(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "An introduction to ecclesiastical Latin"

■ipiiwpsiwuwnp 



^ 







rti 



r. 



ruarMtvJ 



7^>W?^. 



AN INTRODUCTION 
TO ECCLESIASTICAL LATIN 



Sola Scripturarum ars est, quam sibi passim vindicant : 

Scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim. 

Hanc garrula amis, hanc delirus senex, banc sophista ver- 
bosus, hanc universi praesumunt, lacerant, decent, ante- 
quam discant. Alii, adducto supercilio, grandia verba tru- 
tinantes, inter mulierculas desacris Uteris philosophantur. . . . 
Taceo de mei similibus, qui, si forte ad Scripturas sanctas 
post saeculares literas venerint, et sermone composito aurem 
populi mulserint, quidquid dixerint hoc legem Dei putant, 
nee scire dignantur quid prophetae, quid apostoli senserint : 
sed ad sensum suum incongrua aptant testimonia. . . . 
Puerilia sunt haec et circulatorum ludo similia, docere quod 
ignores, imo, ut cum stomacho loquar, ne hoc quidem scire 
quod nescias. 

Noli offendaris in Scripturis Sanctis simplicitate et quasi vili- 
tate verborum, quae vel vitio interpretum, vel de industria 
sic prolata sunt, ut rusticam concionem facilius instruerent, 
et in una eademque sententia aliter doctus, aliter audiret 
indoctus. Jerome, Ep. 53. 



Saepe et verba non latina dico ut intelUgatis. 

Augustine in Ps. 123, 



Melius est reprehendant nos grammatici, quam non intelli- 
gant popuh. Augustine in Ps. 1.^8. 



AN INTRODUCTION 

TO 

ECCLESIASTICAL LATIN 

BY 

Rev. H. P.V. NUNN, M.A. 

ST John's college, Cambridge 

Author of The Elements of New Testament Greek, 
A Short Syntax of New Testament Greek 



Disce quod doceas. Jerome, Ep. ad Nepontianum 




CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1922 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 

LONDON : FETTER LANE, E.G. 4 




NEW YORK : THE MAC MILL AN CO. 
BOMBAY ] 

CALCUTTA ImACMILLAN ANDCO., Ltd. 
MADRAS J 

TORONTO : THE MACMILLAN CO. 
OF CANADA, Ltd. 

TOKYO : MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KALSHA 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



MEMORIAE 
MATRIS DILECTISSIMAE 
IN CHRISTO DORMIENTIS 

DEDICATUM 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

THE ORIGIN AND CHARACTER OF ECCLESIAS- 
TICAL LATIN I 

SYNTAX 

SENTENCES 8 

NOUNS 10 

PRONOUNS 26 

VERBS 34 

Mood 34 

Tense 35 

Voice 43 

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD: THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 

IN PRINCIPAL CLAUSES .... 43 

NOUN CLAUSES: 46 

The distinction between different senses of the 

SAME word 46 

The Infinitive Mood and its equivalents ... 48 
The Infinitive or its equivalents used as the sub- 
ject OR COMPLEMENT OF A VERB ... 54 

The Infinitive or its equivalents used to com- 
plete THE MEANING OF CERTAIN VERBS . . 59 

The Infinitive or its equivalents used as the ob- 
ject OF A verb 60 

Dependent statements 6l 

Dependent commands 66 

Dependent questions 68 

Noun clauses in apposition to a noun or pronoun 69 

ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES 71 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 74 

Clauses of time 74 

Clauses of place 'J'^ 

Clauses of cause 78 

Clauses of purpose 79 



viii Contents 

PAGE 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (cont.) 

Clauses of consequence 8i 

Clauses of concession . . . . ' . . 82 

Clauses of condition 83 

Clauses of comparison 8y 

PARTICIPLES 88 

GERUND, GERUNDIVE AND SUPINE .... 92 

QUESTIONS 97 

ADJECTIVES 98 

PREPOSITIONS 100 

EXTRACTS FROM ECCLESIASTICAL WRITERS 

Perpetua: Visiones 114 

Cyprian: Jesus Christus patientiae exemplar . . 117 

Quid EST voluntas Dei? 119 

QUARE JUSTUS CUM ChRISTO ESSE DESIDERAT . II9 

De defectu fidei in TRIBULATIONE . . 120 

Quod filii Dei Patri similes esse debent . 121 

Ambrose: De judicio Domini in Arianos . . . 123 

Jerome: Somnium Hieronymi 126 

De vita clericorum 127 

Augustine: De miseriis Augustini in pueritia . . 132 

Oratio pro Monnica matre sua . . . 134 

Bede: De vita Beati Papae Gregorii . . . 136 
De adventu Augustini ad praedicandum 

genti Anglorum 139 

De colloquio Augustini cum episcopis 

Brittonum 142 

Adamnan: De vita et transitu ad Dominum Sancti 

Columbae 144 

Thomas Aquinas: De bono fidei 149 

De fructibus Incarnationis . . 152 

QUARE ORARE DEBEMUS UT FIAT 

voluntas Dei .... 153 
Thomas a Kempis: Qualiter homo desolatus se debet 

in manus Dei offerre . . . 154 

INDEX OF TEXTS QUOTED 157 



PREFACE 

THIS book is written to meet the needs of a special class of 
students, namely of those that desire to study Ecclesiastical 
Latin. 

Ecclesiastical Latin may be defined as the form which the Latin 
language assumed in the hands of the Fathers of the Western 
Church and of their successors up to the time of the revival of 
learning. 

The book is divided into two parts: first, a summary of such 
syntactical rules as are necessary for the understanding of the 
works of these writers, with an explanation of the points in which 
Ecclesiastical Latin differs from Classical Latin : secondly, a selec- 
tion of passages taken from the works of some of the principal 
authors of the period with notes drawing the attention of the 
student to the appropriate sections of the syntax. 

The syntax has been treated on broad lines, and no attempt has 
been made to trace all the peculiarities of the countless writers of 
Ecclesiastical Latin who represent so many different countries and 
degrees of culture. 

The examples are taken as far as possible from the Vulgate New 
Testament, because this is the most readily accessible book be- 
longing to the period. 

It must not be assumed from the fact that the examples are 
taken from this source that the Vulgate is to be regarded as typical 
of Ecclesiastical Latin. 

. It is a translation, and often a very literal translation, of a 
Hebrew or Greek original. The Vulgate is not a Latin Classic in 
the sense that the Authorised Version of the Bible is an English 
Classic. 

It will however be found that most of the constructions that 
commonly occur in Ecclesiastical Latin are to be found in the 
Vulgate, and, generally spealdng, examples have been given of 
these constructions only. A very slight attempt has been made 
to deal with the great variety of curious distortions of Latin which 
the translators made use of in the attempt to represent literally 
obscure passages in the Hebrew. 



X Preface 

Those who intend to use this book should possess at the least 
a knowledge of the conjugations of Latin verbs and the declen- 
sions of Latin nouns such as may be got from any primer i. 

They should begin with the Vulgate New Testament which 
can be procured in the revised text of Wordsworth and White 
from the Bible Society. A brief dictionary of the Vulgate New 
Testament by Dr Harden has recently been published by the 
S.P.C.K. 

From this they may pass on to the study of the easier Fathers, 
such as Cyprian, or to the Latin Hymns. 

Unfortunately there are not many editions of the Latin Fathers 
readily accessible to English readers. The only collection of cheap 
texts is found in the series "Opuscula SS. Patrum," edited by 
H. Hurter at Innsbruck. The S.P.C.K. "Texts for Students" series 
contain some Latin texts. 

The author intends shortly to publish a collection of Latin 
Hymns. At present the only one available is the " Hymni Latini," 
published by Clowes. 

It is hoped that the book may be of use to ordination candidates ; 
but there is also another class of student that the author had in 
mind when writing it, namely those who either begin the study of 
Latin after they leave school, or who wish to continue their study 
for the purpose of improving their education. 

It is to be feared that not many persons carry away enough Latin 
with them from school to enable them to read the Classical authors 
with any readiness; to such persons who wish to improve their 
knowledge of the language by private study the author offers the 
following suggestions. 

John Locke stated that in his opinion the best way for an adult 
to learn Latin was by reading the Latin Bible, and so great a 
linguistic genius as Lord Macaulay did not disdain to learn German 
from a German Bible. The author feels confident from experience 
that those who begin with the Latin Bible and the easier Eccle- 
siastical authors will be able to go on to the study of the Classics, 
if they desire to do so, with far more intelligence and profit than 
if they had tried to approach them without some previous pre- 
paration. He believes that, in the general absence of any oppor- 
tunity of hearing spoken Latin and speaking the language oneself, 

' For beginners the author recommends Latin for Beginners, by Benjamin 
L. Dooge. Ginn and Co. Gradaiim, by Heatley and Kingdon, is also useful. 



Preface xi 

the next best course is to read as much as possible of such authors 
as are most easily understood i. 

The Gospels in the Vulgate are very simple and easy to under- 
stand, and the same simplicity of style is also found in some of the 
early Ecclesiastical writers and in many mediaeval writers, especi- 
ally in the Hymns and Liturgies. 

Speaking generally there is a directness and absence of arti- 
ficiality about the Ecclesiastical writers which makes their works 
more easily intelligible than most of those of the Classical writers, 
except Caesar, and they have the advantage over his works in 
that they contain no long passages in "Oratio Obliqua." 

Much of Classical Latin is highly artificial, not to say unnatural, 
in its modes of expression. The authors whose works are most 
generally read wrote for a fastidious and highlj^ cultivated society 
of litterateurs who, in most cases, thought far more of style than of 
matter. Their subject matter was often borrowed from the Greek; 
they wrote rather to please than to instruct; and, especially under 
the early Empire, they wrote with a view to reading their works to 
admiring circles of friends, whose applause they hoped to arouse 
by some novel or far-fetched turn of expression. All Classical 
Latin literature, except the very best, is vitiated by rhetoric, and 
by the desire to say old things in a new way. 

The Christian authors, on the other hand, although most of 
them had been trained in the rhetorical schools, and although their 
writings show many traces of their training, were at least men in 

^ The author is pleased to find that his opinion in this matter is confirmed by 
the high authority of the late Dr J. H. Moulton in the parallel case of an adult 
who wishes to learn Greek. 

Dr Moulton considers that this study may be most easUy approached by 
the way of N.T. and Hellenistic Greek, which, in Latin, is paralleled by the 
Vulgate and the Ecclesiastical writers. 

Dr Moulton's words are as follows: 

" Men who have had no educational advantages, called to the work (of the 
ministry) after many years away from school^how shall we best train them for 
service in which experience shows they may be surpassingly useful? . . . Perhaps 
the writer may contribute his experience of some years. Hellenistic Greek 
proves a far shorter road than the Classical grammar which the writer used in 
his schoolmaster days. A short and simple grammar and reader in New Testa- 
ment Greek, written for the purpose, supplies the forms and syntax needed 
for intelligent reading of the sacred text; and with this basis it is found that 
students with an aptitude for languages can go on to Classical Greek when 
they have become proficient in the far easier Hellenistic." J. H. Moulton in 
Camb. Biblical Essays. 



xii Preface 

deadly earnest. They did not write to amuse the leisure of their 
friends: those of the first three centuries wrote with the fear of 
death always hanging over them to men who needed help and 
guidance in the face of the same terror : those belonging to the age 
after the triumph of the Church wrote of things which they held 
to be of eternal and sovereign importance both to themselves and 
to those who should read their books. This, generally speaking, 
gives their writings a simplicity and directness which greatly 
facilitates the progress of the learner. 

Even the Latin of the middle ages, although it is certainly not 
Ciceronian, and would not have passed current even with Jerome, 
yet is a wonderfully forcible and pregnant form of speech at its 
best. 

It is foolish to condemn and neglect a whole period of literature, 
because the style in which it is written does not come up to a purely 
artificial and arbitrary literary standard. 

It is not necessary to deny the great excellence of the Latin of 
the Augustan age, and of Cicero in particular, in order to see merits 
in the Latin of other periods. We may heartily agree that the 
Latin of the Golden Age is supreme and unapproachable. We 
may all wish to write like Cicero and do our best to imitate 
him; but this is no reason why we should refuse to see any merit 
in writers who, carried on by the natural development of the 
language, and. by the strange and novel ideas which they were 
constrained to express, wrote in a different style, and with a 
different vocabulary. 

There is no more reason for setting up the writers of the Augustan 
age as models of style, and labelling all that does not conform to 
their standard as decadent or barbarous, than there would be for 
setting up Dryden, Pope and Johnson as the only correct writers 
of English. No language in which it is still possible for an author 
to express his thoughts with precision and clearness can justly be 
called decadent or barbarous, even though it does not conform to 
a given standard ; and it is by this test, rather than by approxima- 
tion to any "Classical" style, that the later authors should be 
judged. 

Although, as has been said, much of the work of the earlier 
Ecclesiastical authors is vitiated by the rhetorical devices common 
to the period in which they lived, and although many of the later 
authors are barbarous enough; yet, with few exceptions, all the 



Preface xiii 

best known writings of Ecclesiastical authors of the first rank are 
worth studying in the original. 

There are very few books accessible on this subject. The following 
have been consulted: 
GoELZER. La Latinite de St Jerome (deals with Jerome's writings 

other than the Vg.). 
Regnier. La Latinite des sermons de St Augustin. 
Kaulen. Sprachliches Handbuch zur Biblischen Vulgata. (New 

edition, Freiburg im Breisgau 1904.) 
RoENscH. Itala und Vulgata. 

Dalpane. Nuovo Lessico della Bibbia Volgata (Firenze 191 1). 
Peultier, Etienne, Gantois. Concordantiarum universae Scrip- 
turae Sanctae Thesaurus. Paris. 

None of these books except the first and the last are very helpful. 

The author wishes to thank Dr H. J. White, Dean of Christ 
Church, for kind advice and encouragement. 

H. P.V.N. 



Thorncliffe, 

Clifton Road, 

Heaton Moor, Stockport 
November 1921 



THE ORIGIN AND CHARACTER OF 
ECCLESIASTICAL LATIN 

THE basis, and much of the content, of Ecclesiastical Latin is to 
be found in the vernacular speech of the Roman people of 
which but little survives in literature. 

The form of Latin which is most commonly studied is that which 

is to be found in the writings of the great authors who lived in the 

century before the commencement of the Christian era. To this 

/© form of the language the name 'Classical' has been given, and it 

is often referred to as the Latin of the Golden Age. 

All the books of this period that have come down to us were the 
work of highly trained literary men who were thoroughly acqvainted 
with Greek literature and who imitated of set purpose not only its 
form, but also its content. 

Vos exemplaria Graeca 
Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna, 

was the maxim which all of them followed. 

The consequence of this is that ' Classical Latin ' is, speaking 
generally, a very artificial form of language. It may be said of it, 
as has been said of Attic Greek (as portrayed in the literature of 
Athens), that it is an artistic language which nobody ever spoke, 
but which everybody understood. 

This form of the language, however, was regarded in ancient, 
no less than in modern times, as an example to be followed, as far 
as possible. The writings of Cicero, Vergil, Horace and Ovid were 
studied in the schools of the Roman Empire in Africa, Gaul and 
Spain, no less than in Italy, as models of style and vocabulary, 
and left an ineffaceable mark on the language. They continued to 
be studied, though with less zeal and intelligence, throughout many 
periods in the middle ages and at the Renaissance they came in for 
more than their own. 

To write like Cicero or Vergil became the passionate desire of 
all scholars and the chief end of education : the direction then given 
to literary study has influenced the course of teaching almost to 
the present day. 

N.E.L. I 



2 The Origin and Character 

In spite of the protests of Erasmus, style was set up as the end 
after which the scholar must strive, and that a style not his own, 
but a style imitated from great writers who lived nearly two 
thousand years ago under quite a different civilization, and in 
another sphere of thought. The skill most commended was that 
which caught some trick of phrase and adapted it to the transla- 
tion of contemporary forms of expression. It was this ' Ciceronian- 
ism,' as it has been called, that did so much to kill Latin as a living 
language, because it checked all spontaneity and preferred to 
galvanize a corpse rather than to encourage the growth of a living 
organism. 

During the time when the Classical literature was growing into 
perfection and passing into the stage of imitation and decay the 
Vernacular Latin also continued to grow and, like all growing 
organisms, to absorb many elements from its surroundings. 

Those who spoke it were not deterred by any fear of the school- 
master or the audiences in the recitation rooms from adding new 
words when they were required to express new ideas. 

The genius of the old Latin language, like that of the old Roman 
people, expressed itself in action and was rich only in verbs and 
in concrete terms. Abstract ideas were quite foreign to native 
Latin thought, and, when the introduction of Greek philosophy 
rendered it necessary to express such ideas in speech, recourse was 
had either to a periphrasis or to new-coined or adopted words. 

Substantives ending in io, ia and tas began to increase in number 
and also adjectives in is; but the Classical writers avoided these 
new methods of expression as far as possible, or introduced them 
with an apology. It was not until the old Latin families had been 
killed off in the civil wars, until Greek became the language of 
all educated men in Rome and the most celebrated Latin authors 
began to arise, not in Italy, but in Spain and Africa, that the 
boundaries of the old Latin speech were gradually broken down, 
and a flood of new words and constructions, mostly borrowed from 
Greek, or suggested by it, mingled with the stately current of the 
ancient diction. Such words as essentia, substantia, personalis, 
possibilis then came into use, all, be it noted, Avords that have 
passed into English. The Latin language ceased to be the language 
of a nation and became the language of an empire. 

It was just about this period that Ecclesiastical Latin came into 
existence. 



of Ecclesiastical Latin 3 

The language in which the Christian writers first wrote was, of 
course, Greek. Greek, thanks to the conquests of Alexander, was 
the lingua franca of the East where Christianity took its origin. 

When St Paul wished to write to the Church in Rome, he wrote 
in Greek. When St Clement (a Roman Bishop) wrote to Corinth 
he also wrote in Greek. Many of the earliest inscriptions in the 
Catacombs are in Greek. Latin does not seem to have been com- 
monly used in the Roman Church until the end of the second 
century 1. 

It was not for Rome that a Latin translation of the Bible was 
needed, but for Africa, Gaul and Spain, and perhaps for the 
country congregations of Italy. 

The first Christian writing in Latin of which we have any know- 
ledge is this Latin version of the Bible. It is commonly known as 
the Old Latin version and will be referred to here by the abbrevia- 
tion O.L. It is not known with any certainty by whom or when this 
translation was made. It seems to have been a composite work 
made by several hands, perhaps at different periods. It had one 
marked peculiarity: it was an extremely literal translation. 

"We have already said," writes Gaston Boissier, "that the first 
persons who translated the Holy Scriptures into Latin were not 
professional authors, but only scrupulous Christians who desired 
no other merit except that of being faithful interpreters. Pre- 
occupied before all things with the object of basing their version 
on the text, they created new words, invented strange expressions, 
and tortured the ancient language without pity, to make it fit the 
genius of a foreign idiom. Can anyone imagine what an admirer 
of Vergil or a pupil of Cicero must have had to suffer when thrown 
into the middle of this barbarism^?" 

At the beginning of the third century we find that a generally 
received translation of the Bible was coming into use at Carthage, 
and by the middle of the century it was quite established. 

This translation underwent many revisions. A rather smoother 
version circulated in Italy and Gaul: another, still more refined, 
was used by St Augustine in the fourth and fifth century, and this 
is sometimes called the Itala. 

The first of these versions is found in the writings of Cyprian 
and in the Codex Bobbiensis. The second is found in the Codex 

* See Sanday and Headlam, Romans, p. lii. 

* La Fin de Paganisme, vol. i, p. 351. 



4 The Origin and Character 

Veronensis. The third is found in the writings of Augustine and 
in the Codex Brixianus. 

In these versions the translation of the O.T. was made from the 
Greek version known as the Septuagint (commonly called the LXX) 
which was accepted by the early Church as quite as authoritative 
as the Hebrew original which few Christians could read. This LXX 
version was also a very literal translation of the Hebrew, literal 
to the verge of unintelligibility in many places, especially in the 
poetical and prophetic books. 

Thus the O.L. version of the O.T. was the literal translation of 
a literal Greek translation of a Hebrew original, and it is not 
wonderful if not only the beauty, but also the sense, of the original 
often disappeared under such handling. 

The O.L. version of the N.T. was made from the Greek original. 
Anyone who wishes to see how literal it is may compare the Latin 
version of the Epistle to the Ephesians with the Greek original 
and then with Beza's version. 

The most potent influences in the formation of early Ecclesiastical 
Latin were (i) ii\e Vernacular Latin of the period, by which the 
Fathers allowed themselves to be influenced in order that they 
might be understood by half-educated people, (2) the O.L. version 
of the Bible with its many Graecisms and Hebraisms, (3) the 
Classical Latin as taught in the schools, of which all the Fathers 
were pupils, or even teachers. 

We might perhaps add a fourth source of influence to the above, 
namely the writings of Tertullian, who was an author of a very 
original and independent type of genius and who had great in- 
fluence on all his Christian successors, especially on Cyprian. 

The O.L. version of the Bible did not however influence later 
Ecclesiastical Latin directly. 

The text got into such a bad condition at the end of the fourth 
century that Pope Damasus commissioned the most famous 
scholar of the day to re-edit it. 

This man Eusebius Hieronymus, or Jerome, as he is commonly 
called, had studied Latin in Rome under Donatus, was well 
acquainted with Greek and had some knowledge of Hebrew. When 
he set-to work on the task imposed on him by Pope Damasus he 
found that the translation of the O.T. was so incorrect and corrupt 
that nothing but a complete retranslation of the whole from the 
Hebrew could produce a satisfactory result. He therefore set him- 



of Ecclesiastical Latin 5 

self to improve his knowledge of Hebrew and, in the face of great 
opposition and much prejudice, he retranslated the whole of the 
O.T. from the Hebrew original. But in so doing he seems to have 
kept as near as he could to the version which he was trying to 
supersede, and not to have made any attempt to translate it into 
such Latin as he wrote himself in his letters and commentaries. 
Perhaps he found it was impossible to bring about any nearer 
approximation of the languages, or perhaps he feared the storm 
of obloquy that any such attempt would have aroused ; in any case 
his version is a revision of the O.L. with the help of direct reference 
to the Hebrew, and not a new translation, such as might have 
been expected from a man of Jerome's literary powers. It is not 
in any sense a Latin Classic as the English Bible is an English 
Classic, and Cardinal Bembo was not altogether without excuse 
when he warned a brother Cardinal not to read the Vulgate — as 
Jerome's Latin version is called — lest he should spoil his Latin style. 

The popular prejudice against Jerome's version was such that 
it was found impossible ever to induce the people to accept his 
version of the Psalms — the part of the O.T. most familiar to 
them from its use in public worship. To this day in the official 
edition of the Vulgate the version of the Psalms is not the one 
that Jerome made from the Hebrew, but a revision of the Old 
Latin version that he made in the early part of his life with the 
help of the Greek of the LXX only. 

Those who wish to get some idea of what the O.L. version of the 
O.T. must have been will get a good idea by reading the Psalter 
in the Vulgate. 

Jerome did not think it necessary to make a new translation 
of the New Testament. He revised the Gospels carefully and the 
rest of the N.T. in a cursory manner. 

He did not set much store by the books of the Apocrypha and 
therefore only retranslated Tobit and Judith, and did not even 
revise the others. The result of his labours is thus a composite 
work which after a time won universal acceptance and was de- 
clared by the Council of Trent to be 'authentic' This ver.sion, as 
has been said, is called the Vulgate, or commonly received version. 
An authoritative text was edited by order of Popes Sixtus V and 
Clement VII and can be procured in many editions ^ Of late years 

^ An edition in good type and convenient form is that of Hetzenauer, pub- 
lished bv Pustet. 



6 The Origin and Character 

a new edition of the N.T. has been undertaken by the late Dr 
Wordsworth, Bishop of SaUsbury, and Dr H. J. Wl-iite, now Dean 
of Christ Church, Oxford. 

This is being pubhshed in its full form by the Oxford Press, and 
a small edition is published by the Oxford Press and by the Bible 

Society. 

It was this Vulgate version that had supreme influence in the 
middle ages when Greek and Hebrew were unknown to all but a 
very few scholars. The revival of Greek and Hebrew studies at the 
Renaissance was looked upon with grave suspicion by the scholars 
of the old learning as leading to heresy. 

The old version had such a hold that even Erasmus, when he 
pubhshed a new Latin version in parallel columns with his edition 
of the Greek text, contented himself with copying the Vulgate 
version with the correction of a few of the most glaring solecisms. 
Beza put out a new version in Latin in the seventeenth century 
which is still pubhshed by the Bible Society. It is interesting 
to an advanced student to compare this version with the 
Vulgate^. 

The points in which Ecc. L. differs from CI. L. are principally 
the following: 

The use of a great number of abstract and compound nouns and 
of nouns denoting an agent and ending in or. 

The use of diminutives. The use of words transliterated from 

Greek. 

The extended use of prepositions where in CI. L. a simple case 
of the noun Avould have sufficed. 

The disappearance of long and elaborate sentences with many 
dependent clauses. Clauses are often connected simply by et, or 
no conjunction is used at all. 

The disappearance to a great extent of the Oratio Obliqua and 
the Accusative with Infinitive construction. 

The substitution therefor of a new construction imitated from 
the Greek and introduced by quod, quia, or quoniam. 

The gradual extension of this construction even in clauses where 
ut would be used in CI. L. especially in noun clauses. 

' For further information see articles on Latin Versions and Vulgate in 
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible and Sir Frederick Kenyon's Our Bible and 
the Ancient Manuscripts. 



of Ecclesiastical Latin 7 

The Infinitive used to express purpose or result, as in Greek, 
and also to express dependent commands. 

The Subjunctive is used where it would not be used in CI. L. 
and vice versa. 

The use of periphrastic forms of verbs, especially forms made up 
with esse or habere. 

In a word we see the process at work which turned the Latin of 
the Empire into the modern Romance languages. 



8 Sentences 

SYNTAX 

SENTENCES. 

1 . Syntax deals with the methods by which words are combined 
to form sentences. 

A sentence is a group of words expressing a statement, a ques- 
tion, or a desire. (Under the term desire commands, entreaties and 
wishes are to be included.) 

2. Every sentence must consist of at least two parts, either 
expressed or understood : 

(i) The Subject — the word or group of words denoting the 
person or thing of which the predicate is said. 

(2) The Predicate — the word or group of words denoting all 
that is said about the subject; or the word or group of words which 
expresses the assertion that is made, the question that is asked, 
or the desire that is expressed about the subject. The predicate 
is not necessarily identical with the verb. It includes the com- 
plements and extensions of the verb and also the object. 

If a verb is transitive it must have an object. 

The Object is the word or group of words denoting the person 
or thing towards which the action of the verb is directed. 

The verb agrees with its subject in number and person. 

3. Verbs which require a complement to complete their meaning 
are called Copulative verbs. The most important copulative verb 
is the verb to be. 

Verbs which signify to become, to appear, to be chosen, to be named, 
and the like are also copulative. 

If the complement of a copulative verb is a noun, it agrees with 
the subject of the verb in number and case; if it is an adjective, it 
agrees with the subject of the verb in number, gender and case. 
This rule is sometimes put in the following form : 
The verb 'to be' takes the same case after it as before it. 
Examples ; 

Caesar imperator est. Caesar is general. 

Metelli facti sunt consules. The Metelli have been made consuls. 

Rex magnus est. The king is great. 



Sentences 9 

Regina magna est. The queen is great. 
Reges magni sunt. The kings are great. 
Regnum magnum fit. The kingdom becomes great. 
Felices appellamur. We are called happy. 

4. A Simple sentence is a sentence which contains a single 
subject and a single predicate. 

Multiple and Complex sentences are sentences which contain more 
than one subject and predicate. 

In dealing with sentences it will be found convenient to keep 
carefully to the following terminology: 

The name sentence should be applied only to a complete state- 
ment, command, or question occurring between two full stops. 

Groups of words forming part of a multiple or complex sen- 
tence, and having a subject and predicate of their own should be 
called clauses. 

Groups of words forming an equivalent to some part of speech, 
and not having a subject and predicate of their own, should be 
called phrases. 

5. A Multiple sentence is a sentence which consists of two or 
more clauses none of which depends on any of the others, but which 
all make equally important and independent statements. These 
clauses are said to be combined by co-ordination. 

In the Heb. language such co-ordinated clauses are very common, 
and this peculiarity is faithfully reflected in the Vg. O.T., and, to 
a certain extent, in the N.T. In Latin, uninfluenced by Heb., 
clauses are more generally combined into complex sentences. 
Example : 

Et egressus est rursus ad mare: omnisque turba veniebat 
ad eum, et docebat eos. And he went out again to the sea, and 
all the crowd came to him, and he taught them. Mk. ii, 13. 

6. A Complex sentence is a sentence which consists of a prin- 
cipal or main clause and one or more subordinate clauses depending 
on it, or on one another as noun, adjective, or adverb equivalents. 
These clauses are said to be combined by subordination. 

Example : 

Si quis voluerit voluntatem ejus facere, cognoscet de 
doctrina, utrum ex Deo sit, an ego a meipso loquar. // any 
man willeth to do his will, he shall know of the teaching, whether 
it is of God, or whether T speak of myself . Jn. vii, 17. 



10 Nouns — Use of Cases 

7. Subordinate clauses are divided into three classes: 

( 1 ) Noun or Substantival clauses that take the place of a noun . 

(2) Adjectival clauses that take the place of an adjective. 

(3) Adverbial clauses that take the place of an adverb. 

NOUNS. 

8. Cases and their meanings. Inflection is a change made 
in the form of a word to denote a modification of its meaning, or 
to show the relationship of the word to some other word in the 
sentence. 

Examples: bird becomes birds in the PL and man becomes men. 

The pronoun he is used when it is the subject of a sentence: 

but it is changed into him. when it is the object. There are 

however few inflections left in English. 

Latin nouns, pronouns and adjectives have inflections to show 

number and case; adjectives and some pronouns have inflections 

to show gender as well. 

To give a list of these inflections is called giving a declension, or 
declining a word, because the cases other than the Nominative 
were considered by the old grammarians to fall away (declinare) 
from the form of the Nominative. For the same reason cases other 
than the Nominative are sometimes called Oblique cases. 

Hence also the origin of the name Case from the Latin casus — 
falling. 

The cases actually in use are seven in number. 

(i) The Nominative, used to express the subject of a finite 
verb. 

(2) The Vocative, used in addressing a person or thing. 

(3) The Accusative, used to denote motion towards and to 
express the object of a transitive verb. 

(4) The Genitive, used to limit the meaning of another noun 
like an adjective and to denote various relations most of which are 
expressed in Eng. by the use of the preposition of or by the 
possessive case. 

(5) The Dative, used to express that to or for which anything 
is done. This includes the dative of the indirect object after transi- 
tive verbs. 

(6) The Ablative, used to express separation or motion from 
and in many other senses. 



Nominative, Vocative, Accusative Cases 1 1 

(7) The Locative, which is not given in the tables of declen- 
sions in grammars, used to denote the place at which anything 
happens in certain expressions. 

9. The Nominative Case is the case of the Subject of a 
sentence or clause in all sentences or clauses in which the verb is 
not in the Infinitive mood. 

Tunc discipuli ejus, relinquentes eum, omnes fugerunt. 
Then all his disciples forsook him and fled. Mk. xiv, 50. 

10. The Vocative Case is used in addressing a person or a 
personified thing. 

Bone Pastor, Panis vere, Good Shepherd, true Bread, 
Jesu, nostri miserere. Jesus, have mercy on us. 

11. The Accusative Case denotes motion towards or exten- 
sion. 

It is therefore the case of the Direct Object, because the object 
is the name of that towards which the action of the verb goes forth. 

So the Ace. is used with or without a preposition to denote 
motion towards. 

The Ace. denotes the time during which anything happens and 
also extent of space. 

12. The Ace. is used to express the direct object of a transitive verb. 

Qui videt me, videt eum qui misit me. He that seeth me, 

seeth him that sent me. Jn. xii, 45. 

The same verbs are not necessarily transitive in Latin as in 

Eng., hence many verbs which are followed by an Ace. in Eng. are 

followed by a Gen., Dat., or Abl. in Latin. 

13. Motion towards is generally expressed by a preposition such 
as ad or iri followed by a noun in the Ace. case. 

The preposition is omitted in CI. L. before the names of towns and 
small islands and before certain words such as domum, rus, for as. 
In the Vg. a preposition is generally used before domum, and it 
is also found before the names of towns. 

Non relinquam vos orphanos: veniam ad vos. / will not 

leave you orphans : I will come to you. Jn. xiv, 18. 

Sed cum Romam venisset, soUicite me quaesivit. But when 

he came to Rome, he sought me out diligently. II Tim. i, 17. 

Venit ergo iterum in Cana Galilaeae .... He came therefore 

again to Cana of Galilee . . . . Jn. iv, 46. 



12 Accusative Case 

14. The Ace. may denote extent of time or space, but in Ecc. L. 
the Abl. is often used for extent of time. See section 55. 

Et mansit ibi duos dies. And he remained there two days. 

Jn. iv, 40. 

15. Cognate Accusative. Any verb whose meaning permits it 
may take after it an Ace. of cognate or kindred meaning. 

Bonum certamen certavi. / have fought a good fight. 

II Tim. iv, 7. 

Nohte judicare secundum faciem, sed justum judicium 
judicate. Do not judge after the appearance, but judge a righteous 
judgment. Jn. vii, 24. 

See also Lk. ii, 8; I Tim. vi, 12; I Pet. iii, 14. 

16. Certain verbs meaning to teach, to ask, to conceal are 
followed by two Accusatives, one of the person and another of the 
thing. 

If a verb of this kind is used in the Passive voice the object noun 
denoting the thing is retained in the Ace. case. 

lUe vos docebit omnia. He shall teach you all things. 

Jn. xiv, 26. 
Aut quis est ex vobis homo, quem, si petierit filius suus 
panem, numquid lapidem porriget ei? Or what man is there 
of yon whom, if his son ask him for a loaf, will he give him a 
stone.? Mt. vii, 9. 

Hie erat edoctus viam Domini. He was instructed in the way 
of the Lord. Acts xviii, 25. 

17. Two Object Accusatives are rarely used, in imitation of Gk., after 
verbs meaning to put on. 

This is not CI. The CI. construction is to use the Ace. of the person 
and the Abl. of the thing put on. 

Calcia te caligas tuas. Put on thy sandals. 

Acts xii, 8. 
Induite vos armaturam Dei. Put on yourselves the armour of God. 

Eph. vi, II. 
Induti loricam fidei. Clad with the breastplate of faith. 

I Thess. v, 8. 
So in one instance with a verb meaning to put off: 

Expoliantes vos veterem hominem. Putting off from yourselves 
the old man. Col. iii, 9. 



Genitive Case 13 

18. The Ace. is sometimes used after Passive verbs to denote an 
action done to oneself. This seems to be an imitation of the Greek Middle 
voice. This construction is rare in prose, but common in Latin poetry, 
where it is used with great freedom. 

State ergo succincti lumbos vestros in veritate: et induti loricam 
justitiae, et calciati pedes in praeparatione evangeUi pacis. Stand 
therefore with your loins girt about with truth, and having put on the 
breastplate of righteousness, and with your feet shod with the prepara- 
tion of the gospel of peace. Eph. vi, 14. 

Abluti corpus aqua munda. With ouv body washed with pure water. 

Heb. X, 22. 

19. The Genitive Case is an adjectival or descriptive case. A 
noun in the Gen. case is generally connected with another noun 
which it qualifies very much in the same way as an adjective. 

The Gen. case can generally be translated into Eng. by the use 
of the preposition of or by the Possessive case. 

The name Genitive case means the case of kind or origin; but the 
case is most frequently used to denote possession. 

20. Possessive Genitive denoting possession. 

Justorum autem animae in manu Dei sunt. Bui the souls 
of the righteous are in the hand of God. Wisdom iii, i. 

21. The Gen. may express authorship, source, or material, or 
almost any relationship that can exist between two persons or 
things. 

Inter natos mulierum. Among those born of women. 

Mt. xi, II. 
Periculis fiuminum, periculis latronum. In perils of rivers, 
in perils of robbers . . . (i.e. arising from rivers or robbers). 

II Cor. xi, 26. 
Ergo evacuatum est scandalum crucis. Therefore the re- 
proach of the cross has ceased. Gal. v, 1 1 . 
Prae gaudio illius. For joy thereof. Mt. xiii, 44. 
So the Gen. is used to denote personal relationship such as that 
of son and father, mother and son, or even husband and wife 

Dicebat autem Judam Simonis Iscariotem. But he spake 

of Judas the son of Simon the Iscariot. Jn. vi, 71. 

Stabant autem juxta crucem Jesu. . .Maria Cleophae et 

Maria Magdalene. Bui Mary the wife of Cleophas and Mary 

Magdalene were standing by the cross of Jesus. Jn. xix, 25. 



7 



14 Genitive Case 

22. The Partitive Genitive expresses the whole after words de- 
noting a part. 

Magister bone, quid boni faciam, ut habeam vitam aeter- 

nam? Good Master, what good thing shall I do that T may have 

eternal life? Mt. xix, i6. 

See also Mt. xxv, 19; Acts v, 15; Rom. xv, 26; Actsxxiv, 21. 

I 23. The Subjective Genitive. The Gen. is said to be used sub- 
jectively when the noun which is in the Gen. case is the name of 
the subject of the action denoted by the noun with which it is con- 
nected. 

Quis nos separabit a caritate Christi? Who shall separate tis 
from the love of Christ? {i.e. from the love that Christ feels for us). 

Rom. viii, 35. 
Propter quod tradidit illos Deus in desideria cordis eorum. 
Wherefore God gave them up to the desires of their own heart. 

See also II Cor. v, 14; I Tim. iv, i. ^^"^- ^' ^4- 

The Subjective Gen. is also found in the Vg. after adjectives 
and participles in imitation of the Gk. 

Et erunt Omnes docibiles Dei. And they shall all he taught 
of God. Jn. vi, 45. 

Quae et loquimur non in doctishumanaesapientiae verbis 

Which also we speak, not in words tattght by human wisdom .... 

I Cor. ii, 13. 

) 24. The Objective Genitive. The Gen. is said to be used ob- 
\ jectively when the noun which is in the Gen. case is the name of 
the object of the action denoted by the noun with which it is con- 
; nected. 

The objective Gen. is used much more freely in the Vg. than in 
CI. L., in imitation of the Gk. It is often used with nouns which 
express the action of an intransitive verb. 

Dedit illis potestatem spirituum immundorum. He gave 

them power [to cast out) unclean spirits. Mt. x, i. 

Sicut dedisti ei potestatem omnis carnis. As thou hast given 

him power over all flesh. Jn. xvii, 2. 

Et erat pernoctans in oratione Dei. And he was spending all 

the night in prayer to God. Lk. vi, 12. 

Si nos hodie judicamur in benefacto hominis infirmi. . .. 

// we are judged to-day for a good deed done to an impotent 

man .... Acts iv, 9. 



Genitive Case 15 

Quidam autem conscientia usque nunc idoli, quasi idolo- 
thytum manducant. . .. For some men with the consciousness 
even now of the idol eat it as a thing offered to an idol. . . . 

I Cor. viii, 7. 

Spiritus autem blasphemia non remittetur. Bttt blasphemy 
against the Spirit shall not be forgiven. Mt. xii, 31. 

See also Mk. xi, 22; Jn. ii, 17; Rom. x, 2, xv, 8; II Cor. x, 5; 
Col. ii, 12; I Tim. iii, 5. 

25. The Possessive Pronoun may be used in the sense of an 
objective Gen. 

Hoc facite in meam commemorationem. Do this in remem- 
brance of me. Lk. xxii, 19. 
Quaecumque enim scripta sunt, ad nostram doctrinam 
scripta sunt. For whatsoever things ivere written were written 
for our learning — (i.e. to teach us). Rom. xv, 4. 
Neque veni Hierosolymam ad antecessores meos apostolos. 
Nor did I go to J erusalejn to the apostles who were before me. 

Gal. i, 17. 
Ita et isti non crediderunt in vestram misericordiam. So 
they also did not believe that mercy might be shown to you. 

Rom. xi, 31. 
Quotidie morior per vestram gloriam, fratres, quam habeo 
in Christo Jesu Domino nostro. / die daily, brethren, I protest 
by the glorying in you which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord. 

I Cor. XV, 31. 
The question whether a Gen. is subjective or objective can only 
be decided by the context. Sometimes the decision is not easy. 

26. The Descriptive Genitive is used to give a description or 
explanation of the noun with which it is connected. 

In CI. L. a descriptive Gen. is always qualified by an adjective; 
but this is not always the case in Ecc. L. 1 

In the Vg. the use of this Gen. is widely extended in imitation 
of the Construct state in Heb. There are few adjectives in Heb., , 
and a noun in the Construct state is connected with another noun 
where an adjective would be used in Latin or Gk. 

Et facti estis judices cogitationum iniquarum. And ye be- 
come judges with evil thoughts (i.e. unfair judges). Jas. ii, 4. 
Quia propter te mortificamur : tota die aestimati sumus ut 



i6 Genitive Case 

oves occisionis. Because we are put to death for thy sake: all 
the day we are counted as sheep for the slaughter. 

Rom. viii, 36, quoted from Ps. xliii, 22. 
In odorem suavitatis. For a sweet smelling savour. 

Eph. V, 2. 
Annorum enim erat amplius quadraginta homo, in quo 
factum erat signum istud sanitatis. For the man was more than 
forty years old on whom this sign of healing was done. 

Acts iv, 22. 
See also Mt. viii, 26; Mk. i, 4; Lk. ii, 14; Jn. v, 29, vii, 35; 
Rom. XV, 5; Phil, iii, 21. 

27. The descriptive Gen. may also be used predicatively. 

Nescitis cujus spiritus estis. Ye know not of what spirit ye 
are. Lk. ix, 55. 

Nam ut impudentis est clamoribus strepere, ita congruit 
verecundo modestis precibus orare. For as it is the mark of a 
shameless person to make a disturbance with his cries, so it befits 
a modest person to pray with restraint. 

Cyprian, De Oratione Dominica. 

28. The Genitive of price or value. The Gen. of some neuter 
adjectives such as magni, parvi, tanti, quanti, is used to denote the 
price at which a thing is valued, bought or sold. 

Dixit autem ei Petrus: Die mihi, mulier, si tanti agrum 
vendidistis ? But Peter said to her : "Tell me, woman, if you sold 
the field for so much?" Acts v, 8; Lk. xii, 24. 

29. The Gen. is used after certain verbs which are not transitive 
in Latin as they are in Eng. 

\ Most verbs meaning to pity, to remember, to forget, are followed 
by a Gen. case in CI. L. 

In the Vg. the usage varies. A Dat. is found after misereor and 
sometimes super with an Ace. 

Ps. cii, 13; Prov. xxi, 10; Mt. ix, 36; Mk. viii, 2. 
Recordor is very rarely followed by an Ace. 

Hos. vii, 2; Ez. xxiii, 19. 
Memini is also'rarely followed by an Ace. 

Is. xlvi, 8; I Mace, vii, 38. 
Obliviscor is followed by an Ace. 

Ps. ix. 18, xlix, 22; Heb. xiii, 2. 
The folloM'ing are examples of the normal use. 



Uses of Genitive Case in Ecc. Latin 17 

Misertus auteni dominus servi illius, dimisit eum. But the 
lord taking pity on that slave, forgave him. Mt. xviii, 27. 

Omnia ostendi vobis, quoniam sic laborantes oportet susci- 
pere infirmos, ac meminisse verbi Domini Jesu, quoniam ipse 
dixit: Beatius est magis dare quam accipere. / have shown 
you all things, that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, 
and to remeynher the word of the Lord Jesus, how he said : "It is 
more blessed to give than to receive." Acts xx, 35. 

Non enim injustus Deus, ut obliviscatur operis vestri. . .. 
For God is not unjust that he should forget your work .... 

Heb. vi, 10. 

30. The following uses of the Gen. which are not found in CI. L., but 
which are found in the Vg., in imitation of Gk., should be noted. 

Verbs meaning to rule and to fill are followed by a Gen. and also the 
adj. plenus, full. 

Reges gentium dominantur eorum. The kings of the nations rule 

over them. Lk. xxii, 25. 

Et impletae sunt nuptiae discumbentium. And the wedding was 

filled with guests. Mt. xxii, 10. 

See also Acts xix, 16; Rom. xiv, 9. 

31. The Genitive Absolute is found 

Qui ostendunt opus legis scriptum in cordibus suis, testimonium 
reddente illis conscientia ipsorum, et inter se invicem cogitationum 
accusantium, aut etiam defendentium. Who show the ivork of the 
law written in their hearts, their own conscience bearing testimony 
to them, and their thoughts accusing them, or even defending them to 
themselves. Rom. ii, 15. 

This is the reading of Wordsworth and White. The SC text reads 
cogitationibus accusantibus , etc. 

See also Acts i, 8; II Cor. x, 15. 
At first sight it might seem that these passages might be explained 
differently, more in accordance with Latin usage; but the original Gk. 
shows that the construction is meant for the Gen. Absolute. 

32. The Gen. is used after the comparative of an adjective. 

Qui credit in me, opera quae ego facio et ipse faciet: et majora 
horum faciet. . . . He that believes in me, the works that I do he shall 
do also : and greater than these shall he do . . .. Jn. xiv, 12. 

See also Mk. xii, 31; Acts xvii, 11; Heb. iii, 3, vi, 16; III Jn. 4. 

33. The Gen. may be used to express space within which. 

Et videtis, et auditis, quia non solum Ephesi, sed paene totius 
Asiae, Paulus hie suadens avertit multam turbam. ... And ye see 
and hear that not only at Ephesus, but throughout almost all Asia, 
this Paul persuades and turns away much people. Acts xix, 26. 

N.E.L. 2 



1 8 Dative Case 

34. The Dative Case denotes that to or for which anything is 
done. It is generaUy translated into Eng. by the use of the preposi- 
tions to or for. 

N.B. The Dat. does not denote motion to. 

35. The Dat. of the Indirect Object is used after many verbs 
which are also followed by a direct object in the Ace. case. 

Pecuniam copiosam dederunt militibus They gave large 

money to the soldiers. . . . Mt. xxvni, I2. 

36. Wlien verbs which are followed by an indirect object in the 
Dat. as well as by a chrect object in the Ace. are used in the Passive 
voice, the direct object becomes the subject of the sentence and 
the Dat. remains. 

Auferetur a vobis regnum Dei, et dabitur genti facienti 
fructum ejus. The kingdom of God shall be taken from you and 
given to a nation bringing forth the fruit thereof. Mt. xxi, 43. 

37. The Dat. is used after many verbs which are not transitive 
in Latin as they are in Eng. 

The most important of these verbs are : 

imperare, to command. servire, to serve. 
ignoscere, to pardon. placere, to please. 

remittere, to pardon. disphcere, to displease. 

parcere, to spare. nocere, to injure. 

credere, to believe. reristere, to resist. 

obedire, to obey. confiteri, to confess, give honour to. 

suadere, to persuade. evangehzare, to preach the gospel. 

Some verbs that are followed by a Dat. in CI. L. are followed by 
an Ace. in Ecc. L. 

Credere is often followed by in with the Ace, benedicere and 
maledicere are followed either by the Dat. or the Ace. 

Many verbs compounded with a preposition are followed by a 
Dat., especially compounds of esse. 

Etenim Christus non sibi placuit. For even Christ pleased 
not himself. B.om. xv, 3. 

Hujuscemodi enim Christo Domino nostro non serviunt, sed 
suo ventri. For men of this kind do not serve Christ our Lord, 
but their own belly. Rom. xvi, 18. 

Et obtulerunt ei omnes male habentes. And they brought to 
him all that were sick. Mt. iv, 24. 



Dative Case 19 

Quid mihi prodest, si mortui non resurgunt? What doth it 
profit me if the dead rise not? I Cor. xv, 32. 

38. If a verb which is followed by the Dat. as its sole object is 
used in the Passive voice, it is always used impersonally. 

Si enim aliquis diceret aliquid de aliqua terra remota, et ipse 
non fuisset ibi, non crederetur ei sicut si ibi fuisset. For if 
anyone should say anything about some distant land, and he 
himself had not been there, he would, not be believed, as he would 
be, if he had been there. Thomas Aquinas. 

39. The Dat. may denote the person in whose interest, or 
against whose interest anything takes place. 

Et ecce aperti sunt ei caeli. ... And behold the heavens were 
opened for him. . . . Mt. iii, 16. 

Quomodo aperti sunt tibi oculi? How were thine eyes opened 
for thee? Jn. ix, 10. 

Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci. Against thee 
only have I sinned, and done evil in thy sight. Ps. li, 4. 

See also Mt. xxi, 2, 5, xxvii, 21. 

40. The Dat. is used \Cith esse to denote possession. 

Quod tibi nomen est? What is thy name? Lk. viii, 30. 

Argentum et aurum non est mihi. Silver and gold have I none. 

Acts iii, 6. 

41. The Dat. of certain nouns (in Ecc. L. these are generally j 
nouns denoting emotions) is used, especially with esse to denote 
result or purpose. This Dat. is generally accompanied by another 
noun or pronoun in the Dat. denoting the person interested. 

Et eritis odio omnibus gentibus propter nomen meum. And 
ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake. Mt. xxiv, 9. 

Et nihil eorum Gallioni curae erat. And Gallia cared for none 
of these things. Acts xviii, 17. 

See also Col. iv, 11; I Thess. ii, 7. 

42. The Dat. is regularly used to express the Agent after a 
gerundive participle and rarely after a perfect participle. 

Audistis quia dictum est antiquis. ... Ye have heard that it 

ivas said by them of old time. ... Mt. v, 21. 

Novissime autem omnium tanquam abortivo, visus est et 



20 Ablative Case 

milii. And last of all he was seen by me also, as by one born out 

of due time. I Cor. xv, 8. 

Et ecce nihil dignum morte actum est ei. And behold nothing 

worthy of death has been done by him. Lk. xxiii, 15. 

43. A quite exceptional instance of the Dat. being used to express 
motion towards is found in Rev. i, 11. 

Et mitte septem ecclesiis. And send it to the seven churches. 
This is, as usual, an exact translation of the Gk. 

44. The Ablative Case may be described as an adverbial case, 
because a noun in the Abl. case generally qualifies a verb, adjective 
or adverb in the same way as an adverb. 

The name Ablative case means the taking away case. It is a very 
unsuitable name, as it covers only a small number of the uses of 
the case. 

The meanings of the Abl. case, as we find it in Latin, are derived 
from the meanings of three different cases which existed in the 
primitive form of the language: 

1. A true Ablative case, denoting separation, or the place 
from which anything is taken. 

2. An Instrumental, or Sociative case, denoting the instru- 
ment by means of which anything is done, or the accompanying 
circumstances of the action. 

3. A Locative case, denoting the place where, or the time 
when anything happens. 

The particular kind of meaning denoted by a noun standing in 
the Abl. case depends partly on the meaning of the noun itself and 
partly on the meaning of the word with which it is connected. 

Thus in the sentence Roma abiit, He went from Rome, Roma 
is obviously used in the proper Abl. signification of separation 
from. 

In the sentence Baculo puerum percussit, He struck the boy with 
a stick, Baculo is Instrumental. 

In the sentence Proximo anno rediit, He returned next year, anno 
is Locative. 

The student must always consider the context in which a word 
in the Abl. case is found before attempting to translate it. 

The meanings of the case are so various, that it is not well to 
attach too definite a meaning to it in the mind. 



Ablative Case 21 

In many instances, especially in late Latin, a preposition is placed 
before a noun in the Abl. case to make its meaning more precise. 

45. The Ablative of Separation, generally translated 'from.' 
In CI. L. the Abl. is used without a preposition to denote motion 
from a place when the place spoken of is a town or small island. 

The Abl. of certain words such as domo is used in the same way. 

In Ecc. L. a preposition may be used with nouns of this kind; 

with all other nouns a preposition is used to denote motion from. 

Et alia die cum exirent a Bethania, esuriit. And on another 

day when they came out from Bethany he was hungry. 

Mk. xi, 12. 
See also Acts xviii, i, xxv, i. 

46. The Abl. is used with verbs and adjectives denoting separa- 
tion, deprivation, release or want and also with words denoting 
descent or origin. 

In Ecc. L. a preposition is often used after such words. 
Qui veritate privati sunt. Who are deprived of truth. 

I Tim. vi, 5. 

47. The Instrumental Ablative and the Ablative of Attendant 

Circumstances, generally translated 'with.' 

The Ablative of the Instrument. The word that denotes the means 

by which anything is done is put in the Abl. without a preposition. 

Occidit autem Jacobum fratrem Johannis gladio. But he 

killed James the brother of John with a sword. Acts xii, 2. 

In the Vg. the prepositions a or in are sometimes found before 

a word denoting the Instrument in imitation of Heb., or of Gk. 

influenced by Heb. 

Et commota sunt superliminaria cardinum a voce cla- 

mantis. And the posts of the door were moved by the voice of 

him that cried. Isa. vi, 4. 

Ego baptizo in aqua. . . . / baptize with water . . . . Jn. i, 26. 

Domine, si percutimus in gladio ? Lord, are we to strike with 

the sword? Lk. xxii, 50. 

See also James iii, 4. 

48 . The Ablative of Manner. The word which denotes the manner 
in which anything takes place is put in the Abl., without a preposi- 



22 Ablative Absolute 

tion if it is qualified by an adjective: if it is not qualified by an 
adjective, the preposition cum is used before it. 

At illi instabant vocibus magnis postulantes ut crucifigeretur. 

But they were urgent with loud voices demanding that he should 

be crucified. Lk. xxui, 23. 

Qui autem supra petrosa seminatus est, hie est qui verbum 

audit, et continuo cum gaudio accipit illud. Bid he that was 

sown on the stony places, this is he who hears the word, and 

immediately with joy receives it. Mt. xiii, 20. 

The preposition is used in Ecc. L. even when the noun denoting 

manner is qualified by an adjective. 

Qui susceperunt verbum cum omni aviditate For they 

received the word with all eagerness Acts xvii, 11. 

49. Verbs and adjectives denoting filling or equipping may be 
followed by a word in the Abl. denoting that with which the filling 
or equipping is done. 

In the Vg. such verbs and adjectives may be followed by a Avord 
in the Gen. in imitation of Gk. 

O plene omni dolo, et omni f allacia O full of all guile 

and all deceit. . . . Acts xiii, 10. 

Et impletae sunt nuptiae discumbentium. And the wedding 

was furnished ivith guests. Mt. xxii, 10. 

Plenum gratiae et veritatis. Fiill of grace and truth. Jn. i, 14. 

50. The Ablative of Price. The word which denotes the price at 
which anything is bought, sold or hired, is put in the Abl. case. 

Quare hoc unguentum non veniit trecentis denariis? Why 
was not this unguent sold for three hundred pence? Jn. xii, 5. 
See also Mk. vi, 37; Acts xxii, 28. 

51. The Ablative Absolute. A noun or pronoun in the Abl. case 
with a predicative participle, or adjective, or even another noun 
agreeing with it, is used to denote an incident that accompanies or 
explains the action of the verb on which it depends Hke an ad- 
verbial clause. This construction is very common in Latin, and is 
called the Ablative Absolute, because it is independent of, or 
loosed from {absolutus), the main structure of the sentence. 

The Abl. in this construction is an Abl. of accompanying circum- 
stances. A phrase of this kind is generally best translated into 
Eng. by an Adverbial clause. The kind of Adverbial clause most 



Ablative Absolute 23 

suitable for the translation of any particular instance of this con- 
struction is determined by the context; generally speaking it will 
be either a clause of Time, a clause of Cause, or a clause of Con- 
cession. See sections 153, 156, 166. 

The noun in the Ablative Absolute construction should not 
denote the same person or thing as the subject or object of the 
clause on which it depends. 

This rule is however frequently violated in Ecc. L. 

In Eng. there is a similar construction which is called the 
Nominative Absolute. 

It is seen in the following sentence : 
This done, he went home. 

In Latin this sentence would be: 
Hoc facto doinum abiit. 

A closer parallel is seen in the colloquial use of a phrase be- 
ginning with with : 

"With things being so dear I shall never be able to manage it." 

Examples of the Ablative Absolute: 

1. Equivalent to a clause of Time. 

Et ejecto daemone, locutus est mutus. And when the devil 
was driven out, the dumb man spake. Mt. ix, 33. 

Et cum haec dixisset, videntibus illis, elevatus est. And 
when he had said this, as they were looking on, he was taken up. 

Acts i, 9. 

2. Equivalent to a clause of Cause. 

In quo admirantur non concurrentibus vobis in eandem 
luxuriae confusionem. In which they wonder, because you do not 
run with them into the same slough of debauchery. I Pet. iv, 4. 

The following are examples of the ungrammatical use of the Abl. 

Absolute, where the noun in the Abl. refers to the same person as 

the object of the clause m ith which the Abl. Absolute is connected. 

Et ascendente eo in naviculum, secuti sunt eum discipuli 

ejus. And when he went up into a ship, his disciples followed him. 

Mt. viii, 23. 

Paulo autem volente intrare in populum, non permiserunt 

discipuli. But when Paul wished to go in to the people, the 

disciples suffered him not. Acts xix, 30. 

See also Mt. viii, 34, ix, 27; Acts vii, 21, x, 19, xx. i. 



24 Ablative of Place 

Rarely a participle stands in the Abl. by itself in this sense: 
Videntes autem Petri constantiam et Johannis, comperto 
quod homines essent sine litteris et idiotae .... But seeing the 
boldness of Peter and John, and finding out that they were un- 
lettered and ordinary men. . . . Acts iv, 13. 
The following is a very harsh example of an Abl. Absolute used 
to translate a Gk. active participle agreeing with the subject of 
the main clause. 

Quo statim cognito Jesus spiritu suo quia sic cogitarent 
intra se. 

This is untranslatable as it stands. It is meant to translate 
the Gk. KOI ev6ew<; iTriyvov? 6 Irjcroix; rw Trvevf-iaTi avTov on 
oii'rws SiaXoyi^orrat ev eavrois. Mk. 11, 8. 

52. Locative Ablative, or Ablative of Place or Time, generally 
translated 'in' or 'at.' 

Ablative of Place. The Abl. case is used to denote the place in 
which, or the time at which anything happens. 

In Ecc. L. it is often preceded by a preposition where one would 
not be used in CI. L. 

The way in which the place at which anything happens is ex- 
pressed in CI. L. is somewhat peculiar. 

Generally speaking the preposition in is used followed by a noun 
in the Abl. case; but if the place spoken of is a town or small island 
the name of the town or small island is put in the so-called Locative 
case. This ends in ae in singular nouns of the ist declension and 
in i in singular nouns of the 2nd declension. In the plural of these 
declensions, and in the 3rd declension, the ending of the Loc. case 
is the same as the ending of the Abl. 
Examples : 

Romae, At Rome. Corinthi, At Corinth. Athenis, At Athens. 
The Loc. case is also found in the words domi at home: rure in 
the country: for is out of doors. 

In Ecc. L. the Loc. is sometimes found in the names of towns: 
sometimes in with the Abl. is used. 

Erat autem quidam discipulus Damasci .... But there was 

a certain disciple at Damascus . . . . Acts ix, 10. 

Paulus autem, cum Athenis eos expectaret. . .. But Paul, 

when he was waiting for them at Athens. . .. Acts xvii, 16. 

Et erat vir in Lystris infirmus pedibus. . . . And there was a 

man in Lystra lame in his feet. . . . Acts xiv, 7. 



Ablative of Time 25 

53. A kind of Loc. Abl. is used to express the thing in respect 
of which a statement is made, especially in words denoting a part 
of the body or mind. This is sometimes called the Abl. of Respect. 

Vir infirmus pedibus .... A man lame in his feet .... 

Acts xiv, 7. 

Beati pauperes spiritu. Blessed are the poor in spirit. 

Mt. V, 3. 

Fratres, nolite pueri eflfici sensibus: sed malitia parvuli 
estote. Brethren, do not become children in sense : but in malice 
be ye babes. I Cor. xiv, 20. 

Sed ad sua desideria coacervabunt sibi magistros, prurientes 
auribus. Biit at their desire they will heap up to themselves 
teachers: itching in the ears. II Tim. iv, 3. 

Mattheum nomine. Matthew by name. Mt. ix, 9. 

See also Acts vii, 51. 

54. Ablative of Time. The time at which anything happens is 
denoted by the Abl. when the noun denotes a period of time. 

In Ecc. L. a preposition may be used. 

Quinta autem vigilia noctis venit ad eos, ambulans supra 
mare. But in the fifth watch of the night he came to them, walking 
on the sea. Mt. xiv, 25. 

In diebus autem illis venit Johannes Baptista, praedicans 
in deserto Judaeae. But in those days John the Baptist came 
preaching in the desert of Judea. Mt. iii, i. 

55. The Abl. of nouns denoting a period of time may be used 
to denote the time within which anything happens. 

This use is widely extended in the Vg. to denote the time during 
which anything takes place, which is denoted in CI. L. by the 
Ace. case. 

Quadraginta et sex annis aedificatum est templum hoc, et 
tu tribus diebus excitabis illud? Forty and six years was this 
temple in btiilding, and wilt thou raise it up in three days? 

Jn. ii, 20. 
Tanto tempore vobiscum sum ? Have I been so long with you? 

Jn. xiv, 9. 

Quid hie statis tota die otiosi? Why stand ye here all the day 

idle? Mt. XX, 6. 

Et erat tribus diebus non videns. And he was three days 

without sight. Acts ix, 9. 



26 Ablative with Verbs 

56. The Adjectival Ablative or Ablative of Description describes 
a person or thing. The noun in the Abl. geneially denotes a 
feature of the body or mind and is always qualified by an 

adjective. 

Patres, nolite ad indignationem provocare fihos vestros, ut 
non pusillo animo fiant. Fathers, do not provoke your children 
to wrath, that they may not become of feeble mind. Col. iii, 21. 

Beati mundo corde. Blessed are the pure in heart. Mt. v, 8. 

i 57. Ablatives used with verbs. The Abl. is used after certain 
I verbs which are not transitive in Latin as they are in Eng. 1. 

The commonest of these verbs are : 

utor, / use. potior, / get possession of. 

fruor, / enjoy. careo, I am without. 

fungor, I perform. egeo, indigeo, / need. 

Ego autem nullo horum usus sum. But I have used none of 
these things. I Cor. ix, 15. 

Pro Christo ergo legatione fungimur. We therefore perform 
the office of ambassador on behalf of Christ. II Cor. v, 20. 

Et civitas non eget sole neque luna, ut luceant in ea. And 
the city needs not the sun or moon to shine in it. 

Rev. xxi, 23. 
Egeo is used with a Gen. in imitation of Gk. in Rev. iii, 17. 

58. The adjectives dignus and indignus are generally followed 
by a noun in the Abl. 

In the Vg. they are sometimes followed by a noun in the Gen. 
in imitation of Gk. 

Dignus est operarius cibo suo. The workman is worthy of 
his food. Mt. X, 10. 

Amphoris enim gloriae iste prae Mose dignus habitus est. 
For he was thought worthy of more glory than Moses. 

Heb. iii, 3. 

PRONOUNS. 

59. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun to point out or 
enumerate persons or things without naming them. 

Many words classed as pronouns can be used as adjectives to 
define or point out nouns. 



Pronouns — Personal 27 

Personal and Reflexive pronouns can only be used in place of 
nouns. Possessive, Demonstrative, Relative, Interrogative and 
Indefinite pronouns can be used either in place of nouns or ad- 
jectivally. 

When a pronoun can be used adjectivally it should be called an 
Adjectival Pronoun. 

As a rule pronouns agree in gender and number with the noun in 
place of which they are used, but sometimes they agree only in sense 
with the noun and not with its grammatical number and gender. 

Thus a plural pronoun may be used with reference to a collective 
noun, a neuter plural pronoun may be used with reference to two 
feminine nouns denoting things without life, a plural pronoun may be 
used with reference to a country because the thought is directed rather 
towards its inhabitants. 

Euntes ergo docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos .... Go there- 
fore and teach all nations, baptizing them. . .. Mt. xxviii, 19. 
Possessiones et substantias vendebant, et dividebant ilia omni- 
bus .... They sold their possessions and goods and divided them all . . .. 

Acts ii, 45. 
Et circumibat Jesus totam Galilaeam, docens in synagogis eorum. 
Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues. 

Mt. iv, 23. 

Sed habes pauca nomina in Sardis, qui non inquinaverunt vesti- 

menta sua. But thou hast a few names in Sardis, who have not defiled 

their garments. Rev. iii, 4. 

See also Rom. ix, 24. 

60. Personal Pronouns. As the ending of a Latin verb shows 
what person and number its subject is, the Nominative of per- 
sonal pronouns is seldom used, except when special emphasis is 
desired . 

Nos audivimus ex lege quia Christus manet in aeternum ; 
et quomodo tu dicis : Oportet exaltari filium hominis ? We have 
heard out of the law that Christ abideth for ever ; and how sayest 
thou: "The Son of man must he lifted up"? Jn. xii, 34. 

Ille erat lucerna ardens et iucens. Vos autem voluistis ad 
horam exultare in luce ejus. He was a burning and a shining 
light. But y Oil were willing for a season to rejoice in his light. 

Jn. V, 35. 
There are no personal pronouns of the third person in Latin 
except the Reflexive se. Demonstrative and Relative pronouns are 
used to take the place of the missing personal pronoun. 



28 Pronouns — Reflexive, Possessive 

Ille, ipse, iste and hie are all used as personal pronouns of the 
third person in the Vg. quite commonly, as well as is. 
See Jn. ix, 8, 12, 18, 21, 36; Lk. ix, 9. 

61 . Reflexive Pronouns may be treated as a branch of personal 
pronouns. They are used when the subject of the verb is described 
as acting on himself, or in his own interest, or as saying or thinking 
something about himself. 

In the first and second persons reflexive pronouns are identical 
in form with the oblique cases of the personal pronouns: in the 
third person both singular and plural the forms se, sui, sibi, se are 
used. 

Nihil feceris tibi mali. Do thyself no harm. Acts xvi, 28. 

Et abiens laqueo se suspendit. And going away, he hanged 

himself. Mt. xxvii, 5. 

When reflexive pronouns are used in a subordinate clause they 

sometimes refer to the person denoted by the subject of the main 

clause. This is seldom the case where any ambiguity is likely to 

be caused. 

The use of reflexive pronouns is rather loose in Ecc. L. 

Et cadens in terra audivit vocem dicentem sibi. ... And 
falling to the earth he heard a voice saying to him .... 

Acts ix, 4. 
Dispersit superbos mente cordis sui. He hath scattered the 
proud in the imagination of their hearts. Lk. i, 51. 

See also Acts xxviii, 16; Mt. vii, 11. 

Rarely a demonstrative pronoun is used in the Vg. where a reflexive 
pronoun would have been more correct. 

Exinde coepit Jesus ostendere discipulis suis, quia oporteret eum 
ire Hierosolymam .... From that time fesus began to show to his 
disciples that he must go to Jerusalem. Mt. xvi, 21. 

See also Mk. x, 32; Rom. iii, 26. 

62. Possessive Pronouns are used adjectivally and are equiva- 
lent to the Gen. case of the personal or reflexive pronoun. 

In the first and second persons the Gen. of the personal pronoun 
is rarely found in the sense of a possessive pronoun. Phil, ii, 12. 

In the third person suus is used reflexively, that is when the 
person or thing to which it refers is the subject of the sentence or 
clause in which it stands. 

Propterea ergo magis quaerebant eum Judaei interficere: 



Pronouns — Demonstrative 29 

quia non solum solvebat Sabbatum, sed et Patrem suum 

dicebat Deum. On this account th.erejore the Jews sought the 

more to kill him, because he was not only breaking the Sabbath, 

but also because he said that God was his Father. . . . Jn. v, i8. 

When the person or thing referred to by the pronoun is not the 

subject of the sentence or clause in which it stands, the Gen. of a 

demonstrative pronoun (generally ejus or eorum etc.) is used as 

the possessive pronoun of the third person. 

Princeps autem sacerdotum Ananias praecepit adstantibus 

sibi percutere os ejus. But the chief of the priests Ananias 

commanded those that stood by him to smite his mouth (i.e. Paul's 

mouth). Acts xxiii, 2. 

Sometimes where no ambiguity is likely to be caused suus is 

used in a subordinate clause when the person or thing to which it 

refers is denoted by the subject of the main clause. 

Idem cum Johanne ad nonam horam ad templum adibat, 

ubi paralyticum sanitati reformavit suae. He went with John 

to the temple at the ninth hour, where he restored the paralytic 

to his health. Tert. de Oratione xxv. 

N.B. In Latin, as in French, the gender of a possessive pronoun 

does not depend on the gender of the word denoting the possessor ; 

but possessive pronouns agree with the nouns which they qualify 

in gender, number and case, like adjectives. 

Sua mater, His mother. Suus pater, Her father. 

63. Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out some person 
or thing. 

In CI. L. hie, haec, hoc denotes that which is near to the speaker 
and is generally translated this. 

Ille, illa,iUud denotes that which is more remote, and is generally 
translated that. 

Iste, ista, istud denotes that which belongs to the person spoken 
to; it is sometimes used contemptuously and translated that of 
yours. 

Is, ea, id is an unemphatic word, generally used as a personal 
pronoun of the third person and translated he, she, it. 

Ipse, ipsa, ipsion is emphatic, and may be translated himself, 
herself, itself. 

It is often used in speaking of a famous person, and so it is often 
used of God and Christ in the Vg. : it is used with other pronouns 



30 Pronouns — Demonstrative 

to give emphasis and also to show that they are reflexive. See 
examples below. 

Idem, eadem, idem means the same. 

64. In Ecc. L. the demonstrative pronouns are not strictly used 
in the senses given above: iste is often used where hie or ille 
would be used in CI. L. 

Ipsi scitis : quoniam ad ea quae mihi opus erant, et his qui 

mecum sunt, ministraverunt manus istae. Ye yourselves know 

that these hands have ministered to those things that were needful 

for me and for those that were with me. Acts xx, 34. 

Omnes vos scandalum patiemini in me in ista nocte. All ye 

shall be caused to stumble becaiise of me this night. Mt. xxvi, 31. 

For an example of hie and iste used in exactly parallel senses : 

Vos ascendite ad diem festum hunc: ego non ascendo ad 

diem festum istum. Go ye up to this feast: I go not up to this 

feast. Jn. vii, 8. 

See also Rom. xi, 30, 31. 

Hie and ille are sometimes used to translate the Greek definite 
article. See Jn. ix, 30: respondit ille homo (6 dvdpwiros). Ps. cxii, 2: ex 
hoc nunc {dwb rod vuv). 

The following are examples of the use of ipse. 
Emphatic use. 

Omnia per ipsum facta sunt. All things were made through 

him. Jn. i, 3. 

Johannes testimonium perhibet de ipso. John bears witness 

about him. Jn. i, 15. 

Deus ipse Dominus; ipse fecit nos, et non ipsi nos. God 

Himself is the Lord; He has made us, and not we ourselves. 

Ps. xcix, 3. 

Ego scio eum, quia ab ipso sum, et ipse misit me. / know 

him, because I am from him, and he sent me. Jn. vii, 29. 

Reflexive use. 

Tu de te ipso testimonium perhibes. Thou bearest witness of 
thyself. Jn. viii, 13, 28; Rom. xii, 16. 

Ipse is also used in the sense of the same : 

Ex ipso ore procedit benedictio et maledictio. Out of the 
same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing. Jas. iii, 10. 

See also Heb. xiii, 8. 



Pronouns — Relative 31 

Idipsum is used in the sense of the same to translate Gk. to avrd. 

Idipsum autem latrones improperaverunt ei. But the robbers cast 

the same reproach at him. Mt. xxvii, 44; I Cor. i, 10; Heb. iv, 11. 

In idipsum is used in the sense of together to translate Gk. iirl to avTu. 

Dominus autem augebat, qui salvi fierent quotidie in idipsum. 

Biti the Lord increased daily those who should be saved into one body. 

Acts ii, 47. 
Et iterum revertimini in idipsum. And come together again. 

I Cor. vii, 5. 
Magnificate Dominum mecum: et exaltemus nomen ejus in 
idipsum. O magnify the Lord with me: and let us exalt his name to- 
gether. Ps. xxxiii, 4. 
Hierusalem quae aedificatur ut civitas, cujus participatio ejus 
in idipsum. Jerusalem which is built as a city that is at unity in 
itself. Ps. cxxi, 3. 
See also Pss. Ixi, 10, Ixxiii, 6. 

65. The Relative Pronoun is used like a conjunction to connect 
two clauses in a sentence : the second of the two connected clauses 
may be either subordinate to, or co-ordinate with the first. 

The relative pronoun always refers back to some noun or pro- 
noun (expressed or implied) in the clause which it connects to the 
clause in which it stands. This noun or pronoun is called its Ante- 
cedent. In Latin, relative pronouns agree with their antecedent in 
gender, number and person, but not in case. 

The case of a relative pronoun depends on the function which it 
performs in the clause in which it stands. 

The relative pronoun can never be omitted in Latin as it often 
is in Eng. 
Examples : 

Accepistis illud. . .sicut verbum Dei, qui operatur in vobis, 

qui credidistis. You received it. . .as the word of God who works 

in you who believe. I Thess. ii, 13. 

Discedite a me, qui operamini iniquitatem. Depart from 

me ye that work iniquity. Mt. vii, 23. 

66. A relative pronoun often stands at the beginning of a sen- 
tence and must then be translated into English by and followed 
by a personal pronoun^. 

It is often used in the Vg. to translate the Gk. 6 Se. 

^ An unsuccessful attempt to introduce this construction into Enghsh is to 
be noted in several places in the A.V., especially in Acts. See Acts xiv, 14. 



32 Pronouns — Relative, Interrogative 

Qui cum recedissent, ecce angelus Domini apparuit in 
somnis Joseph. . .qui consurgens accepit puerum. And when 
they had departed, behold an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph 
in a dream. . .and. he arose and took the child. Matt, ii, 13. 

Quorum fidem ut videt, dixit. ... And when he saw their 
faith, he said. . . . Lk. v, 20. 

A very harsh example is found in Acts xvii, 1 1 : 

Hi autem erant nobihores eorum qui sunt Thessalonicae, 
qui susceperunt verbum cum omni aviditate .... But these 
were more noble than those who are at Thessalonica, for they re- 
ceived the word ivith all eagerness .... 

See also Mt. xv, 23; Jn. i, 38; Acts vii, 2. 

67. Attraction of the Antecedent. The antecedent may be attracted 
into the case of the relative and at the same time be placed in the 
relative clause. When this happens a personal pronoun in the right case 
may take the place of the antecedent in the clause to which it properly 
belongs. 

Quern ego decoUavi Johannem, hie a mortuis resurrexit. John 

whom I beheaded is risen from the dead. Mk. vi, 16. 

Omne verbum otiosum quod locuti fuerint homines, reddent 

rationem de eo in die judicii. Every idle word that men shall speak, 

they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. Mt. xii, 36. 

See also Mt. xxi, 42; Dan. iv, 17. 

An example of inverse attraction, that is of the relative being attracted 

into the case of the antecedent, is found in Ps. ix, 23 : Comprehenduntur 

in consiliis quibus cogitant. 

68. A Demonstrative Pronoun in the same number, gender and case 
as the relative pronoun may be inserted in a relative clause in imitation 
of the Heb. The Heb. relative "IK'N is invariable in form and has a 
personal pronoun in apposition to it to show its relationship to the 
sentence. 

Beatus vir, cujus est nomen Domini spes ejus. . .. Blessed is the 
man whose hope is in the name of the Lord..,. Ps. xxxix, 5. 

Quem Dominus Jesus interficiet spiritu oris sui, et destruet illus- 
tratione adventus sui eum. Whom the Lord Jesus will slay with the 
breath of his mouth, and destroy with the brightness of his coming. 

II Thess. ii, 8. 

See also Pss. xviii, 4, xxxii, 12, Ixxiii, 2, cxlv, 5. 

69. The Interrogative Pronoun quis may take the place of either 
a noun or an adjective. 

When it is a true pronoun it has the form quis {qui), quae, qvtid. 



Pronouns — Indefinite, Reciprocal 33 

When it is a pronominal adjective it has the form qui (quis), 
quae, quod. 

In the Vg. it may be used in place of the Interrogative utev = 
which of two. 

Quern vultis vobis de duobus demitti? Which of the two do 
ye wish to be released for you? Mt. xxvii, 21. 

See also Mt. ix, 5, xxi, 31; I Cor. iv, 21; Lucan, Pharsalia 
i, 126. Quid may be used like the Gk. rl to ask a question. 

Quid hie statis tota die otiosi? Why do ye stand here idle all 
the day? Mt. xx, 6. 

Ut quid is used to translate the Gk. am tI or eiV ri. 

Ut quid enim libertas mea judicatur ab aliena conscientia? 
For why is }ny liberty judged of another tnan's conscience? 

I Cor. x, 29. 
See also Mt. ix, 4, xxvi, 8. 

69a. The Indefinite Pronoun quis, quae or qua, quid may be used 
to take the place of either a noun or an adjective. 

It is used by itself in the Vg. to translate the Gk. ns. 

Infirmatur quis in vobis ? Is any among you sick? Jas. v, 14. 
See also Acts x, 47, xxvi, 31; Rom. v, 7; I Cor. iv, 2. 
The Relative pronoun is used instead of the Indefinite quisquis 
in imitation of Gk. os nv. 

Qui ergo solverit unum de mandatis istis minimis, et 
docuerit sic homines, minimus vocabitur in regno caelorum. 
Whosoever shall break one of these least commandments and shall 
teach men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven. 

Mt. V, 19. 
Ne dlicui is used in Lk. viii, 56 instead of the usual ut nulli. 

70. The Reciprocal Pronoun which is expressed in Eng. by one 
another, and in CI. L. by alius alium, alter alterum, inter se is 
generally expressed in the Vg. by invicem which is treated as an 
indeclinable pronoun. 

It may also be expressed by altevutrum. 

Estote autem invicem benigni, misericordes, donantes in- 
vicem. But be ye kind to one another, pitiful, forgiving one 
another. Eph. iv, 32. 

Nolite murmurare in invicem. Do not murmur one to another. 

Jn. vi, 43. 
Orate pro invicem. Pray for one another. Jas. v, 16. 

N.E.L. 3 



34 Verbs — Mood 

Non ergo amplius invicem judicemus. Let us not therefore 
judge one another any longer. Rom. xiv, 13. 

See also Jn. xiii, 35, xv, 17; Acts, xv, 39; Rom. xii, 16, x\d,i6. 

Confiteniini ergo alterutrum peccata vestra. Confess your 
sins one to another. Jas. v, 16. 

Dicebant ad alterutrum. They were saying one to another. 

Mk. iv, 40. 

Id ipsum sapere in alterutrum. To think the same thing one 
with another. Rom. xv, 5. 

See also Mk. iv, 40; Acts vii, 26. 

71 . Hujusmodi and ejusmodi are used in the Vg. with an ellipse 
of the noun which they should qualify, which makes them almost 
equivalent to a pronoun. 

Hujusmodi enim Christo Domino nostro non serviunt. For 

such men do not serve Christ our Lord. Rom. xvi, 18. 

Pro hujusmodi gloriabor. . . . For such a one will I glory . . . . 

II Cor. xii, 5. 

Ad versus hujusmodi non est lex. Against such there is no 

law. Gal. v, 23. 

See also Jn. viii, 5; Acts xxii, 22; Rom. xvi, 18; I Cor. vii, 28. 



Verbs. 

Mood. 

72. Moods are forms which verbs assume to show the way in 
which the action or state denoted by the verb is to be regarded, 
i.e., if it is to be regarded as a statement, a command, a desire, or 
a thought. 

The Indicative Mood (generally) makes a statement or asks a 
direct question. 

The Imperative Mood gives a command, or expresses a wish. 

The Subjunctive Mood expresses a thought rather than a fact. 
It is used to give a command or express a wish directly in the third 
person and is often used in prohibitions and in hesitating or polite 
statements or wishes. 

It is generally used in indirect commands and questions and in 
many kinds of subordinate clauses, especially those that express 
purpose or result. 

The uses of the Subj . are so various and its use in Latin is often 



Verbs — Tense 35 

so different from its use in English, that it is inadvisable to learn 
any English equivalent for it such as / may love, or / might love. 

Very often it is translated by the Eng. Ind. The student must 
learn to translate it by observing its use in Latin. 

The Infinitive Mood is really the dative or locative case of a 
verbal noun. It gets its name, which means "un-bounded," from 
the fact that it is not bounded like other parts of the verb by 
number and person. 

The Participle is a verbal adjective. 

The Gerund and Supine are verbal nouns. 

Tense. 
73. The action denoted by a verb may be defined both as re- 
gards its time and as regards its state or progress. 
Its time may be defined as past, present, or future. 
Its state or progress may be regarded as 

continuous or incomplete, 
perfect or complete, 
simple or indefinite. 

The combination of these ideas of time and state should produce 
nine different tenses. 

[ continuous / was loving. /■ continuous / am loving. 

Past -' perfect / had loved. Present \ perfect / have loved. 
[simple I loved. [simple I love. 

[continuous / shall be loving. 
Future ] perfect / shall have loved. 
^/"^ (simple / shall love. 

Different forms to express all these combinations exist in Eng., 
but not in Latin. 

The Latin tenses are arranged below in the same order as the 
Eng. tenses in the table above. The names commonly given to 
them in grammars are printed in capitals. 

IMPERFECT amabam. (missing) • 

PLUPERFECT amaveram. perfect amavi. ' 

PERFECT amavi. present amo. 

(missing) 
y future perfect amavero. 

_,,^ future amabo. 

It should be noticed that the tense called the Perfect in Latin 

3—3 



36 



Present Tense 



has to do the work of two dissimilar tenses : — the Past Simple and 
the Present Perfect. 

If continuous action in present or future time has to be expressed 
in CI. L. the Simple Present or Future must be used. 

In Ecc. L. we see the development of tenses formed by a parti- 
ciple and part of the verb esse which are very similar in meaning 
and form to the Eng. Present Continuous and Future Continuous. 
See section 90. 

74. The Present tense denotes either an action or state in 
progress in present time, or customary or repeated action in present 

time. 

FiUus hominis traditur in manus peccatorum. The Son of 

man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. Mt. xxvi, 45. 

Domine, salva nos, perimus. Lord, save us, we are perishing. 

Mt. viii, 25. 
Lampades nostrae extinguuntur. Our lamps are going out. 

Mt. XXV, 8. 
Corrumpunt mores bonos conloquia mala. Evil communica- 
tions corrupt good manners. I Cor. xv, 33. 
Omnis arbor, quae non facit fructum bonum, exciditur et 
in ignem mittitur. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit 
is hewn down and cast into the fire. Mt. vii, 19. 
See also Mt. ix, 17. 

I 75. Conative Present. As the Present tense denotes action in progress 
which is not necessarily complete, it may be used to denote action which 
is attempted or desired, but not performed. 

Multa bona opera ostendi vobis ex Patre meo: propter quod 
eorum opus me lapidatis? / have shown you many good works from 
my Father : because of which of these do ye desire to stone me? 

Jn. X, 32. 

Evacuati estis a Christo, qui in lege justificamini; a gratia exci- 

distis. Ye are separated from Christ, ye ivho desire to be justified by 

the law: ye have fallen from grace. Gal. v, 4. 

See also I Cor. vii, 28. 

76. Historic Present. The Present tense is used in narrative to denote 
events in past time for the sake of vividness. 

Et veniunt rursus Hierosolyma. And they come again to Jerusalem. 

Mk. xi, 27. 

77. The Present used for the Future. The Present is sometimes used 
colloquially in a Future sense. 



Imperfect Tense 37 

Tempus meum prope est: apud te facio Pascha cum discipulis 
meis. Aly time is at hand: I will eat the Passover at thy house with 
my disciples. Mt. xxvi, i8. 

Descendat nunc de cruce, et credimus ei. Let him now come down 
from the cross, and we will believe him. Mt. xxvii, 42. 

See also Lk. xix, 8; Jn. xxi, 23. 

78. The Present of ^pxecrdaL which is used in a Future sense in the 
N.T. with reference to the Messiah, especially in the participle, is some- 
times translated by the Future in the Vg. or even by the Perfect. It 
may also be translated by a Present. 

See Mt. xi, 3; Jn. vi, 14, xi, 27, xiv, 3. 
A very curious use of the Present among several Futures is found in 
Acts xxviii, 6. There is nothing to suggest it in the Gk. 

79. The Imperfect tense denotes an action or state in pro- 
gress in- past time, or customary or repeated action in past time. 

The Imperfect is a descriptive tense and denotes an action in 
progress or a state of things actually observed. Hence in many 
instances it does not differ in meaning from the Perfect. This is 
especially the case with the verb esse : 

Dux evat and Dux fuit may mean practically the same thing, the 
former describes the condition, the latter only states it. 

Et multi divites jactabant multa. And many rich men were 

casting in much. Mk. xii, 41. 

Ecce quomodo amabat eum. Behold how much he loved him. 

Jn. xi, 36. 

Petrus autem et Johannes ascendebant in templum ad 

horam orationis nonam. But Peter and John used to go up to 

the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour. Acts iii, i. 

In Acts xii, 4-7 there are several examples of the use of the 

Imperfect tense and the contrasted use of the Perfect tense. 

See also Mt. viii, 2; Lk. iii, 10, xv, 16; Eph. iv, 28. ' 

SO. Conative Imperfect. The Imperfect is sometimes used to denote 
an action in past time which was attempted or desired, but not per- 
formed. 

Et vocabant eum nomine patris ejus Zachariam. And they wished 
to call him by the name of his father Zacharias. Lk. i, 59. 

See Acts vii, 26, xxvi, 11. 

81. The Imperfect is also used to express a polite or hesitating wish 
which the speaker does not like to express directly. 

Volebam et ipse hominem audire. I should like to hear the man 
myself. Acts xxv, 22. 



38 Future Tense 

Optabam enim ipse ego anathema esse a Christo pro fratribus meis. 
/ could wish myself accursed from Christ for the sake of my brethren. 

Rom. ix, 3. 

82. The Future tense denotes an action or state which is ex- 
pected to take place in future time. 

The context decides whether the action denoted by the verb is 
simple or continuous. 

Pariet autem filium: et vocabis nomen ejus Jesum. For she 
shall bring forth a son: and thou shall call his name Jesus. 

Mt. i, 21. 

Et in hoc gaudeo, sed et gaudebo. And in this I rejoice, yea 

I will continue to rejoice. Phil, i, 18. 

83. The Future may have the force of an Imperative. 
Relinque ibi munus tuum ante altare, et vade, prius recon- 

ciliare fratri tuo: et tunc veniens offeres munus tuum. Leave 
there thy gift before the altar, and go first and be reconciled to thy 
brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Mt. v, 24. 

Et cum oratis, non eritis sicut hypocritae. And when ye 
pray, be not as the hypocrites. Mt. vi, 5. 

See also Mk. xii, 31. 

84. The Perfect tense in Latin performs the functions of two 
tenses which are quite distinct in Eng. and Gk. These are the 
tenses which are commonly called the Past Simple (or Preterite) 
and the Perfect (or Present Perfect) in Eng., and the Aorist and 
Perfect in Gk. 

The translation of the tenses in the Vg. is generally very careful: 
the Imperfect represents the Gk. Imperfect and the Perfect the 
Gk. Aorist or Perfect in the Ind. mood. 

The Aorist is used in Gk. far more frequently than the Perfect. 
The Perfect in Gk. denotes completed action. The Aorist Indicative 
generally denotes action in past time, but must often be translated 
into English by the form which is called the Perfect (the tense 
form made with the auxiliary verb have). 

It would be impossible and confusing to go into the reasons for 
this here. Those who wish for further information on the point 
will find it in the author's Syntax of N.T. Greek. 

The point to be remembered by the Latin student is that the 
Latin Perfect may be translated by either the English Past Simple 
or by the Perfect. 



Perfect Tense 39 

The most suitable form to use is decided by the context in all 
cases. The Gk. original is not a safe guide. 

Example of the Latin Perfect denoting simple action in past 
time. 

Et veniens ad discipulos suos, vidit turbam magnam circa 

eos. And when he came to his disciples he saw a great crowd 

round them. Mk. ix, 14. 

Examples of the Latin Perfect denoting that the action of the 

verb is regarded as complete^ at the time of speaking, and that its 

results are regarded as still existing. 

Bonum certamen certavi, cursum consummavi, fidem ser- 
vavi. / liave fought the good fight, I have finished the course, 
I have kept the faith. II Tim. iv, 7. 

Sed potius ite ad oves quae perierunt domus Israel. But 
rather go to the sheep that have perished {or the lost sheep) of the 
house of Israel. Mt. x, 6. 

Omnium autem finis appropinquavit. B^d the end of all 
things is at hand. I Pet. iv, 7. 



85. The Perfect is used to translate the Greek Timeless Aorist and 
expresses a general truth, an habitual action, or action at a time not 
defined. When so used it must be translated by the Present tense in 
English. 

Exortus est enim sol cum ardore, et arefecit faenum, et flos ejus 
decidit, et decor vultus ejus deperiit. For the sun arises with its 
burning heat, and dries up the grass, and its flower falls, and the 
beauty of its shape perishes. Jas. i, 11. 

See also I Pet. i, 24 and the curious imitation of the Gk. in 
Wordsworth and White's text in Jn. xv, 6. 

Tu es filius meus dilectus, in te complacui. Thou art my beloved 
son, in thee I ani well pleased. Mk. i, 11. 

Calendas vestras, et soUemnitates vestras, odivit anima mea: 
facta sunt mihi molesta, laboravi sustinens. Yojir festivals and 
feasts my soul hateth: they are a trouble to me, I am weary to bear 
them. Isa. i, 14. 

' When it is said that the action is regarded as complete this does not mean 
that it is regarded as ended, but only that it is regarded as brought to its 
appropriate conclusion in such a way that its effects still remain in action. 
The tense when used in this sense has as much to do with present as with past 
time, as it describes the present result of a past action. It may sometimes be 
translated by an Eng. Present. 



40 Pluperfect and Future Perfect Tenses 

86. The Pluperfect tense denotes an action or state completed 
in past time, or an action which took place before some point in 
past time referred to in the context, or which the speaker has in 
mind. 

Et descendit pluvia, et venerunt flumina, et fiaverunt venti, 
et irruerunt in domum illam, et non cecidit: fundata enim 
erat super petram. And the rain descended, and the floods came, 
and the winds blew, and they fell upon that house, and it fell not: 
for it had been founded upon a rock. Mt. vii, 25. 

Venit enim filius hominis salvare quod perierat. For the 
Son of man came to save that which had been lost. Mt. xviii, 11. 
The force of the Perfect, Pluperfect and Imperfect tenses is seen 
in the following example : 

Et vidit duas naves stantes secus stagnum : piscatores 
autem descenderant, et lavabant retia. And he saw two ships 
standing by the lake : for the fishermen had come down out of 
them, and were washing their nets. Lk. v, 2. 

87. The Future Perfect tense denotes an action or state which 
is regarded as completed at some point in future time which the 
speaker has in mind or which is referred to in the context. 

It is used very frequently in Latin where in Eng. we use a Simple 
Future, a Present, or a Perfect. 

His autem expletis, proposuit Paulus in Spiritu, transita 
Macedonia et Achaia, ire Hierosolymam, dicens; Quoniam 
postquam fuero ibi, oportet me et Romam videre. When this 
was ended Paul purposed in the Spirit, after he had passed 
through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying: 
"After I have been there I must also see Rome." Acts xix, 21. 

Nisi abundaverit justitia vestra plus quam Scribarum et 
Pharisaeorum, non intrabitis in regnum caelorum. Unless 
your righteousness exceed that of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye 
shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. Mt. v, 20. 

Si fuerint alicui centum oves, et erraverit una ex eis, nonne 
relinquet nonaginta novem in montibus . . . ? // any man has 
a hundred sheep and one of them goes astray, does he not leave 
the ninety and nine in the mountains . . . ? Mt. xviii, 12. 

88. It is used in indefinite relative clauses and in indefinite 
clauses of time and place, referring to future time. See sections 154, 
^55- 



Periphrastic Forms of Tenses 41 

Et in quamcumque domum intraveritis, ibi manete, et inde 
ne exeatis. And into whatever house ye enter, there remain, and 
go not forth from thence. Lk. ix, 4. 

Qui enim voluerit animam suam salvam facere, perdet 
illam: nam qui perdiderit animam suam propter me, salvam 
faciet illam. For ivhoso wishes to save his soul shall lose it : but 
whoso shall lose his soul for my sake shall save it. Lk. ix, 24. 

Et beatus est qpi non fuerit scandalizatus in me. And 
blessed is he who is not offended in me. Mt. xi, 6. 

See also Mt. xxvi, 13; Rom. xv, 24. 

89. It is also used like the Future with the force of an Imperative. 
Nihil tuleritis in via. Take nothing for the ivay. Lk. ix, 3. 
See also Mt. xxvii, 4; Acts xviii, 15. 

90. Periphrastic forms of tenses are formed in Ecc. L. as in 
Eng . , by j oining the appropriate tense of esse to the present participle . 

Periphrastic Present formed from the Present tense of esse and 
the Present Participle. 

Non enim sumus sicut plurimi adulterantes verbum Dei. 
For we are not as many adulterating the word of God. 

II Cor. ii, 17. 

Esto consentiens adversario tuo cito dum es in via cum eo. 

Agree with thine adversary quickly while thou art in the way with 

him. Mt. V, 25. 

Periphrastic Imperfect. 

Et erat plebs expectans Zachariam. And the people was 

expecting Zacharias. Lk. i, 21. 

Et erat tribus diebus non videns, et non manducavit neque 

bibit. And he was three days without sight, and did neither eat 

nor drink. Acts ix, 9. 

Periphrastic Future. 

Noli timere: ex hoc jam homines eris capiens. Fear not: 
from henceforth thou shall be catching men. Lk. v, 10. 

91 . A Future tense is also formed from the Future Participle of 

esse with a clause introduced by ut as its subject. 

Futurum est enim ut Herodes quaerat puerum ad per- 
dendum eum. For Herod will seek the young child to destroy 
him. Mt. ii, 13. 



42 Periphrastic Forms of Tenses 

A Future Subj. is formed from the Future Participle and the 
Present Subj. of esse. 

NoHte putare quia ego accusaturus sim vos apud Patrem. 
Do not think that I shall accuse you to the Father. Jn. v, 45. 

92. Periphrastic tenses formed with habere and facere. 

The beginning of the periphrastic formation of tenses which 
resulted in the forms now used for the Future tenses in French and 
Italian is to be discerned in Ecc. L. 

The use began in the employment of the verb habere in its 
ordinary sense with an explanatory Inf. This is found in the 
Classics. 

Adhuc multa habeo vobis dicere. / have yet many things to 
say to you. Jn. xvi, 12. 

Quia non habent retribuere tibi. Because they have not [any- 
thing] whence to pay you back. Lk. xiv, 14. 
Hence arises a sense of future necessity : 

Baptismo autem habeo baptizari. But I have a baptism 
with which I must be baptised. Lk. xii, 50. 

Habes, homo, imprimis aetatem venerare aquarum, quod 
antiqua substantia. First, O man, you must venerate the age 0/ 
water ; because it is an ancient substance. Tert. de Bapt. iii. 
Aquas video quas videbam quotidie: istae me habent mun- 
dare in quas saepe descendi, et nunquam sanatus sum. I see 
water which I was vised to see every day : it has got to cleanse me, 
though I have often gone down into it, and I have never been 
cleansed. Ambrose, de Mysteriis, iv, 19. 

93. Habere is also found as an auxiliary verb with a past parti- 
ciple — a construction which became the normal way of expressing 
the pluperfect tense in Italian and French^. 

Tantum autem auditum habebant .... Only they had heard .... 

Gal. i, 23. 

94. The Infinitive is used with the verb facer e in the sense of 
causation. 

Et adduxerunt asinam et puUum, et imposuerunt super eos 
vestimenta sua, et eum desuper sedere fecerunt. And they 
brought the ass and the colt and put on them their clothes, and 
they made him sit thereon. Mt. xxi, 7. 

' Compare "Denumero eorum omnia se habere explorata," Caesar, B.G., 
II. 4. I. 



Sequence of Tenses — Voice 43 

95. The sequence of tenses. The Present, Future, Future Per- 
fect and Perfect (when translated by the EngUsh Perfect formed 
with the auxihary have) are called Primary tenses. 

The Imperfect, Pluperfect and Perfect (when translated by the 
English Past) are called Secondary tenses. 

When the verb in a principal clause is in a Primary tense, a 
verb in the Subj. mood in a subordinate clause is in a Primary 
tense in certain kinds of clauses. 

Wlien the verb in a principal clause is in a Secondary tense, a 
verb in the Subj. mood in a subordinate clause is in a Secondary 
tense in certain kinds of clauses. This rule is not strictly observed 
in Ecc. L. 

Voice. 

96. The Active voice is used when the subject of the verb is 
spoken of as acting or doing something. 

The Passive voice is used when the subject of the verb is spoken 
of as suffering or being acted upon. Only Transitive verbs can 
have a passive voice. 

There are certain verbs such as to fall and to die which do not 
speak of the subject as acting, but which are regarded as being 
in the active voice because they are Intransitive. 

97. Certain verbs in Latin are passive in form, but active in 
meaning. These are called Deponent verbs because the old gram- 
marians thought that they had laid aside a passive and assumed 
an active meaning. 

A few verbs such as gaudeo, -ere, gavisus sum have the deponent 
form only in the Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect tenses. 
These are called Semi-deponent verbs. 

THE USE OF THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. THE SUB- 
JUNCTIVE MOOD IN PRINCIPAL CLAUSES. 

98. The Imperative Mood is used to express commands and 
entreaties in the second person singular or plural, and has forms 
which may be used to express a command given in the third person. 

Sed, si quid potes, adjuva nos. But, if thou canst do any- 
thing, help us. Mk. ix, 22. 

Dixit ergo Jesus: Facite homines discumbere. Therefore 
Jesus said: Make the men sit down. Jn. vi, 10. 



44 Imperative and Subjunctive Moods 

j In Ecc. L. the second person of the Present Subj. is used to 

I express a command or entreaty. 

Nee doleas, quod talem amiseris, sed gaudeas, quod talem 
habueris. Do not grieve because you have lost such a man, but 
rejoice because you had him. Jerome, Ep. 60. 

f The Present Subjunctive is generally used to express a com- 
mand or entreaty in the first or third person. This use of the Subj . 
is called the Jussive Subjunctive. 

Nam Deus dixit : Honora patrem et matrem ; et : Qui male- 

dixerit patri vel matri morte moriatur. For God said : Honour 

thy father and mother; and : If any curse his father or his mother, 

let him surely die. Mt. xv, 4. 

Sometimes sine or sinite = allow is prefixed to the Subj . 

Sine ejiciam festucam de oculo tuo. Let me cast out the 
mote out of thine eye. Mt. vii, 4. 

99. Prohibitions are negative commands or entreaties. The 
Imperative is not used in prohibitions, except in poetr)^ 
Prohibitions are expressed in prose: 

(i) By noli or nolite followed by an Inf. 

(2) By ne (or non in Ecc. L.) followed by the Perfect Subj. 

(3) By ne or iion followed by the Present Subj. 

(4) By vide followed by a negative and the Present or Perfect 
Subj. 

The first two methods are regularly used in CI. prose. The last 
two are often found in Ecc. L. 

(i) NoU vexare ilium. Trouble him not. Lk. viii, 49. 

Nolite dare sanctum canibus, neque mittatis margaritas 

vestras ante porcos. Do not give that which is holy to the 

dogs, and do not cast your pearls before swine. Mt. vii, 6. 

(2) In viam gentium ne abieritis, et in civitates Samari- 
tanorum ne intraveritis. Go not into the way of the Gentiles, 
and into the cities of the Samaritans enter ye not. Mt. x, 5. 

Nihil feceris tibi mali. Do thyself no harm. Acts xvi, 28. 

(3) Nee vocemini magistri. Be not ye called masters. 

Mt. xxiii, 10. 
Non mireris quia dixi tibi: Oportet vos nasci denuo. 
Marvel not that I said to thee: Ye must be born again. 

Jn. iii, 7. 



In principal Clauses 45 

Qui furabatur, jam non furetur, magis autem laboret. 
Let him that stole steal no more, but rather let him labour. 

Eph. iv, 28. 

(4) Videte ne contemnatis unum ex his pusillis. See that ye 

despise not one of these little ones. Mt. xviii, lo. 

Vide nemini dixeris. See thou tell no man. Mt. viii, 4. 

100. An emphatic and absolute prohibition may be expressed 
by omnis and a verb in the Present Subj. negatived by non in imi- 
tation of Heb. 

Omnis sermo mains ex ore vestro non procedat. Let no 
corrupt speech proceed out of your mouth. Eph. iv, 29. 

101. Hortatory Subjunctive. Besides expressing commands 
the Subj. may express an exhortation or a wish. 

Transeamus usque Bethleem, et videamus hoc verbum 
quod factum est. Let us go to Bethlehem and see this thing which 
has come to pass. Lk. ii, 15. 

In expressing a wish the Present Subj . denotes that the wish is ' 
still possible, the Imperfect Subj. or Pluperfect Subj. that it is 
unaccomplished in present time, or in certain cases that it is im- ■ 
possible. Utinam is often used before the Past tenses of the Subj. I 
when they express an unaccomplished wish. 

Sanctificetur nomen tuum: adveniat regnum tuum. Hal- 
lowed be thy name: thy kingdom come. Mt. vi, 9. 
Utinam fuisset dominus mens ad prophetam, qui est in 
Samaria. Would that my master were with the prophet who is in 
Samaria. II Kings v, 2. 
Utinam frigidus esses aut calidus. Would that thou wert cold 
or hot. Rev. iii, 15; I Cor. iv, 8. 

102. Deliberative Subjunctive. In CI. L. the Subj. is used in 
deliberative questions when a person asks himself or another what 
he is to do. 

In Ecc. L. the Future or the Present Ind. is also often used in 
this sense. 
Subj. Euntes emamus denariis ducentis panes? Are we to go and 

buy two hundred pennyworth of bread? Mk. vi, 37. 

Fut. Quid f aciemus et nos ? What shall we do? Lk. iii, 14. 

Pres. Ind. Tu es qui venturus es, an alium expectamus? Art thou 

he that should come, or are we to look for another? Mt. xi, 3. 



•> 



46 



Infinitive Mood 



103. Potential Subjunctive. The Subj. is used to express an 
action which is not regarded as actual, but only as possible or 
conceivable. Expressions of this kind may be regarded as the 
apodoses^ of conditional sentences where the condition is not 
expressed. The Subj. is rarely used in this sense in the Vg. 

Profecto curasset eum a lepra, quam habet. Surely he 
would cure him of the leprosy which he has. II Kings v, 2. 

Vix enim pro justo quis moritur: nam pro bono forsitan 
quia audeat mori. For scarcely for a just man does one die, but 
perhaps for a good man one would dare to die. Rom. v, 7. 

Vellem autem esse apud vos modo, et mutare vocem meam. 
But I should like to he among you now and to change my tone. 

See also Mt. xxv, 27. G^^- ^^' ^°- 

The above uses of the Subj. are the only ones which occur in 
independent sentences and principal clauses. 

NOUN CLAUSES. 

The importance of distinguishing between different 
senses of the same word. 

104. Many of the difficulties that beginners find in mastering a 
foreign language arise from the fact that they do not consider the 
meaning of some of the words that most frequently occur, but 
look only at their form. 

Some of these words which are in common use are employed in 
several totally different senses. 

Take for example the Eng. word that. It may be 

(i) A Demonstrative Pronoun or Adjective trans, by the 
Latin ille, etc. 

Give me that. Da mihi illud. 

I see that woman. I Ham mulierem video. 

(2) A Relative Pronoun trans, by Latin qui, etc. 

I have the book that you bought. Librum, quern emisti, habeo. 
I see the man that sent for me. Virum, qui me arcessivit, video. 

(3) A Conjunction introducing a clause of purpose trans, by 
Latin ut. 

I came that I might see you. Ut te viderem, veni. 

(4) A Conjunction introducing a clause of consequence trans, 
by Latin ut or ita ut. 

' See section 167. 



Various Senses of the Same Word 47 

The storm was so great that the ship was wrecked. Tanta 
erat procella, ut navis demergeretur. 

(5) A Conjunction introducing a noun clause which is trans. 
either by the Ace. and Inf. construction, or by a clause introduced 
by ut, or in Ecc. L. by quod, quia or qitoniam. 

He said that my brother had come. Fratrem meum venisse 
dixit. 

It is expedient that I should do this. Expedit ut hoc faciam. 

He prayed that the Lord would send labourers into the 

harvest. Rogavit ut Dominus operarios in messem ejiceret. 

We know that you speak the truth. Scimus quia vera dicis. 

The constructions mentioned in sub-section 5 are explained in 

the following pages. The object of the above paragraph is to warn 

the student not to confuse the noun clauses, now to be described, 

with the adverbial clauses described in sections 157-165. 

As the Eng. word that is used in so many entirely distinct 
senses, it is obviously most essential to be certain of its meaning 
before trying to translate it into Latin. 
Take for example the sentences : 

I know that that that that man says is true. Vera esse 
scio ea, quae ille dicat. 

He told me that he went to Rome that he might see Caesar. 
Dixit mihi se Romam adivisse, ut Caesarem videret. 
The great difference between Eng. and Latin is obvious from 
these examples. 

105. While this question of words with similar forms having 
widely different meanings is being discussed, it will be well to refer 
to the Latin words which present a similar difficulty. 

These are ut, cum, quod. 

Ut when it introduces a clause with the verb in the Indicative ^ 
mood means either as, when or where according to the context. 

The clause that it introduces is either a clause of comparison, a 
[5 clause of time, or a fclause of place. See sections 153-155, 175. 

When ut introduces a clause with the verb in the Subjunctive b 
mood the clause may be: 

(i) A clause of purpose. See sections 157, 158. 

(2) A clause of consequence. See section 163. 

(3) A noun clause. See sections 116-127, 142, 145. 
In all these cases ui is translated by that in Eng. 



48 



Various Senses of the Same Word 



Example : 

Et factum est ut discesserunt ab eis angeJi in caelum, pas- 
tores loquebantur ad invicem. ... And it came to pass when 
the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds 
were saying one to another . . . . Lk. ii, 15. 

In the following example ut is first used to introduce a clause of 
purpose and secondly a clause of comparison. 

Non ut confundam vos haec scribo, sed ut filios meos 
carissimos moneo. / do not write these things that I may con- 
found you, but as my beloved sons I warn you. I Cor. iv, 14. 
In the following example ut is used first to introduce a noun 
clause, in the second place to introduce a clause of consequence, 
in the third place to introduce a clause of comparison. 

Orantes simul et pro nobis, ut Deus aperiat nobis ostium 
sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi, propter quod 
etiam vinctus sum, ut manifestem illud ita ut oportet me 
loqui. Praying at the same time for us also, that God would open 
to us a door of utterance to speak the mystery of Christ, for which 
also I am bound, that I may make it manifest as I ought to speak. 

Col. iv, 3. 

ij / Cum may be either a preposition meaning together with or a 
\'^ conjunction introducing a clause of time, axlause of cause, or a 
Y clause of concession and trans, when, since, although. See sections 
153, 154, 156, 166, 210. . 

In old Latin books cum when used as a conjunction is generally 
spelt quum. In books recently printed it is spelt cum or quom. 

Quod may be either the neuter singular of the relative pronoun 
or a conjunction introducing a clause of cause and trans, because, 
or (in Ecc. and late Latin only) a conjunction introducing a'^oun 
clause. See section 156. A careful study of the context is often 
needed to find out whether quod is a relative pronoun or a con- 
junction. 

The Infinitive Mood and its equivalents. 

106. The so-called Infinitive Mood had its origin in the Dat. or 
Loc. case of a verbal noun. Habere meant originally /or having or 
in having. In early Latin the Dat. sense of the Inf. was still 
obvious, for it was used to express purpose. 



i) 



The Infinitive Mood 49 

Reddere hoc, non perdere, erus me misit. My master sent 
me to return {for returning) this, not to lose it. Plautus, Ps. 642. 
Nee dulces occurrent oscula nati 

Praeripere. Nor will your sweet children run to you to snatch 
your kisses. Lucretius, iii, 895. 

This usage apparentl)' held its ground in vernacular Latin, and 
appears occasionally in the Augustan poets who would be en- 
couraged to use it by the analogy of the use of the Inf. in Gk. to 
express purpose. 

Nos numerus sumus, et fruges consumere nati. We are a 
mere collection of nonentities, born to devour the fruits of the 
earth. Horace, Ep. i,n, 2-]. 

This use of the Infinitive never occurs in Classical Latin prose. ' 
Its place is taken by a clause introduced by itt, or by one of the 1 
other const, mentioned in sections 157-162. ' 

In Ecc. L. the Inf. is frequently used to express purpose. 

107. In CI. L. the Inf. is treated as the Nom. or Ace. case of a 
verbal noun. Its Dat. sense is generally ignored. 

In the same way, although the Eng. Inf. is generally found with 
the preposition to in front of it, this preposition is no part of the 
Inf., and is omitted after certain verbs such as may, can, shall, 
bid, let, make. 

Examples: / can do this. Let me go. Make him stay. I will say 
what I like. I bid you come here. 

Contrast these with: I am able to do this. Allow me to go. Force 
him to stay. I intend to say what I like. I command you to come here. 

The omission or insertion of the preposition to before the Inf. 
is quite arbitrary: it contributes nothing to the meaning of the 
phrase. 

In such a sentence as : To err is human, to forgive divine, the Infs. 
are treated exactly as if they were verbal nouns standing as the 
subjects of the clauses: the preposition to is absolutely without 
meaning. 

The preposition only has its proper force when the Inf. is used 
to express purpose or result, or is used in an explanatory sense. 
Examples: / came here to fish. I am tall enough to look over your 
head. It is time to go home. Even in this use the force of the 
preposition is so little felt that another preposition may be in- 
serted in front of it. Example: What went ye out for to see? 

N.E.L. A 



\ 



50 Accusative and Infinitive Construction 

108. The Infinitive partakes of the nature both of a verb and 
a noun. 

As a verb it has a subject, expressed or understood; if it is the 
infinitive of a transitive verb, it has an object: it governs the same 
case as the verb from which it is derived ; it is qualified by adverbs : 
it has tense and voice. 

As a noun it can be used as the subject or object of a sentence, 
( or it may stand in apposition to another noun : but in Latin it 
I cannot be governed by a preposition. 

The subject of an Inf. is in the Accusative Case. The reason for 
this will be explained later. 

The fact that the Inf. is a verbal noun caused it to be used in 
noun clauses. 

109. In CI. L. the Inf. with its subject in the Ace. (called the 
Accusative and Infinitive Construction) is regularly used in object 
clauses standing as objects of verbs denoting saying and thinking. 

There are however tM^o other constructions that are in some 
sense equivalent to the Ace. Inf. construction in noun clauses. 
These are 

(i) A clause introduced by ut with the verb in the Subj. 
(called ut with the Subjunctive construction). 

(2) A clause introduced by quod, quia, quoniam with the 
verb in the Ind. or Subj. (called quod, quia, quoniam construction). 

(This latter construction only occurs in Ecc. L. Avith very few 
exceptions mentioned below. 

The use of these constructions is described in the following 
sections. A few words may be said here about their origin. 

110. The ut with the Subjunctive construction is most frequently 
found in object clauses depending on verbs meaning to command, 
to request, to bring about, etc. 

Examples : 

Ut hoc facias tibi impero. 
Te rogo ut mihi subvenias. 
Effecit ut ex urbe exirent. 
t It is easy to see that there is something of a sense of purpose 
, or desired result in the clauses introduced by ut. 

The meaning of these sentences might be expressed as follows : 
I give a command to you in order that you may do this. 



Ut with Subjunctive and "quod" Constructions 51 

I make a request to you in order that you may help me. 
He brought it about with the result that they went out of 
the city. 
As is explained in sections 157, 163 clauses introduced by ut 
with a verb in the Subj. mood denote both purpose and result. 

111. The ut with the Subjunctive construction is however found 
in other noun clauses, especially in clauses which are the subjects 
of impersonal verbs or of the verb to be. 

In some of these no sense of purpose or result can be discovered. 
It seems as if this construction were used as a substitute for the 
Inf., just as the Iva ivith a Subjunctive construction is used in 
later Gk. 
Example : 

Expedit vobis ut ego vadam. It is expedient for you that 
I go away. Jn. xvi, 7. 

avficpepeL Vjuv iva iyco cnrekQu). 

This construction is quite CL, and goes back to the beginning 
of the language, as far as we know it. 

112. The quod, quia, quoniam construction however is not CI. 
It seems to have taken its rise during the decadence of the 
language, and it is quite certain that its prevalence is due to slavish 
imitation of the Gk. original on the part of those who translated 
the Septuagint and the N.T. into Latin. 

It is so common in Ecc. L., and so characteristic of it, that its 
origin must be treated at length. 

113. Clauses introduced by the neuter relative quod referring to 
a noun or pronoun (expressed or understood) in the main clause, are 
used in CI. L. in a sense approximating to that of a noun clause in 
apposition. Although these clauses serve to explain the signification 
of the noun or pronoun to which they refer, just like a noun in 
apposition, they do not necessarily agree with it in case or gender. 

Haec res mihi curae est, quidnam hoc sit negoti, quod filia 
repente expetit ex me, ut ad se irem. This is what worries me, 
what can be the reason that my daughter suddenly asks me to go 
to her. Plant. Men. jb-z. 

Accidit perincommode, quod eum nusquam vidisti. It 
happens most awkwardly that you have never seen him. 

Cic. Ep. ad Alt. \, 17. 

4—2 



52 Origin of ' ' quod ' ' Construction 

Hoc scio quod scribit nulla puella tibi. This I do know that 

no girl writes to you. Mart, xi, 64. 

Hoc uno praestamus vel maxime feris, quod exprimere 

dicendo sensa possumus. In this one thing we surpass the 

beasts most of all, namely that we can express our thoughts in 

speech. Cic. Or. i, 8. 

There are two examples in early Latin where a clause introduced 

by quod stands as the object of a verb of saying or feeling. The 

verb is in the Subj. 

Equidem scio jam filius quod amet mens istanc meretricem. 
Truly I know now that my son loves that harlot. Plant. ^5. 52. 
The other example is in Cato the Elder. 

This construction also occurs in the book on the Spanish war, 
written by a follower of Caesar in an uncultivated style, in Sue- 
tonius, Apuleius and Tacitus, but only very rarely. 
In later writers it becomes more and more common. 

Examples : 

Renuntiaverunt quod Pompeium in potestate haberent. 
They announced that they had Pompey in their power. 

Bell. Hisp. 36. 
Titus, recordatus quondam super cenam quod nihil cuiquam 
toto die praestitisset .... Titus, remembering once during 
supper that he had given nothing to anyone during the whole 
day.... Suetonius, Titus. 

Qui puellae nuntiaret quod eam juvenis vocaret ad se. . .. 
Who ivas to tell the girl that the young man called her to him .... 

Apuleius X. 
See also Tacitus, Ann. xiv, 6. 
The usual opinion about this construction is that it is a ver- 
nacular idiom, ignored by the CI. writers, which came into common 
use during the decay of the language. 

Madvig however thinks that, if this had been a vernacular idiom, 
it would have occurred more frequently in Plautus. He prefers 
to connect it with the use of quod in apposition mentioned above, 
and regards the passages in Plautus and Cato as possibly corrupt. 

114. However this may be, the use of this construction received 
a great extension in the Old Latin version of the Bible and is quite 
common there as well as in the Ecclesiastical writers, who were 



Origin of "quod" Construction 53 

naturally much influenced in their style by the version of the Bible 
which they used. 

In the Bible and in these writers both the Ind. and Subj. moods 
are used indifferently in this construction. I 

The reason why the translators of the Bible made so much use 
of this construction is that there is in Gk. an alternative con- 
struction to the Ace. and Inf. construction used after verbs of 
saying or thinking. This consists of a clause introduced by on with 
the verb in the Ind. mood. In certain of its uses oVt corresponds 
to the Latin quod, and the translators, who strove to translate the 
Gk. as literally as possible, eagerly seized upon the construction 
with quod which was coming into use in Latin to translate clauses 
introduced by on. 

They also kept the mood of the Gk. original in some cases, 
although this was quite contrary to Latin usage. 

They did even more than this, on also means because in Gk., 
and there are two Latin words that can be used to translate it 
literally in this sense, namely qmg^ and quoniam. 

These words were therefore used to translate on when intro- 
ducing an object clause after a verb of saying or thinking exactly 
as quod was used. 

There seems to be a certain approximation to this use in the 
lines of Catullus : 

Id gratumst mihi, me quoniam tibi dicis amicum, 
Muneraque et Musarum hinc petis et Veneris. 
This is pleasing to me, that you call me your friend and seek 
the gifts of Venus and the Muses from me. Ixviii, 8. 

where quoniam picks up and explains id just as quod did in the 
examples in section 113. 

Some usage of this kind in familiar speech may have served to 
help the introduction of this form of expression ; but it must have 
made the early versions of the Bible sound very strangely to 
educated ears. 

However this usage spread from these versions to all Ecclesiastical 
writers, even to Tertullian and Cyprian, although they employ it 
sparingly. Generally speaking this construction is employed by 
the early Fathers in those parts of their writings which were in- 
tended for partly educated people, or which deal directly with the 
Bible. 

Jerome retained it in his revised version of the Bible, which we 



54 Infinitive etc. as Subject 

call the Vulgate, even in the O.T. which he translated anew from 
the Hebrew, although he modified some of the extreme literalness 
of the old versions. 

I 115. The use of clauses introduced by quod was widely extended 
in later Latin to cover most of the senses that had been expressed 
• in CI. L., and even in the early Fathers, by an Ace. Inf. or a clause 
introduced by ut. 

From these uses descend the many uses of que in French and 
che in Italian. 

It should be noticed how much nearer the general construction 
of Eng. is to the style of Ecc. L. than to that of CI. L. 

Eng. is not derived from Latin except in respect of a great part 
of its vocabulary ; but there is no doubt that the general structure 
of Eng. has been largely modified by the style of the English Bible 
of 1611, the style of which was in its turn influenced by the Vg. 

Examples of noun clauses introduced by quod, quia, quoniam 
are given in section 135. 



The Infinitive or its equivalents used as the 
subject or complement of a verb. 

116. The Simple Inf., an Ace. and Inf., a clause introduced by 
ut, or (in Ecc. L. only) a clause introduced by quod, quia, quoniam 
is used as the subject of impersonal verbs and in many expressions 
containing the verb esse. 

The usage varies with different periods of the language and with 
different writers; the student must learn the construction of the 
various verbs by experience. 

In Eng. the syntax of sentences of this kind is confused by the 
fact that they are written in the following forms: 
It is more blessed to give than to receive. 
It is expedient that one man should die for the people. 

The real subject of the first of these sentences is to give than to 
receive. 

The real subject of the second sentence is that one man should die 
for the people. 

The word it in each sentence is the Preparatory Subject, and 
the sentences are written in this way in Eng., because, in that 
language, the subject is nearly always put first in the sentence. 



Infinitive etc. as Subject 55 

Indeed, this is the only way in which the subject can be dis- 
tinguished from the object in Eng. owing to the absence of case 
endings. The Preparatory Subject serves to give notice that the 
real subject is coming afterwards. 

In many Latin grammars impersonal verbs are said to take an 
Infinitive, or a clause with ut and the Siibj. after them. 

This confuses the student who may think that these clauses 
come after the verbs as objects, whereas they are really subjects. 

117. A Simple Inf. may be used in Latin, as in Eng., as the j 
subject of a verb, especially of the verb to be. 

As Subject: 

Beatius est magis dare quam accipere. It is more blessed to 

give than to receive. Acts xx, 35. 

Mihi vivere Christus est, et mori lucrum. To me to live is 

Christ, and to die is gain. Phil, i, 21. 

Ilia. A Simple Inf. may be used in Latin as in Eng. as the ' 
complement of a verb, especially of the verb to be. 

Hoc est praeceptum Dei facere, hoc est voluntatem Patris 

adimplere. This is to perform the commandment of God: this 

is to fulfil the will of the Father. Cyprian. 

See the whole selection Quid est voluntas Dei in the Appendix, 

p. 119, for examples of the use of the Simple Inf. 

118. The verb oportet generally has an Ace. and Inf. as its 
subject. 

Ilium oportet crescere, me autem minui. He must increase, 
but I must decrease. Jn. iii, 30. 

Oportet Deo obedire magis quam hominibus. It is necessary 
for us to obey God, rather than men. Acts v, 29. 

But it may take a clause introduced by quod in Ecc. L. 

Oportet quod verbum Dei in nobis manens continue meditemur. 

We ought continually to meditate on the ivord of God which abides in 
us. T. Aq. de Symb. Ap. 

119. We may here notice a peculiar idiom which is also found in 
Cl. L., namely to use a Past tense of the verb oportere with a Present Inf. , 



56 Infinitive etc. as Subject 

as its subject to express an unfulfilled duty. This is expressed in Eng. 
by the use of a Past Inf. 

Haec oportuit facere, et ilia non omittere. These ye ought to have 

done, and not to have left the other undone. Mt. xxiii, 23. 

Oportuit ergo te mittere pecuniam meam nummulariis, et veniens 

ego recepissem utique quod meum est cum usura. Thou oughtest to 

have put my money to the bankers, and then at my coming I should 

have received my own with usury. Mt. xxv, 27. 

See Acts xxiv, 20. 

A Past tense of oportere may have however simply a past sense without 

any idea of unfulfilled duty. 

Oportebat autem eum transire per Samariam. But he had to go 
through Samaria. Jn. iv, 4; Lk. xv, 32. 

120. Other impersonal verbs may have either a clause intro- 
duced by ut or an Ace. Inf. for subject. In some cases ut is omitted 
and a Simple Subj. Avith its subject, etc. forms the noun clause. 
The use of Ecc. writers varies much from that of CI. writers and 
no exact rule can be laid down. 

121. The expression factum est to represent the Gk. eyevero, 
which in its turn represents the Heb. "Tip., is very frequent in the 
Vg. and is generally translated it came to pass. It is not CI. 

It generally has for its subject a clause introduced by ut, but it 
may have an Ace. and Inf. or even a clause with the verb in the 
Ind. and no connecting particle. 

Factum est autem et in alio Sabbato, ut intraret in synago- 
gam, et doceret. And it came to pass on another Sabbath that 
he entered into a synagogue and taught. Lk. vi, 6. 

Factum est autem revertenti mihi in Hierusalem, et oranti 
in templo, fieri me in stupore mentis. And it came to pass that 
when I had returned to ferusalem and was praying in the temple, 
I was in a trance. Acts xxii, 17. 

See Acts xvi, 16. 

Factum est autem in illis diebus, exiit in montem orare. 
And it came to pass in those days that he went out into a mountain 
to pray. Lk. vi, 12. 

122. Accidit, contigit, expedit, pertinet. In CI. L. the subject 
clause is constructed with ut. 

The Ace. and Inf. constr. is found in the Vg., or the Subj. with 
ut omitted, or quia with Ind. 



Infinitive etc. as Subject 57 

Accidit autem ut sacerdos quidam descenderet eadem via. 
But it happened that a certain priest was going down by the same 
way. Lk. x, 31. 

Et cum iter faceret contingit ut adpropinquaret Damasco. 
And when he was travelling it happened that he drew near to 
Damascus. Acts ix, 3. 

Expedit vobis ut ego vadam. // is expedient for you that I 
go away. Jn. xvi, 7. 

Contigit autem patrem Publii. . .jacere. But it happened 
that the father of Publius lay sick. Acts xxviii, 8. 

Et contigit, dum iret, a turbis comprimebatur. And it 
happened that while he went he was pressed by the crowds. 

Lk. viii, 42. 

123. Necesse est, decet. The subject clause is constructed either 
with the Ace. and Inf. or with ut. 

Unde necesse est et hunc habere aliquid quod offerat. 
Whence it is necessary that he shoitld have something to offer. 

Heb. viii, 3. 

Necesse est enim ut veniant scandala. It mttst needs be that 
offences come. Mt. xviii, 7.' 

I Thess. i, 8; Heb. vii, 12; Heb.ix, 16: {ut omitted). 

Sine modo, sic enim decet nos implere omnem justitiam. 
Suffer it to be so now, for thus it becomes us to fulfil all right- 
eousness. Mt. iii, 16. 

TaUs enim decebat ut esset nobis pontifex. For it was be- 
fitting that there should be such a high priest for us. 

Heb. vii, 26. 

124. Licet and placet have a Simple Inf. for subject with a 
dative of the person to whom the action is allowable or pleasing. 
The ut clause is also used. 

Non licet mittere eos in corbanan. It is not lawful to put 
them into the treasury. Mt. xxvii, 6. 

See also Mt. xxii, 17. 

Placuit nobis remanere Athenis solis. It pleased us to remain 
in Athens alone. I Thess. iii, i. 

Cum placuit ei . . . ut revelaret Filium suum in me. When it 
pleased him. . .to reveal his Son in me. Gal. i, 15. 



58 Infinitive etc. as Subject 

125. Interest is only used once in the N.T. and has its pecuUar con- 
struction of an Abl. feminine of the possessive pronoun to express the 
person in whose interest the action takes place. 

Quales aliquando fuerint, nihil mea interest. Whosoever they were 
makes no matter to me. Gal. ii, 6. 

The following are examples of the use of quod and quia in subject 
clauses : 

Non ad te pertinet quia perimus? Doth it not matter to thee 

that we perish? Mk. iv, 38. 

Latet enim eos hoc volentes, quod caeU erant prius. For 

this they are willingly ignorant of, that the heavens were of old. 

II Pet. iii, 5. 

126. An impersonal predicate made up of a neuter adjective 
and the verb esse may have either a Simple Inf. or Ace. and Inf. 
or a clause introduced by iit (or in Ecc. L. by quod, etc.) as its 
subject. 

Non est vestrum nosse tempora vel momenta, quae Pater 
posuit in potestate sua. It is not yours to know times and 
seasons which the Father put in his own power. Acts i, 7. 

FaciHus est enim camelum per foramen acus transire, quam 
divitem intrare in regnum Dei. For it is easier for a camel to 
go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into 
the kingdom of God. Lk. xviii, 25. 

Bonum est enim mihi magis mori, quam ut gloriam meam 
quis evacuet. For it is better for me to die than that anyone 
should make my glory vain. I Cor. ix, 15. 

Reliquum est, ut et qui habent uxores, tanquam non 
habentes sint. It remains that those that have wives should be 
as if they had none. I Cor. vii, 29. 

Manifestum est quod regnum mundi non est per multos 
deos, sed per unum tantum. It is plain that the government of 
the world is not through many gods, bvit through one only. 

Thos. Aq. Symb. Ap. iv. 

127. A clause introduced by ut (or in Ecc. L. by quod, etc.) 
may form the subject of any verb used impersonally whether in 
the Active or the Passive voice. 

Ascendit in cor ejus ut visitaret fratres suos, filios Israef. 

It came into his heart to visit his brothers the children of Israel. 

Acts vii, 23. 



Infinitive etc. as Complement 59 

Hie jam quaeritur...ut fidelis quis inveniatur. Here it is 
expected that a man be found faithful. I Cor. iv, 2. 

Sic ergo patet quod multum utile est habere fidem. So then 
it is plain that it is very profitable to have faith. 

Thos. Aq. Symb. Ap. i. 



The Infinitive or its equivalents used to complete 

THE meaning of CERTAIN VERBS. 

128. Certain verbs which are generally the same in Latin as 
in Eng. are followed by an Inf. to complete their meaning. These 
are sometimes called Modal verbs because they add new modes of 
expression or moods to the verbs to which they are attached. 

The most important are possum, volo, nolo, nialo, and also verbs 
denoting beginning or ceasing, habit, continuance, desire, pur- 
pose, aim or duty. 

If the subject of the principal verb is the same as that of the 
Inf. the subject of the Inf. is often not expressed, it is however 
generally speaking in the Nominative case and any adjectives that 
agree with it must be in that case; see example 2. 

If the subject of the Inf. is not the same as the subject of the 
principal verb, the subject of the Inf. is in the Ace. case; see 
example 3. 

In Ecc. L. a clause introduced by ut with the Subj., or a Subj. 

without tft, or even an Ind. may take the place of the Inf. after volo. 

Quomodo potest homo nasci, cum senex sit? How can a 

man be born when he is old? Jn. iii, 4. 

Si vis perfectus esse, vade, vende quae habes. // thou 

wishest to be perfect, go and sell what thou hast. Mt. xix, 21. 

Volo ergo viros orare in omni loco. / wish therefore men to 

pray in every place. I Tim. ii, 8. 

Omnia ergo quaecumque vultis ut faciant vobis homines, 

et vos facite eis. Whatsoever things therefore that ye wish men 

should do unto you, do ye also unto them. Mt. vii, 12. 

See also Jn. xvii, 24; Mt. xx, 32. 

Ubi vis paremus tibi comedere Pascha? Where dost thou 

wish us to prepare for thee to eat the Passover? Mt. xxvi, 17. 

Vis imus et coUigimus ea? Dost thou wish us to go and gather 

them up? Mt. xiii, 28. 



6o Infinitive etc. as Object 

Et iterum coepit docere ad mare. And he began again to 
teach by the sea. Mk. iv, i. 

Ut cessavit loqui, dixit ad Simonem .... When he ceased to 
speak, he said to Simon. . . . Lk. v, 4. 

Per diem autem festum dimittere solebat illis unum ex 
vinctis. On the feast day he was wont to release to them one of 
the prisoners. Mk. xv, 6. 

The Infinitive or its equivalents used 
as the object of a verb. 

129. The Simple Inf. may be used as the object of a verb, just 
like a noun. 

Perficere autem non invenio. But how to perform it I find 
^ot. Rom. vii, 18. 

129a. The Inf. may be used as one of two objects after certain 
verbs such as docere, jubere, and in Ecc. L. rogare. 

Docuerunt enim linguam suam loqui mendacium. For they 
taught their tongue to speak a lie. Jer. ix, 5. 

Jussit milites descendere, et rapere eum de medio eorum. 
He commanded the soldiers to go down and to take him from the 
midst of them. Acts xxiii, 10. 

Propter quod rogo vos accipere cibum pro salute vestra. 
Wherefore I ask you to take food for your health's sake. 

Acts xxvii, 34. 

The Inf. may be retained as object after a passive verb of this kind. 

Ubi inventis fratribus rogati sumus manere apud eos dies septem. 

Where having found brethren, we were asked to remain with them seven 

"■^y^- Acts xxviii, 14. 

See also II Cor. x, 2, 9. 

130. Out of this construction there arose a usage of the greatest 
importance in Latin. The Ace. and Inf., instead of being regarded 
as two separate objects of the main verb, combined together so as 
to form a single object clause in which the Inf. acquired a predica- 
tive sense and the Ace. was regarded as its subject. 

This usage is called the Ace. with the Inf. construction, because 
the Ace. goes with the Inf. as its subject and not with the main 
verb as its object. 



Dependent Statements 6i 

Example : 

Jussit eum duci in castra. He commanded him to be led to 
the camp. Acts xxi, 34. 

This sentence does not state that the order was given to Paul: 
the whole clause duel eum in castra is the object of the main verb. 

This construction is very common in CI. L. in object clauses de- 
pending on verbs denoting saying or thinking {verba declarandi 
vel sentiendi). 

Whole speeches are commonly reported in this way and are 
then given not in the words in which they were actually delivered, 
but in the words of a reporter. When applied to speeches this 
construction is called the Oratio Obliqua. It is very uncommon in 
the Vg., for in the Heb. original of the O.T. speeches are given in 
the words of the original speaker and not reported. In the N.T. 
the influence of Heb. methods of expression causes the Oratio 
Obliqua to be equally rare and it is not common in Ecc. writers. 

It seems unnecessary to go into a long description of this com- 
phcated construction in a book intended as an introduction to 
Ecc. L. 

It may suffice to say that in this construction all main verbs 
are in the Inf. mood, and all verbs in subordinate clauses in the 
Subj. mood. The latter half of this rule is not universally observed 
in Ecc. L. 

131. Noun clauses standing as objects of verbs are of three 
kinds. 

1. Dependent statements, or object clauses depending on 
verbs denoting saying or thinking [verba declarandi vel sentiendi). 

2. Dependent commands, or object clauses depending on 
verbs denoting entreaty, command, exhortation, or bringing about 
{verba imperandi vel effi-ciendi) . 

3. Dependent questions, or object clauses depending on verbs 
meaning to ask a question, or clauses introduced by an interroga- 
tive word depending on verbs of various meanings. 

132. Dependent statements. In Eng. these nearly always take 
the form of a clause introduced by that with the verb in the Ind. 
mood. The tense of the verb in these clauses is always one stage 
further in the past than the tense used by the original speaker, if 
the verb on which the clause depends is in a past tense. 



62 Dependent Statements 

Thus : 

He said that he was pleased to be in London. 
The original words used by the speaker were : 

/ am pleased to be in London. 

He said that he had seen his brother. 
The original words used by the speaker were : 
/ have seen my brother. 

He said that he would go to London on Friday. 
The original words used by the speaker were: 

I will go to London on Friday. 
N.B. In modern Grammars the tense formed with would and 
should is called the Future in the past. 

This, as has been said, is the usual construction; but there are 
a few verbs in Eng. that are followed by an Ace. Inf. construction. 
The judge declared him to be a criminal. 
I believe them to be safe. 
I consider you to be incompetent. 
But even in the case of these verbs a clause introduced by that 
may also be used. 

The judge declared that he was a criminal. (Notice the 
change of tense.) 

I believe that they are safe. 

I consider that you are incompetent. 

133. In CI. L. the only construction that is used in object 
clauses after verbs of sentiendi vel declarandi is the Ace. and Inf. 

As has already been explained a clause introduced by quod, quia 
or quoniam can be used in Ecc. L. instead of the Ace. and Inf. 
The verb in these clauses may be either Subj. or Ind. 

If the main verb is in the third person singular or plural and the 
subject of the Inf. in the subordinate clause is the same as that of 
the main verb, the reflexive pronoun se is always used. Otherwise 
a demonstrative pronoun is used. 

The use of the tenses of the Inf. is not very exact in Ecc. L., 
but, generally speaking, if the time of the action denoted by the 
main verb and that of the action denoted by the Inf. is the same, 
the Present Inf. is used. 

Dicitis in Beelzebub ejicere me daemonia. You say that I 
cast out devils in Beelzebub. Lk. xi, i8. 



Dependent Statements 63 

If the time denoted by the Inf. is prior to that of the main verb 
the Perfect Inf. is used. 

Aestimantes eum mortuum esse. Thinking he was dead. 

Acts xiv, 19, xvi, 27; Phil, iii, 13. 
If the time denoted by the Inf. is future to that of the main verb 
the Fut. Inf. is used. 

Et responsum acceperat a Spiritu Sancto non visurum se 
mortem .... And he had received a reply from the Holy Ghost 
that he should not see death. . . . Lk. ii, 26. 

134. The tenses of verbs in subordinate clauses in dependent 
statements should follow the rule of the sequence of tenses; but 
sometimes the tense used when the words were actually spoken or 
the thought framed is retained, in imitation of Gk. 

Dicentes se visionem angelorum vidisse, qui dicunt eum 

vivere. Saying that they saw a vision of angels, who say that he 

is alive. Lk. xxiv, 23. 

Notice the use of se and eum in this example and also the use 

of an Ind. in a subordinate clause. 

Huic omnes prophetae testimonium perhibent, remissionem 

peccatorumaccipereper nomen ejus omnes qui credunt in eum. 

To him all the prophets bear witness that all who believe in him 

receive remission of sins through his name. Acts x, 43. 

The normal CI. construction is seen in the example below: 

Et respondebant se nescire unde esset. And they answered 
that they did not know whence he was. Lk. xx, 7. 

135. The following are examples of the construction of object 
clauses with quod, quia and quoniam, the origin of which is ex- 
plained in sections 11 3-1 15. 

The verb may be in the Ind. or Subj. mood without any differ- 
ence in meaning. 

De escis autem quae idolis immolantur, scimus quia nihil 
est idolum in mundo, et quod nullus Deus nisi unus. With 
regard to meats offered to idols, we know that an idol is nothing 
in the world, and that there is no God but one. I Cor. viii, 4. 

Credere enim oportet accedentem ad Deum quia est, et 
inquirentibus se remunerator fit. For one that cometh to God 
ought to believe that he is, and that he becomes a rewarder of those 
that seek him. Heb. xi, 6. 



64 Quod used to introduce Direct Quotations 

Sometimes the tense of the original thought is retained as in 
Greek. 

Et nesciebat quia verum est, quod fiebat per angelum. And 
he did not know that what was done by the angel was true. 

Acts xii, 9. 
The following is an example of the use of the quod, quia, quoniam 
construction from Tertullian, showing how soon this construction 
was adopted even by an educated writer: 

Adeo postea in Actis Apostolorum invenimus, quoniam, qui 
Johannis baptismum habebant, non accepissent Spiritum 
Sanctum. De Bapt. 10. 

In the following examples the subject of the dependent clause is 
pleonastically repeated in the principal clause: 

Dominus novit cogitationes sapientium quoniam vanae sunt. The 
Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise that they are vain. 

I Cor. iii, 20, cited from Ps. xciii, 11. 

Christus praedicatur quod resurrexit a mortuis. Christ is preached 

that he rose from the dead. I Cor. xv, 12. 

See also Acts ix, 20. 

In Acts xxi, 29 the object of the dependent clause is repeated in the 

main clause: 

Viderant enim Trophimum Ephesium in civitate, quem aestima- 
verunt quoniam in templum introduxisset Paulus. For they had 
seen Trophinius an Ephesian in the city, whom they thought that Paul 
had brought into the temple. 

136. Here may be noticed the very peculiar imitation of the 
Gk. idiom found in the N.T. and the LXX by which on is used to 
; introduce the actual words of a speaker. Quod, quia or quoniam 
are employed to translate cin in this sense quite indifferently. 
They must not be translated into Eng. The only Eng. equivalent 
to them when used in this way is the use of inverted commas. The 
punctuation of the Vg. is sometimes peculiar, as will be seen from 
the examples below. The introductory word is printed with a 
capital letter after a colon, as if it were part of the speech. 

Et mulieri dicebant: Quia jam non propter tuam loquellam 
credimus; ipsi enim audivimus, et scimus quia hie est vere 
salvator mundi. And they kept saying to the woman, "We be- 
lieve, not because of your talking; for we have heard him our- 
selves, and we know that this is truly the saviour of the world." 

Jn. iv, 42. 



special Forms of Dependent Statements 65 

Scriptum est enim quod Angelis suis mandabit de te, ut 
conservent te : et quia In manibus tollent te . . . . For it is 
written "He shall give his angels charge concerning thee, that 
they may preserve thee" : and "In their hands they shall bear 

thee up " Lk. iv, lo, ii. 

Si quis dixerit quoniam diligo Deum, et fratrem suum 
oderit, mendax est. // any man say "I love God," and hateth 
his brother, he is a liar. I Jn. iv, 20. 

For the use of quod, quia, etc. see Jn. iv, 46-54. 

137. Special forms of dependent statements. 

In CI. L. verbs denoting to promise, to hope, to swear, and similar verbs 
which relate to the future are followed by the Ace. with a Future Inf. 
In Ecc. L. a Present Inf. may be used, or a clause introduced by quia, 
etc. or ut. 

Devotione devovimus nos nihil gustaturos, donee occidamus 

Paulum. We have bound ourselves by a great curse that we will eat 

nothing until we have killed Paul. Acts xxiii, 14. 

Spero autem in Domino Jesu, Timotheum cito me mittere ad vos. 

But I hope in the Lord Jesus that I may send Timothy to you shortly. 

Phil, ii, ig. 
Quibus autem juravit non introire in requiem ipsius, nisi illis qui. 
increduli fuerunt? But to whom did he swear that they should not 
enter into his rest, except to those that were unbelieving? 

Heb. iii, 18; Acts ii, 30. 

Simul et sperans quia pecunia daretur a Paulo. At the same 

time hoping that money would be given by Paul. Acts xxiv, 26. 

Juravit ut non transirem Jordanem. He swore that I should not 

pass over Jordan. Deut. iv, 21 and i, 8. 

137a. In imitation of Heb. the verb jurare may be followed by si to 

express a strong negative, and by nisi to express a strong affirmative. 

Sicut juravi in ira mea: Si introibunt in requiem meam. As I sware 

in my wrath: "They shall not enter into my rest." Heb. iii, 11. 

Juravit per semetipsum, dicens: Nisi benedicens benedicam te, 

et multiplicans multiplicabo te. He sware by himself, saying: 

"Surely I will bless thee and multiply thee exceedingly." Heb. vi, 13. 

In Mk. viii, 12 a construction of the same character is found after 

dicere. 

Amen dico vobis, si dabitur generationi isti signum. Verily I sav 
to you, no sign shall be given to this generation. 
The Hebraic form of adjuration Vivo ego, dicit Dominus is followed by 
quoniam or quia. 

Vivo ego, dicit Dominus, quoniam mihi fiectet omne genu. 

Rom. xiv, II, cited from Is. xlv, 23. 

N.E.L. s 



11 



66 Special Forms of Dependent Statements 

138. The verbs audire and videre may be followed by an Ace. and a 
participle in imitation of Gk., if they refer to something that was actually 
heard or seen when it was taking place. 

Et vidit omnis populus eum ambulantem et laudantem Deum. 

And all the people saw him walking and praising God. Acts iii, 9. 

Et cadens in terram audit vocem dicentem sibi. . .. And falling 

to the earth he heard a voice saying to him. . .. Acts ix, 4. 

Contrast with this: 

Audierunt autem de te quia discessionem doceas a Mose. For 
they have heard of thee that thou teachest departure from. Moses. 

Acts xxi, 2 1 . 
See also Mt. vi, 16; Lk. iv, 23; Acts ii, 6. 

139. Verbs meaning to fear are followed in CI. L. by a clause intro- 
duced by ne (which is equivalent to lest or that in Eng.) when the 
subordinate clause is affirmative, and by a clause introduced by ut when 
the subordinate clause is negative. 

Vereor ne veniat. I fear that he will come. 

Vereor ut veniat. I fear that he will not come. 
Examples from the Vg. : 

Timens tribunus ne discerperetur Paulus ab ipsis. . .. The tribune 
fearing that Paul would be torn in pieces by them. . .. Acts xxiii, 10. 
In the Vg. an Inf. is found after timere : 

Timuit illuc ire. He was afraid to go there. Mt. ii, 22. 

140. In CI. L. object clauses after verbs meaning to refuse, to prevent, 
I etc. are introduced by quominus or quin and have the verb in the Subj. 

Quominus and quin are rare in the Vg. A Simple Inf. is found after 
verbs of this kind. 

Non enim subterfugi quominus adnuntiarem .... For I have not 

shrunk from announcing . . . . Acts xx, 27. 

Propter quod et impediebar... venire ad vos. On account of which 

I was hindered from, coming to you. Rom. xv, 22. 

See also Acts xxiv, 24; I Cor. xiv, 39. 

141. Mirari and admirari are followed by a clause introduced by 
quia or quod and occasionally by si in imitation of Gk. 

Non mireris quia dixi tibi : Oportet vos nasci denuo. Wonder not 
that I said to you: Ye must be born again. Jn. iii, 7. 

Nolite mirari, fratres, si odit vos mundus. Do not wonder, bre- 
thren, if the world hates you. I Jn. iii, 13. 

See also Mk. xv, 44. 

142. Dependent commands. In Eng. object clauses after verbs 
meaning to entreat, to command, to exhort, to bring about etc. 
are generally expressed by the Ace. and Inf. construction. 



Dependent Commands 67 

In CI. L. they are nearly always expressed by a clause introduced 
by lit with its verb in the Subj . 

This causes a great deal of difficulty to beginners unless they 
get the fact clearly in their minds that where CI. L. uses an Inf., 
Eng. generally uses a clause introduced by that, and where CI. L. 
uses a clause introduced by ut Eng. generally uses the Inf. 

The verb jiibere, to command} , is followed by the Ace. Inf. con- 
struction in CI. L. 

In Ecc. L. object clauses after verbs of commanding etc. are 
generally expressed by a clause introduced by ut. Sometimes tit is 
omitted. An Ace. and Inf. construction may also be used after these 
verbs in imitation of Gk., or even a clause introduced by quod. 
Rogate ergo Dominum messis ut ejiciat operarios in messem. 
Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest to thrust out labourers 
into his harvest. Mt. ix, 38. 

Statuerunt ut ascenderent Paulus et Barnabas. They de- 
termined that Paul and Barnabas should go up. Acts xv, 2. 
Ecce faciam illos ut veniant, et adorent ante pedes tuos. 
Behold I will make them come and worship before thy feet. 

Rev. iii, 9. 
Notice the pleonastic repetition of the subject of the dep. clause 
as the object of the main clause. 

Propter quod obsecro patienter me audias. Wherefore I be- 
seech thee to hear me patiently. Acts xxvi, 3. 
See also Mt. viii, 4. 
The following are examples of the use of the Inf. 

Ascendens autem in unam navem, quae erat Simonis, roga- 
vit eum a terra reducere pusillum. And going into one ship 
which was Simon's, he asked him to push out a little from the 
land. I Lk. v, 3. 

Petistis virum homicidam donari vobis. Ye asked for a 
murderer to be granted to you. Acts iii, 14. 

Admone illos principibus et potestatibus subditos esse. 
Warn them to be in subjection to princes and powers. 

Tit. iii, I. 

* N.B. Dicere often means to command in Ecc. L. It is then followed by a 
clause introduced by ut or by an Inf. 

Et dixit discipulis suis ut navicula sibi deserviret. And he commanded 
his disciples that a little ship should wait on him. Mk. iii, g. 

See also Mt. v, 39; Mk. v, 43; Rom. xii, 3. 



68 Dependent Questions 

Itaque, fratres, aemulamini prophetare. And so, brethren, 
desire earnestly to prophecy. I Cor. xiv, 19. 

Progenies viperarum, quis demonstravit vobis fugere a 
futura ira? Offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from 
the wrath to come? Mt. iii, 7. 

See also Acts iii, 12, xi, 24, xxvi, 29; I Cor. v, 11, vii, 10; 
Phil, iv, 2; Heb. xiii, 19; I Pet. ii, 11. 

The following is an example of a clause introduced by quod used 
as a dependent command. 

Sed nos desideramus quod sicut voluntas Dei completa est 

in beatis, ita compleatur in nobis. But we pray that as the will 

of God is fulfilled among the blessed so it may be fulfilled among 

us. Thomas Aquinas. 

A clause introduced by si may be used after a verb denoting 

requesting, to denote a request that seems unlikely to be fulfilled. 

Obsecrans si quomodo tandem aliquando prosperum iter 

habeam in voluntate Dei veniendi ad vos. Praying if by any 

means yet sometime I m,ay have a prosperous journey by the 

will of God to come to you. Rom. i, 10. 

143. Dependent questions. Object clauses after verbs meaning 
to ask a question or clauses introduced by an interrogative word 
after other verbs are called Dependent Questions in Latin gram- 
mar. In Eng. such clauses have the verb in the Ind. and present 
no difficulty; but in CI. L. the verb is always in the Subj. in these 
clauses. 

In Ecc. L. the verb in a Dependent Question is often in the Ind.^ 
Examples of the ordinary Classical construction : 

Et interrogabat quis esset, et quid fecisset. And he asked 

who he was, and what he had done. Acts xxi, 33. 

Nescimus quid factum sit ei. We know not what has become 

of him. Acts vii, 40. 

Et annuntiaverunt eis quanta ad eos principes sacerdotum 

et seniores dixissent. And they announced to them all that the 

chief priests and elders had said to them. Acts iv, 23. 

Et quaerebant summi sacerdotes et scribae quomodo eum 

cum dolo tenerent et occiderent. And the chief priests and 

* This usage is also found in early and late Latin. Compare Lucan, Pharsalia, 
i. 126, ix, 563. 



Noun Clauses in Apposition 69 

scribes sought how they might take him with guile and kill 
him. Mk. xiv, i. 

Cognoscet de doctrina utrum ex Deo sit, an ego a me ipso 
loquar. He shall know of the doctrine whether it is of God, or 
whether I speak of tnyself. Jn. vii, 17. 

144. Examples of dependent questions with the verb in the 
Ind.: 

Domine, nescimus quo vadis. Lord, we know not whither 
thou goest. Jn. xiv, 5. 

Redi domum tuam, et narra quanta tibi fecit Deus. Return 
to thy home, and tell all thai God has done for thee. Lk. viii, 39. 

Quomodo autem nunc videat, nescimus: aut quis ejus 

aperuit oculos nos nescimus. We know not how he now sees, 

nor do vue know who opened his eyes. Jn. ix, 21. 

Indirect questions are sometimes introduced by si in Ecc. L. 

This is not CI. 

Observabant eum scribae et Pharisaei, si Sabbato curaret. 
The scribes and Pharisees watched him if he would heal on the 
Sabbath. Lk. vi, 7. 

Noun Clauses in apposition to a noun 
OR pronoun. 

145. A noun clause is sometimes used in apposition to a noun 
or pronoun to explain the meaning of the noun or pronoun. 

These clauses are generally expressed by ut with the Subj. 
or by an Inf. In Ecc. L. they may be expressed by a clause in- 
troduced by quod, quia, qiioniam. 

Mens cibus est ut faciam voluntatem ejus, qui misit me. 
My meat is to do the will of him that sent me. Jn. iv, 34. 

Visum est Spiritui Sancto et nobis nihil ultra imponere 
vobis oneris quam haec necessario: ut abstineatis vos ab im- 
molatis .... It seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us to lay 
no further burden on you than these things necessarily : that you 
should abstain from things sacrificed. . . . Acts xv, 28. 

Quandoquidem recte mihi vivere puero id proponebatur, 
obtemperare monentibus. Since this was set before me as the 
ideal of a boy's existence, namely to obey those that instructed me. 

See also Jn. vi, 39, 40, xvi, 32. Augustine. 

Hoc est autem judicium: quia lux venit in mundum, et 
dilexerunt homines magis tenebras quam lucem .... Bttt this 



70 Explanatory Infinitive 

is the judgement : that light came into the world, and men loved 
darkness rather than light. Jn. iii, 19. 

Omnia ostendi vobis, quoniam sic laborantes oportet susci- 
pere infirmos. / have shown you all things, that so labouring ye 
ought to support the weak. Acts xx, 35. 

See also Phil, i, 6. 

I 146. The Infinitive used as an Imperative. The Pres. Inf. is very 
rarely used in the sense of an Imperative in imitation of a rare use in 
N.T. Gk. This idiom is found in French and Italian, rarely in Eng. 

Gaudere cum gaudentibus, flere cum fientibus. Rejoice with them. 
that do rejoice and weep with those that weep. Rom. xii, 15. 

The Inf. in Mt. v, 34, 39 may possibly be an Imperative Inf. 

147. Explanatory Infinitive. The Inf. (retaining somewhat of its 
original Dat. sense) is used with certain adjectives and nouns, 
generally such as denote power, capacity, merit, fitness, in an 
explanatory sense. 

Scio cui credidi, et certus sum quia potens est depositum 
meum servare in ilium diem. I know in whom I have believed 
and I am certain that he is able to keep that which I have de- 
posited with him until that day. II Tim. i, 12. 
See also Lk. v, 24; II Cor. ix, 8; Rev. xiii, 5. 
Qui idonei erunt et aUos docere. Who shall be fit to teach 
others also. II Tim. ii, 2. 
Non habent necesse ire. They have no need to go away. 

Mt. xiv, 16. 
But we also find: 

Et non necesse habetis ut aliquis doceat vos. And ye have no 

need that anyone should teach you. I Jn. ii, 27. 

Et jam non sum dignus vocari filius tuus. And I am no 
longer worthy to be called thy son. Lk. xv, 19, xxi, 36. 

A clause introduced by ut is also used with dignus in imitation of the 
Gk. Jn. i, 27. See also Mt. viii, 8. 

Et hoc scientes tempus: quia hora est jam nos de somno 
surgere. And that knowing the time, that it is now the hour for 
us to awake out of sleep. Rom. xiii, 11 ; Rev. xi, 18. 

Bonam voluntatem habemus magis peregrinari a corpore, 
et praesentes esse ad Dominum. We have a good will rather 
to be absent from the body and to be present with the Lord. 

II Cor. V, 8. 



Adjectival Clauses 71 

In CI. L. prose such words would be followed by a Gerund or Gerundive 
with ad, by a Relative clause, or by a Gen. of the Gerund or Gerundive, 
as in this example: 

Et hie habet potestatem a principibus sacerdotum alligandi 
omnes, qui invocant nomen tuum. And here he has power from the 
chief priests to bind all that call on thy name. Acts ix, 14. 

148. The Inf. is used in an explanatory sense after verbs: some- 
times it describes the purpose and sometimes the consequence of 
the verb on which it depends. 

It is used in imitation of Gk., and would not be so used in CI. 
prose. 

Esurivi enim et dedistis me manducare. / was hungry and 

ye gave me to eat. Mt. xxv, 35. 

Quomodo tu, Judaeus cum sis, bibere a me poscis, quae 

sum muher Samaritana? How is it that thou, although thou art 

a Jew, askest to drink of me who am a Samaritan woman? 

Jn. iv, 9. 

Observabant autem scribae et Pharisaei si sabbato curaret, 

ut invenirent accusare ilium. And the scribes and the Pharisees 

watched him, whether he would heal on the Sabbath; that they 

might find how to accuse him. Lk. vi, 7. 

Moram facit Dominus mens venire. My lord delays to come. 

Mt. xxiv, 49. 

Elegit Deus per os meum audire gentes verbum evangelii. 

God chose that the Gentiles should hear through my mouth the 

word of the gospel. Acts xv, 7. 

Nunc ergo quid temptatis Deum imponere jugum super 

cervicem discipulorum ? Now therefore why do ye tempt God 

to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples? Acts xv, 10. 

See also Mt. vii, 5; Acts xvi, 14; Heb. xi, 8. 

The Vg. is not at all consistent in this usage. Ut is used in Heb. 

V, 5, vi, 10, and Col. iv, 6, where an Inf. is used in Gk. 



ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES. 

149. An Adjectival Clause qualifies a noun or pronoun, which is 
called its antecedent, in the same way as an adjective. 

Adjectival clauses are introduced by the relative pronouns qui, 
quicumque, or by the relative adverbs quo, unde, quomodo, etc. 

When an adjectival or relative clause, as it is generally called, 



I 



72 Subjunctive in Adjectival Clauses 

refers to an actual event or fact, it is called a Definite Relative 
Clause. 

When a relative clause refers to a supposed event or instance and 
hence implies a condition, it is called an Indefinite Relative Clause. 

The verb in a definite relative clause is in the Ind. mood, as it 
is in Eng. ; unless the clause comes under one of the classes speci- 
fied below which have their verb in the Subj. 

Example : 

Nonne ecce omnes isti qui loquuntur Galilaei sunt? Are 
not all these who speak Galilaeans? Acts ii, 7. 

150. The verb in a definite relative clause is in the Subj. mood. 
(i) To indicate that the person or thing denoted by the ante- 
cedent is capable of performing, or is of such a character as to be 
likely to perform or to suffer the action denoted by the relative 
clause. 

Such clauses may be called Characterising Relative Clauses. 
Viri Ephesii, quis enim est hominum, qui nesciatEphesiorum 
civitatem cultricem esse magnae Dianae? Men of Ephesus, 
what man is there that does not know that the city of the Ephesians 
is a worshipper of great Diana? Acts xix, 35. 

Quia adversarius vester diabolus tamquam leo rugiens cir- 
cuit, quaerens quem de'voret. Because your adversary the devil 
goeth about like a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour. 

I Pet. V, 8. 

Neminem enim habeo tam unanimem, qui sincera affectione 

pro vobis sollicitus sit. For I have no one so like minded who 

with sincere affection is likely to care for you. Phil, ii, 20. 

Filius autem hominis non habet ubi caput reclinet. For the 

Son of man hath not where to lay his head. Mt. viii, 20. 

See also Acts xi, 17, xiii, 11; Jn. xii, 48; I Kings xviii, 26. 

The following uses are akin to the above: 

{a) A Subj . is sometimes found in a relative clause when the 
principal clause has for its predication the idea of existence. 

Ego autem non quaero gloriam meam: est qui quaerat et 

judicet^ But I do not seek my own glory: there is one that 

seeks and judges. Jn. viii, 50. 

Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt, non est qui 

faciat bonum, non est usque ad unum. They have all gone out 

* This is the reading of SC. WW has Ind. in both verbs. 



Subjunctive in Adjectival Clauses 73 

of the way, they have all together become profitless, there is not 
one that doeth good, no not one. Rom. iii, 12. 

(6) A relative clause with the verb in the Subj. is sometimes 
found after the adjectives dignus and indignus. 

Et si in vobis judicabitur mundus, indigni estis, qui de 
minimis judicetis? And if the world shall be judged by you, are 
you unworthy to judge the smallest matters? I Cor. vi, 2. 

(2) The Subj . is used in a relative clause if the clause expresses 
purpose, consequence, or cause. 

Purpose: 

Et observantes miserunt insidiatores, qui se justos simu- 
larent. And observing him they sent forth spies who should 
feign themselves to be just men. Lk. xx, 20. 

Consequence : 

Quis enim novit sensum Domini, qui instruat eum ? For who 

knows the inind of the Lord, so as to instruct him? I Cor. ii, 16. 

Nam et Pater tales quaerit, qui adorent eum. For the 

Father looks for such to worship him. Jn. iv, 23. 

(3) When a relative clause forms part of a sentence in an 
indirect statement or question, and generally when it depends on 
a clause with its verb in the Subj., the verb in the relative clause 
is put in the Subj. in CI. L. 

This rule is not generally observed in the Vg. 

Et dum intra se haesitaret Petrus quidnam esset visio quam 
vidisset. ... And while Peter doubted in himself what the vision 
was which he had seen. . . . Acts x, 17. 

In Mt. xxvii, 15 there is an example of a relative clause of this 
kind. It expresses the wish of the people not directly, but in- 
directly. This construction is called Virtual Oratio Obliqua. 

The following is an example of the Ind. used in a relative clause 
of this kind: 

Venerunt dicentes se etiam visionem angelorum vidisse, 
qui dicunt eum vivere. They came saying that they had also seen 
a vision of angels who say that he is alive. Lk. xxiv, 23. 

In CI. L. this would be: quid dicerent eum vivere. 

(4) In Ecc. L. the Subj. is used in relative clauses without 
any apparent reason. 

Nee enim nomen aliud est sub caelo datum hominibus, in 
quo oporteat nos salvos fieri. For there is no other name under 
heaven given to men whereby we must be saved. Acts iv, 12. 



74 Adverbial Clauses 

151. The Future Perfect tense is generally used in indefinite 
relative clauses referring to future time. 

Non occides: qui autem occiderit reus erit judicio. Thoii 
shall nol kill: but whosoever shall kill shall be guilty so as to be 
in danger of the judgement. Mt. v, 21. 



ADVERBIAL CLAUSES. 

152. Adverbial Clauses are clauses that stand in relationship of 
an adverb to some verb in another clause. 

Adverbial clauses may be divided into eight classes. 

(i) Clauses of Time. (Temporal Clauses.) 

(2) Clauses of Place. (Local Clauses.) 

(3) Clauses of Cause. (Causal Clauses.) 

(4) Clauses of Purpose. (Final Clauses.) 

(5) Clauses of Consequence. (Consecutive Clauses.) 

(6) Clauses of Concession. (Concessive Clauses.) 

(7) Clauses of Condition. (Conditional Clauses.) 

(8) Clauses of Comparison. (Comparative Clauses.) 

The names given in brackets are those given to these clauses 
in most grammars. They are not very satisfactory, as the words 
temporal, final, consecutive have quite a different sense in ordinary 
use to that which they have when used as grammatical terms. 
These names should however be known, as they are so commonly 
used. 

The names given first are those suggested by the Committee 
on Grammatical Terminology. 

153. (i) Clauses of Time denote the time of the action of the 
verb in the clause on which they depend. 

They are introduced by the conjunctions 
cum, ut^, quando, ubi^ = when; 
antequam, priusquam = before; 
postquam = after; 

dum = while, until; 

donee, quando = imtil. 

1 This use of ut must be carefully distinguished from the uses mentioned 
in sections 157, 158, 163. 

- uhi nearly always means where in the Vg., but see Gal. iv, 4. 



Clauses of Time 75 

The Ind. mood is used in clauses of time introduced by ut, 
quando, ubi and postquam. (In Ecc. L. the Subj. is rarely found 
ddtex postquani. Lk. xv, 14; Rev. xxii, 8.) 

Venit nox, quando nemo potest operari. The night cometh, 
ivhen no man can work. Jn. ix, 4. 

Et ut cognovit vocem Petri, prae gaudio non aperuit 
januam. And when she knew the voice of Peter, she did not open 
the door for joy. Acts xii, 14. 

Postquam autem resurrexero, praecedam vos in Galilaeam. 
But after I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee. 

Mt. xxvi, 32. 

153fl. A clause introduced by cum has the verb in the Ind., if 
the clause only indicates the time of the action of the verb which 
it qualifies. If the clause introduced by cum denotes the circum- 
stances that lead up to the condition or action of the verb which 
it qualifies, the verb in the clause introduced by cum is in the 
Subj. mood. 

In Ecc. L. the verb in a clause introd. by cum is sometimes put 
in the Subj. mood without any apparent reason. 

In the following examples the clause introduced by cum only 
indicates the time of the action of the verb which it qualifies. 

In the first three the verb is in the Ind. mood in accordance with 
CI. usage: in the fourth the Subj. is used. 

In veritate dico vobis, multae viduae erant in diebus Heliae 
in Israel, quando clausum est caelum annis tribus et mensibus 
sex, cum facta est fames magna in omni terra. / tell you in 
truth there were many widows in the days of Elias in Israel, 
when the heaven was shut up for three years and six months, 
when ci great famine took place in all the earth. Lk. iv, 25. 

Et spiritus immundi, cum eum videbant, procidebant ei. 
And the unclean spirits, when they saw him, used to fall down 
before him. Mk. iii, 11. 

Cum ergo venerit, ille nobis annuntiabit omnia. Whenever 
therefore he shall come, lie will tell us all things. Jn. iv, 25. 

Cum autem adpropinquaret portae civitatis, et ecce de- 
functus efferebatur. But when he was drawing near to the gate 
of the city, behold a dead man was being borne out. Lk. vii, 12. 
In the following examples the clause introduced by cum de- 
notes not only the time of the action of the main verb, but also 



76 



Clauses of Time 



the attendant circumstances which explain it, or seem likely to 
hinder it. 

Quod cum videret Simon Petrus, procidit ad genua Jesu. 
And when Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus' knees. 

Lk. V, 8. 
(The clause explains why he fell down.) 
Quomodo potest homo nasci cum senex sit? How can a 
man be born when he is old? Jn. iii, 4. 

(His age is likely to prevent his being born.) 
Ne forte, cum aliis praedicaverim, ipse reprobus efhciar. 
Lest perchance, when I have preached to others, I myself may 
become reprobate. I Cor. ix, 27. 

(The fact that he has preached to others ought to save him 
from becoming reprobate; but will it?) 

154. In clauses introduced by antequam, priusquam, dum, donee, 
quoad, either the Ind. or the Subj. mood may be used. 

The Ind. mood is used in CI. L. if the clause merely denotes the 
time of the action of the verb which it qualifies. 

The Subj. mood is used if the clause refers to an action which 
is only in prospect and explains the purpose of the action of the 
verb which it qualifies. 
Examples : 

Clause simply denoting time. 

Antequam abiit, hoc dixit. He said this before he went away. 
Dum mecum eras, ille in Hispaniam properavit. While you 
were with me, he hastened into Spain. 
Clause denoting expectation and purpose. 

Num expectas donee testimonium dicat? Are you waiting 
until he gives his evidence.^ (i.e. with a view to hearing him). 

Impetum hostium sustinuit donee ceteri scalas ad muros 
ponerent. He sustained the attack of the enemy until the others 
could set ladders to the walls. 

Ad oppidum, antequam milites a terrore se reciperent, pro- 
peravit. He hastened to the town {so as to be there) before the 
soldiers should recover thetnselves from their terror. 
In Ecc. L. either the Ind. or the Subj. is used in clauses intro- 
duced by antequam, priusquam, dum, donee, without any dis- 
tinction of meaning. The Subj. is more frequently used than the 
Ind. 



Clauses of Place 77 

Examples from the Vg. : 

Priusquam te Philippus vocaret, cum esses sub ficu, vidi te. 

Before Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I 

saw thee. Jn- i, 4^- 

Dum autem irent emere, venit sponsus. But while they went 

to buy, the bridegroom came. Mk. xxv, lo. 

Simile est regnum caelorum fermento, quod acceptum 

mulier abscondit in farinae satis tribus, donee fermentatum 

est totum. The kingdom of heaven is like leaven which a woman 

took and hid in three measures of meal, until the whole was 

leavened. Mt. xiii, 33. 

Dico tibi, Petre, non cantabit hodie gallus, donee ter 

abneges nosse me. / say to thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow 

this day until thou hast denied three times that thou knowest me. 

Lk. xxii, 34. 
See also Mt. xviii, 30; Lk. viii, 42, ix, 27, 29; Acts xxi, 7.6, 
27. 
Clauses of time may also be expressed by the Abl. Absolute or \ 
T a Participle: see sections 51, 183. • 



by 



155. (2) Clauses of Place denote the place where the action 
of the verb in the clause on which they depend is said to happen. 
They are introduced by the conjunctions 

ubi, quo = where, whither; 

unde = whence. 

Mood: Ind., as in Eng. 

If the clause of place refers to an action which will take place in 
some indefinite place in future time, the verb is generally in the 
Future Perfect tense. 

Nolite thesaurizare vobis thesauros in terra, ubi erugo et 
tinea demolitur. Lay not up for yourselves treasures on the 
earth, where rust and moth do corrupt. Mt. vi, 19. 

Ego semper docui in synagoga et in templo, quo omnes 
Judaei conveniunt. . .. / always taught in the synagogue and 
in the temple, whither all the Jews come together . . . . 

Jn. xviii, 20. 

Amen dico vobis, ubicumque praedicatum fuerit hoc evan- 

gelium in toto mundo, dicetur et quod haec fecit in memoriam 

ejus. Verily I sav to you, wherever this gospel shall be preached 



yS Clauses of Cause 

in the whole world, this which she hath done shall be told for a 
memorial of her. ^t. xxvi, 13. 

156. (3) Clauses of Cause denote the reason (real or alleged) 
given for the action of the verb in the clause on which they depend. 
They are introduced by quia, quoniam, quod, eo quod, cum, = since, 
because, etc. 

In CI. L. the Ind. is generally used in clauses introduced by quia, 
quoniam, quod, if the clause states what was the real cause of the 
action of the main verb in the opinion of the speaker or writer. 

If however the clause denotes the cause of the action of the 
main verb in the opinion of some one other than the speaker or 
writer, or gives an opinion as to its cause which the speaker or 
writer once held, but which he now does not hold, the Subj. is 
used. 

Examples : 

Judaei Apostolos, quod legem violaverant, persecuti sunt. 
The Jews persecuted the Apostles because they had (in point of 
fact) broken the law. 

Judaei Apostolos, quod legem violavissent, persecuti sunt. 

The Jews persecuted the Apostles, because (in the opinion of the 

Jews) they had broken the law. 

In the first example the writer states that the Apostles were 

persecuted because they had actually broken the law. In the 

second example the writer leaves it an open question as to whether 

the Apostles had broken the law, or not; but he states that the 

Jews persecuted them, because they thought the Apostles had 

broken the law. 

In Ecc. L. clauses introduced by quia, quoniam, quod, eo quod 
may have the verb in the Subj. even when they imply that the 
cause given for the action of the main verb is the real cause in the 
' opinion of the speaker or writer. 

Exi a me, quia homo peccator sum, Domine. Depart from 
me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord. Lk. v, 8. 

Serve nequam, omne debitum dimisi tibi, quoniam rogasti 
me. Thou worthless slave, I forgave thee all thy debt because thou 
didst ask me. Mt. xviii, 32. 

Non quod ipse esset Pater et FiUus . . . sed quod tam similes 
sint Pater et FiUus, ut qui unum noverit, ambos noverit. 
Not because the Father and the Son were the same . . . but because 



Clauses of Purpose 79 

the Father and the Son are so much alike, that he who knows one, 

knows both. Aug. Tract, in Joh. Ixx. 

Ipse autem Jesus non credebat semetipsum eis, eo quod 

ipse nosset omnes. But Jesus himself did not trust himself to 

them, because he knew all men. Jn. ii, 24. 

N.B. These clauses should be carefully distinguished from the 

noun clauses introduced by quia, quoniam and quod dealt with in 

sections 112 sq. 

156a. Clauses of cause introduced by cum have the verb in the 
Subj. both in CI. and Ecc. L. 

De omnibus quibus accusor a Judaeis, rex Agrippa., aestimo 
me beatum apud te cum sim defensurus me hodie. / think 
that I am fortunate, king Agrippa, because I am going to defend 
myself before thee about all the things whereof I am accused by 
the Jews. Acts xxvi, 2. 

Hi homines conturbant civitatem nostram, cum sint Judaei. 
These men disturb our state, because they are Jews. 

Acts xvi, 20. 
Rarely an Ind. is found in these clauses: 

Ut, cum circa servos talis est Dominus, exemplo suo doceret,. 
quails circa compares et aequales debeat esse conservus. That he 
might teach by his example what a fellow-servant ought to be with 
respect to his companions and equals, since he himself is such a Lord 
to his servants. Cypr. De bono patientiae. 

Clauses of cause may also be expressed by a Participle or by 
the Abl. Absolute. See sections 51, 183. 

157. (4) Clauses of Purpose denote the purpose of the action 
of the verb in the clause on which they depend. 
Clauses of purpose are generally introduced by 
ut when affirmative = that, in order that, 
ne when negative [ut non in Ecc. L.), 
quo when comparative. 
Mood: Subj. always. 
These clauses may also be expressed by 

1. A relative clause with the verb in the Subj. 

2. The Gerund or Gerundive Participle with ad or causa. 

3. A Future Participle. (In Ecc. L. a Present Participle may 
be used in this sense.) 

4. A Supine. (This is rare.) 



8o Clauses of Purpose 

157a. In Ecc. L. an Inf. is often used to express purpose as in 
Eng. and Gk. 

This construction is found in the Latin poets, but not in CI. 
prose. It seems to have been a vernacular idiom which came into 
literary use at a late period. 

158. Purpose expressed by ut, etc. 

Paenitemini igitur et convertimini, ut deleantur vestra 
peccata. Repent therefore and be converted that your sins may 
be blotted out. Acts iii, 19. 

Hie venit in testimonium, ut testimonium perhiberet de 
lumine. He came for a testimony in order that he might bear 
witness about the light. Jn. i, 7. 

Et in manibus toUent te, ne forte offendas ad lapidem. And 
they shall bear thee in their hands, that thou dash not thy foot 
against a stone. Mt. iv, 6. 

Nolite judicare ut non judicemini. Judge not that ye be not 
judged. Mt. vii, i. 

159. Purpose expressed by a relative clause. 

Considerate ergo, fratres, viros ex vobis boni testimonii 
septem, . . .quos constituamus super hoc opus. Look out there- 
fore from among yourselves, brethren, seven men of good report 
that we may set them over this work. Acts vi, 3. 

Tunc summiserunt viros, qui dicerent se audisse eum di- 
centem verba blasphemiae in Mosen et Deum. Then they 
suborned men to say that they had heard him speaking blas- 
phemous words against Moses and God. Acts vi, 11. 

160. Purpose expressed by the Gerundive Participle with ad. 
Propterea et ego amplius non sustinens, misi ad cognoscen- 

dam fidem vestram. Wherefore I also, since I could no longer 
forbear, sent to know your faith. I Thess. iii, 5. 

See also Rom. xv, 8. 

161 . Purpose expressed by the Future or the Present Participle. 
Post annos autem plures eleemosynas facturus in gentem 

meam veni. But after many years I came to give alms to my 

nation. Acts xxiv, 17. 

Vobis primum Deus suscitans Filium suum, misit eum bene- 



Clauses of Consequence 8i 

dicentem vobis. For you first God, having raised up his Son, 
sent Him to bless you. Acts iii, 26. 

See also Jn. vi, 6. 

162. Purpose expressed by the Inf. 

Venisti hue ante tempus torquere nos ? Hast thou come here 
before the time to torment us? Mt. viii, 29. 

Et circumspiciebat videre earn quae hoc fecerat. And he 
looked about to see her that had done this. Mk. v, 32. 

Non enim misit me Christus baptizare, sed evangeHzare. 
For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel. 

I Cor. i, 17. 

163. (5) Clauses of Consequence denote the consequence or 
result of the action of the verb in the clause on which they depend. 

They are introduced by ut or ita ut, so that, when affirmative 
and are negatived by non. 
Mood: Subj. always. 

Sic enim dilexit Deus mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum 
daret. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten 
Son. Jn. iii, 16. 

Et convenerunt multi, ita ut non caperet neque ad januami. 
And many came together, so that there was no room for them 
even at the door. Mk. ii, 2. 

Numquid aquam quis prohibere potest, ut non baptizentur 
hi qui Spiritum Sanctum acceperunt sicut et nos? Can any 
forbid water, that tJiese should be baptized who have received the 
Holy Ghost as well as we? Acts x, 47. 

Si confiteamur peccata nostra fidelis est et Justus ut re- 
mittat nobis peccata nostra. // we confess our sins, he is 
faithfid and just to forgive us our sins. I Jn. i, 9. 

These clauses should be observed with special care as the con- 
struction of them is so very unlike Eng. 

164. The Inf. may be used (in the Vg.) to denote consequence 
in imitation of the Gk. 

O insensa,ti Galatae quis vos f ascinavit non obedire veritati ? 
O foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you that you should nof^ 
obey the truth? Gal. iii, i. 

Et quomodo conversi estis ad Deum a simulacris, servire 

1 This is reading of SC text. 

N.E L. 6 



82 Clauses of Concession 

Deo vivo et vero. And how ye were turned to God from idoli, 

to serve the living and true God. I Thess. i, 9. 

Anania, cur temtavit Satanas cor tuum, mentiri te Spiritui 

Sancto? Ananias, why hath Satan tempted thine heart that thou 

shouldest lie to the Holy Spirit? Acts v, 3. 

In Rom. i, 10 a Gk. Inf. denoting consequence is trans, by the 

Gen. of the Gerund. , 

165. Very rarely clauses of consequence are introduced by quia, and 
once, in a quotation from the O.T., by quod and quoniam. 

Quo hie iturus est, quia non inveniemus eum? Where does he 
intend to go that we shall not find him? Jn. vii, 35. 

See also Mt. viii, 27; Mk. iv, 40. 

Quid est homo quod memor es ejus, aut filius hominis quoniam 
visitas eum? What is man that thou art mindful of him, or the son 
of man that thou visitest him? Heb. ii, 6, cited from Ps. viii, 5. 

166. (6) Clauses of Concession denote some fact which is re- 
garded as hkely to prevent or to have prevented the occurrence of 
the action of the verb in tlie clause on which they depend. 

They are introduced by cum, quamvis, etsi, licet = although. In 
the Vg. the principal clause may be introduced by sed or sed tamen : 
see examples below. 

In clauses introduced by ctmi in this sense, the verb is always 
in the Subj. In CI. L, quaniquam is followed by a verb in the Ind. 
and quamvis is followed by a verb in the Subj. In Ecc. L. the 
Subj. is found after both these words. Clauses introduced by etsi 
are similar in construction to clauses of condition. Clauses intro- 
duced by licet have the verb in the Subj. (Ind. in Vg). 

The tense is the same as that which is used in the English. 
Negative non. 

Ecce et naves, cum magnae sint, et a ventis validis minentur, 

circumferuntur a modico gubernaculo. Behold also the ships, 

altJiough they are so big and aWioitgh they are ihreateiied by 

strong winds, are turned about by a small helm. Jas. iii, 4. 

See also Mt. xxvi, 60. 

Unum scio, quia caecus cum essem, modo video. One thing 

I know, that, although I was blind, now I see. Jn. ix, 25. 

Nam cum liber essem ex omnibus, omnium me servum feci. 

For although I was free from all men, I made myself a slave of all. 

I Cor. ix, 19. 



Clauses of Condition 83 

Quamvis non longe sit ab unoquoque nostrum. Although 
he is not far froDi each one of its. Acts xvii, 27. 

Quamquam Jesus non baptizaret, sed discipuli ejus. Al- 
though Jesus did not baptize, hut his disciples. Jn. iv, 2. 

See also Phil, iii, 4; Heb. vii, 5. 

Cum possemus vobis oneri esse. . .sed facti sumus parvuli 
in medio vestrum. Although we might have been burdensome to 
you. . .we made ourselves like little children in the midst of you. 

I Thess. ii, 7. 

Etsi omnes scandalizati fuerint: sed non ego. Although all 
shall be offended in thee : yet will I never be offended. 

See also Col. ii, 5. Mk. xiv, 29. 

Sed licet nos, aut angelus de caelo evangelizet vobis prae- 
terquam quod evangelizavimus vobis, anathema sit. But 
although we, or an angel from heaven preach to you any other 
gospel than that which we have preached to you, let him be ac- 
cursed. Gal. i, 8. 

Sed licet is qui foris est noster homo corrumpitur.... But 
although our outward man decays... . II Cor. iv, 16. 

A clause of concession may also be expressed by a participle or 
b}^ the Abl. Absolute. See sections 51, 183. 

167. (7) Clauses of Condition state the condition on which the 
action of the verb in the clause on which they depend would take 
place. 

A clause of condition and the clause on which it depends make 
up a sentence which is called a Conditional Sentence. In such a 
sentence the clause of condition states a supposition, and the 
principal clause states the result of the fulfilment of the supposition. 

The clause of condition is called the Protasis and the principal 
clause is called the Apodosis of the conditional sentence. 

Clauses of condition are introduced by si, if, nisi, unless, j 
Negative non. | 

In CI. L. if the verb in the principal clause is in the Ind. mood, 
the verb in the clause of condition is also in the Ind. mood. If the 
verb in the principal clause is in the Subj. mood, the verb in the 
clause of condition is also in the Subj. mood. There are exceptions 
to this rule; but they are rare and generally due to a desire to pro- 
duce a rhetorical effect. In Ecc. L. the rule given above is not 
strictly observed. 

6—2 



84 Clauses of Condition 

The construction of conditional sentences varies according as 
the time of the supposition is Past, Present, or Future, and ac- 
cording as the condition is regarded as fulfilled, or unfulfilled. 

It is obvious that a condition is never regarded as fulfilled at the 
time contemplated by the clause on which it depends. It may 
however be stated in such a way as to imply that it has not been 
fulfilled. 

Consider the sentences 

If you are ill I shall send for the doctor. 

If you were ill I should send for the doctor. 

If you had been ill I should have sent for the doctor. 

In the first of these sentences it is left an open question whether 
the condition has been fulfilled, or not. In the other two sentences 
it is implied that the condition has not been fulfilled. The first 
of the two relates to illness extending up to the present time : the 
second of the two refers to illness in the past. 

The two latter sentences illustrate what is meant by an unful- 
filled conditional sentence. 

168. Present or past suppositions implying nothing as to the 
fulfilment of the condition. 

A Present or Past tense of the Ind. is used in the clause of condi- 
tion. Almost any part of the verb may be used in the principal clause. 
Si judico ego, judicium meum verum est. // I judge, my 
judgment is true. Jn. viii, i6. 

Si Filius Dei es, die ut lapides isti panes fiant. // thou art the 
Son of God, command these stones to become loaves .... 

Mt. iv, 3. 
Si Abraham ex operibus justificatus est, habet gloriam. // 
Abraham was justified by works, he has whereof to glory. 

Rom. iv, 2. 

Si vero ex Deo est, non poteritis dissolvere eos. // it is 

really of God, you will not be able to break them up. Acts v, 39. 

169. Present or Past suppositions implying that the condition 
has not been fulfilled. 

The Imperfect or Pluperfect Subj. is used both in the clause of 
condition and in the principal clause. The Imperfect Subj . denotes 
continued action in past time, or action extending up to the 



Unfulfilled Clauses of Condition 85 

present moment. The Pluperfect Subj. denotes action in past 
time. 

Si adhuc hominibus placerem, Christi servus non essem. 
// / were still pleasing men, I should not be the slave of Christ. 

Gal. i, 10. 

Si diligeretis me, gauderetis utique. If ye loved w.e, ye would 

certainly rejoice. Jn. xiv, 28. 

Non haberes potestatem adversum me ullam, nisi tibi datum 

esset de super. Thou wouldst have no power at all against me 

unless it had been given thee from above. Jn. xix, 11. 

Si non esset hie malefactor, non tibi tradidissemus eum. // 

this man were not a malefactor, we would not have given him 

up to thee. Jn. xviii, 30. 

Si opera non fecissem in eis, quae nemo alius fecit, peccatum 

non haberent. // / had not done among them the ivorks that 

no man else did, they would not have sin. Jn. xv, 24. 

Domine, si fuisses hie, frater meus non fuisset mortuus. 

Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother ivould not have died. 

Jn. xi, 21. 

170. If one of the Modal verbs such as possum, debeo, oportet or 
a Periphrastic tense made up of the Future Participle or the Gerund 
or Gerundive with part of esse stands in the principal clause of a 
conditional sentence in which there is a Subj. in the clause of con- 
dition, the Indicative mood of such verbs is used instead of the 
Subj. 

Nisi esset hie a Deo, non poterat facere quicquam. If this 
man were not of God, he could do nothing. Jn. ix, 33. 

Dimitti poterat homo hie, si non appellasset Caesarem. 
This man might be let go, if he had not appealed to Caesar. 

Acts xxvi, 32. 

171 . The following are examples of sentences in which the rule 
that, if there is an Ind. in the principal clause, there should be an 
Ind. in the clause of condition is not observed. 

Bonum erat ei, si natus non fuisset homo ille. It was good 
for that man, if he had not been born. Mt. xxvi, 24. 

Nam concupiscentiam nesciebam, nisi lex diceret: Non 
concupisces. For I did not know covetousness, if the law had 
not said : Thou shall not covet. Rom. vii, 7. 



86 Future Clauses of Condition 

172. Future Suppositions. There are two forms of future suppo- 
sitions. 

1. The more vivid form. 

2. The less vivid form. 

The Future or Future Perfect Indicative is used in the more 
vivid form. The Present Subj. is used in the less vivid form. 

In Eng. the Present Ind. is often used in the Protasis of these 
conditional sentences. This use is really incorrect : the Latin is 
much more accurate in its use of tenses: consider the force of 
the Latin Future and Future Perfect tenses in the examples 
given below. 

If the action expressed in the Protasis of the conditional sen- 
tence is represented as taking place before the action denoted by 
the verb in the principal clause, the Future Perfect is properly 
used, because the action denoted by the principal clause is itself 
still future. Strictly speaking the Future should only be used in 
the Protasis when the time denoted by the Protasis and Apodosis 
is identical. For example: 

Dum hie ero, te amabo. A s long as I am here, I shall love you. 

It will be noticed however that this principle is not strictly 
observed. 

Si quis autem templum Dei violaverit, disperdet eum Deus. 
But if any man defile the temple of God, him will God destroy. 

I Cor. iii, 17. 

Si omnes scandalizati fuerint in te, ego numquam scan- 
dalizabor. // all men shall he offended in thee, yet will I never 
he offended. Mt. xxvi, 33. 

Haec tibi omnia dabo, si cadens adoraveris me. All these 
things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. 

Mt. iv, 9. 

Fidelis sermo: nam si commortui sumus, et convivemus: 
si sustinebimus, et conregnabimus : si negabimus, et ille negabit 
nos. Faithful is the saying : for if we have died with him, we 
shall also live with him : if ive endure, we shall also reign with 
him: if we deny him, he also will deny us. II Tim. ii, 11. 

173. The use of the less vivid form is rare. 

Quid enim proficit homo, si lucretur universum mundum, 
se autem ipsum perdat, et detrimentum sui faciat? For what 



Clauses of Comparison 87 

does it profit a man if he should gain the ivhole world, hut lose 
himself, and work his own destruction? Lk. ix, 25. 

Sic est regnum Dei, quemadmodum si homo jaciat semen- 
tem in terrain. ... So is the kingdom of God as if a man should 
cast a seed into the earth. . . . Mk. iv, 26. 

See also I Cor. vii, 8. 

174. In accordance with Heb. usage, sentences similar in meaning to 
Conditional Sentences are found in the Vg. where the conditional clause 
is expressed by [a) an inversion, {b) an Imperative. 

[a] Tristatur aliquis vestrum? oret aequo animo et psallat. 
Inlirmatur quis in vobis? inducat presbyteros Ecclesiae. Is any 
sad among you? let him pray with a calm mind and let him sing 
psalms. Is any sick among you? let him send for the elders of the 
Church. Jas. v, 13. 

{b) Petite, et dabitur vobis: quaerite, et invenietis: pulsate, et 
aperietur vobis. Ask, and it shall be given to you: seek, and ye 
shall find: knock, and it shall be opened to yon. Mt. vii, 7. 

175. (8) Clauses of Comparison compare the action or state de- 
noted by the verb in the clause on which they depend to the action 
or state denoted in the clause of comparison. 

They are introduced by ut, sicttt, prout, quomodo, tanquam-, quasi, \ 
etc., as, as if. Negative non. 

The verb in clauses of comparison is in the Indicative, if it is 
implied that the comparison is real. 

If it is implied that the comparison is not real, the verb may be 
in the Subjunctive. 

Sometimes only a Participle is used and sometimes the verb is 
omitted altogether in the clause of comparison. 

Ita et viri debent diligere uxores ut corpora sua. So men 

ought to love their wives as their own bodies. Eph. v, 28. 

Non ergo oportuit et te misereri conservi tui, sicut et ego 

tui misertus sum? Oughtest thou not therefore to have had pity 

on thy fellow slave, even as I had pity on thee? Mt. xviii, 33. 

Ut quomodo Christus surrexit a mortuis. . .ita et nos in 

novitate vitae ambulemus. That as Christ rose from the dead 

. . .30 we also may walk in newness of life. Rom. vi, 4. 

Consilium autem do tanquam misericordiam consecutus a 

Domino. But I give my advice as one that has received mercy 

from the Lord. I Cor. vii, 25. 



88 Participles 

Ostendens se tanquam sit Deus. Showing himself as if he 
were God. II Thess. ii, 4. 

Diliges proximum tuum tanquam te ipsum. Thou shalt love 
thy neighbour as thyself. Mk. xn, 31. 

His qui sub lege sunt, quasi sub lege essem, cum ipse non 
essem sub lege, ut eos, qui sub lege erant, lucri facerem. To 
those that are under the law as if I were under the law, althotigh 
I was not under the law, that I might gain them that were under 
the law. I Cor. ix, 20. 

Carissimi, nolite peregrinari in fervore qui ad temptationem 
vobis fit, quasi novi aliquid vobis contingat. Beloved, do not 
be disturbed at the fiery trial which has come upon you to test 
you, as if some new thing were happening to you. 

I Pet. iv, 12. 

Optulistis mihi hunc hominem, quasi avertentem populum. 
Ye have brought to me this man as one that is turning away the 
people. ... Lk. xxiii, 14. 

Sic curro, non quasi in incertum : sic pugno, non quasi aerem 

verberans. So run I not as uncertainly : so fight I not as one 

that beateth the air. I Cor. ix, 7. 

Sometimes a clause of consequence is expressed by sicut or sic 

followed hy et. 

Fiat voluntas tua sicut in caelo et in terra. Thy will be done 
in earth as it is in heaven. Mt. vi, 10. 

PARTICIPLES. 

176. A Participle is a verbal adjective sharing the character- 
istics of both verbs and adjectives. 

As a verb it has a subject, and, if it is the Participle of a transi- 
tive verb, it has an object. It governs the same case as the verb 
from which it is derived. It has also tense and voice. 

As an adjective it agrees with the noun which it qualifies in 
number, gender and case. 

The Latin language is very short of Participles : it only has : 
A Present Participle Active. 
A Future Participle Active. 
A Past Participle Passive. 
In the case of deponent verbs the Past Participle is used in an 
active sense, as well as a passive. 



Tenses of the Participles 89 

The time denoted by the tense of a Participle is relative to 
the time of the main verb, and not to the time of speaking, or 
writing. 

177. Properly speaking the Present Participle denotes action 
going on at the same time as the action of the main verb, but in 
Ecc. L. the Present Participle is continually used to represent the 
Aorist Participle in Gk. and to denote action which took place 
before the action of the main verb. See examples. 

The Future Participle denotes action which is expected to take 
place. 

The Past Participle is also a Perfect Participle and so denotes 
past action complete and so continuing to have its effect at the 
time of the action of the main verb as well as simple past action. 

178. Examples of the use of the tenses of the Participle: 
Present Participle in the sense of action contemporaneous with 

that of the main verb. 

Igitur qui dispersi erant pertransibant evangelizantes ver- 

bum. Those therefore that were scattered went everywhere 

preaching the word. Acts viii, 4.- 

Viri autem illi qui comitabantur cum eo, stabant stupefacti, 

audientes quidem vocem, neminem autem videntes. But the 

men who were travelling with hiin stood amazed, hearing the 

voice, hut seeing no man. Acts ix, 7. 

Notice the use of the Past Participle stupefacti in a Perfect sense. 

Present Participle in the sense of action previous to that of the 

main verb. 

Ascendens autem, frangensque panem et gustans, satisque 

allocut'is usque ad lucem, sic profectus est. But having gone 

up and having broken bread and eaten, and having addressed 

them a long time even until dawn, so he departed. Acts xx, 11. 

Notice that the Present Participle and the Past Participle are 

used in exactly the same sense in this passage. 

See also Mk. iii, 13; Eph. ii, 14, 15. 

179. Future Participle in the sense of expected action. 
Genimina viperarum, quis ostendit vobis fugere a ventura 

ira? O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from 
the wrath to come? Lk. iii, 7. 



90 Participles used Adjectivally 

180. Past Participle in sense of past or perfect action. 
Demoratus autem inter eos dies non amplius quam octo 

aut decern, descendit Caesaream. And having remained among 
them, not more than eight or ten days he descended to Caesarea. 

Acts XXV, 6. 

181. A Participle may be used either adjectivally or adverbi- 
ally. 

When it is used adjectivally it limits the meaning of the noun 
which it qualifies just like an adjective. A participle may also be 
used by itself in this sense, the noun with which it agrees being 
understood. Adjectival Participles are generally best translated 
by an adjectival clause, an adjective or a noun. 

When it is used adverbially it is equivalent to an adverbial 
clause modifying some verb in the sentence. Adverbial Participles 
are generally best translated by a suitable adverbial clause. 

The context must decide which kind of adverbial clause the 
Participle in question is equivalent to. The Participle itself does 
not denote time, purpose, cause, concession, or condition, but the 
context implies one of these ideas, and the Participle admits it. 

Participles are used much more frequently in Latin than in 
Eng., and this is the reason why it is so often advisable to translate 
a Participle by a clause. 

182. Adjectival Participles. These are generally best translated 
by a relative clause, or by a noun. 

Nolumus autem vos ignorare, fratres, de dormientibus. But 
we do not wish you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning those that 
are asleep. I Thess. iv, 13. 

Quam plus es petentibus, sed quid invenientibus? How 
good thou art to those that seek, but what to those that find? 

St Bernard. 

Qua cessabunt persequentes, et regnabunt patientes. Where 
the persecutors shall cease, and the patient shall reign. 

Hym. Lat. 

The use of participles as nouns is characteristic of Late Latin. 

Credentes = believers. Diflidentes = unbelievers. 

Discentes — disciples. 



Participles used Adverbially 91 

183. Adverbial Participles. 
Equivalent to a clause of Time. 

Orantes autem, nolite multum loqui. But when ye pray, 
do not say much. Mt. vi, 7. 

Oportuit ergo te mittere pecuniam meam nummulariis, et 
veniens ego recepissem utique quod meum est cum usura. 
You ought to have put out my money to the bankers, and then, 
when I came, I should have received my own with usury. 

Mt. XXV, 27. 
Equivalent to a clause of Cause. 

Peccavi tradens sanguinem justum. / have sinned, because 
I have betrayed righteous blood. Mt. xxvii, 4. 

See also Acts iv, 21, xii, 3; II Pet. i, 19. 
Equivalent to a clause of Concession. 

Et nuUam causam mortis invenientes in eum, petierunt a 

Pilato ut interficerent eum. And although they found no cause 

of death in him, yet they asked Pilate that they might slay him. 

See also II Pet. i, 12; Jude, 5. Acts xiii, 28. 

Equivalent to a clause of Purpose. 

The future participle is generally used in this sense; but in 
Ecc. L. a present participle may be so used. 

Post autem annos plures eleemosynas facturus in gentem 

meam veni. But after many years I came to make offerings to 

my nation. Acts xxiv, 17. 

Sine videamus an veniat Helias hberans eum. Let us see if 

Elias will come to save him. Mt. xxvii, 49. 

Vobis primum Deus suscitans Filium suum, misit eum bene- 

dicentem vobis. To you first God, having raised up his Son, 

sent him to bless you. Acts iii, 26. 

Equivalent to a clause of Condition. 

Tempore enim suo metemus, non deficientes. For in his 
own time we shall reap, if we faint not. Gal. vi, 9. 

A quibus custodientes vos, bene agetis. If ye Keep your- 
selves from these, ye shall do well. Acts xv, 29. 
See also Rom. ii, 27, xii, 20. 

184. After verbs denoting ceasing, continuing, making an end 
or failing a participle is used to complete the sense, as in Gk. 

Et factum est cum consummasset Jesus praecipiens duo- 



92 Gerund and Gerundive 

decim. discipulis suis And it came to pass when Jesus had 

made an end of giving commands to his twelve disciples. . .. 

Mt. xi, I. 

Vos autem, fratres, nolite deficere bene facientes. . .. But 
you, brethren, do not cease to do well. ... II Thess. in, 13. 

Petrus autem perseveravit pulsans. Btit Peter continued 
knocking. Acts xn, 16. 

See also Acts v, 42; Eph. i, 16; Col. i, 9. 

185. A peculiar use of the Present Participle which is an attempt to 
reproduce the Heb. Inf. Absolute is found in the Vg. 

The Pres. Part, is used with a mood of the same verb to make a strong 
or positive statement. 

Conterens non conteram domum Jacob. I will not utterly destroy 

the house of Jacob. Amos ix, 8. 

Videns vidi afflictionem populi mei. I have surely seen the affliction 

of my people. Acts vii, 34. 

See also Heb. vi, 14; Mt. xiii, 14. 

The same sense may also be expressed by an Abl. of the Gerund or by 

the Abl. of a noun of kindred meaning to the verb. 

Praecipiendo praecipimus vobis ne doceretis in nomine isto. We 
have strictly charged you that ye should not teach in this name. 

Acts v, 28. 

Qui maledixerit patri vel matri, morte moriatur. Whosoever 

curses father or mother, let him surely die. Mt. xv, 4. 

Desiderio desideravi hoc pascha manducare vobiscum antequam 

patiar. I have greatly desired to eat this Passover with you before I 

suffer. Lk. xxii, 15. 

A Pres. Part, may also be used in the sense of the Abl. of the 

gerund. 

Quis autem vestrum cogitans potest adjicere ad staturam 
suam cubitum unum? Which of you by thinking can add one 
cubit to his stature? Mt. vi, 27. 

THE GERUND, GERUNDIVE PARTICIPLE AND SUPINE. 

186. These parts of the Latin verb have no exact equivalents in 
Eng., although the Eng. verbal noun ending in ing is equivalent 
to some uses of the Gerund. 

The Gerund and Supine are verbal nouns and the Gerundive is 
a verbal adjective. 

The Nom. case of the verbal noun is expressed in Latin by the 



Gerund and Gerundive 93 

Inf. and so is the Ace. case, except in uses where the verbal noun 
stands after a preposition. 

The Gen., Dat. and Abl. cases of the verbal noun and the Ace. 
case, when standing after a prepo.sition, are expressed by the 
Gerund. 

The Gerund is not used very often in the Vg. 

For the sake of clearness some simple examples of each case of the 
verbal noun are given first and then some examples from the Vg. etc. 
Nominative. Edere jucundum est. To eat [or eating) is pleasant. 
Accusative. Dicit edere jucundum esse. He says that eating is 

pleasant. 
Accusative {with a prep.). Omnia ad edendum parata sunt. All 

things are prepared for eating. 
Genitive. Amor edendi magnum, malum est. The love of eating is 

a great evil. 
Dative. Dat operam edendo. He gives attention to eating. 
Ablative. Vivimus edendo. We live by eating. 

187. Examples of the use of the Gerund in the Vg. : 

Et dedit illis potestatem curandi infirmitates. And he gave 
them the power of curing diseases. Mk. iii, 15; Mt. xi, 15. 

Deus autem spei repleat vos omni gaudio et pace in cre- 
dendo. But may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace 
in believing. Rom. xv, 13. 

Quae quaestum magnum praestabat dominis suis divinando. 
Who brought much gain to her masters by soothsaying. 

Acts xvi, 16. 

See also Acts x, 33; I Cor. xii, 24; I Tim. v, 21. 

188. A peculiar use of the Abl. of the Gerund which is employed to 
translate a Present or Aorist Participle in the Gk. is found in the Vg. 
This is generally best translated by a present participle in Eng. 

Qui pertransivit bene faciendo et sanando omnes oppressos a 
diabolo. Who went about doing good and healing all that were op- 
pressed by the devil. Acts x, 38. 

Hodie, in David dicendo, post tantum temporis .... Saying in 
David: "To-day, after so long a time. . .." Heb. iv, 7. 

In casulis habitando cum Isaac Dwelling in tents with Isaac .... 

Heb. xi, g. 

In quo et laboro, certando secundum operationem ejus, quam 
operatur in me in virtute. In which I also labour, luorking according 
to his operation which he works in me with power. Col. i, 29. 



94 Gerund and Gerundive 

A similar use is found in the " Stabat Mater." 
Vidit suum dulcem Natum 
Moriendo desolatum. 
And in Augustine: 

Nee jam ingemiscebam orando ut subvenires mihi. 

Confess, vi, 3. 

189. In the Vg. translation of the Psalms (which is not Jerome's 
direct translation from the Heb., but a revised form of the Old Latin) 
the Abl. of the Gerund with in is found in a sense which is best translated 
into Eng. by a clause of time. 

This is also found in Augustine. 
Example: 

In convertendo inimicum meum retrorsum. . . . When mine enemy 
is turned back. . .. Ps. ix, 4. 

In deficiendo ex me spiritum meum, et tu cognovisti semitas 
meas. When my spirit failed within me, thou kneivest my paths. 

Ps. cxli, 4. 
See also ci, 23, cxxv, i. 

190. In CI. L. if the verb is transitive and the object expressed 
the Gerundive Participle is generally used instead of the Gerund. 

The Gerundive is not a noun, but an adjective, and, as such, 
agrees with its noun in number, gender and case. 

As the Gerundive is in the passive voice in Latin and the verbal 
noun is in the active voice in Eng., the noun with which it agrees 
will be that which is the object of the verbal noun in Eng. 

Thus where we write in Eng. : 

They sent ambassadors for the sake of seeking peace, 
the Latin has something equivalent to: 

They sent ambassadors for the sake of peace to be sought. 

By a construction known as the Gerundive Attraction the word 
that would be the object if the Gerund were used is drawn into 
the case of the Gerundive, if this is in any other case than the Ace, 
and the Gerundive still agrees with it in number and gender. 

Thus instead of the Gerund construction 

Miserunt legatos ad petendum pacem, 
we write 

Miserunt legatos ad petendam pacem. 
Instead of 

Causa opprimendi legionem. For the sake of destroying the legion, 
we write Causa opprimendae legionis. 



Gerund and Gerundive 95 

Instead of Opprimendo legiones. By destroying the legions, we 
write Opprimendis legionibus. 

This Gerundive construction is nearly always used in the Ace. 
and Dat. and generally in the Gen. and Abl. The Gen. PI. is 
avoided. 

Examples of the Gerundive construction from the Vg. : 

Ad dandam scientiam salutis plebi ejus.... To give the 
knowledge of salvation to his people. . .. Lk. i, 77. 

Dico enim Christum Jesum ministrum fuisse circumcisionis, 
propter veritatem Dei, ad confirmandas promissiones patrum. 
For I say that Christ Jesus was a minister of the circumcision, 
on account of the truth of God, to confirm the promises of the 
fathers. Rom. xv, 8. 

See also Mt. xxvi, 12; I Thess. iii, 5. 

191. In Ecc. L. the Gerund is found governing a direct object. 
Hoc autem ipse de se, non profecto jactando virtutem, sed 

deflendo potius defectum, quem sibi per curam pastoralem in- 
cucurrisse videbatur, referre consueverat. This he used to say 
about himself, not certainly by way of boasting of his virtue, but 
rather by way of lamenting his shortcomings, which he seemed 
to have incurred through the pastoral office. Bede, Hist. Ecc. 
Ego autem dico vobis : quoniam omnis, qui viderit mulierem 
ad concupiscendum eam, jam moechatus est eam in corde suo. 
But I say to you that every one who looketh on a woman to lust 
after her hath already committed adultery with her in his heart. 

Mt. V, 28. 

See also Mk. iii, 15, quoted above, and Rom. i, 5. 

192. In the Nom. case and the Ace. case (when used as the 
subject of an infinitive) the Gerund and the Gerundive have a 
meaning which is quite distinct from that which has been de- 
scribed above. They have a sense of obligation or duty. 

The Gerund is used when the verb is Intransitive, or when the 
verb is Transitive and the object is not expressed. 

As stated above, the Gerund is in the Active voice and the 
Gerundive is in the Passive voice and agrees with its subject in 
number, gender and case. 



96 Supine 



The name of the person on whom the duty hes is put in the Dat. 
case. If the verb governs a Dat. the Abl. with a is used to express 
the person on whom the duty lies, to avoid ambiguity. 
Examples : 
Gerund. 

Currendum est mihi. / must run. 

Parentibus nostris a nobis parendum est. We must obey 
our parents. 
Gerundive. 

Mater tua amanda est. Your mother is to be loved, or You 
must love your another. 

Hostes nobis vincendi sunt. The enemy are to be conquered 
by us, or We must conquer the enemy. 
Examples from the Vg. : 
Gerund. 

Horrendum est incidere in manus Dei viventis. It is a 
thing to be feared to fall into the hands of a living God. 

Heb. X, 31. 
Qui praedicas non furandum, furaris? Thou who preachest 
that a man should not steal, dost thou steal? Rom. ii, 21. 

Gerundive. 

Filius hominis tradendus est in manus hominum. The Son 
of man must be given up into the hands of men. Mt. xvii, 22. 

By a very exceptional construction the Gerundive is used in the sense 
of and parallel with the Future Participle. 

At illi existimabant eum in tumorem convertendum et subito 
casurum et mori. But they thought that he would swell up and sud- 
denly fall down and die. Acts xxviii, 6. 

The Supine. 

193. The Supine ending in um expresses purpose. It is rare in 
Latin. 

Et quicumque potum dederit uni ex minimis istis calicem 

aquae frigidae tantum.. .non perdet mercedem suam. And 

whosoever shall give only a cup of cold water to one of the least 

of these to drink. . .he shall not lose his reward. Mt. x, 42. 

The Supine ending in u is only used in certain expressions in 

the sense of the Abl. case of a verbal noun. 

Auditu audietis et non intelUgetis .... In hearing ye shall 
hear and shall not understand. . . . Mt. xiii, 14, from Isa. vi, 9. 



Questions 97 

Qui ergo tribuit vobis Spiritum et operatur virtutes in 
vobis: ex operibus legis, an ex auditu fidei? He therefore that 
giveth to you the Spirit and worketh mighty works among you: 
doth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? 

See also Isa. ii, i6. Gal. iii, 5. 

METHODS OF ASKING QUESTIONS. 

194. In CI. L. direct questions which may be answered by either yes 
or no are expressed by adding the particle ne to an emphatic word at 
the beginning of the sentence. 

In the Vg. there is often nothing but the context to show if a sentence 
is a question or not. 

Pilatus vocavit Jesum et dixit ei: Tu es rex Judaeorum? Pilate 
called Jesus and said to him: Art thou the king of the Jews? 

Jn. xviii, 33. 

195. If an affirmative answer is expected to the question it is intro- 
duced by nonne and in the Vg. by an. 

Domine, Domine, nonne in nomine tuo prophetavimus? Lord, 
Lord, did we not prophecy in thy name? Mt. vii, 22. 

An nescitis quoniam sancti de mundo judicabunt? Do ye not 
know that the saints shall judge concerning the world? I Cor. vi, 2. 

See also Mt. xxvi, 53; Rom. iii, 29, vi, 3. 
Numquid non is also found in the Vg. in this sense: Rom. x, 18. 

196. If a negative answer is expected to the question it is introduced 
by num in CI. L. and by numquid in the Vg. 

Respondit Pilatus: Numquid ego Judaeus sum? Pilate answered : 
Am I a Jew? Jn. xviii, 35. 

Num is apparently not found in the Vg. N.T. It is found in the O.T. 
Num custos fratris mei ego sum? Am I my brother's keeper? 

Gen. iv, 9. 
Both methods of asking a question are seen in this example: 

Ahi dicebant: Hie est Christus. Quidam autem dicebant: Num- 
quid a Galilaea venit Christus? Nonne scriptura dicit: Quia ex 
semine David ... venit Christus? Others said: This is Christ. But 
certain said : Does Christ come out of Galilee? Does not the scripture 
say that Christ comes of the seed of David? Jn. vii, 41. 

See also Mk iv, 21. 

197. In the Vg. si is often used in imitation of Gk. to introduce both 
direct and indirect questions. 

Dixitque ad eos: Si Spiritum Sanctum accepistis credentes? At 

illi dixerunt ad eum: Sed neque si Spiritus Sanctus est, audivimus. 

See also Acts x, 18, xxi, 37. Acts xxx, 2. 

N.E.L. 7 



98 Adjectives 

198. Questions may be introduced by the interrogative pronoun quis 
or by expressions compounded with it such as quomodo or ut quid, which 
is an imitation of the Gk. tva ri or e^s ri. 

See Mt. ix, 4, xxvi, 8; Acts vii, 26; I Cor. x, 29. 
Quid is used in the sense of cur — why in Mt. xx, 6. 
Alternative or double questions are expressed by utnim. . .an, see 
Jn. vii, 17, or. by an alone in the second member of the question. The 
latter is the usual method in the Vg. 

Tu es qui venturus es, an alium expectamus? Art thou he that 

should come, or are we to look for another? Mt. xi, 3. 

Quem vultis dimittam vobis: Barabbam, an Jesum qui dicitur 

Christus? Which do you wish that I should release for you : Bar abbas, 

or Jesus who is called Christ? Mt. xxvii, 17. 

Notice the use of the interrogative pronoun quern here where utrum 

would have been used in CI. L. 

See also Jn. xviii, 34. 

ADJECTIVES. 

199. An adjective whether used as an attribute of a noun or to com- 
plete a predicate agrees with the noun which it qualifies in number, 
gender and case. 

Sometimes, however, if the noun is a collective noun, the adjective 
agrees rather with the idea that is signified by the noun than with the 
grammatical number and gender of the noun {constructio ad sensum). 

Sed turba haec, quae non novit legem, maledicti sunt. But this 
crowd which knoivs not the law are cursed. Jn. vii, 49. 

See also Jas. iii, 8; Rev. vii, 9. 

Multitude militiae caelestis laudantium Deum et dicentium .... 
A multitude of the heavenly host [of angels) praising God and saying . . . . 

Lk. ii, 13. 

200. Adjectives are often used as equivalent to nouns, the masculine 
denoting men, or people in general of the kind described by the adjective, 
the feminine women, the neuter things. 

Resurrectio justorum et iniquorum. A resurrection of the just 

and the unjust. Acts xxiv, 15. 

Invisibilia enim ipsius. . .per ea quae facta sunt intellecta con- 

spiciuntur. For the invisible things of him. . .being understood by 

the things that are made, are perceived. Rom. i, 20. 

The neuter of the adjective may be used in the sense of an abstract 

noun. Salutave — s^^.\■a.tlon, Lk ii, 30. 

201 . The adjective unus is used in the Vg. in the sense of the indefinite 
article This use became general in the Romance languages. 



Comparison of Adjectives 99 

Et accessit ad eum una ancilla dicens: Et tu cum Jesu Galilaeo 
eras. And there came to him a maid and said: Thou also weyt with 
Jesus the Galilaean. Mt. xxvi, 69. 

See also Mt. xxi, 19. 

202. The adjective omnis is used with a negative to express a strong 
negative statement or command in imitation of Heb. 

Et nisi breviati fuissent dies illi, non fieret salva omnis caro .... 
And unless those days had been shortened, no living thing would be 
saved. Mt. xxiv, 22. 

Omnis sermo malus ex ore vestro non procedat. Let no corrupt 
speech proceed out of your mouth. Eph. iv, 29. 

See also Rom. iii, 20; I Cor. i, 29; Rev. xviii, 22. 

Comparison of Adjectives. 

203. The positive degree of an adjective may be used in the Vg. in 
the sense of a comparative. 

Bonum est tibi ... in vitam intrare . . . quam mitti in gehennam. 
It is better for thee to enter into life than to be cast into Gehenna. 

Mt. xviii, 9. 
The positive may be used in the sense of a superlative. 

Quod est magnum mandatum in lege? Which is the greatest com- 
mandment in the law? Mt. xxii, 36. 
The comparative may be used in the sense of a superlative. 

Major autem horum est charitas. Btd the greatest of these is love. 

I Cor. xiii, 13. 
The superlative may be used in the sense of the comparative. 

Quod minimum quidem est omnibus seminibus. Which indeed is 
less than all seeds. Mt. xiii, 32; Heb. xi, 4. 

204. The ordinary const, after an adj. in the comparative degree in 
CI. L. to express the object with which the comparison is made is to put 
the word which denotes this object in the Abl. case, or to use quam. 

Amen dico vobis, non surrexit inter natos mulierum major 
Johanne Baptista. Verily I say to you, there has not arisen any one 
greater than John the Baptist among those born of women. 

Mt. xi, II. 
Qui amat patrem aut matrem plus quam me, non ert me dignus. 
He who loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me. 

Mt. X, 37. 
In the Vg. in imitation of Heb. the preps, a, ex, prae, super may be 
used after an adjective in the comparative degree, or even a Gen. case, 
in imitation of Gk. 

See Lk. xiii, 2, xviii, 14; II Cor. xii, 11; Heb. ii, 7, iii, 3; Ps. 
xviii, II, cxxxviii, 6, and section 32 of this book. 

7—2 



100 Prepositions— A, Ab, Abs 

PREPOSITIONS. 

205. The use of prepositions in Ecc. L. dififers somewhat from 
their use in CI. L. 

This is due in the first place to the natural development of the 
language. Prepositions are used with increasing frequency in the 
place of simple cases, until, in the Romance languages, they have 
replaced the cases altogether. 

In the Vg. the influence of Heb., felt through the LXX and also 
in the direct translation of the O.T. by Jerome, has given rise to 
some very peculiar methods of expressing comparison and the 
instrument, by means of prepositions. 

Greek is rich in prepositions and in delicate shades of meaning 
expressed by using the same preposition with different cases. 

The Latin translators have on the whole been very successful 
in rendering these Gk. prepositions into Latin; but, in so doing, 
they have somewhat deviated from normal Latin usage. 

It has been thought well to give the Gk. originals of which the 
\isages of the Latin prepositions given below are translations. 

Prepositions governing an Ablative case. 

206. A, Ab, Abs. Usual meaning /rom, or by (of the agent). 
Representing Gk. aVo, viro with gen., rarely Ik, and in compari- 
sons Trapa with accusative or genitive, or simple genitive. 

Discedite a me qui operamini iniquitatem. (uTro.) 

Mt. vii, 23. 
Omnia mihi tradita sunt a Patre meo. (viro.) Mt. xi, 27. 

In Late Latin a is used even with the names of towns etc. 
Post haec egressus ab Athenis, venit Corinthum. (ck, aTro.) 

Acts xviii, I, xii, 25; Mk. vii, i. 
So it is used of the Instrument : 

Ecce et naves . . . circumferuntur a modico gubernaculo. {v-rro.) 

Jas. iii, 4. 
Other uses to translate Gk. (xtto and Ik. 

Attendite a falsis prophetis. . .. (aTrd.) Mt. vii, 15, x, 17. 

In venit. . .hominem. . .ab annis octo jacentem in grabatto. . . 
(cK.) ^ Acts ix, 33. 

Jesum a Nazareth. . .. (aTrd.) 

Acts X, 38; Mk. XV, 43; Jn. i, 44. 
Perdidisti omnes qui fornicantur abs te. (aTrd.) Ps. Ixxii, 27. 



Absque. Coram. Clam. Cum loi 

A is used in comparisons even where there is no adjective or 
adverb in the comparative degree in imitation of Heb. ?J3. 

Nihil enim minus fui ab iis. . . . (Gen.) II Cor. xii, ii. 

Descendit hie justificatus in domum suam ab illo. (-n-apd, ace.) 

Lk. xviii, 14. 
Minuisti eum paulominus ab angeUs. {irapd, ace.) 

Heb. ii, 7, from Ps. viii, 6. 
Et a te quid volui super terram? '{irapd, gen.) Ps. Ixxii, 25. 
In the Psahns a is used in the sense of because of. 

A voce gemitus mei adhaesit os meum carni meae. {d-n-o.) 

Ps. cii, 6, II, xxxvii, 6; xliii, 17. 

207. Absque. Not used in CI. L. In Early and Late Latin used 
in sense of sine = without. 

Represents Gk. x'^P^'^y privative d and d-n-o in composition. 

Tentatum autem per omnia pro similitudine absque peccato. 

(;)(copt?.) Heb. iv, 15. 

Absque foedere. . .. (ao-TrovSons.) Rom. i, 31. 

Absque synagogis facient vos. (aVocrwaywyovs.) Jn. xvi, 2. 

208. Coram. Usual meaning in the presence of, openly, before. 
Representing Gk. e/mTrpoaOev, ivavTiov, ivaj-n-iov. 

Sic luceat lux vestra coram hominibus. . . . {efx-n-poaOev.) 

Mt. V, 16. 
Et placuit sermo coram omni multitudine. . .. {h'avTtov.) 

Acts vi, 5, viii, 32. 
Peccantes coram omnibus argue, {ivw-mov.) I Tim. v, 20. 

209. Clam. Usual meaning secretly. 

Not used as a preposition in the N.T. but as an adverb, to trans- 
late \dOpa, Mt. ii, 7. 

Used as prep, in Gen. xxxi, 26, xlvii, 18. 

210. Cum. Usual meaning together with, in company with, also 
used to express the manner in which an action is done. 

Representing Gk. /xera with gen., a-vv, ir, or the simple dative. 

Filius enim hominis venturus est in gloria Patris sui cum 

angelis suis. . .. (juera.) Mt. xvi, 27. 

Et rogabat ilium vir, a quo daemonia exierant, ut cum eo esset. 

(o-w.) Lk. viii, 38. 

Et loquebantur verbum Dei cum fiducia. {fxtrd.) Acts iv, 31. 



102 Cum. De 

So it is used to express manner even with nouns qualified by an 
adjective where a simple ablative is generally used in CI. L. 
Regressus est cum magna voce magnificans Deum. (/xera.) 

Lk. xvii, 15. 

Cum bona voluntate servientes, sicut Domino, et non homini- 

bus. {fxerd.) Eph. vi, 7. 

Carcerem quidem invenimus clausum cum omni diligentia. . . . 

(er.) Acts V, 23. 

Instrumental use (very rare in Classics, see Verg. Aen. ix, 816). 

Et redemptorem misit cum manu angeli, qui apparuit illi in 

rubo. (o-uv.) Acts vii, 35. 

Replebis me juc.unditate cum facie tua. {ixerd.) 

Acts ii, 28. 
Cum impositione manuum presbyterii. {fx^To..) I Tim. iv, 14. 
In the following passages cum is used to trans, /xcra. 

Facere misericordiam cum patribus nostris. Lk. i, 72. 

Rationem ponere cum servis. . . . Mt. xviii, 23. 

211. De. Usual meaning/rom, down from, concerning, made from. 
The favourite preposition of Late Latin, used where CI. L. would 
use ex or a simple Gen. Compare the use of de in French in the 
sense of from and also of. 

Represents Gk. <x-rr6, Ik, irepi with Gen. or simple Gen. 
From, down from. 

Numquid colligunt de spinis uvas, aut de tribulis ficus? (aVo.) 

Mt. vii, 16. 
Cum autem descendisset de monte. . . . (aTro.) Mt. viii, i. 

Facite vobis amicos de mamona iniquitatis. (e/<.) 

Lk. xvi, 9. 
Concerning. 

De his quae dicta sunt a pastoribus ad ipsos. {irepi.) 

Lk. ii, 18. 

De bono opere non lapidamus te. . .. {irepL) Jn. x, 33. 

Deus filium suum mittens in similitudinem carnis peccati et 

depeccato, damnavitpeccatumincarne. (Trcpi.) Rom. viii, 3. 

In the sense of out of. 

Baptizatus autem Jesus, confestim ascendit de aqua. (aVo.) 

Mt. iii, 16. 
De corde enim exeunt cogitationes malae. . . . (ck.) 

Mt. XV, 19. 



E. Pro 103 

In the sense of denoting the material of which a thing is made. 

Et plectentes coronara de spinis. . . . (e'/c.) Mt. xxvii, 29. 

Regnum meum non est de hoc mundo. (e/c.) Jn. xviii, 36. 

In a partitive sense representing Gk. gen. 

Quamdiu non feceritis uni de minoribus his, nee mihi fecistis. 

Mt. XXV, 45. 

Effundam de Spiritu meo. . . . Acts ii, 18. 

212. E, Ex. Usual sense out of, from within. 
Representing Gk. Ik or e^. 

In the Vg. and Late Latin de is used where ex would be used in / 
CI. L. Ex is generally used in a metaphorical sense. I 

Et dihges Dominura Deum tuum ex toto corde tuo. Mk. xii, 30 
Eis autem qui sunt ex contentione. . . . Rom. ii, 8 

Si enim qui ex lege heredes sunt, exinanita est fides .... 

Rom. iv, 14 
Justus ex fide vivet. Gal. iii, ii 

Ex may also be used in a partitive sense to translate the Gk 
partitive gen. 

Quamdiu fecistis uni ex his fratribus meis minimis, mihi 
fecistis. Mt. xxv, 40 

Compare the use of de in verse 45. 
Ex may be used in comparison in imitation of Heb. 

Mirabilis facta est scientia tua ex me. Ps. cxxxviii, 6. 

213. Pro. Usual meaning /or, on behalf of , instead of, before. 
Representing Gk. virip with gen., Trept with gen., airt, €7rt with 

genitive. 

Orate pro persequentibus et calumniatoribus vestris. (uVep.) 

Mt. V, 44 
AUoquin quid facient, qui baptizantur pro mortuis? (vTrep.) 

I Cor. XV, 29 
Et panis, quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mundi vita, {virip.) 

Jn. vi, 52 
Gratias ago Deo meo semper pro vobis .... {-n-epi.) 1 Cor. i, 4 
Archelaus regnabat in Judea pro Herode patre suo. (ai'rt.) 

Mt. ii, 22 
Statuto autem die Herodes vestitus veste regia sedit pro tri 
bunali. (eTrt.) Acts xii, 21 

Exceptional use. 

Pro similitudine . . . . {KaO^ ofjLOLOTrjTa.) Heb. iv, 15 



104 Prae. Sine. Ad 

214. Prae. Usual meaning before, because of, compared with. 
Representing a number of Gk. prepositions in sense of because of, 

such as 8ta with accusative, aVo, Ik, iv. 

When used in the sense of compared with is translated by Gk. 
irapd with accusative. 

Et cum non possent offerre ilium illi prae turba. (Sta.) 

Mk. ii, 4. 
Dormientes prae tristitia. . . . (aVo.) Lk. xxii, 45. 

Et cum non viderem prae claritudine luminis .... [ixtto.) 

Acts xxii, 1 1 . 

Prae confusione sonitus maris. . .. [Iv.) Lk. xxi, 25. 

Et blasphemaverunt Deum caeli prae doloribus et vulneribus 

suis. [Ik.) Rev. xvi, 11. 

Putatis quod hi Galilaei prae omnibus Galilaeis peccatores 

fuerunt quia talia passi sunt? {irnpa.) Lk. xiii, 2. 

Amphoris enim gloriae iste prae Moyse dignus est habitus .... 

{■rrapd.) Heb. iii, 3. 

215. Sine. Usual meaning without. 
Representing Gk. x<j^P'5, a.i'€v or privative a. 

Arbitramur enim justificari hominem per fidem sine operibus 
legis. (^wpts.) Rom. iii, 28; Jas. ii, 18. 

Et unus ex illis non cadet super terram sine Patre vestro. 
{dvev.) Mt. X, 29. 

Adhuc et vos sine intellectu estis? (ao-ui exot.) Mt. xv, 16. 

Prepositions governing the Accusative case. 

216. Ad. Usual meaning To, into [of motion to), at, near, ac- 
cording to. 

Generally represents the Gk. vrpos with ace. or dat., or ets, 
sometimes Kara with ace. 

It is used in the Vg. after verbs of speaking where the dat. would 
be used in CI. L. 

Dixerunt ergo ad eum. . .. (vrpo's.) Jn. vi, 28. 

Disputabat igitur in synagoga cum Judaeis et colentibus et in 
foro per omnes dies ad eos, qui aderant. (vrpos.) 

Acts xvii, 17. 
The following uses, most of which may be parallelled from the 
Classics, mav be noted. 



Adversus. Ante 105 

With a view to, for, resulting in. 

Cognoscebat autem ilium, quod ipse erat, qui ad eleemosynam 

sedebat. (Trpds.) Acts iii, lo; Col. ii, 23. 

Ad victimam taurus ducitur. Cyp. de Patientia. 

Corde enim creditur ad justitiam: ore autem confessio fit ad 

salutem. (ets.) Rom. x, 10. 

At, near, by the side of, at the sight of. 

Petrus autem stabat ad ostium foris. (Trpos with dat.) 

Jn. xviii, 16. 
Intrantes autem juvenes invenerunt illam mortuam: et 
extulerunt et sepelierunt ad virum suum. (-Trpo?, ace.) 

Acts V, 10; II Cor. V, 8. 
In Mt. XX. 21 to translate e^. 
Cum ad crucem Domini confundantur sidera. Cyp. de Pat. 
Because of. 

Ad duritiam cordis vestri. . .. (ttjoo's.) Mt. xix, 8. 

According to. 

Sed ad desideria coacervabunt magistros .... (Kara.) 

II Tim. iv, 3. 
Used to translate Trpos in various senses (not Classical). 

Ad horam. For an hour. Jn. v, 35; II Cor. vii, 8. 

Ad uUum verbum. Mt. xxvii, 14. 

Exceptional use: 

Ad manus ilium trahentes. (xcipaywyoiivTcs.) Acts ix, 8. 

217. Adversus. Usual meaning against. 
Represents Gk. Kara with gen. 

Nohte gloriari et mendaces esse adversus veritatem. 

Jas. iii, 14; I Cor. xv, 15. 

218. Ante. Ordinary meaning before both of place and time. 
Represents Gk. Trapa with ace, efx-rrpoaOev, Kara with ace, irpo, dwo. 

Et ponebant ante pedes apostolorum. (Trapa.) Acts iv, 35 
Ita, Pater: quoniam sic fuit placitum ante te. {e/jLvpoaOiv.) 

Mt. xi, 26 
Quod parasti ante faciem omnium populorum. (/cara.) 

Lk. ii, 31 
Scio hominem in Christo ante annos quattuordecim .... (Trpo. 

II Cor. xii, 2 
Exceptional use: 

Erat velatum ante eos .... (aTro.) Lk. ix, 45 



io6 Apud. Circa. Contra, Erga. Inter 

219. Apud. Ordinary meaning hy, near, in the house of, in the 
presence of. 

Representing Gk. irapd with dat., Trpo's with ace. and dat., eVt 
with gen. 

Apud quem hospitaremur . . .. [irapa, with dat.) 

Acts xxi, i6; Col. iv, i6. 
Et nunc clariiica me tu, Pater, apud temetipsum. {Trapd, dat.) 

Jn. xvii, 5. 
Apud homines hoc impossibile est. {irapd, with dat.) 

Mt. xix, 26. 

Et verbum erat apud Deum. {-n-po^, ace.) Jn. i, i. 

Audet ahquis. . .judicari apud iniquos, et non apud sanctos? 

(eTTt, gen.) I Cor. vi, i. 

220. Circa. Usual meaning about, around, concerning. 
Representing Gk. Kara with ace., irept with ace. 

Circa domos. (Kara.) Acts ii, 46. 

Quae circa me sunt. (Kara.) Eph. vi, 21. 

Circa frequens ministerium. {irepL) Lk. x, 40. 

Habens fidem et bonam conscientiam, quam quidam re- 
pellentes, circa fidem naufragaverunt. (yrepi.) 

I Tim. i, 19. 
In Mk. iv, 4 circa is used to translate irapd instead of secus. 

221. Contra. Usual meaning against, over against. 
Representing Gk. Kara with gen. 

Non post multum misit se contra ipsam ventus Typhonicus . . . 

Acts xxvii, 14. 

222. Erga. Usual meaning towards, with respect to. 
Representing Gk. Trepi with ace. 

Sollicita es, et turbaris erga plurima. 

Lk. X, 41 ; Phil, ii, 30. 

223. Inter. Usual meaning among, between. 
Represents Gk. er. 

Non ita erit inter vos. (eV.) Mt. xx, 26. 

Inter vos = ^acr' aA/Vr/Awv. Jn. xvi, 19. 

Also used to express a superlative in accordance with Heb. usage. 

Benedicta tu inter mulieres. {Iv.) Lk. i, 42. 



Juxta. Penes. Praeter. Per 107 

224. Juxta. Usual meaning neay, according to. 

4 Representing Gk. Tra/xx with dat., eyyv?, irX-qaiov, KUTa with ace. 

Stabant autem juxta crucem Jesu mater ejus et soror matris 

ejus, {irapd.) Jn. xix, 25. 

Erat enim Johannes baptizans in Aenon juxta Sahm. (eyyvs.) 

Jn. iii, 23. 
Quare non ambulant juxta traditionem seniorum? (Kara.) 

Mk. vii, 5. 
Also in sense of along. 

Ambulans autem Jesus juxta mare Gahlaeae. {Trapd, with ace.) 

Mt. iv, 18. 

225. Penes. Usual meaning in possession of. 
Represents Gk. Kara with ace. 

Tu fidem habes? penes temetipsum habe coram Deo. 

Rom. xiv, 22. 

226. Praeter. Usual meaning besides, except, beyond. 
Representing Gk. Trapa with ace, iKr6<;, irXrjv, x^^P'?) «' F-V- 

Fundamentum aliud nemo potest ponere praeter id quod 

positum est. {-n-apd.) I Cor. iii, 11. 

Omnia subjecta sunt ei, sine dubio praeter eum, qui subjecit. 

ei omnia. (exTo's.) I Cor. xv, 27. 

Praeter ilia, quae extrinsecus sunt, instantia mea quotidiana, 

soUicitudo omnium ecclesiarum. (^wpi's.) II Cor. xi, 28. 
Nihil invenit praeter folia, (ei /xr;.) Mk. xi, 13. 

In the sense of contrary to. 

Rogo. . .ut observetis eos, qui dissensiones et offendicula 

praeter doctrinam, quam vos didicistis, faciunt. . . . (Trapa.) 

Rom. xvi, 17. 
Also Gal. i, 9. 
In the sense of more than. 

Putatis quia et ipsi debitores fuerunt praeter omnes homines 

habitantes in Jerusalem? {-n-apd.) Lk. xiii, 4. 

227. Per. Usual meaning through, of place or time, by means of, 
by in oaths. 

Representing Gk. Sta with gen., Kara' with ace. and gen. 

Praeceptor, per totam noctem laborantes, nihil cepimus. . .. 
fSta.) Lk. V, 5. 

Et ipse iter faciebat per civitates et castella. (Kara', ace.) 

Lk. viii, I. 



io8 Propter. Post. Secundum 

Distributively . 

Et erunt terrae motus per loca. (Kara, ace.) Mk. xiii, 8. 

Of repetition. 

Per omnes annos. (kut' €to5.) Lk. ii, 41. 

Per omne sabbatum. Acts xv, 21. 

Per omnia. Heb. iv, 15. 

By means of. 

Sic tamen quasi per ignem. (8ta.) I Cor. iii, 15. 

In oaths. 

Adjuro te per Deum vivum. (Kara, gen.) Mt. xxvi, 63. 

228. Propter. Usual meaning on account of, because of. 
Representing Gk. Sia with ace, cVe/cev, et?. 

Sabbatum propter hominem factum est, et non homo propter 
sabbatum. (8ia.) Mk. ii, 27. 

Quare et vos transgredimini mandatum Dei propter tradi- 
tionem vestram? (8ta.) Mt. xv, 3. 

Beati, qui persecutionem patiuntur propter justitiam. (evcKev.) 

Mt. V, 10. 

Cum venissem autem Troadem propter evangehum Christi .... 
(ei?.) II Cor. ii, 12. 

229. Post. Usual meaning after, behind. 

Represents Gk. fx€ra with ace, diricru), oTnaOev, Kara with acc. 
Statim autem post tribulationem dierum illorum sol obscura- 

bitur. [fxerd.) Mt. xxiv, 29. 

Post velamentum autem secundum, tabernaculum, quod dici- 

tur Sancta Sanctorum, (/uera.) Heb. ix, 3. 

Dimitte eam quia clamat post nos. (ovrtcr^ev.) Mt. xv, 23. 

Magis autem eos, qui post carnem in concupiscentia immun- 

ditiae ambulant. (oTri'crw.) II Pet. ii, 10. 

Unus post unum. (els KaO' eh.) Jn. viii, 9. 

230. Secundum. Usual meaning after, according to. 
Representing Gk. Kara with acc, irp6<; with acc. 

Secundum opera vero eorum nolite facere. (Kara.) 

Mt. xxiii, 3. 
Qui autem scrutatur corda, scit quid desideret Spiritus : quia 
secundum Deum postulat pro Sanctis, (/cara.) 

Rom. viii, 27. 



Secus. Supra 109 

Ergo, fratres, debitores sumus non carni, ut secundum carnem 
vivamus. (Kara.) Rom. viii, 12. 

Et non facit secundum voluntatem ejus. . . . (Trpo's.) 

Lk. xii, 47. 

231. Secus. Usual meaning otherwise. In the Vg. and Late 
Latin it is used to represent the Gk. -n-apd with ace. or dat., Kara 
with ace, cTTt with gen. or ace, -n-pos with ace, in the sense of 
along, beside''-, at. 

In illo die exiens Jesus de domo sedebat secus mare, {irapd, ace.) 

Mt. xiii, I. 
Jesus. . .apprehendit puerum, et statuit ilium secus se. {-n-apd, 
dat.) Lk. ix, 47. 

Similiter et Levita cum esset secus locum. . .. (Kara, ace.) 

Lk. X, 32. 
Et huic erat soror nomine Maria, quae etiam sedens secus 
pedes Domini, audiebat verbum illius. (tt/jos, ace.) 

Lk. X, 39. 

Secus littus sedentes {kiri, ace.) Mt. xiii, 48. 

Et videns fici arborem unam secus viam. . . . (eVt', gen.) 

Mt. xxi, ig. 
For a very peculiar use see Lk. xx, 37. 

Quia vero resurgant mortui, et Moyses ostendit secus rubum. 
Moses showed in the place of the Scripture concerni-ng the hush. 
[i-TTi, gen.) 

232. Supra. Usual meaning on, upon, above, beyond. 
Representing Gk. l-n-dvw, l-n-i with ace. gen. dat., v-n-ip with ace. 

Non potest civitas abscondi supra montem posita. (e-n-avoj.) 

Mt. V, 14. 
Invenit puellam jacentem supra lectum. [l-n-i, ace.) 

Mk. vii, 30. 

Venit ad eos ambulans supra mare, [kiri, gen.) Mk. vi, 48. 

Vere dico vobis quoniam supra omnia quae possidet, con- 

stituet ilium, [l-nl, dat.) Lk. xii, 44. 

Et proficiebam in Judaismo supra multos coaetaneos meos. 

(i57rep, ace.) Gal. i, 14. 

> In an inscription we find: Aedificia quae sunt juxta ex utraque parte secus 
viam. 



no In with Ablative 

Prepositions governing both the Ablative 
AND Accusative cases. 

233. In with the Ablative. Usual meaning in, at. 
Represents Gk. tv, eVi with dat., and even ei?. 
In Late Latin used with names of towns etc. 

Quia si in Tyro et Sidone factae essent virtutes. . . . (e'v.) 

Mt. xi, 21. 
Viri astiterunt in domo. (er.) Acts xi, ii. 

Used to express the time when anything happens, where a simple 
Ablative would generally be used in CI. L. 

In diebus autem ilHs venit Johannes Baptista, praedicans in 
deserto Judaeae. (ei'.) Mt. iii, i. 

Used in the Vg. of the Instrument or Agent in imitation of Heb. 
3, also to express manner. 

Domine, si percutimus in gladio? (cV.) Lk. xxii, 49. 

Hoc genus in nuUo potest exire, nisi in oratione et jejunio. [Iv.) 

Mk. ix, 28. 
Quia in potestate et virtute imperat immundis spiritibus . ( er . ) 

Lk. iv, 36. 

■ Hie ejecit daemones in Beelzebub, (ei-.) Mt. xii, 24. 

In quo judicaturus est orbem in aequitate in viro, in quo 

statuit. (er.) Acts xvii, 31. 

In sense of because of, at. 

Per totam noctem laborantes nihil cepimus: in verbo autem 

tuo laxabo rete. {l-n-l, with dat.) Lk. v, 5, g. 

Etsi omnes scandalizati fuerint in te, ego numquam scan- 

daUzabor. (eV.) Mt. xxvi, 33. 

Putant quod in multiloquio exaudiantur. (cr.) Mt. vi, 7. 

See also Ps. v, 8 ; Acts iii, 10, iv, 9, vii, 29; I Cor. i, 4; I Pet. iv, 14. 

To express accompaniment. 

Quoniam Dominus in jussu, et in voce archangeli, et in tuba 

Dei descendet de caelo. (eV.) I Thess. iv, 16. 

Et ego cum venissem ad vos, fratres, veni non in sublimitate 

sermonis aut sapientiae. . .. {Kaif v-rrepoxw.) I Cor. ii, i. 

Homo in spiritu immundo. . . . (eV.) Mk. i, 23. 

In the sense of concerning, with regard to = eh. 

Sacramentum hoc magnum est, ego autem dico in Christo et 
in ecclesia. Eph. v, 32. 

See also Heb. vii, 14. 



In with Accusative iii 

Ut sim minister Christi in gentibus. . . . Rom. xv, i6. 

In with the Ablative is used in certain passages, where in with 
the Accusative would have been expected. = et?. 
(i) After verbs of motion : 

Beatus homo qui non abiit in consilio impiorum .... 

Ps. i, I. 
(2) To express the object or end of an action: 

Infirmum in fide assumite, non in disceptationibus cogita- 

tionum. Rom. xiv, i. 

An ignoratis quia quicumque baptizati sumus in Christo Jesu 

in morte ipsius baptizati sumus? Rom. vi, 3. 

In is used to translate the Heb. ^ in a passage which denotes 

the form under which anything appears (French en). 

Qui apparui Abraham, Isaac et Jacob in Deo Omnipotente. 

Ex. vi, 3. 
234. In with the Accusative. Usual meaning into. 
Representing Gk. eU, also rarely Iv. 
Used in Late Latin with names of towns etc. 

Mitte viros in Joppen. Acts x, 5. 

Introivit in domum. Acts ix, 17; Lk. xxii, 10. 

In a pregnant sense giving the result of the action of the verb. . 
Ecce viri, quos posuistis in carcerem, sunt in templo. . . . (ev.) 

Acts V, 25. 

Qui exiit primo mane conducere operarios in vineam suam. 

(ets.) Mt. XX, I. 

Liberabit me Dominus ab omni opere malo et salvum faciet 

in regnum suum caeleste. (eis.) II Tim. iv, 18. 

Used in a predicate to express result: 

Lapidem, quem reprobaverunt aedificantes hie factus e.st in 
caput anguh. (e/s.) Mt. xxi, 42 

Et nutrivit eum sibi in filium. (eis.) Acts vii, 21 

Used to express purpose: 

Emerunt ex ilUs agrum figuU in sepulturam peregrin orum 
(€19.) Mt. xrvii, 7, 10 

Posui te in lucem gentium, (eis.) Acts xiii, 47 

Ego quidem baptizo vos in aqua in poenitentiam. (eis.) 

Mt. iii, II 

Segregatus in evangelium Dei. (cfs.) Rom. i, i 

Ita et isti nunc non crediderunt in vestram misericordiam . . . 

(Simple dat.) ' Rom. xi. 31 



112 Sub. Super 

In the sense of concerning. 

David enim dicit in eum. . . . (eh.) Acts ii, 25. 

Nolite ergo solliciti esse in crastinum. (ek.) Mt. vi, 34. 

Used after credere in imitation of Gk. Tno-Teveiv eU. 

Tu credis in Filium Dei? (ets.) Jn. ix, 35. 

235. Sub. Usual meaning: sub with Abl. = under, below, in the 
sense of remaining under. Sub udth Ace. = movement to or from 
under. 

In the Vg. sub is generally used with the Abl. in all senses. 
Represents Gk. wo with ace. and gen., Ittl with gen. and dat. 

Nam et ego sum homo sub potestate. {v-no, ace.) Mt. viii, 9. 
With a verb of motion : 

Omnia mihi licent, sed ego sub nuUius redigar potestate. 
[vTTo, gen.) I Cor. vi, 12. 

In the sense of in the time of. 

Et multi leprosi erant in Israel sub Elisaeo propheta .... 
(eVi, gen.) Lk. iv, 27. 

See also Lk. iii, 2. 
To translate eVt with gen. in the sense of in the presence of. 

Adversus presbyterum accusationem noH recipere, nisi sub 
duobus aut tribus testibus. I Tim. v, 19; also vi, 13. 

Exceptional use to translate liri with dat. in sense of concerning. 

A tribulatione, quae facta fuerat sub Stephano. Acts xi, 19. 

236. Super. Usual meaning: super with Abl. = concerning, about, 
because of, rarely = on. Super with Ace. — over, on the top of. 
beyond, above. 

(i) With the Abl. representing Gk. eTrt with dat. or gen., virip 
with gen., Trept with gen. 

Contristatus super caecitate cordis eorum. . ,. (ctti, dat.) 

Mk. iii, 5 

Stupebant autem omnes, qui eum audiebant super prudentia 

et responsis ejus. {Ittl, dat.) Lk. ii, 47 

Gentes autem super misericordia honorare Deum .... [vTrip 

gen.) Rom. xv, 9 

Attendite vobis super hominibus istis quid acturi sitis. (eV/ 

dat.) Acts V, 35 

Quia videbant signa, quae faciebat super his, qui infirma- 

bantur. (eTrt, with gen.) Jn. vi, 2 

In Acts XV, 2 super is used to trans. Trept with gen. 



Super 113 

(2) With the Ace. represents Gk. eVi with gen. ace. dat., virep 
with ace. 

Et duxerunt ilium usque ad supereiUum mentis, super quern 

civitas illorum erat aedificata. (ctti, gen.) Lk. iv, 29. 

Non est discipulus super magistrum, nee servus super domi- 

num suum. [virip, ace.) Mt. x, 24. 

Nonne duo passeres asse veneunt? et unus ex illis non cadet 

super terram sine Patre vestro. (cTrt', ace.) Mt. x, 29. 

In the sense oifor, because of, where the Abl. would be expected. 

Quam cum vidisset Dominus, misericordia motus super earn. 

(eVt', dat.) Lk. vii, 13. 

Nolite flere super me, sed super vos ipsas, et super filios vestros. 

(cTTt, ace.) Lk. xxiii, 28. 

Super is used after a comparative in Ps. xviii, 1 1 . 



N.E.L- 



EXTRACTS FROM ECCLESIASTICAL WRITERS 

N.B. The numbers in the foot-notes refer to the sections in this book, 
VisiONES Perpetuae. 

This is an extract from a unique document, namely the record 
of the imprisonment of a young Carthaginian matron Perpetua, 
written by herself. She was put to death in the persecution under 
Severus at the beginning of the third century. It is thought by 
some that these Acts were edited by Tertulhan who refers to them 
in his treatise "De Anima." 

Perpetua was arrested on the charge of being a Christian and 
cast into prison with four other catechumens. Her father, who was 
a pagan, did his best to persuade her to renounce Christ; but in 
vain. She was subsequently tried and condemned to the beasts 
and so suffered death with her companions. 

The passages given below recount two visions which she .saw 
in the prison. 

The whole text of the Acts is given in one of the volumes of 
Hurter's series. A complete edition of all the Greek and Latin texts 
is published in " Texts and Studies," by J. A. Robinson, Cambridge. 

Tunc dixit mihi f rater mens: Domina soror, jam Hn magna 
dignitate es; ^et tanta, ut postules visionem et ostendatur tibi, an 
passio sit, an ^commeatus. Et ego, quae me sciebam ^fabulari cum 
Domino, cujus beneficia ^tanta experta eram, fidenter repromisi ei 
dicens: Crastina die tibi renuntiabo. Et postulavi, et ostensum 
est mihi hoc: Video scalam auream ^mirae magnitudinis ^pertin- 
gentem usque ad caelum, et ^ita angustam, per quam non nisi 
singuli ascendere possent: et in lateribus scalae omne genus 
^ f erramentorum infixum. Erant ibi gladii, lanceae, i"hami, mach- 
aerae, ut si quis negligenter, aut non sursum attendens ascenderet, 
i^laniaretur, et carnes ejus inhaererent ferramentis. Et erat sub 
ipsa scala draco Cubans mirae magnitudinis, qui ascendentibus in- 
sidias parabat, et exterrebat ne ascenderent. Ascendit autem 

1 in magna dignitate es=3'0M are held in great honour. '^ et tanta, ut 

postules, 163. ^ commeatus=re/e«sf. * ia\>\A2iri=to converse with, at. 

vernacular word found in the comic poets. ° tanta, predicative, "whose 

loving-kindnesses I had found to be so many." * mirae magnitudinis, 26. 

' pertingentem=ymcAmg<o. * etitaangustam, per quam, for "ita angustam, 
ut per eam," 163. * ferramentorum=iVo;i ins/fi/wente. '" hami, machaerae = 
hooks and sabres (fxaxacpa). " laniaretur=/ie would be mangled. 



Perpetua ii5 

Saturus prior, et pervenit in caput scalae, et convertit se ad me, 
et dixit mihi: Perpetua, sustineo te: sed vide ne mordeat draco ille. 
Etdixiego: Non ^me nocebit in nomine Domini J esu Christi. Et 
Me sub ipsa scala quasi timens me, lente elevavit caput, et cum 
primum gradum ^calcassem, calcavi illius caput. Et ascendi, et 
vidi spatium horti immensum, et in medio horti sedentem hominem 
*canum, in habitu pastoris, grandem, oves ^mulgentem: et circum- 
stantes ^candidates millia multa. Et levavit caput et adspexit me, 
et dixit mihi: 'Bene venisti, tegnon. Et clamavit me, et de ^caseo, 
quod mulgebat, dedit mihi quasi ^bucellum, et ego accepi junctis 
manibus et ^^ manducavi, et universi circumstantes dixerunt : Amen . 
Et ad sonitum vocis experrecta sum commanducans adhuc dulcis 
nescio quid. Et retuh statim fratri meo, et intelleximus passionem 
esse futuram, et coepimus nullam jam spem in ^^saeculo habere. 



Post dies paucos, dum universi oramus, subito media oratione 
profecta est mihi vox, et nominavi Dinocratem : et ^^obstupui quod 
nunquam mihi in mentem venisset nisi tunc, et dolui commemorata 
casus ejus. Et cognovi me statim dignam esse, et pro eo petere 
debere. Et coepi pro ipso orationem facere multam, et ingemiscere 
ad Dominum. ^^Continuo ipsa nocte ostensum est hoc mihi in 
^*oromate. Video Dinocratem exeuntem de loco tenebroso, ubi et 
complures erant aestuantem et sitientem valde, ^^sordido vultu, et 
colore pallido, et vulnus in facie ejus, quod, cum moreretur, habuit. 
Hie Dinocrates fuerat frater mens carnalis, annorum septem, ^^qui 
per infirmitatem facie cancerata male obiit, ita ut mors ejus ^'odio 
fuerit omnibus hominibus. Pro hoc ego orationem feceram: et 
inter me et ilium grande erat ^^ diastema, ita ut uterque^^ad invicem 
accedere non possemus. Erat deinde in ipso loco, ubi Dinocrates 
erat, 2" piscina ^^plena aqua, altiorem marginem habens quam erat 

^ me. Many verbs which govern a dat. in CI. 1,. do not always do so in 
Ecc. L., 37. ^ de sub (a double preposition) =from below. ^ calcasseni=/ 
had trodden on. * canum= grey -haired. * mu\gentem=niilking. * candi- 
dates =!£^/!77e-yo6f^. ' Bene venisti, tegnon = Welcome, child (t4kvov). 
' csiseo=curd. • ' bucellum = a otom^^/^mZ. i" manducavi =7 a^e (a ver- 
nacular verb, common in the Vg.). '^ saeculo=this world, as often in Vg. 
^^ obstupui quod, 135, 112-114. ^* Cont'muo=: straight way. '* oromate = 
vision {opdu). '° sovdido vu\tu = imcleaft appearance, 56. '° qui per in- 
firmitatem... =w/?o died miserably through a cancer in the face. ^' odio = dis- 
gusting, 41. '* diastema =a gwi/ (5(d, i'ffTTy/xt). " a.d invicem = neither of 
us could go to the other, 70. -" piscina =« basin. ^' plena aqua, 49. 

8—2 



ii6 Cyprian 

statura pueri, et extendebat se Dinocrates quasi bibiturus. Ego 
dolebam quod et piscina ilia aquam habebat, et tamen propter 
altitudinem marginis bibiturus non ^esset. Et experrecta sum et 
cognovi fratrem meum Elaborate. Sed confidebam profuturam 
orationem meam ^labori ejus, et orabam pro eo omnibus diebus quo 
usque transivimus in ^carcerem castrensem. ^Munere enim cas- 
trensi eramus ^pugnaturi. '''Natale tunc Getae Caesaris, et feci pro 
iilo orationem die et nocte gemens et lacrimans, ut mihi ^donaretur. 
Die autem quo in ^nervo mansimus, ostensum est mihi hoc: Video 
locum ilium, quem videram tenebrosum, esse lucidum: et Dino- 
cratem mundo corpore, bene vestitum, ^^refrigerantem. Etubierat 
vulnus, video "cicatricem: etpiscinam illam, quam retro videram, 
summisso margine usque ad ^^ umbilicum pueri : et aquam de ea tra- 
hebat sine cessatione, et super margine ^^phiala erat plena aqua; et 
accessit Dinocrates, et de ea bibere coepit, quae phiala non deficie- 
bat. Et satiatus abscessit de aqua ^^ludere more infantium gaudens, 
et experrecta sum. Tunc intellexi translatum eum esse de poena. 

Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage (martyred 258), was converted to 
Christianity in middle life. He was a famous rhetorician in his 
early days; but after his conversion he laid his secular studies 
aside and devoted himself entirely to Christian literature. In the 
treatises intended for the ordinary members of his flock he did not 
shrink from occasionally using the expressions and even the sole- 
cisms which are found in the Old Latin version of the Bible. His 
numerous quotations are naturally derived from the same source, 
and often differ both in wording and in reading from the Vulgate. 

He, in common with other writers of the period, abandons the 
periodic style of Classical prose for short sentences with frequent 
antitheses and rhetorical questions. 

The signs of his rhetorical training are everywhere manifest. 
In the matter of his treatises he freely copies Tertullian ; but popu- 

* esset. This is subj. because it gives tiie thought of Perpetua, "he was not 
(as I thought) likely to drink." ^ la.hoiare=to be in torment. ^ labori, 37. 
^ carcerem castrensem =//i^ caw/) ^moH. ^ Munere =show. " pugnaturi, 
i.e. with the beasts. ' Natale tunc Getae Caesaris, understand "erat." 

" donaretur =//?«/ he might be given to me, i.e. that he might be saved. Compare 
Acts xxvii, 24, Et ecce donavit tibi Deus omnes qui navigant tecum. 
' neTvo=the stocks. ^° lefTigeiantem =refreshed or happy. This is the 

word generally used in the inscriptions in the Catacombs to express the state 
of the blessed departed, refrigerettibi deus et christus et domini nostri 
ADEODATUS ET FELIX (from the cemetery of Commodilla). See Proverbs xxix, 
17. *' cicatricem=fl scar. '- umbilicum =tfjn/s^ *^ phiala = a cup 

{<pid\7]). '* ludere, 162. 



Cyprian 117 

larises and expands the materials that he borrows from him. In 
many respects, including the manner in which he uses quotations 
from Scripture, his treatises are curiously like some modern ser- 
mons. They are well worth the attention of the student on account 
of the simplicity of their style and their moral earnestness. The 
best modern edition of his works is in the Vienna Corpus by Hartel. 
Several of his treatises and a selection of letters are published in 
Hurter's SS. Patrum Opuscula Selecta. 

Jerome excellently sums up the characteristics of Tertullian and 
Cyprian in his epistle to Paulinus : 

Tertullianus creber est in sententiis; sed difticilis in loquendo. 
Beatus Cyprianus, instar fontis purissimi, dulcis incedit et placidus : 
et cum totus sit in exercitatione virtutum, occupatus persecu- 
tionum angustiis, de Scripturis divinis nequaquam disseruit. 

Jesus Christus Patie;ntiae Exemplar. 

Atque ut plenius intelligere possimus, fratres dilectissimi, ^quia 
patientia Dei -res est, et quisquis lenis et patiens et mitis est Dei 
Patris imitator est, Dominus ipse dixit in Evangelic suo: "Audistis 
quia dictum est: ^Diliges proximum tuum et *odio habebis ini- 
micum tuum. Ego autem dico vobis: Diligite inimicos vestros, et 
orate pro eis, qui vos persequuntur, ut sitis filii Patris vestri, qui 
in caelis est, qui solem suum oriri facit super bonos et malos, et 
pluit super justos et injustos. Si enim dilexeritis eos qui vos dili- 
gunt, quam mercedem habebitis? Nonne sic et Publican! faciunt? 
Et si salutaveritis fratres vestros tantum, quid amplius facitis? 
Nonne et ethnici ^idipsum faciunt? ^Eritis itaque vos perfecti, 
^quomodo Pater vester caelestis perfectus est." 

Sic perfectos dixit fieri Dei filios si patientia Dei Patris ''maneat 
in nobis. Nee hoc, fratres dilectissimxi, Jesus Christus Dominus 
et Deus noster tantum verbis docuit sed implevit et factis. 
Et qui ad hoc descendisse se dixerat ut voluntatem Patris 
faceret, inter cetera mirabilia ^virtutum suarum quibus indicia 
divinae majestatis expressit paternam quoque patientiam ser- 
vavit. Omnes denique actus ejus ab ipso statim adventu patientia 
signantur, quod primum de ilia sublimitate coelesti ad terrena 
descendens non aspernatur Dei Filius carnem hominis induere, et 
^cum peccator ipse non esset, ahena peccata portare. 

* Quia. Observe the use of this barbarous construction even in Cyprian. 
112-114. ^ res = attribute. ^ DiHges, 83. * odio, 41. ^ idipsurii, 

64. ' quomodo, 175. ' maneat, 167, 171. ' virtutes=Gk. 5vvci.fj.€(.i, 

Mt. vii, 22, Heb. ii, 4. ' cum, 166. 



ii8 Cyprian 

Immortalitate interim posita, fieri se et mortalem patitur, ut 
^innocens pro nocentium salute perimatur. Dominus baptizatur 
a servo, et ^remissam peccatorum daturus, ipse non dedignatur 
^lavacro regenerationis corpus abluere. *Diebus quadraginta 
jejunat, per quem ceteri ^saginantur: esurit et famem sentit, 
ut qui in ^fame sermonis et gratiae fuerant, coelesti pane satu- 
rentur. Discipulis non ut servis dominica potestate praefuit, 
sed benignus et mitis fraterna eos caritate dilexit, dignatus 
etiam pedes apostolorum lavare, ut cum circa servos talis ''est 
dominus, exemplo suo doceret, qualis circa compares et aequales 
debeat esse conservus. Sub ipsa autem passione et cruce, prius- 
quam ad crudelitatem necis ^veniret, quae contumeliarum toleravit 
ludibria. Coronatur spinis, qui martyres floribus coronat aeternis: 
palmis in faciem verberatur qui palmas veras vincentibus tribuit. 
Ille innocens, ille Justus, immo innocentia ipsa et ipsa justitia, 
inter facinorosos ^deputatur, et testimoniis falsis Veritas premitur, 
judicatur judicaturus, et Dei Sermo i°ad victimam tacens ducitur. 
Et cum I'' ad crucem Domini confundantur sidera, elementa tur- 
bentur, ille non loquitur, nee movetur. Usque ad finem perse- 
veranter toleratur omnia, ut consummetur in Christo plena et per- 
fecta patientia. Et post ista omnia adhuc interfectores suos, si 
conversi ad eum veniunt, suscipit; et "patientia salutari ad con- 
servandum benignus et patiens Ecclesiam suam nemini claudit. 
lUos adversarios, illos blasphemos, illos nominis sui semper ini- 
micos, si paenitentiam delicti agunt, si admissum facinus agnoscant, 
non solum ad indulgentiam i^criminis, sed et ad praemiumi^regni 
coelestis admittit. Quid potest patientius, quid benignius did? 
Vivificatur Christi sanguine etiam qui fudit sanguinem Christi. 
Talis est Christi et tanta patientia; quae nisi talis ac tanta exis- 
teret, Paulum quoque apostolum Ecclesia non haberet. 
' Quod si et nos in Christo sumus, si ipsum induimus, si ipse est 
salutis nostrae via, qui Christum vestigiis salutaribus sequimur, 
per Christi exemplum gradiemur, sicut Johannes apostolus in- 
struit dicens: "Qui dicit se in Christo manere, debet "quomodo 
ille ambulavit et ipse ambulare." 

• innocens, 200. ^ remissa.m. =remisstonem. ^ lavacro, Titus iii, 5. 

* Diebus, 55. ^ saginare. In the CI. this means to stuff; like many other words 
it has in Ecc. L. a more refined meaning =fill. * Amos viii, 11. 'est 

A veryunusuallndicativeinaclauseof Cause, 156. * veniret, 15^. * depu- 
tatur = is reckoned, Lk. xxii, 37. i» ad, 216. " patientia salutari, with patience 
conducive to salvation. '^ criminis, 24. '* regni, 26. ** quomodo, 175. 



Cyprian 1 19 

Item Petrus, super quem Ecclesia Domini dignatioue fundata 
est, in epistola sua ponit et dicit: "Christus passus est pro nobis, 
relinquens vobis exemplum ut sequamini vestigia ejus: qui pec- 
catum non fecit, nee dolus inventus est in ore ejus, qui cum male- 
diceretur non remaledicebat, cum pateretur non minebatur, trade- 
bat autem se judicanti se ^injuste." 

De bono patientiae (adapted). 

Quid est voluntas Dei? 

Voluntas autem Dei est -quam Christus et fecit et docuit. 
Humilitas in ^conversatione, stabilitas in fide, *verecundia in verbis, 
in factis justitia, in operibus misericordia, in moribus disciplina, 
injuriam facere non nosse et factam posse tolerare, cum fratribus 
pacem tenere, Deum toto corde diligere, amare in illo ^ quod Pater 
est, timere quod Deus est, Christo nihil omnino praeponere, quia 
nee nobis quidquam ille praeposuit, caritati ejus inseparabiliter 
adhaerere, cruci ejus fortiter ac fidenter ^assistere quando de ejus 
nomine et honore certamen est, exhibere in sermone constantiam 
qua confitemus, in quaestione fiduciam qua ' congredimur, in morte 
patientiam qua coronamur. Hoc est coheredem Christi esse velle, 
hoc est praeceptum Dei facere, hoc est voluntatem Patris adimplere. 

De Oratione Dominica. 

Notice the use of the infinitive as a verbal noun parallel with 
other nouns. 

QUARE JUSTUS CUM ChRISTO ESSE DESIDERAT. 

Scriptum est enim, justum fide vivere. Si Justus es, et fide vivis, 
si vere in Christum credis, cur non cum Christo futurus et de 
Domini p'-omisso ^securus, ^quod ad Christum voceris, amplecteris 
et quod diabolo careas, gratularis? Simeon denique ille Justus, qui 
vere Justus fuit, qui fide plena Dei praecepta servavit, cum ei divini- 
tus responsum fuisset, ^''quod non ante moreretur, quam Christum 
vidisset, agnovit in spiritu natum esse jam Christum, de quo sibi 

1 This reading^ differs from that of the received Gk. texts. ^ quam=the 

will which. * conversatione, dva(TTpo(pri=manner of life, Ga\.i, 13. * vere- 
cundia. = modesly. * quod Patei est =the fact that he is Father. * assistere, 
to stand by. '' congredimur =we agree together. » secuvus = free from 

care, cf. Mt. xxviii, 14. * quod ad Christum. . . =why do you not welcome 

the fact that you are being called to Christ, and rejoice that you are being freed 
from the devil? '" quod non ante moreretur, 112-114. 



120 Cyprian 

fuerat ante praedicatum ; quo viso, scivit se cito esse moriturum. 
Laetus itaque de morte jam proxima, et de vicina ^accersitione 
securus, accepit in manus puerum, et benedicens Dominum excla- 
mavit et dixit: "Nunc dimittis servum tuum, Domine, secundum 
verbum tuum in pace, quoniam viderunt oculi mei ^salutare 
tuum." Probans scilicet atque contestans tunc esse servis Dei 
pacem, tunc liberam, tunc tranquillam quietatem, quando de istis 
mundi turbinibus extracti, ^sedis et securitatis aeternae portum 
petimus, quando, *expuncta hac morte, ad immortalitatem veni- 
mus. Ilia est enim vera pax, ilia fida tranquillitas, ilia stabilis et 
firma et perpetua securitas. De Mortalitate. 

De defectu fidei in tribulatione. 

Hoc autem fit, fratres dilectissimi, quia fides deest, quia nemo 
credit vera esse, quae promittit Deus, qui ^verax est, cujus sermo 
credentibus aeternus et firmus est. 

Si tibi vir gravis et laudabilis aliquid polliceretur, haberes 
^utique pollicenti fidem, nee te falli aut decipi ab eo crederes, 
quem stare in sermonibus atque in actibus suis scires. Nunc Deum 
tecum loquitur; et tu mente incredula perfidus fluctuas? Deus 
tibi de hoc mundo recedenti immortalitatem atque aeternitatem 
poUicetur, et tu dubitas? Hoc est Deum omnino non nosse: hoc 
est Christum credentium dominum et magistrum peccato incredu- 
litatis offendere: hoc est in ecclesia constitutam fidem in domo 
fidei non habere. Quantum prosit exire de saeculo Christus ipse 
salutis atque utilitatis nostrae magister ostendit, qui, cum 
discipuli ejus contristarentur quod dixit se jam recessufum, 
locutus est ad eos dicens, "Si me dilexistis, '^gauderetis utique, 
quoniam vado ad Patrem": docens scilicet et ostendens, cum 
cari, quos diligimus, de saeculo exeunt, ^gaudendum potius quam 
dolendum. Cujus rei memor beatus apostolus Paulus in epistola 
sua ponit atque dicit : ^" Mihi vivere Christus est, et mori lucrum " : 
lucrum maximum computans jam saeculi "laqueis non teneri, 
jam nuUis peccatis et vitiis carnis ^^obnoxium fieri, exemptum 

^ accersitione =SMwmons. This word is often used in the inscriptions on 
graves. ^ salutare = Gk. aoir-qpLov, salvation, often used in the Psalms, cf. 

xii, 6. * se&\s=home. * expuncta hac •n\orte.=after this death has been 

destroyed. ^ verax=irM£', Rom. iii, 4. * \\\.\(i\ie = certainly . ' gauderetis, 
167,171. ' gaudendum, 192. ' Mihi vivere..., 117. i" Iaqueum=s«are. 
** obnoid\iT!\=exposed to. 



Cyprian 121 

^pressuris angentibus, et ^venenatis diaboli faucibus liberatum ad 
laetitiam salutis aeternae Christo vocante proficisci. 

At enim quosdam movet, quod aequaliter cum gentibus nostrds 
morbi istius ^valetudo corripiat; quasi ad hoc '*crediderit Chris- 
tianus, ut immunis a contactu malorum, mundo et saeculo feliciter 
perfruatur, et non omnia hie adversa perpessus ad futuram laeti- 
tiam reservetur. Movet quosdam quod sit nobis cum ceteris ^mor- 
talitas ista communis, quid enim nobis in hoc mundo non com- 
munis cum ceteris, quamdiu adhuc secundum legem primae nativi- 
tatis manet caro iste communis? ^Quoadusque istic in mundo 
sumus, cum gen ere humano carnis aequahtate conjungimur, spiritu 
'separamur. Itaque donee corruptivum istud induat incorruptionem, 
et mortale hoc accipiat immortaUtatem, et Christus nos perducat 
ad Deum Patrem, quaecumque sunt carnis incommoda, sunt nobis 
cum humano genera communia. Sic cum fetu sterili terra jejuna 
est, neminem fames 'separat. Sic cum irruptione hostili civitas 
aliqua possessa est, omnes simul captivitas vastat. ^Et quando 
imbrem nubila serena suspendunt, omnibus ^siccitas una est. Et 
cum navem ^^scopulosa saxa ^^constringunt, navigantibus ^'^naufra- 
gium sine exceptione commune est. Et oculorum dolor et impetus 
febrium et omnium valetudo membrorum cum ceteris communis 
est nobis, quamdiu portatur in saeculo caro ista communis, 

De Mortalitate. 

Quod filii Dei Patri similes esse debent. 

Si hominibus laetum est et gloriosum filios ^^ habere consimiles, 
et tunc magis ^^generasse delectat, si ad patrem lineamentis paribus 
i*suboles subseciva respondeat, quanto major in Deo Patre laetitia 
est cum^^quis sic spiritualiternascitur, utinactibus ejus etlaudibus 
divina generositas praedicetur? Quae justitiae palma est, quae 
corona, esse se talem de quo Deus non ^^dicat "Filios generavi et 
exaltavi, ipsi autem spreverunt me." ^'Collaudet te potius Christus 

1 pressuris angentibus =agomswg <rmk. ^ venenatis faucibus =^owoH<?£i 
jaws. ' -valetndo =weakness. * crediderit, 175. ^ mortalitas 

^mortality, i.e. disease. ' Quoadusque =so /o;;g as. ' separare=<o 

set apart. ' Et quando imbrem nubila serena =fln^ when fine weather 

keeps off the showers. * siccitas=drought. ^'' scopulosa.=precipitous. 

'^ constringunt = crMsA. ^^ nauirag'mm = shipwreck. '^ habere, generasse, 
117. ^* suboles subseciva =SMn'm«g o#s/);'i«g. *^ quis. Rare in CI. 

except after 'si,' cf. Jas. v, 14, 6ga. '* dicat, 150 (i). " Collaudet, loi. 



122 Ambrose 

et invitet ad praemium dicens: " Venite, benedicti Patris mei, per- 

cipite regnum quod vobis paratum est ab origine mundi." His 

meditationibiis corroborandus est animus, ^ejusmodi exercita- 

tionibus contra omnia diaboli jacula firmandus. Sit in manibus 

divina lectio. Oratio ^jugis ^omnino non cesset. Spiritualibus 

semper actibus occupemur, ut quotiescunque inimicus *accesserit, 

et clausum adversum se pectus inveniat et armatum. ^Non enim 

Christiani hominis corona est una, quae temporibus persecutionis 

accipitur. Habet et pax coronas suas, quibus ^de varia et multi- 

plici ^congressione victores, prostrato et subacto adversario, coro- 

nantur. Li bidinem subegisse continentiae corona est. Contra iram, 

contra injuriam repugnasse corona patientiae est. De avaritia 

triumphus est pecuniam spernere. Laus est fidei fiducia futuro- 

rum mundi adversa tolerare. Et qui superbus in prosperis non 

est, gloriam de humilitate consequitur. In hoc virtutum ^stadio 

quotidie currimus, ad has justitiae palmas et coronas sine inter- 

missione temporis pervenimus. Cogitemus ergo caeleste regnum. 

Cogitemus quod fihi Dei hi soh possint vocari, qui nativitate cae- 

lesti et lege divina ad similitudinem Dei Patris et Christi ^re- 

spondeant adunati. Cogitemus sub oculis Dei nos stare, spectante 

et judicante ipso conversationis ac vitae nostrae curricula de- 

currere, pervenire nos tunc demum posse ^^ut eum videre contingat, 

si ipsum nunc videntem delectemus actibus nostris, si nos dignos 

gratia ejus et indulgentia praebeamus, si placituri semper in regno, 

in hoc mundo ante placeamus. -^^ i j. v / j x j\ 

^ De zelo et livore (adapted). 

Ambrose (died 397), the famous Bishop of Milan, was the son of 
the prefect of Gaul, and was educated with a view to his occupying 
a high administrative position in the state. 

When still a young man he was made prefect of Liguria and 
Aemilia and, as such, was called upon to preside at the election of 
a bishop for Milan after the death of the Arian bishop Auxentius. 
His reputation among the people was such that, although he was 
a layman and unbaptized, he was himself elected bishop by popular 
acclamation much against his wish. 

He disposed of his property and set himself to learn, in order 

^ ejusmodi =smc7j, 71. ^ iugis = continuous. * omnino non cesset, 100. 
* accesserit, 88. ^ Non enim. . . accipitur =Fo>' the crown which is received 

in time of persecution is not the only crown that a Christian man can win. 
' de, 211. ' congressione = con/es<. * sididio =racecourse. ' respondeant, 
i.io. '" ut... contingat, a clause of consequence, 163. 



Ambrose 123 

that he might be able to teach the doctrines of Cliristianity. He 
became the most powerful champion of the Catholic party in the 
West against the Arians, and in the end secured the complete 
triumph of the Catholic doctrine in spite of much opposition and 
persecution. He also urged the Emperors Gratian, Valentinian 
and Theodosius to sweep away the last remains of paganism, to 
refuse the title of Pontifex Maximus, and to remove the altar of 
Victory from the Senate House. In the troubled times during 
which the young Emperors Gratian and Valentinian perished he 
was the most influential statesman in the West as well as the 
greatest bishop. 

He is also famous as being the teacher who brought Augustine 
back to the Cathohc faith, for his courage in making Theodosius 
do penance for the massacre of Thessalonica, and as being the 
founder of Latin Hymnology. 

He has left many sermons and treatises written with a vigour 
and directness worthy of a Roman magistrate. 

He was not an original thinker: his method of expounding 
Scripture was the allegorical method of Philo and Origen, and he 
copied Cicero in his ethical treatises. 

He is nevertheless one of the greatest figures in the history of 
the Church, and in his capacity as a teacher and organiser sums 
up in himself the distinguishing characteristics of the Roman 
people. 

Some of his works such as the De fide are published in Hurter's 
collection. 

Ambrose in this piece imagines the pleas that the heretics will 
be constrained to make before the judgment seat of Christ. He is 
addressing the heretics throughout, and their appeals and the re- 
plies of Christ are in dialogue form. The heretics speak in the first 
person as well as Ambrose. Care must be taken to distinguish the 
speakers. 

De judicio Domini in Arianos et alios haereticos. 

Igitur iprosecutionem tuam videamus quemadmodum concihes 
tibi judicem. Die, sane, die, inquam: Ego te, Christe, puto esse 
dissimilem Patri. Respondebit et ille: Discerne, si potes: discerne, 
inquam, in quo putes me esse dissimilem. 

Die ahud: Creaturam, inquies, te arbitror. Respondebit et 
Christus: Si duorum hominum testimonium varum est, tu nee 
mihi nee Patri saltem credere debuisti, qui genitum nominavit? 

Bonum, inquies, nego. Dicet et ille : Fiat tibi secundum fidem 
tuam, ut tibi bonus non sim. 

1 prosecutionem =^/m(it«g. 



124 Ambrose 

Omnipotentem non arbitror, Respondebit et ipse : Non possum 
ergo tibi tua peccata Monare. 

^Subjectum dico. Referet ad hoc: Cur igitur libertatem ac 
veniam petis ab eo, quem putas pro servitio esse subjectum? 

Video haerere prosecutionem tuam : non urgeo, quia peccatorum 
meorum ipse sum conscius. Non invideo veniam, quia ipse opto 
indulgentiam : votum tuum scire desidero. En allego apud judi- 
cem desideria tua; non prodo crimina, serierti tuorum expecto 
votorum. 

Die itaque ea ^quae in communi voto sunt; die, inquam : Domine, 
fac me ad imaginem Dei. Respondebit ille: Ad quem imaginem? 
Quam negasti? Die: Fac me incorruptibilem. Referet utique: 
Quomodo te incorruptibilem facere possum, quem tu creaturam 
^dicendo, capacem corruptibilitatis esse voluisti? Mortui resurgent 
incorrupti, et tu corruptibilem dicis, quem Deum cernis? 

Die : Bonus esto mihi. Dicet tibi : Quid postulas quod negasti ? 
Ego te bonum esse volui, ego dixi: Estote sancti, quoniam ipse 
sanctus sum; et tu mihi id negare contendis? Et tu expectas 
veniam peccatorum? Sed nemo potest donare peccata nisi sohis 
Deus. Itaque cum verus et sohis tibi Deus non sim, non possum 
utique tua peccata donare. 

Haec Arianus dicat et Photinianus: Nego te, inquit, Deum. 

Respondebit ei Dominus : Dixit insipiens in corde suo : Non est 
Deus. De quo dictum putas, de Judaeo, de GentiU, an de diabolo ? 

De quovis dictum sit, Photiniane, tolerabihor est ille, qui tacuit : 
tu vero et voce ausus es dicere, ut insipiente insipientior probareris. 

Negas ergo, inquit, Deuin, cum ego dixerim: ^Dii estis, et fihi 
Excelsi omnes. Et tu Deum negas, cujus opera divina circum- 
spicis ? 

Dicat et SabelHanus : Ego te ipsum Patrem et Filium et Spiritum 
Sanctum arbitror. Respondebit et Dominus: Non audis Patrem, 
non audis Filium. Numquid hie uUa confusio est? Scriptura ipsa 
te docet Patrem esse, qui detuht judicium : FiUum esse, qui judicat. 
Non audisti me Micentem : Solus non sum ; sed ego et qui misit me 
Pater? 

Dicat et Manichaeus: Ego auctorem carnis nostrae diabolum 
credo. Respondebit ei: Ergo quid facies in caelestibus? Vade ad 

> donare =to forgive, Eph. iv, 32. ^ Subjectum dico=/ say that thou art 

under authority. ^ quae. . .sunt=i/je things that men most commonly desire. 

* dicendo 188. « In John x, 34; Ps. xxxii, 6. « dicentem, 138. 



Jerome 125 

auctorem tuum. Ego eos volo mecum esse, quos dedit mihi Pater. 
Tu te a diabolo creatum, Manichaee, arbitraris: ad illius ergo 
festina sedem, ubi ignis et sulphur, ubi non restinguitur ejus in- 
cendium, ne unquani poena moriatur. 

^Mitto alia haereticorum portenta non nomina; quid eis erit 
judicii, quae erit forma sententiae? Respondebit his omnibus et 
ille moraliter: Populus mens, quid feci tibi, aut quid contristavi 
te ? Nonne ex Aegypto eduxi te, et ex domo servitutis libera vi te ? 

Sed parum est ex Aegypto liberasse, et ex domo servitutis 
eripuisse: plus est te ipsum dedisse pro nobis. Dices ergo: Nonne 
vestras omnes suscepi injurias? Nonne corpus meum pro vobis 
obtuli ? Nonne mortem appetivi, quod non erat ^Divinitatis meae, 
sed vestrae redemptionis? Haeccine referuntur gratiae? Hoc pro- 
fecit sanguis meus, sicut in propheta jam dixi: Quae utilitas in 
sanguine meo, quia descendi in corruptionem? Hoc ergo profecit, 
ut me impie negaretis, pro quibus ista sustinui. * 

Ego vero tunc, Domine Jesu, etsi gravium peccatorum mihi ipse 
sim conscius, dicam tamen : Non te negavi ; habes quod ^ignoscas 
fragilitati carnis. Delictum fateor, peccatum non abnuo: si vis, 
potes me mundare. Ne, quaeso, in judicium *intres cum servo tuo. 
Non quaero ut judices, sed ut ignoscas. Pg ^^jg^ jj^ j. 



Jerome (died 420) was the greatest Hnguistic scholar among the 
Fathers. In early life he was educated in Rome by Donatus, and 
was well acquainted with Greek. He studied Hebrew with a Jew 
to enable him to make a new translation of the O.T. from the 
original. 

In addition to his version of the Bible he wrote many commen- 
taries and letters and made translations from the works of Origen. 
In his original writings his style is good and clear, but in his 
translation of the Bible he sacrificed the Latin language to his 
desire to make a literal version. 

Even in his original writings he was no purist either in con- 
struction or vocabulary, and never shrunk from using many words, 
especially abstract nouns, compound nouns and diminutives. 
Which would have made Quintilian stare and gasp. 

He also frequently coined new words if the nature of the subject 
which he was treating demanded them. 

^ Mitto alia...=/ pass over the other nameless heretical monsters. " Di- 

vinitatis, 27. ^ ignoscas... =lhou wilt have something to pardon, 150 (i). 

■* Ne intres, 99. 



126 Jerome 

The influence of his writings on later Latin and the languages 
derived from it was very great. 

In spite of the dream described in the next selection he never 
could get rid of his love for the Latin classics, for which he con- 
sidered an elaborate apology necessary (see Ep. 70), 

It should be remembered that he was of a vehement nature and 
that for the greater part of his life he lived as a hermit or a studious 
recluse in Syria or Palestine. 

The best edition of his works is by Vallarsi, Verona 1734-42. 
It is carelessly reprinted in Migne, Pat. Lat. 

There is a small selection of his letters in Hurter, and an edition 
of them is being published in the Vienna Corpus. 

An elaborate account of his style, excluding the Vulgate, is given 
in Goelzer, La Latinite de St Jerome. Hachette, Paris. 

SOMNIUM HiERONYMI, 

Cum ante annos plurimos domo, parentibus, sorore, cognatis, et 
quod his difficilius erat, consuetudine ^lautioris cibi propter cae- 
lorum me regna ^castrassem: et Hierosolymam ^militaturus per- 
gerem, ^bibliotheca, quam mihi Romae summo studio et labore 
confeceram, carere omnino non poteram: itaque miser ego, 
lecturus TuUium, jejunabam, post noctium crebras vigilias, post 
lacrymas, quas mihi praeteritorum recordatio peccatorum ex imis 
^visceribus eruebat, Plautus sumebatur in manus. 

Si quando in memetipsum reversus, prophetas legere coepissem, 
^sermo horrebat incultus : et quia lumen caecis oculis non videbam, 
non oculorum putabam culpam esse, sed soils. 

Dum ita me antiquus serpens illuderet, in media ferme quadra- 
gesima meduUis infusa febris corpus invasit exhaustum, et sine 
ulla requie, quod 'dictu quoque incredibile est, sic infelicia membra 
^depasta est, ut ossibus vix haererem. Interim parantur exsequiae, 
et vitalis animae calor, toto frigescente jam corpore, in solo tantum 
tepente ^petusculo palpitabat; cum subito raptus in spiritu, ad 

^ lautioris cibi =somewhat delicate food, a CI. use of the comparative. ^ cas- 
trassem=/ had deprived myself. ^ militaturus=/o join the army of the 

Church, i.e. to become a monk. Jerome often speaks of tlie monastic life in 
terms of military service. * bibliotheca = /i6mry, for the case see 57. 

* VKcexihns^ heart. * SQvmo h.ovT:Qha.i mculiviS =\iieTA\\y, their uncultivated 

style bristled, i.e. repelled me. ' dictu, 193. « depasta /row depascor. 

See Verg. Ec. i, 54, and Ps. ci, 5, and notice the mixture of literary remi- 
niscences. » petusculo, diminutive from pectus. The use of diminutives 
is characteristic of Late Latin. 



Jerome 127 

tribunal judicis pertrahor; ubi tantum luminis, et tantum erat 
ex circumstantium claritate fulgoris, ut projectus in terram, 
sursum aspicere non auderem. 

Interrogatus de conditione, Christianum me esse respondi. Et 
ille, qui praesidebat, Mentiris, ait; Ciceronianus es, non Chris- 
tianus; ubi enim thesaurus tuus, ibi et cor tuum. 

lUico obmutui, et inter verbera (nam caedi me jusserat) con- 
scientiae magis igne torquebar ilium mecum ^versiculum reputans: 
In inferno autem quis confitebitur tibi? Clamare autem coepi et 
ejulans dicere: Miserere ^mei, Domine, miserere mei. Haec vox 
inter flagella resonebat. 

Tandem ad praesidentis genua ^provoluti qui adstabant, prece- 
bantur ut veniam tribueret adulescentiae, et errori locum paeni- 
tentiae ^commodaret, ^exacturus deinde cruciatum, si gentilium 
literarum libros aliquando legissem. Ego qui in tanto constrictus 
^articulo, ^vellem etiam majora promittere, jurare coepi, et nomen 
ejus obtestans dicere: Domine,' si unquam habuero codices secu- 
lares, si legero, te negavi. In haec ^sacramenti verba dimissus, 
revertor ad superos, et mirantibus cunctis oculos aperio, tanto 
lacrymarum imbre perfusos, ut etiam incredulis fidem facerem ex 
dolore. Nee vero sopor ille fuerat, aut vana somnia, quibus saepe 
deludimur; testis est tribunal illud, ante quod jacui: testis judi- 
cium triste, quod timui: ita mihi nunquam contingat in talem 
incidere quaestionem. ^Liventes fateor habuisse me ^"scapulas, 
plagas sensisse post somnum, et tanto dehinc studio divina legisse, 
quanto non ante mortalia legeram. gp xxii so. 

See the comment on this dream in Milton, Areopagitica, p. i8, 
in Temple Classics Edition. 

De vita clericorum. 

Igitur clericus, qui Christi servit ecclesiae interpretetur primum 
"vocabulum suum, et nominis definitione ^^prolata, nitatur esse 
quod dicitur. Si enim KArypos Graece, "sors" Latine pppellatur, 
propterea vocantur clerici, vel quia de sorte sunt Domini, vel quia 

* See p. 126, n. 9. - mei, 29. ^ ad genua provoluti. A regular 

literary phrase, Livy, xxxiv, 11. * commodaret =gra«^. ^ exacturus = 

and that he should exact. * articulo= literally, a joint, hence a point, trans. 

a critical condition. ' vellem, potential subj., 103. * sacramenti. Here 

in its CI. sense of an oath. ' Liven tes = 6/ac^ with blows. i" scapulas = 

shoulders. '^ voca.h\\\\im.=title. '^ prolata=>Marfe known. 



128 Jerome 

ipse Dominus sors, id est, pars clericorum est. Qui autem vel ipse 
pars Domini est, vel Dominum partem habet talem se exhibere 
debet, ut et ipse possideat Dominum, et possideatur a Domino. 

Qui Dominum possidet, et cum propheta dicit : Pars mea Domi- 
nus, nihil extra Dominum habere potest: quod si quidpiam aliud 
habuerit praeter Dominum, pars ejus non erit Dominus. ^Verbi 
gratia: si aurum, si argentum, si possessiones, si variam ^supellec- 
tilem, cum istis partibus Dominus pars ejus fieri non dignabitur. 
Si autem ego pars Domini sum, habens victum et vestitum, his 
contentus ero, et nudam crucem nudus sequar. 

^Mensulam tuam pauperes et peregrini et cum illis Christus con- 
viva '*noverit. ^ Negotiatorem clericum, et ex inope divitem, ex 
ignobili gloriosum, quasi quandam pestem fuge. Corrumpunt mores 
bonos confabulationes pessimae. 



Divinas Scripturas saepius lege, imo nunquam de manibus tuis 
sacra lectio deponatur. *Disce quod doceas: obtine eum qui secun- 
dum doctrinam est fidelem sermonem, ut possis exhortari in 
doctrina sana, et contradicentes revincere. Non confundant opera 
tua sermonem tuum: ne, cum in ecclesia loqueris, tacitus quilibet 
respondeat: Cur ergo haec, quae dicis, ipse non facis? 

5JC ^ ^ *t* •I" •»* 

'' Hospitiolum tuum aut raro aut nunquam mulierum pedes 
terant. Omnes puellas et virgines Christi aut aequaliter ignora, aut 
aequaliter dilige. Si propter officium clericatus aut vidua a te 
visitatur, aut virgo, nunquam domum solus ^introeas. Solus cum 
sola, secreto et absque arbitro vel teste ^non sedeas. Si familiarius 
est aliquid loquendum: habet nutricem majorem domus, vir- 
ginem, viduam, vel maritam: non est tam ^inhumana ut nullum 
praeter te habeat, cui se audeat credere. Caveto omnes sus- 
piciones, et quidquid probabiliter fingi potest, ne fingatur ante 
devita. Crebra munuscula, et i°sudariola, et i^fasciolas, et vestes 
ori applicatas, et oblatos ac ^^degustatos cibos, blandas et dulces 

^ Ycrhi gratia =for example. ^ siipellectilem=/Mf«y/Mre. ^ Mensulam, 
diminutive of mensa. * noverit, 89. ^ Negotiatorem clericum = a 

clergyman in business. " Disce quod doceas=learn that you may teach, 159. 
' Hospitiolum=/iowe. * nunquam introeas. . .non sedeas, 99. * in- 

humana=cut off from human society. '" sudariola=«a^^f«.9. " fasciolas 
=garters. ^'^ degusiatos,— slightly tasted. 



Jerome 129 

litterulas sanctus amor non habet. "Mel meum, lumen meum, 
meum desiderium." Omnes delicias et liepores et risu dignas 
^urbanitates et caeteras ineptias amatorum in comoediis eru- 
bescimus, in saeculi hominibus detestamur: quanto magis in 
monachis et clericis, quorum et sacerdotium ^proposito, et pro- 
positum ornatur sacerdotio ? Non hoc dico, quod aut in te, aut in 
Sanctis viris ista *formidem: sed quod in omni proposito, in omni 
gradu et sexu et boni et mali reperiuntur, malorumque condemnatio 
laus bonorum *sit. 

****** 
Docente te in ecclesia, non clamor populi, sed gemitus suscitetur : 
lacrymae auditorum laudes tuae sint: sermo presbyteri scriptu- 
rarum lectione conditus sit. Nolo te declamatorem esse, et ^ra- 
bulam garrulumque sine ratione, sed mysteriorum peritum, et 
sacramentorum Dei tui eruditissimum. Verba volvere, et celeritate 
dicendi apud imperitum vulgus admirationem sui facere, ''indoc- 
torum hominum est. Nihil tarn facile, quam ''vilem plebiculam 
et indoctam ^concionem linguae volubilitate decipere, quae quid- 
quid non intelligit, plus miratur. 

****** 

Vestes ^puUas aeque devita, ut Candidas. Ornatus ut i^sordes 
pari modo fugiendae sunt: quiaalterum delicias, alterum ^^gloriam 
redolet. Non i^absque amictu lineo incedere, sed pretium vestium 
linearum non habere laudabile est : alioquin ridiculum et plenum 
dedecoris est, referto ^^marsupio, quod sudarium i*orariumque non 
habeas i^gloriari. Sunt, quipauperibus paulum tribuunt, ut amplius 
accipiant, et sub praetextu i^eleemosynae quaerunt divitias, quae 
magis venatio appellanda est, quam eleemosynae genus. Sic 
bestiae, sic aves, sic capiuntur et pisces. Modica in hamo i^esca 
ponitur, ut matronarum in eo ^^sacculi protrahantur. 
****** 

Cave ne hominum ^^rumusculos ^^aucuperis, ne in ^loffensum Dei 

populorum laudem commutes. Si adhuc, inquit Apostolus, homi- 

^ lepoves= facetious ness. ^ UTh2Lnitates= jokes. ' propositum =^>'o- 

fession. * formidem, 156. ^ xabn\a.m=ahawler. ' indoctorum 

hominum est, 27. ' vilem plebiculam =</ie low common people. ' con- 

cionem.= audience. ' p\i\\a.s==dark. '" soid.es =untidiness. " gloriam 
^ostentation. *^ absque = sine, 207. " marsupium=rt p^fse. 

^* ordsiuva^handker chief. ^^ ^\or\3in= to boast. " eleemosyna=a/w5. 

" esca=a bait. ** S3ccvt\i= money-bags. ** rumMSCVilos— applause. 

-" aucuperis =^s/t /oi-. 21 offensum Dei. Objective Gen., 24. 

N.E.L. Q 



130 Jerome 

nibus placerem, Christi servus non essem. Per bonam famam et 
malam, a dextris et a sinistris, Christi miles graditur, nee laude 
extollitur, nee vituperatione frangitur: non divitiis tumet, non 
icontrahitur paupertate, et ^laeta contemnit et Hristia: per diem sol 
non urit eum, neque luna per noctem. 

****** 
Cave quoque, ne aut linguam, aut aures habeas ^prurientes: id 
est, ne aut ipse aliis *detrahas, aut ahos audias detrahentes. Faroe 
a detractione linguae: custodi sermones tuos: et scito, quia per 
cuncta, quae de aliis loqueris, tua sententia judicaris, et in his ipse 
^deprehenderis, quae in aliis ^arguebas. Neque vero ilia justa est 
excusatio: ^ Referentibus aliis injuriam facere non possum. Nemo 
invito auditori libenter refert. Sagitta in lapidem nunquam fingi- 
tur, interdum resiliens percutit dirigentem. Discat detractor, dum 
te videt non libenter audire, non facile detrahere. Cum detractori- 
bus, ait Solomon, ne miscearis: quoniam repente veniet perditio 
eorum, et ruinam utriusque quis novit? tam videlicet ejus qui de- 
trahit, quam illius qui accommodat aurem detrahenti. 

Officii tui est visitare ^languentes, nosse domos matronarum et 
liberos earum, et nobilium virorum custodire secreta. Officii tui 
sit, non solum oculos castos servare, sed et linguam. Nunquam de 
formis mulierum disputes, nee quid agatur in alia, domu alia per 
te noverit. Hippocrates adjurat discipulos suos antequam ^doceat, 
et in verba sua jurare compellit, ^^extorquet Sacramento silentium, 
sermonem, incessum, habitum moresque praescribit. Quanto magis 
nos, quibus animarum medicina commissa est, omnium Christia- 
norum domos debemus amare, quasi proprias ? Consolatores potius 
nos in maeroribus suis, quam convivas in prosperis noverint. Facile 
contemnitur clericus, qui saepe vocatus ad prandium, ire non re- 
cusat. 

Nunquam petentes, raro accipiamus rogati. Beatius enim est 
magis dare quam accipere. Nescio quo enim modo etiam ipse, qui 
deprecatur ut tribuat, cum acceperis, viliorem te judicat: et 
mirum in modum, si eum rogantem contempseris, plus te posterius 

Extracts from Ep. ad Nepontianum. 

1 coiitrahitur = a6ase^. ^ laeta, tristia, 200. ^ pi-urientes = itching, 

II Tim. iv, 3. * detrahere =slander. ^ deprehenderis= you are caught. 

* a.rguebas = you were reproving. ' Reierentihus aVns^when others tell stories. 

* languentes— the sick. ® doceat, 153. *" extorquet= exacts. 



Augustine 131 

Augustine (died 430), Bishop of Hippo, the most famous of the 
Latin Fathers, was born in Tagaste in Numidia. His father Patricius 
was a man of humble origin and indifferent character, his mother 
Monnica was a devout Christian woman who has been immortahsed 
by her son in his Confessions. According to his own account he 
was not a dihgent scholar, although his parents tried to give him 
the best education that was possible at the time. He never mas- 
tered Greek, much to his own disadvantage. After a dissolute 
youth he joined the sect of the Manichaeans, and, finally, after a 
long period of spiritual struggle, he was converted to Cathohc 
Christianity by the influence of his mother and the teaching of 
Ambrose, Bishop of Milan. He was baptized in 387 in the 33rd 
year of his age, and gave up his profession as a teacher of rhetoric 
in order that he might retire from the world into a religious com- 
munity. Shortly after this his mother died at Ostia and he re- 
turned to Africa where he was consecrated Bishop of Hippo in 395. 
His influence extended far beyond his unimportant see. 

By his letters and his treatises he influenced the whole Christian 
world, and has influenced it ever since. Probably no Christian 
teacher after the time of the Apostles ever had such influence both 
for good and evil. Both the supporters of the ecclesiastical system of 
the middle ages and the German and French reformers claimed to 
found their teaching on the writings of Augustine. 

Augustine's style is difficult and strikingly original. Only two 
passages from his voluminous writings are included here: both 
from the Confessions. 

Of the two passages from the Confessions the first gives his 
account of his education, and is interesting because of his curiously 
modern views with regard to the "direct method" in language 
teaching, and for the preference which he shows for the Gradgrind 
type of education in "facts" in comparison with the training of 
the higher faculties of imagination and susceptibility through 
hterature and humanism. 

The general sentiment of the Church did not follow him in this : 
the common-sense of the Italian temperament prevailed over the 
rigor of the fiery African. 

It would have been well for himself as well as for the Church at 
large if Augustine had not counted such natural feelings to be a 
sin, but had imbibed a little more of the humanity of Vergil, 

majestic in his sadness 
At the doubtfid doom of human kind, 
and of the spirit of the famous line 

Simt lacrymae rerum, et mentem mortalia tangunt. 

In the second extract we see Augustine at his best, not as the 
pitiless logician, or as the victorious controversialist, but as a man. 

9—2 



132 Augustine 

Augustine's works are accessible as a whole in Migne, Patrologia 
Latina, and portions of them are published in SS. Patrum Opuscula, 
by the Oxford and Cambridge Presses, and in the Loeb Library. 
An excellent translation of the Confessions by Dr Bigg is published 
by Methuen. 

De miseriis Augustini in pueritia. 

Deus, Deus mens, quas ibi miserias expertus sum et ^ludifica- 
tiones: ^quandoquidem recte mihi vivere puero id proponebatur, 
^obtemperare monentibus, ut in hoc saeculo fiorerem, et excellerem 
*lignosis artibus, ad honorem hominum et falsas divitias ^famulan- 
tibus. Inde in scholam datus sum ut discerem litteras, in quibus 
quid utilitatis esset ignorabam miser, et tamen si segnis in discendo 
^essem, ''vapulabam. Laudabatur enim hoc a majoribus; et multi 
ante nos vitam istam agentes, praestruxerant ^aerumnas vias, per 
quas transire cogebamur, multiplicato labore et dolore filiis Adam. 

^Invenimus autem, Domine, homines rogantes te, et didicimus 
ab eis, sentientes te, ut poteramus, esse magnum aliquem, qui 
posses, etiam non apparens sensibus nostris, exaudire nos, et sub- 
venire nobis. Nam puer coepi rogare te, auxilium et refugium 
meum, et in ^^tuam invocationem rumpebam nodos linguae meae, 
et rogabam te parvus, non parvo affectu, ne in schola vapularem. 
Et cum me non exaudiebas, ^^quod non erat ad insipientiam mihi, 
ridebantur a majoribus hominibus, usque ab ipsis parentibus, qui 
mihi accidere mali nihil volebant, ^^plagae meae, magnum tunc et 
grave malum meum. 

Quid autem ^^erat causae cur Graecas 1* litteras oderam, quibus 
puerulus imbuebar, ne nunc quidem mihi satis exploratum est. 

' lndificationes= delusions. ^ quandoquidem . . . =since this was set be- 

fore me as the right way for a boy to live. ^ obtemperare monentibus explains 
'id,' 145. * lignosis artibus =^fj' or tough studies. * famulantibus agrees 
with avtibus= enslaved to. * essem, 171. ' vapn\aham= I was flogged. 

' aerumnas, here used as an adjective =gn'ei'OMS. * Invenimus. . . =Yet we 
found men, O Lord, who prayed to Thee, and we learnt from them, perceiving, 
as far as we were able, that Thou wert some great Being who couldst hear us. 
'° tuam invocationem. Possessive pronoun in sense of obj. gen., 25. " quod 
non erat ad insipientiam mihi. Cf. Ps. xxi, 3 Deus meus, clamabo per diem et 
non exaudies me: et nocte et non ad insipientiam mihi. Translate: which 
Thou didst not reckon as folly to me. ^^ plagae meae. Subject of ridebcintur. 
'* erat. For the Ind. in indirect questions, see 143, 144. '* litteras, trans. 

studies. 



Augustine 133 

^Adamaveram enim Latinas, non quas primi magistri, sed quas 
docent qui ^grammatici vocantur. Nam ^illas primas ubi legere 
et scribere et numerare discitur, non minus onerosas poenalesque 
habebam, quam omnes Graecas. Unde tamen et hoc nisi de peccato 
et vanitate vitae, qua caro eram et spiritus ambulans et non rever- 
tens? Nam utique meliores, quia certiores erant primae illae 
litterae, quibus fiebat in me, et factum est, *et habeo illud ut et 
legam si quid scriptum invenio, et scribam ipse si quid volo, quam 
illae quibus ^tenere cogebar ^Aeneae nescio cujus errores, oblitus 
errorum meorum, et plorare Didonem mortuam, quia se occidit 
ob amorem, cum interea meipsum in his a te morientem, Deus 
vita mea, siccis oculis ferrem miserrimus. 

:f: ^ :{: H< :|: :{; 

At enim ^vela pendent liminibus grammaticarum scholarum: 
sed non ilia magis honorem secreti, quam tegumentum erroris 
significant. Non clament adversum me venditores grammaticae 
vel emptores; quia, si proponam eis, interrogans utrum sit verum 
quod ®Aeneam aliquando Carthaginem venisse poeta dicit; in- 
doctiores se nescire respondebunt, doctiores autem etiam negabunt 
verum esse. 

At si quaeram quibus litteris scribitur Aeneae nomen, omnes 
mihi, qui haec didicerunt, verum respondebunt, secundum id pac- 
tum et placitum, quo inter se homines ista signa ^firmarunt. 

i^Item, si quaeram quid horum majore hujus vitae incommodo 
quisque obliviscatur, legere et scribere, an poetica ilia figmenta, 
quis non videat quid responsurus sit, qui non est penitus oblitus 
sui? Peccabam ergo puer cum ilia inania istis utilioribus amore 
praeponebam, vel potius ista oderam, ilia amabam. 

Jamvero unum et unum duo, duo et duo quatuor, odiosa 
cantio mihi erat, et dulcissimum spectaculum vanitatis equus 
ligneus plenus armatis et Trojae incendium, atque ipsius umbra 
Creusae. 

Cur ergo Graecam etiam gramma.ticam oderam talia cantantem ? 

* Adamaveram=7 loved greatly. ^ grammatici =teachers of literature. 

* illas primas, understand litteras. * et habeo illud ut et legam, etc., 145. 

^ tenere =to remember. ° Aeneae nescio cujus =0/ one ^eweas. ' vela = 

curtains. ' Aeneam aliquando venisse, in apposition with 'quod.' 

' fi.Traarunt= have established. ^" Item, si quaeram, etc. = And if I ask 

which of these things, namely to read and to write, or these poetic fables, would 
cause the greatest inconvenience in this life to any one who should forget them. 



134 Augustine 

Nam et Homerus peritus texere tales fabulas, et dulcissime vanus 
est, et mihi tamen amarus erat puero. 

1 Credo etiam Graecis pueris Virgilius ita sit, cum cum sic discere 
coguntur, ut ego ilium. Videlicet difficultas, difficultas omnino 
ediscendae peregrinae linguae, quasi ^felle aspergebat omnes suavi- 
tates Graecas fabulosarum narrationum. Nulla enim verba ilia 
noveram, et saevis terroribus ac poenis ut nossem =^instabatur mihi 
vehementer. Nam et Latina aliquando infans nulla noveram; et 
tamen *advertendo didici sine ullo metu et cruciatu, inter etiam 
blandimenta nutricum et joca.arridentium et laetitias alludentium. 

Didici vero ilia sine poenali onere urgentium cum me urgeret cor 
meum ad parienda concepta sua, quae non possem, nisi aliqua 
verba didicissem, non a docentibus sed a loquentibus, ^in quorum 
et ego auribus parturiebam quidquid sentiebam. Hinc satis elucet 
majorem habere vim ad discenda ista liberam curiositatem, quam 
^meticulosam necessitatem. 

Confessions i, 14, 20, 22, 23 (selections). 

AUGUSTINI ORATIO PRO MONNICA MATRE SUA. 

Ego autem, jam sanato corde ab illo '^vulnere in quo poterat 
^redargui carnalis affectus, fundo tibi, Deus noster, pro ilia famula 
tua longe aliud lacrymarum genus, quod manat de concusso spiritu 
^consideratione periculorum omnis animae quae in Adam moritur. 
Quamquam ilia in Christo vivificata, etiam nondum a carne resoluta, 
sic vixerit ut laudetur nomen tuum in fide moribusque ejus; non 
tamen audeo dicere, ex quo eam per Baptismum regenerasti, nullum 
verbum exisse ex ore ejus contra praeceptum tuum. Et dictum est 
a Veritate Filio tuo: Si quis dixerit fratri suo, Fatue, reus erit 
gehennae ignis. 

Et vae etiam laudabili vitae hominum, ^^si, remota misericordia, 
discutias eam. Quia vero non exquiris delicta vehementer, "fidu- 
ciaUter speramus aUquem apud te locum. Quisquis autem tibi 

• Credo Graecis pueris. . . =J believe that Vergil is as hateful to Greek boys 
when they are compelled to learn him in the same way, as I was compelled to learn 
Homer. ^ l&\\&=with gall. ^ msta.hatuT=pressurewasbroughttobear onme. 
* advertendo = 6y paying attention. ^ in quorum auribus, etc. =in whose 

ears I was travailing to express my thoughts. ° ineticulosam necessitatem = 

pedantic compulsion. ' vulnere, i.e. the grief that he felt at the death of his 

mother. ^ redargui = he blamed. ^ cons\devatione= at the thought of. 

'° si, remota misericordia, discutias = ;/■ thou shouldst sift it without pity. 
" M\ic\a\\iGr = confidently. 



Augustine 135 

enumerat vera merita sua, quid tibi euumerat nisi munera tua? 
1 si cognoscant se homines homines ; et qui gloriatur, in Domino 
glorietur. 

Ego itaque, laus mea et vita mea, Deus cordis mei, sepositis 
pauhsper bonis ejus actibus, pro quibus tibi gaudens gratias ago, 
nunc pro peccatis matris meae deprecor te: exaudi me per Medi- 
cinam vulnerum nostrorum, quae pependit in hgno, et sedens ad 
dexteram tuam interpellat te pro nobis. Scio misericorditer opera- 
tam, et ex corde dimisisse debita debitoribus suis: dimitte ilh et tu 
debita sua, si qua etiam contraxit per tot annos post aquam salutis. 
Dimitte, Domine, dimitte obsecro, ne intres cum ea in judicium. 

^Superexaltet misericordia judicio, quoniam ^eloquia tua vera 
sunt, et promisisti misericordiam misericordibus ; quod ut essent, 
tu dedisti eis, qui misereberis cui misertus eris, et misericordiam 
praestabis cui misericors fueris. 

Et credo *quod jam feceris quod te rogo, sed ^ voluntaria oris mei 
approba, Domine. Namque ilia imminente die resolutionis suae 
non cogitavit suum corpus sumptuose contegi, aut condiri aroma- 
tibus, aut monumentum electum concupivit, aut curavit sepul- 
crum patrium; non ista mandavit nobis; sed tantummodo ^me- 
moriam sui ad altare tuum fieri desideravit, cui nullius diei prae- 
termissione servierat, unde sciret dispensari victimam sanctam, 
qua deletum est ''chirographum, quod erat contrarium nobis, qua 
triumphatus est hostis computans delicta nostra, et quaerens quid 
objiciat, et nihil inveniens in illo, in quo vincimus. Quis ei re- 
fundet innocentem sanguinem? Quis ei restituet pretium, quo nos 
emit, ut nos auferat ^ ei ? Ad cuj us pretii nostri sacramentum ligavit 
ancilla tua animam suam vinculo fidei. Nemo a protectione tua 
disrumpat eam. Non se interponat nee vi nee insidiis leo et draco; 
neque enim respondebit ilia nihil se debere, ne convincatur et 
obtineatur ab accusatore callido; sed respondebit dimissa debita 
sua ab eo, cui nemo reddet quod pro nobis, non debens, reddidit. 

Sit ergo in pace cum viro, ante quem nulli, et post quem nulli, 

nupta est; cui servivit ^fructum tibi afferens cum toierantia, ut 

eum quoque ^"lucraretur tibi. 

* O si cognoscant, etc. =0 that men may know themselves to be but men. 
- Superexaltet misericordia judicio, Jas. ii, 13. ' eloquia =words. ' ■* quod 
jam feceris, 112-115, 135. ^ wo\\m.\.3s\2i=the free-will offerings of my mouth. 
* memoriam sui, objective gen., 24. ' chirograplium=//;c handivriting, 

Col. ii, 14. ^ ei: thsit i~,, frotn the devil. ^ iructum, i.e. Augustine her son. 

1" lucraretuT =that she might gain. 



136 



Bede 



Et inspira, Domine Deus meus, inspira servis tuis fratribus meis, 
filiis tuis, dominis meis, quibus et corde et voce et litteris servio, 
ut ^quotquot haec legerint, meminerint ad altare tuum Monnicae 
famulae tuae, cum Patricio quondam ejus conjuge, per quorum 
carnem induxisti me in hanc vitam, quemadmodum nescio. 

Meminerint cum affectu pio parentum meorum in hac luce transi- 
toria, et ^fratrum meorum sub te Patre in matre Catholica, et 
civium meorum in aeterna Jerusalem, cui suspirat ^peregrinatio 
populi tui ab exitu usque ad reditum; ut, quod a me ilia poposcit 
extremum, *uberius ei praestetur in multorum orationibus, per 
confessiones, quam per orationes meas. 

Confessions ix, 34. 

Bede (died 735), a monk of J arrow, was among the greatest 
scholars of the early middle ages. He was acquainted with all the 
knowledge of his day although he never travelled out of England. 
He had read the Latin Classics as well as the Latin Fathers and 
had some knowledge of Greek and Hebrew. His most famous work 
is the History of the Saxon Church from which some extracts are 
here given. 

His style shows considerable departure even from the Latin of 
the early Fathers, but this is only to be expected considering the 
barbarous times in which he lived and the distance that separated 
Jarrow from Italy. When he makes use of Classical expressions his 
correctness is rather that of a scholar who has learnt his style from 
books, than that of an original writer who is taking his part in the 
development of a language. The study of his works makes us 
marvel at the vigour of the Latin language which could extend its 
influence so far. The learning of Bede, handed on by Alcuin to the 
schools of Charlemagne, did much to help the first revival of letters 
in Europe. 

De vita Beati Papae Gregorii. 

Beatus papa Gregorius natione erat Romanus, a patre Gordiano, 
genus a ^proavis non solum nobile sed ^religiosum ducens. Felix 
denique ejusdem apostolicae sedis quondam episcopus, vir magnae 
gloriae in Christo et ecclesia, ejus fuit 'atavus. Nobilitatem vero 

* quotquot=as many as. ^ fratrum. Augustine calls his parents his 

brethren 1 ecause they had one Father in God and one Mother in the Church. 
^ pevegTinatio —pilgrimage. * uhenus = more abundantly. ° proavis = 

ancestors. ° ie\igios\xin=attached to the observances of religion. ' ata.vus=the 
father (f his great grandfather . 



Bede 137 

illam quani ad ^saeculum videbatur habere, totam ^ad nanciscen- 
dam supernae gloriam dignitatis divina gratia ^largiente convertit. 
Nam mutato repente habitu ^saeculari, nionasterium petiit, in quo 
tanta perfectionis gratia coepit ^conversari, ut, sicut ipse postea 
^flendo solebat adtestari, nulla nisi caelestia cogitare ^soleret, ut 
etiam retentus corpore, ipsa jam carnis ^claustra contemplatione 
transiret, ut mortem quoque, quae paene cunctis poena est, ut in- 
gressum vitae, et laboris sui praemium amaret. Hoc autem ipse 
de se, non profecto ^jactando virtutem, sed deflendo potius de- 
fectum, quern sibi per curam pastoralem incucurrisse videbatur, re- 
ferre consueverat. Mox lOpontificali functus officio domum suam 
monasterium facere curavit. Quin etiam dum alii pontifices con- 
struendis ornandisque ecclesiis auro vel argento operam dabant, 
hie autem quidquid pecuniae habuerat sedulus hoc dare pauperi- 
bus curabat, ut justitia ejus maneret ^^in saeculum saeculi, et 
cornu ejus exaltaretur in gloria. 

Ad cujus pietatis et justitiae opus pertinet etiam hoc, i^quod 
nostram gentem per praedicatores quos hue direxit de dentibus 
antiqui hostis eripiens, aeternae libertatis fecit participem. Nee 
silentio praetereunda ^^ opinio quae de beato Gregorio traditione 
majorum ad nos usque perlata est: qua videlicet ex causa admoni- 
tus, tarn sedulam erga salutem nostrae gentis curam gesserit. 
i*Dicunt quia die quadam cum, advenientibus nuper mercatoribus, 
multa i^venalia in forum fuissent conlata, multique ad emendum 
confiuxissent, et ipsum Gregorium inter alios advenisse, ac vidisse 
inter alia pueros venales positos, ^^candidi corporis et venusti 

^ saeculum =«« age, hence this life. ^ ad nanriscendam supernae gloriam 
dignitatis =io obtaining the glory of the heavenly crown, 190. ^ largiente = 

granting. * saecularis=wo;-Zrf/y. Compare the use of the expression Sfjcw/a*- 

clergy in opposition to regular clergy. ^ conversari = io live, to behave one's 

self. Compare the use of the word conversation in A.V. of Gal. i, 13, Jas. iii, 13. 

* ^&\\Ao=weepiHg, 188. ' soleret, transiret, amaret, consecutive, 163. 

* claustra = &o«rfs. ' jactando = 6y way of boasting, 191. " pontificali, 
i.e. he was made Pope. The Bishops of Rome took over this title from the ancient 
Romans. For the case see 57. " in saeculum saeculi =/or ever and ever. 
'^ qno6.=namely that. It is easy to see from an example like this how clauses 
introduced by ' quod ' came to be used as noun clauses. Seeii2-ii5. " opinio 
—story. ^* dicunt quia. Two const, are confused in this sentence. Bede 
began by writing a subordinate clause introduced by 'quia' after the verb 
'dicunt' which should have contained verbs in the indicative or subj.mood: he 
however turned off into the ordinary Classical const, of the Ace. and Inf. and 
wrote the verbs in the Inf., leaving 'quia' in the air. .See 1x2-115 and 130, 132. 
'^ vena.]ia.=obiects for sale. '^ candidi corporis, 26. 



138 Bede 

vultus, capillorum quoque ^ forma egregia. Quos cum aspiceret, 
interrogavit, ut aiunt, de qua regione vel terra ^essent adlati. 
Dictumque est quod de Britannia insula, cujus incolae talis essent 
aspectus. Rursus interrogavit utrum iidem insulani Christiani an 
paganis adhuc erroribus ^ essent implicati. Dictumque est quod 
essent pagani. At ille intimo ex corde longa trahens suspiria 
"Heu," inquit, "quod tam lucidi vultus homines tenebrarum 
auctor possidet." Rursus ergo interrogavit, ^quod esset vocabulum 
illius gentis. Responsum est quod Angli vocarentur. At ille 
"Bene," inquit, "nam et angelicam habent faciem, et tales an- 
gelorum in caelis decet esse coheredes. Quod habet nomen ipsa 
provincia de qua isti sunt adlati?" Responsum est quod Deiri 
vocarentur iidem provinciales. At ille: "Bene," inquit, "Deiri, de 
ira eruti, et ad misericordiam Christi vocati. Rex provinciae illius 
quomodo appellatur?" Responsum est quod Aella diceretur. At 
ille adludens ad nomen ait: "Alleluia: laudem Dei creatoris illis in 
partibus oportet cantari." 

Accedensque ad pontificem Romanae et apostolicae sedis, non- 
dum erat enim ipse pontifex f actus, rogavit ut ^genti Anglorum 
in Britanniam aliquos verbi ministros, per quos ad Christum con- 
verteretur, mitteret. Mox ipse, pontificatus officio functus, per- 
fecit opus diu desideratum, praedicatores ad Britanniam mittens, 
et ipse praedicationem, ut fructificaret, suis exhortationibus ac 
precibus adjuvans. 

Rexit ecclesiam temporibus imperatorum Mauricii et Focatis. 
Secundo autem ej usdem Focatis anno transiens ex hac vita migravit 
ad veram quae in caelis est vitam. Sepultus vero est corpore in 
ecclesia beati Petri apostoli; scriptum est in tumba epitaphium 
hujusmodi: 

Suscipe, terra, tuo corpus de corpore sumptum, 

Reddere quod *valeas, vivificante Deo. 

Spiritus astra petit, leti nil jura nocebunt 

Cui vitae alterius mors magis ipsa via est. 

Pontificis summi hoc clauduntur membra sepulcro, 

Qui innumeris semper vivit ubique bonis. 

^Esuriem ^dapibus superavit, frigor^. veste, 

* forma egregia, 56. - essent adlati, essent implicati, quod esset \ ocabu- 

lum, 143. 3 genti, 39. * valeas... =w/zic/i thou mayest have power to give 

back when God qtiickeneth it, 150 {2). * Esuviem =hnnger. " dapibus=6y 

feasts. 



Bede 139 

Atque animas monitis texit ab hoste sacris. 

Implebat actu quidquid sermone docebat, 

Esset ut exemplum, mystica verba loquens. 

Ad Christum Anglos convertit pietate magistra, 

Adquirens fidei agmina gente nova. 

Hie labor, hoc studium, haec tibi cura, hoc ^ pastor agebas, 

Ut Domino offerres plurima lucra gregis. 

Hisque, Dei consul, factus laetare triumphis : 

Nam mercedem operum jam sine fine tenes. 

Hist. Ecc, Book 2 (adapted). 

De adventu Augustini ad praedicandum genti Anglorum. 

Anno ab incarnatione Domini quingentesimo octogesimo se- 
cundo, regnante imperatore Mauricio, Gregorius, vir doctrina et 
actione praecipuus, pontificatum Romanum et apostolicae sedis 
^sortitus, misit servum Dei Augustinum et alios plures cum eo 
monachos timentes Dominum ^praedicare verbum Dei genti An- 
glorum. 

*Qui cum jussis pontificalibus obtemperantes hoc opus adgredi 
coepissent, perculsi timore, redire domum potius, quam barbaram, 
feram, incredulamque gentem, cujus ne linguam quidem ^nossent, 
adire cogitabant et hoc esse tutius communi consilio decernebant. 

Nee mora, Augustinum, quern eis ^episcopum ordinandum si 
ab Anglis suseiperentur disposuerat, domum remittunt, qui a beato 
Gregorio humili supplicatu ^obtineret ne tam periculosam, tam 
laboriosam, tam incertam peregrinationem adire deberent. *Quibus 
ille exhortatorias mittens litteras, in opus ^eos verbi, divino con- 
fisos auxihp, profieisci suadet. Quarum videHcet litterarum ista est 
forma : 

"Gregorius servus servorum Dei, servis Domini nostri. Quia 
melius fuerat bona non ineipere, quam ab his quae coepta sunt, 
cogitatione retrorsum redire, summo studio, dileetissimi filii, 
oportet ut opus bonum, quod auxihante Deo eoepistis, impleatis. 

1 pastor = as shepherd. - sortxins =having been allotted. ^ praedicare, 

157a, 162. * Qui = 6H/ they, 66. ^ nossent, the subj. is used because the 

words state their thought indirectly. Their actual thought was "Ne linguam 
quidem novimus." * QT^isco^nm or6.m3inAnm.=to be ordained bishop, 188. 

' qui obtineret=/o obtain, 150 (2). ' eos, the ace. where the dat. would 

have been used in CI. L., 37. 



140 Bede 

Nee labor ergo vos itineris, nee imaledicorum hominum linguae 
deterreant: sed omni instantia, omnique fervore, quae inchoastis, 
Deo auctore, peragite: ^scientes quod laborem magnum major 
aeternae retributionis gloria sequitur. ^Remeanti autem Augustino, 
praeposito vestro, quem et abbatem vobis constituimus, in omnibus 
humiliter obedite. Omnipotens Deus sua vos gratia *protegat, et 
vestri laboris fruetum in aeterna me patria videre concedat; 
quatenus etsi vobiseum laborare nequeo, simul in gaudio retribu- 
tionis inveniar, quia laborare scilicet volo. Deus vos incolumes 
custodiat, dilectissimi filii." 

Roboratus ergo eonfirmatione patris Gregorii, Augustinus cum 
famulis Christi, qui erant cum eo, rediit in opus verbi, pervenitque 
Britanniam. Erat eo tempore rex Aedilberctus in Cantia poten- 
tissimus. Est autem ad orientalem Cantiae plagam Tanatos insula 
non modica. In hac ergo ^adplicuit Augustinus et socii ejus. 

Aceeperunt autem de gente Franeorum interpretes, et mittens 
ad Aedilberctum, ^mandavit se venisse 'de Roma, ac nuntium 
ferre optimum, qui ^sibi obtemperantibus aeterna in caelis gaudia, 
et regnum sine fine cum Deo vivo et vero futurum sine ulla dubie- 
tate spromitteret. ^^Qui haec audiens, manere illos in ea, quam 
aderant insula, et eis necessaria ministrari, donee videret quid eis 
faceret jussit. Nam et antea fama ad eum Cliristianae religionis 
pervenerat, utpote qui uxorem habebat Christianam de gente 
Franeorum regia, " voeabul5 Bereta; quam ea eonditione a parenti- 
bus acceperat, ut ritum fidei ae religionis suae eum episeopo quem 
ei adjutorem fidei dederant, nomine Liudhardo, inviolatum ser- 
vare licentiam haberet. Post dies ergo venit ad insulam rex, et 
residens 12 sub divo, jussit Augustinum cum soeiis "ad suum ibidem 
ad venire colloquium. Caverat enim ne in aliquam domum ad se 
introirent, vetere usus augurio, ne i*superventu suo, si quid mali- 
ficae artis habuissent, eum superando deciperent. At illi non 
daemonica sed divina virtute praediti veniebant, erueem pro 

* maledicoram=men of strange speech. ^ scientes=because you know, 183. 
3 Remeanti. For the use of the present participle to denote action previous to 
the main verb see 177, 178. Trans. When Augustine returns. * protegat, loi. 
« adp]icmt = landed. * mandavit =he stated. ' de Roma, 45. 211. 

8 sibi=/o those that obeyed it. This is rather a loose use of 'sibi,' 61. ' pro- 

mitteret, 150 (i). '" See p. 139, n. 4. '' vocabulo BeTctaL= Bertha by name. 
'2 sub divo = JH the open air. Cf. Vitamque sub divo et trepidis agat in rebus, 
Hor. 3. 2, 5. '^ ad suum colloquium =<o speak with him, 25. "• superventu 
suo=&j' their craft. 



Bede 141 

^vexillo ferentes argenteam, et imaginem Domini Salvatoris in 
tabula depictam, ^litaniasque canentes, pro sua simul et eorum 
ad quos venerant salute aeterna Domino supplicabant. Cumque 
ad jussionem regis residentes, verbum ei vitae praedicarent, re- 
spondet ille dicens: "Piilcra sunt quidem verba et promissa quae 
adfertis ; sed quia nova sunt, et incerta, non his possum adsensum 
tribuere, relictis eis quae ^tanto tempore cum omni Anglorum gente 
servavi. Verum quia de longe hue peregrini venistis, et ut ego mihi 
videor perspexisse, ea quae vos vera et optima credebatis, nobis 
quoque communicare desiderastis, nolumus molesti esse vobis: 
quin potius benigno vos hospitio recipere, et quae victui sunt 
vestro necessaria, ministrare curamus ; nee prohibemus quin omnes 
quos potestis fidei vestrae religionis praedicando societis." 

Dedit ergo eis mansionem in civitate Doruvernensi, quae im- 
perii sui totius erat metropolis, eisque, ut promiserat, cum ad- 
ministratione victus temporalis, licentiam quoque praedicandi non 
abstulit. Fertur autem quia adpropinquantes civitati, more suo 
cumcrucesancta, et imagine magni regis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 
hanc litaniam consona voce modularentur: "Deprecamur te. Do- 
mine, in omni misericordia tua, ut auferatur furor tuus et ira a civi- 
tate ista, et de domo sancta tua, quoniam peccavimus. Alleluia." 

At ubi datam sibi mansionem intraverant, coeperunt apostolicam 
primitivae ecclesiae vitam imitari; orationibus videlicet assiduis, 
vigiliis, et jejuniis *serviendo, verbum vitae quibus poterant prae- 
dicando, cuncta hujus mundi velut aliena spernendo, ea tantum 
quae victui necessaria videbantur, ab eis quos docebant, acci- 
piendo, secundum ea quae docebant ipsi per omnia vivendo. 

^Quid mora? Crediderunt nonnulli et baptizabantur, mirantes 
simplicitatem innocentis vitae, ac dulcedinem doctrinae eorum 
caelestis. Erat autem prope ipsam civitatem ad orientem ecclesia 
in honorem Sancti Martini ^antiquitus facta dum adhuc Romani 
Britanniam incolerent, in qua regina, quam Christianam fuisse 
praediximus, orare consueverat. In hac ergo et ipsi primo convenire, 
psallere, orare, missas facere, praedicare et baptizare coeperunt; 
donee, rege ad fidem converso, majorem praedicandi per omnia, et 
ecclesias fabricandi vel restaurandi Ucentiam acciperent. 

^ vexillumt=a banner. ^ htaneas =litanies. ' tan to tempore, 55. 

* serviendo, praedicando, spernendo, accipiendo, vivendo. For the use of the 
ablative of the Gerund in the sense of a present participle see 188. * Quid 

moTSi=why say more? * antiquitus, an adverb = in ancient times. 



142 Bede 

At ubi ipse etiam inter alios delectatus vita mundissima 
sanctorum, et promissis eorum suavissimis, quae vera esse miracu- 
lorum quoque multorum ostensione firmaverant, credens bapti- 
zatus est, coeperunt ad audiendum verbum confluere, ac, relicto 
gentilitatis ritu, unitati se sanctae Christi ecclesiae ^credendo 
sociare. Hist. Ecc. (adapted). 

De colloquio Augustini cum Episcopis Brittonum. 

Interea Augustinus ^adjutorio usus Aedilbercti, convocavit ^ad 
suum colloquium episcopos proximae Brittonum provinciae, coepit- 
que eis fraterna admonitione suadere, ut pace catholica secum 
habita, communem evangelizandi gentibus pro Domino laborem 
susciperent. Non enim *Paschae Dominicum diem suo tempore, 
sed a quarta decima usque ad vicesimam lunam observabant, et 
alia plurima unitati ecclesiasticae contraria faciebant. Qui cum 
longa disputatione habita neque precibus, neque hortamentis, 
neque increpationibus Augustini ac sociorum ejus assensum prae- 
bere voluissent, sed suas potius traditiones universis, quae per 
orbem sibi in Christo concordant, ecclesiis praeferrent, sanctus 
pater Augustinus hunc laboriosi atque longi certaminis finem fecit 
^ut diceret: "Obsecremus Deum, qui habitare facit unanimes in 
domoPatrissui, ut nobis ^insinuare caelestibus signisdignetur, quae 
sequenda traditio, quibus sit viis ad ingressum regni illius pro- 
perandum. Adducatur aliquis aeger, et per cujus preces fuerit 
'curatus, hujus fides et ^'operatio Deo ^devota atque omnibus 
sequenda credatur." Quod cum adversarii inviti licet concederent, 
allatus est quidam de genere Anglorum oculorum ^^luce privatus: 
qui cum oblatus Brittonum sacerdotibus, nil ^^ curationis vel sana- 
tionis horum ministerio perciperet; tandem Augustinus justa ne- 
cessitate compulsus, flectit genua sua ad Patrem Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi, deprecans ut visum caeco quem amiserat, restitueret, 
et per illuminationem unius hominis corporalem, in plurimorum 
corde fidelium spiritalis gratiam lucis accenderet. Nee mora, 
illuminatur caecus, ac verus summae lucis ^^praeco ab omnibus 
praedicatur Augustinus. Tum Brittones confitentur quidem in- 

^ See p. 141, n. 4. ^ ad]\itoTio = help. ^ ad suum colloquium=<o 

converse with him, 25. ^ Paschae Dominicum diem. = the feast of Easter. 

^ ut diceret = 6^ saying; consecutive subj. * insinuate = to explain; Acts 

xvii, 3 Vg. '' curare = to cure. * opera.tio= practice. ® devota=co;i- 

secrated. '" luce privatus, 46. " curatio =«<>-(?. '^ praeco= herald. 



Bede 143 

tellexisse se veram esse viam justitiae, quam ^praedicaret Augus- 
tinus : sed non se posse ^ absque suorum consensu ac licentia priscis 
abdicare moribus. Unde postulabant ut secundus synodus pluribus 
advenientibus foret. Quod cum esset statutum, venerunt, ut per- 
hibent, septem Brittonum episcopi et plures viri doctissimi, qui 
ad prefatum ^ituri concilium, venerunt primo ad virum quendam 
sanctvim et prudentem consulentes an ad praedicationem Augustini 
suas deserere traditiones deberent. Qui respondebat : " Si homo 
Dei est sequimini ilium." Dixerunt: "Et unde hoc possumus pro- 
bare?" At ille: "Dominus," inquit, "ait: 'Tollite jugum meum 
super vos, et discite a me quia mitis sum et humilis corde.' Si 
ergo Augustinus ille mitis est et humilis corde, credibile est *quia 
jugum Christi et ipse portet, et vobis ^portandum offert: sin autem 
immitis ac superbus est, constat ^quia non est de Deo, neque nobis 
ejus sermo 'curandus." ®Qui rursus aiebant, " Et unde vel hoc 
dinoscere valemus? " " Procurate," inquit, " ut ipse prior cum suis 
ad locum synodi adveniat, et si vobis adpropinquantibus adsur- 
rexerit, scientes *quia famulus Christi est, obtemperanter ilium 
audite : sin autem vos spreverit, nee coram vobis adsurgere voluerit, 
cum sitis numero plures, et ipse spernatur a vobis." Fecerunt ut 
dixerat. Factumque est, ut venientibus illis sederet Augustinus 
in sella. Quod illi videntes mox in iram conversi sunt, ^eumque 
notantes superbiae, cunctis quae dicebat contradicere laborabant. 
Dicebat autem eis, " In multis quidem nostrae consuetudini, immo 
^"universalis ecclesiae contraria geritis: et tamen si in tribus his 
mihi obtemperare vultis; ut Pascha suo tempore celebretis, ut 
ministerium baptizandi, quo Deo renascimur, juxta morem sanctae 
Romanae et apostoUcae ecclesiae compleatis, ut genti Anglorumuna 
nobiscum verbum Domini praedicetis, caetera quae agitis, quamvis 
moribus nostris contraria, aequanimiter cuncta tolerabimus." 

At illi nil horum se facturos, neque ilium pro archiepiscopo habi- 
turos esse respondebant : conferentes ^^ad invicem dicebant, "Si 
modo nobis adsurgere noluit, quanto magis si ei subditos esse 
coeperimus jam nos pro nihilo contemnet." w" + F 

1 praedicaret, 150(3). ^ absque, 207. ^ ituri =when they were about 

to go, or before they went, 179, 183. * quia, 112-115. * portandum 

o&Qvt=offers ymi to carry , 192. * quia, 116. ' curandus = w any heed to 

be paid, 192. "* Qui, 66. ' eumque notantes superbiae =a)id censuring 

him for his pride. ^° universalis ecclesiae, understand ' consuetudine.' 

■'* ad invicem, 70. 



144 Adamnan 

Adamnan (died 704), ninth abbot of lona. Famous for his hfe 
of Columba the founder of that monastery. This work consists 
chiefly of a chronicle of the miracles of Columba; but the 
last chapters which tell the story of his death are so simple and 
beautiful as to warrant the inclusion of practically the whole of 
them in this book. The style is barbarous, so much so that a few 
alterations have been made to bring the more unusual expressions 
within the comprehension of the student. 

De vita et de transitu ad Dominum Sancti Columbae. 

Sanctus Columba, de stirpe nobile ^Scoticae gentis ortus, anno 
aetatis suo quadringesimo secundo pro Christo ^ peregrinari volens, 
de 3 Scotia in Britanniam demigravit. "^Qui ^et a puero Christiano 
deditus ^tirocinio et sapientiae studiis, '^ integritatem corporis et 
animae puritatem, Deo donante, custodiens, quamvis in terra 
positus, caelestibus se moribus aptum ostendebat. Nullum etiam 
8 vel unius horae intervallum transiri poterat, quo non aut 
orationi aut lectioni aut scripturae aut alicui operi incumberet. 
^Jejunationum quoque et vigiliarum indefessis laboribus sine ulla 
intermissione die noctuque occupatus est. Et inter haec omnibus 
carus, lohilarem semper faciem ostendens, Spiritiis Sancti gaudio 
intimis laetificabatur i^praecordiis. Diu insulam lonam habitavit 
quae juxta oras terrae Pictorum in mare sita est, et ibi monasterium 
collocavit. Tum demum cum jam triginta annos in ilia insula com- 
plevisset, illo ipso die, sancta facies ejus mirifica hilaritate effloruit, 
oculisque ad caelum elevatis, incomparabili repletus gaudio, valde 
laetificabatur. Tum post modicum intervallum ilia suavis laetitia 
in maestam convertitur tristitiam. At duo viri, qui eadem hora 
ejus i^tugurii ad januam stabant, et ipsi cum eo valde tristificati, 
causam ipsius subitae laetitiae rogant et illius subsequentis tristi- 
tiae. Ad quos sanctus sic profatur " Ite in pace, nee illius laetitiae 
causam nee etiam tristitiae a me nunc rogate manifestari." 

Quo audito, lacrimantes, prostratis in terra vultibus humiliter 
rogant, scire volentes aliquid de ilia re quae eadem hora sancto 
erat revelata. *Qui cum eos valde tristes esse vidisset, " Quia vos," 
ait, "amo, tristificare nolo. Promittere prius debetis ne ulli 

' Scoticae. The Scotch race then inhabiting Ireland. ^ peregrinari =<o go 
abroad. ^ Scotia. Ireland was called ' Scotia ' in the 6th cent. * Qui, 66. 

* et^even. " thocinixxva. = service (the state of being a recruit, 'tiro'). 

' V[).iegrii2.s = chastity. ' \e\—even. ' Jejunatio=/ias<i«g. '" hilaris = 
cheerful. " praecordia=/tear<. '- tugurium=te<. 



Adamnan 145 

hominum ' sacramentum de quo rogatis in vita mea prodatis." 
Qui cum secundum ejus mandatum prompte promisissent, vir 
venerandus sic ad eos proloquitur. " Usque in hunc, inquit, prae- 
sentem diem meae in Britannia peregrinationis triginta completi 
sunt anni. ^interea multis ante diebus a Domino meo devote 
postulavi, ut in fine hujus praesentis anni me de meo absolveret 
incolatu, et ad caelestem patriam ^iUico advocaret. Et haec fuit 
causa meae laetitiae, de qua vos me maesti interrogatis. Angelos 
enim sanctos de excelso vidi missos throno ad meam de carne 
animam educendam. Sed ecce nunc subito retardati, ultra nostrae 
■*fretum insulae stant in rupe, scilicet volentes, ut me de corpore 
advocent, adpropinquare. Sed propius accedere non permissi, mox 
ad caelum redituri sunt; quia Dominus quod mihi totis viribus 
roganti donavit, ut hac in die ad ipsum de mundo transirem, mul- 
tarum magis ecclesiarum pro me orationes audiens, ^dicto citius 
immutavit. Quibus scilicet ecclesiis exorantibus sic a Domino 
donatum est ut quatuor ab hac die mihi in carne manenti superad- 
dantur anni. Haec mihi tam maesta retardatio hodiernae tristitiae 
6 non immerito causa fuit. Quibus quatuor terminatis in hac vita 
annis, Deo propitio, nulla praecedente corporis molestia, ad 
Dominum laetus emigrabo." Secundum igitur haec verba, vir 
venerabilis quatuor postea annos in carne mansit. 

Annorum quatuor super memoratorum termino jam appro- 
pinquante, ''die Sabbati vir sanctus et plus minister ejus Diormi- 
tius ad proximum pergunt benedicendum ^horreum. Quod intrans 
Sanctus cum benedixisset, et videns in eo magnos ^frugum acervos, 
"Valde congratulor meis familiaribus monachis, inquit, quia hoc 
etiam anno, si quidem a vobis emigrare me oportuerit, satis cibi 
habebitis." Quo audito verbo, Diormitius minister tristificari 
coepit, et sic locutus est, "Hujus anni tempore, pater, saepius nos 
contristas, quia de tuo transitu ^^crebro commemoras." Cui Sanctus 
hoc dedit responsum, " AHquid "arcanum habeo, quod, si mihi fir- 
miter promiseris, nemini ante meum revelare obitum, de meo tibi 
transitu aliquid manifestius ^^intimare potero. Haec in sacris 
voluminibus dies Sabbatum "nuncupatur, quod interpretatur 're- 

' sa.cra.mentum=sacred thing, mystery. - Interea multis ante diebus =For 
many days past. ^ i\\ico=straightway. * iTetuni= strait. ^ dicto 

citius =more quickly than a word can be uttered. ^ non immerito = no< without 
good cause. ' die Sabhzii = Saturday. * hovxeum^barn . ' frugum 

diCtXYOs— heaps of corn. " cxebro= frequently. " arcanum =s«cyrf. 

^- intimare=fo make known. " nuncupare=^o call. 

N.E.L. 10 



146 



Adamnan 



quies.' Et mihi vere est Sabbatum haec hodierna dies, quia hujus 
praesentis laboriosae vitae mihi ultima est, in quo post meos 
labores ^sabbatizo, et hac media nocte, -secundum eloquia Scrip- 
turarum, patrum gradiar viam. Jam enim Dominus meus Jesus 
Christus me invitare dignatur; ad quem, inquam, hac ipsa nocte, 
ipso me invitante, emigrabo." Haec maesta minister audiens verba, 
coepit ^amare flere. Quem Sanctus *in quantum potuit consolari 
conabatur. 

Post haec Sanctus horreum egreditur, et ad monasterium rever- 
tens, media residet via, in quo loco postea crux, ^molari infixa la- 
pide, hodieque stans, in margine cernitur viae. Dumque ibidem 
Sanctus, ut praefatus sum, senio fessus, paululum sedens, re- 
quiesceret, ecce albus occurrit ^caballus, obediens servitor, qui 
scilicet ' lactaria vascula ad monasterium gestare consueverat. Hie 
ad Sanctum accidens, ^mirum dictu, caput in sinum ejus ponens, 
dominum a se mox emigraturum, et ipsum ultra non visurum sciens, 
coepit plangere, ^ubertimque, quasi homo, lacrimas in gremium 
Sancti fundere. Quod videns minister coepit ilium lamentatorem 
repellere. Sed Sanctus prohibuit eum dicens, "Sine hunc, sine 
nostri amatorem, ut in hunc meum sinum fletiis effundat amarissimi 
^"plangoris. Ecce tu, homo cum sis, et rationalem animam habeas, 
nullo modo scire de meo exitu potuisti, nisi quod tibi ego ipse nuper 
manifestavi : huic vero bruto et irrationali ^lanimanti, quoque modo 
ipse Conditor voluit, egressurum a se dominum manifeste reve- 
lavit." Et haec dicens maestum a se revertentem equum bene- 
dixit. 

Et inde egrediens, et ^^monticellum monasterio supereminentem 
ascendens, in vertice ejus paululum stetit, et stans, ambas elevans 
palmas, suum benedixit ^^coenobium his verbis, " Huic loco, quam- 
quam angusto et vili, non tantum Scotorum reges, cum populis, sed 
etiam barbararum et exterarum gentium regnatores cum plebibus 
sibi subjectis, grandem et non mediocrem conferent honorem: a 
Sanctis quoque etiam aliarum ecclesiarum non mediocris veneratio 
conferetur." 

* sabbatizare=io rest. ^ secundum eloquia Scripturae=i« the words of 

Scripture. ^ amaxe =bitterly. * in quantum potuit =fls well as he could. 
* molari Iapide = tH a mill-stone. ^ caballus =hnrse. The vernacular word; 

Fr. cheval. ' lactaria vasc\\\a=milk-pails. * mirum dictu =wonderful 

to say, 193. ' uhertim =copiously. " plangoi =lamentation. ^' ani- 

mans =aninial. '- monticelIum=a little hill. '* coenobium=cow- 

munitv. 



Adamnan 147 

Post haec verba, de illo descendens monticellulo, et ad monas- 
terium revertens, sedebat in tugurio Psalterium scribens; et ad 
ilium tricesimi tertii psalmi versiculum perveniens ubi scribitur, 
" Inquirentes autem Dominum non deficient lomni bono," "Hie," 
ait, "in fine cessandum est paginae: quae vero sequitur Baithereus 
scribat." Sancto convenienter congruit ^decessori novissimus ver- 
sus quem scripserit, cui nunquam bona deficient aeterna: successori 
vero sequens aeque versus congruit, spiritualium doctori filiorum, 
"Venite, filii, audite me, timorem Domini docebo vos." 

Post haec Sanctus ad vespertinalem ^Dominicae noctis ^missam 
ingreditur ecclesiam, qua consummata, ad tuguriura revertens in 
lectulo residet, ubi pro ^stramine nudam habebat petram, et pro 
^pulvillo lapidem, qui hodie juxta sepulcrum ejus stat. 

Ibique residens ultima ad fratres mandata, solo audiente ministro, 
commendat ita loquens, " Haec vobis, O filioli, novissima commendo 
verba, ut inter vos mutuam et non fictam habeatis caritatem cum 
pace: et si ita, juxta sanctorum exempla patrum, observaveritis, 
Deus, confortator bonorum, vobis auxiliabitur, et ego, cum ipso 
manens, pro vobis interpellabo ; et non solum praesentis vitae 
necessaria ab eo sufficienter administrabuntur, sed etiam aeter- 
nalium bonorum praemia, divinorum observatoribus praeparata, 
tribuentur." 

Post quae, felici appropinquante novissima paulisper hora, 
Sanctus conticuit. Tum media nocte " festinus surgens ad ecclesiam 
pergit, citiorque ceteris currens, solus ingressus juxta altare flexis 
in oratione genibus recumbit; Diormitius minister, tardius pro- 
secutus, eodem momento totam ecclesiam angelica luce repleri 
videt. Diormitius ergo, ecclesiam ingrediens, flebili ingeminat voce, 
"Ubi es, pater? " Et, necdum allatis fratrum lucernis, per tenebras 
^ palpans, Sanctum ante altarium recumbantem invenit : quem pau- 
lulum erigens, et juxta sedens, sanctum in suo gremio posuit caput. 
Et inter haec ^coetus monachorum cum luminaribus accurrens, 
patre viso moriente, coepit plangere. At Sanctus, necdum egre- 
diente anima, apertis sursum oculis, ad utrumque latus cum mira 
vultus hilaritate et laetitia circumspiciebat ; sanctos scilicet obvios 
intuens angelos. Diormitius tum sanctam dexteram manum Sancti 

^ omni bono, 46, 202. ^ decessori =the departing saint. ^ Dominicae 

noctis = Saturday night (the eve of the Lord's day). ■* missa=»«a5s. 

^ stramen=6erf. ^ pul\i]lum.=pill(m>. ' iestinus =suddenly. " palpans = 
feeling. ' coet\is = crowd. * 



10 — 2 



148 Thomas Aquinas 

ad benedicendum monachorum chorum sublevat. Sed et ipse 
venerabilis pater in quantum poterat, simul suam movebat manum 
ut videlicet quod voce in egressu non valebat animae etiam motu 
maniis fratres videretur benedicere. 

Et post sanctam benedictionem ita signiiicatam, continue spiri- 
tum exhalavit. Quo tabernaculo corporis egresso, facies rubens, 
et mirum in modum angelica visione ^exhilarata remansit, ut non 
quasi mortui sed dormientis videretur viventis. Tota interea per- 
sonabat maestis plangoribus ecclesia. 

Itaque hymnis matutinalibus terminatis, sacrum corpus de ec- 
clesia ad tugurium unde paulo ante vivens venerat, cum ^canora 
fratrum reportata psalmodia, et post tres dies sancti et beati patroni 
venerabile corpus inundis ^involutum sindonibus, debita humatur 
cumveneratione,inIuminosaetaeternaliresurrecturumclaritudine. 

Vita S. Columbae (adapted). 

Thomas Aquinas (died 1274), the Angelic Doctor, was the most 
influential Church writer of the middle ages. He was born of a 
noble family at Aquino near Naples, joined the Dominican order 
and was a pupil of Albertus Magnus at Cologne. He taught at 
Paris, Bologna and Rome and finally settled at Naples. Like the 
other Schoolmen he devoted his life and writings to the defence 
of the doctrines of the Church as then understood, following the 
methods of Aristotle in argviment and using the Sentences of Peter 
the Lombard as the groundwork of his teaching. 

He was made a Doctor of the Church by Pius V and his works 
have been specially commended by Leo XHI to the Cathohc 
seminaries and theological faculties throughout the world. 

He is still studied even by theologians who do not belong to the 
Roman obedience, while the writings of the other Schoolmen are 
for the most part neglected and forgotten. 

His great work was the Summa Theologiae and he also compiled 
a commentary on the Gospels from the writings of the Fathers 
which goes by the name of the Catena Aurea. 

Editions of these works may easily be had. It is doubtful if the 
pieces that follow were written by him, or not. They are ascribed 
to him by Hurter in the SS. Patrum Opuscula, and in any case 
they are interesting examples of mediaeval Latin and of the dis- 
cussion of subjects that still excite interest. 

' exhilaratus = brightened. ^ canoius^tuneful. ^ in volutum sindoni- 

bus =ze'ra^/)£rf in linen. 



Thomas Aquinas 149 

De bono fidei. 

Primum quod est necessarium Christiano est fides, sine qua 
nullus dicitur fidelis Christianus. Fides autem facit quatuor bona. 
Primum est ^quod per fidem anima conjungitur Deo: nam per 
fidem anima Christiana facit quasi quoddam matrimonium cum 
Deo: "Sponsabo te mihi in fide." Et inde est quod quando homo 
baptizatur, primo confitetur fidem, cum dicitur ei: "Credis in 
Deum? " quia baptismus est primum sacramentum fidei. Et ideo 
dicit Dominus: "Qui ^crediderit et baptizatus fuerit salvus erit." 
Baptismus enim sine fide non prodest. Et ideo sciendum est quod 
nullus est acceptus a Deo sine fide. " Sine fide impossibile est 
placere Deo." Et ideo dicit Augustinus ^super illud, " Omne quod 
non est ex fide, peccatum est: ubi non est aeternae et incommu- 
tabilis veritatis ^agnitio, falsa est virtus etiam in optimis moribus." 

Secundo quia per fidem incohatur in nobis vita aeterna: nam 
vita aeterna nihil aliud est quam cognoscere Deum: unde dicit 
Dominus : " Haec est vita aeterna, ut cognoscant te solum verum 
Deum." Haec autem cognitio Dei incipit ^hic per fidem, sed per- 
ficitur in vita futura, in qua cognoscimus eum sicuti est: et ideo 
dicitur, "Fides est substantia sperandarum rerum." Nullus ergo 
potest pervenire ad beatitudinem, quae est vera cognitio Dei, nisi 
primo cognoscat per fidem. " Beati qui non viderunt, et credi- 
derunt." 

Tertio quod fides dirigit vitam praesentem: nam ^ad hoc quod 
homo bene vivat, ' oportet quod sciat necessaria ad bene vivendum : 
et si deberet omnia necessaria ad bene vivendum per studium 
addiscere, vel non potest pervenire, vel post longum tempus. 
Fides autem docet omnia necessaria ad bene vivendum. Ipsa enim 
docet quod est unus Deus, qui est remunerator bonorum et punitor 
malorum, et quod est alia vita, et ^hujusmodi; quibus satis ^alli- 
cimur ad bonum et vitamus malum. "Justus meus ex fide vivit." 

Notice the very frequent use of 'quod' in these selections where 'ut' or an 
Inf. would be used in CI. L. 

1 quod = i!amely that. The clause 'quod. . .Deo' is the complement of the pre- 
dicate, 116. ^ crediderit, 88. * supeT=with reference to the passage, 236. 
* zgn\iio=recognition. ^ hie = here, in Xhis world. ° ad hoc quod homo 

bene vivat. The clause introd. by 'quod' is in apposition to 'hoc,' 145. 
' oportet quod sciat, 118. * hujusmodi— o/s«<c/j a kind. " allicimur = 

we are enticed. 



150 Thomas Aquinas 

Et hoc etiam patet ^quia nullus philosophorum ante adventum 
Christi cum toto conatu suo potuit tantum scire de Deo, et de 
necessariis ad vitam aeternam, quantum post adventum Christi 
scit una ^vetula per fidem: et ideo dicitur: "repletur est terra 
scientia Domini." 

Quarto quia fides est qua vincimus tentationes. "Sancti per 
fidem vincerunt regna." Et hoc patet, iquia omnis tentatio vel 
est a diabolo, vel a mundo, vel a carne. Diabolus tentat ut non 
obedias Deo, nee subjiciaris ei. Et hoc per fidem removetur: nam 
per fidem cognoscimus quod ipse est Dominus omnium, et ideo 
^sibi est obediendum. "Adversarius vester diabolus circuit quae- 
rens quem devoret: cui resistite fortes in fide." Mundus autem 
tentat vel alliciendo prosperis, vel terrendo adversis. Sed haec 
vitamus per fidem, quae facit nos credere aliam vitam meliorem 
ista: et ideo prospera mundi hujus despicimus, et non formidamus 
adversa. "Haec est victoria quae vicit mundum, fides nostra": 
et etiam quia docet nos credere alia majora mala, scilicet inferni. 
Caro vero tentat inducendo nos ad delectationes vitae praesentis 
momentaneas. Sed fides ostendit nobis quod per has, si eis *in- 
debite adhaeremus aeternas delectationes amittimus. " In omnibus 
sumentes scutum fidei." Sic ergo patet quod multum est utile 
habere fidem. Sed si dicit aliquis: "Stultum est credere quod non 
videtur, et non sunt credenda quae non videntur," respondeo 
dicendum quod hoc dubium primo tollit imperfectio intellectiis 
nostri: nam si homo posset perfecte per se cognoscere omnia visi- 
bilia et invisibilia, stultum esset credere quod non videmus; sed 
cognitio noster est adeo debilis, ^quod unus philosophus f uit triginta 
annis in solitudine, ut cognosceret naturam apis. Si ergo intel- 
lectus noster est ita debilis, nonne stultum est nolle credere de Deo 
nisi ilia tantum quae homo posset cognoscere per se? Et ideo contra 
hoc dicitur: "Ecce Deus magnus, vincens scientiam nostram." 

Secundo potest responderi, ^quia, 'dato quod aliquis magister 
aliquid diceret in sua scientia, et aliquis rusticus diceret non esse 
ita sicut magister doceret, eo quod ipse non intelligeret, multum 
reputaretur stultus ille rusticus. 

* quia = because. ^ vetula = oW woman. ^ sibi, 61. * indebite = 

excessively. * quod unus philosophus, a curious use of 'quod' in the sense 

of 'ut' consecutive. ^ quia, here used to introduce an object clause, 112. 

' dato quod aliquis magister aliquid diceret in sua scientia.=let it be granted 
that any master makes a statement in his own subject, 51. 



Thomas Aquinas 151 

Constat autem quod intellectus angeli excedit magis intellectum. 
optimi philosophi, quam intellectus optimi philosophi intellectum 
rustici. Et ideo stultus est philosophus, si nolit credere ea quae 
angeli dicunt, et multo magis si nolit credere ea, quae Deus dicit. 

Et contra hoc dicitur, " Plurima supra sensum hominum ostensa 
sunt tibi." 

Tertio respondere potest, quia, si homo noUet credere nisi ea, 
quae cognosceret, certe non posset vivere in hoc mundo. Quomodo 
etiam aliquis vivere posset nisi crederet aliqui? Quomodo etiam 
crederet quod talis est pater suus? 

Et ideo est necesse quod homo credat alicui de iis, quae perfecte 
non potest scire per se: sed nulli est credendum sicut Deo; et ideo 
illi qui non credunt dictis fidei, non sunt sapientes, sed stulti et 
superbi, sicut dicit Apostolus, "Superbus est, nihil sciens." Prop- 
terea dicebat: "Scio cui credidi, et certus sum." 

Quarto potest etiam responderi, quia Deus probat quod ea, quae 
docet fides, sunt vera. 

Si enim rex mitteret litteras cum sigillo suo sigillatas, nuUus 
auderet dicere, quod illae litterae non processissent de regis volun- 
tate. Constat autem quod omnia quae sancti crediderunt, et tradi- 
derunt nobis de fide Christi, signata sunt sigillo Dei : quod sigillum 
ostenderunt ilia opera, quae nulla ^pura creatura facere potest: et 
haec sunt miracula, quibus Christus confirmavit dicta apostolorum 
et sanctorum. Si dicas quod miraculum nullus vidit fieri, re- 
spondeo ad hoc : " Constat quod totus mundus colebat idola, et 
fidem Christi persequebatur, sicut paganorum etiam historiae tra- 
dunt. Sed modo omnes conversi sunt ad Christum, et sapientes, et 
nobiles, et divites, et potentes, et magni ad praedicationem sim- 
plicium, et pauperum, et paucorum praedicantium Christum. Aut 
ergo hoc est miraculose factum, aut non." 

Si miraculoSe, habes propositum. Si non, dico quod non potuit 
esse majus miraculum quam quod mundus totus sine miraculis 
converteretur. Non ergo quaerimus aliud. Sic ergo nullus debet 
dubitare de fide, sed credere ea quae fidei sunt magis quam ea quae 
videt : quia visus hominis potest decipi, sed Dei scientia nunquam 
fallitur. 

* pura=were. 



152 Thomas Aquinas 



De FRUCTIBUS InCARNATIONIS. 

Possumus autem sumere ex his aliqua ad eruditionem. Primo 
enim confirmatur fides noster. Si enim aliquis diceret aliquid de 
aliqua terra remota, et ipse non fuisset ibi, non crederetur ei sicut 
si ibi fuisset. Antequam ergo veniret Christus in mundum, pa- 
triarchae et prophetae et Johannes Baptista dixerunt ahqua de 
Deo; sed tamen non ita crediderunt eis homines, sicut Christo, qui 
fuit cum Deo, imo unum cum ipso: unde multum firma est fides 
nostra ab ipso Christo nobis tradita. " Deum nemo vidit unquam : 
unigenitus Fihus, qui est in sinu Patris, ipse enarravit." Et inde 
est quod multa fidei secreta sunt manifesta nobis post adventum 
Christi, quae ante occulta erant. 

Secundo ex iis elevatur spes nostra. Constat enim quod Dei 
Filius non pro parvo ad nos venit, sumens carnem nostram, sed 
^pro magna utilitate nostra: unde fecit quoddam ^commercium 
scilicet quod assumpsit corpus animatum, et de virgine nasci digna- 
tus est, ut nobis largiretur suam dignitatem : et sic factus est homo, 
ut hominem faceret Deum. " Per quem habemus accessum per 
fidem in gratiam istam in qua stamus, et gloriamur in spe gloriae 
filiorum Dei." 

Tertio ex hoc accenditur caritas. Nullum est tam evidens cari- 
tatis indicium, quam quod Deus creator omnium factus est crea- 
tura, Dominus noster factus est frater noster, Filius Dei factus est 
filius hominis. "Sic Deus dilexit mundum, ut Filium suum uni- 
genitum daret." Et ideo ex hujus consideratione amor noster "re- 
accendi debet, et inflammari ad Deum. 

Quarto inducimur ad servandam puram animam nostram. In 
tantum enim natura nostra fuit nobilitata et exaltata ex con- 
junctione ad Deum, quod fuit ad consortium divinae personae 
suscepta: unde angelus post incarnationem noluit sustinere quod 
beatus Johannes adoraret eum, quod ante sustinuerat etiam a 
maximis patriarchis. Ideo homo hujus exaltationem recolens et 
attendens, debet ^dedignari vilificare se et naturam suam per pec- 
catum: ideo dicit beatus Petrus: "Per quem maxima et pretiosa 
promissa nobis donavit, ut per haec efficiamur divinae consortes 
naturae, fugientes ejus quae in mundo est concupiscentiae cor- 
ruptionem." 

'■ pro magna utilitate nostra =/o our great benefit. - commercium=co;(- 

nection. ' Teaccendi =io be kindled afresh. * dedignan=to disdain. 



Thomas Aquinas 153 

Quinto ex his infiammatur desiderium nostrum ad perveniendum 
ad Christum. Si enim ahquis rex esset f rater aUcujus et esset re- 
motus ab eo, desideraret ille, cujus f rater esset rex, ad eum venire, 
et apud eum esse et manere. Unde cum Christus sit frater noster, 
debemus desiderare esse cum eo et conjugi ei. "Ubicunque fuerit 
corpus, iUuc congregabuntur et aquilae," et Apostolus desiderium 
habebat dissolvi, et esse cum Christo: quod quidem desiderium 
crescit in nobis considerando incarnationem ejus. 

De Symb. Apost. 

QUARE ORARE DEBEMUS UT FIAT VOLUNTAS DeI. 

Sed quid est quod dicitur "Fiat voluntas tua"? Nonne dicitur 
"Omnia quaecumque voluit fecit"? Si omnia facit quae vult in 
caelo et in terra, quid est hoc quod dicit " Fiat voluntas tua sicut 
in caelo et in terra " ? Ad hoc sciendum est quod Deus tria vult de 
nobis, et nos petimus ^ quod haec impleantur. 

Primum quidem quod Deus vult de nobis est ^ quod nos habeamus 
vitam aeternam. Cum ergo consequimur vitam aeternam, sal- 
vamur, et hoc vult Dominus. "Haec est voluntas Patris mei qui 
misit me, ut omnis qui videt Filium, et credit in eum, habeat vitam 
aeternam." Haec autem voluntas jam completa est in angehs et 
in Sanctis 'qui sunt in patria, quia vident Deum, et cognoscunt 
et fruuntur eo. Sed nos desideramus quod sicut voluntas Dei com- 
pleta est in beatis, ita compleatur in nobis. 

Alia voluntas Dei de nobis est, ut servemus mandata ejus. Sic 
ergo cum dicimus "Fiat voluntas tua," oramus ut impleamus 
mandata Dei. Haec autem voluntas Dei fit in justis, sed in pecca- 
toribus nondum fit. Notandum est quod ex modo loquendi datur 
nobis ^doctrina. Non enim dicit fac, nee etiam faciamus: sed dicit 
" Fiat voluntas tua," quia ad vitam aeternam duo sunt necessaria, 
scihcet gratia Dei et voluntas hominis; et licet Deus fecerit 
hominem sine homine, non tamen justifi-cat eum sine to. Sic enim 
dicit Augustinus " Qui creavit te sine te non justtficabit te sine te," 
quia vult quod homo cooperetur. " Convertimini ad me, et ego 
convertar ad vos." 

1 quod haec impleantur: 'quod' is here used as a substitute for 'ut' after a 
verb of requesting, 142. ^ quod nos habeamus vitam aeternam, 145. 

3 doctrinai =teaching. 

10—5 



154 Thomas a Kempis 

"Gratia Dei sum id quod sum, et gratia ejus in me vacua noil 
fuit." ^Non ergo presumas de te, sed confidas de gratia Dei; nee 
negligas, sed adhibeasstudiumtuum. Etideonpndicit "faciamus," 
ne videretur quod nihil faceret gratia Dei; nee dicit "fac," ne 
videretur quod niliil faceret voluntas et eonatus noster: sic dicit 
"fiat," per gratiam Dei, adhibito studio et conatu nostro. 

De Oratione Dominica (adapted). 

Thomas a Kempis, who is generally supposed to be the author 
of the " Imitation of Christ," was a monk in the Augustine convent 
of Zwolle in the Netherlands in the first half of the 15th century. 
His book is perhaps the most popular devotional treatise in exist- 
ence. Notice the number of abstract nouns used and their approxi- 
mation in sense to the words in English derived from them. 

QUALITER HOMO DESOLATUS SE DEBET IN MANUS DeI OFFERRE. 

Domine Deus, sancte Pater, sis nunc et in aeternum benedictus, 
quia sicut vis, sic factum est, et quod facis bonum est. Laetetur 
in te servus tuus, non in se, nee in aliquo alio, quia tu solus 
laetitia mea. Quid habet servus tuus, nisi quod a te accepit, 
etiam sine merito suo? Tua sunt omnia, quae dedisti et quae 
fecisti. Pauper sum et in laboribus a juventute mea, et con- 
tristatur anima mea nonnunquam visque ad lacrimas, quandoque 
etiam conturbatur spiritus mens a se propter imminentes pas- 
siones. Pater juste, sancte et semper laudande, venit hora ^ut 
probetur servus tuus. Pater amande, dignum est ut hac hora 
patiatur pro te aliquid servus tuus. Pater perpetuo venerande, 
venit hora, quam ab aeternitate praesciebas affuturum, ^ut ad 
modicum tempus succumbat foris servus tuus, vivat vero semper 
apud te intus; paululum ^vilipendatur, humiliatur et defieiat 
coram hominibus, passionibus conteratur et languoribus, ut iterum 
tecum in aurora novae lucis resurgat et in caelestibus clarificetur. 
Pater sancte, tu sic ordinasti et sic voluisti ; et hoc factum est quod 
ipse praecepisti. 

Haec est enim gratia ad amicum tuum pati et tribulari in mundo 
pro amore tuo, quotiescumque et a quocumque et quomodocumque 
id permiseris fieri. Sine consilio et providentia tua et sine causa 

' Non presumas, 44. * ut probetur, 147. ^ vilipendatur = that 

lie should be despised. 



Thomas a Kempis 155 

nihil fit in terra. Bonum mihi, Domine, quod humiliasti me, ut 
discam ^justificationes tuas, et omnes elationes cordis atque prae- 
sumptiones abjiciam. 

Utile mihi quod confusio cooperuit faciem meam, ut te potius 
quam homines ad consolandum requiram. Didici etiam ex hoc 
inscrutabile judicium tuum expavescere, qui affligis justum cum 
impio, sed non sine aequitate et justitia. 

Gratias tibi ago, quia non pepercisti mails meis, sed attrivisti 
me verberibus amaris, infligens dolores et immittens angustias 
foris et intus. Non est qui me consoletur ex omnibus, quae sub 
caelo sunt, nisi tu, Domine Deus mens, caelestis medicus ani- 
marum, qui percutis et sanas, deducis ad infernos et reducis. 
Disciplina tua super me, et virga tua me docebit. 

Ecce, Pater dilecte, in manibus tuis sum ego, sub virga cor- 
rectionis tuae me inclino. Percute dorsum meum et collum meum, 
ut incurvem ad voluntatem tuam ^tortuositatem meam. Fac me 
pium et humilem discipulum, sicut bene facere consuevisti, ut 
ambulem ad omnem ^nutum tuum. Tibi me et omnia mea ad 
corrigendum commendo; melius est hie corripi quam in futuro. 
Tu scis omnia et singula, et nil te latet in humana conscientia. 
Antequam fiunt noscis ventura, et non opus est tibi ut quis te 
doceat aut admoneat de his, quae geruntur in terra. 

Tu scis quid expedit ad profectum meum, et quantum desaevit 
tribulatio ad *rubiginem vitiorum purgandam. Fac meum de- 
siderium beneplacitum tuum, et ne despicias peccaminosam vitam 
meam, nulli melius nee clarius quam tibi notam. 

Da mihi, Domine, hoc scire quod sciendum est, hoc amare, quod 
amandum est, hoc laudare, quod tibi summe placet. Falluntur 
saepe hominum sensus in judicando; falluntur amatores saeculi 
visibilia sola amando. Quid est homo inde melior quia reputatur 
ab homine major? 

Fallax fallacem, vanus vanum, caecus caecum, infirmus in- 
firmum decipit, dum exaltat: nam quantum unusquisque est in 
oculis tuis, tantum est et non amplius, ut ait humilis Sanctus 
Franciscus. 

5 Fill, non vales semper in ferventiori desiderio virtutum stare, 
nee in altiori gradu contemplationis consistere; sed necesse habes 

' )uiitihca.tionei—rigkteousness. - tortnositatem= my crooked ways. 

^ nutum=«o^, i.e. will. ^ nihiginem =r!(s/ or slain. ^ Fili, here Christ 

speaks. 



156 Thomas a Kempis 

interdum ob originalem corruptelam ad inferiora descendere, et 
onus corruptibilis vitae etiam invite et cum taedio portare. 

Tunc expedit tibi ad humilia et exteriora opera confugere, et 
in bonis actibus te recreate, adventum meum et supernam visita- 
tionem firrna confidentia expectare, exilium tuum et ariditatem 
mentis patienter sufferre, donee a me iterum visiteris et ab omnibus 
anxietatibus libereris. Nam faciam te laborum oblivisci et interna 
quiete perfrui. Expandam coram te prata scripturarum, ut dilato 
corde currere incipies viam mandatorum meorum. Et dices: Non 
sunt condignae passiones hujus praesentis temporis ad futuram 
gloriam, quae revelabitur nobis. 

De Imitatione Christi iii, 50, 51 (abridged). 



INDEX OF TEXTS QUOTED 

The numbers on the right of each column refer to paragraphs 



Genesis 




Psalms (cont.) 


Matthew 




Matthew 


(cont.) 


4. 9. 


196 


loi. 23. 


189 


I. 21. 


82 


7. I. 


158 


31. 26. 


209 


102. 6. 


206 


2. 13- 


66 


7- 4- 


98 


47. 18. 


209 


102. II. 


206 


2. 13. 


91 


7- 5- 


148 


Exodus 




102. 13. 


29 


2. 22. 


139 


7. 6. 


99 




112. 2. 


64 


2. 22. 


213 


7- 7- 


174 


6. 3. 


233 


113. II. 


135 


3- I- 


54 


7- 9. 


i6 






121. 3. 


64 


3- I- 


233 


7. II. 


61 


Deuteronomy 


125. I. 


189 


3- 7- 


142 


7. 12. 


128 


I. 8. 


137 


137. 6. 


204 


3. II. 


234 


7- 15- 


206 


4. 21. 


137 


138. 6. 


204 


3- 16. 


39 


7. 16. 


211 


/ Kings 




138. 6. 
141. 4. 


212 

189 


3. 16. 
3- 16. 


123 
211 


7. 19. 
7. 22. 


74 
195 


18. 26. 


150 


145- 5- 


68 


4- 3- 


168 


7- 23- 


65 


// Kings 




Proverbs 




4. 6. 
4. 9- 


158 
172 


7- 23. 
7- 25. 


206 

86 


5- 2. 


lOI 


21. 10. 


29 


4. 18. 


224 


8. I. 


211 


5- 2. 


103 


Isai»h 




4- 23- 


59 


8. 2. 


79 


Psalms^ 






85 


4. 24. 


37 


8. 4. 


99 






I. 14. 


5- 3- 


53 


8. 4. 


142 


I. I. 


233 


6. 4. 


47 


5- 8. 


56 


8. 8. 


147 


5. 8. 


233 


45- 23. 


137a 


5- 10. 


228 


8. 9. 


235 


8. 5- 


165 


46. 8. 


29 


5- 14- 


232 


8. 20. 


150 


8. 6. 

9. 4- 


206 

189 


Jeremiah 




5- 16. 
5- 19- 


208 
69a 


8.23. 
8.25. 


51 

74 


9. 18. 


29 


9. 5- 


129a 


5. 20. 


87 


8. 26. 


26 


9- 23. 


67 


Ezekiel 




5- 21. 


151 


8.27. 


165 


18. 4 
18. II. 


68 
204 


23. 19. 


29 


5- 24. 
5- 25. 


82 
90 


8. 29. 
8.34. 


162 
51 


18. II. 


236 


Daniel 




5-28. 


191 


9. 4- 


69 


32. 12. 


68 


4. 17. 


67 


5- 34- 


146 


9. 4- 


198 


33- 4- 


64 


5- 39- 


142 


9- 5- 


69 


37- 6. 


206 


Ho sea 




5- 39. 


146 


9- 9- 


5Z 


39. 5- 


68 


7. 2. 


29 


5- 44- 


213 


9. 17- 


74 


43- 17- 


206 






6. 5- 


82 


9. 27. 


51 


49. 22. 


29 


Amos 




6. 7. 


183 


9. 33- 


51 


51- 4- 


39 


9. 8. 


185 


6. 7. 


233 


9- 36. 


29 


61. 10. 


64 






6. 9. 


lOI 


9. 38. 


142 


72. 25. 


206 


Wisdom 




6. 10. 


175 


10. I. 


24 


72. 27. 


206 


3- I- 


20 


6. 16. 


138 


10. 5. 


99 


73- 2. 


68 






6. 19. 


155 


TO. 6. 


84 


73- 6. 


64 


/ Mace. 




6. 27. 


185 


10. 10. 


58 


99- 3- 


64 


7-38. 


29 


6- 34- 


234 


10. 17 


206 


1 The Psahns are quoted according to the numbering 


in the Vulgate. 



158 



Index of Texts Quoted 



atthew 


(cont.) 


Matthew \ 


(cont.) 


Matthew 1 


(cont.) 


Mark (cont.) 


lo. 24. 


236 


.18. 32. 


156 


26. 33- 


172 


7. I. 


45 


10. 29. 


215 


18. 33- 


175 


26. 33- 


233 


7. I. 


206 


10. 29. 


236 


19. 8. 


216 


26. 45. 


74 


7- 30. 


232 


10. 37. 


204 


19. 16. 


22 


26. 53. 


195 


8. 2. 


29 


10. 42. 


193 


19. 21. 


128 


26. 60. 


166 


9. 14. 


84 


II. I. 


184 


19. 26. 


219 


26. 63. 


227 


9. 22. 


98 


II. 2. 


21 


20. I. 


234 


26. 69. 


201 


9. 28. 


233 


II. 3- 


78 


20. 6. 


55 


27. 4. 


89 


10. 32. 


61 


II. 3. 


102 


20. 6. 


69 


27. 4. 


183 


II. 22. 


24 


II. 6. 


88 


20. 6. 


198 


27- 5- 


61 


II. 27. 


76 


II. II. 


204 


20. 21. 


216 


27. 6. 


124 


12. 30. 


212 


II. 15. 


187 


20. 26. 


223 


27. 7. 


234 


12. 31. 


32 


II. 21. 


233 


21. 2. 


39 


27 10. 


234 


12. 31. 


82 


II. 26. 


218 


21. 5. 


39 


27. 14. 


216 


12. 31. 


175 


II. 27. 


206 


21. 7. 


94 


27. 17. 


198 


13- 8. 


227 


12. 24. 


233 


21. 19. 


231 


27. 21. 


39 


14. I. 


143 


12. 31. 


24 


21. 31- 


69 


27. 21. 


69 


14. 29. 


166 


12. 36. 


67 


21. 42. 


67 


27. 29. 


211 


15- 6. 


128 


13. I. 


231 


21. 42. 


234 


27. 42. 


77 


15- 43- 


206 


13. 14. 


185 


21. 43- 


36 


27. 44. 


64 


15- 44- 


141 


13- 14- 


193 


22. 10. 


30 


27. 49. 


183 


Luke 




13. 20. 


48 


22. 10. 


49 


28. 12. 


• 35 




13. 28. 


128 


22. 36. 


203 


28. 19. 


59 


I. 21. 


90 


13- 32. 
13- 33- 


203 
154 


23- 3- 
23. 10. 


230 
99 


Mark 




I. 42. 
I. 51. 


223 
61 


13- 44- 


21 


23- 23- 


119 


I. 2. 


85 


I. 59. 


80 


13. 48. 


231 


24. 9. 


41 


I. 4. 


26 


I. 72. 


210 


14. 16. 


147 


24. 22. 


202 


I. 23. 


5 


I. 77. 


190 


14. 25. 


54 


24. 29. 


229 


2. 2. 


163 


2 8. 


15 


15- 3- 


228 


24. 49. 


148 


2. 4. 


214 


2. 13- 


199 


15- 4- 


98 


25. 8. 


74 


2. 27. 


228 


2. 14. 


26 


15- 4- 


185 


25. 10. 


154 


3- 5- 


236 


2. 15- 


lOI 


15. 16. 


215 


25. 19. 


22 


3- 9- 


142 


2. 15. 


105 


15- 19- 


211 


25. 27. 


103 


3. II. 


153a 


2. 18. 


211 


15- 23- 


66 


25. 27. 


119 


3- 13- 


178 


2. 26. 


133 


15- 23- 


229 


25. 27. 


183 


3- 15 


187 


2. 31. 


218 


16. 13. 


88 


25- 35- 


148 


3- 15- 


191 


2. 41. 


227 


16. 21. 


61 


25. 40- 


212 


4. I. 


128 


2. 47- 


236 


16. 27. 


210 


25- 45- 


211 


4. 26. 


173 


3- 7- 


179 


17. 22. 


192 


26. 8. 


69 


4.38. 


125 


3. 10. 


79 


18. 7. 


123 


26. 8. 


198 


4. 40. 


70 


3- 14- 


102 


18. 9. 


203 


26. 12. 


190 


4. 40. 


165 


4. 10. 


136 


18. 10. 


99 


26. 13. 


155 


5- 32. 


162 


4. II. 


136 


18. II. 


86 


26. 17. 


128 


5- 43- 


142 


4- 23- 


138 


18. 12. 


87 


26. 18. 


77 


6. 16. 


67 


4- 25- 


i53« 


18. 23. 


210 


26. 24. 


171 


6. 37- 


50 


4. 27. 


235 


18. 27. 


29 


26. 31. 


64 


6. 37- 


102 


4. 29. 


236 


18. 30. 


154 


26. 32. 


153 


6. 48. 


2 "22 


4.36. 


233 



Index of Texts Quoted 



159 



ike (cont.) 


Luke (cont.) 


John (cont.) 


John (cont.) 


5- 2. 


86 


13- 15- 


42 


3- 19. 


145 


9- 27. 


78 


5- 3- 


142 


14. 14. 


92 


3- 23. 


224 


9- 30- 


64 


5- 4- 


128 


15. 16. 


79 


3- 30. 


118 


9- 33- 


170 


5- 5- 


227 


15- 19- 


147 


4. 2. 


166 


9- 35- 


234 


5- 5- 


233 


15- 32. 


119 


4. 4. 


119 


9 36. 


60 


5- 8. 


i53« 


16. 9. 


211 


4. 9- 


148 


ID. 32. 


75 


5- 8. 


156 


17- 15- 


210 


4- 34- 


145 


10. 33- 


211 


5- 9. 


233 


18. 14. 


204 


4. 40. 


14 


II. 21. 


169 


5. 10. 


90 


18. 14. 


206 


4. 42. 


136 


II. 36. 


79 


5. 20. 


66 


18. 25. 


126 


4. 45-54- 


136 


12. 5. 


50 


5- 24. 


147 


19. 8. 


77 


4- 46. 


13 


12. 34. 


60 


6. 6. 


121 


20. 7. 


134 


5- 18. 


62 


12. 45. 


12 


6. 7. 


144 


20. 20. 


150 


5- 29. 


26 


12. 48. 


150 


6. 7. 


148 


20. 37. 


231 


5- 35- 


60 


13- 35- 


70 


7. 12. 


i53« 


21. 25. 


214 


5- 35- 


216 


14- 3- 


78 


7- 13- 


236 


21. 36. 


147 


5- 45- 


91 


14- 5- 


144 


8. I. 


227 


22. 10. 


234 


6. 2. 


236 


14. 9. 


55 


8. 30. 


40 


22. 15. 


185 


6. 6. 


161 


14. 12. 


32 


8. 38. 


210 


22. 19. 


25 


6. 10. 


98 


14. 18. 


13 


8. 39- 


144 


22. 25. 


30 


6. 14. 


78 


14. 26. 


16 


8. 42. 


122 


22. 34. 


154 


6. 28. 


216 


14. 28. 


169 


8. 42. 


154 


22. 49. 


233 


6. 39. 


145 


15- 6. 


85 


8. 49. 


99 


22. 50. 


47 


6. 43- 


70 


15. 24. 


169 


8. 56. 


69a 


23. 14. 


175 


6- 45- 


23 


16. 2. 


207 


9. 3- 


89 


23. 23. 


48 


6.52. 


213 


16. 7. 


III 


9. 4- 


88 


23. 28. 


236 


6. 71. 


21 


16. 7. 


122 


9. 9- 


60 


24. 23. 


134 


7. 8, 


64 


16. 12. 


92 


9. 24. 


88 


24. 23. 


150 


7. 17. 


6 


16. 19. 


223 


9- 25. 


173 


John 




7- 17- 


143 


16. 32. 


145 


9. 27. 


154 




7. 24. 


15 


17. 2. 


24 


9. 29. 


154 


I. I. 


219 


7. 29. 


64 


17- 5- 


219 


9- 45- 


218 


I- 3- 


64 


7- 35- 


26 


18. 16. 


216 


9- 47- 


231 


I. 7. 


158 


7- 35- 


165 


18. 20. 


155 


9- 55 


-27 


I. 14. 


49 


7- 41- 


196 


18. 30. 


169 


10. 31. 


122 


I. 15. 


64 


7- 49- 


199 


18. 33- 


194 


10. 32. 


231 


I. 26. 


47 


8. 5- 


71 


18. 34. 


198 


10. 39. 


231 


I. 27. 


147 


8. 9- 


229 


18. 35- 


196 


10. 40. 


220 


1.38. 


66 


8. 13. 


64 


18. 36. 


211 


10. 41. 


222 


I. 44. 


206 


8. 16. 


168 


10. II. 


169 


II. 18. 


133 


I. 48. 


154 


8. 28. 


64 


19. 25. 


21 


12. 24. 


28 • 


2. 17. 


24 


8. 50. 


150 


19- 25. 


224 


12. 44. 


232 


2. 20. 


55 


9. 4- 


153 


21. 23. 


77 


12. 45. 


214 


2. 24. 


156 


9. 8. 


60 






12. 47. 


230 


3- 4- 


128 


9. 12. 


60 


Acts 




12. 50. 


92 


3- 4- 


i53« 


9. 18. 


60 


I. 7. 


126 


13. 2. 


204 


3- 7- 


99 


9. 21. 


60 


I. 8. 


31 


13. 2. 


214 


3- 7- 


141 


9. 21. 


144 


I. 9 


51 


13- 4- 


226 


3- i6. 


163 


9- 25. 


166 


2. 6. 


138 



i6o 



Index of Texts Quoted 



Acts (cont.) 


Acts (cont.) 


Acts 


cont.) 


Acts { 


cont.) 


2. 7. 


149 


7. 29. 


233 


14. 


19. 


133 


21. 


37- 


197 


2. 18. 


211 


7- 34- 


185 


15- 


2. 


142 


22. 


II. 


214 


2. 25. 


234 


7- 35- 


210 


15- 


7- 


148 


22. 


17- 


121 


2. 28. 


210 


7. 40. 


143 


15- 


10. 


148 


22. 


22. 


71 


2. 30. 


137 


7- 51- 


53 


15- 


21. 


227 


22. 


28. 


50 


2. 45- 


59 


8. 4- 


178 


15- 


28. 


145 


23- 


2. 


62 


2. 46. 


220 


8.32. 


208 


15- 


29. 


183 


23- 


10. 


129a 


2. 47- 


64 


9- 3- 


122 


15- 


39- 


70 


23- 


10. 


139 


3- I- 


79 


9- 4- 


61 


16 


14. 


148 


23. 


14. 


137 


3- 6. 


40 


9. 4- 


138 


16. 


16. 


121 


24. 


15- 


200 


3- 9- 


138 


9- 7- 


178 


16. 


16. 


187 


24. 


17- 


161 


3. 10. 


216 


9. 8. 


216 


16. 


20. 


I56fl 


24. 


17- 


183 


3. 10. 


233 


9- 9- 


55 


16. 


27. 


133 


24. 


21. 


22 


3. 12. 


142 


9. 9- 


90 


16. 


28. 


61 


24. 


24. 


140 


3- 14- 


142 


9. 10. 


52 


16. 


28. 


99 


24. 


26. 


137 


3- 19- 


158 


9. 14- 


147 


17- 


II. 


32 


25- 


I. 


45 


3. 26. 


161 


9. 17- 


234 


17- 


II. 


48 


25- 


6. 


180 


3. 26. 


183 


9. 33- 


206 


17- 


II. 


66 


25- 


22. 


81 


4. 9. 


24 


10. 5. 


234 


17- 


16. 


52 


26. 


2. 


156a 


4- 9- 


233 


10. 17. 


150 


17- 


17- 


216 


26. 


3- 


142 


4. 12. 


150 


10. 18. 


197 


17- 


27. 


166 


26. 


II. 


80 


4- 13- 


51 


10. 19. 


51 


17- 


31- 


233 


26. 


29. 


142 


4 21. 


183 


10. 33- 


187 


18. 


I. 


45 


26. 


31- 


69a 


4. 22. 


26 


10. 38. 


188 


18. 


I. 


206 


26. 


32. 


170 


4- 23- 


143 


10. 38. 


206 


18. 


15- 


89 


27 


14. 


221 


4- 35- 


218 


10. 43. 


134 


18. 


17- 


41 


27. 


34- 


129a 


5- 3- 


164 


10. 47. 


69a 


18. 


25- 


16 


27. 


49. 


183 


5. 8. 


28 


10. 47. 


163 


19. 


2. 


197 


28. 


6. 


78 


5. 10. 


216 


II. II. 


233 


19- 


16. 


30 


28. 


6. 


192 


5- 15- 


22 


II. 17. 


150 


19. 


21. 


87 


28. 


8. 


122 


5- 23. 


210 


II. 19. 


235 


19. 


26. 


33 


28. 


14. 


129a 


5- 25. 


234 


II. 24. 


142 


19. 


26. 


52 


28. 


16. 


61 


5-28. 


185 


12. 2. 


47 


19- 


30- 


51 








5- 29- 


118 


12. 3. 


183 


19- 


35- 


150 


Romans 




5- 35- 


236 


12. 4-7 


• 79 


20. 


I. 


51 




I. 


234 


5- 39. 


168 


12. 9. 


135 


20. 


5- 


117 




5- 


191 


5- 42. 


184 


12. 14. 


153 


20. 


II. 


178 




10. 


142 


6. 3- 


159 


12. 16. 


184 


20. 


27. 


140 




10. 


164 


6. 5- 


208 


12. 18. 


17 


20. 


34- 


64 




20. 


200 


6. II. 


159 


12. 21. 


213 


20. 


35- 


29 




24. 


23 


6.31. 


210 


12. 25. 


206 


20. 


35- 


145 




31- 


207 


7. 2. 


66 


13. I. 


49 


21. 


16. 


219 


2. 


8. 


212 


7. 21. 


51 


13- II- 


150 


21. 


21. 


138 


2. 


15- 


31 


7. 21. 


234 


13. 28. 


183 


21. 


26. 


154 


2. 


21. 


192 


7- 23- 


127 


13- 47- 


234 


21. 


27. 


154 


2. 


27. 


183 


7. 26. 


70 


14. 7. 


52 


21. 


29. 


135 


3- 


12. 


150 


7. 26. 


80 


14. 7. 


53 


21. 


33- 


143 


3- 


20. 


202 


7. 26. 


198 


14. 14. 


69 


21. 


34- 


130 


3- 


26. 


61 



Index of Texts Quoted 



i6i 



Romans (cont.) 


Romans (cont.) 


/ Cor 


. (cont.) 


Eph. 


(cont.) 


3-28. 


215 


16. 17. 


226 


15- 


15- 


217 


2. 


15- 


178 


3- 29- 


195 


16. 18. 


37 


15- 


27- 


226 


4- 


28. 


79 


4. 2. 


168 


16. 18. 


71 


15- 


29- 


213 


4- 


28. 


99 


4- 14- 


212 






15- 


31- 


25 


4- 


29- 


100 


5- 7- 


69a 


I Corinthtans 


15- 


32- 


37 


4- 


29. 


202 


5- 7- 


103 


I. 4. 


213 


15- 


33- 


74 


4- 


32. 


70 


6. 3- 


195 


I. 4. 


233 








5- 


2. 


26 


6. 3- 


233 


I. 10. 


64 


// Corinthians 


5- 


28. 


175 


6. 4. 


175 


I. 17. 


162 


2. 


12. 


228 


5- 


32. 


233 


7. 8. 


171 


I. 29. 


202 


2. 


17- 


90 


6. 


7- 


210 


7. i8. 


129 


2. I. 


233 


5- 


8. 


147 


6. 


II. 


17 


8. 3- 


211 


2. 13- 


23 


5- 


8. 


216 


6. 


14. 


18 


8. 13. 


230 


2. 16. 


150 


5- 


14. 


23 


6. 


21. 


220 


8. 27. 


230 


3- II- 


226 


5- 


20. 


57 








8.35. 


23 


3- 15- 


227 


7- 


8. 


216 


Philippians 


8. 36. 


26 


3- 17- 


172 


9- 


8. 


147 


I. 


18. 


82 


9 3- 


81 


3. 20. 


135 


10. 


2. 


129a 


2. 


12. 


62 


9. 24. 


59 


4. 2. 


69a 


10. 


5- 


24 


2 


19- 


137 


10. 2. 


24 


4. 2. 


127 


10. 


9- 


129a 


2. 


20. 


150 


10. 10. 


216 


4. 8. 


lOI 


10. 


15- 


31 


2. 


30- 


222 


10. 18. 


195 


4- 14- 


105 


II. 


26. 


21 


3- 


4- 


166 


II. Si- 


25 


5. II. 


142 


II. 


28. 


226 


3. 


21. 


26 


ll. 31. 


234 


6. I. 


219 


12. 


5- 


71 


4- 


2. 


142 


12. 3- 


142 


6. 2. 


150 


12. 


II. 


204 








12. 15. 


146 


6. 2. 


195 


12. 


II. 


206 


Colossians 


12. 16. 


64 


6. 12. 


235 


12. 


II. 


218 


I 


9. 


184 
188 
166 


12. 16. 
12. 20. 


70 
183 


7- 5- 
7- 8. 


64 
173 


Galatians 




I. 

2 


29- 

5- 

12. 


13. II. 


147 


7. 10. 


142 




«. 


166 


2 


24 


14. I. 


233 


7- 25. 


175 




ID. 


169 


2. 


23. 


216 


14. 9- 


30 


7. 28. 


71 




14. 


232 


3 


■J 

9. 


17 


14. II. 


i37« 


7. 28. 


75 




15- 


124 


-J 

3 


21. 


56 


14. 13. 


70 


7- 29- 


126 




17- 


25 


4 
4 


2. 


41 
105 


14. 22. 


225 


9. 7. 


175 




23- 


93 


3. 


15- 3- 


37 


9. 15- 


57 


2. 


6. 


125 


4 

4 


6. 


148 
219 


15- 4- 


25 


9- 15- 


126 


3- 


I. 


164 


16. 


15- 5- 


26 


9- 19- 


166 


3- 


5- 


193 






15- 5- 


70 


9. 20. 


175 


3- 


II. 


212 


/ TA 


essal 


oniat 


15- 8. 


24 


9- 27. 


153a 


4- 


4- 


153 








15- 8. 


160 


10. 29. 


69 


4- 


20. 


103 


- 


8. 


123 


15- 8. 


190 


10. 29. 


198 


5- 


4- 


75 


I 


9- 


164 


15- 9. 


236 


12. 24. 


187 


5- 


II. 


21 


2 


7- 


41 


15- 13 


187 


13 13- 


203 


5- 


23 


71 


2 


7- 


166 


15. 16. 


233 


14. 20. 


53 


6. 


9- 


183 


2 


13- 


65 


15. 22. 


140 


14- 39- 


140 


7— • i 7 






3 


I. 


124 


15. 24. 


88 


14- 39- 


142 


Ephesians 


3 


5- 


160 


15. 26. 


22 


15. 8. 


42 


I. 


16. 


i»4 


3 


5- 


190 


16. 16. 


70 


15. 12. 


135 


'^ 


14. 


178 


4 


13- 


182 



l62 



Index of Texts Quoted 



/ Thess. 


(cont.) 


Titus 






4. 16 


233 


3- 


I. 


142 


5. 8 


17 












Hebye^fi'^ 




// Thessalonians 












2. 


6. 


165 


2. 4 


• 175 


2. 


7- 


204 


2. 8 


. 68 


2. 


7. 


206 


3- 13 


184 


3- 


3- 


32 


I Timothv 


3- 


3- 


58 




^ 


3- 


3- 


204 


I- 9 


220 


3- 


3- 


214 


2. 8 


128 


3- 


II. 


I37« 


3- 5 


24 


3- 


18. 


137 


4. I 


23 


4- 


7- 


188 


4. 14 


210 


4- 


II. 


64 


5- 19 


235 


4- 


IS- 


207 


5. 20 


208 


4- 


IS- 


213 


5. 21 


187 


4- 


15- 


227 


6. 5 


46 


5- 


5- 


148 


6. 12 


15 


6. 


10. 


29 


6. 13 


235 


6. 


10. 


148 






6. 


13- 


137a 


II Timo 


thy 


6. 


14. 


185 


I. 12 


147 


6. 


16. 


32 


I. 17 


13 


7- 


5- 


166 


2. 2 


147 


7- 


12. 


123 


2. II 


172 


7- 


14. 


233 


4- 3 


53 


7- 


26. 


123 


4- 3 


216 


8. 


3- 


123 


4- 7 


15 


9- 


3- 


229 


4- 7 


84 


9- 


9- 


188 


4. 18 


234 


9. 


16. 


123 



lebrews 


(cont.) 


/ Pster (cont.) 


10. 22 


18 


4. 14 


233 


10. 31 


192 


5- 8 


150 


II- 4 


203 






II. 6 


135 


11 Peter 




II. 8 


148 


I. 19 


183 


13. 2 


29 


2. 10 


229 


13. 8 


64 


3- 5 


125 


13- 19 


142 


I John 




ames 




I- 9 


163 


I. II 


85 


2. 27 


147 


2- 4 


26 


3- 13 


141 


2. 18 


215 


4. 20 


136 


3- 4 


47 






3- 4 


166 


III John 


3- 4 


206 


I- 4 


32 


3- 8 


199 






3. 10 


64 


Revelation 


3- 14 


217 






5- 13 


174 


I 


II 


43 


5- 14 


69a 


3 


3 


59 


5. 16 


70 


3 


9 


142 






3 


15 


lOI 






3 


17 


57 


Peter 




7 


9 


199 


I. 24 


85 


II 


18 


147 


2. II 


142 


13 


5 


147 


3- 14 


15 


16 


II 


214 


4. 4 


51 


18 


4 


199 


4- 7 


85 


18 


22 


202 


4. 12 


175 


21 


23 


57 



PRINTED IN ENGLAND BY J. B. PEACE, M.A. 
AT THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PA 2823 .N8 1922 

SMC 

Nunn, H. P. V. (Henry 

Preston Vaughan) 
An introduction to 

ecclesiastical Latin / 




t^mm