription on a coin of Gustavus Adolphus would be 
Oh'. "GVSTAVUS ADOLPH D. G. svEG(orum) GOTH(orum) VAN 
(dalorum) REX. M. PR. Rev. MONETA NOVA CVPREA " NICOP- 
ING" (" DALARENSIS " or " ARBOGENSIS ") MDCXXVin (or other 
date), the last word preceding being the name of city where 
struck, " G-A-R " or " G-A-R-S," alway appears somewhere on 
his coins. 



SCANDINAVIA. 



53 



CHRISTINA. 1632-55. Several fine large coins of previous 
type with " C-R-S." 




FIG. 52. Ore of Christina (cast), 1650. 

CHARLES X., GUSTAVUS 1654-60. -J- "Ore." Obv. Arms 
with " c-G-R-s." Rev. Crowned Lion. 

CHARLES XI. 1660-97. Large "Ores," fractions and 
multiples thereof, of usual types with "C-R-S." The mint 




53. One-sixth Ore of Charles XI. 



marks " K.M." and "S.M." mean "Koppar Mynt " and "Silfver 
Mynt." 

CHARLES XII. 1697-1718. Pieces of -J- "Ore." Obv. 
Lion, crowned or in shield. Rev. Three crowns " Cxn R.S." 
and date. During the wars of Charles his prime minister, 
one Baron von Goertz, replenished the depleted Treasury by 
a series of " Balers " in Copper, bearing nearly all on Obv. a 
mythological figure with name above and date below. On 
Rev. of all " I-DALER-S.M." in cartouche. The series in full is : 



54 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



1715. i. A Crown. 2. " Publica Fides." 1717. 3. "Wett 
och Wapen." 1718. 4. "Flink och Fardig.'' 5. Jupiter. 




FIG. 54. "Necessity" Daler of 13 



6. Phoebus. 7. Saturnus. 8. Mars. 9. Mercurius. 1719. 
10. Hoppet. ii. Bust, "GEORG HEINR BARO DE GOERTZ." 
Rev. NESCESSITAS CARET LEGE-i-DALER-s.M. There is also 
a little piece of poor workmanship bearing Obi\ a laureated 
head, the eye being noticeable by its blind expression. Rev. 
A little figure of Mercury. This may be a half or even quarter 
"Daler." The substitution of his own head for that of his 
Queen (first year of Ulrica Eleanora) cost him the original 
model of his spirited portraiture. 

ULRICA ELEANORA. 1719-20. i "Ore." Obv. Crowned 
shield with arrows. Re-c. Three crowns and "Y.E.R.S."' Many 
of these pieces are struck over " Goertz Dalers," as are the 
" Ores " of her successor. 

FREDERICK I. 1720-51. i and i "Ore" of preceding 




FIG. 55. Reverse of One Ore of Frederick I. Showing Arrow type common to series 

type (1720-50), i "Ore" with crowned script man. " F.F." 
and 2 "Ore" with " F.I.S.G.V.R." 

ADOLF FREDERICK. 1751-71. Size of "Ore"' increased. 

"Ore" has crowned monogram "/F." Rev. Crowned arrows, 



SCANDINAVIA, 5; 

value and date, i "Ore, ' 1768, has "A.F.R.S.," and 2 "Ore : 

" A.F.S.G.V.R." 




FIG. 56. Two Ore (silfver mynt) of Adolf Frederick, 1766. Rev. Arrows. 

GUSTAVUS III. 1771-92. 7," Ores." Types "G-R-S" and 
"G.III" crowned. 2 "Ore," 1777, "cm S.G.V.R." 

GUSTAVUS IV., ADOLF. 1792-1809. J- and "Skilling." 




ITfft 

Fl J. 57. One-fourth Skilling of Gustavus IV. Adolphus. 

Three Crowns on Globe. T V, , and i " Skilling," crowned 
"GA IV V Rev. Arrows, value and date. 

CHARLES XIII. 1809-18. -^ "Skilling "(1812). "Cxnr' 
crowned. Ins. FOLKETS VAL MIX HOGSTA LAG. Rcr. 3 




FIG. 58. One-twelfth Stilling of Charles XIII. 



Crowns, value and date. , -J- and i " Skilling," crowned 
won. "C.C." 



56 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

CHARLES XIV., JOHN. 1818-44. ist series : T V, -J-, i, I and 
i "Skilling." Previous type. Obv. Crowned "Cxiv." Ins. 
FOLKETS KARLEK MiN BELONGING. Rev. Arrows, value and 
date. 2nd series, 1832-3: , A, \ and i "Skilling." Obv. 
Bust and titles. Rev. 3 Crowns, value and date. 3rd series, 
1835-44 : ^ and i "Skilling." "Cxiv" crowned. 4th series, 
l8 35~43 : t> i and 2 "Skilling," "BANCO." Obv. Bust as 
before. Rev. Value, Arrows and date in wreath. 

OSCAR I. 1844-59. ist series, 1844-55: J- and \ " Skil- 
ling." Obv. Crowned " O." Ins. RATT OCH BANNING. Rei>. 
"BANCO" type. 2nd series: f, i, 2 and 4 "Skilling." Obv. 
Young Bust and titles. Rev. as before. -| "Ore," 1856-8. 
Crowned " O" as before. 3rd series, 1856-8: i, 2 and 5 
" Ore." Obv. Head and titles. Rev. Value and date within 
wreath. 

CHARLES XV. 1859-72. ist: \ "Ore," 1867. " C.C." 




crowned. 2nd: i, 2 and 5 "Ore" of previous type (Bust, 
etc.). 

OSCAR II. 1872- . i, 2 and 5 "Ore," 1873. Busts, etc., 
as before. 2nd series, 1874- : i, 2 and 5 "Ore." Obv. 
"On" crowned. Ins. BRODRAFOLKENS VAL. Rev. Value, 
date and three Crowns in circle. 



57 



AUSTRIA. 

(Up to 1806 joined with Germany and northern Italy as 
the " Holy Roman Empire.") 

(Arms A double-headed Eagle German name, OESTERREICH.) 

MARIA THERESA. The copper coinage of Austria proper 
appears to begin in the reign of Maria Theresa, the first piece 
struck being a "Pfennig," with her bust and arms, date, 1 749-65. 
The inscription on the obverse of her coins are composed of 
the initials of titles, only following the name, they being in 
t\i\\Romanont/n Imperatrix, Ger mania, Hungaria, Bohemia 
Regina, ArcJiidnx Austria (R.I.G.H.B.R.A.A.). A "Heller" of 




FIG. Co. One Kreuzer of Maria Theresa, 1761. 



1765-79, bears the Arms alone, while values of j, | and i 
' Kreuzer " bear a bust on obverse and value and date within a 
cartouche on reverse. There are two types of the last three 
one with undraped bust and one with veiled bust. These pieces 
are all small and thick. 

FRANCIS I. The consort of Maria Theresa is represented 
by | and i " Kreuzer," very similar to hers, but bearing his 
bust and titles. They bear the dates 1760-63, co-existing with 
the former. 

JOSEPH II., both during his mother's life (1765-80) and 
later, is represented on copper coins of \, \ and i " Kreuzer " 
values, of the same general type (see Netherlands}. 

FRANCIS II. (last "Holy Roman" Emperor), 1800, \ " Kr." 
Arms and value, |, i, 3 and 6 " Kr." Obv. Arms. Rer. 
Double-headed Eagle, with value in oval on breast. Afterwards 
as 

FRANCIS I. (of the Austrian Empire). This monarch is 
represented by 1807, large pieces of 15 and 30 "Kreuzers 



5.8 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



with bust and arms within enclosure of dots or pellets, and 
with long and elaborate inscriptions, value several times re- 
peated on both sides. 1812, pieces of j, |, i and 3 " Kreuzers," 
with bust on Obr. and value in ornamental circle on Rev. 
1816, j, \ and i "Kreuzer." Obv. Arms in crowned shield 




rsof Francis Joseph I., 1851. 



and inscription (as up to the present day), K.K. OESTERREICH- 
ISCHE SCHEIDEMUNZE." Rev. Value and date in three lines. 
FRANCIS JOSEPH I. 1848, 2 " Kreuzers," similar to fore- 
going series. 1851, |, |, i, 2 and 3 "Kr." Obv. Arms and 
inscription. Rev. Value and date. 1858-81, /,,-, i and 4 
" Kreuzers " (intrinsic value much reduced), of same type as 
the preceding. 

BURGAU. 

(Arms broad band /., triple cross r.) 

Initials of titles on coins of Burgau terminate with " M.B." 
Mint marks G and H. 



AUSTRIA. - 59 

" Kreuzer." Obv. Arms and ins. Rev. Value and date in 
cartouche. 

JOSEPH II. 1781-90, same values, similar type. Also 
variety of i " Kr. " without ins. (1771-4). 

LEOPOLD II. 1790-2, i "Heller" and i "Kreuzer." Arms 
and inscription. 

FRANCIS II. (I. of Austria). 1793-1803, i "Heller." Arms, 
no ins. 1793-1805, ^, \ and i " Kr." Arms and ins. 

SALZBURG. 

(Arms Lion and two bars.) 

1775-1802, "Pfennings" and multiples and " Kreuzers," 
various types. S-B or SALZBURG. 

FERDINAND. 1804, i and 2 " Pfennings." Obv. Bust. Rev. 
Value and date in diamond. 

1804-6, i and 2 Pfennings. Obv. Bust. Rev. EIN or ZWEI 
PFENNING. 1804-5, i "Kreuzer." Obv. Bust. Rev. Value 
and date in diamond. 

THE TYROL. 
(Arms An Eagle.) 

T 739> I a d i "Soldo;" Arms. 1809, i "Kreuzer" with 
Arms and GEFURSTETE GRAFSCHAFT TIROL. 

GORITZ. 

(Arms Lion on incline and two bars.) 

1733 to 1802, Pieces of |, and i, 2 and 3 Soldi. Obv. Arms. 
Rer. Value and date (various). 

KINGDOM OF HUNGARY. 

(JOINED TO AUSTRIA IN 1867.) 

(Arms. Four bars /., double cross out of crown on 
clouds r.) 

FRANCIS RAGOCZY. 1704-7, i, 10 and 20 " Poltura," 
crowned Arms. 

MARIA THERESA. 1761-75, ^ and i " Greschl/' Arms, 
i ' Poltura," Bust. 



6o 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



FRANZ JOSEF. 1848-9, EGY KRAJCZAR (i " Kreuzer "), 
HAROM KRAJCZAR (3 "Kreuzers "), Arms. 1868, 4 " Kreuzers " 
(nu neral and date in wreath). Obv. Arms. 



FIG. 63 - One Kreuzer of Hungary before the Union with Austria, 1848. 




FIG. 6--. Four Kreuzers of Hungary after the Union with Austria, 1868. 

TRANSYLVANIA. 

1763-5. i "Greschl," Arms Head and wings of an Eagle, 
seven castles below. 

BOHEMIA. 

(Arms Lion and two Eagles.) 

1759-67, i " Groeschl," crowned Arms (in three ovals). 
1781-2, i " Groeschl," crowned Arms. 



AUSTRIAN POLAND. 

1774, i "Schilling," Austrian Arms crowned in a crowned 
shield. 1794, i and in "Grossus," Arms above crossed flags. 
Rev. Value and POL. 



6i 



ITALY. 

The same observations which have been made with reference 
to the inequalities and inconsistencies of the German coinage 
will apply to that of the entire Italian peninsula, the different 
parts of which have been divided and sub-divided, united 
under Republics, independent Monarchies, Principalities, 
Dukedoms, and the Papacy, or torn asunder by foreign powers, 
which have imposed their own laws, governors and currency 
upon the conquered races. This, as history will show, has 
been going on ever since the dismemberment of the Roman 
Empire, which fact alone renders the varied modern copper 
coinage of Europe, few of the pieces being rare, of splendid 
interest. As I have stated (see SPAIN), the oldest copper coins 
of Europe, not Roman or Byzantine, were those with which 
the Normans continued the issues of the latter people in 

NAPLES AND SICILY, 

particularly speaking, those of Count (later, King) Roger, who 
succeeded his father, Robert Guiscard, the invader and con- 
queror of Naples from the Byzantines and Sicily from the 
Saracens. 

ROGER. Coins of 1085-1154 have on Obv. the ruler 
mounted and bearing a standard. Ins. ROGERIVS COMES. 
Rev. the Madonna and child with ms., MARIA MATER DNI. 
Another copper coin of Roger bears a large cross with " |ME 
lettering in the angles ; another, a half figure of the virgin 
dividing S-M. Rev. ROGERIVS DVX. Crowned king in 1129, 
Roger is represented by a small copper coin bearing ROGERIVS 
in a circle about "REX" in one line. Roger was succeeded 
by his son. 

WILLIAM I., who coined no copper money. 




FIG 5. Follaro of William II., Norman King of Sicily 



62 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

WILLIAM II, 1166-89., i s designated on his coins by his 
initial " w," followed by REX n, or DEI GRATIA REX, or other 
initials. On some of his coins are found a tree or plant, and 
on others a lion's face. Arabic and Latin inscriptions are 
also mingled. 

TANCRED, 1189-95. Copper coins bear his name in angles 
of cross and crowned " T." Also Arabic ins. on some. 

FREDERICK, 1201-50 (II. of Germany), issued Various copper 
coins, on which he is called ROM. IMPERATOR or REX IER ET 
SICIL (Jerusalem and Sicily). Only the initial " F " is given for 
his name. The types are : a Cross, an Eagle, Head, or FR in 
field. 

CONRAD (of Germany), 1250-53. Coins bear a cross, name, 
COR or CONRAD, and title. 

MANFRED, 1258-66. One coin Obv. "m" surrounded by 
AYNFR REX. Rev. Cross and SICILIE. During the next 150 
years there are but few copper coins. Of those which exist 
the type is almost always of a cross, surrounded by IER ET sic 
or SICIL ET IER. 

ALFONSO (of Arragon), 1442-58, has left a small copper 
coin with his head and name on Obv., and the Arragonese and 
Sicilian Arms quartered on Rev. 

FERDINAND I (of Arragon), 1458-94. Copper coins all 
bear a crowned head with FERDIXAXDVS REX. Rev. A horse with 




FIG. 66. Cavallo of Sicily. Ferdir.and I. 

EQVITAS REGNI. Other Revs, are more properly medalled. 




FIG. 67. Cin inina of Frederick III., Sicily. 



ITALY. 63 

FREDERICK III., 1496-1500. Coins bear bust or Arms 
and title, FEDERICVS D c. R. si. Rev. A horse or cross. 

Louis (XII. of France) has left a small copper coin with his 
half length figure on Obi', with titles and cross, etc., on Rev. 

CHARLES AND JOHANNA (of Spain), 1516-20. Copper bears 
i.e. crowned, or IVSTVS REX around cross, or both. 

CHARLES V., 1520-54. Copper bears bust and titles, 
CAROLVS v ROM. IMP. Rev. Crown or cross and ins. Other 
varieties, IVSTVS REX around cross. Rev. PLVS VLTRA around 
pillars, or REGVM PAX around trophy of arms. 

PHILIP II., 1554-98. Copper, Obv. Bust and titles. Rev. 
i " Cavallo," cross; 2 " Cavalli," crown ; 4 "Cavalli," cornu- 
copia, etc. 

PHILIP III., 1598-1621. Various types, usually bust, always 
titles. Revs, the usual Sicilian types, cross, crown, cornucopia, 
a plant, or the Golden Fleece (a lamb), various inscriptions. 

PHILIP IV, 1621-65. Same types, also Lion and Castle and 
Arms, and PVBLICA COMMODITAS filling field. 

HENRY OF LORRAINE, 1648. S.P.Q.N. in crowned shield, 
surrounded by name and title. 

CHARLES II., 1665-1700. Obv. Bust and titles. Rer. Usual 




si of Sicily Charles II. (of Spain), (16)82. 



types of predecessors, also crowned Eagle. 

PHILIP V., 1 701-8. Obi\ Bust and titles. Rer. Arms, Fleece, 
or ins. 

VICTOR AMADEUS, 1713-20. i "Tornese." Obv. Eagle, etc. 

Rev. PVBLICA-COMMO-DITAS. 

CHARLES III. (VI. of Germany), 1720-34. i and 2 
" Tornesi." Obv. Eagle. Rev. VT FACILIUS. Same Rev. vr 
COMMODIVS, all cast. 

CARLOS OF BOURBON, 1734-59 (title of Charles III. also). 
Obv. Eagle or bust and titles ; various Revs. 



6 4 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



FERDINAND IV., 1759-1825. This monarch changed his 
number of succession at least four times. From 1776 to 1799 
he is F. iv ; 1802-16, F. in; 1816, F. iv again; 1819, F. i. His 
coins all bear his titles with Eagle or bust on Obv. Rei\ 
Various types, value and date, castle, cross, grapes, cornucopia, 
etc. Values Grani, Cavalli, and Tornese. There is a change 



Ftc. 69. Four Cavalli of Ferdinand IV. (ist). 




FIG. 71.- One Grano of Ferdinand III. (ist), 

of type of coins with that of title. The bust of 1814-15 is 
crowned, others flowing hair. 

GIOACCHINO NAp(oleon) (Joachim Murat), 1808-15, deposed 
Ferdinand during this period. Copper coins, 2 and 3 "Grani," 
and 5 and 10 "Centesimi" with bust and titles. Values and 
date on Rm. 

FRANCIS I., 1825-30. i, 2, 5, and 10 "Tornesi." Obv. Bust 
and titles. Rev. Value under large crown, and date. 

FERDINAND II., 1831-59. |, i, \\, 2, 3, 5 and 10 
" Tornesi." Same general type as preceding. 



ITALY. 65 

FRANCIS II., 1859. 2 and 10 " Tornesi." Obv. Bust and 
titles. Rev. Value under fleur de Us. 



Fir,. 72. -Half Tornese of Ferdinand II. 




FIG. .73 Reverse of Ten Tornese of Ferdinand II. (Type of series.) 

NEAPOLITAN REPUBLIC. 
(1799.) 

Oi this short-lived institution there are to be found pieces 
of 4 and 6 "Tornese," bearing a fasces and REPVBBLICA 

NAPOLITAXA. 

ORBETELLO. 

1782-98. Pieces of i, ii and mi " Quattrini." Obv. Bust 




FIG. 74. Quattrino of Orbetello, 1782. 

and titles of Ferdinand IV. Rev. REALI PRESIDII, and value 
under crown. 



66 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

PALMA NUOVA. 

Napoleon I., 1814. 25 and 50 "Centesimi." Obv. MONTE 
D'ASSED-PALMA. Rev. Value surrounded by NAPOLEONE IMPE. 
E. RE. 

THE STATES OF THE CHURCH. 

(PAPAL STATES.) 

The coins struck by the Papal authorities of Rome are 
not difficult to classify, seeing that almost all bear the same 
Obv. type the Arms of the sovereign Pontiff surrounded by 
his title and the date of his Pontificate. The Roman series 
is of course the principal, but there are coins of various 
localities, outside, bearing the Papal Arms, which must not be 
confounded with them. I shall note the difference. The 
Revs, of the earlier Papal coins are usually occupied by figures 
of the Saints, Peter or Paul, or the holy gateway ; the later 
Revs, bear merely value and date, the values being in " Quat- 




FIG. 76. Two-and-a-half I5aiocchi, Papal. St. Peter type (halo omitted by mischance 

trini " and " Baiocchi," and the word ROMANI to indicate their 
origin. 



ITALY. 67 

The "Papal Arms" consist of the personal Arms ot the 
reigning Pope on a shield surmounted by the Tiara and Keys 



FIG. 77. Baiocco of Papal States during Interregnum of 1740. " Sede Vacante. 



IG. 78. Two Biiocchi of Pius IX., with Arms. General type of series. 




FIG. 79. Four Soldi of Pius IX. (Last Papal coins.) 

of St. Peter. When coins are issued during a vacancy the 
Arms are those of the senior Cardinal surmounted by his hat, 
and above all the Keys under an umbrella or canopy. The 



68 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

inscription will then be SEDE VACANTE, as in 1623 and 1740. 
The last coinage of the Papal States was under the late Pius 
IX., who, after a series of the usual type, issued in 1866-9 
pieces of T " Centesimi" and ,1,2 and 4 "Soldi," with his bust 
upon the Obv. The full inscription on a Papal coin following 
the name of the Pope is PONTIFEX MAXIMUS. ANNO (year in 
Roman numerals). The foregoing and a list of the Popes for 
the last three hundred years will suffice to identify any coin 
of the series. 

CLEMENT VIII., 1592-1605. I INNOCENT XIII., 1721-24. 

PAUL V., 1605-21. BENEDICT XIII., 1724-30. 

GREGORY XV., 1621-23. CLEMENT XII., 1730-40. 

Vacancy, 1623. Vacancy, 1740. 

URBAN VIII., 1623-44." BENEDICT XIV., 1740-58. 

INNOCENT X., 1644-55. CLEMENT XIII., 1758-69. 

ALEXANDER VII., 1655-67. CLEMENT XIV., 1769-74. 

CLEMENT IX., 1667-69. Pius VI., 1775-99. 

CLEMENT X., 1670-76. Pius VII., 1800-23. 

INNOCENT XI., 1676-89. LKO XII., 1823-29. 

ALEXANDER VIII., 1689-91. PITS VIII., 1829-30. 

INNOCENT XII., 1691-1700. GREGORY XVI., 1831-46. 

CLEMENT XI., 1700-21. Pius IX., 1846-78. 

The present Pope, Leo XIII., has issued no copper coins. 



THE ITALIAN PROVINCES. 

(Names usually appear on coins.) 

There being absolutely no sequence or connection to be 
observed in any of the series of coins belonging to these 
territories, the only possible manner of classifying them is by 
alphabetical order. Two types however are very common, 
and are nearly alike for all places with sole exception of the 
name given. They are : (i) Obv. Head of the Madonna 
surrounded by SANCTA DEI, GENETRIX. Rev. Value and name 
of locality surrounded by name, title, and apostolical date of 
Pope (Pius VI.); date below. (2) Ofa. Bust of St. Peter 
holding keys, surrounded by s. p. APOSTOLORVM PRINCEPS. 
Rev. Value, place and date. 

ANCONA. 1796, i and 2 "Baiocchi." Arms and name 
expressed, 2\ Bai. Bust of St. Peter. 1798-9, 2 " Bai." 
Republic, fasces, 1849, i " Baiocco," cast brass. Obv. Fasces 
and REPUBBLICA ROMANA. Rev. Value and mint mark 
" A " (ncona). 



ITALY. 69 

AQUILA (Arms an Eagle). 1484-92, " Quattrino," 
Innocent VIII. (Pope). Obv. Keys. Rev. Eagle. 1483-98, 
"Quattrino, "Charles VIII. (France). Obv. Arms. Rev. Cross. 

ASCOLI. 1492-1503, "Quattrino," Alexander VI. (Pope). 
Obv. Arms. Rev. Castle and DE-A-SCULO. Pius VI., 1797, 
various values with Arms. Name on Rev. 

BOLOGNA. Arms a Lion (usually supporting a standard) 
and motto BONONIA DOCET (Bologna Teaches) usually appear 




FIG. 80. Quattrino of Bologna, 1749. 

on coins of Bologna, whether of Papal or civic origin. The 
small local copper coin is called a "Bolognino." 

CHIETI. Few coins bear a cross and device CIVITAS 
TEATINA (City of Chieti). 

CIVITA VECCHIA. 1796-7, 2\ and 5 "Baiocchi" of 
Papal type. (Pius VI.) 

CLITUNNO. 1798-9, "Baiocco" of Roman Republic, 
with fasces. 

ETRURIA. 1803-7, "Quattrino," i, i, and 2 "Soldi" 
of Maria Louisa and Charles Louis. Arms and ins. 1818, 
2 " Soldi " of Ferdinand III. Arms and ins. 

FANO. 2\ and 5 "Baiocchi" of Pius VI., 1775-99. 
Papal type. 

FERMO. Same. Also coins of Roman Republic, 1798-9. 

FERRARA. " Quattrinos " with Obv. St. George and 
Dragon. \ " Baiocchi " of several Popes. 

FULIGNO. Papal coins of Pius VI., 1775-99. 

GENOA. Republic of 1814. 2 and 4 Soldi. Obv. Arms 
of Savoy with " RESPUBLICA GENUENSIS." Rev. of 4 Soldi St. 
George and "EX PROBITATE ROBUR." Rev. of 2 Soldi, The 
Immaculate Conception and "SUB TUU.M PRESIDIUM." Both 
quite scarce. 



7O COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

GUBBIO (Latin, EUGUBIA). Papal coins from Clement 
XII. to Pius VI., and under Roman Republic. 

LOMBARDY-VENICE, 1822-62. Coins bear Austrian 
crown, REGNO LOMBARDO-VENETO. Value in centesimi. 




FIG. 81. Three Centesimi of Austrian Italy (Lombardy Venice), 1846. 

LUCCA. 1555-66, "Quattrino" of Otto (German Em- 
peror), OTTO IMPERATOR around "L." 1682, "Bolognino" 
with figure of St. Peter and L-V-C-A. 1717-90, "Bolognino." 
Arms with a lion. Rev. St. Peter. 1756-90, i and 2 "Soldi." 
Obi'. Arms. Rev. Value, etc. Charles Louis, 1824-47, coins 
of several types and values with name, titles, etc. Arms a 
fleur de Us. 

LUCCA AND PIOMBINO. Felix and Elisa, 1806-14, 
3 and 5 " Centesimi." Busts of both with names and titles. 

MANTUA. Coins, " Sesino " and " Soldo." Arms a cross 




FIG. 82. Sesino of Mantua. 



or rayed sun ; also Austrian Arms. Name given on all 
MANTOVA. Under Austrian rule till federation of Italy. 

MACERETA. 1797-8, 5 "Bai." The Virgin and SANCTA 
DEI GENETRIX. 17989, " Quattrino " and \ "Bai," Roman 
Republic, fasces. 

MASSA-CARRARA. 1790-1828, ' Quattrino," i and 2 
" Soldi " of Maria Beatrix. Arms and ins. Rev. Value, etc. 

MATELICA. 1775-99. Papal types of Pius VII. 



ITALY. 7 1 

MILAN. Arms, an undulating serpent, upright in shield. 
All coins easily identifiable through arms or name MEDIOLANUM. 
Coins of Philips III., IV. and V., and Charles II. and III. of 
Spain, after which of Maria Theresa. Values in "Quattrinos," 
" Sesinos " and " Soldos," or parts thereof. 

MIRANDOLA. "Sesinos," i5th, 1 6th, and i yth centuries. 
Obv. Arms or bust of Ruler. Rev. MIRANDOLA, etc. 

MODENA (Latin MUTINA). Arms, an eagle. i8th cen- 
tury, " Sesino " with Arms or Bust of reigning duke, also Bust 




FIG. 83. Sesino of MoJena. 

and Arms. Rev. MVTIN-SESIN, variety \\-\\hfleur de Us. "Soldo" 
and " Bolognino," 1783, with Arms. 

MONACO. Pieces of 8 "Denarii" of Antonius, 1720, and 
Honore III., 1734-9. Obv. Initial crowned. Rev. A saint. 
Honore V., 1819-41, 5 "Centimes" and i "Decime" of 
French type. Obv. Bust and title. Rev. Value and date 
in wreath. 

MONTALTO. 1775-99, 4 and 5 "Baiocchi," Pius VI. 
Papal types. St. Peter or Virgin. 

PARMA. 1586-92, ii "Quattrini" of Alexander Farnese. 
Obv. Bust surrounded by AL . F SPECULATOR. Rev. " n P." 
1622-46, " Quattrino,'' "Sesino" and "Soldo" of Edward. 
Obv. Crowned Arms. Rev. Saint Hilarius. Other coins from 
Ranutius II. (1646) to Maria Louisa (also of Piacenza and 
Guastalla), ending 1824, all bear Arms on Obv. 

PERGOLA. Papal coins of Pius VI., 1775-99, and under 
Roman Republic, i - 98 -9, fasces type with name. 

PERUGIA. "Quattrino" of Republic, 1260-1506. Obv. 
A large "P." Rev. SANCTUS ERCULANUS. Papal copper of 
Pius VI., and 2 " Baiocchi " of Roman Republic similar to 
others. 

PIEDMONT. 2 "Soldi" of the Republic of 1801. Obv. 



72 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

Triangle in wreath, LIBERTA*EGUAGLIANZA*. Rev. NAZIONE 
PIEMONTESE around " Soldi due " in script. 

RAGUSA. Follaro, i5th century. Obv. Head and RACVSII 
MONETA. Rei>. Castle and RACVSII CIVITAS. "Soldo," 1729-95, 
Obv. Saint standing. Rev. Similar to foregoing. 6 "Soldi," 
1795-6, same type. DEVS REFVGI, etc. 

RAVENNA. Papal coins of Benedict XIV. Arms on 




FIG. 84.-Quattrino of Ravenna, Benedict XIV., Pope 

Obv., with Arms of city (a fir cone). A saint or value on Rer 
RAV or RAVENNA always given. 

RONCIGLIONE. Varieties of 3 " Baiocchi," 1 799. Ofir 
the Madonna. Rev. Ins. or value. 

SAN MARINO. (Independent Republic). 5 "Centesimi," 
1864-9; I0 "Cent.," 1875. Obv. Arms, three flaming beacon 
towers. Rev. Value. 

SAN SEVERING. Papal coins of Pius VI., giving name. 




FIG. 85. Five Baiocchi of San Severino. Pope Pius VI., 1797. (Virgin type. 

SPOLETO. 1797, Pius VI., 5 " Baiocchi." The Madonna, 

SANCTA DEI GENETRIX. 

TERNL 1797, The same. 
TIVOLL 1797, The same. 



ITALY. 



73 



URBINO. " Quattrinos," 1500-8, Guido Uboldo I. Obv. 
Bust. Rev. Arms and FIDES SPES CARITAS. G. U. II., 1538- 
74, "GII" crowned. Francis Maria II. Obv. A tree, name 
and title (VRBINO DVX). Rev. An Eagle. 

VITERBO. Papal coins of Pius VI., 1775-99. 

ROMAN REPUBLICS. 

i. 1798-9, |, i and 2 " Baiocchi." Obv. Fasces and REPUB- 
LICA ROMANA. Rev. Value within wreath. 

2. -1849, , i and 3 "Baiocchi." Obv. An Eagle and DIG 
E POPOLO. Rev. Value, date, etc. 

SARDINIA. 

Under Spain, i and 3 " Cagliarese," Philip IV. and Charles 
II. Same under Charles VI. of Germany. Type. Obv 
Bust and titles. Rev. A cross with ins. 

THE KINGDOM. 1773-96, Victor Amadeus III., 2 
" Denarii." Obv. Crowned knot and date. Rev. Cross sur- 
rounded by ins. \ and i "Soldo." "V.A." script monogram. 

5 " Soldi." Obv. Bust and ins. Rev. St. Mauritus. Charles 
Emanuel IV., 1796-1802, 2 "Denarii," previous type. i 
"Soldo," script monogram "E.C.E." and cross. "7 Soldi, 

6 Denarii." Obv. Bust and titles. Rei\ Arms (an Eagle) in 
oval, and value, "SOL 7.6." Charles Felix, 1826, i, 3 and 5 




FIG. 86. Fire Ce 



of Charles Felix, Sardi 



" Centesimi." Obv. Crowned Eagle in wreath. Rev. Value, 
date and ins. Charles Albert, 1842, i, 3 and 5 "Centesimi." 
Obv. Crowned Arms (four negroes' heads in angles of cross). 
Rev. Value and date. 



74 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE 



CORSICA. 

This little island, besides possessing the glory ot having 
produced the great Napoleon, has a little numismatic history 
of its own. In 1736 coins were struck by the celebrated 
German adventurer Baron Neuhoff, who enjoyed a brief and 




^UcjMaa^a^ ^ItacaapP^ 

FIG. 87. Five Soldi of King Theodore of Corsica, 1736. 



disastrous rule as Theodore I. His issues in copper were 
pieces of 2 and 5 "Soldi." Obv. T. R. crowned (Theodorus 
Rex). Rev. Value within circle, surrounded by inscription 
PRO BONO PUBLICO . RO CE or abbreviation thereof. The 
patriot Pascal Paoli is represented by first a "Soldo " of 1768. 
Obv. Liberty cap on pole. Rev. Value, etc. 2 and 4 " Soldi " 
of 1763-6 bear Obv. a crowned shield bearing the head of a 




Soldi of Pascal Paoli, Corsica 



negro and supported by two half figures grasping bludgeons. 
Rev. Value and date within a wreath. 



TUSCANY. 

Copper coins all bear Arms, name and titles of ruler. Values, 
"Quattrini" and "Soldi." Peter Leopold, 1765-90. Ferdinand 
III., 1790-1824. Leopold II., 1824-59. Finally pieces of 
i, 2 and 5 " Centimes." Obv. Arms of Italy as at present, 



ITALY. 



75 



surrounded by VITTORIO EMANUELE RE ELETTO. Rev. Value 
and date, 1859-61, surrounded by GOVERNO BELLA TOSCANA. 



VENICE. 

None of the Venetian Ducal copper coins are dated, so that 
their age can only be approximated by the name of the Doge 
appearing thereon, from early in the thirteenth century, down. 
The types are as follows : " Bagattino," Obv. A head or lion. 
Km. A cross. "Quattrino," Obv, A lion surrounded by 
SANCTVS MARCVS VENEXvs. Rev. A cross surrounded by name 
and title of Doge (DVX). | and i " Soldo," Obv. The Doge 




FIG. 89 Soldo of Venetian Republic. Doge Aloysius Mocenigo, 1570-1577. 

kneeling, holding standard before Lion of St. Mark surrounded 
by name, value in exergue, 6 or 12. Rei*. Standing figure of 
St. Mark surrounded by DEFENS NOSTER. 

UNCLASSIFIABLE. " Bagattino." Obv. The Madonna, with 
R.C.L.A. (Regina Cceli Laetare Alleluia). Rev. Lion in square. 
\ "Soldo." Obv. Same. Rev. SAN. MARC. VEN around bust. 

PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (Revolution of 1848-9). i, 3 
and 5 "Centesimi." Obv. Lion of St. Mark, GOVERNO PRO- 
VISORIO DI VENEZIA. Rev. Value, CENTESIMI DI LIRA CORRENTE, 
and date. 



ITALY (UNITED.) 

REPUBLIC. 1802-5, i, 2 and 5 "Denarii." Obv. i, 2 
or 5 ears of corn, date AN II. Rev. Value. " Centesimo," \ 
and i "Soldo," 1804, Obv. Scales and palm branch, (varieties). 

NAPOLEON I. 1805-14, i, 2 and 3 "Centesimi." Type 
Obv. Head surrounded by NAPOLEONE IMPERATORE E. RE., 
date below bust. Rev. A crown, REGNO D'ITALIA above, value 



70 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

below. There are several varieties of head employed. The 
first coinage, of 1806, is quite scarce. 




FIG. 90. Soldo of Napoleon Bonaparte as King of Italy, 1809. 

VICTOR EMANUEL II. 1861-78, i, 2, 5 and 10 "Centesimi." 




FIG. 91. Ten Centesimi of Victor Emanuel II., 1862 



Obv. Head and VITTORIO EMANUELE 11 RE D'ITALIA. Rev. 
Value and date in wreath. 

HUMBERT I. 1878, i and 2 "Centesimi." Struck as pat- 
terns. Scarce. 



77 



THE NETHERLANDS. 

The above in its original sense is a general term, probably 
best understood by its translation, the " Low Countries," or 
Pays - Bas (French), comprising the modern kingdoms of 
Holland and part of Belgium, which latter is the " Flanders " 
of Maryborough's campaigns. For centuries the battle-field of 
Europe, the Netherlands have enjoyed the usual fortune of 
such a position in divisions and sub-divisions innumerable, 
with an occasional tyranny of some foreign power to relieve 
the monotony of self-government. Hence, as in other cases 
elsewhere mentioned, in default of other means of classifying 
them, localities are given in alphabetical order. The copper 
coinage of the Netherlands appears to have been introduced 
by the Emperor, Charles V., whose son, Philip II. of Spain, 
was the first to strike a liberal coinage of copper in all parts. 
I give the more important provinces first. 

BRABANT. Of Charles V., 1506-56, there are " Mytes " 
with a crowned " K " or Arms and titles. A half " Liard " of 
1543-56 bears Obv. Bust and title. Rev. a Lion. Philip II., 
1556-98, copper in "Mytes," " Liards," and halves. Obv. Bust 
or cross. Rev. Arms or cross. Title of ruler whose name is 
given, ARCHIDVX Avsx(ria) DVX BVRG, BRAB(ant). Albert and 
Elizabeth, 1598-1621, \ "Liard," ^E crowned ; \ and i "Liard," 




FIG. 92. Liard of Braba .t. Philip IV. (of Spain). (Type.) 



Arms and ins. Rev. a Cross. Philip IV., type. Obv. Cross ot 
Arms and ins. Rev. Spanish Arms and remainder of title. 
Charles II., 1665-1700, same type. Philip V., 1700-12, i and 
2 " Liards," same type. 2 " Liards." Obv. Bust and titles. J?w. 
Arms and continuation of titles. Maximilian, 1700-12; 
Emanuel, 1712-15, "Liards." Obv. Bust or Arms and ins. 



?8 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

Charles VI., 1712-16, "Liard." Obv. Bust. Rev. Crowned 
initials. The coins of the Austrian rulers, Maria Theresa, 
1740-80; Joseph II., 1780-90; Leopold II., 1791-2, and 




FIG. 93. Liard of the Austrian Netherlands. Joseph II., 1789. 

Francis II., 1792-7, are all of one type. Obv. Bust of sovereign 
with name and titles. Rev. AD-usuM-BELGii-AUSTR(ii) and date 
within wreath. Values, i and 2 "Liards." The insurgents 




FIG. 94. Liard of the Belgian Confederation, 1750. 

of 1790 struck copper i and 2 "Liards." Obv. Lion holding 
hat on pole. Rev. AD-USUM FCEDERATI-BELGII-I^O. 

FLANDERS. 1545-52, " Doit." Obv. Bust and ins. Rev. 
A lion. Philip II., Albert and Elizabeth, Philip IV., and 
Charles II. are represented by coins similar to those of 
Brabant. The Rev. legend is however ARCHID AVS DVX BVRG 
c . FL (Comes Flanders). A " Liard " of Maximilian Emanuel, 
1712-15, bears Obv. Bust and ins. Rev. Script won, ALE. 
"Liard" of Charles VI., 1712-15, Obv. Bust. Rev. three C's, 
crowned. 

NETHERLAND PROVINCES. 

(I6th, 17th and 18th Centuries.) 

The copper coinage of these States is expressed in " Mytes," 
" Doits," and " Liards," with fractions and multiples. The 



THE NETHERLANDS. 



79 



various types, whether of the Spanish occupation or otherwise, 
are distinguishable by either the Arms or name of the pro- 
vince, usually both in conjunction. Want of space forbids the 
enumeration of all known varieties, the list of which is, by the 
enormous issues of private jetons or tokens, and the issues of 
ecclesiastical dignitaries, rendered almost interminable. The 
" Doit " is by far the most common and easily obtainable coin. 
The following are leading characteristics : 

HOLLAND (ffollandia}. Arms, a Lion in wicket en- 




FIG. 95. Doit of Holland, 1769. (Type of other provinces.) 

closure. Varieties, a Cross or female figure in wicket (name 01 
province on coins of this series often fills entire field of Rev.}. 

FRIESLAND (Frisia). Arms, two Lions one above the 
other in crowned shield. 

GELDERLAND (Gelria). Arms, two lions, facing in 
halves of crowned shield. Motto, IN DEO EST SPES NOSTRA. 

GRONINGEN. Arms, Double-headed Eagle, or same 
quartered with four oblique rows of small hearts. Rev. 

GRONINGA, Or GRON-EN-OMMEL. 

OVERYSSEL (Transit ulaniii). Arms, a Lion rampant on 
a wavy bar. Motto, VIGILATE ET ORATE. 

UTRECHT (Trajectum, or STAD UTRECHT). Arms, a 
crowned shield supported by two lions. 




FIG. 96. Doit of Zealand, 1766. (Type of other provinces. 



80 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

WEST FRIESLAND ( West Frisiat). Arms, two lions one 
above the other, heads /. 

ZEALAND (Zelandia). Arms, a Lion emerging from 
water. Motto, LUCTOR ET EMERGO. 



DUTCH AND FLEMISH LOCAL ISSUES. 

(-Alphabetically.) 

ALOST. 1833, i, 5, and 25 "Centimes," MONNAIE FICTIVE. 

ANHOLT. " Doits " with CIV-ITAS-ANH, or cvs, ANH. 

ANVERS (Antwerp), 1814. Obsidional money of Napo- 
leon I. and of Louis XVIII., 5 and 10 "Centimes," crowned N 
or crowned double L. 

ARNHEM. " Doit." Rev. Arms. 

ARTOIS. " Liards" of Philip IT. (15)82-96 and Philip IV., 
1636-9. Obv. Bust. Rev. Arms (nearly the same as those of 
Brabant, on a single shield. 

BATTENBURG.'l 



BRONKHORST. 



GRONSFELD. 



John II., 1588-1617, | and i "Liard:" 

Obv. Bust, IOES COMES, etc. Rev. Arms. 

" Liard " with Arms on both sides. 
Justus Maximilian, 1617-67, 4 " Mytes," 

and i " Liard " several types. All 

bear Arms and names. 
City, | Liard. Obv. Arms. Rev. BAT- 

ENBVR-GVM, Or CIVITATIS BAT. 

BOMMEL. "Doit," Lion holding sword. Rev. SALT- 
BOM-EL. 

CAMBRAY. Ludwig A. Berlaimont, 1570-96. i, n, and 
vi " Deniers." Obv. Arms. Rw. i, three lions in shield; n, 
Cross ; vi, L-O-Y-S in angles of Cross. 

CAMPEN. Arms, a Lion. Rev. usually a Castle with 

CAM-PEN Or CAM-PEN-SIS. 

DAVENTER. Arms, an Eagle. DAVEN or DA-VEN-TRIA. 
ELBURG. Arms, three-towered Castle. Rev. MONETA- 

ECCLES-ELBVRG. 

GHENT (Gana). Arms a Lion rampant. Coins usually 
bear name. The 4 " Mytes " of 1584 has a crowned " G," the 
vi " Mytes " of (15)83-4, S.P.Q.G. on Rei'erse. 



THE NETHERLANDS. 8 1 




FIG. 97. Six "Mytes" of Ghent. 

GORCUM. " Doit " with Arms and GORC-IN-HOLL. 
HUESSEN (Huisseri). " Doits," Arms and name. 
LEYDEN. Arms, crossed Keys, \ "Stuber" (15)74, with 

ENDE-SALICHT-LEYDEN. 

LILLE. Siege pieces of 1708, v, x and xx SOLS. PRO- 

DEFENSIONE-VRBIS-ET-PATRIE. 

LOOS. Pieces of xn "Sous" of Ernst, 1583-94, and 
" Liards" of Ferdinand, 1612-50. Bust or Arms. 

MAESTRICHT. Siege pieces of 1579. |, i, n, vm, xn, 
xvi, xxnii and xxxx " Sols." Obv. Arms, a five-pointed Star 
and date. Rev, TRAJECTO AB HISPANIC OBSESSO. 

NAMUR. I and i " Lhrd " of Philip IL. 1578-9. Usual 
type. 

NYMWEGEN. " Doits." Female in wicket or holding 
shield. Rev. NOV-IMA-GVM. 

RECKHEIM (Trarecheui). Coins bear Arms and name 
in full or abbreviated. 

ROERMOND. Spanish rulers. " Doits," and " Liards " with 
Arms, a Lion zndfleur de Us. 

ST. BERNARD. i, 5, and 25 "Centimes." MONNAIE 
FICTIVE, 1833. 

STAVENSWERTH. Anns, a Lion. "Doits" with SST- 

INSV-LA, Or SST-WERTE-CVSA. 

TOURNAY (Tornacd).\ and i " Liard " (Spanish rule), 
usual types. 1709, siege pieces of 2 and 8 " Petards." 

VILVORDE. Same as St. Bernard. 

ZUTPHEN. Arms, Lion rampant over cross. " Doits " 
with ZVTPHANENSIS or similar. 

ZWOLLE " Doits " with ZW-OLL.E, etc. 

F 



82 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



THE KINGDOM OF HOLLAND. 

(KONINGRIJK DER NEDERLANDEN). 

From 1815 to 1877 the type of coinage is the same, cover- 
ing reigns of Williams I. 1815-40; II., 1840-49; III., 1849. 
The Obv. of cent and half-cent pieces is a large W crowned, 




Fig. 99. Two and a half Cents, William III., 1884. 

dividing date. Rw. Arms crowned and dividing value. 1877-86, 
\, i, and 2\ cents bear the Arms in a circle surrounded by ins. 
as above. Rev. The value within a wreath. 

THE KINGDOM OF BELGIUM 

Formed part of the kingdom of the Netherlands until 1831, 
prior to which the coinage as described above was the same, 
with the addition of the letter " B " as a mint mark for Brussels, 
only. In 1832 was commenced the issue of the beautiful 
coins still in use. The Obv. bears the Belgian Lion seated 




FIG. 100. Five Centimes of Leopold I. 



THE NETHERLANDS. 83 

guarding a tablet inscribed CONSTITUTION BELGE, 1831. Above 
is the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE, in exergue the value. 
Rev. An ornate script L crowned, with title of monarch sur- 
rounding, date below. Issues 

LEOPOLD I., 1831-65, i, 2, 5 and 10 "Centimes." Also 
on marriage of the Duke of Brabant, his son, a special piece 
of 10 "Centimes." Obv. His own head. Rev. Heads of the 
young Duke and Duchess. 

LEOPOLD II., 1865, i and 2 " Centime" pieces only. 

LIEGE. There has been a large copper coinage in this 
Flemish town, emanating principally from ecclesiastical sources, 
here being the seat of a bishopric. The Arms are usually Lions 




FIG. 101. Liard of Liege. Arms of the Bavarian Bishop, John Theodore Charles. 

quartered with diamond-shaped lozenges (Bavarian). Fre- 
quently the bust of St. Lambertus is employed, and often five 
shields in the form of a cross, with the date in angles. The 
name of the city appears as LEODENSIS, LEOD, or LEO. The 
Princes and Bishops who issued coins during three hundred 
years were, 

George, 1563-80 (of Austria). 

Gerard von Groesbeck, 1563-80. 

Ernst, 1580-1612 (House of Bavaria). 

Ferdinand, 1612-50. 

Maxmilian Henry, 1650-88. 

John Ludwig von Elderen, 1688-94. 

Josef Clement (Bavaria), 1694-1723. 

George Ludwig von Berghes, 1724-43. 

Cornelius von Berghes, 1738-44. 

John Theodore, 1744-^63. 

Sede Vacante, 1688, 1694, 1724. 



84 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBURG. 

(Arms A Lion rampant}, 

MARIA THERESA, 1740-80. Types : Bust, ADUSUM DUCATOS 
LUXEM. " M. T." script mon. or crowned Arms, " Liards," 
halves and " Sols." 

JOSEPH II., 1765-90. Crowned Arms or n J, J n, mono- 
gram. " Liards " and " Sols." 

LEOPOLD, 1790-92. Crowned Arms. ''Sols." 

WILLIAM III., 1849-70. Pieces of 2f, 5, and 10 "Centimes." 
Obv. Crowned Arms surrounded by GRAND-DUCHE DE LUXEM- 
BOURG. Rev. Value and date within wreath. 



RUSSIA. 

The copper coinage of Russia is of Asiatic origin on the 
one hand, while on the other the use of plate money was 
evidently borrowed from her Scandinavian neighbours for a 
while, and pieces of stamped leather passed as small currency 
during a long period. There are certain old pieces recognised 
to have been current in Russia prior to the time of Peter the 
Great, but the modern or Regal series had its origin in his reign. 
The Arms of Russia are a double-headed eagle with sceptre in 
left talon and orb in right, with a shield depicting St. George 
and the dragon, upon its breast. Both heads are crowned 
separately and are surmounted by a third and larger crown. 
On the earliest coins the figure of St George often appears 
alone. The piece of \ Kopeck is called a " POLUSKA," that 
of \ a " DENGA." 

The various series, to date, are as follows, 

PETER I. 1689-1725 , \ and i Kopeck. Oh>. St. George 




FIG. T02. A Kopeck of Peter the Great. 



RUSSIA. 85 

and Russian ins. Rev. Value surrounded by ins. 1723-5, 5 
Kopecks. Obv. Arms in small circle surrounded by five dots. 
Rev: an outlined cross containing value and date. 




FIG. 103. Five Kopecks of Pe 



CATHERINE I. 1725-7, i Kopeck, St. George. 5 Kopecks, 
like foregoing. 

PETER II. 1727-30, i Kopeck, St. George. 5 Kopecks, 
like foregoing. 




FIG. 104. - Denga or \ Kopeck of Empress A 



ANNA. 173040, \ and \ Kopeck. Obv. Arms. Rev. 
Value and date. 

IVAN VI. 1740-1, Same as last. (The baby Czar who 
reigned one year.) 

ELISABETH I. 1743-54, \ and \ Kopeck, same as last. 
I 755~7) J Kopeck, " E.P." script, and eagle above clouds 
and date. Rev. same and value. 1757-61, |, \ and i Kopeck. 
Obv. St. George, value on scroll. Rev. Script mon. " E.E. 
P.P." and date. 1757-62, 2 Kopecks, 2 var. value on scroll 
and value above. 5 Kopecks, 2 var. Obv. St. George, and 
Obv. Arms. 



86 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 




FIG. 105. Two Kopecks of Elisabeth. 



PETER III. 1762, i, 2, 4, and 10 Kopecks. Obv. St. 
George. Rev. Value and date in four lines over military 
trophy. 




FIG. 107. Five Kopecks of Catherine II. Reverse same as Two Kopeck piece. 



RUSSIA. 



CATHERINE II. 1762-76, , , 
St. George. Rei>. Script monogram 
5 Kopecks, Arms and same Rev. 

PAUL I. 1796-1801, \, \, i, and 
Crowned II over i. Rev. Value and date. 



i, and 2 Kopecks. Obv. 
I.E." and date in wreath. 



Kopecks. Obv. 




FIG. 108. Kopeck of Paul 



ALEXANDER I. 1803-10, First coinage, \, \, i, 2, and 5 
Kopecks. Obv. Arms in circular band. Rev. Value and date 
in same. Second coinage, 1810-25, i> x > an d 2 Kopecks. C^. 
Arms and date. Rev. Value in wreath, crowned. 

NICHOLAS I. 1825-55, |, i, and 2 Kopecks as in previous 
reign. Second coinage, 1830-39, i, 2, 5, and 10 Kopecks. 




FIG. 109. Ten Kopecks of Nicholas I. (Second coinage.) 

Obv. Double-headed eagle with outstretched wings, holding 
torch and thunder-bolt /, wreath r, date below. Rev. Value. 
Third coinage, 1839-48, \, \, i, 2, and 3 Kopecks, script 



88 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 



" H." crowned, over i. Rev. Value and date, four lines. 
Fourth coinage, 1849-60, ^, |, and i Kopeck, " H." crowned 




FIG. no. Kopeck of Nicholas I. (Third coinage.) 

over i. Rev. Value and date, 2, 3, and 5 Kopecks. Obv. 
Arms. 

ALEXANDER II. 1855-61, \, \, and i Kopeck, script "A " 
crowned over H, 1855-65, 2, 3, and 5 Kopecks like fore- 




FIG. iii.-Kopeck of Alexander II. 



going. Second coinage, 1867-81, \ and \ Kopeck, "A n," 
crowned, milled edges. 1867-81, i, 2, 3, and 5 Kopecks. 




FIG. 112. Five Kopecks of Alexander II., 1868. 



RUSSIA. 89 

Arms in ornamental band, part of lettering incused and part 
relief. Rev. Value and date, wreath. 

ALEXANDER III., 1881- . i, 2, 3, and 5 Kopecks as 
last. 



THE KINGDOM OF POLAND. 

Once a great European power, now crushed and divided 
between Russia, Germany, and Austria. The Arms consist of 
an Eagle quartered with a galloping horseman, sometimes the 
Eagle alone. The inscriptions are always in Latin and easily 
readable. The following are the coins of the later rulers : 

JOHN CASIMIR. 1648-68, "Solidus." Obr. Bust and ins. 
or I.CR. Rev. An eagle. 

AUGUSTUS III. 1733-63, i and 3 "Schillings." Obv. Bust 
and ins. Rev. Arms and EL SAX. with date. 




FIG. 113. One Schilling of Augustus III., King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. 

STANISLAUS-AUGUSTUS. 1764-94, , i, and 3 "Grossus" 
and "Solidus." Obv. " S.A.R." script monogram or Bust. 
Rev. Arms or ins. 

FRED'K AUGUSTUS. 1807-14, i and 3 "Grosze." Obv. 
Arms. Rev. Value, etc. 

ALEXANDER I. (of Russia). 1815-25, i and 3 "Grosze," 
same. 

NICHOLAS I. 1825-55, J and 3 "Grosze" (varieties). Obv. 
Arms. Rev. Value, etc. 



RUSSIAN DEPENDENCIES. 

LITHUANIA. " Solidus " of John Casimir (King of 
Poland), 1660-67. Obv. Bust. Rev. A horseman. 

FINLAND. Alexander II. (of Russia), 1866-76. i, 5, 



90 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 

and 10 " Pennia." Obv. Script "A" crowned. Rev. Value 
and date. 

MOLDAVIA AND WALLACHIA. Catherine II. (of 
Russia), 1771-4. i, 2, and 5 "Paras." Obv. Arms, in two 
oval shields (a steer's head and dove with olive branch) 
crowned. Rev. Value in Greek and Russian. 



ROUMANIA. 

Only copper coins so far, of King Charles I., 1866- 
\st series, 1867, pieces of i, 2, 5, and 10 " Bani," bearing on 




FIG. 114. Ten Bani of Roumania, 1867. 



Obv. crowned Arms and the word ROMANIA. Rev. Value and 
date. 

2nd series, 1879-81, 2 and 5 "Bani." Obv. Bust and CAROL 
i DOMNUL AL ROMANiEi. Rev. Arms, value, and date. 

yd series, 1882-5, similar, with CAROL i REGE AL ROMANIEI 
Rev. As before. 



SERVIA. 

MICHAEL III. 1860-79, T > 5' an ^ I0 "Paras." Obv , 
Head. Rev. Value, inscription, etc., Russian characters. 

MILAN OBRENOVITCH IV. 1879-89, 5 and 10 "Paras," 
similar character. 



BULGARIA. 

1881. 2, 5, and 10 " Stotinki." Obv. Arms. Rev. Value. 



GREECE. 

The coinage of modern Greece is a sad departure from the 
splendour of her ancient prestige in all that pertains to the 
medallic art. Of course, speaking of later days, her moneys 
up to 1492 were those of the Byzantine Empire, of which she 
formed a part. For three centuries, however, the miserable 
currency of Hellas bore the stamp of the Grand Turk. On 
her liberation and the organization of a government in 1828, 
under Count Capo d'Istria, a series of i, 5, 10, and 20 




FIG. 115. Ten Lepta of Count Capo d'Istria. 

" Lepta " was struck of the following pattern : Obv. A Phoenix 
in the midst of flames kindled by a ray from above ; over its head 
the symbol of the cross. Inscription surrounding EAAHNIKH 
IIOAITEIA (the Greek people), mint mark, axa, below. Rev. 
value in AEHTA (Lepta) within a wreath, surrounding KYBEPNHTHS 
i. A. KAUOAUTPIAS (the Government of J. A. Capo d'Istria) and 
date. There are three varieties of coins of this same type 
between 1828 and 1831. 

Of King OTHO, 1833-57 (-62) there is a series of i, 2, 5, 
and 10 Lepta. Obv. Greek cross upon a crowned shield 
surrounded by BASIAEIA THS EAAAAOS (kingdom of the Hel- 
lenes). Rev. Value in wreath. 



9 2 



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE. 




FIG. 116. Ten Lepta, Otho of Greece. 



GEORGE I., 1869- . i, 2, 5, and 10 Lepta. Type the 
same except in some changes in size of lettering and the king 




Fie 1 117. Five Lepta of King George of Greece. 

wearing a moustache after 1878. Obv. Head surrounded by 
rEQpnos A! BA2IAEY2 TON EAAHXQN, date below. Rev. Value 
in wreath. 



93 



TURKEY. 

It is merely necessary to state that the coinage ot Turkey is 
divided according to so many systems as to result in none at 
all. The coins of this country have been altered as many as 
thirty-five times in a single reign. Many of the coins issued 
in the provinces are not current at Constantinople or elsewhere 
out of their own locality. The types are uniform. Obv. 
The Toghra or Imperial cipher, accompanied on Turkish coins 




i Abdul Medjid. 



proper (Constantinople) by a small rose branch, without which 
they are provincial issues or Egyptian. The Rev. have a long 
circular inscription in native characters, in the centre of which 
is the value. The latter are usually i, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Paras. 
The most common now are of Abdul Medjid, Abdul Aziz, and 
Abdul Hamid Khan II. 



VENETIAN DEPENDENCIES. 

Pieces of i Soldo and Gazzetta were struck during the 
sixteenth and part of the seventeenth century for several places. 
They bear uniformly the lion of St. Mark on Obv., usually 
surrounded by s. MARC. YEN. The Rev. generally gives the 
locality, with or without value, sometimes value alone. 
These coins will be found of ARMATA and MOREA combined, 
DALMA(tia) and ALBAN(ia) combined, ISOLE and ARMAT(a) 
combined, and CORFU, CEF(alonia), and ZAN(te) combined. 
Of CANDIA some of the coins bear value of i or 2\ SOLDINI, 
others in " Tornesi," with a Greek inscription. 



94 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE 



CYPRUS. 

A few mediaeval copper coins exist, such as a " Cavallo " of 
the fourteenth century kings, and later coins of Venetian origin, 
with the Lion of St. Mark. In 1879 a British colonial series 
was issued (see "Colonial Coins and Tokens "). 



MALTA. 

Copper coins were issued by the Grand Masters from a 
very early date. It is not necessary to go into minute details, 
because certain general types continue through all the long 
series. The principal are as follows i. Two hands clasped. 




FIG. 119. Ten Grains. Alofius de Wignacourt, Grand Master. 

2. Head of John the Baptist on a plate, ins. usually NON AES 
SED FIDES. 3. A Maltese cross, with ins. IN HOC SIGNO MILI- 
TAMUS, date in angles of cross. The Arms of Malta are gene- 
rally the personal Arms of the Grand Master quartered with a 
St. George's cross on a crowned shield. The values in copper 




FIG. 120. One Grain. Adrian de Wignacourt, Grand Master. 



are : " Picciolo," v, x, and xx " Tari," and i, v, x, or xx 
"Grani." The coins of each Grand Master will be easily 
identified by his name and arms. 

Claude de la Sengle, 1553-7. Five scallops on a St. Andrew's 



TURKEY. 95 

John de la Valette-Parisot, 1557-68. A Falcon and Lion 
rampant. 

Peter del Monte, 1568-72. Three Mountains on a diagonal 
bar. 

John de la Cassiere, 1572-81. A Lion rampant. 

Hugo de Loubens Verdalle, 1582-95. A Wolf rampant. 

Martin Garzes, 1596-1601. A Swan. 

Alofius de Wignacourt, 1601-22. Three fleur de Us under 
a label. 

Louis Mendez de Vasconcellos, 1622-23. Three indented 
bars. 

Anton de Paula, 1623-36. A Peacock. 

John Paul Lascaris Castellar, 1636-57. A double-headed 
Eagle. 




FIG. 121. Four Tari of John Paul Lascaris Castellar, Grand Master (Counterstamped. 

Adrian de Wignacourt, 1690-97. Three fleur de lis. 

Raimond Perellos-Roccaful, 1697-1720. Three Pears. 

Anton Manoel de Vilhena, 1722-35. Lion rampant, or 
winged hand holding sword. 

Raimund Despuig. 1736-41, A Star upon a ])ea\a, fleur de lis 
above. 

Emanuel Pinto de Fonseca, 1741-73. Five Crescents 

Emanuel de Rohan, 1775-97. Nine Diamonds. 



Butler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, Frame, and London. 



YOUNG COLLECTOR SERIES. 



Each Volume is very fully illustrated with practical woodcuts, and 
bound in flat cloth extra, u. each (post free, is. 2i/.). 

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learning which they have. . . . The illustrations are uniformly good- 
far better than in many expensive books." Academy. 

1. Butterflies, Moths, and Beetles. By W. F. KIR BY. 

2. Crustaceans and Spiders. By F. A. SKUSE. 

3. Fungi, Lichens, etc. By PETER GRAY. 
4- Mosses. By JAMES E. BAGNALL, A.L.S. 

5. Pond-Life. By E. A. BUTLER, F.Z.S. 

6. Seaweeds, Shells, and Fossils. By P. GRAY and B. B. 

WOODWARD. 

7. Ants, Bees, Wasps, and Dragon-flies. By W. H. BATH. 

8. Coins and Tokens (English). By LLEW. JEWITT, F.S.A. 

With a Chapter on Greek Coins by BARCLAY V. HEAD. 

9. Reptiles. By CATHERINE HOPLEY. 

10. British Birds. By H. A. MACPHERSON. 

11. Silkworms. By E. A. BUTLER, F.Z.S. 

12. Land and Fresh Water Shells. By J. W. WILLIAMS, 

J. W. TAYLOR, and W. DENISON ROEBUCK. 

13. Fossils. ByJ. W. WILLIAMS. 

14. The Microscope. By V. A. LATHAM. {In preparation. 

15. Introduction to Zoology. By B. LINDSAY. {In preparation. 

16. Book Collecting. ByJ. H. SLATER. {In preparation. 

17. Marine Shells. By J. W.WILLIAMS and others. {In preparation. 

1 8. Colonial Coins. By D. F. HOWORTH. 

19. Grasses. By W. HUTCHINSON. [/ preparation. 

20. British Ferns. By E. J. LOWE. 

21. Pond Life (Algae, Diatoms, etc.). By T. SPENCER 

SMITHSON. 

22. Chess Problems. By E. W. RAYNER. 

23. Postage Stamps. By W. T. OGILVIE. 

24. Flowering Plants. By JAMES BRITTEN, F.L.S. {In preparation. 

25. The Telescope. By J. W. WILLIAMS. 

26. Fishes. By Rev. H. C. MACPHERSON. {In preparation. 

27. Mammalia. By Rev. H. C. MACPHERSON. {In preparation. 

28. Copper Coins of Europe. By FRANK C. HIGGINS. 

LONDON: SWAN SONNEXSCHEIN & CO. 



James I. Charles I. 



& SON, 

THE OLDEST ESTA2LISKD 
DEALERS IN COINS AND MEDALS, 

2, GRACECHURC JJJEE^ LONDON, E.G. 

List of a few Specialities on View and for Sale- 

GOLD. 

NOBLES. Edward III Edward IV. 

Half do. 

Quarter do. 

ANGELS. Edwd.IV. Henry VII. Henry VIII. 
SOVEREIGNS. Elizabeth. 

Half do. 

Quarter do. 
SOVEREIGNS. 

Half do. 

Quarter do. 

SOVEREIGNS. Commonwealth 

Half do. 

Quarter do. 

FIVE GUINEA PIECES, various reigns 

Two Guinea do. 

Guineas 

Half do. 

Quarter do. Geo. I. Geo 

Seven Shilling Pieces 

Greek Staters and divisions, Prices on application 

Roman Aurei 

Jubilee Coins at close prices 

Early Pennies. 
various Mints from 



fror 


n 1 


10 




, 1 







i 


10 


II. 


, 1 


5 




i 2 


10 




1 


10 




, 1 







1 


8 




I 1 







, 


10 




, 2 


10 




i 3 


10 




, 2 


5 


is 


* 6 


10 




2 


10 




, 1 


2 6 




, o 


11 6 


1. 


, o 


8 6 




, 


8 



Ethelred 
Canute 
William I 
Henry II. 
Edward I 



& III 



,, (fang or short cross) 



Edward III. 
Edward IV. 
Henry V 



GROATS. 



VI., VII., VIII. 

Crowns. Half-Crowns. 

Charles I. from 20/- from 3/6 

Charles II. 5/9 3/6 

James II. 7/6 6/6 

William & Mary 20/- 3/6 



Shillings. 

from 1/6 

,. 1/6 
8/6 



Sixpences. 

from 9d. 
8/6 
8/6 
7/6 

[P.T.O. 



Crowns. Half-Crowns. Shillings, Sixpences. 


William III. from 5/9 from 3/6 


from 1/6 froui 9d. 


Queen Anne ,, 7/6 ,, 3/6 


1/6 9d. 


George 1. so/- j, is/- 


1/6 2/- 


George II. 25/- 3/6 


1/6 94 


George III. ,. 5/9 3/6 


1/6 94 


George IV. 5/9 3/6 


1/6 2/- 


William IV. 3/6 


1/6 94 


Victoria 5/9 3/3 


1/6 9d. 


Do. Jubilee coins at close prices. Prices on application 
Maundy sets, various reigns, from 3/3 per set of 4 coins 


COPPER & B 


ROISTZE. 


Twopennies Pennies. 


Halfpennies, Farthing^. 


Charles 1. not issued not issued 


not issued from 1/6 


Charles II, 


from 2/- 64 


James II. ,, 




William & Mary 


', I/- 64 


William 111. 


V- 6d. 


George 1. 


,. 6d. 6d. 


George II 


, I/- 44 


George 111. from 9d. from 6d. 


, 4d. 4d. 


George IV. not issued l/- 


, 94 4d. 


William IV. 3/6 


, 2 '6 64 


Victoria 64 


, 64 4d. 



Collectors are respectfully requested to communicate with Spink & Son 
in the event of their not seeing the coins they require mentioned in these 
Lists, as it is impossible here to give more than a bare outline of the stock of 
coins Spink & Son have for sale, which for variety, extent and the large 
selection of every class of coins is unsurpassed. 

The prices given in these Lists are subject to market alterations, otherwise 
the coins can usually be supplied at the figures named. 

Customers unknown to us should remit cash with orders or forward good 
references. 

Greek and Roman silver and copper coins, Oriental coins, siege pieces and 
money of necessity, lyth and i8th century tokens, fine patterns and proofs 
in all metals, &c. , &c., kept in stock ; prices on application. 

Illustrated price-list of coin and medal cabinets, (Spink & Son's special 
make), free by post. 

Collections of coins or medals purchased for cash. The best obtainable 
prices given. Coins exchanged. "War Medals, Decorations and Com- 
memorative Medals in great variety. 



& SON, 

NUMISMATISTS, 

2, GRACECHURCH STREET, LONDON, E.C, 



E. SUM.,*- 



018387 1 



135 

HBE 
Ipi 



University of California 

SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 

405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1388 

Return this material to the library 

from which it was borrowed. 



fi 



-RE 

JAN 31 ' 



KEC'D 

DUE 2 WKS FROM 



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E. SUMNER, 135 Oxford Street, London, W.