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Hi- II. WILSON, M.A. F.R.S. &c. &c. 





Oxford, Printed by T. Combe, Printer to the University. 



THE design of the present Grammar of the Sanskrit 
Language has been suggested by the experience which 
I have now had in teaching the language, and by the 
want which I have repeatedly felt of some such ele- 
mentary work as that which I have here attempted to 

Of the Sanskrit Grammars published in Calcutta, the 
works of Mr. Colebrooke, Dr. Carey, and Mr. Forster 
are too voluminous and difficult for beginners. The 
Grammar of Mr. Yates is better adapted to such a class 
of students, but it is not readily procurable in this 
country. The Grammar of Professor Bopp, being com- 
posed in German and in Latin, is not universally accept- 
able to English students : and the only Grammar within 
their reach, therefore, has been that of Sir C. Wilkins. 
This work, however admirable in many respects, is 
exceptionable in some parts of its arrangement, and is 
inconvenient in use from its extent ; it is also growing 
scarce. A new Grammar, therefore, on a somewhat 
different plan, had become necessary ; and as I found 
no one disposed to engage in its preparation, I have 
thought it incumbent upon me to undertake the task. 

The structure of a highly elaborated form of speech, 
such as is Sanskrit, abounding with grammatical inflex- 
ions, cannot be explained with that brevity of which 

a 2 


more simply constituted languages permit : much cannot 
be described in a very few phrases. The present work 
has exceeded the limits which I originally contemplated ; 
but I found it impossible to be more concise, without 
being obscure, or without omitting something that was 
essential. As the extent of the book, however, is in 
great part attributable to the multiplication of examples, 
rather than of rules, it will be useful for occasional refer- 
ence, without being cumbrous to the memory of the stu- 
dent. I have endeavoured to make reference easy, by the 
headings of the pages and other supplementary means. 

The first topic of all Sanskrit Grammars is necessarily 
the euphonic combination of concurrent letters, the ana- 
lysis of which must be performed before the words can 
be separated and read. In the chapter upon the com- 
bination of letters, or Sandhi, as it is termed, I have 
rather added to, than diminished, the number of the 
rules which are to be found in the Grammar of Sir 
C. Wilkins : but, on the other hand, I have not imitated 
Professor Bopp in the copiousness with which he has 
explained the changes, as, however serviceable the rules 
which he has assembled with singular industry and 
correctness, they are not in all cases confined to modi- 
fications of a euphonic character : they comprise many 
that occur as the consequence of verbal or nominal 
inflexion : and although a knowledge of them will no 
doubt facilitate the student's subsequent acquirement of 
the principles of declension and conjugation, I have not 
found him content to be detained so long upon what 
appears to him to be but the threshold of the edifice, 
into the interior of which he is eager to enter. 

The general outline of the chapter on Declension is in 
all essential respects the same as that followed in the 


Grammars of Wilkins and Bopp ; but I have thought it 
advisable to put more prominently forward than they 
have done the scheme of technical terminations, devised 
by native grammarians for the construction of the cases 
of a noun ; as, notwithstanding the substitutions which 
they partially undergo, they are applicable in all nouns 
to a considerable portion of the cases, and in some nouns 
to all. They are easily acquired, and so are their sub- 
stitutes ; and familiarity with them once attained, the 
subject of Declension, however complicated it may ap- 
pear, becomes exceedingly simple, and is mastered with 

It is in the chapter on Conjugation that I have 
departed most widely from the course pursued by my 
European predecessors. Professor Bopp has followed 
in the main the example set by Sir C. Wilkins, of exem- 
plifying, under the head of each class or conjugation, 
only those tenses of the verb to which the conjugational 
characteristics are confined ; and of illustrating the 
remaining tenses of verbs in general in one collective 
division, under the head of each several tense. I have 
found this arrangement peculiarly embarrassing to be- 
ginners. An entire verb is nowhere presented to them ; 
and although the whole of the inflexions of most of 
those of which the conjugational tenses are exhibited 
are to be found in the Grammar, yet they can only be 
collected by a diligent and protracted search. It rarely 
happens that the young student is not disheartened by 
the labour thus imposed upon him, and a competent 
knowledge of the conjugation of Sanskrit verbs is in 
consequence comparatively seldom acquired. In the 
hope of removing some of the difficulties inherent in 
the subject, I have brought the several tenses of the verb 


together, and explained their formation in consecutive 
order. I have then detailed an entire verb in its dif- 
ferent voices and derivative forms ; and finally, under the 
head of each conjugation, I have given complete para- 
digms of a number of the most useful verbs, arranged 
in alphabetical succession, in the several conjugations to 
which they respectively belong. An example of this 
classification of the verbs was set by Mr. Colebrooke. 
In the first volume of his Grammar, the only one pub- 
lished, he has assembled all the verbs of the first conju- 
gation, with paradigms more or less complete. The limits 
of the present work rendered it impossible to represent 
all the verbs of each conjugation, but I have endeavoured 
to make such a selection as comprehends those which 
are of most frequent occurrence, or anomalous construc- 
tion. The forms are taken chiefly from the native 
Grammar, the Siddhanta Kaumudi, and from a MS. 
collection of verbs I had compiled in India. The first 
part only of Mr. Westergaard's very valuable work, 
* Radices Linguae Sanscritae,' had reached me before my 
collection was completed, or it would have saved me some 
labour. The usefulness of the series will have been 
materially enhanced by the alphabetical Index to all the 
verbs specified, which will be found at the end of the 
volume, and for the preparation of which I am indebted 
to the promptly tendered assistance of Professor Johnson, 
whom I have also to thank for the careful revision of 
the proof sheets, with exception of those of the last 
hundred pages, and for the correction of many errors, 
ascribable to typographic inaccuracy, or to my own 

The chapter on Derivation does not attempt to follow 
the detail with which the subject is illustrated in the 


Grammar of Sir C. Wilkins. The same copiousness was 
no longer necessary, as my Dictionary, however incom- 
plete, offers many of the same examples, and sufficiently 
exhibits the principles of etymological developement. 
By the alphabetical arrangement, however, of the tech- 
nical affixes employed in eliminating derivative from 
primitive words, a plan adopted from the example of 
Professor Bopp, reference to any particular form of 
derivatives will have been facilitated, and the process of 
their developement, perhaps, have been rendered more 

The formation of compound words is described much 
in the same manner, but with some slight difference of 
arrangement, as by Sir C. Wilkins. In the succeeding 
chapter on Syntax, also, I have followed much the same 
course, being guided, as he was, by the authority of 
native grammarians, although appealing to different 
works, and endeavouring to illustrate the rules by more 
diversified examples. The subject, however, is yet but 
imperfectly investigated. The native authorities restrict 
their remarks to the application of the cases of the 
nouns, and the tenses of the verbs ; and to have supplied 
their deficiencies would have demanded a longer period, 
and ampler space, than were compatible with the plan 
and purposes of the present publication. My guides 
have been principally the Siddhdrita Kaumudi and the 
poem of Bha't'ti, but I have drawn examples also from 
other printed Sanskrit books. 

The Prosody of Sanskrit has been much more suc- 
cessfully illustrated than its Syntax; and in the Dis- 
sertation of Mr. Colebrooke, in the tenth volume of the 
Asiatic Researches, arid in the remarks and annotations 
of various continental scholars and critics upon the 

viii PREFACE. 

metres prevailing in the Sanskrit works which they have 
edited, abundant materials exist for a comprehensive 
treatise upon the laws of Sanskrit metre. In the chapter 
upon the subject which I have added to. the Grammar, 
nothing more has been intended than a brief explanation 
of the fundamental principles by which poetical metre is 
regulated, and an exemplification of a few of its most 
frequently recurring and popular varieties. 

As the especial object of the present work is the 
introduction of the juvenile student to an elementary 
knowledge of the Sanskrit language, I have but rarely 
adverted to the affinities which connect it with other 
languages ; and in the few allusions which I have 
admitted, I have purposed rather to intimate that such- 
affinities exist, than to explain their nature, or inquire 
into their origin or extent. The more advanced student, 
who may take an interest in the investigation, will find 
in the writings of different continental scholars and 
grammarians, and especially in the Comparative Gram- 
mar of Professor Bopp, numerous and undeniable proofs 
of the close connexion which subsists between the sacred 
language of the Hindus and the languages of ancient 
Greece and Rome, as well as those of the Celtic, Teutonic, 
and Sclavonic nations. 

It were superfluous in the present day to offer any 
observations upon the value and interest of Sanskrit 
literature. The study constitutes an era in the branch 
of intellectual inquiry just referred to, and has given 
an entirely new character to philology. The principles 
of etymological affinity have been placed upon secure 
grounds, and the history of languages, and through 
them the history of man, has received novel and import- 
ant elucidation. Nor is this the only service which it has 


rendered to general literature. The history of philosophy 
and science is also largely indebted to it ; and in the 
civil and religious codes which it has laid open to our 
knowledge, and in the mythological and legendary tradi- 
tions, and the dramatic and heroic poems, which it offers 
to our curiosity, it presents a series of new, interesting, 
and instructive pictures of society, in which the features 
of a highly artificial, but original civilization are singu- 
larly blended with the characteristics of primitive man- 
ners and archaic institutions. The history of mankind 
can be but imperfectly appreciated without some ac- 
quaintance with the literature of the Hindus. 

It is, however, to the educated youth whose manhood 
is to be spent in India, and who is there destined to 
discharge high duties, and sustain heavy responsibilities 
who is to execute the offices of civilized government 
over millions of subject Hindus, and to make that 
government a blessing, not a curse, to India a glory, 
not a shame, to Britain ; it is to him that the study of 
Sanskrit commends itself, by considerations of peculiar 
utility and importance. 

A careful examination of the different dialects which 
are spoken in various parts of India is yet to be effected ; 
but enough is known to admit of their being distin- 
guished as belonging to two great families, that of India 
proper, and that of the Dakhin. Of the former, the 
members are, as far as we are familiar with them, recog- 
nised as Sanskrit. They have undergone great changes ; 
have simplified their grammatical structure ; have suf- 
fered in a greater or lesser degree admixture and adul- 
teration from foreign words. They probably also com- 
prehend a small portion of a primitive, unpolished, and 
scanty speech, the relics of a period prior to civilization : 



but in the names of things of the most ordinary observa- 
tion, in terms for the functions of life, as well as the 
relations of society, as much as in those words which 
are the offspring of civilization, and which spring from 
science, philosophy, law, and religion, they are almost 
wholly dependent upon Sanskrit ; a knowledge of which 
consequently places the members of this family, Bengali, 
Hindee, Punjabi, Guzerati, Marhatha, and others, almost 
without effort within the power of any one to whom it 
may become a duty to acquire either or all of them. 

In the south of India the case is somewhat different. 
Cultivated languages of local origin are there met with, 
largely supplied with words which are not of Sanskrit 
origin. There, however, as in the north, the introduc- 
tion of Sanskrit was the precursor of civilization, and 
deeply impressed it with its own peculiarities. The 
spoken languages were cultivated in imitation and rivalry, 
and but partially aspired to an independent literature. 
The principal compositions in Tamil, Teloogoo, Canara, 
arid Malayalam, are translations or paraphrases from 
Sanskrit works, and largely borrow the phraseology of 
their originals: and hence so large a proportion of the 
language of education and of society is Sanskrit, that a 
knowledge of it is absolutely essential to a correct under- 
standing of the spoken dialects of the peninsula. 

There is, however, a higher point of view from which 
the advantages to the servants of the East India Com- 
pany in India of a knowledge of Sanskrit are to be 
contemplated, than the aid which it is calculated to 
afford them in their executive functions. It will not 
only enable them to understand the uttered words of 
those with whom they hold official intercourse ; it will 
not only teach them to interpret the language of repre- 


sentation or complaint, or to express the decrees of 
justice, or the commands of power ; it will enable 
them to understand the people, and to be understood 
by them. The popular prejudices of the Hindus, their 
daily observances, their occupations, their amusements, 
their domestic and social relations, their local legends, 
their national traditions, their mythological fables, their 
metaphysical abstractions, their religious worship, all 
spring from, and are perpetuated by, the Sanskrit lan- 
guage. To know a people, these things must be known. 
Without such knowledge, revenue may be raised, justice 
may be administered, the outward shows and forms of 
orderly government may be maintained ; but no influ- 
ence with the people will be enjoyed, no claim to their 
confidence or attachment will be established, no affection 
will be either felt or inspired, and neither the disposition 
nor the ability to work any great or permanent improve- 
ment in the feelings, opinions, or practices of the country 
will be attained. It fortunately happens, it is true, 
that much of this indispensable information may now be 
acquired through the English language, in consequence 
of the valuable translations and dissertations of various 
of the Company's most distinguished servants ; but know- 
ledge from the fountain head is more precise and effective 
than when gleaned from subordinate, and riot always 
pure or profound, rivulets : and in proportion as it is 
effective and precise, will be the respect and trust of 
the native population, the influence and power of their 
English masters. 


CHAP. I. Letters , . P. 

Pronunciation 4 

Classification 6 

CHAP. II. Sandhi Combination of letters .... 7 

Sect, i . Conjunction of vowels . 8 

Sect. 3. Conjunction of consonants ijj 

Sect. 3. Changes of Visarga ........ 33 

CHAP. III. Declension 37 

General rules 27 

Sect. i. Nouns ending in vowels 39 

Cl. J. Nouns ending in ^T and ^rr .... 39 

Cl. 3. Nouns ending in ^ and ^ 33 

Cl. 3. Nouns ending in ^ and gj .... 37 

Cl. 4. Nouns ending in ^, ^, o, *| . . . 43 

Cl. 5. Nouns ending in ^ 45 

Cl. 6. Nouns ending in ^ 45 

Cl. 7. Nouns ending in ^ 46 

Cl. 8. Nouns ending in ^ 47 

Sect. 3. Nouns ending in consonants .... 47 

Cl. i. Nouns ending in OR, ^, T, "^ . . . 48 

Cl. 3. Nouns ending in % , f, *R . . . 48 

Cl. 3. Nouns ending in 7, 7, T, 3" . . . . 53 

Cl. 4. Nouns ending in w, ^T, 3", V ... 53 

Cl. 5. Nouns ending in TJ, ifi, ^, >T . . . 59 

Cl. 6. Nouns ending in T 3 Tj % T, 1 . . 59 

Nouns in ^rT 59 

Nouns in ^^ 63 

Cl. 7. Nouns ending in n, t, 75, ^ . . . 65 

Cl. 8. Nouns ending in ^r, *r, ^? . . . . 65 

Cl. 9. Nouns ending in ^ 71 

Sect. 3. Adjectives 74 

Sect. 4. Pronouns and pronominal nouns ... 77 

Sect. 5. Numerals 85 

Ordinals 80 


CHAP. IV. Indeclinables 90 

Adverbs 91 

Prepositions 97 

Conjunctions 101 

Interjections 102 

Expletives 103 

CHAP. V. Conjugation 104 

Sect. i. Roots and indicatory letters . . . . 104 

Sect. 2. Classes of verbs 107 

Sect. 3. Moods and tenses no 

Sect. 4. Voices 113 

Sect. 5. Numbers and persons 114 

General principles of conjugation . . 116 

Of the augment ^ 126 

Sect. 6. Formation of the verb 132 

Passive voice 135 

Sect. 7. Derivative verbs 135 

Causals 135 

Desideratives 138 

Frequentatives 1141 

Ditto inserting TJ 141 

Ditto rejecting ^ 143 

Impersonals 150 

Nominals 150 

Sect. 8. Conjugations. 

First conjugation . 153 

Second 191 

Third 209 

Fourth 214 

Fifth 226 

Sixth 231 

Seventh 237 

Eighth 241 

Ninth 243 

Tenth . . ... ..... 250 

Changes of voices 259 

CHAP. VI. Derivation 268 

Sect. i. Verbal derivatives 268 

Infinitive 269 

Participles 270 

Present participles 270 


Past participles 272 

Participles of the second praeterite . . 272 

Indefinite past participles 273 

Future participles active 279 

Ditto passive or neuter 280 

Indeclinable participles . . . . . 287 

Adverbial participles 290 

Sect. 2. Verbal nouns 291 

Sect. 3. Nominal derivatives 311 

Cl. i. Miscellaneous affixes 313 

Cl. 2. Possessives 326 

Cl. 3. Degrees of comparison ; pronominals ; 

numerals 330 

Cl. 4. Indeclinables 332 

CHAP. VII. Compound words 336 

Sect. i. Dwandwa compounds 338 

Sect. 2. Tatpurusha compounds 340 

Karmmadharaya Tatpurusha compounds . 343 

Dwigu Tatpurusha compounds . . . 346 

Tatpurusha comp. with particles and prep. 346 

Sect. 3. Bahuvrihi compounds 348 

Sect. 4. Indeclinable compounds 354 

Sect. 5. General rules 358 

CHAP. VIII. Syntax 361 

Sect. i. Nouns 362 

Sect. 2. Adjectives 385 

Sect. 3. Pronouns 388 

Sect. 4. Indeclinables 389 

Sect. 5. Verbs 393 

Sect. 6. Derivative verbs 407 

Sect. 7. Participles 409 

CHAP. IX. Prosody 

Sect. i. General rules 

Sect. 2. Varna -vritta class of metres . . . . 417 

Sect. 3. Gana-vritta class of metres .... 427 

Sect. 4. Matrachhandas class of metres . . . 429 


Initial. Medial. Equivalent and power. 

Equivalent and power. 

^ a, as in America. 

"3T h, as in singe. 

^TT T a 

casa (Italian). 

7 't 


^ f i 


? th 

t ^ { 


3 a 


^ o ll 


^ ah 

^5 c\ u 


T5 n 


^ * ri 


7T t 


^ i r/1 


^ th 

Cv ^2- in 

^ d 


^*^ CO 

U dh 

TT *"^ f* LL-- 


* n 


IT "^ ai 


^ P 


x ~s 

^T To 


Tfi ph 


^TT T au 


^ b 


^( ah 


H bh 


^ft ah 

"5R m 


^ k, 5 in 


^T y 


T5f kh 


T r 


T g 


c^ 1 


^ gh 


^ V 


^ h 


"^T s 


-? ch 


q sh 


^ chh 



5f j 


""l h 


^ jh 


Varieties : TJT a, * 

5 ri, ^ 1, \L e, ^ jh, TTT n, ^ 

ru. ^ or s^ r6 

Numerals : 


e so 

1 2 3 4 5 G 7 8 

9 10 




J_ HE Sanskrit language is written in different parts of India 
in the characters which are in use for the spoken dialects ; 
but the alphabet which is regarded as most appropriate to it, 
and from which the local alphabets are derived, is that which 
is termed Nagari or Devanagari, the alphabet of 'the city/ 
or of ' the city of the gods,' being a derivative from Nagara, 
' a city/ compounded in the second form with Deva, ' deus/ 
( a god/ It appears to have undergone various modifications 
from a period of remote antiquity down to the seventh or 
eighth century, when the letters assumed the form in which 
they now occur. 

As usually enumerated, the Nagari alphabet comprises forty- 
seven letters, the long vowels being considered distinct from 
the short ; the vowels are thus fourteen : the consonants, 
among which the aspirated are distinguished from the corre- 
sponding unaspirated letters, are thirty-three. The consonants 
are classified according to the organ chiefly concerned in their 
articulation ; and in order to effect their utterance, the short 
vowel f a' is attached to their respective sounds. 




'W a, ^STT a, ^ i, ^ i, <r u, "35 u, ^[ ri, ri, " Iri, "? Iri, 
e, ^ ai, ^ o, ^ft au. 



Gutturals, ^fi ka, ?T kha, i\ ga, Tj gha, T ri. 
Palatals, ^ cha, chha, f ja, *R.jha, *r ri. 
Cerebrals, a, T t^ha, ^ cla, ? ciha, TJ Aa. 
Dentals, w ta, ^ tha, ^ da, v dha, *T na. 
Labials, XT pa, TR pha, "^ ba, >r bha, ?r ma. 
Semivowels, n ya, T: ra, 75 la, ^ va. 
Sibilants and aspirate, ^f s'a, ^r sha, ^ sa, ^ ha. l 

To these are to be added two signs, which are occasionally 
attached to vowels, termed Anuswara and Visarga. The first 
is a dot over and after a letter ; the second consists of two 
dots after it. The first denotes a slight nasal ; the second, a 
soft aspirate ; as, ^sf an (ang), ^r. ah. Another additional 
character is 35, with a sound partaking of e P and ' r/ but it is 
peculiar to the Vedas. Some lists add ^ ksha and $|r jria, but 
these are compounds ; the first of ej k and "^ sh, and the 
second of T j and *T ri. The first is sometimes expressed 

In designating a letter, the word ORT^ kara is added to it ; 
as, ^r=irR a-kara, the letter f a; 5 ch4iR ka-kara, the letter 
'k/ &c. 

When a vowel is uttered as an initial, or before a conso- 
nant, it retains the form above given : when it is uttered after 
a consonant, or as a medial or final, it assumes a different 
form, which is written before or after, above or below, the 
consonant with which it is associated ; with exception of ^ ' a,' 
which, as a medial or final, is always left unwritten, being 
understood to be combined with the consonant, and articu- 
lated with it, as in the alphabet, unless the consonant be final, 
which is denoted by a mark at its foot, a Virama or ' rest,' as 


^ k ; or unless it be conjoined with another consonant, as 
below. The forms of the vowels as medials and finals are, 

T a, f i, "V i, u, ^u, c ri, ^ ri, ^ Iri, ^ Iri, 
^ e, *^ ai, ^ o, "^ au : 

or in combination, '3T^ ak, ^TeR aka, 41141 aka, ^fa iki, f^ft iki, 
<ra uku, gic^uku, ^J^ rikri, ^JCR rikri, 55^ Iriklri, o3R Irikln, 
^ eke, i^fi aikai, ^ftcfit oko, W=H aukau, ^r5 akan, ^r=fi: akah. 

When two or more consonants come together, without any 
intermediate vowel, they are combined into one compound 
consonant in which in general the component members may 
be recognised without much difficulty one consonant being 
subjoined to the other, as in ^ng akka, W5 achcha, where the 
transverse line of the lower is omitted ; or one consonant 
following the other, as wr agga, ^Rjf ajja, where the per- 
pendicular line of the first of the two is rejected. In some 
cases the elements of the combination are not so obvious. 
The letters most frequently recurring in conjunction with pre- 
ceding consonants are "3 ya and T: ra. The first is easily 
discernible in 

^T kya, TI chya, w tya, 3T dya, TXI pya, TQ mya, &c. : 

the second is usually designated by a short transverse stroke 
at the foot of the letter or letters ; as, 

j$ or ^R kra, ij gra, W or ^ tra, ^ dra, IT pra, gif krya. 

When ^ precedes a consonant, it is placed at the top of it in 
the shape of a crescent ; as, ^ rka in ^rafi arka, * the sun ;' or 
wf rmma in \rwf dharmma, ' duty/ 

The difficulties from this source soon disappear with prac- 
tice. Some of the most useful combinations are subjoined. 
It may be also here observed, that some of the single letters 
may be written in a different manner, of which examples are 
given at the foot of the Table at the head of this chapter. 

B 2 


1$ kka 


Compound consonants. 

^i kta 35 kna ^r kma 

T5f ksha 151 kshya ^ kshwa 

tf ghna nr ghma HJ rika 

^ chcha ^5 chchha 




m nda 

gf dgha 
3T dwya 

f psa 

13 scha 

; ska 

r spa 




Few observations are required regarding the pronunciation 
of the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. As a general rule, the 
vowels are to be sounded like those of the Italian alphabet, 
except the first, the short ' a/ which has the obscure sound 
of that letter in such English verbs as f adorn/ ' adore/ or in 
the word ( America V The vowels ri and Iri differ not in 

This is the only cause of embarrassment in the system here followed of 
expressing Sanskrit words in English characters. It is difficult to our 
practice to pronounce ' ban' as if it was written ' bun ;' as in Sanskrit, 
Bandhana, ' binding,' is to be pronounced Bundhunu ; but u is necessarily 
restricted to its proper office, as in Italian, ' fui,' ' furore.' 


sound from the syllables so compounded. They take their 

place among vowels as subject to euphonic changes, of which 

as syllables they would not be susceptible. The consonants 
are in general pronounced as in English, and we have, it may 
be suspected, several of the sounds for which the Sanscrit 
alphabet has provided distinct signs, but of which signs are 
wanting with us. This seems to be the case with the nasals 
and the cerebrals. We write but one ' n,' but we vary its 
articulation, according to the consonants it precedes, as a gut- 
tural, palatal, cerebral, and dental,' in such words as ' conquer/ 
* singe,' ' none,' and ' content.' So we write but one ' t' and 
one ' d,' but their sounds differ in such words as e trumpet' 
and ( tongue,' ' drain' and f den :' in the first of which they 
ore cerebrals, in the second dentals : the term cerebral has been 
adopted to express the Sanskrit Murddhanya from Murddhan 
Jjl^T ' the head,' as these letters are articulated by touching 
the palate with the tongue farther back in the mouth than is 
practised in other articulations. The "^ v when compounded 
with another consonant is pronounced and written f w,' as 
in fg dw r i, * two.' Of the three sibilants, the first f s' ^r is ^' 
less decidedly l sh' than the second, as in our ' ss' in ( ses- 
sion ;' it is a palatal letter : ^ sha is a cerebral, as in 
' shore :' and TJ is a dental sibilant, as in ( sun.' Anuswara TT - 
is a slight nasal, rather stronger than the c n' of the French 
' bon.' It is used in writing, however, as a substitute for 
other nasals, and then in general retains their pronunciation ; 
as ^nf ahan for 'ST^r aham, ' I,' is equally pronounced Aham ; 
and -fl^ofcK ahankara is pronounced '^$R ahankara, for which 
it is written. Before semivowels and the aspirate ^ the Anu- 
swara is most appropriately used, and, whether original or 
substituted, has the same nasal sound, as in 'sqr ans'a, ' a part,' 
and *qR sans'aya, { doubt ;' in the latter of which it takes the 
place of the final of ^r sam, * cum.' The aspirate denoted by 
Visarga is rarely marked : TTH: Ramah is commonly articulated 
as Rama. 



Besides the classification of the letters of the alphabet spe- 
cified above, there is another which it may be sometimes useful 
to refer to. In this system the letters are thus arranged : 

The object of this arrangement is to provide a convenient 
mode of designating any particular set of letters to the exclu- 
sion of all others, which is done by combining any prior letter 
with the consonant at the end of a series, so as to form a 
Pratyahara or syllable, denoting all the letters that intervene : 
thus, ^fi9 means the whole alphabet ; ^{^ the vowels only ; 
$r?5 the consonants only ; ^ror means ^r ^ T, inclusive of their 
corresponding long vowels ; ^T^ denotes the simple vowels ; 
T*^ the diphthongs ; t|7^ the semivowels ; and H3^ all the con- 
sonants exclusive of the nasals and semivowels. Other com- 
binations may be formed on the same principle, w r ith a like 

There are some distinctions also affecting the vowels and 
consonants generally, which it is advisable to particularise. 

1 . Vowels have three times or quantities : they are, W$ 
Laghu, ' light' or ' short ;' Tp Guru, ' heavy 5 or ' long ;' and 
^jw Pluta, ' prolated.' They have also three accents, and are, 
^TW Udatta, ' grave ;' W^qm Anudatta, ( acute ;' and syiXrf 
Swarita, ' compounded' or ' circumflex.' The long and short 
vowels are separately represented, as ^r a, WT a : the prolated 
is the long a with three lines underneath it, or a figure of three 
behind it, as ^ or ^rr 3. The accents are thus severally marked; 

4(, ^r, 'W. They are rarely used, except in MSS. of the Vedas. 
In combination and in inflexion the vowels are subject to two 
changes, or rather substitutions, in which other vowel forms 
take their places. These are called TRET Guna and ^fs Vriddhi, 
rendered by Dr. Wilkins ' conversion' and ' augmentation.' 


The Guna substitutes are *r I? ^ft 
The Vriddhi substitutes are ^TT ^ 

Thus the verb ^bhu, ' to be/ in its inflexions is subject to 
Guna ; that is, it becomes >ft bho, ' o' being substituted for ( u.' 
In some of its secondary derivatives the tf u j is subject to 
Vriddhi : thus >JTT bhuta, ' a being/ ' an element/ furnishes 
the adjective Hi fried bhautika, * elementary.' This will be more 
intelligible as we proceed. It is only at present essential to 
recollect the purport of the terms Guna and Vriddhi. 

2. Consonants. It is at present more important to notice 
a distinction of the consonants into two classes : some of them 
are hard, some soft. Wilkins calls the former surds ; the 
latter, sonants ; in which he is followed by Professor Bopp. 
The hard or surd consonants are the two first letters of the 
five first classes of the alphabet and^the sibilants ; the soft or 
sonant consonants are the three last letters of each class, the 

semivowels, and the aspirate. 

r _<. ?:,*4- J>/ - 

Hard or surd letters, cR 7f ^ 7 3 "if ^ T tfi 3T ^ *T- 

Soft or sonant, T\ TT T T ** *T ^ ^ ?!T ^ v TT ^ H H tTH 75 



CONTRIVANCES for avoiding the concurrence of harsh or 
incongruous sounds, or the unpleasing hiatus which arises 
from keeping sounds apart that are disposed to coalesce, are 
not wanting in all languages. They are in general, however, 
rather poetical or prosodial than grammatical ; such as the 
elision of a final ( e' before an initial ( e* in such a concurrence 
as " the etherial height of heaven/' which it was formerly the 
fashion to write, as the measure demanded, " th' etherial /' to 
say nothing of the synalepha and ecthlipsis of Latin verse, 
" Monstr' horrend' inform' ingens," &c. Other instances of 


a regard for euphony, however, do occur independent of 
prosody, and especially in Greek, in which many of the 
euphonic changes are analogous to those provided for in San- 
skrit. In no language has the subject, however, been so 
systematically investigated as in Sanskrit ; and the changes to 
which letters are subject for the sake of euphony are nume- 
rous, and carefully defined, forming that part of Sanskrit 
grammar which is termed uf^y Sandhi, f a holding together,' 
' a junction ;' or tif^ril Sanhita, ( an association, 3 ' a conjunc- 
tion f either being derived from the verb compounded of the 
preposition ^ sam, f cum/ and VT dha, ' to have,' ' to hold.' 


Conjunction of vowels. 

1. When a vowel terminating a word is followed by a similar 
vowel beginning another word, whether they both be short or 
both long, or one be short and one long, they combine into 
one long homogeneous vowel : thus 

a with a makes a; as, %tr Daitya + ^rft ari =^iHi(X Daityari, 
( a foe of the demons,' a name of Vishnu. 

a with a makes a ; as, ifn sa -f ^(Jigi^ agachhat = UNl^rf x sa- 
gachhat, f she went.' 

i with i makes i ; as, ^fif iti + 35 iva = ^?ffa itiva, ( so indeed.' 

i with i makes i ; as, Tfft Sri + ^r isa = ^ft^T Sris'a, ' the lord 
of Sri.' 

u with u makes u ; as, >TT^ bhanu + T^l udaya = ^TFT^ 

bhanudaya, * sun-rise.' 
ri with ri makes ri ; as, ^ nri + ^fa rishi = wft nrishi, ' a 

man- (a mortal) sage.' 

The concurrence of a final and initial * never perhaps takes 
place. T5 may however follow ^j, and as they are considered 
as homogeneous, a long ^ ri may be the result ; as, iftij 
hotri + ofiR Irikara makes \Tlrf <*|^ f the letter Iri (a sort of 


incantation) of the Hotri,' or officiating priest. The concur- 
rence of % however, either with another ^ or with *, is not 
liable to any very strict rule, and the substitute may be either 
a short or long ^j ; as, iftaj with either ^pfi'R or cfc<+K may be 
either sfhpfiR or ^<*K. 

2. If a word which ends in either ^r a or w a be followed by 
a word beginning with a different vowel, then a Gufia element 
is substituted for both ; that is, if ^T or ~%n precedes ^ or ^, the 
substitute is Tj; if ^ or "31, it is wt; if ^ or ^, it is ^;; if 
c or * as 

upa + JT"; Indra = Txfalf Upendra, a name of Krishna. 
yatha 4- ff*Sif ipsitam + q'tffmrt yathepsitam, ' as desired.' 

JT^T Ganga + g^op^udakam = 71^^^ Garigodakam, ' Ganges 

water. 7 

*I^ maha -f- ^fT rishi = JT^Pt maharshi, ' a great sage.' 
TTW tava + "^fiR Irikara = iT^?rc tavalkara, ' thy letter 75.' 

3. If a word ends, as in the last case, with ^T or ^STT, and 
is followed by one beginning with a diphthong, a Vriddhi 
letter is substituted for both ; that is, if ^ be followed by if 
or 5*, the substitute is *r ; if by ^ft or ^rr, it is ^ ; as, 

Krishna + ins^ ekatwam = <* 094,4 Krishnaikatwam, 


e oneness with Krishna.' 

vidya, + 5^r eva = f%^ vidyaiva, ' knowledge,' ' verily.' 
deva + i^syfii ais'waryam = ^vgSj devais'waryam, ' the 
divinity of a god.' 

alpa + ifl|^ ojas = ^>?fiC^ alpaujas, ' of little radiance.' 
bala + 'iflr^l4 autsukyam = jic4)ri4<f4 balautsukyam, 
f the maiden's sorrow/ 

There are some exceptions to these two last rules, which it 
may be convenient here to insert. With regard to these and ' 
to other anomalies and exceptions, however, it may be advis- 



able once for all to recommend to the student, in an early 
stage of his studies, to content himself with a passing notice 
of them, and not allow them to divert his attention from the 
general rules. Familiar with the rules, he will find no diffi- 
culty in the occasional deviations from them w^hich occur. 

a. ^T3f aksha before ^if^uft lihini makes ^r^f^rft akshauhini, 
f a large army, 5 instead of ^HjflHjlift, as it should do by rule 2. 

b. When ^ ir, a radical signifying e go,' or any of its 
derivatives, follows the c a' of ^ swa, the substitute is not e e,' 
but ' ai ;' as ^t ' self-going,' ' independence ;' ^fUjI ( an inde- 
pendent female servant/ i. e. not a slave. 

c. Verbal derivatives from the roots ^ur in, 'go,' and F*T 
edh, ' increase/ take the Vriddhi substitute after the vowel ^r 
of a preposition ; as, ^T? 4- **fcf = T^fff ' he approaches ;' TT + 
ij^ = ^Nw ' it increases.' In general, verbs beginning with 
^ or ^ffr retain their own vowel, and cause the elision of the 
final ^T of a preposition ; as, TT before *T3T^ makes piTW ' he 
trembles ;' u before ^rtaflf makes TTtafiT ' he sprinkles.' The 
^t which is evolved from Tf, substituted for the ^ of ^ vah, 
' bear,' takes Vriddhi after the short ' a,' as f^T^RT^ ' all - 
sustaining,' becomes in the ace. plur. P|yjl^: 

d. Derivatives from ^ ish, e go,' * wish,' take the Vriddhi 
letter after the ( a' of TI pra, as iN praisha, ' a messenger ;' so 
do those of "g^r uh, ' reason ;' as in? prauclha, ' proud,' ' arro- 
gant.' ^ ish, ' glean,' takes Guna after n, as W 1 ! presha, ' a 

e. Roots beginning with ^ after a preposition ending in 
c a,' substitute the Vriddhi form ^!TT^ ar, as TQ + ^Tsifrt makes 
Jm-oSfri uparchchhati, ' approaches ;' by rule 2. it should have 
been tfTcSfrt uparchchhati. The Vriddhi ^TT^ is also substituted 
for an initial "^ when the word it commences is compounded 
with a preceding w r ord ending in ( a,' and having the sense of the 
instrumental case : thus *na" sukha and ^f?r rita may be joined 
together, as *prN^ sukhartta, ' affected by joy ;' ^fhf s'ita and 
^ rita, as -^ftTrr^ sitartta, ' affected by cold.' If the first 


member have not the sense of the instrumental case, the 
words combine agreeably to rule 2 ; as, TTTTT parama and ^TT 
rita make xrr?Hf paramartta, ' last- gone :' the same if the 
first word retains the sign of the instrumental case, the words 
coalescing in virtue of their juxta-position, but not forming a 
compound : thus TO?HT + ^fW makes ^H^ sukhenartta. 

f. The word ^pr rina doubled or preceded by H, WrHiR, 
cfig^j, ^RfT, or ^T, substitutes the Vriddhi syllable ^T^, not the 
Guna ^ ; as, -=(jlill4) ririarna, ( debt of a debt / UUJJf prarna, 
' principal debt / <irWrKI*iJ vatsatararna, ' debt of a mule ;' 
<4*HH(J vasanarna, ' debt of a cloth / ^rnt Das'arna, name of a 
country; i^rHlh Dasarna, name of a river, the Dosaron of 

g. Verbs formed from nouns beginning with ^j take either 
the Guna or Vriddhi substitute after the ^s of a preposition : 

fif rishabhiyati, ' he resembles or acts like a rishabha/ 

i. e. a bull, with TT pra makes either ntwhrfw or 

So with an initial T5, as H*l6nrrt or Hi^ujliifH. When the 

initial is the long vowel ^, either no coalescence takes place, 

or the change is to the Guna syllable ; as, "^Tr and 

make either <JM^<*lO*jfrf or 3tr 

h. When ^ as the initial of a noun follows an inflected 
noun ending in a short vowel, it may remain unaltered, or 
follow rule 2, : thus nr and ^ffa may make either *nrftf or 

i. Verbs formed from nouns beginning with ^ or ^ft fol- 
lowing a preposition ending in ^, either cause its elision, or 
substitute the Vriddhi letter 5 as, "^TT and ir?3RfaffT edakiyati 
make either <jiU<*)^rri or grxtefifaf?r ' he is sheepish/ 

k. When the particle ^, ' verily/ ' indeed/ is used to 
intimate uncertainty, it causes the elision of a preceding ^T ; 
as, gi kwa and u^ eva make ifc kweva in such a sentence as 
"Sf^Tt^refr ( Where will you dine ?' When certainty is affirmed, 
the combination follows rule 3 ; as, *rer j^rr T%^T H^ * I shall 
certainly dine with you, my friend/ 

C 2 


/. The words wnj otu, ' a cat/ and wt oshha, ' the lip/ 
when compounded with a preceding word ending in ^f, either 
follow rule 3, or cause the elision of the preceding vowel ; 
as, ^c5 sthiila + 1 sfhj = ^WTJ or *s?$tij ' a fat cat / fo^f vimba 
+ wte is either f^fhr or faffiv ' cherry-lipped. 3 If the words 
coalesce without forming a new r compound, the rule is adhered 
to : 7R -f ^ffa make >T<ffrH ' the lip of thee.' 

4. When a word ends with any simple vowel, except ^ or 
^rr, and is followed by a word that begins with a dissimilar 
vowel, or with a diphthong, the latter is unaltered, but the 
former is changed to its analogous semivowel : thus ^ and ^ 
are changed to TJ y, "3" and "31 to ^ v, ^ ^ to ^ r, and o "? to 
c5 1 ; as, 

^fif + *y I M"1 = ^i<l 1 41$ ityakarnya, ' thus having heard.' 
+ wrmt = ^y'iJUH rijwayata, ' simple-minded/ 

^T3T = Hl^^f bhratransa, ' a brother's portion.' 
-f *M^TM = (^HW^ lanubandha, * the adjunct (Anubandha) 

a. There are various rules for the correct orthography of 
words coalescing in this form, but they are amongst the incon- 
veniences of Sanscrit grammar, and are little observed in prac- 
tice : it is enough here to remark, that under them the first 
word may be also spelled ^TM 1<=HPJ, ^rm I <**!$, or ^nnowraj, 
doubling the first conjunct consonant, the second, or both. 
In general, however, the simplest form is used, unless the first 
of the conjunct consonants be *, when the second should be 
doubled ; as, ifrtf ' Gauri' (the goddess) + ^T^ ' here/ is most 
correctly written Tfpnt<f Gauryyatra. So also in uncompounded 
words the letter ^ doubles the consonant conjoined with it, 
as ojftr kartta, cfiwt karmma, >fwf dharmma, although it is not 
uncommon to omit the duplication in writing. 

b. In some instances, when the words are not compounded, 


and not inflected, a final simple vowel followed by a dissi- 
milar vowel may either conform to the rule, may remain 
unaltered, or, if long, may be changed to its short vowel : thus 
'graft chakri-f^ra atra, i The discus -armed (Vishnu), here!' 
may make either ^^i|d or ^ff^ ^^ or -^tSt Wcf. If a new 
compound be formed, the rule must be followed, and the 
semivowel substituted ; as, ?rfT Hari + ^r*T artha makes ^ujvj 
Haryyartha, ' the object of Hari :' and so it must if an inflec- 
tive termination be added to the word to form a case, as 
Gauryyah, ' of the goddess Gauri.' 

5. When a diphthong ending a word is followed by any 
vowel or diphthong even though the latter be the same -' 
beginning a word, the following syllables are severally substi- 
tuted for the antecedent diphthong : 

For ^ ^ ay, as % + WT makes ^?F?t chayana, ' gathering/ 

% WTO ay, as % + ^nu makes Hmh nayaka, * a leader/ 

^ft ^ av, as fawt + U == faUJN Vishnave, ' to Vishnu.' 

^f W^ av, as ip-fl + ^^ = qflllVHt putravimau, ' these 

two children.' 

a. These syllables may be substituted for diphthongs before 
if when it is the initial of the affix ^, forming participial 
nouns in certain senses. 

% from ftf-f-Tn^= n*l jayya, ( what may be conquered.' 
*ft from >|^+ TJ^ = >r^l bhavya, ' what may be' or ' is to be.' 
t^ + TTf^ = TTPar navya, relating to ' a ship,' ' naval.' 

b. 7ft before TT^ substitutes ^ for the final, TTST gavya, 
' relating to a cow ;' also before the affix '^fw, as J|<JjTH ' a 
measure ;' but this is peculiar to the Vedas. In ordinary use, 
the words are *ft fir ( a measure of two kos.' 


6. Concurrent heterogeneous letters in some cases do not 
follow any of the preceding rules, or they follow them option- 
ally ; or one of the two vowels becomes quiescent, or is ejected. 


These are termed IPpn Pragrihya, literally ' what must be 
taken out/ ' excipienda.' 

a. The finals ^ "31 and ^, when they are the terminations of 
nouns in the dual number, are unchanged before other vowels 
or diphthongs : ^^ irift * these two Haris ;' iTT^T ^ ' these two 
suns;' ^Tff% ^nj^ ' these two women/ 

b. ^nft the nom. plur. masc. of the pronoun ^T^T, ' that/ 
does not coalesce with a following vowel : ^T*ft f^n: ' those 

c. The T of ftjw may be unchanged, or may substitute the 
semivowel ' v' before a vowel, as fsRJT '3^ or ffifrfi 'What is 

d. ^ or ^i substituted, as they sometimes irregularly are, 
for the proper ending of the locative case, are unchanged, as 

ft ^rvifad: ' Soma relying on Gauri :' T^l" for T^Tzh*^. 

e. Prolated vowels, pluta, are incapable of combination : 
gT WeT e Come, Krishna (as if in calling), here.' 

f. T* and ^ffr being the terminations of an inflected word, 
cause a following ^T to be ejected ; its elision is however 
usually denoted by a peculiar character; as, w^sg 1 ' O fire ! 
here.' froiftsgr 'O Vishnu! here.' 

ff. The ^ft of ift is subject to various modifications before 
*3T : both may be unchanged, ^r may be elided, or ^ft may be 
changed to ^T^ ava: thus ift and ^??f make *ft ^T?t, jfts^f, or 
TT^Tlf. ^ft is changed to ^R ava before ^ref and ^5", making 
by rules i. and 2. JRigf 'a lattice/ and ^T^T a name of 
Krishna ; also before f^T, making *T^n ; or it may be changed 
before this word to ^T^ av, by rule 5, regularly making 'Hl$f 
( lord of kine.' 

h. When the short vowel ^T is followed by the sacred mono- 
syllable ^ft^ OM, or by the preposition ^rr compounded A\ith 
a verb, it is rejected : thus f$RTq + ^ffr^ becomes 
'Adoration (OM) to S'iva !' and f^T? + i*ff (from 
makes f$NO$ ' O S'iva, come !' 


i. Particles, when single vowels, are not changed before 
other vowels ; as, ^ ^^ "3" 3*^f ' O Indra ! O lord of Uma !' 
^rr is an exception, if it implies diminution : ^rr + TU!T makes 
^Huy oshnam, ' a little warm.' As an interjection it is un- 
changed : ^TT TJ^f ' Ah, indeed !' The final ^ft of a particle is 
unchanged : '^nft ^n: ' Ho, deities.' 

k. The final ^ft of a vocative case takes various forms before 
the particle ^fir ; as, fraift ^frT, f%W ?[fif, or fawfaflT. 

I. In a particular class of compound words the initial of 
the second word is preserved, and the last vowel of the pre- 
ceding word is rejected ; in one case, along with the consonant 
by which it is followed : thus 

= $fch4i sakandhu, ' a sort of potherb.' 
*J = ^Fli'W karkandhu, ' the jujube.' 
+ f^rr <A I s^cflsil laiigalis'a, ' the handle of a plough.' 
marttanda, ' the sun.' 
manisha, ' intellect.' 


Combination of consonants. 

We must now recollect the distinction which has been 
pointed out (p. 7) with regard to the two classes of consonants, 
as hard or surd, and soft or sonant ; as, in addition to such 
rules as affect peculiar letters, there are one or two general 
rules which it will be of great use to bear in mind. 

7. When two consonants come together, and are affected 
by no special rule, there will be no change, if they are both 
hard or both soft; but if they are of different enunciation, 
and one is hard, and the other is soft, then the first of the 
two must be changed to a letter of the same quality as the 
second, which will be the hard or soft letter of the class to 
which it belongs ; as, cfi to 3T, or Jj to efi ; ^ to f, or f to ^ ; 
t to ^ or ? to ^ ; w to ^ or ^ to K ; XT to "^ or ^r to tf. The 
further exemplification of this rule may thus be stated : 

a. If the consonants be both hard, there is no change : 


thus, before the termination *r, the nouns sarvasak, harit, ap, 
retain their finals, as ti|j$l<*U, ^fVrW, ^5. TT^fi before irflT is 
' lord of speech/ 

b. If both are soft, there is no change : ^ before ftr^ is 
adbhih, ' by waters/ 

c. A hard before a soft consonant must be changed to a 
soft consonant of its own class : thus *T*T=n^ *ftcTT ' the song of 
the lord/ becomes ^TRjftrfT bhagavad-gita, ' t' being changed to 
' d :' ^T^ before *T changes its final to "sr, and becomes ^psr, 
' water-born,' ' a lotus.' 

d. A soft consonant before a hard consonant must be 
changed to the hard consonant of its own class : fk^, ' to 
break,' before w^r changes ^ to w, >Np*I ' to be broken ;' so it 
does before *T, and iffafH^ becomes ift^-faf^ ( in the destroyers 
of races.' 

8. If the antecedent consonant be an aspirated letter, it is 
not only modified by the preceding rule, but whatever form it 
takes it is the unaspirated letter; an aspirate cannot precede 
an unaspirated letter, nor can two aspirated consonants come 
together. Thus in the combination ^fV+^T^dadhi-atra, where 
by rule 4. it makes ^XTS dadhyatra, and by the following 
remark a. the V dh may be doubled, the duplication requires 
that the first member shall be unaspirated, and the word 
must be written, not ^wq<^ dadhdhyatra, but ^Hc? daddhyatra : 
so Tftj and V become ipf; cW and v, t53T; ^T|W and fw, 
cfi-^fa*T; and f^fo5^ and TR X , r^afrt'^n^, the ^r, which is 
a hard letter, being first changed to the unaspirated OR, and cR 
being changed to t\ before the soft aspirate vr. 

9. A hard consonant, when final, is changed to a soft 
consonant ; and a final aspirated consonant, to an unaspi- 
rated : thus, ^Tofi becomes ^pj ; and ptftffaiW, "fef^fcT 1 !. 

When however it occurs before a pause, that is, when 
not followed immediately by any letter, the change to a soft 
consonant is optional : thus the nom. sing, of ^T^ is either 
or ^F ; of P^<^ff4, f^f?T3 or - 


10. Final hard consonants, followed by words beginning 
with vowels, are changed to soft (the vowels being soft or 
sonant letters) ; as, TT^ + f^T becomes Tnft^r Vagis'a, ' god of 
speech/ a name of Vrihaspati ; not ' the god of wine/ as Sir 
Wm. Jones conjectured, from the accidental resemblance of 
Vagis'a and Bacchus. 

When hard and aspirated consonants are followed by the 
terminations of the cases which open with vowels, they are no 
longer regarded as final, and are therefore not subject to 
change : ^"t^ makes 

11. A consonant of the dental class, if ^ ^ V T, preceding 
a consonant of the palatal class, ^ r VR. ^ 31, or of the cere- 
bral class, z 3 f 3" % but excepting the sibilant (^), is changed 
to the corresponding letter of tkat class; that is, ff ^T are 
changed to ^ or T; ^ v to r or T; and TT to ^r or njr. 

*fif + f^ = *rf%T^ ' pure reason.' 

Trsfar ' that Ufe. > 
+ TZjr^T = rfv|ril e having heard that.' 

+ -TnT = ^nfj^m a name of Vishnu. 
4- ^NiT = TrgtsfiT * a comment on that.' 

+ <fj<*^ = ! Mf-*<wi'* ' O discus-armed \ thou goest.' 


Before the cerebral sibilant, the dentals are unchanged, as 
TETrT TO * being the sixth.' 

12. Dentals are also changed to cerebrals, when following 
cerebrals ; as, the affix ^BT with the verb ftnf, ' to grind/ 
forms ire peshtri, ' a grinder.' They are not so changed 
when they are radical letters, as ^ ^ s they six.' 

13. Dental consonants before the letter o5 are changed to 
<9 ; as, ir^ + (Vjufrt = rif^O ' he writes that ;' >T^r^ + fci^Prt 
makes vr^rfV^rfrf ; as crvv and \eyca make avXXeya). A pecu- 
liar mark is sometimes inserted to denote the change of the 
nasal, as 

14. A nasal of the same class may be substituted for any 



final consonant, except ^ or ^, before a word beginning with a 
nasal ; as, 

^T^ 4- *f4jff1 = TH^ *nrfir van nayati, f speech guides/ 

m + Tf^fir = minCrf shaMavati, * ninety-six/ 

qr 4- JTTO = miHUt shanmasa, ' six months.' 

^n -l_ jmf^ = gri^ufX. Etan-Murari, ' that Vishnu/ 

. This rule does not preclude the operation of the general 
rule, by which concurrent consonants must be assimilated ; it 
only makes it optional : thus for TT^ H*lfif we may also write 
TT^ mfd ; and for ^?n^ *JTTfT, TTinrcrft; the nasals being 

b. The rule is absolute in one case, when the following 
word is a technical affix; such as *R, implying, when con- 
joined with nouns, ' consisting of; J and *nW, implying ' so 
much,' ' merely ;' as, TTfi M r ith WQ makes only <4 1 ^H M varimaya, 
( made of speech,' ' eloquent ;' and wff with Jrra 1 is ri-Mlfl tan- 
matra, ' merely that,' ' a primary element.' 

15. T is changed to w in the genitive case of ^z ' six ;' also 
in the words tHfH and ^TT^ after ^ ; as, ^^rf shannam, M^imfrf 
shannavati, msflO shannagari ; the of ^ being changed to 
US by rule 14. 

16. Before a sibilant, T and w may insert respectively the 
letters cR and t ; as, jrr^r before TO makes TTT^ R ? or HT^ ~^$ 
( sixth anterior,' and *pn^ 4- "TO = Jl'H'T ^ irj ' sixth numerator :' 
and T or ^ or TJ before the dental sibilant, may insert the 
dental ir ; as, *r*jf<5^ *n^ or JT^f^s^ w^rl ' the bee endures ;' 
and ^ ?r: or ^HT T^ W. ' he being.' 

17. The nasals T W T, terminating a word, when preceded 
by a short vowel, and followed by any vowel as the initial of 
a subsequent word, may be doubled ; as, 

+ ^TTCif = HttJJHW ' he sits facing the west/ 

+ f^T = WTOTiT ' the lord of an excellent class/ 
+ ^fif = UjffVfrf ' O king ! thus/ 

18. tf following ^ immediately, or TI or ^ either immedi- 


ately or separated by an intervening guttural or labial conso- 
nant, a vowel, ^, ^, ir, Visarga, or Anuswara deduced from T or 
H, is changed to W ; as, ^pr becomes ^pr ' debt ;' trft + f7T = 
Mfuilrt ' bowed.' If final it is unchanged, as y^'H. 

19. A final JT terminating an inflected word may be changed 
to Anuswara before a consonant ; as, for ^(X.^ read *rft ^^ ( I 
salute Hari ;' so for in^ read if ^rfir ' he laughs at him.' Be- 
fore Tn^ the final of ^ is unalterable ; as, *TOT3J ( a universal 
monarch.' It is unchanged before a vowel ; as, SH^Hl'lrK e 1 
(am) come.' 

20. *r is optionally changed to Anuswara before ^ in con- 
junction with ?r, as f^ or f^fi Hc5"*rPT ; but Anuswara derived 
from *r may become n, 75, or % before *r combined with these 
semivowels severally ; as, f^R or f^ ^r, ftfi or fsf^ ^T^rflf, f^R 
or fzi^ <^c4^fri. It may become T before ^ combined with rf, 
as f^fi or fsR?^ ^Tl 1 . 

21. Anuswara followed by any consonant, except the semi- 
vowels, sibilants, and ^, is changed, if in the middle of a word, 
to the nasal of that class to which the consonant following it 
belongs: ^ + fjfifif = ^f^tt ' marked ;' ^ + f%Tf=^rf%if ' wor- 

a. If it be the final of an inflected word, the change is 
optional; as, ^T^ + oRR= *^'<*K or M^K ' egoism;' f3( or 
H^ClfM ( thou doest ;' r^ or FT*^ ^rftr ' thou givest.' 

b. If the following consonant be a semivowel, the Anuswara 
may be optionally changed to the nasal form of the semivowel, 
which is denoted by a peculiar mark above it; as, *npr or 

' restraint ;' *h??tfi or ^VR ( to what world ;' tNrtUl or 
' a year.' 

22. Anuswara may be substituted for a medial tf or JT, 
when followed by a sibilant ; as, V*|f^ ' bows ;' 4431! OH ' reputa- 
tions ;' ejfrr a proper name. 

23. A final ^ or ^ preceded by ^r or ^rr may be dropped 
before any letter except a hard consonant or a sibilant, as 7^ 
becoming in^ by rule 5. before siWHi: makes w tHHIrii: ' they 


are come :' so ^ changed to WT^ before ^ffr becomes HT ^ 
' those two/ 

24. When ^r follows any consonant, except a semivowel, a 
nasal, or a sibilant, it is changed to "Sf ; as, in? + f^ Siva = 
rifWq tach-chhiva, < that, S'iva/ 

For by rule n. <* has been changed, before the palatal $, 
to the analogous palatal f; but the soft consonant T, again, 
has been changed to the hard consonant % before the hard 
consonant ^. 

25. When followed by ^TW, a final vf may interpose the 
letter TT, making ^t? j^ ^n^; but by the preceding rule 31 is 
changed to $; and by rule n. IT will then be changed to % 
and tT to *T, and the compound will be t^Tj. By a subse- 
quent rule, however, the terminating letter of the conjunct ^ 
may be rejected, and the word will finally be ^n^T. 

26. The augment TIT may be inserted after a word ending in 
a short vowel, before one beginning with $, as f$R T( "?rnn; 
but as IT must be changed to ^ in such a position, the form is 

' the shadow of 

a. The same augment ^ is optionally inserted after a long 
vowel, whether medial or final; as, c58*flt*mi or r?g$0dl4H 
( the shadow of Lakshmi f ^5 or J=33[ ( a barbarian/ 

b. It is also inserted optionally after the particles ^TTT and 
Jfl^? (leaving ^TT and m) prefixed to verbal inflexions or deriva- 
tives beginning with $ (TT is in like manner changed to ^) ; 
as, 'Hl^mjCrt or ^[edi^^frt e he covers ;' *nf?F^r or H I Pcd.^ i^ ( let 
him not divide/ 

27. T is changed to ofi before ^T, as ^ for ^31, ' see/ makes 
with ^trffT, vj'AMrH ' will see :' (for ?T after a guttural becomes 
and cfi and ^ form the compound ^.) 

28. Before a palatal consonant, including 31, the dental 

is changed to 31 ; and before a cerebral, including ij, it is 
changed to "^; as, TITO + f%fn%= UHO$Jflfil ' Rama gathers ;' 
UH*T -f- '5T1T = UH55j7i ' Rama sleeps ;' JJHM + 
' Rama goes ;' UH -|- "TO = riHU(v ' Rama, sixth/ 


29. *f> not being final, is changed to ^ after any vowel 
except 'ST or ^TT, a guttural consonant, a semivowel, and ^, 
though the augment w, Visarga, or a sibilant intervene ; thus 

becomes in the plural, injfn e bows ;' and fi^nr and TJ make 
in' or ' on Sivas/ 

30. When u in the verbs WT ' to stay/ and ^w ' to stop/ 
and their derivatives, is preceded by the preposition ~^, it is 
rejected; and as the final ^ becomes the hard consonant if 
before a hard consonant, then T^-f-^rTT = '^r^rnf ( uprising/ 
and ^ + ^cTWT = T^WR ' upholding/ 

31. When ^ follows any consonant, except a nasal, semi- 
vowel, or sibilant, the aspirate of the preceding letter may be 
substituted for it, that letter, if a hard consonant, being first 
changed to its corresponding soft letter ; as, ^T3< + *rrf?f becomes 
first ^PT + ^lj"rt, and then ^TrqrflT ' speech seizes. 5 

32. *r when final, or before any consonant except a nasal 
or a semivowel, is changed to ^, as Tjfc5|f, ' a bee/ becomes 
TufrSTf ; such a ^ is changed to 35 before *r, as ^^ for ^r, ' burn/ 
makes with wfir, ^rfrf ' will burn/ 

33. Any consonant may be optionally doubled after ^ or ^ 
preceded by a vowel ; as, ^Hfi or ^rig ' the sun / ^r or ^fg- 
' fire/ 

34. Any consonant, except ^, foUowed by a consonant, 
may be doubled ; as, ipr + T. may be "*%, ' a son / fir^ + ^ may 
be for? e a friend/ 

a. But when three or more consonants are joined together, 
by virtue of a grammatical rule, one or more of the interme- 
diate ones, if similar, may be rejected ; therefore i^gr and iw^i 
are more usually written ig5( and ftr9T. 

b. A semivowel following any consonant, except a semi- 
vowel, a sibilant, *T, or ^, may be doubled; as, ^rrf^TI or 
^Uf<*r!ZT ' the sun/ 

c. But when two semivowels are preceded by a different 
consonant, one of them may be rejected ; so wf^~rnr becomes 

, as before. 


35. When a conjunct consonant is final, whether terminat- 
ing a syllable or a word, the second member is rejected, as 

r, 'a lame man/ becomes ^j; and f^rs^, 'what injures/ 
: so after nouns ending in consonants, the sign of the 
nominative case *f is rejected, as tnr?(, ' going/ not W^ 

If the preceding letter be T: the final is retained, as T^ 
' strong / but not if the second member be a sibilant, as 
fxjefl^, * who wishes to do/ becomes ffcfi^. 

There are other rules affecting the mode of combining 
consonants, and the changes to which the combinations are 
subject ; but their validity is matter of dispute : accordingly, 
as different rules are followed, the derivatives of the compound 
of ^ ' cum/ and "* ' to make/ may be written in a variety of 
manners : M*4i^T, for instance, may be written in a hundred 

9 %t 

and eight ways. These are, however, matters merely of ortho- 
- epical conceit, and in practice the simplest spelling, consistent 
with the essential elements of a word, is to be preferred. 

36. When a word ending with ^ is followed by one begin- 
ning wuth ^, one is rejected, and the preceding vowel, if short, 
is made long ; as, TpR + T*T^" = ^HKHK ' he again sports ;' 

' unimpassioned.' 


Changes of Visarga. 

As preliminary to the rules for those changes to which the 
soft aspirate termed Visarga is subject, it may be useful to 
premise, that they contemplate the reciprocal equivalency of 
(:) Visarga, *r, and ^; these signs being, according to circum- 
stances, mutually interchangeable. There are, as is well 
known, indications of similar reciprocity in the classical lan- 
guages. The Greek e, CTTTO, aAp, become in Latin, sex, 
septem, sal. In the older Latin writers a final ' s' was com- 
monly elided, at least for prosodial purposes ; and Pott sug- 
gests that its place may have been supplied by something like 


Visarga. Lucilius, according to Quintilian, wrote " Serenu' 
fuit et dignu' loco ;" and Cicero observes, " Plures antiquo- 
rum sic locutos." The substitution of ' i* 5 for ' s' was also com- 
mon in Latin, and arbor, labor, clamor, were originally written 
arbos, labos, clamos. The ' s' was also sometimes preserved in 
the nominative, but changed in other inflexions, as flos, floris, 
and the like. 

The meaning of Visarga foffft is literally ' abandoning,' 
' ejecting ;' and that of its synonyme fcjT^Hli| Visarjjaniya is 
' that which may* or e is to be ejected, or abandoned.' It has 
been a question, therefore, whether the symbol to which it is 
applied ( : ) be a simple mark of elision, a kind of apostrophe, 
or whether it designates a sound. It would be out of place to 
discuss the question at present. It is usually considered to 
denote a very soft and almost imperceptible breathing, and it 
is sufficient for our purpose so to regard it. 

37- A final *r is changed to Visarga : ijH* Ramas becomes 
UT: Ramah ; and ijtju Ramais, TT*h Ramaih. 

38. Before a hard consonant Visarga again becomes *r: 
fVojJ + <^TiTT = f<4 tJ.M4d I ri I ' Vishnu the preserver/ 

a. It is not so changed before a hard letter followed by a 
sibilant, as w. w^, ' Which (is) the sword-hilt ?' 

b. Before a sibilant the change is optional, as TJR: fffi or 
<JH$!^ri. (The dental sibilant is changed to the sibilant of the 
class of the consonant by which it is followed : see rule 28.) 

c. Before the hard consonants of the guttural and labial 
classes, Visarga may be unchanged : OR: cRrrfir * who does ;' w, 
mfrf ( he cooks.' 

d. Before these letters a different sign X called Arddha- 
visarga, 'a half Visarga,' is sometimes used, as cfiX <*Clfri, "SfiX ^Prf. 
The sign before a guttural is described as aft^rnjcfrcr ' proceed- 
ing from the root of the tongue ;' and before a labial, 

( to be gently blown or aspirated.' Modifications of aspiration 
are no doubt intended, which might have been of consequence 
when the language was spoken, but are now of no importance. 


e. The permanence of Visarga before fi is liable to excep- 
tion, and it is changed to *r before, i . the pronoun OR, as ^R^r. 

* quisquis ;' 2. the affix cR, as *4$IH ' famous ;' and the parti- 
cles ^T and <*i|, as *l$|*<fi<4j ' of little fame ;' 4|$|4<MMf ' desir- 
ous of fame/ It is also changed before TTT$T, as M$|fMi!j| ' of 
slight renown. 5 

f. But it is not changed before ^r, if that follows an 
indeclinable word ; as, Tmn ofi^r ' nigh to morning -' nor 
before 41 nj, if it be derived from a radical final; thus fiR 
makes *ft: ( speech/ whence ift: ^RTRT ' desirous of speech/ 

g. It is changed before verbs and verbal derivatives com- 
mencing with ofi when compounded with rfTI, ^t, ^TT^fh, and 
<Jt; as, *1Ht<hK ( salutation ;' '(|l.4!hCl Pri' ' he places before;' 
^rrf^^r ' manifested ;' ^tcfcfff * e\il-doing/ 

h. The numerals %: f&: and ^: change Visarga to ^j before 
cR, as f^bshClPrT, f^MiClPri, ^rJMiClPrf, ' he makes two, three, four/ 
But if repetition is implied, the change is optional, as 
or fl^K^tftr ' he does (any thing) twice/ 

i. frrt.: optionally changes its final, as f?rc RR or 
' abuse/ 

j. fff^. becoming ftr: also optionally changes Visarga to *r 
before B, as fH: <+lPwrf or frTKRTftnr * expelled/ 

k. Visarga is changed to *T after ^rf^: compounded with 
the particles sfi^T and TTT^T, as 44P^Mi^, ^PiAu^I^r, ' a little 

/. It is changed after ^iv: and f^Rt compounded with TT^, 
as ^nrcq 1 ^ ' foot below ;' P^|(>M^ ' foot on the top/ If the words 
are uncompounded, the change does not take place, as ^rv: 

TT^, f^rr. ^. 

39. The letter ^ (in technical grammar called ^ ru, to 
distinguish it from the mere alphabetical sign) is substituted 
for Visarga after any vowel except ^r or ^n, and before a vowel 
or a soft consonant ; as, TO!: Trbr becomes JM^^Mri ' endowed 
with qualities ;' ^rfJTf: ^ffir = 41 PH t?^ * ^ re burns ;' flljlPrf 

* the boat goes ;' 5C**J^Prt ( S'ambhu takes/ 


40. If the Visarga be preceded by ^r, and the initial of the 
word following be ^T, or a soft consonant, ^ is substituted 
in place of t, and ^ with the penultimate ^r forms the final 
diphthong ^sft; as, ^i: ^(^f makes cfts^ e Who here?' K TTW: 
makes cjft TIT: ( Who (is) gone ?' 

a. An initial ^r following ^ft so formed is rejected, but its 
place is marked by the sign s. See rule 6.f. 

b. *nrer changed by rule 37. to JR: becomes by this rule 
nft in such compounds as JH rfl'if, JTtfta^, ' mind-born / HillJH 
( mind-delighting.' 

41. After the short vowel % and before any vowel except 
^r, Visarga may be changed to *T, which by rule 23. may be 
rejected ; as, ^: and ^micf become ?^TJT^ or ^ *yiw ' a god 
sits / ^: and ^n* become ^fqvt*: or ^ ^5: ( the god Indra / 

* Nalah spoke/ makes H<4*HM or more commonly 

42. After the long vowel ^rr, and before any vowel or soft 
consonant, TT is substituted for Visarga ; it is optionally rejected 
before the vowels, absolutely before the consonants ; as, %TT: 

make ^WTUcT or ^T ^X& ' the gods (are) here ;' ^^r: and 
t make ^TT HWJU ' the gods are to be reverenced ;' 
f, said of Devi, makes ^mfaiinf or ^ifT w5rf^?f ; 
*{\<A\, ' the garland of Sri/ makes f^RT f Tc5T. 

a. After the interjections Hfar, H^fhr, ^nfrtr, the Visarga, to 
which the final is changed, is said to be again changed to ^, 
which is ejected before a vowel or soft consonant j as, >rt 3^3" 
* O Indra P vnft ^ ' O god P 

43. Visarga substituted for a radical final *: may become t 
again before a vowel or a soft consonant; as, UTfT. for unTTl 

+ ^fif becomes UT7rc3 ' the dawn (is) here/ 

a. Such a Visarga may also optionally become T: again 
before a hard consonant ; as, 7ft: for fh^ before Trfir may make 
TffazjflT ' lord of speech/ or, by rule 38, Tftcqflf, Visarga being 
changed to *r. 

b. Visarga substituted for the final of ^^ for ^i| l a day/ 


becomes T. again before any consonant except t and *; as, 
^lAPd ' lord of day / ^J/tiy ' a number of days. 5 Before ^ 
and vi, 7 is substituted for it ; as, ^\Ud ( day and night ;' 

j ' by days.' 

44. Visarga is substituted for a final T, except in the word 
, before a hard consonant of the palatal, cerebral, and 
dental classes, if followed by a vowel, a semivowel, or a nasal. 
Anuswara is prefixed to the sibilant to which by rule 38. 
Visarga is changed ; as, ^nfj^T 4- (VP*I becomes 

' O bow-armed, cut !' tnr^ + lTT=i.N<sK * O king, cross !' but 
JnjTT^ r^rjlij ' let the quiet man collect.' 

a. Before TI the substitution is optional, and the Visarga 
does not become a sibilant, as by rule 38. c, but may or may 
not substitute the Arddha-visarga : tpj tuff ' cherish men/ is 
therefore written, umf^ ^?: tnf%, or ^f X Trf*[, also with a mark 
denoting the Visarga to be nasal, as ^: Tlf^, or ^ X Tiff. 

b. WRr in combination with ^ and its derivatives, the word 
ejrr*^ repeated, and ^ derived from "^ prefixed to a word 
beginning with a hard consonant, insert the augment ^, in 
which case Visarga is said to be substituted for their proper 
finals, preceded by Anuswara, and changed before *T to ?T : 
^ before CJTR therefore becomes ^nr ^TR; RT?T before BT^, 
"eFm x ^rr^ ; and ^ before <*ir<*c5, 1|pr ^lf<*rt. By clause a. of 
rule 34, however, one of the sibilants is rejected, leaving 4<{iK 
' initiation ; J sfiTW^ ' whom ! whom !' and ^^fohri ( a male 
koil (Indian cuckoo)'. 

45. The Visarga which is the sign of the masculine nomi- 
native of the pronouns 1TT* and TTfTj, or W. * he/ izm ' that per- 
son/ is commonly dropped before a consonant; as, TT *4*Sd 
' he goes / ^r '^ifff, ' he gives / ^^ fVwp ' that Vishnu / but 
not if the negative ^sr is prefixed, as ^re: f^fm ' not that Siva/ 

a. In verse, for the convenience of the metre, *r not only 
rejects the Visarga, but allows the final *sr to be conjoined 
with a following vowel, by the rules of vowel-Sandhi ; as, 
TT5TT wnfit, ' that Indra the king conquers/ for TH ^5: ; so 


T:, ' that very Rama, the son of Das'aratha/ for 




General rules. 

46. MOST nouns in the Sanskrit language are declinable in 
one or more of three genders. They admit, with very few 
exceptions, of three numbers, singular, dual, and plural ; and 

of seven cases in each number; i. the nominative, 2. accusa- 


tive, 3. instrumental, 4. dative, 5. ablative, 6. genitive, 7. loca- 
tive : of these it may be remarked, that the third or instrumental 
has the sense of ' by* or ' with ;' the ablative, ' from / and the 
locative, ' in' or ' on :' the rest have the usual powers. 

47- Inflexion, whether of declension or conjugation, is 
contrived by the Sanskrit grammarians on the same principle. 
It consists of two parts; i. the Anga, 'body/ or inflective 
base, that is, the word itself; and, 2. of certain particles, 
which, being attached to the base, complete the inflected 
word. The inflectional terminations of conjugation will be 
hereafter specified. We are concerned at present with those 
of declension only. 

48. The inflectional terminations of nouns are twenty-one ; 
some of them are repetitions : they are attached to the inflec- 
tive base in each of the seven cases of the three numbers, and 
are as follows : 

nom. ftr ^t T*r \^ 





gen. ?* 
loc. fr 


The vocative has no separate termination, being considered as 
a modification only of the nominative. 

49. Now of these inflectional terminations it is to be re- 
marked, that some of the letters serve only to form syllables, 
and facilitate enunciation : they are rejected, therefore, when 
those letters which are essential are applied to the base. These 
auxiliary letters are the ^ of ftr ; the f of nr ; the ^f of "sn* ; 
the i of 7T; the T of the terminations T, Tftc (in which also ^ 
is subordinate), T*T, and fr : and the TJ of iji|. It is also to 
be recollected, that by rule 37. a final *T is changed to Visarga. 
The actual terminations therefore will be, 

nom. \ ^u ^n 

aCC. xf xTT xii 

instr. ^rr lf f*r. 

dat. * wjf K 

abl. ^sn WIT WK 

gen. ^3r: ^ffc ^T^ 

loc. ^ ^ftl ^ 

50. In applying these terminations to the final letter of the 
inflective base, a recollection must be preserved of the modifi- 
cations which that final letter must undergo, whether it be a 
vowel or a consonant, before the initial letters of the termina- 
tions ; as in the following example : 

^ * navis/ ' a ship.' 
nom. ^: 
ace. tTT^ 
instr. TRT 

It will be observed, that before the consonants, the word ^ is 
unchanged; before the vowels, ^ becomes ^TT^ by rule 5. 
The ^r of TT is changed after ^ to ^ by rule 29. 


It is worth while to pause for a moment upon this scheme of 
inflectional terminations, and to understand it fully, as it fur- 
nishes a useful clue to all the varieties of nominal inflexion which 
follow. If it were rigidly applied, nothing would be so simple 
as Sanskrit declension; and even as it is, we are authorized 
to affirm that there is but one general declension in Sanskrit 
grammar. There are however various modifications, both of 
the bases and of the terminations, in the individual nouns, 
which render it convenient to divide them into classes; and 
no arrangement admits of more ready reference than that 
which classes them according to their final letters; first, as 
they are vowels or consonants ; and secondly, according to the 
letter or class of letters in each of those two divisions. 


Nouns ending in vowels. 

CLASS I. Nouns ending in ^ and 'srr. 

51. Nouns ending in ^r form by far the most numerous class 
of nouns, and commonly admit of three genders, forming the 
feminine by adding ^TT; as, masc. fi^ Siva, the god; fern. 
f$RT the goddess Siva. 

52. In forming the inflexions of all nouns, such changes as 
may occur are of two descriptions; I. those affecting the base, 
2. those affecting the termination. 

53. Nouns ending in ^r substitute 'STT for the final before ^ 
substituted for u in the dat. sing. ; before the dual termination 
wit ; and before the augment tj, in the genitive case plural, and 
in the nominative and accusative plural neuter. They substi- 
tute ^ for their final 'sr before ^fte^ in the dual, and WRT and 
ig in the plural. They insert rf before the signs of the genitive 
case plural, and the nominative and accusative plural neuter. 
The feminine noun changes 'srr to ^ before the ^n of the 
instrumental case singular, the ^te of the dual, and in the 



vocative case ; and inserts TDTT before the four last cases of the 
singular, and ^r before 'STT*^ in the gen. plural. 

54. Nouns in ^r substitute other terminations for those of 
the scheme, in some of the cases : thus, 

Singular. Plural. 

acc. *^ for ^ ace. ^r for *r 
instr. ^T 7T instr. ^ fT*T 

dat. TT T 

abl. ^m^ Tftr 

gen. ^ TH 

a. The feminine noun substitutes ^ for ^ff in the nom. and 
acc. dual, and ^n*^ for fr in the locative case sing. 

b. The neuter substitutes in the three numbers of the nom. 
and accus. severally ^ ^ ^, the latter with *T prefixed, as fa, 
in place of the terminations of the masculine : in all the other 
cases it adopts the terminations of the masculine. 

55. We are now prepared to understand the construction 
of the following forms of f^, bearing in mind the alterations 
dependent upon the laws of combination, in joining the in- 
flectional terminations to the inflective base. 










Siva the deity. 

Siva, &c. 
Siva, &c. 

By or with S'iva, &c. 
To S'iva, &c. 
From S'iva, &c. 
f^NHI* Of S'iva, &c. 

In or on S'iva, &c. 
O S'iva ! &c. 


the goddess S'iva. 





gen. f^RTKK 



Neuter f^TW ' auspicious/ 
Nom. and accus. f^r^ f^n 1 

The rest as the masculine. 

a. Other nouns declinable on the above models are, 
Feminine. Neuter. 

: a horse 

the sky 
: a camel 
a crow 
I a quality 
: the moon 
: fever 
: reasoning 
: a god 
: virtue 
t a nail 
: a mountain 
: a fish 
: sacrifice 
: flavour 
a crane 
: a jackall 
the ocean 
the hand 

a woman 
*ij I $| I hope 


a girl 
the neck 

a star 

a swng 
an edge 
'H r^ | the nose 

a wife 

a garland 


a lute 
3Tl>TT beauty 

an assembly 



an egg 

a seat 

an organ of sense 
a family 
a house 
an umbrella 
a shore 
a leaf 
a root 


a wood 

a scripture 
a rule 

b. Many adjectives and participles declinable in the three 
genders belong to this class. 

c. The feminine nouns ^T*fT, ^TWT, ^T, signifying chiefly 


in poetic language ' mother/ make their vocatives 
^^. If the penultimate be not a conjunct consonant, other 
synonymes follow the usual form, as ^ H f*f h, iiyici, -^y Id, 
( O mother !' 

56. Besides those nouns which are formed from masculine 
nouns in ^, by adding, as it is said, the feminine ending TT^, 
that is, ^T, there are nouns derived immediately from verbs 
ending in W, as TIT, TT, "8TT, and the like, in which the final ^TT 
is an essential, not an accidental letter. Such nouns admit of a 
variety of gender. The declension of the masculine and femi- 
nine noun is the same. In the neuter the final is made short, 
and the word is declined like f^T^. 

57. Nouns in ^rr, then, in which the final is a radical letter, 
combine with the terminations of the nominative case, and 
with those of the singular and dual accusative, agreeably to 
the laws of Sandhi. In the accusative plural and the follow- 
ing cases the final 'STT is cut off before the vowel terminations, 
and they are affixed at once to the word, as if it ended in a 
consonant : before the consonantal terminations there is no 
change ; as, 

Masc. and fern, ft Him * all-preserving/ 
nom. ftsgtul ft ly ift ft^m: 

ace. ftm'm* ft sm: 

instr. "ft HI n | ft*a*n*m* fTH-RTfa: 

dat. fTHTT ft Him*!: 

abl. ft HIM: 

gen. ft vjql: ft vy 14 f 

loc. ft HI fa ftnimtj 

voc. ft Him &c. 
So TtfhTm * who drinks the soma juice ;' $|^u{| ' a shell-blower.' 

58. The word ^T^T, the name of an inferior divinity, a 
Gandharba, is considered as a primitive, and is inflected there- 
fore throughout without any elision of the final, which com- 
bines with the vowel terminations agreeably to the rules of 
Sandhi, and is consequently in every way regularly declined. 



ace. ^I'^i ^T^TI or 






voc. Fnrr &c. 

CLASS II. Nouns ending in ^ and T. 

59. Nouns ending in these two vowels may be conveni- 
ently classed together, as they are analogously inflected ; recol- 
lecting only that the semivowels to which they are changeable 
before other vowels are respectively n and ^. 

60. In the masculine gender the changes of the base are, 
the substitution of the long vowel for the final in the dual nom. 
and accus., and in the accus. and gen. plural ; the Guna letter 
U or wt is substituted for the final before UTT, "i?, Tftr, and T*f, 
and in the vocative ; and the final is dropped before the termi- 
nation of the locative case : r is inserted before the termina- 
tions of the instrumental case singular and the gen. plural, 

61. In the same gender the dual termination ^t is rejected; 
^ is substituted for ^i^, and ^ for the ^T*T of ^T^; the vowel 
of 'srer in the ablative and genitive is dropped ; and ^t is sub- 
stituted for fr as follows : 

fire/ trrq ' wind. 5 




VOC. ^7 &C. 


62. There are some anomalies in nouns in ^. Thus 

' a friend/ substitutes ^rr for the final in the first five inflexions, 
and inserts n before their vowel terminations. In the other 
cases of the singular, and in the gen. and loc. dual, it is more 
regular than ^PM, the final ^ becoming n before a vowel. In 
the abl. and gen. singular Ttf is substituted for Tftt and T*T. 

*rfa ' a friend/ 

gen. tuaft: 4(1 HI* 

loc. *rwr "fajj 

voc. TJ^ &c. 

a. In composition this word may be inflected regularly in 
all the cases, or in all except the two first ; fltiftf: or HK^i ' a 
good friend ;' 4UUc*r or ^il^ e to a good friend/ &c. 

b. irfTr, ' a master,' is declined like *riif in the five last cases 
singular ; as, tCttn, "*&, "TT^J, 1 Ti^. In the rest like vsfivi. 

qfff in composition is declined h'ke wf^T ; as, *JJTfw * a king/ 
(lord of the earth,) ^Ttrfir: *J5rft >Jtnnn >JMH^, &c. 

63. Feminine nouns in ^ and T differ from the masculine 
in the accus. plural, and in the third and following cases sin- 
gular. They do not substitute ^ for the Visarga of ^f, nor 
insert TT before T. In the dative and following cases they 
have two forms, one like the masculine : in the other they 
insert 'SIT before the affixes of the dative, ablative, and genitive 
cases; and, like feminine nouns in ^n, substitute ^TTH for the 
sign of the locative fr ; as, 

Fern, irfir ' Mind.' ifr ' a milch cow.' 




64. Neuter nouns in ^ and T reject the terminations of the 
nom. and accus. singular, substitute ^ and ^ for the dual and 
plural terminations, and insert vr before them and all other 
terminations beginning with a vowel. They lengthen the final 
before "* in the plural. 

' water.' TV * honey.' 

nom. I 

ace. j oo 

instr. 3 1 fUll I ^lfit*lf l I ftS*l TY*^ TWTT 



voc. ^rfr: or TT^: &c, rv &c. 

65. There are a few neuter nouns in ^ which before the 
vowel terminations of all the cases except the two first, and 
optionally before fr, drop the final vowel ; as, 

l Pw ' a bone/ 

nom. ) 


ace. ) 





loc. iH^fH or 

voc. ^Pt*4 &c, 

a. ^rf^ * an eye/ ^fv f ghee/ and ^f*fv| ' a thigh/ are simi- 
larly declined : the fact being, in all probability, that as nouns 

F 2 



in ^ they are defective, and their deficiencies are supplied 
before the vowel terminations by analogous but obsolete nouns 
ending in ^r, as ^W^, ->HHf^ ^V^, ^r^*^. 

b. Other nouns in ^ and T, declinable on the above 
models, are, 

Masc. in ^. 

r. a sword 

: a sage 

: a poet 
frrfc a mountain 
rf%: a jewel 

: the sun 

r. a heap 

t an ordinance 
j: a charioteer 
a name of Vishnu 

Fern, in ^. 
: patience 

caste, sort 




Masc. in 7. 

j: h'fe 

sugar cane 
?j: a season 
: a teacher 
: a relation 
>rrj: the sun 
*pw: death 
r: Vishnu 
: a bambu 
r: an enemy 

c. There are not many feminine substantive nouns in T, and 
but few neuter either in ^ or 7. Adjectives of course, or 
substantives used attributively, may, with few exceptions, be 
declined in three genders. 

d. When a noun in ^ or "3", whether substantive or attri- 
butive, is used in the neuter gender in the same sense in 
which it is employed in the masculine, it is optionally declin- 
able in all cases of which the terminations begin with vowels, 
except the two first, either after the masculine or neuter form ; 
as iSMlf^ ' eternal:' neuter nom. and ace. ^Hif<{, ^Hltyff), 

instr. ^HltyHT ; dat. ^SHI^M or *JHlf<^ ; abl. and gen. 
or ^HlHjH:; loc. ^Hl<{l or ^rHlf^ff ; gen. and loc. dual, 
or 'UHlf^Hh . If the sense differs, the neuter form only 
is admissible : ifh^ masc. ' a kind of tree ; J neut. * the fruit of 
the Pilu tree :' dat. tfcg), abl. and gen. i/lc^H:, loc. 'iflt^ftH, &c. 

e. Other neuter nouns in ^ and 7 are derived from nouns 
terminating in the long vowels ^ and ^r. 


CLASS III. Nouns ending in ^ and "35. 

66. The chief peculiarity affecting the inflective base, or 
the word itself, in nouns terminating in ^ and ~&, regards the 
substitution in some cases of the syllables ^ and T^ for the 
finals f and "3! before those inflective terminations which begin 
with vowels. When these syllables are substituted, the nouns 
are inflected before the vowel terminations as if they ended 
with the semivowels ^ and ^. When those syllables are not 
substituted, the final vowels combine with the vowels of the 
terminations, agreeably to the laws of Sandhi, with very few 

67. After the syllables ^ and T^ 1 the inflective termina- 
tions undergo no changes; after the finals ^ and "3! they 
undergo a few, chiefly after feminine nouns, analogous to those 
already observable in feminine nouns of the preceding classes, 
and depending on the same conditions. 

68. ^T and ^^ are severally substituted for the final ^ and 
gj of masculine nouns, when they are monosyllabic verbal 
derivatives, or when the finals are preceded by a conjunct con- 
sonant ; as, >ft (for "ufr) ' to think/ < ' to cut/ ^ft ' to serve.' 

Masc. \ft ( who understands.' 

nom. Vt: 

ace. f>nf 




gen. ftnfh ftnif 

loc. "ftrfti V^B 

voc. vh &c. 


. Nouns of this description are not considered as ceasing 
to be monosyllabic by having particles prefixed to them, which 
merely qualify their application ; therefore *pft: * a man of good 
understanding/ tjr?T*ft: ' a man of excellent understanding/ and 
the like, substitute ^ for the final ; *nfh, *rftn?t, wftni:. So 

Masc. eg? ( who cuts.' 


: ' self-existent/ from w* ' self/ and ^ e being,' a name of 
Brahma, makes yijwr:, yqwj^, yijuT^:. 

b. They are considered as polysyllabic if derived from a com- 
pound verb, as inft ' a man of superior understanding/ which 
is a derivative, not from the simple verb vft, but the compound 
verb inft, and therefore is declined Hvh, ir^, Tn*K, &c., the final 
becoming ^ before a vowel, by rule 4 : and they are also con- 
sidered as polysyllabic if the first member of the compound is 
a subordinate term, or one not in opposition, as ^T*|t 'born 
in the rains/ ' a frog.' There are also certain compounds of 
^ which are by special rule excepted from substituting T^[ ; 
as, ipT^ ' born again/ j^ ( a snake/ BTtT>^ ' born in a prison/ 
^5^ ' produced from the hand :' these are all declined, as TTr:, 
Ttrrr, w*h^:, ^f re, &c. 

69. Masculine nouns ending in ^ or ^ when consisting of 
more than one syllable in consequence of being compounded 
with another noun as a subordinate term, or being derived 
from a modification of the verb, merely follow the rules of 
combination ; that is, f becomes T^, and "31, ^, before a vowel 

' a general' (from ^?n * an J<M^ ' a sweeper* (^75 ' a 
army/ and ft ' who leads.' place/ &^' who cleans'). 








voc. ^{ifl: &c, Hc^Mt &c. 

a. ?ft, ' to lead,' and its compounds substitute w^ for fr in 
the locative. 

b. xnft ' who drinks (moisture)/ i. e. the sun, derived from 
iTT ' to drink / TfPtft ( a road/ from in ' to go / <<MUHl ' an ante- 


lope/ from WTif ' the wind* and inft ( who outstrips / and |r^ a 
demigod so named ; differ from tH!*ft in three cases : 
ace. sing. TnfK ace. plur. qifl^ loc. sing, 

They may, however, be also regularly declined in these cases, 
as tfor, xrnn, tjftj, &c. 

c. < in composition, as *ra<j f who cuts barley/ makes 
either ^T5TT or H<rcli in the gen. plur., and iNrl( in the loc. 

70. Feminine nouns in ^ and "3!, like masculine nouns, are 
declined in two ways : if they are monosyllables, or contain a 
conjunct consonant, they substitute ^ and "3^ for their finals ; 
if polysyllabic, they change the fiaals, agreeably to the laws 
of Sandhi, to ^ and ^ before the affixes commencing with 

71. Feminine nouns of the first description optionally prefix 
^TT to the affixes marked by a mute T, like feminine nouns in 
the short ^ and T. 

72. They optionally prefix ^ to W^ in the gen. plural, and 
substitute WT for fr in the loc. singular ; as, ^ ' prosperity/ 
and >T f the earth/ 




abl. f^snit or 


loc. f^rftr 

voc. ^ft: &c. 

r: &c. 

73. Feminine nouns of the second description, having more 
than one syllable, and being derivative nouns from masculine 
nouns by the substitution of the terminations ^ and "5R for the 
masculine final, insert ^rr before the terminations having a 



mute T, make the vowel short in the voc. singular, and prefix 
f to the termination of the gen. plural. 

The TT of the nominative is rejected after such nouns in ^, 
but not after "35. After both, ^ is substituted for ^r^, *T for 

the ^l 









, and w for fr ; as, 

a rver 

a wife/ 




a. The rejection of ^ after a feminine noun ending in ^ 
depends upon that ^ being the feminine termination, or sign 
of the feminine gender. If it is part of the word itself, the 
sibilant becomes Visarga, as usual ; as, 753*(h ' the goddess 
Lakshmi/ THsfh * a lute,' irfr: ' a boat/ 

b. mft, ' a woman/ is inflected in the nom. and voc. like ff$, 
and optionally so in the accus. singular and plural : in the 
other cases like ^ft. But the insertion of T before the gen. 
plural, and of ^TT before the terminations with a mute T, and 
the substitution of WF{ for fr are absolute, not optional as 











* Wilkins has t" or 
ft from the alternative. 

. or^fh 


but the Kaumudi expressly excepts 


c. Feminine nouns in ^ and ^ when compounded so as to 
form attributes, are to be declined like nouns masculine, when 
used in the sense of a masculine noun, as ^rsft, f a prosperous 
man,' takes, in the dative, ablative, genitive, and locative cases, 
only one form, viz. 0$|i|, JjOim:, and vOsffa. If the compound 
is only a qualification of the substantive, the feminine form 
may be followed, as wsft, ( good fortune,' makes II Oil ^ or tjOiitj, 
&c. If the noun is a word invariably feminine, it retains its 
feminine terminations, although used as an attribute of a male, 
as q^SiMtfl, 'a man of many good qualities/ makes 


d. Feminine nouns formed from verbal roots, and com- 
pounded with subordinate terms, however, when used in a 
sense analogous to that of the masculine, take exactly the 
same form, as iimnO ' a female head of a village,' 
female sweeper,' make, accus. sin. and plur. ?fT*nni, 

4?(f*i4, <sr>K>i; ; dat. illHlW, JslojN ; abl. and gen. yi*UW:, 
gen. plur. i|lH4wf, 4lc4Mi; loc. i|WH*U (see rule 69. .), 

voc. yrnrott, ^w^t. 

e. So TpP>| ' twice-being,' if it be applied to man or woman 
indifferently, is declined in the same manner; mf. TpT*f, "JpTvt:, 
iprfwt ; but if it mean ' a woman twice married,' it is declined 
like ^v; iprlt, ^tr:, &c. 

f. The object of these rules, and of others affecting nouns 
ending in ^ and "35, is to intimate that a word which may be 
applied to an object either male or female is declined in a 
form common to both; that is, with the masculine termina- 
tions : when it is limited to a distinct female object, it is 
declinable only with the feminine terminations, as in the in- 
stance of *pp|; So also ^rtr>J^ for instance, being ' a male' or 
' female frog,' is declined alike, TT>%, -v^:, -fr, -Ht ; but the 
same word being the name of a plant, in which sense there 
is no male, is declined only, ^qr% ^^rwrn, ^tn^i, TRT>J. 

74. Nouns in ^ and "3! which are susceptible of the neuter 
gender, substitute the short vowels ^ and T for their finals. 


If the word is an attributive, and the sense of the neuter is 
analogous to that of the other genders, the word is declined in 
all the cases of which the affixes begin with vowels, except the 
two first, optionally, as if it were a noun ending in ^ long ; 
that is, the final becomes ^ or ^ before the vowel : otherwise 
tT is inserted, as after ^rfc. Thus i/imif) c who leads or is 
chief over a village;' JjlH4!/h dIAUU: ' a head man, Brahman;' 
( a Brahman woman head of a village ;' ifinfin ^ir5 

' a family, chief over a village.' The inflexion of the latter is, 



instr. illHJUJI or 44 m (Vim tn*i(Vj**ii' 

dat. 2JIHIW or i|l*lfilln 

abl. JJIH4UI! or ilinftiHI 

gen. ' iJIHJfl: or 


a. Nouns ending in ^ and ^i as derived from simple verbal 
roots are not numerous, the roots not being in any number ; 
but they admit of being multiplied as compounded with other 
words. Feminine nouns formed by the affixes ^ and '3J, and 
especially the former, are more frequent. 

h m. a leader, a guide. J^^*?* m - a surety, 

f. a damsel. ^n|: f. an army, 

f. the earth. >j: f. the eyebrow, 

f. a sister. Tsn|t f. a mother-in-law, 

f. a shop. *nj: f. a woman with good eyebrows. 

CLASS IV. Nouns in ^ and ^, oj and ?. 

75. Mascuh'ne nouns in ^j substitute ^r^ for the final, and, 
according to the analogy of nouns in ^(^, form the nominative 
in ^n ; as, "ftr^ ' a father/ nom. frnTT. 

76. In one class of nouns in ^, ^;, in another ^TR, is 
substituted for the final before the vowel terminations of the 
nominative dual and plural, and of the accusative sing, and 
dual. Before the accus. and gen. plur. the vowel is made 


long. j is inserted before 'WT*^. Before the vowel termina- 
tions of the instr. and dat. singular, and gen. and loc. dual, 
^ is changed to the semivowel ^: it is changed to wr. hi the 
locative and vocative cases. 

77- The only changes hi the affixes are, the rejection of ?^ 
in the nominative ; the substitution of ^ for ^T^ in the accus. 
plural, and of 7^ for ^sn^ in the abl. and gen. singular ; ^ is 
rejected; and the 7 of ^ is prefixed to the semivowel ^, 
which as a final is changed to Visarga. 

ftr$ ' a father/ ^ l a doer, 

nom. fwr fadd 
ace. fMrti. 

instr. fn^l ftrrprf 
voc. fTTjr: &c. 

a. Most masculine nouns implying affinity are declined like 
fTfij ; as, >nw ' a brother,' ^IHITJ ' a son-in-law,' ^ e a husband's 
brother :' but ;TJ|, ' a grandson/ makes ffffT, HHlO, 

HHlCt, in the first five inflexions. 

b. Feminine nouns of affinity are declined also like 
except in the accus. plural; as *TTi|, 'a mother/ makes mrr, 
MIrtO, HltU,t, HT?TT, *rnr6]j TTrJt ; so jfViJ ' a daughter :' but ^^, 
( a sister/ is declined like *fW( ; 4| til, y^ltt, &c. ; ace. plural, 

c. j, 'a man/ is declined like ftnj, except in the gen. 
plural, where the vowel is optionally short, as ^rwf or ^njrf. 

d. Nouns formed from roots by the addition of the particles 
"^ or TJ^ (in which the finals are used merely to distinguish 
them from each other) are nouns of agency, and are declined 
like c$rs|. They are also declinable in three genders. 

e. The feminine is formed with the affix ^, before which 

G 2 



the semivowel 1C is substituted for ^ : thus efi^ becomes 
in the feminine, and cfi^f is declined like tf^t. 

/. The neuter is formed analogously to neuter nouns in ^ 
and "3; and as there are no substantive neuter nouns in ^, 
the neuter of attributives being mostly usable in the same 
sense as the masculine, then by a similar analogy the neuter 
nouns in ^f admit also of two forms before the vowel termina- 
tions of all the cases except the two first ; either inserting TT 
before them, or taking the same form as the masculine : 
thus, nom. and accus. eR=K <+a{ifl, efc^fiti ; sing, instr. *-5ii|| or 

v C C 

chcjT ; dat. <*-*u or ^ipf ; abl. and gen. efiw^JTt or "3RW; ; loc. co5r*!.r 
or ^Mtfr; gen. and loc. dual, <*^i{fl: or "oRlft:. Before the other 
terminations the forms are the same as in the masculine. 

g. ^Rt|, l a jackal/ has lost some of its cases, and they are 
in part supplied by the inflexions of ^Ftj, which are those of 
nouns in T. Some of the cases belong to both nouns. 



instr. -*lgl or 

dat. ^%_ or 

abl. ^fr?: or 




: or 



A. To the preceding examples of nouns in ^ may be added 
, f a man of the military caste ;' %ir m. ( a conqueror/ or 
mfn. i victorious/ ^r^ m. 'a. donor/ or mfn. ' liberal/ VT1J m. 
a creator;' mfn. ' cherish ing/ ~qt^ 'a. warrior/ mfn. f w r ar- 
like/ and ^t^ m. ' a priest.' 

78. There are a few roots ending in ^, from which verbal 
nouns may be formed ; as, from ^, ' scatter/ comes ^i ' who 
or w r hat scatters/ These are usually inflected by substituting 
^3C for the radical ; agreeably to which, ^ becomes f^;, and is 
then declined like nouns ending in t:; as f^:, nom. c^ 


&c. If this change does not take place, the noun is regularly 
declined, substituting the semivowel ^ before the vowel ter- 
minations ; as ^j ( who injures ;' nom. ^:, ^, ^K, &c. These 
forms are of rare occurrence. 

79- The same may be said, with still greater truth, of 
nouns ending in o and ^; but grammarians admit the possi- 
bility of their occurrence : thus TP^ the root *PR[ ' to go/ with 
the affix c, may be declined analogously to nouns ending in 
^; as TTHT, *I*T<^, J|*^ciJ. In the ablative and genitive "3" is 
substituted for the ^T of W*T, and prefixed to the final semi- 
vowel ; *r is rejected, as being the last member of a conjunct 
consonant : the form is therefore T^. This is of little prac- 
tical value. 

CLASS V. Nouns in ^. 

80. There are no simple nouns ending in , but compounds 
are exhibited to illustrate the declension of nouns so terminat- 
ing ; as %, which is compounded of *r, ' with/ and ^, ' love ;' 
'one who loves.' The declension is regular, except in the 
abl. and gen. singular, where the initial of '^Tff is rejected ; as, 
sing. nom. jfc, ace. w$, instr. ^PTT, dat. ^nfr, abl. and gen. %:, 
loc. ^rfa; dual nom. and ace. *nft, instr. dat. and abl. Sterf, gen. 
and loc. Tnft: ; plural nom. and ace. TEnn, instr. %fr:, dat. and 
abl. ^n, gen. ^nrr, loc. *h|. 

CLASS VI. Nouns in ^. 

81. Nouns ending in ^ are declined regularly, the termi- 
nations are unchanged ; the inflective base substitutes ^TT for 
its final before the consonantal terminations, and is changed 
to ^rnj, agreeably to the laws of Sandhi, before the vowels ; 
as ^ mf., ' wealth/ makes 

nom. n: 

ace. 1311 

instr. mr *Tlf 

dat. rft 


abl. ITT: trii 



82. The neuter of nouns in ^ is formed by changing the 
final before the vowel terminations to ^, and inflecting it like 
neuters in ^. Before the consonants, ^rr is substituted for the 
final; as ift ' wealthy;' n. irft;; sing. nom. and ace. Tjfic, instr. 
Il(X<gi, dat. llfui), abl. and gen. irfw:, loc. TrficftlT; dual nom. 
and ace. JltX*!/), instr. dat. and abl. UtTTf, gen. and loc. 
plural nom. and ace. MOftu, instr. wfa, dat. and abl. 

gen. HlXuifj loc. H<JJ 

a. Some grammarians affirm, that when it is used attri- 
butively, a neuter noun ending in ^, like those ending in ^ or 
7 &c. (see rule 74), may take also the masculine form before 
the vowel terminations a &c., as or JKmi; but this is 
denied by the best authorities. 

CLASS VII. Nouns in ^ffr. 

83. Nouns in ^ft, both masculine and feminine, substitute 
the Vriddhi letter ^ for the final before the three terminations 
of the nominative case and that of the accusative dual. They 
substitute ^rt for the final before the terminations of the accu- 
sative singular and plural. Before the other vowel termina- 
tions ^ft becomes w^ by rule of Sandhi 5, except before Tft? 
and T*r, which reject their initial w, and consequently the 
final is unchanged. 

ift ' a cow.' 


ace. *TT 

instr. ffm *fWu 

dat. T& 

abl. 7ft: 




84. In the neuter the final is changed to "3, as 

( pasture near the cow ;' which is declined like neuters in 7. 

a. Here also authorities differ as to the alternative of inflect- 
ing the neuter optionally as the masculine in the instrumental 
and other cases singular, 4MJ]HI or 4MJP4I &c. : the former is 
to be preferred. 

CLASS VIII. Nouns in wh 

85. Nouns in ^, masculine and feminine, are strictly regu- 
lar, as in the example already given of fft e navis/ e a boat.' 
In the neuter the final becomes 7 ; as ^rfirJ *T?y ( the water, 
beyond the boat;* SHPcH, *ffiM*fl, ^rrl'^f'i, &c. 

a. The nouns that end in diphthongs are not numerous. 
To the preceding may be added ^ mf. 'heaven/ and nt m. 
'the moon.' 


Nouns ending in consonants. 

86. Nouns ending in consonants may also be conveniently 
arranged according to the classification of the letters by analogy 
of articulation ; distinguishing those ending with the nasals, 
semivowels, sibilants, and with ^, as constituting separate 

87. Nouns ending in consonants modify their finals before 
the inflectional terminations, agreeably to the rules of Sandhi : 
thus a hard consonant is optionally changed to a soft when 
it is final, that is, in the nominative singular : absolutely, 
before the terminations of the dual and plural beginning with 
>T. A soft consonant must be changed to a hard consonant 
before ^. 

88. Whatever other special modifications the inflective base 
may undergo, they are, with a few exceptions, confined to the 
first five inflections; that is, to the nominative in the three 
numbers, and the accusative in the singular and the dual. 
Whatever form the word assume before the termination of the 


accusative plural, is preserved before all subsequent termina- 
tions beginning with vowels. 

89- The inflectional terminations are attached unchanged to 
the final consonant of the base : the only seeming irregularity 
is the rejection of *r as the termination of the nominative sin- 
gular; but this is the result of the rule, that of a final con- 
junct consonant the last member shall be rejected. (See 
rule 35.) 

90. As the inflectional terminations are unchanged, there is 
of course but one form for both masculine and feminine nouns. 
In the neuter gender the terminations of the two first cases 
dual and plural are changed to ^ and ^, and T is prefixed to 
the latter. 

CLASS I. Nouns ending in the gutturals "Sfi, ^, n, TT. 

91. There is no peculiarity in the declension of these nouns ; 
their inflexion is conformable to the rules of Sandhi. The final 
of the nominative may be either of the unaspirated letters, e^ or 
*J : thus Ugj^nji) ' omnipotent,' makes |J3r* or ^rshj 7 ! ; and 
fWcffc-i^, ' a painter, 5 makes also f^n^s or P^dfrt^. Before 
the vowels the termination of the base is unchanged, as ^rftsHit; 
P'ldff'H^' Before vr the final must be the unaspirated sof 

consonant, uf $M*rf, f%gfpFrf. Before the *i of *r the ur 
aspirated hard consonant must be placed, 5'!$r* *J, (^diVi 
or the sibilant being changeable after a guttural to ^, the form 
may be 3 1 $[<=( tj, or in the compound letter, ^rf^rsj. 

In the neuter, the nominative and accusative forms are, 

or T^ 

or TT f%tf(VHft 

CLASS II. Nouns ending in the palatals % ^, sf, . 

92. Nouns ending in a palatal commonly substitute ^ for th 
final before the inflectional terminations beginning with con 
sonants ; which again is subject to the usual euphonic changes 



* speech/ 


who eats/ 

5, &c. 

n. TRi or 









93. There are several anomalies in this class, as regarding, 
not the inflectional terminations, but the inflective base. 

a. Derivatives from the roots WS( 'cut/ >J^ 'fry/ *n^ 
' create/ ^ ' rub/ ^ ' worship/ TT5^ ' shine/ HT5T ' shine/ "a^ 
' go/ substitute ^ for their final in the nom. sing., and before 
the terminations beginning with H and *T; that is, they are 
declined like nouns ending in t^, which in those cases substi- 
tute 7 before a hard, and T before a soft consonant. 

b. >}^ is further changed to p^, ' who fries/ before the 
terminations beginning with consonants; and to >p5^ before 
those beginning with vowels. 




dat. >J^ 





c. So 


, f who cuts/ makes, ^ or ^, 
PM "HT^, ' creator of the universe/ makes, nom. 
or -^T, nom. dual ^^41, nom. ace. plur. 
instr. dual f^g^if, loc. plur. fcjyj^^ ; but w^, 


a garland/ derived from the same root, makes, nom. sr=R or 
JJJT, JET5TT, jnn 5 instr. dual *n"*TT, loc. plur. H^J ; and ^T^*^ 
* blood/ is differently inflected, as will be noticed below. 
trfr^, ' who cleanses,' makes, nom. sing. Mft*J^ or -^, nom. 
dual -Jpfr, instr. dual -*J^*TT, &c. ^fa^, * a worshipper of the 
gods/ makes, ^^ or ^T^, nom. dual <$fi, instr. dual ^T^*lf, 
&c. ; but ^fri*T, e a ministering priest/ which is also derived 
from TT5^, ' to worship/ is regular ; nom. sing, '^fri^ or ^ffr^T, 
nom. dual ^jfriTfi, instr. dual '^'Otfjarf, &c. TI*J, ' a ruler/ 
makes, nom. sing. TT^ or TJ^, nom. dual IT^T, instr. dual UT*ri ; 
but f^3TT*Tj f a universal ruler/ has this peculiarity, that when 
the final of TJT is changed, the short final vowel of fr*5T is 
made long ; as, nom. sing. f=cyKI7 or -IT^ nom. dual P^HKIWT* 
ace. sing. ft *y 4.1*1, instr. dual fa^TOlwf, &c. fwr^, 'who 
shines much/ makes, nom. sing, fwr^ or ->?T^, nom. dual 
f%>TR^j instr. dual fN>JT^*rf ; but this is a derivative from the 
root, which is marked in the lists of radicals, as J->nT. There 
is another root, HT^ ' to shine/ without the prefix j, and its 
derivatives are regular; as, nom. sing. f^HT^ or fwr^, nom. 
dual f^TT^, instr. dual f%HF*rfj &c. ufc^HT, ' a mendicant/ 
' an errant/ makes, nom. sing. trft^T^ or ^, nom. dual M(Xdlfi, 
iristr. dual Mfl>n^*rf, &c. 

Q4s. Derivatives from roots ending in ^ or W, formed by 
adding the affix technically termed flfiT, insert a nasal before 
the final in the first five inflexions ; as, inr, f who joins/ from 
^, 'join/ makes, nom. ^, TJ^, ^: ; ace. ^, -g^; in the 
rest it is regular, ace. plur. zpn, instr. sing. Tpn, instr. dual 
TTTWIT, loc. plur. TTSJ. It is regular throughout in composition; 
as, "STSTTpT, a constellation so named, makes, nom. ^vj^ or -TT, 
^ y j^^ ^Hvj^sf:. TpT also, if derived from ^(V^, is regular ; 
as, T|^ ' one who meditates / nom. ^ or TJTT , &c. 

a. "3^, 'a curlew/ retains the nasal throughout; as, nom. 
instr. ^r, ^^lf, ^fT: ; loc. plur. -^nj or 

95. Derivations of ^R^ in the sense of Agoing/ compounded 


with prepositions and with certain other words, are very irre- 
gular. They are, 

eastern. fo'ETSra moving all round. 

western. *T**l^ moving equally. 

northern. ^TVT^ moving with, 

southern. frnz?^ moving crookedly. 

Which are thus inflected : 










a. They form the feminines by dropping the nasal, and 
adding the termination ^, as Hl-fl, jfiflxfl, and are declined like 

The neuters are regular; as, nom. and ace. 
Wfl<*, Hifl^l, Ui*j(%4 ; the rest like the masculine, 
is declined like TXT3- ^^T substitutes ^ for the antepenulti- 
mate before the accus. plur. and following terminations; as, 
"37^?, '4*^1; 3^*3, Tcffcn, Tcfr^T, &c. Those derivatives also in 
which the semivowel TT occurs, change it to ^, analogously to 
the similar change in Hd=^. frf^^ changes its nasal to a 
sibilant before the vowel terminations beginning with the 
accus. plur. 








b. When the derivatives are from a similar root, but which 

H 2 


has a different meaning, namely, ^an^ ' to worship/ they follow 
the rules of Sandhi only ; that is, ^ is rejected when final, and 
before a consonant, when also the palatal nasal becomes the 
guttural ; as, W^ ' who worships :' sing. nom. HT^, ace. JTRT, 
instr. R13I1, dat. in% abl. and gen. TTT^n, loc. inf^r ; dual nom. 
and ace. TTTift, instr. dat. and abl. irr^rrf, gen. and loc. HiWl: ; 
plur. nom. and ace. irra:, instr. ur^fa, dat. and abl. UT^*K, gen. 
m^rf, loc. Jll^HJ. Fem. sing. nom. in^ft, Hl^fl, JTran ; neut. 
nom. and ace. HT^, ITRft, HI CM. 

96. There are not many nouns ending in "5, but they 
follow the model of ^y &c. before the consonants, and option- 
ally change ^ to ^r before the vowels : thus u|m^, ' who asks 
all/ makes, 

nom. *rin^ or -^ ^Ultil or - 

ace. ^|HI^ or -in^T 
instr. TRiui^i or - 
dat. |ui4 or - 
abl. uimg: or - 

gen. - ^iniCl; or -ITT^ft: ^111^1 or -UT^ff 

loc. ^uiP^ or - 

97- ^Hf? ( to sacrifice/ when compounded with the preposi- 
tion ^Sf^, lengthens its penultimate vowel before the vowel 
inflectional terminations, and is declined like a noun ending 
in ^ before the consonants, as if it was an imperfect noun 
supplied in part by the obsolete noun ?y^y. Thus 
* an inferior worshipper/ makes, 










98. T3^, e a lame man/ drops, agreeably to the rules of 
combination, the last member of its conjunct, when final, or 
when followed by a consonant : hence, sing. nom. ^^, instr. 
dual ^*lf: plur. J^fr:, loc. plur. ^fr. Before the vowels 

' A i va 

there is no change ; T??fr, W^', ^%J|, &c. 

99 "3>^j ' strong/ may reject one IT before a pause or a 
consonant, but is in other respects regular : sing. nom. "arsS or 
^PPT, ace. "3iT?r, instr. Jmjl ; dual instr. "3nrrf ; plur. instr. "gntfvn, 

\ \ A - \ 

loc. '3f^, &c. The neuter plural may be ^fejt or <ftPrA ; but 
in composition with 'qj, 'much/ the nasal, if inserted, must 
precede the final consonant ; as, plur. nom. and ace. o^Pjri or 
"qrf.fsl ' very strong.' 

100. ^I^^j ' blood/ a neuter noun, optionally borrows its 
inflexions in the accus. plur. and following cases from an obso- 
lete noun, ^raT, which is inflected like other nouns in tT. 


ace. or 

instr. ^r^ir or ^aftn ^rrrwrf or ^rerwrf HM^O*r: or 
dat. *ij*|t or w^ - 'Sl^rwi: or 

abl. ^n'if: or 

gen. - 4 S: or ^i: ^*f\ or 

loc. 1 3Tftr or ^fn - or 

CLASS III. Nouns ending in cerebrals, or 7, 7, T, 3 1 . 

101. Nouns terminating in these letters do not, as far as is 
yet known, occur ; but and T are used as the substitutes of 
nouns ending in IT. The first, as a hard consonant, is changed 
optionally when final, and absolutely before the inflexions 
beginning with H, to ?. 

CLASS IV. Nouns terminating in the dentals, w, "*T, <$, V. 

102. Nouns terminating in consonants of the dental class 
are for the most part regular, being subject to no other 


changes than those which the laws of Sandhi require. The 
final in the nominative is either the unaspirated hard or soft 
letter 7T or ^ ; before >T it is the soft ^ ; and before *T the hard 
consonant "ff ; as in the following paradigmas of ^ftw ' green/ 
nP | HH'*r f one \vho kindles fire/ cfi^ 'a bull's hump/ ^rftru 
1 fuel.' X 

^Po mfn. sif''!*!*! mfn. cfi"<*^ f. ^rf*TW f. 

s. nom. ^fic?ror-?r SHO'HH'ff or-<* cs<*rr or -^ ^finr or -<* 

ace. ^ft.rl -siP'ri^xJ <*^ ^arfirv 

inst. $:(\jit stf' 1^x41 ciietK^y ^rfrrVT &c. 
d.inst. &c.*rftl3rf vif/riHjyf <**( ^Tf*T3lf &c. 
pi. inst. 


The neuter form of the two first is in the nom. and ace. ; 
or -<*, ^fijft, ^r^fil ; vjOi^lf or -, 

but "Wf^j f who cuts much/ and similar derivatives, do not 
insert the nasal in the plural ; as, %f>nr or -rf, ^fi^, ^rfnf^. 

a. <p^j ' a tooth/ and TJJ^, ( an army/ are considered as 
optionally substituted for ^nf and Y^^j as ^ sing. nom. ^W or 
^ or ^:, ace. ^Tf or ^f, instr. ^irr or ^^T; dual instr. &c. 
^sOf or ^TTlf, &c. 

b. So "q^, f a foot/ is the optional substitute for in^ in all 
cases, and absolutely for TH^ in composition, but only in the 
accus. plur. and subsequent cases beginning with vowels ; as, 
sing. nom. TITT or xj^ or xrr^:, ace. tj^ or TTT^, instr. TT^T or q |^ 'f ; 
dual instr. &c. Trarf xrr^rlf, &c. : but ^iljiji^, ' tiger-foot/ a 
plant so named, makes, nom. tummd or XTR, 

ace. y^iKMT^, ^mnrr^, MIHM<: ; instr. 

trr%:, &c. In like manner, ^^, ' the heart/ is a substitute for 
^^Ef; nom. ^W or ^, ^, ^, &c. 

103. irofiw, i the spleen/ and gr<*ri, ( ordure/ neuter nouns, 

C \ ' d \ 

are declined analogously to ^OTT; that is, they optionally 
substitute in the accusative plural and subsequent cases the 
inflexions of obsolete nouns ending in tj, as zr 3 ^ and 



ace. or 

instr. Tl*rll or tf^ff *(*iiri or ^r|wf Tff^' Or 

dat. TTfff or T(ifi ^TfSn: or 

abl. TTfT: or 

gen. - ^i or ir: ^^ or 

loc. ilfd or trofifrf - ^T or 

So SToifaf or ^rerfa, ^TT^ or ^r^iT, &c. 

. ~&v f who knows/ changes its initial to H whenever it 
changes its final to the unaspirated letter, that is, in the nomi- 
native singular, and before the inflectional terminations begin- 
ning with a consonant. 

nom. ^ or ^ 

instr. ^TJT H3JT wfel &c. 

loc. plur. JT*J &c. 

104. Besides nouns of a general character ending in den- 
tals, there are certain declinable participles ending in ^TiT and 
^, and certain possessive nouns ending in ^ir and *n^, which 
undergo some modification of the inflective base before the 
terminations of the nominative, and before the accusative sin- 
gular and dual. In all the other cases they are regularly 
declined like other nouns ending in l^; that is, the vowel 
affixes are attached to the final; w is unaltered before *T, and 
becomes <* before >r. 

105. These participial and possessive nouns prefix an T to 
their final TT before the terminations of the five first inflexions : 
thus TT^ * cooking/ becomes mH x . Those ending in ^ or 
*n^ also make the penultimate vowel long in the nominative, and 
accordingly "cSiRfr becomes ^nT^T^ ( doing :' but by the rule 
that the second member of a final conjunct consonant is to be 
rejected, the final T^ is thrown out, and the words remain in 
the nominative singular worfy ^HTT^. Before the vowels the 
compound is unchanged, as Tf^ifr, <jrf'(ir>, &c. : thus, 


' being.' 



instr. >ttfii *T^5IT HM Pa t &c. 

' going.' 


JlcHiJjf IfHPjj: &C. 

So \Tm^ ' having wealth ;' masc. 
nom. Vfe|T^ 
ace. VHMif V*Hrf: 

instr. \H4dl &c. 

and >jflH^ ' having prosperity ;' masc. 

nom. siflni^ Wl^iTi Wi*inl 

ace. 'JllHif 'jflHdt &c. 

a. To form the feminine gender of these nouns, ^ is added 
to the termination, and the noun is declined like f^fr; as, 
JIfTfifl, vHiO, HflMril. The neuter is regular ; as, 

b. Participles of the present tense formed with ^fi^ some- 
times retain the nasal augment in the feminine noun through- 
out, and in the nominative and accusative dual of the neuter ; 
as, *T^riT makes *T^jft, *Hi<ft, H4i<i:, &c. in the feminine ; and 
in the neuter, >*T?^, H^Rft, >T3Ptf. 

c. This insertion of the nasal is imperative in the participles 
of all verbs of the first, fourth, and tenth conjugations. It is 
optionally inserted after verbs of other conjugations, which 
either in their simple form or in their conjugational bases end 
with ^r or ^TT. It is not inserted after any others. 

Verb. Part. pres. masc. Fern, 

ist conj. H^to be 

( ^ to eat 


) >n to shine *TTTT >TmT or 

f^ to sacrifice ;) 
( repeated, ipr) 

4th f^ to play 

to bear; with) 
increment THT f 


$th < -. 
( n 


6th conj. ^ to torment TjrTi^ ij^ifl or 

th v to obstruct 

8th- f^. ^ stretch; with) 
( increment wJ ) 

(^ to buy; with) , - - 

oth -( . _ _ > -*HJJH W5T1TT or 

( increment w^TT) 

i oth ^ to steal 

So in the nominative and accusative dual of the neuter, vr=lifl ; 
^rft, *T?ft or *T??ft, &c. 

?. The participles of the present tense of verbs, which take 
a reduplicate form, even though the crude verb originally 
terminates in ^r or ^rr, do not insert an f before their final 
TT, but are declined like nouns in general ending in that con- 
sonant ; as ^T e to give :' part. pres. t*t*T^ ; masc. nom. ?^T^ or 
^^, t^ifi, ^ITt ; ace. ^TT, <^rtl, ^?TJ ; instr. ^TTT, <;^I, &c. : 
fern. sing. nom. ^fft ; neut. nom. ace. dual ^ift ; plur. ^Off 
or ^fir. 

e. There are certain other verbs which are analogously 
inflected in their present participles ; as, W^ ' to eat f fV5j^, 
'HVSjrfl, *n^lTt, &c. : ^TTO ' govern ;' ^TW?^, ^TTWfft, $|IUrit; &c. 

f. >Tn^, when a term of address, as ' Sir/ * Your worship/ 
is declined amongst the pronouns. 

g. ^tn^ c a deer,' *^|H the world/ and T?T^ ' great/ are 
declined like participles in the three numbers of the nomina- 
tive and in the accusative singular and dual ; in the rest they 
are regular. 

nom. < nr arinn 





instr. i'M'irr "rsrf Mf^: &c. 

106. *?^ } f great/ makes its penultimate long before the 



first five inflexions of the masculine, and that of the two first 
cases plural of the neuter ; as, 


H I fTl 

instr. *i^m *im &c. 

Fern. T^Tft; neut. nom. and ace. Tpr, T^lft, 

a. Nouns of every description ending in dentals are nume- 
rous ; of which the following are a few. 

f. a sacred treatise 
n. a lotus 

mf. a cannibal 
f. a stone 

f. ist day of lunar fortnight 
m. wind 

f. lightning 
. autumn 

f. wealth 
f. agreement 

abounding in lotuses 
having children 
having form 
majestic, divine 
having elegance 

who or what cuts 
who or what gathers 
tnf who or what falls 
y^ who or what is or abides 
^fi^ who speaks 
W*{ w r ho or what churns 
jT* what torments 
^ who sends or drives 
who or what breaks 
who or what knows 



CLASS V. Nouns ending in labials, IT, "% T, H. 

107. These, which are few in number, are for the most 
part regular. The nominative ends in t^ or ^. The final 
remains before the vowel terminations, and is ^ before >T, and 
ij before *J ; as JJT^ ' who preserves : J nom. *J^ or *J^, jprr, 
ace. *JTJ, ^pfr, ^JTT:; instr. ijxrr, *pr*ri, ^jf^j loc. plur. 
So ^5^ ( a quarter of the horizon :' nom. cR^r or '*<*< 

ace. ^tf, fi^ft cfi^r: ; instr. fi^WT, '<*^^rf ; loc. plur. 

108. There is one irregular noun in this class, ^sn^ ( water/ 
declinable only in the plural number: plur. nom. ^TTOj ace. 
^nr:, instr. wfk:, dat. and abl. WgT,, gen. wqf, loc. w^. 

In composition it may be declined like any other noun in 
TJJ as, ^T^, from *T f good/ and ^T^ ' w r ater/ ' having good 
water/ makes, nom. sing, ^r^ or *<n|, nom. dual ^r^^ nom. 
plur. ^TT:, instr. dual ^rrf, loc. plur. ^^|, &c. 

CLASS VI. Nouns ending in nasals, T, >T, W? *T> T. 

109- Of words terminating in nasals of the two first classes 
no instances are known, and but few are met with ending in 
TT^. They are quite regular, but may optionally insert ^ before 
*T ; as WTT^ ' of a good class :' nom. *JT^, JJ'HUT, HTWJ ; instr. 
&c. dual ^rnrmrf ; loc. plur. <JJT<!W or ^ J K'(^. 

110. Nouns ending in ^ are numerous, and present many 
peculiarities. They may be divided into two orders ; one 
ending in ^5^, the other in ^. 

Nouns ending in 

111. When regularly inflected, nouns in ! ?n^ drop the final 
in the nominative singular, and before the terminations begin- 
ning with consonants; and in the masculine and feminine 
genders they make the penultimate letter long before all the 
terminations of the nominative, and those of the accusative 

I 2 


singular and dual : the vocative singular is unchanged. Thus 
, ' soul/ is declined as follows : 

ace. H I rH M 

instr. ->ii i rH cj i 

dat. 'Ulc+H &c. loc. - 


In the neuter form the vowel is made long only, agreeably to 
general rule, in the plural; where however a nasal is not 
inserted before a nasal : ~8%T^ ' Brahma/ ' the Supreme / nom. 
ace. "5RT, "a^mf) 1 , flsnfiu. 

112. In these two examples, ^rn*T*^ and '8&^, the final 
^TT is preceded by a conjunct consonant, of which the final 
letter is T. If the last of such conjunct be ^, the noun is simi- 
larly inflected ; as ^V{ f a sacrificer :' nom. TjlJT, H-fcl I fi, tl^M! ; 
ace. xnjT*f, y*i l>fi, ^JH:, &c. : but if no such conjunct precede, 
then in the accusative plural and following cases, of which the 
terminations begin with vowels, the penultimate ^T is rejected, 
and the antepenultimate and final coalesce ; as TT3PT ' a king :' 
nom. TT^TT, U*l \'*\\ 3 UfH: ; ace. u *\ I *|, u ^ I f I, TT^ ; instr. TT^TT, 
Tmwrf, mrf*r: ; voc. TTP^, &c. In the locative sing, the rejec- 
tion is optional ; as TT% or irsrf^T. 

a. The same takes place before the feminine affix ^; as 
1 a queen :' and optionally before the neuter dual ; as 

' the sky :' nom. ace. "affa, ^ffat or aq^H0, ^Hlf'f. 

b. When a noun ending in ^T^ is derived from a root 
ending in ^ or ^, preceded by ^, "3", or ^, the vowel is made 
long before the conjunct consonant of the accusative plural, 
&c. ; as MlXr<M"| ' who sports:' nom. trftf^T, 

ace. M(VfVfirf, H f^ ^ I *\\, Rf^^i ; instr. 
ftf^rfin, &c. 

c. *T9T!, a name of Indra, may substitute 7^ for its final, 
and be declined like a noun in ^; as, nom. HHTR, H*l4ffl, 

ace. HM'^tf, HM^ifl, HM^H:, &c. : but it is also declin- 


able as a noun in T when it changes its semivowel ^ to "3" 
before the vowel terminations of the accusative plural and 
following cases, and wt is substituted for "3 1 arid the ^r of *nr 
in the other cases it is declined like ^rnwT ; as, 

nom. JftTTT H*H I fl 

ace. HiHM 

instr. *nftn 

dat. HMm loc. 


d. "jg^, ' a dog/ and ^p*^ ' a youth/ are declined so far 
analogously to HiN^, that they change ^ to 7 before the accu- 
sative plural and the following cases, of which the terminations 
begin with vowels. In T^ the 7 is of course merely sub- 
joined to the ^r ; in ^T^T it is preceded by the ^ of TJ, and 
consequently the two short vowels combine into one long one ; 
they then follow the analogy of tT*T^j as by rule 112, and 
reject the penultimate ^r; in consequence of which, ^ or "31 
immediately precedes the final ^. 1$*^, KVCOV, ' canis/ e a dog :' 
nom. igrr, TSTT0, ^TT: ; ace. TETR, ^rn^, ^pr: ; instr. ^TT, "^wif, 

dat. ^%, T^rf, &c. ^^) ' juvenis/ ' a youth :' nom. 
T^T:; ace. -5^, ^5^1, TJ*T:J instr. ^TT, ^wrf, 
dat. -^r, "5^Tf, &c. 

e. <uj*^, ' the sun/ is irregular in not making the penul- 
timate long before the terminations of the nominative dual and 
plural, and accusative singular and dual ; in the rest it follows 

; its ^ is changed to *!T by virtue of the ^ in 

nom. -si*Mm 



loc. s*q*ifij.r or ^j 


f. Compounds with ^"rT, f to kill/ follow the analogy of 
, i. e. they do not make the vowel long in the nom. 


dual, &c. They also change ^ to TT before the vowel termina- 
tions of the accusative plural, and following cases, in which 
also the penultimate vowel is rejected, and accordingly the 
antepenultimate and final consonants combine. 

the murderer of a Brahman.' 




dat. WSlifr &c. 

y. ^Tj 'the sun/ is inflected after the model of 
but in the accusative plural, and analogous cases, an imperfect 
noun, ij^, is optionally substituted. 


ace. UHU 1 'T* or 

instr. "^WT or Tjtrr 

dat. qrot or T &c. 

h. ^rih^, 'a horse/ belongs to nouns in ^n^ in one case 
only, the nom. sing. : in all the rest it is declined like a noun 
in TT, or wflT; as, 

nom. * 



dat. ^rifff &c. 

If compounded with a negative, and used attributively, it is 
declined regularly as a noun ending in ^T^ preceded by a 
conjunct consonant, of w r hich the last member is ^; as ^rqipT 
' one who has not a horse :' nom. -*IIT, ^a i |j i ?t, iHriijMI j 
ace. ->*{T\ g | rj, 'j(H^lfl, "efiTt ', instr. flvifjfjT, w<\ *TT, &c. 

113. ^r^tf neut., ( a day/ is very irregular, substituting ^ 
for the final in the nominative singular and locative plural, 
and "3" convertible to 'sft with the short vowel of i!T^ before >T. 
In the other cases it conforms to ^ftaT ; as, 

. j 








loc. ^rf or (Vl ^Tiw or ^ 

a. Compounded with numerals, with f^, or with *mr, ^j is 
substituted before all the terminations, and is declined like a 
noun ending in ^T; as UNIg ( the afternoon :' ^TRTjT:, WMI^, 
wnrTjfT:, &c. : but in the locative case singular these com- 
pounds take different forms ; as *UHlj|, wqifg or timi^f^. 

b. Compounded with other words, w^J is declined in the 
masculine and feminine like other nouns in ^T^, except before 
the terminations of the dual and plural that begin with >?, where 
it substitutes 7 for T ; as <{iQl^T ' a long day : 5 nom. 

1Q|^HJ ; ace. '<{)Ql^|t|, <{)tjiiiij ^T^T^t ; instr. 
rf, <{lQl^r*r: ; dat. ^Ql^', &c. ; loc. sing, tfl^rfg or 
plur. <{|Q|^:*T or {1Ql^^, voc. {1Q|^:, &c. 

Nouns in ^r. 

114. Many possessive nouns are formed with the affixes 
^, fsr^, and fo^; as, vfVpT ' having wealth/ ' opulent ;' ?[f5^*T 
'having a staff/ f an ascetic/ riMftjj'T ' having devotion/ ( a 
devotee / 'cjiOHr^ ( having speech/ ' eloquent :' all of which are 
declined on one model. They reject the ^ before the conso- 
nants ; retain it before the vowels ; and make the penultimate 
of the base long in the nom. singular ; in all the other cases 
the inflectional terminations are added, without any change, 
to the final of the base : as vftr mfn. ' rich/ 

masc. nom. 


instr. vftmr vfcvmi 

dat. vfr|% &c. loc. 



The feminine affixes ^, as vf*Tft, and is declined like 
The neuter is regular ; nom. ace. vfT, vfrnft, V*ftrT. 

115. There are three irregular nouns of this class; 
e a road/ Hfvjf^ 'a. churning stick/ and ^jjfgf^ <a name of 
Indra/ These substitute wr for the final syllable before the 
affix of the nominative singular, and for ^ before the other 
affixes of the nominative, and those of the accusative singular 
and dual : before the vowel terminations of the accusative 
plural and other cases they reject the final syllable altogether : 
before the consonants they reject the "tT. 

The two first also prefix a nasal to the consonant TT, 
before the first five inflexions ; viz. those of the nominative, 
and the singular and dual accusative ; as trftpT * a path/ ' a 



dat. T^ &c. loc. 


So rftr^ makes w^n:, HvvnTT, inn, *rfarf, &c. 

Compounded with other words, these are declined in the 
masculine in the same manner as the uncompounded word : 
in the feminine, the final syllable is rejected, and the affix f 
is added to the antepenultimate consonant : in the neuter, 
^ is rejected in the singular and dual, and prefixed to ^ 
before the plural: as qfvn^, 'having a good road/ makes, 
masc. M.-VJI:, &c. ; fern. M|1, umml, &c.; neut. nom. and ace. 

makes, nom. ^J^T:, ^HJUifi, ^^TTO: ; ace. 
8^' ; instr. ^T^T, ^rf^wrf, &c. 
116. Nouns ending in J^ are few: before the consonantal 
terminations it is changed to ^ ; as H$||^ ( mild/ ' quiet/ makes, 
nom. iqrnT, H^II*^, TT^rm: ; instr. jqTRT, HS|ll^rf, iqn^fi?: ; loc. 
plur. ir$rnT or 


CLASS VII. Nouns ending in semivowels, IT, ^, 75, ?. 

117. Nouns ending in ^ and c5 are of rare occurrence : if 
they occur, they are regular. 

118. Nouns derived from verbal roots ending in ^ or ^ make 
a preceding vowel long before the inflectional terminations which 
begin with consonants. ^ is changed to Visarga in the nomi- 
native singular ; but not before the locative plural, if it be a 
radical letter. F followed by a vowel, as in TJ, is not doubled 
after . Thus fr^ fern. ' speech :' nom. 7ft:, frr^, fxnc: ; ace. 
fjR, fhtt fit: ; instr. firer, *fttf, iftfil: ; loc. plur. ifff . 

Nouns ending in semivowels do not insert a nasal before 
the neuter plural. TPC n., ' water/ makes, nom. and ace. TTt, 
JTTtf, Trft; instr. ^RT, TT^f, tnffi:, &c. 

a. f^, ' sky/ changes ^ to ^ in the nominative, and to T 
before the consonantal terminations. The ^ of f^ becomes ^ 
by the rules of Sandhi. f^ f. ' sky :' nom. ^:, f^, f%%: 
ace. f^, f^^, f^: ; instr. f^TT, ?gvqi, ^rfrr. ; loc. plur. ^. 

b. Used attributively, as in *jf^, 4 having a clear sky (a 
day)/ the neuter form is, nom. and ace. *r^, *jf^?ft, Trf^f%; the 
rest like the masculine. 

CLASS VIII. Nouns ending in sibilants, ^r, ^, *r. 


119. Nouns formed from verbal roots ending in 3J, with 
the affix technically termed ffi^, substitute for the final the 
guttural letter ^ before all the terminations beginning with 
consonants ; as f^S^ f. ( space.' 

nom. f^i or 
ace. f^^ 

instr. f^rr ftfwrf f^fHr: &c. 

loc. f^% f^\: f^zr 

When formed with any other affix, it is said that ^ is sub- 
stituted for the final ; and for "^ the cerebral ^ is substituted 
in the same cases. 



(f^) ' who enters/ 
nom. fsr? or f^r 
ace. f^f 

instr. f^ri f^wri f^ftr. &c. 

loc. f^iV fr^ft: 

neuter nom. and ace. faz or f*rs, 

0. f3^, 4 who or what destroys,* takes either form 

nom. T^i-fT7j or ^-T^ ^jft ?n{r. 

ace. cf^f 

instr. fT^TT *frf or T^rf *Tfrr: or 

loc. tTff - ^TW or 

b. 51^ e who sees/ with its compounds 

* such-like/ e similar/ take the guttural substitute : so do the 
derivatives of ^^ 'to touch/ ITTS^ or im^T, rilg$u, A\5\\, 
if, &c. : so ^rff^s^ f who touches Ghee / ^rt*^^ or JT, 
nt^^rT, ^rtf^'rf, &c. 

c. fT5^ may be substituted for fa^n 'night/ and is then 
declined like fT5(; according to some, a palatal may be sub- 
stituted for the cerebral before the consonants, except in the 
nominative singular ; as fr^*rf or fVrwwif, f^7*T or 

120. Nouns ending in "^ are inflected in one of three ways ; 
i. by substituting ^ for the final before the consonantal inflex- 
ions ; 2. by substituting OR in the similar cases ; and 3. by 
substituting before the same inflexions ' ru* or jt:. 

The substitution of z is considered the regular form of 
inflecting verbal derivative forms in ^ ; as f^ f, ' light/ from 
to shine.' 

nom. ^ or 

ace. fr^ 

instr. PHT^T 

dat. f}^ &c. , loc. (H or 


121. As in the case of nouns ending in 3T, those in ^ 

formed from verbs by the affix ff{^ take the guttural substi- 

tute ; as ^Y^ ' arrogant/ from y^ * to be proud.' 

nom. or ' 7 


instr. 1 vrHrf &c. 

122. In the case of *nj^ * a friend/ and some other words, 
particularly those in which the final is properly ^, but has 
become ^ in consequence of being preceded by some other 
vowel than ^r or wr (see rule 29), ^ is substituted for the final 
before the consonantal inflexions, and the nouns are declined 
like nouns ending in ^. 

a friend/ 




dat. *nj^ &c. loc. *r^.T| or 

a. ^ifs[r^ for ^rr%^ f. ' a benediction/ is similarly inflected. 




dat. ^nf^T^f &c. loc. ^Jl^ftfg or 

b. ^T^ for ^rt^, f the arm/ besides being declined in this 
manner, admits before the vowel terminations of the accusative 
plural and following cases the optional use of ^fa*J, declined 
like nouns in 

nom. ^t: 

ace. ^ or 

instr. ^NT or 

dat. ^t^ or 

abl. ^rm or 

gen. ^tr. or 
loc. ^ft or 
It is also neuter : nom. and ace. 

K 2 


c. Neuter nouns with a penultimate ^ or T short, make 
the vowel long only before the nasal augment of the nomi- 
native and accusative plural ; as, V>J*T ( a bow/ lx "*JH, ' the 
eye/ 'ClfV^ ' light/ *ff^ * Ghee/ severally for 
as, nom. and ace. ^rf%:, ClP*l0, CNTfa ; instr. 

h, &c. : so, nom. and ace. ^nffl, ^sft? ^|fa; instr. 

d. Nouns derived from the desiderative form of the verb 
are declined after this manner ; as (Vnf<j^[, ' one who wishes to 
read/ makes, mf. fqqtfh, fqTjfoM!, ftTT^twlf, &c. ; neuter nom. 
and ace. fmife:, (Milfoil), ftnrfrfa. It does not insert the nasal 
in the neuter plural. fensf^, ' one who wishes to do/ rejects 
the sibilant before a consonantal inflection (see rule 35) ; as, 
f%cfth, f^cfttit, fa <*) :, f^ofih 1 ^, &c. 

123. Nouns formed from verbs ending in the compound 
letter ^ reject before the consonantal inflexions either the 
first member of the compound or c^, and are then declined like 
nouns in "^; or they reject the second member "^, and are 
declined as if ending in eji. 

The same words, accordingly as they are said to be 
formed with different affixes, may take both modifications ; as 
fre^ mf. ' who or what pares' or c makes thin :' nom. sing. TT$ 
or TT^, 1T^ or TT^ ; instr. dual, &c. TT^qi or fiTwrf ; loc. plur. IT^T 
or WET; so ii\iw , ( a cow-keeper/ makes, nom. sing. TTftZ or 
k^ or -T?T ; instr. dual, &c. xflT^wn or ifrtrrf ; loc. plur. 
or jffrKf. Before the vowels the final is of course 
unchanged ; as frsft, 'frt^. 

a. Nouns in TE^ formed from desideratives reject the sibilant 
only ; as ftR^, ' who desires to cook/ makes, fwgi or -^, 
fxrq^, fqxiTvqf, ftR^, &c. r=H^ ' who wishes to speak/ 
i what desires to burn/ are similarly inflected. 

124. Nouns masculine and feminine ending in *r, when 
preceded by ^r, make the penultimate long in the nominative 


singular, and substitute 7 for the sibilant before the inflexions 
beginning with vt, which with a preceding ^r makes ^rt. 








loc. ^hrftr ^K*J or 

voc. %v: 

a. The vowel is not made long in the nominative, if the 
noun retain the form of the radical whence it is derived; as, 
cRT ( to clothe / #<!*{ ' who dresses well / nom. sing. ^: . So 
fmiiU^ i who takes a funeral cake/ from 1^1? and q^ ' to 
take;' nom. sing. fiRiSij: . 

b. Three masculine nouns in WET are irregular, j|^^^ ' time,' 
^P!'^ ' the regent of the planet Venus/ and y^'^f^ a name of 
Indra. They are declined in the nominative singular as if 
ending in ^r^ ; 'STTfT, Sf^HT, y^^ri. In the vocative the first 
and last are regular, ;H^:, ^<\<{$i: ; the second has three forms, 

T^R:, TST^T, or g^nr^. 

125. Neuter nouns in ^r^ do not make the penultimate 
long in the nominative and accusative singular, but make it 
long in the plural ; as tnrer f water :' nom. and ace. qrr:, T*nft, 

''nrrftr ; mmi, Trrft^rf, xpfrt^r:, &c. ; ^nr:^ or ^T^g. 

126. Nouns ending in ^ in conjunction with a consonant 
drop the final (by rule 35) before the consonantal inflexions ; 
so f^?^ mf., ' who or what injures/ becomes, nom. 

f^r: ; ace. f?r*T, f^^Tr, f%*m ; instr. 

a. Derivatives from ^ and 54^T, 'to fall/ with the affix 
fgFT, substitute <r for the final (which becomes 7 and if) before 
the consonants, and reject the nasal throughout. SE^T ' who 


falls : J nom. ar^ or sr^, ssrih, nr: ; ace. P!T, s^fft, am: ; instr 
s-rerr, srfrf, J^rftr:, &c. 

127. ipr, *a man/ drops the final sibilant before the con 
sonantal inflexions ; and it is otherwise peculiar in the [nomi 
native, and in the singular and dual of the accusative ; as, 



instr. Tprr 

dat. 3% 

abl. ipr. 

gen. ipn ipft: 

loc. Tjffc gf or TJ*J 

voc. ^T^ &c. 

It may be dech'ned in three genders as an epithet ; as 
f of a good man: 5 mf. NM^i^ &c. ; neut. nom. and ace. 

128. There are some participial nouns formed with oRTj 
which before the inflexions of the nominative, and of the accu- 
sative singular and dual, prefix a nasal to the sibilant, and 
make the preceding vow r el long. In the nominative singular 
the *T is rejected, as the final of a conjunct consonant : before 
the accusative plural, and following vowel inflexions, ? is 
changed to T, as also before a feminine formed with ^, and 
the dual neuter : the sibilant, when final (as in the neuter 
singular), and before the consonantal inflexions, is changed 


foglT x * who is knowing, wise/ 

masc. nom. f^TTJ fVgfitft 
ace. ' 


instr. fclgMI f^dsyi 

dat. fa<^ c. loc. 

voc. f^g 1 ^ 



a. If the termination ^*? be preceded by ^, that vowel is 
rejected when the ^ is changed to ^r ; as irf<* nr f who is sit- 
ting :' nom. w H^T*^ , ^rf^ral, flf^'Ml^t ; ace. uf^qifi, %f^i?=tf, 
*Tp: ; instr. $m, %f^sf, &c. : fern. nom. sing, ITjpft : neut. 
nom. and ace. ^f^^^> ^5^> ^rf^fftf. 

129. Superlatives formed with the termination ^ir^r are 
declined in the three numbers of the nominative, and in the 
singular and dual accusative, analogously to participles in ^*r ; 
in the other cases they follow the analogy of nouns in ^nr ; as 
JlO*rff ' most heavy/ 

masc. nom. 

dat. ^lOM*! &c. loc. J|0.4JU or 



CLASS IX. Nouns ending in *r. 

130. Nouns ending in ijf substitute r for it, agreeably to 
rule 32 : <? undergoes the changes to which the rules of Sandhi 
subject it. Twfc?^ ' a bee/ from *r^ * honey/ and f<j|r ' who 
or what sips/ is thus declined : 

nom. *v?5 or - 






loc. JTvfeif "^5 or -" 


The feminine is the same as the masculine. f&|f in the neuter 
makes, nom. and ace. fc5^ or -T, 


a. Hijjtng, a name of Indra, is inflected like fvf&igr, but 
has the peculiarity of changing *r to ^ when the final is 
changed ; as j!Lim or -?, gUUI^t, (jmi3*lf, &c. 

131. Words formed with the affix ffi^ substitute "^ for a 
final ^?, which becomes ^ or TT, agreeably to the rules of San- 
dhi, before the consonantal inflexions ; as ^fujl^, ' a metre of 
the Vedas.' 

nom. ^fUu* or T ^fUU^I 4 full ^t 



dat. dfUi| &c. loc. 

a. Other verbal nouns formed with the same affix substi- 
tute either a guttural or a cerebral for the final; as g^ mf. 
( one who is perplexed/ 

nom. >J^-Sf or 3^-i 

ace. f 

instr. g^T $fri or grif g^>r: or 

dat. g% &c. loc. g^T or %TSI 

So ^? 'one who vomits:' f%^ 'one who is kind;' 7? 'one 

xr SST 

who hates.' 

b. But, monosyllabic verbal derivatives, ending in an aspi- 
rated soft consonant, change their initial, if it be any unaspi- 
rated soft consonant, except f, to its corresponding aspirate, 
whenever the final is changed : therefore <f^ for ^ becomes, 
nom. sing. ^ or ipr, jj^ or 11^; instr. dat. and abl. dual 

or ljfli ; instr. plur. ipfa ; dat. and abl. plur. ipwr: or 
i: ; loc. plur. ^ or ^W; in the other cases, ^, ^:, -pr, 
&c. So ^ 'what burns:' V^ or VJT, v^ or \j^; vmrf or 
V^wrf &c. <*|r, who or what milks,' takes the guttural substi- 
tute only ; as, 

nom. w 

ace. * 

instr. f^rr 

dat. &c. loc. 


c. TH, 'what bears or carries/ substitutes ^! for the first 
two letters in several compound nouns before the accusative 
plural and subsequent vowel inflexions : this 11 (by rule 3. 
clause c.) makes., with a preceding /% ^ not ^ft; as 
mf. s all- sustaining/ 




dat. r<4 v <Tl * &c. loc. 

fern. nom. sing. 

If the preceding vowel be not 'sr or Tin, the "31 to which TT is 
changed combines with it, according to rule : thus *J^T^ ( earth- 
sustaining;' nom. >f5T^, ifTrfr, >J3T5:; ace. plur. >T^:j instr. 
sing. >J^T, &c. 

d. iyri^l^, c lndra/ (he who is borne on a white horse,) 
presents several anomalies. In the nominative and vocative 
singular, and before the consonantal inflexions, it is declined 
as if ending in ^RT ; as 'W^^. In the accusative plural and 
following cases with vowel inflexions it retains its final, but 
optionally substitutes ^ for TT; as, 


ace. A4\ "WT%: or 

instr. iydl^i or 

dat. "%ff^ or 

abl. ^FT : or 

gen. li: or ff^TT: i^ or 

loc. ^?or iyricjif ^rff^: or 

f. 'a. slipper/ substitutes ^ for the final before 
the consonantal inflexions ; making ^rn"Tr^ or 3UM^ JMHsilf, 
^mrjfgt, gnTRWt, '<J'JHrlJ ; before the vowels, ^TTT*!^, &c. 

f. WTp[, ' an ox/ is very anomalous. In the nominative 
and vocative singular f is substituted for the final ; and in all 


the numbers of the nominative, and in the accusative sin- 
gular and dual, ^rr is prefixed to the final ; before which, ^ 
regularly* becomes ^. Before the consonantal inflexions ^ is 
changed to <?. 

nom. irfsiT ^ H ^ I ^1 

ace. ' 


dat. % 5Tr|d &c. loc. 


Compounded so as to form an epithet, this word may become 
feminine and neuter; as ^Tf^, e having good cattle/ makes, 
fern. nom. lHi^, neut. nom. and ace. 



132. Adjective or attributive nouns are inflected in the 
same manner as substantive nouns : admitting of the three 
genders, and varying as to their inflectional terminations 
according to their proper finals, agreeably to the rules already 
given for the inflexions of nouns. 

133. Adjectives admit of the variations of degree common 
in other languages, as comparatives and superlatives. When 
regular, they are formed by adding to the crude noun the 
terminations "en: and im (technically called TRT^ and TTR^T ) : in 
the former of which we have the Greek repos, and in the 
latter an approximation to rcnos and the ' timus' of the Latin 

holy y*WfK more holy yiWrW most holy. 

eloquent Tj^Ht more eloquent MrtH most eloquent 

a. Before these affixes a final ^ is rejected, and the fina 
of the participial affix "3* is changed to IT ; as, 


young ipnRR younger grim youngest. 
wise P^<R wiser fad^H wisest. 

b. The same affixes, with a like import, are added" to some 
particles ; as ^rfw, more than/ may make ^frfcR and ^rfririf 
' still more' or ( most :' and although different etymologies are 
assigned to T^r: and T3*T, which, besides other meanings, 
denote degrees of excellence, or ' better/ ' best,' they are most 
probably formed from "37? ' up/ with the terminations of the 
comparative and superlative degrees. 

c. The terminations are sometimes added to substantive 
nouns ; as, tTO ' a king ;' JMR ' more a king ;' j*THH ' most a 

d. When added to feminine nouns in ^ or gj, the finals 
may be made short ; as, DM rill or <afliR ' more fortunate ;' DMrfH 
or <ifliiH c most fortunate.' 

e. The same terms, with the syllable ^T^ added, give a 
comparative and superlative force to the personal inflexions of 
verbs ; as, *t<4|frf ( he talks ;' *f<-MfriiKI*< x ' he talks more than 
he ought;' ^cMrdrfHI*^ ( he talks without stint or measure.' 

134. Attributives formed with 7R and THT are declined in 
three genders like other nouns in *8, and like them offer a 
marked resemblance to Latin attributives in ' us ;' as ^iWrt'Cj 
*J<WiRI, J<WrK, &c. 

135. Attributives of comparison are also formed with the 
affixes ^T^ and ^?, which are analogous to the icov and 
KTTOS of the Greek ; the former properly denoting the com- 
parative, the latter the superlative ; although the distinction is 
not always carefully observed. Those which are formed with 
^S are declined like nouns in ^t ; those with frr^ in the man- 
ner explained under nouns ending in ^ (see rule 129). They 
take the three genders ; as, TW * strong / Ml^ ' stronger/ 
nom. Ml*JM v , ^?5far*ft, Jc4ln: ; jPrtB t strongest/ |ft4S:, '4fc4Kl, 
^frttf, &c. 

a. These affixes have the effect of causing, as in the example 
given, a final vowel to be dropped. "^75 rejects its own W, 

L 2 


and consequently the vowels ^ and ^ are attached at once to 
the consonant ; so XT, ' eloquent/ makes trcfcnr and i|fcg. If 
the word be a monosyllable, however, the final ^? is not 
rejected, and the usual change by Sandhi takes place ; as Tl 
for ftnT, ' dear/ with f^T and 31? makes J^^ x , in? ; and 7T 
for TT^irg, * excellent/ %nv, ^te. They also cause the elision 
of the possessive affixes W1(, ^[, f%^, and of ^ when an affix 
forming nouns of agency ; so *rfwi^, ' having sense/ ( sensible/ 
becomes *icflil*i N ' more sensible/ nflTff ' most sensible / ^nf^j 
' possessed of intelligence/ makes ihfhrs ' more intelligent/ 
Hfw ' most intelligent / ^ftf^, ' having wealth/ f rich/ vflM'fl x 
e richer/ vfT? ' most rich / cfi^ from ^i ( to do/ ' an agent/ 
' active, 5 '*0*<^ ' more' or ' very active/ <*fcg ' most active. 5 

b. The affixes frRT and ^ff are attached, however, most 
commonly to modifications of the original noun, or to what 
are considered as substitutes for it ; although possibly in some 
cases they are the proper originals become obsolete. The 
following is a list of the principal instances. 

Primitive. Substitute. Comparative. Superlative. 

snr*rf<* near %F 

little, young 

575 large 

efi^I thin 

pgrjT quick 

ST5 small or mean 

TOJ heavy *nt 

TJTT content gtr 

^Hr long 

?T1 distant 

3" firm 


( ^ >sjm ^TST 



c. ^, f much/ substitutes HIT, and is anomalous in the first 
form, as *nr*Tj *ff^' 

d. Occasionally the regular terminations are superadded to 
these superlatives to imply excess in a still greater degree ; as, 

' more excellent ;' ^yHH ' most excellent/ ' most best.' 


Pronouns and Pronominal Nouns. 

136. Pronouns and certain other nouns are classed toge- 
ther, as agreeing in some peculiarities of inflexion, by which 
they are distinguished from all other nouns. The list com- 
mences with the distributive pronoun ^ * all ;' whence they 
are called ^"frf^ or Sarva and others. 

137. Besides the meaning ' all/ F is a name of Siva, and 
in that sense it is declined like any other noun in 'W; but 
when it is a pronominal noun it differs from its regular in- 
flexion in the following respects : 



is substituted for WK, as *r|f for 

nom. plur. 

dat sing. 

abl. sing. 

loc. sing. 

gen. plur. ^ - ^ *r|pn^ Siui 

138. After the feminine form l&fr, ^cr is prefixed to the 
terminations of the dative, ablative, genitive, and locative sin- 
gular ; and the final of the inflective base is made short. In 
the genitive plural *r is prefixed to 










Neuter nom. and ace. TFrff Tr|f 


139- All the words of this class follow this model, as far 
regards the inflectional terminations, with exception of tl 
two first personal pronouns, which are altogether anomalou 
The class consists of the following pronouns and pronomin 

i. Personal pronouns. 
***<; I. 
TpiT^ thou. 

^ > that, or he, she, it. 

2. Demonstrative pronouns. 
this or that, 



3. Relative, 
who, which, or what. 

4. Interrogative, 
who ? or what ? 

5. Honorific, 
your honour, your excellency. 

6. Pronominal nouns, 
i. Distributives. 



one of two. 
one of many, 


which of two. 
which of many. t*-fa. > 
whether of two. 
whether of many, 
two, twofold. 




how many, 

ftnr whole, 
ifa half. 


2. Locatives. 
prior, east. 

posterior, west. 

inferior, other. 

inferior, west. 
south, right. 
subsequent, north. 

140. The pronouns of the first and second persons are very 
anomalous, but their irregularities are of exceeding interest, as 
they present striking analogies to those of the pronouns of the 
same persons in the classical and teutonic languages. 



ace. ?f or 5RT 'W4 or 'STWHT or *r: 

instr. *nn MRr*ri sHwifa: 

dat. *r?F^ or ^ ^n^Tlf or tff xHW"(^ or *T 

abl. Tif ->.HNI*ri ^TCRT^ 

gen. iff? or ^ ^ll^ft: or ^ ^WIB^ or r: 

IOC. Jrftf VJiqMu i(**flJ 

^ff^ ' thou.' 

nom. 7^ ^rf ^i 

ace. r^f or I^T *pf or TP^ T* 11 ^ or ^ : 

instr. FHTT ^Trf ^^if*?: 

dat. TT*lT or ^ ^Trf or ^T^ ^^*J*^ or ^ 

gen. w^ or *pn or ^7^ ^^|ah* x or 


141. The other pronouns are declinable in three genders, and 
follow more nearly the model of the class, ^r, in their inflexions. 
Those which end in ^, as 7R[ &c., reject their final conso- 
nant before all the inflexions, except in the nominative singular 
of the neuter ; and they thus become words terminating in ^r. 
Before the nominative masculine and feminine, IT^, TH?, and 
change their 7T to ^ ; becoming therefore *?, ?rr, ^Ef, ^qj, W, 
; as, 

1T^ ' that/ or ' he, she, it/ 



nom. w. In n WT W irn 

ace. If T^ UT^ irf W UTt 

instr. ^*r wwr %t inn irwf irrf>T: 

dat. irel ^r: ir^ invq: 


gen. IT^I inftt ^rf info irraf 

loc. irfw^T 

Neuter TRf or inr w 



So w^, f that,' makes, 

masc. mi 



fem. ^irr 



neut. w^ 




this :' 

The other inflexions are also like those of H^ ; but in the accu- 
sative singular, dual, and plural, in the instrumental singular, 
and the genitive dual, in the three genders, ^T is sometimes 
used for TTrT; as, 

masc. ace. 

instr. s. 
gen. d. 

fern. ace. 

: or 




^BTiTT or 

instr. s. ^TRTT or 
gen. d. ^rfiH: or 

neut. ace. ^ff 

a. The second form is employed in the subsequent member 
of a sentence in which the first has already been used ; as, 
y4lcM^wy)ri*H f^fiW^i MI44, c The grammar has been 

studied by him ; now set him to read the Hitopadesa/ 

1 42. The other two demonstrative pronouns, ^T^r ' this* or 
' that,' and ^^ ' this/ undergo various modifications, chiefly 
of the inflective bases. 









this' or ' that.' 



Neuter nom. and ace. 



* this/ or ' that.' 










Neuter nom. and ace. 

\ \ 

This pronoun also substitutes ^f for the base in the same 
cases as ^Tf^. See above, rule 141. 

143. The relative pronoun TT<*, ' who' or ' which,' is declined 
like TT^ ; as, masc. nom. in, ^, ^ ; fern. nom. nr, *I, Hi: ; neut. 
nom. and ace. ^, ^, "mfT, &c. 

144. f^, 'who' or 'what,' is also declined analogously to 
TT^, substituting w for its final and preceding vowel, except in 
the nom. neuter, and thus becoming a noun in ^r; as, 

ofi for ftp^ ' who,' ' which.' 













Neuter nom. and ace. 



a. faff^ to various of its inflexions may affix farr^ or ^7f, 
giving to it a more general and indefinite signification; as, 
ejrftjr^ 'some one,' 'any one,' 'a certain one;' <*$!%! H^ 'to 
some one ;' iMVi^ ' some ones,' ' any ones ;' r*f*slf^ e some- 
thing,' 'any thing.' The neuter also occurs in the obsolete 


form of cRTT ; as cRf^r^ ' any thing.' ^*T is also added to 
inflexions of f^ in a like sense ; as, cWjT ' some one ;' 
' any thing, something.' 

b. The preceding pronouns may be compounded with 
gyf, or ssy, derivatives from g"^ ' to see/ to signify ' similarity :' 
when TT^, ^TT^, ^, &c. become ITT &c. ^ is substituted for 

and ^f, and eft for fs& ; as, 

dig 9^, TTTg^T, or dlgHj, such like. 

r, or Urllgttf; this like. 
THf^T, or qig{, how or what like. 
> or ^3^f> that or this like. 
or oflg Hf, how like. 

These are declinable in three genders, forming the feminine in 
^; mn. TTTg"^, f. rilg$f) ; or as nouns ending in ^r, as rilg^i:, 
ffT55(tj "rtig^i, &c. 

i. To TT^, '5TT^, ^[, may be added ^T^, implying * quantity/ 
when they are similarly changed ; as, rfNi^ c so much / lirfNi^ 

* so much / f(\<4 H N i how much ;' which are declinable like 
nouns in TiT^ ; as, TTRT*^ , riHrfl, HNi^, &c. : they are also used 
in the neuter form as adverbs, as, nm ^ ' how much,' iri'M'i^ * so 
much / and correlatively, as irr^ rim^ ' as much as/ 

c. ^^ and f^ in a similar sense have TTJ^ joined to the 
vowel of the base ; as, ^in^ ' so much / f<*^ ' how much : J 

nom. ^rr^, ^rrftj ^r^, &c. 

?. To cfi substituted for fcp^ may be also added fir, to form 
sfiilT c quot/ f how much/ ' how many. 5 It is the same for all 
genders, and is declinable in the plural only; as, nom. and 
ace. sfifw, instr. "aiifirfa:, dat. and abl. "cfifiTwr:, gen. oRjfhTT^, loc. 
'<*frf^. Similar derivatives may be formed from ir% and *r^, as 
TTfrf and Trfff, but they are of very rare occurrence. 

145. H 1 ^, an honorific term for ^m^, and which, like 

* Your honour/ f Vossignoria/ &c., although used for the 
second, is a pronoun of the third person : it is declined like 
other nouns in ^n^; as, 

M 2 





dat. H^ &c. loc. 


146. With respect to some of the following pronominal 
nouns, a few observations will be necessary. 

a. ^cfi, ' one/ f some one/ is also the numeral ' one/ and 
will be again noticed. In this place it admits of three num- 
bers ; as, ^K c one / ^cj^ ' two ones ;' ^ifc ' some ;' as ^ ^f*H 
' some ones,' or ( some, say.' 

b. 'SRT and the six following words in the list of pronominal 
nouns, which are analogous to comparatives and superlatives, 
differ from them in being inflected like *T|f. They are also 
peculiar in forming the neuter in 7T x ; as, 

^Mrt*^. The two terms preceding ^T, u<*rii: and 
make their neuters like other nouns in ^r, as irFfit, 

c. W, ' both/ is declinable in the dual only ; as, 

d. "gMTT, ' both/ has no singular : nom. dual wrf, pi. 

e. flTrnr and f^THT have two forms in the nom. plural, 

or fgrii(i: &c. ; so have ffifl*!, ijnln ; and the two last have 
also two forms in both the masculine and feminine before the 
inflexions of the dat., abl., gen., and loc. sing. ; as, PgrtliJUl or 

r+ ^ n ^ /^ ^, o 

l^rililW, l^ril^l*!, T^rTNf*!, &C. 

/. TTOT ' first/ ^T?T ( last/ ^^r^i ' few/ cbfrtmj ' how many/ 
have two forms in the nom. plur., MVJHI: or ir^, ^r?n: or 
'^T, &c. 

g. W1, when meaning ( equal/ * same,' is not a pronoun : it 
is declined like nouns in ^r; nom. plur. wn, dat. sing. 

A. %TT has two forms in the nom. plur., %^, %m:. 

i. ^, when implying ' property/ is a noun ; as a pronoun 
it has two forms in the abl. and loc. sing., ^n^ or 


.;. ^ and the remaining terms have two forms in the abl. 
and loc. sing., and nom. plural, ^p^n^ or ^jjw^, ^pf or ^tftR^, 
ij|f or iptr: ; so TTTJ^ or UTOTTf^, &c. They are pronouns only 
as signifying relation in time or space ; ' before/ f after/ ' east/ 
' west/ and the like. In any other sense they are nouns ; as 
^f^T!I ( clever :' nom. plur. ^pm, dat. sing. <jf\4Hlim. 

k. 'Mill, is a pronoun in the sense only of e outer / as, ^TflTTI 
or ^Ptft: *JfT: ' outer houses / n*d UMIt 31 Id 41m: ' of the outer 
petticoat:' but if a city be intended, it does not take the 
pronominal form ; as ^fKNI* (not -.HiK^i) Tjft: ' in the outer 
town/ the suburb or Pettah. 



147. The first ten numerals are, *T5R one, % two, fcf three, 
four, trer^ five, TT^ six, TOH^ seven, W^ eight, r|^f nine, 


148. The nine first are compounded with ^PT, ' ten/ to 
form the next nine, undergoing in some instances slight changes 
of termination ; as, 

eleven. Mli^ sixteen. 

twelve. ^nr^PT seventeen. 

thirteen. ^HKI^^R eighteen. 

fourteen. T^^I^ nineteen or 

fifteen. JdR^PK one less than twenty. 

149. With f43lfrt, ' twenty/ the simple numerals are com- 
bined on much the same plan ; as, 

twenty-one. tr?f^rfff twenty-six. 

twenty-two. fOfr^rPri twenty- seven. 

ri twenty-three. ^BlP^lfrt twenty-eight. 

T twenty-four. tTclf<*3rfif twenty-nine or 

ri twenty-five. 4i"flP<3^T!f one less than thirty. 

150. The rest of the series and its decimal subdivisions 
are composed analogously to P45lfrf and its subdivisions. 


thirty. tiHfri seventy. 

forty. VH^flfd eighty. 

fifty. *FTf!r ninety. 


Higher numbers have distinct denominations. 

^rrf a hundred. 
f a thousand. 

or 'snjrf ten thousand. 
or c5WT a lac, a hundred thousand. 

or -if) .. 

. S-one million. 

or -IT j 

i a krore, ten millions. 
l or -^ a hundred millions. 

: or -^ a thousand millions. 
r ten thousand millions. 

f a hundred thousand millions. 
: a billion. 

. Numerals, when declinable, are inflected upon the same 
principles as other nouns, but in some cases they undergo pecu- 
liar modifications of the base, which it is necessary to notice. 

b. ^afi, f one/ is declined as a numeral in the singular 
number only, in the three genders, iTcfi:, ^BT, TJop. It retains 
the pronominal form of inflexion ; as, <;<*$ f to one j } 

'from one/ &c. 

c. fir is declined in the dual only, substituting ^r for its 
final; as, nom. and ace. masc. irr, fern, and neut. ir, instr. &c. 
TTf, gen. and loc. 'gift . 

d. f& and the rest are declined in the plural only, f^ 
substitutes ftfs in the feminine gender. 

Masc. Fern. 




gen. of 4| Nil I 
loc. f^T| 
Neuter nom. and ace. gftftir. The rest as the masculine. 

e. ^"5^, 'four/ inserts WT before the final in the nom. masc. 
and nom. and ace. neuter, and substitutes w^ for the last 
syllable before the inflexions of the feminine. 

nom. vfril'O f. xfdty: n. ^FTTfic 

ace. -MrK; -3 AH'. -lHlfX &c. 



f. The remaining numbers to twenty, declinable in the 
plural only, are the same in all genders. A final T is rejected 
before all the affixes, and the terminations of the nominative 
and accusative are dropped : -*IBH substitutes ^ for its final 
vowel in the two first cases, and optionally elongates it in the 
rest : thus < T3T, ' five,' makes, nom. and ace. T% instr. tr^fa:, 
dat. and abl. t^w?:, gen. 'M^MIH, loc. M^U. After which 
model are inflected TOTT, t*rf, <^TT> 4Jfcl<^lf j &c. 

*T^ f six/ makes, nom. and ace. re, instr. W?faj dat. and 

abl. *T?wn, gen. ^wf, loc. rew. 

\ o 

^re^T f eight / nom. and ace. "%&, instr. ^cvfa: or WTfa, dat. 
and abl. '3I*'K or ^nrwt, gen. -nym, loc. w?w or vigi^. 

ff. R^rfrf ' twenty/ fg^n^ ' thu*ty/ &c. are declined like 
other nouns with similar terminations ; but they are confined 
to the feminine gender, and to the singular number, unless 
multiples of them be signified, when they take the other 
numbers ; as, sing, fulfil f twenty/ dual f^rrfl ' two twenties/ 
plur. f4$lf(M: ' many twenties :' otherwise the number does not 
vary with the substantive with which it may be connected ; as 


51^:, * with twenty, thirty, forty 
arrow r s, &c. Instances however do occur where they take 
the plural number, to agree with a plural substantive ; as 
I: ' with fifty horses.' 

h. ^nf ( a hundred,' and TR^I ' a thousand/ are both neuter 
nouns, and are usually limited to the singular, except w r hen 
repetition of them is intended; as, ^ 'two hundreds/ ^^ 
f two thousands/ SMlfH f many hundreds/ H^ufa ' many 
thousands.* In construction they are commonly employed 
with nouns in the genitive plural, as ^nf ^ufl'^f *a hundred 
(of) female slaves / although they are also used attributively 
with plural nouns, as *r^ir farUJ ' a thousand ancestors/ The 
other numerals are inflected, like nouns in general, according 
to their gender and termination. 

151. Numerals in composition with nouns to form attri- 
butives are inflected, like other nouns, according to their 
finals ; as, ftnrfcf : HHm: f a man having three friends / finifo: 
^f( f a woman having three lovers / ftnrf^ RH ' a family hav- 
ing three agreeable persons:' but ftmCd^, c a. man who has 
three mistresses/ makes PuJjPrim, PimPritit, 
&c. The same term may be used in the neuter ; as ftmPrUi 
1 a family with three beloved females ;' nom. and ace. 

tusr, &c. ^^l in such a compound becomes 

in the nominative and in the accusative singular and 
dual ; as, nom. Pim-MHII, PwmriKT, PumrJKt ; ace. 
instr. ft|J4-4iRI, &c. 

a. Similar compounds of ^ are inflected like nouns in 
and those of the numerals ending with T like nouns in 
but ^nr*^ may in composition be inflected like a noun in 
(p. 59), or like a primitive noun masculine in ^T (p. 33), 
or in the plural number like the simple numeral; as, nom. 
PH*<IKI, PKMIIII, PmiiBM:, or Pumgi:, Pnniyl, fumyi: or ftrTiTt; 
ace. PHMiit, PH*J i ?ifl, fTTTT^rt, or Puiiiyf, Pwniyt, ftnrnrr:, 
or frnrret; instr. PH^I&MI, fjnrrevqf, ftpreftr:, or 
r:, &c. 


'5fT, implying ' less,' is used alone, as above exhibited, to 
signify one less than the numeral to which it is prefixed ; aSj 
gMnj^rfd: ' twenty minus one/ i. e. nineteen ; 1 35ffg^n^ ' thirty 

minus one/ i. e. twenty-nine. It may also be used with a 
definite number; as, ^e^rif^'siCd: ' twenty minus one;' q^H 
f^TiT ' thirty minus five/ i. e, twenty-five ; <J$ftH3M* e a hun- 
dred minus ten/ i. e. ninety. The term ^rfVcfi, ( more/ but 
which is declinable, is also compounded with numerals to 
denote addition, as tf^rrftjcR ^Trf ( a hundred plus five/ or 
* one hundred and five.' 


152. The ordinal equivalent of ' one' or ' first* is most com- 
monly IT*JTT, declinable in three genders, TT^nr:, -TT, -*T, and 
according to the rules of pronominal inflexion (p. 77). Other 
synonymcs are, wf^t, ^TT?T:, ^if^Ht ; the first is restricted to the 
masculine gender, the others are declinable in three genders. 

153. In forming ordinals from the other cardinal numbersj 
certain terminations are either added to or are substituted for 
their proper finals, and the word is declinable in the three gen- 
ders. In the case of ^itj^, ' four,' other words are optionally 

-*n -TJ second. w: -ift -rf sixth. 

-IT -*f third. ^TJT*T: -*ft -r seventh. 

-iff -%f^ TSVH: -*ft -?r eighth. 

-irr -if > fourth. THJT: ->ft -*f ninth. 

-TIT -if J ^nr. -ift -f tenth. 

-?ft -?r fifth. 

154. The termination ^T, derived from the technical affix T^ 
being added to geH^p^ and the rest as far as twenty, is substi- 
tuted for the final syllable, leaving <?<*i<^r:, -^ft, -^f, ' eleventh ;* 
T?f$r:, -^, -H, ' twelfth/ &c. 

155. The same affix, causing the elision either of the final syl- 
lable or final vowel, is also added to the numerals from twenty 
upwards. In another form they add in? to their finals ; as, 



or f^r: twentieth. tiufririH: or Wfft seventieth. 

or fg^i: thirtieth. ^Ofilrit: or ^qfhr: eightieth. 

or ^rtllftsi: fortieth. ^PriHH: or tTTff: ninetieth. 

or q^l^n fiftieth. $|rifW: or ^nr: hundredth. 

or W: sixtieth. 
a. In these as in the cardinal numbers the decimal subdivi- 

sions are expressed by prefixing the numeral, as ^rf^rfiniTJ or 
g<*P43r. ' one and twentieth.' 

b. There are other modifications of the numerals, declinable 
or indeclinable, in different shades of meaning ; as, ~i&\ ' a two/ 
' a duad / W*T*^> W*ft, ' a triad / also fed*^ and fdriW^ in simi- 
lar senses, fg: ' twice / f^ 1 : ' thrice / ^**rc4 or ^iwr ' once / 
%VT ' twice/ &c. : but these belong more especially to the 
subject of derivation. 



156. THE indeclinable words of the Sanskrit language com- 
prehend nouns used as nouns, and nouns or particles used as 
particles, that is, in some other sense than that which is 
expressed by a noun or a verb. 

157. i. Nouns which retain their character of the names of 
things or notions, but which are employed in one unalterable 
inflexion, whatever may be their relation to the other members 
of the sentence in which they stand, may be either simple 
monoptote nouns, or compounds of the indeclinable class : the 
latter will be noticed when treating of the different classes of 
compounds : the former are not numerous ; the principal are 
the following : 

setting, decline, of the 'siP^ remainder, et cetera, 
sun or of fortune. op^ water, head, happiness, 

what is, existence. ^TTT patience, pardon. 


food. f**^ a P a i r - 

reverence, salutation. *T%Tf a year. 

non-existence. 7rft[ the fortnight of the moon's 
^f^ the fortnight of the moon's increase, 

wane. ^1 heaven. 

>j^l sky, atmosphere. yfW salutation, greeting. 
>^ earth. 

a. Besides ^rf^T, as specified in the above list, there are a few 
other verbal inflexions which may be used in the sense of 
nouns ; as JJTffT and fWff ' what is/ ' existence ;' ^rn^ ' what 
may be/ c scepticism :' or of pronouns ; as, wfijT ' I/ properly 
' I am / ^rftr ' thou/ properly ' thou art/ They are also used 
absolutely, or as particles ; as, ^TW, H^Tff e so be it/ implying 
assent ; ^f^ ' come/ * begin / TT^TT and q^ri ' see P e lo P ' be- 
hold !' and a few others of rarer occurrence. 

158. 2. The other division of Indeclinables, termed falHn:, 
comprises a variety of terms, the origin and character of which 
are sometimes of difficult determination, but which, from the 
functions they fulfil, may be considered as adverbs, prepositions, 
conjunctions, interjections, expletives ; and particles properly 
so termed; that is, syllables which are affixed or prefixed to 
words to modify their meaning, although in themselves they 
are apparently insignificant. 


159. Adverbs are numerous, and are variously formed, but 
they are in most instances, and very possibly in all, attributive 
nouns adverbially employed in some one or other unvarying 
inflexion. The prevailing form is that of the neuter accusa- 
tive ; offering in this respect an analogy to such Latin adverbs 
as ' facile/ ' difficile/ t dulce/ ' ceterum/ ' multum/ and the 
like : but other inflexions, either regularly or irregularly con- 
structed, are also in use as adverbs. Thus UflH, 'truth/ 
means also * truly / TT*^, ' happiness/ occurs as *np^ ' happily ;' 
^iff:, -7TT, -if, ' done/ furnishes ^fl^ ' done with/ ' enough :' 

N 2 


from ^BTR ) ' place/ comes WF^ * in place/ * suitably/ ' fitly / 
and from sfTJ, ( strength/ ( force/ *it4l^ ' by force/ * forcibly/ 
* violently/ It may be a question if every Sanskrit noun which 
is capable of being used attributively may not be employed 
as an adverb, to denote the variations of mode, circumstance, 
kind, degree, or those modifications which adverbs are intended 
to express. The following list furnishes some of those in most 
familiar use. The manner in which such are formed as differ 
from the inflexions of the nouns hitherto described, belongs 
to the head of derivation. 

suddenly, unexpect- 
edly, without a wherefore. 

before, preceding. 
before, in front of, 


(- without delay. 

continuously, continu- 


hence, hereafter, more- 

very much. 
so, thus. 

how-else, yes. 
rightly, truly, clearly. 
to day. 
now, at present. 

down, downwards. 


moreover, further. 
r the day after. 


^ PH 51 *^ always, eternally. 


I without, except; 

| within, among. 


other, otherwise. 
^J fa A ^quickly, entirely ,around, 

repeatedly, quickly. 
quickly, a h'ttle. 
there, in the next world. 

behind in time or place. 
enough j it is also a 

without, outside. 
-*^ repeatedly, more than 

improperly, unfitly. 

improperly, unsea- 



by day. 


successively, seria- 

near, afar. 

forcibly, violently. 

present, in sight. 
hence, from hence. 
here and there. 
so, thus, ita. 
again, another. 

either day. 


clearly, truly. 
like, as, so. 

here, in this place, in this 
a little. 
high, loud. 

a subsequent day. 
rsr secretly, privately, in a 

on both sides. 

both days. 

TTT dawn. 

rightly, truly. 
rightly, truly. 
at one place, together. 
at one time. 


at the same moment. 
*rrft at this time. 

also, verily, so. 
thus, so, as. 

yes, so be it: it is also 
an inceptive mystical term 
prefixed to prayers and 

> What if, how, if ever. 



some how. 

how then, how indeed. 

some when, some time : 
T oh^lPli^ never. 
when, at what time. 

some when, at some 

what truly, \vhat indeed. 
further, moreover. 
^^^ ( a little, something ; as 
__ < with a negative f 
^ I r<**s|r| nothing. 
but, also. 

but what, but how. 

what, what how. 
or what, or also. 
what, how. 
^T or, either, but how. 

or perhaps. 
indeed, possibly. 
what then, how. 
whence, how. 



excellently, well. 

somewhere ; 

a long time. Other cases 
of this noun are used in the 
same sense, as 

for a long time. 
sometimes, some-when. 
silently, happily. 
quickly, frequently. 

therefore, then. 
thence, from or after that. 
then, at that time. 

TPTT thus, so. 

thus, thus even. 
in like manner. 

therefore, from that. 
then, at that time. 
so far, so much. 
1 crookedly ; also dis- 
fi!TR - 3fi J honestly. 
^ thouing. 

< N silently. 

WT by that, therefore, 
by day. 
fortunately, luckily. 

vilely, badly. 
<H badly. 

far off, distant, 
in the evening. 

< |e|j "I 

>- speedily. 

1 no-what, nothing, ex- 
) cept. 
by night. 

no, not. 
> no, not. 

many, various, 
evidently, verily. 
fi<*m near. 

willingly, readily, very, 
certainly, truly. 
ft no, not. 
^ perhaps. 

after, afterwards, 
day after to-morrow, 
all round. 

rthe morrow, the day after." 
sufficiently, abundantly, 
well, good, right. 

after, afterwards, behind, 

again ; ^m ipn: again and 
again, repeatedly. 



"\ before either in place 

> or time, in front, 

J formerly. 
f in the east, in front, for- 

formerly, in front. 

day before, yesterday, 

separately, distinctly, 

in the morning, 

h wearily, with fatigue. 

daily, day by day. 
on the contrary, otherwise, 
early, in the morning. 

at the same time. 

violently, forcibly, 
before in place or time, 
in front, formerly, in pre- 
sence of, east, hereafter, 
early, in the morning. 

in a contrary way, con- 

mostly, for the most 

in the forenoon, 
after death, in the next 

I violently, by violence 
j or force, 
out, without, outside, 
speedily, quickly. 

again, repeatedly ; much, 

much, very much. 
speedily, quickly. 

a little, slowly, dully. 
JTT or JTTT "I no, not ; prohi- 
} bitive e do not.' 


no, not, except. 

without delay. 
1 together, mutually, in 
j conjunction. 

vainly, idly, unprofitably. 
T falsely. 

(i^r) what ; TT^, TT!^, that- 

\vhence, wherefore. 
as ; zrsrr, THTT, so-as. 

any how ; seldom. 

in order or succession. 
properly, rightly. 

as far as, as much as ; UMiT , 
, as much as, so much. 
bad, ill. 
fitly, properly. 

) at once. 
bad, ill. 

wherefore, why, because. 
by night. 
like, as. 



in two ways, optionally, 

fa^mtH aloft, in the air. 

vainly, idly, 
verily, indeed, 

eternally, continually, 
well, good, right. 

at the same time. 

( always, continually, 

3 eternally. 

in concealment, privily, 
at once. 

wholly, altogether, all 
about, all round, on every 

together, equally, 
near to. 

^ near to, in the pre- 
) sence of. ^ftf yesterday. 

The same difficulty that exists in other languages applies to 
various terms in the preceding list, and they may be sometimes 
thought to be rather conjunctions or prepositions than adverbs. 
Several, no doubt, fulfil either office, and in any case the 
embarrassment is that rather of denomination than of appli- 
cation, as the connexion of the sentence will readily point out 
the sense in which they are to be employed. 

entirely, rightly, 
'UHl Trf now, at this time. 

before, in the presence 
or face of. 

entirely, completely ; 
rightly, properly. 

wholly, every way, 
every where, 
every where, 
hastily, precipitately. 

visibly, manifestly ; be- 
fore or in sight, 
awry, indirectly, 
half, equally. 

now, opportunely, fitly, 

very, exceedingly, 
for a long time, 
uselessly, idly, 
good, excellent, very. 

of one's-self. 
verily, for, because, 
without, except. 
I because, by reason or 
j on account of. 



160. The most important of these are used chiefly in com- 
bination with simple verbs, and form with them compound or 
derivative verbs, which, either in their own inflexions, or those 
of the nouns derived from them, constitute the bulk of the 
language. The verbs thus compounded sometimes retain the 
meaning of the original, or more frequently they have the 
sense of their component elements; but in many instances 
they express significations which depart widely from those 
which they might be expected from their composition to con- 
vey. In all these respects they offer striking analogies to the 
compound verbs of the Greek, Latin, and German languages. 
A preposition combined with a verb is termed an Upasarga 
(TTffrh). The name Gati (nfffl) is also given to it, as well as 
to other verbal prefixes. The Upasargas are twenty-one in 

a. The principal or primary notion conveyed by these prepo- 
sitions is in general sufficiently obvious, and may be rendered 
by equivalents in English or in the classical languages. Usage, 
convention, and metaphor, however, extend the primary notion 
through a variety of modifications, which can become familiar 
only by practice. The explanation of them all is the province 
of a dictionary, and in this place all that can be attempted is 
the explanation of, i. the principal purport of each preposi- 
tion ; 3. the equivalents by which it is usually translated ; 
and 3. its exemplification by nouns of frequent occurrence, 
derived from verbs compounded of a simple verb and a prepo- 
sition ; as in the following arrangement. 

i . Going beyond a real or imaginary limit : 2. ' over/ 
'beyond/ 'trans/ 'ex:' 3. ^rfrr^T: (i) 'going over or 
beyond/ (3) ' transgression / ^rfw^nr: ' excess.' 

i. Being above in place or degree: 2. ' over/ ' above/ 
'upon/ 'super:' 3. 1 srfW*lT: (i) 'going over or on/ 



(2) ' going over or through/ as a book ; ^f\|*Rt * office/ 
' superintendence / 'snzffim ' presiding spirit.' 

i. After in order or manner : 2. ' after/ ' like :' 3. ^"7-K: 
' a follower / ^fJ-*H: ' an index,' ' a series ;' ^jejifri: ' imi- 

i . Coming within a space or interval : 2. ' inner/ 
' within/ ' inter/ ' unter :' 3. ^PtrtTFf ' disappearance ;' 
*5<fl4)l*fl ' the pervading or inner soul.' 

i. Taking away in substance or kind: 2. 'from/ 'away/ 
' off,' OTTO, ' de/ ' dis/ ' ex :' 3. VHM^K: ' carrying off ;' 
^tfcji^: ' detraction,' ' censure.' 

i. Affirming of a certainty: 2. 'verily/ 'indeed' (but this 
is more frequently used alone, as an adverb or conjunc- 


tion\ : 3. ^fqviirj ' a covering : it is also fnviH, the initial 

/ *J a 

being rejected. 

i . Being present, opposite, or near to ; also, being 
above in place or degree : 2. ' to/ ' unto,' ' ad / ' before/ 
' opposite/ ' ob ;' ' up/ ' super :' 3. ^rfirip? ' in front or in 
presence of/ ^rfaiTR: ' approach ;' ^rfa^nr: ' a high land / 
wfvnnTt ' a person of high rank.' 

i. Being below in place or degree ; also, being sepa- 
rated : 2. ' down/ ' off/ ' from,' ' de/ ' dis,' ' ex :' 3. ^Hrili: 
* coming down as from heaven to earth ;' -^HcfcTNJ ' cutting 
off,' ' excision / 'iHJM: ' gone away,' ' departed ;' sJH'ftrK 
' despised.' 

or ^rr^ i. Bounding or limiting; also reversing: 2. 'to/ 
' unto/ ' as far as/ ' ad/ ' re :' 3. *sr*K: ' form ;' ^Hiiy; 
'sky;' imf 'going;' HNI*H 'coming;' ^Tf ' gift* or 
' giving ;' iii^M ' taking.' It is also used conjunctively 
with nouns in the ablative case : as, ^Hii|lHIH N ' as far as to 
the village ;' ^jm^^irt x ' as far as to the ocean.' 
or ^ i. Being high in place or excellent in kind : 2. ' up/ 
' above/ ' superior/ ' super/ ' valde :' 4^W ' flying up / 
tfrjy: ' excellent ;' JSIHt ' great effort.' 
i . Being near or next to ; whence also, being less than : 


2. c near,' ' less,' VTTO, ' sub,' * infra:' 3. 4M'W. * approach ;' 
^TJ^: ' a minor Veda or scripture.' 
T: i . Condition of badness, pain, difficulty, and the like : 

2. ( in,' ' un,' Svs, ' dis :' 3. <*HMK: ' wicked ;' <*:^ ' un- 
happiness,' ' pain ;' gm^: ' unbearable ;' $irt: ' difficult of 

^T i Being within, below, or under ; also, being contrary 
or reverse : 2. ' in,' l on,' ev, e in ;' * down,' ( sub ;' ' un' or 
' in,' ' re :' 3. fa^irf: * a dwelling ;' fH4: e a heap ;' PlMiM 
' coming down ;' frfejtfir: ( iniquity.' 

i. Being out or exempt from; whence also affirmation, 
as excluding doubt : 2. ' out,' * without,' ' ex,' ' ab,' ' ne :' 

3, faJfa: ' going forth,' * exit ;' fH<gq: ' certainty ;' ftf^r: 

* faultless.' 

1. Being opposite or opposed to; whence also reverse: 

2. e over,' * back,' irapa, ( ob,' ' re,' ' de :' 3. tjn^ ' turned 
back ;' Wipr. ' defeat.' 

i . Being all round or about ; whence also fulness, 
completeness : 2. ( about,' ' around,' irep}, ' per,' ' circum :' 

3. ^rftfv: * circumference ;' tjfcTOTf: ( maturity ;' qfVMii*; 

* perfection of fabric,' 

U i . Being before in time, place, or quality : 2. ' fore,' ' be- 
fore,' ' above,' TTJOO, ' pro,' ( prae :' 3. iw^: ' first birth ;' 
UTTO ' going forth,' ' proceeding ;' TPTT^: ( preeminence.' 

ufir i. Reverted, or reflected, or repeated action or condi- 
tion : 2. ' again,' ' back,' f re:' 3. TrfiT^iTlL: ' retaliation,' 
' requital ;' HfrWTUT ' reply ;' Hffffaff ' a reflected image ;' 
MPrir^H ' day by day.' 

f% i . Being several or separate ; whence also privation : 
2. * apart,' ' away/ ' without,' ' dis,' ' de,' ' se :' 3. f^cRTt: 
' separate or new form,' ' change of form ;' fct^Tl'i: ' dis- 
junction,' ' separation ;' fo^fa; * distinction ;' f^s: * with- 
out ears.' 

^ i . Being conjoined with ; whence also completeness : 
2. * with,' * together with,' CTVJ/, ' con :' 3. UJ^H: ' associa- 

o a 



tion ;' *I*T)J|: * union ;' UMiK: * perfect fabric or perform - 

i. The opposite of ^, or condition of happiness, ease, and 
the like : a. e good,' ' well,' e, ' bene :' *n?f * happiness ;' 

b. Some of these prepositions are used separately or without 
verbs, especially ^rfir, ^rfv, 'snj, ^ran:, wcr, ^rfa, ^n, Ttr, Tjft, 
and irfir; and there are others which are not subject to be com- 
pounded with verbs ; as, 4*ri\m ' except,' ?&rt * with,' ^^ ' except,' 
fVrr ' without' or 'except,' and *^T 5 *Tf, ^rfi^H^, *M<W N , or Ul^, 

* with,' ' together with.' Some of the words given as adverbs 
may be considered as prepositions ; as *flij, 3ifft, * near to.' 

c. Besides prepositions in the sense in which they are usually 
understood, a number of words which are actually or were 
originally nouns, of which some are included in the above list 
of adverbs, are prefixed in one unvarying or uninflected form, 
analogously to particles, to the verbs ^nr * to be,' ^ ' to be' or 

* become,' and "^ * to do.' To these, in native grammars, the 
term Gati, ' motion' or ' transition,' is extended ; and a few of 
them may be conveniently specified here, as illustrative of the 
manner in which they are used with nouns derived from the 
verbs above specified. 

assisting the weak ; 4MI^M<<U giving such assistance. 
ornament; ^c4$U2 decoration. 

manifestation ; ilTeft<|T i r: appeared. 

faOk-m* &c. promising, making 
t assent. 

/ striking; ^^Ml^TT: &c. wounded, slain. 

diffusion ; fTT<^>|Tf: diffused. 

reverence ; HH^IU reverential salutation. 

an animal, a victim ; *nFJ*pn hurt, slain. 



in the hand ; 

. manifestation ; 

continuity ; 

faith ; 
Tif manifestly ; 


if tied in regular order. 
BT believing, trusting. 
Ct treating kindly or hospitably, 
r: being manifest. 

Most nouns may also be combined in this manner with verbs 
by the substitution of the technical affix ft^, leaving the vowel 
^ for their finals ; as, %na e black ;' yiarfl<*U!i ' blackening,' 
* making black/ &c. : but this subject belongs to derivation. 

161. The principal conjunctions are the following: 

(inceptive, used to begin a fefi%T but, or, moreover. 

sentence or a subject; P*fMfi or, perhaps. 
"I ' now/ < then/ 'thus.' 
and, also. 



but, how. 

inceptive, and imply- 
ing doubt. 

r conclusive, used to finish 
a sentence or a subject ; 
' so it is/ ( finis.' 
also, or. 

| whether ; implying 
) doubt or interrogation, 

but how ; implying doubt, 
how, but. 
or how, or also, 
or how, or what. 

and, or, but. 
f and also, 

but how ; implying doubt, 
r but not. 
J but, if, is not, nonne. 

or not, if not. 
if, how ; implying doubt, 
either, or. 
perhaps, or if. 

if not. 
if, perhaps. 

or, either. 


for, because. 



162. These are numerous : they are mostly sounds devoid of 
signification, other than the unpremeditated utterance of natural 
emotions : some are significant words, and of them some are 
capable in other senses of inflexion, although others appear to 
have become obsolete both in inflexion and meaning. 

Of the simple exclamations the principal are the vowels, as 
^ ^rr, ^ ^, "3" "31, ^ ^, ^, ^fV, which may express surprise or 
sorrow, like ' ah !' ' eh !' and ^rfa, ^^, ^^ Tiffr, 'H^Hrtj ^, ?TJ 
^1^1, are exclamations of a similar kind. Others are, fsRT 
implying f contempt ;' fv^ importing the same, also * grief,' 
1 alas !' ( ah me !' ^r implying ( grief;' ^W * anger* or f sorrow ;' 
^TfT or irnft ( grief;' f^ ( alarm ;' ^ ' displeasure/ &c. 

a. Vocative particles, used in speaking or calling to, are 
frequently employed ; some of which are respectful, others 
disrespectful. Of the former class are, ^nffr, ^Tf, 'snft, ^^Nrt> 
^, ^, Wf, ^t, 1TT7, "anr, *mfar >?hT, ^t, %, f, ^- Of the latter 
are, ^, ^r^, ^, ^. ^ar may be used in either. 

b. Some ejaculatory syllables are mystical, like the monosyl- 
lable ^ffr^, which is typical of the three great deities of the 
Hindu mythology, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, and of the 
three Vedas, and should never be uttered in the hearing of 
ears profane. Others are used with charms and mystical 
prayers peculiar to certain sects ; as ^, ipr , jrf , TR?. Others, 
again, of which some are significant words, are uttered in the 
act of pouring oiled butter on the sacrificial fire, as a libation 
to the manes or the gods ; as 


163. Syllables used mostly to complete the metre of a line 

are considered to be devoid of signification ; they are, 

^, TJ, "J, %, W, ^, fl ; being identical, therefore, for the most 

part with the conjunctions. 



164. These are syllables added to words, either as prefixes 
or affixes, to qualify their purport. The specification of them 
properly belongs to derivation, but a few may be advantage- 
ously noticed here. 

^ may be prefixed to nouns of any kind, to give them a con- 
trary or negative sense ; as, vwh * virtue/ ^nj^: * vice ;' *n^ 
' being/ ^TOl^ ' non-existent.' Before a voM r el it is changed 
to ^[; as, ^fr: ' finite/ ^H^T: ' infinite/ * eternal.' 
^r* is a prefix implying ' surprise ;' ^r^w * wonderful !' 
cjrr prefixed to nouns gives them a depreciatory sense; as, 
TJ^TI: * a man/ <*I^'M: ' a contemptible man/ ' a wretch/ 
It also signifies ' diminution ;' as, SBT + 3tcrt = cjrtali ' a little 

^ is also a depreciatory prefix ; ^W * wickedness/ 
^ "I These are added to pronouns and adverbs to give them 
) a more extended sense ; as, <*<5H, fiftj7^ ' any one/ 
' some one / cfii%[H, <*jP^rf x * any how / o&f^P^ * any M^here/ 

implies ' resemblance,' as UI'SULH^ ' like a Brahman/ 
is usually an expletive, but when affixed to a verb in a 
present tense it gives it a past signification ; as, >T=rfif ' it 
is/ H^PrW ' it was/ It is also used with the prohibitive JTT 
or JTTT ; as, JfTCR ' no/ * not/ ' do not/ 

is added to particles to imply ' doubt and interrogation / 
as, fotinMd * How is it?' 'Is it so?' ^fei^ 'Whether?' 
* Is it so ?' and the like. 

prefixed to ?i and its derivatives implies * consent / 
' assent/ * promise/ 





Roots and indicatory letters. 

165. THE VTiJ or ' radical' of the Sanskrit language, although 
in strictness it fulfils no specific grammatical function, and is 
equally the theme of a noun as of a verb, may be most con- 
veniently considered as identical with the latter, or as the 
crude verb ; in which condition it undergoes the usual modi- 
fication of conjugation, and the varieties of voice, mood, and 

166. As arranged in the Dhatu-paftias (vTTJWTt) or 'glossaries 
of roots/ the root is usually interpreted by an active or abstract 
noun in the locative case ; as, ^r-f^WPfr ' in* division ; im-*n^ 
f in' going; H-WRT f in' being; $rr-$n% 'in' knowledge; 
and the like ; intimating one general and comprehensive idea 
to which the different modifications expressed by its deriva- 
tives may be referred. 

167. All the roots, with a few doubtful exceptions, as 
^UitOc* * swinging,' ^'<4ifll. ' ascertaining,' <*HI<J ' playing,' *TT^ 
' seeking,' are monosyllables : many of them are uniliteral, as 
^ * going,' ^ * injuring :' the greater number, however, termi- 
nate in consonants, as w^ * discussion,' TTT * sounding,' >n^ 
' shining.' In all cases, however, the root has some vowel, 
most usually the short % attached to the final consonant, not 
as a radical letter, but for the sake of pronunciation or 
accentuation, and the mark of quiescence is therefore not 
subjoined : the roots specified, although ending as radicals in 
consonants, are written, TT^, JT5f, >rrer. The whole number is 
about nineteen hundred. 

168. In the original lists the roots have attached to them 
certain supernumerary letters or Anubandhas (wjq*m;), which 
have one of two objects; i. Some of them denote the class or 


conjugation in which the verb is inflected ; 2. Others intimate 
those peculiarities to which each single verb is subject in its 
inflexions. It w r ill be useful to specify the principal of either 
class for the sake of occasional reference. 

i. General Anubandhas. 
Sign. Verb. Conjugation. 

^ ^fi< c5 second. 

fc5 ^ f<5 third. 

H f^ H fourth. 

*f ?T "? fifth. 

T$T ^ ^1 sixth, 

qr ^T *I seventh. 

^ 7R ^ eighth. 

TT ^ TT ninth. 

5 ^ e$ tenth 

{a subdivision of the first conju- 
gation, irfr and other verbs. 
^ TTf ^ another subdivision. 

2. Special Anubandhas. 

^K is added to all roots not terminating in any other radical 
or indicatory vowel ; as T**! (^ -f- ^f). This vowel should be 
accented, and the accents mark the voice in which the verb is 
conjugated. The grave shews that the verb takes the voice 
which is termed the Atmane-pada, ' the reflective ;' the acute 
accent indicates the Parasmai-pada or ' transitive ;' and the 
circumflex denotes that the verb takes both voices. The 
accents, however, are no longer marked in manuscripts. 

^rr denotes the optional insertion of ^ before the affix of one 
of the past participles, and its absolute insertion before an- 
other ; as, ffe^T (fr^ + ^n) ' to perspire ;' indef. past part. 
s (Vert or f^TZT. ; perfect past part, fin fijj P< nr . 

^ indicates the insertion of a nasal after a radical vowel in 
all the -tenses; as, ffff^ for ff^f ' to abuse;' frj^frf, f{ff'f4, 
T, &c. 



^C indicates two modes of inflecting the indefinite past ; as, 

+ ^), ' to swell/ makes either \HfMil i)^ or ^rwpTT . 
prohibits the insertion of ^ in the past participle ; as, 
(T^ + ^) ' to wet / past part. ^:. 

^ marks the optional insertion of ^ in the indeclinable past 
participle ; as, ^ * to tame' (^ + T), ^fifi^T or ^Tn^T- 

gi indicates the optional insertion of ^ in certain of the 
tenses ; as, ftv (fi^v + -35), ' to accomph'sh / definite future, 
or *rfvHT ; indefinite future, MituPrf or fl Pv m PH ; indef. past 

or -^iftfT. 

^ prohibits the substitution of a short vowel for a radical 
long one in the indefinite past of the causal verb; as, 
+ ^j) ' to sprinkle,' 

^ denotes that this is optional ; as, >JTT (*JT3T + ^$), ' to 
shine/ makes either ^jf%JTWrf x or "srf^nfi^. 

<5 restricts the indefinite past of the simple verb to one- 
form ; as, TTW (tnr + T?) f to eat / indef. past ^trenr . 

^T prohibits the substitution of a Vriddhi letter in the inde- 
finite past ; as, ^ (ZKZ + **) ' to encompass / indef. past ~%(<*t\ rf x 
not -^e(,l<ini^. 

^ft indicates the change of the usual termination of the 
past participle, TT to T ; as, *T^t (H^ + ^ft) ' to break / past 
part. vrrm. 

^ prohibits the insertion of ^ in those tenses in which it 
might else be inserted ; as T>rf (T>T + ^) ' to begin / def. fut. 

[; indef. fut. tm-ilfrf ; indef. past ^H^. 

T indicates the reflective voice ; as, Pm^' (f^T + ^) e to smile/ 

^T indicates both voices ; as, f^f^ (f^r + *? ') ' to serve/ 


or 9tifi. 

f^T indicates the optional employment of the past participle 
in the sense of the present ; as, (Hf u K ' to perspire / f^W. 
e perspiring/ ' perspired.' This is an instance of what is not 
uncommon, the annexation of more than one Anubandha to a 
verb. The present occurs in the lists, as 

VERBS. 107 

j indicates that the verb may take the affix ^r^ to form 
abstract or active nouns ; as, <^if ' to tremble ;' ^q^j: ' a trem- 
bling/ ( a tremor.' 

^ indicates the formation of participial nouns with the affix 
ffpJT; as, ^tr^ e to cook' or ' ripen;' T^ffpH 'cooked/ 'ripened.' 

II indicates the formation of feminine derivatives with 
as in the case of the last quoted verb tf^, which occurs 
and therefore forms the derivative, TT^T ' cooking/ ( maturing.' 

With regard to the roots themselves it may be added, that 
those which in the lists are marked as beginning with the 
cerebral nasal or sibilant, w or ^, change usually those letters 
in inflexion to the corresponding dentals ; so TSR, ( to bow/ 
makes THfw e he bows ;' ^Tf, ' to bear/ *n^ s he bears.' There 
are a few exceptions. 

+ Classes or Conjugations of Verbs. 

169. The conjugational inflexion of Sanskrit verbs is effected 
by a scheme similar to that which has been described under 
the head of the Declension of nouns. The verb in its inflected 
form is composed of two elements ; I . the Anga or ' base/ 
the modified verb to which the inflexions are subjoined; and 
2. certain letters or syllables which constitute the inflectional 
terminations, and are subjoined to the base. These termina- 
tions, which will be presently specified, are subject to but few 
changes in themselves ; but there is some variety in the man- 
ner of attaching them to the base. The crude verb, on the 
contrary, is liable to a greater number of modifications, most 
of which are special ; that is, they are restricted to the indi- 
vidual instance ; and, as not being reducible to general rules, 
they constitute the chief difficulty of Sanskrit grammar. 

170. Certain changes, affecting a greater or lesser number 
of verbs alike, have the effect of distributing them into ten 
classes or conjugations. These changes regard the manner in 
which the base is fitted to receive the affixes, either immedi- 
ately, or mediately through the intervention of a vowel or a 

P 2 



syllable, accompanied in some instances by the substitution 
of a Guna vowel for the vowel either of the base or of the 
adjunct, when it is capable of such substitution. 

a. Each conjugation is designated by a word compounded 
of the first verb of the conjugation with the term wf^, equi- 
valent to * et cetera/ added to it. They are severally, i. v^rf^ 
or >T ' to be,' and other verbs ; 2. -ij^if^ or ^ ' to eat/ and 


( to sacrifice/ &c. ; 4 
or ^ * to bear/ &c. ; 6. 
or ^>i ' to obstruct/ &c. ; 8. 
^Jlf^ 1 or ^ ' to buy/ &c. ; 10. 
The following are the characteristic 


others ; 3. V3fTKC or 
A to sport/ &c. ; 5 
' to tease/ &c. ; 7. 
fHT ' to stretch/ &c. ; 9 
or ^ ' to steal/ &c. 

1. The first conjugation, >^lf^, interposes ^T between the 
final of the verb and the inflectional termination, and requires 
the Guna change of the simple vowel. Thus before fifT, the,, 
affix of the third person singular of the present tense, the verb 
^ f to be' substituting Guna becomes wfr, and w being inserted, 

*vc ^ffr with ^l becomes W^; the entire form therefore is (*n~-ftT) 
H^fif. Before the letters ^, JT, of a termination this ^r is made 
long ; as, *JTff*T ' I am.' 

2. In the second conjugation, ^ife, the affixes are attached 
immediately to the base, with only such change as the rules of 
Sandhi require : ^, ' to eat/ with Iff makes (^r?^-f7f) w%. 

3. The third conjugation, called ^ I f^ , requires the redu- 
plication of the base, and the substitution of the Guna vowel 
before certain terminations : no vowel is interposed. *r, e to 
sacrifice/ becomes ^; and with fw, (Jlft-fff) aj^Pif. 

4. The fourth conjugation, f^rf^, interposes *T, and in 
some cases elongates a radical vowel : f^, ' to sport/ thus 
makes (^t^T-fH) C^^M firtt 

5. The fifth conjugation, ^rf-*, is characterised by the addi- 
tion of J to the base ; the ^ of M hich substitutes the Guna 
letter ^ft before certain affixes ; as ??, ' to bear young/ becomes 

and in inflexion 


6. The sixth conjugation, TT^rf^, like the first, interposes ^T; 
but it differs from the first in not substituting a Guna letter for 
the vowel of the base : TT^, ' to torment/ makes ("jT^-fw) ^ffT- 

7. The seventh conjugation, ^nf^ subjoins T to the last 
vowel of the base : ^V, ' to obstruct/ becomes therefore ^pw . 
The vowel ^( is however inserted between the members of the 
conjunct consonant before certain affixes ; and in combination 
with fk the verb makes (^jrr^-fv) ^fg 1 . 

8. The eighth conjugation, iHiGj 1 , adds ^r to the final of the 
base ; for which, before certain affixes, the Guna element wfr is 
substituted : thus wJ for TT^, ' to stretch/ makes (w^-fir) fnftfw. 

9. The verbs of the ninth conjugation, ^frf^, take vn after 
the final ; as ^ft ' to buy/ (^WT-fiT) *!*!< I Pd. 

10. The tenth conjugation, MClf<j inserts wt before the 
affixes, and substitutes the Guna letter for a radical vowel : 
^C, ' to steal/ becomes (^tttf-fff) ^^TtTTTffT. 

b. Of these conjugational distinctions it may be remarked, 
that their especial object is obviously, in every conjugation 
except the second and third, to interpose a vowel between the 
base and the terminations. In four of them the vowel is 
either mediately or immediately 'ST, and consequently an ana- 
logous mode of adapting the terminations to the base prevails 
in all of them ; that is, in the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth. 
The vowel of the fifth and eighth classes is "3 1 ; of the ninth 
^TT. The second and third dispense with any vowel. Professor 
Bopp has accordingly distributed the verbs into two principal 
conjugations ; the first composed of the first, fourth, sixth, 
and tenth ; and the second of the remaining conjugations. 
The first he considers as agreeing most nearly with Greek 
verbs in w ; the second with those in JULI. 

c. It is also to be borne in mind with regard to these con- 
jugational characteristics, that they are limited to four tenses, 
the present, the first practerite, the imperative, and the potential, 
iu all the conjugations except the tenth, in which the distinctive 

sign is preserved in some other tenses. In the other nine 



conjugations the tenses beyond the four above named have 
not the conjugational characteristic distinctions. Accordingly 
Dr. Wilkins has given the four tenses specified above alone 
under each conjugation, and has classed the other tenses pro- 
miscuously together. Professor Bopp has followed a similar 
distinction in regard to the same, under the denomination of 
" Tempora specialia" and " Tempora generalia." The incon- 
venience however of searching for different tenses of the same 
verb in different places, seems to be more than equivalent to 
any advantage resulting from the more distinct exhibition of 
conjugational peculiarities in the four special or conjugational 
tenses ; and although the peculiarities of these will be noted 
in the following pages, yet the whole of the tenses of each 
verb, when particularised, will be kept together. 


Moods and Tenses. 

171. The moods are not distinguished from the tenses by 
native grammarians, who arrange the inflexions of the verb 
under nine subdivisions. One of these, however, being again 
subdivided, we have ten divisions, tenses and moods, of which 
the verb consists. There is another, an imperative, peculiar 
to the Vedas; w r hich, not occurring in other books, need not 
be farther noticed in this place. Adopting the principle of 
classification common in European grammatical systems, we 
shall arrange the Sanskrit verb in the following manner : 

Indicative mood. 

1. Present Tense. 

2. First praeterite or imperfect tense. 

3. Second praeterite or perfect tense. 

4. Third praeterite, indefinite praeterite, or aorist. 

5. Absolute future. 

6. Indefinite future. 

7. Imperative mood. 


8. Potential mood. 

9. Benedictive mood. 
10. Conditional mood. 

On which distinctions a few observations may be necessary. 

172. The present tense requires no remark ; it is defined 
as denoting present action action begun, and not completed : 
*T cH^frf ' he does' or ' is doing ;' *rr JlT&fri' ' she goes' or ' is 

173. The first praeterite corresponds in the adoption of the 
temporal augment, and apparently in application, with the 
imperfect of the Greek verb. It is defined as denoting action 
recently past action only not of to-day. But it seems espe- 
cially used to signify action past, but not perfected ; or " it 
represents a past action continuing during another past action, 
and accompanying it ;" as, '^fmft JTpTfaJT^ <r-H*f8j<(^ ' The 
Rishis having gone to Manu, spake this speech.' What they 
said then follows ; so that the act of speaking was not then 
perfected. Again ; 7f riMJ(4im?T WStFrrar^ST ft^T fk^t ' The 
hostile Rakshasas regarded not all those (omens), but attacked 
their enemies.' In both cases we have the action accompany- 
ing another action, and only begun, not done and past. 

174. The second preterite is the absolute past; it relates 
to an action entirely out of sight, or concluded, and also agrees 
in purport, as well as construction by reduplication, with the 
Greek praeterite ; as, ^jHldft f^ UTOT^ m^TT JRUjfiHI ^TH 
' Jambumali abandoned life, slain by the son of the wind with 
a stone.' 

175. The third preterite is the past of any period, but 
usually remote ; as, xSl*fl<jMl e There was a king ; ' ^nj-^tft 
fr^JV^n?: f There was a prince, a friend of the gods ;' that is, 
they were, at some time or other, in fact long ago ; but this 
is undetermined. The application of this tense is both that of 
the Greek aorists and " plusquam-perfectum ;" and in its forms 
it varies so as to correspond more or less with them, sometimes 

112 VERBS. 

taking only the augment, and sometimes taking the reduplica- 
tion and the augment also. It has hence been termed by 
Professor Bopp the " Praeteritum augmentatum multiforme," 
and may be suspected of being an aggregate of more than on 
tense under a common denomination. 

176. The first future is the definite future, denoting action 
which will be after a fixed period, not remote, although not 
immediate ; as, ^snifanf ^51 limrilfo ' Thou shalt depart to- 
morrow to AyodhyaV 

177- The second future defines no limit to the commence- 
ment of the action : it will be at some future period, or it will 
be contingent on some future event ; as, 

l 14-M & Pd H A *ftjT^ ' The sun will shine without fear ; the wind 
will blow unrestrained ; ' that is, when the power of the 
enemy Havana sh^ll be overturned. 

178. The imperative mood is defined as implying not 
simply command, but the various significations of the poten- 
tial. In general, however, it denotes, in the second and third 
persons, injunction, advice, or command ; as, ffHT H^TT TT 
^Hgfcfinj ^ fT^( e Let thy purpose be cruel, shew sternness, 
to these (thy guards)/ In the first person the senses are 
those of intention or volition, and the verb is commonly put 
interrogatively, as asking for acquiescence or command ; as, "N 
' What may I do for thee ?' 

* Let us do that which is agreeable to thee, O queen/ 

179. The senses of the potential, which may be also ex- 
pressed by the imperative, are said to be, i. ifaOT ' command- 
ing ;' as, r^ TJTR 7F3^: ' Thou mayest go (i. e. Go thou) to the 
village :' 2. fHHnaW ' directing ;' as, ^f frff^t >ffa ' Let the 
daughter's son eat in this place :' 3. ^lHcl4!f e inviting ;' as, 
>Tj i fi ^ ^Iffld ' Let your honour sit here :' 4. wtffa? ' expression 
of wish ;' as, ^r^: 'U'cf^^TM^ir * Let the Guru teach the boy :' 
5- UHHtr. ( interrogation' or ' inquiring ;' as, ^^HMl^l^l TR rnNrvft- 
^fhr ' Shall I peruse the Veda? or shall I study logic?' and 
6. TTT^TT ' asking ;' as, H^ JTfsnf cJN ' O may I obtain (i. e. 

VOICES. 118 

give me) food. It is also very commonly used as the subjunc- 
tive mood with the conjunction s if;' as, ft|7){j tT fHIV* *H^ *l 
jrrfw: ' If thou be not my protector, then I may (or shall) die.' 

180. The benedictive or optative mood is considered as a 
modification of the potential; as, *Nr ifll^H^rt* ^far: H'fg 
aj-^Hi ( Mayest thou preserve unshaken firmness, and be steady 
in the affairs of thy friends.' 

181. The last tense is the conditional, which is susceptible, 
like the moods, of all times, and is commonly used with the 
conjunctions *rf^ and ^?r ; as, tfwP=jmr^4 ST^T ^SIMIfMH^ ^T ITT 
1 She (Sita) would not have been purified, if I had not pro- 
tected her ;' 4HW)4H$f)P<*ufl il^l^^P^^ Tf*r: ' You will grieve 
as long as you live, if you do not relinquish this error.' 



182. The preceding moods and tenses are common to the 
usual distinctions of active and passive voices ; but the San- 
skrit verb, like the Greek, has two active voices, as well as 
one passive : they are called severally Parasmai-pada and 
Atmane-pada, which terms are retained by Professor Bopp, 
and rendered by Dr. Wilkins ' common' and c proper* forms. 

183. The Parasmai-pada is that inflected word or verb 
(pada) the action of which is addressed to another than the 
agent (from Parasmai, dative of Para, ( another'), j^tmane-pada 
is a word or verb the action of which is addressed or reverts 
to the agent himself (from j^tmane, dative of Atman, ' self). 
These might be rendered therefore ' transitive' and c reflective' 
verbs, but that it is in a peculiar sense that the action is said 
to affect either a different agent or the agent himself: it is 
the result rather than the action, and this is therefore com- 
patible with an intransitive verb. Thus, ' Devadatta cooks :' 
in the one case he cooks for his master, the verb is then put 
in the Parasmai-pada, ^*W. ^ifff; but in another case he 





cooks for himself, the ^tmane-pada is then employed, and th 
phrase is f^l<^: q^Ti. In ordinary usage, however, the disi- 
tinction of import is little observed, and some verbs are conju- 
gated in one voice, some in the other, and some in both, 
without much attention being paid to their signification or 

184. The passive voice takes the terminations of the 
Atmane-pada, and prefixes TI ya or in some cases Tl x to them 
before those of the four conjugational tenses. Before n the 
radical vowel takes neither Guna nor Vriddhi. In the other 
tenses the form is the same as in the active, with a few 
special changes to be hereafter noticed. 


Numbers and Persons. 

185. The Sanskrit verb in its different tenses has three 
numbers, singular, dual, and plural ; and three persons in 
each number. They are arranged in native grammars in an 
inverse order to that which we follow, the third person being 
placed first, and the first person last ; but it may be more 
convenient to follow the European order. The terminations 
by which the persons are distinguished are shewn in thf 
following scheme. 

Indicative mood. 

Pers. Sing. Dual. 

Present tense. 



Dual. Plural. 


First praeterite or imperfect. 






Second praeterite or perfect. 


/ i. 


_ i. 



















Third praeterite or indefinite past. 

First or definite future. 




Second or indefinite future. 

Imperative mood. 




Potential or subjunctive mood. 


Benedictive or optative mood. 

Conditional mood. 




Q 2 

116 VERBS. 

a. In the passive voice ^ is substituted for ^f, the termina- 
tion of the third person singular of the Atmane-pada. 

b. Of these inflectional terminations it is to be remarked, that, 
like those employed for the construction of the cases of nouns, 
they comprehend some letters which are not retained in the 
inflexion, being introduced merely for the sake of enunciation, 
or of indicating some change in the base. 

c. tf in f?r^, ftr^, f*T^, and every where else, is rejected ; 
but it is an indicatory letter, denoting that, where there is no 
rule to the contrary, the vowel of the base is to be changed to 
its Guna substitute : thus f%% v. 2d conj. ' to know/ before 
the terminations of the singular in the present tense, makes 
^fa, ^fw, ^f%. Before those inflexions which have not an 
indicatory T^ the vowel is unchanged ; as, f%W, f^ffi, &c. 

d. In the first preterite the ^ of f^t{, ftn^, ^fa^, is inserted 
merely for articulation : the real terminations are therefore ^, 
*r, t{. In the Atmane-pada in this tense the ^ of in^ is 

e. In the second praeterite Tjr is indicatory, and denotes 
that in some cases the Vriddhi, and in others the Guna 
element is to be substituted for a radical. A final *r is every 
where commuted to Visarga, agreeably to the rules of Sandhi 
(see rule 37). Other modifications of a less general nature 
we shall now proceed to notice under each tense separately, 
together with such modifications of the base as are not exclu- 
sively of a special or conjugational character. 

General principles of Conjugation. 

186. Present tense. The inflective terminations are subject 
to few changes. The initial ^ of the third person plural is 
rejected after an inflective base ending in ^r; that is, after 
those of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth conjugations ; so 
that ^t, ' to go/ makes -4iSii not -^Rifii ' they go ;' ^vr, e to 
increase/ ^v^ 1 not TJVT^ 1 ' they grow/ In other cases it is 
preserved ; as, ^ ' to eat/ ^(V ; *pj ( to mix/ <H^fH. After 


verbs which are either polysyllabic, or become so by redupli- ^ fu ^ 
cation, the nasal is rejected ; as, ^ftsjT, ( to be poor,' makes 
^flj^fff ' they are poor / ^ for if ' to sacrifice/ *Jdgfil ' they 
sacrifice.' Verbs of which, although monosyllabic, the inflec- 
tive base ends in a consonant, or in any vowel except % also 
reject the nasal in the j^tmane-pada ; as, ^rn& 2d conj. ' to 
rule / -$mrfr ' they rule / ^ ' to do ;' ^f^ e they do.' The 
same applies to the analogous terminations of the first prae- 
terite and imperative, ^Fff and ^rarf. For the initial ^TT of the 
second and third persons dual, and for ^ of the first person 
singular, in the -Aitmane-pada of the first, fourth, sixth, and 
tenth conjugations, ^ is substituted, which with the conjuga- 
tional affix 'W becomes ^j as, ^, ^$, ^^. The initial TT or 
\T of a termination in this or any other tense, when following 
an inflective base ending with an aspirate, is changed to v, 
before which the aspirate becomes the unaspirated letter (r. 8)j 
as, *jV, ' to oppose, 5 makes vufe* 

The changes of the base in this tense will be specified 
under each conjugation. 

187- First preterite. The ^r of a(H^, ^, and ^Tff is 
rejected after ^T; and after some verbs TW is substituted for 
^P^. The ^n of ^smrf and wrf substitute ^, as in the present 

Besides the special changes to which the base is subject in 
this tense, there is one modification which is universal, the 
prefixing of the temporal augment ^ar to a verb beginning with 
a consonant ; thus ^ makes ^-m^ ' he went ; J and ^TT to one 
beginning with a vowel. In prefixing the temporal augment 
to a verb- beginning with a consonant, no change takes place. 
For ^n and the radical vowel the Vriddhi equivalent of the 
latter is substituted ; as, ^7 ' to go/ wi^ ' he went / ^|r ( to 
wish/ ^inr ' he wished/ If the verb be a compound with a 
preposition, the augment is inserted between the preposition 
and the simple verb : thus from HTO, 'to speak/ comes jrfaHT*! 
'to speak again/ 'to reply/ first praeterite, U^MIMH 'he replied. 5 



188. Second praeterite. In general the terminations un- 
dergo no other changes than those which arise from the rejec- 
tion of the indicatory or servile letters. After roots in ^rr, ^ 
is substituted for the vowel ^ left by TETT^ ; as, ^T * to give ;' 
first and third pers. sing. ^ft. 

The changes of the base are more numerous, and the most 
important may be conveniently noticed here. One of these, 
which may be regarded as universal, although subject to a few 
exceptions, is the reduplication of the root ; in effecting which, 
certain substitutions for the radical letters sometimes take 

a. If the verb commences with the vowel ^r, the repeated 
vowel is ^rr, which combines with the radical w ; as, W5f ' to 
eat,' ^TT^ * he ate.' But if the verb contain a double con- 
sonant, f is inserted after the reduplication, and before the 
radical vowel ; as, wt ' to worship,' nn4i he * worshipped.' 
It is also inserted before ^r * to spread ;' as, WT% ( he spread :' 
but not before ^r$r ' to eat ;' as, ^rr^I ' he ate.' 

b. If the verb begins with ^ or 7, convertible to the Vriddhi 
or Guna element, the substitutes in the reduplication are ^ 
and 7^; as, ^ ' to go,' ^TPT f he has gone/ ^Tfa ' thou hast 
gone;' "TO ( to wither, 5 *fftar 'it has withered:' when the 
initial is not so changed, the reduplication of the initial pro- 
duces a long vowel ; as, fTTjj:, JHsT|j:. 

c. An initial ^ substitutes ^n ; as, ^j ' to go,' ^TR ' he 
went :' followed by a consonant it inserts tT ; as, ^f3T, ' to be 
firm,' makes ^ \*fi * it was firm.' 

d. A verb beginning with a single consonant, not a guttural 
nor an aspirate, is simply reiterated ; as, ^ * to sound,' m^ ; 
T!^ ' to cook,' MMM. 

e. A guttural consonant is changed to the corresponding 
palatal, or cfi ^r to ^, and i\ TJ to T ; as, ^p * to make,' 

^T ' to dig,' xiiyiiri ; aj^ ' to take,' Ii|[^ ; tRT ' to eat,' 

if is also substituted for ^ ; as, <f ( to take,' |^K. In some 

cases the reduplication of an initial semivowel is the corre- 


spending vowel ; as, TUT ' to sacrifice, $MR ; and ^r ' to 
speak,' "5TT^. 

y. The unaspirated is substituted for an aspirated conso- 
nant ; as, >PT ' to whirl/ ^>jm. 

g. When the initial is a double consonant, the first only is 
reduplicated ; as, f^r ' to serve,' fy^m ; f^TT ' to throw,' 
fq^xr. If the compound be a sibilant and a hard consonant, 
the latter is reduplicated ; as, ^ * to praise,' TTFR" ; WT ' to 
stay 3 or { stand,' w^zfi 1 . If the consonant is soft, the sibilant is 
repeated ; as, ^j ( to remember, 5 tWK. If a sibilant and hard 
consonant followed by *r occur, the medial is repeated; as, 
SJTT ' to ooze/ ^rsftrT. 

h. ^r is the reduplicate of a medial or final ^r, 'srr, ^, ^, 
and for a final TJ, ^, ^ffr ; as, f ' to make/ -4dh\ii ; >TT ' to shine, 
^ ' to sing/ afJ^ ; also for the "31 of >^ e to be/ "^jsf. 

i. Any other short vowel, medial or final, is repeated ; as, 
' to be pleased/ 5R^. A long vowel is made short ; as, 
' to sprinkle,' f$|$fl<*. For a medial diphthong the analo- 
gous short vowel is repeated ; as, tfcj ' to go/ fi|xjc4 ; 75tfi e to 
see/ opjfai. 

k. Verbs which begin and end with a simple consonant, hav- 
ing a medial ^r, and of which the first consonant is unaltered 
in the repetition, do not double the verb before the termina- 
tions of this tense beginning with a vowel, whether it be the 
vowel of the termination or the augment ^, to be presently 
noticed. Such verbs change the radical ^r to ^; thus xj^r 
makes, dual and plural in the third person, iH^:, ^: ; and in 
the first, i&(VR, xrf%r. 

/. Of those changes which affect the primitive or unredu- 
plicated syllable of the inflective base, some .are special, and 
will be hereafter noticed : the most general are the following, 
and concern chiefly the vowels. 

m. The terminations of the first and third persons singular 
having an indicatory ijr are said to require the substitution of 
the Vriddhi letter ; but this affects only final vowels and a 



medial ^T ; as, Tift e to guide/ third pers. sing. fHHl ; ^ ' to 
run,' g<fra (^ and T becoming severally ^ and wr, changeable 
before a vowel to ^rn( and ^rr^ ; see rule 5) ; TR ' to go/ 
*nrPT. The termination of the first person singular is option- 
ally W, and it has therefore two forms, *nTT or splTT. 

n. An initial short vowel, and a medial, except ^T, takes the 
Guna substitute before *sr^ ; as, ^, ' to wish,' makes ^ta ; 
^y ' to know,' -^sffa. A vowel long either by nature or posi- 
tion, when initial, requires a different form of inflexion, as will 
be presently explained : when medial, it is unaltered ; as, iffa 
e to live,' ffafN y fVJ f to learn,' f^ltyvsj. 

o. The second person, ^, requires the Guna change of 
any final vowel, and of a short medial vowel ; as, ff * to con- 
quer,' ftpta ; fg? ' to hate/ f^if. The same if ^ is inserted ; 
as, rHJiftluj, r^fMVJ. 

p. Before the other terminations of this tense in the Pa- 
rasmai-pada, and all those of the A'tmane-pada, the radical 
vowel, if initial or medial, is unaltered ; as, T*T ( to burn,' 
<*Mij: ("3" becoming ^ by virtue of the reduplication only, as 
above, clause b) ; fat ' to hate,' f^faMj:, f^%^. A final vowel 
is unaltered before the consonants ; as, OR c to do,' '5f<*t(, ^<JH ; 
and is changed before the vowels only according to the rules 
of Sandhi, ^3i^:, ^i. A final ^n is rejected before a vowel ; as, 
<*T ( to give,' ^p, ^ ; and roots ending in diphthongs change 
them, with few exceptions, to ^IT, and are similarly inflected. ^ 
and ^ final undergo the changes of Sandhi, as, f% ' to gather/ 
f^nrjj:, except when the root consists of a single vowel, or 
when ^ is preceded by a conjunct consonant, in which cases 
^ is substituted ; as, ^ ' to go/ ^TITJ: ; fji ' to serve/ fyfm^:. 
A final g 1 or -35 substitutes g^, as, ^ ' to run/ <T<FTiTv except H, 
which substitutes 1 3F^, ^55: . A final ^ substitutes the Guna 
^1, and so does ^ when preceded by a double consonant ; as, 
^ f to remember,' ^*4Rjj:, VWIiv. There are some anomalies 
in regard to the changes of the radical vowels ; but these will 
be pointed out as they occur. 


q. Initial semivowels are sometimes changed to their corre- 
sponding vowels, and the verb is inflected as if commencing 
with them ; as, ^ ( to speak/ y^M, *-*(j:, "S^p . 

r. Some verbs, having ^r between two consonants, of which 
the latter is a nasal, reject the medial before all the termina- 
tions except those of the singular in the Parasmai-pada ; as, rT 
' to be born/ IHTR, T$nj:> *f% ; apR ' to go/ p Hjj:, &c. 

s. Before ^ and the other affixes of the second praeterite 
beginning with consonants, as ^, T, ^%, *T%, ^, cfr, all roots, 
except |r, ^, >j, ^, ^, TS, w, ^, insert ^; as, TT^ makes Mpivj, 
tlf*R, MP1H, ^f^, *tf^> ^PN^, ^P^fJ^. Before ^ it is 
sometimes optional ; as, t|pivj or ^q<^vj ; the v in 5^ is changed 
to ^. 

189- Besides the formation of the second praeterite upon 
the principle of reduplication, there is another form of it, 
which may be regarded as a compound praeterite tense, the 
radical verb being combined with the inflexions of the auxiliary 
verbs w ' to be/ >' to be/ and "% ' to make.' The syllable 
W^ is interposed between the radical verb and the auxiliary 
inflexion : thus ^v, ' to increase/ becomes in this tense, 


a. Verbs of which the initial is any vowel except ^r or ^TT, 
and which is long either by nature or position, before two 
consonants (except ^5 * to go,' and "gp^ * to cover'), also the 
roots ^nr * to go,' ^srro ' to sit,' and ^ ' to hurt' verbs of 
more than one syllable all verbs of the tenth conjugation 


122 VERBS. 

and all derivative verbs, as causals, frequentatives, desidera- 
tives, and nominals take the compound form of the second 

b. In inflexion, >^and ^TH always follow the Parasmai-pada ; 
* takes either Pada, according to the voice of the primary 

c. oFnjT and CRTS ' to shine/ ^(X^l ' to be poor,' f%% ' to 
know,' TFT. ( to be awake,' and T*T ' to burn,' may be conju- 
gated either in the reduplicate or compound praeterite. 

190. Third praeterite or indefinite past. The inflexions of 
this tense are so various, that it has been termed by Professor 
Bopp the " praeteritum multiforme ;" and Dr. Wilkins has 
specified eleven modes in which they are formed. In these 
latter, however, he comprises not merely changes of termina- 
tion, but modifications of the base, and those affecting the 
terminations by the insertion of certain augments. 

a. The alterations of the terminations are not many, but 
the terminations themselves are referrible to two classes. They 
are, I. the terminations of the tense, as specified in the scheme, 
p. 1 15 ; or they are, 2. those of the first praeterite, as found 
in the same place, p. 114. 

b. The changes of the first class are confined to the elision 
of the ^ combined with K or ^ after a short vowel, or any 
consonant except a nasal, a semivowel, and *f. ^fjf, w, W of 
the Parasmai-pada, and *JT, ^qf of the Atmane-pada, become 
TTT, W, W, and IT, ^rf. The only change of the second class is 
the optional substitution of ^T for ^T^, the termination of the 
third person plural. 

c. The principal modifications, however, arise from prefixing 
certain augments to these terminations. To the terminations 
of the first class ^ is prefixed, either singly or with *r, as fitr ; 
to those of the second class, in like manner, ^r is prefixed, 
either singly or with the sibilant, as *r. 

d. When ^ is prefixed alone to the terminations of the first 
class, the *? of the second and third persons singular of the- 



Parasmai-pada is rejected. In the other persons the dental 
sibilant is changed, of course, to the cerebral after ^ (rule 29). 
We have then, 





In the Parasmai-pada only, *r may be prefixed to these termina- 
tions, making ftm*^, ftr^, ftn*? ; *ft:, ftn?, "fan? ; ^ftl^, ftnrf, ftr. 
e. The inflexions of the third prseterite becoming those of 
the first, the tense preserves an analogy throughout, and 
instead of inserting the augment ^, which cannot belong to 
the first praeterite, inserts "% which does belong to it in several 
conjugations. The terminations of the base then become, 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 



Here, agreeably to rules already specified, ^r has become ^rr 
before r and n ; the initial of ^nr , ^n^, ^TnT is rejected after a 
vowel ; ^T is dropped before T*T ; and the Wf of <ridf and ^ I vj f, 
having been changed to ^, form TJ with the augment ^r; so 
does the ^ of the first person singular. 

f. Sometimes, but rarely, and only after a verb ending in a 
vowel, the augment ^t is rejected, when the terminations of 
the first praeterite are attached directly to the base. It is 
more usual, however, to prefix ^ to them in both voices; 
making therefore, 




(/. Modifications of the base. These are for the greater 
part of a special description, and will best be adverted to 

R 2 

124 VERBS. 

under each particular case. A few of the most general ones 
may be here inserted. 

h. The indefinite praeterite prefixes the temporal augment, 
whether it retains its own terminations, or adopts those of 
the first praeterite; as, TTT 'to go, ^nrrcftr^; >J/ to be,' 'SOfTT. 
In a few verbs, which take the terminations of the first prae- 
terite, the root is also doubled ; as, far ' to serve,' ^ 

i. Before the terminations of the first class, or those which 
are its own, verbs having simple final vowels commonly sub- 
stitute for them the Vriddhi element in the Parasmai-pada, 
and the Guna in the A'tmane-pada ; as, uft ' to take,' ^nH^, 
Wnr ; v f to shake,' ^nrr^far, smflB ; R ' to make,' WafiT^fc^. A 
short vowel is however sometimes unchanged before j*r, when, 
agreeably to clause b, the sibilant is dropped; as, third pers. 
sing. A'tmane-pada, ^rff. Verbs ending in diphthongs com- 
monly change this to ^n ; as, ^t, ' to destroy,' makes ^mitfl^ 

or tsmin . 


Of roots ending in consonants, those which take the aug- 
ment ^, either with or without the sibilant, and have a 
medial % optionally substitute the Vriddhi ^TT in the Parasmai- 
pada ; but not if they end in H, *f, f , or a double consonant, 
or are distinguished by an Anubandha U; nor do the roots 
and TEP^ admit of the alternative ; as, tnr, ' to read/ makes 
or 4i'i44lri N ; but W ' to wander,' ^wrfa^; ^PT ' to restrain/ 
, If they end with it or c^, the vowel is invariably long ; 
as, ^ or "^eftf f to go/ 'JMiOr^, TSMIefllT . So it is in ^ ' to 
speak/ and "aT ' to go/ JHI<()I^, # <A I fl (i . In the A'tmane-pada 
the change does not take place ; as, i^n ' to hasten/ ^Hfui. 

j. Any other medial short vowel substitutes the Guna 
element in both voices, except in certain verbs. If the final 
is a double consonant no change takes place, nor is a long 
vowel changed; as, % f^ 'to know,' ssr^Trf ; Ijwr 'to flower,' 
?y u ufl H ; ^TI ' to shine,' ^^rMy. 

k. Of those which do not take the augment ^, and which 
are marked in lists of roots by the Anubandha ^, the medial 


vowel substitutes the Vriddhi element in the Parasmai-pada, 
before the proper inflexions of the tense ; as, TT3T ' to worship/ 
but not in the A'tmane-pada ; as, pr f to liberate/ 
of Ijr being rejected (clause A), and ^ becoming ^i 
before if, as in declension (rule 92). 

/. Before the terminations of the first praeterite and before 
which, it should be remembered, the augment ^ cannot be 
inserted verbs ending in vowels undergo the Guna change 
when the affix begins with ^r; when the augment ^r is not 
inserted, they are unchanged; as, ^ ' to go/ makes ^n-TTJT; ^T 
* to give/ vsm^; and final diphthongs are changed to ^TT; so 
that ^, ' to drink/ makes ^nffi^. The verbs that insert the 
sibilant before the terminations of the first praeterite in the 
sense of the third, are those which end in ^r, "q, or ^, having 
any other penultimate than ^r or ^rr. There are a few excep- 
tions. The final sibilant or aspirate is changed to cfi before *r, 
and that again is changed to *r (rules 27, 28), making the com- 
pound 1% ; as, f^r ' to shew/ nf<JHfi^ ; f^T * to be thin/ ^<Jjf^. 
Before a double consonant a vowel is unchanged. Verbs of 
the fourth conjugation of the class ^mf^ are inflected with 
the terminations of the first praeterite in the Parasmai-pada 
with the augment ^r, when the radical vowel is unaltered ; as, 
ip ' to nourish/ 'ecgMf^. So are verbs of the class ffiiify of 
the first conjugation, ^WT^; and verbs distinguished by an 
Anubandha ; as, yr% { to be able/ ^nfir^. In the Atmane- 
pada some of these verbs may take ^, and undergo the usual 
changes ; as, ^?r, * to shine/ makes flaifriB. 

m. Verbs which have an Anubandha ^t are conjugated in 
the indefinite praeterite with both classes of terminations ; as, 
(farf^c) fs^, * to cut/ makes either -fl^rtfl^ or -^r^^. 

n. Verbs having an Anubandha ^ do not insert ^ before 
the terminations of the third praeterite ; as, (^vr) ^r * to ob- 
struct/ -liiCirtflf^, sni?M, '5(dr*j: ; or A'tmane-pada, 

o. Verbs with an Anubandha ^ optionally insert ^; as, 

126 VERBS. 

(fin* ) -fay e to be perfect/ ^rffli^, ^rcNrf, ^Urw: ; or 

p. All the verbs of the eighth conjugation, except ^ ' to do/ 
besides taking ^, and being inflected on the principle of clause 
d f may dispense with the ^ in the A'tmane-pada, before the 
terminations of the second and third persons singular ; before 
which also they drop their own finals ; as, ir*f ' to stretch,' 
^Hrlri, ^.MHVJI: (the F of JxT and WTCf being rejected by clause 6). 

q. All verbs of the tenth conjugation, and causal verbs, are 
inflected "with the terminations of the first praeterite with the 
augment ^r. The root is doubled before them, according to 
rules to be given when treating of the causal praeterite ; thus, 
^, ' to steal/ makes 

Of the augment \. 

191. The insertion of this augment is not restricted to the 
cases in which it has already been pointed out in the second and 
third praeterite, but is extended to the terminations beginning 
with consonants in the other tenses which are not comprised 
within those that take the conjugational distinctions, except 
the benedictive of the Parasmai-pada. The objects of the 
insertion and exception may be easily understood. In the 
former case it is intended to supply the place of the conjuga- 
tional vowel; in the latter, the initial of the termination is 
the semivowel *T, which may be united with a preceding con- 
sonant, and does not need the interposition of a vowel. 

a. Although, however enjoined in most cases, there are 
many exceptions to its insertion. In the two futures, the 
conditional, and the benedictive A'tmane-pada, as in the third 
praeterite, ^ is not inserted after verbs distinguished by an 
indicatory %n ; I?T-^ ' to begin/ T3TT ' he will begin :' and it is 
optionally inserted hi verbs having an indicatory "gs; as, ftrv, 
' to accomplish,' makes in the first future %^TT or wfvjrti. In 
the tenses now named, however, a more general prohibition 
to the insertion of ^, and which is not applicable to th<- 



praeterites, is when the vowel of a verb has the grave accent. 
These verbs are specified as follows. 

b. Monosyllables ending in any vowels except "5! and ^, 
and except T5L T^nr, "sft, w, TJ (2d conj.), ^\, ^, Tjft, f^sr, ftj^ TBT. 
Verbs ending in ^j also insert ^ before the terminations of the 
indefinite future. 

c. The following verbs ending in consonants do not insert 
this prefix. 

W^ to eat. 
to obtain, 
to attract, (i. 6.) 
to be angry, 
to cry aloud. 

to throw, 
to pound, 
to be hungry. 

to be distressed, 
to go. 
to eat. 

to cut. 
to touch, 
to bow. 
to tie. 

to cleanse, 
to send. 

to inflame, (i. 4. 10.) 
to drop, 
to torment, 
to be satisfied, 
to be satisfied. (4.) 
to abandon. 

to shine, 
to bite, 
to burn. 

to shew. 

to smear, 
to do wrong, 
to milk, (z.) 
to be proud, 
to see. 

to hate. 
tr^r to cook. 
^ to go. 
ftrtr to grind. 
^ to cherish. (4.) 

to ask. 
to bind. 

to bind, 
to serve, 
to break. 

to break, 
to enjoy. 

to fry. 
to think. 

to merge. 

to urine, 
to be free, 
to perceive, 
to sacrifice, 
to copulate. 


to stop, 
to join, 
to fight, 
to colour, 
to begin, 
to sport, 
to accomplish, 
to purge, 
to hurt, 
to be sick, 
to obstruct, 
to hurt, 
to ascend, 
to acquire. 

to smear. 

to lessen. 

to lick, 
to disturb, 
to speak, 
to sow. 
to dwell, (i.) 
to bear. 

to differ. 


to differ. 

to know. (4. 6. 7.) 

to enter. 

to pervade, (i. 3. 9- 
^T*J to pierce. 
SHi to be able. (5.) 
^ to wither. 
3TT to vow. 
f^ to hurt, to distinguish.( i .7.) 
^>I to be pure. (4.) 
sp to dry. 

to embrace. (4.) 

to embrace, 
to wither. 

to sprinkle. 

to accomph'sh. 

to embrace. 

to sleep. 

to accomplish. 

to abandon, 
to creep. 

to go. 

to touch. 

The figures mark the conjugations in which the verb 
are inflected without ^; in any others they may insert it 
The same verb sometimes belongs to more than one conju- 
gation, either with the same or with a different sense. 

192. First future. The terminations undergo no change 
whatever, except when the verb ends with an aspirate, when 
TT is changed to v, as in the present tense. The changes 
of the base are few and simple. The final vowels ^, ^, 7, 
^l, ^, ^, substitute the Guna elements, ^, ^Tf, ^L, whether 
the augment ^ be inserted or not. If inserted, the first 
two are changed by the rules of Sandhi to ^ni, ^J^ 


ftf ' to conquer/ %rn * he will conquer / ^ft * to sleep/ ^rfrril ( he 
will sleep / J> ' to cry/ Tf^TTT. A final TJ and ^ are changed 
to ^rr, and this vowel, as well as '3ft, undergoes no change ; 
as, ^r ' to give/ ^TWT ' he will give ;' ^ ' to drink/ VTHT ; ^ft 
' to sharpen/ ^|Yrt |. The medial vowels ^, T, ^, if followed 
by a single consonant, also substitute the Gufia letters ; but 
^ is sometimes changed to ^; long vowels are unchanged ; as, 
' to sprinkle/ %^T ; Sp? ' to be sad/ ftpclril ; If^t * to see/ 
; TfN 1 ' to live/ 'WlP^'fll. The final consonants when not 
separated by the augment ^ from the dental IT, which is the 
initial of all the terminations of this tense, combine with it, 
according to the rules of Sandhi: thus T3 makes xraT; TW, 
After an aspirate, if is changed to V ; as, 75* ( to gain,' 
^ after ^ derived from a final ^ (rule 32) is changed to 
TS f and the first <? is rejected ; as, ^\$r ' to grow,' ^cfer. 

193. Indefinite future. The terminations of this tense 
differ from those of the present only in having ^ prefixed to 
them, on the same principles as verbs of the first conjugation j 
making therefore tuftf, ^m% not twfff, &c. ; ^^, ^^, not 
^qr^, WT^". After ^ the sibilant is changed to ^r; and after 
a final vowel or consonant it undergoes such changes as the 
rules of Sandhi enjoin. 

a. The changes of the base are not numerous. A final or 
medial short vowel, the latter not being long by position, 
substitutes the Guna element, which before ^ is changed to 
the form which the laws of combination require. Final con- 
sonants are also modified according to the same rules. A 
final palatal is changed before *T to the hard guttural ^B, and ^i 
after fi becoming ^, the compound ^ is formed ; as, TT^T ' to 
cook/ -q^ifff ; f\gfr c to wash/ rH'vtjjfrf. After a final cerebral 
sibilant the same change takes place ; as, ^ for ^r, * to see/ 
makes Mfri. ^ also is changed to ^R; and as in the declen- 
sion of nouns in ?r, when the final is so changed the initial is 
changed to its aspirate (rule 131, b], so ^5, ' to burn/ makes 
^ ' to milk/ vlw^Pd. 

194. Imperative. The changes of the terminations are 


130 VERBS. 

few, and where the terminations are analogous to those of the 
present, as TO5fJ, TOnTT, TOT*ri, TOTtTT, they undergo similar modifi- 
cations, when such are necessary, as in the first, fourth, sixth, 
and tenth conjugations. In the same conjugations, ff, the sign 
of the second person singular, is rejected, leaving only the con- 
jugational sign TO ; as, >T+ f^ becomes *T3 ' be thou/ In the 
other conjugations, after any consonant except a semivowel or 
a nasal or ^, fVj is substituted for f^ ; as, T^ ' to speak/ Tftv ; 
also after ^ * to sacrifice,' as sjgfv. writ is substituted for the 
terminations of the second and third persons singular in a 
benedictive sense ; as, H<4Hli^ * may thou' or ' may he be.' 

a. The changes of the base are conjugational, and analogous 
to those of the present. 

195. Potential. 2[ is substituted for the ^T of all the termi- 
nations of this mood, and is prefixed to Tit, which becomes TT, 
and also to *pr , in the Parasmai-pada of the first class of conjuga- 
tions, and with their conjugational sign TO becomes by the rules 
of Sandhi (rule 2) JJ; as, *T^TT, S^fif^ !&{> -ftl^T^. In the second 
series *n is unchanged ; as, TOSTT^, &c. In the first class of con- 
jugations the initial f of the terminations of the Atmane-pada be- 
comes with the conjugational TO, ^; as, JJ^TT, ^hrnrf. In the second 
class it is unchanged ; as, TOTO ' to sit,' nm1d, ssutOmrif, TOn-flXrT, &c. 

a. The changes of the base are conjugational. 

196. Benedictive mood. The terminations are not liable 
to change : ^ may be inserted before those of the Atmane- 
pada, when *T becomes ^. 

a. The following are the principal changes to which the 
inflective base is subject in the Parasmai-pada, and when ^ is 
not inserted in the ^tmane-pada. 

b. Of verbs ending in vowels, most of those which termi- 
nate in TOT, either as a primitive or as derived from ^ or ^, 
substitute ^ in the Parasmai-pada ; they are unchanged in 
the Atmane-pada ; as, ^T ' to give,' ^rr^, <m1g. Some change 
it optionally before i?; as, ^ 'to sing/ irnm^ or Jrrn\r. Those 
in which TOT is preceded by a conjunct consonant, except FT 
'to stay,' do not change the TOT; as, wn 'to blow/ 


Those ending in ^ or ^ substitute ^ in the Parasmai-pada, and 
the Guna letter ^ in the Atmane-pada ; as, ft ' to take,' ffNTW, 
%^te. Those ending in ^ and "31 substitute "31 and wt ; as, ^ 
e to hear/ ^m^; *jj ' to praise/ *?ffi^, w10y. ^ short sub- 
stitutes ft, and ^ long fr, in the Parasmai-pada ; as, "^ ' to 
make/ f-*Mlif,; T[ ' to cross/ Tft^Tf^. Verbs ending in ^f, and 
beginning with a compound consonant, substitute the Guna 
^ for their final ; as, ^ ' to spread,' W^lr^. In the Atmane- 
pada the vowel is unchanged ; as, ^ ' to make/ 3i*flv. A final 
wfr is unchanged ; as, ^ e to wither/ ^ffaffi^. 

c. Verbs ending in consonants change their finals accord- 
ing to the rules of JSandhi, or others of an analogous appli- 
cation, only before the sibilants of the Atmane-pada ; nor do 
their preceding vowels undergo any alteration ; as, f&$ ' to 
cut/ fgnsrnj, f^rtfly ; T^ ' to cook/ tratm^, "TT^hr. If the final 
be a compound, of which a nasal is the first member, it is 
rejected in the Parasmai-pada, as f^r ( to bite/ <^$'Mli^; not in 
the Atmane-pada, as ^^ ( to embrace/ y*8ifh? ; nor does this 
apply to roots inserting a nasal in consequence of an Anu- 
bhandha ^ ; as, rf^ * to rejoice/ TRSrn^. 

d. Some verbs containing semivowels change them to their 
corresponding vowels in the Parasmai-pada ; as, irat ' to ask/ 
ITSWI^; ^1 f to speak/ TOTT^; ^R 'to sew/ TnmflT ; *T5f ' to 
worship/ $Ti|lr^; T5 ( to bear/ <J^M x ; T5 'to dwell/ gTin^; 
^51 ' to subdue/ TSPTT^. There are a few verbs containing the 
semivowel % and ending in u, which admit of a similar modi- 
fication, and reject the diphthong ; as, ^ ' to weave/ <JUUi^; 
'q ' to conceal/ cftm^; and ^ ' to call/ ^m^. 

e. When ^ is prefixed to the terminations of this tense in 
the Atmane-pada, the changes of the base are analogous to 
those of the other tenses before the same augment. 

197. Conditional mood. The terminations generally follow 
the analogy of those of the indefinite future (see p. 115). 

a. The base prefixes the temporal augment, but in all other 
respects is analogous to the inflective base of the indefinite 

132 VERBS. 

future ; as, ind. fut. ufamfrt ' will be/ cond. 
* will eat/ cond. 


Formation of the Verb. 

198. From this general view of the formation of the tenses, 
we may now proceed to trace an entire verb through all its 
inflexions in the two active voices and in the passive voice. 
In following the example of Mr. Colebrooke, and offering IT, * to 
be/ as an example, we select a verb of general usefulness, and 
frequent recurrence, ^is a verb of the first conjugation: it 
is properly confined to the Parasmai-pada, and in its character 
of a substantive verb cannot well admit of any other. With 
prepositions, however, it takes a transitive sense, and may then 
be both active and passive ; as, ^nj*fcifi ' he perceives ;' "^3*JM^ 
{ it is perceived.' We may, however, lay aside the preposition 
for the present, that the purpose for which the verb is exhi- 
bited, that of supplying a model of extensive application, may 
not be embarrassed by unnecessary complexity. 

199. ^as a verb of the first conjugation changes its vowel 
to ^ft before the sign of the conjugation ^r. It changes it to 
^ft also before the augment ^, which it admits : and before ^J 
and 3[, ^rt becomes ^r^. The inflective base with the augments 
is therefore >T^ and irf^". In the second praeterite ^ is added 
to the radical vowel, and the verb being repeated, the base is 
^r^. In the third praeterite in the Parasmai-pada the verb 
takes the terminations of the first: in the Atmane-pada it 
retains its own terminations with the augment ^. 

>j^ ' to be. J y&jk 
Indicative mood. 

Present tense, ( I am/ &c. 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 


First praeterite or imperfect, ' I was/ &c. 

Second praeterite or perfect, ' I was or have been/ &c. 

Third praet., indefinite, or aorist past, ' I was or had been/ &c. 

First or definite future, ' I will be/ &c. 

Second or indefinite future, ' I will or shall be/ &c. 

Imperative mood, ' May I be/ &c. 

Potential or subjunctive mood, { I may be/ &c. 

Benedictive or optative mood, ' I wish I may be,' &c. 

134 VERBS. 

Conditional mood, ' I shall be, if,' &c. 

^W P<4 *HTf 

Passive voice. 

200. In this voice ^ is prefixed to the terminations of the 
conjugational tenses in the -Aitmane-pada ; and before TT the 
radical vowel is unchangeable. In the non-conjugational tenses 
the radical vowel optionally substitutes the Guna or Vriddhi 
diphthong, and thus ^becomes >ft or >^j making consequently 
before a vowel vr^ or HT^. It takes the latter only before the 
termination ^ of the third praeterite. In every other respect 
there is no difference between the tenses of the passive voice 
and those of the active in the j^tmane-pada of the first 

Present tense. 

First praeter. ^wfr ^rJ^ N P^ w*qmf% &c. 

Second praeter. "sp^ ^PH^ ^>jftf^ &c. 

Third praeter. 

ist pers. 




3 d Pers. 


Fu-st future. 3 .' .. . _ ><xc. 

Second future. 

) & 

Imperative. >j^ ^JTR^ *J*TR^ &c. 

Potential. >^?y ^^P^ *J^rff &c. 

Tlpnp/Hntivo J **^*^ Hpqqlqp? ^f<4^*<P^ ) 

JLICllCUil/l/lVC. % > &C. 


f iS 

,- ,.,. , 




Derivative Verbs. 

201. Before proceeding to any detail of individual verbs, it 
is desirable that some notion should be entertained of those 
secondary or derivative forms of which the simple verb admits. 
Some of these might perhaps be more correctly designated as 
moods; for causality, desire, frequency, or intensity, are but 
different modes or conditions of the same action; and the modi- 
fications by which they are expressed are no more to be regarded 
as distinct verbs because they take all the tenses of the simple 
verb, than are the moods of the Greek verb, of which the 
same circumstance may be predicated. As however the deriva- 
tive forms have been hitherto given separately, and as their 
annexation to the simple verb as moods would present to the 
learner a rather formidable array of verbal inflexion, the distinct 
explanation of them may be here also observed. 


202. All verbs admit of a modification implying causality, 
as causing to be, to do, &c. In the language of the original 
\ grammarians, ftn^ is added to the verb ; that is, the vowel ^, 

which is convertible to I?, and becomes ^n^ before a vowel ; the 
*ET in the affix indicates the substitution of the Vriddhi element 
for the radical vowel ; ^ therefore becomes ft, which with 3[ 
makes >rrfa, or before a vowel >TT^. 

a. The causal verb may be conjugated with the termina- 
tions of either voice ; with those of the Parasmai-pada when 
it is strictly transitive; with the Atmane-pada when it is 
reflective, or when the consequence of the action reverts to 
the causer or instigator, ^r is inserted before the terminations 
in the conjugational tenses, and ^ in the non-conjugational ; 

136 VERBS. 

except in the third prasterite, which takes the terminations o 
the first praeterite. The second praeterite is formed with th 
auxiliary verbs ^, H, ^n^. 

b. Verbs ending in 5&T, whether primitive or derived from 
the change of a final diphthong to ^rr, insert n, 75, or TJ, before 
the causal augment ; as, trr * to drink/ MIM^Pri ' he causes to 
drink ;' tn * to preserve/ tIlc4*lPcf ' he causes to preserve ;' ^TT 
* to know/ sUmiPrf ' he causes to know/ ' he teaches/ In some 
instances the radical vowel is optionally made short; as, $TT 
f to sharpen' or * kill/ sjimiPrf or $nmPrf ' he causes to kill / 
tiin f to bathe,' ^ m H Pd or ^miPrf ( he causes to bathe.' 

c. Roots ending in ^ or ^ when substituting the Vriddhi ele- 
ment ^ change the latter of course before the vowel of the causal 
form to ^TT^; as, f% ' to collect/ ^mJifri ' he causes to collect :' 
but n is sometimes replaced by TJ, and the vowel in both cases 
made optionally short ; so that f% makes also ^imjPrf, ^imPd, 
or -ejmiPK. Roots in ^ long sometimes either change the radical 
to the Guna element, or preserve it unchanged, interposing a 
consonant before the causal augment ; as, jPt ' to be ashamed/ 
^qqfrf 1 ; jft ( to be pleased/ jfanrfir or iflmjfci, Roots ending 
in T, "31, ^, and ^, mostly change their finals to the Vriddhi 

d. Roots ending in consonants usually change a medial w 
to ^TT ; and ^, 7 and ^ to u, ^ft and ^. Long vowels are 
unchanged. There are exceptions, as in the class of roots 
called Mdify or TRT * to endeavour/ with other verbs of the first 
conjugation, which do not make the vowel long, as tre, Mdnfrf. 
Of roots ending in *T, some do and some do not make the 
vowel long; as, m 'to go/ ipnifTT; ^*T 'to wish/ eMHqfrf. 
inr, ' to kill/ substitutes "srif ; as, MM^fri ( he causes to kill.' 

' to ascend/ optionally substitutes TI for the final ; as, 
or TLiTrqfjT ' he causes to ascend or grow/ ' he plants.' 

e. These general rules for the modification of the base 
are applicable to all the tenses except the benedictive in the 
Parasmai-pada, and the third praeterite. In the former tin 


causal augment is rejected, although the vowel of the base 
undergoes the change to which it is liable in this form, as 
^becomes >frarnf . In the third preterite, which takes the 
terminations of the first, and the conjugational augment ^r 
before them, the root undergoes reduplication, with some 
peculiar modifications of the radical vowel. With very few 
exceptions the causal augment is rejected ; as, TTT% c to ask/ 
makes 4U44Hi^ not ^qJiMJJi^. In general the radical vowel, 
if long, is made short ; as, Tft ' to please,' ^tflfwi^ ' he caused 
to please ; v ' to shake,' ^rwr^ * he caused to shake.' There 
are some exceptions, as in the instance of *n^r ; so also ^TPff, 
' to govern/ makes ^$1311441^. Some verbs take both forms ; 
as, vrro ' to speak,' SHfsiMm^ or |p<wm^ ( he caused to speak.' 

f. In doubling the root before the third preterite of the 
causal, the general rules are mostly to be observed (see p. 118); 
but there are also some peculiarities. 

g. If the verb consists of a vowel followed by a consonant, 
the first member of the reduplication is the entire root, with 
the vowel modified as usual: to this, ^ is added, with the 
radical consonant ; as, ^rz ' to go,' xMifez^ ( he sent/ or e caused 
to go ;' ^?5 f to worship/ ^PrtpJTT ' he caused to worship.' 

h. If the verb begin with a consonant, the reduplicated con- 
sonant will conform to preceding rules (p. 118). The redupli- 
cate vowel will be ^, ^, or ^r. 

i. *r is repeated for a radical ^T prosodially long ; as, 7W, 
' to obtain,' makes "flaJcW^ ' he caused to obtain / and for ^r 
when it is preceded by a double consonant ; as, ^ ' to tram- 
ple,' 4iH4l4i^ ' he caused to trample :' for ^rr medial, which is 
preserved in the inflexion ; as, $rre ' to govern/ ^31311*1^ ; 
and for ^f and ^ in some verbs ; as, erff ' to be,' X*HM^ ' he 
caused to be ;' ^ ' to tear/ ^J^T^ * he caused to tear.' 

j. ^, becoming ^ before a single consonant followed in its 
inflected form by a short vowel, and remaining unchanged 
before a double consonant, or before a single consonant if 
followed in its inflected form by a long vowel, is repeated 


138 VERBS. 

i, for ^r or ^rr when not followed by a double consonant ; as^ 
TT^ ' to cook/ ^iflq 1 ^ ; ^rr ' to shake,' >H{V|ti4iMi^ ; WT * to 
stand/ 'afrffaMi^ l he caused to stand :' 2, for ^, ^, 1?, ^ ; as, ftf 
' to conquer/ ^n>fl^^H N ; T? e to surround/ ^nfV^y^ : 3, for g 1 or 
g preceded by f, a labial, or a semivowel ; as, *f to make 
haste/ ^HflH^ ' he caused to make haste / ^ to be/ ^cflH^r^ 
' he caused to be ;' "^ s to cut,' ^<j f M 1 '4^ : 4, optionally for T or 
gi preceded by the same consonants in composition with others ; 
as, ^ ' to hear/ Jl \[ V J("3 r^ or ^pr^: 5, for ^, when that does 
not substitute ^l ; as, ^ ' to be/ *Mft^Ki^, othenvise ^m<^^ ; 
or in some cases where it does take Guna ; as, OR ' to make/ 
m-MlcR^ ' he caused to make/ 

k. ^, liable to be changed to "35 by the same circumstances 
which require the alteration of ^ to ^, is repeated for 3, "35, *K\, 
^ ; as, ^ ' to grow/ ^^c^ ' he caused to grow/ ' he raised;' 
( to seek/ ^rg^t<*^ f he caused to seek ;' "Em t to sleep,' 
' he caused to sleep.' 

Z. Some of the forms of this tense are apparently anomalous, 
although they arise out of previous rules : thus ^ ' to go,' with 
>?rfv prefixed, ' to read/ makes iHUlifMUr^ or *HUHlj|i|^ ' he 
taught' or ( caused to read ;' in ' to smell/ vMr^fmj^ or ^rftnnirr 
' he caused to smell ;' ^{ ' to kill/ ^5fNnr^; and TTT 'to drink/ 
^if|4iT ' he caused to drink/ 

m. It is not necessary, either in the case of causal deriva- 
tives or those about to be described, to multiply examples 
under their several rules. In the succeeding pages para- 
digmas will be given of many of the most useful verbs, and 
these will include examples of their derivative verbal inflexions. 


203. When the agent wishes, intends, or expects to do the 
action, or be in the condition, which the verb imports, *T, 
technically called *r^, is added to the root. The ^T is rejected 
before the terminations of the non-conjugational tenses. The 


oot undergoes reduplication, and is conjugated in the same 
roice in which the primitive is conjugated. 

a. Before *n^ the augment ^ is very commonly prefixed, 
[ts exclusion occurs for the most part after those roots which 
lo not take the same augment before the non-conjugational 
enses (see p. 127). This does not prevent the use of the 
tugment before the personal terminations in those tenses in 
phich it is enjoined in all derivative verbs. After ^ the *f of 
HJ is changed to "R. 

b. The reduplication of the radical syllable follows the rules 
iffecting consonants (r. 188. cl. dioff). There are some pecu- 
iarities in regard to the vowels ; ^ being usually substituted for 
i radical medial or final ^f, ^n, ^, ^, ^, ^, *j, ^ ; and 7 for 7, 
It, "3rt, ^. When the root begins with a vowel, the redupli- 
:ation is the radical syllable itself, followed by the final con- 
ionant with ^ prefixed ; as, ^T ' to eat,' 4iOirO}f^ ' to wish to 
;at.' Very commonly, however, there is no reduplication, but 
he initial letter or the whole syllable is changed ; as, ^rr^ ' to 
>btain,' f^ ' to wish to obtain ;' ^T ' to increase/ ^ 'to wish 
;o increase,' &c. The same occurs with verbs beginning with 
:onsonants ; as, ^r ( to give,' f^T^, f^rHfd s he wishes to give ;' 
if ' to scatter,' and ft ' to kill,' fin^, ftwfif ' he wishes to scat- 
!* or ' kill ;' $n& * to be able/ f^T^j as r^lHlfri * he wishes to be 
ible,' ' he learns ;' <5>T ( to obtain,' fci 1 *^, as frf^fd ' he desires 
;o obtain ;' tj^ ' to go,' CM 1*4 r) ' he wishes to go ;' tnr * to fall/ 
"ijruPri ' he expects to fall,' &c. 

c. Besides the changes to which the radical vowels are 
mbject in the syllable of reduplication, they are occasionally 
mbject to the same or similar changes in the radical syllable 
ilso. When ^ is not prefixed to *r^, a radical short ^ and ^ 
become long ; as, ftf, ' to conquer/ makes ftpfhrfcf ; ^ ' to join/ 
g'^jM frf . The long vowels remain for the most part unaltered ; 
is, ^T ' to know,' ffl^TafiT ' he wishes to know / >j ' to be/ 

{ he wishes to be/ "^r and ^ are commonly changed 
as, ^ ( to make,' fq^^fiT ' he wishes to make :' but 

T 2 

140 VERBS, 

when preceded by a labial, the substitute is g^:; as, i| t ' to die, 
makes ^tfff * he wishes to die.' 

d. When ^ is prefixed to *n^, a final ^rr may be dropped 
as, <jiX.<l l to be poor/ ^IXfijMfTT ; otherwise ^PigiuPri. Other 
final vowels may substitute the Guna or Vriddhi elements, 
changed before ^ agreeably to the rules of Sandhi. Thus 

e to serve/ makes P^PimPrt ; otherwise P^CiflMPri. ^, ' to go/ 
substitutes *T*?, which takes ^ and makes ftrnTH^fif ; but not if 
^rfv be prefixed, as ^PvPflli*^. ^, ( to purify,' substitutes 
for its radical, which becomes the Guna ^, and by Sandhi 
^n( before the augment fqqPuMPtf. g?7|, * to cover/ takes 
different forms, gpfrgf^refff, "^P^TP^NfrT, or ^ifitjMPrf. Those 
verbs in ^ or ^ which prefix ^ to *r, change the radical letter 
to T:; as, ^ ' to go/ ^rftftsfff ' he wishes to go/ if ' to cross/ 
with ^, is rHrffmrri ; without it finft^fw. 

e. Most roots ending with consonants prefix ^ to ^TT. When 
they do not, the finals combine with the sibilant, agreeably to 
the laws of Sandhi ; as, "^ ( to cook/ ftnr^ * to wish to. cook. 1 
PM M Hj Pri ; "T7, which takes ^, makes ftmPmPri ( he wishes to read.' 
Hrf * to spread/ and "^ff ' to serve/ take both forms ; as, 

or PnnPi^Pn PiPn or PPmPir. 

f. Verbs having a medial ^, ^, T, gi, when ^ is prefixed to 
T, optionally substitute the Guna letter ; as, ^^ ' to please/ 
N^'P^MPlT or ^'ClP^MPrt. There are a few exceptions ; as, ^ 

' to weep/ ^^P^MPir. When the final is ^ it is changed to 
when ^ is not inserted ; so f^, * to play/ makes 
P^P^P^MPri, or f^PmPrt f he wishes to play/ A medial ^ or 

is usually changed to ^ when ^ is inserted, but remains 
unchanged when it is not ; as, 'TTr, ( to dance,' makes either 

g. Some verbs take the form of the desiderative, although 
they have the meaning only of the simple verb ; as, TJTJ ' to 
blame/ ijJjmrt ' he blames / fsfft ' to cure,' P*ahrWPH ' he cures ;' 
' to investigate,' irtai^ ; and a few others. 



204. When repetition or intensity of the action or condi- 
tion is signified, T^, technically called TT^, is added to the verb. 
The nasal T intimates that it is to be conjugated in the 
A'tmane-pada only. The root is doubled. Again, it is said 
that the affix is rejected ; when *r is not inserted, although the 
verb retains the reduplication. In that case the frequentative 
form may, according to some authorities, be conjugated in 
either voice, although others restrict it to the Parasmai-pada. 

a. Verbs implying motion take the frequentative form in 
the sense of tortuous motion, and some others in an ill sense 
of the verb. 

b. When conjugated with ^, the verb follows the model of 
verbs of the first conjugation ; that is, it inserts ^r before the 
terminations of the four conjugational tenses. When ^ has 
been rejected, it follows that of verbs of the second conjuga- 
tion, or is inflected without the intermediate vowel *&. 

Frequentatives inserting T^. 

205. In the reduplication initial consonants are repeated, 
agreeably to general rules (p. 118). A verb beginning with a 
vowel repeats the whole, and makes the vowel of the primitive 
syllable, if short, long ; as, ~^z ' to wander/ ^IWH ' he wan- 
ders much.' A monosyllabic vowel is changed to its Guna 
representative in both syllables ; as, ^ ( to go,' ^tnjuj^l ( he 
goes often/ 

a. A medial ^r or ^rr is represented in the reduplicate 
syllable by wr ; as, Tj^r ' to cook,' qmWJj ; Tfi^f ' to ask/ 
qimuhh If a root with a medial ^T ends in a nasal, the nasal 
is repeated ; as, ira ' to go,' 5rfj|-(J) ' he goes frequently/ or 
* crookedly.' Some follow different forms ; as, WT, ' to be 
born,' makes either 'fa^^ or nunii ; and ^f ' to kill/ sf^^, 
!^ai^, or ^tOiTr). Some verbs insert a nasal in the redupli- 
cate syllable j as, T5I ' to speak/ iy<^4^ ' he talks much.' 
Some with a nasal in the primitive, retain it only in the redu- 


plication ; as, ^r f to bite,' <^$^ ' he bites much :' and verbs 
ending in 11, c3> ^ insert a nasal optionally ; as, ^?3 ' to go, 1 
st^V^rt or ^l^t-M^I ' he goes crookedly' or ' repeatedly j' < qr?3', 
1 to bear fruit/ has only one form, Tfijr^tr^. The verb ^t, ' to 
go,' also inserts a nasal, ^^*rl. Some verbs, having a medial 
% require ^nft to be placed after the reduplicated consonant, 
and if they have nasals, drop them ; as, n^ ' to go,' 
or TsNr ' to fall,' 

b. The simple vowels ^, ^, ^, "35, % ^, final or medial, and 
whether radical or derived from the changes to which a radical 
vowel or diphthong is subject in this form, substitute the 
Guna letter in the reduplication ; as, f^ f to know/ 

^ s to be,' 'ofV^ft. ^T ' to give,' becoming ^t, makes 
and T^ f to sing/ first changed to JTT, makes jft, and then 
^jflqrt. The vowel ^ is put after the Guna substitute of 
as, rpf ' to dance/ *Fchpr^'. 

c. The radical syllable is also subject to various modifica- 
tions, affecting chiefly the vowels. A final ^TT, whether primi- 
tive or substituted for a final diphthong, is changed to ^; as, 
<*T f to give,' ^l^ih 3[ and "3", when final, are made long ; and 
if long, are unchanged ; as, f% ' to gather,' ^^I^Ti ; ^ ' to coo,' 
ft<*^rt or etc|<r;K ^ preceded by a single consonant is changed 
to tj ; as, "3;, ' to make/ becomes ^-^!M^ ' he makes' or ' does 
incessantly.' If the initial is a double consonant, the vowel is 
changed to ^R; as, w, e to remember,' makes mtuuh). When 

\ c 

medials, the radical vowels are for the most part unchanged. 

d. Some verbs containing semivowels combined with con- 
sonants change them, and the vowels following them, to their 
analogous vowels : thus ^, * to cover/ becomes ^ft ; as, 

' he hides repeatedly :' f^r, * to increase/ becomes 3T, and 
makes $fJ9lijri * he increases constantly :' ^T^, ' to sleep/ be- 
comes *nj ; as, *i ! l^uj^ > ' he sleeps frequently' or ' soundly :' 
^qT, ' to make a noise,' becomes f^; as, tlfMUj^ ' he makes a 
great noise : J n, * to swallow,' becomes fVr^:, and again changes 
^ to ?j ; as, *)Pn<4Jlt ' he swallows voraciously.' In others, the 


changes are arbitrary ; as, TC, l to go,' changes its 'H to "gr : 
and ifi?y, ' to bear fruit,' changes it to ^ ; as, 

Frequentatives rejecting *T. 

206. The rules regarding reduplication are generally the same 
for this as for the preceding form of the frequentative verb. 

a. The vowel of the reduplicate syllable is the Guna equi- 
valent of that of the base ; or T* for ^, ^ ; wt for gr, "3! ; ^. for 
^, gjN The vowel ^ or ^ may be optionally subjoined to ^.; 
thus ^, ( to make,' in its reduplication becomes ^ft=[, ^fcR, 
or ^ifc ; ^f, ' to go,' becomes w^ or '^rft^. The final ^ of JT 
* to swallow,' and w f to cross,' becomes ^rr ; as, *rnr, TffiT. The 
changes of medial vowels, and the rules affecting the insertion 
or ejection of a nasal in the reduplicate syllable, are the same 
as those of the preceding class of frequentatives. 

b. As being inflected in the second conjugation, no vowel 
is interposed between the terminations and the base : ^r, ' to 
give,' therefore makes '^ifd, and tre ' to cook/ xjmfVi, in the 
third pers. sing, present tense. Optionally, however, ^ may 
be prefixed to terminations containing a mute TT, and begin- 
ning with a consonant. Before the same terminations a final, 
and if short, a medial vowel undergoes the usual Guna sub- 
stitution ; and when ^ is inserted, the final combines with it, 
according to the rules of Sandhi ; as, ^ft f to sleep,' 3)31 frf or 
$)$m1Pri 'i and >? * to be/ Ti*iirn or anHqlPff. 

c. Verbs ending in ^TT change the final to ^ before the 
terminations of the conjugational tenses beginning with conso- 
nants not having a mute T^; as, *rr ' to abandon,' - j<l^N;, ^I^)H;; 
but ^r ' to give,' and \n ' to have,' before the same, drop their 
final vowel, as ^Tg 1 :, <JTO:. Before terminations containing TJ 
the change is optional, as Wl^lfrt or n%fjTj ^ being changed 
to its Guna equivalent. Before vowels the final is dropped, 
as, third pers. plur. Ti^frf, ^i^Prt ; the nasal being rejected after 
a reduplicate (r. 186). Before if the final is optionally changed 
to *r, as rrfFrn^ or ||^MM N , urr and TIT, change the final to ^, 
and are inflected like verbs ending with ^. 



d. The changes of ^, ^, T, "3J, ^, ^, when final, are analo- 
gous to those to which they are subject in conjugational 
inflexion. Before those terminations which reject i^ they 
substitute the Guna letters >?, ^rfr, ^r*L, which undergo the 
usual changes before vowels. Before a termination beginning 
with a vowel, and not containing a mute T^, they are changed 
according to the rules of Sandhi, or in some cases ^ ^ make 
^, and 7 "gi become T^, before such a vowel. Before similar 
terminations beginning with consonants they are unchanged. 
In like manner medial short vowels are changed to Guna 
vowels before the terminations rejecting t^. 

e. There are some special modifications, which will be 
noticed in the paradigmas. We may now give the continua- 
tion of ^ in its derivative modifications. 

Causal form of >* to be :' 

' to cause to be.' 

Present tense, ' I cause to be,' &c. 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

First praeterite, c I caused to be,' &c. 

Second praeterite, c I have caused to be,' &c. 

Third praeterite, ' I had caused to be,' &c. 



First future, ' I will cause to be,' &c. 

UNPjJrtl^ >TMPilriUjl^ ^TTfftnnTjR^ 

*i<*P<ni >n=ir<4rtmiM >TTTftnrr^ 

MMPuril UNPuKlCl *TI 3 P*{ A Rt 

Second future, ' I shall or will cause to be,' &c. 

Imperative, ' May I cause to be/ &c. 

Potential, * May I cause to be/ &c. 

Benedictive or optative, ' I pray I may cause to be/ &c. 

Conditional, ( I shall cause to be, if/ &c. 

Desiderative form of J* to be :' ' to wish to be.' 

Present tense, ' I wish to be,' &c. 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

146 VERBS. 

First praeterite, * I wished to be/ &c. 

Second praeterite, ' I have wished to be/ &c. 


or - 

Third praeterite, ( I had wished to be/ &c. 

First future, { I ^ill M"ish to be/ &c. 

Second future, ( I \vill or shall wish to be/ &c. 

Imperative, * May I wish to be,' &c. 

Potential, { I may wish to be/ &c. 

Benedictive, ' I pray I may wish to be,' &c. 


Conditional ' I shall wish to be, if/ &c. 


l PH M n ^r^H PH ( n i 

Frequentative form of >^' to be/ with the affix *r^; 

be repeatedly;' conjugated in the j^tmane-pada only 

Present tense, ' I am repeatedly/ &c. 

First praeterite, ' I was frequently,' &c. 

Second praeterite, ' I have been frequently,' &c. 

Third praeterite, ' I had been frequently,' &c. 

First future, ' I will be frequently/ &c. 

Second future, ' I will or shall be frequently,' &c. 

148 VERBS. 

Imperative, ' May I be frequently/ &c. 

Potential, * I may be frequently/ &c. 


Benedictive, * I wish I may be frequently/ &c. 

Conditional, ' I will be frequently, if,' &c. 

First praeterite, * I was frequently,' &c. 

: or 


Second praeterite, ' I have been frequently/ &c. 

i^a*i ft*HN<*H &c 

or "^ftf^ fl*i fa q or 1 sffrjfVr ft*jf<(H or 

'j or ^t>TT5J *fo?3 or 
or"fto* Tt^r?: or wtarEnr: ^>ff: or 

Frequentative form of i^'to be/ after rejecting the affix TT^> in 
the Parasmai-pada. 

Present tense, ' I am frequently/ &c. 



Third praeterite, ' I had been frequently/ &c. 

or ^ 

or 4<<flN)ri ) 

_^ t- trn ^r: or 

or ^TT^ j 


First future, ' I will be frequently,' &c. 

Second future, ' I will or shall be frequently,' &c. 

Imperative, ' May I be frequently/ &c. 

'^\*V<4 W 


Potential, ( I may be frequently/ &c. 

Benedictive, ' I wish I may be frequently,' &c. 

Conditional, ' I shall be frequently, if,' &c. 

150 VERBS. 

The conjugation of the frequentative form of the verb, after 
rejecting ^, in the Atmane-pada, is not admitted by all gram-i 
marians, and it is unnecessary therefore to exhibit it at length, 
The following exemplification of it in the third person singular 
of each tense will be sufficient. 

Pres. ^JW, ist prast. wwt>Jr, 2d prat. ^Hl<sJ?fc, 3d praet. 
ist fut. sftaf^TTT., 2,d fut. -sflMfcHqrl, imp. ^JTrf, pot. 
, bened. ^faf^ Ml y, cond. ^TtefVonr. 

These derivative forms or moods may be used also in the 
passive as well as in the active voice ; as, HT^7 ' it is caused 
to be;' ^f^" 'he is desired to be;' vtftigui'i) ' he is to be 
frequently/ They may also take other derivative forms ; as, 
the causal of the passive, ^n^^ 1 * he is caused to be ;' the 
desiderative of the causal, *njf*rafiT * he wishes to cause to 
be :' or more than one desiderative may be combined ; as, 
' he causes the wish to occasion frequent exist- 

ence.' These complex forms, and even the simple derivative 
forms, seldom occur, except the causal. The desiderative 
form is most frequently met with in the derivative nouns ; as, 
n>T$imi ( the wish to know ;' g*in| ( one who desires to die. J 
The frequentative is rarely used. 


There is another specified form of a verb, which can 
scarcely be considered as distinct that of the impersonal as 
it is nothing else than the third person singular of each tense 
of the passive form, either of the simple or derivative verb, 
being used with a noun in the instrumental case ; as, >nra- ' it 
is ;' wm nnr ' it is by me,' i. e. I am ; ^>TT ' it was ;' >rf^Tn 
f it will be ? f^J] 8 ^ ( it is desired to be ;' ^t>rqw f it is fre- 
quently,' &c. 


Nouns are also not unfrequently employed as verbs. In- 
stances of this are not wanting in other languages, but no 1 


perhaps to a like extent. At the same time it is to be 
remarked, that the verbal form of the noun occurs only in 
specific inflexions, and that its conjugation in every person 
and tense is only theoretically allowable. The most common 
inflexion is that which is usuaUy given in example of the 
formation of such verbs, the third person singular of the pre- 
sent tense, and it is that of the first conjugation. There is 
no peculiarity in the mode of inflexion : the modification is 
confined to the base, and is chiefly the insertion of ofiTHJ, or 
of TT called technically ^R^ or ^T^, between the noun and the 
verbal terminations. 

ehiuf is inserted before the terminations to imply desire; 
as, iJftcfilHjfrf' ' he wishes for a son ;' ^"SRlwifif ' he desires 

q is more extensively employed, and in most cases with 
some modification of the vowel of the noun. The principal 
changes are the substitution of WT for W ; ^ for ^T and ^ ; "35 
for T; and ^ for ^r. A final f or *r is usually rejected. 
The senses expressed by these forms may mostly be resolved 
into desire and imitative action : thus from TJ^, f a son,' comes 
i. c he wishes for a son;' 2. 'he treats as a son:' 
, i. ( he wishes for a king ;' 2. ' he acts like a king :' 
\nOqfif f he desires wealth ;' VTTffw e he longs to acquire 
wealth :' fej'UJJ ' Vishnu ;' fauiuifrf' fg"*TH ' he treats the Brahman 
as if he was Vishnu :' TTTOT^ * a palace ;' 

' the beggar acts or lives in his hut as if he were in a palace :' 

' a kite ;' 3*Hm^ cBToR: ' the crow acts like a kite :' ?n | muff 
' a nymph ;' WSTTH"^ c she acts like a nymph.' A final ^r is 
si >metimes retained ; as, zr$nr , ' fame/ makes either ^imTl or 
^5fm^" *j^"ii: ' the vile man acts as if he were famous.' 

In some cases *T is prefixed to TJ, implying desire ; as, "sfhl 
' milk ;' ^kfufrf ^T<7: ' the child longs for milk :' ^T^gr * a horse ;' 
T3TT * the mare longs for the horse.' 

Sometimes the augment is dropped ; as, ' he acts like 
Krishna* may be either ^UHI^ or ^uufff ; 'he acts like a' 

152 VERBS. 

father' may be PuWlnPrf or ftnrcffT ; JR* ' arrogant/ iRHTfr or 
TRHTO^ ' he acts arrogantly.' 

The class of words called V$(\fy takes TJ in the 
pada to imply becoming or acquiring that which the word 
denotes ; they lengthen a final vowel before TT ; and optionally 
adopt the Parasmai-pada, rejecting the augment ; as, >pr 
'much/ 'many;' >pfTRW, *J5rPff, 'becomes much :' nP^id ' learned;' 
, MHliJriPri, ' becomes learned,' &c. The class termed 
in a similar sense may take H in either Pada, or 

reject it in the Parasmai-pada; as, "<ClP^rilH^, cilP^rtmPrf, or 

' becomes red,' ' reddens.' 

and other words are conjugated with *r, in the Atmane- 
pada only, to signify making ; as, $f<^mri ( he makes a noise.' 
TT^ and others are so conjugated to signify feeling or experi- 
encing ;' as, UHN^ ' he enjoys happiness ;' <*ym7} ' he suffers 
pain.' The last also denotes, doing what will incur pain ; as, 
<*yin7l rpbrt ' the wicked man commits what will bring him 
pain,' i. e. sin. v?r f smoke,' T^rT ' heat,' ifo ' froth,' ^ 
steam,' are used exactly as in English : VMIU^ ' it smokes ;' 
a t *ll^ : ff ' it grows warm,' ' it heats ;' ifiHNri ' it froths' or 
( foams ;' cj |uj \q d ' it steams.' 

HiTH ' reverence,' Trm^ ' penance,' ^Pi_TH ' service,' do not 
reject *T before ^ ; as, H^^Pri ^TPT ( he salutes the gods ;' 
HM^Pri "Hilt ' he performs penance ;' <lP{j444jPri T^ ' he serves ' 
his Guru.' 

A class of words called <+4j^lP^ is conjugated with IT in the 
sense of doing or suffering what the noun implies ; as, 
' scratching,' =H!^M Pd or cWl^yrf ' he scratches;' w^t ' sin,; 
1*5^ PcT or Hnfn^ e he sins ;' JM^ ' dawn,' ^MfifPrf ' it dawns j 
*nrt ' worship,' ^^1^ f he is worshipped,' &c. 

There is no apparent limit to this conversion of a noui 
into a verb, but the pleasure of the writer, or the practice e 
his predecessors. Little or no difficulty can arise from il 
however, as the context will sufficiently explain the meanin 
of such a term, whenever it occurs in a sentence. 


The general construction of the Sanskrit verb having 
been thus premised, we now proceed to offer paradigmas of 
individual verbs which are of most frequent occurrence, with 
such occasional remarks as they may seem to require ; arrang- 
ing them under the conjugation to which they severally belong, 
in alphabetical order. The person given is the third person 
of each tense in the primitive, and of the present tense in the 
derivative forms ; with an occasional notice of other persons 
in the former, and other tenses in the latter. When there is 
no sufficient authority for the derivatives they will be omitted. 


i. First Conjugation. 

212. The modifications of the inflectional terminations in 
this conjugation have been pointed out (rules 186, 187, 194, 
195). Those of the inflective base arise out of the charac- 
teristic insertion of ^T before the terminations beginning with 
consonants, and its elongation before r and T. As it is de- 
rived from the syllable ^t^, which contains a mute T^, a medial 
or final radical vowel is changed to its Gufia substitute, and 
the latter is combined with ^? agreeably to the rules of 
Sandhi ; that is, ^ and ^ become ^, which before a vowel is 
changed to ^n^; 7 and ^ becomes ^ft, which is also changed 
to ^r^ before ^T ; ^j and ^ are changed to ^l. Thus, as has 
been seen, >r, ' to be,' makes >Hifa, ^M^, &c. As further 
, exemplifications of the peculiarities of this conjugation, the 
following conjugational tenses of ftf ' to conquer,' and F*J c to 
increase,' are subjoined. 

ftf ' to conquer.' *rv ' to increase.' 


I conquer, &c. 

I increase, &c. 



First praeterite. 

I conquered, &c. 

*Jf i n n 

I increased, &c. 


May I conquer, &c. May I increase, &c. 

I may conquer, &c. I may increase, &c. 

a. Of the remaining tenses of ftf it may be observed, that, as 
a monosyllable ending in a short vowel, it does not take the 
augment ^ (rule 191, #). In the reduplication of the second 
praeterite and of the desiderative it substitutes frr for ftf in the 
radical syllable, thus : 

&c.) ; ist fut. %TTT; 2d fut. 
. Pass. pres. iffar^ ; 3d praet. 

Caus. pres. afimifrf ; 3d praet. 
Freq. (flVri, and ^fif or *f*(iOOr- 

2d praet. 
3d praet 
bened. flMlf^; cond. 
ist fut. *lAlril or 

Other verbs ending in ^ will be analogously conjugated. 

b. Tjy, as beginning with a diphthong prosodially long, is 
conjugated in the second praeterite with the auxiliary verbs. 
It takes the augment ^. 

2d praet. FfFfifc, *?VT1P|5, iTUTOra; 3d praet. ^fw; ist fut. 
2d fut. ^fwnfri ; bened. ^PyMly ; cond. ^(V|ti]rt. Pass. 
Caus. ^vtrfir or -TT. Desid. gr^CMMri. 
The most useful verbs of this conjugation are the following. 


' to mark.' 

The ^ which is added to the verb in the list of roots is 
indicatory, and denotes the insertion of a nasal before the final 
consonant in all the inflexions (p. 105). 

Pres. ^q?^; ist praet. WffiTj ad praet. *Mt; 3d praet. 
ist fut. VHf^fH ; ad fut. ^P^*Mrl; imp. ^nffiri; pot. 
bened. wffnft? ; cond. -aiiP^uift. Pass. **fcfft. Caus. 
or -it Desid. ^P^Pem^. 

* to pervade.' 

The indicatory gi shews the insertion of ^ before the non- 
conjugational tenses to be optional (p. 106). The R of T3f is 
rejected before a TT and ^r, with which the sibilant combines, 
and they become cerebrals after ^. 

Pres. ^KjPd; ist praet. SHIHJ^; ad praet. -flMHJ (^nrijvj or 
IMU) ; 3d praet. ^TT^T^, ^iHsjai, ^jTPsfg:, or ^iiajl^, ^rref, ^rr^j: ; 
ist fut. -yfairii or wr; ad fut. ^rvsjuifit or ^r^rfa; imp. j(Bf r| ; 
pot. ^reih^; bened. -w&f\ I ^ ; cond. ^iPajuii^ or ^TR3fn^. Pass. 
Caus. -^vsj^rrf ; 3d praet. -tiifViq^. Desid. THP^rujMrrt. 

This is also a verb of the fifth conjugation, q. v. 

' to go.' 

This verb is defective in the non-conjugational tenses, and 
its place is supplied by Tt before the terminations beginning 
i with a vowel or with *r, and optionally before the rest ; when 
^t does not, and ^sif does, take the augment ^. 

Pres. iffPrt ; ist praet. flMrt ; ad praet. P=j^m (PM*M 
fq c pq x<, Pq^xj or # [ Hif vj, fq P{ <i or ^ i f*i i , f^r*MH or 
3d praet. ^H^iOfr or ^rnftw; ist fut. TiTT or *! HH A I ; ad fut. 
or J< PH m Prf ; imp. ^T5T^; pot. SN^r^; bened. Ttam^; cond. 
or ^HlPsimr^. Pass. cflu^. Caus. ^mqPrt. Desid. ^M PH PH M PK or 
Freq. q4)Mn. 

^TC ' to go.' 

This and the next are examples of a verb regular throughout. 
Pres. ^TTfjf ; ist praet. ^TTif ; ad praet. ^TT7 ; 3d praet. 

x a 

156 VERBS. 

ist fut. -sifeiH ; 2d fut. *HP<ru|Prf ; imp. WTJ; pot. ^i^; bened 
iHWIf^; cond. -*nP<Iui^. Pass. il<hl7i. Caus. <SflqPrl or -|H 
Desid. ^P^lPd 1 . Freq. (but meaning f to go crookedly') 

wf ' to be fit' or f worthy.' 

Pres. ^rfftf; ist praet. w|^; 2d praet. ^TTft; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. ^jf^ril ; 2d fut. ^rf^ajfw ; imp. ^rf^; pot. 
; cond. -gif^'tq^. Pass. **<4)ri. Caus. ^H^Pd or -Tfr. Desid. 
d. Freq. sn^4Td. 

^ ' to go.' 

In the conjugational tenses ^ is changed to the Guna 
element ^, which becomes ^n^ before the vowel *&. It does 
not take ^ except in the ad praet., and becomes f^T before a 
vowel termination, and ^ before a consonant. Its derivative 
forms are those of the same root conjugated as a verb of the 
second conjugation, in which it is most usually inflected. 
Pres. -^Mfd; ist praet. W*Ti^; 2d praet. ^rni (t^'j 
ynfum or ^r, ff^ t^w) ; 3d praet. ^*fh^; ist fut. ^ 
2d fut. Jjuifri ; imp. '^nrj ; pot. ^?^ ; bened. ^rn^ ; cond 

f^ * to see.' 
Pres. f^; ist praet. ^Tf; 2d praet. frfRRnt; 3d praet. 

; ist fut. $Tttjril ; 2d fut. ^0^*4^" ; imp. ^H|rif ; pot 
bened. |f|ifls ; cond. ^fyjTuiri. Pass. I^W. Caus. |_^ n Of. 
Desid. ^P*jr|M^. 

^T ( to envy.' 

Pres. l^fri ; ist praet. ^T^; 2d praet. ^I^-M^,; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. ff^WT; 2d fut. ff^rftf ; imp. f^ ; pot. 
; bened. '|u)ii^; cond. ^f^mi^. Pass. ^rl. Caus. 
3d praet. ^P^^f^ or (Jp^ujc^. Desid. ^P-MMPri or 

g 1 e to sound/ 
Pres. 'srarff (^?^W, ^) ; ist praet. *Nrt ; 2d praet. 


3d praet. ^? ; ist fut. ^frrTT; 3d fut. wfrnh imp. vsHdf; pot. 
^j%TT; bened. 1 sfoft? ; cond. ^fanr. Pass. -35^. Caus. N^rt. 
Desid. gifmt^. Freq. ^<Jji). 

So other verbs ending in ^ ; as, ^ * to sound ;' <* ' to go ;' 

^ ' to jump/ &c. 

TO ' to go/ 

Pres. ^^fri ; ist praet. eJtisii^; 2d praet. ifl4si 
; 3d praet. ^ifk<fli^; ist fut. ^frfwr; ad fut. 

imp. ^rfWij; pot. ^sri^r^; bened. 44UJIi^; cond. trMi^. Pass. 
. Caus. ^y^Prf. Desid. ^r^rismfri. 

gif f to reason/ 
Pres. '3!f^'; ist praet. ^ft^d ; 2d praet. *^l^* ; 3d praet. 

; ist fut. 'grf^TTT; 2d fut. *0$u|^ ; imp. '^flf ; pot. 
bened. 'djf^T^ ; cond. 'srtr^mrf. Pass. 1 3i^i^ 1 . Caus. 
Desid. ^niffM^. 

With a preposition it takes both Padas ; as, ^Jg^fff or 
( he assembles.' 

^ ' to go/ ' to gain.' 

This substitutes ^p5 before the conjugational tenses. Its 
other changes are to the Guna or Vriddhi substitutes required 
by rules previously stated. 

Pres. ^Ts&fii ; ist praet. ^ntl^; 2d praet. WR (^nfi 
^rrfr?f) ; 3d praet. *Hnfl\^ (^ntf) ; ist fut. ^grtr ; 2d fut. 
imp. ^srj; pot. ^raf^; bened. ^psh^; cond. wrirsn^. Pass. 
1 . Caus. ^rxhrfir. Desid. ^n.nL'qrrf. Freq. 'OU^Ti, and 

With ^ it takes the Atmane-pada, if used intransitively ; 
as, *Hjff ' it collects.' 

' to be straight' or ' honest/ ( to gain,' ' to go/ f to live.' 

Pres. ^3T^ ; ist proct. 'Ml^rf ; 2d praet. ^TTJ%; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. ^f^riT; 2d fut. 'STf^q-^ ; imp. ^rhrf; pot. 
; bened. fV|ifly ; cond. xSif^ufri. Puss. ^STf!'. Caus. 
; 3d praet. vrf^nr . Desid. r^rmi). Freq. 



' to be dry' or ' arid.' 

Pres. 'sf^Pri ; ist praet. ^c^; 2d praet. -4ft 441*4411. ; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. 'SftOHril ; 2d fut. ^sflPHUlPrf ; imp. ^rtT^Tj ; put. 
; bened. ^f^rnr; cond. *uP4si u| if . Pass. ^Tl^Mn. Caus. 
; 3d praet. *alP-<*4<M. Desid. 

gflj ' to desire.' 

This verb by special rule becomes 4IH*< in the conjugational 
tenses, and optionally so in the non-conjugational. 

Pres. 4IMMri ; i st praet. *34l*mri ; 2d praet. ^rl& or 
3d praet. ^-fl4Hrt or ^M<*H1T; ist fdt. 4mPMr11 or 4PHrtl; 2d fut. 
sHHP^Bj^ or ohPHmH ; imp. 4THMrii ; pot. <*IH^H ; bened. 
or <*rHMly ; cond. 'Mohinni^ri or ^<*ri4rt. Pass. =*iiwjri ; 3d praet, 

. Caus. 

i^ri or 
. Desid. 

' to cure.' 

In this sense the verb is conjugated in the desiderativt 
form only. 

Pres. fa P4rW Pd ; ist praet. 4iP^P4rUr^; 2d praet. 
3d praet. aP^P4rfftTf ; ist fut. Pjf4PrHiU ; 2d fut. 

imp. f^f SRWTJ ; pot. fq P*rtl ^ ; bened. 

; cond. 

^q l to be able.' 

The Anubandha g; renders the insertion of ^ optional 
(p. 106) ; the radical vowel is changed throughout to o, which 
becomes ^n^, the Guna substitute of c5, where that substitu- 
tion is required. As belonging to the class ^Hifij, it may be 
conjugated in the third praeterite in the Parasmai-pada also. 
This verb may likewise be conjugated in both voices in the 
two future and the conditional tenses. 

Pres. eh<4j^ ; ist praet. *<*<d4ri ; 2d praet. Tan? ^<*i| or 
^<*fl) ; 3d praet. sr*^ and 'JlahPcMa or ^T^T ; ist fut. 
or <*f<44ril ( <*^(in^ or <*fcM H 1^, and <*^ \a\ P or 
2nd fut. '<*<^(Mrf or flSf^Txcr^, and <*??(t*jfrt or off^wiPrt ; irrp. 
; pot. <*<^if ; bened. RfeNfa? or ^mlv ; cond. 


or *fr^jfrt, and VH*l6{jr^ or ^<*f<^mij. Pass. ^nK Caus. 
Desid. Pl<*r<rMMril or 

T|W ' to go/ ' to walk.' 

This verb, under different circumstances, may be conjugated 
in either voice. In the Parasmai-pada it makes the radical 
vowel long in the conjugational tenses, and prefixes ^ to the 
terminations of the rest. Not so in the Atmane-pada. In 
the conjugational tenses it is also optionally conjugated in the 
fourth or the first class. The vowel is short in the causal, as 
the verb ends in f. 

Pres. -AwTr! or Thiwjfrt, ^ffrft or -*j7i ; ist praet. ^nRT*fi{ or 
*!! rf, w-*Hrf or ^nfiwnr; 2d praet. *I-*IH, ^nf^ ; 3d praet. 
wwlit , *W^W ; ist fut. bhfarl I, "*il! ; 2d fut. 
imp. -*IHiJ or ^IJ^rf, ^Wtri or -*^rff ; pot. nRT^ or 
or -*>**in ; bened. -**^M , jfl'ffty ; cond. w-*fHU|^, ^*w|rt. Pass. 
*wi^. Caus. J *H^fcf ; 3d praet. vPq-^Hi^. Desid. 
Freq. *i-*|rf, ^-+flrrf or 

^51 ' to cry. 

This does not take ^ except in the second praeterite. The 
third preterite is formed with the terminations of the first. A 
final palatal sibilant, not followed by a vowel or % is changed 
to TT; and T? before * becomes "*, which with the following 
sibilant forms T5f ; see rule 27. 

Pres. TFfarfrT; ist praet. m -4)311^; 2d praet. ^Kt^T (^Rtfrjnr, 
-M*f3R) ; 3d praet. 5j*Kj^; ist fut. TRtFT ; 2d fut. 
imp. TRtajTiJ; J)ot. *l^ir^; bened. i$qi^; cond. 
Pass. "11^. Caus. -*l3i^frf ; 3d praet. ^r^^n^. Desid. 

to bear* or * be patient.' 
The final n becomes tT in conjunction with the * or H of a 
termination, and is changed to TIT by virtue of the preceding ^. 
It Incomes Anuswara before any other consonant: see rules 
14, 18-22, c. 




3d praet. 

ist praet. vM^Hrf ; 2d praet. 
or ^f SET, -msjftH^ or ^HUH*-? -MHjfa*^ or 

or ^rsha 1 ; ist fut. HjlHfU or Tfirr ; 2d fut, 
; imp. HJHrif ; pot. T^TT ; bened. HjfHifla or 
; cond. SH^famrt or ^TEf^nr. Pass. Jij^Mrf. Cans. 
3d praet. ^P^VSjHd. Desid. PHsjfaMrl or fMJjjfl^. Freq. 4v 
and ^tj*flfa or 

fsj ' to waste/ 

It takes ^ only in the second preterite : ^ is substituted 
for the radical vowel before a vowel termination not requiring 
Guna or Vriddhi. 

Pres. Hj-uPri ; ist praet. ^r^n^; ad praet. 

or f^%^, fqf^f^) ; 3d praet. ^re^fh^; ist fut. 
fut. ^^jfff ; imp. Bf*lif ; pot. "85^1^ ; bened. B|1i4lH ; cond. 

Pass. Vifl^. Caus. "BjTil^rrT or -?r. Desid. 
Freq. ^ Bp n^ } ^ aj if) fa or ^^fa. 

^ ( to waste' or ' decay.' 

Verbs ending in ^ adapt their final to the ^r of the conju- 
gational tenses, agreeably to the laws of Sandhi ; that is, they 
change it to WI. Before the terminations of the non-conju- 
gational tenses they change the final to ^TT. Verbs ending in 
^Sf\ change the final to ^n in the first and third persons singular 
of the second praeterite of the Parasmai-pada, and reject it before 
the terminations of the same tense in either Pada beginning 
with a vowel, and before the augment ^. In the benedictiv 
they change wr to ^ ; optionally if beginning with a conjunc 

or ^fHfV 
2d fut. 


So % ' to sound, 3 ^ ' to sing,' % f to be weary,' f* ' to cleanse/ 

* to meditate,' ^ ( to sound,' ^ f to melt,' % ' to decay,' an 

ist praet. ^Hjmr^; ad praet. ^^ (^^ri.:, 
spr) ; 3d praet. ^Httjuflr^; ist fut. 
imp. Vijmrf ; pot. T5TRTT; bened. ji4ir^ 01 
Pass. "5]fh^. Caus. ^mifif. Desid. 


others ; as 

% has but one form in the benedictive, 

?T*T ' to dig.' 

This takes both Padas. The penultimate is rejected before 
the terminations of the second praeterite, not having a mute 
tf, except that of the second person plural, and becomes 
optionally long, with rejection of ^ before Tf. 

Pres. ijMPd or -^ ; ist praet. ^nf?fi^, ^m*Mrr; 2d praet. 
(c<Hij:, ^iji)? ^^ ' 3^ P rae t. 'SHSHl'i^, -iH<>lPiy ; ist fut. 
2d fut. 4si PH m Pri or -Tl 1 ; imp. ^T^, ^*TTTf; pot. 
bened. y^ili^ or WPTTi^, ^f^T^OF ; cond. ii 

Pass, y^j^ or wvti. Caus. ^M^Pif ; 3d praet. ^i-flwHr^. Desid. 
r^^rHMPrt or -^. Freq. 4u>*4 < f) or ^iijim^, and ^fflfri or 

TT% * to go.' 

This verb substitutes iFSt in the conjugational tenses. It 
takes ^ only in the second praeterite and second future. In 
the former the penultimate is rejected, as in the last example. 
The indicatory o denotes the inflexion of the third praeterite 
with the terminations of the first. 

Pres. JiTstPrt; ist praet. wrac?(; 3d praet. nTTT ("SPTTj:, ^T^I 
or fJ|P*ivi, rOfi) ; 3d praet. ^TJTn^; ist fut. TiTT; -d fut. 
JlfHtqfrf ; imp. JT^at^ ; pot. ^r^]^; bened. TTWITI^; cond. JJ 
Pass. TTWJ^. Caus. JlH^Pri; 3d praet. ^faflJ!*^. Desid. 
Freq. 4$"W^j f ^fl Pri or 

With certain prepositions this verb may be conjugated in 
the Atmane-pada, as tij^-o&fl. In this Pada the nasal of the 
verb is optionally rejected before the terminations of the third 
praeterite and benedictive tenses, as WTO, ( to go together,' 
making HWIA or f<HJ|4d, ^nrrffar or qifffhr. It is inflected also 
in the Atmane-pada of the causal, when compounded with ^rr 
to signify delay ; ^WH^y irr^r^ * wait a little :' with ^TT in the 
Parasmai-pada it means ' to come ? c4iitiis: ' come hither.' 




' to agitate.' 

The changes of the final before a consonant are those of 
Sandhi (rule 32), and in some cases require the aspiration of 
the initial, as in declension (rule 131, b) : ^ being changed to 
the aspirate 3", a following IT or 'vr is changed (rule 186) also to 
*T; that again becomes also sr, and the first ^ is rejected. The 
sibilant of H WTCT is rejected between two consonants not 
being nasals or semivowels, and the if and ^ are permuted to 
*% as before : ^ is optionally inserted. 

Pres. *TT^; ist praet. ^uii^d ; zd praet. sprr^ (*nrri| or 



-j) ; 3d praet. ^HMI<5 (^Mltfjlrtf, 

f &c.) ; ist fut. J||dl or 

; 2d fut. 
bened. tiiefig or 

or J||f^mri ; imp. J||^df; pot. 

cond. ^UllV^ld or flJ'liruiri. Pass. 
Desid. ^Jiir^Mri. Freq. 

^^ ' to protect.' 

This verb with a few others, as "^5 ' to go/ and W and 
TR ' to praise,' inserts ^TPI before the terminations of the 
conjugational tenses, and optionally before those of the rest. 
It takes ^ optionally. 

Pres. Tntrnrfir; ist praet. ^nffrrnr?^; 3d prast. 

3d praet. witai 




ist fut. 
5 imp 

; ad fut. 

; pot. 




; 3d praet. 




3jrj ( to blame.' 
This takes the desiderative form (see 

respects regular. 

Pres. ^ym^ ; ist praet. s^jjmri ; 2 d praet. 

praet. TsiagyPttg ; ist fut. ^yPmrfl ; 2d fut. 

, but is In other 

; 3d 


fT ; pot. ^QHlcl ; bened. aj^fmtflB ; cond. 
Pass, if-u^. Desid. 

aj^ ' to take.' 

When ^ is not inserted, the changes of the final are those 
specified under TTTf . This is also a verb of the ninth conjugation. 

Pres. Tff^ ; ist praet. Wl^rt ; ad praet. pj^ (T J jfig*l or 
W*pt) ; 3^ praet. WIlT^a or >H^Hjrt ; ist fut. irftfTT or 
2d fut. irf^tir)} or *i^ ; imp. Ji'liri ; pot. J^fff ; bened. 
or Tg$\v ; cond. ^if^uiri or ^nyvi^ri. Pass. J |mri. Caus. 
Desid. Hifuf^Mff or fjf^^T^. Freq. '^0 J |^j ^0 J KTrrf or 

( to eat/ 

In the second praeterite, before the vowel terminations, this 
verb rejects its radical vowel, and ^ in composition with *l 
necessarily becomes OR, which with the sibilant makes ^gr. 
Before a termination beginning with *r, the final is changed 
to if. The verb is imperfect, and wants the third praeterite 
and benedictive in the active voice, and all the tenses except 
the two futures and conditional in the passive. 

Pres. wfir; ist praet. 'STWi^; ad praet. *f*JTti (sTBTjp, TSj:) ; 
ist fut. tren; 2d fut. xnsrfiT; imp. tp?^; pot. W!^; bened. 
il^li^; cond. ^rnWT^. Pass, ist fut. irerT; ad fut. tr^tr^; 
cond. iMMi^MH. 

TTT ' to smell.' 

This in the conjugational tenses has for its base ffir. In 
the other tenses it is unchanged. It is one of the. verbs 
which optionally attach to the final the affixes of the first 
praeterite in the third. 

Pres. ftnrfir ; ist praet. 'srf^nn^; ad praet. nft ; 3d praet. 
^nrnr or IHUIU)^ (^rarnrf, ^mwi, ^nj:, or ^irrg:, &c.) ; ist fut. 
UTrrr ; ad fut. vi^fd ; imp. fsRTnj ; pot. f|*)^ ; bened. irnrn^ 
or ^irn^; cond. x4HU^. Pass. TTRHi'. Caus. VTM^frf ; 3d praet. 
^r1ijm^ or ^firriiq^. Desid. nifVII^Pri. Freq. ^if)^, and 
or Hy^frf. 

Y a 



5, Of 

^*? 4 to eat.' 

As a verb having a short ^r between two consonants, 
which the former is repeated without change in the reduplica- 
tion, it substitutes i* for the radical vow r el, and is not doubled 
before the terminations of the second praeterite, which begin 
with a vowel except that of the second plural. 

Pres. ^rfir ; ist praet. ^T^TiT; 2d praet. ^MIH (-^*irtj, ^*p, 
&c.) ; 3d praet. ij-i*flr^; ist fut. -4(Hril ; 2d fut. 
; imp. ^*T; pot. ^i^; bened. -MW^rf ; cond. 
Pass. -tj^. Caus. ^inqfrf. Desid. ^^rHMrif. Freq. 

With ^rr prefixed, in the sense of sipping water, it lengthens 
the radical vowel, 

^ ' to go. J 

As ending in ^, the radical vowel is made long in the third 
praeterite : rule 190, i. See p. 124. 

Pres. ^rJTT ; ist praet. wm^; 2d praet. ^nnT (^5*.) ; 3& 
praet. ^r^T^h^; ist fut. -4^A\ ; 2d fut. ^ft^rf5T; imp. ^T^; pot. 
^rb^; bened. ^T^T^; cond. ^^f^.uir^. Pass. ^r^w. Caus. '^Knfrf 
Desid. p4x)nmfii. Freq. ^h|zztfr, ^^fff or ^^f^- 

It is conjugated in the A'tmane-pada, preceded by Tff with 
a transitive import ; *j*A^o} e he goes beyond or transgresses 
duty : } and by ^ with a noun in the instrumental case ; 
he travels with a chariot. 5 

' to drop' or f sprinkle.' 

The indicatory ^. denotes the optional inflexion of the third 
praeterite with the affixes of the first preceded by ^r. 

Pres. xiflrffrt ; ist praet. ^iTlrir^; 2d praet. ^trfhf (^^fri'vi, 
M^Hri:, ^*jffa") ; 3d praet. ?n^rti^ or ^rnfrrffa^; ist fut. *M*\ fin n i j 
2d fut. *ifl Pri m fa ; imp. ^4) ri ^ ; pot. **rtih^; bened. x^qn^; cond. 
Pass. ujrfjT). Caus. ^ri^fri or -^ ; 3d praet. 
Desid. -j^rriMrff or jx^frmfff. Freq. 



So wfrt^ in the same senses. 
the second praeterite, 

The reduplication is as in 


W ' to yawn.' 

This verb prefixes t^ to the final, whenever that is followed 
by a vowel. In the frequentative the nasal is confined to the 
reduplication, tf before any consonant except a semivowel or 
a nasal becomes Anuswara, which before T is changed to >r. 

Pres. H*H^ j ist praet. SH*i*TiT ; 2d praet. ^ri*^ ; 3d praet. 

ist fut. Trffenrr; 2d fut. irfocM^ imp. viurdf ; pot. 

; bened. ^Puitflg ; cond. -^viP^ujd. Pass. ip'r^'. Caus. 
f. Desid. 'ftnrfoTRn. Freq. fr**4n, W5 

' to live.' 

Pres. *ffafiT ; ist praet. ^nfNT^; 2d praet. ftnftaj 3d praet. 
; ist fut. aflfarfT ; 2d fut. WiP^wPrt"; imp. fr^j; pot. 
; bened. frsm^; cond. ^flr<Mm^. Pass. ^0<a|^. Caus. 

; 3d praet. <rrfl^^ or SHifirflf^. Desid. 
Freq. ^>(1M^. 

So T^ ( to spit/ and *fta or xfar ( to be fat/ &c. 

* to yawn.' 

This verb inserts a nasal by virtue of the indicatory ^. In 
the frequentative, tf is substituted foe the vowel. 

Pres. ip*Tfr; 2d praet. SfsT**^; ist fut. ^Jp**4dl. Caus. 
Desid. sMPwrerK Freq. 

15^ ' to have fever.' 

Pres. sjrfrT; ist praet. 'Wifri^; 2d praet. snsrt; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. ij|(Xrtl > 2d fut. ifft^rfir ; imp. i|T7 ; pot. 
bened. IJTT?^; cond. ^njfbmr. Pass. T|^. Caus. 
; 3d praet. 'srftnjTjjv Desid. r^^rmfd. Freq. ^1^*3^ 

or Ml"jr^. 

, * to hasten,' takes the Atmane-pada : it is else similarly 

**f ' to go.' 

Pres. <ft<*^ ; ist praet. <jWrf ; 2d praet. $<fl^ ; 3d praet. 
ist fut. ?lr<*ril ; 2d fut. etr<*iq7l ; imp. d1<*rtf ; pot. 

166 VERBS. 

; bened. ^f*fl ; cond. ^<fir<*mK. Pass. <A+H. Cau 
Desid. |g1r<*^ri. Freq. 

*PT ' to bow.' 

This verb takes ^ only in the second and third praeterite> 
and prefixes *r to the latter ; in which, *m * to refrain,' and 
' to sport/ agree with it. 5 

Pres. FTfcT; ist praet. ^HHr^; ad praet. 
or T*!^ ^frft) ; 3d praet. <M*Oi{ (^nffwf, 'iMfaij:) ; i st fu 
rRrT; ad fut. rfctrfir; imp. ^TTjJ ; pot. l*b^; bened. H*Mlr^ 
cond. xMrj^r^. Pass. HHfJi. Caus. HH^lPri or HlMilPd. Desid 
Freq. fJH*{>r, rifiMlfii or 

' to lead/ 

The *T intimates its being conjugated in both voices. 
Pres. fTTfir or -^ ; ist praet. ^ii|^, JJiHd ; 2d praet. 
or fT%^r, fd'Mif:), f^ (f^rf^TW) ; 3d praet. 
W*te (^Mlril) ; ist fut. %TTT; 2d fut. ^mfri or-^; 
imp. nr^, H^Hl* ; pot. T^, f^TT ; bened. 'ffarnr, HMlv ; cond, 
fl^ttli^ or -ttnf. Pass, fflrr^. Caus. imnfri or -T^. Desid 
rHHlMPri or -Ti 1 . Freq. ^j'0^ ^H*flPri or ^fir. 

TJift is used in the ^tmane-pada in the sense of preceding o 
worshipping, as rRr^ * he leads' or ' precedes,' ' he worships 
also after different prepositions, as Tff, JtfM^ ' he leads up' o 
* raises ;' Ttr, ^m^^ ' he gives' or ' pays' or ' averts :' but if i 
is transitively used, it is regular, PmMfrt ; also if it concern 
part of the body, as in^ fcH^frt ' he averts or turns away th 

f%fi* * to blame.' 

Pres. fH^frt ; ist praet. ^rfrrs^; ad praet. frff^v^; 3d pras 
ist fut. r*ifdT ; 2d fut. 

pot. fn^^; bened. ftnrn^; cond. ^rfif^ui^. Pas 
Caus. rH^uPd. Desid. fffffff^ffr. Freq. f5Tf*nT^- 
So may other verbs ending in ^, with an indicatory 3, : 


, ' to call ;' flrf^ ' to be moist ;' ?tf% ' to be happy/ 


to endure/ 

The verb in this sense is conjugated in the desiderative 
form: in the sense of e sharpen' it is a regular verb of the 
tenth conjugation. 

Pres. fifCim^; ist praet. ^rfrrfTSfTT ; ad prset. 

3d praet. ^uPHPrtfEp?; istfut. friPrtPHjrn ; 2d fut. PrtPriP{m7i ; imp. 
l'; pot. frfPrtHjrt ; bened. PdPrfPiyifle; cond. TnPd 

Tt ' to cross over.' 

The verb substitutes the Guna syllable ^i in the conjuga- 
tional tenses, and changes ^r to s in the second praeterite, 
except in the first and third persons singular. The augment 
? may be made long every where except in the third praeterite 
of the Parasmai-pada ; and it may be omitted in that tense, 
as well as in the benedictive of the ^itmane-pada. When ^ is 
not inserted, ^ is changed to $. In some senses the verb is 
conjugated in both voices. 

Pres. wrfff or -^; ist praet. ^HcR^, iHiKrt ; ad praet. 
(TtT^j:, jrf&t) TtT., UTTR or THR), T^ ; 3d praet. ^irliO 
^itmane-pada irfl, a rt Pet! or ?MrlOs ; ist fut. irftjfT or 
2d fut. rfr^mPri -^ or rfOwjfri -^ ; imp. irqj, inCiff ; pot. 
Kbf ; bened. rfl^l^, ift^(t? or riOtfs or fft^f?; cond. 
or ^riO^Mr^ -"BTiT. Pass, rfl-^ci. Caus. rilCVPd. Desid. 
or fjnfttfff. Freq. l^hnl', TTTrr^fTf or TTTrff^K 

to abandon.' 

The root does not take ^ ; and before a hard consonant the 
soft final palatal is changed, agreeably to rule 7, c?, to ef. 

Pres. itl*fPrf ; ist praet. Hfl*f^; ad praet. 

or KiMh^) ; 3d praet. ^115/1^ (^I'WT^r, ^Kll[:) ; ist fut. 
ad fut. flU^Pd ; imp. Wrj; pot. ?T^; bened. 
cond. VSKjy^r^. Pass, rtrilrl. Caus. ^MMPd. Desid. 
Freq. dl^sVT^, rn^sflPri or 



^ * to give.' 

This is an exception to rule 188, k, not substituting ^ for 
the vowel in the second praeterite. 

Pres. ^^; ist praet. *<^rf ; ad praet. ^ (w^ 
3d praet. ^P^g ; ist fut. ^P^HT ; ad fut. ^P^Wii ; imp 
pot. ^TT ; bened. ^f^fts ; cond. ^Ptjmrf. Pass. ?&& Caus. 
or -^. Desid. P<^P<JM^. Freq. ^T^rfr, and irf c 

^ l to have' or f hold.' 

Pres. ^VTT; ist praet. ^>nr; ad praet. ^ (^VTTfr, ^f*rej ', 3( 
praet. 'Sfijfin*; ist fut. ^fwr; ad fut. ^PnM^ ; imp. <pfiri; pot. 
; bened. <jP*nOB ; cond. -^Pyttjd. Pass, tjtzrjf. Cau: 
or -if. Desid. P<^P*mn. Freq. ^i^wtn, <JI<J*flPrt or 

<*^f l to bite.' 

This verb drops its nasal in the conjugational tenses ; also 
before any termination beginning with 7f, and in the radical \ 
syllable of the frequentative. The final ^T before a consonant 
becomes ^, and ^ before a sibilant becomes ^ (rule 2j). 

Pres. fj'^rfir j ist praet. ^T^nfj ad praet. ^5T (^f^TT or 

3d praet. 
imp. ^fjj ; pot. 
^ir^. Caus. 

; bened. 

ist fut. <?T ; ad fut. 

cond. ^M^a<ii^. Pass. 
Freq. ({49 Mi) or 

to burn.' 

The changes of the final before a sibilant, and the concur- 
rent change of the initial, are like those of irrf ; p. 63. Befor 
a dental the substitute of ^ is TT ; if or 'si after an aspirate : 
become V ; and XT as the initial of a compound is changed 

Pres. q^Pn ; ist praet. fl^il ; ad praet. <^i^ Q'^'rtt, f*P^v| or 
3d praet. 1 ?rvi 1 8|l 1 rt x (^fFVf) ; ist fut. ^TVT ; ad fut ! 
; imp. ^TJ ; pot. ^%1T; bened. ^?TT^; cond. 
Pass. ^Tff. Caus. '^i^|Pri or ^. Desid. P^MUjPri. Freq. 



'to give.' 

^T is also a verb of the second and third conjugation, and 
in order to distinguish it from them, an indicatory TIT is added 
to it in the first. This verb substitutes T^ in the conjuga- 
tional tenses. In the third praeterite it takes the terminations 
of the first, and substitutes ^ for ^TT in the benedictive ; in 
which some other verbs ending in ^rr, either as a primitive or 
as substituted for a diphthong, concur : see % and ITT. 

Pres. qTj&Pri ; ist praet. xsq-edrf ; ad praet. ^ (^^ or ^FT, 
:) ; 3d praet. ^TTT; ist fut. ^TTTT; ad fut. ^iwfir; imp. 

pot. Tnaarff ; bened. ^tffif ; cond. ^i^rf. Pass. 
Caus. <jimiPK. Desid. f^wfcf. Freq. ^fhr?! 1 , ^ifd or 

With ^rr or ^nr prefixed in the sense of receiving, and with 
&{ or *u^ and u in its own of giving, it takes the Atmane- 
pada ; as, xMl^^ ' he takes ;' ^11^ or ^'i|^^ * he gives.' 



ist praet. 
; 3d praet. 
imp. ^Tff ; pot. 

* to run.' 

2d praet. 

ist fut. 
bened. rnr ; cond. 




Caus. ^N4|fri. Desid. 



This is another verb of the first conjugation inflected by a 
substitution, as it takes Tr$r^ before the conjugational tenses. 
Before the terminations of the other tenses beginning with any 
consonant except IT, ^ is changed to ^. The changes of the 
sibilant are as usual. ^ indicates two forms of the third 
praeterite (p. 106). 

Pres. ^smfif ; ist praet. 
or ^5) ; 3d praet. "^$1T or 

^wfff ; imp. V9JJrf ; pot. 
\> ' i 

Pass. g!j^- Caus. 
Desid. f^if^. Freq. ^ 

; ad praet. 

^r<5'^^ 5 *st fut. <jgj ; ad fut. 
: bened. ^^HIH : cond. 

. \ 

3d praet. -^H^T^^ji! or 




170 VERBS. 

With ^ prefixed in an intransitive sense it takes 
^[tmane-pada ; tiujgq^ * he contemplates.' 

' to protect.' 

The T denotes its being restricted to the Atmane-pada. In 
the conjugational tenses it is regularly inflected, u becoming 
^sn^ before ^T. In the second praeterite it substitutes f^ftr for 
the reduplicate ; and in the third, ^ for the final ; after which 
the *T of ?*r and fvfi^r is rejected. In the rest it is conjugated 
like verbs in ^n. 

Pres. ^*ni; ist praet. JH^i|rf ; 2d praet. f^ni (f^rzrr 
3d praet. ^rf^TT (wf^THT, -wf^Mn, ^rf^n:, ^rf^ftr) ; ist fut. 
3d fut. ^l^Mrl ; imp. ^Tflrf; pot. ^if; bened. ^rdte; cond. 
Pass. ?(hr>. Caus. <j|imfd. Desid. f^wr^. Freq. 

^Tf ' to shine.' 

This gives name to a class of verbs, ^rilfc|, of which the 
third praeterite takes two forms ; one being that of the first 
praeterite of the Parasmai-pada, without change of the radical 
vowel ; the other being regular. There are in all twenty-two 
verbs of this class. 

1 , 

} to resist. 


to be able. 
r to agitate. 

to exchange. ^ to be. 

to hurt. Y** * grow. 

to hurt. ^pr to be beautiful. 

to shine. ^pr to break wind. 

I , frtj ftsnr to be white. 
> to fall down. 

j f*%% to sweat. 

fi?^ to be unctuous. ^T3[ to drop. 

^T to shine. w to trust in. 

^7 to resist. jnr to fall down. 

Several of these will be found in their places. 


Pres. sfta^; ist praet. ^nerhnf; ad praet. ft^; 3d praet. 

or ^KfiPrlB ; ist fut. sflPdrU ; ad fut. sftPrtmTl ; imp. 

; pot. fft^TT ; bened. sftPcnOl? ; cond. ^j^TlPriMri. Pass. 

. Caus. iftri^Prt. Desid. f^jfriMr) or P^tfiPdMft. Freq. 

ld1Pri or ^sfHir. 

<j * to run.' 

This is one of the few exceptions to the insertion of ^ in 
the second praeterite : rule 188, s. 

Pres. ^fff ; ist praet. ^^H N ; ad praet. 
3d praet. ^d^i^ ; ist fut. <ffrrrr; ad fut. )u|fif ; imp. 
pot. ^Tf ; bened. ^M'n^; cond. ^^tqw. Pass. "5^- Caus. 
3d praet. ^d<jMrf x or !*< <4H x . Desid. ^^Prf. Freq. 
> ^ ^ 41 Pri or ^5*lPn. 
So ^ ' to be firm.' 

^ ' to drink.' 

Before the conjugational tenses ^ becomes ^n^; before the 
rest it is inflected like a verb in ^TT ; but it has three forms in 
the third praeterite : see ^T ' to give,' ^ ' to protect/ &c. 

Pres. vrrfir ; ist praet. ^nnT^ ; ad praet. ^vt (^Tj:, ^f>m) ; 
3d praet. ^v?r (^wfj ^v^), or ^mnf ( i ?nirirf, ^rv:), or 
wvuflc^ (^TRrftref, ^njrftr^:) ; ist fut. vnn ; ad fut. vitnPn ; 
imp. vmf; pot. V^TT; bened. ^Tn^; cond. 'snTTOTif. Pass. 
. Caus. \iiqn Pif or ^ ; 3d praet. ^^VT?^ or -TUT. Desid. 
r. Freq. ^fhr>, ^fif or 

' to be quick/ ' to gallop/ 
The ^| in every case becomes ^. 

Pres. vfcfir ; ist praet. ^r^ftnf; ad praet. <pfa; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. vHrirr; ad fut. VnTWfff; imp. vtcj; pot. 
; bened. \fl^M x ; cond. -^nftficaTTr. Pass, ifrnft. Caus. 

3d praet. ^jvk.TT v . Desid. ^vtPi.MPrf. Freq. 

TJTT ' to blow,' as fire or an instrument. 
This verb substitutes yij before the conjugational augment. 

z a 

172 VERBS. 

Pres. wfir ; ist praet. ^WfTT; 2d praet. ^rm ; 3d praet. 
umi+flri ; ist fut. Miini ; 2d fut. mifJjPri ; imp. VTff ; pot. \TOTT; 

bened. wfrrnT or uimirf ; cond. ^HUjiWiT . Pass. utmTi. Caus 
\ \ \ 

Desid. P^tHUfn. Freq. ^'uftnw, ^ I u) Pri ' or 

xr^ ' to cook/ 

A final palatal, as ^ or *T, becomes oF, when not followe( 
by any other letter, and before a termination beginning with any 
consonant except a semivowel or a nasal, and combines with it 
according to the rules of Sandhi. The vowel is changed to 
in the persons of the second praeterite not having an indicatory 
T^. In the third praeterite the ^r preceding ^rf &c. is rejected, 
and the radical vowel is made long in the Parasmai-pada only. 
The verb takes both Padas. 

Pres. iMPrt -if; ist praet. -^m^, SHiMrt ; 2d praet. 
x)^ ; 3d praet. wmBflrf (-flijl^J, flm'Hj), ^HT^J (^rtfTSTirf, 

ist fut. XI^T ; 2d fut. xr^jfir -w ; imp. TI^ -in pot. tr%7^ -w ; 
bened. tparn^, tr^? ; cond. iHHVi*!^ -W. Pass. tjxinT. Caus. 
3d praet. ^Hiflmi^. Desid. PilM^Pri -W. Freq. 

TTW (tnr) * to go. 3 

The indicatory ^ denotes the inflexion of the third praeterite 
with the terminations of the first, and before them ^ is pre- 
fixed to the radical final. In the desiderative the vowel may 
be changed to ^ ; and in the frequentative, ft is added to the 
reduplicate syllable. 

Pres. xnrfir ; i st praet. JfMrti^ ; 2d praet. MUM ; 3d praet. 
aiMX^; ist fut. Trfinn; 2d fut. iifKujfri ; imp. 'TiT^; pot 
bened. Tjini^; cond. ^Ttrftron^. Pass, xnirff. Caus. 
Desid, fwfinrfif or rMrHfrl. Freq. THlq^rf, M^MrilPri or 

tTT ' to drink.' 

This verb substitutes ftr^ before the conjugational w; in 
the other tenses it agrees with other verbs in ^rr. 

Pres. PMPfl ; ist praet. ^rfVj^; 2d praet. t^ff; 3d praet. 


;; ist fut. xmn; 2d fut. m^Pn ; imp. ftrrij; pot. 
bened. *farn^; cond. 'HMIf^H. Pass. Tffarf. Caus. mJjJjPri -IT. 
Desid. rmilflfri. Freq. tWfaiir, TTT^frT or mmfri. 

qr, ' to preserve,' is a verb of the second conjugation, q. v. 

' to grow.' 

In the third person singular of the third praeterite this verb 
optionally substitutes ^ for ^r. 

Pres. "ornfir ; ist prset. ^ufmrf ; ad praet. fircf 
3d praet. ^nmftr or '.H mi fay ; ist fut. 'mifMril; ad fut. 
imp. "onq'flf ; pot. UII^H ; bened. unfyiflt; ; cond. 
Pass. Ufl^ff. Caus. 

TOT ( to approach. 5 

As this verb changes its Tfi to IT in the reduplication of the 
second praeterite, it should not substitute ^ for ^r (r. 188, k) ; 
it does so optionally by special rule. 

Pres. VMU fri ; ist praet. ^ip.1 1 ^; ad praet. tjtfiTO (MMHirrj: or 
ifrinT:, MMir^rv or Kir^cq, &c.) ; 3d praet. ii iwifi r^ or ^nsnrfhr ; 
ist fut. MiftiHI ; ad fut. Tfiftunirffr ; imp. W8J ; pot. TR^; bened. 
cond. ^(Mir*!JU|j^. Pass. Miiuii). Caus. iwti n Pd . Desid. 
ff. Freq. ijiMWrf, TlwrftflT or 

to bear fruit.' 

. This differs from the preceding only in the change of ^r to 
^ in the second praeterite being absolute, and the vowel being 
long only, in the third praeterite, as the verb ends in 75. In 
the frequentative the radical vowel is changed to T. 

Pres. TR^rflf ; ist praet. ^MK^; ad praet. mh\<A 
3d prast. ^Tfin^hf ; ist fut. Tfifrfin ; ad fut. Tfifrtujfri ; imp. 
pot. TH^ir; bened. ift^qTW; cond. ^ihfVi'ttl IT . Pass. TR^TTf. Caus. 
Desid. ftjTRfeqfa 1 . Freq. "tnpmr, ^"J^ftfTT or 

^V ' to despise ;' l to bind.' 
This takes the frequentative form. 

174 VERBS. 

Pres. afhrwnh ist praet. syiflHrHrt ; 2d praet. ^ffawraifc; 3<3 
praet. %NflHPrHB ; ist fut. ^hrfiwr; 2d fut. ifl^frWWfrf ; imp 
^ffarHrii ; pot. oflHrWfl ; bened. 'cftaPrHtftg ; cond. 
Pass, ^fhrsre. Caus. 

TV, or with ^, ^fM^. ' to know 

There is some difference as to whether these are distinct 
roots or not. With ^j. there are two forms in the third 
praeterite (see p. 106) ; without it, only one. The causal of 
w also is restricted to the Parasmai-pada. There is another 
verb "^V, ' to know/ of the fourth conjugation, which also 
substitutes ^ for the third person singular of the third prae- 
terite in the ^tmane-pada. They are both inflected like other 
verbs with a medial T, except in the desiderative, which does 
not insert ^, and changes the radical consonant to H. 

Pres. -sftvfTT -w ; ist praet. ^psfftr^- w ; zd praet. 
3d praet. (of ^M) *Ufivflri x , (of ffar:) ^HflMlri x or 
ist fut. <HPMril; 2d fut. ^fvuifri -w ; imp. ^hm, D*lrif; pot. 
-TT ; bened. ^TTiT, ^fviflg ; cond. ^<sfl(\imrf N -TT. Pass. 

Caus. Hfln^frf or ftl '^flVi^rrt -W. Desid. 

>r>^ ' to nourish.' 

It takes both Padas. Before a IT, ^becomes fie or tf. In 

the third praeterite, ^tmane-pada, the ^r of ^r is rejected after 

a short vowel. In the desiderative, T is optionally substituted 

for the radical vowel, being preceded by a labial. 

Pres. HTfrT-ff; ist praet. ^MTiT -TT; ad praet. 

^f^), ^; 3d praet. ^Mrfl'ff, 'snjcr ('^r^prin) ; ist fut. 
2d fut. >rftarfir -IT ; imp. HT^[ -irf ; pot. Wb^ -Tt ; bened. 

^fNr ; cond. ^wfconr -IT. Pass, fijnrff. Caus. 
3d praet. ^cflHU x . Desid. f^rftqfw -^ or fJjtfw -w. Freq. 
, ^f^, fft.*rP^ or 'atO^n^. 
' to hold,' and ^^ ' to take/ are similarly inflected. 


HT ' to wander' or whirl.' 

This verb optionally takes the form of the fourth con- 

Pres. wfif, >jwrf?f ; ist praet. m&n{, ^WT*T^; 2d praet. WR 
(>Hrjj) ; 3d praet. ^swift^; ist fut. ^jfrnrr ; 2d fut. ^famfrt ; imp. 
>OTir, WTJ; pot. H^, W^; bened. >j|lr^; cond. 
Pass. Jjwr^. Caus. H*nrfiT; 3d praet. ^rf^RT^. Desid. 
Freq. ^W*rff, wOfff or 

to churn.' 

The nasal is rejected before a 7f. 
Pres. HfUjfd ; ist praet. ^H-v[d x ; zd praet. 
3d praet. ^JH-V/)^; ist fut. J?f^nn; 2d fut. Hf^uiPri ; imp. 
pot. ffrV)'!^; bened. Jrwn^; cond. ^HfrVjuid. Pass. 
Caus. H^^Pd -TT. Desid. (MMr-viMCd. Freq. HIH^ri, 
or JTT*fi%. 

T^T ' to bind.' 

There is nothing peculiar in the simple inflexion of this 
verb. Before a i? the final is optionally rejected ; and in the 
frequentative form, which rejects % its conjunct final may be 
rejected altogether before a termination beginning with a con- 
sonant not a nasal, and having an indicatory x^; whilst before 
any other consonant Tf is rejected, and ^ changed to "&, which 
then substitutes the Vriddhi element ^. 

Pres. f^fff; 3d praet. ^wsfli^; ist fut. ^fann ; bened. 
or H^UU. Pass. H^IW or H*rrt. Desid. HlHOamfrf. 

Frequentative, present tense. 




These modifications are rather curious than useful, as the 
verb is of unfrequent occurrence. 

*TTT ' to investigate.' 
This verb takes the form of the desiderative, 

176 VERBS. 

Pres. *flnin7T ; ist praet. siuflniuri ; ad praet. *ft*ii^i^a ; 
3d praet. ^nftafftre; ist fut. jforrftnTT; 2d fut. iftatftn'i^'; imp. 
*flHludl ; pot. fl*<ftd ; bened. t/taiPufm! ; cond. - 
Pass. tflniwri. Caus. fl*ittiin. 

to barter.' 

The final diphthong becomes ^n^ before vowels, and 
before consonants : it is changed to ^?T in the desiderative. 

Pres. *rq^; ist praet. ^mr; ad praet. ^; 3d praet. 
ist fut. iron; ad fut. HIWVT; imp. jrwr ; pot. jnta; bened. 
cond. ^THTWrf- Pass. *fhr^. Caus. MlMHrf. Desid. 
Freq. *)*flVr^ *ii</)rfi, HT^flT or 

^T ' to remember/ 
This substitutes T^ in the conjugational tenses. 
Pres. H*rfw ; ist praet. ^HHHd^ ad praet. *T^; 3d praet. 
^HtiluliT ; ist fut. uidl ; ad fut. yi^lPrl ; imp. *T*r$ > pot. *i*in^; 
bened. ymirf or tmid '-, cond. ^HtiiJJjd . Pass. timd* Caus. 

3d praet. iwPHUMd . Desid. PnyiuPd. Freq. 
or HiyPri. 

T&f ( to worship/ 

^ is substituted for the semivowel before the terminations of 
the second praeterite, except in the singular of the Parasmai- 
pada, where it is the letter of reduplication. It is substituted 
for i? before TJ. i&f is one of those verbs which change W to 
^ before if and % and to cfi before a sibilant, analogously to 
their derivatives when nouns (see Declension, rules 93, 93). 

Pres. "mrfw -IT ; ist praet. ^nri^ -w; ad praet. 
j^jpiivj or ^*nr, ^Pi), ^n ; 3d praet. ^Hi||H|Tr 
ist fut. ^IFT; ad fut. M^Pd -TT; imp. n'H$ -TTT ; pot. TT^I^ -TTJ 
bened. ^rijld, M|1g j cond. 'HHy^rf -W . Pass. ^5?llf ', i st praet. 
t!s*(d. Caus. MIM^PiT -H ; 3d praet. VN^n^'^ld^ Desid. 
Freq. *<i<4Tqn ? umPy. 

TTff ' to make effort/ 

This is in every respect regular. 


Pres. tnr^ ; ist praet. ssurtrt ; ad prat. ^ ; 3d pragt. 
ist fut. qfridi ; ad fut. nTd^ ; imp. ^Kdf ; pot. TT^TT; bened. 
cond. ^Mfrf(ri. Pass. Tficcft. Caus. ^iri^fri -^ ; 3d praet. 
Desid. fmifdMrf. Freq. niHr<|^, JlHldlfrt or *| I H (V . 

TR e to restrain/ 

This substitutes ^ for its final before the terminations of 
the conjugational tenses. Although it does not take ^ in the 
futures, it does in the second and third praeterites. 

Pres. *TfiT ; i st praet. ^T*T2^ ; 2d praet. *HITR (^favj or 
infa) ; 3d praet. 'suffllr^ (^niftrei) ; ist fut. TRTT ; ad fut. ^Prf ; 
imp. Hrfrl ; pot. TriiT^; bened. ^WJM X ; cond. ^4Wf^. Pass. 
Caus. niHufri or JjHJjPri. Desid. ftnhfffw. Freq. M^|^, 
or <i<4rn. 

TTR is conjugated in the A'tmane-pada when preceded by ^n 
in an intransitive sense ; as, ^mti$ in>: ' the tree spreads :' 
by ITJ in the sense of marrying ; TUT: *fln*J*Tm*W ' Rama mar- 
ried Sita :' also by ^TT or ^ or ^nr, signifying to heap together 
for one's own use ; pfi^l^ tiJj'o&i) ' he heaps up the rice/ 

T^ c to colour.' 

This drops its nasal whenever ^( is inserted before the 
terminations and before *r Before consonants if becomes cR. 

Pres. ^fri -^ ; ist praet. ^STCWi^ -W; ad praet. TTT5T 
or *.<.nf<f, LMg:), T^ ; 3d praet. '^jda|)ri N (^rrf 
ist fut. tur; ad fut. t^rfif -^ ; imp. TT^ -Iff; pot. 
bened. T^RTn^, t^te ; cond. -flCv^r^ -7T. Pass. T15^. Caus. 
or MiiPri. Desid. fUJVmfiT -^". Freq. 

T?T ' to commence.' 

This verb is invariably conjugated with the preposition ^rr. 
The final is changed before a consonant, agreeably to the laws 
of Sandhi. Before a vowel, except in the conjugational tenses 
and second praeterite, T is inserted, which becomes Anuswara, 
and then again J^ before H, as in the causal. In the desiderative, 
^ is substituted for the vowel, and the root is not repeated. 

A a 

178 VERBS. 

Pres. wnCKTT; ist praet. ^TOTff; 2d praet. 

; 3d praet. WC?f (-^Kmidi) ; ist fut. >HK*IT 5 2d fut. 
; imp. ^rnwrf ; pot. 'STR^T ; bened. iUO*flB ; cond. 
Pass. wWff. Caus. ^nrwrfiT ; 3d praet. HK*.**Te^. 
Desid. THiHmirl. Freq. *ti<j<*Mn, a<Krt.ftf?r, ^snTTCftf. 

With exception of prefixing ^n, 75H ' to gain' is similarly 
inflected. Pres. c9*T^ ; 2d praet. ^>T ; 3d praet. ^ic4<M; 2d fut. 
ci<-i(ri. Caus. c?W*<Pif. Desid. foi^Ti, &c. 

T*T t to sport/ 

It is conjugated analogously to other verbs ending with *r. 

Pres. t?Tff; ist praet. ^njRTf; 2d praet. T^ ; 3d praet. 
istfut. t?n; 2d fut. t^rff; imp. iHrff; pot. T^iTj bened. T; 
cond. -sti.^!!. Pass. TjHjw. Caus. im n Prf ; 3d praet. 
Desid. PiAWri. Freq. ^mw, ^ll*fl Pri or &JV. 

Pcj^M, * to rest/ makes P( m Pri ; but when it means ' to lead 
a married life/ PlUHfk or 

^5 * to grow' or ' ascend/ 

For the changes to which a final $r is subject, see 
(p. 162). In the causal the verb optionally substitutes 
for ir. 

Pres. Ct^Prf ; ist praet. SHCl^; 2d praet. i>Cl (ij 1 ^^ 

; 3d praet. ^r^'ijjrf (^'^"HjTrf) ; ist fut. ^TT; 2d fut. 
; imp. Cl^ri ; pot. ^%1T ; bened. ^^M ; cond. 
Pass. ^\'^iri. Caus. Ct^^Prf or ^nrfrf ; 3d praet. -s\*^fi or 
Desid. 4\4$UjPri. Freq. ^<\^4^, Clij^TPri or 

to see/ 

Pres. cjH^ ; ist praet. ^TcTNnr; 2d praet. c^?ft^ ; 3d praet. 
'!lc^P*is ; ist fut. c5lfaffT ; 2d fut. c5^f**^ ; imp. 
pot. c5V^'T ; bened. ^ilPMiflB ; cond. ^rF5Vf-4*HH. Pass. 



. Freq. 


to see/ is similarly inflected. 


=T^ ' to speak.' 

This and the following substitute 7 for the semivowel in the 
second praeterite and before *T. 

Pres. cj<jfrt ; ist praeL vsm^; 2d praet. ^U< ("as^TTt, 
^, T^ or TTT^, "3if^) ; 3d praet. -eHi^l^ ; ist fut. 
2nd fut. ^P^mfrt ; imp. ^TT ; pot. ^%^ ; bened. TOTT^; cond. 
^P^uil^. Pass. "^SJt. Caus. ^T^rfir ; 3d praet. ^cfN<^. 
Desid. facff^Mfir. Freq. ^TTO'3', ^R'dlfff or ^T^f%. 

It is sometimes inflected in the Atmane-pada, especially 
after certain prepositions, and in particular applications ; as, 
* to repeat/ ^tj^ff ; ^m^ 1 ( to reproach (oneself)/ 
* to dispute/ faquir ; *y<^ * to repeat together/ 

"^TJ e to weave.' 

Pres. q'jfrf -7J 1 ; ist praet. ^T^tr?^ -*r; ad praet. 
or 4^fM^i, "^nrfft), gnr ; 3d praet. ^j'^r'w)^, ^BRW ; ist fut. 
2d fut. Tc^rfTT -^ ; imp. TTJ -in ; pot. ^TTT^ -ir ; bened. 

; cond. ^cjmij^ -IT. Pass. Tcrfr. Caus. 'cjliif^rri -fl". Desid. 
-^. Freq. ^NUlrij j|lfliTT or 

JTH ' to dwelL* 

If is substituted for the final before a sibilant immediately 
following it, and not conjoined with if. 

Pres. cmfri ; ist praet. ^r^BT^; 2d praet. 1 3^re (^=lfvj or 
T^W, "3>^:) ; 3d praet. SH^Irtflr^ (WTraf, '^TTr^:) ; ist fut. ^eH; 
2d fut. W(4*|frf ; imp. ^?Tff ; pot. ^T^ ; bened. Torn^ ; cond. 
x . Pass. TBffi. Caus. ^m^fri -^. Desid. f^Rrfif. Freq. 

^f ' to bear.' 

The changes of if before a following consonant are those 
already noticed (see Trnf &c.) ; but whenever ^ is changed to 
^, this verb substitutes ^ft for its vowel. 

Pres. ^ffw -^-; ist praet. ^j^^ -TT; 2d praet. 
3i(Vij or T^rn?), "35^ ; 3d praet. 4N(HJlil v (^J'4)<J 
imp. ^5 -iff ; pot. ^T^ -if ; bened. j^ii^, ^cjftF ; cond. 

A a 2 

180 VERBS. 

-TT. Pass. T?T^; ist praet. ^fi^jd ; 3d praet. 
Caus. qi^*iPn -if. Desid. P| \Q Pd' -if. Freq. 

Preceded by U or trft the verb is conjugated in the Parasmai- 
pada only ; as, ^^Pd, 

cpfi ' to accept.' 

Pres. TiiW ; ist praet, ^T=|^d ; 2d praet. ^T^fc ; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. cjPojidl ; 2d fut. '^rf^-.'nrn' ; imp. 'cjojidl ; pot. 

bened. '<4P<^*fltf ; cond. TM^Pchmd. Pass. ^^nr. Caus. 

; 3d praet. *n'^"^4d x or iH^1^<*d . Desid. P^^jP^Md. Freq. 
Tflfi or Ttf^>, t^ftfff> cift^eftPd 1 or 'clON'hlPrf 
(see rule 206, a). 

^ ' to be.' 

This is peculiar in optionally inflecting the second future 
and conditional in the Parasmai-pada, and rejecting the aug- 
ment ^ before their terminations and those of the desiderative. 
As one of the class sunf^', it has two forms in the third 
praeterite: see p. 169. 

Pres. (^d ; ist praet. ^r^WTT; 2d praet. 
3d praet. -SHdd or -*!H P5g ; I st fut. ^P^dl ; 2d fut. ^f?Nl% or 
qitjJPci ; imp. Tfhff ; pot. ^^n ; bened. jP?jifly ; cond. 
or ^raWfT. Pass. ^TTTf. Caus. j^^Pd. Desid. P=H I -?1M rt or 
P^'^wPd 1 . Freq. <^0<|i*^j ^P^dlPrf or <4 PM P?j, or ^O^jdlPd, &c. 
as in the last. 

^ (^r ) ' to w r eave.' 

The final becomes ^TT before the consonants of the non- 
conjugational tenses. In the second praeterite there are two 
forms ; in one the reduplicated root is 7^ before the termina- 
tions rejecting TT, and "gnr or "3!^ before the rest ; in the other 
the substitute is ^, and ^ being changed to ^TT, as in ^ &c., 
the tense is inflected accordingly : see ^T. 

Pres. '^uPd -W ; ist praet. ^TTiT^ -If ; 2d praet. 
or T^*T, ^P^^, d>Pj*j) or '^t 

^d praet. 5j'e( I *fl d" (iiwf), ^TTrer; ist fut. 
*j i \ \ r* 

2d fut. <^l*4|Pd -W; imp. ^TTJ -iff ; pot. ^Tf -if; bened. 


; cond. ^mf-ir^ -TT. Pass. gruw. Caus. 
Desid. f^nmrfw -^. Freq. WT^TW, m^TfTT or 

^ * to cover.' 

The initial is not changed. The verb as usual is inflected 
as if ending in ^TT in the non-conjugational tenses, except in 
the singular of the second praeterite of the Parasmai-pada : in 
the reduplication TI becomes ^. Before a IT, ^ is changed 
to T&. 

Pres. vqiifrf -it; ist praet. w^nn^ -7T ; ad praet. 
(fV^rg:, f^j:), f*r*J ; 3d praet. <*Hm*flr^, ^<=MIW ; ist fut. 
2d fut. ^rr^rflT -^ ; imp. ^nrg -wf ; pot. ^1^ -IT ; bened. 

cond. ^aju -if. Pass. ^ftTfft. Caus. ^ini^lfrf. Desid. 

. Freq. 

' to wither' or ' decay;' ' to go/ 
This substitutes ^far before the terminations of the conju- 

gational tenses, which are those of the Atmane-pada. Those 

of the other tenses are the terminations of the Parasmai-pada. 
Pres. 3fta^; ist praet. ^fhlTT ; ad praet. 3UIM (^l^:) ; 3d 

praet. ^31^; ist fut. $TWT; ad fut. ^fri ; imp. -g^hnrf; pot. 

^fl^ri ; bened. ^RTTf^; cond. ^riS^. Pass. ^finTl. Caus. ^TTinrfir. 

Desid. r^lrqfrf. Freq. ^iT^raff, ^rr^tfTT or ^n^%. 

When the verb means ' to go/ the causal retains the final, 
' he causes to go/ or ( drives.' 

' to desire ;' ' to bless.' 

This is never used without wr prefixed. 

Pres. xsi^iwri ; ist praet. ^srr^Nnf ; ad praet. ^n^TR^; 3d praet. 
^rrsfif^^ ; ist fut. w^i f^iri ; ad fut. ^rftrnrfr; imp. 
pot. ^u^ftrf ; bened. ^TT^rftrEtt? ; cond. ^i^nHviTf. Pass. 
Caus. ^T^iflnriT. Desid. ^Hlf^lfaEH. Freq. 


The root ^iw, ' to praise/ differs from this in being inflected 
in the Parasmai-pada, and as its nasal is not derived from an 

182 VERBS. 

indicatory ^, in dropping it before *r ; as, pres. ^fafw ; bene 
r; pass. 5f|7t, &c. 

^ft^i ' to sprinkle.' 

Pres. Sfftcfiri ; ist praet. ^H$ft <+ri ; ad praet. f^rjfl^i ; 3d praet 
; ist fut. ^ftfcRTTT; sd fut. ^flfshmvi ; imp. ^ft^rrt ; pot 
; bened. ^ftf^nft? ; cond. -4i$nr<ihU|ri. Pass. ^ft^T^. Caus 
-^ ; 3d praet. ^qftfV<*r^ -TT. Desid. f^r^ftf^W^ 1 . Freq. 
^i^fl^fff or ^Uflf*. 

sr^ ' to sorrow.' 

Before the sign of the desiderative, a radical medial ^ or ?, 
when the final is neither if, *(, nor ir, is optionally changed to 
the Guna vowel when the augment ^ is inserted. 

Pres. $fNfrf 5 ist prast. ^qfl^; 2d praet. 91 ^^ (3J3l-=lj:); 
3d praet. ^fN^ ; ist fut. sHC^di ; 2d fut. ^frf^'oiffr ; imp. 1 
pot. 'sft^nf; bened. ^*M1T^; cond. ^^nr^ui^. Pass. | 
Caus. ^fV^nrfff -^". Desid. ^^fq^fw or ^ftfM^rfw. Freq. I 
, ^rl3i i j)ftf or ^jY^jYf^. 

So ^>r * to shine ;' except that, as belonging to 
(p. 169), it makes in the third praeterite ^T^WW or 

to serve.' 

This verb, as indicated by the Anubandha *T, takes both 
forms. Before a vowel termination not requiring the Guna 
or Vriddhi change of the final, ^TI is substituted for it. In 
the third praeterite of the Parasmai-pada it takes the termi- 
nations of the first, with reduplication : and in the frequenta- 
tive form it optionally rejects the augment ^, which augment 
it takes as an exception to the general rule, 191, b. 

Pres. 'snrfff -^ ; ist praet. ->it^^ -if; 2d praet. %W 

, %fl3ifftR), %f^ ; 3d praet. vir^rfisRi^ -TT ; i st fut 
2d fut. ^rftroifirr -W; imp. ^RW, ^nTrfT; pot. ^l^ ~K\ 
bened. 'slfarn^, ^rftnfl?; cond. ^r^rPTHnr -TT. Pass. TjffafW. Caus 
3d praet. wf$r^nrn x -K. Desid. f^raftnrfrr -^ 01 

Freq. ^Ci-flVrt, ^T^nftfw or 


TZJ ' to hear.' 

This changes the vowel to ^j, and adds TJ, the proper 
termination of the fifth conjugation, in the conjugational 
tenses. "3 1 before a vowel becomes ^ by the rules of Sandhi ; 
or before ^ and *r it may be ejected. In the second praeterite, 
even ^TCT does not insert ^ (rule 188, s). In the third praeterite 
of the causal, ^ is optionally substituted in the reduplication. 

Pres. graft fa (snjjin, SJ<M (V, sps^ r "5p&> sps^* or 
ist praet. '^rspfV^ (^npjiri, ^TSTW^) ; 2d praet. 9I9IN ( 
^sfta); 3d praet. xS^Mt^ (wsnVf, ^r^|:) ; ist fut. ^tVnr; ad 
fut. ^fVaifw; imp. SJWfij ("STWiff, 3l4|i^) ; pot. Snynw; bened. 
cond. iH^ujri . Caus. ^TR^rlir; 3d prast. "^^^qfr or 

Desid. 3i ^MW. Freq. ^ri^fl, 5()'5|flrri, ^ft^fcT. 
The verb is conjugated in the ^tmane-pada preceded by 
*n^ \vith an intransitive sense, tisiiir^ ' he hears :' otherwise, 
as, TRT ^hfRjfVfir e he hears the speech.' Preceded by nfw or 
it retains the Parasmai-pada in the desiderative form, 
or {rfiisjv^Mrir ' he serves or attends upon.' 

to increase/ 

This verb optionally substitutes T for f^ in the second 
praaterite ; absolutely before the if of the benedictive and the 
passive ; and optionally before the IT of the frequentative. In 
the third praeterite it has three forms ; being conjugated with 
its own terminations and the augment ^, or with those of the 
first praeterite with or without reduplication : in the latter case 
it rejects its own final. 

Pres. 'Hmfrf ; ist praet. W^RT^; 2d praet. f^PETR (OtlOtmg: 
or aj^iN (9J^^:, ^^ri<i, ^r^ or 3i^N) ; 3d praet. 

or ^nsnr w^rrf ; ist 

fut. Tgfwr; ad fut. ^OmvPrr ; imp. "*5RTJ; pot. ^f7(; bened. 
cond. SHyjfijui^. Pass. 5J^". Caus. Tgumfd; 3d praet. 
or ^3|^Hr^. Desid. f^raftRffT. Freq. $idUri or 

184 VERBS. 

*T5 ' to embrace/ 
This root rejects its nasal before the terminations of the 
conjugational tenses. 

Pres. ^nrfff; ist praet. 'srennr; ad praet. uu^ ('flHfgvf or 

\ * * 

^N 3 ^); 3d praet. ^uinflri (-.ntu?M); ist fut. ti^i ; ad fut. ^T^Prf ; 
imp. *Wjj; pot. Vi^; bened. ^TUTT^; cond. ^f*i*|r^. Pass. 
^TaRIW. Caus. *i*mPri. Desid. PutigfPff. Freq. 'tiPu^ 
or tii+iPrfc. 

^ ( ^r) ' to decay/ ' to be sad,' ' to go.' 

This substitutes *ft^r before the terminations of the conjuga- 
tional tenses. 

Pres. tfV^ffl ; ist praet. ^reft^; ad praet. 
or %f^r) ; 3d praet. \Hff<^ (^TH^7rf) ; ist fut. *Twr; ad fut. 
^fHlPrl ; imp. T^j ; pot. ^fl^H ; bened. 4llri ; cond. 
Pass. 3<lri. Caus. ^i^nPif; 3d praet. iilM^f^. Desid. 
Freq. ^t^tlri, *t i "<{1 Pn or JHiwPrl. 

With fH prefixed, the initial becomes ft, as fHMl^Pd ' he sits ;' 
and this is repeated in the reduplication of the desiderative, as 
Pr|PMMrijf?r, and third praeterite causal, as qtflMt'i^; the sibilant 
following in fact ^ and ^; otherwise it is not changed, as, 
ad praet. PHMfll^ ; nor is it changed after the ^ of jrfjr, as 

wPrif/l^Pri ' he opposes/ 

^R ' to go/ 

This verb changes *r to r throughout. 

Pres. U-rrfPrt -^ ; ist praet. ^^Trfr^ -if; ad praet. 
3d praet. -*jm-jjfld, -imPrrfg ; i st fut. uPniril ; ad fut. 
imp. u -nig -TTT ; pot. u-nlf^ -w ; bened. -rm i r^, ^Prfjifly ; cond. 
-IT. Pass. fiTrUri. Caus. tt-rn^Pn -W. Desid. 

-7T. Freq. 


^f ' to bear,' ' to suffer/ 

This verb takes the augment ^, but optionally rejects 
before the terminations of the first future : for the change 
that ensues, see iTTf, ^, &c. In the desiderative the initial 
sibilant is not changed after a vowel in the reduplicate syllable, 


because such change does not take place when the U, which 
is the sign of the desiderative itself, is changed to ^ in conse- 
quence of the augment ^ preceding it. 

Pres. *nr^; ist praet. WH^tt ; 2d praet. ^%; 3d praet. 
ist fut. ^f^'ril or *fteT; 2d fut. r^uf^; imp. ti^itf ; pot. 
bened. tif^tflg ; cond. x4^f^mri. Pass. ^^. Caus. 
3d praet. <*flt<^f^. Desid. ftu(0Nri. Freq. tiltr^Tn, Wl^^frf or 

The initial is changed to ^ after the ^ of fJr, Tjft, and fa, as 
if the temporal augment intervene, the change is 
optional, as ^J^ff or *HH$_A ; it does not take place when ^ 
has been changed to 3", as fHMf^dl or 

' to accompUsh.' 

Pres. ^vf?r; ist praet. ^v^; zd praet. ftr^v ( 
or f^-s) ; 3d praet. 'srihft^ (^arofwf) or 
'srti^:) ; ist fut. ^ftrfrr or ^rr ; zd fut. ^Varfif or 
imp. %VJ; pot. ^1T; bened. f*n*rn^; cond. 
or 'vNWr^r^. Pass. ftrw^. Caus. ^v^fir; 3d praet. 
Desid. fjH^fM^rri or fHPMrt(rri. Freq. ^ftur>, tovHir or 

There is also a verb fqv, l to go/ which is without the 
Anubandha "^i, and which therefore inserts the augment ^ 
invariably; as, ft^ftrq, ?H\nrT, ^T^fhf, &c. The initial * of 
either verb is not changed after the 3[ of a preposition, except 
fT, when meaning prohibition ; as, fci^vfrf ' he forbids.' 

5 * to bear children.' 

This takes ^ optionally in the third praeterite. 
Pres. w^fff; ist praet. *tHt^; 2d praet. ^T 

or ^^l) ; 3d praet. ^whftl^ or >aNl^; ist fut. ^frffT; 2d fut. 

*tolf(T; imp. ^T^W; pot. *T%T^; bened. 4J^lf^; cond. 

Pass. ^tTfj-. Caus. wiij^fH. Desid. ^ncfif. Freq. 

^iM=flfcf or *fttftftr. 

The same root is also inflected in the second and fifth 


B b 



f<f ' to hurt' or ' kill.' 

Pres. *4^n ; ist praet. ssm^rf ; 2d praet. ^ ; 3d praet. 
ist fut. 4(P^fti ; 2d fut. 'Mf^mrf ; imp. ^r^irf ; pot. ^n^TT; benec 
flP^M)y ; cond. -<H'f<r^*Hri. Pass. *^sin Caus. ^ n Pit - n ; 3( 
praet. VH'*| ^ i^ -IT. Desid. *jf^M^. Freq. 

' to serve.' 

The reduplication of *r is ^ (rule 188, i). 
Pres. ^T^" ; ist praet. 'sraTiT ; 2d praet. ftn^f ; 3d pi 
; ist fut. irfaiTT; 2d fut. farH ; imp. Wrff; pot. ^ 
bened. ^P^'fly ; cond. ^HflPmnn. Pass. 5rff. Caus. w^n 
3d praet. 'flPtuhfrf. Desid. Pf^u47l. Freq. 

So similar, but less frequent roots, 
also * to serve' or ' gratify by sendee.' 

, &c. meaning 

' to stop' or ' hinder.' 

The sibilant being changed, the following letter also becomes 
a dental. 

Pres. ^r*T^; ist praet. ^nw**r?r ; 2d praet. Trer*^; 3d praet. 
'TiwfT ; ist fut. ^rf^TrfT; 2d fut. wr*Hirf ; imp. 
pot. ^cT^ir 5 bened. wforsfte ; cond. ^w r**TBnf. Pass. 
Desid. 'firerf^TWrT. Freq. HIW*Wn, inw>flfw or 

FT ' to stand' or ' stay.' 

This verb substitutes fw^ before the terminations of the 
conjugational tenses. Although properly conjugated in the 
Parasmai-pada, yet in various senses, or after certain prepo- 
sitions, it may take the j^tmane-pada also. Before q the 
becomes ^ or ^. In the third praeterite the verb takes the 
terminations of the first ; and in the Atmane-pada changes its 
vowel to ^. In the causal form it inserts tr. 

Pres. fifyPri -$"; ist praet. ^fHS^ -IT ; 2d praet. w, rfW; 30 
praet. -*?q 1 1^, fW n ( f*?q m n i ) ; ist fut. WITTY; 2d fut. WTFTfir -n 
imp. fH8 -TTT ; pot. firVff -IT ; bened. ^m, tujixlt; cond 


-IT. Pass. wl^. Caus. ^ixmfd -^ ; 3d praet. 
-TT. Desid. friHItifri. Freq. rtt/lnvi, dUyKrf or ril^lfri. 
ST is used in the Atmane-pada to signify ' to appeal to' or 
1 rely on ;' also with the prepositions *n^, ^r^, IT, and fa ; also 
with ^TT, meaning ( to affirm ;' with Tf , except it mean ' to 
stand up' or ' rise ;' and with ^TJ, if the sense be intransitive, 
or it mean ' to praise 1 or ' worship/ or e to have a regard 
for/ &c. 

ft^ * to spit.' 

The vowel becomes long in the conjugational tenses : the 
initial sibilant is unchanged. In the reduplication if is substi- 
tuted for the cerebral optionally in the second praeterite. The 
desiderative optionally commutes the final semivowel to T. 

Pres. vfafa ; ist praet. ^ VN ^ ; 2d praet. fiiifa or fzifa 
(fHflHij: or feftreij:); 3d praet. ^nNfc^; ist fut. ^faril; 2d fut. 
iHrorffT; imp. tffajj; pot. t^; bened. 'ffNrn^; cond. W&faurr^. 
Pass. tf)q7i. Caus. V<^rri. Desid. rri^ir^MfH or ^a^Mfrt. Freq. 

NX *\ 'v *\ n ^ 

rtlMn, rtal^TTrf. 

f*H ("fars?) * to smile.' 

Pres. WM^ ; ist praet. ^W^rf ; ad praet. Odf^ ; 3d praet. 
^^?; ist fut. ^Tn; 2d fut. &*Q(t; imp. W^rii ; pot. wliif ; 
bened. wf) ; cond. glWUTri'. Pass. ^/)i)H. Caus. t+UMMfri -IT. 
Desid. ftjwfMM^. Freq. '^ l *flMfl 1 , ^^iflrrt', ^^frf. 

With fa prefixed, and in the causal form, it makes 

* he or it astonishes ;' that is, the object itself astonishes : 
when the object differs, the Parasmai-pada is used, either in 
the regular form, or with ^ substituted for TT ; as, ^ 

o r fTWMqfiT ' she astonishes him by her form.' 

' to melt,' l to perspire.' 
The verb belongs to the class ^rtlfy ; see p. 170. 
Pres. ^^-; ist praet. ^H^<ri ; ad praet. ilrfW^; 3d praet. 
^rf?f? or ^rf^f?^; ist fut. ^f^HT; ad fut. ^fym^; imp. ^rrf; 
pot. ^^(f ; bened. *5rf^fh? ; cond. ^yf^ujH. Pass. fy|^. Caus. 
Desid. ^^^^^^^^. Freq. ^f(lrf, ^O^^rrt or 
B b a 

188 VERBS. 

TT e to go.' 

When it means ' to go quickly' or ' to run,' \ft is optionally 
substituted for the root before the conjugational tenses (i. e. a 
different, but imperfect root, ^ or vr^ is also admissible in 
these tenses). For other particulars, see the analogous roots 

Pres. $UJ*H, VNPri \ ist praet. ^nffT?^, sn*IHrt ; ad praet. 
p) ; 3d praet. ^iifT^ or 4UKi^; ist fut. Tftr; ad fut. 

imp. ^TCff> VRTT ; pot. ^TTTT, VTTrT ; bened. 
cond. ^mPmir^. Pass. Py*4v). Caus. fjR^Prt -w. Desid. 
Freq. fitfl^rf, 0OPn, *iOtf% or 

( to go,' ' to creep' or ' glide.' 
The medial may be changed to ^ in the two futures and 
conditional. It is also optional to double the final after a 
conjunct ^; as, u|Prf &c. 

Pres. *Tfw; ist praet. ^rarihj ; ad praet. ^rerit ; 3d praet. 
niiMri (^nrmrf) ; ist fut. ^nfrr or ^MI ; ad fut. tm-MPn or ^r^fw; 
imp. ^Orf ; pot. ^fff ; bened. *mn ; cond. ^j^mMri . Pass. 
Caus. 'uQjjPri -w. Desid. fH^HlPri. Freq. fli3*4mrj, ^T^- 
or ^T36Nrf&. 

yi^ (<jf PT^I.) ' to go' or ' approach. 

The nasal is rejected before *T, and in one form of the third 
praeterite : in the frequentative, rft is added to the reduplicated 

Pres. ^r^Pri ; ist praet. ^T5S<if ; ad praet. -(yi^ (-M*<hP^v| or 
i^rM) ; 3d praet. -iiyK^ri x (^T^i^Trf), ^T^ 
ist fut. *^r(l ; ad* fut. ^i^yPrf ; imp. jjfcr^ij ; pot. fjfir^ff; bened. 
'; cond. (*?hr**ffr. Pass. Mitln. Caus. ^^uPrt -^. Desid, 
*rtPri. Freq. <4*flfh<l'r) > , M'fl*5h'r{)Prt or 

' to envy' or ( emulate.' 
Pres. wt^ ; ist praet. iiw^ri ; ad praet. m^f ; 3d praet. 

; ist fut. wflhn ; ad fut. wP^ujTi ; imp. 
pot. Hlifcf ; bened. fqP^Mly ; cond. vHfMP^Mjri. Pass. 


Caus. wJjjPd -7K Desid. Pq^MPSMd. Freq. 


to increase/ 

In the causal the final is changed to ^. 

Pres. *44,m rf ; ist praet. 'STPSnTiTj 2d praet. M44hl^ ; 3d praet. 
'SWilP^S ; ist fut. f*W Pq d I ; 2d fut. ^RrftnTlTi imp. 
pot. ^qsRw; bened. f^wP^Mlg ; cond. ^wjiiPnufrf. Pass. 
Caus. 4-MiN^Pd ; 3d praet. ^Pm^Mi^. Desid. fxTFfirftrRW. Freq. 

^ e to remember.' 

Pres. mi/H -w; ist praet. SHW^ -IT; 2d praet. 
3d prast. ^wii(T^ ^^7T; ist iut. w^T; 2d fut. 
imp. ^n^[ -in; pot. g7b^ -W; bened. w^i^, ^RtftF; cond. 
Wfwf^m^ -IT. Pass. m^rf. Caus. WKilPH -w. Desid. 

* to ooze' or ' drop.' 
This belongs to the class ^ H I P<^ (p. 170). For the effect of 
, see p. 1 06. The second future and conditional are option- 
ally conjugated in the Parasmai-pada, and so is the desidera- 
tive : see p* an d B^T. 

Pres. w^ri ; ist praet. ij^^d ; 2d praet. ^q^ (^P^ or 
or ^^f?T%) ; 3d praet. 

or >M**^ (v(tMPt^mm or eu^irHifli) ; ist fut. I^P^ril or 
2d fut. | P*^ Pd -IT, *M*HH Pci -IT ; imp. <4|r^di ; pot. 
bened. t^P^'flg or t<4cWl8 j cond. vtt*iPt^Mrt -If, 'fli^lrWff -Tf. 
Pass. ^TOTT. Desid. Pfl^Pr^M^ and P^rtjPd -ff. Freq. 
or wn-u*i%. 

F^f C^nO ' to fall down.' 

This verb also belongs to the class 

Pres. H^ ; ist praet. ^uitiri ; 2d praet. ^TO^ ; 3d praet. 
or SHP^V ; ist fut. tiPdl ; 2d fut. PM^ ; imp. w?TT ; 
pot. TOfcr ; bened. UPMl8 ; cond. ^u'Pmqrf. Pass. ti^iJf). Caus. 

190 VERBS. 

-Tf. Desid. rrmr. Freq. U*{)W4{1T, 'UfflytflPif or 
fa and >Tff, ( to fall down,' are similarly inflected. 

^ ' to drop.' 

This is one of the exceptions to the insertion of ^ in the 
second person singular of the second praeterite (p. iai). The 
root takes both the augment and reduplication in the third 

Pres. H^frt ; ist praet. ^reRTT; ad praet. ^VR (l>q, 
3d praet. ^HfJ^TT; ist fut. tfirtl ; ad fut. ulujPri ; imp 
pot. ?RTT; bened. milTf ; cond. xitM^mi Pass. UMri. Caus 
'; 3d praet. iH^H^ or ^jfatHrf . Desid. HtJMPri. Freq 

y vi Pit, *Tunpn. 

(3?0 ' t ^ke.' 
Pres. ^cfif -ff; ist praet. 'sr^rjr -W-; ad praet. 

1T^ ; 3d praet. fl^l'fl'ri , ^rf ; ist fut. '^tT; ad fut. 
-Ti ; imp. $nqj -WT ; pot. 'ftl^ -If ; bened. f^TTSf , ^tfte ; 
cond. ^H^fJLmrf -Tf. Pass. f^Hrf. Caus. ^icMfn -7f. Desid. 


- n. Freq. ^CgMfl, ^i^OfK, f^- or ^r^Ofrf, or irtt- or 

f to be or make glad.' 
Pres. fJT^Tf ; ist praet. ^^l<ri ; ad praet. f^f^ ; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. ^if^rii ; ad fut. ^ I P^ m rf ; imp. ^l^rfi ; pot. 
; bened. ^iP^ifly ; cond. 'H^iP^ujH. Pass. ^i^id. Cans 
Desid. PH^iP^Mrf. Freq. iil^lilri, 'ii^i{IPd or 

' to taste/ and $ri^ ' to sound/ are similarly inflected. 

$ (jpr) ' to call.' 

When the root is doubled, or before t( 3 the semivowel anc 
following diphthong are changed to T. The third praeterite 
takes the terminations of the first in the Parasmai-pada, 
and optionally in the ^tmane-pada. In the passive, the thirc 
praeterite, second future, and conditional, optionally insert $. 

Pres. <^nPrf -If ; ist praet. ^^ -If ; ad praet. 


or ^fa), ^f^ ; 3d praet. ^^ (^T^nf)? ^p 1 ('Sl^rri) or 
(^miril); ist fut. ^TiTT; 2d fut. ^l^fd -w; imp. 
-Iff ; pot. gniT^ -TT ; bened. ^rnr, ^l*fla ; cond. %s<^l*m^ -TT. 
Pass. |5^ ; 3d praet. ^ifa, m^iftlE, ^?r or ^iw ; 2d fut. 
grreq'ff or ^iftiujri ; cond. '.v^l^ri or vjf^ifVHi'fl. Caus. 
3d praet. m^cj^. Desid. 3,Nfrt -^. Freq. Wfcq^, 


Second Conjugation. 

213. The characteristic peculiarity of this conjugation is 
the attachment of the inflectional terminations of the conjuga- 
tional tenses immediately to the "termination of the base, with- 
out the interposition of any vowel (rule 170, a. 2). 

a. There is but one general change of the terminations ; f% in 
the second persons of the imperative is changed to fv after any 
consonant except a nasal, semivowel, or ^. It is said, indeed, 
that the terminations of the first and second persons of the 
first praeterite, 7T and ^ left by f^ and ftn^ (p. 114), are 
rejected after an inflective base ending in a consonant; but 
this arises from a general rule not restricted to conjugational 
inflexion. A conjunct consonant, when final, loses the second 
member of the compound (rule 35) : therefore ipr ' to kill/ 
ist praet., making in the first instance ^n??^, ^r^r, must 
become ^n^T, rejecting the finals ^ and *r. The same in 
other verbs ending in consonants, of whatever conjugation. 

b. The changes of the vowels of the base are analogous td 
those of the first conjugation, before the terminations having 
an indicatory xr. A final 3[ or ^ is in general changed to ; 
"J and "gi to ^ft ; and ^ ^ to ^Tt. An initial or medial short 
vowel is similarly changed before the same. A long vowel is 
unaltered. Other changes are special, or follow the general 
rules of Sandhi. 

c. Final consonants are combined with the terminations 
agreeably to the laws of Sandhi, or to special rules, or to rules 
affecting all similar combinations in whatever conjugation. 

192 VERBS. 

Some of these have been noticed under individual verbs of 
the first conjugation ; but it may be useful to collect them in 
this place, as they particularly apply to the conjugationa] 
tenses of verbs of the second and third conjugations. 

1. Final consonants are unaltered before a nasal, a semi- 
vowel, or ^, except by special rule. 

2. A final palatal before other consonants, or when not 
followed by any letter, is changed to "Sfi, which before a soft 
consonant becomes TT (rule 7, c), and makes with a sibilant, ^ 
(rule 27). 

3. A final ^ or v may be changed optionally to ^ in the 
second person singular of the first praeterite ; and *l final 
becomes Visarga. 

4. A final ^r or ^ is changed to "R before any consonant 
except a nasal, &c., as above. 

5. A final if is unchanged before TT or ^r, but they become 
the cerebrals 7 and 7 in conjunction with it (rule 12). *f 
before *f is converted into T^ (rule 27). Before tV and SET, ^ is 
changed to z; and after z, \t becomes ;? (rule 12) ; when s 
takes the place of the hard consonant 7 (rule 7, c). 

6. A final TT is changed to ^ before any soft consonant 
except a nasal, &c., as above ; and to IT before a sibilant, 
except in the present tense and imperative mood. Before ftr 
and ^ it is sometimes retained, sometimes rejected : it is 
usually rejected before ^; it is also sometimes rejected before 
fv, else it is changed to ^. 

7. A final ^ rejects ^R, and leaves ^ final before any conso- 
nant except a nasal, semivowel, or ^. 

8. A final ^ before any consonant except a nasal, &c. is 
changed to TT, if the verb begin with <* followed by any vowel 
except ^j ; if it begin with ]r, or with any other consonant, f 
final becomes <? j except in ^, when it becomes >J : some verbs, 
as Jj^, take both. After an aspirate, if and ^r become v (rule 
1 86), when other modifications occur, which, although previ- 
ously noticed, may be repeated. Thus TI and ^ become * 


before a sibilant, and ^5 forms with it T5f (rule 29, 32) : ^ 
becomes n, and , ~s, before any soft consonant (rule 7, b] : 
V after 3" becomes ^ (rule 12) ; and when 3" is repeated in a 
conjunct, one 3" is rejected. The initial of a root ending in 
an aspirate, being TT, T, ^, or ^, is changed to its correspond- 
ing aspirate, it, ^, v, or *, when its final is followed by *r or 
S3, or by no other letter. 

d. This conjugation includes a class of five verbs, called 
<j^lf^ or ^f e to weep,' t^rj * to sleep,' TSW ( to breathe/ WT * to 
breathe,' r^ * to eat,' which form a partial exception to the 
non-interposition of a vowel between the base and inflectional 
termination, as they insert ^ before any consonant except tf, and 
^T or ^ if the termination consists of a single consonant, as in 
the second and third persons singular of the first praeterite. 

e. Another class, termed 4ttfif<j, is also included in this 
conjugation, the verbs of which are termed 'srwrer or ( redupli- 
cated ;' they are, TfW ' to eat,' *TPT e to wake,' ^f^i ( to be 
poor,' ^ohTU ' to shine,' "^rre f to govern,' ^hft ' to shine,' and 
^t ' to obtain.' These cause the nasal of the terminations 
of the third person plural of the present and imperative to be 
rejected, as also of the same person of the first praeterite, 
Atmane-pada ; and "31^ to be substituted for ^nr in the same 
person of the Parasmai-pada. 

The verb which is given as a model of this conjugation, ^ 
1 to eat,' is inflected in its simple form in the Parasmai-pada 
only ; but in composition with some prepositions, as with fa 
and ^rflr, it may be conjugated in the Atmane-pada, as ^?m% 
' he eats much reciprocally.' It may therefore be exhibited 
in both forms, omitting the prefixes of the compound verb for 
the present, for the sake of comparison. The final of ^ 
becomes W before a hard or surd consonant (rule 7, d") : ^ is 
inserted by special rule before the terminations of the second 
and third persons singular of the first praeterite, Parasmai- 
pada. The nasal of the third person plural in the present, 
first praeterite, and imperative of the Atmane-pada is rejected. 

c c 



^ ' to eat.' 

Present tense, ' I eat,' &c. 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

First praeterite, * I ate' or ' have eaten/ &c. 

Imperative, i May I eat/ &c. 

Potential, ' I may eat,' &c. 

-iini ^^ 

Of the remaining tenses it is only to be remarked, that the 
second praeterite is optionally borrowed from TO (see p. 163) ; 
and the third praeterite and desiderative mode are formed with 
the same verb. ^ does not insert ^ (p. 127), except in the 
second praeterite. 

sd praet. |i|i4i or ^n^ (^Sfl^ij:, ^n^t), T^ or ^rn* ; 3d praet. 
^nrar^ -7f ; ist fut. ^rar; 2d fut. ^iwfw -^; bened. 
^Hrtfla ; cond. Vii^x -IT. Pass. ^sr?nK Caus. sm^^fri - 
praet. ^1^^^ -if. Desid. HHilrUfd. 

For the remaining verbs of this conjugation, selected as 
most useful or remarkable, the paradigmas, as in the first 
conjugation, with occasional observations, will be sufficient. 


^T*T ' to breathe.' 

This is one of the class 4v<lf^ ; see rule 213, d. 
Pres. ^rffrt (^fad:, W^Tf^fl 1 ) ; ist praet. ><rn - ff or 
; 2d praet. ^IR (^T*rjj:, ^rrj:) ; 3d praet 
; Ig t fut. ^fHril ; 2d fut. ^TRtqfjf ; imp 
pot. ^rsm^ (sr^ffiri) ; bened. ^rarnr (^T^rrerf) ; cond. 
Pass, ^Mrt. Caus. ^TMnfri. Desid. ^Cm"^^ 

The tT of this verb becomes iff after a preposition giving 
cause for it, even in both syllables of a reduplication ; as, 
' he breathes' or ' lives,' TrrftrfisrafH 1 ' he desires to live.' 

^m ' to be.' 

This auxiliary verb admits of the four conjugational tenses 
only, except in composition, when it has a fifth tense, the 
second prasterite (p. 121). The other tenses are supplied by 
>r * to be 1 (p. 132). Before those terminations which do not 
require a change in the radical vowel of a verb, the initial of 
^TH is rejected : the final is rejected before a termination 
beginning with *r. In the first praeterite, the second and 
third persons singular are borrowed from a defective third 
praeterite, prefixing ^ to the terminations. The second person 
singular of the imperative substitutes ^ for the root, and f^ is 
changed to fa. Like some other verbs, ^HET takes the Atmane- 
pada, compounded with prepositions, in a reciprocal sense ; 
as, aiflq (m^^) f to be mutually.' In this Pada *r is substi- 
tuted for the root in the first person singular, present tense : 
*r is changed to ^ before V. As this verb is useful, the inflex- 
ions may be exhibited in detail, omitting the prepositions of 
the Atmane-pada. 

Present tense, 1 1 am,' &c. 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

C C 



First praeterite, * I was,' c. 

Imperative, ' May I be/ &c. 



Potential, c I may be, } &c. 

The second and third persons singular of the benedictive 
are considered to be 

( to sit.' 

The final is optionally doubled before a consonantal termi- 
nation, except m, before which it is rejected. 

Pres. ^TT^ or ^rn^ 1 (^n^ or ?H|^, ^iiviv), ^m^) ; ist praet. 
^rrer ; 2d prast. ^nmi^i ; 3d praet. ^rrftr? ; ist fut. 
2d fut. ^ I fa 1 } ; imp. ^HIWI (-^IW, ^H^lfi) ; pot. ^ 
bened. ^HiHuMlB ; cond. ^uPu*MH. Pass. >HI^M^. Caus. 
Desid. iH I HH fa M^. 

^ (^R) ' to remember.' 

This is always combined with the preposition ^rftr, and with 
no other: the final indicatory ^ distinguishes it from 
as below. In the second and third praeterites and in the 
derivative forms it substitutes the inflexions of *m. 

Pres. ^Tutfw (^nfhr:, ^CVmlV) ; ist praet. ^rbr; 2d praet. 
^fy^Jim; 3d praet. WPTTiT; ist fut. ^nahfT; ad fut. mtjmfri; 
imp. ^f(g; pot. ^nfhTTff; bened. ^nfhrnr; cond. ^r^anr. Pass. 
Caus. ^PMJiH^fri. Desid. -^ryn 


' to go ;' ^nft ' to study.' 

The indicatory ^ restricts this to the A'tmane-pada ; and it 
is invariably combined with the preposition ^HV; as, ^nft ' to 
go over,' as a book, { to read,' c to study.' It borrows the 
forms of TTT, ' to go,' in the second praeterite and frequentative, 
and optionally in the third praeterite and conditional, of the 
active voice, and the causal mode. Before a vowel termination, 
37* is substituted for the radical vow^el. 

Pres. ^>frw ('HvflyiH, ^rvfanr) ; ist praet. -^tqn 
^nu|i|rt) ; 2d praet. ^rfVnpt (JtP*jiMin, *JT PM^I Pit) ; ^d praet. 
or -siuijftl? ; ist fut. ^nznrr; ad fut. ^ujiq^ ; imp. ^Hvflrii ; pot. 

isyliftlf ; bened. 'sul'fi? ; cond. '.HU4Jflu|H , ^Q)u(rl. Pass. ^jTfhrn. 


Caus. iji|Tmr(f ; 3d praet. ^uiiPMMi^ or ^iMrflJUirf. Desid. 

f togo.' 

The indicatory *rr distinguishes this from the two preceding 
verbs, as well as from ^ of the first conjugation (see p. 156). 
Before the vowel terminations of the present and imperative, 
n is substituted for the root ; before other terminations, ^ir . 
The third prasterite is borrowed from TIT in both the active 
and passive voices ; and the causal and desiderative are derived 
from TTJT. 

Pres. *fif (^?r:, irfar, ^ft, ^K, ^r, irfa, ^:, ^r:) ; ist praet. 
^TT x (^HT, W*T^, ^:, ^?f, vMiMH x ) ; sd praet. ^TR (t^ 
3d praet. ^mr^; ist fut. inrr; 3d fut. ^Hifir; imp. IJTT 
^5, ^ff , Trrftr, ^n^, ^nr) ; pot. ^m^; bened. ^mr (vi'ith a 
prep, short, PnfXm^, rHf^lwf) ; cond. 5Nnr. Pass. 
3d praet. ^rntftr. Caus. JlH^Pri. Desid. nTiJlfrMffi. 

^5 ' to praise.' 

After the cerebral of the base, the H and n of a termination 
are changed to z and 7 ; and as they are hard, the radical 
final is then changed to the hard consonant of its class, 7. 
This and ^jfr, as below, insert ^ before ^ and fr in the present, 
and ^r and t4 in the imperative. 

198 VERBS. 


praet. ^; 2d praet. frrarifc ; 3d praet. ^fet? ; ist fut. 
2d fut. ^Oguiri ; imp. fjf, pot. f^hf; bened. ^fe^te; cond. 
Pass. ft. Caus. Mfri. Desid. 

fr: * to go/ * to shake.' 

Pres. frf; ist praet. ^t ; ad praet. frr^ifc; 3d praet. 
ist fut. ^ftjrr; 2d fut. ^IXmH ; imp. ^f; pot. ^5hr; bened. 
cond. lifXmrt. Pass. . Caus. mfri. Desid. 

f^T * to rule.' 

For the changes of the final 31, see rule 214. ^ is inserted in 
the present and imperative tenses before ^r and t^ ; see f?. 

Pres. ^ ($HM"^J ff^TS^) ; ist praet. ^ ; 2d praet. i^n^ifi ; 
3d praet. ^f$IH ; ist fut. ^f^niT; 2d fut. ^T^lu^K ; imp. ^sf; 
pot. ^flri ; bened. ^f^iflg ; cond. ^P^iuiri. Pass. ($4n Caus. 
Desid. irsrfaRn. 

' to cover/ 

This verb takes both Padas. Before terminations reject- 
ing T^, and having more than one letter, the Vriddhi change of 
the vowel is optional : before a vowel, T3 1 is substituted for the 
final ; but optionally before the augment ?, prefixed to which 
the final may also take the Guna change or 'sffr, which becomes 
^^. In the reduplication the second syllable only is repeated, 
and the proper radical consonant ^T resumes its dental character 
when detached from ^. The desiderative takes various forms 
(rule 203, d). 

Pres. ^riLuTri, *<uffri (^wfirtl, "gnSTfif)? *ifin ; ist praet. ^fftnf^ 

praet. *4Ur||f, *<ft^ ; 3d pnet. 
or 'ifiJifNT fr ('ifiiSr^sf &c.), 

ISt fut. <h4fc(dl, <ft^r^ril ; 2d fut. -3<5rqU<rn -rf, 

imp. <wirTiJ or gaffij, <a&A( ; pot. "3^TTiT, "avni^faf ; bened. 

or <wijr<4Mli ; cond. iH^rl^TT -if or ^fUjjfawiff -TT. Pass. 
Caus. ^I'cmrrf ; 3d praet. ^OT|c|ri v . Desid. 
-n, ^^r^rA -If, w^rmrn" -ff. Freq. 


( ^fsj^) ' to speak* or ' say/ 
For the changes of ^, see rule 213, c, 7. The verb has but 
the conjugational tenses, and optionally the second praeterite. 
In all other forms ^n or ^TT is substituted for the root. The 
substitutes may be inflected in both Padas. 

Pres. ^T? ('msjiif, ^Ujri, ^%, ^^"j *t?y^, ^5P%) > ist praet. 
^rsfnrf, 3T-MiJri) ; 2d praet. xj-cjiij, ^^ or xUcijt, ^%, 
3d praet. 1 3TW^> s^eHHj ^<*^IIW, Hsi'^mflif ; ist fut. 
wn ; 2d fut. *pm*tfir -^, ^iwPri -w ; imp. 
pot. -^H{]H ; bened. 4^mff)^, ^mr, <?m'mif 
'"*5I Ml if 5 <*^i i *i i r^ ; cond. %emt<4n x -7T, iJ<^5llf*4i^ -IT. Pass. 
oji$im^> Caus. ^mnqPfi, ^imMPir; 3d praet. 
Desid. pq<oqitiP?T Tf, Pqen^n^Pff -n. Freq. 

to shine/ 

This is one of the class HHJlP^, or reduplicated verbs, ^r 
may be rejected before the terminations of the second and 
third persons singular, first praeterite, or changed to ^ when 
they are dropped : it is also rejected or changed to r^ before fa 
(rule 213, c, 6). 

Pres. ^chiPw (""i^UrtJj -qtnPn) ; ist praet. ^ -40(111 
or -iHohl^) ; 2d praet. -(<+iWI^^R ; 3d praet. 

ist fut. ^cMfHrfl; 2d fut. -|<*|PiqPri ; imp 

or -^cfiiPis) ; pot. -<iomtiin; bened. 

cond. ^MohiPyiq^. Pass. ^fohi^^. Caus. -cjc+m^Prt ; 3d praet. 
or ^T^^^rr5T?r. Desid. 

to eat/ 

This is the type of the Abhyasta or reiterated roots in its 
inflexions, although not itself a reduplicate. It also belongs 
to the class <%<{ | P^ (rule 213, c?). 

Pres. f Pj Prf (sfPKjrf:, iU|Pd) ; ist praet. w*{ a{l H^ or jnjn x 
:) ; 2d praet. 9fiuj ; 3d praet. SH*i/)i^ (^ifPajBJ) ; ist fut. 
; 2d fut. afftpTfff ; imp. fW^; P ot - fW!^; bened. 
; cond. ^^Pvsjm?^. Pass. TTSS^. Caus. afaf^Prf. Desid. 
MPrt. Freq. flT5q^, n! fl Prf or 



' to wake.' 

The final becomes ^R before a consonantal terminatiou 
rejecting x^; and in the first praeterite, when the inflectional 
termination is rejected (rule 213, c, 3) ; the of ^. becomes 
Visarga. Before other consonants the vowel is unchanged. 
Before the vowels "^j is changed to H, except in the second 
preterite, and before ^, when it becomes ^HTC. The second 
praeterite has two forms. 

Pres. ^|J|P5 (STPTW:, arililfrt) ; ist praet. >aniit ( 
if, &c.) ; 2d praet. l|JKI=>d<*K or 
Ti) ; 3d praet. ^H^i'iOi^ (^nrnrfarf) ; ist fut. 
2d fut. 3TmfXmfd ; imp. TPT^ (*n*prf, *riyrf) ; pot. 



Caus. ni|^fri. Desid. 

to cleanse/ 

For the changes of the palatal final before consonants, see 
rule 213, c, 2. 

Pres. fifi; (fH^lrf, f^Nrff), f$$ (Pri^i^, fVrnir) ; ist praet. 
'Hfr|^i ; 2d praet. fTf^fg 1 (fHffff^) i 3d praet. ^^^8; ist fut. 
CH f*j HI ; 2d fut. fHPyairf ; imp. f?fw (f^f, "ftf 7 ^) ; pot. f3*fft ; 

bened. ffftrtfte; cond. ^urHryurri. Pass, ffjatfi) 1 . Caus. 
zrflf -W. Desid. fi Prf Hg^ ff . Freq. ^fV|yrr, HrnW^rd, ^ fi Prh. 
So ftrff ' to paint/ and f^rff ' to tinkle.' 

' to be poor.' 

In the conjugational tenses 'Sir is changed to ^ before a 
termination beginning with a consonant, and not having a 
mute TT. It is rejected in all tenses before a vowel termina- 
tion of the same kind, or one not having TI ; also before the 
augment ^, and before TT in the benedictive. As a reduplicate 
root, it rejects the nasals of the third person plural, present 
tense, &c., and substitutes "31T for ^rf^ in the first praeterite 
(rule 213, e). In the second and third praeterites it has two 

Pres. <* IX$ I frt (^ftftfir:, ^Pc'Sfrf) ; ist praet. 



1 :) ; 2d praet. ^ft.4 1^41 4. or 
praet. ^fe^f^ (^ftf^TTj ^T^^Tfj) or 

ri ) ; ist fut. '^ft/ill I ; 2d fut. ^fi/gujfri ; imp 

fulfill, <jft.<5R> ^fojin) ; pot. <jfi,f<j*ll^; bened. 
cond. ^IXr^md . Pass, ^fdl'if. Desid. f^^fcfiMfd or 

' to cut/ 

This retains its final unchanged in all the tenses except the 
second praeterite. 

Pres. ^rfw; ist praet. ^T7^ (^T^ or ^Ji) ; 2d praet. ^ 
(^5:, 3<j:) ; 3d praet. -Ji^nfl^ (-s^udi, ^T^:) ; ist fut. 
2d fut. ^T^rfif ; imp. ^TjJ (^rf^) ; pot. <jmi^; bened. 
cond. ^l^M'i^. Pass. <([*&. Caus. ^rn^fri. Desid. 
Freq. ^l^i^rl 1 , ?|l^Tfri or ^f^fTf. 

In this manner a number of other verbs in ^TT, belonging to 
this conjugation, may be inflected ; as, 

^fT to go badly, to fly. *IT to go. 

TJT to preserve. 

WT to eat. 

UT to fill. ^T to blow. 

>TT to shine. ^T to cook or mature. 

*TT to measure. WT to bathe. 

^TT is conjugated only in the non-conjugational tenses: see 
^8J. m takes 75 in the causal, qrtfijfri. titn makes the vowel 
of the causal optionally short, ^miqfH or ^tprfw. 

^hft (^Nh?) * to shine.' 

This is one of the class of reduplicated roots, and is usually 
considered peculiar to the Vedas. 

Pres. ^faffr ; ist praet. ^hftw; sd praet. t(hzn^nfc; 3d praet. 
"W^fVrp; ist fut. <{lfaril; 2d fut. ^ftrar^; imp. ^hfhri; pot. 
?fhfhf ; bened. ^ftrthr ; cond. SH^fumrf. Pass. 

TT 1 , 

L to give, to take. 

<9T j 

$% ' to milk.' 

For the changes of the final and initial, see rule 213, c, 8. 

D d 

202 VERBS. 

Pres. ^fhj (^>n, pfTff, vtfg 

^ ^' T^) ; Ist P raet - ^^ (^S" 1 ) 2d P raet - 
; 3d praet. 'srv^ ('*^7rf, ^rv^) 

^gfs?, ^fisfc i(qjyf\r) or 
ist fut. ^Vvr; ad fut. vty^Tn -^; imp. ^ r g' I 7 ^' P ot> 

; bened. |^TTiT, vfafte ; cond. '^nft^fi^ -"!T. Pass. ^r^. Caus. 
; 3d praet. ^rfr^^. Desid. f^ffir -Tt. Freq. 
or ffl^Ov. 
, ' to anoint,' is analogously conjugated. 

to hate.' 

The verb is regularly inflected. 7^ is optionally substituted 
for ^rT. The changes of the final are either those of Sandhi, 
or of the declension of nouns in "^ (see also rule 213, c, 5). 

Pres. iffi?, f%%; ist praet. ^lir^ (^rfFT, ^PgrM^ or 
^r^, ^rfir?, &c.), ^rfir^ (-^r^mirti) ; ad praet. f^i^, 
3d praet. >n(VH|^ -IT; ist fut. itel; 2d fut. i^rfif -^; imp. 
%^ (frfV, ^mftll), firf (fs 1 ^, Pai^d) ; pot. felfiT, fir^hr ; bened. 
r^l l ITT , f^iapy ; cond. ^vtH^ -IT. Pass. f^im^. Caus. 
Desid. f^r^^rri -^. Freq. ^r^ui^ ^fffi/irrf or 

^ ( to speak/ 

This is an imperfect verb, admitting of the conjugational 
tenses only. It inserts ^ before the consonantal terminations 
rejecting ^; and before it the Guna substitute ^ft becomes 
"3^ is substituted for the final before other vowel terminations. 
In the present tense the inflexions of ^rr? in the three num- 
bers of the third person, and singular and dual of the second, 
in the same sense, ( he speaks/ &c., but with the terminations 
of the second praeterite, are considered to be optionally sub- 
stitutes for those of . For the non-conjugational tenses. 
see ^^. 

Pres. ri0 frf (jjrft) ^rrf, jsj'efl CM, "J^ZK, "J^T, "fl fa, ":, "0 01 
^rr^ (wtrjj:, ^rr|:, ^nr^r, ^ii^^:), ^; ist praet. 
imp. snftij (^wf, ^^5, -^, -3^%), firi ; pot. 


' to clean/ * to sweep/ 

The vowel takes the Vriddhi change before the terminations 
of the conjugational tenses beginning with consonants having 
a mute ^, and optionally before those beginning with vowels 
not having such letter. It is so changed throughout in the 
non-conjugational tenses. The final r is changed to ^ before 
a termination beginning with any consonant except a nasal, 
a semivowel, or ^. The changes to which such final ^ is 
subject before other consonants, or to which it subjects them, 
are those of Sandhi: see also rule 313, c, 5. 

Pres. nft (^FJj HTjJfif or ^( 
ist praet. iHHI^ or *MHI^ (wj*i? i(^^^ or 
'snpi') ; ad praet. HHI^ (HHlf^vi or irmt) ; 3d praet. 
(wuHriBf, ^nrrf^j) or ^HIK/T^ (^HitJf, ^scTT^t) ; ist fut. H i fi H I 
or *nihr; 3d fut. Hlf^"rfrf or JTra^ffT; imp. n^ (^FT, H^ij or 
*U?*^, ^Pi<j, *n^i(V.i) ; pot. ^Ti|M ; bened. Hrirnr ; cond. vi*iin^Mri x 
or ^Hia^^. Pass. 'J5^. Caus. Mi^^frf ; 3d praet. 

Desid. rHHlf^Mfrt or fi^Tj^fif. Freq. i0^3*(7l, ^OHI^flTrf or 

^ ' to join.' 

This verb takes the Vriddhi substitute before a consonantal 
termination having an indicatory x^; and T^ before one begin- 
ning with a vowel. It inserts the augment ^ (rule 191, b), 
before which "3 1 is changed to ^ft, and that becomes ^r^. 
Pres. -qftw (IJTT:, -pf^r, -jfrfw, ^fir, ^:, ^:) ; ist praet. 'sr^bj; 
*$4\) ; 2d praet. Tpn? ("5^^^ ^rf^r) ; 3d praet. 
ist fut. *ifadl; zd fut. ^pcjmfH ; imp. T^W (^f^, ^Trfvr) ; 
pot. '^Mii^; bened. ^J^Tr^; cond. ^4|P4mr^. Pass. 'ni^'. Caus. 
Desid. ^^rrt or ^qr^Mfri. Freq. *fl ^ rf, tftl^flfrf or 

So W ' to sneeze,' ^OT ( to whet' or ' sharpen/ TT ' to praise/ 
^J ' to distiP or ( drop ;' which all take ^. Other verbs in T 
are conjugated in the same manner, except that they do not 
take ^ ; as, ^ ' to coo' or ' sound ;' ist fut. <*ldl, zd fut. ofclmfrf, 
3d praet. ^ofitrft ^ : ^ Ho assail ;' sftin, ?iVorf7r, 'Wal^TT : "g * to 

D d 2 

204 VERBS. 

bring forth,' ( to be rich ;' *ftiTT, tflmfrf, smfNIjK See also j? 
and . 

^ ' to sound.' 

This verb optionally prefixes ^ to any termination beginning 
with a consonant in the conjugational tenses. It also takes 3j. 

Pres. 'ufff or T^Pff (^ff: or t^hn, tfa or l^fVfa) ; ist praet. 
^r^ or sjR<fl^; 2d praet. ^rrq 1 (^Nrj:) ; 3$. praet. 
ist fut. ifq if 1 ; 2d fut. iftufPn ; imp. 0TJ or T^J ; pot. 
or T^farTflr; bened. ^rnr; cond. ^uj^uj. Pass. ^iff. Caus. 
Desid. '^^.r^MPri. Freq. 

' to weep.' 

This is the leading root of the class 4^1(3 (rule 213, d). 
Pres. Or^fri ( ^f^'rft, ^fri) ; ist praet. VSjCl^i^ or 

: or vsClf):) ; 2d praet. ^d^ (^Of^vj) ; 3d praet. 
or ^0(li^ (^rdf^Fr) ; ist fut. Cir^rll ; 2d fut. 
; imp. Clf^H (<sP^r^) ; pot. ^||i^; bened. 4v|i^; cond. 

Pass. ^r^ 1 . Caus. ^^Pri ; 3d praet. 
Desid. 4v'^P^MPri. Freq. 0^*1^1^ 0'4>>{1 Prt or 

to lick. 

See rule 213, c, 8. Where the final is changed to <?, and 
one <? has been rejected, the vowel, if not changed to the Guna 
letter, is made long. 


; 2d praet. Poi^^, PciPrt^ ; 3d praet. 
or \5fe4ld ; ist fut. ^^T; 2d fut. ^^fff-w; imp. 
cildf (PoJ*w) ; pot. Prim I f^, Prf^lrf ; bened. 
; cond. ^r^^n^ -IT. Pass. Prf^H. Caus. 'rt^^Pd. Desid. 
PrtPco*sjPn -n. Freq. oPrt^n, rtPrt^lPri or 

^^ f to speak.' 

The final becomes "35 before some terminations (rule 213, c, 2). 
In the tenses in which this verb is substituted for j^, it may 


take the Atmane-pada. The third person plural of the present 
and imperative is wanting. In the third praeterite, T, con- 
vertible to ^ft, is substituted for the radical vowel. The tense 
is formed with the affixes of the first praeterite, with *st pre- 
fixed (rule 190, a). 

Pres. ^fli (^K, ^f^ } TfsiT, "^r., ^^fT.) ; ist praet. 
^r^r (vgH<hij -sH-ciT^, ^R"35, ^TT^*T) ; ad praet. T^T^ 
gr^:), ^ ; 3d praet. -flcfH^ (^TWfaTri), *TfHci (^NY^rf) ; ist 
fut. *nKT ; 2d fut. M^fd -^ ; imp. ^ (^fnr) ; pot. ^nrr^; 
bened. T**rnr, 4vf\V ; cond. ^'cjy^r^ -w. Pass. Tnr^. Caus. 
Desid. PmjfH -^- Freq. 

^5? ' to subdue/ 

The final is changed to t^ (rule 213, c, 4), and ^ to T, 
where the terminations have no mute T^, or where ^ is not 

Pres. ^ffe (Tft, d^rri, ^rft^, ^f^r) ; ist praet. ^R^ (^rv 
^T^, ^, ^^1^) ; 2d praet. T^T^T ("3R^:) ; 3d praet. 
or ^^^fi^; ist fut. 4f$lril ; 2d fut. ^%BTfir; imp. 

; pot. ^3Hlr^; bened. T^tm^; cond. 'il^r^im^. Pass. 
Caus. msmfrf. Desid. 0=1^^1^01. Freq. 

f^ l to know.' 

This verb is anomalous in some respects. In the present 
tense it admits the terminations of the second praeterite, with- 
out the reduplication, as well as those of the present. It 
optionally forms the second praeterite with the auxiliary verbs 
(rule 189, c), and the imperative with ^. 

Pres. ^f% or ^ (f^rr. or f^Tj:, f^ftr or f^*:, %fkr or ^7*?, 
or f^^:, fVr*T or f%^, ^fa or ^, fws: or fVi", f^T: or 
ist praet. ^TTi^ (^rfwf, ^farf:, ^T^ or ^:) ; 2d praet. 

3d praet. 

ist fut. ^TTT; 2d fut. ^r^mPd ; imp. ^ or r^i^ClH; pot. 
Hiai^; bened. faait^ (fwrerf) ; cond. ^r^m^. Pass. 
Caus. ^<;<<rH. Desid. fj faf^fff. Freq. 

206 VERBS. 

With fn^ prefixed, it takes the ^itmane-pada, as *ff^% ; in 
the third person plural of the present, first praeterite, and 
imperative, ^ may be added to the final, as *iPc|<^ or P^, &c. 

^ ' to go/ &c. 

According to some authorities, ^T is not substituted for the 
radical before a vowel ; the change is that of Sandhi only. 

Pres. ^fif (^"rf^ P^Pil) ; ist praet. >&HI^ ( # P<4 **{ or ^n*nr) ; 
ad praet. f^'mn (PiPqigt or Pq*ig:) ; 3d praet. -#3 M! ^ ; ist fut, 
ad fut. ^mOi ; imp. %^; pot. and bened. ^hffi^; cond. 
Pass. 'flM7l. Caus. m 4*4 Or. Desid. P(flMPrt. Fre((. 
5(4(101 or q^Pn. 

The verb has many meanings ; as, ' to throw/ ' to eat/ ' to 
conceive/ &c. In the latter, the causal, ( to impregnate/ is 

or 'm'miPd. 

t, a synonymous verb, is similarly inflected ; but in the 
^itmane-pada : Pres. ^flrf (T^HW, ^*M^), &c. 

' to bless/ ' to teach.' 

The vowel is changed to ^ before terminations beginning 
with consonants which have not a mute TT in the Parasmai- 
pada. For the change of the final, see rule 313, c, 6. 

Pres. $iiftH (f^nn, ^rRrfir), 511^ (^rnr^) ; ist prast 
(^rf^TFT, ^n:, ^rr: or ^rn^), ^mr ; 2d praet. 51511^, 
3d praet. -^PsiNc^, ^^iif^g ; ist fut. ^nP^rtl ; ad fut. ^riPtiujPrf -7T ; 
imp. ^TT^J (^rrfv), 51 1 W f ; pot. f^rBrn^, 5ll*flH ; bened. 
^dP^'HB ; cond. $|iPMUjr^ -TT. Pass. P^iurv^. Caus. 
Desid. P^i ^i i P*m Pn . Freq. ^P^ru^, ^il^i^lPri or ^ll^llPw. 

In the sense of ' blessing/ ^rr is usually prefixed, xNi^iuJH or 
^irf^r^; for, according to some, the vowel is altered in the 
hitman e-pada also. 

^ft (^ft^) * to sleep.' 

This verb changes the final to the Guna element ^ in 
the tenses except the second praeterite. ^ before a vo\vel 
becomes ^r, except in the plurals of the present, first pr 



terite, and imperative, where Tl is inserted before the termina- 
tions from which the nasal has been rejected. The verb 
inserts ^ (rule 191, /). 

Pres. ^friT (^rMirtj ^TOT, ^fa, ^fc^ 5 3^ ^N^ 3 %T%) ; ist praet. 
ror) ; ad praet. f$npfr (ty^i"*, f^rf^:) ; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. ^ffndl ; 2d fut. TfrJTTonfr; imp. ^farf 
ri) ; pot. ^nftw ; bened. ^iP^Mlg. Pass, $|-uui. Caus. 
Desid. tytyfrtt'ri'. Freq. 

' to breathe.' 

This belongs to the class ^ify (rule 213, d: see also rule 
213, c, 6). 

Pres. Tsrfafrf ; ist praet. ^HJfflc^ or ^rsSRT^; 2d praet. ^raTO; 
3d praet. ^sn^RftT^; ist fut. TErftnrr ; 2d fut. TgfjH'HifjT ; imp. y PH ij ; 
pot. and bened. ywi^; cond. ^vyf^iq,^. Pass. 

' ^ bring forth/ as a child. 
The verb optionally admits 3[. 

Pres. ^ ( ; 5'^'j ^^> ^) 5 is t praet. '3TF?T; 2d praet. 
3d praet. ^fm? or ^HfTlB; ist fut. *ft?TT, ^T (\JrfT; 2d fut. 
; imp. Wrff (TTE^, ^f, m^) ; pot. ^t?r; -bened. 
; cond. .H*flmrtj flJHf(^Md l . Pass. ^Tn > 3d praet. 
Caus. NMfri ; 3d praet. ^r*fl*Hr^. Desid. ^^1^. Freq. 
^S^flfrt or *frrlf?r. 

f (f 5 ?) ( to praise.' 

This optionally admits ^ before the consonants of the con- 
jugational tenses, except TJ. 

Pres. ^frf or w^ftfff, ?^W or Irgsffo ; ist praet. -^wti^ or 
or n*^41rt ; 2d praet. $?& ("5|^W'.) 11^ 

; ist fut. ^ffirr; 2d fut. wVarfk -^; imp. 
or w'efl^, ^Trf> *rj fl rt I* ; pot. ^rn^, <jflri ; bened. ^ 
cond. xMW^Mrt x -If. Pass. wVrf. Caus. ^THMrrf. Desid. g^MOr -IT. 
Freq. Tf^r^, iftvtfTt. 

^rq ' to sleep.' 

A verb of the class <%<;ity (rule 213, d). The vowel is sub- 

208 VERBS. 

stituted for the semivowel in the second praeterite, in the 
reduplicate syllable, and before the vowel terminations in thp 
radical syllable also. Before the *T of the benedictive and 
passive and frequentative the same change occurs, and in the 
third praeterite of the causal. 

Pres. ^fyfrf ; ist prset. -fl^Mr^ or ^yiflr^; ad praet. VNHJ 
HJ : ) ' 3^ P rset ' ^yi^fli^ (^rnrf, >HI<U | *J:); ist fut. 
; 2d fut. ymifff ; imp. yPMg ; pot. yuji^; bened. 
cond. ^u^itAJr^. Pass. uurl). Caus. ymilPd ; 3d praet. 
Desid. fj^mfrf. Freq. ^ftiiprfr, uiMMiPri or 

f* * to km.' 

The final is rejected before the terminations of the conjuga- 
tional tenses beginning with any consonant except a nasal or 
a semivowel, and not having an indicatory TJ. In the same 
tenses and second praeterite tr^ is substituted for the root, 
which becomes n before a vowel termination, not having a 
mute Tf. r is substituted in the second person singular of the 
imperative. In the benedictive and third praeterite ni is sub- 
stituted ; tr^ is substituted in some tenses of the passive, in 
the desiderative and frequentative modes ; and *ffi{ is substi- 
tuted in the causal. ^ takes ^ in the second future and 
conditional in the active voice : TT*T admits the augment in 
both futures, conditional, and third praeterite of the passive. 
"5JV also takes the augment ^. 

Pres. ^Pii (fTTn, nP?T, ^PH, ^PH) ; ist praet. ^n?*T ( vi ^ n \ } 
*i<^HH ) i 2d praet. {iJM ( in rt t, ^ITTJ, amPi'q or 
3d praet. nnfli^ (w^fwr) ; ist fut. ^rr ; 2d fut. 
imp. inff (^HIH, ff*ft> ^P^, ^TiiPi) 5 pot. ^qriT; bened. 
cond. y^pTfuiiT. Pass. pres. ^ar^ 1 ; 3d praet. ^nPq or 
(w'jPmini or ^^ini or ^(MlP<1Mlril) ; ist fut. ^<tii or 
; 2d fut. ^ P*( u| rf or Ml PH m ri ; bened. iPtjt{lK or mPiHlS- 
Caus. UM^Pri ; 3d praet. wflVHi^. Desid. P*iijiuPri. Freq. 
or i ill MO, siMrflPfi or ajtiPii or i^flPrl, i^Pff or 


Third Conjugation. 

214. The characteristic peculiarity of this conjugation is 
the reduplication of the radical syllable before the terminations 
of the conjugational tenses. 

. The reduplication takes place according to general rules, 
and whatever other change of the base occurs is special, 
except the substitution of a Guna for a radical vowel before 
those terminations which reject T^, and the modifications of the 
final which the rules of Sandhi require. A final vowel is 
changed to the Guna letter before "31^ in the first praeterite. 

b. The terminations are also unaltered, except those of the 
third person plural, present and imperative, which reject tf ; 
and the third person plural of the first praeterite, which sub- 
stitutes "gr^ for ^r?^. The compound form of the second 
praeterite is optionally used in four verbs, tft, jft, J, and r. 

c. The model of the class is g * to sacrifice ; J the only 
peculiarities in the inflexion of which are the optional change 
of the vowel to the semivowel before the terminations of the 
first person dual and plural of the present tense, and the substi- 
tution of f\T for fir in the imperative. It is thus inflected in 
the conjugational tenses : 

Present, * I sacrifice/ &c. 

or iiT: or ir: 

First praeterite, ' I sacrificed/ &c. 

Imperative, ( May I sacrifice/ &c. 

210 VERBS. 

Potential, ( I may sacrifice/ &c. 

In the non-conjugational tenses the reduplication does not 
take place, except where required by general rules. 

2d praet. ^^N or ij^l^<*K; ist fut. tfhTT; 2d fut. ^lifh ; 
bened. f^TTi^; cond. ^H^lm^. Pass. f[*nt'. Caus. ?N*lfH. Desid. 


^ ' to go.' 

^ is substituted for the root in the reduplication. Tin 
verb rarely occurs in this form, except in the Vedas. In tl 
first and second persons of the first praeterite, the final of the 
conjunct having been rejected, the ^ of the Guna substitute 
for ^ or ^c becomes Visarga. 

Pres. j^f?J (^*pn, ^Pn) ; ist praet. ^TK ; imp. ^M^ ; pot. 

For the other forms, see ^r, p. 157. 

ipf ' to produce/ 
Before terminations beginning with consonants, not con- 
taining an indicatory t^, the vowel of this verb is made long ; 
and before such a termination beginning with a vowel, the 
medial radical ^T is rejected : see inr? fourth conjugation. 

Pres. Tfrfr (mrnn, Wsrfir) ; ist praet. ^ilaf*T (^nT*TTrTf, 
2d praet. IHTR ('T^t, *{$'.) ; 3d praet. ^M*)^ or 

ist fut. irf*Trr; 2d fut. wf^rfir; imp. nr5 (^fiHi, 

pot. ^HtJJIt^; bened. ^^Ir^; cond. -HJiPHUj^. Pass. 
Caus. *lH44fri. Desid. nri'^frmrri. Freq. ^^-^^ or 
Iri, ifflrri or ^nP'H or 

( ftiin^) * to cleanse.' 
This takes both Padas, and in the reduplication changes 
to ^ ; see fill f^, second conjugation, p. 200. 


Pres. %f^i (fi^:, PrMfrf), v)f*{i; ist praet. 
prcet. fa%T (fHfrMij:), f^T% ; 3d praet. ^fl^ or 
ist fut. ?NT; 2d fut. ^rftr -^; imp. ^^, 
pot. HfHs^r^, iTifln ; bened. fffrTTT^, fatt/lB; cond. ^r^'diM -If. 
Pass. ffTrEf^. Caus. ^nfri. Desid. PH^^Crf. Freq. ^fJT5q^, 
^fHiflfrf or ir^fa. 

^T (^) < to give. 

This drops *sn before all the terminations of the conjuga- 
tional tenses not containing an indicatory i^, making conse- 
quently ^7*. In the second person singular of the imperative 
it substitutes ^ for the reduplicated verb. It takes both 
Padas. It is unnecessary to give more than the conjugational 
tenses, as the rest are the same as those of ^T, first conjuga- 
tion, p. 169. 

Pres. ^rfir (^tj ^fr)j <T^J I8 t prat, ^^iij (w<^i, 

imp. ^Tf (%*1, ^ff, %f%), ^f, (^T^, ^|) ; pot. 

VT (>H^) ' to have' or ( hold/ 

This is inflected like the preceding, but the initial is 
unchanged before a termination beginning with any consonant 
except a nasal, a semivowel, or ^, which does not contain an 
indicatory tr . The other tenses are analogous to those of ^T, 
first conjugation. 

Pres. ^vrfir (vw:, ^ssn, ^w?:), vi (^nff) ; ist prat, 
^rvw; 2d praet. ^, ^; 3d praet. 'WVTi^, ^ifvif or 
ist fut. >mTT ; sd fut. vrsrfif -^ ; imp. ^vnj (^), vwf 
pot. ^unw, ^>friT ; bened. ^TT^, vnft? ; cond. ^TMI^i^ -If. Pass. 
>frq^. Caus. VIM^Pri. Desid. fvwfir -ll'. Freq. ^ftq^, ^fir 

or ^Tvrfir. 

>TO l to shine/ 

Before a termination beginning with a vowel, not containing 
a mute ti, this verb, like HT, rejects the medial vowel : H being 
then conjoined with *T, necessarily becomes ^ (rule 7, d : see 
also, for the changes of *T, rule 213, c, 6). 

Pres. wfar (^TW., TOfil) ; ist praet. 

E e 2 

212 VERBS. 

2& praet. *mro; 3d praet. ^wraftT^; ist fut. 
ad fut. Hfamfri ; imp. ^wj (^TOT, ^T^rg, ^rf^ ^renf*r) ; pot. 
; bened. HFffif; cond. ^wftrr. Pass. TOH. Caus. 
f. Desid. rtNiftmPif. Freq. 

tf < to fear/ 

This may make the vowel before a termination beginning 
with a consonant, and not containing an indicatory ^, short. 
It optionally takes the compound form of the second praeterite 
(rule 214, b). 

Pres. fairfif (fspftir. or fafvnn, farfir); ist praet. ^rf^T^ 
or ^rfafafrf, ^rf%>T^:) ; ad praet. fwR (f^i^:) or 
; 3d praet. ^^WEftw (^gf, ^i%:) ; ist fut. 
ad fut. Jlmfrf ; imp. fwg (fr*flrff or ftr6r?rf) ; pot. 

; bened. tfhn?(j cond. '5T>Hnr. Pass. fhl^. Caus. 
HIM^, ^IMM^ or vfhrq^. Desid. f^*flMfrr. Freq. 

' to nourish' or ' support/ 
Pres. f^rff (f^fjr:, fwfir) ; ist praet. 

:) ; imp. f^rf ; pot. fsnfffij;. 
The other tenses are the same as those of >T of the first 
conjugation, p. 174. 

TT (*TT^) * to measure/ 

This verb, ft * to go/ and fT ' to abandon/ drop their final 
vowel before a termination beginning with a vowel, and not 
containing an indicatory ^ : before such a termination begin- 
ning with a consonant, they change it to ^. The vowel of 
reduplication is ^. 

Pres. (HHlrl (Iwra 1 , f*mff) ; ist praet. 'srfarfhr (*nfrHlrti, 
ad praet. i^; 3d praet. ^wrer; ist fut. rnrr; ad fut. 
imp. fHHlrff ; pot. fWhr ; bened. rra^ ; cond. -awu-MW. Pass. 
jftirff. Caus. ^mMPd -^ ; 3d praet. xHiflH^r^ -7f. Desid. far^fri -T. 
Freq. ^ft^Ifl, ^RTHlfrt or 


fT3f (P^PsI^) f to discriminate.' 

The verb, like ftsRf, changes ^ to ^ in the reduplicate 
syllable. For the effect of the Anubandha, see p. 106 ; and 
for the changes of the final, rule 213, c, 2. 

Pres. ^rfifi 

ist praet. 31^06 (^fM?fii, ?JHP<4j:, ^^^) ; 2d praet. 
3d praet. ^JHttfl^ (^HW, 5Hr.), VHP<Mi^; ist fut. TiJT; 2d fut. 
imp. ^^ (^f^fhi, 3P=MlPH); pot. ^P^li^; bened. 
; cond. w^r. Pass. Pcj^rf. Caus. ^nrfcT. Desid. 

f to surround/ 
Pres. HPg, ^P(g ; ist praet. MH|<!, ^r^f^? ; 2d praet. 

; 3d praet. SH^TS/^, ^HB ; ist fut. wr ; 2d fut. 
imp. T^T?, ^pcjyf ; pot. ^Pqqii^, q P< H) n ; bened. Pcfujii 
cond. ij^ y^l d -If. Pass. PtMrt. Caus. ^M^Pn. Desid. P<4Pe(8jPH. . 

Freq. qPq^W, q^Pg. 

^ * to go.' 

Pres. ftrerNt; ist praet. ^f<H*r. ; 2d praet. ?nrrc; 3d praet. 
^rer^Trr or ^nro^; ist fut. ^r^r; 2d fut. ^rft^rfir; imp. 
pot. PHUHlrT ; bened. fti'ifTiT ; cond. ^Rrfiwff . Pass. 
Caus. UKMPff- Desid. HuJHl^fff. Freq. n*4ji, 

to g- J 
See m above. 

Pres. ftr^t^ ; ist praet. ^rftnsfa; 2d praet. i%; 3d praet. 

; ist fut. fTTTT; 2d fut. ^TOTT; imp. fw^hrf ; pot. 
bened. ^i*fly ; cond. ^ar^T^mr. Pass. ^RW. Caus. 
Desid. Pif'^iflrf. Freq. TT^R^ m^rfir or 

to abandon.' 

The Anubandha c^ is to distinguish this root from the 
preceding. The reduplicate is regular in other respects. The 
inflexion is analogous to that of HT. In the second person 
singular of the imperative, *ff^ or af^f is optionally substituted 
for the root : ^rr is dropped before the *i of the potential. 

214 VERBS. 

Pres. T^iPri (IT^TT:, sr^fff) ; ist praet. *nr^TiT; 2d praet. 
3d prast. sn^ufti^; ist fut. ^T?rr; 2d fut. ^i^frf , imp. 

T^ff or T^rf^) ; pot. T3ffi^; bened. ^TTf^; cond. 
. Pass. ^!MH. Caus. ^imjfrt ; 3d prat. <J{l^Mr^. Desid. 
r. Freq. l^lHfi, *n%f?f or 

fft { to be ashamed.' 
Pres. fwjrfjr (f^Tr:, nHfeqfVl) ; ist praet. wfrfi?; ad prat. 

or ^)m^<*K; 3d prat. SSTjlMli^; ist fut. ^TTT; ad fut. 
; imp. f*Tgif; pot. PH^)HIH ; bened. fffamr; cond. 
Pass. jfto'a. Caus. jlmtPrf. Desid. Pfl^MPd. Freq. 
or atgPn. 

Fourth Conjugation. 

215. The syllable n, technically termed 3^, is interposed 
between the inflective base and inflectional terminations of the 
conjugational tenses. 

a. The terminations of the conjugational tenses are the ss 
in this as in the first conjugation (rules 170, 186, &c). 

b. Before TJ, as has already been seen in the preceding con- 
jugation, a radical vowel is not capable of a Guiia substitute, 
and a consonant is unchanged. 

c. The terminations of the first praterite are substituted 
for those of the third in the Parasmai-pada, and sometimes in 
the ^tmane-pada, after verbs belonging to the class wrf^ or 
tr^, &c. ; comprehending nearly a third of the whole con- 

d. A final ^ is changed to ^T, and a final ^ft is rejected, 
before if. ^ft is changed to ^rr before other terminations. 

e. The class of roots called ^MMlP^ or ^rpr, &c. all of which, 
except r^ ( to be glad* or ' intoxicated,' end with *r make a 1 
medial ^f long ; and roots which end with ^l or ^ usually i 
prolong a medial ^, ^, ^, *. 

f. Any other changes are special. The verbs of this class , 
are somewhat numerous : most of them are to be found in j 


other conjugations, sometimes in the same, sometimes in dif- 
ferent acceptations, when the non-conjugational tenses often 
adopt different modes of inflexion. 

g. The model of the class is f%3 (f^f ) ' to play,' ' to shine/ 
&c., which by the clause e, above, becomes ?(ta in the conju- 
gational tenses. 

Present tense, ' I play,' &c. 

First praeterite, ' I played/ &c. 

Imperative, f May I play/ &c. 

Potential, ' I may play/ &c. 
^\ *i n 

There are no peculiarities in the non-conjugational tenses. 
In the desiderative there are three forms (rule 203, /) : in the 
frequentative, rejecting TJ, the final is changed to ^. 

zdpraet. f?^W; 3d praet. x4^fli^ (W^faui, ^frg:) ; ist fut. 
; 2d fut. %f^qfw ; bened. <{l(i^; cond. ^fmq^. Pass. 
Caus. ^^rfif. Desid. f^fVMfiT, f^rmMfd or f^^MfiJ or 
. Freq. ^^*p^, ^f^^ftnf or 

' to throw/ 

This is a verb of the class iprrfij (rule 213, c), and subjoins 
to the final in the third praeterite. 

216 VERBS. 

Pres. ^H4^Pd ; ist praet. WTWi^; 2d praet. ^rrw ; 3d pnet. 
(wwirf, vsi^r^) ; ist fut. *<rftnrr ; 2d fut. ^PHTHPH ; imp. 
; pot. -y*^; bened. ^+^1^; cond. ^if^uirf. Pass. 
Caus. ^MtmPrt. Desid. ^ PH PUN Prf . 


Pres. frrff ; ist praet. ^ir^; ad praet. *m^rf,; 3d praet. **; 

ist fut. FfTT; ad fut. ^0^; imp. ^wf; pot. f^TT ; bened. 

; cond. ^tqrf. Pass. ^Tff. 
For the derivative forms, see ^, second conjugation. 

^T* ' to increase.' 
Pres. ^mPri ; ist praet. ^rr^l^ ; 2d praet. 

ist fut. ^?f7rr; 2d fut. ^fthtlfri ; imp 
bened. ^arn^; cond. 'STTf^w. Pass. 
Desid. ^rff fv^fir or 

' to throw' or ' send/ 
Pres. fE^Tftf ; ist praet. oPvijuii^; 2d praet. f%^T; 3d praet 
'srifaffa; ist fut. %ffT; 2d fut. ^4*rrrf; imp. fjU|ij; pot. 
bened. rvij'U4ii^; cond. SH^IW^. Pass, fvjjmrf. Caus. 
Desid. rxir^mPri. Freq. 

' to be born.' 

This verb is changed to in before the conjugational tenses. 
Pres. 'iimrf ; ist praet. %N^l^ri ; 2d praet. r^ ; 3d praet. -i(PHy 
ist fut. T|Pf(rii ; 2d fut. ^Pnf^ ; imp. *TTwf ; pot. irRTT; bened 
; cond. ^ 

For the rest, see TTT, third conjugation. 

' to grow old.' 

See rule 215, d. It optionally substitutes ^ for the redu 
plication of the second praeterite; takes the terminations o 
the first praeterite for those of the third ; and elongates th 
augment ^ in the futures and conditional. 

Pres. *flujfrf ; ist praet. ^rsfh^lT; 2d praet. *HK 
l) ; 3d praet. ^'HlOr^, ^nrr^; ist fut. 


; 2d fut. *i(Vqfii, rNfir; imp. *fNTj; pot. fhzJT^; bened. 
; cond. ^*lfVmrf x , ^JHtfujc^. Pass. fl-urt. Caus. 
Desid. rH^fXMfrt, (V^OMfrf, ftnfNlfTr. Freq. 

< to fly.' 

It takes the augment ^ (rule 191, b). 
Pres. ^irff; ist prat, ^hnr; ad praet. fr^ ; 3d praet. 

; ist fut. Tftnrr; ad fut. TfWff; imp. ^fanri; pot. 
bened. ?fyifly ; cond. S5fnTif. Pass. ^li|rt. Caus. 
Desid. ffrfTTR? 1 . Freq. ^^hiw, ^TififrT, ^fri. 

It is also a verb of the first conjugation ; TT[W, ^T3Mrf ? 

* to perish.' 

It belongs to the class g^lf^, and may in the third prae- 
terite change ^ to ^. It inserts a nasal before any consonant 
except a nasal or semivowel, and optionally inserts ^. 

Pres. ri^nPrf ; ist prast. ^nr^nr; ad praet. HI$ 
iif^Wj ^3f) 5 3d praet. ^nr^nTj i ^r^nr; ist fut. 

2d fut. tf^rfif, nr^imfrt ; imp. f^Tff ; pot. H^i^; bened. 

cond. fnftHfl or ^MHP^I^ri . Pass. 'rf^Hrf. Caus. ^TijjmfH. Desid. 

ft i sj fd, fi i r^rtfif . Freq. 

TET^ * to bind.' 

The final is changed to V, which undergoes no other change 
than conversion to ^ before a soft, and K before a hard conso- 
nant, by the rules of Sandhi. It takes both Padas. 

Pros. if?lfw -^; ist praet. *H^jrf -IT; zd praet. 
or %f?r*j, ^?nj'.), ^ 5 3d praet. ^Hirt/ld^ (^r^rgr), ^i' 
fut. TRTT; ad fut. rorfa -^; imp. rr^rj-Tn; pot. 

; bened. tT^TTW, Hrtflg ; cond. ^H(**JrT -IT. Pass. ^T?Tff. Caus. 
Desid. ftHrHfrf -W. Freq. 

rfti ' to heat/ ' to perform penance.' 
Pres. nm^ 1 ; i st praet. *HriUH ; 2d praet. 7^ ; 3d prat. 
i st fut. inrr ; 2d fut. iF^tft ; imp. K^lrff ; pot. w^w ; bened. 


218 VEBB8. 

cond. ^Hd-Wd. Pass. TTvfr. Cans. dimifd. Desid. 
Freq. did u| rf, dlHfn. 

TpT ' to satisfy,' * to be satisfied.' 

As belonging to the class *jmf^ ? it should take the form of 
the third praeterite which that class requires ; and as a verb 
of the fourth conjugation, it should not insert ^. In both 
respects, however, it offers optional deviations. It may be 
conjugated also in the fifth, sixth, and tenth conjugations, to 
which the different forms should perhaps be restricted : they 
are always, however, given together in this conjugation. 

Pres. ijmfd ; ist prast. ^TFon^; 2d praet. Tr?nt (drf.Mrf:, ridfQvj, 
rid^, dcf^q) ; 3d praet. ^r^HT, ^d</Trt^ ^HiUHflTi^, -^^mfltl; 
ist fut. W?h, 3TTT, Tffthn ; 2d fut. ffi4*lPrf, d^Pd, ri fQ"lfri ; imp. 
Tnn^j; pot. ij***^; bened. dujii^; cond. # A 4^ i^ ? ^?yiWr^ 
Pass. TJTfiT. Caus. riQ^ffl. Desid. rridl^rri, Pd y m frt, 
Freq. n9ijUtn, n"0ijflrit, nclnf5. 

^tr, ' to be proud, 5 is similarly conjugated. 

^ ' to decay/ 

This root changes its final to ^rr in the non-conjugational 
tenses, except in the second preterite. 

Pres. ifl^rf; ist praet. ^Rfhnf; 2d praet. f^fft ; 3d praet. 
^<iw ; ist fut. <5fnn; ^d fut. ^TOTff; imp. ^fhnrr; pot. tfSnt; 
bened. <l^l; cond. '.H^U-ijrt. Caus. ^liiqfd. Desid. f^^lMd or 
f^^lflrf. Freq. ^<{lnfl, ^iflfrt 1 or ^frf. 

So ifl^ ' to injure/ and 75^ ( to embrace ;' but the latter 
takes two forms in the non-conjugational tenses ; as, 
^HoJIW ; c57IT, c5T?TT ; c^md, rti*<ff ; "^"tfh?, Wl^flK ; and 
or ^oilfMrf- 

^hl ' to shine.' 

This verb optionally inflects the third person of the thi 
praeterite like the same in the passive voice : see WR, p. 173 
Pres. ^Nrff; ist praet. ^hqTT; ad praet. f^ft; 3d pra 
or a<()fq ; ist fut. ^tfrnrr ; 2d fut. <{)PMUI^ ; imp 


pot. <luiiT ; bened. ^flfmfly ; cond. ^IfMUJTT. Caus. 
Desid. f^PM^. Freq. ^?fhq7, ^Itftfff or 

^Tf ' to oppress,' ' to injure.' 

This optionally substitutes v or ^ for the final (rule 213, 

Pres. ^Pri ; ist praet. ^n^Tif; ad praet. 7<!fe; 3d praet. 
^r?fir^; ist fut. "^ftnjr, <fter, ^f^wi ; ad fut. 'glP^uifrij *fliPri ; 
imp. <J^r ; pot. ^rifa^; bened. <^mr ; cond. 'sr 

Pass. ^Tff. Caus. \*r^fff. Desid. SilPjJH'fVu rfirafif. Freq. 

** ^- V* *" ^- " V* L* ^ A. 


So fw^ ' to be kind/ and m^ * to vomit/ 

^TT ' to dance/ 

This verb optionally takes the augment ^ before ^ in the 
non-conjugational tenses. 

Pres. rjiMfrf ; ist praet. ^snpqrr; ad praet. Vfi ; 3d praet. 
WH^Trf; ist fut. fTNhn; ad fut. rrPS^qfir or ffi^fir; imp. ^Tff; 
pot. "J^l^; bened. JWT1T; cond. "sr^f^-BjiT or *HH(*7^. Pass. 
Caus. ^"tTtrfir. Desid. f^rf^^fifr or fVf^rHPd. Freq. 

XT^ ( to go/ 

This forms the third singular of the third praeterite in ^. 
It does not take the augment ^. 

Pres. TT?T^; ist praet. ism^if ; ad praet. x^ ; 3d praet. 
(WTWTcff, xMMrMri) ; 1st fut. THH ; ad fut. Xtf^ ; imp. 
pot. irifaf ; bened. Urtfly ; cond. ^iMrftirl. Pass. M^. Caus. 
Desid. ftrftTrt. Freq. tnxra^", mM^IPri or 

ip ' to nourish/ 

This is the first verb of a class which in this conjugation 
requires the terminations of the first praeterite to be substituted 
for those of the third, when the radical vowel is unchanged 
(rule 190, /. p. ia5). 

Pres. jmPd ; ist praet. ^pin^; ad praet. 

F f a 


3d praet. 




The class 



ist nit. tfter; adfut. 

cond. HSift&MH . Pass. 


Desid. g^nTii. Freq. M\Hid, xft^pftfr 
consists of the following verbs. 

3R to burn. 
' to fall. 

to throw. 

to assemble. 

to increase. 

to be angry. 

to embrace. 

to become thin. 

to be angry. 

to become moist. 

to let loose. 
f to be hungry. 
r to be agitated. 

to disturb. 

to be greedy. 

to let loose. 

to throw. 

to hurt. 

to perish, 
ire to toss. 
7M to hurt. 
ITS to be pleased, 
irq to satisfy or be satisfied. 

1TR to thirst. 

^r to toss. 

rnr to become bad. 

<ff to oppress or w r rong. 

to weigh, 
to break. 

to be perplexed or foolish, 
to take pains, 
to disturb, 
to hurt, 
to disturb, 
to be angry, 
to roll on the ground, 
to be lost, 
to covet, 
to fix. 
to convey, 
to cast off. 
to be clean or pure, 
to become dry. 

to embrace. 

to become perfect. 

to be kind or bland. 

to sweat, 
to rejoice. 

Many of these verbs, however, take other forms also in the 
third praeterite, as belonging originally perhaps to different 
conjugations ; but they are now so blended, that they are 
usually placed together under this conjugation, however incon- 
sistent with their classification under the head HMlGf ; see in 


ift f to please or be pleased.' 

It is a verb also of the first and ninth conjugations. 
Pres. Tfarr; ist praet. sanlnri ; ad praet. frrrfft; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. ^ITT; ad fut. ifru^j imp. iftwr; pot. jffor ; 
bened. ifrft? ; cond. SHi)ujri. Pass, iflqrf. Caus. numPd or 
Tfhprflf. Desid. finfhrfff -^. Freq. ^ifhor, x|n*flPii, ^fw. 

So tf 'to uphold/ tft <to drink/ # ' to injure/ *ft to 
choose/ &c. 

^V ' to understand.' 

This forms the third person singular of the third praeterite 
optionally in ^ (see ^hj). When the final is changed by the 
rules of Sandhi before a sibilant, *r becomes >T. 

Pres. ^*ffi; ist praet. ^rir ; ad prat. "|^ ; 3d praet. 
^nrtfv or ^sr^r (^>jmin, ^Mwir) ; ist fut. ^IT; ad fut. 
imp. *p*nrf ; pot. ^Tf ; bened. >{rtfte ; cond. ^M^iif. 

For the other forms, see "^v, first conjugation, p. 174. 

to fall.' 

This drops its nasal before TT, and in the third praeterite. 
Pres. t^'qfif ; ist praet. ^M^^nr; ad praet. ^>j^r; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. >jf^nrr; ad fut. Hf^rorfir; imp. >r^rff; pot. 
; bened. >j^rnr; cond. ^Nf^H|W. Pass. )T^inl > . 
For the other forms, see j-Nr, first conjugation, p. 189. 

q% ' to be mad/ ' to be delighted/ ' to be intoxicated/ 
As belonging to the class ^MHlf^, the vowel is made long 
in the conjugational tenses (rule 315, e). 

Pres. HKlfri ; ist praet. -iJHItlf^; ad praet. nm^; 3d praet. 
ist fut. H^ril; ad fut. Hr^mfri ; imp. ^TRTff; pot. 
; bened. H^lri; cond. ^MP^mff. Pass. ra^. Caus. 
Desid. ftHP^MPrf. Freq. MiMiart, TTR^tfrT, 

TT ' to know' or ' to respect/ 

Pres. *rsi^ ; ist praet. iHH^rt ; ad praet. ^ ; 3d praet. 
ist fut. PtTT; ad fut. fcq^; imp. H^di ; pot. *Rnr; beued. 

222 VERBS. 

; cond. ^nferir. Pass. H**Tif. Caus. HI'^MPrf. Desid. 
Freq. HIH^rt, Hl^Pif. 

to be unctuous.' 

This verb takes the Gufia substitute of the vowel in all the 
persons of the conjugational tenses. 

Pres. ^ufff; ist praet. ^nterff; 2d praet. fa*^ ; 3d praet. 
^fH^if ; ist fut. ^P^rfT ; 2d fut. *}P<JUiPrt ; imp. i)<jH ; pot. 
bened. f*nrfTT; cond. ^wP^u^. Pass. PntlTi. Caus. 
Desid. PH*} f^ Mfir or PHPuP^MPiT. Freq. 

^5 ' to be silly/ * to be bewildered.' 
It is conjugated like <^, &c. 
Pres. Jprfw; ist prast. ^?nf; 2d prast. yf^ 
or g*ff(Vl, ^^f^ or 5^"); $d praet. 4ig^; ist fut. 

or H^f^dl ; 2d fut. ift^fiT or *^r^H4Pri ; imp. g^riT ; pot 
; bened. ^4II"K; cond. ^ft^nr or -4(HlOurri. Pass. 
Caus. *T\^nfd. Desid. ^gr^Pd or ^P^nPn uPrf or 
Freq. *fVg^i^, nl^^l Prt, TlilP'I or 

^M ' to fight.' 

Pres. gufrfr ; ist praet. ^rgnf; 2d praet. ^^ ; 3d praet. 
(^riMrti) ; ist fut. q\&\ ; 2d fut. 4li**J^ ; imp. ^UM| ; 
pot. iju)rf ; bened. iflrtfla ; cond. ^^i**jri. Pass. ^nr. Caus. 

Desid. ^rH^. Freq. ift^uiri, *ftjfinir. 
r, * to engage in devotion/ is similarly conjugated : Pres. 
; 3d praet. W^5; ist fut. 4*1*1, &c. 

l^ f to colour.' 

Pres. T5TJT ; ist praet. TSRyUri ; imp. ^.TMrii ; pot. <3*Jn. 
The rest as in T^, ^tmane-pada, of the first conjugation, 

p. 177. 

T>j ' to hurt/ 

This verb inserts T in the second praeterite, but optionally 
before the augment ^: it takes ^ optionally in the futures 


and conditional. In the third praeterite it belongs to the 
class Nlf<. 

Pres. i3*rfT; ist praet. ^RTZT^; 2d praet. TX*I (iSrtfij 
or *T3f, TxfcF*, ^ar); 3d praet. ww^ ( : *TWf); ist fut. 
or T^T ; 2d fut. dyuifirf or TSrfff ; imp. Trg ; pot. Ttfri^; bened. 
; cond. ^fam^, mr^n^. Pass. T?*rfr. Caus. uvrfir. Desid. 
T. Freq. TKr>, &c. 

tr. ( to propitiate ;' intr. ' to be finished' or 

' accomplished. 5 

Pres. trwfir; ist praet. ^njwn^; 2d praet. TH>f; 3d praet. 
^u^firf; ist fut. TTST; 2d fut. Twfrf; imp. nwj; pot. 
bened. u*fll "^ ; cond. ^nron^. Pass. iTWTff. Caus. 
Desid. IXritfrf or ^1.11^01. Freq. CKluui, &c. 

^rra and ^TTV in the same senses are similarly conjugated. 

cW * to covet.' 

It takes ^ optionally in the first future, absolutely in the 

Pres. cjrfw; ist praet. ^Tc^wn^; 2d praet. rpjfa ; 3d praet. 
^STcWiT; ist fut. rTtarr, (TtfHlTT; 2d fut. c^fHuifri ; imp. c^wrj; 
pot. <5^l^; bened. ^TTf^; cond. ^pilf^faif^. Pass. <jwnK Caus. 
Desid. r5c5 T *rffT. Freq. 

* to be,' ( to exist.' 
Pres. frer^ 1 ; ist praet. ^rfWiT; 2d praet. f^f^ ; 3d praet. 

; ist fut. ^T; 2d fut. W^ 1 ; imp. fasirti ; pot. 
bened. ^'fffly ; cond. 'fl^WH. Pass, f^tlri. 

For the rest, see f^ c to know/ second conjugation. 

' to pierce' or * injure.' 
This changes the semivowel and following ^r to ^ in the 
conjugational tenses, and also in the benedictive, and before the 
terminations of the second praeterite beginning with vowels. 

Pres. fauifrt ; ist praet. wlfawnr; 2d praet. fV^T 
3d praet. ^fiMirifll^; ist fut. ^TST; 2d fut. MliWfrf ; imp. 



; bened. 



, j|tMV|)Prf, 


3TR * to be able.' 

This is also a root of the fifth conjugation, q. v. According 
to some, it may take ^. 

Pres. ^nwfjr -^; ist praet. <I$I<M^ -w ; 2d praet. $| $(!<*, 
3d praet. W^nfiW, ^^fqDrf , sujjirfi, -.H$|Pcfcy j ist fut. 
ad fut. $f<iPfi -ff, ^rPcfcitfPfi - F ; imp. $r*4rt? $|4Jrif ; pot. $r+lr( -W j 
bened. "^T^ffi^, TflT$T?, ^lf<*Hl? ; cond. ^I'UjH -TT, 
Pass. ^|<<M(f. Caus. ^iicmPrf. Desid. P^iy^Pri -Tf. Freq. 

* to be tranquil.' 
This is the first of a class of which the vowel is made long 
in the conjugational tenses. 

Pres. ^iiujfri ; ist praet. -^IIWJH; ad praet. 31311*1 
3<1 praet. '^H^JHIT or ^i$i*j)ri ; ist fut. ^ifuriT, ^PffTj ad fut. 
imp. ^iiwj^ ; pot. !j[ijijjT; bened. '^n^TH^j cond. 
. Pass. ^|Wjri. Caus. ^fwrfif. Desid. f^r^lfiT^fi 
Freq. ^||^|4-i|H 7 ^pflJirPfl- 

The other roots of this class are, 

^i? to be sad. HT to wander or whirl. 

pfR to be patient. ^nr to be weary. 

THT to be distressed. ^ to be mad. 
HTT to tame. 

' to embrace,' ( to adhere to.' 
In the first sense this verb inserts *T before the termination 
of the first praeterite in the third : in any other it does so 
optionally. It may also take the A'tmane-pada in the third 
praeterite, and ^ in the third person singular. In the sense 
of embracing, ^TT is usually prefixed. 

ist praet. aPfeHn?^; ad praet. fijHiN; ^d praet. 



ist fut. 






; cond. ^)<ifi. Pass. Ogmri). Caus. ^mifrf. Desid. 

^r ' to bear/ 
Pres. *rof?r; ist praet. ^ra^; 2d praet. wr? ; 3d praet. 

; ist fut. wC^di or vtsi ; 2d fut. ^C^uiPd ; imp. 
pot. *n?h^; bened. u^llrt^; cond. 

For the rest, see tRT, first conjugation. 

* to sew/ 

This makes the vowel long in the conjugational tenses, and 
before *r. 

Pres. tfNfrf ; ist praet. ^raten^; 2d praet. ftnN 1 ; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. f^ d I ; 2d fut. ^rVtqfri ; imp. ^hi^; pot. 
; bened. ^fNnw; cond. ^^f^^Mr^. Pass. *fl<i|rf. Caus. 

Desid. fafafqijfcf. Freq. ^iflM^, ^Mlfw. 
fe|, ' to eject saliva,' is similarly conjugated. 

^ ' to bear,' as children. 

Pres. ^5^; ist praat. ^T^nr; ad praet. ^Tp- (gr(^) ; 3d 
praet. ^n-rte, SH^P^B ; ist fut. wlTrr, ^rfVsrr; ad fut. 
imp. ^Miil ; pot. ^lf; bened. ^fW? ; cond. 
Pass. ^nl"j ist fut. mfaril ; 3d praet. w^rrfV. 

For the other forms, see TJ first conjugation, and "^ second 

^t ' to destroy.' 

Verbs ending in ^ft lose it before the ^ of this conjugation 
(rule 215, d) : in other tenses ^TT is substituted for the final. 

Pres. ^rfir ; ist praet. ^4^; 2d praet. ^n^ (wijt) ; 3d praet. 
TH N or WtfTrffa; ist fut. TrnTT; 2d fut. TTrwfif ; imp. FI^ ; 
pot. ^n^; bened. ^Ml'f^; cond. >HU^. Pass. ^ihr^. Caus. 
'^ly^rrf. Desid. ftrm^rd. Freq. ^Mlq^, wmiPd or ^i^fff. 

In Uke manner are conjugated ^ft ' to cut,' <ffr * to cut,' and 
$ft f to pare.' ^t has but one form, ^ilf, in the third prae- 

G g 

226 VERBS. 

*nr * to abandon/ 

For the changes of the final, see TUT, first conj., p. 176. 
Pres. UftM ; ist praet. ^nTrCTH 1 ; 2d praet. n (^tffnM) ; 
3d praet. 'snr? (^^Ujiril) ; ist fut. 5ETPT; 2d fut. H^nr; imp. 
f ; pot. Waifa' ; bened. TTTS/fa? ; cond. vt^a^W. Caus. 
-^. Desid. fa^Hj^. Freq. 

Fifth Conjugation. 

216. In the conjugational tenses the verbs of this class 
affix the syllable T to the base. 

a. Before those terminations which reject T^ the vowel is 
changed to the Guna letter wfr, which combines with a follow- 
ing vowel, agreeably to the rules of Sandhi. Before the vowel 
of any other termination "3" becomes ^ when the root ends 
with a vowel ; but T^ if it ends with a consonant, with which 
tT combines. Before the consonant of a termination not con- 
taining x^, the "gr of ^ is unchanged, but it may be dropped 
before ^ or IT, if it be not preceded by a conjunct consonant. 

b. The termination of the second person singular of the 
imperative f^ is dropped after J attached to a final vowel in 
the root : if attached to a final radical consonant, f^ is retained. 

c. The type of the class is ipr * to extract/ as a juice or 
spirit: of which the conjugational tenses in both forms are 
the following : 

Present tense, e I extract (the Soma) juice,' &o. 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

First praeterite, ' I have extracted juice/ &c. 


Imperative, ' May I extract juice/ &c. 


Potential, f I may extract juice,' &c. 

The other tenses are not dissimilar from those of ^ of the 
second conjugation. It takes ^ in the third praeterite of the 
Parasmai-pada, and, according to some, optionally in the 
^Ltmane-pada also. 

2d praet 'IJNH, ^|^ ; 3d praet. xS^Nlii, ^rtfrs, ^fnP^a ; I st fut. 
^fhn ; 2d fut. tftuifiT -^ ; bened. ^rn^, ^ifly ; cond. ^nilurrf -IT. 
Pass. ^Tff. Caus. ^N^Pri ; 3d praet. *^^M^^. Desid. HKMfri -^. 
Freq. Tfft^I^, ^r^^frT, *ft^tfw. 

There are not many verbs in this conjugation. The fol- 
lowing are amongst those of most frequent occurrence. A 
few which have been met with in previous conjugations, are 
repeated here for the sake of the difference which their inflex- 
ions present. 

^TST^to pervade/ 

For the effect of the Anubandha "35, see p. 106. 

Pres. ^r^ff (^TTTff, ^TSpr^) ; ist praet. ^rrsnf; ad praet. 

^nrf^:) ; 3d praet, ^m? 
ist fut. WFT, ^51711; zd fut 

imp. ^WTTT ; pot. -fl^cftTr ; bened. ^if^l^fl?, ^^ft ; cond. 
Pass, 'sqriff. Caus. ^Jlfff- Desid. 

to obtain.' 
For the effect of 75, see p. 106. 

Pres. wsfrfff (wsnr:, ^I^MOtf) ; ist praet. ^TT^W; 2d praet. 
:); 3d praet. wriT; ist fut. WTRT; 2d fut. 
; imp. wjftw (^r^f^) ; pot. ^rr^nir ; bened. 

G g 2 

228 VERBS. 

cond. wn^Tif. Pass, 'srrarn. Caus. (with n prefixed) 

\ \ 1 / 

Desid. ^rfff. 

^pl (^J>j) ' to increase.' 

Pres. (^fjftfff (^fgTr:, ^ JJW fil ) ; ist praet. ^rrjft^; imp 
pot. 4tyumri . 

For the rest, see ^v, second conjugation. 

ll ("*$**) ' ^ i n j ure -' 
Pres. oMLftfrt, '3pTrt; ist praet. iHcMijftiT. vjj<*ciff ; imp. 

e co i c\'co 7 * 

The rest like "3 c to do :' see eighth conjugation. 

* to injure.' 

This verb and fvf%, ' to go/ drop the semivowel before 
and the influence of ^ is suspended in the conjugational tensej 
Pres. ^rftflT; ist praet. ^cMiflr^; 2d praet. * <*<H ; 3d pra;t. 
; ist fut. ^fjHrll ; 2d fut. ^fiH^Pri ; imp. <*WJ\lf ; pot. 
; bened. ^[^ I r^; cond. -TKofcriH^^- Pass. *taqi$. Caus. j 

to collect.' 

The palatal becomes optionally the guttural in the redu- 
plicate base, in the second praeterite, and desiderative. 

Pres. P^rflfH, f 55 ^^"; ist praet. ^rf^Ttff, ^sfVJrf ; 2d pnet. 
or f%^rni, f^^ or f^^ ; 3d praet. ^H^M!H X , ^r^? ; ist fut 
; 2d fut. ^arfw -w; imp. PHlri, f^HI* ; pot. 

; bened. ^fhnw, ^^ ; cond. -iMj^ -if. Pass. 
Caus. ximnrd. Desid. P*-/lMrrf or fVsflMfrf. Freq. 

to deceive.' 

The nasal is rejected before J, and before TJ. In the second 
praeterite it is optionally conjugated as if it ended in a single 
consonant (rule 188, k). 

Pres. ^ftfff (^pr.) ; ist praet. ^tfV?T; 2d praet. ^3*x fa**$i 
^ffcr*T, ^fifq; ^fT^, ^f>T^) ; 3d praet. ^wfh^; ist fut, 
; 2d fut. <*fTHif7T ; imp. ^ftw ; pot. ^nrr^; ben 


; cond. Ji<j f**ron^. Pasa. ^xfjt. Caus. ^ut^fd. Desid. 
or \ftwfif. Freq. 

^ ("*PO c to shake' or ' tumble.' 

Pres. TpftfTf, vnjw; ist praet. ^^rw^;, ^jw; ad praet. prnr, 
; 3d praet. 'snfMfcr, ^anfte; ist fut. vftliTT; 2d fut. vfarfff-^; 
imp. ^pfrj, Y^P^' P*' ^J3^H' Y* 1 ^' bened. YF^j vWfe; cond. 
^rvhqT^ -W. Pass. vrm. Caus. frffr or vr^lflr. Desid. 

' to shake' or ' tumble.' 

It inserts ^ before the usual terminations optionally, except 
sr and H of the second praeterite, where it is absolute. 

Pres. wfrfrr, 'f'J'ff ; ist praet. ^rarfr^ ' 5T ^5 7r 5 ^ P r aet. H 
(?vf%^, H\ft^, 5^f%T), HV^ ; 3d praet. ^VT^W, ^rvif^ or 
ist fut. vf^TH, vVflTj 2d fut. vfTrftr -Tt, VlmPri -^; imp. 
v^prf ; pot. Vrj^id, UTqftlT ; bened. v^TT^, vf^^ftF, Vflfa ; cond. 
VSlVllVujTT -Tj ^Mlmr^ -If. 

The other forms are the same as in the preceding. 

TJ ' to delight.' 

Pres. ipfHTT; ist praet. ^w^; 2d praet. TPTR; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. xrtr; ad fut. tifXmfri ; imp. "^f^; pot. 
; bened. ftnrnT; cond. ^qfXuf. Pass. ftn^. Caus. 
Desid. Y^^* Freq. 

fir (ftr^) 4 to throw.' 

This substitutes ^rr for its final in all the non-conjugational 
tenses except the second praeterite Atmane-pada, and before IT. 
Pres. favftfa., ft.j7fr; ist praet. ^rf^RVi^, ^ffa^cf ; 2d praet. 
; 3d praet. ^nmfhr^, 'snrrer; ist fut. mn; 2d fut. 
-7^ ; imp. fjTHt'j, ftnjTrf ; pot. fir^MTi^, fH<flrt ; bened. 
*fNn~?f, *nfw; cond. 'iJHlWH v -TT. Pass. ^rhnJ 1 . Caus. 
Desid. fHrHfri -?^. Freq. 

230 VERBS. 

TTV e to accomplish/ * to injure/ 
In the second sense it substitutes ^ for the radical vo 

before the vowel terminations and the augment ^ of 

second praeterite. 

Pres. UNlPrt ; ist praet. xHUHlrt ; 2d praet. 

^rftpr or "br^:, Tfv*r, ^ftnr) ; imp. Tnftrj ; pot 
For the rest, see TTV, fourth conjugation. 

to choose.' 

This optionally prolongs the augment ^, except before ^ in 
the second praeterite : before the other consonantal termina- 
tions of the same it does not take ^. It optionally inserts ^ 
in the benedictive, and may change its vowel to "35 in that 
tense, the benedictive, and third praeterite, Atmane-pada. In 
the latter it has different forms. 

Pres. =prrrf7T, ^77) ; ist praet. -a^fl^, ^TJTW ; 2d praet. ^TR 
T^TJ:, T^: or ^f^:, ^^), "^f^ or ^ (^f^) ' 3^ P ra; t. 
^r4 (Va, yi^Oy, '^'^H, '^^ ; ist fut. Tftirr, 
fut. ^rmffT -^, 'mDmfH -^ ; imp. ^jfVff, ^rif ; pot. 

bened. frftiTi^ or ^|^T7^, ^fimlif, ^tflg, ^itt ; cond. 
-7T, '^^jQwiH -TT. Pass, fd^rt. Caus. cj^Pri -^. Desid. 
-w, P^iDMrri -If, ^5"Pif -7^ Freq. 

f to be able/ 

Pres. Sl^lfri ; ist praet. ^T^rT; imp. ^tw; pot. 
For the rest, see ^Tofi? fourth conjugation. 

' to cover/ 

This inserts ^ optionally, except in the second future and 
conditional where its insertion is absolute, and may prolong it 
when inserted. 

Pres. ^tnrfrfrT, **TWrT ; ist praet. y^i!.f) ri , ^J^wjf; 2d pnet. 
fTWTC, rtw*,; 3d praet. ^TtniOr^ or ^wi^ffrT, -^P^g, "^r 

or ^^7T ; ist fut. ^cf^T, wHlrir, wOril ; 2d fut. ^rfX'Wfrr -TT) 
-TT; imp. *rfii\rt, W*"rti ; pot. ^*ii<4iif , T^rpfhr; bene( 



; cond. smniXm^ -TT, 
Desid. friwfmf 


-TT. Pass. 


Sixth Conjugation. 

217. This class is characterised by the insertion, before the 
terminations of the conjugational tenses, of ^r, that is, of the 
short vowel ^r, with the effect of precluding the operation 
of an indicatory T|; and the vowel of the root therefore is 
unchanged either to the Guna or Vriddhi element. 

a. The terminations of the conjugational tenses undergo 
the same modifications as in the first conjugation. 

b. Verbs ending with vowels change 3[ ^ to ^r, T gj to T^, 
^ to ft^, and ^ to ^, before the ^r of the conjugation. 

c. A class of verbs called from the first of them JT^rf^ 
insert a nasal before the finals in the conjugational tenses. 

d. The class of verbs termed <*<:if^ extend the prohibition 
of the Guna or Vriddhi change to the non-conjugational tenses, 
except the first and third persons singular of the second 

e. The type of the conjugation is w^, ' to inflict pain.' It 
takes both Padas. 

Present, ' I inflict pain/ &c. 

First praeterite, ' I have inflicted pain,' &c. 

Imperative, ' May I inflict pain/ &c. 



232 VERBS. 

Potential, f I may inflict pain,' &c. 

The other tenses are, 

ad praet. Tpfl^, TTiJ^ ; 3d prset. ^rmT^hr, 

; ist fut. TTteT ; ad fut. Wh^ffir -^ ; bened. 
; cond. ^Tfftr^T^ -If. Pass. Tgsnt. Caus. rt^qfii. Desid. 
^. Freq. Trtra^, lilri''!^. 

^ ' to wish.' 

This makes ^55, l to wish/ in the conjugational tenses. It 
may insert ^ in the first future. 

Pres. ^fff ; ist praet. JT^ariT ; 2d praet. ^Jta ; 3d praet. 
ist fut. ufMril or usr; ad fut. ^^fw; imp. 3T3iTT; pot. 
bened. ufii; cond. **sjr. Pass. tq^ 1 . Caus. 

* to sound,' e to coo.' 

According to some, the vowel is unchanged in the non- 
conjugational tenses. 

Pres. ^^; ist praet. VH'cgqri ; ad praet. ^^; 3d praet. ^T^TT; 
ist fut. ffwrj ^fTT; ad fut. ^P<4 j H, f^; imp. ^rTT; pot. 
^WTT ; bened. 3jfVtft&, ^t ; cond. ^H^r^mfr, ^n*u(ri. Pass. 
Caus. ohl'^^fH. Desid. ^r^'. Freq. '-^Tlohtiri or 

^ ' to be crooked.' 

This is the first of a class of verbs which retain the vowel 
unchanged, except before *rjr^. 

Pres. cjfi; ist praet. 'sr^TT N ; 2d prast. 
praet. w^faf ; ist fut. ^Piril ; ad fut. ^ftttrfff; imp 

pot. ^cf; bened. <jwirt x ; cond. ^rafrafif . Pass. <*fftf. Caus. 

^ijffT. Desid. ^^fe^fff. Freq. 'eHefowTi, "f^<*trf. 

The class consists of a number of verbs having, with few 
exceptions, a medial ^ : the most useful of them are, 


efi^ to contract. ire to bind. 

^T to be childish. fgq to throw. 

^? to be thick. W3 to make a riot. 

JpT to sound. ijs to inflict pain. 

JJ7 to preserve. gnr to cut. 

3j? to make effort. TJS to abandon. 

~^Z \ ^7 to bud, to expand. 

"37 > to cut. *tj to throb. 


^ ' to draw furrows/ ' to plough.' 

This takes different forms in the third praeterite. 
Pres. <JiM Prt -^ ; ist praet. ^<*n j^ -K ; ad praet. ^cRi 
3d praet. < jw 'fl n , vi <*( ttfTr or < ofujjTTj and vj<*g or 
ist fut. ofifr or 'srerr ; ad fut. cj,^Pd -if or jha^Pri -^ ; imp. 
<*Mcii ; pot. oRtTiT -if ; bened. <*miri , chyJTy or ^i^F ; cond. 
-If, ^rfiVi^r^ -TT. Pass. 4iU|ri. Caus. oh^*iPrf. Desid. 
r. Freq. 

"^ ' to throw.' 

Pres. fcfiTfrT; ist praet. ^rfrof ; 2d praet. 
t) ; 3d praet. ^ToRT^hT; ist fut. cfifrfrr or 4>0r1i ; 2d fut. 
or *0 'M Pri ; imp. 'f<*^ ; pot. fBTi^; bened. <*1^|^; 
cond. ^TcfiftTir^, ^HafcO^rf^ Pass, cflulrt. Caus. cdK^Pri. Desid. 
f-<*r*,Hrn. Freq. 

JJ ' to swallow.' 

This verb optionally substitutes 75 for the ^ which is derived 
from the radical final, except before IT. 

Pres. frrrfff, flic-ifd ; ist praet. ^rfrm^j wftr?JTT; 2d praet. 
; 3d praet. ^TiO^, ^H'llrjTi^; ist fut. JiiXrii^ J lOrti, 
; ad fut. 'ir^MPK, ^rrchnfTT, 'ifciuird, 'rcfl^frt ; imp. 
; pot. frrb^, fn^T^; bened. jfl^Tr^; cond. 
Pass. jfl^. Caus. 

Desid. faJlfjmPrT, PaTirrfMrd. Freq. 
H h 



^7T (^rft) ' to hurt/ 
Pres. -MriPri ; ist praet. ^r^TTif; ad praet. -q-q^ ; 3d praet. 

'; ist fut. ^P^ifi ; ad fut. ( P m Pii or ''srrtfir; imp. 
pot. ^HVT; bened. -MttllH ; cond. H-^PfJuiTTj ^n^r^TT. Pass. 
Caus. vINPfl. Desid. f%^flNf?r or P^MrwPii. Freq. 

TJ ' to praise/ 

This root takes ^ (rule 191, b ; see also *j &c. in the second 

Pres. jcjfd ; ist praet. ^njTiT; ad praet. tjHV< ; 3d praet. 
^RT=ftcT , W*T^tl^; ist fut. ?r<4riT, fjfaril ; 2d fut. 
imp. J^IJ ; pot. "^T^; bened. J^rnr; cond. 
Pass. "<J^. Caus. TTT^^fff. Desid. jjMfrf. Freq. 

TIT, ' to praise/ is similarly conjugated ; so is "^ ' to sound/ 

TfTT ( to satisfy/ 

Pres. ipfff; ist praet. ?HrtM^; 3d praet. ^rii/Ti^; imp. ^TJ; 
pot. ^1T X . 

For the rest, see ^tr, fourth conjugation. 

^ ' to be firm/ 

Pres. ^rfrT ; ist praet. ^npnr ; ad praet. <*rffa ; 3d prajt. 
1 3nRtTT; ist fut. "gf^TTT; ad fut. TjCVuifH ; imp. "g^ffj pot. 
bened. ^TTTT; cond. wf^"ailT. Pass. iaj^. Caus. 
Desid. ^yr^MPrt. Freq. 

P) f to 

c \/ 

Pres. Pu^ri ; ist praet. ^Pll^ri ; ad praet. TT^ ; 3d praet. 

f) ; ist fut. iHtT; ad fut. qP<ui^ ; imp. Pu^rii ; pot. 
; bened. jflg ; cond. -^MP^wjH. Pass, ftrmr. CE 

Desid. Tpjtfir. Freq. 

The verb is commonly used with fa and W3(; prefixed; 
he conducts business.' 

irat ' to ask/ 

This verb changes T: to ^ in the conjugational tenses. Tht 
final becomes ^ before a consonant (rule 213). 


Pres. ^fri ; ist praet. ^M x ; ad praet. TJr3S; 3d praet. 
^Mlgfhr; ist fut. UFT; 2d fut. augCrf ; imp. ^*dij; pot. 
bened. ^d/MIr^; cond. JU|y^W. Pass. "Jt^M^. Caus. 
Desid. PnHHjPiT. Freq. M0^^^ ? TTilPt?. 

' to fry.' 

This verb also substitutes the vowel ^ for the semivowel in 
the conjugational tenses, and optionally in the non-conjuga- 
tional tenses, when it becomes the Guna ^. It also converts 
the penultimate consonant to if throughout : see ^5f, first 
conjugation. A final f becomes ^ before a consonant. It 
takes both Padas. 

Pres. vrsatfif -^ ; ist praet. ^p5T^ -IT ; ad praet. Wit, W^TST, 
^TW, *nn^ ; 3d praet. ^M^f?^, ^wre^, ^rnf, "^wr? ; ist fut. 
>rtr, >JT; 2d fut. >T^frT -w, >J^ifif -Jt; imp. >f55l^, HWrff; 
pot. ^Wff -K ; bened. ^TraRTnr, H^rfe, >n^ ; cond. ^w^h^ -w, 
-if. Pass, ^jfrqii. Caus. ^zrfw. Desid. favreffir -W, 
-fl 1 . Freq. ^hpHTff, ^T>rfe. 
f, e to be ashamed,' becomes in like manner 

c to be immersed in water/ ' to sink/ ' to drown.' 

This also converts the sibilant to T. In the non-conjuga- 
tional tenses it inserts a nasal before the conjunct final, and 
one if is rejected (rule 34, a). 

Pres. injffff; ist praet. ^HTWff; 2d praet. Jnfo (WCFST, 
j 3d praet. aHlHp^ (^nrfuf) ; ist fut. ifor; ad fut. 
imp. JTWJ; pot. H^rf; bened. iT5TTir; cond. 
Pass. Hii|rf. Caus. Jn^zTfiT. Desid. fHH^Pri. Freq. 

* to liberate' or * loose.' 
The class of which this verb is the first, inserts a nasal in 
the conjugational tenses (rule 217, e). 

Pres. pfflT- ^; ist praet. VHH^ -IT; 2d praet. pfhf, JJJT^; 
3d prtet VM*J^I^, ^nj^R; ist fut. HV^iT; ad fut. ift<ifr[ -W; imp. 

H h 2 

236 VERBS. 

pot. $%i^ 9^ bened. *J^rn^, *ftf)y ; cond. 
Pass. por. Caus. *fHi|Pd. Desid. 
Freq. *ftH*M^, HfoflP* 

The other verbs of this class are, 

^iiT (cjiffPrf) to CUt. ^TT (olPri -ff) to CUt. 

ft^ (ftN*<Pri) to hurt. f^ (f^fir -*) to find. 

ftr$r (fxr$Tf?r) to be organised. fa*t (On*jPii -^) to sprinkle. 

ffJFT (PcimPri -ff) to smear. 

Of these, the three last have an Anubandha , and therefore 

make one form only in the third praeterite, Parasmai-pada : firR 

and f&t have two forms in the Atmane-pada, -^Pr^Mri or -i<Pc6W, 

or ^rftnfi ; tf and f take , 'chf5 ri I, ^Pifl, &c. 

to die.'" 

This verb follows the Parasmai-pada in the second praeterite, 
futures, and conditional. In the desiderative, "3" is substituted 
for % 

Pres. pjytln ; ist praet. wftnnr; 2d praet. HHK (T3TH, HH^, 
3d praet. ^njir; ist fut. Nh; 2d fut. Hft^rfif; imp. 
pot. P^j^ri ; bened. ipftg ; cond. ^HOLWI^. Pass. 
Caus. HK^fir. Desid. $H*? PH Freq. 

to deceive.' 

This substitutes ^ for the semivowel in the conjugational 
tenses, and in the second praeterite ; and before Tf. 

Pres. f^rfrT; ist praet. ^rfa^; ad praet. f%?m^ ( 
3d praet. VHM-n^ or ^^l-'flri^; ist fut. qpjrfi ; 2d fut. 
imp. P<4^g ; pot. i^f^; bened. f^rr^; cond. VH^P^uf^. Pass. 

Caus. cqnnPrt. Desid. P^cq^MPrf. Freq. 
, <* \ <=q HtR. 

*** ("3^) 'to cut.' 

This substitutes the vowel for the semivowel in the conju- 
gational tenses, and before if. In the non-conjugational tense 
it optionally inserts ^ ; and when it does not, the final ^ is 

Pres. Y^fr ; ist praet. *<=jva^; ad praet. 



3d praet. ^HdM/)^, iidHi{lri x ; ist fut. cjHydi, wr ; ad fut. 
; imp. ^grff ; pot. Y*N^ bened. ^SMIi^; cond. S 

Pass. ^ 1 ^' Caus. danfjT. Desid. f^dOjjjMril or 

^3f ' to let go/ ' to abandon,' ' to create/ 
Pres. Jj^frt ; ist praet. ^TOin^; 2d praet. *re^ ; 3d praet. 

fltimfli^; ist fut. srei; 2d fut. F^rfir; imp. ^^rj; pot. *%rf; 

bened. ^WTl^; cond. w^TflT. Pass. WrijTt. 
For the rest, see *pr, fourth conjugation. 

w^T f to touch.' 

This optionally substitutes the Guna syllable or the semi- 
vowel only in the third praeterite, futures, and conditional. 

Pres. W^lPri ; ist praet. ^rppTfT; ad praet. q*M 
3d praet. ^RUT^fh^, ^WIHjTr^ or 'STf^Uf^; ist fut. 
2d fut. ^T^flT, Hiy^frt ; imp. ^"^^ ; pot. ^Tlf; bened. *y w ITT; 
cond. ^fHB*T!T or ijfHa-Hr^. Pass. ^^Mri. Caus. ^q^^rrT. Desid. 
or fmrH | fcf. Freq. mD'^^M 

Seventh Conjugation. 

218. The characteristic peculiarity of this conjugation is 
the insertion before the radical final of VT, before the termina- 
tions which contain an indicatory XT, and T before the rest. 

a. All the verbs of this class, which are not many, end in 
consonants ; and the union of them with the initial conso- 
nants of the terminations takes place according to the rules 
of Sandhi. fv is substituted for ff in the imperative. The 
single consonants of the first praeterite are rejected after a 
consonant (rule 213). 

b. A verb containing a penultimate nasal compounded with 
its final, rejects it in favour of the conjugational sign before the 
conjugational tenses. 

c. The type of the conjugation is ^v ' to hinder' or ' obstruct :' 
it takes both Padas. 

238 VERBS. 

d. After an aspirated consonant the if and ^ of an inflexional 
termination become V (rule 186) : ^ preceded by T: is changed 

to iff (rule 18). 

Present, ' I obstruct,' &c. 

tj'Jll Pm 

First praeterite, ' I obstructed,' &c. 

Imperative, ' May I obstruct/ &c. 



Potential, ' I may obstruct,' &c. 

The rest are, 

ad praet. ^dv, ^^ ; 3d prast. ^r^VT^ or 4jClrHlrf x , 

; ist fut. ^fl ; 2d fut. Oi^Mfrl -^ ; bened 
; cond. tjOr^Mi^ -IT. Pass. ^ar^. Caus. 
Desid. <N^i^rri -W. Freq. 

to become manifest.' 
Notwithstanding the Anubandha "35, the augment ^ is 
inserted in the third praeterite. This and the two following 
reject the nasal penultimate (rule 218, b). 

Pres. ! *Hn* (^IK, ^yfd) ; ist praet. ^MM<*; 2d praet. 
3d praet. ^liWi^; ist fut. ^T, ^PyHI ; 2d fut. ^^fff, 
imp. ci?fi (^T^fv, ^RinfT) ; pot. <r^TH x ; bened. ^r^iri ; cond 
. Pass. ^yt^. Caus. ^y^Pri. Desid. 


' to shine.' 

Pres. jif (^) ; ist praet. ^ ; zd praet. $^41^*; $d praet. 

; ist fut. ^f^9T?TT; 2d fut. ^fHimTj ; imp. 3gff ; pot. 
bened. 3<f^nfr?; cond. ^f^TBfir. Pass. ^fl^". Caus. 
Desid. ^forftre^ 1 . 

T?^ (Tt(t) ' to wet/ 

Pres. Tff% (TRFT:, J^fV) ; ist praet. 3?M ^; 2d praet. 

3d prat. ^r^fT; ist fut. TfcpTT; 2d fut. ^r^mrd ; imp. 
pot. <fiTrf x ; bened. TfTT?^; cond. ^iilfr^Tiir^. Pass. 3'tiil. Caus. 
f. Desid. sfTrMrrt. 

' to play/ ( to shine. 5 
The augment ^ is optionally inserted before ^T in any of the 
non-conjugational tenses. 

Pres. ^wflT, "^ ; ist praet. ^m^, ^^iT ; 2d praet. 
(^f^ or ^i^) ; 3d praet. 

ist fut. "srf^Trr ; 2d fut. iar^tzrfri -^ or "g^fir -^ ; imp. "^ 
^?rf ; pot. "SpUTif , ^?fhr ; bened. ^?m^, ^P^Ml^ ^rtfly ; cond. 
-w, x4^i**ji^ -W. Pass. r^. Caus. ^^rri. Desid. 
-Jt, fgrtifif -^. Freq. 

Tfir ' to injure/ 

This verb inserts ^ before the conjugational sign before the 
terminations beginning with consonants which reject XT. For 
: the changes of ^, see rule 213, c, 8. 

Pres. ij^yTc ('iJJfrfTJf, "^rfisTj in&l, ^rH', iJSfi) > Ig t praet. 

rf) ; 2d praet. ITTT^; 3d praet. SH A ^Tcf ; ist fut. 
fut. Trfil^fw ; imp. Tp?if<o ("ip&l, ^^) ; pot. ^TT^; bened. 
; cond. "STiffihin^. Pass. TfifTt. Caus. rf'^nfif. Desid. 
f. Freq. 

' to break/ ' to divide/ 

Pres. fvnrfir, fif%; ist praet. xsf*Hr(, '^rfi^; 2d praet. 
; 3d praet. ^rfn^lf or ^htffa^, '?rf>T^; ist fut. 
2d fut. ^rfff -^ ; imp. fn^r^, f>twf ; pot. fU 

240 VERBS. 

bened. firsffiT , fartflK ; cond. ^Wi^ -if. Pass, fvrsnK Caus. 
i^trfif. Desid. frf*4rf<rrt -Jt> Freq. "^fHSTTT, *^f%. 

There are several other verbs in this conjugation similarly 
inflected ; as, 

e to send :' BNLlPr^ ^f^, iHY?lT, ^TfH^Tf or 

) ' to cut :' fsprfw, f^ 1 , "ifal? ^P^q ri or 

e to J^ n '' e to un i te :> ^Hf 1 *, ^ii, *ffwr, r or 

T, ^iy?R. 
(ftf^l) ' to purge :' fwf^i, fti, tliT, ^P^c^ or 

' to separate :' fV?rfl5, frifi, %1T, ^r<^-(^ or 


H^ ' to break.' 

See rule 218, b. 

Pres. T^rfei;' ist praet. ^MrT^ ; 2d praet. ^HW; 3d praet. 
^wr^Tf; ist fut. vfw; 2d fut. H^rfff; imp. >TT^; pot. 
bened. >nzm^; cond. '^M^nf N . Pass. *TT^. Caus. 
Desid. f%>T^fif. Freq. -sK 

>pT { to eat,' f to enjoy/ * to cherish.' 
Pres. >prfli, >pfc; ist praet. ^r>pr^, 'snju ; ad praet. 

; 3d praet. 'SWT^, wpR ; ist fut. Hfer '> 2d fut. 
imp. >pr^, >JW; pot. ipqT^, Hgtif; bened. 
cond. ^wV^n^ -Tf. Pass. ^TW. Caus. >ftnif!f. Desid. 

' to fear, 3 ' to tremble/ 
This verb does not change its radical vowel when ^ is 


Pres. r<Hf?h; ist praet. i<r<H<*; 2d prast. 

3d praet. ^rf^Rfh! N ; istfut. iVftnrr; 2d fut. f^rf^rfff ; imp. 

pot. f^RTTi^; bened. fV^lr^; cond. ^r^HHUi^. Pass, 

Caus, ^nrfff. Desid. fc<r^nr<Mrff. Freq. 


to distinguish.' 

Pres. f^fflfV ; ist praet. VHP$M ; ad praet. 
praet. "srfifnnr; ist fut. ^nrr ; 2d fut. ^5?rfir ; imp. 

or P$|4!^P<j, P^MMlPn) ; pot. f^itqn^; bened. tyojl^; cond. 
Pass, f^imd. Caus. ^imifri. Desid. r^r^lHjPri. Freq. 

( fT%), c to grind,' is similarly conjugated. 

(f^ftr) ' to injure 5 or ' kill.' 

The nasal which the verb derives from the Anubandha is 
replaced by the conjugational sign in the conjugational tenses. 

Pres. f^Tf%; ist praet. ^P^Hr^ (-aiP^wl*^ '^rP^'ti: or 
^f^HW^ ) ; 2d praet. frP^ ; $d praet. ^Tf^fr?^; ist fut. 
2d fut. f^P^HfPrt ; imp. f^T*J ; pot. f^wn^; bened. 
cond. ejP^P^^i. Pass, f^^rf. Caus. P^wnPiT. Desid. Pi 

Eighth Conjugation. 

219- In this conjugation "3" is subjoined to the root, which 
before a termination containing an indicatory T^ becomes ^ft. 

a. Before a termination beginning with ^ or r the augment 
? may be rejected (see rule 216, a). 

b. f^ in the imperative is rejected. 

c. In the third praeterite of the A'tmane-pada the sibilant of 
^T, ^n*T, may be rejected, when a radical final consonant is 

d. There are but few verbs in this conjugation, and with 
one exception, that of ^s, they all end in nasals ; being 
therefore exactly analogous to verbs of the fifth conjugation, 
which insert T. 

e. Such verbs as have a penultimate short vowel, other 
than ^, change it optionally to its Guna equivalent in the 
conjugational tenses. 

The type of the conjugation is TR ' to stretch/ which takes 
both Padas. 

i i 



Present, ' I stretch/ &c. 




First praeterite, ' I stretched/ &c. 



'i<rt'Jrif -Siflrqrl 

Imperative, ' May I stretch/ &c. 
ri H ^ I Pn nHT<* wi =( i*i 

inj inpf 


JJ ri H f 


^ rt rq | n f \HriHH 

riHIril riHriT 

Potential, c I may stretch/ &c. 


ri Hi *l I ri f 

^ ** 

The other tenses are, 

2d praet. inrnT, n^ ; 3^ P re t. vjfifl^ or 'ilri'HTf^, -ilrlri or 
; ist fut. ri Pi ri I ; 2d fut. riPHlPif -^; bened. 
; cond. -^ ri PH M rf x -TT. Pass. Tf^Tft or flTtlri. Caus. 
Desid. Pri ri Pd M Pri -ff, Pri'rii*JlPiT -W, Pffff*J 1 fif -W Freq. 

The remaining verbs of this class, which, except op, end in 
a nasal, are the following : they all may take both Padas. 

WfJ or wfitu 1 . 

' to kill or hurt :' it does not elongate the vowel in the 

third praeterite : j*i.ri Pn, TSJTTr^, H|P^rriT, ^r^ntrT, ^T^lf or 

to kill or hurt:' fsprfrfiT or 

^^flTT, ^rf^lT or >< 
' to shine :' -qTrfrfif, tpot^ or 




< to eat grass :' Tjrsrfrfff or Tjfffrfw, fiTjrff or ?n|w, 

or ^ 

to understand :' *rJ^, *rfVriTT, wnr or 
to ask :' ^RfrfrT, ^"^j ^ftTrTT, *nfl'ff or S!H|rflH, WfW or 

, ' to give/ optionally rejects the final, and makes the 
vowel long before TT ; it does the same before the Tr 
and *rrer of the third praeterite : *H*tfrf, V^t, H fa ri I, 

or f tnTT , iirflrt or ^RrnftTT, SS^IIT or wRfre 
: or ^refTTffr;). 

g; * to do.' 


In the conjugational tenses the radical vowel substitutes, as 
usual, the Guna letter before the conjugational sign in the 
inflexions which have an indicatory x^; but before the rest it 
substitutes "3T1. It rejects the conjugational sign before ^, H, 
and T*. It takes both Padas. 

Pres. -^dfTf (f^in, ftftr, ft: f^t), f^ff (ffrw, 
ist praet. 

praet. ^<*rc. (^^5ft 5 ^fi^, ^R, "^RR or 
3d praet. '5f<*T^flPi^ (^nrrlt, -j(<*i|:), ^T^fr 

ist fut. ^fr; 2d fut. ohrcmrri -^; imp. 


; bened. P*t(T^, ^ftF; cond. ^rofiftTTH -Tf. Pass, 
3d praet. 'STo&lft. Caus. ^Ht7lffT -ff ; 3d praet. ^T^fl'*^ -TT. 
Desid. -Nra^fiT -w. Freq. ^frq?*, ^^ftr, ^fbfi^flT or 

Ninth Conjugation. 

220. The verbs of this class subjoin ^T to the root before 
terminations beginning with consonants which reject ^; ft 
before the other terminations beginning with a consonant ; 
and "if before those which begin with a vowel. 

a. The terminations undergo no change. 

b. Verbs ending in consonants substitute WT*T for the con- 
jugational sign and the termination f^, in the imperative. 

i i a 



c. A class of verbs called ujiHj from ^ c to purify/ ending 
in vowels, make them short in the conjugational tenses. 
Some others make the vowel short only before the termina- 
tions of the second praeterite not requiring Guna. 

The model of the class is ^ ' to buy/ which takes both 
Padas. The T of the conjugational augment becomes iff (rule 


Present, * I buy/ &c. 

First praeterite, * I bought/ &c. 

<-*i) *in m* 
Imperative, ' May I buy/ &c. 

Potential, c I may buy/ &c. 

The other tenses are, 

2d praet. (Vdim (f^rf^R^t, Pl riiftj vj or P^sjlvj), P^ r^m ; $d praet. 

iisty ; ist fut. JKtn ; 2d fut. ^urfri -^ ; bened. ffty\' 
'; cond. ^ij|U4i1 -W. Pass. dfNri. Caus. "airq^frf 1 . Desid. 
f -q jl H fn -n. Freq. ^"sftrnr, "i **fl Pft, ^ jfifrf. 

So ifh^ ' to desire,^ and sfter ' to injure' or ' kill :' the latter 
in the non-conjugational tenses substitutes ^rr for the final: 
see fa, fifth conjugation. 

^T$T ' to eat/ 

Pres. ^H'fH | frf ; ist praet. VJIVIM ; 2d praet. 'WT^T; 3d prat. 


; ist fut. ^f^jin ; ad fut. viftyuffir; imp. ^TOTT; pot. 

; bened. ^Uli^; cond. ^iP$|ttic^. 
For the rest, see ^T, fifth conjugation. 

^ ' to go.' 

As belonging to the class T^rf^ 1 , the vowel is short in the 
conjugational tenses. 

Pres. ^jiillPri ; ist praet. ^TT^TiT; ad praet. i!UJ^<*K; $d praet. 
; ist fut. ^rfcrr, ^Orii ; ad fut. ^(Xuifrt, ^rd^rfir; imp. 
; pot. mufl^n^; bened. ^TT^; cond. wfbTff 
See ^ of the first conjugation. 

ffTS[T ( fjf^l } ' to be distressed.' 

Pres. PamiPrf ; ist praet. ^P^'aii^; ad praet. fsqjr^T ; 3d praet. 
or ^rf^iaj i^ ; ist fut. i&fViUj ^?T ; 3d fut. ^rf^rarflT, 
; imp. fli'OTff; pot. f^pafarnr; bened. f^j^i^; cond. 
. Pass. f^r>. Caus. ^nrfw. Desid. 
Tr. Freq. 

"SM ' to be agitated.' 

Pres. "srvrfw; ist praet. wsjtfnr; ad praet. '^ta; 3d praet. 
'anjfMtTf ; ist fut. EfrfHTTr ; ad fut. TsfrfVnqfiT ; imp. ^VTff (^>TTW) ; 
pot. Brtfhrr?^; bened. Wm^; cond. ^r^rfvrnri^. Pass. < OT^ > . Caus. 
r. Desid. rftr^fir. Freq. 

' to arrange in order.' 
This rejects the radical nasal in favour of the conjugational 
sign ; also before IT, and optionally before the terminations of 
the second praeterite, when before those which do not require 
the change of a radical vowel, u may be substituted for ^?. 
Pres. Tj^rrfw ; i st praet. ^TSr^TTr^ ; ad praet. T?pT, *njT*I 
:) ; 3d praet. Hi|-vfl^; ist fut. yf^KI ; ad fut. 
; imp. ?THHrJ 5 P^ JT'H/fl*!!^; bened. Sjwjn^; cond. 
. Pass. JJUJK. Caus. ?j^nfff. Desid. 


Other verbs are similarly inflected ; as, ^PZI ( to suffer pain :' 

246 VERBS. 

or -ejaj^vi, dhuiiri . W^*T ' to churn ' 

( to loosen :' 'ifsiTiPrt, vif^Jdl, 5fy-y or 

Tjrnrnfj &c. 

TJ^ ' to take.' 

This substitutes ^ for the semivowel in the conjugational 
tenses. It makes the augment ^ long in every tense except 
the second praeterite. 

lies. * I ^>fl i nT, *j ^f|i ff \ ist praet. ^ * i ^^ i n , v< * i ^f I n \ 20. praet. 
ii|l^ ('sfi^jt, Hirfi^vj, 'T'jfV^') ; 3d praet. HH4j^ld x , -^i|^)y ; ist 
fut. Jj^lriT ; 2d fut. ij^lmfri -^ ; imp 
pot. JJ^IMIT^, J| ^fllri ; bened. Jj^iif^, ij^'l'/ly ; cond. 
Pass. T^Tff. Caus. yi^^Pri -K. Desid. PiUVi|Pri -ff. Freq. 

^T ' to know.' 

This becomes sn before the conjugational terminations. 
Pres. UHlfri, lIRtw ; ist praet. iHMlc^, ^nfRhr ; 2d praet. 
r%; 3d praet. -<H$iuflr^, ^rra 1 ; ist fut. $rnrr ; 2d fut. 
-^; imp. TRTf, afnft?rf; pot. ilflni^, aTR^lf; bened. 
srnrnr, ?n^ft?; cond. w^r^Trr -TT. Pass. ^rr^. Caus. 
Desid. (Vsimfri -^". Freq. iisiii(ri, aii^irri or sTTsnfff. 

l?n ' to become old.' 

The semivowel is changed to ^ in the conjugational tenses, 
and to ^ before TJ. 

Pres. niHifri ; ist praet. ^rftnTTiT; 2d praet. ftn^T; 3d praet. 
ist fut. 3*JMI ; 2d fut. 5znwffT ; imp. fWTT'J; pot. 
bened. ifhrn^; cond. ^i^l^rt x . Pass. WRT^, n)*iri. 
Caus. ^TxrqfrT. Freq. 

(v?), ' to tremble.' 
As the verb with the long final vowel shortens this in the 
conjugational tenses, there is no difference in the inflexions: 
in the other tenses the difference is that of the insertion or 
omission of ^, except in the third praeterite Parasmai-pada, 
where it is inserted in both verbs. 


Pres. Vffrflf, Y* ' Ist P ret - ^pTTrT? ^HpfriT 2 ^ praet. 

', 3d praet. WMI"^^, ^njf^f or ^rvte ; ist fut. \fhfT, vfaTTT ; 2d 
fut. vNfw -W, vfrofflf -^ ; imp. VTTff, VJflrff ; pot. TpffaffiT , ^pffa ; 
bened. vzffif , tffMls, vfWte ; cond. w*ffan^ -7T, ^rvfauieT -w. 

For the rest, see >J and >, fifth conjugation. 

5^ ' to nourish.' 
In this conjugation it takes ^. 
Pres. gwrfir; ist praet. ^yuiiir^; zd praet. ijtfta ; 3d praet. 

; ist fut. tflPMrii ; 2d fut. tffftnarfir ; imp. ^sjll^ ; pot. 

; bened. ymir^; cond. wftftnur^. 
The rest as TJ^, fourth conjugation. 

^ ' to purify/ 

This is the first verb of a class ending in long vowels, of 
which the final is made short before the conjugational sign. 
Pres. TprrfflV *pft^> Is ^ praet. ^npTTrT, ^npftrr; ad praet. 
; 3d praet. ^qicfli^, ^rtrfV?; ist fut. TrfVcH; 2d fut. 
imp. ^HI^, Tpffarf ; pot. j^l^ii^, T[^ftTf ; bened. 
; cond. ^rqfrarf^ -TT. Pass. TjTTfj-. Caus. 
Desid. y^MPri -^ or fim(Vifir -^". Freq. 
The following verbs belong to the class 
^ ' to go ;' as above. 
^ ' to injure :' <**ll I fff , ^irftw, <*r^rrT, <*l3rtl, 

3J ' to sound :' 

1^ ' to decay :' ^iinrri, TftjTT, f 6 if T 5 

^ ' to tear :' ^unfrf, ^fbf 

V ' to shake / as above. 

C\ ' 

TJ f to fill :' Tjnrrfir, 

>j ' to threaten :' 

^ ' to support :' fHTfJTfif, 

1 ' to injure :' ^UJTfir, ffTifT, 

^ ' to roar :' fUllCri, "bfT, 

?ft ' to cling to :' ffSiTTfw, ^TTT, 

248 VERBS. 

e^' to cut :' cjHirii, fj>0rf, HfafTT, *p4lft^, VHrf'falf. 

^r ' to choose :' see ^ below. 

"^t ' to choose :' fVKillfri, ihTT, 

eft ' to support :' f^Hlfrf, ^TT, 

3T ' to injure :' see below. 

w ( to spread :' see below. 

ift ( ift 5 ^) * to please,' ' to desire/ 

This and several other verbs of the class ending in long 

vowels do not make them short, as not belonging to the class 

Pres. i/lcijirn, jftwrnj ist praet. ^ifl^ilr^, SNlfluflrf ; 2d pra?t. 
, frfuM ; 3d praet. wirttT^, ^nr?; ist fut. inn; 2d fut. 
-IT ; imp. iftalTjr,, Ulnflrii ; pot. ifljinmr^, TfhlftcT ; bened. 
jflmc^, ii'^fltj ; cond. ^Hm^ -TT. Pass. iHnrf. Caus. ifhjnrfw. 
Desid. fiiiflMfrf -W. Freq. m/i^iiT, MmflPri, y ij frf. 

So 31 f to sound,' MlnPrt, dinfl d, &c. ; and ^ft ' to cook,' 
"^ft^TTfir, 540110^. >ft ' to cook/ and "?ft * to choose/ are option- 

^ x j f 

ally long or short ; 

to bind.' 

This drops its nasal in the conjugational tenses, and before Tf. 
Pres. vfuifri ; ist praet. ^RTTnf; 2d praet. cjaj^j (^ojf^r^ 01 
; 3d prast. ^Wlrtflft, (^"(^1, ^MTiW:) ; ist fut. ^rr: 
3d fut. n'^fri ; imp. !Hlg; pot. ^tfl^ir^; bened. ^uji^; com 
Pass. "^TKT^. Caus. ^inrfiT. Desid. f%>fwfrf. Freq 
, i i q PS". 

ft ' to kill' or ' injure.' 

This verb, like fir in the fifth conjugation, is inflected as 
it ended in ^TT in the non-conjugational tenses, except befor 
the terminations of the second praeterite beginning with vowels 
and before if. 

Pres. fl H i fd, fftrft^; ist praet. 1 wftHiiT x , ^nftrfhf; ad prael 
?i^ or HHN (fHl^:, irfwq or ?TT^) ; 3d praet. 


ist fut. *rnn; 3d fut. Hl^frt -?fr; imp. *frTTiT, *frftiri; pot. 
jftrffaffiT, Jffatfar; bened. jflrrn^; cond. <lH(43r^ -if. 
For the rest, see fir, fifth conjugation. 

TJ f to join/ 

Pres. Tprrfir, *pfft; ist praet. 1 ?riprr^, ^flpftTr; imp. 

i ; pot. ^tflqr^, Tpfhr. 
For the rest, see TT, second conjugation. 

Pres. ITJTTfw, ^f) rf ; ist praet. ^iin^, ^nptfhf; imp. 

f ; pot. <prflTffi^, ^rrftif. 

For the rest, see ^ of the fifth conjugation. ^ (^) and \ 
)> ver bs having the same meaning, are similarly conju- 
gated : the first is of course restricted to the Atmane-pada. 

S c to hurt.' 

It is one of the class Trrf^. 

Pres. sninfiT ; ist praet. ^rapjrn^; zd praet. $|$IK (^I^Kij: or 
t) ; 3d praet. ^rr^1T x ; ist fut. ^rfTiTT, '^lOril ; 2d fut. 
; imp. 'Spm^ ; pot. sprfhrTi^; bened. ^fh^TiT; 
cond. ^rfiWfr, SH^jClwfW. Pass. ^fl^. Caus. ^iK^rif'. Desid. 

ff. Freq. 

' to bind.' 
Pres. ftnrrfTr, ftrrft^; ist praet. ^PtHI'H, ^jffld j ad praet. 

, ftr 1 ^; 3d praet. ^r^fl^, ^TOF; ist fut. ^?H; ad fut. 
-^ ; imp. fti'tfl'g, OH'fldf ; pot. ftrvfl^ll^j Al rfl ri ; bened. 
, ^nft? ; cond. ^"or^ -IT. Pass. ^fl^. Caus. 
Desid. f^ - <fl q frf -^. Freq. 

* to leap,' ' to cover.' 

Pres. Wjc( i frf, ^3rftn ; ist praet. (4iMlfl , "**iTn ; ad praet. 
; 3d praet. ^r^fiHt"^, 'fff^S ; i st fut. t&iitd ; ad fut. 
^al'MPn -^ ', imp. t^H | rf, Wirflnf ; pot. **rflm^, **rfln ; bened. 

K k 

250 VERBS. 

, t*|ift5 ; cond. 'HHitai^ -W. Pass. T%t|^. Caus. 
Desid. ^wrfir-^. Freq. ^JsMill, ^HlTd. 
It is also a verb of the fifth conjugation. 

^n*r (w*) ( to stop.' 
This rejects its nasal before the conjugational sign, and 
before TT. 

Pres. ^TtfTfif; ist praet. %Mfdyii^; 2d praet. ITST**; 3d praet. 
or ^HwMfc^; ist fut. wfturtl ; 3d fut. ^rfoTurfw ; imp. 
; pot. ^ttfrlTW; bened. ^r*rn^; cond. ^wfiHmr^. Pass. 
. Caus. ^rwnrfif. Desid. friwf**rePrf. Freq. 

It is also a verb of the fifth conjugation, ^njtfw, &c. In 
the same manner are inflected ^**J, ^^J> an d ^^J> having 
the same meaning. 

^T ( W 5 * ) ' to cover/ 

Pres. *HTUlfif, ^*lfllf; ist praet. HW*!J 1 H^, ^n^rnhfr; 2d pra?t. 
;; 3d praet. ^*dlOrt N j '^wiXy, ^wOy or <M<Hl ; ist fut. 

; 2d fut. tHfXiqflf -IT, 'wOmPri -TT ; imp. ^ 
rf ; pot. Wiijfaffir, *r<iftff 5 bened. wl^l H , ^rft^ft? or 
cond. ^wfXuii^ -IT. Pass. %fl^W. Caus. WHUlfrf. Desid 

Tenth Conjugation. 

221. Verbs of this conjugation take for their conjugationa 
sign ^, technically termed ftr^ ; and they extend the insertion 
to all the tenses except the benedictive, Parasmai-pada. ^ is 
converted to ^, and u becomes 'snr, before a vowel. The indi- 
catory U of the sign requires the substitution of WT for a 
radical medial % and of the Guna equivalent for any other 
short medial vowel. 

a. Before the terminations of the conjugational tenses all 
verbs of this class insert ^n^, that is, ^T; whilst as they all 
take the augment ^ in the two futures and conditional, there 
is in all these tenses a vowel, before which the conjugational 
sign ^ becomes ^, and then ^nr. 


b. In these modifications of the base, verbs of the tenth 
class are analogous to the causal mode of verbs ; and this 
analogy extends to other particulars, such as the insertion of 
certain augments, as tr, TT, ?r, &c., before the conjugational sign. 

c. The analogy to the causal mode is still more evident in 
the identity of the construction of the third praeterite. It is 
formed with the terminations of the first praeterite, preceded 
by ^f (rule 190, e. p. 123), and with a reduplication of the 
root, agreeably to the rules already given for the causal (rule 
202, e to /. p. 136, &c.). 

d. Although not peculiar to the causal, an analogy is also 
presented to it in common with derivative forms in the second 
preterite, which in this class is formed with the auxiliary 
verbs (rule 189. p. 121). 

e. Verbs having a medial ^ do not make it long when they 
are said to belong to the class fn^, that is, have an indicatory 
T ; and ^? or any other radical short vowel is unchanged in 
the class cjrerrfif, the verbs of which are said to have an indi- 
catory final ^r. 

f. Verbs of this conjugation, with the conjugational sign 
attached, are considered to be polysyllabic, and therefore do 
not take the frequentative mode ; nor can they be considered 
as having a causal mode, since it is the same with their own, 
and it is only necessary to substitute a causal for an active 
signification to the same inflexions. 

g. All verbs signifying * to speak' or * to kill' may be con- 
jugated in the tenth, as well as in the class to which they 
belong, as may a variety of other verbs ; and most of the 
verbs which belong to this conjugation may be inflected also 
in the first. The number of verbs is therefore somewhat 
indefinite ; but from the uniformity which prevails amongst 
them, not only in the employment of the conjugational sign, 
but in the formation of the second and third praeterites, and 
the insertion of the augment ^ in the other tenses, they may 

K k 2 



be regarded as offering fewer difficulties than the verbs of any 
other conjugation. 

The verb which is given as the type of the conjugation i 
^ ' to steal,' which admits of both Padas. 

Present, ' I steal,' &c. 


First praeterite, ' I stole,' &c. 

Second praeterite (in both Padas), ' I have stolen/ &c. 




Third praeterite, ' I had stolen,' &c. 

First future, ' I shall steal/ &c. 

Second future, ' I will or shall steal/ &c. 


Imperative, { Let me steal,' &c. 



Potential, ' I may steal,' &c. 

Benedictive, e I pray I may steal/ &c. 

Conditional, ' I will steal, if/ &c. 

The remaining forms are, 
Pass, xjulrf ; 3d praet. 


. Desid. 


^ ( to disrespect/ 

This substitutes ^ for the radical vowel in the reduplication 
of the third praeterite. 

Pres. 'srgJifri 1 ; ist pra2t. ^TT^nf; ad praet. xSgmnm ; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. ^fwr; ad fut. ^rgftjujfri ; imp. *zr$mi ; pot. 
; bened. ^^ITH ; cond. ^irnmri. Pass. ^TTFT. Desid. 


^r|[ ' to hurt,' ' to pain.' 

Pres. ^^fri ; ist praet. ^I^Mr^; ad praet. 

pnet. ^rrff^l^; ist fut. ^fftnfT; 2d fut. ^rffq^qfiT; imp. 

pot. ^r|^rfr; bened. fiTr^; cond. ^ir|ftror^. Pass, 


254 VERBS. 

3[75 ' to send.' 

Pres. '^'eSJifif; ist praet. ^FJin^; ad praet. <J<4mmu ; ^d prat, 
irfcy?^; ist fut. ^rtPMrti ; ad fut. iMf-Hurrd ; imp. 
pot. ^MUTT ; bened. Jiuiw ; cond. 5^fi|U{ff . Pass. 

Desid. ^foJcSfM^frf. 

ejag ' to wink/ l to close.' 

This and most other verbs make the medial ^r long through- 
out (rule 221). They have the vowel optionally short in the 
third praeterite ; when the reduplicated vowel is ^, changeable 
to ^ (rule aoa,^. p. 137). 

Pres. cfcmmfri ; ist praet. y<*mmff ; 2d praet. 

pra2t. gH Q|I 1 4!) if or icn<<ii7r ; ist fut. chmif^fiT ; ad fut. 

* \ \ 

imp. oHi<y*in ; pot. <*I<IIMCI ; bened. <+l^lrf ; cond. VHeM'ftn'onr. 
Pass. oRnrw. Desid. PMehimPMNfif. 

cfi^i ( to speak.' 

This is the first of a class rejecting a final ^r, and the: 
radical vowel therefore is unchanged : it is optionally changec 
to ^ in the reduplication of the third praeterite. 

Pres. 'eKvmfrf ; ist praet. ^chvim^; ad praet. 
praet. ^r^FSfi^ or ^'W1fc'^nr; ist fut. cfcviftrfT ; ad fut. 
imp. 'chvi^rf ; pot. oinzrqi^; bened. ehujirf; cond. ^Tohvjf^ufrt . Pass 

Other verbs of this class are, 
' to count :' 
c to contract :' 
' to astonish :' '*K%H fa 

T e to count :' JlillMfrT. But this optionally inserts 
the third praeterite : *ST 7 TO7r or 
' to speak :' 
' to advise :' 
' to take :' 

to sound :' 
' to tie :' 

* to go :' 


' to tie :' tl^P 
' to contract :' TJlPd, 

' to seek :' 

* to make :' 

{ to leave :' i^qPri, ^TO?7r. It also makes 
c to surround :' 
' to choose :' 

* to speak ill :' 
( to be weak :' 
' to sound :' 

' to envy :' 
to sound : 

* to play,' as a child. 

Pres. cMiimPri ; ist praet. -^ojjMicq^; 2d prast. c 
3d praet. ^^*HH.^; ist fut. ^HKP^Iril ; 3d fut. cMiuJquiPri ; imp. 
; pot. '*MKi|if ; bened. ^HI^Ti^; cond. 

tgq ' to be feeble/ 

Pres. -*M^PH ; ist praet. ^nprznr; ad praet. <*M^I^*|5; 3d 
praet. ^Nt^xnr; ist fut. <*qP-MHI ; 2d fut. <*qPumPd; imp. ^MM^; 
pot. <*V^c(; bened. ^raffiT; cond. ^^rftpqir. Pass. "^q-ff. 
Desid. fq^qPimPd. 

^ty ' to be able.' 

This substitutes ^B^I in its inflexions : see the same root in 
the first conjugation, p. 158. 

Pres. 'ch4ji|Pd ; ist praet. ^TfiBnn^; 2d praet. 

3d praet. ^ P<4 <*d4 d x ; ist fut. oR^rfwr; 2d fut. ct^PumPd ; imp. 
; pot. oR^pin^; bened. ch'^ < lld x ; cond. ^<*!4P^^q7. 

^1T ' to sound* or { utter,' * to celebrate/ 
This substitutes ^ for the radical penultimate in all the 
tenses except the third praeterite, where it is optional. 
Pres. 3fiNt*rPrf ; ist praet. TOotfHhn^; ad praet. c 

3d praet. wftersn or ^rfniNh; ist fut. cfl^Pnin ; 2d fut 

256 VERBS. 

rf ; imp. cffl4iJ4g ; pot. *)^fl v ; bened. cfl-^ii^ ; con 
Pass. ^NqiT. Desid. P 

THI ' to proclaim/ 
Pres. *ftmiPd ; ist praet. ^nft^rff; 2d praet. 

3d praet. ^ITJ^MI^; ist fut. tftqPMiil ; 2d fut. vliPM'MPii ; imp 
; pot. ifiMiOf ; bened. tflmii^; cond. -stMtaPMWif^. Pass. 
Desid. srvlMPuMPrf. 

to collect/ 

This verb optionally substitutes ^TT for its vowel, when it 
also substitutes TI for IT. As belonging to the class ffiT, it 
makes the vowel short, so that '5TT becomes ^r. 

Pres. vrmjPrf -ff, -MM^Pri -IT ; ist prast. w*fq4ff -TT, H-(miH x -IT ; 
2d praet. '-Mifm^ctiK, "IMMI'd* ; 3d preet. *!{) -e|i4H x -7T, 
ist fut. '-itqPurii, -MifPilril ; 2d fut. *mPMMPn -n, " 

imp. ^miij -irf, -IH*1J -"BT ; pot. -MM^^ -W, ^Rfr -IT ; bened. 
^mi^ or ^nmr, ^fiP^Mly, ^MP^HlK ; cond. ^r^rftnTff -TT, 
ftr^nf -TT. 

See f%, fifth conjugation. 

f*nr (f^frr) ' to think/ 

Pres. f^?nrfiT; ist praet. '^P^'HUi^; 2d pragt. 
3d praet. ^rf%f^?nT; ist fut. f^fiP^HI ; 2d fut. 
imp. P4H*4ij; pot. f%?!RTT; bened. Pxj^i^; cond. 
Pass. P(T<jri. Desid. P4Pi*dPnMPri. 

^nr e to know/ ' to make known.' 

This verb is one of those said to have an indicatory JT. 
Pres. $mi|Prl ; ist praet. ^^mirf; 2d praet. 

praet. -gJjj^l'Mri or ^rsfr^Tir; ist fut. ^sP^ni ; 2d fut. 
imp. ^M'MH ; pot. ^nnn^; bened. from^; cond. -^siMrMyir^' Pass. 

The other verbs of the class fwa in this conjugation are, 
^TJ c to pound :' ^m^Pn^ ^-qMH^ ^fWl^ql^. 
^5 ( to pound :' tl^JjPri, ^< i i^ff or ~ 
tV ; as above. 


f to feed :' 
' to live :' 

xftr * to give pain/ 

This makes the radical vowel optionally short in the third 
praeterite, when the vowel of the reduplication is made long. 

Pres. ql^frt ; ist praet. ^nft^n^; ad praet. qUni^ofcK; 3d 
praet. ^iflftlic^ or -ilfVfUf^. 

The same applies to the following verbs : 
' to live :' Tffa*rf?r, ^HfTfNi^ or 
* to shine :' cflijqfri, ->nr^{1qri or 

' to speak :' Hm^frt, ^rfwnnr or 
' to shine :' HTtrqfff, ^rf^m^ or 
' to shine :' Hra^fiT, af^r*freif or 
' to close :' *flc6*lfrl, ^fH*fleJl or 

^ e to throw.' 

A penultimate ^j may remain unchanged in the third 

Pres. mvJJjfrt ; ist praet. SHMI^^^; 2d praet. Mi^^imm ; 3d 
praet. ^ifl^r^ or ^qq^?^; ist fut. m^fqril; &c. 

^ < to fill.' 

Pres. trnjirfTT; ist praet. -^MKM^; ad praet. TIRMIHI 1 ^; 3d praet. 
; ist fut. xrrrfWT; 2d fut. Vi^PMird; imp. MKMri; pot. 
; bened. HF^Tif ; cond. 

So TJ, third conjugation. XITC, ' to cross over,' is given in 
similar forms, except in the third praeterite, which is 

ITT ' to declare.' 

This and some other verbs do not substitute ^ for the 
radical vowel in the reduplicate syllable of the third praeterite. 
Pres. urq'ufrf 5 ist praet. ^HUIVJII^; ad praet. Hlvmisj<*TC ; 3d 
praet. 'fliimq^; ist fut. m^fqril ; imp. TTTsnTJ; &c. 


258 VERBS. 

The other verbs that come under this example are, 
| ' to tear :' ^i 
RT. ' to hasten :' rlUji|Pri, 
^ ' to trample :' 
to touch :' 
' to remember :' 
( to spread :' WK^Pri, 

? ( to make effort,' and ^n? ' to surround/ have two 
forms : sn-^8 1 or ^iP^B'rf, ^HUi or 

Tft ' to please.' 

This verb optionally prefixes rto the sign of the conjugation. 
Pres. jflTfmfd -ir, wumPii -w ; ist praet. 'snfhinnr -IT, sfiim^ -if; 

3d prset. J/lillMlH'nET, UI^^IHIfl ; 3d praet. '^nfnTTOrT -IT, ^Mln^d x -TT ; 

ist fut. ifliu r*i A i, umfariT ; ad fut. iflmfVairrf - 

imp. iflm*i -irf, u\nnd -in ; pot. ifhiR^ -IT, Trnra^ -IT ; bened. 

; cond. ^lfl^ir^mri -TT, 

For the rest, see Tft of the ninth conjugation. So also V, 
' to shake,' makes \Hqfd or VH^Pri, &c. 

to advise.' 
Pres. *ftdnPrt -W; ist prast. <tH<d^i^ -TT; 2d prast. H^^IHISH ; 

3d prast. wftTT^TT^ -TT ; ist fut. Ht^P^ril ; 2d fut. H^PmnPri -W ; 

imp. n d n H' -HT ; pot. Hn?l^rf -IT; bened. ir^mn , T^nr^tF; cond 
"^TrT -7T. Pass. *i^qrt. Desid. PiiPMflrri -rf. 

So ojrfij ( to speak falsely,' Trfw ' to support,' as a family, 
and iffa ' to contract.' 

<# ' to melt.' 

This optionally takes the augment T? before the conjuga- 
tional sign. 

Pres. <5im<Pri or c4N<4Pri ; ist prast 
ad praet. rtm*u*n*r, rSm^inm ; 3d praet. 

ist fut. ojmPurfi, csnrftnrT; ad fut. ojmPmtiPrf, c^rirf^'Hiffr ; imp. 
; pot. fSTW^, Trn^ 1 ^ ; bened. rjrm^ ; cond. 

is also a verb of the ninth conjugation. 


3T*I f to laugh at.' 

Pres. ^TihrfTT; ist praet. ^3|^i|ri ; 2d praet. Sf^zntTO ; <*d 

\ *-^ 

praet. W$l9lj"?r or w^frspr?^; ist fut. ^f ^ P*< ri I ; 2d fut. 
imp. ^l|i<ij ; pot. ^l^^ ; bened. '^T^Tir ; cond. 
Pass, sruirf. Desid. 

*CT*T ' to tranquillize.' 
Pres. wmrfif; ist praet. -amm^R ; 2d praet. 

praet. 'WUSUUTT or ^*0iwri x ; ist fut. VTHfariT ; 2d fut. 
firqfw; imp. ^THUTT ; pot. TTIH^i(; bened. ^injr^; cond. 

. Pass. uiwiTi. Desid. 

On the conjugation of Verbs in different voices, fyc. 

222. The forms of the roots which have been given in the 
preceding pages are those which are usually assigned to them 
by native grammarians. The student must not be surprised, 
however, if he finds occasional departures from the models 
here specified, or a verb inflected in a diiferent conjugation, 
or in a different Pada, from that in which he will have found 
it here represented. As to variations of meaning, they will be 
frequent ; for in the examples cited, the principal signification 
only of each verb has been purposely stated, in order not to 
occasion doubt or perplexity in an early period of study. The 
other senses will become familiar by practice. Of the varia- 
tions of inflexion, the greater number are ascribed by gram- 
marians to poetical license, or even to error (iWT^) ; but it 
may be doubted if they do not, sometimes at least, arise from 
circumstances which have been yet imperfectly investigated in 
the history of the grammar of the Sanskrit language. The 
variations of import are no doubt often imputable to the liber- 
ties taken by Sanskrit writers, relying upon the purport in 
which they employ any particular verb being rendered intel- 
ligible by the context of the passage in which it occurs. Some 
part of the uncertainty, however, proceeds from an incomplete 

L 1 2 

260 VERBS. 

analysis, and the want of examples to illustrate the abstrac 
term which is used to express the meaning of the root. 
Authors consequently disagree as to the interpretation. How~ 
ever, these difficulties need not embarrass the student : he 
must be contented to take the verb as he finds it, and must 
not look upon its regular grammatical type as absolutely 

223. There is one class of modifications, and that the most 
frequent, which is recognised by grammarians. A simple verb 
may be inflected in one Pada, and when compounded with a 
preposition may be inflected in the other, either in its primi- 
tive, or in a modified sense. A few of these compound verbs 
have been already noticed, but it may be useful to extend the 
number of instances, arranging them in alphabetical order. 
^STO ' to throw/ preceded by any preposition, may take either 

Pada ; as, with fif^ ' to throw off:' T^tf fH^^Pil or fTT^Tfr 

' he casts off the bond.' 
35^ * to reason,' preceded by any preposition, may take either 

Pada ; as, with ^rq ' to throw off' or ' repel,' ^ifl^H TJTO 

* let him remove sin ;' ri^Ml^Pri 1 ( he removes that :' also 
with H^, as *T|jrfcr -^. 

^i, which in its simple state admits of either Pada, is restricted 
to one or other according to the prepositions with which 
it is compounded, and the meanings thence derived : 
^c^Pri ' he imitates / ^fy^rt ' he overcomes ;' tfr*jrt 
( he informs against ;' ^1^^ ' he reviles / 3 n *<\ rf ^ft 

* he worships Hari ;' <fm<fi*jri ' he changes' (as a property) ; 

PH ( he polishes ;' tJTTcfi^tfiT * he does well ;' H^M ' he 

offers violence to/ as a female ; tffarr^ M*M CRtir: ' Ravana 
carries off Sita :' also ( to recite / as, JU'TTi UfiM ' he recites 
hymns.' tg is used with f% to imply change or produc- 
tion of some kind or other ; and when the verb is used 
intransitively, or the production is confined to sounds, the 
A'tmane-pada only is employed ; otherwise, the Parasmai- 
pada ; as, "SfT^T fo^ft^ ' the scholars change,' i. e. they 


learn ;' ^TPT fa **j^ Tm 1 *: * the singer varies his notes ;' 
but f^w fVatiClfil "3fim: ' passion transforms the heart.' 
to scatter/ when the act of an animal or bird, takes the 
A'tmane-pada after ^nr, and inserts a sibilant : ^prfiaO 
eRi5: ' the cock throws up (the earth, either for pleasure, 
or to make a hole to lie down in) ;' but ghHmtmTfqK.frf ^gft 
1 the woman scatters flowers.' 

( to go,' without a preposition takes the A'tmane-pada, 
signifying ' being engaged in' or ' assiduous,' or ' becom- 
ing manifest' or ' developed in ;' as, ^jfq ^WW ^%: ' the 
understanding is engaged in (the study of) the Rig-veda;' 
rff 'he is assiduous for study;' ^w^sfonT 
' the S'astras are manifested (or fully understood) 
in him.' So with TT and TO in the same meanings : 
3M-*HH, iRi-4iH^; but not with W{, as TFNfwfir. So with 
^TT prefixed, meaning ' to ascend,' as a heavenly body, not 
as any thing else : WWTff ^ztt ' the sun ascends / but 
l-*IHfH >HT: ' the smoke rises.' Also with fo, meaning 
' motion of the feet :' ^rr^ fc|-*Hri mft ' the horse trots 
well ;' but fejwifrr ^rf?y: ' the joint splits/ So with TT or 
IT, implying ' power' or ' valour :' TT^iH'a', THRH^ ' he is 
mighty' or e valiant ;' but dU-*IHfri e he comes' or ( ap- 
proaches ;' Ji-*mfri ' he goes' or ' departs.' 
' to buy,' is restricted to the Atmane-pada, when preceded 
by ^C3, T|fT, or f^. The two first have the same meaning 
as the simple verb, ' to buy ;' the latter means e to sell :' 
(V^I*!flrt', f he buys ;' fr^Nft^ ' he sells.' 

, ' to play,' takes the A'tmane-pada after ^n, ^r^, irft, and 
VT ; as, -HlffliTi ' he plays much ;' J| J rfli i rf ' he plays like ;' 
xrft^hrff ' he plays again ;' *rjftii$ ' he plays well' or ' com- 
pletely :' but not if ^TJJ influences the government of the 
case ; as, flRN<+H^aJldrrf ( he plays with the boy ;' nor 
if, with TR*T, it denotes ' making a noise ;' as, ^rafefir ^"5R 
' the wheel creaks.' 
' to throw/ preceded by ^rfff, ^rf>? ; or Jlfff? is confined to 

262 VERBS. 

the Parasmai-pada : wfcTfVqffr 'he throws much' 
' beyond ;' ^rfHfVrfrT ' he throws on ;' u 
throws or sends back.' 

T5*rr with *TO takes the Atmane-pada : TO^mf ^T^ * he sharpens 
the weapon ;' ^(5h<J3R x ^ww ' it aggravates (his) grief.' 

TPT * to go/ has a variety of prefixes, and consequent modifica- 
tions of form and sense. With ^rr prefixed, and used in 
the causal form to signify ' to have patience/ it takes the 
Atmane-pada : ^I'lltlH fTKrf c wait or delay a little.' 
With ^ it takes the Atmane-pada in an intransitive 
sense: TRR ^bl^OT c the sentence is plain' (or is cohe- 
rent) ; ^rfeftr: sin'-wiVf ' he goes with his friends :' but 
?fT*T *T*lafrf * he goes to the village.' 

TT ' to swallow,' preceded by WT, takes the meaning of ' pro- 
mising' or ' uttering/ and is conjugated in the 
pada : ^TTT ^ffrn:^ ' he promises a hundred (rupees) ;' 
JITOH T'Krt ' he proclaims the qualities of the prince :' 
otherwise ^JfnTfa' ?ITO ( he swallows a mouthful.' It takes 
the j^tmane-pada after ^ ; ^rrfrniw ^fiirri fcr^IT^: ' the 
goblin swallows blood.' 

^. ' to go/ with T^ in the sense of * going astray' or ' departing 
from/ takes the .Aitmane-pada ; as, *n*?*J^I^ ' he deviates 
from virtue :' not if it is intransitive ; ^TQI'pH.'fiT ' the tear 
overflows : but it is so used with *m , or with *T*T, T^", and 
^TT, connected with a noun in the instrumental case ; T^fa 
^r^riff (or 41^ Un ' the king rides with (in) a chariot.' 

ff, ' to conquer/ is limited to the Atmane-pada after "TO and 
f^ ; as, iKMJJri, fcl^^Vf, ' he conquers.' 

$rr * to know,' without a preposition, if used in certain senses 
intransitively, is conjugated in the Atmane-pada; 
n^ftft f he engages (in sacrifice by means of) Ghee :' alsc 
after ^ni, in the sense of ' denying ;' 5M'HHTTH^ ' he denie, 
the (debt of a) hundred rupees :' after nfw, in the sense o 
' acknowledging ;' ^T7f uPri^HTr! ' he acknow ledges the hun 
dred :' and after *t*T, in that of ' demanding' or ' expecting: 


It is used in the A'tmane-pada without a 
preposition, and transitively when the result of the action 
reverts to the agent ; as, TIT "3TPTT1T ' he obtains a cow :' not 
else ; as, nwt sTRlfff ' he knows (the dwelling of) his 
mother:' nor if the verb be preceded in such a sense by 
a preposition ; as, 'W'lpyi'h T HMMlfrf *J7?: ' the fool does 
not recognise (or obtain) heaven.' 

TOT, ' to guide/ in certain senses takes the A'tmane-pada : as, 
' to excel in ;' 3l%if "^nt ' he excels in the S'astra :' ' to 
determine ;' ira fP& ' he ascertains the principle/ Also 
after T^, meaning ' to lift up ;' 44^4 4| d * he lifts up a 
staff/ After T^T, implying ( to invest with the sacred cord ;' 
' he invests the boy with the string : ' * to 

hire ;' oRivtaJjfjqriJj'ri ' he hires servants. 5 After fa, signi- 
fying ' to pay ;' ofit P<HHrf ' he pays the tax :' ' to grant' 
or ' endow ;' ^iff fa'qxft ' he grants a hundred' (for some 
religious purpose) : ' to restrain,' when the object is in 
the person ; ^hf fHq^ ' he restrains wrath :' but not if 
the object be in another ; *jct: ^pj fa *j'H fri "25TWJ ' the 
pupil assuages the wrath of the teacher :' nor if the object 
be corporeal ; 7^55 fmiifri ' he turns away his cheek.' 

JBT, ' to praise,' is conjugated in the A'tmane-pada after 'gsrr ; 
^i^ri ' he praises.' 

THT, used intransitively after Tr^ and fa, takes the A'tmane- 
pada ; <Jrin^, fsTfR'^' ^n: * the sun shines :' also if it mean 
' to warm or heat a part of one's own body ;' T^T^, 'fc ri M^" 
TTrftrf ' he warms his hand :' not if a part of another ; ^%^t 
%3W ^Tftn^rmfH * Chaitra warms or burns the hand of 
Maitra :' nor when it means f to burn or melt substances ;' 
as j ^iU^lfrf ^5RK: ' the goldsmith melts the gold.' 
When it means e to practise devotion,' it is used in the 
fourth conjugation in the A'tmane-pada ; TTOTW HM4HIMU: 
e the ascetic practises penance.' According to some, it is 
confined to the A'tmane-pada after ^nj, in the sense of 
* penitence ;' as, ^'JTnT^ ' he repents.' 

264 VERBS. 

t give/ when preceded by 'WT, in any other sense 
than that of * setting open,' as the mouth, &c., takes the 
.Aitmane-pada ; as, \HHI<^ ' he receives wealth ;' 

' he acquires knowledge :' but ^ ^MT^ifiT ' he opens his 
mouth/ ' he yawns : J not, it is said, if it be another's 
mouth ; as, a||^^ fTn)frihi: MH#W ip? ' the ants open 
the mouth of the grasshopper.' The Parasmai-pada is 
also used after ^TT in other senses ; as, 
^ir: c the physician lays open the boil ;' 
' the river lays open (undermines) the bank.' 
^ro), * to give/ is used in the A^mane-pada after *nr, 
either singly or with another preposition, with a noun in 
the third case, having the sense of the fourth : 

or WHNirt ' he gives to the female slave.' If the sense of 
the third case is preserved, the Parasmai-pada is retained : 
<;ifii(l vf UHm^APd fawm ' he gives wealth by the slave girl 
to the Brahman.' 

T * to see,' with ^w, and used intransitively, takes the A'tmane- 
pada ; ^*M9Hri ' he considers well :' so does TT*T f to ask,' 
as a boon ; as, ^fiM\ i|VH ' he asks for Ghee :' and 1T3J 
4 to ask,' with ^STT; as, ^nyITT c he takes leave of:' and 
with ^, used intransitively ; as, U^u^ ' he inquires.' 

T, ' to eat,' takes the A'tmane-pada ; ^f^*f >pfc ' he eats boiled 
rice :' also ' to possess ;' ^J^ '^0*141 Ml pi: ^ftnl^ ' the king 
possessed the earth :' also ' to suffer ;' ^ft ^t^^ldl^T w^ 
' the old man suffers hundreds of pains :' not if it mean f to 
protect ;' as, *n^*>prfa TTTT ' the king protects the earth.' 

I f to bear,' with tffx prefixed, is conjugated in the Parasmai- 
pada : n fX*J m fri ' he endures' or * forgives.' 

T, * to restrain/ varies the Pada according to different mean- 
ings and prefixes. With WT used intransitively it takes the 
A'tmane-pada ; ^m^ad^ IT^: ( the tree spreads :' but ^mtsfir 
<*MI^^ e he draws the rope from the well :' unless part 
of one's own body be intended ; as, nmd'H' irrftir ' he 
stretches out his hand.' Also with TT, meaning ' to take 


as a wife ;' <*im^3ri K*ri ' he takes the maiden to wife/ 
In this form the third praeterite optionally rejects the 
nasal ; TTTt *flr1lMNrt or <JMIMW ' Rama wedded Sita.' If 
it implies taking the wife of another, it is iR4^ H|U||*ji|- 
q^Pri : if it signifies acceptance in general, it is restricted 
to the A'tmane-pada ; ^MfJM^Wrl ' he accepts the dona- 
tion.' It also takes the same voice after w> ^, and TW, 
not signifying any thing relating to books ; as, 

* he puts on the clothes ;' >TTT*J?I'5S^ ' he takes up the load ;' 
sihrfcT ^eS.Tf ( he stacks the corn :' but dii-ed.!"* ^T^ e he 
studies diligently the Veda.' 

f takes the A'tmane-pada after 7<*, and prepositions ending 
with vowels ; as, ^ijifc ( he makes effort ;' ^npfc ' he sets 
after' or ' according to ;' ftfTpfc ' he appoints ;' TTJpfc ' he 
arranges :' unless it refer to sacrificial vessels ; q^mdffaj 
H^Hf* ' he sets in order the vessels of sacrifice.' 

e to sport,' preceded by '3TT, trfc, or f%, is restricted to the 
Parasmai-pada ; ^TTTflfifr ( he rests;' M OLUHfif ' he goes 
about ;' f^Rfir ' he takes rest.' Preceded by ^rti, in the 
sense of e dwelling with as a wife,' it takes either voice ; 
as, "3"tRH fa or '3-KH^ HF*H * he takes a wife.' 

, ( to speak,' is conjugated in the Atmane-pada, when signi- 
fying ' to excel in' or ' to be acquainted with ;' as, 
^^ ' he is learned in the S'astra :'- - e to labour ;' "^ 
' he labours in the field.' Also after ^J, used intransi- 
tively, and in the sense of ' articulate speech ;' as, ^Tff^ff 
W. M<M44f * KaCha speaks after or like Kalapa :' other- 
wise, y?fHtj^Pd ' he repeats the speech ;' and wjsr^fff 
^hlTT ' the lute sounds.' Also after TT, used transitively 
to mean e pacifying ;' as, >Jf*npre^ff ' he pacifies the ser- 
vants : ' ' advising ; ' as, rsimgqq^fr ' he advises the 
scholar :' or ' communicating with privately ;' 

' he intrigues with another's wife.' Also after fa, and 
H optionally, implying difference of opinion expressed arti- 
culately, ' dispute ;' as, f^TR^ or f^TT^f??r %?n: ' the 

M m 

266 VERBS. 

doctors dispute.* Also after *R X and IT, to signify articu- 

late speech uttered simultaneously ; as, HHN< 

e the Brahmans speak or chaunt together :' but 

^JTT: ' the birds sing together.' Also after ^n?, when tho 

result of the action reverts to the agent ; <9m44?r XR^T- 

jfts'arnT ' the man desirous of wealth reviles improperly:' 

otherwise, ^m^fri ' he speaks against' or f prohibits.' 

^5 ( to bear,' preceded by IT, takes the Parasmai-pada, used 
intransitively ; fj^fr IH^Pri ' the river flows/ 

fe^, ' to know,' takes the .^tmane-pada after *n^, and option- 
ally affixes to the final in the third person plural ; tffat^ 
or tiP<i<j^ * they know well.' 

f%3T, ' to enter,' takes the Atanane-pada after fa ; PiP<j$l^ ' he 
enters in.' 

3TTJ e to swear,' when the effect of the oath reverts to the 
speaker, is conjugated in the ^itmane-pada ; <$uim ^PI^ 
jfrtt ' the nymph swears by Krishna.' 

^ ' to hear,' after ^n^, used intransitively, makes flSKJJrt ' he 
hears well :' otherwise, 'ST^ ^SJ^nrd ' he hears the sound.' 

FT, f to stay' or ' stand,' takes a variety of prepositions, and is 
conjugated in the Atmane-pada after, ^R, JT, fV, ^, used 
intransitively ; #'4 frf 8^ c he waits patiently ;' uPriVrf ' he 
stands or sets forth ;' fafd8^ ' he stands apart' or ' still ;' 
qPfiMri ' he stops or stays with' or e proceeds.' Also after ?rr, 
used transitively ; as, ijr^ fHitlHlfriyK ( he assents to the 
eternal word.' It occurs with wr also in the Parasmai- 
pada ; farvlfri8rrt ' he observes the rite.' Also after ^, not 
implying to stand up or rise, or to exact or demand ; as, 
a^ ' he aspires to salvation :' but ifl<JIp?iarrt * he 

rises from the stool ;' JJIHI-sidHf^arw ' he levies a hundred 
(rupees) from the village.' After TT, in the sense of per- 
forming religious rites, of worshipping, of doing homage 
to, of uniting with, of shewing affection to, or of tend- 
ing towards, as a road, FT takes the Atmane-pada ; as, 
W H | I J rfl H*j iifrfFff ' the Brahman preserves the sacred 


fire ;' ^if^rtHnrdvTi ' he worships the sun ;' vjU^Mfdad ' he 
attends on, or does homage to, the king ;' 

' the Ganges unites with the Jumna ;' i^qfd^ ' he 
befriends the pious ;' trn ?TIH^iffdd f the road leads to 
the village.' It is also used intransitively in the ^tmane- 
pada after ITT ; as, H|5HM<*|^ 4Mfdd ( he waits or stands 
by at the time of eating :' and transitively in either Pada, 
when expectation, or service not religious, is implied ; 
firsrcfi: TT^qfrfFfif or 4MPria^ ' the mendicant waits upon 
the master' (for alms) ; H^hT*nrf?refifr or 4MPd8^ TT$ ' a 
woman waits upon, or ministers to, her husband/ FT is 
also used in the Atmane-pada, without a preposition, to 
signify ' to manifest dependence upon ;' as, iftft <*U{IH4 
frr?^ ( the nymph places her trust in Krishna :' or ' to 
adhere to,' as a leader ; cj3Tf^J ^^ ' ne adheres to, or 
follows, Karna and the rest.' 

w, ' to sound, takes the -Aitmane-pada after ^IT ; vHiyO ' he 

?^T, * to strike' or * kill,' takes the j^tmane-pada after *sn, if 
used intransitively ; or when the object is part of one's 
self, transitively ; as, 'srnrfr f he strikes ;' or SHI^d f^Kt c he 
strikes his head :' but 'm^T f^R ^T^ftf f he strikes the 
head of another.' 

5 'to take,' preceded by ^nj, implying * to take after,' or ' act 
like,' takes the Atmane-pada ;' itgeWHJl ST^C'd 1 ( horses 
take the nature of the father :' but not if actual presence is 
implied ; as, fij^t^'Cfa ' he takes after his father.' 

^, ' to call/ used intransitively, takes the -^tmane-pada after 
TIJ, -fa, fa, and ^; as, 4Md4d, PH^^, fa<^ *&, <^M^ * he 
calls out/ e exclaims,' &c. : also after '5TT, used transitively in 
the sense of * defiance ;' ^T^m^Md' ( he defies or chal- 
lenges the enemy :' but "gpRT^nrflr ' he calls his son.' 
Causal verbs ordinarily take the Parasmai-pada, and seldom 

appear in any other ; but, as observed already, they may 

assume the Xtmane-pada when the effect of the action reverts 

M m 2 

268 VERBS. 

to the individual ; as, ^arr^f HI-nNffr ' he causes the place to bkj 
cleaned;' -ej I r I H Hi-nj^ * he causes himself to be cleansed' or 
' purified.' There are certain causal verbs, however, whic 
are limited to one or other Pada, according to their meanings, 
nv ' to be greedy,' in the sense of ' deceiving,' takes the 
A'tmane-pada ; ^TcrJ ^ri^ ' he deceives the child :' otherwise, 
^TPf Ji^^fri ' he excites the dog to be greedy.' So ^f, ' to 
deceive,' makes e^qf '4^4t) f he deceives the girl :' but 
^Mfrt ' he drives away the snake.' So ^, combined with 
word signifying ' falsely' or s erroneously,' takes the A'tmane 
pada ; as, faajT <*IU4ri VlM*llf ' he causes a false alarm o 
proclamation to be made :' but JTg <+K^frt *p ' he causes the 
word to be accurately repeated.' 

According to some authorities, the following verbs do not 
admit the Parasmai-pada in the causal mode, TJT ' to drink.' 
<*T ( to tame,' ~*m ( to restrain,' and TTH ( to make effort,' pre- 
ceded by ^rr ; iTf ' to be perplexed,' preceded by Trfr ; ^? ' to 
shine,' rpr ( to dance,' ^ * to speak,' ^r ( to dwell ;' as, 
f, vtmii*<rT, -wiMitiMn, wU.*Tl^*<i 

So also V f to give suck ;' VTTTn. This h'mitation is however 
qualified as above ; and when the object of the action is dif- 
ferent from the agent> these verbs take the Parasmai-pada ; as, 
4ri<M ym^Td ira f he causes the calves to drink the milk,' &c. 
It is unnecessary to prosecute this subject farther, as it 
would be impossible in this place to collect all the variations 
that occur in books, and they will be readily recognised when 
they are met with. 




Verbal Derivatives. 

224. THE derivatives of the Sanskrit language are arranged 
under two principal classes ; the first comprises those nouns 


which are formed from the verb ; the second, those w r hich are 
formed from other nouns. To the first is assigned the name 
Kridanta, or nouns formed with terminations attached to verbal 
roots : to the second, the denomination Taddhita, or nouns 
which import relation to other nouns. We may be permitted 
to distinguish them as verbal and nominal derivatives, and 
proceed to treat of the former. 

225. One principal class of verbal derivatives consists of 
what we are accustomed to consider as parts of the verb itself, 
or the infinitive and the participles. 


226. The infinitive of the Sanskrit verb is regarded by 
native grammarians as an indeclinable noun, formed from the 
root by affixing to it the syllables *^j leaving Tpr. 

. Whatever modifications the root undergoes in the first 
future before the affix TfT (rule 192), it equally undergoes in 
the infinitive before g^, inserting or not inserting ^, and 
combining with the augment, or with the first letter of the 
termination, conformably to the plan pursued in the first 
future tense ; as a few examples will suffice to prove. 
Verb. First future. Infinitive, 

^to go 

^y to go 

;*M to grow 

^i to do 

JT*T to go 

^t. to steal 

^ to sing TTTTT 

PT to bear 

ftf to conquer 

^r to burn 

<JT to give 

^T to cut ^TJTT 

FST to see 


to cook 
to be 

to sport WT 


to bear -] 


to stay WTfH 

T to creep 

to hurt f^farfi 

< to take ^tr 

b. The Sanskrit infinitive presents a general analogy to the 
Latin supine in ( um,' and in many instances the words arc 
the same ; as, ^vjiij*^ ' statum ;' ^irj*^ ' datum ;' "TT^ l potum ;' 
zft^ f junctum;' y in Pn gi^ ' sopitum.' In others, we have 
the same principles of formation displayed ; as TT^T makes 
so ' facio' makes l factum ;' as ^f^( makes W33T, so f unguo' 
makes ' unctum ;' as w&T may make **T3p^ so ' rumpo* makes 
t ruptum.' The augment ^ also is observable in such supines, 
as * monitum/ ' domitum,' &c. ; and in some cases we have it 
optionally inserted or omitted, as in ' altum' or ' alitum,' and 

the like. 


227- The participles are of two kinds, declinable and inde- 
clinable : to the latter the denomination of Gerunds has been 
given by Professor Bopp. 

228. The declinable participles are of the present, past, 
and future times, diversified according to the Pada, or the 
voice, to which they are considered to belong. 

a. The indeclinable participles, or Gerunds, are indeter- 
minately past. 

Present Participles. 

229. The present participle may be active or passive ; and 
the active is distinguished as belonging to the Parasmai or 

230. The present participle, Parasmai-pada, is formed by 


adding the syllable ^r?^, technically called ^T, to the root : 
the initial ^l indicates that the base undergoes, before the parti- 
cipial affix ^n^, modifications which it derives from its conju- 
gational peculiarities, especially before the termination of the 
third person plural of the present tense : thus ^ makes 

< being ;' fn, nr^ ' conquering / TPET, t^nr ' cooking ;' 

< going ;' in, f^rnr ' drinking / FT, ftWrT * staying / 
' eating ;' f^, TTiT ' killing ; J "|, 5j^ ' sacrificing ;' 

* playing ;' 3, *pnr ' producing ;' ^, pir * tormenting ;' ^v, 
' obstructing ;' ^, ^ifl^ ' doing ;' ^, -*l*y^ ' buying ;' ^, 
' stealing ;' and the like. 

a. The present participle ending in ^TiT is declinable in the 
three genders, according to rules already given : see p. 55, 
rule 104, &c. 

b. In the case of f^ 3 ' to know/ ^ET is optionally affixed in 
place of ^TiT, making fal^ ' knowing,' ' wise' (see p. 70) ; as 
well as f^W. 

231. The present participle of the ^tmane-pada is formed 
by adding ^TR^, that is, WT 3 to the inflective base of the 
verb, as modified for conjugation in the present tense. When, 
as in the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth conjugations, the inflec- 
tive base ends with ^r, then i? is prefixed to the termination ; 
as, T&J, T*WTf ' increasing ;' q^t, m*f|T { cooking :' in the other 
conjugations the termination is added at once to the verb ; as, 
5ft, 31 MM ' sleeping ;' VT, ^VTT ' having ;' ^, ^fro ( making ; J 
&c. These participles are declined in the three genders like 
nouns in ^r ; xr^TR:, "T^TFTT, M^IH I H . See p. 30. 

a. There are some participial nouns formed with termina- 
tions of an analogous character, and having the same letters ; as, 
^, $WR: ' enjoying;' ij, ftwrci: ' wearing ;' ^TT, f^ffT^l 'slay- 
ing,' &c., formed with ^nrrff : also TJ, Tr^rrrT: ' purifying,' tf a 
purifier/ ' the air ;' and TTST ' to sacrifice/ JHWR: * sacrificing/ 
' a sacrificer/ &c., formed with ^TR^. 

b. ^rrer, ' to sit/ makes wrcfai:, -rfT, -f, ( sitting/ ' seated.' 

232. The present participle of the passive voice is formed 


with I'PT attached to the inflective base of the present tense ; 
as, op ( to do/ faihi 1 ; f*MHH!T. -UJT -TIT ' being to be made :' 
give,' ^faw ; cfNprR: -tfT -f ' being to be given :' W^r ; 
m-MHH* -TT -f ' being to be destroyed :' im * to go ;' 
* being to be traversed ;' 1JHM rf cHl^fl^'ld ^RTTflT "JTT ' That 
which was to be gone over before (by the sun), was not untra- 
versed by him (Hanuman) :' TKT%: oft-uJHTJjft tfhr: ' Bhima being 
overwhelmed with arrows.' 

Past Participles. 

233. There are two participles which follow the analogy of 
the second or reduplicate praeterite, one for the Parasmai, the 
other for the Atmane-pada ; which latter serves also for the 
passive voice. 

Participles of the second preterite. 

234. The participle past of the second praeterite, Parasmai- 
pada, is formed by adding ^r, technically termed HPflT, to the 
inflective base, as it occurs before the terminations of the dual 
and plural numbers of the reduplicate praeterite (see p. 118, 
rule 188). 

a. The augment ^ is prefixed to ^TT when the inflective 
base consists of a single vowel followed by a consonant ; also 
after certain other verbs. When the verb is reduplicated, so 
that the inflective base contains more than one vowel, ^ is 
ordinarily not inserted ; as in the following examples. 

b. Participles in ^?T are declined in the three genders ; as 
in p. 70, rule 128. 

^ to go ; ^ftre* x did go j 

^ to go ; ^iife^ did go ; 

^i to make ; ^T^TT did make ; 

tm to go ; TffrjT^R or ^TT^^T did go ; 

to eat ; rft^nr did eat ; 
to be awake ; fTFHNi, ^irP did wake ; 


to give ; ^TO* did give ; 

to see ; ^f$N or ^TO^T did see ; 

to cook ; ^fennr did cook ; 

to urine ; *frg!T did urine ; ft|T^, *ft<pft, 

to weep ; ^rf x did weep ; ^3"T^, ^p 
to know ; faf^T** or P^P5lP<{<i x did know ; 

fVf^^t, P^g 1 ^ or f^fof^Tn^, PqP^Ml, fafaf<*^. 

to enter ; fa fa HI H or fa fa PsN *^ did enter, &c. ; as in fV^. 
^ to bear ; ^T3^ did bear ; *n<^|f^, |^M% ^|^^. 
^fT to kill ; ^rH=| N or *|t|*-c{^ didrkill ; ^Pam 1 ^, aiM-4lT, &c. 

236. The past participle of the reduplicate praeterite in the 
Atmane-pada is formed by adding ^rrT to the inflective base, 
as it occurs before the termination of the third person sin- 
gular : thus tr^, ' to cook,' makes xfaT?T ; B, f to do/ -4 4,141; ; 
^, ' to speak,'' 2d pra3t. "3f^, part. <Jv4R ; ^, ' to hear/ 2d 
praet. WQ3, part. SI^Nir ; &c. These participles are declined 
in the three genders like nouns in w. 

Indefinite past Participle. 

237. The indefinite past participles are two ; one having 
an active, the other a passive signification. Neither can be 
said to appertain to any particular tense, as they do not, like 
the preceding, follow any analogy of construction. 

238. The indefinite past participle active is formed by 
adding ^K^ to the root or crude verb, leaving TTTFT ; the effect 
of the efi in this or any technical termination being to preclude 
the Guiia or Vriddhi change of the radical vowel, and to occasion 
the rejection of a radical nasal penultimate : B, ' to do,' there- 
fore makes ^3=n^, ' was making' or ' made ;' jjTjr ' to see/ gg^r^ 
' was seeing' or ' saw ;' f^i * to bite/ <{y^ was biting.' It 
is commonly used with an auxiliary verb ; as, ^n? opRTrf9T 
' I was doing' or ' I did/ The declension of the participles 
so formed has already been described (p. 55, r. 104). 

239- The indefinite past participle passive is formed by 

N n 


adding to the root or crude verb the affix ^, that is, ft ; tlje 
object of the ^i being, as just mentioned, to bar the substitu- 
tion of the Guna or Vriddhi equivalent of the radical vowel, 
and eject a penultimate nasal : thus fT, * to conquer/ makes 
f^Tcf, ' conquered ;' ^ ( to hear/ ^rjr l heard ;' >T ' to be,' 
* been / ^ ' to take/ <fif ' taken ;' fenr ' to think,' f^nr ' thought / 
^T ' to bite/ ^? ' bitten ;' and the like. 

a. When following a verb ending in an aspirated consonant 
or ^, the termination 7T is changed to V, and combined witl: 
the final, analogously to the combinations of the same vert 
before the if and ^ of the tenses (rule 213, c, 8) ; as, ^ ' to 
burn/ ^nj burnt ;' tf^ ' to bear/ *fte ' borne.' 

b. In verbs ending in consonants the augment ^ is occa- 
sionally prefixed to the termination TT, when a medial ^ or 
may be optionally changed to the Guna equivalent ; as, 

' to weep/ ?$n*rt or 'Clf^rf c wept ;' f^ * to know/ frf^Tf or 

' known.' 77^, ' to take/ makes the ^ long, and optionally 

substitutes the vowel for the semivowel ; as, y^ld or 

' taken/ "^r f to dwell/ and ^r^ and ^ ' to speak,' substitute 

the vowel for the initial ; as, TfarT ' dwelt/ Tlfi and ^Hjd ' said.* 

c. Verbs ending with *r commonly reject the nasal ; so 

' to go/ makes JTW, 'gone;' ^nr e to refrain/ TTff; TH * to be 
engaged in/ TIT : but COT, ( to desire/ makes afipif, &c. 

c?. The termination of this participle is sometimes changed 
to T ; as, ^rr, ' to cook/ makes "'5TTO', e cooked / ^ e to shake/ 
tnf * shaken :' also after verbs ending in ^ or ^, not inserting 
^; as, ft** ' to break/ fT*r ' broken ;' ^ ' to fill/ ij^ * filled/ 
Verbs taking this form are denoted in the lists of roots by an 
indicatory ^ft (see p. 106). 

e. Although not changeable to a Guna or Vriddhi letter, a 
radical final vowel sometimes substitutes a different vowel. 
Thus, of verbs ending in w, T ' to stay' makes ftvjri ; TT ' to 
mete/ finr ' meted / TIT * to drink/ tftlT ' drank / ^T ' to abandon/ 
fhf ' abandoned :' or a final ^n may be dropped ; as, ^T, ' to give/ 
makes ^w : and in this root the initial may be rejected, when 


a preposition ending in a vowel precedes ; as, W3 or 
' given away/ If the vowel of the preposition be ^ or ^ it 
must be made long, when the initial of ^T is rejected ; as, 
or M(X<3 ( completely given ;' ^w or *j^ ' well given.' 
' to be poor/ makes ^fcffcrt * poor/ ' impoverished.' 

f. Verbs ending in ^j substitute f^. for the final, and tT for 
Tf ; as, ^ ' to scatter/ ^5^r ' scattered ;' if ' to be old/ *fhfr 
* old/ ^ ' to fill/ and *| ' to kill,' substitute "g^; as, ^ 
< filled,' Jjt ' killed/ 

ff. Verbs ending in ^ are anomalous in their participles 
past: ^, ' to cherish/ makes <^; ^ ' to suck/ >fhr; ^ 'to 
barter/ iffrr ; ^ ' to weave/ TiT ; ^ ' to cover/ ^TT ; 3^ ' to 
invoke/ ^?r. 

h. Verbs ending in ^ usually change it to ^n ; as, i^, ' to 
meditate/ makes Wif, ' meditated ;' % ' to be dirty/ *JT ; but 
^, ' to sing/ makes ifhf, * sung / % ' to waste/ ^ftlf. ^, ' to 
shrink/ makes, when it signifies ' being cold/ $fhf ; when it 
means ' congealed/ ^ffa ; when it denotes ' shrunk/ 
' to decay/ makes TQ'm ; and ^ ' to surround/ ^ffa or 

i. Verbs ending in ^ft optionally substitute ^ ; as, "sft ' to 
cut/ ^TiT or fsnr ; ^ ' to cut/ ^TTf or f^n 1 ; $ft * to pare/ ^mr 
or f^nr. 

j. Whether ending in w or ^, the past indefinite participle 
is declined like nouns in *st ; ^r:, ^iirr, "SRW ; frf^fn, r^P^ril, 
f^if ; fra:, finrr, f^ ; &c. 

A:. The participles formed with ^j from verbs signifying 
motion, f%q e to embrace/ ^ft ' to sleep/ FT ' to stay,' ^TTO f to 
sit,' ^T ' to dwell/ T?T ' to be born/ ^ ' to mount,' IT * to 
grow old/ may be used in an active sense ; as, ir^f ^nr: * he 
went to the Ganges ;' CTgHlfe'd 1 : ' he mounted the horse ;' 
tr. ' he embraced his son.' They are also sometimes 

used absolutely, in place of the past tense ; as, *r fwff: ' he 
stood ;' *r TTTT: * he went/ 

/. The past participle in the neuter gender is often used as 
an abstract noun ; as, Hrfalf ' speech,' ' that which is spoken ;' 

N n a 



' sleep,' * repose ;' aTf^nf ' prattle ;' fftnf ' laughter ;' 

f e good.' 

The foUowing alphabetical list contains many of the verbs 
ending in vowels which form the participle past with r, or are 
in other ways anomalous, and most of those ending in con- 
sonants which do not insert the augment ^. 


but ' to 

^rar, and 
IW food ; 

but ' to 


to pervade, 
g to move, 

to anoint, 
\ to eat, ^ 
what is eaten, 
to spread, 
eat/ VH f$| if. 
to obtain, 
to kindle, ?if. 
to be wet, g^ 
to injure, ^t. 
to cover, ^tTf. 
if to weave, 'gsTT. 
to go, ^jw gone ; also, true : 
but when meaning a debt, 
^oj due, owed. 

to go, ^. 
cfirf to shine, cR^. 
"spr to desire, cfiptf or oFfatT. 
"3m to extract, cB?. 

O O 

cFff to CUt, cl^. 
e ' e 

0551 to grow thin, cjj^r. 

fi^ to draw lines, to plough, ^f . 

^ to scatter, 

3jil to stink, 

W1 to go, 

jW to be angry, 

to cry, ^?. 
to be weary, 
to be distressed, 


to dig, 

to be patient, 

to waste, frsfff or 

to be moist, 

to throw, 

to be drunk, 

to agitate, 
to shake, 

to be distressed, 

to go, TTW. 

to be thick, TTRT. 
to void excrement, 
I to preserve, JTff. 
1 to take pains, 3p 
r to hide, TTZ. 
to swallow, 
to be sad, 
r to proclaim, TB 
to smell, iffir or 

to be sensible, 

- to burn 4 



to cover, 
to cut, 
to touch, 





TT to be born, *rnf. 
ni to pray silently, *&f or 
5ft to kill, snrK 
p to be pleased, p. 
3|T. to decay, ^. 
3W to yawn, ipf. 
to grow old, fH!K 
to know, $Tff or 
7 to decay, 
fr to instruct, 
to grow old, 
to fly, ^far or 
T to bow, rnf . 
r to perish, 
to tie, n*. 
to clean, 
to send, j^ or 
f to pare, in;. 

to stretch, "inr. 
r to be hot, ww. 
to torment, ^. 
to kill, ipt. 
r to be satisfied, 
| to be satisfied, 
to cross over, 
f to abandon, HT 
TI to be ashamed, 

to be afraid, 
to preserve, ^TW or 
to pare, ?^i. 
to hasten, ^ or 
to shine, 
T to bite, ^ 
T to tame, 
to burn, 

to play, ^jpr ; to game, 

to show, f<*T?. 
ft**r to smear, f^nj. 
<jt to waste, <*hf or <ftT. 
<^T? to shine, ^hr. 
<* to suffer pain, pr or <pr. 
^ to kill, <pjK 
^ to be made bad, <nf. 
pr to milk, rmy. 
T to fear, to arrange, |T3f. 
^T to see, 57. 
^ to be firm, g? 1 . 
f to tear, ^Hr. 


ffr to despise, 

to aw r ake, 
to sleep, <JTO. 

to hate, 
VT to have, 
v^ to iniure, w. 

v ) ' y&~* 

v to iniure, v^. 

^ *^ v O 

\to shake, vrar. 
v^to iniure, w&. 

Cv > ' IC^ 

Y^ to be proud, vi 
)W to satisfy, 
tp^ to cook, x 
tn* to go, tj^. 
to grind, 

^ to cherish, tn 

I to stink, t|if. 

C to fill, tf^t or 

^T to mix, tj^;. 

to fill, tp. 

to grow fat, tftT or 
TTa[ to ask, x;?. 

in to fill, trt. 



^ to blow, as a flower, 
with IT prefixed, 

to bind, 'Wg. 

to know, ^s. 

to worship, 

to break, 

to break or divide, 

to eat, >r^i ; to be crooked, 

to wander, >JF?T. 

to fry, vrs. 
to serve, ^fhlf. 
to be mad, i?U. 
to mind, *T7T. 

to be immersed, 

to be unctuous, 

to urine, 

to liberate, 

to fasten, ^. 

to be foolish, igs or 

to faint, JT" or Hf^rf. 

x cs c\ 

WIT to clean, ^. 
3j^r to consult, ^?. 
H to kill, ?J3. 

to speak barbarously, 
o be dull or dirty, ^R. 
T to worship, ^?. 
to strive, TUT. 
to restrain, TT?T. 
to join, ^R. 
to fight, ^f. 
to colour, T^!. 
to be engaged in, T?T; so 
with ^rr prefixed, to begin, 

to sport, to be intent 
to be separate, ft^j. 
ft3[T to injure, fie?. 
lj to kill, tNr. 
^T to break, ^T. 
^V to obstruct, ^f. 
^5T to injure, "^F. 
^rq to be angry, ^F or 
^^ to ascend, ^g". 
^>T to sound, ft?. 
cS 7 ! to be in contact, 
cW to gain, <53T. 

to be ashamed, 



to smear, 

to be small, fc5T?. 

to lick, ofl<c. 
to embrace, 
to lop, offf. 
to covet, 
to covet, r|^. 

O Cllt) c*VH 

r to speak, T^fi. 

to w r eave, to sow seed, 

to vomit, ^TT?r or 

to bear, gn?. 
to blow, 
blown out, extinguished, 
to shine, ^T?- 

; to be agi- 

to divide, 
to divide, 
tated, f^TTf. 
o gain, to find, 
to enter, f^F. 
to surround, 




<nf to leave, ^i 
YTT to be, ra"- 
^ to be great, 
~sF% to break, 
?ft to choose, 
^ to go, ^T. 
^Pfi to be able, 

/* if 

^T^ to lall, T^nr. 
^rq to curse, 31 
3PT to be quiet, 
^Ttf to praise, 
to have, 
\ to sleep, 
V to be pure, 
q to dry, 
C to injure, 
to injure, 
R to be weary, 
r to cook, 
to cook, 

to embrace, 
R to breathe ; 
f^HIW trusted in 


to distin- 

with "fa, 
but Tgfarf 

to increase, SJT or 
to adhere to, ^r^5. 

to faint, ^r^. 
to become perfect, 

to be brave, *jfK 

x C^ 

to be bland, 
to embrace, 
to sound, 
to adorn, with 

to sleep, ww. 

to sweat, 
to let go, to create, jr 
to creep, inr. 

to go, 
to cover, 

to touch, 

to swell, 

to thunder, 
to void ordure, ^ 
to strike or kill, i 
to be glad, ^?. 
to be ashamed, 

to rejoice, g^f. 




Future Participles active. 

240. The active future participles are two, one in each Pada, 
and bear the same relation to the present participles as the inde- 
finite future does to the present tense ; the terminations being 
the same, with ^ prefixed. Thus the terminations of the 
participles are **r^ or ^TT^ and 44|MIH ; and the insertion or 
omission of the augment ^, or any other modification of the 
base, follows the analogy of the indefinite future tense ; as, 
^ * to be,' HCmn^ * what will be ; ' *m ' to go/ 


faf ' to conquer,' ^f^ ' what will conquer ; ' ^ ' to hear/ 
^Hm^ ' what will hear/ This participle is declined like the 
present participle in ^n^; as, m. wfal^, f. ^(Vl*rf1, n. MfauiiK 
So 1JV, f to increase/ makes ^fyurHUll ' what will increase ;* 
ire e to torture,' tftWHR ' what will torment / ^ * to liberate/ 
qt%*WUii ' what will liberate ;' ^ f to do/ efcfcujH Rl ' what wil 
do,' &c. These are declinable like nouns in ^r. 

Future Participles passive or neuter. 

241. A class of future participles, most extensively employed; 
is formed by adding to verbs the affixes W^n^, ^fl^, TT^, ^ni. 
or innr. Of these, the two first reject the final, leaving TTO 
and ^R*hl ; whilst the three last leave only TT. The participles 
thus formed express not only the sense of futurity, but the 
conditions of fitness, probability, or necessity ; or that which 
is to be, which ought to be, which may be, or which must be : 
rfVinT, H^ffar, >T3T, and the like. 

a. The participles thus formed are declinable in the three 
genders like nouns in ^r; and in one or other gender, but 
especially the feminine and neuter, they assume very com- 
monly the office of nouns : thus ^w ' to be made or done/ 
from ^ * to do/ becomes ^jqr f. ' a magical rite/ and ^ n. 
' motive' or ' cause.' Further instances will be specified, 

242. iranr is attached to the base analogously to the mode 
in which the ITT of the first future is connected with it. If the 
verb prefixes ^, so does the participle ; as, >T ' to be/ >?pe|H*M 
' what is or ought to be ;' 5V ' to increase/ ^fviri^ ' to be 
increased :' otherwise, as, ftr ' to conquer/ Tfri<*| ' to be con- 
quered ;' 5 * to make/ 4^44 ' to be made ;' ^j ( to oppose, 
0^=14 ' to be opposed ;' ^|f ' to bear/ *rte^? e to be borne / c. 

243. ''SRfarc, is attached to the final consonants of verbs 
without change, and to final vowels agreeably to the rules of 
Sandhi. Short medial vowels are changed to their Guna 
substitutes : thus, of the verbs above cited, ^ makes 


&c. ; ' to be,' ' to be increased,' ' to be conquered/ &c. This 
and the preceding termination, TT^I, is annexed to all verbs 

244. The participles formed with ^ are not so indiscriminately 
applied, but are restricted, with exceptions, to certain verbs or 
classes of verbs. They affect the base also differently, accord- 
ing to the letters with which the TJ is combined. 

245. HIT is added to verbs ending in vowels, when it requires 
a final ^rr or a diphthong, to become ^, and other vowels to be 
changed to their Guna equivalents ; as, <*T, ^l ' to be given ;' 
^, TPI * to be sung ;' ^t, irq ' to be cut ;' fsf, WS ' to be 
conquered ;' t[ft, ^*T ' to be guided/ In some cases the final 
vowel being changed to the Guna letter, combines with TT, as 
if it were a vowel : thus fT, * to be conquered/ may be inaf 
(see rule 5, a. p. 13). 

a. ir^ is added to verbs ending with a labial consonant, TT, 
TR, ^-, >r, JT, if preceded by ^r ; as, ^pj, ^PT l to be sworn ;' c5H, 
pj*T f to be acquired / TTR, T7*T e to be agreeable :' but ?y>T, 
preceded by ^TT, requires the insertion of H before TJ ; as, 
^TTrS'WT ' to be killed :' also when preceded by Til in the sense 
of e commending ;' "grraFwr: W: s the virtuous man is to be 
praised :' but not in its primitive sense ; as, grq^wfr *HT ' wealth 
is to be acquired/ ftr ' to pray silently/ and ?FT 'to bow/ preceded 
by ^n, take ^r?^, as well as in^, making afro or TOT, ^mw^ or 
TORMJ. The following verbs also, although ending in labials, 
form their participles with Wi^ : ^W f to eat,' with ^TT prefixed, 

l to be sipped' or ' tasted ;' ^rr, ^iv; ' to be ashamed ;* 
'to be tamed;' TTT, tro ' to be spoken/ 5xy, HfaT 
' to be spoken ;' ^TT, ^roi ' to be sown/ 

b. TTiT is affixed to the following verbs : ^TT ' to seek,' ^m ; 
IHi ' to laugh,' inq ; >TJT ' to worship/ **q ; *r*r * to worship/ 
Tim ;' ^refi * to be able/ ^T^r ; ^TH * to slay/ ^IFI ; ^5 * to 
endure/ *r?l ; and ^l substituted for ^T ' to kill/ ^nfl. Of 
these, vnt, irsf, and ipT, may also take TPII^, making >TPTI ' to 
be divided' or c portioned/ Trn*T ' to be worshipped/ 

O o 


be slain/ *TiT is also affixed to the following : r^ ' to speak/ 
^R ' to go,' *T^ ' to be wild,' *HT ' to restrain/ if not preceded 
by a preposition ; TT^T ' to be spoken,' 'grl * to be gone' or ' prac- 
tised/ TO ' to be made frantic or drunk/ Tjrq e to be restrained :' 
but ^TT may be prefixed to ^T, if not meaning a spiritual 
teacher ; as, ^n^*!ft ^^H ' a country to be gone to ;' otherwise, 
HHixji^j: e an Acharya' or f religious instructor.' 

c. The following words are considered as irregularly formed 
with Trjr, and are used as nouns, as well as participles : 

: mfn. 'imperishable;' but restricted to companionship 
or friendship ;' as, ^nr&f ^T?f * uninterrupted association / 
from IT ' to decay.' 

' a master/ ' a Vaisya ;' from ^ ' to go :' otherwise, ^rah 
* a respectable man.' 

: -UT -if * improper/ ' bad/ * what is not fit to be said/ 
'reprehensible/ 'blamable;' from ^ 'to speak/ which 
more regularly takes ^T^, making ^njjT mfn. 'not to be 

' A female fit for impregnation / ?qu-uJT TH: ' a cow fit 
for the bull ;' from *T with TJ : otherwise, ?q 1^ mfn. 'to 
be gone to' or ' approached.' 

: -WR -TW ' To be bought' or ' marketed/ ' to be pledged ;' 
from TTO ' to praise :' otherwise, xrnpl infn. ' to be praised.' 

^ -i: -Tih -^f ' Fit to be chosen' or ' solicited ;' ^zh f. ' a 
maiden to be sought ;' from ^ ' to choose as a bride' (a 
maiden) : otherwise, ^rm c to be chosen/ with ^RT^ ; or ^nzj 
mfn. ' to be appointed or selected generally/ with W!^. 

^T ' a conveyance/ ' a vehicle/ ' that by which any thing is 
borne ;' from ^ : but with U?n^ it makes ^rat mfn. ' to 
be carried.' 

246. The termination W^ intimates by its initial OR, that in 
affixing 'sr, the radical vowel is not to be changed to its Guna 
or Vriddhi equivalent, although it may be liable to such other 
changes as its conjugational inflexion prescribes ; it also shews 


that a radical nasal penultimate is to be dropped : whilst t? 
requires the insertion of IT in some cases before TT. This 
termination forms participles with verbs ending in consonants 
having a penultimate ^ ; as, jcT ' to choose,' ^cf ' to be 
chosen ;' ^\i ' to increase/ ^VT e to be increased :' except ^j^ 
' to praise,' "STf c to injure/ and 'anqr * to make/ which take ir^, 
making ^TX t to be praised/ ^?J ' to be injured/ ofi^nr ' to be 
made.' So * f, with the preposition ^ra" or *r, or Tnftir e the 
hand/ prefixed, takes Tpn^; as, ^CMU' 1 *] or HHI ' to be let go,' 
mfiijl'^^ ' to be let go by the hand.' 

a. ^re is added to the following verbs ending in vowels : 
^, ^7T ' to be gone ;' , with '3TT prefixed, ^TTgw ' to be 

respected;' ^ (^*0 T^ ' to ^ e cnosen > Q ^J 7 * * to ^ e 
praised.' Also to these ending in consonants : ofiiT, eft^f ' to 
be celebrated :' ^, ^EI f to be pleased ; ^TTff, f^T * to be 
governed.' When annexed to WT { to dig/ ^ is substituted 
for ^R ; as, ^TI * to be dug.' ^ni is optionally affixed to form 
the following words : 

a; * to make/ epr ; or with Wif, fiT^ ' to be made.' 

?r% ' to hide/ W3 ; or with ^, TT^T ' to be hid' or c kept 

7f% l to take/ with 'srftr or iifk prefixed, SHfMJj^i, Mfri^ * to be 

received ;' or M'ith W? 
^ l to milk/ J^T ; or \vith 

vpq- f to nourish/ >T7T ; or with TpriT, >TT^ * to be nourished.' 
ipf ' to cleanse/ literally or metaphorically, jpq 1 ; or with 

HF^ * to be cleansed,' ' to be purified.' 
^ ' to speak/ "grer ; or with tr^, ^?T : with any term signifying 

' falsely' prefixed, it is only "gnBT ; as, ^rfVsr, H^tier, &c. : 

with a preposition it takes W?^; 1RT5T ' to be declared.' 
Y 1 ? ' to rain/ ^pi; or with TTJ^, T^ ' to be rained.' 
^Nr ' to praise/ '^r^ ; or with 

b. A number of words are considered to be irregularly 
formed with this affix ; as the following : 



szn -'ztf ' Suffering no pain' or ' fatigue ;' from ^ER ' to 


j * Clarified butter ;' from ^T^ ' to anoint/ 
The name of a river ; from ^VR. ' to leave (its bed).' 
Any valuable metal except gold or silver ; from *rtr ' to 

<*yi|UK -^irr -**f ' Ripening or flowering in cultivated ground / 
so THcKyijxq ' growing wild,' &c. ; from xpf ' to ripen.' 

Jp3i: -^n -^ ' Dependent,' ' servile,' ' confined ;' 'prr: STcfiT: ' the 
encaged parrots :' attached to as a partisan, ^'i^r: ' a friend 
of the gods :' with H prefixed, W^ a term in grammar, 
an exception. Fern, only, and combined with other words, 
* without ; J as, Zfra'JlCT *fru ' the army outside of the 
village ;' from 3jf ' to take/ 

Plf<4l ' A funeral fire ;' ^PHf^KU ' maintaining a sacred fire ;' 
from fg ' to gather/ 

fT7T: ' A plough ;' from faf ' to conquer/ 

One of the lunar constellations ; from Tpr * to please/ 
One of the lunar constellations ; from ^ * to nourish/ 
A proper name. When meaning ' a wife,' it is formed 
with Tnnr, from j ' to nourish/ 

: The name of a river ; from ftr^ ' to break (its banks)/ 
: -TTTT -TTT To be used as a conveyance or carriage ; a 
horse, an ox, a car, &c. ; from Tpf ' to join/ ' to yoke/ 
; _T*rr -^ ' Agreeable/ ' liked ;' from ^er ' to please/ 

: ' Refuse,' * sediment ;' from *rft with f^ prefixed, ' to 
take away/ 

: ' Munja grass ;' from "^with f% prefixed, ' to purify/ 
: A lunar mansion ; from fw ' to accomplish/ 

c. ^ with ^TT forms >T^T, to denote, in combination with 
other words, s state' or ' condition ;' as, ^T>J5 ' divinity,' * the 
being a god :' and ^T with ^?XT forms ^jqr ' killing,' \vhich is 
also used in composition ; as, ft^TTT ' slaughter of an enemy/ 

' murder of a Brahman/ rj^KiT ' homicide/ 

d. The following participial nouns are considered as being 


formed with this affix, which in the feminine gender become 
denominations : 

worship, from TrT to worship. 
a litter ^jr to go. 

muddy earth xrjf to go. 
an assembly ^ to sit. 
livelihood vpT to nourish. 
the jugular vein *ftT to know. 
knowledge f^ to know. 
wandering about as a mendicant "3T to go. 
a court^ from ^ft to sleep. 

an assembly ^nr to go. 
ablution, bathing ^ to bathe. 
247. The last of these terminations, T&n^, indicates by its 
initial that the radical vowel is to be changed to its Guna or 
Vriddhi equivalent. It may be affixed to verbs ending in T 
or "gj, when ' necessity' is implied ; as, H, VTRT ' what is to be, 
necessarily ;' otherwise H^T : to TT, Trrgr ' to be mixed ;' and 
3, with '3TT prefixed, 4<[tilM ' to be stirred up :' to verbs ending 

in ^ or ^; as, , cfirrti ' to be made ;' ?, ^TT^ * to be torn :' 

also to verbs ending in consonants not labials ; as, ^IT 

' to be borne/ As noticed above, it is also annexed to some 

verbs ending in labials. 

a. When WcT is added to verbs ending in palatals, they are 
usually changed to gutturals, or ^r to OR, and W to TT; as, tj^, 
TITO ' to be cooked ;' ^TIT, ^^T * to be made sick :' but there 
are many exceptions. It does not effect this change if the 
verb takes the augment ^ before the ff of the passive past 
participle ; nor when ' necessity* is implied ; as, i|[U( e what 
must be cooked ;' i4j|:rf[ ' w r hat must be abandoned ;' ^T5?f ' what 
must be worshipped ;' JHixti * what must be said.' Some 
verbs optionally admit the change in different acceptations ; 
is, >pr ' to enjoy' makes ^ft"? ' what is to be enjoyed ;' but 
|T ' to eat' makes vfaq : ^f, with ffj prefixed, ' to appoint,' 

nakes r*ift'q ' what or who is fit to be employed ;' 


* what or who may be employed :' so ^t, l to speak/ make 

s what may be said / but ^RT l a sentence/ 
b. The following are considered as irregularly formed with 


or SHHNI^T ( Day of conjunction of the sun and moon 
from ^nrr ' together,' and ^r ' to dwell.' 

jt f To be brought from a particular fire,' the Dakshin 
agni ; applicable only to a form of sacrificial fire ; froi 
*sft, ' to take,' with ^TT prefixed : otherwise, ^TFhf. 

: A kind of sacrificial fire ; from fa * to collect/ wi 

: A kind of sacrifice ; from ^5 ' an altar/ and xrr ' to 
drink / in which the Soma juice is drunk. 

' A sacred text ;' from VT ' to have' or l hold.' 
j; ' A dwelling ;' from f% e to collect/ with fif. 
i: ( To be brought as fire for a sacrifice ;' from lift: and 
fsf ' to collect.' 

trn4 A sort of liquid measure ; from ?n ' to measure / t? being 
changed to TJ. 

r: -zqr -53j ' Adverse/ ' disliked/ ' disagreeable/ ' not 
approved of or f agreed with / from Tjjt ' to guide.' 

' A sacred text / from ^T5f ' to sacrifice/ 
ti * A royal sacrifice/ held by a paramount sovereign ; 
from ^T^TT and "3 * to bring forth.' 

To be carried as sacrificial fire ;' from *nr and ^ ' to 

): A sort of sacrifice. 
] ' Clarified butter / from TW and uft * to take/ 

248. An affix of similar import, though not much employed, 
is 3,foiH^, which leaves '^friH, attached to verbs ending in con- 
sonants without change of the radical vowel : thus TT^ makes 
-H: -*TT -*r ( what is to be cooked' or ' ripened ;' 
-It -HT -H 'what is to be, or may be, broken' or 


Indeclinable Participles. 

249- There are two participles of the past tense, which are very 
extensively used, and which admit of neither gender, number, 
nor case. They are formed by adding to the verbal base the 
terminations W leaving fTT, or in^ leaving T?. The latter is 
affixed in the place of WT only when the verb is a compound, 
or is preceded by a preposition. In either case the accom- 
panying letters are indicatory, and denote that the radical 
vowel is not changeable to the corresponding Guna or Vriddhi 
letter, and that a penultimate nasal is to be rejected. When 
however the augment ^ is inserted before W, the Guna substi- 
tute should take the place of the radical vowel. 

a. Although implying past time, or something that has 
been, the participles thus formed with rSTT and TI have not an 
absolutely past signification : they rather suspend the mean- 
ing, importing that although something has been, yet that 
something else is immediately to follow ; as, *T >pBT 
'having eaten and drunk, he goes;' ^l<*il 

' having heard this, Hiranyaka said.' The designation of 
indeterminate past participles would therefore perhaps better 
express their character than that of Gerund, by which, as 
ordinarily employed, something remaining to be done is alone 

b. As a general rule, whatever form the base assumes before 
^!, the sign of the indefinite past, it also takes before ^ST, that 
of the indeterminate past ; as, "3< ; O&TT:, ^r*TTj ' having done :' 
v* ; W:, ^gr^T, ' having heard :' TIT ; tftrr:, Ml HI, ' having drank :' 
<?!; ^w:, ^TT, 'having given:' VT; f^?n, f^T, 'having held:' 
TTT; fwfrt, fwRT, 'having stood:' ^f; ^:, TSJT, 'having 
said :' ^ ; ^fifir:, Tfar^T, * having dwelt :' ^\I ; "EjfVir:, '^faril, 
k having hungered :' ^ ; "snv:, afrsgr, ' having eaten :' TTO ; 
J TTT:, n^j, ' having gone :' TH ; Tir:, "?Tr?T, ' having bowed to :' 
^T ; m?r., ^WI, ' having dug :' $ft ; ^flfiTiT:, ^rfq^T, ' having 
slept :' w* ; gf^TT: or Tftf^TT:, *jft{r*! or frf^T, ' having been 


pleased :' fto ; flfari:, ufaril, * having served :' 375 ; 
TTglr^l, ' having taken :' and the like. 

c. The deviation from general rules affects chiefly the influ- 
ence of the indicatory OR upon a penultimate nasal and the 
augment ^. 

d. Thus, although a penultimate nasal should be rejected, 
the following are instances of its being retained : ^J^, ' to go,' 
makes ^WT ; and ^q^ ' to go,' W^T, or with ^, f*ff<rll ( bavin* 
gone.' A verb ending with TI or TR, preceded by a nasal, and 
which inserts ^, optionally rejects the nasal ; as, Tpq, ' to 
arrange,' makes i|fviH! or TjfVvjril ; ^FT ' to loosen,' ^fuMI or 
^rP-^HI ; and Jjnfi ' to tie together,' Jjfihrfl or Jjftifcrfl. The same 
with ^f ' to deceive,' which makes either qp!ril or '4(^,41 ; 
and qpr ' to cut,' cp4HI or c4f%Jr4l. Verbs ending with 
T, preceded by a nasal, optionally reject it ; as, >f^ * to break/ 
*W or *iw ; T^ ' to colour/ I^T or twr ; ^T% ' to anoint' or 
' to worship,' makes ^TiiT, ^NfiT, or ^P^HI ; W$T, ' to perish,' may 
retain the nasal which it inserts in conjugation ; as, if^T or 
qyr, or with ^, ^jf^rm. 

e. With regard to the change of the radical vowel when ^ 
is inserted, all verbs beginning and ending with a consonant, 
excepting a final "q or "^, and having a penultimate ^ or T, 
optionally take the Guiia vowel ; as, fc5^, ' to write,' makes 
fc5f-^r^rr or ^f&RT ; fiTT ' to shine,' ?lfJTr^T or fflfriril ; "^V ' to l^e 
hungry,' ^fVr^T or ^Vftn^T. A vowel initial has but one form ; 
^ ' to go,' irfar^T j an d so has a final ^ ; as, f^ ' to serve/ 
faril. f^ ' to know/ and ^ ' to weep/ are exceptions to 
this rule having but one form ; P^ri!, ^f^ril. The fol- 
lowing are additional instances to those already specified, 
of the vowel being unchanged when the augment ^ is 
inserted : ^ ' to embrace,' ^fEn^T ; *TV ' to ply/ yfvj^l ; *p 
* to steal/ gfai^T ; *[Z ' to be glad,' *ff3TgT ; ^ ' to trample/ 

/. In the following, the vowel is optionally changed before 
: ^ ' to go/ ^frlHI or xMP?Jre(l ; ^$1 ' to be thin/ <*f$!HI or 


ft ' to draw, 5 ^ftfi^T or et,rHI ; ^ ' to thirst/ 
or cTfMNI ; *pr ' to endure/ ^far^T or HP^HI. 

ff. Verbs having an indicatory T optionally insert ^ (p. 106) ; 
as, TJT*J, * to be tranquil/ makes 51 PHH I or $(lril > a final *? 
requires the radical vowel to be made long, when ^ is not 
inserted : but ^JT, ' to go/ has different forms ; -*faril, -*TJI 
or -*in<<l ; f^, ' to play/ makes ^T or <faril ; ^, ' to purify/ 
TOT or Trfarfl ; W^ ' to go/ makes ^TW? but when it means * to 
worship/ P<toliU ; ?$*, ' to beguile/ forms c5tf*TF*rr, but ' to be 
covetous/ cg^CcfT ; %^T ' to be distressed/ r^ifsiHI or fpi^T ; &c. 

250. The termination qi^ is used when the verb is a 
compound, particularly when it is preceded by a preposition. 
The radical vowel is unchanged. 

a. When affixed to a base ending in a short vowel, IT is 
commonly prefixed to IT ; as, OR ' to make,' ^T*J<*W ' having 
made like ' or ' after ; ' ftf ' to conquer,' iKlHrittj ' having 
' defeated ;' ir * to praise/ HWT ' having celebrated :' and this 
prevails though the radical vowel become long by combina- 
tion ; as, ^ ' to go,' with ^rfv prefixed, ^T\fr?I ' having studied ;' 
or with n, inq ' having deceased.' When n is attached to a 
base ending in a long vowel, no change takes place : FT ' to 
stay/ nwni ' having gone forth ;' *s\ ' to fly/ "3T|fa ' having 
flown up ;' >^ f to be,' ^HpJ5 ' having perceived.' ^ is com- 
monly changed to fr: ; as, IT ' to cross/ Wtfrllul ( having come 
down.' 'TPJ, 'to wake/ changes its vowel, 4-nfl'jui e having 
woke up.' Diphthongs, as in other instances, are usually 
changed to ^rr ; as, ^ * to suck/ HVPT ; ^ ' to sing/ TTTR ; "iST 
4 to cut/ ira[TT. 

b. Some verbs ending in vowels or diphthongs modify 
their finals in a special manner before TJ. Thus fgf, ' to 
decay/ makes faf^Tir or faK/ln ; $ ' to waste/ U^HI ; fft ( to 
dissolve/ u<jln or Urt\H ; ^ ' to barter/ <fjfail or jHN. ^ 
* to weave,' and ^ ( to cover,' make TCP! and l|tMN ; but after 
xrft or ^r, ^ may make either tift^hr, ^Ntf, or ifc^TM, *HTq. 

r. Verbs ending in nasals occasionally change them to W, 

r p 


or admit some other modification of the base. Thus ^ 
dig,' makes either m?M or uN ; im ' to go/ *|J|Hf or 
' having come ;' f7f ( to produce,' W5Rf or *hfrnT ; *PT ' to bow,' 
TTOT or TTOW ; 7R ' to stretch, farid ; W3 ' to mind,' ^Ppr^ 
' having assented ;' n*r ' to refrain,' faqnj or f^IW ; T*T ' to 
sport' or * rest ;' f^K**! or f^TTl ; ^f ' to kill,' WfTT ' having 
beaten' or ' slain.' 3W, ' to desire,' makes its vowel long-, 
H*ll ' having desired much :' so does ^<t ' to go,' 
' having considered.' WT, * to obtain,' may substitute 
as, UTOI or uit|u| ' having obtained.' 

d. Causal verbs, and those of the tenth conjugation which 
do not make the radical vowel long by virtue of a grammatical 
rule, or in which it is not long naturally or by position, prefix 
^nr to *r ; as, f^TTO^I ' having caused to compute ;' 
' having made to stoop,' ' having bent' or ' bow r ed ;' 
'having declared' (from cjro, tenth conj.) : but ^ * to hold 
cause,' VFWfiT, makes ti*M|U) ' having caused to hold ;' and WT? 
' to adorn,' tenth conj., >T^zrfir, makes ^"pj*! ' having similarly 

Participles of repetition, or Adverbial Participles. 

251. In one form the indeclinable participle of repetition 
is nothing more than the indeterminate participle past repeated 
Tf3T *n^T ' having gone repeatedly,' ^rTT ^n * having done 
repeatedly 5 and is rather a case of grammatical construction, 
than part of conjugation. There is another form, no doubt of 
an analogous character, although specially provided for by 
adding the termination ui^c^ to the verbal base : this leaves 
^W, whilst the initial ur indicates the change of a final vowel 
to the Vriddhi equivalent, to be again changed before the 
vo\vel of ^m agreeably to the rules of Sandhi : thus f*i, ' to 
gather,' becomes ^, which makes ^ni ^ni * having collected 
repeatedly ;' ^, ' to hear,' becomes ^, and w^ ' to be,' >^, 
thus making ^n^ ^TR ' having heard repeatedly,' >rH HT? 
'having been repeatedly :' *R, ' to remember,' makes 


* having remembered repeatedly.' A final ^rr inserts *J before 
the termination ; as, tfT ( to give,' ^ro ^T*f t having given 
repeatedly/ When the verb ends in a consonant, a radical ^T, 
if not preceding a compound consonant, is changed to ^rr, and 
any other short vowel to its Guna equivalent : vowels long by 
nature or position are unchanged : thus Tfxr makes xrr^ "m^ 
' having cooked repeatedly ;' ^TPFr, TfTTO 3TRT ' governing repeat- 
edly ;' f%^, ^ ^ ' knowing or having known repeatedly ;' 
>JW, >ftr >Tfrf * eating or having eaten repeatedly ;' &c. 

a. The reiterated form of this participle is however by no 
means the mode in which it most frequently occurs, and it is 
much more often found singly in particular senses or combina- 
tions in which it offers an analogy to an adverb. Thus it 
occurs with words signifying ' first,' as iftf *ffaf or TRTJ vfrrf or 
TT^PT >ftf ^ffif ' having first eaten, he goes.' ^5, ' to do,' 
employs this form when used transitively, and with a verb 
signifying * to call ;' ^rt <*K*iT-*l3ir7r ' he calls out, having 
made, or imputed, theft ;' i. e. he calls out, * Stop thief.' The 
same verb also uses it connected with efi^j^ ' how/ or ^R N 

* thus ;' <*v[^i< or 3(rVf$K >pfi ' having done, thus or how he 
eats :' or with ^r<* * sweet ;' ^ugetirc. Hlfc ' having sweetened it, 
he eats.' *fta, ' to live,' takes this form in conjunction with 

' having lived so long, he studies ;' i. e. 

he studies during life.' ^T:, ' to fill,' takes it with ^w| or 
^FfhjR; ' having filled the skin ; ' ^fjt ' having filled hia 
belly.' inr also takes it ; as, Wjcymw iffnT killing all entirely, 
or to the very root, he slays ;' or xji^uifl ^f?fr * he strikes, 
kicking with his foot.' Instances might be infinitely multi- 
plied of the use of the indeclinable or adverbial participle 
employed without repetition to signify an action indetermi- 
nately past. 


Verbal Nouns. 

252. The nouns that are derived immediately from verbs 

P p 2 


comprehend a great variety of terms, for which an unexcep*- 
tionable classification can scarcely perhaps be proposed. There 
are two principal classes into which they might be divided, as 
adjectives or attributives, and substantives or names ; but the 
same word is very frequently used in either form, the quality 
or attributive constituting the appellation of the individual: 
thus ofin or eirrc in their generic acceptation signify e any thing 
or person that does an action, or makes any thing ;' whilst in 
combination, n*4<: means ' a servant,' 4*faMU ' a potter ;' and 
singly "sns has for one of its meanings ' toll' or ' tax,' and efirt: 
' a letter of the alphabet.' To distinguish derivative words 
therefore according to their import, would lead at least to 
much inconvenient repetition. 

253. These different nouns are formed, agreeably to the 
usual scheme of Sanskrit grammar, by affixing certain termi- 
nations to the crude verb, which is modified in a greater or 
lesser degree, and then forms the inflective base. These 
terminations are very numerous ; but the greater number have 
a very limited, in some instances almost an individual, appli- 
cation ; others comprehend a large class of words. It would 
be inconsistent with the object of the present grammar to 
furnish very numerous examples of these derivatives ; nor is 
such detail necessary, as they will be found, where they seem 
to be most appropriately placed, in the Dictionary. It will 
be sufficient therefore to give here a selection of such words 
as may appear to be most useful, or as may best exemplify 
the principles upon which they are constructed ; classing 
them under the terminations by which they are formed, and 
arranging them in alphabetical order, as has been done by 
Professor Bopp. He has, however, taken only the essential 
letters of the affixes ; but I prefer exhibiting them as they 
occur in original grammars, as from the letter or letters by 
which the essential element is accompanied, a clue is usually 
obtained to the modification to which the inflective base, or 
some word compounded with it, is subjected. 


W is added to derivative verbs to form abstract nouns, 
declinable only in the feminine gender, and which therefore 
add the feminine termination (^T^) ^TT; as, fcefflt^ ' to wish to 
do,' fJ(ni ' the desire to do ;' MdMJ ' to desire a son,' 
gacMWjl ' desire of a son.' It is also added to verbs ending 
with consonants preceded by a vowel long either by nature or 
position, to form similar substantives : ^ ' to endeavour/ f^r 
( effort' or ' wish ;' "35^ ' to reason,' 35^1 ' reasoning. 5 

^?, leaving w to be added to the verb, forms feminine 
abstract nouns from verbs which have an indicatory ^, and 
fWr? ' to break,' and others, forming the class fir^Tf^. The 
nasal prevents the change of the radical vowel ; as, 

* rupture ; ' f^nai ' reflection,' from f^fif ( to think ; ' 

* worship,' from TJ3T ' to worship ;' ipn ' cleaning,' from ^rT * to 
cleanse :' except in the case of a final ^r ; as, T, ' to decay,' 
makes *ru ' decay.' <^T (<3TJ^), ( to be ashamed,' makes <fqr 
' modesty.' ^fm, ' to have compassion,' changes its T: to ^ ; 
as, eCTrr ' clemency.' 'sr^ is also added to verbs in ^T when 
preceded by a preposition or analogous term ; as, ^T ^ to give/ 
TI^T ' a gift ;' HT ' to shine,' nm * light ;' and ^5rgT ' faith/ and 
^F?rtT ' disappearance,' from vr ' to have' or c hold/ preceded 
by ^^ or ^TfT^. 

^T^, leaving ^sr, is one of the most widely applicable affixes, 
i. It is added to the class of verbs called iHlty, or, according to 
most authorities, to all verbs whatever, to signify the agent; 
forming attributives which may take the three genders, but which 
are commonly used in some one gender as appellatives. A final 
vowel is changed before ^r, according to the rules of Sandhi ; 
as, TT^ ' to cook/ TT^T ' who or what cooks' or ( ripens ;' xni 
(^T^) ' to go/ ^ ' who or what goes ;' ^nj^: ' a male fol- 
lower/ ^nprft ' a female attendant ;' ^ (f*.^) ' to steal/ 'sfft: 
' a thief ;' >| ' to be/ *r^ e what is/ vrm ' the world/ or a name 
of Siva ; r? (*nrc) ' to sound/ ^ ( what sounds ;' T^ ' a male 
river/ 7Tft ' a female river.' (Obs. Those verbs of the class 


which have an Anubandha 7 require the feminine to be 
fonned with ^, not ^rr; as, ^rft, ^hft, *T^ ? &c.) 

2. W^ is also added to certain verbs compounded with 
their objects in restricted acceptations : as to ^ * to take/ 
bodily exertion being omitted ; as, <i$|^c * an heir/ ' one who 
takes his portion / but XK^IU ' a porter,' ' one who takes a 
load :' also with ^TT prefixed ; yuii^^ ' having flowers/ ' blos- 
soming.' It is also added to ?nr, ( to take/ in a similar 
manner ; as in $(fWii|^: ' a spearman/ ' one who holds a pike :' 
to ^r^ * to be worthy ;' M*|lt?T ' a female Brahman,' ' one 
worthy of reverence :' to sn? * to whisper/ and TjR ( to sport,' 
compounded with ^3 ' the ear/ and ^rg ' a bush/ put in the 
locative case ; as, Mif*ra: ' an informer / ww ' an elephant :' 
to verbs compounded with ^m to form proper names ; 
3P&T^ S'ambhava : to Tfft ' to sleep/ compounded with various 
terms ;' as, ^nn ' who sleeps in the air/ e a divinity ;' gd*i: 
' who sleeps in the heart/ * Cupid;' d^M^m: c one who sleeps 

3. Verbs ending in j^ take ^r^ to form abstract masculine 
and neuter nouns ; as, ff ( to conquer,' wn ' victory ;' fa ' to 
gather,' ^RK ' collection ;' >A ' to fear/ *r$ ' fear/ ' peril/ It 
is also added to a few other verbs, with a similar effect ; as, 
<pr ' to rain/ ^f : ' rain/ or * the rainy season.' 

^rcr , lea\ang ^r, with the change of a short radical vowel to 

\* o * o 

Vriddhi, is added to verbs to express the agent when com- 
pounded with the object ; as, "SK * to make,' CF?ORTC ' a potter,' 
f one w r ho makes pots ;' ^ * to take/ *TTC?TC ' a porter/ ' one 
who takes a load.' When added to ?TST ' to strike' or * kill/ Z 
is substituted for the final in certain combinations ; as, ^rfr- 
TtfTT. ' who strikes the tree,' ' a woodpecker/ When ^T is 
prefixed, the final may be T^ ; as, mSu^-id: or milH^IH: * a 
collection of letters/ c an alphabet/ 

^T*ra, leaving ^r^, is added to a few verbs, distinguished by 
an Anubandha ?, to form masculine abstract nouns : ^ 


' to tremble/ ^tr*p ' a trembling ;' fg (^fsg) l to increase,' 
v$Htll ' intumescence / <* (^) ' to be distressed/ ^TO ' anxiety,' 
' pain.' 

^srf^r is added to verbs to form masculine nouns implying 
imprecation ; as, from *ffa ' to live,' ^iflsjPri^ 1 *f?m^ * may loss 
of thy life be ',' ( mayest thou perish.' 

WT, leaving % forms masculine appellative and abstract 
nouns from verbs ending in ^f, "3i, % ^; as, jr ( to praise,' 
^n: ^praise;' ^ * to join,' TFT. ' barley;' ^ * to purify,' xpsr: 
' winnowing corn ;' ^ ' to make,' "3KT. ' the hand / TJ ' to swal- 
low/ *R: ' poison ;' w ' to spread/ preceded by fo, makes f^ar: 
' prolixity/ ' diiFuseness ;' but f%TO ( a bed,' ' a tree.' It may 
also be added to ^ ' to take ;' as, aj^: ' a planet : to f% * to 
collect/ preceded by f^c.; f?p$R: ' certainty :' ^to TR e to go ;' 
JTT: ' going :' also to TT*T , substituted for ^ f to eat/ pre- 
ceded by a preposition ; as, fHMU:, TTTO:, fa*W, ' food ' or 
' eating :' to ITT ' to meditate,' and **ni f to pierce,' not com- 
pounded with a preposition ; ifq: * silent prayer/ ^v: ' wound- 
ing:' to ^TT e to sound;' ^r: 'sound:' ^l c to laugh;' 
iro: * laughter :' to tR * to refrain,' either singly or preceded 
by T^T, fVr, f^, and *nr ; as, ^mt f restraint/ 7WT: * marriage/ 
PH^M: ' fixed rule/ fsf^n: f cessation/ tfqrT: f restraint :' to JT^ 
* to speak,' t^ ' to sound/ TTT ' to read/ ^qf ( to sound/ pre- 
ceded by "fa ; as, f^/]^: * speaking/ &c. : also "gpjj ' to sound,' 
either singly or with ftr when it means ' to sound as a lute ;' 
UTOFt fifgHlT: ' the sound of the Vina. There are other com- 
binations with this affix, of which it may be observed, that its 
use very commonly alternates with that of tr 5 ^, which latter 
makes the vowel long. Thus optionally with the preceding 
words we may have, PHym:, zrm:, 3jr^:, wnr., ^nr:, W*8'> which 
are formed with trs^. 

^TTCj is added to sr ' to injure/ and ^5 ' to praise ;' as, ^RT^ 
' mischievous,' ^^Uj e praising/ ^^H\: ' a bard.' 

is added to a few verbs to form attributives implying 


possession of the quality signified by the verb : thus 3^ ' to 
take,' tenth conj., J ]^*4lc| ' greedy/ 'insatiable;' ^j ' to be; 
compassionate,' <^l$ ' kind,' ' pitiful ;' f^T ' to sleep,' 
' sleepy, 3 ' slothful ;' ^^ ' to envy,' 4H^4I<^ ' envious.' 

3 is added to a class of verbs called <*m(d to form masculine 

A t 

or feminine abstract or appellative nouns ; as, ^ ' to plough,' 
^fV. ' ploughing' or ' agriculture ;' JJ ' to swallow,' firfe ' a 
mountain :' and the same affix, or ^, as derived from the 
technical affixes ^>T and ^JBT, forms similar nouns with the 
classes ^Mlf^ and -^ify ; as, ^rftr: ' a pond,' from ^T ' to sow ;' 
and wf*H ' war,' from W3f ' to go.' 

3(3 is added to a few verbs to form neuter nouns chiefly 
signifying an instrument ;' as, iff^ ' a spade,' from ^TT * to 
' dig ;' cTfa^ ' a sickle/ from * to cut :' but ^R ' to go,' 
^ft^, means ' instituted observance,' also ' a history' or ' nar- 
rative ;' and "^ ' to purify,' qfafcT ' the sacrificial thread,' * a 
prayer of the Vedas,' or * sacrificial fire.' 

^fiT, leaving ^f^, is added to various verbs, either single or 
compounded, to form attributives ; as, fif, ^PMH ' conquering,' 
' victorious ;' ij^Avith tfft prefixed, irfiOTfT'T ' who is disgraced ;' 
IT ' to be quick,' infa*! ' who is quick.' These, when inflected, 
form inft, wftnft, Tftl (see p. 63). To form masculine 
appellatives ^ftT is added to fr^ft ' to sell,' preceded by the 
article sold, as ^cjr<4*ifl e a vender of oil ;' and sometimes in a 
depreciatory sense, as *fin f<4 -**fl ' a low Brahman/ ' a vender 
of the Soma juice,' which is used at sacrifices. 

^tHM , leaving ^WT, forms attributives, declinable in three 
genders, from various simple and compound verbs ; as, from 
: ^R, ^irsn * going/ ' what goes ;' from ^, ^f^tm * what 
endures ;' from "5 with ^r^j, as vsM^fXuiJ ' what adorns,' or 
with f^l and ^rr, as PrKi<* ' what annihilates' or ' makes 
nothing of,' &c. 

"3 1 forms attributives with desiderative verbs ; as, f^ofit^ ' to 
wish to do.' faoft^ * desirous of doing :' also with a few others ; 


as, ^r * to wish/ ^| ' wishful ;' f^ to know/ f*n know- 
ing ; J SHl^lfa e to wish,' W$ITJ ' desirous ;' and farq 1 * to beg,' 
' begging/ f*T%r: * a mendicant/ 

forms attributives after various verbs ; the final indi- 
cates the lengthening of the radical vowel ; as, from "Fre ' to 
desire/ 5T*pi ' wanton / oR * to desire,' cfiTJ'<* ' desirous ;' >f/to 
be/ HTf^fi ' existing ;' TTW ' to fall/ xrnrsfi ' falling ;' ^7f to kill/ 
TTTipR ' destroying/ * destructive/ 

grrr, leaving T, forms a number of appellative nouns of 
various genders and purports : the radical vowel is made long 
by virtue of the final TFT. Thus with "^ ' to make/ RHj: * an 
artisan ;' fsr * to overcome (disease)/ srrg: * a drug / ^T * to 
blow/ ^rg: ' the wind / ^r ' to pervade/ wsr ind. ' quickly/ 
or wsn m. * a sort of rice ;' WT * to be born/ STFT n. ' the 
knee.' The chief importance of "3T!T is, however, its standing at 
the head of a very numerous class of terminations, thence 
called Unadi, or Un and others ; the effect of which, as will 
be observed even in the few examples above given, is confined 
to no particular signification, and which form derivatives not 
always bearing an obvious relation to the verbs whence they 
are derived. The principle of the Unadi derivatives is in fact 
merely their resolution into conjectural etymological elements, 
without much regard to the sense either of the primitive or 
derivative. The terms are too numerous to be further parti- 
cularized in this place, and they will all be found in the 
Dictionary, -which contains the whole of those specified in the 
five Unadi chapters of the Siddhanta Kaumudi. 

ofi, leaving ^r, forms attributives after verbs having any 
penultimate vowel except ^T or ^rr ; the change of which is 
barred by the initial cR ; as, from f?5^ l to write/ fc5^ ' who 
or what writes ;' from ^i ' to know/ "^r ' who or what 
knows.' It is also added to ift * to please/ ftnr ' what pleases/ 
' dear/ ' loved/ ' liked ;' to cR ' to scatter/ foR ' who or what 
throws.' It is also added to verbs ending in ^n, either as a 
radical letter, or as a substitute for a diphthong, and with or 


without a preposition, when the final ^sn is cut off; as, from 
|rr f to know/ $r or Tf$ s who or what knows,' g^ ' to call/ ^ny 
* who or what calls/ It forms appellatives or attributives 
with verbs in Wf, preceded by a subordinate term ; as, ^r ' to 
give/ *ifc* ' who gives a cow ;' ^T ( to preserve,' M I (VIM ' thfc 
rear of an army ;' and from m f to drink,' ffnr: ' an elephant,' 
who drinks with two things, his mouth and his trunk. It ifc 
added to ^n ' to stay or be,' in various forms and senses ; as. 
UHW * who or what is level* or ' at ease/ P^MHW ' who or 
what is uneven' or ' in difficulty ;' inr ' what goes first/ or 
tp&r. ' a measure ;' the sibilant being unchanged in this as in 
some other derivatives of the same class. jf^, ' to take/ 
changes its T. to "^ before cp, forming appellatives ; as, TT^ ' n 
house/ J^rr: (always m. pi.) ' a wife.' 

oR>, leaving ^r, is added to l^r, when compounded with 
pronominal nouns, to denote ' likeness ;' as, ^nr and ^T make 
^g"5i: ; whilst RT, leaving ^r, is added to the same verb, simi- 
larly compounded, when the two sibilants form ^ ; as, gH{: 
&c. : so dl^5l, rilgttj, &c. : see p. 83. 

f^fi, leaving ^, which is substituted for the radical final 
vowel, is added to verbs in ^rr, or those which substitute ^T 
for a diphthong, when preceded by a preposition, to form 
appellatives ; as, from VT ' to have/ ffrfv: ' a treasure ;' f*J: 
' a joint/ &c. : also when preceded by a subordinate term ; 
as, *M(V: ' what holds water/ i. e. the ocean. 

<W^, leaving TT, forms attributives from fir^ ' to break/ fa? 
' to know/ f&$ ' to cut ;' as, fT^X ' who or what breaks :' f^. 
1 who or what knows/ f&ZT. ' who or what cuts.' 

f\$T, leaving fir, is added to verbs to form feminine abstract 
or appellative nouns. There is a general analogy between the 
mode of attaching the final to the base, with the formation of 
past participles with ^i : thus R forms ^ffin * act/ * action ;' , 
^rf?r: ( praise ;' ^r, ^rfin ( hearing' or ' the Veda ;' XT^ e to go/ 
with *HT or fe prefixed, yurrTf: ' prosperity/ f^rrfw: * calamity.' 
tfif, ( to sacrifice/ makes ^fVt ' sacrifice ;' FT ' to stay/ 


* staying,' ' station ;' ^ * to sing,' iftPrT. ' singing ;' tTT ' to drink,' 
Tftfir: ' drinking ;' t^f ' to cook,' rtf=Ri ' cooking/ ' maturity ;' 
iTO ' to go/ nfw: * going/ ' motion ;' T?T ' to sport/ tfift e plea- 
sure/ Verbs ending with "35 or "^ change the TT to tf ; as, 
V ' to be anxious/ vf?r: ' anxiety ;' ^ ( to scatter/ sfrfiS: * scat- 
tering.' tft, * to destroy/ makes *rrfw: ' destroying ;' ^r ' to 
kill/ ^fr: ' a weapon ;' and ^fT t to celebrate/ ctfHlt: * fame/ 
' reputation.' 

f^?H forms adjectives from verbs which have an Anubandha 
| ; as XT^ (Ttr^) ( to ripen/ trf^pr * what ripens' or ' is ripe.' 

3, leaving ^ } forms attributives from f^J t i|V, ^T? and "^ ; 
as, fgfTj ' who or what throws / TTB s greedy ;' ^^ ' fearful ;' 
\gm ' arrogant.' vft, * to fear/ takes $, f^F^? or ^foF^, in all 
which the ofi is indicatory, to form adjectives ;' as, *faj, Wltj<+, 
or vft<^cfi, ' timid/ * fearful.' 

^t^ N forms adjectives with ^ or its substitute TRI * to eat / 
as, ^nit, VWC? ' voracious ;' and *r * to go/ ^*ni c movable/ 

* moving.' 

lifiT^, leaving ^T, forms adjectives with a few words in 
particular combinations ; as ]r$r ' to see/ with the object pre- 
fixed/ t|n^jr ' who has seen across / also "gv * to fight,' and 
^ ' to make ;' as, IM^T^ ' who has fought the king ;' i.MtiH| 
' who has made a king ;' Tf^ssp^ * who has fought with ;' 
^HlT^ff^ ' who has done any thing along with (another).' 
These words are declined like nouns in ^vr, p. 39. 

fit^ forms adjectives with 3[W * to go/ ff ' to conquer/ 
lU^i ' to perish/ and ^ { to go ;' as, ^?^c * what goes/ f^Hil 
' victorious/ tfJETC ' perishing/ flt^K ' moving/ ' going :' also 
with "im, which changes its final to fr ; as, TTrR ' what goes.' 
These adjectives form the feminine with ^; as, $nO, Pair^'O, 
, &c. 

, leaving a blank, or, in other words, annexing no addi- 
tional letter to the final of the verb to form its derivative, is 
subjoined to ?j^r, ' to touch/ to denote the agent combined 
with the object or instrument, when the former is not water ; 

Q q a 


a final si before this affix is changed in inflexion to 3fi (see 
r. 119, p. 65): ^H*^ (-* l pO 'who touches Ghee;' Hn^3{ 
' who touches (fire, &c.) by prayer:' but ^<*4*i$j: ' who 
touches water ;' the affix being tr^. The following nouns 
are irregularly formed with this affix : '^TrM^ ' a priest/ from 
*T5f e to sacrifice ;' ^3^ ( arrogant/ from >p ' to be proud ; ? 
SW ' a garland/ from THf * to quit / f^5^ * a quarter,' from 
f^5I ' to shew ;' <j(\m^ ( a kind of metre,' from fajTf ' to be 
bland :' these form their nominatives in fi. The derivatives 
of wt ' to go/ as irn^ ' east/ &c., and the words T[^ ' w ho 
joins/ and w^ ' a curlew/ are also formed with this affix (see 
nouns in ^ &c., p. 48). 

f^jxr is an affix of very extensive application ; its effect is 
precisely the same as that of the preceding, which is separated 
from it only to mark the peculiarities of inflexion to which 
nouns formed with ff^T are subject, fijitr adds nothing to the 
verb. The derivative ends with the same final as the primitive, 
modified occasionally, but never by the addition of a vowel. 
The nouns it forms are both attributives and appellatives ; as, 
U^: ' a mother/ from i| ' to bring forth ;' ^Ur^ m. ( one who 
goes in the sky/ ' a deity/ from ^ ' to go -,' uflT^ (lT%7) ' an 
enemy/ from f%^ * to hate ;' ^vj^ (^) ' a lunar mansion,' 
from ^nff ' a horse/ and Tpf ' to join / ^T^flt ' a general/ from 
' an army/ and Tjft ( to lead / 'fVrnT (TJ^) ( Brahma/ from 
' to shine.' Verbs ending in short vowels add i^ before 
as the t^ indicates : thus f% ' to collect/ makes ^f'rrf^n 
' w r ho collects the fire/ ' a householder;* ff, f to conquer/ 
ftfi^, as ^fiii^ ' the conqueror of Indra/ a proper name ; 
"8 ' to praise/ *^j as ^cj^^ * who praises the gods -,' ^ ' to 
sprinkle/ as tfta"^ ' who sprinkles the Soma juice ;' ^ ' to 
make/ as ^wf^ ' who does the work/ * an artificer ;' >rraT^ 
' who makes the gloss/ ' a scholiast.' l^T ' to see/ ^J^T ' to 
touch/ ^Tsf ' to leave,' take f^ to express the agent when 
combined with the object, as *r|g3^ (-F^) * all-seeing ;' iflWT^3( 
sharp/ ' corrosive / fw^ (-^) ' all-creating/ ' the 


Creator :' so does ^ ' to eat,' as w*!!^ * who eats flesh,' ' a 
goblin ;' and ^T ' to kill,' as Mflg^ (^r) < who kills a Brah- 
man.' The following are modifications to which the base is 
in some instances liable : "Sfj^, ' to cover,' makes its vowel 
short ; as, 'flJ^ e what covers the body,' ' a garment :' verbs 
ending in a nasal, on the contrary, lengthen the vowel ; as, 
^PT ' to be tranquil,' TnflTT (u^rnr) ' who is tranquil ;' TTff ' to 
stretch/ THTT^ ' who extends.' inr, ^TT, ^TH, and ZR, however, 
may change their finals to T^, and then the vowel remains 
short ; as, ^racfTnr * who goes along the" road ;' trftrnr e every 
way extended ;' *HW ' humble,' e lowly ;' *T*n^ ( self-restrained.' 
, ' to instruct,' substitutes ^ for its penultimate : ft^f*^ 
' who instructs a friend :' also with ^n prefixed ; as, 
nom. ^STT^ft:, ' a blessing.' TT, ' to swallow,' makes frR 
' speech.' >?^i, sNf, safe, ' to fall,' &c., drop their nasals, and 
substitute T^ for the final ; as, TUP??^ ' falling from a car ;' 
^?n^ ' falling from the pot ;' m&n^ ' falling from the leaf.' 
^ in various combinations as a radical letter is changed to 7 
or ^, when fg^ follows a verb : thus f^, ' to play,' makes 
^, as W3f^7r * who plays with dice,' ' a gambler :' ^R 1 ' to 
preserve,' makes ~3\: ' a preserver ;' which with a preceding ^r 
substitutes the Vriddhi letter, as n^: ' who preserves man- 
kind :' % ' to weave,' becomes "35: ' a weaver :' IT and Rt make 
^C. ' one who is ill ;' TT.C ' one who is quick.' $ and r final, 
preceded by ^ are rejected ; as, iret, ' to faint,' makes *T ' who 
faints ;' and ^t ' to injure,' "^r:, nom. V:, ' who injures ;' as, 
'srepjt ' a load,' ' what 'injures the axle of a cart.' Some verbs 
form nouns as it is considered irregularly with this aifix; as, 
TflT ' to speak,' TP^r ' speech ;' ITS[ ' to ask,' Tfl^, nom. TTT^, 
* who inquires ;' 1J ' to move,' R3TTt ' a worm ;' f% ' to serve,' 
"3ft: ' prosperity ;' "Enr ( to go,' ufi.cirl ' who wanders about,' 
' an ascetic ;' f^ ' to shine,' fe^pT ' lightning ;' TIT? ' to go,' 
IPTT^ ' the world ;' x^ ' to meditate,' vft: ' understanding ;' and 
many others, for which the Dictionary must be referred to. 


ipj is added to T33 ' to colour/ ^Tli: * a washerman,' 
*a washerwoman;' but if the derivative be formed with 
or the feminine noun signify ( a wife/ the form is M<*K 

W^ and its analogous affix WST, each leaving ^f, form a 
number of attributive and appellative nouns, compounded with 
the object or instrument of the action, which the letter ?j 
indicates is to retain the terminations of the accusative case, 
The 3T of the one indicates that the form of the derivative is 
analogous to that of the conjugation : the ^ of the other, that 
the radical vowel must be always short. Words formed with 
are, from ^ ' to speak/ fa^H^t ' who speaks kindly ;' 
: ' who speaks authoritatively :' from TTO ' to go,' ft^-W 

* who goes in the sky :' from ^ ' to make/ xq^i. f fearful,' 

* alarming ;' ^W^l. ' what removes fear ;' *S}H$4. ' what brings 
good : ' from JJ ' to nourish/ fa vj 1 **^ ' what nourishes all ;' 
f^SFHTT * the earth : ' from 1PT c to scorch/ TTWT: ' who 
scorches or subdues an enemy,' ' a hero : ' from TR ( to 
restrain,' <CT*|*IH: ' an ascetic,' ' one who restrains his speech' 
or * observes a vow of silence :' from H ' to tear,' TJI^IJ (not 
^<XR) ' w h tears or destroys a town/ a name of Indra. 
^ * to be,' with *Hlf$rri ' fed,' makes ^rifyrf**^: ' food' or 
' satiety.' Of words formed with ^3T the foUowing are exam- 
ples : from TT3PI * to cause to tremble,' H*)fMt ' who awes 
mankind,' the name of a prince : from ^T>T ' to go/ '<*lrf<r: 

* who goes with the wind,' * a deer :' from ^ (fo) ' to suck,' 
VfriHj^:, fern, tit, * who sucks the breast,' * an infant :' from 
WIT * to blow/ HifiHiJT: 'a piper:' from ^ 'to torment,' 
f^ffi* ' who tortures the moon,' ' the planet Rahu / <%^: 
' what afflicts the marrow/ * what is very painful :' from TI^ 

* to cook,' foriMjt*: ' who cooks by measure/ ' a niggard :' 
from TTU * to scorch ;' c4c4ld*dw: ' what scorches the forehead,' 

* the sun :' from JRf * to be or make mad,' $1**^: ' what mad- 
dens or shines upon the water,' ' lightning.' From W*1 ' to 
mind' or * think/ implying conceit or imagination, come such 


compounds as ijft&ri'u^: ' one who thinks himself a Panclit ;' 
Tli*nq; f who fancies himself a cow.' It is unnecessary to 
multiply examples further. 

^75, leaving ^r, is added to verbs preceded by 1^n^, <^> or 
TT, to form adjectives implying the mode of the action ; as, 
i^lHi^. ' that which is made by a little at a time ;' HUMl ' what 
is made with difficulty ;' ^jefii: ' what is made with ease.' This 
affix is sometimes used indiscriminately with ^r>^: see below. 

facing and *J3W are attached to H/to be,' and ^ap-^ to ^ 
'to do,' compounded with certain words, which, as in the case 
of ^^ and TjJST > the ^ indicates must terminate in a nasal : 
thus w i'iy*H f<4 unt and -iU4l*HN<*t ' a man who becomes wealthy,' 
'not having been so before,' are formed with the two first 
affixes ; and sniM<=RJii ' the means of becoming wealthy,' with 
the last : so ^n*rwrfVajT:, ^reiwrrfcK, ' becoming blind ;' ,n*M>^WAU 
' means of blinding ;' &c. 

IT, leaving ^r, forms nouns, for the most part masculine, 
implying place, or instrument, or appellation ; as, from ofi, 
WlcK: ' a mine,' ' where men work ;' ^ ' to cover,' ^d^: 
' the lip,' ' that by which the teeth are covered ;' wT ' to dig,' 
^n^7T: s a spade ;' TTO e to deal,' 'Himir: ( a market ;' 3R ' to 
touch,' f^3fm ' a touchstone ;' ^T. ( to go,' jfNtJ ' pasture-land ;' 
^ ( to bear,' ^: ' a conveyance ;' &c. 

TJ>T is one of those affixes of which the application is most 
extensive, and it forms a number of very useful masculine 
nouns, signifying the act, the agency, the instrument, the 
thing, or the abstract property. The essential element is ^r; 
but the ^ indicates that a final palatal is to be changed to a 
guttural; and the s^, that a radical medial ^T is to be made 
long, and a final vowel to take its Vriddhi element, whilst any 
medial vowel but <3T is changed to the Guna equivalent: a 
penultimate nasal is, with a few exceptions, rejected. Thus 
TT% ' to cook,' makes T^nK ' cooking 9 or ' maturity ; J IT^ ' to go,' 
ifl^: ' a foot ;' wt ' to desire,' eRTRt ' desire,' ' love ;' ^PR ' to be 
weary,' fc^im: ' rest ;' *r ' to go,' WR: ' strength,' ' essence,' 


' diarrhoea ;' 5 f to take,' ^rc ' a necklace,' 
cry,' with *r^, *hre: ' roaring ;' ^< to be,' 
dition ;' fr$T ' to enter,' ^r: ' an abode ;' 
* disease ;' ^J^F ' to touch,' ?-tr$h ' touch ;' 
' fuel ;' "W^f ' to loosen,' IHTO ' flaccidity,' the vowel remaining 
short ; T^ ' to colour,' 5CTT: ' passion,' but T^p: ' a theatre :' 
Tpr^j ' to go,' makes either ^cj^i ' speed,' or W^t ' dropping :' 
^TO and **Ji?y, e to throb,' make 5?fiR: and Wil^: ' throbbing:' 
fr, ( to collect,' changes its initial to OR ; as, cRrzr: ' the body,' 
fri<+m: * a habitation.' Many words formed with XIST admit of 
'snr also, as observed above ; taking one or other in different 
senses or combinations ; as, Tsft, ' to guide,' makes ^TFT: ' lead- 
ing ;' but WS*l ' affection,' 'qft^jpl ' throwing round/ 'iifXni *<: 
' marriage :' ?nr * to take,' with ^n 1 and frf prefixed, to form 
terms of imprecation, makes ^'^i||^: ' dishonour,' Prii/l^: ' death/ 
as ^^UI^^ ^f? 1 ^' ^ ut '^U^V VRW * acceptance or seizure of 
the wealth,' ^JTBT f^lTf J ' confinement of the thief.' Some of 
the distinctions are very fanciful : thus fa compounded with 
xpqr, ' a flower,' takes TT>^ when it means ' gathering by hand/ 
as ipq^TOJ ; but ^l^ when it means gathering in any other 
way, as Tjar^rn t gathering flowers (with a stick).' 

fVHiir forms attributives in ^T, requiring the change of *3r 
to ^Tf, and of any other short vowel to its Guna substitute : 
iqf ' to leave/ WTft'T * who leaves ;' Tpf ' to join/ iftfh'^ ' who 
joins/ tftift ' a religious man / fg~3 ' to hate/ irfaT ' who or 
what hates / ^1^ ' to play/ ^|ftfT^ ' who plays ;' ir ' to 
touch/ ^wiP^TT ' what touches' or ' is close to / ^ ' to speak,' 
MO=<lf^H ' who contradicts.' The class of verbs ^T*nf^ (see 
p. 224.) do not change the vowel ; ^ifn^ ' who is calm ;' 
except ?r^, with Ti^ or n prefixed, d * I f^ ^ or innf^T ' mad,' 
' intoxicated.' 

^T:^, leaving "5T, is added to fiff^ e to be unctuous/ >TW ' to 
shine/ >TW ' to break / as, *T<^ ' unctuous,' HT^C ' splendid, 

' fragile.' 
, leaving ^T, is added to ^ * to do/ ^ ' to go/ and *3T. ' to 


go/ to form attributives and appellatives in composition with 
other words. indicates the formation of the feminine in ^ ; 
as, f<*^'C ' a servant/ f<*^0 ' a female servant.' When the 
feminine is fcSfJU, the derivative ^c has been formed with w^: 
so n^*!K: ' who makes the sky/ ' the sun / Hrani: * who makes 
light/ ' the sun :' H'^i *MLt -^ -^ ' what makes fame/ ' honourable/ 
' glorious :' so also ^l^^Tt * one who goes before/ * a leader ;' 
faSTP^TS ' one who goes for alms/ ( a mendicant / &c. 

Z^, leaving ^r, is added to ^ in certain compounds, when 
H is substituted for the root, to signify the agent ; as, rnmi: 
' a man who kills his wife ;' iffrtjfl ' a woman who kills her 
husband ;' cRijTZTK ' one who destroys or breaks open a door/ 
' a thief;' fxr^jf * what destroys bile/ ' clarified butter.' Com- 
pounded with xrrftsr and frr?, in the sense of ' manufacture' or 
' art/ TT is substituted for the root ; as, TjTftu'sr: or 7TTT*rt * a 
mechanic/ ' an artisan/ It is also added to ^ * to sing/ and 
ITT ' to drink/ in certain combinations ; *TR*r:, *rw*fi', ' a male 
or female chaunter of the Sama / TOTT: -xft * a winebibber :' 
but tn, ' to preserve/ takes T% ; as, tfa&n ^nndT ' a female 
Brahman, who keeps the milk.' 

5, leaving ^r, is added to TR ( to go/ and ^T s to kill/ to 
form attributives and appellatives : the ? indicates the elision 
of the radical final : 'H'i^'iT ' who or what goes every where ;' 
fq^i: ' who goes in the air/ ' a bird ;' ^71: { what goes on its 
belly,' ' a snake ;' 3Tc|lf ' a destroyer of an enemy ;' 7T*rhTf : 
' what drives away darkness/ ' the sun.' 

J forms nouns with ^ to be/ preceded by t\, IT, and ^ ; 
as, fzxi ' who is every where/ ' a deity ;' ir>f: ' a master ;' 
*nj: ' a progenitor :' also with "5 ' to flow/ preceded by its 
object ; ffTrT?: ' what runs in a measured course/ * the ocean / 
ynci;;: ' what runs in a hundred (streams)/ ' a river.' 31**:, a 
name of Siva, is considered to be formed also with this affix, 
from $! ' auspicious/ and ^ ' to be.' 

HT, leaving ^r, is added to verbs ending in ^TT to form nouns 
of various kinds ;' as, 37 ' to give/ ^rm ' a portion ;' vr ' to 

R r 


hold/ \mr: * a possessor/ ' one who has' or * holds ;' ^ ' to 
go/ ^J^STTR: ( frost :' also to ^X ' to go/ *| ' to ooze/ tft ' to 
destroy/ ^ ( to take/ preceded by prepositions ; as, 
( going away/ t end,' ( destruction / ^HII(: ' trickling ;' 
' end/ ' conclusion/ or ' who or what ends ;' <H^I4J ' a shark/ 
also * who or what takes away :' also to lift ' to guide/ TTR: 
' a means ;' f<3^ ' to lick/ ^5: e licking ;' f%tr ' to embrace/ 
"ifa: ' embracing ;' TJ^ ' to take/ TJT% : ' an alligator ; *q\| * to 
pierce/ ^sqrv: ' a hunter/ It is also added to i"R ' to be born/ 
preceded by nouns or particles in various senses ; as, 
' unborn ;' flfif ' twice born ;' finft ' a Brahman ;' ^r*TT ' bom 
after ;' WpT: ' a younger brother ;' TTtftnf ' a lotus/ ' born in 
a pool ;' *T?Tn ' a monkey/ ' one born in a stable ;' ^glM 
' born from accident/ or ' what has not been foreseen/ From 
WT, ' to dig/ it forms qfXm ' a ditch.' It is also added to ^ 
' to eat/ preceded by fa ; as, ^: ' food :' and to ^ffa* ' to be 
possessed of,' cpr ' to desire/ *TBf * to eat,' preceded by their 
objects ;' as, ni^0c4 ' having flesh/ ' stout ;' ni <*IH ' desirous 
of flesh ;' JTTTM^ * eating flesh :' also to ^ ' to see/ and ^t 
' to go/ preceded by ^TT ; as, WWrflj ' expecting happiness / 
' one of good habits/ These make their feminines 

in W; as, *Ufl$flp5T &c. 

fmfn is an affix of extensive use to form attributives from 
verbs. The essential termination is ^T ; the initial W pro- 
longing in most cases a radical short vowel. Nouns thus 
formed are mostly declinable in three genders as nouns in ^ 
(p. 63). It is affixed to a class of words called i^ify ; as, 
JjfPfT^ ' who or what takes / tvjifiH * who or what stays' or 
1 is stationary;' frKf^T 'preserving/ 'protecting;' 
* who or what offends ;' xiftHifcj^ ' what disgraces.' It is 
also added to ^, preceded by ^TR or ^fM ; as, 

1 who strikes the boy ;' ^ft^Mlfrt^ ' who strikes the head : J 
to verbs preceded by nouns ; as, TB!TTtfinT ' who eats his 
meal hot ;' *rp*3iTfTT ' who does what is right ;' aiSNl 
' who declares Brahma' (the Vedas or the true god). It is 


also added to them to form attributives implying ' similarity/ 
as 4g-#lfiHt^ ' who cries like a camel / or to denote a religious 
obligation, as ^ftii^SllfiH ' who sleeps on the ground/ in 
consequence of a vow. 

jpg is affixed to a few verbs to form appellatives or attri- 
butives : T!T prolongs the radical vowel ; 7 indicates the femi- 
nine termination to be ^; and TJ, wherever it occurs, indicates 
the final of the derivative to be ^rT : thus, from T^ to sing/ 
TTHH:, Tnr?ft, ' a male' or ' female singer ;' from ^T ' to aban- 
don,' ^T*Rt ' a year/ or ' a kind of rice/ 

fi^ is added to >HT ' to take/ with the effect of fRi^, except 
that it prolongs the vowel ; as, n'$l*llT x (nom. >rrs) f one to 
take his share/ ' an heir/ 

l&tt is an affix to verbs in general to form nouns attributive 
of agency : % as usual, lengthens the vowel ; whilst ^ indi- 
cates the termination of the derivative to be ^SRi : thus ^, ' to 
do/ makes ^TtB e who or what makes ;' t^ * to cook/ HT^<* 
' who or what cooks' or ' ripens / ^T * to kill/ Mld<* * who or 
what destroys ;' ^T ' to give/ ^Rofi { a giver.' Some verbs do 
not make the vowel long ;' as ,^T, ^JTB * who tames / ^v, 
WVofi ' who kills ;' W^T, JTd*: ' who begets/ ' a parent/ Femi- 
nine nouns usually substitute ^ for the penultimate vowel ; as, 
^BTft^Fr, TTfaofiT, &c. : so do some feminine nouns, names of 
diseases, formed with this affix ; as, M-^fsfcM ' vomiting/ 
ffafiT ( diarrhoea :' they are considered irregular : so are 
' sitting/ and ^llftl*! ' lying down.' 

^ is an affix of extensive use to form appellatives of 
agency; it leaves TT, and nouns formed with this affix are 
declined like nouns in ^ in the three genders (see p. 42) : 
thus ^ ' to make/ ~SR^ ' a maker/ ' a doer ;' THT, ip^ ' a goer ;' 
*T^, TIWI ' a cooker/ ' a ripener.' It follows the analogy of the 
original verb in inserting or omitting ^ before 7T ; as, *fa? or 
' who bears ;' ^fw^ or ire l who wishes ;' ^5nT, W^, or 
, ' who goes ;' &c. After some verbs, ^T is said to be 
R r 2 


used instead of "ys; as, from ' to sacrifice,' fffij ' the minis-i 
tering priest.' 

rf^, leaving T, forms substantives from *T3T ' to worship, 
ifT^f ' to ask,' ' inf ' to strive,' f^T * to shine,' Tl^S ' to ask ;' 
as, TT$r: ' sacrifice,' irr^*n ' solicitation,' ira: ' effort.' f^St e shin- 


ing,' and IPS' ' a question, ^n?:, ' sleep' or ' a dream,' is 
formed from T^TJ ' to sleep,' with "^T affixed. 

qfifjr forms adjectives from ^TJ ' to sleep,' TJ^ e to thirst,' 
Y? 'to be proud ;' as WJH^ ' sleepy,' ^sn^ ' thirsty,' *njn^ 
' arrogant :' they are declined in three genders like nouns in 

H (p. 48). 

nfH forms attributives and appellatives from verbs ending 
in vowels ; as, from <*T * to give,' ^m"T a proper name ;' ST 

* to injure,' $iwhr a title proper for a Brahman. 

TT^, which, as remarked under the head of inr^, leaves, for 
the termination of the derivative, WT, forms attributives of 
agency and appellatives after verbs that signify ' motion,' 
' sound,' ' ornament,' or * anger ;' as, ^VW ' who or what is 
going ;' <**m ' who or what is shaking ;' T3W ' who or what 
is sounding ;' v^nir ' who or what is adorning ;' ^tVT ' who or 
what is in a passion :' also after verbs beginning with a con- 
sonant, and having the indicatory vowel gravely accented ; as, 
w * to be,' Tfh? * who or what is abiding ;' cpi ' to increase,' 
tf^{ ' who or what is increasing :' also after various other 
verbs ; as, IT e to be quick,' SHH ' fleet ;' sf^ ' to burn,' ^c4f 
' burning/ ' shining ;' &c. The feminine termination of nouns 
formed with ^^ is rn^; as, ^f5^T, F^TT, &c. : it also forms 
feminine nouns signifying the act, after verbs of the tenth 
conjugation or causals ; as, eiiTWr e causing to do ;' 

* causing to take :' also after a few other verbs ; as, 
<err*HI ' sitting ;' "5F^ ^rHT loosing ;' Tjg, MgHI ( effort,' ' ex- 
ertion ;' ^f^, j?^r|T * praising ;' f^, ^TfT * perception.' 

T forms attributives with ^17 ' to bow,' ^a{ ' to tremble,' ft? 

* to smile,' ^R * to desire,' ffft? ' to injure,' ^TT ' to shine ;' as, 


r^S ' bent/ 339 ' tremulous/ w: ' smiling/ ^J3j ' desirous/ 
' mischievous,' ( cruel/ cfhf * radiant/ It also forms the inde- 
- clinable noun JHtf t continual/ from sTH ( to let loose,' with 
the negative prefixed. 

^ forms attributives with certain verbs ; as, ^r ' to give/ 
^ ' to cut/ ft ' to bind/ ^ ' to decay/ ^ ' to go :' ^r^ ' who 
or what gives/ or * who or what cuts / %^\ i who or what 
binds ;' sr?f ' decaying ;' w% ' what goes.' 

v> o 

^ofi forms appellatives with "3TPT, ' to wake,' and verbs in 
the frequentative mode ; as, WR^fi ' vigilant/ and *JN*Ji* ' who 
worships frequently/ ^SJ^i ' who bites keenly/ ^r^-^ofi: a 
snake / from TT3T ' to worship/ ^ ' to bite ;' &c. 

OT forms nouns of agency from a class of verbs called *iriif^, 
and from a variety of others : for the effect of ^, see TP^ and 
*re above : T^ ( to delight/ v?<*rf ' who or what is delighted ;' 
q<* ' to madden/ ir^rf ( who or what maddens ;' "^TV ' to accom- 
plish/ *rr\R ' who or what effects ;' tr^ ' to bear/ ^T ( who 
or what bears.' These nouns are very commonly used in the 
masculine gender as appellatives ; as, vj'f^: ' a son/ ir^Tt 
1 Love,' *T*pi^T: ' the destroyer of Madhu/ a name of Vishnu ; 
and the like. 

^37 is an analogous termination to the preceding, and also 
forms derivatives ending in 'STrT ; but they are not nouns 
signifying an agent ; they denote the object, the act, the 
instrument, the site, or the abstract condition ; and although 
sometimes masculine or feminine, are more usually neuter 
nouns : HfSTrC ' an article of food,' *ilH ' food in general' or 
' feeding/ from >pT s to eat ;' |4|H ' chattering/ from sr^I l to 
talk ;' sTHrf * laughing/ s laughter/ from ^T ' to laugh ;' *rr*Tf 
( accomplishing/ or ' means/ ' instrument/ from inv ' to effect ;' 
tfR ' drinking' or ' drink/ from TH ' to drink ;' ira^^T: ' an 
implement of cutting/ ' an axe/ from w^T * to cut / if^l^Ht 
' an implement of milking/ * a milk pail/ from <-*r * to milk.' 
The "z of the affix denotes the feminine formation in ^. 

forms attributives, which in one or other gender become 


appellatives, from different verbs ; as, ITT ' to stay,' tvfHt ' who 
or what is stationary,' WNl. ' an inanimate product of nature ;' 
$S[T ' to be powerful,' fi>5R ' who is powerful,' f^ER: ' God ;' HPT 
' to shine,' HP3R ' radiant,' &c. It is also added to TTT, ' to 
go,' in the frequentative mode ; qi*n'4t ' who or what goes 

JST is added to fr^, ' to abuse,' and other verbs, to form 
attributives signifying the agent ;' as, fr^cfi ' who or what 
reviles ;' f^HB ' who or what injures :' also to f^T * to play,' 
and "Si^T * to cry,' preceded by ^T ; as, ^TUJ^<* ' who sports' or 
plays ;' ^Tl-*l$l<* ' who calls out' or ' cries.' 

"&?{, like the preceding, leaving ^HF, forms attributives with 
Ij ' to go,' ^ ' to go,' and ^' to cut ;' as, TT^fi ' who or what 
goes :' ^Refi ' who or what moves ;' <3TR * who or what cuts.' 

O ' x 

It also forms benedictory nouns ; as, afl'| <*, ' living,' is used 
as wishing long life to ; fl'| *M* *rqr: * Mayest thou be a 
liver,' i. e. live long. 

^T, leaving ^T, is added to different verbs to form attri- 
butives and appellatives. The $? indicates that the derivative 
follows the conjugational form of the verb ; as, xrr, fq^fa ' to 
drink,' frra 1 ' who or what drinks,' ^T, M^fri ' to see,' TIJTI 
' who or what sees ;' ^, vrfff ' to suck,' >m ' who sucks,' V^K 
' a boy,' VTTT ' a girl.' So <*T * to give,' and >n * to hold,' third 
conj. ; ^ ' who or what gives ;' ^V ' who or what holds.' So 
fo5tj ' to smear,' and f^ ' to know,' of the sixth conjugation, 
make fcST and f^?^ ; as in "ftrfcSTT: ' the unsoiled,' ' the 
gods ;' Tftfar^: * who tends the cattle,' a name of Vishnu. So 
derivatives from verbs of the tenth conjugation and causals 
retain the sign ; as, f^ff ' to think,' ^finj ' who or what 
' reflects ;' T, xnTTT ' who or what fills ;' ^ and ^*T, T^sni 
* what causes to tremble.' ^r is also added to various verl)s 
to form feminine abstract nouns ; as, f**rr e act,' ' action,' ^551 
' wish,' ^ft^^T ' worship,' ijft?EnT ' wandering,' Hinn ( hunting,' 

roaming,' aTTH^T ' waking,' ' vigilance.' 
r, leaving ^TRi, forms attributives from a few verbs ; as, 


' prattling/ ' a babbler/ from T5T ' to talk idly ;' 
' begging,' from fi^f ' to seek alms ;' &c. The feminine is 
formed with ^ | *y I <*), fir^fnft, &c. by virtue of the indi- 
catory initial ^. 

^*T, like iW<J &c., as above, leaves Wefi, and forms attri- 
butives denoting the practiser of any art or business : the 
feminine, in consequence of ^, ends in ^ : thus TTTT, ' to dance/ 
makes HN:, '({^eft, ' a male or female dancer ;' ^f ' to dig/ 
lM<*:, ^T=lft ' a male or female ditcher.' 

gr^, leaving &, forms neuter and feminine nouns from 
various verbs, signifying the instrument or means by which 
any end is effected ; as, ^V * to cut,' ^TW e a sickle ;' fq^t ' to 
' sprinkle,' ^^p* ' a bucket ;' ^ and Tpf ' to join/ ift^ or *f^Ji* 
1 fastening of a yoke / ^rer ' to injure/ ^r^ ' a weapon ;' ?nft 
( to guide/ ^^ ' the eye / ^r ' to bite,' ^ ' a tooth ;' ^rw f to 
govern/ 3||^-f ' a scripture.' "q, ' to purify/ makes xft^ ( the 
snout of a hog/ or ' the shaft of a plough.' ^, ' to suck/ 
makes \n?ft ' a nurse ;' and VT ' to have (health by it)/ VT^ft a 
particular shrub. 

^zr^i^T is added to the verb ^, c to sing/ to form 'livj<+: ' a 


Nominal Derivatives. 

254. Having formed primitive nouns from verbs, other 
nouns may again be derived from the primitive nouns, to 
imply every possible relation to the things, actions, or notions, 
which the primitives express. These derivative nouns, called, 
as already mentioned, Tad-dhita (' relating or belonging to that' 
which is primitive), are formed in the usual mode by attaching 
certain affixes to the base, and modifying the latter agreeably 
to special rule, or to the indications afforded by the letter or 
letters accompanying the essential elements of the termination. 

255. The difficulty of an unexceptionable classification of 
the Taddhita derivatives is still greater than even that of the 


classification of Kridanta words, inasmuch as the former are 
still more diversified in form and purport, and as many of the 
affixes are applicable in a greater variety of acceptations. We 
must therefore have recourse again to the alphabetical arrange- 
ment of the terminations, distinguished under a few different 
heads, and occasionally associating a few of an analogous and 
limited application. 

256. Some of the most extensively useful of the Taddhita 
affixes are connected by an analogous diversity and extent of 
application. They are mostly employed in forming words 
which are one or other, or sometimes all, of the following : 
i. Patronymics and terms denoting lineal descent, or com- 
munity of origin ; 2. Attributives of a variety of qualities and 
circumstances ; 3. Appellatives, or names of persons and 
things ; 4. Nouns of aggregation ; and 5. Abstract nouns. 
These may therefore be classed under one head, as Miscellaneous 
nouns. Another considerable class of terminations is employed 
to denote possession of a thing or property by an individual 
object ; and they may constitute another class, as Possessives. 
The terminations forming the superlative and comparative 
degrees are included amongst the Taddhita affixes ; and so 
are those which form various pronominal derivatives, and 
terms connected with number, as ordinals, &c. : these may 
be grouped together. Finally, there are various indeclinable 
and adverbial terms. Thus making four classes of nominal 
derivatives ; in each of which the terminations may be alpha- 
betically arranged. With exception of the last of the above 
classes, Taddhita derivatives are declinable in either one or all 
of the genders. 

257. The letter or syllable which forms the essential 
adjunct to the base, is sometimes merely added to it agree- 
ably to the laws of combination ; but it more usually takes 
the place of the last vowel of the primitive, and if that be 
followed by ^, of the consonant also. Thus from f^R cornea 
|re; from f^RB&, T5Rft&; from P^HHT, ^RThf. A final ^ or 


may be changed to its Guiia equivalent, and thus combined 
with the vowel of the affix, as eij, ^tfT3" ; but it may be some- 
times cut off, as $ajJ!f, (>8jU<*. 1 3npnr, ' a stone/ makes 'srnpr 

* stony / g?T*T ' the Vedas' or ' Brahma,' WT^T ' relating to 
Brahma' or ' the Vedas / but as a generic term of descent, it 
makes srRTO: ' a Brahman.' So nouns ending in ;pr usually 
preserve the final ; as, ^psfiTT ' a car,' xrrfwff ' belonging to a 
car/ There are many varieties, however, in the annexation 
of the affix to the base, for which the Dictionary must be 

258. It is also a general rule, that all those terminations 
which contain an indicatory TTT, >T, or "5R, require that the first 
vow r el of the base, whether it be a simple or compound term, 
substitute the Vriddhi equivalent ; as, **r%m ' the eye,' ^rrenr 

* relating to the eye.' In some polysyllabic words the Vriddhi 

! letter is repeated ; as, ?r3 ' a friend/ Tff^tf ' friendship ;' and 
from nfVr{ and Htjr^ combined, comes ^Tf'HHl^ri * sacred to 
Agni and Marut' (fire and wind). If the primitive begins with 
a compound letter, of which the second member is H or ^, the 
Vriddhi diphthong ^ or ^ is commonly prefixed to the semi- 
vowel ; as, from ^mr, ' logic,' comes ^tjTf^oF: ' a logician / from 
^nri ' a tiger,' t|zrro ' covered with a tiger's skin / from ^TT 
to-morrow, ^^f^r^fi ' of, or relating to, to-morrow.' 

259- In some instances, nominal derivatives retain the form 

of the primitives unaltered ; as, tnfTc5: ' a native of Panchala/ 

i otherwise TTI'^IC*: ; Tj^Tf ' belonging or relating to the Yavanas/ 

otherwise tnTf. In these cases, it is affirmed, that the usual 
affix had been attached to the primitive, but again rejected, 
together with its effects : this is called Taddhita-luk. 

260. Attributives formed with affixes containing an indi- 
catory Tjr, ?T, 7, 3", TT, and taking the three genders, form, with 
a few exceptions, the feminine with ^ ; as, ^P^TTft, %>ff, ^EJfft, 

CLASS I. Miscellaneous affixes. 

, leaving ^r, forms, i. Patronymics; as, ^ffw: 'a son' or 

s s 


' male descendant,' of TRT : also generic terms of descent ; a$, 
3^T ' any divine being/ from ^ef ' a deity :' 2. Attributives iji 
certain senses ; as, ifa ' covered with an elephant's hide/ from 
'an elephant;' IfTftjg 1 'dyed with turmeric,' from ^ft^T; 
' made of the wood of the Devadaru pine :' 3. Appella- 
tives ; as, ^ ' a man,' TPfr ' a woman / Y^T=ft * the earth.' 
tnf^Nt ' a prince :' 4. Nouns of aggregation ; as, cfiTtftw ' a 
flock of pigeons,' from ^xjVff ' and 5. Abstract nouns in certain 
senses ; as, ^rPET ' the nature of a horse.' In general, ^rT may 
be considered as forming similar derivatives with the analogous 
termination ^TCT, and to be applicable to the same primitives, 
although theoretically it is limited to words of w r hich the first 
vowel is gravely accented, which terminate in 'g', or which 
belong to certain specified classes ; as, ^ft!3<=Hf^ or ^ft|3fi, and 

^<j-eJ x forms from ^iwb^, * act/ the attributive cfcwfo ' active,' 
' energetic.' 

wr, leaving ^r, is an affix of very universal application. It 
forms, i. Patronymics ; as, wtM'!?: ' a son or descendant of 
3TT>J ;' =TT^^: ' the son of Vasudeva' ^r?^:, that is, Krishna : 
also terms of descent in general ; as, pJIAUllt ' a Brahman/ from 
WJ^. A final ^ is changed to ^ before the ^r of ^cr in this 
sense ; as, frmiJT.: ' the son of two mothers/ from fg and ffi| 
' a mother.' 2. Attributives ; as, tffifffT ' Madder/ mfw? ' of 
the colour of, or dyed with, Madder / ^g-y ' cloth/ <4\{rf ( made 
of, or covered with, cloth/ &c. ; ^^ ( relating or belonging to, 
or a worshipper of, Siva ;' ^NjR ' relating or belonging to, or 
a worshipper of, Vishnu ;' %^TJ ' belonging to, or produced in 
the country of, Nishadha.' ^ng, e a horse,' makes ^rrsET ' belong- 
ing or relating to a horse/ ' drawn by horses / ^T^TT ' sugai 1 / 
^TT^^ ' sugary/ ' made of sugar/ or ' as sweet ;' 'sfNlf ' woollen/ 
' made of wool/ from gnffT ' wool ;' ?JTJT, tr?r, fjT*T, ' produced 
in the hot or cold weather/ ' summer,' ' winter ;' ^n^ ' diurnal/ 
from ^Tf 1 ^ ' a day ;' ^r ' nocturnal/ from ffqtT ( night / Hf^ 
' annual/ from.^NTBt: { a year ;' ^rn!k ( bodily/ ' corporeal/ from 


t ' the body.' It also forms possessive attributes ; as, 
' wisdom,' TTT^r ' having wisdom,' ( wise.' 3. Many of the attribu- 
tives already given are also appellatives : thus fN: and %un^: 
mean severally ' a follower of S'iva or Vishnu ; ' %^K is a 
proper name, ' king of Nishadha ;' ^ra: ' a carriage drawn by 
horses.' "^if, relating to the asterism ipr, is in the masculine 
iffa:, the name of a month, when the moon is in that asterism ; 
and in the feminine, xrNt ' day of full moon in the month of 
Paush.' 4. Aggregates ; as, ^TTfi ' a flight of cranes,' from ^cp: 
* a crane ;' Hsf 'a troop of beggars,' from f>T5r: ' a beggar/ 5. Ab- 
stract nouns ; as, 3Tfa: ' who is pure/ ^rN ' purification ;' *fVr: 
' a silent sage / whf ( silence ;' ^r^ ' young,' TTR"^ ' youth ;' 
TO^r: ' a man,' TH^ ' manliness,' ' manhood,' * manly stature,' 
&c. ; tpg ' large,' tn^H 'bulk/ ' bigness.' ^rcrr is also some- 
times used pleonastically ; as, "3F*j: or ^F^TJ ' a kinsman ; J 
^THIV: or W*ni ' a drug ;' ^^TTT or f Trf: *' a divinity.' 

^, leaving ^, forms patronymics only ; as, ^rfisf: ' a 
descendant of Daksha ;' trrRrNi: ' a descendant of Vyasa' (cfi 
being inserted). 

and analogous terminations, fi and frre^, are added to 
and f%, substituted for f?r, to form fgfcFf, f^ and f^fq^ 
signify ( flat, as the nose,' f^iPaMT 7TffT2fiT ; or ( flat-nosed/ 
fVPor: 3^:, &c. 

^f?T is added to a class of words to form nouns of multitude ; 
as, T^fp^il ' a number of mills :' also to ^Rwh^ and eKjIfET, seve- 
rally authors of rules for an order of mendicants, and for 
acting ; to imply their disciples ; cfi^f^ 1 ^ ' a mendicant/ 
^rrfsgnT ' an actor.' ^fff is of more extensive application as a 
possessive affix. 

^JTfff^, leaving spn^, forms abstract masculine nouns from 
attributes of sensible properties ; as, 3p> e white/ 
' whiteness ;' y*l ' large/ irftm^; ' bulk ;' ^ ' soft/ 
' softness ;' fr^W ' great/ ?rffr^ ' greatness ;' Jf^ ' heavy,' 
Tfijnr ' heaviness / &c. These form their nominatives in ^ir ; 
as, ^%RT, &c. (see p. 59). 

s s a 


is added to ITT<^ ' the rainy season/ forming 
' what grows or is produced in the rains.' 

^Z^T is added to appellatives to signify ' multitude ;' 
4 a flock of sheep :' also to various prepositions to form attri- 
butives conveying their general purport ; infi ' manifest ; 
' large,' ' extended ;' W5Z ' contracted ;' TI^ ' much ; 
' near.' 

added to T^T forms 4^ <+<W I ' a multitude of carriages.' 

cfivr, that is, cfi, forms a variety of derivative words, mostly 
attributives ; as, Jnjofi ' produced or born in the country of 
Madra,' <jyn<* ' stout,' xftrrfi ' dyed yellow,' JTrfi ' belonging to 
me,' T3T35 ' belonging to thee,' TFfi ' sad,' TP3fi ' bought with five,' 
' bearing or receiving five,' as tax or interest. It forms also attri- 
butives implying ' skill ;' as, efc$|<* ' one skilled in dressing hair :' 
or ' limitation ;' as, fgp^ ( cut,' JVtfoh ' a little cut :' also ' like- 
ness ;' as, $flri<* ' cold, as it were,' i. e. dull, slow ; TW^ ' hot, 
as it were,' i. e. quick, smart. It is added to prepositions ; as, 
to ^rfa ' over,' ^rfaofi ' more than ;' and to ^nj ' after,' and '?r5l 
' near ;' ^"*Ff, ^sf>T^i or ^wNfi ( lustful.' It forms also appellatives ; 
as, ^fSfti ' an heir,' ' one who takes his portion,' from ^$r. ' a 
part ;' particularly when pity or contempt is intended ; as, 
=ppR: ' a stumpy tree ;' W%W. ' an inferior S'udra ;' ^fi: ' the 
poor child;' ^<^<*: ' the unhappy Devadatta ;' W^rsii: 'a vile 
horse.' It sometimes implies ( doubt ;' as, 5fsg<+: ' the horse (of 
whom is this).' It is frequently pleonastic ; as, ^rfe: or ^TfT9E 
' a sheep ;' nftd: or i?'ft!JeB: ' a jewel ;' &c. 

oR^j and the analogous terminations ^TT and ^ftujll are 
affixed to nouns to form appellatives implying ' inferiority ;' 
f^i'p*H:, f%l^T^*j f^l'^^fl^l* ' an inferior scholar.' They are 
also attached in an adverbial form to verbal inflexions ; as, 
&c. * he cooks incompletely,' ' he does not finish 


^ and <^>T are analogous terminations, of which the essen- 
tial adjunct is ^rf; the second requires the Vriddhi vowel: 
they form, i. Words implying ' descent ;' as, from ^?F ' a race/ 


or Mc5flT ' sprung from a good family :' 2. Attributives ; 
as, 'snp^, * a day,' makes w^VT ' to be done in a given number 
of days ;' 4HIU4K: ' either bank of a river,' *JH KUlCNr ' who or 
what goes or extends to both banks / ?fTO e a village,' y ml ill 
4 rustic' 'village :' ^nWJT makes ^TWnfa * what is fit or good for 
oneself ;' f^HMH ' all mankind,' f<4y1flH * what is fit or good 
for all :' 3. Appellatives ; fin*, * Sesamum,' makes TTcftT ' a 
field of Sesamum / TOftf^ ' seven steps/ JHINM<{t?f ' friendship,' 
' intimacy ;' ^^^hf f fresh butter/ from ^nr ' to-day/ and ift 
' a cow.' 

TT, leaving j^r, forms, i. words of descent ; as, from "3^: ' a 
man of the military caste/ UjfcJii: the same, as sprung from 
him : 2. Attributives ; as, TTg: ' a country/ '{.lfk*4 ' relating or 
belonging to it/ 

5 and "2^ are analogous affixes, both leaving ^ : the one 
requires Vriddhi ; the other not : they form, i. words of 
descent in general ; as, ^^fai: ' a sisters son/ tTTT^Bfat ' the 
son of a father's sister :' 2. Attributives ; iTthtjffar or JTT%rta 
'relating to Mahendra ;' ^(fa ' suited to, or fit for, a calf/ 
HT=FT^'T * fit for a wall :' cfi is inserted before the affix after 
some words ; as, ^T^Hr ' own/ TTnfar ' royal :' 3. Appella- 
tives ; as, xrifflTT. ' a mountaineer.' 

xnrjTi and ^| are two affixes to nouns to form attributives 
implying ' being known by ;' as, f<=ltlM<!J or fTtl r^f ( known 
by, or on account of, learning.' 

*T, leaving ^r, forms feminine nouns of descent ; as, tnf^TT 
' a female descendant of TjffcT^Y / and nouns of action, com- 
pounded with trTrf ' falling / as, ^T?!3VTffT ' falling of an hour/ 
1 a lunar day.' After ^?f ' a hawk/ and fffc3 * Sesamum/ a 
nasal is inserted ; as, ^HTlrfT ' hawking / to5Tiirr ' an obla- 
tion' (in w r hich Sesamum is scattered). 

f*TT alternates with 3*T after a few words, and like it leaves 
^ofi for the termination ; but it differs in forming the feminine 
with wr ; as, ^frf^l ' a city' (Benares), <*lf$r* ' belonging to 
Kasi / fern. ofirf^nST ; with 3* it would be 


T, leaving TT, forms a few appellative and abstract nouns j 
' the lapis lazuli,' from f^t a mountain so named 5 
' depth/ from Trwjfc * deep ;' ?HH^ ' infinity,' from 
' endless ;' aifri!iM * hospitality/ from safriOq ' a guest ;' 
and others. 

tim with the analogous terminations TT7^ and H7^ are 
added to the preposition ^R to form attributives implying 

* flat,' as the nose ; -4H<f)<M, iT<*HI<JI, or ^r^JZT, *Tlfa<*T, ' a flat 
nose ;' 4H <#<;:, JIHJ<r:, ^T^>J7: J^M: ' a flat-nosed man.' 

3T or 2*pf is an affix, leaving *<rT, to form attributives from 
adverbs importing ' time :' TT is inserted : as *TR ' evening,' 
'tU^nH ' what is of the evening^' ^TT ' to-day,' ^ltH ' what 
is of to-day ;' ui^ * in the forenoon,' UI^'rH * what is of the 
forenoon ;' far ' long,' PK*fH ' lasting' or ' delayed long ;' &c. 

<fcR is an affix forming a number of words, substituting ^cp 
for the finals of nouns ending in ^ or wr, or in ^nr, and 
adding ofi to others : it forms, i. a few patronymics from 
feminine nouns in ^, the final of which is also cut off; as, 
^TirfaB ' a descendant of ^?ft :' but it also implies inferiority 
in this form,; as, J||p/fch ' an inferior,' ' a young or silly 
descendant of ^prff/ 2. Attributives ; as, TFTBfT makes rrf8Jfi 

* dyed with Lac ;' ^fv, ^lfVfi ' made with, or fed with, curds ;' 
>I^, Vlf*A<* ' virtuous,' but '.niyfu}<* ' wicked ;' rro, ^iftrcfi ' given 
or lasting for a month ;' ^, ^rf^NR ' annual,' ' lasting for a 
year ;' ^TT, tH^oR ' belonging to an army.' 3. Appellatives ; 
^ifajf*: ' a gambler,' from *x^ * dice ;' ^rrftroK ' a logician,' 
from "ami * logic ;' 'STTf^nK ( a believer,' ^Tifwohl f an atheist,' 
from ^rfw ' what is :' ^rfff, ' a sword,' makes ^|fu*; ' a swords- 
man ;' V^T*? ' a bow,' VMMu ( a bowman.' 4. Aggregates of 
inanimate objects ; as, ^T^sR ' a heap of parched grain :' but 
also of elephants, ^if^nfi ; and of kine, >hrS. 

T^ forms similar derivations as the preceding, but is mostly 
limited to attributives, which sometimes become appellatives ; 
as %f^ofi ' relating to the Vedas,' ^f^oK ' a Brahman who 
studies or teaches them ;' ^(infa 1 * ' relating to war or battl 


* a soldier.' It is extensively used to form adjectives 
relating to measures of value, quantity, number, or time : 
' bought with, or of the value of, a Nishka ;' 

or ! *iiJftftnR ' containing, or relating to, half a drona* (a 
measure of grain) ; %^lfrfoh * bought with, or of the value of, 
twenty ;' ^nfg'cR ' daily' or ' lasting for a day ;' Hlfa<* ' monthly' 
or ' lasting for a month ;' ff U fd <* ' lasting for two nights ;' 
^rfcysfi * continuing for a time/ Some terms of philosophy 
are also formed with it ; as, ^nfvn^fVsR, ^rrfwrfrRi, ^rrnfw^i, 
relating to that which is celestial, elemental, or spiritual. It 
also forms nouns of aggregation ; as, cJwJUJ ' a field/ ^ I fij* ' a 
number of fields.' 

3T, like the two preceding, supplies ^SR for the termination 
of similar nouns, but it does not require the Vriddhi change 
of the vowel ; as, H7 ' a jar,' irf^F ' what is placed in a jar ;' 
tff ' a boat,' Trf^ofi ' who or what goes in a boat, relating or 
belonging to it / ^ftRi * who sells/ fcj-*r^<* ' who buys,' Tfi'ufV 
'^hftloh: * a dealer,' * a tradesman ; ' TflTT ' a hundred,' TfiffRi 
' worth, or bought with, a hundred.' It is affixed to ^T^ and 
>TPT to signify ' rate of interest ;' wflN or mfrnfi ^nf ' half per 
cent/ It is also a possessive affix ; as, ^?u * a staff/ ^P<K<* 
' one who bears a staff ;' ^T e hair/ ifif^nB ' one who has much 
hair ; ' ift and ^nr * a hundred/ jfl^ifri'Sfi * one who has a 
hundred cows/ 

SIH^^ is considered as an affix forming the words frnrr- 
Tf : -*nff, HlrilM^: -T^t ' paternal and maternal grandfather and 
grandmother/ from fTjrf and TTiJ. |rJ^ x added to rnj forms 
HT'ffc?: ' a maternal uncle / ^tn^ to fiw, fmp^t f a paternal 
uncle ;' and ^q to >JTff, >n^lt * a brother's son/ 

"&3R is a useful affix : it leaves inr, and forms, i . Patronymics 
and terms of descent ; as, MIM^: ' the son of Agni ;' ^Hrfti: 
name of Garucla, e the son of Vinata ;' ^^m * son of Mitrayu ;' 
the final of the primitive being cut off: sometimes ^JT^ is 
prefixed to the termination ; as, oj^TT: or ohJe^Pd^^: ' the son 
of a respectable woman/ ^757T ; when 4<4| means ' a harlot/ 


the derivative implying * her son' is ^cSTC, being formed witl 
the analogous affix ^R. So either of these, forms words imply- 
ing ' descent' from a disfigured or a base person ; as, oERHK or 
sfiTCK: ' the son of a one-eyed man ;' ^reilt or ^nni: ' the son 
of a slave.' ^r, ' a sister,' in combination rejects its final 
before ^ ; as, f<?ifyfon ' the son of a father's sister,' itf^Min 
' the son of a mother's sister.' 2. <T5 also forms attributives 
signifying ' produced in,' or e derived from ;' 'H \$ n * aquatic, 
from T^t ' a river ;' JRTini ' earthen,' from inft ' the earth :' and 
3. a few appellatives ; as, from citfir: ' rice,' f%*T e a rice-field.' 

<jcfi>r is analogous to the preceding, adding OR to the termi- 
nation ; as, ohf^ofc ' belonging to, or derived from, a family ;' 
otherwise Rt?r*r. It is also added to a few words in a con- 
temptuous sense ; as, Tfm, ( a village,' makes ?jT?far35: { a clown ;' 
*TTTt. ' a city/ 7i7iTT?^i: ' a libertine,' ' a profligate.' 

^>T is another termination allied to the preceding ; differing 
from <Tofi only in being restricted to certain words ; as, ^E^, 

* a man/ in particular acceptations ; as, tn^*nft ^v: ' a killing 
of men ;' trr^ro ^*^ ' an assemblage of men / tft^N^ f^RiTT: 
' mortal or human change ;' ift^N: -ift -if ' done by a man' or 

* human being.' 

% leaving ^T, forms a few feminine nouns that signify 

* striking in sport / as, ^"R!3T ' quarter- staff/ and ^TFT ( boxing/ 
from ^^J5 ' a staff/ Jjfi? ' the fist :' also some attributives ; as, 
*rf ' all/ '*rr ' fit or good for all.' 

W(, leaving TT, forms words implying ' descent ;' as, %?q: ' a 
demon,' ' a son of Diti ;' ^rrf^r: ' an Aditya/ ' son of Aditi ;' 
ohi^cq: ' a descendant of Kuru.' It is added to trfTT, when 
preceded by a noun ; as, HMRi*i: * son or descendant of 
inrrqfiT;' and to words signifying e an artisan ;' as, FrgTR, 'a 
weaver/ makes fTT^^PT: ' a weaver's progeny :' it also forms 
appellatives ; as, trftrrrf makes TniTTOt ' an assistant at an 

H^ forms feminine nouns signifying, i. Aggregation ; 3jpnTT 
' a number of villages ;' SHUT ' a number of men ;' JT*fHI ' 


herd of elephants : } 2. Abstract property ; ^tlTT ' womanhood,' 
jftirr ' cowhood,' TT^ffT ' childhood.' It is also added pleonas- 
tically to ^ ; as, ^WT * a divinity/ 

<3" is added to some words to denote ' time ;' as, tn^ ' of 
last year ;' TJTTfc^ 1 ' of the year before last ;' f^T^T ' of a long 
time ago : ' also to T substituted for re, T^ ' new :' the 
latter takes TTTT in the same sense, JrnT and, as above, 

TiRi is added to terms of place to form attributives ; 
* produced in the south/ * a native of the south,' &c. : so 
TTTSW, ' produced in the west, east,' &c. 
forms feminine appellatives after the prepositions ^rftl 
and TTI ; as, ^fVmofiT ' an acclivity ;' '4iTi<Jciil ' land, the foot of 
a mountain.' 

TTT is affixed to indeclinables to form attributives implying 
' production ' as, iw * produced where ;' rTdrU ' born or pro- 
duced there ;' ^?i ' born or produced here :' with ^TRT, ' toge- 
ther,' it forms VHHTiM! * a minister.' 

^ is added to aft, ' a cow,' to denote * multitude ;' Jff^T ' a 
herd of cattle.' 

R forms neuter abstract nouns from any other nouns ; 
' Brahmanhood/ Jlc4r4 ' childhood,' y^r4 ' holiness.' 
and l^ra^ are added to nouns to denote ' measure of 
height ;' '3n^W, 1 3?^1pro ' as high as the thigh.' 

^FT is added to ^rf^T in the sense of ' milk ;' ^04<^H * ewe's 
milk.' JnifaT and wter, equally anomalous affixes, and probably 
obsolete words, meaning ' milk/ are similarly employed ; as, 
^n%Hthr and ^rf%^fl<?. 

T^T and the analogous affix W*T are added severally to ^jf=ft 
and TJ*T to form appellatives ; ^nr ' produced from, or by, a 
woman ;' xrt% ' produced of, or by, a man.' In the neuter 
gender they may be abstract nouns ; ^15 ' womanhood,' ^ra 
' manhood.' 

tn^P^ forms attributives from nouns in the sense of ' infe- 
riority ;' as, fi?irTir$i: * an indifferent physician :' compounded 

T t 


with ^njT it signifies ' quantity ;' 45IMI9C ' abundant hair :' 
H has a similar purport. 

and T^T are added to ftFft to denote ' barrenness ;' fin? 
or fworrsri ' barren Sesamum,' ( not bearing seed.' 
q^R and fifi^ are affixes forming principally patronymics or 
terms implying ' descent :' the former furnishes the termina- 
ton ij | Jj vf, the latter wnrfT ; as *ii"lm*uJ or *ii"ii<4f*jiJ ' a 
descendant of the sage TTT^;.' Analogous to them is "HRoF, 
forming attributives of which the feminine takes ^, as denoted 
by the sibilant : thus from <*f<43[!, ' a country,' comes <*|f43[HH 
' produced in it ;' as, ohifil^lHH rv ' honey of Kapisa ;' 
' a grape of the same.' 

is added to nouns to import ' made or consisting of ;' 
as, ?H$HH4 * made or consisting of stone,' ' stony,' * marble ;' 
cfinwr ' wooden/ ' made of wood ;' ijtmq ' earthen,' ' made of 
earth or clay :' it also implies * containing' or c abounding 
with ;' as, 'sryflv ' containing food' (a dish, &c.) ; jfcpppl 
1 containing sweetmeats' (a shop or the like) ; ^riH^ft TT$T: l a 
sacrifice abounding with clarified butter/ i. e. one in which 
many oblations are offered. It also forms with jft, ' an ox,' 
the term jflnq:, which may mean either f cow-dung,' or * the 
nature or property of a cow.' 

JTHaf^ is added to words to denote * measure/ either of 
height, capacity, or number ; ^ljHI^ ' as high as the knee ;' 
U4m*J lf ' as much as a Prastha ;' M^jHI^ ' five in tale ;' rtN"HI3 
' so much.' 

II is added to a few words to form, I . Attributives ; as, 
3JTT * a village,' ||H( ' rural,' ' rustic ;' pf e the face,' T^T 
' principal ;' ^55 ' punishment,' ^lli^ ' deserving punishment ;' 
: ?r ' respect,' ^naj ' deserving respect / WV * killing,' ^fl * de- 
serving death :' 2. Abstracts ; as, *rf& ' a friend/ ^zj ' friend- 
ship ;' Hlf ' a messenger/ H?T ' mission :' ^ftl^, t a merchant, 
makes Mftj^l l trade :' W*T ' a thief,' makes ^TT ' theft/ ' thiev- 
ing.' i( is more frequently combined with other letters, as in 
yq, m, HOR, ^TST, and TTfr. 


TTcfi forms a few abstract nouns : tlWT, e a king,' makes 
4 kingdom ;' ^rfmfff ' a general,' fNrnfitf * command ;' ^tf^rf ' a 
family priest,' x^rf^W ' priesthood.' 

TT>T, leaving tf, forms, i. Patronymics or terms of descent ; 
as, ^rfaff^ ' a proper name,' wfafirTW: * the son of Abhijit ;' 
t^scf ' sprung from a god ;' ^T?T ' a native of the outer (^ff^;) 
country :' 2. Attributives ; as, fto ' is produced in or on an 
island,' iffa: 3. Aggregates; as, ^R. 'a field,' sfi^l&l 'a 
number of fields ;' %^r: ' hair,' ffi^Tf ' a quantity of hair ;' xn^U 
* a noose,' xjnpn ' a number of snares ;' &c. 

THT, leaving TJ, and requiring no change of the radical vowel, 
is of much more extensive application than either of the pre- 
ceding : it forms a few terms of descent ; as, UM: e a man of 
the military tribe, sprung from a Raja ;' <ps ' of a good 
family :' but its chief application is to form attributives imply- 
ing derivation, relation, or fitness, becoming frequently appel- 
latives ; as, TOT ' what is fit for a carriage ;' ISZT: ' a horse fit 
for harness ;' T&1 ' a carriage- wheel :' ^^ relating to the root, 
or to original price ; H^Tt ' price,' JT^if ' profit ;' TtTW ' suited in 
age,' TTtf, whence ^qm; ' a friend.' Of other attributives 
formed with this affix are "g^tr ' like,' "arTO ' suitable,' TTSZJ 
' appropriate,' TgZJ ' agreeable,' \RT ' wealthy,' ^PJf ' chief,' 
ymf ' virtuous,' ITT ' relating to the people,' ' popular,' ' cur- 
rent,' ir^ fame,' ^T^T ' famous,' ^ft^ir ' deserving decapi- 
tation,' from 3ftt for %T^ x and %^ ' cutting.' Nouns ending 
in "3 1 and the word ift take Guna before TTf^; as, ;$Tlf ' a stake,' 
^q-^f ' fit for a stake' (wood ) ; iraq ' relating to a cow' or 
' derived from one,' inRT ' cow's milk :' ""SP^, ' a dog,' changes 
the semivowel ; as, spr or ^n*! ' canine :' vrrfir, * the nave of a 
wheel,' makes vff ' fit for the nave ;' and rfp& ' the nose,' 
' fit for the nose,' n?i * a nozzle :' ^TTT, ' fame,' makes 
' famous ;' VTTTT ' a part,' UP*i ' half (at interest),' 
' half per cent.' Of the appellatives, besides those specified, 
are, '3T^rr ' a bridemaid,' from "snft ' a wife ;' ^vj<MI ' a milch 
cow,' from ^hj, the same, with if inserted ;' Tr: ' an actor,' 

T t 2 


from T^ ' dress ;' chujQM ' vigour,' from ^p*t^ ' act ;' and 7f3 

' thing,' ' wealth,' from <f ' a tree.' 

^ is added to nouns to form diminutives ; oR^t ' a house, 


dK: ' a small house ',' ^nft ' the S'ami tree,' yiflc ' a smal 
S'ami tree.' 

^ni is added to words to imply * cause' or ' origin,' if the 
latter be man ; as, *i^u| ' what proceeds from the same 
cause ;' ^4<^^UJ ' what originates with Devadatta.' 

75 is added to fV?5, ^?5, and ftTTJ, substituted for fjjffl 
* moist,' making fVt^, ^r^, and fxr^, to signify ' blear-eyed. 5 

far^ and fa<{V*r^r are added to the preposition f^T to form 
attributives ; as, (V| fa i, (V|fa<{)u, ' thick, 5 ' coarse ;' also * flat 
or crooked nosed.' 

^>^ is a useful affix : j always, as in the Kridanta deriva- 
tives, denotes the addition of w%. It forms attributives sig- 
nifying chiefly f produced in' or * from ;' as, ?ffa*T ' the hot 
season,' ?Nrei 'growing or produced in summer;' Tf? 'a 
camel,' ><ug<+ ' produced from a camel ;' <*MM<* ' made by a 
potter,' ot^jirt ; *( K4J4 eh f produced in a wood,' ' wild.' It is 
also added to names of countries to signify either the place 
or people ; m7fc4^d4i: is synonymous with xnzf&q^: ' Pali- 
bothra ;' SHI^'-'+i: means ' the people of An'ga :' also any thing 
peculiar to the country ; as, from ?R5, ' Cutch,' comes chinch) 
*nrnTJ ' a man of Cutch ;' <+l-od<* ^ftnf ' a Cutch laugh.' It 
also forms nouns of aggregation;' as, ssflVifcfi, from T^"?T 'an 
ox,' ' a herd of oxen ;' -anuJNch ' a number of the descendants 
of Upagu,' or ' his family or tribe collectively.' 

^HT, like the preceding, adds ^fofi, but does not change the 
vowel of the primitive. It forms such attributives as "-*Hfi, 
from '^PfT ' order,' ' one who knows the order ;' TFTfi * produced 
in or on the road ;' Trsrofi ' one who knows the road ;' trf l^<* 
' produced in the forenoon :' also a few feminine nouns in 
particular acceptations ; as, from tpj for TIT?, ' a quarter,' comes 
qf^<=Kl ' quarter,' when succession is implied ; as, fVtrf^^f ??1TW 
' he gives two and two quarters ;' fg ^ifflohf ??jfrT ' he gives 


two and two hundreds :' or when succession is not implied, 
but legal proceedings are ; as, r^^frichi ^ft&ir. ' fined two 

^?T also forms feminine nouns from compounds implying 
' enmity between the objects;' as, cHchlc^faMil ' the natural 
hostility of the crow and the owl/. 

^UcS^r forms an attributive noun with the preposition fV; 
ftj 5Ilrt ' large,' ' extensive.' 

$n<* and ^TifoM are added to names of vegetable substances 
to denote ' a field ;' as, ^^fl < *d or ^H^nTcM ' a field of sugar- 

1?T^ is added to nouns to form appellatives with the sense 
of ' diminutiveness' or ' inferiority :' jfftrft * a sack,' jHiifldCI ' a 
small sack;' MrHfKt *a young calf;' ^SHJIK: 'a foal,' also 'a 
mule ;' ^W?TT: ' an ox unfit for the yoke.' 

IT^T forms attributive nouns analogous to those formed with 
T^T, as above, but in particular senses ; and the feminine 
termination is ^. The words imply, i. * Who or what goes 
by means of ;' as, ^rOu'eh ' one who goes on a horse ;' trftqcfi: -3ft 
' a cripple,' ' one who goes by means of a wheel-chair,' Tinh ; 
xjfvfcK -^ ' a traveller/ * one who goes along the road ;' or, as 
applied to inanimate things, <4lOmrJch ' what comes, or is 
brought, by water:' 2. 'Who or what takes by means of;' as, 
H^fT * an inflated skin,' >rf^cK ' a ferryman,' ' one who takes 
passengers or goods across a river on a skin ;' f^v: or 
' a yoke for carrying burdens by a rope at each end,' 
or ^^fV!i: ' a porter carrying loads by a yoke :' and 3. Con- 
taining a given measure ; as, m I'd f<*i* ' containing two ^rhakas 
of grain,' e a field,' &c. 

1TF5 is similarly applied to a few Avords ; as, sr<**iK -fit -ofi 
' who or what goes by being dragged.' 

tf55T is added to $pft, ' the S'ami tree,' to signify ' made of 
its wood,' ^iifHitt 1 : -?5t -c5. 

ni^ forms abstract neuter nouns from a variety of words ; 
as, srpi ' white,' ^f^ii ' whiteness ;' ~S% ' firm,' ^1^4 ' firmness ;' 


' sweet/ HT^f sweetness ;' ijjh ' a blockhead,' irr^f ' folly ;' 
' a thief,' ^Sf ' stealing / ^TT: ' a thief,' ^tr ' stealing ;' 
r: ' a knave,' thfl*i ' dishonesty ;' cUtJUli: * a Brahman,' 
J ' the nature or office of a Brahman ;' ^rf|ji&: ' the four 
castes,' '-^Ilijiiutf ' the duties or institution of the four castes ;' 
iU**KI ' successively,' moi|i f succession/ ' tradition.' If 
taking the feminine gender, these nouns reject *T before ^ ; as, 
i right,' ' fit,' makes ^faw or if}PlfO ' fitness.' 
and in are added pleonastically to *nr * earth ;' so is 
, making Jj(V*l, ^WT or ^T, ' earth.' 

CLASS II. Possessives. 

, leaving ^r, is substituted for the terminations of a few 
words ending in vowels, and added to others ending in con- 
sonants, to form possessive adjectives ; as, srer makes f 

* who has braided hair ;' 7t*T ' the breast/ ^T3T * breasted ;' 
^ni * sin,' W*T ' sinful / 1 3r$Nr * who has haemorrhoids/ from 

; &c. 

and ^Irf^ are added to nouns to signify possession 
or use of the object they denote, but in a depreciatory sense ; 
as, ^T^, ' speech/ makes m-ti<; or MHipj ' one who speaks 
much and nonsensically/ 

Hlf*H-l added to ^, ' property/ makes ^rf*T*T -*ft -fatft ' a 
master' or ' mistress/ * an owner of property/ 

4IK<*T is added to 'ST^ ( a horn/ and T^ ( a heap/ to form 
attributives ; as, 3jjfllH ( horned/ ^^Il.<* ' preeminent.' 

^ncg^ forms attributives of possession, with the sense of 

* non-endurance ;' with ^fhf ' cold/ TH!T * warm/ and 7^1 * oiled 
butter ;' as, $fl A \ & ' suffering from cold,' ' freezing ;' ^WTo* 
' suffering from heat ;' gm<4 ' having, but not liking, oiled 
butter.' ^*T 5 ( the heart/ forms g<^lc$ ' kind-hearted.' 

^?T^r forms possessive attributives from the class of words 
called riKcMfy ; as, irn^HT ' a star/ dKfhd f starred/ ' starry / 
' a flower/ ijfu(ri ' flowered/ ' flowery ;' ^J? ' a flower/ 
* having flowers ;' 7^1? ' a part/ isfftjSTr ( parted/ ' di- 


vided/ ' having parts ;' ftmiui ' thirst,' CqmftH * thirsty ;' *:i 
'pain/ :fw 'afflicted/ * pained;' *r^ 'pleasure/ 
1 happy,' * at ease ;' &c. 

^rp^ forms ihfpH ' fruitful,' from *R?5 ' fruit ;' and 
' peacock-tailed/ or ^f^UK ' a peacock/ from ^f * the tail of 
that bird/ *r&, ' dirt/ makes *lfe3*T, or with ^HtM, TTfflHK 
' dirty/ ' foul/ ' wicked/ 

^f^T is affixed to nouns ending in ^r to denote possession 
actual or figurative ; ^5 ' a staff/ ^ft^^ ' one who carries a 
staff;' \F( e wealth/ vfrr^ ' wealthy ;' ^ 'happiness/ (V^ 
1 happy ;' :^ ' pain/ gt'fa*^ ' sorrowful :' also to Tjf in parti- 
cular meanings ; ""gflhT * one who has priority,' i. e. one who 
has done (eaten or drank) any thing on a former occasion ; 
ofirnjift fi ' he formerly made the mat.' ^TT^ makes 9u(V*f 
'one who has partaken of a Sraddha* or 'funeral feast/ 
and *TT^f ' visible/ tufHJ*^ ' one who has seen any occurrence/ 
'a witness.' It is also added to certain words in ^n or ^; as, 
fylsl I ' a crest/ f^if^T^ ' crested/ %^ ' a peacock ;' Hloi! ' a 
garland/ *nfo5^ ' having a garland,' *rraft ' a gardener ;' "?ftf% 
( rice/ sftf^^ ' having rice :' also to numerals connected with 
age ; as, T|^PHT ' having the fifth (month or year) / TT^ft 
' a boy in his fifth year.' Occasionally cfi is prefixed to 
as, Trfffsfi^ ' one who suffers from disordered wind/ It forms 
various feminine nouns of locality ; as, yu* (\4lft ' a pool having 
the lotus :' so Tjftnft, ^|Jjf^ft, &c. It forms various appellatives, 
as above, and as *rft<crT ' an elephant,' from ^3" ' his trunk.' 

375^ is affixed to a class of words termed ftr^arrf^ to form 
possessives ; as, frr^T ' mud/ fnfadW ( muddy ;' ^t^r ' the 
chest/ ;f*:fac7 ' broad-chested / B$rr ' knowledge/ TfiV?5 ' wise :' 
also to ^r ' froth/ TR^TeS ' frothy :' to ftnsrTT ' sand/ and ^T^TT 
' gravel/ as epithets of place ; ftrafrnST or $i<*ru4l ^jft?: ' sandy 
or gravelly soil :' also to "jr^ and other \vords ; ijfV^rt ' corpu- 
lent/ ^fc* ' big-bellied/ &c. 

^T^ is added to ;^?r, ' a tooth/ to form ^jj;c ' having large 
or prominent teeth.' 


is added to ^TF5 ' force,' and ^TTff ' wind,' to signify 
' impatience ;' '3<%A * not enduring force / qiij>* ' not bearing 
wind :' the latter is also an appellative ; q | H^; ' a gale,' { a 

fnrfa forms ^lOn*^ ' eloquent,' ' well spoken,' from ^r^ 
' speech.' 

^ri-^ is added to *fs and ^TT^ 1 ; as, TT55 ' abounding with 
reeds ;' "511175 * abounding with young grass' (a field, a 
country, &c.) 

f, as a possessive affix, is added to a class of words termed 
qiHlffr, and which imply ' diseased ;' as, MIHT ' itch/ TTm?T 
' itchy ;' orfir c a worm,' ^hfa'iT f affected with worms.' It also 
forms irregularly a^lrtdl ' moonlight,' from a^frfTHT ' h'ght.' 

>T is added to the words Tjf^j ^rf7 3 and ^f?5 ; as, Tjf^*T * hav- 
ing corpulence,' c corpulent ;' "^f&X ' lousy ;' ^f<W ' wrinkled.' 

THHT is in an especial degree the affix implying possession : 
the essential element is JTrf or ^rT, inflected as *TT^, Tift, Wl^, 
or ^PT, ^(ft, "^ (see p. 55). The T is changed to ^ after a 
final or penultimate ^T or ^rr, and after any consonant except a 
nasal or a sibilant : it is so changed after a final or penultimate 
*T; it is unchanged after any other vowel than ^ or WT, and 
after a nasal or a sibilant : but there are special exceptions to 
these changes : thus f^ makes f*<!^ ' having something ;' 
7T5ITT ' fame/ ^$fy^ t famous ;' c^ft ' prosperity/ c3^faff 
' prosperous.' A great variety of attributives and appellatives 
are formed with this affix ; as, VH^ * wealthy/ IST^ ( fla- 
voured/ WRTT ' intelligent,' Tftinr ' having cows/ *ff^T!r ' hav- 
ing land.' TTP^ retains its final, if meaning * well governed,' 
l!lMfft >Jt ' a well governed country ;' but U^^H X ' having a \ 
king.' <T^ofi, ' water/ substitutes ^^ before JT^I ; as, d^il 
* having water/ T^^TJT ' the ocean.' The following are irre- 
gularly formed with this affix : ^fy1<|M ' the knee' (having a I 
bone) ; ^^I^TiT the name of a king (having a country) ; 
4\H<(4M the name of a mountain (having salt) ; ^uKWrf) ' the 
river Chambal' (having a skin or hide). In their literal 


acceptation these are regular ; as, VHPt^^, -^ -*<4 f^, &c. In 
place of ?nn^, the affix in certain senses is termed dHff"^, the 
initial ^ causing the elision of the final vowel of the primitive ; 
as, oRT^ ' a lotus,' MJffl ' a place abounding in lotuses ;' 
' a buffalo,' Hf^rrirft the name of a city. 

TJTT is added to a few words to form attributives ; as, 
'snowy;' TTJB( ' excellent,' 'having merit;' ^nr 'having a 
handsome form :' also T^TO ' a coin,' i. e. having an impression. 

Tpr is added to "gptr ' wool,' ^RiTnj ' woolly :' also to ^r*nT ' I,' 
^zr ' arrogant ;' and STO^ ' good/ 3T>TO ' lucky :' also to OR 
and ^i ; as, opn, ^frij ' happy,' ' prosperous.' 

t forms attributives and appellatives after certain words ; 
Tmg ' paleness,' TTT^T: ' pale ;' *?v ' honey,' JT^. ' sweet/ 
* honied ;' *rfa ' a hole/ wfsn * perforated ;' "5PT * saline soil/ 
gnrc ' having or abounding with such soil.' rpnr, ' a mountain/ 
makes TTT^ ' a city' (having houses as lofty as mountains) ; 
and inTtf ' darkness/ wirref or rrf^rerT the same ; the penultimate 
being changed to ^. 

W\ forms attributives with various words ; ^Nr * the 
shoulder/ WS73 ' strong / ^TB" ' a child/ 4cUc6 ' affectionate ;' 
^?T ' a crest/ '-^ilrt ' crested ;' ^fff ' froth/ ^Rc5 ' frothy.' 

? is added to ^i ' hair/ ifc^T^ ' having fine or abundant 
hair ;' in which sense it may be also ^f^T*T, %%^? o r cji^fMii; 
as a name of Krishna, it is *5T<4: alone. It is added to a few 
other words ; as, to *rftl ' a jewel/ and fftM ' gold/ to form 
irfiu^: ' a particular Naga ;' f^^ium; ' one of the treasures (per- 
sonified) of the god of wealth :' also to ^rc*r ' water/ which 
rejects its final, ^nfN 1 : ' the ocean.' 

^75^ forms attributives, used chiefly as appellatives, after 
certain words ; f^njTRTS ' crested/ f$H^Nci: * a peacock.' A 
final short vowel becomes long before it; as, ^?r * a tooth, 
t ' an elephant ;' "^fa ' culture/ ^tiffacT. ' a husbandman;' 
' spirit/ TSrnTffNc*: ' a distiller ;' xjftT?<* ' a court/ Tlft^rF5: 
' a Raja ;' T?HT * menstrual excretion/ Ot*jMI * a woman at 
that period.' "35^^, ' strength/ makes - 3S'^yc5 ' strong.' 

u u 


is added to words ending with ^ ; as, THHT * penance/ 

* who practises penance/ ( an anchorite ;' TT$nr ' fame 

' famous :' also to ?rnrr ' illusion/ mmP^ ' deceptive/ 
' apprehension/ ^vrfw*T ' intelligent ;' w*{ ' a garland/ 

* having a garland ;' and wnnr ' sickness/ with the 
final made long, '-eunqifV*^ ' sick/ ' ill.' 

31 forms attributives from a class of words termed yjtarf^ ; 
as, c5t*T^ and Tfat^ ' hair of the body/ cJta^t, Cl**$l, ' hairy / 
' an ape,' <*fq3r ' tawny ;' &c. 

CLASS III. Degrees of Comparison : Pronominals : Numerals. 

261. The affixes which form the comparative and superla- 
tive degrees have already been specified, as UTT* or TW^, and 
^*nr or f^rSR, and ^? or ^F^; they are noticed here only as 
belonging to the class of Taddhita affixes (see p. 74). 

262. Pronouns take some of the preceding affixes, with the 
same effect and signification as those already specified : thus 
WT is added to the possessive cases plural of ^rwf and ^Tf, 
making ^rTCRT=R, ^TTofi, ' what belongs or relates to us' or ' to 
you :' also to the same cases singular, with ofi inserted ; as, 
jTN<*, TTOcR, * what relates or belongs to thee' or * me.' "5 is 
also added to ^RfPf ; as, ^R^far ' relating or belonging to me ;' 
and to vr^ ' you' (respectfully) ; >T^hl ' yours' or * your 
honour's.' Besides these, they have some peculiar to them- 

^sraFT is sometimes substituted for the proper terminations 
of ff.T, TITT, and Tf^ ; as, 'SRcR * which/ TTefi ' who/ *T35 ' that.' 

TfTC.^ and TfHT^ are added to the same pronouns, also to 
jjoF, to form comparisons between two or many ; as, cjnrr, "TTTt, 
* which of two / cfiiTJT, TiTR, * which of many / ITrR, TTfTfT, ' that 
of two' or * of many / 1T3B7R, ^ofiTTfT, * one of two' or ' of many/ 

^frr is added to foRT, forming ofifir ' how many.' 

^ip^ is added to several of the pronouns to imply * quan- 
tity :' it leaves ^, as already noticed (p. 83). To these may 


be added fff^<*, forming attributives from them ; 

* having or being how many ;' rU'crfd^ * having or being so 

263. Nouns of number take Taddhita affixes to denote 
ordinals and other modifications : some of them have been 
already noticed (p. 89). 

^ is added to ^PT and its compounds, to fr^rffT and the 
decimals ending in ^T?f , to form numerals in addition to others 
with which they are inflected. T, leaving ^r, causes the elision 
of the final letter ; ijcRT^f ^nf ( one hundred and eleven ;' 
SfTff e a hundred and twenty/ 

57 forms ordinals from cardinals for all above ten ; 
' eleventh,' f^f ' twentieth,' &c. ; or those from twenty 
upwards prefix im^ to ^, making f^rfrfinT, &c. (p. 90). 

f^Tj^ added to wf^, * first,' forms the ordinal wf^R ' first:' 
it also forms terms signifying ' relative order/ either in place, 
degree, or time, with ^raj ' before,' ^Pff ' end/ and tpSTi^ ' after ;' 
as, 'STftpr ' first,' ' prior ;' ^rfcfJi ' subsequent ;' xrf%^ ( posterior/ 

TnTCf added to numerals implies ' division ;' as, 'qWT ^T^ 

* wood in five pieces,' or ( five pieces of wood/ It forms 
similar derivatives with fir and f& in alternation with ^^T; as, 
%inT or I"*!, f^WT or 3"^, ( two ' or ' twofold,' l three' or 

* threefold/ 

ifhr is added to fg and f<3", the latter of which changes ft 
to ^, to form ordinals ; as, fgrft*! ' second,' ^^ ' third :' 
to these, ^nr, that is, % taking the place of the primitive ^T, 
is added, to imply ' division ;' as, ffwNV *rnn ' a second part,' 
*a half;' ^ffhtft Hin: *a third:' so *3TT TJ^JT 'a fourth, a 
fifth,' &c. ; ordinals being in fact the same as fractionals. UTT 
and ^TFIT take optionally *?, making either W or TTI? ' a sixth/ 
or ^iTgT * an eighth/ 

is added to IV, f^ 1 , and ^Tl, making fsnr, f^r^j ^"J^j 

* in value twice,' * thrice,' ' four times/ *T becomes Visarga, 
and that again ^ before a sonant ; as, flT*^ ' he eats twice/ 

^rrr is added to ^nr and ^H to signify ' bought with' or 

u u 2 


worth :' ^rnr ' bought with a hundred ;' ^TT^H ' bought with a 
thousand :' also to signify general relation to those numbers. 

cR^ may be added to numerals not ending with ^n^ or fr 
to signify ' bought with ;' qm<* ' bought with five :' the 
exceptions take T^j ; IrSTfiTSB ' bought with twenty ;' 

' bought with forty.' It may be added to them to form deno- 
minatives ; as, f4^rPrTK ' a book containing twenty (chapters).' 
It is also added to terms of quantity, formed with ^5 ; as, 
rflTr*, or with ^j inserted, ?n^ Pri <* ' bought with so much.' 
cfctT is added to numerals forming attributives to imply a sum 
given, either as interest, tax, profit, or bribe ; as, TRRft TT5TT 
' the king, who has received a tax of five ;' M^sfl ^^w: 
' Devadatta has taken five (per cent, interest) ;' &c. Deriva- 
tives with other affixes are similarly employed ; as, 31 fifed: 3TTT: 
' one to whom a hundred has been given/ &c. 

^ may be added to f4^lfif when preceded by a numeral or 
by ^rrt ' plus a half:' to signify ( value;' efi is inserted; as, 
ffrf^irclohlTT ' worth twenty-two ;' ^Hm^r^^rrrf<*iH ' worth twenty 

plus a half,' i. e. worth thirty. 

7^ or Trff may be added to ^rff to signify ' being worth' or 
' bought with ;' ^rftnB or ^fiq ' what is worth a hundred ;' also, 
as above, * he to whom a hundred is given. 5 

ITT is added to numerals ending in "fir or ^n^ to signify 
* value ;' fV3f<*, f^T3i, ^RTfTSIP, ' bought with, or worth. 
twenty,' &c. 

*nr^, added to numerals, implies ' equal or equivalent to in 
value ; as, f^H^^f'a^ ^TRT ' the butter-milk is worth two (it 
is twice the value) of the barley.' 

CLASS IV. Indedinables. 

264. A variety of indeclinable words, chiefly significant of 
time or place, are formed with affixes considered as belonging 
to the class of Taddhita terminations. 

^T is affixed to fF.H N * what,' which is changed to ^ in the 
sense of ' place ;' as, gj ' where.' 


forms with "313R ' north/ and ^fgfTrr * south,' or ' on 
the right/ the indeclinables drKrtt ' in or from the north,' 
Tt ' in or from the south,' or ' on the right hand/ 

and ^awiPrf form adverbs of place or time with ^, ^nr, 
and ^ra, considered as substitutes for Tgjf, WTC, and 'ST^; as, 
TO, MUdlTf ' before,' * prior,' ' in front/ ' in or on the east ;' 
^nj:, ^nrernr ' down/ ' below/ ' inferior ;' ^:, ^Wlr^ ' behind/ 
* after/ ' in the west : 3 the latter is also optionally *il<KWIf^. 
TJT optionally takes -sirt*^ or nwir^; as, tron, "TTSffif e after/ 
' subsequent/ 

^nnTT is considered as irregularly substituted for ^^, f this/ 
' in this time,' ' now/ 

is added to different pronouns to signify ( time ;' 
this/ as inrft ' in this time/ ' now ;' eRf| and irf^ ' when / 
rrff ' then/ ' at that time/ 

is added to "3^ and ^ftpl to signify ' in' or ' from ;' 
or ^f^rTT ^rfff ' he dwells in the north' or ' in the south ;' 
or ^ffeprr ^TOTH: * returned from the south/ They 
take ^nf*f in the same sense ; <J?Kin, ^fj4!llf^. 

^Tftr is added to the same words ; '^r^UTj ^f^T^T, ' in or on 
the north' or ' the south/ 

4F3*M is added to numerals and to "^ir to signify ' times/ 
when alluding to the reiteration of an act essential to life ; 
fin*J^ tfifc ' he eats twice :' so M^*relW N > SCrf^ri^, ' < *g't'*'*l' anc ^ 
the like. 

fer converts into indeclinables, nouns compounded with any 
of the derivatives or inflexions of ^w or >^' to be/ or efi ' to 
make/ to imply that the object is, or is made, what it was not 
before. A final ^T or 'srr, except when the word is already an 
indeclinable terminating with the latter, is changed to ^; ^ 
and "3 1 are made long ; and ^ is changed to tf ; as, f^jfrfH 
' made black/ ' blackened ;' 3jfl<*ClfH ' he makes white' or 
' whitens / tftuwriH^; ' the day has become evening ;' 
'he becomes pure;' q^^ ' becoming eloquent;' 


' become a mother.' 'ST^r, *r?T*T, and ^J X drop their finals ; 
!J ' making sore ;' <J*Hl*!MTrT ' he will become mad ;' 
' he looks upwards.' 

is an affix similar to the preceding, attaching ^rr to the 
end of a word joined to the derivatives or inflections of the 
verb "3R l to make ;' as, ?:^T5R^tfff ' he pains' or * distresses ;' 
*U3T3STtflf ' he makes happy ;' fMtllaJiClfri * he pleases :' also 
after reiterated words expressing inarticulate sound ; v|<!M<!l- 
<te>fri ' he makes the sound pa^ pa{ :' also after particular 
words used in the sense of ' ploughing ;' ffiftur or ri 

* he ploughs (a field) twice or thrice ;' $iyi<+Clfrt ' he ploughs 
(a field) back again ;' ^l'll<*0rri ' he ploughs (a field) with the 
seed/ ' he drill- sows it.' 

Trftr is substituted for the terminations of the instrumental 
and ablative cases ; the former implying ' cause :' 'ffX.cfiK ' by, 
or on account of, behaviour ;' f^n ' by or on account of, its 
rotundity ;' ?JFnr: ' from the village ;' ^nf^rf: ' from the first ;' 
T: * from the middle :' also as implying ' descent ;' ^WiT: 
l ' Pradyumna was descended from Krishna.' It is added 
to the names of diseases, to imply their removal ;' TT Tf^lf^*ld: 
eK^ ' make him (free) from flux.' It is considered to represent 
the genitive case in such sentences as ^^T ^repTrft s*TTT ' the 
gods were (on the side) of Arjuna/ 

rrftra, which, like the former, leaves inr, is added to pro- 
nouns and pronominals in the sense of the ablative and loca- 
tive cases : ^nr^T or ^ifTT ' hence' or ' here ;' fnTH ( thence,' 
' therefrom,' also ' therefore' or ' there ;' TcnnT s whence,' 

* wherefrom,' ' wherefore, 5 ' where ;' ^rt^T?r^T ' here and there,' 
' every where/ f^ before an affix beginning with Tf or ^ 
becomes ^ ; ^IHT * whence/ * wherefrom/ or * wherefore,' 
'when;' ^ijTnT, 'fa J rf ^, ' every where;' gr^nrfnT 'on both 
sides :' so ^rfirrT^T ' on both sides ;' TrfcTCT ' all around ;' Tjpn? 
' in many places' or ' ways.' 

is affixed to pronouns and pronominals in the sense of 


* locality ;' as, ^ ' where/ Tf& ' where,' We? ' there/ 

' every where/ TO is substituted for *T?nr ; as, TOW * in this 
place/ ' here.' 

WT is added to certain words with the sense of the accusa- 
tive or locative case : ^TWT ^T^ ' I salute the gods / *rjuiojr ZT^ 
' I delight in the men ;' W?WT ' in many ways.' 

^rr?5 is affixed to pronouns and pronominals to denote 

* manner/ * kind ;' as, zr*n i as/ * in what manner ;' inrr ' so/ 
' thus/ ' in this manner ;' ^R*n ' how/ 

^ is added to ^w and f^W, substituting severally ^ and 
<fi in the same acceptation : ^7*n? ' thus/ ofi^ ' how/ 

^T is added to pronouns and pronominals to imply ( time ;' 
as, TJ^T ' at what time/ ' when ;' TT^T ' at that time/ * then ;' 
efi^r ' when / n.4(\ ' once ;' TO^rr f at another time ;' 'H'i^T 
' always :' also *r being substituted for ^TJS, ^T. 

^Trft'T is added to ^>^ and ir^ to signify * time :' the initials 
of the primitives only are retained ; S^^R*^ ' now/ ( at this 
time ;' ri^Mln ' then,' ' at that time/ 

VT is affixed to numerals to imply 4 numeration /, as, ^TfiVT 
' once/ * one/ ' singly ;' f^rVT or ihrr ' twice/ ' twofold ;' f<=RT 
or ^VTT ' thrice,' ' threefold ;' XT^^VT ' five times' or e fivefold' or 

* five parts ;' as, ^cfi trf^f 'T^^TT f^j ' make one heap into five/ 
The analogous affix v*p^ is added to % and f^, making fhn^, 
gv^, ' twofold/ ' threefold/ "^^ may be added to *&,, 
making ^ojiiq^. 

TT is added to the preposition fa, making f^n * without/ 

* except/ and rn^ to the negative ?T>^, TRT 4 manifold/ 'various/ 

fc? and HLK | Pri (^ are added to Tq, substituted for T^^f; 
as, ^trfr or TTftffTi^ ' up/ ' above/ 

cHf affixed to words forms indeclinables implying ' resem- 
blance in act ;' as, WRnST^ ' like a Brahman ;' T3ff<3TJT!^ ' like 
a Kshetriya :' also denoting ' fitness,' ' suitableness ;' ^IflNfi 
' fit for, or worthy of, a king :' also if the preceding word 
have the sense of the genitive or locative case ; T^ITF^ * as in 
Mathura / ^T^nnr ' like ( the figure of) Devadatta/ 


^pr is added to ^rer and ^r? to imply ' degree ;' 
little ;' ^g$n ' much,' ' abundantly,' ' for the most part :' alsc 
to numerals and terms of measure, to denote ' successive 
order ;' ff^It ' two and two ;' JTR^Tt ' Masha by Masha.' 

^nfiff is added to words like f^r to signify a thing's becoming 
what it was not before, in combination with the same verbs ; 
also with verbs signifying ( production ;' as, HW^rnr ^n% ' he 
reduces to ashes ;' ^F^nfH*rn^ ^mraw e the weapon is produced 
as fire,' or * is in a blaze ;' also JI OH *< !'<=( fir ' is fire.' It also 
means ' dependence ;' as, TjinnifMlf TT5 ' the country becomes 
dependent wholly on the king :' or * appropriation ;' as, <*Ti 
fawn^ cfi^riTT ' he makes the gift wholly the property of the 



265. THE composition of words prevails in Sanskrit to an 
extent that much exceeds its occurrence in any other language. 
It is termed in original grammars, Samasa ^nrnHt. 

266. When a greater or lesser number of words are com- 
bined, so as to form one new term, the characteristic signs of 
case and number are, with occasional exceptions, rejected by 
all the members of the compound except the last. 

267. Compound words are arranged, agreeably to the 
nature of this construction, under four classes. 

1. The first class consists of substantive nouns simply 
aggregated under one head, which, if not compounded, would 
be held together by the intervention of a copulative ; as, 
' Rama and Lakshmaiia/ UH*y c5^nD^, make, when united, 
n'H'f5^tffT. This is termed Dwandwa, ' doubling' or ' aggre- 

2. The second class, termed Tatpurusha, is not confined to 
substantives, but combines nominal and verbal derivatives in 


different relations ; such as that of the object and the act, as 
<*0!ll7?TT: ' dependence upon Krishna ;' that of the object and 
the agent, as JJIHITIW ' arrived at the village ;' or that of the 
attribute and the object, as tfl<4lr^c5 ' a blue lotus/ It also 
comprises adjectives, participles, and particles aggregated, so 
as to form compound attributives or appellatives ; as, ^ 
* black and white;' MI<*H 'done and not done;' 
' surpassing the king.' The two last are, however, considered 
as forming either a subdivision of this class, or a separate 
class termed Karmma-dharaya, oM*JMKn: ; and so is the com- 
bination of a numeral with a noun ; which subdivision is 
termed fsf*j: Of these terms, Tatpurusha, f the man of him/ 
refers to a word that commonly exemplifies this kind of com- 
pound, or Uaiy^'M: ' the king's man.' Karmma-dharaya implies 
' that which comprehends (dharayati) the object (karmma).' 
Dwigu is a technical word derived from Dwi ' two.' 

3. The third class of compounds, called lf!5ftf^, is the 
association of any given number of terms, simple or com- 
pound, to form an epithet to a noun, of which the word Bahu- 
vrihi furnishes an example : as separated, it means f much 
rice ;' as compounded, ' that which has much rice,' a field 
or the like. In compounds of this class, the last member, 
whatever its original gender, takes that of the noun with 
which it is connected ; as, ^$Hl*4Hlui: ' (a man) who has 
a beautiful wife.' These epithets are sometimes used abso- 
lutely as appellatives ; as, M^O <*!{: ( having eyes like the 
lotus ;' a name of Vishnu. As an instance of the multipli- 
cation of terms in a Bahuvrihi compound, we may take fTR- 
J<*: ' (a place) of which the waters were sanctified 

by the bathing of the daughter of Janaka.' 

4. The last class is termed Avyayi-bhava, ^nqrftvTR:, being the 
construction of indeclinable or adverbial compounds (Avyaya), 
consisting for the most part of a preposition and the noun 
governed by it in the objective case neuter, as ^TJ^EUI, and 
requiring a verb or verbal derivative, expressed or understood, 

x x 


to complete the sense ; as, T^w fwfffir ' he stays near to 
Krishna ;' T^^USW^H: ' Arjuna (is) near to Krishna.' 

268. In forming these several kinds of compounds, various 
peculiarities occur, the most important of which we shall 
specify under their respective heads. 


Dwandwa Compounds. 

269. When words are combined in this form of compound, 
the final usually takes the sign of the dual number when 
there are two objects, as ^ft^tt ' Vishnu and S'iva ;' and that 
of the plural if there are more than two, as 

' desire, virtue, wealth, liberation' (the four objects of human 

270. The following words, when compounded, terminate 
in the neuter singular : terms for parts of the body, as 
f the hand and foot :' players on musical instruments, Hi 

oh ' players on different kinds of drums :' component parts 
of an army, rAioMsy^ * the chariots and horse :' members of 
different trades, 4>i4iri'g'cn'4 ' a washerman and weaver :' specific 
terms not signifying living things, VHI^r^fVj ' fried grain and 
barley water :' names of small insects, ^*l (Vi>sf * flies and 
lice :' names of animals, natural enemies, ^f^H*W ' the snake 
and ichneumon :' a class of words beginning with iRI'y ' the 
cow and horse :' names of rivers and countries, if in different 
genders, *^*^^<4 ( Kuru and Kurukshetra ;' but if the gen- 
ders are the same, then they vary the number, as TjJ-m^ 
* the Ganges and Yamuna/ Some words take either form,j 
when more than one is meant, as $THJ-*<?fl*T or snsj'aHffcn! 
f Plaksha and Nyagrodha trees ;' but it is confined to the 
dual to signify a Plaksha and a Nyagrodha tree ; trfr^ or 
^ilVTC. ( first and last ; flvCl'rK or ^HV|0<K ' upper and lower,'' I 
' many or one of each.' Qualities, if contrariety be meant. 


take either form, $0 rfi U!l or sfliflui) ' cold and hot. 5 A com- 
pounded word preceded by a definite number takes only the 
first form, as <^l>}iftyi: * ten teeth and lips :' but if the number 
is indefinite, and the numeral is converted into an attributive 
which is not part of the compound, the form is optional, <jq<^f 
^rflT? or <JM<J$|| ^ffhnt ' about ten teeth and lips.' 

271. Various rules are given for the order in which the 
words are to be arranged in Dwandwa compounds ; but they 
are liable to many exceptions. Thus in general the shortest 
term should come first, as f^T^T^ ' Siva and Vishnu :' so 
should words ending in ^ or T, as ?rft^, or JJ^fyufl e teacher 
and pupil/ Names of seasons and asterisms, if of equal 
length, follow the natural order, as ttHnCfyOtrmM*!!!: ' winter, 
1 dewy season, spring ;' but sflm^tlif! ' summer and spring/ 
the first being the shorter. When names of castes or persons 
come together, the precedence is to be given to the most 
worthy or the senior ; yTSRnjffcf^fa^l^i: ' the Brahman, 
Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra ;' ^fVfSTT^f^ f Yudhisht'hira 
and Arjuna. ^TT is sometimes interposed, as f*To?l <J <v*ltr ' Mitra 
and Varuna. 

272. In some compounds different terms are occasionally 
substituted for the first member ; as, *nr or ^ for ?fiMi, ( a 
wife,' in n*fift or ^qTft ' wife and husband ; STRT for f^ in 

iu ' heaven and earth :' so STTrnTft, 'trreivptj &c. 

is substituted for Ttrw in ^qmrnSj * the dawn and the sun ; J 
and *zrzf repeated makes wsrff, as vn^Tl^i ' one and another,' 
( one another ;' and XR, qi^mC ' mutually' or ' in succession.' 

273. Single words have sometimes the force of Dwandwa 
compounds : thus TT^ means ' the two Ramas ;' urn * the 
three Ramas,' who were Parasurama, Ramachandra, and Bala- 
rama. A masculine noun in the dual comprises the feminine : 
thus *f^ is put for ^r and tr^ft, or ' the gander and the goose :' 
so >jTfTt! means ' sister and brother ;' Tjc^ * daughter and son ;' 
ftnri^, ' parents,' may be used for HTKlfMriO * mother and 
father ;' and asjO, ' parents-in-law, 5 for 

X X 2 



Tatpurusha Compounds. 

274. This class includes, as above remarked, three sub- 
divisions ; to the first of which the term Tatpurusha may be 
for the present restricted. In compounds of this order, the 
words stand in a relation to each other which would require, 
if they were separated, the use of different cases ; the one 
exercising a syntactical government over the other, and not 
being connected, as in the preceding class, by copulatives 
understood, nor, as in the subdivision Karmmadharaya, by 
simple concordance. The words thus formed are mostly 
attributives and appellatives. 

275. The following are arranged in the order of the cases. 
. Words in the sense of the objective case are mostly 

compounded with the past participle as the governing member ; 
as, IflHUIVJ f one who has reached the village ;' *:<?( I dirt ( one 
who has overcome pain ; } 4^1'^j: a fool,' ' one who lies in 
his bed : in the literal sense it is not compounded ; 

' mounted or lying on the couch.' They may also be com- 
pounded with verbal derivative nouns denoting the agent ; as, 
cUHofrK: c a potter ;' Tr^pm?: * a weaver.' 

b. With the instrumental case nouns as well as partici- 
ples are combined ; as, ^l-iriUjUji ' a piece cut by the nip- 
pers ;' VMIVJ: ' wealth acquired by grain;' fMUg$i: '(a 
son) like his father ;' HIUM^ * prior by a month ;' cjlgfcci^: 
* dispute by or with words ;' ^f^T: l rice sprinkled by 
curds,' f dressed with them ;' JjjJV I t*i ' rice mixed with sugar :' 
also ^Hg^ff ' killed by a snake ;' ^Tcrf^fl ( cut by a sickle ;' 
cHcsq^ ' to be drunk by a crow,' as <+i<*tjiii t^t ' a river with 
muddy water, fit only for a crow's beverage.' In some com- 
binations the third case is retained ; as, -efl!Wi<*ri ' done by 
force ;' JJHTJT: ' younger by a male' (having an elder brother); 
' a goddess mentally,' a proper name ; jf?TftMIM*<: ' a 


penitent, by his braided locks. 5 Where these and similar 
combinations with the third or any other case retaining its 
inflexion are used as appellatives, they may be admitted to be 
compound terms ; but where the latter member is a participle 
or adjective, which qualified by the preceding term forms an 
attributive declinable in the three genders, it must be regarded 
as constituting an exception to composition ; gTtatu GrT, for 
instance, cannot be considered as properly a compound term. 

c. Compounds are formed with words in the sense of the 
dative case, as expressed not so much by the sign ' to/ as by 
that of ' for' or ' on account of ;' as, ^JM^I^' ' timber for a 
stake :' this sense is also conveyed by ^Ht, with which words in 
the dative case form attributives ; as, 

i! ' broth, gruel, or milk, for, or on account of, the 
Brahman.' The grammatical terms iR$n4 and ^|t+^q^ are 
compounds of this class retaining the sign of the case. 

d. Attributives are formed with participles preceded by 
nouns having the sense of the ablative case ; as, 4H4IMri 
c removed from happiness,' ' unhappy ;' yAqPHrf ' fallen from 
heaven.' Composition does not take place after words signi- 
fying ( near/ ' far,' ' a little,' or c^$ in the ablative case ; as, 

i ' brought from near ;' ^miri ( come from afar ;' 
* loosed from a little ; 5 <*vlrUI>l ' obtained from 

penance ;' &c. 

e. There are many compound terms, in which the first 
word has the sense of the genitive case ; as, U^Ufj'M*. ' the 
king's man / *JJI4H<!) ' a grove of Mango trees ;' ^r-HdHH: ' a 
cutter of wood/ i. e. a hatchet ; ^fgHl^?I ' dulness of intellect/ 
Verbal derivatives terminating in w or W35, and denoting the 
agent, do not form compounds with words in the sense of the 
sixth case, with the exception of words belonging to the class 
' ; as, ^<4Jj|fefi: ' a worshipper of the gods ;' 

' a reverencer of the Brahmans ;' >wftT ' a lord of the earth.' If 
the agent is not meant, composition may take place ; as, 
' eating of the sugar-cane :' also if play or profession 


be intended ; as, qu^f^cM ' who breaks the flowers (in sport) ;' 
* a cleaner of teeth,' ' a dentist.' The sign of the 

sixth case is retained in these compounds ; f<*<*4Jfrf: ' lord of 
heaven/ * Indra ;' <4Pf44lfrt: ' lord of speech/ a name of Vri- 
haspati/ the preceptor of the gods ;' tycft^lti: * the servant of 
heaven/ a proper name. 

f. Compounds in which the first member has the sense of 
the locative case are formed with ^fag and other words ; as, 
'JTBjsfiiK: ' a gambler/ ' one skilled in dice ;' sn^nftjdrt: ( one 
learned in the Sastras ;' efitFt^TcR ' one skilled in work/ ' an 
artisan ;' ^iy4j*0'i: ( one dependent on, or trusting in, God ;' 
e what is dried in the sun / 44Jlr4)Mh ' what is boiled 

in a pot / HUT^M ' born or produced in a month ;' rffl<*rf 
( done there,' ' in that place ;' MJjl*H ' done in the forenoon.' 
Terms of ridicule are formed in this manner ; as, ifi vj <*i <+: ' a 
crow at a holy pool,' i. e. a man out of his place ; <=M4H<i^i: ' a 
frog in a well,' i. e. a man ignorant of the world. In this 
sense it is also usual to form compounds retaining the sign of 
the case ; JJ^sic ' a hero in his house,' ( a cot-quean ;' 

' one dexterous in his dish,' ' a gourmand.' Various nouns 
ending with ^r or a consonant, and forming appellatives or 
proper names, retain the sign of the seventh case ; as, wtfW 
' who sports in a clump of grass/ ' an elephant ;' ^^t: ' who 
goes in the sky,' ' a deity ;' <WLMM: ' who whispers in the ear/ 
' a spy,' ' an informer / *iW$f*r. ' who sleeps in water/ l a 
fish ;' "irfVlfsT.: ' the firm in battle/ ' the elder of the Pafidus :' 
so jft, ' a cow,' makes Jifafyii: ' firm in cattle,' a proper name. 
Some w r ords take both forms, riP^HK: or ^f^TIi: ' what has 
strength in its skin/ ' a kind of deer ;' Tuft^f or qCM ' born 
in a lake/ ' a lotus ;' ?pr^ or fyfaM^ ' who resides in heaven/ 
* a deity.' 

ff. Certain words which imply the part of any thing, when 
compounded with the word signifying that whole of which 
it is a part, are prefixed to it ; as, ^ihRR: the front of the 
body ;' .<*!*?: ' the back of the body.' If it is a part of a 


part only, composition does not take place ; as, 
' the front of the navel of a body.' ^|f in the neuter gender, 
but dropping the sign, is also prefixed ; as, '^fqm'cfl ' a half 
of the pepper :' but not if used in the masculine ; as, ?]wrif: 
' half a village.' Fractional numbers may be placed first or last ; 
as, f>T^ ifgrrfW or %7fhrf>T^rr ' half of the alms ;' ure and 
governing the objective case, may take either form ; as, 
f)f<4c|i: or sflfcjcUHlH: ' a man who has obtained a livelihood :' 
so WT^Tsftfr^it or 5 

Karmmadhdraya Tatpurusha Compounds. 

276. Compounds of the Karmmadharaya division of Tat- 
purusha do not require that the members of which they 
consist should exercise any government the one over the other ; 
they are connected together by implied, though not expressed 
concordance, or by copulatives understood. 

a. The most numerous series of Karmmadharaya com- 
pounds is that in which the attribute is combined with the 
object ; as, *flc4lrMc4 ' a blue lotus ;' <*uimuj: * a black snake ;' 
H^TOTt * a great king ;' ftmHiiih ' a dear wife ;' ^TfKH=K 
' the northern Kurus' (a country) ; *nnt*T: * the seven Rishis/ 
* the constellation of the Great Bear.' 

b. Compounds of this class may consist of attributives 
only ; as, cfionsjsfl { black and white ;' WcrnjfFTff ' anointed 
after being bathed ;' g<L|HJri ' equally white ;' H^TiftW ( warm 
enough to be eaten ;' |M* ' a little red :' or of substantives 
and attributives forming attributives to a third term ; as, 
V*l$ilTH f black as a cloud ;' ^if^r^ri 1 ' made as a heap ;' 'MftiJriHTT 
' considered as a Pandit ;' fivf j lrf ' gone to death,' ' de- 
ceased;' &c. 

c. When the sense of the term is complete in itself, com- 
bining the object and the attribute, the latter usually precedes 
the former, as in the instances tfhytr^r?5, &c. When it forms 
an attribute to a third term, the adjective or participle is 
usually placed last, as in Tjf^PJrT and the like : but there are 



many varieties in this respect. Words denoting ' excellence,' 
or used metaphorically for that purpose, are placed after the 
object ; as, J1^v^R<*: ' an excellent king ;' JJlHrifeiahl * a 
capital cow ;' ^'M^HItr. or ijfCMfti^: * a man-tiger,' ' a man- 

lion,' i. e. a superior man. ^ and other terms implying 
' relative position' or ' merit' precede the object ; ^|M^M: ' a 
preceding or superior man / ^IRM^'M: ' a subsequent or infe- 
rior man ;' TTU4H^4\M: ' a middle man/ e an impartial one,' or 
* a middling man,' ' one of indifferent character :' so ^fa:, ' a 
hero,' forms cfl^^m ' a heroic man.' "^, forming an attri- 
butive of time, is placed after a participle ; gBMlJ ' formerly 
seen ;' MTUpj * formerly been.' Terms of depreciation require 
the object to be placed first ; as, sJHIWJlHj(*jPj: * a very bad 
grammarian :' except when compounded with tTTT or 'jjiy<* ; 
as, qiqvufurf: ' a vile barber ;' ^|<**O<MPJ: ' a bad potter.' 

, also used in a depreciatory sense, precedes the object; 
as, feRlJTI ' what sort of a king is this/ *ft T Hjfrt THTTt ' who 
does not protect his subjects/ '<*TR e young/ or ' a boy/ 
precedes certain terms ; as, 3RHI*4J: { a gentle boy ;' 4*4 1 UJ^) 
' a tender girl :' so it does when substituted for cj*irO ' a girl / 
as, ^Wimtft ' a slave girl ;' efc^K^^y^ ' a young harlot/ ^ 
is placed before Hjf , Tfenr, and ^f?5Tf, to form ^ejaRrf^ ' an 
aged or infirm youth ;' UcmfoJri: ' a grey-haired youth ;' JTQft- 
ft^Tf: ' a wrinkled young man/ On the other hand, VT and 
others are always last ; as, 7fhT*j: ' a milch cow ;' ^T^fTTt ' a 
young elephant / ^fTrRcfto: ' a little fire ;' &c. 

d. In Tatpurusha compounds, of whatever class, certain 
words, forming the second member of the compound, undergo 
changes of termination ; 7^, that is, a final ^r, being substi- 
tuted for ? or for ^r*T, or added to a final *T: thus THfw, 'a 
" \ \ 

friend/ forms f^^vra^: ' a friend of the gods ;' TTf^t ' night ;' 
^JURiy: * a holy night ;' ^*fvf, ' the thigh/ when similitude is 
implied, *JJ|<*4 s a thigh like that of a deer ;' TT^f'Tj as m*RI*Tl 

' a supreme king ;' ^T?T % a day/ 
^Tjf is sometimes substituted, as 

: ' a fine day ;' or 
the whole day,' or 


* lasting for the whole day :' ^HW makes Sl^il^Ht ' a white 
stone :' wsr^ becomes ff^t in such terms as jftid*i: * a Brahman 
of Gaur.' After ^ and T^, implying * baseness,' the change 
is optional ; ^3?K or <*dyi, H^i#4i: or H^i34ii, ( a low Brah- 
man ;' ?nn^ being used ironically. T^tT ' a dog,' preceded by 
an indeclinable, takes ^ ; as, xHfrtiy) TO^r: ( a boar swifter 
than a dog ;' *H fri vl ^fal e service worse than that of a dog :' 
but not if similitude to living beings is implied ; as, 

f a dog-like man,' c a cynic;' ^HW, * iron,' makes 

* black iron ;' !Ti^ ' food ;' JH^HtU * a kitchen.' ^ is added 
to jff, as 'iwrft ' an excellent ox ;' and to t^ compounded 
with ^i|r, as sn^r(i4 ' half a boat ;' or with numerals, flFTR 
' two boats collectively,' when even combined with a Taddhita 
affix, as %TN^ui: ' what comes from two boats.' When ^ or 
^rfff or a negative, however, are prefixed to these words, form- 
ing appellatives, the finals are unchanged ; as, QH (V: * a good 
friend ;' ^rfd*rf%: ' an excellent friend ;' ^srarfe: * not a friend,' 
' an unfriend ;' or U^ijII &c. : so TTTT5f*T , ^fdl.l'SfVi, '^^ifrr, &c. 
iT^TT, being the first member of a Tatpurusha compound, 
becomes *T^T ; as, Jr*fT^ ' the great deity Siva ;' rf RTTi * a 
great king;' &c. 

e. The following are considered by some as irregular com- 
pounds of the Karmmadharaya class : tf^T^ ' high and low ;' 
f^nSTTT^ ' picked out and heaped up ;' 3jf<*^H ' having nothing,' 

* poor ;' ^rafiffcni ' fearless ;' pc|*4lcj ' the mind alone ;' ^^rl- 
f^TTT ' drinking after eating.' Derivatives of fi ' to do,' com- 
bined with ^r^ ' I ;' as, ^nrcfin::, VJ^osfff:, ' self-sufficiency,' 
( egotism ;' also ^i|fij<*r, ^T^H^f5T5fiT, ' contending to be first' 
or ' foremost.' Compounds with T*f^ e come ;' as, ^n^NlTTT 
' come and welcome ;' ^f^^lf*jjffofiF ' come and trade ;' ^TtHV- 

* go and leave trade :' also with ffl , ' abandon,' in 

particular acceptations ; as, *lf^feftf: ' one who cries, Leave 
the clump of grass.' These and others of a like anomalous 
character very rarely occur. 


Dwigu Tatpurusha Compounds with Numerals. 

277. Compounds are formed with numerals to signify 
attributes of weight, measure, or number ; as, M^fcfcijic* ( mea- 
sured by five cups ; ' TT^ramoT. ^Jll^r: * butter offered at 
sacrifice to the extent of five cups ;' W^T ir^fsf ' gold of the 
value of eight oxen ;' 30p5 ( of the measure of two inches.' 

a. Aggregates of any given number of things are formed in 
the same manner, when the final takes either the neuter 
gender or the feminine, with the termination ^ ; as, fft'H'cH 
f three worlds ;' f<5fc^<=lJI the same ; "<T J i ' the four ages ;' 
T^imml ' a work in five chapters ;' fw^f or ftf'^1 ' a col- 
lection of three bedsteads.' 

b. The changes to which finals are subjected, as enumerated 
above, are of course applicable here ; as, foJ4Ji * three kings 
collectively ;' 14*4 'H ' five cows ;' f&R^i ' three friends ;' tngtTef 
' a term of three nights ; } ^pcrg ' a meeting of four roads ;' 
^nr*TR ( an assemblage of eight boats.' 

c. These same compounds may be used as possessive attri- 
butives ; as, P-frfR ' who or what has three boats ;' T^JR e who 
or what has three cows ;' PgUcJ ' what lasts for two nights.' 

d. The combinations of cardinal numbers to form multiples 
are considered to be compound Tatpurusha terms ; as, 


Tatpurusha Compounds with Particles and Prepositions. 

278. Besides the two subdivisions usually specified, the 
class of Tatpurusha compounds comprises a number of words 
formed with nominal or verbal derivatives, preceded by parti- 
cles and prepositions, which may be conveniently separated 
from those compounds which are formed with nouns alone. 

a. Compound attributives and appellatives are formed with 
negatives prefixed to nouns ; as, ^|p{|4i4i!: or v^igr*!.!: ' a man 
not a Brahman ;' ^TT^t ' an animal not a horse :' ^rgTTT ' who 
or what is not ;' ^HW ' untrue,' rfi^j^T ' who are not untrue,' 


* the Aswini Kumaras :' TT^: ' what has not space/ * a finger 
nail :' 'SPT: or TJT: ' what does not go,' ' a mountain' or ' tree ;' 
T-Wofi ' what does not depart,' f{T^K * sky :' ^fgf^ ' what does not 
decay ;' SHHjC ' a letter of the alphabet ;' HSfc? l a constella- 
tion :' TTT|^CB ( not male,' ' neuter :' and in short, most words 
to which a negative is prefixed, retaining either their literal, 
or assuming some conventional, meaning. 

b. The combination of the indeclinable words comprehended 
under the term Gati with the verbal derivatives of the verbs 
^TR or ^* to be/ or ^ ' to do,' is considered to form a class of 
Tatpurusha compounds ; as, yOcMlui ' promising,' TJfr^W ' hav- 
ing promised/ "3^>TfT ( promised/ &c. ; of which examples have 
already been given (see p. 100). To which may be added the 
following : ^W#fl ' having set ;' ^wiJIfl ' having met ;' 

' having spoken to / ^JT^FI ' having placed before ;' 
' having disappeared ;' SJTJiJTr^W ' having made present' or 
' visible.' Analogous compounds are formed with the deriva- 
tives of ^ and J, with nouns retaining the inflections of case ; 
as, WWfW * having made salt ;' *Rfo <=W or ^fi^T e having 
made up the mind/ l having determined ;' 3lffl<$W or ^RT 

* having placed on the breast ;' ^^^W or Tjrorpr ' having 
placed in the hand/ i. e. having married or promised to marry. 

c. The following are Tatpurusha compounds with preposi- 
tions : ^rffrcnr ' surpassing the king ;' ^TW|r ' more than a 
day ;' ^Pr1Hlc4 ' exceeding the necklace (in beauty) ;' *iN<*lf<*<i 

* overcome by the cry of the Ko'il ;' ffK^ITfg ' gone from 
Kaus'ambi ;' xntnnT i weary of study / HHi^ * over whom 
the teacher has authority.' These are attributives ; as, 'srfwrnrft 

' the minister more powerful than the king ;' flM <*tf<*?5 
t ' the mind overpowered by the KoiTs song ;' &c. 
279- Tatpurusha compounds, when attributives, take the 
gender of the substantives with which they agree ; but when 
they form appellatives, adopt for the most part the gender of 
the concluding member of the compound, in which respect 
Dwandwa compounds agree with them. There are, however, a 

Y y a 


few exceptions : thus, in the latter class, ^sn& ' a horse/ and 
* a mare/ form SHvjqjj 1 ^ ; and ^T^T ' a day/ and Tjfe ' night/ 
m^Kl^t. nf^ with numerals in the sense of ' aggregation' 
becomes neuter, as fgU<4 ' a term of two nights / and ^T^ 
masculine, as 3n*: ' a period of two days :' so ^RJ[, substituted 
for xM^H is masculine, as rrrg: ' midday ;' when joined with 
an adjective, it may be neuter, as IJTUII^ ' a lucky day.' 

a. Nouns of aggregation are formed with numerals ; the 
gender is either neuter or feminine, as already noticed. Tftrf , 
preceded by a preposition to form an appellative, is neuter ; 
as, fanvj * a cross-road/ c a by-way.' 

b. WT, preceded by a word meaning * king/ except tTSTT, 
and one not meaning e man,' implying ( an assembly/ is 
neuter ; as, ^itfUH*T * an assemblage of princes ;' ^jffaw ' a 
company of women :' but ^MU*TT, *r^*4U*TT. When it signi- 
fies the place of assembly, it remains feminine ; as, $r*W 
' the hall of Indra ;' ywNwr ' a hall of justice/ 

c. ^TT ' an army/ 9llcil * a hall/ W*R ' shade,' JJtT ' wine/ 
f?T$n ' night/ when members of a Tatpurusha compound, 
retain the feminine, or adopt the neuter gender ; as, 

' an army of heroes ;' J flail oil -<? ' a cow-house ;' 

' the shade of a tree / iH^tj -t ' barley wine,' i. e. beer. 


Eahuvrihi Compounds. 

280. Two or more words, or two or more compound terms, 
may be put together to form the attribute or epithet of an 
object. There is no limit to the component members of such 
a compound, and the final may be a noun of any gender ; but 
it loses its own distinctive mark, as it takes, like all attribu- 
tives, the gender of the word to which it is related : thus T^sfi, 
' water/ makes HlvTl=fcl ?fT*T: ' a village at which the water has 
come ;' HTHV<J&T ohc4$ft ' a pitcher which has been filled ;' 
l a pool with water in it.' *TFzft, * a wife/ may 


become masculine ; as, ^q^T^V *T^n ' a man who has a 
handsome wife :' aft ' a cow,' masculine or neuter ; as, fWgfy: 
j^er: a man i who has a brindled cow ;' (Vof J J T5^ a field ' in 
which such a cow is feeding/ Compounds of this class may 
be formed with particles ; as, snt[cf: VH'ijen * a childless (man or 
woman) ;' H'lfJSft y5ft a ^ ree ' ^ which the leaves are fallen ;' 
mftd'HflTT *ftt a cow ' in whom there is milk :' also with nume- 
rals ; as, Tqf-4^1 ' near to twenty,' &c. Nouns implying 

* intermediate space' are also compounds of this class, the 
substantive f^^, ' quarter/ being either expressed or under- 
stood ; as, ^fHjui^jfr ' the south-east/ MOa*fl3U ' the north-west/ 

a. In general the order of the words of which a Bahuvrihi 
compound consists places the term indicating the principal 
subject of attribution, and which will be the substantive, last ; 
as in the preceding instances. When the principal term 
retains the sign of the case, it may be put first; as, cbi!4til<4: 
' who is black in the throat,' S'iva : otherwise, Mr4<>M!4:. Pro- 
nominals and numerals are usually put first ; as, ^iHshr * who 
is white all over ;' flTSTli ' what is white in two places :' when 
they are combined, the numeral precedes ; as, gpr ' having 
other two/ Participles are usually put first ; as, *rf'<*W one 
by whom what was to be done has been done ;' ^jfefi^ ' one 
who has made the mat ;' xftfftyeR * by whom water has been 
drunk :' but not always, when connected with words implying 

* species' or ' time/ or the term *pr ; as, *CK^J*I ' by whom 
venison has been eaten ;' JTHnrnr ' produced in a month ;' 
*t li rf ' produced easily/ In the compound signifying ' one 
(a Brahman) by whom a domestic fire is maintained,' the par- 
ticiple takes either place ; as, ^Tlf^HlfH: or wanffir:. Forms 
implying ' using a weapon' place the participle last ; as, 

: '(a soldier) lifting up a sword (to strike)/ but 
one who has his sword sheathed/ 

b. As an epithet is commonly formed by a feminine sub- 
stantive, preceded by its adjective, and the former being 
changed according to the gender of the new term to which 


it is attached, it becomes a question what is to be done with 
the latter : thus, for instance, f%WT *fh being converted to an 
epithet, ^ becomes ?T, and may be masculine, TT:, as the 
epithet of a man having cattle. In that case is f^cfT to 
remain feminine ? So ^M'^rO >TToh becoming an attribute of a 
man ' having' a handsome wife, and >n*zh accordingly becom- 
ing vrrn?:, what is to be done with T^q^cft? In general, adjec- 
tives so circumstanced are reduced to their crude forms, and 
in the examples given the compounds are (VcfJj:, ^M'-=J^l^:. 
There are, however, exceptions to this rule. 

1. When a compound epithet, of which the final was 
originally feminine, is preceded by more than one adjective, 
all except that preceding the final retain the feminine termi- 
nation ; as, fVdl*R: or Kifl(Vfl'j: ' one who has an old 
brindled cow.' According to some authorities, both should be 
feminine, as f^Traft*T: ; but this appears questionable. 

2. When the preceding term is necessarily feminine, it 
retains its termination ; as, J|#|*J|uh * he who has the river- 
goddess Ganga to wife :' also if it ends in ^i feminine ; as, 
qiHt^rrah ' one who has a wife of elegant shape' (handsome 
thighed) : also if the first term have no necessary relation to 
the second ; as, KcRHlftnVTf ' having for its head an illustrious 
woman' (a family) ; ^pflnHUii: ' having a woman for witness or 
authority' (a suit, &c.) Feminine nouns having a penultimate 
~SK preserve their final ; as, mf^ewmuj: * one who has a wife 
that can cook.' ^w, used either as an attribute or as a name, 
retains a feminine termination ; as, ^frnrnzf: * one who has a 
wife given,' or ' whose name is Datta/ Ordinal numbers do 
the same ; as, TT^Nfarnh f he who has a fifth wife :' so do 
nouns ending in ^ implying part of the body ; as, ^fi^ffarnh 
' who has a wife with fine hair :' so do nouns implying caste ; 
as, Tgjjwpzh sll<HlflHI*ih ' one who has a wife of the S'udra or 
the Brahman caste.' 

c. The final members of Bahuvrihi compounds occasionally 
undergo some modification. 


i. The most common is the substitution of ^T for the final 
vowel, or in some cases for the penultimate vowel and final 
consonant of the last member of a compound epithet ; as, 
W*fq ' a thigh/ sfHNr^? ( long-thighed ;' (but not if used figu- 
ratively, as ^iftrerflzr $Tii ' a cart w ^h long axle ;') ^rf$f ' the 
eye,' 'MJijOeMHj ' lotus-eyed ;' 'srfffcS ' a finger,' when applied 

to any thing of wood, tj^rr^t^ ^T?j ' a rake ;' but 

' the hand.' rrrfar * the navel,' and other words, optionally 
change ^ to ^r ; as, < 3i5h : rR or 4i<!hTlfa ' having a woolly or 
hairy navel :' so ^fc? ' a furrow,' *T3iftr ' the thigh/ or, accord- 
ing to some, ^rflR ' utility,' optionally change the final after a 
negative, ^ f bad,' or *T ' good ;' as, ^nr?5 or xS^fpi ' unfur- 
rowed,' g^c5 or c^fc5, &c. Numerals preceded by particles 
or by other numerals, to signify ' approximation,' take ^? for 
their finals ; ^I^TT: those which are ' near ten,' i. e. nine or 
eleven ; fgr^r: ' two or three ;' tf^qit ' five or six ;' f^R^fU 

* twice twenty.' It is added to ^TJ^j preceded by certain parti- 
cles ; <i'x| QH ' what is not four ;' 3'mcJ't. ' what is about four.' %w, 

* a leader/ takes ^r when preceded by the name of a constel- 
lation ; as, ^*THc? ' what has Mriga for a leader.' After a 
numeral, *j|hT substitutes ^i for its final syllable ; flT*pb f<^*^ij 
' two-headed, three-headed :' so does c5ta^ after snd^. and 
^ffipl ; as, ^Hii^ta ' hairy internally / ^'P^ic^lH * hairy exter- 
nally.' The following are considered as irregularly taking ^ ; 

' morning/ ^TTtfT ' having a good morning ;' f^^ff ' a day;' 
' having a good day / "sgrr ' morrow,' Tns ' having a good 
morrow ;' ^f% ' the belly/ ^ft^ 1 'green-bellied/ as ^fic^r: "ST^K 

* the green-bellied parrot / 'srftr * an angle/ '^r^r^r c quadrangular.' 

2. In a few instances a final ^T is changed to another vowel, 
or' substitutes ^Tfr or ^nr ; thus 1^1, ( smell/ makes with T?T, 
^fjf, ^, and TKfvt, jriPHT ' emitting smell/ wirf^I and 'miiTTrfHi 
' fragrant,' TjfrtJrfHf * fetid :' also in compounds implying ' a 
little / as, "nrfnf^ ' smelling slightly of Ghee :' and intending 
similitude ; as, tpsrjrf'fu ' fragrant as a lotus :' but not if the 
odour is separated from the object ; as, *j'l-m ^inrftr^: ' a shop 


of fragrant things/ ' a perfumer's.' f^, ' a wound/ in one 
combination takes 'sr*^; as, ^f^l^T ipr: ' a deer wounded by 
a hunter :' so does pT, ' a tooth' or * food/ after ^r, ^fcr, TTW, 
or ^ftH ; as, *nr*H*^ * having good teeth ;' ^PcHf**TT ' having 
green teeth ;' ilMWT ' eating grass ;' *TlHH**T^ ' eating the 
Soma plant :' but not after any other term ; as, 
* toothless.' vwt takes ^rT in composition ; as, 

' who performs his duty well.' un * offspring/ and 

* understanding/ take ^Pff when compounded with a negative 
or with or *T ; as, ^nrspfr ' without progeny ;' %SlHi: 

( a childless man/ r 5THlTT: ^ * a childless woman :' so 
HU*i ( having bad or good children ;' ^RV*T ' stupid/ ?r*fvr*f 

* dull/ ^V^T ' intelligent.' 

3. In various instances the final term of a Bahuvrihi com- 
pound substitutes a different form, and especially when the 
word signifies a part of the body : thus ?fff is put for rrrftrcjiT ; 
as, T^T * high-nosed/ THTO * prominent-nosed.' With ^ and 
^r: the substitute may also be nr ; as, 'ttUUti: or ^icUi 
or 44i.iui: "5^11 * an ass-nosed or hoof-nosed man.' After 
the prim itive is unchanged ; as, ^c?*nftnfi ' large-nosed.' After 
f% the syllables ^r, TJ, and ^ may be substituted ; as, f^Tf, 
f^rj, f^R| ; also r^H ' noseless.' TTT? is substituted for XJT^ 
when ' resemblance' is implied ; as, ^TSJTT^ ' having a foot like 
a tiger :' but not after the class ^Wllf^ ; as, ^fisniT^ ' elephant- 
footed.' After numerals and *r the substitute is used ; as, 


finrPT, f^TT^, ' biped, triped/ &c. ; ^T^ ' well-footed.' ^ is 
used in the feminine after '*?* ' a jar/ ^ofi ' one/ f?T * with- 
out/ and other words ; as, ^W*T^, T*<*1r& fH|W)^, ' (a woman) 
having a foot like a water-jar/ &c. If masculine, the form is 
as in gRwnn^, 'jar-footed' (a man). ^, making in inflection 
^, is substituted for ^r * a tooth/ preceded by iff ; as, *r^ 
6 having good teeth :' by a numeral when age is implied ; as, 
fiT^^ ' having two teeth ;' flT^ WTc*: ' a child old enough to 
have two teeth :' but fjg^ift ^cft ' an elephant with two teeth.' 
The feminine is formed with ; as, fjfvft vicir ' a two-toothed 


female infant.' In feminine appellatives the same form is 
used ; as, ^H^rtl a proper name : but H^*d) ^ ( a woman 
with even teeth.' ^ is substituted after certain other words, 
as, 3TO, ^raj, and Tjf^ an ^ others ; as, ST*^ * white-toothed ;' 
* having teeth as sharp as the tip of Kus'a grass ;' 
' ass-toothed,' &c. : also optionally after ^qrR and nl'5R ; 
as, $*|N<^ or $qN^d ' black-toothed ;' ^Cl<*r^ or 'tfClaK'H ' hav- 
ing discoloured teeth.' $r is substituted for *n*J 5 ' the knee/ 
after IT, ^W , and optionally after 'get ; as, n$r ' prominent- 
kneed,' *r$r * compact-kneed,' "3rf^ or *^*TTJ e high-kneed.' 

4. In words not signifying parts of the body we have iflf^T put 
optionally for rnn ' a wife ;' as, ^^ifa: or VHfri^rm: ' a man who 
has a young wife :' "3511 for -giv^T ' an udder ;' as, TfTftft ' (a cow) 
having a large udder :' V?^ for V$\ ' a bow ;' as, 

' having a bow of horn :' optionally if the compound is a 
proper name ; as, ^TTTVHT or ^nnij: the name of a prince, e he 
who has a hundred bows.' ^B^, ( a hump' or ' a peak,' drops 
its final when denoting age ; as, SH^fM'eh^ ' a young ox,' * one 
whose hump has not grown :' or when signifying a mountain ; 
f^qhffi ' a three-peaked mountain.' '<*T*^, ' the palate,' drops 
its final after Ti^ or fsr, and optionally after ^ ; as, 4 r+l *$ or 
f^cfir^ ' without the hard palate ;' ^*l*^ or i^9<*i4d' ' having 
a complete palate.' <j^ is substituted for ^TI, ' the heart,' 
after *r and ^; as, ^^ ' kind-hearted,' i. e. a friend; <*^ 
' bad-hearted/ i. e. a foe : in a literal sense the compounds 
would be *rf^JT, <rj&3. 

5. sfi, technically termed cR^, is added to many Bahuvrihi 
compounds ; as, to "3T^ ' the breast,' iu<flujii ' broad-chested ; J 
to ^rf^^ ' ghee,' ftrwf^Kfi ( fond of ghee :' to ^Hr, ' object,' 
after a negative, *3H<* ( useless,' and optionally after a prepo- 
sition, ^rqr*T or ^m'Jjoh; to iqrff, f fame,' optionally, as H^m$nr 
or l^RT^T^i t very famous.' It is substituted for the finals in 
^ to form feminine attributives ; as, from ^fijT^ * an ascetic 
bearing a staff/ * a Dan'di,' come '<&jii<jft!i<*l f'ltf ' a city ha\ing 
many Dandis ;' T|Trf"T'5fiT ^THT ' an assembly of many eloquent 

z z 


persons.' If masculine, ofi may be optionally substituted for 
the final nasal ; as, '"rg^JhTI or 5?i!^ft!-J<*t JJTR: * a village with 
many Dandis.' When added to feminine nouns in ^rr, the 
final is optionally short ; as, ?Tc3T e a garland,' 4gHMl<* or 
4Hlc44< ' having many garlands/ *rnft and TTn?ft do not take 
eR when used anatomically ; as, '^jHifij: ofinr: ' the many- 
vesselled body ;' qgrifcft rftwi ' the many-fibred neck :' but 
they may add it in other senses ;' as, '"sign !:/)<*: WW * a clump 
with many pipes' or ' reeds ;' WgTHsft ^falT ' a many-stringed 
lute.' "5R is added to >rr$ in a depreciatory sense ; as, JnfbjTrpfi: 
' one who has a foolish brother :' otherwise H^rewnj ' having 
an excellent brother.' 

d. Tn? ' with/ forming the first member of a compound, is 
commonly changed to *r ; as, *nj^T * having a son,' * being with 
a son ;' tiah<+j<* ' having an oifice or object, occupied,' l transi- 
tive ;' tic4)Hh ' being with hair,' ' hairy.' When the compound 
is connected with a term of benediction, *r^ is retained ; as, 
SrfftfT TT% 'fl^"yo?m ' health to the king, along with his son :' but 
not before the words ift * a cow,' ^c5 ' a plough,' or ^w ' a calf;' 
as, tNN, U^c4l*lj W'^rHH. T^ usually substitutes ?nrr m a 
similar situation in this as well as in other kinds of compounds ; 
as, 4^lrUT ' great -souled,' ' magnanimous ;' H^IhTM ( great- 
bodied ;' M^N(4 ' very strong :' but *TfW is unchanged before 
words signifying ' become grown 3 or ' made ;' as, H^ri ' become 
large' or ' great.' 

e. Words implying ' mutual striking,' when repeated, pro- 
long the final of the first member, and substitute ^ for that of 
the last ; as, 4i$n4if$r ' pulling hair,' <{<!i!<jft!!J ' cudgelling,' 
j/tafg ' boxing.' Although these words are used adverbially, 
without a substantive, they are Bahuvrihi compounds, and 
regarded as epithets of Tpf, ' fighting,' understood. 


Avyayi-bhdva Indeclinable Compounds. 
281. Indeclinable words are formed by combining a noun 


with a preposition or particle, when the former is put in 
the accusative case neuter. These compounds being in fact 
compound adverbs, and like all adverbial terms, when not 
otherwise inflected, taking the sign of the invariable neuter 

0. The following are examples of indeclinable compounds 
formed with prepositions and particles, which, it will be 
observed, retain their own sense, and exercise the same effect 
upon the purport of the noun which they would do if uncom- 
pounded. The sense of each term is complete in itself, but, 
agreeably to its adverbial character, requires a verb, either 
present or understood, to connect it with a substantive. 

i. Prepositions. 

* beyond :' ^frUI$* ' beyond the Ganges,' ^PriJIff um: ' the 
village (that is) beyond the Ganges ;' -aTriP^t ' after the 
cold weather,' -nrrtfi*WPldrri ^rf: ' spring comes after the 
cold weather ;' ^(rtfa^ ' after sleep,' wf 

* the man gets up after sleep.' These examples will suffi- 
ciently explain the relation in which this sort of adverbial 
compound stands to the other members of a sentence. 

' upon,' * near to :' ^rfvf ft * upon Hari or Vishnu ;' MW|fH 
' near to or upon the fire.' 

J ' after,' ' according to,' ' near to :' 4H*jfcu.ii ' after Vishnu' 
(following or worshipping) ; JM-**i ' according to order ;' 
^WTTf ' according to seniority ;' ^ tjq H ' near to the wood ;' 
n H Jf ^ ' near to or upon the Ganges.' 

? * off,' ' from ;' as, tfiir^i ' in the off-point,' i. e. in the 
intermediate point ; ^H M f<4 OH * from Vishnu,' ( withdrawn 
from,' ' hostile to.' 

, limitative ; as, ^l^P* ' until final liberation ;' IV*J<; * unto 
the sea ;' ^Nltt ' to the boys,' as, SHNM ^ft^rf^NfiT ' faith 
in Hari extends even to the children.' The termination of 
the fifth case may be also used with this preposition ; as, 

z z 2 


gn? * near to :' 4M<$uu * near to Krishna / aMijlH * near to the 

' out of/ * exempt from :' f^^ff lonely / ' void of men ;' 
CH A f\5{ fi f free from flies/ 

' about' or * against :' xjfXfauy ' about or against Vishnu/ 
It follows numerals and the words ^nsf * dice,' $MI4il ' a 
man (at draughts, &c.),' or a numeral, when signifying 

* loss at play ;' as, U<*<lftl ( losing one ;' ^HjMfiL ' having the 
dice against one ;' ^Ic-M^miX ( losing a man/ 

' to' or ( towards :' HitlfH ^TcWT: tnrfnT * the grasshoppers 
go towards the fire/ It also implies * severalty' or ' suc- 
cession ;' as, in*PZf ' according to each several object or 
signification / Jlfri*1*H ' birth after birth/ 
is usually substituted for *% signifying ' similarity' or 
f sameness,' as ^(V ' like Hari ;' also ' association/ imply- 
ing ' finality,' as tr^JtwfVl ' he eats with the grass,' i. e. even 
to the grass ; also * possession/ as a property, as ^^<f 

* having, or rich in, fields/ 

2. Particles. 

, implying ' so,' ' such,' and the like ; as, $Trt^r*, ' such is 
(the word) Hari/ 

* bad/ and *i * good / as, <^faT ' bad with the Yavanas ;' 
HM^ * well or prosperous with the Madras/ 

, ' according to ;' as, ^vjl^lP* ( according to power or abi- 
lity :' but not when it signifies ' analogy ;' as, Trsn 
( such as Hari is, such is Hara/ 

f as many as ;' as, HN^sj rfl^iill^ ^HiH^^y ' as far as 
there may be food (for them), invite the Brahmans.' 

and mm\ f near ;' as, fH<+MM^ * near to Lanka ;' *wm<jC 
' near the city.' 

b. The derivatives of ^rer ' to go/ implying ' direction/ 
optionally form indeclinables ; as, H|J'=JH or H|J^HIrf x ' east from 
the wood :' so does ^f^L * out of/ ' without ;' as, ^f^^lH or 
* out of the village/ 


c. Indeclinable compounds may be formed with numerals, 
except Jjofi ' one/ referring to families or classes ; as, firvfa 
fyr^fjT ' born in or belonging to a family in which there have 
been two or three Munis :' so fpT$fiT <=m<*lAli ( the grammar of 
which the three Munis (Panini, Patanjali, Katyayana) are 
the authors.' Names of rivers are also combined with nume- 
rals to indicate the place of junction ; as, fgrrj? ' at the meeting 
of the two Ganges ;' f<^ij*pf ' at that of the three Yamunas.' 
They are also combined with other words in a like accepta- 
tion ; as, 4HJJ|^ * at the place where the Ganges is furious ;' 
TsVffTnTfF ' where the Ganges is red ;' as, $flJ|# KI4U$fl 

' Benares (stands) where the Ganges is rapid.' 

d. In this, as in preceding forms of composition, the finals 
of the last member of the compound are sometimes changed. 
When the final is a long vowel or a diphthong terminating 
a feminine noun, its change to a corresponding short vowel is 
nothing more than the alteration required by the substitution 
of the neuter gender (p. 41); as, f$, *a female/ makes 
^frif^ 1 ( surpassing the woman ;' "^ e a boat/ wfinj ' beyond 
the boat.' But the more special alteration is analogous to 
that which occurs so frequently in Bahuvrihi compounds, the 
substitution of ^T for a final vowel, or a final ^r^; or its addi- 
tion to words ending in consonants ; as, ^qfjii. or 
' near the mountain / WRf or ^Tlrf^ ' near the river ;' 
( under the king ;' *HU||r*f ' over or in the spirit.' If the noun 
ending in "snr be already neuter, it may retain its own termina- 
tion ; as, vsm+l or ^nr^f ' off the skin.' ^IT^ * the autumn,' 
and other words, add ^l ; as, <JM$K<{ * near the autumn :' or 
sometimes words with final consonants, not nasals, semivowels, 
or sibilants, add ^s optionally ; as, <JMg$i3 or 4Mg$|<{ ' near to 
the stone.' ^rffcf, * the eye,' substitutes ^Hr when compounded 
with the prepositions ^nj, "Tt, Hfff, or U*T; as, ^SHEf accord- 
ing to the eye,' ' visibly,' ' perceptibly.' Tfn substitutes ^ft for 
its own final, whether in a Tatpurusha or Avyaya compound ; 
as, Trctaf ' away from the eye/ ' absent/ ' invisible ;' 


* before the eye,' * present ;' and ^nrejf also t before the eye,' 

* visible' or * present.' 

e. ^Ql ( in front,' *nft * in the midst,' TITT ' on the further 
side,' may be compounded with nouns in this form ; as, ^HiK'** 
c in the presence of Rama ;' iTWTff ' in the midst of the 
Ganges ;' Ml\*j* * beyond the ocean :' or the terms may be 
optionally used with the signs of the case, either their own or 
the noun which they govern ; as, *1I\U^I^ or U^gHI ijujrf 

* from beyond the ocean.' 

f. The following words are considered as forming inde- 
clinable compounds of an anomalous description : iH^H * a 
day,' as HTfgjj ( in the forenoon ;' xft ' a cow or ox,' fwrn| ' at 
cow-standing (time),' i. e. when they stand to be milked, "^jf 
' at ox-bearing,' i. e. ploughing (time), iimfl j l4 ' at cattle- 
coming,' i. e. at the time of their coming home ; ^fHj*ir ' the 
right hand,' u^fgjijl ' walking round a person or thing, keeping 
it on the right ;' V^lOf ' a foot-soldier/ UHUi^ifrf ' at drill- 
time,' or when the soldiers are in line ; >|fk ' earth,' 3HWJH 

* (at a place) where it is level ;' ^T ' a deer/ nipt ' at deer- 
coming,' f^Rpf ' at deer-going ;' TT^ ' barley,' 4<M{H ' when 
barley is on the threshingfloor' (the season), cgffiH ' at barley- 
cutting ;' and other compounds : so ^ * chaff,' 4M4M ' at 
chaff on the floor' (time) , &c. ; t*r * a car,' in^T * at chariot- 
going ;' WT ' a year,' trrtnEnf ' during a wicked year,' M^*IH 
' during a virtuous year ;' *r*T ' equal,' ?TOT ' level' or ' even,' 
PMMH ' uneven.' ^nr is compounded with Trfir, as flHlPri ' now,' 
' at present.' 


General Rules. 

282. There are some changes which are common to all o 
most of the classes of compounds. Some, as the substitution 
or addition of a final % have been noticed : the most useful 
of the others are the following, affecting either the finafl 
member of the compound or the initial : 


a. I . ^ { water/ is changed to ^m ; as, (%*MIM ' having 
pure water,' f<Wf4|i< *r. * a clear lake/ After fir, 'srar, or a 
preposition ending in any vowel except ^r, the initial ^T is 
changed to ^ ; as, sfhf ' an island/ ' having water on both 
sides / also ^JT^hr ' an island/ ' in the midst of water ;' Mdlg, 
* reverse.' *ur with 'ST^ makes mftq ' near ;' but in a literal 
sense WTT ' having water equally.' After ^nj the vowel becomes 
"31, if applied to a country ; as, ^nnft ^i: ' marshy land :' but 
vMrcfl'l ' upon or along the water.' After a preposition ending 
with ^r, the change to ^ is optional ; as, TR and u make either 
TOT* or THTI ' where the water has retired ;' UTq or JR * where 
it has gone forth.' 

2. Tftn^, * a path/ is changed commonly. to TTO ; as, H^mq; 
' a great road;' -4rtU|<q tf a place where four roads meet/ 
U4ji|vj*l ^i; ( a place having a pleasant road ;' ^iiqvj * near to 
the road.' 

b. i. ^, a particle implying 'inferiority/ ' vileness/ or some- 
times * a little/ is variously* modified before different words. 
In a Tatpurusha compound, and preceding a word beginning 
with a vowel, it is changed to Sff ; as, <*^^j: ' a bad horse,' ' a 
hack ;' '^R^g: ' a bad camel ;' but ^f Tj3fT ' a prince who has a 
bad camel :' also before TJT and ^ ; as, <*Vj; ' a bad chariot ;' 
cRg^: ' one who speaks ill :' before "grrr, signifying * a species/ 
<+r[*!.f ' a kind of grass ;' but ^isf ' bad grass in general.' ^ is 
changed to CRT before TfftnT, as efirq^n ' a bad road / ^jfuj * the 
eye/ as <*H*j: ' a tear / and optionally before "5^:, as ohiM^ic 
or ^^M: ' a mean despicable man,' f a coward.' CRT is also a 
diminutive ; as, eRTTVTC ' a little sweet ;' ofiT^, ( a little sour :' 
before Ton, ' hot,' either ^, ofi^r, or ^ may be used ; as, tfrw, 
<kTtO!T, <*IH!I, * a little hot/ ( tepid.' 

2. The infinitive mood is used as the first member of a 
compound with "SKm and *T*nr, when it optionally rejects the 
nasal ; as, sjngohw or srrj^TO * desirous to know ;' <*^*H*T or 
inclined to do.' 
i, ' certainly/ optionally rejects its nasal when com- 


pounded with a future participle ; as, vM4$4<4i-uj or 

* what is necessarily to be done.' JTRT, ' flesh,' compounded 

with lira or TnT * cooking/ optionally rejects its final vowel ; 
as, flitim<*: or HIH4I<*:, ^fffmd or itU^-cM e cooking meat/ 

4. ^Rl becomes ^{m^ before various words, if not in the 
sense of the instrumental or genitive cases ; as, ?H^l$|l l hope 
in something else ;' 3T>q<;i$f): ' benediction in or on another ;' 
t * one who does something different.' 

5. The substitution of *I for ^ has already been noticed; 
but it is also substituted for UHM e same/ * like ;' as, fmtsj 
' being of the same party ;' *nn*r ' observing the same duties :' 
whence tMMU^i ' community of the duties of caste, profession/ 
&c. ; *Tti4l-4lO ' a fellow-student/ ' one studying under the 
same teacher :' so tirilv): also ' a fellow-student/ ' having the 
same holy object' or ' preceptor.' *r is substituted for WR 
before ^pr ' to see ;' as, *fi?$f: * like/ * similar/ ' of like appear- 
ance :' so *nnR and tigttj:. It is also substituted before the 
following words in the sense of either class of compounds : 
( light/ *HM^ * country/ Tjfw ( night/ cnf>T ' navel/ 
e a relative/ TT^I ' smell,' finu ' a lump of rice/ &c. ; cilf^fl 
( blood/ ofif^- e side/ ^Jj(t ' braided hair,' Tj^t * a wife / as, 
: * equal in lustre ;' tMHM^ ' of the same country ;' 
' of the same cake ;' ^fmiit * a relative connected by 
offerings to the same ancestors ;' &c. 

The following take either *r or HH ; ^T ' form/ fnT ' name/ 
' family/ ^t ' caste/ TfTCT ' age/ T^T * speech/ V**t ' duty/ 
* specific/ y^l ' uterine / as, ^^q or VHM^M ' of the 
same form / ^rf^ or ^HHHtcT ' of the same race ;' *ft^*zr or 
' related in the female line/ as fTi^-ufi >mn f a brother 

by the same mother ;' &c. 

SYNTAX. 361 



283. THE great body of Sanskrit composition is in metre, 
and the construction of sentences has consequently been sub- 
ordinate to the necessities of rhythm. Examples therefore of 
syntactical arrangement are not so diversified as might be 
expected ; and it is not always certain, whether any unusual 
combination may not be a license of the poet, rather than a 
law of the language. The use of protracted compounds also 
in a very great degree supersedes the occasion of individual 
inflexion ; as a sentence or a stanza, embracing a great variety 
of circumstances, may be made up of a nominative and accusa- 
tive, with a single copulative, the rest of the words, however 
numerous, being compound epithets of one or other of the 
nouns. There also prevails very commonly an elliptical style 
of construction, in which the verb is altogether omitted, or its 
tenses are supplied by participles and analogous words. 

In the following line from the Mahabharata we have two 
sentences without a verb or any other copulative, and only a 
nominative case : ftnn ^T^ *n^t ^P4IW<{: U*: 'A father (or) 
a spiritual preceptor (is) the lord, the giver (of) knowledge, of 
the Vedas : (there is) no doubt (of this).' Instances of the 
absence of a verb are numerous in the didactic verses of the 
Hitopades'a. ^fts^h ^ifar WTTfrf *ft *T fag'l*^ f V I f**l <+: I <*I^JH ^"S^T 

ll ' What (is) the use of a son (being) 
born, who (is) neither learned nor pious? What (benefit is 
there) from a sightless eye ? (such) an eye (is) even only 
pain.' In the following stanza from the Kumara Sambhava 
there is only one verb, and one change of inflexion from the 
nominative to the instrumental, which, if the metre had not 
needed a long syllable, would probably have been dispensed 
with : faClfMUrf\f5*fijij8jirwi. I H tfl H <= i Psn i fn fa II i^ieiT**?- 
i Tnfr^R TT^ ^J^ Tfra^f H ' And that grove of 
3 A 

362 SYNTAX. 

penitents was pure ; (for in it) animals of hostile natures (had) 
abandoned their former animosity ; guests (were) reverenced 
by its trees with desired fruits ; and within its new-reared 
cottages the (holy) fires (were) enshrined.' There is a little 
more variety of inflexion in the following verse from the Raghu 
Vansa ; but it is sufficiently rare to show how much syntac- 
tical construction has been set aside for rhythmical disposition, 
even in the works of authors who have not indulged in that 
abuse of elaboration which characterises later and inferior 
writers. W^l *T fm'M <: m<rUrnT JJvnfVfa *i^ I iHfiiefiti 

jfVini^-siiqi ^rr irm ^ Hy Hy *j i * i fan <i*i tii- 
! fa <j f^ ^^dd II ' He then, whose mind was liberated 

from objects of sense, having delivered to his young son the 
symbol of royalty, the shelter of the white umbrella, with the 
usual solemn rites, repaired together with his queen to the 
shade of the trees of the grove of hermits : for such is the 
observance of the princes of the race of Ikshwaku, when in 
the decline of life.' In this long stanza we have but one 
verbal inflexion, tyf^, besides the indeclinable participle ^RT. 
Although however in this manner dispensed with in com- 
position to a great extent, yet the relations of words in sentences 
are expressed in modes analogous to those adopted in other 
cultivated languages ; as the following rules will exemplify. 



284. The noun substantive expresses as usual the subject 
or object of a proposition by the different modifications of 
number, gender, and case. Its relations to other parts of a 
sentence depend especially upon the latter, and will therefore 
be better explained, as in native grammars in the chapter 
to which the title of <*KC*: is attached, in the order of the 
cases. When, as not unfrequently happens, more than one 
case may be employed to convey a similar relation, the alter- 

NOUNS. 363 

natives will be found, with some exceptions, under that case 
which is subsequent in order, according to the scheme given 
under the head of declension (rule 46). 

285. Nominative case (ofi^T or JTWr). The nominative 
case declares the simple sense of a word ; as, T"TBK ( a man,' 
^ ' a woman,' $rnf ' knowledge/ Its employment in a defi- 
nite or indefinite manner is usually indicated by the context, 
as there is no article. The numeral ir!t, or a pronoun, however, 
sometimes performs the same office ; as, I&R "^m e a man/ T 
xpjif: ( the or that man/ efifigraxj: ' a certain king,' ir^rt c||[UHt 
* an old tiger.' 

a. Two substantives may be connected absolutely in the 
nominative case ; as, <ffrrf ~&tf%i l rice a drofia (in measure) ;' 
^Vt^ft fhft: ' the mountain a kos (in extent) ;' JffiTT ^1^: ' a 
mother an enemy ;' ftriTT %!J ' a father an enemy ;' f^R i-CHT 
^ft'5^ ' Society (is) poison to the poor :' but in these cases 
the copulative ' is' must be understood, as in similar phrases 
it is expressed ; Jremvwft *H*h ' iniquity becomes virtue.' The 
nouns in apposition may be in different genders and numbers : 
%f^RTft? ^wnpPCT ^*h "T^TTt ' The acts of the Vedas (are) his 
path to heaven ;' ifc TT T ^Ji xrft>TWT^T^ PH *hc4 K**WpT: ' Who 
engaged in unprofitable undertakings do not become a subject 
of disgrace ?' 

b. The nominative case is connected with the active verb, 
or governs it, when it expresses the agent, and with the 
passive when it signifies the object : ^^^: oR<T cJPCtfff ' Deva- 
datta makes the mat ;' ^^%T f^Prfr ^R7: ' The mat is made by 
Devadatta.' It is also put absolutely sometimes in a sentence, 
as the object of an action, but where the accusative that 
should express that object is omitted: p^ifejHftsftr *fait '^ 

ff l Even a poison-tree, having reared (it), one should 

not of oneself cut (it) down.' In this the complete construction 
should be, ~^ *falf if inprenrarrf iftsfq fMM^j: ^rn^ ' Having 
reared a tree, it is not proper to cut it down, even though it 
be a poison-tree.' 

3 A 2 

364 SYNTAX. 

c. When various nouns, separated by a disjunctive particle 
expressed or implied, occur in a sentence with a common 
verb, that which is nearest to the verb may become its nomi- 
native : 'SRf TI*ft ^T TTSfT c3*J*!ft Tf Hfwfd ' I or Rama, the 
king, or Lakshmana, will die :' T ^*fHSr<*^ H I ^*-^*l ^ y^*T- 
T*h I fCT Md^j ^T n^j TTS^KHT r^n II ' Neither was the sun 
able, nor I, by motives of affection, to conciliate him, or 
(induce him) to enter into amity with thee :' f TTSJT ^^rwfrjf: 
^r irem ^r *K%&: i gfliNMinfri <^R wr w^r qtfhrr. n ' Fire 
gratifies not, neither do clothes nor a blanket, the region that 
is afflicted with cold breezes, so much as thy rays (O sun).' 

d. When two or more nouns are joined together by a 
copulative conjunction, they usually govern a verb in the 
plural number : mn ^fft ^ IT*TT ^ tftaTSf *nr *r*jfa: I ^<r. ^TT 
TT^T 'TlWh y^lHriHil H^T II * Then afterwards Kunti and the king 
and Bhishma, with the kinsmen, gave to Pandu the obsequial 
offerings, with libations to the manes.' This is not invariably the 
case, however, and the verb may have for its nominative only 
the nearest of the nouns combined by copulative conjunctions : 

i uwT<*ft: if^rii 

II ' And the queen Satyavati and the illustrious Kau- 
salya, and also Gandhari, attended by the wives of the king, 
went forth :' ^|P^i<j-4rNr*i<4lSHr6'4l t^ftnTTt <^T *ii^ I W^J 
trf^TS -g-H ^ ^n^ V^tsfTT JTHlPri ^TCW ^W H ' The sun and 
moon, wind and fire, the sky, earth, waters, the heart and 
Yama, and day and night, and both dawn and evening, and 
also Dharma, knows the conduct of a man.' 

286. Accusative case (RWf or Pg'fflm). The accusative 
expresses, after a transitive verb, the object of the action : 
<*ClPri ^TKTC ' The potter fabricates the vessel ;' ^fic TfffT 
' The votary worships Hari.' 

a. The accusative follows a neuter or intransitive verb, when 
it denotes place or time : ^^ jjjpqPrf * He sleeps in the 
country of the Kurus ;' ^T^ THwff ' He proceeds for a Kos ;' 
P<*i|ff <*lcJ*HUT ^W ^I'^HI^H ' They dwelt for some time on 

NOUNS. 365 

the mountain Gandhamadana ;' HT^ *ppj^ fwfl". ' He stayed 
two months in the house of his preceptor. 7 

b. Verbs signifying ' motion to,' literally or figuratively, 
govern the accusative case : qiH *T53Tfw ' He goes to the vil- 
lage ;' ?TT*rr ^UUMPri ' He goes mentally to Krishna/ he wor- 
ships him ; f^wf WT TTr * He went to (or felt) great 
astonishment.' The accusative is also employed when ( going 
along a road ' is intended ; i| vvj | ij Trrfrr Tf^rsK * The traveller 
goes along the road:' but not if ' going to a road' is meant; 
TfTHR xr^ TTxarfff < He goes by a byeway to the road.' The 
dative case may also be used optionally, when actual ' motion 
to' is signified ; CTHl'4 J l-e&firt. 

c. The accusative case follows verbs of giving, to signify 
the thing given ; JJT*T wrawft <"<ifH ' I give the village to the 
Brahman s :' also verbs of hearing, to denote the thing heard ; 
^TfTjt ^ 3prr ' Hear from me the A'sura (creation).' 

d. A double accusative follows a number of verbs, when 
the thing done, and the thing or person that is the object of 
the action, are both designated. These are mostly verbs that 
signify, i. speaking, 2. asking, 3. instructing, 4. knowing, 
5. conquering, 6. leading, 7. dragging, 8. taking, 9. collecting, 
10. stealing, u. fining, 12. cooking, 13. milking, 14. churning, 
and 15. obstructing ; whether they have these meanings lite- 
rally or metaphorically. i. rjHM *ff "^ ^TTJ e The spy tells 
the whole to the king ;' rfH'flRlrT "^tft <=I-HHVH^ ' Kunti said 
to him words full of meaning :' 2. ^fts^-ai.^a^Tjf ^ftrTT ' He asked 
Lakshmafia (after) Sita :' 3. f^rarr^ vnSf ^p>: ^rrftcT ' The Guru 
teaches the disciples virtue :' 4. ^j? vf f^fvr: e The wise 
know punishment (to be) virtue :' 5. HflHI HT^ 'Tc5 ^t * Hav- 
ing conquered his kingdom (from) Nala the king :' 6. jfTRHafT^T 
*nrfff Tftar?*: ' The shepherd leads the goats to the village :' 
7. ^tt ^RRFTR =Ktfrf <JI!iMlc4: ' The officer of justice drags the 
thief to prison: 5 8. ST T^TOTWTT>fW: ' He took the ^bhira 
women to the forest :' 9. ^pspnfMHVfir TR^rfT Wn$l ' The boy 
gathers the fruit (from) the tree :' 10. ^^^ Vt 

366 SYNTAX. 

1 The rogue robs Devadatta (of) his wealth :' 1 1 . SH'MH ft!) <* ^ITT 
^?!3Hfrf Tn ' The king fines the debtor a hundred (rupees) :' 
12. iHEjc-H'fl^H mfd 44M4U:: ' The cook dresses the grain (and) 
the boiled rice :' 13. JTT ^Vfci tpr: ' He milks the cow (for) 
milk ;' Ifl40r^ H^fa^lrHM ' Milking (abandoning) life (from) 
himself:' 14. *nif E^fafrffV TH^: ^I^Ut 'The gods and Asuras 
churned the milky ocean (for) ambrosia :' 15. jftP^t 

TIT: * Govinda shuts up the cows (at) the cow-pens ;' 
' He confined his grief (in) his heart.' ^*r, ' to 

bear,' is sometimes similarly used ; cfi^rf 'T^H^^iT or 

' He bore the damsel to the house.' In common with other 
transitive verbs, these verbs may govern a single accusative, 
when only one object is designated ; HIiR^l^ 1 Nfo ' The hero 
said to his mother.' Several of them may govern the object 
in other cases also, as will be subsequently noticed. 

e. The causal modes of verbs signifying, i. motion, 2. speak- 
ing or articulate sound, 3. or eating; 4. the causals of intran- 
sitive verbs, and 5. of TJ-^ * to take/ if^i e to see,' and TR ' to 
hear,' govern a double accusative, when the object and the 
subject of the act are both expressed. i. ^T(JH J IHAji^ ^f ( He 
caused the enemies to go to heaven :' 2. 4^MIT<T*I3 finf ' He 
caused the Brahman to read' aloud the Vedas :' 3. 
' He caused the gods to eat nectar :' 4. 

f: * That Hari is my refuge, who placed 

(caused to sit) the earth upon the waters ;' 
*T3Tft' HTt GT3 * If I am pleased, I will cause thee, lady, to 
enjoy the three worlds :' 5. =Hcm?TI^A|fVt!f ( He made the boy 
take learning ;' ^^Ml^lP^il. TTH ^ft?rf e They shewed (caused to 
see) Sita to Rama ;' <i| \~3 M UfHcH^M "JTT^ofi * Recite (cause to 
hear) the drama to the company/ 

y. There are some exceptions to the preceding rule. The 
causals of ^ and ^T^, ' to eat,' require the instrumental case 
for the subject of the action ; WS'qPrf or ^T^tlrM^ '^*7T TJ^ : 
* The Guru causes the rice to be eaten by the pupil.' So >TEf. 
when it means 'eating;' Tftrfc.^^?*^ ' He caused the food 

NOUNS. 367 

they liked to be eaten by the cowherds :' but if it means 
destroying by the act of eating, it may be followed by a 
double accusative ; ^T^prfTT f'c4T<4^M ^TC-tf ' He makes the oxen 
eat up the corn.' 31^, * to sound,' in the causal mode requires 
the subject to be put in the instrumental case ; 31 <%j\ Pit ^r^ 
' He causes the sound to be uttered by Devadatta.' 
and some other verbs, signifying ' articulate sound,' are 
similarly combined. The causal of ^ ' to bear/ when it 
implies ' driving,' governs a double accusative ; cli^frt T!*1*T- 
^TT^ *JW; * The charioteer makes the horses draw the car :' 
otherwise the subject is put in the instrumental case ; lyinl 
m^qfrf >nt *pqT * The master makes the load be borne by the 

ff. The causal modes of ^ ' to make,' ^ ' to take/ ^ ' to 
speak' with ^rfa prefixed, and of ^ ' to see' in the Atmane- 
pada, may take either a second accusative or the instrumental 
case for the agent or subject of the action : 4Kt|frt "3KZ ftyfciM 
or frfif^tjTfT ' He causes the workman to make the mat/ or ' he 
causes it to be made by the workman :' so ^TTSfrf ^W <|if or 
' He causes the messenger to take the message,' &c. ; 
HIS or >r9T ' He makes the devotee salute the 
deity/ &c. ; ^hrw *U?IH^H or 3J^H ' He makes Arjuna see 
Krishna/ &c. The fact being, that when the causal is used 
in a passive sense, the subject or subordinate agent is speci- 
fied in the instrumental ; when it is used in an active sense, 
it is specified in the accusative case. 

h. A second accusative may sometimes follow a verb, as a 
qualification of the first, being put absolutely or in apposition : 
^f<^ff ^R^rfr ^f*r ^r f^w^tf ' Give me, O lord of the Danavas, 
earth, three paces.' 

i. The accusative case may follow various prepositions and 
indeclinable words or particles. Of the former class are 
^rftl when reiterated, ^rfa, WJ, TXT, tjft, and Tjfff. ^rfir 
*rfb ' Hari is beyond the gods ;' ^fiKlH* ' Superior to 
Rama' (^nf, 1 1 am,' understood); ^ruifvc^fi ^^ fTOT: 'Vishnu 

368 SYNTAX. 

abides over and above the worlds ;' JTr/)HHHf*HI %TT ' The army 

\3 * 

will halt at or along the river ;' ^MHJ in 4 $7^ ' It rained after 
the prayer ;' 'WtjfilfK*^ JRSfiT ^5f: ' The son goes after, or 
imitates, the father.' ^nj and "311, indicating ' inferiority,' also 
govern the accusative : T >HMJI.IM ^r^ * If you are not infe- 
rior to Rama ;' 4M9[i T ^ ^ ' If thy conduct is not beneath 
a hero.' ^nj, xjft, and nfk govern accusatives designating any 
particular object ; as, OlfXnJ ("Tft or Tifw) f^iTlHrl f^JT^ * The 
lightning flashes at or toward the mountain ; ' 

rf TTfif ' He considered that grave matter 
concerning his daughter :' a part of any thing or person ; 
c$wfl(ViHT (?ft Tft or Trfir) ( Lakshmi is part of Hari :' and 

y > / * 

several and successive order ; c^sjHtJ (^ft or iffir) ftl^frt Hlcfl 
* The gardener waters tree by tree ;' xrft ^-ff (^3 or Trfir ^ff ) 
H * In love with every (successive) woman.' The 

indeclinable words governing accusatives are 

as, ^nftsv: >jfif xnTTTc^: ' Patala is below the earth ;' 
'yfiy^T ^l * The sky is above the earth ;' 
f Krishna tarries away from thee ;' w 

{ Ravafia, of dreadful form, having raised up his sword 
(to cut) Vaidehi in two ;' ftjJ{iHfU.<Ll 7f ^^ ' There is no happi- 
ness without a mistress ;' ^rf^ift (or trfinft) 
* The Rakshasas ran upon or around Rama ;' 

* The cow -herds (were) on both sides of Krishna ;' 

rfiOT: c All around the palace watch the staff- 

bearers ; J *wn\ JEH'T f{<*MT "^t T33[frT ' He goes near to the 
village,' * near to the city ;' f>Pfi ^pn*W^ f Fie on one not 
devoted to Krishna ;' ^T ^^Ici ' Alas ! (for) the enemy of 
the gods.' Several of these may be combined with other 
cases ; as, g - qtT?ix ^ifclHlf^W ^ rMfll ' Above and over all, 
like the sun in splendour ; ' ">fTTgii:M ^7 ' or inferior to 

j. The neuter verbs ^ft * to sleep,' WT ' to stay' or ' be,' and 
' to sit,' when compounded with ^rfv, govern the noun 

NOUNS. 369 

expressing the site of the action in the accusative : 
j? '<=wuO ( The maiden sleeps upon the couch ;' 
: c Kes'ava presides in (or over) the soul ;' 
Hari abides in Vaikunt'ha.' 

k. f^T, ' to enter into/ as a transitive verb, governs an 
accusative ; Tfl? uf^lfrT ' He enters the house.' When pre- 
ceded by *<rfT and ffT, it may govern either the accusative or 
locative ; as, ^rfVTfrrf^rfTT *rTFf ' He enters upon a good path / 
'STfaffrf^rfff trnr ' He enters upon (or falls into) wickedness.' 
When preceded by TT, and implying 'to sit/ it is followed by 
the locative only ; WfT^sfg^irfWif * Sit down on this seat.' 

L ^ ' to dwell/ preceded by ^fv, ^nj, ^rr, or TIT, may 
govern an accusative case ; ^rfvwfw (^^?f7T, &c.) ^r HTt 
' Rama inhabits the wood ;' 9*HHH<=m^H ' He inhabited a 
lonely wood / ^^nftwrmTTifftw ' He dwelt at the city Ayo- 
dhya ;' ^IHHM^^ffr ' He inhabits the village :' but when yiHH 
means ' to fast/ the site is expressed in the locative only ; 
TCfcrcrfiT ^ UT: ' Rama fasts in the forest/ 

287- Instrumental case (^R?j or TpfhTT). This case expresses 
the agent, the implement, or the means by which any thing 
is done, or any end is accomplished, whether active effort is 
implied or not : ^Mfn *TTTT *JTTTT Vlfri'ri: * By me, unknowing, 
my brother has been slain / uJtar 'WTOi'f ^TTt ' Killed by Rama 
with an arrow ;' "tprq^r F?t ift.: ' Hari is seen by (or through) 
virtue ;' ^TWR%T ^Htfr * He subsists by teaching ;' H^TT ^TT^: 
' Beautiful by nature.' It also expresses the manner or degree 
in which any object is effected : ^*T 5ffafff ' He lives with 
ease' (happily) ; $:^T *nfw ' He goes with difficulty / in^^ir 
qriVcfi: e For the most part (usually) a sacrificer.' It also 
denotes any mark or circumstance by which an object is 
characterised : ^dlPHym^: ' He is an ascetic, by his clotted 
hair ;' STTWT "5TTW. ' a Brahman by caste ;' jfQur TF^: ' a 
descendant of Garga by family.' 

a. The instrumental case may be employed with words 
signifying ' object' or ' result :' TQ^T ofits-sf: ' What is the 


370 SYNTAX. 

object of effort?' vfi:^^ fsfc tfi?5 'What is the fruit of 
lamenting ?' 

b. Words implying ' bodily deformity' require the instru- 
mental case for the organ or member in which the defect 
occurs : ^spn =Fnrr: ' blind by an eye ;' iTRpT W5(*. * lame by 
a foot.' 

c. Prepositions signifying ' with,' ' along with,' are con- 
nected in sentences with the instrumental case : ^ity *nfi JHTT 
' Stay along with me ;' irfarff f^r JTfriWM ifHt: *nr ^HTFRTiT * The 
mind is depraved, O sire, from association with the base.' 
Verbs signifying ' association' also govern the object in the 
same case : l^rr ^rnft HM| * Having met, O pious man, 
with thee.' 

d. The particle ^Te3^, implying ' enough of,' governs the 
instrumental case : iMHrrifa**HXU ' Enough of prolixity.' 

e. The instrumental case may be used optionally with the 
accusative in various instances ; as after the verb f^r ' to play,' 
^rnr or *ilHi|<{V<nrrt ?nrcRTr. ' The gambler plays dice,' or e w r ith 
dice :' also after $TT ' to know/ preceded by TW ; as, W^ filK 
(or ftrar) ^Rrnrfa^ ' Recognise thy father.' When it signifies 
' calling to mind' or ' thinking upon,' it governs the accusative 
only : ^hfTfl^r fTHH ' Meditate on Vishnu.' When ' space' or 
' time' are spoken of, in connexion with an act or event com- 
pleted, the instrumental case is employed : ^rr or "'jfit^nf TRT 

* Having gone for a day, or for a Kos, he arrived at 

home.' But if the act or event is incomplete, the accusative : 
HTWT irfanft T 'rMRI'rt: ( He has been travelling (for) a month, 

\ fj \ / 

but is not arrived.' 

f. Words signifying ' weight,' ' measure,' or * number,' when 
succession or repetition is also implied, are put after verbs 
either in the instrumental or accusative case : ^TW^T TfrffrT (or 
^Tif ^Tir) ^rUM ^rnr^rfTT tnit e He gives milk to the calves to 
drink, by a hundred at a time ;' fir^W^' or fir<frtj 
* He buys corn by two Drona (measures) at once.' 

288. Dative case (*(**(<} nt or ^irsff). This case expresses 

NOUNS. 371 

the object or recipient of a gift, either literal or figurative : 
wrerowt fHHiR 1 ^^ * He gave Nishkas (gold coins) to the 
Brahmans ;' tnflf f$H 1 4 <^ I Prf e He offers an animal to Siva ;' 
f 9>4 m Jffif ^fffi^ ( Let him not give understanding to a 
S'udra:' and it may be used after verbs which imply ( pre- 
senting* or ' offering,' although not bearing such import ori- 
ginally ; as, u*rR ^iff ^liR H^l^P^r: f The great sage made (or 
offered) worship to Rama.' 

a. Although, however, the fourth or dative case most appro- 
priately follows verbs that imply ' giving,' of some kind or 
other, yet the genitive case is frequently used with a similar 
purport, and sometimes also the locative : TTg f$Tflll' ^ % 
^rf^T TTf y-Mil ' Spirit of air, I may give thee the prosperous 
kingdom of the Slvis ;' ^Tsftrfzrwft ^*i: fxnp*K *<MH^ ^ 
* Having given (food) to guests, gods, ancestors, and his own 
household ;' T&& 13% ^ftr^f ^TTjfiT^rfe ' Thou who wishest to 
give the earth to Rama.' When the genitive case is thus 
used, however, an ellipse is implied, to be filled up by a noun 
understood in the dative case : TT^ ^WT: ' to the hands of 
thee ;' *<MiW ^orf^w: ' to the persons of his own family/ 

b. Nouns expressing ' cause' or ' purpose,' that for or on 
account of which a thing is done, or that for which a thing is 
fit or suitable, follow verbs in the dative case : Jj^ ^rfic Hiffrr 

: ' The pious man worships Hari for the sake of liberation ;' 
' Devotion is practised for the sake of holy 

knowledge ;' ^IrflU ^tCiMl f^JT^ ' The pale lightning is on 
account of (it is a sign of) a gale ;' jjn^ i riJ < **An!)T: TSpTR WTrft 
sf^urt ' The unfriendly performers of cruel acts are born for 
the destruction of the world ;' WRTOTFT f^Wt >fwh ' Virtue is fit 
for a Brahman/ 

c. Connected with this application of the dative case, is its 
optional substitution for the infinitive after a verb : Tfi^ywft 
Tr^gfa 1 * He goes for fruit,' for WioJMl^' *T*sfff ' He goes to 
bring fruit ;' JJ!*nm$uimf7T * He gives orders for a sacrifice/ 
for qgHTgmmfri ' He gives orders to sacrifice/ 

3 B a 

372 SYNTAX. 

d. Intransitive verbs signifying ' to be agreeable' or * accept- 
able' govern the dative case : ^T^ Tfa^" vrfw. ' Devotion is 
acceptable to Hari ;' qic41M ^^ *fh*cfi: < The sweetmeat is 
pleasant to the boy.' 

e. The verbs ^ro ' to praise,' ?r ' to conceal, FT ' to stay,' 
3TT ' to curse,' may be connected with the object of the act in 
the dative case, when some particular feeling is implied by it : 
jfrtt WUT^ <*U!IN >aiiH ^W ftTS^ 3nJW ' The Gopi praises, hides 
from, stays with, vows by Krishna, through love.' When no 
such feeling is implied, such of them as are transitive govern 
the accusative : ^MM W*rfr *P*ft ' The minister flatters the 

f. With a similar kind of relation, verbs signifying ' desire,' 
4 anger,' ' wrong,' ' jealousy,' or ' detraction,' govern the object 
in the dative case : W^ ^prwnffs^ ' He being filled with 
desire for her ;' tfhfTnr TTaWHI t 'M*U4rt i He was not angry with 
Sita, nor did he revile her ;' ^$|H fT3T3'M?(t 1T^ ' He vowed 


to her, dissembling with her.' When the feeling is not excited 
by the object, they govern the accusative : niuj|flujfrf TiTH 
( The husband is jealous as to his wife,' that is, he cannot 
endure that others should look at her ; HW^IT^ <*<} H H ' Let 
(the pupil) never offend him.' ^>y and <nr preceded by pre- 
positions govern the accusative : f^ ?rf ^rawftl ' Why art thou 
angry with me ?' JfT 'MVyHfatf^VT' ' Commit not violence against 
another's property.' 

g. Y ' to hold,' in the causal mode, having the sense of 
* owing,' literally or figuratively, governs the person to whom 
the debt or obligation is due in the dative case : 

He owes a hundred to Devadatta ;' >T^ni *frs| 

c: ' Hari owes liberation to his worshippers.' 

h. ^ preceded by ^TT or ufff, signifying ' to promise,' governs 
the person or thing to which the promise is addressed in the 
dative : f%lTT*r JrnTISJ^ftrcf or Trfrnnifrfff *In ' The Raja promises 
a cow to the Brahman ;' 9IIHsJK 3Tfw 3|IH ffi TUWT: * Common 
persons promise assent to those who counsel them,' 

NOUNS. 373 

i. n, * to sound,' preceded by W<J or irfir, implying ' to 
conform to' or ' comply with,' governs the dative case : *ftff 
ufri'p.irfrf or ^T^uirii*js^|: ' The Adhwaryu (or reciter of the 
prayers of the Yajur-veda) acts in conformity to the Hotri (or 
Brahman of the Rig-veda) ;' J|i!jiifts^iu>iM^) "3 T%Vi: ' Others, 
such as I am, do not conform to those who flatter us.' 

j. TTV ' to accomplish/ and ^Sf ' to see,' when signifying 
' to think or consider about,' govern the object in the dative : 
eJianHKimfrt or <*GinTiJSffl' JPti ' Garga considers concerning or 
about Krishna.' 

k. Forms of reverential address or religious invocation, such 
as T*TCf , ^f%T, ^Tjrr, ^VT, &c. are followed by nouns in the 
dative case : TTR: f^r^m ' Salutation to Siva ;' H^KMTM *aftd 
' Health to the king ;' ^T^T ^**U ' Salutation to the gods ;' 
^irr ftfiTWj: ' Salutation to the manes.' ^T*nr compounded with 
cfi governs either the accusative or dative : vm^uft ^%*K or 
^TFT ( We make, or he makes, salutation to the 


/. ^TcSiT, when signifying f to be sufficient for' or ' equal to,' 
governs the dative : TT?5 TO3"ni *J^V 7fTc5 WS'm ^[^'<4: ' Friends 
are not (alone) sufficient for happiness, nor enemies for misery;' 
w& HWt WR * One wrestler is a match for the other ;' l^nsftscj 
fa mi: ' Vishnu is equal to, or a match for, the Daityas.' Com- 
pounded with a transitive verb, it governs the accusative : tTR 
TT?Nitr TFmiftsf^ ' He is not able to be a match for, or over- 
come, sin.' 

m. The prohibitive *TT may be used with the dative case, 
with the verb understood : TT ^Hfc^R ' Be not for unsteadi- 
ness,' i. e. do not act unsteadily. 

n. Verbs of motion, as noticed above (rule 286, b], are most 
usually followed by the noun in the accusative case ; but they 
may also be associated with the dative : ymm JT^ffT ' He goes 
to the village.' 

o. W3, ' to mind' or ' think,' when of the fourth conjugation, 
and implying ' disrespect,' governs a subsidiary noun, signi- 

374 SYNTAX. 

fying * degree' or * comparison,' in either the dative or accusa- 
tive case : T 79Tf T^ ijTrjTq or Tjni f I value thee not a straw.' 
*TT of the eighth conjugation is followed by the accusative 
only : T r^f T^ TF&- If the comparison be intimated by the 
terms ^: ( a boat, 3 RTK f a crow,' ^r^ 1 * food,' spK ' a parrot,' 
or 31*1 1 cJt ' a jackal,' the accusative only is employed : T r^f 
^rr^ *rar ' I hold thee not of the value of a boat, 3 &c. If * dis- 
respect' be not intended, the accusative only follows the verb : 
wafr <*I8*M<<M ' I suppose the mortar to be wood.' 

p. When a term of number or quantity is used to signify 

* rate of wages' or ' hire, 3 it takes either the dative or instru- 
mental case : $[d R or ^T >JWT^ MPofluilPrt ' He hires servants 
by or for a hundred. 3 

q. ^Tdfy ' to give,' preceded by *nr, and implying ' cohabita- 
tion,' governs the dative when the act is legal ; the instru- 
mental when criminal : STRI 4iH-ir$ ^T^TT wqVsiri "qirf: ' The 
husband cohabits with his wife, 3 ' with his bondswoman. 3 

289- Ablative case (ym^M or q^ifl). This case denotes 
' a taking away,' ' a separating of or from,' ' removal' or 

* departure 3 of any kind ; as, i|lHI<}l<mPH ' He comes from the 
village ; 3 ^dK J|#mi: *lPc4c4TriT<*c4P'^^: ( He returned from 
the water of the Ganges afflicted ;' VTTjffsTgrrr TTrrfTf * He falls 
from a galloping horse.' It also implies metaphorical dis- 
junction ; as, Ml M I PsUX Pri ' He refrains from sin ;' M^HIrUHI^lPri 
' He strays from virtue.' 

a. The ablative case has also an inceptive signification, 
implying the cause or motive of any act or feeh'ng, or the 
origin from which any thing proceeds, literally or figuratively: 
' The woman is afraid of (or from) the thief;' 
* The king protects from thieves ; 3 vfhft w 
R: ' People will think of me thus, he is 

afraid of Arjuna in battle ; 3 sT<JUlf: THTH IHIMtf ' Progeny are born 
from Brahma ;' ^f^fT: P**|j ^Tn H'^^'rf 'T^TTWT ^'<flM J u: ' Reli- 
gious acts proceed from wealth, like rivers from mountains. 3 
b. Verbs signifying, i. hinderance, 2. disappearance or con- 

NOUNS. 375 

cealment, 3. being ashamed of, 4. acquiring knowledge from, 
5. being averse to, govern nouns in the ablative case. i. ir^wft 
TRTlflT jflmrtt ' The cowherd keeps off the cows from the 

barley :' 2. UlrjfVMl^d ~^Sl ' Krishna hides from his mother : 
3. ^SKirWjsfd ' He is ashamed of his father-in-law :' 4. T*TT- 
tflnn^>ft^' f^rTt ' The pupil (reads with or) acquires learning 
from the teacher :' 5. ^iznnrnr qui^fiM f$Fm ' The pupil is 
averse from (or tired of) reading / *TT IRM4HMI ^IH'llr^ ' She 
(Sita) averse to (or abhorring of) Ravana/ When ftr with 
TTCT prefixed is used transitively, it of course requires the accu- 
sative : 3T^^ 'mj^mll ^fa: ' The hero overcomes the enemies.' 

c. The ablative is used to express the site from which any 
act is performed : illtu^l<{ip' ' He looks from the palace ;' 
' He rose from his seat. 5 Also a place or period 

from which distance or time is computed : 
' From the wood the city is a Yojana distant ;' 
TnrfhT'W ' From Kartik into the month Agrahayana.' 

d. The ablative is also sometimes used to express the 
means by which any end is accomplished : oRTf xrnf cht^jlJlR' 
^TW I fa^tM! rflQMH'TI'^flT^rriilMrl ^f II ' Committed sin is 
destroyed by good acts, by refraining from it, by (from) 
visiting holy places, and by repeating texts of the Vedas and 
the institutes :' ^fl^l^OUHlf^ f^f% WRlfJT ^5ft ' Their places 
in heaven have been obtained by the gods through violence.' 

e. The words w^qr, ^TTT:, *mi^, ^, iT^jfTf, ^f^:, terms 
significant of relative place or time, and compounds ending in 
words derived from ^r^ ' to go/ are connected with nouns in 
the ablative case : ^raft ^: ' other than Hari ;' 

' different from Krishfta f ^TC1ITn^ ' near to the wood ;' 
^Mld ' without the man 5' nr: TT^T or Trwrir IPjfrT ( thenceforth,' 
' thereafter ;' ^tTi^ U^fTcT ' from after a year ;' ^'KTSft^: ' out 
from the city ;' 2JWnT "^Ift ^^* ' a * ree eas * ^ rom tne village ;' 
T^pT: ' The month Phalguna is before Chaitra ;' 
' a city east of the wood ;' U\m^ UA^^.: t a 
mountain west from the village/ When TJ^ and similar terms 

376 SYNTAX. 

denote ' a part' of any thing, they require the genitive case : 
T^sh oimn?T ' the fore part of the body ;' ^TJT: uPgHl HT*T: ' the 
latter part of the day.' 

f. The preposition ^TTT requires the ablative case in the 
sense of * limitation,' either of place, time, events, or things : 

( as far as to the ocean ;' ^H1J||HIH ' to the end of 

, s \ 

the age ;' %n^: ^Nnr; ' Repeated birth occurs until final 
liberation ;' ^UHKc41^ '&Q ' Brahma extends unto (or compre- 
hends) all things;' t)uj<tahlftlu4IH: SHDu-HlfaHlHJiUIr^ 'We will 
practise mendicity even until liberation from the body.' 

g. ^HT and *rft implying f separation/ and ufa signifying 
' substitution' or ' equivalent,' require the ablative case : ^nr 
c5^Wt W^'Ulf wfin ' Dwelling in Lanka, away or apart from 
the world;' Vft/cJJI^fwft ^Ft ^: * The god (Indra) sent rain 
away from Trigartta ;' MiUy: <*U!llr^ Iffir ' Pradyumna is the 
substitute or representative of Krishna ;' frT^wr: Trfff ^31 fa 
JTRT'T e He gives Masha (pulse) in place of, or return for, 

h. Words implying ' bound on account of a debt' may be 
connected with the ablative, when the reason, not the debt, is 
intended : $|ril^ "5^ ( Property pledged on account of a 
hundred ;' =y*i||! ^T ' Like one bound on account of debt :' 
but $[HH^: ( Bound by a debt, held in bond, or indebted, by a 
hundred.' Either the instrumental or ablative case may be 
used, when the state or circumstance of the person is the 
result of some property, not expressed by a feminine noun : 
or =Hmi^: l Bound by or from stupidity ;' ^f "n^jTr^ 
' Thou goest to the wood through folly.' 

*. The words ^cffrR, ^r^T, "ap^!, cfcfrtq^, may be used after a 
verb, either in the instrumental or ablative case, to imply 
{ degree' or * manner ;' as, ^ft^'tT or **f|eW^iT ' left or liberated 
a little ;' '<*x^*ir or 3^1^ ^Tft ' made with difficulty ;' 
' having come w-ith difficulty ;' <*frjqi4r( or 

' obtained in some degree.' When used w ith a substantive, 
they agree with it in case ; as, %flM f^^^r ^w: ' killed by a 

NOUNS. 377 

little poison.' When employed adverbially, and not signifying 
' instrumentality,' they are put in the accusative neuter ; as, 
^ftR T^arfTT "ST^f ohClfri ' he goes or does a little,' ' a short way,' 
or ' for a short time,' or ' a small quantity.' 

j. The particles "TO""' TRT, and fHI, govern either the 
accusative, instrumental, or ablative case : ^uigflH TpnST or 
TJH1 rf ' separate from, or without, Rama ;' f%tTT or '^m 
or ^T?T ' without a deity ;' fVTT ^V T *ifff rfimii: 

' Penitents do not practise emission of breath without destruc- 
tion of life ;' *RJ ?:^f%n f WTff ' Pleasure is not obtained 

o o 

without pain ;' Y^R "Bf^cr 3&7T ' done without deceit ;' 
' except the wind.' 

290. Genitive case (^fa: or %|v*n or v&). This case is 
employed when one noun follows another, expressed or under- 
stood, having a different meaning, and to which the latter 
intimates some relation ; as, Tj$r: < g^ tr: ' ^ e man ^ the ^ m ' 
ijdfU ?mn ' the mother of the boy ;' vffR^ *R * the wealth of 
the rich man ;' ^^^4 ^psr: * the quality of the thing.' The 
prior noun may be understood : ^swif *>r4H^jfd: I H^f^r *H<{ 
II ' Fearlessness, purity of nature, &c., are of a man 

born to a heavenly condition :' they are the qualities, 

a. Verbal derivatives signifying ' the agent' are followed by 
the object in the genitive case ; as, T^M: WT ' the creator of 
the world ;' Wf(i Mlfi<+: ' the protector of the good ;' H*:<*^H 
HHUJI: ' the victor of (over) hell.' Those formed with "3 1 from 
desiderative verbs govern the accusative ; TJ3TT i^f f^^t ( The 
king is desirous of seeing thee.' So do those with TR ; as, 
^?rr^ TrnpKt ^^ : ' Hari is the destroyer of the demons :' but 
not when the root is CPR ; <*ifimi: <*IH<+: ' the lover of the 

b. Similar derivatives, implying * the act,' may be followed 
by the agent or the object of the act in the genitive : y^MWJ 
"Nror * the act of a man ;' cJl^KIHl V*h * the duty of Brah- 
mans ;' xjrrtf: 1 TT*f ' the drinking of milk ;' TT^T ^r: ' the milk- 

3 c 

378 SYNTAX. 

ing of kine.' The subject also may follow the property in the 
genitive ; as, ^ng^tr ^Tt ' the speed of a horse ;' HV^Tt WFS * the 
sweetness of honey/ When the act is followed by both the 
agent and the object, each may be put in the genitive case; 
RiYlJiH*!.!: ' the creation of the world of (by) Brahma :' or 

the agent or instrument may take the instrumental case ; 
*g ft 3 (Nil I. A term expressing * aggregation' is followed by the 
objects collected in the genitive : TT5T *WT ' an assemblage of 
princes ;' "TSHTT 3*41^ IT? ' a flock of cattle ;' 

: ' a collection of wind, water, light, and smoke.' 
c. Verbs of * speaking to/ ' communicating or representing 
to,' ' conveying to, as speech and the like,' are commonly 
followed by the person spoken to in the genitive case : 
4 Tell me that ;' ehvjfrjmifH ^ * I will tell thee ;' ^Mttt 

r ^ *nn * Tell me, mighty armed, for thou art thought 

of me to be all-wise ;' f 

' He represented to Chitrasena, and he to (of) Indra ;' 

TT^T *T ^ * Bear news of me to my beloved.' Instances of 

their occurrence with similar terms in the accusative and 

dative cases have already been given. n% ' to ask' for any 

thing, governs the object in the genitive : >pJT TTCra * Ask for 

firmness ;' VfT^T tjivj>| * He asks for wealth.' But when the 

person is designated, it governs an accusative : fTi^Pii ^ 

(5tcHiq * Who do not implore the lord of the world ?' 

f to ask,' may govern the person in the genitive, the thing in 

the accusative : sa<jAH 41-14 fc(m IV * not asking the way from 

any one.' It also governs a double accusative, the person 

being one : $|<4 I^Afa r^T ' He asks thee after thy health.' 

d. The verb ^, ' to hear,' governs the genitive case of the 
person speaking ; as, ^^SVlfa ^ sinj ' Asking, hear of me ;' 
jTT^r* iTTli^ <*vimri: (^) ' Hear from me, describing it, the road :' 
but this is considered as an elliptical form of expression, the 
word VIHH'J or some synonyme of words or speech, being 
understood. The verb governs also the ablative : 
in * She will hear very attentive from me.' 

NOUNS. 379 

e. T, * to be/ preceded by if, signifying ' to have power or 
authority over,' may govern the object in the genitive case : 
W^rfw fni^H <*-^rHJbH H^KIW: * The prince has power over 
his own daughter ;' 1HMI* TWTfif 5CHTT ' The king is lord over 
the people.' Verbs expressing ' to be stronger than,' or s to 
prevail over,' govern the genitive : HlMtvfl<^ ^F3T * No one 
prevailed over him.' Verbs signifying ' to be angry with,' 

* to do violence or injury to,' or ' to desire/ may govern the 
genitive : Tf ^T Tf*t VWfsT T r^ rfM*4 TO * I am not angry with 
thee ; thou hast done no wrong to me :' TT^TS^ *ri>T?rRT T 
<T?rfff ^T cRr^fri I <t4*!)T SR*fT ^T^T "E^ST IT^ W^T II ' When a 
man neither does wrong to, nor wishes for, all beings, either in 
act, thought, or speech, he obtains Brahma' (final felicity). 
These latter verbs may also govern other cases (rule 288, /.) 

f. $CT * to know,' when signifying something else than true 
knowledge, and when knowledge is not a property of the 
thing known, governs the genitive case : ^rf^t^ fIflH ' He 
knows ghee.' ^ ' to have pity on,' f^r ' to be lord of,' and 
^ ' to make/ implying some particular effort, and verbs signi- 
fying ' to remember,' also govern the genitive : <flfHI ^*ra 

* Have pity on the wretched ;' VHMIHltyri T^r: * The Yakshas 
rule over riches / u*H<J <*44ffrT*5*i^ ' He prepares the fuel and 
water for an oblation ; J JMI^mHR v CM-^HI'IHW^ ' The two 
princes have made preparations for coming hither ;' *TTjp 

* He remembers his mother ;' ^irf???:^ M^HM: *4IHW 

^ \> 

* Who, being in pain, wishes to remember pleasure ?' 

i: ' Lakshmana thinks of thee.' In these cases, however, 
an ellipse is supposed, a prior substantive in the accusative 
case being understood : *rfnft ^Jtn^ 'Trftrf * He understands 
(the properties of) ghee ;' ^I^MIH^^i' <^y ' Pity the condition 
of the wretched,' &c. Otherwise these verbs govern the accu- 
sative :' *rfN n?fl^, <{lrr'^ ^^j c9\*Ti1^, Tnrd **nJn. 

g- ?^T, * to see,' in the causal may govern the person in the 
genitive instead of the accusative (r. 286, g) : ^r uig^l 
Iff ?K| ' He shewed of (to) his brother those two hands/ 

3 c 2 

380 SYNTAX. 

h. Verbs implying * sickness,' except from fever, govern the 
person in the genitive : MfjMHj M^dfrtHK: ' Dysentery affects 
the man :' but if ^{jOCi^u ' Fever affects him.' 

i. SRC ' to hurt,' literally or figuratively, ^tf ' to kill/ pre- 
ceded by fa or U, or both, H& and ^ro ' to hurt/ and fxR * to 
pound/ when it implies ' hurting/ govern the object in the 
genitive case : *fl 1^^141^ rPTT ' The king punishes the 
thief ;' HfHj-n|mnirWf: ' Remove or destroy thy sorrow ;' U^f- 
ftLl^rH^fri (H^ftuu4frf or (H^fn^rd) UT: * Rama w ill destroy 

the Rakshasas ;' ^MoJWl^ldMfd or -*|vmjfrf ' He destroys the 
outcaste ;' *M^f*<M4 frrffe TT*T. ' The elephant grinds the felon/ 
If injury is not meant, ftre governs the accusative : VRT: f<H fV 
' He grinds the corn.' Other verbs signifying * to injure' 
usually govern the object in the accusative : Mfvj<* fi^fV **mn 
* The tiger destroys the traveller.' 

j. The compound verb *M^^ * to transact business/ and 
W ' to deal,' or ' engage in any office,' govern the word signi- 
fying the terms of the transaction in the genitive : 9MJ 
*Hgdfl or tro^ ' He sells or buys or deals for, or stakes, a 
hundred ;' URiMIHMrUnfl^Tl yi*u*Tiif*i^ii*<i f Ravana, bringing 
thee hither, has trafficked for (or staked) his life.' So f^ f to 
play/ meaning ' to deal,' or ' pledge :' W^*pftJlMI* * He has 
played for his kindred and enjoyments.' But when f^ is 
preceded by a preposition, it may govern either the accusative 
or the genitive ; m?j<fl^lr*<*l^*^ or H*M<J: * He has staked, or 
has trafficked for, his own fortune/ 

k. Participles, whether past or future, having a present 
application, govern the object in the genitive case : I3$r: flWfff) 
or "^fifift f^in ' The Brahman is esteemed or reverenced of the 
king / *ft vwh *T *nrf Tin ' that which is thought virtue of 
(by) the good ;' ^ifo^M ^^ UHW WHA ' He gave the signet, 
recognised or cherished of Rama ;' Tre?i dftcM'^*^ ffifl ( Both 
worlds are conquered of or by him / ^^: iprf ^yMfdM^: 
' (marked) by the feet of the chief of Rama's race, praised 
of (by) men.' Participles of the neuter gender ; signifying 

NOUNS. 881 

' site' or ' circumstance,' have a similar government : 

' Sita having repeatedly inquired after the sleeping, eating, 
talking, laughing, staying, going of Rama, dismissed Hanuman.' 
(The participles are in fact used as nouns, and are consequently 
followed by the noun to which they relate in the genitive.) 

I. The word ITJT, ' cause/ * motive/ or { object/ follows a 
verb in the genitive case : ^HtffH *5ffKJJ|-ird ' He follows for 
the sake of food ;' ^rf\aflMt*f *lfvit;m; HI4Hr<:fl<ilH*r<*vjf * He 
repeated the praise of Rama, for the purpose of apprising 
MaithihV It is also used interrogatively and responsively in 
this and in other cases, with a pronoun ; as, ^R?T ^Wt:, 3RT 

* For what reason?' * why?' 'wherefore?' if^r ^ift:, ^T 
HWI^rfh, * For this or that reason/ * thus/ * therefore.' Its 
synonymes may be similarly used ; as, cjf^qr f*lfo<444|, S^T inft- 
*nT^T, &c. : but they are more usually employed adverbially in 
the accusative neuter ; as, fsfi fafa'W, ftfi inftTf, and the like. 

m. Indeclinable words formed with the affix <VfH govern 
the genitive case : 5ld<^HW^<+^i: wi.r*lj{l T^3T: ' The best of 
the race of Raghu thinks of thee alone a hundred times of a 
day.' Numerals in a similar sense of repetition have a similar 
government : fgntjfts*^ ' He reads twice a day.' 

n. Indeclinable words, or words so used, being terms of 
relative site, may govern the genitive (as well as the ablative) 
case : TT9T fwril fiwfor *|TS ' Having stood in some manner 
before (it) the cloud ;' WHfa "gu ^ * Thou art before or in front 
of me ;' *Hjflni ^Wl^ ' before your friends ;' ?|IHW "grin ' in 
front, or on the east, of the village ;' <=jKjf*ftMft or ^vIXKlif 

* above the tree.' When such words are formed with ^nr, 
they may govern the accusative : ?nw or i^lHW ^f|i!)f ' south 
of the village.' 

o. Words implying ' propinquity' or ' distance' may govern 
a genitive case : MAl^'<^t HlMft<i!iMf*l ' near to the Madhavi 
bower ;' *n TifT W^I 9<*13r^ * she having gone near him ;' 
They alighted near to Damayanti ;' 

882 SYNTAX. 

FT 7 nn ' He went far from the city.' They also govern 
the accusative : <*^lP*lH*rf*K*ji'4iHnrri<*r^ ' Once Rama ram- 
bling about from the neighbourhood of the hermitage/ 

p. Words implying ' likeness' or ' equality' may govern 
either the genitive or instrumental case : ~m& Hlftjf Wt ^ftnf 
( The equal of whom in valour is no one upon 

earth ;' cBts7iftsf% K^fl m ' Who else is like me ?' or T 

*T$r. sfif^TrT f^i? 7*)ranj fwff ' The like to thee is not known in 

the three worlds ;' vsfar lftn xntrfir: *uur(i: ' Devoid of virtue, 

(men) are like beasts.' The substantives TTcJT ' equality,' 

* resemblance,' are followed by the genitive only : 

iglST or TTRf *T TTTW: ' He has not the equality or similitude of 


q. Neuter or indeclinable nouns importing ' benediction' 
are followed by the object in either the dative or genitive 
case : 1 *rnpir ^!<JrW or ^'<4<j\nr ' Long life (be) of or to 

r. The genitive case is used absolutely with a participle : 
' as he was going ;' fail iff Tt ' as we were looking 

on ;' %^^T: UV!|HHNI! * whilst Vaidharbhi was beholding.' It 
is also used with the auxiliary verb ^rcr in the sense of ' pos- 
session :' VHftsT ^ ' there is of me,' i. e. I have ; '^T^T *H*-M 
^ * There is of this person some power,' i. e. I 

have some power. 

*. The term ^ governs a genitive case : 
^W ' for the sake of a brief dominion.' 

291- Locative case (^rftr<*lAli). This case expresses the 
site or receptacle of any object, whether substantial or ideal, 
that, in or upon or over which, any other thing is situated, 
any act performed, any property exhibited, or any notion 
comprehended, &c. w^ ffnrfrT fTt ' The man stands on the 
ground ;' ^f% ^rfw ftr^I ' The h'on roams in the forest ;' cj 
^rer wraw: * The Brahman sits on a mat ;' Wi^m^ xr^fw * He 
boils the rice in a pot ;' asirf ^rsnrfiT ' He speaks or whispers 
in the ear ;' *ihft T& ' timid in war ;' fNrof^ %T ( fortitude in 

NOUNS. 383 

adversity ;' if^ SJsMl ' whiteness in the swan ;' 
' He beholds spirit in himself.' 

a. This case is sometimes used to express the thing or 
purpose for which any act is performed, when it is essentially 
connected with some other thing, the object of the act : ^wjfaj 

rn n 

* He kills the tiger for its skin ; the elephant for its two tusks. 
He kills the Yak for the long hair: the musk-deer is slain 
for its musk.' If the connexion is not intimate, that for or 
on account of which the act is done requires the dative case 
(288, b}. The locative is also used when the object is of a more 
general nature : WTUlftsftr VT^T fiwhr rtr$'<> * As thou art made 
by the Creator for acts, perform them.' 

b. The locative case is usually required in connexion with 
prepositions signifying ' being over 5 or * upon' in any manner : 

g\ J j'*m: ' The virtues of Hari are above infinite number ;' 
U*r: ' Rama is over the w r orld :' but both these may 
signify f inferiority' also ; as, Tl SJ^J * inferior to heroes ;' 
^iftr TT*T Ht ' The earth is under Rama/ When ^rfv is com- 


pounded with fi, and the verb implies * subjection,' it governs 
the accusative case : nf^ HwfVrosf^iqfir oh^f^i (Vfa q\'&t\ K ' If he 
will acknowledge me superior (lit. If he will make me over 
him), he shall be appointed to the work.' In the sense of 
' superiority 5 the ablative case may be also used : 75^ or 
f3tcfiT3"fVift irfe ( Vishnu is greater than the world.* 

c. The words *nv and f^JW are followed by the object in 
the locative case, unless the prepositions 'snj, ^rfic, or 
intervene : *Ud(X *TPj: * pious to his mother ;' fqrffX 

' dutiful to his father :' but m?R irfir in^l flrim^ (HMJII:. 

d. The locative case is sometimes used to signify that from 
which any result may be expected, in the like manner as the 
ablative ; as, f4HI^ (or OHFS^TiO ^H4JKI*UI f%fi tRft t5^ * In (or 
from) the destruction of the sons of Dhritarashira what advan- 
tage is obtained ?' 

e. A frequent use of the locative case is its employment as 

884 SYNTAX. 

the ablative case absolute, in connexion with a participle in 
the same case : irfa T\Tt * I being gone ;' HTw^Prt ' that being 
so ;' Hrtm^i wftT ' The month S'ravana being at hand ;' cjrra 
3T^ inrfr ' A lucky time being arrived.' More than one sub- 
stantive may be thus connected with the participle, when the 
latter will agree in number and person with the substantive 
nearest to it : wftwaft ^7t TT^ ^TmtUWH^y^ ' The boy Abhi- 
manyu being slain, and the sons of Draupadi:' (^^ being 
understood). As mentioned above, the genitive is similarly 
employed ;' as, <\<jrt: *J^W or '^ Prf T$& mdr*0i^ ' (Though) his 
son was weeping, he went forth (to lead a life of mendicity).' 

f. Words signifying * proximity' or * distance' may be used 
adverbially in the locative case : WFTn *nfHr *TT^T * having gone 
near her' (in her vicinity) ; ^ ?JTHW * at a distance from the 
village.' These and similar words may be used in like manner 
in other cases : as, !fl*W H( HTTTT &c. nfl takes only the 

ev cv. \ f 

locative case : vNt H Win ^ TTT7^ W ( Bhaimi was resplendent 
amongst (in the midst of) her companions.' 

g. The names of asterisms, employed to signify the period 
of their being above the horizon, may follow a verb either in 
the locative or instrumental case : w& (or *r?r*T) 

Cv * Cv ' 

(or %|'<44J)H) fM^i^ili^ ' Let a man invoke Devi at the time 
(or rising) of the lunar constellation Miila, and dismiss her at 
that of S'ravana.' If the asterism itself is intended as the site 
or receptacle of a planet, the locative alone, of course, is used : 
TJfr ^5: ' The moon is in Pushya.' 

h. The locative case is used to designate any given period : 
frfER^ FT^ ' at that time ;' ^rc*i TI+4HI fr*n^ ' upon the close 
of this speech ;' l-TT^s^ta **M<*HfcHl ^ WfT T Wirf ' like the 
Sthala-padma flower on a cloudy day, neither awake nor 
asleep.' It is also optionally used with the ablative to denote 
any intervening term, either of time or space : ^r ^WTS^T SRT 
(or 21^1^) *TteT ' Having eaten to-day, he will eat in or after 
two days ;' ^fwM ^t (or -^13114 ) 75^R f^T^ * Standing here, 
he pierces the mark at (or from) a Kos.' 


i. The words fffarf and ^rW"<* govern either the instrumental 
or locative case : irftfiff ffwr or ^ ' attached to Hari ;' trwr 
MlWiH or tfiiff HfWfi qirMgtKcH * The wife is anxious for her 
absent husband.' 

j. The words ^1^ and o$lci govern either the genitive or 
the locative case, when not used literally : ^TT^t '^(X.MH44J or 
TT% ' intent upon worshipping Hari :' so "ZfiMl "^f^ or t^HW 
* happy in worshipping/ If literally employed, they govern 
the locative only : <uu?h) ^Wt 3T=fi ' the bullock harnessed to 
the cart ;' chujftg ^r?$: ' skilful in work.' 

k. A noun following either of the words ^JT*ft, i^BPTJ , ^rfVrfwt, 
^RT^:, *rreft, Trfir^r:, or uw?r:, is put in either the genitive or 
locative case : *ref or jffaj yml ' the owner of kine ;' ijftnmt 
or Y^^THTsgt: ' lord in or of the world ;' ?H*^f or ?IIHI*!JTflf>T- 
TjfTf: ' chief in or over the villages ;' fq^j^fm or fTTW5T ^IHI^: 
' heir of the paternal portion ;* *H^ft or 'i|t|^R44r ^rns|t ' witness 
in or of a suit ;' ^^TPT or ^"^^ jrffrf* ' a surety in or of (for) 
appearance ;' jfta or TI^T iT^lft nVq: ' the cowherd born amongst 
or for cattle,' i. e. to tend them. 

29&. Vocative case (^fhrT). This is considered in native 
grammars to be not a distinct case, but the nominative 
employed in addressing or calling, with a slight modification 
of the singular number only. Its use is the same as in other 
languages : ^5 irf^ ' O Indra, come ;' Tfeiftf^TF JTT**nfri * Gan- 
dhari, rise up. J 

a. The vocative case is commonly used without any inter- 
jection ; but it is also frequently employed with one, when, 
as above stated (r. 162, a), different particles are employed 
to signify respectful or disrespectful address : >rt >ft: qftgrii: ' Q 
Pandits ;* \ ur^I 4 Ho, traveller.' 



293. The adjective agrees with a corresponding substantive 
noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, in gender, number, 

3 D 

886 SYNTAX. 

and case : |C*C|M N "g^r. ' a strong man ;' itM^rTI ^ '.a beautiful 
woman ;' ^ "33 ' a white umbrella ;' ftigir<H *4<\tklt ' like 
two mighty lions ;' ^WPT*3F ffiHHH^ qnv||^ ^t^fa ^TR ' He 
approached the steeds, spare, vigorous, and able for the road.' 
a. When a common adjective occurs in a sentence with 
more than one noun or pronoun, it may take the plural 
number and the prevailing gender, and agree with them 
collectively : ^air ?!^farnj ^tf 'H"UJ'H: ' I and mine are all 
dependent upon thee ;' ^gr ^ ^IHlPMrtft *TTt^ HT^T ^TTl f^TSj: 

' Manu has said, that both 

parents when aged, a virtuous wife, and an infant son, are to 
be nourished, even if they do a hundred improper acts.' If 
the words admit of the disjunctive copulative, expressed or 
understood, the adjective will be put in the singular number, 
and agree in gender with the word nearest to it : ^^TT: cfi^j^: 
SHI?: cHMR! ^ ^fw * Sorrow, strife, or itching, being yielded 
to, augments/ 

b. Many words properly attributives are used as substan- 
tives : JTrRT ^WTT: *l^rll T fN^mlsf^T SR^TT ' Mortals are 
become immortals (or immortal) ; there is no difference what- 
ever.' Most attributives of agency, derived from verbs, admit 
of this application ; inTHftr * the maker of the world,' ' a deity ;' 
tHHT TffT ' the leader of armies/ ' a general,' &c. ; as has 
already been intimated in considering the cases of the nouns. 

c. Adjectives, w 7 hen expressing degrees of comparison, influ- 
ence the inflexions of the nouns with which they are con- 
nected. When they express the comparative degree, the noun 
is put in the ablative case : ^ a^|if|sf% >RTr^ ' There is nothing 
better than wealth ;' H^HI^f>rf^t i^*||^ ' Yudhish^hira is 
older than Arjuna.' When the superlative, the noun takes 
either the genitive or the locative case : VI-fKliiM or vrtrrgTOT 
fJirfa^T: TTftrffJ ' Duryodhana was the wickedest of the sons of 
Dhritarashlfra.' The comparative may also be used with the 
instrumental case : Ft J yrfinft *niT f Who has a more happy 
ending than I ?' ^i ^TOTC ^*r ^iplri<Tq*tr ^<3ir^<iMn<,>5)i TT 


: ' If he has died who was four times more pros- 
perous than thou, and more virtuous than thy son, grieve not 
for thy son.' The termination of degree may convert a sub- 
stantive into an adjective : *n?fte: ^hrr: ' Contentment is most 

d. The adjective is sometimes employed in a comparative 
signification, whilst retaining its positive form ; as, TiNHBli^ 
<*r<H <f^T ' a heart hard (or harder) than stone ;' ^1'^i-u.if or 
\$lflM %^: xnp ' Maitra is clever (the cleverest) of, or amongst, 
the scholars.' 

e. ^T, either singly or compounded, expresses the super- 
lative degree, and governs either the genitive or locative case : 

qgm^f in: irro TJT^RT '<*\*s3 ^rt ' The cow is the best of 

quadrupeds ; gold the best of metals.' This word may be 
similarly used in the neuter gender and singular number in 
apposition with nouns in any gender or number, and in con- 
nexion with a negative : 'snrfinjTrWshiBi cKHI^fi T '-^ifim: ' Of 
(sons) unborn, dead, or silly, the two first are the best, not 
the last ;' 'n*|efl mft ^\ ?T ** m^l' ' One son of good 
qualities is better than a hundred blockheads.' 

f. Terms implying ( less' or ' more,' either in quantity or 
degree, and used in a comparative relation, govern the ablative 
case : ty'ri l^i * less than a hundred ;' ^fifT^fv^fi ' more than a 
hundred ;' <*lifl^H: *? sFHTT^ f<*f%<|f ' Intelligence from a lover 
is something less than a meeting.' ^Sffaos may also be con- 
nected with the noun in the genitive and locative case : 

T: ' A Prastha is more than a Ku'dava ;' 
' five months more than those (years).' 

g. The government of numerals has already been adverted 
to (p. 88) ; to which it may be added, that their Taddhita 
derivatives may be used analogously to TjriT, with the invariable 
neuter termination, with nouns of any gender and in any 
case : TTffT iT^T^TTf -3fi*n: tjfw^fiT ^rfiTH^ * After that, he had 
fifty maiden daughters ;' *T$jr$fif *TfT: ^TW^Nl 

' Fifty other sons of the Manu were upon the earth.' 


388 SYNTAX. 



294. Personal pronouns of the first or second person have 
but one gender : those of the third, and pronouns of the other 
classes, vary their gender according to the noun to which they 
relate, expressed or understood : ^T *J^t ' that man ;' FRT ^Tlft 
' this woman ;' ^TT fsilVHI luf ' made by that artist.' 

a. The optional inflexions of the two first personal pronouns, 
*rr, ^ 7^, 7f:, ;^T, ^, ^7^, ^:, are not used indiscriminately, but 
with certain limitations. They are not to be used at the 
beginning of a metrical foot or period, nor in construction 
with the conjunctions % i&f, ^T, or the expletives ^ and *s^, 
nor with a word meaning * seeing/ used metaphorically : TT^ 
Sra^ft TPT^ TT WsujPfmcH: ' Thy enemies, O king, they are 
still more mine,' not W 3foH: at the head of the line, even if 
the metre allowed it ; ^HTtfTl^nf^, not ^ and ^T with ^f, ' of 
us two, and of you two ;' ^IXAlH'^' T^fiJ ' May Hari even pre- 
serve me,' not rr ; ^RWT TT ^^vq ^fanrf ' Let it be given to us 
or to you,' not ft TT Tt TT ; uwjfew^ I* Y^ ' ^^ wealth is in 
vain,' not ^ ?. In these prohibitions euphony is consulted, 
and also distinctness. When ' seeing' is intended in any other 
than a literal sense, the substitutes are not employed : ^rf^ii 
rTmt^ ' He sees thee by his mind.' When the ' seeing' is 
literal, either form may be allowed, n or ri, f^T or 1^7 *f$*lffl 
' He beholds me,' &c. ; M^t| Hir^oif^ri ' Let him see thee 
without delay.' 

b. These substitutes may not be used after a noun in the 
vocative case, being the first in a sentence, unless an epithet 
intervene : n^t HT T*TW*i ' O my Guru ! salutation to thee ;' 
but IJT: diqipfl ^: tirfV ' O merciful Hari ! protect us.' 

c. The relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in num- 
ber and gender : the case is determined by its connexion with 
other parts of the sentence : H^ Sfa *p*T^ 75^R ^V^TT^ W^T ^Tl'Sf^Tr 
1 Let a wise man associate that with that, with which any thing 


in the world corresponds ;' 

^T ^ If faff Wff e He is the supreme male, O Partha, in whose 

interior all beings abide, by whom the universe is pervaded.' 

d. The masculine and feminine inflexions of the third per- 
sonal pronoun are not unfrequently used in combination with 
the pronouns of the first and second person, or as substitutes 
for them, like * ipse,' ' ipsa,' in Latin : *fts^flf Trfjf in^r: ' I 
(ego ipse) have come to this condition ;' *rrs$r ^ijiVHl <7t^fc 
{cfliUI* ' 1 (ego ipsa) am the vilest of women in the world ;' *r 
FT iffirfJTTnT Iffa M^y ' Do thou (tu ipse) console these 
thy brothers ;' ^ ^ ^HH^^J -KW: tjftnlfHUf ' We (nos ipsi) 
traverse this earth in search of Damayanti.' It is used some- 
times without the proper personal pronoun : ^TT fvsjWHTfinr *lf 
T^I TT ( Do thou (ipsa) quickly mount either an elephant or 
chariot ;' ^r JTr^T ^Is^l ^fhf IT^h^T ^TTT fMV I ^^T^ I ' Do thou 
(ipse), having gone quickly to the Bahuda river, offer fit liba- 
tions to the gods/ The third personal pronoun may be also 
used in a similar manner with a demonstrative pronoun : ^ftszr 
f^cWcTPT TCtswrfir ' That very man approaches to an extended 

e. A relative pronoun may be sometimes used in like 
manner with a personal pronoun, when the sentence is inter- 
rogative : inrr ftrfT|jitl ^?*iTS*>fanfn iflfafj ' Thus bereft of 
my children, who (am) I, (that I should) wish to live ?' 

f. The relative and interrogative pronoun, the latter in 
combination with the particles fn^ or ^rj, are sometimes used 
together to form an indefinite distributive pronoun : 
t by some act or other ;' *rr: 

n e Whatever acts of enjoyment may be done by a living 



295. Adverbs. The greater number of these, as already 
observed, are merely nouns in an invariable neuter inflexion ; 

390 SYNTAX. 

most commonly that of the accusative neuter, although other 
cases are sometimes admitted ; as, fR or (V^lir XHTHTI ' Having 
meditated for a long time ; J HHdrtlW U\^iu faffcfW <HKci 
( The two earrings were begged by the king of the gods, for 
the good of thee ;' TT5n*T: E*rnf 'U*J1MW^ ' The kings came 
for the maiden ;' iH^i^ ^W^^H'^'^r^ ' He kneaded others, 
kneadingly with his hands ;' H|^ ^T M*M: ' Indra was rain- 
ing, according to the season ;' ^Ntfy^ H5-4 ' He dwelt there 

a. A number of adverbs are formed of nouns in the inva- 
riable neuter, compounded with TTTT ; as, 4|*t*<j tivjifafa ' Offer 
sacrifice according to rule ;' Tgrfi ^VJMIJJ ^fT ' Having made 
worship as was fitting ;' TH^ *|v/r^ ch^qwiti ' He told him as 
it had happened ;' qn$|fai fn^ ( Let him do according to 
his ability.' "foftl * sort,' ' kind/ becoming in composition f^rv, 
is also used adverbially with ^?r, ^T*TT and the like ; as, *TT*TT- 
fav f in various ways ;' and so is ^t, ' before,' combined with 
a noun, to express something prior to an act done ; as, ^H*,| 
j?f^V ^JH'Mll' ' Being thus addressed in many ways, preceded 
by acts of conciliation ;' ^f^If Hl'^^ V^MT ^?n nrr ' Through 
(previous) ignorance, thy cow, O sage, was killed by me ;' r^f 
T fMII*l * Having been promised by him, 

I will liberate thee, preceded by an oath.' 

b. Many adverbs are also formed from pronouns, or are the 
pronouns themselves, in the invariable neuter accusative, or in 
some other case; as, Tnr, ^7f, q^Mirf, ' wherefore,' 'whence;' 
TTi^, ^T, HWIr^, ' therefore,' ' thence.' They are frequently 
put correlatively, as in a familiar verse in the Hitopades'a, 
which exhibits most of them : JJWF^iM ^ ^TTT ^ TTTT ^ ^ra I 
TTT^W "3& ^T ^fnjVRTrJT^i^ I ri^lTl TT ^ H^T ^ Tf^T ^ W^ I 
A \'<4 ^d TT& ^ P^yiri^^llrf^fri I ' Whence, and wherefore, and as, 
and when, and what, and how much, and where, one's own acts 
are good or evil ; thence, and therefore, and so, and then, and 
that, and so much, and there, (the condition of a man) pro- 
ceeds from subjection to destiny.' 


c. The adverb ^ftr ' thus,' ' so/ ' ita/ is of constant use, not 
only in its own sense, as ^^K( ' having so said/ ^WleHuJ ' hav- 
ing thus heard/ but to mark a quotation or a parenthesis, or 
separate one part of a sentence from another : TT 5TT^ M 4 dl fri 
ofrrciif ' He reads the S'astras : this is not the cause :' ^j^ f^ 
IT3TT ^TRT inTR" ^fir r: ^W ' Indra is the chief king of the 
gods: so it has been heard by us:' "HU^jrilfHftjvfHfd' 'Be 
seated : thus they said :' ^ff ^^T^'fT "5^j: ' In this manner 
sang the quiristers of the gods :' cj 

' Who waits (so) ? I am here ; (thus) let him say ; and, 
Give your commands' (thus let him speak) : ^fts|r g^ffa 
<*^IIW pf^Hr ^fl^ * Therefore I say, By desire of a bracelet,' 
and so forth, ^fff in combination with inn forms an adverb 
of assent, ' so be it/ the verb being understood : fagW ri^^hl 
* Vidura having said to him, So be it/ 

The influence of adverbs on the cases of nouns has already 
been indicated. The manner in which they are connected 
with verbs will be presently adverted to. 

296. Prepositions. It is unnecessary to make any further 
remarks upon their government, as, whether singly or in 
connexion with verbs, sufficient instances have already been 
given (p. 97). 

297. Conjunctions. The employment of copulatives of 
this description requires no particular observation, as they 
fulfil their usual offices, and being sometimes omitted, or 
sometimes multiplied, for the sake of emphasis or perspicuity. 

a. The copulative conjunction in most frequent use is ^ 
' and ;' which, when it connects words in the same sentence, 
connects nouns either in the same cases or in those having a 
similar government, and verbs in the same tenses or in different 
ones of like purport. 1 srr^ 1 R tmist t'TCT'3 "S^rte w srift ^ ilrifWl 
, * Having taken the wives and sons of Paftclu, and those two 
(dead) bodies, they set out :' V-j^qtr^ fTWT f^y^H^ ' From 
his proficiency in the science of arms, and by his intense 
devotion :' cf^t ^ ^rrftnrr jffaft ^ fVr: *ufcrfT <*v<i|fci'^ 

392 SYNTAX. 

' And the harlot was punished, and the cowherd's wife was 
banished, and Kandarpaketu was honoured :' 

' Tranquil they consoled her, and said these 
words.' When the sentences are different, they have their 
several construction, although connected by the copulative : 

i ff ^RrffVj^ TFTT: 

i * The son of Kuru was left in that wood, and the 
Nagas disappeared even as the Pandava was looking.' The 
conjunction is sometimes repeated, either for emphasis or to 
imply immediate connexion : ^ 

* And they reached the ocean, and Vishnu woke ;' i. e. * as 
soon as.' ^ is frequently combined with other copulatives, 
either for the sake of emphasis or for the convenience of the 
rhythm : *r ILIHffl V^^Rf Hj M I *%< I f*U ^^ I ^T^T W"| tHigrf, ^ftfir 
311^-f inhr ^ I ' He having heard of the science of arms, and 
also the heavenly weapons of Rama, fixed his mind upon 
them, and also upon the science of polity.' 

b. Disjunctive copulatives may likewise combine words in 
similar inflexions : ^{pfiftiJ ^T 5nJ TT ^TTT ' Choose the arms 
or my person ;' XHirWI ^: ff^n WT '4i^'W sf^BT ftRc5 ' A man's 
self, a son, a wife, or in difficulty (in their absence) even a 
daughter;' 'JilH^f dlHrf<f ^ cj 41 f^ injV^'T I *T "J ^t^rftnf ^T^ 
flTJMiU '^TTir^ri I * That which thou sayest, O rich in devotion, 
is the progeny of the benevolent ; but this grief is not to be 
removed by a human being. 5 

c. The connexion of certain of the conjunctions with parti- 
cular tenses of the verbs will be subsequently explained. 

298. Interjections. These are used sometimes with nouns 
in the vocative case, or sometimes in the accusative or dative, as 
already intimated. They also occur singly as exclamations. 
The following verse from Bhatti collects some of either kind : 

r: e Ah sad ! O ! alas ! strange ! O mother ! Shame on 
the gods ! O father ! Where art thou, O lovely-browed ? Thus 
he frequently exclaimed/ Various nouns and phrases are also 


employed as interjections : *TPJ ' well done !' * bravo !' *< or 
^Tc5 * good luck ! ' ^rnrw e welcome ! ' ^rfo ' hail ! ' f^WT 
' lucky,' * prosperous,' and the like : and also others which 
are specially employed in offering libations to the gods or 
manes, as noticed above. 



298. The different voices in which the active verb may be 
conjugated have been already described (p. 113)} as well as 
the changes to which either may be subjected when a verb is 
compounded with an inseparable preposition (p. 259). Besides 
those distinctions, and their derivative forms or modes, the 
verb occurs also in construction in the passive voice, and as 
transitive, intransitive, or neuter, impersonal or reflective ; as, 
l^r<il j i ^*roh fl^ns^nr ' Suparna quickly seized the large 
serpent ;' WI<**Mrt H'^lft'tf! ' The vast mountain shook ;' miNMI 
* The sound of drums is heard ;' ^^Tf^T |TrrfT 
( All beings are supported by householders ;* 

TT e It is done by me ;' ' I do or have done :' 

* It is gone by thee ;' ' Thou goest or art gone :' ^vd^^rf c It 
was risen by the moon ;' * The moon rose :' ^Tl<*loift ftjMii 

TT ' It is not (by any one) deceased or born out of season :' 
fiT? ' The wood breaks ;' it breaks of itself: iUU<4 T^Mi^ 

* The rice boils ;' it boils of itself. When a verb is not 
impersonal it agrees with a nominative, expressed or implied, 
in number and person, as exemplified under the nominative 
case of nouns. When impersonal, it may be considered that 
a nominative, the name of the thing or action intended by the 
verb, is understood. Thus r^TT P*q^, ' It is done by thee,' is 
nothing more than the ellipse of the perfect sentence, ?snn 

CRT** ' The act is done by thee ;' 'Sfi*^ being understood. 
The powers of the different tenses have also been already 

3 * 

394 SYNTAX. 

described (p. in); but their application in construction is 
subject to some modifications, which it is necessary to notice. 
299- Present tense (^tm^ 35^r). This tense indicates 
present time, actual or continuous, that which is now, or 
which is occasionally or always : ^rftR^ ^rlii gil^Hij]^ * At 
this moment he reads the S'astra :' rnf ^i^frf l He eats flesh ;' 
he does so habitually : ^r MiHj: -^ifff ' Here the boys play ;' 
either now or occasionally : ^TT lMi4<*loil-nHlg7irf ' The world 
lasts until the time of dissolution.' 

a. The present tense may also express other modifications 
of time, or the absence of any distinction ; as when used with 

or fT(J to intimate ' censure' or ' condemnation :' xj^iflsfrj 
' A man even abandons a wife ;' he either does so 
now, or has done or will do it :' HTT ffi3*r^PT ^Mrfl^ ^M^Trf 
' Your reverence ever conducts sacrifices for S'udras.' 

b. The present tense may be used in reply to a question 
referring to either past or future time, when not remote: 
^RWtsftr ' When hast thou come ? J J**fts^TT*r33Tf*T or WTR^ 
' I come, or I have come, now ;' oR[T 'iftwfa ( When wilt 
thou go ?' ^ts if T35TfT or Jififoufa * I go, or I shall go, now. J 
It may also be used in reply to a question referring to time 
past, when it is preceded by rftj ; as, fW 41 iff: ' What hast 
thou done ?* TJ ^R^fiT ^K^ ' Verily I perform an action ;' 
instead of ^fciV ' I did.' It may be used in the same way, it 
is said, when preceded by rf or by ^ ; 'ahiqehl'ifl: ftfi ' What hast 
thou made the mat ?' ^T ehClfM ' I do not make (for, I have not 
made) it ;' ^ <*>(*! Verily I make (for, have made) it.' The 
present tense may be used with a past signification when 
connected with Tpj ; as, <4ffl^ TJU dl*Ulu: ' Brahmans formerly 
dwell (for, dwelt) here. 3 

c. The present tense may be used for the future in con- 
nexion with the particles iTITi^, 'gu, ^T, or cjff ; as, 

' Give him as long as he will ;' 7f 

^ ' I go not (I will not go) again to Lanka 

VERBS. 895 

as long as I have (shall have) life ;' ^T or Jfiff V 3*1 1 fa 
' When do I (shall I) see Govinda? 5 It may also be used for 
the future when in connexion with a word expressing a short 
time to come : "gs^r ftni H^lf ' I die (shall die) after an hour.' 
d. When deliberation or election is intended, the present 
tense may be used for the future : f^fi <+ClfH ' What do I ?' for 
f^B ^(Xmifa ( What shall I do ?' iTrnfh ^fift or ijThlf -sfiim ^nftfa 
or qfiiuffa * Which of these two, or of these, wilt thou choose ?' 
sfi ^ q-adiPn <*:^Hh 'Whom sorrowful do I (for shall I) ask?' 
It may also be used for the future, when conditional conse- 
quence is implied : ^ft s^ ^rfTT *T ^pf *rrfif ' Who bestows food 
goes (for, will go) to heaven.' And it may be employed in a 
future sense with the usual signs of the conditional mood, *rfi^ 
and %tf; as, ^T^Tg'^'fif *rn*T MMIHt ( If the heaven rains, we 
sow (for, shall sow) the corn.' In such a sort of phrase the 
future or the past may also be employed. The present may 
alternate with the future also, in a similarly constructed sen- 
tence, with irf^ or ^r?^, when the consequence is expressed by 
the imperative : Tj^muini ^TT*Tsfrf (or ^mfrtqfd) 

* If the teacher comes (or will come), do thou read the Veda.' 
e. A more remarkable modification of the present, and one 
of frequent occurrence, is effected by the addition of the 
particle w, which gives it a past signification. This particle 
appears to be derived from the first person plural of the 
present tense of the auxiliary verb, w: ' sumus,' ' we are,' 
rejecting the Visarga. It is used, however, indifferently in all 
the persons and numbers of the verb to which it is attached. 
qiTfrT F? ^faftR: * Yudhisht'hira sacrificed ;' 'srfmiNfV ^r tfkn 
' The citizens ran quickly ;' *ftr whr^ 9? * by whom it was 
stood.' It may precede the verb, either immediately or in a 
different part of the sentence : R w ^w H1U*T *nr Wf f 
f%>fhTO: ' Thou didst not acknowledge, O great king, what 
Vibhishana said ;' T^ FT f^HHM^ ' He said in council what 
was good.' 

300. First praeterite or imperfect (^Hrti <^) As already 

3 E a 

396 SYNTAX. 

remarked (p. m), this tense indicates action that has taken 
place at any time prior to the current day ; and although it is 
very commonly used in a vague manner, yet the past is in 
general not absolute or perfect, but implies continuity or con- 
nexion with some other action : nm^i^m * He gave com- 
mand (to do something) :' JlN-nO^ fnK|l*mT^ ' He gave alms 
as long as he lived ; J the giving was continuous : ^rf qNllHI**!- 
HMlri *fl*Hms ' This full moon being passed, he read 

the Agni prayers, and sacrificed with the Soma juice ;' these 
acts w r ere dependent upon a period not remotely past : TTTft 

'After that Indrajit was seen ascended into the air, striking 
the illusory Sita with his sword, the son of the wind spake 
to him.' 

a. The imperfect may be used in connexion with the pre- 
sent tense of verbs implying ' recollection,' if preceded by tnf ; 

* Thou knowest, Devadatta, 

how we did dwell in Kas'mira :' or ^ may be dispensed with, 
if a connected action is also described ; as, wtffc <*13*fl\^- 
* Thou rememberest we did dwell in 

Kashmir, and did eat rice there.' 

b. Either the imperfect or the perfect may be used with 
the expletive ^ ; 3[fir ^ ^'<*0 ^ or -44\[ii t Thus he did :' also 
after \W\ * continually ;' ^PJ^Clr^ $I V JN<*K * He did continu- 
ally. 5 They may also be optionally used in question and 
answer, if the time be not long past ; as, WJTdf^ fsfi e Did he 
go ?' 'HJixsif^ ' He did go :' TJIIH ffi e Has he gone ?' *\>l\H 
' He went.' But if the time of the act be remote, the perfect 
only is used : ^Wt =WT |MM f^R * What ? slew Krishna, Kansa ?' 
if ^HM ^: ' He slew him.' 

c. The negative n, derived from nT, may be conjoined 
with w, and attached to the imperfect, to which it gives the 
sense of the prohibitive-imperative. When irr^ is used in this 
manner, the temporal augment ^r is rejected : TTFWr: * Be 
thou not ;' JTTW ^idT ' Let him not do ;' *TW H^if rf * Do 

VERBS. 397 

not you two weep ;' JTTCR Priori ' Do not ye tarry.' The nega- 
tive is also used without the particle W; but not in the 
imperative sense, although it causes the loss of the augment : 
H-aefM HT ^wrqr: * Thou hast not known my disposition/ 

301. Praeterite (qxl^ f<57). This tense denotes something 
absolutely past : ^SBTT. ' he made ;' MMM ' he cooked ;' TTrft 
frptR H'Klc^ innrfr y^MlrW * Krishna having gone forth from 
the city departed ;' fns<*l*mi (H*IMM mr: ' Rama killed the 
female demon called Taclakaj' 

* The Rishi did him honour with particular attentions/ The 
tense may also be used when mental absence or unconscious- 
ness is implied: ^pffsi? f3R7 fa<44HI l Whilst I slept he still 
talked.' It is employed in construction, however, without 
much attention to any particular specification of past time, 
and alternates, at the convenience of the writer, with both the 
imperfect and the indefinite past. 

302. Indefinite past (niHl^ ~^)> This is properly used 
in a general and indefinite manner for time past, whether 
proximate or remote. *ftswre 4<lQt(43IIHMtf ftjiHrimfTi^ H*JW 

H*flCf'$l I ' He studied 

the Vedas, he sacrificed to the gods ; he made libations to the 
manes, he respected his kinsmen ; he subdued the class of 
six (evil feelings), he delighted in regal polity, and utterly 
destroyed his foes :' ^9WlfftK| * Rain was, or it rained, to-day :' 
HT T ^t s> J^ * Having seen her, he was happy:' 'sr^fyff 
' He asked the Rakshasas, Why have ye 

awakened me?' 

a. This form of the praeterite, or either of the others, may 
be used as well as the present (see r. 299, b) when preceded 
by tjn ; as, vsHirfjfl^ gn finrn * Brahmans formerly dwelt 
here :' also <4Hlf^ or "35^: as well as wfcr, as above. It 
may be used also optionally with the future or present, when 
the conditional consequence of a past action is expressed : 
?; * If it had rained, we had sown the grain.' 

b. n, derived from rr^, is frequently used with the indefi- 


nite past, when it gives it the force of the imperative, and 
causes the rejection of the temporal augment : rr >Nfc ' Do 
not fear ;' *rr 3T^: ' Do not grieve ;' TT >JT^ ' Let it not be ;' 
>H cfiPff: ipr: Uf^ * Never do so again ;' m ^nvwf *T?r. ^nzrr: 
' Do not give your mind to wickedness.' It may also be 
employed with w, as, m W "^WH ' Do not go.' It is also used 
in the same manner with another negative, in an affirmative 
sense : FTT fg^ft "JT ^ft^T ' Do not not-kill (i. e. kill) my foes.' 
There are examples, however, especially in the older writers, 
of the use of this negative with the indefinite past, in which 
the augment is retained ; as, *rr fnm^ Hfrfyi HH'W: ' Do not 
thou ever obtain reputation, O barbarian?' Ramayana: and 
when the verb is compounded with a preposition, the augment 
of the imperfect and the indefinite past may be retained ; as, 
m M'lHi^ ' Let not faith depart from us ;' Manu : m 
Jn: ' Do not be subject to wrath ;' Mahabharata. 

On the other hand, it is rejected in compounds also ; as, 
HIcjHWl ^HlrUM ' Do no disrespect to thy own soul.' The 
difference is explained by affirming that a different negative, 
JTT not inr, is employed ; the former not requiring the elision 
of the augment. It, and not TT^, is also said to be used with 
other tenses ; as wdth the imperative, TT T^J, or the future, 
*rr ufamPri ' Let it not be.' 

303. Definite future (^HQcH ^7). This tense indicates 
future time, defined either expressly, as in the example above 
given (p. 112), or by some circumstance or event not immedi- 
ately proximate, or, as it is expressed, not of day ; as in the 
following example from Bhatti : 

i Trnr: nr^ ^r^rreftFr ^ >ron tjt \ ' Our mothers having 
seen thee shall be delighted, and shall ask after the welfare 
of us both, along with Maithili ; and Bharata will rejoice 

a. This form of the future is used optionally with the inde- 
finite future or the present in certain phrases or combinations ; 
as with cR^T or cRf| ; OR^T >rtlT or >rt 1 ^T^', fff| W1HT or 

VERBS. 399 

'When will he eat? Where will he remain?' also with the 
interrogative implying ' preference ;' f^fi -sfart or oRm qOrilPH or 
^0ffa ' What or which wilt thou choose ?' also when it 
denotes the consequence of a conditional act ; *ft f>T8ff ^TrTT or 
^TWfrT V ^*t* *rr?n or Trrcirfif ' He who shall give alms will go 
to heaven.' 

304. Indefinite future (o^ ^nr). The time expressed by 
this tense may be either immediately or remotely future : ^m? 
' I shall not be seen to-day ;' MfXmifH (V^ufr ^r 
*PT ' Since my sons are slain, I will die or conquer.' 

a. When connected with verbs implying ' recollection,' this 
tense may be used with a past signification ; as, HRpH ^S!t 
jft*^ <4i4*ilH: ' Rememberest thou Krishna ; we shall dwell 
(for, we were dwelling) at Gokula :' also optionally, when one 
action is dependent upon another ; as, wfa ^^ <*l5Hll^[ 
' Rememberest thou Devadatta ; we dwell 

in Kashmir, arid dressed (shall dress) rice there :' otherwise 
the imperfect may be used, as above. 

b. It alternates, as above remarked, with the definite future 
after aR[T and 0^ ; also when * choice' or ' consequence' is 
signified, or when an act contingent upon some event is 
predicated : ^<4^iaf' H rfiT *n^r ^mjlH: c If it shall rain we will 
sow the corn.' 

c. The indefinite future is to be used where dispatch is 
signified ; as, ^IT: ^fhr JlfturfV ' The messenger will go swiftly :' 
also when continuous action is implied ; ^N-nfl^H^ ^U-nfrT * As 
long as life lasts he will give food :' also when an act is 
followed for a certain time without interruption ; 

' When this future day of 
new moon (is), on that (day) he will read the prayers to Agni, 
and sacrifice with the Soma juice.' It is used in like manner 
when ^r^t, ' after,' is employed to denote immediately subse- 
quent place or time : iftnTtrr Mnf4 

' This is the road to Paaliputra, (and 
having gone) subsequently by that of Kausambi, we will there 

400 SYNTAX. 

eat food :' Tftsxi UHrtK Wll*ft 

When the future (next) year (is arrived), then imme- 
diately, on the full moon of the month Agrahayana, we, 
entering upon devotion, will study (the Vedas).' If TTT?^ be 
used instead of ^r^ the definite future may be used ; iKHiy- 
or ^nWm% ; and the latter only is to be 

employed if days or nights be specified ; as, TftsTj JTRT 

rtlH^ * When the future (next) month 

(is arrived), and fifteen days after it (have passed), then we 
will study/ 

d. When disbelief, doubt, or intolerance is signified, and 
especially if put interrogatively, the indefinite future may be 
used optionally with the potential : tj **n<4*llPH, or *f ri^ 
vi^TfT ^fit frn^ or f^rr^wiCd * I cannot believe, or I cannot 
endure, that you revile Vishnu,' i. e. either should or shall 
revile or have reviled : cfit ^Tfft or ojnmV ^ir (H or P 

( Who or which may or will revile Hari ?' cfi <|McS H<4 l'^ 
or HHfiimfri ' For what SMdra may or will your reverence 
perform sacrifices?' If preceded by the compound particle 
r*rcM or by ^rf% or its synonymes in these senses, the future 
only, not the potential, is employed : T ^WNMlfH H^|T fsffJR^f 
Hnjuiffi * I cannot think it possible your reverence will 

sacrifice for a Sudra:' also ^rfttT, ^T^fff or 

Mfri ' Is it (possible, can it be) your reverence will sacri- 

fice for a Sudra?' The same tense may be used optionally 
with the potential when possibility is admitted or expected: 
yrnNmfH ift^nl' (or ^hr) ^T^ ' I think it possible your 
excellency will eat ;' ifctT uujif^H imr <**MHSw 1.1 U<(: \ ^ eM^fd 
JTraiftn ^^rftn ^ n4rt(*Sfir I f By whom is it supposed, that in 
battle Raghava will cut to pieces the limbs, or scatter the 
members, of Kumbhakarna.' 

e. The indefinite future is used with exclamations of 
astonishment, if any conditional particle, as *r*r or Trf^, be not 
inserted : iHia**i*<*ft RW ^^frf ' Wonderful ! the blind man 
will see (can see) Krishna.' It may also be used with the 

VERBS. 401 

particles TR and ^rfc when implying ' doubt ;' TiT <^H?t tlTHmCd 
' Will the staff fall (or not) ?' ^grfirvjuqfri Tfi ' Will he shut the 
door ?' and must be used with JM*^ when it signifies ( cer- 
tainty' or ' capability ;' ^Tc5 fWt ^ftcTf ^f*!^tfif ' Certainly 
Krishna will kill (that is, is able to kill) the elephant.' 

305. Imperative (-fafVn^). The uses of the imperative 
tense require no particular illustration. It has, however, a 
first as well as a third person ; to which, ' command' or 
* injunction' is not applicable : but as the powers of this mood 
correspond with those of the potential, and consequently com- 
prehend ' permission' and * capability,' as signified by * may/ 
' let,' ' can/ there is no difficulty in understanding their appli- 
cability to any person indifferently, iff^f 

: ' Let this be thy determination, I may not cause the 
dreadful destruction of the servants :' 

l Be thou my messenger ; and having gone, say 
(thus) to Raghava/ 

a. The imperative is very frequently used in the third per- 
son singular of the passive, either with a nominative expressed, 
or with the agent in the instrumental case expressed or under- 
stood ; in which latter case it is used indefinitely : ^rnfhnrf 
^sft e Let the queen be brought ;' >ft ft: trftjg rfi: ^Mri! * Ho 
Pan&its, be it heard/ i. e. jprrfa: ' by you ;' ^Fhrai ' Let it be 
done ;' ^rnmnrf * Let it be come,' i. e. '^ftf'^ ' by some one / 
: ' Sita, let it be gone hence/ i. e. by thee, or ' Go 

thou away ;' T^i: ^Ihnrf ' Let the carriage be stopped,' or 
qtflqdl ' Let it be stopped by the carriage ;' JpWTTT^TT: ' Let 
all. hopes be dismissed/ ^: * by them.' 

b. When any act enjoined is to be done after a short time, 
the imperative may be used in relation to the future, the 
present or the potential : ^ 14 fuj^ Irf Ml 4 1 H ^'^1*1 P*i *M fn (^TTT- 
^fif or 'STTTT^W) W ^HVhq 1 ' If the teacher shall (does or 
may) come after an hour, do thou (then) read the Veda.' Or 
it may be used where time shortly past is implied, without 
any condition, when F? may be combined with it : 

3 F 

402 SYNTAX. 

( After an hour be mistress of the 


c. The imperative may be used optionally with the poten- 
tial to express * wish :' ^^arfa HTF^ >f^fa or >j^f ' I wish your 
worship may, or would, eat.' So with 4iW\ u\\ ' I desire,' 
* I beg,' or other synonymous verbs. 

d. When desire to have any thing done that should be 
performed is expressed, **r is used with the imperative : w 

' Do thou cause the boy to read ; do thou teach 


e. The third person singular of the imperative of the sub- 
stantive verb is often used with the particle ^ ' so,' ' thus,' 
absolutely, to signify ' assent ;' as, ^ T?TT, T<*HW, t So be it ;* 
Pff if ^rftf UTI 1 "! fvfBTJ * And Yudhish^hira also thus 

replied to him, So be it.' 

f. The negative *TT is prefixed to the imperative sometimes, 
with a sense equivalent to that of the present tense : *TT T^TJ 
' there is not ;' TT ^ ^ (HUH: SI^( H-yAcjH MifvH ' There is not 
(or may not be) any crime in thee, O prince, killing thy foes.' 

g. imf is substituted for the terminations of the second and 
third persons singular of the imperative, w r hen used in a bene- 
dictory sense : >HfU<{fa^ffil r^TTT "3iif *H$*lfT ' Mayest thou be 
undivided from thy husband henceforth in thine own dwelling.' 

306. Potential mood 

The senses of the potential mood, as detailed in the citation 
from Panini, have been explained above (p. 112). It is suffi- 
cient here to add a few examples of its application. ^^M^I^I- 
l[lf W a^l vfl^^^i ^nfc 3PTt ' Let a man pleased make the Brahmans 
happy, and feed them deliberately :' rimi^lCt ffa <T*fa ^ft^l^ 
'Therefore let a man of fortitude neither rejoice nor grieve :' T 
i VTnff T 

' Let not a wise man disturb a cow drinking, nor tell of it to 
another ; nor, having seen a rainbow in the sky, let him point 
it out to another.' 

a\ The potential mood is very commonly employed as the 

VERBS. 403 

conditional or subjunctive mood in combination with particles 
indicating ' condition,' ( contingency/ ' alternative,' c uncer- 
tainty,' ( doubt,' ( astonishment,' and the like ; as, irf^, %?^, 
f if ;' 7^ ' as,' ' since ;' TIW ' as ;' Tr*rr ' as,' ' so/ * that ;' TT5T 
* where,' ( how ;' TI^T ( when ;' TTTJ ' ever ;' <srftr ' although/ 
' since ;' *TT or TiT or jrilPq ' whether ;' "N ' what ;' ^n^ ' how ;' 
f-4cfH N wonderful ;' &c. TflW T H*nfl^*ifH ^3^ T 'MM*li^ ' If 
punishment does not protect, people may not recognise pro- 
perty :' ^JiiviN HT^ifi fcMS^IXHl THTt: ' If there were not 
punishment in the world, the people would perish :' ^nff <*:^r 

f ( O grief! that, having done 

manly deeds, thou (shouldest) abandon glorious fortune :' ira 
ri*N R^T: *T ^1^ ' I did not believe that thou couldest act 
thus :' ^ifdM-^Hfa THIT T >^f ^c4lH<Jr^ I T *Tt^ *T ^ <JIfl*l$1 
>ft^ <*^=^H i ( So that I may not be also in other races a 
destroyer of my kin, I will not eat, nor partake in any way of 
drink :' T\ ?ranf ? "<F W& ^T^ I 

irfff I ' When he may judge his own army in good condition, 
and that of his adversary in the reverse, let him march against 
the enemy :' TJT^:WT *ft <j:^ T *T fTTJ ^^t vrrif * He who is 
distressed by the grief of others can never be happy :' 43lg$IU 
eKW fH *<OT "tHI^^ ' That such persons should revile Krishna, 
astonishing !' or *rf^ may be used with similar exclamations ; 
f^ef tff^ *ftsifl*flri l Surprising ! if he read.' Tff and ^rfti may 
be used to imply e doubt of will/ or ( capability :' "3TT or ^rfrj 
^nr^ ^ft: ' Will Hari destroy sin ?' * Will he be pleased to 
do so ?' ^srfq frjft f$K3n ftr^aT^ ' Can he indeed break a moun- 
tain with his head ?' fcWfj^ft^ii ' Why should I grieve ?' opzj, 
\\ r hen used reproachfully, may be connected with the present 
or the potential :' q^f ^ >rSf W^: or wrftr ' How canst thou, or 
dost thou, abandon virtue ?' 

These particles may be also understood, or dropped alto- 
gether, when the condition can be expressed by the use of 
correlative terms, or by a preceding phrase : 

h ' (Since) Ravana carries (may carry) off Sita, 
3 F 2 

404 SYNTAX. 

(so) the binding of the great sea may occur :' fu*|Hld TJ ftnrft. 
"pprRW r^Mf^ ' But if the father be living, let him offer liba- 
tions to those prior to him.' 

b. The potential mood is also used to intimate ' fitness/ 
' propriety, 7 or ' capability :' PT cfi^TT ^%: ' Thou shouldest or 
oughtest to marry the damsel ;' ^r ^TKHI^O^ ' He may or can 
carry the load ;' ^RTjT^TO^nfts^' ^44** ft ^Tfl^ ' Aided by Kama 
and Arjun'a, I could conquer even Indra.' 

c. Verbs signifying ' to wish' or ' desire' may use the 
potential optionally with the present : JT^gfo^irir or ^-ddTd ' He 
wishes to go ;' TrnrrfoSjFftriT <*IH*lrt or v*iHnft ( He desires to 
embrace her.' The object of the wish may also be expressed 
in the potential, instead of the infinitive ; as, TTRTfoS^n^ <*(*i**fl 
' He wishes he may or might embrace her.' 

d. The potential often takes the place of the imperative, 
with a similar signification ; TrfaRT^R *T53u ' Having taken 
water, thou mayest go,' i. e. go thou : especially when pre- 
ceded by W^fa ' to order' or ( enjoin ;' 

* If the teacher come, I desire that thou read.' 

e. The potential may be used with a present or future sense 
when time not remote is specified : Trnr:RT?5W TPj: l|*Tt ' The 
time is come that thou perform thy penance ;' *JglH<?l[ T^TT 
' Let him sacrifice after an hour.' 

f. In didactic and injunctionary sentences the potential is 
constantly employed without a nominative expressed, referring 
either to a noun previously enunciated, or to such words as 

* some one,' * any one,' ' a man,' or the like, understood : 

* Let a man preserve his wealth against misfortune ; but his 
wife even by his wealth : let him even preserve himself by a wife 
even, or also, by wealth :' *renf^HT f^lh*4Wrl^U^HrtR: ' Let 
(one) not a niggard give to the Brahmans that which may be 
agreeable to them.' 

g. The potential is used in a future sense to signify the 
conditional result of an act which a person may perform : 

VERBS. 405 

fen: M-nrH*w!0ri: i 

I *r jfyHl UHIIU4 *?h*<Hlc4l<WHI^i|lri N I * Whatever Brahman 
may read attentive this Birth of Skanda, or may cause it to 
be heard by Brahmans, or may hear it repeated by a Brah- 
man, he, having obtained abundance and happiness, may 
obtain the heaven of that divinity.' 

307. Benedictive mood (fcSirf^rfa). The term by which 
the power of this mood is denned imports ' blessing ;' but as 
there is also connected with it the notion of ' wish,' and as 
this wish or desire may concern oneself as well as another, the 
term ' optative' would better indicate its character; as, w^fr 

' May 

the gods direct us, so that we may either conquer such enemies 
as Ravana, or die.' It is used sometimes optionally with the 
imperative in a benedictory sense : fqr sfl^HT'i^ or fg^ *f\<4 A 
VRT*{ f May your excellency live long. 5 

308. Conditional mood (foJ^ fiTfaif o^;). This mood is 
considered as the equivalent of the potential when cause is 
indicated as well as consequence, or when one act or condition 
is contingent upon another act or condition, and whether the 
cause and consequence be future or past. Like the poten- 
tial, it is commonly used with the same conditional particles, 
a , &c., as specified above ; as, 

* If there shall be abundant rain, then there will be 
plenty ;' itf$ *r nn S^tsufawj^ Tnfts>f^nr ' If he had been 
seen by me, he should have been devoured (by me).' 

a. Although the same notion of contingency prevails, yet 
this mood is also used analogously to the potential, to signify 
' uncertain consequence,' ' doubt, 1 ' suspicion,' ' possibility,' * in- 
quiry,' and the like ; as in this exemplification of its application 
from Bhatti: wftf TTW ftj: tfhrf uiQfumri J**Hir. I $ 

TTT lri?rH^-yT II ' O Rama, unjustly thou 
wouldest entertain suspicion of Sita ; for although the vile 
enemy warmly solicited her, and sometimes menaced and some- 

406 SYNTAX. 

times vaunted his own magnificence, yet she, pure of mind, 
would never bestow a thought upon him.'' 

b. The conditional mood, like the potential, is employed with 
exclamations of surprise, but they require the addition of *ra 
or TIC? ; as, ^i^-Si TC& or Tf^ 1 3^ft OR^S^TITW IR ' Strange that a 
woman should in any way abide in thy evil opinion.' When 
used interrogatively, it requires an interrogative adverb ; as, 
fsfi fUJUU*UrHTT 'Hlfti**Jrf M^M^ ' What ! do you know your- 
self to be the unborn Narayana?' dltil^f f<HK!*li f^fi ftw- 
cimi'tllt Tfic3 ' She being dead through fright, what then ? what 
benefit wouldest thou obtain ?' In the following example many 
of the particles with which this mood or the potential may be 
connected, are illustrated : 

f^fi ilHMM*Hr^ri I ' Mighty king, as whatever 

and however thou mayest have (or hast) accomplished in the 
destruction of the demons, what ! wouldest thou not ever thus 
also bring (or have brought) thy desired purposes to fulfilment.' 
309- Infinitive mood. This, as shewn above (p. 369), is 
considered to be a verbal derivative noun, and is attached in 
the invariable accusative apparently to a verb ; as, ^r 

' I wish to hear ;' chviftjrtH^ftr * Thou art able to tell ',' Hi rH (^"01 
T fl f( ' I will not endure to live/ 

a. Like other verbal derivatives, the infinitive may exercise a 
similar government as one of the moods or tenses of the verb 
from which it is formed : itf^ uf^rH Tjj Ml^ll^i: W-"<ji 
* They resolved to go together to Draupadi's marriage elec- 
tion.' It cannot as a noun, however, admit the difference of 
active and passive voices, and the effect of the latter is given to 
it by its association with participles, and especially with the 
future participle of the verb ^rR ' to be able,' in connexion 
with the object; the agent, when expressed, being in the 
instrumental case : ^eni JTts*n irij '^W3 >T=rflT ' Now that 
blockhead is to be conquered ;' T FN*HH f^fNifPT $r<*4l ^T 
dmfrjTT f^rnssr 'We are not to be intimidated to-day by thee 
with this terror ;' ^ fqj: ^ *5fm ' How is the enemy to be 

VERBS. 407 

seen ;' f^ ^flPMiRfeflls^r $IWUH'*II *rl[ ' Nor can these gods, 
sages, and progenitors, be thus now nourished by thee.' 

b. The infinitive is also used after nouns and participles ; as, 
^c5T *ft?fi ' time to eat ;' cfitj w*h ' able to do ;' ^ *r?r: ' gone 
to see :' but these are evidently elliptical phrases, in which 
the verbal copulative is understood ; cfiic5Vsf%r jp^ * It is time 
to go.' The same may be said of the like combination of the 
infinitive with adverbs or adverbial nouns; as, T "SIFT Pi^if 
3fif *ffr ^5 HoPNm: ' (It is) not right, O princes, to slay again 
a slain enemy ;* umi^l^HI d ( ojPnH ) Hc6*i v ' Palaces (are) fit to be 
compared to thee ;' riwuifrr: TPTT^: * f H:^ UTrfvw ' There- 
fore Yoga is the desired object of the eminent ; but it (is) to 
be made known with difficulty.' 


Derivative Verbs. 

310. The derivative forms of the verb are not of common 
occurrence, with exception of the causal, which is of very fre- 
quent use. As this must from its nature be a transitive verb, 
it will govern an accusative case, either singly or doubly, as 
exemplified above (r. 286, g). The following are a few additional 
illustrations of its use : rflBjiijl ^frf ^TT WTTTT *T3*ff sHvmiHI* ' We 
are called severe ; this we apprise you' (cause you to know) ; 
^ ' The queen represents ;' riHIsilM^Pd t Nay, she 

commands ;' ^ RT f^^ftwfcr :3frr!rnSf T^fR ' Those evil dis- 
posed ones will alienate thee from me' (will cause to separate 
from) ; iff "^Erfa: W<$'5Tsn * Let the king cause her to be 
devoured by dogs ;' n|?TT ^ XTrfrfVarfff fV^TR ^13: c The enemy, 
being valiant, shall strike off thy head' (cause it to fall) ; 

He caused the women, with their 

attendants, to be brought ;' ffl^<LlHM^lf^ ' He did not cause 

him to be disunited from his life 1 (he did not put him to death). 

a. The desiderative form is also from its nature transitive, 

and has the government of transitive verbs : uiP^gHjrf ft pfr 

408 SYNTAX. 

113I*WMH 'IHM1^ I U*T Tr^RThTniftsTff cRftj f^T5?:fi5nf I ' The monkey 
(Hanuman) did not wish (or would not) look at the dance, nor 
hear the singers, desirous of remembering Rama, suffering the 
pain of absence/ This form of the verb implies ' volition' as 
well as ( wish ;' as, *n^HM TTT *&S ftl-aMM^I T f^rtlfa ' Thou 
wilt not give my father's share, being asked for by me.' The 
desiderative form of ^, ' to hear,' implies not only f to wish to 
hear,' but * wait upon' or * obey ;' that is, to wish to please by 

51 1 vy rf I ' He who until the end of his life waits upon his Guru, 
goes assuredly to the eternal mansion of Brahma.' 

b. The frequentative mode expresses either repetition or 
intensity the doing of an act repeatedly or energetically but 
it is of very unfrequent use in either: fef) 4,4,1 

* They stand, like Chatakas, crying aloud repeatedly ;' 
n * Again the bird eagerly assailed him ;' 
' He cut the wings of the bird to 

pieces.' With verbs of motion this form may also imply 
* going crookedly' or ' badly ;' as, <4ldj^rf ^^: ' The lame man 
goes awry.' With certain verbs it also intimates f defect' 
or ( impropriety ;' as, aj*ajU|7i di4i4!j: ' The Brahman prays 

c. From a desiderative verb others may be formed ; as, 
^UJll I fr| ' He wishes to cause the people to hear 

the Puranas ;' "N *TTTV: HTuHMMOH ' Why dost thou wish to cause 
me to go downwards?' A desiderative may not be formed 
from a desiderative, unless some other mode intervene ; as, 

The blockhead wishes to cause the 

desire of frequent existence in the sage.' And in this manner 
the forms might be compiled without end ; but the practice is 
not adopted. 

d. The conversion of substantives into verbs is not unfre- 
quent, and depends apparently upon the pleasure of the writer. 
A few examples of the use of such verbs in construction will 
be sufficient to illustrate their application. 


' In a spot destitute of trees the castor oil 


plant becomes a tree ;* ^TJiift ^jrfcT HH^rl'U ^ftw: ^BMNifr ^ f A. 
burning coal burns the hand ; when cold it blackens it :' Tqf- 
9J-*inSifts*nw: ^if *JTTHrt *Tr: ' A minister who is made the 
companion of (a king's) private amusements, if active, kings it 
himself:' nfriffdnfl ^ ^riinPM Woftflfifa: ' The mind of the 
virtuous oscillates (or swings) by the speech of the wicked :' 
gtWl'ri 1 **i*H: *f J*%SK igum'ft 'All men are in sorrow; he 
alone is happy :' Hl<eMi<jfyu4rilrtW Wl^rBfttM %i^ ^RTJ ' If the god 
of love should see thee, he would not grieve much (for his 
absent bride) :' 

e This maiden is the hunter ; her eyebrow is 
her bow, her glances are arrows, and my heart is the deer.' 



311. Those participles which are declinable are, like adjec- 
tives, inflected in the gender, number, and case of the noun 
with which they are connected in construction. Both the 
declinable and indeclinable may exercise the same government 
as the verbs from which they are derived. 

312. The present participles active of transitive verbs ordi- 
narily govern the noun in the accusative case : ^ihr or 

' Brahma is making (or makes) creation ;' 

: ' The pupil is reading the Vedas ; J ^irM H<!44HMI ^ 
'The woman (is) decorating herself;' U^<Rrt1 'HI<TT 'They 
two (were) crossing rivers ;' ^ P^r-lHMlWHI<H' ' They search- 
ing that hermitage ;' * *n* >ft^^T^T r^il*lMt *\<(#A ' He, 
considering the strength of Bhimasena, was consumed (with 
envy)/ The participle present of fV^T, ' to hate,' optionally 
governs the genitive case : ijx or $UW fffMri ^ft: * Hari (is) 
hating (of) Mura/ The participles of verbs of remembering 
may also govern the genitive ; as, JRTT or *nr WJLifl * remembering 
(or thinking of) me.' The present participle may be used 

3 o 

410 SYNTAX. 

with particles in the sense of the potential mood ; as, SKMNq 
$H<Hd ' Listen, that so acting (for, that you may 

so act that) you will not fall from duty/ 

a. The present participle of the passive voice involves no 
notion of past time, but implies the continuance of the state 
or thing suffered. Thus *! <^*IHMM "<*ft<in TT*n ' He also 
being thus bitten by the reptile,' signifies that the biting 
has not ceased, but is going on : so TJ^T H^W4dlrHM 
* When he perceived himself being devoured ; J WJ 
: ' Being pursued by numerous guards.' 

313. The participles of the perfect tense are not of very 
frequent occurrence : they follow the general rules relating to 
concord and government, and are not unusually employed 
without a verb in the sense of the perfect tense : ^ PrKyiHM- 
^qf CViMH^fMM: ' They desired the death of the animals that 
were near (them) ;' H^M fV^ M fa ' Thou art arrived ;' ijd frpfr- 
f^TPT ofar^w: *r fcHriX ' He (was) seated (or sat down) on a 
couch in the presence of the destroyer of Kansa.' 

313. The indefinite past participles are of much more 
universal use than the preceding, and bear an important part 
in the formation of sentences : they take the variations of 
inflexion according to the noun or pronoun with which they 
are connected, expressed or understood. 

a. The active indefinite past participle governs the same 
cases as its verb, and may be used absolutely, with the 
auxiliary verb implied : mft UH*J3MI^ ^T|;t: ' Then S'ankara 
said to Rama ;' %WTT ^ri'4l*f ^Bn: ' Krishna slew the demons/ 

b. The passive indefinite past participle is ordinarily con- 
nected with the agent in the instrumental case ; 4.N4i)i ^TfT 
tffiTT H^ff fhn * Sita, seized by Ravana, (was) conveyed to 
Lanka :' but in some cases it may be optionally connected 
with the agent in the genitive ; as, TT$r: or TT^rr Trft fan: ' The 
Brahman is respected by or of the king ;' 7TOT or ^T nJW fwr 
This earth is conquered of or by him.' It also governs the 
agent in either case, when signifying the site or subject of the 


action ; as, ^fl^trf or inh ?rP*lif ' This was (the) slept of or by 
them ;' i. e. the place where, or the time when, they slept : 
^<$iW or ^?f rnf ' This was (the) gone of or by him ;' i. e. 
the time or manner of his departure. 

c. When derived from neuter or intransitive verbs, this 
participle may be used with a noun in the place of the past 
tense of the verb : iHttyift TTTr UH|fU * The king of the Rakshasas 
wept ;' ^rr ^rtf ^iftsif ' Ah ! he has died (or is dead) of himself.' 

d. The indefinite past participle of verbs of motion, and of 
others already specified (p. 275), takes an active sense, and is 
used in place of the past tense, governing a noun in the same 
manner as a transitive verb : fiT.W<*fr f^ft wfafcft Tnre: ^OTT*f 
*TW: ' Hiranyaka entered his hole ; the crow went to his own 
nest :' TT ^ffai: T& *Km!fl ^ft ftwf *nn ' That hero is not to be 
mourned (who is) departed to death.' Other verbs than those 
above enumerated, which bear analogous imports, may also be 
used in this manner : sn^^3jp=(ri( 1TTTT: * Alas ! I have incurred 
impurity ;' *rr TT^VTT Ta^TWT * She bore an excellent offspring/ 
The time expressed may also be indefinite ; as, TTSTRV ^ftpJiT- 
ITftSifn ' Kings (affecting) dwelling in the south. The past 
indefinite participle of intransitive verbs may also be used to 
denote time indefinitely present or continuous ; as, vrfipTl^ 
TOrt mr * At the end of his day Brahma sleeps.' 

e. The past participles of verbs signifying ' to speak, J ' to 
ask,' and the like, when used with a masculine or feminine 
noun, imply * spoken to,' inquired of,' referring the object to 
the noun with which they agree, and being followed by the 
agent or speaker, when specified, in the instrumental case : ^l 
V 1 ^^-*^ HfVf: ' That sage thus spoken to ;' 1ft vnfam i-rr ' She 
addressed by him ;' *r ^: y?: ' He inquired of by them.' The 
participle may also govern the matter of the speech, like an 
active verb, in the accusative : ^UJM ^T^nj^ftsftr ' Thou art 
spoken to, a speech by Krishna ;' 

' Thus spoken to by the king of Sindhu, a heart- 
agitating speech/ 

3 G 9, 

412 SYNTAX. 

f. The indefinite participle past is often used for a noun, 
the noun or pronoun being understood : ^g: *ph| Hi'iPS 
' Punishment watches over those who sleep ;' l^5, * people, 5 
understood : M&miH ^Mf ' subsisting by ripe and unripe ;' 
M<4H, * fruit,' understood. In the neuter gender it is used, 
not only as an abstract noun (p. 275), but absolutely or 
adverbially : 4jvfj<ii * as it is said ;' dji<*H ' so it is done ;' 
qvj|J4^ ' as it is proper,' * fitly,' ' rightly.' 

ff. Both the past participles indefinite are commonly used 
with the different tenses of the auxiliary verbs ^T and >T, 
forming in fact compound tenses, which might be comprised 
within the scheme of conjugation with as much, or rather 
perhaps with as little, propriety in Sanskrit as in other lan- 
guages ; as, Tnffrsffcr or 'irHMPw ' I am or have gone ;' TTJT 
*nffrs>T^, 'liHMIti, *IiHM*T^, f I was or had gone ;' JTTft 
or >rf(U|iiH, or JiiHH *i P^ A I f\H ' I shall be or have 
gone ;' TTift or J|ri'<*l^ >?^T ' I may be or have gone,' &c. j 
' I have done improper acts ;* wt T?f ^ 
: ' Rama will be gone to-morrow to the forest ;' 
t Thou shalt have obtained unequalled 

fame.' When used alone, either absolutely or transitively, it 
may be inferred that the form is elliptical, and that the verb 
is understood ; as, P^uu|<*) ftrat JiP^gls^ ' Hiranyaka was or 
had entered his hole.' 

314. The indefinite past participles indeclinable are also of 
very extensive and important application. They are especially 
used to suspend the close of a sentence, acting at the same 
time as copulatives, and connecting something which precedes 
with something which is to follow ;' as, TWW *r Tin ' Having 
so spoken, he went away ;' PR<HlfiM nrr ^ * (I) having 
long considered, it was done by me.' They may be repeated, 
to imply a succession of actions preparatory to some final one : 
^fff u<ftuj|Pf(iuj JHlPcJ'^ flujPMrl! ( Having thus discoursed (to 
them), treated (them) with hospitality, and embraced them, he 
sent (them) away.' 


a. As ordinarily employed, these participles undergo and 
exercise the same government as the tenses of the verb ; that 
is, they are connected with the subject in the nominative, and 
the object in the accusative or some other case : diiijft TTTT 

' The king having presented gifts to the Brahmans ;' 
3T fHHfif ' Hiraftyaka, having made a hole, 
dwelt ;' <*vji|4<4 jrtf WW ' Speak, having dismissed fear.' 

b. It often occurs, however, that these participles are used 
elliptically or parenthetically, and in appearance absolutely 
or without government ; whence it has been inferred *, that 
they are rather gerunds than participles. It is doubtful, 
however, if in any case the deficient nouns may not be readily 
supplied : thus, WT ^n^T ri^rt<W!JI^ r<4fl*5 nc5 fawlJjf * By 
that fowler, (he) having scattered the grains of rice, a net was 
spread :' ^fif *nft M fj fa ft Og Kl ipft mmO;ri: ' The vulture was 
killed by all the birds, (they) having thus concluded :' ^l^- 
TJTOT *i*FiH4 *f^nr MClM<*Ulfl<*ri: ' By the unwise, the self or 
person, (they) having diligently adorned (it), is made the tool 
of another.' This sort of construction is, no doubt, often 
complicated, but it may perhaps be always unravelled in this 
manner : ^fllc-jV^ j^ ftnnr ?H*f JTi^T <jfV|Mt!HlHI 

T^ f The cat named Dadhikarna 
was placed by that lion in his cave ; (he) having thus reflected, 
and having gone to the village, and having given (the cat) 
flesh and other kinds of food, and brought (him) thence with 
much trouble/ 

315. The participles of the future tense are said to have 
these significations in common with the imperative mood, 
' directing/ ' commanding,' and indication of season or oppor- 
tunity : ofi: e^Nr: HAinq: ORTT: ' The mat is to be made ; it 
must be made ; it is time for it to be made.' They also 
intimate ' fitness' or f * propriety ;' ^RTT cTld**|1 ' The girl is to 

* This was first proposed in a very elaborate and interesting investigation 
of these and some other verbal forms, by the late Baron W. Humboldt, 
published in the Indische Bibliothck. 

414 SYNTAX. 

be married ;' she is marriageable : >nrfstj4JU!fln: * Duty is to 
be observed :' and they denote ' ability' or ' competency ;' 

i: ' The load is to be borne by thee ;' W 
: ' If I am fit to be killed, I am to be killed.' In these 
and the like phrases they agree with the object, and are used 
without a verb, although it is evident that the verb is under- 
stood ; efi?: -cNNr: being properly -afcl <*^<4fsf% ; so ^H*M: is 
properly grafts -for. 

a. Future participles are used absolutely in the neuter 
gender, either in place of a noun, or with the noun implied : 
f As it is to be, so be it ;' U8M <HWHI <*vjrf|- 

' He caused to be said what was to be said to him 
asking what was (fit) to be asked.' 

b. These participles, when capable of a transitive effect, 
govern the object in the same case as the verb to which they 
belong ; J as, Tfa Jjrt Jlrf<*4 ' It is to be gone by him to the 
village ;' Hrt^ll TTRt "3*T*T ^WHT * The cows are to be taken to 
pasture by Krishna ;' <J48W: f<4^^i$IHg*i * He is to be fined 
an eighth part of his property ;' J|i*)rMr44l TR ( That is to be 
said by thee of (to) me.' The agent, agreeably to their passive 
signification, is usually in the instrumental case ; but it may 
be also sometimes in the genitive ; nrr or *r*T *Nft ^fc. 

316. Some verbal derivatives of a participial character 
exercise the like government upon nouns as already noticed 
(r. 290, ). To the examples there adduced the following 
may be added. The derivative from 3? with ^rF3*T prefixed, 
and ^ affixed, governs an accusative : H<ffl*M^(XbiijJ?ir ' The 
husband adorns, or is the adorner of, his wife.' Derivatives 
from ^ with the affix ^c^ may require the instrumental case ; 
|^l rH: ilM^h ?fwr ' The material world is easily made by 
Vishnu :' or the genitive ; T f$r 

' Nothing here is difficult to the persevering/ Derivatives with 
Ipr are followed by nouns in the accusative ; faun: ofi^T c4tfcl^ 
4 Vishnu is the maker of the worlds :' but considered as substan- 
tives, such derivatives may be followed by other substantives 


in the genitive case, and ofi^r 'rtfoRI* is equally allowable. 
Words formed with ^, when * futurity' is implied, govern 
the object in the accusative : cNj^in) ' Who is going (will go) 
to the pasture ?' ^M^'Rl' ' Who is giving (will give) a hun- 
dred?' A noun formed with ^ftr from the indefinite past 
participle may be connected with another in the locative case : 
4m<H4J) * well read in grammar.' 




General Rules. 

317. IT would be inconsistent with the plan and limits of 
the present work to attempt any lengthened detail of the 
infinite varieties of the metrical system of the Hindus ; but 
a brief description of the principles by which it is regulated, 
and their illustration by a few examples of the most frequently 
occurring kinds of metre, will not be out of place, and may 
be of use. 

318. The essential element of Sanskrit prosody is Quantity. 
As the long and short vowels have distinct symbols, their 
value is at once determined. A short vowel, however, is 
considered to be prosodially long when it precedes a conjunct 
consonant, also when it precedes Anuswara or Visarga. At 
the end of a line or stanza, also, the last vowel is regarded as 
long or short according to the exigence of the metre. 

319- Syllables of various quantities are arranged in certain 
definite groupes to form prosodial feet. This is effected 
according to two different methods. 

a. The first method is that which is employed in the 
greatest number of popular metres, and is the formation of tri- 
syllabic feet. Of these, eight varieties are enumerated. Each 


has its equivalent denomination in Greek prosody; but by 
native writers each is designated by a distinct syllable, having 
the term JTW, ' class' or * number,' attached to it, as in the 
following list : 

1. Na-gana nnjr: www Tribrach. 

2. Ma-gana *T*TO: Molossus. 

3. Ja-gana *\i\W. w w Amphibrach. 

4. Ra-gana TTTTjn -w Cretic. 

5. Bha-gana >rmn: w w Dactyl. 

6. Sa-gana WI'JU: w w Anapaest. 

7. Ya-gana |J|4(j: ^ Bacchic. 

8. Ta-gana TPTO: ^ Antibacchic. 

With given numbers of these feet a monosyllable or dissyl- 
lable may be further necessary to complete a line, but they 
are regarded as supplementary syllables, not feet, and are 
specified accordingly as one or two long or short syllables, or 
one long and one short, as the case may be. 

b. In the second method of forming prosodial feet, which 
characterises a peculiar class of metres, the element is a syl- 
labic instant, or short syllable : of these, four constitute a 
foot ; that is, a foot consists of either four short syllables or 
their equivalents, viz. two long or one long and two short 

c. There is another mode of measuring verse, which dis- 
penses with, or only partially permits, the use of regular feet. 
In this a definite number of short syllables, or their equiva- 
lents, without further subdivision, constitutes a verse ; certain 
portions of which, however, commonly consist of feet of the 
first class. 

320. A varying number and disposition of these several 
feet, or syllabic instants, form a verse, which differs as to 
length and proportions. This verse is a stanza or Sloka, 
which, with some exceptions, consists of two lines or hemi- 
stichs : each of these is again subdivided into two parts : so 


that the entire stanza is for the most part a tetrastich, com- 
posed of four Padas or Charanas, literally c feet,' or, in our 
understanding of the term, lines or semi-hemistichs : the intervals 
between the first and second, and third and fourth of which 
are not always so distinctly marked, as that between the 
second and third. 

a. When the metre consists of feet of the first order, and 
is single, the Padas are of equal length, and of corresponding 
quantities. Sometimes, however, two or more kinds of metre 
may be mixed in one stanza, and then the hemistichs or 
Padas may vary in length and in quantity. When feet of 
the second kind are used, the Padas are of different, though 
definite lengths. 

b. Rhyme is not employed in any of the older, or in the 
higher order of, writings. It is met with in poems of a lyrical 
character, and of later date ; and in them also great inequality 
of metre is introduced. In the best and oldest compositions 
great regularity prevails, although the metre is occasionally 
varied even in the same work. 



321. Of the two classes of measures which depend upon 
feet, the larger and more popular is also regulated by another 
principle, viz. the number of syllables contained in the stanza. 
The class is thence denominated Varna-vritta or Akshara- 
Chhandas, f Literal or syllabic metre/ 

a. The number of syllables in a verse of this class may 
vary from four to nearly four thousand ; but of the prevailing 
orders of this class few contain less than twenty-four syllables, 
or six syllables in a line ; or more than one hundred and four 
in a verse, or twenty-six in a line. Within these limits 
twenty-one orders are specified, each of which, by the varying 
disposition of the feet, and of the pause or caesura, comprises 

3 H 


different species. The number of species ordinarily enume- 
rated is above two hundred ; but of these, many are of rare 
use, although the whole number is infinitely less than the 
possible combinations of this class of metre, which, as a matter 
of arithmetical computation, is reckoned at many millions of 
millions. The forms in popular use do not perhaps exceed 
twenty or thirty, and range from thirty-two syllables to fifty- 
six in the verse. When they exceed the latter number, the 
verse is very rarely employed in continuous passages of any 
length, but is inserted occasionally, or occurs at the close of a 
canto or section, as a more stately and sonorous close. We 
shall specify the different orders of this class, with a notice of 
their varieties, and exemplifications of a few of their most 
ordinary species. 

i. Gayatri, 6 X4=24- Eleven varieties. This metre is not 
of frequent occurrence in profane versification, and w-hen used, 
as it is in the hymns of the Vedas, it is most commonly a 
triplet, somewhat varying in length. The most usual form is 
a triplet of three lines of eight syllables each, as in the follow- 
ing, which is the most sacred verse of the Vedas, and known 
emphatically as * the' Gayatri. It is held in such reverence, 
that it is never to be uttered in the hearing of ears profane. 

I TTt T: 

' Om ! let us meditate on the glorious splendour of that divine 
sun, that he may inspire us.' 

2. Ushiiih, 7 x4 = 28. Eight varieties; none of frequent 
occurrence, except in the Vedas. 

3. Anusht'ubh, 8 X4 = 32. Twelve varieties. This is by far 
the most frequent and useful form of Sanskrit verse. It is 
that in which the great body of metrical composition, whether 
narrative or didactic, exists. All works of considerable extent are 
written in it, relieved by the occasional introduction of other 
measures. It is the prevailing form of metre in the laws of 
Manu, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Puranas. 

a. The Anush^ubh or (in the nominative inflexion) Anushup 


stanza is divided into four Padas, of eight syllables each. In 
its most regular form the first foot is any one except a 
tribrach ; the second may be a dactyl, a tribrach, cretic, or 
anapasst ; the other two syllables are indifferently long or 
short. In the twelve species, however, other dispositions 
occur. Thus in that termed Vidyunmala the whole stanza con- 
sists of long syllables, or is a verse of molossi and spondees : 
in another, Pramam, we have alternately short and long sylla- 
bles, a stanza of amphibrachs or iambics : in a third, Samani, 
long and short syllables alternate, forming a verse of cretics or 
trochees : whilst in a fourth, Tuiiga, the first six syllables of 
each line are short, or two tribrachs. 

b. Another rule given for the formation of the Anusht'up 
verse is, that the fifth syllable of each line shall be short, the 
sixth long, and the seventh alternately long and short ; whilst 
the four first syllables and the eighth are arbitrary. This will 
be found to be usually the form adopted, with occasional 
exceptions. The following are examples. 

* This universe had become darkness, undiscerned, uncharac- 
terised, indescribable, incomprehensible, as if every where in a 
deep sleep.' Manu. 

* Never, barbarian, mayest thou acquire fame for endless years, 
since thou hast slain one of these birds, heedless through 
passion.' Ramayana. 

Tradition affirms of this, that it is the first Sloka or 
Anush^up verse ever composed. 

t JlfrT *if R x ^T vrxr^rf f<T. I HTSTiT ^fff WT?T. VSHf 
' At Gaiigadwara was a great holy sage, Bharadwaja by name, 

3 H 3 


ever engaged in devotion.' Mahabharata. In the first Pada 
the sixth syllable is short ; and the seventh is short in the 
first, second, and fourth. 

* Maid with the long and lotus eyes, O look upon me again. 
It is an ancient saying, that in the world poison is the antidote 
of poison.' Sringara Tilaka. 

The following is given in the Sruta Bodha both as the rule 
and the example of a verse of long syllables : 

---I- -I- - II - - - I - - -I - - 
r*U H I foil MUUJIril * 

* That (verse) in which all the vowels are long, and there is a 
pause at each Pada, is called, O lute-voiced, Vidyunmala by 
the learned.' 

4. Vrihati, 9x4 = 36. Twelve varieties : not much used. 

5. Pankti, 10 X4 = 4O. Fourteen varieties: not much used 
alone, but sometimes mixed with the following. 

6. Trish^ubh, 11x4 = 44. Twenty-two varieties. Some of 
the species of this order are next in frequency of use to the 
Anushfobh, and are generally employed, even in poems written 
for the most part in the latter metre, in passages affecting a 
more elevated or animated tone. Many parts of the Maha- 
bharata, the Puranas, and the plays, and the greater portion 
of the Raghu Vans'a, Kumara Sambhava, Bhafti Kavya, 
Magha, Kiratarjuniya, and other popular poems, are written 
in one or other form of the eleven-syllable metre, either singly 
or alternating with other kinds, especially with the next or 
twelve-syllable metre ; or sometimes mixed with it or with 
the ten- syllable metre in the same stanza ; but then it is 
considered to belong to the third class of metres, under the 
name of Vaitaliya or Aupachchandasika, as will be subse- 
quently noticed. 

a. The most frequent form of the order Trish^ubh is that 


called Indravajra, a verse of four Padas, each of which contains 
two antibacchics, an amphibrach, and two long syllables. Instead 
of a double antibacchic, the first foot may be an amphibrach, 
when the metre is termed Upendravajra : and a third variety, 
named Upajati, is said to be formed when these two are, as is 
very commonly the case, mixed in different Padas of the same 
stanza, as in the following examples ; the first of which is in 
the Indravajr, the second in the Upendravajra, and the third 
in the Upajati metre. 

I at' *J 

nf?r <*i$H 

* These princes returned to their tents, displaying in their 
appearance and attire the vexation which their disappointed 
love for Bhojya had excited, resembling planets, whose lustre 
fades before the dawn of day.' Raghu Vansa. 


' The grief that was felt (by Yudhishftiira) for the loss of his 
most precious jewels, his treasure, or his kingdom, was not so 
severe as that which was inflicted by the glances of Krishna, 
darting anger and shame.' Mahabharata. 

' When the sun, having completed his (southern) sojourn, 
commenced to travel towards the quarter protected by Kuvera 
(the north), the region of the south breathed forth a fragrant 
zephyr, like a sigh of regret.' Kumara Sambhava. In this 
the first and fourth Padas are in the Upendravajra, the second 
and third in the Indravajra metre. 

7. Jagati, 12x4 = 48. Thirty varieties. This order of 
metres is also of frequent employment, and very commonly 


alternates with the preceding in the same passages, or in 
separate cantos. The most common variety of it is the Van- 
s'astha, a stanza in which each line consists of an amphibrach, 
an antibacchic, an amphibrach, and a cretic. 

I f^T5FTfc5 7 ftwt 
I Ifi 

' With the music of the waves that murmured against the 
borders of the pool, with the songs of the flocks of ko'ils, and 
the graceful dance of the peacock, an entertainment was pre- 
pared for him in the forest. Where is it that the man who is 
prosperous meets not with delight ?' Naishadha. 

Another variety, the Indravansa, differs from this only in 
the first foot, which may be an antibacchic as well as the 
second; and these two being mixed in the same stanza, as in 
the foregoing order, form a species of Upajati. They may 
both, again, be blended with the two first varieties of the 
Trish^ubh, as in the following, in which the first Pada is in 
the Indravajra metre, the second in the Indravansa, the third 
in the Upendravajra, and the fourth in the Vansastha. 

' Varanasi, the eternal, is the city of salvation, the native land 
of the acquirement of true wisdom : hence he wishes to dwell 
perpetually here, being desirous of observing the practices 
that cut off (the bonds) of family attachment.' Prabodha 

8. Atijagati, 13 X4 = 52. Sixteen varieties. In the earlier 
writers this order of metres is not common, although occa- 
sional stanzas occur in the plays. In works of later date, and 
especially in the Magha and Kiratarjuniya, whole cantos are 
composed in one or other of its varieties. 

a. One species, the Manjubhashini, consists of an anapaest 
and an amphibrach, each repeated, and a long syllable ; as, 


' Waft me home upon the new cloud, converted into a chariot 
for our happy journey, decorated with the many-coloured bow 
of Indra, and waving the swift gleaming lightning for its 
banner.' Vikramorvasi. 

b. Another species, the Praharshifii, consists of a molossus, 
a tribrach, an amphibrach, a cretic, and a long syllable : 
-l" ~l~- ~l-~ -I - II - --l~ w|w- - -i- ii 

'1^4 IK* TftT ^jHilflAlilHU^ 1 I WV^ 1 'I'KUrtrt 
' The speed of my flight through the sky invests me with 
terror as well as grace, being musical, instead of with bells, 
with the fierce clanging sounds of the skulls that form my 
necklace, striking against each other in my undulating motion.' 
Malati Madhava. 

c. A metre composed of twelve and of thirteen-syllable 
lines is also to be found in some extended passages in the 
same works in which other varieties of this order are used. 
This, however, which is termed Pushpitagra, is also considered 
to be a variety of the third class of metres, or of those regu- 
lated by syllabic instants. 

9. S'akkari, 14 x 4 = 56. Twenty varieties. The forms of 
this order are also not unfrequent, and one of them especially, 
the Vasantatilaka, is often used. This contains in each Pada 
an antibacchic, a dactyl, two amphibrachs, and two long 

I q cfl mrt I P 

' The enemy, hastening from many parts, seized the women of 
his family, and plundered the treasures of the king, thus fallen 
from his throne, as a rocky fragment carries away the fruit 
and flowers of a tree that has been hurled from the summit of 
a mighty mountain.' Raja TarangiM. 


10. Atisakkari, 15 x 4 = 60. Eighteen varieties. They occur 
occasionally, though not in passages of any length. The most 
common is the species termed Malini, which consists of two 
tribrachs, a molossus, and two bacchics. 

gjn co*t<y 

' Rememberest thou, O lovely-formed, those days which we 
passed happily together in that mountain, when all our service 
was performed by Lakshmana ? Rememberest thou the borders 
of the lake, or the Godaveri river? Rememberest thou our 
habitation upon its shore ?' Uttara Rama Charitra. 

11. Ashfr, 16x4 = 64. Twelve varieties. They are very 
rarely met with. 

12. Atyashft, 17 X4 = 68. Seventeen varieties. Some of 
these are popular, occurring principally in short passages at 
the close of a section, although sometimes forming the only 
metre of entire poems, when they are not of great extent. 
Thus the whole of the A'nanda Lahari is written in a popular 
variety of this metre, termed S'ikharini, in which each Pada 
contains a bacchic, a molossus, a tribrach, an anapaest, a 
dactyl, and one short and one long syllable. 

1 fu 

4 ^ 

n <*fii -q t 

' Some blessed sages worship thee, the wave of spiritual feli- 
city, having thy resting place with the supreme Siva upon the 
throne in which his fivefold form is typified, in the temple of 
the all-bestowing jewel, which stands in a grove of Kadamba 
trees, near a lake surrounded by the trees of heaven, on the 
island of gems, in the midst of the sea of ambrosia.' 

Another variety of this order, the Mandakranta, forms also 
the metre of the whole of the Megha Diita. It consists of a 


molossus, a dactyl, a tribrach, two antibacchics, and two long 
syllables or a spondee. 

* Enveloping with thy shade the region Brahmavartta beneath 
thee, go thence to the field of Kuril, infamous for the slaughter 
of heroes, and with thy falling rain-drops pelt the lotus flowers, 
as the wielder of the bow Gan'dfva here showered his sharp 
and countless arrows upon the faces of the warriors.' 

13. Dhriti, 18x4 = 72. Seventeen varieties, but of rare 
occurrence : and of all these higher numbers it may be 
observed, that they are seldom used in books, except in 
occasional and closing stanzas, and that it is only in elabo- 
rate and commonly turgid panegyrical inscriptions that they 
extend to wider limits. The concluding verse of the twelfth 
book of the Raghu Vans'a is an example of the variety of this 
order termed Mahamalika, in which the Pada is formed of two 
tribrach s and four ere tics. 


>Jf 0=1 H* H 

* Rama having received his bride, purified by fire, and trans- 
ferred the kingdom of his foe to his friend Vibhishana, set out, 
accompanied by the son of the sun and Saumitra to his city, 
in the heavenly car which his arm had won.' 

14. Atidhriti, 19 x 4 = 76. Thirteen varieties. One of these 
is a favourite metre as an occasional stanza. This is the 
Sardula vikridita, in which the Pada consists of a molossus, 
an anapaest, an amphibrach, an anapaest, two antibacchics, and 
a long syllable. 

3 i 


* Having contracted his body, and examined the whole of 
Lanka, whose rows of white palaces shone with augmented 
beauty, as glistening in the autumnal moonlight, and having 
beheld Janaki in the Asoka garden, surrounded by Rakshasa 
females, the son of air ascended a Kankelli tree, and there 
remained concealed.' Hanuman Nataka. 

15. Kriti, 20 x 4 = 80. Four varieties : not often used. 

1 6. Prakriti, 21 X4=84. Three varieties; of which one, 
the Sragdhara, is met with in an occasional verse. The Pada 
comprises a molossus, a cretic, a dactyl, a tribrach, and three 
bacchics; as, 

' Who are they, and for whose use created, who were formed 
by Brahma treasures of every excellence ; surpassing in their 
splendour the lords of the elephant herd, when shedding the 
dews of passion from their brows? Like the haughty and 
proud monarch of the forest tribes, who submits not to have 
his teeth broken, so sovereigns such as those emperors of the 
world suffer not their orders to be disobeyed.' Mudra 

17. A'kriti, 22 x 4=88. Three varieties. 

1 8. Vikriti, 23 x4 = 92. Six varieties. 

19. Saiikriti, 24 x 4 = 96. Five varieties. 

ao. Atikriti, 25 x 4 = 100. Two varieties. 

21. Utkriti, 26 x 4= 104. Three varieties. 


22,. Dan&aka is the general name given to all metres of 
this class exceeding the Utkriti measure. 



322. The second class of metres consists of those in which 
the feet are formed of four short syllables or their equivalents. 
There are sixteen classes of this metre, and each of them 
admits of sixteen species ; but it will be sufficient to notice 
the five principal classes. 

i . A'rya. This is a stanza of four Padas, the first of which 
contains twelve short syllables, the second eighteen, the third 
twelve, and the fourth fifteen. As regulated by the feet, 
however, the division is best adapted to the hemistich, and 
the A'rya stanza may be more conveniently regarded as a 
couplet; the first half of which contains thirty syllabic instants, 
distributed amongst seven feet and a half; and the second, 
twenty-seven syllabic instants, distributed also amongst seven 
feet and a half, but in which the sixth foot consists of one 
short syllable only ; as in the following : 

-^ w|- ~l- -I - -l~ v -I w-| |- 

* In like manner as the secretion of the unconscious milk 
occurs for the nutriment of the calf, so the activity of (igno- 
rant) matter takes place for the liberation of spirit.' Sankhya 

* Fall not in love with women, for they disdain the man who 
loves. If one should bear you affection, love her ; if she be 
scornful, let her go.' Mrichchakati. 

a. The disposition of the feet in the A'rya verse is not 

3 l 2 


altogether arbitrary : in the first hemistich the sixth foot must 
either be a long syllable between two short, that is, an amphi- 
brach, or else four short syllables. In the second hemistich 
the sixth foot consists of one short syllable. The odd feet in 
either hemistich, the first, third, fifth, and seventh, should 
never be amphibrachs. 

b. A variety of the Arya, and of the other classes also, is 
termed Chapala ; in which it is required that the second and 
fourth feet should be amphibrachs, the first a spondee or an 
anapaest, and the fifth a dactyl or spondee. This rule may 
apply to both hemistichs, or to the first or to the second only ; 
constituting thus three varieties in addition to the regular one, 
or four in all. 

c. In like manner, when the pause occurs after the third 
foot, the verse is termed Pathya ; when after any other, 
Vipula : and this variation may prevail in either hemistich or 
in both, forming therefore four modifications of the pause ; 
which being applied to the four modifications of the metre, 
compose the sixteen varieties of each order of this class of 

d. The ^rya metre is in general employed only in occa- 
sional verses ; but the whole of the Sankhya Karika is com- 
posed in it, as is the Nalodaya of Kalidasa. 

2. Udgiti. This differs from the ^irya only in inverting 
the order of the second and fourth Padas. The first contains, 
as before, twelve short syllables ; the second, fifteen ; the 
third, as before, twelve ; and the fourth, eighteen. 

3. Upagiti. In this class each hemistich consists of but 
twenty-seven short syllables ; the second as well as the fourth 
containing but fifteen ; the first and third are unaltered. 

4. Giti. Both hemistichs consist of thirty short syllables ; 
the fourth Pada as well as the second consisting of eighteen. 

5. .Airyagiti. In this class each hemistich consists of eight 
full feet, or thirty-two short syllables, divided into Padas of 
twelve and twenty syllabic instants. 




323. The third class of metres is regulated in the first instance 
by the number of short vowels or syllabic instants, or Matras, 
as in the preceding class ; not by the number of syllables, 
without regard to their syllabic length, as in the first. It so 
far partakes, however, of the character of the first class, that, 
after having defined the number of short syllables, or their 
equivalents, which the stanza shall contain, they may be, 
either wholly or partially, distributed into trisyllabic feet ; so 
that the verses may in many instances be identified with 
recognised varieties of the first class of metres, more or less 
intermixed in the same stanza. The principal orders of this 
class are the following. 

i* Vaitaliya. This is a stanza of four Padas ; the first and 
third of which contain the time of fourteen short syllables ; 
the second and fourth, sixteen. Each Pada should end in a 
cretic and iambic, or else in a dactyl and spondee. Of the 
remaining moments, which are six in the first and third, and 
eight in the second and fourth Padas, neither the second and 
third, nor the fourth and fifth, should be combined in the 
same long syllable ; nor, in the second and fourth Padas, 
should the sixth and seventh Matra be combined in one long 
vowel. There are exceptions, however, to these rules, which 
constitute varieties of the class. Entire cantos in this form of 
metre occur in the Magha, Kiratarjuniya, and Naishadha ; and 
occasional verses in it are found in other works ; as in the 
following, in which the last syllables of the three first Padas 
are long by position. 

??! ff I V}ri'|fftsf<? l*f)fVj 
' This was (an act) prohibited to a king ; but Das'aratha (did 


it), having transgressed the prohibition. Those even who are 
learned in the Vedas, when they are blinded by passion, set 
their feet on a forbidden path.' Raghu Vansa. 

The first and third Padas of this stanza correspond to the 
Sanyukta species of the Pankti, or ten-syllable metre ; the 
second and fourth to an undefined variety of the Trishtabh, 
or eleven-syllable. 

a. A variety of the Vaitaliya in not unfrequent use, termed 
Aupachchhandasika, is formed by merely adding a long syllable 
to each Pada ; making the first and third therefore contain 
sixteen, and the second and fourth eighteen, syllabic instants. 

' Those princes who are now joined in alliance with the enemy, 
but who know themselves, will quickly fall from him > like 
cuckoos soon deserting the nest of the crow.' Magha. 

This stanza might be resolved into a verse of mixed metre, 
in which the first and third Padas would belong to the eleven 
syllable order, and the second and fourth to the twelve; in 
each corresponding Pada admitting of precisely the same dis- 
position of the syllables into trisyllabic feet. 

b. There are several sub-species of each variety of the 
Vaitaliya ; and one of the Aupachchhandasika, termed Pushpi- 
tagra, is of frequent occurrence. The w r hole of the tenth 
Sarga of the Kiratarjuniya, from which the following is taken, 
is composed in it. 

w ^/ wjw w vy | ^ | ^ | ww v^|w ^ I w w I w I 

7T*i ^ fWn rtl 

' The celestial nymphs, beholding the form (of Arjuna), effacing 
the splendour of the universe, and capable of protecting the 
three worlds, felt that all attempts to distract the penance in 
\vhich he was immersed, for the sake of victory, would be 
in vain. 5 


The verse, in fact, is a compound of the twelve and thirteen- 
syllable metres, and the trisyllabic feet in each Pada are 
regular, and correspond throughout. 

3. Matrasamaka. This, which is the second order of the 
class, consists of a verse of four Padas, each of which contains 
sixteen short syllables, or their equivalents : the ninth syllabic 
instant must be single, and of course short, and the last long. 
Varieties are made by restricting other syllabic instants, as the 
fifth, eighth, and twelfth, to single or short quantities, or by 
allowing the ninth to form part of a long syllable. The 
following is an example of this metre : 

rt s Wl ** i*i f 

f *u fa ^ * TH i j| fin <_<*i HqrrtH^i<5=fiii,<u ti <* I 

' Life is as unstable as the water that trembles on the leaf of 
the lotus. Association with the virtuous, although for a 
moment, is the only vessel to bear us across the ocean of 
existence.' Moha Mudgara. 

3. Gityarya. This is, like the preceding, a verse of which 
each Pada contains sixteen Matras, or syllabic instants ; but 
they are all short, except sometimes the last of each hemistich, 
which may be long. Varieties are also formed by constructing 
one hemistich entirely of long syllables, and the other of 
short ; or by slightly altering the number of short syllables in 
the stanza ; so that each hemistich may contain but twenty- 
nine, or the first may contain twenty-nine, and the second 
thirty-one ; or the first thirty, and the second thirty-two. 
These forms of metre are not often met with in works of 
standard reputation. 

As a specimen of irregular metre, as well as of rhyme, the 
following stanza is inserted from the Gita Govinda, in which 
lyrical poem a great variety of anomalous, but exceedingly 
melodious versification is exemplified. The passage is left 


untranslated, as a short exercise for those who may have 
accompanied this Grammar to its termination. 

rt Toon q jj'rt n i M (V^i) rti <*i* 

<j 'i fin nn 


ABSTRACT nouns, p. 312. 
Accents, grave, acute, circumflex, 6. 
Adjectives, 74. degrees of com- 
parison of, 74, 75. syntax of, 


Adverbs, 9 1 . alphabetical list of, 
92. syntax of, 389. 

Affixes, (i) inflectional; of declen- 
sion, 27. of conjugation, 1 14. 
(2) comparative, 74, 75. (3) de- 
rivative ; of verbal derivatives, 
292. of nominal derivatives, 3 1 3. 
of miscellaneous nouns, ib. of 
possessives, of degrees of com- 
parison, pronominals, and nume- 
rals, 330. of indeclinables, 332. 

Aggregative nouns, 412. 

A'kriti, a kind of metre, 426. 

Akshara-chhandas, a class of me- 
tres, 417. 

Alphabet, i. order of, 2. 

Alphabetical list of adjectives, 
76. of adverbs, 92. of affixes 
(verbal), 293. of affixes (nomi- 
nal) ,313. of conjunctions, i o i . 
of Gati prefixes, 100. of inde- 
clinables, 90. of indicatory let- 
ters, 105. of particles, 103. of 
past participles, 276. of pro- 
nouns, 78. of verbs not inserting 
^, 127. of verbs of each conju- 
gation (see Conjugations). 

Anga or inflective base ; of nouns, 
27. of verbs, 107. 

Anubandhus, or indicatory letters, 
104. general and special, 105. 

Anusht'ubh, a kind of metre, 418. 

Anuswara, 2. changes of, 19. 

Appellatives, 312. 

Arddha-visarga, 23. 

A'rya, a kind of metre, 427. 

A'ryagiti, a kind of metre, 428. 

Asht'i, a kind of metre, 424. 

Atidhriti, a kind of metre, 425. 

Atijagati, a kind of metre, 422. 

Atikriti, a kind of metre, 426. 

Atis"akkari, a kind of metre, 424. 

Atmane-pada, or reflective voice, 
113. terminations of, 114. sub- 
stituted for the Parasmai-pada, 

Attributives, 312. 

Atyasht'i, a kind of metre, 424. 

Augment, temporal, 117,1 24, 131. 
the letter ? v , 1 26. 

Avyayi-bhava compounds, 354. 

Bahuvrihi compounds, 348. 

Base, inflective; of nouns, 27. of 
verbs, 107. 

Benedictive mood, 113. termina- 
tions of, i [5. formation of, 
130. syntax of, 405. 

Cases of nouns, 27. syntax Of, 363. 

Causal verb; formation of, 135. 
inflexions of, 104. voices of, 
267. governing double accusa- 
tive, 366. syntax of, 407. 

Classification of letters, 2, 6, 7. 

Combination or conjunction of let- 
ters, 7. of vowels, 8. of conso- 
nants, 15. of hard and soft con- 
sonants, 1 6. of dentals, 17. of 
nasals, ib. of Anuswara, 19. of 
semivowels, ib. of sibilants, 20. 
of ^, 21. of Visarga, 22. 
Comparison, degrees of, 74. 

3 K 



Comparative degree, 74, 75. 

Compound consonants, 3. 

Compound metre, 417. 

Compound prseterite tense, 121. 

Compound verbs, 260. 

Compound words ; classes of, 336. 
Dwandwa, 33 8. Tatpurusha,34o. 
Bahuvrihi, 348. Avyavi-bhava, 
354. general rules, 358. 

Conditional mood, 113. termina- 
tions of, 115. formation of, 131. 
syntax of, 405. 

Conjugation, principles of, 116. 

Conjugational inflexion, 107. ter- 
minations, 114. tenses, 109. 

Conjugations, how named and dis- 
tinguished, 1 08. -first, 153. se- 
cond, 191. third, 209. fourth, 
214. fifth, 226. sixth, 231. se- 
venth, 237. eighth, 241. ninth, 
243. tenth, 250. 

Conjunction of vowels, 8. of con- 
sonants, 15. 

Conjunctions, 1 01. syntax of, 391. 

Consonants, order of, 2. com- 
pound, 3. hard and soft, 7. 
combination of, 15. 

Dand'aka, a kind of metre, 427. 

Declension, general rules of, 27. 

Declension of -^, 28. 

of nouns, ending in W 

and ^IT, 29. in ^ and ^,33. in 
* and "35 j 37. in ^J? ^, f } and 
^J 4 2 * m ^ an d ^> 45. in ^MJ 

46. in ^N, 47. in consonants, 

47. in gutturals, 48. in palatals, 
ib. in dentals, 53. in labials, 
59. in nasals, ib. in semivowels, 
65. in sibilants, ib. in 1?, 71. 

of participles in ^Tff 

and ^, 55. 
of possessives in ^c^ 

andTJT, 55. 

Derivation, 268. 

Derivatives; verbal, 269, 291. 

nominal, 311. 

Derivative verbs, use of, 407. 
Desiderative verb ; formation of, 

138. inflexions of, 145. 
Devanagari alphabet, i. 
Dhatu or root, 104. 
Dhriti, a kind of metre, 425. 
Dwandwa compounds, 338. 
Dwigu compounds, 346. 
Expletives, 102. 
Feet, in prosody, 415. 
Frequentative verb, 141. inserting 
^, 141. omitting *^, 143. form 
of, 147. syntax of, 408. 
Future, first or definite, 112. ter- 
minations of, 115. formation of, 
128. syntax of, 398. 

second or indefinite, 112. 

terminations of, 115. formation 
of, 129. syntax of, 399. 
Gana-vritta, a class of metres, 427. 
Gati prefixes, 97, 100. 
Gayatri, a kind of metre, 418. 
Genders of the noun, 27. 
Giti, a kind of metre, 428. 
Gityarya, a kind of metre, 43 1 . 
Guna letters or substitutes, 6. 
^, augment, 126. when not in- 
serted, 127. 

Imperative mood, 112. termina- 
tions of, 115. formation of, 1 29. 
syntax of, 401. 
Imperfect tense, or first praeterite, 


Impersonal verbs, 150, 393. 
Indeclinables, 90. syntax of, 389. 
Indeclinable nouns, 90. 
Indicative mood, no. 
Infinitive, formation of, 269. 
Inflectional terminations of nouns, 
27. of verbs, 114. 



Inflexion, principles of, 27. 
Interjections, 102. syntax 0^392. 
Jagati, a kind of metre, 421. 
Karmmadharaya compounds, 343. 
Kridanta (verbal) derivatives, 269. 
Kriti, a kind of metre, 426. 
Letters, i. classification of, 6. 

combination of, 7. 
Matrachhandas, a class of metres, 


Matrasamaka, a kind of metre, 43 1 . 
Metre, principles of, 415. kinds 

of, 417. 

Moods, no. indicative, ib. impe- 
rative, 112. potential, ib. bene- 
dictive, 113. conditional, ib. 
Nagari letters, i . 
Nominal derivatives, 311. classes 

of, 3*3- 
Nominal verbs ; formation of, 150. 

syntax of, 408. 

Nouns ; inflexions of, 27. declen- 
sions of, 29 (see Declension) ; 
indeclinable, 90. verbal, 291. 
syntax of, 362. 
Numbers of the noun, 27. of the 

verb, 114. 
Numerals, 85, 331. 
Optative or benedictive mood/i 13. 
Ordinals, 89, 33 i . 
Padas or voices of the active verb, 

113. changes of, 259. 
Pankti, a kind of metre, 420. 
Parasmai-pada, 113. changes of, 

Participles; kinds of, 270. of the 

present tense, 271. of the se- 
cond prseterite, 272. indefinite 
past, 273. list of irregular past, 
276. future active, 279. future 
passive or neuter, 280. inde- 
clinable, 287. of repetition or 
adverbial, 290. syntax of, 409. 

Particles, 90. words used as, too. 
prefixes or affixes, 103. 

Passive voice, formation of, 134. 

Patronymic derivatives, 312. 

Persons of the tenses, 114. 

Possessives ; declension of, 55. 
derivation of, 326. 

Potential mood, 112. terminations 
of, 115. formation of, 130. syn- 
tax of, 402. 

Prakriti, a kind of metre, 426. 

Praeterite ist^ or imperfect, in. 
terminations of, 1 14. formation 
of, 1 1 6. syntax of, 395. 

2d or perfect, 1 1 1. ter- 
minations of, 115. formation of, 
1 1 8. compound, 121. syntax 

of > 397- 
3d or indefinite past, 

in. terminations of, 115. form- 
ation of, 122. syntax of, 397. 

Prepositions, 97. in combination, 
ib. singly, 100. alphabetical list 
of, 97. effect upon voices of 
verbs, 260. 

Present tense, in. terminations 
of, 114. formation of, 116. 
syntax of, 394. 

Pronominal nouns, 77, 84, 330. 

Pronouns, 77. personal, 78, So. 
demonstrative, ib. id. relative, 
79, 82. interrogative, ib. id. ho- 
norific, 79, 84. syntax of, 388. 

Pronunciation, 4. 

Prosody, principles of, 415. 

Quantities of vowels, 6. 

Quantity in prosody, 415. 

Reduplicate praeterite, 1 1 8. 

Reduplication, rules of, 118. 

Root or Dhtitu, 104. 

S'akkari, a kind of metre, 423. 

Sandhi, rules of, 7. 

Sankriti, a kind of metre, 426. 
3 K 2 



Scheme of terminations for the 
noun, 27. for the verb, 114. 

Sonant consonants, 7. 

Superlative degree, 74, 75. 

Surd consonants, 7. 

Syntax, 361. of substantives, 362. 
of cases, 363. of the nomina- 
tive, ib. of the accusative, 364. 
of the instrumental, 369. of the 
dative, 371. of the ablative, 
374. of the genitive, 377. of 
the locative, 382. of the voca- 
tive, 385. 

of adjectives, 385. of 

pronouns, 388. of indeclina- 
bles, 389. 

of verbs, 393. of tenses, 
ib. of the present, 394. of the 
first praeterite, 395. of the se- 
cond praeterite, 397. of the in- 
definite past, ib. of the definite 
future, 398. of the indefinite 
future, 399. of the imperative, 
401. of the potential, 402. of 
the benedictive, 405. of the 
conditional, ib. of the infinitive, 
406. of derivative verbs, 407. 

of participles, 409. of the 
present part., 410. of the past 
part., ib. of the indeclinable 
past part., ib. of the future 
part., 413. of participial nouns, 

Taddhita (nominal) derivatives, 

Tatpurusha compounds, 336. kinds 
of, 337. examples of, 340. 
Karmmadharaya, class of, 343. 
numerals, or Dwigu class of, 
346. with particles and prepo- 
sitions, ib. 

Temporal augment, 117. rejected 
after a negative, 396, 397. 

Tenses, conjugational, 109. pre- 
sent, no. praeterites, in. fu- 
tures, 112. inflectional termi- 
nations of, i 14. 

Terminations, inflectional ; of de- 
clension, 27. substitutes for, 
after nouns, 30. after pro- - 
nouns, 78. 

of conjugation, 107, 
114. modifications of, after the 
second praeterite, 121. after the 
third, 123. 

Trisht'ubh, a kind of metre, 420. 

Udgiti, a kind of metre, 428. 

Upagiti, a kind of metre, 428. 

Upasargas or prepositions, 97. 

Ushnih, a kind of metre, 418. 

Utkriti, a kind of metre, 426. 

Vaitaliya, a kind of metre, 429. 

Varna- vritta, a class of metres,4i 7. 

Verb, principles of inflexion of, 
107. conjugations of, 108. 
moods and tenses of, no. 
voices of, 113. numbers and 
persons of, 1 14. not taking ^, 
126. formation of, 132. conju- 
gations of, 153 (see Conjuga- 
tion); syntax of, 393. 

Verbs, derivative, 135. causals, 
135. desideratives, 138. fre- 
quentatives, 141. 

Verbs compounded with preposi- 
tions, 260. 

Verbal derivatives, 291. 

Vikriti, a kind of metre, 426. 

Visarga, i. changes of, 22. 

Voices ; active, 113. passive, 1 14. 
changes of, 259. 

Vowels, 2. initial, ib. medial and 
final, 3. quantities of, ib. sub- 
stitutes for, 7. conjunction of, 8. 

Vriddhi substitutes for vowels, 7. 

Vrihati, a kind of metre, 426. 



to mark, page 155. 
to pervade, 155. 
to go, 155. 

to become manifest, 238. 
to go, 155. 
to disrespect, 253. 
to eat, 194. 
to breathe, 195. 
to pain, 253. 
to be fit, 156. 
to pervade, 227. 
to eat, 244. 
to be, 195. 
to throw, 215, 22O. 
to obtain, 227. 

to sit, 196. 
to speak, 202. 
to go, 156, 197. 
to remember, 196. 
(wft) to study, 197. 

to shine, 239. 
jy to send, 254. 

to wish, 232. 
to go, 216. 
$ to see, 156. 

to praise, 197. 

togo, 198. 

to envy, 156. 
T to rule, 197. 
to sound, 156. 

to go, 157. 

to assemble, 220. 

to wet, 239. 

to cover, 198. 

to reason, 157. 
to go, to gain, 157, 210. 

to go, 242. 

to be straight, 157. 

to increase, 216, 220, 227. 
^ to go, 245. 
iV to increase, 153. 
^rfa to be dry, 158. 
R!T to wink, 254. 
'asu to speak, 254. 
efi^ to call, 167. 
gw to desire, 158. 

to count, 254. 

to cure, 158. 
to sound, to coo, 203, 232. 

to contract, 233. 

to be crooked, 232. 

to contract, 254. 

to be childish, 233. 

to speak falsely, 258. 



to suffer pain, 245. 

to be angry, 220. 
to play as a child, 255. 

to embrace, 220. 

to astonish, 254. 
to sound, 234. 
to injure, 228. 
to do, 243. . 

to be thick, 233. 
T to cut, 236. 

to be able, 158, 170, 255. 
er to be feeble, 255. 

to injure, 228. 
T to become thin, 220. 

to plough, draw furrows, 

to throw, 233. 

to injure, 247. 

to utter, to celebrate, 255. 

to sound, 160. 

to call, 167. 
T to go, to walk, 159. 
to buy, 244. 
f to be angry, 220. 

to cry, 159. 
T to be sad, 224. 

to be moist, 167, 220. 

to be distressed, 245. 

to speak, 199. 

to kill, to hurt, 242. 
to be patient, 159, 224. 
to waste, 1 60. 

to kill, to hurt, 242. 

to let loose, 220. 

to throw, 216. 

15 to sneeze, 203. 
^ to send, 240. 
"Bnj to be hungry, 220. 
T5JT to agitate, 170. 

to be agitated, 220, 245. 

to waste, to decay, 160. 

T to whet, to sharpen, 203. 

fT to dig, 161. 
to hurt, 236. 

r to speak, 199. 

f to count, 254. 
to speak, 254. 
to go, 161. 
to agitate, 162. 
Jj3f to sound, 233. 
JJT to make effort, 233. 
JJT to preserve, 233. 
Tmj to advise, 254. 
3TH to protect, 162. 
*jtf to blame, 162. 
iJTT to disturb, 220. 
^ to sing, 160. 
jpl to be greedy, 220. 
jpr to take, 163, 254. 
n to swallow, 233. 
3j to sound, 247. 
Tfa to serve, 186. 
TJ^( to arrange, 245- 
7f% to take, 246. 
JT to be weary, 160. 
TfH to eat, 163. 
Tj to exchange, 170. 
TO to proclaim, 256. 
wrj to shine, 242. 
TTT to smell, 163. 



to shine, 199. 
to speak, 199. 
J to pound, 256. 

to eat, 164. 
^to go, 164. 
r to pound, 256. 
to collect, 228, 256. 

to think, 256. 
^ to cut, 233. 
^n to steal, 252. 
^ to hurt, 234. 
^re to make effort, 258. 
to drop, 164. 
to cut, 240. 
^ to cut, 233. 
^n to cut 233. 
3^ to play, to shine, 239. 
^ffr to cut, 225. 
to eat, 199. 
to produce, 210. 
to be born, 216. 
to yawn, 165. 
to let loose, 220. 
to wake, 220. 
to conquer, 153. 

to live, 165, 257. 
*p to bind, 233. 
^T to yawn, 165. 
aj to grow old, 216. 
T to decay, 247. 
$rq to know, 256. 
$rr to know, 246. 
*?n to become old, 246. 
ifn to have fever, 165. 
fexi to throw, 220, 233. 

to fly, 317. 
to go, 165. 
to hurt, 170, 220. 
to bow, 1 66. 
to perish, 217, 220. 
to bind, 217. 
to cleanse, 200, 210. 
to blame, 166. 
to lead, 1 66. 
to praise, 203, 234. 
o praise, 234. 
TT& ' to support' a family, 258. 
TTfT to stretch, 242. 
WT to heat, 217. 
im to be distressed, 224. 

TfTT to toss, 22O. 

finf to endure, 167. 
^7 to make a riot, 233. 
jTT to inflict pain, 233. 
^ to inflict pain, 231. 
TjH to hurt, 170, 220. 
ijtf to be pleased, 220. 
grjr to eat grass, 243. 
JR to be satisfied, 218, 320. 
jfq to satisfy, 234. 
TO to thirst, 220. 
$% to injure, 239. 
TJ to cross, 167. 

to abandon, 167. 

to cut, 233. 

to hasten, 165, 258. 

to bite, 1 68. 

to give, 168. 

to have, to hold, 168. 

to tame, 224. 



to deceive, 228. 
to be poor, 200. 

to toss, 220. 

to burn, 168. 
to give, 169, 211. 
to cut, 20 1. 

to play, 215. 
r to anoint, 202. 
to decay, 218. 

to shine, 201. 
l to shine, 218, 257. 
to run, 169. 

to become bad, 220. 

to milk, 201. 
| to be proud, 218. 
T to see, 169. 
to tear, 247, 258. 
to protect, 170. 
to cleanse, 160. 

to cut, 225. 
to assail, 203. 
W to shine, 1 70. 
T to fly, 201. 
to run, 171. 

to hate, 202. 

to have, to hold, 21 1. 

to uphold, 221. 
to shake, 229, 246. 
to shake, 229. 

to hold, 174. 

to drink, 171. 

to gallop, 171. 
to blow, 171. 

to meditate, 160. 

to be firm, 171, 
to be firm, 234. 
to fall down, 170, 190. 
to sound, 254. 
T^ to be happy, 167. 
TTTT to dance, 219. 
TT*J to cook, 172. 
xnr to tie, 254. 
xrff to fall, 172. 
^ to go, 219, 254. 
i^T to tie, 255. 
in to drink, 172. 
TIT to preserve, 201. cross over, 257. 

to be organized, 236. 

to grind, 241. 
tft to drink, 221. 
Tfl? to pain, 257. 
TJZ to contract, 255. 
TJS to abandon, 233. 
Tjtf to nourish, 219, 247. 
T^to purify, 247. 
T| to delight, 229. 
TJ to extend, 234. 
T|*I to throw, 257. 
i| to fill, 247, 257. 
ifa to serve, 186. 

to grow, 173. 

to ask, 234. 
ITO to declare, 257. 
JIT to fill, 201. 
ift to be pleased, 221. 
ift to desire, 244. 
jft to please, 248, 258. 
re to burn, 220. 



to eat, 20 1. 

to approach, 173. 

to bear fruit, 173. 

to despise, 173. 

to bind, 248. 

to live, 257. 

to know, to understand, 

174, 221. 
to speak, 202. 
>T^ to break, 240. 
>TO to shine, 211. 
>TT to shine, 201. 

to speak, 257. 

to shine, 257. 
fa^ to break, 239. 
>ft to fear, 212. 
H to nourish, 174, 212. 
jj^T to fall, 220. 
H to threaten, 247. 
>T$r to fall, 221. 
hr to fall, 170, 190. 
HT to whirl, 175, 224. 

to fry, 235. 

to shine, 257. 
to support, 247. 

to advise, 258. 
to be mad, 221, 224. 
T to respect, 221. 
T to understand, 243. 

to churn, 175, 246. 

to bind, 175. 

to weigh, 220. 

to be immersed, 235. 
to measure, 201, 21 2. 

to investigate, 175. 

to throw, 229. 
to be unctuous, 170, 222. 
to injure, to kill, 218, 244, 

to close, 257. 
Jj^ to liberate, 235. 
jpr to break, 220. 
^ to be perplexed, to be silly, 

220, 222. 

^ to die, 236. 

*HT to seek, 255. 

^T5T to clean, 203. 

w'to injure, 247. 

^ to barter, 176. 

^ to serve, 186. 

^T to remember, 176. 

^ to trample, 258. 

THT to worship, 176. 

7IW to make effort, 176. 

THT to restrain, 176. 

TPT to feed, 257. 

TTO to take pains, 220. 

in to go, 201. 

tj to join, 203, 249. 

^"ST to engage in devotion, 222. 

Tg*{ to join, 240. 

^M to fight, 222. 
Tpl to disturb, 220. 
CT to make, 255. 
T^ to colour, 176, 222. 
T?l to hurt, 220, 222. 
i?T to commence, 177. 
TH to sport, 178. 
T^ to leave, 255. 
TT to give, to take, 201. 
3 L 



to propitiate, 223. 

to accomplish, 230. 

to purge, 240. 
to injure, 221. 
to roar, 247. 
to sound, 204. 

to shine, 170. 

to resist, 170. 

to weep, 204. 
T to obstruct, 238. 
j to disturb, 220. 

to be angry, 220. 

to grow, 178. 
to sound, 1 60. 
T to gain, 178. 

to be ashamed, 235. 

to give, to take, 201. 
to smear, 236. 
to lick, 204. 

to embrace, 218, 247. 

to melt, 258. 

to resist, 170. 

to roll on the ground, 220. 

to resist, 170. 
I to be lost, 220. 

to cut, 236. 
T to covet, 220, 223. 
to cut, 248. 
to see, 178. 

to speak, 204. 

to surround, 255. 

to speak, 179. 

to ask, 243. 

to weave, 179. 

to choose, 255. 

to subdue, 205. 
to dwell, 179. 
to fix, 220. 
to bear, 179. 
to blow, 20 1. 
to separate, 240. 
to discriminate, 213. 
to fear, 240. 
to know, 205. 
to exist, 223. 
to find, 236. 
to surround, 213. 
to convey, 220. 
to go, 206. 
t to cast off, 220. 
to choose, 230, 249. 
ii to accept, 1 80. 
f to be, 170, 1 80. 
I to grow, 170. 
to choose, 248. 
to weave, 180. 
to go, 206. 
to surround, 258. 
to deceive, 236. 
HV to pierce, 223. 

to cover, 181. 
^f to cut, 236. 

to choose, 221, 248. 
ft to support, 248. 
Hr to praise, 181. 
Tfi to be able, 224, 230. 
17 to speak ill, 255. 

to wither, to decay, 181, 
PT to be tranquil, 224. 
HT to desire, to bless, 181. 



to instruct, 206. 
to distinguish, 341. 
to sleep, 206. 

to sprinkle, 182. 
SJ^ to sorrow, 182. 
spr to be clean, 220. 
3m to be beautiful, to shine, 

170, 182. 

3TO to become dry, 220. 
sni to break wind, 179. 
3JV to laugh at, 259. 
ST to injure, 249. 
$ft to pare, 225. 
to drop, 164. 
to be weak, 255. 
to loosen, 246. 
T to be weary, 224. 
to cook, 20 1. 
to serve, 182. 
to hear, 183. 
to melt, 1 60. 
to embrace, 220, 224. 
to breathe, 207. 
to increase, 183. 
to be white, 1 70. 
to embrace, 184. 
to give, 243. 
to decay, to be sad, 184. 
to go, 1 84. 
to bear, 184, 225. 
to accomplish, 223. 
fa to bind, 249. 

to sprinkle, 236. 
to accomplish, 185. 
to become perfect, 220. 

to sew, 225. 
to bear children, 185, 204. 
to extract juice, 226. 

bring forth, 207, 225. 
"^ to hurt, 1 86. 
*fa to serve, 186. 
% to decay, 160. 
^t to destroy, 225. 
W to stop, to hinder, 186. 
^ to praise, 207. 
FT to stand, 186. 

to spit, 187, 225. 
to bathe, 201. 

to be kind, 219. 
to distil, 203. 
to vomit, 219. 
to smile, 187. 
to sleep, 207. 
to sweat, 187, 220. 
to tranquillize, 259. 
to go, 188, 213. 
T to abandon, let go, 226, 


i to creep, 188. 
to go, 1 88. 
to stop, 250. 
to leap, 249. 
to stop, 250. 
to sound, 255. 
to stop, 250. 
to stop, 250. 
w to cover, 230. 
w to spread, 258. 
w to spread, 250. 

to envy, to emulate, 188. 
3 L 2 



to touch, 258. 

to touch, 236. 
to envy, 255. 

to increase, 189. 
to bud, to expand, 233. 
to throb, 233. 
to remember, 189, 258. 

to ooze, to drop, 170, 189. 
to fall, 189. 
to trust in, 170. 
to drop, 190. 

^Tt to sound, 255. 

IT.T to kill, 208. 

^T to abandon, 213. 

^T to go, 213. 

fj^T to injure, 241. 

^ to sacrifice, 209. 

^ to take, 190. 

^R to rejoice, 220. 

jft to be ashamed, 214. 

to be glad, 190. 
to call, 190. 


Page Line 

4 5 f or chchhra read chhra 

4 8 na nna 

72^ ^ 

ii 21 <m4iuflfii ^T^lfl 

13 16 f^ ^ 

14 32 
16 26 

21 1 8 for such a is changed to read it is 
changed to TT, which becomes 

23 20 for faun read fa uir: 

24 5 T5f T^i 

24 5 Mvt*n^r *<^i**ii3i 

27 5 cfefe Section I. 

29 14 for Section II. read Section I. 

39 2 7 

40 10 
49 20 

51 9 TOT 

5i 9 

5 1 27 

55 4 

55 7 

88 23 rH*4frir<H*!.i 

90 12 4ah<Ar4 

95 5 *TT 

97 3 

1 01 7 with verbs the verbs >T, ^w, and 


108 ii 

in 14 

123 9 

123 31 

124 33 

130 9 cffir 


Page Line 

J 33 28 for vrtt read 

134 27 

136 32 

141 27 

143 3 

143 '3 

146 8 

146 10 

146 10 

146 31 

156 9 

157 3 

J 57 33 vH'Siirfft 

1 7 l 5 fo r ^Siflfrf read 

171 12 

171 31 

172 20 ' to go* ' to go ;' * to fall.' 




176 27 

178 7 

180 18 

181 26 
181 27 
184 7 

190 10 

191 7 
202 17 

202 17 

203 1 6 
214 28 
214 28 
216 6 

221 24 


Page Line 

227 1 6 for *ft^M read 

228 32 

238 5 

244 2 in vowels in long vowels 

249 28 

253 2 

254 J 3 i < *ir*irii^ ^cAi<{.rf<4 
254 22 

254 27 

256 32 

262 23 

271 7 

273 8 

291 20 

291 21 

345 * 8 

345 20 

348 3 1 

O C 1 T 1 O 

< S i. ^ X 

352 1 6 

361 30 

3 6 9 I 5 

374 16 

375 3 
375 20 
375 28 

383 6 

386 8 ^ 

39 1 4 ^ 

394 !2 

39 6 7 

397 34 

400 8 

411 29 

422 6 


To be had of Messrs. Madden and Co. 

DICTIONARY, Sanskrit and English. 2d edition. Calcutta, 1832. 
51. Ws. 

2 vols. 8vo. 2d edition. Allen and Co. 17. Is. 

SANKHYA KARIKA. Hindu Philosophy. London, 4to. Ws. 6d, 

VISHNU PURANA. Hindu Mythology and History. 4to. 
J. Murray, 1840. 21. 2s. 

MILL'S BRITISH INDIA, with Notes. 6 vols. 8vo. Madden 
and Co. 14s. per vol. 

In the Press. 

ARIANA ANTIQUA. Antiquities of Afghanistan, with Plates. 4to. 
21. 2s. 

HISTORY OF BRITISH INDIA, in continuation of MILL'S 
HISTORY. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Also lately published by Madden and Co. 

HITOPADESA; First Book: Sanskrit Text, with Glossary. By 


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